(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Bulletin"

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 






^^fiRA^Vf" 



Mete 192 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

ALBBRT B. PALL, Sscsbtaby 

BUREAU OF MINES 

H. POSTER BAIN, DntscTOR 



Eaat Etiffia 
Library 

T/V' 



CARBON BLACK— ITS MANUFACTURE, 

PROPERTIES, AND USES 



BY 



R. O. NEAL and G. St. J. PERROTT 




WASHINGTON 
GOVBRNMBNT PRINTING OFPICB 

1922 



TN 



The Bureau of Mines, in carrying out one of the provisionB of its organic act — ^to 
diaseminate information concerning investigations made — ^prints a limited free 
edition of each of its publications. 

When this edition is exhausted, copies may be obtained at cost price only through 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. G. 

The Superintendent of Documents is not an official of the Bureau of Mines, His 
is an entirely separate office and he should be addressed : 

SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS, 

Government Printing Office, 

Washington^ D, C. 
The general law under which publications are distributed prohibits the giving 
of more than one copy of a publication to one person. The price of this publication 
is 25 cents. 

Persons desiring for lecture purposes the use, free of charge, of lantern slides of the 
illustrations in this publication, should make request of the Director of the Bureau of 
Mines, Washington, D. G. 



First edition. -4prii, 19tt, 
n 



EXCHANGe 

UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY 

LIBRARY 

JUL 1 4 1838 



CONTENTS. 



Pagft. 

Part I»— -Tbe mimufocture of carbon black from natural gas 1 

Introduction .' , 1 

Definition of carbon black 1 

Acknowledgments 2 

History of carbon-black industry 3 

Production of carbon black in United States 6 

Selling price of carbon black 8 

Location of plant - 9 

Transportation facilities 10 

Hazards in gas supply 10 

Gasoline content 11 

Testing natural gas for carbon black 12 

Commercial methods of making carbon black 14 

Channel process 15 

The condensing buildings 15 

Transmission of gas 17 

Channels 17 

Hoppers 18 

Scrapers 18 

Conveyors 19 

Burners 21 

Driving mechanism and accessories 21 

Bolting machines 23 

Storage bin and packers 23 

Warehouse 25 

Operation of channel plants 26 

Small rotating-disk process 26 

The plate or Cabot process 28 

Roller or rotating-cylinder process 30 

Gears used in carbon-black industry 33 

Thermal decomposition 36 

Comparison of different processes 37 

Various factors affecting yield of carbon black 38 

Sources other than natural gas horn which carbon black may be manufac- 
tured 41 

Fire hazards accompanying the handling of carbon black 42 

Cost data 43 

Future prospect of industry 44 

Economics of carbon-black industry 45 

Why carbon-black manufacture attracts capital 50 

Summary 51 

III 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page. 

pABT II. — Carbon black — its properties and uses 53 

Introduction 53 

Acknowledgments 54 

Present methods of manufacture 55 

Theory of formation of carbon black 55 

Other methods of making carbon 57 

Patents 57 

Discussion of possible substitute methods 58 

Uses of carbon black 60 

Discussion of important uses 60 

Printer's ink 60 

Use of carbon black in rubber i 61 

Use of carbon black in paint 61 

Other uses 62 

Testing methods 62 

Physical tests 62 

Tinting strength , 62 

Color - 63 

Grit 63 

Hiding power 63 

Spreading rate^ 64 

Chemical tests 64 

Moisture 64 

Ash 64 

Acetone extract 1 65 

Specifications 65 

Printing ink 65 

Practical tests 65 

Testing methods 66 

Methods to be used in making practical tests 66 

Rubber 67 

Practical tests 67 

Paint 67 

Preliminary work on other laboratory tests 68 

Viscosity 68 

Discussion of results 70 

Cohesion 71 

Adhesion 71 

Complete chemical analyses of carbon blacks 71 

Discussion of analyses 75 

Absorbed gases 75 

Hygroecopicity 77 

Microscopic examination 77 

Summary 80 

Selected bibliography 80 

1844-1874 80 

187&-1884 81 

1885-1894 83 

1895-1904 85 

1905-1914 86 

1915-1919 89 

Publications on utilization of natural gas 91 

Index 93 



CONTENTS. V 

TABLES. 

Page. 

Table 1. Gas used for manufacture of carbon black in West Virginia 6 

2. Carbon content and quantity of carbon black recovered 12 

3. Analyses of flue gases 26 

4. Circular pitch of gears, with equivalent diametral pitch, depth of 

space, and thickness of tooth 36 

6. Circular pitch of gears •. 36 

6. Yield of carbon black in different fields 37 

7. Comparison of different methods of making carbon black 38 

8. Costof construction of channel plants. : 43 

9. Comparison of number of men employed in different types of plants . 43 

10. Value of gas used in manufacture of bricks 48 

11. Value of gas used by zinc smelters 48 

12. Value of gas used in manufacture of window glass 48 

13. Viscosity of mixtures of carbon black and lampbla.ck with linseed oil. 69 

14. Analyses of carbon black 72 

15. Lampblacks and other blacks 72 

16. Complete record of analyses of carbon blacks, lampblacks, and 

other blacks....* 73 

17. Adsorbed gases in carbon black 76 

18. Analysis of gas pumped off at room temx)erature 76 

19. Analysis of gas pumped off at 445® C 76 

20. Hygroscopicity of carbon black 77 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 
Plate I. A^ Apparatus for determining the carbon-black value of natural gas, 

knocked down for transportation; -B, Set up for use 14 

II. A, Manometer tank for regulating flow of gas; B, Main shaft and sup- 
ports of gas line around condensing buildings 15 

m. A, Channel plant in process of construction; J5, Another view of 

same 20 

IV. A, Driving worm gear, channel process; J5, Bolting machines for re- 

moving particles from carbon black. 21 

V. Detailed plan of a complete carbon-black plant 24 

VI. Depositing surface for carbon in rotating-disk process; By Driving 

mechanism in same process 28 

VII. Carbon-black factory in West Virginia using the plate process; By 

Cylinder on which carbon black is deposited in roller system 29 

Vni. Ay Gas burners used in roller process; B, Gear actuating cylinders in 

the roller process 32 

IX. A, Chain transmission used in roller process; B, A Louisiana carbon- 
black plant in operation 33 

X. Ay Carbon-black plant equipped with windbreak; By Plant where 
drafts are controlled so that loss of flocculent carbon is at a mini- 
mum. .. 38 

XI. Ay Short black 18 minutes after preparation on slide; B, Short black 

two hours after preparation on slide 76 



VI CONTENTS. 



PlatbXII. Short black two houis after preparation on slide, magnified 

2,000 diameters 77 

XIII. At Long black two hours after preparation on slide; B, Long 

black four hours after preparation on slide 78 

XIV. Aj Lampblack, magnified 500 diameters; B, Lampblack, magni- 
fied 2,000 diameters 79 

FiouBB 1. Quantity and cost of gas used in .West Virginia by manufacturers 

of carbon black 6 

2. Selling price of carbon black 9 

3. Details of portable testing apparatus 13 

4. Details of condensing building used in channel process 15 

5. Details of gasometer 16 

6. Arrangement of gas pipes and lines of distribution 17 

7. Assembly drawing of table 19 

8. Details of parts of machinery used in channel process 20 

9. Reversing-gear shift 22 

10. Details of a bolting machine 24 

11. Bamard-Moline packer of carbon black 25 

12. Details of disk, driving gear and pinion, and shaft cap used in 

rotating disk method 27 

13. Assembly of spider, gear, and pinion 2S 

14. Details of the plate or Cabot process of making carbon black 29 

15. Details of the roller or rotating-disk cylinder process 32 

16. Details of spur gear and pinion 34 

17. Curve showing the viscosity of mixture of carbon black and 

linseed on ,•.. • 69 



CABBON BLACK— ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIES, 

AND USES. 

By Roy O. Neal and G. St. J. Pebeott. 



Part I. THE MANUFACTURE OF CARBON BLACK FROM 

NATURAL GAS. 

By Roy O. Neal. 



INTBODTTCTION. 

As natural gas is a waning resource in many places, increased in- 
terest has attached to the use of gas for the manufacture of carbon 
black. Because of a large number of requests for information on 
the subject, the Bureau of Mines has undertaken a detailed study of 
the carbon-black industry, covering the mechanical details of com- 
mercial methods, with the purpose of increasing the recovery of 
carbon black by such processes. A study has been imdertaken of 
the economic factors governing the carbon-black industry, the uses 
and properties of carbon black, the development of more accurate 
methods of testing carbon black, microscopic examination of different 
grades of black, physicochemical study of methods of manufacture 
now in use, and research on new methods of manufacture. 

Part I of this paper covers the engineering and economic side of 
the industry; the other phases of the investigation which have been 
imder the direction of G. St. J. Perrott, of the Pittsburgh station of 
the United States Bureau of Mines, are discussed in Part II. 

DEFINITIOK OF CABBOK BLACK. 

^Confusion exists in the use of the terms lampblack and carbon 
black, although in American trade lampblack is generally understood 
to be a soot formed by the smudge process. In this process oil, 
coal tar, resin, or some solid or liquid carbonaceous substance is 
burned in an insufficient quantity of oxygen or air. On the other 
hand, carbon black refers to a product resulting from the incomplete 
combustion of gas and is deposited by actual contact of a flame upon 
a metallic surface. 

The various carbons, such as gas-retort coke, oil-retort coke, graph- 
ite, carbon black, lampblack, vine black, wood-pulp black, willow char- 

1 



2 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANTJFACTTJBE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 

coal; and blacks made from refuse material, such as leather, do not 
possess the same flocculent characteristics, strength of color, chemical 
composition, or physical structure. Each black has its specific 
uses, and as a rule to-day it can not be substituted for another black. 
To apply the usual tests to determine which black to use is often 
difficult because of the modification in properties when a black is com- 
bined with other substajices. In this paper the black resulting from 
incomplete combustion of gas is discussed and throughout the paper 
is designated as carbon black, although in the trade it is often re- 
ferred to as gas black, natiu*al-gas black, ebony black, jet black, 
hydrocarbon black, satin-gloss black, and silicate of carbon. These 
blacks are made by one of the following methods: 

1. Formation by direct contact of a flame upon a depositing 
surface. 

2. Production by combustion of an oil, tar, etc., in an inadequate 
supply of air, where soot is allowed to settle slowly on the floors and 
walls of the collecting chambers. 

3. Carbonization of solids and subsequent reduction to a state of 
small subdivision. 

4. Production by heating carbonaceous vapors or gases to a 
decomposition temperatiu*e by external heating with or without air 
in the forming chamber. This method is usually referred to as 
cracking or thermal decomposition, and so far is only experimental. 

There is an almost universal misapprehension that these various 
substances are carbon, whereas they are essentially a mixture of 
hydrocarbons and other organic substances that may contain con- 
siderable mineral matter. 

ACKNOWLEDaMENTS. 

The writer wishes to express his gratitude for the many helpful 
suggestions given by Mr. G. L. Cabot, who has been connected with 
the technical and operative details of the carbon-black industry for 
38 years. Only through the valuable assistance of Mr. Cabot has it 
been possible to unite certain sections of this paper, particularly 
those dealing with the plate or '' Cabot '' process. To Messrs. A. E. 
Whiting, Fred Padgett, B. W. Rumbarger, and G. A. Williams, for 
useful information, the writer is especially indebted. Acknowledg- 
ments are also due Messrs. J. H. Mann, Oscar Nelson, H. D. Briggs, 
N. II. Davis, P. F. Reardon W. M. McKinney, G. T. Thayer, jr., 
Reid L. Carr, J. D. Rowan, Geo. Taylor, W. E. Jones, E. Rutledge, 
J. P. Smoots, Dr. J. B. Gamer, Roy Brownlee, F. Hartman, 
F. M. Knapp, J. A. Holden, C. A. Schwann, and L. J. McNutt for 
information. 

The writer expresses his personal appreciation of the aid of the 
following members of the United States Bureau of Mines: J. O. Lewis, 



d 



CABBOK BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTUBE, PROPEBTEBS, AND USES. 3 

W. P. Dykema, and G. St. J. Perrott for valuable suggestions and 
criticisms during the preparation of the paper; to D. B. Dow, for 
analyzing gas samples; to J. G. Shumate and £. L. Sproat for draw- 
ings; and to Miss E. H. Burroughs for the bibliography of patents. 

HISTORY OF CABBON-BLACK INDTTSTBY.' 

To certain manufacturers of printing ink it was known that the 
carbon made by burning artificial gas in a limited quantity of air 
gave the ink a very glossy and intense black. The first factory in 
which carbon black was successfully made on a commercial scale from 
natural gas was erected at New Cimiberland, W. Va., in the year 1872, 
by Messrs. Haworth and Lamb, of Massachusetts. At this plant the 
gas well was connected to a gas holder having a blow oflF from which 
the sm*plus flow of gas not required at the plant might escape. At that 
time no regulating appliance was known, and a large waste of gas 
resulted from their enterprise. 

The first actual use of natural gas for light in the United States 
occurred in Fredonia, N. Y., in 1826, but it was not until 1872 that 
pipes were laid in Titusville, Pa., for domestic purposes, the gas being 
transported through a 2-inch main from a gas well approximately 5 
miles north of Titusville. The consumption of gas at that time was 
not enough to foster the development of regulating devices. Large 
quantities of natiu*al gas were going to waste and could be obtained 
at a very low price; in fact, the oil pioneers considered natural gas 
as a dangerous nuisance to be blown off and disposed of in any way. 

In the plant at New Cumberland the gas from the gas holder passed 
through pipes to gas jets arranged in the same horizontal plane be- 
neath slabs of soapstone that were pierced with a number of orifices 
to permit the passage of excess smoke and the waste gases. The slabs 
were covered by a dome or roof that was provided with a damper for 
controlling the ventilation. The transverse horizontal scrapers be- 
low the slabs were supported and traveled in horizontal grooves in 
the lower, and opposite sides of the dome. These scrapers from time 
to time removed the deposited carbon black, which fell into sheet- 
iron aprons or troughs that were supported from the burner pipe. 
From these troughs the black fell through pipes to a container that 
could be changed by hand when filled. The depositing surface was 
kept cool by pans through which water was continuously circulated. 
The resulting product sold for $2.50 per poimd but did not possess 
all the properties of the product made from artificial gas. This plant 

^ Taylor, O. E., The conservation of natural gas In West Virginia: Bull, of CoD^e of Eng., Univ. of 
West Virg^ia, July, 1918. Cabot, O. L., The preparation of carbon blacks from natural gas in America: 
Jour. See. Chem. Ind. , 1804, vol. 13, pp. 128-130; Lampblack and carbon black: 8th Int . Cong. Appl. Chem. , 
lftl2, vol. 12, p . 13 ; discussion, vol. 27, p . 93 ; West Virginia Geol . Survey County Reports, 1912: Doddridge i 

and Harrison Counties, pp. 656-660. Correspondenoe and personal interviews with carbon-black mantt- ' 

facturers. 



4 CARBON BLACK — ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 

was built of wood and was destroyed by fire after running a short 
time; it was then moved to Saronsburg, Pa. 

The next innovation in the carbon-black industry was the use of a 
traveling car which hung from rails running parallel with the bench. 
This car carried a scraper and a shallow frame to which were attached 
on each side two deep receptacles of sheet iron that could be detached 
and emptied. The receptacles were just deep enough to pass over 
the burners without touching. An endless rope passing over a pulley 
moved the car in one direction for a given distance and then reversed 
it. The scrapers made contact by means of springs. Results soon 
showed that the dome was superfluous, that cast iron was better than 
soapstone as a depositing surface, and that there was practically no 
beneficial effect from artificial cooling. 

Peter Neff built a plant at Oambier, Ohio, and through competition 
the price of carbon black was greatly reduced. This factory oper- 
ated for 10 or 12 years, its maximum daily production being 125 
pounds. Mr. Neff obtained a large number of patents, most of which 
were useless and impracticable. 

In 1883 a considerable advance was made in the industry when 
L. Martin & Co. became interested in a small plant at Fosters Mills, 
Pa., that was not proving a financial success. Here five plates 24 
feet in diameter, cast in segments, were supported by a central mast 
rotating with them upon bronze bedplates. Beneath these plates 
were fixed stationary burners of parallel, horizontal, IJ-inch pipe. 
At this time carbon black could be purchased for 31 cents per pound. 

In the same year A. R. Blood devised a method using a small disk 
or plate about 3 feet in diameter as the depositing surface. The 
advantage of this process over the use of 24-foot rings was that ven- 
tilation holes were not necessary and the wheels or plates could be 
made in one casting. A ratchet at the center revolved the plate. 
Beneath the plate was a scraper in the center of a radial hopper, 
through which the black fell into a longitudinal conveyor running 
beneath the row of plates. There were 16 rings in a row and 5 rows 
in a building. The buildings were constructed of sheet iron supported 
by a framework of pipe and angle iron, and had small openings near 
the bottom to permit the entrance of a sufficient supply of air. This 
method, with a few modifications, is still used and is known as the 
Blood or rotating-disk process. 

By a patent issued in 1883, E. R. Blood began making carbon black 
by the roller process, using a burner with a small hole in the tip that 
gave a round flame. Although this method gave a very small yield 
of inferior color the black possessed certain properties that made it 
bring a high price. Even at present it is the most costly grade of 
carbon black on the market. 



CARBOISr BLACK — ^ITS MANTJFACrURB, PROPEBTIBS, AND USES. 5 

In 1892 L. J. McNutt procured a patent on the channel system of 
making carbon black, and a factory was constructed at Gallagher, 
Pa. This process used a system of channel beams turned with the 
flat side downward over a horizontal row of stationary burners. 
The channels had a reciprocating motion, being slowly drawn back 
and forth, and the black was scraped from the channel bottom and 
removed by a spiral conveyor. By using channel irons a smoother 
depositing surface was possible than by using unsurfaced cast-iron 
plates. 

At this time in the industry an attempt was made to manufacture 
carbon black from petroleum by evaporating and burning the vapors 
through gas burners; the resulting product, however, contained 
hard particles of carbon similar to coke, which limited its utilization, 
and the cost of operating a plant burning petroleum vapors or gas 
enriched by oil vapor has proved so high as to be usually unremunera- 
tive. 

A plant in West Virginia was constructed about 1902 in which the 
black was collected upon a hollow channel iron through which a 
blast of air was blown to cool the depositing surface and to increase 
the yield of black. This process has since been abandoned. 

In 1913 G. Femekes obtained a patent on a process for making 
carbon black by subjecting gas to a temperature which dissociates 
it into carbon and hydrogen. The decomposing chamber was 
heated by electric coils. This process is not used commercially. 

A patent was issued to R. H. Brownlee and R. H. Uhlinger in 
1916 for making carbon black and hydrogen from a hydrocarbon 
decomposed by burning in contact with a highly heated refractory 
material within an inclosed chamber, at a pressure in excess of 
atmospheric pressure, and then separating the black from the hydro- 
gen. The carbon black is not collected but is blown, and its only 
use seems to be in making paints. The method of producing hydro- 
gen, however, seems to be commercially practical. 

Attempts have been made to increase the yield by using chlorine 
and carbon tetrachloride, but they have not been a commercial 
success. The theory back of these attempts was that the yield of 
carbon black would be increased by the reaction between hydrogen 
and chlorine in forming hydrochloric acid. 

A plant has been constructed to make black from emulsified or 
cut crude oil, which constitutes an enormous waste in the oil fields. 
The waste oil was burned on hot plates and the soot was led through 
a chinmey equipped with a Cottrell apparatus for electrical precipi- 
tation. A number of difficulties were encountered and the plant 
discontinued operation. 



6 



CARBON BLACK — ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 



FBODTTCTION OF CABBON BLACK IN TJNITBD STATES. 

.Statistics on the quantity of carbon black manufactured are very 
few and are difficult to correlate. Until the utilization of gas from the 
prolific gas fields at Monroe and Shreveport, La., 75 per cent of the 
world's total supply of carbon black was produced in West Virginia. 
Figure 1 shows the quantity and cost of gas used by carbon-black 
manufacturers since 1916. Data for this curve were obtained from 
6. E. Taylor, assistant engineer of the public service commission of 
West Virginia. The average price of gas has never been as high as 
3 cents per thousand cubic feet, although in some districts where 
carbon-black factories are located the price of gas has increased to 



25 



i 

1 

a 

I 
fi 



30 



I 



8 

a 

o 



15 



10 



















4 


X 
















^ 








/ 


^ 


/ 


\ 






i 


1 / 
1 / 

\ / 


\ 






/ 






r' 


\ 






1 


1 / 


\ 






/ 








\ 






1 


1 / 




S. 




. / 








1 






1 






\ 




/ 








1 






1 






X 




/ 








1 




y 


V / 






X 




/ 








1 

\ 

1 




/ 


I'n 


/ \ 
r 1 

1 

1 






X 


f 








1 

1 


/ 




1 6 « 








t 
/ 










i / 




1 
1 


1 








/ 










\7 




1 










/ 
/ 






V, 




1\ 

1 \ 


. 




1 
\ 






t 


f 






\ 




/ 








"•••'•I 




/ 
/ 
/ 

/ 






• 




K 























8.0 



J 

O 
ft 



a 



JS 



s, 

a 
.5S 

a 

I 

%^ 

o 

I 



1906 



1908 



1910 



1912 
Years. 



1914 



1916 



1918 



FiGUBE 1.— Quantity and cost of gas used in West Virginia by manufacturers of carbon black: a, Oas 

consumption; 6, price of gas. 

8 cents per thousand cubic feet, thereby forcing the manufacturers 
to move their plants to isolated districts. In Louisiana the average 
price of gas is about 2 cents per thousand cubic feet; in Oklahoma 
the gas costs 5 to 6.5 cents per thousand cubic feet. 

Table 1. — Gca used for manufacture of carbon black in West Virginia. 

YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1918. 

Cubic feet. 

Produced by gas utilities 246, 519, 553, 000 

Produced by producers 37, 552, 082, 000 

Errors in reports 113, 000 

Total production as reported 284, 071, 748, 000 

Produced by carbon-black companies not included above (estimated) 5, 051, 765, 000 

Total production a 289, 123, 513, 000 



o 1 1 is estimated that 24,830,697,000 cubic feet was used for the manufacture of carbon black. 



CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTTBS, AND USES. 7 

Table 1. — 0€ts used for manufaetwre of carbon black in West Virginia — Contimied. 

Cubic feet. 

Consumed domestic and industml 50, 143, 858, 000 

Consumed field and main lines 23, 635, 129, 000 

Consumed for carbon black (estimated) 24,830,697,000 ^ 

Line loss, breakage of lines, etc 48, 245, 000 

Total consumed 98, 697 , 929, 000 

Transported out of State 194, 952, 900, 000 

Transported into State 4, 487, 316, 000 

Net transported out of State 190,465, 584,000 

Gas sold by utilities to other utilities 59,489,249,000 

YEAR ENDING DEC. 31, 1917. 

Produced by gas utilities 251, 935, 229, 000 

Produced by producers 38, 746, 414, 000 

Produced by carbon-black companies not included above (estimated) 14, 583, 283, 000 

Total produced B 305, 264, 926, 000 

Coissumed domestic and industrial 52, 258, 468, 000 

Consumed field and main lines 22, 924, 291, 000 

Consumed for carbon black (estimated) 26, 062, 706, 000 

Total consumed 101, 245, 465, 000 

TrwMported out of State 208, 280, 274, 000 

Transported into State 4, 024, 818, 000 

Net transported out of State 204, 255, 456, 000 

* It is estimated that 26,062,706,000 cubic feet were used for the manufacture of carbon black. 

Recent reports of the public service commission of West Virginia, 
as shown in Table 1, indicate that for the year ending December 3, 
1917, 8.5 per cent of the total gas produced and utihzed in the State 
was used by the carbon-black industry, and for the year ending 
June 30, 1918, 8.7 per cent of the total gas produced and used was 
burned in the manufacture of carbon black. 

EstxTnaied production of carbon black in 1918. 
State. Pounds. 

West Viiginia 30, 000, 000 

Louisiana %, 000, 000 

Wyoming 3, 000, 000 

Oklahoma 1, 500, 000 

Other States 1, 000, 000 

Total 43,500,000 

Factories are located in West Vii^inia, Louisiana, Wyoming, 
Oklahoma, Montana, and Kentucky. Several interests are contem- 
plating constructing plants in the recently developed oil and gas 




8 GABBOK BIACR-*-iTi^ MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 

field of Texi43% The pfemts built were capable in 1918 of producing per 
annum the following quantities: 

Capacity of carbon-black factoriea in nx States. 



State. 



WestVirgiiiJA. 
LouisiAna. . . .. . 

Wyamlng 

Montana 

Kentacky 

Oklahoma 



Pounds, a 



628,000,000 
20,000,000 
4,500,000 
2,000,000 
1,000,000 
1,500,000 



Number 
ofplants. 



27 

12 

2 

1 
1 
1 



« Estimated. \ 

ft Some of the plants have been moved to fields in other States «* abandoned, so that the present capacity 
of plants in this State is less than the amount produced In 1918. 

For an estimate of the distribution of carbon black to the trade 
8ee page 60. 

TTie quantity of carbon black used by the rubber industry since 
1917 has been abnormally high, on account of the laige production of 
soUd rubber tires for auto trucks during the war. The amount 
credited to export is small, on account of the closing of German and 
Austrian markets. Mr. G. A. Williams ' has asserted that before the 
war at least one-third of the total production of carbon black was 
consumed by Austria and Germany. Although certain manufacturers 
claim that this figure is high, it is admitted that prewar exports to 
Germany and Austria were substantial. The increase in the quantity 
of black used by rubber manufacturers has more than offset the 
decrease in export. England, France, China, and Japan import a 
large amount of carbon black from American producers. For further 
information on the use of carbon black in rubber see page 61. 

SELLING PRICE OF CARBON BLACK. 

The first lot of 500 pounds of carbon black placed on the market 
sold for $2.50 per pound, the next 1,000 pounds brought $1.50, and 
the plant paid for itself in approximately three months. In 1881 the 
price had fallen to 35 cents per pound, in 1882 to 31 cents, and because 
of increased competition to 24 cents in 1883. During the next 10 
years the average price was 12 cents per pound. The cost of gas 
steadily increased, and from 1891 to 1901 the average selling price of 
carbon black was 6 cents, and by 1912 had reached the low level of 
less than 5 cents. 

An impetus was given the industry in the fall of 1915, when the 
beneficial result of the use of carbon black in the manufacture of 
rubber was discovered. 



> Personal interview: Fuel City Manolactuiing Co., Clarksburg, W. Va. 



CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIBS, AND USES. 9 



The market price of carbon black has increased since 1912 and has 
not fallen below 8 cents; during 1918 it sold as high as 16 cents. 
When foreign markets are reopened and a stable medium of exchange 
and credit is established, carbon black very probably will increase 
in price.' The fluctuation in the selling price of carbon black is 
shown in figure 2, the price being that of the grade of black used in 
the rubber industry or in making ordinary printer's ink. At present 
one large company has four grades of black that range in price from 
8 cents to 40 cents per pound. Another company manufactures only 
one grade, selling for about 35 cents to 40 cents per pound. The high- 
grade blacks possess certain valuable properties *and are used for 



60 



50 



g40 

o 

£30 

«20 



10 











\ 






































\ 






































A 


^ 






































\ 






































1 








































\ 






































^ 






































1 


v_ 






































\ 






































\ 


^ 






















































^ 
























« 














■ 



1872 1882 1802 1902 1912 1918 

Years. 

Flaina 2.— Selling price of carbon black. 

special purposes, such as making the finest lithographic and emboss- 
ing inks. 

There has been a general decrease in the difference between the 
selling price of carbon black and the cost of manufacture. The avail- 
able supply of natural gas is steadily declining, and consequently it 
is only a matter of time until the price increases. Evidently the most 
effectual way of insuring conservation of this valuable resource is 

raising the price. 

LOCATION OF PULNT. 

In contemplating the construction of a carbon-black plant, definite 
information should be obtained on several subjects : The distance from 
a railroad or a navigable stream; State laws; the depth of wells; the 
thickness of gas-bearing strata; gas pressure; gasoline content; and 
whether the gas is casing head or dry gas ; amount of proved territory ; 

> This paper was written during the early part of 1920. 



10 OARBOK BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPEETEES, AND USES. 

history of field; drilling practice; location of field in regard to possi- 
ble large gas-consuming centers; distance from trunk pipe lines for 
the transportation of natural gas; open-flow capacity of wells on 
prospective gas leases; and tests on the richness of gas to ascertain 
the approximate quantity of carbon black procurable per thousand 
cubic feet. 

TRANSPORTATION FACIUTIES. 

Carbon-black plants are situated in isolated districts where there 
are no pipe lines and gas is cheap. In choosing a site for a factory, 
transportation facilities should be investigated thoroughly, as the 
necessity of building a railroad to the site chosen might make pro- 
hibitive the cost of constructing a plant. A large factory in West 
Virginia, for example, that is nearly 30 miles from a railroad, is 
greatly handicapped by the lack of adequate shipping facilities. The 
carbon black must be carried by boats to the railroad center; this 
procedure is possible only in the spring and early winter. During the 
summer the stream is practically dried up, and the company in order 
to dispose of its product during that season must haul it 16 miles over 
hilly roads by wagon or by motor trucks to the head of slack water. 
Haulage even by gasoline trucks is costly, as carbon black is light. 
An average railroad box car holds only 12 tons of it. By reason of 
the inadequate transportation facilities, the net earnings from the 
plant mentioned have been greatly reduced. Several carbon-black 
companies have had to build narrow-gage railroads in order to obtain 
a suitable outlet for their product. 

HAZARDS IN GAS SUPPLY. 

Several factors, some of them almost intangible, affect the ultimate 
supply of gas in a given territory. In selecting the location of a plant 
the life of the supply of gas from the apparent production or open 
flow of the wells should be estimated conservatively. An idea of the 
ultimate production of a well is indicated by the rock pressure, by 
the thickness of the gas-bearing strata, the porosity of the ''sands," 
and the presence of intruding waters. A history of the field is neces- 
sary and also a knowledge of the drilling practice in developing the 
field. If proper methods are not employed, such as sealing off the gas- 
bearing zones in drilhng oil wells, cementing off water-bearing beds,* 
and proper casing, rapid decline in the production of gas can be 
expected. For example, a company that was endeavoring to erect a 
plant with a capacity of 3,000,000 cubic feet of gas a day was not 
interested in any territory having an open-flow ' capacity of even 

« Tough, F. B., Methods of shutting oil water In oil and gas wells: Bureau of Mines, 1918. 

& "Open flow" is an engineering term and is referred to by the courts as synonymous to "natural flow" 
and necessarily means the entire volume of gas that will issue from the mouth of a gas well when retarded 
only by atmospheric pressure. 



CABBON BLACK — ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPEETIBS, AKD USES. H 

12,000,000 cubic feet unless considerable territory remained to be 
drilled and the amount of gas ''in sight" was to be increased mate- 
rially; its experience indicated that such a quantity of gas would 
dwiudle to an inadequate amount soon after the completion of a 
plant. 

If a newly developed field proves extensive and prolific, a gas pipe- 
line is usually constructed to the field. Unless the production is 
extraordinarily large, the price of gas will increase gradually, and as 
the production and rock pressure decline and compressors are applied 
to the gas, such value will attach to the gas that the manufacture of 
carbon black will become prohibitive, even though the operators 
may have intrenched themselves by drilling their own wells. In 
some localities in West Virginia, where gas formerly sold for 2.5 cents 
per thousand cubic feet, the price increased suddenly to 8 cents upon 
the introduction of compression plants and transportation lines. 
The manufacturers of carbon black are unable to compete with gas- 
distribution companies when gas sells at this figiu'e; although the 
carbon-black manufacturers own the wells, it is more profitable to 
sell gas to pipe-line concerns than to make carbon black. The 
industry is necessarily migratory, although some plants have operated 
in one vicinity as long as 20 years. The Monroe gas field of Louisiana 
has become a center of carbon-black plants because it gives promise 
of being a field of considerable importance. The producing wells are 
scattered over a territory 20 miles long and 3 to 8 miles wide. 
Very few dry holes have been drilled, and the productive wells have 
an open flow varying from 5 to 25 million cubic feet a day. 

GASOLINE CONTENT. 

Often the gasoline content of gas may be so lai^e that the operator 
can pay a high price for the gas and still find the manufacture of 
carbon black profitable. At several of the plants in Louisiana, West 
Virginia, and Wyoming the gas is treated by the absorption process • 
to recover the gasoline. The plant operators claim that stripping the 
gas of the gasoline vapors has little effect upon either the quality or 
quantity of the carbon black produced. In 1883 G. L. Cabot made 
some laboratory experiments concerning the effect on the yield of 
enriching gas by gasoline vapors. He foimd that by passing pre- 
heated gas over gasoline the carbon-black recovery was increased by 
11 per cent of the weight of the gasoline used. The quantity of 
carbon black should not be changed much, as the recovery of one- 
tenth of a gallon of gasoline reduces the volume of the gas three- 

s Dykfixna, W. P., Recent developments in the absorption process for recovering gasoline: Bull. 170, 
Bureau of Mines, 1910. Burreli, G . A., Biddison, P.M., and Oberfell, 0. O., Extraction of gasoline tram 
natural gas by absorption methods: Bull. 120, Bureau of Mines, 1917. 

59647°— 22 2 



12 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUPACTURB, PROPERTIBS, AND USES. 

tenths of 1 per cent. The gasoline content is usually determined by 
an absorption method.^ 

For further information on this point the reader is referred to 
Technical Paper 253 of the Bureau of Mines. 

TESTING NATURAL GAS FOR CARBON BLACK. 

Making tests of gas for carbon black preliminary to erecting plants 
is a matter of great importance. Variation in the amount of carbon 
black obtained from different qualities of gas by the same process is 
shown in Table 2. 



Table 2. — Carbon content and quantity ofearhon black recovered. 



Hethanea percent. 

Ethane do. . , 

Carbon dioxide do..! 

Nitrogen do... 

Heating valued 



Carbon per 1 ,00Ocubicfeet of gas c pounds. 

Carbon Dlack per 1 ,000 cubic feet of gas reported obtained. 



Per cent recoyery . 



■do., 



A. 

Louis- 
iana. 



94.12 
3.44 

.50 
1.94 

962 
33.8 

.80 

2.4 



B. 

West 
Virginia. 



7a 75 

24.14 

.28 

4.83 

1.086 

39.9 

1.00 

2.5 



C. 

West 
Virginia. 



65.23 

30.07 

1.56 

3.14 

1,134 

42.3 

1.10 

2.6 



D. 

Wyo- 
ming. 



46.45 

43.10 

.96 

9.49 

1,176 

44.3 

1.40 

3.1 



A Analyses were made by D. B . Dow, junior chemist of Bartlesville station , United States Bureau of Mines. 
ft Net heating value in B. t. u. per cubic feet at O^C, and 760 mm. pressure, 
e Calculated nrom carbon content of methane and ethane. 

The quantity recovered closely parallels the percentage of ethane' 
heating value, and the amount of elementary carbon from the hydro- 
carbons determined by analysis. The gas from Louisiana has the 
lowest percentage of nitrogen, and has the highest percentage of 
hydrocarbons, 97.56, yet when burned at a factory it gives the smallest 
yield of carbon black. This result is due to the larger proportion of 
methane which contains 33.5 pounds of carbon per thousand cubic 
feet, whereas an equal volume of ethane contains 67 pounds of carbon. 
The two gases from West Virginia have similar compositions and give 
approximately the same jrield of carbon black. The gas- suppUed 
to the plant in Wyoming has the highest calorific value, carbon 
content, and ethane content of the gases, and produces the greatest 
yield. From the gases richer in higher hydrocarbons not only the 
actual quantity of carbon obtained is larger, but the percentage of 
recovery increases. A chemical analysis of a gas is probably as 
trustworthy an indication of the available carbon black as the result 
obtained with a small portable apparatus in which a measured 

1 Dykema, W. P., and Neal, R. O., Application of the absorption process to recover gasoline fhmi the 
residual gases of compression plants: Tech. Paper 232, Bureau of Mines, 1920. 41pp. 

• For the chemical analysis of natural gas, »ee The sampling and examination of mine gases and natural 
gas,"by O.A.Burrelland F.M.Selbert,BuU. 42, Bureau of Mines, 1913; and Gas analysis, by L.M.]>6milv, 
1913. 



CABBON BI-ACK — ITfe MANUFACTURE, PBOPEBTIES, AND USES. 13 

quantity of gas is burned and the deposited carbon black collected 
and weighed. 

The writer has designed an apparatus for determining the quantity 
of carbon black to be obtained from an unknown gas. This appa- 
ratus is made of 16-gage sheet iron and held together with one-eighth- 
inch rivets. The carbon black is deposited on a plate measuring 
8 by lOf by i inches and removed by a hand-operated scraper 
measuring 1 by 8 by ^ly inches. Draft control is by eight 1-inch 
ventilating holes provided with covers pivoted above the holes, and 
by a revolving damper at the top of the hood. The pipe carrying 




J - .. ■ .- 1 -- Ra'H'arn for Ctrttrna and 

ana knding Body Bending Top Hood andm 



Bending Top Hood and bottom 
Hopper 

FiOoRE 3.— Details of portable testing appa^at^^<. 

the lava tips can be lowered or raised beneath the depositing plate 
and held at any distance by attaching a plug in the stopper holes 
below the supports. In the hopper is a sliding door for removing 
the carbon black. Lava tips capable of burning about eight cubic 
feet of gas per hour are used. The hood, hopper and legs are detach- 
able and fit into the central part of the device to facilitate transporting 
in the field. The apparatus ready for transporting is shown in Plate 
I, A; its details in figure 3. It can be used by connecting directly to 
the supply of gas and by using suitable wind breaks if assembled in 
the field, or it can be used in the laboratory by obtaining a sample 
of gas under pressure in a steel cylinder. 



14 CARBON BLACK — ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 

The source of supply of the gas to be examined is connected with 
a meter registering a quantity at least as small as one-tenth of a cubic 
foot; on this line should be a quarter-inch needle valve for limiting 
the flow of gas through the apparatus. Between the meter and the 
gas-burning apparatus is attached a U-tube for determining the pres- 
sure of the gas. The top of the lava tips should be about 2J inches 
below the depositing plate, and a gas pressure of one-half to one inch 
of water should be maintained. These factors of course will differ 
for the examination of different gases, and in the preliminary tests 
adjustments should be made until the largest recovery is obtained. 
A test should last for an hour at least, during which time 15 to 20 
cubic feet of gas should be burned. It is possible to make a test in 
the field without using the meter by previously calibrating the appa- 
ratus against a meter, different pressures on the manometer tube 
being observed and the time recorded. This will give fairly accurate 
results on volumes, provided of course the lava tips are not broken, 
plugged, or partly restricted by foreign matter after the apparatus 
has been standardized. During the test the carbon black should be 
removed from the collecting plate by the scraper every ten minutes, 
and at the end of the test the carbon depositedi on the sides of the 
apparatus and plate is removed with a small brush. This accumu- 
lated carbon black is weighed. From the data on the volume of 
gas burned, the quantity of carbon black collected, and the pressure 
on gas, can be calculated the quantity of carbon black probably 
obtainable in plant operation from a given gas. This apparatus, 
assembled, is shown in Plate I, B, 

By the use of either method only comparative results are obtained. 
The portable apparatus gives results approximating those procured 
in commercial, plants using the channel system, but if some other 
process is to be used, the apparatus should be standardized against 
a plant where conditions are similar to those under which the gas 
under test will be burned. 

COMMEBCIAL METHODS OF MAKING CABBON BLACK. 

In commercial practice are four different processes of manufactur- 
ing carbon black from natural gas — the channel system, the small 
rotating disk, the roller or rotating cylinder, and the large-plate 
processes. These methods differ mainly in the size and shape of the 
surface upon which the carbon is collected and the rate of travel of 
the moving devices. The channel process is probably the best method 
and is the one most extensively used. Classified according to the 
quantity of carbon black produced, the order is as follows : (1) Channel 
process, (2) small rotating disk process, (3) large plate process, and 
(4) roller process. At present the production of carbon black by 
cracking or thermal decomposition methods is not extensive. 



go 
?5 



CARBON BLACK — ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPEETIBS, AND USES. 15 



CHANNEL PROCESS. 
TBB CONDBNBINa B 



The buildings in which the channels and burners are installed are 
made of 24-gage sheet iron, held by wire to a steel frame made of 
i by li by IJ inch angle iron. Figure 4 shows the structural details 
of a typical building, sometimes referred to as the condensing build- 
ing. The ridge piece does not extend the entire length of the 
building, as spaces are left to allow the escape of the gases of com- 
bustion. The ridge pieces are flexibly attached so that the spaces 
can be changed and the draft regulated. In the design of some 
plants chimneys are provided. Along the bottom of the buildings 
are slits or slide doors for controlling the supply of air, but usually 
they are not adjusted to meet the various conditions of the weather. 



Ont Frarm Ifke ffiis ^^ih Sf F^vgjts /lkt-fh/ssptie9<f 

Fiatrsi 4.— DMbUi OtcondOisliiK building used In chaimd proncn. 

A door at each end and one or two doors on each side furnish access 
to the interior. Buildings that have one group of channels bolted 
together into one table are 8 or 10 feet in width by 80 to 1 15 feet in 
length. The dimensions of two-table buildings vary from 18 to 20 
feet in width and from 80 to 115 feet in length. 

The buildings are arranged in parallel rows 3 to 5 feet apart at 
right angles to and on both sides of an alleyway about 15 feet wide. 
The number of one-table buildings per unit — that is, whose power is 
furnished by one engine — varies from 24 to 30. In some districts, 
particularly Louisiana, a larger yield has been obtained with one- 
table buUdings than with larger units because of the atmospheric 
temperature. With two-table buildings, the number of buildings 
per unit varies from 12 to 16. The units have a daily capacity 
ranging from 60 barrels, or 3,000 pounds, to 100 barrels, or 5,000 
pounds, of carbon black. The largest plant inspected by the writer 
had six units and consequently six packing houses, six engines for 
furnishing power, and an equal number of main driving shafts. The 
entire plant comprised 180 condensing houses. 



16 CABBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACIUBE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 









^s^pii 



J6'' Manhole^, ^ 
•Holes for I > 
\Rivets am 
\Bolts^^ r 
ylfernatiric 



^ ^ 



'"4" Roller 
^'^lonq 

WrBolt, 
S^'^long 



-<^ 



.-^ 



^.^"4'^ Flanges^ 
^ No Hole in Plate 





No. 10 Gage Plate 

rS" Flange, no 
\Hole In Plate 



^•>t 



% 




■i" 



f 

^ 



:i.jifr 




6" Pipe Flanges 



. Hook, 



Pitch 



TT 



^ 
^ 



An0le,ti'xlE''Ki' 
V i", Rivets, 6' Pitch\ 



-t 



i" Rivets, itPitch 



•3" Pipe Flanqe 
Hole in Ffarte 



TnouM C— DaUlls of gasometar. 



CABBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTUHE, PROPBBTIBS, AND USES. 17 



TRANSMISSION OF GAS. 

The gas coming from the wells, from gasoline 
plants, or from mains has its pressure reduced 
by suitable regulators, and after passing 
through the regulators goes through a gasom- 
eter tank that is partly filled with water. De- 
tails of a typical gasometer are shown in fig- 
ure 5. It consists of two tanks made of boiler 
plate, one inverted in the other. The gas 
passes into the inverted tank where it is held 
by a water seal. The pressure of the gas blow- 
ing from the gasometer will be detejrmined by 
the weights on top of the tank and the height 
to which the tank rises. A lever arm connects 
the inverted tank to a butterfly valve on the 
intake gas line, so that as the pressure increases, 
the tank rises and the butterfly valve is closed. 
(See PI. II, A.) The flow of gas is controlled 
by the gasometer so that the discharge pres- 
sure of the gas is less than 1 oiince. 

In a plant with one-table condensing build- 
ings, the gas is piped froin the gasometer tank 
to a 24-inch distribution pipe made of riveted 
boiler plate, which lies in the middle of the 
alley. Two 4-inch lines connect the distributor 
to each building, each of which is provided 
with a 4-inch gate valve. In the buildings a 
IJ-inch pipe connects to a 4-inch line every 8 
feet. Between each 1 J-inch pipe a 1-inch rod 
or riser 3 inches high is welded, upon which the 
overhead channel work is supported. Figure 6 
shows this arrangement. 

In another desi^, an 8-inch gas line com- 
pletely encircles tne condensing buildings and 
is connected to two 4-inch inlet pipes at each 
end of the buildings. (See PI. II, S.) The 
method of piping must be capable of distribu- 
ting the gas evenly throughout the entire unit, 
and the fact that the gas is held under such 
low pressure demands considerable attention. 



.t 



CHANNELS. 




«> 



8 



.t- 



The channels upon which the carbon black ^'^ '^ -"-^ 
is deposited are made of mild steel, 7 to 8 inches wide and weigh- 
ing about \2\ pounds per linear foot. They hang from trucks that 



18 CABBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTUKE, PROPBBTIBS, AND USES. 

run on overhead raik. Standard IJ-inch pipe resting either on 
concrete piers or upon the gas-distributing pipes support the channels, 
trucks, rails, and other accessories. The uprights are spaced ap- 
proximately 4 feet, ahd are stabilized by means of 1 by J inch cross 
strap-iron braces. 

At the top of each upright is a small cast-iron rail chair. The 
steel rails weigh 16 to 20 poimds per yard. Running on the rails are 
10-inch double gudgeon truck wheels. Each wheel has lugs pro- 
jecting from the axis on each side to regulate its position, and it is 
held rigid longitudinally by two short lengths of 2 by 2 inch angle 
iron, although it can move within a fixed distance along the rails. 

Attached to the angle iron on both sides of the truck wheel are 
transverse channel beams, weighing 6^ pounds per foot; to these 
beams are bolted the channels upon which the carbon black is 
deposited. Each trestle is about 6 feet wide and is called a table. 
Most plants have eight rows of channels on each trestle. Plate III, 
A and S, show an installation of this type under construction. The 
channels are bolted together in lengths as great as 100 feet, and the 
trestle work is 10 to 15 feet longer to allow for the oscillations of the 
table. 

HOPPERS. 

Below the channels are the carbon collecting hoppers, spaced 
approximately 4 feet apart. Each hopper is made up of three 
parts — the crown, the body, and the base. The crown is supported 
on the trestle by a i by H by 1^ inch angle on each side and sits 
loosely in the body, which is about 6 feet in width in the upper 
portion and tapers down to about 10 inches. The base is about 
15 inches high and carries the conveyor pipe at the bottom. All 
three parts of the hopper are 6 inches wide, and the crown contains 
4 notches which retain the scrapers, as shown in figure 8. 

SCRAPERS. 

There are two classes of scrapers for removing the carbon from the 
channels, (1) those that operate continuously, and (2) those that are 
in direct contact with the channels while the tables are moving in 
one direction only. The latter practice is considered the best, as it 
gives a more uniform grade of black. The scrapers are made of steel 
•j^ by H inches wide and 8 to 11 inches in length; they have two 
blades attached to a 20-inch arm carrying a loop to which is appended 
a weight if the scrapers remove the deposited carbon continuously. 
Scrapers that remove carbon only while the channels are moving in 
one direction are actuated by a system of levers moved by an auto- 
matic trip, termed by the workmen a *' grasshopper.'' 

Most plants have side scrapers for removing the carbon on the 
sides of the channel beams. A table having 8 channels would have 
9 side scrapers over each hopper. The side scraper is made of a strip 



CARBON BLACK — ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 19 

of strap iron J by 32J by 1 inch, which is bent in the sh&pe of a 
narrow U-tube having 15-inch lega and about a 2-inch arch. The 
upper ends, 3 inches from the uppermost extremity, are bent at right 
angles to the arch. 



Spiral or screw conveyors of galvanized iron at the base of the 
hoppers carry the carbon from the different condensing buildings. 
The conveyor under the channels is 7 or 8 inches in diameter, the 
outside pipe being made of sheet iron throughout and crimped at 
one end of each section. The screw is usually made at the carbon 





plants by a simple tinner's machine which cuts disks of sheet iron 
shghtly less than 7 inches in diameterj if a 7-inch conveyor is being 
used, and bores a small hole in the center about 2 inches in diameter 
for the shaft. The shaft is made of 1-inch standard pipe supported 
every 8 feet by a spider bearing or conveyor hub made of cast iron. 
The concentric disk is cut and wrapped around the shaft in hehcoidal 
form and is held rigid by one-eighth-inch rivets. Figure 7 shows 
the details of a spider bearing, truck wheels, and rail chairs. Some 
carbon black operators prefer to purchase spiral conveyors from ma- 
chine shops where the helicoid is rolled from a single strip of metal 
before the pipe is inserted. This type of conveyor is strong, and 
resists to the full strength of the metal the lateral pressure due to 
pushing the material forward. 



20 CABBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTUEB, PBOPBRTESS, AND USES. 




A. CHANNEL PLANT IN PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION, 



. ANOTHER VIEW C 



RING CONSTRLPCTIO 



A. DRIVING WORM GEAR, CHANNEL PROCESS. 



B. BOLTING MACHINES FOR REMOVING PARTICLES FROM CARBON E 



CARBON BLACK — ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPKBTIES, AND USES. 21 

At the discharge end of each conveyor is an overflow tee con- 
sisting of a short pipe connected to the conveyor at an angle of 30 
degrees. This tee carries a sheet^iron cap. Below the tee and con- 
nected at a right angle to the conveyor is a pipe about 5 inches 
long and crimped at the end which delivers the collected carbon to 
the main conveyors on each side of the alley. 

BURNERS. 

The space between the hoppers constitutes one section of the 
trestle. In this space are the burners. The gas is delivered to the 
section by a IJ-inch pipe, to which is connected a f-inch pipe that 
carried the f-inch burner. The burner is parallel to and about 3 to 
4 inches below the channels. Each burner holds 8 to 10 lava tips. 
A typical 60-barrel plant would contain the following number of lava 
tips: 8 lava tips per burner, 64 tips per section, 1,600 tips per build- 
ing, 38,400 tips per plant having 24 buildings. 

The lava tips are made of selected steatite, which is easily machined 
in its green condition to any desired form by turning, milling, and 
grinding, and is then heated to a temperatiu-e of about 2,000° F. to 
make it hard and strong. Most of the manufacturers of lava tips are 
in the vicinity of Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Of the great variety of tips used the most common type bums 4 
to 14 cubic feet of gas per hour. The requisites for good tips are 
uniform flames and imiform gas consumption. A typical lava tip 
has a slot 0.2 inch deep and 0.034 inch wide. The tips are tapered 
slightly so that by drilling in the bimier pipe a hole slightly larger 
than the smallest outside diajneter of the tip, the tips can be held 
securely and made gas-tight by the application of white lead. Figure 
6 gives the general arrangement of bimiers, hopper, conveyors, and 
channels. 

DRIYINO MECHANISM AND ACCESSORIES. 

Each unit is equipped with a separate gas engine, which is usually 
of about 20 horsepower and of the two-cycle type. Some factories 
make use of a simple steam engine, utihzing gas pressure instead of 
steam ' thus effecting an appreciable saving in the cost of operation. 
The engine is connected to a shaft from which the conveyors, elevators, 
bolting machines, packing machines, and the reversing gear shift 
that actuates the channels are driven. Plate V (p. 24) gives a 
detailed plan of a complete carbon-black plant. 

A working drawing of a reversing-gear shift is shown in figure 9. 
Power for the device is transmitted by a belt from the overhead 
drive shaft. Pulley d is connected to pinion h by means of a sleeve; 

> Dykema, W. P., and Neal, R. O., Application of the absorption process to recover gasoline from the 
residual gases of compression plants: Tech. Paper 232, Bureau of Mines, 1920. 



22 CABBON BLACK — ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 

pulley 6 in an idler and/ actuates pinion c through a collar. A car- 
riage traveling along the threaded shaft g shifts the belt from /over 
e to pulley d periodically by means of a lever system, consequently 
changing the direction of rotation of bevel gear a. This change takes 
place about every 15 minutes. The gear keyed to the shaft in the 
middle of the alley meshes with the worm gear A. Another arrange- 
ment with a worm-gear drive is given in Plate IV, A. 

The main shaft that moves the channels extends the entire length 
of the alley and is usually 3 or 4 inches in diameter. It is supported 




FiOTTBB 9.'R6v«nlng-ge8r afaift. a, Bevel gear; b, e, pinions; d, e, /, pulleys; g, threaded shaft; 1^, worm 

gear. 

by trestles 6 feet high and is made of channel steel. Details of a 
support appear in figure 8. There is a support with a pillow block 
for each pair of buildings. Couplings are placed every 16 or 20 feet. 
Over each support is a 13-tooth flanged pinion for engaging teeth 
in a rack or cog plate that is on the under side of an inverted tee steel 
beam connecting end trucks in opposite buildings. The rack is made 
of cast iron, contains 42 teeth and is about 62 inches long. Tigure 
7 shows the details. A stirrup of iron or roller is used to assure 
engagement of the rack and pinion. The entire table of channels 
and scrapers is moved by this rack and pinion, the channels having 
a straight-line reciprocating motion of 55 to 60 inches which takes 15 



CABBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTUBE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 23 

minutes. In a typical 60-barrel plant there is approximately 200 
tons of iron and steel in the condensing buildings, not including the 
framework or sheet-iron covering of the buildings. 

The conveyors for the carbon black are driven by a shaft belt con- 
nected to the main power shaft in the engine room. A 1-inch shaft 
lies on each side of the alley between the condensate buildings and 
transmits power to the conveyors within the buildings by means of 
bevel gears. The conveyor running along each side of an alley is 
chain driven by a sprocket wheel on the 1-inch shaft. These con- 
veyors jcarry all of the black from the buildings to a chain and bucket 
elevator inclosed in a 16-gage galvanized sheet-iron box. 

m 

BOLTING MACHINES. 

The grit; scale, and hard particles in the carbon black are removed 
by bolting machines, which vary greatly in design. The practice in 
removing particles from the black differs also. Operators at some 
factories pass the carbon through two bolters, some through one, and 
some factories are not equipped with bolting machines. At a few 
plants equipment includes coarse wire called a '^ scalper " for removing 
bolts, pieces of iron, and similar articles. The bolting machine may 
be of the horizontal or vertical type, the latter being more commonly 
employed. 

Details of a machine often used are given in figure 10, and a view is 
shown in Plate IV, B. It is made of 20-gage galvanized iron. The 
steel screen used varies in size from 45 to 60 mesh, and is reinforced by 
a heavy wire. It is attached to a cylinder that can be removed 
through the drop door. A shaft having a spider with six arms, each 
of which carry two fiber brushes, forces the carbon black through the 
screen. The material not passing through the screen is discarded 
periodically. 

STORAGE BIN AND PACKERS. 

* 

The storage bins are tapering-shaped hoppers located over the 
packers. They are made of galvanized iron and vary in size. Some 
operators use bins large enough to store two or three days' production 
in order to eliminate stoppage of work from trouble in the packing 
room, or to hold the carbon black made on Sunday, if the packers 
operate only six days per week. The storage bin is connected with the 
packers by a spout. 

Packers for carbon black are similar to those used at sugar refineries. 
An auger inside of a tight sheet-steel tube presses the carbon black in to a 
large paper bag. The auger is so designed as to avoid waste of the free- 
flowing product when the packer is stopped for changing the bags. The 
stock, when passing through the auger, keeps the hinged gates folded 
parallel to and against the top auger blades, but when the auger stops, 
coil springs force the gates downward against the carbon lodged between 



24 CARBOK BLACK — ITS MANUFACTUBE, PBOPBBTIES, AND USBS. 




Section A- A 



It 



T 



A 



s^ 






I 



so'^ > 



N92Q 

Ooily. 

Iron 



DROP DOOR 



GE 



A 



FlGUBB 10.-->Detal]s of a boltiiig machine. 



BURCAU or M|| 



BOLTirti 



fi«47— 42, <TO 



1 



CARBON BLACK ITS MAHUFACTUEB, PBOPEBTIES, AND USES! 25 

the blades, and though they do not close the passageway completely, 
they confine the carhon enough to prevent leakage. The machine is 
gaged to pack in each bt^ a uniform amount, usually 12} pounds or 
a quarter of a barrel. Some bags, especially those for export trade, 
contain 15 pounds. A simple movement of a lever causes the bevel 
gears to mesh and starts the packer, which stops automatically when 
tl)e bag has been filled. Details of a packer are given in figure 11. 
A 60-barrel plant usually is equipped with four packers that fill a 
b^ in about 15 minutes. The inner shaft rotates slowly in order to 



Ftams II.— Bamtud-UoUnepackv of carbon black. 

effect the proper separation of the carbon black from the air in which 
it floats or which it holds mechanically. The separation of the black 
from the air as far as is practicable commercially constitutes the chief 
problem of packing. The bags are tied, and at most plants are slightly 
compressed in a steel-plate box, in which travels a plunger, actuated by 
a crank shaftor eccentric. The sides of the bag are flattened to facili- 
tate storage and transportation. After a bag is compressed, a 
second paper bag is placed over the package. 

WAREHOUSE. 

The bags of carbon black are removed by trucks from the packing 
building to the warehouse. If the black is intended for export it is 



26 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 

packed in wooden boxes 3 by 3 by 2 feet each, holding from 12 to 15 
bags. The warehouses are built on the main line of transportation or 
on a narrow-gage railroad having electric or gasoline engine-driven 
trucks to convey the product to a transfer point. The warehouses 
diflFer greatly in size. At one plant visited by the writer was stored a 
stock of 35,000 bags of black, and available spaces for as much more 
remained. Some warehouses are open, frame buildings, with conju- 
gated sheet-iron roofs; some are completely inclosed sheet-iron build- 
ings. 

OPERATION OF CHANNEL PLANTS. 

The channel process for packing carbon black and the construction 
of channel plants have been fully discussed. The operation of the 
channel plants may be briefly described as follows : The flames from 
the lava tips impinge against the under side of the traveling tables of 
channels, the draft being controlled by slide doors or slits at the base 
of the condensing buildings and by the chimneys at the ridge piece of 
the buildings. The gas bums with a uniform, luminous, and smoky 
flame. Table 3 contains analyses of gases formed in the incomplete 
combustion of the gas. The deposited carbon black on the under 
side of the channel is removed by the scrapers and falls. 





Table 3.- 


— Analyses of flue gases, ^ 










A. West 
Virginia. 


B. West 
Virginia. 


C. Lou- 
isiana. 


Carbon dioxide 






Percent. 
1.10 

19.60 
1.05 
1.25 

77.00 


Percent. 

3.4 

15.0 

.1 


Percent. 
2.51 


Oxyeen 


14.30 


Carbon monoxide 


1.96 


Hydrogen 




Nitrogen 


81.3 
.2 


81. 83 


Methane and ethane 















a None 0/ the samples examined showed even a trace of formaldehyde or formic acid. 
SMALL ROTATING-DISK PROCESS. 

The small rotating-disk ring, or Blood process, invented by A. R. 
Blood in 1883, is used extensively at present. The disk upon which 
the carbon black is deposited is shown in Plate VI, ^. It is made 
of cast iron, ranging in diameter from 36 inches to 42 inches and 
has a 50-inch face. The lava tips are set in a circular piece of 
^-inch standard pipe, which is about 28 inches in diameter and 
contains from 18 to 24 tips. The scraper for removing the car- 
bon is continuously in contact with the disk and is set over a 
hopper radially with the disk. A driving gear is bolted on the 
disk, and a pinion meshing with the gear is attached to the drive 
shaft by means of a set screw. The teeth of the pinion are extraor- 
dinarily long in order to allow for the expansion and contraction 
of the entire length of the driving shaft. A shaft base or cap sets 



CARBON BLACK — ITS MANUPACTDBB, PROPEKTIBS, AND USES. 27 

in the axis upon which the diek rotates, and acts as a guide and 
support for ^e dnring shaft. It also stabilizes the pipe which 
rests on a concrete base and carries the weight of the disk. The 
gear and pinion actuate the disk, which makes one revolution in 
about 15 minutes. Figure 12 shows details of a wheel, driving gear 
and pinion, and shaft base. A gear and pinion, shaft base, and 
accessories is shown in figure 13; in this drawing the disk is not 
the same design, however, as that described above. 

The disks are arranged in rows of 21 disks, with two or, usually, 
four rows per building. One unit plant has 10 to 20 buitdiogs so 

■iZTttfh 




Driving Gear 

Fmdu 13.— DsUllioCdIlk.dllTliiggau'uid 



plnloa, BDd ahtft D4P oaad In rotaUnr^bk nMbod. 



that there are 84 disks per building and 1,532 disks in an IS-building 
factory. Each pair of rows has one conveyor and each row has a 
separate drive shaft extending the entire length of the building. 
The drive shafts are moved by a gear and pinion, power being trans- 
mitted by a 2-inch shaft in the alley. Plate VI, B shows how the 
power is transmitted to a building having four rows of disks. 
The carbon black is delivered from the buildings as in the channel 
No gear-shifting machine is employed and the shafting is 
SgMT"— 22 3 



28 CARBON BIACK ITS MANUFACTDftB, PROFEBTIBS, AKD USES. 

lighter than in the channel system, as the weight of the material in 
the condensing buildings of a typical plant using t^e rotating-disk 
method is about ISO tons. 

The quality and yield of the carbon black made by the disk process 
is approximately ihe same as that made by the channel method. 

THE PLATE OH CABOT PROCESS. 

The plate system was invented by G. L. Cabot about 1892 and has 
two modifications. One method employs stationary plates 24 feet 
in diameter having beneath them revolving scrapers and burners; 
another method uses revolving plates 24 feet in diameter with sta- 
tionary scrapers and burners. The first arrangement is the more 
widely used and is employed at a plant in West Vii^inia having 
until recently the largest output of any factory in the world. This 



FloCKB 13.— Aswrnbly ofapidir, gear, and pinion. 

plant had 113 plates and is shown in Plate VII, A. The process 
is also used in Louisiana. (See fig. 14.) 

The iron plates are made of 48 segments, 16 in the inner row 
and 32 in the outer row, the over-all diameter being 24 feet. The 
plates are perforated with ventilator holes to allow the products of 
combustion to escape and to afford a means of maintaining a draft. 
The plate is supported by guys screwed into a cap that is shaped 
like a broad truncated cone. This cap rests upon the top of a hollow 
mast, the joint between the cap and the mast being made gas tight 
with asbestos. A circular building, 26 feet in diameter, made of 
corrugated sheet iron, surrounds the plates. Above each plate is a 
roof made partly of triangular pieces of sheet iron and portly of 
four-sided sheets of corrugated iron extending about two-thirds of 
the distance up the 16-foot mast, leaving therefore, in the center, 



A. DEPOSITING SURFACE FOR CARBON IN HOTATING-DISK PROCESS. 



QRIVING MECHANISM IN HOTATING-DISK PROCESS. 



I. CAReON.BLACK FACTORY IN WEST VIRGINIA USING THE PLATE PROCESS. 



:arbon black is deposited in roller system. 



CABBON BLACK — ^IT8 MANtTFACrUBE, PBOPEETIBS, AUD USES. 29 

an Open space harii^ about one-third the diameter of the plate, 
through which the products of combustion can escape. 

The mast stands in a bedplate; the upper surface of the bedplate 
carries a groove in which steel balls run as a bearing. Upon these 




I 



iiiii 




steel balls rests a casting haTing S arms that project outward and 
upward and fit into the lower ends of struts made of 2-inch pipe. 
On the outer end of these struts is an angle casting, into which the 
pipe fits, and a horizontal hole which accommodates a horizontal guy 



30 CABBON BlACK — ^ITO MANUFACTUBE, PROPEBTIBS, AND USES. 

rod. Each horizontal guy is connected at the inner end to an octag- 
onal plate that rotates with the burners and scrapers around the 
central mast. The burners fit in a gridiron of pipe lying on a circle 
of 4i by J-inch bar iron which is bolted to the vertical face of the 
angle castings. The lamp is fed by two f-inch holes in the central 
mast, which is incased in a gas box with stuffing boxes and glands 
above and below. This gas box revolves around the mast supported 
on the eight-horn casting with the burner pipe and radial black box. 

The gas line from the regulators connects to the mast at the bot- 
tom; the mast is closed above by a cap from which depend the oblique 
guys. Slightly below the scraper box are the |-inch perforations 
that admit the gas into the gas box. To the gas box are connected 
two l^inch pipes feeding a 4-inch main in which are screwed the 
l^-inch burner pipe extending beneath the surface of the depositing 
plate. Each 4-inch pipe feeds over fifty l^-inch pipes, set at equal 
intervals and extending to the periphery of the circular depositing 
plate. The l^-inch pipes carry lava tips that are the same as those 
in the chaimel or disk process. The two center pipes have 60 lava 
tips each; and there are 1,265 tips under the entire plate. The 
burners make 1 revolution in 8 minutes. 

Scrapers placed radially on the mast removed the black from the 
plates. Below the scrapers is a coUecting box carrying a screw con- 
veyor actuated by a gear and pinion, the gear sitting on the mast 
and the pinion on the end of the conveyor shaft. The carbon is car- 
ried to the inner end of the collecting box and descends through a 
vertical pipe into a circular box that discharges downward into a 
long conveyor running beneath the circular boxes and 2 feet from 
the center of the ring. Conveyors take the black from several plates 
to the packing house, where it is elevated to bins, and then dropped 
into the packing machines. 

All the machinery at these plants moves so slowly that the amount 
of power used is surprisingly small. Only one 35-horsepower gas 
engine is necessary to operate 22 plates and furnish power for con- 
veyors, packing, and bolting machmery. 

BOLLEB OB BOTATINO-GYLINDEB PBOCESS. 

The roller process was first used by E. R. Blood in 1883, but at the 
start proved unprofitable because of the small yield. Later, how- 
ever, the details of operation were improved and a market for the 
product, which possesses valuable properties notwithstanding its 
inferior color, has been created. At present, this is the highest priced 
grade of carbon black and is utilized chiefly in making lithographic 
and embossing inks, and printing ink for half-tone engravings. 

In the roller process the buildings or benches are 65 to 100 feet 
long and 25 to 35 feet wide; they are made of 24-gage straight or 



CARBON BLACK — TK MAIHTFACTUM, PROPEBTIBS, AlTD XTSES. 81 

V-crimped sheet iron and are wired to a smaU angle-iron framework. 
From four to ten buildings are connected to the same driving shaft 
or source of power. 

A l}-inch pipe leads the gas to each set of rollers or cylinders. 
Some manufacturers place a small disk in the screw union in each 
distributing pipe before it is connected to the pipe carrying the lava 
tips, in order to regulate imiformly the flow of the gas under each 
roller. The burner pipe holding the lava tips is from 3 to 5 inches 
below the cylinders and usuaUy is lower than in the channel system. 
The lava tips are round and have a round instead of a fishtail opening, 
hence the flame is cylindrical. Tips are separated I mch to 4 inches, 
as is shown in Plate VIII, A. 

The rollers, 3 to 8 feet in length, have a spider bearing for a 1^ 
inch shaft. If made of cast iron they are about seven-sixteenths of 
an inch thick, 8^ inches outside diameter, and weigh approximately 
100 poimds. (See PI. VII, B.) The outside of each roller is machine 
faced. Some operators use ordinary extra-heavy well casing in 8 
or 9 foot lengths and by countersunk rivets fix spider bearings in 
each end for the shafting. This arrangement is cheaper and makes 
the plant more independent of the local foundries, although the possi- 
bility exists that the cylinders may warp and throw the driving 
mechanism out of alignment. At a plant using casing, however, no 
difficulty from warping, distortion, or scaling by heat was experienced. 
The scrapers for removing the deposited carbon black are placed 
at the top or near the top of the rollers, and run logitudinally the 
entire length. They are in direct contact with the rollers and scrape 
continuously. In one design, V-shaped blades are attached to the 
opposite ends of downwardly ciu*ved metal straps, one blade being 
positioned for contact with one roUer and the other for another. 
The weight of the straps and blades, borne by the cylinders, brings 
the blades into close contact with the rollers and makes them scrape 
efficiently. 

Over the cylinders is a removable sheet-iron hood; it protects the 
cylinders from drafts, and is provided with apertures to control the 
ventilation within the roller chamber. Below the cylinders is a 
trough-shaped hopper contracted at the bottom, designed to exclude 
air from the cylinders, and to collect the black scraped therefrom. 
A screw conveyor moimted in the bottom of the hopper carries the 
black to the bolting machines and hence to the storage bin over the 
packing machines. An angle-iron frame supports the hood, hopper, 
and conveyors. Under each hood are nine rollers, three rollers on 
each shaft. Where 4-foot rollers are used there are only two rollers 
on each shaft, and in some designs two sets of rollers to a hopper. 
Each building contains two rows of hoods and hoppers, and the 



82 CABBOV BLACK— m MAVUVACTUBE, PBOPEBUBS, ABD USBS. 




O 
fit 






3 



f 



I. 

cs 

O" 

tf 

• 
(0 



(.CHAIN TRANSMISSION USEDIN ROLLER PROCESS. 



\ LOUISIANA CARBON-BLACK PLANT IN OPERI 



CARBON BLACK — ^IXS MANUFACTUBE, PBOPEBTIES, AND USES. 33 

shafting rims the entire width of the building; each shaft, therefore, 
actuates four or six rollers according to the length of the cylinders. 
Slits or slide doors in the building help to regulate the draft. A 
typical building has 196 to 288 rollers, 10,000 lava tips, about 24 to 
32 hoods, and an equal number of hoppers. 

On each shaft, which is made of hollow pipe, a worm gear with 
about 28 teeth and a pitch diameter of about 6 inches is attached by 
means of a set screw. This gear is actuated by a worm 3 or 4 inches 
in diameter having about 5 threads, and it makes one revolution 
every 15 to 45 minutes (see PL VIII, B). The grade of black deter- 
mines the rate at which the cylinders revolve. The worm is mounted 
on a solid steel shaft that is moved by a chain and sprocket trans- 
mission from the main power line, as shown in Plate IX A. The 
conveyors, elevators, bolting machines, and packing machines are 
also connected to the main power shaft, which is actuated by a gas 
or expansion engine. Power requirements are about the same as 
in the channel method. Figure 15 shows details of the roller system. 

GEABS TJ8BD IN CABBON-BLACK INDTJSTBY. 

The machinery at a carbon-black plant requires a large number of 
gears. Most of these are bevel gears as they are used to transmit 
power to the conveyors, although spur gears are used in transmitting 
power to bolters, scalpers, etc., and worm gears move the cylinders 
in the roller process, and also connect the reversing gear shift to the 
main drive shaft which actuates the rack and pinion in the channel 
system. (See fig. 16.) 

Diametral pitch is the number of teeth to each inch of pitch diam- 
eter. The word diameter, when applied to gears, always means 
pitch diameter. 

If the teeth are shaped properly, the linear velocities of the two 
wheels are equal, and the angular velocities or speeds of rotation 
are inversely proportional to the number of teeth and to the diameter. 
Thus a gear that has twice as many teeth as one mating with it will 
revolve just half as many times per minute. 

In ordering standard gears and pinions it is only necessary to 
specify circular pitch, bore, face, and ratio of the number of teeth 
on the gear to the number of teeth on the pinion. Although there is 
no standard rule, the width of the faces of the teeth is generally 
made two or three times the circular pitch. 

At carbon^black plants the temperature changes give rise to a 
special problem which is solved by using pinions whose facial dimen- 
sions are four or five times those of the gears so that should there be 
a sudden expansion or contraction in the shaft, the gear and pinions 
would still mesh. Should bevel gears be used, contraction might 
possibly prevent intermeshing, and expansion might break the teeth 



34 CAKBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTUBE, PROPERTIES, AND TTSE8. I 

or force the shafting out of alignment, causing a waste of power and| 
undue wear upon gears and bearings; in fact some bevel gears havei 
worn away from this cause as much as three quarters of an inch., 
Frequently a device is resorted to which is not strictly mechanical, 
but which, nevertheless, gives good results under the conditions 
pecuUar to this industry, namely, a bevel wheel is driven by a spur 
gear. The bevel is flat, perhaps five or six times the pitch diameter 
of the spur that drives it. Obviously the wear and tear on the cogs 
is uneven and greater than with a true bevel properly adjusted, but 




FioxTKX lO.—DotiiUs of Bpnr sear and pinion. 

the arrangement has the great advantage that as the shaft carry- 
ing the spur gears expands and contracts, the long cogs on the spur 
wheels always engage the teeth of the bevel gear; as the power re- 
quired is very small in proportion to the size of the gears and the 
motion is very slow, the extra wear and friction caused by this mathe- 
matically inaccurate method is of minor importance and far less 
injurious than the evils that might otherwise result from the expan- 
sion and contraction of the driving shaft. Some of the gears installed 
in carbon-black factories are not standard, but are '* bastard" and 
are cast from special patterns. Tables 4 and 5 contain d&ta of value 
in the construction of gears. 



CABBON BLAOK — ^ITS MANUFACTUBB, PROPEBTIBS, AND USES. 85 



In the disk process especially gears are exposed to an intense heat 
that practically eliminates lubrication, and as a result wear and fric- 
tional losses are large. Maximum service may be obtained by the 
following procedure: 

1. Gears and pinions should have ample strength, ductility, wear- 
ing surface, and hardness. 

2. Installations should be properly made. Remember that badly 
worn gears will wear new pinions unduly, and that old pinions unduly 
wear new gears. 

3. Gears should be kept in mesh on true centers in proper align- 
ment. This necessitates proper maintenance of bearings. 

4. Lubricate gears where possible. 

5. Inspect gears at intervals. 

If the care as specified above is not given the gears they soon 
fail to mesh accurately and serious evils result; power escapes in 
transmission; bearings wear imevenly, throwing the shifts out of 
line, and in timi causing gears, bearings, and other parts to wear 
faster; vibration produced in the gears causes increased wear and 
tear. 

Tablb 4. — Circular pitch of gears with its equivalent in diametral pitchy depth of space, 

and thickness of tooth. 



Ciicular 

pitch 

(indies). 



DiaiiMtnl 
pitch. 



a6236 
.6283 
.7854 
.8979 

1.0472 
1.1424 
1.2866 
1.3063 

1.5708 
1.6765 
1.7952 
1.9333 

2.0944 

2.2848 
2.5133 
2.7925 

3. 1416 
3.3510 
3.5904 

O.(M)O0 

4.1888 
4.5096 
&0265 
5.5851 

6.2832 

7.1806 

8.3776 

ia0631 

12.5664 
25.1327 
50.2656 



Thickness 

of tooth 

on pitch 

line. 



8.0000 
2.5000 
2.0000 
1.7500 

1.5000 
1.3750 
1.2500 
1.1250 

1.0000 
.0875 
.8750 
.8125 

.7500 
.6875 
.0260 
.5625 

.5000 

.4687 
.4375 
.4062 

.3750 
.3437 
.3125 
.2812 

.2600 
.21S7 
.1875 
.1562 

.1260 
.0625 
.0312 



Depth 
tooe 
cut in 
gear. 



4.1196 
3.4330 
2.7464 
2.4031 

2.0696 
1.8882 
1.7166 
1.5449 

1.3732 
1.2874 
1.2016 
1.1158 

1.0299 
.9441 
.8583 
.7724 

.6866 
.6437 
.6007 
.5579 

.6150 
.4720 
.4291 
.3862 

.3433 
.8003 
.2575 
.2146 

.1716 

.0858 
.0429 



Adden- 
dum.a 



1.9098 
1.5915 
1.2732 
1.1140 

.9650 
.8754 
.7958 
.7162 

.6366 
.5968 
.5570 
.5173 

.4776 
.4377 
.3979 
.3581 

.3183 
.2984 
.2785 
.2586 

.2387 
.2189 
.1089 
.1790 

.1502 
.1393 
.1194 
.0995 

.0700 
.0398 
.0199 



a Distance from pitch line to top of tooth. 



36 CABBON BULGR — im MANtJFACTtJBE, PROPEBTIBS, AlTD USES. 



Tablb 6. — Cireular pitch ofqeatn, 

(Circular pitch Is the distftnoe from the center of one tooth to the center of the next, measured on the idteh 

line.] 



To And— 




Qinmlar pitch 

Do 

Do 

Pitch diameter... 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Outside diameter. 

Do 

Do 

Number of teeth.. 

Thickness of tooth 

Addendum 

Root 

Working depth. .. 

Whole depth 

Clearance 

Do 



Diametral pitch 

Pitch diameter and number 
of teeth. 

Outside diameter and num- 
ber of teeth. 

Number of teeth, circular 
pitch. 

Number of teeth and outside 
diameter. 

Outside diameter and cir- 
cular nitch. 

Addendum and number of 
teeth. 

Number of teeth and cir- 
cular pitch. 

Pitch diameter and drcnlar 
pitch. 

Number of teeth and adden- 
dum. 

Pitch diameter and circular 
pitch. 

Circular pitch.* 

Circular pitch 

Circular pitch 

Circular pitch 

Circular pitch 

Circular pitch , 

Thickness of tooth 



Rule. 



Divide 3.1416 by diametral pitch. 

Divide pitch diameter by product of 0.3183 and 

nomber of teeth. 
Divide outside diameter by product of 0.3183 

and number of teeth plus 2. 
Multiply number of teeth by circular pitch, by 

0.3183. 
Divide product of number of teeth and outside 

diameter by number of teeth plus 2. 
Subtract from outside diameter the product of 

circular pitch and 0.6366. 
Multiply number of teeth by addendum. 

Obtain continued product of number of teeth 

plus 2, circular pitch, and 0.3183. 
Add to pitch diameter the product of the drcular 
jpltch and 0.6366. 
Multiply addendum by number of teeth plus 2. 

Divide the product of pitch diameter and 3.1416 

by the circular pitch. 
One-half the circular pitch. 
Multiply circular pitch by 0.3183. 
Multiply circular pitch by 0.3683. 
Multiply droular pitch by 0.6566. 
Multiply circular pitch by 0.6866. 
Multiply circular pitch by 0.05. 
1/10 thickness of tooth at pitch line. 



THKRMATi BECOMBOSITION. 

Although several patents for cracking or thermal decomposition 
methods of producing carbon black from natural gas have been 
granted, at present only one company is operating such a process 
on a conunercial basis. This plant decomposes the gas for the 
hydrogen and does not even collect the carbon formed. 

The carbon black produced by this procedure contains hard 
particles, is grayish in color, and possesses a high apparent specific 
gravity. One sample the writer examined contained 5.38 per cent 
of matter that was soluble in chloroform and possessed only one- 
fifth the tinting strength of ordinary carbon black. Some of the 
product showed flakes of naphthalene and its utility in the rubber-tire 
industry was thereby much impaired. The product thus far made 
by thermal decomposition is almost immerchantable, has been used 
successfully only in making cheap paints, and has sold for 1 to 
2 cents per pound. 

In one cracking process for petroleum a large pipe with walls 1^ 
inches thick is placed in a vertical position. The gas is introduced 
in the lower portion of the pipe and ejected from a side connection 
located near the top. A temperature of 1,500^ F. is maintained by 
several circular rows of gas torches. The carbon deposited upon 
the inner walls of the pipe is released by a revolving mechanism 
that consists of a shaft to which are attached chains running the 
entire length of the furnace; the chains on revolving scrape the 



CARBON BLACK-— ITft MAHUFACTUBB, l>]lOPfiRTl&S, AITd USES. 37 

<^boii from the inner wall of the pipe. The difficulty with this 
process is the rapid deterioration of the pipe and the large content 
uf iron scales in the carbon black. Although a yield of from 8 to 10 
poonds has been obtained per thousand cubic feet of gas, the product 
is of no commercial value. 

In another process the cracking chamber is lined with fire brick, 
by admitting at intervals a blast containing a mixture of air 
gas, it is heated to 1,500^ F. The carbon liberated is carried 
orer by the blast of gas and is collected in separators or in bags. 

COMPABISON OF BIFFEBENT PROCESSES. 

The channel , rotating-disk, and large-plate methods produce 
&pproximately the same yield of black per thousand cubic feet of 
g)ts. The roller system produces considerably less carbon than any 
o! the other processes, but the resultant product is much more valu- 
able and is utilized for special purposes. Table 6 shows the yield 
produced by various processes in different fields. 

Table 6. — Yield of carbon black in different fields. 






I 
2 
3 
4 
5 

I 
'J 

9 
10 
II 
12 
13 



State. 



Loulaiana 

....do 

...do 

...do 

West Virginia. 

....do 

....do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Oklahoma 

Wyomixig 



Process. 



Channel, 2-table. 
Channel, 1-table. 

....do 

Large-plate 

....do:. 

Botary-dJak 

Roller 

Rotary-disk 

Channel, 2-table. 
Channel, 1-table. 

Rotary-disk 

Channel 

do 



Carbon 

black per 

1,000 

cubic 

feet gas. 



Pounda. 

0.78 

.96 

.80 

.80 

1.10 

.96 

.80 

1.00 

1.13 

1.80 

1.40 

1.20 

1.40 



Plants of the channel system can be constructed almost entirely 
^^m standard forms; this feature simplifies the enlargement of the 
-^imel type of plant. The cost of construction is less than that of any 

Jiier type of carbon-black factory. The large-plate method has the 
^advantage of requiring special castings which are so large that a 
^ater initial cost of construction is entailed than in other types. 
• T a plant capable of producing a large output, however, the power 
'ttjuirements are less than for plants operated according to other 
ttifthods. The rotating-disk process requires a special casting, but 
^ has the advantage over the channel method that the plants are 
^ore flexible. Part of the disks in a condensing building may be 
>ut of order, yet the remaining rings will continue to operate, and it 
^\\ not be necessary, as in the channel method, to eliminate an 
•Qtire condensing building during repairs. 




38 CABBON BLACK — ^ITS MAIJTTFACTUBE, PBOPEBTIES, AND "USES. 



The roller system produces the smallest yield and requires the 
largest depositing surface per pound of black made and per thousand 
cubic feet of gas burned of any type of plant, as Table 7 indicates. 
The demand for black made by this process is small, and the present 
production can supply it. (See Plate IX, A.) 

Table 7. — Comparison of different methods of making carbon black. 



Plant 
number. 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 



Location. 



Louisiana 

do 

West Virginia. 

../.do 

....do 

.....do 

Oklahoma 



Method 



2-table channel. 
1-table channel. 

Roller 

Large-plate 

2-ta Die channel. 

Small-disk 

1-table channel. 



Area of 
deposit- 
ing sur- 
face po" 
burner 
tip. a 



t 



21 
.26 



Square 

feet per 

pound of 

carbon 

black. 



Square 

feet per 

100 cubic 

feet of gas 

burned. 



4.87 


3.75 


4.23 


4.(M 


9.10 


7.33 


6.55 


7.16 


5.05 


&75 


3.10 


2.90 


3.70 


3.50 







a Square feet of depositing surface. 

VABIOTJS FACTOBS JLFFEOTINa YIELD OF CABBON BULCK. 

The various. factors that affect the yield of carbon black are (1) the 
design of the plant, (2) weather conditions, (3) the pressure of the 
gas, and (4) the presence of salt water and oil in the gas. Factors of 
utmost importance in efficient recovery are the design of a plant, the 
kind of lava tip used, the distance from the depositing surface to the 
top of the lava tip, the arrangement for admitting air, and the rate 
of movement of the collecting surface. Provision should be made in 
construction for changing the height of burners, as different gases 
require different distances below the depositing surface. In West 
Virginia the lava tips are about 3 inches below the channels, but in 
Louisiana this distance is too great. By changing the position of 
the lava tips, one company in Louisiana increased its production of 
carbon black 20 per cent. If the tips are placed too near the collec- 
tor, the flame tends to pass around the surface and loss of carbon black 
in flue gases increases. The rate of actuation of the depositing surface 
affects the quality of the carbon black manufactured more than it 
affects the quantity recovered. This factor, therefore, is deter- 
mined by experiment; it is one of the flexible features, whereby 
various grades of black may be made by using the same method- 
The devices for admitting air are controlled by using as an index the 
color of the smoke issuing from the buildings, the superintendent 
having in mind the quality of black to be made and compensating 
losses in flue gas according to the quantity of black recovered. 

Even at the most efficiently designed plant, the effects of weather 
conditions must be taken into consideration. A typical plant is 



.. CARBON-BLACK PLANT EQUIPPED V 



HERE DRAFTS A 



CARBON BLAOK — ^ITS MANXTFAOTXTBB, PROFEBTTES, AND USES. 39 

shown in Plate E^, B. Wind cuts down the yield by causing the 
flame to flicker and not lie quietly and smoothly against the surface 
of the iron. A company that was experiencing difl&cidty in obtaining 
efficient yields discovered its trouble was due to the sweep of the 
wind down a narrow valley toward the condenser building; the 
trouble was entirely eliminated by erecting a large wind break to 
protect the buildings, as shown in Plate X, A. (See also Plate X, 
B). Moist « weather or light rains have little or no effect on the 
quality or the quantity of carbon black produced, but heavy rains 
tend to diminish the quantity and to injure the quality. Sometimes 
the water wets the black and cakes it, thus causing error in weighing 
the product in the packing room. 

In considering the low recoveries of carbon black, persons not 
familiar with the industry usually think that relative efficiency may 
be increased merely by reducing the temperature of the collecting 
surfaces by means of air or water. G. L. Cabot,*® for example, who 
has had a wide experience in cooling the surfaces on which carbon 
black is deposited, says on this point: 

The first factory that I ever owned, at Worthington, Pa., was origuially built begin- 
ning in the year 1882, and carried water on the surface to keep the temperature down 
to the boiling point. We subsequently got much better yields without water cooling. 
Later on I tried the experiment of sprinkling the surfaces continuously with a lawn 
sprinkler device, and here again I immediately cut down the yield. Later on I 
bought a factory where black was condensed on hollow channels through which air 
was blown. We never were able to find that it perceptibly affected either the quality 
or quantity of black whether or not the air was blown through the channels. 

Numerous difficulties on account of warping, expansion and con- 
traction, corrosion, and rapid depreciation of equipment accompany 
the cooling of the depositing surface. The ordinary channel building 
when heated to the operation temperature expands 4 inches in a 
straight line; this expansion tends to force out of alignment the 
shafting, rack, gears, and other accessories. Expansion and con- 
traction often warps the depositing irons to concave or convex sur- 
faces and it then becomes difficult to remove the accumulated carbon; 
if the black is permitted to remain on the irons too long its quality 
is impaired by the formation of excessively heated gray particles 
called ''grit." The forcing of air or water through or over the 
collecting surfaces leads to corrosion and increases depreciation. A 
39-inch thermocouple inserted through the side of a carbon-black 
building, the stem projecting over the channel irons and about 
10 inches above them, indicated, according to a standard pyrometer 
of the hot and cold jimction type, that the temperatures of the differ- 
ent buildings varied from 650° F. to 800° F. The actual tempera- 
ture of the channel ranged from 932° to 1,100° F. 

M Personal oammunicatfaa. 



40 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUPACTUBE, PROPERTIES, AKD USES. 

The records of the factory show conflicting reports on results 
obtained in extremely cold or hot weather. The personal element 
may possibly be the detennining factor at this point. Low yields 
in excessively hot or cold weather xnay result from the effect of tem- 
perature upon the men operating the factories who may not maintain 
the efficiency of the apparatus rather than from the effect of tem- 
perature upon the physical and chemical reactions in the manufac- 
turing process. 

Hippolyt Kohler ^^ makes the following statement regarding lamp 
black: 

It followB with positive certainty that cooling of the flame for the purpose of produc- 
ing lamp black is not necesBary, since carbon does not separate with a low temperature 
flame, but on the contrary with the right high temperature. An object put in a flame 
can serve for the most part only as a trench which catches the evolved globules of 
soot and its heat-conducting property affects the production of carbon only inasmuch 
as it prevents too much burning of the carbon liberated in the flame. 

Undoubtedly whenever the depositing surface is cooled below the 
reacting temperature, some of the hydrocarbons in the flame escape 
undecomposed. The flame must be neither extremely cold nor 
excessively hot, else the gas will not be decomposed completely, or 
too much carbon will be burned. A surface that is too hot collects 
less carbon black than a colder one, but a siu^ace that is too cold 
chills the flame and less carbon is liberated. 

Recovery of gasoline from natural gas before utilizing the gas for 
manufacturing carbon black is a large source of revenue. Stripping 
the gas of the gasoline vapors has no appreciable effect on either the 
quality or quantity of the carbon black produced. Each tenth of 
a gallon of gasoline recovered from each thousand cubic feet of gas 
reduces the volume of the gas three-tenths of a per cent; hence 
gasoline recovery does not change appreciably the carbon content of 
even a rich dry gas. 

If the absorption process is used in recovering the gasoline from 
the gas, the gas may carry some absorption oil into the carbon black 
building. This oil would lower the quality of the black by increasing 
the volatile constituents, and the collection of the oil in low points 
in pipe lines would result in a fire hazard by the shutting off of the 
gas supply in some of the buildings. This condition can be eliminated 
completely by using absorbers of adequate size and by installing 
efficient drips on the discharge gas from the gasoline plants. 

The presence of salt-water gas and a large percentage of sulphur 
have similar effects on the operation of a carbon-black plant. Salt 
crystallizes, and sulphur compounds accumulate on the lava tips 
causing the flame to '* fork " so that it is not distributed evenly over 
the depositing surface, and the voliune of the gas passing through 

u Koliltr, Hippolsrti Dm FaMk»ttim dea Bumrund der Schwane, p . 105. 



GABBOK BLACK-^ITS MANTTFACTUBE, PROPEBTIBS, AND USES. 41 

the burners is decreased. Where absorption gasoline plants are 
used in connection with carbon-black factories, difficulties from salt 
water are largely obliterated. If the flame becomes . forked it is 
necessary to draw a thin knife through the tip and brush the '^ whisk- 
ers" fr6m it. Some plants use only a brush to clean tips. In the 
Indiana gas field where the gas had a high sulphur content, the tips 
were cleaned every two weeks, whereas at some plants they are 
brushed but once a year. 

The pressure of gas will in a measure affect not only the quality 
but also the quantity of the black produced. The pressure on dis- 
tributing lines to bumei^ varies from 0.2 inch to 1.5 inches water 
pressure. The use of* kerosene or light lubricating oil in manometer 
tubes for determining pressure will eliminate in winter the trouble 
from water freezing in instruments exposed to the weather. With 
excessive pressures the yield of black usually is low. 

SOUBOES OTHER THAN NATTTBAL GAS FROM WHICH CARBON 

BLACK MAY BE MANXJFACTX7BED. 

Carbon black was first manufactured from artificial gas. The prod- 
uct is very glossy, has an intense color, and makes a high-priced 
printing ink. No black made from natural gas possesses all the quali- 
ties of that made from artificial gas. Carbon black, of course, could 
be manuf actm^ed from artificial, illmninating, blast furnace, producer, 
or coke-oven gases were it not for the prohibitive cost of the original 
gas. It has been made from coke-oven gas in England in recent 
years by Recketts & Sons, of Hull. Mr. G. L. Cabot says: "I have 
found Ulimiinating gas and coke gas better than most natural gas 
for this purpose, except in price." 

Several patents have been granted on processes in which carbon black 
is made by exploding mixtures of acetylene and air under pressure. 
The pressures vary from 50 to 100 pounds per square inch and the 
explosion shows that the acetylene is not merely oxidized but is 
dissociated. The acetylene is obtained from refuse calcium carbide — 
noncommercial grades too finely divided or having too low a content 
of carbide to be merchantable. Difficulties in this process are the 
rapid mechanical depreciation of the apparatus, the small output for 
invested capital, the inferior color and strength of the black compared 
with natural-gas black, and the uncertainty of the supply of refuse 
carbide. As it is a by-product, the price of commercial calcium car- 
bide is prohibitive. Only a little black is made by this method, 
although the product is preferred for some purposes on account of 
its inherent bluish tinge. A small plant in CSiicago bums acetylene, 
as in the manufacture of carbon black from natural gas. The collect- 
ing plate is cooled by circulating water with a rate of flow regulated 
by a thermostat. A yield of 11.6 pounds of black per thousand 



42 CARBON BLAOK — TIQ MANUFAOTTJBB, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 

cubic feet of acetylene is obtained, which is a recovery of 17.3 per cent. 
Black made by burning acetylene is of better color than that made 
by explosion. 

For some purposes, as for phonograph records, medical hard 
rubber, certain kinds of printers' ink, and black paint, it may 
be possible to substitute lampblack for carbon black, but for most 
purposes these two products are quite dissimilar in their physical 
properties and to date have proved unsuitable for substitution. 

FIEE HAZABDS ACCOMPANYINa THE HANDUNG OF OABBON 



About 1890 a barrel of black shipped from a plant in Pennsylvania 
carried with it a spark of fire that entirely consumed the black and 
charred the lining of paper, but did not aflfect the barrel. Only two 
fires have occiurred recently while carbon black was being trans- 
ported. One was in 1914 at Baltimore, Md., in a car containing 200 
wooden barrels of black; it restdted in the destruction of the car and 
contents, entailing a loss of SI, 185. The other fire was in 1918, in a 
car loaded with 19,000 paper bags, each containing 12^ poimids of 
carbon black. The car was damaged only slightly, but the contents 
were entirely destroyed, resulting in a financial loss of S2,875. 

G. L. Cabot" says, ''these unexpected conflagtations led to the 
erroneous charge that carbon black is subject to spontaneous com- 
bustion." 

The following experiment" was carried out: A water- jacketed 
oven was packed closely with carbon black and heated to a tempera- 
ture of 100° C. for 72 hours without the temperature of the contents 
rising above 100° C. From this test and similar ones it is concluded 
that carbon black is not subject to spontaneous ignition. 

A sample of carbon black was compressed, cooled to 0° C, and a 
vacuum pump applied. The gas liberated upon heating showed the 
following analysis: 

Gases from carbon black. 

Per cent. 

Carbon dioxide 0. 32 

Oxygen 21.20 

Nitrogen 76.48 

The ultimate analysis of another sample gave the following results: 

UUimaU analysis of gas from carbon black. 

Peroent. 

Hydrogen 0. 5 

Carbon 96.76 

Nitrogen 01 

Oxygen 1.61 

Sulphur 12 

Ash 24 

^ Personal oorrespondeDoe. 

u Commmiicatian with Col. B. W. Dunn and C. P. Beistie, Bureau of Explosiyes. 



CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUiFACTUBE, FROFEBHES, AND USB8. 48 

It is evident that oxygen is selectively adsorbed and the slow 
mouldering of a spark in carbon black is due in a large measure to 
the occlusion of oxygen. 

OOST DATA. 

The cost of constructing a carbon-black plant is usually given in 
dollars per barrel of fifty pounds of black. Previous to the war, a 
plant using the channel process could be constructed for SI, 000 per 
barrel, but this figure has increased to $1,500 to $3,000 per barrel, 
depending on the size and the location of the factory. The following 
table gives construction costs of factories using the channel method: 

Table 8. — Oo$t of ecnutruction of channel plants. 



DateboUt. 



1918. 
1010. 
1016. 
1917. 
1919. 



Cost. 



9116,000 

40,000 

110,000 

008,000 

135,000 



Capacity, 
poondfl 
per day. 



6,000 
1000 
2,600 
19,000 
3,000 



Cost, 
dollan 

per 
barrel. 



3,000 
3,115 
1,600 
3,126 



The cost of construction of a plant using the rotating-disk process 
is only slightly greater than that of a channel plant. No data are 
available on cost of erection of either roller or large-plate carbon- 
black plants. 

The cost of operation, not including cost of gas, varies from 98 
cents to $2 per hundred pounds of carbon black produced. This 
takes into account labor, sacking and resacking, depreciation, 
supplies, and repairs. The labor costs are notably low because most 
of the work is performed automatically by machinery. Table 9 
shows the number of men employed at some of the plants : 



TabIiE 9. — Companion of number of men employed in different typee ofplanU. 



DaUy 

prodtto- 

tion. 



3,600 
1,000 
6,000 
800 
12,000 
8,000 



IThAwwl 

Channel 

Rotatlng-dlak 

Rofler 

GbauMl 

Plate 



Number 
of men 

em* 
ployed. 



7 
4 

18 

3 

16 

18 



Daily 
proddo- 
tionper 
men em* 
ployed. 



PottiMis. 
371 
2fi0 
461 
100 
750 
440 



The cost of gas ranges from 1.5 cents to 6^ cents per thousand 
cubic feet of gas, and is the largest expense and the most uncertain 
factor in the carbon-black industry. Most of the companies chaige 

69647*»— J 



44 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIBS, Xm) USES. 

10 per cent a year to depreciation, altliough one company charges 
off 12.8 per cent. This figure assumes to cover the hazard in the 
supply of gas. Depreciation of machinery is surprisingly small. 

FUTUBE PBOSPECT OF INDTJSTBY. 

Attempts are made periodically to increase efficiency in the recov- 
ery of carbon black by enriching the gas with oil vapors. The 
amount of oil vapor held by the gas will depend upon (1) the relative 
temperature of the oil and gas, (2) the mechanical arrangement for 
bringing the oil and gas in contact with each other, and (3) the 
properties of the oil used. The oil usually employed is fuel or gas oil 
and ranges in gravity from 28^ B. to 38° B. The oil vapor makes the 
color of the resulting product less intense, although the difference is 
not great enough to diminish the value of the black. It is doubtful 
whether this procedure is a commercial possibiUty or can be made 
profitable, especially as the field for the utilization of fuel oil is being 
so rapidly extended and its value trending upward. 
^ The addition of chlorine to the burning gas has been tried in the 
laboratory, with the object of increasing the yield by the formation 
of hydrochloric acid and the liberation of carbon. The increased 
yield has not yet proved compensatory with the increased cost of 
apparatus and operation. One difficulty lies in the rapid deteriora- 
tion of apparatus. 

It is possible to augment the yield by catching the black that es- 
capes from the condensing units, although the product that floats 
away in the air is relatively unimportant in bulk. Escaping black 
possesses an extremely low apparent specific gravity as compared 
with that deposited upon the irons. It may possibly have properties 
that would make its appUcation especially useful for some purpose, 
but it resembles an inferior grade of lampblack and not carbon black. 
Undoubtedly this product could be collected by electrical precipita- 
tion. One company is installing a flue dust collector of the filter 
type. The yield of carbon black can be increased by diminishing the 
supply of air and by controlling the draft (see PI. X, B), but the 
quality of the product is impaired. The maker of carbon black must 
work within a narrow range to obtain the best average results. 
Generally a burner that gives a heavy deposition of black on the 
cooling surface also increases the amount of black carried away in 
the flue gases. 

Probably the most beneficial line of improvement of present com- 
mercial methods lies in changing the design of the plants so that the 
cost of construction will be diminished. The control of the supply 
of air should be regulated more efficiently and provision should be 
made in the design to render plants independent of weather condi- 
tions, especially of winds. 



CABfiON BLACK — ITB MANUFACTURE, FROPBRHES, AND USES. 45 

Thermal decomposition probably offers tne most promising method 
of increasing the quality of black from natural gas. The present 
methods are destructive to the apparatus — a defect that undoubt- 
edly can be overcome — and the resultant product contains grit or 
adamantine carbon, is grayish, and contains some volatile matter. 

ECONOMICS OF CARBON-BLACK INDtTSTRY. 

It is generally conceded that the most important use that can be 
made of natural gas is for dcMtnestic purposes. Whether gas is of 
greater economic value for the manufacture of carbon black than for 
other industrial piu'poses is a question that will depend on the condi- 
tions existing in each locality where a laige supply of natural gas is 
available. 

The policy of the Bureau of Mines in this regard is stated in Para- 
graph 34 of the resolutions adopted by the National Committee on 
Natural Gas Conservation, June 11, 1920, which reads: 

Resolved: That carbon black be made when gas is produced in isolated sectiona 
with no present or reasonably prospective market for gas being produced, when 
gasoline has been extracted, and when practical and modem and improved methods 
are used. 

At present there is considerable agitation for and against laws 
restricting the use of natural gas for the manufacture of carbon black. 
On February 24, 1919, the State of Wyoming enacted a law entitled 
'^ An Act for production and conservation of the supply of natural gas 
of the State of Wyoming prohibiting the waste and wasteful use of 
natural gas through the burning or consumption thereof for the manu- 
facturing or producing of carbon or other resultant products there- 
from, prohibiting the taking, using, sale, or other disposition of 
natural gas from gas welte for such purposes, and providing penalties 
for the violation of such Act." This law was still in force in 1920, 
having been held constitutional by the United States Supreme Court. 
The carbon-black industry has been established in Pennsylvania for 
over forty years, and in West Virginia for more than twenty years. 
The latter State still produces more than fifty per cent of the entire 
supply." Neither of these States has ever passed any laws restricting 
the use of natural gas for this purpose. 

During the past three years a number of carbon plants have been 
moved from West Virginia to Louisiana. The State authorities of 
Louisiana became alarmed at the situation and enacted a law^* 
regulating the use of natural gas in industries. The Louisiana act 
does not prohibit the use of natural gas in making carbon black, and 
embodies essentially the following points: It shall be unlawful to 
permit the waste of natural gas, or to use natural gas for any purpose 

^ U. S. Oeol. Survey, Carbon black Ui 1920. 

>* Thcanpson, J. W., FMroleum laws of alt Amflrioa: Bull. a05, Bonau of lilum, 1121, p. 645, 



46 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTUBE, PROPBRTIES, AND USES. 

whatsoever in such manner as will threaten with premature exhaus- 
tion, extinction, or destruction the conmion supply or common 
reservoir from which natural gas is drawn. 

The term waste as above used, in addition to its ordinary meaning, 
shall mclude: 

1. Wantonly or willfully permitting the escape of natural gas in 
commercial quantities into the open air. 

2. The intentional drowning with water of a gas stratum capable 
of producing gas in commercial quantities. 

3. Undergroimd waste. 

4. Permitting any natural gas well to bum wastefully. 
Additional information on the State laws dealing with conservation 

and use of natural gas may be foimd in Bulletin 206, Bureau of Mines. 

The arguments most frequently heard against the use of natural 
gas for the manufacture of carbon black are: 1. Using natural gas 
for carbon black is depriving or will deprive domestic consumers of 
a supply; 2. Compared with other industries the industry uses an 
undue proportion of gas; 3. the value and the utility of carbon black 
are less than those obtainable by using the gas in other ways; 4. The 
methods used are carelessly inefficient and more efficient methods are 
at present available; 5. Utilizing gas for making carbon black threatr 
ens premature exhaustion of gas reservoirs. 

Chi the other hand the carbon-black manufacturers claim that they 
use the best manufacturing processes that have been developed and 
that they produce a commodity of acknowledged utiUty. They 
have also provided a market for gas in isolated regions and in so 
doing have many times prevented conditions that would otherwise 
have resulted in waste. In certain isolated districts they have fur- 
nished small communities with natural gas Whose consumption they 
assert was not sufficient to warrant the building of a pipe^line system. 

Hie right of the domestic consumer to demand preference in the 
matter of the natural gas supply is not to be contested and where 
possible gas should be so utilized. 

In view of the fact that carbon-black plants are ordinarily situated 
in the heart of gas fields, that the quantity of gas consumed is rela- 
tively constant throughout the year, and the pressure on the mains 
low, the amount of natural gas actually delivered to the carbon-black 
plant ccmipares favorably with the amount actually delivered to 
domestic or industrial consumers where gas must be transmitted over 
long distances and imder high pressures. 

The value and utility of natural gas for carbon-black manufacture 
as compared to other uses depends almost entirely upon the local 
conditions surrounding the gas fields. For instance, if the gas 
burned for carbon black in Louisiana could be supplied to domestic 
consumers in Omaha, Nebr., or St. Paul, Minn.i its exchange value 



OARBON BLAOK — ^ITS MAKUPACTUBE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 47 

would be greater than the carbon black made from it, and con- 
sequently if this exchange value was effective in the Louisiana field, 
the price of carbon black would either be conunensurately increased 
or the manufacturers would automatically be forced out of the district 
by the prohibitive price they would have to pay for the gas. ''The 
price is the universal barometer that indicates the changes in the 
demand for goods of all kinds."^^ Carbon-black plants operate until 
the price of gas rises on account of the supply being made available 
for domestic consumption by the construction or extension, of pipe 
lines. Then the factories are dismantled and removed to more remote 
districts that have no other means for disposing of the gas. Thus the 
industry is necessarily migratory. 

It is evident that location, in relation to market for gas for domestic 
and industrial consumption, is the largest economic factor affecting 
the value of gas and the carbon-black industry. This is true of a 
large number of our raw resources, such as coal in isolated districts in 
West Virginia, sand around the Great Lakes, or lumber in various 
districts of the Northwest. 

Consumers of natural gas live in the gas-producing districts or at a 
reasonable distance therefrom, whereas users of carbon black are 
widely distributed. Consequently there is a conflict in interests 
between those who are in the radius of gas service from the field and 
those living a considerable distance from the field and benefiting by 
the use of carbon black. 

The actual financial return accruing from the gas burned for car- 
bon is usually larger than that from the sale of gas for industrial 
consumption from the same field. In Monroe, La., for example,. gas 
is produced, piped, and delivered to the larger industrial users at a 
rate of 5 cents per thousand cubic feet. The carbon manufacturers 
pay 2 cents per thousand, and obtain from each thousand feet ap- 
proximately one pound of carbon black, which sells for 8 cents per 
pound. Pipe-line companies because of a tenfold larger investment, 
unfavorable transportation conditions, such as high pressure and 
consequent leakage in the mains and the need for transportation 
facilities capable of handling gas during the period of maximum 
. consumption, may find themselves at a disadvantage as compared 
to the carbon companies. The duration of the period of maximmn 
consumption is probably only two weeks in the South, four months 
in Oklahoma, and six months in the East. Thus a gas distribution 
company in the eastern States must install equipment that is used 
only half of the time. 

One gas concern in the Mid-Continent field delivers only 49 per cent 

of the gas collected in the field to the meter of the ultimate domestic 

*" — — - - ■ ' 

^ Ely, R. T., Outline of economics, 1016, p. 20. 



48 CXRBON BLACK — ^ITB MAKTTFAGTUBE, PBOPEBTDESS, AKD USES. 

consumer. Four per cent is used to operate compressors, 4 per 
cent goes to main-line consumers, 10 per cent to main-line loss, 
and 33 per cent is lost in distributing plants. Mr. O. E. Taylor, 
assistant engineer of the public service commission of West Vixginiai 
estimates that the loss by leakage in transporting gas in that State 
ranges from 5 to 30 per cent. Some authorities declare that the 
annual loss of natural gas from leakage is equal to the annual consump- 
tion. »• 

Three of the large industrial consumers of natural gas are zinc 
smelters, brick plants, and glass factories; Tables 10, 11, and 12 
show the cost of gas and other factors of each of these. 

Table 10. — Value of gas used in manufacture of bricks. 



Brick plants. No.— 


QuantltT of 

gasuseaa 

day. 


Cost of 


Bricks 
made a 
day,M. 


Oay»r 
bricks. 


Cost of 

Rasper 

Mbiicks. 


1 


MaMe/ut, 

1,000 

800 


8a 10 

.17 


50 
43 


fit. 
20 
20 


82.00 


2 


3.50 







Table 11. 


— Value of gas used by tine smeUers* 






Smelters, No.— 


■ 

Qnantityof 
gas a day. 


Cost of 

gasoer 


Amount 

of spelter 

reflnKsted 

a day. 


Oasper 

pound of 

spelter. 


Cost of 

gasper 

pound of 

spelter. 


Spelter 

perM 

cubic feet 

of gas. 


1 


Meubte/ed. 

0,500 
8,026 
3,000 
2^700 
2^680 
1,442 
6^400 
6^100 


CetUt. 

8 

U 

8 

4 

8 

10 

11 

11 


Poumi*. 

110^000 
00^060 
4^000 
00^000 
70^900 

10^000 
106^000 


CubU/id. 
00 
68 
08 
40 
88 
61 
68 
47 


0.48 
.68 
.60 
.19 
.26 
.61 
.68 
.62 


PonndM. 

1A.A 


2 


18. ft 


8 


1A.0 


4 


21 7 


6 


30 S 





10.7 


7 


lA. ft 


8 


21.3 




Average 


6a7 


.46 


20i4 













Table 12. — Value of gas used in m/ant/aeture oftuindoto glass. 



Glass factories, No.— 


Oasuaed 
weekly. 


Cost of 
cub£feet. 


BosesaoC 

•"Sir 


Oasper 
box of 

glass. 


Cost of gas 

per box of 

glass manu- 

faetored. 


Glass per 
M of gas. 


1 


UaMe/0d. 

7,700 

13^600 

8^400 

8^600 


Clnil«. 
10 
11.0 
12.6 
13.6 


8,386 
0^000 
8,000 
8,000 


Cubie/ea, 
2,820 
2,250 
^840 
2,840 


OetUt, 
28 
20 
28 

38 


Boxet. 
a43 


2 


.45 


3 


.43 


4 


.35 







a Each box contains 60 square feet of glass having an average current Tahieef 86. 

Carbon black enters into the manufacture of printer's ink, automo- 
bile tires, painty and other commodities and at present has no sub- 
stitute. It is an economic good and possesses utility. It has been 

i*Wyer,8.S., Kansas Natural Gas Co. report. 



CARBON BLACK — ITB MANTJFACTUBE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 49 

said ^^ that the f aat*f eeding newspaper printing press of to-day has been 
made possible only through the use of carbon black in the making of 
long inks. It would be improper to daim that carbon black is less 
useful than zinc, glass, or brick, as each serves a definite purpose and 
each is essential and necessary for certain specific uses. 

In engineering, relatiye efficiency is really a comparison to an 
ideal or perfect standard. A perfect steam engine would be one that 
converted all of the energy latent in the coal used as fuel into mechani- 
cal power. The best steam engines, however, seldom convert more 
than 18 per cent of this energy, and the fuel efficiency of many steam 
engines is often as low as 1 per cent. Internal combustion engines 
using gasoline as fuel utilize approximately 20 per cent ^^ of the total 
energy, as useful work, 35.8 per cent is lost in the cooling water, and 
35.6 per cent is lost in exhaust gas and direct radiation of heat. The 
relatively low efficiency, 2.5 percentage of recovery, of present meth- 
ods of producing carbon black is due to the waste of the resulting 
heat. In some districts, however, as in the Kanawha Valley of 
West Virginia, it might be feasible to utilize this heat in the evap- 
oration of brines that yield sodium chloride and bromine. One 
company is doing some experimental work on dehydrating fruits 
and vegetables by the waste heat; such heat might be transformed 
into electrical energy ' for areas within carrying distance of the 
plants or might be used to electrify short railways. 

It is pertinent that thus far the production of carbon black by 
thermal decomposition has given a product that can be utilized only 
in the making of cheap paints, and has sold as low as 2 cents per pound* 
As made by present methods it does not possess the valuable proper- 
ties of the black made by the channel systemi or by other commercial 
carbon-black processes. Inasmuch as the market for carbon black is 
more or less limited, it is obvious that if any process yielding 7 or 8 
pounds of black per thousand cubic feet of gas by simple thermal de- 
composition can be made available, the older methods of manufacture 
will be abandoned. 

Carbon-black factories utilize gas from low-pressure weUs, casing- 
head gas from which the gasoline content has been removed, and gas 
that would otherwise be wasted. Formerly in Oklahoma one gas 
company broke its well connections when the rock pressure of the 
well decreased to 150 pounds. This is an exceptionally high pressure 
for abandoning a gas well. It should be mentioned, however, that 
gas at this pressure could easily be used in making carbon black as 
only a fraction of a poimd pressure is necessary at the plant. In sev- 
eral localities gas is liberated into the atmosphere after the gasoline 
vapor has been extracted. It would seem possible in such localities to 

" Penanal statament of A. E. Whltliig, 8lmv«port, La. 
u Stratford, C. W., Veedol, 1018, p. 8. 



50 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTUBB, PROPEBTIBS, AND USES. 

utilize the residual gas for carbon-black manufacture with reasonable 
confidence of a fair profit. Formerly, m developmg a new territory 
the search was primarily for petroleum and a strike of gas was con- 
sidered next to a failure, particularly if the district were remote from 
industrial centers. In such districts, the sdling of gas to carbon- 
black manufacturers is entirely justifiable and may furnish the needed 
capital to continue drilling. Utilizing gas from such sources is 
really a measure of conservation. 

WHY CABBON-BLACK MANUFACTUBE ATTRACTS CAPITAL. 

The manufacture of carbon black from natural gas is more inviting 
in some localities than the use of the gas for public utility service, 
for the reason that low pressure gas can be utilized, extensive trans- 
mission lines are unnecessary, the load is imiform, the field is near 
and installation is more elastic or is capable of being moved to another 
locality, and the necessary investment is smaller. 

By utilizing low-pressiu'e gas, the ultimate production of wells 
would be greater and wells with smaller potential capacities would 
be used; the line leakage would be smaller and the pipes to the gath- 
ering lines would cost less than high-pressure fittings and pipe con- 
nections. The gas utility company, on the. other hand, would be 
forced to make an additional investment to install compressors, as it 
would require artificial pressiu'e to transport low-pressure gas to the 
consumer. 

Carbon-black factories are situated in the field or near the producing 
leases, so that only collecting lines to the weUs are used; these lines 
are usually very short, and no compressors or high pressures are re- 
quired. In consequence the cost of pipe is much less than with gas 
companies. A carbon-black plant uses approximately the same 
quantity of gas every day in the year, and hence can use its total 
equipment all the time. It can be situated in isolated fields where 
market facilities for other purposes are not available and conse- 
quently can obtain gas at lower rates. As mentioned before, a gas 
plant operating as a public utility can use its total equipment only 
during peak-load periods and is using its total capital only a fraction 
of the time. 

Inasmuch as pipe-line investment covers chiefly gathering lines 
and the factories are of standard design and easily dismantled, a 
carbon-black plant can be moved from place to place with much 
more ease and less expense than can the equipment and installa- 
tions of a natural-gas utility company. Large gas companies incur 
much of the initial expense in laying trunk lines, and when a gas 
field becomes depleted the expense of transferring the equipment 
to another field is much greater than for carbon-black plants. The 



^ 



CABBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPEBTDES, AND USES. 51 

hazards due to depletion of the gas supply are consequently less 
than for a public utility plant. 

The investment necessary for each thousand cubic feet of gas han- 
dled will be about ten times'^ larger in a public utiUty plant than in a 
carbon-black factory. Carbon-black manufacturers do not carry a 
large reserve acreage, and hence need less capital. The investment 
necessary for transporting natural gas is greater than for any other 
utility service, assimiing that the gas is collected in the field and 
delivered to the domestic consumer's meter. The cost is 50 per 
cent 2^ greater than for ordmary manufacturing plants, and 300 per 
cent more than for electric plants. 

SUMMABY. 

The utilization in the manufacture of carbon black of low-pressure 
gas, of gas escaping into the air from natural-gas gasoline plants, 
gas in distinctly isolated districts, and gas in fields that have 
been abandoned by other gas companies on account of low pressure, 
is in reality often a conservation measure. It is preferable to the 
practice of letting the gas go to waste in the air or to plugging im- 
properly the wells so that the gas sands can be damaged from flooding 
by water. 

At present there is no more efficient process of making a product 
that has the properties of carbon black other than those methods de- 
scribed in the following pages. Thermal decomposition offers an 
interesting field for research as a possible means of increasing the 
relative efficiency of the industry. In the future it is probable that 
at some plants the waste heat will be utilized profitably. 

Sufficient incentive to enterprise must be provided; to keep the 
gas in the ground for an indefinite period ties up money and re- 
sources. If the gas can be utilized and made to yield good to the 
State and profit to the individual, the public benefits accordingly, 
whereas if the gas remains in the ground where it can not be used 
and gives no returns on the investment, the loss to the State and to 
the individual may be gaged by the interest lost during the period of 
no returns. The question always arises whether it will in the end 
pay to hold the gas in the ground awaiting an unknown future period 
of use that will give greater returns than the present methods of 
* utilization. Local conditions are the determining factor. 

Probably the most beneficial use that can be made of gas is for 
domestic consumption and the Bureau of Mines does not recommend 
that gas be used for the manufacture of carbon black where an ade- 
quate market for the gas for domestic piurposes is available. 

**S. 8. Wyer, Natural gas, its production, service, and conservation: U. S. National Museum, 
Bull. 102, 1918, p. 61. 
'^ West, F. H., Sale of natural gas oarbon-black increasing: Oas Age, Dec. 16, 1918, p. 536. 



PART II. CARBON BLACK— ITS PROPERTIES AND USES. 

By G. St. J. Pbrrott. 



ZNTBOBUCTION. 

The Bureau of Mines undertook an investigation of the carbon 
black industry as a result of economic issues arising during the Worid 
War. In the present methods of manufacture, carbon black is made 
by burning natural gas with a luminous flame against a metal surface 
and then collecting the liberated soot. This process produces from 
i poimd to 2 pounds of black per 1,000 cubic feet of gas, or 1.5 per 
cent to 6.5 per cent of the total carbon in the gas. As the industry 
consumes about 40,000,000,000 cubic feet of gas annually, it seemed 
during the war that this seemingly wasteful utilization should be 
restricted and the gas saved to other industrial plants or to domestic 
consumers. 

Little information was available, however, as to the methods of 
manufacture of carbon black, as to the feasibility of improving the 
existing methods, of substituting other more efficient methods for 
producing carbon black from natural gas, or of making it from 
some entirely different raw material. Data ^ere needed also in 
regard to the industries using carbon black — ^how essential carbon 
black was to the various consumers, and which users could employ 
a substitute material. 

In the spring of 1919 the Bureau of Mines began an investigation 
of the manufacture, properties, and uses of carbon black. Plants in 
Louisiana, Oklahoma, and West Virginia were studied by engineers 
of the bureau. Other processes for making carbon black were inves- 
tigated, test methods studied, and microscopic and chemical analyse^ 
of a large number of blacks were made to explain the differences in 
behavior of different blacks. 

This paper deals with the chemistry of the present methods of 
making carbon black, considers the possibilities of producing it by 
other methods, and describes in some detail the properties and uses 
of the product. The first part of this publication, by R. O. Neal, 
describes the design of plants for the present method of manufacture 
and discusses the economic aspects of the industry. 



54 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANtrFACTtrKE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 

ACKNOWLBBOMENTS. 

The writer wishes to express his appreciation of the valuable assist- 
ance and suggestions of A. C. Fieldner, supervising chemist, under 
whose supervision the work was carried out, and of the assistance of 
J. O. Lewis, chief petroleum technologist of the Bureau of Mines, and 
K. O. Neal, chemical engineer in the Bureau of Mines, who made it 
possible for the writer to visit carbon-black plants in Oklahoma and 
West Virginia. 

Acknowledgment is made of the helpful cooperation of the follow- 
ing individuals and companies: 

Binney & Smith, New York CSty, through whose courtesy several 
plants of the Columbian Carbon Co. in West Virginia were inspected^ 
and who furnished information as to the uses of carbon black and 
samples of various blacks. 

G. L. Cabot, Boston, Mass., who freely gave much valuable infor- 
mation, and who furnished gratis large amounts of different grades of 
carbon black. 

G. H. Morrill Co., Norwood, Mass., who gave information as to test- 
ing methods and uses of carbon bikck, and furnished samples of black 
and printing ink. 

J. V. Basset t, Hewitt Rubber Co., Buffalo, N. Y., who furnished 
information in regard to the use of carbon black in rubber, and sam- 
ples of rubber articles containing carbon black. 

J. P. Coe, U. S. Rubber Co., New York City, who furnished sta- 
tistics in regard to the use of carbon black in the rubber industry. 

Norman Underwood, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washing- 
ton, D. C, who furnished information as to the uses of carbon black 
in the ink trade. 

Acknowledgment is also made of the cooperation of the following 
individuals and companies: Dr. J. B. Gamer, Mellon Institute, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.; Henry A. Gardner, Washington, D. C; W. C. Robinson 
and J. V. Pogue, Fuel Administration, Washington, D. C. ; jaenecke- 
Ault Co., Newark, N. J.; Kee Lox Manufacturing Co., Rochester, 
N. Y.; Carter's Ink Co., Boston, Mass. ; Aeolian Co., Meriden, Conn.; 
California Leather Dressing Co., San Francisco, Calif.; Columbia 
Graphophone Co., New York City; Mittag & Volger, Park Ridge, 
N. J.; Remington Tjrpewriter Co., New York City; Sinclair & Valen- 
tine, New York City; California Ink Co., San Francisco, Calif. ; Dunn 
Ink Works, Buffalo, N. Y.; American Printing Ink Co., Chicago, HI.; 
Philip Ruxton Co. (Inc.), New York City; Standard Printing Ink 
Co., Cincinnati, Ohio; Queen City Printing Ink Co., Cincinnati, Ohio; 
Buffalo Prmtmg Ink Works, Buffalo, N. Y. ; F. H. Levey, New York 
City; H. S. Prescott, Boston, Mass.; Fuchs & Lang Manufacturing 
Co., New York City; General Manifold & Printing Co., Franklin, 
Pa.; W. T. Rawleigh Co., Freeport, 111.; S. M. Bixby & Co., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 



CABBOK BLACK — ^ITB MAKUFACTUBE, PKOPEKTIES, AND USES. 55 



PBESBNT METHODS OF MAinXFAOTUBB. 

Carbon black, as known to the American trade, is the flufiFy, 
velvety-black pigment produced by burning natural gas with a 
smoky flame against a metal surface. In its physical character^ 
istics it is entirely different from lampblack, which is made by 
burning oil or other carbonaceous material with insufficient air and 
collecting the smoke in settling chambers. Lampblack is gray in 
contrast to the deep black of carbon black, it often contains con- 
siderable quantities of empyreumatic matter, and a printing ink 
made from it has very different properties from one of similar com- 
position made from carbon black. The process of manufacture most 
widely used at present is the so-called channel system, in which the 
black is deposited on the smooth undersurface of steel channels by 
lava-tip burners. The channel irons are usually built into tables 
of eight, sometimes 100 feet long.. They are given a slow reciprocating 
motion that scrapes the black deposited on them into hoppers, from 
which it is carried by screw conveyors to the packing house, and there 
bolted and sacked. 

The mechanism is inclosed in sheet-iron buildings in order that the 
amoimt of air may be regulated. Variation in the amount of air, in the 
speed of scraping, and in the pressure of the gas controls the quality 
of the product. The shape of the burner and the distance from the 
collecting surface also affect the quality of the black, but these factors 
are constant for any one plant. Other similar processes differ only 
in the nature of the collecting surface and the burners. G. L. Cabot, 
a pioneer in the manufacture of carbon black, has described the 
development of the industry." 

THEORY OF FORMATION OF CABBON BLACK. 

When natural gas bums in an incomplete supply of air, the carbon 
is liberated not as a result of preferential combustion of hydrogen 
but as a direct decomposition of nubumed gas in the heat of the 
flame. According to Bone ^ and his coworkers, combustion takes 
place in steps as a result of hydroxylation: 

A 6 Oxidation via G 

Oxidation 



Oxidation via 
H,:C:(0H)2 



CH4- 



^H, : C.OH- 



^Ha : C : O-f-HjO 



a 
o 

I 



+30 



I 



I 
1 

g 



C-h2H2 



+60 



00 

I 



C0+2Ha 



I 
1 



CO 
I 



CO+Hj 



" Cabot, 0. h.. Carbon black and lampblack: 8th Int. Cong. Applied Chem., vol. 12, 1912, p. 13. 
"Bone, W. A., Gaseous oombiution: Phil. Trans. Roy. 80c. London., vd. 215, 1916, pp. 275-315. 



56 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 

It is evident that the tendency is always to run from A to C. When 
the proportion of methane to oxygen is CH4 + O^ the reaction goes from 
A to B to C to C If the ratio is 2CH4 + O, or higher, only a part of 
the methane can be oxidized through the reaction A to C and part 
is decomposed at A by the heat evolved in the A to C reaction. The 
lowest per cent of os;ygen in which a methane flame will bum is 15.6 
per cent. Only in the inner part of the flame where the oxygen 
supply is low but where there is enough heat to break up the methane 
will carbon be evolved, and the percentage of carbon to be had by 
the incomplete combustion of methane is low; gases rich in ethane 
and the higher homologs give greater jrields of carbon. Bone ^* in 
his experiments on the explosive combustion of hydrocarbons 
noted that the decomposition of methane was a surface effect and 
produced a hard gritty carbon, but the decomposition of ethane, 
ethylene, etc., took place throughout the whole mass of the gas and 
gave a soft carbon. 

The function of the cold surface is to cool the liberated carbon in 
the flame enough to prevent its combustion. This procedure allows 
of a sufficiently hot. flame to give carbon uncontaminated virith 
empyreumatic matter, and produces a finely divided material which 
has been prevented from agglomerating by the sudden cooling. It 
is evident there must be an optimum temperatiu^e and an optimum 
position for the siu^ace in the flame. Too cold a surface may pre- 
vent the maximum separation of carbon; too hot a surface will allow 
too much carbon to be burnt and may change the properties of the 
carbon that remains unbumt. The temperature of the channels 
in the present process is about 500° C. 

The air supply must be regulated carefully. Admission of too 
much air will cause too large a percentage of the carbon to be biimed 
in the flame and may even bum part of the carbon on the surface 
after it has been liberated. Insufficient air will give too cool a flame 
for the maximum yield of carbon and will produce a carbon con- 
taminated with adsorbed intermediate products of combustion, 
as more of these intermediate products result at the lower tem- 
perature and as carbon has a greater power of adsorption at the 
lower temperature. The presence of these adsorbed impiu-ities in 
carbon black for making ink is often desirable, the ink being of 
greater length than that from carbon blacks that are purer; hence 
manufacturers often sacrifice a high yield of black in order to obtain 
a product containing more volatile matter. This point is, on a later 
page, discussed in connection with the microscopic analysis of carbon 
blacks. 



*« Bone, W. A., OaseouB oomlnistlaa: Pbil. Tmu. Roy. Soc. London, vol. 215, 1015, pp. 275-815. 



CARBON BLACK-— ITS MANITFACTUBE, PROPERTIBS, AND USES. 57 
OTHBB METHODS OF MAKINO OABBON. 

Numerous methods for producing a larger yield of carbon from 
natural gas have been patented. In most of them the gas is 
broken up into carbon and hydrogen by passing through a retort 
filled with refractory material at a temperature of 1,200*^ C. or over. 
A much higher yield of carbon is produced in this way, sometimes 
as high as 40 per cent of the theoretical yield, but a salable grade has 
not yet been made on a large scale by this means. 

PATENTS. 

McTighe, United States patent 346,168, passes hydrocarbon vapor 
through a heated retort, decomposing the gas into flocculent carbon 
which is separated in depositing chambers. 

Purtle and Rowland, United States patent 866,883, pass hydro- 
carbon gas at 10 poimds pressure into a closed retort heated to 
800° C. and periodically remove the deposited carbon by means of a 
scra[>er. 

Snee, United States patent 1,036,362, decomposes hydrocarbon 
gas in a retort heated electrically to 1,300 to 1,800° C. and deposits 
the hberated carbon on the bottom of the retort which is kept at a 
relatively lower temperature, thus preventing the coking of the 
carbon which occurs when the carbon deposits -on surfaces heated 
to a high temperature. 

Femekes, United States patent 1,066,894, produces lampblack 
free from impurities such as naphthalene by passing methane through 
an alundum tube heated electrically to about 1,700° C. The gas 
is decomposed into carbon and hydrogen without formation of 
intermediate products. 

Szarvasy, United States patent 1,199,220, produces retort carbon 
from methane by passing the gas over particles of carbon heated 
to glowing temperature. The necessary temperature is maintained 
by supplying hydrogen and air or oxygen before introducing the 
methane. 

Brownlee and Uhlinger, United States patents 1,168,931 and 
1|265,043, produce carbon black and hydrogen by passing natural 
gas or other hydrocarbon under pressiu-e through a tower containing 
highly heated refractory material. The material is heated by 
surface combustion, air being intermittently added to the gas. 

Bacon, Brooks, and Clark, United States patent 1,220,391, pass 
a hydrocarbon through a tube made up of graphite rings heated 
electrically to a temperatiu'e above 1,200° C. Carbon black and 
hydrogen are produced simultaneously and the gas pressure devel- 
oped removes the carbon while still in suspension in the hydrogen. 



58 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIBS, AND USES. 

McCourt and Ellis, United States patent 1,276,385, produce gas 
black and hydrogen by passing methane through a highly heated 
bed of granular refractory material at sufficient speed to prevent 
deposition of carbon on the refractory material. The treating tube 
filled with refractory material is surrounded by a heating tube con- 
taining refractory material that is heated by surface combustion of 
the hydrogen produced in the process. 

Gamer ^ claims to make a good grade of carbon black from natural 
gas, obtaining several times the yield of the present process pre- 
sumably by cracking the gas in presence of a catalyst. Other 
proposed methods of making carbon black from natural gas are 
chlorination to hydrochloric acid and carbon (Mott, U. S. 1,259,121; 
Averill, U. S. 1,238,734), explosion at elevated temperature, and 
pressure with a "priming charge" of acetylene (Machtolf, U. S. 
872,949), explosion with CO or COj (Gollmert, German patent 
No. 212,202, Nov. 1, 1907), and electrical deposition of lampblack 
from a flame on -a wire screen (Thieme, German patent No. 256,675, 
Jan. 11, 1912). 

Several patents have been granted for making carbon black by the 
explosion or thermal decomposition of acetylene (Morehead, U. S., 
779,728, 986,489; Pictet, British, 24,256, Oct. 19, 1910; Wegelin, 
German, 201,262, Jan. 9, 1907; Bosch, German, 270,199, Feb. 8, 
1913), and in Europe considerable quantities of black were made 
from acetylene from carbide waste. This black is said to have a 
bluish tinge, to be very free from impurities, and to be of considerable 
value in making certain kinds of ink. No quantity of black made 
by this process has ever been on the American market. 

Other patents describe the manuf actiu*e of carbon black from hull 
bran (Hershman, U. S., 1,188,936) ; from peat (Smith, U. S., 916,049) ; 
by incomplete combustion of petroleum vapor in a closed chamber 
(Frost and Nix, U. S., 977,000); from coal tar by treatment with 
alkali and naphtha (Evans, U.S., 1,175,732; French, 480,487, Aug. 
9, 1916; German, 291,727, Feb. 3, 1914); from oil by decomposing 
a thin film on a disk by playing upon it an electric arc or gas flame 
(British, 124,557, Mar. 22, 1918) ; by reducing CO or CO, over finely 
divided carbon (Tamp, Canadian, 175,937, Mar. 27, 1917). 

DISCUSSION' OF P0SSIBI;B SlTBSTmJTE METHODS. 

/ The process of Brownlee and Uhlmger has been put into commer- 

/ cial operation for producing hydrogen, but thus far no market has 

/ been found for the carbon produced, which is usually gray and con- 

I tains particles of grit that may be agglomerates of carbon or may be 

\ particles of the refractory material. It seems highly possible, how- 

\ » Garner, J. B., The chemical possibilities of natural gas: Proc. Nat. Oas Assoc, of America, vol. 10, 
\ 1918, pp. 196-160. 



CABBON BLACK — ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPBETIES, AND USES. 59 

ever, that carbon suitable for use in rubber might be made by this 
method, or better, by a modification of the method in accordance 
with the ideas expressed in the patents of Snee and of Bacon, Brooks, 
and Clark. The ink makers would be harder to satisfy. 

The carbon after being formed must not be allowed to stay in the 
heated zone long enough to become agglomerated and changed into 
the gray variety of amorphous carbon. In the method of Snee a 
cold surface is provided for collecting the carbon immediately after 
liberation, while Bacon, Brooks, and Clark rely on the rapid expan- 
sion of the decomposing gases to sweep the carbon out of the hot 
zone. 

It seems probable that a raw material of simplecomposition, such 
as natural gas or a pure organic substance, will be more susceptible 
of decomposition to a good grade of carbon black than a complex 
mixer, such as tar oil or crude petroleum. The difference between 
carbon black and ordinary lampblack may be due partly to the fact 
that lampblack is made from a complex mixture of compounds each 
with its own optimum temperature of decomposition. A uniform 
product from such a mixture is less likely to be expected than from 
a simpler raw material. 

Explosion of hydrocarbon vapors with CO, COj, O2 or their mix- 
tures might be worthy of investigation, and there is a possibility of 
utilizing the gases from oil-cracking processes. 

Microscopic examination of carbon black shows that the particles 
are smaller than 0.2 microns. It is hardly possible to hope to 
approach any such fineness of subdivision by grinding charcoal or 
other carbonaceous material. G. A. Hulett,'* in experiments on the 
true density of charcoal, ground coconut charcoal in a ball mill 
through which a slow current, about 5 c. c. per minute, of air was 
passing. The fine dust carried along with the air was precipitated 
electrically. A sample of it showed only one-third the tinting 
' strength of carbon black, although the true density of the ground 
charcoal was but 5 per cent greater. 

At present most substitute processes of manufacture are imprac- 
ticable for economic reasons. As carbon black in 1920 sold as low 
as 9 cents a pound, it is cheaper than ordinary lampblack. The 
author knows of no process that has produced on a commercial 
scale a product with properties similar to those of the carbon black 
now being made. 

Probably the most promising line of attack in the search for a 
substitute process is the cracking of gas or oil in a heated retort 
provided with suitable means for getting the liberated carbon away 
from the heated zone immediately after liberation. If such a process 

** Private oommunication. 
69647<»— 22 6 



60 CAKBOlir BIACK — ^ITS MANUBACTXJBB, PBOPERnBS, AND USES. 

were perfected to make a satisfactory carbon black, the material 
could be sold at a low price on account of the large ]deld and the 
value of the hydrogen produced. The hydrogen may be compressed 
in tanks and used for cutting flames, or for the hydrogenation of oils. 
This process is one of the cheapest ways of producing hydrogen for 
the latter purpose. It might be impracticable to make use of the 
hydrogen on account of difficulties in transportation, but the black 
could still be made at least as cheaply as at present if engineering 
difficulties could be overcome. 

USES OF OABBOK BLACK. 

The uses of cafbon black, in the order of their importance, are as 
follows: (1) Printer's ink, (2) rubber, (3) black and gray paint and 
enamel, (4) stove polish, (5) other products such as phonograph 
records, carbon paper, crayons, typewriter ribbons, black and gray 
paper, glazed paper, tarpaulins, black leather, bookbinders' board, 
markings and stenciling inks, rubber sheeting and clothing, hard 
rubber, artificial stone, and black tile, Chinese and india inks, 
insulating materials, and case hardening. The amounts used by 
these industries during 1918 were approximately as follows: Printer's 
ink, 10,000,000 to 12,000,000 pounds; rubber, 20,000,000 pounds; 
stove polish, 4,000,000 to 5,000,000 pounds; all other uses, 1,000,000 
pounds. Besides this in normal times probably 10,000,000 pounds 
are exported. 

DISCUSSION OF IMPORTANT USES. 
PBINTSa'S INK. 

Lampblack has been used as a pigment for printer's ink ever since 
the invention of the printing press, and imtil 1864 it was used almost 
exclusively. For printing requiring an extremely fine-grained ink 
great trouble was taken to purify the black. After the advent of 
carbon black in 1864, and its diminished cost after 1880, lampblack 
was less and less used in printer's ink; only a little is used at present 
time, and that only to impart certain qualities to an ink already 
containing carbon black. 

According to Circular No. 63 of the United States Bureau of 
Standards — " 

The history of ink making shows that the development of the industry followed the 
improvement of inks, to gain the desired consistency, along the following lines: 
(1) The ink must have a certain body; (2) it must have a certain cohesion or flow 
(long or short); and (3) a certain adhenian or tack. An ink varnish is ''long" when 
a drop falls away from a spatula with a long hairy string or thread ; it is ''short" when 
the drop is cut off sharply, with a very small tail. 

