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Vol.25.No.l-Januaryl954 

Chicago Noiurul 
History Museum 



Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



January, 195 U 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Makshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

TEifraoNE: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Samuel Insull, Jr. 

Sewell L. Avery Henry P. Isham 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchbn William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Albert B. Dick, Jh. George A. Richardson 

Joseph N. Field John G. Searlb 

Marshall Field Solomon A. Smith 

Marshall Field, Jr. Louis Ware 

Stanley Field John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Henry P. Isham Second Vice-President 

Samuel Insull, Jr Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Karl P. Schmidt Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Habte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Barbara Polikoff 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



ALFRED CLEVELAND WEED 

1881-1953 

News has been received at the Museum 
of the death on November 30, 1953, of 
Alfred C. Weed, retired Curator of Fishes. 
He was seventy-two years old. Mr. Weed 
joined the staff of the Museum in January, 
1921, at the time the 
collections and exhib- 
its were being moved 
from Jackson Park to 
Grant Park. His first 
major task, therefore, 
was arranging the fish 
collection in new se- 
quence and relabeling 
most of it and unpack- 
ing, cataloguing, and 
labeling several stored 
and inaccessible large 
collections, a tremen- 
dous task that was 
carried on virtually alone. His principal 
efforts during the twenty-one years he was 
in charge of the Division of Fishes were 
directed toward adding to the study collec- 
tions and improving the exhibits. This 
latter work (with Leon L. Pray as artist and 
taxidermist) produced the habitat groups 
and systematic series in the Hall of Fishes 
(Hall O), which was opened in July, 1941, 
two years before Mr. Weed was forced to re- 
tire because of poor health. He conducted 




ALFRED C. WEED 



a number of expeditions, usually with the 
double purpose of securing exhibition and 
study material. The most notable of these 
were to the upper Mississippi River in 1922 
and to Louisiana and Texas in 1923 and 
1924. In 1926 and 1927-28, he participated 
in the Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expe- 
ditions to Labrador, Greenland, and Baffin 
Island, and in 1937 he conducted an ex- 
pedition to the coast of Maine to collect 
material for habitat and systematic exhibits. 



STAJFF NOTES 

Dr. Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of 
Geology, Robert K. Wyant, Curator of 
Economic Geology, Bryan Patterson, Cu- 
rator of Fossil Mammals, and D. Dwight 
Davis, Curator of Vertebrate Anatomy, at- 
tended the annual meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science 
held in Boston late in December. Chief 
Curator Roy and Curator Wyant partici- 
pated in a symposium on the origin of me- 
teorites, and Curator Patterson and Curator 
Davis took part in one entitled "Non- 
Human Primates and the Problem of Human 
Evolution." Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief 
Curator of Anthropology, Donald Collier, 
Curator of South American Ethnology and 
Archaeology, and Miss Elaine Bluhm, As- 
sistant in Archaeology, attended the annual 
meeting of the American Anthropological 
Association held in Tucson, Arizona, from 
December 26 to 30. Chief Curator Martin 
presented a paper on his 1953 excavations 
in New Mexico and another in the sympo- 
sium on the Southwest. Curator Collier 
presented a paper on Peru in the symposium 
on "Comparison of Early Irrigation Civiliza- 
tions" and served as chairman of the session 
on Southwest archaeology ... In December 
Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, Curator of the 
Phanerogamic Herbarium, spoke before the 
Illinois Orchid Society on "Orchids of Gua- 
temala" and before the Hinsdale Garden 
Club on "Exploring for Plants in the 'Lost 
World' of Venezuela." 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology; 

From: Dr. R. W. Mendelson, Albu- 
querque, N. M. — a Bangkok hat, portion 
of Buddhist scripture incised on palm-leaf 
strips, and an embroidered-silk wall hanging, 
Siam 

Department of Botany: 

From: Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege of Texas, College Station — 24 Com- 
melinaceae, Mexico; Holly R. Bennett, 
Chicago — 460 miscellaneous phanerogams, 
Chicago, and 146 miscellaneous phanero- 
gams, Montana; Illinois State Museum, 
Springfield — Aster furcalus, Illinois; Dr. 
Earl E. Sherff, Chicago — 148 phanerogams, 
Hawaii, and 172 negatives, 172 prints; 



— THIS MONTH'S COVER — 

The wlialeheaded stork of Af- 
rica, pictured on tlie cover, is one 
of the largest and most impressive 
species found in a continent noted 
for the wealth and variety of its 
birds. Although related both to 
storks and to herons, whaleheads 
nevertheless have distinctive ana- 
tomical features that place them 
in a separate family. The single 
species occurs only in central 
Africa, where it frequents the 
great marshes of the White Nile 
River in Egypt south to the Lake 
Victoria region of Uganda. Stand- 
ing about 40 inches high and char- 
acterized by a remarkably mas- 
sive bill, the whaleheaded stork 
is the most imposing bird of its 
habitat. The specimen portrayed 
is one of the central figures in a 
new and strikingly realistic habi- 
tat group (Hall 20) of the marsh 
birds of the upper Nile River (see 
page 3). All specimens and acces- 
sory materials for the exhibit 
were collected in 1952 by the 
Buchen East Africa Expedition. 



Floyd A. Swink, Chicago — 211 phanero- 
gams, Chicago; Frank O. Smith, Ames, 
Iowa — Physalis aequata Jacq., Mexico 

Department of Geology: 

From: Mrs. Robert H. Whitfield, Evan.s- 
ton. 111. — Pennsylvanian insect, Carbondale 
formation, Braidwood, Illinois 

Raymond Foundation: 

From: Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith, Lake 
Forest, 111. — 8 black-and-white slides 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons became Museum 
Members from November 16 to December 
15: 

Non'Resident Life Member 

E. J. Knudtzon 

Associate Members 

Edward McC. Blair, N. J. Lavezzorio, 
Cari E. Olin, John E. Stipp 

Annual Members 

Mrs. C. C. Campbell, Harry A. Coldiron, 
Willard Gidwitz, Wilson T. Herren, Earl 
Johnson, Walter C. Lindley, Jr., Herbert H. 
Lissner, Arthur J. Lowell, Robert B. Mahan, 
R. F. Malcolmson, Mrs. Andrew R. Mellody, 
Miss Margaret Mellody, C. W. Mercer, 
Francis K. Mettenet, Robert W. MuUenix, 
Donald C. Mullery, C. Frank Newburg, 
C. G. Newton, Miss Geraldine O'Leary, 
Henry R. Piatt, Jr., Ernest H. Reed, 
H. Edward Reeves, Rollin W. Roach, R. F. 
Searson, C. H. Sethness, Jr., Dr. Kenneth 
P. Sharpe, John W. Shaw, Frank R. Walker, 
John Wieland, Frederick C. Williams, 
W. J. Williams 



January, 195 U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Pages 



BIRDS OF NILE PAPYRUS MARSH IN NEW HABITAT GROUP 



W 



THE EXPEDITION 

By WALTHER BUCHEN 
member, board of trustees 

E LEFT NAIROBI in Kenya Colony, 
bound for Uganda, on May 31, 1952, 
when the Long Rains were still at work and 
would be for some weeks to come. Mrs. 
Buchen and I were fortunate to have three 
of the most competent and delightful com- 
panions imaginable in our party: our orni- 
thologist. Dr. John Williams, of Coryndon 
Museum in Nairobi, and Myles Turner and 
John Sutton, our hunters, who managed the 
safari. In addition, there were fifteen natives. 
Our outfit, furnished by Ker & Downey, 
Safaris, Ltd., consisted of a four-wheel-drive 
Dodge Power Wagon, which was our pas- 
senger car, and two 3-ton Bedford trucks. 
All of them were heavily loaded with bag- 
gage and camping equipment. 

After four days and more than 600 miles 
of wet African roads, we made camp at 
Erima, a tiny fishing village on the shores 
of Lake Kyoga, in the region where the 
Victoria Nile enters the lake. On the advice 
of Major Kinloch and Mr. Mills of the 
Uganda Game Department, Dr. Williams 
had selected this spot as our likeliest hunting 
grounds for the rare whaleheaded stork. 

It was difficult to get information from 
the fishermen of Erima. They knew little 
Kiswahili, the intertribal language that 
passes freely among many tribes in more 
than a million square miles of East Africa. 
The Uganda Game Department had very 
kindly offered us a native game-scout to 
act as interpreter, but he did not understand 
the local dialect. Williams tried 
to communicate what bird we 
were interested in by drawing a 
picture of the whaleheaded stork, 
emphasizing the big bill and 
oddly crested head. One native, 
who talked a little Swahili, told 
us that we could easily find such 
a bird. This was only slightly 
comforting because African na- 
tives generally tell you what they 
think you want to hear. 



LAKE OF FLOWERS 

The first day of the search for 
the whalehead we tried to use our 
aluminum boat equipped with 
the only outboard motor avail- 
able in Nairobi. When we finally 
got to the lake, we found that its 
surface was "paved" with the 
flowers and pads of the beautiful 
Nile lotus. There were also little 
islands of floating vegetation and 
bothersome weeds, both under 
and above water. In the limited 
area that we could cover by 
poling, we saw no whaleheaded 
stork, but collected more than 
half a dozen specimens of other 



For years the Museum has had a vacant 
case among its bird habitat groups in Hall 
20 — a case labeled "Crowned Crane and Marsh 
Birds of the Nile — an exhibit to be con- 
structed." Finally through the activity and 
the generosity of Mr. and Mrs. Walther 
Buchen this group has become a reality. In 
the following articles Mr. Buchen, a Trustee 
of the Museum, tells of his expedition to the 
Upper Nile to collect material used in this 
group, and Dr. Austin L. Rand, Curator of 
Birds, tells of its preparation in the Museum 
for exhibition. 



desirable birds, sufficient to keep our 
skinners busy that day and evening. 

That afternoon we decided that native 
dugouts were the only effective means for 
whaleheaded-stork hunting and arranged 
for three dugouts and paddlers for the next 
day. These craft were leaky, tippy, and 
without seats, and my wife was less than 
enthusiastic about using them in this croco- 
dile- and hippo-infested water. However, 
since it was the only way of reaching the 
whaleheaded stork and other desired speci- 
mens, she solved our seating problem by 
making use of a soundly constructed empty 
Coca-Cola crate about eight inches high. 

The next morning Williams drew another 
picture of the whaleheaded stork for our 
boatman, the lone Swahili-speaking native, 
again emphasizing the bird's bill and big 
head. Some hours later there was much 
(Continued on page i, column 2) 



V 




FINISHING TOUCHES ON NILE GROUP 
Staff Taxidermist Carl W. Cotton attends to highlighting a lily-pad before plac- 
ing it on the murky water of the Nile marshland scene. At the time this photo- 
graph was taken the exhibit was complete except for a few details. 



THE EXHIBIT 

By AUSTIN L. RAND 

CURATOR OF BIRDS 

N THE MUSEUM'S haU of habitat 
groups of birds (Hall 20), across from 
the rhea, which stands over its hatching eggs 
on the South American pampas, and along- 
side a group of ruffs that are going through 
their mating displays on a meadow in Hol- 
land, a whalehead and a trio of crowned 
cranes now dominate an African marsh that 
is teeming with bird life. This is the Nile 
group, most recent addition to the hall, 
which features three other African scenes: 
one of a rain forest, one of a desert, and one 
of a colony of village weaverbirds. 

The scene of this new group is Lake 
Kyoga on the upper Victoria Nile, just be- 
low where it flows out of Lake Victoria in 
Uganda, eastern Africa. The birds that 
could have been selected to go into the group 
are many, but two real Africans were chosen 
to be the central figures — the whaleheaded 
stork and the crowned crane. The whale- 
head, related to the stork, is the sole species 
in the family Balaenicipidae with a distri- 
bution restricted to the swamps of central 
Africa. It is a somberly colored grayish 
bird with a huge bill and a curious pert 
crest. Its home is in the big marshes, and 
one of its favorite foods seems to be lungfish. 
Being such a large bird (standing about 40 
inches high), it is surprising that it was long 
overlooked by students of African birds, 
but when one considers the difficulty of 
penetrating the deep swamp where it makes 
its home, the scant knowledge of it becomes 
understandable. Because it is 
usually a solitary bird, we have 
placed a single individual stand- 
ing near the right front of the 
case. (See cover illustration.) 

THE CROWNED CRANE 

The other African bird chosen 
to share the focal point in the case 
is the crowned crane. Con- 
trasted with the whalehead it is a 
graceful, active, beautiful, and 
well-known bird. The straw- 
colored crest recalls in a curious 
way the fruiting head of a papy- 
rus — the wattles are crimson, the 
bare cheeks white and crimson, 
and the plumage gray, orna- 
mented with big patches of white 
and maroon in the wings. The 
bird is gregarious — flocks of sev- 
eral hundreds have been re- 
corded, and as many as 1,000 
birds have been seen in a twenty- 
minute flight past a camp. They 
frequent grain fields where, in 
addition to eating insects, they 
dig up grain, and they have a 
habit, common to many cranes, 
of .dancing. Consequently the 



Page U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



January, 1951^ 



crowned crane is well known and has even 
been pictured on the postage stamps of East 
African countries. 

When the material collected by the 
Buchen Expedition for this group arrived 
at the Museum from the field, Staff Taxi- 
dermist Carl W. Cotton took over. There 
were the birdskins, the plant accessories, 
and a Nile book of sketches made and 
colored by Dr. John Williams, of the Coryn- 
don Museum in Nairobi, to show what the 
fresh specimens looked like. The papyrus 
that had been doubled up into boxes and 
dried was straightened out, soaked, a wire 
run through the stem for rigidity, the head 
fluffed out, sprayed with oil paint, and the 
stems waxed. The lily-pads that were to 
cover so much of the water's surface were 
wrinkled and brown, looking like a stack of 
pancakes as they came out of the packing. 
They were soaked, plaster molds made from 
them, and then green wax reinforced with 
cheesecloth provided replicas. The lily-buds 
were made the same way: plaster molds and 
casts. The flowers presented a special prob- 
lem. The pinkish-blue petals, yellow sta- 
mens, and green sepals were cut separately 
from paper and dipped in wax of the ap- 
propriate color and laboriously assembled 
by hand. Grasses were treated and arranged 
into life-like clumps, mud islets were made, 
and plexiglass chosen and cut for the water. 
So much for the accessories that were to 
occupy the half-moon-shaped floor space, 
almost 14 feet wide and 10 feet deep. 

LIFE SEMBLANCE RESTORED 

The birds were in the form of dry skins. 
Mr. Cotton's first task was to relax them 
with water and scrape the skins so that they 
were as flexible as fresh skins just removed 
from the bird, the feathers falling naturally 
in place. An artificial body was made with 
wires for neck and legs to hold the bird's 
pose, and the bird was placed in a natural 
position and loosely wound with thread or 
paper strips to hold its feathers smooth. 
When the bird was dry, glass eyes were 
added and the bill and feet painted to restore 
the natural colors. 

While these materials were being pre- 
pared, Douglas E. Tibbitts, Staff Artist, and 
Leon L. Pray painted the background. With 
color photographs taken in the field by the 
Buchens to guide them, the extensive 
marshlands, the cloudy sky, and the distant 
hills materialized on the curved walls of 
the alcove prepared for the group. 

When the background was completed, the 
plexiglass "water" with its lily-pads and the 
accessory vegetation and islands were in- 
stalled, joining with the painted background 
so cleverly that it is difficult to see the 
junction. The birds were then installed, 
completing another habitat group in the 
extensive series gracing the halls of the 
Museum. 

As the visitor stands in front of this case 



he has the illusion of looking out on Lake 
Kyoga. Ahead, the water dappled with 
lily-pads stretches to the horizon. To the 
right, lines of papyrus break the view and 
frame the vista. To the left marsh-grass 
areas dotted with a few trees or bushes 
appear, fianking low, distant, blue hills. A 
whalehead in the shade of a clump of papy- 
rus is near at hand; three crowned cranes 
stand on a mud island, dwarfing a cattle 
heron that is a little farther off and to the 
left. A black open-bill stork is just beyond. 

Close at hand swim a pair of pigmy geese 
and a crested grebe with a downy young 
one riding on its back. Beyond, a painted- 
snipe displays its ocellated wings in flight, 
nearer are a long-toed plover with one of its 
downy young, a coot, a gallinule, and, be- 
yond, an anhinga swims toward three tree- 
ducks perched on a lump of mud. 

In the background are herons, egrets, and 
ducks. More crowned cranes are on a far 
mud bank, and a fishing eagle circles over- 
head. Looking closer, one sees lesser fowl; 
a black rail peers from the papyrus; a mala- 
chite kingfisher rests on a lily-pad; weaver- 
birds are nesting in the papyrus, where a 
little swamp flycatcher flits. 

We have shown some 22 species of birds 
and, without crowding the material, have 
tried to reproduce the impression of a swamp 
teeming with bird life as one would find it 



in Africa. But many species have had to 
be left out because of lack of space to show 
them. 

THE RECORD IN PHOTOGRAPHS 

Mr. Buchen is a photographer of ability 
and, along with the specimens and the color 
slides for record purposes, he brought back 
a motion-picture record of his expedition. 
There are views of Coryndon Museum, the 
safari, the camp, hunting and preparation 
of specimens at Lake Kyoga, and the birds 
and the people. This seemed an opportunity 
to make a complete film-record of the history 
of a habitat group, and so Mr. Buchen 
sponsored the making of a pictorial record 
of the construction and the installation of 
the exhibit in the Museum. Staff Taxider- 
mist Ronald J. Lambert accepted the task 
of the additional photography and the 
editing of the whole film. 

The result is gratifying. We have a 
complete photographic record. It starts 
with the planning of the exhibit in Chicago, 
shows the expedition in the field, the material 
coming back to the Museum, preparation 
of the material, the painting of the back- 
ground, and the final installation, ending 
with a view of the finished case in the hall. 
It is a detailed record of how an African 
scene was brought to life in Chicago Natural 
History Museum. 



STORY OF THE BUCHENS' EXPEDITION TO AFRICA 



{Continued from page S) 
jabber in Kiswahili and the local dialect, 
and our paddler pointed gleefully at a num- 
ber of pelicans. After much shaking of the 
head and ineffectual 
attempts to describe 
what we wanted in 
words, Williams drew 
another picture, this 
time emphasizing the 
length of the legs. 
Our boatman was cer- 
tain that he now knew 
just what we wanted. 
This time he was 
right, and great was 
our excitement when a 
half hour later we saw 
our first whalehead 
perched on a tiny mud 
island intent on the 
water below — a truly 
prehistoric-looking 
creature. As we came 
closer, he looked up 
and became restive. 

When we were within 75 yards, he took to 
his wings, but a charge of a No. 2 from a 
12-gauge shotgun luckily brought him down. 
Williams was enthusiastic about the speci- 
men and pronounced him a male in full 
plumage. He did not, however, give him 
his usual accolade of complete approval. 



namely, "Magnificent specimen, adult male 
in full breeding plumage," because nothing 
is known definitely about the breeding 
seasons of the whaleheaded stork. All of 




SAFARI PROCEEDS BY WAlfcK 

The Walthcr Buchens being piloted through a Nile swamp by Dr. John Williams. 

The scene is much like the one portrayed in the newly completed exhibit. 



us were very much delighted because we 
had been warned that we might have to 
spend as much as an entire month to find 
the whalehead, and here we had secured an 
excellent specimen on our second day. 

The next day we collected our second 
whalehead, which, by good luck, proved to 



January, 195U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



be a female in good plumage. On the third 
day we saw one more, which we photo- 
graphed with both still and moving-picture 
cameras. These three were all that we saw 
during our days at Erima. The rest of the 
time was spent in collecting about fifty 
specimens of certain species of other birds 
on our list and in gathering samples of mud, 
vegetation, and water lilies, and shade- 
drying many stalks of the local papyrus. 

On June 10 we broke camp and drove 
about fifty miles to a spot where we took a 
ferry across a very narrow part of Lake 
Kyoga. Two days later we pitched our 
tents at Bugondo toward the eastern end of 
the lake. We worked a good many swamps 
in this region for specimens of storks, moor 
hens, several species of bishop birds, and 
marsh weaverbirds, herons, various species 
of teal, painted snipe, and the beautiful 
crowned cranes that were to be one of the 
focal points of our habitat group. 

it's a hard job 

Our work was always fascinating, but 
much of the time it was difficult and un- 
comfortable. The water levels were still 
high and often we had to wade in water 
above our waists through tall, thick vegeta- 
tion. Trying to get within range of a bird 
without being seen or heard was a fasci- 
nating adventure in stalking. Shooting was 
often difficult because of high vegetation. 
Shotguns continued to be our most useful 
tools, although we made good use of 22-rifles 
both with sparrow dust for very small birds 
and with bullets for large specimens too 
far away to be reached with a shotgun. 
Williams could not be with us very much in 
the marshes because of his exacting task of 
skinning and preparing specimens. 

The daily collecting capacity of our expe- 
dition was, of course, limited by our skinning 
capacity because specimens cannot be kept 
more than twenty-four hours and some, 
such as the downy young, cannot be kept 
overnight. Williams, however, had trained 
our game scout Luka and one of our gun 
bearers to do some of the simple skinning- 
work. With these two assistants and his 
own trained skinner, our expedition was able 
to utilize our lucky days to the full. 

After about three weeks of collecting we 
had all of the specimens classified as "musts" 
and almost all that we classified as "de- 
sirable." Several were listed as "wanted if 
easy to get." Some of these were the hardest 
of all to find. One, the saddlebilled stork, 
which is the largest member of the stork 
family, we hunted in vain for days. We 
waded in marshes up to our armpits, our 
skins were rasped by sharp grass, we made 
many halts to pick leeches off' our legs, we 
made many futile stalks, and, after one 
heartbreaking miss and a final long and 
lucky shot, we managed to get one. When 
we triumphantly brought this saddlebill to 
the skinning tent, Williams' reactions were 
a masterpiece of studied tact. He listened 



to our tale, congratulated us on the long 
shot, and, after careful preparation, in- 
formed us that it was an immature male 
and the skin was useless, although the skel- 
eton might possibly be useful as study ma- 
terial. He remarked comfortingly that the 
saddlebill stork was not a "must" on our 
list. We decided that as far as we were 
concerned it was eliminated from our list. 

GOLIATH HERON COLLECTED 

The Goliath heron, the largest member 
of the heron family, was the next "must" 
we tried to secure. After many disappoint- 
ments we finally managed to catch a not 
particularly good female and an excellent 
male. This completed the list of larger 
birds, and it was a relief to go to the smaller 
species, many of them very beautiful, such 
as the malachite kingfisher, the flame- 
colored grenadier bishop, the bright-red 
Uganda bishop, and the yellow-collared 
weaver. We were fortunate in getting a 
good collection of this weaver's nests and 
eggs, and my wife even found the nest and 
the downy young of the'Kitlitz plover, both 
very difficult to see against their gravel 
background. 

When we finally left Uganda, there was 
only one of the required smaller birds that 
we had not found, the male painted-snipe. 
The male is the drab and small member of 
the species. The female is large and has 
beautiful plumage. Our time, however, was 
running out and we decided that perhaps 
Dr. Rand at the Museum in Chicago could 
get along with the decorative female and 
not miss the aesthetically quite negligible 
male. On our four-day journey back to 
Nairobi we made camp one evening on a 
small body of water in the fascinating Kara- 
mojo country. When we walked down to 
the shore to see what there was to see, the 
first bird we saw was a male painted-snipe. 
By quick action we were able to add it to 
our bag, and Williams skinned it that night 
by lamplight. 

The next day we arrived in Nairobi only 
a few days behind schedule. We had col- 
lected more than 170 bird specimens to- 
gether with a considerable number of nests 
and, of course, the supplementary material 
and vegetation required for the habitat 
group. 



NATURE PHOTO ENTRIES 
CLOSE JANUARY 16 

January 16 is the final date on which 
entries can be accepted for the Ninth Chi- 
cago International Exhibition of Nature Pho- 
tography. The exhibition, which results 
from the annual contest and is held under 
the joint auspices of the Chicago Nature 
Camera Club and Chicago Natural History 
Museum, will be open to the public in 
Stanley Field Hall of the Museum from 
February 1 to 28. 



PERSONNEL CHANGES 

Clifford H. Pope, Curator of Amphibians 
and Reptiles for thirteen years, resigned 
December 31 after a six-month leave of 
absence. Curator Pope has been preparing 
a popular account of the reptiles and intends 
to devote full time to this and other writing. 
He has already published several books. The 
Reptiles of China (1935), Snakes Alive and 
How They Live (1937), Turtles of the United 
States and Canada (1939), and China's 
Animal Frontier (1940). 

Before coming to the Museum Mr. Pope 
was in the division of herpetology of the 
American Museum of Natural History in 
New York. From 1921 to 1926 he was with 
the Central Asiatic Expedition to China led 
by Roy Chapman Andrews. In 1936 he 
left the American Museum to devote his 
time to free-lance writing. 

During his curatorship at this Museum his 
interests centered on the taxonomy and 
distribution of North American salamanders, 
the mechanics of the bite of Solenoglyph 
snakes, and the growth of the rattle in 
rattlesnakes. His Handbook of the Amphib- 
ians and Reptiles of the Chicago Area is an 
especially useful work. His field work for 
the Museum took him to various parts of 
the United States and twice to Mexico. 

Curator Pope will continue his connection 
with the Museum as Research Associate in 
the Division of Amphibians and Reptiles. 

Robert F. Inger, Assistant Curator of 
Fishes, has been appointed Curator of Am- 
phibians and Reptiles. He joined the Mu- 
seum staff in 1946 and worked in the 
Division of Reptiles for three years. He 
was then transferred to the Division of 
Fishes where he worked until the effective 
date of his new appointment, January 1. 

Philip Hershkovitz has been promoted 
from Assistant Curator of Mammals to 
Associate Curator in recognition of suc- 
cessful completion of a four-year expedition 
to Colombia and other accomplishments in 
collecting and research. John W. Thieret, 
Assistant Curator of Economic Botany, who 
has just received his Ph.D. degree from the 
University of Chicago, has been appointed 
Curator of Economic Botiny. Dr. Walde- 
mar Meister has been appointed Associate 
in the Division of Anatomy. He has com- 
pleted two research projects based on 
material in the Museum's collections and is 
working on additional problems in the 
Division of Anatomy. 

Miss M. Dianne Maurer, a graduate of 
the University of Chicago and a former 
WAF officer, has been appointed secretary 
for the Department of Botany to replace 
Miss Virginia Sharp who is resigning. Mrs. 
Barbara Polikoff, appointed Assistant in 
Public Relations last June, has been pro- 
moted to the position of Associate Public 
Relations Counsel. Mrs. Dorothy B. Foss, 
Osteologist, resigned as of December 31, 
after more than fifteen years of service. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



January, 195 J^ 



PAPYRUS MARSHES PROVIDED EGYPT WITH SPORT, FOOD, WRITING MATERIAL 



By RICHARD A. MARTIN 

CURATOR, N. W. HARRIS PUBUC SCHOOL EXTENSION* 

FAR NORTH of Lake Kyoga, along the 
margins of the Lower Nile in Egypt 
and in the Delta where the river nears the 
sea, there used to be papyrus marshes much 
like those now found along the Upper Nile in 
the Sudan and in Uganda. These marshes. 



marshes stood in his boat and speared or 
harpooned his catch. The less adventurous 
stay-at-homes "went fishing" with a hook, 
for in many home courtyards of the wealthy 
there were pools stocked with fish from the 
marshes. The lord of the house could angle 
at his leisure without the inconvenience of 
an excursion into the marshes. 



murals from the walls of Akhnaton's (1380- 
1362 B.C.) palace at Amama. As an archi- 
tectural motif we find papyrus utilized in 
monumental buildings in the form of 
columns. 

The real importance of papyrus for almost 
4,000 years was, of course, as a writing 
material. An unused roll of papyrus was 




In this scene from a wall painting in the tomb of Menna (Thebes, New Kingdom) 
the owner of the tomb accompanied by members of his family is shown on a 
hunting trip to the marshes. On the left, Menna is aiming at waterfowl with a 



throw stick, and on the right he has a spear poised for fish. The small boats 
were made of papyrus lashed together. The drawing by Douglas E. Tibbitts, 
Statf Artist, is made from Davies* and Gardiner*s "Ancient Egyptian Paintings.** 



teeming with waterfowl and fish, were rich 
hunting and fishing grounds for the ancient 
Egyptians. Carvings from mastaba tombs 
at Sakkarah dating as far back as the Fifth 
and Sixth Dynasties (2500-2200 B.C.) of 
the Old Kingdom show nobles and peasants 
who have come to the Nile marshlands to 
hunt and fish, the nobles for sport, the 
peasants for food. Similar scenes are de- 
picted in wall paintings decorating the rock- 
cut tombs of later periods, the most notable 
being those of the New Kingdom (1545- 
1090 B.C.) at Thebes. 

Hunting for sport was done from small 
boats made of bundles of papyrus lashed 
together. Sometimes they were paddled 
through the thicket of sedges and rushes 
growing in the shallow water, but usually 
they were poled about. From these boats 
the big-game hunter harpooned the hippo- 
potamus. Hunting waterfowl with the 
throw stick or, less often, with the bow and 
arrow were, however, more popular sports 
with Egyptian noblemen. Attendants ac- 
companied the hunters and retrieved the 
game and the throw sticks and arrows. 

The Egyptian nobleman fishing in the 



* Former Curator of Near Eastern Archaeology. 



Where food rather than sport was of first 
consideration, the ancient Egyptians prac- 
ticed hunting and fishing techniques that 
assured returns on a larger scale. For "com- 
mercial" fishing there were dip nets for the 
individual and large seines requiring the 
help of many men. To catch the unwary 
waterfowl that then, as now, flocked into 
the great Nile flyway, the Egyptians spread 
large nets and set various other kinds of 
traps. Many of the captured birds were 
kept in captivity and fattened. There are 
scenes that show force feeding or "noodling" 
of cranes and geese similar to the noodling 
done today for the best ipaU de foie gras. 

The papyrus we see in the Museum's group 
of birds of the Upper Nile is perhaps the 
most significant reminder of ancient Egypt. 
From prehistoric times down into the 9th 
century after Christ it played an important 
role in affairs along the Nile. We find it in 
various forms in Egyptian hieroglyphics. It 
became a symbol for Lower Egypt. It was 
pictured in the fowling and fishing scenes 
from tombs of various periods and was used 
as an important element in the decoration 
of buildings for the living. Perhaps the 
most beautiful of all Egyptian paintings 
that have been recovered are the papyrus 



found in the tomb of a First Dynasty king 
(about 2900 B.C.), and several small docu- 
ments of written-on papyrus date from the 
P^fth and Sixth Dynasties. Almost from 
the time when men learned to write, papyrus 
was the most important writing material 
throughout that part of the civilized world 
that did not write on clay. During the 
Graeco-Roman period papyrus was a major 
crop of Egypt. Prepared for writing it was 
exported in enormous quantities. 

Parchment (the skin of sheep and goats) 
and vellum (the skin of calves and kids) be- 
came competitive writing materials in the 
2nd century after Christ but were never so 
important as papyrus. In the 8th century, 
however, the art of making paper from linen 
and flax was introduced into the Near East 
from China, and by the end of the 9th 
century that industry had made its way to 
the Delta. At the close of the 10th century 
paper had entirely replaced papyrus in the 
Moslem world. 

But 5,000 years of a constantly expanding 
agricultural economy have drained away the 
lush papyrus swamps of ancient Egypt. 
Today the papyrus plant is found only in 
botanical gardens and in remote reaches of 
the Upper Nile. 



January, 195i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



A MID-MOUNTAIN FOREST 
IN THE PHILIPPINES 

By AUSTIN L. RAND 

CURATOR OF BIRDS 

I'VE JUST COME BACK to Dumaguete 
City after a week in the tropical mid- 
mountain forests of Negros Island. There 
I woke at dawn to hear jungle fowl crowing, 
big pigeons booming, and leafbirds singing, 
and at dusk monkeys squalled from the 




Photo by D. S. Rabo 



THE 'HORNS OF NEGROS,' PHILIPPINE PEAKS 



forest edging the camp clearing as the frogs 
began their evening chorus. I lived in a 
camp just below the summit of the "Horns 
of Negros," the twin peaks that dominate 
the mountains of southern Negros. 

After the meetings in Manila of the 
Pacific Science Congress I came down to 
the central Philippines where the Chicago 
Natural History Museum Field Associate, 
Dr. D. S. Rabor, is head of the Department 
of Biology of Silliman University. Dr. 
Rabor met me at the plane, had me stay 
with him, and arranged for me to stay in 
this Cuernos de Negros camp that he main- 
tains for periodic field work by his biology 
classes. He not only arranged it, but saw 
me comfortably installed, with cook, per- 
sonnel, supplies, and equipment, and he 
stayed a night to see that all functioned 
smoothly. 

Seldom can one talk long in the Philippine 
Islands without reference to the recent war. 
This camp is no exception, for it is in the 
clearing where Dr. James W. Chapman, ant 
specialist of Silliman University, lived for 
eighteen months after the occupation before 
the Japanese found him and sent him to 
Manila for internment. 

Eastern Negros is a country of small 
farmers of coconuts and corn, heavily 
settled. From Dumaguete we look up, in 
the early morning, to see the forested "Horns 
of Negros." For the rest of the day it's 



usually cloud covered. We climbed up 
nearly 3,000 feet through the hot, sweltering 
foothills, through coconut groves, banana 
groves, sweet potato and com fields, and 
abaca plantations (which yield Manila 
hemp). With our lunch, along the way, we 
had fresh coconut milk (one of the advan- 
tages of living in the tropics, Rabor says) 
and also toba. This last was quite new to 
me, but it seems widely used in Negros. 
The inflorescence of 
the coconut is cut and 
a bamboo tube is at- 
tached to collect the 
juice. Near each 
house we passed we 
saw the tubes in the 
coconut palms. Each 
morning the men 
climb to gather the 
juice. Fresh (slightly 
fermented only, as we 
had it), I found it re- 
calling hard cider, fla- 
vored with things I 
couldn't name. Rabor 
says a powdered bark 
is put into it — and 
also insects, rats, and 
even bats and lori- 
keets come to drink 
from the tubes, fall in 
drunk, and drown. If 
kept for two days its 
alcoholic content is 
greatly increased and caution is required. 

At 3,000 feet we were in the forests, and 
at 3,700 in the camp. Rabor and I climbed 
to the top of the 
North Horn of Ne- 
gros, which is nearly 
6,000 feet. It starts 
out as a moderate 
slope with fine tall for- 
est, with ferns, tree 
ferns, low palms, and 
moss common. Half- 
way up it steepens. 
Coniferous trees come 
in, and great rocks 
moss covered and 
gripped by aerial roots 
and scrambling pan- 
danus are conspicu- 
ous. We clambered 
up with hand and toe 
holds past mossy 
caves and passages. 
We grasped at mossy 
trunks that looked to 
be six inches in diam- 
eter to find them one- 
half inch in diameter 

and the rest moss. A misstep on a pan- 
danus-leaf mat sent a leg through into space. 
When we finally reached the top, a mass of 
aged dwarf conifers, pandanus, tree ferns, 
palms, and moss, we found the clouds had 



DALLWIG TO DRAMATIZE 
TRIP TO THE MOON 

Paul G. Dallwig, the Layman Lecturer, 

will take his audiences "out of this world" 
in his first dramatization of the season, "A 
Trip to the Moon — Why Not?" to be given 
at 2 P.M. on January 3, 10, 17, 24, and 31. 
The possibility of such a trip seems much 
more likely now that scientists have man- 
aged to contact the moon by radar, and Mr. 
Dallwig takes into account all that science 
knows so far about what might be expected 
on a trip of this kind. The dramatization 
is divided into three scenes: "The Take- 
Off," "The Trip to the Moon," and "A 
Day on the Moon." Mr. Dallwig will also 
explain the difference between comets, me- 
teors, and meteorites, whether flying saucers 
are fact or fantasy, and other topics con- 
nected with outer space. 

Museum Members are admitted to these 
lectures upon presentation of their member- 
ship cards; others must make reservations 
in advance by mail or telephone (WAbash 
2-9410). There is a half-hour intermission 
for refreshments in the Museum cafeteria 
at 3. The programs begin in the Lecture 
Hall and progress into exhibition halls con- 
taining material that Mr. Dallwig uses to 
Illustrate his dramatizations. 

In February Mr. Dallwig's subject will 
be "Life— What Is It?" 



closed in below us. There was no view. 
We were above the clouds and it was like 
being on a small forested island in a frozen 
sea of white. 




Photo by D. S. Rabor 

MID-MOUNTAIN FOREST INTERIOR IN THE PHILIPPINES 



Though wet enough now, with water in 

the streams and the moss like sodden 

sponges, this is the start of the northeast 

monsoon, which is dry, and in February and 

(Continued on page 8, column 1 ) 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



January, 195 U 



lUlinois Audubon Society Offers 
Screen-Tour of Mexico 
"Land of the Scarlet Macaw" is the title 
of a free screen-tour to be presented in the 
James Simpson Theatre of the Museum on 
Sunday, January 17, at 2:30 p.m. under the 
auspices of the Illinois Audubon Society. 
The films to be shown survey the natural 
treasures of Mexico in all their color and 
variety. The accompanying lecture will be 
by Dr. Ernest P. Edwards of Amherst, Vir- 
ginia. The scenes recorded by his camera 
range from the summits of mountains and 
volcanoes to picturesque markets in isolated 
villages deep in hidden valleys. 

PHILIPPINE REPORT- 

(Continued frcrni page 7) 
March there is no water to be had on the 
mountains. On the lower slopes we found 
a "mixed bird party." A blue-and-cinnamon 
fantail flycatcher that was perching and 
calling conspicuously in the van was the 
leader, Rabor said. In this party were 
scores of white-eyes, a chickadee, a nut- 
hatch, bulbuls, and leafbirds, and probably 
others. The drongos do not join these 
parties but, instead, associate with monkeys, 
perhaps for the insects they stir up, as 
cowbirds associate with cows in our country. 

I was especially pleased to see on these 
slopes of the Horn a babbler that Rabor 
and I described as new to science some years 
ago when he was in Chicago. At that time 
neither of us had seen it alive. Now we 
both watched its actions, noting its rather 
undistinguished manner of poking about 
twigs and branches searching for its food, 
as do so many generalized songbirds. 

Negros Oriental, contrasted with some 
other parts of the Philippine Islands just 
now, is very orderly. The people with their 
small farms believe in law and order and 
protection of property. We can wander 
freely. But there's one thing to watch out 
for, Rabor warns me: it's best to have a 
native guide — to keep me out of pig traps. 
These traps, with the aid of a bent sapling, 
send a spear across a trail with the object 
of transfixing the pig. The spear is ordi- 
narily aimed knee high, and Rabor says 
that as I'm rather tall the spear would 
probably catch me in the upper calf. Next 
time I went out I located four abandoned 
pig traps along a trail I had passed a number 
of times earlier without seeing them. 

In the camp clearing grow raspberries, as 
big as the end of my thumb, on canes fifteen 
feet or more long so that some dangle out 
of reach overhead. They're a bit dry, com- 
pared with our northern berries, but they 
have the same "stink-bugs" that have 
ruined many a mouthful of berries for me 
in the United States. 

This is the change of the seasons, with 
variable weather: some days are fine, some 
the rain drips endlessly from sodden skies. 
Days when the mists roll in at noon are 



like twilight, and the frogs evidently think 
it is, for they start their "evening" chorus 
then. Then it is that the big pigeons become 
conspicuous. Singly or in pairs, they glide 
down the ridges with a sizzling sound, or 
circle about with whistling wings. These 
are the birds that pigeon hunters come up 
here for, from the valleys below. Firearms 
being outlawed, they're armed with airguns, 
but such airguns as I've never seen before. 
They're made locally, of brass, and it takes 
all a hunter's weight to work the pump. 
They're evidently effective, for the other 
day one hunter had three pigeons. A yellow- 
flowered ground orchid, common here, is 
evidently prized for gardens below, for one 
day we saw three small boys with baskets 
of them, evidently transplanting them to 
gardens. 

At times, especially when the clouds roll 
in, this country seems remote and lonely. 
But we're continually being reminded that 
it's not. Trails of pigeon and orchid hunters 
lead everywhere; the bamboo tapping "talk" 
of the villagers below comes up clearly, the 
sharp tapping of two pieces of dry bamboo 
struck in varying rhythms that seem to 
convey ideas if not actual messages; we're 
continually finding little heaps of pigeon 
feathers, proof of some hunter's prowess; 
and when there's a rift in the clouds we see 
the nearby islands of Cebu or Siquijor. Like 
most forests near settlements, this one is 
being encroached on, cleared for abaca plan- 
tations. And in the dry season fires can eat 
into its edges. So far, the ruggedness of the 
terrain, a welter of knife-edge ridges, has 
saved it. But the country is on the way to 
the deforested condition of nearby Cebu, 
which I saw from the air. 

Our cook was willing, but inexperienced. 
One day our hunters returned in high glee 
with five monkeys. After the skins were 
saved for the Museum, the cook was in- 
structed in preparing monkey meat for the 
plates (we had no table). The meat was 
cut in chunks from the bones, boiled for a 
bit, then fried for a while. As the cook 
turned the pieces in the pan he found them 
coated with loose monkey fur. So for a long 
time he sat, turning piece after piece in the 
frying pan, picking off monkey fur. Monkey 
meat, fresh from the monkey to the frying 
pan to the plate, may be a little tough but 
it's rich tasting and flavorful. And rice 
fried in the fat left from frying monkey was 
especially tasty. 

The question of language is beyond me 
in the few weeks I have been here, I'm 
afraid. Fortunately, English is pretty 
widely understood. Indeed it is the official 
language of instruction in the schools (with 
Tagalog the second official language). Here 
with the people talking amongst themselves 
there are occasional English words like 
"sleeping bag," occasional Spanish ones 
like "came" for meat, and for the rest it is 
not Tagalog, but Visayan, the native tongue 
of the central Philippines. 



Daily Guide-Lectures 
of Museum Exhibits 
Free guide-lecture tours are offered 
daily except Sundays under the title 
"Highlights of the Exhibits." These tours 
are designed to give a general idea of the 
entire Museum and its scope of activities. 
They begin at 2 p.m. on Monday through 
Friday and at 2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 



4-H Tribute to Museum 

A 4-H Donor Merit Award has been re- 
ceived by Chicago Natural History Museum 
in recognition of its 33 years' support of 
4-H Club work. The award was presented 
by the Co-operative Extension Service and 
the National Committee on Boys' and Girls' 
Club Work on the occasion of the annual 
National 4-H Club Congress in Chicago. 



When I wrote by the light of the kerosene 
lamp in the evening the assortment of moths 
that came to the light was considerable. 
Especially noticeable among the silvery ones 
and the gray ones was a white one with 
pink bars and a pale green one. And just 
as conspicuous were the hemipterous bugs 
in varying patterns of black, yellow, and 
orange. 

Particularly in mountain forest, the first 
days are discouraging — the terrain is so 
rugged, the trails are all so slippery, the 
vegetation is so dense and dripping, and the 
birds get about with so much more ease 
than I do. But my legs are now hardened 
to the hills. I look before I step. The 
dripping wet I'm used to now, and I've be- 
gun to know where the birds will be, where 
there's a special bulbul grove a few hundred 
yards down the trail, where there's an at- 
tractive fruiting tree just beyond and a little 
saddle in a ridge that birds favor, and so on. 

It's interesting how much more satisfac- 
tory some birds are to watch than are others. 
For example, one evening in the mountains 
a flower pecker and a velvet-fronted nut- 
hatch came into the tree edging the clearing. 
The fliower pecker perched on a slender 
branch of a second-growth tree. It was a 
male, about three inches long, orange below, 
blue above, with a red spot on mid-back. 
Short-billed, short-tailed, it sat, like a 
dumpy ball of feathers, quite still, for per- 
haps ten minutes, then flew away. My 
knowledge of it was increased only in know- 
ing that the species is very inactive. 

How different was the nuthatch. It came 
into a branching tree, lit low, hopped up 
one branch, head up, looking this way and 
that, then across to another branch, then 
came down that headfirst, now belly down, 
now back down, as it followed the twisting 
and the turning of the branch. In two or 
three minutes it had showed me its bag of 
acrobatic tricks, typical, quick, active nut- 
hatch behavior, and was gone, leaving the 
flower pecker still sitting soggily. 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



RULLETIN 

LJ Vbl .25.No.2-February 1954 

Chicago Natural 
Ilistorij J^Iu.seiirrt 




!*^ 




9th Chicago International 

Nature Photo Exhibit 

February 1 — 28 



Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



February, 195 U 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshaix Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Samuel Insull, Jr. 

Sewell L. Avebv Henry P. Isham 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field PTesidmt 

Marshall Field Firet Vice-President 

Samuel Insull, Jb Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg .Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sbarat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Karl P. Schmidt Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Barbara Polikoff 



Members arc requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



JOHN T. PIRIE, JR. NAMED 
TRUSTEE; OFFICERS ELECTED 

John T. Pirie, Jr., has been elected a 
Trustee of Chicago Natural History Museum 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death last 
year of Albert H. Wetten. Mr. Pirie, 
president of Carson Pirie Scott and Com- 
pany, was simultane- 
ously elected a Cor- 
porate Member of the 
Museum. A partici- 
pant in many Chicago 
civic organizations, 
Mr. Pirie is active in 
the Chicago Crime 
Commision, the Child 
Welfare League, Jun- 
ior Achievement of 
Chicago, the Salva- 
tion Army, and St. 
Luke's Hospital. 

Samuel Insull, Jr., 
was advanced from Third to Second Vice- 
President and Joseph Nash Field was elected 
Third Vice-President at the Annual Meeting 
on January 18 of the Board of Trustees. 
Stanley Field was re-elected to the office of 
President for the 46th consecutive year. 
Other officers re-elected are: Marshall Field, 
First Vice-President; Solomon A. Smith, 
Treasurer; Colonel Clifford C. Gregg, Direc- 



tor and Secretary; and John R. Millar, 
Assistant Secretary. 




John T. Pirie, Jr. 



EXPERIMENT IN ISRAEL: 

NATURALISTS AS TEACHERS 

By KARL P. SCHMIDT 
chief curator of zoology 

ONE of my several hosts during a re- 
cent stay in Israel was the Biological 
Pedagogical Institute of Tel Aviv. I had 
known something about its naturalist direc- 
tor, Dr. Heinrich Mendelssohn, through my 
colleague Professor Georg Haas of the He- 
brew University in Jerusalem, but I had no 
understanding, before my arrival in Tel 
Aviv, of the nature of the Institute. Dr. 
Mendelssohn proved to be one of the most 
competent and enthusiastic naturalists I 
have known, with an extraordinary com- 
mand of the whole range of Palestinian 
natural history, including both plants and 
animals, their natural associations, their 
geographic distribution, and, as to the larger 
animals, a detailed knowledge of their 
behavior. 

The Institute turned out to be in the 
main a small zoo in which almost every one 
of the larger animals of the Palestinian 
fauna is to be seen. This collection is sup- 
plemented by preserved specimens, a sort 
of small museum appended to the zoological 
garden. The quarters in which the animals 
are kept are extremely crowded. Cages are 
often piled three or four high, with only the 
narrowest separating passages between. 
These quarters would be entirely inadequate, 
were it not that Mr. Mendelssohn and his 
assistants are imbued with the traditions of 
natural keepers of live animals, to whom no 
effort is too great to maintain their charges 
in health and in essential happiness. "Hap- 
piness" of animals in a zoo consists of an 
adjustment to cage life and, much more 
vitally, an adjustment to the keeper. It is 
difficult to avoid the word "love" for this 
relationship. Successful adjustment cer- 
tainly lies specifically in confidence and the 
feeling of security. At any rate the animals 
are in good condition, and this is especially 
attested by their mating and breeding in 
captivity, as many animals in the largest 
and best-kept zoos may fail to do. 

Here at our first stop in Israel, I was able 
to see the gazelle and ibex of the southern 
deserts; the wild boar of the northern 
marshes; the striped hyena, still found on 
Mount Carmel; the widespread jackals 
(running free between the cages as scaven- 
gers); the array of native hawks and vul- 
tures; the water birds and waders; and 
among the snakes and lizards and turtles 
the species that I had long known as mu- 
seum specimens but never before had seen 
in their natural coloration and in their own 
modes of locomotion and behavior. 

Here in Tel Aviv, then, is a small zoo, 
focused on the native fauna, and quite 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



Photographer Yu-chiu Cheung 
of Hong Kong has managed to 
give the photograph, "Silver 
Twins," reproduced on our cover, 
a delicacy of line that suggests a 
Chinese print. The fish are one 
of the silver-colored varieties of 
goldfish. Mr. Yu-chiu submitted 
this photograph for the Ninth 
Chicago International Exhibition 
of Nature Photography, which 
will be held by the Chicago Na- 
ture Camera Club and the Mu- 
seum in Stanley Field Hall from 
February 1 to 28, inclusive. A 
full account of the exhibit of 
photographs is on page 5. 



closed to the public, so that even children 
are admitted only after proved ability to 
share the burdens of cage-cleaning and feed- 
ing. What is the function of such a collec- 
tion, kept at so great an expenditure of 
time and effort? The zoo is maintained as 
a means of teaching natural history to the 
students of the Institute, which prepares 
teachers for the elementary and secondary 
schools of Israel. It is a tool used to teach 
the teacher-trainees. It is not for children, 
or for the general public, or even for the 
graduate teachers. Its program was started 
by Professor Jehoshua Margulin, who, a 
generation ago, found the prospective 
teachers learning natural history from Ger- 
man or English textbooks and wholly ig- 
norant about the native life of Palestine. 
He set about remedying this situation first 
of all by making a radical change in his own 
life, from a characteristically rabbinical and 
bookish training to the life of a field natural- 
ist. This took him back to Europe for 
zoological studies and then again to Pales- 
tine to introduce the teaching of teachers 
by the use of living animals. His success is 
reflected in the rise of the small outpost 
museums that are now to be found, literally 
from Dan to Beersheba. 

I believe that the "Museum Idea" so 
captures the imagination of the teachers 
trained at the Biological Pedagogical Insti- 
tute that another generation will see in 
Israel the most museum-minded population, 
with the largest proportion of enthusiastic 
naturalists, of any country in the world. 



Daily Guide-Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered 
daily except Sundays under the title 
"Highlights of the Exhibits." These tours 
are designed to give a general idea of the 
entire Museum and its scope of activities. 
They begin at 2 p.m. on Monday through 
Friday and at 2:30 P.M. on Saturday. 



February, 195i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Pages 



WHAT THE GROUNDHOG UNDERGOES TO MAKE A 'HOLIDAY' 



By PHILIP HERSHKOVITZ 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF MAMMALS 

FEBRUARY 2 is Candlemas Day and 
Groundhog Day. According to tradi- 
tion the weather on this day is very impor- 
tant because it is an omen of good or bad 
luck for planting and sowing. The ground- 
hog, also known as woodchuck or marmot, 
is the medium through which the meaning 
of the hidden knowledge is revealed. On 
this fateful day, the woodchuck breaks its 
winter sleep and leaves its den. If the day 
is clear and the animal sees 
its shadow on the ground, it 
hurries back to the burrow 
for six weeks more of hiber- 
nation. This means that 
spring will be late and the 
crops poor. If the day is 
cloudy and no shadow is 
cast, an early spring with a 
good harvest is foretold, and 
the groundhog stays abroad. 
This brings up the subject of 
how the woodchuck prepares 
itself to enact the role of an 
oracle. 

Throughout the summer, 
the groundhog fattens itself 
in anticipation of winter's 
scarcity. When ready for 
hibernation, it selects a suit- 
able den. This may be a 
burrow in the woods, the 
hollow base of a stump, or a 
hole along a hedgerow. 
Usually, the entrance to the 
den has a southern exposure 
and the nesting chamber, 
unless it is a well-insulated 
haystack, is deep enough to 
be below the frost line. Ac- 
commodated in its nest, the 
woodchuck goes into a state 
of deep hibernation, or torpor, by steps 
lasting several days, even weeks. 

HOW IT ACHIEVES NIRVANA 

First, a sluggishness engulfs the animal. 
This is followed by drowsiness that may 
lapse into a light sleep or revert to sluggish 
wakefulness. The woodchuck seesaws be- 
tween these preliminary stages for several 
days and may even return to a very brief 
period of activity. Finally, it curls up into 
a ball and passes from the dormancy of a 
warm-blooded animal to a condition of tor- 
por analogous to that of a nearly frozen 
reptile or amphibian. The temperature of 
the woodchuck drops from a typically normal 
mammalian 98° or 99° Fahrenheit, to 60°, 
50°, or even a low of 36°, the exact tempera- 
ture depending on that of the surroundings. 
The drop in body temperature is protracted 
over the course of days, sometimes weeks, 
and is broken by a series of small rises. It 
adjusts itself finally to within a degree or 



two of the environmental temperature. 

At the same time the heart rate drops 
from a minimum of 80 beats per minute to 
as few as 4 or 5. The respiratory rate 
also falls from an active 140 per minute 
and a quiescent non-hibernating 25 to 30 
to an almost unbelievable low of less than 
one complete respiratory cycle in five min- 
utes. One per minute is, however, the 
average rate of respiration in hibernation. 
All other vital functions follow suit and the 
animal becomes stiff, cold to the touch, and 




Cartoon by Margaret G. Bradbury 



HIS DAY (FEBRUARY 2) 



seems to be dead. Nevertheless, the ground- 
hog continues to give off perspiration and 
heat, though in such minuscule quantities 
that their production can be detected only 
with special instruments. This is in marked 
contrast with the condition of bloodless and 
coldblooded organisms, whose vital func- 
tions are completely suspended during 
hibernation. 

The woodchuck in torpor is not really so 
unconscious as it seems. It can easily be 
induced to waken by handling, by warming 
its chamber, or by other mechanical means. 
Certain internal stimuli, such as a weak 
sensation of hunger or the urge to mate, 
may cause the woodchuck to return to a 
state of normal wakefulness and may even 
impel it outdoors for a brief excursion that 
could po.ssibly coincide with Candlemas 
Day. The process of waking is rapid and 
violent. The temperature rises from the 
hibernation level to approximately 98° in a 
matter of minutes or, if the difference is 



great, within an hour or two. The heart- 
beat increases in speed to more than 200 
per minute and the rate of respiration to 
above normal basal level. All these pro- 
cesses take place concurrently with a rise in 
heat production that is almost explosive. 
Fat is the source of the energy expended in 
waking and leaving the nest. 