Carbon black is peculiarly suited to the needs of present methods 
of printing, the fast-nmning presses and half-tone illustrations. 

^ _ 

sr The oampoBttion, prapertiM, and twtlng of printing inks, U. 8. BunMi ol StandardB, Cfre. 53, 1(05. 



CABBOK BLACK — ^IT8 MAKUFAOTURB, PROPBBTEES, AND USES. 61 

Certain carbon blacks give a short ink; that is, an ink of buttery 
consistency which does npt flow rapidly. This ia especially desirable 
in lithographic and offset work, in slowHspeed presses, and for most 
half-tones. Lampblack does not give the right consistency and is 
too gray. Certain other carbon blacks are used because for fast- 
running presses they make a fluid long ink which has opacity enough 
to give a black letter. Ink manufacturers and users believe that 
carbon black is absolutely essential to their business. 

USE OF OABBON BLACK IN BUBBIR. 

Prior to 1914 carbon black was used by the rubber industry in 
small amounts for coloring. Little distinction was made between 
carbon black and lampblack, the two compounds being used indis- 
criminately. At the present tune, partly on account of the stimulus 
afforded by the rising price of zinc oxide, carbon black is used in 
large amounts as a filler for rubber, with a correspondingly decreased 
amount of zinc oxide. Many rubber men claim unusual properties 
for rubber so compounded. Carbon black is used in rubber in 
quantities of 3 per cent to 20 per cent by weight, and is said to 
increase the tensile strength greatly and to give increased tough- 
ness and resistance to abrasion. Some authorities believe that the 
life of the rubber and its capacity to carry loads are increased. 
Other rubber chemists are more conservative and do not admit that 
carbon black possesses any properties that make it irreplaceable. 

Carbon black is much cheaper than zinc oxide. Li 1919 carbon 
black, specific gravity 1.8, suitable for compoimding in rubber, could 
be procured for 9 cents a pound and zinc oxide, specific gravity 
of 5.8, cost at least as much. On a volume basis carbon black 
evidently cost one-third as much as an equal volume of zinc oxide. 
In pracdce, however, a greater volume of carbon black is used than 
of zinc oxide, therefore the resulting mix with carbon black contains 
less rubber per unit volume than the corresponding zinc-oxide mix. 

Theoretically carbon black should be an ideal filler for rubber, 
owing to its extremely fine state of division and to the correspond- 
ingly large smrface energy developed by mixing intimately witii the 
gum rubber. It also serves to protect the rubber substance from 
the effects of light and it may retard oxidation. Whatever the 
exact facts may be as to the irreplaceability of carbon black in 
rubber, a large amount is now consumed by the rubber companies 
{or automobile tires and other artides, probably 20,000,000 pounds 
annually besides 10,000,000 pounds exported in normal times. 
See also page 8. 

USB OF OABBON BLACK IN PAINT. 

Carbon black is coining into extensive use in paints. It has a 
higher tinting strength than any other black; a given weight will 



62 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 

obscure a greater area of surface. Carbon black is acknowledged 
superior for varnishes and enamels. It is much used in making black 
and gray paints for general purposes. The United States War De- 
partment requires the use of carbon black in black enamels and in 
various black and gray paints. Some authorities ^ consider lampblack 
superior to carbon black and it is probably true that in certain gray 
tints lampblack is superior on account of its bluish-gray tones. 

OTHER USES. 

Other consumers of carbon black use the material because of its 
low cost ahd high coloring power. In phonograj^ records it pro- 
duces a smooth surface for recording, although lampblack may also 
be employed. Carbon black makes a carbon paper that will produce 
opaque letters on a great many copies. 

TESTING METHODS. 

The suitability of a black for a given purpose is finally determined 
by actually trying out its working qualities. In making rubber a 
sample mix is prepared and the finished piece is tested for tensile 
strength, percentage of elongation, toughness, and resistance to 
abrasion. In ink manufacture a sample batch of ink is made up and 
the suitability of the black determined by an actual run on the press, 
the working qualities of the ink and the amount used for a given num- 
ber of impressions being noted.'" 

A number of laboratory tests are useful in matching a standard 
sample. The tests most commonly employed are for tinting strength, 
color, and grit. It is also desirable to determine moisture, ash, and 
acetone extract. 

PS7SICAL TESTS. 
TINTING STRENGTH. 

According to the American Society for Testing Materials, tinting 
strength is ''the power of coloring a giv^i quantity of paint or pig- 
ment selected as a medium or standard for estimating such power." 
Tinting strength, then, as applied to carbon blacks is the measiu*e of 
the ability of the black to impart a color to a definite weight of stand- 
ard white. It depends on the size of the particles and on the specific 
gravity of the black. In testing, the black is always compared with 
a standard black. 

In making the test, weigh out accurately on a sensitive balance 
0.100 gram of the black to be tested and lO.O grams of a standard 

» ICftire, Frederick, Modem pigments and their TOhicles, 1906, p. 236. Toch, Ma-rimilian, The chem- 
istry and technology of paints, 1016, p. 366. 

» For a detailed discussion of printing Inks, tee The chemistry and technology of printing inkB, Nonnan 
Underwood and John V. Bunivan, 1915; The composition, properties, and testing of printing inks, 
V, 8. Buraaa of Standards^ Giro. 68, 1915. 



GABBON BLACK — ITS MAKUFAOTUBE, PBOPBBTIBS, AKD USES. 68 

zinc white kept especially for the purpose. Transfer to a glass or 
marble slab and add from a burette exactly 3.5 c. c. refined linseed 
oil. Mix with a palette knife and rub .out thoroughly with the pal- 
ette knife, or better with a glass muller, until no streakiness or dif- 
ference of color is observed when successive small portions are spread 
on a clean piece of window glass and viewed from the upper side. It 
is important that the rubbing out be thorough^ 10 minutes is usually 
time enough for it. Follow the same procedure with the standard 
black. Then spread a small amount of each mix side by side on a 
clean glass, as a microscope object glass. Examination of the sam- 
ples from the other side of the glass, particularly at the line where 
they overlap, will show the difference in tinting strength. 

To make a quantitative estimation of the tinting strength of the 
sample as compared to the standard, more white is added to the 
stronger mix until the colors match. A new sample of the stronger 
black is then weighed out, using the calculated amount of zinc white, 
and the process is repeated until mixes of the same color are obtained. 
If, for example, it was necessary to mix 15 grams of zinc white with 
0.1 gram of the standard to match a mixture of 10 grams zinc white 
and 0.1 gram of the sample, then the sample has 663 P^i* cent the 
strength of the standard. 

COLOR. 

By the term color is meant the relative blackness of the material 
when mixed in oil. In making the colo^ test, take 0.3 gram of each 
of the blacks to be compared and add 1.3 c. c. of refined linseed oil 
from a biu'ette. Mix thoroughly with the palette knife, spread side 
by side on a sUp of glass, and compare the relative color by viewing 
from the upper side of the glass. 

OBIT. 

Presence of gritty matter is determined by rubbing a portion of the 
black under the finger or by placing a small amount on the tongue 
and rubbing it between the tongue and palate. 

HIDINO POWER. 

In tests of paint pigments hiding power and spreading rate are often 
determined. Carbon blacks made by the present process as a rule 
vary so little among themselves in these two properties that testing 
by the present methods is probably of little value. A brief descrip- 
tion of the two terms may, however, be of mterest. 

Hiding power is the ability of a pigment when mixed in oil to 
obscure a surface on which it. is painted. In making the tests, equal 
weights of each pigment and equal quantities of oil are mixed to* 
gether. The mixes are then spread on a prepared board marked off 
in black and white squares so that the squares are just obliterated. 



64 CARBOK BLACK — ^ITS MANITFACTUBE, PBOPEETIBS, AND USES. 

The brush is weighed before and after painting. The smaller the 
weight used for a given area, the greater the hiding power of the 
pamt 

Dr. A. H. Pfund, of Johns Hopkins University, has designed an in- 
strument, the cryptometer, for determining the hiding power of 
white pigments and paints that might be modified for use with carbon 
blacks. Briefly the principle of the instrument is as follows: 

Granting that an infinitely thick layer of paint will "hide " a given background com- 
pletely, it is deedred to find the least thickness of layer which will hide the background 
as effectively as does the infinitely thick layer. This purpose is accomplished by 
means of the cryptometer, which yields numerical values of Uie hiding power of the 
pigment in terms of Uie number of square centimeters which 1 gram of tiie pigment 
will cover and hide, as well as of the hiding power of a paint, expressed in square feet 
per gallon."^ 

SFBSABINa BATB. 

The spreading rate of a paint is the ability of the paint to coat a 
surface. The American Society for Testing Materiab thus illustrates 
the term: 

The paint when spread on a planished iron surface at the rate of 600 square feet to the 
gallon will not sag or run when placed in a vertical position at 70^ F. 

The test is performed in a manner similar to the testing of hiding 
power. 

CHEMICAL TESTS. 

It is occasionally desirable to make a few quantitative chemical 
tests of carbon black. A black containing more than 0.2 per cent ash 
is probably adulterated with mineral black or charcoal. An acetone 
extract over 0.1 per cent indicates adulteration with a poorly calcined 
lampblack. Too great a percentage of moisture is undesirable. 
Certain blacks will absorb as much as 15 per cent of their weight of 
moisture, making a total moisture content of 20 per cent or more. 
Most blacks for making ink contain from 2 to 4 per cent of moisture, 
although certain blacks may contain as high as 7 per cent. 

MOISTURE." 

A 1-gram sample of the black is placed in a weighed porcelain cru- 
cible and heated for one hour at 105^ C. in a constant temperature 
oven in circulating dry air. The crucible is then removed from the 
oven, covered, and cooled in a desiccator over sulphuric acid. The 
loss in weight multiplied by 100 is recorded as the percentage of 
moisture. 

ASH." 

The crucible containing the residue from the moisture determination 
is heated gradually with a Meker burner, or better in a muffle furnace, 

*BA.H.Pft3iid,iMr9onalooiiimiuxiicatlon. 

^ For dfltaiU of method aee Teeb. Paper 6, Bureau of Mines, " Methodi for analyiltig coal and ooke, " by 
F. M. Stanton and A. C. Fieldner. 



C^BBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTUBE, PBOPEBTTES, AND USES. 65 

• 

to about 750^ C. or to a cherry red. Ignition is continued until all the 
particles of carbon have disappeared. The crucible is then cooled 
in a desiccator and weighed, after which it is heated again for 15 min- 
utes, cooled, in a desiccator, and reweighed. If the change in weight 
is more than 0.0002 gram, the process is repeated until successive 
weighings are constant to this figure. The weight of the crucible and 
ash minus the weight of the crucible is taken as the weight of the ash. 

ACETONE EXTRACT. 

A 2-gram sample is weighed into an alundum or paper extraction 
thimble of 20 c. c. capacity and the extraction carried out for one 
hour, using any standard apparatus of the Soxlet type. The weight 
of the residue after evaporation of the acetone is taken as the acetone 
extract. The extract for a pure carbon black is usually zero. 

Carbon blacks vary in color and tinting strength. As a rule^ 
the less volatile matter a carbon black contains, the blacker is 
its color. Tinting strength of carbon blacks high in volatile matter 
is usually higher than that of the carbon blacks which are purer car- 
bon. This may be due to the fact that blacks containing more vola- 
tile matter are more dispersed and hence more effectively hide the 
zinc-white particles. 

srasomcATiQKS. 

The bureau has received a great man^ inquiries in regard to tests 
that a carbon black must meet to be suitable for use in printing ink 
or rubber. The following specifications represent an attempt to 
gather the requirements adopted by the trade. No hard and fast 
specifications for carbon black exist and the test on which a black 
stands or falls is the practical test: 

PRINTING INK. 



CBJUCICAL TESTS. 



Moisture lees than 5.0 per cent. 

Ash leas than 0.1 per cent. 

Acetone extract leas than 0.1 per cent. 



PBTSICAL TESTS. 



Color must match standard. 

Tinting strength... must equal standard. 
Grit none. 



PRACTICAL TESTS. 



The black when made into ink must have satisfactory working 
qualities as determined by an actual run on the press for which the 
ink is intended. The ink must have satisfactory transfer, tack, 
drying properties, color, and must print a sufficient number of pages 
per pound. The oil must not separate from the pigment and there 
must be no offset or smutting. 



66 CABBON BLACK — ^ITS ^ANtHPAOTUiBEy PBOPEBTOISy AND USES. 



TB8TINO METHODS. 



Chemical and physical tests are performed as previously described. 
Practical tests are to be made on- the press for which the ink is intended. 
Specifications for tests of halftone black ink, taken from the set of 
requirements and tests formulated by the Government Printing 
Office, are given below. A slightly different set of requirements 
must be satisfied for other kinds of ink." The requirements for a 
satisfactory test are as follows for halftone black ink: 

1. Nonseparation of ail from pigment, — ^The oil or varnish should 
not separate from the pigment either on the face of the type or cuts, 
or in the fountain, but should be short enough to break up readily 
in the distribution and not "string." 

2. Transfer. — ^In transferring from type or cuts to paper the ink 
should leave the face of the type or cute reasonably clean. 

3. Hardness. — ^Ink should dry hard on the paper in eight hours to 
admit of easy handling without damage or injury to the work, and 
should not pull the coating or the face from tiie paper, nor the face 
from the roller. 

4. Drying. — ^Ink should not dry on the form, rollers, or distribu- 
tion so that it may not be easily removed therefrom. 

5. Offset or smvtting. — ^The ink must be able to carry sufi&cient 
color to print clean and sharp, without offset or smiit on sheete falling 
on top from the press fly or in piling the work. 

6. Color. — ^The ink must dry a deep, solid carbon (not aniline) 
black, and not turn gray nor have a metallic sheen or luster, nor 
blister the face of the paper. 

7. Quantity required. — ^The weight of the omoimt used must be 
noted and averaged on a basis of 5,000 printed pages. 

MBTHOD8 TO BE USED IN MAKING THE PRACTICAL TESTS. 

1. The practical test of halftone black ink shall be made on the 
flat-bed presses in use in the Government Printing Office. 

2. The test shall be made on coated book paper of the size, weight, 
and quality in general use in the Government Printing Office. 

3. The type or cut forms shall be previously "made ready" and 
the press otherwise in good condition to make a satisfactory run. 

4. The form, rollers, distribution, and ink fountain shall then be 
thoroughly washed and cleaned. The ink to be tested shall be 
weighed before being placed in the fountain. The quantity to be 
tested should be sufficient to run not less than three hours, and pref- 
erably a run of five hours should be made. 

. « See Report on ink test, Form 8-^, Government Printing Office, Press Division, or The compositiQii, 
properties, and testing of printing inks. Bureau of Standa r ds, Circ. 63, 1915. 



CASBON BLACK — IT^ MAKXTFACTUBS, pBOPEBTlBSy AND USES. 67 

5. Ink that will separate the oil or varnish from the pigment on 
the face of the form or in the fomitain will not be accepted. 

6. To be satisfactory ink imder the impression should transfer 
from the face of the type or cuts to the paper, leaving the face of the 
type or cuts reasonably clean. It should be heavy in body, should 
feed well, and have sufficient ''tack'* to dry on the paper rapidly 
enough while printmg to avoid the necessity of using slip sheets; 
but it should dry hard on the paper in eight hours, so that the work 
can be handled easily without damage or injury to the printing. It 
must not pull the face or coating from the paper and leave it on the 
face or form, or pull the face from the rollers. It should be removed 
easily from the form, rollers, and distribution, must be able to carry 
sufficient color without offset or smut, and print dean and sharp. 

7. The ink to be satisfactory must dry a deep, solid carbon (not 
aniline) black, and not turn gray, nor have a metallic sheen or luster, 
nor blister the face of the paper. 

After the test has been made, the remaining quantity of the ink 
shall be removed from the fountain and weighed, a reasonable allow- 
ance being made for the ink necessarily l^ft in the fountain, on the 
rollers, and distribution, in order to determine the number of copies 
a given quantity of ink will print. 



RUBBER. 



CHEMICAL TESTS. 



Moisture Lees than 4 per cent.** 

Acetone extract . . .Lees than ) per cent. 

Ash Less than 0.25 per 

cent. 



PHYSICAL TESTS. 



Grit None (should com- 
pletely pass through 
a lOO-mesh sieve and 
feel as an impalpable 
powder when rubbed 
under the finger). 

Tinting strength.. Not less than 90 per 

cent the strength of 
standard. 



PBACnCAL TESTS. 



Rubber mixes are made up containing equal weight of the sample 
to be tested and of the standard. Mixes are cured under exactly 
the same condition. The finished sheet is tested for tensile strength, 
per cent elongation, toughness, and resistance to abrasion. 



PAINT. 



CHEMICAL TESTS. 



Moisture Leas than 5 per cent. 

A-sh Less than 1.25 per cent. 



PBT8ICAL TESTS. 



Tinting strength.. Not less than 95 per 

cent the strength of 
standard. 

n Some rubber chemists place this figure »s low as 2^ per cant. 



68 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANTTPACTURU, PBOPEBllBS, AND TOES. 
FBBLIMINABY WO&X ON OTHBB. LABORATORY TESTS. 

Some attention has been given to the possibility of devising tests 
that will predict in a quantitative way the performance of the black 
when made into ink, and preliminary work has been done on the 
problem. 

Tests that suggest themselves are: Measurements of (1) viscosity, 
(2) cohesion, and (3) adhesion of mixtures of black and oil. Deter- 
mination of these three properties should throw light on the probable 
perfonnance of the black in use. 

VISCOSITY. 

Attempts 'to measure the viscosity of mixtures of black and linseed 
oil in a Saybolt viscosimeter were unsatisfactory because an extremely 
dilute mixture was necessary. Accordingly it was decided to try 
out the MacMichael torsion viscosimeter,^ which is used in the petro- 
leum laboratory at the Pittsburgh station for determining the 
viscosity of heavy oils. In this instrument a brass disk connected 
to a graduated torsion head is suspended from a piano wire in a 
rotating cup containing the liquid to be tested. Deflection is pro- 
portional to viscosity at any given rate of revolution. By use of a 
suitable wire, liquids of very high viscosity can be tested. The 
apparatus is calibrated with a liquid of known viscosity. Mixtures 
of equal weights of various blacks with the same amount of raw 
linseed oil were made up and the viscosity determined by means of 
the MacMichael apparatus. It was found that carbon blacks prized 
by ink makers on account of their ''length" gave a lower reading 
on the viscosimeter than other blacks. 

At this time the author's attention was drawn to a paper by 
Bingham •* on measurements of the mobility and "yield value" of 
paint. Bingham distinguishes between the viscosity of true liquids 
and the rigidity of plastic solids. Measurements of the flow through 
a capillary when different pressures are applied to the liquid show 
that the curve of pressure against the volume flowing through in 
unit time is different for true liquids and for plastic solids. In a 
true liquid the curve passes through the origin; for a plastic solid, 
the curve cuts the pressure axis at some distance on one side of 
the origin. This distance Bingham calls the yield value or force 
that must be applied to the plastic solid before any deformation takes 
place. It appeared possible to obtain similar curves using the 
torsion viscosimeter by measuring the deflection at different speeds 
of rotation, the speed of rotation corresponding to the volume flow- 
ing through the capillary, and the deflection corresponding to the 

M MacMichael, R. F., A new direct reading viscofilmeter: Jour. Ind. Eng. Chem.i vol. 7, 1915, pp. 861-3. 
Bureau of Mines Reports of Investigation No. 2201. 

» Bingham, E. C, and Green, Henry. Paint, a plastic material and not a viscous liquid: Preprint 
Am. Soc. Test. Mat., 22d Ann. Meeting, June 24 to 27, 1919. 



CABBON BLACK — ^WS MAKUFACTITBE, PROPEBmS, AND USES. 69 

pressure. Mixes of several blacks were made up, using 10 grams 
of black to 100 c. c. of raw linseed oil. These were run at different 
speeds in the torsion viscosimeter at a temperature of 80^ F. 
Curves are shown in figure 17, 

It will be noticed that at the higher speeds the points lie on a 
straight line and the extrapolation of this line back to zero revolu- 
tions per minute does not pass through zero deflection. These 
curves are similar to those obtained by Bingham with the capillary 
method. It is possible to obtain a relative figure for the rigidity or 




FiauRS 17.— Oorve showing the viscosity of mixture of carbon black and linseed oil: a, Short carbon 

black; b, lampblack; e, long carbon black; d, linseed oil. 

mobility and the yield value from these data. Relative rigidity is 
obtained from the following relationship : 

Where t is the time of one revolution in seconds, dt the deflec- 
tion, and dt oo the deflection at zero revolutions per minute. Data 
and calculated relative rigidity and mobility are given in the fol- 
lowing table: 

Table 13. — Fisconty o/mixtvres of carbon black and lampblack vdth Hnaeed oil, 

SHORT CARBON BLACK:. 



Revolutions per minute. 


Deflec- 
tion. 


Time of 
1 revolu- 
tion, 
seconds. 


Relative 
rigidity. 


Relative 
mobility. 


124 




90 
79 
70 
60 
64 


0.48 
.76 
1.28 
2.80 
6.46 


16.4 
16.7 
16.4 


a0660 


80 


.0637 


47 


.0660 


21 




11 













Yield valae-68. 



70 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MAKUFACTtTKE, PROPEBTIBS, AND USES. 



Table 13. — Visconty ofmixtwrea of carbon black and lampblack with linseed M — Oon. 

LAMPBLACK. 



Revolutions per minute. 



124. 
90. 
63. 
38. 



Deflec- 
tion. 



78 
66 
67 
46 



Time of 
1 revolu- 
tion, 
seoonos. 



a48 
.67 
.96 

1.58 



Relative 
rigidity. 



20.6 
20.8 
20.9 
17.4 



BelAtive 
mobOity. 



a0486 
.0481 
.0478 
.0675 



Yield value- 35. 


• 

LONQ CARBON BLACK. 










124 




66 
49 
40 
31 
22 


a48 

.69 

.90 

1.82 

5.45 


16.4 
16.8 
16.2 
14.6 


a0660 


102 : 






.0654 


67 


-*--. .. 




.0658 


•33 


.0685 


11 






t 




Yield value- 23. 


RAW LIN8BBD OIL. 










124 


7 
4 


0.48 
.86 


8.4 
3.4 


0.0194 


70 


.0194 


• 





Yield value- 0. 



SUMMARY. 



Short carbon black plus linseed oQ 
Long carbim black plus linseed oil 

Lampblack plus linseed oil 

Raw linseed oil alone 



Relative 
rigidity. 



16.0 

16.3 

22.0 

3.4 



Relattva 
mobility . 



a067 
.066 
.046 
.010 



Yield 
value de- 
pees d^ 
flection. 



60 
23 
33 





DISCTTSSION OF BESTJLTS. 

It is at once seen that the difference between the long and short 
blacks tested is a difference principally in yield value, and that the 
mobilities of the two mixtures are nearly the same. This relation is 
also seen at once by inspection of the curves that show the same slope 
for the two blacks. The lampblack with a steeper slope has a lower 
mobility and a yield value intermediate between the long and short 
blacks. 

The yield value is apparently the resistance, probably because of 
attractive forces between the particles of black, that the mixture 
offers to deformation when the load is applied above a certain rate. 
If the load is applied slowly, a different condition obtains as shown by 
the falling off of the curve from a straight line at the lower speeds of 
revolution. If the rotation of the cup is stopped while a mixture is 
being tested, the deflection drops back quickly to a point near the 
yield value and then slowly decreases nearly to zero over a period of 
several minutes. It is hoped to continue work with the torsion 



GAKBOK BLACK — ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPEBTIES, AND USES. 71 

visGosimeter and to compare results as obtained with it to the results 
obtained by the capillary method. Results are of course empiricali 
but might nevertheless be of practical value. 

COHESION. 

Cohesion is defined as the attraction between the particles of the 
same substance. It is the resistance a substance offers to deforma- 
tion. An ink with low cohesion is a long ink, that is, it allows itself 
to be changed in shape and easily drawn out into strings. One with 
higher cohesion offers greater resistance to deformation and breaks off 
when an attempt is made to draw it out into a string with the palette 
knife. Cohesion may be measured by determining the force neces- 
sary to draw a flat circular plate away from the surface of the liquid 
on which it is resting. In order to get duplicable results with a 
mixture such as ink, the force must be applied quickly. If the 
force is applied slowly, the same indefinite results are obtained as 
in the viscosity determinations at the lower speeds, probably owing 
to slippage. Results of a few measurements of this character with 
long and short black mixtures show long blacks to have lower 
cohesion. 

ADHESION. 

The molecular attraction between the surface of bodies in contact 
is caUed adhesion. When a liquid wets a solid the adhesion between 
the liquid and solid is more powerful than the cohesion of the liquid, 
as is shown in the method of determining the force of cohesion. When 
the plate is pulled from the liquid, the plate is wet with the liquid 
showing that the cohesion of the liquid has been overcome but its 
adhesion for the plate has not been overcome. The adhesion of an 
ink for the type and paper must influence its working qualities, and 
constitutes what the printer calls 'Hack". Adhesion of a liquid may 
be measured by dipping a weighed metal plate in the liquid, allowing 
it to drain at a constant temperature, and reweighing. For a plastic 
material, such as ink or paint, the value for the adhesion so obtained 
.would probably be modified by the yield value of the mixture. 

In making any tests of mixtures of carbon or lampblack in oil, 
care must be taken that the black is thoroughly incorporated with the 
oil if duplicable results are to be obtained. The mixture should be 
thoroughly ground in a paint mill or in a three-roller ink mill. An 
inert mineral oil would probably be better than linseed oil for testing 
purposes. 

COXPLETE CHBXICAL ANALYSES OF CABBON BLACKS. 

In the course of the work, complete proximate and ultimate 
wialyses and determination of true density of a nizmber of different 
carbon blacks on the market have been made. Analyses were made 



72 CARBOK BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTUBE, PROPERTIBS, AND USES. 

under the direction of W. A. Selvig, analytical chemi&t. Tlie standard 

procedure used at the Bureau of Mines for coal analyses was followed.^* 

Analyses of lampblacks and several other blacks were made for 

the sake of comparison and the results are set down in the following 

tables : 

Table 14. — Analyses of carbon black. 



PBOXIMATE ANALTSIS. 

Moisture 

Volfttae matter 

Fixed carbon 

Ash 

ULnXATK ASALTSia (AS BXCEIVED). 

Hydrogen 

Carbon 

Nitrogen 

Oxygen 

Bulphnr 

Aah. 

ULTIMATX ANALTSIS (M0I8TUBE FREE). 

Hydrogen , 

Ciffbon 

Nitrogen 

Oxynn 

Sulpnur 

Ash 

True spedflc gravity 



Long 


^ 


Long 
blade 


Short 
black 


Short 
black 


No.1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No.l. 


No. 2. 


3.66 


7.13 


6.30 


2.25 


3.02 


11.09 


13.41 


ia40 


6.60 


6.48 


84.40 


79.44 


84.16 


92.1Sf 


91.47 


.05 


.02 


.14 


.02 


.03 


1.19 


1.82 


1.11 


.74 


.88 


88.17 


84.66 


87.98 


94.78 


93.60 


.04 


.04 


.06 


.09 


.04 


ia54 


14.00 


ia68 


4.37 


6.25 


.01 


.06 


.01 


.00 


.30 


.06 


.02 


.14 


.02 


.08 


.82 


.67 


.55 


.60 


.62 


01.42 


91.06 


92.91 


96.96 


96.41 


.04 


.04 


.08 


.09 


.04 


7.60 


8.26 


6.30 


2.43 


2.09 


.01 


.06 


.01 


.00 


.31 


.06 


.02 


.15 


.02 


.03 


1.80 


1.78 


1.88 


L86 


1.80 



Short 
black 
No. 3. 



3.12 

&58 

91.22 

.06 



1.06 

93.63 

.06 

5.19 
.00 
.08 



.72 
96.64 

.05 

2.51 

.00 

.06 

1.78 



Table 15. — Lampblacks and other blacks. 





Lampblack. 


Bone 
black. 


Vine 
black. 


WiUow 
char- 
coal. 


Wood 


Carbon ftrmn 
crackinisof 
methane. 




No.l. 


No. 2. 


No.l. 


No. 2. 


PROXIMATE ANALTSIS. 

Hdstare 


a39 

2.26 

97.35 

.00 

.52 
97.62 
.11 
L18 
.67 
.00 

.48 
98.00 
.11 
.84 
.57 
.00 
.165 


3.12 

17.38 

79.44 

.06 

L51 

87.84 

.00 

9.95 
.64 
.06 

L20 

9a 67 

.00 

7.41 
.66 
.06 

6.60 


8.88 

iao2 

2.68 
82.52 

.88 

8.64 

LOO 

6.84 

.06 

82.52 

.47 
8.99 
LIO 
3.53 

.06 
85.85 


9.68 
29.54 
40.60 
2a 38 

2.44 

6L65 
.80 

24.41 
.32 

2a 38 

L63 
67.12 

.88 
17.58 

.35 
22.54 


3.24 
14.66 
8a 23 

L87 

2.74 

86.04 

.16 

laii 

.08 
L87 

2.46 
87.89 

.17 
7.47 

.08 
L93 


6.42 

a 78 

^84 

i.06 

L60 
83.20 

.17 
0.59 

.48 
4.06 

.95 
88.91 

.18 
4.15 

.51 
5.30 


ao2 

.78 
98.36 

.84 

.45 

98.70 

.01 

.84 

.46 

96.72 

,01 

'"".06 
.03 
.02 


1.25 


Volatile matter 


6.40 


Fixed carb(ni 


92.11 


Ash 


.24 


ULinCATX ANALYSIS (AS RECEIVED). 

Hydrogen » <..... 


1.26 


Ctfbon 


96.76 


Nitrogen 


.01 


Oxygen..... 


1.61 


Sulphur. 


.12 


Ash. 


.24 


ULTDCATB ANALTSIS (MQISTtTRE FREE). 

Hydroffen. ...... ^ 


L13 


Carbon 


97.99 


Nitrogen 


.01 


Oxygen 


.51 


Sulpnur 


.12 


Aah. '. 


.24 


Acetone extract 


.16 















» Stanton, F. M., and Fieldner, A. C, Methods of analysing coal and coke: Tech. Paper 8, Bureau o( 
Mines, 1918. Fieldner, A. C, Notes on the sampling and analy^ of coal: Tech. Paper 70, Bureau of Mines, 
1914. 



M. 



W 



mmm\\rmm 







II! 



ill 



l^Mllh 



I lilliii 




74 CARBON BLACK — ITS MANUFACTUBB, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 



»4 

m 




M 



I 

i 







8 



3^ 



It 



H 



¥ 



^li 



I 






1 

at. 



H 



5S^ 



8 

e4 









d 






8sr:ss::s^;:;!:ss 



1 

A 



• • ■ • • 






c5 -ci$el^^'ele4e4^ *^ 






S58 



^•4 















9 



v^MVO^MCOv^MCO^MCO 



s s s s 

S S3 S3 SS 



I 



e 



e 



« 



If. 



8 I 



I 



CABBOK BLAOK — ITS BCANUFACTUBE, PROPEBTIBS, AND USES. 75 

DISOUSSION OF ANALYSBS. 

Analyses show that carbon blacks are by no means pure carbon; 
some of them contain as low as 91 per cent carbon on a moisture-free 
basis. It will be noted that the blacks classified as long blacks are 
higher in volatile matter, oxygen, and moisture than the short blacks. 
True specific gravity varies from 1.78 to 1.88. This determination 
is made on the moisture-free sample. Apparent specific gravity 
varies from 0.15 to 0.20, depending partly on'the amoimt of pressure 
put on the black in packing. If the blacks are placed in a tube and 
centrifuged at a high rate of dpeed, the apparent specific gravity is 
increased to 0.25. 

Carbon made by cracking methane in a heated retort, if made at 
a very high temperature, is usually nearly pure carbon. See No. 1 in 
Table 15. When made at a lower temperature, considerable amounts 
of polymerization products, as naphthalene, may be present in the ma- 
terial. See No. 2 in Table 15. Unless well calcined, lampblack 
usually contains considerable empyreumatic matter that shows up in 
the analysis as a high figure for volatile matter and acetone extract. 
See lampblack No. 2 in Table 15 ; lampblack No, 1 is a calcined material. 
The true density of the lampblacks analyzed was about 1.70, a figure 
that is probably low on account of the difficulty of wetting the material 
with water. For an accurate determination of the true density of 
lampblacks, another liquid should be used, such as benzol. The appar- 
ent density of the lampblacks was about 0.09. The true specific 
gravity of the other blacks varies from 1.7 for wood-pulp black to 
2.02 for vine black. Apparent specific gravity for wood-pulp black 
is 0.28 and for vine black 0.75. 

ABSORBED GASBS. 

Carbon black contains considerable quantities of carbon monoxide, 
carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The oxygen is probably present as 
"fixed oxygen,'' that is, in some kind of combination with the carbon. 
Through the cooperation of Dr. G. A. Hulett and H. E. Cude, of 
Princeton University, the nature and amount of the adsorbed gases 
were determined. The apparatus used was that designed by Dr. 
Ilulett to determine the nature of the adsorbed gases in gas-mask 
charcoal. The gases are pumped off at any desired temperature by 
means of a Topler pump and are analyzed, the water being caught 
on a bulb containing solid carbon dioxide. 

The composition of the gases which can be pumped off at room 
temperature is practically that of air, and the volume approximately 
that of the voids and capillary spaces. At 445*^ C. a larger volume 
usually comes off, consisting chiefly of CO,, CO. Carbon dioxide may 
be present in as large an amoimt as 1 per cent of the weight of the 
moisture and the gas-free black, oxygen about 0.01 per cent, CO, 

59647**— 22 6 



76 CARBON BLACK — TTS MAKUFACTUBE, PROPEBTIBS, AND USES. 

0.1 to 0.2 per cent, methane and hydrogen, a trace, nitrogen 0.05 
to 0.2 per cent. An insufficient number of samples was analyzed 
to aUow conclusions to be drawn in regard to the relation between 
the adsorbed gases and the physical and chemical properties. At 
the temperatures investigated, none of the hydrogen indicated by 
the ultimate analysis was pumped off. The carbon dioxide evolved 
would account only for part of the 02^en shown by the ultimate 
analysis to be present. (See tables 17, 18, and 19.) 

Table 17. — Adsorbed gases in carbon black. 
[True density of blacks and volame of adsorbed gases.] 



I*abra- 
tory No. 



33006 

33205 
S3007 
33366 



Material. 



SbortblatikNo.! 
Short black No. 2 
Long black No. 1. 
Long black No. 2. 



Wdght. 

gas and 

inclatcire 

free. 



8.3au 
3.4206 
3.1805 
3.8370 



Water, 

percent 

original 

material. 



&15 
3.88 
6.8A 
0.40 



Density, 
grains, 
perc. c. 



1.871 
1.873 
L803 
1.063 



Volume of eas 
pumped off.a 



Room 
tempwa- 
ture, cc 



15.40 
15.25 
13.55 
1&75 



445* C. 
c. c. 



23.02 

9195 

25k«l) 

19L45 



a Corrected to 0* C. and 760 mm. 



Table 18. — Analysis of gas pumped off<U room temperature. 



Volume. 



COi 

Sb::.::::: 

CH* 

H, 

Ni 

Total 



Short black] Short 
No. 1, 
15.40 e.e. 



Percfftf. 

0.7 

30.3 



.3 

.0 

78.0 



100.0 



black 
Na2, 
15.35 c. c. 



Per eefiL 

1.4 

10.1 

.3 

.1 

.0 

79.2 



100.0 



Ixmg black 

No. 1, 
13.55 c. c. 



PereenL 

1.3 

18.6 

.1 

.2 

.0 

79.8 



100.0 



LoQgbla«± 

No. 2, 
16.76 C.C. 



PereenL 

0.^ 

22.1 

.2 

.0 

.0 

76.9 



100.0 



Table 19. — Analysis of gas pumped off at 446^ C. 



Volume. 



CO, 

O, 

CO 

CH4 

H, 

N, 

Per cent <tf black bjf welght.'i 

COi 

Of 

CO 

CH^ 

H, 

N. 



Short blaeklShort 

No.1, 
23.03 e. 0. 



PereenL 

67.2 

26!2 

.0 

.0 

&7 



.904 
.000 
.230 
.000 
.000 
.060 



black 
No. 2, 
9.96 c. e. 



PereenL 

51.9 

8.7 

30. 

1.2 

0.5 

13.7 



.418 
.016 
.154 
.004 

.070 



Long black 

No.1, 
25.80 C. c. 



PereenL 

64.10 

.62 

12.22 

.41 

.07 

32.49 



1.020 
.007 
.134 
.002 
.000 
.228 



Loo? black 

No. 2, 
19.45 e. c. 



Per cenL 

73.5 

1.2 

15.9 

.5 

.3 

8.7 



.900 

.mo 

.140 

.008 

c.OOO 

.074 



9 Oa9 and moisture tree, 



b Probably .0002. 



c Probably .0001. 



CABBOK BL4GK — ^ITS BCANUFACTTJRE, PROPERUBS, AND USES 77 

HTOBO80OPI0ITT. 

Carbon blacks absorb moisture when exposed to damp air and too 
large a moisture content is detrimental to the working qualities of the 
black in ink. Blacks containing a high percentage of volatile matter, 
as long blacks, are as a rule more hygroscopic than are those contain- 
ing a lesser amount of volatile matter. Inasmuch as any considerable 
percentage of moisure is detrimental to the working qualities of the 
black, it is important that original packages of carbon black be kept 
unbroken in a dry room imtil ready for use. The following table 
shows results of exposing weighed amounts of different blacks over 
water and over sulphuric acid at a temperature of about 25^ C. 
The blacks when initially weighed were in equilibrium with a humidity 
of about 60 per cent at 25° C. 

Tablx 20. — Hy^roKopidty of carbon black. 





Per cent Itma in 
weight over HfS04. 


Per cant gain in 
weight OTW HiO. 


Mototure 
atl06»C. 




24hocm. 


72hoiirt. 


24hoan. 


rahourt. 


T.4>nv hhfk No.T ,, 


3.9 
«.2 
2.4 
2.2 


4.2 

«.» 
2.6 
2.5 


4.0 

. 7.0 

8.1 

3.6 


las 

14.1 
6.7 
7.7 


a.6 


LoiiibJackNo.2 


7.1 


Short black No. 1 


2.3 


Short biftdr No. 2. 


8.0 







MI0BO80OFI0 BZAKINATIOK. 

The photomicrographs of carbon black were taken by Dr. Rein* 
hardt Thiessen, of the Pittsburgh station, and the following discus- 
sion of the bearing of the photomicrographs on the properties exhib- 
ited by carbon black in ink was written in collaboration with Dr. 
Thiessen. 

According to the ink manufacturers, various grades of carbon black 
show very different properties when made into ink. Underwood " 
says : 

There is a wide range in the behavior of different carbon blacks, a wider range than 
there is any apparent cause for. They vary from making short tacky inks to making 
inks of great natural length and decided flow, while some carbon blacks which we 
have had experience with were absolutely useless for making any kind of ink« even 
news ink. 

The terms *' length" and ''shortness'' are explained by Under- 
wood as follows: 

If a pigment when mixed with a large quantity of oil still remains stiff or can not be 
Irawn out into a string between the fingers but breaks, it is said to be short. While 
here are some classes of work that require ink of a certain degree of shortness, as a 
reneral rule pigments that show this quality are not suited for making inks. 

>7 Underwood, Norman, and SoUiyan, J. V., The chemistry and technology of printing inks, 1015. 



CABBON BLACK — ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTTES, AN 

HTaBOSOOPIOroY. 

Carbon blacks absorb moisture whea exposed to damp 
mge a moisture content is detrimental to tiie working qui 
>lack in ink. Blacks containing a high percentage of vol 
s long blacks, are aa a rule more hygroscopic than are tb 
ig a lesser amount of volatile matter. Inasmuch as any 
ercentage of moisure is detrimental to the working qui 
lack, it is important that original packages of carbon b 
nbroken in a dry room until ready for use. The fol 
bows resulta of exposing weighed amounta of different 
rater and over sulphuric acid at a temperature of a 
'he blacks when initially weighed were in equilibrium witl 
<f about 60 per cent at 25° C. 

Tablb 20.— Hy^nweopieiCy o/tarhon black. 





Pv not km fn 
weight onrH^O,. 


P(r Doit 
wdghtom 




Siboc. 


73 boon. 


Mhamt. 








0.9 

1! 







HI0BO80OPKI BXAKZITATIOH'. 

The photomicrographs of carbon black were taken \ 
Lardt Thieesen, of the Pittsburgh station, and the folio 
ion of the bearing of the photomicrographs on the prop 
ted by carbon black in ink was written in collaborati 
riiiessen. 

According to the ink manufacturers, various grades of 
ihow very different properties whan made into ink. \ 
lays: 

There is a wide range in the behavior of different carboa blacks, a 
iiere u any apparent cause for. They vuy from m«Hng ehort tacky 
nks o( great natural length and decided flow, while some carbon b 
mve had experience with were absolutely uaelees for making any Id 

lewBink. 

The terms "length" and "shortness" are explainei 
food as follows: 

tf a pigment when mixed with a large quantity of oil still remaisa i 
Irawn out into a string between the flngera but breaka, it is said to 
bere are some claaaes of work that require ink of a certain dc^ee 
^eral rule pigments that diow this quality are not miit«d for making 

" tJadanind, KtmUD, and SoUIthi, J. v., The ohtmlitry ind technolofr of prlo 



78 CAEBON BLACK — ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPEBTIES, AND USES. 

An ink that flows well must also have the property of being drawn out into a string 
between the fingers, and this is called length. Thus each of these terms suggests or 
includes the other; they are both sometimes spoken of under the name viscodty. 

Apparently a pigment that gives a long ink is one that affects the 
original properties of the vehicle to a less extent than does an equal 
weight of a short pigment. To a large extent this question is prob- 
ably one of fineness of subdivision, although the tendency of the 
particles of the pigment to form agglomerates may also affect it. 

The particles are extremely small, below the resolving power of 
the microscope. Indications are that the average size of the parti- 
cles of carbon black is about 100 millimicrons. Microscopic exami- 
nation indicates that the particles of long blacks are slightly larger 
than those of short blacks, although the apparent difference in size 
may be due to the effect of diverse surface conditions on the dififrac- 
tion of light. Exact measurements of the size of the particles have 
not been made; they would involve the counting of the number of 
particles in a small volimie containing a known weight of black of 
known density, the measurement of the deflection in an electric field, 
and other measurements. 

Dark ground illumination with the ultracondenser has proved to 
be the most satisfactory method of examination for most purposes. 
Examination by transmitted light in the ordinary manner does not 
distinguish between single particles and smaU agglomerates of par- 
ticles; it is of advantage in showing up large agglomerates or par- 
ticles of grit, and serves to show the relative opacity of the blacks. 
In general the higher the percentage of carbon in a black the blacker 
it looks under the microscope. Well-calcined lampblacks are more 
opaque than carbon black or than lampblacks containing much 
volatile matter. 

Under the microscope freshly prepared mixtures of thin litho- 
graphic varnish with short and with long carbon black at first appear 
precisely similar. They consist of ultraparticles, or of agglomerates 
of two or three particles. After a few minutes, however, a decided 
difference is apparent. The short black has begun to agglomerate 
into groups of 20 or 30 particles, and in an hour over a hundred may 
be grouped together. These agglomerates are held loosely together 
and may be dispersed by pressing down on the cover glass, but they 
come together again in a few minutes. 

The long black on the contrary remains completely dispersed after 
several hours. Plate XI, A, shows a short black 18 minutes after 
preparation on the slide, Plate XI, B, shows the same black after 2 
hours. Plate XII is the same as Plate XI, B, but magnified 2,000 
diameters. A and B^ Plate XIII, show a long black after several 
hours, magnifications 500 and 2,000, respectively. The concentra- 



GABBON BLAOK — ^ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIES, AND USES 77 

HTO&0800PIOITT. 

Carbon blacks absorb moisture when exposed to damp air and too 
large a moisture content is detrimental to the working qualities of the 
black in ink. Blacks containing a high percentage of volatile matter, 
as long blacks, are as a rule more hygroscopic than are those contain- 
ing a lesser amount of volatile matter. Inasmuch as any considerable 
percentage of moisure is detrimental to the working qualities of the 
black, it is important that original packages of carbon black be kept 
unbroken in a dry room imtil ready for use. The following table 
shows results of exposing weighed amoimts of different blacks over 
water and over sulphuric acid at a temperature of about 25^ C. 
The blacks when initially weighed were in equilibrium with a humidity 
of about 60 per cent at 25° C. 

Tablx 20. — Hygro9CopiieUy qfearhon black. 





Per cent loss in 
weight over HtS04. 


Per cent gain in 
weight over H|0. 


Moistare 
atl06<»C. 




24 hoars. 


72hoaza. 


24hoan. 


72 boon. 


Long black No. 1 

LoiifbkKkNo.2 


8.9 
0.2 
2.4 
2.2 


4.2 
«.» 

2.6 
2.5 


4.0 

. 7.0 

8.1 

3.6 


las 

14.1 
6.7 
7.7 


f.i 


Short black No. 1 


2.8 


Short black No. 2. 


8.0 







KI0BO80OPI0 BZAKINATIOK. 

The photomicrographs of carbon black were taken by Dr. Rein- 
hardt Thiessen, of the Pittsburgh station, and the following discus- 
sion of the bearing of the photomicrographs on the properties exhib- 
ited by carbon black in ink was written in collaboration with Dr. 
Thiessen. 

According to the ink manufacturers, various grades of carbon black 
show very different properties when made into ink. Underwood ^ 
says: 

There la a wide range in the behavior of different carbon bhickB, a wider range than 
there iB any apparent cause for. They vary from making short tacky inks to making 
inks of great natural length and decided flow, while some carbon blacks which we 
have had experience with were absolutely useless for making any kind of ink, even 
news ink. 

The terms ^'length" and ''shortness'* are explained by Under- 
wood as follows: 

If a pigment when mixed with a large quantity of oil still remains stiff or can not be 
drawn out into a string between the fingers but breaks, it is said to be short. While 
there are some classes of work that require ink of a certain degree of shortness, as a 
general rule pigments that show thlB quality are not suited for making inks. 

*^ Underwood, Norman, and Sullivan, J. V., The chemistry and technology of printing inks, 1915. 



78 CARBON BLACK — ITS MANUFACTURE, FROPERTIESy AND USES. 

An ink that flows well must also have the property of being drawn out into a string 
between the fingers, and this is called length. Thus each of these terms suggests or 
includes the other; they are both sometimes spoken of under the name viscosity. 

Apparently a pigment that gives a long ink is one that affects the 
original properties of the vehicle to a less extent than does an equal 
weight of a short pigment. To a large extent this question is prob- 
ably one of fineness of subdivision, although the tendency of the 
particles of the pigment to form agglomerates may also affect it. 

The particles are extremely small, below the resolving power of 
the microscope. Indications are that the average size of the parti- 
cles of carbon black is about 100 millimicrons. Microscopic exami- 
nation indicates that the particles of long blacks are slightly larger 
than those of short blacks, although the apparent difference in size 
may be due to the effect of diverse surface conditions on the diffrac- 
tion of light. Exact measurements of the size of the particles have 
not been made; they would involve the counting of the number of 
particles in a small volume containing a known weight of black of 
known density, the measurement of the deflection in an electric field, 
and other measurements. 

Dark ground illumination with the ultracondenser has proved to 
be the most satisfactory method of examination for most purposes. 
Examination by transmitted light in the ordinary manner does not 
distinguish between single particles and small agglomerates of par- 
ticles; it is of advantage in showing up large agglomerates or par- 
ticles of grit, and serves to show the relative opacity of the blacks. 
In general the higher the percentage of carbon in a black the blacker 
it looks under the microscope. Well-calcined lampblacks are more 
opaque than carbon black or than lampblacks containing much 
volatile matter. 

Under the microscope freshly prepared mixtures of thin litho- 
graphic varnish with short and with long carbon black at first appear 
precisely similar. They consist of ultraparticles, or of agglomerates 
of two or three particles. After a few minutes, however, a decided 
difference is apparent. The short black has begun to agglomerate 
into groups of 20 or 30 particles, and in an hour over a htmdred may 
be grouped together. These agglomerates are held loosely together 
and may be dispersed by pressing down on the cover glass, but they 
come together again in a few minutes. 

The long black on the contrary remains completely dispersed after 
several hours. Plate XI, A, shows a short black 18 minutes after 
preparation on the slide, Plate XI, £, shovrs the same black after 2 
hours. Plate XII is the same as Plate XI, B, but magnified 2,000 
diameters. A and B, Plate XIII, show a long black after several 
hours, magnifications 500 and 2,000, respectively. The concentra- 



CARBON BLACK- 

tion of black in oil < 
oil. 

Long blacks are 
fl&me, a method thi 
It seems probable i 
particles from f^l 
been found that if f 
the occluded mattei 
mixture in oil and 
Conversely, if a de 
dilute alcoholic soh 
has evaporated, it 
amount of untreati 

The tendency to 
acter of the vehich 
viscous varnish no 
Small amounts of 
glomeration even i 
dency to agglomen 
lampblacks as a ru 
the tendency to ag| 
in the behavior of c 
and the particles of 
of the particles m 
made of the size c 
blacks. 

Under the microi 
bon black look muc 
more opaque than t! 
of carbon in the pa 
coarse material tha: 
ably due to a diffe 
possibly a differeno 
m surface energy a 
difference in surfaci 
ftdsorbed gases and 
dition obtains. Cal 
removing too much 
produces a black t 
shows lampblack at 

Blacks which giv( 
particles than those 
Buriace per unit wei 
given consistency. 



MPBLACK. MAGNIFIED SOO DIA 



CARBON BLACK — ITS MANUFACTUBE, PROPBRTIBS, AND USES. 79 

tion of black in oil on the slide is about 1 part black to 1,000,000 parts 
oil. 

Long blacks are usually made with cylindrical burners and a cool 
flame; a method that tends to produce a black high in volatile matter. 
It seems probable that these absorbed impurities prevent the carbon 
particles from agglomerating. In support of this conclusion, it has 
been found that if a long black be treated with steam at 500° C. so that 
the occluded matter is burned off, the black forms a distinctly thicker 
mixture in oil and is seen to be agglomerated under the microscope. 
Conversely, if a definite quantity of a short black is treated with a 
dflute alcoholic solution of tannin and mixed with oil after the alcohol 
has evaporated, it makes a much more fluid mixture than an equal 
amount of untreated black. 

The tendency to agglomerate is modified materially by the char- 
acter of the vehicle in which the blacks are suspended. In a thick 
viscous varnish no agglomeration is noticeable after several hours. 
Small amounts of metal soaps in a thin varnish tend to cause ag^ 
glomeration even in the long blacks. Lampblack shows the ten* 
dency to agglomerate fully as much as do short carbon blacks, yet 
lampblacks as a rule make long inks. It is evident, therefore, that 
the tendency to agglomerate does not entirely explain the difference 
in the behavior of different blacks; surface forces between the vehicle 
and the particles of black probably play a part, and of course the size 
of the particles must be of importance. Measurement should be 
made of the size of particles of various carbon blacks and lamp- 
blacks. 

Under the microscope lampblack and the different grades of car- 
bon black look much alike. Lampblack is sometimes a little blacker, 
more opaque than the carbon black, probably according to the amount 
of carbon in the particle. Some blacks have a larger percentage of 
coarse material than others, but the divergence in properties is prob- 
ably due to a difference in the constitution of the ultra particles, 
possibly a difference in size, in attraction between the particles, and 
in surface energy at the oil-black interface. In carbon blacks the 
difference in surface condition is apparently due to the presence of 
adsorbed gases and combined oxygen. In lampblacks a similar con- 
dition obtains. Calcining a lampblack at too high a temperature and 
removing too much of the empyreumatic matter and adsorbed gases 
produces a black that makes a short mk. Plate XIV, A and B, 
shows lampblack at 500 and 2,000 diameters, respectively. 

Blacks which give long ink then probably consist of slightly larger 
particles than those which make a shorter ink, hence exposing less 
surface per unit weight and requiring less oil to form a mixture of a 
given consistency. Furthermore, difference in surface conditions. 



80 CARBON BLACK — ITS MANTTFAOTUBE, PBOPERTIBS, AND USES. 

due to the fact that long blacks contain a high percentage of ad- 
sorbed gases, probably influences the properties of the mixture of the 
black with oil. Microscopic examination of dilute mixtures of black 
and oil shows one effect of this difference in surface conditions, in the 
tendency of the blacks containing little adsorbed impurities to ag- 
glomerate, while the blacks containing large amounts of volatile 
matter remain dispersed. 

This discussion of the properties of mixtures of carbon black and 
oil has been speculative and little experimental evidence has been 
presented; but it is hoped that the discussion will stimulate interest 
in the problem and further investigations. 

STTHMABY. 

It has been pointed out in this paper that the present process of 
making carbon black recovers only a small percentage of the carbon 
in the gas, yet no other process in practical operation produces a 
material with properties similar to carbon black. Inability to 
secure carbon black would deal a serious blow to the printing indus- 
try, and would probably inconvenience rubber manufacturers and 
others. On accoimt of the diminishing supply of natural gas, 
developmental work should be conducted on more efficient methods 
of manufacture and production from other materials. The problem 
is not an easy one, and developmental work should probably not 
endeavor to improve the present process but should investigate 
entirely new methods, as for example, the decomposing of gas or of 
^ other hydrocarbons in the absence of air. The uses of carbon black 
have also- been discussed, testing methods have been explained, and 
a brief account has been given of preliminary work on microscopic 
and chemical differentiation of blacks giving '^ong" and ''short'' 
inks. 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

ThiB bibliography was compiled in March, 1919. Additional references were later 
secured from a bibliography on lampblack by the Carnegie Library of Pittsbuigb. 

In abridgments of specificationB of English patents in the English patent office 
for the periods 186&-66, 1867-76, 1877-83, 1884-88, 1889-92, 1893-96, 1897-1900, 
1901-04, 1906-08, lampblack is covered by class 90. 

1844—1874. 

BoTTBNBERo, J. H. Apparatus for the manufacture of lampblack. U. S. patent 

163234, July 21, 1874. Has a revolving, water-cooled cylinder with burners on 

interior. 
Clark, Edward. Improvement in the manufacture of lampblack and colophane. 

U. S. patent 6001, Jan. 2, 1849. Manufactures lampblack and colophane by 

heating resin. 
Child, R. 8. Utilization of coal tar. U. S. patent 32753, July 9, 1861. 
Farrar, Alonzo. Apparatus for the manuftu^ture of carbon black. U. S. patent 

164467, August 25, 1874. Has a rotary water vessel with a stationary scraper. 



CABBON BLACK — ^ITB MASnTFAOTUBE, PBOPEBTIBSy AND X7SE8. 81 

HowARTH, John. Mamiftictiire of carbon black from Datmal carburetted hydrogen 

gaa (natuial gas). U. 8. patent 131446, Sept. 17, 1872. ReisBUe 6837, Feb. 22, 

1876. A pan of water is placed upon a soapstone slab to reduce the temperature 

of the carbon black that is deposited. 
LuNDORBN, J. £. Mode of pulverizing and preparing for use, coal, etc. U. S. 

patent 42257, April 5, 1864. Production of a substitute for lampblack by pul- 
verizing carbonaceous material by means of a ball mill. 
Matlack, Mahlon. Improved apparatus for the manufacture of lampblack. U. S. 

patent 759431, Mar. 24, 1868. 
MiLLOCHAU, Adolph. Manufacture of lampblack. U. S. patent 72068, Dec. 10, 1867. 

Condenses carbonaceous vapors upon a surface that is directly over a flame and 

is kept cool by artificial means. 
Manufacture of lampblack. U. S. patent 84131, Nov. 17, 1868. Lampblack 

IS placed in a vessel containing oil to be burnt, and a wick is not used as it often 

becomes gummed from collection of tar. 
Mini, J. G. Improvement in making lampblack. U. S. patent 3824, Nov. 13, 1844. 
Pbrlbe, R. N. Manufacture of lampblack. U. S. patent 72078, Dec. 10, 1867. 

Introduces a current of air from pump to burner in which oil is burned. 
Prskatt, AuotrsTus. Improvement in the manufacture of lampblack. U. S. jMtent 

60493, Oct. 17, 1865. ' 
RooBRS, John. Improvement in apparatus for making lampblack. U. S. patent 

146951, Jan. 27, 1874. 
Roth, J. A. Making lampblack. U. 8. patent 17519, June 9, 1857. 
Tatt, a. H. Manufacture of carbon black for pigment. U. S. patent 148776, Mar. 17, 

1874. Carbonization of sugar, starch, etc. 

1875—1884. 

Bu>OD, £• R. Machine for making carbon or gas black. U. S. patent 269378, Dec. 
19, 1882. A scraper curved to conform more or less to a peripheral section of 
the cylinders and attached by its middle to a crosshead adapted to be moved 
back and forth between the cylinders. 
See alio Hallock, J. K. 

GoRNBLL, J. M. Improvement in lampblack appatatus. U. S. patent 210672, Dec. 10, 
1878. 

Dinqlbb's polytbchnisghes Joubnal. Ueber die Gewinnung von Lampenschwarz 
aus nattirlichen KdhlenwMSorotoffen. Bd. 231, 1878, pp. 177-178. 

Dybart, J. T. Apparatus for manufacturing carbon black. U. S. patent 266953, 
Oct. 31, 1882. Usee a depositing suiface that consists of a metallic surface faced 
with asbestos. 

Faloonbb, William. Machine for the manufacture of carbon black. U. S. patent 
277472, May 15, 1883. ConsistB of stationary burners, rotating horizontal table 
pericnated for ventilation, Btati(»iary sectional scraper, receptacle for receiving 
black, and conveyor for removing carbon black from receptacle. 

Falbs, L. S., and Nbff, Peteb. Manufacture of lampblack. U. 8. patent 160759, 
March 16, 1875. Made from acid sludge by treating first with steam to remove 
add and subsequently burning recovered oils by the use of wicks. 

Obntblb, J. G. Lehrbiech der Farbenfabrikatfon. 1880. 661 pp. 

Hallock, J. K. Machines for making lampblack. U. 8. patent 195709, Oct. 2, 1877. 
A circular depositing plate and revolving burners are inclosed in a hood for regu- 
lating the supply of air to burners. 

Hallock, J. K., and Blood, Z. R. Machines for making lampblack. U. S. patent 
205955, July 16, 1878. A revolving cylinder ananged above burners so that the 
flame will impinge upon the exterior surface of the cylinder and deposit carbon. 

Hbumann, R. Presence of carbon particles in the flame. Ann. Ghem., vol. 181, 
1876, p. 129; vol. 182, 1876, p. 1; vol. 183, 1876, p. 102; vol. 184, 1876, p. 206. 



82 OABBON BULCK — TTA MANT7FA0TUBS, PBOFXRTIBS, AJSTD VSRS. 

HowABTH, John.' Appaxatiu lor the manu&ctuie of lampblack. U. S. patent 

161039, March 23, 1875. Uses soapstone tile as deposition surface for carbon, 

movable bumers, and moving saraperB. 
Mallet, J. W. Lampblack from natural gas, 1880* United States Centennial 

Oommiaedon, International exhibition 1876. Reports and awards group, vol. 4, 

p. 111. 
Neff, Peter, and Fales, L. S. Improvement in apparatus for the manwfarture 

of carbon or lampblack. U. S. patent 159440, Feb. 2, 1875. ' 
. Manufacture of lampblack. U. S. patent 160786, Mar. 16, 1875. The com- 
bined burning of carbonaceous gases and crude petroleum or dead oils. 
. Improvement in gas burners for the manufacture of lampblack. U. S. x)atenta 

160787 and 160789, Mar. 16, 1875. 
. Manufacture of lampblack. U. 6. patent 160788, Mar. 16, 1675. The carbon 

black burners are placed in cells, the bells or domes of which are enveloped with 

a wire gauze. 
. Improvement in apparatus for manufacture of lampblack. U. S. patents 

162492 and 162679, Apr. 27, 1875; 163027, May 11, 1875; 166036, Aug. 24, 1875. 
. Lampblack apparatus. U. S. patent 162679, April 27, 1875. Relates to the 

installation of funnel-shaped hoods above burners. that are connected to a bag 

house to catch flocculent carbon black that is carried away by fumes. 
-^ . Lampblack apparatus. U. S. patent 166936, Aug. 24, 1875. Apparatus 

having a convex depositing surface, with burners located beneath which are 

adjustable in order to facilitate the removal oi black. 
. Apparatus for making hunpblack. U. 8. patent 163027, May 11, 1875. The 

use of condensing domes located over carbon black burners whereby the surface 

is always maintained coqI. 
. Apparatus for manufacture of lampblack. U. S. patent 162492, April 27, 

1875. Consists of a suitable burning chamb^ that is connected to a water tank 

containing two or more flues. 
. Gas bumen for the manufacture of lampblack. U. 6. patent 160787, March 

16, 1875. Describes an improvement in a gas burner used in TnalriTig carbon 

black. 
. Gas burners for the manufacture of lampblack. U. S. patent 160789, March 

16, 1875. Relates to burner employed in the manufacture of carbon black. 
Manufacture of lampblack. U. 8. patent 172046, Jan. 11, 1876. Description 

of a new design of gas burner used in making carbon black. 
Scrapers for lampblack apparatus. U. 8. patent 176476, Apr. 25, 1876. A 

number of stiff inflexible metallic scrapers attached at one extremity to a rigid 

body. 
Scrapers for lampblack apparatus. U. 8. patent 176477, Apr. 25, 1876. 

Describes a vertical spring-pressed metallic scraper having flanged working 

extremities and loosely hinged to opposite sides of the cross bar. 
Improvement in the manufacture of lampblack. No. 172046, Jan. 11, 1876; 

improvement in scrapers for lampblack apparatus, U. 8. patents 176476, Apr. 25, 

1876; 176477, Apr. 25, 1876; 176478, Apr. 25, 1876. 
Scrapers for lampblack apparatus. U.S. patent 176478, Apr. 25, 1876. Over- 
lapping metallic scrapers, flexible and elastic in themselves, and curved upward 

from a rigid bearing. 
Machinery for making hunpblack. U. S. patent 197396, Nov. 20, 1877. The 

depositing surface is attached to a car or vehicle whereby it may be moved relative 

to burners. 
Apparatus for the manufacture of lampblack. U. 8. patent 221417, Nov. 11, 

1879. A compartment provided with adjustable openings in floor to r^fulate the 
• passage of air. 

See alio Falea, L. 8. 



84 CABBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTUBE, PBOPBBTIBSy AKD USES. 

Dietrich, Tobias. Lampblack machine. U. S. patent 431881, July 8, 1890. A 
machine for preparing carbon black is in an inclosed chamber in which an end- 
less metallic belt is arranged as the depositing surface. 

Drbter, Robert. Apparatus for the manufacture of lampblack. U. S. patent 
444315, Jan. 6, 1891. Manufactures carbon black with tne simultaneous gene- 
ration of steam. 

Dysart, J. T. Apparatus for manufacturing carbon black. U. S. patent 343446, 
June 8, 1886. Introduces gas into a carbonaceous liquid through a series of small 
openings, then conducts gas to burners, and carbon black is deposited on con- 
densing suriaces. 

Ester, G. L. Lampblack machine. U. S. patent 507220, Oct. 24, 1893. A machine 
having two accumulator wheels arranged in a common horizontal plane, and each 
having toothed edges. Wheels are moved by a worm gear that simultaneously 
intermeshes with toothed peripheries of both wheels. 

Ester, H. J. C. Lampblack machine. U. S. patent 486097, Nov. 15, 1892. The 
carbon is deposited upon the inside and outside of the rim of a revohing wheel. 

Irvine, Robert. Condensation of carbon particles in smoke. Jour. Soc. Chem. 
Ind., vol. 9, 1890, pp. 1110-1112. 

James, J. E. Lampblack or carbon-black machine. U. S. patent 521797, June 26, 
1894. Apparatus with a collecting plate having an air vent opening and a damper 
for governing opening that is automatically controlled by the scraper. 

KoHLER, Hippoltt. Die Fabrikation des Russes und der Schwarze, 1889. 105 pp. 

Lanoville, L. S. Carbon product. U. 8. patent 475062, May 17, 1892. 

McNutt, L. J. Hydrooarbon-gas-black machine. U. S. patent 481240, Aug. 23, 
1892. The carbon is deposited upon moving channel irons, which are automati- 
caily scraped. 

MgTiohe, J. J. Apparatus for manufacturing lampblack. U. S. patent 346168, 
July 27, 1886. Comprises a depositing chamber, with means of cooling same in 
combination with a retort wherein hydrocarbon vapors may be decomposed. 

Manufacturing carbon black. U. S. patent 346169, July 27, 1886. Pro- 
ducing carbon black from gas by the action of intense heat without combustion 
of gas. 

Neff, Peter. Apparatus for manufacturing lampblack. U. S. patent 314706. 
Mar. 31, 1885. Stationary burners are used and a horizontally rotating table, 
the imder surface of which is concave. 

Apparatus for manufacturing lampblack. U. S. patent 314707, Mar. 31, 

1885. Gas is burned under a horizontal rotating turntable mounted on flanged 
wheels that travel on a circular track. 

Apparatus for manufacturing lampblack. U. S. patent 319604, June 9, 1885. 

The apparatus is provided with a horizontally rotating suriace constructed to 
form an inverted chamber for the reception of carbon dioxide. 

Apparatus for the manufacture ctf lampblack. U. S. patent 319605, June 

9, 1885. The machine is equipped with a revolving black collector mounted on 
a hollow shaft, which is provided below collector with lateral openings and is 
used as a ventilating chimney. 

Apparatus for the manufacture of lampblack. U. S, patent 319606, June 



9, 1885. Relates to a machine in which a collector is mounted on a hollow stand- 
ard that revolves around an upright stationary column. 
Oppler, T. Die Unfallverhutungs-Austellung in Berlin in ihrer Bedeutung fflr 
die chemische Industrie: Chem. Ind., vol. 12, 1889, p. 532; (Lampblack manu- 
facture)— abstract— Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., vol. 9, 1890, p. 272. 



CARBON BI^GK — ^ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPBRTIBS, AND USES. 86 

Rerdox, p. F. Hydrocarbon-gaa-black machine. U. S. patent 523945, July 31, 
1894. The machine has deposit rings having a semicircular underface, and an 
annular groove around the periphery of the top. The rings have ratchet teeth 
in the bottom of the groove. 

Rhodes, S. L. Lampblack machine. U. 8. patent 497d86, May 16, 1893. The 
machine has tt concave depositing surface and a reciprocating carriage supported 
in proper relation to surface and to burners mounted on carriage. 

Salbero, Swain. Apparatus for making lampblack. U. S. patent 486127, Nov. 
15, 1892. The depositing surface is V-shaped for collecting the carbon. 

SoHBBMBSHORN, D. M., ScHERMBRHOBN, P. V., and ScRERMBRHORN, 8. P. Appa- 
ratus for the manufacture of gas black. U. 8. patent 489332, Jan. 3, 1893. 
Carbon black is deposited upon a T-shaped he&m. The scraper box moves 
along this depositing surface, but both beams and burners are stationary. 

SicrTHELLS, Arthur. Note on the structure of luminous flames. Jour. Chem. Soc., 
vol. 61, 1892, pp. 2i7-226. 

SicrrHBLLS, Arthitr, and Ikolb, Harrt. The structure and chemistry of flame. 
Jour. Chem. Soc., vol. 61, 1892, pp. 204-216. 

Waoner, RvnoLFH VON. Manual of chemical technology, 1892, 968 pp. 

Wilson, John. Apparatus for manufacturing lampblack. U. S. patent 346973, 
Aug. 10, 1886. 

189&-1904. 

Bersch, Jobbf. The manufacture of mineral and lake pigments. 476 pp., 1901 

Cabot, Samuel, l^rocess of recovering flocculent carbon. U. 8. patent 581391, 
Apr. 27, 1897. Consists in treating Uie carbonaceous residues ^m the manufac- 
ture of prussiates with an aqueous solution of a mineral acid, 

Frank, Adolph. Process of making carbon pigment. U. S. patent 682249, Sept. 
10, 1901. Consists in reacting on a carbide of a metal with an oxide of carbon. 

HouzE, Luc, and Dh£, Charles. An apparatus for making lampblack. U. S. 
patent 668045, Feb. 12, 1901. An apparatus with a combustion chamber, a col- 
lecting plate in the chamber being provided with a damper for controlling the air. 

HuBON, E. Le noir d'acetylene et ses derives, 1900. M6m. Soc. Ing. Civ. France, 
1900, pt. 1, p. 680. 

HuBou, L. J. E. Process of making lampblack. U. S. patent 671672, Apr. 9, 1901. 
Consists in exploding acetylene under pressure out of contact with air by means 
of an electrical, chemical, or calorific source of energy. 

Process of making lampblack. U. S. patent 673185, Apr. 30, 1901. 

Jaubert, G. F. Acetylene and the manufacture of mineral black. Scientific Am. 
Supp., vol. 48, 1899, p. 19905. 

^NN, J. H. Apparatus for making carbon black. U. S. patent 706430, Aug. 5, 
1902. The apparatus has a horizontally disposed shaft and carbon-collecting 
wheels that have wedge-shaped peripheries. 

Machine for making lampblack. U. S. patent 754471, Mar. 15, 1904. The 

apparatus has a reversible plate on a pivotal support. Both sides of the plate 
form depositing surfaces. 
^NN, J. L. Lampblack machine. U. S. patent 654171, July 24, 1900. The ap- 
paratus has as the depositing surface a corrugated roller that is exposed to a flame, 
and has means for scraping rollers. 

""" — - Lampblack apparatus. U. S. patent 706429, Aug. 5, 1902. The machine is 
Qiade up of a horizontal series of members mounted to rotate in individual par- 
allel vertical planes, that are separated by vertical interspaces, each member 
^ing arranged with its peripheral edge over the flame. 
OoiLEz, D. J. Process of producing lampblack. U. S. patent 706001, July 29, 1902. 
Parry, E. J., and Coste, J. H. The chemistry of pigments, 280 pp., 1902. 



86 CARBON BLACK ^ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 

PoBSGH, F. W. ApparatuB for the manufacture of carbon black. U. S. patent 726341, 

Apr. 28, 1903. A Tnachlne provided with a depodting-plate comprising two rings, 

each having beveled feces and the outerlying ring elevated above the inner ring. 
Reardon, p. F. Apparatus for making lampblack. U. S. patent 663395, Dec. 4, 

1900. A machine having horizontal revolving deposit plates arranged in two 

rows provided with burners and scmpera. A hopper extending the entire length 

of the rows carries aWay accumulated carbon. 
Sanders, J. F. Apparatus for making lampblack, U. S. patent 660973, Oct. 30, 1900. 

Production of lampblack. Sci. Am. Supp., vol. 48, 1899, p. 19600. 
THALwrrzER, R. Manufacture of soot by combustion of a mixture of gases with hydnn 

carbon vapors. British patent 22567, Nov. 11, 1899. 
Weoelin, Gottfried. Appardtus for manufacturing lampblack, U. S. patent 

664916, Jan. 1, 1901. Apparatus for making lampblack, U. S. patent 688215, 

Dec. 3, 1901. 
Process of making lampblack. U. S. patent 673185, Xpr. 30, 1901. Consists 

in compressing a column of flame to a smaller cross section, by means of an 

annular radial current of air applied against the flame. 

Process of making lampblack. U. S. patent 680093, Aug. 6, 1901. A proces 



of manufacturing lampblack and controlling the specific gravity of the product 
which consists in controllably abstracting heat from the flame of combustion by 
passing the flame through a restricted cooling flue that is cooled externally at 
determined points varying with the quality of product desired. 
Williams, J. J. Automatic lampblack machine. U. S. patent 601389, Mar. 29, 1898. 
A machine having a frame, a series of depositing plates, each provided with a 
cooling chamber on its upper surface, a series of collectors movably mounted 
under plates, and a conveyor for removing accumulated carbon. 

1005-1914. 

AcHBSON, E. 6. Method of treating amorphous bodies and product thereof. U. S. 
patent 1082386, Dec. 23, 1913. 

American Gaslight Journal. Lampblack — a composite paper by several memben. 
Vol. 87, 1907, p. 620. 

Andes, L. £. Treatment of paper for special piuposes, 1907. 

Arsem, W. C. Transformation of other form of carbon into graphite. Trans. Am. 
Electro-chem. Soc. vol. 20, 1911, p. 105. Chem. Eng. vol. 14, 1911, p. 400. 
Jour. Ind. Eng. Chem. vol. 3, 1911, p. 799. 

Bone, W. A. Gaseous combustion. Chem. News, vol. 97, 1908, pp. 196-8, 212-6; 
vol. 102, 1910, pp. 271-73, 284-6, 297-B, 309-11, 323-^; vol. 112, 1915, pp. 211-7, 
223-5. Trans. Royal Soc. London, vol. 215, 1915, pp. 273-318. Jour. Chem. 
Soc. vol. 87, 1905, p. 910, 1236, vol. 89, 1906, p. 652, 660, 939, 1614. 

Bosch, K. Manufacture of lampblack from hydrocarbons or their mixtures by decom- 
position, German patent 268291, July 14, 1911. Method of obtaining soot from 
hydrocarbons such as acetylene, German patent 270199, Feb. 8, 1913. 

Butler, D. B. Lampblack production and uses. Min. and Eng. World, vol. 35, 
1911, pp. 864-865. 

Cabot, G. L. Lampblack and carbon black. Eighth Intemat. Cong, of App* 
Chem., vol. 12, p. 13-31, 1912. On the preparation of carbon blacks from natural 
gas in America. Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., vol. 13, 1894, pp. 128-130. 

Davey, C. W. B. et al. Treatment of brine at low temperatures and manufacture of 
lampblack. British patent 5685, Mar. 13, 1908. 

Davis, W. H. Lampblack machine. U. S. patent 859750, July 9, 1907. A machine 
having a cylinder as the depositing surface. Air is forced through the cylin<I^ 
and discharged into a combustion chamber. 



CABBON BLACK — ^IT8 MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIBS, AND USES. 87 

DiFPBNBACH, O., and Moldbnhauer, W. Improving lampblack by means of oxidiz- 
ing agents. German patent £63292, Feb. 18, 1912. 
DoTLB, H. L. CoUodial suspension of graphite. Jour. Fhys. Chem., vol. 17, 1913, 

p. 390. 
Fabadat Sogibtt. Colloid^ and their viscosity. A general discussion, including 

papers by Wd|gang Ostwald, Victor Henri, Wollgang Paule, H. Freundlich, 

and Emil Hatschek. Transactions, vol. 9, 1913, p. 34-107. 
Fbrnbkbs, Gustavb. Method of producing carbon or lampblack. U. S. patent 

' 1066894, July 8, 1913. Consists in subjecting methane to a temperature of not less 

than 1,300*» C. 
Frank, Adolf. Gewinnimg von Russ imd Graphit aus Acetylen und Metallcarbiden. 

Chem. Ztg., vol. 29, pt. 2, 1905, p. 1044. Abstract translation, Joiur. Soc. Chem. 

Ind., vol. 24. pt. 2, 1906, p. 1117. 
Fbost, W. H . , and Joshua J . Nix . Process for the production of carbon black together 

with combustible gas, U. 8. patent 977000, Nov. 29, 1910. 
GoLLMBST, Max. Process of manu&cturing finely divided or amorphous carbon 

from mixtures of hydrocarbons and CO or CO2. German patent 212202, Nov. 1, 

1907. 
Hbrman, £. Breaking down light hydrocaibons with exclusion of air. German ^ 

patent 290883, Oct. 23. 1914. 
HuBST, G. H. Painters' colors, oils, and varnishes. 1913. 519 pp. 
Journal or Gas Liohtino. Influence of surface decomposition of hydrocarbons. 

Vol. 106, 1909, pp. 300. 

Methane equilibrium. Vol. 117, 1912, p. 21. 

EoppBBs. Process of separating carbon from hydrocarbons by passing through 

heated retorts. French patent 356,351, July 24, 1905. 
Lampblack, I/td. Lampblack from incomplete combustion of oil. British patent 

17223, July 14, 1912. 
Machtolf, Josbf. Apparatus for manu&cturing soot from hydrocarbons by rupture 

with electric sparks. British patent 14601. 1906. 
Process for the production of amorphous carbon. U. 8. patent 872949, Dec. 3, 

1907. Heating an explosive mixture of hydrocarbon gases to their ignition 

temperature. 
Apparatus for producing carbon. U. S. patent 872950, Dec. 3, 1907. Igniting 



an explosive mixture of hydrocarbons. A conduit connects the decomposition 
chamber with the collecting compartment. 

Apparatus for making lampblack from hydrocarbons by rupture with electric 



sparks. German patent 194301. 1908. Apparatus for making amorphous carbon 
by decomposition of hydrocarbons. German patent 207520. 1909. Process of 
making lampblack with very valuable properties. German^ patent 194939. 
1908. 

Carbon and hydrogen by explosbn of hydrocarbons. British patent 13685, 
1909. 

Mairb, Frbdbbick. Modem pigments and their vehicles. 266 pp. 1908. 

Maibbb, Franz. Apx>ara.tus for making oil-fuel lampblack. German patent 203711. 
1909. 

Lampblack. German patent 288990, Mar. 10, 1914. 

Mann, J. L. Apparatus for making lampblack. U. S. patent 865603, Sept. 10,4907. 
A machine with a carbon collecting member having a continuous surface, the dif- 
ferent portions of which are exposed successively to a flame and provided with 
flanges forming a flame g^ard. 

Matbr, M., and Altmatbr, Y. Synthesis of methane with calcium hydride. Ber. 
Deut. chem. Gesell., Jahrg. 41, 1906, pp. 3074r-3080. 



88 CARBON BLACK — ITS ^MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIBS, AND USES, 

MoBBHBAD, J. M. Piocew of making lampblack from acetylene. U. S. patent 
779728, Jan. 10, 1905. Consists in exploding mixture of acetylene and oxygen 
that has been compressed. 

Process of dissociating acetylene. U. S. patent 986489, Mar. 14, 1911. 

OaiLVY, D. J. Process of producing black or dark carbonaceous pigments. U. S. 
patent 785696, Mar. 21, 1905. Impinging carbonaceous flames produced by a 
moving source on the surface of water in a stationary condition. 

Process of producing carbonaceous pigments. U. S. patent 813911, Feb. 27, 

1906. Impinging carbonaceous flames, produced by a moving source on water 
in a state of motion. 

Plaussn, H. Pure finely divided carbon from coal or wood charcoal. British 

patents 17729, 17731, 17732, 1913. 
PicTET, R. p. Preparation of hydrogen and lampblack from acetylene. German 

patent 255733, Oct. 22, 1909. 

Continuous production of hydrogen and carbon from acetylene. Britieh 

patent 24256, Oct. 19, 1910. 

PuRTLB, A. D., and Rowland, I. E. Process of making carbon black. U. S. patent 
866883, Sept. 24, 1907. Subjects gas under pressure in closed retort heated to 
800° C. until the gas is decomposed and carbon is deposited in a flocculent 
condition on the interior walls of the retort. 

Apparatus for producing carbon black. U. S. patent 877596, Jan. 28, 1908. 

For the thermal decomposition of gas in which the hydrogen is utilized in heating 
the decomposition chamber. 

Redwood, Boverton. Petroleum, 1906. Discusses lampblack, p. 698. 
Rt)TGEBSWBBKE, Akt-Gesell. Procoss of manufacturing lampblack from mineral 

coal tar. German patent 208600, May 24, 1908. 
Sadtler, S. P. Industrial organic chemistry, 601 pp., 1912. Discusses lampblack, 

p. 31. 
Salbero, Swain. Apparatus for making lampblack. U. S. patent 801743, Oct. 10, 

1905. A series of annular pans, each with a ring of gear teeth around ita upper 
end ; the teeth of one pan matching with teeth of another so that when the driving 
mechanism is connected to one pan it will be transmitted throughout the series. 

Sharts, T. P. Apparatus for producing carbon. U. S. patent 819606, May 1, 1906. 
Siemens & Co. Production of lampblack. German patent 295517, 1914. 

Soci^t^ Anon . des combustibles Industrie Is. Pure carbon from hydrocarbens 

such as coal tar, tar oil, etc. German patent 291727, Feb. 3, 1914. 

Smfth, J. E. Process for obtaining carbon black from peat. U. S. patent 916049, 

Mar. 23, 1909. 
Snee, J. A. Method of producing carbon black. U. S. patent 1036362, Aug. 20, 

1912. Consists in passing a stream of hydrocarbon gas horizontally through a 

highly heated flame-excluded zone with a lower temperature at the bottom than 

at the upper part. 
Stewart, G. W. Resistance temperature coefiicient and the coefficient of expansion 

of lampblack. Phys. Rev., vol. 26, 1908, p. 333. 
Stutler, B. B. The laigcst lampblack factory, Oil and Gas Jour., vol. 10, pt. 1» 

1911, p. 2. 
SwBEKT, J. M. Machine for making carbon black. U. S. patent 836948, Nov. 27, 

1906. Has a horizontal plate upon which gas flames are directed at an acute 
angle. 

Thieme, Bruno. Electric production of lampblack. Ztschr. Elektrochem., vol. 
18, 1912, p. 131. 

Electrical deposition of lampblack from flame on a wire screen. German 

patent 256675. Jan. 11, 1912. 



90 CABBON BLACK— rrs MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIES, AND USES- 

Gabner, J. B. The chemical poesibilities of natund gas, Proc. Nat. Gas. Assoc, of 

America, vol. 10, 1918, p. 136-169, Nat. Gas and Gasoline Jour., vol. 12, 1918, pp. 

319-330; Gas Age, vol. 41, 1918, pp. 56^-560; Am. Gas. Eng. Jour., vol. 108, 1918, 

pp. 48&-496, 505-^08; Chem. Eng., vol. 26, 1918, pp. 245-254. 
Geer, W. C. Compounding rubber with lampblack, U. S. patent 1245700, Nov. 6, 

1917. 
Gerard, J. M. Process for the manufacture of caxbon black and lampblack. U. S. 

patent 1278137, Sept. 10, 1918. 
Hamilton, W. R. Trap for saving gas at oU wells. Tech. Paper 209, Bureau of 

Mines, 1919, p. 21. 
Hbrshman, p. R. Comminuted carbon and process of making same, U. S. patent 

1188936, Jan. 27, 1916. 
HiRT, L. E. Manufacture of carbon or lampblack. U. S. patent 1264796, Apr. 30, 

1918. Making carbon black by enriching burning-gas with oil vapors. 
HuTCHTNS, T. W. S. Manufacture of lampblack. U. S. patent 1309070, July 8, 1919. 

Making lampblack from tar or oil. 
Lewis, G. C. Method of treating finely subdivided ma^ierial. U. S. patent 1263082, 

Apr. 16, 1918. 
Malisoff, W., and Eoloff, G. Methane. A very complete review of the literature. 

Jour. Pbys. Chem., vol. 22, 1918, pp. 529-575. 
McCoiTRT, C. O., and Ellis, C. Gas black and hydrogen from methane. U. S. patent 

1276385, Aug- 20, 1918. 
Mitchell, C. A., and Hepworth, T. C. Inks, their composition and manufacture, 

1916. 266 pp. 
MoTT, W. R. Process of manufacturing lampblack. U. S. patent 1259121, Mar. 12, 

1918. Process of producing carbon black by heating a mixture of methane gas and 

carbon tetrachloride. 
Process of purifying lampblack and making carbon articles. U. S. patent 

1303362, May 13, 1919. Lampblack is heated in the presence of carbon tetra- 
chloride. 
National Petrolettm News. Carbon-black plants follow discovery of gas in More- 
house Parish, La. June 11, 1919. p. l/nL 
OoiLVT, D. J. Carbon pigment base and process of making same, U. S. patent 1268142, 

June 4, 1918. 
Oil and Gas Journal. Carbon-black industry is opposed by Smith, vol, 16, 1918, 

p. 32. 

Gas wasted in production of carbon black, vol. 17, 1918, p. 48. 

Pike, R. D. Lampblack refuse purification. Canadian patent 181082, Dec. 1$, 
1917. 

Carbon and method of manufactiuing same. U. S. patent 1262251, 

Apr. 9, 1918. Method of purifying lampblack refuse by washing, roasting, and 
pulverizing. 

Carbon and method of recovering same from the waste product of oil cracking. 



U. S. patent 1285363, Nov. 19, 1918. Recovering lampblack from refuse product 
of oil-gas manufacture by washing, roasting, and pulverizing. 

SoHWKUEER, V. The distillation of resins and the preparation of resin products, 
reeinates, lampblack, printing inks, etc. , 1917. 212 pp. 

Slater, W. £. Influence of different surfaces on the decomposition of methane. 
Joiu-. Chem. Soc., vol. 109, 1916, pp. 160-164. 

Sn .jxinq. W. O. Lampblack. U. S. patent 1213915, Jan. 30, 1917. Apparatus for 
making carbon black by projecting a flame upon a depositing siuf ace that is main- 
tained at a temperature slightly above 100° C. 

SzARVAST, E. Retort carbon by dissociation of methane. U. S. patent 1199220, Sept. 
26, 1916. 



92 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTUKB, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 

* 

Technical Paper 158. Compressibility of natural gas and its constituents, vrith 
analyses of natural gas from 31 cities in the United States, by G. A. Buirell and I. W- 
Robertson. 1917. 16 pp., 9 figs. 

Technical Paper 185. Use of the interferometer in gas analysis, by F. M. Seibert 
and W. C. Harpster. 1918. 18 pp., 1 pi., 5 figs. 

Technical Paper 209. Traps lor saving gas at oil wells, by W. R. Hamilton. 1919. 
34 pp., 3 pis., 16 figs. 

Technical Paper 253. Effects of gasoline removal on the heating value ci natural 
gas, by D. B. Dow. 1920. 23 pp., 2 figs. 

Technical Paper 257. Waste and correct use of natural gas in the home, by 8. S. 
Wyer. 1920. 23 pp., 7 figs. 

PUBLICATIONS THAT MAT BE OBTAINED ONLY THROUGH THE SUPBB- 

INTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS. 

Bulletin 120. Extraction of gasoline from natural gas by absorption methods, by 
G. A. Burrell, P. M. Biddison, and G. G. Oberfell. 1917. 71 pp., 2 pis., 15 figs. 10 
cents. 

Bulletin 151. Recovery of gasoline from natural gas by compression and refrigera- 
tion, by W. P. Dykema. 1918. 123 pp., 15 pis., 15 figs. 25 cents. 

Bulletin 165. Bibliography of petroleum and allied substances in 1916, by E. H. 
Burroughs, 1919. 159 pp. 20 cents. 

Bulletin 176. Recent developments in the absorption process for recovering gaso- 
line from natural gas, by W. P. Dykema. 1919. 90 pp., 20 pis., 30 figs. 25 cents. 

Technical Paper 72. Problems of the petroleum industry, results of conferences at 
Pittsburgh, Pa., August 1 and September 10, 1913, by I. C. Allen. 1914. 20 pp. 
5 cents. 

Technical Paper 87. Methods of testing natural gas for gasoline content, by G. A. 
Burrell and G. W. Jones. 1916. 26 pp., 7 figs. 5 cents. 

Technical Paper 104. Analysis of natural gas and illuminating by fractional distilla- 
tion in a vacuiun at low temperatures and pressures, by G. A. Burrell, F. M. Seibert, 
and 1. W. Robertson. 1915. 41 pp., 7 figs. 5 cents. 

Technical Paper 109. Composition of the natural gas used in 25 cities, with a dis- 
cussion of the properties of natural gas by G. A. BuireU and G. G. Obeifell. 1915. 
22 pp. 5 cents. 



.^ 



92 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACrUKB, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 

* 

Technical Paper 158. Compressibility of natural gas and its constituents, with 
analyses of natural gas from 31 cities in the United States, by G. A. Buixell and I. W. 
Robertson. 1917. 16 pp., 9 figs. 

Technical Paper 185. Use of the interferometer in gas analysis, by F. M. Seibert 
and W. C. Harpster. 1918. 18 pp., 1 pi., 5 figs. 

Technical Paper 209. Traps for saving gas at oil wells, by W. B. Hamilton. 1919. 
34 pp., 3 pis., 16 figs. 

Technical Paper 253. Effects of gasoline removal on the heating value ci natural 
gas, by D.B.Dow. 1920. 23 pp., 2 figs. 

Technical Paper 257. Waste and correct use of natural gas in the home, by S. S. 
Wyer. 1920. 23 pp., 7 figs. 

PUBLICATIONS THAT MAT BE OBTAINED ONLY THROUGH THE SUPER- 
INTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS. 

Btdletin 120. Extraction of gasoline from natural gas by absorption methods, by 
G. A. Burrell, P. M. Biddison, and G. G. Oberfell. 1917. 71 pp., 2 pis., 15 figs. 10 
cents. 

Bulletin 151. Recovery of gasoline from natural gas by compression and refrigeni- 
tion, by W. P. Dykema. 1918. 123 pp., 15 pis., 15 figs. 25 cents. 

Bulletin 165. Bibliography of petrolemn and allied substances in 1916, by E. H. 
Burroughs, 1919. 159 pp. 20 cents. 

Bulletin 176. Recent developments in the absorption process for recovering gaso- 
line from natural gas, by W. P. Dykema. 1919. 90 pp., 20 pis., 30 figs. 25 cents. 

Technical Paper 72. Problems of the petroleum industry, results of conferences at 
Pittsburgh, Pa., August 1 and September 10, 1913, by I. C. Allen. 1914. 20 pp. 
5 cents. 

Technical Paper 87. Methods of testing natural gas for gasoline content, by G. A. 
Burrell and G. W. Jones. 1916. 26 pp., 7 figs. 5 cents. 

Technical Paper 104. Analysis of natural gas and illuminating by fractional distilla- 
tion in a vacuiun at low temperatures and pressures, by G. A. Burrell, F. M. Seibert, 
and 1. W. Robertson. 1915. 41 pp., 7 figs. 5 cents. 

Technical Paper 109. Composition of the natural gas used in 25 cities, with a dis- 
cussion of the properties of natural gas by G. A. Buirell and G. G. Obexlell. 1915. 
22 pp. 5 cents. 






92 CARBON BLACK — ^ITS MANUFACTURE, PROPERTIES, AND USES. 

Technical Paper 158. Compreesibility of natural gas and its constituentB, with 
analyses of natural gas from 31 cities in the United States, by G. A. Buxrell and I. W. 
Robertson. 1917. 16 pp., 9 figs. 

Technical Paper 185. Use of the interferometer in gas analyBis, by F. M. Seibert 
and W. C. Harpster. 1918. 18 pp., 1 pi., 5 figs. 

Technical Paper 209. Traps for saving gas at oil wells, by W. B. Hamilton. 1919. 
34 pp., 3 pis., 16 figs. 

Technical Paper 253. Effects of gasoline removal on the heating value €i natural 
gas, by D. B. Dow. 1920. 23 pp., 2 figs. 

Technical Paper 257. Waste and correct use of natural gas in the home, by S. S. 
Wyer. 1920. 23 pp., 7 figs. 

PUBLICATIONS THAT MAT BE OBTAINED ONLY THROUQH THE SUPER- 
INTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS. 

Bulletin 120. Extraction of gasoline from natural gas by absorption methods, by 
G. A. Burrell, P. M. Biddison, and G. G. Oberfell. 1917. 71 pp., 2 pis., 15 figs. 10 
cents. 

Bulletin 151. Recovery of gasoline from natural gas by compression and refrigera- 
tion, by W. P. Dykema. 1918. 123 pp., 15 pis., 15 figs. 25 cents. 

Bulletin 165. Bibliography of petroleum and allied substances in 1916, by E. H. 
Burroughs, 1919. 159 pp. 20 cents. 

Bulletin 176. Recent developments in the absorption process for recovering gaso- 
line from natural gas, by W. P. Dykema. 1919. 90 pp., 20 pis., 30 figs. 25 cents. 

Technical Paper 72. Problems of the petroleum industry, results of conferences at 
Pittsburgh, Pa., August 1 and September 10, 1913, by I. C. Allen. 1914. 20 pp. 
5 cents. 

Technical Paper 87. Methods of testing natural gas for gasoline content, by G. A. 
Burrell and G. W. Jones. 1916. 26 pp., 7 figs. 5 cents. 

Technical Paper 104. Analysis of natural gas and illuminating by fractional distilla- 
tion in a vacuum at low temperatures and pressures, by G. A. Burrell, F. M. Seibert, 
and 1. W. Robertson. 1915. 41 pp., 7 figs. 5 cents. 

Technical Paper 109. Composition of the natural gas used in 25 cities, with a dis- 
cussion of the properties of natural gas by G. A. BuireU and G. G. Oberfell. 1915. 
22 pp. 5 cents. 



94 



INDEX. 



E 

Page. 

Ely, R. T., work cited 47 

Engines, efficiency of 49 

Evans, — , patent of 58 

F. 

Factories. See Carbon black plants. 

Femekes, O ., carbon-black process of 5 

patent of 57 

FieUner, A. C, acknowledgment to... «. 54 

Fire hazards, in handling carbon black 42 

Flue, gases, in channel plants, analyses of . . . 26 

losses of black in 44 

Frost, —, and Nix, —, patent of. 58 

Fuchs A Lang Mfig. Gq., acknowledgment to. 54 

Fuel oil, use in carbon-Mack mannfactore 44 

O. 

Gases, cracking of, carbon black ftom 58 

in carbon black, analyses oL 76 

composition of. 42 

Qas oil, use of in carbon-black manufacture . . 44 

Qas weQ, open flow of, deflnition of 10 

Gardner, H. A., acknowledgment to 54 

Gamer, J. B., acknowledgment to 54 

work cited 58 

Gears used in carbon-black plants, details of . 3^-36 

flgurashowlng 34 

pitch of. 35 

General Manifold A Printing Co., acknowl- 

edgmentto 54 

Glass flBCtories, value of natural gas used at. . . 48 

GoOmert, —, patent of 58 

Grit in carbon black, test fbr 63 

H. 

Hartman, F., acknowledgnunt to 2 

Henhman, —, patent of. 58 

Hiding power of paints, test for 63 

HoUem, J. A., acknowledgment to 2 

Hoppers in channel plant, details of 18 

HulettyG. A., acknowledgment to 75 

on carbon Mack from charcoal 60 

I. 

IBaminating gas, prodnotton of carbon black 

from 41 

Ink, carbon black for manufacture of 56,60 

printing, tesU oL 65-67,68-71 

viscosity of , tests ot 67-30 

propertieBOt 60 

8u al90 Adhesion; Agglomeration; 

Cohesion; Viscosity. « 

J. 

Jaenecke-Ault Co., acknowledgment to 54 

Jamcr, J, B., acknowledgment to 2 

Jones, W. E., acknowledgment to 2 

K, 

Knapp, F. M., aeknowtodgmeDt to 2 

Koliler,H., on prodoctlon of lamp black.... 40 



L. 

Page. 

Labor costs at carbon-black plants 43 

Lamp black, analyses of 72,73 

as substitute for carbon black 42 

microphotographs of. 79 

microscopic structure of 79 

oil mixtures of, viscosity of 70 

properties of. 55 

use in printer's ink of. 60 

"Length" of printing inks, deflnition of 77 

Lewis, J. 0., acknowledgment to 2,51 

Levey, F. H., acknowledgment to 54 

Linseed oil, viscosity of. 70 

Long black, analyses of 72 

microphotographs of 78 

production of 79 

Louisiana, carbon-black plants in, yield of. . 37 

manufacture of carbon black in 7 

natural gas fhmi, analysis of 12 

utilization of 46,47 

M. 

MacMichael, R. F., work cited 68 

Mann, J. H., acknowledgment to 2 

Martin, L., manufiicture of carbon black by. 4 

MoCourt, —, and Ellis, —, patent of 58 

McKlnney, W. M., acknowledgment to 2 

McNutt, L. J., acknowledgment to 2 

manufacture of carbon black by 4 

McTlghe, — , patent of 57 

Methane, decomposition of in combustion ... 56 

Mittag & Volger, acknowledgment to 51 

Moisture, absorption by carbon black of 77 

in carbon black, test for *. 64 

Morehead, — , patent of 58 

Morrill Co., G. H., acknowledgment to 54 

Mott, —, patent of 58 

N. 

Natural gas, analyses of 12 

carbon-black oontent, testing apparatus 

fbr 13 

for, figure showing. is 

view of 14 

chlorlnatlon of, carbon black fhmi 58 

combustion of , mode of 55 

economic utilization of, factors govern- 
ing 46,47,51 

low pressure, utilization of. 50 

recovery of gasoline Iktmi il 

State restrictions on carbon-black mann* 

facturalrom 45 

supply, importance of 10 

transportation of, capital investment for . 51 

value for different purposes 48 

wastes of , definition of 46 

yield of carbon black from 53 

Su aUn Louisiana; Wyoming. 

Neal, R. O., acknowledgment to. 63,54 

wcrkeited 12 

Neff , Peter, manufacture of carbon black by . 4 

Nelson, Oscar, acknowledgment to 2 



I 



Bdklhm 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

ALBERT B. PALL. Sbcrstary 

BUREAU OF MINES 

H. POSTER BAIN. DotscTOR 



ANALYSES OF MINE AND CAR SAMPLES OF COAL 
COLLECTED IN THE FISCAL YEARS 

« 

1916 TO 1919 



BY 



ARNO C. FIELDNER, WALTER A. SELVIG 

and J. W. PAUL 




WASHINGTON ' 
QOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1922 



The Bureau of Mines, in carrying out one of the proviaionB of its organic act — tc 
sminate information concerning investigations made — prints a limited free edition 
of each of its publications. 

When this edition is exhausted, copies may be obtained at cost price only through 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. 0. 

The Superintendent of Documents is not an official of the Bureau oj Minei, His 
is an entirely separate office and he should be addressed: 

Superintendent of Documents, 

Government Printing Office, 

Wuhington, D. C. 

The general law under which publications are distributed prohibits the giving 
of more than one copy of a publication to one person. The price of this publication 
is 35 cents. 



First edition, June, 192t. 
II 



j CONTENTS. 

I Page. 

• Sampling and analytical methods 1 

Introduction 1 

Acknowledgments 2 

Collection of samples 3 

Method of mine sampling followed by Bureau of Mines. 1 3 

Collection of car samples 3 

Method of sampling followed by the United States Geological Survey. . 3 

Relation of mine samples to commercial shipments 4 

Analytical methods 5 

Preparation of laboratory samples 5 

Determination of moisture 6 

Ash determination 6 

Determination of volatile matter 6 

Method 6 

Modified method for lignites and subbituminous coals 6 

Use of the electric furnace 8 

Determination of fixed carbon 8 

Sulphur determination 8 

Determination of carbon and hydrogen 8 

Nitrogen determination 9 

Determination of calorific value 9 

Interpretation of analytical results 9 

Proximate analysis 10 

^N. Moisture content 11 

V^ Ash YM •• 1^ 

^ Inherent impurities 11 

Extraneous impurities ^ 12 

« Volatile matter and fixed carbon 12 

> Sulphur 13 

J ^ Forms of occurrence in coal 13 

t Ultimate analysis 14 

\^ -,_ Calorific value 14 

-J Descriptions of samples 14 

Classification of coal 15 

" ;^™ulated analyses 16 

^. Description of samples 108 

/: Alabama %••-►. 1^8 

' " Bibb County 108 

^^r Jeffereon County 108 

' ; Shelby County Ill 

/, Alaska : 113 

Arctic coast 113 

^'^ Innoko district 113 

::^ in 



IV CONTENTS. 

Description of samples — Continued. 

Alaska — Gonti nued . Page. 

Matanuska field 113 

Ghickaloon River district 113 

Eska Creek district 114 

Mooee Creek district 115 

Nenana field 116 

Arkansas 119 

Franklin County 119 

Sebastian County 119 

Washington County 124 

California 124 

Amador County 124 

Mendocino County 125 

Monterey County 125 

Colorado 126 

Boulder County 126 

Delta County 127 

El Paso County 128 

Gunnison County 130 

Huerfono County " 131 

Las Animas County 131 

Mesa County 138 

Ouray County 138 

Pitkin County 139 

Routt County 139 

Weld County 142 

Idaho 143 

Fremont County 143 

Teton County 143 

Illinois 143 

Christian Coimty 143 

Franklin County '. 144 

Perry County 150 

Saline County 152 

Williamson County 152 

Indiana 154 

Greene County - 154 

Kqox County 156 

Pike County 157 

Sullivan County 157 

Vermilion County 161 

Vigo County 162 

Kansas 164 

Cherokee County 164 

Crawf(Mrd County 164 

Kentucky 165 

Christian County 165 

Letcher County 166 

Webeter County '. 1 67 

Maryland / 1 68 

Alli^any County 168 ' 

Garrett County 182 



CONTENTS. V 

Description of samples — Continued. Page. 

MiflsisBippi 191 

Choctaw County 191 

Montana ^ 192 

*Bighom County T 192 

Broadwater County , 192 

Carbon County 192 

Gallatin County 1 94 

MuBBelahell County 194 

Phillips County 195 

Nevada 195 

Mineral County 195 

New Mexico 195 

Rio Arriba County 195 

San Juan County 196 

Socorro County 198 

North Dakota 198 

Ward County 198 

Williams County 199 

Ohio 200 

Columbiana County 200 

Je ff erson County 207 

Oklahoma ^ 211 

Coal County T 211 

Haskell County 214 

Latimer County 218 

Le Flore County 221 

Pittsburg County 225 

Sequoyah County 231 

Wagoner County 231 

Oregon 231 

Coos County 231 

Pennsylvania ^ 233 

Allegheny County * 233 

Beaver County 237 

Blair County 237 

Butler County 238 

Cambria County 240 

Clearfield County 256 

Je£ferson County 267 

Somerset .County 258 

Tennessee 263 

Morgan County 263 

Texas 263 

Webb County 263 

Virginia 265 

Lee County 265 

Montgomery County 265 

Pulaski County 266 

Russell County 268 

Tazewell County 268 

Washington 278 

Kittitas County 278 



VI COKTEKTS. 

Description of samples — Continued. 
Washington — Continued . 

Lewis County 279 

Thurston County 280 

Whatcom County .' _ 281 

West Virginia 281 

Brooke County 281 

Fayette County 283 

Grant County 286 

Hancock County 288 

McDowell County 291 

Marion County 321 

Marshall County 328 

Mercer County : 329 

Mineral County 339 

Mingo County 339 

Ohio County 340 

Preston County 341 

Raleigh County 342 

Rand(dph County 351 

Wyoming County 351 

Wyoming 352 

Lincoln County ' 352 

Bibliography 353 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Figure 1. 10-c. c. platinum crucible for determining volatile matter 6 

2. Electric furnace for determination of volatile matter 7 



ANALYSES OF MINE AND CAE SAMPLES OF COAL COL- 
LECTED IN THE FISCAL YEABS 1916 TO 1919. 



By Abno C. Fieldner, Walter A. Selvig, and J. W. Paul. 



SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS. 

By Arno C. Fieldner. 



IlTTEODXTCTIOir. 

Many mine samples of coal are analyzed each year in the labora- 
tories of the Bureau of Mines. The analyses are made in connection 
with investigations relating to fuels belonging to or for the use of 
the United States Government, the causes of accidents in coal 
mines, the geologic relations of coal beds, and the quality and the 
value of the coal and lignite in the public lands. The systematic 
collection and analysis of such samples in connection with fuel 
investigations was begun in 1904 at the Government fuel-testing 
plant at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and was under the 
direction of the United States Geological Survey for six years. 
Descriptions of the coal samples collected between the beginning of 
this work, July 1, 1904, and the transfer of the fuel-testing and 
mine-accident investigations to the Bureau of Mines, July 1, 1910, 
were compiled and published in Bureau of Mines Bulletin 22. ^ 
Descriptions and analyses of samples collected during the fiscal years 
1911 to 1913 were published in Bureau of Mines Bulletin 85.' 
Descriptions and analyses of samples collected during the fiscal years 
1913 to 1916 were published in Bureau of Mines Bulletin .123. ' 

The present bulletin presents analyses and descriptions of samples 
collected during the fiscal years 1916 to 1919. In order that the 
material in this bulletin may be used to supplement that presented 
in Bulletins 22, 85, and 123, the same plan of geographical classi- 

1 Lord, N. W., and others, Analyses of coals in the United States, with descriptions of mine and field 
samples collected between July 1, 1004, and June 30, 1010: BolL 22, Bureau of Mines, 1012, 1,200 pp. 
(In two parts.) 

s Fieldner, A. C, and others. Analyses of mine and car samples of coal collected in the fiscal years 
1011 to 1013: Bull. 86, Bureau of Mines, 1014, 444 pp. 

I Fieldner, A. C, and others. Analyses of mine and car samples of coal collected in the fiscal years 
1013 to 1010: Bull. 123. Bureau of Mines, 1018, 478 pp. 

1 



2 ANALYSES OF COAL, 191«-1919. 

fication has been followed, the analyses and descriptions of the 
samples being grouped in alphabetical order according to the State^ 
county, and tovm near which the mines or prospects sampled are 
situated. 

ACKirOWIEDOXEHTS. 

Special acknowledgment is due to G. O. Smith, Director of the 
United States Geological Survey, and to M. R. Campbell, geologist 
in charge of the economic geology of fuels, for furnishing field 
descriptions of those samples collected by the geologists of the 
Survey. 

A number of the mine samples from Maryland were collected 
imder the direction of E. B. Mathews, director of the Maryland 
Geological Survey. 

A number of the mine samples from Illinois were collected under 
the direction of F. W. De Wolf, director of the Illinois Geological 
Survey. 

The collection of samples by the fuel-inspection section of the 
Bureau of Mines was under the direction of G. S. Pope, engineer. 
Samples designated by the letter W preceding the laboratory number 
were analyzed in the Washington laboratory of the bureau under the 
direction of J. D. Davis, chemist, and H. M. Cooper, chemist. 

The collection of mine samples and the gathering of mine data 
by the field engineers of the Bureau of Mines were under the direction 
of G. S. Rice, chief mining engineer of the bureau, who also reviewed 
the description of the method of field sampling. The descriptions of 
the mines and the sections of the coal beds were compiled by J. W. 
Paul, chief coal-mining engineer of the bureau, assisted by Hattie 
R. Sondheim, clerk, and Samuel Sanford, engineer. The chemical 
analyses ^ere made under the direction of A. C. Fieldner, chemist, 
and W. A. Selvig, assistant chemist, who were assisted by P. D. 
Osgood, assistant chemist; V. C. Allison, L. £. Ashim, C. L. Boyle, 
O. C. Brown, W. R. CoUette, C. W. Davis, H. A. Depew, L. R. 
Eckman, I. S. Guest, S. A. Harris, H. H. Hill, Wm. Hoffman, B. B. 
Kaplan, C. R. Locke, G. H. Mengel, G. E. Postma, J. I. Prest, C. S. 
Purcell, W. C. Ratliff, and B. B. Wescott^ junior chemists; W. E. 
Surbled, laboratory assistant; and A. D. Bauer, Morris Block, W. E. 
Demby, M. D. Gladstein, J. B. ^McGrael, J. Schlesinger, and P. D. 
Watson, laboratory helpers. The assistant and junior chemists and 
laboratory helpers were analjrzing coal samples for varying lengths 
of time, ranging from one month to three years. The computing 
of the analyses at the Pittsburgh laboratory was under the direction 
of R. A. Wood, assistant engineer. 



SAMPUNG AKD ANALYTICAL METHODS. 3 

COIIECTIOir OF SAMPLES. 

Samples designated by the letter A in the table of analyses were 
collected by representatives of the Bureau of Mines, in connection 
with the investigation of fuels belonging to or for the use of the 
Government, and with investigations of accidents in coal mines. 

The samples designated by the letter B in the table of analyses were 
collected by the United States Geological Survey in connection with 
the study of the geologic relations of the coal beds and the classifi- 
cation of public lands. Under this designation are also included a 
niunber of samples collected by the State geological surveys of Illinois 
and Maryland. 

METHOD OF HIKE SAHFLINa FOLLOWED BY BTTBEAtr OF MINES. 

The method of collecting mine samples by the Bureau of Mines 
involves selecting a representative face of the bed to be sampled; 
cleaning the face; making a cut across it from roof to floor, and 
rejecting or including impurities in this cut according to a definite 
plan as they are included or excluded in mining operations; reducing 
this gross sample, by crushing and quartering, to about 3 poimds; 
and immediat^y sealing the 3-poimd sample in an air-tight container 
for shipment to the laboratory.* 

COLLECTIOX OF CAB SAHFLES. 

The carload lots of coal shipped to Pittsburgh for test were sampled 
by taking definite quantities of coal at regular intervals from a car 
as it was unloaded, and by reducing to convenient size (about 50 
poimds) the gross sample thus obtained. The method of collecting 
and reducing car samples is given in detail in Bureau of Mines 
Bulletin 116.* 

METHOD OF SAMPLIXG FOLLOWED BY THE xmiTED STATES. 

aEOLOQICAL SUBVEY. 

In collecting mine samples the Geological Survey followed essen- 
tially the same method of sampling as that used by the Bureau of 
Mines. However, in sampling outcrops and prospect holes or coun- 
try banks when mining is not in progress, the geologist can not 
imitate the miner in rejecting or including impurities in the sample, 
and hence the sample from the cut across the bed includes all part- 
ings or bindings less than three-eighths of an inch thick and every 
concretion or ''sulphur ball" having a maximum diameter of less 
than 2 inches and a thickness of less than one-half inch. All other 
impurities in the bed are excluded from the sample. Obviously an 

4 Hohnes, J. A., The sampling of coal In the mine: Tech. Paper 1, Bureau of Mines, 1011, 18 pp. 
• Pope, Q. S., Methods of sampling delivered coal, and spedflcatioDs for purchase of coal for the 
Oovemment: Bull. 116, Bureau of Mines, 1916, 64 pp. 



4 ANALYSES OF COAL, 19lG-191d. 

arbitrary and uniform system of rejecting impurities is necessary 
for sampling outcrops, prospects, and imdeveloped mines. 

BELATIOir OF HIITE SAMPLES TO COHHEBCIAL SHIPMEirTS. 

In comparing analyses of mine samples and those of coal sliipped 
from a mine due allowance must be made for the larger proportion 
of impurities that may be included in the commercial operation of 
the mine. It is difficult in taking a mine sample to reject impurities 
exactly as the miner rejects them. The practice of different miners 
varies, especially if rigid inspection at the tipple is not enforced. In 
some mines, for instance, where the coal bed has friable partings or 
has a soft, flaky roof or floor, the inclusion of some foreign matter is 
imavoidable. Hence the analysis of the mine sample usually indi- 
cates a better grade of coal as regards ash content and heating value 
than the actual commercial shipments, and for this reason the mine 
sample should be considered as representing the coal that can be 
produced only under the most favorable conditions of mining and 
preparation. 

In commercial shipments that are sampled at their destination, 
the moisture content may be either more or less than that in the 
mine samples, the relative proportions depending on the amount of 
bed moisture, the size of the coal, and the weather conditions during 
transit. 

Coals containing 5 per cent or more of moisture tend to lose mois- 
ture while in transit, provided no rain or snow falls. Slack coal 
usually contains more moisture than the mine sample. Low-moisture 
coals shipped in open cars may gain or lose moisture, according to 
the weather conditions.* 

The calorific value, referred to moisture-free and ash-free coal, of 
samples taken from shipments at destination, tends to be slightly 
lower than that of the fresh mine samples from the same mine. 
The deterioration is caused mainly by absorption of oxygen from 
the air by the freshly exposed surfaces of* coal. The rate of deterio- 
ration varies with the different types of coal and depends on a nimiber 
of factors, chief of which are: (1) Size of coal, (2) proportion of sur- 
face exposed to circulating air, (3) duration of exposure, (4) tem- 
perature and humidity. 

It is therefore difficult to assign any definite values for deterioration 
of coal while in transit.^ A number of mine and car samples tested 

* For a oomponson of the moisture, ash, and sulphur contents of mine and car samples tested at the 
Umted States fuel-testing plant, St. Louis, Ho., see Burrows, J. S., The importance of uniform and syste> 
matio coal-mine sampling: U. 8. Oeol. Survey Bull. 816, 1907, pp. 400-fi60. For a discussion of moisture 
in coal deliveries, see Pope, G. B., Samplmg coal deliveries: Bull. 63, Bureau of Mines, 1913, p. 12. 

1 For data on deterioration of coal, see Porter, H. C, and Ovits, F. K., Deterioration and spontaneous 
combustion of coal in storage, a preliminary report: Tech. Paper 16, Bureau of Mmes, 1912, 14 pp.; Porter, 
H. C, and Ovitz, F. K., Deterioration in the heating value of coal during storage, Bull. 136, Bureau of 
Minos, 1917, 36 pp.; Parr, S. W., and Wheeler, W. F., The weathering of coal: University of Illinois Eng. 
Xxp. SUtion Bull. 38, 1900' 



SAMPLING AND ANALYTlCAt, METHODS. 5 

by the United States Qeological Survey and the Bureau of Mines 
showed the following average losses : 

Average loss in moislvre-free and ash-free calorific value of car sample as compared with 

that of mine sample. 

Kind of ooal. Per cent. 

Semibitumiiious, NewJtiver, and Pocahontas 0. 1 

Bituminous, Appalachian field 3 

Bituminous, Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri 8 

Subbituminous and lignite 1.3 

AITALTTICAL METHODS. 

The methods of analysis and the details of apparatus used by the 
Bureau of Mines in analyzing coal are fully described in Technical 
Paper 8 • of the Bureau of Mines. They are briefly summarized 
here, and certain changes in minor details, which are fully discussed 
in Technical Paper 76,* are described. 

PBEPABATIOX OF LABOBATOBY SAMPLES. 

Immediately after the sealed 3-pound can in which the sample is 
received at the laboratory has been opened, the contents are trans- 
ferred to a weighed sheet-metal pan, spread out to a depth of 1 inch, 
and at once weighed. The pan containing the sample is placed in a 
large drying oven in which a temperature of 30° to 35° C. is main- 
tained. Through this oven a current of warm air is made to flow 
by means of an ordinary desk fan mounted on top of the oven, and 
the sample is dried until the loss in weight between two successive 
weighings, made 6 to 12 hours apart, does not exceed 0.5 per cent. 
The total loss of weight is reported as ^[ air-drying loss.'' 

Immediately after the last weighing has been made the entire 
sample is quickly pulverized to 10-mesh size by being passed through 
a roll crusher. After having been mixed, the 10-mesh material is 
reduced with a riflae sampler to 500 grams. This 500-gram part is at 
once transferred to the porcelain jar of an Abb6 ball mill, which is 
sealed air-tight and rotated at the rate of 60 revolutions per minute 
imtil the coal is pulverized to 60-mesh size. 

This 60-mesh coal is emptied on a one-half-inch screen, which is 
vigorously shaken to detach the coal from the pebbles. The sample 
(approximately 500 grams) is then reduced to the final laboratory 
sample of approximately 60 grams by successive halvings with a 
small riffle sampler. The final sample is put through the 60-mesh 
sieve, and at once transferred to a 4-ounce wido-mouthed bottle, 
which is securely closed with a well-fitting rubber stopper. Any 

• Stanton, F. M., and Fieldner, A. C, Methods of analyzing coal and coke: Tech. Paper 8, Bureau of 
Ifines, 1913, 42 pp. 

" Fiddner, A. C, Notes on the sampling and analyses of ooal: Tech. Paper 76, Bureau of Mines, 1914, 
pp. 14-58. 



6 ANALYSES OP COAL, ldl6-l«ld. ' 

particles of coarse material remaining on the sieve are carefully 
rubbed down to 60-mesh size on a bucking board and are thoroughly 
mixed with the sample in the bottle. 

This air-dried sample is used in all analytical determinations. 

DETBBMINATION OF MOISTT7BE. 

The residual moisture in the air-dried sample is determined by 
heating 1 gram in a shallow porcelain capsule, seven-eighths of an 
inch deep and If inches in diameter, for one hoiur at 105^ C. in a 
constant-temperature oven through which a current of dry pre- 
heated air is rapidly passing. The air is dried by being passed 
through concentrated sulphuric acid. The covered capsule is cooled 
in a desiccator over sulphuric acid and then weighed. The loss in 
weight is called ''moisture at 105®" in the air-dried coal. 

ASH DETBBKZNATXON. 

The same sample is used for determining ash as was previously 
used for determining moisture. A porcelain capsule containing the 
sample is placed in a cool muffle and the temperature is gradually 
. raised to approximately 750® C. The ignition in 

^ ^ '^^ the muffle is continued, with occasional stirring 

of the ash, imtil all particles of carbon have dis- 
appeared. After the capsule containing the ash 
has been cooled in a desiccator it is weighed, and 
ignition is repeated until constant weight (0.0005 
gram or less) has been attained. 
_ , ,^ , ^ The ash content as determined by this method 

nam crucible for deter- represents the ignited mineral residue or "uncor- 
miniiicToiataeiiiatter. rected ash." 

BBTBBKZNATXON OF VOLATILE KATTBB. 

METHOD. 

A 1-gram sample of the fine (60-mesh) coal is weighed into a 
bright, well-burnished, 10-gram (10 c. c.) platinum crucible, a (fig. 1), 
with a close-fitting capsule cover, h. The crucible and contents are 
heated to a temperature of 950^ C. in a specially designed electric 
furnace of the vertical type (fig. 2) . After having been heated exactly 
seven minutes the crucible is removed from the furnace, cooled, and 
weighed. The loss in weight minus the weight of moisture determined 
at 105^ C. times 100 equals the percentage of volatile matter. 

MODIFIED METHOD FOB UOMITES AND SUBBITUMINOUS COALS. 

Lignites and coals high in moisture are heated at a low tempera- 
ture with a flame until all the moisture is driven out in order to 
avoid mechanical losses from material thrown out of the crucible by 




SAMPUNQ AND ANALYTICAL METHODS. 



P I itinutn- rhodium'' ■ — ^ — 

■-Blwtrlc tuniiM ftr d«t(niilii«tlaa ot voUtil» nutUc, 



8 ANALYSES OF COAL, 191ft-1919. 

the rapid escape of steam and volatile matter. " After this pre- 
liminary heating for four to six minutes the crucible is placed at 
once in the furnace at 950® C, and is heated for six minutes. 

It should be clearly imderstood that the volatile matter does not 
represent any definite compound in the coal. The method of deter- 
mination is wholly conventional^ and any variation in temperature or 
rate of heating will change the amount of volatile matter determined. 

USE OF THE ELECTRIC FUBNACE. 

Two specially designed electric furnaces of the vertical type (fig. 2) 
are connected in series and are controlled by a single rheostat. 
A cturent of 8 to 9 amperes is required to maintain the temperature 
of each furnace at 950° C. Under these conditions the drop in 
potential across the two furnaces is 60 volts. The life of the heating 
element under daily operation has been six to eight months. Each 
furnace contains a platiniun and platinum-rhodiimi thermocouple 
that is connected to a millivoltmeter through a double-pole, double- 
throw switch. The position of the hot jimctio^ in each furnace is 
so adjusted that the direct reading of the temperature scale of the 
millivoltmeter is the same as the maximum tempera^i^re attained 
inside the crucible as determined by another standardized couple 
whose hot junction is in contact with the bottom of the interior of 
the crucible. In making this comparison a nickel cover perforated 
for admitting the thermocouple leads is substituted for the usual 
platinum cover of lAie crucible. To avoid possible contamination 
of the thermocouple, 1 gram of ignited silica or alumina is used 
instead of coal. 

BETEBMINATION OF FDCBI) CABBON. 

The fixed-carbon content of the sample is determined by calcula- 
tion — ^by subtracting the sum of the percentages of moisture, ash, 
and volatile matter from 100. 

SULPHUR DETERMINATION. 

Sulphur is determined by the Eschka method. A 1.3734-gram 
part of the air-dried coal is mixed with 6 grains, of Eschka mixture 
in a No. 1 porcelain crucible and gradually heated in a muffle, with 
free access of air, until all the carbon has been consumed. The sul- 
phur is extracted with hot water, completely oxidized to sulphate 
with bromine water, and precipitated and weighed as barium sulphate. 

BETEBMINATION OF CABBON AND HYDBOQEN. 

Carbon and hydrogen are determined by the usual meUiod of 
combustion in a current of oxygen. A 0.2-gram part of the air-dried 
coal is burned in an electrically heated furnace of the Heraeus type. 

t* Lord, N. W., Experimental work conducted in the chemical laboratory of the United States foat 
testing plant at St. Louis, Mo.: U. S. Oed. Survey Bull. 323 (reprinted as Bull. 28, Bureau of Mines), 1011, pp. 
•-7. 



SAMPUNG AND ANALYTICAL METHODS. 9 

Complete oxidation is insured by passing the products of combustion 
over red-hot copper oxide. A layer of lead chromate, following the 
copper oxide, removes the sulphur. The water and carbon dioxide are 
absorbed and weighed in calcium chloride and potassium hydroxide 
solution, respectively. No correction is made for carbon or hydrogen 
from inorganic matter in the coal. 

NITBOQEN DETEBMINATION. 

Nitrogen is determined by the Kjeldahl-Gunning method. One 
gram of the air-dried coal is digested with 30 c. c. of concentrated 
sulphuric acid, 0.5 gram of metallic mercury, and 5 grams of potas- 
siimi sulphate until the carbon has been completely oxidized and all 
the nitrogen has been converted to ammonium sulphate. After 
dilution with water and precipitation of the mercury by the addition 
of potassiimi sulphide an excess of sodium hydroxide is added and 
the ammonia determined by distillation. 

DETEBIONATIOX OF CALOBIFIC VALUE. 

« 

The heat of combustion is determined with the bomb calorimeter. 
One gram of the air-dried coal is completely burned in compressed 
oxygen gas, and the total heat evolved is absorbed in a weighed 
quantity of water in which the bomb is unmersed. The rise in tem- 
peratiu*e of the water is measured with a thermometer that is grad- 
uated in himdredths of 1° C, and can be read, by means of a cathe- 
tometer, to 0.002*" C. 

Corrections are made for '^radiation losses," oxidation of nitrogen 
to aqueous nitric acid, and oxidation of sulphur dioxide to aqueous 
sulphuric acid. The calorific value obtained in this manner is the 
total heat of combustion with water vapor condensed to liquid water 
at the temperature of the calorimeter; that is, 20° to 25° C. 



INTEBPBETATION OF ANALTTICAL BESULTS. 



11 



The coal analyses reported in this bulletin are grouped in the usual 
manner, as follows: 

1. The proximate analysis, including results of determinations of 
moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash. 

2. The ultimate analysis, including results of determinations of 
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and ash. 

3. The calorific value, heating value, or heat of combustion. 

For many of the samples the analysis is given for three conditions, 
as follows: (1) As received at the laboratory, (2) computed to a 
moisture-free condition, and (3) computed^ to a moisture-free and 
ash-free condition. 

u See slao Fieldner, A. C, Note* on the sampling and analysis of cooT: Tech. Paper 76, Bureau of Mines, 
1014,pp.2a-fi7. 



10 ANALYSES OF COAL, 191^1919. 

At mines where two or more samples were taken and a composite 
sample obtained by mixing equal portions of the separate simiples, 
the analysis of the composite sample is given for the three conditions, 
because presumably the composite sample represents the coal in the 
mine better than any one of the separate samples. 

The analysis of the sample ''as received" (condition 1) represents 
the actual sample as received at the laboratory and, as for a mine 
sample, represents the coal at the point of sampling in the mine. The 
"moisture-free" analysis (condition 2) represents the relative compo- 
sition and heating value of the dry coal; this form of analysis is con- 
venient for comparing similar coals of variable moisture content. The 
''moisture-free and ash-free" analysis represents approximately the 
relative composition and calorific value of the dry organic or combus- 
tible matter. This form of analysis is only an approximation, because 
the ash does not have the same weight as the inorganic or incombus- 
tible matter in the coal. However, the error does not exceed 1.5 per 
cent in comparing coals that do not vary much in the character and 
amount of ash and sulphur. 

PBOXnCATS ANALYSIS. 

The proximate analysis of coal originated in response to the indus- 
trial demand for laboratory tests of the relative amoimts of certain 
compoimds, either present in the coal or derived from it, that effect 
its use as a fuel. These compounds are grouped by the proximate 
analysis as follows: 

(1) Water or moisture; (2) mineral impurities that remain in a 
somewhat altered condition, as ash when the coal is burned; (3) 
organic or combustible matter, which is approximately represented 
by the volatile matter and fixed carbon. 

MOISTURE CONTENT. 

The moisture in coal consists of (1) extraneous moisture, which 
comes from external sources, such as undei^ound waters trickling 
over the face of the coal bed, through the coal bed, and, in places 
going down the dip, from the coal shot down lying in water, condensa- 
tion from saturated mine air, or, as regards car samples, from atmos- 
pheric precipitation or from water used for washing the coal, and 
(2) inherent mositure, which is one of the products of the original 
vegetable matter from which coal is derived. 

Analysis does not differentiate between extraneous and inherent 
moisture, because in air-drying coal not only is the extraneous or 
superficial moistiu'e removed but also more or less of the inherent 
moisture, the amoimt depending on the fineness of the coal and the 
humidity of the air. The percentage loss of weight on air drying 



12 * ANALYSES OF COAL, 19lft-1919. 

EXTRANEOUS IMPURITIES. 

The percentage of ash derived from extraneous impurities varies 
considerably, depending on the nimiber and size of the partings in 
the bed, the possibility of separating them from the coal, and the 
care with which the coal is mined. Such impurities of this character, 
when in the form of ''slate' -or bone, may be remov.ed to some degree 
by suitable methods of washing, picking, or screening. The possibil- 
ity of improving the quality of coal by washing may be determined 
by the laboratory float-and-sink test already described. 

Coal ash, as determined, usually weighs less than the organic matter 
from which it is produced because of the loss of volatile constituents 
during ignition. Shale and clay lose their water of hydration; the 
carbonates are more or less decomposed, giving off carbon dioxide, and 
the iron pyrite is changed to ferric oxide, giving off sulphur dioxide, 
either to the atmosphere or to the free calcium oxide that has been 
formed from the carbonate. In coals containing calcium carbonate 
a large proportion of the sulphur may be retained in the ash as 
calcium sulphate. 

VOLATILE MATTER AND FIXED CARBON. 

The volatile matter and fixed carbon represent approximately the 
relative proportions of gaseous and solid combustible matter that are 
obtained from coal by heating it in a closed vessel. The volatile 
matter consists chiefly of the combustible gases hydrogen, carbon 
monoxide, and methane and other hydrocarbons, and some non- 
combustible gases, as carbon dioxide and water vapor. The volatile 
matter does not include the water that can be removed from the coal 
by heatmg it at lOS"* C. 

From the standpoint of the analyst, 950® to 1,000® C. appears to 
be the best temperature for the determination of volatile matter, as 
most duplicate determinations made within those limits agree within 
0.5 per cent. 

The residue of coke left in the crucible after the ash has been 
deducted is reported as "fixed carbon." The fixed carbon does not 
represent the total carbon in the coal, for a considerable part of the 
carbon is expelled as volatile matter, being in combination with 
hydrogen as hydrocarbon or with oxygen as carbon monoxide and 
carbon dioxide. Furthermore, fitxed carbon is not pure carbon. 
The carbonized residue contains, in addition to the ash-forming con- 
stituents, several tenths per cent of hydrogen and oxygen, from 0.4 
to 1.0 per cent nitrogen, and approximately half the sulphur that was 
in the coal. The terms "volatile matter" or "volatile combustible 
matter" and "fixed carbon" do not represent definite compoimds 
that existed in the coal before heating. The method of determination 



16 ANALYSES 01* COAL, l9l6-ldld. 

Subbituminoua coal is found in most of the western fields, being well known in the 
field about Boulder and Denver and in North Park, Colo.; Gallup, N. Mex.; Hanna, 
Douglas, Sheridan, and the Bighorn Basin, Wyo. ; Red Lodge and Musselshell, Mont., 
and in many of the districts of Washington and Oregon. 

Lignite, — ^As used by the Geological Survey the term ' ' lignite '' is restricted to the 
coals that are distinctly brown and generally woody. They are intermediate in 
quality between peat and subbitimiinous coal. Lignite is abundant in the North in 
eastern Montana and North Dakota and in the northwest corner of South Dakota. In 
the South it is present in all of the Gulf States, but it has been developed commercially 
only in Texas. 

TABULATED ANALYSES. 

On the following pages are given, the analyses of the samples of 
coal collected during the period covered by this report. 

In the first column of the table, locations of samples are, for brevity, 
not worded as in the detailed descriptions (pp. 108 to 352). 



li 



-awa 






!i 



[SI!!! 






TT 
-N-4 



m 



Hit I 



\ ns3g LJ«_LJti|| 



^^SEdii^^ i i i i igiiiS !sS ||' 






; a c s 3 s i i« 

: ^ c4 d c4 rt ; : 




ii 



S S 6 3 IsSS S I 

3 3 3 3 33Stf =■ = 



i ! J I SE S J SS?S 



: 3 ■ :: M:; : 3 3 i 



l«5 



Tsf 



jJHl 



nS33 



i«l 



m 



5531 



I I 8 : SSSC J 3 i 



25!3Mim55i2:5«i 









iiiii iill 




TABULATED ANALYSES: ALASKA. 

ii^iisi mm 



sSsSsS' '- Si-iSs 



P 



P 3 5S I p 






n 



ii 

nmHBHiit 

lit I 

liJi 



SSaciSsiiS J 



SKS6SSSS S S5S53 S5S*SS 


39« ^SX 9KSSKS3!!« 


<3S3SS$ :S r: ess .'S 33SSS : 


^^ \ -j^j ; old i«f^ :><* : 










?3:: = S : :3 IS 3S : :$ ESSE;S : ; 




_._,-„««- „ --.««- —_-.«„ 




-!■<■<■<■< ■<-;■<■< ■< <*i^^i 


««-«-«-< 


SI 11 11 Ilii 


1 1 1 1 i 







3. S 



HI 

I I § 
-MM. 'II 



n 



fii 

11 



20 



AKALYSGS OF COAL, ldl6-ldl». 



s 






•»I»I»0 






Ssiii§ESISii§Si§§SSiS§riSis§Si 

r* r» 00 r» r« » ao « r» « r« » <e « t« « t« t« ^ io r» lo lo r« « r» r« o « t^ 



*ssoi8a}lip^j{y 



Ok 



O 



e4 



e« 

•0 



fO 



o 



iJ 



'ObSIxo 



•IM80HIK 



'UoqiSQ 






• • • • « t 









2SS9SSS3S$ 






eo*oc4t»o 
MJ e4 CO •'S c5 n 






l*r c5 o(J ^ ^ ad 



'oaSoipiCH 






Mj U5 u5 id lo «S Mj *<5 «> 



u5 uj id »<5 io « 



'jniidins 



a 



•ipY 



•noq 









18 



$S :SS :S3 



t^'od 



s;8i 



odoi 









£ 



»in»IOA 






•MinspH 



S : 


:8 : 


:S : 


:9 : 


:S : 


:s : 


:S : 


:n 


'^ : 


:^ : 


!«J ; 


:^ : 


:^ : 


;<j ; 


:<d : 


:^ 



»<5 



p'nopTpooO 



•He«co^e9co«HMcOfHe«MF4e«co^e9CQ^e9eoi-4C«M«i4c«eo^e«eo 



I 



9'fniTH 



-< -< o 



^Hntuoqvi 



'(98«d)»M90O0ii|]| 



•o ^ 



I" 




8 



3 ! 






I 




MM 

♦• r 



22 



ANALYSES OF COAIi, 1»16-1»1», 






3 



*8)|TXniVUI 



•BdpoiBo 



^4 vH tH fH tH tH tH ^ i>« fH <-4 1-4 iM vH vH ,M tH f4 tH ^^4 f^ f-4 tH ^4 »-< Fi4 ^4 



t<>r« 00 r«r« oo»«- r« ac t^ r« oo lO ud 00 



§§§§3§Sgg§§§ 

t-riC«r»-V^»'t«rr«root*vrof 



*8i»i 8izpCjp-j|y 



6 



'naSJisiO 



TBoSoxfltl 



*izoqi«o 



*iio9azpXH 



» 



*jniid{RS 









■ « • • « 



6 



Si 



•qsy 



•aoq 
'X90 pdZM[ 






*ajii!|8ioH 



p*iionipQ03 •• 



»'pni3 



iCjO)tijoqiii 









So •t^cB 'Oo 

^d :«''^ isSS 












S«SSfH$^c«S«ScoSoS 
^^^p3^xie4^^cJ^u5e4c<3o(5 

,Hl-4l-4vHl-ii-4THfHlH«-lf-ll-4«-l«-lf-l 



o-«^a»caSoeoSDnt^p-« 

<Ot0QO<Pt«odt^t^od<d<DOS 



•«*• • 


:© • 


•fH • 


ia : 


.O • • 
• fH • • 


O • 


Ir- ' 


lo • 


is : : 


C4 • 


jpj : 


:e4 • 


|e4 1 




c4 I 


\A : 


;,4 : 


\ci 1 ;• 



f-icieov4e><eoi-4C«coi-4McqF-ic4eo 

' » " » ' 



F4e4cotHC9CQfHe«eoi-ic<eo 



^ ^ "^ i^ i»L 



< ^ ^ 



i>o 



QC 



^^^^fefe^^^^ 






'(oShMl) o 8»|ov eam 



2 



1-4 *H 



S S 8 



«0 

5 



00 
OQ 



8 



I 






1 

■a 



I 



i s 






a! 
St 



^l 



o 
;z: 



S 

I 

Ok 



1 !; I t 



o 



o 



I 

'S3 






o 

- 1 



8 



g 



I 









it 

I 



8 r 

^ S 



I I 



8^ fi 



« 



BE Co 






o 

S 

'a 






T.^55-J^ 5-„-5 n3'™-H-«-n-«-«-rf5'B- «-l-2- 5 rfrfrfn-rf»-rfn-Vrfn-™-«-™-«-«- I 



ssiss^ rS§ S3sii^^^^"§^ °S§ i 



Li ! ■ ■ " ■ Li ! 



5S2 



W5 



Ki: 



iiSiiiii I 

TTTTTTT: | 



i ;i: 



I 



ss ; s. ;»„ la. Is. i sa ; s sasjss ;s» la. 
■<a ;^^ jjd ;jj ;^,j jia )■' r ^-^^- - ■ ■ — 






:'" :" 



jlii 



!j:1B|1|gnS 



iwm 



liii Hi 1 11 a iiii i 1 1 

asas s s g a g g 



r 

III 5fti 



! 



Ill 



ill i i I 

ill 1 1 1 I 
I p 1 1 1 I 



24 



AJTALTSES OF COAL, 1016-1919. 