Such interruptions of deep hibernation 
during the five or six months of the cold 
season are frequent and of short duration. 
After the first of such awakenings the wood- 
chuck regains the torpid 
condition within a few hours, 
certainly within a day, and 
with little or none of the 
fluctuations in temperature 
and rate of vital activities 
characteristic of the initial 
process. As days grow 
longer and warmer and green 
shoots begin to appear, the 
groundhog wakes more fre- 
quently and spends more 
time in outdoor wanderings. 
When in one of these forays 
it meets its mate, hiberna- 
tion for the season is over. 
The existence of specified 
external factors that cer- 
tainly oblige the woodchuck 
to enter hibernation has not 
been conclusively demon- 
strated. Low temperature, 
scarcity of food, and dryness 
have been suggested but 
none of these hold. It is no 
colder in September and Oc- 
tober when the groundhog 
goes into hibernation than it 
is in March and April when 
it comes out. Similarly, 
food is far more abundant in 
late summer and early fall 
than in late winter and early spring. Nor- 
mally, humidity is as high, if not higher, 
in fall than it is in summer. Laboratory 
experiments confirm that these external fac- 
tors as well as others, such as light, darkness, 
confined air, etc,, have no direct effect in 
inducing torpor. 

Undoubtedly, the woodchuck enters hi- 
bernation in compliance with an inner urge 
to fulfill a necessary part of its annual life 
cycle at a certain time. During the late 
summer and early fall the body of the wood- 
chuck fills to capacity with energy in the 
form of fat. Its reproductive organs however, 
stay latent until spring. Nevertheless, the 
device of hibernation provides the means 
for carrying over to the next season with a 
minimum of loss the accumulated energy 
needed for the breeding season. 

there's aestivation, too 

The concept of hibernation, defined as 
the act by an organism of passing a period 



Page U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



February, 195i 



of time in a state of torpor, can include 
stages in the life cycle of a shrub, an amoeba, 
and a hookworm, as well as a frog, a wood- 
chuck, and a host of other plants and ani- 
mals. Contrary to the implications of the 
term, hibernation is not restricted to the 
calendar winter. Many plants and animals 
start hibernating before the end of summer 
and continue in a state of torpor through 
part of spring. In the tropics and even in 
high latitudes, a long dry summer is charac- 
terized by a multitude of hibernating or, 
as it would be called in this case, aestivating 
plants and animals. Thus, the crucial part 
of hibernation is neither the time nor the 
place but the kind of suspended animation 
assumed by the organism. 

In birds and mammals, complete suspen- 
sion of vital activities means death. The 
definition of hibernation in the case of warm- 
blooded animals must be modified, therefore, 
to indicate a state of torpor acquired 
through a profound decrease of heat pro- 
duction accompanied by a lowering of body 
temperature to within a few degrees of en- 
vironmental temperature. This physio- 
logical condition of hibernation, which must 
be reversible, rarely obtains in birds, the 
one authentic example being the poor-will, 
and is found in few species of mammals, none 
larger than the woodchuck. True mammal 
hibernators include some species of temper- 
ate-zone bats, the hedgehog and African ten- 
rec, the ground squirrel, chipmunk, prairie 
dog, jumping mouse, pocket mouse, jerboa. 



hamster, and dormouse. The spiny anteater 
of the Australian region is a true hibernator 
but whether or not its relative, the platypus 
or duckbill, of Australia and Tasmania can 
be so classified is not certainly known. 

A number of carnivores, notably the bear, 
skunk, badger, and raccoon, are said to hi- 
bernate. These animals can pass through 
the preliminary hibernation stages of slug- 
gishness, drowsiness, and dormancy as de- 
scribed for the woodchuck, but no farther. 
They can become completely passive but 
they never descend to true torpidity. With 
them there is no appreciable lowering of 
body temperature and they continue to 
produce enough heat to remain warm to 
the touch. All breed before or during the 
hibernation period and the female bear even 
produces and suckles her young during the 
winter. It seems then that compared with 
the woodchuck and other true hibernators, 
the bear, badger, skunk, and raccoon pass 
the winter in a state of relaxed, rather than 
partially suspended, animation. 

Whether or not the woodchuck makes the 
traditional meteorological test on the second 
day of February, the devotees of Groundhog 
Day will not allow the fete to pass by un- 
observed. We suspect that while weather 
conditions at one end of the county may 
let the groundhog cast its shadow, the over- 
cast at the other extreme might make for a 
different story, but still a story that has 
become a cherished part of American 
folklore. 



BIRDS OF BALINSASAYO LAKES IN THE PHILIPPINES 



By AUSTIN L. RAND 

CURATOR OF BIRDS 



THE COASTAL RANGE of eastern Ne- 
gros is volcanic. On its jagged crest is a 
ragged, cup-shaped depression, little more 
than a couple of miles across, in which, side 
by side, lie the two Lakes Balinsasayo at an 
altitude of about 3,000 feet. Here Silliman 
University has a biology station, a lakeside 
house where I spent a week. From the 
crest I could look out to the islands of Cebu 
and Siquijor, the Straits of Cebu, and the 
Visayan Sea, and, dimly visible only on 
good days, Zamboanga far to the south. 
Inland the view was over rough, wooded 
slopes and peaks (that reach 4,500 feet) 
with some of the most magnificent forest 
trees I've seen anywhere. 

The fading of daylight in the deep little 
mountain valley where the station stands 
comes suddenly and early. Our house was 
in evening shadow by 3 p.m., and it deepened 
to twilight while the sun was still shining 
on the slope opposite. I watched the even- 
ing happenings. First hornbills crossed 
high up, from valley wall to valley wall, on 
their way to some sleeping place; then spine- 
tailed swifts paid an evening visit and passed 
on. By 5:45 the first of the small bats 
appeared. Not until 6 p.m. when dusk had 
deepened did medium-sized fruit-bats come 



to feed in their favorite tree near camp. 
Strangely they did not stop and feed but 
seemed to hover only a moment, snatching 
a bite here and there, on the wing. Later, 
about 7:30 of a moonlight night, I returned 
to see if they had settled down. But no, 
the medium-sized bats were still feeding in 
the same way. However, two big fruit-bats, 
real "flying foxes," had come into the trees 
and were feeding as I expected them to — 
resting in the trees, snarling, and sending 
down showers of fruit and seeds. 

EXCLUSIVE TREE CAFETERIAS 

Fruiting trees of many sorts bearing 
various-sized fruit are common here. They 
provide food for a great many birds as well 
as the bats. We found seven species of 
fruit-eating pigeons, a hornbill, and two 
fiowerpeckers that depend on fruit, as well 
as many others that do so occasionally, but 
strangely there are no favorite trees to which 
great numbers of species and individuals 
come. Perhaps it's the very abundance of 
such trees here that makes the concentration 
about one tree, so striking a feature of the 
lowlands, unnecessary in these mountains. 
Another point is that certain fruit trees are 
used by only one or two species. For 
example, the fruit trees fed in by fruit-bats 
at night were not frequented by any birds 



in the daytime. Another, a small-fruited 
tree, was frequented only by bulbuls while 
I watched. Does the abundance of fruiting 
trees allow each species to choose its own 
kind of tree, too? 

There was only one flower-feeder, a sun- 
bird, at this camp. This reflects a general 
condition of the Philippines, compared with 
New Guinea, for example. In the Philip- 
pines fruit-eaters are common, but flower- 
feeders few; while in New Guinea flower- 
feeders (including a species-rich family of 
honey-eaters, many brush-tongued lories, 
and a couple of sunbirds) are as plentiful 
as fruit-eaters. Is there a difference in 
Philippine flowers that has discouraged 
flower-feeding specialization, or is it a zoo- 
geographical accident? 

In my experience, tropical fiowerpeckers 
(tiny, short-billed, mostly brilliantly colored 
birds) have little to do with flowers, despite 
their name, and are mostly fruit-eaters. I 
spent some time watching an orange- 
breasted species. It was always a stolid, 
inactive bird, even when feeding in a fruit 
tree. Then, one day I got a surprise when 
I saw one of these birds moving actively 
about the twigs and leaves of a tall forest 
tree, as sprightly as any leaf warbler. 

This brought to mind the two very dif- 
ferent aspects of the diet of these birds and 
of corresponding modification of the diges- 
tive system. They eat fruit and also insects 
and spiders. The spiders pass down the 
gullet, into the stomach, and then into the 
intestine, as is normal for birds. With 
fruit it is otherwise. Berries are swallowed 
whole. These pass down the gullet, bypass 
the small stomach entirely, and go directly 
into the intestine. Apparently no stomach 
action is necessary for the intestines to 
extract the nourishment from the fruit, and 
the stomach has been modified accordingly. 
I wonder if the two types of activity, the 
lethargic and the sprightly, are also corre- 
lated? 

PROTECTIVE FACTORS 

Time after time as I've looked up into 
the forest trees my eyes have been captivated 
by the yellow belly of the elegant titmouse, 
the orange-yellow underparts of a flower- 
pecker, and the rich yellow venter of the 
canary fiycatcher. They're certainly adver- 
tising colors. Hugh Cott, British biologist, 
showed that, in general, bright-colored 
birds are poorer in flavor than those whose 
colors are concealing in effect, and it is 
reasoned that this is a protection against 
predators that otherwise might be attracted 
by the bright colors. Cott worked mostly 
with north-temperate forms. I wonder if 
the same is true of birds of the tropical 
forests? Or, as is perhaps also true of coral 
reef fishes, is it that the protection of their 
habitat, the dense masses of foliage (as of 
coral) with many hiding places, have allowed 
(Continued on page 5, column 1) 



February, 195 It 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



COLOR PICTURES IN 3-D 

OF MUSEUM EXHIBITS 

Three-dimensional color pictures on slides 
that preserve vividly the reality of the Mu- 
seum habitat groups will be available for 
purchase in the Museum Book Shop about 
the middle of February. A viewer that 
brings out the full depth and color of the 
slides will also be available. The first group 
of slides, now completed, is called "Animal 
Adventures." In this group there are ten 
series of slides, each series containing six 
different views of animals in places such as 
Africa, India, and southeast Asia. There 
are plans for filming future series on birds, 
American Indians, and other subjects of 
interest to those who want to build a slide 
library that encompasses the world. The 
slides are particularly desirable because it 
is too difficult for the Museum visitor to 
make his own photographs without special 
equipment. 



BALINSASAYO- 

(Continued from page i.) 
colors to run riot, uninfluenced by predator 
selection? Perhaps at my next stop, in 
Amio, I will have a chance for some obser- 
vations along the lines of Cott's. 

I've just had my first view of a monkey 
in a treetop. Hitherto, to me, monkeys in 
the wild have been voices, or confused, 
rapidly moving shapes in the treetops. But 
today traveling along the lake shore by 
canoe, I looked up to see a monkey sitting 
quietly on a big branch just above me. 
Through my binoculars I watched him tug 
thoughtfully at his beard (or it may have 
been her, for females wear beards, too) and 
scratch his back, before melting back into 
the leafy verdure. It had looked exactly as 
I'd expected a monkey in a treetop to look 
and, as realization so seldom accords with 
expectation, it's worth noting. 

TRICKY OUTRIGGERS 

There must have been on our lake, a 
dozen "bankas," as the little dugout canoes 
with an outrigger on each side are called. 
Some were small, barely 10 feet long. No 
one walks anywhere; even tiny children 
paddle. From the perspective of our camp 
these little craft with their outriggers, 
scurrying about the lake, called to mind the 
long-legged water insects known as water 
striders. These bankas are easy to manage 
really, with the typical steering twist at the 
end of the paddle stroke. They're difficult 
to upset but not foolproof, as I found when 
I tried to launch myself in one not big 
enough for my weight and found myself 
standing waist deep in water, with the 
banka on the bottom under my feet. 

Mudfish have been introduced into these 
lakes and thrive in the algae-filled water. 
They're taken in set lines, tied to sticks 3 



to 6 feet long that lean over the water. 
These set lines completely rim both lakes at 
lO-to-15-foot intervals, and in landing a 
banka anywhere one has to watch not to 
hit them. They're all the property of the 
caretaker of the station, and he says the 
fish get as long as your arm. To my own 
knowledge they get to be 14 inches long, 
for I caught several of that length. 

Though we didn't feel it here in the 
Philippines, we could tell it was wintertime 
farther north, from the migrant birds we 
saw. In numbers either of species or of indi- 
viduals they didn't compare with the great 
numbers of winter migrants that go from 
North America to Central America in com- 
parable latitudes. But here on our lake 
some were conspicuous. Most noticeable 
was the swallow, the Old World representa- 
tive of our barn swallow, that comes here 
from Asia. They feed over the water, and 
perch, 40 to 60 strong, on the branches of a 
dead treetop that has fallen into the lake 
near camp. Gray wagtails were the next 
most conspicuous. They're silm, elegant 
birds of gray, yellow, and white that haunt 
the water's edge catching insects. When 
agitated, they move not only the tail but 
the whole hind part of the body up and 
down, a trait that has given them not only 
the English name wagtail but also the 
scientific one of Motacilla. Among the other 
migrants should be especially mentioned the 
kingfisher of Eurasia, little larger than a 
sparrow and with a vivid blue back. It 
perched on the fish poles of the set lines 
and, when disturbed by me, made little 
moves not of its tail like the wagtail but of 
its head in an up-and-down bobbing motion. 
A sandpiper, like our spotted sandpiper but 
without the spots, a brown shrike, a tree 
pipit, and a grass warbler completed the list 
of migrants seen here. 

REFUELING IN FLIGHT 

The ecological segregation of the swallow 
and the cave swiftlets that feed in much 
the same way, catching insects in the air 
while the birds are in full flight, is interest- 
ing. The swallows feed chiefly low over the 
lake; the swiftlets feed about the tops of 
the forest trees. Obviously each could find 
ample food in either place, but would it be 
of the .same kind? Or is the difference 
psychological — do they simply "like" dif- 
ferent kinds of places? 

On one little arm of the bay I found a 
place where the remains of many small 
moths had accumulated. It was a band of 
floating moth-wings on the water's edge. 
The band littered with these wings was 
about 12 feet across and several yards long, 
blown in by the wind. In one eight-inch 
circle there were about 50 individual wings. 
Evidently a great variety of species was 
represented, as their colors varied: pink, 
tan, brown, yellow, blue, gray, or green, all 
{Continued on page 8, column 1 ) 



NATURE PHOTO EXHIBIT 
AT MUSEUM FEB. 1-28 

AN EVENT to which thousands of per- 
sons look forward each year is the 
Annual Chicago International Exhibition of 
Nature Photography. This year's show, 
ninth in the series, will be held as usual at 
Chicago Natural History Museum from 
February 1 to 28. The work of photog- 
raphers of nature has, of course, a direct 
correlation with the objectives of the Mu- 
seum and, because of this shared interest in 




•SKUNK CABBAGE- 
Entered in Plant-Life Division of Nature Photog- 
raphy Exhibit by Grant M. Haist of Rochester, N. Y. 



recording and illustrating the things that 
make up this world and its various forms of 
life, the contest and the resulting exhibit 
have become a joint annual undertaking of 
the Museum and the Chicago Nature 
Camera Club. 

The show is the largest anywhere in the 
world that is devoted exclusively to nature 
photographs, and it ranks among the largest 
photographic exhibits even without respect 
to the limits of its field. It includes photo- 
graphs by both amateurs and professionals 
in the United States, Canada, Latin 
America, Europe, the Orient, Africa, Au.s- 
tralia, and New Zealand, and entries for 
the contest are received for months pre- 
ceding the show. 

THOUSANDS OF ENTRIES 

Approximately 3,600 pictures were sub- 
mitted, a number exceeding any past year. 
From these about 200 prints and 800 color- 
transparencies have been selected for exhi- 
bition. Those to be displayed are the 
choices of a panel of judges: Roland Eisen- 
beis. Senior Park Naturalist of Cook County 
Forest Preserve District, Rachel M. Osgood 
and Jack Remde, well-known photographers, 
and two members of the Museum staff — 
Robert F. Inger, Curator of Amphibians 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



February, 195i 



and Reptiles, and Rupert L. Wenzel, Cura- 
tor of Insects. 

The prints and the miniature color-slides 




'BETATAKIN' (NORTHEAST ARIZONA) 
Photograph of a Pueblo Indian archaeological site 
entered (or the Nature Photography Exhibit by 
H. R. Haines of Visalia. California. Because this 
Bulletin went to press before the judges made their 
decisions, publication of any of the photographs in 
this issue does not necessarily signify acceptance of 
the pictures for the exhibit. 



are grouped in separate divisions because 
different exhibition techniques must be used 
for each. The prints will be on public view 
daily in Stanley Field Hall during the period 
of the show. The color transparencies will 
be shown only on the afternoons of two Sun- 
days, February 14 and 21, at 3 o'clock, 
when they will be projected in mural size 
on the screen in the James Simpson Theatre. 
Music will accompany the showings. Ad- 
mission to the Theatre is free, and the 
general public, as well as members of camera 
clubs, and others interested in photography, 
are invited to attend. 

There are three classifications for both 
prints and transparencies: animal life, plant 
life, and general (which includes geological 
formations, scenery, clouds, etc.). Silver 
medals and ribbons denoting honorable men- 
tion have been awarded by the Chicago 
Nature Camera Club to the photographers 
whose work has been judged the best in each 
classification. In addition there are two 
special medals awarded by the Nature 
Division of the Photographic Society of 
America. Winners of medals receive perma- 
nent recognition also by having their names 
inscribed on a bronze plaque at the Museum. 
This plaque is a contribution of Mrs. Myrtle 
Walgreen, a member of the Chicago Nature 
Camera Club and in her own right an en- 
thusiastic photographer. 



Lectures, Movies Begin March 7 . . . 

SATURDAY PROGRAMS SET 
FOR ADULTS, CHILDREN 

Captain Jacques-Yves Cousteau, famed 
underseas explorer-photographer and author 
of the best-selling book. The Silent World, 
opens the spring season of the Edward E.. 
Ayer Lecture Foundation's Saturday after- 
noon lectures with the first midwest pre- 
sentation of his color motion-picture, "Men- 
fish of the Deep" on March 6 at 2:30 p.m. 
Captain Cousteau is co-inventor of the 
Aqual'.'ng that revolutionized undersea ex- 
ploration by enabling its wearer to swim 
freely without any lines to the surface. With 
the aid of the most advanced undersea 
motion-picture camera. Captain Cousteau 
brings to his audience the wonder of the 
"silent world" where he and his "menfish" 
companions live like fish 300 feet under the 
sea. His movie is a record of man's newest 
progress in probing the "incredible realms 
of nature." 

No tickets are necessary for admission to 
this and the eight subsequent illustrated 
lectures on Saturdays in March and April. 
A section of the James Simpson Theatre 
where the programs are presented is reserved 
for Members of the Museum, each of whom 
is entitled to two reserved seats. Requests 
for these seats should be made in advance 
by telephone (W Abash 2-9410) or in writing. 



Seats will be held in the Member's name 
until 2:25 o'clock on the lecture day. 

The children's series given by the Ray- 
mond Foundation features in its opening 
program, "Life in a Pond," a movie on 
plants and animals that inhabit water. The 
movies begin on March 6 and continue on 
each of the nine Saturdays at 10:30 a.m. 
through March and April. 



DALLWIG TO PROBE 
ORIGINS OF LIFE 

"Life — What Is It?" is the subject of the 
dramatized narrative to be presented at 
the Museum each Sunday afternoon in 
February by Paul G. Dallwig, Layman 
Lecturer. Mr. Dallwig will attempt to 
answer this basic question with data re- 
garded as most acceptable by scientists 
whose lives have been dedicated to research 
on this and allied subjects. Part of his lec- 
ture will be devoted to the reproductive 
processes in plants and animals, illustrated 
by the Museum exhibit showing the stages 
in the birth and pre-natal development of a 
human child. The same lecture will be 
given at 2 p.m. on each Sunday of the month 
—February 7, 14, 21, and 28. 

Museum Members are admitted to these 
lectures upon presentation of their member- 
ship cards; others must make reservations 
in advance by mail or telephone (WAbash 
2-9410). There is a half-hour intermission 
for refreshments in the Museum cafeteria 



at 3. The programs begin in the Lecture 
Hall and progress into exhibition halls con- 
taining material that Mr. Dallwig uses to 
illustrate his dramatizations. 

The Dallwig lectures, increasingly popular 
with Chicagoans for thirteen past years, 
opened in January with an attendance 
breaking all previous records. The subject 
was "A Trip to the Moon — Why Not?" 
Many of those present made reservations 
on the spot for future lectures on other 
subjects. On Sundays in March Mr. Dall- 
wig's topic will be "Behind the Scenes in 
Our Museums." 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month: 

Departtnent of Anthropology: 

From: Adm. Royal E. Ingersoll, Washing- 
ton, D.C. — weapons from China, Japan, 
and Africa; Louis W. Jacobs, Merrimac, 
Wis. — 7 pieces of blue-and-white ceramic 
"export ware," Philippine Islands; Benjamin 
Samuels, Chicago — gold-embroidered gown, 
China; Robert Trier, Chicago — 15 archaeo- 
logical and 2 ethnological specimens, Chicago 

Department of Botany: 

From: Dr. H. C. Bold, Nashville, Tenn.— 
32 algae, Tennessee; Dr. V. J. Chapman, 
Auckland, New Zealand — 4 algae. New 
Zealand; William A. Daily, Indianapolis, 
Ind. — 59 algae, Indiana; Dr. E. Y. Dawson, 
Los Angeles, Calif. — 23 algae, French Indo- 
China; Dr. V. M. Diller, Cincinnati, Ohio — 
44 algae, Ohio; Dr. Maxwell S. Doty, 
Honolulu, Hawaii — 75 algae. Pacific Islands; 
Dr. W. T. Edmondson, Seattle, Wash.— 9 
algae, Washington; Dr. L. H. Flint, Baton 
Rouge, La. — 11 algae, Louisiana; Dr. H. 
Silva Forest, Williamsburg, Va. — 493 algae, 
Tennessee, Virginia, South Carolina, and 
Louisiana 

Department of Geology: 

From: Dan Kreutzer, Chicago — specimen 
of Flexicalymene meeki, Ordovician of Ohio; 
George Langford, Jr., Hinsdale, 111. — fossil 
insect, Illinois Pennsylvanian 

Department of Zoology: 

From: Pfc. Charles P. Deem, San Fran- 
cisco — 2 species of fresh- water fishes, Korea; 
Henry S. Dybas, Homewood, 111. — 104 in- 
sects, Illinois; Dr. Henry Field, Coconut 
Grove, Fla. — collection of Florida tree 
snails, southern Florida; F. E. HoUey, 
Lombard, 111. — 19 insects. New York and 
Illinois; Dr. Edwin V. Komarek, Thomas- 
ville, Ga. — 14 bats, Georgia; Dr. Donald C. 
Lowrie, Moscow, Ida. — 130 insects and 
allies, United States and Mexico ; Dr. Jeanne 
S. Schwengel, Scarsdale, N.Y. — collection of 
inland shells, worldwide; Universitetets Zoo- 
logiske Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark — 2 
mammals; Dr. Petr Wygodzinsky, Tucu- 
man, Argentina — 320 beetles, Argentina; 
Chicago Zoological Society, Chicago — 5 
birds, captive; William L. Culbertson, Madi- 
son, Wis. — 2 Pleistocene fresh-water shells, 
Manitowoc County, Wisconsin; Dr. Ernest 
P. Du Bois, Urbana, 111. — 2 mammal skulls 
reptile skeleton, amphibian skull, fish skull 



February, 195i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page? 



PROGRAM OF EXPEDITIONS 
FOR 1954 ANNOUNCED 

Although its program of expeditions and 
field work for 1954 will be somewhat re- 
stricted by stringency of available funds 
and most operations will be on a small scale, 
Chicago Natural History Museum will have 
members of its scientific staff and other 
collectors at work in far-flung areas. Among 
places where collecting and research will be 
carried on are Angola (Portuguese West 
Africa), Nepal in India, the Philippines, El 
Salvador, Peru, Mexico, and Europe as well 
as many parts of the United States. 

The Department of Anthropology will 
concentrate all of its efforts upon one ex- 
pedition, but in number of personnel in- 
volved, equipment required, and physical 
immensity of the tasks to be performed, it 
will be the largest-scale operation of the 
year. This will be the 20th Archaeological 
Expedition to the Southwest (eleventh sea- 
son in New Mexico — in the earlier years 
excavations were made in southwestern 
Colorado). Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief Cu- 
rator of Anthropology, will, as in past sea- 
sons, direct the work. His principal asso- 
ciate will again be Dr. John B. Rinaldo, 
Assistant Curator of Archaeology. From 
the remains of villages of prehistoric Indians 
who have been given the name of Mogol- 
lones by the archaeologists. Chief Curator 
Martin and his diggers each year bring to 
light additional ancient objects that enable 
them to re-create the culture and history of 
the extinct tribe. Some of the sites exca- 
vated have been buried as long as 4,000 
years. In the 1954 season, Martin expects 
to approach the end of work in New Mexico 
and plans in succeeding years to follow 
traces of the movements of these people 
into areas of Arizona and elsewhere. 

COLLECTING IN AFRICA 

Several zoological expeditions are under 
way or to be initiated in 1954. In January, 
Gerd Heinrich, a well-known zoological col- 
lector of Dryden, Maine, was on his way to 
Angola (Portuguese West Africa), accom- 
panied by Mrs. Heinrich. They constitute 
the personnel of the Conover Expedition, 
financed with funds provided by the late 
Boardman Conover, a Trustee of the Mu- 
seum, who died in 1950. The Zoological 
Expedition to Peru (1953-54) will continue 
its general collecting of birds, mammals, 
reptiles, and amphibians in the Peruvian 
highlands and valleys. This year Assistant 
Taxidermist Celestino Kalinowski hopes to 
reach several areas of special interest on 
the Pacific slopes of the Andes. Collecting 
directed primarily to birds will be continued 
in Nepal by Dr. Robert L. Fleming. He is 
superintendent of the Medical Mission to 
Nepal, and is assisted by his wife. Dr. 
Bethel Fleming. 

Field Associate D. S. Rabor will continue 
his general zoological collecting in the 



Philippine Islands. Dr. Austin L. Rand, 
Curator of Birds, after his attendance at 
the Eighth Pacific Science Congress in Ma- 
nila late in 1953, has been associated with 
Dr. Rabor in field studies on Philippine 
birds. Next summer Dr. Rand will attend 
the Eleventh International Ornithological 
Congress in Basel, Switzerland. 

TO MEXICO FOR FISHES 

Loren P. Woods, Curator of Fishes, will 
lead an expedition to southwestern Mexico 
to collect marine fishes in tidepools of the 
Acapulco area. He will join at Salina Cruz 
with shrimp fishermen who always have a 
byproduct of more than usually interesting 
fishes from their shrimp-trawling operations. 
His collecting has the special purpose of 
adding information for revision of The 
Marine Fishes of Panama, one of the Mu- 
seum's most important publications in this 
field. 

Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator of Insects, will 
visit the Pacific states to study the beetles 
of the family Histeridae at the California 
Academy of Sciences and other entomo- 
logical centers. He will supplement his mu- 
seum work with field collecting for special 
groups of beetles and especially for the 
interesting array of forms that inhabit ro- 
dent burrows. Associate Curator of Insects 
Henry S. Dybas, who will continue his sur- 
vey of the southeastern United States for 
the minute leaf-litter insects, will make trips 
to Georgia and to some of the Gulf states. 
Dr. Fritz Haas, Curator of Lower Inverte- 
brates, is conducting the Palestine Zoological 
Expedition to collect mollusks in the western 
Mediterranean region (Israel and Cyprus). 

Local field work will continue, particularly 
a survey of the fishes of the Chicago region. 
Miss Margaret G. Bradbury, Artist in the 
Department of Zoology, aids in this study. 
It has proved possible to join the last of 
commercial fishermen of the south end of 
Lake Michigan and to gain valuable data 
and collections by working with them. Miss 
Laura Brodie, Assistant, Department of Zo- 
ology, will continue study of the fall blue- 
racer aggregation in the Indiana Dunes. 
Miss Brodie joins actively with Miss Lillian 
Ross, Associate in the Division of Insects, 
in studies on the local spider fauna. 

EL SALVADOR PROJECT 

Dr. Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of 
Geology, will spend several months in El 
Salvador in continuation of volcanological 
research he began there on a previous expe- 
dition in 1951. Collecting fossil mammals in 
Texas will be continued by Bryan Patterson, 
Curator of Fossil Mammals, and Orville L. 
Gilpin, Chief Preparator of Fossils. Fossil 
collecting in England and Scotland will be 
undertaken by Dr. Robert H. Denison, 
Curator of Fossil Fishes, who began Euro- 
pean investigations last year on a fellowship 
from the John Simon Guggenheim Founda- 



MUSEUM RECEIVES GRANT 

FOR RESEARCH ON BATS 

The Museum has received from the 
National Science Foundation (Division of 
Biological and Medical Science) a grant of 
$10,000 toward the cost of a five-year re- 
search project to assemble material required 
for publication of a catalogue of the Micro- 
chiroptera (small bats). Colin C. Sanborn, 
Curator of Mammals, who has specialized 
in bat studies for many years, will be in 
charge of the undertaking. Part of his work 
on the current project will be conducted in 
London and in South Africa. The results 
will be published by Chicago Natural His- 
tory Museum Press. 



MUSEUM VISITORS IN 1953 
TOTALED 1,204,855 

The what, why, where, when, and how of 
the world we live in — its formation and the 
plants, animals, and peoples that inhabit it 
— were drawing-cards for 1,204,855 people 
who in 1953 visited Chicago Natural History 
Museum to get the answers from exhibits. 
Only 132,198 paid the nominal admission 
fee charged on certain days, while 1,072,657 
or close to 90 per cent came on the free 
days — Thursdays, Saturdays, and Sundays. 
Although there was some decline from the 
attendance of the previous year, the attend- 
ance in 1953 remained well above the average 
level that has prevailed since it first ex- 
ceeded a million in the middle 1920's. 

INFLUENCE EXTENDED 

In addition to those who actually visit 
the Museum, hundreds of thousands of 
others each year receive its educational 
benefits. Traveling exhibits reach hundreds 
of thousands of pupils in the Chicago schools 
every two weeks during the school terms 
and, likewise, thousands of others are 
reached by the extension lecturers sent out 
by the Raymond Foundation of the Mu- 
seum. The press, radio, television, and other 
media carry information from the Museum 
to countless others. 



tion. Dr. Rainer Zangerl, Curator of Fossil 
Reptiles, and William D. Turnbull, Fossil 
Preparator, will seek fossil fishes and reptiles 
in a Pennsylvanian deposit of Indiana. Fos- 
.sil-plant collecting in various parts of Illinois 
will be continued by George Langford, Cu- 
rator of Fossil Plants. Robert K. Wyant, 
Curator of Economic Geology, will gather 
needed specimens of ores in the Lake Su- 
perior iron areas. 

The Department of Botany has no ex- 
peditions scheduled for 1954, but in the 
summer Dr. Theodor Just, Chief Curator, 
will go to Paris as a delegate to the Eighth 
International Botanical Congress. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



February, 195U 



BALINSASAYO- 

(Continued from page 5) 
in pastel shades and some patterned and 
variegated. I suppose with the sudden 
downdrafts that occur on these steep slopes 
the moths are carried from ordinary flight 
into the water where some predator (an 
insect?) eats the bodies, nipping off the 
wings. 

To get anywhere over land in this area, 
one traverses steep slopes. Perspective 
sometimes goes curiously awry when des- 
cending, with the treetops ahead always 
just below your feet and then the lake, 
simulating the sky, appearing farther below. 
It's as if the land had been tilted, and cor- 
relates with the strange feeling I have had 
that the island of Siquijor was hanging in 
the sky, far above the horizon. It takes 
time for a plains-dweller to get used to 
mountain views. 

FEW LEECHES BITE 

In Talinas (Horns of Negros) the green- 
backed leeches crawled on one, but didn't 
bite (or suck blood). Here there's also an- 
other kind that does. Often, on grass or 
on the leaves, one can see them stretched 
out at their fullest extent waiting for some- 
thing to seize. But the surprising thing, in 
view of their abundance, is how few actually 
do bite me. I've only had two or three 
bites in a week and have seen hundreds of 
leeches (of course if I'd been barefooted it 
would have been a different story!). Mos- 
quitos aren't bad either — sometimes a few 
in the forest; but our house, day and night, 
seems clear of these. 

The people here near the mountain top 
are on the frontier, carving into the original 
forest and carrying on such old-time prac- 
tices as rubbing two sticks together to get 
fire. Yet they're only a half-day's walk 
from electric refrigerators and a public bus 
line. What food crops I've seen (sweet 
potato, taro, corn) grow poorly. The people 
are concentrating on abaca, the fiber of 
which they strip, carry to the coast, and sell. 
Presumably the popular slogan "Land for 
the landless" in not too many years will 
mean deforestation by cutting and burning 
of these trees — a few years of cultivation, 
and then the abandonment of these steep 
rocky slopes as hopeless for further agri- 
culture, as has happened with the cogon 
grass slopes lower down that went through 
the same cycle earlier. Several men come 
up here for abaca culture, but only one 
family, that of the station caretaker, lives 
here, in a thatched hut overlooking the 
lake. In addition to other things, he runs a 
line of pig traps, the "balatics," of which 
I've been warned. I've seen several. 
They're fiendishly simple: just a bamboo- 
headed spear lashed to a bent sapling that 
is the spring. In addition there's a trigger 
arrangement and the trip string, which you 
pull to set it off. 



Some birds are extremely elusive, like the 
tailorbird, a gray rufous-crowned warbler 
whose "sewn" nest gives it its name. The 
song of "teg-wa-tee" that the boys say is 
its song comes from everywhere: forest un- 
dergrowth and clearing. When you get 
close, you hear a few warning chirps and it 
is gone, a vaguely seen shape and a few 
shaking leaves, skulking away into the 
shrubbery. I've learned little of it, but at 
least I've seen it. 

When I leave a forest camp I wonder 
how many birds I've been unable to find, 
birds that were there but escaped me. 
Many, probably. But here there are two 
such species that call continually from the 
forest edge, as if to taunt us with the fact 
that we were unable to find them. One is 
a typical coueal call, "bub-bub-bu-bu-bu," 
and probably belongs to a forest coueal 
that at my approach creeps away through 
the shrubbery. The other is certainly the 
call of a brush cuckoo, for its song "piet- 
van-fleet" is one I know well from Malaysia. 
Instead of sneaking away, this bird sits up 
in some forest tree and by its immobility 
escapes detection. 

Our horizon here is limited — not more 
than two miles across, I'd say, just the rim 
of our little crater valley. It means our 
weather can change quickly. Sometimes 
clouds wreathe our peaks; sometimes they 
come from below, as one afternoon — the 
sun was shining when suddenly the wind 
drove up storm clouds from below. We 
didn't see them until they came over the lip 
of our little valley, with rain and thunder, 
and then the storm was gone as quickly. 
The forest was always sopping wet from 
clouds and rain, uncomfortable to live in 
when you can't get your clothes dry, but 
it's a forest filled with a host of interest- 
ing things and remarkable because it still 
exists as a forest in this heavily populated, 
mostly deforested part of the Philippines. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons became Museum 
Members from December 16 to January 15: 

Corporate Member 

John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Non'Resident Life Member 

Hiram B. D. Blauvelt 

Associate Members 

Wesley M. Dixon, Jr., Mrs. Frank J. 
Dowd, Robert M. Eichler, Daniel Perlman, 
Robert B. Schnering, Daniel C. Searle, 
William L. Searle 

Annual Members 

George J. Biddle, Willmar A. Chulock, 
R. W. Ferguson, C. 0. Futterer, G. L. 
Grawols, Ellsworth A. Handy, Bennet B. 
Harvey, Miss Jane Laird, Pierre F. Lavedan, 
Donald F. Lindberg, Mrs. Herbert I. Mark- 
ham, William A. Marsteller, John G. May- 
nard, Walter J. Nickel, Lester N. Selig, 
A. J. Uttich, S. C. Waldman, Richard H. 
West, P. L. Yates 



EXPEDITION TO STUDY 

NEAR-EAST ANIMALS 

Certain aspects of Near-East animal life 
will be studied and specimens collected on 
an expedition for which Dr. Fritz Haas, 
Curator of Lower Invertebrates, will fly to 
Israel on February 1. Dr. Haas will spend 
several months in the field, primarily in 
observation of the adaptation of invertebrate 
animals to life under desert conditions. In 
addition to invertebrates, studies will be 
made of reptiles, fishes, and other animals. 
Dr. Haas is especially interested in the 
fresh-water life of isolated rivers in Israel, 
which will be his principal collecting field, 
but he may also make zoological explorations 
on the island of Cyprus. Before returning 
to Chicago, Dr. Haas will survey collections 
in important museums of Switzerland and 
Germany. 



STAFF NOTES 



D. Dwight Davis, Curator of Vertebrate 
Anatomy, left the Museum on January 15 
for a six-month leave of absence to fulfill a 
term as a visiting professor at California 
Institute of Technology in Pasadena, where 
he will conduct a lecture course on compara- 
tive anatomy and its relationship to paleon- 
tology . . . Dr. Julian Steyermark, Cura- 
tor of the Phanerogamic Herbarium, recently 
lectured before the Kennicott Club and the 
Barrington Natural History Society on his 
experiences in the "lost world" of Venezuela 
where he led a Museum expedition last year 

Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of 

Anthropology, recently spent ten days on a 
special research project at Arizona State 
M'useum in Tucson. He worked in the 
famous sherd library on material relating 
to the MogoUon culture that his expeditions 
have been investigating for years and visited 
a number of sites where the tools of early 
man, from 6,000 to 11,000 years ago, have 
been found .... Miss Elaine Bluhm, As- 
sistant in Archaeology, recently studied san- 
dals of various archaeological periods in the 
collections of Arizona State Museum. 



Illinois Audubon Screen-Tour 
Features Hudson Bay 

"Hudson Bay Adventures," a lecture by 
C. J. Albrecht, accompanied by color mo- 
tion-pictures, will be presented in the James 
Simpson Theatre of the Museum on Sunday, 
February 28, at 2:30 p.m. under the auspices 
of the Illinois Audubon Society. The lec- 
turer was formerly a member of the staff of 
the Department of Zoology at this Museum. 
Admission is free. Reserved seats are avail- 
able to members of the Audubon Society or 
the Museum upon presentation of their 
membership cards before 2:25 p.m. 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORV MUSEUM PRESS 



^ 





^ - 



RULLETIN 

LJ,Vol.25.No.3- March IQ^J^;^ 

'Jilcago Xatiir^ . " 

t 1 i^M \> 



Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



March, 195i 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 
Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Samuel Insull, Jr. 

Sewell L. Avery Henry P. Isham 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walthbr Buchbn William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Samuel Insull, Jr Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Thbodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Karl P. Schmidt Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Hartb Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn B arbaka Polikoff 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly o£ changes of address. 



RARE PORTRAIT OF INDIAN 
PRESERVED IN MUSEUM 

By GEORGE I. QUIMBY 
curator of exhibits, anthropology 

IN 1894 Chicago Natural History Museum 
(then called Field Columbian Museum) 
acquired the portrait of an Indian chief 
painted by Chester Harding in 1820. 

Harding, a self-trained artist, was born 
in Massachusetts in 1792 and died in 1866. 
He began to paint portraits in 1818. In 
1820 Harding went to St. Louis with a letter 
of introduction to General William Clark, 
who was then Governor of Missouri and 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the 
western regions (General Clark is best 
known for his part in the Lewis and Clark 
explorations of the West). General Clark 
helped Harding obtain a studio and gave 
him his first portrait commission in St. Louis. 
Of this incident Harding wrote, "I was 
decidedly happy in my likeness of him, and, 
long before I had finished his head, I had 
others engaged; and for fifteen months I 
was kept constantly at work." 

It must have been during these fifteen 
months that Harding would have had the 
best opportunity to paint portraits of In- 
dians, because the rest of his life was spent 
mostly abroad or in the eastern United 
States. In fact only one Indian portrait 



was acknowledged by Harding in his auto- 
biography where he mentioned "painting 
one of the Osage chiefs" while "a deputation 
from this tribe" was "on a visit to Governor 




AMERICAN INDIAN CHIEF 

Portrait of an Osage tribal leader, painted in 1820 
by Chester Harding, .well-known artist of the period. 

Clarke." He added that "the old chief was 
a fine looking man of great dignity." 

The Museum's portrait is provisionally 
identified as that of an Osage Indian chief. 
The portrait by Harding was included in 
a collection of paintings purchased by the 
Museum in 1894 from Miss Emily O'Fallon 
of St. Louis, the grandniece of General 
William Clark. 



STAFF NOTES 



Paul C. Standley, Curator Emeritus of 
the Herbarium, has been appointed by Dr. 
Juan Manuel Galvez, President of Hon- 
duras, as technical advisor ad honorem in 
the botany department of the republic's 
Ministry of Agriculture. The appointment 
was recommended by Don Benjamin Mem- 
breiio. Minister of Agriculture. Mr. Stand- 
ley, who now lives in Honduras, recently 
lectured on plants poisonous to stock in a 
special course in veterinary science at 
Tegucigalpa .... Dr. Julian A. Steyer- 
tnark. Curator of the Phanerogamic Her- 
barium, is now pursuing his studies at 
Missouri Botanical Garden. While in St. 
Louis he plans to address the St. Louis 
Academy of Science on the subject "Bo- 
tanical Expedition in the Lost World of 
Venezuela" . . . Dr. B. E. Dahlgren, Cu- 
rator Emeritus of Botany, has left for Cuba 
to continue his studies of Cuban palms . . . 
Donald Collier, Curator of South American 
Archaeology and Ethnology, recently spent 
a week in New York in research on Peruvian 
pottery at the American Museum of Natural 
History and at Columbia University, and 
he also inspected the special exhibit of 



-THIS MONTH'S COVBR- 



Marco Polo's sheep, named for 
the famed Venetian traveler who 
discovered it in the 13th century, 
lives in the Pamirs of Russian 
Turkestan at elevations from 
10,000 to 18,000 feet above sea 
level. Its horns are the longest of 
any wild sheep, measuring about 
70 inches on the curve and 45 
inches from tip to tip. The speci- 
mens in the Museum habitat 
group shown on our cover were 
shot by Kermit Roosevelt and 
Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., in Oc- 
tober, 1925, on the James Simp- 
son-Roosevelts Asiatic Expedition. 
Because the native haunts of 
these animals lie behind the Iron 
Curtain, the rest of the world can 
expect no further specimens until 
that barrier is lifted. 



Andean art at the Museum of Modern Art 

Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, Chief Curator 

of Zoology, represented the Museum at the 
Work Experience Conference held at An- 
tioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio, Feb- 
ruary 12 and 13. The Museum is one of the 
co-operating employers in the work-study 
program of the college. 



Contributor Elected 

In recognition of notable gifts to the 
Library of the Museum, Langdon Pearse 
of Winnetka, Illinois, has been elected by 
the Board of Trustees as a Museum Con- 
tributor. Contributors, a special member- 
ship classification, are those whose gifts to 
the Museum range in value from $1,000 to 
$100,000. Mr. Pearse presented valuable 
collections of botanical and zoological books. 



Daily Guide-Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered 
daily except Sundays under the title 
"Highlights of the Exhibits." These tours 
are designed to give a general idea of the 
entire Museum and its scope of activities. 
They begin at 2 p.m. on Monday through 
Friday and at 2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 



Museum Course for Girl Scouts 

Several hundred Girl Scouts of Chicago 
and suburbs attended a nature course con- 
ducted at the Museum on Saturdays during 
February by the staff of the James Nelson 
and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation. 
The four classes that were planned to help 
the girls meet the requirements for the award 
of Girl Scout nature-proficiency badges 
covered mammals, wild plants and trees, 
birds, and rocks and minerals. 



March, 195U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Pages 



SATURDAY LECTURES AND COLOR FILMS TO BEGENf MARCH 6 



To THOSE PEOPLE who feel the pull 
of wanderlust when they catch the first 
breath of spring, the Museum offers a 
chance to travel to places far and near, 
foreign or familiar — vicariously, of course, 
through the reality recorded in the color- 
films and lectures of men who have made a 
life career of satisfying wanderlust. 

These lecture-movie programs are pro- 
vided by the Edward E. Ayer Lecture 
Foundation and will begin on Saturday 
afternoon, March 6, and continue on every 
Saturday thereafter through April 24. They 
will be given in the James Simpson Theatre 
of the Museum at 2:30 p.m. It is necessary 
to restrict admission to adults because of 
limited accommodations. For children, free 
motion-picture programs are given in the 
Theatre on the mornings of the same Satur- 
days under the auspices of the Raymond 
Foundation. 

Following are dates, titles, and lecturers 
in this season's series for adults: 

March 6 — Menfish of the Deep 

Captain Jacques-Yves Cousteau 

The exotic and almost unbelievable world 
that exists below the sea has yielded some 
of its secrets to Jacques- Yves Cousteau and 
his companions who, with the aid of the 
Aqualung, are able to live under water like 
fish down to depths of 300 feet. As the 
"menfish" swim slowly and effortlessly 
through the "basement of the world" they 
come upon fascinating animal life never 
before seen. With this showing of his film 
Captain Cousteau will make the first 
Midwest appearance on his American tour 
to introduce to the sound-filled world above 
the sea the silent one below. 

March 13 — Atlantic Coast Wonderland 

Julian Gromer 

Julian Gromer's travelogue shows the 
Inland Waterway from New York City to 
Key West and 80 miles into the ocean to the 
Dry Tortugas. This film is reputedly the 
only one that gives complete coverage to 
this important and colorful part of the 
United States. Atlantic City's famous 
board walk, the United States Naval 
Academy at Annapolis, the crabbing in- 
dustry at Chesapeake Bay, the colonial 
charm of Jamestown and Williamsburg, the 
wildlife of the Everglades, the shrimp fleet 
at Key West, porpoise fishing in Florida 
Bay — all are highlighted in Mr. Gromer's 
lecture and movie. 

March 20 — New Zealand Highlights 

Dr. Alfred M. Bailey 

New Zealand is a land no larger in area 
than Colorado, but its size is no indication 
of the variety in scenery and man-made 
wonders that it offers the visitor. Rugged 
wave-washed cliffs and beautiful sand 



beaches, backwood villages and modern 
cities, the place made famous as Cape Kid- 
nappers by Captain James Cook who named 
it after trouble with the Maoris — Dr. Bailey, 
Director of the Denver Museum of Natural 
History, has photographed all of these with 
an understanding of the distinct character 
of this country and a sense of the drama 
inherent in the life of all peoples. 

March 27 — Jungle Career 

Oliver Milton, Game Ranger 

When the famous hunting areas of Africa 
had reached a point where the big game had 
become almost extinct, game rangers were 



RESERVED SEATS 
FOR MEMBERS 

No tickets are necessary for ad- 
mission to these lectures. A sec- 
tion of the Theatre is allocated to 
Members of the Museum, each of 
whom is entitled to two reserved 
seats. Requests for these seats 
should be made in advance by 
telephone (WAbash 2-9410) or in 
writing, and seats will be held in 
the Member's name until 2:25 
o'clock on the lecture day. 



appointed to see to it that the animals had 
a chance to live and flourish. Oliver Milton 
is one of these game rangers — his bailiwick 
is a huge 18,000-mile area in Africa's last 
great frontier region — the territory of Tan- 
ganyika. His work provides rich oppor- 
tunities for seeing Africa's remaining big 
game in an undisturbed state. Those who 
were introduced to this part of the world's 
untrammeled jungles in the movies "King 
Solomon's Mines" and "The Snows of Kili- 
manjaro" will appreciate the opportunity 
to see more of this country filmed by a man 
who has made the jungles his home. 

April 3 — Italian Interlude 

Dr. J. Gerald Hooper 

Dr. and Mrs. Hooper, who call themselves 
"vagabonds with cameras" have traveled 
to many places to record in pictures the 
distinct character of the countries and people 
they visit. Their film on Italy opens in the 
cosmopolitan city of Rome where the citi- 
zens live in and around the stone relics of a 
civilization that was old when Christ was 
born. North of Rome is the city of Florence, 
now the art center of the world, where the 
Hoopers have photographed the modern 
Italian artists at work. Then on to Venice, 
Milan, Sienna — all familiar places, at least 
in name. The film-lecture ends with a 
century-old festival and procession. 



April 10 — Once Upon an Island 

Robert C. Hermes 

In the hit musical "South Pacific" there 
is a song that tells the yearning of most 
people "for another island" — one "where 
they know they would like to be." Robert 
Hermes describes his motion-picture pro- 
gram as the story of his adventures in living 
on that "other island" that everyone would 
like to visit. He found that islands have a 
very special charm also for birds and animals 
who seek sanctuary there just as mankind 
does. His travel-talk is about his experience 
in living in the miniature worlds surrounded 
by water. 

April 17— Turkey 

Karl Robinson 

Mr. Robinson's colorful films are a photo- 
graphic record of the Moslem world's 
most progressive republic. Straddling the 
Dardanelles, Turkey lies in both Europe 
and Asia and its culture is a composite of 
both European and Asiatic influences. 
Common borders with Communistic Bul- 
garia in the west and Soviet Russia in the 
east make Turkey's geographic position one 
of great importance to the Atlantic Pact 
nations. Mr. Robin.son's film both records 
and interprets this changing and warmly 
colorful country. 

April 24 — Wildlife of Wisconsin 

Cleveland P. Grant 

You may think you are familiar with the 
birds and flowers you see from day to day, 
but it takes the perceptive eye and extensive 
knowledge of a naturalist like Cleveland P. 
Grant to produce films that make you really 
aware of the natural wonders around you. 
Mr. Grant's movie, which has many se- 
quences of song and game birds and of 
plant and animal life, shows the most 
beautiful of midwest scenery as well. This 
film will be a happy reminder of the many 
things there are to see in our own corner of 
the world. 



Curator Roy to Study Volcanoes 

Dr. Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of 
Geology, expects to leave for El Salvador 
about the middle of March. He will con- 
tinue the work on volcanoes that he started 
in 1951, with especial stress on Izalco, an 
active volcano that has been erupting ever 
since it was born in 1770. Izalco, now over 
4,000 feet high, has discharged more lava 
than any other volcano of its kind and age. 
It ranks among the most active volcanoes of 
the world and it offers an excellent oppor- 
tunity to study volcanism first-hand. 



An exhibit illustrating mineral fluores- 
cence can be seen in Hall 35. 



Page i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



March, 195 U 



THE SMELT, AN OCEAN FISH THAT LIVES IN THE GREAT LAKES 



By LOREN p. woods 
curator op fishes 

THE STORY of the smelt, its introduc- 
tion and phenomenal spread through the 
Great Lakes, and its decline and recent 
recovery has been told many times but al- 
ways in parts and fragments. Therefore, 
unless a scrapbook has been kept, it is 
difficult to fit the various facets of this re- 
markable story together into a continuous 
whole. 

The introduction of the smelt into Great 
Lakes waters has been alternately con- 
demned and praised — condemned entirely 



^^■'#^'5«^' 




^^^H  •^'^ &1jIL^ 



■-5r^.-«^> 



1^" 



CHICAGO LAKE FRONT SCENE 

Booms with ring nets in close array along seawall at 49th Street. The nets are 

lowered into the water for the taking of smelt as the 6sh move along the shore 

during their spawning run. The fish are removed with small dip nets. 



without evidence as a menace to lake trout 
and whitefish; condemned with some cause 
when commercial fishermen, while fishing 
for other species, find smelt tangled by their 
teeth in the gill-nets in such numbers that 
in some places this kind of fishing has to 
cease at depths known to be inhabited by 
smelt during the summer months. The 
lake-trout fishermen on Lake Superior have 
recently been blaming poor fishing on the 
smelt. They claim that the trout leave the 
banks where they formerly fed and where a 
successful gill-net fishery was operated and 
that they now are found only on the grounds 
where there are smelt. This explanation is 
based on the observation that those trout 
that are caught are always crammed with 
smelt. 

On the other hand, during the late 1930's 
and for the past four or five years the catch 
of smelt has been quite large, in some places 
the most abundant fish caught, thus adding 
to the income and sport of many individuals. 
Smelt, rather than being predators upon the 
more valuable species, are instead preyed 
upon by lake trout and walleyes and are a 
principal source of food for these fishes. Re- 
cently the smelt have been reported by 
fishermen to be feeding extensively upon 
small sea lampreys and if this habit is wide- 
spread the smelt may play a part in helping 
to keep this pest under control. 



The smelt in the Great Lakes except Lake 
Ontario are all believed to be descended 
from a successful planting, in 1912, of 
16,400,000 eggs in Crystal Lake, Benzi 
County, Michigan. However, it was not 
until 1918 that the first fish were noticed, 
and the first large spawning run occurred in 
1922. In 1923 they were first collected in 
Lake Michigan, having escaped from Crystal 
Lake by an outlet. A year later they had 
crossed Lake Michigan to Big Bay de Noc 
at the north end of Green Bay. In 1925 
they were in Lake Huron and by 1930 had 
reached Lake Erie. They seem not to have 
invaded Lake Su- 
perior until 1933 or 
1934. Their spread 
down the west shore of 
Lake Michigan and to 
the southern parts of 
the eastern shore was 
delayed until 1930-31 
but by 1936 all suit- 
able waters of Lake 
Michigan were occu- 
pied. From 1936 
through 1941 large 
runs occurred every 
spring. It was no- 
ticed while keeping 
records on the disper- 
sal that generally 
about five years after 
the smelt were first 
reported in an area the 
first spawning occurred there. The annual 
yield of smelt in the Great Lakes is not 
known, but the production in Lake Michigan 
alone in 1942 has been estimated to have 
reached nearly 14,000,000 pounds. This 
was about two-thirds of the entire catch 
reported for Lake Michigan that year and 
about one-seventh of the reported total 
catch for all species in all the Great Lakes. 

DECLINE OF THE TRIBE 

Although the smelt became the dominant 
commercial species in Lake Michigan the 
other fisheries did not appear to suff'er but 
flourished instead. Then in early October, 
1942, dead smelt were noticed in Lake Huron 
off Saginaw Bay. By the end of the month 
the smelt were dying at Mackinac and by 
mid-November the "kill" had reached Grand 
Traverse. Smelt fishing in January and 
February, 1943, flourished in Green Bay but 
by mid-March the fishery had collapsed 
completely. By the spring spawning season 
in 1943 only a few survivors were left. 
Whatever was killing the smelt was pro- 
gressive over a period of four and one-half 
months, and only smelt, of all ages and in 
all waters freely connected with Lakes Mich- 
igan and Huron, were affected. Smelt in 
Lake Superior and Lake Erie were not killed. 
The total loss of smelt in the period be- 
tween 1943 and 1946 was estimated to be 



50,000,000 pounds. Dr. John Van Oosten 
of the Fish and Wildlife Service, after a 
careful survey of the situation, concluded 
that a virus or bacterial disease was re- 
sponsible for the mortality. Smelt "kills" 
have been recorded in many New England 
lakes where smelt were indigenous or intro- 
duced, as in Lake Champlain during the 
summer of 1882 when for about a week the 
lake was covered with dead floating smelt 
and the fishery suddenly declined, indicating 
that the stock had been greatly reduced. 
Occasionally during the spawning season a 
storm hits the exhausted fish tossing them 
onto the shore and causing great local mor- 
tality. But aside from Van Oosten's sup- 
position that the widespread deaths may 
have been caused by an infectious disease 
the only explanation previously offered was 
"death due to obscure causes, as among 
higher animals." 

RECOVERY IN RECENT YEARS 

In 1945 Green Bay had a small run, and 
several light runs were reported elsewhere in 
Lakes Michigan and Huron. There was 
further improvement in subsequent years, 
and in 1949 the population was nearly re- 
covered with Michigan alone producing over 
a million pounds. In 1961 there was an 
extremely heavy run and it is believed that 
now their numbers equal the pre-mortality 
years. 

The smelt is so well known as to require 
little description other than that it is a small 
(7 to 14 inches) transparent olive-green fish 
of slender form with a long pointed head, 
large eyes, and deeply forked tail. This 
description is a little too general and to it 
must be added that between the soft-rayed 
fin of the back and the tail there is a small 
fin without rays (adipose fin) such as white- 
fish, trout, and salmon possess. These fishes 
are near relatives of the smelt and, except 
for a few minor anatomical peculiarities, 
smelt and salmon would be in the same 
family. 

Smelt are best known as marine fish, the 
species (Osmerus mordax Mitchill) ranging 
in the western North Atlantic from Lab- 
rador to New York. In the sea as in fresh 
water, smelt gather inshore in winter and 
with the onset of warmer water in the spring 
run a short distance up streams to spawn. 
They have naturally become landlocked in 
fresh water, as in Lake Champlain and other 
New England lakes where they are con- 
sidered to be indigenous, and they have been 
widely introduced into lakes large enough 
and deep enough to offer a cool retreat into 
deep water in summer. The smelt eggs in- 
troduced into Crystal Lake were from a 
landlocked population from a hatchery at 
Green Lake, Maine. In Lake Champlain 
there appear to be two races, a normal-sized 
and a dwarf race. The dwarf race appears 



March, 195 U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



to be chiefly important as food for the 
"large" race. 

HABITAT OP THE SMELT 

In the ocean, smelt are never found more 
than a mile or two oflf shore or in more than 
a few fathoms depth. In the fall they move 
to the harbor mouths and are present in 
inshore waters all winter, even entering 
brackish water. They enter fresh water and 
begin the upstream migration when suffi- 
ciently high temperature has been reached. 
The spawning run begins at 40 to 42 degrees 
Fahrenheit and reaches its height at 50 to 
57 degrees. 

In fresh water after spawning, smelt do 
not immediately seek the deeper waters of 
the lake but gradually as the summer pro- 
gresses go into deeper and deeper water. 
They appear to avoid water with a tempera- 
ture higher than 59 degrees. This simple 
explanation for their retreat into deeper 
water is complicated by the fact that smelt 
avoid bright light. In the spring the waters 
are generally murky when they make their 
spawning runs, and as the waters become 
more transparent in summer so that the 
light penetrates more freely the smelt may 
be influenced to move into deeper water. 
This latter supposition is supported by their 
occasional appearance at the surface in sum- 
mer late in the evening when the direct 
rays of the sun are no longer on the water. 
Generally during the summer the smelt in 
Lake Michigan live at depths of fifteen to 
nineteen fathoms where they are active 
enough to get tangled in gill-nets and where 
they may also be taken on hook and line. 

PREDACEOUS AND CANNIBALISTIC 

Smelt are predaceous fish living on crus- 
taceans, insect larvae, and fishes — cannibal- 
istic, they prey on other smelt. During 
the spawning season apparently most smelt 
do not feed at all since nearly all stomachs 
examined at that time have been found to 
be empty. Young smelt, one to three inches, 
as would be expected, eat plankton, chiefly 
crustaceans such as waterfleas and copepods, 
but they occasionally also eat one of their 
own species and fill out their diet with roti- 
fers, algae, insect larvae, and pupae. Studies 
made of more than 3,000 smelt from Green 
Bay collected throughout the year showed 
that only 6.5 per cent had fed on fish, mostly 
other smelt but also the lake sculpins 
(Cotlus) and burbot (Lota). All the rest 
were subsisting on invertebrates, especially 
on prawns (My sis), scuds (Amphipoda), mol- 
lusca, and worms. No lake trout were 
found in any stomachs apparently for the 
reason that lake trout small enough to be 
preyed upon by smelt live in water so shal- 
low that the smelt do not find them. Rarely 
whitefish and lake chubs are eaten but none 
were recorded in the above-mentioned study. 

Separate studies made in Green Bay, at 
Manitoulin Island, and in Lake Champlain 
have generally agreed in indicating a largely 



invertebrate diet, but in Crystal Lake a 
study made of 147 smelt showed a predomi- 
nant minnow diet, 97 per cent lake shiner, 
with only a few invertebrates eaten. This 
sample was taken September 1, a season 
when both smelt and lake shiners begin to 
gather in shoal waters and this factor com- 
bined with the small number of stomachs 
examined probably does not give a repre- 
sentative picture of their diet. 

THEY SPAWN IN STREAMS 

In the sea, smelt move inshore in the fall 
and in the spring they enter streams, going 
just above tidewater to deposit their eggs. 
Apparently they never go far, not more 
than a few hundred yards, but the eggs 
must be laid in fresh water. Flooding with 
salt water kills them. The eggs are extruded 
in clusters and sink, adhering to pebbles, 
weeds, sticks, and to each other. The incu- 
bation period is about 13 days and the 
young are believed to go immediately to 
salt water. 

In the Great Lakes the run usually 
occurs when the ice is going out in the 
spring. As in the ocean the smelt go just 
inside the mouths of creeks. The ascent 
into the creeks is nocturnal; none return 
until daylight and a few remain in the creeks 
during the day. On entering the creeks 
they swim close to the bottom and avoid 
lights flashed into the water. The run 
generally lasts two or three weeks and is 
made up of fresh arrivals each night. After 
spawning, the fish, heads still pointing up- 
stream, drift tail first down into the mouth 
of the stream. The males at spawning time 



the males before they reach the sand. The 
clusters adhere to whatever they touch. 
Some of the males collected at this time had 
eaten some eggs. Average-size females pro- 
duce as many as 25,000 eggs, larger females 
up to 43,000 eggs. 

It is during the spawning migration that 
the sportsmen take most of their smelt by 
dipping. Frequently the interference is so 
great that the fish cannot spawn and many 
are injured at this time by nets, by being 
stepped on, or even washed onto the banks 
by splashing. But in spite of such hazards 
this prolific fish by its very numbers over- 
comes man's interference and enough are 
produced to maintain and even increase their 
numbers in the face of great adversity. 

GROWTH AND LONGEVITY 

"Landlocked" smelts in Crystal Lake 
have grown to a length of 4}^ inches by the 
end of their first year. By the end of their 
second year, when they participate in their 
first spawning run, they are 7 inches in 
length. In the ocean and in the Great Lakes 
they grow a little more rapidly. By the 
third year they average 10 inches and most 
individuals are a foot long by the end of 
their fourth year. The maximum size re- 
corded was a five-year-old female, 14 inches 
total length. The oldest individuals on 
record were six years of age. 

GENERAL ECOLOGY 

As smelt are predatory and fish eaters, so 
are they in turn eaten by other kinds of 
fishes. They are, in Lake Michigan, eaten 
both as young and adults by lake trout, 




\, 



THE SMELT: BOTH EULOGIZED AND DENOUNCED 



can be distinguished from the females by 
their smaller size and by the arrangement 
of their pearl organs. These pearl organs 
are horny growths on the head and on the 
dorsal and pectoral fins of the male. The 
females develop pearl organs on the head 
but not on the fins. 

Smelt spawn over a sand and gravel 
bottom, one female attended by several 
males. All have their heads pointed up- 
stream. The female occupies a position 
shghtly in advance of the males and slowly 
sways her body through an arc of five or six 
inches; the eggs are extruded and pass under 



perch, walleyes, and burbot. In Lake 
Champlain smelt are part of the diet of these 
species and also of the landlocked salmon, 
pickerel, pike, eels, and rock bass. In Lake 
Michigan, trout formerly fed largely on lake 
chubs and sculpins, but with the increased 
abundance of smelt the trout's food habits 
shifted and the smelt became an important 
forage fish. 

The sea lamprey has been held completely 

responsible for the decline of the lake trout 

in Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. The 

evidence on which this assumption is based 

{Continued on page 6, column 3) 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



March, 195 k 



PRIZE WINNERS IN NATURE PHOTO SHOW LISTED 



The photographs that won first-prize 
silver medals in each of the three sections 
of the Division of Prints in the Ninth 
Chicago International Exhibition of Nature 
Photography are reproduced on this page. 
The exhibit, which is divided into animal- 
life, plant-life, and general sections, is held 




'PETE, THE ORANG-UTAN' 

By J. M. Miller, of La Grange, Illinois. Awarded 

silver-medal first prize in the Animal-Life Section 

of Nature Photography Exhibition. 

annually in February under the joint aus- 
pices of the Chicago Nature Camera Club 
and the Museum. 

This year's photo contest and exhibit ex- 
ceeded those of all previous years in at- 
tracting the interest of photographers. 
Entries were received from 917 persons, 
many living in South America, Europe, 
Asia, Africa, Australia, and other far places. 
A total of 3,721 pictures was entered, of 
which 3,068 were color transparencies and 
653 prints. From these the judges selected 
845 slides and 248 prints for exhibition. 
The entries showed a 10-per-cent increase in 




slides and 20-per-cent increase in prints 
compared with the 1953 show, which had 
broken all previous records. 

Following are lists of medal winners and 
awards of honorable mention for both prints 
and color slides: 

MEDAL WINNERS 
Prints: 

Animal-Life Section: J. M. Miller, La Grange, 
111. — Pete, the Orang-utan 

Plant-Life Section: Grant Haist, Rochester, N. Y. 
— Fungi Family 

General Section: Bosworth Lemere, Santa Bar- 
bara, Calif. — Soft Snow Blanket 

Color Slides: 

Animal-Life Section: Robert Potts, San Fran- 
cisco — Green Sea Anemone and Purple Sea Urchin 

Plant-Life Section: Jack Roche, Caldwell, N.J. 
— Fritillaria Imperialis 

General Section: John Benzel, Covina, Calif. — 
Smoke Tree 

HONORABLE MENTIONS 

Prints and Color Slides, All Sections 

Chicago Area 
Pearl Schwartz Rice, Willard H. Farr, M. E. Kuntz, 
Helen Suter, William M. Angus, Jr., Louis W. Braun, 
Ted Farrington, Louise Broman, Howard Miller, 
Erik Sorensen, John Bajgert 

Outside Chicago Area 
Raymond G. Feagans, Bremerton, Wash.; Mary 
Frey, Mankato, Minn.; Lou Gibson, Rochester, N. Y; 
Nan Justice, Raleigh, N. C; J. L. Kenner, Boston; 
Smith MacMuUin, Inglewood, Calif.; Eugenia Nor- 
gaard, Los Angeles; Floyd Norgaard, Los Angeles; 
Charles Norona, Los Angeles; A. W. Price, Ramsey, 
N. J.; R. L. Propst, Lebanon, Ore.; S. J. Rawley, 




'SOFT SNOW BLANKET- 

By Bosworth Lemere, of Santa Barbara, California. 

Awarded silver-medal first prize in General Section 

of Nature Photography Exhibition. 



'FUNGI FAMILY* 

By Grant Haist, of Rochester, New York. Awarded 

silver-medal first prize in Plant-Life Section of 

Nature Photography Exhibition. 



Miami, Ariz.; Mabel Ross, Salt Lake City: Dora Sor- 
enson, Minneapolis; Kathryn Stake, Salt Lake City; 
R. C. Taylor, North Hollywood, Calif.; Henry Tefft, 
Jr., Denver; Warren Z. Walter, Los Angeles; Roy 
Young, Los Angeles; William Amos, Middletown, Del. 

Lewis Batts, Kalamazoo; E. H. Bourne, Penfield, 
N. Y.; Dr. M. A. Chandler, New Toronto, Canada; 
R. B. Chillas, Jr., Philadelphia; Reginald V. Corlett, 
Toronto; Harry and Ruth Crockett, Phoenix; Frank 
Fernandez, Rochester, N. Y.; T. Fuller, Louisville; 
Robert Hermann, San Diego; Robert C. Holman, 
Mifflinburg, Pa.; C. Molinelli, Martinsville, Ind.; Dr. 
R. Moose, San Bernardino, Calif.; Louis Quitt, Buffalo; 
Alice Stark, Toronto; S. Stern, New York 

H. A. Thornhill, Merced, Calif.; Ralph J. Zaenglein, 
Maryville, Tenn.; Karl Obert, Santa Barbara; Ger- 
trude Poole, Palo Alto; Arthur Underwood, Rocliester, 
N. Y.; H. L. Gibson, Rochester, N. Y.; Richard D. 
Grill, Baltimore; Ben Hill-Tout, Vancouver; Kan 
Hing-fook, Hong Kong; Herman Krohn, Omaha; 
Charles Perkins, Washington, D. C; L. B. Perry, Man- 
cheater, Conn.; George Sollman, Cobleskill, N. Y.; 
Henry C. Sollman, Cobleskill, N. Y.; Cheung Yu-chiu, 
Hong Kong; O. G. Edwards, Bangalore, India; Howard 
Oberlin, Canton, Ohio; Tan Seng-Huat, Penang, 
Malaya; Ralph W. Armstrong, Neptune, N. J.; I. C. 
Barker, San Francisco; Norma Belland, Cristobal, 
Canal Zone 



THE SMELT 

{Continued from page 5) 
is the coinciding spread of lamprey and 
decline of trout plus the greatly increased 
number of scarred lake trout caught in these 
two lakes. It is possible that the decline of 
the smelt (1943) was one of the factors con- 
tributing to the decline of the lake trout 
that began in 1946, accelerated in 1947, and 
dwindled to almost nothing by 1948 and 
1949. Since the smelt was an important 
item of diet of trout, it appears likely that 
the almost complete disappearance of smelt 
must have had an adverse effect on the 
trout. This effect was probably only tem- 
porary as the trout shifted back into their 
old habits of feeding on chubs. Not enough 
is known of this particular situation or of 
the interrelationships of Great Lakes fishes 
generally for anyone to be able more than to 
guess at a cause, or causes when some 
catastrophe hits a particular species. 

The sea lamprey was first noticed in the 
Great Lakes about the same time that the 
smelt began to flourish here and possibly the 
smelt were of some importance in keeping 
the lampreys in check by eating their young. 
Unfortunately no studies were made on the 
food of smelt in Lake Erie where sea lam- 
preys are rare or in lower Lake Huron, the 
only lake areas above Niagara that had been 
invaded by sea lampreys before the decHne 
of the smelt. 

The final word regarding the basic good 
or harm accomplished by the introduction 
of the smelt into Great Lakes waters has 
not been written. Not enough is known of 
the over-all productivity of the lakes or of 
the interrelations of species of fishes, inver- 
tebrates, and plants to determine the smelt's 
importance as a competitor for food, es- 
pecially of young fishes, as a predator on 
other species, or the over-all effect of the 
introduction and expansion of an exotic on 
the native species. 



Spring Visiting Hours Begin 

Visiting hours from 9 a.m. to 5 P.M. will 
go into effect at the Museum from March 1 
through April 30, an extension of one hour 
beyond the 4 o'clock closing time observed 
during the winter months. 



Marjorie Clagett, Bowling Green, Ky.; Lily Colvin, 
Los Angeles; Ellen Cubitt, Toronto; Selina Cunliffe, 
Methuen, Mass.; Lad Cutak, St. Louis; Mrs. J. E. 
Goodwin, Toronto; Herbert Kaltman, New York; 
Ruth J. Nichol, Butte, Mont.; George Purdy, Port 
Orchard, Wash.; Donald T. Ries, Normal, 111.; Conrad 
Roth, Portsmouth, Ohio; J. A. Russell, Sacramento 

E. H. Thomas, Tacoma; Ruth Tollefson, Milwaukee; 
V. E. Ward, Angels Camp, Calif.; Elvin Warrick, 
Urbana; Charles Webber, San Leandro, Calif.; Paul 
J. Wolf, Bronxville, N. Y.; Violet Wooden, Fortuna, 
Calif.; Alfred Blyth, Edmonton, Canada; M. M. 
Deaderick, Carpinteria, Calif.; Caryl Firth, Trappe, 
Md.; Challis Gore, Orinda, Calif.; O. F. Metz, El 
Paso; A. J. Mueller, Appleton, Wis. ; Howard Foote, New 
York; Dr. C. L. Lim, Penang, Malaya 

SPECIAL MEDALS FOR COLOR SLIDES 

Awarded by the Photographic Society of America 

Raymond G. Feagans, Bremerton, Washington — 
In Paradise Cove; B. H. Perchuk, Chicago — Red and 
Green 



March, 1951, 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



BIRD-MAN FINDS PHILIPPINE LOWLANDS HOT AND NOISY, BUT FASCINATING 



By AUSTIN U RAND 

CURATOR OF BIRDS 

IT'S HOT at midday in the cogon grass 
country of the Philippine lowlands. 
And it's bright, too, with sunshine reflected 
from the pale coarse grass. Sweat runs into 
my eyes, and, when I stop to rest under a 
tree, the sweat doesn't dry off to cool me. 
This is the real tropics, where the sun glares 
down all day. 

The cogon grass is a sad thing to see. 
The forest has been cleared and the soil 
cultivated for a few seasons. Then when 
the soil has been exhausted and left, this 
coarse grass and a few scattered trees grow 
over it. Periodically the grass is burned in 
the dry season. The grass country is almost 
birdless . Only occasionally is a grass warbler 
(Cisticola) seen. 

Our camp (December 19 to 29) is on a 
point overlooking the junction of the Inu- 
boanga and the Sicopon rivers. We had 
cleared away the lantana leaving the second- 
growth trees for shade. Now we have prac- 
tically a barrio with twenty-two people. 
Besides Dr. D. S. Rabor* and his family 
and several relatives there are a group of 
Silliman University students (majors in 
biology), a cook, two preparators, and my- 
self. Everyone shares in everything — the 
collecting, the preparing, the camp work. 
Sometimes the lanterns burn until 10 p.m. 
while six or seven people toil at preparing 
specimens. The knowledge of these people 
about the inhabitants of the forest is really 
surprising — not only of birds but of other 
vertebrates and of invertebrates and plants. 
Certainly when these students go out into 
teaching or into the business world of the 
Philippine Islands, the forest and its life 
will have a special meaning for them. They 
will be the people who will make natural 
science a living thing in the Philippines. 

SOUND EFFECTS FROM A BAMBOO GROVE 

There's a bamboo grove on the point 
opposite our camp that is a beautiful thing 
under the full moon. A bamboo grove in 
the evening when most other noises die is a 
noisy place. First the slightest breath of 
air sends the branches together to give 
hollow, tapping sounds, loud or faint. Then 
there are the branches that rub together to 
give scrapings and squeals and squeaks and 
groans, the leaves that rustle, and the dead 
leaves that come down with a whispering 
to land with a patting. 

A medley of chuckles, squawks, gurgles, 
and plaintive "wooa's" come from the river- 
side bamboos each evening, just at dusk. 
At first I thought it might be a band of 
monkeys quarreling, or a couple of wildcats 
fighting. But Dr. Rabor knew it was a 



rail, the calls probably all coming from a 
single bird, though it certainly sounds like 
several. To these the giant gecko adds a 
chur, and then a loud "gek-ko." A nightjar 
adds a "choc-choc." The owls {Ninox 
philippensis) , when they really get together, 
serenade us noisily. Sometimes it's a "kok," 
sometimes it's "hoo-KOK," sometimes 
"hoo-kok-KOK-KOK," or some variation 
of it, and then apparently two or more owls 
can call together giving a medley of calls, 
and some of the calls seem to change to 
growls. And always, of course, from camp 
one hears the college boys' guitar and their 
songs. 

We came down here in a public bus. 
The surprising thing to me is that a Philip- 



PHILIPPINE PICTURE-STORY 
SCHEDULED FOR APRIL 

Two pages of sketches of life in 
the Philippine Islands will be 
published in the April issue of 
Chicago Natural History Museum 
"Bulletin." The drawings, by 
Miss Ruth Johnson of the staff 
of the Department of Zoology, 
were prepared from field sketches 
made by Dr. Austin L. Rand, Cu- 
rator of Birds, during the study 
trip to the Philippines from 
which he recently returned. 



* Dr. Rabor, Museum Field Associate, is head of the 
department of biology at Silliman University in the 
Philippines. 



pine bus is never full. We kept stopping 
along the road and picking up people when 
it seemed that surely there could be no 
room for more! The baggage compartment 
at the back was full of people (the baggage 
is on the roof and under the floor), and the 
children were all standing. Some fighting 
cocks were in cages on the roof, while others 
were in passengers' arms. A few people 
hung on the outside. 

JOURNEY AFOOT BEGINS 

At kilometer 95, at the Sicopon River, 
we dismounted, sent our luggage up river 
by canoe, and walked overland for two hours 
to our camp — first through paddy fields, 
with a stalk of sugar cane from a near-by 
patch to chew on, then cogon grass ridges 
with little streams and strips of forest be- 
tween, to the junction of the Inuboanga 
and Sicopon rivers, where the forest patches, 
on gullies and coral-limestone ridges, begin 
to occupy as much area as does the cogon 
grass. Northward and inland the amount 
of forest increases, and low ranges of hills 
lead by steps to the distant east Negros 
range where I worked early in the month. 
Southward there's a glimpse of the blue 
Sulu Sea some ten kilometers away. 

It's interesting to be in this dry, hot 
country and look inland to see rain clouds 



obscuring the farther hills. Sometimes the 
rain clouds are farther, sometimes nearer. 
Once they reached here, but with a faint 
spray that really wet nothing, and soon 
disappeared. 

A visit to a near-by high plateau of 
farming country allowed Dr. Rabor to add 
two new birds to his Negros list: one is a 
blackish bush lark that I look forward to 
studying in the Museum because it may be 
a new form. The other is the skylark, a 
migrant from Eurasia. It may well be that 
Negros will come to be the best-explored 
island, zoologically, in the archipelago, 
thanks to the intensive work of Dr. Rabor. 
Formerly Luzon, in the vicinity of Manila, 
would have been so considered. 

STRANGLER FIGS 

One day, in the forest, I noticed especially 
the strangler figs. Remembering the phi- 
losopher Alfred Whitehead's view that vio- 
lence and strife defeats itself and that 
peaceful co-operation, as exemplified by a 
forest, is the acme of development, I won- 
dered how he would rationalize the activities 
of these figs. Strangler figs they're called 
and the name indicates just what they do. 
At first they're slender vines supported by a 
forest tree; gradually they branch and ex- 
pand. The vine-like branches as they go 
up the tree trunk become laced together 
with a series of cross branches that look 
like the cross brace in a steel girder. Finally 
they coalesce and completely surround the 
trunk. The leafy branches of the fig take 
over the crown. The original tree that 
helped give the fig its start is dead and rots 
away, while the fig takes its place. This 
looks like exploitation rather than co-opera- 
tion. The slowness of the strangling alone 
makes it undramatic. 

Common sandpipers, migrants from Eur- 
asia, are frequently encountered along our 
river, feeding singly along the tiny beaches 
most of the day. They make flights, ap- 
parently to and from a sleeping place. In 
the evenings the birds pass down-river; I've 
seen flocks of up to a dozen or so. As they 
go downstream, the birds that have spent 
much of the day near our camp spring up 
and join them. In the mornings the small 
flocks pass upstream, dropping off birds 
here and there as they pass. One flock, at 
the fork of the river, split up and part went 
each way. Though solitary in feeding, sand- 
pipers seem to like company in sleeping. 

The bat lorikeets I found fairly common 
here for the first time. They're tiny, for 
parrots, barely sparrow size, bright green, 
and decked with red. They get their name 
from their habit of sleeping hanging head 
down from their perch, like a bat, instead 
of sitting on the perch like most birds do. 
Up till now a glimpse of a passing bird was 
all I'd seen. But here I found a fruit tree 
(Continued on page 8, column 1) 



Pages 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



March, 195i 



On Saturday Mornings . . . 

FREE PROGRAMS OF MOVIES 
OFFERED FOR CHILDREN 

It's free movie-time again for children on 
Saturday mornings at the Museum. Eight 
programs will be presented during March 
and April by the Raymond Foundation in 
the James Simpson Theatre. All begin at 
10:30 A.M. Story-tellers — the men who 
made the films — will appear on three of the 
shows. 

The titles of the films, with dates, follow: 

March 6 — Life in a Pond 

Also a cartoon 

March 13 — Legends and Animal Folk- 
Stories 

Also a cartoon 

March 20 — New Zealand Highlights 

Dr. Alfred M. Bailey, narrator 

March 27 — Jungle Career 
Game-Ranger Oliver Milton, narrator 

April 3 — So Dear to My Heart 

(Disney film-story of a boy and his black 
lamb) 

April 10 — The Grass Forest 

Robert C. Hermes, narrator 

April 17 — Jordan Valley (Biblical Lands) 

Also a cartoon 

April 24 — Wheels Across Australia 

Also a cartoon 



PHILIPPINES- 

(Continued from page 7) 
where pigeons, flowerpeckers, and starlings 
fed and, more important, these little parrots. 
Apparently they are usually solitary. Even 
when a number gathered in one tree they 
betrayed their unsociability by making pug- 
nacious rushes at each other. One, seeing 
me, cocked its head inquiringly and gave a 
high, thin "tic-tic-tic-tic" of disturbance. 
In clambering about and reaching for fruit 
they seem to have no regard for gravity, 
but climb, feed, and rest oriented most any 
way. 

One day, crossing a marshy swale. Dr. 
Rabor and I came on a small herd of cara- 
bao, turned loose to graze because they 
were not needed in agricultural work in the 
dry season. The great, ungainly beasts put 
up their heads, sniffed, and began to come 
closer through the reeds. Perhaps it was 
only to get a better view, but perhaps, as 
Rabor said, they thought we were the people 
who brought them salt. But looking at 
their horns and their unresponsive faces, 
thoughts came to me of stories I'd heard of 
people attacked by carabao. They can be 
dangerous. We started away, but this 



seemed to spur the carabao to faster action. 
I looked about for the nearest tree. But 
Dr. Rabor stopped, spoke to them, in 
Visayan, and then came on leaving the 
carabao standing, staring. 

The forest patches interested us particu- 
larly. These were magnificent forests left 
on the rougher ground, not suitable for 
farming. In the typical forest there were 
three "stories" or "canopy" layers. The 
tops of the tallest trees gave a canopy of 
leaves high overhead, perhaps 100 feet or 
more up. Below this, a stand of lower 
"undergrowth" trees gave the second 
canopy, from 50 to 70 feet above the ground, 
while nearer the ground was yet another 
layer. The ground was fairly clear of ob- 
scuring vegetation, and we could see far 
among the trunks. One day we watched a 
pitta, a red-breasted, green-backed ground 
bird of the forest floor that was undecided 
about fleeing. It hopped back and forth 
and, to stress its agitation, it depressed its 
absurdly short tail and flicked it up again. 
In a bird with a longer tail, or with bright 
tail-markings, some social significance might 
be postulated, but it seems strange in a 
bird with such an insignificant tail. Another 
time we saw, as part of a bird party, a 
magnificent crested blue monarch flycatcher, 
a bird so rare that even Dr. Rabor had only 
seen one once before. Several times we 
saw the spotted forest kingfisher and rough- 
templed babbler with yellow "ear tufts," 
both Negros endemics. The magpie robin's 
sweet whistled song, infrequently heard, was 
the finest voice of the forest, but the back- 
ground of bird-song was that of the dull- 
colored bulbul, whose pleasant song has a 
placid pleasantness that I learned to enjoy. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons became Museum 
Members from January 8 to February 12: 

Contributor 

Langdon Pearse 

Associate Members 

Lambert Bere, James W. Close, Frank 
G. Hough, Dr. Arthur Loewy, DeWitt J. 
Manasse 

Annual Members 

Eaton Adams, Frank G. Anger, Ormsby 
Annan, Donald R. Arnold, C. M. Blumen- 
schein, Carl J. Briese, Harry A. Clark, Mrs. 
Florence Conrad, William B. Doyle, W.M. 
Flerlage, Raymond Garbe, Robert H. 
Garretson, W. H. Garvey, Jr., Jacob 
Gottlieb, David Graham, Herbert S. Green- 
wald, Matthew J. Hickey, Jr., B. E. Hopper, 
J. N. Hunter, Rex K. John, Jr., Howard B. 
Ketting, William S. Kirkland, Stuart List, 
Dr. Clayton G. Loosli, Robert E. Maxwell, 
William A. McGuineas, Benjamin S. Naven, 
Seymour Oppenheimer, Herbert C. Paschen, 
Nicholas Pergo, O. M. Pick, Frank W. 
Prindiville, Colonel William G. Purdy, Dr. 
Herbert Rattner, G. W. Reilly, George 
Samuelson, John V. Sandberg, Harry R. 
Sanow, Mrs. William M. Scudder, Harry M. 



On Sunday Afternoons . . . 

THE MUSEUM'S OWN STORY 
ON DALLWIG PROGRAM 

The origin and history of museums, of 
which little is known to the average layman, 
will be discussed on Sunday afternoons in 
March by Paul G. Dallwig, the Layman 
Lecturer, under the title "Behind the Scenes 
in Our Museums." Mr. Dallwig will trace 
the development of the modern museum 
from its beginnings to its present place as 
an important research institution for both 
scholars and laymen. He will discuss the 
place of museums in our educational system, 
their value to the community, and the 
probable lines of their future development. 
The lecture will be illustrated with selected 
exhibits in this Museum that show the 
modern trend in illumination, art, color, 
and techniques. The same lecture will be 
given at 2 p.m. on each Sunday of the month 
—March 7, 14, 21, and 28. 

Museum Members are admitted to these 
lectures upon presentation of their member- 
ship cards; others must make reservations 
in advance by mail or telephone (W Abash 
2-9410). 



Panorama of America Offered 
in Audubon Screen-Tour 

Color motion-pictures of a 50,000-mile 
journey around America will be shown on 
the program, "America the Beautiful," to 
be presented by the Illinois Audubon Society 
in the James Simpson Theatre of the Mu- 
seum on Sunday, March, 14, at 2:30 P.M. 
The. accompanying lecture will be given by 
Tom and Arlene Hadley, well-known team 
of naturalists of Holly, Michigan. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology: 

From: Hughston M. McBain, Chicago — 
Japanese sword, 17th century, Japan 

Department of Botany: 

From: Dr. F. R. Fosberg, Washington, 
D.C. — 55 algae, Marshall Islands; Albert J. 
Franzen, Chicago — 3 cryptogams, Illinois; 
Dr. D. Hilliard, Anchorage, Alaska — 36 
algae, Alaska; Dr. N. Ibanez, Trujillo, Peru 
— 24 algae, Peru; Dr. Hugh litis, Fayette- 
ville, Ark. — 66 algae, Arkansas and Costa 
Rica; Dr. L. B. Isham, Coral Gables, Fla. 
— 27 algae, Florida; Institute of Jamaica, 
Kingston, Jamaica — 35 algae, Jamaica; 
S. C. Johnson and Son, Inc., Racine, Wis. — 
Copernicia material, Paraguay and Brazil 

Sears, Carl J. Sharp, Robert D. Shaver, 
Robert E. Shylin, Miss Mary Frances Smith, 
J. B. Spaulding, Oliver R. Sperry, W. J. 
Stebler, Herbert R. Stratford, Dr. Philip 
Thorek, Eugene C. Travis, Donald P. Vail, 
Everett A. Weathers, William E. Welch, 
Mrs. S. F. Zelinsky 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



Vol. 2 5. No. 4 -April 1954 

VJiicago Natural 
Ilistorif Mus e um 




Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



April, 195i 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 
Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Samuel Insull, Jr. 

Sewell L. Avery Henry P. Isham 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirib, Jr. 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Samuel Insull, Jr Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon a. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Karl P. Schmidt Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Hartb Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MaoMinn Barbara Polikoff 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



LEON L. WALTERS RETIRES 
AFTER 43 YEARS AT MUSEUM 

Leon L. Walters, who began working at 
this Museum in 1911, closed a 43-year 
career of taxidermy and sculpture on the 
staff of the institution with his retirement 
on pension on March 31. Like Leon L. Pray, 
former staff taxidermist, Mr. Walters was a 
pupil of J. D. Allen, of Mandan, North 
Dakota. 

Mr. Walters is known as one of the 
country's outstanding artists in the field of 
taxidermy. He is the inventor of the Wal- 
ters process, a method of taxidermy he be- 
gan to use in 1915. This process meets the 
difficult problem presented in the prepara- 
tion of certain types of animals whose hair- 
less or almost hairless skins cannot be 
satisfactorily preserved in lifelike condition 
by the conventional methods of mounting 
their skins. By the Walters taxidermic pro- 
cess, these animals are reproduced in colored 
plastics that are painted on the inside of 
plaster molds made from the original speci- 
mens and later removed. The plastic layer 
is really a replica of the skin. The method is 
applied principally to snakes and other rep- 
tiles, to amphibians such as frogs and sala- 
manders, and even to such large mammals 
as the hippopotamus and rhinoceros. It is 
also used for parts of other animals — faces. 



feet, etc. — in combination with mounting of 
the actual skin of the torso. 

Walters, born in Portland, Jay County, 
Indiana, attended schools there and in 
Evanston, Illinois. He studied sculpture 
and painting at the Art Institute of Chicago 
and joined the staff of this Museum as an 
assistant in zoology in 1911, shortly after 
completing his art studies. 

Mr. Walters has been a member of various 
Museum expeditions. In 1923 he accom- 




LAST MUSEUM TASK 
Finishing touches are put on specimen for habitat 
group of the Malay tapir from Siam by Staff Taxi- 
dermist Leon L. Walters, whose retirement on 
March 31 ended 43 years of service to the Museum. 



panied Dr. Karl P. Schmidt (now Chief 
Curator of Zoology) on an expedition to 
British Honduras and Honduras to collect 
material for a habitat group of crocodiles. 
He collected alligators in Georgia in 1925 
and various reptiles in the Southwest in 
1937 and in Florida in 1939. In 1941 he 
was a member of a Museum expedition to 
the Galapagos Islands that was sponsored 
by Leon Mandel, of Chicago, and conducted 
from the latter's yacht. Mr. Walters is the 
author of pamphlets and articles in museum 
technical journals describing the plastic taxi- 
dermic process he invented. On the side he 
has collected birds, mammals, and American 
Indian archaeological material. Some of this, 
collecting was done while he was home- 
steading a section of land in eastern Mon- 
tana, during a period of absence from the 
Museum. He has also developed techniques 
for models of agricultural products, pros- 
thetics for amputees, and a laminated gun 
case that was accepted in 1944 by the 
Smaller War Plants Corporation, a govern- 
ment agency. 



MUSEUM CO-OPERATES 
IN STUDY OF RABIES 

Chicago Natural History Museum, 
through its Curator of Mammals, Colin 
Campbell Sanborn, who has been appointed 
a special consultant to the Communicable 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



Although the native habitat of 
the purple rhododendron lies in 
the mountains extending from 
Georgia to Virginia, the flowering 
branch seen on our cover will be 
in permanent bloom in a different 
habitat— Hall 29 (Martin A. and 
Carrie Ryerson Hall, Plant Life) 
of the Museum. This model of 
rhododendron — for that, and not 
the live plant, is what our cover 
shows — was made by Emil Sella, 
Curator of Exhibits, assisted by 
Frank Boryca, Technician. Cu- 
rator Sella collected specimens of 
this rhododendron last spring 
when it was in bloom in the Great 
Smoky Mountains of Tennessee. 
When he returned to his work at 
the Museum he fashioned out of 
plastic and glass the blossoming 
branch that, with its lustrous 
green leaves and subtly shaded 
flowers, brings a touch of Smoky 
Mountain spring to Chicago. 



Disease Center of the U. S. Public Health 
Service, is actively co-operating with health 
authorities in the study of rabies infection 
in bats. There have been but two cases in 
the United States, neither near the Chicago 
area, and, although the condition is not con- 
sidered serious, it is being carefully watched. 
The Museum is identifying all bats collected 
by health authorities in surveys of infection 
in this mammal. 

Curator Sanborn presented an illustrated 
lecture on "Bats — Their Distribution and 
Habits in North America" before the South- 
eastern United States Rabies Conference, 
which was sponsored by the Communicable 
Disease Center of the U. S. Public Health 
Service and the Florida State Board of 
Health in Tampa on March 19. He then 
inspected the laboratories in Montgomery, 
Alabama, where the reaction of bats to 
rabies is being studied, and visited the CDC 
Headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. 



Illinois Audubon Society Offers 
Screen-Tour on April 25 

Cleveland P. Grant well-known naturalist 
and former member of the staff of Chicago 
Natural History Museum, will present a 
screen-tour with color motion-pictures for 
the Illinois Audubon Society on Sunday, 
April 25, in the James Simpson Theatre of 
the Museum at 2:30 p.m. The subject is 
"Wildlife of Marsh and Mountains." 

Admission is free to the general public; 
members of either the Museum or the Au- 
dubon Society may obtain reserved seats 
by presenting their membership cards before 
2:25 P.M. 



April, 195U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Pages 



WEST FRONTIER INDIANS 
PORTRAYED IN EXHIBIT 

By GEORGE I. QUIMBY 

CURATOR OF EXHIBITS, A NTHROPOLOT.Y 

Since 1894 Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum has owned an important but little- 
known collection of rare paintings by George 
Catlin, who was famous for the western 
scenes and Indian portraits that he painted 
more than one hundred years ago. The 
Museum's collection consists of thirty-five 
oil paintings of Indians and scenes of the 
western frontier painted by Catlin between 
1831 and 1837. Most of the pictures were 
painted along the upper Missouri River in 
1832. 

During April the Museum will display a 
selection of its Catlin paintings in a special 
show entitled "Indians of the Western 
Frontier." The special exhibit of more 




SIOUX INDIAN CHIEF 
Portrait painted by George Catlin in 1832. 

than twenty pictures will be placed in 
Stanley Field Hall. Other Catlin paintings 
are on permanent display in the regular 
Indian exhibits in Hall 5 (Mary D. Sturges 
Hall) and Hall 6. 

Catlin received considerable encourage- 
ment and aid from General William Clark 
(famous for his part in the Lewis and Clark 
Expedition to the Pacific), who was then 
governor of Missouri and Superintendent of 
Indian affairs for the western regions, as 
well as from Clark's nephew, Major Benja- 
min O'Fallon, who was Indian agent. The 
Museum's collection of Catlin paintings was 
formerly owned by Major O'Fallon and 
probably General Clark. The collection 
was sold to the Museum by Miss Emily 
O'Fallon, daughter of Major O'Fallon and 
grandniece of General Clark. These paint- 
ings had been in the O'Fallon home, "Indian 
Retreat," in St. Louis until 1861, when they 
were packed up and put into storage until 
purchased by the Museum in 1894. 



How this Museum came to purchase the 
O'Fallon collection is an interesting story 
that can be reconstructed from letters in 
the files of the Museum. 

On December 4, 1893, Miss O'Fallon 
wrote a letter to her friend Mrs. Ulysses S. 
Grant, stating that the O'Fallons "wished to 
dispose of" their paintings of Indians and 
requesting the aid of Mrs. Grant in bringing 
this collection to the attention of the "Mu- 
seum Directors of Chicago." Soon after 
receiving this letter Mrs. Grant wrote to 
Mrs. Potter Palmer in Chicago, who relayed 
the information to Harlow N. Higinbotham, 
a Trustee of the Museum. Mr. Higin- 
botham negotiated directly with Miss Emily 
O'Fallon, and the paintings were purchased 
by the Museum on December 10, 1894. 



FOUR SATURDAY LECTURES 
OFFERED IN APRIL 

1^ Illustrated lectures in the spring course 
on science and travel will continue on the 
four Saturday afternoons in April. The 
lectures, provided by the Edward E. Ayer 
Lecture Foundation Fund, are given in the 
James Simpson Theatre of the Museum at 
2:30 P.M. Because of limited accommoda- 
tions, it is necessary to restrict admission 
to adults. For children, free motion-picture 
programs are given in the Theatre on the 
mornings of the same Saturdays under the 
auspices of the Raymond Foundation. 

Following are the dates, titles, and lec- 
tures for April: 

April 3 — Italian Interlude 

Dr. J. Gerald Hooper 

April 10 — Once Upon an Island 

Robert C. Hermes 

April 17— Turkey 

Karl Robinson 

April 24 — Wildlife of Wisconsin 

Cleveland P. Grant 

No tickets are necessary for admission 
to these lectures. A section of the 
Theatre is allocated to Members of the 
Museum, each of whom is entitled to 
two reserved seats. Requests for these 
seats should be made in advance by 
telephone (WAbash 2-9410) or in writ- 
ing, and seats will be held in the Mem- 
ber's name until 2:25 o'clock on the 
lecture day. 



Daily Guide Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered 
daily except Sundays under the title 
"Highlights of the Exhibits." These tours 
are designed to give a general idea of the 
entire Museum and its scope of activities. 
They begin at 2 p.m. on Monday through 
Friday and at 2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 



FLYING LIZARD RIVALS 
PHILIPPINE BIRDS 

By AUSTIN L. RAND 

CURATOR OF BIRDS 

{This is the last in a series of articles on 
Dr. Rand's observations during his recent 
study trip to the Philippines. Dramngs illus- 
trating various phases of life on the islands 
appear on pages U and 5.) 

SOME PEOPLE regard museum curators 
as men who study dry bones and dusty 
skins, and think curators themselves are 
dry as dust. I reflected on this sardonically 
while in camp in the mountains of Negros 
in the Philippines. A magnificent forest 
exists there, but such a forest needs moisture. 
In camp there were driving rains, the mosses 
were like wet sponges, the trails were soaked 
and slippery, and sodden skies dripped 
ceaselessly. No curator could be dry and 
dusty there for long — I was wet and muddy 
most of the time. 

I lived awhile on the edge of a different, 
drier forest at Lilo-an on Siquijor Island. 
It was here I saw the flying lizard fly. It 
was about three feet up on a twelve-foot 
tree stub — a slender creature with head and 
body about three to four inches long. It 
pulsed the loose gular skin of its throat as 
it climbed. I thought it would "fly" from 
the top of the stub, but it jumped a foot or 
so to a tender sapling and climbed nearly 
to the top, about 18 feet up. Then off it 
went in a flat jump of three or four feet. 
It spread its "wings" (specialized flaps of 
skin that when folded reach about from fore 
to hind limb and are inconspicuous, but 
when expanded make an oval gliding surface 
on each side). The downward course was 
checked and the glide was nearly level to 
the trunk of a nearby tree. I measured the 
distance — about fifteen feet from sapling to 
tree — and the lizard lost only an estimated 
five to six feet of altitude in this distance. 
With greater altitude these lizards jump 
several times as far. 

NEW COLLECTING-GROUND 

Siquijor is a small islet, about ten miles 
across. Its interest to me was its poor 
fauna and the effects of the island's small 
size on habits and speciation. Once a 
forested island, presumably, there still are 
tiny patches of forest in the south. As no 
collecting had been done here previously, 
my associate, Dr. D. S. Rabor, and I went 
to work. 

January was in the dry northeast-mon- 
soon season. The only water for a mile or 
so each way from the farming area called 
Lilo-an was the village well. Lines of people 
and cattle to and from the well were a morn- 
ing and evening sight. 

There are gradual beaches and even bits 
of mangrove on Siquijor. Off the forest 
there is a broken cliff of 100 feet or more 
{Continued on page 6, column 1 ) 



PHILIPPINE SKEl 




Chicago Natural History Museum's 1953-54 Philippine 
Study Trip resulted in collections of specimens, notebooks 
filled with data, and a sketchbook of studies by Dr. Austin 
L. Rand, Curator of Birds. From Dr. Rand's field sketches 
Miss Ruth Johnson made the drawings presented here. 



roHW 



I The Science Building of Silliman Uni- 
versity, in Dumaguete, where Dr. D. S. 
Rabor (Field Associate of the Museum) 
teaches, and where Dr. Rand made his 
headquarters. 

A small village near Dumaguete, show- 
ing houses and a small Sari-sari (general) 
store. Prominently displayed are strings 
of bananas and jars of "tuba," a popular 
coconut drink. " 




The edge of the Sulu Sea. Coconut 
palms lean into the monsoon, and the 
shallow inshore water is incredibly pale, 
brilliant green-blue. 

Carabao, or water buffalo, love to bathe 
in mud, and here we have one in a 
buffalo wallow. 




Lake Balinsasayo— a view from 
Silliman University's Biological Sta- 
tion veranda, with the caretaker's 
home in the foreground. 

A cornfield, with a small shelter 
from which people watch for ma- 
rauding monkeys, ready to chase 
them from the ripening corn. — »• 






Page U 



lES FROM NEGROS 




Lowland Philippine forest, in typical 
three-story formation: the tallest trees give 
the topmost canopy, trees of intermediate 
height make a second story, and the short- 
est trees provide the lowest story. 



Philippine Macaque 






I Many lowland trees are characterized 
by wide flaring buttresses. 



^^i^^^-'U.^S^^ 



T Camp on the Inaboanga-Sicopon 
River, where with Dr. Rabor, his 
family, and a group of biology-major 
students Dr. Rand spent Christmas. 



Preparing a meal.^-» 



■• — A local water-carrier. 




Page 5 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



April, 195U 



PHILIPPINES- 

(Coniinued from page 3) 

that fronts the sea. This was the first forest 
I ever worked in where fruit bats were 
common throughout. A medium-sized spe- 
cies slept singly or in couples hanging up in 
the lower canopy, and these bats were con- 
tinually flying ahead of us. They were of 
a species that feed, fight, and squeal amid the 
small green fruits in the kapok trees each 
night. A large species of fruit bat also 
occurred, with a community roost in a big 
tree about 300 yards from camp, and from 
this the bats spread out each evening to do 
their feeding. 

Some of the cornfields still had dried 
bleached stalks standing. How different 
were the birds in them from the birds of a 
cornfield in the United States. Instead of 
bluejays, blackbirds, and pheasants, there 
were white cockatoos, which, the people told 
us, compete with the human population for 
the younger ears of com. Wood-swallows 
and bee-eaters, both of groups unknown in 
the New World, used the cornstalks as van- 
tage points from which to fly out and cap- 
ture large insects on the wing. Still more 
incongruous was a medium-sized kingfisher 
whose favorite perching places were fence- 
posts along the cornfield where it watched 
for insects and lizards on the ground. 

GIANT FOSSIL CLAMSHELLS 

Near the forest the limestone is close to 
the surface. It's still closer in the forest, 
and this probably has saved the trees. An in- 
cidental result is that the cornfields near the 
woodland are rich in fossil giant clamshells 
{Tridacna). The shells or fragments of 
these huge bivalves, more than two feet 
long, seem to resist disintegration better 
than the rock in which they're embedded. 

As in so many places in the tropics the 
introduced shrub, lantana, forms great 
masses on wasteland. These harbor many 
birds. The bright orange-red flowers are 
favorite feeding places of the yellow-bellied 
sunbird, and the ripe fruits are one of the 
foods of the glossy starling, an all-black 
bird with an eye so brilliantly red that in 
the sunshine it looks like an added adorn- 
ment. A lantana patch near camp was a 
favorite roosting place for the little black- 
and-brown weaver bird that roams the 
countryside in loose flocks in search of weed 
and grass seeds on which to feed. On our 
first two mornings here a dark peregrine 
falcon, relative of our duck hawk, swept 
over our dooryard throwing the hens into a 
panic. It's a dark endemic form of falcon 
we would have liked to collect, but in a 
watch on subsequent mornings we failed to 
find it. However, we did see another chicken 
predator in action. It was a crow, indis- 
tinguishable in the field from our crow 
except perhaps by voice. "Wak" the natives 
call it, and that's a very good rendition of 
its call. 



The bird fauna of the forest is poor here. 
There are none of the woodpeckers, horn- 
bills, nuthatches, chickadees, or leaf-warb- 
lers so characteristic of many Philippine 
forests. It's interesting to see a well-de- 
veloped forest with so many ecological niches 
empty. Because species are few, one would 
expect the few that do occur to be excep- 
tionally abundant compared with their 
status on the larger islands, but this does 
not seem to be the case. 

Bird song is not noticeable, which is to 
be expected on a small island with a poor 
fauna. The birds do not need song to pre- 
vent species mixup at breeding time. In 
the forest there is always the chatter of the 
bulbul, which is harsher than that of its 
relative on Negros, and the bird is less 
given to singing than that on Negros. 

The screeching of cockatoos is also a 
familiar sound. The babbling of the rufous 
and black coucal (a cuckoo) and the loud 
gua-how followed by a chuckle of the black 
koel (another cuckoo) also sound in the 
forest. The only real songster is a black- 
and-white thrush, Copsychus, that has a 
series of fine sweet whistles that would rate 
it a songster in any company. 



MONOTREMES, MARSUPIALS 
BYPASSED BY EVOLUTION 

By BARBARA POLIKOFF 

Several members of the blue-jean set were 
standing in front of the new exhibit in Hall 
15 when I went to see it for the first time. 
Their remarks, coming one on top of an- 
other, many having nothing to do with the 
exhibit at all, caused a small clamor that 
would have made a disciplinarian's heart 
sink. But I managed to hear the comment 
of one boy who had just discovered that the 
new-born opossum finds its way into its 
mother's pouch when it is so small that it 
can fit comfortably in a teaspoon. After he 
had absorbed the full wonder of this dis- 
covery he announced to one of his colleagues, 
"Someday I'm going to study this stuff." 
In the age when jet planes and deep-sea 
diving has excited the ambitions of so many 
boys, this is quite a tribute. 

THEME IS PRIMITIVISM 

The new exhibit, planned by D. Dwight 
Davis, Curator of Vertebrate Anatomy, and 
prepared by Joseph B. Krstolich, Artist, is 
devoted to explaining the remarkable features 
of the two most primitive groups of mam- 
mals: the monotremes (most famous is the 
duck-billed platypus) and the marsupials 
(best known is the kangaroo). Unlike 
modern mammals such as the dog and the 
horse that give birth to fully formed off- 
spring, the animals belonging to these two 
groups have a much more primitive repro- 
ductive cycle. The monotremes lay eggs 
and are in this respect more like reptiles 
than mammals. The marsupials, a step 



above the monotremes in the evolutionary 
scale, do not lay eggs but they still lag 
behind the modern mammals. As the 
small scholar discovered, their offspring 
are so undeveloped at time of birth that 
they require the protection of the mother's 
pouch for several months before they can 
venture out on their own. 

The monotremes and marsupials have 
other characteristics that indicate their 
primitivism. A comparison of the shoulder 
girdle bones of a monotreme with those of 
a lizard shows that there is a close resem- 
blance between the two, much closer than 
the resemblance that exists between the 
bones of monotremes and mammals. The 
opossum, a marsupial that is as large as a 
cat when it is full grown, has a brain that is 
practically devoid of convolutions, resem- 
bling the brain of a lizard more than that of 
a cat. The convoluted brain is found in the 
mammals that go beyond the marsupials in 
the scale of evolution. 

FLOURISHED IN THE AMERICAS 

As the section of the exhibit devoted to 
zoogeography shows, about 80 million years 
ago marsupials and monotremes flourished 
in North and South America as well as in 
Australia and New Guinea. At that time 
there was no connection between any of 
these land areas. When modern mammals 
developed in North America, they com- 
pletely dominated the more primitive mar- 
supials, wiping them out except for the 
persistent little opossum that was somehow 
able to survive the onslaught. When a 
connection was established between North 
and South America, the modem mammals 
traveled from north to south and obliterated 
the majority of the marsupials that flour- 
ished there. Because Australia and New 
Guinea are still isolated as they were 80 
million years ago, marsupials still exist there 
in great variety. 

The flying squirrel, a modern mammal, 
and the flying phalanger, a marsupial, are 
included in the exhibit as a good example 
of a common but nonetheless extraordinary 
phenomenon — that of two animals that 
closely resemble each other although they 
belong to different groups that are found in 
different parts of the world, the result of 
parallel evolution that occurs when animals 
have similar habits. 



PLEASE NOTIFY MUSEUM 
IF YOU'RE MOVING 

Members of the Museum who 
change residence are urged to notify 
the Museum so that the Bulletin 
and other communications may reach 
them promptly. 

Members going away for extended 
periods may have Museum matter 
sent to their temporary addresses. 



April, 1951, 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



GROWING TV DEMANDS 
MET BY MUSEUM 

The demands of television stations and 
networks for program material based on 
exhibits and research of the Museum or on 
Museum staff personalities are constantly 
increasing. Frequent requests for the insti- 
tution's co-operation in presentation of edu- 
cational subjects come from both public- 
service divisions of TV organizations and 
commercially sponsored programs. Indica- 
tions are that the current calls upon Museum 
facilities represent only a fraction of what 
may be expected when Chicago's projected 
educational TV station WTTW goes into 
operation on Channel 11. 

In just three weeks (beginning February 
21) staff members of the Museum consti- 
tuted the casts of two complete half-hour 
television programs and were major par- 
ticipants in two other programs. Material 
was furnished from Museum resources for 
use as props on a fifth. 

The biggest tribute to Chicago Natural 
History Museum as an institution was the 
program on February 21, for which it was 
chosen to represent the vital place of all 
museums in American life and culture. This 
program was in the series presented by the 
Sloan Foundation, which each week, under 
the title "American Inventory," stages an 
audio-visual "profile" of one of the elements 
that contributes to the greatness of the 
United States. The telecast was over the 
network of the National Broadcasting Com- 
pany. Participating in the program were 
Colonel Clifford C. Gregg, Director; Dr. 
Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthro- 
pology; Dr. Theodor Just, Chief Curator of 
Botany; Dr. Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator 
of Geology: and Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, Chief 
Curator of Zoology. 

The thread of the Museum story and the 
transition from one natural science to an- 
other were carried by Colonel Gregg and 
Hugh Downs, NBC commentator. Scenes 
were shifted to a representation of a labora- 
tory in each scientific department where 
each of the Chief Curators, with specimens 
and equipment, was able to demonstrate 
some of the basic purposes and accomplish- 
ments in his particular science. The pro- 
gram as a whole showed how each of the 
sciences interweave with the others toward 
achieving definition of the story of the earth 
and its life. 

On March 7, Bryan Patterson, Curator 
of Fossil Mammals, was the featured speaker 
on "Live and Learn," educational television 
series of station WNBQ. In a half-hour 
lecture with specimens and demonstrations 
he outlined the subject "Historical Evidence 
of Evolution." This series, considered 
among the top-ranking public-service pro- 
grams, has presented other members of the 
Museum staff on a number of occasions in 
the past. 

The work of the Museum's plant-repro- 



duction laboratories was documented by 
Chief Curator Just as a guest participant 
in the Danny O'Neil Show on station WBKB 
(ABC) on March 9. Dr. Julian A. Steyer- 
mark. Curator of the Phanerogamic Her- 
barium, was a guest on John Ott's program, 
"How Does Your Garden Grow," over sta- 
tion WNBQ on March 14. The fifth pro- 
gram, in which the Museum was represented 
by material from its anthropological collec- 
tions was "New Horizons" on station 
WBBM-TV. On this program faculty 
members of universities and colleges in the 
Chicago area appear each week, and fre- 
quently they rely on material from the 
Museum to illustrate their subjects. 

Spot announcements of Museum exhibits 
and activities continue in the daily schedules 
of all four Chicago television stations. 