6 






*89poi«o 






h> r« 00 t»V» 00 <0 h> 00 (O (9 00 « <0 00 









^ « a^ 



'8801 8iif^ip-iiy 



a 



o 



ei 



'vaUIxQ 



•toJoj^in 



'noqjBQ 



'mSojp^H 



'jnqdiRg 



eoHd 



;;3SS9 



9SS 






iQOKio*ooiaaoA^iAGOQQooM 
e*ic4p«^caca«H*Hc«e4c4c«e4e4c4 






• • • 



f§3S 









• • ■ 



I 

K 



•qsY 



•aoq 
-j«3 pexu 



• in»lOA 



'onqspH 



3S^ 



eSa» 
e5o* 



3S 



S:9 

Sis 



So 



e>c5 



SS3 

po 









,H,H*Hp4rHe4p4l-4e«fH^C9iH^C« 






CO I 


loo : 


•S : 




!oo : • 


S : 


is : : 


e4 : 


:^ ; 


• • • 


:c4 : 


:^ : : 


ei \ 


• • • • 



sss 



S283 



So» v4 



oo 



I 



•^ 

s 



a 



p-Qopipiioa I •• 



apura 






^C^cowdeoi-icvmfHMMTHCico 



FKMeot-ie^eo 



JL 



n n 



£;: 



g g £^ ^ ^ 



•^«eo 



'(09«d) o ea^on oniji 



S9 S3 



Si S9 !3 



CI 



CI 



c« 



I 



S 



1 



ll 



9 

. M 

Si 






I 



a 

o 



I 



H 

S 8 









I 

i 



I I 
1^ 



S 






P I 

cot! '^ 

"I 



1 



o 

r 

1 



I 



95 
O 



^ 






JJ 



I 



2-a •» 

I' 1" 



1-9 



00 

I 



i" 

8 



;3 



ii 



3 S S SSS UU 

off or r.- rfoi- rf-TJ 



I; 



I I i IS ;•;-!- SI5sI;IIKv-5 I S; 



3 iiSii\\-W\?\p\ 



s^g^'-^a^sisa 



iJSl: 



I S S SS 85J 



s s: 



5 3l:5S:S|;5i^^i|^iK;; l\ 






l^^li 



mimwii^ 



i-!£S,„ 



i p p Pi i i i i i II 



sssssa sags 



II! if 



ii' 



MS h 

lip 



TABULATED AITAL' 










I 1 i iiii i i I i III i I 

= a s a 2sa 3 3 a s ass * s 




i 



f ' t ' 
ill 



I! 



y 




ii 



s !Ss!S^ 3'"S ss:^ ^iSz^ s^::~s sn 



liiBili- SIS SSJiSiJJIS 



ll 



5 53: 



Ki Hi iii iS 



mi 



Si iS 



Hi IS ill Hi 



blSSS 353 



i2i5;!i| 35 i 35i!IS!gS3 H 



itiii ii^ iii jS^« ^SliS ii 



Mii Ai iii iii^ uliii ii 



l^\\l\ 



iiliilP 



„.&v 



III I 



i 11 




i 



I } I IIIJI 1 11-5 III! ill 



IISKISiai 



Dl 



i!5 



: 3 ■ 



:=! 



Hi 



S55 



H2 



H3 555 



ill lid! 



HS S:Si 



3 2 3k;s 3 ia mi jss 



;;|i5iisgg;i g^lgisi 



III'lOA 



I I ^illi i ill tiii ill 



i§ll2 : 



an Hi 



maliiiW mm 



iiiil ill ill 

2 2 3 as a a a s a i 




11 



, it;f 



II i| 

I I 



TABULATED ANALYSES : lUJNOIS. 






523 



155 



m 



5S2 



11^ 

M 



I ni: 







«!<-l-l*! -! 



I I 



I I 



I I I I 




82 



3^ 



*8).pm pnix 



AHALTSES OF OOAL, l!m-m». 

\ \ \ U ' 



*89U0[«3 



§§&!§§§ ii§i§i§§si§ii§§§sS§ 



«ot^r»«ot^0O(O 



>(040(0<oi^ao40t«>o040t^oO(Ot^oo(Ot^oB 



*8S0i 8ii|iip-j]y 






1^ fdtZ^^t^ 






00 



CO 



'uaa^xo 



tib8oj;in 



a 



'aoqi«o 



'ooSojpiCH 



'jnqding 



wJaCcSM5ad» 



9!SS9SS8 



M S CO A ^Cf 






(^ oi oS 1^ a6 cS o a6 o <tf a6 oi «$ od oS 

»N *H ^4 pH *H 



{;^:3$8F:9SS9S!S;SSS 



• • • « 






Mj ^ Mj MJ ^ Uj m5^ mS m5 ^ Mj td ^ U$ 






d 

•43 

d 
o 



I 

H 
9 



•qsv 



'Qoq 



• in«l0A 



*9jn)S)0|| 






Hi 

I 



p-nonipaoo 



»-para 



Xjo^sjoqvq 



'(aSvd) o fiO|oa eoiH 



I 









3S; :9St; 

Oio •QOOk 









CQ oQ nco ra ^ CO 






s 



SS;8S8 

oSdcSoid 



9 



3 



8 



:S 



^ctcov^McotH ^r4i-4i-i*He«co<^etco<i4e«co»He««OF4M(o 



O O ^ -<-<-<'<"< 



QUO 



t8S& 



9 9 9 99999 9 9 9 9 

^4 ^4 ^4 «-«rH^4vi4^4 ^4 (-4 #^ v^ 



'S 

1 

^i4 

CO 

»4 

I 

I'l § 






oo 



1 1 1 



I 
1 



£- 

gS 



o 



S 8 S 



o 

M 



6 
8 



8 

4^ 

I 



a 



•a 



i 



% 1® 

' till! 

^ Ik 8 ^4i>*M 

5-^0 0^ 2, 

^ S<S«S4S«8 S 

O C^ 9 9 9 



•s 

1 



I ^ 

1 I 



•4 ^ 



00 



•S .S JS 



o 



« ^ 



i 

8 



8 i 



i 

V SmVWWWW 4g w w « 

OQ ^ (SOSlSinOD CS do do 00 



TABULATED ANAiT! 



S ESiSSI ISiSIS S SSiSIISSISii SjaSss 11163 I 



I 













■m^\ 



5SHI 






5ijiM;i iIIJ_L iiii"iN5:giHii 



I ill 11 



i 



!iim4 



I iiiii ill 




34 



ANALYSES OF COAIj, Idld-lftld. 



O 






'sopoieo 



I 04 f-i <-i CO ^ 04 •-«.-• ^^ CO •»• •-< ^4^H»H ^4^00^ »-• w* ^^ 



Ig*" 






*s80i 3ii|Xjp-2iy 



m 



CO cjvj^eo 









CO cococo , coco 



09 0< 



*iio8i£xo 



'naSoj^TK 



•noqj«o 



'neSaip^H 



'jnqdins 






)«d3 



S3S 






9 O 9 



$ss 



00 Ok Ok 






HoicS 



9Sf3 












a 

a 
o 









6 



2 



•qBV 



•noq 



'jo)!)eiiz 
OTMBIOA 



'oin^siOK 



o o£idoSoi6a» 



f' 00<D w 86 
<0 00 OOoOb 



q6 ooodoo f«>t^ao 









r* 
^ 



dr^oS 

as •><<'<» 



CndbocQ 



^ »oeo^S9ciS 
CO CO CO oo w ^ 






CO 



«$ ^ e» uS u$ <4« 

CO CO 00 TO ^CO 



00 CO CO 



CO coro w 



Ob 00 O^ 09 









0» 



eoocco 

oooooS 



SS3 

oSa» 



CD CO CD 






ra TOCO 



ej to'^ 



Cm 



cc 



p-uonipnoo 



apajX 



>Lio)«Joq«q 



.-• f-l>^*-4f-lCiTOi-1 tH .-I t-t W CO »H »H^^»-< r^*>4e4O0 »-• r^vH 



FQ pqpqpqpq n pQpQpq «<l <« « 



en £22^*'3J2 



»H OMCO "*«0 



^ -<-< 



CO TOPO 



'(ddvd) B9)OU OOIH 



S 



C4C4C4C1 

lomioio 



s 



CO eo CO 



^ ^^^ ::S;S 



3 :SS 



15 



1 



■§ 

Is 
IS 



^ — % 

s 



° 8 ?2^flb& 






OQ 

O 



o 

09 



io< 



a;?; STOIC'S 
c asSS o 

O u o o « o 

^ cSgDqdqq 



-ft 
ill 

00 S fl' 



^11 fl* 



(4 



I 

2 



a 

v 






s « a 5 g 

• O O p, 

fill 






r^ — ^ 

e 

5 









S 



o o 



§• 



"JIIJ 



si 

p 



I 



o 






8 ir ^ 



Fi 

* 



fl) ^D ^d ^3 49 49 

i 

00 



I HI 

llll 

7U 



I * o5 




l^^l 



S^2a82SS$S2=aS3 



Eis^rf :1a |-2 ;5S ; S- ;-!- :-*^ i-*"* :-i^ | 



"""'imstbJ]] 



s\^m\ 



Ml MS Ml i 



if iiii i 



ill i i i i i 



sss SSSSS 




I 



I : 



II "III 
I I 



mil 



I I I 



t i 

»j fimi 

I i 'I I I I " 



36 



AJS^ALYSBS OF COAL, 1916-1919. 









*6a)joi«3 






s s ^S SSgSS^S iSSS^S SIB Ss^ 

9 «0 (e*S Ok O M io ^ i-i MS »^<0«9i-tU3 ^lOtA to9i>4 



«o <o (0«o »o 00 00 to r« 00 40 ooor»ao«o «o«d«o 



»r*ao 



'8S0| 8uiXip-Jiy 



00 ^eo Ok 
a6 c6» ^ 



00 ^* 0000 



00 









'uoSixo 



*iro8ojifK 



» 



'uoqjvo 



'ao3ojpXH 



*jmi<I|n8 



<5uSido6odo» 



_• • « • • • 









^odoiS 












0606 oi 



$^a 



S£9 

SroS 






3 ^ S9 

• * • f 

^4 pH *i4«H 



^4 9i4*^C« 



«-J c< M ei eo »-J 



• t • • • • 



T3 

3 
Ci 

• iH 

a 
o 






•^ 

^ 






es 

S 

H 

O 



•qsy 



•noq 






1g 



*6 «{ r^«d clc4 



SS5 :S 



{:SoS3 

« « • • 
<or«t«ao 






d Cb OT Ob 

• • • • 

5 5 t?5 












O CO CO 00 

CO n coco 






ioS9oeoo 



WCOPS CO *•• ^ 





Mnisi»H 


(O 


14.32 
12.37 


11.39 
12.30 




• • 


t 


8SS i 




fe : : 




paoniPnoD 


•A 


f— f^ 


tH^4 


vHMCOvHMCOfX 


f-l fM *H 04 CO p^ p^vHpN 


i-<Cteo 


i 


ypum 


-^ 


•< -! 


■<■< 


-< 


< 


-< 


■<-«!•< 


-< <« 


-5 


1 


q'Oti 


m 


CO CO 


Mm 


i 

CO 


c3 


CO 


CO CO CO 


S3 SSSSS 


CO 


*(oS«<I) V so^oa onijt 


M 






^4 










*-• 



o 5 



I 



CO 



6 






^ 



-* •« ja fl 



3 ^ . SCO lA 



I 



•s 

O 

§ 
I 

< 
Q 



-It =t s 

. 1-t • C hTIi "St 



5 



•o 

o 

CO 



^•§*F 



OQ 



8^1 is 

ISeo S2 



5 



o 
5? 



d 



9 

> 



M 



CO 



3 
I 

I 5i.. 

I IP •• 
I III I 

M i ^Is i 






[CO 
! O 



Q b e 4) C. fl 

* S 2 . 5 S Q B 







OQ 



^2 



g h O O Q, 

Sid www 

5S g a> V O 

Pill 






m 



=■ = = ==5=33. ==-JSl = 5= = = 33" i i ;="=-= = = = sl=" = = 3S'3' ^ I 
I-H t ^ 

s lilies SI t iiiiii- 1 1 imiEsi iim j i 



: :p:3 



: ;;3l:53 : p 



fie 



is 



\Wi\ ips 



I 



l5i^ 



I M"° 



11 



i 



£ aSSSS? 83!83S99S3SSn8 SS8XS 



>.: 3)^:^_-^si :«i i 



= rf ;S<*^-i^«i=i ;- Ei=sl i 



!* 5idi3ii5 



Si333SSi35Si3S iSSiSs 



s S2S2SS3S jjasas s i 



d g=:-s^ : ij ^a=i 



nj_ 




38 



ANALYSES OF COAL, lftl6-1919. 






•g9|J0f«0 



ggiis§iisi^§ s § i§9 %um 



^9 C9 »o C4 eo ua CI CO US eo CO iO 



« ev Mcc-^ 



r« t^ 00 r« b- QO r> t« ocV r« 00 



<Ot^Q0 



v^eo '«f<-i 



§§g§SS§iiii§ g § i§S is§§ 



er«ac« 



'880| SofXip-iiy 



CO 






00 



00 t« CO 

*4 e4 d 



«J 



*iio8^xo 



*ii08ai)]M 



'uoqjreo 



'noSoiip^H 



'jniidins 



I 



•ipv 



*iioq 



'J9t)«III 



•oxiqspH 



.1 



2 



I 



p-uoi^ipiioo 



••pom 






>(98wI)»fi»9on 90111 






S^3 









S9S 

o6ie<D 



:ssso 



oSSS 






MM 00 CO GO CO 09 CO CO CO CO CO 






9S jcoS jSBco I^F^ 

0000 •oooo •t^oo •0000 



e4 ^ rid 






5? S 8SSo 
8 S Su»8 



^gS9^S&^S{:^^S 



CO CO CO co9 



«5 



S 



i-i t^ g> 

CO t-4 OD 

CO <«S c4 



vH e« CO ^ CC CO ^ 04 CO '•I 04 CO 



v-l ^ i-lMCO 



< < < < 



< < < 



« S o 



(O <D w 



^ • • • • 
04 CO CO CO 



SS :? 



lOCOO 

• • • • 



Cjeoo-^ 



s 



»-«oteo»^ 






s 



c 



•o 

(9 



I 






00 

QQ 



aa 



a 

9 






8 !:J 



s 






o 



I 

CO 



I 

00 



cot: fl « 

llggs 



H 



US 









c 



8 



O C 







9 

a 



s 

fig £ 

Is I 

a 5 
^1 £ 

is i 

QQ 



!4illlBSI?ll I l?ll I 1 1 i III mil I ^1 



i-wi I mm 



ttt- 



li m 

ii n iiii 

iiii ilHli 

HI! isi 



iil I 



iil Sil 



111 



55?32 5 



! 

ii 
11 



«ss 58,8 3=5 sjsss 5 



IS ;$:: :KS ;SS :SS : 
= l--^ i^d >^ >s i 


3 EJSn : 


s s a s as : 


8S las i 






a & & :s SS& 








9 S » 8 S9S 




: ;g ; :a : ;8 : :a : : 


S 28 : i 


iS 3 S 8 S : : 
■1 ■<■.<> id id : : 


K : is i : 

c4 : iri : : 




^ -..»« 


« « « >«» 




^ u 


■< ■« 


■< -! ^ -! ^ 


n n 


iiii 


ill 


1 IIII 


i i 



s s 



Mil 




40 



A17ALT8ES OF GOAI<, 1918-1919. 



1^ 
II 



U 






*npoi«o 



eo eo "O VV^io w V lo eo 2 »<r eo w to V V<r<* V«o" V'^md'cC «^ 



§§§§§sii§§§§i§§i§§§i§§§igisi§i 



•k •» MV 



tCtCoo ^<^Q(^ao t«^^^Qo t«rt>J'ad't<ri«rQ(rt<rt«ra(rr»''Q6~Q6'ab ob'oo to «D oD <o t^ oo 



*880| Suiilip-JTy 



.' .'ao 


1 ''Wt • 


•« 


•«9 > 


• 00 • 


.'« I 


•MO 


i-* ' 


:» : 


• • • 


[ci : 


• • 


:<!< : 


• • • 


• • • 


• • 


|e« •; 


!*• • 



9» 



•mSSxo 



•naaoj^iK 



*iiDqi«o 



a 



'oaSoipXH 



*jni{din8 



d 
g 

1 









I 



.•qsv 



*noci 

'199 pOXfJ 



»in»ioA 



*a2ii)SV0|| 



t 



p*w>W!pnoO 



•'POTS 






-(9»Ml)o89y>neiiiH 



J 



t«* m3 «S « e4 c4 M$ c4 M CO -< e« <4i cS ci « <«S m5 ^ M c< <<i c4 05 «{ <<! id o6 m£ e 



a;Ss3S$SS2sggiSS2SSSS{eSS:S{3I^SS8§^S£::; 












era 'SiH 



S3 :S!3 

• • • « _^ 

OkOk 'OftO 



_> • • • ^ • 



S5S 



3S5 






138 






SSS8S^SSS8938{;SS:SSS8;3S98S89S:2SSS 

•<i •<{ t>: « t^ 0(5 MJ ^ od t>: t>: ai ^ ^ a« e5 d si «S ei d ei oS ^ eS ^' «j -^ ^ e 



?5 









8 



8 



M 



* 






a* 
c4 



CO 



«4 e« CO <H M CO i-l e« CO iH M CO <^ M CO «N M CO «H M m 1-4 M CO fl C« CO *^ c« cc 



PQPQPQPQPQPQPQPQPQO 



3 



8 8 



O O ^ t-i ^ 

r- t* 1^ »«- »<- 



I 

s i 

a 

o 



f 



3 § 

-4 




9 



I 



.- It F- 

«l 1* g^ 

tS ^a *l 

1 1 









I 







Illllll II! 




82 ;23 [S SS2 iSSS = 3 :B9 :S3 :S3 [SS ;SS ;2a iae ;2S ;R3 
S— i^"" :S ^^:3 i^^ics iSs jd" ;'~'~ ■'~'^ '■'~'' ;■*"* |"si ■'^'^ j— s 



imii\mmmimmmm 



iiiii 



I I I i i i I I I 



S S E ES BSSS B65S55g5S 

iniMi" 111 jiiHi 
ilii 1 i { I 

!i I t ! I 

!i;J ii Ijii 

pliililPlHpSl 

I r 1 1 1 ! I , " I 



42 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 191^1dl9. 



•S'3 

2> 






'npoi«o 



'88oiSafijp-2iY 



I 



'oaSibco 



•iwSoniK 



*noqi«o 



» 



'oaSojpXH 



'jnqdins 



1 
I 

o 

i 



£ 



.qgy 



•noq 



• in«lOA 



*un)8|0H 






p-aonn>«oo 



'•p^ra 



XjO)«4oqsq 






■(oSvd) • 89y>a 9ix||| 



I 









9 (6 do 






qdodS 



S'*'* 
^^^ 



e4 



•CO 



<«s e4 c4 kS c4eQ' Mj eicoc<5 oS d 












c5 •••••••••• '^^^ j^^g4g,jg4^*^'^^^^^^^ 



c6 fdr^h? 



SS::8SSt$ :ss :S3S :Sf3 :^;e 

t^t^hlt^t^b: ''uSd :ad<>6 Idd '.^^ 






CO (S 









8 g8 

^ dd 



St^ooXoo 






S8 
d 






CO 



(d 



t-« i-tr^cqeo^fH^^^dGO^e^co^cieOfHe^eo^cieovHe^mi^pt 



CO 



^ -<"< 



(^OOOO 



SS Sg 



fo^eoM 
o^^iM to 



<o too 



(OO (0<0<0 



n 



00 



R 






I 



lllli 

MMMMK 

mil 

llllf 

O O O OCQ 



I 



i I 






5 ^ 
A 2 



I I 



►< 

5 

a 



11111 

I§IIf 

en GO 00 OQ 00 



•8 



2 



g, 



i^' 



li ^ 



s f 



■8 
I 



$ 






NHI= 



^^25^^^'* 



:fi^j£^jSi:^EE 



i|jNj;JNj jj 



■4tijcj^<4>d 



^si^^£^t£^si 









ill 



II 1^5 5§ :s5 jgg H-" i-i-i-"^-^^'^ p,^S^^^ iS^ :!g j l| p; j 

8128SaaBSSsaS3318PSS8S88SB3a82gSPSSSSSaa aS2S8!Sa 

i |y|iiiiiii|ii|i|iii 11 

E ¥Ts s 5 a====3 ===== = a s s 



•ill 

I - III 

! ! It J ^„_. 

I I If 4 Niiiip 




44 



ANALYSES OF COAIi, 191S-1S19. 






4 






'S9poi«3 



i§§s§s§s§§§§§i§9g§§§i§i§§§3g§i 

CO CO x»c« cQ U3 ^ ■« u3 CO CO o CO ^ K) m CO o CO CO lo CO ^ o e« e« *o CO -^ « 



sg§§Egiis^§§sisii§§§§iiiis§§s§ 

t«^ « b* r<- K r* 00 00 1^ »<• QO r« »<• 001^ »<• QoV- r* 00 r* fr* 00 CD r* 00 1*> t^ 90 



•S80X Sop^jp-JTV 



*ira8iteO 



*ud9oj}|M 



*aoqi«3 



S 



>ao3ojpXH 



'jnqdins 



CO 

d 



M 



CO 

e4 






00 









g;e$SS§$^!$S§SS{;?59SS3$998g£;3SSSS28^99S 



« • • • « 



t^«cooe« 






^^^^^^^^^^CO^^<4i^^^tf5^<4ii«5<^<4i<^<^CO^*^^^ 






a 
o 






o 

••J 

OS 

K 

c 



•nsY 



*uoq 



om«lOA 



'(un^spfi 



.S 



pnonipaoo I 



»P"DI 



q-ON 

Xio^vioqvq 



bkCQ i^*^ • (« oS 'toO 'COCD •FbO 

a»o 'OkcS 'ror* '^cf 'Okok 'CS^ 



9S 



did •«$«$ •r'^ad 






^ 






OC • 

1-< 


:S : 


• «D • 


•04 • 
• ^4 • 


:g : 


is i 


•S : 


ir: : 


:8 : 


is i i 


CO ; 


• » • 


• • • 


\e6 : 


jd : 


•d ; 


:c<j : 


:d : 


jd : 


\c6 : : 



«-ic<)co>-ie4cOfHC«eo^e<9eo^c«GO^e4co«-«e4coi^e«coi-4e«eo^Mr>9 



npQOCQpQOQCQpqpQ 



1-1 et ■* 

00 ^ *H 



Ok S fi9 *^ 

•^ CO C4 Y 

S i § i 






'(oSiid) o 69)oa ouTH 






tS 

3 



1 

I 



s 



,p 



00 "^ 

■^. S 
Mi 

yi 
III 

2 « 



I 



d. 



« 

•< 
^ 






H 



M 



^'S ?; 



•-3 ©S ^^ 
11 1^ ^- 

? i- !i 
I? |i l! 

» s ^ 

'goo 






g' 



I 




TABULATED ANAL' 




5gi5S|5ai^^iHiliHiHifii»|Hi Sggi i^a 



" • •''JJ''J.''JJ''.J''JJ''JJ''J^''JJ!Jj!!.J!J. :JJ:JJ 

rTTTTTTTTTTl TT 

sssssissssss i~r' 



^ I ' 1 I M 5 M M I 

ni iiii 1 

il iiliiilf i 



mn 



■•r ! 



46 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



■cs 

> 



6 






•sapopio 



g§§^§ §iisi^ § §s§s§igi %% 



__•<» •*_ •v •> •> •s 









«-• t w ^<-' 

•* ^ «« a^ a^ ^ 



g! 






>o«oooiia<ooo 



ioioiOiO«t»<o lOia 



'8801 9trii[jp-JTy 



'VbbQAxo 



•TO80HIN 



*noqj«o 



^ 



'TiaSojpi^H 



'jnqdins 



00 



CO 

m 



CO 






• » • 









e4 












S^3 









c5 






•I 

1 

J. 

$: 

8 






S 



o 



•ipv 



'ooq 



• in«I0A 



*9kin98|0|| 



33 :8^ 



S3 :$^ 



• • • • • ■ • • __• • 

o oeoe4f-4eo •» O^ 






• ^* • • • • 



13 s$a^r;§s^s !s$ 






3S3SISS 



3 3B:s^^^s ^s 

CO CQMOTWM^OO CQCQ 









c6 






9 S9 






CO 



p-nonipooQ 



©•pura 



ii[jO)«JoqB«i 



f-iC9co^c«eo 



f-tdcoiHCteo 



^4 THrH<-4fHCieQ<^ ^^fH 



A A 



-< -< 



< ^^ < « 



f 









'(991KI) 9 89)0U 91Z1H 



M 



ss 



CI 









O A Qb Ok 



s ss 



So' 






^ 






s 



o 









8 1 



flit 



IS 






III 



^ 



^ 



II 



It 



o 



I 

« 

o 

&> 

2 






s g 



8 

o 
n 






tfo0§o-B 




o c 

CO 9«» 

^ ^2 



lip 



9 



CO 



CDOQQOOQ 



|»?l«. 



ass 



^ 





«» : 1 • 


«i nf ai^<4<^ ; : 2 : 


i 1 


2 i 




:88S : 














:a«8 






■■ ^ i 


: : 


: i 










;ses 








SS3 















SSliX 


&5il 8 9 SSSS99 MISS 




assssK 




5S : s a usvss ■ SS : 








?«3 8 8 SefflBCS 8S8 








S8« 3 s spssss leas 




sgasss 


3!S : : 


S\': S $ 58&S i i' S : : 


s i i 


s : js i i 








-.«™-«M 


^^ 


« < ■< ■«<■< n 


n 


n A 


IP 


i 1 iilil i 


i 


i i 



rp 




i! 

ii 






l-ili 

i i hi ii 

WW 



46 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



T3 
O 

§ 

1 

g 
8 












•soporBo s 



'8901 8n|Xjp-JTV 



'XSSSi&XQ 



•TO80HIK 



S 



'noqjQo 



^ 



'TiaSQipi^H 



'jnqdxng 



5 



K 

o 



•ipv 



•noq 

-OTD pOXM 



•in»l0A 



•anqspn 



ig§§g§ §iisil § §9§§§§§ s§ 



__»^ •t^ •k B^ W^ •» 



00'<f<00^ 



^^ . ^ ■« ^ »i ■« K ■\ ^ ^ 

O OCOO<-4MO oo 



«^ •« «K «K SV «S 






•^ •» «^ •^ ■* •H 



00 



CO 



CO 






S8$ 

• • • 






• • • 



CI 
e4 



«3 w5k$^k$ 



^ to^ 






S9$ 












c5 



ododoio^odo 



r: ss^s;85?ss s^is 






•OCD 



S3 












£:s:s?S9S 



• • • 












*"5 conflOMOT'^n eoeo 



si 



isi 



CO* 






9 S9 






paopjpaoo 



»Twira 






f-lClCO*HC4CO 



iXdCQfHdCO 



r-4 ipHipH*H^4 OieOiH aHvat 



A n 



«< -< 



< «« < « 



9 



*«» » as 



'«cir: 



% % 



'(eS«d) o 89)0U 90]]^ 



et 



ss 






oa 



O) Ot Ok O O) 



s ss 



s 



.; M 






I 



I ti I 



< 
< 

O 




o 
55 



I 



s g 



8 
I 

I 



CO 



o 

?; 

&> 

©Op C t.* 
t;£ o o o 5, 

CSOQQOOQ 



. 'S 5 



a at 
111 

CO «*• 

"11 

... OQQQ 



^ 



ifS- =11 I lllllll £| 5M- IlilJl 





>d-« ; : Id 


•4 2 i^)j)^i^ i i ^ 


i i 


:; 














1 j 






jajs 








S28 : 








:t:SS : 








SS8 : 








isse 






' 


set 









S283 


ess 


s ^ xs^ssa 


sisa 




Hcti4 ' ' ' 


8S9 ; 


olol . 


8 a un^ss ■■ 






9P: :Ei3 ; 


SSfiK 




s 8 ssisaiss 




SSB 






S8S 


X S Se£8SS 


!£?;8 






55 : : 


3 : ; 


£ S SSSS : I 


8 : : 


3 : : 


8 : ;2 i : 




^n» 










■<■< 


n 


■< -! -i-i-i^ 


n 


n 


n n 


II 


i 


1 iiiii 


1 


i 


i 1 


§s 


s 


S S SssS 


3 


s 


! 1 




II 






m 



m 



mmmm imi i 



449««!St:^S$a!99lg:j $ aili | 



I 



JMEMKJMZl 



I 11 II ill I 



5 s s s s 



i S3 



ilili j 



f 




a H 



i 1 gi ; <" iH i?! ; 



sa :£S :S3 iSS iSS iSS :SS :SS 
^■l ;.ij |j^ ;^^ jjg ;-jj |..g ;j< 







8 3 83S ssasassss 




s rf rf : ; ^ i i5 i is! : i 




^ ^ .< n n A 

g s g ill 

? e 9 9 ? ? 


nnnnnnnn 

1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 



SSI s s § 



'iSalSigS 



II 
11 



fli 



i 



I- 11 H till 




ilU illiill 

ill 



50 



AITALYBBS OF COAL, l»16-lAld. 



« 
9 



•3^ 
6"^ 






I 



*8»fJ0I«0 



*6K»i aniXjp^iy 












00 



M 



OOl 



nxaSAxQ 



-naaoi^IK 



'iioqi«3 



e« 



*Tw9ojp>Cj[ 



'inqdins 



8§S 



eS^«0 



ass 









^^9 



^S8 









s;rs$ss 









899 



$ss 






ass 






ss< 



•-n-iC* 



ao«or« 









a 

J. 

g 

8 



•«pv 



I 



-noq 
'199 paxKi 






'MD^SPK 



rnonipnto 



»T»niX 



X]0)«joq«q 



dr4 



SS :SS :§Sf3 :329 :9S3 :SS :!SS :8 

^K$ :«S«S :a6a6 Ue^ ^t^K tojod ^d^* '>»: 



t<-r*r» 









5 : 


•5? : 




•CO ' 


is i 


•9 i 


i^ i 


i^ : 


:S5 rrS : 1 


CO : 


\^ i 


Jm* : 


i*^ : 


jxS I 


'.ei : 


\ci \ 


y : 


'•€i COCO' : : 



^Meo*-ie>ieo«He>ieo*-ie«cOv4e4«Of-ie4M«He4eoi^e4«o^ «^^hc«( 



CQfiQCQpqfiqnnnpq pQfQ 






'(gflvd) «S9)on9iziK 



§ss-s§§§§§§s 



I 



( 




I 






9 
I 



I ^1 If 

13 II II 

«§ «i "i 

-a |l «l 

m *•* W 




61 





•T i 13 j Is 


;:^: 


h 1:2 




■ In : : ^ S33°S : i 


sag i : : 








82a 






S8B : : 




xtss : 




JS98 




33!S 


3&3 i 1 i 




3SX i 










ss^ ; i ; i 


; : ; : :ast: j i i i i i 


:SSS 







3 55!5555] 



j jSs ijg igj ||! pS ;!| ;55 :|S j | 



^ allien 






^ ^««^1S§ 



i 15255: 



11 I I I I i I I 



!1}iillt 

llMi 



ill 



.1 




ii 



t.tliI,1Sta 03 COiL, 1918-lMe. 

I 



8 SsBSSIci §il!§S§S sSSSSS 



^^^^^4 i 1^ **^*!^ i 



^ 



5 '53:S"2"" Srf3"S3 ■■■''■'^■''■ 



d utiisi l"' "S^f-'^-i^ ■: -■■^ i 



2 sagsssiss g^ssesR 









.^,%^ 



11 



s s 




1! 




; iii i 



: isS :3S iSg :78 : 8S : E)3 iS SS3 :S;8 :S8 : 
d It^,; 1^;-! :^<j ;<j^ ; ^^ : ^^- ;^- ^t^^- :c4c4 .>j ; 



rssisasS gigi^iSSSiSSifeii SsS sjgtfS 



^eiid^ip;^^;: 



it^^asii!) 



i ig i is cs ; Is i ;a i is : is i 
i i- i i" "•' i i" i i-' i i-' i i" i 



^ !;!Ji4 iciiJEJ i^^Ej^^tiii^^ti 



i 8 i is s= i ie i is 
i < i i-i ■<•' i i-' i i-i 



iJ 



.- A' ^■' 



1 1 Hi iini| ii i|iiiii 




54 



ANALYSES OF COAJL, l»ie-l»19. 






? 






*Sdpo{iio 






*k •» M^ a^ • fV •\ ^_f »i Vit 






*6i»i 9a|Xjp-j]Y 



€4 



e6 



Ok 



6 



'vnSAxo 



•iM8ai;iN 



S 



'noqiVQ 



a 



'OoSojp^H 



-jnqdins 






ss!S9sss3:$9 ssassssssss^^sssg^g^sg 



e6eo^rfeoco»Ht-Ji-4 






o 






I 



•qsv 



'ooq 






'OjnfSfOH 



8» 



t<:oi5 .'del 



q6oS 



^S |3S :SS :9R 

iomS 'kSmS '0605 'wSto 















9^^£|SSSS8S^S9SSS^88 

CQCO ^ row rororo^roroWro Si 'i* eoro ^ 



s 


Is : 


:§8 : : 


S i 


is : 


• 1 


is i 


is i 


•58 : : 


c6 ' 


■ • • 

.10 • 


';« • : 


• • 

Vi4 • 


\ci \ 


• c6 • 


\ci : 


:^ : 


\ei \ \ 



puonipooo 



I 



»'pura 






«-«c«rofHe>«ro<-4C«ro 



«HCieOfHC9co«HC9eO'4C«eo«HC«ro<-4e«c« 



« -< « 



O 






^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ 



'(oSod) o n|ou eniH 















00 



00 



00 



00 






c« 



I 



1 1 

I 



g 

3 



f 



o 



o 



8 i 




Jtl t f t 

|i I I I I 

•ft I I I 

i 






^ 
S 



Eh 



I 

I 



!tl ^ 



MS s 

©eo e« 



I 






O 



"S « 



I I I I 

w w O C> 



OQ 



QQ 



I 

OB 



TABULATED ANALYSES: OKLAHOMA. 



■^i^i-iiS "JiiS rf 



mmm , 



; s^Su^;;;; : 



: ==33;; 



m^u 



m- 



m 



WiKSi 






iTiSn 



:i ;!5g!55M!|ai|5N5n3 SlHSNg: 



- a. A" 



ill 



if 



T Ta is===== s a I "T"! a§ii s s 



I ip 

I 



TMTT 



1 



lllif 

!! 1 f 

III I I 

f'li I pun I I 




66 



AKAL.TSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



s 



I 



*8)|1iniQIIZ 



-89110(110 






gi§g3ll§§§§§§§g§ 

^ u3 iO CO ^ to CO «o •'S CO eo m CO «o <o 






00 oo 00 r« 00 00 to i^po t<->« oo to r« 00 



*8fx>i 8n|Xjp-JTy 



C4 






T3 
O 

I 
.1 



"5> 



f& 



'nefliCzo 



*iioacu}]K 



s 



*uoqi«o 



'oaSoipiCH 



'jnqdins 



I 






•qsv 



•aoq 

-1« IKIXIJ 






*ojn)8fOH 



paoniptioo 



9'para 



^lo^Sioqvq 



-(99«d) o 80!|0ix en|]f 



I 



«SSSS!$SSSS SS8 SSSS883SS3ES9SSS 



O »^i 



• • ft • • 



«-«eO'«^CQeo^«oco< 



9S 



;i:f^ :3S 


: ^3 : 


SSSS :^S .'S9 


:SS 


•asc5 


• 


• odod • 


_ _■ • « • ^3 • • • 

CQCO '^V *C0€O 


:e4c>i 


• • 









to 









o 
o5 



c4 



c4 






c4 



8 



s. 



s 



s 



^ M eo fH C4 CO «-• c« CO ^c»eo 



<-4e4cov4Meo«-4C«co^e«e9i-4C9eo 



-<-<-< 



n 



CO tP to 

*H vHI r-4 



fH es| -^u) ^ 



i 



I 



I 






t fc 






8 §^ 3 » § § § 



11 



I 

I 
O 

-< 
o 



§ 

I 



o 
u 

M 
H 

a 



o 

pa* 
5zi'S 

o 3 8 

11 1 

§^ 3 

o CO 

i 



5 



«0 






QQ 



# — • 

t 

1 



t 

S 

8 

o 



o 

M 



O 

I 



I a 



1 

00 






CO 



i. 

H 

•rg, 

«^ 

Bill 



3 
i 

to '^ 



I 



^ 



00 



CO 

n s 

S 



d 

s. 

o 



I 



(3 

« 

8 

o 
3. 

J9- 



00 



m 






163 3: 






i Mi n unniMMMMiM 



O.^^ 



w 



f 



I 

il 



3S iSS ;SS I 2S i S8 .'sS ;1S8 i RS : S8 ipS llRS iSS iSS 'SS ; 
ss i«2 i5s : ::^ >' i'^'^ i'^" ; ti:i ; -^-^ i-^'^ ^'^ >» iSfi jaii : 

i i lllli i I rii 1 1 Hill 




58 



AITALYBES OF COAL, 1910-1919. 









^sopopio 



n 3iii§iS§§S g§iSSS§i§li§i§§§S 

CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO ^ifft CO eoeoeo^^eo^io«oe«^eo-«'«eo^-«> 






g§i§§§§gi§g§§iig§§ 

t« t« t* 1^ 00 r» t^ QoV-r* qdV* t^ 00 r» !«• oD 



•8801 8a|Xjp-jrv 



o» 



O»f-4OO00OO. 



eo«oo 






ixbHAxq 



*iio8oJ9TK 



*VBK[190 



'noSojp^H 



*jnqd[ns 



o 



a 
o 

1 



s, 



'WY 



•noq 






'ajn^spH 



pnopipaoQ 



»-pai3 


^ 


Xjo)Uoq«Ki 


to 



*o 



'(oSwl) o 69)oa oujil 



2 



• • • 



Soon 

> • 






• • • 

IOU3IO 



ot<^oi 



■ • • 



9SS8 



S51 






CO 



s sgss^as?:s3r:&» 



•••••••«•••■■•••• 






as 



• • • • 



■ • * • • 



2« :S8g 



S3 839SS(!;S&3S 
2S 2i^SS$SSSSS;2i 






S3 









c4 e4e4e4e4c«c«e4 









to 



o 

CO 



8 



:8 
:e4 



,H ^ v4 Vi4 v4 «H «H »i4 C4 CO ^4 



«M «H *•« n M *H c« CO «-( c< 09 *•« c« CO ri4 C4 ra 



^^^^^^<< ^ ^^^ ^ ^ 



•-ie9«9^!n«l!^ 



IS 



^ ^ 



§ §§§§§§§ § §§§ 



g § g 



43 1: 



II 

St lip . 



3S 









10 




\l lislUt 4 ill 



Im «* ti 'tS *»! <M ^ 



3s s s s 

^« oooooog, 

S| SSSSSSg 

Q £(.309 « «2 fi S 

^9§i§|i| 

QDQQOQQQOQaDl 



OS 



O 



ss 



o 
«S5 



lis 

si| 

O O Q« 

V* ^r« «^ M\ 

4ij Q O O 

OQCOOD 



ll I 

"I I 






« ' «-l<IM 



•s-a « 






I I 



•^ a 

I" I 

A .0 



I I 

i I 



i 

OQ 



i 

CD 



TABULATED ANALYSES : OKLAHOMA. 



5 S3 ib 3S : H 



5=5 



555 









!l 

llJi 



mi 



Ta 5§ a ss 8 § B TTTT 




i 



: i 



i! i 

.|S3 !l I I I I ! I 
l^ll P I I I I I .1 



•ANALYSES OF COAL, 1 



ii 



I^S IS IS 



[,- [-VVr-Wa=- I^ !0-i^ eC-> 



3 ::353 : 



i 3 



Hi 



Hi 



Bl 



5 5555553 



i Hi 5is3 



2 n Ji 



i i i i 



§ G 






iUf 



II I 
It ■" 

piiil ^ I 



I I 



ill 

S| I 

11 

11 




S SE:S2::S$SS2S!S9 


g SSSSS !««£^S^ aS^i:$ SSf:S 

■4 rfV-J^i-i "i*-JWi^<* nri™™rf oirfn^ 








S aOSBS S3B335 S52Sa 283! 

^ ^$£:gS ^^^^ES s^E^s^ EiN;:^: 


2 SE«SSS;S!S[;gS2S 


8 «!::38S 5S:S£S3 33S!;S fSsSSS 
s? ^!S^^s sssiSiS^ sS^SSfS as^ss 


a KSJS : ;8 ; :S : : 
>d t^rii^ci : -.e* ■■■■■: ■ 




■< «« < ^ 


a 01(0 -; «,< m mca m «« 



11 i 11 i ill I 11 i ii 



S g S SS S aSS g i 




62 



ANALYSES OF COAI^ 1916-1919. 






's^Ton {Bin 

-J9ih qsnya 



•S9]JOl«0 



•S80I SUTiCjp-JfV 



09 

6 



'uaSi^xo 



'noSoj^T^ 



•uoq«o 



S 



'U33ojpXH 



•jnqdxng 






;§ § i 



CO "«♦•«« 



e^ CO <-< 9 A 09 >^ 



c^ •^ cofif »r3 CO •* ic 



8 S! 

r-4 eoi 



I2§ j5S?g: 



t*t«-t*oot«» t>.r>.t>»« 



r-r-oo 



** r* --1 ® e« K 5 



0» C«v-I 

• • • 

«-4 C«C9 



C« Or-* 

c4 c4ci 



o 



• • « • 



9 to to 



C0COU9 



■ • • 



00 






S^!:!:^ S$3 



a6i4«e> 



o»>.r* 



Se55 






St»So 















«>4 tO<P 



SS3 

t^SoSo 



• V • 



_ J _ • • • • • 

eo c*eQeoc9e«» 



SSSS^S ®?S99 ** ■««• 00 «p ^ «o cj 5 1* 

cIcOeOCQ iHfHiH d tM iH *i^ f-« C4 «i^ ^ C4 



C3 






g 






•o 

^ 



9 

09 

K 
P 



•qsy 



•aoq 






•OJtTHSpH 



.St 
a 



p-nopipnoo 



a-pma 



qOK 




■(aSQd) D sa^on oiX]K 



•-I OOOO 'O oco 



So8 



00 OB ho O QC 

• • • a ■ 






S t<^COf-40n SoaS^ 

• • • • • • 

U3 lOtoS^iO 






•QO)a» ob w^ccocsml't^ 



S rtSf^SS 






CQ ra CO ra 9 CQ cqcqcoco 



CO po 'i* 






S9 S^ 

CO CO CO 



3 ss 

CO e«eo 



^ 



So 1-4 to 

d cjcoci 



•O 
> • 



f^ ^^f-HMeoi-i i-n-te«co 



piMeo 



»-< »-« 1-4 ^^ M C0 1-4 W « 



n nn pq pn 



m 



< "i^ o 



g S3S9 ^ 



Ri 



••^Ml 



COI 



CO 



l§ 



>«o 

1!^ 















C9 



o o 

> 

QQ 

» 



I 

s 



u 
o 

o 
c 

1 



5^« 



o 
u 

o 

(4 
g 

its 



C4 

<N 






s 



a; 






o 

0) 



O 



o 

'A 



?3 



c 

09 



fis 



w a- 



CD 



'■dp 

•3 c: o 



5 ® fl wo® 
si * ^£ 



o 
u 

> 

H 



A 
P. 






-ft 



c 
u 

PS 

:?. 

(0 



a 
|5B§ 



S V 



CI _ 



B 



i4 

CO 



OS 

an 



s 



00 QQ 



c o 

■i 

1 

QQ 



•^ rt © © © 



'««c 



s 



c 

g 

c 

n 

e 

a 
a 



«> 



« 



TABULATED ANALYSES: PENNSYLVANIA. 



2332 22222322=233 33333233233233S332333 . j 
„ ; :. ,»,.. ::..;„:: rTTrTTTTlTTTTTTTTTTTT 3 i 



3 : ;: :as: 



::..;»:: rTTrTTTTlTTTTT 



tWtt;-mtft 



i ;;;; 



S3!i ;i 



"iSli" 






4 



imn\ 



is $sas& iprfi ;Sf: : 52 :Si ;2S Iss iSS iSS iSS i 

i!g ^idii i^= :^g ; -^■i :«^^ j-s^ 1^^°= H-^ i-^'i -^^ : 



Ssi^i iHsiSsi^^^S^gs? 



RSSEsi^EJS^SS^^ 



mmi iimmmm 



iiiiii ii III liiii 



§ a 



s a s Ti s s 



ml 



T 



II 



lis 



m Ii: 

iialilil 

11 III. 



it I : 
|l i i 

f ^ ^ 

till I 
lill I 
If I I 



64 



AITALYSBS OF COAL, 191ft-1919. 



'stfnn'pnzz 



•s3poi«o 



^ iH ^ 1-1 »H ^ "^ ^^ ^^ •^ »H iH iH »-f »H •i* iH »H »H •^ »-• »H ^^ »H iHf-(>^ 






•i •^ ^ 



J^ -?* ^^^ 



aoaooOb-r^oot»ooaot«t^u>oo«oaoooaoaot«ooooaoooao r^t^oo 



'8801 9iipCip-jfy 



'oqSSXzo 



•mSoniN 



'noqieo 



'naSojp^H 



'jnqdicig 



■ ■•t«»B*aaii«««itiii»«at 



f-l fH ^ M CJ e4 ^ «H vJ f-4 (H v-4 vM f4 >H fH fH *-< ^ iH «H 



1-1 vHM 



•qsy 



•s 


O 

1 









'noq 



oin«IoA 



'Qixn^spj^ 



r«0 itOQ 'too tOQU) •OQQ •<PQ ••9Q •«PO 

Ka •r^.o tior^ tuSt^ 'C^^ •couS •oel ••ct^ 
u5io •t«ai5 'tdtd '0606 'UJuj 'ujuj '(^tcS *<<i''^ 



oSoS 









S : 


'1-^ t 


:g : 


:8 : 


is : 


is i 


is i 


is i 


i S i : 


cj : 


'.^ : 


:e4 : 


\ci \ 


:e4 : 


\ci : 


'Ci \ 


je^ : 


• • • • 






OQ 



p'oopfpnoo 



3*pnra 



Xjo)iuoq«q 



vH M CQ *H M CO «H C4 ^^ 1-4 C4 CO ^ 99 CO f-4 M CO ^ M OQ ^ N CO ^MCQ 

' X l> » M » 



o -< 






I I 

^ ^ 



I 



^^ ? ^ 



^ ^ 






■(o8ikI) 9 so^on eonc 



I 



9 






04 



9 



9 
« 



9 



1^' 

% 8 

OQ 

Z 
H 



bA 



I 

h3 



^ — % 

9 



ft *« 

3 









M ^ 



a * 

&• a 

dS g 

'^>3 to 

g I 

I 

n 



CO 



-5 :: 



g N *• 

C« ^ c« 



III 2 



I 



S: MNNSl^LVANIA. 



i ljlllll III llllllllllll III I IllllllSil-l |i 

filia l tiiHjjiiB! g-ti-g- SESH-iii If 



i! 
n. 



88 ISS ;S8 ; S5 i SS iSSS ilS iSS i aS i S SSS2S iSS IBS 
at: :«i«j :.i^ I ^v : «=« ;-<io v^; |-i-=! ;=«;;« «««»« ;■*»! ;«« 






SS-SSsaSsSSSS- S!32 S 1 






i i i iji i I I ijl iii i 



r 



ii 



, ! 



iill 



* 3 ts g 4 i g i 

I I i- 1 I I I ,^.-,J 

I I 



i 



66 



ANALYSES OP COAL, 1916-1919. 



I 



P 






-sopoiBo 



•890iSizTXjp*JTy 



•jjsSUxo 



•ubSohin 



•noqiBO 



'noSojpXH 



'jmidins 



1 

o 



§> 



tpv 



•uoq 






*Qin9sio|{ 



^^ lo v^^ lo >* "^ lo "* •* « -^ -^ « ** ■* •« "* "* "o ^ ** »o "* :•: •« 

S S S »H S fH t-« t5 »4 tM »H fH ^ t-4 ^ ^ ^ i-l »M r4 *H -H ril »-• ^ r^ •-• 




t^QOQOr«cooor<-ao 






• • * a • 

«D<0 •too 






iHO 'COO 

• " * " ^ 






r:8 :S8 :aS 

• •••• ••J 

tOiO v^OO t^CiO 









S : 


i^ : 


:S : 


!8 i 


:g : 


irr : 


:8 >"i8 : 


•8 : i 


• • 


• • • 


• • ' 


:c4 : 


:c4 : 


• • ' 

•1^ • 


• • • t 


• • • • 



poonipuoo 






3*paix 






^ C9 CO (H M CO fH 04 eo fH C« CO ^ 04 CO ^ coo *H d eO t-4 C« M r4 C4 «0 



o -< 



O -«! 






7499004 



I 



^ ^ ^^^^ ^ ^ 






'(oSvd) o saioii ooiK 



I 



I 



1 






r 

> 



8 

s 

pa 

< 










(^ 

s 



i 









s 

.2 

eo 

«^ 
o 



r — ^ 

9 



s 

JD 



01 »H 



-3 



b -d 



I a| I I I 




a 

ex ^'3 



i 

OQ 



C» 



CO I 



□Q 



SSESSSiSSilSgsSSBSS I lag aSSISSiSliail 5SI 
sJd 33= ::==*=■ :=s ==i3 z sry =3 •23'32'33 2= f =■ = ==■ 



BSg 



iig l§gS!8 ssl ciE! i 



iii i : 



tttmrr 
mUM- 



: : r : : ::::;: 



il 



liiS 



Sf:E(SSg^8SS2SS 3 






SSSS 
=£8 2 



SSS 82?= 3 1535 SasaSSSESSasS S82 



5M5M^N5MgM5 5aiSSn5|:;lai 



yp i liiji i iii i ij ili a 






s s=5 ss a B 8 



Mil 
ill! 

I la! 



Hi 

ill 
1 1^1 



I! 

.ii 
iir 

if 

"1 



11 



If 



ill 

iSli 
I 



11 



^SSSSSSSS jSSS §SES ^Sdt S SSS33S 

irr-^-----«-----^ ----f- -■--^- --?-^ -■ _-_-_-5if-? 

332332-32 332 332 332 3 332332 



H-!l-5!wl !-& II;- lis!- ;;-&!:-; 






; ;; M 



-tt 



;i; 



;i; ;; 



-Tt 



^ 



_kU 



P 



; :t*- 



3K ^'?'! ^ mm 



ampm^l^li 



iiiiiiiii iil Hi iii i 



iii:iiiisS His iia Hi i i!<i^iS 



,^s,^ 



III 



; a a 3 a a 



i M nil 

i ■■ ] : 1 ! * 
S : i I I i 



Hi! i 

liin 

i|l I ! 
1^1 I I 



■- jrt — ,i-,i-----.i-^-^---;H,i----- 332 23SS323323S2SSI3 ^^ g 

;;— n — rTrTTrn~rTrnTTrn r^-n n i i 



lHAll 



m\\\ 



m 



(! 
Ili 



^^ U^^^.as7 ;^«i j. 



; pci : 3rf ; ^=i i^,i i^^ j^^: igj ; 



-< -1 ■< 



■<-<■<■< 



i iifi i I III lil i 11 i 



S S S i! S ; S i S i S 



i|' 



!i ii!: J 

"■i in I i 



II! . 

I ^ i| ii i i i t, IM i i i 

I liilU' I* j" ! I i P « I 1 i 1 



70 



AKALYSKS OF COAL, 1916-1919. 









'SOpOlBS 



•ssoi dni^jp-jfy 



M eo cl cs c^ «9 1» iH i-^ 1-1 iH ri 9 i5 t»<^(t5r««po*3«-i9co>H9SQ 

iH *M ^4 <H f^ ^i^ ^ vH vH r^ r^ i>4 *M f-l «-< (H vH f^ «H f-l *o4 fH iH ^^ f^ i^ f-4 






t* t^t^t«r«QOoot«>t^t»i«fr«oOoo 



i« r« t«- 1» t^ t« oo <0 (O 00 « «o 00 






Oi 



I 



■noSi^xo 



'1IQ80J9TM 



•uoqjreo 



M 



'HoSojpXH 



-mqdins 



d 
d 



.1 
•I 






•qsy 



•uoq 






'om^sfopf 



p. 



piionipuoo 



»'pnra 



iCjoiBJoq«q 



'(Q8«d) V sa^oa 9TxniV 



<o ^ o 






SSS9 






ooooS 



ssgs 






^1 ^4 ^< 






eovSS 



• * * 



j^titi 






»-< »H r4 ,H i-l *H «-4 r-l r-t t-< «H fH 



de<je«5dc4eiic>j<04dadt>^t^ok 



r« uScot*<O(0 • 00 to r« t^ t» t» 



oS oS O 01$ oi 0& 'O^^ •t>^a6 



9 S^?SloS^SS999S«^ 

^ u5 U3 -^ CO kO r^ CO ^ rO <0i CO -^ Tij 

r* r*t^toi«.t*ootot««Ki^ro»>.oo 






• ^J***^ • • • • •^•J 






9 S88S 

d c«5c«3dd 



ss^s^ 



Oft 2 <0 ro O 

doSddeo 



S; 



CO 



»H iH 1-1 r-l 1-H O CO ^^ ^ »H ^ 1-4 C9 CO 



tHiH^iHiHe4eovHC)eQ^c«co 



-< <{<{<{<{ 



ooooo 



^^<{<{^ ^ <j 






\^^^ 



i^QOAO ^ PI 



^^^^ 



s 



is^i IS 



3i 



IC4 



liCi 






I 



a 

o 

I 

t 

>^ 

CO 



o 

a 

o 

T 



o 
n 



CO 



s 



s 



s 

3 

2 ^^ 

C • ^ r* 

S«« C3 c » 
c:|;S'a'3a 






d 



8 ^ 



« CD tt OK 






155 



& U U UM 

0) 0) a; a>oS 

i^^^^i. CO 

9 9??^ 
SS220 

o"5oo" 

fl§aa2 

o o v a> 0( 
O.P4 0.CX.Og 

V O <P Q> 09 q 



8 

•4 



fc# C8 cf 3 S 

^a§a® 






a- 



M 



■a 

•n 

CO 

i 

u 
PI 



• * 



hi 



,aa 
I55< 



« 0} o 

aaa 






§ 



<» 



S: PENNSYLVANIA. 



3 33333 i 



im 



sppiprnpimmmm 



il 



ssu immimmmm 



I 



^' 



I i I I i! i I i 

T? B a 8 a Ti I a s 




I mi I 

mill mil 
^jii 1 1 1 1 III 1 1 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1 



hi 



§|g^§i§§§Sx 








Hi 


\ N Will 




»as 


\ M liiii 


: : : : : i : i : I 








8«S 


! : ■ : : ; ! : : 


i i ; 1 ; I I 


S=3 


SXSXSSSSiSSS 


cessssafss^s ssxis 






gfissesiissgSi 






ammmim: 



n ill i I 



i S § 88§ 



J I 

1! 



if 



I 



iiil 



11 



tl I 11 t 
-5 1 iiM^i I 



l^lll 



s-a-2 n 




S| 






* 3"* i ■ "::*■■" i -"^ 


-:-» ; : 










':XSS 






: -.SSS ■SSiS^SSS^n i 




\9st 










:=S8 
■■tm 










iSSE: 



jIi 



i! 



as : 


s ssss 


SSe :S{: :S« :£€ : 

ii ::id i^:* ;s-:s i 


ass2 












8 efsssx 




5gB8S 


s ; 1 


■ t5 823 : 1 


a : is i ;« i is 1 ; 


fSSS i i 


-«n. 


- — «n« 


.H«i«»<.«.H«n-.M» 




o 


■< -:■<■< 


« n « n 


<■<-: 


iiil 


ilii 


Iiil 


ill 



•Mi 



Hill 

H 1 ■ 

I i 



74 



AITAIiYSES OF COAIi, 19U-1919. 



I 



■♦-a 

o 



00 









3^ 



's^ixm I vox 

-jam ^B\^^u^ 



■saTJotoo 



S wroSMaSSeoS^SSiuSoei S^ra^SSrar^*^ 



,-t ,^ ,-1 ,-( vH *-• f-4 iH 1-4 1-4 ^ ^4 *-• iH 



o«Hio»M.i-»oc««*: 



aDr^«D^:fOCCoga^tsC4*-4QQ <o oo ^ Mp t^ r^ o r«- "r 



C^ t^ t^ »<■ 00 «D (O 00 »« 00 00 CD «D CO 



<o«oco(oacor*x 



'8801 SnfXjp-jjy 



'«' OM 



r* 

CJ 



'QOS^XO 



uo3oj)fK 



•uoqjso 



09 



uoSoipXH 



9 ■ * 



>o 



sss 



t^OC 






COCO ^ 



CO 



CO 



Soo^ 
ooo 

* • • 

eoi-iM 



sss 






kOO>90 

_ ^ _ _• _ J 
CO CO 60 



CO 









^SS 






S22 

• • • 

eoee •♦ 



•jnqdjng 



« I3SSS$5S!55S55;$S SKS^gSBSrt 



OS 



'^sy 






n^^ :I9& :n^ :9S 
jt J • • _• _j • • • • _• • 

^iO>0 'OO •«Q«Q •Q*H 
W^^ •^C4 ,^^ •C4C< 



<dS *Saa 'Sr^ ■ 



•uoq 

-JBD pOXTJ 



^ 
^ 



vOt^aOOrvOOOOaOaDvVOD 









CO 



^^^^o5rfcio»ddc5deo 



o&aaeococoi^dcr* 



'OJn)SfO|^ 



3 RSS 



1 • • 
. .to • 


is : 


•8 i : 


SI : 


:g : 


:8 : ; 


• ■ • 


jcj ; 


* • * * 


^ : 


* ■ • 


• • • ' 
;co ; ; 






OQ 



p-noDipuoQ 



1-^ T-i<-<e9c0i^cico*>ic4c0v4C«eo 



9para 



PQ PQA A 



n 



i-«C4eO>-^C4CO^C4R 



A 



,0N 
iCjO!|«Joq«q 



'(a8«d) o se^on eouf 



n 



i ii i iS i i g 



s 






1 ^ 



g 

s 



o 

H 

o 



o 



1 1 

s g 

Si 

2 w en a 
fogs 



1 I 

2- -e 



•s 



if 



I 



I 



I 



5 

3 



.• 4 ^ 



1^ -ii 

CO ^ Q) Q} 



s 



1 

a 

I 

i 

00 



-a 




^ i 



CO BO 

11 « 



5b 






n 






•3-5 

1l 



15 

o 



I I 






:-3:- i 



w 



L_j3L 



! SSsss-P3 asss 



li. 



; iMi 



: M 



S23 



;555> 



!;;; 



ssasBsssass sssjsasi jsjj 



lli 



^>^^K^: i ^^ '.^Z 1.4 



IH is Hi iSl jg 



f^^firifJ^KFi^^c: 1 



ScSS 



5 






_«_■< •<'■;•<■< 



liiii 11 I ill lllli III 




li 






-«»V >--p--«-Bf-- «-«rfi 



E 



Mj 



1^ 



i S5:M325:5 15: ;3 SHiSKi: 



S8aS2Sa8SSfflS938 3SSS8 S8S3 



§ S5gggg»3 N' I 3 5S : |3 ggH 



i ill II 




S3@S SS33^- SSSSsi ^S'^S^ '^S33§sSSS 3SSS@SSSo9 3 H 

^*«-2- "-*---«•»--• *35--«- n-«-*-S-«- i^-™-~-«-'w-n-«-c-*- n-ljn-w-n-n-a-rfrfj I 

S^JSS SS^SiS SS'^xS §"^S' SSS^^^SS^" SSSS§£§sSS ^ € 

«-»-«-;;- s-Sbvw «-*»-*i!- r-vC-Ss- h-hw*c-hv-«v- S-*v-«vw^v-«- | ■s 

m 



iii 



MS 






tliSF" 



:=:2MS=!; ;H5 i 



^ 



^cSl; 






39PS 3SfSF:8t> n3i~33 StiriSs S3S9SSSE:SS 1 
^:PF:{= R^rEit^^ ^SsiS '!S^^i& t£s^3i»S^'£^ : 



aala aa^sji^ saasij ^iaas 



i I i|i I 11 i ii i if ill i 11 | | 






lii ! 



M 1| 

Lit ill 




78 



ANALYSES OF COAL, lj»16-19>19. 



"a 






*GO]JOl«0 



^ u» lO -^ •« iO -^t to US <« ■« ic <« •^•^•^lO « eoeoeoio 






t* h-««-««-oo 



•ssoiSufAlip-JiY 



o •-«o 
ci cid 



Ok eoo 



*aQ&£xo 



•ueaoHTN 



*uoqieo 



'uoSojpXn 



-jniidins 






SIS93 



SS2 



• • • 












SS9 



399a99SsSSP!SSS 3333 fS. 3&SS 



I 






•iisv 



•noq 



oin«lOA 



'onUspH 



p'iionn>i">3 



9*piira 



Xjo^BJoqtri 



*(«S«I) o 89)oa eaiK 



5 

J 



ss 

c4e6 



SS 
e«c4 



eoeo 



^8 

•Old 



3 ^hSS 



0CO CO S> 






8 

CO 



8 

CO 



3 

CO 



CO 



• la loeo 

•Oft ^4f-4 

• e« coco 



•^«eo^«eo5^c<ico»HC«eoiH i-4v^e«eo 



•^ pq nn 



^ ^ ^^ ^^ 



s uu 

3 s$^ 






I 
I 






§ 

S 

O 



I 
f 



8 



S I 

^- I 

«| I 
Is s 



• • ■ • 

O OkOO 



S 3882S 
S3 S8S3SS 



CO COCOTO^ 






r4 «-lt-«e>ICO 



-«{ « 



g gg 



S 43 



c«t< 



•^«- 



3 




§51 sssiiasHasiisi isEiii lis s i 

S5S BSKSSaSgilSssSgB S5Sbs3 8-5 6 ^ 





u 



I 



I! 



i I 



... Jii!^^. 

..Ilia |i i 



f! 



111 JiSljljil Sliij]] 

i j i I n ii j 

g s e e § i IS i 



^mi 



II 



g-EI! 5SIIIIB IlllllliSmi:- IJIIIIIgi- |l 







3SC° 8SS5B283S SSSSSS28SRSKI:SSJ8 SSSSSSSSSSS 



s : is =ss ; 



Ti ana i s 



liiPiilii iP WTf 

"sisia Ta ma T T 



11 H pi J 




82 



ANALYSES OF COAL, Idl6-lftl9. 



"73 

8 



II 
§5 






•sopniBD 



'SBoiSaiXjpniry- 



-6 






■i 

Hi 



'uaai^xo 



•roflaniN I a 



'uoqjVQ 



'iroSojpiH 



*jinid|ns 



•qgy 



•upq 



'J99)«IIX 

«in«IOA 



*9JIl)8|0|f 



pnopipnoo 



»*pnra 



, 9'ON 



*(Q8«d) o 8090U onm 



^ 
f 



rH pHvN^^v^pH v4p^«^ v^ rH ^^4 v4 *ii4 ^4 *H rH *H «■« f^ «■« vi4 ^4 r^ »« v« ^ 



00* oo'r<roo 00 oo" r<roo oo" ^<^^^co «d'^^oo tA^Tgo ^^r^ol^^^|Cac^«<<^«o ee 



Si-iw 
•ocoeo 



ssss 



* " - * 
OOwS 



00 V w 



CO 



• • • 

■oean 






odSoS 



« • • 






e6 ^to^^ 



S3 



SSS 'SS 'dS 

Ok» ■06'^ •OO 















^ S9S93 9S;9 






S SS9.: 


:S : 


: 8 : 


:S : 


:8 : 


:8 : 


:8 


e4 Me«c4 : 


: ci : 


: «6 : 


:^ : 


:*6 : 


:e4 : 


:« 



,H r-iv-ti-tMeo r<P*«o. t-«e«eOiHe<«eo«i4Meo*4Meo^e«co«^e«eo 



-1 ^-<'< 






A fR PQ Q A 



S SgSg §8988 S S S S S ^ 

pS8 pRRS S i i i i s 



S SIS ^ir 8 S S S g g 



1 "2 

1 1 



I 



I 



8 



^ 

•e 









o § 

I I 
I I 



M *i 



I 

8 



> 



•c 



CO 



s ! '^s^.'S 



ca 



;! 



fill 



. P 

^ 8 



5 



oT H 



•8^ i 
II I 



St 



^ 






if 3| 
It 8' 



s 



2 81; 



IS 8 

|a ft 
^ I 



II l! 



TABULATED ANALYSES: 






TFTT 






riR^it^SJERffiSBa '■ 



SiSSSSSSS;;; ] \ i 



"*Srf*d 



i 8 



n ^ SSSiil 



i! 



^m ttmmmn^mm g; 



i^\ 



8 SEiSSa«85 



;M3n ;ii.M;n;M.n;^:;::.n g Kg H^ ! 



If I I i i I i I I llfi i 




a4 



ANALYSES OP COAL, 1916-1919. 






'Bopoiso 



^4 «^ ^^ ^^4 1-4 1-4 ^^ fH ^^4 ^4 ^4 *H fH 1-4 «K ^^4^4^^ v4 ^4 ^H r4 v^ v4 



h> aoooooaoQOtoC^oooo oooooocooo oooooo vy oor» t^ oc ec 



'8801 SuTiEip-JTy 



'ogSiCxo 



'uoSoj)iN 



•uoqwo 



■naSojpiCH 



•inqdxng 



2 

OS 



B 



Hsy 



•uoq 






'omnspji 



00 t^o>S5 V7 0> 






eoMc* 



^S^S;:3S9 






=28 



56 oo Sis 80S 



2S8 

00 95S 












CO 



^s 



o '«-Ji-t»4 * ' ' * • • • *^ 












8 ^SS$ 



9 SSSS3S9SS8 $iiS^9 ^^S 8 88S{^& 



8 ^S^SSS^SS 8RS93 $S8S 8 SSSSgS 

(«! r<^r<^o6a6ok«Dt^o»oQ eodokoio 06060! ot a6a6a6a2o 



8 89!^ 

_ • • • • 



8 



8 88^ 

■ a • • 

1^ MfSfH 



S3 



8 898 



J8 

Pi 



p'ooi^Tpaoo 



9 para 






w^ ^^,HCieo«-4e4eo<-4 F4,H«-4deOr4C«co.«H i-tvHiMcaci: 



«] ^^^ 



< <« 



< <« 



$ $% 



I 



« S«o8 




:^^^^ ^^ 



'(flSiid) o B090U 9a|H 



§ liSi 



i im §ri s§s 



{i 



•8 

^ ? 



o 
pi 



CO 



8 



o 

^ ■ vs 

I ^ 

I 

i 

1 s 

o 3 . .9 
^«oB § « 

fc»H 0"^ 

'-^ *0 9 o 
•g g »- *« © 

Pill 

^ aQCQ£ 



(5 

I 



04 



O) 



1 



cX 



§ 



o 



s 



00 



O « n S S 

» ^ N K 



1 



I 




I 

9 




000000 



86 



ANALYSES OF GOAL, 1916-10i9. 



"a 



*6)fiin|viii 






'sopoiBD 









'ssoianf/Lip-jfy 



-naSiCxo 



•uoaorjiK 



*noqj«3 



'uaSojpiCH 



9$8 



4 * * 



OCDCO 
QOOOCB 



Qzn 

^^^ 









9 56 9 r« 9 So 
oo9)9SqdgdS 



r^ 1/3 <D r« »o r^ 



«Mro9 
KSdd 



* * 9 



■OOfH 

oOobS 






'jnqdpis 



3 9^SSS;SSSSSSSS:3S^$s3SSr:: SSS !5SS 

■c5 



-2 

a 

a 
o 

Q 

i 

I 






B 

••4 

I 



•qsy 



c4 c4c4c4e4 



S^9 



e6eo 



eie4 !«5<($ •«5<($ 



SS8 



S9 

0606 



•noq 












*oims|oii 



S 8S$ : 


i^i 


t * 1 ■ 
> -co • 'S ! 


:S9 : 


is : 


• • 

: R : 


: 9 : : 


€i c4e4e4 • 


joi 


It • • • 


\ci \ 


\c* \ 


: ^ : 

• • 


• d ; : 



i 



p-uopipuoo I lo 



f4 i-tiH^e4eOfHe4 09fHe«cei^e«co«HO«eo»^c«co «He«eo ^cteo 



»pnra 



< <« 



o << 



•o --I 






Xio^woqvq 






fe^ 






*(o8«d) 9 so)oa oniH 



§§§§ l«IIS S§§§ 



I 



1 ^ 
I I 

5 
I 



I 

eo 

o 
I 



T 






O 



QQ 

H 



o 
o 

o 

8 



9 

s 
I 

5 9'^s 

fill! 

aS 5 o o o 
to oSoQOQ 



4^ 

' I 

I 1 

II 



w 



S ^ 
9 -ga 



"S 
1 



8 oc 



o 
8 

•a 






i 1 



0. 



i 



M 



9 € 



• £ 






3 



Si 



« 



1"^ I § 

OQ OQ 



I 



^:5"3''3:S2S"32"S312" S"';rs' :: 33:22s 3I3Z" 3S23-331S-2SS -^ 5 



S?3; 



3 3: i |3 3s:i 



p^ 



Hi 



m 



il 

il! 









mwm 



: \ri Zcirict H i ;.4^«]< : \^ \ 



■^-i -; <■<■« ■ 



'^'^ ^ 



Mil 



I i i I 



ii i iiii i ji j| 

l~S SS S III! I 8818 8 



: „ : -■ a ■ ■ ^ ■ -^s S ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 

ih Hmiiii 

liiiiiyiSi 

Hiiiiiii 

Ifu I -Ml iHrm IIII I 



88 



AKALYSES OF COAIj, 1916-1919. 



•8 
■I 

o 









*8)pzn|vni 



•89pOI«Q 



'ssoiSuf^jp-jjy 



'uqSXxq 



•mfloniN 



•uoqiBo 



*u«9aipiCH 



'JcnidTng 



5 



S 

PL* 



•qsy 



•noq 






*am}spj{ 



B 



p'oopfpnoo 



»'p«ra 



iCjo)tuoq«q 



-(oa«d) 69)011 oniH 



I 



«i4 ,H iH iH fH *H «i4 fH «H «H iH *H *H «H iH «H iH fa| ^4 r4 v-^ «-4 w^y^w^^,m 



ooGoac QOoeoeaoooaoooooaOrvi^oooo ooooooooao 



oe 



aoacxxx 






iHOO 

J • • 

vCOCO 



8SS 






39S 

• • V 



ScoS 
ede4ci 



2j:s 



Sa6ok 






8Str 



oic(^ 















2g5 



— 3» 



^ 3SSSSS992SSSSS3S8S$ 99929 9S^$« 



e4 ^e4^<^<«l 









S3 SSgSe::gS8SS8£23:3:S99 8:3$SsS 89S38 



ji* "^5 c>5 ^j* I 



!«> K i>^ od t>: <y5 o» i>^ t<: r<r f^ od oS <d (C a6 qi6 t<ra6aic$r<r otfi^rafuTs 

,H l>H 1-4 n ,H 1-4 M *H ^4 ^4 iH ^4 ^4 |>H l>H <-• lH ^4 »H *M Cl ^4 ^ ^ S f« M 



i: 


S^3^ : 


:SS3g : 


:S : 


:8 8i3 : 


i8 


285 




coeocJc^ I 


• «H»H*-lfH • 


'.ci : 


'ei ciei : 


Id 


eicic4 



^ iH iH iH ^ M CO f-« »H ^ ix ca CO *-i M CO v4 «-i^c«co^ ,.4,H,HMeo 



< <«-!l -<<t<-<J 



O -^ -J!^ -< ^^^ 



O »HC4C0^ 

I III! 



■9I>> 



i:f3 




i 11 



1^^ 






pt^^ ^ 



Cf OkOi 






liii 



C9 w ra A 



I 



I I 



I 






QQ 



O 
U 

•4 
>4 



43 a C n " 



i 5 



CO 



CO. 




^2 09 O O « 
g QOQQdQtn 






II 




i liiliiii 






||i ifii 1 i iij I ji i 1 1 ill I 
jj. 



! 8 I 



§ S S ! 



I 



i 



MliiH 
liiliiii 



ilii 
! \ 

•S 3 

f ■! 



90 



AJSTALYBEB OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



I 









•soporsQ 



00 oooooDocaot^ooco oo oo t« 00^00 1« oo 00^ CO oo oo oo 00 af otTairai? 



'fifloi 3iz|£jp-jrV 



-uaSiCxo 









S3S 



*a09oi)|K 



S 



SSSSS9S 



• • • 



8SSSS29 

• •••■• 



s:;a 



•uoqj«o 



o696SaoobS 



raS8ot«iH 
oooBSoooDCD 



sss 

QonS 



'noSojpXH 









SS8 



'jniidins 



9 99S^9SSS9 9^g9;s:$iStg3SS SS:3:SSSS 

d 



I 



•qsy 



CO CO ^ooco 









•uoq 






oin«loA 



*02n)S|0|^ 



i 



p-uopipnoo I 






c4 H^'H 



e4 



8 888SS 

H H^'ele4e4 



m 

CO 



8 8S8S 

e4 ^'cioici 



r4 vH^THMeOv^MMi-* «MiMiM«H«i4e<eo^M«o^ ^^^^t^^^^Mcs 



a'Pnra 



iLiO}«Joq«a 



^ ^^^ 



^ -<<{^<j^ 



-< -<-<-<-< 



^ ^^ 



i 



Ig 






^ ^^^ 



f2 

8 



-(a8ed) s99on eu|K 



A mmA OS co Mcocococo eo co eoeoeoeo 



I 



a 



a 

z, 

o 



I 

eo 

o 
2 



I 

I 






^ A 



I 
S 



o 
2 



I 

•8 



"a 



§ I 



QQ 



8 






I 



® ga 
V! e 4) 






I 
I 



o 



« 



"^ a K 







Si 

ao< 



^ 






Makers* 



A^ 






o 



2"g 



S 9 9 4} O g fc Q O 9 IB O O'O 4> 'Sa V C 49 O V 



§ 



O 9 S O O "4 4> 



§g» 



;eoi 



nil ISIII'll IllllSlilllllll II liSII 







SSISS SSSEtSXRSS 1 



:K5llll2illl 



aie(;£ S^ti:S:::S:S^:i ! 



i 5^3 d ii iiic:=S 



3 : is SSe 


i3 i is SSS i 


ia i isgs 


I S ; i 2 88 8 1 is : i 


-n«- -„« 


«-.(.«_ _„„« 


«-««-—» 


«_c»,« _- -«»-«s 


o -: -^-t-t 


w ^1 ^•<-< 


O -l<-i 


W -i <-! ^ W 


1 |||i 


^ IP 


i IP 


illili^ II 



353 =333 3 3 S3 5 3 




92 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



9 



-j«0 qsRpa 



I ^siiasisR isississi §55&sSgi 






•soponro 



9 S^Sssi3gsss ss^^^sssgss SS^SSiS^ 

iH c9iHobr«-<Daor«-iH ^4i-4PHCot^S^«o^ No^^coh-ODor* 



J* ^J^ .^^ 



00 00 « 00 00 1« to 00 GO 00 « 00 00 00 to t^ 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 to oo ao 



*ssoi 3iz|^Lip-j|y 



I 



'uaaXxQ 



•uegoj^iN 



*aoqjV3 



-aoSojpiH 



'jnqdpis 






00 U3<0 00<90 

OxStOtodScS 

■ ••••• 






?;?s^S;:}S^ 



OOMOOOMO 



SJcie3-^Sn 



W OD At»00S 



c>«i»i»a»d5o 

OOQOSlo ODO 



i-^StoaS^S 

00 do wOOOC S 



Q0^<pl0.tOfH 
CONOCO *^ CO 

^^ ^f^ 'f ^^ ^H* ^^ 



iH t-« iM »0 t* «<• 

• • • • • Jf 

^^p ^^^ ^^^ ^^p ^^p ^^p 






o toSutot^iSoo^ SScot^t^AOrHO SstoSr«toSr* to 



5 



•qsv 



•noq 



9in«I0A 



'OJC^sjoH 



S 
^ 









CO ^^^•^ 'oieJ '^ e>5^^^ •t«It«i 



S S9oooa»to35 StoiSooeoiSra3<-i 8 S o i-^ So eo c« et 

to to to to 00 f- to 00 to to to to to 00 to fo30 to |o to to K 86 to fo to 



^ SSSiSS9I^S ^S§^3S8^S^ S^S!^;::^^;; 

to <d t<^ 0(5 od CO CD od to r^«cStotoQ6totooSto «5tot«Iai5a»adc»c5 

iM ,H iH vH rH i>H fH iH fH iH »H »H »H »-l »-l iH iH »H ^^ iH f-t f-t ^^ ^^ «-• C* 



8 gg 

ei cloi 



s 



8SS 



8 

• • • • 

CO C4C0CI 






So 00 OOOD 

ei ciciei 






poonipnoo 



iS 

Qi 



apxira 






iH ^iHCtcOiHCieOiH ^iHiHMec-^MeOiH iH^^ww^Meo 



< « 



O 



-< -<-<-< 



< <« o 



IP^^ 



^ ^ 






CO 



iH ooa»i 



^ ^^ 



'(aSBd) o GO^n oniH 



>0 UdXd 
d iHfH 
CQ CO CO 






eo 



W <0 CD 

CO coco 



CO 



to rototo 

CO CQCOCO 



eo 






i 



2 3 

§ I 

^ T 

3 e 



CO 

d 

I 

o 



o 



a 
> 

00 



8 
IS 

s 



JO 






■8 
1 



S 2 



o 



d *- H 
•• !ri ^^ 3 

•g o o cu 

a 



•2 ^ 



o 



I 



o 



eo 

O 

^M •«e« ^ 



I 



1 

00 



o 

1 

I 



g lolls I 



2311 

m 

I 



o 



§ 

at 



r <u 



03 Q o Q} O O S<~* 9 9 <S O 

Q coram (Q ^ oQQOra oS 




"8 
1 

00 

§ 



i 1 






9 

d 

2 

o 

.S 
a 



s 



I 




^d [i^ :^h :|^^: \^,: \as [^r^ ;« i)!^c4i««ri>^ '^^ :<><! ^Z^ \ -f^ 



i\^\i\i\i\\f:Ui\i 



imiim^ 



SL S. SL^ 



"^ S- A" 



IBM 



3. j_ j.3 S i S a 35i5Sa 



ti il 

!!!! 



i I 



Hilll 



ill!? 
|i.iJ ! 



I lit 



ill 11 



jippii 



I II 



ill \ 

l!l 
il! 

Ill 
i il P 



ANALYSES OF GOAL, 1918-1819. 



1 SI 








1 11 


ssyssii 


Bim^n 


igssgs 



9 $g 3!;3SSS3S 7X3SSXSS SSKEP 



3 SS S^9 :Sa 



1 11 11 



Hi 



m^i 



% mss i i mm 



I I j if I 



2|i 



3 ° » llfll - 



m 
I ill 

Jill 



J FIJI I 



is aiti 
II PJ) 

ijf &i 

111 
lii lili 




^sssss SEsa S3a::»ss s 


38 aasa ess ssjassa sgsk $ 


saa :s ass sa :ss ;s ; 








83 883S aSK S33SiSS RSSS S 


ss : :ffi S2S S : :S : :S P 




~»nM« «-» «Hn«cga« „ 


~~ ^»n- -.^- _-^nn- ...^^-. .. 


«;■< -J -!^*! ^ y ^ - 


■«t < -! ■<-<-! -!■<■< ■< ^;-!<-! y 


11 iiiii i 11 III 1 ill III iiiil 



[8 S mmi i 33i 33^ ' S ~S~9 i 



i Iiiii 

illi i 

^' lll'l p % pllplll 




96 



A17ALYSBS OF COAL, l»ie-1919. 



I 









'SQfJOItIO 



^§§§ §§ gBI i§sg g§g sSSSSS 









*880{ SifpEifKiry 



00 

.4 



r* *-te« '4*^eo CO 



• • • ( ■ 



*iiq8^0 



•ti980Ji]K 



*noqj«3 



'iraSojpiCn 



*jni{(lTng 



a5«5«S 






*H iM ^ 



sun 



ad«S«S 






399 



39S 









Sf39 






• • * • 



«4fH •^•-J 









e4e4e4 ' ' * 



•xpY 



■I 



•noq 



9in«I0A 



-am^spK 






CO 



p-uopipnoo 



»-pnra 









*(aa«d) D se^oa ooih 









S8 iiQ 






«9 'c«A 












£98 






cow^co CO eo coraoo 



l^^^SS 









2? : 


:» SfS S!;3 {3 : 


:c^ S3SS K : 


:« 


d : 


:» e4el e4e4e4 e4 : 


:e4 cie^d d : 


:e4 



•hmcoih w^w^ f-i*i4iH ^c«eo»^ ^^«M ^MCOf-tmM 



-< -< -<-< -<^-< -< -< ^<<<< << 



C4 



s 






3 ' 



ca CO coco cococo co 



CO cococo CO 



C9 

CO 



I 



1 



I 

g 



I 

CD 5 



o 

I 



I-- 

§1 




^ 



I 



Is 

IS 



8 



JO 

s 







OS! "3 o 

go S'l 

O** O " ^ e* f 

A l§||sg§gs| 



J6 



5 
ft 

8 



I 



SiO 



!w 



I il 



OQdOCQ QQ 



8 

94 



Tl oQOQaB do ou 



^ 






TABUl^AlrED ANALY! 



„- ■■--.- .-;■.- 



1 1 iiiiii I lull III I llllllll 





liM'iiii iiiMii 


*^ 'TtZ J : i J J j"22 ; i ; 






i i : 12 i 


sea 




: :SS3 








»S8 




; ;828 


i :^jj 




ij3=a ; : i 




: ssa 




: llSSS 














i rsas 




: : :SSS : : 






il 



a CSS C : i S S S8SS ■:'■ S S23 j j S j j S SSS : ia j i 



i ill I i 



i iii I IP ill P i 
s a mm i m "Ti isa i 




liR^ 



3 s^EsiSsssss :;;;:3S3 ssrisstsssss 



% IrfrfllJte:- ;-i;-lll- :-!l-!-:-JI!w 



i 



3 53^3 III ;S 2322 irf *!5' iSS if' 



in'ioA 



s ^^'ilili^ Srf^rfS^ ^^^^1^313' 



9 ssRESssas sisssKS ssBasssssa 




:i 



;.-!-S-5Hw5 iilU;-;!!-! iK-fcSSij Islfc-ljimSII | s 

' |i! 

liii 



^\\^ 



SSSSS isS is SSSSa iSS is CS^X isS Is X81§3S£;S iSSSS9 : 
j€F:rie^^i>;E^:^ Sii^^f^SSsiiS (^iSfs^f^^f^S^i ^Pf3iifi;is^SiS[Sfi^i! 

N 



^M^ H^ ig v^A \fi\i VA 1 :3 la 5!g5;3 1 lasgg 



iliiiiiii ililiiiiflii 




ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1K9. 

8 isiiiSiiSlsBSglS SggiiSliSS 



I ISHSIJIKII sISIJJ 



t 



3 353 i ;3 ! is 



s 



ml .111 



sssi as : 



Z ^Z~^7i ji^y^^^ i<<iid :,j «<j!^!d i^S!^ 



-«."S™ 



il 



e iii^iiitiiitiaiaiie^ issiiiiii 






i s^imsjif^m ^m\^ 



^s^ 



II 



II III i I 




SSSSI! SI8SBSSS IISSSS i6aBa8SSiiS8lga!SS i 3 



SSSSSS £;SskSSS^ 







p p p 155 |5g : 



I ill I I j ■ I I I I I 1 
~i~m~i TT" i i s i s s 



I N: 



III 



I ! 



iiriji 



102 



ANALYSES OF GOAL, lAlA-tStd. 






*8|fizn iviu 



3 SSg§§l 

•Q^ ©www €*» Cv C'C^^'ir 
vN ^>4 w^ m^ 9mk ^^ p^ 



liS^Sg S 8SS2gS§g 



eo^ie^^io 



<«■ ^^^aOaO^iOtO 



•80Moi«o 



§ §Sg§§l gS§§§g 8 §§SSgSiS 



»-* t^vr^vrfcOad- 



t*t^00I^CO00 



00 CO 40 00 80 90 80C0 



'8S0I 8iipCip-j|Y 



t^ co«eo>o 



eo 

00 



^ OMOI 

• • • ■ 

p4 e«c«iH 



'ooaxxo 



8SSS assssr^s 



oiS«5^ 



*oe«e«t^«oce 






•nsfloitlK 



I 

5 



S9S 



2SS^2SSSSS9 



S8S 



•aoqjVQ 






3SS 

• • • 



Tiottoi p iCH 









'jnqding 



CO cocooooooo^ 



3S9SS8Sd S SSSSSiSSe 



eofooo 



•q»V 






as :as 






co«6 



'Qoq 



9 f389:^SS 






9 fssesssssSR 



I 






9 ^^8^SS 



0> t^OOoD wdk 



9 :5SSSSSSS8 

t6 r^iDt^c^odadaooi 



'un^sfojc 



e4 e4e>S44e4 



c4 



s 



e4 e^MM 



puoDiiraoo 



«>4 ,H «-4 *H «^ d CO 



i-4C««0iHM«0 



w^ t-l f>« «H C« 00 'H €« M 






»*p«ra 



-< <!-«{-<-< 



n 



-< ^^-*J -< 






§ mm 

CO OQOOOOOO 



g 

s 



IS I 



'(a8«d) 9 80)oa 9u|k 



• CO CO CO 



n (ocoM 






2 



I 

g 
Y 

S o 

S i 

{h O 



CO 



1 

i -.15 

e : :S 
3 _.SS»-o 



S 



as 



8 



Oj Set 4 R^ 

Ism! 

liiisl 

i I Ml 

o 

Ji 



o 
o 

H 
9 



8 

J 

s 

8 



o 

I ... 

I III 

riMI 






a 

It 






it 



M 



BD 






• ; ;:-- i i i ; ; ; i ; ; ; i ; 

■ ■., ■■::!■■■::: 



mmm 



: ; ;::: ; ; 






SSSSS i&S '3 SSE3&S iSSSS iSSSSS iSi3 iSSSft : SS i 

:5353 :S3 i3 ;;l;;5 jSS" ;:53" :SS Xs' ; 5' : 





ieses 


i* ; jses : : 


jE i i 


^^^^ W ^ ■4-<-i-< <■<■< 


■«■« 


_o__ ■<-<■< 


s_, 


ii|i Ijiilil ill 


IW 


IP i 


ill 



SSbS 3 S SnnS inn SnSS 3 ! 







nil I 




III Jill I 



104 



ANALYSES OV COAL, 1916-1919. 



1 



I 






•sopoiBo 






00 00 00 00 00 00 1** 00 00 00 ooooooQOoooo t«ao oooooooo^oo 



*880|3iif/L[p-j|y 



s 



•uaSAxo 



•uaSonxn 



•uoqiBQ 



'naSojpiCH 



'jnqdfng 



• ■ • 
•oeoeo 






• • ■ 



8Si« 






SiSS 



sss 






obSCB 



w OoS 



96 »oo 



39$ 

• • • 



S^IS 



3 SSSSSSSS^ ^9SS;£;^ ^^StSfSSSSS 






•qsy 



•uoq 



oin«IOA 



*ani)8)0H 



8 8o8o 

e6 >oe6e6^ 



12^ :S S8S8 :g SSS9:8 :RR 



?2 RSfjjdri^piss ^gjiS^sBr: fsisf^^^Msg 



S SSS^SSSoS^^ 98&3S3R R9gSS^:SS3 






d 



9 
c4 






e4 dMdd 



es 



o 
"S 



p-uonTPooQ I «• I 



3*pntH 



iCjo:(«joqvx 



-(aSvd) o se^oa euiK 



I 



^ t-4 1-4 ^ 04 CO ^ C9eo «H v-tiMfMMeoiM *-4 ^ «h ih n C0 1-4 *4 



-< ^-<^ iL"** '^'^'*^ "^ •<i'<<j-< -<-< 






1 1 IP § §§§g §i 



CO CO coeo^ CO ^cococo coco 



§ 
3 



M 



1 

3 I 

§ i 

2 
CO 3 



s 






•8 



I 1 



SI 



00 



lllf 
I ^k 

I III 

E<g^O} 9 9 

frill 



& 






1 



^ 



III 



ti 








3 

§ 
!5 












o c« 



& 



CO 



o 3 o hi o 

"Sill 

'S comoQ 

OQ 



I 

If 
Si 

^& 



CO •^«0«-t»-< B 




o o 



9 « 
da 



::::::: ::;;::::; ; : ; : : TTTi TT -3 3 




^^ |n nfi^«ilj :<d<i :^ n.<i.^^ i<i2 i-^Hc*^ i^is :« 



ES8J3 jsS^fSsjfliSari i 









S2Sm ShmEZh^hS-m I 



;::;55!ii;N5 5gSMg|ag«SHlN="Nl 



MP ill IP iiilP HIP if 




106 



ANALYSES OF COAL, l(a6-1919. 



Is 

II 






*80TJOi«o 



§§i g isgiissig - ssiisg 



Mcoua 






§8S S 2SS2S§$8S 

t«>c* 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ooV> ocToo 






•H «S. ^ a^ «^ ^ 



*880| 8ii|Xjp*JTy 



1^ 



s 



'uaS^xQ 



ooSixmN 



TWtllBO 



*ao8aipiEH 



•anqdpig 



•qsv 



'noq 
-I90 paxTJ 






'Oin^spK 












p'oonTPnoo I 



»pura 



, 9'ON 
Xxnvjoqtri 






S;S9 



oSobab 
wOOOO 



S9S 



ele4e<S 



S S^S8^SS^S3;: 















S9S 



SSSSSSS8S 



t^odjij 00 t^ 00 00 00 at Ok 00 00 Ok 



«5 



c4 e4c4c4el 



c4 



^c«eo 



,iM »-4 1-4 ol P^ C« CO (^ 04 CO 



A 



-< -<^-<-< 



O 



^ 



!; 3S8S 



^^ 



eq^*He0i>4i-4 












Sisssssss: 



SS :S8 









s 

si 



;8 



fHCveo^Mee 



13 



'(a8wl> 080)oa eniK 



^ 



2 •2ja:2!2 

6Q COC3C3 CO 



s 



I 

I 



o 



OQ 



8 




00 



^6 

i 



I 

I 






i 



8 

8 g^ •« 

111 
111 






TABX7IATED ANALYSES: WYOMING. 



107 ^ 



1 §ai§S§ 

«— • w.^ w-4 ^^ w^ wt v4 






• • • 



e4aS<:5 



S£9 

V9 CQ ^ 



• • * 






^ ssss^s^ 









OQ 0$ t^ Q OOft OJ 

CO CO CO ^ w w ^ 



{3 9S^SS 

CO CO ci coco 



^4 vM f-« (H <H e« CO 



< -<-<-<^ 






d 



oH 



5 5 



I 



I 



lip 

^^5 SI'S 

W) ki 9 9 Q o 



s 



4 I 
f ^ 

t 









I S 

is 11 
i» I § 

5l«« I 

^odw a 

fo O Q o -o 

floSa>d3 

-Is It^ 



^ £j CS ^ ti>S 





55270'— 22 8 



DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLES. 

ALABAMA. 

BIBB C0X7NTY. 

BbuiB Ellen. BsLiliE Ellen Mine. 

AnalyBes 26276 to 26281 (p. 17). Bituminous coal, Oahaba field, from Beile Ellen 
mine, a slope mine in BeUe EUen, on the Louisville & Nashville and the Southern 
R. R. Goal hed, Youugblood; Carboniferous age, Pottsville group. Bed is 32 incheE 
thick and is 400 feet below the Woodstock seam, 36 inches thick, which is not worked 
there; dips 0® to 23^ west; cleat not well defined; bed disturbed by two faults and 
frequent rolls or horsebacks; roof, tender shale, varying in thickness from a knife edge 
to 12 inches; floor, fairly smooth, soft fire clay; cover at points of sampling, 1,000 feet. 
The bed was sampled by E. B. Sutton on October 10, 1916, as described below: 

SecUofu of coal bed in BeUe Ellen mine. 



Section 


A. 

26276 


B. 
26277 


C. 

26278 


D. 
26279 


E. 


Laboratory No 


26280 






Roof, shale and sandstone. 

"R««h" 


Ft. in, 

as 

S 4 


Ft, in. 

as 

2 9 


J^. In. 

a4 

2 


Ft, in. 

a2 

2 8 


Ft. in. 
• 3 


Coal 


10 


"Mother coal" 


1 


Coal 










lU 


Floor, fire day. 
» Tntekneffff o' bud . ,_,,,..,..,,. 


3 7 
3 4 


3 
2 9 


2 4 
2 


2 10 
2 8 


?.J|- 


Thickmttff of coal sampled 





a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 26276) was cut at face of 19 south heading. Section B (sample 
26277) was cut at face of 22 north heading. Section G (sample 26278) was cut at ^ice 
of 2 cross entry, 23 north heading. Section D (sample 26279) was cut at face of 70 
room, 18 north heading. Section E (sample 26280) was cut at face of 19 north heading. 

The ultimate analj^siB of a composite sample, made by combining fiice samples 
26276, 26277, 26278, 26279, and 26280, is given under kboratory No. 26281. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1916 the coal was ^ot off the solid with 
permissible explosives, and only light shots were required. About 500 acres remained 
to be mined. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 15 yeare. The average daily 
output was 650 tons. 

For description and analyses of other samples of this coal, see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 33, 331. 

1BF7EB.SON COUNTY. 

Besseher. Virginia Mine. 

Analyses 26217 to 26222 (p. 17). Bituminous coal. Warrior field, from Viiginia 
mine, a slope mine 7 miles southwest of Bessemer, on the Louisville & Nashville 
R. R. Coal bed, Nickel Plate; Carboniferous age, Pottsville group. Bed is 5 feet 
thick and is flat; roof, fairly hard shale, 6 to 7 feet thick, capped with sandstone; 
floor, fairly hard, smooth fire clay; no cleat; one fault; rolls and horsebacks common; 
thickness of cover at points of sampling, 600 feet. The bed was sampled by £. B. 
Sutton on September 25, 1916, as described below: 



ALABAMA: JEFFEBSOK COUNTY. 



109 



Sections of coal bed in Virginia mtrie. 



86ctioo 

Laboratory No 

Boof, shale and sandstone. 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

"Rash" 

Shale ; 

Coal 

Floor, fire clay. 

Thlckiiessofbed 

Thklmess of coal sampled 



A. 
26217 



Ft. 
2 



5 
4 



in. 

as} 

as 
adi 



B. 
26218 



Ft, 



in. 

6 
a2J 

1 
3} 
• 7 

8 



5 4J 
4 3 



C. 

26219 



Ft. in. 

06 
2 U 
a3i 
06 
1 7J 

5 3f 
4 l| 



D. 
26220 



FL in. 

2] 

^ S* 
03 

o7 

1 7J 

4 10 
3 9i 



E. 
26222 




• Not iocladed in sample. 

Section A (sample 26217) was cut at iace of 1 north heading, about 6^300 feet north- 
west of pit mouth. Section B (sample 26218) was cut at face of 19 right heading, 
about 7,400 feet northwest of pit mouth. Section C (sample 26219) was cut at face of 
20 right heading, about 6,000 feet northwest of pit mouth. Section D (sample 26220) 
was cut at face of 17 right heading, about 6,600 feet northwest of pit mouth. Section 
E (sample 26222) was cut at face of main right heading, about 6,600 feet northwest 
of pit mouth. , 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face sa^nples 
26217 to 26220 is given under kboratory No. 26221. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1916 the coal was undercut by hand and 
shot down with permieeible explosives by shot firers, after the miners had left the 
mine, from 6 to 10 p. m. The charge was fired by battery^ All the output was being 
taken from advance workings, the daily average output being about 1,000 tons. 
Haulage was by mules and by gasoline motor to the slope-engine rope. All of the 
coal went to coke ovens. 

Majestic. Majestic Mine. 

Analyses 32070 to 32074 (p. 18). Bituminous coal, Warrior field, from Majestic 
mine, a shaft mine at Majestic, on the Louisville & Nashville R. R. Coal bed, Black 
Creek ; Carboniferous age, Pottsville group. Bed is 1 foot 10 inches to 2 feet 10 inches 
thick; rolls are common; bed contains some irregular, thin streaks of *' mother coal' '; 
roof, hard, sandy shale; floor, smooth, mostly soft fine clay; elevation of entrance 
above sea, 400 feet; cover at points of sampling, 300 feet. The bed was sampled by 
W. B. Flank on June 4, 1919, as follows: 

Sections of coal bed in Majestic mine. 



Section - 


A. 

32070 


B. 

32071 


C. 

32072 


D. 


LabotatoTTNo.. 


32073 






Rootf^ sandy shale and ooal: 


Ft. in, 
2 10 


Ft. in. 
2 2 


Ft. in, 

4 

1 m 
1 i4 


Ft. in. 
2 2 


"Mother coal" 




Coal 








"Mother coal" 








Coal 








FloOT. fire clay. 

njnrinimfftff nf hfl^.. ...r....^-. - -,t 


2 10 
2 10 


2 2 
2 2 


2 2 


Thf oknfsff of ooal sampled 


2 2 







110 



AISTALYSBS OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



Section A (sample 32070) was cut at face of 4 room, 1 cross entry left, 4 right nonk 
entry, at a point N. 47° £., 1,850 feet from the hoisting shaft. Section B (aampitt 
32071) was cut at face of main north entry, 5 left, at a i>oint N. 30° E., 2,100 feet froa 
the hoisting shaft. Section C (sample 32072) was cut at face of 4 right south air couih'. 
at a point 8. 70° W., 1,400 feet from the hoisting shaft. Section D (sample 3207:!: 
was cut at room neck, 30 feet outby face of 4 left south entry, at a i)oint S. 25° W.. 
Iy500 feet from the hoisting shaft. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 32070 
to 32073 is given under laboratory No. 32074. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1919 the coal was sheared by hand along 
rib and shot down with a permissible explosive by the miners at 4 p. m. HeL 
employed numbered 106 undergroimd and 16 above ground. Haulage was by mule 
and storage-battery locomotive. The tipple was of wood, equipped with bar screens: 
80 per cent of the coal passed through screens; the washery had one revolving 
screen with ^-inch round holes; maximum size washed, under 3 inches; sizes pro- 
duced by washing, nut and pea, blacksmith \ inch and less. Average daily 
tonnage, 200 tons washed. There were two loading tracks, with capacity for 
20 empty and 20 loaded railroad cars. The daily capacity of the mine at time of 
sampling was 1,000 tons, the actual average 275 tons, and the maximum day's run 
325 tons. All the coal was taken out in the advance work, and 75 per cent recoven- 

was claimed. 

Palos. Bessie Mine. 

Analyses 26900 to 26903 and 26914 to 26917 (p. 18). Bituminous coal, Warrior field, 
from Bessie mine, a slope mine 2 miles east of Palos, Ala., on the San Frandsco & 
Southern R. R. Coal bed, Mary Lee; Carboniferous age, Pottsville group. Bed u 
8 to 9 feet thick; dips 3° S. £., with cleat in same direction; one fault; no rolls or 
Horsebacks; shale partings; roof, good coal and shale; floor, smooth, hard shale. The 
bed was sampled by E. B. Sutton on December 4, 1916, as described below. 

Sections of coal bed in Bessie mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, coal: 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

Shale 

Shale 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

Floor, shale: 

Tnicknessof bed 

Thickness of coctl sampled. 



A. 
26902 



Ft. in. 

1 7J 

a I 10 



2 64 
«lj 
7 
as 

8 

8 2h 
6 9i 



B. 

26901 



Ft. in. 
1 9 
rtl 
5 



al 
2 



2 

S* 
a2 

9 

a2 



8 3 
6 8 



C. 

26900 



Ft. in. 
1 9 
o2 
4 



ol 
2 



9 

9 
«24 

8 
as 

11 



8 9} 
6 5 



D. 

20916 



Ft. in. 
1 8 
al 



al 
2 



6 



3 



8 

a2 

10 

8 i 

6 2 



E. 

26915 



Ft. in. 
1 7 
a 14 

4 



ol 
2 



4 

7 
al 



7 7 
5 101 



F. 

26911 



Ft. in. 
1 9 

•I 

5 



al 
2 



8 
6 



8 
6 

-1J 

7 

H 

'} 



a Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 26902) was cut at face of 11>12 room, 18 left entry, 6,800 feet 
northeast of mine opening; section B (sample 26901) was cut at face of 27-28 room, 
14 right entry, 5,000 feet southwest of mine opening, section C (sample 26900) was cut 
at face of 25-26 room, 15 right entry, 5,700 feet southwest of mine opening; section D 
(sample 26916) was cut at face of 10 right entry; section £ (sample 26915) was cut at 
face of 28 room, 9 left entry; section F (sample 26914) was cut at face of 2 room, 
10 left entry. 

The ultimate analyses of composite samples made by combining face eamples 
26914 to 26916 and samples 26900 to 26902 are given under laboratory Nos. 26917 and 
26903, respectively. 



AT.ABAMA ; SHELBT COUNTY. 



Ill 



SyBtem of mining, room and pillar. In 1916, in the advance work, 45 per cent of 
Hie coal was taken out. Haulage was by mules and hoisting engine. The coal was 
cu.'t l:>y machine and shot down by the miners with permissible explosive at any time 
during the shift. Men employed numbered 250 underground and 30 above ground. 
Tlie coal was dumped over a wooden tipple; all was crushed, waBhed, and shipped 
to coke ovens. In 1916 the mine had a capacity of 2,500 tons a day; the daOy average 
output was 1,800 tons,l>ut was expected to reach 2,500 tons. 

SHKLBY COUNTY. 

Aldrich. Aldrich Mine. 

Analyses 26730 to 26734 (p. 19). Bituminous coal, Cahaba field, from Aldrich 
mine, opened by a slope, at Aldrich, on the Southern R. R. Coal bed, Montevallo; 
Carbonifeious age, Pottsville group. Bed is 3 feet 6 inches to 4 feet 6 inches thick; 
contains rock and ''rash" partings. Dip is variable. One &ult and a few rolls or 
hoiBebacks are encountered. Roof, fairly good sandstone; floor, smooth fire clay. 
The bed was sampled by E. B. Sutton on October 18 and 19, 1916, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Aldrich mine. 



Section......... 

Laboratary No. 



Hoof (main), sandstone and shale. 

Shale , 

"Bash" 

COBi , 

"Rash" 

"Rash" and shale , 

Shale 

Coal 

Shale 

"Bash" 

Coal 

Flow, fire clay. 

Tnicknessofbed 

Thickness of coal sampled , 



A. 
26732 



Ft 
1 



in. 

'P 



a2 

a 

a 



9 



8 
2 






B. 
96731 



Ft. in. 



a5 
2 



3i 



3 
2 



as 
4 

9 

4 



C. 
28730 



Ft. in. 



2 6} 
""a'i' 



4 1 
2 7| 



D, 
26988 



Ft. to. 



aSi 
2 3 
alj 



aU 

«1 

a4 



4 
2 



7* 

8 
lOJ 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 26732) was cut from 1 panel. Section B (sample 26731) was cut 
from 6 panel. Section (sample 26730) was cut from 9 panel. Section D (sample 
26733) was cut from 2 panel. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 26730 
to 26733 is shown under laboratory No. 26734. 

System of mining, longwall. In 1916, 100 per cent of the coal was mined in the 
advance work. . Haulage was by three electric locomotiveB. There was one loading 
track, with capacity for 15 empty and 30 loaded railroad cars. * The coal was cut by 
machine and shot down with permissible explosive by the miners at any time during 
the shift; djmamite was used for brushing roof or floor. Men employed numbered 
219 undeiground and 59 aboveground. The coal was dumped over a wooden tipple 
and screened over shaking screens 5 by 30 feet and 3 by 10 feet, having 2j^inch, 
l^inch, and f-inch holes, respectively; coal was cleaned by two pickers on the screens 
and then washed; appearance of lump coal and screenings on cars, very good. The 
capacity and daily average output of the mine in 1916 was 600 tons. The lifetime 
of the mine was estimated at 50 years. 

For description and other analyses of this coal see Bureau of Mines Bull. 22, 
pp. 38, 348. 



112 



AISTALYSES OF COAL, 191ft-1919. 



Helena. Eureka No. 2 Mine. 

Analysee 25543 to 25546 (p. 19). Bituminous coal, Gahaba field, from Eureka No. 2 
mine, a slope mine 2^ miles southwest of Helena, on the Atlanta, Binningham & 
Atlantic R. R. and the Louisville & Nashville R. R. Coal bed, Helena; Carboniferous 
age, Pottsville group. Bed is about 3} feet thick; dips 0^ to 90^; direction of dip, S. 
57^ E. Roof, &urly good shale; floor, shale and sandstone, hard, with smooth surface. 
The bed was sampled by E. B. Sutton on June 24, 1916, as described below: 



Sections of coal bed in Evrhea mine. 








Section 

Laboratory No..... «. 


A. 
2S545 


B. 
2S543 


c. 

2S&H 


Boor, shale. 

Coal 


FU M. 

2 1 
oil 

1 5 

3 7} 
8 6 


Ft. fn, 
2 2\ 

1 3 

1 St 


Ft. fa. 
3 


Phule ,„... ,, , 




Coal..-. 




Flov. shale. 

Thicim«w A'll>ed 


3 9 


Thic^^e^*! ^ poal sampled. 


3 9 







a Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 25545) was taken from &ce, 30 room, opposite 8 right cross- 
heading. Section B (sample 25543) was taken from 7 right air couree, between rooms 
19 and 20. Section (sample 25544) was taken from face, 22 room, off 6 left, 3,300 
feet northeast of pit mouth. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face aamplea 
25543 to 25545 is given under laboratory No. 25546. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1916 the coal was shot off the solid. The 
vertical depth to landings below entrance is about 1,500 feet. Output was 550 tons a 
day. Forty to 60 per cent of the coal was taken in advance work. The probable 
lifetime of the mine was 5 years. In May, 1919, the output of the mine was 250 tons a 
day, all robbing work, retreating. Tho probable life was estimated to be 3 yean. 

Matlene. Matlenb Minb. 

Analyses 26301 to 26305 (p. 19). Bitmninous coal, Gahaba field, from liCaylene 
mine, a slope mine 1^ miles south of Maylene station, on the Southern R. R. Goal 
bed, Maylene ; Garboniferous age, PottsviUe group. Bed is 1 foot 6 inches to' 2 feet 8 
inches thick; dips 18^ to basin; roof, shale, from a few inches to 10 feet thick, over 
which is sandstone; the shale is easily held up; floor, shale, 3 to 8 inches thick, 
smooth surface; no cleat; one bounding fault and frequent rolls or horsebacks are 
encountered. The Upper Maylene bed is only 15 inches thick and is not workable. 
Interval between the Upper Maylene and tibe Maylene seam is 8 to lOleet. The bed 
was sampled by E. B.^Sutton on October 11, 1916, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Maylene mine. 



Section.. , 

Laboratory No. , 

Boof, shale. 

"Bash" 

Coal 

8hale , 

Coal 

Tloor shale. 

Thickneesofbed 

Thickness of coal sampled 

• Not Included in sample. 



A. 
26301 



J^. in. 

1 II 
a^ 

a5 

3 a 

1 11 



B. 
26302 



Ft. in. 

a5 

2 8 



3 
2 



10 
8 



C. 

26303 



Ft. in. 

•H 
2 3 

• S 

8 7} 
2 8 



D. 
26304 



/If. in. 
• 7 

I 3 



... J 



ALASKA: MATAKUSKA FIELD. 



113 



Section A (sample 26301) was cut at lace of G heading. Sectbn B (sample 26302) 
nras cut at face of 19 west entry. Section C (sample 26303) was cut at face of 11 room, 
L5 east heading. Section D (sample 26304) was cut at face of 21 room, 12 west heading. 

The idtimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 26301 
to 26304 is given under laboratoiy No. 26305. 

System of mining, longwall ; mining is done in the bottom of the seam. In 1916 the 
coal iMTBa undercut by machines in parts of the mine, in the shale band beneath the 
coal seam and in the band of coal beneath the shale band. All of the coal was taken 
in advance work; little timbering was required. The coal was shot down with FF 
black powder. The daily average output at time of sampling was 125 tons. About 
1 ,200 acres remained to be mined from this opening. 

For description and other analyses of this coal, see Bureau of Mines Bull. 22, 
pp. 39, 361. 

ALASKA. 

ARCTIC COAST. 

AjulyoB 26371 (p. 19). Subbituminous coal from Arctic coast, near Wainright 
Inlet. Outcrop of a bed, not named; Upper Jurassic (?) age. Data on sampling are 
not available. 

INNOKO DISTRICT. 

Analysis 26370 (p. 19). Anthracite, from Tramway, Innoko district. Outcrop of 
a bed, not named: Upper Cretaceous age, unnamed formation. Data on sampling 
are not available. 

MATAiniSKA FIELD. 

CHICKALOON RIVER DISTRICT. 
Chick A.LOON. 



Analysis 30265 (p. 19). Washed Chickaloon coal, Matanuska field. The sample 
was collected by G. W Evans from 120 sacks of washed Chickaloon coal, coked at 
Wilkenson, Wash., on February 6 to 8, 1918. 

For description and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines Bull. 
22, pp. 45, 372; Bull. 85, pp. 22, 157; Bull. 123, pp. 24, 149. 

Ehert. Kellt Md^b. 

Analyses 28731 and 28732 (p. 19). Bituminous coal, Matanuska field, from Kelly 
mine, at Emery, in sec. 16, T. 19 N., R. 3 £. Coal bed, Kelly; Eocene age, Chickaloon 
formation. Average thickness of bed, 3 feet 1 inch; dips 27^ north; roof, shale and 
bone; floor, shale and carbonaceous shale; cover at points of sampling, 65 to 75 feet. 
The bed was sampled by G. W. Evans on May 10, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Kelly wine. 



Section 


A. 
28731 


B. 


LaboratofT No 


28732 






Roof, shale and bone. 

doftl 


Ft. in. 
2 10 


Ft. in. 
I 


Sbale 


2 S* 


Coal 




Floor, shale and carbonaoeoiis shale. 

Total thickness of bed t 


2 10 
2 10 


I n 


ThlcJIfPflw "f ooal sampled 







114 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1019. 

Section A (sample 28731) was taken in 1 chute in a drift driven at a point about ^' 
feet west of the entrance, at an elevation of 955 feet above sea level. This co^ bed 
is the upper bench of Kelly bed. Section B (sample 28732) was taken from 1 cfaut*= 
in a drift driven in lower bench of Kelly bed at a point about 75 feet west of entrmnee. 

Because of faults encountered the mine was practically dosed, the pillars l>eizif 
withdrawn. The coal was partly used for steaming purposes on the Government rail- 
road and x>artly for domestic use at Anchorage. Tbe daily output at time of samplics 
was 10 tons. 

ESKA ORBBK DISTRICT. 

EsKA. David Mine. 

Analyses 28733 (p. 20). Bituminous coal, Matanuska field, from David mine, at 
Eska, in sec. 16, T. 19 N., R. 3 E., on the Alaskan R. R. Coal bed, David; Eocene ag^, 
Ohickaloon formation. Bed is 2 feet 7 inches thick; dips 30^ north; roof, shale and 
bone; floor, bone and carbonaceous shale; cover at point of sampling, about 60 foet: 
elevation above sea level, 955 feet. The bed was sampled by G. W. Evans on May 1 1, 
1917, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in David mine. 

Roof, shale and bone. Ft. Ixu 

Boneo 2 

Coal 1 6 

Shaleo 1 

Coal 10 

Floor, shale and bone. 

Thickness of bed 2 7 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 4 

Sample taken from 2 chute, 75 feet from entrance. 

System of mining, breast and pillar; coal shot off the solid. The output was used 
as fuel on the Government railroad and for domestic use at Anchorage. At the time 
the sample was taken pillars were being withdrawn and the mine was practically 
abandoned. 

EsKA. Emery Mine. 

Analysis 28735 (p. 20). Bituminous coal, Matanuska field, from Emery mine, in 
sec. 16, T. 19 N., R. 3 E., on the Alaskan R. R. Coal bed, Emory; Eocene age, Chick- 
aloon formation. Bed is 3 feet 10 inches thick; dips 28^; roof, coal and bone; floor, 
gray shale; cover at point of sampling, 60 feet. The bed was sampled by G. W. Evans 
on May 11, 1917, as described below : 

Section of coal bed in Emery mine. 
Roof, coal and bone. Ft. ia. 

Coal, with a few nodules 2 

Coal, with some bone 8 

Shale, brown « 2 

Bone« 1 

Floor, gray shale. 

Thickness of bed 3 10 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 8 

This sample was taken from 1 chute, 60 feet from entrance. 

The bed had been virtually exhausted in the area lying between mine entrance and 
faults encountered about 300 feet in. The coal was used mainly for steam fuel on 
the Government railroad and for domestic use at Anchorage. 

a Not included in sample. 



ALASKA: MATANUSKA FIELD. 115 

ESKA. ESKA MiNB. 

AnalyaiB 28734 (p. 20). Bituminous coal, Matanuska field, from Eska mine, located 
&t Sska, in sec. 16, T. 19 N., R. 3 E., on the Alafikan R. R. Coal bed, Eaka; Eocene 
age, Chickaloon fonnation. Bed is 2 feet 10 inches thick; dips 25°; roof, shale; floor, 
shale and bone; cover at point of sampling, 20 feet; elevation above sea level, 990 
feet. The bed was sampled at 1 chute by G. W. Evans on May 11, 1917, the sample 
representing 2 feet 10 inches of coal. 

At the time of sampling a gangway was driven in 25 feet and one chute turned off. 
I>aily output, 15 tons. 

Eska. McCauley Prospect. 

AnalyaiB 28836 (p. 20). Bituminous coal, Matanuska field, from McCauley prospect, 
in sec. 10, T. 19 N., R. 3 E., an outcrop on the hillside about li miles northeast of 
present operations at Eska Creek, in the Matanuska coal field, on the Alaskan R. R. 
Coal bed, McCauley; Eocene age, Chickaloon formation. Bed is 6 feet 8 inches 
thick; dips 14^ southwest; roof and floor concealed; elevation above sea level, about 
1,600 feet. The bed was sampled at one point in face of prospect by G. W. Evans on 
May 16, 1917, tlia sample representing 9 feet 8 inches. 

At the time of sampling no work other than surface prospecting had been done. 

Eska. Maitland Mine. 

Analyses 28736 and 28737 (p. 20). Bituminous coal, Matanuska field, from Maitland 
mine, at Eska, in sec. 16, T. 19 N., R. 3 E., on the Alaskan R. R. Coal bed, Mait- 
land ; Eocene age, Chickaloon formation. Bed is 2 feet 10 inches thick ; dips 4^ to 30® ; 
roof, bone and shale; floor, shale; cover at point of sampling, about 50 feet; elevation 
above sea level, 979 feet. The bed was sampled at one point at the second plane or 
chute by G. W. Evans on May 10, 1917, the sample representing 2 feet 10 inches of coal. 
Sample 28737 represents a grab sample taken from the surface of a loaded railroad car. 

System of mining, room and plane, but at time of sampling no systematic method 
had been developed . The coal was shot off the solid . Bed has many rolls, horsebacks, 
and other disturbances. Men employed numbered 15 underground and 5 above ground . 
The tipple is of wood. At time of sampling the output was 25 tons a day, 30 per cent 
of which was from advance workings. Haulage was by man power. There was one 
loading track, with capacity for four empty and three loaded railroad cars. Appear- 
ance of coal on cars was very good. The daily capacity of the mine was 30 tons; entire 
output was shipped as run of mine for locomotive use on the railway and for domestic 
use at Anchorage. 

UiPBR Eska Crbek. Outcrop. 

Analysis 29362 (p. 20), sample of bituminous coal, Matanuska field . The sample was 
taken by S. S. Smith on September 6, 1917, from an outcrop on the west bank of the 
west fork of the middle fork near the north boundary of sec. 9, T. 19 N., R. 3 E. 

There were no mine workings or any prospective workings. 

MOOSE CBEEK DISTRICT. 

MoosB Orebk. Doherty Mine. 

Analyses 28729 and 28730 (p. 20). Bituminous coal, Matanuska field, from Doherty 
mine, a slope mine at Moose Creek, on a branch connecting with the Matanuska division 
of the Government railroad in Alaska. Coal bed, Doherty; Eocene age, Chickaloon 
formation; bed dips 46^; roof, sandstone; floor, shale. Two samples of this coal 
were obtained by G. W. Evans on May 12, 1917. Sample 28729 is of screeniugs through 
a i'inch screen, mostly of the friable shale near the floor of this bed. It was collected 



116 



ANALYSES OF COALy 1916-1019. 



on the surfooe at the small cleaning plant. Sample 28730 was taken at intervals 
along the surface of a pile of coal in the bunkers at the end of the tramroad connecting 
with the Government railroad. 
The daily output at time of sampling was 110 tons. 

Moose Crebk. OirrcBOP. 

AnalyBiB 28837 (p. 20), sample of bituminous coal, Matanuaka field. This-aample 
was taken by S. S. Smith on September 6, 1917, from a bed on east bank of Moose 
Creek, opposite property- of Doherty Goal Co., which is about 3,000 feet up Moose Creek 
from railroad right of way. 

The bed dips 45° south, and ranges between 4 and 5 feet in thickness. The sample 
represents only 18 to 24 inches of the bed, as the rest was full of bone and dirt. No 
further information available. 

KENANA FIEIJ>. 

Calipornia Creek. Outcrop. 

Analysis 26359 (p. 21). Lignite, Nenana field, from surface outcrop in a bluff on 
the east bank of California Creek, cut and quartered from partly cleaiied weathered 
face. Coal bed, not named; Tertiary (Eocene) age. The bed was sampled by G. C. 
Martin on July 3, 1916, as described below: 

Section near SE. comer ofSW, \SW.\ sec, 15, T, 9 8., R, € W. 

Roof, not exposed. 

Concealed .<> Ft. in. 

Coal : 6 6 

Coalo 4 

Concealed .<> 

Floor, not exposed. 

Thickness of bed 10 6 

Thickness of coal sampled 6 6 

Much baked clay, probably from burning of laige beds, was seen at altitudes of 
1,400 to 1,650 feet in the NE. i NW. i and NE.i, on both aides of the stream that 
enters California Creek from the southeast in the S£. }, and at 1,900 feet near the 
northwest comer of the section. 

Campornia Creek. Outcrop. 

Analyses 26360 and 26361 (p. 21). Lignite, Nenana field, from cUff on east bank of 
California Creek, cut and quartered from partly cleaned weathered face. Coal bed, 
not named; Tertiary age. Bed dips 10° to 15° southeast; strikes north 60° to 70° 
east. The bed was sampled by G. C. Martin on July 16, 1916, as described below: 

Section of cliff on E. side of California Creek in SW. i NE. i sec. Tt, T. 10 B., R. 6 W, 



Laboratory No. 
Section 




28361 
B. 



Roof, not stated. 

Gravel a 

Coal 

Clai 



Ft. fa. 



uiay. 
Coal. 



Clay 

Floor, not stated. 

Tniclmees of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 



12 

as • 

>1 • 

20 8 

12 



• Not Induded in sample. 



ALASKA: NENANA FIELD. 117 

Hbaly Creek. Outcrop. 

AxudyBiB 26868 (p. 21) . Lignite , Nenana field , from outcrop on north bank of Healy 
Dreek, about 1 mile above mouth. Goal bed, not named; Tertiary (Eocene) age. 
Pile l)ed was sampled by G. G. Martin on August 19, 1916, as described below: 

Section on N, hank of Heaiy Creek, 1 mile above Tnouth, 

Roof, not stated. Feet. 

CJoal 6 

Coalo 6± 

Floor, not stated. 

Thickness of bed 12± 

Thickness of coal sampled 1 ^. 6 

LiONiTE Greek. Outcrop. 

AnalyaiB 26362 (p. 21). Lignite, Nenana field, from cliff on north bank of Lignite 
Creek; represents selection of less weathered pieces throughout the bed. Goal bed, 
H ; Tertiary (Eocene) age. The bed was sampled by G. G. Martin on August 11 , 1916, 
described below: 



Section of N. hank oflAgniU Creek in SW.i SE. J sec. SO, T, 11 5., R. S IT., aMude 

1,650 feet. 
Roof, not stated. Ft. in. 

Coal 7 

Clayo 6 

Coal 12 

Clay* 1 

Coal 7 

Floor, not stated. 

ThicknesB of bed 27 6 

Thickness of coal sampled 26 

LIONTTK CHEBK. O^n^BOP. 

Analysis 26363 (p. 21). Lignite, Nenana field, from west side of Fault Gulch, 
Lignite Greek (upperthick bed), in the NW. iSE. }sec.26,T. US., R. 6 W. ; selection 
of least-weathered parts of outcrop. Goal bed, not named; Tertiary (Eocene) age; 
dips 26^ north; strDces, north 80^ west. The bed was sampled by G. G. Martin on 
August 11, 1916. The sample represented 16 feet of coal, the exposed thickness of the 
bed. Roof and floor not recorded. 

Lxgnite Greek. Outcrop. 

Analysis 26364 (p. 21). Ligxiite, Nenana field, from gulch tributary to Lignite 
Creek, from the north \ mile northeast of the southwest comer of sec. 26, T. 11 S., 
R. 6 W., cut from partly cleaned outcrop. Goal bed, not named; Tertiary (Eocene) 
age. The bed was sampled by G. G. Martin on August 12, 1916. The sample repre- 
sented 12 feet of coal, the exposed thickness of the bed. Roof and floor not recorded. 

LioKFTE Greek. Gupf Face. 

Analysis 26365 (p. 21). Lignite, Nenana field, from bank of Lignite Creek 15/100 
mile north of southeaat comer of section 26, cut from fresh cliff face. Goal bed, not 
named; Tertiary (Eocene) age. The bed was sampled by G. G. Martin on August 
12, 1916. The sample represented 10 feet of coal, which was the exposed thickness 
of the bed. Roof and floor not recorded. 



a Not ixudnded in sample. 



118 ANALYSES OF GOAL, 191^-1919. 

Lignite Crbbk. Outcrop. 

AnalysiB 26366 (p. 21). Lignite, Nenana field, from tributary of Lignite Creek 

diaining eection 27 about 500 feet, in N£. i NW. i sec. 27, T. 11 S., R. 6 W., cut from 

natural exposure. Goal bed, not named; Tertiary (Eocene) age. Dips 15^ north ^? . 

strikes north 70^ east. The bed was sampled by G. G. Martin on August 8, 1916. The 

sample represented 25 feet of coal, which was the exposed thickness of the bed. Roof 

and floor not recorded. 

LioNFTE Greek. Outcrop. 

Analysis 26367 (p. 22). Lignite, Nenana field, from bluff on north bank of Lignite 
Creek about 1 mile above mouth, in NE. J NW. J sec. 5, T. 12 S., R. 7 W., cut from 
least-weathered parts of natural exposure. Goal bed, not named; Tertiary (£Iocene> 
age; dips 12° south; strikes north 105° east. The bed was sampled by G. C. Martin 
on August 18, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Lignite Creek otU/crop. 
Roof, not stated. Feat 

Goala 8= 

Goal 7 

Floor, not stated. 

Thickness of bed 15± 

Thickness of coal sampled 7 

LiGNFTE Greek. Outcrop. 

Analysis 26369 (p. 23). Lignite, Nenana field, from outcrop on first laigegalch 
from northwest to large stream entering Lignite Greek, in NW. J NW. J sec. 35, T. 11 S., 
R. 7 W. Goal bed, not named; Tertiary (Eocene) age. The bed was sampled by 
G. G. Martin on August 20, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Lignite Creek outcrop. 
Roof, not stated. Ft. in. 

Goal 12 

' Glaya 6 

Goal 6 

Glayo 6 

Goal 11 

Floor, not stated. 

Thickness of bed 30 

Thickness of coal sampled 29 

Lignite Greek. Prospect. 

Analyses 26588 and 26589 (p. 24). Lignite, Zenana field. The samples were 
taken by G. W. Evans on September 15, 1916, at outcrop of Nos. 5 and 1 coal beds 
on the north side of Lignite Greek, about 6 miles from the point at which this creek 
empties into Nenana River. Goal beds 5 and 1 ; Eocene age. Sample 26588 repre- 
sents an 8-foot section cut from No. 5 bed, which is uniform and is 30 feet thick. 
Sample 26589 represents an 8-foot section from No. 1 bed, which is 45 to 50 feet 
thick. Bed dips 6®; roof, sandstone; floor, clay; height above sea level, about 2,000 
feet. No work has been done on these outcrops; they are the result of natural erosion. 

a Not included in sample. 



ARKANSAS: SEBASTIAN COUNTY. 



119 



ABKAirSAS. 

FBANKUN COUNTY. 

Aiiix. No. 2 Mine. 

Analyses 6%41, 69643, 69644, average of mine-face samples; analysis 69642, average 
>f tipple samples; analysis 69645, of slack through l}-inch bar screen, and analyses 
>9640 and 69646, of lump over l}-inch bar screen (p. 22). Bituminous coal taken 
Erom face and from tipple, Arkansas field, of No. 2 mine, a shaft mine 1 mile east of 
A.lix, on the Missouri. Pacific R. R. Coal bed, locally known as Denning; Carbonif- 
erouB (AU^heny) age; Spadra shale. Bed is 4 feet } inch to 4 feet 9} inches thick at 
sections where face samples were taken; these measurements include middle band; 
dip, 5 per cent northwest; roof, shale; floor, shale. The bed was sampled by J. F. 
Davies on June 28, 1918, as described below: 

Sectvms of coal bed in No. 2 mine. 



Section , 

LAboratoryNo. 



Boof . shale; 

c5oal 

Muck 

Sliale 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

Coal 

Floor, shale: 

Thickness of bed 

Thidmess of coal sampled . 



A. 
696U 



1 



hi. 

.3 



5 
a 



4 
3 



2f 
7i 



B. 
60&I3 



Ft. in. 



3 8 



C. 
owns 



Ft. in. 

1 81 



a 10 
2 3| 



3 iH 



a Not indaded in sample. 

Section A (sample 69641) was cut at 9 room in 3 west plane. Section B (sample 
69643) was cut at 3 room in 1 east plane. Section (sample 69644) was cut at face of 
1 east slope. 

System of mining, room and piUar. At time of sampling coal was shot down with 
black blasting powder and no mining machines were used. Men employed numbered 
23 underground and 4 on the surface. Coal was dumped from self-dumping cages 
over wooden tipple and screened over l|-inch openings in bar screens, producing 
slack and lump sizes. One picker on railroad cars; miners were said to pick the coal 
when loading it at the face. Fifty per cent of the coal was mined in advance work, 
and a total recovery of 60 per cent was claimed. Haulage was by mules. Two 
loading tracks, with capacity for 20 empty and 16 loaded railroad cars. At time of 
Bgimpling the* coal was shipped principally to Little Rock and Kansas City, Mo., for 
steaming purposes. Forty to 45 per cent of the coal was shipped as slack through 
H-inch bar screens. The capacity of the mine was 475 tons a day, and average daily 
output at time of sampling was 80 to 100 tons. The mine was about worked out. 

SEBASTIAN COUNTY. 

Bonanza. Woodson Barr or No. 135 Mine. 

Analyses 69378, 69379, 69397, average of mine-face samples, and analyses 69374 to 
69377, average of tipple samples (p. 22). Semianthracite (?) coal taken from face 
and tipple, Arkansas field, from Woodson Bar or No. 135 mine, a slope mine 3 miles 
east of Bonanza, on a spur of the St. Louis & San Francisco R. R. Coal bed, Upper 
Hartahome; Carboniferous (Allegheny) age, Spadra shale. Bed is 4 feet to 6 feet 6 
inches thick; dip, 8 per cent north ; roof, shale ; floor, hard rock. The bed was sampled 
by N. H. Snyder and J. F. Davies on June 8, 1918, as described below; 



120 



ANALYSES OF OOAL^ 1916-1919. 



Sections of coed bed in Woodson Ban or No. 1S5 mine. 



B6CtlOIl 

Laboratory No 

Roof, shale: 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

Coal-. 

Shale 

Coal 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of ooal sampled 



A. 
60878 



Ft. 
1 



1 
4 

3 



in. 

7 



B. 

e0379 



Ft. In. 
3 i 




Ft. m. 
3 7 



«2 
3 19| 



a Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 69378) was cut in 51 room, 7 west main entry, 4,000 feet from 
slope opening. Section B (sample 69379) was cut in 1 room, at face of 19 east entry. 
Section G (sample 69397) was cut in room neck of last room, at face of 9 west entry. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was shot down with black 
blasting powder and the mining was done by hand. Men employed numbered 95 
underground and 10 on the surface. The ooal was dumped on a crossover dump and 
passed over bar screens; two sizes were produced, as follows: Slack, through l|-inch. 
bar screen, 40 to 47 per cent of entire tonnage; liunp, over li-inch bar screen, 53 to 60 
per cent of entire tonnage. At times one picker was employed on the railroad cazs; 
miners pick out some slate when loading coal at face. About 50 per cent of the coal 
was taken out in advance work, and a total recovery of 60 per cent was claimed. 
Haulage was by mules. The two loading tracks had capacity for 20 empty and 20 
loaded railroad cars. The coal was shipped to Kansas City, Omaha, and to the St 
Louis & San Francisco R. R. for domestic and railroad use. The capacity and average 
daily output of the mine in June, 1918, was 375 tons. 

Hartford. Central No. 10 Mine. 

Analysis 29838, average of tipple samples; analyses 69619 to 69624 and 69628 and 
69631 (p. 23). Semibituminous, Arkansas field, from Central No. 10 mine, a slope mine 
at Hartford, on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R. R. Coal bed, Hartahome; Car- 
boniferous age, Spadra shale. Bed is 3 to 4 feet thick and dips 4*^. Frequent faults 
and occasional rolls or horsebacks are encountered. Bed contains thin ''sulphur" 
bands, usually near the middle. Roof, mostly hard gray sandstone; floor, hard roi^h 
gray shale. The bed was sampled by W. H. McCoubrey on January 12, 1918, as de- 
scribed below. Commercial samples were taken at the tipple by J. F. Davies and N. 
H. Snyder on June 26, 1918. 

Sectums of coal bed in Central No. 10 mine. 



Section 


A. 
29835 


B. 
29830 


• 
C. 


Laboratory No 


20637 






Roof, main, hard gray sandstone; immediate, soft gray shale: 

Top ooal 


Ft. hi. 
3 9 


Ft. in. 
4 1 


Ft. ta- 
3 U 


MidfUe band of soft ^ale 


• 7 


Middle band of soft fire clay 


«7 

8 

6 4 

4 9 




Bottom ooal (poor grade) 


7 
5 
4 4 


ii 


TMc^kTiemf "f h«d . 


5 < 


Thicknflfnofonalffamplfid 


4 U 







• Not tncludod in sample. 

Section A (sample 29835) was taken from face of 4 south entry. Section B (sample 
29836) was taken from face of 2 south entry. Section C (sample 29837) was taken from 
face of 3 north entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
29835 to 29837 is given under laboratory No. 29838. 



ABKANSAS: SEBASTIAN OOUITrY. 



121 



System of mining, double room and pillar. In 1918 ooal was cut by machine in the 
fire clay and shot down with permiasible explosives. Men employed numbered 107 
undeiground and 23 above ground. The tipple was of wood. The total output was 
shipped as run of mine. Haulage was by mules. The coal was picked on the care 
by two pickerB. There were three loading tracks^ with capacity for 30 empty and 
30 loaded railroad cars. The appearance of the limip coal on the care was good. 
The capacity of the mine in January, 1918, was 625 tons, the actual daily average 
575 tons. 

Habttord. Gbntbal No. 11 Mine. 

Analyses 69615 and 69620, 69632 and 69633, average of mine-face samples, and analy- 
ses 69617 and 69621, 69623 and 69635, average of tipple samples, (p. 23). Bituminous 
coal taken from face and tipple, Hartford field, from No. 11 mine, a shaft mine 2} miles 
northeast of Hartford, on the Midland Valley R. R. Coal bed. Lower Hartshome, 
Carboniferous (Allegheny) age, Spadra shale. Bed is 7 feet 4 inches to 8 feet 6 inches 
thick at sections sampled; dip, 18 per cent; roof, fairly strong and dark shale with 
"sulphur" bands; floor, soft, smooth shale. The bed was sampled by W. H. McCou- 
brey on June 25, 1918, as described below. Commercial samples were taken at the 
tipple on June 25, 1918, by J. F. Davies and N. H. Snyder, 

Sections ofcooX bed in No. 11 mine. 



Section. 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, not noted: 

BonyooaL 

Ooal 

Shale band 

CoaL 

Shale band 

Coal 

Shale band 

Bony ooal 

Coal 

"Sulphur" band. 

BonycoaL 

CoaL 

Bony ooal 

Shale and ''sulphur" band.. 

CoaL :. 

Bony ooal 

Coal 

Shale band 

Coal 

"Sulphur" band 

Coal 

Floor, smooth, soft shale. 

iniicknessof bed 

Thickness of ooal sampled. . . 



A. 

69615 



Ft. 
1 



2 

% 



? 



8 
8 



4 






B. 

69620 



C. 

69632 



Ft. In. 
3* 



^ 



i 



3 
4* 

1 

2 3 

8 6 
8 6 



Ft, hi. 



11 



7 4 
7 4 



D. 

69633 



Ft. in. 



'I 



2 

11 

1 



nl 


ioi* 


9 
6 


4 


2i 


8§ 


2 i 


7i 







2i 
2 4 



7 10 
7 10 



Section A (sample 69615) was taken at face of 1 east entry, west plane. Section B 
(sample 69620) was taken at face of 3 east entry, west slope. Section C (sample 69632) 
was taken at face of 4 east entry, east plane. Section D (sample 69633) was taken at 
face of 20 room^ 2 east entry, east plane. 

In 1918, 75 per cent of the coal was mined in the advance work and a total recovery 
of 90 per cent was claimed. Haulage was by mules, by storage-battery locomotive, 
and by tail rope. The four loading tracks had capacity for 40 empty and 40 loaded 
ndlroad cam. 

System of mining, room and pillar, entry and air course. The coal was cut by hand 
and shot down with black blasting powder. Pieces of bone, '* muck," roof, and floor 
appeared in the coal, but the miners endeavored to pick the coal at the face. Men 
employed numbered 102 in the mine and 17 men on the surface. Two pickers were 
employed on the railroad cars, and there was an imderground coal inspector. The 



122 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



mine was equipped with a shaker screen and a loading boom ; a picking table was bein^ 
installed. 

The coal was shipped by the Midland Valley K. R. to Omaha, Nebr., for steam pur- 
poses. The capacity of the mine was 1)500 tons a day; the average daily output in 
July, 1918, was 400 tons. Additional labor would increase the tonnage. 

HUNTINQTON. CENTRAL No. 6 MiNB. 

Analyses 27612 to 27617 (p. 23). Semibituminous coal, Arkansas field, from Central 
No. 6 mine, a shaft mine, Greenwood-Himtington distnct, on a spur off the Mansfield 
branch of the St. Louis & San Francisco R. R., in sec. 33, T. 5 N., R. 30 W., Diamond 
Township, about 3 miles west of Huntington. Coal beds, Upper and Lower Hartshorns. 
Carboniferous (Allegheny) age, Spadra shale. The beds are separated by a layer of 
hard shale averaging about 8 inches in thickness and locally called ' ' muck ; ' ' the upper 
seam averages about 4 feet 2 inches in thickness; the lower, 2 feet 2 inches. Roof 
varies; on the north section a very hard sandstone and on the south a shale that thickens 
toward the south; floor, soft gray shale. The beds were sampled at five points by 
J. F. Davies and W. W. Fleming on February 16 and 17, 1917, as described below: 



Sections of coal beds in Central No. 6 mine. 






Section 


A. 

27612 


B. 

276H 


C. 

27616 


27613 


E. 


Laboratory No 


27615 






Roof, sandstone. 

Coaly dean 


Ft. in. 
1 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 
2 6 


Ft. in. 