PLANT FROM GUATEMALA 

MAKES U.S. DEBUT 

Brought from the wilds of the land of 
the Mayas to urban Chicago, an attractive 
red-flowered plant made its "formal debut" 
in North America on March 14 over tele- 
vision on Station WNBQ (NBC, Channel 
5). The plant was introduced to the United 




WANTED: A POPULAR NAMK 

Plant brought from Guatemala that is currently 

being introduced into horticuhure in the United 

States. It was obtained by Dr. Juhan A. Steyermark 

while on a Museum expedition. 



States on John Ott's Sunday-afternoon pro- 
gram "How Does Your Garden Grow?" 
by Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, Curator of 
the Phanerogamic Herbarium at the Mu- 
seum, who had brought back a living plant 
from his second expedition to Guatemala. 

Known to the scientific world as Columnea 
stenophylla, this plant is a member of the 
same family (Gesneriaceae) to which also 
belong the African violet (Saintpaulia), 



FREE CHILDREN'S MOVIES 

ON APRIL SATURDAYS 

Free movie-programs for children will 
continue each Saturday morning during 
April under the auspices of the James Nelson 
and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation. 
All programs begin at 10:30 A.M. in the 
James Simpson Theatre of the Museum. 
Titles and dates of the remaining films 
follow: 

April 3 — So Dear to My Heart 

(Disney film-story of a boy and his black 
lamb) 

April 10— The Grass Forest 
Robert C. Hermes, narrator 

April 17 — Jordan Valley (Biblical Lands) 

Also a cartoon 

April 24 — Wheels Across Australia 
Also a cartoon 

Children may come alone, accompanied 
by adults, or in groups from schools, clubs, 
and other centers. No tickets are needed. 



Episcia, Gloxinia, and Achimenes, all well- 
known to flower-lovers. Originally dis- 
covered in 1926 in Chiapas, Mexico, the 
plant was found later in Guatemala in 1940 
on the slopes of a volcano in that country. 

Curator Steyermark found it on both of 
his expeditions for the Museum on two dif- 
ferent volcanoes (Santa Clara and Atitlan) 
in dense tropical rainforest at elevations 
varying from 3,000 to 5,000 feet. He 
brought back living plants in 1942 and 
through the efforts of the growers at the 
conservatories of the Chicago Park District 
(Garfield Park, Lincoln Park, and Mar- 
quette Park), plants were restored to health 
and flowered. 

In cultivation this plant is much more 
striking than in the wild state. Its numerous 
scarlet trumpet-like flowers, 4 to 5 inches 
in length, appear along the stem from top 
to bottom and blend beautifully with the 
lustrous dark-green willow-like leaves. The 
flowers last a long time. A plant blooms 
continuously for at least two months, the 
best blossoming usually occurring around 
St. Valentine's Day. However, the plant 
starts blooming around New Year's and 
lasts until Easter. As the plant grows well 
under house conditions, it is expected that 
eventually it will become very popular. It 
will soon be introduced to various growers 
for distribution to the public. 

"The history of the introduction of this 
plant to the public illustrates how scientific 
expeditions may contribute new and un- 
usual ornamental plants that add to the 
world's gardening and horticultural enjoy- 
ment," says Curator Steyermark. The 
television audience is being given the op- 
portunity of selecting a common name for 
the plant. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



April, 195i 



BILLION YEARS OF LIFE 
IS DALLWIG TOPIC 

The world of hundreds of millions and 
even billions of years ago will be dramatized 
in "Nature's 'March of Time'" to be pre- 
sented at the Museum on three Sunday 
afternoons in April by Paul G. Dallwig, the 
Layman Lecturer. Mr. Dallwig will appear 
on April 4, 11, and 25 (there will be no 
lecture on Easter Sunday). 

The story of strange long-extinct forms 
of plant and animal life, of which only fossils 
remain today, will be told. The audience 
will re-live the adventures of fossil-hunting 
expeditions to the Gobi Desert and else- 
where. "Visits" will be made to a 250- 
million-year-old Coal Age forest and to the 
La Brea tar-pits of California to witness the 
plight of prehistoric monsters in their death 
trap. The lecture is climaxed with the 
dramatization of a fight between two giant 
dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus and Triceratops. 

Museum Members are admitted to these 
lectures upon presentation of their member- 
ship cards; others must make reservations 
in advance by mail or telephone (W Abash 
2-9410). 

NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons became Museum 
members from February 15 to March 12: 

Non-Resident Life Member 

Ross Tarrant 

Associate Members 

Robert V. Brost, Paul Gibson, Mrs. Ruth 
M. McReynolds, William W. Whitnell 

Sustaining Members 

Edwin C. Austin, Rosecrans Baldwin, Jay 
Berwanger, John B. Lewellen, Jay Sheridan, 
T. R. Sorensen 

Annual Members 

Anthony G. Allison, Carl W. Bahr, A. C. 
Bailey, Anthony W. Bakken, Mrs. Scammon 
Barry, Frank G. Bavirsha, James B. Braun, 
Charles K. Buckels, S. T. Cohen, Henry 
Conedera, W. D. Cross, Jr., Arnold C. 
Crowl, Walter L. Darfler, Dr. Sol T. DeLee, 
Lyman W. Dixon, Warren Everote, C. B. 
Fiduccia, Dr. Carl R. Freberg, David 
Golber, James L. Gossman, Charles L. 
Hardy, Bernhart Haugen, James C. Hoover, 
T. V. Houser, S. L. Jewell, E. F. Johnstone, 
Jr., George W. Jones, George M. Keane, 
Robert H. Kent, Gordon Lang, Mrs. H. A. 
Leeb, Orrin S. Leslie, George Lill II, Edward 
C. Logelin, Dr. Karl A. Meyer, F. W. 
Michaels, J. Bernard Mullen, George Niel- 
sen, Marc T. Nielsen, C. A. Nordberg, 
Harold J. Nutting, John B. O'Connor, John 
E. Owen, Frank J. Pasco, Mrs. Sara Z. 
Pritikin, Mrs. John A. Prosser, Colonel 
John C. Raaen, Lester G. Rees, Joseph 
Regenstein, Jr., W. R. Riggs, Herbert W. 
Rumsfeld, Benjamin Saks, S. J. Samuels, 
Erich F. Schmidt, Leo C. Sheldon, Lewis 
Shere, Dr. Louis D. Smith, Albert A. 
Sommer, Stanton H. Speer, W. L. Summers, 
Dean Terrill, Joseph W. Towle, Dr. M. P. 
Umes, Donald J. Walsh, William H. War- 
ner, Dr. Louis Yesnick 



STAFF NOTES 



Bryan Patterson, Curator of Fossil 
Mammals, and Orville L. Gilpin, Chief 
Preparator of Fossils, will leave April 5 on 
a two-month field trip to northern Texas, 
where they will collect fossils of Early Cre- 
taceous age in deposits that have already 
proved rich in their yield of fossil mammal 
and other vertebrate remains . . . Dr. Ju- 
lian A. Steyermark, Curator of the Phan- 
erogamic Herbarium, conducted a seminar 
at the graduate school of the Henry Shaw 
School of Botany, Washington University, 
St. Louis, on "Vegetation of the Venezuelan 
Guiana." He also spoke before the Barring- 
ton (Illinois) Natural History Society on 
"Plants and Animals Found in the Lost 
World of Venezuela.". . . Colin Campbell 
Sanborn, Curator of Mammals, recently 
spent a week at the U. S. National Museum, 
Washington, D.C., and the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, .New York, in 
connection with his work on a catalogue of 
the bats .... Miss Miriam Wood, Chief 
of the Raymond Foundation guide-lecture 
staff, attended the national convention of 
the Department of Audio- Visual Instruction 
of the National Education Association held 
in Chicago last month. She acted as con- 
sultant at a session on "Museums as School 
Resource Centers." Miss Nancy Wor- 
sham and Mrs. Jean Shultz, Raymond 
Foundation guide-lecturers, attended ses- 
sions of the North American Wild Life 
Conference . . . Donald Collier. Curator of 
South American Archaeology and Eth- 
nology, and George I. Quimby, Curator 
of Exhibits-Anthropology attended the 
meetings at Purdue University of the Cen- 
tral States Anthropological Society. Mr. 
Collier is president of the organization .... 
Mrs. William (Audrey Greeley) Rhine, 
Reference Librarian, has resigned to devote 
herself to a career as a homemaker. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of some of the princi- 
pal gifts received recently: 

Department of Botany: 

From: Holly R. Bennett, Chicago— 175 
miscellaneous phanerogams. Rosebud 
County, Mont.; G. W. Lawson, Achimota, 
Gold Coast, Africa — 62 algae; R. A. Lewin, 
Halifax — 14 algae. Nova Scotia; R. E. 
Schultes, Cambridge, Mass. — 3 phanero- 
gams, Colombia; Dr. Earl E. Sherff, Chicago 
— 19 photos of Hawaiian plants; Floyd A. 
Swink, Chicago — 52 phanerogams; Jose- 
phine E. Tilden, Lake Wells, Fla.— 32 algae; 
Archie Wilson, Flossmoor, 111. — a Bumelia 
lanuginosa, Texas; Mrs. Marion Wolf, La- 
fayette, La. — 40 fruits of Liguidamber sty- 
raciflua and 5 fruits of Trapa natans; Dr. 
Walter B. Kiener, Lincoln, Neb. — 196 
Characeae; Dr. P. Killip, Washington, D.C. 
— 90 algae, Cuba and Florida; Dr. Ira 
LaRivers, Reno, Nev. — 185 algae; Dr. J. 



JUNIOR SCIENTISTS DISPLAY 
TALENTS AT MUSEUM 

Results of the scientific endeavors of 
grade and high-school children were exhi- 
bited at a Science Fair held in the Museum 
on March 20 under the auspices of the 
National Science Teachers Association, Chi- 
cago branch. Creations entirely the work 
of young students were on display, including 
such things as a home-made 6-ifich reflecting 
telescope, a miniature Stone-Age diorama, a 
model of an atomic pile, a garden-collected 
exhibit of insects, and "do-it-yourself" elec- 
tronic devices. Schools of Chicago in the 
area from the Sanitary District Canal to 
North Avenue and of suburbs within 45 
miles of the city were included. Schools of 
other parts of the city held similar science 
fairs at other civic centers. It is planned 
to make these science fairs an annual event. 



Colombian Plant Research 

Dr. Jose Cuatrecasas, botanist engaged 
in a research project of several years' dura- 
tion at this Museum under the auspices of 
the National Science Foundation, recently 
made a tour of the east during which he 
studied plant collections from Colombia at 
the New York Botanical Garden, the Smith- 
sonian Institution, Washington, D.C, and 
the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University. 



Mabille, Aisne, France — 8 algae; Dr. Grace 
C. Madsen, Tallahassee, Fla.— 206 algae; 
Dr. E. T. Moul, New Brunswick, N.J.— 9 
algae, Gilbert Islands; J. Newhouse, Hono- 
lulu, Hawaii — 138 algae; Dr. Chester S. 
Nielsen, Tallahassee, Fla. — 81 algae; Dr. 
J. M. Orozco, San Jose, Costa Rica, — 17 
algae 

Department of Zoology; 

From: Dr. Henry Field, Coconut Grove, 
Fla. — collection of sea shells, Dubai, Trucial 
Coast, Persian Gulf; Florida State Board of 
Health, Jacksonville, Fla. — 104 bats, Geor- 
gia; Squadron Leader Marshall Laird, 
Lauthala Bay, Fiji — 5 bats in alcohol, Aore 
Island, New Hebrides; Lincoln Park Zoo, 
Chicago — 5 ticks from Echidna, captive; 
Museo de La Salle, Bogota, Colombia — 11 
coral snakes, Colombia; W. B. Swanson, 
Sydney, Australia — 12 turtles, Australia; 
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pascagoula, 
Miss. — 47 lots of preserved fishes, northern 
Gulf of Mexico, and 2 marine sturgeons, 
Mississippi; Father A. Buch, French Indo- 
China — 10 lizards and 20 snakes; Dr. R. L. 
Fleming, Kathmandu, Nepal — 462 bird- 
skins; Harry Hoogstraal, Cairo, Egypt — 28 
birdskins and 16 lots of fishes; D. E. John- 
son, Provo, Utah — 11 Bombyliid flies repre- 
senting 6 species, western United States 

Library: 

From Dr. Jeanne S. Schwengel, Scarsdale, 
N. Y.; Miss Marion Yager, Oneonta, N. Y.; 
Container Corp. of America, Chicago; Lang- 
don Pearse, Winnetka, 111.; Robert Trier, 
Chicago 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



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Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



May, 195i 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Samuel Insull, Jr. 

Sewell U Avery Henry P. Isham 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searlb 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field Firtt Vice-President 

Samuel Insull, Jr Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
CUFFORD C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Karl P. Schmidt Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Hartb Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Barbara Polikoff 



Members ate requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



WHY WE NEED MUSEUMS 

The basic reason for maintaining museums 
and for the pursuit of knowledge through 
the research conducted in them was suc- 
cinctly stated by Benjamin Franklin when 
he wrote in Poor Richard's Almanack: 
"What signifies knowing the Names, if you 
know not the Natures of Things." 



of the flowers and the fiery volcanoes of this 
section of Guatemala. Announcement of 
the decision was made on the Ott program 
on Sunday, March, 21. 



'Mayan Fire Plant' Wins 
in Name Contest 

Responding to an invitation to send in 
their choice of a popular name for Columnea 
slenophylla, the plant that Dr. Julian A. 
Steyermark, Curator of the Phanerogamic 
Herbarium, introduced to the public on 
Sunday, March 14, on John Ott's television 
program "How Does Your Garden Grow?" 
(Station WNBQ, NBC, Channel 5), several 
hundred contestants wrote in selections 
ranging from "Scarlet African Violet" to 
names honoring Curator Steyermark. The 
name finally chosen was "Mayan Fire 
Plant," submitted by Ernest A. Kokoska of 
Hinsdale, Illinois. As an award, Mr. 
Kokoska received a potted specimen of the 
plant. 

The winning name is most appropriate. 
It combines the historic land of the Mayas, 
in which the plant grows, with the red color 



Annual Report of Director 
Going to All Members 

The Annual Report for 1953 of the 
Director of the Museum to the Board of 
Trustees was published in April and distri- 
bution of copies to all Members of the Mu- 
.seum has begun. In the report, which fills 
a volume of 139 pages and contains 24 
illustrations. Colonel Clifford C. Gregg, 
Director, gives detailed information on all 
phases of Museum activities during the 
year — expeditions, research, new exhibits, 
accessions, maintenance, financing, etc. It 
was printed by Chicago Natural History 
Museum Press. 



Field Trip to Study Ants 
A field trip to Louisiana combining re- 
search on insects and reptiles will be made 
early in May by Henry S. Dybas, Associate 
Curator of Insects, and Hymen Marx, 
Assistant in the Division of Amphibians 
and Reptiles. Dybas will devote himself 
particularly to investigation of the nesting 
system of the leaf-cutting ant, and Marx 
will make observations on vertebrate fauna 
associated with the nest colonies. 



Fossil Collecting in Indiana 

Dr. Rainer Zangerl, Curator of Fossil 
Reptiles, and William D. Turnbull, Pre- 
parator in the Division of Vertebrate Paleon- 
tology, made the first of a series of trips to 
a locality near Mecca, Indiana, in April. 
The site is an exposure of fossil-bearing 
black shale of Pennsylvanian age. 



Important Shell Collection 
Revised by Dr. Haas 

The Webb Collection of non-marine shells, 
which Chicago Natural History Museum 
purchased from Walter F. Webb in 1942, 
has now been completely revised, cata- 
logued, and labeled. It took the Curator of 
Lower Invertebrates, Dr. Fritz Haas, eleven 
years to perform this duty, often, of course, 
interrupted by research work and by col- 
lecting trips. Now that the integration of 
the vast quantity of material into this Mu- 
seum's collection has been finished, exact 
figures about the Webb collection are at 
hand. It consists of 19,374 lots of shells, 
some lots consisting of only one example, 
while others comprise numerous specimens. 
The number of paratypes is 559, that of 
types is 11. The large number of paratypes 
results from the fact that Mr. Webb could 
incorporate into his private collection such 
important collections as that of the late 
Gerard K. Gude of London and of the late 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



The fast-stepping gentleman 
on our front cover is a Chinese 
shadow figure that has probably 
entertained many audiences in 
the courtyards of China. For the 
story of the ancient folk-art that 
he represents and the effects of 
the social and political changes 
of the 20th century upon this art, 
see the article on page 3. 



John Ritchie, Jr., of Boston. The acqui- 
sition of such rich and precious material has 
raised this Museum's collection of shells to 
the level of the collection of the principal 
museums on the East Coast. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons became Museum 
members from March 15 to April 15: 

Associate Members 

Miss Edna T. Cowen, Carlton Hill, 
Harold R. Ray, Miss Mary Louise Tock- 
stein, George H. Watkins 

Annual Members 

Edwin W. Ahem, Herbert R. Anderson, 
Carl Baechle, John T. Barlow, John H. 
Baxter, Charles M. Bell, R. D. Brizzolara, 
Mrs. Daniel C. Bryant, Homer J. Buckley, 
LeGrand Cannon, E. F. Chambless, Roswell 
H. Chrisman, Herbert B. Clark, I. Milton 
Cohn, John R. Cowan, Curt H. Dechert, 
John L. Dole, James M. Dow, Carl Dry, 
J. E. Duty, Mrs. Angela Ebzery, Miss Alice 
Eiberg, Miss Olga Eiberg, William L. Eng- 
lish, Livingston Fairbank, Jr., Miss Mariana 
Field, C. R. Freeman, Miss Alice H. 
Gallagher, Edward Gudeman, Jr., Mrs. 
Virginia C. Halle, Dr. Ralph C. Hamill, 
Donald W. Hansen, Miss Margaret Higgins, 
Joseph H. Hinshaw, Cyrus E. Holland, 
John B. Holmes, Hjalmar W. Johnson, 
Clyde Kelly, Louis Kohn, Walter C. Krause, 
Dr. Henry E. Kritzer, Edwin A. Locke, Jr., 
Thomas E. Maddock, M. L. Magee, Arnold 
D. K. Mason, Richard McClung, William 
H. McDonnell, William B. Mcllvaine, Dr. 
T. A. Melcarek, Earl A. Miller, Sidney J. 
Natkin, Edward J. Nell, Dr. Oscar B. Nu- 
gent, Klaus Ollendorff, Clarence Olsen, S. C. 
Owen, Niels Petersen, M. M. Philipsborn, 
Jr., Miss Irna Phillips, Edward H. Reese, 
Walter J. Reum, Keith P. Rindfleisch, 
Richard P. Robb, Dr. Edward J. Ross, 
Martin Rothschild, Derald H. Ruttenberg, 
Samuel J. Sackett, Miss Frances H. Sadaus- 
kas, Bernard G. Sang, E. D. Sawyer, Arthur 
H. Schomp, Robert M. Seeley, Millard D. 
Shriver, Warner Sivyer, George P. F. Smith, 
S. James Stiegel, Allen P. Stults, Mrs. 
Carroll Sweet, Merrill W. Tilden, Delbert 
N. Urick, Norman Vaughn, Charles F. Voy- 
tech, John M. Weaver, Vernon L. Wesby, 
William J. Whalen, Arthur L. Whall, Robert 
B. Whittaker, Russell M. Wicks, Howard 
L. Willett, Jr., Murray Wolbach, Jr., C. W. 
Wolf, Mrs. Elmer K. Zitzewitz 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Pages 



JENT SHADOW SHOWS OF CHEsfA BECOMING A LOST ART 



>i^: 



.♦^\^ 



iV 



By BARBARA POLIKOFF 

IG-HEADED COMPANION and 
fhite Snake Maiden were veterans 
ess Chinese shadow shows before 
lold Laufer, former Chief Curator 
ipology, secured them for the Mu- 
ing the Blackstone Expedition to 
id Tibet in 1908-10. Anyone 
nth the spectacle created by these 
hadows as they move across the 
ght have felt a momentary tinge 
;o see them taken from their native 
nd held in the confines of a museum 
t in the China of 1910 there were 
ler shadow figures to take their 

e case with most folk-art, the origin 
idow show is obscured by legend. 

pamphlet, Oriental Theatricals 

Dr. Laufer stated that the first 
if a shadow figure was made in the 

Annals of Ssu-ma Ch'ien as far 
21 B.C. The story is told in these 
' an emperor whose favorite con- 
d died. To ease his grief he com- 
lis magician to summon her ghost 
m. The magician, who had often 
;hat he could "bridle the fiying 
nd visit the ends of the earth," 
y created an illusion of the girl 
i a shadow of her carved likeness 
! of tapestry. 

this story is not true, Dr. Laufer 
lut that it reveals, in a general 
t must have been the derivation 
adow play: "The shadow figures, 
ere the shadows or souls of the 

summoned back into the world 
t of professional magicians. This 
ti of ancestors as shadow-souls is 
;eristically Chinese that it goes far 
:he priority of this performance in 
ts inception, therefore, is purely 

and traceable to spiritualistic 

PLAYS FOR ALL TASTES 

e passed, shadow figures became 
in dramas that were presented in 
^ards of the wealthy or aristocratic 
The women of these families were 
by social custom to frequent the 
restaurants, and other public 
the city. They grew to depend on 
bows to furnish an enjoyable con- 
the world beyond their sheltered 
o satisfy the varying interests of 
ences the shadow showmen had to 
types of plays: dramas of romance, 
1, of the supernatural, of the comic, 
lit the repertoire of the more ac- 
!d companies grew to include as 
several hundred plays, each or- 
bout a half-hour long. 
/ shows were perfectly fitted for 
ible type of staging required by 
ling companies. The whole show 



could be carried on one cart, and within a 
very short time after arriving at a home the 
company of four or five showmen erected a 
wooden stage and put up a screen and 
theatre curtains. When all were assembled 
and the shadow figures were hung on a wire 
in the order of their appearance in the even- 
ing's performance, the curtains were pulled 
back, the screen was illuminated by an oil 



similarly studied and correspondingly held 
to exacting standards. The servant and 
his master must be distinguished in every 
subtle gesture, in every rhythm of the body, 
in every step along the highway. And the 
animator must be skilled not only in one 
part but in all." 

Unlike the drama of the Chinese legiti- 
mate stage that is presented without 




SCENE SET -READY FOR ACTION 
As the embroidered curtains are drawn back from the screen the audience sees this scene set for the last act of 
a play called *'The Lotus Flower Temple." As is usually the case with Chinese drama, this play has little plot. 
It presents a glimpse into the life of Peiping's younger set about 1750 and was still being shown in 1932 after 
a run of almost 200 years. (Photograph reproduced from "Chinese Shadow Shows" by Gertrude Wimsalt 
through courtesy of Harvard University Press.) 



lamp (more recently by an electric-light 
bulb), and the first "actor" would appear 
to announce the beginning of the drama. 

THE ART OF THE SHADOW 

The shadow figures themselves are about 
12 inches high, carved out of parchment, 
usually donkeyskin, cowskin, or pigskin, and 
stained with color. The bodies are jointed 
at the shoulders, elbows, wrists, and knees 
with knots of threads to allow complete 
flexibility. Similar to puppets, they are 
manipulated by means of wires attached to 
the neck and the tip of each hand. 

To acquire the skill necessary to animate 
the shadow figures requires many years of 
practice, a fact that someone unfamiliar 
with the art might be surprised to discover. 
Benjamin March, a scholar of Chinese cul- 
ture, explains the reason for this in a passage 
from his book on shadow figures: "Patterns 
of acting in the Chinese theatre are distilled 
and refined from centuries of observation 
of men and women; each movement is in 
nowise an imitation of one person's but 
rather the essence of action of all characters 
of a type. For the shadows, movement is 



settings, shadow shows are usually very 
intricately staged. The props are carved 
out of parchment with as much attention to 
detail as is given to the shadow "stars" 
themselves. Comparatively small objects, 
such as tables or chairs, are usually made in 
groups and leaned against the screen. 
Larger and more elaborate props, such as 
temples and carriages, are pinned into place 
so that the showmen have only the figures 
to take care of once the scene is set. 

FROM STAGE TO SCREEN 

The plays produced by the shadow-show 
companies are usually those originally 
written for the legitimate theater. The im- 
portant difference between the two presen- 
tations is that the legitimate play follows 
the highly literary language of the classical 
drama while the script of the .shadow show 
is written in the colloquial language of the 
people. Some plays, usually folk tales, are 
originated by the shadow companies them- 
selves and exist only in synoptic form, the 
individual companies filling in the parts as 
they see fit. As in motion pictures, the 
action of a drama is accompanied by music 



v**». 



/4^^! 



*Ti^ 









Page i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



May, 195 It 




BEHIND THE SCREEN 
A highly skilled shadow showman as he stages a combat befween a dragon and a tiger. The figures used in this 
ancient theatrical art are intricately carved, and stained in various tints so that the shadows they cast, seen by 
the audience on the other side of the screen, are colored and realistically detailed. In the right'hand corner 
of the picture the shadow figures can be seen as they hang on a wire in the order they are to be used in the 
evening's performance. (Photograph reproduced from **Chinese Shadow Shows" by Gertrude Wimsatt 
through courtesy of Harvard University Press.) 



designed to lend emotional undertone to 
scenes of violence, sorrow, or happiness in 
which words would be cumbersome or 
absurd. 

SHADOWS BEGIN TO FADE 

Because of their unique function as do- 
mestic drama, shadow shows began to lose 
their popularity when the establishment of 
the Chinese Republic in 1911 led to a new 
concept of a woman's role in society. The 
taboos against appearing in public places 
began to disappear. Girls were given equal 
educational opportunities with boys, and the 
freedom to go where they wished led women 
to take a more active part in the activities 
of their cities and communities. The change 
was more rapid in the cosmopolitan centers 
than in the provincial areas, but before long 
even the most rural of towns was affected 
by the social changes taking place. There 
was soon little need for the women of China 
to depend on the shadow show to bring 
them the vital breath of the outside world. 

Other reasons of course played their part 
in the decline of shadows. With the in- 
troduction of the motion picture, the shadow 
show lost its interest for those who preferred 
the more sophisticated entertainment pro- 
vided by the "electric shadows" — the name 
the Chinese first gave to the motion picture. 
As fewer people called the shadow shows 
into their homes, fewer youths chose to 
become apprentices to learn the skill of 
animating the figures. Fewer and fewer 
people remained who could transmit the art 



of the shadow to the coming generation. 

It is difficult to establish how many 
shadow-show companies still exist in China. 
In 1932 a visitor to Shanghai reported that 
all traces of the art had disappeared from 
cities that had formerly been shadow centers. 
In one or two of the centers shadow shows 
were reduced to seasonal entertainment, ap- 
pearing on holidays and at festivals. It is 
safe to say that if they are to be seen in 
China today special arrangements have to 
be made by those familiar enough with the 
art to know where to locate the few sur- 
viving companies. 

COMMUNISTS REVISE DRAMA 

It is also likely that those few shadow 
shows that may still survive will have been 
affected, as have all Chinese arts, by the 
revising policy of the Communist govern- 
ment's Ministry of Cultural Affairs. This 
policy is explained by Mei Lan-fang, a 
famous Chinese actor, in an article written 
for a propaganda magazine published in 
Hong Kong. Mei explains that the Ministry 
is making revisions in all Chinese drama to 
remove the "backward, reactionary overlay 
it [drama] acquired in feudal and later in 
semi-feudal China." 

Mei goes on to cite examples of themes 
that are considered "good" and those that 
are considered "bad" by the revising board. 
He writes: "Examples of good old plays 
which we continue to value highly are The 
Fisherman's Revenge, a forthright tale of a 
labouring man's battle against tyranny, Mv. 



Lan in the Army, depicting the high pa- 
triotism of China's counterpart of Joan of 
Arc, and Fighting the Chin Invaders, showing 
the Chinese people's resistance against 
foreign invasion." Mei explains that a 
"bad" theme is found in a play that "pro- 
jects a concept of personal virtue that is 
quite compatible with attachment to alien 
rulers against one's own people. Both per- 
formers and audiences in new China see 
that this is a harmful distortion of the proper 
relation between public duty and personal 
sentiment, so they no longer like the play." 

It is interesting to note that Mei mentions 
that the play The White Snake, whose 
shadow-figure cast is on exhibition in the 
Museum, was one of the old plays that was 
revised erroneously by the Ministry of Cul- 
tural Affairs. "Inexperienced revisers," 
writes Mei, "with a dogmatic, unhistorical 
and unrealistic approach changed the snake- 
spirit in the White Snake into an ordinary 
girl. Such errors have been criticized and 
corrected." 

The decline of the shadow show and the 
revised repertoire imposed upon the sur- 
viving companies reveal the pace with which 
profound changes are being wrought in the 
20th-century world. An art that originated 
before the birth of Christ has been affected 
by the social and political events of the past 
fifty years more drastically than during all 
preceding centuries combined. Thus, if the 
Museum's shadow figures of the Pig-Headed 
Companion and the White Snake Maiden 
were returned to China today they would 
probably be reduced to lamp-shade orna- 
ments for Hong Kong tourists, as was the 
fate of many of their colleagues. By being 
taken out of their land of birth by Dr. 
Laufer, these shadow figures may prove to be 
two of the few survivors of the days in China 
when the frequent sound of a high violin 
and the murmur of excited voices meant 
that shadows were playing their magic in a 
courtyard. 



Daily Guide Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered 
daily except Sundays under the title 
"Highlights of the Exhibits." These tours 
are designed to give a general idea of the 
entire Museum and its scope of activities. 
They begin at 2 p.m. on Monday through 
Friday and at 2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Although there are no tours on Sundays, 
the Museum is open from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. 



The prickly acacia tree of semidesert 
regions in north and northeast Africa pro- 
vides a diet for camels, despite its large 
thorns. In Kordofan an extract from its 
seeds is used in tanning leather for camel 
trappings. In several regions the gum of 
the tree is collected for export. The work 
is a principal industry of nomadic tribes. 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



3S, FROGS, FROGS- 
^D MORE FROGS 

Y MARGARET J. BAUER 

3AGE that it never rains but it 

night well apply to the deluge of 

recently descended upon the 

f Amphibians and Reptiles. A 

of 77,000 frogs and toads arrived 
ed down from the heavens, as 

be imagined, but by the more 
an freight. They were delivered 
fully crated 5-gallon milk cans, 
m unpacked, were found to con- 
2,700 jars of frogs. In one day 




iVAMPED WITH FROGS 
[, Assistant in the Division of Amphib' 
tiles, in the midst of crates containing 
ed with some 77,000 study-specimens 
he Museum from the Belgian Congo. 



m received more frogs and toads 
IS been able to amass through 
of collecting, buying, barter, and 
act, the number almost equals 
umber of reptiles and amphibians 
in the Museum's entire collection, 
5 roughly estimated at 85,000 

)d of frogs and toads was by no 
expected, nor does the Museum 
^eep all of them. The collection 
d to Chicago Natural History 
y Dr. Victor Van Straelen, Direc- 
istitut des Pares Nationaux de 
Ige, with the request that Dr. 
hmidt, Chief Curator of Zoology, 
•eport on them. It is agreed that 
am may keep a representative 
e species. 

?e collection was the result of a 
•vey made by a group of Belgian 
){ the newest of the Belgian Congo 
re National de V Upemba, situated 
i the headwaters of the Congo in 
Belgian Congo. The park is 
5 a wildlife refuge and area for 
tudy, much on the same order as 
■known Belgian Congo Pare Na- 



tional Albert, which extends over more than 
80,000 square miles in the mountain and 
lake region of the sources of the Nile. 

The leader of the expedition, M. G. F. de 
Witte, long known for his scientific explora- 
tion of the Congo and for his numerous 
publications about African reptiles and am- 
phibians, has already published the report 
on the reptiles in a handsomely illustrated 
volume. Chief Curator Schmidt's report 
on the amphibians, in which Robert F. 
Inger, Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles, 
and Hyman Marx, Assistant, will co-operate, 
will complete the survey. Dr. Schmidt 
hopes that a contribution of real value to 
knowledge about the frogs of Africa may 
result from study of this very large series of 
specimens of single species, as it provides 
opportunites for exact description and 
evaluation of characters as well as other 
data that are not usually afforded in museum 
material. The Museum's own considerable 
African collections contain nothing from the 
southern Congo region. 

Dr. Schmidt's own museum career began 
in 1916 with studies of the herpetology of 
the Belgian Congo. Curiously enough, the 
study of the present frog collection will also 
be one of the first major undertakings of 
Mr. Inger's career as Curator of Amphibians 
and Reptiles in Chicago Natural History 
Museum. 



Books 



(All books reviewed in the Bulletin are 
available in The Book Shop of the Museum. 
Mail orders accompanied by remittance in- 
cluding postage are promptly filled.) 

A GUIDE TO THE WILD FLOWERING 
PLANTS OF THE CHICAGO 
REGION. By Floyd A. S wink. Rockrose 
Press, Inc., Chicago, 1953. Paperbound, 
xv-l-160 pages, 20 figures. $3. 

Most wild-flower guides deal systemati- 
cally with the plants of a state or larger 
part of a country, are presented in non- 
technical language, and are profusely illus- 
trated. Unlike these models, A Guide to the 
Wild Flowering Plants of the Chicago Region 
is geographically limited to a semicircle be- 
ginning at the Wisconsin-Illinois state line 
that reaches around Chicago to the Michi- 
gan-Indiana state line, is purposely based 
on an artificial code-system for identifica- 
tion, and contains no illustrations of plants. 
This code-system was conceived by the 
author as a "quick and easy guide to the 
plants occurring spontaneously in the Chi- 
cago region when they are in flowering 
condition," and the "average nature lover" 
lacking technical training in botany is ex- 
pected to learn it before attempting to 
identify his specimens. 

Each code consists of six letters of the 



PRE-GLIMPSE OF THE ART 
OF THE 1960's AND ON 

Boys and girls whose creative talent al- 
ready indicates that they will be among 
America's artists, illustrators, and designers 
of future years will have an exhibit of their 
work in Stanley Field Hall of the Museum 
from May 1 to 31. A selection of about 55 
pastel drawings, casein paintings, and water- 
colors made by children in the Junior School 
of the Art Institute of Chicago and the 
work of some older students will be shown. 
All of these students, both junior and ad- 
vanced, receive part of their instruction at 
Chicago Natural History Museum, where 
they specialize in studies by which nature 
motifs are adapted to art and design in 
various forms. The classes are a joint under- 
taking of this Museum and the Art Institute, 
which furnishes the teaching staff from its 
faculty. 

Two artists on the staff of the Museum, 
Gustaf Dalstrom, Department of Anthro- 
pology, and Margaret G. Bradbury, Depart- 
ment of Zoology, selected the work for ex- 
hibition from the year's total output of the 
classes. Mrs. C. S. Howlett, head of the 
Art Education Department of the Art 
Institute, and teachers of the classes assisted 
in arrangements for judging and display. 
The younger students range in age from 7 
to 17 years; students in the more advanced 
classes are 18 years of age and older. 



alphabet, "A" to "C" indicating the life 
form of the plant, "D" to "H" the type of 
flower, etc. Combinations of these letters 
according to the characters found in a speci- 
men make up the code of a particular 
species. Having mastered the code, the 
reader can find the particular entry (code) 
in the alphabetical listings, where the sci- 
entific and common names of plants may 
be found together with pertinent data and 
comments. The index may be used for 
cross-referencing, as for instance in the case 
of redbud with 12 codes (beginning with 
AHINSX and ending with AHLPUX) or 
in the case of the genus Acer with 68 codes. 
The illustrations show important key charac- 
ters used in the codes. A glossary explains 
the terms used. 

The interested reader is referred to 
standard manuals for detailed description 
and illustrations of plants. Difficult groups 
such as grasses, sedges, and rushes have 
been omitted as have non-flowering condi- 
tions. The author, an ardent collector and 
field man, invented this code system in the 
hope of aiding those who do not wish to 
penetrate the "closed field" of technical 
botanical literature. "Average nature 
lovers" may quickly hurdle the six-letter 
codes and arrive promptly at the names of 
the plants they would like to know. 

Theodor Just 
Chief Curator of Botany 



•*♦•>' 






Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



May, 195 k 



SMALL CLUES SOLVE 'CASE OF THE INCONSPICUOUS GIANT* 



By EUGENE S. RICHARDSON, Jr. 

CURATOR OF FOSSIL INVERTEBRATES 

THE INVERTEBRATES are, on the 
whole, rather inconspicuous animals, 
probably because they live on the wrong 
side of the tracks and don't have backbones 
like all the respectable vertebrates that we 
commonly associate with. If you ask a 
friend to mention a lot of animal names, 
he'll undoubtedly run through cows, tigers, 
wombats, elephants, mice, and such familiar 
creatures before he'll shift gears and even 
think of mentioning the mosquitoes, clams, 
amoebas, earthworms, or shrimps that ac- 
tually far outnumber them. 

Thus it is likely to come as a surprise 
to find that in some times and places the 




Figure 1. An unknown organ— is it plant or animal? 
Museum fossil-hunters found two of these one day 
and started on the trail of an inconspicuous giant. 

invertebrates have included in their ranks 
animals larger than the contemporary ver- 
tebrates. Of course, this was the case in 
the early part of the Paleozoic era before 
there were any vertebrates at all. But the 
invertebrates won that round by default and 
we won't even mention it. Also, there are 
tales and shreds of evidence of the mys- 
terious Kraken of today's oceans, a squid 
that may be larger than a whale. But we 
won't mention that either because we aren't 
very sure of it. 

But another giant invertebrate has re- 
cently turned up in our own back yard, 
among the familiar fossil ferns and crab-like 
animals of the strip mines near Chicago. 
These strip mines, in Will and Grundy 
counties, are only about fifty miles from the 
heart of the city and have for years attracted 
not only Museum staff members but also 
hundreds of other collectors from near and 
far. The fossils lie in the heaps of clay, or 
spoil, removed from the mines when the 
coal was scooped out, and collecting fossils 
is simply a matter of walking around and 
picking them up. People have been col- 
lecting them from the strip mines since the 
early '20's, and from the banks of Mazon 
Creek, where the same bed is exposed along 
the stream, since 1857, almost a century. 

In spite of the long and intense interest 



in these areas and in spite of the thousands 
of fossils that have been removed and ex- 
amined, every collecting season yields some 
hitherto unknown fossil forms. Thus, 
during the summer of 1952, when I was 
collecting fossils with George Langford, Cu- 
rator of Fossil Plants, we were not surprised 
to find two specimens that looked like some- 
thing new (see Figure 1). 

We tucked them into our collecting bags 
and brought them back to the Museum, 
where Curator Langford washed them and 
carefully cleaned off a small amount of 
mineral deposit. Then we examined them 
and tried to think what they could be. At 
first glance the pattern of triangular bosses 
reminded us of the leg-bases of ancient 
spider-like arachnids that we sometimes find 
in the spoil heaps. But these specimens were 
far bigger than any arachnids that we had 
ever encountered, and, more important, 
they lacked a right-left symmetry that 
arachnids must have. We remarked on the 
texture of the surface of the triangular 
bosses, closely resembling the texture of an 
arthropod shell. 

If you examine the shell of a crayfish or 
crab with a magnifying glass, you can easily 
see the irregularly spaced pits, pores, and 
bumps that almost all arthropod shells have. 
But, again, all arthropods have a right-left 
symmetry. Although we were ready to 
admit that these might be arthropod speci- 
mens, we couldn't think of any Coal Age 
arthropod large enough to use these pieces 
and still have room for a matching piece on 
the other side to make up the symmetry. 
Neither could we recognize these pieces as 
resembling any known arthropod by itself. 

At that point. Curator Langford brought 
out some specimens of seed-fern fruits from 
the same deposits. Although the new un- 
knowns didn't look just like any of his fruit 
specimens, the resemblance was close enough 
in some respects that we decided that we 
had picked up some unknown plant parts. 




Figure 2. The leg of an unknown giant animal, with 
duplicate of unknown organ joined to inner end. 



So we agreed that they should be put in 
the fossil plant collection, in a drawer with 
other unknowns waiting for further infor- 
mation. They might well have stayed there 
for some time to come, for new information 



would have to be in the form of new and 
more complete specimens, as we could be 
sure that Curator Langford had not over- 
looked any published pictures of fossil plants 
that might resemble them. 

NEW EVIDENCE FOUND 

But they stayed tucked away for less 
than a year. In 1953, Mr. and Mrs. John 
McLuckie, of Coal City, were collecting 
fossils in the spoil heaps when, at the end 
of the day, Mrs. McLuckie picked up "one 
more for luck" and found what seemed to 
be a complete shrimp about six inches long, 
more than twice the size of any of the 
shrimp-like animals commonly found in the 
strip mine deposits (see Figure 2). Mrs. 
McLuckie very kindly allowed us to bring 
her specimen to the Museum to be pho- 
tographed and studied, and in it we found 
the answer to the two specimens among 
the unknown plants. 

The supposed shrimp had what seemed 
to be a perfectly good jointed abdomen with 
little legs projecting from each segment, but 
the front end didn't fit with any shrimp 




Figure 3. This is the newly identified animal itself, 
Arthropleura by name, as reconstructed from frag- 
ments found in the Saar Basin in Europe. 

that ever lived. Rising like a comb from 
its back, where there should have been 
just a rounded armored thorax, was a du- 
plicate of one of those unknown organs with 
the triangular bumps. 

Mrs. McLuckie's "shrimp" thus brought 
the two unknown specimens out of the plant 
drawer again and into my hands, for the 
task of comparing them with other fossil 
invertebrates was within my province. 

Examining the new large specimen under 
the microscope, I noted that the supposed 
legs projecting from the joints of the ab- 
domen were actually spines attached to 
those joints. But since the specimen was 
clearly some kind of arthropod, with the 
typical surface texture and with a jointed 
armor, it became clear that the entire speci- 
men was not an animal, but merely the leg 
of an animal. But what a tremendous 
animal it must have been, compared with 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



iry fossils from that locality! An 
with a leg six inches long must 
a body several feet long. 

'IRST AMERICAN SPECIMEN 

he procedure of identifying fossils 
first of all, on looking at pictures 

in various journals. So I disap- 
to the Museum's fine research li- 
i soon found that our specimens 
1 a large but primitive creature 
thropleura, never before found in 
nerica, though not uncommon in 
18 European coal basins, 
mately, no complete specimen of 
ipleura has ever been discovered, 
gh specimens of various pieces 
: found so that Professor Waterlot, 
niversity of Lille in France, has 
to make a drawing of what it must 
ed like (see Figure 3). 
, our inconspicuous giant must 
1 about five feet long. Compared 
other invertebrates among which 
t was an imposing monster, but it 
ing to find that it was also tre- 
y larger than the little vertebrates 

occasionally found in the spoil 
hose were less than a foot in length, 
1 the same Coal Age there were 
•tebrates, approaching the length 
■yleura, in other places, 
e organ with the triangular bosses 
rofessor Waterlot, who has seen a 
ly specimens, including some with 
js, reports that it is an attachment 
hich holds the leg flexibly but 

the body. 



gourmets thrive 
nI diet of snails 

By AUSTIN L. RAND 

CURATOR OF BIRDS 

LARMED SNAIL withdraws its 
, succulent body into the protec- 
i hard, coiled shell and pulls tight 
;ulum that covers the opening. 

the equivalent of the duke in his 
h the drawbridge up and the port- 
m, or the cottager with his doors 
ows barred. It has a measure of 
1. But where there is an elaborate 

of protection for some desirable 
1, it usually happens there is a 
ent for overcoming it in some 
at wants the food, 
ail is only moderately safe. To 
course, the snail is "his oyster." 
rly in Latin countries it is a gour- 
ght. Dropped into boiling water, 
ew minutes, drenched with a butter 
d served in groups of six to eight 

plate, the snail can be tipped or 
It of its shell without trouble, or a 
De used to twitch it out of its shell 

snails may be delicacies, eaten 



only on occasion by civilized man, to a few 
birds they are the staff of life. Naturally 
it is mostly in the tropics and the subtropics 
that snails are most numerous and grow to 
large size. In Florida the Everglade kite 
and the limpkin, eating nothing but snails, 
are limited in their distribution by that of 
the large snails on which they subsist. A 
few other birds in the Old World tropics — 
certain storks and one species of kingfisher 
— live largely on snails. One temperate- 
zone bird, a thrush of Europe, is a confirmed 
snail-eater. 

Special techniques must be used to get 
snails out of their shells, and only a few 
birds have solved the problem. The avail- 
ability of a supply of snails does not neces- 
sarily mean that birds will learn to eat them, 
for the Hawaiian Islands have an abundance 
of large land snails, but none of the Hawaiian 
birds, despite their many adaptations in 
their island environment, have "learned" to 
open snails. 

SOME BIRDS ARE 'SPECIALISTS' 

The birds that have "learned" to open 
snails belong to quite diversified groups. 
One is a kingfisher, one a thrush, one a 
relative of rails; two are storks, and several 
are kites. Obviously each evolved its 
specialized technique independently and be- 
came the snail specialist among its near 
relatives. 

These birds didn't all solve the problem 
the same way either. Some evolved special 
physical structures for this, like the open- 
billed stork with nutcracker-like bill and 
the snail-kites with elongated slender hooked 
bills for "snail hooks." Others, without 
special physical equipment, utilized certain 
aspects of their environment to help them, 
like the kingfisher and the thrush that pound 
the snails on a favorite anvil and the limpkin 
that places a snail so the mud will hold 
it while it uses its bill like a pair of tweezers. 

A fresh-water snail that may be as large 
as a hen's egg is one of the favorite foods of 
the open-billed storks of Africa and India. 
These birds simply crush the snail in their 
six-inch bills and swallow the flesh without 
the shell. 

To separate the flesh from the crushed 
shell the open-bill sometimes at least crushes 
the shell in the water and, holding the body 
in its beak, shakes it and washes it until 
free of the shell, according to Sir Frederick 
Jackson of East Africa. The bill has a big 
gap in it, just back of the tip, which seems 
to make it easier to hold the snail, as the 
notches in a nutcracker help hold a nut. 
But there is some disagreement about this 
gap. Some observers claim that the gap is 
the result of wear, being caused by the 
continual cracking of snails; others that it 
is a natural condition, presumably evolved 
for this special job. More observations in 
the Old World tropics are needed to recon- 
cile these two viewpoints. 



Visiting Hours Extended 
for Summer Season 

Effective May 1 and continuing through 
September 6 (Labor Day) visiting hours at 
the Museum are extended by one hour. 
The Museum will be open daily, including 
Sundays and holidays, from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. 
At the end of this period, hours will revert 
to 9 A.M.-5 P.M. 



The ruddy kingfisher of the Philippines, 
like the song thrush of Europe, also breaks 
open snails. But these birds do not have 
powerful enough bills to crush a snail. 
Rather, they hold the snails in their bills and 
pound the snails on rocks that they have 
found especially suitable for the purpose 
and to which they return time after time. 
A heap of empty broken snail shells accumu- 
lates around these favorite rocks, which 
could well be called anvils. Of course many 
an insect-eating bird beats its prey on the 
ground or on a perch to batter and subdue 
it. But the ruddy kingfisher has gone a bit 
further and selects a specially suitable stone 
and uses it repeatedly. They have become 
specialists. 

Also without any special physical equip- 
ment, the limpkin of Florida lives exclusively 
on snails. It simply plucks the snails out 
of their shells. To do this the limpkin, a 
fowl-sized, rail-like bird with a four-inch 
slender bill, uses the mud to hold the snail 
in position for the operation. As Dr. 
Alexander Wetmore describes it, the limpkin 
picks up the snail in its bill and seats it in 
the mud with the opening up. Then like a 
pair of tweezers the mandibles are pushed 
down, one on each side of the operculum, 
and this protective cover is twitched off. 
Again the tweezer-like bill is pushed into 
the shell, this time into the snail's flesh and, 
with a fiick, the shell, unbroken, is shaken 
off the body and the latter swallowed. 

A bill with a much longer and more slender 
hook than that of most birds of prey is the 
special equipment with which Everglade 
kites of Florida get snails out of their shells. 
The Everglades kite and several of its close 
relatives are medium-sized hawks of the 
American tropics that subsist exclusively 
on snails. Their method is to pick up the 
snail in their talons, carry it to a favorite 
perch, and hold it there in their feet with 
the opening upward until the snail, thinking 
perhaps to effect an escape, opens the oper- 
culum cover and pushes out its "foot." 
This is what the hawk has been waiting for. 
The long "snail hook" is driven into the 
body of the snail, the flesh is pulled out, 
and the empty, unbroken shell discarded. 
Some observers have said the snail comes 
out in one piece; others that it is torn out 
piecemeal. Perhaps both opinions are 
right, the birds doing one or the other de- 
pending on varying conditions, such as the 
tenacity of the snail. 



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Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



May, 195 Jt 



DALLWIG TO DRAMATIZE 
ROMANCE OF DIAMONDS 

"The Romantic Story of the Diamond" 
will be presented on the first four Sundays 
in May by Paul G. Dallwig, the Layman 
Lecturer (Mr. Dallwig will not appear on 
May SO, Memorial Day). The programs in 
May will conclude the 1954 season of Lay- 
man Lectures, but Mr. Dallwig is expected 
to resume his Sunday-afternoon presenta- 
tions next January. 

The history of diamonds and the legends 
about them will be related by Mr. Dallwig 
in his lectures on May 2, 9, 16, and 23, 
which will include a three-act dramatization. 
He will tell the story of how diamonds were 
first found and of the present great diamond 
industry. Of special interest are the tales 
of intrigue, greed, and murder that dot the 
history of the successive ownership of the 
world's most famous diamonds. For the 
last half-hour the audience will be taken to 
the Museum's Hall of Gems and Jewels 
(H. N. Higinbotham Hall). 

The Sunday lectures begin at 2 p.m. 
Museum Members are admitted upon pre- 
sentation of their membership cards. Others 
must make reservations in advance by mail 
or telephone (W Abash 2-9410). 



from wild flowers and conservation to his 
explorations in the "lost world" of Vene- 
zuela . . . Henry S. Dybas, Associate Cu- 
rator of Insects, presented a paper on 
"Evolution of Bat Flies" at a recent meeting 
in Omaha of the North Central Branch of 
the Entomological Society of America. 



STAFF NOTES 



Miss Miriam Wood, Chief of the Ray- 
mond Foundation, was a "resource leader" 
at the Adult Education Conference held 
from April 9 to 10 in De Kalb, Illinois, 
under the sponsorship of the Northern 
Illinois State Teachers College. Her subject 
was "Museums and Adult Education Pro- 
grams." . . . Loren P. Woods, Curator of 
Fishes, was a guest-member on April 20 of 
the panel on the television program "Of 
Many Things" (station WBKB, ABC, 
Channel 7), a program conducted by Dr. 
Bergen Evans of the faculty of Northwestern 
University .... Donald Collier, Curator of 
South American Archaeology and Eth- 
nology, was a discussion leader in a con- 
ference on "Museums and Anthropology" 
held at the University Museum in Phila- 
delphia on April 23. The conference was 
sponsored by the American Anthropological 
Association and the Wenner-Gren Founda- 
tion .... George I. Ouimby, Curator of 
Exhibits in Anthropology, was elected to 
the executive committee of the Central 
States Anthropological Society at its annual 
meeting at Purdue University. During the 
latter part of April he made an archaeo- 
logical field trip to Mississippi and Loui- 
siana .... Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, Cu- 
rator of the Phanerogamic Herbarium, re- 
cently lectured before the Kankakee Culti- 
vators, Friends of Our Native Landscape, 
Wildwood Garden Club of Edgebrook, and 
Sauganash Garden Club on subjects ranging 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received recently: 

Department of Anthropology: 

From: Mrs. F. W. Geisler, Burbank, 
Calif. — spurs for cock fighting, Sumatra; 
Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropo- 
logical Research, New York — wooden chur- 
inga. Central Australia 

Department of Botany: 

From: Dr. Leandro Aristeguieta, Caracas, 
Venezuela — 7 plants and phanerogams; 
Holly R. Bennett, Chicago — 172 grasses, 
Rosebud County, Montana, and 154 mis- 
cellaneous phanerogams, Indiana and north- 
ern Illinois; Bill Bauer, Imperial, Mo. — 
plant; Raphael Romero Caetaneda, Bogota, 
Colombia — Aragoa kogiorum; Prof. B. Kas- 
piew, Adelaide, Australia — 5 plants; Ken- 
dall Laughlin, Imperial, Mo. — 3 plants; 
E. J. Palmer, Webb City, Mo.— 325 plants; 
Dr. R. E. Schultes, Cambridge, Mass.— 40 
plants, Colombia; Dr. Earl E. Sherff, Chi- 
cago — 393 phanerogams, 122 Sophora, Ha- 
waii; Dr. John W. Thieret, Chicago — 66 
phanerogams, Utah; Dr. C. M. Palmer, 
Cincinnati — 112 algae, Indiana; Dr. C. C. 
Palmiter, Richland, Wash.— 49 algae; Dr. 
R. F. Palumbo, Seattle, Wash.— 42 algae, 
Marshall Islands; Dr. J. Rousseau, Montreal 
— 35 algae, northern Quebec; Dr. P. O. 
Schallert, Altamonte Springs, Fla.— 63 cryp- 
togams, Hawaii and Florida; Emil Sella, 
Chicago — 3 cryptogams; Dr. J. D. Soriano, 
Quezon City, Philippines— 312 algae 

Department of Zoology: 

From: Dr. James Beer, St. Paul— 2 bats, 
Mexico; Dr. Adrey E. Borell, Oklahoma 
City — 3 bats in alcohol, Texas; John M. 
Campbell, Albuquerque, N.M.— 17 bird- 
skins, Philippines; Chicago Zoological So- 
ciety, Brookfield, 111. — birdskin, 2 bird skele- 
tons; Department of Agriculture, Sandakan, 
North Borneo — 7 lots of fishes; D. S. Erd- 
man, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico — 19 lots of 
fishes, Dominican Republic and Puerto 
Rico; Dr. Henry Field, Coconut Grove, Fla. 
— 310 beetles, butterflies, moths, flies, bugs, 
Egypt, Iran, and Iraq; Dr. R. L. Fleming, 
Uttar Pradesh, India — 461 birdskins, Nepal; 
R. Wheeler Haines, Sheffield, England — 
hedgehog; Harry Hoogstraal, Cairo, Egypt 
— 165 mammals, 2 frogs, 48 lizards, 24 
snakes, 12 turtles, Egypt and Turkey; Dr. 
Marshall Laird, Suva, Fiji — 2 frogs, Ellice 
Islands; Herbert W. Levi, Wausau, Wis. — 
lizard; Dr. Harold Trapido, Panama — 10 
tadpoles; Mr. and Mrs. Loren P. Woods, 
Homewood, 111.— 17 lots of fishes; N. L. H. 
Krauss, Honolulu — snake (Ninia maculata), 
Costa Rica 

Library: 

From: Bruce A. Hertig, Dayton, Ohio 



PAINTINGS OF INDIANS 

IN MUSEUM BOOKLET 

The 35 paintings of Indians and western 
scenes in Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum's collection of the work of George 
Catlin, American artist of the 1830's, are 
reproduced in a booklet just published by 
the Museum Press. The little volume, 
under the title Indians of the Western 
Frontier, contains a brief text by George I. 
Quimby, Curator of Exhibits in Anthro- 
pology, outlining the history of the artist and 
his work and telling of the acquisition of the 
paintings by the Museum. Each of the re- 
productions is accompanied by an identi- 
fying caption summarizing what is known of 
the subject. Some of the paintings are of 
famous chieftains and warriors. Among the 
tribes represented are the Dakotas, Black- 
foot, Crow, Sioux, Sauk and Fox. A few of 
the paintings are of bison. The collection 
was displayed in a special exhibit in Stanley 
Field Hall during April. The booklet is on 
sale at the Museum for 50 cents (by mail 
order, 6 cents additional for postage). 



Technical Publications 

The following technical publications were 
issued recently by Chicago Natural History 
Museum : 

Fieldiana: Geology Memoirs, Vol. 3, Nos. 3 
and 4. The Vertebrate Fauna of the Selma 
Formation of Alabama. Part III, The 
Turtles of the Family Protostegidae. Part 
IV, The Turtles of the Family Toxochely- 
idae. By Rainer Zangerl. 248 pages. $6. 

Fieldiana: Geology, Vol. 10, No. 15. A New 
and Primitive Early Oligocene Horse from 
Trans-Pecos Texas. By Paul O. McGrew. 
8 pages. $.15 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 11. A New 
Fish from North Borneo, Genus Tetraodon. 
By Robert F. Inger. 4 pages. $.15 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 12. A 
Visit to Karewa Island, Home of the Tua- 
tara. By Karl P. Schmidt. 12 pages. 
$.25 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 13. Hem- 
prich's Coral Snake, Micrurus hemprichi. 
By Karl P. Schmidt. 8 pages. $.15 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 14. The 
Amazonian Coral Snake Micrurus spixi. 
By Karl P. Schmidt. 12 pages. $.25 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 15. A New 
Frog from Panama Dendrobates galindoi. 
By Harold Trapido. 8 pages. $.20 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 16. The 
Elapid Genus of Snakes Walterinnesia. 
By Hymen Marx. 8 pages. $.20 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 17. A New 
Worm Snake from Colombia, Genus Ano- 
malepis. By Hymen Marx. 4 pages. $.15 

Fieldiana: Zoology Vol. 35, No. 1. Be- 
havior of the Lizard Corythophanes Cris- 
tatus. By D. Dwight Davis. 18 pages. 
$.30 



PRINTED BV CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



RULLETIN 

LJ Vol.2 5,No.6-June 1954 

Chicago Natural 
History Museum 



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Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



June, 195 If 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Samuel Insull, Jr. 

Sewell L. Avery Henry F. Isham 

Wm. Mccormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 
John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field Pint Vice-Premdent 

Samuel Insull, Jr Second Vice-Pretident 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Attielant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Cliffobd C. Gbbgg Director of the Mtueum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Karl P. Schmidt Chief Curator of Zoology 

ilANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relaiiota Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Barbara Polikoff 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



LIBRARY PROJECT REVEALS 
RARE ORIENTAL TREASURES 

THE IMMENSE TASK of preparing 
for classification, by transcription, the 
wealth of Oriental books left to the Museum 
by Dr. Berthold Laufer, former Chief Cu- 
rator of Anthropology, has been started by 
Dr. Hoshien Tchen, recently appointed to the 
Museum staff as technical advisor. These 
books, collected by Dr. Laufer during his trips 
to China and Tibet, now fill twenty-eight 
large cartons and have had to remain in 
storage until someone with a knowledge of 
Oriental languages and books could be as- 
signed to assist the librarians in preparing 
them for classification. 

Dr. Tchen's responsibility is to prepare 
the collection for cataloguing and classifica- 
tion under the two systems of romanization 
that have been adopted as standard among 
English-speaking people. He will use the 
Wade-Giles system of writing the sounds 
for the Chinese characters and the modified 
Hepburn system for the Japanese characters. 

Dr. Tchen is admirably qualified for this 
project. In 1922-24 he was a professor at 
the National College of Political Science in 
Peiping, China. He later served as advisor 
of the National Palace Museum in Peiping 
and director both of the Department of 
Justice and of the Department of Education 



of Kiangsu Province, China. In 1932 he 
was the Chinese delegate to the session of 
the Cultural Co-operation Committee of 
the League of Nations in Geneva, Switzer- 
land. More recently he served as executive 
director of the board of The World Book 
Company, Ltd., Shanghai, and as a member 
of the Chinese committee for UNESCO, 
Nanking. In addition. Dr. Tchen has been 
a collector of Oriental books for many years 
and has gained a wide knowledge of many 
rare and valuable volumes known only to 
bibliophiles. 

CONDEMNED RARITIES FOUND 

So far. Dr. Tchen has opened only seven 
of the twenty-eight cartons containing the 
Laufer collection. But in those cartons 
alone he has been delighted to discover 
copies of books he thought had been de- 
stroyed during the Communist book-burn- 
ings in China. Books on ancient classics, 
antiquities, science, art, and history have 
been unearthed from the unprepossessing 
confines of the cardboard cases. In some 
instances the books are works of art — all 
the characters are made from hand-carved 
wood blocks and the illustrations are beauti- 
ful examples of Chinese line-drawings. 

The majority of volumes are exceedingly 
rare, published 100 to 300 years ago. Many 
of the books were privately printed and, in 
some cases, only a limited number of 50 to 
100 copies were issued. It has been found 
that among the volumes in this collection 
are valuable historic works not included in 
the Orientalia collection of the Library of 
Congress. 

A COMPLEX TASK 

Despite the fact that Dr. Tchen knows 
so much about the Chinese language and 
Chinese books, the task of transcribing 
Chinese and Japanese characters to the 
English language is a complicated and diffi- 
cult one because romanization of an author's 
name or the title of a book written in 
characters is based on a pronunciation of 
that name or title. This pronunciation may 
vary from person to person. Although the 
Orientalia Processing Committee of the 
Library of Congress is studying the problems 
of the cataloguing of Chinese, Japanese, 
and Korean publications, standard rules for 
this procedure have not yet been definitely 
formulated. Mrs. Meta P. Howell, Li- 
brarian, Mrs. M. Eileen Rocourt, Classifier, 
Dr. Tchen, and M. Kenneth Starr, Curator 
of Asiatic Archaeology and Ethnology, have 
had frequent discussions to resolve the ever- 
recurring problems that classifying and 
cataloguing of books in the Oriental lan- 
guages inevitably bring. 

Dr. Tchen is simultaneously working on 
new selected acquisitions in archaeology and 
ethnology published in the Far Eastern 
languages and currently received in the 
Museum Library. The Laufer collection, to- 
gether with many other rare volumes of 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



June is the bride's month, but 
the groom is the more resplendent 
of the pair of exotic peafowl sym- 
bolizing the season on our cover. 
This phenomenon of the male's 
dominance in beauty, common- 
place in the animal liingdom out- 
side the human race, is perhaps 
more accentuated in the peacock 
with its majestic train of colorful 
feathers than in any other crea- 
ture. The birds in the picture are 
the rare and little-known green 
peafowl and come from Indo- 
china, scene of current strife. 
This species is found also in 
Burma, Siam, and the Malay Pen- 
insula. The specimens, collected 
on an expedition to Indochina by 
the late Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, 
former Chief Curator of Zoology, 
form a habitat group in Hall 20 
of the Museum (taxidermy by 
John W. Moyer, background by 
the late Arthur G. Rueckert, Staff 
Artist). 



Orientalia, will be housed in a new room 
now being prepared for this purpose. This 
collection, with the many volumes of Orien- 
talia already classified among the Library's 
holdings, promises to be an unusually 
comprehensive and important Oriental li- 
brary. 



PAUL DALLWIG COMPLETES 
HIS Nth LECTURE SEASON 

With his four appearances on the lecture 
platform of the Museum in May, Paul G. 
Dallwig, the Layman Lecturer, closed his 
fourteenth season of dramatizations of 
scientific subjects for Sunday-afternoon au- 
diences. The season ended with his 402nd 
lecture. He will return next January with 
another series of programs. During the five 
months of his lectures this year his audiences 
totaled 4,043. For all fourteen seasons his 
listeners have aggregated 49,243 persons. 

The Dallwig lectures — and Mr. Dallwig 
himself — are truly unique. Mr. Dallwig is 
a business and professional man whose own 
deep interest in natural science led him to 
the belief that a great many other people 
would find scientific subjects fascinating if 
they were presented vividly and dramati- 
cally in the language of the layman. His 
theory has been proved correct by the 
enthusiastic reponse the public has given to 
his lectures. He devotes many hours to 
preparation of each lecture and adds his 
own distinctive touches to his dramatic 
expositions of science. 



June, 195 If 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 3 



PRIZE-WINNING GEMS AND JEWELRY ON DISPLAY JUNE 1-30 



A TREASURE of prize-winning gems 
and jewelry worthy of a king's ransom 
will be shown in a special exhibit in Stanley 
Field Hall of the Museum from June 1 
through June 30. All of the examples of 
the lapidarist's art in this display are the 
creations of amateur gem and jewelry crafts- 
men from all parts of Chicago and suburbs. 
Each is a prize winner in the Chicago Lapi- 
dary Club's Fourth Annual Amateur Hand- 
crafted Gem and Jewelry Competitive 
Exhibition. 



jewelry sets; (7) jewelry collections; (8) 
enameled jewelry; (9) special pieces; (10) 
polished-slab collections; (11) polished-speci- 
men collections. 

This year's show attracted unusually 
strong competition from all parts of the 
city and suburbs. Typical of some of the 
outstanding exhibits is a collection of 375 
cabochons cut from 160 different semi- 
precious gem materials. Another exhibit is 
an assortment of beautiful spheres. In- 
cluded in the show also are a sparkling 



sunstone from Norway; banded agate from 
Brazil; jade from Burma, New Zealand, and 
Wyoming; turquoise from Arizona and 
Nevada; and many other kinds of gem ma- 
terial from Washington, Oregon, California, 
Utah, and dozens of other localities through- 
out the United States. 

It takes hours of time, patience, and skill 
to cut and polish a beautiful cabochon from 
a piece of rough gem material that to many 
laymen looks like nothing but an ordinary 
rock. The surprising thing about the work 




PRIZE WINNERS DISPLAY CREATIONS FOR GEM AND JEWELRY SHOW, JUNE 1-30 

Alvin E. Ericson (left), winner of Presidents* Trophy awarded by Chicago Lapidary Club for outstanding craftsmanship in faceting gems. J. Lester Cunningham 

(center) with the Dalzell Trophy awarded to his collection of Lake Superior agate cabochons as best exhibit in show. Florence Swan (right) with two of her prize* 

winning jewelry displays. Like many other contestants, she designs the metal work as well as preparing gems. 



The competitors are from all walks of life 
and include housewives, engineers, secre- 
taries, salesmen, school teachers, and busi- 
ness executives. Most of these amateur 
craftsmen learned gem-cutting and jewelry- 
making in the various classes offered in field 
houses throughout the small parks of the 
Chicago Park District. 

NOVICES AND OLD HANDS 

Competition was divided into two classi- 
fications — novice and advanced. Those in 
the novice classification have had up to 
two years' experience and those in the ad- 
vanced classification have been engaged in 
lapidary work for longer periods. 

Entries in both the novice and advanced 
classifications competed in the following 
craft divisions: (1) individual gems, cabo- 
chon; (2) individual gems, faceted; (3) 
specific gem collections; (4) general gem 
collections; (5) individual jewelry; (6) 



display of faceted gems cut from a wide 
variety of material and an exceptional 
display of jewelry of every type and variety. 

SEVENTY-SIX AWARDS 

In all, 57 ribbons, 8 medals, and 11 tro- 
phies were awarded to the winners. The 
Dalzell Award for "Best of Show" was won 
by J. Lester Cunningham for his collection 
of 275 Lake Superior agate cabochons. The 
Presidents' Award, presented for outstand- 
ing lapidary craftsmanship, was won by 
Alvin E. Ericson for his large emerald-cut 
blue topaz. A Museum staff member, Miss 
Ruth Johnson, of the Division of Birds, won 
first and third prize for her entries in the 
novice enameled-jewelry division. 

Gem material from all over the world is 
used by these "rockhounds" who transform 
rough material into spectacular jewels. 
There are : malachite from the Belgian Congo ; 
opal from Australia; tiger-eye from Africa; 



of these amateur craftsmen is the fact that 
many of them have had only a few years' 
experience in the hobby that to them be- 
comes more fascinating with each new gem 
and jewelry piece completed. 

DESIGNS ARE WIDELY VARIED 

Many of the rockhounds are also expert 
metal craftsmen, as familiar with working 
in gold as they are with sterling silver and 
copper. The majority have had little or no 
formal training in design, but their jewelry 
creations show remarkable aptitude in the 
traditional and modern styles as well as in 
ultramodern motifs. Almost every one of 
the competitors who won and many who did 
not win in this year's competition are already 
planning entries for next year's show. 

Jack Best, chairman of the exhibition 
committee for this year's show, reports that 
the Chicago Lapidary Club is already busy 
with plans for new features next year. 



Races of Man Sculptures 
In New Photogfaphs 

John Bayalis and Homer V. Holdren, 
Museum Staff Photographers, have added 
approximately 125 new negatives of the 
Malvina Hoffman sculptures of the races of 
mankind (Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall — 
Hall 3) to the already voluminous files of 



negatives in the Division of Photography. 
The new negatives were made to replace 
several small negatives with larger ones, to 
replace negatives of plaster models with 
those of bronze sculptures, and to feature 
views of the sculptures that had not been 
photographed before. A revised list of 
photographs of sculptures in the Hall of 
Man is being prepared. 



Foreign Museum Officials Here 

Officials of two foreign museums were 
visitors at Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum last month to observe operating 
methods in use here. The visitors were 
Nevati Dolunay, director of the Archaeology 
Museum in Ankara, Turkey, and Professor 
Yasushi Hoshino, of the Tokyo Institute of 
Technology and the Museum of Japan. 



Page U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



June, 195 If 



'From Huts to Palaces' . . . 

ARCHAEOLOGISTS RESUME 
DIG IN SOUTHWEST 

"Southwest Dig" has long been an important 
summer activity of the Museum. Late last 
month, with the departure for the field of Dr. 
John B. Rinaldo, Assistant Curator of Ar- 
chaeology, the twentieth Southwest Archaeo- 
logical Expedition (eleventh in western New 
Mexico) began operations. Dr. Paul S. 
Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology, will 
leave early in June to take charge. Past 
accomplishments of the expedition are reviewed 
and current aims outlined in the follounng 
article. 

By PAUL S. MARTIN 

CHIBP CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY 

FOR TEN SEASONS we have been on 
the trail of the Mogollon Indians of 
western New Mexico, trying as best we 
could to piece together their history. From 
our digging on ten Southwest Archaeological 
Expeditions and from subsequent analyses 
we have found that during a period of 
roughly 4,000 years (from 2500 B.C. to about 
A.D. 1300) these Indians "pulled themselves 
up by their boot straps" and achieved a 
moderately successful civilization. 

When we first catch a glimpse of these 
people (2500 B.C.), they are living in skin 
tents or small cellar-like houses, called pit- 
houses, and are eking out an existence by 
gathering wild edible plants, by hunting, 
and by farming. Corn was a new thing in 
those days and did not yield much food per 
plant because the ears were only an inch or 
so long. 

PROGRESS IN MANY DIRECTIONS 

Centuries passed and the Mogollon In- 
dians, in response, perhaps, to some universal 
human urge, "let no grass grow beneath 
their feet." They continually strove to 
improve their lot, and their progress was 
easy for us to spot as we burrowed around 
and through their abandoned houses and 
garbage dumps. We found, for example, 
that at A.D. 500 their houses, although still 
glorified pits, were better built and adapted 
to the climate; their crops consisted not 
only of corn but also of beans and squashes 
— and the corn-ears were larger and juicier; 
their pottery was now of good quality, and 
some of it was painted with a bold hand and 
imagination; their tools of stone, bone, and 
wood were fitted to the tasks at hand; 
special and larger pit-houses were set aside 
for ritual and worship; and belief in an after- 
life existed. 

By the time 700 more years had passed, 
the Mogollon people had moved from their 
"huts" (pit-houses) into what we call pueb- 
los. A pueblo is a kind of honeycomb, a 
group of contiguous rooms — perhaps 20 to 
50 in number — that is built of stone and is 
one to four stories in height. 

The pueblo that we excavated last summer 



consisted of about 30 rooms and was mostly 
only one story high. Although the Mogollon 
Indians may not have been aware of their 
"emerging evolution" or of the vast improve- 
ment in their living conditions, we consider 
their pueblos as palaces when compared to 
pit-houses. 

At any rate, by the time of the final and 
unsuccessful European Crusades (about A.D. 
1250) our Indians had achieved a solid 
record of progress and, so far as we know, 
had no desire to conquer, to be conquered, 
or to proselytize. (A brief description of 
their accomplishments was published in the 
Bulletin for November, 1953, and a com- 
plete account of the 1953 Southwest Ar- 
chaeological Expedition now awaits publi- 
cation.) 

migration to be TRACED 

If the Mogollon culture had had time to 
stretch and grow and develop without hin- 
drance, there is a probability that it might 
have evolved a truly advanced civilization. 
But this was not to be. For some mys- 
terious reason, as yet imperfectly under- 
stood, the Mogollon Indians abandoned the 
land they had dwelt in for more than 4,000 
years. Where they went and why is not 
known. 

But we are on the trail and have reason 
for believing some of them may have moved 
northward and some westward into what is 
now Arizona. We already have some clues 
to this migration. When we are more certain 
about where they went, we shall move our 
camp headquarters, perhaps in the next 
year or so, and continue our archaeological 
researches in the new region. 

We have three projects planned for the 
1954 Southwest Archaeological Expedition. 
The first is to dig the plazas and ceremonial 
room (kiva) of Higgins Flat Pueblo, part of 
which we excavated last summer; the second 
is to dig a large village-pueblo that we think 
was one of the last to have been occupied in 
the area; and the third is to investigate a 
village that may have been the earliest one 
in the area. This last project is especially 
important because, although we have found 
the tools and crops (in caves and arroyos) 
that are dated at about 2500 B.C., we have 
never found the villages in which the people 
of that era lived. 

This is an ambitious program. We may 
not be able to fulfill all of it, but we shall 
do all we can. 



STAFF NOTES 



"Science ... is a natural and integral 
part of man's whole life, an activity which, 
at base, is a blend of logic, intuition, art 
and belief. It has been refined into an 
instrument of great beauty and precision by 
the few, but this science of the few is merely 
the distillation of the experience of the 
many. As a natural social activity of man, 
science belongs to all men." 

— Warren Weaver 



Dr. B. E. Dahlgren, Curator Emeritus 
of Botany, has returned to the Museum 
from his botanical expedition to Cuba .... 
Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, Curator of the 
Phanerogamic Herbarium, recently dis- 
cussed his expedition to the "lost world" of 
Venezuela before the Biltmore Garden Club 
and Chicago Ornithological Society .... 
Bryan Patterson, Curator of Fossil Mam- 
mals, has been awarded a John Simon 
Guggenheim Memorial Foundation fellow- 
ship for continuation of research in his field 
.... Dr. Rainer Zangerl, Curator of Fossil 
Reptiles, and Preparator William D. 
Turnbull have returned from a field trip 
to the vicinity of Mecca, Indiana, with a 
carload of black shale to be studied for its 
fossil content .... Miss Miriam Wood, 
Chief of the Raymond Foundation, repre- 
sented the Museum at the meetings of the 
American Association of Museums in Santa 
Barbara, California, where she presided at 
the sessions of the Children's Museums 
Section . . . M. Kenneth Starr, Curator of 
Asiatic Archaeology and Ethnology, is 
making a tour of museums in the east to 
study Oriental collections and exhibition 
techniques .... Miss Elaine Bluhm, As- 
sistant in Archaeology, recently talked on 
her excavations in the Chicago area before 
the Anthropology Club of the University of 
Illinois in Urbana .... Donald Collier, Cu- 
rator of South American Archaeology and 
Ethnology, and George I. Quiniby, Cur- 
ator of North American Archaeology and 
Ethnology, attended the meetings of the 
Society for American Archaeology in Al- 
bany, New York, last month. Curator 
Quimby was chairman of the session on mid- 
western archaeology .... Dr. Karl P. 
Schmidt, Chief Curator of Zoology, lec- 
tured before the Kumlien Club of Madison, 
Wisconsin, on natural history and conserva- 
tion in Palestine .... Loren P. Woods, 
Curator of Fishes, Miss Margaret G. 
Bradbury, Artist in Zoology, and Miss 
Pearl Sonoda, of the Division of Fishes, 
attended the meeting in Monmouth, Illinois, 
of the Illinois Academy of Science. Curator 
Woods and Miss Bradbury presented papers 
on ichthyological subjects. 



Entomologist on Field Trip 

Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator of Insects, 
will leave on a trip of six to eight weeks to 
the West Coast on June 1. His main pur- 
pose is to study types and other specimens 
of histerid beetles in the collections of 
western universities and museums, particu- 
larly those of the California Academy of 
Sciences in San Francisco. En route he will 
collect histerid beetles and other insects, 
especially the shore-dwelling coastal species, 
the predators of beetle pests of pines, and 
the inhabitants of mammal burrows. 



June, 195i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



TESTS INDICATE PLANT SEEDS MAY LIVE FOR CENTURIES 



By JOHN W. THIERET 

CURATOR OF ECONOMIC BOTANY 

RECORDS of exceptionally long life in 
living things, including redwood trees 
and confirmed alcoholics, have always at- 
tracted much attention. The longevity of 
seeds is a subject about which have appeared 
many reports, some authentic, some contra- 
dictory, and some completely false. One of 
the most common and persistent 
false reports concerns the germi- 
nation and growth of mummy 
wheat from Egypt. No authen- 
ticated record of the germination 
of wheat taken from Egyptian 
tombs is available. Indeed, a 
number of observations indicate 
the complete loss of germinability 
of such wheat and equally old 
barley. 

Attempts have been made to 
germinate ancient grains but 
none has ever been successful. 
For example, about fifty years 
ago at the Royal Botanic Gar- 
dens in Kew, an experiment was 
run with some grain from a 
model granary found in a tomb 
of the 19th dynasty. Samples 
were tested under various con- 
ditions, but after several months 
all the grain had disintegrated. 
Another experiment with mum- 
my wheat from a sarcophagus of 
the Grecian epoch in Old Mem- 
phis proved completely unsuc- 
cessful in spite of precautions 
taken and the various conditions 
for germination provided. Ex- 
amination of the internal struc- 
ture of such mummy grains has 
shown the embryo to be dark 
brown and greatly shriveled, with little 
of its structure visible. 

Several explanations have been offered 
for the frequent and popular belief in the 
germination of grains from Egyptian tombs. 
Recently harvested wheat has been packed in- 
to ancient coffins and sent to England. When 
such grains were tested for germination, of 
course they gave positive results. Some 
Egyptian businessmen have substituted 
fresh wheat for genuinely ancient grains 
and have sold such wheat to tourists who, 
upon return to their homes, plant and grow 
in their gardens "genuine mummy wheat 
from Egypt." Actually, cereals seem to be 
ill-adapted to a long period of seed dor- 
mancy, so ill-adapted, in fact, that the 
germination of 25-year-old wheat has been 
called exceptional, although in one case 
wheat stored for 32 years under dry con- 
ditions showed 69 per cent germination. 

LONGEVITY RECORDS 

Let us now examine some authentic 
records of longevity in seeds. In 1856, 



seeds of more than 600 different species 
were sent from Kew to Australia's then 
newly founded University of Melbourne. 
The seeds were intended for the university 
garden, but, upon their arrival, the garden 
was not ready. So they were set aside and 
replaced later with fresh material. The 
original 1856 shipment found its way into a 
dry, airy, dark, and vermin-free cupboard 




The record 
fera, rep: 



SACRED LOTUS 
for long life in seeds is held by those of this species, Nelumbo nuc 
roduced here from Blanco's folio **Flora de Filipinas" (1878-80). 



where it remained until its rediscovery in 
1906. 

To this set of seeds were added others 
from various sources including dated her- 
barium specimens and seed collections. In 
all, there was ample material for about 3,000 
germination tests. Of the 1,400 species and 
varieties of old seeds tested, the experi- 
menter. Dr. A. J. Ewart, found that 46 
were still viable after fifty years of storage. 
These were mostly leguminous seeds, but 
others were from the mallow, linden, spurge, 
mint, and iris families. The oldest seeds 
that germinated were those of two Aus- 
tralian legumes (Goodia lotifolia and Hovea 
linearis), both of which had been stored 
for 105 years. 

The longevity record of 105 years obtained 
in Ewart's experiment was surpassed by the 
germination in 1934 of two seeds of a legume, 
one of the cassias (Cassia multijuga), which 
had been collected 158 years before. The 
experiment utilized, among others, some old 
seeds found in a storage room of a Paris 
museum. 



At Kew about 20 years ago germination 
tests were run on seeds that had been col- 
lected in 1842 and 1851 and had been kept 
in loosely corked bottles. The age record 
for this experiment was held by the seeds 
of kidney vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria) and 
a clover (Trifolium striatum), both legumes, 
which germinated when 90 years old. Seeds 
of three species of the 1851 collection were 
sown in 1951. Those of red 
clover {Trifolium pratense) and 
bird's-foot trefoil {Lotus uligi- 
nosus), other legumes, showed a 
small per-cent germination at the 
age of 100 years. 

During the fire in the British 
Museum in September, 1940, 
seeds of silk-tree {Albizzia juli- 
brissin), still another legume, 
collected in China in 1793, be- 
came moistened. About one 
month later it was discovered 
that three of these seeds had 
germinated after a dormant 
period of 147 years. 

SACRED LOTUS TOPS LIST 

There seems to be little doubt 
that the record for the retention 
of viability by seeds is held by 
those of the sacred lotus {Ne- 
lumbo nucifera). Late in the 
17th century (exact date ap- 
parently unknown) Sir Hans 
Sloane collected specimens of 
this species, and his collection 
was eventually acquired by the 
British Museum. Between 1843 
and 1855 Robert Brown, the first 
Keeper of Botany at the British 
Museum, successfully germinated 
twelve seeds (actually fruits) 
from the Sloane material. At this time, 
the seeds were known to be at least 150 
years old. 

In 1926 another experiment with some 
Sloane seeds was quite unsuccessful, most 
of the seeds examined showing traces of 
mold. Early during World War II a further 
attempt was made to germinate a seed 
from this collection, then about 250 years 
old. This time the single seed used germi- 
nated within a short time and grew rapidly. 
Approximately 250 years, then, is the 
longest record of longevity in a case about 
which the details are fairly well known. 
Perhaps far surpassing this record, however, 
are the ages of various sacred lotus seeds 
that have been shown to be still viable 
after apparently long periods of burial. 
Near the village of Liu-chia-tung in Man- 
churia is a naturally drained lake bed. One 
and one-half to two feet below the present 
surface of the soil is a layer of peat that is 
one foot to one and one-half feet deep. 
Numerous lotus seeds are found in the upper 
portion of the peat layer. It is the age of 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



June, 195J^ 



these still viable seeds that has been the 
object of a great amount of speculation 
and study. 

Since the sacred lotus grows in water, the 
seeds foimd in the peat layer must have 
been shed before the lake dried up. After 
the formation of the layer of peat on the 
bottom of the lake and the accumulation 
of many lotiis seeds in this layer, the lake 
was somehow drained and about two feet 
of wndblown dust from the Gobi Desert 
was then deposited over the peat. The 
Pulantien River has cut a valley about 40 
feet deep through the lake bed into the 
underlying bed rock, thus exposing the peat 
layer high on the valley sides. In 1923 Dr. 
Ichiro Ohga, a Japanese botanist, published 
a paper wherein he estimated the age of 
the seeds to be perhaps as great as 400 
years. Dr. Ohga presented a number of 
these seeds to the British Museum (some 
plants raised from these seeds flowered at 
Kew in 1933). 

GROWN AT THIS MUSEUM 

In our own Chicago Natural History 
Museum botanical laboratories a lotus seed, 
apparently from the same source, germi- 
nated in 1938 and grew rapidly. The plant 
was then transferred to Garfield Park Con- 
servatory where it flowered about a year 
later. Unfortunately, it has since died. In 
1951 more lotus seeds from the Manchurian 
lake bed germinated in Washington. 

The original estimate of the age of these 
seeds has increased in a spectacular manner, 
for Dr. Seido Endo, geologist at Tohuko 
University in Japan, believes their age to 
be 50,000 years, the presumed age of the 
peat deposit in which they are found. How- 
ever, radio-carbon dating of a few seeds by 
Dr. Willard F. Libby of the University of 
Chicago puts their age at from 830 to 1,250 
years — doubtless a more reliable figure. 
Nevertheless, it is apparent that the question 
of their age is as yet unsettled, but there 
seems to be little doubt that the seeds are 
very old. The seeds from the peat differ 
in size, shape, and color from the seeds of 
the modem lotus. These differences may 
well be due to evolutionary change over a 
great lapse of time. 

In January of this year. Dr. Libby re- 
ported the radio-carbon dating of wood 
from a canoe found twenty feet below the 
ground near Tokyo. The age of the wood, 
estimated at about 3,100 years, may perhaps 
be the age of three viable lotus seeds found 
associated with the canoe. Maybe someday 
the title of the world's oldest living things 
will be held by the seeds of the sacred lotus. 

The long life of certain seeds would seem 
to be an illustration of anabiosis — the ap- 
parent suspension of life processes — in 
higher plants. It is difficult to imagine how, 
in cases of extreme anabiosis, the metabolic 
processes characteristic of life can proceed 
at all. One is reminded of the fact that 
certain micro-organisms can withstand tem- 



peratures as low as 269° below zero Centi- 
grade, a temperature at which these pro- 
cesses certainly halt. Similarly, it is hard 
to visualize that a balance between the con- 
tinuous life processes of building-up and 
tearing-down has been maintained for 
perhaps 1,000 or more years in the case of 
the sacred lotus seeds. Such stability of 
biological materials would seem to result 
only from a complete cessation of life activi- 
ties. These are resumed rapidly when con- 
ditions become favorable. 

From an economic standpoint, the per- 
centage of germination of stored seeds is a 
figure of more significance than the oldest 
recorded age for still viable seeds. The 
major interest, so far as many economic 
plants are concerned, is in the maximum 
period of time that seeds may be stored 
and yet retain a high percentage of germi- 
nation. It should be pointed out that op- 
timal storage conditions are not yet known 
for any type of seed. Experimentation has 
indicated, however, that for many seeds 
these include (1) low temperature, (2) ab- 
sence of oxygen, and (3) various degrees of 
dryness. It is quite probable that these 
are effective because any one of them results 
in checking respiration and other chemical 
reactions, thus preventing changes in the 
seeds. 

A good example of the effectiveness of 



these conditions in prolonging viability is 
seen in work done with sugar-cane seeds. 
When stored in open air, these seeds de- 
generate rapidly, and consequently shipping 
them from one area to another cannot be 
done with confidence. Ebiperimentation has 
shown that their life can be lengthened 
materially by taking the seeds from air-dry 
heads, placing them in cans with a suitable 
drying agent, displacing the air with carbon 
dioxide, sealing, and storing at the freezing 
point. 

Similarly the seeds of the rubber plant 
retain their viability only a short time in 
open air. This rapid loss of life has been a 
stumbling block to the extension of rubber 
plantations. In this case, viability may be 
prolonged markedly by storage of the seeds 
in 40 to 45 per cent carbon dioxide. The 
life span of the seeds of a number of vege- 
tables, including lettuce, cauliflower, onion, 
tomato, and carrot, may be increased by 
controlled conditions of storage, particularly 
low temperature and reduction in moisture 
content. 

The problem of the loss of viability of 
seeds has yet to be solved, although several 
hypotheses have been advanced to account 
for it. One of these suggests that such loss 
is due to gradual degeneration of the nuclei 
of the cells of the embryo. Another main- 
(Continued on page 8, column S) 



MICHIGAN SCHOOL CHILDREN ON MUSEUM TOUR 



A group of nearly 1,400 children from 
the schools of Allegan County, Michigan, 
came to Chicago on May 7 by chartered 
train especially to visit the Museum. All 



the visitors were escorted on tours of the 
exhibits. Because of the size of the groups, 
seventeen members of the Museum staff had 
to be assigned to guide service. 




Vanguard of 3 group of nearly 1,400 young visitors from schools of Allegan County. Michigan. 



June, 195i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



ARMED GUARD PROTECTS 
MUSEUM COLLECTOR 

Zoological collecting while accompanied 
by a military escort of two to four armed 
guards is the unusual experience reported 
by Dr. Fritz Haas, Curator of Lower Inver- 
tebrates, who returned to the Museum last 
month after a three-month expedition to 
Israel. When recent friction with the Arabs 
developed, the Israeli government insisted 
that Dr. Haas not only be armed at all 
times but that he also accept the protection 
of the escort during his trips into the field. 

Dr. Haas collected mollusks and other 
invertebrates, both land-inhabiting and 



1 




SCIENTIST AND BEDOUIN GUARD 
Because of unsettled conditions in the Near East, 
the Israeli government insisted that Dr. Fritz Haas, 
while collecting for the Museum, be personally 
armed and be accompanied by armed military escort. 
This desert scene is in Wadi El Abyad in Negev. 

aquatic, throughout a variety of terrain 
ranging from the forests of northern Israel 
to the desert areas in the south and at 
altitudes from a region of 3,000-foot hills 
down to the level of the Dead Sea, which is 
about 1,200 feet below standard sea-level. 
His collecting was conducted in close co- 
operation with the Hebrew University in 
Jerusalem, which expedited his work by pro- 
viding facilities for travel, preparation, and 
study. In addition to invertebrates, in 
which Israel's fauna is unusually rich. Dr. 
Haas collected some reptiles and other ani- 
mals for the Museum. 

Among objectives of the expedition were 
observation of the adaptation of invertebrate 
animals to life under desert conditions and 
study of the fresh-water life of i-solated 
rivers in the Near East. Dr. Haas delivered 
two lectures before the biology group of the 
Hebrew University — one on "Origin and 
Composition of Pearls" and the other on 



"Importance of Mollusks for the Recon- 
struction of Life Conditions in the Past." 

From Israel, Dr. Haas traveled through 
Italy, France, Switzerland, and Germany, 
collecting en route and consulting with col- 
leagues in various museums. In Frankfort- 
on-Main, Dr. Haas was welcomed by the 
Senckenberg Natural History Society, and 
a medal of Jacob Cretzschmar, founder of 
the society, was presented to him in recog- 
nition of his scientific achievements. He is 
the first scientist to receive this medal. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons became Museum 
members from April 16 to May 14: 

Associate Members 

Julian H. Levi, Frank Billings Nichols 

Annual Members 

George Albiez, Dr. Clifford L. Alsin, 
William D. Bavelaar, David B. Baxt, James 
P. Baxter, Ray C. Bennigsen, Woodward 
Burgert, Eugene L. Cohn, Dr. Pauline M. 
Cooke, William H. Cooke, G. D. Grain, Jr., 
Mrs. A. W. Cushman, Dr. William L. 
DeLarye, Peter T. Demos, Robert A. 
Dwyer, Dr. James B. Flanagan, Nelson 
Forrest, Charles G. Frank, John M. Frank, 
Victor E. Gidwitz, Gerson I. Gluck, William 
Haddow, J. E.'' Harrington, Rodney D. 
Harrison, Gerald E. Hendricks, Carl Hirsch- 
feld, Alfred Hochschulz, Arthur M. Holland, 
William E. Judd, Miss Minnie B. Kaiser, 
Michael F. Laterza, Paul L. Latham, Dr. 
Clarence A. Lathrop, Mrs. Nathan Leavitt, 
M. R. Mackaye, Joseph H. Makler, Frank 
0. Marks, Sydney R. Marovitz, Samuel A. 
Marx, Robert B. Mayer, Richard W. Mc- 
Laren, Dr. Freda Morgan, Robert L. Muck- 
ley, John J. O'Toole, S. William Pattis, 
Harold L. Perlman, Raymond L. Perlman, 
Robert A. Podesta, James N. Rawleigh, 
George C. Reeves, W. W. Rice, Kenneth 
C. Ring, Donald M. Roche, Frank Ryser, 
Robert L. Sampson, Michael Sappanos, Cal- 
vin P. Sawyier, T. H. Schaffer, Mrs. William 
Sevic, Henry Shapiro, E. John Sierocinski, 
Dr. Nicholas M. Simmon, George H. 
Simmons, E. V. Stanley, Miss Sidney A. 
Steck, A. L. Steele, Marshall E. Strauss, 
Walter N. Stuckslager, John Temple, Wil- 
liam E. Uhlmann, Miss Elizabeth Van- 
Hagen, J. L. Vette, T. A. E. Vyse, D. P. 
Wells, George H. Willis, John S. Woolman, 
George W. Yeoman 



Technical Publications 

The following technical publications were 
issued recently by Chicago Natural History 
Museum: 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 18. A 
Colombian Race of Tinamua osgoodi. By 
Emmet R. Blake. 4 pages. $.15 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 19. A New 
Fruit Pigeon from Nepal. By Austin L. 
Rand and Robert L. Fleming. 4 pages. 
$.15 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 20. Mol- 



VERNAY ANGOLA SAFARI 
TO BENEFIT MUSEUM 

Through the courtesy of Arthur S. Vernay, 
of New York, for many years a friend and 
supporter of Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum, the institution will share in the col- 
lections of the Vernay-Transvaal Museum 
Expedition to Angola (Portuguese West 
Africa). This expedition left Pretoria, where 
the Transvaal Museum is located, in May 
and is now well under way. Other institu- 
tions participating are the British Museum 
(Natural History) and the Peabody Mu- 
seum of Harvard University. 

The expedition sponsored by Mr. Vernay, 
while primarily concentrating on the col- 
lection of insects, has a wide range of other 
objectives including reptiles, birds, small 
mammals, plants, anthropological data on 
the native tribes, and investigations of past 
climates in the Huila, Benguela, Malange, 
and Bie provinces. Personnel of the expe- 
dition includes J. Balfour-Browne, ento- 
mologist of the British Museum, and the 
following members of the Transvaal Mu- 
seum staff: Dr. G. Van Son and C. Koch, 
entomologists; J. T. Robinson, anthropolo- 
gist, and his assistant, K. C. Brain, and 
A. G. White, taxidermist. The expedition 
will have a full complement of native helpers 
and will travel in a fleet of motor vehicles. 

Mr. Vernay has presented funds and 
collections of specimens to Chicago Natural 
History Museum in the past. In 1930 he 
financed and led the Vemay-Lang Kalahari 
Expedition. The Trustees of the Museum 
have honored him by electing him an 
Honorary Member, a Patron, and a Con- 
tributor. 



tusks from Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil. By Fritz Haas. 8 pages. $.25 

Fieldiana: Botany, Vol. 26, No. 2. Orchids 
of Guatemala. By Oakes Ames and 
Donovan Stewart Correll. 328 pages. $4. 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 21. A New 
Barbel from French Indo-China. By 
Austin L. Rand. 2 pages. $.10 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 35, No. 2. Placen- 
tation of a Primitive Insectivore, Echinsorex 
Gymnura. By Waldemar Meister and D. 
D wight Davis. 16 pages. $.75 

Fieldiana: Geology, Vol. 11, No. 7. Early 
Devonian Fishes from Utah, Part II, 
Helerostraxd. By Robert H. Denison. 64 
pages. $1.25 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 22. Marine 
and Fresh-water Mollusks of the Solomon 
Islands. By Alan Solem. 16 pages. $.25 

Fieldiana: Botany, Vol. 28, No. 3. Contri- 
butions to the Flora of Venezuela. By 
Julian A. Steyermark and Collaborators. 
229 pages. $4.25 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 24. Am- 
phibians and Reptiles of Yemen. By Karl 
P. Schmidt. 9 pages. $.15 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



June, 1951t 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received recently: 

Department of Anthropology: 

From: Estate of Henry C. Schwab, Chi- 
cago — 10 pieces of Chinese porcelain; Robert 
Trier, Chicago — plate made from mother- 
of-pearl. Hong Kong 

Department of Botany: 

From: Albert Greenberg, Tampa, Fla. — 
Thumbergia; E. J. Palmer, Webb City, Mo. 
— 473 plants; Simon Segal, Chesterton, Ind. 
• — 2 Lyco podia; Dr. John W. Thieret, 
Chicago — 90 phanerogams, Illinois, Indiana, 
Michigan; Grady L. Webster, Ann Arbor, 
Mich.— 15 Phyllanthus, Cuba; Archie Wil- 
son, Flossmoor, 111. — Castanea, Korea; Dr. 
T. A. Stephenson, Aberystwyth, Wales — 23 
algae, Bermuda; Dr. J. J. Symoens, Brussels, 
Belgium — 6 algae, Belgian Congo; Dr. P. C. 
Silva, Urbana, 111. — 5 marine algae, Califor- 
nia; Dr. J. E. Tilden, Hesperides, Lake 
Wales, Fla. — 153 algae. South Pacific, Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand; Dr. G. T. Velasquez, 
Quezon City, Philippines — 28 algae; Dr. 
Cesar Vargas C, Cuzco, Peru — 7 algae; 
Dr. R. D. Wood, Kingston, R.I.— 12 algae; 
Annie Zimmerman, Chicago — 28 algae, 
California 

Department of Geology: 

From: B. F. Hazel, Fort Peck, Mont.— 
Cretaceous fossil crabs and ammonites 

Department of Zoology: 

From: Marshall Laird, Suva, Fiji — 24 
frogs, 38 lizards, 2 snakes, Solomon Islands, 
New Hebrides; Ian M. Moore, El Cajon, 
Calif. — 2 paratypes of a beetle, Mexico; 
William E. Old, Jr., Norfolk, Va.— 2 lots of 
seashells; David W. Bergstrom, Oxford, 



Ohio — 147 insects and allies, Mexico; Chi- 
cago Zoological Society, Brookfield, 111. — 3 
birdskins; Albert J. Franzen, Chicago — - 
birdskin; Harry Hoogstraal, Cairo Egypt — 
130 skins, 123 skulls, 7 skeletons, 4 speci- 
mens in alcohol, 16 frogs, 32 lizards, 8 
snakes, 18 lots of fishes; Lois Jones, South 
Bend, Ind. — 734 insects and allies, Burma; 
Mathon Kyritsis, Waukegan, 111. — 12 fishes 
(6 species) ; Dr. Harold Trapido, Panama — 
24 bats in alcohol; U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Pascagoula, Miss. — 75 lots of fishes 
(118 specimens). Gulf of Mexico 

Raymond Foundation: 

From: Dr. R. M. Strong, Chicago — 5 
black-and-white slides 

Library; 

From: William J. Gerhard, Chicago; 
Rene d'Harnoncourt, Director, Museum of 
Modem Art, New York; United Food Co., 
Boston 



Daily Guide Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered 
daily except Sundays under the title 
"Highlights of the Exhibits." These tours 
are designed to give a general idea of the 
entire Museum and its scope of activities. 
They begin at 2 p.m. on Monday through 
Friday and at 2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available Mon- 
days through Fridays for parties of ten or 
more persons. Requests for such service 
must be made at least one week in advance. 

Although there are no tours on Sundays, 
the Museum is open from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. 



JUNIOR ARTISTS FIND SOURCE MATERIAL AT MUSEUM 




Three o£ the youngest art students from the classes held in Chicago Natural History Museum by the School 

of the Art Institute of Chicago are (left to right) Lya Avny, Patricia Anderson, and Bernard Lipshires, all 

eight years of age. They are seen in the Hall of Fishes with crayon drawings that were among the examples 

of school children's work selected for a special exhibit last month. 



LONGEVITY OF SEEDS- 

{Continued from page 6) 

tains that loss of viability may result from 
the depletion by respiration of the stored 
food supply of the seed; still others place 
the blame upon the degeneration of enzymes, 
on the gradual coagulation of proteins of 
the embryo, or on the accumulation of toxic 
products of metabolism. Many investiga- 
tors emphasize the importance of impervious 
seed coats in maintaining viability. 

Long-term tests represent an obvious way 
for determining not only the length of time 
seeds may remain alive under various con- 
ditions but also the environment most 
favorable for retaining viability during 
storage. It should be emphasized that the 
data from such experiments — and indeed all 
seed longevity data — do not necessarily 
reveal the maximum life span of the seeds 
concerned but only the life span under the 
experimental conditions — figures possibly 
much lower than the maximum time that 
viability may be retained under ideal con- 
ditions. 

The best-known of several buried-seed 
experiments is the one started in 1879 by 
Dr. W. J. Beal, then professor of botany at 
Michigan State College, who buried twenty 
bottles, each containing a mixture of sand 
and seeds of twenty species. The original 
plan was to dig up a bottle every five years 
for germination tests so that the entire ex- 
periment would extend over 100 years. 
However, in 1920 the decision was made to 
test the remaining twelve samples at lO-year 
periods in order that the experiment might 
be extended over an additional 60 years. 
The most recent germination test was made 
in 1950 after the eleventh bottle had been 
dug up. The seeds of only three of the 
original twenty species were found to be 
still viable after 70 years of burial : evening- 
primrose {Oenothera biennis), moth mullein 
(Verbascum blallaria), and yellow dock 
{Rumex crispns). 

Based on the thesis that the viability of 
seeds may be prolonged by storage in dry 
condition and in the absence of oxygen, a 
long-term test of seed viability has recently 
been initiated at the California Institute of 
Technology. Seeds of about 100 species of 
California plants were sealed in vacuo in 
glass tubes after the seeds were quite 
thoroughly dried. The first set of tubes 
was opened after one year (in 1948). It 
was found that the average germination 
percentage for all the species had dropped 
somewhat, although certain species showed 
an increase in germination as compared to 
tests made at the beginning of the experi- 
ment. Present plans call for testing of the 
next set of seeds in 1957, and subsequent 
sets at regular intervals until 2307. By 
that time, with increased knowledge and 
new techniques, we may be able to keep 
seeds alive vastly longer than we even 
imagine at present. 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 




RULLETIN 

LJ Vol.25,No.7-July 1954 

Chicago Natural 
History Museum 




Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



July, 195U 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Samuel Insull, Jr. 

Sewell L. Avery Henry P. Isham 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 
John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field Firxt Vice-President 

Samuel Insull, Jr Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistartt Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Karl P. Schmidt Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B, Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Barbara Polikoff 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



WHAT? HOW? WHERE? WHEN? 
ASK MUSEUM SWITCHBOARD 

By CAROLYN HIRSHFIELD 

How would a switchboard operator, work- 
ing for some business firm, react when upon 
answering a call, instead of a salutation, 
she heard — "How fast can a pheasant run?" 
"How many grains of salt in a single drop 
of ocean water?" "What is the color of the 
belt on the Statue of Liberty, and what 
time is the next bird walk?" As the switch- 
board operator at Chicago Natural History 
Museum, of the 300 to 400 calls I receive 
each day, approximately three-quarters are 
questions and need to be referred to spe- 
cialists on the staff. 

Once in a while calls come through that 
are scarcely believable. 

Take, for instance, the excited woman 
who informed me that on opening a hard- 
boiled egg for her son's lunch, she had found 
two yolks in it. What should she do? Dr. 
Austin L. Rand, Curator of Birds, told her 
quite naturally — "Eat it." Or the woman 
who wanted to find a man-eating plant, as 
a birthday gift for her husband. She, I'm 
sure, never forgave the Curator of Economic 
Botany for telling her that plants like that 
existed only in science-fiction. 

In my capacity as receptionist, I receive 



almost as many interesting visitors as phone 
calls. People who have "just cleaned out 
their attics" and feel confident that we 
must want the old spinning wheels, letters, 
grandmother's dresses and old muskets they 
found there. There are also the world 
travelers, who for a few dollars can "force" 
an antique dealer to part with a "valuable 
museum piece." One man brought in a very 
"rare" American-Indian relic. Not only 
was it worthless, but a magnifying lens 
disclosed the barely discernible legend — 
"Made in Japan." 

However, a good many of the specimens 
brought in are indeed treasures and gifts 
for which the Museum is grateful. For 
example, a young lady came into my office 
one summer afternoon lugging a large statue 
which she quickly shoved in back of the 
opened door, thus concealing it from view. 
She explained that her husband who was in 
the South Pacific had sent it to her, and as 
he had already written Dr. Alexander 
Spoehr, former Curator of Oceanic Archae- 
ology and Ethnology, concerning it, all that' 
was necessary now was to leave it. With 
that she gave her name and departed. Later 
that day. Dr. Spoehr came down for it. He 
pulled back the door and started to laugh. 
It appeared that the lady, seemingly not 
used to the primitive art of the natives, 
had covered one-half of the statue with one 
of her organdy aprons which fastened in 
back with a huge pink bow. But actually 
the carved figure was a most acceptable 
addition to the Museum collections. 

To get back to the switchboard, which is 
my big job, I often wonder what number 
the man wanted when he got ours by mis- 
take, for upon hearing the words Natural 
History Museum, he shouted in my ear, 
"Museum? — boy, have I got a wrong 
number!" 



CURATOR GIVES MUSEUM 
A NOTABLE COLLECTION 

WiUiam J. Gerhard, Curator Emeritus of 
the Division of Insects, has presented his 
personal collection of insects of the order 
Hemiptera to the Museum. Mr. Gerhard's 
special interest in the Hemiptera began 
before he joined the Museum staff in 1901. 
During his succeeding fifty years of service 
to the Museum, he devoted much of his 
spare time at home to the study of the 
Hemiptera and to building up a critical 
reference collection that includes more than 
10,000 finely prepared specimens of about 
1,500 carefully identified species. It forms 
the major component in the Museum's 
representation of this important group of 
insects. 

Entomologists like to restrict the term 
"bug" to the members of the order Hemip- 
tera. Among the best known of these 
creatures are the cicadas, whose shrill 
rasping buzz is a familiar sound of summer. 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



For the first time in its history, 
the front page of the Bulletin this 
month is embellished with a 
"cover girl" — the sculpture of a 
young woman of Ethiopia. This 
head, in black marble, is one of the 
famous Races of Mankind series 
by the noted artist Malvina Hoff- 
man, and was presented to the 
Museum by Mrs. Charles H. 
Schweppe. A hundred other rep- 
resentatives of the peoples of the 
world, most of them in bronze, 
as portrayed by Miss Hoffman, are 
on exhibition in Chauncey Keep 
Memorial Hall (Hall 3). During 
the current visit to the United 
States of Emperor Haile Selassie 
I of Ethiopia it is of interest that 
this Museum, as a result of two 
expeditions to the Emperor's 
country, has a noteworthy collec- 
tion of Ethiopian mammals in its 
African Hall (Carl E. Akeley 
Memorial Hall — Hall 22), some of 
which are shown elsewhere in 
this issue. 



The scientific interest of the order includes 
the complex life cycle with parthenogenesis 
and alternation of generations of the aphids 
or plant-lice. The Hemiptera are unusually 
important insects to man because most of 
the species suck juices of plants and injure 
or destroy their hosts which include many 
agricultural and garden plants. The plant- 
lice, or aphids, scale-insects, leaf-hoppers, 
and stink-bugs are well-known members of 
this group. Other forms, such as bed-bugs 
and kissing-bugs, feed on the blood of human 
beings and other animals. On the other 
hand, a number of species have been exten- 
sively utilized by man because they pro- 
duce such substances as wax, cochineal 
and other dyes, and lac for varnishes and 
other purposes. The most reasonable ex- 
planation of the "manna of the wilderness" 
of Biblical times is that it was a sugary 
secretion produced on plants by certain 
scale-insects. 



Girl Scouts to Use Museum 

The five Mondays from July 12 to 
August 9 inclusive have been designated 
Girl Scout Days at the Museum. On these 
days Girl Scouts are invited to explore the 
Museum and to take advantage of the help 
offered by the Raymond Foundation guides 
who will be available to answer questions 
on certain specified subjects. Several ex- 
hibit cases will be marked for these subjects 
to aid the scouts in answering questions in 
their handbooks, and to further their work 
for nature proficiency badges. 



July, 195i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 3 



TIME CLOCKS IN BIRDS? PERIODIC FORCES IN LIFE CYCLE 



By AUSTIN L. RAND 

CURATOR OF BIRDS 

TO THOSE of US who grew up in a 
northern country the importance of the 
slow climb of the sun in the heaven from 
the winter solstice of December to the 
summer solstice of June is an old story. 
Our pagan ancestors marked the sun's climb 
and celebrated it with fire festivals. One of 
the functions of Stonehenge was to record 
the summer solstice, whence the fact was 
flashed across the countryside by a system 
of bonfires. 

The returning sun loosened nature from 
the dead grip of winter and started life anew, 
a resurrection once symbolized by pagan 
rites that in Christendom were replaced by 
Easter. 

The returning sun and spring start birds 
nesting. The different kinds respond dif- 
ferently. The great-horned owl may nest 
in February when the northern woods are 
deep in snow and the temperatures dip be- 
low zero, but when its slow-growing young 
are on their own, they will find young rabbits 
plentiful. The bluejay may wait until May 
when food for its young is most plentiful, 
and the goldfinch may wait until August 
when the thistle seeds on which it feeds its 
young will be ready. But all seem to depend 
on the return of the sun. 

light's effect proved 

The actual effect of the sun's seasonal 
climb, through lengthening daylight, on the 
breeding condition of birds became known 
to scientists only in the 1920's. Then, ex- 
perimentally. Dr. William Rowan, of the 
University of Alberta, showed that juncos, 
kept captive in Alberta, could be brought 
into breeding condition in winter by giving 
them increased illumination. Further work 
corroborated the discovery. The amount 
of light actually does affect the birds' sys- 
tem, bringing on a breeding condition, molt, 
and presumably migration. 

Some extreme students even hold that 
this is the timing of all breeding seasons. 
But as we go farther afield, out of our 
northern clime with only a spring and sum- 
mer suitable for breeding, we find this 
wouldn't hold. Consider the birds of tropi- 
cal East Africa. It's a rather arid land, 
but twice a year the rains bring a season of 
growth to the vegetation, when insects can 
prosper. And here we find that many kinds 
of birds have two breeding seasons a year. 
It seems that the rains, rather than the sun, 
furnish the timing device. But a puzzling 
feature is that some birds may come into 
breeding condition before the rains start, 
anticipating their arrival, which suggests 
that some other timing factor is involved. 

If we transfer our attention to the vast 
equatorial forest of Central and West Africa 
where rain, temperature, and daylight are 
uniform throughout the year, we find that 



under these uniform conditions some kinds 
of birds breed throughout the year. It 
seems that without variation in daylight or 
rainfall, there's nothing to cause an annual 
cycle. 