Ft. H. 


Bone (hard) 


a 10 




• 7 


"Mother coal" 


i 








Bone and "rash" ^ 






o7| 




Coal, olean 


1 1 
«2i 








Black ' ' sulphur " 




8* 






Coal (withknife edges of "sulphur") 


1 8 
02 

Ml 

oil 


3 11 


3 4i 


Coal, clean 


1 5§ 


Coal (with knife edges of "sulphur") 








Bone 


1 
a2J 


o7 
ol 10 






"Muck" 


ol 


«10 


Bone 




Bone and "muck" 




2 






"Muck" 










Coal, clean 


31 


6 
03 


6 
o3 


7 


"Muck" ! 




"Muck "and bone 




• 6 


Coal, clean 


02 






..... 


1 IM 


"Suifphur" band 










Coal (with knife edges of "sulphur") 


2 3 




2 4^ 




Coal 


.......... 

7 5f 
5 92 






Floor, soft gray shale. 

Thickness of bed 


8 7 
6 4 


8 ^ 

5 2} 


8 8 
• 6' 91 


7 9 


Thickness of coal sampled 


5 10 







o Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 27612) was taken from neck room 8, 5 north off 2 east entry. Sec- 
tion B (sample 27614) was taken from 21 room neck, 1 west south. Section C (sample 
27616) was taken from 1 room, off back 4 east on main north. Section D (sample 27613) 
was taken at junction 6 east and back entry of south-east. Section £ (sample 27615) 
was taken at 19 room 2 east off main south. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 27612 to 
27616 is shown under laboratory No. 27617. 

System of mining, double entry, entry and air course, room and pillar. In 1917 the 
coal was shot from the solid with FF black blasting powder. The tipple was of wood 
with shaker screens measuring 20 by 8 feet, making three sizes of coal; the diameteis 
of the holes were J inch, 1} inch, and 2 inch. About 20 per cent of the output was 
shipped as run of mine. Haulage was by mules, electric locomotives, and elwrtzic 
hoists. The average daily output was 1,200 tons. 



ARKANSAS: SEBASTIAN COUNTY. 



123 



Huntington. Central No. 6 Mine. 

AnAlyses 69329 to 69334, average of mine-face samples, and analyses 69339, 69357, 
69358, 69359, and 69360 to 69363, average of tipple samples (p. 23). Tipple samples 
of semibituminous coal, Huntington field, from No. 6 mine, a shaft mine 3 miles west 
of TTnntington, on Frisco R. R. Coal beds. Upper and Lower Hartshome; Carbonif- 
erous (Allegheny) age, Spadra shale; roof, slate; floor, black shale. The beds were 
eampled by N. H. Snyder and J. F. Davies on June 5 and 6, 1918, as described below. 
Ck>]iimercial samples were taken at the tipple by G. S. Pope and N. H. Snyder on 
June 7, 1918. 

Sections of coal beds in No. 6 mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No 

Roof, shale. 

Coal 

Coal, bony 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

Coal .* 

"MuA" 

Coal 

"Muck" 

Coal 

Floor, hladc shale. 

Thickness of beds 

TUdmeBS of coal sampled 



A. 

60331 and 

69332 



B. 

09829 and 

693^ 



Ft. in. 
2 U 



it 



7 
6 



slO| 

•i 
it 



0. 

60333 and 
68334 



Ft. in. 
3 101 




• Not included in sample. 

Section A (samples 69331 and 69332) was cut at 28 room, 1 west, main south. Section 
B (samples 69329 and 69330) was cut at 5 east, main southeast. Section C (samples 
69333 and 69334) was cut at heading, main southeast back entry. Samples 69360 and 
69363 represented tipple samples of run-of-mine coal; samples 69357 and 69358 repre- 
sented tipple samples of slack coal over }-inch screen, and samples 69339 and 69359 
represented tipple samples of slack through }-inch screen. 

In 1918, 71 per cent of the coal was taken out in the advance work and a total recovery 
of 80 per cent was claimed. 

System of miniog, room and pillar, entry and air course. In 1918 machine mining 
was not practiced; the coal was shot down with black blasting powder; mining 
machines (electric) were formerly used. Haulage was by mides, motor, and electric 
rope . The jthree loading tracks had capacity for 40 empty and 40 loaded railroad cars. 
Men employed numbered 325 underground and 25 above ground. The coal was 
dun^ped over a tipple equipped with modem screens and a loading conveyer boom. 
Sizes produced were as follows: Slack, dust to 1 inch, 40.55 per cent; nut, 1 inch to 2^ 
inches, 9.47 per cent; lump, 2i inches and over, 50.04 per cent. All screened coal 
passed over l}-inch perforated screen, area 80 square feet, and 2-inch perforated screen, 
area 40 square feet. The screened coal was not reassembled. The coal was cleaned 
by four pickers on the loading boom and three pickers on railroad cars. No coal in- 
spector was employed at the tipple, but two were employed undeiground. The miner 
rejected some " muck " and shale in loading coal at the face. The coal was being shipped 
to Kansas City, Omaha, and to the St. Louis & San Francisco R. R. The capacity of the 
mine was 1,700 tons a day, and the average daily output at the time the samples were 
taken was 1,450 tons; the output for the year 1917 was 156,653 tons, the mine being shut 
down from February 2 to 23, 1917, on account of explosions. 

55270'— 22 9 



124 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 191^1919. 



WASHINOTOK GOTTHTY. 
Faybttbyillb. Stanbbry Waoon Minb. 

Analysis 26260 (p. 24). Bituminous ooal, from Stanbery wagon mine, 5 milee east ot 
FayetteviUe. Goal bed, Mqrow; Carboniferous s^, Moirow formation. Roof.ebale, 
imder limestone; floor, clay. The bed was sampled October 9, 1916, by D. White. 
The samples represented 11{ inches of coal, which was tJie entire thickness of bed. 

The section was measured off second left, about 600 feet from opening of mine. 

Fatbttbyillb. Waonon & Rbbd Wagon Mine. 

Analysis 26259 (p. 24). Bituminous coal, Washington County field, from Wagnon 
& Beed wagon mine, 5} miles east of Fayette ville. Coal bed, Morrow; Carboniferoue 
age, Monow fonnation. Roof, shale ; floor, fire clay. The bed was sampled October 9, 
1916, by T>, White; the sample represented 11^ inches of coal, which was the entire 
thickness of the bed. 

The section was measured in main entry 400 feet from entrance of mine. 

CALIFOBHIA. 

AXADOB COT7NTY. 

^ LlONTTE. lONE MiNE. 

Analyses 31141 and 31168 (p. 24). Lignite coal, lone field, from lone mine, a shaft 
mine at Lignite, 4 miles northwest of lone, on the Southern Pacific R. R. Coal bed, 
not named; Tertiary (Eocene) age, lone formation. Bed is a few inches to 22 feet 
thick and lies in a basin generally flat; cleat, not observed; general chaiacteristics of 
of the bed shown in sections sampled ; roof, sandy clay ; floor, not noted ; cover at point 
sampling, about 80 feet. The bed was sampled by H. M. Wolflin and M. R. Camp- 
bell on October 17, 1918, as shown below: 

Section of coal bed in lone mine. 



Secticm 

Labontory No 

Lignite. j. 

CJUty 

UgDita. 

Cm^ , 

UgDlta. 

Ctoy 

Lignite 

CJUty • 

Umite. 

Tnlclmeaiofbed , 

Thickness of lignite sampled 



A. 


B. 


31141 


31168 


Ft. in. 


FL in. 


6 9 


• 6 9 


a, ■ 
al 5 


1 5 


a. 




fll 7 


1 7 


a. 




a% 


2 


a2 


2 


ol 74 
11 ll{ 


1 7j 


11 Hi 


6 9 


5 . 2 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 31141) was measured 1,300 feet S. 50^ east of shaft. Section 6 
(sample 31168) was measured about 50 feet inby place where sample A was cut. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 probably not more than a dozen meD 
were employed, and the output was probably about 40 tons daily. Haulage was by 
mules. Coal was lowered from the shaft to the wooden tipple by gravity tram, and 
there hoisted again to screen and load. 



gaufobnia: montbrey county. 



125 



MBNDOOINO COUNTY. 

Dos Rios. Natural Outgsop. 

lalyaiB 31139 (p. 25). Subbituminous coal, Dos Rios field, from 4 miles east of Dos 
I, in NE. J sec. 11, Tr21 N., R. 13 W., on the Northwestern Pacific R. R. Coal bed 
n&med; Tertiaiy (Miocene?) age. Bed is 15 feet 6 inches thick; dip, 15^; no 
'X &t point of sampling; sample was cut from outcrop where it crosses Middle Fork 
;el River. The bed was sampled by M. R. Campbell on October 9, 1919, as 
!ril>ed bdow: 

Section of coal bed in outcrop 4 miles east of Dob Rios, 

Pt. In. 

I «1 6 

\ , sampled 3 

I «10 

ckneesof bed JL4 6 

cknesB of coal sampled 8 

UONTBBEY COUNTY. 

Stonb Canon. Stone Canon Mine. 

judysee 31100 and 31101 (p. 25). Bituminous coal, Stone Canon field, from a slope 
le, at Stone Canon in NW. \ sec. 14, T. 22 S., R. 13 E., 24 miles from McKay, 
liie Southern Pacific R. R. Coal bed, not named ; Tertiary (Miocene) age ; Vaqueros 
dstone; dip, 30**; cleat, not observed. In the open part of the mine the bed is 
1y regular in thickness and generally without partings, but is said to pinch out in 
h directions from the slope. Roof, massive sandstone; floor, green clay that has 
en some trouble where all the coal has been removed; cover at point of sampling, 
mt 500 feet. The bed was sampled by M. R. Campbell on September 30, 1918, as 
icribed below: 

Section of coal bed tn Stone Canon mine. 



tton , 

)orator7NoL. 



1 

\\ 

a..... 

■ting, 
ae.... 



il 

d 

tl, bony. 



u.. 



iekncsBofbed 

ickneas of coal sampled. 



A. 
31100 



• 6 7 
5 10 



• 1 
....... 



13 1 
6 11 



B. 
3U01 



FU in 

7 6 
• 6 



o2 



2 7i 



1 

13 
11 



ali 

10 

1 

11* 



Not indnded In sample. 

Section A (sample 31100) was measured at foce of 1 east entry below the 300-fbot 
(rel, 300 feet from inside slope and 4,800 feet east of main slope. Section B (sample 
101) was meamued at fece of 1 west eQtry below the SOO-foot level, 200 feet west oi 
side slope and 4,300 feet east of main slope. 

Mine not worked in a commercial way ; only enough coal extracted to keep the mine 
)en and supply the few miners with light. 



• Not Ineluded In sample. 



126 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 

GOLOBADO. 

N 

BOtritDSK COUNTY. 

Broomfield. Monarch No. 2 Mine. 

Analysefl 31314, 31315, and 31316 (p. 25). SubbituininouB coal, Denvo* regka 
locally called Northern lignite field, from Monarch No. 2 mine, a ehaft mine 3 oiie 
northwest of Broomfield, in sec. 28, T. 1 8., R. 69 W., on the Colorado k Soutbeti 
R. R. Goal bed, unnamed, Cretaceous age, Laramie formation. Bed is level audi 
feet thick; roof, ehale; floor, shale; cover at points of sampling, 285 feet. The \M 
was sampled by J. J. Forbes on December 3, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Monarch No. 2 mine. 



Section 


A. 
31314 


B. 
3UU 


Laboratory No 




• 
Roof, shale. 

Coal 


FL in. 

5 6 
al 

2 4 

8 10 
7 10 


Ft a. 

1 ] 

9 i 
6 1 


RhftlA , , 


Coal 


Floor, shale. 

Tnlckneesofbed 


Thickness of coal sampled 





a Not incladed in sample. 

Section A (sample 31314) was cut at face of 7 southwest entry. Section B (eample 
31315) was cut at face of main south entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face sampla 
31314 and 31315 is given under laboratory No. 31316. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by punchers and 
shot down with black powder. Men employed numbered 137 undeiground and 30 
men aboveground. 

At the time of sampling the output was 600 tons a day, 60 per cent of which ^u 
derived from advance workings. Haulage was by mules and by motors. None d 
the coal was shipped as run of mine. All the coal was screened in a wooden tippk 
with Marcus screens having 2i4nch spaces. Sizes of coal: Over 2} inches, lump: 
under 2} inches, slack. The coal was picked on tables. The three loading tracb 
had a capacity for 30 empty and 30 loaded railroad cars. The coal on the cars appeared 
bright and clean. The estimated lifetime of the mine at time of sampling was 30 yeaA 
The capacity of the mine was 650 tons a day; the mayimum day's run was 769 toss. 

Lafatbtts. Simpson Mms. 

Analysis 31391 (p. 25). Subbituminous coal, Denver region, from Simpson mioA 
a shaft mine at Lafayette, in sec. 2, T. 1 S., R. 69 W., on the Colorado & Southflo 
R. R., and on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. Coal bed, Lower Simpeon; 
Cretaceous age, Laramie formation. Bed is level and 6 tO 12 feet thick; roof, isune- 
diate, coal ; floor, soft shale ; cover at point of sampling, 225 feet. The bed was sampled 
by J. J. Forbes on January 20, 1919, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Simpson mine. 
Roof 3 feet of coal. ¥x.i£- 

Coal 6 6 

Floor, soft shale. 

Thickness of bed 6 8 

Thickness of coal sampled 6 5 



COLORADO: DELTA COUNTY. 127 

Sample 31391 was cut at face of 13 eouthwest entry main south entry. 
System of mining, room and pillar, retreating. At the time of sampling the coal 
IS undercut by air mining machines and shot down with FF black powder. Men 
iployed numbered 67 aboveground. The tipple was of wood. At the time of 
mpling; 95 per cent of the coal was shipped as nm of mine; 5 per cent was screened 
rougli 2i4nch spaces. Sizes of coal: Over 2) inches, lump; through 2) inches, 
ick. Haulage was by electric motors and animals. There were two loading tracks, 
itlx capacity for 100 empty and 100 loaded railroad cars. T&e coal on the cars was 
ig:h.t and lustrous. The lifetime of the mine was estimated in 1919 ta be 5 years. 
he capacity of the mine was 1,000 tons a day, the daily output 500 tons. 

Louisville. Acme Mine. 

Analysis 31384 (p. 25). Subbituminous coal, Denver region, from Acme mine, a 
laft mine at Louisville, in sec. 8, T. 1 S., R. 69 W., on the Colorado <& Southern 
L. R. Coal bed, * * Lower Acme " ; Cretaceous age, Laramie formation. Bed is 6 to 8 
^t thick and lies flat; cleat runs N. 15^ east. Faults and several rolls are encoun- 
Bred. The bed contains bone and a little shale about 3 feet from bottom. Roof, 
Eindy shale, 18 inches roof coal left in some places; floor, soft sandy shale, smooth 
rhere it does not heave; cover at point of sampling, 185 feet. The bed was 
ampled at one point by J. J. Forbes on January 15, 1919, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Acme mine. 
ioof, sandy shale. Feet. 

Coal 6 

Ploor, sand shale. 

Thickness of bed 6 

Thickness of coal sampled 6 

Sample 31384 was cut in 5 room, 6 northeast entry. * 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1919 the coal was undercut by machine 
and shot down by miners with FF black powder and squibs. Very little powder 
was used for brushing roof or floor. Haulage was^by mules and by rope hoist. Men 
employed numbered 95 underground and 15 above ground. The tipple was of wood 
covered with corrugated iron; it had shaking screens 6 by 24 feet, with holes usually 
2} inches in diameter. Of the coal 60 per cent was lump, and 40 per cent passed 
through shaking screens. About 20 per cent of the output was shipped as run of 
mine. The coal was picked in the mine and in the shaking screens. There were 
three loading tracks, with capacity for 24 empty and 30 loaded railroad cars. The 
lump coal on care was in large lumps and presented a good appearance; sereenings on 
care were bright. Coal from narrow work and room necks was taken out in advance 
work; a recovery of 95 per cent was claimed. In 1919 the unmined area was 200 
acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 15 to 20 yeare. Capacity of mine, 600 
to 700 tons a day; average daily output, 600 tons; maximum day's run, 1,258 tons. 

For description and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 55, 399. 

DBLTA COTTNTY. 

BowiK. Kino Mine. 

Analysis 28920 (p. 25). Bituminous coal, Grand Mesa field, from King^mine, 
a drift mine, Somerset district, f mile northeast of Bowie, Colo., in sec. 10, T. 13 N., 
K. 91 W., on the Denver <& Rio Grande R. R. Coal bed. King, known locally as the 
luanita; Cretaceous age, Mesaverde formation. Bed is 9 to 14 feet thick, with prac- 
tically no impurities; dips 3-63'', N. 29-33'' £.; cleat runs N. 79-30'' £.; roof, bnne 



12S^$ 



ANALYSES OF GOAL, 191^1919. 



and eihale; floor, hard smooth bone and sandstone. Coal is cut out by ''spins' 
sandstone averaging about 1 foot thick and having the appearance of dykes. 13 
bed was sampled by G. A. Herbert on July 21, 1917, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in King mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



A. 
2800 



Roof, main, sandstone. , 

Roof, immediate, bone. 

Goal 



Shale 

Coal 

Floor, bone. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 



Fu k 
2,000 
3 

2 



^ 



6 I 



The section (sample No. 28290) was cut from the last crosscut between the eixi 
left entries. 

System of mining, room and pillar, with butt entries. In 1917 about 25 per cents 
the coal was taken out in advance work, and a total recovery of 90 per cent n 
claimed. Haulage was by rope. There were three loading tracks, with capacity ia 
50 empty and 50 loaded railroad cars. The coal was cut partly by machine and bj 
hand in the floor and shot down with FFF black powder at 5.30 p. m. by shotfiren; 
40 per cent dynamite was used for brushing roof or floor. Men employed numberoi 
60 underground and 15 above ground. The coal was dumped over a irooda 
tipple; very little of it was shipped as run of mine. Fifty-nine per cent of the 
coal passed through shaking screens; 31 per cent passed thiou^ 1-indi lioles 
and 28 per cent through 4-inch holes. No pickers were employed on the can. IV 
coal consisted of large lumps and had a very good appearance on the can. The mm 
had a capacity of 1,000 tons a day; the daily average output was about 450 tons, the 
iPftTi nnim day's run 750 tons. The output for the year 1916 was 60,618 tons. The 
unmined area was 950 acres, and the probable lifetime of the mine was 75 yean. 

For results of other analyses of coal from this mine see Bureau of Mines Bull. 22, 
pp. 55, 400; Bull. 85, pp. 24, 164. 

BL PASO 0OT7NTY. 

Colorado Springs. El Paso Mine. 

Analyses 28907 to 28910 (p. 25). Subbituminous coal, Colorado Springs field, from 
£1 Paso mine, a slope mine 3} miles northeast of Colorado Springs, in sec. 33, T. 13 S., 
R. 66 W., on the Cliicago, Rock Island & Paciflc R. R. Casl bed, A; Cretaceous age. 
Laramie formation. Bed is 6} to 11 feet thick. The east side of the mine has a shale 
parting about 3 feet from floor; dip, about 5*^ N. 35-55° £. ; a face deat runs N. 54- 
35° W. No fttults or rolls are encountered. Roof, sandstone, overlying 6 incha 
to 2} feet of roof coal ; floor, soft smooth shale. The bed was sampled at three pomts 
by C. A. Herbert on May 26, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in El Paso mine. 



Seetloo 

Laboratory No. 



Boofyinain, sandstone , 

fiUMf, Immediate, coal , 

Coal 1 

Dark shale 

Coal 

Bone 

Floor. Are day or shale. 

lUckneas of bed 

Thickness of ooal sampled . 



A. 
28907 



Ft. In. 

40 

6 

3 4 

oS 

3 i 

• 2 

6 
5 5 



B. 
28800 


C. 
2»Ki 


Ft, la. 

^\ 
2 

6 


Ft.H. 

40(?) 







•2 

6 2 
6 



•2 

7 1 
7 J 



m Noiinduded in sample. 



COLORADO: EL PASO COUNTY. 



129 



Section A (sample 28907) was cut 10 feet outby face 5 east entry on left rib. 
Section B (sample 28909) was cut from face 20 room off 5 east entry. Section C (sample 
28908) was cut from fBce 18 room off 6 west entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 28907 to 
'28909 is given under laboratory No. 28910. 

System of mimng, room and pillar, butt entries. In 1917 about 50 per cent of the 
coal was taken out in the advance work, and the total recovery claimed was 65 per cent. 
'Haulage was by mules and rope. There were three loading tracks, with capacity for 
14 empty and 14 loaded railroad cars. The coal was cut and sheared by hand in narrow 
mrork and in rooms, and shot down with FF black powder by miners at 4 p. m., the 
doeing time. Men employed numbered 75 underground and 8 above ground. The 
coal was dumped over a wooden tipple, about 50 per cent being shipped as run of mine. 
The screened coal passed over shaking screens; 40 per cent passed through the 2}-inch 
openings and 60 per cent through the 4)-inch openings. The screenings were crushed 
and at times the mine run was crushed to pass through 2i-inch openings. The appear- 
ance on the cars of the screenings and the lump coal, the latter in laige lumps, was good. 
In 1917 the unmined area was 300 acres, and the estimated life of the mine was 20 years. 

FiKB View Station. Pike View Mine. 

Analyses 28911 to 28916 (p. 26). Subbituminous coal, Colorado Springs field, from 
Pike View mine, a shaft mine in sec. 18, T. 13 S., R. 66 W., 1 mile north of Pike View 
station, on the Denver & Rio Grande R. R. Coal bed, A; Cretaceous age; Laramie 
formation. Bed is 7 to 14 feet thick; average 12 feet; dip, about 13 feet in 2,000 north; 
a cleat making an angle of about 30^ with the vertical runs approximately east. No 
faults, rolls, or horsebacks are encountered. The bed contains occasional small 
lenses of coal } inch thick. Roof, soft white sandstone above coal (about 20 inches of 
top coal left for roof); floor, smooth bone, 2 inches, and fire clay, 2 feet. The bed 
was sampled by C. A. Herbert on June 7, 8, and 29, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Pike View mine. 



Section 


A. 
28915 


B. 

28912 


C. 
28911 


D. 
28914 


E. 


Laboratory No 


28913 






Roof, sandstone. 

Top coal 


Ft. in. 
3 
7 6 

aA 

11 5 
10 5 


Ft. in. 

3 

8 3 

aA 

aA 

11 10 
11 2 


Ft. in. 

3 

7 8 

aA 


Ft. in. 
3 
8 6 


Ft. in. 
8 


CoaJ 


7 9 


Coal 




Bone 


aA 

11 10 
11 6 


a4 


Floor, shale. 

ThickP«i« o' bed 


11 
10 8 


11 1 


Thk^kness of coal saiDpled 


10 







a Not included In sample. 

Section A (sample 28915) was taken from right rib in 1 room off 106, 45 entry 15 feet 
outby face, 1 mile northwest of shaft. Section B (sample 28912) was taken from right 
rib in 10 entry opposite 31 room, 1 mile northwest of shaft. Section C (sample 28911) 
was taken from right rib in 8 room of! main dip 10 feet outby face 1 mile from bottom 
of shaft northwest. Section D (sample 28914) was taken from face of 25 room off 106 
entry, 1 mile northwest of shaft. Section E (sample 28913) was taken from right rib 
in 6 room outby face, 106, 45 entry, 1 mile northwest of shaft. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 28911 to 
28915 is given under laboratory No. .28916. 

System of mining, room and piUer, butt entry. In 1917, 40 per cent of the coal was 
taken out in advance work, and a total recovery of 80 per cent was claimed. Haulage 
was by five electric motors and by mules. The coal was undercut by machine and- 



IdU 



A^iUjX»jfi» ur uujdj, ivxo— ijfiv. 



Bhot down with FF black powder by shot firers at 6 p. m. Men employed numbered 
175 undeiground and 13 above ground. The coal was duini)ed over a wooden, tipple 
from self-dumping steel cages. There were no pickers. The screened coal consisted 
of large lumps, and the appearance of the lump coal and the screenings on tlie cars was 
good. 

The capacity of the mine in 1917 was 1,000 tons a day, the daily average output SOO 
tons, and the maximum day's run 1,011 tons. The unmined area was 600 acree and 
the probable lifetime of the mine was 20 years. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine, see Hureau of 
Mines Bull. 85, pp. 24, 166. 

GUNNISON COUNTY. 

Somerset. Somerset Mine. 

Analyses 31817, 31798, 31799, and 31800 (p. 26). Bituminous coal. Grand Mesa 
field, from Somerset mine, a slope mine at Somerset, sec. 9, T. 13 S., R. 90 W., on the 
Denver & Rio Grande R. R. Coal bed, not named; Cretaceous age, Mesavezde 
formation. Average thickness of bed is 24 feet; dip, 6 per cent; roof, sandstone; floor, 
sandstone; cover at point of sampUng, 1,000 feet. The bed was sampled by J. J. 
Forbes on April 15 and April 21, 1919, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Somerset mine. 



Section 


A. 
31817 


B. 
81708 


C. 
31700 


D. 


Laboratonr No 


31800 


( 




Boof. sandstone; 

Bone 


FL in. 

5 
11 

2 
2 

7 4 
1 

3 
8 

3 

18 6 
18 6 


J^. In. 


FL M. 


J^. in. 

s 


Ck)al, bony 


7 


5 


7 


Top coal 


2 


Clay band 








Coal 








Clay 








C<»1 








Shale 








Coal, dirty 






""•**\*"** 


Flow, sandstone. 

Tnf<^lrn4^ o^y^ r 


7 
7 

• 


5 
5 


3 


Thlckripss of coal sainpled 


3 







Section A (sample 31817) was cut from left rib, 15 room, 10 east entry. Section B 
(sample 31798) was cut from left rib, 17 room, 10 east entry, between 2 and 3 crosBcuts. 
Section C (sample 31799) was cut from left rib, 17 room, 10 east entry, between 2 and 3 
croBBcuts. Section D (sample 31800) wa^ cut from 10 east entry at mouth to 13 room. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1919 the coal was cut by the miners and shot 
down with pemnssible explosive. Men employed numbered 116 underground and 
45 aboveground. The tipple was of wood. At the time of sampling, 66 per cent of 
output was derived from advance workings; 95 per cent of output was shipped as run 
of mine; 5 per cent wbjb screened in shaldng screens capable of making three sizes- 
lump, nut, and slack. Haulage was by mules and engine plane. The lour loading 
tracks had capacity for 40 empty and 40 loaded railroad cars. The coal on the can 
presented a good appearance. In 1919 the probable lifetime of the mine was estimated 
to be 25 years. The capacity of the mine was 2,000 tons a day, the average output 
1,500 tons, and the maximimi day's run 1,850 tons. 

For descriptions and analyses of other samples of this coal, see Bureau of Minee Bull. 
85, pp. 25, 169. 



COIiOBADO: LAS ANIMAS COUNTY. 181 

HXTEBS'AKO COT7NTY. 

Ravenwood. Bayenwood Mine. 

AnalyseB 31406, 31407, and 31408 (p. 26). Bituminous cosJ, Trinidad field, from 
Ravenwood mine, a slope mine, at Ravenwood, on a spur of the Colorado & Southern 
R. R. Coal bed, Cameron; Cretaceous age, Vermejo formation. Thickness of bed is 
2 feet 6 inches to 2 feet 8 inches ; dip , 4 per cent southwest ; cleat, indistinct. Frequent 
faults and occasional rolls are encountered. The bed is uniform, the coal being 
of "nigger-head'' variety. Roof, main, sandstone; immediate, ''draw slate," aver- 
aging,14 inches thick; floor, hard, smooth fire clay; cover at points of sampling, 250 feet. 
Tlie bed was sampled by J. J. Forbes on January 28 and 29, 1919, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Ravenwood mine. 



S4r!t1<MD . ...... 


A. 
31406 


B. 


Laboratory No 


31407 






Roof, section A. sandstone overlaid with 17 inches of "draw slate"; section B, sand- 
stone overlaid with 22 inches of "draw slate." 
CoaL 


Ft. in. 
2 8 

2 8 
2 8 


Ft. in, 
2 3 


Floor, hard fire clay. 

Tlbick*MiKi of bed - r 


2 3 


Thi(^iieffiy of coal sanjpled. , , ; , . , . 


2 3 







Section A (sample 31406) was cut at face of 11 north main entry. Section B (sample 
31407) was cut at face of 1 dip, 5 south entry. 

The ultimate anal3rBis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 31406 
and 31407 is given under laboratory No. 31408. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1919 the coal was cut by machine and shot 
down by one shot firer, after the miners had left, with permissible explosive fired by 
fuse (double tape). Permissible explosive was also used for brushing roof or floor. 
Men employed numbered 75 undeiground and 15 aboveground. None of the output 
was shipped as run of mine. In the wooden tipple the coal was screened through 
shaking screens, one 6 by 18 feet, with IJ-inch perforations, the other 6 by 16 feet, with 
2f-inch i>erforationB. Haulage was by mule, and by tail rope on slope. Five pickers 
were employed on car. There were three loading tracks, with capacity for 14 empty 
and for many loaded railroad cars. The lump coal on cars consisted of large bright 
lumps, and the screenings on the cars were bright. The approximate total recovery 
was given as 75 to 80 per cent. In 1919 the daily capacity of the mine was 225 tons, 
which was equal to the average output; the maximum day's run was 260 tons. It was 
expected that by June, 1919, the daily output would be increased to 400 tons. 

I«A8 ANDCAS COUIITY. 

CoKEDALE. Bon Carbo Mine. 

AnalysiB 31451 (p. 27). Coking bituminous coal, Trinidad field, from Bon Garbo 
mine, a drift mine 7 miles northwest of Ookedale, in sees. 31 and 82, T))6. 32 and 38 
E., R. 65 W., on the Denver & Rio Grande R. R. Coal bed, Primero; Cretaceous age» 
Vennejo formation. Bed is 4 to 8 feet thick and dips 1) per cent northwest, with cleat 
running east. Faults are encount^ed, but are not frequent; no rolls or horsebacks. 
A band of bone and shale from 1 to 6 inches thick extends through parts of mine. 
Roof, shale; floor, rough, soft shale; cover at point of sampling, 220 feet. The bed 
was sampled by J. J. Forbes on February 13, 1919, as described on the next page. 



132 ANALYSES OF COAL, li&l^lOlO. 

Section of coal bed in Bon Carbo mine. 

Roof, mam, shale; immediate, ''draw slate." Ft. Ik. 

Coal 3 2 

Shale li 

Coal 6 

Bone ' i 

Coal 1 1 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bod 4 10 

Thickness of coal sampled 4 10 

Sample 31451 was cut at 1 sotfth air course. 

System of mining, room and pillar, butt entries. In 1919 the coal was cut by 
machine and shot down with permissible explosive after the miners had left the 
mine; ''Giant'' was used for brushing roof or floor. All the coal was shipped as ms 
of mine to coke ovens at Cokedale. Haulage was by seven electric locomotives. 
The wooden tipple had a revolving dump. There were two loading tracks, with 
capacity for 35 empty and 40 loaded railroad cars. The appearance of the coal on 
the cars was good. Forty-flve per cent of coal was taken out in advance work. At 
the time of sampling the unmined area was 700 acres, and the mine was largely in the 
development stage. The capacity of the mine was 700 tons a day, the actual daily 
average 700 tons, and the maximum day's run 750 tons. The average daily iannage 
of coal coked was 700 to 1,500 tons. 

Delaoua. Cass Mine. 

Anal3nBis 31432 (p. 27). Bituminous coal, Trinidad field, from Cass mine, a drift 
mine at Delagua, sec. 15, T. 31 S., R. 65 W., on the Colorado & Southeastern R. R. 
Coal bed, Delagua; Cretaceous or Tertiary age, Raton formation. Bed is 3 feet 6 
inches to 4 feet thick and lies flat. The vein is regular and clean. The immediate 
roof is 13 inches of "draw slate"; main roof, sandstone; floor, hard, rough fire day; 
cover at x)oint of sampling, 300 feet. The bed was sampled by J. J. Forbes on Feb- 
ruary 3, 1919, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Can mine. 

Roof, main, sandstone; immediate, "draw slate." Ft in. 

Coal 41 

Shale I 

Coal 3 5} 

Floor, hard fire clay. 

Thickness of bed 3 11 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 11 

Sample 31432 was cut at face of 3 east entry. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1919 the coal was cut by machine and shot 
down with a permissible explosive by shot firers after miners had left mine. T2ie 
same explosive was used for brushing roof or floor. Haulage was by mulea and by 
one electric locomotive. Men employed numbered 68 underground and 7 above- 
ground. The tipple was of wood. A small amount of the coal was mined in advance 
work; the mine was being opened and no pillars were withdrawn. It was expected 
the recovery would be 90 per cent. The probable lifetime of the mine was 15 to 20 
yeaiB. The daily capacity at time of sampling was 250 tons, the daily average ou^at 
230 tons, and the maximum day's run 270 tons. It was expected the daily out^ 
would be increased to 600 tons. 



COIiOBADO: LAS AMMAS COUNTT. 



138 



Delagua. Delaoua lilNB. 

AnalysiB 29351 (p. 27). Bituminous coal, Trinidad field, from Dolagua mine, a drift 
mine in see. 15, T. 31 S., B. 65 W., at Delagua, about 4 miles west of Ludlow station 
on the Colorado & Southeastern R. R. Coal bed, Delagua; Cretaceous or Tertiary age, 
Raton foimation. The bed is 5 to 8 feet thick. Well-defined face cleats run approxi- 
mately east and west, or parallel to the dip. The bed is comparatively free of pei^ 
sistent partings of foreign matter. Immediately overlying the coal in the roof are 3 
to 4 inches of friable bony coal, above which is mud-clay shale with partings (slicken- 
sides), necessitating heavy timbering. Floor is of shale; cover at point of sampling, 
about 500 feet. The bed was sampled by C. A. Herbert on October 1, 1917, as described 
below: 

Section of coal bed in Delagua mine. 
Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Coal 1 4 

Shalea 5 

Coal 11 

Bone 1 

Coal 10 

Bone \ 

Coal 9i 

Shaleo 7 

Coal 2 10 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 7 10 

Thickness of coal sampled 6 10 

Sample 29351 was cut at face of 7 room, 11 west entry. 

In 1917 the coal was cut by pick, and the use of explosives had been reduced to a 
minimum; permissible explosives were used and were fired by shot firers after other 
employees had left the mine. Electric locomotives and mules were used for haulage. 
Very little lump coal was produced. The daily output of the mine in 1917 was 
2,200 tons. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 85, pp. 28, 177. 

Dslaoua. Dblaoua Fibst Nobth DienrBiGT. 

Analyses 31423 to 31426 (p. 27). Bituminous coal, Trinidad field, from Delagua 
First North District, a drift mine at Delagua, 5 miles from Ludlow, on the Colorado 
& Southeastern R. R. Coal bed. No. 1 or Delagua; Cretaceous or Tertiary age, Raton 
formation. Bed is 5 to 6 feet thick and lies flat. A few faults, one dike, and occa^ 
sional rolls are encoimtered. The bed contains impure layers in certain sections 
of the mine. Roof, ''draw slate" 8 to 16 inches, then sandstone; floor, soft rough 
fire clay; cover at points of sampling, 300 to 500 feet. The bed was sampled by J. J. 
Forbes' on February 4, 1919, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Delagua Pint North District, 



Section 

Laboratory No 

« 
■ ■ ■ ^ ' ■ ■ ■ ■ 

Roof, sandstone, ''draw slate" about 3 to 15 kiches 
Coal 

Floor, hard lire day. 

Thickness of bed 

Thif Imeiw of ooal sampled 

• Not indnded in sample. 



A. 
31423 



B. 
31424 



e. 

81425 



Ft, M. 
5 8 

5 3 
5 8 



Ft, in. 
5 8 

5 8 
5 8 



Ft. In. 
5 5 

5 6 
5 5 



134 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 

Section A (sample 31423) was cut in 10 room, 8 east, 14 east entry. Section B 
(sample 31424) was cut in 9 room, 7 east, 6 north entry. Section (sample 31425) 
was cut at face of >18 east parting. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
31423 to 31425 is given under laboratory No. 31426. 

System of mining, block. In 1919 the coal was cut by miners by pick. No explo- 
sives were used. Haulage was by four electric locomotives and by mules. The tipple 
was of wood. Five to 10 per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work, and a 
total recovery of 96 per cent was claimed. The capacity of the mine at time of sam- 
pling was 1,000 tons, the actual daily average was 900 tons, and the maximum day's 
run 1,100 tons. 

Dblaoua. Dblaqua Thud North Dibtbict. 

Analysis 31427 (p. 27). Bituminous coal, Trinidad field, from Delagua Third North 
District, a slope mine at Delagua, 5 miles from Ludlow, on the Colorado & South- 
em and the Denver & Rio Grande R. R. Coal bed, Delagua; Cretaceous or Tertiary 
age, Raton formation. Bed is 6 to 7 feet thick and dips 2^ northwest, with cleat 
running northeast and southwest; roof, 3 to 24 inches of "draw slate," with haid 
sandstone above it; floor, hard, mediiun, rough fire clay; cover at point of sampling, 
700 feet. The bed was sampled at one point by J. J. Forbes on February 5, 1919, as 
described below: 

Section of coal bed in Delagua Third North District. 

Roof, main, sandstone; immediate, "draw slate.'' . Ft. iil 

Coal 1 9 

"Sulphur" band J 

Coal , 1 ^ 

Dirty streak^ 3 

Coal 2 7 

Floor, hard fire clay. 

Thickness of bed 6 4 

Thickness of coal sampled 6 1 

Sample 31427 was cut at face of 17 west, 5 north. 

Systems of mining, room and pillar and block. In 1919, 50 per cent of the coal was 
cut by machine and shot down with a permissible explosive by diiot firers after minexs 
had left the mine ; the same explosive was used for brushing roof or floor. Men em- 
ployed numbered 175 undei^ground and 60 above ground. The tipple was of wood. 
The coal was screened through bar screens 18 feet long, having IJ-inch spaces. Haul- 
age was by five electric locomotives and by mule. Four pickers were employed on 
car and conveyor and there were four loading tracks. The lump coal, medium lumi)e, 
on the cars had a bright luster, as had the screenings. Five per cent of the coal was 
taken out in the advance work, and a total recovery of 95 per cent was claimed. 
The daily capacity of the mine was 1,000 tons, the actual daily average 1,000 tons, 
and the maximum day's run 1,200 tons. 

Hastings. Hastinos Mine. 

Analyses 29277, 29278, and 294C5 (p. 27). Bituminous coal, Raton Mesa field, 
from Hastings mine, a slope mine at Hastings, in sec. 25, T. 32 S., R. 64 W., on the 
Colorado & Southeastern R. R., with connections to the Colorado & Southern R. R. 
and the Denver & Rio Grande R. R. Coal bed, A and B beds, Cretaceous age, Yer- 
mejo (7) formation. Bed varies from 4} feet to over 7 feet in thickness and dips about 
10 ])er cent west at outcrop, decreasing to less than 4 per cent west at face of dope. 

** Not included in sampl*. 



COIX)RADO: LAS ANIMAS COUNTY. 



135 



Wen defined slipe or ''faces " are encountered. Roof and floor are of shale. The bed 
'WUB sampled by C. A. Herbert on September 21 and 22, 1917, and on November 5, 
1917, as described below: 

Sections oj coal bed in Hastings mine. 



Section 


A. 
2«277 


B. 

29278 


C. 


T^Aboratonr No.... ... . . . ^ ... .... 


29466 






Roof, shale. 

Coal 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. <n. 

7 


*' Sulphur" *. 






V 


Coal.. 






B<nie...x..... . . . .X.. . .. . 4.. ........ . 






Coal 


2 

al 

5 

a4 

2 6 

5 4 
4 11 


3 6 

•3 


5 


Bone 


1 


Coal 


10 


Bone 


1 


Coal 




1 8 


Flow, shale. 

ThiplmeM nf f^yl . , _ 


4 3 
3 9} 


4 


ThiCrknem of coal sampled - 


Svll* 





o Not included In sample. 

Section A (sample 29277) was cut in B bed from right rib in crosscut off main oppo- 
site 3 north entry, about 1 mile from mine opening. Section B (sample 29278) was 
cut in A bed at face of last room o£f 7} N., about 1 mile from mine opening. Section 
C (sample 29465) was cut at face of crosscut, 60 feet north of air shaft between A and 
B beds. 

System of mining, double entry, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut 
by hand to a depth of 3} to 5 feet; owing to the coal being friable and to the occur- 
rence of slips or "faces" undercutting was not difficult; the face of the main and 
back slope was cut by chain breast mining machines. Pillars were pulled after 
rooms were finished. The coal was shot with a permissible explosive by shot fireis 
after all the men were out of the mine. Haulage was by mules attached to cars by 
shafts or ''guns." There were two loading tracks, with capacity for 150 empty and 
150 loaded cars. 

For descriptions and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines 
Bull 22, pp. 69, 449, and Bull. 85, pp. 29, 178. 

MORLEY. MORLEY MiNE. 

Anal3rses 32046, 32047, and 32048 (p. 27). Bituminous (coking) coal, Trinidad field, 
from Morley mine, a slope and a drift mine at Morley , on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe R. R. Coal bed, Engle-Starkville; Cretaceous age, Trinidad (?) formation. Bed 
is 4) to 10 feet thick; dip (approximately 18 per cent), almost due south. A cleat 
runs east and west. Roof, 2} feet of roof coal, above which is sandstone; floor, fairly 
smooth, soft shale; cover at points of sampling, 900 feet. The bed was sampled by 
J. J. Forbes on May 29, 1919, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Morley mine. 



Section. 


A. 
32D46 


B. 


Laboratory No. 


32047 


* 




Roor sandstone, 3 feet of coal left for protection. 


Ft. in. 

4 4 

2 

2 

6 6 
6 6 


Ft. in. 
3 8 


R^alfl and hnne ^ , . . , , . , 


5 


CoaL 


1 11 


Floor, shale. 

Thi<^kDfffff of *¥«!- , - 


6 


ThicknciBS of coal immpled . . . - , . 


6 







136 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1&19, 

Section A (sBinple 32046) was cut at face of main dope. Section B (sample 82047) 
was cut at face of 7 left entry, main slope. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 32046 
and 32047 is given under laboratory No. 32048. 

System of mining; room and pillar, in panels. The mine is opened on the east side 
by a drift and on the west side by a slope. The east side is on the retreating system 
and was to be worked out soon. At the time of sampling, no explosives were used, 
pick methods being employed exclusively. Men employed numbered 215 under- 
ground and 57 above ground . Ten per cent of the output was shipped as run of mine. 
The wooden tipple had bar screens 20 feet long, with 2f-inch spaces, shaking screens 
20 feet long by 6 feet wide, with 2}-inch holes, and small-coal screens with ban 20 feet 
long, spaced 1} inches apart. Of the coal going to screens 75 per cent passed through. 
Motors and mules were used for haulage in the east side opening, and rope and mules 
were employed on the west side. The coal was picked within the mine. There w&e 
three loading tracks, with capacity for 40 empty railroad cars and 1} miles of track for 
loaded railroad cars. The screenings on the cars were fairly bright. The lumps were 
large and bright. Of the mine output 50 per cent was shipped to Pueblo, wh«e it was 
washed and finally coked at a by-product plant. Forty per cent of the coal was taken 
out in the advance work, and a recovery of 85 per cent was claimed. The probable 
lifetime of the mine was 40 years. The capacity of the mine at time of sampling was 
1,100 tons, which equaled the actual average output. 

For descriptions and analyses of other samples of coal from this mine see Bureau of 
Mines Bull. 22, pp. 69, 450, and Bull. 85, pp. 29, 179. 

SopRis. SopRis No. 2 Mine. 

Analysis 31949 (p. 27). Bituminous coal, Trinidad field, from Sopris No. 2 mine, a 
slope mine at Sopris, in NW. i SE. i sec. 33, T. 33 S., K. 64 W., on the G<^orado A 
Southern R. R. Coal bed, Cameron (Locally known as Sopris); Cretaceous age, Ver- 
mejo formation. Bed is 4 feet thick and dips 1^°. Occasional faults and rolls are 
encountered. Roof, ''draw slate;'' floor, rough, very hard sandstone. The bed wm 
sampled by J. J. Forbes on May 14, 1919, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Sopris No, t mine. 

Roof, main, sandstone; immediate, shale. 

Ft. in. 

Bone and coal mixed 6 

Coal 1 2 

Bone 2 

Coal 5 

Bone 1 

Coal 5 

Bone 1 

Coal 1 3 

Bony shale o 7 

Coal 3 

Floor, hard sandstone. 

Thickness of bed 7 8 

Thickness of coal sampled 7 1 

Sample 31949 was cut at face of 3 east entry. 

System of mining, room and pillar, in panels. In 1919 the coal was cut and sheared 
by machine and by hand and shot down with a pemussible explosive by shot firen 

after the minen had left the mine. Haulage was by mule, by three electric loco- 

■ — ■-■■- — 

It Indndad In Mmple. 






COIX)BADO: LAS ANIMAS COUNTY. 13Y 

otdAreB, and by rope. Men employed numbered 350 imdergroimd and 55aboye- 
ouxkd . The tipple was of wood . None of the coal was shipped as run of mine, entire 
Ltput going to Pueblo, Colo., to be crushed, washed, and coked in a by-product plant, 
he edze produced by crushing was about f inch. Two pickers were on the belt. 
here was one loading track, f mile long. The coal on the cars presented a brigjit 
>pearance. Seventy per cent of the coal was mined in advance work, and the 
>coArery was claimed to be 96 per cent. The probable lifetime of the mine was 
> years. The daily average output of the mine was 800 tons. 

Stabkvillb. Stabkvillb Mine. 

• 

AnalyBiB 32030 (p. 27). Bituminous coal, T inidad field, from Starkville mine, a 
rift mine i mile from Starkville, on the Santa Fe R. R. Coal bed, known as Engle- 
•tarkville; Cretaceous age, Vermejo formation. Bed is 4 to 6 feet thick and lies flat. 
'Vequent rolls are encountered . Roof, in some sections 2 feet of ' * draw slate, ' ' in others 
Eundstone; floor, medium hard, fairly smooth shale; cover at point of sampling was 
pver 1,000 feet; elevation of entrance, 6,100 feet above sea. The bed was sampled by 
'. J. Forbes on May 20, 1919, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in StarhviUe mine. 
Koofy main, sandstone; immediate, black shale. 

Ft. in. 

Coal 1 10 

Bone 1 

Coal 2 

Bone - 1 

Coal ; 4 

Bone 4 

Coal ^ 4 

Shaleo '. 6 

Coal 1 2 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 4 10 

Thickness of coal sampled 4 4 

Sample 32030 was cut at face of 8 south entry, J-6. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1919 very little development work was being 
done, the mine being worked retreating. The coal was broken down by squeezes. 
No explosives were used for the coal; permissible explosives fired by fire boss, were 
used only in rock or bottom shale. Men employed numbered 220 underground and 
40 aboveground. The tipple was of wood. None of the coal was shipped as run of 
mine. Bar screens 18 feet in length, with 4-inch and i-inch spaces, were used. 
Screenings up to } inch were washed and coked; 76 per cent of the coal was lump. 
Haulage was by mules and by five electric locomotives. One picker was employed 
on the car. There were two loading tracks with large capacity for railroad cars. 
The lump coal, laige and small lumps, on the cans was bright; the screenings on the 
can were dull. From 15 to 20 per cent of the coal was taken out in the advance work 
and about 85 per cent from pillan; the recovery claimed was 95 per cent. The 
estimated lifetime of the mine was 25 years. The capacity and average daily output 
of the mine was 900 tons. The daily output, however, was to be increased after new 
development. Of the coal from this property 75 per cent was shipped to the operator's 
by-product coking plant at Pueblo, Cdo., for coking, and 25 per cent was sold to the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R. 

For desGciption and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines 
Boll. 22, p. 71, and Bull. 85, pp. 32,182. 



»»^— ^— ■■■ ■ J "mmfmg^ 



a|f<4|n£|pM SB sample. 



138 



Al^^ALYSES OF COAL, 1916-^919. 



MESA COTTKTY. 

Cameo. Cameo Mine. 

Analysee 28917 to 28919 (p. 28). Bituminous coal, Book Cliffs field, from Camec 
mine, a slope mine in NW. J NW. { sec. 34, T. 10 S., R. 98 W., at Cameo, 4 miks 
northeast of Palisades, on the Denver & Rio Grande R. R. Coal bed. Cameo: Cre- 
taceous age, Mesaverde formation. Bed is 9 to 10 feet thick and dips 2 to 4® northeaft 
with well-defined cleat. There is a thin layer of bony coal about 8 inches from 
roof, 10 inches near the middle, and 3 feet at the bottom. Roof, good hard dark shale: 
floor, bone; cover at points of sampling, 2,000 feet (?). The bed was sampled by 
C. A. Herbert on July 13, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Cameo mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



A. 
28917 


B. 
28918 


Ft. in. 
2 


Ft. m. 


7 

2 

1 10 

1 


8 

2 

3 3 


1 8 




a 10 

10 

ol 6 


• 10 

1 


3 0? 
7 6 
6 2 


''3*0? 
5 11 
5 1 



Roof, main, sandstone and shale; immediate, shale. 
Coal 



Bone 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

Coal 

Bone 

Coal 

Bone and coal 

Floor, bone 

ToicknesB of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 28917) was taken from 7 north off 6 west. Section B (sample 
28918) was taken from face of 22 room off 8 west. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 28917 
and 28918 is given under laboratory No. 28919. 

System of mining, room and pillar, butt entry. In' 1917, 50 per cent of the coal 
was taken out in advance work, and the total recovery claimed was 90 per cent. 
Haulage was by two electric locomotives and mules. There were three loading 
tracks, with capacity for 35 empty and 35 loaded railroad cars. The coal was undercut 
by machine in the bone and shot down by the shot firers at 6 p. m., permisdble explo- 
sives and 40 per cent dynamite being used to brush the roof or the floor. Men 
employed numbered 55 underground and 15 aboveground. The coal was dumped 
over a wooden tipple, about 80 per cent being shipped as run of mine. There were 
no pickers. The coal was screened through shaking screens 6 by 10 feet, with 3-incfa 
openings, and 6 by 16 feet, with l}-inch openings, respectively. The appearance 
of the screenings was good. The capacity of the mine in 1917 was 700 tons a dar, 
and the average daily output was 600 tons. 

For other analyses of coal from this mine see Bull. 22, pp. 72, 458. 

OTJBAY COUNTY. 

RiDGWAY. Kennedy Mine. 

Analysis 31044 (p. 28). Subbituminous coal, Tongue Mesa fidd, from B. Kennedy 
mine, a drift mine 12 miles northeast of Ridgway, in NW. i sec. 23, T. 46 N., R. 7 W. 
Ridgway is on a narrow-gage line of the Denver & Rio Grande R. R. Coal bed, not 
named; Upper Cretaceous age, Mesaverde formation. Bed is reported to be 40 feet 
thick and dips 15**; cover at point of sampling, 100 feet. Tlie bed was sampled by 
M. R. Campbell on September 18, 1919, as described: 



COLORADO: BOUTT COUNTY. 



189 



Section of coal bed in Lou Creek mine. 

Roof 9 not noted. r^eL 

Coal (reported) »29 

Coal (sampled) 7 

Coal a4 

Floor, not noted. 

Thickneflsof bed 40 

Thickness of coal sampled 7 

Sample 31044 was measured in main entry 300 feet from mine mouth. Wagon 
mine coal was hauled to Ridgway. 

For description and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines 
BuU. 86, pp. 36, 192. 

PITKIN COUNTY. 

Placita. Placita Mine. 

Analysis 26826 (p. 28). Bituminous coal from Placita mine at Placita, in sec. 6, 
T. 11 S., R. 88 W., on the Crystal River R. R. 

Coal bed, sot named; Upper Cretaceous age, Mesaverde formation. The coal bed 
was sampled on August 14, 1916, by £. Russell Lloyd. The sample represented 3 feet 
5 inches of coal, the entire thickness of bed except 2 inches of bone at the top, which 
wae not sampled. Sample 26826 was measured 1,200 feet southwest of mine mouth, 

BOtJTT COUNTY. 

MiLNEB. Cherqo (Old Htjtchinson) Mike. 

Analysis 31038 (p. 28). Bituminous coal, Yampa field, from Chergo mine, a slope 
min^in NW. J sec. 13, T. 5 N., R. 86 W., 7 miles south of Milner, on the Denver North- 
western & P^fic R. R. Coal bed known as Wadge; Upper Cretaceous age, middle 
group of coal beds in the Mesaverde formation. Bed is 9 feet 6 inches thick and dips 
10"^ or 12° west; it consists of clear coal, without partings, and is regular ip thickness. 
Roof, shale; floor, not noted; cover at point of sampUng, 60 feet. The bed was 
sampled by M. R. Campbell on September 6, 1918, sample 31038, representing 9 feet 6 
inches of coal. The thickness of the bed was measured at face of main slope, 300 feet 
from mine mouth. 

The mine was operated by no particular system and was worked only for lodil supply. 
There was no regular output. The haulage was by horsepower. 

Mount Harris. Mount Harris Mine. 

Analyses 31199 to 31207 (p. 28). Bituminous coal, Yampa field, from Mount Harris 
mine, a slope mine 1,000 feet south of Mount Harris Station, in sec. 16, T. 6 N. , R. 87 W. 
on the Denver & Salt Lake R. R. Coal bed, Wadge; Cretaceous age, Mesaverde 
formation. Bed is 8 feet to 9 feet 6 inches thick ; dip, 16'' north, 8^ 26^ east. A well- 
defined cleat runs south 30° east. One fault (8-foot displacement) has been encoun- 
tered, but no rolls or horsebacks. The bed is f;'ee from impurities. Roof, good, of 
sandy shale ; floor, hard and fairly smooth, of sandy shale ; cover at points of sampling, 
100 to 800 feet. Elevation of entrance is 6,400 feet above sea level. The bed was 
sampled by J. J. Forbes October 29 to 31, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Mount Harris mine. 



Section 


A. 
augg 


B. 
31200 


C. 
31201 


D. 
31203 


E. 
81208 


F. 
31204 


G. 
31206 


H. 


LabontoryNo 


81200 


Roof, sandy shale: 
•'TopsUite" 


FUin. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Coal 


1 
9 4 

9 IJ 


8 9 


9 


9 6 


6 6 
3 31 
8 10 
8 9i 


8 4 


9 


8 


Shale 




Coal 














Floor, sandy shale: 
Thickness of bed. 
Thickness of ooal 
sampled 


8 9 
8 9 


9 
9 


9 5 
9 6 


8 4 
8 4 


9 
9 


8 6 
8 6 


a Not included in sa 
55270*— 22 


mple. 
\ ^10 

















140 ANALYSES OF COAL, 191&-1919. 

Section A (sample 31199) was cut from left rib, 20 feet from hce of 10 soiath entiy. 

Section B (sample 31200) was cut from face of 3 east, main south slope. Section C 
(sample 31201) was cut 20 feet from face of G slope, left rib, main soutii entry. Sec^ 
tion D (sample 31202) was cut from face of 7 east back entry, 2 south entry. Section 
E (sample 31203) was cut at face of 10 east entry, main south entry. Section F (sample 
31204) was cut from left rib in last crosscut in A slope and 40 feet from face of entry. 
Section G (sample 31205) was cut 30 feet from face of main south entry on left rib. 
Section H (sample 31206) was cut from rib of main dip and 5 feet from face. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
31199 to 31206, is given under laboratory No. 31207. 

System of mining, panel. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine and shot down 
with black powder by three shot firers after miners had left mine. Men employed 
numbered 176 imdeiground and 50 aboveground. The tipple was of wood. The 
openings of the screens were 8 inches, 3 inches, and 1| inches; of the coal going to 
screens 70 per cent passed through them. The coal was picked on car by two pickers. 
The lour loading tracks had capacity for 40 empty and 60 loaded railroad cars. The 
lump coal on the cars was large and bright; the screenings on the cars were dean and 
bright. Fifty per cent of the coal was mined in advance work, and the recovery 
claimed was 86 per cent. The unmined area was approximately 1,600 acres, and 
the estimated lifetime of the mine was 20 years. The daily capacity of mine was 
2,000 tons, the daily average 1,500 tons, and the maximum day's run 2,200 tons. 

For descriptions and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines 
BuU. 123, pp. 32, 170. 

Mount Habris. Wadoe Mike. 

Analyses 31233 to 31236 (p. 29). Bituminous coal, Yampa field, from Wadge mine, 
a slope mine at Mount Harris, in sec. 15, T. 6 N., R. 87 W., on the Denver & Salt 
Lake R. R. Coal bed, Wadge; Cretaceous age, Mesaverde formation. Thickness of 
bed is 8 feet 7 inches, and dip 16 per cent, with rectangular cleat. Roof and floor 
sandy shale; cover at points of sampling, 400 to 500 feet. The bed was sampled at 
two points by J. J. Forbes on November 13, 1918, and represented 8 feet 6 inches and 
8 feet 7 inches of coal. 

Section A (sample 31233) was cut at face of 3 north, main entry. Section B (sample 
31234) was cut at face of 1 north, main entry. 

The ultimate analyses of a composite sample made by combining face samiples 
31233 and 31234 is given under laboratory No. 31235. 

System of mining, room and pillar, in panels. In 1918 the coal was cut by hand 
and by mining machines and shot down with black powder. Men employed num- 
bered 80 undeigroimd and 30 aboveground. The tipple was of wood. At the time 
of sampling the output was 400 tons a day, 50 per cent of which was from advance 
w(^kings. None of the coal was shipped as run of mine, but all was screened in 
shaking screens with 2) and 1} inch spaces. Sizes of coal, lump, nut, and slack. 
The coal was picked on screens by one picker. Haulage was by rope with steam 
and electric haulage engines. The three loading tracks hsid capacity for 60 empty 
and 35 loaded railroad can. The appearance of the coal on the can was good. The 
estimated lifetime of the mine in 1918 was 30 yean. The capacity of the mine wafl 
1,000 tons a day, and the maximum day's run 698 tons. 

For description and analysis of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 80, 482. 



COLORADO: BOUTT COUNTY. 



141 



DuNKLEY Canyon. Webber Mine. 

AnalysiB 30862 (p. 29). Bituminous coal, Yampa field, from Webber mine, a drift 
nune at Dunkley Canyon, 10 miles south of Mount Harris, in NW. J sec. 2, T. 4 N., 
R.. 87 W., not on any railroad. Coal bed, Wadge; Upper Cretaceous age, middle coal 
group of the Mesaverde formation. Bed is 11 feet 9 inches thick and is regular; dip, 
&4° ; cleat, not observed . Bed generally is clear coal, without partings. Roof and floor 
&Te of shale. The cover at point of sampling is 25 feet. The bed was sampled by 
Id. R. Campbell September 3, 1919. Sample was a grab sample taken at face and 
irepreeented most of the coal bed. The face was in too dangerouis a condition for a 
sample to be cut across it. The drift had been driven in about 125 feet and was 
mined only to supply the needs of a few local ranchmen. 

Oak Creek. Aroo Mine. 

Analyses 31130 to 31134 (p. 29). Bituminous coal, Yampa field, from Aigo mine, 
a drift and slope mine 1 mile northwest of Oak Creek, in sec. 36, T. 4 N., R. 86 W., 
on the Denver <& Salt Lake R. R. Coal bed, Aigo or Pinnacle; Cretaceous age, Mesa- 
verde formation. Bed is 9 feet 6 inches to 10 feet 10 inches thick; dip, 10^ to 12® 
northwest; cleat on strikes southwest. No faults are encountered ; rolls are small and 
infrequent. One inch of sandstone, and at intervals a little bone are present near 
the roof. The roof consists of 8 inches sandy shale; the floor is good, medium smooth, 
of sandy shale. Cover at points of sampling,^ 800 to 1,000 feet. Elevation of entrance 
is 7,400 feet above sea level. The bed wsus sampled by J. J. Forbes on October 6 and 
7, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Argo mine. 



Section. 


A. 

31130 


B. 

31131 


C. 
31132 


D. 


LftbOfHtOCT No ...,,. r r - - - - - - , - - - r - T - - r 


31133 






Roof^ sandy sb^e: 


Ft. in. 
5 

9 4 


Ft. in. 
10 2 


Ft. in. 

8 

al 

1 11 

2 

1 

5 

5 6 

9 9 
9 8 


FU in. 
10 


RanfffftnnA ,-. r-.-T- -r 




CJoaL 






Bone. 




3 


Coal 






8 8 


Bone... 








Coal... 








Floor, sandy shale: 

Tnickness of bed .,...-.,..,,-,. .-,- r 


10 2 
10 u 


10 2 
10 2 


9 9 


Thloknes? of coal «anipl«l , r - 


9 9 







a Not indoded in sample. 

Section A (sample 31130) was cut at face of south entry, 5,000 feet southwest of 
portal. Section B (sample 31131) was cut 15 feet from face of 9 slope, left rib, 120 
feet below south entry. Section C (sample 31132) was cut at face of south slope, 375 
feet below 4 level. Section D (sample 31133) was cut at face of 3 level, 2,100 feet from 
south slope. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 31130 
to 31133 is shown under laboratory No. 31134. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine and shot 
down with FF black powder by shot firers after the miners had left the mine. About 
100 men were employed aboveground and 250 underground. The tipple was of wood. 
About 40 per cent of the output was shipped as run of mine. The coal was screened 
over a screen with 3-inch round perforations and over a shaking screen 12 by 6 feet, 
with l}-inch round perforations. Excluding run of mine, the proportions of sizes 
shipped were: Slack, 25 per cent; nut, 19 per cent; lump, 56 per cent. Haulage was 
by three electric motors, electric hoists, and by mules. Two pickers were employed. 



142 Al^^ALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 

The four loading tracks had capacity for 60 empty and 60 loaded raOroad cars. The 
lump coal on the can had a good appearance, the lumps being large; screeningB on 
the cars were bright. About 50 per cent of the coal was mined in advance work, 
and recovery was about 80 per cent. The umnined area consisted of 1,200 acroa. 
The daily capacity of the mine was 2,000 tons, the average output 1,500 tons, and 
the maximum day'is run 2,400 tons. The output for 1917 was 330,000 tons. 

WEIJ> COTTNTY. 

Ebie. Puritan Mine. 

Aiialysis31323 (p. 29). ''Black lignite'' or subbituminous coal, Denver region, called 
locally Northern Lignite field, from Puritan mine, a shaft mine 6 miles northeast of 
Erie,insec. 34, T.2 N., R. 68 W., on the Union Pacific R. R. The coal is of Cretaceous 
age, Laramie formation. The bed is 10 feet 6 inches thick and lies flat. Roof, 
"soapy" shale over the 3 feet of top coal left; floor, sandstone; cover at point of sam- 
pling, 110 feet. The bed was sampled by J. J. Forbes on December 12, 1918. The 
sample represented the thickness mined, or 6 feet 9 inches of coal. 

Sample 31323 was cut at iace of 13 room, 4 northwest entry. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was undercut by puncher 
machines and shot down with FF black powder. Men employed numbered 139 undei^ 
ground and 20 aboyeground. At the time of sampling the output was 1,200 tons a 
day, 60 per cent of which was derived from advance workings; 35 per cent was shipped 
as run of mine, and 65 per cent was screened in shaking screens with 2}-inch holes. 
Sizes of coal: 2^inch round-hole slack; 2^inch lump. Haulage was by motor and by 
mules. The three loading tracks had capacity for 50 empty and 50 loaded raUnoad 
cars. The appearance of the coal on the cars was good. The estimated lifetime of 
the mine at time of sampling was 15 years. The capacity of the mine was 1,500 tons 
a day and the maximum day's run 1,626 tons. 

For description and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines Bull. 
22, pp. 82, 489. 

Frederick. Baum Mine. 

Analysis 31344 (p. 29). Subbituminous coal, Denver region, locally known as 
Northern Lignite field, from Baum mine, a shaft mine i mile from Frederick, in sec. 
36, T. 2 N., R. 68 W., on the Union Pacific R. R. Goal bed, Cretaceous age, lAiamie 
formation. Bed is 6 feet 10 inches thick and lies level; roof, ^'soapstone"; floor, 
sandy "soapstone"; cover at point of sampling, 200 feet. The bed was sampled by 
J. J. Forbes on December 16, 1918. One foot of top coal was left in roof, and the 
■ample represented the remaining thickness of the bed, or 5 feet 6 inches of coal. 

Section of coal bed in Baum mine. 

Sample 31344 was cut at face of 13 room, 16 northeast entry. 

System of mining, room and pillar. The coal is cut by electric chain cutting machines 
and shot down with black powder. Men employed numbered 50 undeigroimd and 30 
aboveground. The tipple is of frame construction. At the time of sampling the out- 
put was 500 tons a day, 25 per cent of which was derived from advance workings. All 
the coal was screened in screens with 2i-inch spaces. Haulage was by mules to part- 
ings, thence by electric locomotive to bottom. There were three loading tracks, with 
capacity for 2,000 tons. The estimated lifetime of the mine at time of sampling was 
20 yean. The capacity of the mine was 1,000 tons a day and the maximum day's run 
1,034 tons. 



ILLINOIS: CHKISTIAN COUNTY. 143 

IDAHO. 

FBEHONT COUNTY. 

MoNiDA. Scott & Buey Mine. 

Aiial3rBi8 29821 (p. 29). Subbituminous coal, from Scott & Buey mine, in sec. 11, T. 
1.4 N., R. 38 E., 15 miles east of Monida, on the Oregon Short Line. Goal bed, not 
named; Upper Cretaceous age, Frontier (?) formation. Thickness at point of sampling, 
3 feet 8 inches, the sample represented 2 feet 8 inches of coal, which was overlaid by 6 
inches of clay and 6 inches of coal. The bed was sampled by G. R. Mansfield on 
September 15, 1917. The sample, which was cut at face of main entry 110 feet from 
mine mouth, was weathered. 

TBTON COUNTY. 

Dbigos. Bellent Mine. 

Analysis 29182 (p. 29) . Bituminous coal from Bellent mine, 10 miles west of Driggs, 
in sec. 36, T. 5 N., R. 43 E., on the Oregon Short Line R. R. Mine has no railroad con- 
nection. Coal bed, not named; Upper Cretaceous age. Frontier (7) formation. The 
bed was sampled by G. R. Mansfield on August 21, 1917. 

Section of the coal bed in BeUent mine. 

Roof, not noted. Ft. in. 

Coal 3 4 

Bone A.. «2 

Clayo o8 

Coalo 1 

Bone , o2 

Coal.^ 3 

Floor, not noted. 

Thickness of bed 8 4 

Thickness of coal«sampled 7 4 

The sample was cut at face of main entry, 315 feet north 35^ west of mine mouth. 

Victor. Pine Creek Pass Mine. 

Analysis 29280 (p. 29). Subbituminous coal, from Pine Creek Pass mine, a slope 
mine 8 miles west of Victor, in sec. 25 (?), T. 3 N., R. 44 E., on the Oregon Short 
Line R. R. Mine has no railroad connection. Coal bed, not named; Upper Creta- 
ceous age, Frontier (?) formation. The bed was sampled by G. R. Mansfield cm 
September 9, 1917. The sample represented 1 foot 10 inches of coal. The section 
was measured on north wall of slope, 12 feet from mine mouth, under 12 feet of cover. 

ILLIlfOIS. 

CHBIBTIAN COUNTY. 

Pana. Sprinoside Mine. 

Analyses 25748 to 25752 and (26336, 26337, and 26338 (p. 30). Bituminous coal, 
Illinois field, from Springside mine, a shaft mine 1 mile northeast of Pana, on the 
Chicago d Eastern IllinoisR. R. Coal bed, No. 6 ; Carboniferous age, Carbondale forma- 
tion. Bed is 7 feet 6 i nchee thick and has a slight northeast dip , with frequent rolls or 
hoisebacks ; roof, black, slaty shale from a few inches to 14 feet thick, then strong lime- 

a Not iooluded in sample. 



144 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



stone; floor, hard, smooth clay several feet thick; cover, about 710 feet. The bed — 
sampled by J. R. Fleming on August 2, 1916, and October 18, 1916, as described 
below: 

Sections of eodl bed in SpringMe mint. 



Section 


A. 
25748 


B. 
25749 


C. 

25750 


D. 
25751 


E. 
26336 


F. 




26337 






Roof, black shato. 

Coal brifibt. brittle. 


FU in. 

1 10 
al 


Ft. in. 

2 ^ 

a 2 


Ft. in. 
2 3 


Ft. in. 
8 
al 


Ft. in. 
3 1 
•1 


2 7 


Bone ana "salDhtir" 


I 


"SulDhur^baniiL 


V 




Coairbrijdit and brittle ...... 1 .„ ... . 


6 


1 4 


2 4 
al 






"Sufohur" band ' .... ... 






Bone and ''sulnliiir".. 


olj 




al 






"Mother coal" and "sulDhnr" 






( 


"Mothflrcflftl" and bone. ..... r ...... . 




".♦ 










Cnftl. hriifht. Arm 


4 




1 8 






Coal.lannnated dull 


4 


8 3 


3 1 


"Sufohur" band. 






«l 




Bone and "sulDhur" 


al 


•1* 


; 


Owl. hard bright 




6 


.......... 




Coal laminated with dull bandfl 


2 6 


2 6 






**Blae band,'' bone and coal 








a4 


"Sulphur" bands 


«i 


•i 




«i 






Rhftle. "blue bftnd" 




-u 




r«el, mptbt hard 






, 


10 


1 21 


Ooal. bard dull.- , 


10 


8 

u* 

a5 
1 

7 10 
7 i 




1 




"Sulphur" band. 








rn^l, lA-mln^tAd duU 












fn>i^i^ bai^dfl and coal 


a5 
1 

7 ^ 
7 


a2J 
1 

6 10} 
6 6 


a5 
9 

7 4 
6 9 


.......... 




Coal, hard dull... 






Floor, clay. 

Ttiip.lmASs of bftd- , , . . „ _ . 


7 4 
7 2 


7 3 




6 U 







a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 25748) was cut in 20 main entry, main north, 5,400 feet from 
shaft. Section B (sample 25749) was cut in room 13, 17 west, main north, 5,400 feet 
from shaft. Section G (sample 25750) wafi cut in room 10, 5 south, off 5 east, off main 
north, 2,700 feet from shaft. Section D (sample 25751) was cut at face of 7 east, off 
main north, 4,500 feet from shaft. Section E {sample 26336) was cut in room 9, off 14 
north, off main east south, 4,800 feet southeast of shaft. Section F (sample 26337) 
was cut at face of main east south entry, 5,400 feet southeast from shaft. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 25748 
to 25751 is given under laboratory No. 25752. The ultimate analysis of a composite 
sample made by combining samples 26336 and 26337 iB given under laboratoiy 
No. 26338. 

System of mining, room and pUlar, in panels. In 1916 the mining was done by hand 
on bench above "blue band"; the top was shot down and the bottom shot up later 
with FF black powder. The daily average output of the mine was 1,125 tons, mostly 
derived from advance workings. Forty per cent of the coal passed through a l^-inch 
screen. All coal going to washery was crushed to 3}-inch size. There was track 
capacity for 60 empty and 60 loaded cars. The probable lifetime of the mine was 
about 25 yean. 

FBANKLIN COX7NT7. 

BucKNSR. Uniteo No. 14 Mine. 

AnalysiB 26129 (p. 30). Bituminous coal, Illinois field, from United No. 14 mine, ft 
shaft mine i mile east of Buckner , on the El Dorado-St. Louis branch of the lUinois Cen- 
tral R. R. ; also served by the Chicago, Burlington & Qulncy R. R. Coal bed : Herrin, or 
No. 6, of the Illinois Geological Survey; Carboniferous age, Carbondale formation. 
Bed averages 9 feet 6 inches in thickness; roof, gray shale; floor, fire day; cover at 



lUilNOIS: PRANKUN COUNTY. 



146 



flainpliiig,-650 feet. The bed was sampled by J. R. Fleming on September 13, 1916, 
as deecribed below: 

Section of coal bed in No. 2 mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Top coal o 2 

Coal, bright, brittle., 1 

Bone « 1 

Coal, laminated with dull streaks 4 3 

"Blue band," shale <» 1 

Coal, hard 1 4 

Floor, fire clay. 

Thickness of bed 8 9 

Thickness of coal sampled 6 7 

Sample 26129 was cut at face of 8 panel, off 6 north, off main east, inby room neck 
No. 9. 

The shaft is 555 feet deep. System of mining, room and pillar, in panels. In 1916 
the coal was all undercut by chain breast machines and shot down with permissible 
explosive. Daily average output, over 4,000 tons; capacity, 5,000 tons. 

For description and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 123, pp. 33, 171. 

Bush. Bush No. 2 Mine. 

Analyses 30877 to 30881 (p. 30). Bituminous coal, Illinois field, from Bush No. 2 
mine, a shaft mine 1^ miles northwest of Bush, in sec. 31, T. 7 S., R. 1 £., on the 
Missouri Ptedfic R. R. Coal bed, Herrin, or No. 6; Carboniferous age, Carbondale 
formation. Bed is 7^ to 12 feet thick, and averages 10 feet. There are top, middle, 
and bottom benches; top bench left as roof in mine. "Blue band" about 1^ inches, 
18 to 30 inches above the coal. Lower coal is thickest where whole bed is thickest. 
Coal rather soft; "sulphur" streaks very conmion. Fault crosses main north entry 
just off bottom. About midway of bed is a persistent layer of "mother coal." Roof, 
gray shale 18 feet thick; floor, fire clay, which heaves a little. Cover at points of 
sampUng, 160 feet. The bed was sampled by G. H. Cady and C. R. Schroyer on 
August 27, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Bvsh No. t mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No 

Roof, gray shale. 

Coal '. 

Coal 

"Soot band" 

CoaL 

"BloebandV 

Coal 

Floor, gray clay. 

Thickness of bod 

ThidmeBs of coal sampled 



A. 


B. 


C. 


30877 


30878 


30879 


Ft. ill. 


Ft. in. 


J^. fn. 


al 3 


aZt 


• 1 or 


3 XJ 


8 a 

2J 


3 4 


1 8 


2 


1 9 


i-JI 


,"}» 


1 » 


7 7* 
6 8 


H 3 


8 5} 

6 10| 



D. 



Ft. In. 

•(T) 

5 2 

I 

1 10 
a2 
1 6 

6 8| 
6 81 



Section A (sample 30877) was cut at fiice of main northeast entry, 1,100 feet east 
and 400 feet north of shaft. Section B (sample 30878) was cut at end of northwest 
entry, 1,400 feet west and 300 feet north of shaft. Section G (sample 30879) was cut 
at face of 5 south entry, 2 west entry, south, 500 feet south, 1,000 feet west of shaft. 
Section D (sample 30880) was cut at end of main south entry, 1,200 feet south of shaft. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
30877 to 30880 is given under laboratory No. 30881. At time of sampling the daily 
output was 2,000 tons. 



a Not Indnded in sample. 



146 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 
Ghristofhbr. Old Ben No. 10 Minb. 



Analyses 29741 to 29747, and 29754 (p. 31). Bituminous coal, Illinois field, from 
Old Ben No. 10 mine, a shaft mine 1 mile north of Christopher, on the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy B. R. Coal bed, Herrin, or No. 6, in the Illinois Geological 
Survey; Carboniferous age ,Carbondale formation. The bed contains a "blue band" 
2 to 10 inches thick, and is 7 to 10 feet thick. No faults, but a few rolls or horae- 
backs, are encountered. Roof, average, 18 inches of roof coal and main roof shale; 
floor, hard, smooth fire clay; vertical depth from surface at point of sampling, 600 feet. 
The bed was sampled by W. B. Plank on February 13 to 15, 1918, as described below: 

_ m 

Sections of coal bed in No. 10 mine. 



Section 


A. 
29741 


B. 
20742 


C. 
29743 


D. 
29744 


' E. 
29745 


• F. 
2974« 


O. 


LaboratoiT No 


29754 






Roof, shale and coal. 

Top coal 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in, 
2 1 


Coal 


6 ** 


6 


4 


3 2 


9 


\i 


«4 


*' Mother ooalV 


«& 


Coal 








a 10 


"Mother ooalS' 








• 4 


"SulphurV...- 






'i 






Cool.. 






1 1 


^ 




al 1 


"Blue band'.' 


a^ 






o3i 


" Mother ooai!' 




3 ? 






Coal 


1 5 

? 1 




2 


2 ^ 




a2 


Bony coal 





9i 




Coal. 








Floor, fire day. 

Tnf cln>Ail!f of b«d 


6 
6 6 


8 3 
7 llf 


7 7 
7 4| 


6 8 
8 


6 6 
S 5 


10 4 


Thickness of coal sampled. . 


2 1 



o Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 29741) was cut from last crosscut, 12 northeast entry, at mouth 
of 1 east. Section B (sample 29742) was cut at 12 room neck, 5 west, 6 southwest. 
Section G (sample 29743) was cut at face of 19 room, 10 northwest, 100 feet from 10 
northwest. Section D (sample 29744) was cut from last crosscut, 3 northeast at mouth 
of 4 west. Section £ (sample 29745) was cut at face of 14 southweflt entry at 22 room. 
Section F (sample 29746) was cut at last crosscut, 11 west, 3 southeast, at 8 room. 
Section G (sample 29754) was cut at 18 room, 10 northwest, 60 feet from entry, top 
coal. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 29741 
to 29746 is given under laboratory No. 29747. 

System of mining, panel. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine and shot down with 
permissible explosives by four shot firers. Men employed numbered 430 underground 
and 75 above groimd. The tipple was of steel, having a reecreener and self-dumping 
cage. Noneof the output was shipped as run of mine. Sizes of coal: 6-inch lump and 
3 by 6 inch egg, prepared in tipple; Nos. 1, 2, and 3 nut, prepared in rescreeners. 
Haulage was by 17 electric locomotives. The coal was picked on picking tables by 10 
to 12 pickers. There was track capacity for 50 empty and 50 loaded railroad cais. 
Fifty per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work, and total recovery was about 
55 per cent. The unmined area comprised 600 acres, and the estimated Ufetime of the 
mine was 12 years. Thecapacityof the mine in 1918 was 4,000 tons a day; the actual 
average 3,000 tons, and the maTimum day's run 3,450 tons. 

Christopher. Old Ben No. 11 Mine. 

Analyses 30892 to 30896 (p. 31). Bituminous coal, Illinois field, from Old Ben 
No. 11 mine, a shaft mine 1} miles north of Christopher, in sec. 14, T. 6 8., R. 1 E., on 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. Coal bed, Herrin, or No. 6; CarbonilerouB 



HXINOIS: FRANKLIN COUNTY. 



147 



ge, Carbondale formaticHi. The thickness of the bed averages 10 feet 2 inches. 

rhere are three distinct benches — Slower one (below '*blue band "), middle, and upper; 

o^wer part of lower bench is very hard and thin-bedded. Cover at points of sampling, 

»90 feet. The bed was sampled by C. R. Schroyer on September 5, 1918, as described 

>eIow; ^ ^ 

iSHtums of coal bed in Old Ben No. 11 mine. 



lection 

l«aboratoiy No. 



Roof, gray day shale. 

Coal 

Coal 

Coal, dull and bright 

Coal,hri^t 

"Mother coal'' 

Coal 

"Bine band'' 

Clay, coaly 

"Mother coal" 

Coal 

Gray rock 

Coal 

Coal, hard thin 

Floor, sray clay. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 



A. 
30892 



Ft. in. 



3 8i 



1 10 



«1J 



a3 
1 10 



8 
7 







B 

30883 



Ft. in. 



1 7 

1 

1 11 

1 



.SI 



1 3» 

7 6 
6 11} 



C. 
30894 



Ft. in. 
4 6? 
2 11 



2 




12 U 
12 0} 



D. 
30896 



Ft. in. 
21-3 

3 ^ 

2 8 



n 



2 
3 

8 4 

8 2i 



a Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 30892) was cut at face of 2 north entry, 12 west entry, 1 northwest 
entry, 1,000 feet west, 3,500 feet north of main shaft. Section B (sample 30893) was 
cut at face of main west entry, 4,500 feet west of main shaft. Section C (sample 30894) 
was cut' at foce of 1 northeast entry, 2,700 feet east and 300 feet north of main shaft. 
Section D (sample 30895) was cut at foce of 1 southeast entry, 4 east panel, 29 room, 
2,000 feet east of main shaft. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face sample 30892 

to 30895 is given under laboratory No. 30896. At time of sampling the daily output 

was 4,500 tons. 

Herrin. No. 5 (Franklin Emert)_Mine. 

Analyses 30867 to 30871 (p. 31). Bituminous coal, Illinois field, from No. 5 
(Franklin Emery) mine, a shaft mine 4 miles north and 1 mile east of Herrin, in 
sec. 33, T. 7 S., R. 2 E., on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. Coal bed, Herrin, 
or No. 6; Carboniferous age, Carbondale formation. Thickness of bed, maximum, 
12 feet; minimum, 9 feet; average, 10 feet. The bed contains three well-defined 
benches; ''blue band," the only common impurity, varies from 18 to 36 inches 
above bottom of bed. Coal rather uniform, bright, and lustrous. Roof, gray, sandy 
Bhale, or coal, fairly constant, in places rolling; floor, fire or floor clay; cover at 
points of sampling, 340 feet. . The bed was sampled by G. H. Cady and C. R. Schroyer 
on August 28, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in No, 5 (Franklin Energy) mine. 



Section 


A. 
30867 


B. 

a08fi8 


C. 

90860 


D. 


Laboratory No 


80870 






Roof, gray sandy shale. 

Coal 


Ft. in. 
4 1 

7 

, I 

10 2 
10 f 


Ft. in. 
1 M 

1 10 

2 4 


Ft. in. 
4 4 


Ft. in. 
7 


"Mother ooai!' 




Coal 


2 9 




"Mother coal!' 




CoaL 






"Blue band'/ 


2 4 

9 6i 
9 5 




Coal 


1 6 

7 81 
7 8} 




Floor, gray day. 

TnijRkTies^ of bed , 


7 9 


Thickness of coal winpied. 


7 9 







o Not induded in sample. 



148 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-lftL9. 

Section A (sample 30867) was cut at face of 14 room, 7 northwest entiy, 2,300 fee£ 
west and 740 feet north of shaft. Section B (sample 30868) was cut in croescut between 
1 and 2 northeast entries, 1 ,115 feet north and 515 feet east of shaft. Section G (8amp!e 
30869) was cut at face of 3 room, 7 southeast entry, 1,400 feet east, and 515 feet bgq^ 
of shaft. Section D (sample 30870) was cut in stub of 7 wecrt^try, 4 south, cS west 
2,140 feet south and 1,540 feet west of shaft. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samite 
30867, 30868, 30869, and 30870 is given under laboratory No. 30871. At time of 
sampling daily output was 1 ,500 tons. 

Orient. Orient Mine. 

Analyses 30266, 30267, 30844, and 31050 (p. 31). Car samples of bituminous coal. 
Illinois field, from Orient mine, a shaft mine, 520 feet deep, at Orient, on a 6pu^conIlec^ 
ing with the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & Eastern Illinois, and Illinois 
Central Railroads. Coal bed, Herrin, or No. 6, of the nUnois Geological Survey, 
Carboniferous age, Carbondale formation. Two samples of coal, one (30266) represent- 
ing 15 cars and one (30267) 17 cars, were collected by W. B. Plank on Apnl 3 and 4, 
1918. One sample (30844) of coal, representing 32 cars, was collected by T. Fraser c£ 
July 22 to 24, 1918; one sample (31050) of coal, representing 159 cars, was collected by 
T. Fraser on September 13 to 23, 1918. At the time of sampling t^e average daily 
capacity was 5,0()0 tons and the maximum day's run 6,777 tons. Loaded ttwck 
capacity, 250 cars. 

For description and analyses of other samples of coal from this mine see Bureau 
of Mines Bull. 123, pp. 33, 173. 

Roy ALTON. North or No. 1 Mine. 

Analyses 30205 and 30207 (p. 32) . Bituminous coal , Illinois field , from North or No. 
1 mine, opened by two shafts 317 feet deep at Royalton, on the Missoiui Pacific R. R. 
Coal bed, Herrin, or No. 6, of the Illinois Geological Survey; Carboniferous age. 
Carbondale formation. Thickness of the bed averages from 7 to 11 feet; from 1^ to 2 
feet of roof coal is left in mining. Roof, gray shale; floor, fire clay; a ''blue band*" 
consisting of bony coal or shale and averaging from ^ inch to several inches thick 
lies about 18 inches above the floor and is rejected by miners. Two car samples, 
one (30205) representing 13 cars and one (30207) representing 22 cars of coal, were 
collected by W. B. Plank on March 26 and 27, 1918. 

System of mining, double-entry room and pillar. Prior to October 1, 1918, FF 
black powder was used for blasting down the coal in the rooms, but permiasible explo- 
sives with No. 6 detonators were used in the entries only; since that time permissible 
explosives have been installed and used entirely. Machines were used for under- 
cutting the coal. About 500 men were employed undeiground. Haulage was by 
electric locomotives and by mules. The daily average output of mine was 3,800 toiv 
and the maximum day's run 4,154 tons. In 1917, 555,565 tons of coal were mined ; the 
output for 1918 was 644,323 tons. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 123, pp. 33, 174. 

Sessbr. Sesser Coai; Co. No. 1 Mine. 

Analyses 26492 to 26497 and car samples 30206, 30208, 30485, and 30486 (p. 32). 
Bituminous coal, Illinois field, from No. 1 mine, a shaft mine 640 feet deep, 1} milee 
southeast of Sesser, on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. Coal bed, Herrin, or 
No. 6, of the Illinois Geological Survey; Carboniferous age, Carbondale formation- 
Bed is 7 to 8 feet thick, excluding top coal left on roof; roof, gray, dirty shale; floor, 
clay; cover at points of sampling, 650 feet. Car sample? representing 32 cazs were 



ILLINOIS: FRANKLIN COUNTY. 



149 



taken by W. B. Plank on about March 25/ 1919: sample 30206 represented 9 care; 
sample 30208 represented 5 cars; sample 30485 represented 10 care; sample 3048& 
represented 8 care. The bed was sampled by J. R. Fleming on October 27 and 28, 
1916, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in No. 1 mine. 



I^aboratocy No. 



Roo^ shale. 

Topooal 

Coal,lx1fiiit 

Bone ana "mother ooar' . 
Bone and "sulphur" 



"Mother ooal' 
Coal, bright... 



Bene. 

Coal, bright 

"Blue band'' 

Coal, bright, hard 

Floor, day. 

Tliickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled . 



A. 
26492 



FU 
6 



in. 

3 



al 

1 8 

7 
11 



B. 
26493 



Ft 
3 



in. 





1 8 
al 
7 
ali 

1 10 

7 4 
7 IJ 



C. 

26494 



Ft. 
a2 
5 



in. 
4 
1 



«i 



8 



3 1 

7 
6 10 



D. 
26495 



FL in. 
a2 
6 7 



alj 
1 6 

7 2} 
7 1 



E. 
26496 



Ft. in. 

a2 

2 1 



3 2 



1 7 

7 
6 10| 



o Not Induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 26492) was cut at face of main east entry, 4,400 feet east of shaft. 
Section B (sample 26493) wOb cut at face of 1 new south entry, off main east, 5,000 feet 
southeast of shaft. Section C (sample 26494) was cut in 2 room, 3,200 feet east 10° 
south of shaft. Section D (sample 26495) was cut at face of main north entry, 4,400 feet 
north of shaft. Section £ (sample 26496) was cut at face of 8 east entry, main north 
entry, 3,000 feet northeast of shaft. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
26492, 26493, 26494, 26495, and 26496 is given under laboratory No. 26497. 

The mine is operated on the panel system. In 1916 the coal was undercut by chain 

machines and by puncher machines, which were to be changed to electric-chain 

machines. Permissible explosive was used in blasting. Four sizes of coal were 

loaded. The daily output of the mine in 1916 was 3,000 tons, which equals the 

capacity. 

West Frankfort. Old !den No. 8 Mine. 

Analyses 30887 to 30890 (p. 33). Bituminous coal, Illinois field, from Old Ben No. 8 
mine, a shaft mine i mile south of West Frankfort, in sec. 25, T. 7 S., R. 2 £., on the 
nUnois Central, Chicago & Eastern Illinois, and Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railroads. Coal bed, Herrin, or No. 6; Carboniferous age, Carbondale formation. 
Maximum thickness of bed, 10 feet; minimum, 7 feet 6 inches; average, 9 feet; roof, 
poor, gray clay, top coal left; floor, gray clay shale ; cover at points of sampling, 464 feet. 
The bed was sampled by C. R. Schroyer on September 3, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Old Ben No. 8 mine. 



Section 

Labdratory No. 



Boot, shale. 
Coal.... 



Goal 

"MoCbirooal". 
Coal. 



Pyiite and ' ' mother ooal " . 
Goal. 



A. 
90887 



Ft in. 

al sr 



1 



4 IJ 



"Blue band". 
Coal. 



Floor, ciay-ahale. 

Tbiekness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled . 



1 10 



9 li 
8 



§ 



B. 

30888 



Ft in. 



1 
1 9 

7 4 
7 2| 



C. 

30889 



Ft. in. 



1 10 

2 4 

al 

1 9 

81 
71 



Not induded in sample. 



160 



ANALYSES OF GOAL, 191^1919. 



Section A (sample 30887) was cut in face of 4 east, north entry, 5,200 feet eut ssd 
4,700 feet north of shaft. Section B (sample 30888) vas cut at face of 6 west easiT, 
main south entry, 3,200 feet south and 3,600 feet west of shaft. Section C (sampie 
30880) vas cut at face of main south entry, 6,100 feet south of shaft. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 308^: 
30888, and 30889 is given under laboratory No. 30890. At time of sampling the duh 
output of the mine was 4,500 tons of coal. 

WsfiT Frankfort. Old Bbn No. 9 Minb. 

Analyses 30882 to 30886 (p. 33). Bituminous coal, Illinda field, from Old Ben No } 
mine, a shaft mine 1 mile east of West Frankfcnrt, in sec. 20, T. 7 S., R. 3 £., on the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. Coal bed, Heirin, or No. 6; CarboniferoiB ifsv 
Carbondale formation. Maximum thickness of bed is 9 feet 4 inches; minimnm 6 
feet; avenge, 9 feet. The coal is rathw hard and has a bright lusto*. Roof, gra; 
clay shale, top coal left; floor, clay and shale. The bed was sampled by C. R. Schrove 
on September 4, 1918, as described below: 

Section* of roal bed m Old Ben No. 9 mine. 



8«oUqd 


A. 

aoBO 


B. 

Moaa 


C. 
30684 


D. 


lAbofttory No. ..,...,..,.......,, ..... 


mss 






R«^yf|»^ 


Ft te. 
4 9) 


FL te. 
1 5 


FL te. 
4 91 


ft m. 
3 


(VmU 




.•.. 




"Blutbtnd**. 


•1* 


•u 




Pyrtt« 


•^ 


iSotX 


1 10 


1 4 
6 

7 S 

T H 


1 10 


3 i 


Coi^ 




noor. olfty and sh^to. 

TntekiM«»oflwd 


• 9 


9 
71 


< ^ 


ThloknnsotoQ^lsMipML 


6 S 







• Nol lnolud«i tnsampltL 

StH^ion A (sample 30$$2^ was cut at fiice of 4 west entry, main aoiith, 1,950 feet weet 
and 2 .300 feet siouth of main shaft. Section B (sample 30883) wm cut at lace of 1 eut 
entry, northeast. 2.$75 feet east and 700 feet north ol main abaft. Section faample 
30984^ was rut at face of main south entry, 4.S00 feet south and 300 feet eist of nuin 
ahaft. 8«HHivui P (aunple 30^^^ was cut in back north entry, 4,200 feet north aul dW 
feet east of shaft. 

The ultimate analysis ol a composite sample naade by conbining face samples 308S2, 
^t^Sv"^. 30884. ami 3l18v'^^bd^-en under laboratory No. m^ Attimeofsampliiigthe 
daily output wasjt 4.500 tooe^ 



DrQCcox. Pakaoisx Mem. 

Ana]>'9ee:^V|<i^ to:Mi^ \p. 33\ Bituminoc^ctML IQittaisfi^d, fraal^ndMemine, 
ai^iaft mine:^> f<^ deep. 3 miketftst of lhb)iK«n.oa the nfiBoisCeaCialR R. Coal 
b«H,)» llerriu. or N\^ 6. of the llhnobOiK4c«:ioftl Surrey; CaibonifiBraoBage,GuboBdile 
K>rtttatu>ii. lWdi$ 9 feet K» 10 feet t^iachee thick: leot.fnray. slaty shale* top ooal bong 
left up: rtvx^. umletvifty. 4 feet thkk; coverat poia&$o€saHplu^.3SOieet The bed 
w«» «am|4ed by J. R. Klenii:^ ob October 21. I$I«^ « 



* 



ILLINOIS: PEBEY COUNTY. 



151 



SeetioiM of coal bed 


in Paradise mint 


■ 






Ion 


A. 

26462 


B. 
26463 


C. 
26464 


26465 


E. 
26466 


F. 


oratory No 


26467 






•f, sbale. 

^op coal..... 


Ft, in. 
a2 6 
Streak. 


Ft, Hi. 

a2 

Streak. 


Ft. in. 
a2 6 


Ft, in, 
a3 


Ft. in. 
aZ 


Ft. in. 
a2 A 


Top parting . 




Top coal 


a9 


a9 
6 






Coal Oiri^t) 


2 5 


1 11 






Bone. 








^<Nvl, 1am*Tiftt«4 - , r 














al 

3 8 










Coal, with dull laminations 












Bone and " sulphur V 


al 




-11 






Coaly from duuto bright 




3 8 






Coaly dull and hltumSous txaids 






3 4 






"Ka.shy"«Mil 








all 

4 

al 




Coal with " mother ooalV partings 










1 5 


"BluebandV ..'. ". 




a4 
1 7 


a2 
1 11 


. «5 




Coal, hard 


2 4 




GoaLbnght 


1 ^ 


1 6 


3 6 


"Blue band" 


1 6 






1 10 


Coal, hard.... , 












a7 

10 2 
7 2 










or, clay. 
TAlrrnMS of bed 


9 8 
6 11 


9 
5 7 


9 9 

5 5§ 


9 6 
5 6 


9 3| 
6 9 


T^ickpess of coal »ainpi«d- . , 







Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 26462) was cut at room 26, 2 south, main east, 2,800 feet south of 
aft. Section B (sample 26463) was cut at face of 12 south entry, 2 plug east. Sec- 
m C (sample 26464) was cut at face of main east entry. Section D (sample 26465) 
10 cut at face of main north entry. Section £ (sample 26466) was cut at face of 7 
»t entry, main north entry, 4,400 feet north-northwest of shaft. Section F (sample 
467) was cut at face of 9 south entry, 5 west, main north, 3,600 feet northwest of shaft. 
The ultimate analyBis of a composite sample made by combining &u:e samples 
^2, 26463, 26464, 26465, 26466, and 26467 is shown under laboratory No. 26468. 
sample of top coal was also taken, for the proximate analysis of which see laboratory 
o. 26469. This sample wus cut at room 6, 10 south, main east. 
System of mining, room and pillar, in panels. In 1916 the coal was undercut by 
tiain mining machines and shot with black blasting powder. The coal was hand 
icked on a shaker screen and on the car. There were foiur loading tracks under the 
pple. Egg and nut sizes of coal were rescreened. The daily capacity of the mine 
1 1916 was 3,000 tons and the average daily output 2,500 tons. 

DuQuoiN. SECURrrY No. 1 Mine. 

Analyses 31033 to 31037 (p. 33). Bituminous coal, Illinois field, from No. 1 mine, 
shaft mine 3 miles south of Duquoin, in sec. 29, T. 6 S., R. 1 W. Goal bed, Herrin, 
r No. 6; Carboniferous age, Carbondale formation. Thickness of bed varies from 7 
&et to 9 feet; average, 7 feet 6 inches; roof, "soapstone"; floor, g^y, clay shale; cover 
•t points of sampling, 85 feet. The bed was sampled by G. R. Schroyer on September 
0, 1918, as described below: 

Sectums of coal bed in No. 1 mine. 



iection 

Uiboratory No. 



»t 



Koof,"soapstone.' 

Coal 

Coal 

Clay and "mother coal!' . . 

Cwi 

"Mother coal'/ 

Coal 

"BluebandV 

C<]al 

'wor, eray day shale. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 



A. 
31033 



Ft. in, 
al 
5 



.1 



a2 
1 



7 
6 



B 

31034 



Ft. in, 
a Coal. 
2 6 

. 9* 



6 6 
6 H 



C. 

31035 




J), 
31036 



Ft. 


in. 


al 


a) 


5 


2 

11 





'I* 



^ Not iudoded in sample. 



152 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 

Seddon A (sample 31033) was cut in 17 north entry, 4 west north, 2 room, 1,000 
feet north and 5,000 feet weet of shaft. Section B (sample 31034) was cut at face of 3 
south entry, 8 west south, ahout 4,000 feet south and 1,000 feet west of shaft. SectioB 
C (sample 31035) was cut at face of 8 room, south of 6 east south, 2,500 feet south and 
2,000 feet east of shaft. Section D (sample 31036) was cut at isLce of 18 south entry, 4 
west south, 3,200 feet west and 1,200 feet south of shaft. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 31033. 
31034, 31035, and 31036 is given under laboratory No. 31037. At time of sampling the 
daily production was 2,700 tons. 

SALINE COT7NT7. 

Grayson. Saune No. 6 Minb. 

Analyses 28448, 28449, and 28450 (p. 33). Bituminous coal, Illinois field, iram 
Saline No. 6, a shaft mine, 330 feet deep, at Grayson, 2) miles east of Eldorado, on 
the Louisville & Nashville and the Big Four Bailroads. Coal bed, Herrin, or No. 5, 
of the Illinois Geological Survey; Carboniferous age, Carbondale formation. The coal 
is rather firm and is 5 to 7 feet thick; roof, shale, characterized by numerous pyrite 
concretions, called ''nigger heads''; fioor, clay; cover at points of sampling, 350 feet. 
The bed was sampled by J. B. Fleming on May 15 and 16, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in No. 6 mine. 



Section 

Laboratofy No. 



A. 



B. 



Roof, slatf shale. 

Coel,brl£ht 

Bone and shale 

Bone and "solphur" 

Coal, hard, lastrous 

"Sulphur'* 

Coal, bright, hard 

Floor, day. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 



Ft. in, 

"i'i' 



Ft H 

3 2i 



5 1 



-J 

1 9 

Streak 
1 

5 
4 UJ 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 28448) was cut in face of 7 room, 8 east, 3 southwest entry. Sec- 
tion B (sample 28449) was cut in face of 5 west, 4 south w^t entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face sample? 
28448 and 28449 is given under laboratory No. 28450. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by chain 
machines, both shortwall and breast. FF black blasting powder was used, the ahots 
being fired by shot firers after miners had left the mine. Men employed numbered 
180 underground. Haulage was by loose-gate cars and by mules. The daily pro- 
duction at time of sampling averaged 1,150 tons. 

WTLLIABCSON COT7NTY. 

IIerrin. Pond Creek (Bobby Dix) Mine. 

Analyses 30872 to 30876 (p. 34). Bituminous coal, Illinois field, from Pond Creek 
(Bobby Dix) mine, a shaft mine 4 miles northeast of Herrin, in sec. 5, T. 8 S., R. 2 E., 
on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. Coal bed, Herrin, or No. 6 ; Carboniferous 
age, Carbondale formation. Bed averages 8^ feet in thickness; the maximum varia- 
tion is about 10 to 15 feet. The coal is rather soft and brittle, and there is much fiiK" 
coal. There are three benches, the top one being left as roof; ''blue band," maximum 
1} inches, 17 to 26 inches above bottom; thin seams of ''mother coal'' at sevenl 



njjNois: wnxiAMSOK county. 



153 



borizoBS in middle bench. Boof, 18 to 20 inches of top coal, above which is gray- 
shale ("soapstone*')} 1^ to 18 feet; floor, gray clay shale, generally level. The bed 
was sampled by C. B. Schroyer on August 29, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Pond Creek (Bobby Dix) mine. 



section 


A. 
30872 


B. 
30873 


C. 

30874 


D. 


[laboratory No 


30875 






BooL top ooal and "soapstone." 


Ft. in. 
2 
2 .* 
1I0» 


Ft in. 
«27 
3 8 


Ft. in. 
air 8 
5 4§ 


Ft. in. 
al 6 


Coel 


4 3} 


Pyiite i 


Coal 








"Mother ooal" 


1 4* 






Coal 






"Mother ooal" 






Coal 








"Blue band" 


1 I' 

Ol? 

9 10 
6 10 


1 5* 


. 2* 


Coal 


Coal 




'Hiiicfcaiffis of bed . . „ . 


? n 


8 6 
6 10 


8 




6 6 







a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 30872) was cut at face at end of main south entry, about 1,500 
feet south of shaft. Section B (sample 30873) was cut at face at end of main north 
entry, 1,500 feet north of shaft. Section C (sample 30874) was cut at face of 6 east 
entry, main south, 1,200 feet south and 1,800 feet east of shaft. Section D (sample 
30875) was cut at face of 5 southwest entry, 1,500 feet south and 1,000 feet west of shaft. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
30872, 30873, 30874, and 30875 is given under laboratory No. 30876. The daily ouQ)ut 
at time of sampling was 1,600 tons. 

Rbndville. No. 2 (Weaver) Mine. 

Analyses 30863 to 30866 (p. 34). Bituminous coal, Illinois field, from No. 2 
(Weaver) mine, a shaft mine 3} miles northwest of Herrin, in sec. 1, T. 8 S., R. 1 E., 
on the Illinois Central and Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroads. Coal bed, 
Herrin, or No. 6; Carboniferous age, Carbondale formation. Bed varies in thickness 
from 8 feet 7 inches to 10 feet 4 inches. There are three benches; the top bench, 
1 foot 4 inches to 2 feet of hardest coal, was left for roof. Roof, gray clay shale ; floor, 
clay shale; cover at point of sampling, 210 feet. The bed was sampled by C. R. 
Schroyer on August 31, 1918, as described below: 

Sections oj coal bed in No. t (Weaver) mine. 



Section 


A. 

SOHBS 


B. 

30854 


C. 


LalxxntotT No 


30865 






Roof, "soapstone." 


Ft. in. 

1 4 
5 8 


Ft. in. 

7 1 
a3 


Ft. in. 
al 6 


Coal 


3 6| 


"Mother ooal" ; 


Coal 






1 6* 


"Blue band" 


a2 
1 7 

8 9 
8 7 


a2 "or 

9 6^ 
7 1 


all 


Coal 


1 11 


Floor, eray clay shalo. 

TKickneifii of bfld , 


8 7 


Thf rJmeM of coal dampled 


6 11| 





a Not included in sample. 



164 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1M.&. 



>'l 



f \ 



Section A (sample 30863) was cut in back south entry , main south, 3,200 feet soutlr 
of shaft. Section B (sample 30864) was cut at face of 3 west entry, main north entn*. 
800 feet north and 3,600 feet west of shaft. Section C (sample 30865) was cut at face 
of 7 west south entry, 2,500 feet south and 1,000 feet west of shaft. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
30863, 30864, and 30865 is given under laboratory No. 30866. At time of sampling 
the daily output was 2,300 tons. 

Herrin. Rend No. 2 Mine. 

Analyses 28810 to 28815 (p. 34). Bituminous coal, Illinois field, from Rend No. 2 
mine, a shaft mine, 215 feet deep, 4^ miles northwest of Herrin, on the Illinois Cen- 
tral and Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroads. Coal bed, Herrin, or No. 6, of 
Illinois Geological Survey; Carboniferous age, Carbondale formation. Bed is 7 feet 6 
inches to 11 feet 6 inches thick, including about 2 feet of coal left up for roof. The 
bed was sampled by J. R. Fleming on June 7 to 8< 1917, as described below: 



Sections of coal bed in No. 


2 mine. 








Bection 


A. 

28810 


B. 
28811 


C. 

28812 


D. 
28813 


E. 


liAboratory No 


28814 






Boof.alia]e. 

TOD goaI. not flMnp'W 


Ft. in. 
02 
8 


Ft. in. 
ol 10 


FL in. 

a2 1 


Ft. In. 
a2 3 


Ft. H. 

• 1 i(H 


Cocu, banded.....'. 




CJoal 


8 


9 






Ooftl.hfird.tiriKM. 


4 4 






B<Hae. 


4 3* 


1*4 


«1 




CJoal 






GqaI^ withafBwraitiTm...... . . . 




4 11 




Kkml\ nltefatly lanilnatfld 








5 1 


B<Hae.. X 






a 

3 

a 

2 






Goal 










"Blue band" 


«1 
1 9 


2 V 


«1 

1 7 

02 

9 1 

e 6 


a2\ 


CJoal 


2 






FltM^clay. 

ThicknefM nf hAd ^ - - 


8 10 
6 9 


8 10 
6 lU 


9 4 
7 i 


9 2 


Thiflknmii of ooa) wftmnUnd , - 


7 1 







a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 28810) was cut at face of 10 east entry, main south. Section B 
(sample 28811) was cut at face of 7 room, 1 south stub, 8 west, main south. Section C 
(sample 28812) was cut at in 12 room, 3 west, main north. Section D (sample 28813) 
was cut at in 2 room, 2 north panel, 2 east, main north. Section E (sample 28814 • 
was cut in 26 room, 1 east, main south. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 28810, 
28811, 28812, 28812, and 28814, is given under laboratory No. 28815. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by chain ma- 
chines and shot down with FF black powder. All of the coal was screened. The 
daily capacity of the mine at time of sampling was 3,500 tons. 

IVDIAVA. 

GBEENE COUJSITY. 

Jasonville. Gilmour No. 7 Mine. 

Analyses 31295 to 31299 (p. 34). Bituminous coaJ, bituminous coal field, from Gil- 
mour No. 7 mine, a shaft mine 3 miles southwest of Jasonville, on the Southeasters 
R. R. , with Chicago, Indianapolis, and Louisville connections. Coal bed, No. 4 of the 
Indiana Geological Survey; Carboniferous (Allegheny) age, Carbondale formation. 
Bed is 4^ to 5} feet thick; dip, southwest; cleat, indistinct. Occasional rolls are 
encountered. There is a middle band of bony coal and carbonaceous shale. Root 
shale; no roof coal ; floor, hard, smooth clay; vertical depth to landing below entrance, 



INDIANA: GREENE COUNTY. 



156 



145 feet. The bed was sampled by T. Fraser and J. J. Bourquin on November 18, 1918, 
as described belov: 

■ 

Sectwns of coed bed in Gilmour No. 7 mine. 



Section. 

Laboratory No. 



A. 

31208 



Roof,aliaIe. 
'^Baah"coal. 



Coal. 

Shale. 

Coal.. 



FL 



Bone. 

Coal... . 

"Mother coal"..!.!!!!!!!! 

Goal 

Floor, hard clay. 

Thidmeasofbed 

Thickoeflfl olooal sampled. 



4 

4 



B. 
31297 



FL in. 

1 l4 
«1 
9 



1 6i 

i 1 



c. 

31295 



FL in. 
02 
1 8 
(6) 

a2 



2 3 

4 51 
4 ll 



D 
31296 



Ft. in. 
aa 

1 9 

(ft) 



•U 



2 3| 

4 4 
4 i 



a Not included in sample. 



6 "Sulphur" streak. 



Section A (sample 31298) was cut at face of 6 room, 2 south, 18 west, south. Section 
B (sample 31297) was cut at face of 17 east, south, opposite 4 south . Section C (sample 
31295) was cut 10 feet from face of 15 east, south. Section D (sample 31296) was cut 
at face of 6 room, 6 south, 15 east, south. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
31295, 31296, 31297, and 31298 is given under laboratory No. 31299. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine and 
shot down by the miners, at time of going off shift, with FFF black powder. Men 
employed numbered 80 undeiground and 10 above ground. The tipple was of steel. 
Self -dumping cages were used. The coal was screened through whiilring screens with 
If-inch holes. The lump coal was coked at the average rate of 750 tons daily. The 
coal was picked on car and on shaker screens by four men. Haulage was by two 
electric locomotives and by mules. The three loading tracks had capacity for 30 
empty and 30 loaded railroad cars. The lump coal on cars was of medium size and 
good appearance ; the screenings on cars appeared good . The entire output was mined 
from advance work, and the total recovery claimed was 75 per cent. The unmined 
area in 1918 was approximately 1,000 acres. The probable lifetime of the mine was 
5 years. The daily capacity was 1,000 tons, the daily average 750 tons, which was 
to be increased to 1,000 tons, and the maximum's day run 1,162 tons. 

Linton. Vandalia No. 24 Mine. 

Analyses 31278 to 31281 (p. 35). Bituminous coal, block coal field, from Vandalia 
No. 24 mine, a shaft mine 2 miles northwest of Linton, on the Pennsylvania R. R. 
Goal bed. No. 4 of the Indiana Geological Survey; Carboniferous (Allegheny) age, 
Carbondale formation. Bed is 3i to 5^ feet thick; dip, irregularly southwest; 
cleat, indistinct. Occasional rolls are encountered. Bony coal and irregular car- 
bonaceous shale constitute the middle band. Roof, shale and sandstone ; floor, hard, 
smooth clay. Vertical depth to landings below entrance, 120 feet. The bed was 
Kunpled by J. J. Bourquin and T. Eraser on November 21, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Vandalia No. t4 mine. 



Beetlon 

Laboratory No. 



Bool immediate, sandstone . 



Booecoal 

COBl 

Coal and middle band — 

OoBl 

Floor, hard dbeiy. ' 

^ekness of bed 

Thldoieas ol ooal san^tled. 



A. 
31279 


B. 

31278 


C. 
81280 


Ft. in. 

25 

1 6 


Ft. in. 
146 
1 4 

in 


Ft. in. 
20 

1 H 


6 




al 
2 2 

4 3i 
4 2 


2 7} 

4 2 
4 11 



* Not included in sample. 
55270'— 22 11 



r 



156 



ANALYSES OF COAL., 1916-1919. 



Section A (sample 31279) was cut at face of 4 north entry, 600 feet from main weet 
entry. Section B (sample 31278) was cut at face of 4 room, 5 east entry, 5 north 
entry. Section G (sample 31280) was cut in 9 north west entry, opposite 15 room. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
31278, 31279, and 31280 is given under laboratory No. 31281. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine and 
shot down by the miners with FF black powder, which was used also for brushing roof. 
Men employed numbered 65 undeiground and 8 aboveground. The tipple was of 
wood and the coal was dumped with self-^limiping cages. About 50 per cent of the 
production, was shipped as run of mine. Bar screens 12 feet long, having IJ-inch 
spaces, and bar screens with 4-inch openings were used. Haulage was by two electric 
locomotives and by mules. Two pickers were employed on the car. The three 
loading tracks had capacity for 30 empty and 30 loaded railroad cars. The lump coal 
on the cars was of medium size and had a good appearance ; the appearance of screen- 
ings on the cars was good. Ninety-five per cent of the coal was mined in advance 
work, and a recovery of 75 per cent was claimed. The probable area to be mined 
from this shaft was about 400 acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 3 to 4 
yeazB. The capacity was 800 tons a day, the average daUy output 450 tons, which was 
to be increased, and the maximum day's run 820 tons. 

KNOX OOTTNTY. 

South Bbucbville. Ouphant Johnson No. 1 Mine. 

AnalyMe 27660, 27661, and 27632 to 27636 (p. 35). Bituminous coal, Indiana field, 
from Oliphant Johnson No. 1 mine, a shaft mine 1^ miles south of BruceviUe, in 
T. 4 N., R. 9 W., on the Vandalia R. R. Coal bed, No. 5 of the Indiana Geological 
Suivey; Carboniferous (Allegheny) age, Carbondale formation. Bed is 5 feet 6 inches 
to 8 feet thick; roof, light-coloied shale containing ''niggezheads;" floor, carbona- 
ceous shale and fire day ; cover at points of sampling, 420 feet The bed was sampled 
by H. I. Smith and J. R. Fleming on February 14 and 15, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in No. 1 mine. 



S«etion 

Labontory No. 



Roof, shale. 

CoaL 

CoaL 

"Mother ooal" 

Coal 

Bone 

Ooal 

Bone and coal 

"8uli)htir" 

CoaL 

"Sulphor" 

Ooal 

"Solphor'' 

"MoOierooar' 

CoaL 

"Sulphur" 

Coal.rr. 

"Sulphur" 

Coal 

Bone ooal 

Coal 

Floor, day. 

Tniclrnew of bed 

Thloknees of ooal sampled. 



A. 

27682 



Ft. in. 

81 



8 
OS 

n 

a streak. 

Streak. 

1 H 

Streak. 



'3 



Streak 
1 k 



7 2} 
6 lOi 



B. 

27633 



Ft. in. 



44 

1 (4 




4 



Streak. 

6 

Streak. 



"3 



7 8 
6 10} 



0. 
27634 



Ft. in. 
1 3i 



as 



>3 



1 6i 
2* 



4| 

Streak. 
2 4 



7 
6 




6i 



27660 



Ft. in 


a 



1 



2* 



1 6 
Streak. 

Streak. 



1 5i 
i'ii 



7 U 
6 4 



B. 
37661 



Ft. in. 

1 8 



al 
7 



2 11 



5 IH 

6 le 



p. 

<• 27636 



Ft. in. 
3 Hi 



. 



3 8 

8 5) 



e Not included in sample. h Special sample, lower half of seam. 

Section A (sample 27632) was cut at face of 4 room, 4 southeast entry, 1,800 feet 
northeast of shaft. Section B (sample 27633) was cut at face of X4 room, I north entry, 
main east entry, 900 feet north of ^aft. Section G (sample 27634) was cut in face of 
2 west entry, straight south entry. Section D (sample 27660) was cut at face of 10 
room, 1 southeast entry, 1,200 feet from east shaft. Section E (sample 27661) was cut 
\ce of 8 room, 2 east entry, back north entry. ' Section F (sample 27636) was cut in 3 
kllhrough from face, 2 west entry, straight south entry, 1,500 feet southeast of shaft 



INDIANA : SULLIVAN COUNTY. 



157 



The ultimate analyms of a composite samplemade by oombining faoe samples 27632, 
27633, and 27634 is given under laboratory No. 27635. 

The mine is operated on a modified panel, room and pillar system. In 1917 the 
coal was undercut by shortwall machines and shot down with permissible explosive, 
fired with fuse and No. 6 detonator. Shots were fired by miners just before they 
went o£f shift. Men employed numbered 270. Haulage was by electric locomotive. 
The daily average production was 2,000 tons. 

PIKE COUNTY. 

WiNSLow. Ayrshire No. 7 Mine. 

Analyse 30843 and 30228 to 30231 (p. 35). Gar samples of bituminous coal, bitu- 
minous coal field, from Ayrshire No. 7 mine, a shaft mine at Winslow, on the Southern 
R. R. Coal bed No. 5 of the Indiana Greological Survey, Carboniferous (Allegheny) 
age, Carbondale formation. Car samples 30228, representing 10 cars; 30229, repre- 
Benting 10 cars; 30230, representing 10 can; 30231, representing 5 cars, and 30843 
were secured from the loading boom, while each car was being loaded, by T. Fraser 
on July 26, 1918. 

This mine at time of sampling was hoisting 1,200 to 1,700 tons of coal a day in mine 
can on self-dumping cages. The coal was sized by shaking screens making 4-inch 
lump, 4 by 2-inch lump, and 2-inch screenings. When the market demanded it, 
the 2-inch screenings were elevated to a jig washer for cleaning. At the time of 
sampling the cais were loaded with the 2-inch lump. The coal was loaded into the 
cars by a loading boom, with little breakage. Two slate pickers were employed on 
the loading boom. The impurities in the coal as loaded consisted of '^sulphur'' in 
the form of thin sheets or scales, occasional pieces of white roof shale, and some bony 
coal. 

The sample was secured by taking about 70 pounds of coal from the loading boom 

while each car was being loaded. In sampling large lumps a hammer was used, so 

that fragments might be secured from a large number of lumps, and small amounts 

were taken at frequent intervals. The sample was crushed on a dean concrete floor, 

mixed, and reduced. 

BXTLLLVAS OOTTNTY. 

DtiaoER. Vandaua No. 10 Mine. 

Analyses 31262 to 31267 (p. 36). Bituminous coal, bituminous coal &eidfBtMn 
Vandalia No. 10 mine, a shaft mine, 265 feet deep, 1} miles southwest of Dugger, on the 
Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed, No. 4, of the Indiana Geological Survey; Carbon- 
iferous (Allegheny) age, Carbondale formation. Bed is 4^ to 6 feet thick; dip, south- 
west, with deat. Occasional rolls are encountered. The bed contains a carbonaceous 
shale middle band ranging from a streak to unminable thickness. Roof, sandstone 
or gray shale; floor, hard, gray clayey shale; vertical depth from surface to points of 
sampling, 200 to 280 feet. The bed was sampled by J. J. Bourquin and T. Fraser on 
November 21, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Vandalia No. 10 mine. 



SQCtioO ........ 

lAbontory No. 



Roof, shale. 

''Rash" 

Coal,t>r!t^t 

"Mother ooal'^and "siilphiir 

Coal !7... 

''Motherooal" 

Coal 

"8Q^bur"orbonyooal 

Goal 

Middle band 

>_ Coal 

now,hazd day. 

Thickness of bed 

Thidmtfs of coal sampled .. . 



it 



A. 
81262 



Ft. in. 
• 2 
1 3 

3 

• 
11 
1 
1 Si 



4 11 
4 5i 



B. 
81206 




C. 
31264 



Ft. in. 
2 
1 6 



2 

4 
4 



1 
11* 



31265 



Ft. in. 



2 9i 



2 
1 8i 



ul 



5 
6 



31263 



Ft. in. 



2 



'3 






a Not indxided in sample. 



158 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



' Section A (sample 31262) was cut at face of mam north entry, opposite 15 east eatrv. 
Section B (sample 31266) Was cut at face of main north entry, opposite 15 east entry. 
Section C (sample 31264) was cut at face of 20 room, 14 north entry, 14 east, north entry. 
Section D (sample 31265) was cut opposite 14 room, 2 south entry, 3 east entry, 3 sou^ 
entry. Section £ (sample 31263) was cut at face of 3 west entry, 2 south entry, 500 
feet from 1 south entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 31262, 
31263, 31264, and 31265 is given under laboratory No. 31267. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine and shot 
down with FF black blasting powder by shot firers at 3 p.m., after the miners had left 
' fhe^ mine. Men employed numbered 180 undergroimd and 14 aboveground. The 
tipple wu^of wood with automatic dump cage. The proportion of output shipped as 
run of mine varied. Bar screens 12 feet long, with 1^-inch spaces, were used, and one- 
third of coal going to screens passed through. Haulage was by three electric locomo- 
tives and by mules. Two pickers were employed on the cars. The three loading tracks 
had a capacity for 40 empty and 40 loaded railroad cars. The coal on the cars consisted 
of laige lumps; the lumps and screenings on the car had an excellent appearance. Ail 
the coal was mined in advance work, and the recovery claimed was 75 per cent. The 
unmined area consisted of 500 or more acres. The probable lifetime of the mine was 
six years. The daily capacity was 1,200 tons, the average output 1,100 tons, and the 
maximum day's run 1,800 tons. The daily output was to be increased. 

For description and anal3rBes of other samples of this coal see Bureau of ^Gnes Boll. 
85, pp. 37, 199, and Bull. 123, pp. 37, 184. 

DuooEB. Vandalia No. 22 Mine. 

Analyses 31274 to 31277 (p. 36). Bitimiinous coal, bitominous coal field, from 
Vandalia No. 22 mine, a shaft mine 2^ miles southwest of Dugger, on the Pennsylvania 
R. R. Goal bed, No. 4, of the Indiana Geological Survey; Carboniferous (Allegheny) 
age, Carbondale formation. Bed is 2 to 6 feet thick; dip, in southwest direction. 
Hie bed contains a middle band of coal and shale. Rolls are present, but not frequent. 
Roof, shale of light color; floor, fairly smooth and hard clay; cover, at points of sam- 
pling, 290 to 300 feet. The bed was sampled by J. J. Bourquin and T. Fhuer on 
Novfti^ber 14, 1918, aa described below: 



Sections of coal bed in Vandalia No, 22 mine. 






SmUfliD ., ..., 


A. 
31275 


B. 

31270 


c. 


Laboratory No , 


31374 






Boor.Bhale. 

«'lU8ii"mft1« . 


Ft. in. 

. V 

Lens at 
aida. 
1 7 

8 lU 


Ft, *m, 
.......... 

1 

1 9 
• 1 

9 


Ft. <fc. 


Coal 


"flntehnr" 




Ootl. , , _ , 




Middle band or carbonaoeouB shale parting 


ai 


Ooal -t.x..." L i u . .r . . ^ . . 


1 3i 


FliKV. hard day. 

Twckuffw of bed , 


I'll 


TWflinMi«" of «M)al mmpUKl 







• Not included in sample. 



^ Not regular. 



Section A (sample 31275) was cut at face of main air course. Section B (sample 
81276) waa cut at face of 1 west entry, main north entry. Section G (sample 31274) 
WBfl cut at face of main south entry. 

The ultimate analysia of a composite sample made by combining face sample* 
81274y 31275, and S1276 ia given under laboiatory No. 31277. 

System of mining, room and pillar, in panels. At time of sampling the coal yru 
rat by marhiiw and shot down at any time by the mine boss with penniasible exjUf^ 



INDIANA: StTLLTVAN COUNTY. 



159 



Bive, which was used also to brush loof or floor. Men employed numbered 16 under- 
ground and 4 abov^round. The tipple was of wood; a temporary car dump was 
employed. Haulage was by mules. One picker was employed on the can. The 
two loading tracks had capacity for 20 empty and for many loaded railroad cars. 
The lump coal on cars consisted of medium lumps and had a good appearance. The 
entire production of coal was taken out in advance woik. The unmined area con- 
sisted of 1,000 acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 10 yean. /The capacity 
of the mine was 30 tons a day, the daily average 30 tons, and the maximum day's run 
50 toDB. The daily output was to be increased shortly to 200 tons and was eventually 
to reach 800 tons. The mine had been abandoned some yean before and was being 
reopened. The entries at time of sampling were being driven through low coal to 
develop adjacent higher and better coal. 

DvooER. Atrdale No. 27 Mine. 

Analyses 31290 to 31294 (p. 36). Bituminous coal, bituminous coal field, from 
Ayrdale No. 27 mine, a shaft mine 3 miles north of Dugger, on the Southeastern K. R., 
with Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville connections. Goal bed. No. 4, of the Indiana 
Geological Survey; Carboniferous (Allegheny) age, Garbondale formation. Bed is 4 
to 5} feet thick; dip, varjring; cleat, indistinct. Occasional rolls are encountered. 
A middle band of carbonaceous shale is present. Roof, gray shale, no roof coal; 
floor, hard, smooth clay; cover at points of sampling, 190 to 200 feet. The bed was 
sampled by T. Fraser and J. J. Bourquin on November 19, 1918, as described below: 



Sections of coal bed in 


AyrdaU No. tl mine. 






Section 


A. 
31290 


B. 
31291 


C. 
31292 


D. 


liAboratoiT No. 


31293 






Roof, shale. 

CVjdl , - 


Ft. in. 

1 m 

a 
a 

a 

i 

a 

1 llf 

4 4i 

4 3 


Ft. in. 

as 
Streak. 
1 

4 2i 
3 11} 


Ft. in. 
2 

2 4 


Ft. in. 
2 4 


OwNmnoiKW^ shale 


a3 


Coal 


2 4 


Shale 




Coal.,.. 






« Sulnhnr " 






CoftI ... 






Floor, hard day. 

iliif^^^ n 1>9<1 , 


4 4 

4 3J 


4 10 


ThifltaM^ of ooal sampled 


4 8 







a Not indnded in sample. 

Section A (sample 31290) was cut 50 feet from 2 east entry, 5 northeast entry. Sec- 
tion B (sample 31291) was cut 50 feet from 3 south entry, 3 southeast entry. Section 
(sample 31292) was cut at face of 23 room, 5 north entry, east. Section D (sample 
31293) was cut at face of 5 room, 1 west entry, 1 north entry, 3 east, north entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 31290, 
31291 » 31292, and 31293 is given under laboratory No. 31294. 

System of mining zoom and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine and shot 
down with FF black powder by miners at 3 p. m., FF black powder being used for 
brushing roof or floor. Men employed numbered 150 undeiground and 14 above- 
gmund. The tipple was of wood with self-dumping cage. About 60 per cent of the 
coal was shipx)ed as run of mine. The coal was screened over shaking screens with 
holes li inches, 2) inches, and 4 inches in diameter. The lump coal was coked at the 
average daily rate of 350 tons. Haulage was by mules and by two electric locomotives. 
Two pickers were employed on the cars. The four loading tracks had capacity for 40 
empty and 40 loaded railroad cars. The appearance of the coal, medium lumps, and of 
the screenings on the cars was good. The entire production was mined in advance 
work, and the total zeeovery claimed was 75 per cent. The unmined area conssted of 



160 



AKALYSES OF CX)AL,, 1916-1919. 



about 500 aciee. The eBtimated lifetime of the mine was 6 years. The capacity of tlie 
mine was 1,200 tons a day, the average daily production 700 tons, and the maTinnim 
day's run 1,700 tons. The output was to be doubled. 

Sullivan. VandaliX No. 17 Mine. 

Analyses 31268 to 31273 (p. 37). Bituminous coal, bituminous coal field, fiom Van- 
dalia No. 17 mine, a shaft mine, 140 feet deep, 5 miles east of Sullivan, on the Peiiiia]^!- 
vania R. R. Goal bed. No. 6 of the Indiana Geological Survey ; Carboniferoua (Alle- 
gheny) age; Garbondale formation. Bed is 5 to 6 feet thick and dips irr^ularly in 
southwest direction, with cleat running north and south . Characteristic ' ' clay veins '^ 
are occasionally encountered. Two thin shale partings ocqur near the center and one 
near the bottom of the coal. Roof, shale, good quality; floor, smooth, soft clay; cover 
at points of sampling, 140 feet. The bed was sampled by T. Fraser and J. J. Bourquin 
on November 15, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Vcmdalia No. 17 mine. 



Section 

Labontory number 

Roof, shale. 

Coal and "sulphur" 

Coal 

Shale and ''sulphur" 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

Coal, shale and " sulphur ' ' 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

Bottom ooal 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 

ThickneBs of coal sampled . 



A. 
31268 



Ft. in. 

1 

1 

• 1 
1 1 

• 1 

4 
4i 



5 

4 



2 

9 



B. 
31270 



Ft. In. 

Streak. 
1 

a 



H 



a 

2 ^ 

I 
8 



c. 

31200 



Ft. in. 



1 1 
Streak. 

7 

1 

2 1 

I' 
5 3 

5 ^ 



D. 
31271 



Ft, in. 



al 

8 

aS 

2 

a3 



5 4 

4 7 



E. 
31272 



Ft. te. 

ii' 



.1 

5 

• I 

2 

al 

lOi 



5 IJ 
4 11 



o Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 31268) was cut at face of 1 room, 5 north, east, 1,000 feet from shaft 
bottom. Section B (sample 31270) was cut at face of 13 room, 4 south, east entry. 

Section C (sample 31269) was cut at face of 9 room , 2 south, west. Section D (sample 
31271 ) was cut opposite 13 room, at face of 3 north, east. Section £ (sample 31272) was 
cut in face, 2 west, 2 north, west. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 3126S, 
31269, 31270, 31271, and 31272 is given under laboratory No. 31273. 

System of mining room and pillar in panels. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine 
and shot down by miners, at time of leaving the mine, with FF black blastiiig powder. 
The tipple was of steel, and the coal was dumped from automatic dump cages to ft 
conveyor, then to picking tables, where two men removed the impurities, then to 
bar screens 12 feet long with l}*inch opemngs. Haulage was by two electric loco- 
motives and by mules. The three loading tracks had capacity for 50 CTipty and 
many loaded railroad cars. The lump coal on cars was in medium lumps and had a 
good appearance. All the coal was taken out in advance work, and a total recovery 
of 75 per cent was claimed. The probable area to be mined from this opening wu 
1,500 or more acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 15 years. The daily 
capacity of the mine was 2,000 tons, the daily average production 900 tons, and the 
maximum day's run 1,200 tons. The daily output was to be increased. 

Sullivan. Vandalia No. 28 Mine. 

Analyses 31282 to 31285 (p. 37). Bituminous coal, bituminous coal field, from 
YandaUa No. 28 mine, a shaft mine 7 miles east of Sullivan, on the Chicago, Terre 
Haute A Southeastern R. R., with Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville c^mnectiooB* 



mvtAJstJi: VERMILIOH cottkt;. 



161 



Coal bed, No. 4 of the Indiana Geological Survey; Carbonileroufl (Allegheny) age; 
Garbondale formation. Bed is 5 to 6^ feet thick. The dip variee, running southwest, 
with indistinct cleat. Occasional roUs are encountered. Roof, shaly sandstone, with 
no roof coal; floor, smooth hard clay; cover at points of sampling, 211 feet. The bed 
was sampled by J. J. Bourquin and T. Eraser on November 20, 1918, as described 
below: 

Sections of coal bed in Vanckilia No. i8 mine. 



Sectiao 


A. 
31283 


B. 
81284 


c. 




81282 






Boor, sandy shale. 


Ft. in. 
I 
8 

•it 

Streak. 
2 4 

6 1 
S 11} 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Coal 


2 11} 
9 
2 0» 


8 1 




a4 


Coal 


2 7 


«<y<itii4Teoai"a?id""alp>«tir" 




Coal 




Ploqr. smooth hard day. 

'rili(±IU!9"0flml , -T- 





Tht^^TifiiHi ^ qqaI sampled 


5 8 







a Not Indnded in sample. 

Section A (sample 31283) was^cut 100 feet north of air shaft. Section B (sample 
31284) was cut at face of 1 east entry, south, 60 feet from air shaft. Section G (sample 
31282) was cut 100 feet south of air shaft. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
31282, 31283, and 31284 is given under laboratory No. 31285. 

In 1918 this mine was new; it was to be operated on the room-and-pillar system. 
Permissible explosive was used for shooting the coal. Men employed numbered 19 
underground and 5 aboveground. The coal was being hoisted from air shaft, and a 
steel tipple was being erected. No screens had been installed. Haulage was by 
mules. There was one temporary loading track. The unmined area consisted of 
approximately 2,000 acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 20 years. A 
lai^e part of the coal was to be coked. The daily average production at time of 
sampling was 50 tons, .which was to be increased to 2,000 tons. 

VEKHILION COTTirrY. 

Clinton. Clinton No. 4 or Crown Hill No. 4 Minb. 

Analyses 31257 to 31261 (p. 37). Bituminous coal, bituminous coal field, from 
Clinton or Crown Hill No. 4 mine, a shaft mine 3} miles southwest of Clinton, on the 
Chicago & EUistem Illinois R. R. Coal bed. No. 4 of the Indiana Geological Survey; 
Carboniferous (Allegheny) age; Carbondale formation. Bed is 3 to 5) feet thick; 
dip, varying; cleat, indistinct. Faults and rolls are encountered. Roof, good shale; 
floor, hard, smooth clay; cover at points of sampling, 205 feet. The bed was sampled 
by T. Fraser on November 25, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Clinton No. 4 mine. 



Section 

I^kbontory No. 



Boof, shale. 
Coal... 
Bone... 
Goal. 



A. 
312S8 



Bone and ahale parting . 
Shale, bone, and ooaL. . 
Coal 



Floor, hard day. 
lliicknenofbed. 



Thkfe3ieB8 of ooal sampled. 



aNot indnded in sample 



Ft. 
1 



in. 

la 



2 4* 



6 
5 



B. 
31267 



Ft. in. 

1 7 

1 

11 



• 4 
2 1 



5 
4 





8 



C. 
312S9 



Ft. in. 
2 6 

•1* 
2 4 



4 lli 
4 10 



D. 
31260 



Ft. in. 
2 



ol 
i **6 



4 
4 



1 





162 



AITALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1«19. 



Section A (sample 31296) was cut at face of 1 room, 15 south entry, 16 vest entry. 
Section B (sample 31257) was ciit at face of 8 south entry. Section G (sample 31259) 
was cut at face of 3 east entry, 8 south entry. Section D (sample 31260) wsa cut at 
face of 7 room, 1 north entry, main west entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining fiice samplea 
31257, 21258, 31259, and 31260 is given under laboratory No. 31261. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine and shot 
down with black powder by two shot firers at 3.15 p. m., after the miners had left 
the mine; black powder was used for brushing roof and floor. Men employed num- 
bered 130 underground and 14 above ground. The tipple was of steel, and self-dump- 
ing cages were used. Haulage was by eight electric locomotives. The coal wis 
screened in shaking screens with holes 1^, 2 J, and 4 inches in diameter. All the coal 
was taken out in advance work, and a recovery of 75 per cent was claimed. The 
capacity of the mine was 1,000 tons a day, the daily average production 800 tons, and 
the maximum day's run 1,000 tons. 



ViaO COUNTY. 

Coal Blufp. Viqo 74 Mike. 

Analyses 26118 to 26124 (p. 37). Bituminous coal, bituminous coal field, from 
Vigo 74 mine, a shaft mine 1 mile northwest of Coal Bluff, on the Big Four R. R. 
Coal bed, Minshall; Carboniferous (All^^eny) age, Carbondale formatbn. Bed 10 
4 to 5 feet thick; dip, southwest; roof, shale; floor, soft clay; cover at points of sam- 
pling, 140 to 180 feet. The bed was sampled by H. I. Smith on September 2, 1916, 
as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in No. 74 mine. 



Section 

LabcMratory No. . 



Roof, shale. 

Bony coal and " sulphur ", 

Coal 

Coal with ''sulphur ' ' streaks . . . 

Coal 

« "Sulphur" and "mother ooal". 

Coal 

Bony coal 

Coal 

Bony coal , 

Coal 



Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed. 



Thickness of coal sampled. 



A. 

26118 



Ft. in. 



a2 2i 




B. 
26110 



Ft. in. 



a2\ 



2 



al] 



2 U 
• 2 



t it 



C. 

26120 



Ft. in. 
02 



■1 



2 
a2 



\ a 



D. 
26121 



^t. in. 
a2 
2 6i 






5 
4 81 



E. 
26122 



Ft. in. 
2 81 



2 1 



}^?t 



F. 
26123 



Ft. <•. 

'i'n 



•it 

"? 
•1 

2 1 

4 H 

4 .4 



a Not Included in sample. 

Section A (sample 26118) was cut at face of 12 east south entry, near mouth of 14 
room. Section B (sample 26119) was cut at face of 6 room, 100 feet inby 14 west 
south entry. Section C (sample 26120) was cut 50 feet inby 16 east entry, on main 
south entry. Section D (sample 26121) was cut at face of 34 room, 7 west entry, 200 
feet from entry. Section £ (sample 26122) was cut at 2 breakthrough, 6 room, 3 
north entry, 7 west entry. Section F (sample 26123) was cut at face of 12 east soath 
entry, near mouth of 14 room (same as section A). 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face sampleB 
26119, 26120, 26121, 26122, and 26123 is given under laboratory No. 26124. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1916 the coal was shot from the solid, ba^' 
some time after the Samples were taken mining machines were installed. Black 
blasting powder was used to shoot down the coal. The tipple was of wood. At time 



INDIANA: VIGO COUNTY. 



163 



of sampling the output was 400 tons a day, all of it from advance' workings. Bar screens 
with l^inch spaces were used. Haulage was by mules and main and tail rope. The 
coal was picked on cars by two men. The two loading tracks had capacity for 25 empty 
and 50 loaded railroad cars. The appearance of the coal on the cars was very blocky 
and bright. The estimated lifetime of the mine in 1916 was 10 years. The capacity 
of the mine was 1,200 tons a day, and the Tnaximum day's mn over 1,100 tons. 

'Liggett. Vandalia No. 82 Mike (No. 3 Bed). 

Analyses 31286 to 31289 (p. 37). Bituminous coal, bituminous coal field, from 
Vandalia No. 82 mine, ashaft znine,467 feet deep, at Liggett, 5 miles west of Terre Haute. 
Two beds are worked, No. 3 and No. 5, but No. 3 only wasinvestigatod. Coal bed ,Garbon- 
iferous ( Allegiheny) age, Garbondale formation. Bed is 5 feet 4 inches to 6 feet 6 inches 
thick; dip, irregular. Occasional faults are encountered. There is a middle band 
of shale, coal, and ' ' sulphur, ' ' also numerous streaks of ' * sulphur. " Jloof , shale; floor, 
smooth, hard clay; cover at points of sampling, 460 feet. No. 3 bed was sampled by 
J. J. Bourquin and T. Fraser on November 22, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Vandalia No. 82 mine. 



SBCtkn. ....................... . 

Laboratory No , 

Roof, aandstone. 

dial 

"Solplnir'' 

Coal.. 

Carbonaoeoiis shale 

Coal 

«8iili^biir" 

Coal.\T 

"Solphnr" 

Coal.VTT: 

Shale and *'8i]lphnr" 

Coal 

Shale and coal 

Coal 

now. haid day. • 

Thickness of bed 

Thi^lm^>M ftf floftl WRinpkMl 



A. 
31286 



Ft. in. 

Streak. 
7 

Streak. 
7 



i 



1 

al 11 

1 2 



B. 
31288 



Ft. in. 

.3 



Streak. 

lOi 

Streak. 



1 



al 
1 9 

6 4 
5 4 



C. 

31287 



Ft. in. 

Streak. 
2 2} 



si 



al 2 
1 71 

4 lo} 



a Not Induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 31286) was cut at face of 4 south entry. Section B (sample 31288) 
was cut at face of 2 west entry, 900 feet from shaft. Section C (sample 31287) was cut 
at face of main east entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by cotnbining face samples 31286, 
31287, and 31288 is given under laboratory No. 31289. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine and shot 
down with permissible explosive by shot firers at any time during the shift. Per- 
missible explosive and dynamite were used for brushing roof or floor. Men employed 
numbered 8 undeiground and 3 aboveground. The temporary tipple was of wood. 
All of the coal was shipped as run of mine. At time of sampling no steps had been 
taken toward preparing coal for the market. Haulage was by mules. The entire 
production was mined in the advance work and a recovery of 75 per cent was claimed. 
The mine was just being developed. 

For description and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines BulL 
123, pp. 38, 187. 



164 AISTALYSES OF GOAL, m6-1919. 

KAHSAS. 
OHB&OKBE COT7KTY. 

Stons City. Mayer No. 9 Minx. 

Analyses 27222 to 27225 (p. 38). Bituminous coal, Kansas field, from Mayer No. 9 
mine, ashaf tmine, 155 feet deep, about } mUe northeastof Stone City andS^milefiiiortb- 
east of West Mineral, on a spur off the main line of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas R. R. 
Coal bed, Weir-Pittsburg, known locally as Cherokee; Carboniferous age (Pennsyl- 
vanian), Cherokee shale. Thickness of bed averages about 3} feet. Roof, hard blae 
shale; floor, pyritiferous fire day, locally called ''blackjack"; cover at points of sam- 
pling, 155 feet. The bed was sampled by J. J. Forbes and J. F. Davies on December 
28, 1916, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Mayer No. 9 mine. 



Section. 

Laboratory No 

Roof, hard blue shale. 

•'Rash" 

Coal 

Slate band 

Coal 

"Mother coal" 

CoaL 

«Sulphur"band 

CoaL 

Floor."blackjack". 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled 



A. 
27222 



Ft. in. 
1 
11 

i 
4 

1 i» 



a 

3 



7 
7 



B. 
27223 



Ft. in. 



.^ 
.1 

2 .78 

3 .68 
3 .68 



C. 
27224 



Ft. in. 



.85 
.1 

2 .73 

8 .68 

3 .68 



D. 
27225 



Ft. »•• 
1 

U 
i 



1 1 

f 

1 1 



3 
3 



Section A (sample 27222) was cut at face of 1 east entry, north entry. Section B 
sample (27223) was cut in last crosscut between straight and back north entries. Sec- 
tion ^sample 27224) was cut in last crosscut betweei^ straight and back north 
entries. Section D (sample 27225) was cut at 1 east entry, north entry. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1916, FF black powder was used in blasting 
down the coal, and 40 per cent dynamite was used in cutting through horsebacks; 
shooting off the solid was the method employed exclusively. The coal was undercut 
with mining machines. About 73 men were employed at the mine. The coal was 
conveyed to the shaft bottom by mules. At time of sampling the daily production 
was 300 tons. 

CBAWFOBD COUNTY. 

Edison. Weab No. 21 Mine. 

.uialyses 30293 to 30295 (p.38). Bituminous coal, Kansas field, from Wear No. 21 
mine, a shaft mine in SW. i of sec. 13, T. 29 S., R. 24 £., about 2 miles east of Badley 
and } mile north of Edison, havingndlroad connections with the Santa Fe,Misouri 
Pacific, and St. Louis A San Francisco Railroads. Coal bed, Weir-Pittsbuig, locally 
known as the Cherokee; av^erage thickness, about 3 feet 4 inches of clean coal. B^ 
poor, a rather soft gray limy shale, brushed on entries to a height of about 6 feet; 
floor, fire clay, 8 feet thick; cover at points of sampling, 200 feet. 



-^ A. 



KENTUCKY: CHRISTIAN COUNTY. 



165 



The bed was sampled by J. J. Rutledge on March 8, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Wear No, tl mine. 



Section 

lAborafcory No. 

Roof, shale. 

CoaL 

"Solphiir" 

Cottl...7. 

•'Sulphur" 

CoaL 

Floor, lire day. 

ThiGkneasofbed 

Thickness U ooal sampled 




B. 
30294 




a Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 30293) was cut at face of 1 room, 1 stub north, 5 west, main east. 
Section B (sample 30294) was cut at face of 1 roran, 1 stub north, 5 west, 1 north, main 
east. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
30293 and 30294 is given under laboratory No. 30295. 

System of mining, room and pillar, with double entry. In 1918 the coal was blasted 
off the solid by FF black blasting powder; dynamite was used for brushing the roof. 
All shots were fired by two shot fireis after all other persons had left the mine. The 
tipple had a wood frame covered with corrugated iron. None of the coal was shipped 
as run of mine. Sizes of coal, lump, nut, and slack. There was track capacity for 30 
empty and 30 loaded railroad cars. Haulage was by mules. The unmined area com- 
prised 160 acres. The probable lifetime of the mine was four years. The capacit} of 
the mine at time of sampling was 800 tons a day, and the average daily output was 
equal to the capacity. 

KEHTUCKT. 
CHRISTIAN COUNTY. 

Makninoton. Wiluahs Mine. 

Analyses 70506 to 70508 (p. 38), mine samples. Analyses 70509 to 70511 (p. 39), 
tipple samples. Bituminous coal, western Kentucky field, from Williams mine, a 
slope mine at Mannington, Ky . , on the Louisville & Nash v'ille R. R. Coal bed known 
locally as the Empire ; Carboniferous age, Potts ville group. Bed is about 4 feet thick. 
The roof and floor are shale, which readily parts from the coal. The mine was sam- 
pled by N. H. Snyder on January 28, 1919, as described below: 



Sections of coal bed in Williams Mine, 



70508 



SecttoQ 

Laboratory No. 



Roof. Shale. 
Bone. 



Shale. 
Bone. 



A. 
70506 



Ft. 



in. 
3} 



Shale parting 

Coal 

Shale parting 

Coal 

Shale parthig 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

Total thidmess of bed. 
Bed sampled 



1 
2 



4 
4 



1l 
al 

I 



B. 

70507 



Ft. in. 



8 

k 

2 4 

9» 

3 HI 
3 H 



Ft. in. 
ol 
2} 
«1 

• « 

10 



1 



s ,« 



> Not induded in sample. 



166 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



Section A (sample 70606) was cut from face of 1 room, 2 north entry, 80 feetfrom entiy. 
Section B (sample 70507) was cut from face of 4 room, 2 west entry, 110 feet from entry. 
Section C (sample 70508) was cut from face of 1 south entry. 

System of mining, room and pillar. At time of sampling the coal was shot from the 
solid by FF blasting powder. Men employed numbered 42 underground and 5 cm 
surface. The coal was shipped as run of mine. Haulage was done by mules in the mine 
and by steam on the slope. The coal was picked on cars by two pickers. At time of 
sampling the mine had been in operation one year. The capacity of the mine was 200 
tons, wMch were being shipped daily. In September, 1919, the capacity of the mine 
was 300 tons a day, at which time tiiere were 55 men underground and 7 on suzfaoe. 
A new tipple was built. 

Three tipple samples (70509, 70510, and 70511) were taken at the Williams mine by 
N. H. Snyder on January 23 to 27, 1919. The coal was loaded directly into the railroad 
cars from a wooden tipple. Samples were accumulated by taking successive large 
shovelfuls of coal from the railroad cars at intervals after the mine -cans had been 
dumped and the two pickers had cleaned the coal. Samples were accumulated in a 
galvanized-iron bucket and carried to a steel plate 4 by 5 feet, with two sides flanged, 
and there crushed with a tamper and sledge. Crushing, mixing, and quartering were 
done by the standard method. Three 1,000-pound samples were taken in this way and 
reduced to 3-pound mailing-can size for laboratory. 

I4ETGHEB COUNTY. 

Fleming. Acme Mine. 

Analyses 29845 to 29847 (p. 39). Bituminous coal, eastern Kentucky field, from 
Acme, a drift mine, 1 mile west of Fleming, on the Louisville & Nashville R. R. Coal 
bed, Elkhom; Carboniferous age, Pottsville group. Small rolls or horsebacks are 
encountered, but are not large enough to present much trouble in mining. In this 
district the bed lies about 1,500 feet above sea level. Bed is 5 to 7 feet thick. Dip 
runs northwest, with cleat. Roof, hard smooth shale; floor, smooth hard shale; con- 
ditions of roof and floor, very good. The bed was sampled by J. M. Webb and J. J. 
Bourquin on January 16, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Acme mine. 



Section 

Labontory No. 



Roof, hard smooth black shale. 
Coal 



Bone 

If aok and coal 

CoaL 

Floor, bard smooth shiUe. 



Tlilckiieas of bed t. 

* tblc 



ickness of ooal sampled. 




Section A (sample 29845) was taken at 16 room neck, 20 feet from face of 3 entry. 
Section B (sample 29846) was taken 20 feet from face of 2 entry, 10 feet outby 15 room. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 29845 
and 29846 is given under laboratory No. 29847. 

System of mining, room and pillar. No mining machines were used, and ail the ooal 
was blasted off the solid and shot down with FFF black powder by two shot firsn 
after the miners left at 11.00 a. m. and in the evening. A little permissible explosive 
was used to brush the roof or floor. Men employed numbered 45 underground and 
15 above ground. The coal was dumped over a wooden tipple and down a chute 




KBKTUOKY: WEBSTER COUNTY, 



167 



212 feet long, lined with sheet iron, with deflecton every 10 feet. All the coal was 
shipped as run of mine/ There were no pickers. The coal consisted of medium- 
sized lumps and was fairly bright. In 1918 all the coal was taken out in the 
advance work. The unmined area consisted of 50 acres. The estimated lifetime of 
the mine was 8 years. Haulage was by mules. There was one loading track, with 
capacity for 10 empty and 12 loaded railroad cars. The capacity of the mine in 1917 
waa 350 tons a day, the average daily output 300 tons, and the maximum day's run 

350 tons. 

WEBS^nSB COT717TT. 

Clay. West Kentucky No. 7 Mine. 

Analyses 30747 to 30751 (p. 39): Bituminous coal, Western Kentucky field, from 
West Kentucky No. 7 mine, a shaft mine 1 mile west of Clay, on the Illinois Central 
and Louisville A Nashville Railroads. Coal bed, No. 12 of the Kentucky Geological 
Survey; Carboniferous age, Pottsville group. Bed varies from 6 feet 6 inches to 8 
feet in thickness and dips 3^ north, north 17^ east. Very few rolls or horsebacks 
are encountered. Biain roof, "soapstone" or shale 4 or more feet thick, which 
disintegrates readily where exposed to air; top coal, from 1 foot to 2 feet thick, is 
left in place; floor, hard, smooth fire day. The bed was sampled by W. B. Plank on 
June 17, 1918, as described below: 

Sectwfu of coal bed in Weat Kentucky JVb. 7 mine. 



Sectkm. 

lAbonttcry No. 



A. 

30749 



Rooff "soapstane" and ooal. . . 

'*Uo&ii'ooai*\V//".'.'.'.'.'. 

"Solpbnr" 

Goal 

BoDYOoaL 

CoaL 

Bony ooal 

Goal 

BonycoaL 

Floor, fire day. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of ooal sampled. . 



Ft. in. 
al 4 
1 1 



1 2 

a3 

2 4} 



6 
4 



lol 



B. 
30748 



Ft. In. 
al e 
2 10 



2 

al 

2 8 



7 3| 
5 8 



C. 
30747 



Ft. in. 
al 6 
101 



al 
2 



6 2 
4 6 



D. 
80750 



Ft. in. 

a2 

2 8 



1 
3 

a3 



8 
5 




5i 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 30749) was cut at the face of 10 room, 2 south entry, 7 right east 
dip, 100 feet from entry, 3,000 feet east of shaft. Section B (sample 30748) was cut 
at the fBce of 24 room, 3 left entry, east dip, 250 feet from entry, 1,400 feet northeast 
of shaft. Section G (sample 30747) was cut at the face of 11 room, 14 south entry, 
2 left entry, main rise, 150 feet frcmi entry, 5,100 feet southeast of shaft. Section D 
(sample 30750) was cut at the face of 3 south entry, 3 left entry,, main rise, 220 feet 
from 3 left entry, 2,800 feet south of shaft. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining equal amounts 
of samples 30747, 30748, 30749, and 30750 is given under laboratory No. 30751. 

The mine is developed on the doubleentry, room-and-pillar, panel plan. In 1918 
cutting was done by machine in the coal and shots were fixed at night by the shot firers 
with penniasible explosives. Men employed numbered 140 underground and 15 above- 
giound. The tipple was of steel, equipped with picking table, where unpuiities were 
removed by four to six pickers. Self-dumping cages were used, and the coal was sized 
on A^^iring screens, with holes 2} and 1} inches in diameter, into slack, pea, egg, nut, 
and lump sizes. Thirty per cent of the coal going to screens passed through. The 
lump coal went to a picking conveyor, which delivered to the railroad car. Very little 



168 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-X919. 

of the output was shipped as run of mine. Haulage was by four electric locomotivea 
and by mules. The four loading tracks had capacity for 50 empty and 50 loaded rail- 
road cars. The lump coal and screenings on the cars had a good appearance. Forty- 
one per cent of the coal was taken in advance work, and the recovery was 46 per cent 
The unmined area consisted of approximately 600 acres. The estimated lifetime of 
the mine was about 8 years. The dally average output was about 1,000 tons and the 
maximum day's production 2,250 tons. It was planned to increase the daily produc- 
tion to 1,800 tons. 

MABTIAHD 

ALLEGANY OOTTNTY. 

Allegany. Tyson No. 3 Mine. 

Analyses 26506 (p. 39). Semibitimiinous coal, Georges Creek field, from Tyson No. 
3 mine, 1} miles northeast of Allegany, on the Cumberland & Pennsylvania R. R. 
Coal bed, Tyson; Carboniferous age, Monongahela formation. Roof and floor, shale; 
cover at point of sampling, 100 feet. The bed was sampled in 3 room, 2 right, by the 
Maryland Geological Survey on June 23, 1916, and showed coal 3 feet 11} inches thi(^, 
with no impurities to be discarded in mining. The average daily production at time 
of sampling was 75 to 100 tons. 

Barrelville. Bond Minb. 

Analyses 26985 (p. — ). Semibituminous coal, Georges Creek (?) field, from Bond 
mine, i mile northeast of Barrelville, on switch of l^e Cumberland ^Pennsylvania R.R. 
Coal bed, Brookville, known as Bluebaugh; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. 
Roof, shale overlaid by massive sandstone; floor, sand shale; cover at point of sam- 
pling, 135 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on No- 
vember 20, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Bond mine. 
Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Coalo g 

Shale« 1 8J 

Coal 2| 

Shale« f 

Coal 1 lOi 

Shale« If 

Coal 5 

Shale 1} 

Coal 2i 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 5 5i 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 6 

This sample was taken at rib of straight heading, 180 feet northeast of 1 left heading. 
At time of sampling, the mine was not in operation. 

BARREtVILLE. EmRICK No. 1 MiNE. 

Analysis 26504 (p. 40). Semibituminous coal, Georges Creek field, from Emrick 
No. 1 mine, i mile southwest of Barrelville, on the Cumberland it Pezmsylvanit 
R. R. Coal bed, Bluebaugh (Brookville) ; Carboniferous age, Allegheny foisnadon. 
Roof and floor, shale; cover at point pf sampling, 203 feet. The bed was sampled at 

• Not indoded In sample. 



mabyland: atj.kgaj^y county. 169 

aoe of main heading, 2,100 feet from mine mouth, by the Maryland Geological 
Survey on June 20, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Emrick No, 1 mine, 
Roof, shale. yt, jji^ 

Coal 2 7 

Shale <> 2 

Coal .[..[.[.[.. 9 

^oor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 3 g 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 4 

The mine is small, producing about 300 tcms a month at time of sampling. 

Barrelville. Parker Mine. 

Analysis 26539 (p. — ). Semibituminous coal, Georges Creek field, from Parker 
nine, ^ mile northeast of Barrelville, on switch of the Cumberland & Pennsylvania 
R. R. Coal bed locally known as Parker; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. 
Roof, at places shale, ''draw slate," and at others sandstone; floor, sand shale; cover at 
[Knnt of sampling, about 80 feet. 

Section of coal bed in Parier mine. 

Roof, at places, shale. Ft. in. 

' ' Draw slate " « 2 J 

Coal 1 11 

Floor, sand shale. 

Thickneaa of bed 2 1} 

Thickness of coal sampled 1 11 

This sample was taken in 2 room on right at top of dip heading. At time of sampling 
the mine was not worked. 

Barrblvillb. I%att Minb. 

Analyaifl 26542 (p. 40). Semibituminous coal, Georges Creek field, from Pratt 
Dune, 1 mile southwest of Barrelville. Coal bed, Brush Creek; Carboniferous age, 
Conemaug^ formation. Roof, gray shale; floor, black shale; cover at point of sam- 
pling, 80 to 90 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on 
September 12, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Pratt mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Coal 1 8 

Bone <» ., 5| 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 2 1| 

Thickness of coal sampled 1 8 

This sample was taken at face of main heading, 80 feet from entry. At time of 
nmpling the mine was not shipping. 

Barton. Moscow No. 3 Mine. 

AnalysiB 26533 (p. 40). Semibituminous coal, Georges Creek (?) field, from Moscow 
No. 3 mine, } mile north of Barton, on the Cumberland <& Pennsylvania R. R. Coal 
Mf Bakerstown; Carboniferous age, Conemaugh formation. Roof and floor, shale; 

o Not indoded in sample. 




ii^^^ 



170 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 

cover at pdnt of sampling, about 250 feet. The bed was sampled by the liaiyLiDil 
Geological Survey on September 23, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coed bed in Moscow No, S mine. 

Boof, shale. Ft. m. 

Bone a 5} 

Coal 1 H 

Bone and shale « i 

Coal SJ 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 2 6} 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 i 

This sample was taken at face of 4 room, 2 left heading. During 1915 the mine 

was not steadily in operation; during 1916 the output varied from 100 to 150 tons per 

day. 

Barton. Swanton Minb. 

Analyses 26978 and 26986 (p. 40). Semibituminous coal, Georges Creek (?) field, 
from Swanton mine, at Barton, on the Cumberland <& Pennsylvaoia R. R. Coal bed, 
Bakerstown; Carboniferous age, Conemaugh formation. Roof and floor, shale; 
cover at point of sampling, 800 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geo- 
logical Survey on November 21, 1916, as described bejow: 

Section of coal bed in Swanton mine. 
Roof, shale. Ft in. 

Bone o 1 6 

Coal 2 4 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 3 10 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 4 

• 

Section A (sample 26978) was taken at right rib, fa/ce of 6 right heading, 1,700 feet 
from entry. The daily output at time of sampling was 100 to 125 tons. 

The bed was also sampled by the Maryland Greological Survey on November 21, 
1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Sioanton mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft. tn. 

Coal 3 

Shale o 1 

Coal 1 lOJ 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 2 2} 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 1} 

This sample was taken at face of 2 right butt, main entry, about 150 feet from msa 
mouth, where the cover was 350 feet. At time of sampling the mine was not in 
operation. 

Borden Shaft. Consolidation No. 12 Mine. 

Analysis 26528 (p. 40). Semibituminous coal, Creoiges Creek field, from Consohd*- 
tbn No. 12 mine, at Borden Shaft, on main line of the Cumberland A Pennsylwitt 
R. R. Coal bed, Pittsburgh; Carboniferous age, Monongahela formatioD. Roof asd 
floor, shale; cover at point of sampling, 200 feet. The bed was sampled by the 

• Kot indiided in aunple. • 



MABYLAND: 'AI.LEOANY COUNTY. 171 

Ifaryland Geological Survey on September 4, 1916, at "Klondike" heading, off left 
empty slant, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Consolidation No, 12 mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Coal 6 6i 

Shale o H 

CJoal 4 

Shale o i 

Coal llj 

Shale o } 

Coal ; lit 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 8 11 

ThidknesB of coal sampled 8 9) 

The daily output at time of sampling was about 100 tons. 

EcKHABT. Washington No. 2 Mine. 

Analysis 26507 (p. 40) . Semibituminous coal, Georges Creek field, from Washington 
No. 2, a drift mine near Eckhart, on the Eckhart branch of the Cumberland db Penn- 
sylvania R. R. Coal bed, Tyson, or Upper Sewickley; Carboniferous age, Mononga- 
bela formation. Roof, hard, sandy shale; floor, shale; cover at point of sampling, 
80 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Gec^ogical Survey on June 26, 
1916, in 6 room, 4 left heading, and showed coal 4 feet 2 inches thick, with no im- 
purities to be discarded in mining. 

For analysis of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines Bull. 22, p. 109. 

Ellebslie. Ellbbslie Clay Mine. 

Analyses 26987 and 26988 (p. — ). Bituminous coal from EUerslie clay mine, 2 
miles west of EUerslie. Coal beds known as Mercer and Quakertown; Carboniferous 
age, PottBville formation. Roof and floor of Mercer bed, shale; roof of Quakertown 
bed, shale; floor, fire clay; cover at point of sampling in Mercer bed over 120 feet, 
in Quakertown bed over 150 feet. The beds were sampled by the Maryland Geo- 
logical Survey on November 20, 1916, as described below: 

Section of Mercer coal bed in EUerslie clay mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Coal 1 2 

Fire clay « 4 3 

Coal 1 3i 

Shaleo 5 

Coal 1 4 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 8 5) 

TliicknesB of coal sampled 3 9) 

Sample 2698 was cut at 1 right butt, 1 right heading, 1,000 feet from entry. At 
time of sampling the mine was not in operation. 

■ -■! ■ ■■■■■■■ .1 .1 .1 ■ »■ .. ■ 

• Kot indnded in saxBpIe. 
55270'— 22 12 



5 172 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



fl 



Section of Quakertown coal bed in EUerslie clay mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft tii. 

Coal 1 li 

Shaleo 3 

Coal : 8 

Floor, fire clay. 

Thickness of bed 2 \ 

Thickness of coal sampled 1 9) 

Sample 26988 was cut at right rib, 2 right heading, 20 feet from main heading, 1,200 
feet feet from entry. At time of sampling the mine was not worked. 

Franklin Station. Millsr & Gbxbnb No. 1 Mine. 

Analysis 26544 (p. — ). Semibituminous coal, Georges Creek (?) field, from MUer 
A Greene No. 1 mine, at Franklin Station, on the Cumberland A Pennsylvania B. R. 
Coal bed, Ftoker (Clarion); Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, skiid- 
stone; floor, bastard fire day; cover at point of sampling, 300 feet. The bed was 
sampled by the Maryland Geological Sifrvey on August 14, 1916, as described below: 

Section ofcoaX hed in No, 1 mint, 

Boof , sandstone. Ft. in. 

Coal 1.. 1 2i 

Claybindero lJ-2 

Coal 5f 

Shale bindera 11 

Coal 6 

Floor, bastard fire clay. 

Thickness of bed 2 5 -61 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 2i-2| 

'Hiis section was taken in butt off main hefMHng. At time of sampling the daily 
output was 125 to 150 tons. 

Frostburo. Consolidation No. 9 Mlnb. 

Analysis 26510 (p. 41). Semibituminous coal, Georges Creek field, from Consolida- 
tion No. 9, a drift mine^ 1) miles northeast of Froetburg, on the Cumberland & Pennsyl- 
vania R. R. Coal bed, Tyson (Upper Sewickley); Carboniferous age, Monongahela 
formation. Roof and floor, shale; cover at point of sampling, about 100 feet. The 
bed was sampled by the liaryland Geological Survey on September 26, 1916, in man- 
way of 1 room, 2 rigjit, where the entire seam was composed of 3 feet 7 inches of coal, 
no portions being discarded in mining. The average daily output at time of sampUng 
was 625 tons. 

Frostburo. Consolidation No. 14 Mine. 

Analyses 68177, 68215, and 30164; also ^ve tipple samples— 30092, 68176, 68198, 
68199, and 30165 (p. 41). Semibituminous coal, Frostbuig district, from Consolida- 
tion No. 14 mine, a drift mine 1} miles north of Frostburg, Md., on the Cumberland k 
Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed, Pittsburgh, known in this field as the "Big Vein;" 
Carboniferous age, Monongahela formation. Average thickness of bed, 14 feet; bed 
lies flat; faint cleat; no faults, rolls, or horaebacks; roof, black shale; floor, hard shale. 

Roof and floor shale showed no tendency to become mixed with the coal in ship- 

■■ '■ " ■ ■ ^^"^^ ii»i^^i I I, .1 .1 1 .1 .11, iii^i '* 

• Not liidad«d in ttn^le. 




MARYLAND: AIJL.EGANY COUNTY. 



178 



meets. The bed was sampled by £. Stebiog^ on December 30, 1917, as described 
below: 

Section of coal bed in ContolidaHon No. 14 mine. 



Laboratory No. 



Roof, black shale. 

Top ooal,clean,lti8trQa8. 

ShalBy black 

Coal, 80ft. 

Coal, soft 

Coal, soft. 

SbalBrblaa^ 

"Salfdinr "streak 

CoaL^ITT. 

Coal, soft. 



Shale, blade 

Coal, softflustrons. 



Shale. 



Floor, bard shale. 

ThicfcneBsof bed 

Thickness of coalsampled. 



A. 

«8in 



Ft. in. 

1 9 
a? 

2 1 
1 

10 
Ik 



H 



• 1 

8 



1 4 



8 
7 



J 



B. 
88215 



Ft. fa. 

• 9 

1 3 



i 

10 

olj 



«1 
1 



8 
6 



i 



a Not tnrlnded in sample. 

Section A (sample 68177) was cut 125 feet from mouth of Clifton opening in air 
course. Section B (sample 68215) was cut in oil-house heading, opposite room 25. 

The tdtimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68177 and 68215 is given under laboratory No. 30164. The ultimate analysis of a com 
poaite samite made by combining tipple samples 68176, 68198, and 68199 is given 
under laboratory No. 30165. 

Tipple samples 68176, 68198, and 68199 represented run of mine coal being loaded; 
Bsniple 30164 was a composite of these samples. Tipple sample 30092 represented 
run of mine coal. 

In 1917 the mine had capacity of 50 tons a day, and the actual average at time ol 
sampling was 50 tons a day. It had a wooden tipple, used no coal-cutting machines, 
and had mule haulage. The coal was undercut by hand and shot down by black 
powder. The probable lifetime of the mine was 10 yean. All tonnage from the 
mine was to be derived from pillar workings. It was expected the tonnage would 
soon be increased to 250 tons a day. The coal was all shipped as run of mine and 
was picked on car by one picker. Track capacity, 10 cars. 

Gannons Station. Washington No. 1 Mine. 

Analysis 26979 (p. 41). Semibituminous coal, Creorges Creek (?) field, from Wash- 
ington No. 1 mine, near Gannons station, on the Cumberland & Pennsylvania R. R. 
Coal bed, Lower Kittanning ; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof and floor, 
shale; cover at point of sampling, about 300 feet. The bed was sampled by the 
Maryland Geological Survey on November 22, 1916, as described below: 



Koof, shale. 
Coal... 



Section of coal bed in Washington No. 1 mine. 



Ft. In. 
2 8 



Shale, hard « 10^ 

Coal 3J 

Bone a i-1 

Coal 1 5 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 5 3J-4 

Thickness of coal sampled 4 4^ 

This sample was cut at 4 right air course, 2,200 feet west of entry. The daily output 
at time of sampling was 150 tons. 



•Not inolnded in sample. 




174 



AKALYSES OF COAL,, 1916-1919. 



t , 



HovFMAK. Consolidation No. 3 Hinb. 

• 

Analysifl 26526 (p. 41). SemibituminouB coal, Geoiges Creek field, from Conwolida- 
lion No. 3 mine, at Hoffman, on the Cumberland Pacific R. R. Coal bed, Pittsbnigb; 
Carboniferous age, Monongah^la formation. Roof and floor, shale; cover at point of 
sampling, about 200 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey 
on August 1, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Consolidation No. S mine. 

Boof, shale. Ft. in 

Coal ; 5 9 

Shale« li 

Coal 7 

Shalea 1 

Coal 1 li 

Shaleo J 

Coal 1 4 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 9 i 

Thickness of coal sampled 8 9^ 

This section was cut at north side, main heading. The daily output at time oi 
sampling was 1,150 to 1,200 tons. 

LrriLE Allegany. Union No. 1 Mine. 

Analysis 26529 (p. 41). Bituminous coal, Georgea Creek field, from Union No. 1 
mine, i mile north of Little Allegany, on a branch of the Cumberland A Pennsyivania 
R. R. Coal bed, Pittsbuig^; Carboniferous age, Monongahela formation. Roof and 
floor, shale; cover at point of samplings 185 feet. The bed was sMnpled by Ibe 
Maryland Geological Survey on September 22, 1916, at face of 5 room, 4 left heading, 
as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Union No, 2 mine. 
Roof, shale. Ft m 

Coal 9J 

Boneo U 

Coal 91 

Bone« li 

Coal : 7 

Bone a 1 } 

Coal 2 4 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 4 lOJ 

Thickness of coal sampled 4 6 

The daily output at the time of sampling was 550 tons. 

LoNAcoNiNG. Georges Creek No. 3 Mine. 

Analysis 26509 (p. 41). Semibituminous coal, Greoigee Creek fleld, from No. 3 
mine, at Lonaooning, on Western Maryland R. R. Coal bed, Tyson; Carbonifeioiu 
age, Monongahela formation. Roof and floor, shale; cover at point of sampling, about 
340 to 350 feet The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on Sep- 
tember 23, 1916, in Broadback's room off 3 right, at which point the coal was 3 feet 
6) inches thick, with no impurities. The daily output of the mine at time of 
sampling was 400 tons. 

• Not inidnded in sample. 



MARYLAND: ALLBGANY COUNTY. 175 

LONAGONINQ. KiNOSLBT MiNB. 

AnalyaiB 26984 (p. 41). Semibituimnoiui coal, Georges Greek(?) field, from KingBley 

mine, near Lonaooning, on west aide of Koontz Run, on the Western Maryland R. R. 

Coal bed, Waynesbuig; Carboniferous age, Monongahela fonnation. Tlie bed was 

sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on November 28, 1916, as described 

l>elow: 

Section of coal bed in Kingtley mine. 
Xtoof, not noted. Ft. in. 

Shale* 2 

Coal 2 11 

Shaleo ; 3 

Coal« 2 

Shale* 9 

Coal 1 11 

Bone 1 

Coal i 2 

Bone* } 

Coal* 1} 

Shale* 1 

Coal* 1 

Bone* H 

Coal 6 

Shale 1 

Coal 5 

Shale* li 

Coal 2 7 

Floor, not noted. 

Thickness of bed 8 llj 

Thickness of coal sampled 7 } 

Sample 26894 was cut at right rib of main heading at face 600 feet from entry. The 
daily output at time of sampling was 50 to 70 tons. 

LoNACONiNQ. Test Opbnimo. 

Analysis 26540 (p. 41). Semibituminous coal, Georges Creek field, from test 
opening } mile northeast of Lonaconing. Coal bed known as Franklin; Carboni- 
ferous age, Conemaugh formation. Roof and floor, shale; cover at point of sampling, 
about 150 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on 
September 28, 1916, as described below: 

Section of Franklin coal bed in test opening near Lonaconing, 

Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Shale, coal, and bone in streaks* 1 2 

Coal, dirty 1 6 

Shale* 6 

Coal 41 

Shale* 6 

Coal 1 51 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 5 6 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 * 3 

This ttmple was taken at about 100 feet south 55° east from opening. At time of 
sampling the mine was not worked. 

a Not indnded in sample. 



176 AlS'ALYSES OP OOAL, 191^1919. 

LoBD. Consolidation No. 7 Mine. 

Analyeds 26530 (p. 41). SemibituminouB coal, Creoiges Creek field, from Consolida- 
tion No. 7 mine, i mile west of Lord village, on a branch of the Cumberland & Penn- 
sylvania B. R. Coal bed, Pittsburgh; Carboniferous age, Monongahela fonnatian. 
Koof and floor, shale; cover at point of sampling, about 350 feet. The bed 
sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on September 27, 1916, in upper 
of the Midway , as described bdow: 

Section of coal bed in Conaolidation No. 7 mine. 
Roof, shale. w%. in. 

Coal ....! 6 3 

Shale* i 

Coal 3 

Shalefl \ 

Coal 1 i 

Shale* i 

Coal li 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 8 7} 

Thickness of coal sampled 8 5i 

The daily output at the time of, sampling was 900 tons. 

LuKB. Devon Minb. 

Analysis 26511 (p. 41). Semibituminous coal, Creorges Creek field, from* Devon, } 

mile north of Luke, on the West Virginia Pulp & Paper Co*s R. R. Coal bed, 

Lower Kittanning; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof and floor, shale; 

cover at point of sampling, 300 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological 

Survey on August 15, 1916, at face of main heading, 3,000 feet from mouth, as described 

below: 

Section of coal bed in Devon mine. 
Roof, shale. Ft. in- 

Coal U 

Bonea 5 

Coal 1 7 

Shale* H 

Coal 2 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 5 

Thickness of coal sampled 4 6 



The average daOy output at time of sampling was 250 tons. 



Midland. COnsolidatiox No. 8 Minb. 

Analyses 68195, 68192, and 30162; also tipple samples 68203, 68209, 68211, 68213, 
and 30163, each representing a half-day's run over tipple, run-of-mine coal (p. 42). 
Semibituminous coal, Georges Creek field, from Consolidation No. 8 mine, a drift 
mine in Ocean Township, | mile southwest of Midland, on the Cumberland & PeDD" 
sylvania R. R. Coal bed, Pittsburgh, known in this field as ''Big Vein;*' Carbonifer- 
ous age, Monongahela formation. Average thickness of bed is 14 feet; bed lies M 
with long rolls; no strong cleat; no faults; afew rolls or horsebacks. The bed was sain- 
pled by E. Stebinger on December 30, 1917. Tipple samples were also taken ^7 
E. Stebinger, each representing a half-day's run over tipple. 

• Not Included in nmple. 



MABYLAKD: AIXfiGANT COUKTY. 
Sections of bed in Cofuolidatipn No, 8 mint. 



177 



Sectian. 



No. 



Coal, doll with bri^t layers . 

Coaly liard,brl|dit 

Coal, bright, s^ 

Coal, hard, with dull streaks. 

Coal,8ort 

Shale 



Black shale 

CoaL 

Floor, sandy shaM. 

ThicikxiflBsofbed 

Thickness of ooal bed sampled . 



A. 
08105 



Ft. in, 




4 10 



6 4 

6 4 



B. 
•8192 



Ft, in, 
9 
11 

1 1 
11 

2 11 
as 

e 
1 

2 

9 4 
9 1 



A Not inchided in sample. 

« 

Section A (sample 68195) was cut at lace of 59 room, Keating heading. Section B 
(sample 68192) was cut in 8 room, 3 right. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 68192 
and 68195 is given under laboratory No. 30162. The ultimate analysis of a composite 
sample made by combining tipple samples 68203, 68209, 68211, and 68213 is given 
under laboratory No. 30163. 

The capacity of the mine is 275 tons a day; average shipments at time of sampling, 
275 tons. Men employed numbered 95 undeigroimd and 5 abovegroimd. The tipple 
was of wood. Haulage was by electric cable and mules. No coal-cutting machines 
were used; the coal was undercut by hand and shot down by black powder. The 
output was all shipped as run of mine and was picked on can by one picker. There 
was track capacity for 20 loaded and 20 empty care. About 50 acres were still 
unmined. The probable lifetime of the mine was about 10 yean. 

MONTBLL. MONTBLL TUKNEL (MbBTOX's) MiNB. 

Analyses 26977 and 26505 (p. — ). Semibitumiiious coid, Georges Creek (?) field, 
from Montell Tunnel (Morton's) mine, at Montell, on the Western Maryland R. R. 
Coal beds, Lower Eittanning and Bluebaugh; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. 
Roof, shale; floor in Lower Kittanning bed, shale; in Bluebaugh bed, rock and ''wild 
coal;" cover at point of sampling, 300 feet in Lower Eittanning bed and 360 feet in 
Bluebaugh bed. The beds were sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on 
August 3 and November 20, 1916, as described below: 

Section of Lower KtUanning coal bed in Montell Tunnel (Merlon* a) mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft. in 

Coal....' lOJ 



Shale a. 
Coal... 
Shale a. 
Coal.... 



4 

1 11 

11 

1 7i 

Shalefl 1 

Coal 2 1 

Floor, shale. % 

Thickness of bed 7 } 

Thickness of coal sampled 5 8} 

Sample 26977 was cut at Frederick heading, Lower Kittanning, 4,600 feet southeast 
from mouth of tunnel. The daily output at time of sampling was 80 to 100 tons. 
Sample 26505 was cut at face of 1 left in Bluebaugh bed. 



• Not indnded in sample. 



V 



178 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-191^. 



Roof, shale. 
Coal.... 



Section of Bhubaugh coal bed in Montell Tunnel mine. 



Ft. is. 
11 

Shale »1 8 

Coal 1 8 

Shale «11 

Coal 8i 

** Wild coal" «1 6 

Floor, rock. 

Total thickness of bed ■. 6 7 

Thickness of coal sampled , -^ 3 ^ 

Morrison. Gin Sanq Mine. 

Analysis 26532 (p. — ). Semibituminous coal, Geoiges Creek (?) field, from Gin 
Sang mine at Morrison, on the Cumberland & Pacific R. R. Coal bed, Bakeretown; 
Carboniferous age, Conemaugh formation. Roof, bastard fire day; floor, shale; cover 
at point of sampling, 160 to 200 feet. The bed was sampled at one point by the Mary- 
land Geological Survey on August 14, 1916, as described below: 



Roof, bastard fire clay. 
Boneo 



Section of coal bed in Oin Sang mine. 



Coal 

Boneo 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

Total thickness of bed • 

Thickness of coal sampled , 

This sample was cut at main heading right. The output per day at time of 

was 64 tons. 

Mount Savage. Bald Knob Mine. 



Ft. In. 

1 7 

2J 

2 



4 
2 



6 
plijQg 



Analyses 71053 to 71056 (p. 42), and analyses 71130 to 71133 (p. 43), and 71134 to 
71137 (p. 43), car samples. Semibituminous coal from the Bald Knob mine, a drift 
mine 1} miles north of Mount Savage, on the Cumberland & Pennsylvania R. R. 
The main operation is in the Pittsburgh or Big Vein; Carboniferous age, Monongahda 
formation. Bed is 5 to 6 feet thick ; roof and floor, shale, which parts readily from the 
coal. A new opening is being driven into a 3-foot vein 17 feet above the Big Vein; 
this is believed to be the Tyson. Main roof, shale; immediate roof, 18 inches of bone. 
The mine was sampled at three points in the Big Vein and one point in the 3-foot 
vein by N. H. Snyder and H. A. Goodman on June 12, 1919, as described bdow: 





Sections of coal bed in Big Vein. 




• 




Seetion 




A. 
7106S 


B. 
71064 


c. 


Labofntory So r 




71055 






Boof, shale. 

Coal 


Ft. in. 

2 9 
a I 

5 
• 1 

3 2 


Ft. *»• 
10 

> .' 

2 4k 


Ft. to. 


Rhfi]^ . . 


4 

■ 

11 

■ 

5 

■ 1 
1 s 


Goal 


flhaV^ , , . , . , . 


Goal 


flhale..........f ». . . 


Coal 




glfftltt .., 




Coal 






"Sulplmr" 






11 


Coal 






Floor, shale. 

TiUclmewof^ie4 . .,. , , , 


5 1 
5 1 


I n 


5 1 


i^ickPfoo ^ coal sampled 


6 1 







■ Not Incinded In sample. 



UARYhAIJJ): AlUEQANY COUNTY. 179 

Section of coal bed in S-foot vein. 



toctloo 

Jaboratory Ko. 



loof, ahale and bone , 

Otial 

ShalB 

Coal 

Soft shale. 

Coal 

Floor . shale. 

ThickneaBorbed 

ThiclEiieBS of ooal sampled 



D. 

71056 



Ft, in. 

1 6 

1 8 

al 

2 

a2 

1 1 

4 8 
3 2 



sNoe indnded in sample. 

Section A (sample 71053) was cut at &ce of 7 room on main heading, 1,300 feet 
&om opening, Big Vein. Section B (sample 71054) was cut from face of 2 rig^t 
heading, 900 feet from opening, Big Vein. Section G (sample 71055) was cut at face 
of 5 room, 2 left heading, 1,400 feet from opening, Big Vein. Section D (sample 
71056) was cut from &ce of main heading, 700 feet from opening, 3-foot vein. 

The mine is opened hy a drift. System of mining, room and piUar. In 1919 coal 
was undefcut by hapd and shot down with black powder. The daily capacity of the 
mine was 250 tons. Men employed numbered 44 underground and 10 on the 
surface. Haulage was by mules. Goal was run down slope (} mile) to the tipple 
by cable operated by electricity. The coal was shipped as run of mine and was 
picked on cars by two pickers. A new opening 17 feet above the main opening was 
being driven into a 3-foot vein, believed to be the Tyson vein. Heading had been 
driven in about 700 feet. 

Gar samples 71130 to 71133 and 71134 to 71137 (p. 43) were taken from two cars 
loaded and shipped from the mine June\ 16, 1919, under the supervision of N. H. 
Snyder. The cars were sampled at the Government Fuel Yard, Washington, D. G., 
June 25, 1919, by R. J. Swingle. A 1,000-pound sample wa^coUected from each car 
by taking successive large shovelfuls of coal at intervals under the cars as they were 
being dumped. Samples were crushed and quartered by mechanical crusher at the 
Bureau of Mines laboratory, Washington, D. G. 



»* 



Mount Savage. No. 6 Fire Glay Mine. 

Analysis 26580 (p. 43). Semibituminous coal, Georges Greek (?) field, from No. 6 fire 
clay mine, 2} miles northwest of Mount Savage. Goal bed. Mount Savage (Mercer); 
Carboniferous age, Pottsville formation. Roof and floor, shalej cover at point of 
Bampling, about 300 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey 
on November 6, 1916, at butt opening, main heading, about 600 feet from entry, as 
described below: 

Section of coal bed in No. 6 fire clay mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Coal 3f 

Struggle (?)o } 

Goal 5 

Shaleo 1 

Coal 31 

Stones } 

Coal 2J 

Shale* i 

Coal IJ 

Notinoiiided in sample. 



180 ANALYSES OF COAL, 19l6-191fl. 

Roof, sfa^e— Continued. r 

8h«Je» 

Coal 

Shale" 

Coal 

Boneo 

Coal 

Floor, ahale. 

Thickneee of bed 1 

Thickiieee of coal sampled 1 

Tlie daily output of the mine at time of aarapling was three ton«. 
Mount Savaoe. Henby Mcllanby'b Mink. 

Aoalyns 26543 {p. 43). SemibitmnineuB coal, Georges Creek (7) field, from H 
Mullaney's mine, f mile east of Mount Savage, about 50 feet eoutii of the Cumba 
A Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed. Lower Freeport; Carbooiterons age, Alleg^en; 
mation. Roof, bastard fire clay; floor, black ahale; cover at point of sami^iDi 
b> 80 leet. The bed wss sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on Seplei 
12, 1916, at face ol main heading, 120 feet from mouth, as described below: 

Section of coat bed in Benry Mviianeg't mint. 

Roof, bastard fire clay. 

Bone " 

Partingo 

Coal 1 

Paitingo 

Parting" 

Coal, bony -^ 1 

Binder o 

Coal 

Bone and shale" 

Floor, black shale. 

Thicknees of bed ' 

ThkkneaB of coal sampled : 

At time of sampling no shipping was done. 

OcxAN. CoNBOLmAnoN No. 1 Mine. 

Analyns 26527 (p. 43). Semibitmninous coal, Georges Creek field, from On 
dation No. 1 mine, near Ocean station, on the Cumberiand A Pennsylvania 1 
Coal bed, Pittabuigh<" Big Vein"}; CarboniferouHage,Monongahelaformati(ni. ( 
at point of sampling, 160 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geolc 
Survey on August 1, 1916, at face of Spitsman's heading, as described bdow: 

Scctwn of coat bed in Coruedidation No. 1 mine. 
Roof, shale. Pi 

Coal 5 

Shale" 

Coal 

Shaleo 

'Not lododcd In ikm^. 



HABYLA^D: ALIiEQAKT COUNTY. 



181 



"Rooi, shale— Continued. Ft. in. 

Coal 1 

Shalea J 

Coal 1 7 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed '. 9 2 

Thickness of coal sampled 9 

The daily output at time of sampling was 1,650 tons. 

Ocean. Consolidation No. 1 Mine. 

Analyses 08217, 68218, 68226, 68178, 68181, and 30179; also tipple samples 68182, 
68197, 68216, 68221, and 30180 (p. 43), taken from 237 2-ton cars at the tipple. Bed is 
5 to 9 feet thick; roof 1^ to 2 feet of "top coal," above which is shale, about 8 inches 
thick, and 2^ to 4 feet of shale and coal "rash,'' above which lies sandstone; !Q^, 
shale and bottom coal, with smooth surface. The bed was sampled by E. T. Han- 
cock on December 30, 1917; tipple samples also were taken by £. T. Hancock. 

Sections of coal bed in Cofuolidation No. 1 mine. 



Seotknis 


A. 

68181 


B. 
68218 


C. 

68226 


D. 

68178 


E. 




68217 






RoGrf^top ooal. 


Ft. in. 

5 10 

al 

6 

ali 

2 2 

8 %\ 
8 6 


Ft. in. 
5 10 
al 
«6 

Ol 

al 10 

8 4 
5 10 


Ft. in. 

5 7 

7 11 
7 «k 


Ft. in. 
6 9 
al 
6 

I II 


Ft. in. 

5 8 


Rhfilfr .., 


a 14 


Coal with Streaks of Bhale 


3 


Spiftlft , . , , 


al 


Coal with streaks of shale 


1 8 


Floor, shale, and ooaL 

'HilffkneRS of bed. . - 


7 lOi 


'J^k'JfPfl'"* of coal <pampled 


7 7* 







•Not indnded in sample. 

Section A (sample 68181) was cut in 5 room. Old Lye heading inside 20 heading. 
Section B (sample 68218) was cut in 4 room, 9 heading off Hawkins heading. Section 
C (sample 68226) was cut in Spitzmans heading 210 feet outside of 2 right. Section D 
(sample 68178) was cut at face of rock heading at 2 right. Section E (sample 68217) 
was cut at face of 7 room, 9 right off straight ^ope. 

The ultimate analysb of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68178, 68181, 68217, 68218, and 68226 is given under laboratory No. 30179. The 
ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining tipple samples 68182, 
68197, 68216, and 68221 is given under laboratory No. 30180. 

In 1917 the capacity of the mine was from 900 to 1,000 tons a day, and the average 
daily sihipmentB were 950 tons. There was a wooden tipple at mine. Haulage was 
by mule and by compressed air. The coal did not seem to stick to roof, and the roof 
did not fall to any great extent, nor did it become mixed with the coal to excess 
in sfaipiiienta. The coal was cut mostly by hand. The coal was all shipped run of 
mine and was picked by one picker in mine, one on dump, and one in car. No coal 
was coked. The two loading tracks had capacity for 30 empty and 20 loaded railroad 
can. 

Short Gap. Stanton-Oeobqes Grebk No. 1 Mine. 

Analysis 26521 (p. 43). Semibituminous coal, Georges Creek field, from Stanton- 
Oeoiges Creek No. 1 mine, at Short Gap, 1^ miles east of Clar3rBville, on a branch of 
the Cumberland & Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed. Upper Freeport; Carboniferous 

a Not induded in sample. 



182 ANALYSES OF CX)AL, 1916-1919. 

age, Allegheny formation. Hoof, sandstone; floor, shale; cover at point of sampling, 
225 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on August 3, 1916, 
at face of 3 room, 4 right, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Stanton-Oeorges Creek No. 1 mine. 

Roof, sandstone. Ft. in. 

Coal 7 

Shale o 2 

Coal : : 2 li 

Shale o H 

Coal : 1 9 

Floor, shale. 

Thicknessof bed 5 } 

^Thickness of coal sampled 4 5) 

Tile daily output of the mine at time of sampling was 75 tons. 

Wbstsbnport. Tacoma Mine. 

Analysis 26520 (p. 43). Semibituminous coal, Georges Creek field, from Tacoma 
mine, i mile north of Westemport, on the Cumberland & Pennsylvania R. R. Coal 
bed, Lower Kittanning ; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, shale or lock; 
floor, shale; cover at point of sampling, about 90 feet. The bed was sampled at 
8 room, 1 right heading, by the Maryland Greological Survey on September 26, 1916, 
as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Tacoma mine. 
Roof, shale or rock. it. in. 

Coal 10 

Bonea 1 6 

Coal 6 

Shale o 1 

Coal 2 2J 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 4 1 J 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 6) 

The daily output of the mine at time of sampling was 200 tons. 

OABBBTT OOXJNTY. 

Barkum (Va.). Monroe N6. 1 Mike. 

Analysis 26963 (p. 43). Semibituminous coal, Upper Potomac basin, from No. 1 
mine, near Bamum, Va. , on the Western Maryland R. R. Coal bed, Lower Kittatmiog; 
Carboniferous age, Allef^eny formation. Roof, sandstone; floor, shale; cover at point 
of sampling, about 600 feet. The bed was sampled at one point by the MarjrlaDd 
Geological Survey on November 24, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in No. 1 mtne. 
Roof, sandstone. Ft in- 

Bonea 2 

Coal 1 l\\ 

Rocka 6 

Coal 1 1 

oNot indodad in aample. 



maetiahd: garbett couifrrY. ^ 188 

Boof , sandstone — Ck>ntinued. Ft. in. 

Binders ^ 

Coal , 1 

Bonea ^ 2 

Floor, shale. 

ThicknesB of bed 4 11 

ThicknesB of coal sampled 4 } 

This sample was cut at rig^t rib of 6 left heading (50 feet from main heading), 
1,500 feet west of entry. The daily output at time of sampling was 100 tons. 

Barton. Monrob No. 2 Mine. 

AnaljrBis 26982 (p. 43). Semibituminous coal, Greoiges Creek field, from No. 2 mine, 
near Barton, on the Western Maryland R. R. Coal bed, Bakerstown; Carboniferous 
age, Conemaugh formation. Roof and floor, shale; cover at point of sampling, about 
100 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on November 
24, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal hed in No. f mine. 
Roof, d&ale. Ft. in. 

Bonea 8 

"Black jack" « 4 

Coal 2 4 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 3 4 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 4 

This sample was cut at face of 7 right heading, 1,200 feet northwest of entry. The 
daUy output of the mine at time of sampling was 100 tons. 

Bayard Station. Netrkin Minb. 

AnalysiB 26524 (p. 44). Semibituminous coal, Upper Potomac basin, from Nethkin 
mine, ) mile east of Bayard station, on the Western Maryland R. R. Coal bed. 
Upper Freeport; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof and floor, shale; 
cover at point of sampling, 250 feet. Hie bed was sampled by the Maryland Geolog- 
ical Survey on August 31, 1916|, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Nethkin mine. 
Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Bonea 3 

Coal lOJ 

Boneo ^ 

Coal 3 

Bonea 3 

Coal 4i 

Bone^ i 

Coal 2 4 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 1 4 9 

Thickness of coal sampled ,.,. 3 10 

This sample was cut at face of 2 left heading. The weekly output at time of 
sampling was 50 to 100 tons. 

•Not included in aunple. 



184 ^ AISTALYSBS OF COAL, 1916-1919. 

Blaine. Hamill No. 2 Mine. 

Asalysis 26980 (p. 44). Semibituminous coal, Upper Potomac basin, from Hamill 
No. 2 mine, } mile east of Blaine, on the Western Maryland R. R. Goal bed. Lower 
Elittanning; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof and floor, shale; cover 
at point of sampling, 400 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological 
Survey on November 24, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in No. t mine. 
Roof, shale. Ft Ixl 

Coalo 7 

Bone 1 

Coal 6J 

Bone i 

. Coal. 8i 

Bone f 

Coal 6) 

Shaleo 2J 

Coal 2 

Bone i 

Coal 1 7 

Shaleo 1 

Bony coal 7 

floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed - 5 2 

Thickness of coal sampled 4 3J 

This sample was cut at air course, 2 left heading at boundary line, 1,600 feet north- 
west of opening. The daily output at time of sampling was 200 tons. 

Blaine. Peerless No. 3 Mine. 

Analysis 26981 (p. 44). Semibituminous coal. Upper Potomac basin, £rom Peerlen 
No. 3 mine, 1 mile east of Blaine, on the Western Maryland R. R. Coal bed, Upper 
Freeport bed; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof and floor, shale; cover 
at point of sampling, 200 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological 
Survey on November 24, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Peerless No. 3 mine. 
Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Coal 1 li 

Bone** 1} 

Coal 3 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 4 3 

Thickness of coal sampled 4 1§ 

This sample was cut at face of 1 room, 5 left heading, 1,000 feet from entry. The 
daily output at time of sampling was 300 tons. 

Bloominoton. Bloominoton No. 7 Mine. 

Analysis 26512 (p. 44). Semibituminous coal, Geoiges Greek (?) field, from No. 7, 1 
mile west of Bloomington, on the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Coal bed. Lower Kittann- 
ing; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof and floor, shale; cover at point of 

• Not indaded in sample. 



mabyiakd: gabbett county. 185- 

ampHng, over 500 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey 
01 August 23, 1916, as described below: 

SecUon of coal bed in No. 7 mine. 
loof , shale. Ft. in. 

CkMd 8 

Bonea 8J 

Coal 1 10 

Bonea 2i 

Coal 1 lOJ 

Hoor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 6 ^ 

Thickness of coal sampled 4 4) 

This sample was cut at is^ce of 6 room, 3 left heading. The average daily output at 
ame of sampling was 100 to 125 tons. 

Chaffee. Chaffee Mine. 

Analysis 26514 (p. 44). Semibituminous coal, from Chaffee mine, 2 miles north* 
west ol Chaffee, on a switch on the Western Maryland R. R. Coal bed, Lower Eittann- 
ng; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, sandstone; floor, shale; cover at 
[K)Lnt of sampling, over 350 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological 
Survey on August 30, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Chaffee mine. 
Roof, sandstone. Ft. in 

Coal 8 

Shale« 1 

Coal 7 

Bone, binder a , 1 

Coal.,..; 1 8 

B one, binder « .' 1 

Coal 1 4 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 5 5 

Thickness of coal sampled 4 3 

This sample was ^taken at face of main heading, over a mile from mouth of mine. 
The daily output at time of sampling was 400 tons. 

Crelun. Guthrie Mine. 

Analysis 26989 (p. 44). Bituminous coal , Upper Youghiogheny basin, from Guthrie 
mine, 2 miles southwest of Crellin, about 1 mile southeast of the Preston R. R. Coal 
bed. Lower Eittanning; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof and floor, 
ahale; cover at point of sampling, 30 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland 
Geological Survey on November 23, 1916, as described below: 

« 

Section of coal bed in Outhrie mine. 
Hoof, shale. . Ft. in. 

Coal 1 6 

Bonea IJ 

Coal -...i 3 

Bony coal ^ , 31 

« Not incJDded in aampte. 



186 AHALTSBS OP COAL, ws-vm. 

Bo^, ehale — Oontinned. 

Coal 

Bone" 

Goal 

Bone, ehale, "sulphur"" 

Coal 

Bonfto 

Coal 

FlotH-, abale. 

Tlucknesa of bed 

Thicknees o( coal sampled 

Thifl lample was taken at face <rf 18 left room, main heading, 8G0 feet ixrUii 
opening. The daily output at time of eampling vaa 10 to 16 tone. 

Fbiendbville. HcCitlloh Hinb. 

AnalysiB 2651S (p. 44). Bituminoua coal, Lover Youghiogheny basin 
McCuUoh mine, 1) milee south of FriendsviUe. Goal bed, Lower Kittanni&f 
boniferoua age, Allegheny formation. Roof and floor, shale; cover at point □ 
pling, 300 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Qeological Survey o 
tember 20, 1916, u deecribed bedow: 

. Sectitm t/ coal bed in MeCvUoh mtrw. 
Root, shale. 

Coal 

Bone" 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

Thickneee of bed 

Thicknees of coal sampled 

This sample was cut at face of new heading, 50 feet above old heading. At i 
sampling the daily output was 60 bushels. 

Gamnonb Station. WASBmoToN No. 6 Hinb. 

Analy^ 2S531 (p. 44). Semibituminous coal, Oeoiges Creek field, &om Waali 
No. 6 mine, opposite Gannons station, on the Cumberland & Pennsylvania 
Coal bed, Bakentown; Carbonifennu age, Conemaugh fonoadoa. Roof anc 
shale; cover at point of sampling, 100 to 150 feet. T^e bed was sampled 1 
Maryland Geological Survey on August 11, 1916, as described below: 

Section nfcodl bed in Wa^ngUm No. 5 mint. 
Roof, shale. Ft. 

atuleo 

Bone" 

Boneor"Uack}>ck''a 

Coal 8 

Flow, shale. 

'Hucknees of bed 3 

Thicknees of coal sampled 2 

This sample was cut at face of 2 south heading. At time of sampling the d^ 



maeyland: gaerett county. 187 

Gorman. Strathhobe Mnns. 

AnalyBiB 26523 (p. 44). SemibituminouB coal, Upper Potomac baan, from Strath- 
more, 1} miles east of Gorman, on the Western Maryland R. R. Goal bed, Upper Free- 
port; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof and floor, shale; cover at point of 
sampling, over 460 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on 
August 26, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Gtratkmore mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Coal 7 

Shale, binder <> lj-2 

Coal..... 1 6 

Shale, binder o 1 -i j 

Coal " 5 

Bone, binder o 3J-4 

Coal 1 1 

Shale, binder o. ..k 4 

Coal 8 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 5 1 -2} 

Thickness of coal sampled 4 3 

This section was cut in 7 room, 2 right heading. At time of sampling the daily 
output was 60 tons. . 

Grants viLLE. Beachbt's Mine. 

Analysis 26541 (p. 44). Bituminous coal, Castleman basin, from Beachey's mine, 
H miles west of GrantsviUe and 2 miles west of Jennings Bros. R. R. Coal bed, 
locally known as Grantsville ; Carboniferous age , Conemaugh formation . Roof and floor, 
shale; cover at point of sampling, 80 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland 
Geolc^ical Survey on September 13, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Beachey^s mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Coal 101 

Shideo 1 

Coal 1 11 

Shaleo IJ 

Bony coal 7 

Floor, i^liaie. 

Thickness of bed 3 7 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 4 J 

This sample was cut at 6 room, 2 right heading. The daily output at time of 
sampling was 300 bushels. 

Harrison. Dodson No. 3 Mine. 

Analysis 26513 (p. 45). Semibituminous coal, Upper Potomac basin, from Dodson 
No. 3 mine, 1 mile east of Harrison, on the Western Maryland R. R. Coal bed. Lower 
Kittanning; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof and floor, shale; cover at 

A Not indiided in sample. 
552T0'— 22 13 



V 

i i 



11 



% 



188 ANALYSES OF GOAL, 1016-1919. 

point of Bampling, over 400 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Gedogicml 
Survey on August 29, 1916| as described below: 

Section of coal bed in No. 3 Dodaon mine, 

Bool, shale. Ft in. 

Coal :.,.... 3 

Bone , binder « i 

Coal 4J 

Bone, Binder « 1 

Coal 3 

Shale, binder o 1 

Coal 1 ^ 

Shale, binder <» 1 

Coal ^. 1 6 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 4 IJ 

Thickness of coal sampled * 3 10 

This sample was cut in 4 butt, 1 left heading. At time of sampling the daily output 
was 200 tons. 

Harrison. Dodson No. 5 Mine. 

Analysis 26637 (p. 45). Semibituminous coal, Upper Potomac baain, from Dodam 
No. 5 mine, 1 mile west of Harrison, on the Western liOuryland R. R. Coal bed, Upper 
Kittanning; Carbomferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof and floor, shale ; cover at 
point of sampling, about 400 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological 
Survey on August 29, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in No. 5 Dodion mme. 
Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

B one o 1 

Coal ...V 3 6 

Bone a 1 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 3 8 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 6 

This sample was cut at 2 room, 1 right heading. At time of sampling the daily 
output was 200 tons. 

HUBBABD. AjAX HoCKING No. 1 MiNE. 

Anal3rsis 26515 (p. 45). Semibituminous coal. Upper Potomac basin, bom Ajtx 
Hocking No. 1 mine, opposite Hubbard, on the Western Maryland R. R. Coal bed, 
Lower Kittanning; Carboniferous age, Allegheny fcarmation. Roof and floor, duJe; 
cover at point of sampling, 80 to 100 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland 
Geological Survey on September 1, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Ajax Hocking No. 1 mtne. 
Roof, shale. Ft is. 

Coal 5 

Shale, binder a 2 

Coal 1 1 

Shale, binder a 1} 

Coal * 1 1 

• Not JDctadwl in sampto. 




mabtlakp: gabbett county. 189 

Floor, shale. 

ThickneaB of bed 2 lOJ 

>f coal sampled 2 6} 



This sample was taken in 3 room, off 1 ri^t heading. The daily output at time 
of sampling was 100 to 125 tons. 

IfOMACONINO. KOONTZ MlNB. 

Analysis 26508 (p. 45). Semibituminous coal, Georges Greek field, from Eoonts miner 
2 miles northwest of Lonaconing, on a siding of the Western Maryland R. R. Goal bed, 
Tyson; Oarbonilerous age, Monoogahela formation. Roof and floor, shale; cover at 
point oi sampling, over 150 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological 
Survey on August 10, 1916, at face of main heading, over 1} miles from entry, the 
sample representing 3 feet 5 inches of coal. At time of sampling the daily output was 
250 tons. 

IfONACONINO. NbW OfKNINO. 

AnalysiB 26522 (p. 45). Semibituminous coal, Georges Greek field (?), from a new 
opening, 3 miles northwest of Lonaconing; no railroad. Goal bed, Upper Freeport; 
GaibonileroQS age, Allegjieny formation. Roof and floor, shale; cover at point of 
sampling, 90 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on 
August 10, 1916, at face of main heading, 350 feet inside from opening, the sample 

representing 4 feet 3 inches of coal. At time of sampling the mine was not shipping. 

• 

Oakland. Ghisholm Minb. 

Analysb 26517 (p. 45). Semibituminous coal, Upper Youghiogheny basin, from 
Chisholm mine, Strathmore, 4) miles north of Oakland ; no railroad. Goal bed. Lower 
Kittanning; Garboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, shale; floor, shale and 
bastard fire day; cover at point of sampling, 75 feet. The bed was sampled by the 
Maryland Geological Survey on September 18, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in ChMolm mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft. <». 

Coal 1 4 

Bone« •. 2J-3 

Goal V 3 

Floor, shale and firo day. 

Thickness of bed 1 9J-10 

Thickness of coal sampled 1 7 

This sample was cut in 1 room, 1 left heading. Tlie daily output at time of sampling 
was 5 tons. 

Oakland. John Sinks Mine. 



26538 (p. 45). Bituminous coal. Upper Youghiogheny basin, from John 
Sines mine, 8 miles north of Oakland. Coal bed, Mercer; Carboniferous age, Potts- 
ville series. Thickness at point of sampling, 1 foot ^ inches; roof and floor, shale; 
cover at point of sampling about 50 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland 
Geological Survey on September 19, 1916. 

The sample was taken at main heading, 70 feet from mine mouth and ropresented 
1 foot 3 indies of coal. At time of sampling the mine was abandoned. 

■ Not taolodea to ssapto. 



•'L- 



190 AJ^ALYSES OF GOAL, 191^-4910. 

Oakland. O. R. Leighton Mine. 

Analyab 26536 (p. 45). Bituminous poal, Upper Yonghiogheny basin, from O. R. 
Leighton mine, 6 miles northwest of Oakland or 1} miles southwest of Swallow FUk. 
Coal bed, "GaHtaen"; Garboniferoas age, Oonemough (?) fonnstion. Roof and floor, 
shale; cover at point of sampling, 40 feet. The bed was sampled by ^e IteylaiKl 
Geological Survey on September 19, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in 0, R, Leighton mine. 
Roof, shale. Jtis. 

Bony coal a. w , 2§ 

Shale o IJ 

Goal 8 

Shaleo ) 

Goal 1 i 

Bone « 1 

Goal 2 

Bone o 1 

Goal 2 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 2 6| 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 

This sample was cut at face of beading in new opening, 60 feet frooi entiy. The 
daily output at time of sami^ling was 60 bushels. 

Oakland. Taylor Sines Mine. 

Analyas 26525 (p. 45). Bituminous coal. Upper Youghiogheay badn, from Taylor 
Sines mine, 6} miles northwest oi Oakland or } mile southwest of Swallow Falls. 
Goal bed, Upper Freeport; Garbonifeious age, Allegjieny foimfttion. Roof and floor, 
shale; cover at point of sampling, about 500 feet. The bed was oaaipled by the 
Maryland Geological Siurey on September 19, 1916, the sample representing 3 feet 
2i inches of coal. The sample was taken at left rib of- main heading, just west of 
left heading. At the time of sampling the mine was not workad. 

Oakland. £. Z: Tower Mine. 

Analysis 26534 (p. 45). Bituminous coal, Upper Youg^ogheny field, from E. Z. 
Tower mine, 3} miles north of Oakland; no railroad. Goal bed, *'Galitzen'*; Oarbo- 
niferous age, Oonemaugh (?) formation. Roof and floor, shale; cover at point of sam- 
pling, 180 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on Sep- 
tember 18, 1916, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in E. Z, Tower mine. 

Roof, shale. FtM. 

Goal 7 

Shale - J 

Goal 1 9 

8h*ile : 1 

Goal \ 6 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 2 11} 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 11} 

This sample was cut at face of main heading. The daily outputat time ef sampling 
was 4 tODs. 

• Not indoded in MiBpls. 



M 



MISSISSIPPI: OHOOTAW COUNTY. 



191 



Swallow Falls. J. W. Bbbohly Mine. 

AnalysiB 26535 (p. 45). BltumuioiiB (?) coal, Upper Youghiogheny bamn, from 
J. W. Beeghly mine, 2 miles southwest of Swallow Falls or 7 miles northwest of Oak- 
land; no railroad. Coal b^, "Galitzen"; Carboniferous age, Conemaugh (?) forma- 
tion. Boof and floor, shale; cover at point of sampling, 55 to 65 feet. The bed was 
sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on September 19, IdlO, in 2 room, 
1 heading, the sample zepresonting 2 feet 5 inches of. coal. At time of sampling the 
daOy output was 60 bushels. 

Swallow Falls. L. G. Shabffer Minb. 



Analysis 26518 (p. 45). Bitwminoua coal, Upper Youghiogheny basin, from L. O. 
Shaefifer mine, 1 mile east of Swallow Falls or 6 miles north of Oakland. Coal bed, 
Lower Eittanning; Carboniferous age, Allegheny fonoation. Roof and floor, shale, 
cover at point of sampling, 150 feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Greological 
Survey on September 18, 1916, as described below: 

Section ofooal bid in L, O. Bhaeffer mme. 

Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Bony coal « - k 1 5J 

Shale and bastard fire clay o IJ 

Shalea .., .^ Ij 

Coal 2 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 3 8} 

Thickness of coal' sampled j 2 

This sample was taken in 2 room, 3 right heading. The daily output at time of 
sampling was 4 tons. 

HISSISSIPPI. 
CHOCTAW CCONTY. 

'RspORM. Mississippi O. & G. C. J. S. Mma. 

Analyses 25914 and 2591&(p. 45). Lignite, Ugnite field, from MissisBippi O. & G. 
C. J. S. mine, i mile south of Reform, ) mile west of the New Orleans, Mobile & 
Chicago R. R. Lignite bed, Tertiary age; ^l^cox formation. Roof, carbonaceous 
clay; floor, fire clay. The bed was sampled on August 18, 1916, by O. B. Hopkins, 
as described below: 

Sections ofooal bed in liiisiitippi 0, 4t O. C. J. S. mine. 



LabontoryNo. 



A. 
25914 



B. 

25915 



RooL carbooageoQS day. 
Lignite, fairly good. . . 

Iignlte,dirt7. 

Lignite 

Oarbaiaoecfa««toy. .<. 



Lignite, dirty. 
■ sgood.. 



Lignite,. 

Lignite, earthy, and clay. 

Lignlte,good 

Limlte. covered with water and not sampled . 
Floor. lire oiay. 

Thiflimeiwofbed 

Tickness or Ugnite sampled 



Ft. in. 

«1 S 
• 7 
a2 

:? 

S 9 



Ft. in. 



6 101 
8 9 



al 2^ 
al 9 
2 4 

• 1+ 

2 4 



• Notlndnded In sample. 

The sections measured and sampled were at ^e of main entry, 100 feet from mine 
mouth. 



a Not Included in aample. 



192 AKALY8S8 Of COAL, Ik6-1M». 

XOHTAVA. 
Bia HOBN OOXJNTY. 

LoDOBORAss. Local Prospect. 

AnalyaiB 26149 (p. 46). Subbituminous coal from local prospect in sec. 83, T. 7 S., 
R. 37 E., about 13 miles southeast Lodgegrass, on Chicago, Burlington A Qaincy R. R. 
Goal bed, Gamey; Tertiary age, Fort Union formation. Roof, sandstone; flow, ahale. 
The bed was sampled on August 31, 1916, by R. W. Howell, about 50 feet north- 
west of opening of prospect. The sample represented 8 feet 1 inch of coal, the 
thickness of the bed except for 6 inches of carbonaceous shale between the coal 
and the sandstone roof. 

Local Prospbct. 

AnalysLs 29370 (p. 46). Subbituminous coal, in sec. 83, T. 7 S., R. 37 £. Coal 
bed, Ctoiey; Tertiary age; Fort Union (?) formation. The bed was sampled on 
October 4, 1917, by A. J. Collier. The sample was gathered at face of main entry. 25 
feet from mouth of prospect, and represented 8 feet of coal. 

BBOADWATBB OOXJlTrT. 

LOMBABD. WbSTBRN IClNB. 

Analyses 28556 and 28557 (p. 46). Coking coal, Lombard field, from Western 
mine, a slope mine 1 mile west of Lombard, on the Northern Pacific R. R. 
Goal bed, not named; Cretaceous age, Cascade (?) formation. Thickness of 
bed varies from 1 to 30 feet, at points of sampling, 6 feet; roof, main, 14 feet of soft 
friable coal; cover at points of sampling, about 400 feet. The bed was samjkled by 
J. J. Forbes on May 25, 1917. The samples each represented 6 feet of coal, the entire 
thickness of the coal ssmj^ed. Section A (sample 28556) was ^t in 1 stub room, 
north entry. Section B (sample 28557) was cut in 1 stub room, north entry. Coal at 
this property is found in pockets. The property was abandoned in 1911 ; prior to that 
the work done was chiefly prospecting. 

OABBOK OOUXTTT. 

Rbd Lodge. Rbd Lodob No. 4 Minb. 

Analyses 29466 to 29470 (p. 46). Subbituminous ooal, Bear Creek (?) field, from 
Red Lodge No. 4 mine, a slope mine at Red Lodge, in sec. 27, T. 7 S., R. 20 E., on 
the Northern Pacific R. R. Coal bed. No. 4; Tertiary age. Fort Union fonnation. 
Bed is 8 fiset 6 inches to 11 feet 6 inches thick and dips 6® to 22^; cover at point of 
sampling, 800 feet; elevation of mouth of mine above sea level, 5,545 feet; roof, shale, 
limestone, and sandstone; floor, day or sandstone. The bed was sampled by G. A. 
Allen on November 26, 1917, as described below: 



Montana: cabbon county. 



198 



Sections of coal bed in Red Lodge No. 4 mine. 



Seetian 


A. 
«vtov 


B. 
mnxn 


C. 
29468 


D. 


Labomtoiy No. 


29407 






Roof, A, shale and sandstone; B, shale; C, day and limestone; 
D.Iliiiestone and shale. 
Bone 


Ft. in. 

1 
2 4 

10* 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 

• • • « • ^m « « • 


Ft. in. 


Coal 


3 2 

•2 

2 7 

1 


'? 




Rhale 


• 3 


Goal , 


2 21 


fibalfi 




day , 


1 
2 


11 




1 2* 


5" 


2 


Bona 




day - . - -' 




1 
3 10 




CfflU 


1 10 

1 
1 1 

1 2* 
4 
ft 

. il 

11 3 
10 111 






rwrt 




**••**•**• 


Coal 








flhale 


3 0* 






Ooal , . . , . 






I>lrt 






Coal 
















Coal 
















Coal 








'nUiamefls of oed ^ w t ^ r ^ 


9 11 
9 9 


8 9 
8 9 


8 8 




8 6 







a Not induded in sample. 

Section A (aample 29469) was cut from 1 room, 8 east entry. Section B (oample 
29466) was cut from 46 room, 10 east entry. Section C (sample 29468) was cut from 
129 room, 9 east entry. Section D (sample 29467) was cut from 45 room, 12 east entry. 

The result of an ultuoate analysis of a composite sample made by mixing samples 
29466, 29467, 29468, and 29469 is given under laboratory No. 29470. 

System of mining, room and pillar. The coal is mined by bearing in at top and 
then shooting up bottom coal. In 1917 black blasting powder was used and the coal 
was shot by^the miners just before leaving the mine. Haulage on the slopes was by 
direct-connected steam engine, with a single rope; electric motors were employed 
for diBtributing empties and gathering loaded cars. The mine had track capacity for 
200 empty and 120 loaded cars. The daily average was 2,300 tons, 70 per cent of 
which was lump coal and the rest screenings. The unmined area consisted of 1,000 
acres. The probable lifetime of the mine was 15 years. 

Washob. Washoe Mimb. 

Analyses 28622 to 28626 (p. 46). Subbituminous coal, Red Lodge or Bear Creek 
field, from Washoe mine, a slope mine at Washoe, on the Montana, Wyoming & South- 
em R. R. Coal bed, Bear Creek No. 3; Tertiary age; Fort Union formation. Average 
thicknesB of bed is 9) feet; dip, 4 to 7 per cent south; roof, shale; floor, clay; cover at 
point of sampling, 500 feet. The bed was sampled by C. A. Allen on June 1, 1917, as 

described below: 

SeetioM of ooaZ bed in Washoe mine. 



Laboratory No.. 



Roof, day. 
. doaL... 



Claj 

Coi 

Clay 

CoaL 

S«l,dJrty 

Clay 

CoaL 

Coal, la floor 

Floar,day. 

Total, thkknen. 

ThionaM of ooal sampled. . 



A. 
28625 



Ft. in. 
3 1 

2 2} 
a4 

9 



2 
al 

9 

8 



j 




2 



B. 
28624 



Ft. in. 

2 
aft 

1 8 




'i"fl 



10 4 
9 8 



C. 

28623 



Ft. in. 

6 11 

as 

3 4 



9 
9 3 



D. 

28622 



Ft. in. 
6 7 
a4 
2 7 



8 6 
8 2 



a Not Inoiiidad in sample. 



194 



ANALYSES Ot OOAL^ 1M6-191A. 



Section A (sample 28625) was taken from left side neck of 13 room, 15 feet in trom i 
east entry. Section B (sample 28624) was taken dO feet back from fooe in 1 eset back 
entry. Section (sample 28623) was taken from upper end of parting in main north, 
near 4 east entry. Section D (sample 28622) was taken from left rib 9 room, 50 feet in 
room ^m 3 east entry* 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 28622, 
28623, 28624, and 28625 is given under laboratory No. 28626. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by machine and 
shot down by black powder. A laige part of the mining was done by hand. The 
average output was 785 tons a day. Practically all the coal was shipped aa run of mine 
to the smelter of the Anaconda Ck)pper Mining Co. 

GALLATIN OOTJNTY. 

Prospbct. 

Analysis 26729 (p. 47). Bituminous coal from prospect in sec. 8, T. 9 8., R. 3 £. 
Geologic relations unknown. Sampled on October 31, 1916, by D. D. Gondit^ 
Goal at point of sampling was 4 feet thick. Sample, which was cut at face ol drift, 
30 feet from mouth of prospect, was weathered. 

HUSSELSHBLL COT7NTY. 
Roundup. Roundup A Mms. 

Analyses 28999 to 29004 (p. 47). Subbituminous coal, Bull Mountain field, from 
Roundup A mine, a slope mine 1 mile west of Roundup, in sec. 23, T. 8 N., R. 25 E., 
on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul R. R. Goal bed. Roundup; Tertiary age. Fort 
Union formation. Average thickness of bed, 6 feet; flat, except near outcrop; dipfl» 
0^ to 20^; roof, good; clayey sandstone; floor, clay; cover at points of sampling, 45 to 
175 feet. The bed was sampled by C. A. Allen on August 10, 1917, as described b^ow: 

Sections of coal bed in Roundup A mine. 



Becti<Hi 


A. 
dS9W 


B. 
29008 


C. 
3M01 


D, 
39000 

• 


E. 


Laboratory No 


2MXB- 






Roof, clayey sandstone. 

Bone, coal, and shale 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 
at 


Ft. in. 


Fi, in. 


Ft. in. 


^>*nh s , 


at 

6 8 

«2 

tt 


5 9 

(•) 

U 
• Ij 


• U 


Coal 


6 U 
• 4 

7 
6 11 


6 "O* 


5 2 


Ckwl 


ag 


FlocTf day. 

TnlciknflM of NmI 


3 
5 9 


e Ik 


ThldEness of coal sampled 


5 2 







a Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 28999) was taken from right rib, 20 feet from face in 40 room, ? 
back entry off of 2 west. Section B (sample 29003) was taken from main, 1 west, 600 
feet from slope. Section G (sample 29001) was taken from north rib of 7 west parting^ 
just off main slope. Section D (sample 29000) was taken from face of 3 room in 1 
north off of 2 west, 15 feet from entry. Section E (sample 29002) was taken firom south 
rib of main east entry, 200 feet west of pumpe. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by mixing samples 28999, 89003, 
29001, 29000, and 29002 is given under laboratory No. 29004. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undeicut by machines 
and shot down by black powder. The daily average output was 1,100 tons. Track 
capacity was for 60 empty and 60 loaded railroad cars. The unmined area consisted 
of 320 acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was eight yean. 



IKTEW MBXIC6 : IklO Alt&IBA OOUKXY. 196 

FHILIJP8 COXTNTT. 

Spencer Mine. 

Analyms 27221 (p. 47). lignite, from Spencer mine, in sec. 18, T. 24 N., R. 33 £. 
Lignite bed, not named; Tertiary age, Fort ITnion formation. The bed was sampled 
on September 23, 1917, by A. J. Collier. 

Sectum of coal bed in Spencer mine. 

Roof, sandstone. Ft. in. 

Bone a 3 

Parting a 1 

Lignite 2 10 

Clay« 1 

Lignite 1 

Shale o 7 

Lignite « 1 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 5 10 

Thickness of lignite sampled 3 10 

The sample was cut at face of main entry, 15 feet south of mouth of mine. 

HEVADA. 
XINEBAL COTTNTT. 

Ybrington. Probpbct. 

Analysis 30792 (p. 47). Subbltuminous coal, field not named, from a prospect 35 
miles south of Yerington, Lyon County, in sec. 1, T. 7 N., R. 27 E., on the Nevada 
Copi>er Belt R. R. Coal bed, not named; unknown age, unknown formation. The 
bed was sampled by D. £. Winchester on June 7, 191d, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Yerington prospect. 

Roof, eihale. Ft. in. 

Coal, sampled 1 8 

Shale, brown 3 

Coal, sampled 11 

Shale, black 1 

Coal, sampled 3 

Shale, black 1 1 

Coal, sampled 8 

Floor, not noted. 

Thickness of bed 4 11 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 6 

The bed was sampled at face of entry, 30 feet from mouth of prospect. Sample was 

weathered. 

HEW MEXICO. 

BIO A&BIBA OOTTNTT. 

LUMBERTON. PrOSPECT. 

Analysis 31076 (p. 74). Bituminous coal, Monero district, from a prospect drift, in 
NE. i sec. 8, T. 31 N., R. 1 W., IJ miles southwest of Lumberton, on the narrow-gage 
line of Denver & Rio Grande R. R. Coal bed, not named; Upper Cretaceous age, 
Mesaverde formation. Bed is 7 feet 6 inches thick and is nearly horizontal; deat, not 

• Not included in sample. 



196 AITALYSES OF COAX, Vm-imSt. 

noted; geiieni cluncter of the bed, not noted; roof and floor, not noted; a 
the point of sunpliug, 30 feet. The bed was sampled by H. R. Campbell on Si 
bet 16, 1918, as deecribed below: 

Stctiim of coal bed in iMmbtxUm proiptet. 
Root, not noted. 

Coal" 

Coal : 

Boneo 

Coal 

Bone o 

Coal 

Floor, not noted. 

Thicknen of bed 

ThicknoM of coal sampled 

The bed was sampled at face of drift, 50 feet from month of prospect. Coi 
have been slightly weathered. 

MoNiRO. Old Shs Mine. 
Analyns 2937B (p. 47). Bituminous coal, Honero field, from Old 8ima mine, i 
i,Bec. 7, T. 31 N., R. 1 E., 1 mile aouthwest of Htmeio, on the nairow-gage line 
Denver & Rio Grande R. R. Coal bed, Upper; Upper Cretaceous age, Men 
formation. CottI bed wss sampled on September 22, 1917, by H. Basder. 8 
measured on wall of entry 135 feet from mine mouth. Sample repreoented 3 I 
indies of bed, which was the entire thicknen of bed except 8 inches of bone at tl 
Sample was weathered, aa entry was driven 18 yeaia befcve the sampling was 
Cover at point of sampling, 30 feet. 

8AK TUAS OOUJSm, 
Fahunoton. Bill Thomas Minb. 
Analysis 29249 (p. 48). Bituminous coal, San Juan field, from Bill Tltomasm 
NW. },sec. 22, T. 32 N., R. 13 W.; no rttilroad connection. Coal bed, Carboneto; 
Cretaceous age, Fniitland (7) formation. Lower part of bed, 39 feet 8 indiea 
Sampled on September 18, 1B17, by H. Baseler. Section of coal bed sampled 
(oIIowb: 

Sechon of part of eoat bid in BUI Thomai mine. 

Roof, ooal and shale. 

Coal 

Shale" 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

"niicknees irf part of bed 

ThickneHB of coal sampled 

Sample was obtained 600 feet northweet of mine mouth, where cover is SO feet 
Farminoton. Joneb Mine. 

Analyma 29260 (p. 48). Bituminous coal, San luan field, irom Jones mine ol 
Darnell in SE. i sec. 21, T. 32 N., R. 13 W,, 18 miles northeast of Pumingti 
raihoMd connection. Coal bed, Cubonero; Upper Cretaceous age, Fniitland 
tion. Upper part of bed 39 feet 6 inches thick; at point sampled Sleet 4 inchM 
Sampled on September 18, 1917, by H. Baesler. 



• ^J*« 



NEW MEXICO: SAN JUAN COUNTy. 197 

Section of coal bed in Jones mvM. 

%oof, coal and shale. rt.in* 

Coal 1 11 

Shalea 6 

Coal 1 

Shaleo • , 1 

Coal 4 

Ploor, shale. 

ThicknesBof bed ^ 8 4 

Thickneas of coal sampled. 6 11 

Sample obtained 600 feet south 60^ west of mouth of mine. 

Fabmington. Mabcblius Minb. 

Analysis 29026 (p. 48). Subbituminous (?) coal, San Juan field, from Marcelius 
mine, in SW. i sec. 28, T. 30 N., R. 15 W., 16 miles northwest of Farmington; no rail- 
road ccxnnectioii. Coal bed, Caibonero; Upper Cretaceous age, IVuitland fonnation. 
Sampled on August 14, 1917, by J. B. Reeside, jr. 

Section of coal bed in Marcelius mine. 

Roof, not noted. Ft. in. 

Coal 4 6 

Shalea 2 

Coal 6 

Shaleo ^ i 

Coal 1 6 

Shalea 2 

Coal 4 6 

Shalea 2 

Coal 6 

Floor, not noted: 

Thickness of bed 11 lli 

Thickness of coal sampled 11 5 

Sample cut in main slope, 300 feet from mine mouth. Coal mm somewhat 
weathered. 

Farmington. Prospect. 

Analysis 29026 (p. 48). Subbituminous (?) coal, San Juan field, from prospect 
drift in NW. i sea 16, T. 30 N., R. 15 W., 16 miles northwest of Farmington. Coal 
bed, upper part of Carbonero bed; Upper Cretaceous age, Fruitland f<»matiQn. 
Bed was sampled on August 14, 1917, by J. B. Reeside, jr. 

SecHon of coal bed in Farmington protpeeU 
Boof, not noted: Ft, in. 

Coal 2 7 

Shale « i 

Coal .^ 3 8 

Bone« 1 1 

Floor, not noted: 

T^cknesBOf bed 7 4) 

TfaicknesB of coal sampled 6 3 

Sample was cut at face of entry, 50 feet from mouth of prospect and was weathered. 
Thickness of cover at point samiHed, 70 leet. 

A Not inclooed in aamiUd. 



198 



ANALYSBS OF COAL, 1915-1011^. 
FARmNGTON. Shiprock Indian School Minb. 



AiudyiBifl 29006 (p. 48). Bituminous (?) coal, San Juan field (7), from mine of 
Shiprock Indian School in SW. i sec. 21, T. 30 N., R. 16 W., 25 miles west of Fann- 
ington; no railroad connection. Goal bed, not named; Upper Cretaceous age, Mesa- 
Verde formation. Coal bed was sampled on August 11, 1917, by H. Baseler. At 
point sampled bed was 6 feet 4 indies of thick, dear coal, and was all induded in 
sample. Sample was cut at a point 350 feet down main entry and 150 feet up right 
entry. The coal was lAined to supply the Indian sdiool. 

8O0OBSO OOTJirrY. 

Cabthage. Govbrnmbnt Mine. 

Analyses 30214 to 30216 (p. 48). Bituminous coal, Carthage field, from Goven- 
ment mine, a slope mine at Carthage, on the New Mexico Midland B. B. Coal bed, 
Carthage; Cretaceous age, Mesaverde formation. Bed is 5 to 7 feet thidi. Sevenl 
faults and dikes were encountered. Boof, in eome parts, a soft sandafeone, in other 
parts a black shale; floor, diiefly sandstone; cover at points d aampling,. about 
350 feet. The bed was sampled by D. Harrington on Maidi 5, 1918, as descnbed 
below: 

Sections of coal bed in Ocvemment mine. 



HMtifln. 


A. 
80215 


B. 


TAbonitory No % . . 


30214 






Boof. ahaly sandstone. 


Ft. in. 
1 

1 


Ft. ta. 
3 9 


Bone 




Bhftlfl 


• 9 


Coal 


8 « 

• 3 
1 

• 3 

7 

« 8 
6 2 


1 


8>iAifi, light-iMilonKl 




CoaL...: 




Bon«, dark. ^ . . . ^ . . 


• 3 


CoaL 


1 


Floor. Bbale. 

Tnldmes? of bed . - 


5 • 


THIftlciifr''* of wjal samplwl .,, 


i 







« Not induddd in sample. 

Section A (san^le 30215) was taken in 2 room, off 22 slant, off main entry. Sectioo 
B (sample 30214) was taken in 3 room, off second left, rise room. 

IJie/iiltiniate analyaia of a composite sample made by combining equal amoontB 
of face flunples 80215 and 30214 is shown under laboratory N6. 30216 F. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 all of the coal was hand mined. No 
powder was used in shooting the coal, the only explosives used being for going throu^ 
rock dikes. F^alage was by rope. The average daily output was 150 tons. 

VOBTH DAKOTA. 
WA&D OOXTHTT. 

BUBUNQTON. CONON MZNB. 

Analyses 31702 to 31705 (p. 48). Lignite from Gonon mine, ^ mile east of BurlingtoD, 
on the Minneapolis, 8t. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie R. R. Coal bed» Lignite; Tertitfy 
(Eocene) age; Fort Union formation. Bed is 10 to 11 feet thick and lies neaiiy 
hotiflontal; at placea dips 1^ to southwest; roof, clay over top coal; top coal taken 
when pillar is drawn; floor, 1 foot of coal, then clay; cover at points of aampliig) 
100 feet. The bed was sampled by J. G. Schoning on Maich 28, 1919, aa described 
below: 



NOBTH DAKOTA: WnXJAMS OOUNTT. 



199 



Sections of coal bed in Conon mine. 



Laboratory No. 



Roof. day. 
Boofooal. 



Clay. 

Coi^fiimahy. 



Coal. 

Floor, ooal. 

Tiildmanofbed 

ThlrimflM of ooal sampled. 



A. 
81708 



Ft. M. 

2 1 
•1* 



4 3) 

« 4 



B. 
3170S 



Ft. in. 

a3 

1 4 




4 5 

6 
6 



C. 

31704 



Ft. in. 

a3 

10 



8 

4 

C 6 
C 6 



a Not tndoded in sample. 

Section A (aunple 31702) waa cut at rib 20 feet from face of main entry, 700 feet east 
of pit mouth. Section B (sample 31708) was cut at face of 2 room, 2 east main entry, 
800 feet from opening. Section G (sample 31704) was cut at face of 3 rocHu, main back 
entry, OOO feet east of mine mouth. 

The ultimate analysis of a ccMnposlte sample made by combining sunples 31702, 
31703, and 31704 is given under laboratiffy No. 81705. 

System of mining, room and pillar. The coal was shot from the solid with FFF 
black powder, and in places a little hand cutting was done. Men employed numbered 
8 underground and 4 aboveground. The tipple was of wood. At the time of sampling 
the output was 60 tons a day, 25 yet cent of which was derived from advance workings. 
None of the coal was shipped as run of mine, but all was screened over 2-inch bar 
screens. Haulage was by mule and rope. The coal was picked on wagons by 
teamsters and hauled by team to track. The lumjis on the cars wero large and clean. 
The estimated lifetime of the mine was 50 yean. The capacity of the mine was 
50 tons a day, which was equal to the maximum day's run. 

WIIiXJAlCB OOUNTY. 

Rat. PrrrsLBT Mine. 

Analyses 20251 and 29253 (p. 49). Lignite from mine of S. F. Pittaley in sec. 29, 
T. 155 N., R. 96 W., 10 miles southwest of Ray, on the Great Northern R. R.; no 
taUroad connection. Lignite bed, not named; Eocene age, Fort Union formation. 
Bed is 14 feet 5 inches thick; roof and floor, not recorded. Lignite bed was sampled 
on September 11, 1917, by A. J. Collier, as ifollows: 

Section o/ lignite bed in S. F, Pittsley mine. 



Ugmte. 

Clay 

Uilte 

UgDite. 

llikkiiMs of bed ..'..*.....'.'. . 

ndckness ofUgnitesamided . 



A. 
Na 29251 



Ft. in. 

ag 7 

a2 

3 8 
«2 
14 5. 

t 8 



B. 
No. 29263 



Ft. in. 


as 


7 




2 


5 


8 

* • • 



14 6 

6 8 



■ Notindnded in sample. 



The samples were gathered in 1 left entry, 100 feet iiorth of mine mouth. 



200 ANALYSB8 OF GOAL, 1916-1919. 

Wheelock. Jim Monubn Minb. 

Analysis 29252 (p. 49). Lignite from mine of Jim Monuen, in sec. 29, T. 166 N., R. 
97 W., 7 miles southeast of Wheelock, on the Great Northem R. R.; no railroad con- 
nection. Lignite bed, not named; Eocene age, Fort Union formation. Observed 
thickness of bed, l^ feet; roof and floor, not recorded. Bed lies flat. Sampled on 
September 12, 1917, by A. J. Collier. Sample was cut in 2 left entry, 300 feet west 
of mine mouth, and represented 8 feet of lignite, over which was 5 feet 6 inchesof lignite. 

OHIO. 

0OLT71CBIANA COTJHTY. 

East Livebfool. Delanet Goal Bank. 

Analysis 25592 (p. 49). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, frcHn Delaney coal bank, 3 
miles north of east firom East Liverpool, on Smith Ferry Road, in section 36, Liverpool 
Township. Goal bed, Middle Kittanning; Garboni^ous age; Allegheny formation. 
Roof, bony coal, with dark-olive shale above; floor, clay. The bed was svnpled on 
July 15, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Delaney coal bank. 

Roof, bony coal. Ft in. 

Bony coal a 4 

Coal 1 6 

Glay« 2 

Goal 5 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 2 5 

Thickness of coal sampled 1 U 

The section was measured 65 feet north of mine mouth. 

East Liyerpool. Duck Coal Bank. 

Analysis 25589 (p. 49). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, from Duck coal bank. ^ 
miles northeast of East Liyerpool, on Smith Ferry Road, in section 36, Liveipool 
Township. Goal bed, Middle Kittanning; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. 
Roof, bony coal 3 to 5 inches, with dark-olive shale above; floor, clay. The bed wu 
sampled on July 15, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Duck coal bank, 

Rool, bony coal and dark-olive shale. t. 1b. 

Bony coal a 4 

Coal A 1 7J 

Clay a 2} 

Coal 2i 

Floor, clay. 

Thicknesi of bed 2 4\ 

Thickness of coal sampled ^ 1 10 

The section ^as measured 50 feet east of north of mine mouth. 

• NollooM«d la Mm^. 




OHIO: COLUMBIANA COUNTY. 201 

East Livbrpool. Gaston Coal Bank. 

00 25583 (p. 49). BituminouB coal, LiBbon field, from Gaston coal bank, 2| 
miles northeast of East Liverpool, in N. ) sec. 28. Coal bed, Upper Freeport; Carbon- 
iferous (Freeport) age, Allegheny formation. Roof, up to 3 inches bituminous shale, 
with maasive sandstone above; floor, fire clay. The coal was sampled on July 15, 
1916, by J. H. Hance, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in GoHon coal bank. 

Roof, shale and sandstone. Pi. in. 

Bone and some coal o 1 

Coal 9 

Clay parting i 

Coal 4 

Clay parting i 

Coal 1 J 

Clay parting « 7 '. i 

Coal ^ 

Clay bench a Ij 

Coal ^ 

Clay 3 

Floor, Gie clay. 

Thickness of bed 6 IJ 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 lOJ 

The section was measured in the mine 65 feet northeast of mine mouth. 

East Liverpool. Johnson Coal Bank. 

Analysia 25588 (p. 49). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, fnMn Johnson ooal bank» 
H miles north of Eut Liverpool, in section 33, middle. Coal bed. Middle Kittanning, 
Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roo( massive sandstone; floor, fire day. 
The bed was sampled on July 15, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Johnton coal bank. 

Roof , sandstone. Ft. in. 

Bone, some coal« IJ 

Coal 1 5 

Clay band a : 1 

Coal 4J 

Clay parting i 

Coal 4i 

Floor, fire day. 

Thickness of bed 2 4i 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 2 

The section was measured 50 feet north of mine mouth. 

EAflrr Liverpool. Einset Coal Bank. 

Analysis 25685 (p. 49). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, from Kinsey coal bank, 
^ miles north of East Liverpool, in SW. i sec. 28. Coal bed. Lower FVeeport; Car^ 
booiferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, sandy shale; floor, fire day. The bed 
^u sampled on July 15, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described below: 

•Noiliicliia«d in flampl*. 



202 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 

SeeUon of coal bed in Kmuy coal bank. 
Roof, Bandy shale. Ft. in 

Bone and black shale ^ 2J 

Coal 3 

Clay parting } 

Coal 4i 

Clay parting / J 

Coal 3; 

Clay parting i 

Coal. 2| 

Clay parting <> 1 

Bony coal a 2i 

"Sidphur" clay band o 2 

Coal 7i 

"Sidphur" streak and day o IJ 

Coal TJ 

Clay o 1 i 

Coal 3i 

Floor, fire clay. 

Thickness of bed 3 6i 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 SJ 

The section was sampled in mine 65 feet north of entry mouth. 

East Liverfool. Malone's Coal Bank. 

Analysis 25590 (p. 49). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, from Malone's coal bank, 
i mile north of East Liverpool, in section 24, center. Coal bed. Lower Kittanning; 
Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, massive sandstone; floor, fire day. 
Tho bed was sampled on July 15, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Malone*B coal bank. 

Roof, massive sandstone. Ft. is- 

Shale, chocolate o 5j 

Coal, with streaks of bone 7i 

* 'Sulphur" streaks « \ 

Coal 101 

* * Sulphur * * streak and clay « 1 

Coal 4J 

Floor, fire day. 

Thickness of bed 2 H 

Thickness of coal sampled 1 IW 

The section was measured in the mine 15 feet northeast of opening. 

East Liverpool. Moobe's Coal Bank. 

Analysis 25586 (p. 49). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, from Moore's coal bank. 
3} miles northeast by north of East Liverpool, in SE. \ sec. 23. Coal bed, Lower Free- 
port; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, sandy shale; floor, day {^ 
day!). The bed was sampled on July 15, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described below: 



• Not IndiMkd in Miopia. 



X 






OHPO: COLmaCBIAITA COUNTY. 203 

Sedion of coal led in Moore^B coal franib. 

Roof, aandy riude. Ft. in. 

Shale, black bituminouBa 6 

Coal .,„..,. .,.♦ ; 5i 

Coal...: 8 

Bony coal .*.^,-;...c..i.....* . i 1 

Coal 4 

"Stilivhur" day band* IJ 

Coal:, V.......: ...: \ 1 8J 

Bony coal* .....:. 1 , 2 

Floor, day (fire day?). 

Thickness of bed 4 J 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 3 

The section was measured in the mine 60 feet soatbwest from entry moulh. 

KAflTT LiVEBPOOL. SmITH CoAL BaNK. 

Analysis 25584 (p. 49). Bitmrnnous coal. Lisbon fidd, from Smith coal bank, 
4 miles northeast by north of East Liverpool, in W. ) sec. 24. Coal bed, Middle Kit- 
tannbig; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, saaidy dhale; floor, fire day. 
The bed was sampled on July 15, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described bdow: 

Section of. coal bed ir^ Smith coal hank. 

Hoof, sandy shale. Ft. in. 

BoQy coal » -...:.. 1 

Coal -:-.... 1 2i 

Clay paiiii^ «. ,....; - , .-. i 

Coal..«. ^,-..;. ..: •■ 7 

Clay« 1. 1 

Coal .;.*.. 4..^...- 6§ 

Clay a .....: 3 

Floor, fire day. 

Thickness of bed 2 6} 

Thickness of cool sampled 2 4J 

The section was measured in the mine 125 feet east from entry moulh. . . 

New Sausbitrt. McClain Mine. 

Analysis 25892 (p. 50). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, from McClain mine, 
an entry mine ) mile northeast of New Salisbury, in section 34, Yellow Creek Town- 
dup, on the Pennsylvania R. K. Coal bed, Upper Freeport; Carboniferous age, Alle- 
gheny formation. Roof, chocolate-colored shale and sandstone; floor, day. The 
bed was sampled on August 16, 1916, by J. H. Hance, aa described below: 

Section of coal bed in McClain Fire Brick Co. mine, 

Hoof, shale and sandstone. Ft. in. 

Shale, chocolate-colored « 3) 

Chiy, black bitominous <» .^, . . , ,. ^^ 

Cod :. . A , :............ ... ... . . . ... . . . . . . .... . ... li 3J 

Clay and pytite oi ....... .... . .' If 

Coal - 1 lOJ 

Clay band « 1| 

Coal : lOi 



'^■ l - ■ - ■^ ^ ■ L ■ < 



« Not inclnded in sample. 
5527Q'— 22 X4i. 



204 ANALYSES OF QOALy 1916-191&. 

Floor, day. Ft, ib. 

ThickneeBof bed 4 6| 

ThickneeB of coal mmpled i 4 1} 

The section was meaBured 900 feet east of entry or mine month. 

WSLLSVIUiB. AXNSWORTH'a COAL BaKK. 

AnalysiB 25898 (p. 50). Bituminoua coal, Lisbon field, from Ainswvxth'a coal bank, 
Wellsville, in section 5, Yellow Creek Township. Coal bed, Lower Kittanning; 
Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, shale; floor, day. The bed was earn- 
pled on August 22, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described bdow: 

SeeUon of coal bed in AvmwctOCb oooI toiib. 

Roof, shale. Pt. in. 

Shale* 

Gay, shale, bone « | 

Coal, irregular partings 1 11} 

Floor, day. 

Thickness of bed 2 \ 

Thicknaas of coal sampled 1 11} 

The section was measured 30 feet south 16^ east of mine mouth. 

Wbllbyille. Danoblo Coal Bank. 

Analysis 25896 (p. 50). Bituminous coal, Lisbon fidd, from Dangelo ooal bank, 
WeUsville, in section 15, Yellow Creek Township, on the Pennsylvania R. R. Cod 
bed, Mahoning (Sharon?); Carboniferous age, Pottsville (7) series. Roof, diale and 
sandstone; floor, day. The bed was sampled on August 17, 1916, by J. H. Hanoe, as 
dsecribed below: 

SeeUon of coal bed in Danqdo cool hamk. 

Roof, shale and sandstone. Ft. in. 

Coal ; lOi 

Clay and pyrite « } 

Coal 9 

Clay and pyrite » I 

Coal 1 IJ 

Sand parting « \ 

Coal « i 

Floor, day. 

Thickness of bed 3 H j 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 ^ \ 

The section was measured 40 feet south of mine mouth. 

Wbllsyillb. Housbholdbr's Coal Bank. 

Analysis 25894 (p. 50). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, from Houaeholder's coil 
bank, 1^ miles nor^west of WeUsville, in section 11, Yellow Creek Township, on the | 
Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed, Upper Freeport; Carboniferous age, Allegheny for- 
mation. Roof, sandstone; floor, clay. The bed was sampled on August 18, 1916, by ^ 
J. H. Hance, as described below: | 

• Not Indudsd in Mmple. 



OHJO: OOLUBCBIANA COUNTY. 205 

SeeUon of coal bed in nou9eholder*B coal hank. 

I, flandfltone. Ft. in. 

Bony coal o 1 

Coal 41 

Clay, black t 

Coal.^ 7i 

Clay J 

Coal 9 

Clay and bone « f 

Coal 9 

Floor, clay. 

ThickneeB of bed 2 8J 

ThicknesB of coal wmpled 2 7} 

The section was measuied 20 feet south 35^ west from mine opening. 

Wellsville. Sheckler Coal Bank. 

AnalysiB 25895 (p. 50). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, from Sheckler coal bank, 
WellsviUe, in section 5, Yellow Creek Township, on the Pennsylvania R. R. Coal 
bed, Lower Freeport; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, shale; floor, 
day. The bed was sampled on August 18, 1917, by J. H. Hance, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Sheckler coal hank. 
Rool, shale. Ft. in. 

' Clay shale, bituminous <> 3^ 

Coal, dirty IJ 

Coal 4J 

Clay, black J 

Coal 6 

Bonebando 1 

Coal : 10 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 2 2i 

ThicknesB of pait sampled 1 9| 

The section was measured 55 feet north 10° west of mine opening. 

WbllsvUiLb. Smtth's Coal Bank. 

Analysis 25893 (p. 50). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, from Smith's coal bank, 3 
miles northwest of WellsviUe, in section 18, Yellow Creek Township. Coal bed, Up- 
per Freeport; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, sandy shale and shaly 
sandstone; floor, clay. The bed was sampled on August 19, 1916, by J. H. Hance, 
as described below: 

Section of coal hed in Smithes coal hank. 

t 

Roof, sandy shale and shaly sandstone. Ft. in 

Bony coal 1 

Coal 1 

Clay, black A 

Coal 6J 

Clay, black i 

Coal 3i 

•Not indndad in sampto. 



)• 



206 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1^10. 

Boof , Bandy shale and shaly sandstone — Continued. Ft in. 

Clay, black i 

Coal (% 

Clay, black i 

Coal 1 H 

Floor, clay. j 

Thicknees of bed 4 m 

Thicknees of coal sampled 4 3}| 

The section was measured 150 feet west 12^ south of mine opening. 

Wbllsville. Woostbr's Clat Mine. 

Analysis 25897 (p. 50). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, from Wooster's clay mioe, 
Wellsville, in section 9, on the Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed, Lower Kittanning; 
Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, shale and clay: floor, clay. Ihe 
bed was sampled on August 17, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described below: 

SecHon of coal bed in Wooster^e da^ miine». 

Roof, shale and clay. Ft. in. 

' Bituminous shale ^ '. 8 

Coal : 1 H 

Clay« I 

Coal 1 3i 

Clay 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 3 1| 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 5 

The section was measured 100 feet south 80^ west of entry mouth. 

Wellsville. Woostbr's Coal Bank. 

Analysis 25900 (p. 50). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, from Wooster's coal bank, 
Wellsville, in section 9, on the Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed, Bfiddle Kittanning; 
Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, chocolate-colored ahale; floor, cUy. 
The bed was sampled on August 17, 1916, by J. H. HaDce, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Wooster's coal bank. 

Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Clay, blacka ., , 1 

Coal 2 4 

Bone<» ,. ., I 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed , 2 5} 

Thickness of coal wmpled 2 4 

The section was measured 340 feet west of entry mouth. 

4 

Wb8T Point. Wbbt Point ICinb. 

Analyses 25580 to 25582 (p. 50). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, from West Point 
mine, West Point, on the Youngstown A Ohio R. R. (electric). Coal bed. Upper Free- 
port; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, up to 3 feet bituminous shale 
under massive sandstone; floor, fire cli^. The coal was sunpled on July 6, 1916, by 
J. H. Hance, as described below: 

• Mot inohidad in aunple. 



OHIO :, J^FFBBSOK COTJUTT. 



207 



Seetiofu ofcoaX hid in Kvrh-Dunn Coal Co. West Poir^ mine. 



No. 



Boof, shale nndar timdttona. 

ffla]e,diooolate , 

Shale, bitnTnfaon«» ooaly . 
Goal. 



''MoUierooal" 

Coal. 



>▼♦• 



Coal with A-hich ''mother ooal" . 

Goal .7. 

GtaiTbtQdybltamiiioiis , 



fknr. fin day. 
ThidcneiwoCbed. 



ThiokneaB of ooal sampled. 



A. 

25680 



Tt, in. 



a2 3 
1 3i 



5 

•» 

6 
8 



B. 
26681 



Ti, in. 

a6 
1 



4* 

to* 



? 



s U. 



• Not indoded in sample. 

Section A (aunple 25580) was measured 1,800 feet west of south of huub entry. Sec- 
tion B (sample 25581) was measured 500 feet northeast of entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by mixing samples 25580 and 
25581 is given under laboratory No. 25582. 

JXVVBBSON OOX7HTY. 

Orbam Out. Obsam Ornr liiMB. 

Analysis 25899 (p. 51). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, from Cream City mine, 
Cream City, on the Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed. Middle Eittanning; Carboniferous 
age, Allegheny formation. Roof, chocolate-colored shale; floor, clay. The bed was 
sampled on August IB, 1916, by J. H. Hance, 840 feet north 20^ east from entry mouth. 
Sample represented 2 feet 4} inches of coal, the entire thickness of the bed sampled. 

Empirv. Cult's Coal Bavk. 

Analysis 25784 (p. 51). Bituminous coal, Httsbuigh No. 8 field, from Culp's coal 
bank, 14 miles south of west of Empire, in section 9, Knox Township, on the Pennsyl- 
vania B* B. Cpal b()d, jpittsbuzgh; Carboniferous age, Monongahela formation. 
BoofySfuidstonej. £k)or,bone and clay. The bed was sampled on August 1, 1916, by 
J. H. Hance, as described below: 



Roof, sandstone. 
Coal 



Section of coal bed in Culp*s coal boTik. 



TU in. 



Clay, sandy 

Coal, few irregular partings ! 1 

Clay 

Coal 

Clayo 

Coal 

Clay 

Coal 

Clay ;.: 1 



i 

I 

I 

1 
3 



• Notlnclndedin sample. 



208 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-191^. 

Roof, sandstone — Continued. 

Coal 5) 

Clay» ^ 

Bone<> 3 

Floor, bone and clay. 

Thickness of bed 4 2^ 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 10| 

The section was measured 275 feet south 35^ west from mouth of main entry 

Irondalb. Banrbld Minb. 

Analyms 25785 (p. 51). Bituminous coal, Steubenville field, frcmi Banfield 
mine, at Irondale, in section 26, Saline Township. Coal bed, Lower Freeport; 
Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, sandy shale; floor, day. The bed 
was sampled on August 11, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Beit^fidd Clojf Co. mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft. la. 

Clay, shaleo If 

Bone and pyritiferous coal « 3 

Pyrite, sandy band a 2J 

Coal 1 1} 

Clay with pyriteo 1 

Coal 1 2 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 2 9} 

ThickneSB of coal sampled 2 3J 

The section was measured 250 feet south K)^ west from main entry mouth, yrhsK 
there were 120 feet of cover. 

Irondalb. Banrbld No. 3. 

Analysis 25787 (p. 51). Bitominous ooal, Lisbon fidd, from Banfidd day miiw 
No. 8, at Irondale, section 26» Saline Township. Coal bed, Lower Kittanniog; 
Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, bituminous shale and day; iloor, 
day. The bed was sampled on August 11, 1016, by J. H. Haaoe, as desoibed 
bdow: 

Section of coal be^ in Banfield Clay mine No. 3. 

Rodf bituminous shale and clay. Ft to. 

Bony coal a 2J 

Coal 4 

Clay, black 1 

Coal 2 

Bone , with pyrite « IJ 

Floor, day. 

Thickness of bed 2 8J 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 4 

The section was measured 400 feet south, 57° east, from main entry. 

• Not inotudad In Munple. 



OHIO: JBFFBBSOK OOUKTY, 209 

iBOinuiiB. Ea«t Ohio No. 2 Vise. 

AxmlymB 25901 (p. 51). Bitimunotifl ooal, Usboii field, from East Ohio No. 2 mine 
ttt Irondale, in Bection 26, Saline Township. Goal bed, Lower Kittanning; Car- 
boziiferoiifl age, Allegheny fonnation. Roof, day; floor, day. The bed was aunpled 
on AnguBt 16, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described below: 

Section of coal hedin EoMi Ohio Sewer Pipe Co. No. Bmine, 
Koof, day. rt. in. 

Coal 4} 

Clay J 

Coal 9i 

day and pyrite « | 

Coal lOi 

day and pyrite « 1 

Coal .* 1 IJ 

Pyrite, ooal, dayo 1 2} 

Floor, day. 

Thickness of bed 3 6f 

ThidcnesB of coal sampled ^. 3 2^ 

The bed was measured 3,000 feet east of mouth of main entry. 

Ibondals. Nicholson Coal Bank. 

Analysis 25788 (p. 51). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, from Nicholson coal bank, 
Irondale, in section 26, Saline Township. Coal bed. Upper Freeport; Carbonifer- 
ouB age, Alle^eny formation. Roof, shale and sandstone; floor, bone and fire day. 
The bed was sampled on August 11, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described bdow: 

Section of coal hed in Nitholton coal bank, 

TUxi, shale, and sandstone. Ft. in. 

Shale, bituminous 

day, bituminous o..; { 

Coal lOf 

day, black A 

Coal 5| 

Pyrite band, irregular ^ 

Coal 1 Hi 

day, bendio IJ 

Coal 10 

Boneo 2} 

Floor, day. 

Thickness of bed 4 6J 

Thickness of coal sampled 4 2} 

The section was measured 600 feet west, 10° south, of mouth of main entry. 

Ybllow Cbbsx. Local Minb. 

Analysb 25786 (p. 51). Bituminous coal, Pittsbuigh or No. 8 field, from mine near 
New SomerNt, 5 miles south of Yellow Creek, Carter Run, in section 16, Kdox Town- 
ship, on the Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed, Pittsbuigh, Carboniferous age, Mononga- 
hela formation. Roof, bituminous shale and sandstone; floor, bone and day. The 
bed was sampled on August 1, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described bdow: 

• Not Inebidad In nmpla. 



%IQ ANALYBBS OF GOAL, 1»UMM9. 

Sfttion^oftudhedin local mints 

Roof, bitumizioiis ahftle add Mndfllone; It. in. 

Shale, ooaly. 

Coal , 4 

Clay, sandy ..:..., ^ ^...... j i 

Coal 71 

Clay ■ i 

Coal 5i 

Clay i 

Coal 3i 

Clayo ; ; A 

Coal 2 

Clay, black : \ 

Coal, parting up to | inch 5^ 

Clay, bonyo J 

Coal, fefw irregular partings 1 41 

' Floor, bone and day. 

« ThlcknesB of bed 3 lOA 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 9| 

* . . 

Thesection was measured 150 feet south, 5^ west, of mouth of main entry. 

YstLOW Crebk. Yellow Cassk Hinb. 

Analysis 25890 (p. 51). Bituminous coal, Lisbon field, from Yellow Creek mine. 

in section 14, Saline Township, at Yellow Creek, on the Pennsylvania K. K. 
; Coal bed, tipper Freeport; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, shale 

and sandstone; lloor, clay. The bed was sampled on Atiguist 16, 1916, by J. H. Hance, 
\ as described below: 



« 



Section of coal bed in Yellow Creek mine 

Roof, shale and sandstone. it. in. 

Shale, bituminous « 4\ 

Coal 4 21 

Clay« U 

Coal 1 7 

Clayo 4 f 

Coal 1 2 

Bone a 3 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed , 7 H 

Thickness of coal sampled 6 Hi 

The section wias measured 30 feet west of mouth of entry. 

Roof, shale and sandstone. Ft la. 

Bony coalo... '. .' 2i 

Coal 1 6 

Bone and clay « 1 

Coal....... : * 10 

Bone and clay « '. ^ 

Goal.. ....!...: : 1 IJ 

aNotlnflliidadiaflaai^le. « . 



OKLAHOMA: CQAJL, COUNTY. 



211 



Floor, day. Ft. in. 

Thickneasof bed 4 0} 

Thicknees of coal sampled 3 7} 

The bed was measured 60 feet southwest of opening. 

OKIAEOKA. . 
GOAL OOTTNTT. 

Lehigh. Folsom Morkis No. 5 Mine. 

Analyses 30707 to 30712 (p. 51). Bituminous coal, Oklahoma fi«ld, from Lehi^(?) 
No. 5 mine, a shaft mine 3,000 feet northeast of Lehigh, in sec. 14, T. IS., R. 10 E., 
on the Missouri, Kansas <fc Texas R. R. CoAl bed, McAlester; Oarbomferous (Alle- 
gheny) age, McAlester shale. Bed is 3 feet 6 inches to 5 feet thick and dips 6** east. 
"Sulphur** bands and bony coal are encountered in mining. Roof, poctr, a friable 
dark-gray shale; floor, rough, a soft shale. The bed was sampled by W. H. McOm- 
brey and J. B. Hynal on May 16, 1918, as described below: 

SscUons qfcoal bed tn No, 5 wine. 



Lftbontary No. 



Boof. dark gray shale. 
Shale. 



Bony cool 

Coaljdieazi. 

"8iiltfa[ir"baiid 

Shalahand 

" Siili>h]]r " aod ooal band. 

Coal. dean. 

''Sulphnr^band 

« Sulphnr " and coal band . 

OoaLdean. 

"8ufchnr'*band 

Ooal,dean. 

Coal, soft 

'<8iib>hi]r"band 

Coaf,dean. 

"8alplnir"baiid 

Coal, dean. 

CoaLsoft 

"8a4»faur"band 

Goal, dean. 

Floqi. bony ooaL 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 



A. 

30707 



Ft. in. 



\ 






.... 



riis 



B. 

807Q8 



Ft. In. 
al 



2 



} 



I 7 

i n 



c. 

80709 



Ft. in. 
a2i 



1 2 



# 



J 

a 3 



i S 



D. 

30710 



E. 

3oni 



Ft. in. 



2 



8 7 



I ^ 



Ft. in. 



. > 



9 

1 

1 



1 ^ 



a Not indoded in sample. 

Section A (sample 30707) was cut at face of 1 south entry, 8( slope, top entry. 
Section B (sample 30708) was cut at face of 11 south entry, 5} slope, bottom entry. 
Section C (sample 307b9) was cut at face of 4 south entry, 5} slope, bottom entry. 
Section D (sample 30710) was cut at face of 14 north entry, 6 slope, top entry. Sec- 
tion £ (sample 30711)' was cut at face of 13 north entry, 5 slope, top entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
30707, 36708, 30709, 30710, and 30711 is given under laboratory No. 30712. 

System of mining, double entry, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was sheared by 
hand and shot down with black powder by the shot firers. Men employed numbered 
226 underground and 20 aboveground. The tipple was of wood. The output was 
shipped as run of mine. Haulage was by tail rope and mules. Coal was picked on 
the car by one picker. There were four loading tracks, with capacity for 25 empty 



• Not inehiled HMomtis. 



212 



a:^ALTS88 of goal, 1M6-1AU>. 



ft 



ftnd 35 loaded nihofld can. Sixty per cent of the coel irae mined in ndymnce warL 
The daily capacity of Ihe mine in 1918 was 000 tana, the daily avenge 450 tana, and 
the maximum day's nm 600 tona. 

For deacripticm and analyaea of other auupleB bom this mine see Bnrean of Mines 
BttU. 22, pp. 149, 674. 

Lkhioh. Folbom MoRBia No. 8 Mim. 

Analyaea 30713 to 30718 (p. 52). Bituminooa coal, Oklahoma field, from Fobom 
Morria No. 8 mine, a ahaft mine, 1) milea eaat of Lehigh, in aec. 24, T. 1 8., R. 10 E., 
on the Miaaouri, Kanaaa A Tezaa, the Chicago, Rock Ldand A Fadfic, and the Atdii- 
aon, Topeka A Sante Fe Bailroada. Coal bed, McAleater; CaibonitoouB (Alleg^y) 
age, McAleater ahale. Bed i84 to 5 feet thick and dipa4^ eaat; itcontainabandaof bony 
coal and *' sulphur;" roof, vcvy poor, of ahale; floor, rou^ of soft diale; entiance, 
600 feet above aea level; vertical depth to landinga (below ^tnnce), 606 feet. The 
bed waa aampled by W. H. McCoubrey and J. B. Hynal on May 17, 1918, aa deacribed 
below: 

For deacription and analyaea of other aamplea from thia mine see Bureau of Mines 
BuU. 22, pp. 149, 675. 

SetHofiM of coal bed in No. S mine. 



I A. 

LftbocBtoryNo 80713 



BoaTthale. 

Coal,timn 

Bcnjooal 

CannelooAl 

Shale 

Co«1,cImii 

Shale 

C(»l,aoft 

Cool, dean 

Mgofobiir" band 

Coal, sort 

Coal, dean 

Oiala 

Coal, dean 

«8ii4»licir''baod 

CoaLdean 

"Solphtir" 

ShateTT 

CoaLdean 

"Sutolmr" 

ghale.T.T 

Coal, dean 

Bonjooal 

Floor shale. 

ThiokiMMOfbed 

Thiokness of ooal aampled . 



Ft. in. 

7 



i 

2 



4 
8 



uS 



B. 
80n4 



Ft. in. 

■ ■aii" 

71 



J 



a 

S071S 



Ft* hi. 



\ 



iof 



if 



8 9 

8 7i 



} 



4 
8 Hi 



10716 



80717 



A. to. 






11 



10 



i 9 



Ft. it. 



1 8 



4ft 



4 
3 



•e 



• Not indoded In aample. 



Section A (sample 30713) was cut at the face of 6 south entry, main slope, bottom 
entry. Section B (sample 30714} was cut at the face of 6 south entry, plane, top entiy. 
Section G (sample 30715) was cut at the face of 7 south entry, plane, top entry. 
Section D (sample 30716) was cut at the face of 5 north entry, main slope, bottom entry. 
Section £ (sample 30717) was cut at the face of 6 north entry, plane, top entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 3071S, 
30714, 30715, 30716, and 30717 is given under laboiatcuy No. 30718. 

System of mining, double room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by hand and 
shot down with black powder by four shot firers. Men employed numbered 213 under- 
ground and 17 aboveground. The tipple was of wood, with self-dumping cage. The 
total output was shipped as run of mine. The coal was screened through shakiiig 
screen 8 by 38 feet, with 4-inch holes. Haulage was by tail ropea and mules The 



OKLAHOMA: COAL COtnTT?. 



218 



appeazaace of the lump coal on the can was good. There were four loading tracksy 
with capacity far 25 empty and 25 loaded railroad can. About 60 per cent of the coal 
was taken out in advance work. The daily capacity was 600 tons, the daily average 
output 450 tons; maidmiim day's run was equal to the capacity. 

PHIUP8. FoLBOM Morris No. 6 Mine. 

Analyses 30719 to 30724 (p. 52). Bituminous coal, Oklahoma field, from Folsom 
Morris No. 6 mine, a shaft mine, 4,000 feet east of Philips, in sec. 2, T. 1 S. , R. 10 E. , on 
the MisBouri, Kansas & Texas R. R. Coal bed, McAlester; Carboniferous (Allegheny) 
age, McAlester shale. Bed is 4 to 5 feet thick and dips 9*^ east. Few faults are encoun- 
tered in mining, but the bed contains bone and *' sulphur' ' bands. Roof, very poor, 
of shale; floor, rough, of soft shale; vertical depth to top of coal, 230 feet. The bed 
was sampled by W. H. McCoubrey and J. B. Hynal on May 22, 1918, as described below: 

Section of coal hedxn Folaom Morria No. 6 mine. 



lAbotstocy No. 



Roof, 



ahals. 



doSSalB. 



Coal,dMn 

*'&aiipbaaT"\Miid 

Coalydmi. 

CoalySoft 

GoaLdean. 

"8^iln]r"liuid 

OoiarolBaii^ 

<*8uthi]r"baiid 

OoaLdBBa 

*'Baspbw**h§iid 

CoALoleaii. 

«8ii^hiir"l)aiid 

Coalfdeaiir 

Floor, diflle. 

lliielmflfliofbad 

ThidcneK of ooal sampled ■ 



A. 

aono 



Ft. in, 
• 3 

1 

1.* 



2 2 



ttk 



_B, 
80720 



Ft. fa. 



1 9 
I 2' 



4 lU 
4 11* 



C. 
80731 



Ft. in. 



10 

1 ^ 



2 7 



\ H 



D. 

80722 



Ft. in. 
• 4 
4 



10 
1 11^ 



4 8 
4 4 



E. 
80723 



Ft. im. 
.... 



% 



i 



9 
10* 

V 
V 



a Not fliioliid«d In aamplo. 

Section. A (sample 30719) was cut at hce of 10 north entry, 6^ slope, top entry. 
Section B (sample 30720) was cut at face of 10 north entry, main slope, bottom entiy . 
Section (sample 30721) was cut at ^e of 11 south entry, main sbpe, top entry. 
Section D (samp]a30722) was cut at face of 10 south entry, 6^ slope, top entry. Section 
£ (sample 80723) was cut at &ce of 10 south entry, main slope, top entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 30719, 
30720, 80721, 80722, and 30723 is given under laboratory No. 30724. 

System of mining, double room a|id pillar. In 1918 the coal was sheared by hand 
and shot dovrn with black powder at 5 p. m. by three shot firers. Men employed num- 
bered 180 undeiground. and 20 aboYQgiound. The tipple was of wood, with self- 
dumping cage. Twenty-five per cent of the output was shipped as run of mine. The 
coal was screened through shaking screens 8 by 38 feet, with 4-inch holes. Haulage 
was by tail rope, mules, and one electric locomotive. The coal was picked on the 
car by one picker. There were four loading tracks, with capacity for 20 empty and 25 
loaded railroad cars. The lump coal on the cars had a good appearance. Sixty per 
cent of the coal was taken out in advance work. The capacity of the mine was 600 tons 
a day, the daily average output 400 tons, and the maTimum day's run 800 tons. 



214 



ANALYSES OJB* COAL, l^lO-OfiLO. 



HASKBIJi OOT7NTY* 

McCuRTAiN. Blue Ridoe No. 3 Minb. 



1 
1 



Analyses 69353 to 69356, svonge of mine-fBce saniples (p. 52). Bitumuioiis coal, 
McOurtain field, irom Blue Ridge No. 3 mine, a slope mine, 1 mile northwest of McOur- 
tain, on the Fort Smith & Wester^ R. R. Ooal bed,' Panama; Garboniferons age, 
Hartshorne sandstone. Bc^ is 3 feet II inches to 4 feet 4 inches thick at points of 
sampling and dips 7° to 8^ north; roof /gray shale; floor, soft shale underlain with hard 
shale and '^ sulphur' ' band. The bed waa sampled by W. H. McOoubrey on June 1, 
1918, as described below: 

Sections ofcodl bed in No. S mine. 



Section 


A. 
09868 


B. 
0B8M 


C. 
00866 


D. 


Laboratory No 


0B3S6 






Roctf^ gray shale. 


J^ M. 
2 S 

• 1 

1 8 


Wit M. 

8 1 
2 1 


2 2 
• 2 

1 7 


Ft. <a. 


Bone 


Coal \ 


.? 


Bone 


Coal 








1 9 


Floor, soft shale, with hard shale and "sulphur" band below. 
Thieimt«.« of b^* . , 


8 11 
8 10 


4 4 
4 2 


8 U 
8 


4 


Thicim^fN? of coal sampled ^ 


3 8 


. 





aNotindudedlnsaxnple. - 

Section A (sample 69353) was taken at the face of 7 west entry, main slope. Sectioo 
B (sample 69354) was taken at the face of 6 west entry, main slope. Section C (sample 
69355) was taken at the face of 7 east entry, main slope. Section D (sample 69356) 
was taken at the face of 6 east entry, main Bl(^)e. 

Sixty per cer.t of the coal was taken out in advance work, and the total recovery 
claimed was 75 per cent. Haulage "v^as by mules and slope rope. The three loading 
tracks had capacity for 30 empty and 20 loaded railroad cars. Systiam of mining, 
room and pillar. The coal was cut both by hand and machine; wiai»hiiM» cuttiiig 
was in shale at the bottom of the coal. Outtings were not loaded out with the cotL 
PermiflBible explosive and permissible powder were used exdusively for sfaootiiig 
down the coal. Men employed numbered 125 undeiground and 25 on the sni&ce. 
A wooden tipple equipped with screens and chutes were used. About 50 per cent 
of the p^xiuction was shipped as run of mine, 58 per cent of screened sixes as fancf 
lump and egg coal, and 45 per cent of screened sizes as slack. The slack was coked, 
and about 275 tons of coke was producM a day. Fregments of roof and floor becune 
mixed with the coal, but miners picked the coal wfacfn loading at the fiaoe; two piemen 
cleaned the coal on the cars. There was an Itispector of cool at the tipple, Plracticslly 
the entire output was shipped to points in Oklahoma, Teitas, MiBBOilzi, and Kiobs 
for steam and domestic purposes. Hie capacity of the mine was 800 tons a day, 
and th^ average daily production in June, IMS, was 326 tons. 

HcGusTAiK. Blub Ridqb No. 4 Minb. 

Analyses 29840, 29841, 29843, and 69349 to 69352, mine samples, and 69412 and 09415 
to 69419, tipple samples <p. 53). Bituminous coal, McOurtain field, from Blue Ridge 
No. 4 mine, a slope mine li npdles west of McOurtain, in sec. 21, T. 8 N., R. 22 £•, 
on the Fort Smith & Western R. R. Goal bed, Panama; Oarboniferoua age, Barte- 
home sandstone. Bed is 4 to 4 feet 9 inches thick and dips 7 to 9° north, with poorly 
defined cleat running east and west. Faults and rolls are encountered,- and there is 
a soft *'slate" band in the middle of the coal. Except lor a few small "flolpbiff* 



OKULHOMA: HASKELL couKinr. 



215 



boUs, the bed id almost free from impmitieB. Tl^e mnin roof is faaird, gray shftle, the 
immediate roof 6 ineheB<rfhftid "dxttwslate.*^ floor, 2 inehee of 00ft fixe day, o^rer- 
lying haard smooth sazidy shale; oover at points of sampling, 164 to 282 feet. The 
bed was sampled by W. H. McGoubrey on December 21, 1917, as described below: 

8ietum» ufcodl bed tn No. 4 trwne, tampkd in 1917, 



No. 

Roof, shale. 

Coal, upper beneb , 

"BIlMbMMl". 

Coal, lower benoh , 

Floor, fire ol^r. 

ThtRtmfiw of bed 

ThickneBS of ooal sampled 



A 


V 


29640 






Ft. 


<n. 


1 


6 


2 

r 


•i* 


4 


4i 


4 


3 



B. 

29»41 



Ft, in. 

1 6 
«1 

2 91 



• Not included in sempto. 

Section A (sample 29840) was cot 40 feet from face of main slope, left rib, north. 
Section B (sample 29841) was cut at face of 4 west entry, main slope. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
29840 and 29841 is given under laboratory No. 29843. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 cutting was done by machine, except 
in withdrawing pillars, and the coal shot down with black powder and permissible 
explosive. Men employed numbered 72 underground and 8 aboveground. The 
tipple was of wood. None of the output was shipped as run of mine. The coal was 
screened through bar screens 15 feet in length, having 3}-indi spaces. Rope haulage 
was used on the slope and mule haulage in the mine. The coal was picked on the 
can by two pickers. There were two loading tracks, with capacity for 25 empty and 
15 loaded railroad cars. The lumps were large, and the appearance of the lump coal 
and screeningB on the can was good. The screenings were crushed and coked, but 
not washed. Fifty-five per cent of the coal was taken in advance work, and the 
recovery was 75 per cent. The unmined area was 300 acres. The daily capacity of 
the mine in 1917 was 350 tons, the average output 300 tons, and the maximum day's 
run 347 tons. 

Ihe bed waesami^ed also by W. H. McCoubrey on June 3, 1918, as described below. 
Commercial samples were taken at the tipple by J. F. Davies and N. H. Snyder on 
June 10, 1918. 

SectioTU of ooal bed in No. 4 mine, aampled in 1918. 



Seetioa 

itfxntofyNo.. 



HooCiDiriiiyibala; inuMdiate, shale. 

"agliimf''*twnd".'.'.'..'!!.'I.'."!.\' 

CoalT. 

"Sulphur" hand 



Shale, hard 

Coal 

"Solphafbaiid. 
Coal.. 



^ CoaL 

nooriliBlsandelBV. 

ToidciMas oCbed 

Thicknewofecal aampled. 



Ft. in. 



I 



\ 



Q 

• 2 
2 

J 1 



B. 
60349 




1 9 

3 4 



C. 

60351 



Ft. in. 
1 6 



•J 



a2 



02 
2 



4 «i 
4 2 



•Mot inohidsd bi smpls. 



D. 

60360 



Ft. in. 
1 1 



'4 



«2 
2 2 



4 3 

8 m 



216 ANALYSES OF GOAL, 1916-lDi9. 

8ecti(mA(aMnple68352)wwtal»a»tthefM»of5wie«te&try»niflmd^ Sectioo 
B (flMnple 60349) wis taken fttUie face of 5 ewt entry, main alope. Section C (nmple 
69351) WIS taken at the face ^ 6 room, 4 east, main dope. Section D (BUupiB 69350) 
was taken at the face of 4 treat entry, main alope. 

Tipple samples 69412, 69416, 69417, and 69418 were lump coal, over 1-inch bar 
screen; tipple samples 69416 and 69419 were of slack thioa^ l-inch bar screen. 

In 1918 permissible explosives were used exclusively for shooting the coal. Hie 
mine was trying out panel longwall work and resuming the manufacture of coke in 
beehive ovens. Men employed numbered 125 underground and 15 abovegroimd. 
Goal passing throu^ l)-inch bar screens was shipped as slack and coked at rate of 
275 tons of coke daily. The coal was cleaned by two pickers on railroad cars. Then 
was an inspector of coal at the tipple. At time of sampling in 1918 the coal m 
shipped to Oklahoma City for railroad and domestic purposes. The capacity of the 
mine was 500 tons a day, and the average daily output was 325 tons. 

McCuBTAiN. Blub Ridob No. 5 Minb. 

i Analyses 29839, 29842, and 29844 (p. 53). Bituminous coal, McCurtain field. 

I from Blue Ridge No. 5 mine, a slope mine 1 mile west of McCurtain, in sec. 21, T. 8 

N., R. 22 £., on the Fort Smith A Western R. R. CoeA bed, Panama; Carfoonifeiom 

} age, Hartshome sandstone. Bed is 5 to 6 feet 4 inches thick and dips 16° north 10* 

* west. Cleat running east and west is not well. defined. Frequent roUs and faults 
are encountered in mining. There is a band of soft shale in the middle of the coal 

* Roof, soft, gray shale, with about 10 inches of "draw slate;'' floor, smooth, hard, 
I sandy shale; cover at point of sampling, 115 to 155 feet. The bed was sampled by 

W. H. McGonbrey on December 21, 1917, as described below: 



Sections of coal bed in Blue Ridge No, 5 mine. 



Section 

LftboTfttory No. 



i 

1 

« BoA soft gray shale. 

I OmI 

ft "Blue band" 

Coal 

Floor fire day. 

Thickness of eoal 

Tidiness of coal sampled. 



A. 
7K» 


B. 
29M3 


Ft. Ht. 
2 5 

•1| 

8 6 


Ft. fo. 

2 6 
• I 

a 4 


6 111 
a 10 


5 11 
5 10 



• Not iBdnrtart in sample. 