SOOTY TERNS HAVE OWN CYCLE 

But the sooty terns of Ascension Island, 
in the Atlantic Ocean about seven degrees 
south of the Equator, provide a disturbing 
note. Here the breeding terns enjoy a cli- 



J_ ( / ^ t " 





^iiJVT^ 



ffuTh Johnson 



mate uniform throughout the year, but they 
breed once every 9.6 months, reports Dr. 
J. P. Chapin of the American Museum of 
Natural History. Without apparent ex- 
ternal control, there is a breeding cycle of 
less than twelve months. It makes one 



TWO LECTURE TOURS DAILY 
OFFERED IN SUMMER 

During July and August, lecture tours of 
Museum exhibits will be offered in both the 
mornings and the afternoons of weekdays, 
Mondays through Fridays inclusive; on 
Saturdays and Sundays tours will be 
omitted. 

Except on Thursdays, the morning tours 
will be devoted to the exhibits in one 
specific department. The afternoon tours 
(and Thursday morning) will be compre- 
hensive in scope, touching on outstanding 
exhibits in all departments. Following is 
the schedule that will be followed weekly: 

Mondays: 11 A.M. — The World of Plants 
2 P.M. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Tuesdays: 11 A.M. — Records from the 
Rocks 
2 P.M. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Wednesdays: 11 a.m. — Animals Around the 
World 
2 P.M. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Thursdays: 11 A.M. and 2 p.m. — Highlights 
of the Exhibits 

Fridays: 11 a.m. — People and Places 
2 p.m. — Highlights of the Exhibits. 



wonder whether or not there is an inherent 
fixed rhythm in the birds themselves, per- 
haps only modified locally by changing 
daylight or by rains. These sooty terns are 
the most interesting as a species in that with 
their widespread, pantropical range they 
show three types of breeding rhythm or 
cycles: some, such as the population breed- 
ing on the Dry Tortugas off Florida, breed 
once a year, in the spring; some, on certain 
Pacific islands, breed twice a year; and, as 
we've just said, the Ascension Island birds 
breed once every 9.6 months. 

In a search for further collateral evidence 
I came on Dr. Frank A. Brown's work on 
fiddler crabs at Woods Hole Biological Sta- 
tion in Massachusetts. Fiddler crabs have 
a daily 24-hour color-change rhythm, be- 
coming pale at night and, presumably as a 
protection against sunlight and against 
predators, dark during the day. Superim- 
posed on this they have another shorter 
color-change of 12.4 hours. Though dark 
in color during the day they assume a maxi- 
mum darkness at the time of low tide, when 
presumably they would be most vulnerable 
to sunlight and to predators. The tides, 
which do not correlate with the solar day 
but with the moon, fall behind 50 minutes a 
day. The crabs' tidal (or lunar) cycle of 
color-change coincides in phase with the 
diurnal 24-hour cycle only once every 15 
days. This is interesting, but the astonish- 
ing thing is that crabs kept for two months 
in complete darkness, in a photographic 
darkroom, continued to show these two 
cycles of color-change. An innate time- 
sense or an innate rhythm seemed one pos- 
sible explanation. Such things have been 
postulated before. The most popular ex- 
planation has been that such rhythms are 
determined by metabolism, with hunger, 
fatigue, or rest from fatigue being postulated 
as the the factors involved. 

But this is ruled out in the case of the 
crab, for the crab is cold-blooded. Its body 
temperature tends to be that of its environ- 
ment. And with temperature changes, the 
metabolism changes: it speeds up with 
warmer temperatures and slows down with 
colder ones. Yet Dr. Brown found that 
keeping these crabs at various temperatures 
from 6 degrees to 26 degrees Centigrade did 
not affect either of their time-rhythms. 
Evidently they are not controlled by 
metabolism. 

But let us not speculate on a time clock 
or a calendar clock in our animals similar to 
the alarm clock that Sir James Barrie's 
crocodile swallowed and that warned Cap- 
tain Hook of the crocodile's predatory ap- 
proach by ticking. Rather it seems that in 
addition to light, which may be the factor 
at times and which can be a modifier at 
others, we must keep in mind that there may 
be other periodic or cyclic forces operating 
in the world to which some animals respond. 



Page i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



July, 195 U 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SUN-BOAT EXHIBITED HERE 



By RICHARD A. MARTIN 

CURATOR, N. W. HARRIS PUBLIC SCHOOL EXTENSION* 

RECENTLY the finding of a mortuary 
boat near the south base of the great 
pjTamid of Khufu (2600 B.C.) was an- 
nounced by the Egyptian Department of 
Antiquities. This is the first actual boat to 
be discovered in the Giza pyramid complex, 
and, if it is a part of the funerary equipment 
of Khufu, it is the oldest mortuary boat thus 
far to be excavated by modern archaeolo- 
gists. 

That such boats were placed near the 
pyramids of the pharaohs of the Old King- 
dom (2700-2200 B.C.) has been known for 



Tliou risest and settest; thou risest up with 
Isis, ascending with the Morning Boat 
of the Sun. 

Because of their importance in the after- 
life, the mortuary, or sun-, boats seem to 
have played a major role in the funeral 
ritual. Scenes from tomb sculptures of the 
Old Kingdom suggest that an actual voyage 
on the Nile was made in these boats on the 
way to the tomb and that certain funeral 
rites were performed on this journey. The 
lead sun-boat carried the coffin, a few offi- 
ciating priests, and the wife of the deceased. 
Other sun-boats transported important per- 
sonages and objects for the funeral ritual 



STAFF NOTES 




SUN-BOAT OF KING SESOSTRIS III 
This boat, on exhibition in the Museum's Hall of Egypt (Hall J), is one of three well-preserved sun-boats 
found by the archaeologist J. de Morgan in 1894 near the brick pyramid of Sesostris III, fifth king of the 
Twelfth Dynasty. The others found at the same site were mere fragments in the sand. The sun-boat in the 
Museum is 32 feet long and 8 feet wide. It is constructed of cedar wood in the same general form as the 
earliest Egyptian type of boat made of bundles of papyrus — the "Great Reed Float" of the Sun-God, Re. 



some time, as boat-shaped hollows hewn in 
the bedrock near the pjrramids have pre- 
viously been found: three on the east side 
of Khufu's pyramid, five at the base of the 
nearby pyramid of Khaf-Re, one at the 
pyramid of Dedefre at Abu Rauwash, and 
one at the pyramid of Unis near Saqqara. 
These boat chambers had originally been 
roofed over with huge stone slabs, but 
unfortunately all had been robbed of their 
contents in ancient times. 

JOURNEYS WITH SUN-GOD 

Mortuary boats played a very important 
part in the religious beliefs of the Egyptians. 
In them the dead pharaohs in their afterlife 
were believed to join the sun-god Re on his 
journeys during the day and night. This 
excerpt from a Pyramid Text indicates the 
significance of the boats: 

Thou risest and settest; thou goest down 

with Re, sinking in the dusk with Nedy. 
Thou risest and settest; thou risest up with 

Re and ascendest with the Great Reed 

Float. 
Thou risest and settest; thou goest down 

vnth Nepthys, sinking in the dusk vrith 

the Evening Boat of the Sun. 



* Formerly Curator of Near Eastern Archaeology. 



and the life in the hereafter. The only crew 
member on a sun-boat during this voyage 
was the helmsman equipped with a large 
steering oar, as the sun-boats were towed 
on the water by other boats with many 
oarsmen. When they reached a place on 
the river near the tomb, the sun-boats were 
hauled up the bank and over the sand by 
men to the burial place. 

SUBSTITUTE FOR BOATS 

After the Fifth Dynasty (2350 B.C.) the 
pharaohs seem to have been content to go 
without stone "tombs" for their sun-boats. 
The boats were then protected by brick 
shelters or simply buried in the sand. Even- 
tually model boats and tomb scenes de- 
picting boats served as substitutes for actual 
boats to be used in the afterworld. 

A sun-boat from the Twelfth Dynasty is 
on exhibition in Chicago Natural History 
Museum (Hall J — Peoples of Ancient 
Egypt) . This boat is one of five found buried 
in the sand at the base of the pyramid of 
King Sesostris III (1878-1840 B.C.) at 
Dashur. It is complete with steering oar 
for the helmsman. The boat is the only 
one of its kind in the United States. It was 
presented to the Museum by Mrs. Cyrus H. 
McCormick. 



In recognition of research completed and 
published. Ph. D. degrees were conferred 
upon three members of the Museum's scien- 
tific staff in June. Those receiving their 
doctorates are Donald Collier, Curator of 
South American Archaeology and Eth- 
nology, and Robert F. Inger, Curator of 
Amphibians and Reptiles, both of whom 
were thus honored by the University of 
Chicago; and Eugene S. Richardson, Jr., 
Curator of Fossil Invertebrates, who re- 
ceived his degree at Princeton University. 
. . . Loren P. Woods, Curator of Fishes, 
recently reconnoitered Kentucky caves for 
blind fishes for which the region is famed 
.... Dr. Theodor Just, Chief Curator of 
Botany, has left for Paris where he will 
represent the Museum at the International 
Botanical Congress. . . . Dr. Austin L. 
Rand, Curator of Birds, has returned from 
Basel, Switzerland, where he was a delegate 
to the Eleventh International Ornithological 
Congress .... Colin C. Sanborn, Curator 
of Mammals, and Philip Hershkovitz, 
Associate Curator of Mammals, last month 
attended the meetings of the American 
Society of Mammalogists at Estes Park, 
Colorado. Mr. Sanborn presented a paper 
on "Recent Rabies Infections in Herbi- 
vorous Bats." . . . Dr. Francis Drouet, Cu- 
rator of the Cryptogamic Herbarium, is on 
leave to conduct botanical courses at the 
Lake Itasca Forestry and Biological Station 
where the University of Minnesota has a 
summer school .... Miss Margaret Bauer, 
Secretary of the Department of Zoology 
since 1941, has resigned to embark upon a 
business career .... Dr. Julian A. Steyer- 
mark, Curator of the Phanerogamic Her- 
barium, recently spoke before the Barrington 
Natural History Society on "Identification 
of Wildflowers." . . . With regret, the Mu- 
seum records the death on June 15 of Frank 
F. Gottsch, age 79, a member of the guard 
force since 1944. 



Museum a Vacation Mecca 
For School Children 

With the recent closing of Chicago's 
schools for the summer, every day from 
now until the end of the long vacation 
becomes a children's day at the Museum. 
Colonel Clifford C. Gregg, Director, has 
issued his annual invitation to children — 
and their parents — to make full use of the 
institution as a vacation haven. 

The Museum is a safe place for parents 
to leave their children; further, on scorching 
days it is one of the coolest places in Chicago. 
It offers the children fun, yet contributes 
educational influence whereby they uncon- 
sciously continue absorbing knowledge while 
they are enjoying themselves. Admission 
is free to children every day of the week. 



July, 195 It 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



CORAL REEF FISHES 
FROM BIKINI HERE 

Chicago Natural History Museum has 
received a series of more than 5,000 speci- 
mens representing over 500 species of coral 
reef fishes from Bikini and the northern 
Marshall Islands. These fishes are part of 
a collection made by the staff of the Division 
of Fishes, United States National Museum, 
under the direction of Dr. Leonard P. 
Schultz, Curator of Fishes. The first 
volume of a descriptive catalogue of the 
collection has recently been published and 
a second volume is being completed. The 
Museum has received the valuable coral 
reef fishes as a result of the collaboration 
by Curator of Fishes Loren P. Woods in the 
preparation of this catalogue. These fishes 
and the report based on them will be a point 
of departure for further studies on Pacific 
coral reef fishes for many years to come. 



WHO'S A COW? 

By PHILIP HERSHKOVITZ 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF MAMMALS 

ELSIE, that highly publicized and uber- 
ous lady, is a member of a select and 
astonishingly varied company that includes 
even whales, elephants, hippos and giraffes. 
The term cow was first used for the female 
of the common domestic animal the male of 
which is called bull or ox. In fact, when 
the English language was in the early stages 
of integration, there was a different word 
for each sex and even for the plural of most 
of the important animals known to the in- 
habitants of the Brit- 
ish Isles. As new 
lands and new animals 
were discovered, new 
names had to be sup- 
plied. Unfortunately, 
English grammar pro- 
vides no uniform end- 
ing or general rule for 
forming the gender of 
nouns. One either 
used such familiar 
feminine names as 
cow, doe or vixen for 
the female of an exotic 
animal, or he simply 
used a common name 
for both sexes. Nat- 
urally, the name cow 

could be applied without hesitation to fe- 
males of all species of wild cattle. These 
include bison, the African and Asiatic buffa- 
loes, the Central Asiatic yak, the Indian 
gaur, the Philippine tamarao, and the little 
anoa of the Celebes. On the other hand, 
rule of thumb had to be used to determine 
whether the female of an African antelope 
was to be called a cow, because of its size 
or some other trait so suggested, or whether 
It was to be called a doe because it was 



smaller and of a more graceful frame. Usage 
then determined whatever designation was 
to become established. 

It is not surprising that the females of 
manatees and dugongs, the sirens of ancient 
mariners, should be called cows. In fact, 
sea cow is the general term for these animals. 
All large, heavily built marine mammals 
such as whales, seals, sea-lions and walruses 
are either bulls or cows, according to sex. 
On land, the same criterion is used and the 
largest terrestrial mammals of the Old 
World, the elephant, rhinoceros, hippopota- 
mus, and giraffe are either bull or cow 
according to whether they are male or fe- 
male. Likewise, the largest ungulates of 
the New World, including the caribou, elk, 
and moose, are either bull or cow, not stag 
and doe, respectively. The female domestic 
reindeer, because it is large, kept in herds, 
milked and slaughtered for flesh and hide, 
is a cow, not a doe. The largest tropical 
American terrestrial animal, the tapir, is a 
close relative of the horse, but the female 
tapir is a cow, not a mare. In British 
Guiana, the tapir is simply "bush cow" 
without regard to sex. 

Because of the association of ideas, the 
term cow has been extended to some non- 
mammalian organisms. The terrapin is a 
turtle often called a cow because it was 
kept like cattle and used for food by certain 
American Indians. The cow tree of the 
Venezuelan and Colombian Andes is 
"milked" for the latex that tastes, looks, 
and fattens the drinker, like cow's milk. 
The common plant aphid is sometimes called 
a cow because it is tended and "milked" 




by ants. However, such are the vagaries of 
the English language that the females of all 
bulls are not cows, and the males of all cows 
are not bulls. Whoever heard of a bull bird 
or of a cow frog? 



BROWNIES GO ON 'SAFARI' 
IN MUSEUM HALLS 

The young girl seen next to the African 
waterhole exhibit busily taking notes and 
snapping pictures some Saturdays ago was 
engaged in very important work — she was 
"on an expedition to Africa" and like all 
good naturalists she was observing the life 
around her and recording what she saw. 
The expedition trail she was following was 
mapped out by the Raymond Foundation 
for Brownie troops who attended the Satur- 
day morning movie on Africa. Armed with 
what they learned from the movie the 
Brownies started out on their miniature 
expedition remembering the advice of the 
Raymond Foundation to be always alert to 
see, make notes, collect material, make 
sketches and take pictures. After the expe- 
dition returned home the members prepared 
notebooks in which they included their 
notes and sketches. Following are two 
excerpts from these notebooks: 

"No other animal [the elephant] looks so 
much alike at both ends and has skin an 
inch thick yet has such a poor heating 
system that its owner is as easily frosted 
as a bean plant. Nor is there another animal 
with its nose drawn out into a long trunk 
that it uses as a hand or whose skull is 
fifteen inches thick or whose front teeth are 
often so heavy that it gets tired from carry- 
ing them." 

"The camel is used as a Beast of Burden 
in Africa, not choosy about food, eats thorny 
desert plants. Drinks any muddy lukewarm 
water in large amounts at a time, it can go 
for a week without water. 

"The camel is one of the ugliest, meanest 
and most useful of all animals. It has been 
man's servant for longer than any other 
creature except the human slave." 



Exhibits of families of orchids, bananas, 
marine algae, fungi, lichens, horsetails, and 
clubmosses in Martin A. and Carrie Ryerson 
Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29) have been 
renovated and rearranged. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received recently: 

Department o£ Anthropology; 

From: Byron Harvey III, Chicago— 
Ashanti brass weight. West Africa 

Department of Botany: 

From: Miss Gertrude French, Park Ridge, 
111. — CoUinsia verna; E. J. Palmer, Webb 
City, Mo. — 442 phanerogams; Dr. Hans M, 
Peters, Tubingen, Germany — 3 phanero- 
gams, Honduras; Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn. — 23 Venezuelan Plants, Vene- 
zuela 

Department of Geology: 

From: Holly Bennett, Chicago — rock and 
mineral specimens, Oregon and California; 
Charles A. Steen, Moab, Utah — uranium- 
vanadium ore specimens; Clayton Stocks, 
Moab, Utah — uranium-vanadium ore; O. R. 
Wray, Quebec, Canada — varved clay 

Library: 

From: H. P. Peterson, Chicago 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



July, 195i 



ETHIOPIA IS BROUGHT TO CHICAGO IN MUSEUM EXHIBITS 




GUEREZA MONKEYS 



MOUNTAIN NYALAS 




ANIMALS OF MANV KINDS Mt-hl Al A WAIKRHOLE IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA 



Chicago Natural History Museum pos- 
sesses, in Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall 
(Hall 22), a notable collection of Ethiopian 
animals collected by two expeditions in the 
1920's. The recent Chicago visit and the 
continuing good-will tour of the United 
States by Haile Selassie I, Emperor of 
Ethiopia, lent a reflected timely interest to 
these exhibits, especially since the Emperor 
had actually played a considerable role in 
aiding the two Museum expeditions that 
collected the specimens in the groups. 



The expeditions were the Chicago Daily 
News-Field Museum Abyssinian Expedition 
(1926-27) led by the late Dr. Wilfred H. 
Osgood, then Chief Curator of Zoology, and 
an expedition financed and led for the Mu- 
seum in 1928-29 by Captain Harold A. 
White of New York and Major John Coats 
of London. Emperor Haile Selassie (at that 
time known as Ras Taffari, "Regent of the 
Empire and Heir to the Throne") received 
members of both Mu.seum safaris at his 
capital, Addis Ababa. The hearty personal 



co-operation he extended to them in pre- 
paring for their trek through remote parts 
of his country contributed in large measure 
to the success of their collecting efforts, and 
their safety against various hazards. 

The Daily News expedition personnel in- 
cluded, besides Dr. Osgood (who was one of 
the country's foremost zoologists), the late 
Louis Agassiz Fuertes, famed both as an 
artist and ornithologist; Dr. Alfred M. 
Bailey, then a member of this Museum's 
zoology staff and now Director of the Denver 



July, 195i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 





GELADA BABOONS 





DASSIE OK c;OM 'I 

Museum of Natural History; James E. 
Baum, Jr., special writer whose syndicated 
articles on the expedition were widely pub- 
lished and later appeared in book form; and 
C. Suydam Cutting, Honorary Member, 
Patron and Contributor of the Museum. 

The Museum's largest habitat group, the 
reproduction of a scene at an African water- 
hole, includes many of the larger animals 
found in southern Ethiopia, among them 
rhinoceros, giraffes, elands, oryx and ga- 
zelles. All were collected by Captain White, 
Major Coats and C. J. Albrecht. 

Outstanding among several groups col- 
lected by the Daily News expedition is the 
mountain nyala, a rare creature whose exist- 
ence did not become known to zoologists 
until as recently as 1911. It is an especially 
beautiful antelope, and the males, like some 
of their African relatives, have spiral horns. 
It is sometimes called the Queen of Sheba's 
antelope. The Queen figures prominently in 
the traditions of Ethiopia, and Emperor 
Haile Selassie claims direct descent from 
both King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. 
Other groups in the exhibits resulting from 
this expedition include gelada baboons. 



DIK-DIK, WORLD'S SMALLEST ANTELOPE 

guereza monkeys, Abyssinian dassies or 
coneys, and dik-diks, the world's smallest 
antelopes which are only about the size of 
rabbits. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons became Museum 
Members from May 17 to June 15: 

Associate Members 

Dave Edelson, Truman K. Gibson, Jr., 
Louis Kopinski, David Silberman, Jr., 
C.N. Wesley 

Sustaining Member 

Paul M. Plunkett 

Annual Members 

Hubert E. Allen, Dr. B. J. Anson, George 
E. Bailey, John L. Baker, Elmer Balaban, 
Norman J. Barry, Herman Bartholomay, 
Miss Lucy F. Barton, Dr. Robert A. Beebe, 
Dr. John V. Belmonte, William Bessy, 
George O. Bohrer, Giulio Bolognesi, Fred 
Bryant, Ivo W. Buddeke, John L. Cella, 
Dr. Mitchell S. Corbett, A. J. Dunsmore, 
Stanton L. Ehrlich, F. F. Elliott, Harold 
English, Thomas P. Feely, Meyer Field, 
Morgan L. Fitch, Jr., Fred S. Floyd, Irving 
Frank, Dr. Eric Friedland, G. F. Gerk, 
Fred W. German, William Graffis, Mrs. 



MUSEUM INVITES CHILDREN 
TO FREE SUMMER MOVIES 

Thursdays from July 8 to August 12 
inclusive are special children's days at Chi- 
cago Natural History Museum. On those 
six days, in addition to the usual attractions 
of the exhibits, the Museum will present, 
under the auspices of the James Nelson and 
Anna Louise Raymond Foundation, the 
annual Summer Series of free programs of 
motion pictures. The films to be shown 
combine entertainment with education in 
natural science. There will be two showings 
of the movies on each program, at 10 a.m. 
and 11 A.M., in the James Simpson Theatre 
of the Museum. Dates and titles of the 
films are: 

July 8 — Bambi' 

Walt Disney's story of the deer 

July 15 — Animal Stories 
Also a cartoon 

July 22— El Navajo 

The life of the Navaho Indians 

in the Southwest 
Also a cartoon 

July 29 — Land of the Long Day 
Eskimos of BafHn Island 
Also a cartoon 

August 5 — Kangaroo Island 
Also a cartoon 

August 12 — Vacation Country 

Carlsbad Caverns, Grand Canyon, 

and the Rockies 
Also a cartoon 

On the first program, July 8, because the 
film is an extra-long one, the second show 
will begin at about 11:20 A.M. instead of 11. 



John Hamilton, George Hartung, Jr., Daniel 
T. Hayes, F. Robert Hodges, Samuel E. 
Hokin, Morris Z. Holland, Dr. Bernard 
Horn, L. H. Horn, A. J. Irwin, N. Howard 
Johnson, R. S. Kalwajtys, Thomas J. 
Keating, William D. Kerr, Edward Kohn, 
M. L. Kresge, H. A. Lansman, Mrs. Louis 
Leavitt, Max Lurie, S. C. Lurie, Van E. 
Marker, John L. Marley, Dr. John J. Mar- 
lowe, E. R. McCoy, C. Logan McEwen, 
Martin J. McGuire, Leo A. Miller, Michael 
Morris, Henry Moss, Jerry Moss, Roger 
Mullaney, Dr. Joseph J. Mullen, A. K. 
Orschel, Alfred H. Perlman, W. A. Perry, 
Harold E. Peterson, J. W. Pope, Carl J. 
Powers, King Peter Ray, William H. Rector, 
Dr. Arthur G. Rink, James J. Ripley, Mrs. 
Donald I. Roth, Don Sack, John H. Sawyer, 
Miss Gertrude Schneider, Charles L. Schra- 
ger, Joseph T. Shuflitowski, James R. Sim- 
mons, Bernard Peacock Smith, Francis B. 
Stine, Smith W. Storey, Miss Marie Strode, 
K. G. Swanson, Charles R. Swibel, S. A. 
Van Dyk, Vernon E. Victorine, Dr. Harold 
C. Voris, C. F. Weinreich, Dr. F. Howell 
Wright 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



July, 195 If 



MEMBER OF MUSEUM STAFF WINS GOLD CUP IN JEWELRY CRAFT CONTEST 




Miss Ruth Johnson^ winner of gold cup. 

At the opening of the Fourth Annual 
Amateur Handcrafted Gem and Jewelry 
Competitive Exhibition held at the Museum 
in June under the auspices of the Chicago 
Lapidary Club, two models, Miss Jonie 
Johnson and Miss Pat Lyons (above at 
center and right respectively) were sent to 



Prize creations displayed by Miss Jonie Johnson. 

the Museum through the courtesy of Patricia 
Stevens Studios to pose for newspaper 
photographers. 

But the real honors of the show were 
taken by a young lady on the Museum's 
own staff, Miss Ruth Johnson (above, 
photograph at left), secretary in the Di- 



Miss Pat Lyons with prize-winning jewelry. 

vision of Birds, who became interested in 
jewelry creation only a few months ago. 
She won a gold cup as first prize for the 
best enameled jewelry in the novice division 
of the contest. Miss Johnson is shown here 
with both her prize-winning work and her 
award. 



SCIENTIFIC HOPE CHESTS 
FILLED ON EXPEDITION 

The idea of glamor associated in the 
public's mind with a museum collector's 
work in the field — safaris hunting big game, 
archaeologists digging up treasures of an- 
cient times, and paleontologists unearthing 
skeletons of huge dinosaurs — is often refuted 
by the facts of the manner in which much 
serious scientific collecting is actually 
accomplished. 

For example, Bryan Patterson, Curator of 
Fossil Mammals, and Orville L. Gilpin, 
Chief Preparator of Fossils, have just re- 
turned to the Museum from a two months' 
field trip to northern Texas with the seem- 
ingly drab acquisition of nothing but some 
wooden boxes containing about 1,000 
pounds of concentrate resulting from the 
washing and sifting of some five tons of 
sand. 

But, as experience in previous collections 
from the same locality has shown, when the 
crated concentrate is further sifted in the 
Museum laboratories, it may be expected 
to yield important microscopic specimens of 
tiny fossil vertebrates of early Cretaceous 
age. And this prospect is as exciting and 
satisfying to Patterson and Gilpin as would 



be truckloads of gigantic specimens of Ty- 
rannosaurus and mastodons — in fact, more 
so, since the facts about the large fossil 
creatures are pretty well known, whereas 
the scientists expect their sandboxes to 
reveal species of which little or nothing 
has been learned to date. 



EXPERT ON PHILIPPINES 
NAMED TO FELLOWSHIP 

E. D. Hester, who served the United 
States government for years in various 
official capacities in the Philippine Islands, 
is the first appointee to the Museum's 
recently established Thomas J. Dee Fellow- 
ship, in Anthropology. The late Mr. Dee, 
a Museum Contributor, founded the fellow- 
ship fund to make possible important and 
highly specialized research projects. 

Mr. Hester's assignment in the Museum 
under the fellowship involves the planning 
and supervision of work pertaining to the 
movement, checking and rearrangement of 
the ethnographic collections from the Philip- 
pines, Southeast Asia and Oceania. This 
ties in with his other work in the Philippine 
Studies Program of which he is Associate 
Director. That program, established last 
year, is financed by the Carnegie Corpora- 



tion of New York, and is conducted through 
three Chicago institutions: the University 
of Chicago, Newberry Library (Ayer Col- 
lection), and Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum. The Oceanic, Malaysian, and Indo- 
nesian collections will be housed in a new 
storeroom of modern design now nearing 
completion in former Hall H. The project, 
which is aimed at achieving the maximum 
efficiency in the handling, preservation, and 
study of the collections, is being materially 
aided by generous grants from the Wenner- 
Gren Foundation for Anthropological Re- 
search and the Philippine Studies Program. 
Mr. Hester's government service in the 
Philippines covered a span of thirty years 
during which he was economic adviser to 
governors-general, high commissioners and 
(since granting of independence to the 
Philippines in 1946) to American ambas- 
sadors. During his stay in the islands he 
traveled widely, and was associated with the 
eminent archaeologist H. Otiey Beyer (an 
Honorary Member of this Museum). Over 
a period of fifteen years Mr. Hester as- 
sembled a noteworthy collection of Chinese 
ceramics recovered from Philippine burial 
sites and caves. This collection, numbering 
more than 800 items, is now on deposit in 
the Museum. 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 




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Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



August, 195U 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: W Abash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armovtr Samiiel Insull, Jr. 

Sewell L. Avery Henry P. Ishah 

Wm. McCoRHiCK Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Seable 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 
John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Samuel Insull, Jr Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Karl P. Schmidt Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Barbara Polikoff 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptljr of changes of address. 



BRASS BAND SALUTES 
SCIENTIST AT WORK 

By GEORGE LANGFORD 
curator of fossil plants 

ANYONE who has spent much of his 
life in the pursuit of natural-history 
material amasses a rich variety of ex- 
periences, ranging from the comical to the 
dramatic and even dangerous. I have had 
my share of those, and the most amusing 
one seems well worth the telling. 

In the winter of 1901-2, the late John 
Bamford, a farmer residing near White- 
willow in the southeastern comer of Ken- 
dall County, Illinois, decided to convert a 
boggy spring in his pasture into an open 
well for stock. At a depth of about five 
feet he began to find bones in abundance, 
including many of the American mastodon. 
With the aid of enthusiastic neighbors, all 
as inexperienced as he in handling such 
material, a great quantity of bones was 
excavated, much of it irreparably ruined by 
rough handling. Further, since interest of 
the unskilled excavators naturally centered 
on the larger mastodon bones, remains of 
smaller animals were for the most part 
simply thrown into the dump. 

Under the delusion, unfortunately rather 
common, that the material was immensely 
valuable, Bamford declined to co-operate 



with any scientific institution, deciding in- 
stead to make a small fortune by exhibiting 
the bones for a fee at his farm and at county 
fairs. This he tried for several years, the 
expected fortune failing to materialize and 
the specimens suffering further damage. 

My own connection with this discovery 
dates from 1910. By that time the local 
excitement had long since died down and 
Bamford had ceased his exhibiting. On my 
first visit to his farm, I found him away 
for a two-week absence. His wife was on 
the premises, however, and it did not take 
me long to learn that she had become 
thoroughly tired of the bones, which so filled 
her cellar that access to it from the kitchen 
was blocked. Permission to make an exami- 
nation was readily granted. 

A DIPLOMATIC MISSION 

The only way to the cellar was through a 
hole under the front porch, through which 
I had to crawl on hands and knees. The 
cellar was packed to the ceiling with ver- 
tebrae and limb bones, jaws, teeth, and 
tusks. On emerging I began the delicate 
task of obtaining permission to remove the 
material. Mrs. Bamford demurred at first, 
but finally consented after I had agreed to 
give the bones the best of care and to 
acknowledge her husband as the lawful 
owner. 

Thinking it best to move rapidly lest 
there be a change of heart, I set about 
preparing to take the first load then and 
there. This proved to be no small under- 
taking in my open-top automobile of 1910 
vintage. I had, of course, no packing 
material with me and was forced to do the 
best I could with long grass pulled from a 
field near by. When I had placed everything 
aboard that could safely be carried, the pile 
of bones in the back of the automobile ex- 
tended a good three feet above the top of 
my head. After a difficult sixteen miles 
over black dirt roads I finally reached the 
west side of Joliet, the town in which I 
then lived. I thought my troubles were 
about over, but in reality they were just be- 




-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



The Hopi Indian weaver on this 
month's cover is one of a family 
group in the life-size model room 
of a Hopi apartment-house on ex- 
hibition in Hall 7. The exhibit 
has recently been reinstalled, as 
have many others in the hall. 
Among them is an Antelope altar 
of the type that members of the 
Antelope Secret Society build 
during their annual Snake-An- 
telope ceremonial. An article 
about this ceremonial appears on 
page 3. 



WHITEWILLOW MASTODON TUSK 
Photo made in 1912 of Curator George Langford 
with specimen found on farm in Kendall County. 
Illinois. The tusk is about 9 feet long measured 
along the triple curves from base to tip. and is now 
in the collections of the Museum. 



ginning. My office was on the east side of 
town, and much was to happen before I got 
there. Heads turned as I went by, and first 
one person, then another, and yet another 
began to follow me, all keeping up without 
difficulty since I had to drive as slowly as 
possible to avoid jolting the fragile cargo. 
Nothing grows like a crowd. Within a 
few blocks I was completely surrounded and 
could move neither forward nor backward. 
This attracted one policemen after another 
until no less than six had gathered. With 
this reinforcement, the way was cleared and 
the procession resumed, police in the van, 
the load of bones in the place of honor, and 
the crowd bringing up the flanks and rear. 

BAND JOINS PROCESSION 

Only one thing was lacking, and this was 
soon supplied. As we neared the Township 
High School, we encountered the band en- 
gaged in marching practice. The boys took 
in the situation at a glance, wheeled into 
line at our front and struck up a lively 
march. Like a circus parade we passed 
through the center of town and onto the 
east side, where we finally reached my office 
and unloaded the bones. 

Four more trips were required to complete 
the transfer, but these were uneventful. 
With the bones adequately packed and 
covered by a tarpaulin, I was able to sneak 
through town without attracting attention. 
There was, to be sure, an interesting inter- 
view a few days later when Bamford ap- 
peared with fire in his eye, but I succeeded 
in mollifying him, and his collection passed 
into my possession and, later, into that of 
Chicago Natural History Museum. 

With the subsequent donation of a second 
smaller collection from the same place made 
by the late Judge George Bedford of Morris, 
Illinois, one of the original excavators in 
1902, the Museum acquired nearly all speci- 
mens that had been salvaged from this 
interesting discovery. The American mas- 
todon is represented by remains of at least 
nine individuals ranging in age from calves 
to adults. Other animals encountered in- 
clude the musk sheep, Virginia deer, wapiti, 
an extinct type of moose, and bison. 



August, 195i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 3 



HOPIS RISK VENOM OF SNAKES EN RITUAL TO END DROUGHT 



By BARBARA POLIKOFF 

THE THREE ROCKY MESAS in 
northern Arizona that hold upon their 
summits eight villages comprising the home 
of the Hopi Indians are inhospitable to the 
civilization of man. Only through ingenuity 
and consummate patience have the Hopis 
managed to coax from this barren land the 
crops upon which their precarious economy 
depends. So it is with solemnity that the 
Hopis will observe this month, as they have 
for the sun-drenched Augusts of many 
centuries gone by, their Snake-Antelope 
ceremonial in which they petition the gods 
to visit their desert-lands with rain. 



factors, however, which he [the priest] can 
comprehend and these are always on his 
lips when an explanation of the ritual is 
solicited. 'We cling to the rites of our 
ancestors because they have been pro- 
nounced good by those who know. We 
erect altars, sing our traditional songs and 
celebrate our sacred dances for rain that 
our corn may germinate and yield abundant 
harvest.'" 

LIVE SNAKES AT CLIMAX 

The Snake-Antelope ceremonial has 
achieved a special fame because of its 
climax — the Snake Dance — in which the 




Drawing by Wendell Hall 



SNAKE DANCERS OF THE HOPI TRIBE IN ARIZONA 



This ceremony occurs annually in one or 
more villages (but only every second year in 
any one village). A priest sets the exact date 
on the basis of astronomical observations. 
Most of these rites, which last nine days, 
are witnessed only by members of the Snake 
and Antelope societies who participate in 
them, except for rare instances when scien- 
tific observers have been able to befriend 
the Hopis and gain admittance into the 
underground ceremonial chambers (kivas). 
(An Antelope altar from such a kiva is on 
exhibition in Hall 7 of the Museum.) 

Although each of the five villages that 
hold the ceremonial has its own variation 
of the many rituals that take place, a basic 
pattern of altar-building, sandpainting, 
smoking, singing, praying, acts of purifica- 
tion, etc., is common to all. So elaborate 
and complex are these rites that not even 
the Chief Snake Priest or Chief Antelope 
Priest knows what every one of them means. 

As J. Walter Fewkes, one of the anthro- 
pologists who gained entrance to the kivas, 
commented: "There are two fundamental 



Hopi Snake Priests dance with live snakes, 
which they regard as sacred messengers to 
the gods of the underworld. About one- 
third of these snakes are poisonous. The 
dance is performed in the plaza of the village 
and can be witnessed by spectators, most of 
whom are neighboring Navahos and vaca- 
tionists. 

Preparation for the dance begins on the 
fourth day of the ceremonial, the first three 
being taken up with rites in the kivas, when 
the priests start out on the ritualistic snake 
hunt. Each day of the next four days the 
priests hunt snakes in a different "world- 
quarter" or cardinal direction, always 
following the sequence of north the first 
day, west the second, south the third, and 
east the fourth. They pursue their search 
with great intensity, and at least one anthro- 
pologist who wanted to witness the catching 
of a snake, for the sake of science and his 
own curiosity, had to give up the chase 
and drop behind. 

As Dr. Laurence M. Klauber, herpe- 
tologist of San Diego, reports, three kinds 



of snakes are caught: the poisonous prairie 
rattlesnake and the nonpoisonous Great Basin • 
striped racer and Arizona gopher snake. 
If the priests are unsuccessful in catching 
enough snakes — about fifty to seventy-five 
are used in the ceremony — the hunt may 
be prolonged for an extra day or two, the 
searchers then being free to hunt in any 
direction they wish. 

At noon of the ninth day the snake- 
washing or "baptism" takes place with 
great secrecy in the kivas. This rite, the 
significance of which has never been com- 
pletely explained, consists mainly in passing 
the snakes through a solution of yucca suds 
that have been consecrated in a previous 
ritual. After a snake is "washed" it is 
dropped on a field of sand to dry and allowed 
to crawl freely for as long as two hours. 
Young boys with snake wands herd the 
snakes — most of which show no respect for 
the boundaries within which they are 
supposed to stay — back into the field of 
sand. 

At sundown before the dance the snakes 
are placed in bags in the kisi, a shelter of 
Cottonwood branches that is put up much 
in the shape of a teepee in the center of the 
village plaza. The entrance to the kisi is 
closed off with a cloth. It is through this 
opening that the dancers receive the snakes 
from a priest who secretes himself within. 
In front of the shelter is a hollow, covered 
by a board, that represents the sipapu or 
sacred hole from which the Hopis believe 
life first emerged from the underworld. 

PRIESTS GO INTO DANCE 

By the time the dance is ready to begin, 
Hopi rooftops and doorways are filled with 
spectators whom the Hopis usually tolerate 
more than they welcome. The dance begins 
when the Antelope Priests enter the plaza. 
Dressed in loin cloths, their bodies streaked 
with white paint, rattles of tortoise shell 
tied to their knees, chanting and whirling 
their bull-roarers, they make a circuit of 
the area in a shuflling kind of dance. As 
they pass the sipapu they stamp on it to 
notify the gods that the dance has begun. 
After making four circuits of the plaza they 
line up in single rows on each side of the 
kisi, keeping up a continuous chanting and 
rattling. 

The Snake Priests then enter and dance 
around the area much as the Antelope 
Priests did. After circling the plaza four 
times they break off into groups of three. 
One of the men of each trio, the carrier, 
dances away from his partners and ap- 
proaches the kisi. Stooping over, he reaches 
into the opening and is handed a snake, 
which he places in his mouth, holding it 
with his lips and teeth about six inches to a 
foot behind its head. The second man of 
the trio puts his hand on the right shoulder 
{Continued on page 5, column 2) 



Page i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



August, 195 U 



'FINGERPRINT' CLUES IN THE QUEST FOR OIL 



By EUGENE S. RICHARDSON, Jr. 

CURATOR OF FOSSIL INVERTEBRATES 

FOSSIL INVERTEBRATES and plants 
fill fifty-three exhibition cases in Fred- 
erick J.V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37), but only one 
of these cases indicates that fossils have 
any economic importance. It should not 
be deduced from this, however, that fossils 
sre unimportant to the world of commerce. 



water trickles into a settling pond made for 
the purpose by a bulldozer, and there the 
mineral fragments are allowed to come to 
rest before the clear water is restored to the 
nearest natural stream. 

THOUSANDS BROUGHT UP 

Any fossils of good size in the ground-up 
rock are, of course, completely ruined by 




FOSSILS AID THE SEARCH FOR OIL 

TINY FORAHINIFERA GUIDE THE 
DRILLER TO OIL-BEARINC ROCKS 



% 



(^ 



^ i 






\^ 



•. 



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I 



I 






EXHIBIT IN FREDERICK J. V. SKIFF HALL OF INVERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY 



On a small scale, fossils are occasional 
items of sale, and a handful of dealers in 
many parts of the world maintain a suc- 
cessful trade in these recondite objects. 
But the vital importance of the minute 
fossil invertebrates lies in the mute but 
active role they play in one of our biggest 
industries — the oil business. Every day the 
churning drill-bits sunk into oil wells grind 
their way down into the earth's crust be- 
neath Texas, Saudi Arabia, Alberta, and 
many other oil-yielding terrains. When the 
heavy steel-tipped drills grind away as far 
as three miles underground, a current of 
muddy water circulating through the hole 
cools the bit and at the same time flushes 
to the ground surface the pieces of rock 
broken in the process. Usually this muddy 



such severe methods, but nevertheless thou- 
sands of fossils do manage to escape and to 
come up with the mud. These are the so- 
called microfossils — the tiny fossils so small 
that they must be studied with a microscope. 
They escape the destructive action of the 
drill in the same way that an ant escapes 
being crushed on rough ground by the shoe 
of a passer-by: being smaller than the frag- 
ments of rock, they are hidden behind them 
and are thus protected. 

Having been knocked out of the enclosing 
sand or shale or other rock in which they 
were imbedded millions of years ago when 
the rock was being deposited under a 
vanished sea, the little fossils are flushed to 
the surface with the debris of their former 
hiding place. Once arrived at the surface. 



they are immediately put to work. Before 
the muddy water gets to the settling pond, 
a geologist pounces on it and scoops up a 
handful of sediment. While far below him 
the drill is still pounding away, the geologist 
sets to work to examine his prize. First he 
dries it, often by the fire of the very forge 
that keeps the driller's tools sharp; then he 
spreads it in a thin layer on a sheet of paper 
under a stereoscopic microscope. The tiny 
fossils show up clearly among the sand 
grains in his field of view, and if he has 
become familiar with the micro-fossils of his 
particular oil field, the geologist can readily 
recognize them by name. 

But recognizing the microfossils by name 
is only the beginning, for the geologist is a 
practical oil man and is not employed to 
make an interesting fossil collection. The 
oil company has hired him to keep a record 
of the slants, folds and taperings of the beds 
under the surface, so that he may guide the 
driller in approaching the oil they hope to 
strike. If oil has been found at a depth of 
10,528 feet in a certain well, it unfortunately 
does not follow that the "black gold" will 
also be found at that same depth in a new 
well half a mile away. Oil-bearing beds are 
subject to the same earth forces that produce 
folded or faulted mountain ranges, and they 
also exhibit changes in texture from place 
to place, according to the conditions under 
which they were deposited. Thus the second 
well might encounter the same bed that pro- 
duced oil in the first well, but in the second 
location the bed might be non-porous. In 
that case the driller, not yet having found 
the oil he was seeking, would keep right on 
drilling, at a prodigious cost per foot, unless 
the geologist told him to give up and try 
another location. Or the driller might find 
that he had passed the 10,528-foot depth 
without finding oil, and would want to 
abandon the well. The geologist might 
then tell him to keep on drilling because the 
oil level was yet to come. 

LIKE FINGERPRINT CLUiS 

All of this determination from subter- 
ranean clues of the course that should be 
followed is possible because geologists have 
long recognized that each bed of sedimentary 
rock is characterized by a special assemblage 
of fossils which are often as unmistakable 
and tale-telling as a fingerprint in detective 
work. In the exhibit illustrating the im- 
portance of fossils in the search for oil, 
enlarged models of microscopic fossils show 
a few of the species commonly found in 
certain beds beneath the surface of the Gulf 
Coast. These make it apparent that a 
trained observer can recognize a sample 
before him as having come from, for ex- 
ample, the Yegua formation rather than the 
overlying Caddell formation or the under- 
lying Cook Mountain formation. 

The fossils shown in this exhibit are 
Foraminifera (forams), the most important 



August, 195 It 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



of the micro fossils; a few other kinds are 
shown under a small magnifying glass in 
the lower right comer of the case. Fora- 
minifera are one-celled animals related to 
the amoebas and paramecia commonly 
demonstrated in pond-water samples in 
elementary biology courses. But the Fora- 
minifera are fancier than these more familar 
forms, for they have little shells of varied 
shape, built of a succession of tiny chambers, 
each larger than the last, and often highly 
ornamented, though the entire shell is no 
larger than the head of a pin. 

With such a variety of form, it is easy to 
recognize many different species of Fora- 
minifera, but even so, no one could be 
expected to be familar with all of them by 
sight. The standard reference catalogue of 
the Foraminifera fills a bookshelf all by itself 
— it consists of forty large volumes of more 
than 1,000 pages each, with a different 
species of Foraminifera on each page. 

CERTAIN SPECIES PROVIDE KEY 

Therefore the geologist at the well is not 
expected to know and record the entire 
fauna of each bed of rock penetrated in the 
drilling. He is there to watch for certain 
key beds, such as the one just above the 
oil, the oil-bearing bed itself, and the one 
just below it; he has primed himself on the 
fossils to be expected in those beds. So, in 
addition to the sample that the geologist at 
the well examines, the driller puts a sample 
of the mud in a little cotton bag from time 
to time, and these samples are sent to the 
company laboratory. Actually, the best 
samples are not taken from the "soup" that 
spills from the mouth of the hole during the 




drilling, but are taken by bailing when the 
drill stops periodically for sharpening. 
There is danger of contamination of the 
sample in the muddy water rising along the 
side of the well; fossils from higher levels 
are often swept along with those from the 
bottom. But the bailer takes the fossil- 
bearing debris only from the bottom of the 
well, where the fossils are in their natural 
level of occurrence. 

Because of the importance to the industry 
of these guide fossils, it is natural that the 
largest collections of Foraminifera should 
be in oil company laboratories, where they 
are constantly used for reference with the 
new ones sent in daily. A general museum, 
such as Chicago Natural History Museum, 
does not need a large collection of these 
interesting fossils, and indeed, if we at- 
tempted to assemble one, it would be neces- 
sary to form a separate unit of the staff and 
the Library to handle them, because the 
study of Foraminifera is a subject that 
calls for specialists. 



MODELS OF MICROSCOPIC FORAMS 
These tiny fossils, almost invisible to the naked eye, 
are exhibited in enlarged models as though seen un- 
der a high-powered lens. In the illustration four 
genera are shown, about 40 times larger than life- 
size. They arc: Marginulina (upper left); Uvigerina 
(upper right); Globigerina (lower left) and Cornu- 
spira (lower right). The enlarged sculptures were 

made by Museum Artist Joseph B. Krstolich. 



HOPI SNAKE RITUAL- 

(Continued from page S) 

of the carrier and together they go through 
a dance. The hugger, as this man is called, 
intermittently strokes with a feathered wand 
the snake dangling from the carrier's mouth. 
Supposedly this stroking soothes the snake 
and serves to dissuade it from any designs 
it may have on the carrier. 

After the snake is properly danced the 
priest drops it from his mouth to the ground 
and returns to the kisi for another. The 
third man of the trio — the gatherer — picks 
up the snake in a very leisurely fashion, 
letting it crawl freely for a few seconds 
before he quells the growing fears of the 
audience by capturing it. When a gatherer 
has accumulated a number of snakes he 
hands several of them to an Antelope Priest, 
holding as many as he can himself. 

After the priests have danced with all of 
the snakes, a circle is drawn on the ground 
and the men holding the snakes drop them 
in a pile within the circle's boundaries. 
Then, as the snakes are beginning to un- 
tangle themselves from their fellow creatures 
and crawl for freedom, the Snake Priests 
rush toward the circle, gathering in their 
hands as many snakes as they can hold. 
With the snakes in their hands they run 
from the plaza, streaking across the mesa to 
the plains below. Here they release the 
snakes, entrusting them to carry to the gods 
their prayers for rain. 

Although this is the end of the dance as 
far as the spectators are concerned the Hopis 
have still another rite to perform. The 
priests remove all their ceremonial garb and 
gather at the edge of the mesa. Here they 
are met by women who bring a medicine 
brewed in great secrecy. The priests drink 
the medicine, which acts as an emetic and 



which some people say, erroneously, rids 
them of snake poison. After this rite, which 
they perform with painful thoroughness, 
they are ready for the less solemn part of 
the ceremonial — a four-day feast in which 
all Hopis take part. 

IMMUNITY A MYSTERY 

As the Hopis prepare for their festivities 
the spectators wind their way out of the 
village to their cars or camps or, if they 
are Navahos, to their neighboring settle- 
ments, the sight of the strange dance still 
fresh in their minds. Many undoubtedly 
will try to fathom how the Hopis handle 
the poisonous snakes with apparent im- 
munity, the reported instances of snake-bite 
among the priests being exceedingly few. 

Many theories have been advanced to 
explain this phenomenon, some by experts 
and others by laymen. Dr. Klauber made 
an extensive study of the Snake Dance, in 
which he cited as many as twenty-nine of 
these theories. Many of them were fan- 
tastic, based either on wrong facts or super- 
stitions, such as the theory that the priests 
have a hypnotic power over the snakes akin 
to the power said to be possessed by the 
snake-charmers of India, or the idea held 
by some observers that the priests cover 
their bodies with an invulnerable prepara- 
tion, as, for instance, a thick paint. 
Klauber's own conclusion is that the snakes 
are milked of their venom or allowed to 
strike so many objects in the kiva that there 
is little poison left with which they could 
harm their handlers. 

Another theory believed valid by some 
herpetologists is that the rattlers have been 
defanged, either in the kiva or when they 
are caught. Charles Bogert, Curator of Rep- 
tiles at the American Museum of Natural 
History, managed to catch a rattler after it 
was released by a priest. After studying 
the snake, Bogert reported that both its 
functional and reserve fangs had been cut 
out with a sharp instrument. But only 
one such snake has been found. Whether 
the Hopis of this village remove the fangs of 
most or all of the rattlers used in the 
ceremonial, whether this practice is fairly 
recent, or whether other villages engage in 
it is not known. One can only speculate un- 
less more evidence becomes available. 

Only the Hopis do not ask questions. 
While the scientific observers take notes 
and ruminate upon their observations, the 
Hopis enact their nine-day ritual of faith. 
Resisting all attempts of local townspeople 
to make a commercial venture out of their 
ceremonial and resentful of any phony imi- 
tation of their dance, they simply watch 
the wide heavens above their villages. If 
the gods take heed of their prayers, rain will 
fall, and life will go on for another year in 
the villages where they have managed to 
build a culture that, like the desert that is 
its home, has weathered the passage of 
centuries. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



August, 195i 



FRESHWATER JELLYFISH 

SENSATION DEFLATED 

An extraordinary being, a freshwater 
jellyfish, was recently discovered in Maple 
Lake, Palos Park, Illinois, according to 
newspaper reports. Contrary to the press 
accounts, however, this little animal is not 
very rare, for it has been repeatedly found 
both in Illinois and in neighboring Indiana 
as well as in other states. In Europe, it 
has been reported from many places, and 
is found in rivers, ponds, hot-house tanks. 




FRESHWATER JELLYFISH 

Specimen of Craspedacusta sowerbyi obtained by a 

Museum collecting party near Blootnington, Indiana. 

It was found in an abandoned limestone quarry in 

which about ten feet of water had accumulated. 

and so on. Originally, this strange creature 
had been discovered in Lake Tanganyika 
in Central Africa and, later, among other 
localities, in the Yang-tze River in China. 
It has since been introduced, by means 
still unknown, to almost all countries, and 
it thrives everywhere, although only during 
the hottest season. At that time of the 
year, the sexual individuals, i.e., the jellyfish 
in its floating phase, develop from an asexual 
stage, called a polyp, a being so tiny that 
it is usually overlooked. When the young, 
free-swimming jellyfish detach themselves 
from this polyp, they are only about one- 
sixteenth of an inch in diameter. Gradually, 
in the warmed-up water of their habitat, 
they grow and, when fully mature sexually, 
they may attain a diameter of almost one 
inch. Their life-span is short, and they 
soon disappear after they have reached 
their maximal size. 



Saturdays and Sundays tours will be 
omitted. 

Except on Thursdays, the morning tours 
will be devoted to the exhibits in one 
specific department. The afternoon tours 
(and Thursday morning) will be compre- 
hensive in scope, touching on outstanding 
exhibits in all departments. Following is 
the schedule that will be followed weekly: 

Mondays: 11 a.m. — The World of Plants 
2 P.M. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Tuesdays: 11 a.m. — Records from the 
Rocks 
2 P.M. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Wednesdays: 11 a.m. — Animals Around the 
World 
2 P.M. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Thursdays: 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. — Highlights 
of the Exhibits 

Fridays: 11 a.m. — People and Places 
2 p.m. — Highlights of the Exhibits 



Books 



Two Lecture Tours Daily 
Offered in August 

During August, lecture tours of Mu- 
seum exhibits will be offered in both the 
mornings and the afternoons of weekdays, 
Mondays through Fridays inclusive; on 



(The book reviewed helow is available by 
mail order through The Book Shop of the 
Museum. Remittance should accompany 
order; price quoted includes postage.) 

JOURNAL OF RESEARCHES into the 
Geology and Natural History of the 
Various Countries Visited by H. M. S. 
Beagle. By Charles Darwin. Facsimile 
reprint of the first edition. Hafner Pub- 
lishing Company, New York. xiv+615+ 
21 pages, 16 plates. Price $7.50. 

Darwin's Journal of Researches, often 
referred to under the title "A Naturalist's 
Voyage Around the World," is a work of 
extreme importance to the history of biology. 
It has long had wide distribution and wide 
popularity, through many editions, as a 
travel book. The value of the very rarely 
available first edition has risen to $100 or 
more, and the better illustrated editions 
appear to be available only at second hand. 
Thus travelers, book-lovers, historians of 
science, and scientists themselves are in- 
debted to the active mind of Dr. Franz 
Verdoorn for the choice of this volume for 
reprinting in the facsimile series "Pallas." 

The importance of Darwin's book is 
manifold. It is the most invaluable historic 
record of the impact of travel and first-hand 
observation on the unfolding mind of a 
young man who was to become one of the 
very greatest of scientists. And it remains 
a vivid book of travel, especially for its 
extended account of South American scenes, 
to which 469 of the more than 600 pages of 
text are devoted. Darwin visited Brazil, 
Uruguay, the Argentine plains, Patagonia, 
Tierra del Fuego, the wet forests of southern 



Chile, the extreme desert of the northern 
Chilean coast and the coast of Peru, and the 
extraordinary Galapagos Islands. It was 
in the Galapagos, especially, that he fell to 
speculating on the very origin of species that 
gave title to his revolutionary volume of 
1859. Darwin's curious but quite under- 
standable misinterpretation of the Fuegian 
Indians has only lately been cleared up 
(Esteban Lucas Bridges, The Uttermost Part 
of the Earth, 1949). 

Observations in the South Seas led to an 
important volume on The Structure and 
Distribution of Coral Reefs, a subject that 
continues to occupy geologists and physiog- 
raphers to the present day. The glimpses 
of the colonies of New Zealand and Australia 
more than a century ago are of especial 
interest, as is his account of his own reactions 
to the slave-holding society of Brazil. 

The perspective of time has increased 
rather than lessened the importance of 
Charles Darwin in the history of biology. 
In recent years two important additions 
have been made to the understanding of the 
growth of his ideas during the voyage of the 
Beagle. These are the publication in 1933 
of the diary kept by Darwin on the voyage 
and the appearance of a volume of extracts 
from his notebooks and from family letters 
written by him during his absence, published 
by his granddaughter, Nora Barlow, in 1946. 
The facsimile of the first edition now made 
available completes this series from note- 
books to diary to the complete Journal. 