Section A (sample 29839) was taken in 2 west entry ofif main dope. Section B 
(sample 29842) was taken in 3 room, 2 east entry, off main slope. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 29839 
and 29842 is given under laboratory No. 29844. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was shot down with per- 
missible explosives by one shot firer. Men employed numbered 38 undeiground and 
8 abov^ground. The tipple was of wood. The total production was shipped as run of 
mine. One picker was employed on the car. The coal was in laige lumps and had t 
good appearance on the cars. There was one loading track, with capacity for 7 empty 
and 25 loaded railroad cars. About 60 per cent of the coal was taken in advance worl. 
and there was a recovery of about 60 per cent. About 300 acres was unmined. The 
daily capacity of the mine in 1917 was 125 tons, the daily average 110 tons, and the 
maximum day's run 170 tons. The output for the year 1917 was 2,000 tons* 



OKLAHOMA: HASKELL COUNTY. 217 

SnoLKR. Strip Pit. 

Aiial3rn8 90344 (p. 63). BituminouB coal, McAlester field, from a strip pit, a small 
QpeniDg 8 miles northwest of Stigler, in sec. 5, T. 9 N., R. 21 E. Coal bed, Stigler; 
C^boniferooB (All^heny) age, McAlester shale. Bed is about 22 inches thick; floor, 
clay. The bed was sampled at face by J. J. Rutledge on April 24, 1918, the sample 
r opro i wn ting 22 inches of coal, the thicknww of the bed. 

The seam has an overbuiden of aboat 12 feet, composed mostly of red day ; 8 to 4 feet 
of gray shale lie immediately over the coaL The overburden is removed by plows and 
scrapers, and the coal is broken from the bed by driving iron pins vertically through it. 
The coal is hauled by teams to the Midland Valley R. R. , at Stigler , where part is used 
loc^y and part is shipped as blacksmith coal. At time of sampling in 1918 the daily 
output was 50 tons. 

Stiolbr. Turner Strip Prr. 



28323 (p. 63). Bituminous coal, high rank, Choctaw field, from H. A. 
Turner strip pit, 2 miles from Stigler, on the Midland Valley R. R. Coal bed, 
Stigler (McAlester); Carboniferous age, McAlester shale. Roof, dense, clay shale; 
floor, clay; no partings. The bed was sampled on October 17, 1916, by D. White 
near north end of pit. Sample represented 1 foot 10 inches of coal, the entiro 
thickness of bed sampled. 

For description and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines Bull. 
123, pp. 67, 271. 

Tamaha. Nunnallt Strip Pit. 

Analysis 26324 (p. 64). Semibitundnous coal, Choctaw field, from Floyd NunnaUy 
strip pit, 8} miles from Tamaha. Coal bed, Stigler (McAlester); Carboniferous 
age, McAlester shale formation. Roof, clay shale under alluvium; floor, day. The 
bed was sampled on October 17, 1916, by D. White. It contains 1 foot 11) inches clear 
coal; nothing rejected. The section was measured at active workings in pit. 

Tamaha. Old Slops Mms. 

Analysis 30706 (p. 64). Bituminous (?) coal, Stigler field, from Old Slope mine, near 
Tiunaha, in acoal field on the segregated Indian coal lands, in sec. 19, R. 22 E., T. 11 Jif. 
Coal bed, Stigler (McAlester (?)); Carboniferous (Allegheny) age, McAlester shale. 
Roof and floor, soft gray shale. The bed was sampled near moulh of slope by J. J. 
Rutledge on June 6, 1918. The sample represented 2 feet 5 inches of coal, which is 
equal to the thickness of the bed. The coal from this mine is of high grade, bright, 
glossy, and clean. It is used for blacksmith coal and in railroad shops. This part of 
the coal field is practically viigin, owing to the distance from the railroad. The 
mine was not in operation. 

Whttefirld. Lioon Strip Pit. 

Analysis 26326 (p. 64). Bituminous coal, Choctaw field, from J. P. Ligon strip pit, 
in section 24, 1 mile south and 1 mile west of Whitefield. Coal bed, Stigler; Carbon- 
iferous age, McAlester shale. The bed was sampled on October 17, 1916, by D. White. 
The sample represented 1 foot 8} inches of coal, the entire thickness of the bed, except 
H inches of bony coal at the bottom. The section was measured in the face of the 
stripping. 



218 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



LATIUE& COXnVTT. 

Dbonan. M. K. ^ T. No. 19 Minb. 

AoalysBB 69662, 69842, 69530, ^547, and 69560 (p. 54), average of miBe-lace flamples; 
aiialy0e869541and69544(p. 55), avecageof tipple samples (nut l^to 2iiix;heB);aiialy8eB 
69532 and 69533, (p. 54),lumpover 2) inches, and analyses 69543 and 69548. slack throu^ 
lHiM:bcnreen<p. 55). Bituminous coal, McAlester field, fromM.K.<fcT. No. 19 mine, t 
shaft mine, { mile west of Degnan, on the MSasouri, Eansas-dt Texas R. R. Goal bed, 
Lower Hartshorae; Carboniferous (Allegheny) age, McAlester shale. Bed is 5 feet 3 
inches to 6 feet ^i inches thick at points of sampling; dip, 12^ to 13° northeast; roof, 
shale, fairly strong; floor, smooth, gray shale. Commendal samples were taken at 
the tipple by J. F. Davies and N. H. Snyder on June 19, 1918. The bed wassampled by 
W. H. McCoubrey on June 19, 1918, as described below: 

SediofU of coal bed in M. JT. ^ T, No. 19 mine. 



L 

C 

( 

c 
c 

i 



Section 

LabontoryNo 

Roof, strong gray shale. 

Goal 

• Shale 

Coal 

COiale 

Goal 

Shale 

Goal 

FIoV|ShalB. 

TiiidaieBs of bed 

Thlflkness of coal sampled 



A. 
0M52 



Ft. in. 
11 

5* 



6 
S 



I 



B. 
80642 



Ft. in. 
6 3 



B 3 
5 3 



C. 
40580 



Ft. in, 
51 



t 



1 1 

1 6 

2 9^ 



5 
5 



St 



D. 
MM7 



Ft, te. 

1 6 

3 J 



5 
6 



^ 



E. 



Ft. to. 

2 n 



:l 



6 
6 



tt 



Section A (sample 69552) was taken from the face of 5 east entry off main slope. 
Section B (sample 69542) was taken from the face of 2 east entry off inside plane. 
Section C (sample 69530) was taken from the lace of 3 east entry off main slope. Sec- 
tion D (sample 69547) was taken from the face of 4 east entry off main slope. Section 
"E (sample 69560) was taken from the lace of 1 east entry off inside plane. 

System of mining, room and pillar, entry and air course. The hig^ dip prevents 
the use of mining machines. A permissible explosive was uned for shooting the coal 
in the slope and in all narrow work; black powder was used in rooms on plane. The 
miner endeavored to pick out impurities when loading the coal at the fate. Men em- 
ployed numbered 135 in the mine and 26 on the surface. About 35 per cent of the 
output was shipped as lump, 20 per cent as nut, and 45 per cent as slack. Two picken 
worked on the cars when loading lump coal. An inspector of coal'was employed at 
the tipple. At time of sampling 60 per cent of the coal was taken out in advance 
work, and the total recovery claimed was 60 per cent. Haulage was by mules, 
electric motor, and rope. There were four loadii^ tracks, with cai)acity for 30 empty 
and 30 loaded railroad can. The coal was shi]^)ed to Galveston, Tex., lor bunker 
purposes. The capacity of the mine was 1,000 tons a day, and the Awenge daily 
ott^t at time of sampling was 600 tons. 

GowEN. Rock Island No. 40 Minb. 

Analyses 30270 to 30277 (p. 55). Bituminous coal, McAlester field, from Bock Island 
No. 40 mine, a slope mine about 1 mile west of Gowen, in sees. 22, 23, 26, 27, T. 5 N., 
R. 17 G., on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R. R. Coal bed. Lower Hartshome: 
Carboniferous (Allegheny) age, McAlester shale. Bed is 3 to 5 feet thick and dips 
C^ southwest. Immediate roof is gray shale 1 to 20 inches thick; above this is mudi 
harder gray diale 10 to 60 feet thick; then coal averaging 3^ feet thick, and above that 



OKLAHOMA: LATIM£R OOITNTT. 



219 



a hard, fine-grained sandstone about 50 feet thick; floor, gray, hard shale. The bed 
was sampled by J. J. Butledge, W. W. Fleming, J. B. Hynal, and W. H. McCoubrey 
on March 14 and 21, 1918, as described below: 

Sediofu of coal bed in Rod Island No. 40 mine. 



Bectlim. 


A. 
309(73 


B. 
8O07D 


c. 

30374 


D. 
80870 


E. 
80873 


p. 

30275 


G. 


Lftbontcrr No 


30871 






Boof,alialB. 

COftl. dMHI. 


Ft, M. 
3 

? 


Ft, in. 
9 


Ft, la. 
1 3 


Ft, <». 
1 3 


Ft, <». 
3 6 


Ft, <». 
1 U 


Ft. Hi, 
1 


dniid ikmI 




Ooftl.dMD 














Black "so^or" band 

Coal with Uadc ^'mlpliiiv" 
ImniM r... .. : , 


i 


A 


A 


A 


A 


. 


1 


CoaLoleui. 

Btaa''8aliA]]r"baiid 




11* 
J 1 


6 

J 


6 

1 u* 


7 




1 .* 


7 
1 4* 


1 11* 


Coalidnan.... . . . . . .. 




Blaoc ''nfailiiir " band 




tjtwil.fi fflin 








Black ''nlplmr" band 

OfMil.i4ffian 




















noorabale: 

ThkkiM^ of 1m4 - . *, 


I it 


I It 


J a 


J a 


liil^ 


t n 


Thtelmoiw d coal aamptod. . 



Section A (sample 90272) was cut from face of 8 east entry oB 41 slope. Section B 
(nmple 30270) was cut from face room 5 in 9 west entry off 41 slope. Section G (sample 
30274) was cut from face of 5 east air course off 41 slope. Section D (sample 30276) was 
cat from Hoe of 5 west entry off 41 slope. ^Section £ (sample 30273) was cut from 
foee of room 60 in 6 west entry off 40 slope. Section F (sample 30275) was cut from 
face of 6 east entry off 41 slope. Section G (sample 30271) was cut from face room 
15 in 7 west entry off 41 slope. 

The result of an ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face 
samples S0270, 30271, 80273, 30274, 90275, and 30276 is shown under laboratory 
No. 30277 F. 

System of mining, entry and air course, room, and pillar. In 1918 no undercutting^ 
was done; some shearing was done by the miner after cutting and cracker shots, but 
most of the coal was blasted off the solid. Pennissible explosive was used in the 
cutting shots and black blasting powder (FF) for blasting off the solid. Rope and 
mule haulage were employed. The coal was used for steam purposes. The daily 
output was 600 tons. 

Run Oak. Huxino No. 2 Mine. 

Analyses 69613, 60680, and 69634, average of mine-ftuse samples, and analyses 
69611, 69622, 69627, and 69629, average of tipple samples (p. 55). Bituminous coal. 
Red Oak field, from Hilling No. 2 mine, a drift mine 3} miles southeast of Red Oak, 
on the Ghicago, Bock Island A Fiacific R. R. Goal bed, Lower Hartshome; Car- 
boniferous (All^eny) age, McAlester shale. Bed is 3 feet 10} inches to 4 feet 1} 
inches thiA at points of sampling; dip, 28^ north; roof, bony coal overlain by shale; 
floor, bony coal underlain by shale. Commercial samples were taken at the tipple 
by J. P. Davies and N. H. Snyder on June 24, 1918. The bed was sampled by W. H. 
McCoubrey on June 24, 1918, as described below. 

55270-— 22 16 



220 



ANALYSES OF GOAL, 1916-1919. 



Sedioiu of coal befi in Hilling No. 2 #»> 



t 

1 



c 



L 
C 

€ 
C 

1 



Sectton , 

Laboratory No. 



1 



f'^lZ 



Roof, Bhale and bony coal. 
Coal 



n. 



BonyooaL. 

Shale 

Coal. 



B. 

0M30 



Ft. in. 



a 

68634 



Ft. m. 



Shale band. 

Coal 

Shale baud. 
Goal. 



Shale band. 

Coal 

Shale band. 

Coal 

Shale , 



: 1 



Coal. 
Floor, bony ooal and shale. 

Thidmeasofbed 

Thicknen of ooal sampled. 



4 
4 



I 



'.t 

1 10 



4 l| 



6* 

I 

8 

1 

8 

J 



Section A (sample 69613) was taken at the iace of 2 eai ''" comae, nudn dope, 
Section B (sample 69680) was taken at the face of east plan , j* . in dlope. Section 
(sample 69634) was taken at the face of 1 east entry, main slope. 

System of mining, room and pillar, entry and air course* in 1918 the coal was mined 
by hand and shot down with black blasting powder. Men en ployed numbered 15 
in the mine and 4 on the surface. The coal was dumped over a gooseneck dump, 
and the entire output was shipped as run of mine. The coal ivas cleaned by one picker 
on the cars; the miner picked the coal at the face. At the time of sampling 50 per 
cent of the coal was taken out in advance work, and the totid recovery claimed was 
50 per cent. Haulage was by mules. There were two loading trackB> with capacity 
for 15 empty and 20 loaded railroad cars. At time of sampling the coal was shipped 
to points in Oklahoma and Texas for steam purposes. The capacity of the mine ma 
150 tons a day, and the average daily output was 40 tons. 

WiLBUBTON. Dbgnan-MoConnbll Nbw No. 5 Mine. 

Analyses 69509, 69510, 69518, 69516, and 69517, average of mine-face samples; 
analyses 69511, 69512, 69514, and 69515, average of tipple samples, and analyses 27531 
to 27535 (p. 55). Bituminous coal from Degnan-McConnell New No. 5 mine, a shaft 
mine li miles northwest of Wilburton, sec. 8, T. 5 N., B. 19 E., on the MisBouri, 
Kansas & Texas R. R. Goal bed, Upper Hartshorne; Carboniferous (Allegheny) age, 
McAlester shale. Bed is 3 feet 9) inches to 4 feet 8) inches thick at points of 
sampling. Occasional rolls occur in the seams, but no large faidts have been found. 
Dip, 9® north; roof and floor, hard, gray shale. OommerciBl samples were taken at 
the tipple by J. F. Davies and N. H. Snyder on June 8, 1918. The bed was sampled 
by N. H. Snyder and J. F. Davies on June 17, 1918, as described below: 



Sectums of coal bed in Degnan'McConneU New No. 5 mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, shale 

Coal 

"Sulphur** 

Coal , 

Floor, shale 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled . 



.V, 



A. 
60509 



Ft. in. 
4 I 



J \ 



B. 

00510 



FL in. 



3 0| 
3 0| 



0. 

00513 



Ft, in, 
3 Oi 



3 9k 
3 Ol 



D. 
60610 



Fi, in, 
< 8| 



t n 



E. 

0B517 



Ft. *•• 
3 Ui 



3 lU 
3 Ul 



OKLAHOMA: LE FLOBE COUNTY. 



221 



Section A (aample 69509) was measured at face of 6 east entry. Section B (sample 
69510) was measured at main east entry. Section G.(Bample 69513) was measured at 
12 west entry. Section D (sample 69516) was measured at 10 east entry. Section E 
(sample 69517) was measured at 10 west entay. 

System of mining, room and pillar, entry and air course. In 1918 the coal was un- 
dercut by electric chain machines or sheared by hand in narrow work on tlie plane 
only. Machine cuttings were loaded out with the coal. Black powder was used on 
plane in rooms and permissible explosive for shooting down the coal and in machine 
work. All holes were drilled and shots prepared by the miners, but were tamped and 
fired from within the mine by shot firers using safety fuse, after all other employees 
had left the mine. Men employed numbered 159 underground and 15 on the surface. 
At the time of sampling 60 per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work, and 
the total recovery claimed was 60 per cent. Haulage was by mule power and a rope 
haulage system. There were four loading tracks, with capacity for 30 empty and 30 
loaded railroad cars. Haulage was by mules and by rope in 1917, at which time no 
pillars had been drawn, and recovery was about 50 per cent. At time of sampling the 
coal was dumped from self-dumping cages and shipped as run of mine. The coal was 
cleaned by two pickers on the cars, and there was an inspector at the tipple. The coal 
was carefully picked by miners when loading at the face. The coal was shipped to 
various points in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas for domestic and steam purposes. 
The capacity of the mine was 600 tons a day, and the average daily output at time of 
sampling was 550 tons. 

The bed was sampled by J. J. Rutledge, J. F. Davies, and W. W. Fleming on 
January 27, 1917, as described below: ' 

Sections of coal bed in New No. 5 minej sampled in 1917. 



SfctLoa 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, ffr^j shale. 

Coal,cloan 

"Mother 0061" 

"Sulphur" 

" Sulphur," black 

Coal, clean 

"Bnfphur" 

CoaL clean 

*'Mothercoal" 

Coal, clean 

Floor, hard gray sandy shale. 

Tnidmeas of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 



A. 
27531 



B. 
27532 



Ft. in. 
1 8 



Ft. in. 

1 m 



8 

io|« 

3 11 
3 lOi 



»4 



1 6 

3 
3 



C. 

67534 



Ft. in. 
2 OS 



i"**i 



3 10 
3 10 



D. 
27533 



Ft. in. 
2 1 



.! 



3 
3 



ISI 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 27531) was taken from 12 west entry, where 17 room will be 
turned, 1,200 feet west main shaft. Section B (sample 27532) was taken from 2 
room, A entry, 600 feet northeast of main shaft. Section (sample 27534) was taken 
from face 15 room, 10 east entry, 1,100 feet southeast main shaft. Section D (sample 
27533) was taken from 3 room, B entry, 200 feet north of main shaft. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
27531, 27532, and 27534 is shown under laboratory No. 27535 F. 

LB FLOBE COUNTY. 

BoKOSHE. Slope Mine No. 3. 

Analyaes 26801 and 26802 (p. 56). Semibituminous coal, Choctaw field, from slope 
mine No* 3, y mile northeast of Bokoshe station, in T. 8 N., R. 24 E., on the Mid- 
land Valley R. R. Coal bed, Hartshome (Panama); Carboniferous age, McAlester 



i 



c 
c 



c 



222 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



shale. Roof, shale; floor, hard day. The bed, which averages about 5 feet thick, 
was sampled by benches on November 3, 1916, by R. Y. L. Stratton, as described 
below: 

Sectiont of coal bed in slope mine JVb. S. 



SectloD 

LsbonkoryNo. 



Boof|disl6. 

Coal, top bench.: 

Coal, tXKtom bendi 

Floor, hard elay. 

ThkdmeBsofbed 

Thlokzun of ooal saaiided. 



jnc In. 

S 10 
•8 7 

5 
S 10 



B. 



• Not Indqdad In 8aiiq>le. 

Sample 26801 was measured in 5 east entry, off slope 1,700 feet east of mine mouth, 
top bend; 26802 was sampled from bottom bench. 

Calhoun. Central No. 8 Mine. 

Analyses 69461, 69468, 69469, 69470, and 69473, avenge of laoe samplea; analyses 
69460, 69462, 69478, and 69480, avenge of tipple samples of run of mine ooal thnragh 
8-inch bar screen; and analyses 69463 and 69483, avenge of tipple samples of lump over 
8-inch bar screen (p. 56). Bituminous coal from Central No. 8 mine, a slope mine at 
Calhoun, on the Potean Valley R. R. Coal bed, Lower Witteville; CaibonilenniB age, 
Savanna (?) formation. Bed is 4 feet } inch to 4 feet 6 inches thick; dip, 6^; roof 
and floor, hard shale with "sulphur" bands. Commercial samples were taken at the 
tipple by J. F. Davies and N. H. Snyder on June 14, 1918. The ooal bed was 
sampled by W. H. McCoubrey on June 14, 1918, as described b^ow: 

Sections of coal bed in Central No. 8 mine. 



JY. to. 
• 3 10 

a 7 

6 5 

S 7 i 



c 

t 
1 



Soetton 

Laboratory No. 



Roof. Kiay shale with "solphar" bands. 
CoaLdean. 



<'8i]li>hiir"band 

''Sulphur'' and shale band 

Coal, dean 

"8aiphar"band 

CoaLdean 

"8alphar"band 

Shale band "tolphor" and coal 

Coal, dean 

Shale band and "salpfaor" 

Shale band, "aolphnr," and coal 

Coal, dean 

Shale band and coal 

CoaLdean 

"Smphor" and shale 

Shale band and ooal 

Coal, dean 

Floor, sandy shale with "snlplnir" bands. 

ThJcknessofbed 

Thidbaess of ooal sampled 



• Not indoded In sample. 



A. 



Ft. <». 

7 

it 



9 



4 



.•II 

lult 



B. 



Kt, hi, 
4 

i 



• 4 



H 



•I 
1 6i 

3 Tf 



C, 



ftn in. 



I 



l» 



'n 



3 lit 



D. 



J^. ill. 



1 



VH 






I It 

8 4 



E. 



Ft' ia. 

1 o 



•J» 



4 

3 



• 2 



Section A (sample 69473) was cut at face of 8 east entry, main slope. Section B 
^sample 69470) was cut at face of 11 west entry, main slope. Section C (sMuple 69468) 
wascutatfaoeof 13 west entry, main slope. Section D (sample 69461) was cut at &ce 
of 7 east entry, main slope. Sectkm £ (aunple 69469) was cut at faoeof 12 westentiy, 
main slope- 



^ d 



OKLAHOMA: PlTTSBtTftQ COXTNTSf. 



g2d 



SyBtom of mining, room and pillar. The ooal was undercut in the bed by machines 
and shot down with permissiblo and black powder by shot firers after regular shift. 
Men employed numbered 189 undeiground and 30 aboveground. In 1918, about 60 
per cent of the ooal was taken out in advance work, and the total recovery claimed was 
60 per cent. The unmined area consisted of 900 acres. The estimated lifetime of the 
mine was 15 yean. Haulage was by mules and rope. There were three loading 
tracks, with capacity for 30 empty and 30 loaded railroad can. The ooal was dxmiped 
over a wooden tipple equipped with modem screens. A coal inspector at the mine was 
employed by the Kansas City & Southern R. R. , which takes a large {wrt of the output 
of the mine, and two picken cleaned the ooal as it was loaded on the railroad can; the 
minen picked the ooal at the face, but pieces of roof became mixed with the coal 
loaded out. At the time of sampling the mine was loading &-inch war lump, an unusual 
fidze in this field. The general appearance of the ooal on the railroad can was good. 
In March, 1919, the mine was loading nothing but run of mine. A modem shaker 
screen was used 10 feet wide and 40 feet long, with perforations from f inch to 2 inches 
and 6-inch or 8-inch ban. 

Howe. Howe-McGvrtain No. 3 BIinb. 

Analyses 69464, 69465, and 69482, average of mine-face samples, and analyses 
69466, 69467, 69479 to 69485, average <tf tipple samples (p. 57). Bituminous coal, 
Howe field, from Howe-McCurtain No. 3 mine, a slope mine 3 miles southwest of Howe, 
on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R. R. Coal bed. Lower Hartshome; Carboni- 
ferous age, McAlester shale. Average thickness of bed, 3 feet 6 inches; dip, 10^ north- 
east; toolf sandstone and iaSAy strong gray shale; floor, soft shale and bone, in places 
no IxHie; usually under main seam lies 1 foot of dean ooal, which is left down in rooms 
and taken up in roadways; 1 foot 3 inches of bone and coal ; about half of bottom coal is 
good. Commercial samples were taken at the tipple by J. F. Davies and N. H. Snyder 
on June 15, 1918. The bed was sampled by W. H. McCoubrey on Jtme 15, 1918, as 
described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Howe-MeCvrtain No, S mine. 



OBCQOu • . . • . . ... 

Laboratory No. 



RoaC fairly wtnog ahale. 

Booa 

Coal 

Shala and "sutiihnr '' band . 

Coal 

Shale and "sulphur'' band. 

Coal : 

"8ufa>hnr"band 

Coal.. 

«SuUbnr'' 

OoaTf.":. 

Floor, soft diale and bone. 

TUelmeHofbad 

ThkkneBi of ooal sampled . . 



A. 
6MM 



Ft. in. 

f 

•1* 





8 
3 



a 



B. 

0M05 



Ft, in. 



7 

a 

1 

a 

I 
a 

1 
18* 



3 6 
3 5| 



0. 

60482 



Ft. In. 



1 

3 2 
3 1 



• Not imdnded in sample. 

Section A (ssmple 69464) was taken from face of 4 west entry, main slope. Section IL 
(sample 69465) was taken from face of 6 west entry. Section C (sample 69482) was 
taken from face of 80 room^ 5 entry, main dope. 

System of mining, room and pillar, entry and air course. Blining machines were not 
used, but the coal was shot off the solid with black blasting powder. Men employed 
numbered 41 imderground and 7 on the sur&ice. At time of sampling 60 per cent of the 
oosl was taken out in advance work, and a total recovery of 60 per cent was claimed. 



224 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1^16-1010. 









m 



< 

i 



Haulage was entirely by mules. There were two loading tracln, Kith capacity for 8 
empty and 15 loaded railroad cars. The coal was dumped over a gooseneck dump and 
shipped as run of mine. The coal was cleaned by one picker on the ndlioad care. 
There was an inspector of coal at the tipple. Pieces of roof, floor, and partings appeared 
in the coal as loaded on the railroad cars. In June, 1918, at time of sampling, the coal 
was shipped to McGuitain, Okla., where it was used for coking purposes; in 1919, the 
entire output was coked at the mine and very little of the coal was shipped. The 
capacity of the mine was 300 tons a day, and the average daily production at time of 
sampling was 125 tons. 

Williams. Wiluams No. 1 Minb. 

Analyses 69409 to 69411, average of mine-face samples; analyses 69407 and 69406, 
average of tipple samples of lump over 2} inches; analjrses 69413 and 69414, of alack 
through l}-inch screen, and analyses 69406 and 69420, of nut over 1} inches, through 
2}-inch screen (p. 57.) Semibituminous coal, WUliams field, from WiUiams No. 1 
mine, a slope mine 1 mile west of Williams, on a spur of the Midland Valley R. R. 
Goal bed, Panama (Lower Hartshome); Carboniferous age, McAlester shale. Bed ia 
3 feet 11 inches to 4 feet 2 inches thick; dip, 7^ to 9°; roof, strong, gray shale; floor, 
ahale with bands of coal or of "* sulphur." Commercial samples were taken at the 
tipple by J. F. Davies and N. H. Snyder on June 12, 1918. The bed was sami^sd 
by W. H. McCoubrey on June 12, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in William$ No. 1 mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, strong shale. 

Bony coal 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

CkMl 

Shale and "sulphur" 

Coal, clean 

"Black sulphur" band 

Coal, dean 

"Sulphur" band and coal mUed 

"Black sulphur" band 

CoaLdean^ 

"Sulphur" band 

Coal, dean 

Sulphur band 

"Soft coal and sulphur" band 

Coal, dean 

Floor, shale and '' sulphur," A, bony coal. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled 



A. 

60409 



Ft. in. 
04 
2 



1 »1 




i 



8 "A 

3 7t»i 



B. 

OM10 



Ft. to. 
1 



3 



1 7J 



i 



1 «l 



0. 

0M11 



Ft. i«. 
• 1 



,1 



1^ 

i'ii* 



s loi 



a Not Induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 69409) was taken from face of 6 west entry, main dope. Section 
B (sample 69410) was taken from face of 7 west entry, main slope. Section G (sample 
69411) was taken from face of 8 west entry, main slope. 

System of mining, room and piUar, entry and air course. Mining machines were 
not used. All the coal was blasted off the solid with penniasible explosive vA 
black powder by the shot firers. Men employed numbered 75 underground and 25 
on the surface. In 1918, 50 per cent of the coal mined in advance work, 9^ 
the recovery claimed was 50 per cent. Haulage was by mule and slope rope. There 
were three loading tracks, with capacity for about 25 empty and 20 loaded railioMi 
cars. The coal was dumped over a crossover dump. One picker was employed oa 
the cars of lump coal and two boys on the cars of nut coal to clean th^ coal . There wa0 
no inspector of coal at the tipple. The miners were said to pick the coal at the fa^* 



Hi' .L.' 



OKLAHOMA: PITTSBUBG COUNTY. 



225 



The ooM was ahipped to KansBS City for domestic and steam purposes. The capacity 
of the mine was 500 tons a day, and the average daily production at time of sampling 
was 325 tons a day. 

For description and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines 
Bui. 123, pp. 67, 272. 

PITTSBXJBO COTTHTY. 

Alderson. Rook Island No. 5 Mms. 

Analyses 30660 to 30667 (p. 58). Bituminous coal, McAlester field, from Rock 
Island No. 5 mine, a shaft mine in sec. 22, T. 5 N., R. 15 E., } mile southwest of Aider- 
son, on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R. R. Coal bed, McAlester; Carboniferous 
(Allegheny) age, McAlester shale. Bed is 2 feet 6 inches to 3 feet 4 inches thick and 
dips 5° to 10° southwest. A f^ faults are encountered. The coal was very clean, 
with practically no bands or impurities. Roof is very poor gray shale and floor is 
smooth hard shale. The bed was sampled by W. H. McCoubrey and J. B. Hynal 
on May 1 and 3, 1918, as described below. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 85, pp. 65, 253. 

Sections cf coal bed in Rock Island No, 5 mine. 



Sectioo 

Laboratory No. 



Boof. gray shale. 

CoalfDony 

CoalfClMUi. 

Bla^"8iilpfaiir"baiMl 

Coal, clean 

Coal with " sulfdrar " bands . 

Coal. dean. 

Black «<salphur"nnd 

Coid,dean. 

Blade '<salplrar" band 

Coal, dean. 

Coal with shale band 

Black ''snlphnr" band 

Coal, dean... 

Black '^solphnr" band 

Coal, dean.. 

Floor, eiay shale. 

Tmdmessofbed 

Thickness of coal sampled. . 



A. 
aOfidO 



Ft. in. 
a2 



B. 
30661 



8 
2 4^ 






Ft. in. 



1 0^ 



c. 

30662 



Ft. in. 



§ 



6 



2 



3 
3 



tt 



3 
3 



t 



D. 
30663 



Ft. in. 



3 

1 »^ 

3 10 
3 10 



E. 
80664 



Ft. in. 



'h 
^ 

n 



F. 
30665 



Ft. in. 



$ 



2 5 



3 
3 



SI 



o. 

80666 



Ft. in. 



1 5 



1. 



3 101 
3 lo} 



a Not indnded in sample. 

Section A (sample 30660) was measured at face of 5 east entry off main west slope. 
Section B (sample 30661) was measured at face of 5 west entry off main west slope. 
Section G (sample 30662) was measured at face of 7 east entry off main west slope. 
Section D (sample 30663) was measured at face of 3 west entry off main west slope. 
Section £ (sample 30664) was measured at face of 9 west entry off main west slope. 
Section F (sample 30665) was measured at face of 4 west entry off 1 slope east side. 
Section 6 (sample 30666) was measured at face of 5 east entry off slope 1 east side of 
mine. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
30660, 30661, 30662, 30663, 30664, 30665, and 30666 is given under laboratory No. 30667. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1919 the coal was shot down with pernussible 
explosives exclusively by two shot firers after the miners had left the mine; machines 
were employed for cutting the coal; at time of sampling, however, some black powder 
was used in east side workings. Haulage was by mules and two electric motors. In 
1918 the entire production was shipped as run of mine. The steel tipple had screens 



226 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1016-1919. 



i 

c 

c 
c 



< 



1. 
< 



< 

c 



8 by 12 feet. Sizes of coal were lump, nut, i)ea, and alack. At the atari tipple the 
coal was picked on table by two pickers. There were four loading tracks, with 
capacity for 25 empty and 25 loaded railroad cars. The appearance of lump coal and 
the screenings on the cars was good. The estimated recovery of the mine was about 
45 to 50 per cent. The unmined area and the lifetime of the mine were unknown. 
The mine is old and expensive to operate. The daily capacity at time of sampling 
was about 500 tons; the daily average 425 tons, and the maximum day's run 500 tons. 

Aldbrbon. Rock Island No. 38 Minb. 

Analyses 30656 to 30659 (p. 58). Bituminous coal, McAlester field, from Bock 
Island No. 38 mine, a slope and shaft mine } mile east of Alderson, in sees. 24 and 19, 
T. 5 N., Rs. 15 and 16 E., on a spur track of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R. R. 
Coal bed, McAlester; Carboniferous age, Pennsylvania group, McAlester shale. 
Average thickness of bed, 3 feet 3 inches; dip, 16^ southwest; ro(^, poor, of very 
brittle gray shale; floor, rather soft, gray shale that heaves readily. The bed was 
sampled by W. H. McCoubrey and J. B. Hynal on May 4, 1918, as described below: 

Seetiom of coal bed in Rock Island No. S8 mme. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



F oof, gray shato. 

Goal with very thin bands shale. 

Coal, dean 

Goal, sort 

Blaac'«8alphiir''band 

Coal. dean. 



« 



Snfphur '' and soft coal. 



Shale band. 

Coalfdean 

Bladc'«salphur"band.... 
** Sulphur ''^and soft ooaL . . 

Goal.dean , 

Blade *'8ulphur"band. ... 

Goal.dean , 

BladC'solphur^band.... 

Goal.dean , 

Black"siilphar"band.... 

Coal, dean. 

Floor, soft gray diale. 

Thidmess of bed 

Thidmeas o( coal sampled . 



A. 

a06M 



J^. in. 
1 
31 



n 

1 7 



i 



B. 

80667 



Ft, to. 


rt. H. 


/h 


1 


^ 


^ 






\ 


A 


4 


I 





7** 



; s^ i It 



c. 
aoess 



^ 



3 SA 
2 8A 



Section A (sample 30656) was taken from face of 9 west entry off main slope. Sec- 
tion B (sample 30657) was taken from &ce of 6 east entry off main west slope. Section 
C (sample 30658) was taken from face of main east entry off main slope. 

The idtimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
30656, 30657, and 30658, is given under laboratory No. 30659. 

System of mining, entry and air course, room and pillar. In 1918 all coal was 
blasted off the solid with FF black blasting powder; permissible explosive was used 
exclusively in the cutting shots in narrow places. Haulage was by rope and mule. 
The daily output of the mine in 1918 was 100 tons. 

Buck. Buck No. 22 Mxkb. 

Analysis 26150 (p. 58). Bituminous coal, McAlester field, from Buck No. 22 
mine, a slope mine 1 mile east of Buck and 5 miles from McAlester, in sec. 12, T. 
5 N., R. 15 £., on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas R. R. Coal bed, Upp^ Hartshorne; 
Carboniferous age, McAlester shale. Bed is 2 feet 10 inches thick; dip, 12^ south- 
west, with cleat; roof, gray shale; floor, gray shale; cover at point of sampling, about 
300 feet. The bed was sampled by J. J. Rutledge and W. W. Fleming, on September 
22, 1916, as described below: 



OKLAHOMA: PITTSBUBQ OOUKTT. 



227 



Section of coal bed in Btuk No, tt mine. 

Roof, gray shale. Ft. in. 

Coal 4 

"Mother coal" J 

Coal, clean 2 6 

Floor, gray ahale. 

Thickness of bed 2 lOJ 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 10} 

The sunple was cut at 1 east bottom entry, 6 feet from face of slope. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1916 the coal was shot off the solid with FF 
black blasting powder. Men employed numbered 4 underground and 1 aboveground. 
The tipple was of wood . Haulage was by mules and slope rope. The coal was picked 
on car by one picker. There were no loading tracks at time of sampling, as the mine 
had just been opened; all coal produced was hauled to the railroad by wagon. At 
time of sampling the output was 12 to 15 tons a day, all of which was derived from 
advance workings. The entire output was ahipped as run of mine. The daily 
capacity of the mine was 200 tons. In October, 1919, the mine was producing 1% 
tons a day, and laalroad tracks had been laid to the mine. 

'Cabbon. Gabbon No. 2 Mora. 

Analyses 68527, 605S6» 69546, average of mine-face samjdeB; analyseB 69529 and 
69631, lump, over 2} inches; analyses 69545 and 69662, chestnut, } inch to 1} inches; 
analyses 69528 and 69534, nut, 1} inches to 2\ inches; and analyses 69540 and 69554, 
dack, under } inch (p. 58). Bituminous coal, McAlester field, from Carbon No. 2 
mine, a dope mine 1 mile east of Carbon, on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas R. R., 
Wilburton branch. Coal bed, McAlester; Carboniferous age, McAlester shale. Bed 
is 2 feet 8} inches to 3 feet 1 inch thick; dip, 18° to 16° north, with a lower dip at foce 
of slope; roof, shale; floor, hard, smooth shale. Commercial samples were taken at 
the tipple by 1. F. Davies and N. H. Snyder on June 20, 1918. The bed wae sampled 
by W. H. McGoobiey on June 20, 1918, as described below: 

SecHone of coal bed in Carbon No, t minie. 



UbcntoryNo. 



Hoof, shale. 

OOBl. 



Shale band 

Coal 

Shale band with " sulphur " . 
Coal. 



Shale band 

Coal 

Shaleband 

Coal 

Shaleband 

Coal 

Floor, ahato. 

TbickneflB of bed 

Thldmetf bf eoal tamiried. 



A. 
68S27 



Ft. in. 
1 

a* 

8* 
4* 



^ 



8 
8 



B. 
(nS35 



Ft. in, 
1 

1 .*" 



3 1) 
8 ij 



C 

09540 



Ft, <». 



a 

2 



.* 



n 



Section A (sample 69527) was taken at the face of 5 west entry, main slope. Sec- 
tion B (sample 69535) was taken at the face of 7 east entry, main tHope. Section C 
(Bample 69546) was taken at the face of 6 west entry, main slope. 

System of miningi room and pillar, entry and air coiuse, the air coune being above 
entiy. ^fining was by hand, and both black blasting powder and permissible explo- 
B^ves were used for shooting down the coal. Pieces of shale from the roof and floor 



228 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-^1919. 



I. 



C 



5 

c 



c 
c 



became mixed with the coal, but the miner endeavored to pick them out atthelaoe. 
Men employed numbered 67 in the mine and 13 on the Buifaoe. Li 1918, 50 per cent 
of the coal was taken out in advance work, and a total recovery of 55 per cent wm 
claimed. Haulage was by mules. The four loading tracks had capacity for 20 
empty and 20 loaded railroad cars. The coal was screened and chipped in prepared 
sizes as follows: Lump, 43 per cent; nut, 15 per cent; chestnut, 11 per cent, and 
slack, 31 per cent of total output ci mine. Two men were employed to pick slate 
and move railroad can. The weig}i boss inspected both mine car and railroad car. 
The coal was shipped to vaiious points in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas, and to 
Omaha, Nebr., where it was used for domestic and steam purposes. It is among the 
best prepared domestic coaJs in Oklahoma. At time of sampling the capacity of the 
mine was 300 tons a day, and the average daily output was 200 tons; an increase in 
labor would be necessary to increase output to capacity. 

Hailbyvillb. Hailbt-Ola No. 2 Mine. 

AnalyMs 30898 to S0400 (p. 59). Bituminous coal, McAlester field, from Hailey-Ob 
No. 2 mine, a slope mine 1 mil^ south of Haileyville, in T. 5 N., R. 17 E., on the 
Chicago, Bock Island & Pacific B. B. Ooal bed. Upper HartBhome; Oaiboniferoos 
(Allegfheny) age, McAlester shale. Bed is 3 feet to 3 feet 4 indies thick; dip, 25^ to 
30^ west. A few faults are encountered; no rolls or hoisebacks. Bocrf, rought soft, 
gray shale, fairly strong, frequent slips; fioor, rough, soft, gray shale. Hie bed wu 
sampled by W. H. MeCoubxey and J. B. Hynal on April 12, 1918, as described beloir: 

Sectiona of coal led in HaUey^la No. t mine. 



Section. 

Laboratory No. 



Roctf. shale. 

Coal, bony , 

Coal, dean 

Ck)aland fire (day mixed.. 

Coal, bony 

Black ''sulphur" band 

Coal, dean 

Soft fire day 

Coal, dean 

Coal, bony 

Coal, dean 

Floor, shale. 

thickneas of bed 

Thickness of ooal sampled. 



A. 

ao3w 



B. 

30309 



Ft. in. 
as 
1 6 


Ft. «. 
1 4 





11 
1 



s 

3 



n 



1 



s 

3 



7 
4 



aNot indnded in sample. 

Section A (sample 30398) was cut at face of 1 south entry, main Acipe. Section B 
(sample 30399) was cut at face of 1 north entry, main slope. 

Tho ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
30398 and 30399 is given under laboratory No. 30400 F. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 coal was shot down with penniflsible 
explosive in entries and narrow places by two shot firers. Foiir tnen were employed 
imderground and one man aboveground. The tipple was of wood. The totel pio- 
duction was shipped as run of mine. Haulage was by pushers. One picker was em- 
ployed on the car. There was tiack capacity for six empty andt six loaded railroad 
cars. The appearance of the lump coal on tjhe cam was good. The capacity of th« 
mine was 160 tons a day and the average output 75 tons. In 1919 the mine wtf 
developed to third left; thickness, 3 feet to 3 feet 6 inches. Mules were used for 
haulage in entries. Capacity, 800 tons; daily output, 160 tons. 



OKLAHOMA: prrTSBtTRG COtTKTT. 



229 



Hailxtyillb. Blue Cbbek No. 7 Minb. 

Analysee 30401 to 30403 (p. 59). Bituminous, McAIeeter field, from Blue Creek 
N'o. 7 mine, a dope mine 1) miles south of Haileyville, in T. 5 N., R. 17 £., 
m the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R. R. Goal bed, Lower Hartshome; Carbon- 
iferous (Allegheny) age, McAlester shale. Bed is 3 feet 6 inches to 6 feet thick; dip, 
>0^ west. Thin bands of shale are occasionally encountered. Roof, gray shale on 
»uth aide of mine, roof coal on north side; floor, 2 inches of fire day, then hard shale; 
fairly smooth. The bed was sampled by W. H. McCoubrey and J. B. Hynal on 
A.pril 12, 1918, as described below: 

8eetio7iB of coal bed in Blue Creek No. 7 mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, section A, shale; section B, coal. 
Bone 



Coal, dean 

Bone 

Coal,clean 

Coal.canneL 

Black " sulphur ' ' band. . . . 

Coal, dean 

Bme. 

Coal, dean 

noaribardshaleb 

Thickness of bed 

TliidmesB of ooal sampled. 




B. 
30402 



Ft. in. 

"["'i' 



h 



2 10 
a2 



k 



I n 



Not JnchiriBd tn sainpls. 

Section A (sample 30401) was cut at face of 1 south entry, main slope. Section 6 
(sample 30402) was cut at face of 1 north entry, main slope. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 30401 
and 30402 is given under laboratory No. 30403. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 it was shot down with black powder 
and permissible explosive by two shot firers. Men employed nmnbered 16 under- 
ground and 3 aboveground. The tipple was of wood. The total output was shipped 
as run of mine. Haulage was by mules and pushers. The coal was picked on the car 
by one picker. There were two loading tracks, with capacity for six empty and six 
loaded railroad cars. The appearance of the lump coal on the cars was good. The 
daily capacity was 150 tons, the average 75 tons, and the maximum day's run 101 tons. 

Kbbbs. Osaqb No. 5 Minb. 

Analyses 69549, 69550, and 69556, average of mine-foce samples; analyses 69551 and 
69558, average of tipple samples of slack through f-inch screen; analyses 69553 and 
69557, of limip over 2^ inches; analyses 69555 and 69561, of nut through 2^inch 
screen; and analyses 69559 and 69563, of pea through {-inch screen (p. 59). Bitmni- 
Qous coal, McAlester field, from Osage No. 5 mine, a shaft mine H miles northwest of 
Krebs^ on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas R. R. Coal bed, McAlester; Carboniferous 
(Allegheny) age, McAlester shale. Average thickness of bed is 4 feet; dip, 9^ to 12°; 
roof, hard shale ; floor, hard , gray shale. Commercial samples were taken at the tipple 
by J. F. Davies and N. H. Snyder on June 21, 1918. The bed was sampled by W. H. 
McCoubrey on June 21, 1918, as described below: 



230 



ANALYSBd OF COAL, Vm-19i9. 



SedLWM of coal bed in Oioge No, 5 mine. 






C 

c 



L. 

c 



c 
c 



I 

• 



860tioii 

Laboratory No. 

Roof, fairly Btnmg, gray shak. 

Coal 

Shale and " Bolphur " band 

Goal 

Sbale and "sulphur" band 

Coal 

Shale and " sulphur " band 

Goal 

Shale and '< Bolphur" band 

Coal 

Shale and '' sulphnr " band 

Coal 

Shale and "sulphnr" band 

Coal 

Shale and "sulphur" band 
Coal 

Flow, smooth, hard shale. 

Thickntfs of bed 

Thlokneas of ooal sampled. . 



A. 
O0649 



Ft. in. 

1J 



4 



6 

1 

W 



B. 
606SO 



Ft. to. 
2} 



4 
4 



C. 
60656 



Ft. in. 



i 



2 4 



4 
4 



It 



Section A (sample 69549) was taken from the face of 8 west entry, east slope. Section 
B (sample 69550) was taken from the face of 2 west entry, west slope. Section C 
(sample 69556) was taken from the face of 6 east entry, east dope. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was mined entirely by machine 
and shot down with permissible explosive only. Men employed numbered ISO io 
the mine and 22 on the mafBce. The coal was dumped from self-dumping cages and 
passed over shaker screens. Sizes of coal : Domestic lump, 9 per cent; nut and pea, 4 
per cent; mine run, 32 per cent; pea and slack, 1 per cent; slack, 22 per cent Id 
1918, 60 per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work and represented entire 
percentage of recovery, as pillars were drawn to some extent. Haulage was by mulee 
and by rope. The four loading tracks had capacity for 25 empty and 80 loaded rail- 
road can. 

RiDGWAT. Rock Island No. 10 Mike. 

Analyses 30222 to 30227 (p. 60). Bituminous coal, McAlester field, from Bock 
Idand No. 10 mine, a shaft mine | mile east of Bidgway, in sec. 83, T. 5 N., R. 17 
E., on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R. R. Goal bed. Lower Hartahome; 
Carboniferous (Allegjheny) age, McAlester shale. Bed is 2 to 5 feet thick, is level, 
with cleat running north and south. Thin bands of black ' ' sulphur " are encountered, 
usually near the center of coal. Roof, soft, gray shale, with frequent slips; floor, 
similar to roof, hard. The bed was sampled by W. H. McCoubrey and J. B. Hyoftl 
March 8, 1918, as described below: 



Sections of coal bed in Rock Island No, 20 mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



•I) 



band. 



Roof, shale. 

Goal.cieaiL 

Black "sulphur' 

Coal, clean 

Blaok" sulphur" 

Coal^cloan 

Floor shale. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 



A. 

30222 



Ft, in. 
10 



1 

8 10 
S 10 



B. 



Ft, in. 
1 

1 •* 



2 6 
2 ft 



0. 
S0224 



Ft, fn; 
1 6 

u* 



8 
8 



10 
10 



Ft. M. 

a 4 



4 4 
4 4 



S. 



Ft. M. 
2 



4 9 
4 ( 



OREGON: COOS COXTRTY. 281 

Section A (sample 30222) was measured at the fBce of main east entry. Section B 
(sample 30223) 'was measured at the face of main west entry. Section (sample 

30224) was measured at the iace of 27 room, main west entry. Section D (sample 

30225) was measured at the iace of east air course, main north entry. Section "B 
(sample 30226) was measured at 6 east entry, main south. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
30222, 30223, 80224, 30225, and 30226 is given under laboratory No. 30227 F. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine and shot 
down with permissible explosive by three shot firers. Men employed numbered 162 
imdeiground and 11 abovegioimd. The tipple was of steel. The total output was 
shipped as run of mine. Haulage was by one electric locomotive and by mules. 
The coal was picked on car by two pickers. There were three loading tracks, with 
capacity for 30 empty and 30 loaded railroad cars. The appearance of the lump coal 
on cam was good. The daily capacity of the mine was 1,000 tons, the average 650 
tons, and the maarimum day's run 730 tons. 

8BQTJ0YAH COUKTY. 

Hanson. Bbswer Strip Prr. 

Analysis 26800 (p. 60). Semibituminoua coal, Cherokee field, from James Brewer 
et al. strip pit, 1 mile Tuarttk of Hanson station, in sec. 6, T. 11, E. 25 E., on the Iron 
Mountain B. R. Coal bed, not named (7); Carboniferous age, McAlester shale. 
Roof, shale; floor, clay. The bed was sampled November 2, 1916, by B. V. L. Strat- 
ton, the sample representing 12 inches of coal, the thickness of the bed. The section 
was measured at north edge of pit. 

WAOONSB COTTITTY. 

Bbdbibd. Kibk Stbip Prr. 

Analysis 26348 (p. 60) . Bituminous coal, Cherokee field, from Ed. Kirk strip pit, li 
miles northeast of Redbird. Coal bed, not named (?); Carboniferous age, Cherokee 
shale. - Roof, blue shale, marine fossils ; floor, clay. The bed was sampled October 20, 
1916, by D. White, the samples representing 9^ inches of clear coal, with charcoal 
layer 2 inches below top; total thickness of the bed, 9} inches. The section was meas- 
ured in face of stripping. * 

OBBGOV. 

0OO8 ooxnuTY. 

Beavebhill. Beavebhill Mine. 

Analysis 27951 (p. 60) . Subbituminous coal, Coos Bay field, from Beaverhill mine, 
aalopemineat Beaverhill, insec. 17, T. 27 S., R. 13 W., on a branch line of the Southern 
PiBdfic R. R. Coal bed, Newport; Eocene age, Coaledo (?) formation. Bed is 7 feet 
11} inches thick; dip, 26° to 40° ; roof and floor, shale; cover at point of sampling, 1,500 
feet; elevation above sea level, 60 feet. The bed was sampled by G. W. Evans on 
March 27, 1917, as described below: 

Section ofeoal bed in Beaverhill mine, 

Boof, shale. Ft. in. 

aialea 6 

Coal a 2 

Shales IJ 

Coal 3 

Shale a 6 



232 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 

Roof, 8hale — Continued. Ft. in. 

Coal 1 6 

Coal, bony. ^ 

Bone'* 1 6 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 7 Hi 

Thickness of coal sampled 5 2 

The sample was taken at face of 8 gangway, north. 

System of mining, in levels, 8-foot chutes being driven at about 50-foot centeis. 
* Beaverhill has been developed at large expense, but because of excessive heaving of 
the floor costs of operation are very high. The distance between levels is approxi- 
mately 340 feet. In 1917 the coal was shot oif the solid. At the time of sampling 2-5 
men were employed Underground and 12 aboveground. The tipple was of wood. 
All coal was hand picked or washed and passed through If-inch screens. Two pickers 
were employed. Haulage was by electric motor. Fifteen per cent of the coal 
was taken out in advance work. In 1917 the daily capacity was 200 tons and the daily 
^ average output 40 tons; it was entirely used by the Southern Pacific R. R., which 

£ owns the property. In 1919 the coal was extracted on the retreating system* largely 

^ decreasing the expense of maintenance from heaving. In addition to being used by the 

^ Southern Pacific R. R. , the coal was sold locally and the production was increased to a 

"2 daily average of 60 tons. It was expected tiie demand could be increased to 200 toz» 

^ daily by the autumn of 1919. 

^ For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Minee 

< Bull. 22, pp. 152, 684. 

5 Henbtville. Henryvillb Mine. 

^ Analysis 27956 (p. 60). Subbituminous coal, Coos Bay field, from Henryville mine, 

^ a slope mine at Henryville, on a branch of the Southern Pacific R. R. Coal bed, 

i- Newport ; Eocene age, Coaledo formation. Bed is 6 feet 4 inches thick ; dip, 26° ; roof 

^ and floor, shale; cover at point of sampling, 300 feet. The bed was sampled by G. W. 

p Evans on March 24, 1917, as described below: 

C ' Section of coal bed in Henryville mine. 

^ Roof, shale. Ft. to, 

1 Shale « 6 

2 Coal, bony 2 

Z Shale « 1 

Coal 2 4 

Shale a <> 

» Coal 1 6 

Floor, black shale. 

Thickness of bed 6 1 

Thickness of coal sampled 4 ^ 

The sample was cut at 2 south gangway. 

System of mining, breast and pillar. In 1917 it was cut by machine to a depth of 
7 feet. At time of sampling 4 men were employed abov^ijound and 21 undergrouBd 
The tipple was of wood; 30 per cent of the coal pajased through bar screens with 
1-inch space; 50 per cent ^as lump coal and 20 per cent nut coal. Haulage was by 
mules. One picker was employed. There was track capacity for 5 empty and 1^ 
loaded can. Fifty per cent was taken out in advance work, and the recovery ms 
about 60 per cent. The unmined area consisted of 2,000 acres. The estimated life- 
time of the mine was 50 years. The daily capacity in 1917 was 60 tons and the dail) 
average output 40 tons. This mine was closed down early in 1918 and will probably 
not be reopened. 

tf Not Induded in Mmpla, 



1 



PENNSYLVANIA: ALLEGHENY COUNTY. 



238 



PEVVSTLVASIA. 

AIiXJCaHENY C J^TNTY. 

Oreiohton. Creiohtc:^ Mine. 

AnalyBeB 26932 to 26934, 26990 to 26992, and 27088 (p. 61). Bituminous coal, Beaver 
field, from Creighton mine, a drift mine in the Pitt8burp:h district, at Creighton, on the 
Conemaugh Division, Western Pennsylvania branch of the Pennsylvania R. R. Coal 
beds. Upper Freeport, or E, and Lower Freeport, or D; Carboniferous age, Allegheny 
formation. The two beds are i»actically one, being separated by a parting less than 
a foot thick. The thickness varies from 4} to 7} feet, averaging 5 feet; general dip, 
2® north 60^ 'vest; thickness of the bone parting, 5 to 8 inches; roof, hard, smooth 
gray ahale oy<^ thin coal; cannel coal 6 to 18 inches over thick coal ; floor, hard, smooth 
undeiclay. The amount of cover over the coal varies; at some drill holes 150 to 170 
feet. The bed was sampled by J. J. Rutledge on December 5, 8, and 12, 1916, as 
described below: 

Sections of coal beds in Creighton mine. 



Ooctloo .............................................. 


A. 
26032 


B. 

26033 


C. 

26034 


D. 
26000 

Ft. in. 


E. 


'^**yicatflrF No ^ 


26001 






Boof. A. B, E. cannel coal; C, D, shale. 

OottI, hard, flinty 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 
8* 


Ft. in. 


Coul . 


' \ 


1 7 


10 


5 


"Snlphnr" band 






"Mower ooal'^ 


m^Mmmwmmmm 






a 7 


Coal 


1 4 

• 








"Mother coal" 








Goal 










I^Qoycoal.... 


48 


'? 




06 

7 


Cdal". .'.../....' .'...'. 




"Mother coal" 






Hard coal ,,,.-. 




4 






BhAle band 






ol 
2 5 
fll 




Coal 


3 


2 11^ 


1 4 


1 7 


Rtmi^b^nd. . . - . T . . - , . _ . 


fll 


Coal 






1 8 


Floor, fire day. 

ThickPffW of bed ,.. ^ ^ ,.,„.,.,, ^ , , , 


u 


6 2 

5 7§ 


5 51 







a Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 26932) waa taken on the rib of 1 room, 100 feet from the chute be- 
tween 10 entry and the Une air coiuse, and 5,625 feet north 48^ north, 48^ west, from 
drift mouth. Section B (sample 26933) was taken on 1 crosscut of 10 room, 15 entry, 
6,750 feet north, 35° west, from drift mouth. Section G (sample 26934) was taken on 
rib of 5 room, 19 entry off the main, 6,000 feet north, 15° west, from drift mouth. Sec- 
tion D (sample 26990) was taken at face of 2 room, 150 feet from 21 entry, 7,800 feet 
north, 24° west, from drift mouth. Section E (sample 26991) was taken 20 feet from 
^e of 1 TOOTH, 10} entry, 20 feet inby 1 crosscut, 3,325 feet north, 19° west, from drift 
mouth. A sample of cannel coal was obtained on face, 300 feet inby old 8 right, for 
approximate analysis of which see laboratory No. 27088. 

The residts ol an ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 
26932, 26933, 26934, 26990, and 26991 are given under laboratory No. 26992. 

System of mining, double and triple eirtry, itx)m and pillar. In 1916 cutting was 
done by machine and permissible explosive was used by shot firers at any time during 
the shift. Men numbered 135 employed underground and 25 abovegroimd. The coal 
was dumped over a tipple constructed of steel and wood. The coal was screened 
through bar screens 12 by 6 feet, with l^inch spaces. Sizes of coal shipped run of 
mine, If-inch lump, crushed coal, nut, and slack. After and before screening the 
coal was cleaned on pan by two pickers. There were two loading tracks, with capacity 



234 



AKALTSES OF GOAL, 1916-1910. 



for 43 empty and 43 loaded railxoad care. The tonnage 'was derived mainly from 
advance work. The unmined area was 1,500 acres. The estimated lifetime of the 
mine was 60 yean. The daily capacity of the mine in 1916 was 1,400 tons, and the 
actual daily average 750 to 800 tons. 

For description and analyses of other samples of coal from this mine see Bureau of 
Mines Bull. 22, pp. 154, 694. 

ABHSTBONG COTTirTY. 



c 
c 

c 
c 



< 

c 



c 
c 



AfPLBWOLD. SnTDKB MeNB. * 

Analyses 28664 to 28666 (p. 61). Bituminous coal, Allegheny Valley field, from 
Snyder mine, Applewold, opposite Eittanning. Coal bed, Lower Kittanning; Cv- 
boniferous age, Allegjieny formation. Boof, gray shale; floor, day. The coal was 
sampled on June 13 and 14, 1917, by H. Bassler, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Snyder mine. 



SmUoii-. , 

Laboratory No.. 



Boof. grey 8hftl6. 

Coal, perhaps slightly bony. 

Coal 

Shale, carbonaceoas. 

Shale binder 

Coal 

floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. . 



A. la. 

a 

u 



4 



3 10 
3 10 



B. 



JTf. in. 



12 



2 3i 

t 4 

3 4 



Section A (sample 28664) was measured 1,200 feet southwest of mine mouth, under 
Shawmut R. R. tracks. Section B (sample 28665) was measured 1,125 feet north- 
northwest of mine mouth. The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by 
mixing samples 28664 and 28665 is given under laboratory No. 28666. 

FoBD Crrr. Campbell Mine. 

Analyses 30280 to 30292 (p. 61). Bituminous coal from Campbell mine, a drift 
mine in North Buffalo Township, about 1 mile southwest of Ford City, on the Pitts- 
burgh, Shawmut & Northern R. R. Coal bed, aasomed to be Upper Kittanning; 
Carboniferous age, Allegjieny formatian. Bed is 1 foot 6 indies to 2 feet 6 indies 
thick; dip, 1° southeast; loof, hard, gray shale; floor, haid shale. The bed lies aboot 
50 feet above low-water level. Cover at points of sampling, 200 feet. The bed wts 
sampled by G. S. McGaa on April 4, 1918, as described bdow: 

Sections of coal bed in CampbeU mine. 



Seotioo 

Laboratory No. 



A. 



Boof. hard shale. 
Bono. 



Coal. 

Bona 

"Mother coal'' and bona. 
Coal and ftroaks of bona. 

Coal 

Bone 

Coal 

Bone 

Coal. 



Ft. 



Coal, bony.. 
Floor, hard shale. 



TUckness of bad 

ThtekneM of coal Hampted . 



2 

2 



i 



6 
6 



Fi. Hl 



1 
1 



1 



10 
10 



c, 

M»l 



Ft. to. 
4 



\ 



It 



PBKKSTIiVAKIA : AUJBGHENT COUNTY. 



285 



Section A (BBmple 90289) was cat lit 2 ri^t, 50 feet irom main entry. SectEon B 
I Sample 90290) WB8 cut at &ce of main entry, 250 feet from month. Section C (sample 
10291) was cut at 9 rig^t, 20 feet from nudn entry. 

The ultimate analynfl of a composite sample made by combining fmce sao^ikB 
90289, 90290, and 90291 is given under laboratory No. 90292. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the mine was comparatively new and 
SDiflJl. The coal was shot ofif the solid with FFF black powder, the only explosive 
used, and shots were fired at any time. Haulage was by man power. The tipple 
was of wood. The entire output was shipped as run of mine. The unmined area 
consisted of 40 acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 90 years. The daily 
capacity ol the mizie was about 40 tons, and the daily avenge iModuction was equtd 
to the capacity. 

LOGANSFOST. RaBIDAN MiKB. 

Analyses 28667 to 28669 (p. 61). Bituminous coal, Allegheny Valley field, from 
Raridan mine, LoganspOTt P. 0., at Glen station, on the Pennsylvania R. R. Coa] 
bed. Upper Freeport; GarlxHiiferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, "draw slate" 
8 inches, then firm, gray shale; floor, day. The coal was sampled on June 15, 1917, 
by H. Baasler, as described below: 



Sectioni of eoal bed in Raridan mine. 






Saotlon :. 


A. 

28ae7 


B. 


T^bflntflryMaa 


S8S68 






Rooff "dnw dat^" p«y abate. 


VL In. 
2 4 

8 

; 3 


Ft. hu 
2 4 


Jfnw 1in4 thtki 


• 1 


Coal 


8 


BonA and flhale 


4 


Coal 


5* 


Floor, day. 

•n^lffTOMOClMKl , , 


I n 


Thihlnum of mal aamplod 







• Not Indndad in sampla. 

Section A (sample 28667) was measured east of main mouth 1,200 feet. Section B 
(sample 28668) was measured at face of main entry, 3, 600 feet northeast of ndne mouth. 

The ultimate analysis oi a composite sample made by mixing samples 28667 and 
28668 is given under laboratory No. 28669. 

MONTOOKBBTVILLB. MONTOOICBBYVILLB MiNB. 

Analyses 28774 to 28776 (p. 61). Gannel coal, Alleghany VaUey field, from Mon^ 
gomeryville mine, Montgomeryville, Adrian P. O. Goal bed, Middle Kittanning; Car- 
boniferous age, Allegheny fonnation. Roof, tough clay shale; floor, shale. The coal 
was sampled on June 21, 1917, by H. Bassler, as described below: 

Section of eoal bed in MonigomeryvUle mine. 



SwtlOD 

labofatory No. 



Boof, toaflli day ahala. 

CoaI(adi content may be imther Ush). 



CoaL. 



Pyiitastit 
CoaT 



SiMla. 



Sbale binder 

CoaL 

Coal, ftannd 

floocv abate. 

TTilflflmni nf btfl 

Tbidaien of ooal aamplad. 



A. 
28n4 



PL in. 

44 

• 1 2 



1 5 



• 4 

1 

4 4 

I 



• Not indwled in nmpto. 
55270*— 22 ^16 



B. 

2em 



JFt. M. 



• 1 



.1 V 



.14 

11 

4 
11 



286 



ANALYSES OF GOAL^ lD16rl910. 



c 

c 
c 



3 



c 
c 






Section A (sample 28774) wm meMured in 6 room, left entry, 2^ feet from mine 
moutb. Section B (sample 28775) waa measured in 2 left entry, face of crasBOver cut. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 28774 and 
28776 is given under laboratory No. 28776. 

Wbst KrrTANNiNG. NBAL'a Kins. 

Analyses 28721 to 28723 (p. 62). Bituminous coal, Allegheny Valley field, from 
Neal's mine, 1 mile north of West Eittanning. Coal bed, Lower Freeport; Carbon- 
iferous age, Allegheny formation. Broof, gray shale; floor, clay shale. The coal was 
sampled on June 14, 1917, by H. Basslar, as described below: 

Sectiona of coal hed in NeaTs mine. 



1 

Section 


A. 
28731 


B. 


Laboratory No 


28732 






Boofj gray shale. 


^. la. 
2 2 

1 1 

3 

S 8 
S 8 


Ft. *!, 

4 8 


Bone 




Coal ; 




Bone. 




Coal 




Floor, clay shale. 

TnickiKNw of bed 


4 8 


Thio-k^efpi o' coal sampled ... . 


4 8 







Section A (sample 28721) was measured 330 feet from mine mouth, at end of right 
entry, which branches off main entry 240 feet from mouth. Section B (sample 28722) 
was measured at end of main entry, 330 feet from mine mouth at entry north 60^ west 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by mixing samples 28721 and 
28722 is given under laboratory No. 28723. 

Yatebboro. Gowanshannoo No. 2 Mine. 

Analyaea 28672 to 28674 (p. 62). Bituminous coal, Allegheny Valley field, from 
No. 2 Cowanshannoc mine. Coal bed. Lower Freeport; Carboniferous age, AUe 
gheny fonnation. Roof, shale; floor, clay. The coal was sampled on June 16, 1917. 
by H. Bassler, as described below: 

iSeettoTW of coal bed in No. t Cowomhannoe mine. 



Section 


A. 

2SI72 


B. 


Labafatoc7 No. » :....... 


28873 






Roof, gray shale. 

Bona. 


Ft. to. 
4 H 

r4 


Ft ilL 


Coal 


4 5 


floor, day. 

ThlClOlMS O' ^*«1 . , r T .., - . r .,---,--.,. T .. . , T . , . . r . 


4 i 


ThlcloiM" Af coal MPnpl^^T 


4 5 







a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 28672) was measured at face of 1 left entry, 2,000 feet aoathvest 
of mouth of mine that opens out of upper bed. Section B (sample 28673) was meat- 
ured at face of 1 right entry, 2,000 feet south-eouthwest of mouth of mine in the upper 
bed. Depth of cover, 125 feet 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by mixing samideB 28672 sjui 
28673 is given under laboratory No. 28674* 



pbnnsylvania: blair county. 237 

BBAVS& COTTNTST. 

Shtthb Ferbt. Island Run Mine. 

AxuAytOB 25587 (p. 62). Bituminous coal, Beaver field, from Island Run mine, 2 
miles north of Smiths Ferry, on Little Beaver. Coal bed. Upper Freeport; Car- 
boniferous age, All^heny formation. Roof, bituminous shale 3^ inches, irregular 
bedded, maaaivB ^lindstone; floor, clay. The bed -wias sampled on July 17, 1916, by 
J. H. ELance, as described below: 

Section of coal bed tn Maand Run mtns. 

Roof, bituminous shale and sandstone. Ft. in. 

Shale, black, coaly o 3J 

Coal 3 3 

"Mother coal" o , \ 

Coal 4i 

Shale, black, coaly « 2 

Floor, clay 4 feet 18 inches. 

Thickness of bed , , - 4 IJ 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 7J 

The section was measured } mile east of main entry. 

BLAIR COTHSTTY. ^ 

Qlen White. Glen Whttb No. 2 Mike. 

Analyses 30830 to 308^ and composite 30833, face samples, and analysis 30834, tipple 
sample (p. 62.) Bituminous coal &om Glen White No. 2 mine, a dope mine about 
3 miles west of Kittanning Point and 1 mile from Glen White, Pa., on the Pennsyl- 
vania R. R. Goal bed, Upper Freeport, known in this field as the E or Lemon; 
Carboniferous age, Allegheny fonnation. Bed is 3 feet 6 inches to 4 feet 6 inches 
thick; dip, 5 per cent west; roof, shale, no ''draw slate;'' floor, hard, smoMh shale. 
Commercial samples were taken at the tipple by B. W. Djrer on July 12, 1918. The 
bed waa sampled by B. W. Dyer on July 12, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Olen While No. t mine. 



Seotlaik 

LftbontoryNo. 

Roof, shale. 

Bode 

Coal 

"Sulphor" 

Coal.. 

"Sulphur" 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

"Solphor" 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

IliidEnflfls oChed 

Thidm^ of coal sampled 

• Notldielcided in sample. 



A. 

30881 



B. 

30630 



C. 

30S82 



Ft, in, 

a 

1 



! 



8 

a3 

7 



3 ^ 



Ft. to. 



ol§ 



3 lOi 



Ft. In. 

Streak. 
1 8 



n 



4 4 

3 8 



c 



t. 



838 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 

Section A (Bample 30831) was cut from rib 40 feet inflide 1 slant, 1 left. Section B 
(sample 30830) was cut from rib 10 feet from entiy, room 65, 6 rifi^t. Section C 
(sample 30832) was cut from rib 70 feet from &ce, main slope, 6 ri^t. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining hce MMnpks 
30831, 30830, and 30832 is given under laboratory No. 30833. 

SyBtem of mining, room and pillar. The coal was cut by machine in the coal 
and shot down with black powder and squibs by the minen at any time daring the 
shift. Men employed numbered 85 underground and 35 above ground. All the coal 
was screened at a wooden tipple; about 40 per cent passed throu^ screens with 
openings i inch to 4 inches; the screenings were sent to colce ovens, the oveiBize to 
railroad cars. The coal was cleaned by two pickers on the railroad cars. There 
was an inspector of coal at the tipple. In 1918, 65 per cent of the coal was taken out 
in advance work, and the total recovery claimed was 80 per cent. The unmined 
area consisted of 200 acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 10 years. Haul- 
age was by mule and rope. There were two loading tracks, with capacity for 7 empty 
and 50 loaded railroad cars. The capacity of mine was 600 tons a day, and the 
C average daily production was 450 tons. The daily tonnage was only 75 per cent of the 

^ capacity. The daily production of coke was about 95 tons, about 160 tons of coal 

^ being coked a day. The production of coal for the year 1917 was 111,180 tons. 

C 
S, BUTLBB COUNTY. 

Q ^ Evans Cmr. Young Mins. 

C Analysis 25823 (p. 63). Bituminous coal, Butler field, from Young luine, a shaft 

2 mine 6 miles north of Evans City, Gonnoquenessing Towndiip, on the Baltimore & 
S Ohio R. R. Goal bed. Upper Freeport; Carboniferous age, AUegfaeny formation. 

3 Roof, shale; floor, fire clay. The bed was sampled on August 18, 1916, by G. B 
«_ Richardson, as described below: 



Section of eoal bed in Ycungmine, 

Roof, shale. Ft. to. 

Coal ' 1 U 

Parting •! 

Coal 1 2 

Floor, fire clay. 

Thickness of bed 3 2 

Thicknen of coal sampled S 1 

^ The sectikm was measured 200 feet northwest of shaft. 

QoFF Station. Annandalx No. 2 Minb. 

Analyses 26241 to 26245 (p. 63). Bituminous coal, Butler field, from Annandala 
No. 2 mine, a drilt mine 1 mile east of Goff station, Bessemer, on the Bessemer A Lake 
Erie R. R. Coal bed, BrookviUe; Carboniferous age, All^eny formation. Bed is 
4 to 5 feet thick; dip, southeast, 40 feet to a mile, with deat running southeut 
Occasional faults, but no rolls or horsebacks, are encountered in mining. Roo(» 
gray, sandy shale; floor, hard and smooth, of sandy clay. The bed was sampled by 
E. H. Denny and W. B. Plank on October 9 and 10, 1916, as described below: 

a Not indtirtad In Mmple. 



FBraSTLVAKU. : BTTTIiBB OOTTZTTT. 



2S9 



SeeHona of coal bed in Annandale No. t mine. 



oOCClOO. 



Na. 



Roqf.Miid7riiale. 

BonyooaL , 

Co3: 

Cori...... 

Co2r. 

BcoTooaL 

GobL 

"Sulphur" and OQil.. 

"Solpbur'* ,. 

BoDyooaL 

Ooaf. 

"SoliAiir" 

"Sulphur'' and bony ooal band.. 

CoaLTT. 

TUkk, fire day* 

TUdmatBoCbed 

TWftkniws of coal mrnplad 



A. 
»241 



Ft. fa. 

1-8 



«5 
1 1 



8i 

4 3 

3 7| 



B. 

asaia 



pt. III. 

6 

1 8 



a4 

1 1 



• 1 



1 1* 

\ 3 



c. 

3BM4 



Ft. <». 



1 « 



• 6 



a2| 
6 



al 
• 1 



1 

4 8 
8 4k 



26348 



J». fa. 



9 

« 



•4 

o7 



•2* 
10 



i3 



4 If 

3 3 



• Not Indudad hiaample. 

Sectum A (sample 26241) was taken horn face of 2 mam entry. Section B (sample 

26242) was taken from foce of 3 room, 2 main, 150 feet ht>m entry. Section C (sample 
26244) was taken from face of 3 room, 3 rigjit entry, 1 section. Section D (sample 

26243) was taken from face oi 5 left entry, about 20 feet inby 14 room, 39 section. 
The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 

26241, 26242, 2d243, and 26244 is given under laboratory No. 26245. 

Syston of mining, room and pillar. In 1916 the coal was imdercut by machine 
and shot down with black powder by the miners at any time during the ehift. Men 
employed numbered 65 underground and 12 abovegioimd. Haulage was by one 
electric locomotive and mules. The tipple was of wood. The entire output was 
shipped as run of mine. There were two loading tracks, with capacity for 35 empty 
and 35 loaded railroad can. The coal was picked on the car by two pickers. The 
tonnage came from advance work, no pillars being drawn. The unmined area con- 
sisted <rf 150 acres. The lifetime of the mine was approximately 10 yean. The 
dafly capacity in 1916 was estimated at 800 tons, the actual daily average being 
360 tons. 

Haricont Junction. Nobth Pittsbubgh Rbaltt Minx. 

Anatysis 26615 (p. 63). Bituminous coal, Beaver field, from North Pittsburgh 
ReaHymine at Harmony Junction, on the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Coal bed. 
Middle Kittanning; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, shale; floor, fire 
day. 'Hie bed was sampled on June 30, 1916, by G. B. Richardscm. The sample 
represented 2 feet 9 inches of coal, the entire thickness of the bed except for 1 inch 
inch ol dbale at the middle, which was not included. 

The sectian was measured in room 3, off secxnid ealxy. 

NXALET. NbALBT MiNB. 

Analysis 25822 (p. 63). Bituminous coal, Beaver field, from Nealey drift mine at 
Nealey, Worth Township, on the Western Allegheny R. R. Coal bed, Middle Kittan- 
ning; Carboniferous age> All^gjieny formation. Roof, shale; floor, clay. The bed was 
sampled on August 18, 1916, by G. B. Richardson. The sample represented 2 feet 
6 inches of coal, the tfaidmess of the bed except a 1-inch "parting" 7 inches below 
the roof. Onie section was measured in main heading 700 feet north of mine mouth. 



240 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



CAXBBIA COTTKTY. 

Baksrton. Sterukg NQi 1 Mikb. 

Analyses 69680 to 69682, average of mine-face samples, and analyses 69982 and 69983, 
average of tipple samples run-of-mine coal (p. 64). Semibituminous coal, Windbcf 
field, from Sterling No. 1 mine, a drift mine ) mile east of Bakerton, on the Pennsyl- 
vania Br. B. Goal bed. Lower Kittanning, known in this field as B, or Miller; Car* 
boniferouB age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 3 feet to 4 feet 6 inches thick; dip, 4 per 
cent west; roof , shale, with small amount of ''draw slate" and 1 foot of bone; floor, 
hard, smooth shale. Tipple samples were taken by J. J. Bourquin on August 23, 1918. 
The bed was sampled by B. W. Dyer on July 2, 1918, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Sterling No. 1 mine. 



Section , 

Laboratory No. 






g 



Roof, shale and "draw slate. " 

Bone 

Coal 

Bone 

"Sulphiir" 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

Coal.. 

Bone 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled . 



A. 
e0680 


B. 
<IS08t 


Ft, in. 
• 1 
•0 7 
1 


Ft» ia« 

as 


1 
10* 

1 

8 

t 3 


1 1 

1 i 


• 8 71 

^ a Uf 



Ft, te. 

«U 

i 5 



1 

i" 

I"* 



a Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 69680) was taken from room 1, inside 3 cross, 7 ieft» S dip. Sec- 
tion B (sample 69681) was taken from 3 pillar, Gypsy crosBheading, 2 dip. Section C 
(sample 69682) was taken from face of 4 dip, main. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal ^^ras cut partly by machinft and 
partly by hand and shot down with black powder and by dynamite, where the coal wis 
wet, at any time during the shift. Sixty per cent of the coal was taken out in advance 
work, and the total recovery claimed was 80 per cent. The unmined area consisted of 
800 acres. The probable lifetime of the mine was 25 years. Haulage wag by four elec- 
tric locomotives. There was one loading track, with capacity for 40 empty and 40 loaded 
loaded railroad care. Men employed numbered 66 underground and 22 aboveground. 
The coal was dumped over a wooden tipple, all coal being loaded and shii^ped as nm d 
mine. It was cleaned on railroad can by one picker. Therfr was an in^mctor of oosl 
at the tipple. In 1918 the ooal was shipped to Pool No. 9 for^loiBestie purposes and 
transportation. Prioi! to the war the coal was shipped to tidewattf for flteanaidp use, 
and was used for domestic and smithing purposes. The capacity ol the mine was 800 
tons a day, and the average. daily output was 300 tons« The daily tannage was only 
37) per cent of the capacity of the mine, which could be increased to full ci^Muaty by 
additional labor. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 154, 696. 

Bakertok. Steruno No. 3 and No. 5 BCmss. 

Analyses 69686 to 69688 and 69679, 69683, ^9684 of Sterlii^ No. 8 and Steding Na 5 
mines, respectiv^y, average of nune-faoe samples, and analyses 6998iand 69985 aver- 
age of tipplesa mplee (pp. 63, 64). Semibituminous coal, Windber field, from drift 
mines located at Bakerton, on the Pennsylvania R. R. Goal bed, Lower Kittanmng, 



PEKNBYLVANIA : CAMBBIA OOtJNTY. 



241 



known in this field as B, or Miller; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 
3 feet 8 inches to 4 feet 8 inch^ thick; dip, 4 per cent northwest; roof, hard shale; 
floor, hard, raliier rough shale. CommerciiJ samples were taken at the tipple by J. J. 
Bourquin on August 23, 1918. The bed was sampled by J. J. Bourquin and B. W. Dyer 
on July 8, 1918, as shown below: 

SecHorm ^coal bed in Sterling No. S mine. 



Section 

No 

RooTahale. 

done 

Coal 

"Sulphur" , 

Coal 

"Solphnr" 

Coal 

FUxKvsfa^e. 

lliickiMBSofbed 

Thft^ess of coal sampled 



A. 
00687 



Ft. to. 

al 5 






2 lo| 



B. 



Ft, M. 
al 4 
11 

i4 



8 11 

2 7 



Ft, in. 

•1 ^ 

1 10 

(Lazu)f 

1 l| 



2 111 



• Not indndflc! In sample. 

Section A (sample 09687) was taken from face at Sharkey heading. Section B (sam- 
ple 09d88) waa taken from face of 6 left. Section G (sample 69686) was taken from face 
of 40 room, off machine heading. 

Sections of coal bed in Sterling No. 6 mine. 



\ \ 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, shale: C, 2 in. ''draw slate." 
Bone 



Goal 

Bonyooal.. 
"Solphur". 
Coal. 



A. 



Ft. in. 
• 1 1 



"Satpbor''. 

CoalT 

"Sulphur"! 



Coal 

noOT.flka]6. 

TliiclcoeBsoCbed 

Thickness of ooal sampled. 



1 



•I 

1 



4 A 

3 5 



B. 
80079 



Ft. in. 
«1 1 

<4 



2 1 



\ 



1 
7 

3 ^ 



C. 

00684 



Ft. M. 
• 1 4 



1 2 
I 3* 



3 114 

2 74 



• Nol ificfaided fti sample. 

Section A (qample 69633) was taken from lib of 10 room, 5 left. Section B (sample 
69679) was taken from main pillar, 1 left. Section C (sample 69684) was taken from 
face (^4 vight, main off fint., 

System of mining, room and pillar. The coal was cut by machine and by hand 
in ooal near the floor and^dbot dofwn with black powder at any time during the shift 
by the minera. In 1918, 48 men were employed underground and 5 aboveground. 
The coal from both mines was dumped over the same wooden tipple with crossover 
dump, all coal being loaded and shipped as run of mine* In loading, the miner r^ected 
bone near the roof. No pickers or inspectors were employed. At time of sampling 
60 per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work, and the total recovery claimed 
was 85 per cent. The estimated lifetime of the mines was 6 years. Haulage was 
by two electric motors in each mine. There was one loading track, with capacity 
for 20 empty and 20 loaded railroad cars. The coal was being shipped to Pool No. 10 
for use by transports. Prior to the war the coal was shipped to the United Fruit Co. 



/ 



c 
c 






S42 



AJSAhYBm OV GOAL, 1916-1919. 



and was used aim for domestic pmposes and smithing. The oombined capacity d 
the mines was 800 tons a day, and the oombined avecage daily ptodnction at time 
of sampling wae 500 tons. The combined daily tonnage was 62| per cent of the 
capacity. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bmean c£ Miom 
Bull. 22, pp. 155, e97. 

Bakbbton. Stbbxino No. 6 liiNS. 

Analyses 69685 to 69691, average of mine-face samples <p. 64). Semibitiuninoiu 
coal, Windber field, from Sterling Xo. 6 mine, a drift mine, ^ mile south of Bakerton, 
on the Pennsylvania R. R. Goal bed, Lower Kittanning, known in this field as B, 
or Miller Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 3 feet to 4 feet 6 inches 
thick; dip, 4 per cent west; roof, hard shale; floor, hard, smooth ahale. The bed 
was sample by J. J. Bourquin on July 2, 1918, as shown below: 

8edion9 of coal bed in SterUng No. 6 mine. 



Sectton... 

No 

Roof, shale. 

Bone 

OoeL 

"Snlphiir" (not ngoler). . 

CoeL 

ghale : 

CmO. 

Floor, hard shale. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled 



A. 



Kt, In. 
• 1 

1 

t I 



B. 



4 



a u{ 



Kt, in. 

• i 

1 9 

I 4« 



S 11 



Ft. «•. 

• 11 



a 



• Not indoded in sample 

Section A (sample 69690) was taken from face of 12 right heacfing, 5,000 feet from 
pit mouth. Section B (sample 69691) was taken firom face of 2 right, off 8 left. SectioD 
G (sample 69689) was taken 25 feet from face of 17 left heading, rigf&txib. Sectum D 
(sample 69685) was taken 10 feet firom face of 4 right main, left rib. 

System of mining, room and pillar. The coal was cut by machine and shot down 
with black powder at any time dining the shift by the minen. Men employed 
numbered 160 underground and 21 aboveground. The coal was dumped over i 
wooden tipple with crossover dump, all coal being loaded and shipped as run of mine. 
The miners rejected 1 to 2 inches of bony coal on the top of the coaL In 1918, 60 per 
coitof thecoal was taken out in the advance work, andatotal reoov^of fmn80to85 
per cent was claimed. The unmined area consisted of 2,000 ades. The probable liie 
time of the mine was 50 years. Haulage was by three main line and three gathering 
electric locomotives. There was one loading track, with capacity lor 60 empty end 
44 loaded railroad cars, and two storage tracks. The coal was shipped to Pool No. 10 
and used for transport service. Prior to the war the coal was used for domestic snd 
■mitliing purposes and shipped to the United F^rait Co. The oapadty of the mine 
was 1,200 tons a day and the avenge daily output at time of sampliag was hem 750 
to 800 tons. The daily tonnage was 62} per cent of capacity, but could be increeeed 
by the employment d additional labor. 

For description and analyses of other samples of coal from this mine see Bureau d 
Mines Bull. 22, pp. 155, 697. 

Bbavbrdalb. PxNNaTLVAinA No. 15 lims. 

Analyses 69505 to 69506, avenge of tipple samples (p. 64). Semibituminoitf ctd 
taken from tipple, Windber field, from Pennsylvania No. 15 mine, a slope mine 
at Beaverdale, on the South Fork branch of the Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed, 



TEJSnUBYLYASlJL: OAMBBIA OOUKTY. 



248 



Jjower Kittaiming, known in this field as B, or Miller; CarboniferouB age, Alle- 
gheny formation. Bed is 3 £eet to 3 feet 8 inches thick; dip, 7 per cent north; 
roofy partly shale and partly sandstone, with 8 inches of "draw slate" and bony coal; 
floor, hard, smooth fixe day. Commercial samples were taken at the tipple by C. L. 
Colbiim on June 20, 1918. The bed was sampled by £. G. Borden on May 1, 1911. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by pick and shot 
do^wn with black powder at any time during the shift by the minera. Men employed 
numbered 97 undezground and 56 aboveground. The coal was dumped over a steel 
and wooden tipple equipped with screens and picking oonveyor, all coal being loaded 
and shipped as ran of mine. The coal wa0<^eaned en a oonveyor by five or sizpickeiB, 
and there was an iDspectar at the tipple. Minen were instnicted to reject bone and 
slate in loading. The capacity of the mine wae 760 tons a day, and the avenge daily 
I^odnction at the time samples were taken at the tipple was 875 tons. 

For description and analyses of other samplea from this mine see Bureau <A Mines 
Bull. 85, pp. 71, 266. 

Cassandra. Hu^hss No. 2 Minb. 

Analyses 69573 to 69575, average of mine-face samples (p. 65), and analyses 69576 
to 69579, average of tipple samples (p. 65). Semibituminous coal, Windber field, 
from Hughes No. 2 mine, a slope mine 1 mile east of Cassandra, on the Bens Creek 
branch of the Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed, Lower Kittanning, known in this field 
.as B, or Miller; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 3 feet to 4 feet 6 
inches; dip, 8^ per cent northwest; roof, first layer, bony coal; second layer, 6 inches 
"draw slate;" third layer, sandstone and shale; floor, shale, then fire day, is smooth 
except at rolls. Commercial samples were taken at the tipple on June 25, 1918, by 
C. L. Colbuni who sampled the bed the next day, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Hughes No, t miru. 



No. 



Roof, sandstone and shale. 

Ooia,bony 

Coal 



Coal.^TT;. 

Oarbcptfewns shale 

Goal 

Sloor, 



Dr.8lialeyflreelav. 

Thleknessofbea. 

Thickness of ooal sampled . 



A. 
SMTS 



Ft. i». 
5 

• 7 
3 10 

«5 



a3 

5 1 
3 10 



B. 
60674 



Ft, in. 
2-5 
• 4 

2 7 



1 

1 

a% 

6 If 

Z 7 



C. 
eOS76 



Ft. in. 


6 


•6 


4 5 


• 8 



5 
4 



as 

10 
5 



• Not Indoded in sample. 

Section A (sample 69573) was taken from face of C heading, 2^ miles from entrance. 
Section B (sample 69574) was taken from S. 65 room, main slope. Section C (sample 
69575) was taken from F headiog^ 2i miles from entrance. 

System of mining, room and pillar. The coal was undercut by pick and shot down 
by blade powder by the miners at any time during the shift. In 1918, 180 men were 
employed undeqpouad and 16 aboTQgiouad. Twenty-five per cent of the coal was 
taken out in adyanee work, and the total recovery claimed was 90 per cent The 
coal was dumped over a wooden tipple. Ninety per cent of the coal was shipped as 
run of mine; the rest was scteened for smithing. Haulage was by four electric looo- 
motivei, by muks, and by rope. There were three loading trads, with capacity 
for 42 empty and 33 loaded railroad can. The coal was cleaned on railroad can by 
two pickeiB^ There was an inspector of coal at the tipple. The miner rejected 



244 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1&16-1019. 



bone in loading. At time 6t sampling 20 pef* cent of the coal was being afaipped to 
commercial trade atfd 80 per cent to transports. Prior to the war 60 per cent of the 
coal was used for smithing and 40 per cent for steam. In June, 1918, the immined 
aiiea consisted of 2,800 acres, and the probable lifetime of the mine was 50 yeaiB. 
The daily capacity of the mine was 1,500 tons, and the average daily output was 
750 tons. The didly tonnage could be increased by the employment of additional 
labor. 

DuNLO. Yellow Run Minx. 

Analyses 69439 to 69442, average of mine samples, and analyses 69443 to 69446, 
average of tipple samples (p. 65). Semibituminoua.coal, Windber field, from Yellow 
Run mine, a shaft mine, at Dunlo, on Uie Pennsylvania R. R. Goal bed, Lower 
Kittanning, known in this field as B, or Miller; GarbonifeiouB age, All^eoy 
formation. Bed is 3 to 4 feet tibick; dip, 13 per c^it northwest; roof, shale and sand- 
stone; floor, hard, smooth fire clay. Commercial samples were taken at tbe tipple 
by J. J. Bourquin on June 15, 1918. The bed was sampled by J. J. Bo*aiqain and C. 
L. Golbum on June 14, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed %n Yellow Run mine. 



BectioiL...., , 


A. 
0M39 


B. 

eM40 


C. 
60441 


D. 


lAtxntttory No 


09442 






Roof, sandstone. 

^hAle , , 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 

8 

a2 


J*^. in. 
6 

8 4 

8 r 


Ft. i». 

%-i2 


"Draw slate" 






"SolDhur" 






CoaL!7. '..'. 


3 11 

8 11 
3 11 


8 £ 

3 7 
8 5 


3 9 


FlOOT. fire day. 

Thlckneffi of 'herf -..„,. . - , 


3 9 


Thicimiyis of coal TOinpled » , 


3 9 







tf Not induded In sample. 

Section A (sample 69439) was cut at fece of 36} room, 8 right heading. Section 6 
(sample 69440) was cut at 53 stump, 4 right heading. Section G (sample 69441) was cut 
at face of 8 left entry, 8,500 feet from shaft bottom. Section D (sample 69442) was cut 
at foce of 10 right entry, 6,500 feet from shaft bottom. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was undercut by pick and shot 
down with black powder in the evening by the miners. Men employed numbered 135 
underground and 12 abov^ground. The coal was dumped over a wooden tipple by 
mefms ot self-dumping cages, all coal being loaded and shipped ad run of mine. Thoe 
was one loading track, with capacity for 28 empty and 21 loaded railioad cars. The 
coal was cleaned on the railroad cars by two pickers. Haulage was by one electric 
motor and by mules. Forty per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work, and 
the total recovery claimed was 95 per cent. The unmined area consisted of 500 acres. 
At time of sampling the coal was being shipped to the New England States, to tbe 
Bethlehem Steel Co., and to Army transports. The capacity of the mine was 1,000 
tons a day, and the average daily output was 500 tons. 

Galutzw. Galutzin Shaft. 

Analyses 30824 to 30827 and composite 30628, fftce samples, and aaalyais 30829, 
tipple samples run of mine coal (p. 65). Bituminoua coal, Windber field, from Qallit- 
sin shaft, located in Gallitzin, on the Pennsylvteila R. R. Goal bed, Upper F^povt, 
locally known as E, or Lemon ; Carboniferous age, Allegheny fbmtatiDii. Bed is 3 feet 
6 inches to 4 feet 8 inches thick; dip, 5 pw cent west; roof, rather hard ahale, very 
little *' draw date; " floor, rather smooth shale. Commercial samples were take at tbe 
tipple by J. J. Bourquin on July 11, 1918. The bed was sampled by B. W. Dyer od 
July 14, 1918, aa described below: 



Pennsylvania; cambria county. 



245 



Sections of coal bed in Gallizin shaft. 



Section. 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, flbale and bony coal. - 

Coal, bony — 

CoaL 

"Sulpbnr" 

CoaL..... 

"Bulphur" 

CoaL 

"Sulphur" 

0(mL\7. 

Shale 

CoaL bony...' 

CoaL...... 

"Sulphur" 

Coai:. 

FloqiN shale. 

Tliiolmflssofbed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 



A. 

30627 



Ft. 



in. 
"I 



5i 

• 1 

«1 

I 



4 
4 



1 



B. 
30626 



Ft. in, 
1 « 
4 



alj 



11 



4 
3 



'^ 



C. 

30825 



Ft. in. 
a3 
1 4 

I 2* 



«n 



11 



3 10 
3 . 6i 



D. 
30824 



Ft. ftl. 
......... 

1 



al 

io* 



8 M 
3 81 



A Not indnded in sample. . 

Section A (sample 30827) was cat from rib 20 feet from entry, 66 room, 9 right entry. 
Section B (sample 30826) wob cut from rib 60 feet from entry, 6 room, 1 dip on motor 
road. Section (sample 30825) was cut from rib 200 feet from entry, 55 room, 12 left 
entry. Section D (sample 30824) was cut from rib 70 feet from entry, 20 room, 10 
right entry.' 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
90624, 30825, 30626, and 30827 is given uncfer labomtory No. 30828. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine and by 
pick near the bottom and shot down by the miners with black powder and squibs 
at any time during the shift. Men employed numbered 110 undeiground and 65 
abovegroimd. The coal was dmnped over a wooden tipple in a self-dumping cage. 
Eighty pear cent of the coU passed through 4-inch bar screens and was loaded in rail- 
road cars. The undersize was taken to coke ovens. The coal was cleaned by one 
picker on railroad cars and by two pickers in chutes. There was an inspector at 
the tipple. 

Stxty-fiix per cent of ^e coal was taken out in the advance work, and a total 
recovery of 80 per cent was claimed. The unmined area consisted of 700 acres. The 
estimated lifetime of the mine was 17 years. Haulage was by one electric motor and 
by rope and mules. There were three loading tracks, with capacity for 25 empty 
and 20 loaded railroad cars. The capiicity of the mine was 1,000 tons a day, and the 
average daUy output was 550 tons. The daily tonnage was 55 per cent of the capacity, 
but could have been increased by the employinent of additional labor. The daily 
production of coke was 270 tons from 450 tons of coal. The output of coal for the 
year 1917 was 179,844 tons. 

LnxT. SoNMAN No. 2 Mine. 

AnaiyaeB 60609 to 69601, avecage of tipple samples nuMif^mine coal (p. 65). Semi* 
bitimdnouB coal, Windber field, from Sonman No. 2 mine, a slope mine 1 mile east of 
Lilly, on the Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed, Lower Kittanning, known in this field 
as B, or Miller; .Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 38 to 46 inches 
thick; dip, 7 per cent northwest; roof, good shale, no ''draw slate;" floor, hard, 
amooth fire dayl Commercial samples were taken at the tipple by B. W. Dyer on 
June 26^ 1918. The bed was sampled by A. J. Haselwood on April 22, 1910. 



246 ANALYSBS OF OOAL, 191^-1919. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the catting was made in the bottom 
and in the coal by hand and shot down with black powder and squibs by the mineiB 
at any time during the shift. Men employed numbered 85 undeiground and 17 
above ground. 

Sixty per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work, and a total reoovery of 
8& per cent was daimed. The unmined area consisted of 750 acres. The qstimated 
lifetime of the mine was 20 years. Haulage was by rope and mules. There were 
three loading tracks, with capacity for 30 empty and 35 loaded railroad can. The 
coal was dumped over a wooden tipple and was loaded and shipped as nm of mine. 
There were no impurities in the coal as loaded on the railroad can. The black- 
smithing coal was being shipped west and the steam coal east Before the war the 
coal was used by blackoniths and for steam making. The capacity of the mine 
was 600 tons a day, and the average daily output was 350 tons. The output for the 
year 1917 was 120,000 tons. 

For description of coal bed and analyses of other samples, see Bureau of IGnes 
Bull. 22, pp. 158, 707. 

Llanfaib. Hbnbibttb No. 2 Minb. 

Analyses 69435 and 69438, average of tipple samples (p. 66). fiqmibitmninont 
coal, Windber field, from Henriette No. 2 mine, a shaft m^e 1 mile south of LlaDisir, 
on the South Fork branch of the Pennsylvania B. B. Goal bed. Lower ^^***^"^, 
known in this field as B, or Miller; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formatioa. Bed is 
39 to 42 inches thick; dip, 7 per cent to 10 per cent northwest; roof, shale, very little 
''draw slate;" floor, smooth and, after being e^q^osed, soft fire day. Oommerdftl 
samples were taken at the tipple by C. L. Colbuni on June 12, 1918. The bed was 
sampled by A. H. Fay on June 27, 1912. 

System of mining, room and pillar. The coal was cut by pick and shot down with 
permissibles and black powder by the minen at the end ol the day. Men employed 
numbered 150 underground and 15 aboveground. Fifty per cent of the coal wm 
taken out in advance work, and a total recoveiy of 92 per cent was daimed. The 
unmined area consisted of 218 acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 7 yean. 
Haulage was by two dectric locomotives, rope, and mules. There were two loading 
tracks, with capacity for 35 empty and 60 loaded railroad can. The coal was dumped 
over a wooden tipple, all coal being loaded and shipped as run of mine. The coal 
was cleaned on railroad can by one picker. There was an inspector of coal at the 
tipple. The miner rejected very little except slate in loading. The coal was being 
shipped to points without the State at the rate of 500 tons a day. I^ior to the ivar 
the coal was used for custom trade only. The capacity of the mine was 1,000 
tons a day, and the average daily output in 1918 was 500 tons. The output for the 
year 1917 was 132,620 tons. 

Nantt Glo. Cardiff No. 1 MmB. 

'Analyses 69696 to 69699, average of mine-fece samples, and analyses 69931 to 69033. 
average of tipple samples run of mine coal (p. 66). Semibituminous coal, Windber 
fidd, from Oaidiff No. 1 mine, a drift mine 2^ miles north of Nanty Gk>, oa ^e Coal 
Pit Run branch of the Pennaylvania R. R. Coal bed, Lower Kittanning, known ai 

B, or Miller; Catboniferoua age, AUcgfattiy formation. Bed is 3^ to 4 faei thick; 
dip, 2 per cent south; roof, about 6 feet of hard, gmy shale, above shale saadetane> 
very little ''draw slate;" floor, smooth, hard fire cUy. Commercial saa^es wm 
taken at the tipple by J. J. Bourquin on August 20, 1918. The bed wm aampied by 

C. L. Colbuni on July 1, 1918, as shown below: 



PENNSYLVANIA: CAMBRIA COUNTY. 



247 



SecHoTii of coal bed in Cardiff No. 1 mine. 



BtctSofi. ................................. 

LabarmtoryNo 

Boof . mdn, aandstone; tmrnodlmte, shale. 

'^Dnwslate" 

Coal 

noGT-flreday. 

TUekmss of bed 

TM ckn ew of coalainpled 



A. 



Ft. «n. 

•6 

8 8 

4 3 

3 8 



B. 



FU M. 



3 7 
3 7 



C. 

09808 



Ft. in. 



3 6 

^ 6 
3 



D. 

00607 



FL In. 
**""3*"6 



8 
8 



• Not tndiidBd in ninple. 

Section A (sample 69699) was cut at fece of 21 left entry, main entrance. Section 
B (sample 69696) was cut at face of 4 room, 12 right, main heading. Section C (sample 
69698) was cut at face of 3 left entry, main heading. Section D (sample 69697) was 
cut at face of 11 left entry, 14 room, main entrance. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine and shot 
down by the miners with permiasibleB at any time during the shift. Men employed 
numbered 120 imderground' and 25 abovegnmnd. The coal was dumped over a 
wooden tipple, all being loaded and shipped as run of mine; it was cleaned on railroad 
cars by two pickers. The miner rejected ''sulphur" in loading. Fifty per cent of 
the coal was taken out in the advance work, and the total recovery claimed was 95 
per cent. Hie unmined area was 1,000 acres. The probable lifetime of the mine 
was 25 or 90 years. Haulage was by four electric locomotives. There was one load- 
ing track, wi^ capacity for 27 empty and 24 loaded railroad cars. At the time of 
sampling, the coal was being shipped to transports and to the trade for steam purposes. 
The capacity of the mine was 800 tons a day, and the average daily output was 
600 tons. The output for the year 1917 was 127,000 tons. 

For analyses of other samples of this coal see Bull. 22, Bureau of Mines, p. 159. 

Nantt Old. Sprikofxsld No. 1 Mine. 

Analyses 60612, 69614, 69616, and 69618, average of mine-face samples, and analyses 
60923 to 69926, average of tipple samples run-of-mine coal (p. 66). Sonibituminous 
coal, Windber field, from Springfield No. 1 mine, a slope mine 1 mile east of Nanty 
Glo, on the New York Central and Pennsylvania Railroads. Coal bed, Lower Kittan- 
ning, known as B, or Miller; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 3) to 
4 feet thidc; dip, 4 per cent northeast; roof, shale, from 2 to 5 feet thick, then sand- 
stone; floor, hard, smooth fire clay. Commercial samples were taken at the tipple 
on August 19, 1918, by J. JT. Bourquin and L. D. Tracy. The bed was sampled by 
C. L. Colbnm on Jime 28, 1918, as shown below: 

Sections of coal bed in Springfield No. 1 rmne. 



Laboratorj No. 

Rooi; main, sandstone; immediate, slate 

Ckal : 

Shale 

Bottom ooaL 

PkNtf^flraelay. 

ThiddisBsofbed 

Tfaiekness of coal sampled 



A. 
69612 



B. 

69614 



C. 

69616 



D. 

69618 



Ft. in. 
8 6 

• 5 

• 3 

4 2 

3 6 



FL in. 
I 8 8 
{Little 

[sUlpllUT. 

• 6 
a2 

4 4 

3 8 



\ 



Ft. in. 

8 7 

a6 
• 2 

4 8 
3 7 



Ft. in. 
3 7 



4 

3 



8 
7 



e Notlaofeidad la aamiila. 



248 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 

Section A (sample 69612) was taken from face 7 left, } mile from entrance. Section 
B (sample 69614) was taken from ^e in main dip, 1 mile from entrance. Section C 
(sample 69616) was taken from face in main heading, 1} miles from entrance. Section 
D (sample 69618) was taken from pillar 1 room, 4 heading. 

System of mining, room and pillar. The coal was undercut by machine or pick in 
coal and shot down with permissible explosive and with black powder, where there 
was no gas, at any time during the shift by the miners. About 66) per cent was taken 
out in advance work, and a total recovery of 95 per cent was claimed. The unmined 
area consistea of about 1,500 acres. The estimajied lifetime of the mine was 30 yean. 
Haulage was by six electric locomotives and by rope. There was one loading track, 
with capacity for 40 empty and 20 loaded railroad cars. Men employed numbered 
175 underground and 15 aboveground. The coal was dumped over a wooden tipple, 
all being loaded and shipped as run of mine; it was cleaned on railroad cars by one 
picker. In loading the miner rejected slate. The capacity of the mine was 1,200 
tons a day, and the average daily output in June, 1918, was 700 tons. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 85, pp. 78, 276, and Bull. 123, pp. 75, 292. 

Nantt Glo. SPBiKonBLD No. 3 Mms. 

Analyses 69625 and 69626, average of nune-face samples, and anal3r8eB 69927 to 
69930, average of tipple samples (p. 67). Semibituminous coal, Windber field, 
from Springfield No. 3 mine, a drift mine i mile east of Nanty Glo, on the New 
York Central and the Pennsylvania Railroads. Coal bed. Lower Eittanni^g, known 
as B, or Miller; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 3^ to 4 feet thick; 
dip, 4 per cent northeast; roof, main, sandstone; immediate, shale, 2 to 5 feet thick; 
floor, fire clay. Tipple samples were taken by L. D. Tracy on August 20, 1918. The 
bed was sampled by C. L. Colbum on June 30, 1918, as shown below: 

Sections of coal bed in Springfield No. S mine. 



Sectiaii 

I^rtxmtory No. 



Roo^ main, sandatoiie; ImmedlAte, sbaie. 
OoaL. 



Bhak 

Bottom coal 

Floor, fireclay. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 




a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 69625) was taken from main B heading, 1 mile from entrance. 
Section B (sample 69626) was taken from face C main heading, 1} miles from entiranoa. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine and by pick 
and shot down with black powder at any time during the shift by the miners. Aboat 
66} per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work, and a total recovery of 95 
per cent was claimed. Haidage was by five electric locomotives. There were t^ 
loading tracks, with capacity for 40 empty and 30 loaded railroad cars. Men employed 
numbered 125 undeiground and 15 aboveground. The coal was dumped over a 
wooden tipple, all being loaded and shipped as run of mine; it was cleaned on railroad 
cars by one picker The miner rejected slate in loading. The section of coal mined 
was pnCcticaUy free of impurities except '^ sulphur" ; some slate was shipped with the 
coal. The capacity of the mine was 900 tons a day, and the average daily output 
was 600 tons. The daily tonnage could be increased by the employment of additionil 
labor. 



PENNSYLVANU: CAMBEIA COUNTY. 



249 



SONMAK. SONMAN SeAFT. 

AnatyaoB 09602 and 69604, aveiagpe of tipple flmnplds (p. 67). SemibitaminouB 
coal, IWindber fiold, from Sonman shaft, 1 mile east of Portage, on the Sonman 
branch of the Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed, Lower Kittanning, locally known 
as B, or Miller; Oarbonilerous age, Alleghehy formation. Bed is 3 feet 3 inches 
to 4 feet 5 inches thick; dip; 9 per cent; roof, Ahkle, with 6 inches of ''draw slate;'' 
floor, smooth, soft fire clay. Commercial samples were taken at the tipple by J. J. 
Bourqnin on June 26, 1918. The bed was sampled by P. M. Riefkin on May 1, 1911. 

System of mining, room and pillai'. In 1918 the coal was undercut by pick and 
shot down with black powder and permissibles by the miners at any time during 
the shift. Men employed numbered 275 underground and 35 abovegroond. The 
coal wae dumped over a wooden tipple by a self-dumping cage, all being loaded and 
shipped as run of mine. In the B seam haulage was by four electric locomotives, 
mules, and hoist; in^the E seam, also worked, haulage was by one electric locomotive, 
by mule,%nd by rope. The coal was cleaned on railroad can by eight pickers at the 
shaft and six pickers at the slope. There was an inspector of coal at the tipple. The 
coal was unusually well picked and much "sulphur'' band was removed. There 
were two loading tracks at the shaft and two at the slope, having a capacity for 80 
empty and 97 loaded railroad cars. A total recovery of 80 per cent was claimed. 
Thwe was a lai^e territory of unmined ai«a. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 
25 yean or longer. At time of sampling the capacity of the mine was 1,000 tons a day 
and the average daily production was about 600 tons. The coal was shipped to the 
Pennsylvania R. R., to the DuPont Co., and to transports. Prior to the war it was 
used for commercial purposes and shipped to Philadelphia. 

For description of coal bed and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau 
of Mines Bull. 85, pp. 80, 270. 

SONHAN. BONHAN SlOPB. 

AnalyBes26S98 to 26404 (p. 67). 8emibituminotis coal, Windber field, from Sonman, 
a slope mine at Soimian, in Portage Town^p, on the Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed, 
Upper Freeport, or E ; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 3 feet 6 inches 
to 4 feet 6 inches thick; dip, S** west. A few faults and horsebacks are encountered. 
Immediate roof consiBts of impure coal from 4 to 15 inches in thickness, with shale 
above; floor, hard fire clay; cover at points of sampling, approximately 150 feet. 
The bed was sampled by E. H. Denny on October 18, 1916, as described below: 

SedbioM of coal bed in Sonman slope. 



Swtkn 


A. 

26308 


B. 
26300 


C. 

26400 


D. 
26401 


E. 
26402 


f: 


T AbonitfliT No. 


26403 


^ 




Roof, main, shale; immediate, coal 

Bofiy ooal 


Fi, in. 


Ft. M. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 
1 9 
10 


Ft. in. 


Coal. 


2 2 


2 41 


1 


2 6 


1 4 


"Mother ooal" and "solDhur" 


< >l 


CoaL .*. 








*' Mother coal" 




******''*" 






Ooal 












Shale iMUtiiis 


a6 
9 

5* 


«4i 

1 r 


1^ 


• 2 
1 ©I 


a34 


Coal .. 


1 3* 


"Molliflr ooal" and "Bolphur" 

CoaL 














Floor, bflid flre day. 

Thicknewofcoal bed.. 


4 4 
3 111 


\ n 


i ? 


4 5J 
4 2 


1 4 


Thhdnie'"* of coal ^mpled r . . . . . 







• Net laphidyi in aam^da. 



250 ANALYSES OF COAIi, 191^191d. 

Section A (sample 2^98) was measured near the face of 2 left entry, ofiF the south 
dip and 3,500 feet south 45^ west from the slope mouth. Section B (samite 26399) 
was measured in 3 ri^ht air course at the intersection with the soutii dip, about 100 
feet back from the &ce of the south dip and 2,900 feet south 70*^ west iiom the slope 
mouth. Section (sample 20400) was measured 20 feet from the lace ol 2 right south 
dip, 1,700 feet south 60° west from the slope mouth. Section D (sample 26401) wm 
measured at the face of 13 room, 1 right, north dip, 2,800 feet north 30® east from the 
slope mouth. Section E (sample 26402) was measiued at the face of 1 cutthiough of i 
room, 2 left, north dip, 1,450 feet north 10® east from the slope mouth. Section F 
(sample 26403) was measured in the north dip, 20 feet from the face and 2,100 feet 
north from the slope mouth. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample mad0 by combining face aamples 
26398, 26399, 26400, 26401, 26402, and 26403 ia given under laboratory No. 26404. 

System of mining, room and pUlar. In 1916 the eoal was undercut by Sullivan short- 
wall tnachines and shot down with permisaible expl^ve. Men employed numbered 
130 undeiground and 12 aboveground. The tipple was of wood. The entire output 
was shipped as run of mine. Haulage was by electric hoist, electric locomotive, aod 
mule. There was track (dkpacity for 65 empty and 55 loaded railroad can. The 
probable Ufetime of the mine was 25 yean. In 1916 the daily capacity was 1,000 tone, 
the daily average 800 tons, and the maTimum day's run 1,000 terns. Jn 1919 the daUy 
capacity was increased to 1,600 tons and the daily average to about 1,350 tons. 

South Fork. Abgtlb Xo. 1 Minx. 

Analyses 69453, 69455, and 69456, average of &ce samples; and analyaes 6990S to 
69906, average of tipple samples nm-of-mine coal (p» 67). Semibttunanons coal, 
Windber field, from Argyle No. 1 mine, a drift mine at South FVirk, on the Pennsyl- 
vania R. R. Goal bed, Lower Kittanning, known as B^ or Miller; Carboniferous age, 
Allegheny formation . Bed is 3 feet to 4 feet 6 inches thick ; roof, hard shale contaimsg 
inegularstreaks ol ''sulphur;" floor, ^irly smooth, hard fire day. Coinmenaal sam- 
ples were taken at the tipple by J. J. Botirquin and L. D. Tracy on August 16, 191S. 
The bed was sampled by J. J. Bourquin on June 10, 1919, as descaibed below: 

Sections of coal bed in Argyle No. 1 viint. 



Seotloo 

lAboratory No. 



Roof, main, sandstone; Immediate, shale. 
Coal. 



^ir^: 



Floor, fireclay. 
Thickness of bed. 



Thickness of coal sampled . 



A. 



Ft, In. 
8 



8 6 
8 6 



B. 



8 7 



8 7 
8 7 



C. 
OMSe 



Ft, ia. 



• 9 



a Not Inchided in sample. 

Section A (sample 69453) was cut at 3 north entry, 6 entry, 5 feet from face. Section 
B (sample 69455) was cut at split in pillar between 5 and 6 north entry. Section 
(sample 69456) was cut at face of main heading, 1 mile from pit mouth. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was undercut hy pick and sbot 
down at any time during the shift by three shot firers with permissible explosi^^ 
which was used in shooting up the bottom. Men employed numbered 38 undezgroaod 
and 13 aboveground. The coal was dumped over a wooden tipple, all being loaded 
and shipped as run of mine. Haulage was by tail rope. There was one loadingtiack, 
with capacity for 14 empty and 13 loaded railroad cars. The coal was cleaned on cai^ 
by one picker and one helper. As loaded on the railroad cars the coal showed "bqI* 






PENNSYLVANIA: CAMBRIA COUNTY. 



251 



phur'* in irregQ]|U' streaks and balls. The work in the mine was confined to the 
removal of pillars, and a total recovery of 95 per cent was claimed. The estimated 
lifetime of the mine was 5 years. At time of sampling the capacity of the mine was 400 
tons a day and the average daily production was 200 tons. The output for the year 1917 
was 90,807 tons. About half the coal was being shipped to tidewater and half, for 
Government use, to Pools 9 and 10. 

South Fobk. Argtlb No. 2 Minx. 

Analyses 69451, 69452, and 69454, average of mine samples; and analyses 69907 to 
69910, average of tipple samples rim of mine coal (p. 68). Semibituminous coal, 
Windber field, from Argyle No. 2 mine, a drift mine in South Fork Borough, on the 
Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed. Lower Kittanning, known as B, or MiUer; Carbonifer- 
ous age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 3 feet 6 inches to 4 feet thick; dip, up to 10° 
northeast; roof, hard shale, ho ''draw slate'*; floor, hard, rather smootii fire clay. 
Commercial samples were taken at the tipple by J. J. Bourquin and L. D. Tracy on 
August 15, 1918. The bed was sampled by J. J. Bourquin on June 11, 1918, as 
deeciibed below: 

Sections of coal bed in Argyle No, 2 mine. 



Section , 

Laboratory No *. 



Roof, sandstone. 

Coal 

"Sulphur "band 

Shale 

Coal 

"Sulphur"band 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

•'Sulphur" 

Coal 

Floor, fire clay. 

Tmcknessofbed 

Thickness of coal sampled . 



A. 
0M51 



FU in. 

1 



1 



8 7i 
8 71 



B. 
09452 



Ft. in. 



• 1 
4 

6 



i 



1 

1 

3 
8 



3 



C. 
0M54 



Ft. in. 



1 11 



I 



3 
3 



ul 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 69451) was cut 10 feet from face of 10 room, 7 right entry. Section 
B (sample 69452) was cut at face of 6 room, chain pillar, 5 left entry. Section C 
(sample 69454) was cut from 2 right entry, 9 entry, No. 1 rib. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was undercut by pick and 
shot down with black powder and with permissible explosive in the safety-lamp 
sections, at any time during the shift, by miners and by shot firers. Men employed 
numbered 57 underground and 23 aboveground. The coal was dumped over a 
wooden tipple, all being loaded and shipped as run of mine. Haulage was by tail rope . 
There was one loading truck, with capacity for 12 empty* and 14 IcNuied railroad cars. 
The coal was cleaned on railroad cars by one picker. The coal on the cars contained 
Bome^ material from roof and partings in seam, particularly '' sulphur '* bands. Sixty 
per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work, and a total recovery of 95 per cent 
was claimed. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 10 years. The capacity of the 
mine was 700 tons a day, and the average daily output at time of sampling was 450 
tons. The output for the year 1917 was 137,934 tons. 

South Fork. Suneman No. 2 Mine. 

Analyeee 69391, 69394, to 69396, average of tipple samples, run of mine coal (p. 68). 
SemibituminouBcoal, Windber field, from Stineman No. 2 mine, a drift mine { mile 
west of South Fork, on the Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed. Lower Kittanning, known as 

55270'— 22 ^17 



252 ANALYSES OF COAL, 191^1919. 

B, or Miller; CarboniferouB age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 3 feet 8 inches to 4 feet 
6 inches thick; dip, 7)^ northwest; roof, shale, no ''draw slate"; floor, smooth, shale 
and bottom coal. Commercial samples were taken at the tipple by J. J. Bourquin 
and C. L. Colbum on June 8, 3918. The bed was sampled by H. M. Wc^flin, on 
September 7, 1909. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the ooal was undercut with black 
powder, a little permissible explosive being used for rock, at any time during the 
shift, by the miners. Men employed numbered 135 underground and 15 above- 
ground. The coal was dumped over a wooden tipple, all being loaded and shipped 
as run of mine. The coal was cleaned on railroad cars by one picker. Haulage wsis 
by animal and by three electric locomotives. There was one loading track, with 
capacity for 20 empty and 20 loaded railroad cars. The unmined area consisted of 
approximately 400 acres. At time of sampling 60 per cent of the coal was taken 
out in the advance work, and the recovery claimed was 90 per cent. The estimated 
lifetime of the mine was from 15 to 20 years. The coal was shipped to the Du Pont 
Co., at Cameys Point, N. J. The capacity of the mine was 700 tons a day, and the 
average daily output at the time tipple samples were taken was 550 tons. 

For description of coal bed and analyses of other samples see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 161, 716. 

South Fork. Stineman No. 4 Mine. 

Analyses 69447 to 69450, average of tipple samples, run of mine coal (p. 68). Semi- 
bituminous coal, Windber field, from Stineman No. 4 mine, a slope mine i mile from 
South Fork, on the Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed. Lower Kittanning, known as B, 
or Miller; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 2) to 4) feet thick; dip, 
12^ south 60° west; roof, gray shale, about 6 inches of which comes down as a "drew 
slate''; floor, hard, shaly clay, with a smodth surface. Commercial samples were 
taken at the tipple by J. J. Bourquin and C. L. Colburn on June 8, 1918. The bed 
was sampled by H. M. Wolflin on September 2 and 9, 1909. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was undercut by hand and 
shot down with black powder at any time during the shift by the miners. Men 
employed numbered 120 underground and 20 aboveground. The coal was dumped 
over a wooden tipple, all being loaded and shipped as run of mine; it was cleaned 
on the railroad cars by one picker. Haulage was by mule and by rope. There was 
one loading track, with capacity for 30 empty and many loaded railroad cars. The 
capacity of the mine at time of sampling was 500 tons a day, and the average daily out- 
put was 400 tons. The output for the year 1917 was 125,740 tons. The unmined 
area included 575 acres. 

For description of coal bed and analyses of samples see Bureau of Mines Bull. 22, 
pp. 161, 717. 

St. Michael. Maryland Shaft Mine. 

Analyses 25717 to 25722, 68185, 68187, 68193, 68219, 68220, 30152, and tipple sample 
30153 (p. 68). Semibituminous coal, Windber field, from Maryland shaft mine i 
mile west of St. Michael, on the Pennsylvania R. R. Coal bed, Lower Kittan"*ngf 
Miller, or B; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Average thickness of bed, 
3 leet 9 inches; dip, 6 per cent northeast; slight cleat; no faults. Rolls or horee- 
backs are rather frequent. In places roof consists of 6 inches of ' ' draw slate, ' ' which 
comes down with the coal; the immediate roof falls in rooms, but not when mined. 
Floor, medium hard, rolling fire clay. Depth of shaft, 670 feet. The bM was sampled 
by E. H. Denny and R. H. Seip on July 27 and 28, 1916, as described below: 



^ 



PEimSYLVANIA : CAMBRIA COUNT?. 



253 



Sections of coal bed in Maryland shaft miney sampled in 1916. 



Section 


A. 
25717 


B. 

25718 


C. 
25719 


D. 
25720 


E. 


I/Al>orAtflr7 No 


25722 






RogC. sandstone. 

Coal, bony and "sulphury" 


Ft. in. 
•5i 


Ft. in: 
«5 


Ft. in. 
a6i 


Ft. in. 
04 


Ft. in. 

65 


Bone. ..,'. '.....'. 


2 4 


Coal 


3 2i 

3 8 
3 2} 


3 4 

3 9 
3 4 


3 1 

3 7i 
3 1 


3 6 

3 IQ 
3 6 


Floor, flie clay. 

Tbidmess of bed 


2 10 


ThIctaMws of coal sampled , - 


2 10 







o Not included in sample. 

f> Five indies of top coal appeared to be good, and being low coal all of section was induded in pillar 
sample. 

Section A (sample 25717) was cut from the face of 7 left main entry. Section B 
(sample 25718) was cut from the face of 2 longwall. Section C (sample 25719) was 
cut from 2 left entry, south main entry, 15 feet from the face. Section D (sample 
25720) was cut from the face of 7 left entry, south main entry. Section E (sample 
25722) was cut from 19 pillar, 6 right north entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 25717, 
25718, 25719, and 25720 is given under laboratory No. 25721. Commercial samples 
were taken at the tipple by E. T. Hancock on December 28, 1917. The bed was 
sampled by E. Stebinger on December 28, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed vn Maryland shaft mine, sampled in 1917. 



Section 


A. 
68220 


B. 

68187 


, C. 

6S193 


D. 

68219 


E. 


Laboratory No 


68185 






Roof, bony coal and shale. 

Coal, "sulphurous " 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 
a6 


Bonv and " sulphurous" coal 


a4 
1 


ai 


«2 


»2 


3^ 


Coat, fairly harn 




Coal! " dirtv." bonv. "sulphurous" 


2 

1 

2 5 

3 11| 
3 7* 


2 
1 4 

1 8 

3 4 
3 2 


2 


2 


fVpftl. hard, null , r 






Coal, soft and friable 


1 11 

3 3 

2 11 


3 7 

3 11 
3 9 


2 10 


Floor, fire day. 

Total thickness of bed 


3 9 


Thtdcpess of <*oal sampled 


3 3 







o Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 63220) was cut at face of south main. Section B (sample 68187) 
was cut at face of C heading on longwall. Section (sample 68193) was cut on 6 
longwall face. Section D (sample 68219) was cut at face of 2 right, 3 right. Section 
E (sample 68185) was cut at face of 3 right dip. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
63220, 68187, 68193, 68219, and 68185^8 given under laboratory No. 30152. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining tipple samples of 
run of mine coal, 68201, 68202, 68210, and 68212, is given under laboratory No. 30153. 

Systems of mining, longwall and room and pillar. Men employed numbered 325 
imderground. Mine had a steel tipple. Miners' electric lamps were used in pillar 
workings, carbide lamps in rooms and headings. There were no coal-cutting machines. 
Haulage was by electric motors. About half the coal was taken out in advance work, 
and the total recovery claimed was 85 per cent. The unmined area consisted of 
approximately 3,500 acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was from 50 to 60 
yeara. Thecoal was all shipped as run of mine; no screens were used. Three pickers 
were employed on the railroad cars. There were two loading tracks, with capacity 
for 50 empty and 40 loaded railroad cars. At time of sampling the capacity of the 
mine was 1,200 tons a day, and the maximum day's run was 1,900 tons. The output 
was to be increased to 3,000 tons a day. 



254 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



VlNTONDALE. ViNTON No. 1 MiNE. 

Analyees 69729, 69730, 69733, and 69734, average of mine-face samples, and aoalyBeB; 
70030 to 70033, average of tipple samples (p. 69). Semibitnminous coal, Windber 
field, from Vinton No. 1 mine, i mile northwest of Vintondale, on the PennsylvaniAJ 
R. R. Goal bed, Lower Kittanning, locally known as B, or Miller; Garboniferoasi 
age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 3 feet 4 inches to 4 feet thick; dip, 3} per cent; 
northwest; roof, shale; floor, hard, smooth shale. Commercial samples were taken! 
at the tipple by L. D. Tracy on August 28, 1918. The bed was sampled by J. J. 
Bourquin on July 9, 1918, as shown below: 

Sectwna of coal bed in Vinton No. 1 mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, shale. 

• Coal 

Bonyooal 

Coal 

Shale; in sections C and D "solphur'' streaks. 
Floor, shale and coal. 

lliicknessofbed 

Thickness of coal sampled 



A. 
69728 



Ft. in. 
2 



1 



3 71 
3 7} 



B. 
09734 



Ft. in. 
3 6| 



3 

a 



U 



C. 

fiOTao 



Ft. in. 
3 10 



3 10 
3 10 



D. 



Ft. a. 
3 H 



3 
3 



a Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 69729) was taken from left rib 8 room, 1 left, 3 section, 10 feet 
fnnn face. Section B (sample 69734) was taken from face of 9 room, 8 left, 2 sectioD. 
Section G (sample 69730) was taken from face of 7 left, 5 butt, 2 section. Section D 
(sample 69733) was taken from 1 breakthrough, 34 room, 9 left, 1 section. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine and shoe 
down with permissible explosive, at any time during the shift, by the minezs. Men 
employed numbered 200 underground and 20 aboveground. About 65 per cent of 
the coal was taken out in advance work, and a total recovery of 85 p«r cent was claimed. 
The unmined area was 700 acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 20 yean. 
Haulage was by seven electric locomotives. There were two loading tracks with 
capacity for 35 empty and 35 loaded railroad cars. The coal was dumped over a steel 
tipple with crossover dump, all coal being loaded and shipped as run of mine. The 
coal was cleaned on picking tables by four pickers. There was an inspector of coal st 
the tipple. At time of sampling, the capacity of the mine was 1,200 tons a day, 
and the average daily output in June, 1916, was 900 tons. The output for the year 
1917 was 250,000 tons. The daily tonnage was 75 per cent of the capacity of the 
mine. 

For despription and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
BuU. 22, pp. 162, 721. 

ViNTONDALB. ViNTON No. 6 MiNE. 

Analyses 69731 and 69735 to 69738, average of mine-face samples (p. 69). Semi- 
bituminous coal, Windber field, from Vinton No. 6, a drift mine at Vintondale, oo 
the Pennsylvania R. R. Goal bed, Lower Kittanning, known locally as B, or Miller; 
Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 3 to 4 feet thick; dip, 3 per cent 
northwest; roof, good shale; floor, smooth, rather soft fire clay, above which is shale 
and bony coal. The bed was sampled by B. W. Dyer on July 9, 1918, as shown belcrw: 



PENNSYLVANIA: JEFFfiBSON COUNTY. 
SeetUm of coal bed in VirUon No, 6. 



255 



Sectkni. 

LabofBtory No. 



Roof, shale. 

Coal, bony. 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

Coal. 

Coal, bony 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

Coal, bony 

Coal 

Floor, shale and bony coal under fire day. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled 



A. 
09736 



Ft. in. 

it 

i 

11§ 



3 7| 
3 ?{ 



B. 
09736 



Ft. in. 



1 H 



8 



3 
3 



<4 

HI 



C. 
69738 



Ft. in. 



% 



1 10 



4* 



1 
9 

3 10A 
3 IDA 



D. 
00737 



Ft. in. 



I 



2 10 



4 



3 
3 



SI 



E 
09731 



Ft. in. 

2 7' 



i 



4 



3 4* 
3 4! 



Section A (sample 69736) was taken from rib, 1 right butt, 13 right, off 2 slope. 
Section B (sample 69735) was taken from face of 13 right, off 3 slope. Section C 
(sample 69738) was taken from face of 4 right main, off 15 left, 2 slope. Section D 
(sample 69737) was taken from 1 left, off 1 slope, rib, 10 feet from face. Section E 
(sample 69731) was taken from rib, 100 feet from face, 15 rigfht, 3 slope. 

System of mining, room and pillar. At time of sampling the coal was cut by machine 
and shot down with permissible explosive at any time during the shift by shot firers. 
About 65 per cent of the coal was taken out in the advance work, and a total recovery 
of 85 per cent was claimed. The unmined area consisted of 2,500 acres. In 1918 
the probable lifetime of the mine was 45 years. Haulage was by eight electric 
locomotives. There were two loading tracks, with capacity for 40 empty and 40 
loaded railroad cars. There were 290 men employed underground and 35 above- 
ground . The coal 'was dumped over a steel tipple with chain haul dump ; about 50 per 
cent of the coal went through a bar screen with 3 to 1^ inch openings, the oversize being 
recombined and loaded out, and the undersize being taken to washery; about one- 
third of the coal was loaded and shipped as run of mine. The coal was cleaned on 
railroad cars by three pickers. The coal as loaded on the railroad cars showed the 
presence of few impurities. The capacity of the mine in July, 1919, was 1,500 tons 
a day, and the average daily production was 1,200 tons. The output for the year 
1917 was 450,000 tons. The daily tonnage was 80 per cent of the capacity. All coal 
passing through }-inch screen was washed and coked; about 450 tons of coal a day 
was used for the coke oven. No washed coal was shipped. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 163, 722. 

WiNDBBR. EUBBKA No. 40 MiNB. 

Analyses 68179, 68190, 68191, 68222, and 30173, and tipple samples 68204, 68206, 
^207, 68208, and 30174 (p. 70). Semibituminous coal, Windber field, from Eureka 
No. 40 mine, a drift mine li miles northwest of Windber, in Richland township, on a 
spur of the Pennsylvania R. R. Goal bed, Lower Kittanning or B seam; Carbonif- 
erous age, Allegheny formation. Average thickness of bed is 4 feet 2 inches; dip, 2^ 
southwest; no cleat; few faults. Roof consists of "draw slate," 2 to 10 feet. Floor 
consists of fire clay and lower coal on top of fire clay. Particles of roof and floor did 
not become mixed with coal in loading. Vertical height to seam, 90 feet. The 
bed waa san^led by E. Stebinger on December 26, 1917, as described below: 



256 



• 



Al^TALYSfiS OF^COAL, l^l^lftld. 
Sectioru of coal bed in Eureka No, 40 mine. 



^ 



Section 

Lalxiratory No. 



Roof, shale. 

Coal, "sulphury" 

Coal, "sulphury!' 

Coal, dean 

Coal, vertical slicken faces. 

Coal, bony 

Coal, clean 

Shale _ . . 

Coal, soft, friable 

Shale, 8 inches; "sulphury!' coal, 8 indies; fireclay, 1 inch. 
Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled 



A. 

68179 



Ft. in. 

1 

1 



1 

"I 

2 



4 
4 



n 



B. 

68190 



Ft. in. 
a6 



3 4 



3 10 
3 4 



C. 

68191 



Ft. m. 
2 



10 



2 5 



3 
3 



'n 



D. 



Ft. 



Is.; 
2 



I 



2 
a2 



4 



u 



a Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 68179) was cut in 25 room, left main. Section B (sample 68190) 
was cut in main heading, 600 feet inby 26 left. Section C (sample 68191) was cut iji 4 
room, main, 14 right. Section D (sample 68222) was cut in 19 right main. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 68179. 
68190, 68191, and 68222 is given under laboratory No. 30173. The ultimate analyas 
of a composite sample made by combining tipple samples 68204, 68206, 68207, and 
68208 is given under laboratory No. 30174. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by a chain 
and a punching machine; the haulage was by electric motor. The coal was all 
shipped as run of mine and was picked on car and at tipple. The coal on the can 
appeared to be very clean; the lumps were mostly small. There was tnick capacity 
for 50 empty and 50 loaded railroad cars. About 50 per cent of the coal was taken out 
in the advance work, and a total recovery of 80 per cent was made. At time of sam- 
pling the capacity of the mine was 4,000 tons a day, and the daily average shipmeoto 
were 2,000 tons. 

For descriptions and analyses of other samples of coal from this mine see Bureau of 
Mines, Bull. 22, pp. 164, 725. 

CLEABFTBLD COUNTY. 

MuNSON. Ghem Mine. 

Analyses 26306 to 26312 (p. 70). Bituminous coal Windber field, from Ghem mine, 
a slope mine, at Munson, on the Beech Creek branch of the New York Central R. R- 
Coal bed. Lower Kittanning, known as B, or Miller; Carboniferous age; Allegheny 
formation. Bed is 3 feet to 3 feet 4 inches thick and dips 4^ southwest. Mining is 
impeded by rolls and by many faults. Roof, 14 to 16 inches of impure coal, vitb 
sandy shale above; floor, hard, firm underclay. The bed was sampled by £. H. 
Denny on October 14, 1916, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Ghem mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No 

Roof, fine sandy shale. 

Roof coal 

Coal 

"Sulphur" band 

Coal 

"SulphurV 

Coal.. 

Floor, fire clay. 

Tniekness of bed 

Thickness of eoal lampled 



A. 
26306 



Ft. tn. 
a\ 2 

'■1 



3 3 
3 3 



[ 



B. 
26307 



Ft. <n. 
al 2\ 

2 a 

a2 
1 



3 4 
3 2 



Ft. to. 

1 a 



3 3 
8 8 



D. 
2BSO0 



ft. it- 



•I] 

1 I 



I 3 
Si 



• Not Indodad in sample. 



PENNSYLVANIA: JEFFERSON COUNTY. 



257 



Section A (uample 26306) was measured at the face of 9 right heading, 3,425 feet south 
75^ -west from the slope mouth. Section B (sample 26307) was measured 20 feet from 
face of 2 main and 2,275 feet north 89° west from the slope mouth. Section G (sample 
26308) was measured in 2 room off 3 right back heading and 1,825 feet north 74** west 
from slope mouth. Section D (sample 26309) was measured 25 feet from face of 8 right 
heading and 3,475 feet south 75^ west from slope mouth. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 26306 to 
26309 is given under laboratory No. 26310. Two samples of roof coal were also taken. 
For the results of analyses see laboratory Nos. 26311 and 26312. 

Sections of roof coal in Ghem mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



CoaL 

*' Sulphur" band. 

CoaL 

Dark dull binder. 
Shale and coal. . . . 

CoaL 

Shale band 



Total. 



A. 
26311 



Inches. 

i 
4 



11 



al 



13) 



B. 
26312 



Inclua. 



a6J 



15 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 26311) was taken from face 2 room off 3 right back heading. 
Section B (sample 26312) was taken 25 feet from face of 8 right. 

System of mining, double and triple entry, room and pillar. At time of sampling 
the coal was either overcut or undercut by hand and shot down with FFFF black 
powder, 40 per cent dynamite being used in wet places and for blasting the rock in 
rolls and faults. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 15 years. In 1916 haulage 
wafi by two electric locomotives and 'by mule. There was one loading track, with 
capacity for 10 empty and 20 loaded railroad cars. The miners drilled, loaded, and 
shot their own holes whenever ready. Men employed numbered 64 underground and 
10 aboveground. The coal was dumped over a wooden tipple, all coal being shipped 
as run of mine. The coal was cleaned by two pickers. The capacity of the mine in 
1916 was estimated to be 400 to 5U0 tons a day, and the average production was 275 tons. 

JEFFERSON OOITNTY. 



PUNXSUTAWNST. ElBANORA MiNE. 

Analyses 26827 to 26832 (p. 71). Bituminous coal, Punxsutawney field, from Elea- 
nora mine, a slope and a shaft mine 8^ miles north of Punxsutawney, accessible to a 
branch line of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh R. R. Goal bed. Lower Freeport, 
or D; Carboniferous age; Allegheny formation. Bed is 4 to 7 feet thick and contains 
many minute seams of *' sulphur" and bone; roof, 10 to 20 inch seam of soft shale, 
which makes mining difficult; there is a persistent 2 to 4 inch band of cannel coal 
about 3 feet from the roof, 3 inches below which lies an intermittent thin seam of 
bone. Floor, hard shale. Cover ranges from 200 to 350 feet. The bed was sampled 
by E. Steidle on November 27 to 28, 1916, as described below: 



258 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1^10. 
SeetUma of coal bed in Eleanora mine. 



Beotton 


A. 
26837 


B. 

26828 


C. 
26829 


28830 


B. 




2nn 






Roof, soft shale. 

Coal 


Ft, in. 
2 

10* 
3 
6 


Ft, in. 
3 2 


Ft. in, 
2 10 


Ft. in. 
3 2 


Ft, Hl 
1 71 


Don^ r. 




Coal 










Oannfii 


3^ 


4 
3 


3 
2 








Bone 




Slate 


i 


Coal 


3 


8 
2 0* 

5 11 

6 11 


ft 
t 11 


2 ft 


3 


Bone. . . ; 


i 


Coal 






3 


Floor, shale. 

Thekiiflf^ of bed. . r , t .,,.., r 


s ?l 


ft 11} 
ft lU 


1}1| 


TlflcVnAM nf coal ffamplfld ... 







Section A (sample 26827) was taken from 12 left, 1,000 feet inby main slope. Section 
B (sample 26828) was taken from face 8 west, oflf 4 face entry. Section C (sample 

26829) was taken from face 2 room, off 4 west butt, off 14 left. Section D (sample 

26830) was taken from face 2, west butt, off 14 left. Section E (sample 26831) was 
taken from face of 1 left, off 12 south. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 26827, 
26828, 26829, 26830, and 26831 is given under laboratory No. 26832. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1916 all coal was undercut with 3 chain 
machines and 15 punchers. Black powder was used in the nongaseous or open-fight 
section by the miners, and permissible explosive in the gaseous or closed-light section, 
fired electrically by shot firers. Haulage was by eight trolley motors and by mulee. 
The daily output in 1916 was 1,400 tons, and in 1918, 1,165 tons. 