It has been the good fortune of a number 
of members of the staff of Chicago Natural 
History Museum to travel on Darwin's 
trail in Uruguay, in Tierra del Fuego, on 
Chiloe Island, in the Galapagos, and on 
Tahiti. Our observations and collections 
from these regions were to amplify and 
extend the work that grew out of Darwin's 
pioneer collecting and to bring a representa- 
tion of the fossils and of the animal species 
collected by Darwin to this Museum. With 
the Journal of Researches at hand, the 
earlier presence of the young Darwin lent 
a romantic glamor to these regions. 

We can all attest to the value of Darwin's 
advice on the last pages of the Journal: "In 
conclusion, it appears to me that nothing 
can be more improving to a young naturalist, 
than a journey to distant countries. It both 
sharpens, and partly likewise allays that 
want and craving, which ... a man experi- 
ences although every corporeal sense is fully 
satisfied. The excitement from the novelty 
of objects, and the chance of success, stimu- 
late him to increased activity. Moreover 
as a number of isolated facts soon become 
uninteresting, the habit of comparison leads 
to generalization. ... I have too deeply 
enjoyed the voyage, not to recommend any 
naturalist ... to take any chances, and to 
start, on travels by land, if possible, if 
otherwise on a long voyage." 

Karl P. Schmidt 
Chief Curator of Zoology 



August, 195U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



PAWNEE CONCEPT OF ETERNITY: 'SOUL VILLAGES' IN SKY 



By GEORGE I. QUI MB Y 

CURATOR OF NORTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 
AND ETHNOLOGY 

JUST WHAT is the religion of an Ameri- 
can Indian tribe like? To what extent 
does it parallel the better-known and more 
formalized religions of the world? 

A unique example is that of the Pawnee, 
many of whose religious concepts are por- 
trayed visually in a Museum exhibit entitled 
"Pawnee Ideas of Life After Death." This 



lodges each of which housed a large family 
and relatives related through the female 
line. In their prairie and river valley en- 
vironment, the Pawnee made their- living 
by farming and hunting the buffalo. Crops 
raised were corn, beans and squash. 

Pawnee religious concepts were relatively 
elaborate. They deified the cosmic forces 
and the heavenly bodies. Their supreme 
power was called Tirawa, and the heavenly 
bodies, the winds, thunder, lightning, and 



The Pawnee believed in life after death, 
but life after death was not the same for 
everybody. For instance, the souls of chiefs 
and priests were believed to travel along a 
pathway of flowers to a special soul village 
in the sky whereas the souls of ordinary 
people followed the milky way to the abode 
of the South Star Goddess. The souls of 
medicine men were believed to wander over 
the hills to their special soul village in the 
sky. Warriors, too, had their special soul 




PAWNEE INDIANS' IDEAS OF LIFE AFTER DEATH SUMMARIZED IN EXHIBIT BY MUSEUM ARTIST GUSTAF DALSTROM 



graphic outline of what the Indians believed 
may be seen in Case No. 52 in the east half 
of Mary D. Sturges Hall (Hall 5). 

The Pawnee Indians formerly lived in a 
number of towns along the Loupe and Platte 
Rivers in Nebraska. In the early 19th 
century there were more than 10,000 Pawnee 
living in villages of large earth-covered 



rain were his messengers. All of the deities 
and supernatural forces were propitiated by 
rituals and ceremonies that were directed 
by members of the Pawnee priesthoods. 
By means of these rituals and ceremonies 
the supernatural powers were believed to 
endow the Pawnee with food, long life, and 
prosperity. 



village in another part of the heavens. 

The soul of the maiden sacrificed for the 
well-being of the Pawnee in the Morning 
Star ceremony was believed to become one 
of the wives of the Morning Star God. 
However, Pawnee priests failing to fulfill 
properly the sacrifice to the Morning Star 
God became burning flint under his feet. 



Technical Publications 

The following technical publications were 
issued recently by Chicago Natural History 
Museum: 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 23. 5ome 
Mammals of Yemen and Their Ectopara- 
sites. By Colin Campbell Sanborn and 
Harry Hoogstraal. 24 pages. $.35 



Fieldiana: Anthropology, Vol. 41. Saipan, 
The Ethnology of a War-Devastated Island. 
By Alexander Spoehr. February 11, 
1954. 384 pages. $5. 

Fieldiana: Geology, Vol. 10, No. 16. Fresh- 
water Limestone from the Torola Valley, 
Northeastern El Salvador. By Sharat 
K. Roy and Robert K. Wyant. $.50 



Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 36, No. 1. The 
Social Feeding Behavior of Birds. By 
Austin L. Rand. March 10, 1954. 72 
pages. $1. 

Fieldiana: Anthropology, Vol. 42. Caves of 
the Reserve Area, New Mexico. By Paul 
S. Martin, John B. Rinaldo, Elaine 
Bluhm. June 11, 1954. 228 pages. $5. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



August, 195i 



CHIEF CURATOR ROY BACK 

FROM VOLCANO STUDIES 

Bringing specimens of volcanic products 
from Izalco, one of the world's most active 
volcanoes, and important data resulting 
from his observations, Dr. Sharat K. Roy, 
Chief Curator of Geology, has returned to 
the Museum from an expedition to El 
Salvador. He had been in the field since 
March, and made collections also at four 
other major volcanoes. Volcan Izalco has 
been erupting ever since it was bom in 1770 
and has discharged more lava than any 
other volcano of its kind and age. It has 
built itself up to a height of about 6,000 feet. 
Chief Curator Roy climbed this volcano on 
a previous expedition in August, 195L At 
the present time Izalco is erupting every 
three to five minutes, often so violently 
that it would be suicidal to attempt to 
reach the crater. 



5 snakes, Java, Borneo, Sumatra, and 11 
fishes, Indonesia, Nunukan; Museo Nacional 
de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile — 13 
frogs 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received recently: 

Department of Anthropology; 

From: Byron Harvey III, Chicago — dance 
kilt (Jemez), New Mexico 

Department o£ Botany: 

From: Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia — seeds of Scrophulariaceae; 
Holly R. Bennett, Chicago — 462 phanero- 
gams, Illinois and Indiana; Dr. Henry Field, 
Coconut Grove, Fla. — 109 phanerogams; 
Florists Publishing Co., Chicago — Hedera 
canariensis var. Canary Cream; Harvard 
University — 14 plants, Colombia; Byron 
Harvey III, Chicago — Knautia arvensis. 
New York; Institute Botanico, Caracas, 
Venezuela — Ilex; Morton Arboretiun, Lisle, 
111. — Vincetoxicum officinale; New York 
Botanical Garden — seeds of Scrophularia- 
ceae; Dr. J. W. Thieret, Chicago — 43 plants, 
Cuba and Chicago; U. S. National Museum, 
Washington, D. C. — seeds of Scrophularia- 
ceae 

Department o£ Geology: 

From: Dan Kreutzer, Chicago, and John 
Cutler, Cincinnati — slab and 6 specimens 
of Glyptocrinus dyeri, Dent, Ohio 

Department of Zoology: 

From: Chicago Academy of Sciences — 
paratypes of mites; Chicago Zoological 
Society, Brookfield, 111. — Siberian tiger and 
mata-mata turtle; William J. Gerhard, 
Chicago — collection of Hemiptera, chiefly 
North American, and 319 bees and wasps; 
Dr. W. D. Klimstra, Carbondale, 111.— 
dorsal spine of fish; Mrs. Arthur McElhose, 
Arlington Heights, 111. — 4 worm-lizards; 
Raffles Museum and Library, Singapore — 
3 snakes, Sarawak, Malay Peninsula; Karl 
P. Schmidt, Homewood, 111. — 21 frogs and 
2 lizards, India; Dr. Jeanne S. Schwengel, 
Scarsdale, N. Y. — collection of land shells, 
Cuba; Bernard Sugerman, Santurce, Puerto 
Rico — 100 insects, Philippines; Laura Bro- 
die, Chicago — snake (Natrix), South Caro- 
lina; Roland von Hentig — 11 frogs, 5 lizards. 



STAFF NOTES 

Robert K. Wyant, Curator of Economic 
Geology, spent July in the iron ranges of 
Minnesota and Michigan studying the 
future economic possibilities of taconite, a 
low-grade iron ore, and collecting specimens 
for the Museum .... Dr. Austin L. Rand, 
Curator of Birds, recently made studies of 
the feeding habits of the wood ibis at the 
Florida Biological Station at Lake Placid 
and has completed a paper on the subject 
.... Miss Katharine Williams, of Holly- 
wood, Florida, a recent graduate of Rosary 
College, River Forest, Illinois, has been 
appointed Reference Librarian. She re- 
places Miss Jane Ross, who has resigned 
to teach in schools maintained for children 
of American military personnel in Germany 
.... "Identification of Trees" was the sub- 
ject of a recent lecture by Dr. Julian A. 
Steyermark, Curator of the Phanerogamic 
Herbarium, before the Barrington Natural 
History Society. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons became Museum 
Members from June 16 to July 15: 

Non-Resident Life Member 

Miss Lissa Fowler 

Associate Members 

Robert Crown, Otis L. Jones, D. P. 
Loomis, Mrs. Rollin D. Wood 

Sustaining Members 

George A. Duclos, A. J. Jacobson, Karl 
K. Minas 

Annual Members 

Dean S. Barnard, George R. Baxter, 
Leslie A. Brandt, John L. Burroughs, Dr. 
Walter W. Carroll, Harry J. Chidley, H. L. 
Curwen, F. J. Durham, Mrs. Dorothy Myl- 
rea Ebin, Fred W. Eckert, James F. Flana- 
gan, Jones B. Frankel, Charles A. Freeman, 
Jr., Mrs. Alice Goodrich, Frank D. Gorsline, 
Andre B. Hafner, Robert F. Halligan, John 
Harrington, Dr. Hyman J. Hirshfield, Jack 
Hollander, T. J. Isaacs, R. O. Ives, Arent J. 
Jacobson, Robert Kaiser, Joseph J. Kass, 
Mrs. Spencer R. Keare, Claude M. Lambe, 
Jr., Mrs. M. K. Lau, J. D. Larkin, Herbert 
A. Loeb, Jr., F. L. Majka, Edward D. Matz, 
Daniel P. McMahon, Richard L. Merrick, 
Walter B. Mills, Miss Elizabeth W. Morgan, 
Mrs. Ruth Moore, Charles F. Murphy, 
Joseph Nathan, Elmer G. Norell, Ross A. 
Norris, Lorry R. Northrup, Dr. Carl O. 
Rinder, Leonard M. Ring, Frederick Roe, 
Dr. David H. Rosenberg, Sol Sackheim, 
M. L. Shipley, Frederick J. Slater, A. 
Thomas Steele, Kari E. Stein, C. J. Stind, 
Mrs. Frank L. Sulzberger, R. S. Sustman, 
Mrs. F. Thomas, W. F. Wilmas, R. B. 
Whitaker, Albert M. Wolf, Gar W. Yates 



2 MORE MOVIE-PROGRAMS 

OFFERED FOR CHILDREN 

Two more free Thursday-morning pro- 
grams of movies for children in the Summer 
Series remain to be given in August. Each 
program will have two showings, one at 
10 A.M. and one at 11 a.m., in the James 
Simpson Theatre of the Museum. Dates 
and titles are: 

August 5 — Kangaroo LAhfD 
Also a cartoon 

August 12 — Vacation Country 

Carlsbad Caverns, Grand Canyon, 

and the Rockies 
Also a cartoon 

These entertainments are provided by the 
James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation. No tickets are required. 
Children may come alone, accompanied by 
adults, or in groups. 



PHONOGRAPH RECORDS 



MUSIC AND BIRD SONGS. Sounds 
from nature with commentary and anal- 
ysis. A phonograph record produced by 
P. P. Kellogg and James H. Fassett. 
Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, 
New York. Price $5 

With comment by James H. Fassett, 
songs and calls of ten birds and six frogs 
are reproduced on this record, first at normal 
speed, then slowed down, some as much as 
to one-eighth of normal. The effects are 
certainly different, sometimes weird, some- 
times beautiful. It was interesting to me 
to note that the rapid, tinkling, trilling song 
of the winter wren, when slowed down, re- 
called in part the slow, hollow, hooting song 
of certain Central American wrens. This 
bird and frog program was first presented 
on a radio broadcast as an intermission 
feature of a New York Philharmonic Or- 
chestra concert on May 25, 1952, and was 
so popular that parts of it were repeated, 
and now this 33 J^ r.p.m. record has been 
made. 

Bird recordings have gone forward with 
presentations such as this. We listened to 
the first recordings, marveling that they 
sounded like birds. Then we got them for 
enjoyment of the sounds of nature at home 
or as an aid in learning or teaching. An 
ecological concept, groupings by habitat, 
was the usual unity involved. Now, with 
the maturing of the idea and techniques, we 
have an attempt to make these recordings 
part of our general culture and conscious- 
ness — to take them out of the "nature- 
lover's" class and fit them into our general 
knowledge and background. 

Austin L. Rand 
Curator of Birds 

PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



Vol.25,No.9-Septemberl954 

Chicago Natural 
History Museum 





-^j 







\r^- • 



^)- 



Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



September, 195^ 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Samuel Insull, Jr. 

Sewell L. Avery Henry P. Isham 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-Presxdent 

Samuel Insull, Jr Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of ArUhropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sh ARAT K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Karl P. Schmidt Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Barbara Poukoff 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



The Strange Case of 

THE 'FLYING LOBSTER' 

By fritz HAAS 

CURATOR of lower INVERTEBRATES 

One day last month a Chicago daily 
newspaper consulted the Museum on a re- 
port that a "lobster" had been dropped 
from the sky into Waukegan, Illinois, during 
a violent rain-and-hail storm. A nature 
lover in that city was said to have made a 
test that "proved" to his satisfaction that 
the creature in question was a "salt-water 
lobster." However, the little animal that 
dropped from the sky was brought to the 
Museum where it was identified as a fresh- 
water inhabitant — a young specimen of one 
of our commonest crawfishes. It is of a 
species that abounds in our rivers, creeks, 
ponds, and even in shallow areas of Lake 
Michigan. 

This issue being cleared up, it remained 
to be determined if the crawfish really was 
dropped into the Waukegan street by a rain- 
storm. This, it must be conceded, is per- 
fectly possible because quite a few similar 
cases are known. An authentic instance is 
recorded of a multitude of fresh-water clams 
being dropped by a tornado into a town 
some miles distant from the ponds where 
the clams had lived. At least seven equally 



well documented cases of a "fish rain" have 
been reported from South Carolina and In- 
dia. Therefore there is nothing to prohibit us 
from believing that the "flying" crawfish 
may have been removed from shallow water 
somewhere near Waukegan by a strong gust 
of wind, carried through the air as long as 
the gust lasted, and dropped when the 
wind's violence lessened. 

There are other strange phenomena that 
folklore associates with rainfall, although 
they are not directly caused by it. For 
example, there is the so-called "frog rain" — 
the sudden appearance of innumerable tiny 
frogs or toads after a heavy rain. These 
animals do not rain from the sky, of course, 
but are lured out of their hiding places by 
the cool wetness following the rain. Then 
there is the "blood rain" or sudden appear- 
ance in fresh puddles of a blood-red color 
that has given rise to many superstitions. 
The red color is caused, however, by the 
quick growth of unicellular organisms, 
mostly of the microscopic alga Sphaerella 
pluvialis, after dry spots, where their spores 
were lying, have been flooded. 



STAFF ^'OTES 



John W. Meyer, who has been on leave 
of absence from the Museum for more than 
two years while serving as Consul of the 
United States in India, has returned to his 
studio here as head of the Division of Mo- 
tion Pictures. . . . Bryan Patterson, Cu- 
rator of Fossil Mammals, has left for Argen- 
tina where, under the recent grant of his 
second Guggenheim Foundation fellowship, 
he will continue a paleontological research 
project initiated several years ago .... 
D. Dwight Davis, Curator of Vertebrate 
Anatomy, has returned to the Museum 
after a six-month leave of absence during 
which he served as a visiting professor at 
California Institute of Technology in Pasa- 
dena .... Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator of 
Insects, has returned from a 10,000-mile 
field and study trip to the West. For about 
eight weeks he collected histerid beetles 
and other insects at some seventy localities 
in the Southwest, along the Pacific Coast, 
and in the Pacific Northwest. 



National Science Foundation 
Grant to Entomologist 

A National Science Foundation grant has 
been awarded to Dr. Charles H. Seevers, 
Research Associate in the Museum's Div- 
ision of Insects, to help, subsidize his studies 
on the classification of the beetles of the 
family Staphylinidae. Dr. Seevers, who is 
chairman of the department of biology at 
Roosevelt College, will spend six months 
during each of the next two years studying 
important collections both in this country 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



The statue of a woman holding 
a child and a book of learning, a 
sculpture by Henry Hering called 
"Dissemination of Knowledge," 
symbolizes one of the four prin- 
cipal purposes of the Museum. 
It is one of four statues in Stanley 
Field Hall that flank the north 
and south archways. The others 
are "Natural Science," "Re- 
search," and "Record." Hering, 
a New York sculptor, well known 
since the 1890's, was commis- 
sioned at the time of construction 
of the present building to express, 
in these heroic figures that blend 
with the architecture, the aims of 
the Museum. He is the author 
also of many monuments and 
other sculptural works that dot 
bridge pylons and buildings else- 
where in Chicago and other cities. 
This photograph was made by the 
Museum's Division of Photog- 
raphy. 



and Europe to supplement his current re- 
search on this Museum's notable Max Bern- 
hauer Collection acquired in Austria in 
1951. He will revise the generic classifica- 
tion of the largest and least-known sub- 
family, the Aleocharinae. Dr. Seevers, who 
is known best to entomologists for his 
studies on the Staphylinidae that live with 
termites, recently completed a world mono- 
graph, scheduled for publication by the 
Museum, on the classification and evolution 
of these beetles. 



Museum Aids Science on TV 

Chicago Natural History Museum fur- 
nished the "props" — anthropological speci- 
mens from various parts of the world — for 
the nationally telecast program "What in 
the World?" (CBS), originating in the 
University of Pennsylvania Museum in 
Philadelphia, on August 8. Several of the 
objects shown "stumped" the members of 
the panel, well-known scientists who by 
deductive methods attempt to identify their 
origin and purpose. 



Museum Pensioner Dies 

The death on August 18 of Valerie Le- 
gault, veteran former Museum employee, is 
recorded with regret. Mr. Legault, who 
was born in 1865, worked here from 1906 
until his retirement on pension in 1940, first 
as a carpenter and later in the N. W. Harris 
Public School Extension and the Depart- 
ment of Geology. 



September, 195i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Pages 



DISCOVERED: A POSSIBLE 
TECUMSEH PORTRAIT 

By GEORGE I. QUIMBY 

CURATOR OF NORTH AMERICAN ARCHAGOLOOY 
AND ETHNOLOGY 

THE MUSEUM'S COLLECTION of 
portraits of Indians painted more than 
one hundred years ago includes one picture 
that may be a likeness of Tecumseh, the 
famous Shawnee chief. If sufficient sub- 
stantiating data should be obtained, the 
painting would acquire historical im- 
portance, because no authenticated portrait 
of Tecumseh has ever been brought to light. 
Tecumseh, said by one historian to have 
been the most extraordinary Indian charac- 
ter in United States history, was born in 
Ohio about 1770. As a leader and statesman 
among the Indians of the frontier, he at- 
tempted to establish the principle that the 
land in the Ohio Valley and the Northwest 
Territory belonged to all of the Indian tribes 
and therefore no single tribe had the right 
to sell land or enter into land agreements 
with the governments of white men. In 
defense of this principle he tried to organize 
all of the middle-western and southern 
tribes into a great confederacy and also 
engaged in various of the border wars that 
resulted from the encroachment of white 
settlers on the Indian lands. 

DIED IN BATTLE 

At the beginning of the War of 1812, 
Tecumseh put himself and his Indian forces 
at the disposal of the British. He was 
given a regular commission as a brigadier- 
general in the British army and commanded 
some two thousand warriors of the allied 
tribes. Tecumseh died in battle on October 
5, 1813, when General William Henry 
Harrison defeated the British and Indian 
forces in southern Ontario. 

Although no true portrait of Tecumseh is 
known to exist, one generally given as such 
is a composite based on a pencil sketch made 
about 1808 (by Pierre Le Dru, a French 
trader at Vincennes). To this, about fifty 
years later, were added Tecumseh's cap, 
medal, and brigadier-general's uniform. 

The Museum's portrait, possibly of Te- 
cumseh, was included in a collection of 
paintings obtained in 1894. This collection 
also contained 35 paintings by George 
Catlin and a portrait probably by Chester 
Harding. 

All of these paintings were purchased 
from Miss Emily O'Fallon of St. Louis who 
was a grandniece of General William Clark 
and his brother. General George Rogers 
Clark. Her father. Major Benjamin O'Fal- 
lon, served for many years as Indian agent 
under his uncle, General William Clark, who 
was superintendent of Indian affairs for 
the western regions and governor of Missouri 
territory. General William Clark en- 
couraged and sponsored artists coming to 
the frontier to paint Indians and also col- 
lected paintings of Indians. So did Major 



O'Fallon. Moreover, paintings from both 
the O'Fallon and Clark households could 
have been in the collection obtained by the 
Museum from Miss Emily O'Fallon in 1894. 
Consequently, since both William and 
George Rogers Clark had fought against 
Tecumseh and would have had ample 
opportunity for contact with him and since 
William Clark was a collector of Indian 




TECUMSEH? 
An authenticated portrait o£ the extraordinary 
Shawnee chief who lived about 1770-1813 has heen 
lacking in all known American historical archives. 
However, considerable evidence indicates that the 
painting reproduced above (artist unknown), now in 
a collection at the Museum, may portray the famed 
Indian warrior and statesman. 

portraits, it is not unlikely that there would 
have been a portrait of Tecumseh in the 
Clark-O'Fallon collection. In fact, Mi.ss 
Emily O'Fallon in her correspondence with 
the Museum in 1894 stated that one of the 
portraits was of Tecumseh. However, she 
neglected to say which portrait. She also 
wrote that the work of Chester Harding 
was represented in the collection. 

Neither Catlin nor Harding could have 
painted a portrait of Tecumseh because he 
died before they became painters. With 
the Harding and Catlin paintings thus 
eliminated, the remaining painting in the 
collection must be the Tecumseh portrait 
mentioned by Miss O'Fallon. This is an oil 
painting about 23 inches wide and 28 inches 
high. It portrays an Indian wearing the 
clothing of white men. 

There are a number of points of resemb- 
lance between the subject of this portrait 
and the sketch of Tecumseh made by Pierre 
Le Dru about 1808. In short, comparison 
of the two pictures suggests that the Mu- 
seum's portrait could be of Tecumseh. Per- 
haps there will be available some day suffi- 
cient data to prove the identity of the sub- 
ject. But until that time and in accordance 
with what data are available, we can only 
say that the Museum is in possession of a 
portrait, possibly of Tecumseh, painted by 
an unidentified artist not later than 1813. 



MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 
SET FOR OCTOBER 8 

MEMBERS of the Museum are urged to 
make a notation — now — on their cal- 
endar pads or in their date books: Friday 
evening, October S^Museum Members' 
Night, 7 to 10:30. 

This annual event enables Members to 
review the current work of the staff, to see 
recently acquired collections, and to become 
better acquainted generally with the Mu- 
seum program that they are helping to 
support. 

MOVIES OF AFRICAN SAFARI 

One feature of the evening will be a 
showing in James Simpson Theatre of 
"Marsh Birds of the Upper Nile," the color 
motion-picture record of the Buchen East 
Africa Zoological Expedition, which was 
sponsored and led by Walther Buchen, a 
Museum Trustee, and Mrs. Buchen. Mr. 
Buchen in person will tell the story of the 
safari in Kenya Colony and Uganda. The 
films show the collecting of strange and mag- 
nificent birds in the great papyrus marshes 
of the White Nile River in Egypt and how 
the habitat group (which may now be seen 
in Hall 20 of the Museum) was constructed. 

The screen show and talk will begin at 
8:15 p.m. 

preview of a new exhibit 

Another feature of the evening will be 
the first showing in nearby William V. 
Kelley Hall (Asiatic Mammals, Hall 17) of 
a new exhibit of Malay tapirs. The speci- 
mens for this group were collected by an 
expedition to Siam sponsored and led by 
Rush Watkins, a Museum Contributor. 
(The exhibit will be on permanent display 
after Members' Night.) 

A few steps away, in Stanley Field Hall, 
an exhibit, especially prepared for Members' 
Night, will emphasize the nature and extent 
of the entomological research conducted by 
this Museum and co-operating institutions. 
An exhibit of graphic material will be 
flanked by selected displays of insects. 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL METHODS ILLUSTRATED 

Not far off, also in Stanley Field Hall, 
will be another special exhibit — "The Big 
Dig" — telling graphically the story of how 
archaeologists work. This display will out- 
line the history of twenty seasons of exca- 
vating conducted in Colorado and New 
Mexico by the Museum's Southwest Ar- 
chaeological Expedition under the leadership 
of Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of 
Anthropology. The methods used by the 
excavators will be demonstrated, and the 
exhibit will attempt to answer the questions 
of How, What, Where, When, and Why of 
archaeological research. 

"open house" in LABS 

One of the most popular features of all 
{Continued on page 5, column 1 ) 



Page i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



September, 195i 



MOSSES AND LIVERWORTS: 
OLD AND NEW USES 

By JOHN W. THIERET 

CURATOR OF ECONOMIC BOTANY 

IN FORMER TIMES a person settling 
down for a nap might have laid his 
head on a pillow stuflfed with certain Hyp- 
num mosses, so-called because of the belief 
that these plants would induce slumber (the 
name Hypnum comes from the Greek 
"hypnos" — sleep — from which is derived 
the English word hypnotism). Here, then, 
is just one of the many uses, some important, 
some trivial, that man has made of bryo- 
phytes — the mosses and liverworts. 

Economically, bryophytes are of slight 
value compared to the flowering plants. 
Nevertheless, some of them, particularly 
mosses, do possess some importance both as 
economic plants and as plants that often 
play a considerable role in nature. Those 
with which man is directly concerned will 
be considered here. Here, too, will be con- 
sidered only the true mosses and not the 
many other things — botanical, zoological, 
geological, historical, and literary — that bear 
the name "moss." Among the "mosses" 
that will not concern us are reindeer moss 
(a lichen), Spanish moss (a flowering plant 
related to the pineapple), moss-carder (a 
bumblebee), moss agate (a mineral), moss- 
back (in the Civil War South, a draft 
dodger). Mosses from an Old Manse (col- 
lection of tales by Hawthorne), and the 
moss that the proverbial rolling stone does 
not gather (which probably would not be 
true moss anyway). 

MEDICAL USES 

As medicinal plants, bryophytes have 
received little use. Among the liverworts, 
the cosmopolitan Marchantia polymorpha 
has been used in the treatment of pulmonary 
tuberculosis and affections of the liver — 
but what success has been achieved seems 
to be unreported. In the case of the treat- 
ment of liver ailments with Marchantia 
polymorpha is seen an illustration of the 
curious old "Doctrine of Signatures," which 
taught that the medicinal uses to which 
plants could best be put are shown by the 
shape and structure of the plants. For 
example, a plant with heart-shaped leaves 
surely could be used for heart ills. Similarly, 
Marchantia plants, because of their fancied 
resemblance to the liver, surely would be 
effective in the treatment of ailments of 
this organ. From an old herbal (1653) 
comes the following statement concerning 
Marchantia: "It is a singularly good herb 
for all diseases of the liver, both to cool and 
cleanse it, and helps the inflammations in 
any part, and the yellow jaundice likewise." 

Representatives of several moss genera 
have been listed a.s having medicinal prop- 
erties. Dried sphagnum is offered for sale 
in various herb shops in parts of China. 
The whole plant is boiled in water, and the 



decoction is said to be used to cure acute 
hemorrhage and eye diseases. A tea made 
of Polytrichum commune is purported to 
help dissolve stones of the kidney and gall 
bladder. According to various writers, peat 
tar extracted from peat possesses antiseptic 
and preservative properties. Sphagnol, a 
distillate of peat tar, is supposed to be 
authoritatively recognized as useful treat- 
ment for several skin diseases and has also 
been recommended to relieve the itching of 
insect bites and even to prevent them. The 




NEARLY 1,900 YEARS OLD 

Unfinished basket, made from the stems of hair'cap 
moss (Polytrichum commune), found in Roman 
ruins in Great Britain. (Illustration above repro- 
duced, by permission of the publisher, from James 
Curle*s "A Roman Frontier Post and Its People" 
published in Glasgow, 1911.) 

Alaska Indians make a salve, used for cuts, 
by mixing sphagnum leaves with tallow or 
other grease. 

Sphagnum has far more medical im- 
portance than other mosses, mainly because 
of its great absorbent power (it can absorb 
many times its own weight of water) and 
its slight antiseptic properties. It has long 
been used for making absorbent bandages. 
For centuries, country people in the British 
Isles have used it in the treatment of boils 
and discharging wounds. It was at least 
recommended, during the Napoleonic and 
Franco-Prussian wars, for use by army sur- 
geons. Sphagnum was first used surgically 
in a large way during the Russo-Japanese 
War when the Japanese used it extensively 
as a first-aid dressing. Indeed, it was found 
to make a better dressing than cotton. 
However, the value of sphagnum for use in 
surgery was apparently not fully appreciated 
until World War I, and by the end of the 
war the total British output of sphagnum 
dressings is estimated to have been about 
one million per month. 

In the United States, 500,000 dressings 
were prepared after American Red Cross 
approval of sphagnum dressings in March, 
1918, until the war's end in November. It 
is estimated that the use of sphagnum in 
place of cotton for dressings resulted in a 
saving, to the British, of not less than 
$200,000 per year. Perhaps equally im- 



portant was the release of scarce cotton for 
use in explosives. During the war, the 
Germans were probably more active than 
the Allies in the utilization of sphagnum. 
Certain Allied prisoners of war in Germany 
reported that part of their work was to 
gather sphagnum from bogs. In World War 
II, sphagnum was also used surgically, but 
not nearly so extensively as in World War I. 

PEAT MOSSES 

Sphagnum and certain other mosses are 
largely responsible for the formation of peat. 
In fact, some peats consist of little else 
than the compressed remains of sphagnum. 
The bog plants that contribute to the forma- 
tion of peat often include reeds, sedges, and 
rushes in addition to mosses. Generally 
these plants grow luxuriantly at the surface 
but die below and commence to decompose. 
As decomposition proceeds, the products be- 
come waterlogged and sink to the bottom 
of the bog. In time, the deposits attain 
considerable thickness, and the lower layers, 
under pressure of the overlying later deposits 
and water, are gradually compressed and 
carbonized. 

The uses of peat are generally so well 
known that brief mention of some of them 
will suffice here. The peoples of northern 
Europe have made use of peat as a fuel ever 
since that distant time when most of their 
forests were cleared away. In Canada, suc- 
cessful attempts have been made to utilize 
the peat so common there. Peat fuel seems 
never to have been successfully produced 
in the United States, although rather costly 
attempts have been made to do so — es- 
pecially after the anthracite strike of 1902-3 
when people of a large section of the country 
were made aware of their dependence on 
coal miners for a fuel supply. 

Among the numerous products derived by 
various methods from peat are charcoal, 
coke, illuminating gas, ethyl and methyl 
alcohol, ammonium sulphate, acetic acid, 
humic and allied acids, carbonic acid, 
paraffin, naphtha, pitch, montan wax, and 
lignins used in making plastics. Peat has 
been manufactured into paper, woven fab- 
rics, and artificial wood and has been used 
in millboard, with clay to make porous 
bricks, and as a material that, when burned, 
makes an excellent smoke screen against 
frost. 

In the United States, moss peat is com- 
monly utilized as an absorbing and de- 
odorizing material, as a filler or conditioner 
for concentrated mineral fertilizers, and as 
a source of organic matter for soils. Since 
it is relatively sterile it serves well as a 
packing material for the shipment of perish- 
able plant products. It has even been used 
for stock food, in mixture with molasses. 
Finely shredded moss peat and sphagnum 
are used extensively by horticulturists and 
florists as media for .seed germination, to 
start cuttings, to transplant and grow heaths 
(Continued on page 8, column 1 ) 



September, 195i. 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



MEMBERS' NIGHT- 

{Continued from page 3) 

previous Members' Nights — the "open 
house" held in the laboratories, studios, and 
offices of the scientific and technical stafifs 
on the ground, third, and fourth floors — 
will be repeated. Curators, assistants, tech- 
nicians, taxidermists, preparators, artists, 
craftsmen of varied kinds, and others in the 
four scientific departments — Anthropology, 
Botany, Geology, and Zoology — will be on 
hand to greet guests and demonstrate steps 
in the preparation of exhibits and in the 
many research projects currently under 
way. 

Museum Members and their guests may 
wander independently in these usually re- 
stricted quarters, or they may join small 
conducted tour-groups that will be as- 
sembled frequently under the guidance of 
the seven young women of the staff of James 
Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Founda- 
tion for Public School and Children's 
Lectures. 

cafeteria; special buses 

Although the Members' Night program 
does not begin until 7 p.m., the doors of the 
Museum building will be open from 6 o'clock 
on. For those who wish to dine at the 
Museum, the Cafeteria on the ground floor 
will offer its services at regular prices from 
6 to 8 P.M. 

There is ample free parking-space at the 
north of the Museum building. For those 
who do not wish to drive their cars, special 
free motor-bus service has been arranged. 
A special bus marked to indicate Museum 
shuttle-service will leave Jackson Boulevard 
at State Street at 15-minute intervals be- 
ginning at 6:30 p.m. The last bus will 
leave the Museum at 10:45 p.m. In both 
directions the bus will make an intermediate 
stop at 7th Street and Michigan Avenue. 
This transportation is free — no fares col- 
lected, no transfers required. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received recently: 

Department of Botany: 

From: Bob Becker, Chicago — 3 plants, 
Wisconsin; Holly Reed Bennett, Chicago — 
815 phanerogams, Illinois and Indiana; Dr. 
Henry Field, Coconut Grove, Fla. — 12 
cryptogams, Marco Island (Florida); Dr. 
Camillo Sbarbaro, Spotomo (Savona), Italy 
101 bryophytes 

Department of Geology: 

From: George F. Brown, Chicago — col- 
lection of rocks and minerals 

Department of Zoology: 

From: Bernard Benesh, Burrville, Tenn. 
— 126 beetles, Tennessee and Madagascar; 
Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, 111. 
— 1 crocodilian; Stanley Cole, Pente, Calif. 



— -1 purebred Alaskan malemute dog; Harry 
Hoogstraal, Cairo, Egypt — 1 hedgehog, 12 
birdskins, 17 frogs, 156 lizards, 44 snakes, 
2 turtles; Dr. James Kezer, Eugene, Ore. — 
96 salamanders; Marshall Laird, Singapore 
— 11 lots of frog larvae, Australia; Dr. D. L. 
Lichty, West Palm Beach, Fla. — pit viper, 
Okinawa Island; Charles D. Nelson, Grand 
Rapids, Mich. — turtle (Geoemyda), Hon- 
duras; Dr. Otto Schubart, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 
— fresh-water shells; Gordon Thurow, 
Bloomington, Ind. — 4 salamanders; U. S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Pascagoula, Miss. 
— collection of marine invertebrates, 319 
fish specimens, Gulf of Mexico; Mrs. J. P. 
Watson, Chicago — lower jaw of fish, Beth- 
any Beach, Del. 



Daily Guide Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered 
daily except Sundays under the title 
"Highlights of the Exhibits." These tours 
are designed to give a general idea of the 
entire Museum and its scope of activities. 
They begin at 2 p.m. on Monday through 
Friday and at 2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available Mon- 
days through Fridays for parties of ten or 
more persons. Requests for such service 
must be made at least one week in advance. 

Although there are no tours on Sundays, 
the Museum is open from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 



Seasonal Change in Visiting Hours 

Autumn visiting hours, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., 
will go into effect at the Museum on Sep- 
tember 7, the day after Labor Day. The 
new schedule will continue until October 
14, after which the hours will be 9 a.m. to 
4 p.m. (5 p.m. on Sundays). 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons became Museum 
Members from July 16 to August 13: 

Contributors 

Harry Veam Clybome, William J. Gerhard 

Associate Metnbers 

Harry D. Crooks, Gordon M. Jones, H. N. 
Sharrow, Edwin C. Sittler, Herman T. 
Van Mell 

Sustaining Member 

Seth L. Winslow 

Annual Members 

Dr. Lloyd J. Barson, Edward H. Bennett, 
Jr., Dr. Paul C. Bucy, G. Kenneth Crowell, 
Trevor L. Davies, W. L. Drechsler, L. E. 
Engstrom, E. T. Eyler, Harry N. Fisher, 
Ben L. Franklin, Mrs. William Y. Gilmore, 
Hixon Glore, "Thomas J. Godfrey, Dr. 
Palmer W. Good, Joseph Goth, Herbert W. 
Hirsh, Arthur C. Homburg, Herbert Isaac- 
son, Lee Iversen, Mrs. Anastasia Javaras, 
G. E. Keister, Dr. Clement J. Kincaid, 
William H. King, Jr., Samuel W. Kipnis, 
W. W. Kovalick, Arthur G. Lorentz, J. D. 



Museum Programs on Saturdays . . . 

DANCERS IN FALL SERIES 
FOR ADULTS, CHILDREN 

A stage presentation, "American Indian 
Dances," will be given on October 2 — for 
children in the morning and for adults in 
the afternoon — as the opening feature of 
this autumn's two series of programs. Both 
series will continue every Saturday through- 
out October and November in the James 
Simpson Theatre of the Museum. 

The programs for adults, presented under 
the provisions of the Edward E. Ayer Lec- 
ture Foundation Fund, begin at 2:30 P.M., 
and the programs for children, provided by 
the James Nelson and Anna Louise Ray- 
mond Foundation, begin at 10:30 A.M. 
Both series are free, and no admission 
tickets are required. 

The American Indian dances, accom- 
panied by an explanatory commentary on 
the meanings of the various rhythms and 
movements, will be given by Mr. and Mrs. 
Roger Ernesti of Seattle. The Ernestis are 
internationally known for their authoritative 
enactments of the dances of tribes of both 
the Northwest and the Southwest, particu- 
larly the Kwakiutl and other tribes of the 
Pacific Coast. They wear authentic cos- 
tumes and are accompanied by native songs 
and tom-toms. 

For all the adult programs, a section of 
the Theatre is reserved for Members of 
the Museum, each of whom is entitled to 
two reserved seats. Requests for reserved 
seats should be made in advance by tele- 
phone (WAbash 2-9410) or in writing. 
Seats will be held in the Member's name 
until 2:25 o'clock on the day of the program. 



Story of the Indians 

The story of American Indians, from their 
arrival in the New World from Asia (about 
18000 B.C.) until they were encountered by 
the earliest explorers from Europe, is told 
by exhibits in James Nelson and Anna 
Louise Raymond Hall (Hall 4). 



Rare Jewelry 

Among rarities in H. N. Higinbotham 
Hall of Gems and Jewels (Hall 31) are 
examples of jewelry from ancient Egypt, 
Etruria, and the Orient. 



McAuliffe, Miss A. Bemys McDevitt, Gor- 
don L. McKnight, Ralph R. Minkler, 
Russell W. Morgan, Dr. Ernest Myer, 
Gordon B. Nash, Charles E. Norton, 
Wrigley Offield, Patrick L. O'Malley, Mrs. 
Margaret Parry, L. B. Perkins, Herbert L. 
Rodell, Charles H. Simon, Burton E. Simon- . 
son. Dr. W. Walter Sittler, Bernard A. 
Snyder, J. I. Stang, Frank C. Stover, Bolton 
Sullivan, Stanley J. Tanan, Sebastian Wei- 
gandt, Edwin M. Wood, Morris Yellin 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



September, 195i 



BIRDS FISH BY MUDDYING-THE-WATER TECHNIQUE 



By AUSTIN L. RAND 

CURATOR OF BIRDS 

IN THE DEEP SOUTH, when the water 
is low, small streams may degenerate 
into a series of isolated pools, and ponds 
shrink to a fraction of their wet-season 
size. The fish have a hard time then, for 
they're crowded into the little water that's 




foot and stirring the water about its bill 
with the other. Apparently it was chasing 
small aquatic animals out of the submerged 
vegetation into its bill. 

This reminded us of the well-known 
account of Audubon of another method of 
the feeding of the wood ibis. Audubon 
wrote that when wood ibis discover a place 
abounding in fish 
"they dance as it were 
all through it, until 
the water becomes 
thick with mud stirred 
from the bottom by 
their feet. The fishes, 
on rising to the sur- 
face, are instantly 



BIRDS FISH DEEP-SOUTH STYLE 
there were wood ibis in this country long before there were people. 



left. But the fish-eaters profit. The rac- 
coons and the herons find their prey coralled 
for them. 

It's then our southern Negroes use the 
fishing technique that's known as muddying 
the wafer. Its fundamental principle is to 
stir up the bottom and make the water so 
muddy that the fish come gasping to the 
surface, where they're easily caught. The 
sport has no rules. A hoe or a stick may be 
used to stir up the mud, or the people may 
just wade in and by walking, scuffing, and 
kicking the bottom stir up the mud. When 
the fish come to the surface they may be 
picked up by hand. If they're too lively 
they may be clubbed first or, if a dipnet is 
available, the fish may be scooped up in it. 
The species doesn't matter: catfish, stump 
knockers, war mouth, or bream — whatever 
there is. 

I'd heard about this technique years ago, 
and it was vividly recalled to my mind in 
June when I was visiting at the Archbold 
Biological Station at Lake Placid, Florida. 
Richard Archbold and I were motoring east 
of the Big Cypress and had stopped tc watch 
a congregation of "pond scroggins" — local 
term by which the herons, white ibis, and 
the like are designated collectively. 

The birds were in an old flooded tomato- 
field and among them were about nine wood 
ibis, known as flint heads or iron heads in 
southern Florida. Most of them, apparently 
well-fed, were sitting quietly, but one, still 
hungry, was walking up and down the water- 
filled, vegetation-grown furrows, actively 
feeding. It was putting its bill down into 
the water every few steps, standing on one 



struck by the beaks of 
the ibises [and] on be- 
ing deprived of life 
they turn over and so 
remain. In the course 
of ten or fifteen min- 
utes, hundreds of 
fishes, frogs, young al- 
ligators, and water 
snakes cover the sur- 
face and the birds 
greedily swallow them. ..." 

The similarity of the methods used by 
the human fishermen and the birds is 
striking. One wonders if human beings 
learned the method from watching the birds 
or if they discovered it by themselves. 
Certainly, the birds' technique is older, for 
there were wood ibis in this country long 
before there were people. 



FIRST CALL FOR ENTRIES 
OF NATURE PHOTOS 

Early entries for the Tenth Chicago In- 
ternational Exhibition of Nature Photog- 
graphy are urged upon both amateur and 
professional photographers. The present is 
a good time to review photographs made 
during summer-vacation travel to select any 
that may be suitable. Although the final 
deadline for entries will not be until January 
15, early entries greatly facilitate the work 
of the conunittee that handles the many 
details of filing and classifying the pictures for 
consideration by the judges. 

Nature Camera Club of Chicago and 
Chicago Natural History Museum are joint 
sponsors of the contest. The exhibition of 
prints selected by the judges will be held in 
Stanley F^eld Hall of the Museum from 
February 1 to 28. The color slides will be 
exhibited on two Sunday afternoons, Feb- 
ruary 13 and 20, by projection in the Jama? 
Simpson Theatre of the Museum. 

No line is drawn between amateur and 
professional photographers in this compe- 
tition. There are two separate divisions of 
entries — prints and color slides, with entries 



of four pictures permitted in each division 
by each contestant. In both of these 
divisions, entries, to be eligible, must fall 
into one of three classifications: (1) Animal 
Life, (2) Plant Life, and (3) General (this 
section includes scenery, geological forma- 
tions, clouds, and other natural phenomena 
that do not fit into the two specific sections 
of biological subjects). Except for special 
prizes such as have been awarded by the 
Photographic Society of America in previous 
years, each classification has a full and equal 
group of awards of medals and ribbons. 

Official entry forms containing detailed 
information on the contest will be sent to 
applicants by the Museum on request. 
Photographs should be sent directly to the 
Museum. 



Books 



(All books reviewed in the Bulletin are 
available in The Book Shop of the Museum. 
Mail orders accompanied by remittance in- 
cluding postage are promptly filled.) 

RECORD OF THE ROCKS. By Horace 
G. Richards. The Ronald Press, New 
York. 413 pages, 294 illustrations. Price 
$6. 

Since the war there has been a spate of 
new textbooks in the field of geologj'. One 
was reviewed by the writer in these pages 
(Garells, A Textbook of Geology, in Bulletin, 
October, 1951). It has not been possible 
for this reviewer to see all of the postwar 
crop. All received favorable notice in pro- 
fessional journals when they appeared, and 
all have no doubt been adopted for teaching 
in various institutions. Competitors cover- 
ing the same field must do so in different 
ways. Professor Garells' book approaches 
historical geology inductively, discussing 
physical principles at work on the earth's 
surface and then illustrating how these pro- 
cesses leave a record of their action. Dr. 
Richards' book, like the longtime favorite 
Textbook of Historical Geology by Schuchert 
and Dunbar and its successor. Historical 
Geology by Dunbar (reviewed in BULLETIN, 
May, 1949), approaches the same subject as 
a chronicle of events. Whether the reader 
will prefer one book or the other depends 
upon what he is seeking. 

Four introductory chapters provide back- 
ground for understanding the history to be 
related; three more review the classification 
of plants and animals and tell what fossils 
are. The remaining nineteen chapters re- 
cord geologic events through three billion 
years. Each chapter details the rocks, the 
life, and the economic residua of one geo- 
logic period. 

In outline, then, this book is very similar 
to Professor Dunbar's classic. In what way 
does it differ? Who will find it more useful 
than the other? The answer is given in the 



September, 195 U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



subtitle, The Geological Story of Eastern 
North America. This boolc can include 
more detail than one that covers the world 
or the continent because it is geographically 
limited. Thanks to a further ingenious limi- 
tation, still greater detail is recorded in the 
important final chapters. The author, an 
experienced teacher, has intentionally in- 
cluded more information in each chapter 
than in the one before. As a textboolc, this 
volume profits from that device, for the 
material presented keeps pace with the in- 
creasing perception of the student. It is 
probably equally effective in a book to be 
read without a teacher. 

Dr. Richards' enterprises are many. His 
published works range from a definitive 
bibliography of fiction set in southern New 
Jersey through papers on petrology, Polish 
archaeology, marine plants and animals. 
Ice Age climates, oil drilling, and vertebrate 
paleontology to his monumental works on 
the stratigraphy of the Atlantic Coastal 
Plain. It is his experience in this last field 
that makes him particularly capable of writ- 
ing a book devoted to the eastern United 
States and concentrating on the latest 
phases of its history, which are best seen in 
the sedimentary rocks fringing our Atlantic 
coast line. 

As is not unusual in first printings, there 
are misprints, most of which do not seriously 
interfere with the use of the book. How- 
ever, we should warn the reader against a 
series of attractive illustrations taken from 
recent commercial advertisements that show 
the spectacular forms of life in various geo- 
logic periods. The author and publisher, 
beguiled by their striking appearance, did 
not fully appreciate that the uninformed 
reader might derive quite a bit of misin- 
formation from them. For example, in one 
a trilobite is shown swimming upside down; 
in another a plant-eating reptile devours 
with unnatural gusto a smaller animal. 

The index, a weak point in many text- 
books, is exceptionally complete and well 
prepared. It is interesting that the mis- 
prints in the text are faithfully indexed 
without rectification. Six of the illustra- 
tions are from specimens, paintings, or field 
work of Chicago Natural History Museum. 
Eugene S. Richardson, Jr. 
Curator of Fossil Invertebrates 



OMNIVOROUS CROCODILE DEVOURS METAL, GLASS 



Technical Publication 

The following technical publication was 
issued recently by Chicago Natural History 
Museum: 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 25. Notes 
on Several Lizards of the Genus Emoia, 
With Descriptions of New Species from the 
Solomon Islands. By Walter C. Brown. 
February 11, 1954. 14 pages. $.30. 



By ROBERT F. INGER 

CURATOR OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES 

EARLY IN JULY a seven-foot mugger 
crocodile (the common Indian species) 
that had died at Brookfield Zoo was given 
to the Museum. Since an animal of such 
bulk is difficult to preserve, we decided to 
save only the skin and skeleton. The rou- 
tine chore of removing the viscera and flesh 
was brightened by the discovery of a pecu- 
liar collection of objects in the "gizzard." 
The accompanying photograph of the 
gizzard contents indicates that this big rep- 
tile was not the least bit finicky in his diet. 
Among the delicacies he had swallowed 
were: five marbles, one whole and one 
broken peach stone, a piece of pecan shell, 
a bicycle reflector lens, a flash-bulb base, 
a second flash-bulb base from which the 
metal had been worn or corroded away 
(possibly by digestive juices), a piece of a 
comb, a beautiful dime-store brooch, a bent 



by swallowing locally available material. 
In the case of our captive crocodile not only 
were some of the objects the kinds of things 
that give zoo authorities the shivers; but 
some of them (the comb, for instance) 
probably were not even very effective as 
substitute stones. Even in nature, croco- 
dilians may have to resort to makeshifts. 
The American alligator frequently lives in 
streams and swamps so muddy that no 
stones are available. In such cases the alli- 
gator may swallow pine knots as substitutes. 

Crocodilians are not the only back-boned 
animals to use gizzard stones. Chickens 
and their relatives as well as other seed- 
eating birds swallow small pebbles. Ap- 
parently even some dinosaurs made use of 
rocks in this way. It is an interesting fact 
that the crocodiles and birds are both de- 
scended from the same stock of reptiles 
that gave rise to the dinosaurs. 

In parts of South America, natives 



# 



c 



ff^) A \ 





'EVERYTHING BUT THE KITCHEN SINK!' 
Autopsy on a late resident of the crocodile pond at Brookfield Zoo reveals that he thrived on a diet that 
included a brooch, bicycle reflector lens, photo flash bulbs, an iron rod, a tire cap, and other odd snacks. 



An entire hall of the Museum (Hall N-1) 
is devoted to whales and porpoises. 



iron rod, eleven pieces from an orange pop- 
bottle, three bits of a broken Coke bottle, 
an air-valve cap, and a miscellaneous assort- 
ment of stones and fine gravel. Admirers 
of Pogo will recognize in this list a similarity 
to the appetite of Albert Alligator. 

Most crocodilians — whether crocodiles, al- 
ligators, or caimans — are known to keep a 
supply of stones in the fore part of their 
stomachs at all times. As the stones are 
ground down by rubbing against one another 
and the food, the crocodilian replaces them 



examine the gizzard stones of caimans 
closely in the hope of finding grains of gold 
picked up by the animals from stream beds. 
Although producing no gold, our collection 
of "stones" is of interest to the Museum's 
paleontologists because many of the pebbles 
have shapes similar to those of stones 
brought back from digs. 



Radioactive minerals, accompanied by 
radiographs made by them, are exhibited in 
Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35). 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



September, 195 U 



USES OF MOSSES- 

(Continued from page i) 
and evergreens, and for other similar 
purposes. 

MOSS AS FOOD 

Man, unlike many other animals, makes 
practically no utilization of bryophytes as 
food. In a century-old medical and eco- 
nomic-botany book is mentioned the use of 
sphagnum as a "wretched food in barbarous 
countries." Sphagnum is included also in 
a list of famine foods recently published in 
China. Laplanders have been reported to 
use the same moss as an ingredient of bread. 
It has been suggested that a f)erson starving 
in the wilderness might try eating the spore- 
filled capsules of the various species of 
Polytrichum. 

HAIK-CAP MOSSKS 

The hair-cap mosses (Polytrichum) were 
among the first mosses to receive a dis- 
tinguishing name. Also called "golden 
maiden-hair," they receive their name from 
the long hairs that grow from a scale-like 
structure at the top of the capsule and form 
what is aptly called a "hair-cap." At one 
time, a decoction of the common hair-cap 
{Polytrichum commune) was much used to 
"strengthen and beautify" ladies' tresses — 
this is in accordance with the Doctrine of 
Signatures. 

The value of this moss for bed and bedding 
is supposed to be great to the Laplanders. 
They select a patch of plants, cut out an 
area large enough for a bed, and separate 
this mass of intertwined plants from the 
soil. A similar portion of the moss patch 
serves well as a cover. The moss bed may 
be rolled up and carried from place to place. 
It is said that Linnaeus, in his wanderings, 
often slept on such a bed. The stems of 
hair-cap mosses have also been used to stuff 
mattresses and upholstery. 

Gilbert White, in his Natural History of 
Selborne, writes as follows of another use of 
Polytrichum commune: 

"While on the subject of rural economy, 
it may not be improper to mention a pretty 
implement of housewifery that we have seen 
nowhere else; that is, the neat little besoms 
which our foresters make from the stalk of 
the Polytrichum commune, or great golden- 
hair, which they call silk wood, and find 
plenty in the bogs. When this moss is well 
combed and dressed, and divested of its 
outer skin, it becomes of a beautiful bright 
chestnut color; and, being soft and pliant, is 
very proper for the dusting of bed, curtains, 
carpets, hangings, etc." 

The stems of this common moss are often 
a foot to eighteen inches in length, and 
sometimes considerably longer. The central 
core of the stem, when cleaned, forms a 
pliable, tough strand well suited for the 
manufacture of brooms and of plaited ar- 
ticles such as baskets and hassocks, ap- 



parently quite an ancient art. Perhaps the 
oldest known example of it is a partially 
finished Polytrichum basket that was found 
at the bottom of the ditch of the early 
Roman fort at Newstead, Roxburghshire, 
in England. An indication of the age of the 
basket is given by the date (a.d. 86) of the 
latest coins found in the same ditch. The art 
of such plaiting is probably even of greater 
antiquity than the period of Roman 
occupation. (Illuslralion on page i.) 

MISCELLANEOUS USES 

Certain mosses are sometimes utilized by 
florists to form banks of green in show 
windows, green carpets for floral shows, or 
to fashion into wreaths and crosses. In 
parts of Europe, moss is used in Christmas 
decoration to construct a manger for the 
spirit of the Christ Child. Some women's 
hats, a half century and more ago, were 
decorated with bundles of Climacium den- 
droideum and other mosses, a situation 
which prompted a student of mosses to 
write in 1874: 

"And a lady's cap which we saw in a 
window was in no wise adorned by having 
sprays of artificial moss tacked all over it. 
. . . Nor is a bunch of moss which has died 
of thirst suitable for trimming a bonnet. 
The chief beauty bonnets at present possess 
is their being fresh and clean; dry moss is 
particularly fusty looking, and it is not im- 
proved by being dyed of a leather colour 
(!!), or a violent blue-green (!!!), the latter 
being the worst, as being a bad match, for 
moss is never a blue-green." 