SOMERSET 00T7NTY. 

Gairnbrook. Lotal Hanna No. 6 Mink. 

Analyses 69564 and 69565, average of tipple samples (p. 71). Semibituminous coal, 
Somerset field, from Loyal Hanna No. 6 mine, a drift mine at Gairnbrook, on the 
Pennsylvania R. R. Goal bed, Tx>wer Kittanning, known locally as B, or Miller; 
Garboniferous age; Allegheny formation. The coal mined ia about 4 feet in height, 
above which is from 5 to 6 inches of bone and above that from to 20 inches of coal, but 
no coal above the bone is mined. The bed dips 1 to 2 per cent west. Roof, slule; 
floor, smooth shale. Gommercial samples were taken at the tipple by J. J. Bonrqoin 
on June 24, 1918. The bed was sampled on September 18, 1914, by G. B. Richardson. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut at the top and in the 
bony portion by machine and shot down with black powder in the room and with 
permissible explosives in the entries at any time by the miners. There were 170 
men employed undergroimd and 30 aboveground. The coal was dumped over a 
wooden tipple, all coal from the two benches being loaded and shipped as run (tf 
mine. There was an inspector on the railroad cars. The capacity of the mine «u 
2,600 tons a day, and the average daily output at the time samples were taken at the 
tipple was 800 to 900 tons. 

For description of coal bed and analyses of samples see Bureau of Mines, Bull. 123, 
pp. 80, 308. 



PENKSYLVAKU : SOMERSET COUKTT. 



259 



Oaisnbroox. Rbtiz No. 2 Minb. 

AxudyseB 69678 and 69591 to 69594, average of mine-face samples, and analyses 
68^66 to 69568, average of tipple samples (p. 71). Semibituminous coal, Someraet 
field, from Reitz No. 2 mine, a drift mine } mile west of Gaimbrook, on the Pennsyl- 
vania R. R. Goal bed, Lower Kittanning, known as B, or Miller; Carboniferous age, 
AU^}ieny formation. Bed is 3 to 4 feet thick and dips 2 per cent west; roof, good 
flhale over about 5 inches of roof coal ; floor, hard, smooth shale. Commercial samples 
were taken at the tipple by C. L. Colbum on June 22, 1918. The bed was sampled 
by B. W. Dyer on June 24, 1918, as described below: 

Sectiofu of coal bed in Reitz No, i mine. 



Section 


A. 

00601 


B. 
60G03 


c. 

00504 


D. 
00878 


B. 




00GQ8 








Ft, In, 
6 


Ft. la. 
5 


FU in, 
6 


Ft, la. 
2 


Ft, <n. 


''Draw'siate'^ .' 


4 


Bmie ... . ......... 


1 
6 


8 

4 
\ 








Obal 


8 


1 


A 


8hal« 




"SnlDhur'' 




\ 




Boiw 








1 


OmU 


11 

a 5» 


1 1 
1 1* 


1 

1 ^ 


1 m 

10 


"Sulnliiir" 


OoalfTT 


• ' Salpliur " 


X 


ftlm]^ . 


3* 


4» 


* 


Goal 




1 3i 


3i 


"Sulphur" 


Goal:. 










Floor, shale. 

'nii<»kTi«»« nf b«! ..-. 


\\\ 


3 8i 
3 8| 


I v^ 


1 3 


Thlckxiefftt of ooal sampled 





Section A (sample 69591) was cut at face of 28 room, 8 left entry, 10 feet from entry. 
Section B (sample 69593) was cut at face of main heading. Section C (sample 69594) 
was cut at face of 18 room, 8 right entry, 15 feet from entry. Section D (sample 
69678) was cut at face of 38 room, 6 left entry, 10 feet from entry. Section E (sample 
69592) was cut at face of 31 room, 6 right entry, 150 feet fnxn entry. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine in bottom 
coal and shot down with black powder and squibs by the miners at any time during 
the shift. Men employed numbered 180 underground and 25 aboveground. The 
coal was dumped over a wooden tipple, all being loaded and shipped as run of mine. 
Three pickers were employed on the railroad cars. The coal was diipped to Pennsyl- 
vania, New York, and the New England States and used for steam and domestic 
purposes. At time of sampling the capacity of the mine was 1,500 tons a day, and 
the average daily output was 1,200 tons. The output for the year 1917 was 360,000 
tons. An increase in tonnage to 2,000 tons a day was anticipated. 

Caibnbbook. Scalp Lbvbl No. 3 Mine. 

Analyses 69595 to 69598, average of mine-face samples (p. 71). Semibituminous 
coal, Somerset field, from Scalp Level No. 3 mine, a drift mine 2\ miles west of Cairn- 
brook, on. the Pennsylvania K. R. Coal bed. Lower Kittanning, known as B, or 
Miller; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 3 feet 2 inches to 3 feet 
8 inches thick; dip, 3 per cent west; roof, shale, good above top coal; floor, smooth, 
hard fii« day. The bed was sampled by B. W. Dyer on June 25, 1918, as shown 
below: 



260 



AITALTSBS OF COAL., 1910-1919. 



Sections of coal bedin Sealp Level No. S ' 


mine. 






Sectioii 


A. 

09606 


B. 
00607 


C 


D. 


Labontory No. 


005B6 






Roof, shale. 

Cij^i and *K<n«- , . ■ .■ 


Ft, in, 
al 2 

2 6 

1. 

< 

1 
6 

\ 

4* 


Ft. in, 
a2 
1 7 


Ft. in. 

a I 7} 

1 3 


Ft, in. 
al 10 


Coal 


^ 


"Sulphur" 


Coal.. "..*.//.".''.'.*!'.*.'.!*.'.*.*.! 








Coal 
















Coal 








Slate 


.* 


u* 


^ 


CoaL 


2 9 


"Sulphur" 


1 


Coal 








7* 


Floor, shale. 

Tnicknfiip of ^^w^r- - , r . . . , , . . , 


5 
3 10 


f 3 


5 

4 IJ 


5 9} 




3 lU 







a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 69598) was taken in 6 room, 4 left entry. Section B (sample 
69597) was taken in 12 room, 3 right, 30 feet from entry. Section C (sample 69595) 
was taken in 5 room, 3 left entry. Section D (sample 69596) was taken in light main 
heading. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut hy machine in the 
bottom coal and shot down with black powder and squibs by the miners at any time 
during the shift. Men employed numbered 80 underground and 10 aboveground. 
The coal was dumped over a wooden tipple, all being loaded and shipped as run of 
mine. Haulage was by two electric locomotives. The coal w^s not usually cleaned 
after it was loaded in the mine. There was one loading track, with capacity for 20 
empty and 20 loaded railroad cars. Sixty-five per cent of the coal was taken out in 
the advance work, and a total recovery of 85 per cent was claimed. The unmined 
area consisted of 1,000 acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 20 years. The 
capacity of the mine was 600 tons a day, and the average daily production was 600 
tons. The coal was shipped to tidewater for New York and New England to be 
used for steam and fuel purposes. 

Elk Lick. Botnton No. 9 Mike. 

Analyses 71065 and 71066, mine samples, and analyses 71103 to 71106, car samples, 
run-of-mine coal (p. 72.) Semibituminous coal, Somerset field, from Boynton No. 9 
mine, a drift mine 1 mile south of Elk lick, on the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Coal 
bed, known as D, or Lower Freexwrt ; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Thick- 
ness of bed is about 3 feet. The immediate roof consists of bone 1 foot 6 inches and 
the main roof and floor of slate. The mine was sampled by N. H. Snyder and H. A. 
Goodman on June 13, 1919, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Boynton No. 9 mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



A. 

71065 



B. 
71006 



Roof, main, shale; immediate, bone. 

Coal 

"Bu^ur" 

Shale 

CoaL 

"Sulphur" 

Shale 

CoaL 

'rtiicknew of bed 

ThiplmeM of coal sampled 



FL in, 
2 10 



V 

•i 



Ft, tn. 
2 4 
Ttioe- 
• \ 
i 



4 
8 



H 

10 
4 



•4 



M 



• Not inchided in lampie. 



PEN'NSYLVANIA : SOMERSET COUNTY. 261 

Section A (sample 71065) was cut from 3 rigl^t, off main, 500 feet from opening. 
Section B (sample 7106^. was cut from &ce of main heading, 500 feet from opening. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1919 the coal was undercut by hand and 
shot down with black powder. The mine was in course of development and had a 
capacity of 50 tons a day; it was expected to increase this to 150 tons a day. There 
were 16 men employed underground and 2 men on the sur&ce. The mine was not 
operating on day visited. The seam was covered by 1 foot 6 inches of bone which 
was being removed from the headings. Coal was shipped as run of mine ; it is cleaned 
in the mine, no pickers being employed on the cars. 

Car was selected at the tipple and E^iipped by N. H. Snyder June 18, 1919, which was 
sampled at the Government fuel yard, Washington, D. C, June 20, 1919, by R. J. 
Swingle. A 1,000-pound sample was collected by taking successive large shovelfuls 
of coal at intervals under the car as it was being dumped . Sample was crushed and 
quartered by mechanical crusher at the Bureau of Mines laboratory, Washington, 
D. C. 

Elk Lick. BoYin*ON Smokblbss Mine. 

Analysifi 71067 (p. 72). Semibituminous coal, Somerset field, from Boynton Smoke- 
less mine, a drift mfhe 2) miles east of Elk lick, on the Baltimore die Ohio R. R. Coal 
bed. Upper Kittanning, or CY] Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 
about 3 feet; main roof, shale; immediate roof, bone; floor, shale. The mine was 
Bunpled by N. H. Snyder and H. A. Goodman on June 13, 1919, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Boynton Stnokelesa mine. 

Roof, main, shale; immediate, bone. Ft. in. 

Coal 2 7} 

Shale« 2 

Coal 6i 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 4 10 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 4 

Section A was cut from face of main heading, 200 feet from opening. 

In 1919 the Boynton Smokeless mine was a new mine not yet in operation. A drift 
had been driven in about 200 feet and a tipple constructed near the opening. It was 
expected that operations would begin soon and that about 50 tons a day would be 
the output. The property contained about 200 acres. The seam was covered by 
1 foot 6 inches of bone, which was being removed from the headings. Mining was to 
be done by hand and haulage by mule. 

Elk Lick. Chapman No. 3 Mine. 

Analyses 71063 and 71064, mine samples, and analyses 71107 to 71110, car samples 
(p. 72). S^nibituminous coal, Windber field, from Chapman No. 3 mine, a drift mine 
1 mile north-northwest of Elk lick, on the Baltimore die Ohio R. R. Coal bed, Pitts- 
burgh or Big Vein; Carboniferous age, Monongahela formation. Bed is 6 feet to 7 
feet 6 inches thick. The roof and floor are shale, which readily parts from the coal. 
The mine was sampled by N. H. Snyder and H. A. Goodman on June 13, 1919, as 
described below: 

a Not inclnded in sample. 



262 



ANALYSES OF COAL, IftlO-lftlO. 



Sedion» c^fcoal bed in Chapman No, S mine. 

: P.7 ^0. 



8«otioii 

Labormtory No. 



Roof, shale. 

doel 

Shale 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

Shale 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 




a Not inchided In eample. 

Section A (sample 71063) was cut in 2 right, off main entry, 450 feet from opening. 
Section B (sample 71064) was cut in face of main heading, 3,900 feet from opening. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1919 coal was undercut by hand and shot 
down with black powder. The capacity of the mine was 100 tons a day. There were 
17 men employed underground and 4 on the surface. The haulage was by mules. 
The tipple was about a half mile from opening and ooal was hauled by mules and 
dumped over straight dump. The coal was shipped as run of mine. Coal was cleaned 
in mine, no pickers being employed on the cars. 

A car sample (laboratory Nos. 71107 to 71110) of 1,000 pounds was also oollectod 
from one loaded car selected at the mine and shipped by N. H. Snyder on June 13, 
1919. The car was sampled at the Government fuel yard, Washington, D. C, by 
R. J. Swingle on June 20, 1919. The sample was crushed and quartered by medianical 
crusher at the Bureau of Mines laboratory, Washington, D. C. 

Sbanor. Eureka No. 39 Mine. 

Analyses 68200, 68205, 68214, and 30161; also average of tipple samples 68183, 
68188, 68194, and 68223 (p. 72). Semibituminous coal, Windber field, from Eureka 
No. 39 mine, a drift mine \ mile south of Seanor station, on the Pennsylvania R. R. 
Goal bed, known as the Upper Kittanning, or C^, seam; Carboniferous age, Allegheny 
series. Bed is 3} to 5 feet thick; roof, 2 feet of brown shale or sandstone; floor, hard, 
smooth underclay; cover at points of sampling, about 100 feet. Commercial samples 
were taken at the tipple by E. Stebinger in December, 1917. The bed was sampled by 
£. T. Hancock on December 17, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Eureka No, .19 mine. 



Seotloa 


A. 

flsaoo 


B. 
68306 


C. 


T Ahoiatorv No. 


68214 






Roof, nndstooe. 

roar...... 


Ft. in, 

3 7 

a2 

3 • 

3 7 


FL in. 
S 11 


fir, in. 
3 9 


Rhale 




Floor brown shale. 

Tnickneaofbed. . ^ .,....,. 


3 11 
3 11 


S 9 


ThickiMWi of 5?o!il aampled. 


3 9 







• Not inchided in sample. 

Section A (sample 68200) was cut at face of 6 left entry, 9 left main. Section B 
(sample 68205) was cut at face of 11 right entry, 9 left main. Section (sample 68214) 
was cut at face of 9 right entry, 9 left main. 



TEXAS: WEBB COUNTY. 263 

The ultimate analysiB of a compodte sample made by combining face samples 
68200, 68205, and 68214 is j^iven under laboratory No. 30161. 

In 1917 the coal from this mine was all shipped as run of mine, and storage bins were 
used. The appearance of the coal on cars was good, and the lumps were large. At 
time of sampling the capacity of the mine was 1,200 tons a day. Men employed 
numbered 270 underground. 

TEHHESSEE. 

HOBGAN OOUNTY. 

Catoosa. Flat Rock No. 3 Mine. 

Analyses 29556 to 29559 (p. 73). Bituminous ccal from Flat Rock No. 3 mine, a 
drift mine, about 3 miles from Nemo, the junction point of the Moigan die Fentress 
R. R. with the Southern system. Coal bed is locally called the Catoosa seam; Car- 
booiierous age, Lee (?) formation. Thickness of bed varies, the average workable 
thickness being about 33 inches; the seam is irregular, with no partings. The roof 
is shale of excellent quality and the floor hard fire clay. Cover at points of sampling, 
about 100 feet. The bed was sampled by J. M. Webb on January 7, 1918, the sample 
representing 2 feet to 2 feet 9 inches of coal, the total thickness of the bed. 

Section A (sample 29556) was cut at face of 4 cross entry, 1 right main. Section B 
(sample 29557) was cut in 1 cross entry, 3 right main, 700 feet northeast. Section C 
(sample 29558) was cut at face of main north, 950 feet north. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
29556, 29557, and 29558 is given under laboratory No. 29559. 

System of mining, room and pillar. The mine is irregularly laid out, the main- 
tenance of grade on entries and the avoidance of oarren areas being the chief con- 
sideration. At the time of sampling the coal was shot with permissible explosives, 
which had just been introduced exclusively; black powder had been previously used. 
Men employed numbered 40 underground and 6 aboveground. The tipple was of 
wood. The entire output was shipped as run of mine. Haulage was by mides. 
There was one loading track, with capacity for 6 empty and 5 loaded railroad cars. 
The coal on the cars was bright. It was used mainly for steam purposes. In 1918 the 
estimated lifetime of the mine was 3 years. The daily output at time of sampling was 
175 tons. 

TEXAS. 
WEBB OOUKTY. 

Dolores. Dolobes Mine. 

Analyses 29021, 29022 (p. 73). Cannel coal, Santo Tomas field, from Dolores mine 
at Dolores, 23 miles northwest of Laredo. Coal beds, Santo Tomas and San Pedro; 
Eocene age, Canisx> formation. Boof of Santo Tomas bed, clay and shale, very poor; 
floor, clay. Roof of San Pedro bed, joint clay; floor, poor, clay. The beds were 
sampled on August 7, 1917, by G. H. Ashley, as described below: 

Section of Santo Tothos coal bed in Dolores mine. 

Roof, clay and shale. ^' ^ 

Sandstone * 10 

Shalea 1 

Coal, bony fl . .! 6 

Shale« 4 

Coal 2 4 

Bone 2 

a Not locbided in sample. 



264 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 

FlocMT, clay. pt. in. 

Thickness of bed 2 6 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 6 

The section was measured in 20 room, north entry, 800 feet north 60^ east from shaft 

(110 feet deep). 

Section of San Pedro coal bed in Dolores mine. 
Roof, joint clay. rt. in. 

Sandstone^ 10 

Sandstone and shale interbedded <^ 2 

Clayjointeda 2 

CM 1 10 

Floor, clay. 

Clay« 4 

Coal, bony* 1 6 

Thickness of bed 1 10 

Thickness of coal sampled 1 10 

The section was measured at face of I entry, 1,000 feet due west of shaft. 

Between Dolores and Darwin. Hunt Mine. 

Analysis 29023 (p. 73). Cannel coal, Santo Tomas field, from Hunt mine, between 
Dolors and Darwin. Coal bed, Santo Tomas; Ekxrene age, Carrizo formation. Roof, 
sandstone 2 to 3inches, over clay; floor, clay. Thebedwassampled on August?, 1917, 
by G. H. Ashley, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Munt mine. 

Roof, sandstone. Ft. io. 

Coalo 10 

Clay, shalya 1 2 

Coal 2 2 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 4 2 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 2 

The section was measiured 30 feet from mine mouth and the sample was taken to 

study the effect of weathering. 

Santo Tomas. Santo Tomas Mine. 

Analysis 29024 (p. 73). Cannel coal, Santo Tomas field, from Santo Tomas mine, 
27) miles northwest of Laredo. Coal bed, Santo Tomas; Eocene age, Canizo fonna- 
tum. Roof, clay, very po(M*; floor, clay, poor. The bed was sampled on August 10. 
1917, by G. H. Ashley, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Santo Tonuu mine. 
Roof, clay. It. lo. 

Coal 1 3 

Bone 2 

Coal ^ i 3 

Bone^ 5 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed .^ 3 1 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 8 

The section was measured at breakthrough between rooms 118 and 119, 2,800 feet 
from shaft (165 feet deep). 

• Not indudad in sample. 



viboikia: montgombbt county. 



265 



VIBaiVIA. 
LBE aoxnsm. 

PoGKETT. Reed Greek Mine. 

Analyses 29684 to 29686 (p. 73). Bituminous coal, Black Mountain field, from 
Reed <>eek mine, a drift mine, 2 miles east of Pockett, on the Southern R. R. Coal 
bed, not known; Carboniferous age, Pottsville group. Bed is about 3 feet thick; 
coal is very hard, with a 4-inch seam of hard, gray splint coal about 6 inches from 
the bottom; roof, very good, gray shale; floor, about 1 inch of soft "soapetone" over- 
lying bottom coal; cover at point of sampling, 250 feet. The bed was sampled by 
J. Henson on January 14, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Reed Creek mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 

Rocrf, grav abate. 

Coal, hard. 

Coal , gray splint 

Coal, sort 

Flocv. s<rft " soapstone." 

Tnlclmwwoibed 

Thickness of coal sampled 




Section A (sample 296^4) was taken from face of 1 slant, 560 feet north 25^ east. 
Section B (sample 29685) was taken from face of 3 slant, north 85° east from opening. 

An ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 29684 
and 29685 is given under laboratory No. 29686. 

The mine is rated as nongaseous by the State mine inspector and is worked on the 
room and pillar system. In 1918 the shooting was done on the solid by drilling six 
or seven holes across the face, loading with from 30 to 45 inches of FFF black blast- 
ing powder, tamping with ''bug dust," and firing with fuse. No undercutting was 
done. Haulage was by mules. The daily output of the mine at the time of 
sampling was 50. 

HONTOOMEBY COX7MTY. 

Blacksbubo. Slubber Mine. 

Analyses 30689 to 30691 (p. 74). Semibituminous coal, Brushy Mountain field, 
from Slusser mine, a slope mine 3} miles north of Blacksburg; no railroad connec- 
tion. Coal bed, ' ' Big '' ; Lower Carboniferous age. Price sandstone. 

The bed was sampled on May 23, 1918, by M. R. Campbell and R. W. Howell, as 

follows: 

Sections of coal bed in Sluuer mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No.. 



Roof, not noted. 

Coal 

Bone. 

Coal 

Bone 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

Bone 

Coal 

Bone. 

CoaL 

Floor, not noted* 

Tnicknessofbed... 

Thfckness sampled. 



A. 
30089 



FL in. 



o2 
11 

1 1 

4 8 
3 51 



Ft, in. 

\.» 

1 
ol 





ol 



4 10 
3 4i 



a Not iodnded in sampla. 



266 ANALYSES OF CaAL, 1W6-1919. 

Section A (sample 30689) was cut at xwint 220 feet down slope and 100 feet n<»tliet8t 
of slope on level. Section B (sample 30690) was cut at point 225 feet down sloi)e and 
200 feet southwest of slope on level. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 30689 
and 30690 is shown under laboratory No. 30691. 

Me'brimac Mines. Merrimac Mine. 

Analyses and 30692 and 30797 (p. 74). Semianthraeite coal from Merrimac mine 
of Merrimac Anthracite Coal Corporation, a slope mine at Merrimac Mines, a station 
on branch lines of both the Norfolk & Western and the Virginian Railroads. Coal bed, 
<< Big'' ; Lower Carboniferous age, Price sandstone. The bed was sampled on May 13, 
1918, by M. R. Campbell and R. W. Howell as follows: 

Sections of coal bed in Merrimac mine. 

Roof, not noted. Ft. in. 

Coal 9i 

Shale« 5 

Coal ; 2 2 

Shaleo 2 

Coal 2 

Floor, not noted. 

Thickness of bed 5 6i 

Thickness of coal sampled '. 4 UJ 

Section A (sample 30692) was cut on fourth level, 2,150 feet west of slope. Thu 
level is 600 feet from mine mouth on 20° dip. When sampled the mine had just be^ 
unwatered after having stood idle for 10 years. Section B (sample 30697) was a 
sample from railroad car of so-called ''sand coal'' from Merrimac mine. 

Merrimac Mines. Prospect. 

Analysis 30693 (p. 74). Semianthraeite coal from pTospect at Merrimac Mines. 
Coal bed known as " Little" bed; Carboniferous (MisaiBsippian) age, Price sandstone. 
*' Little " bed lies about 100 feet below ''Big *' bed. The bed was sampled on May 23, 
1918, by M. R. Campbell and R. W. HowelL Sample represented coal bed 1 foot 9 
inches thick, and was cut in prospect drift 20 feet from mouth of drift. Coal wbs 
weathered. 

FDliASKI COUKTY. 

QuNTON Park. Summit Mine. 

Analysis 30696 (p. 74). Semianthraeite coal from mine of Summit Coal <Sc Iron Co., 
a Mope mine at Gunton Park, on the Norfolk & Western Ry. Coal bed, "Upper"; 
Carboniferous (MissieBippian) age; Price sandstone. Sampled on May 25, 1918, by 
M. R. Campbell and R. W. Howell, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Summit Coal 6s Iron Co. mine. 

Roof, not noted. Ft. in- 

Coal, bony « 2 2 

Coal 5} 

Shaleo 3 

Coal « 

Shale* 1 

Coal 6 

Shale 2 

« Not Indndwi in sample. 



VIBGIKIA: PULASKI COUNTY. 267 

Roof, not noted — ^Continued. Ft. in. 

Coal, sampled a 1 4 

Shale* ) 

Coal 1 Q\ 

Floor, not noted. 

Thicknese of bed 6 llf 

Tliicknefls of coal sampled 4 SJ- 

The sample was cut in room west of slope, 250 feet from mine mouth. 

Parrott. Parrott Mine. 

Analysis 30694 (p. 74). Semibituminous coal from Parrott mine of Pulaski Anthra- 
cite Coal Co., a slope mine at Parrott, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, 
'*Big''; Carboniferous (Mississippian) age; Price sandstone. Bed dips about 20°. 
The bed was sampled on May 24, 1918, by M. R. Campbell and R. W. Howell, as 

described below: 

Section of coal bed in Parrott mine. 
Roof, not noted. Ft. in. 

Coal 1 i 

Shale« 3J 

Coal 21 

Bone* 2 

Coal Si 

Bone* 2 

Coal 7 

Bone « 5i 

Coal 1 6} 

Bonea ^ 

Coal 8J 

Bone« H 

Coal 5 

Bone « - i 

Coal r 41 

Floor, not noted. 

Thickness of bed 6 8 

Thickness of coal sampled 5 2) 

The sample was cut 150 feet west of slope and on level 2,750 feet from mine mouth. 

Pulaski. Lanohornb Mine. 

Analysis 30095 (p. 74). Senuanthradte coal from mine of D. G. Langhome, 5 miles 
northeast of Pulaski, in Brushy Mountain field, a drift mine; no railroad connection. 
Coal bed , ' ' Little ' * ; Carboniferous (MiBsissippian) age ; Price sandstone. The bed was 
sampled on May 25, 1918, by M. R. Campbell and R. W. Howell, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Langhome mine. 

Ft. in. 

Coal 1 9 

Shale« IJ 

Coal 2 7 

Coal, soft 10 

Thickness of bed 5 8) 

Thickness of coal sampled 5 2 

The sample was cut at face of main left entry, 250 feet from tunnel, whidi is 25 
feet long. 

• Not included in wmide. 
55270'— 22 18 



268 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 

BUSSELL COUNTY. 
Dante. Glinchfield No. 2 Mine. 



AnalyaeB 32168 to 32172 (p. 75). Bituminous coal, Glinchfield (?) field, from 
Glinchfield No. 2 mine, at Dante, on the Garolina, Glinchfield & Ohio R. R. 
Goal bed, Upper Banner; Garboniferous age, Norton formation. Roof, ahale; floor, 
day or shale. The bed was sampled by A. W. Giles and G* K. Wentworth on 
June 16, 1919, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Glinchfield Coal Carp. No, t wxne. * 



Smtlofi ...... ...T 


A. 

32168 


B. 
32109 


C. 
32170 


D. 


Laborfttory No 


32171 






Roof, shale. 

CoaL 


FU in. 


FU in. 


FL fa. 

1 


FU in. 
1 6 


flA,n<)-itAnn •- , . , , , . . , , . 


• 14 


Shale 


al 

1 5 

as 


as 
3 




CoaL •. 


1 6 


1 4 


Ranfist-onA- - - . - . , 




RhAlA • , 


al 


• b 
1 4 

a 1.2 
1 2 

al 
5 

a 1-3 
1 8 

al 
1 9 

7 7 
6 7 




CoaL 


1 5 




Ri^nci.qtonff. . . , , 






CoaL 








Clay 






• 1 


CoaL 








Shale 




•J* 

al 
2 

6 8 
fi 2i 




Coal 


8 
al 
2 

5 7i 
5 4} 




Rh«Ue. 




CoaL 


2 5 


Floor, day and shale. 

Tnicoiess of bed 


5 5i 


ThicknflBs of coal sftinplod ^ . 


5 3 







a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 32168) was measured in 10 right entry, 200 feet off main entry. 
Section B (sample 32169) was measured in 4 left, near 20 room, off main entry. Section 
G (sample 32170) was measured in 3 left air course, near 15 room, off 7 right entry. 
Section D (sample 32171) was measured at 39 room, right cross 4. 

The ultimate analysiB of a composite sample made by combining tree ounplee 
32168, 32169, 32170, and 32171 is given under laboratory No. 32172. At time of sam- 
pling the output was 2,000 tons a day. 

TAZBWBLL OOXTNTY. 

Bakdt. Ghristiak Mine. 

Analysis 25913 (p. 75). Bituminous coal, southwest Viiginia field, from Christian 
mine, 1 mile west of Bandy and Norfolk & Western R. R. Goal bed. Middle Sea- 
board; Garboniferous age, Lee formation. Roof, clay; floor, clay. The coal was 
sampled on August 28, 1916, by T. K. Hamsberger, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Christian mine. 

Roof, clay. Ft. lo. 

Coal 1 U 

Clayo 1 

Goal 9 

"Rash"« 10 

Goal 1 2 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 3 UJ 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 1 

The section was measured at face of main entry, 250 feet south, 25® west of nmie 
mouth. 

aNot includad In saiapia. 



VIBOINIA: TAZEtWELL GOUNTT. 



269 



Bandt. Patricx Mine. 

AnalyBiB 25912 (p. 75). Bituminous coal, southwest Virginia field, from Patrick 
mine, IJ miles west of Bandy and Norfolk & Western R. R. C!oal bed, Low^ Sea- 
board; Carboniferous age, Lee formation. Roof, shale; floor, clay. The coal was 
sampled on August 28, 1916, by T. It. Hamsberger, as described below: 

Section oj coal bed in Patrick mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

"Rash"«... 8 

Coal 1 

''Mother coal'' J 

Coal IJ 

Clay, hardo : 2 

Coal 1 5 

•'Mother coal" J 

Coal 1 

Clay, hard a 3 

"Rash"a : IJ 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 3 lOJ 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 8 

The section was measured at face of main entry, 100 feet west of mine mouth. 

Bia Vein. Bio Vein Nos. 1 and 2 Mines. , 

Analyses from No. 1 mine, 67886, 67889, 67902, 67934, 67951, 29908, and car sample 
69458 and 69459, and analyses from No. 2 mine, 67927, 67964, 29909, and car samples 
69326 and 69327 (p. 75). Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Big Vein 
Nob. 1 and 2 mines, slope and shaft mines at Big Vein, 1 mile south of Pocahontas, on 
the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Carboniferous age, Potts- 
ville series. Bed is 8 to 16 feet, averaging 10 feet. Fault is encountered at eastern 
boundary of mine only; no rolls or horsebacks. Vertical depth to landing below 
entrance, about 60 and 20 feet, respectively. Roof, shale; floor, 2 feet of coal, then 
shale. Car samples from No. 1 mine were collected at tidewater by H. ^W. Jarrett 
on December 1, 1917, and June 17, 1918. Car samples from No. 2 mine were collected 
at tidewater by £. L. Wallace on April 10 to June 6, 1918. The mines were sampled 
at two points in No. 1 mine and four points in No. 2 mine by J. J. Bourquin and C. A. 
Allen on December 18, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Big Vein Nos. 1 and 2 mines. 



UiM 


No. 1. 
A. 
/ 67880 
\ 67DU8 


No.l. 

B. 
67934 
67886 


No. 2. 
C. 

1 67964 


No. 2. 
D. 

67927 


No.l. 
E. 

67951 


No. 2. 


Section 


F. 


Laboratory No 








Roof, shale. 

Coal 


Ft. in. 


Ft, in. 
I 5 

14 


Ft. in, 
1 


Ft. in. 

1 9 

a4 


FL in, 
o2 


Ft. in. 
1 7 


Gray coal with "stUphur" 




"Salphur"band 


2 

2 6 

i» 

2 
2 
2 

3 6 

^ 
1 6 

8 
9 8 


2 S» 
2 
3 
2 
4 
2 
6 
4 

3 2 

9 24 

7 2) 


2 


Coal 


.01 

1 

2 

1 
2 
6 

3 

7 


1 11 

a3 
3 


1 1 
6 2 


2 3 


C"il, gray and bony 


3 


Coal 


1 2 


Booe 


3 


Coal 




4 


Bony coal 


al 6 


2 


Coal 




1 2 


Bone 








Coal 








Floor, ahala. 

TnlckneiMiofNrt 


7 11 

7 8 


9 11 

8 


11 




11 







• Not inohidad in sample. 



270 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916~1919. 



Section A (samples 67886 and 67902) was cut in 1 room, Balls Hole entry. Section 
B (samples 67934 and 67889) was cut in 4 room, OarteiBville entry. Section G (sample 
67964) was cut in 1 room, 5 right, 75 feet from foce. Section D (sample 67927) was 
cut at face of 2 right, main entry. Section £ (sample 67951) was cut from split in 
pillar, dip heading, 60 feet from face. Section F was cut near 3 room, main, 8 left. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
67886, 67889, 67902, 67951, and 67934 from Big Vein No. 1 mine is given under labora- 
tory No. 29908. The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining 
face samples 67927 and 67964 from Big Vein No. 2 mine is given under laboratory 
No. 29909. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In December, 1917, the undercutting was 
done by blasting and the top coal was then shot down. Black powder was used. 
The capacity of No. 1 mine was about 150 tons a day and No. 2 mine, 350 tons; the 
average daily shipments were about the same. Both mines were working mostly 
on pillars. The estimated lifetime of the mines was 5 to 7 years. Haulage was by 
mules and electric motors; there were two 10-ton and four gathering motors. No. 1 
mine shipped all its coal as run of mine. The tipple was only a chute, and the mine 
cars dumped directly into railroad cars. Top men picked out some of the bone. 
The mine was old and had been worked irregularly, but was producing good coaL 
No. 2 mine screened most of its coal with bar screens, having 3 by 6 inch holes and 
small screens having 1} by 2} and 1 by J inch holes. The lumps were huge. There 
were four loading tracks at No. 2 mine and one at No. 1 mine, with capacity for 
35 loaded and 40 empty cars. Mine No. 2 also has irr^^lar workings. The can 
were dumped by rotary dump into a steel conveyor. None of the bone was picked 
out. Considerable floor coal was left in order to get proper grade or to keep out of 
water. 

BOISSEVAIN. (BOISSEVAIN MiNE.) 

Analyses 67887, 67888, 67892, 67899, 67900, 67901, 67903, 67904, 67922, 87923, 67925, 
67957, 67960, 67971, and 29907, (p. 75). Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas field, 
from BoiBsevain mine, a shaft mine at Boissevain on the Norfolk & Westen R. R. 
Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Carboniferous age, Pocahontas formation, PottsviUe 
group. Bed is 8 to 11 feet thick; dip, 1** to 6** north, 70® west, with a valley. 
There are a few faults near the shaft. Roof, shale; 12 to 24 inches of top coal is 1^ 
up during advance work. There is a cap rock of sandstone. Floor, shaly clay, 
with a smooth surface. Depth of shaft 180 feet. The bed was sampled by J. W. 
Paul, C. A. Allen, and J. J. Bourquin on December 17, 1917, as described below: 



Sections of coal bed in Boissevain mine. 






SeotioD 


A. 
/ 67888 
\ 67901 


B. 
67900 
67887 


C. 
67899 
679M 


D. 
67900 
67802 


E. 
67900 
67022 


F. 
6790 
67WS 


G. 


Laboratory No 


679S7 




67971 


Roof, shale and coal. 

Shale 


FL in. 
al 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Top coal 








02 
11 


03 6 
41 




Coal 


1 
02 


I 4 


11 
al 


11 
1 


8 


"Sulphur" band 




Bone* 


8 
7 
3 

3 3 
3 

3 4 


1 
ft 
3 

e 

3 

S 6 

5 

5 3^ 

9 3 

6 9 


S 


Coal 


3 2 
3 

1 8 
3 

1 6 

aa 

2 2 

9 & 

8 11 


3 8 
•4 

2 11 

10 4 
9 7i 


2 10 
a2 

3 6 
•2 

3 


8 3 
aa 

1 9 

9 2i 
8 7 


7 


Bone 


7 


Onl 


2 10 


Rony 00^1 T . 


S 


Coal' 


2 7 


Bone 




Coal 








Floor, ftre clay. 

'nilclnw« o' be^ T r 


10 2 
9 10 


8 8 
6 B 


9 1 


Thickness of coal sampled . . 


9 1 



a Not Included in sample. 



VIRGINIA: TAZEWELL COUNTY. 



271 



Section A (samples (S7888 and 67901) was cut at face of 12 room, C-2 panel, off 
5 east. Section B (samples 67903 and 67887) was cut at face of 9 room, A-1 panel, 
off 5 east. Section C (samples 67899 and 67904) was cut at face of 10 room, H-23, 
off C-4 entry. Section If (samples 67900 and 67892) was cut near face of main H-22 
entry. Section E (samples 67960 and 67922) was cut 50 feet from face of 14 triple 
entry No. 1. Section F (samples 67923 and 67925) was cut 15 feet from face of 1 room, 
1-17 entry. Section G (samples 67957 and 67971) was cut on left rib 30 feet from face 
of J-3 air course. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample, formed by combining face samples 
67887, 67888, 67892, 67899, 67900, 67901. 67903, 67904, 67922, 67923, 67925, 67957, 
67960, and 67971 is given under laboratory No. 29907. 

System of mining, room and pillar, in panel. In 1917 the coal was undercut by 
machine in the coal just below the bone and was shot down by 6X black powder. 
Pemussible explosives were used in brushing roof and floor. The shots were fired 
during shift by the miners. About 300 men were employed underground. Electric 
locomotives were used for haulage; 10-ton locomotives were used on the main entry 
and 6-ton cable locomotives for gathering. The steel tipple was provided with con- 
veyor tables, shaking screens, a bone crusher, picking tables, and loading booms. 
The bone was crushed and reassembled with the other picked coal in the railroad 
car or loaded with the screenings. Minimum breakage of coal and high efficiency 
in cleaning should result from the use of the improved facilities of the tipple wliich 
had just been completed. About 25 per cent of the coal was mined in advance work. 
Room pillars were pulled as promptly as possible. They were cut through with 
12-foot entries, leaving a 10-foot stump, which was then pulled. The capacity of 
the mine was about 2,500 tons a day, but at time of sampling the shipments averaged 
1,200 to 1,500 tons a day. 

For description and analyses of other samples of coal frcm this mine see Bureau of 
Mines Bull. 22, pp. 198, 824. 

Faraday. Altizer Minb. 

Analysis 26101 (p. 76). Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Altizer 
mine, i mile north of Faraday, flag station on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal 
bed, Pocahontas No. 5; Carboniferous age, Lee formation. Roof, shale; floor, clay. 
The bed was sampled on September 16, 1916, by T. E. Harnsbeiger. The section 
was measured 110 feet north of mine mouth and represented 6 feet 7 inches of coal. 

Jewell. Jewell Ridge No. 1 Mine. 

Analyses 25651 to 25653 (p. 76). Bituminous coal, southwest Viiginia field, from 
Jewell Ridge No. 1 mine, at Jewell, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, 
Raven; Carboniferous age, Norton formation. Roof, hard clay, floor, sandstone. 
The coal was sampled on July 22, 1916, by T. K. Hams)i>erger, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Jewell Ridge No. 1 mine. 



SeoUon 

lAbontorj No. . 



RooL hard day. 
Clay, hard. . 



"Rash" 

Oay^hard 

Raaii •.••>••••.••••..«. 

Coal 

Floor, sandstone. 

Thk^iuss ofbed 

Thlrlmms of coal sampled. 



A. 
25651 



Ft, In. 

9 8 

a4 



^ 



4 
3 6 



B. 
2S652 



Ft, At. 

2 6 

al 



4 

al 
a2 
a2 



\ 



3 1^ 



■ Not turfaided in sample. 



272 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 191^1i>19. 



Section A (sample 25651) was measured in 2 right entry, off main entry, 1,900 feet 
north 60^ east of mine mouth. Section B (sample 25652) was meaaured in 6 main 
entry, 3,700 feet northeast of mine mouth. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by ifiixing samples 25651 and 
25652 is given under laboratory No. 25653. 

Pocahontas. West Pocahoktab Mine. 

Analyses 67910, 67954, 67958, 67953, and 29912, also car sample 30264 (p. 76). Semi- 
bituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from West Pocahontas mine, a drift mine at Poca- 
hontas, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Goal bed, Pocahontas No. 3, Carboniferous 
age, Pottsville group. No cleat, faults, rolls, or horsebacks. Bed is 8 to 11 feet 
thick, averaging 9 feet. The mine works a high bed of coal. The roof mixes but 
little with the coal. Roof, 1} feet or more of shale; floor, soft shale, with smooth 
surface. Conmiercial samples were taken at tidewater b^ N. H. Snyder on February 
20 and March 5, 1918. The bed was sampled by 0. A. Allen on December 19, 1917, 
as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in West Pocahontas mine. 



SectioQ - 


A. 
07968 


B. 
(17953 


C. 




/ 07910 
\ 67954 


ta 


Roordiale. 

Coal 


A. In. 
al 

al 
2 1 

a2 

9 
as 

4 
a3 

a ^ 

2 8 

9 7 
7 11 


FL to. 
1 a 
• 1 

1 4 
2 

a 

2 

s 

2 r 

•ift 

2 6 

9 
8 6 


Ft, te. 

1 


* * Sulphur'' band 


• 1 


Coair. 


2 6 


Boae 


03 


Coal 


5 


Booe 




Coal 




Bone 


• S 


Coal 


4 


Bone 




Coal 




Floor, shale. 

Tnlclm««? of h^ , 


8 6 


Thicknffis of coal mmpliKl , 


7 n 







a Not included in sample. 



b Roof coal, to be mined later. 



Section A (sample 67958) was cut at face of 7 room, 11 right, Norton district. Sec- 
tion B (sample 67953) was cut at face of 18 room, 34 heading, Newport News district. 
Section C (samples 67910 and 67954) was cut at face of 30 room, St. Paul entry, off 10 
entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face flamples 
67958, 67953, 67910, and 67954 is given under laboratory No. 29912. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by machine in 
the coal and shot down with bUck powder by the miners during shift Very little 
brushing was required. Men employed undeground numbered 290. The haulage 
was by electric and steam locomotives. There were eleven 6-ton gathering motors, 
one 10-ton motor, and five 25-ton steam locomotivee. About 30 per cent of the coal 
was taken out in advance work; the percentage of recovery was high. There wen 
still several thousand acres to be mined, and the estimated lifetime of the mine m$ 
from 30 to 50 yean. Most of the tonnage was to be derived from pillar work. Th» 
coal was all shipped as run of mine. By screening, 30 per cent lump may be obtain- 
ed. There were three bar screens 9 by 8 feet with 4-indi spaces and one length with 
5-inch spaces; the small screens had 1} and } inch openings. The coal was picked 
on railroad cars by 12 pickers on two cars. The pickers remove 15 or 20 tons of refoBa 
matter daily. The efficiency of the pickers was low, so that only a small part of the 
bone was removed from the coal. The impurity in the coal oonsiBted of bony coal 



vibgikia: tazewelx. coxmry. 



273 



and gray ooal with ''sulphur/' Storage bin capacity was small. There were three 
loading tracks for screened coal and two for run of mine, with capacity for 100 empty 
and 100 loaded railway cars. The lumps were large and had a good appearance. 
Capacity of mine, 2,000 tons a day; average daily shipments at time of sampling, 
1,500 to 2,000 tons; maximum day's run, 4,800 tons. 

The mine was sampled in 1909. For description of the bed and analyses of other 
samples see Bureau of Mines Bull. 22, pp. 200, 827. 

Pocahontas. Babt Mine. 

Analyses 67921, 67924, 67926, and 29906 (p. 77). Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas 
field, from Baby mine, a slope mine, ) miles west of Pocahontas, on the Norfolk & 
Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Carboniferous age, Pocahontas for- 
mation. Thickness of seam is 9 to 11 feet, with a slight dip to the southwest; roof, 
hard, gray shale about 8 feet thick, above which is sandstone. In the greater part of 
the mine some coal is left up for roof. Floor, soft underclay with smooth surface. 
The coal sejMurates readily from the roof and floor, but some particles of roof become 
mixed with the coal. The bed was sampled by J. W. Paul and J. J. Bourquin on 
December 13, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Baby mine. 



Sectkn 


A. 
67V21 


B. 
07W4 


C. 


Laboratory No.. , 


OTvn 






Root shale and top coal. 


Ft. in. 
ai I 

3 1 

3 

2 2 

10 2 

8 8 


Ft. in, 

2 4 

8 



4 

6 10 


Ft. tn. 
• 8 


Hone ...,., 


2 


Coal 


4 


Bone... 


2 


Coal 


6 6 


Bene......,.., 




Coal 






Floor, shale. 

Thioknessofbed 


8 
6 


9 11 


ThickneBS of ooal 


8 6 


■^ / 





a Upper i| ieet of ooal left up temporarily as roof. 

Section A (sample 67921) was cut at fiice of 19 room, 16 erosB entry. Section B 
(sample 67924) was cut 75 feet from face of 7 room, 4 sump entry. Section C (sample 
67926) was cut at face of 36 room. West Gimlen entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
67921, 67924, and 67926 is given under laboratory No. 29906. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by breast 
machines and shot down by FFF black powder. Men employed numbered 100 under- 
ground and 14 on the surface. There were nine gathering electric motors and three 
main haulage motors. The tipple and bins were steel. Foimdations were ready for 
a new steel tipple with picking tables and loading boom to handle the coal from Baby 
and West mines. The coal was coming half from advance work and half from pillars; 
it was screened through 5 and 2) inch openings; all under 2i-inch size wbb sent to the 
bins. The screenings were coked, 900 tons of coke a day being produced in 160 
ovens. The bins had storage capacity of 2,000 to 2,500 tons. The coal was picked as 
it was loaded into the railroad cars by four to six slate pickers. There were three 
loadingtracks, with capacity for 100 empty and 100 loaded railroad cars. The capacity 
of the mine was 2,500 tons a day, and the average shipments were 1,200 to 1,500 tons 
a day. This mine is closely connected with the Boissevain and West Pocahontas 
mines. 

For descriptions and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 199, 825. 



274 



▲NALYSBS OF GOAL, m6-1920. 



Red Ash. Ravsk Bep Ash Mine. 

Analyses 25630 to 25632 (p. 77). Bituminous coal, southwest Viiginia field, from 
Raven Red Ash mine, at Red Ash, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Goal bed. Raven; 
GarboniferouB age, Pottsville group, Norton formation. Roof, hard day; floor, hard 
clay. The coal was sampled on July 17, 1916, by T. K. Hamsbeiger, as described 
below: 

8edion8 ofcoai bed in Raven Red Ash mine. 



Section 


A. 
28630 


B. 


Laboretory No 


266n 






Boof, bard day. 

"Rash"... , . , .,... 


Ft, fa. 

3 10| 
2 vSl 


Ft.m. 


CoaL 


3 1 


"Mother coal" 




CoaL 




Floor, hard day. 

Tbicimom of be^ - 


S 1 


ThU4:nf|ii49 of ooal sampled x ..... a . a 


8 1 







a Not Indnded in sample. 

Section A (sample 25630) was measured at face of air course on 10 
3\000 feet northeast of 1 drift mouth. Section B (sample 25631) was measured at face 
of air course to 3 main entry, 2,600 feet north of entrance to 3 drift. 

The ultimate analysis <tf a composite sample made by mixing samples 25630 and 
25631 is given under laboratory No. 25632. 

RiCHLANDS. East Mine. 

Analyses 25763 to 25765 (p. 77). Bituminous coal, Russell Fork field, from East 
ndne, 1) miles west of Richlands, on a spur of the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed. 
Tiller, known as ''Little Town Hill;" Carboniferous age, Pottsville group, Norton 
formation. Roof, sandstone; floor, sandstone. The coal was sampled on August 4, 
1916, by T. K. Hamsberger, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in East mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. . 



RooffSandstODeu 

Coal 

Bone. 

CoaL 

Floor, sandstone. 

'fhickness of bed 

Thickness of ooal sampled. 



A. 

25968 



Ft» In. 
4 4 



4 4 
4 4 



B. 
2S7M 



Ft, <»• 

.•II 

2 10 

3 U 

8 n 



a Not included in sam])le. 

Section A (sample 25763) was measured in 1 room, ofif main entry, 450 feet nortbesst 
of mine mouth. Section B (sample 25764) was measured at face of main entry, 400 
feet north 30^ east oi mine mouth. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by mixing samples 25763 and 
25764 is given under laboratory No. 25765. 

Richlands. Richlands No. 2 Minb. 

Analyses 31414 to 31416 (p. 77). Bituminous coal, Russell Fork field, from Rich- 
lands No. 2 mine, a small opening across the track from No. 4 mine. The drift opening 
was 5 feet wide at the bottom, 4 feet 7 inches wide at the top, and about 4 feet 10 incbtf 



VIBGINIA: TAZEWELL COUNTY. 275 

high from the top of the rail. In 1919 only one entry was being driven, about 600 feet 
fztnn the opening to the &ce of the entry. Four mine cars were used. Men employed 
numbefed 10 inside the mine and 2 outside. Two men were employed to push the 
ooal to the outside and dump it in a small bin with a capacity of about 10 tons. 
The coal is 22 inches high, and dips 40°. The bed was sampled by T. R. Williams on 
February 3, 1919, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in No. t mine. 



Section 


A. 

31414 


B. 


Laboratory No. 


8141fi 






Roof, shale. 

Roof bnuhiiir. ....... 


Ft. in. 

o2 

2 8 

4 3 
2 8 


Ft. in. 
• 2 6 


Coal " '. '.'. '. 


1 11 


Floor, abale. 

ThickTi««i of b^ .. .... 


4 6 


Thicknttff of^MMl samplfKl 


1 11 







a Not InoUided in sample. 

Section A (sample 31414) was cut 150 feet from face, 560 feet from drift opening. 
Section B (sample 31415) was cut at face, 600 feet from opening. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
31414 and 31415 is f^wea under laboratory No. 31416. 

RiOHLANDS. RiCHLANDS No. 4 MiNB. 

Analyses 31417 to 31419 (p. 77). Bituminous ooal, Russell Fork field, from Rich- 
lands No. 4 mine, a drift mine, } mile northwestof Richlands, on the Big Creek branch 
of the Norfolk & Western R. R. Goal bed, Meadow; Carboniferous age, Pottsville 
group, Norton formation. Thickness of workable coal, 2 feet 10} inches; dip, 
40** north and south; impurities, a shell of shale overlying coal. Frequent rolls are 
encoimtered. From 1 to 2 feet of slate lies on top of the coal ; above this is hard rock. 
Roof, rock, averaging about 2 feet in thickness; floor, sandstone; cover at point of 
sampling, 80 feet. The bed was sampled by T. R. Williams on Febraury 8, 1919, as 
deecribed below: 

SediUm of coal bed in Richlands No. 4 mine. 

Roof, rock. Ft. lo. 

Shaleo 1 J 

Coal 2 

Floor, sandstone. 

Thickness of bed 3 } 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 

Sample 31418 was cut 27 feet from lEace of main entry, 573 feet from drift opening. 

A sample was taken by T. R. Williams on February 3, 1919, from a coal pile lying 
outside of the drift opening. The proximate analysis of this sample is given under 
laboratory No. 31417. The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by oom« 
bining samples 81417 and 31418 is given under laboratory No« 31419. 

In February, 1919, the mine was being opened and only one entry, 600 feet long, had 
beendtiTsn. The coal was shot down with permissible explosive at any time by the 
minen. Three men were employed underground and eight aboveground. A tipple 
was being erected. The opening of the mine is 6 feet wide, 4) feet high from the top of 
the rail; there was a 36-inch track gage, but no mine cars or hoisting or electric equip- 
ment had been installed. No coal was being loaded at time of sampling. 

•Not Included In sample. 



276 



ANALYSES OF GOAL, 1W6-1919. 



Highlands. West Mine. 

Analyses 25757 to 25759 (p. 77). Bituminous coal, southwest Viiginia fields from 
West mine, 1) miles west of BichlandB, on a spur of the Norfolk & Western R. R. 
Goal bed, Jawbone, known as ''Big Town Hill" ; Garboniferous age, Norton forma- 
tion. Roof, shale; floor, shale. The coal was sampled on August 4, 1916, T. K. Haras- 
bergffl', as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in West mine. 



Sactico 

LaboratcHry No. 



A. 
35757 



B. 
85758 



Roof.shaleu 

"Rash" 

Coal 

"Rash" 

Bone 

Coal 

Bona 

Coal 

Bone 

Coal 

Pone 

Floor, shala 

Thickness of bed 

Thiokneas of coal sampled . 



10 



5 

I "4 

1 4 

5 2 
4 



Ft <«. 

• 1 
11 

-u 

1 9 

• 1 
4 

•S 

8 



4 n 

3 8 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 25757) was measured at face of 9 entry, off 4 right entry, 1,700 feet 
north 45*^ west of mine mouth. Section B (sample 26758) was measured at face of 1 left 
entry, 1,400 feet west of mine mouth. The ultimate analysis of a composite sample 
made by mixing samples 25757 and 25758 is given under laboratory No. 26759. 

Highlands. Wilson Mine. 

Analyses 69806 to 69809 (p. 77). Bituminous coal, Pocahontas or Flat Top field, 
from ^^^laon mine, a drift mine 2 miles northwest of Richlands, near the Norfolk & 
Western R. R. Two coal beds lying almost flat, are worked; the upper, or Red Afth 
bed, is 6 feet 2 inches thick, without any noticeable partings or impurities, with sand- 
stone top and fire-clay bottom, approximately 300 feet above the railroad track at 
the point where development was started the Town Hill bed, 225 feet below the 
Red Ashy is 4 feet 10 inches thick where sampled and is good coal, although not as 
clean as the Red Ash. Lenses of bony coal occur at about the middle of the seam, 
and near the bottom appears a band of soft dirty coal locally known as "rash." Cover 
at points of sampling, 60 to 100 feet. Each bed was sampled by C. A. Herbert, on 
July 26, 1919, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Wilson mine. 



Section 


A. 
/ «ttM 

\ e0807 


B. 


Labcntory No 


08006 




00000 


Roofj A, sandstone; B, dude and sandstone. 


Ft. la. 

6 a 


Ft. *». 
1 s 


BoDTOoal ^ 1.I.I...1 


9 


Coal.... 




S 3 


Bone......... X. . . .„ . ... ^ xa»x...x 




•5 


Coal 1. 1, ],].]]]][[]. ].\[].][]\\.[.[]\\[\m][]l[V,], I 




7 


Floor, flra day. 

Thlcinn)"(" of ned. , 


6 a 

6 3 


4 10 


ThidcnesB of ooal sampled ', „l 


4 5 



a Not Induded in samitle. 



VIBQINIA: TAZEWELL COUNTY. 



277 



Section A (simplea 69806 and 69807) was cut at face of drift, 100 feet inby mouth 
drift. Section B (sampleB 69806 and 69809) was cut at face of drift, 500 feet from mouth 
of slope. 

At the time of sampling the coal was shot off the solid with black powder. Oon- 
siderable development was in progress in this field. 

RiCHLANDS. WySOR MiNB. 

Analyses 69802 to 69805 (p. 78). Bituminous coal, Pocahontas or Flat Top field, 
from Wysor mine, a drift mine 1} miles northeast of Richlands, on the Norfolk & 
Western R. R. There are two beds of coal, each about 3 feet in thickness; dip, 45^ 
southeMt. The beds crop out on the side of the mountain a short distance hrom 
the fault plane. In the upper bed at time of sampling a drift had been driven in 
approximately 500 feet; the coal was bright and fairly clean, with sandstone top and 
fire-clay bottom. In the lower bed a drift of approximately 800 feet had been driven; 
the bed was softer and more splinty and the coal clean except for the top 3 inchas, 
which was soft and dirty, locally known as ''rash'' ; above the coal was ''draw slato'' 
7 to 12 inches, and above that sandstone; the bottom was fire clay; six thin * 'sulphur '' 
streaks not over ^ inch thick ran through the coal. The two seams were approxi' 
mately 300 feet apart. Cover at points of sampling, 100 feet.' 

Each bed was sampled in a prospect drift by C. A. Herbert, on July 26, 1918, as 
described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Wysor mine. 



Sectlaa 

Laboratory No 

Roof, main, sandstcuie; ixnmediate, '' draw slate. ' ' 

''Rash*^* 

OoaL 

'<Raab" 

CoaL 

Floor, fire day. 

Tnidkness of ooal bed , 

Thickness of ooalsampled 




Section A (samples 69802 and 69803) and Section B (samples 69804 and 6980&) 
were taken at face of heading. 

Seaboard. Empire No. 6} Mms. 

Analyses 25760 to 25762 (p. 78). Bituminous coal, southwest Virginia field, from 
Empire No. 6} mine, at Seaboard, on the Big G branch of the Ncnrfolk & Western 
R. R. Goal bed, Upper Seaboard; Garboniferous age, Lee formation. Roof, shale; 
floor, shale. The coal was sampled on August 5, 1916, by T. K. Hamsbeiger, as 
described below: 

Sections of coal bed in No, 6^ mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



Roof.aliato. 

Coal 

Bone 

''Bash". •«.... 

Floor, shale. 

Ttdcknessofbed 

Thickneaa of coal sampled. 



A. 

25700 



FL in. 




B. 
25761 



Ft, in, 
8 



8 h 
8 



a Not included m sample. 



278 ANALYSES OP COAL, 1916-191D. 

Section A (sample 25760) vros measured at face of 3 right entry, 800 feet aoath of 
mine mouth. Section B (sample 26761) was measured at faee of 2 left entry, 700 feet 
southeast of mine mouth. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by mixing samples 25760 and 
25761 is given under laboratory No. 25762. 

WISE COtTNTY. 

Josephine. Interhont No. 6 Mine. 

Analyses 32067 to 32069 (p. 78). Bituminous coal, Black Mountain field, from 
Interment No. 6 mine, opened by a drift at Josephine, 2} miles west of Norton, (m 
the Interstate R. R. Ooal bed, Imboden; OarboniferouB (PottsviUd) age, Norton 
formation. Bed is 4 feet 8 inches thick; roof, shale and sandstone; floor, day; cover 
at points of sampling, 200 feet. The bed was sampled by T. R. WilHams on May 
28, 1919, as described below: 

Sections of Imboden coal bed in Intermont Coal and Iron Co. No. 6 mine. 

Section A. B. 

Laboratory No Sa087 Sa068 



2 



Roof, shale and sandstone. FL tm, FL i». 

Coal 10 18 

Clay 2 2 

Goal SO SI 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 4 8 4 6 

Thickness of ooal sampled 4 8 4 4 

Section A (sample 32067) was cut in 6 room, 50 feet from face, in the pillar between 
5 and 6 rooms. Section B (sample 32068) was cut in 7 rorai, 20 feet through the pillar 
from fire, 1,700 feet from opening. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 32067 and 
32068 is given under laboratory No. 32069. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1919 the coal was shot down with 35 per 
cent dynamite. There were 20 men employed underground and 8 aboveground. 
The tipple was of wood. At the time of sampling 100 per cent of the output was 
derived from advance workings and all the output was shipped as run of mine. 
Haulage was by mules. There was one loading track, with capacity for five empty 
cars, and about i mile of switch track to main line. The appearance of the coal 
on the cars was very good. The estimated lifetime of the mine in 1919 was 4 yean. 
The capacity of the mine was 80 tons a day, the maximum day's run being equal to 
the capacity. 

WASHIVOTOV. 

KITTITAS COUNTY. 

Ellensburq. Prospect. 

Analysis 26223 (p. 79). Bituminous coal from prospect of the North Manastaflh 
Goal Co., in NW. i sec. 14, T. 18 N., R. 15 E., 25 miles northwest of ElIeufibQig. 
Goal bed, not named; Ek)cene age, Manashtash formation. The bed was sampled on 
September 29, 1916, by E. R. Lloyd, and at the point sampled was 3 feet 6 inches 
thick. The sample was cut 23 feet west of prospect mouth and represented entire 
thickness of the bed. 



WASHINGTON : LEWIS COUNTY. ' 279 

LEWIS OOTJNTY. 

Gbmtralia. Fords Praibib Mine. 

Analysis 29564 (p. 79). Subbituminous coal from Fords Ftairie miiie in NW. i 
sec. 30» T. 15 N., R. 2 W., 3 miles north of Gentralia. Goal bed, not named; Eocene 
age, Puget formation. The bed was sampled on September 12, 1917, by J. Danieb 
and H. E. Culver. The sample was cut in the main entry, near the last plane. The 
section was as follows: 

Section of coal bed in Fords Prairie mine. 

Ft In. 

Coal 2 7 

Shaleo 1 

Coal '. 1 6i 

Shalea ^ Ij 

Coal 9J 

Shaleo J 

Coal 1 5 

Shale« J 

Coal ^ 

Thickness of bed ^ 6 lOJ 

Thickness of coal sampled ! 7i 

CsMTRALiA. Monarch Mine. 

Analysis 29570 (p. 79). Subbituminous coal from Monarch mine, a slope mine, 
of Agnew Fuel Co., in NE. } sec. 17, T. 14 N., R. 1 W., 6 miles east of Gentralia. Goal 
bed, not named; Eocene age; Puget formation. The bed was sampled at face of 
slope on September 17, 1917, by J. Daniels and H. E. Culver. The sample repre- 
sented 7 feet 6 inches of coal which was the thickness of the bed, excepting } indi of 
shale about 1 foot below the top. 

Ghehalis. Superior Mine. 

Analysis 29568 (p. 79). Subbituminous coal from Superior mine in W. i sec. 29, 
T. 14 N., R. 2 W., at Ghehalis. Coal bed, Superior No. 2; Eocene age. Puget 
fonnation. Roof and floor not noted. The bed was sampled on September 14, 
1917, hyj, Daniels and H. E. Culver. Section at point of sampling was as follows: 

Section of coal bed in Superior Coal Co, mine. 

Ft. in. 
Coalo 2 2 

Coal 5 4 

Shale« 1 

Coal 1 4 

Shale 1 1 

Thickness of bed ». 10 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 7 

The sample'was cut at face of entry, beyond chute 34. 

Ghehalis. Sheldon Mine. 

Analysis 29569 (p. 79). Subbituminous coal from Sheldon mine in NE. i sec. 
33, T. 14 N., R. 2 W., 2 miles southeast of Ghehalis. Coal bed, not named; Eocene 
^, Puget formation. Roof and floor not noted. The bed was sampled on 
September 14, 1917, by J. Daniels and H. E. Culver. The sample was cut at face of 
niain entry and represented 5 feet 11 inches of coal. The section at point of sampling 



,,t I 



a Not Indnded in sample. 



280 ANALYSES OF GOAL, 191^1919. 

was 7 feet in thickness and carried 1 foot 1 inch of coal near the middle, that was not 

sampled. 

Mendota. Mendota Mine. 

Analysis 29565 (p. 79). Subbituminous coal from Mendota mine in E. i sec. 3, 
T. 14 N., R. 1 W., at Mendota. Coal bed, not named; Eocene age, Puget formation. 
The bed was sampled on September 12, 1917, by J. Daniels and H. E. Culver, as 
described below: 

Sediona of coal bed in Mendota Coal and Cole Co, mint. 

Roof, not noted. Ft in. 

Coal 1 \ 

Shale } 

Coal 2 Hi 

Shale \ 

Coal 2 

Shale : \ 

Coal 7 

Shale J 

Coal 3 1 

Floor, not noted. 

Thickness of bed 7 11} 

Thickness of coal sampled 7 10 

Sample was cut at face of 5 north entry, 350 feet from mine mouth. The sample in- 
cluded the streaks of shale. 

THURSTON COUNTY. 

ToNO. Hannaford Mine. 

Analyses 29566 and 29567 (p. 79). Subbituminous coal from Hannaford mine, a 
slope mine in NW. \ sec. 21, T. 15 N., R. 1 W., at Tone. Coal bed, not named; 
Eocene age, Puget formation. Roof and floor not noted. Samples 29566 (upper 
bench) and 29567 (mining b^ich) were taken in 7 room, 2 entry, of! 2 main slope, on 
September 13, 1917, by J. Daniels and H. E. Culver, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Hannaford mine. 

Upper bench. Ft in. 

Coal , 7J 

Bone \ 

Coal 1 10 

Coal, bony 1 6 

Mining bench. 

Coal 3 6 

Shale o .• 1} 

Coal 1 5 

Shale o •. 2 

Bone « 10 

Shale fl 1 

Coal %.... 11 

Shales 1 

Coal 2 9 

Shale a i 

Coal, sampled 8 

Bone o 9 

Thickness of bed 11 4 

Thickness of coal sampled 9 3 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Buimhi of Minei 
BulL 22, pp. 222, 904. 



WEST viboinia: bbooke county. 281 

t 

WHATGOX COUNTY. 

« 

Bellinoham. Bellinoham Mine. 

AnalyEOs 32034 (p. 79). Bituminous coal from Bellingham mine, a shaft mine 1 
mile from Bellingham, in sec. 13, T. 38 N., R. 2 E., on the Bellingham & Northern 
R. R. Goal bed, No. 1; Eocene age, Puget (7) formation. The bed dips 10"^; roof, 
sandy shale; floor, concealed; cover at point of sampling, 290 feet. The bed was 
sampled near foot of rock slope by G. W. Evans on May 17, 1919, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in BeUingham mine. 
Roof, sandy shale. Ft. in. 

Bone 1 

Shale « 2 

Coal 1 

Coal and siliceous shale 4 

Coal 1 10 

Bone • 2 

Coal 1 9 

Shale, variable « i 

Coal 6 

Shale, haido IJ 

Coal 5 

Shale « 4 

Bone « 1 1 

Bone « 2 

Floor, bone. 

Thickness of bed 10 8 

Thickness of coal sampled 6 11 

System of mining, room and pillar. At time of sampling the daily output was 
100 tons. 

WEST VIBOIinA. 

BBooKB oomrrr. 

Collier. Locust Gboye Nob. 1 and 2 Mines. 

Analyses 31627 to 31632 (p. 80). Bituminous coal, Wheeling field, from Locust 
Grove Nos. 1 and 2 mines, drift mines, 1} miles west of Collier, on the Pennsylvania 
Lines west. Coal bed, Pittsburgh; Carboniferous age, Monongahela formation. The 
average thickness of workable coal is 4 feet 6 inches. The bed dips slightly to the 
southeast. A few rolls and clay veins are encountered. Roof, 12 inches * * draw slate ; " 
floor, smooth fire clay, which becomes soft, with Umestone below. Bed contains shale, 
''sulphur'' stone, and "sulphur" streaks. The bed was sampled by P. D. Browning 
on March 21, 1919, as described below: 

• Not indiided in sample. 



282 



AKALTSBS OF GOAL, l»1^19!li^. 



Stdicns of coal hedin Locutt drove Noi. 1 andtmbua. 



SwCton 

ImbonU/rjSo. 



A. 
31037 



B. 



C. 

sidv 



B. 

tun 



Roof, "diBW slate." 

Coal 

"MoUMTooal" 

Coal 

"Balphar" streak 

Coal 

"Mottasrooal" 

"Bulplnir" , 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

"Mother ooal" 

Coal 

Soft shale 

"Sulphur "streak 

Coal , 

Floor, fire clay. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled . 



FL in. 
1 101 



FL in. 
I 1 



Ft, in. 



I 



FU in. 



I 



FL <«. 

1 H 



y 



al 
4 



i 



8 



5 



s 

•1 



3 



•J 
I 



1 n 






1 U| 



I 101 

4 ft 
4 41 



1 8 



4 
4 



01 



• Not incloded In sample. 

Section A (sample 31627) was cut at right rib, at &ce of main entry. Section 6 
(sample 31628) was cut at slant, at face of 4 hce entry. Section G (sample 31629) was 
cut at light rib, at face of 1 face entry. Section D (sample 31630) was cut at left rib. 
at face of 5 &ce entry. Section £ (sample 31631) was cut at left rib, at hco of 6 left 
butt. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite made by combining hce samples 31627, 31028, 
31629, 31630, and 31631 is given under laboratory No. 31632. 

System of mining, room and pillar with butt entries. In 1919 the coal was under- 
cut by machine in bottom of coal and shot down with black powder by the minen at 
any time diuing the shift. There were 250 men employed undeiground and 45 above- 
ground . The tipple was constructed chiefly of sted. The coal was screened throo^ 
bar screens 12 feet long by 6 feet wide, with l}-inch spaces. About 25 per cent of the 
coal passed through the screens. Haulage was by aix electric locomotivee and by mole. 
Six pickers were employed on car. There were three loading tracks, with capadt)' 
for 45 empt^ and 35 loaded railway cars. The lump coal, medium size, presented a 
good appearance on- cars. There was a recovery of 85 per cent. The unmined area 
consisted of about 2,500 acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 15 years. At 
the time of sampling the capacity of the mine was 2,500 tons a day, the daily aveiage 
output 1,200 tons, and the maximum day's run 1,800 tons. The daily output was to 
be increased to 3,000 tons. 

Short Creek. Beech BorroM Mine. 

• 

Analyses 31597, 31598, 31599, 31600, 31601, and 31602 (p. 80). Bituminous coal, 
Wheeling field, from Beech Bottom mine, a drift mine, at Short Greek, 5 miles south 
of Wellsbuig, on the Pennsylvania lines West. Coal bed, Pittsburgh; CarboDiferoua 
age, Monongahela formation. The thickness of workable coal is 4 feet 5 inches to 5 feet 
3 inches. A few rolls and clay veins are encountered. Streaks of shale and ''sulphur," 
in coal, the former persistent. Roof, 3 to 18 inches *' draw slate' '; up to 18 inches roof 
coalr shale above; floor, smooth, soft fire clay; elevation of entrance above sea, 913.30 
feet. The bed was sampled by P. D. Browning on March 15, 1919, as described below: 



WEST vibginia: fatesttb county. 

Soetions of coal bed in Beedi Bottom mtn«. 



283 



Bectton 


A. 

31fi07 


B. 

31508 


C. 

31599 


D. 

81600 


E. 


T/filMiratary No. . . .,.,...,.. 


31601 






Roof. *'dr8W slate." 

Coal .• 


Ft. in. 
I 6 

7» 
ol 


Ft. in. 
1 8 

al 


Ft. in. 
2 2h 


Ft. in. 
2 1 


Ft. in. 
I 5 


"Mother ooal" 


4 


Coal 






4 


"MotherooftV* 






f 


Coal. , 






8* 


flhfti« . ^ 




i 


•* 


Boneooal.. 


3* 




3 


9 


3 


1 


''SiUpbor'' streak. \..\....\...... 


oi 


BhaUv,... 






•1 


al 




'^Hotbercoar' 


2 1 

4 

4 8 


>4 

5 3 
5 2 




Coal 


2 2 

4 9 
4 8 


2 IJ 

4 7 

4 6 


1 9 


Floor, fire olay. 

Thlclmess of bed 

ThIOrknwf? of coal sampled 


4 6 
4 4i 







a Not Included in sample. 

Section A (sample 31597) was cut on left rib, 75 feet in 17 room, 6 west, 4 north. 
Section B (sample 31598) was cut on left rib, at face of 3 entry, 4 north. Section C 
(sample 31599) was cut at face of 3 east butt, 4 north face. Section D (sample 31600) 
was cut on left rib, at face of main east. Section E (sample 31601) was cut at neck d 
8 east butt, 4 south face. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
31597, 31598, 32599, 31600, and 31601 is given under laboratory No. 31602. 

System of mining, double and triple entry, room and pillar, in panels. In 1919 
the coal was undercut by machine in bottom of coal and shot down with black powder 
and a little permissible explosive by miners at any time during the shift. There were 
235 men employed underground and ^ aboveground. The tipple was constructed 
ci steel chiefly and of wood. The entire output was cruahed. Haulage was by 
incline and by nine electric locomotives. About 60 per cent of the coal was taken 
out in advance work, and a total recovery of over 70 per cent was claimed. The 
unmined area was approximately 3,900 acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine 
was about 40 years. At the time of sampling, the daily capacity of the mine was 
1,400 tons, the actual daily average being 1,200 tons. 

FAYSTTE COUNTS'. 

Layland. Layland Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 Mines. 

Analyses 68180, 68186, 68196, 68224, 68225, and 30147; also car samples 69233 and 
69234 (p. 80). Semibituminous coal, New River field, from Layland mine, which 
has four drift openings, called Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4. The mine is 2 miles north of 
Layland station, on the Quinnemont branch of the Chesapeake & Ohio R. R. Coal 
bed, Fire Greek; Carboniferous age, Pottsville group, Quinnemont formation. Bed 
is 3} to 4^ feet thick; dip 2 or 3 per cent, generally northeast. There are no general 
fiuilts; rolls or horsebacks are frequent. Elevation of entrance above sea level, 2,493 
feet; roof, thick, brown shale, which does not stick to coal; floor, smooth shale. Com- 
mercial samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on May 10 to 16, 1918. 
The bed was sampled by E. T. Hancock and E. Stebinger on January 3, 1918, as 
described below: 

65270*— 22 — ^19 



284 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1W9. 



SecHom of coal bed in Layland Nos, JjtyS, and 4 mine$. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



A. 
68180 



6. 
68186 



C. 
681M 



68221 



Roaf, shale. 

Coal 

Coal, with impure streaks 

Shale 

Coal, soft, lustrous 

Coal, hard, wlfh splinty fracture 
Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled 



Ft. in. 
llj 
•2 



Ft. in. 
4 2 



Ft. in. 



Ft. in. 



Ft. in. 




al 



2 9 

3 lOi 
3 101 



4 
4 



2 
2 



10 

2 7 

3 5 
3 5 



2 10 

3 8 
3 7 



3 

3 



«4 

"ifi 

6 

8 
4 



I 



a Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 68180) was cut from face of 8 left, 4 main. Section B (sample 
68186) was cut from face of 11 left, 3 main. Section C (sample 68196) was cut from 
face of 1 room, 26 left, 2 main. Section D (sample 68224) was cut from face of 7 left, 
main tunnel. Section E (sample 68225) was cut from face of 8 room, 17 left, 1 main. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68180, 68186, 68196, 68224, and 68225 is given under laboratory No. 30147. 

System of miniiig, room and pillar. There are four main entries, each one con- 
stituting a separate mine. In 1918 the coal was undercut by pick and one shortwall 
machine, and shot down by means of black powder and permissible explosivea 
There were 200 men working underground and 55 aboveground. Half of the coal 
was taken out in advance work, and there was a total recovery claimed of 95 per cent 
The tipple was of steel. Haulage was by electric motor; 21 locomotives were em- 
ployed. The coal was all shipped as run of mine and was picked on can. The lump 
coal had a good appearance on cars. There were two loading tracks, with capacity 
for 30 empty and 30 loaded care. The capacity of the mine was 1,400 tons a day, and 
the actuid average shipments a( time of sampling were 750 tons. 

For ot)ier analyses of this coal see Bureau of Mines Bull. 22, p. 227. 

MiNDEN. MiNDEN Nos. 2, 3, 4, AND 5 MiKBS. 

Analyses 68113, 68127, 68133, and 30149 from No. 2 mine; 30046 from No. 3; 68124, 
68125, 68131, and 30150 from No. 4; 68116, 68119, 68120, 68121, and 30151 from No. 5; 
69231 and 69232, car samples (p. 81). Bituminous coal, New River field, from Minden 
mines, drift mines at Minden, on the Minden branch of the Chesapeake & Ohio R. R. 
Coal bed, Sewell seam; Carboniferous age, Pottsville group, Sewell formation. Bed 
is 3 to 5 feet thick; dip, 2} per cent northwest; roof, clayey shale overlain by sand- 
stonp; in parts of mine, roof is sandstone; floor hard, smooth shale. Car samples 
were taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on May 10 to 15, 1918. The bed was 
sampled at three points in No. 2 mine, one point in No. 3 mine, three points in No. 4 
mine, and four points in No. 5 mine by G. H. Ashley on January 1 to 4, 1918, ai 
iescribed below: 





Sections of coal bed in . 


Minden Nbs. 


^, Sf ' 


1, and 5 Mines. 






Beetion 


A. 
68113 


B. 
68127 


C. 
66133 


68117 


E. 
68131 


F. 
68125 


G. 
68124 


H. 
68116 


I. 
68119 


J. 
68120 


K. 


LaboratoryNo. 


68121 


Roof, shala; 
sbato. 
Coal. 


floor, 


Ft in. 
4 6 


Ft in. 
6 1 


Ft in. 
4 


Ft in. 
5 2 


Ft in. 
8 1 


Ft in. 
4 3 


Ft in. 
3 7 


Ft in. 
4 1 


Ft in. 
4 8 


Ft in. 
4 4 


Ftin. 
S 







Section A (sample 68113) was cut at face of 15 room, 1 crosscut, o£F 10 left, 2 main, 
No. 2 mine. Section B (sample 68127) was cut in 12 room, 2 main, No. 2 mine. 
Section C (sample 68133) was cut in 1 crosscut, o£f 13 left, 1 main. No. 2 mine. Section 
D (sample 68117) was cut in 20 room, 10 right, 2 main. No. 3 mine. Section E (sam] 



WEST TIB6INIA: FAYETTE COUNTY. 



285 



68131) waa cut at head of straighl; Doudn, No. 4 mine. Section F (sample 68125) was 
cut at face of 21 room, 9 left, 2 main. No. 4 mine. Section G (sample 68124) was 
cut in breakthrough off 11 left, 3 main north. No. 4 mine. Section H (sample 68116) 
was cut in 19 right, 1 main, No. 5 mine. Section I (sample 68119) was cut in 10 right, 
3 main, No. 5 mine. Section J (sample 68120) was cut in 15 room, 1 right, 2 main, 
No. 5 mine. Section K (sample 68121) was cut at face of 1 main. No. 5 mine. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite jsample made by combining face samples 
68113, 68127, and 68125 from No. 2 mine is given under laboratory No. 30149. The 
ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 68124, 
68125, and 68131 from No. 4 mine is given under laboratory No. 30150. The ultimate 
analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 68116, 68119, 68120, 
and 68121 from No. 5 mine is given under laboratory No. 30151. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was undercut by machine 
and shot down by black powder. The total capacity of the group of mines was 2,300 
to 2,500 tons a day. Nos. 3 and 4 mines wero the largest producers, but No. 5, a newer 
mine, was doing advance work, and was to be a larger producer. About thirty 6 to 13 
ton electric locomotives were used for haulage. Nos. 3, 4, and 5 mines had a large 
territory to work, but No. 2 mine was becoming exhausted. The coal was all shipped 
SB run of mine. 

For description and analyses of other samples from these mines see Bureau of 
Mines Bull. 22, pp. 234-235, 932-934. 

MiNDEN. Rock Lick No. 4 ivfiNE. 

Analyses 68114, 68126, 68132, and 30157; also analyses of tipple samples 70120 and 
70123 and car samples 69293 and 69294 (p. 81). Bituminous coal, New River field, 
from Rock Lick No. 4 mine, 1} miles northeast of Minden station, on the Minden 
branch of the Chesapeake & Ohio R. R. Coal bed, Sewell; Carboniferous age, Potts- 
ville greup, Sewell formation. Bed is 3 feet 10 inches to 4 feet 2 inches thick; roof, 
clay shale; floor, hard, smooth clay; dip of bed, 1}*^ west of north. The bed was 
sampled by G. H. Ashley on January 4, 1918, as described below. Car samples were 
taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on May 17 to 28, 1918. Tipple samples were 
taken on September 13, 1918, by J. J. Bourquin and S. S. Shirkey. 

Sections o/axU bed in Rock Lick No, 4 mine. 



Section 


A. 
68126 


B. 
68132 


C. 


I Aborwtory No r ................. r -.,-,,,..-... r r 


68114 






Roof, shale. 

Coal 


Ft. in. 
3 7 


Ft. in. 
3 3 


Ft. in, 

3 6 


Coal 


a4 


Floor, clay. 

Tbiclmess of bed 


3 7 
3 7 


3 3 
3 3 


3 10 


Thickness of coal snunpled 


3 6 







a Not iacluded in sample, on aocoimt of the cutting being done in this portion of the coal. 

Section A (sample 68126) was cut in face of 2 main. Section B (sample 68132) was 
cut in fiace of straight main. Section C (sample 68114) was cut in face of 4 main. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68114, 68126, and 68132 is given under laboratory No. 30157. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the capacity of the mine was 600 tons 
a day, the actual average shipments at time of sampling being 450 tons. Tonnage 
waa to be increased. There were 105 men employed undergioimd and 12 on the 
surface. Haulage was by electric motors, gathering by small motors and by mules. 
In advance work 40 per cent of the coal was extracted, and a total recovery of 90 per 
cent was made. There were over 1,000 acres still to be mined. All coal was shipped 
run of mine. It was picked on car by one picker. 



286 ANAL.YSBS OF COALy 1916-1919. 

Thurmond. Rook Lick No. 2 Minb. 

AnalyBes 68128, 68129, 68130, and 30158; also tipple samplee 70127 to 70130 and 
car samples 69293 and 69294 (p. 82.) Semibituminous coal, New River field, from 
Rock lick No. 2 mine, a drift mine 1 mile north of Thurmond, on the South Side branch 
of the Chesapeake A Ohio R. R. Coal bed. Fire Creek; CarboniferouB (Pottsville) 
age, Quinnemont formation. Bed is 3 to 6 feet thick; dip, 5 per cent northwest. 
Faults and rolls or horsebacks are frequent. Roof, blue carbonaceous shale; floor, 
hard, smooth clay. The bed was sampled by G. H. Ashley on January 5, 1918. 
Tipple samples were taken on September 14, 1918, by J. J. Bourquin and S. S. Shirkey. 
Car samples were collected at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on May 17 to 28, 1918. 

Section A (sample 68128) was cut at fkce of 2 left heading. Section B (sample 
68129) was cut at face of 2 room, off 2 left. Section C (sample 68130) was cut at face 
of parting, being cut on 2 left. 

The ultimate analysiB of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68128, 68129, and 68130 is given under laboratory No. 30158. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was undercut by machine 
and shot down with black powder. There were 25 men employed undeiground 
and 3 on the sur&ce. Haulage was by a 6-ton motor and by mules. The mouth of 
the mine is 600 to 800 feet above the railroad track. The coal was dumped from 
mine cars into a bin, fed into a 7-ton monitor, and low^:ed to tipple. A 90 per cent 
recovery was claimed. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 15 to 20 years. The 
coal was all shipped as run of mine. There were several loading tracks, with capacity 
for 25 or 30 cars. The capacity of the mine was 200 tons a day, and the average daily 
shipments at time of sampling were 150 tons. 

GBANT COTTNTY. 

Bismarck. Cosner Mine. 

Analysis 69068 (p. 82). Semibituminous coal, Abram Creek-Stony River field, 
from Cosner mine, an outcrop mine, } mile east of Bieanarck. Coal bed, Thomas; 
Carboniferous age. Thickness and dip not noted. Roof, shale, drab, over 1 foot 
of black shale; floor, clay. The bed was sampled by G. H. Ashley on April 27, 1918, 
and consisted at point of sampling of 9 inches of bouQ, not sampled, at the top, and 
2 feet 5 inches of coal. The section was measured at face of entry. 

Bismarck. Hamune Mine. 

Analysis 69069 (p. 82). Semibituminous coal, Abram Creek-Stony River field, 
from Hamline mine, 1} miles east of Bismarck. Coal bed, Davis; Carboniferous age, 
Allegheny formation. Roof, black shale 2 feet under brown sandstone; floor, clay. 
The bed was sampled by G. H. Ashley on April 25, 1918, as described below: 

SiBcHon of coal bed in Hamline mine. 
Roof, black shale. Ft. in. 

Coal 3i 

Clay<^ 3 

Coal II 

"Clay rock" » 4 

Coal 10 

"Clay rock'* « 3 

Coal 1 6 

Floor, day. 

Thickness of bed 4 H 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 ^ 

The section was measured at face of room being driven to west, 
a Not Induded in sample. 



WBST VIR6IKIA : GBAKT OOUNTY. 287 

BmxARCK. Outcrop. 

Analyas 89073 (p. 82). Semibitaminous coal, Abiam Creek-Stony Biver fidd« 
from an outcrop at the falls of Stony Bivet t mile west of Bismarck. Goal bed, FUk. 
OarboniferouB age, Allegheny fiomiation. Boof, black shale 4 feet tfaic^; floor, day. 
The bed was sampled at outcrop ait watn^s edge by 6. H. Ashlefy on April 27, 1918^ 
The sample represented 2 feet 10 inches of coal, or the entire thickness of bed, except 
2 inches of shale near the middle. 

Bismarck. Odtcrop. 

Analysis 69066 (p. 82). Semibituminoiis coal, Abram Oeek-Stony BivBi field, from 
an outcrop i mile above the Falls of Stony Biver, f mile west of Bismarck. Goal bed, 
Davis; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Boof, black shale 2 feet 4 inches; 
with sandstone above; floor, clay, with flint clay. * The bed was samf^ed by 6. H. 
Aflhley on A|Mil 27, 1918. The sample was taken, from stock pile dug from bed of 
liver li previous winter and was probably weathered. 

Hartmonsville. KrrzMiLLER Mine. 

AnalysiB 69065 (p. 82). Semibituminous coal, Abram Creek-Stony Biver fidd, from 
"Kitgmilte mine, 2 miles southwest of Hartmonsville. Coal bed. Barton; Carbon* 
iferous age, Conemaogh formation. The bed is penist^it^ but is genially leas than 
4 feet thick; roof, carbonaceous brown shale; floor, day; cover at point of sampling, 
25 to 50 feet. The bed was sampled by G. H. Ashley on April 27, 1918, as described 

below: 

Section of coal bed in KilzmiUer mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Coal, bony« 1 8 

Coal 9 

Parting ) 

Coal 1 

PardDg i 

Coal 11 

Shale a 1 

Coal« 6 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 5 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 9 

The section was measured at face of main entry. 

HsNRT. Hbnrt or No. 22 Mors. 

Analysis 26579 (p. 82). Semibituminous coal from Henry or No. 22 mine, at Henry, 
on the Western Maryland R. R. Coal bed, Upper Freeport; Caibonitoous age, Alle- 
gheny formation. Bed is 6 feet 5i inches to 6 feet 7i inches thick; roof, massive 
sandstone and shale; floor, shale and fire clay; cover at point of sampling, about 200 
feet. The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological Sur\'ey on October 80, 1916, 
as described below: 

Section o/ooal bed in Henry or No, 22 mtne. 

Boof, massive sandstone and shale. Ft in. 

Shalea 2-4 

Bonycoala 1 9 

• Coal 4 6 

Shale<» \ 

Fire day o 

a Not iDCiiKled In asmple. 



288 ANALYSES OF GOAL, 1916-1919. 

Floor, shale and fire clay. . Ft. in. 

ThickneBB of bed 6 5J-7J 

Thickness of coal sampled 4 6 

This sample was measured in 3 left butt heading, ofiF Webster heading, about 4,800 
feet from shatt bottom. The daily output of the mine in 1916 was 500 tons. 

Mount Storm. Koontz Mine. 

Analyses 69064 and 69070 (p. 83). Semibituminous coal and bone, Abram Creek- 
Stony River field, from Koontz nine, 1 mile north of Mount Storm, on Stony River. 
Goal bed, Thotnas; Carboniferous age, Allegheny foraoation. Roof, brown shale; 
floor, clay, hard; cover at point of sampling, 50 feet. The bed was sampled by 
G. H. Ashley on April 24, 1918, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Koontz mine. 
Roof, brown shale. 1^. in. 

Coal, bony « 1 4 

Coal 2 6 

Floor, hard clay. 

Thickness of bed 3 It 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 6 

The section was measured at breakthrough from 1 right-hand entry. 

HANCOCK COTJNTT. 

Chester. Allison Coal Bank. 

AnalysiB 25633 (p. 83). Bituminous coal, Panhandle field, from Allison coal bank, 
2 miles south of Chester, in Middle Run Township. Coal bed, Mahoning (Groff); 
Carboniferous age, Conemaugh formation. Roof, shaly sandstone to sandy shale; 
floor, clay. The bed was sampled on July 23, 1916, by J. H. Hance and contains 
2 feet 1} inches of coal, overlain by 2 inches of bituminous day and bone. The 
section was measured 60 feet south of mine mouth. 

Chester. Jones's Coal Bank. 

AnalysiB 25635 (p. 83). Bituminous coal, Panhandle field, from Jones's coal bank, 
i mile south of Chester, in Middle Run Township. Coal bed, Lower Eittanning; 
Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, shale; floor, clay. The bed was 
sampled on July 18, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described below: 

• • 

Section of coal bed in Joneses coal bank. 
Roof, shale. Ft. is. 

Shale, bituminous^ Ij 

Coal Hi 

<*Mothercoal" } 

Coal....i 2 

"Mother coal" i 

Coal 7 

Shale, bituminous, and clay ^ } 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 1 lOJ 

Thickness of coal sampled 1 • 8f 

The section was measured 65 feet south of west of mine mouth. 
« Not Indiided io sample. 



WEST VIRGINU: HANCOCK COUNTY, 289 

Chsstbr. Line Island Coal Bank. 

* AnalyeiB 25591 (p. 83). Bituminoua coal, Panhandle field, from Line Island coal 
bank, 2 miles northeast of Chester, opposite east end, Ohio, Grant Township. Coal 
bed, Middle Kittanning; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Roof, massive 
sandstone, with 3 inches coaly shale; floor, clay, 15 to 16 feet thick. The coal was 
sampled on July 15, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described below 

Section of coal bed in Line Island coal bank. 

Roof , massive sandstone and shale. Ft.' in. 

Coal 9 

Clayfl i 

Coal 2J 

Coal, bony, pyrite« | 

Coal 5} 

Clay, pyriteband* IJ 

Coal 6 

Clay, pyriteban4^ 1 

Coal 1 7 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed , 3 9 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 6 J 

The section was measured in small entry, 70 feet south of mouth of mine and 15 feet 
from main entry. 

Chester. Sprout's Coal Bank. 

Analysis 25634 (p. 83). Bituminous coal, from Sprout's coal bank, 1} miles south 
of Chester, in Middle Run Township. Coal bed. Lower Freeport; Carboniferous age* 
AU^heny formation. Roof, shaly sandstone; floor, clay. The bed was sampled on 
July 18, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Sprout's coal bank. 

Roof, shaly sandstone. Ft. In. 

Clay shaleo 3 

Clay, bituminous shale, and bone^ 1} 

Coal... .V 7i 

''Mother coal" and clay J 

Coal.. 10 

Coal, bony o 2J 

Sandy-pjrrite band ^ • 1 

Coal : lOJ 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 2 11} 

Thickness of coal sampled ^ 2 4i 

The section was measured about 15 feet southwest from mine mouth. 
• Not indnded ta asmptoi 



290 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-lftl^. 

New Cttmberland. MoNbil-Hbrbon Minb. 

Analysis 25715 (p. 83). BitundnouB coal, Panhandle field, irom McNeil-Herroa 
mine, 1 mile north of New Cumberland. Goal bed, 6ro£f (Mahoning); Carbonifefoufl 
age, Conemaugh formation. Roof, shale and sandstone; floor, clay. The bed waa 
sampled on July 28, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in McNeUrHerron mine. 

Roof, shale and sandstone. Ft in. 

Coal 2 2J 

Clay i 

Coal 1 

Clay and bone* 2 

Coal - 21 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed '. 3 7| 

Thickness pf coal sampled 3 5} 

The section was measured 200 feet north 22° west from mine mouth. 

New Cumberland. Crescent Clat Mine. 

Analysis 25716 (p. 83). Bituminous coal. Panhandle field, from Cresent day mine, 
New Cumberland. Coal bed. Lower Kittanning; Carboniferous age, All^g^eny 
formation. Rod, sandstone; floor, day. The bed was sampled on July 28, 1916, by 
J. H. Hance, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Crescent day m%7ie. 

Roof, sandstone. Ft. tn. 

Coal 5J 

Pyriteband } 

Coal 1 7 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 2 IJ 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 IJ 

The section was measured 2,500 feet north 80° east from mine mouth. 

New Cumberland. Martin Coal Bank. 

Analysis 25714 (p. 83). Bituminous coal. Panhandle field, from Martin coal bank, 
2 miles northeast of New Cumberland. Coal bed, Groff (Mahoning); CarboniferouB 
age, Conemaugh formation. Roof, shale and shaly sandstone; floor, clay. The bed 
was sampled on July 28, 1916, by J. H. Hance, 160 feet south 70*^ east from mine 
tnouth. The sample represented 3 feet 11 inches of cdal and 3 inches of bony coal st 
the bottcHn, the entire thickness of the bed. 

PuoHTOWN. Wern'b Coal Bank. 

AnalysiB 25713 (p. 83). Bituminous coal, Ptohandle field, from Wem's coal bank, 
Pughtown, 2i miles northeast of New Cumberland. Coal bed, Groff (Mahoning); 
CarboniferouB age, Conemaugh formation. Roof, shale and shaly sandstone; floor, 
clay. The bed was sampled on July 29, 1916, by J. H. Hance, as described bdow: 

Not Indnded In aample. 



WEST viBQiiiriA : McDowell county. 



291 



Section of coal bed in Wem*8 coal bank. 

Roof, shale and shaly sandstone. Ft. in. 

Shale, brown sandy " 9— 

Clay, cosily ^ i 

Coal 2 5 

Clay, coaly « IJ 

Floor, clay. 

Thickneasof bed 3 31+ 

ThicknesB of coal sampled 2 5 

The sectioii waa measured 110 feet north 85^ east of mine mouth. 

McDOWBLIi COXJNT7. 

Arungton. Arlington Mine. 

Analysee 68026, 68031, 68032, and 29993; also car sample 302&3 (p. 83). Semibitu- 
minous coal, Pocahontas field, from Arlington mine, a drift mine at Arlington, on the 
Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Carboniferous age, Pottsville 
group, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 4} to 6^ feet thick; roof, 1 to 4 inches fine shale 
or clay, 8 to 12 inches hard shale, then shale and sandstone; floor, hard, smooth shale. 
There are two bone streaks; one is hard and has some "sulphur;'' the lower one is 
softer and plays out in places. Cover at points of sampling, 300 to 500 feet. Car 
samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on December 19 and 20, 1918. 
The bed was sampled by C. A. Allen on December 27, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Arlington mine. 



Section , 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, "draw sUte.'/ 

CJoal 

''Mottaflrooal*' 

Bone 

Coaland ** motber coal" . . 

Coal 

Bone 

Bone and " sulphur" 

CoalfSllglitly bony 

Coal 

"Mother ooalV 

Coal, bony 

Coal 

"Mother ooalV 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

Imcknessof bed 

Thickness of coal sampled . 



A. 

68032 



FL in. 



3 
10 
a3 



a 2* 
I 8} 



5 4 

4 lOi 



B. 
S8026 



Ft. in. 



iS» 



a2 

i'"6i 



a24 
1 10 



4 10 

4 H 



C. 
08031 



Ft. in, 

I 



aZ 



1 11 
as 



3 

1 



5 8 

4 8| 



a Not indaded in sample. 

Section A (sample 68032) was cut at face of 10 room, 12 entry. Section B (sample 
68026) was cut at face of 10 room, 6 entry. Section C (sample 68031) was cut from 
7 piUar, 16 left. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68026, 68031, and 68032 is given under laboratory No. 29993. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by hand and 
shot down by black powder by the miners during the shift. Men employed numbered 
85 underground and 6 aboveground. Haulage was by two 10-ton electric motors, 
one 3-t(ni and one 5-ton motor, also by mules. About 35 per cent of the coal was 



a Not liKRindert in aaoq>le. 



292 



ANALYSES OF COAL, lW6-ldld. 



taken out in advance work; the jiercentage of recovery was hig^. The future toniiage 
will be derived more largely from pillars than from advance work. There were 
two loading tracks, with capacity for 37 empty and 50 loaded cars. The coal was 
screened over 16 by 8 foot bars spaced 4 inches apart; egg, nut, and slack were pn>- 
duced over screens having 2-inch, IJ-inch, and }-inch openings. The coal was 
picked on belt by 10 pickers. The screenings were coked. Thm« was storage bin 
capacity for 200 tons. The coal was dumped 15 feet into a chute to plunger feeder, 
which fed it to a retarding conveyor that took it down the hill. From this conveyor 
the coal slid into a short conveyor 3 feet wide and was elevated to a shaking screen 
5 by 8 feet, with }-inch holes, which took out part of the slack. The coal then passed 
to a picking conveyor, where it was picked; it was then dumped over the stationary- 
screens having 4-inch, 2-inch, and l}-inch spaced bars, and thence down to the can. 
Additional lip screens took out remaining slack. All run of mine coal shipped 
passed over first slack screen to take out slack for coking. Arlington mine was laid 
out square, had good trackage, and was well maintained. From 1 to 4 inches of clay 
and ''draw slate'' came down with the coat. The tipple arrangements were good 
for getting out good run of mine coal, but there was no chance to pick egg and nut 
coal. The mine seemed to produce good coal. The capacity of the mine was 800 Urns 
a day, and the average shipments at time of sampling 500 tons a day, according to 
labor conditions, and were to be increased, if ix)8Bible. The TnA-Hmnm day's run 
was 1,500 tons. This mine was sampled in 1900. 

For description and analyses of other samples from these mines see Bureau of Mnei 
Bull. 22, pp. 248, 967. 

Bear Wallow. Roanokb Mine. 

Analyses 67990, 67991, 67993, and 29917 and car sample 30232 (p. 84.) Semi- 
bituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Roanoke mine, a drift mine ^ mile east (?) 
of Bear Wallow station, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Poodbontas No. 3; 
Carboniferous age, PottsvUle group, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 4} to 5} feet thick; 
roof, good ''draw slate" 10 inches thick; floor, hard, smooth clay; dip, slight, iiregular 
in direction, but generally northwest. There is no cleat. Commercial samples were 
taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on February 13 to 16, 1918. The bed was sampled 
by E. W. Shaw on December 27, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Roanoke mine. 



SeotioD 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, "draw slate." 

Coal 

Bony, "sulphurous" ooal. 

Bone 

Coal. 



Floor, hard, sandv ctay . 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of ooal sampled. 



A. 
07990 



Ft. In. 
10 
a3 



3 lOi 



B. 
67991 



Ft. In. 
9 



as 
8 10 



4 

4 



10 

7 



C. 
87888 



Ft. i: 
10 



a3 

4 10 

5 11 

5 i 



• Not included In sample. 

Section A (sample 67990) was cut at face of 20 room, 13 entry. Section B (sample 
67991) was cut at face of 28 room, 2 diagonal. Section C (sample 67993) was cut at 
face of 27 room, 15 entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample mad^ by combining face sampleB 
67990, 67991, and 67993 is given under laboratory No. 29917. 

System of mining, room and pillar. 1 n 1917 Uie coal was undercut by machine v^ 
shot down by black powder fired by the miners during shift. About 80 men wer« 



WEST VniGINIA: McDOWKlX. COUNTY. 



293 



employed undeiground. Two-thirda of the product was shipped aa run of mine. 
The bar screens had 2^inch openings; the small coal screenn had 2-inch and f-inch 
openings. There were 24 coke ovens, and about 60 tons of coke were made per day. 
Sizee of coal, lump, egg, nut, and slack. Haulage was by four electric locomotives 
and by mule. There were eight pickers on table and belt; the miners endeavored to 
reject some of the bone, but most of the picking was done outside. The mine was 
nearly worked out, there being but 4 or 5 acres still to be mined, and the work was mostly 
pillar-robbing. There was storage capacity for 300 tons of slack. The capacity of 
the mine was 800 tons a day, the actual average at time of sampling 400 tons, and 
the maTJmum day's run 1,000 tons. 

For description and analyses of other samples of coal from this mine see Bureau of 
Minea BuU. 22, pp. 250, 970. 

Bebwind. Bebwind No. 1 Mine. 

Analyses 68085, 68091, 68092, and 30171 and tipple samples 70263 to 70266 (p. 84). 
Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas field; from Berwind No. 1 mine, a drift mine 1) 
miles northeast of Berwind, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas 
No. 3; Carboniferous age, PottsvUle group, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 4 tb 5 feet 
thick; roof, sandstone with *'draw slate" in parts of mine; floor hard, smooth shale. 
The bed dips 3} per cent north 45^ west. The bed contains frequent faults. Com- 
merciAl samples were taken at car loadings by J. J. Bourquin on September 24, 1918. 
The mine was sampled by S. P. Holt on January 1, 1918, as described below: 

SeetUma of coal bed in Berwind No. 1 mine. 



BeetloD 

Lftboratory No. 



RooLianda t one. 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

Coal 

Bone 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

Tnickneiwofbed 

Thickness of ooalsampled. 



A. 



Ft. in. 
2 Uf 



a 21 
1 1 



4 3 



I 



B. 

eao85 



Ft. in. 

1\ 

a 

2 l\ 

1 1 

4 
8 lOi 



C. 



Fi. in. 

8 li 



4 

4 






• Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 68091) was cut at face of main heading in No. If mine. Section B 
(sample 68085) was cut at face of 3 left in No. 1) mine; Section C (sample 68092) was 
cut from 1 pillar, 2 left, 3 right. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 68085, 
68091, and 68092 is given under laboratory No. 30171. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 it was undercut by mining machines 
and shot down by FFF black powder. Men employed niimbered 40 undergit>und 
and 9 on the surface. The haulage was done by six electric motors. I n advance work 
66 per cent of the coal was taken out, and a total recovery of 95 per cent was made. 
The estimated lifetime of mine was 15 years. Hiere were three loading trucks, with 
capacity for 20 empty and 20 loaded railroad cars. The coal was all screened. Xhere 
were l^inch, 2-inch, and 3-inch openings in the screens. The coal was picked on 
cars by three pickers. There was a jig washery, with capacity for 500 tons. The 
screenings were coked. The capacity of the mine was 200 tons a day, and that 
amount was shipped daily at time of sampling. The tonnage was to be increased to 
250 or 300 tons a day. 



294 



AHALTSSS OF COAL, 1016-1019. 



Bkrwdtd. Bkrwind No. 2 Mnrx. 

AoalyseB 68081, 68087, 68082, and 29978 and car samples 69133 and 69134 (p. M). 
Semibitumlnous coal, Pocahontas field, from B^rwind No. 2 mine, a dzift mine ax 
Berwind, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Garbon- 
iferouB age, Pottsville group, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 3 to 5 feet thick; avexage, 
4 feet; dip, 4° northwest. Faults are frequent. Elevation above sea level, 1,488 
feet. Commercial samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on March 9 to 
May 3, 1918. The bed was sampled by R. H. Seip on January 1, 1918, as 
below: 

Sections of coal bed in Berwind No. 2 mint. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, *'dniw slate." 

Coal 

"Mother ooal" 

Coal 

Bone 

Coal, high in aah 

Floor, shale and fire day. 

Thicimess of bed , 

Thickness of ooal sampled. 



Ft. in. 



Ft. M. 

1 A 



1 'io| 



5 

4 



9 



.i 



3 7| 
8 4 



Ft. im. 

2 7* 



• 3 

1 «4 

4 4 

4 3 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 68081) was cut at face of 1 left, of! 1 ri^t, off 4 left. Section B 
(sample 68087) was cut at face of 9 left. Section (sample 68082) was cut in 8 pillar, 
3 right. 

'the ultimate analysiB of a composite sample made by combining samples 68081. 
68087, and 68082 is given under laboratory No. 29978. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was undercut in bottom coal 
by machines and shot down by means of permissible explosive by the miners 
during shift. Men employed numbered 40 underground and 8 abov^iound. The 
mine had a steel tipple. The haulage was by means of one 13-ton motor and four 
gathering motois. Impurities were 2 to 5 inches of bone, and 10 to 14 inches of coal 
hig^ in ash at bottom of seam, which was sent to washery. Pieces of the roof and 
floor did not tend to become mixed with the coal in shipping. About 60 per cent of 
the coal was taken out in advance work; a total recovery of 95 p^ cent was attained. 
There were about 5,000 acres yet to be mined from this opening. Hh» estimated life- 
time of the mine was 20 years. Future tonnage was to be derived, 60 per cent from 
advance work and 35 per cent from pillars. The coal was all shipped as run of mine. 
The bottom coal was loaded out separately and sent to washery and used for coking. 
There were two loading tracks, with capacity for 20 empty and 20 loaded railroad 
cars. The capacity of the mine in 1918 was 500 tons a day and the average pioductioD 
250 tons. 

BsRWtND. Berwind No. 3 Minb. 

Analyses 68070, 68073, 68077, and 29982, and car sample S0234 (p. 85). Semibi- 
tuminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Berwind No. 3 mine> a drift mine 1} milcB 
east of Berwind, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Qu- 
boniferous age, Pottsville group, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 3 to 5) feet tliick, 
dips 3° to 4^ northwest, and is free from faults; roof, mainly hard sandstone, a little 
draw slate; floor, } to 2 inches soft fire clay, with shale or sandstone below. Sur&ce 
is smooth. Commercial samples were collected at tidewater by N. H. Snyder oo 
January 28 to February 28, 1918. The bed was sampled by R. H. Seip on Januv)' 
2, 1918, as described below: 



WEST VmOINIA: McDOWBLL COUNTY. 



295 



Sections of coal bed in Berwind No. S mine. 



No 

Roof, sandstone. 

Coal 

Bane. 

Oottl 

Floor, fireclay and sandstone. 

HiickneBsofbed 

TWcknew of coal sampled 



A. 


B. 


68070 


08073 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


2 8i 


2 


o4 


a4 


9* 


1 8 


3 10 


4 


3 S 


4 .2 



c. 

08077 



Ft. in. 

3 S 
a4J 

1 5 

5 2i 

4 10 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 68070) was cut on 4 pillar, 5 left, ofif main. Section B (sample 
68073) was cut at face of main heading. Section C (sample 68077) was cut at ftM;e of 
22 room, 5 left, off main. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68070, 68073, and 68077 is given under laboratory No. 29982. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 it was undercut by shortwall machine 
in the coal and shot down by black powder by the miners during the shift. P4|ni»- 
aible explosive was used for brushing roof or floor. Men employed numbered 62 
underground and 10 on the surface. There is a streak of bone of varying thickness 
through the middle of seam. In mining, 60 per cent of the coal was taken out in 
advance work, and the total recovery was about 93 per cent. The estimated lifetime 
of the mine was 10 years. Future tonnage was to be derived 60 per cent from advance 
work and 30 per cent from pillars. The coal was all shipped as run of mine; it was 
picked on railroad car by two pickers. There were two loading tracks, with capacity 
for 14 empty cars and 6 loaded. The bone was sepamted from the coal by the miner 
as far as practicable. The capacity of the mine was 500 tons a day, and the average 
production at time of sampling was 400 tons. 

Berwind. Berwind No. 4 Mine. 

Analyses 68068, 680^7, 68074, and 29979, and car samples 68907 and 68908 (p. 85). 
Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Berwind No. 4 mine, a drift mine at 
Berwind, just above Canebrake, on the Norfolk & Western R. R.' Ooal bed, Poca- 
hontas No. 3; Carboniferous age, Pottsville group, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 
4 to 5^ feet thick, averaging 4^ feet. Dip of bed is 4° northwest. A persistent streak 
of bone lies 12 to 16 inches above floor; about 6 inches from the top is a persistent 
streak of gray or harder coal. Near or at the bottom the coal is harder and higher in 
ash. Where the clay was soft it mixed with coal in loading. In most parts of mine 
there is an excellent sandstone roof; floor, hard and smooth clay, except in a few 
places, where it is soft. Elevation of entrance above sea level, 1,800 feet. Oommer- 
cial samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on February 21 and April 3, 
1918. 'fhe bed was sampled by C. A. Allen on January 2, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Berwind No. 4 mine. 



Bectioii ; 

Laboratory No .* 

Roof, sandstone. 

deal 

OrayooaL 

Coal. 

"Mother eoal" 

Goal 

Bone 

Coal 

Floor, clay and shale. 

TiiidaMss of bed 

ThJckness of coal sampled 



A. 

68068 



Ft. in. 




B. 

68067 



5 

4 7i 



C. 
68074 



Ft. in. 

2 8 
..... . 


Ft. in. 

5 

1 

2 4 







3 



4 7 

4 ^ 



o Not Inchided in sample. 



296 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1019. 

Section A (aample 68068) waa cut at face of 5 room, 3 right; depth below eaiface, 
100 feet. Section B (sample 68067) was cut at face of 2 room, 8 left; depth below 
surface, 600 feet. Section C (sample 68074) was cut from 4 pillar, 3 left; depth below 
surface, 600 feet. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining fsu;e samples 
68068, 68067, and 68074 is given under laboratory No. 29979. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was shot down by black powder, 
except near the outcrop, where permissible explosives were used. The coal was un- 
dercut. The haulage was by one 13-ton motor and four 6i-ton gathering motors. 
Men employed numbered 44 undeiground and 11 on the sur&ce. About 65 per cent 
of the coal was taken out in advance work; there was a total recovery of 95 per cent. 
The future production will be about 60 per cent from pillars. The coal waa all shipped 
as run of mine, except cuttings, and was picked on car by two pickers. The cuttings 
were sent to washery and then coked; machine cuttings were loaded out sepaiately 
and sent to No. 1 waahery. About 45 tons of coke were produced a day. The lumps 
were rather small and presented only a fair appearance on cars. There were two load- 
ing tracks, with capacity for 20 loaded and 20 empty railroad can. The daily capacity 
of tl^ mine was 500 tons, and the average production at time of sampling was 250 tons. 

Bio Sandt. Bio Sandy Mine. 

Analyses 68018, 68021, and 29976, and tipple samples f 0267 to 70270 (p. 85). Semi- 
bituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Big Sandy mine, a drift mine, at Big Sandy, 
oh the main line of the Norfolk <Se Western B.R. Coal bed, Sewell; Oarbonifenmsage, 
Pottsville group, Sewell formation. The bed varies in thickness from 2} to 4) feet, 
averaging about 3) feet. Hoof is hard shale, which does not fall with the coal; floor, 
hard shale, with a smooth surface. The cover over the coal is 100 to 800 feet. Com- 
mercial samples were taken at the tipple by S. S. Shirkey on September 24, 1918. 
The bed was sampled by W. T. Lee on December 29, 1917. The samples repre- 
sented 3 feet 6 inches and 3 feet 9 inches of coal, respectively, which was the entire 
thickness of the bed where measured. 

- Section A (sample 68018) was measured at face of 3 crosscut, 17 left entry. Section B 
(sample 68021) was measured at face of 1 crosscut, 8 right entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 68018 
and 68021 is given under laboratory No. 29976. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was shot down with permifldble 
explosive and fired by the miners at any time of the day. Open carbide lamps were 
in use. The haulage system was electric. The coal is naturally dry, but no sprinkUiig 
was done. The property embraced 834 acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 
18 years. The coal was shipped as run of mine and was picked on a table. About 50 
per cent of the coal waa lump. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 250, 971. 

Coal WOOD. Oloa Mine. 

Analyses 68094, 68097, 68098, and 30155; also car samples 69404, 69405, 68800, and 
68801 (p. 85). Semibitiuninous coal, Pocahontas field, from Olga mine, a shaft mine, 
1) miles southeast of Coalwood, on the Coalwood branch of the Norfolk & Westeni R. B. 
Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 4; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. 
Average thickness of bed is about 6 feet ; roof, sandstone underlain by shale and locally 
by shaly fire clay; floor, shale underlain by sandstone. Car samples were taken ftt 
tidewater by N. H. Snyder on February 1 to March 8, 1918, and by H. W. Janett on 



WEST VIBGINU: McDOWELL COUNTY. 



297 



April 25 to June 12, 1918. The bed was sampled by J. W. Paul on December 31, 1917, 
below: 

Sections of coal bed in Olga mine. 



OocUuu 

Labontory No. 



RooL shaly fire day. 
Coal. 



Shale 

"Sulphur'' lew, local 

Coal.. 

Coal,gray 

Coal 

Coal.gray 

ShaleTiocalised 

Coal 

Floqr.hard fire day. 

• Thickness of bed 

Thiokness of ooal sampled. 



A. 

08094 



Ft. in. 




1 3l 




6 



V 



B. 

68007 



Ft. in. 
8f 



il 



4 



5 Hi 

5 11 



C. 
08098 



Ft. in. 



3 
2 

« 4 



a Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 68094) was cut at face of No. 2 development, 2,000 feet from shaft; 
total depth of cover at point of sampling about 1,200 feet. At this point the miners 
rejected the IH^^^ hiinidi of shale. Section B (sample 68097) was cut at face of 2 left 
entry, 2 main, 1,500 feet from shaft, at which point the vertical depth from suriace 
wae about 1,000 feet. Section C (sample 68098) was cut at face of 1 rig^t entry, No. 2 
development, 2,000 feet from shaft, at which point the vertical depth from surface 
was about 1,000 feet. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining fiice samples 
68094, 68097, and 68098 is given under laboratory No. 30155. 

System of mining, room and pillar, in panels. In 1917 the mine was about four 
years old. The tonnage had been increased from two to seven cars daily. There 
were 74 men employed underground and 20 aboveground. The tipple was steel, 
with a single cage hoist; the cage was of the platform type. An electric hoisting 
engine was in use, and the mine purchased its electric power. Electric safety lamps 
were employed. The haulage was by mule and one 5-ton electric motor. The mine 
was sprinkled once a week. The coal was undercut by pick in floor and roof and 
was brought down with permissible explosive by shot firers at any time during the 
shift. Pieces of the roof had a tendency to become mixed with the coal in mining. 
From 5 to 10 per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work. The property 
embraced 17,000 acres of which about 5,000 were yet to be mined from this opening. 
The estimated lifetime of the mine was about 100 years. The coal was all shipped 
as run of mine. There were no screens, the coal being picked on the railroad cars by 
two pickers. There was no storage-bin cax)acity. The appearance of the coal on 
cars was similar to that of Pocahontas No. 3 coal; the lumps were of medium size. 
There was one loading track and track capacity for 25 empty cars and 12 loaded cars. 
The sur&ce equipment of the mine at time of sampling was only temporary. The coal 
was being shipped to Portsmouth, Ohio. The capacity of the mine was 500 tons a day 
in 19 17, and the average production was 350 tons. 1 1 was expected that the production 
would be increased to 1,000 tons a day within 10 months. 

Cooper. Tuo Riveb Mine. 

Analyses 67933, 67896, 67898, and 29913; also car samples 69053 and 69054 (p. 86).' 
Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Tug River mine, a drift mine 5 miles 
west of Cooper on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Car- 
boniferous (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 8^ to 11 feet thick and dips 
slightly to the west; roof, ''draw slate, '^ with sandstone above; floor, medium hard, 



298 



ANALYSES OF GOAL, 1916-191P. 



smooth ahale. Car sunples werq collected by N. H. Synder on April 5 to 25, ISIS. 
The bed was sunpled by R. H. Seip on December 18, 1917, as described 

Sections of coal bed in Tug River mine. 



Seetfon 

Laboratory No. . 



A. 
07V33 



B. 

67806 



Roof, "draw slate." 

Coal 

BODO 

Goal , gray 

Coal 

Bono 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

Thickiiessofbed 

TUdoiess of ooal sam|ded. 



Ft. in. 
2 10 
• 3 



FL Uk. 
1 7 



Ft. fa, 
3 H 



2 H 
• 1 
2 7 



8 
8 



3 



8 

•n 

5 6 

7 101 
7 Oj 



•7i 

2 1 

9 3 

8 e 



• Not ineladed in sample. 

Section A (sample 67933) was cut at face of main heading, 1} miles west of drift 
mouth. Section B (sample 67896) was cut at face of 4 room, 2 crosscut, 2,000 feet 
north of drift mouth. Section G (sample 67898) was cut at face of 46 room, off 1 slant, 
2,500 feet northwest of drift mouth. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combiiung samples 67933, 
67896, and 67898 is given under laboratory No. 29913. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut in the coal. 
The coal was shot down by the use of permissible explosive and FFF black powder 
by the miners in pillar work and by shot firers in other portions of the work. About 
100 men were employed underground . Impurities were bone and ' ' sulphur. ' ' Pieces 
of roof and floor occasionally became mixed with coal. Half of the coal was shipped 
as run of mine and balance was screened through bar screens, producing egg, nut, 
pea, and slack sizes. There were six pickers on railroad can. Ninety tons were 
coked a day. The storage bin had capacity for 600 tons. Track capacity was 35 
empty and 35 loaded can. The capacity of the mine was 800 tons a day, the average 
output was 600 tons, and the maximum day's run, 1,200 tons. There were about 
400 acres or more to be taken out from present opening. In advance work 25 per cent 
of the tonnage was taken out. Of the future output of the mine 25 per cent was to 
be derived from advance work and 70 per cent from pillare. The daily output will 
probably be increased when new territory is opened up. 

Davy. Blackstone Mine. 

Analysis 29889 (p. 86). Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas field,. from Blackstone 
mine, a drift mine i mile southeast of station at Davy, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. 
Goal bed, Sewell or Davy; Garboniferous age, Pottsville group, Sewell fonnation. 
Bed is 2i to 4 feet thick; dip, slight and irregular; roof, massive shide; floor, hard, 
smooth shale; no deat or faults occur; low rolls are frequent. The mine was sun- 
I^ed on December 29, 1917, by E. W. Shaw, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Blackstone mine. 

Roof, massive shale. Ft. in. 

Goal 1 1 

Goal with bony streaks .^ 2 

Goal : 2 3 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 3 6 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 6 



WEST VIRGINIA : McDOWEIX COUKTY. 299 

The flunple was cut at n point in break through between main entry and air couiee, 
lyOOO feet Boutheast of mine mouth. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In I9I7 the coal remaining in the mine was 
all in pillars, and the lifetime of the mine was only about 2 years. The coal was 
brought down by black powder and pick. There were 8 men underground and 
2 or 3 on the sur&ce. The haulage was by mule. A bony streak I to 3 inches thick 
OCCU18 above the middle of the coal. Most of the bone was rejected before 8hipt>ing. 
The coal was all shipped as run of mine and was picked on car by two or three picken. 
There were two loading tracks, with capacity for 15 empty and 15 loaded railroad cars. 
The capacity of the mine was 75 tons a day, and the average in 1917 was 50 tons daily. 

For description and analyses of other samples of coal from this mine, see Bureau 
of Mines Bull. 22, pp. 252, 976. 

Davt. Cletus MlNB. 

Analyses 29892 and car samples 69496 and 69497 (p. 86) . Semibituminous coal, Tug 
River field, from Cletus mine, a drift mine 1} nules southeast of the station at Davy, 
on the Norfolk & Western K. R. Goal bed, Davy or Sewell; Carboniferous (Potts- 
viUe) age, Sewell fcHination. Bed is 2} to 4 feet thick; roof, about 6 inches of ''draw 
slate," over which is cap of sandstone; floor, hard, smooth underclay. Depth, of 
cover, about 150 feet. Car samples were taken at tidewater by H. W. Jarre tt on 
June 6 to 18, 1918. The bed was sampled by E. W. Shaw on December 29, 1917, 
as described below: 

Section of ooal bed in CletUM mine. 
Roof, "draw slate. " Ft. in. 

Coal 1 

Bone a li 

Coal with a Uttle ''sulphur" 1 7 

Floor, hard shale. 

Thickness of bed 2 8J 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 7 

This sample was cut at head of 1 crosscut, off 3 main. 

In 1917 the capacity of the Gotus mine was 300 tons a day; actual average at time 
of sampling, 200 tons. There were about 1,000 acres to be mined, and the estimated 
lifetime of the mine was 20 to 25 years. Haulage was by five electric locomotives. 
The impurity in the coal consisted of bone and occasional streaks of "sulphur" and 
''mother coal/' The coal was all shipped as run of mine and was picked on belt at 
t<^ of incline and on table below by five pickers. The tracks will take care of 11 
empty and 20 or 30 loaded cars. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 254, 979. 

Davy. Davy Cbockbtt No. 2 Mink. 

Analysis 29891, average of tipple samples 70215 to 70218, and car samples 69328 and 
69348 (p. 86). Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Davy Crockett No. 2 
mine, a drift mine i (?) mile north of Davy station, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. 
Coal bed, Sewell; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age, Sewell formation. Bed is 2 to 4 
feet thick and dips slightly and irregularly. No cleat occurs, and few small rolls or 
horsebacks are oicountered. Roof and floor, hard shale. Commercial samples were 
taken at the tipple by J. J. Bourquin and S. S. Shirkey on September 18, 1918. The 
bed was sampled by £. W. Shaw on December 28, 1917, as described below: 

• Not laolndsd In nmple. 
55270*— 22 ^20 



300 ANALYSES OF GOAL, 1916-1919. 

Section of coal bed in Davy CrockeU No. t mme. 

Roof, shale. it. to. 

Coal 1 

Bone* 2 

Coal : : 1 10 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 3 

Thickness of coal sampled 2 10 

The sample was cut in the 11 cross entry of old hallway, 4,000 feet southeast oi 
opening. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by machine and 
shot down with black powder. Haulage was by means of two electric motors and 
by mules. The coal was clean, with the exception of a small band of bone; occasional 
lenses of bone and " mother coal '' occur. The bone parting is excluded from sample. 
Half of the coal was shipped as lump, 10 per cent passed over 2}-inch screen, and 40 
per cent was shipped as "smithing" coal, having passed through a 2}-izich screen. 
Screenings were not coked. There were three loading tracks, used by Davy Crockett 
and Helena mines, with capacity for 25 empty and 25 loaded cars. There were seven 
pickers on belt. The capacity of the mine was 200 tons a day, and the actual average 
150 tons a day at time of sampling. There were still about 100 acres to be mined 
from this opening. 

Davt. Hblbna, or Supbrior No. 3, BIinb. 

Analysis 29886 (p. 87). Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Helena 
mine, a drift mine \ mile from Davy station, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal 
bed, Sewell; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age, Sewell formation. Bed is 2 feet 5 inches 
to 3i feet thick; roof, massive clayey shale, 8 feet over coal, 4 feet of which is taken 
down in main entry; floor, hard smooth shale. Dip of bed is upward to 3^ and irregu- 
lar, generally northwest. No cleat occurs and no faults; few rolls or horsebacks are 
encountered. The bed was sampled by £. W. Shaw on December 28, 1917, as de- 
scribed below: 

Section of coal bed in Helena mine. 
Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Bone 2 

Coal 2 

Bone and " mother coal " i 

Cool 2 3 

Floor, slate. 

Thickness of bed 2 7J 

. Thickness of coal sampled 2 7J 

The sample was cut from the head of 23 entry, 4,000 feet north of opening. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by pick and shot 
down with black powder. Two electric motors and 11 mules were used for haulage. 
Helena and Davy Crockett mines used the same screens and shipping facilities. Half 
of the coal waa shipped as lump, 10 per cent passed over 2f-ii^ch screen, and 40 per cent 
through 2i-inch screen , the latter being shipped as ' ' smitiiing** coal. The production 
of Helena mine at time of sampling was 300 tons a day; capacity, 500 tons a day. 
There were 400 to 500 acres still unmined. Future shipments were dependent on 
supply of labor and cars. 

a Hot Included In sample. 



WEST VIRGIKIA : McDOWEOi COUKTY. 



301 



Analyses 70212 to 70214, average of face samples, and analyses 70219 to 70222, 
average of tipple samples (p. 87). The bed was sampled by J. J. Bourquin and S. S. 
Shiricey on September 18, 1918, as described below: 

SeetioM of coal bed in Superior No, S mine. 



SeoUon 

Laboratory No 

Roof, shale. 

Goal 

Black shale 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of ooal sampled 



A. 
70213 



Ft. in. 
12 

3 2 
3 4 



B. 
70214 



Ft. in. 



2 
2 



S* 



c. 

70212 



Ft. in. 
11 



rn 



2 7 
2 4 



• Not indoded In sample. 

Section A (sample 70213) was cut from 15 cipss, 3 left, 1} miles from opening. Sec- 
tion B (sample 70214) was cut from face of 23 left entry of main entry, 1} miles from 
main opening. Section C (sample 70212) was cut from 5 heading, 1} miles from main 
opening. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by hand and shot down 
with black powder at any time during the shift by the miners, powder and dynamite 
being used for brushing the roef or floor. Men employed numbered 55 underground 
and 8 aboveground. Sixty per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work, and 
the total recovery claimed was 95 per cent. The unmined area consisted of 350 ^^cree. 
The estimated lifetime of the mine was 15 years. Haulage was by electric motors and 
by mule. There were three loading tracks, with capacity for 26 empty and 26 loaded 
raihoad cars. The coal from this mine and from Superior No. 2 mine was dumped over 
the same wooden tipple, all being loaded and shipped as run of mine. The coal was 
cleaned on the belt by two pickers, and there was no inspector at the tipple. The coal 
as loaded on the railroad cars showed the presence of small pieces of the roof. In 
loading the miner was instructed to reject the black shale at partings. The coal was 
being shipped to the tidewater coal exchange for steam use. The capacity of the mine 
was 600 tons a day, and the average daily output in September, 1918, was 250 tons. 
The daily toniuige was about 40 per cent of the capacity of the mine. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 253, 978. 

EcKMAN. Pulaski No. 2 Mine. 

« 

Analyses 26615 to 26623, and analyses 60014 and 69015, car samples of loaded run 
of mine coal (p. 87). Semibituminous coal, from Pulaski No. 2 mine, a drift mine 
at Keystone, 1 mife east of Eckman, on the main line of the Norfolk & Western R. R. 
Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Carboniferous age, Pottsville group, Pocahontas forma- 
tion. The average thickness of the coal is about 6 feet 3 inches; dip, about 2° north 
45^ west. The immediate roof is a ''draw slate" about 1 foot 6 inches thick, with 
sandstone above. The floor is a hard, firm underclav. Material from the roof and 
floor did not tend to become mixed with the coal in mining, as the "draw slate'' 
was easily kept separate from the coal. The bed was sampled by E. H. Denny and 
W. B. Plank on November 12, 1916, as described below: 



302 



ANALYSES OF OOALiy 1916-1919. 



Sections of coal bed in PtdoM No. 2 mtn€. 



ChyrtlO"* -r -T 


A. 
26615 


B. 

26Ufi 


C. 
2mi8 


D. 
26610 


E. 
26620 


F. 

26681 


0. 


f Aboratory No 


2BG22 






Roof, "draw slate." 

Coal, impore. soft 


JPf. in. 


#V. in* 


Wtm in. 


.FY. Ai. 


FY. in. 


Ft. fn. 


Ft. <•. 

•4 


Coal 


1 
•2i 


8 
• 3 


6| 
•3 

1 8 
• 1 

1 io| 


6 
•21 
2 
•2 

2 

h 


.? 

1 8| 
•3 

1 9 
ll 




Bony ooal....... 


«r 


SS..!^....:;;::.:;;....:. 


'.?! 


Bony ooal 


Coal. 




"Mother coal" 










Coal.haid 






2 
2 8 






Coal. 


3 7 


3 7 


3 


1 1 


3 6 


8 6 


"Mother coal" 




Goal 














"Mother coal" 


^ 


• 










Coal 














Floor, underday. 

Thickness of bed 


n 


• 6 2 
5 6i 


6 lU 

6 6l 


\^ 


6 6 

5 11 


6 7 


Thickness of coal sampled . . 


5 8 



a Not included In sample. 

Section A (sample 26615) was measured on the pillar on 3 left, off 34 ctosb entry, 400 
feet from 34 cross entry and 5,600 feet south 40^ east from drift mouth. Section B 
(sample 26616) was measured on the pillar of 4 room, off 1 dip, 1,350 feet south 87^ east 
from drift mouth. Section (sample 26618) was measured between 10 and 11 rooms, 
on left inby rib of the third cross entry, off 86 cross entry, 6,450 feet south 70^ east from 
drift mouth. Section D (sample 26619) was measured opposite the first breakthrou^ 
in 1 room, off the milk-dairy entry, and 4,650 feet south 22^ east from drift moath. 
Section E (sample 26620) was measured in the neck of 23 room, off 2 cross entry, off 36 
cross entry, and 6,600 feet south 80^ east from drift mouth. Section F (sample 26621) 
was measured at the face of 12 room' 20 feet from 1 left entry, off 34 cross entry, and 4,681 
feet south 46^ east from drift mouth. Section G (sample 26622) was measured at the 
face of 5 room, 90 feet from the slant, off 5 cross entry, off 36 left entry, and 5,175 feet 
south 80^ east from drift mouth. 

Two composite samples were made by combining samples 26615 and 26616 (pillv 
samples) and samples 26618, 26619, 26620, 26621, and 26622. The results of an ultimate 
analysis of each of these composite samples are given, respectively, under laboratory 
Nos. 26617 and 26623. The same coal bed was later sampled by J. J. Bourquin on 
December 24, 1917, as described below. A commercial sample was taken at tide- 
water by N. H. Snyder on February 11 to April 10, 1918. 

For descriptions and anidyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Minei 
Bull. 22, pp. 255, 983. 

Later analytie of sections of coal bed in PuUuhi No. t rrfiiu. 



Sectioo 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, hard diale. 

Coal 

Bone 

"'Solplnir" band 

CoalTTr. 

Booe 

Coal 

Floor, hard diale. 

Thickness of bed 

Thinness of coal sampled . 



A. 
66011 



Ft. hi. 

4 



1 7 
• 8 

4 

6 6 
6 1| 



B. 



Ftm In. 



* 9 

• 2 
8 9i 



6 
6 



1 



C. 
679SS 



Ft *. 
5i 



•a 

6 91 

6 e 



• Not indoded in samj^ 



WEST VIBGIKU : McDOWBLL COUNTY. 



308 



Section A (sample 68011) was cut at face of 12 room, 87 entry, 2 main. Section B 
(sample 67029) was cut at face of 1 room, 3 croescut, 36 left. Section G (sample 67966) 
was cut at face of 8 room, 2 crosscut, 34 entry. 

The ultimate amdyais of a composite sample made by combining fkce samples 
68011, 67929, and 67956 is given under laboratory No. 29987. 

System of mining, entry, room, and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by 
machine in coal at bottom and shot down by the use of black powder by the miners 
during shift. Permissible explosive was used in brushing the roof. From 200 to 215 
men were employed underground and 25 on the surfoce. Haulage was by eight elec- 
tric motors. The coal was screened through shaking screens having 1-inch, 2-inch, and 
3^inch openings. It was picked on a picking table by five pickers. The screenings 
were coked. The lumps, which were laige, had a good appearance. There were 
two loading tracks, with capacity for 60 empty and 75 loaded cars. In October, 
1917, a typical period, this mine produced 28,080 tons, coking 17,482 tons and 
shipping 10,598 tons ol coal. The maTimum day's run was 1,500 tons, and the daily 
average was 900 tons. The estimated lifetime of the mine was about 20 years. The 
recovery claimed was 95 per cent of the coal. The company operated 390 coke ovena, 
each producing 2.7 tons of coke daily. The output of coke went to the furnaces of the 
Pulaski Iron Co. , at Pulaski, Va. , for the production of iron. The pig iron was used in 
Government contracts, and the shipments of coal were a secondary matter and varied 
greatly in tonnage. This mine was sampled also in 1916. 

' EcKMAN. Pulaski No. 3 Mine. 

Analyses 26610 to 26614 (p. 88). Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from 
Pulaski No. 3 mine, a drift mine, at Eckman, on the main line of the Norfolk A Western 
R. K. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3, Carboniferous age, Pottsville group, Pocahontas 
formation. The average thickness of bed is about 7 feetS inches; general dip, about 2 
per cent northwest. The immediate roof is a ' * draw slate " 1} to 3 feet thick, with sand- 
stone above. The flow is a hard, firm, underclay. Material from roof and floor does 
Dot tend to become mixed with the coal in mining. The bed was sampled by £. H, 
Denny and W. B. Plank on November 11, 1916, as described below: 

SectwM of coal bed in PtUashi No. 3 mine. 



SecUon. 

Laboratoiy No. 



Roof,"diaw8l8te." 

CoaL 

"Sulphur"..* 

Bonyooal. 

OoaL 

"Mother ooal" 

OoaL 

BonyooaL 

CoaL 

"Mother coaT" 

GoaL 

"Mother ooal" 

Splint ooal 

GoaL 

"Mother ooal" 

Cbal. 

Floor, underclay. 

Tnlckneaeofbed 

ThickneH of eoal sampled. 



A. 
26610 



Ft. in. 

7 



a2| 
2 1 



• 2J 
1 7 



2^ 



2 3 



6 4 



B. 
26611 



Ft. in. 

7 



'3 

1 

2 9 

I 4 



c. 

26612 



Ft. in. 

7 



a3 

. .4 

, 3* 



2 1* 

7 2 
6 8 



D. 
26613 



Ft. in. 


•I 



1 



3 2i 

7 10 
7 B| 



a Not tuchided in sample. 



804 



ANALYSES OF OOAL, 191^1919. 



Section A (sample 26610) was measured on the rib of 1 left entry, 1,350 feet from 
the main entry and 1,500 feet south 85*^ east from the drift mouth. Section B (sample 
26611) was measured at the face of 19 room, 80 ftot from 4 left cross entry and 2,475 
leet south 51^ east from the drift mouth. Section (sample 26612) was measured 
on the rib of 3 left entry, 1,800 feet from the main and 2,450 feet south 68^ east hem 
the drift mouth. Section D (sample 26613) was measured on the main entry, about 
halfway between 4 and 5 cross entries and 2,025 feet south 21° east from the drift 
mouth. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 26610, 
26611, 26612, and 26613 are gi/en imder laboratory No. 26614. 

System of mining, room and pillar retreat. In 1916 the coal was undercut by 
'eleotric machine and shot^down by FFFF black powder. Permissible explosive wu 
used for brushing roof and floor when necessary. Mine haulage was by electric 
locomotive. Carbide miners' lamps were used. The coal passed through the same 
tipple as that from Pulaski. No. 2 mine and was screened into lump, egg, nut, and 
slack. Some coal was shipped as nm of mine. The coal was picked over a pickiiiig 
table after the slack was removed. At time of sampling the output was about 250 
tons a day; capacity, 300 tons a day. The future output was to come entirely from 
advance work, the mining having consisted only in driving the entries and narrow 
work. The estimated lifetime of the two mines was 16 years, there being about 
150 acres of solid coal. 

ECKMAN. ShAWNEB MiNB. 



Analyses 67937, 67938, 67935, and 29915 and car samples 68839 and 68840 (p. 88). 

Semibituminous cool, Pocahontas field, from Shawnee mine, a drift mine at Eckman, 

on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Carboniferous (Potts- 

ville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 6 to 7} feet thick; roof, 2 feet of shale, over 

which is sandstone; floor, hard, smooth shale; dip, about 1® west; no cleat; no faults. 

Commercial samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on February 6 to 

March 23, 1918. The bed was sampled by C. A. Allen on December 24, 1917, as 

described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Shawnee nwne. 



Section 


A. 
67937 


B. 

67988 


C. 


i^iboratory No. , t .......... 


07935 






Roof, shale. 

Goal 


FU <a. 

.1 

10 

1 

1 4 

• 1 

1 
1 

2 2 

6 7 
6 6i 


Ft in, 
3 
• 1 
2 4 


Ft, in, 
.1 


"Sulpbur^band 


Coal ; i^^i..^^^i^'^.i.^!...;^.i..^ii].!^;; 


2 3 


Coal. STBV 




Goal * .^ 






Bone 


■ 1 
3 6 


• 4 


Goal 


' \ 


"Mother coal" 


Coal 


3 8 


Floor, shale. 

Tniokness of bed 


6 3 
6 1 


7 3 


Thi(fkiMMR of ooal samrVw*, . 


6 lOi 







from surface, 
from surface, 
fromsuifacoi 



• Not Included in sample. 

Section A (sample 67937) was cut at face of 8 room, 2 main; depth 
550 feet. Section B (sample 67938) was cut on 24 pillar, 2 right; depth 
500 feet. Section C (sample 67935) was cut on 31 pillar, 4 right; depth 
350 feet. 

Tlie ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
67937, 67938, and 67935 is given under laboratory No. 29915. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut 
shot down with black powder and permissible explosive by the minen 



by pick and 
during shift 



WEST VmOII^U: McDOWBLL COUITTY. 



805 



About 100 men were employed undei:groand and 25 on the Buitece. There waa 
a steel tipple. Haulage was by two 10-ton locomotives and by mules. The mine 
made a large amount of dust, and salt was used for humidifying the dust in places 
where the sprinkler did not reach. Impurity consisted of gray shale in the roof, which 
tended to scale of! and break into fine pieces. Thoe were two feeding trades, with 
capacity for 30 empty and 35 loaded cars. Over 90 per cent of the coal was shipped 
as run of mine, of which 22 per cent was lump over 3i-inch bar screens; the ^gg size 
was screened over Ij^inch bars and the nut over f-ii^cb bars. Of the total production 
55 per cent was slack, passing through |-inch screens. The picking was done in 
railroad car by 8 to 10 pickers, in charge of an inspector. The pickers took out 
2 or 3 tons of slate and 5 or 6 tons of bone and ''sulphur ** daily. The capacity of the 
mine was 600 tons a day; average production, 400 tons. The probable lifetime of 
the mine was about 20 yean, there being about 500 acres to be mined. Most of the 
future tonnage was to be IrcHn pillars. 

For descriptions and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 255, 981. 

Elkhorn. Houston Nob. 1 and 2 Mines. 

Analyses 67955, 67959, and 29989 from No. 1 mine and 67962, 67969, 67970, and 29990 
from No. 2 mine; also car samples 68802 and 68803 (p. 88). Seodbituminous coal, 
Pocahontas field, from Houston Nos. 1 and 2 mines, drift mines at Elkhom, on the 
Norfolk A Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Carboniferous (Pottsville) 
age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 6 to 9 feet thick; roof, ''draw slate;" floor, hard 
shale. Conunercial samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on February 23 
to March 11, 1918. The beds were sampled by R. H. Seip and S. P. Holt on Decem- 
ber 28, 1917, as described below: 

SectumB of coal bed in HouBton Noi, 1 and ft mtnes. 



Section 


A. 
67969 


B. 
67955 


C. 

67970 


D. 
67962 


E. 


Laboratory No 


67969 






Roof, "draw slate" 


Ft, \n. 


Ft, in. 


Ft, in. 


Ft, in, 

3 
1 2 

1 ? 


Ft, Hi. 


" MotliffT coal" and coal 




Coal 


• 3 

4 \\ 

5 6 
5 3 


1 4 
• 2 

4 61 

5 1(4 


4 6 

6 11 

5 8| 


1 4 


Bone 


• 4 


Coal 


3 8 


Floor, shale. 

Tiilokiiem of ImhI 


5 4 


TtilckDem of coal sampled, 


5 







• Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 67959) was cut on 16 pillar, 39 entry, mine No. 1. Section B 
(sample 67955) was cut on 21 pillar, 40 cross entry, mine No. 1. Section C (sample 
67970) was cut oni5 pillar, 38 cross entry, mine No. 2. Section D (sample 67962) was 
cut at &ce ol 3 room, 44 cross entry, mine No. 2. Section £ (sample 67969) was cut 
on 6 pillar, 24 cross entry, mine No. 2. 

The ultimate, analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 67955 
and 67959 is given under laboratory No. 29989. The ultimate analysis of a com- 
posite sample made by combining samples 67962, 67969, and 67970 is given under 
laboratcvy No. 29990. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by pick and 
shot down with FFFF black powder and permissible explosives by the miners during 
shift. About 60 per cent of the output was shipped as run of mine, the balance 
going through bar screens with 4-inch openings and through revolving screens with 
i and li-inch openings. The sfsreenings were crushed and coked, there being 300 
tons of c6ke produced daily. The coal was picked on the car by nine pickers. The 
track capacity could take care of 50 empty and 50 loaded cars. The daily capacity 



d06 



ANALYSES OP C50AL, Idl^lWd. 



of No. 1 mine was 450 tons and of No. 2 mine 1,000 tons; the actual daily avenge 
shipments at time of sampling were 250 and 750 tons, respectiYely. Thoe were 
45 and 165 men, respectively, employed undeiground and 87 on the surface far the 
two mines. Haulage was hy mule and motor, there being a total of six motors used. 
In advance work 35 per cent of the coal was taken out; a total of 95 per cent recovery 
wasmade. There were still from 100 to 200 acres to be mined from these two openings, 
which had a probable lifetime of 15 years. The coal was shipped to Lambert's 
Point, Va., and to Sandusky, Ohio, docks (the latter going to lake ports) and to Yonngs- 
town. Canton, Toledo, and other points in Ohio and Indiana. The coke was shipped 
to Roanoke, Va., and Wellston, Ohio. 

Faraday. Pbsssly Mine. 

Analysis 26159 (p. 89). Semibituminous coal, Pbcahontiis fidd, from Pressly 
mine, 4 miles east al Faraday, flag stop on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Goal bed, 
Pocahontas No. 5; Carboniferous (PotbBville) age, Pocahontas fonnation. Roof, 
shale; floor, clay. The bed was sampled on September 20, 1916, by T. K. Hams- 
berger. The sample represented 3 feet ^ inches of coel; 3 inches of ''raah" was not 
included in the sample. The section was measured in 3 room, on right of main entry. 
200 feet west of mine mouth. 

GiuiAic. GnxiAM Minis. 

Analyses 68000, 68023, 68022, and 29992; also car sample 30238 (p. 89). Semi- 
bituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Gilliam mine, a drift mine at Gilliam, on 
the North Fork branch of the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3 
seam ; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 4} to 6 feet thick; 
roof, strong, dark shale underlain with 3 inches of "draw slate.*' It is stated that a 
16-inch seam of coal lies 15 feet above this bed. Floor, hard shale with smooth sur- 
face. Cotomerdal samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on January 
28 to February 13, 1918. The bed was sampled by W. T. Lee on December 27, 1917, 
as described below: 

SectioTU of coal bed in GiUiam mint. 



Sjtion ^.. 
boratory No 

Roof,ahale. 

Coal 

Coal, bony 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

Tniekneesofbed 

Thickness of coal sampled 



A. 
68Q2S 



1 3 

•1* 

3 4 

4 M 
4 7 



B. 



Ft, fit. 
1 3 

3 10 

5 li 
5 1 



C. 
68000 



Ft. ill. 
1 3 
•S 
3 10 



5 
6 



4 

1 



o Not included in sample. ^ , 

Section A (sample 68023) was cut in 3 ciosscut, at face of 2 main. Section B (sample 
68022) was cut in 3 crosscut, at face of 6 room. Section C (sample 68000) was cut in 
6 crosscut, at face of 28 room. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68000, 68022, and 68023 is given under laboratory Nq. 29992. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1916 the coal was undercut by madiinei 
the cutting being done is the coal. The coal was shot down with blade powder by 
the miners during the shift. Permissibie explosive was used in brushing roof and 
floor. The capacity of the mine at time of sampling was 900 tons a day, althoogfa the 
actual average shipments were only about 700 tons. Open carbide lamps were used. 
The haukge was by mules and electric motor. There were two loading tiaeka, with 
a total capacity of about 20 empty railroad can. 



WEST VIBGIITIA: McDOWBLL OOTTKTT. 



807 



For deaciiptioDB and analyses of other samples of coal from this mine see Bureau of 
Ifines Bull. 22, pp. 260, 991. 

ELaatwbll. Berwind No. 6 Mine. 

Analyses 68069, 68072, 68076, and 29980 and car sample 30263 (p. 89). Semi- 
bituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Berwind No. 5 mine, a drift mine } mile 
southwest of Hartwell, on the Norfolk & Western K. K. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 
3; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 3 to 5 teet thick; 
rcM>f, sandstone; floor, soft, smooth shale. The bed dips 6 per cant west and contains 
three faults and horsebacks. Conunerdal samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. 
Snyder on February 11 to March 6, 1918. The bed was sampled by S. P. Holt on 
January 2, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Berwind No. 5 mine. 



Laboratory No. 



Roof, aandstoae. 

*'Rsdi" 

Bone 

Coal, cube 

Ck»I 

Bone 

Coal 

Bono 

Coal 

Bono.. 

Coal 

Roor, shale. 

Total thickness of bed. . . 

Thickness of ooal sampled . 



A. 
68000 



Ft. in. 
as 



2 5 

o2 
1 



4 m 

4 



B. 
68072 



Ft. In. 

••••■«2i 



2 5i 
a2 

1 



c. 

68076 



Ft, fn. 



alj 
2 7 
a2 

a 

m 

at 



3 
3 



% \ % 



■ Not Included in sample. 

Section A (sample 68069) was cut at face of main heading. Section B (sample 
68072) was cut from chain pillar between 3 and 4 room, 3 left. Section C (sample 
68076) was cut at face of 2 right. 

The ultimate analysis, of a composite sample made by combining fBce samples 
68069, 68072, and 68076 is given under laboratory No. 29980. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was undercut by machine and 
ahot down by FFF black powder. There were 55 men employed underground and 9 
on the BorSace. Haulage 'vfas by four gathering electric locomotives and one larger 
locomotive. The tonnage in the future will be derived largely from pillars. The 
output could have been increased to 375 tons by additional labor and can. The coal 
was all shipped as run of mine and was picked on cars by three pickers. There was 
storage-bin capacity for 100 tons. There was loading track capacity for 30 empty 
and 30 loaded cars. The capacity of the mine was 325 tons a day, and the average 
shipments at time of sampling were 275 tons daily. 

Havaco. Havaco (Formerly Jed) Mine. 

Analyses 67996, 68019, 68020, and 29991; also car samples from eight cars, analysis 
30237 (p. 89). Semibituminous coking coal, Pocahontas field, from the Havaco (form- 
erly Jed) mine, a shaft mine at Havaco, on the Tug Fork branch of the Norfolk A West- 
em R. R. Coal bed, Socahontas No. 3; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas 
formation. The bed varies in thickness from 4 feet 8 inches to 5 feet 5 inches, with 
an average of 5 feet, and has a dip of about 1} to 2)° north 45^ west; roof, strong bedded 
sandstone underlain in places with 12 to 15 inches of treacherous slate that does not 
fall regularly with the coal, but is brushed in the entries; floor, 12 to 18 inches of hard 



808 



A17ALTSBS OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



clay with smooth surface. Commercial samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. 
Snyder on January 14 to February 13, 1918. The bed was sampled by W. T. Lee 
on December 28, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Havaco minfi. 



Sftctloii. 

Laboratory No. 

Roof, shale. 

Coal 

Bonyooal 

Coal. 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled 



A. 
67906 


B. 

68019 


Ft. in. 
2 2 
as 
2 111 


Ft. in. 

a3 
2 111 


i n 


5 2 
4 11 



c. 

68020 



#7. m- 
2 
-31 
2 11 

5 2* 
4 11 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 67996) was cut at face of 1 main. Section B (sample 68019) 
cut at face of 8 right main. Section C (sample 68020) was cut at face of 15 right, 1 
left main. 

The ultimate analjrsis of a composite sample made by combining btce samples 
67996, 68019; and 68020 is given under laboratoi^ No. 29991. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by electric 
chain machines and shot down with permissible explosive at any time of the day 
by shot firers. Steel tipples with self-dumping cages were in use. Electric safety 
lamps were used by miners, and electric lighting on the main roads. Haulage was 
by electric motor. The mine was sprinkled regularly. A laige area of coal remained 
to be mined, and most of the future tonnage was to be from advance work. The coal 
was picked in the cars by four pickers and shipped as run of mine. There were four 
loading tracks, with a total capacity for 75 empty railroad cars. The production 
capacity was 1,200 tons a day, although at time of sampling, owing to railroad con- 
ditions, the production only averaged about 500 tons. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 261, 993, and Bull. 85, pp. 116 and 355. 

_^ ___ • 

Hemphill. Wblch Mine. 

Analyses 26582 to 26587 (p. 89). Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from 
Welch mine, a drift mine, at Hemphill, } mile west of Welch, on a short spur from 
the main line of the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal*bed, Welch; CarboniferouB 
(Pottsville) age. New River series. The bed lies practically flat; average thick- 
ness, about 3 feet 9 inches; roof, hard, firm shale; floor, called sandstone, but probably 
sandy shale. Material from roof and floor did not become mixed with the coal when 
mined. The bed was sampled by E. H. Denny and W. B. Plank on November 10, 
1916, aa described below: 





Sections of coal bed in Welch mine. 


■ 






R«rtifffli 


A. 
26582 


B. 

2R5.S3 


c. 

3S58I 


D. 
S5S« 


E. 


lAhnratflrj No. 


7ua 






BooT, shale. 

Cxxil, soft 


Ft. in. 
11 


Ft. in. 
1 11 

1 l^ 


Ft. fa. 
11* 


Fi. fa. 

11 


Ft. la. 


"Atlfnhur" ^an<1 




Coal.'hard 


2 n 


11? 


} ? 




Coal 


4 9 


CoalaiMl"aulpl>iir"band 




Coal 










Floor, taafd, sand v shale. 

Thicbifn of vfA 


3 6 
3 6 


3 2 
3 3 


I tt 


4 9 


TWcknrw fl4 coal sampled. T , 


4 







WEST VIRGINIA: McDOWELL COUNTY. 



809 



Secticm A (sample 26582) was cut at face of 14 left entry, mam entry, just in by 35 
room and 6,750 feet south ^^ west from the drift mouth. Section B (sample 26583) 
'was cutin the last cutthrough to the air course in 25 room, 200 feet of! 15 left air course 
and 6,850 feet south 25° west from drift mouth. Section C (sample 26584) was cut in 
the face of 1 right entry, tunnel entry, and 2,250 feet south 2^ east from the drift mouth. 
Section D (sample 26585) was cut from i»ce ot main entry, 400 feet inby 16 entry and 
6,900 feet south 36° west from drift mouth. Section E (sample 26587) was cut from 14 
room pillar of 13 entry, 150 feet from 13 entry and 5,900 feet south 24° west from drift 
mouth. 

Hie ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 26582, 
26583, 26584, and 26585 is given under laboratory No. 26586. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1916 the coal was undercut by machine, ana 
FFF black powder was used in shooting down the coal, also in brushing the roof or 
floor. Haulage undeiground was by electric locomotive and by mule. Carbide 
miner's lamps were used. At the time of sampling the output was 500 tons a day, of 
which the greater part was to be derived from advance workings. The actual daily 
capacity of the mine was said to be 800 tons. All of the coal was shipped as run of 
mine. Two pickers were employed on the cars. There was one loading trade, with a 
capacity of 15 loaded and 25 to 30 empty can. About 150 acres were still to be mined. 
The estimated lifetime of the mine was 12 to 15 years at the 1916 rate of output. 

Jenkinjones. Jenkinjones No. 6 Mine. 

Analyses 68096, 68090, 68083, and 30160; also car sample 30256 (p. 90). Semibi- 
tuminouB coal, Pocahontas field, from Jenkinjones No. 6 mine, a drift mine at Jenkin- 
jones at the terminus of the Tug River branch of the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal 
bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 
7 to 14 feet thick; roof, 1 to 6 inches ''draw slate," then smooth black shale," floor, 
hard, gray shale. There is one persistent bone-coal parting 2 to 4 inches thick, which 
is partly picked out in the mine or on railroad cars. Commercial samples were taken 
at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on December 19 to 22, 1917. The bed was sampled by 
C. A. Allen on December 31, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Jenkinjones No. 6 mine. 



Sectkui 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, shale. 

Coal 

Coal, gray 

Coal 

*'Motlierooal" 

Bony coal 

Coal 

Bonyooal 

Coal 

Bony coal 

Coal 

Coal, gray 

"MotEarooal" 

Coal 

Bony coal 

Coal, gray 

Coal...... , 

Floor, shale. 

TliiekncaBOfbed 

Thickness of coal sampled . 



A. 
88083 



Ft. in. 
9 
1 

8 



1 5 

al 

2 

a3 

5 

2 



' il 



2 9 

8 10 
8 5i 



B. 

68006 



Ft. in. 
10 
6 



9\ 
2 

8i 



i 



1 10 



i\ 



3 3 



11 3 
10 11 



C. 
68000 



FL in. 

2 3 

6 

3 



2 

a2 

2 9 

a 

2 



I 



n 



9 

8 




7* 



a Not inpJiided in sample. 

Section A (sample 68083) was cut in 29 room, 14 double entry. Section B (sample 
68096) was cut on 19 pillar, M-13 entry. Section C (sample 68090) was cut at face of 
3 room, H-10 entry. The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by com- 
bining samples 68006, 68000, and 68083 is given under laboratory No. 30160. 



810 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1»1J>. 



Tfais mine has throe openingBy with tracks leading to one tipj^e. The openings 
ore called &-1, 6-4, and 6-8. 

System of mining, room and pillar, in panels. In 1917 the men employed num- 
bered 125 underground and 15 on surftboe. The coal was cut by machine in ooal 
above the floor and shot down with permissible explosives at any time during the 
shift by the miners. The miners used a pocket battery for firing the holes. The 
haulage was by two l&-ton electric motors and 11 gathering motoTB. Some pieoee of 
roof and floor became mixed with the coal in shipping. There was a wooden tipple, 
with no cage. Electric power was bought from the railroad company. Impurities 
in the bed comprised bone streaks and ''mother coal.'' About 45 per cent of the 
coal was taken in advance work, and a high recovery was made. All of the coal was 
shipped as run of mine and was pidced on belt by seven pidcera. There were no 
storage bins. The appeaianoe of lump coal on cars was fair. There was one loading 
track, which had capacity for a large number of care. The ooal was dumped onto a 
plunger feeder, then onto a retarding conveyor, which took it down the hiU, and then 
over bars about 4 inches apart, which took out sizes from egg to slack; these sises were 
conveyed to the car by one conveyor. The oversize, or lump, passed over the screens 
to a second picking conveyor, on which seven pickers worked. From the piddng belt 
the lumps joined the first coal just as it fell into the car. About 1,500 acres remained 
unmined, insuring long life to the mine. About three-quarters of the tonnage was 
from solid work. The maximum day's run was 2,000 toos and the average daily 
shipments at time of sampling, 1,350 tons. 

For descriptions and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 85, pp. 116, 355; and Bull. 123, pp. 122, 413. 

Jenkinjones. Jenkinjones No. 7 Mike. 

An^yses 67985, 67987, 68029, 68028, 68099, and 30170, and car sample 30244 (p. 90). 
Semibituminous ooal, Pocahontas field, from Pocahontas (or Jenkinjones) No. 7 
mine, a drift mine at Jenkinjones, at the terminus of the Tug Biver brandi of the 
Norfolk & Western R. R. Goal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Carboniferous (Pottsville) 
age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 6 to 14 feet thick, dip 2° west; roof, 2 inches 
"draw slate,'' above which is hard shale; floor, smooth, dark gray shale, soft in places. 
There is one persiBtent bone parting about 4 feet from floor. Rolls and horsebadcs 
are frequent. Commercial samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on 
January 14 to 28, 1918. The bed was sampled by C. A. Allen and 8. P. Holt on 
December 29, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Jenkinjones No. 7 miTie. 



Seetloii.. 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, "draw slate." 

doal 

"Sulphur "band 

Coal 

Bony ooal.. 

Coal 

Bone 

Coal 

« Mother coal'' 

Coal 

Bone 

Coal 

Bony coal 

Coal 

"Rash" 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 



A. 

68020 



Ft. in. 

«1 



1 
1 



10 



II 



«2 
4 



i 



1 4 
1 4 



7 
7 1 



{ 



B. 
67987 
68099 




alO 



8 
7 



II 



} 



C. 
67VB5 



Ft. in, 
1 UH 



-7| 
4 2 



7 3 
6 \ 



• Not included in sampl e. 



WEST VIRGINU : McDOWELL COUNTY. 



311 



Section A (sample 68029) waa cut in dip entry near 1 croes entry. Section B (aamplea 
67987 and 68099) was cut at face of 11 room, D-4, main entry. Section C (sample 
67985) was cut at iauce of 1 room, 1 right air course. 

Sample 68028 eoveiB analysis of screened bone sample from same location as section 
A, the rejected portions of sample being picked down and screened through a half-inch 
screen. The oversize, taken as sample, showed 17.3 per cent ash. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
67985, 67987, 68028, 68029, and 68099 is given under laboratory No. 30170. 

System of mining, room and pillar. Goal was undercut by machine. Haulage 
waa by electric motor around the side of the mountain to a 2,000-ton wooden tipple. 
The coal was all shipped as run of mine. It was picked on a belt by eight pickets 
as it passed to car conveyor. The company owns 20,000 acres of coal in the vicinity. 
The probable lifetime ol the nune was many yearn. The capacity of the mine was 
1,200 tons a day, and the average output in 1917 was 750 tons a day. 

For description and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines Bull. 
123, pp. 122, 413. 

Jenkinjones. Jenkinjones No. 8 Mine. 

Analyses 68093, 68089, 68095, 68088, and 30172; also car sample 30239 (p. 90). Semi- 
bituminous coal, Pocahontas field,'fram Jenkinjones No. 8 mine, a drift mine, at Jenkin- 
jones, at the terminus of the Tug Fork branch of the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal 
bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Oarbonifexous age, Lower Pottsville series, Pocahontas fonna> 
tion. The bed is 5 to 14 feet thick and dips 10^ northwest. Rolls or horsebacks are 
few. Roof, hard and smooth of black shale; floor, dark-gray shale, smooth and hard. 
Commercial samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder, on January 14 to 28, 
1918. The bed was sampled by J. J. Bourquin on December 31, 1917, as described 
below: 

Sections of coal bed in Jenkinjones No. 8 mine. 



8ectioii 

laboratory No. 



Roof, hard shale. 

Coal, burned to roof 

Ckial 

Coal, gray, bony 

Coal, gray, too soft to leave. 

Coal 

Bone , 

Coal 

Coal, gray 

BonyooaL 

BonyooaL 

Coal. 



Bono. 
Coal. 



A. 
08003 



Ft. <n. 



2 5i 



10 
as 



Bone 

Coal 

Flow, shale. 

llnrlmeBBofbed 

ThickneBS of ooal sampled. 




Ft. in. 



I 



I W 
1 6 



01 1 
"li' 



5 
4 5 



C. 

68095 



Ft. in, 

1 
2 9 



06 
11 



•5* 



7 
6 



11 

OS 

7 





D. 
68068 



Ft. M. 



1 8 



m 



a Not indiided in sample. 

Section A (sample 68093) was cut at face of Cr-4 heading. Section B (sample68069) 
was cut at lace of Cr-3 heading. Section (sample 68095) was cut at face of 18 room, 
off Gr-2 entry, 7>1 mine, off 8. Section D (sample 68088) was cut at face of rig^t air 
course, G trq>le entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 68068, 
68069, 68093, and 68095 is given under laboratory No. 30172. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was cut by machine in the 
Btzeak of bone about 3 feet from floor and was shot down by pcnnissible explosive and 



312 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



black powder. Haulage was by electric motars, there being one main line locomotive 
and seven gathering motors, using reel and cable. The tipple was wood. Practically 
all coal was shipped as run of mine, althougji about 60 per cent of the output was run 
through screens in order to facilitate picking. The alack was screened throuc^ l}-indi 
openings in 12-foot b|tr screens. The egg, nut, and lump was picked on tables by eigjbt 
pickers, and three pickers were employed on the slack. The coal was then reassembled 
as run of mine. The lumps varied in size from 3 or 4 inches up. There was one load- 
ing track, with capacity for 30 empty and 30 loaded railway can. The probable life- 
time of the mine was 50 years, and the tonnage was to be mostly derived from advance 
work for some time. The average daily output of the mine at time of sampling was 
3,000 tons, and the maximum day's run was 4,140 tons. This mine was sampled in 
1914. 

For description and analsrses of other samples of coal from this mine, see Bureau of 
Mines Bull. 123, pp. 122, 413. 

. Kimball (Vivla.n). Garswell Mine. 

Analyses 68033, 68034, 68035, and 30006; also car sample 30591 (p. 91). Semibitu- 
minouB (?) coal, Pocahontas field, from Garswell mine, a shaft mine 2 miles from Kim- 
ball, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Two seams are worked, Pocahontas Nos. 3 
and 4, with an interval of 60 feet between them; Garboniferous (Pottsville) age, Poco- 
hontas formation. Average thickness of bed is 4 to 5} feet, with a persistent bone 
parting near the middle and a ^inch band of '^sulphur" above. Both beds are worked 
by the 300-foot shaft, No. 4 bed being 60 feet vertically above No. 3. Main roof, 
sandstone; immediate roof, 20 feet of clayey shale; floor, hard shale. Samples wese 
collected from cars at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on January 28 to February 1, 1918. 
The No. 3 bed was sampled by J. W. Paul on December 29, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of Pocahontas No. ^ ooal bed in Carswell mine. 



8«ction 

LftboratoryNo 



A. 
68034 



B. 

68085 



C. 
68033 



Roof, "draw slate" and coal. 

Coal with streaks of "mother ooal" . 
Coal. 



FL in, 
1 71 



Ft. in. 



Shale, clayey, 
Coal, with sir 



breaks of "mother ooal " . 
Bone. 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal, gray 

Coal , 

Floor, not noted. 

Thickness of bed 

Thkkness of coal sampled 



as 
3 IJ 



a a 

•I 



Ft. in. 

"i'o 



6 
4 9 



6 3 
5 



«8i 



2 loi 



a Not mcladed m sample. 

Section A (sample 68034) was cut at face of 3 right, off main east, 400 feet from shaft. 
Section B (sample 68035) was cut at face of 4 left, 500 feet from main west. Section C 
(sample 08033) was cut at face of 3 right, 350 feet from main west. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 68033, 
68034, and 68035 is shown under laboratory No. 30006. 

System of mining, room and pillar, in panels. In 1917 the coal was undercut by 
machine in the bottom coal; pieces of the roof and floor became mixed with the cosl 
in mining. About 30 per cent of coal was taken out in ad vance work. Men employed 
at time of sampling numbered 75 to 100 underground and 15 to 20 abov^^g^ound. 
The tipple was steel, with self-<luinping cage. Haulage was by four electric and one 
storage-battery locomotive. The mine had five rooms turned off; all tonnage came 
from these rooms and the entries. The coal was shot down by petmiauble explosiveB, 



WEST VIRGllffIA: McDOWBLL. COUNTY. 



313 



'which were fired by the miners at any time during shift. The coal was all shipped as 
run of mine and was pipked on railroad cars by three pickers. There were no storage 
l>ins. There were four loading tracks, with capacity for 60 loaded and 60 empty 
caiB. The cars were loaded from No. 3 bed, and the car sample represents six cars. 
There was a new steel tipple, with loading boom and picking tables, not in use at 
time of sampling. There were still about 1,000 acres to be worked. The estimated 
lifetime of the mine was 30 to 40 years. The capacity of the mine wafl 1,500 tons a 
day, and daily average output was 500 tons, which was to be increased. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Minee 
BuU. 123, pp. 128, 417. * 

Lick Branch. Delta Mine. 

Analyses 67967, 67891, 67894, and 29911; also car sample 30260 (p. 91). Semi- 
fadtmninous coal, Pocahontas field, from Delta mine, a drift mine i mile east of lick 
Kanch, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Carboniferous 
(Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 6 to 8 feet thick; no faults, rolls, or 
horsebacks. . Roof, very good, hard, smooth shale; floor, good, hard, smooth shale. 
A commercial sample was collected at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on December 

19, 1917, to January 1, 1918. The mine was sampled by C. A. Allen on December 

20, 1917, as described below: 

Sectiona of coal bed in Delta mine. 



Section 


A. 
67967 


B. 

67891 


C. 


liUboratofT No. . . . . x . . x x t . . 


67894 






Roof, shale. 

Coal 


Ft. in. 

1 6 

3 

2 I' 
a3 

1 llj 

6 7 
6 


Ft, in. 

1 5 
04 

2 

•li 

2 2 
•3J 

1 10 

6 4 
5 7 


1 7 


Booe 


"i» 


Coal 


BoDT Of Cray coal 


• 2 


Coal 


2 


Bon«, ..... - , - , r 


1 


Coal 


2 4i 

6 7 


Floor, shale. 

Tnicknffls o'b^d - , . . , , . , , . r r . r . . , 


Thfcl^viQfiv nf ftoal sampled. 


6 H 





• Not Induded in sample. 

Section A (sam^de 67967) was taken from 8 room, 10-5 left entry. Section B (sample 
67891) was taken from first left main heading, 300 feet from main entry. Section C 
(sample 67894) was taken from 2 room, 3 left cross entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 67967, 
67981, and 67984 is given under laboratory No. 29911. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by machine 
and shot down with black powder and permissible explosives by the miners during 
shift. The undercutting was done in the coal. Men employed numbered 75 under- 
ground and 24 abov^ground. Impurities comprised considerable bone, gray coal, 
and ''mother coaL'' The coal passed over bar screens with 1-inch openings and over 
shaking screens with f-inch holes, and was dumped into a chute to a plunger feeder, 
which fed it over IJ-inch bars 10 feet long and 6 feet wide; the oversize went to a 
4-foot picking conveyor, at which were 10 pickers. The undersize from bars passed 
over two 5 by 6 foot shaking screens with }-inch holes and went directly to a 2Hoot 
picking conveyor, the oversize deeding on top of the undersize; four pickers worked 
on this conveyor. After being picked with care, all sizes were run into the car 
together. Track capacity was 30 loaded and 40 empty railroad cars. Haulage was 
by two 15-ton electric motor and five 6-ton gathering electric motors. About 45 
per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work and the recovery was high. The 



314 ANALYSES OF GOAL, 1916-1919. 

lease covers about 600 acres, and the estimated lifetime of the mine was 15 to 20 
yean. The daily average output of the mine at time of sampling was 1,300 Imib; 
capacity, 1.350 tons. 

Marytown. Marttown Mine. 

Analyses 68002, 68003, and 29918, and tipple samples 70195 to 70198 (p. 314). Semi- 
bituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Marytown mine, a drift mine at Marytown an 
the main line of the Norfolk & Western R. R. Goal bed, Sewell seam; GarbonifeitNifl 
(PottBville) age, Sewell formation. Bed is 3 feet 4 inches to 4 feet 6 inches thidc, 
with a shale parting; roof, hard, dark, sandy shale with sfbooth surface; floor, hJHrtf 
shale. Particles from the roof and floor did not become mixed with the coal in mining. 
Rolls and horsebacks are frequent. The vertical depth from surface to the coal 
was about 200 feet and over. Elevation of mine above sea level, about 1,300 feet. 
Gommerdal samples were taken at the tipple by J. J. Bourquin and S. S. Shiikey on 
S^tember 17, 1918. The bed was sampled by G. H. Ashley on December 29, 1917, 
as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Marytown mine. 



Section 


A. 
OSQOR 


B. 


Laboratory No. 


6800S 






Roof, shale. 

Coal 


Ft. to. 

3 1 
• 7 

5 

4 1 
3 6 


J^. m. 
3 1 


Bone and shale 


• 1 


Coal 


s 


Floor, slate. 

Tniclmew? of hfA 


4 6 


Thicknew? of coal .samplert 


3 6 







« Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 68003) was cut in 4 crosscjt, off 1 main. Section B (sample 
68002) was cut in 6 crosscut, of! 14 left. 

An ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 68003 
and 68003 is given under laboratory No. 29918. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by machine. 
Gars were gathered by mules and hauled to head house by three 12-tQn and two 
8-ton electric locomotives. Goal was lowered to tipple, across railroad trades and 
creek, by a conveyor. The coal was shot down during shifts with black powder and 
pennissible explosive by the miners. The output was all being shipped as run of 
ndne. The tipple was equipped with screens for SJ-inch lump, 2|-inch egg, and 
f-inch nut. llie coal was pidced on ndlroad car, one pidcer being employed. Tfaoe 
were no storage bins. There were four loading tracks, with capacity for 85 empty 
and 30 loaded ndlroad cars. Future production was to come mostly from advance 
work. About 85 per cent recovery was claimed. The estimated life time of the 
mine was 15 years. Number of acres still unmined, 500. The daily average output 
of the mine in 1917 was 520 tons and the maximum day's run 1 ,100 tons. 

For descriptions and analyses of other samples of coal from this mine see Bureau of 
Mines Bull. 22, pp. 264, 999. 

McDowell. McDowell Mike. 

Analyses 68006, 68007, 68010, and. 29988; also car famples 68645 to 68646 (p. 91). 
Semibitmninous coal, Pocahontas field, from McDowell mine, a drift mine 1 nul® 
east of McDowell, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Goal bed, Pocahontas No. 3, 
Garboniierous (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 4 feet 9 inches to 
5 feet 9 inches thick; dip, northwest; roof, about 4 inches clayey shale over cosif 



wssT vntGiinA: mcdoweo. cottntt. 



315 



some "draw slate/' and ehale; floor, hard, smooth shale. Pieces from roof and floor 
have some tendency to hecome mixed with coal in shipping. Conmiercial samples 
were taken from care at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on February 7 to 28, 1918. T^e 
l>ed was sampled by R. H. Seip on December 27, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in McDowell mine. 



Section 

laboratory No. 



Roof, shale. 
Coal.... 



Bone 

Coal/. 

"Sulphur". 
Coal. 



Floor, shale. 

Tnickneas of bed 

Thidmefis <rfcoal sampled. 



A. 

68006 



Ft. in. 

• 3 
4 li 



5 
•5 



4 
1 



B. 

68007 



Ft. in. 

1 li 
a2 

2 11 

1 

5 3 

5 h 



C. 

68010 



Ft. 



in. 
11. 
«3j 
2 



5 
5 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 68006) was cut on 8 pillar, Spain heading, off Pennsylvania 
main. Section B (sample 68007) was cut at face of 8 room, off Bluefield heading, 
Ohio district. Section C (sample 68010) was cut at face of Eigypt crossheading, off 
Germany main, Pennsylvania district. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68006, 68007, and 68010 is given under laboratory No. 29988. 

System of mining, by panels. Thirty-five per cent of the coal was taken on the ad- 
vance, and the balance by pillar-robbing; coal recovery claimed, 96 per cent. Men 
working numbered 112 tmderground and 70 aboveground, including coke ovens. 
Haulage was by three hauling motors, four gathering motots, and mules. The coal was 
cut by machine and by pick and shot down by FFFF black powder, permissible 
explosive being used for brushing. The bed carries a streak of bone about 3 feet from 
Aoot and varying streaks of '' sulphur." Considerable picking on tables and on C9r 
was done by 12 pickers on tables and 8 on cars. About 40 per cent of the coal was 
shipped as run of mine. For large and nut sizes, 24-foot bar screens, with ^to4 inch 
spaces, and smaller screens, with l^-inch and ^ to f inch openings, were used. The 
screeilings were coked to the extent of 200 tons of coke a day. The storage bins had 
capacity for 500 tons slack. The lumps were large and of good appearance on cars. 
There were four loading tracks, with capacity for 45 empties and 85 loaded cars. 
Capacity of mine was 1,800 tons a day; average production in 1917 was 900 tons a day. 

For descriptions and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 263, 997. 

Newhall. Berwind No. 6 Mine. 

Analyses 68075, 68066, and 29981, and car sample 30235 (p. 92). Semibituminous 
coal, Pocahontas field, from Berwind No. 6 mine, a drift mine i mile northwest of 
Newhall, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Carboniferous 
(Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 5 to 6 feet thick; dip of bed, 3^ to 4° 
northwest; roof, hard fire clay 4^ to 6 feet thick, which disintegrated rapidly; floor, hard 
fire clay with smooth surface. Commercial samples were taken at tidewater by N.' H. 
Snyder on February 1 to 21, 1918. The bed was sampled by R. H. Seip on January 3, 
1918, as described below: 

552T0-— 22 ^21 



816 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



Sections of coal bed in Berwind No. 6 rmne. 



BOCtiOQa ••.•••.•.•.•...•.....••.•....•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••-•••••• 


A. 

68075 


B. 


Lftboratory No. .._.„,..._„.,.-,-.,.-.-. 


68066 






Roc^ hard fire day. 


Ft. in. 

4 

as 

11 

• 3 

• 7 

6 
4 11 


J^. in. 

4 


Bone 


• 2 


Coal 


4 


Bond 


<«3 




«6 


Floor, fire clay. 


5 6 


ThlntrriMM nf (^<M1 mmPlM. .......... r ., ... r r .. t , t ., r .,,-,-..-- ^ 


4 7 







a Not indaded in sample. 

Section A (sample 68075) was cut at face of 1 left. Section B (sample 68066) was cut 
at face of 1 right. 

The ultimate analysiaof a composite sample made by combining face samples 68075 
and 68066 is given under laboratory No. 29081. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was undercut by machine and 

shot down duringshifts by FFF black powder and permissible explosive by the miners. 

The mouth of the mine is 1,577 feet above sea level. Men employed numbered 50 

underground and 12 on the surface. Haulage was by five motors. The recov^ 

claimed was about 95 per cent of the total coal in bed. There were 6,000 acres still 

unmined, and the lifetime was estimated at 25 years. The coal was all shipped as 

run of mine. Three pickers were employed on cars. There were two loading tracks, 

with capacity for 100 empty and 70 loaded railroad can. The bottom coal was loaded 

out separately and sent to a washery. The capacity of the mine was 600 tons a day, 

and the average production at time of sampling was 450 tons a day, which was to be 

increased rapidly. 

Newhall. Berwind No. 7 Mine. 

Analyses 68146, 68148,' 68164, and 30168 and car sample 30259 (p. 92). Semibitumi- 
nous coal, Pocahontas field, from Berwind No. 7 mine, a drift mine } mile southeast 
of Newhall, on the Dry Fork branch of the Norfolk & Western B. B. Coal bed, 
Pocahontas No. 3; Carboniferous (Potstville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 5 
to 6 feet thick and dipe 4^ northwest. No faults, rolls, or horsebacks were encountered. 
Roof, "draw slate," then sandy shale; floor, shale. Near top of seam was a persistent 
band of ''rash" or slightly bony coal, averaging about 6 inches wide, and near bottcm 
was a persistent streak of bone; in places the bed contained a still lower streak of bone. 
Pieces from roof and floor become mixed with the coal in shipping. Commercial 
samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on December 19 to 20, 1917. The 
bed was sampled by C. A. Allen on January 3, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Berwind No. 7 mine. 



Section 

Labocmtory No 

Roof, shale. 

Coal 

"Rash"' or all^tly bony coal 
Coal 

0»l,gn7 

Coal 

Bone 

Coal, aUiihtly bony 

Coal 

Bone , 

Bottom ooal 

Floor, shale. 

Hiicknessofbed 

Thickness of ooal sampled ... . 



A. 
68148 



Ft. 

1 
2 




5 



In. 
3 
4 
6 

• 4 

3 

10 

«1 

«6 

6 
7 



B. 

68146 



C. 

68164 



Ft. M. 
2 
4 
4 



•4* 

ioi 



• 5 

6 2 



Ft. in. 

-V 

1 8 



• 4 



4 

'4" 



5 6 
4 8 



• Not Included in sample. 



WEST VIRGINU : McDOWEL^L COUNTY. 



317 



Section A (sample 68148) was cut in 11 room neck, 2 left. Section B (sample 
68146) was cut in main entry, 12 feet beyond 5 right. Section C (sample 68164) was 
cut in 3 right, opposite 12 room. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68146, 68148, and 68164 is given under laboratory No. 30168. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was cut by machine in the 
botUHn coal and shot down during shift with permissible explosives and a little black 
powder by the miners. Men employed numbered 75 underground and 10 on the 
Buzface. Haulage was by one 18-ton motor and four 6-ton motors. There was a steel 
tipple. In some places just above tEe coal is black ^^draw slate," which is difficult 
to separate. The bottom 6 inches of coal was higher in ash, and as it was cut by 
machine the cuttings were loaded out and sent to washery at No. 1 mine. Shale and 
Bome bone was discarded by miners ; if a car had much impurity it was sent to washery. 
The coal was all shipped as run of mine, except screenings, which were sent to washery 
and coked. Fifty tons of coke were produced daily. There were two tracks, with 
cax>acity for 30 or more empty and 20 loaded railroad cars. The appearance of the 
coal on cars was fair. The mine had a large acreage still unmined. About 40 per 
cent of the coal ^as taken out in advance work. One-quarter of the tonnage was com- 
ing from pillars. The capacity of the mine was 750 tons a day ; average shipments at 
time of sampling, 500 tons a day. 

Newhall. Berwind No. 8 Mike. 

Analyses 68071, 68078, 68079, and 29977 and car sample 30262 (p. 92). Semibi- 
tuminous coal, Pocahontas field, from B^wind No. 8 mine, a drift mine 1) miles 
east of Newhall, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. C!oal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Car- 
boniferous (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 5 to 6 feet thick; roof, 3 
inches of fire clay, 6 feet of ' ' draw slate,' ' and sandstone; floor, clay and shale. Ckim- 
mercial samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on February 11 to 27, 1918. 
The bed was sampled by S. P. Holt on January 3, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Berwind No, 8 mine. 



Section ' 


A. 

6S079 


B. 

68078 


C. 


LabnrAtorv No 


68071 






Roof, "drew slate." 

Coftl 


Ft. to. 
7J 

3 4 

9 

5 2 
4 11 


Ft. to. 
4 6i 


Ft. to. 
4 Zk 


"Mother coal" 




Coal 






Bone. 


a2 

8 

5 4} 
5 2\ 


• 8 


Coal 


11 


Floor, day. 

ThicKn^w o' hpd - - T --».-..,,-.,.,..... T . - T 


5 54 

6 2} 


Thickness of coal sampled 





a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 68079) was cut at face of main heading. Section B (sample 
68078) was cut at face of 3 right. Section C (sample 68071) was cut at face of 1 right. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68071, 68078, and 68079 is given under laboratory No. 29977. 

In 1918 the capacity of the mine was 300 tons a day, and the actual average at 
time of sampling was 250 tons. It was expected to increase the output to 400 tons 
a day. Men employed numbered 52 undeigiound and 11 aboveground. Two coal- 
cutting machines were employed, and four electric locomotives. The coal was all 
shipped as run of mine. The coal was picked on cars by three pickers. The storage 
bins had capacity for 40 tons. There was one loading track, with capacity for 30 empty 
and 47 loaded cars. 



318 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



RODBRFIELD. PrEICIER PoCAHONTAS NoS. 1, 2, AND 3 MiNBS. 

Analyses car samples 69658, 69659, 69492, 69493, 69020, and 69021 (p. 93)/ Bitumi- 
nous coal, Pocahontas field, from Premier Pocahontas mines Nos. 1, 2, and 3, drift 
mines close to each other, near Roderfield, on a branch of the Norfolk & Western 
R. R. Goal beds; Welch and Sewell; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age, Sewell 
formation. Car samples were taken at tidewater by H. W. Jarre tt and N. H. Snyder 
on February 21 to July 3, 1918; June 6 to 19, 1918, and February 18 to April 11, 1918 

RODERFIELD. PREMIER PoCAqpNTAS No. 4 MiNE. 

Analyses 70223 and 70224, average of face samples; analyses 70225 to 70228, aver- 
age of tipple samples, and analysis 30590, car sample (p. 93). Semibituminous coal, 
Pocahontas field, from Premier No. 4 mine, a drift mine 5 miles east of Roderfield, 
on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Welch, or No. 6; Carboniferous (Potts- 
ville) age, Sewell formation. Bed is 3 feet 2 inches to 5 feet thick; dip, north 35^ 
west to northwest; roof, hard, black shale; no "draw slate"; floor, hard, smooth black 
shale. The bed was sampled by S. S. Shirkey on September 20, 1918, as described 
below. Tipple samples were taken at car loading by J. J. Bourquin on September 
20, 1918. Car samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on January 15 to 
February 18, 1918. 

Sectiofu of coal bed in Premier No. 4 mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 4 

Roof, hard, black shale. 

Coal, soft 

Coal, hard 

Coal, soft 

Floor, hard, black shale. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled 



Section A (sample 70224) was cut from face of 1 left entry, 1 rigjit entry, 2,900 
feet from main opening. Section B (sample 70223) was cut &om fiice of 3 left air 
course, 4,400 feet horn main opening. 

The mine is opened on the panel system. In 1918 the coal was undercut with pick 
and shot down at any time during the shift with black powder by the ininen. Men 
employed, 40 underground and 7 aboveground. The coal was dumped over a wooden 
tipple; none of it was shipped as run of mine. About 65 x)er cent of it passed through 
bar screens having 3f>inch openings; sizes above this were recombined in loading. 
Haulage was by two electric locomotives. The coal was cleaned on the railroad cars by 
four pickers. There were two loading tracks, with capacity for 22 empty and 22 loaded 
railroad cars. The coal as loaded on the cars was very clean. About 50 per cent of the 
coal was taken out in the advance work, and the total recovery claimed was 95 per cent. 
The unmined area consisted of 800 acres. The estimated Ufetime of the mine was 40 
years. The capacity of the mine at time of sampling was 750 tons a day, and the aver- 
age daily output was 350 tons. The coal was being shipped to tidewater coal exchange 
and used for steam purposes. 

For descriptions and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines Bull. 
22, pp. 267, 1007, 1008. 

Twin Branch. J. B. B. (on ^Llhsb) Mines Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. 

Analyses 29681, 68001, 68004, 67997, 67999, 67998, and 29919; also car samples 69039, 
69040, 68905, 68906, and 30243 and average of tipple samples 70275 to 70278 (p. 93). 
Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas field, frcnn J. B. B. (or Mfther) group of five adjacent 




WEST VIBQINIA : McDOWBOX COUNTT. 



819 



mines, drift mines, about 1 mile north of Twin Branch poet office, on a branch line of 

tlie Norfolk & Western R. R. Goal bed, Sewell; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age, 

SeweU formation. Bed is 2 to 3} feet thick; dip, 2 per cent northwest; roof, hard, 

l>lack shale; floor, hard, shaly imderclay with smooth surface. The bed was sampled 

l>y G. H. Ashley on December 27, 1917, as described below. Car samples were taken 

by N. H. Snyder on January 14 to February 1, 1918; February 7 to April 2, 1918, and 

March 5 to April 22, 1918. Tipple samples were taken by S. S. Shirkey on September 

23, 1918. 

Sections of coal bed in J, B, B. (or Maher) mines. 



lilneNo 


1 

A. 
68001 


2 
B. 

68004 


3 
C. 

29681 


4 
D. 

67998 


5 

E. 
67999 


6 


Section 


F. 


Laboratory No. 


67997 






Roof, shale. 

Coal 


Ft. in. 
3 3 

3 3 
3 3 


Ft. in. 
2 2 

2 2 
2 2 


Ft. in. 
3 2 

3 2 
3 2 


Ft. in. 
3 6 

3 6 
3 6 


Ft. in. 
3 2 

3 2 
3 2 


Ft. <n. 
3 6 


Floor, clay. 

Tninlrn^fM of h«d ^.,,,..^ 


3 6 


Thidmess of coal sampled 


3 6 







Section A (sample 68001) was taken from No. 1 mine, in 4 northwest entry. Section 
B (sample 68004) was cut in No. 2 mine, in 3 right entry, left, off 2 main. Section C 
(sample 29681) was cut in No. 3 mine, in 2 right, off 4 main. Section D (sample 67998) 
was cut in No. 4 mine, in 5 room, 3 left, 13 right. Section £ (sample 67999) was cut in 
No. 4 mine, in 13 left, off straight entry. Section F (sample 67997) was cut in No. 5 
mine, in 3 right, off main. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 68001, 
68004, 67997, 67998, 67999, and 29681 is given under laboratory No. 29919. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 open carbide lamps were used. Haul- 
age was by mules and electric motors. The mines were moist. The coal was brought 
down by black i>owder and shot by the miners during the shift; permissible explosive 
was used in brushing roof. The coal was undercut by machine in streak of bony coal 
near bottom of seam. Some of the roof and floor became mixed with the coal in ship- 
ping. About 45 per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work, and a total recovery 
of 80 to 95 per cent was claimed. There were about 4,000 to 5,000 acres yet to be 
mined, and the estimated lifetime of the mine was 18 years. At the time of sampling a 
laige portion of the coal was being derived from pillars. The maximum day's run was 
2,000 tons, and the capacity was from 1,200 to 1,400 tons a day. About 30 per cent of 
the output was shipped as run of mine, and the remainder was screened through 
4-inch, 2-inch, and 1-inch holes. The appearance of the coal on cars was good and 
clean; the lumps were moderately large. The track capacity was 65 empty and 65 
loaded railroad cars. 

For descriptions and analyses of other samples from No. 2 mine, see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 270, 1013, and from No. 4 mine see Bureau of Mines Bull. 123, pp. 123, 415. 

Vivian. Kino Mine. 

Analyses 68024, 68025, 68027, 68030, and 29974 and car sample 30261 (p. 94). Semi- 
bituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from King mine, a slope mine at Kimball station, 
near Vivian, on the Norfolk & Western R. R., on Laurel Creek, 9) miles from Welch 
and i mile west of West Vivian. Ooal beds, Pocahontas Nos. 3 and 4; Carboniferous 
(Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Between the beds is an interval of 85 feet. 
No. 4 bed had just been opened and no samples were taken from it. Thickness of 
No. 3 bed, 5 to 5) feet; No. 4 bed, 4 feet. Dip of both beds is west. The mine is 
gaseous. Roof, 4 to 9 inches ''draw slate," 1 to 2 inches coal, 6 to 18 inches black 
shale; floor, hard shale with smooth surface. Some particles from the floor became 



820 



AKALYSBS OF COAI., Idie-lWO. 



mixed with the coal in mining. Depth from surface at point where samples were 
taken, about 1,300 feet. Commercial samples were taken at tidewater on Febroary 6 
to March 5, 1918, by N . H. Snyder. The bed was sampled by G. A. Allen on December 
26, 1917, as described below: 

Sectiom ofPoeahontas No, S, coal bed in King mine. 



Section 


A. 
68030 


B. 

6n2t 


C. 


Laboratory No 


68Q25 






Boof, shale. 

Coal 


Ft. in. 
1 9 


Ft, in. 

4 


J^. in. 

1 sj 


Bone 


"Mother coal'' 


i 




Coal, slightly bony 




» I* 


Coal'...."....'. r 


3 3 


1 3 
1 10 

1 4 

5 1 
4 lOi 


Bone 




Coal 






"Mother coal"- 






Coal 7^ 






"Mother coal" 






Coal 






Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 


5 3 
5 


4 11 


Thickness of coal sampled 


4 11 







a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 68030) was cut in 9 room, 9 cross entry, off main. Section B 
(sample 68024) was cut in 6 north, at 12 heading. Section G (sample 68025) was cut 
at face of 5 room, 8 cross entry. Sample 68027 was a sample of bone coal picked out 
of streaks froiii sections A and B. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 68024, 
68025, 68027, and 68030 is given under laboratory No. 29974. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was shot down with black 
powder by^hot firers during the shift; holes might be loaded by the miner. The coal 
was undercut by machine and by hand. Haulage was by mule, electric motors, and 
two 15-ton and two 5-ton locomotives. There were 300 men employed underground 
imd 40 aboveground. At the wooden tipple the coal was elevated by a 6-foot con- 
v^eyor and discharged over two chutes 6 feet wide. One of these had }-inch spaced 
6ars for taking out slack, which was shipped without further grading. When making 
fully prepared sizes, 4-inch spaced bars were placed in the bottom of the chutes, the 
oversize going over a picking belt to the railroad car and the undersize going over 
two 6 by 16 foot shaking bar screens. The top screen, for egg coal, had l^-inch spaces, 
and the bottom screen, for nut, had 1-inch spaces. When making prepared sizes, 
four men picked from egg coal, two from lump coal, and five on the cars. The indde 
conditions were good, but 4 to 6 inches of ''draw slate," and sometimes a second 
layer of 9 to 18 inches, falls. The storage-bin capacity was 600 tons run of mine, 150 
tons nut, and 150 tons egg size. The lumps were small. There were two loading 
tracks, having capacity for 31 empty and 46 loaded railroad cars. About 1,500 acres 
were still to be mined, and the estimated lifetime of the mine was 40 years. Half the 
future tonnage was to come from advance work and half from pillars. Capacity of 
the mine was 1,500 tons a day, and the average production in 1917 was 650 to 750 tons 
a day. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 271, 1016. 

Vivian. Tedbwateb Mine. 

Analyses 68005, 68009, 68008, and 29914; also car sample 30236 (p. 94). Semi- 
bituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Tidewater mine, a drift mine at Vivian^on 
^he Norfolk & Western R. K. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Carboniferous (Pottsville) 



WEST VIRGINIA: KABION OOXTSTY. 



321 



age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 4t to 5i feet thick; roof, black shale and ^'draw^ 
slate" 8 to 10 inches thick, with cap rock of sandstone; floor, smooth, of massive, 
hard blue shale. A commercial sample was taken on the cars by N. H. Snyder on 
February 23, 1918. The bed was sampled by R. H. Seip on December 26, 1917, 
as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Tideu?ater mine. 



Sectlaii 


A. 


B. 
68008 


C. 


Labontory No 


68000 






Roof, "draw slate." 

Coal -. 


Ft. <n. 
10 
i 


Ft. in. 
2 


Ft. In. 

1 74 


"Mother coal'' 




"Sulphur" 


•i 




Bone -. 




a2 


Coal 


9 


1 7 




8ha1« , 


• 1 


Bone 


• 3 
3 

t 3 


«4 

2 11 




Coal 


8 4 


"Mother coal" 


Coal 






Floor, ahale. 

Thlckneim of bed 


5 i 

4 8 


6 S 


Thickneiw of roal sampled 


6 







• Not inchided in sample. 

Section A (sample 68005) was cut at lace of main heading, at 23 cross entry. Sec- 
tion B (sample 68008) was cut from 5 pillar, 12 cross entry, 6 north. Section (sample 
68009) was cut at face of 26 room, 11 cross entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68005, 68008, and 68009 is given under laboratory No. 29914. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by short-wall 
machines and shot down by FFF black powder by the miners during shift. There 
were 170 men employed underground and 25 on the surface. Haulage was by mule 
and electric locomotives, one main and three gathering. There was a persistent 
streak of bone 3 feet from floor, which the miners endeavored to pick out, also a few 
other streaks. In advance work 30 per cent of the coal was taken out and there was 
a total recovery of 95* per cent. All of the coal was shipped as run of mine. It was 
picked on belt and car by six pickers. There was one loading track, with capacity 
for 35 empty and 30 loaded cars. In December, 1917, 2,000 tons were turned over 
to the railroad, 3,150 toite sent to the Government at Lambert Point, Va., and the 
remainder was shipped to Indiana Harbor for use in by-product coke ovens. The 
capacity of the mine was 700 tons a day, and the daily average at time of sampling 
was 500 tons. 

For descriptions and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
Bull. 22, pp. 271, 1015. 

XABION 0OT7KTY. 



CmEFTON. OONSOUDATION No. 47 MiNB. 

Analyses 28570 to 28576 (p. 94). Bituminous coal, Fairmont field, from Consoli- 
dation No. 47 mine, a drift mine 1 mile from Chiefton, on the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. 
Ooal bed, Pittsburgh; Carboniferous age, Monongahela formation. Bed is 5^ feet to 
7) feet thick; the coal outcrops at about water level. A few faults and one roll are 
encountered. The bed was sampled by E. H. Denny on June 2, 1917, as described 
below: 



322 



Aia'ALTSBS OF COAL, 1916-1910. 



Sections of coal bed in Consolidation No. 4f vnine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



A. 
28570 



B. 
28571 



C. 
28572 



D. 
28573 



E. 
28574 



F. 

26S7S 



Roof, "draw slate'' and coal. 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

"Sulphur," local 

Coal 

Floor, fire day. 

Tmcknessafbed 

Thickness of coal sampled. . 



'2 U 
1 
8 



4 



1 

4 2 



? \ 




Ft. 
2 



8 

? 

2 



Ft. in, 
1 7 
al 



4 21 



Ft, in, 

1 3 
all 

2 

A 

2 2 
al 

1 8i 



Ft. is. 

• 1 



3 



8 

• 1 
4 3 



7 




4 



6 7 
6 4 



5 
5 



% 



S "4 



• Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 28570) was cut from 16 room, pillar 4 right, off main south. Sec^ 
tion B (sample 28571) was cut from 9 room, pillar 3 right, 4 south. Section C (sampla 
28572) was cut from 16 room, pillar 4 right, off main south. Section D (sample 28573) 
was cut &om 5 south, just inby 6 right. Section E (sample 28574) was cut from 22 
room, 1 left, 5 south. Section F (sample 28575) was cut from 3 room, 10 left, main 
south face heading. 

Ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 28571 to 
28575 is given under laboratory No. 28576. 

System of mining, room and pillar, in panels, most of the output, however, being 
derived from pillars. In 1917 the coal was undercut by machine and shot down 
with permissible explosive by the miners at any time during the shift, one shot firer 
being employed to assist inexperienced men. There were 98 men employed under- 
ground and 20 above ground. Haulage was by mule and by three electric locomo- 
tives. The coal was dumped over a wooden tipple, about half the output being 
shipped as run of mine. The coal was screened through shahing screens having 1) 
and i inch openings. Three pickers were employed to clean the coal on the railroad 
cars. The three loading tracks had capacity for 30 loaded and 35 empty railroad 
cars. In 1917 the estimated lifetime of the mine was 20 years. The capacity was 
1,500 tons a day, and the actual daily average was 600 tons. 

Faibmont. Consolidation No. 38 Mine. 

Analyses 28106 to 28111 (p. 94). Bituminous coal, Fairmont field, from Consoli- 
dation No. 38 mine, a shaft mine 1 mile north of Fairmont, on the Baltimore & Ohio 
B. R. Coal bed, Pittsburgh; Carboniferous age, Monongahela formation. Bed is 
7 feet to 8 feet thick ; dip, 2 per cent north, with cleat running in same direction. No 
faults, rolls, or horsebacks were encountered in mining, but the bed had three shale 
partings near the middle. Hoof, 6 to 9 inches of roof coal, above which is tenda 
* ' draw slate '' ; floor, hard, rather smooth, of fire clay. The bed was sampled by E. H. 
Denny on April 23, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Consolidation No. S8 mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



BooffCoal. 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

Slmle 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

Coal , 

Floor, fire clay. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled . 



A. 

28106 



Ft. tn. 
2 4 
ai 

2 
a 

2 

a2 

4 6 



7 61 
7 8 



B. 
28107 



Ft, fn, 
1 11 



al 
4 71 



7 If 
6 11} 



C. 

28108 



Ft. in. 
2 7^ 
al 



4 7 



7 1 

7 



n 



28100 



Ft. in, 
2 



■J 



al 
8 

4 10 



? 51 



E. 
28111 



Ft. ia. 

2 S 

al 

8 

• 1 

S 

, V 



aNot tnduded in sampla. 



WEST vibginia: mabion county. 



323 



Section A (sample 28106) was taken from face, main butt, off main north heading. 
Section B (sample 28107) was taken from face 9 right, off main north heading. Section 
C (sample 28108) was taken from face 4 room, 1 left, 3 left level, off main dip heading. 
Section D (sample 28109) was taken from face room 2, 1 right, 3 north, off main dip 
entry. Section E (sample 28111) was taken in 2 cut-through between rooms 3 and 4, 
8 ri^t, 2 left heading, off main dip entry (pillar coal). 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 28106, 
28107, 28108, and 21809 is given under laboratory No. 28110. 

System of mining, room and pillar, in panels. In 1917 the coal was cut by machine 
and shot down with permissible explosive by contractors at any time of the day. There 
were 135 men employed underground and 40 aboveground. Tlie coal was dumped over 
a wooden tipple in self-dumping steel cages, all coal being shipped as run of mine. Nut 
and lump coal over }-inch passed through screens. Haulage was by mules and electric 
locomotives. The coal was cleaned on the railroad cars by four pickers. There were 
two loading tracks, with capacity for 20 empty and 20 loaded railroad can. There was 
much large lump in the coal on the can. In 1917 estimated lifetime of the mine was 40 
years. The capacity was 1,500 tons a day, and the daily aveiage was 800 tons. 

Farminoton. Consoudation No. 87 Mine. 

Analyses 28505 to 28509 (p. 95). Bituminous coal, Fairmont field, from Consoli- 
dation No. 87 mine, a shaft mine, 1 mile from Farmington, on the Western Maryland 
R. R. Coal bed, Pittsburgh; Carboniferous age, Mdnongahela formation. Bed is 6 to 
7 feet thick. Occasional rolls or horsebacks are encountered but no &ults. Bed car- 
ried three bands of shale and occasional ''sulphur" bands and bails and ''clay veins." 
Roof, roof coal from 3 to 12 inches, being left up as roof and arched; floor, smooth, 
fairly hard fire clay. The bed was sampled by E. H. Denny on May 22, 1917, as de- 
scribed below: 

Sections of coal bed in Consolidation No, 87 mine, , 



Section 


A. 
28505 


B. 

28506 


C. 

28507 


D. 


Laboratory No 


28608 






BooTcoal. 

c5oal 


Ft. in. 
9 


Ft. in. 
1 4 


Ft. in. 
1 2 


Ft. tn. 

1 


"Sulphur" band 


8hAl«band •. 


al 
3 1 


al 
2 

al 

1 m 


al 
3 


Coal : 


1 


Shale band 


"? 


Coal 


''haif^ f)and T 


al 


Coal 


3 


"Sulphur" band 




RhftlA band T . 


al 


al 


Goal 


2 


2 5 


8 1 


"Sulphur" band 


4 


Coal.. 








5* 


"Rniphnr"band 








4 


Coal. '.'. 








Floor, fire day. 

Thir!kiif»j|,s nf b^ _ 


6 H 

0} 


6 5} 
2| 


^ 

5 11} 


Thifthrfffiff of 'yai sunpled 







« Not included in sample. 

Sectioi' A (sample 28505) was taken at 3 right, off the back switch. Section B 
I (sample 28506) was taken at southeast side of mine, loaded haulage way, main head- 
ing, about 1,600 feet from shaft bottom. Section G (sample 28507) was cut from 1 
; heading of 2 right (''No. 1 top right"). Section D (sample 28608) was taken from last 
* crosscut between 2 and 3 left, off back switch. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 28505 to 
28506 is given under laboratory No. 28509. 



324 



ANALYSES OF OOAI^ ldl6-1919. 



System of minmg, room and panel. In 1917 the coal was undercut by machine and 
shot down with permissible explosive at any time during the shift by four shot firers. 
The coal was dumped over a steel tipple, all the coal being diipi>ed as nm of mine. 
Haulage was by four storage-battery locomotivee and by mudes. 

HXTTCHINBON. C!0N80IJDATI0N No. 84 MiNS. 

Analyses 28432 to 28435, 28469 to 28470, and 28440 (p. 95). Bituminous coal. Fair- 
moni; field, from Consolidation No. 84 mine, a slope mine, at HutdiinBon, on the Balti- 
more & Ohio R. R. Coal bed, Httsbutgh; Carboniferous age, Monongahela formation. 
Bed, 6 to 7 feet thick. The bed contains tnree bands of sh^e and occasional ''sulphur " 
bands and balls. Roof, 4 to 12 inches of roof coal left, well arched; floor, hard, eanooth 
file clay. The bed was sampled by E. H. Denny on May 18, 1917, as described belovr: 

Sections of coal bed in Consolidation No, 84 wine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, coal. 

Coal 

"Sulphur" band 

Shale band 

Shale, soft, brittle 

Coal 

Shale band 

Coal 

Shale band 

Coal 

Shale band 

"Sulphur" band 

"Sulphur" baU 

Coal 

TioCKj fire clay. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 



A. 
28432 



Ft. 



m. 
5 

\ 




4 4 



6 
6 



B. 

28433 



Ft. in. 

1 4 



al 



2 
al 
3 



io| 



1 5 



6 
6 



? 



C. 
28434 



Ft. in. 
1 3 



alj 



3 
al 

4 

2 8 



1 5 

6 21 
5 10{ 



D. 
28435 



Ft. in. 
1 Si 



oil 




1 7 



6 




n 



E. 
23400 



Ft. in. 

1 8 



• I 



a? 
4 5 



6 10 
6 7 



F. 

2847D 



Ft. in. 

1 5 



M 



al 
4 2 



6 3 

6 



a Not included in sample. 



b Included in sample. 



Section A (sample 28432) was cut near face of 7 left entry, opposite 5 room neck, 
3 south-face heading. Section B (sample 28433) was cut in 4 room neck, 7 right entry, 
2 north face. Section C (sample 28434) was cut in 12 room neck, 8 left entry, 2 south 
face. Section D (sample 28435) was cut in 7 room, crosscut 2 right, 2 north face 
pillar. Section £ (sample 28469) was cut near face of air course of 4 south. Section 
F (sample 28470) was cut at face of main-«ntry manway. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 28432, 
28433, 28434, 28435, 28469, and 28470 is given under laboratory No. 28440. 

System of mining, room and panel. In 1917 the coal was undercut by macfaiDe 

and shot down with permissible explosive, the shots being fired electrically by 

battery at any time during the shift by the shot firers. There were 110 men employed 

underground and 10 aboveground. Haulage was by three electric locomotives and 

by mule. There were four loading tracks, with capacity for 70 empty and 75 or more 

loaded railroad cars. None of the coal was shipped as run of mine. The coal was 

passed through screens having } and IJ-inch openings and was cleaned on the cub 

by four pickers. The coal on the cars showed many laige lumiw. The capacity of 

the mine was 1,600 to 1,800 tons a day, and the actual daily average was 1,000 to 

1,200 tons. 

MoNONOAH. Consolidation No. 43 Mine. 

Analyses 28209 to 28212 and 28225 to 28227 (p. 95). Bituminous coal, Eaiimont 
field, from Consolidation No. 43 mine, a slope mine at Monongah, on the Baltimore d 
Ohio R. R. Coal bed, Pittsbuigh; Carboniferous age, Monongahela formatioD. 
Bed is T to 8 feet thick; dip, 2 per cent north, with cleat running north. The bed 
contains three partings. No faults, rolls, or horsebacks are encountered. Ro(i 



WEST VIRGINTA: MARION COUKTY. 



825 



roof coal, 6 to 9 inches being left, and ''draw slate "; floor, rather hard, smooth fire 
day. The bed was sampled by E. H. Denny on May 3, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Consolidation No. 4S mine. 



Sectiozi. 


A. 

28209 


B. 

28210 


C. 

28225 


D. 
28226 


E. 
28227 


F. 


Laboratory No 


28211 






Roof, ooal : 


Ft. in. 

2 ^ 

al' 

al 
3 

•u 

4 5 

7 8 
7 41 


Ft. in. 

al 

2 

al 

3 

7 1 
6 9i 


Ft. in. 
2 
al 

2| 

4 

al 
4 3 

7 
6 ^ 


Ft. in. 
2 U 

V 

al 
4 5 

7 2J 
7 


Ft. in. 
1 6 

1* 

al 

4 

a2 

5 

7 5% 

7 1 


Ft, in. 


c5oal 


2 1 


riiaI^ band 


2* 


CoaL 


shfj^ bcmd 


al 


Coal 


3 


Shali^ band.. . . . . . , 


ali 
4 6 


Coal 


Floor, fireclay. 

Thickness of bed 


7 8 


Ttii<?kne88 of coal mmpled 


7 







> Not indaded in sample. 

Section A (sample 28209) was cut from face 11 room, off 6 butt, off 4 north. Sectbn 
B (sample 28210) was cut from pillar, 5 room, 4 left, on 5 south. Section C (sample 
28211) was, cut from face of air course 2 right, off 5 north. Section D (sample 28225) 
was cut from 4 room, pillar 2 right, 4 south. Section £ (sample 28226) was cut from 
face main, right butt, off 3 north, 1,400 feet from 3 north. Section F (sample 28227) 
was cut from barrier pillar between room 10 and 11, 2 right. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by mixing samples 28209, 28210, 
28211, 28225, 28226, and 28227 is given under laboratory No. 28212. 

System of mining, room and pillar in panels. In 1917 the coal was undercut by 
machine 3 to 4 inches above the fire-clay bottom and shot down with permissible 
explosive by miners and shot firers at any time during the shift. Sand and ashes 
were provided for stemming. There were 210 men employed undeiground. The 
coal was dumped over a wooden tipple and screened through bar screens with }-inch 
and l^-inch bars. Haulage was by six electric locomotives. There was track capacity 
for about 40 empty and 50 loaded railroad cars. The capacity of the mine was esti- 
mated to be 1,575 tons a day, and the actual daily average was 1,500 tons. 

MoNONGAH. Consolidation No. 63 Mine. 

Analyses 28322 to 28328 (p. 96). Bituminous coal, Fairmont field, from Oonsoli- 
dation No. 63 mine, a slope mine in Monongah, on the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Goal 
bed, Pittsburgh; Carboniferous age, Monongahela formation. Bed is 6 to 7} feet 
thick; dip, about 2 per cent north. No faults are encountered, but there are occa- 
sional rolls or horsebacks. Roof, coal, 6 to 9 inches being left; floor, hard, smooth 
fire clay. The bed was sampled by E. H. Denny on May 11 and 12, 1917, as de- 
scribed below: 

Sections of coal bed in Consolidation No. 64 mine. 



Section 

labGratory No. 



Roof. ooal. 

''Sulplnir" and sbale 

Coal 

Shale band 

Ooal 

Shale band 

Ooal 

Sbale band 

Ooal 

"Suhilnir" 

Coal.vTr. 

BonycoaL 

Floor, fire day. 

Thickness of bed 

ThicknesB of coal sampled. 



A. 

28322 



Ft, in. 



2 
2 



6 

6 



9 

•i 

2 

V 



i 

4 

a2 

'SI 



B. 

28323 



Ft. in. 

2 2 

al 

2 
al 

-n 

4 2 



6 81 



C. 
28324 



Ft. in. 



2 



6 

al 

al 
10 

6* 



6 51 

6 3 



D. 
28325 



Ft. in. 



3* 
al 

4 



9i 
6 7 



£. 
28326 



Ft. in. 




? n 



F. 
28327 




6 11 
6 81 



a Not included in sample. 



826 



ANALYSES OP COAL, 1916-1919. 



Section A (sample 28322) was cut from 8 room, pillar 2 aouth, off main. Section B 
(sample 28323) was cut from pillar, 8 room, 3 right, 4 north, off main. Section 
(sample 28324) was cut from last breakthrough between entry and air course, 5 south, 
off main. Section D (sample 28325) was cut from 2 room, 7 left, 4 south, niain. Sec- 
tion E (sample 28326) was cut from 8 room, neck, 2 right, 6 north, off main. Section 
F (sample 28327) was cut from 16 room, about 50 feet back from fall in crosscut^ 2 
left, 3 south, off main. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 28322 
to 28327 is given under laboratory No. 28328. 

System of mining, panel, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by elec- 
tric chain machines; cutting was done in the coal from 3 to 4 inches above the fire> 
clay bottom. Machine cuttings were usually loaded into cars before shooting. Holes 
were driven by electric auger drills moimted on the mining machine. Permiflsible 
explosive was used and shots were fired with a battery by shot filers in some sections, 
and in other sections, chiefly on pillars, by miners at any time during the day. Sand 
and ashes were gen^^y used for stemming. None of the coal was shipped as run 
of mine. The coal was passed through bar screens having 1) and | inch openings. 
All coal passing through f-inch opening was coked, and some of l^inch and larger. 
The coal was cleaned on the cars by six pickers. Haulage was by five electric loco- 
motives and by mules. There were three loading tracks, with capacity for 75 empty 
and 60 loaded railroad cars. The capacity of the mine was 1,500 tons a day, and the 
average production was 1,200 tons. 

For descriptions and anal} see of other samples from this mine see Bureau of Mines 
BuU. 85, pp. 121, 365. 

Watson. Gonsoudatign No. 26 Mine. 

Analyses 28139 to 28144 (p. 96). Bituminous coal, Fairmont field, from Consoli- 
dation No. 26 mine, a drift mine at Watson, on the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Coal 
bed, Pittsburgh; Carboniferous age, Monongahela formation. Bed is 6 to 8 feet 6 
inches thick; dip, possibly 1° north. Faults and roUs or horsebacks are numerous. 
The bed contains three bands and occasional ^'sulphur" and clay veins. Roof, 
coal, 6 to 9 inches; floor, hard and reasonably smgoth fire clay. The bed was sampled 
by E. H. Denny on April 27, 1917, as described below: 

Sectums of coal bed in Consolidation No. t6 mine. 



Suction 


A. 
2813B 


B. 

28140 


C. 
28141 


D. 
2S142 


E. 


LBhoffttonr No 


28144 






Roof, coal. 

Coal 


Ft. in. 

2 4 
al 

?* 
al 

3 

al 

3 6 

? n 


Ft. in. 
1 7J 
al 

4 
al 

4 
a2 

s ^ 

1 11 

7 9} 


J^. in. 
1 11 
al 

Of 

a? 
4 7i 


Ft. in. 
1 2 
• 1 
3 

4 •.« 


J^ in. 
1 7 

a 

2 
a] 

3 

al 

4 2 


R*uU0 band 


Coal 


Rhale bcmd 


Coal 


Rhale band 


Coal 


"Sulphur" band 




Coal.. !;....li;i....l^ 








Floor, fire clay. 

Tnlcknesff ot b*d 


7 2 
6 U| 


s ? 


I ^ 









a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 28139) was taken at face of 14 room, off 4 right butt, off 5 north. 
Section B (sample 28140) was taken at face of 6 north, off river heading. Section C 
(sample 28141) was taken from 8 room, 2 butt, 8^ south, off main, at face of room. 
Section D (sample 28142) was taken from 15 room, 4 left butt» 7 south, off main. Sec- 



WEST VIRGINIA: MARION COUNTY. 



327 



tioii S (sample 28144) was taken from 21 room, 5 left butt, 8 south, off main, 75 feet 
from room face, left rib (pillar coal). 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 28139 
to 28142 is given under laboratory No. 28143. 

System of mining, room and pillar, in panels. In 1917 the coal was imdercut by 
machine and shot down with permissible explosive any time during the day by shot 
firers or contractors. There were 156 men employed underground. The coal was 
dumped over a wooden tipple, most of the coal being loaded and shipped as run of 
mine. The coal was screened through bar screens having bars 1^ inches wide. Haul- 
age was by mules and five electric locomotives. There were two loading tracks, 
with capacity for 30 empty and a much laiger number of loaded railroad cars. The 
daily capacity of the mine was 1,500 tons, and the average production was nearly 
1,000 tons. 

WORTHINGTON. CONSOLIDATION No. 86 MiNE. 

Analyses 28535 to 28539 (p. 97). Bituminous coal, Fairmont field, from Consoli- 
dation No. 86 mine, a shaft mine 4 miles north of Worthington, on the Western 
Maryland R. R. Coal bed, Pittsburgh; Carboniferous age, Monongahela formation. 
Bed ifl 6 to 7 feet thick; dip, not noted. No faults or rolls encountered. Roof, roof 
coal, 4 to 12 inches being left up; floor, smooth, hard Gie clay. The bed was sampled 
by E. H. Denny on May 25, 1917, as described below: 

^Sectums of coal bed in Consolidation No. 86 mine. 



Section. 

Laboratory No. 



BooTooaL 

Coal 

"Sulplmr"baiid 

Shale band 

CoaL 

Sbaleband 

CcmL 

Shale band 

Coal 

Shale band 

CJoal 

Floor, fire clay. 

lliicknessofbed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 



A. 
28535 



Ft. 
1 



in. 

.1 



6 
6 



B. 
28536 



Ft. in. 



•1 

4 9. 



5 10| 



C. 
28537 



Ft. in. 
1 3 



1 

4 8 



6 
6 



D. 
28538 



Ft. in. 
1 6| 



al 
2 
al* 

4 6 



6 9\ 
6 5 



a Not included In sample. 

Section A (sample 28535) was cut near 2 face of east main, just inby 1 turned face 
entries. Section B (saml^le 28536) was cut at junction of 4 and 5 west main airways. 
Section C (sample 28537) was cut at 1 south face, off main west headings. Section D 
(sample 28538) was cut at 2 face of north faces, off east mains, just inby 2 pair of butts. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by mixing samples 28535 to 28538 
IB given under laboratory No. 28539. 

System of mining, room and panel. In 1917 the coal was imdercut by machine 
and shot down with permissible explosive at any time during the shift by four shot 
firers. Men employed numbered 90 undeiground and 25 aboveground. The coal 
was dumped over a steel tipple. Haulage was by storage-battery locomotives. 
There were five loading tracks, with capacity for 70 empty and 70 loaded railroad cars. 
The daily average output of the mine in 1917 was 550 tons. 



828 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 

TidTATlBHATJi COX7NTY. 

Benwood. Hitchman Mine. 

Analyses 25606 to 25611 (p. 97). Bituminous coal, Fainnont field, from Hitchman 
mine, a slope mine about 1 mile south of Benwood Junction station, on the Baltimore 
& Ohio R. R. Coal bed, Pittsburgh, or No. 8; Carboniferous age, Monongahela for- 
mation. Bed is 7 to 10 feet thick; dip, 75 per cent southeast, with cleat mnning 
south 15 east. The bed carries clay veins, and there are rolls or horaebackB in the 
roof. Impurities are two- or three middle partings or bands, 1 inch thick, of shale, 
with about 4 inches of bony coal in between, and several '^ sulphur" partingB in the 
bottom coal. Roof, immediate, 2 feet of roof coal with 10 inches of "draw slate " 
below; main roof, weak and dangerous, of soft shale; floor, hard and generally 
smooth, of black shale underlain with limestone. The bed was sampled by W. B. 
Plank on July 14 and 15, 1916, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Hitchman mine. 



Section 


A.' 

25610 


B. 

25609 


c. 

25606 


D. 

25607 


E. 


"Labonitcry No^ - . . . - , -r - - ^ - r x , , - - , 


2660S 






Ro(rf. shale. 

Roof coal <s 


Ft. in. 
2 

2 1 


Ft. in. 
I 10 

1 

2 i 


Ft. in. 
2 
2 4 
2 1, 


Ft. in. 
2 
9 
2 Hi 


Ft. m, 
2 


" Draw slate" « 


4 


Coal 


2 1 


Sony coal * 




Shale band a,, - . 


i 


1 


U 


i 


Goal a 


4 




Bony coalo 




4 
1 


4 
1 


5 


Shale bariKl « . ..... r . r 


1 


i 


Bony coalo 




Shale band «- r - - . .,..,- 










Coal 


2 1(^ 


2 7 


1 U 
1 

1* 

8 71 
4 8 


2 7 


Dirt 




Coal 










Bottom, coal <» . ... 




8 

t it 




4 


Floor, hard shale. 

Tni'']lme*w «' b^d . . . , . - , - 


I in 


9 6 

4 8 


7 9i 


TWcVriftM of POftl s«|^?iipl(y1 ... 


4 8 







a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 25610) was taken from rib of 1 room, on 1 east, off 14 north. 
Section B (sample 25609) was taken from 4 room, on 18 west, off 12 south. Section G 
(sample 25606) was taken from face of 14 north, 50 feet inby 8 east. Section D (sample 
25607) was taken from face 9 west, off 14 south, 12 feet from 14 south. Section E 
(sample 25608) was taken from 16 south, 30 feet from 2 main. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining sampleB 25606, 
25607, 25608, 25609, and 25610 is given under hiboratory No.95611. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1916 the coal was undercut by dectnc 
breast machines and shot down with FFF black powder by the miners during the shift. 
About 280 men were employed imdeiground and 45 aboveground. The coal web 
dumped over a steel tipple, all being shipped as run of mine. Forty per cent of the 
ooal passed through bar screens which had l}-inch and 6-inch openings. Haulage was 
done by four electric locomotives, with mules used for gathering. The ooai was 
cleaned on the car by three pickers. There were three loading trackB, with capadt}' 
for 20 empty and 40 loaded railroad cars. The appearance of the lump coid and 
screenings on the cars was good. About 70 per cent of the ooal was taken out in 
advance work, and the total recovery claimed was 70 per cent. The unmined am 
comprised 4,000 acres in 1916, and the estimated lifetime of the mine was 30 yean. 
Daily capacity of the mine was 2,000 tons>, and the average output was 1,800 tons. 
The production in 1915 was 525,000 tons. The entire output was sold to the Balti- 
more & Ohio R. R. for use on locomotives. 



WEST VIRGINU: MERCEB COUNTY. 



329 



MEBOBB GOT7NTY. 

OOALDALB. OOALDALE MiNE. 

AnalyBee 67890, 67897, 67905, and 29923; also average of tipple samples 70271 to 
70274 (p. 97). Semibituminous coking coal, Pocahontas field, from Goaldale mine, 
a drift mine i mile west of Goaldale station, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Goal bed, 
Pocahontas No. 3; Garboniferous (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 9 to 
12 feet thick; roof, hard shale and ''draw slate," about 10 inches thick; floor, hard, 
smooth shale. The bed was sampled by R. H. Seip and S. P. Holt on December 19, 
1917, as described below. Gommerdal samples were taken at the tipple by J. J. 
Bourquin on September 27, 1918. 

Sections of coal bed in CocddaU mine. 



Section 

Labcnttory No. 



Roof, "draw alAte." 

Goal 

"Sulphur" 

Bone , 

Coal , 

Bone , 

Goal , 

Coi^^gray 

Coal 

Flow, shale. 

lliickiiess of bed 

Thickness of ooal sampled . 



A. 

67890 



Ft. in, 
3 8 



ag 
6 2} 



9 
8 



4 



B. 

67897 



Et. in. 
8 84 



8} 

"aid" 
6 8^ 



9 10 
9 



C. 

67905 



Ft. <n. 
1 3 




a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 67890) was cut in Statley entry, off 7 left, 1^ miles east of drift 
mouth. Section B (sample 67897) was cut in Keystone entry, off 7 left, 1 mile east 
of drift mouth. Section G (sample 67906) was cut in 5 entry, off main, 4,000 feet 
southeast of drift mouth. 

The. ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 67890, 
67897, 67905 is given under hiboiatory No. 29993. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the mine had been reached to its 
boundariep and th^ ooal w&s all taken from pillais. It was shot down with permisBible 
explosive and FFF black powder by the miners during the shift; it was undercut a 
little by hand. The haulage was by motor on the main line, and the cars were gathered 
by mule. The coal was all shipped run of mine and was picked on railroad car by two 
pickeiB. All impurities were loaded out of the mine, and the cleaning was done out- 
aide. Track capacity was 20 empty and 20 loaded railroad cars. There was no 
storage-bin capacity. The lumps on the cars were small. The capacity of the mine 
was 300 tons, and the actual daily average at time of sampling was 200 tons. The 
estimated lifetime of the mine was 6 years. 

Crystal. Crystal No. 1 Mine. 

Axudyses 67984, 67986, 67988, and 29920; also car sample 29653 (p. 97). Semibi- 
tuminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Crystal No. 1 mine, a drift mine 1 mile north of 
Crystal station, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Car- 
boniferous (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas foimation. Bed is 4 to 4^ feet thick; dip of 
bed, slight; roof, "draw slate" and shale above; floor, shale with smooth sur&ce. 
The bed was sampled by S. P. Holt, on December 27, 1917, as described below. Com- 
mercial samples were collected at the tipple by J. J. Bourquin on January 26, 1918. 



330 



A27ALYSES OF GOAL, 191^1919. 



Sections of coal bed in Crystal No} 1 mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No 

Roof, "draw slate." 

Coal 

"Sulphur" 

Coal 

Bone 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

Tliickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled 



A. 
67984 



B. 
67B86 



C. 

07988 



Ft. 



in. 

V 

as 



3 11} 
3 8 



Ft. in. 
1 H 



Ft. m. 

1 i 

J 



2 *4 

i if 



2 8 



s 

3 ll} 



CI Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 67984) was cut at face of 2 room, 3 cross entry, left. Section B 
(sample 67986) was cut at face of 14 room, 1 right. Section G (sample 67988) was cut 
on chain pillar in 20 room, hallway on 1 cross entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
67984, 67986, and 67988 is given under laboratory No. 29920. 

System of mining, room, and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by machines 
and shot down by permissible explosives and black powder. Men employed num- 
bered 90 underground and 50 on the surface, many of whom were at the coke ovens. 
Haulage was by three electric locomotives and by mules. None of the coal was 
shipped as run of mine. About half of the coal passed through the screens. The 
bar screens were 20 feet long and had 4i-inch wide openings; the small-coal screenfl 
had l^i^c^i i-inch, and f-inch openings. There were 8 to 10 pickers on tables. 
The coal was washed, nut and slack being produced; the screenings were coked. 
There were three loading tracks, with c&padty for 15 empty and 40 loaded care. 
The actual average shipments at time of sampling were 250 to 300 tons a day, with 
capacity for shipping 400 tons daily. 

Grtstal. Grystal No. 2 Minb. 

Analyses 68014, 68015, 68017, and 29975, also car sample 29655 (p. 98). Semibi- 
tuminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Grystal No. 2 mine, a drift mine 1) miles from 
Grystal, around the mountain, on the Norfolk & Western B. R. Goal bed, Pocahontas 
No. 3 ; Garboniferous (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 4 to 5 feet thick, 
dip, 1^ to 2"* northwest; main roof, sandstone and shale; immediate roof, 6 feet of 
shale and 2} inches of "muck," the latter coming down with the coal; floor, rough 
shale. No cleat, rolls, faults, or horsebacks were encountered in mining. Gom- 
mercial samples of Grystal No. 2 coal were collected at the tipple by J. J. Bourquin 
on February 8, 1918. The bed was sampled by J. J. Bourquin and £. B. Sutton on 
December 14, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Crystal No. t mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, shale. 

CJoal 

Bone 

"Mother coal" 

Coal 

Bone 

Coal 

Bone 

Coal 

Floor, rough shale. 

Thickness of bed , 

Thickneas of coal sampled . 



A. 

68017 



Ft. in. 

1 7J 

a6{ 



2 $1 



.» lol 



B. 

68015 



Ft. in. 
8 



.•I! 



4 
8 



? 



C. 
66014 



Ft. in. 



n 



4 

2 9i 



t I 



a Not included in sample. 



WEST TIBOINIA: MEBCBR COUNTY. 



SSI 



Section A (sample 68017) was cut at face of 25 room, 6 entry. Section B (sample 
68015) was cut in split on 1 pillar, 7 entry. Section (sample 68014) was cut in 34 
room, 6 entry. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68014, 68015, and 68017 is given under laboratory No. 29975. 

System of mining, entry, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was shot off the solid 
with FFFF black blasting powder. One electric locomotive was used. Impurities 
comprised clay and shale over the bed and bone in it. Particles of roof and of bone- 
coal bands became mixed with the coal in shipping. A 2f-inch band of muck imme- 
diately over the coal came down with it. Very little of the coal was shipped as 
run of mine. Shaking screens were used with pear-shaped openings 6 inches long 
and 4 inches wide, with a neck about 2 inches wide for upper half of hole. Small 
coal screens had 1^-inch round openings; slack was put through If-inch screens and 
also through a washery; the tonnage of washery was 150 tons a day. The coal was 
picked on tables and on cars by 10 pickers. There were two loading tracks. About 
40 per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work. There were still about 300 
acres to be mined, and the estimated lifetime of the mine was 15 years. Capacity of 
the mine was 400 tons a day, and the average daily production was 275 tons a day. 

McCoMAs. Sagamore Nos. 1 and 2 Mines. 

Analyses 67911, 67952, and 67928 from No. 1 mine; 68013, 68012, and 68016 from 
No. 2 mine; also 29985 and 29986 and car samples 69016 and 69017 (p. 98). Semi- 
bituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Sagamore Nos. 1 and 2 mines, drift mines 
i mile from Mora or McComas, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Goal bed, Pocahontas 
No. 3; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 4^ to 6 feet 
thick; dip, slight; no cleat; commercial samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. 
Snyder on March 11 to April 11, 1918. The bed was sampled by J. J. Bourquin 
on December 22 and 26, 1917, as described below: 



Sections of coal bed in Sagamore Nos. 1 and 2 mines. 






SflctioQ. ................................... 


A. 

67911 


B. 

. 67952 


C. 

67928 


D. 
68013 


E 
680i2 


F. 


I/abomtory No. . . 


68016 






Roof, "draw slate" 


Ft. in. 
10 
a2 
3 10 
a 21 


Ft. hi. 
9 
a3 
3 4 


Ft. in. 
11 
al 
3 6 


Ft. in. 
1 

aA 
10 
ol 


Ft. in, 

11 


Ft. in. 


CoaL 


1 3 


Bone. * 


a2l 


CoaL 


3 


Bone. 


a34 


Coal 




2 r 


Bony coal 




all 




Bone 








04 


Coal 


11 






3 1^ 






Bone 










Coal 








1 


Floor, shale. 


5 11} 
5 7 


5 3 
4 1 


rj' 


4 44 


Thicknflsg of coal sampled , , . , 


3 10 







a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 67911) was cut in No. 1 mine, 15 feet from face of crooked 
entries. Section B (sample 67952) was cut from left rib of 5 entry, at face. Section 
C (sample 67928) was cut at break through, 10 feet from face, 2 angle entry. Section 
D (sample 68013) was cut in No. 2 mine, 8 room neck, H-9 entry. Section £ 
(sample 68012) was cut in last break-through, F-6 heading. Section F (sample 
68016) was cut at face of 20 room, (j-8 entry. 

The ultimate analysts of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
67911, 67952, and 67928 from No. 1 mine is given under laboratory No. 29985. The 
ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 68013, 
68012, and 68016 is given under laboratory No. 29986. 

55270'— 22 ^22 



882 



ANALYSES OF GOAL, 191^1919. 



System of mining, entry, room, and pillar. In 1917 in No. 1 mine the coal was under- 
cut by pick, and in No. 2 mine it was undercut by machine and shot down by FFF 
black powder. There were 37 and 60 men employed undeiground and 5 and 35 cm 
the surface, respectively. In No. 1 mine one electric motor and six mules weie 
in use, and in No. 2 mine, seven electric motors. 

Of the future tonnage of tke mines 25 per cent was to be derived from pillar work 
and 75 per cent from advance woric. No information was obtainable as to plans for 
future increase or decrease in production. Seventy-five per cent of the coal was 
shipped as run of mine; the other coal passed over shaking screens with openings 
as follows: 4^ by 7 inches; 1^, 2, and 2^inch round holes. The egg and lump sdzes 
went over picking tables, where eight pickers were employed. A tub washer was 
used. None of the coal was coked. There were three loading tracks, with capacity 
for 35 empty and 70 loaded cars. No. 1 mine had capacity for 000 tons, with average 
production at time of sampling of 300 tons a day; No. 2 mine had capacity for 1,500 
tons, with average production of 600 tons a day. 

McCoMAs. Thomas No. 1 Mine. 

Analyses 67906, 67907, 67908, 67912, 67914, and 29916 (p. 98); and car sample No. 
29657. Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Thomas No. 1 mine, a drift 
mine at McOomas, 1 mile from Mora station, on the Cra^e Greek branch of the Norfolk 
& Western R. R. Goal bed, Pocahontas No. 3, Garboniferous (Pottsville) ag3, Poca- 
hontas formation. Bed is 4 to 7 feet thick; roof, bad, composed of "draw elate," 
with sandstone above; floor, hard, smooth shale. There is a persiBtent 6-inch band 
of shale and bone at top of seam and 1 to 2 inches of bone 1 foot from top. Gommerdal 
samples of Thomas No. 1 coal were collected at the tipple by J. J. Bourquin on Janu- 
ary 28 and 30, 1918. The bed was sampled by E. B. Sutton, J. J. Bourquin, R. H. 
S^p, and S. P. Holt on December 21, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Thomas No. 1 mine. 



# 

Section 


A. 
67907 


B. 
67906 


C. 
67906 


D. 
67914 


E. 


Laboratory No., r. ^.r.. 


67912 






Bocrf, shale. 

Cube coal 


Ft. in. 


Ft, In. 


Ft. in. 

*ai" 

1 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


"Mud" 


Coal ^. 


11 


n 


11 


VI 


"Sulphur" .^ 


Bone 


a4 
3 3 


3"2| 


8-^ 


Coal 


IM 
a4 


3 6i 


Bone 


"Bottom shale" (taken up) 


a 111 








Coal 






2 7 




TUhXj, shale. 

Tnicknf^ of b<^ - - - r , - 


5 6 
4 2 


n 


4SJ 


4 7 


Thickness of ooal sampled 


4 6 







o Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 67907) was cut at face of pinnacle heading. Section B (sample 
67906) was cut from 13 pillar, 22 entry. Section G (sample 67908) was cut at face of 11 
room, off 2, 20 heading. Section D (sample 67914) was cut from 7 pillar, off 16 heading, 
off 2 main. Section £ (sample 67912) was cut from face of 3 room, 18 heading, 22 
main. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 67906, 
67907, 67908, 67912, and 67914 is given under laboratory No. 29916. 

System of mining, entry, room, and pillar. In 1917 the coal was not undercut, but 
was shot off the solid with FFF black powder. Haulage was by one 13-ton and one 
6-ton motor and by mules. A recovery of 95 per cent of the coal was claimed. There 



WEST VIBGINIA: MEBCBB COUNTY. 



833 



70 men employed underground and 30 abovegioimd. The mine had four loading 
tracks, with capacity for 12 empty and 12 loaded railroad cars. The coal was mostly 
screened through 1, 2, and 3 inch openings. The coal was picked on the loading boom 
and on cars by eight pickers. The screenings were washed, 200 tons of } and 1} inch 
Biases being put through the washery; about 150 tons were coked daily. The storage 
l>iiifi had capacity for 325 tons. The daily average output at time of sampling was 500 



Matoaka. Thomas No. 2 Mine. 

Analyses 67909, 67968, 67963, 67913, and 29983; also tipple sample 29659 (p. 99). 
Seznibituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Thomas No. 2 mine, a drift mine, 2 miles 
west of Matoaka, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Cat^ 
l>oiiiferous (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 4 to 5 feet thick; dip, 1^*, 
IThere are no faults, rolls, or horsebacks, but a characteristic bone parting at about the 
middle of the bed. Roof, soft * ^ draw slate, ' ' with hard shale above ; floor, hard, smooth 
sihale. Commercial samples were collected at the tipple by J. J. Bourquin on Feb- 
ruary 6, 1918. The bed was sampled by R. H. Seip and S. P. Holt on December 22, 
1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Thomas No, 2 mine, ' 



Section 


A. 

OTVOQ 


B. 

67W8 


0. 
87063 


D. 


LAboratorv No 


67B13 






Boof," draw date." 

Coal, cube 


Ft, in, 
af 
11 
•2 
3 
all 
fi 

4»10 
4 5 


Ft, in, 
4 8* 

4 


Ft, in, 

A* 

a2 
3 6 


Ft. in. 


Coal. 


Bone 


Coal 


3 6 


Bone 




Coal 








Floor, shale. 

TTii<^fl4?^nft>Ml. , 


4 9 

4 n 


4 74 
4 6 


4 8 


TtilcknfMBf of coal nampliMl 


4 4J 





« Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 67909) was cut at face of E entry, of! B entry. Section B (sample 
67968) was cut at face of D entry, off B entry. Section G (sample 67963) was cut on 
rib off A heading. Section D (sample 67913) was cut at face of 4 heading. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 67909, 
67968, 67963, and 67913 is given under laboratory No. 29983. 

System of mining, entry, room, and pillar. In 1917 the ooal was shot off the solid 
by FFF black blasting powder. There were 50 men employed undeiground and 16 
on the sur&ce. Haulage was by mules and one electric locomotive. Very little of 
the output was shipped as run of mine. The coal first went over shaking screens 
with pear-shaped holes 2^ by 3^ inches in size; then over small-coal screens with 
1 1 and 1 inch holes. It was picked on table and cars by six pickers. The screenings 
were washed, producing fine coal, slack, and nut. The average daily tonnage washed 
was 100 tons; none was coked. There was storage-bin capacity for 150 tons. The 
lumps as shipped were large. The slack and nut could be separated by screens in 
washery, if desired. The track capacity was 20 empty and 15 loaded cars. No 
impurities were excluded in the mine, washing and picking being relied on for clean- 
ing the coal. The general api)earance of the coal was good. The output was being 
shipped to tidewater pool No. 2 for the Panama Railroad and to Portsmouth, Ohio. 
Average daily shipments were 300 tons in 1917. About half of the future tonnage 
of the mine was to be from advance work and half from pillars. The estimated life- 
time of the mine was 12 to 1 5 years. 



834 



ANALYSES OF GOAL, 1916-1919. 



Simmons. Booth-Bowbn Minb. 

Analyses 67895, 67930, 67932, and 29910, also car samples 69018 and 69019 (p. 99). 
Semibituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Booth-Bowen mine, a drift mine 2 
miles northwest of Simmons, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Goal bed, Pocahontas 
No. 3; Garbonifeious (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Bed is 5 to 9 feet thiol; 
dip, slightly to northwest; roof, shale; floor, hard, smooth shale. A commercul 
sample was taken on the cars by N. H. Snyder on February 21 and April 10, 1918. 
The bed was sampled by R. H. Seip and S. P. Holt on December 20, 1917, as de- 
scribed below: 

Sections of coal hid in Boolk-Bowen mine. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



Roof, shale. 

Coal 

Bone and "sulphur'' , 

Ck)al 

Shale 

"Sulphur" 

"Mother coal" 

Coal 

Coal, gray 

Shale..... 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed , 

Thickness of ooal sampled . 



A. 
67805 



Ft. <n. 
1 4 

3 *7j 
«8 



6 
5 



Si 



B. 
67B90 



Ft. in. 
2 9 



•I 



8 
7 



n\ 



c. 

07032 



FL M. 

1 6 

• 2 

1 ^ 



1 UJ 



• 2 

6 IJ 
5 S 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 67895) was cut at face of 10 room, off northwest cross air course, 
3,900 feet northeast of drift mouth. Section B (sample 67930) was cut in new drift- 
section room pillar, 500 feet south of drift mouth. Section C (sample 67932) was cut 
in Klondike section, 16 room, 4,800 feet northwest of drift mouth. 

The ultimate analysis of » composite sample made by combining face samples 
67895, 67930, and 67932 is given under hiboratory No. 29910. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was undercut by pick and 
shot down by FFFF black powder by the miners during shift. Men employed num- 
bered 65 underground and 25 abovQground. Pieces of roof or floor did not tend to 
become mixed with the coal in shipping. About 85 per cent of the coal was shipped 
as run of mine; the balance was screened over bar screens with 4i-inch openings and 
amall bar screens with 2} and | inch openings. The coal was jncked on railroad car 
by five pickers. Some screenings were coked, at the rate of 50 tons of coke a day. 
Capacity of storage bins was 150 tons slack, 50 tons egg, and 20 tons nut coal, llie 
lumps were large. There was track capacity for 45 empty and 30 loaded cars. The 
lower shale band was thrown out by the miners undeigroimd. Thirty per cent of 
the coal was taken in advance work. Of the future tonnage 15 per cent was to come 
from advance work and 85 per cent from pillars. Tonnage was to be decreased gradu- 
ally. Oapadty of the mine, 1,000 tons a day; daily shipments at time of sampling. 
300 tons; maximum day's run, 1,800 tons. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 
25 years, there being 600 acres still to be mined. 

For descriptions and analyses of other samples from this mine, see Bureau of Mines 
Bull 22, pp. 277, 1029. 

SncvoNs. Buckets Nob. 1 and 2 Mines. 

Analyses 26707 to 26711, 26712 to 26718, 67961, 67893, 67931, 67981, 67983, 67982, 
29921, and 29922; also car samples 69494 and 69495 (p. 99). Semibituminous coal, 
Pocahontas field, from Buckeye Nos. 1 and 2 mines, 2 miles northwest of SimmoDSi 
on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal beds, Pocahontas No. 3 and Pocahontas No. 6, 
respectively; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. No. 3 bed is 
from 4^ to 6i feet thick; No. 6 bed is from 3} to 4 feet thick. Dip of these bedsis 



WEST VIBGINIA: MEBCBR COUNTY. 



335 



IBligfat. Roof of No. 1 mine, shale and sandstone; the shale varies from a knife edge 
to 6 inches in thickness; floor, shale and fire clay, generally smooth. Roof of No. 2 
znine, ''draw slate,'' 10 to 18 inches thick, with hard shale above; floor, hard, smooth 
! shale. Material from the roof and floor did not become mixed with coal in mining. 
A commercial sample was taken from the cars at tidewater by H. W. Jarrett on May 
2 to June 19, 1918. These mines were sampled by S. P. Holt and J. J. Bourquin on 
December 20 and 26, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal beds in Buckeye Nos, 1 and t mines. 



SwtlOD. ..........•......................>. 


A. 

67061 


B. 

67808 


C. 

67031 


D. 
67081 


B. 
67083 


F. 


l^bontmy No ^ ss ^ . 


67962 






RooTsluto. 

CoAl 


Ft. in. 
2 


Ft, M. 


Ft, fn. 
2 7i 


Ft, in. 
8 


Ft, in. 
2*. 


Ft. in. 


TTiini«fniphnr"band 


Bone .'. 


."4 


8 4 


. V 


3 3! 


Coil 


2 10 

6 4f 

6 21 


2 


Bone • 




Coal 






•••*«"•••*• 




noor. shale. 

Tbickneesofbed 


6 5^ 
6 10 


8 7| 

8 7 


i I 


8 7 




8 7 







• Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 67961) was cut in No. 1 mine on 7 pillar, 1 parting, north entry. 
Section B (sample 67893) was cut in No. 1 mine on chain pillar, face of Simmons 
entry. Section G (sample 67931) was cut in No. 1 mine in 6 room, 7 cross entry, 
10 feet from face. Section D (sample 67981) was cut in No. 2 mine, 1 left main head- 
ing, 300 feet from main. Section £ (sample 67983) was cut in No. 2 mine in main head- 
ing, on cross entry, 500 feet from entry. Section F (sample 67982) was cut in No. 2 
mine in beading on main, 1,300 feet from drift. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining lace saml^les 
67961, 67893, and 67931 from Buckeye No. 1 mine is given under laboratory No. 29921. 
The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 67981, 
67982, and 67983 from Buckeye No. 2 mine is given under laboratory No. 29922. 

The coal bed of No. 1 mine was sampled also by E. H. Denny on November 16 and 
17, 1916, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Buckeye No. 1 mine in 1916. 



Section 

Laboratory No. 



A. 
26n2 



B. 

26713 



C. 

26714 



26715 



E. 
26716 



F. 
26717 



Roof, ' 'draw alate" or sandstone. 

unpnreooal and shale 

Ctm 

Coal, hard. 

"Mother ooal" 

Impure coal and shale 

Cou 

" Motte c»!a''' or 8^'baiid.\\ . I ^ 

Coal 

"Mother ooal," shale, and "soi^har" 

band...... 

CoaL 

BonycoaL 

CoaL 

"MOtlMrooal'' 

Shale parting 

fimj. , ,.,, 

"Mother'ooai''I.I!imi!I 

Coal and shale 

CoaL 

"Mother ooal" 

Coal 

"Mother ooal" 

Coal 

Floor, shale. 

TbicknesB of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled 



Ft. fn. 
7' 



a 



Ft. in. 



Ft, in. 



"4 






1 1 



Ft, in, 

•4 



J^. In. 

•I 

11 

8 



A 



1 8 



a5 
2 5 
h 



1 ^ 

aZ 
1 21 



I 



11 



2 1 



1 «i 
a4 

i 

"i'id" 



1 



11 



8 2 



I 



8 
2 



i* 



i 



1 .» 

1 4 



5 
5 



« 



6 1| 
6 10 



5 10 
5 5} 



5 1 
5 



S! 



5 lot 
5 31 



5 
5 



1! 



a Not included in sample. 



336 



ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



Section A (sample 26712) was measured on 3-room pillar from the daylight hole 
on the right of the north entry and 2,850 feet north 49^ east from the drift mouth. 
Section B (sample 26713) was measured on 9-room pillar to the left of Price's entry 
and 1,875 feet north 10** west from the drift mouth. Section C (sample 26714) was 
measured in 4 room, 200 feet off, 3 right, and 5,475 feet south 25*^ east from the drift 
mouth . Section D (sample 26715) was measured on 6-room pillar 100 feet off Bennett's 
air course and 1 ,950 feet north 85** east from the drift mouth . Section E (sample 26716) 
was measured on the left, inby rib of 4 room, 160 feet from 5 cross entry and 4,050 feet 
south 56^ east from the drift mouth. Section F (sample 26717) was measured at the 
face of 8 room, about 100 feet off Sinai air course and 6,075 feet south 77^ east from the 
drift mouth. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 26712, 
26713, 26714, 26715, 26716, and 26717 is given under laboratory No. 26718. 

The coal bed of No. 2 mine was sampled also by E. H. Denny and W. B. Plank 
on November 17, 1916, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Buckeye No. 2 mine. 



Section 


A. 

26707 


2570ft 


C. 
20709 


D. 


TAboratory No . . 


2B710 






Roof. "diBw slate" 


Ft, in. 
a6 

4 

1 0* 

: 

1 4 

3 7 
3 1 


i^. in. 
8 2 


Ft, in. 
3 6 


Ft. in. 


OnAl. Mockv. impure 


05 


Coal 


' \ 


« MntihAr n<^P' fin^i fiMlA 


Coal . . 






I 6 


"Mother coal" 






»» 


Coal 






"Mother coal" 








.Coal 








Floor, black shale. 

Thickness of coal bed 


3 9 
3 2 


4 
8 6 


i'iS 


TWcknflss of coal sampM 







a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 26707) was measured at the face of 12 room, 120 feet off the main 
entry and 490 feet north 53^ east from drift mouth. Section B (sample 26708) was 
measured at the face of air course, 800 feet north 31° east from drift mouth. S60> 
tion C (sample 26709) was measured on the pillar of 7 room, 150 feet from the entry 
and 300 feet north 83° east from drift mouth . Section D (sample 26710) was measured 
on 3 pillar stump, next to 2 room neck, and 75 feet south 38° east from drift mouth. 

The ultimate result of an analysis of a composite sample made by combining 
samples 26707, 26708, 26709, and 26710 is given under laboratory No. 26711. 

System of mining, room and pillar. At time of sampling Nob. 1 and 2 mines the 
coal was mined by hand and shot down with FFFF black powder. Haulage in 
No. 1 was by steam locomotive and mule; in No. 2 by storage-battery locomotive. 
Carbide miners' lamps were used. In 1917 in No. 1 mine the coal was won mostly 
from pillars; the estimated lifetime of the mine was ten years; No. 2 derived 40 per 
cent of its tonnage from advance work and 60 per cent from pillars. There were 
175 acres unmined, giving No. 2 an estimated lifetime of 10 years. About 60 per cent 
of the coal from No. 1 mine and all coal from No. 2 mine was shipped as run of mine. 
The rest of the coal frgpi No. 1 mine was screened into lump, egg, nut, and slack; 
90 to 100 tons were coked daily. Goal from No. 1 mine was picked over picking 
table by four men and occasionaUy by two men on the can; coal from No. 2 mine 
was pidced occasionally on a belt by two m^n. Track cax>acity of No. 1 mine, 77 
empty and 26 loaded railroad cars; No. 2 mine, 15 empty and 15 loaded railroad can. 
In 1916 the output of No. 1 mine was 600 tons a day. In 1917 'the output of No. 2 
mine was about 100 tons a day. Capacity of No. 1 mine in 1917 was 900 tons a day; 
in 1916 capacity of No. 2 mine was 125 Uma a day. 



WEST VntGIlOA: MEBCBR CJOTJNTT. 



SS7 



For description and analyses of other samples of this coal see Bureau of Mines 
BuU. 22, ipp. 277, 1028. 

Springton. Modoc Mine. 

Analyses 26701 to 26706, 26697 to 26699, and 26700 (p. 100). Semibituminous coal, 
Pocahontas field, from Modoc mine, a drift mine 1)- miles northwest of Springton, 
on the Wenonah branch of the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; 
Carboniferous (PottsvlUe) age, Pocahontas formation. Average thickness of bed is 
about 4 feet 6 inches; bed lies practically flat; main roof, sandstone; immediate 
roof, shale; floor, sandstone. Material from the roof and floor did not tend to become 
mixed with the coal in mining. The bed was sampled by W. B. Plank on Novem- 
ber 16, 1916, as described below. Four of these samples came from No. 1 drift, the 
other four from Noe. 2 and 3 drifts. 

Sections of coal beds in Modoc mines. 



Section 


A. 
26702 


B. 
26703 


C. 
26704 


D. 
26706 


E. 
26007 


26098 


0. 
26600 


H. 


lifttxxBtary No 


26700 


Hoof, shale T , 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 
al 

lOi 


Ft. in. 
3* 

1 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 
a2 
10 


Ft. in. 

'3 


Ft. in. 
aZ 
11 




doal, impure or 
"rash**; 


^. in. 
a2i 


Coel 


llj 


<' Mother ooal"... 




Coel 
















"Mother coal"... 












, 




CoaL 
















Shale, hard, black 
Cabecoalb 


3 

■ 
1 ' 

•2 

10 

2 9} 


aA 

al 

2 2 


aA 

a9 

2 1 


a4 

al 

6 


ai 
2 5| 


OS 
an 

2 r 


al 


Coal. 


2 H 


"Mother coal"... 


Coal 














"Mother coal"... 
















Coal 
















"Mother coal"... 
















CoaL 








1 11 

4 3J 

5 2 








Floor, sandstone, 
'fbidmessofbed. 
Thickness of coal 
sampled 


4 i 
3 h 


4 3i 
3 5 


4 li 
8 i 


4 4i 

3 4 


4 24 
3 2 


4 4 

8 04 



aNot included in sample. 

b Cube coal is a hard Done coal, which merses into the black shale, and between the two there is no easy 
dividing plane, which causes the coal to adhere to the shale. It is therefore thrown oat by the miner, 
and consequently was excluded firom the sample. 

Section A (sample 26702) was measured at face of 1 right, off the mains, 400 feet 
from main entry and 475 feet north 40° east from drift mouth No. 1. Section B 
(sample 26703) was measured at face of 1 main, 1,200 feet north 9° west from drift 
mouth No. 1. Section C (sample 26704) was measured at the face of 5 room, off A 
entry left, 400 feet from the entry and 500 feet south 60° west from drift mouth No. 1. 
Section D (sample 26706) was measured on the pillar of 3 room, off B entry, 200 feet 
from entry and 825 feet north 26° west of drift mouth No. 1. Section £ (sample 
26697) was measured at the face of main, 200 feet from the north entry and 900 feet 
north 3° east from drift mouth N^. 2. Section F (sample 26698) was measured at the 
face of the 6 left entry, 400 feet from the main entry and 1,075 feet south 80° east 
from drift mouth No. 2. Section G (sample 26699) was measured at the face of 8 left, 
400 feet from the main and 900 feet north 60° east from drift mouth No. 2. Section H 
(sample 26700) was measured at the face of 5 room, off Q entry, 600 feet from the entry 
and 750 feet south 34° east from drift mouth No. 2. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
26702, 26703, and 26704 from drift No. 1 mine is given under laboratory No. 26705. 
The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made- by combining face samples 26697, 
26698, 26699, and 26700 is given under laboratory No. 26701. 



888 



AITALYSBS OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



Sjrstem of mining, room and pillar. In 1916 the coal was undercut by dectric 

mining machines and shot down with FFF black powder. Haulage was by electric 

locomotive and mule. Oarbide miners' lamps were used. At the time of sampling 

the output was about 400 tons a day; total capacity, 500 tons a day. The output was 

to be increased greatly, up to the capacity of the new 2,000-ton tipple which was being 

built. Future output was to come from advance work, the mine being a new one and 

in process of development. All coal was shipped as run of mine. The railroad cars 

were loaded at a temporary tipple. About 3,000 acres were to be mined from the 

openings. 

Wbyanoke. Weyanoxb No. 1 Mine. 

Analyses 67965, 67936, 67966, and 29984; also car sample 30233 (p. 101). Semi- 
bituminous coal, Pocahontas field, from Weyanoke No. 1 mine, a drift mine, at Weya- 
noke, on the Norfolk & Western R. R. Coal bed, Pocahontas No. 3; Carboniferoua 
(Pottsville) age, Pocahontas formation. Average tliickness of bed is 4 to 4} feet; bed 
is practically horizontal, except for a few local dips, and the cleat is well maiked. No 
faults or horsebacks are encountered. Roof, 6 inches ''draw slate,'' with shale and sand- 
stone above; floor, 1 foot shale, with an occasional coal streak, sandstone or shale below. 
OonMnerdal samples were taken at tidewater by N. H. Snyder on February 1 to 21, 
1918. The bed was sampled by G. A. Allen on December 21, 1917, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Weyanole No. 1 min^. 



SMtlon......... 

lAboratory No. 



A. 
67965 



B. 

67036 



C. 
67906 



Roof, "draw slate," "cube" shale or bone, | to 1} Inches a. 
Coal. 



Rock 

CJoal 

Coal, gray 

Coal 

Floor, 1 foot poor coal and shale. 

thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled . . . 



Ft. in, 

1 

2 *1( 



Si 



Ft. in. 

'A 



4 2 
3 10} 



4 2 
4 i 



1 1 

1 

2 5 

4 4 
« i 



a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 67965) was cut at face of 2 room, 18 right cross entry. Section B 
(sample 67936) was cut at face of 15 right. Section G (sample 67966) was cut at face 
of 13 left. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 67965, 
67936, and 67966 is given under laboiatory No. 29984. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1917 the coal was cut on top by machine and 
shot down by black powder or peimissible explosive by the miner during shift. Men 
employed numbered 225 underground and 39 on the surface. The tipple was of steel 
and wood. Haulage was by one 12-ton, one 3^ton, seven 4-ton, and one 5-ton motor. 
About 20 per cent of the output was shipped as run of mine ; the portion going to screens 
produced 48 per cent slack, 30 per cent lump , 12 per cent egg, and 8 per cent nut. The 
slack went through l^inch round holes, the nut through 2i by 3^ inch holes, ^gg through 
3i by 5 inch holes, and lump over 3^ by 5 inch holes. The coal was picked on a steel 
conveyor by 15 pickers. No screenings were coked. There was 50-ton storage bin 
capacity for slack and 30-ton bin capacity for nut. There werethtee loading tiadoi, 
with capacity for 31 empty and 32 loaded cars. In advance work 30 per cent of the 
coal was taken out, and there was a total recovery claimed of 94 per cent. There woe 
about 960 acres still unmined, giving the mine an approximate lifetime of 25 yeais. 
The capacity of the mine was 1,500 tons a day; average output during time of sampling, 
800 tons a day; maximum day's run, 1,800 tons. 

For description and analyses of other samples from this mine see Bureau of "MxaeB 
Bull. 85, pp. 126, 375 



WEST VIRGINIA: MINGO COUNTY. 839 

HINEBAL COTTNTY. 

EVORTVILLE. Low VOLATILE No. 1 MiNE. 

AnalyBiB 69072 (p . 101) . SemibitmninouB coal , Abram Creek-Stony River field, from 
Low Volatile No. 1 mine, } mile southeast of Emoryville. Coal bed, Thomas 
(Bakerstown): Carboniferous age, Conemaugh formation. Thickness of bed and dip, 
not noted. Roof, black shale; floor, clay. The bed was sampled by G. H. Ashley 
on April 23, 1918, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Low Volatile Coal Co, mine. 

Roof, black shale. Ft. in. 

Coal , bony « 3 J 

Coal 6 

Coal, bony « 8 

Coal 9 

Shale o i 

Coal : 2 3 

Floor, clay. 

Thickness of bed 4 6 

Thickness of coal sampled 3 6^ 

The section was measured at face of main entry, 500 feet from mine mouth. 

Harrison. Oakmont Mine. 

Analysis 69071 (p. 101). Semibituminous coal, Abram Creek-Stony River field, from 
Oakmont mine, 2 miles up Abram Creek from Haiiison. Coal bed, Thomas (Bake»- 
town); Carboniferous age, Conemaugh formation. Thickness, dip, and cleat not 
noted. Roof very good, of shale; floor, clay. The bed was sampled by G. H. Ashley 
on April 23, 1918, as described below: 

Section of coal bed in Oakmont mine. 

Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Coal 11 

Shale a Ij 

Coal..., 5i 

Bone a 6 

Coal 2 7 

Floor, day. 

Thickness of bed 4 6 

ThicknesBof coal sampled...; 3 nj 

The section was measured in 11 room, 13 right entry, 5,100 feet from mine mouth. 

ICZNGK) COTTNTY. 

Thacker. Thacker No. 11 Mms. 

« 

Analysis 17482 (p. 101). Bituminous coal from Thacker No. 11 mine, 4 miles south- 
east of Thacker. Coal bed, Thacker ; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age ; Kanawha series. 
Bed at point of sampling is 5 feet 3} inches thick, clear coal, all included in sample. 
Part of the coal is splint. Sampled in room 1, on 5 left entry, off south entry, 1,000 

feet from mine mouth, on June 5, 1913, by £. Stebinger. 

, 

a Not included in sample. 



840 



ANALYSES OP COAL, lMe-l&19. 
Thaoker. Thackbr No. 3 Mine. 



Analysis 17484 (p. 101). Bituminous coal from Thacker No. 3 mine, 2 miles east of 
Thacker. Goal bed, Thacker; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age; Kanawha series. Bed 
at point of sampling is 5 feet 11 inches thick, clear coal, all included in sample. Part 
of coal was splint. Sampled in room 3, off 4 left entry, of! main entry, 1,000 feet from 
tnine mouth, on June 4, 1913, by E. Stebinger. 

Thacker. Thacker No. 5 Mine. 

Analysis 17485 (p. 101). Bituminous coal from Thacker No. 5 mine, 2i miles east 
of Thacker. Coal bed, Thacker; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age; Kanawha series. 
Bed at point of sampling is 5 feet 11 inches thick, clear coal, all included on sample. 
Part of coal was splint. Sampled in 14 room, 6 right entry, of! main entry, 1,500 feet 
from mine mouth, on June 4, 1913, by E. Stebinger. 

Thacker. Thacker No. 9 Mine. 

Analyses 17486 to 17488 (p. 101). Bituminous coal from Thacker No. 9 mine, 3) 
miles east of Thacker. Coal bed, Thacker; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age; Kanawha 
j^iiies. Part of coal was splint. This mine was sampled on June 4, 1913, by E. Steb- 
inger, as described below: 

8ection$ of coal bed in Thacker No. 9 mine. 



Section.. k<, 


A. 
17486 


B. 


Laboratory No 


17487 






Coal 




Fi. in. 

3 7 

al 

1 6 

fi 1 
5 


Ft. in. 


Shale . 


Coal 


1 5 


Thifikpfisp of hftrt T .... - , , 


r\ 


Th<*^lni WR nf coal samplwl ....... 





a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 17486) was cut at face of main entry, 1,200 feet from mine mouth. 
Section B (sample 17487) was cut at 7 right entry, o£f main entry, 700 feet from mine 
mouth. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 17484, 
17485, 17486, and 17487 is given under laboratory No. 17488. 

OHIO COTTNTY. 

Elm Grove. Elm Grove No. 1 Mine. 

Analyses 31621 to 31625 (p. 102). Bituminous coal. Wheeling district, from Elm 
Grove No. 1 mine, a slope and shaft mine at Elm Grove, on the Baltimore & Ohio 
R. R. Coal bed, Plttsbuigh; Carboniferous age, Monongahela formation. Thick- 
ness of workable coal is 4 feet 6 inches to 5 feet 3 inches. Bed dips slightly southeast. 
A few rolls and ''clay veins" are encountered. Impiuities consist of two shale part- 
ings and some ''sulphur" streaks. Roof, "draw slate" 3 to 18 inches thick; floor, 
smooth fire clay which becomes soft; limestone below. The bed was sampled by 
P. D. Browning on March 19, 1919, as described below: 



WEST vibginia: pbeston county. 



341 



Sections of coal bed in Elm Grove No. 1 mine. 



Section 

laboiatory No. 



RooL shale and "dxaw slate." 

Coal 

Bony coal 

"Mother coal" 

CJoal 

Bony coal 

"Mother coal" 

Coal 

Bony coal 

Shab 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

"Mother coal" 

Coal 

"Sulphur stone" 

Coal 

Floor, fireclay. 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled. 



A. 
31621 



Ft. in. 
1 



i 



9 



3 



1 4J 



11 



4 
4 



I 



B. 
31622 



Ft. in. 
11* 



ul 



i 



5 
5 



6 

1 

9 

3 
H 



C. 

31623 



J^. in. 
6 
i 



7i 
1 4: 



2 
5 



11 



5 

5 



1 



D. 
31624 



Ft. in. 



1 11 



3» 
al 
6 

'4 

5 3 
5 1} 



o Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 31621) was cut at left rib, 50 feet from face of 27 left butt. Sec- 
tion B (sample 31622) was cut at right rib, at face of 21 right butt. Section (sample 
31623) was cut at left rib, at face of main north. Section D (sample 31624) was cut 
at right rib, 35 feet from face, 27 right butt. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
31621, 31622, 31623, and 31624 is given under laboratory 31625. 

System of mining, double and triple entry, room and pillar, in panels. In 1919 
the coal was undercut by machine in the bottom of coal and shot down with black 
powder, dynamite being used for ^'clay veins." Men employed numbered 60 under- 
ground and 14 aboveground. The tipple was of wood. Fifty per cent of the output 
was shipped as run of mine. The coal was screened through bar screens 12 feet long 
by 6 feet wide, with l^inch sx>aces, and 45 per cent of the coal passed through the 
screens. Haulage was by two electric locomotives and by mules. Two pickers were 
employed on cars. There were three loading tracks, with capacity for 15 empty and 
15 loaded railroad cars. The lump coal, in medium-sized lumps, presented a fairly good 
appearance on the cars. Sixty per cent of the coal was taken out in advance work, 
and the recovery claimed was 60 per cent. The unmined area included approxi- 
mately 1,500 acres. The estimated lifetime of the mine was 30 years. At time of 
sampling the capacity of the mine was 800 tons a day, the average daily output 425 
tons, and the maximum day's run 510 tons. 

PBBSTON GOT7NTY. 

Corinth. Wills No. 3 Mine. 

Analysis 26516 (p. 102). Bituminous coal from Wills No. 3 mine, i mile southwest 
of Corinth, on a switch of the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Coal bed, Lower Kittanning; 
Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 3 feet 6^ to 7 inches thick; roof and 
floGT^ shale; cover at point of sampling, 120 feet. The bed was sampled by the Mary- 
land Geological Survey on September 16, 1916, as described below: 



842 ANALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 

Section of coal bed in With No. 3 mine. 
Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

CJoal 1 ^ 

Shale« 1-1} 

Coal 1 2 

Bone and shales 6 

Coal : 6 

Floor, shale. 

ThickneBS of bed 3 6J-7 

ThicknoBs of coal sampled :.- 2 111-12 

This sample was taken in 1 room, 1 right heading. At time of sampling the daily 
output was 60 to 60 tons. 

Eemfton. Ebmfton or No. 42 Minb. 

Analysis 26578 (p. 102) . Semibituminouscoal from Eempton shaft or No. 42 mine, at 

Kempton, } mile north of Beachwood station, on a spur of the Western Maryland R. R. 

Coal bed, Middle Kittanning; Carboniferous age, Allegheny formation. Bed is 10 

feet 3} inches thick; roof and floor, shale; cover at point of sampling, about 300 feet 

The bed was sampled by the Maryland Geological Survey on October 30, 1916, as 

described below: 

Section of coal bed in Kempton or No, 4t mine. 
Roof, shale. Ft. in. 

Coal 2 

Shalea 2 

Coal 3 

Bone a 2 

Shalea 1 1 

Coal, dirtyfl 3 

Shaleo 5 

Coal« 2} 

Bonea 2| 

Coal« 2 H 

Floor, shale. 

Thickness of bed 10 SJ 

Thickness of coal sampled 5 

This sample was measured at face of main heading, 3,500 feet from abaft bottom. 
The daily output in 1916 was 800 tons. 

BAIAiaH BOUNTY. 

ApFiNmr. Appiottt Mine. 

Analyses 68123, 68122, 68115, and 30169, 26691, 26692, 26693, 26694, and 26695 and 
car8ample869148, 69149(p. 102). Semibituminouscoal, NewRiverfield, frotnAffioity 
mine, a slope mine at Affinity, on the Winding Gulf branch of the Virginian R. R. 
Coal bed, Beckley; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age, Quinnemont fonnation. Average 
thickness of coal is 3 to 4 feet; dip, about 1^^ northeast; roof, sandstone and shale; 
where shale is encountered roof is bad in places; floor, shale. Pieces of the roof 
and floor did not become mixed with the coal in mining. A car sample was taken at 
tidewater by N. H. Snyder on March 18 to May 7, 1918. The coal bed was sampled 
by W. T. Lee on January 1, 1918, as described below: 

a Not inohided in sample. 



WEST VmGINIA: RALBIGH COtTNTY. 



343 



Sections of coal bed in Affinity mine in 1918. 



Secti<m 


A. 

68128 


B. 

A8122 


C. 


TAbnnrtory No. . x . 


68115 






Boof, sandstone and shale. 

Coal 


Ft. tn. 

1 7 

a2 

1 10 

3 7 
3 5 


Ft. in. 

2 6 
al 

1 

3 7 
8 6 


Ft. hi. 
2 8 


8hal«^. 


a2 


Coal 


1 2 


Floor, shale. 

Thinlcn<f^ of fwd r ..,..,. - 


4 


ThVi^knw* of coal sampM 


8 10 







a Not included in sample. 

Section A (sample 68123) was cut from pillar in 3 left crosscut, 1 south. Section B 
(sample 68122) was cut at face of 1 left, 1 north. ' Section C (sample 68115) was cut in 
dip heading off 1 west. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68123, 68122, and 68115 is gLven under laboratory No. 30169. 

The coal bed was sampled also by E. H. Denny on November 14, 1916, aa described 
below: 

Sections of coal bed in Affinity mine in 1916. 



Section 

Laboratory No 

Rcof, sandstone and shale. 

Coal 

"Mother coal" 

Coal 

Bony coal ? 

Coal. 

"Mother ooaiv , 

Coal 

'Booyooal 

Coal. 

Floor, shale. & 

Thickness of bed 

Thickness of coal sampled 



A. 
26601 



Ft. in. 
1 8 

10* 



4 3 
8 71 



B. 
26602 



Ft. in. 
2 3 

3* 
aZ 
1 1 



3 101 
3 7) 



C. 
26603 



Ft. in. 
2 7 



8 



3 6) 

3 r 



D. 
26605 




8 
3 



1 



a Not indnded in sample. 

h Second bone in sections A and D corresponds to floor in sections B and C. 

Section A (sample 26691) was measured at the face of the air course of 1 right entry, 
off 2 north entry, and 2,425 feet north 75^ east from slope mouth. Section B (sample 
26692) was measured at the face of 2 we^t entry, 1,200 feet north 40^ west from the 
slope mouth. Section G (sample 26693) was measured at the face of the fan entry, 
1,550 feet south 60^ west from the slope mouth. Section D (sample 26695) was 
measured on the right inby rib of old 2 south entry, about 50 feet outby 3 right entry 
and 2,425 feet north 75° east from the slope mouth. 

The ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining samples 26691, 
26692, and 26693 is given under laboratory No. 26694. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was undercut by electric 
machines and shot down by permissible explosive. Brushing of roof and floor was 
also done with permissible explosive. Mine haulage was by electric motors. Gar- 
bide miners' lamps were used. At the time of sampling the output was 250 tons a 
day; about 1,000 acres were still to be mined, and 55 per cent of the future output 
of the mine was to come from advance work. All coal was shipped as run of mine. 
The cool was picked on the car by two trimmers. There was one loading track, with 
capacity ioi 14 empty and 25 loaded railroad cars. As shipped on car the coal con- 
tained about 70 per cent lump. The Affinity mine adjoins the Big Stick mine. 



344 



ANALYSES OF GOAL, 1916-1919. 
Bio Stick. Bio Stick Minb. 



AnalyBes 68118, 68134, 68135, and 30167, and 26683 to 26689, and car sampleB 
68806, 68807 (p. 103). Semibituminous coal. New River field, from Big Stick mine, a 
drift mine at Big Stick, on the Winding Gulf branch of the Viiginian R. R. Goal 
bed, Beckley; GarboniferouB (Pottsville) age, Quinnemont formation. Average 
thickness of coal is 4 to 6 feet; average of nine sections taken by the bureau is 5 feet 
7 inches. The coal bed dips about H^ northeast. Main roof, sandstone; inunediate 
roof, "draw slate,'' floor, mostly hard, smooth clay. Material from the roof and 
floor did not tend to become mixed with the coal in shipping. Gommerdal sample 
was collected on the cars by N. H. Snyder on March 12, 1918. The bed was sampled 
by W. T. Lee on January 2, 1918, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Big Stick mine in 1918. 



Section 


A. 

68134 


B. 

68118 


C. 


Laboratory No 


68135 


« 




Roof, shale. 

Coal 


Ft. in. 
3 5 

1 
2 7 

6 1 
6 1 


Ft. in. 
5 4 


Ft. hu 
3 3 


Bone 


a3 


Coal 




2 1 


Floor, day. 

ThfoJninm of ^«<' ,,-,,...,-,,, _ ...... . 


5 4 

5 4 


6 7 


Thlnknefw of bed tfAmpled ,...., 


5 4 







a Not induded in sample. 

Section A (sample 68134) was measured in 3 right, 1 right air course, off 3 main. 
Section B (sample 68118) was measured in 2 right, 3 left, of! 3 main. SectiGtn G 
(sample 68135) was measured in 8 right, *L crosscut, off 1 main. 

The ultimate analyses of a composite sample made by combining samples 68134, 
68135, and 68118 is given under laboratory No. 30167. 

The bed was sampled by W. B. Plank on November 14, 1916, as described below: 

Sections of coal bed in Big Stick mine in 1916. 



flef^tions . ........ 


A. 
36683 


B. 
36684 


C. 

36685 


D. 
2fi6flft 


E. 
36688 


F. 


Laboratorr No. 


30680 






Roof, shale. 

doaL 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 

4 


Ft. in. 
fll 
a2 


Ft. in. 


Ft. «n. 


Ft. in. 

• 1 


Shale 






03 




2 


Bony coaL 








ai 


"Mother coal" 










• 3 
3 1 


m 


Coal 


2 4i 


3 1 

a 5) 


1 8 


3 1 


2 1 


Bony coaL 


•a* 


"Mother coal" ♦ 


9* 
a3 


' 1 

a4| 


•1* 

6 

*4i 


«3 
6 
•41 


Coal 


4 


11 


Bony coaL 


•a* 


"Sulphur" 


al 
3 


Coal 


1 


Hi 


1 4 


1 5 


1 5 


' ' Sulphur," soft 




Dirt. ......:....:...:...:::.:...:.... 










•i 


"Mother coal" 




a'i* 
1 \ 

5 4 

4 8} 








Coal 


1 2 

5 5 
5 2 








1 


Floor, flre clay. 

Thickness of bed 


4 4 

3 8 


4 8 

3 11 


4 91 

4 


6 ^ 

5 5 


Thickness of coal sampled 







a Not included in sample. 



Section A (sample 26683) was measured on the rib of 10 room, off 4 left entry, 200 
feet from the entry and 2,300 feet north 10° east from the drift mouth. Section B 
(sample 26684) was measured at face of 16 room, off 2 right, 300 feet from entary, and 
3,700 feet north 35° east from drift mouth. Section G (sample 26685) was measured 



WEST VIRGINIA: RALEIGH COUNTY. 



845 



at face of 3 right entry, off 3 main, 4,500 feet north 38° east from drift mouth. Section 
D (sample 26686) was measured 300 feet from face of 1 main, and 4,300 feet north 48° 
east from drift mouth. Section £ (sample 26688) was measured on the pillar slant, 
off 9 room, off 4 right, 200 feet from entry and 3,850 feet north 22° east from drift 
mouth. Section F (sample 26689) was measured on a pillar of the straight entry, 
opposite 7 room, and 1,900 feet north 70° east from drift mouth. 

Ultimate analysis of a composite sample made by combining iamples 26683, 26684^ 
26685, 26686, is given under laboratory No. 26687. Ultimate analysis of a compos- 
ite sample made by combining samples 26688 and 26689 is given under laboratory 
No. 26690. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was undercut by electric 
cutting machines and was shot down by permissible explosive, which was used also 
for brushing roof and floor. Haulage was by electric motor. Carbide lamps were 
used. Average daily output in 1918 was about 500 tons, a large part of which came 
from pillars. The coal was all shipped as run of mine, and was picked on the railroad 
car. The lumps were mostly large. Track capacity was 40 empty and 40 loaded 
cars. About 1,000 acres of coal were still to be mined. 

For description and analyses of other samples from thin mine see Bureau of Afines 
Bull. 85, pp. 127, 378. 

The mine was sampled in both 1916 and 1918. 

MiSTLBTOB. LtNWIN MiNE. 

Analyses 68136, 68137, and 30148, and tipple samples 70283 to 70286 (p. 103). Semi- 
bituminous coal. New River field, from Lynwin mine, Kanawha-New River district, a 
drift mine at Mistletoe, near Winding Gulf, on the Virginian R. R. Coal bed, Beck- 
ley; Carboniferous (Pottsville) age, Quinnemont formation. Bed is 4 to 6 feet thick; 
dip, 2° or 3° northwest; no cleat or faults; roof, light-blue shale, which adhered more 
or less to the coal ; floor, hard smooth shale, which did not become mixed with the coal 
in mining. Tipple samples were taken by S. S. Shirkey on September 27, 1918. The 
bed was sampled by £. W. Shaw on January 2, 1918, as described below: 



Sections of coal bed in Lynwin No. 2 mine. 



Sectimi. 


A. 

68136 


B. 


LaboratoiT No 


68137 






Roof, shale. 

OmI _ -., 


Ft, in, 

3 2 
02 

1 

4 4 

4 2 


Ft, in, 
3 6 


BOP^ , - . . . , r . . , - T - r . - . T 


aZ 


OoaL 


1 4 


Floor, shale. 

Thlcknwwof Vm' r . ,,t-, r ^ . . - , 


6 1 


Thjr^fttff of t^OftlSWlPpled r-.r ,--.-,,.-- -r,T 


4 10 







a Not included ior sample. 

Section A (sample 68136) was cut at face of 6 room, 2 left, in No. 2 mine ; depth 
of cover at point of sampling, 150 feet; lies across creek from old opening. Section B 
(sample 68137) was cut in main heading of 7 right, 6,000 "feet northwest of main 
entrance ; cover at point of sampling, 300 feet. 

The ultimate analysis is of a composite sample made by combining face samples 
68136 and 68137 is given under laboratory No. 30148. 

System of mining, room and pillar. In 1918 the coal was imdercut by electric 
cutting machines and shot down with black powder and permissible explosive. The 
capacity of No. 2 mine was 400 tons a day, and the actual average at time of sampling 
was 200 tons. There were 40 men employed underground and 14 aboveground. 
There were two storage-battery locomotives, two trolley motors, and one gasoline motor. 



846 



AITALYSES OF COAL, 1916-1919. 



The coal was all shipped as nm of mine, and was picked on belt by two picken. Ilie 

lumps were of medium size. Some thin lenses of bone were shipped with the coal. 

There were about 3,000 acres to be mined, and the probable lifetime of the mine was 

15 years. 

Oswald. Oswald No. 3 Mikb. 

Analyses 68165, 68169, 68170, and 30156, and car samples 69099 and 69100 (p. 104). 
Semibituminous coaF, New Kiver field, from Oswald No. 3 mine, a drift mine at Os- 
wald, on the Kanawha, Glen Jean & Eastern R. R. Coal bed, Sewell; Carboniferous 
(Pottsville) age, Sewell formation. Bed is 3 to 4) feet thick; roof, 1 foot "draw 
slate," then 1 foot 10 inches of top coal, above which is shale; floor, hard, blue, ahaly 
imderclay with smooth surface . Conmiercial samples were taken at tidewater by N . H . 
Snyder on March 16 to April 29, 1918. The bed was sampled by C.