A number of home owners have recently 
tried to increase the beauty of their shaded 
walks by encouraging the growth of mosses 
there. Many of them have even trans- 
planted mosses for this purpose. Others 
have encouraged the growth of mosses on 
new buildings in order to give them that 
"old look." In parts of Europe, Fontinalis 
antipyretica has been used for filling spaces 
between chimneys and walls. The basis of 
this practice is the erroneous belief that 
this moss will not blaze — thus, the name 
antipyretica, meaning "against fire." The 
stems of certain mosses are utilized by vari- 
ous Indian tribes for lamp wicks. 

Indians have made use of dried sphagnum 
as a diaper material. A method of keeping 
live frogs in the laboratory consists of a 
tank with a layer of moss — damp sphagnum. 
The slight amount of iodine in the moss 
apparently helps prevent red-leg and other 
frog diseases. Sphagnum has been stuffed 
between the timbers of houses to deaden 
sound and, steeped in tar, has been used to 
calk ships. 

In biology, the use of mosses and liver- 
worts as laboratory subjects is of the 
greatest fundamental importance. Using 
bryophytes as experimental material, re- 
searchers have contributed significantly to 
our knowledge of various phases of plant 



UNIVERSITY TO PRESENT 
LECTURES AT MUSEUM 

"Sons of the Vikings," a lecture series 
featuring such world-renowned figures in 
the field of polar exploration as Peter Freu- 
chen. Colonel Bernt Balchen, Captain Finn 
Ronne, Dr. Valter Schytt,, and Dr. Einaur 
Haugen will be presented by the Museum 
in co-operation with University College of 
the University of Chicago on five consecutive 
Sundays, October 10 to November 7, at 
2:30 P.M. in the James Simpson Theatre of 
the Museum. Tickets for the series ($3.00 
for Museum Members, $3.50 for non- 
members) may be obtained at University 
College, 19 South LaSalle Street (indicate 
Museum membership in order to receive 
tickets at the special price). All checks 
should be made payable to the University 
of Chicago. Single admissions at 75 cents 
each will be sold at the door if seats are 
available. 



science, including genetics, experimental 
morphology, and plant nutrition. 

Thus far have been discussed the various 
ways in which bryophytes are useful. On 
the other side of the ledger, certain of them 
may be detrimental or harmful. Certain 
studies have indicated that sphagnum moss 
may be a source of sporotrichosis, a fungus 
skin-disease, among florists. Sphagnum 
moss may smother out a high proportion of 
tree seedlings, thus interfering with re- 
forestation efforts. Some weedy mosses 
often crowd out grass in lawns where damp- 
ness is excessive. Species of Sphagnum and 
Polytrichum are sometimes found as weeds 
in infertile blueberry fields on moist soil. 

Much effort and money are sometimes 
spent to clear canals of masses of water 
mosses. In certain regions, some mosses 
get a foothold on shingle roofs. Thus, a 
lodging for soot and dust is provided, and 
soon a sort of soil accumulates. In a shady 
situation, a new roof may become completely 
covered with moss within ten years. The 
rate of decomposition of shingles is greatly 
increased by the dampness held by the moss 
and soil. To remedy the situation, the roofs 
are creosoted every few years. 

In conclusion, it is obvious that mosses 
and liverworts, though usually small plants 
conspicuous only en masse, are nevertheless 
of some importance to man. We realize 
once again the truthfulness of the statement 
made long ago by a sagacious clergyman 
that "nothing is useless in creation. The 
tiniest insects, the smallest mosses, have 
their uses." 

In Case 809 near the northeast corner of 
Martin A. and Carrie Ryerson Hall (Hall 
29 — Plant Life) are displayed various mosses 
and liverworts. Peat and peat products 
are shown in Case 627 at the north center 
of Hall 28 (Vegetable Raw Materials and 
Products). 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



RULLETIN 

U Vol.25.No.lO-OclobGrl954 

Chicago Natural 
History Museum 




MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 

Friday, October 8 



.::m 



Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



October, 195i 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Mabshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago S 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Samuel Insull, Jr. 

Sew-ell L. Avery Henry P. Isham 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searlb 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 
John P. Wn^oN 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vue-Preaident 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Second Vice-PresidejU 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-Prendenl 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Atsittani Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anihropolosy 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Karl P. Schmidt Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Barbara Poukoff 



Members arc requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



FIVE JUDGES APPOINTED 
FOR PHOTO CONTEST 

Judges have been chosen for the Tenth 
Chicago International Exhibition of Nature 
Photography. They are: M. Kenneth Starr, 
Curator of Asiatic Archaeology and Eth- 
nology at the Museum; Homer E. Holdren, 
of the Museum's Division of Photography; 
and three local camera experts: May Watts, 
Fred Richter, and Erik Sorensen. Accepted 
prints will be exhibited in Stanley Field 
Hall during February. Color slides will be 
projected on two Sunday afternoons, Feb- 
ruary 13 and 20, in the James Simpson 
Theatre of the Museum. 

The deadline for entries is January 15 in 
the two separate divisions of prints and 
color slides. A contestant may enter four 
pictures in each division. Entries, to be 
eligible, must fall into one of three classi- 
fications: (1) Animal Life, (2) Plant Life, 
and (3) General (this section includes 
scenery, geological formations, clouds, etc.). 

Official entry forms containing detailed 
information on the contest will be sent to 
applicants by the Museum on request. 
Photographs should be sent directly to the 
Museum. Nature Camera Club of Chicago 
and Chicago Natural History Museum are 
joint sponsors of the contest. 



HERE'S WHAT YOU'LL DO AND SEE AT MUSEUM 
ON MEMBERS' NIGHT, FRIDAY, OCTOBER 8 

A ONE-NIGHT COURSE IN MUSEOLOGY, the art of operating a 
museum, is in effect what Chicago Natural History Museum will pre- 
sent on Members' Night, Friday, October 8. The attractions prepared for 
this year's annual welcome to the several thousand Members of the Museum 
will touch upon all the principal phases of museology — research, expeditions 
for the collecting of data and material, preparation of the meticulously ac- 
curate scientific exhibits, methods by which the educational influence of the 
institution is made effective upon a mass-audience of millions, and general 
service to the public. 



But Member's Night is not entirely a 
serious exposition of a scientific and educa- 
tional mission. It is also a festive affair to 
open the autumn season, a time for a 
gathering of our friends from all over town. 
There will be entertainment. Movies of an 
expedition to- Africa, with narration by the 
leader of the safari, Walther Buchen, Mu- 
seum Trustee, will be shown in the James 
Simpson Theatre of the Museum. There 
will be special exhibits and a preview of 
the Museum's newest habitat group of 
animals. Throughout the evening, labora- 
tories, workrooms, and studios from which 
visitors are usually barred will be open to 
Members and their guests. 

YOU are cordially invited. A simimary of 
the evening's program follows. 

MEMBERS' NIGHT 
PROGRAM 

Friday, October 8 

7 p.m to 10:30 p.m. 
(Museum doors open at 6 p.m.) 

Transportation and Parking- 
There is ample free parking-space at both 
the north and south entrance of the Museum 
building. For those who do not wish to 
drive their cars, special free motor-bus ser- 
vice has been arranged. Buses will leave 
comer of Jackson Boulevard and State 
Street at 15-minute intervals beginning at 
6:30 P.M. Bus may be boarded also at 7th 
Street and Michigan Avenue. No fares and 
no transfers will be required from Museum 
Members or their guests. The last bus will 
leave the Museum at 10:45 p.m. 

Dinner is Served — 

Those who wish to come direct from their 
offices may dine in the Museum Cafeteria 
(on the ground floor), which will be open 
from 6 to 8 P.M. Regular service and prices 
will prevail. 

In the Exhibition Halls— 

Preview of new exhibit: "Malay Tapirs" 
(William V. Kelley Hall of Asiatic Mam- 
mals, Hall 17, Main Floor) — specimens in 
this habitat group were collected by an 



expedition to Siam sponsored and led by 
Rush Watkins, a Museum Contributor. 

Special exhibit: "The Why of Museum 
Insect-Collecting" (Stanley Field Hall)— a 
graphic display accompanied by selected 
entomological specimens illustrating the na- 
ture and extent of research conducted in 
this field by this Museum and co-operating 
institutions. 

Special exhibit: "The Big Dig" (Stanley 
Field Hall) — the story of archaeologists and 
how they work, told by a graphic outline of 
twenty seasons of excavating prehistoric 
American Indian sites in Colorado and New 
Mexico by the Museum's Southwest Ar- 
chaeological Expeditions under the leader- 
ship of Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator 
of Anthropology. 

In the Theatre — 

Showtime is 8:15 P.M. The rumble of 
African tribal drums will sound to introduce 
the feature movie, "Marsh Birds of the 
Upper Nile," color-film record of the Buchen 
East Africa Zoological Expedition. The 
story of this safari in Kenya Colony and 
Uganda will be told from the stage by Wal- 
ther Buchen, Museum Trustee, who with 
Mrs. Buchen sponsored and led the expe- 
dition. 

Before or after the screen show. Members 
may view in its papyrus-marsh habitat the 
group of magnificent birds collected by 
Mr. Buchen's expedition (Hall 20, Main 
Floor). 

{Continued on page 8, column 1) 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



Our cover shows the giraffes 
from the African water-hole 
group in Carl E. Akeley Memorial 
Hall (Hall 22). The entire group 
is too large for our cover but ze- 
bra, eland, rhino, and gazelle are 
all gathered at the water. 

Trustee Walther Buchen is 
speaking on Members' Night (Fri- 
day, October 8) about another 
African water group, the Nile 
River marsh-bird group (Hall 20), 
which he collected and presented 
to the Museum. 



October, 195i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Pages 



INDIAN DANCE STAGE-SHOW OPENS SATURDAY PROGRAMS 



THE FALL SERIES OF LECTURES 
for adults on nine Saturday afternoons, 
provided by the Edward E. Ayer Lecture 
Foundation Fund, begins with an unusual 
stage presentation of American Indian danc- 
ing. The succeeding programs will feature 
color motion-pictures accompanied by the 
narratives of the men who made them. The 



social ceremonies, presented with as high a 
degree of authenticity as is possible today." 

October 9 — Across Tropical Africa 

Lett Stuttman 

Mr. Stuttman's film and lecture give an 
interpretation of life in tropical Africa in 
different geographic and political environ- 




THE ERNESTIS, COSTUMED FOR ONE OF THEIR INDIAN DANCES 



programs will be given on each Saturday 
afternoon from October 2 to November 27, 
inclusive, at 2:30 o'clock. Limited accom- 
modations make it necessary to restrict ad- 
mission to adults. For children, however, 
free motion-pictures will be presented on 
the mornings of the same Saturdays by the 
Raymond Foundation. 

Following is the schedule of the programs 
for adults: 

October 2 — American Indian Dances 

Mr. and Mrs. Roger Ernesti 

Although the Ernestis are known espe- 
cially for their authoritative presentation 
of Indian dances from northwestern United 
States, their repertoire includes native 
dances of the great areas of the Plains, 
Plateau, Puget Sound, and the Southwest. 
Each dance, performed in native costume, 
is explained by Mr. Ernesti and is then 
enacted to the accompaniment of native 
songs and tom-tom. An anthropologist of 
the University of Washington said of the 
Ernestis' dances: "They are not interpre- 
tations of old Indian dances done in the 
pattern of our European culture, but rather 
excerpts from the ancient religious and 



ments. He focuses on Liberia, whose 
capital, Monrovia, was founded by freed 
American slaves one hundred and twenty- 
five years ago and is now the only all-Negro 
republic in Africa; the Belgian Congo, 
rapidly changing with the growth of com- 
merce; and Kenya, last refuge for big game 
animals. 

October 16 — Guatemala 

Adam Shaffer 

The turbulent little country of Guatemala 
that has been in the news spotlight recently 
is brought to the screen by Adam Shaffer, 
who has recorded faithfully its scenic beauty, 
its spots of archaeological interest, its arts 
and crafts, and its customs. This program 
should give those interested in Guatemala 
an insight into its character — changing, and 
yet, in some respects, always the same. 

October 23 — Road to Grandeur 

Francis R. Line 

U. S. Highway 89 begins amid the wonders 
of Glacier National Park and stretches 
southward past Yellowstone, the Grand 
Tetons, Salt Lake City, Grand Canyon and 
the Indian country, Arizona, and then to 



the Mexican border. "Road to Grandeur" 
is a motion-picture story of a continuous 
journey along this famous roadway. 

October 30 — The Proposed 49th State — 
Hawaii 

Fran William Hall 

The famous scenes of Hawaii are recorded 
in Mr. Hall's film — Diamond Head, Waikiki, 
hula-dancing, lei-making, fiestas, banana- 
picking. But Mr. Hall also made films in 
inaccessible offshore islands of the Hawaiian 
chain that have seldom been photographed. 
In these remote spots grow a profusion of 
flowers, and rare birds are found, among 
them the native goose, the nene, of which 
there are now only fifty that have survived 
the inroads of civilization. 

November 6 — Tomorrow Never Comes 

Neil Douglas 

This film tells the story of the largest 
Alaskan bear. In addition there are shown 
caribou, salmon fishing, giant cranes, glacier 
scenery, and sea-lions. The training of a 
seal from its wild state to an almost human 
companion is pictured. 

November 13 — American Indian 
Adventures 

C. J. Albrecht 

Mr. Albrecht's film gives his audience an 
opportunity to see the life of the Indian, as 
guide, hunter, trapper, fisherman, rancher, 
and craftsman. Scenes of the making of 
buckskin from moose to moccasins and the 
carving of a peace pipe from historic pipe- 
stone are recorded. Pictures of life on the 



RESERVED SEATS 
FOR MEMBERS 

No tickets are necessary for ad- 
mission to these lectures. A sec- 
tion of the Theatre is allocated to 
Members of the Museum, each of 
whom is entitled to two reserved 
seats. Requests for these seats 
should be made in advance by 
telephone (WAbash 2-9410) or in 
writing, and seats will be held in 
the Member's name until 2:25 
o'clock on the lecture day. 



arid desert wastes and in the sub-arctic 
lands make this film a dramatic record of 
colorful peoples. 

November 20 — Argentina 

Nicol Smith 

Argentina has more than a million square 
miles of astonishing contrasts. Nicol Smith, 
first North American to make a compre- 
(Continued on page 7, column 3) 



Page i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



October, 195U 



GREAT KIVA, TWO PUEBLOS UNCOVERED ON SOUTHWEST DIG 



In September the Southwest 
Archaeological Expedition com- 
pleted its 1954 season of excava- 
tions on sites in New Mexico. 
This is the twentieth year of these 
operations under the direction of 
Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator 
of Anthropology, who tells here 
the highlights of the season just 
concluded. The accomplishments 
on "The Big Dig" from the be- 
ginning will be summarized in a 
special exhibit in Stanley Field 
Hall on Members' Night, Friday, 
October 8. 



By PAUL S. MARTIN 

CHIEF CURATOR OF ANTHROPOLOGY 
AND 

JAMES T. BARTER 

ARCHAEOLOGICAI. ASSISTANT, SOUTHWEST EXPEDITION 

ABOUT A.D. 1190, the Mogollon Indians 
in what is now western New Mexico 
were facing a situation common at some 
time to farmers the world over. For several 
seasons scanty rainfall had made the crops 
progressively poorer. Winter snows had 
scarcely blanketed the earth and spring 
rains failed. By the end of June the corn 
had barely poked a few withered leaves 
through the dusty earth. 

The Indians of Higgins Flat Pueblo (ex- 
cavated by Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum's Southwest Archaeological Expedition 
during the 1953 season) stood the drought 
better than some of their neighbors, for the 
San Francisco River still ran a small stream 
below the hill on which their village was 
situated. At other villages the springs had 
dried up, forcing the people to carry water 
several miles. 

By mid-July everyone watched the skies 
for rain clouds. Unless rain fell the corn 
would fail and winter would be difficult. 
Already the people were skimping on corn 
to save the dwindling supplies. More nuts 
and berries, and the meat of wild animals 
were added to the diet of corn, beans, and 
squash. The precious seed-corn was guarded 
jealously for the next year to avert starva- 
tion and ruin. 

MOURNED "good OLD DAYS" 

All through the pueblo people were 
worried. Never before had there been such 
poor crops. The old men sitting in the sun 
on the plaza walls talked of "the good old 
days." Children played around the pueblo 
walls, though many of the older boys were 
out hunting small game. The women 
ground corn-meal, but because they had less 
to grind now there was more time to gossip. 

Almost everyone talked about the 
weather, but the priests, assisted by some 



of the senior men, were trying to do some- 
thing about it. In the underground cere- 
monial room (kiva) they sang and danced 
to supplicate the rain gods. A large tubular 
stone pipe painted with stripes of red, yellow, 
black, and green to represent the four 
directions, was filled with tobacco and 
passed from hand to hand to be smoked. 
The smoke represented the rain clouds, for 
which everyone was praying. On the floor 
were replicas of a bear, a badger, and the 
sun-disk. Honey and cornmeal were fed to 
the bear and the badger to enlist their aid 
as representatives of the gods. Then the 
people waited for a sign. It was not long 
in coming. One of the massive beams that 
supported the kiva roof of sticks and mud 
collapsed. The priests immediately inter- 
preted this to mean that the gods were 
dissatisfied with the ceremonial room of 
their earth brothers. The priests warned 
the people that performances of ceremonies 
had been lax of late and offerings were 
niggardly. 

PLAN NEW STRUCTURE 

A plan was put forth to build a larger 
and more magnificent structure. This one 
would also be rectangular and have a large 
lateral ramp down which six dancers could 
move abreast in an impressive processional 
entrance with the dignity and respect the 
gods expected. 



on this day the rising sun would shine down 
the ramp into the very heart of the kiva. 

Digging this impressive structure was no 
easy task with tools of only wood and stone. 
Dirt was carried out and heaped along the 
outside walls by the women. This was an 
honor for them because usually the cere- 
monial activity was a prerogative solely of 
the men. Children helped by carrying small 
stones from nearby and distant rock-falls. 
The heavy stones were transported by men. 
Rocks were shaped by hammering and 
battering with stone mauls. 

OLD KIVA PRESERVED 

Because it was thought that it would not 
be wise to destroy the old kiva, its outline 
and part of the walls were left intact and 
the new edifice was built around them. En- 
closing the old with the new would serve as 
a constant reminder that old ways must be 
revered even in this "modern" age. 

When the structure was finished it was 
impressively dedicated. However, long be- 
fore its completion, rains had come and, 
though crops were not good, at least some 
grain could be harvested. Now the winter 
was not so fearsome. Some of the very 
young and the aged would die, but life 
would go on — the favor of the gods had once 
more been wooed and won. 

We imagine that this is the way our 
"Great Kiva" came to be built. Similar 




KIVA UNEARTHED BY EXPEDITION (Artist's Conception) 
Restoration of Higgins Flat Kiva No. 1 by Gustaf Dalstrom, of the Department of Anthropology, as structure 
is believed to have appeared when occupied about A.D. 1200. The drawing is based on photographs and 
data furnished by the Southwest Archaeological Expedition, which excavated the kiva this summer. The 
feature that particularly distinguishes this kiva from similar discoveries in past seasons is the roofed wide 
ramp entrance at the right through which six ceremonial dancers could march abreast in a procession. 



Because the day of spring planting was 
reckoned as so many days after the winter 
solstice, which marked the beginning of a 
new year, the entrance was placed so that 



MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 
Friday, October 8 



incidents have actually occurred among the 
Indians. At any rate, we did find and ex- 
cavate a large subterranean kiva during this 
season's work of the Southwest Archaeo- 
logical Expedition. This one is so large it 
might almost be classed as "monumental 
architecture." It would accommodate two 
badminton courts side by side within its 



October, 195U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



walls, and the floor was seven feet below 
the surface. 

A STATELY PORTAL 

Entrance was not by means of the usual 
hatchway in the roof or by a small doorway 
such as the Indians crawled through in 
going from room to room in their homes. 
This was a stately entrance, the fioor of 
which was a ramp that sloped gradually 
upward to ground level. The ramp was 
half as long as a bowling alley and wide 
enough to permit six people to march abreast 
in a procession. 




MOGOLLON FLOUR MILL 

Room in pueblo at Higgins Flat with mealing bins along wall, looking west 

(arrow 50 centimeters long points north). Bins and metates are arranged for 

grading meal from coarse to fine. Note pottery bowls to catch flour. Mill was 

in use by Mogollon Indians about A.D. 1200. 



It took us about six weeks with a crew of 
seven men and the use of a tractor and scoop 
for a week to dig out the kiva. We estimated 
that we removed 500 tons of dirt and rocks 
(roughly equivalent to the capacity of 100 
five-ton coal or gravel trucks). We loaded 
our ^-ton truck more easily by driving it 
down the ramp right into the kiva proper. 

ARTIFACTS UNCOVERED 

What did we find? A few thousand 
sherds, architectural details, two painted 
ceremonial (?) stones, and an earlier smaller 
kiva, also subterranean. 

The earlier structure had been built 
perhaps fifty to one hundred years before 
the later one, and the masonry was less 
skilfully done. The earlier kiva also had 
been entered by means of a ramp. 

The placement or orientation of the 
ramps caused us to speculate at some length. 
The ramp-entrance of the later kiva faces 
southeast (about 27 degrees south of east). 
It is possible that this orientation was 
chosen because on December 21, the day of 
the winter solstice, the sun at rising time 
would shine directly down the center of the 
entrance. The date of the winter solstice 
is an important one in the calendar of the 



nearby Zuni Indians and it is probable that 
it was important in the life of the ancient 
Mogollon Indians. 

The orientation of the ramp of the earlier 
kiva was more nearly due east and may 
have coincided with the position of the sun 
at rising time on the vernal and autumnal 
equinoxes (March 21 and September 21). 
Just why it was built on a diff'erent axis is 
a puzzle, but at a later date the Indians 
may have decided that it would be more 
pleasing to the gods to have the structure 
face the rising sun on December 21. 

The roof of our kiva was supported by 
several (perhaps four 
to nine) very large 
posts. The evidence 
for this is the presence 
of nine mammoth post 
holes, seven feet deep 
and more than two 
feet in diameter. Since 
both earlier and later 
kivas used the same 
floor, we are unable to 
decide which group of 
post holes belongs to 
which floor. 

After uncovering 
the kivas, we exca- 
vated two more pu- 
eblos or villages. One 
was composed of at 
least thirty rooms. We 
were seeking one of 
the latest towns occu- 
pied before the entire 
region was deserted. 
From it we hoped to 
find why the people had moved out of this 
fertile area. To determine what is "latest" 
is not easy, and it is probable that we failed 
in our quest to find a late pueblo. But we 
may yet discover what we seek. 

We are still in the dark as to the reason 
or reasons for the abandonment of the area. 
Our best guess now is that drought or a 
shift in the rainfall pattern made farming 
difficult or impossible. 

In the pueblos we found almost forty 
whole or restorable pieces of pottery; a 
milling room containing three corn mills, 
coarse to fine, and pottery receptacles for 
catching the flour; a small duck-effigy pot; 
several rectangular stone bowls; stone axes; 
bone awls; and stone beads. 

VENTILATING DEVICE 
One architectural feature interested us 
very much — a ventilating apparatus for 
introducing fresh air to inner rooms. With- 
out such a device, fires could not have been 
maintained. It consists of an opening in 
the wall that connects with a stone-lined 



duct leading to an outside manhole or 
intake. Provision for ventilating rooms has 
been found in several other instances. 

What do these bits of information and 
remnants of household and ceremonial 
paraphernalia tell us? 

It seems fairly clear that the Mogollon 
Indians were placing more reliance on their 
cultural devices than on their biological 
mechanisms. Instead of being limited to a 
few unsatisfying wild foods, they acquired 
an abundant and nutritious food supply — 
corn, beans, and squash. In winter they 
could retire to well-built stone houses 
heated by a central fire-pit and ventilator 
instead of shivering in a cave or a shelter of 
skins. These Indians thus were shifting 
from dependence on brawn to trust in 
efficiency. 

LABOR-SAVING PROGRESS 

In addition, they gradually learned to 
make wider use of raw materials and to 
convert them to needs. We cite only pot- 
tery from clay, knives and axes from stone, 
and clothes, textiles, and sandals from fur 
or plant fibers. Finally, we have noted 
that conservation of time and muscular 
energy played an increasingly important 
role in Mogollon development. A new tool 




ANCIENT STRUCTURE, MODERN SURVEY 
Chief Curator Paul S. Martin (left) and Tod Egan, 
expedition aid, with instruments for study of orieU' 
tatton of kiva portal with reference to the position 
of the sun on date of Mogollon ceremonies. 

or device would be adopted if the user 
recognized that its mechanical efficiency 
would save human energy. A bow, then, is 
better than a throwing-stick, a fixed loom 
is better than a finger loom, and a grooved 
axe is better than a crude chopper. 



MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 
Friday, October 8 



PLEASE NOTIFY MUSEUM 
IF YOU'RE MOVING 

Members of the Museum who change 
residence are urged to notify the Museum 
so that the Bulletin and other communi- 
cations may reach them promptly. A card for 
this purpose is enclosed with this issue. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



October, 195i 



TALKING BIRDS: LOQUACIOUS ONES ARE MALES 



By AUSTIN L. RAND 

CURATOR OF BIRDS 

ONCE THERE WAS AN AUDITOR 
who, in a mood of economy, suggested 
that we replace telephone operators with 
monkeys to handle the receiver and connec- 
tions and parrots to do the talking. This 
obviously impractical scheme I vetoed. 
Not that monkeys cannot be trained to do 
many things, for they can be. Colin C. 
Sanborn, Curator of Mammals, tells me 
that in Siam monkeys were used regularly 
on some coconut plantations to climb the 
palm trees and throw down the nuts for 
the harvest. Monkeys have also been used 




jiutfi J» 



to assist botanists in collecting plant speci- 
mens, and the following is from a Bulletin 
account of fifteen years ago: 

"The Kew Bulletin, No. 7, 1938, quotes 
from the Annual Report of the Director of 
Gardens, Straits Settlements, an account of 
the use made of berok monkeys {Macacus 
nemestrina), widely used in the East by 
the Malays for gathering coconuts, to collect 
botanical specimens from tall trees. Two 
young beroks, Jambul and Putch, are at 
present employed; they understand twelve 
words of Kelantanese and can thus be in- 
structed to pick specific twigs, and drop 
them to the ground. Mr. E. J. H. Corner, 
Acting Director of the Gardens, who ob- 
tained the team from Kelantan, states, 'A 
berok upon the shoulder can be likened, in 
effect, to a falcon on the wrist; and its 
employment is recommended both to ama- 
teurs for its charm and cheapness, and to 
keepers of reserves where it is desirable to 
collect specimens repeatedly from the same 
trees without damage to them. Jambul and 
Putch are the first beroks to enter the 
government service." 

I've traveled with a botanist in tropical 
forests and I've seen the trouble it is to get 
flowers from the treetops. Such simian 
help would be wonderful. If monkeys can 



be trained to do this, perhaps they have 
other latent capabilities. 

BIRDS WITH LARGE VOCABULARIES 

The birds present greater difficulties. 
Not that some can't learn to repeat human 
words, for they do. African gray parrots 
are usually considered the best talkers with 
the most human quality in their voices. 
The green Amazon parrots of Central and 
South America are also highly regarded as 
talkers. With the recent wave of popularity 
of the budgerigar or Australian shell para- 
keet in America we've become conscious 
of its ability to repeat words. 

Karl Plath of Chi- 
cago's Brookfield Zoo 
tells me that he's 
heard a really good 
budgie called Blue Boy 
talk. It had a vocabu- 
lary of more than one 
hundred words (news- 
papers claim vocabu- 
laries of four hundred 
or more for some 
birds). Its pronunci- 
ation was good and it 
spoke in a strong hu- 
man-like whisper with 
a child-like expression. 
Its repertoire included 
phrases like, "Hello, 
Mr. Tanner, how are 
you today?" and 
"What are you doing? 
Playing gin rummy? 
Yes, we'U play gin rummy." 

Apparently males make better talkers 
than females, but some females do become 
accomplished talkers. It seems the im- 
portant thing in getting a bird to talk is to 
keep it from other birds, tame it thoroughly, 
and repeat many times the words you want 
it to say. Once it has made a start and 
built up some vocabulary, it learns addi- 
tional words quickly, and you can start on 
whole phrases, bits of nursery rhymes, lines 
of poetry, and whistled tunes. Not all 
birds are equally teachable, but neither 
are teachers equally good. 

There's nothing in the Bible about parrots, 
nor in ancient Egyptian art. Parrots first 
appear in the literature of the western 
civilized world about a century before 
Aristotle. Their popularity has waxed and 
waned. One pinnacle of popularity was 
reached when large numbers were imported 
into ancient Rome to minister to the luxury 
of the age. 

At present in the United States there has 
been a vogue for Australian shell parakeets 
or budgerigars. I've even seen them ad- 



vertised in Chicago as TV birds, perhaps 
because they appeared on television shows 
but, it seemed to me, with the further im- 
plication that they would keep you company 
while you watched television. Also, a 
Chicago paper carried an account of a 
parakeet that got its education from tele- 
vision programs, where it picked up such 
phrases as, "Good-by now and God love 
you" and "Don't shoot. Ma'am." 

The people of South America and of 
Africa probably kept parrots about their 
homes before Europeans knew the birds. 
According to Alfred Newton, when Hum- 
boldt was traveling in South America he 
saw a parrot that was reputed to speak an 
otherwise dead language of an extinct tribe 
of Indians who had taught their language 
to the parrot. Of course, parrots reputedly 
do live to a great age, and an authentic 
record of a parrot fifty years old was found 
in 1925 by Major S. S. Flower when he 
compiled age-records of animals. But a 
point that comes to the critical mind is 
that if none of the living people knew this 
language, how did they know the parrot 
was speaking it? 

FLAIR FOR SPANISH 

In EI Salvador today the country people 
keep parrots. Some of the parrots are in 
cages, some are tethered to perches, and 
some are at half-liberty, with clipped wings 
and the freedom of a small tree in their 
yard. One of the El Salvador parrots is a 
green Amazon that talks well. Dr. A. J. 
van Rossem found that they learn Spanish 
much better than English. Many a human 
student has also found Spanish a relatively 
easy language to learn. Perhaps this is the 
reason, perhaps the Salvadorians are better 
teachers, or perhaps there is some obscure 
reason. 

In Africa Dr. J. P. Chapin found that 
almost every settlement in the Upper Congo 
had a few African grays, and they're an 
article of commerce even now. Their value 
is such that parrot nesting-trees, whence are 
obtained the young, have owners. Inci- 
dentally, the tail feathers of the parrot are 
fashionable millinery on the Upper Congo. 
In earlier years when the trade in parrots 
was greater, Sir Frederick Jackson tells us 
that a part of Uganda provided many par- 
rots. A hundred or more birds could be 
seen in the camp of a coastal-bound caravan, 
sitting on sticks in front of the tents and 
keeping up an incessant discordant chatter. 
Sir Frederick writes that at Fort Smith, 
Kikuyu, on one of the caravan routes, it 
was possible to recognize a Uganda caravan 
by the squawking of the parrots before it 
was seen. 



MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 
Friday, October 8 



Winter Visiting Hours 
Winter visiting hours, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., 
will go into effect at the Museum on Oc- 
tober 15 and continue in effect until Feb- 
ruary 28. 



October, 195 U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



Books 



(AH hooks reviewed in the Bulletin are 
available in The Book Shop of the Museum. 
Mail orders accompanied by remittance in- 
cluding postage are promptly filled.) 

THE MAMMAL GUIDE— Mammals of 
North America North of Mexico. By 

Ralph S. Palmer. Doubleday and Com- 
pany, Inc., Garden City, New York. 
384 pages, 250 colored figures, 37 line 
drawings, and 145 maps by the author. 
Price $4.95. 

This is the third book on North American 
mammals to be published in the past three 
years, and in some ways it is the most in- 
formative of the three. All the mammals 
are at a species level. Subspecies are not 
listed, but variation in the species is de- 
scribed. 

The text for each mammal begins with a 
paragraph giving description, color, size, 
weight, signs of presence, and often com- 
parison with related species. Headings of 
following paragraphs are habitat, repro- 
duction, habits, and economic status. In 
these paragraphs a vast amount of pertinent 
information has been condensed, repre- 
senting long and careful hours of research 
by Dr. Palmer. Common names have been 
carefully selected and are short and logical. 

The 250 colored figures are on 40 plates 
bound in the center of the book. Most of 
the bats are represented by the heads only, 
showing the important features of the ears, 
nose, and lips. All the figures on each plate 
and on facing plates are drawn to the same 
scale. The color and form are good, and 
the plates should be a great help in making 
identifications. The other drawings include 
three pages of whales and porpoises, a 
distribution map for each mammal, and 
many drawings of the tracks. 

The size of the book is 4^ by 7}^ inches, 
and thus suitable for carrying in the field. 
The last thirty-eight pages contain an index 
to the common and scientific names and to 
the colored and black-and-white drawings. 
The Mammal Guide will be a valuable 
book for use out-of-doors as well as a ready 
reference in libraries, schools, and other 
places where information is sought. Dr. 
Palmer has given us a condensed but 
complete practical guide. 

Colin Campbell Sanborn 
Curator of Mammals 

BYWAYS IN HAND-WEAVING. By 

Mary Meigs Atwater. The Macmillan 
Company, New York, 1954. 128 pages, 
27 illustrations, 36 diagrams. Price $8.50. 

Byways in Hand-Weaving is a book on 
little-known weaving techniques from vari- 
ous parts of the world by a recognized 
authority on hand-weaving. Mrs. Atwater 
describes and illustrates with excellent dia- 



grams methods of card-weaving, "inkle" 
weaving, braiding, plaiting, twining, and 
belt-weaving on a standard loom. The 
fabrics produced by these techniques are, 
for the most part, narrow bands, belts, and 
borders, although some of the patterns may 
be adapted to wider textiles. The original 
fabrics from which the patterns were taken 
have been found in ancient Egypt, ancient 
Peru, modem Guatemala, Scandinavia, and 
the South Pacific, and among various Ameri- 
can Indian tribes. 

In the final chapter there is a discussion 
of the use of such weaving techniques in 
connection with occupational therapy. Mrs. 
Atwater presents a brief analysis of the 
psychological factors that must be con- 
sidered in adapting any weaving project to 
a given occupational-therapy program, and 
she discusses the suitability of the weaving 
techniques described in the book for various 
ages and psychological conditions of the 
patients. 

Those who have some background in 
hand-weaving will find this book with its 
diagrams of unusual patterns most interest- 
ing and useful. 

Elaine Bluhm 
Assistant in Archaeology 



Two Museum Archaeologists 
in Southwest Symposium 

The American Anthropological Associa- 
tion has devoted an issue of its magazine, 
American Anthropologist, to a symposium 
on the anthropology of southwestern United 
States. Chicago Natural History Museum 
is represented by two articles by members 
of its staff. One, in connection with the 
history and theory of Southwest archaeology 
is by Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of 
Anthropology. The other, on gatherers and 
farmers in the greater Southwest, is by Dr. 
A. L. Kroeber, Research Associate in 
American Archaeology. 



Daily Guide Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered 
daily except Sundays under the title 
"Highlights of the Exhibits." These tours 
are designed to give a general idea of the 
entire Museum and its scope of activities. 
They begin at 2 p.m. on Monday through 
Friday and at 2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available Mon- 
days through Fridays for parties of ten or 
more persons. Requests for such service 
must be made at least one week in advance. 

Although there are no tours on Sundays, 
the Museum is open from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 



SATURDAY LECTURES- 

{Continued from page 3) 
hensive color picture of this republic, pre- 
sents nine different Argentinas in his film. 
He shows scenes of snow-covered peaks that 
dwarf the Alps, jungle waterfalls twice the 
size of Niagara, the cosmopolitan life of 
Buenos Aires, the famous turf race-track at 
San Ysidro, some of the finest of Argentina's 
horses, and the gauchos of the Pampas. 

November 27 — Expedition Ice Cap 

PaulE. Victor 

The interior of Greenland is a single vast 
glacier some 2,000 miles long and 1,000 miles 
or more wide. It took five years of grueling 
and skillful work for Paul E. Victor's expe- 
dition to set up a research station at the 
very center of the ice cap. To accomplish 
this, Mr. Victor and fellow-scientists bur- 
rowed into the thick ice and snow to con- 
struct an intricate network of research 
laboratories for radio, direction finding, 
meteorology, photography, atmosphere 
physics, and glaciology. During the five 
years of the expedition, exploring parties 
covered a total of 61,000 miles. 



STAFF NOTES 



MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 
Friday, October 8 



Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, Chief Curator of 
Zoology, attended meetings of several scien- 
tific societies held from September 5 to 9 at 
the University of Florida in Gainsville 
under the auspices of the American Institute 
of Biological Sciences. He presided at the 
meetings of the Society for the Study of 
Evolution. Papers were presented at the 
meetings of the American Society of 
Ichthyologists and Herpetologists by Loren 
P. Woods, Curator of Fishes, and Dr. 
Robert F. Inger, Curator of Amphibians 
and Reptiles. Dr. Francis Drouet, Cu- 
rator of the Cryptogamic Herbarium, 
attended meetings of the Botanical Society 
of America .... Dr. Austin L. Rand, 
Curator of Birds, and Associate Curator 
Emmet R. Blake attended the meetings 
of the American Ornithologists' Union held 
from September 8 to 11 at the University 
of Wisconsin .... Dr. Theodor Just, Chief 
Curator of Botany, addressed the Chicago 
Rocks and Minerals Society on "Cycads, 
Living and Fossil.". . . . Dr. Julian A. 
Steyermark, Curator of the Phanerogamic 
Herbarium, recently lectured before the 
Flossmoor Garden Club and the Skokie 
Garden Club .... Mrs. Maryl Andrd, a 
graduate of Indiana State Teachers' College 
and former teacher of science in Gary 
schools, has been appointed to the Museum 
Library staff as a classifier and cataloguer. 
She replaces Mrs. Stanley (Dawn Davey) 
Auerbach, who is on a year's leave of 
absence .... Miss Betty Lou Lesk has 
been appointed secretary in the Department 
of Zoology. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



October, 195U 



MOVIES FOR CHILDREN, 
SATURDAY MORNINGS 

The Fall Series of color motion-picture 
programs for children will be presented by 
the Museum on Saturday mornings during 
October and November in the James Simp- 
son Theatre at 10:30 o'clock. These pro- 
grams are given under the auspices of the 
James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation. Three of the programs will 
include talks by the men who photographed 
the films being shown. Another program 
will depart from the usual showing of a 
movie to offer instead a stage presentation 
of American Indian dancing. 

Admission is free. Children may come 
alone, accompanied by parents or other 
adults, or in groups from schools, clubs, and 
other centers. The program follows: 

October 2 — American Indian Dances 
A stage presentation 
Dancing by the Emestis 

October 9 — ACROSS Tropical Africa 
Story by Len Stuttman 

October 16 — The Romance of 
Transportation 
Story told in cartoon-style 
Also a cartoon 

October 23 — Undersk4 Life 
Also a cartoon 

October 30 — Monsters in Miniature 
Tiny creatures of the insect-world 
Story by Fran William Hall 

November 6 — Water Birds 
A Walt Disney story 
Also a cartoon 

November 13 — Hunting the Kodiak 
Bear 
Story by C. J. Albrecht 

November 20 — Angote 
Story about an Eskimo 
Also a cartoon 

November 27 — Savage Splendor 
A picture-hunting expedition in Africa 



MEMBERS' NIGHT PROGRAM 

{Continued from page 2) 
Sashaying Around — 

Throughout the evening Members and 
their guests may go everywhere in the 
building and see everything, including the 
places and things that ordinarily are pla- 
carded "No Admittance." Most of the 
laboratories, studios, offices, and workshops 
are on the ground, third, and fourth floors, 
and the Museum elevator will be at the 
service of guests. 

In the Departments of Anthropology, 
Botany, Geology, Zoology, and N. W. 



Harris Public School Extension, and in the 
Library, Museum Members will be greeted 
by curators, artists, preparators, and other 
staff members who will be on hand to tell 
their part of the story of how the Museum 
operates, to demonstrate techniques, and 
to answer questions on scientific subjects. 
The tours of the Museum and its usually 
restricted areas may be made independently 
by Members, or they may join parties 
guided by the seven young women of the 
guide-lecture staff of the James Nelson and 
Anna Louise Raymond Foundation. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received during the past month: 

Department of Botany: 

From: Dr. Leandro Aristeguieta, Caracas, 
Venezuela — craniolaria annua; University of 
California, Berkeley — 2 Salvador plants; 
Ralph Eiseman, Chicago — Nymphaea tu- 
berosa, Indiana; Dr. Henry Field, Coconut 
Grove, Fla. — 3 fungi, Wyoming; Dr. Fritz 
Haas, Chicago — phanerogam, Israel; Robert 
Hershey, Woodruff, Wis. — Ganoderma ap- 
plantaum; Mrs. Meta Howell, Chicago — 
Morus alba var. multicaulis, Mexico; Illinois 
State Museum, Springfield — Carex Dewey- 
ana; Dr. Richard E. Schultes, Cambridge, 
Mass. — 2 Vaupesia cataractarum (new 
genus), Colombia; Floyd A. Swink, Chicago 
— Muhlenbergia asperifolia; Dr. John W. 
Thieret, Chicago — 46 hand-samples of In- 
diana woods; Archie Wilson, Mount Gilead, 
Ohio — 23 Texas plants, 29 Mexican plants 

Department of Geology; 

From: Harry Cornfield, Chicago — Tertiary 
leaf, Colorado; Byron Harvey, Jr., and 
Byron Harvey III, Chicago — collection of 
fossil vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants, 
Europe 

Department of Zoology; 

From: Dr. Aurelio Malaga Alba, Mexico 
— 23 Trinidad bats; American Museum of 
Natural History, New York — paratype of 
weevil (Galandra coranc^, Vaurie), Mexico; 
Dr. Bernard Greenberg, Chicago — 8 lizards 
(Agama), Egypt; Dr. Fritz Haas, Chicago 
— 3 salamanders, Canada; Carter H. Har- 
rison, Jr. Chicago — fresh-water shells, 
Michigan; Richard Janovsky, Lockport, 111. 
— 4 birdskins, Korea; George J. Leahy, 
Chicago — sailfish, barracuda, dolphin, 2 
pheasants; Dr. C. H. Lowe, Jr., Tucson, 
Ariz. — salamander; Lewis Stannard, Spring- 
field, 111., Clarence L. Goodnight and Marie 
Goodnight, Lafayette, Ind.— 23 Ptiliid 
beetles, 5 Histerid beetles, Central America; 
Pvt. Wendel B. Swanson, Chiago — 5 frogs, 
Australia; M. W. F. Tweedie, Singapore — 
snake (Calamaria), Singapore Island 

Motion Picture Division; 

From: Santa Fe Railway, Chicago — 
Navaho Indian film 



POLAR EXPLORERS SLATED 
IN U. OF C. LECTURES 

Explorers whose names have become 
legendary in the field of polar investigation 
will be the featured speakers of the lecture 
series "Sons of the Vikings" to be presented 
in the James Simpson Theatre of the Mu- 
seum, on Sunday afternoons, October 10 to 
November 7, at 2:30 o'clock. 

Tickets for the series ($3.00 for Museum 
Members, $3.50 for non-members) may be 
obtained at University College, 19 South 
LaSalle Street (indicate Museum member- 
ship in order to receive tickets at the special 
price). All checks should be made payable 
to the University of Chicago. Single ad- 
missions at 75 cents each will be sold at the 
door if seats are available. The series is 
presented by the Museum in co-operation 
with University College of the University 
of Chicago and American Scandinavian 
Foundation. The schedule follows: 

October 10 — Peter Freuchen — Life 
Among the Eskimos 

October 17 — Commander Finn Ronne^ 
Conquest of the Antarctic 

October 24 — Valter Schytt — Strategic 
Importance of the Arctic 

October 31 — Einar Haugen — Viking 
Voyages to the Arctic 

November 7 — Colonel Bernt Balchen — 
Survival in the Arctic 



A "family tree" tracing the origins of 
mammals is displayed in George M. Pullman 
Hall (Hall 13). 



NEW MEMBERS 

(August 16 to September 14) 

Associate Members 

Warren W. Brown, Lyle B. Cline, Dexter 
Cummings, Dr. Edward C. Holmblad, 
Harry J. Owens, John W. Pope, J. P. Smith 

Annual Members 

James Alter, Herman Balsam, Dr. Melvyn 
A. Bayly, Mrs. H. H. Belding, Jr., Leo F. 
Biedermann, Mrs. Lucille T. Blakesley, 
Adolph Buechler, Frederick R. Carson, 
George E. Elfring, Kellogg Fairbank, Stan- 
ley K. Feinberg, F. D. Fyanes, Milton A. 
Goldstandt, Emmet Grannon, Louis Z. 
Grant, Foster W. Harmon, Dr. G. Duncan 
Hinkson, Miss Helen D. Home, Roger D. 
Isaacs, Gust W. Isacson, G. Richard Isett, 
Carl W. Jackson, Dr. Hushang Javid, 
Herbert M. Johnson, G. Arthur Johnstone, 
E. A. Juzwik, William C. Kamin, Dr. M. 
V. Kaminski, Frank S. Kelly, Rev. Niketas 
Kesses, Dr. A. Charles King, Mrs. Calvin 
P. King, Mrs. Charies G. King, John D. 
King, Dr. Robert E. Lee, F. O. Leffler, 
James Lentine, Chester M. MacChesney, 
Frank A. Major, Ross O. Major, Alfred S. 
Markus, Eldon Martin, Michael J. Norton, 
Miss Margaret E. Perry, C. A. Piper, Dr. 
A. H. Rudolph, Newton E. Silber, John J. 
Simon, Dr. Manuel Spiegel, Ian Steven, 
Olof Svensson, H. G. Swanson, J. P. 
Templeman, James VanSanten, Mrs. India 
A. Walker, Ralph E. Weymouth 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



RULLETIN 

LJ Vol.25,No.ll-November-1954 

Chicago Natural 
History Mils e unz 



* 1^^ 




Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



November, 195U 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Samuel Insull, Jr. 

Sewell L. Avery Henry P. Ishah 

Wm. Mccormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Waltheb Buchen William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Albert B. Dick, Jr.* Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

John P. Wilson 

• Dccciscd October 2-<, 1954 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field First Vice-President 

Samuel Insuix, Jr Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clippobd C. Gbbgc Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chie/ Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Karl P. Schmidt Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Barbara Poukoff 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



ALBERT BLAKE DICK, Jr. 

1894-1954 

With deep regret the Museum records 
the death, on October 24, of Albert Blake 
Dick, Jr., a member of the Board of Trustees 
since 1936 and a Vice- 
President during more 
than nine years of his 
trusteeship. Mr. Dick 
was elected a Trustee 
on December 21, 1936, 
and elected Third 
Vice-President on 
January 19, 1942. He 
served in that office 
until May 20, 1946, 
when he was elected 
Second Vice-Presi- 
dent. He was espe- 
cially active in Mu- 
seum affairs as a member of the Executive 
Committee and the Finance Committee. 
Because of ill health he resigned his vice- 
presidency in May, 1951, but continued as 
a Trustee. He was a Corporate Member 
and a Life Member of the Museum, and on 
October 18, in recognition of his generous 
contributions to the funds of the Museum, 
he had been elected a Contributor by the 
Board of Trustees. 

Mr. Dick was born in Chicago on Feb- 




A. B. DICK, Jr. 



ruary 11, 1894. A Yale graduate, he was a 
notable success as an industrial leader, and 
at the time of his death was chairman of 
the board of the A. B. Dick Company, 
mimeograph manufacturers. He was also a 
director of several banks, other business 
establishments, and a railroad. 

Mr. Dick was prominent in various civic 
organizations in addition to the Museum as 
well as in several charities. He was es- 
pecially active as a member of the board of 
the Presbyterian Hospital of Chicago. 



MUSEUM WELCOMES 1,156 
AT FETE FOR ITS MEMBERS 

A gratifyingly keen interest in the work 
and purposes of the Museum was displayed 
by the 1,156 people who attended Members' 
Night on the evening of October 8. The 
number of visitors was several hundred 
more than that for the previous year's fete 
and one of the largest for any special event 
held exclusively for Members and their 
guests. 

Demonstrations of various phases of Mu- 
seum activity given in shops, laboratories, 
and studios by members of the scientific 
and technical staffs drew lively attention. 
A near-capacity audience thronged the 
James Simpson Theatre to hear the talk by 
Walther Buchen, Museum Trustee, and to 
see his color motion-pictures of the zoo- 
logical expedition that he sponsored and 
led in Kenya Colony and Uganda. Another 
crowd gathered in William V. Kelley Hall 
of Asiatic Mammals (Hall 17) for the un- 
veiling of the new Malay tapir habitat 
group by Rush Watkins, Museum Contrib- 
utor, who sponsored and led an expedition 
to Siam to collect the specimens. The two 
special exhibits of the evening, "The Why 
of Museum Insect Collections" and "In 
Search of History" (illustrating the purposes 
and methods of archaeology) proved so 
popular that they will be kept on display 
for several weeks. 

The executive and scientific staffs of the 
Museum found in the many contacts with 
the Members inspiration and encouragement 
for continued and broadened effort in the 
Museum's scientific and educational pro- 
grams. It is confidently believed that the 
Members, too, gained a clearer understand- 
ing of the workings of the Museum and the 
problems involved in carrying out its ob- 
jectives. 



Daily Guide-Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered 
daily except Sundays under the title 
"Highlights of the Exhibits." These tours 
are designed to give a general idea of the 
entire Museum and its scope of activities. 
They begin at 2 p.m. on Monday through 
Friday and at 2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 



-THIS MO.MTH'S COVER- 



The Malay tapirs on our cover 
are of the only living tapir species 
outside the Americas. The two in 
the photograph came from Siam 
and are in a new habitat group 
(see page 3) in William V. Kelley 
Hall of Asiatic Mammals (Hall 
17). The specimens were collected 
in 1949 by the Rush Watkins 
Zoological Expedition to Siam 
and presented by Rush Watkins, 
a Contributor of the Museum. 
A group of the Brazilian tapir is 
exhibited in Richard T. Crane, 
Jr., Hall of American Mammals 
(Hall 16). 



MOVIES FOR CHILDREN, 
SATURDAY MORNINGS 

The Fall Series of color motion-picture 
programs for children will be continued at 
the Museum on Saturday mornings during 
November in the James Simpson Theatre 
at 10:30 o'clock. These programs are given 
under the auspices of the James Nelson and 
Anna Louise Raymond Foundation. 

Admission is free. Children may come 
alone, accompanied by parents or other 
adults, or in groups from schools, clubs, 
and other centers. The schedule follows: 

November 6 — Water Birds 
A Walt Disney story 
Also a cartoon 

November 13 — Hunting the Kodiak 
Bear 
Story by C. J. Albrecht 

November 20 — Angote 
Story about an Eskimo 
Also a cartoon 

November 27 — Savage Splendor 
A picture-hunting expedition in Africa 



Last Viking Lecture 
on November 7 
"Survival in the Arctic," a saga of polar 
exploration, will be presented on Sunday 
afternoon, November 7, at 2:30 o'clock in 
one of the lecture halls of the Museum. 
Colonel Bernt Balchen, famed for his ex- 
ploits in the Far North, will be the lecturer. 
This is the last in the series of five "Sons of 
the Vikings" lectures presented by Uni- 
versity College of the University of Chicago 
in co-operation with the Museum and the 
American Scandinavian Foundation. The 
university makes a charge of 75 cents ad- 
mission. Tickets may be purchased at the 
door. 



November, 195 ^ 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Pages 



NEW ASIATIC TAPIR GROUP -AND STORY OF THE HUNT 



By COLIN CAMPBELL SANBORN 

CURATOR OF MAMMALS 

ANEW HABITAT GROUP of the 
Malay tapir has been opened in 
William V. Kelley Hall (Asiatic Mammals, 
Hall 17). The two animals and the material 
for the group were collected in 1949 by the 
Rush Watkins Zoological Expedition to 
Siam led by Rush Watkins, of Chicago, a 
Contributor of the Museum. 

The expedition, of which I was a member, 
first worked in Kam Pang Pet Province of 
north-central Siam, near the Burma border. 



but he had no chance to shoot one. 

After two weeks, operations were shifted 
to the west coast of southern or peninsular 
Siam. Here the hunt was placed in the 
competent hands of Man Lilabhan, an ex- 
perienced wild-animal collector and dealer. 
The trip to camp started by plane from 
Bangkok and continued by train and truck. 
It ended with more than twenty bearers 
carrying the expedition's equipment four 
miles from the paved truck-road to our 
camp. 

This was a more populated area, with 







SUCCESS ! 

Native hunters and beaters with a tapir collected on Rush Watkins Zoological Expedition to Siam. 



It is a region of low hills covered with heavy 
jungle and watered by numerous small 
streams and swamps. Aside from one or 
two small native settlements, the region is 
uninhabited. Signs of the wild elephant, 
tiger, and pig were plentiful. We had been 
told that tapirs also could be found here. 
A few animals were reported and some lo- 
cated, but conditions were not suitable nor 
was adequate personnel available for hunt- 
ing them. For a week Watkins spent eight 
to ten hours a day tramping through the 
hot and humid jungle with two hunters and 
found some sign of the presence of tapirs. 



many small villages along the road. The 
houses of the rice farmers, which are built 
on poles ten feet above the ground, were 
scattered along the edge of the jungle. 
There were many rice paddies, from the edge 
of which swamp and jungle extended to the 
distant hills. Pigs, tigers, leopards, and 
tapirs were fairly common. 

Our camp was pitched on the bank of 
a jungle stream. Our party consisted of 
an expert tracker, sixteen beaters and 
camp boys, and two policemen who were 
detailed by local authorities for our pro- 
tection and to keep order. The tracker 



was intimately acquainted with the habits 
of the tapir and it was through his ability 
and knowledge that two animals were 
secured. 

RELATIVES OF THE HORSE 

The Malay Moslems in the south will not 
touch the tapir because they believe it to 
be related to the pig. Our helpers even 
replaced with a tough vine a rope that was 
used to lift a tapir onto a skinning platform 
when they saw that the rope was blood- 
stained. The Siamese or Thai name for 
the tapir is "psom-sett," which means "the 
mixing is finished" or "mixture." This' 
comes from a belief that the Creator made 
the tapir from the clay that was left sticking 
to His hands after the creation of all the 
other animals. 

Tapirs are really most closely related to 
the horse and rhinoceros. Three species 
live in Central and South America and one, 
the Malay tapir, in Burma, Siam, the Malay 
States, and Sumatra (a history of the tapirs, 
by Philip Hershkovitz, Associate Curator 
of Mammals, appeared in the Bulletin for 
September, 1949). 

HOW they're tracked 

It was learned from our tracker that 
tapirs feed at night, keeping on the move, 
and at dawn bed down in a thick bit of 
jungle for the day. If disturbed they always 
leave the jungle by the trail they made 
coming in. When the tracker found a fresh 
trail entering a jungle he circled the area 
and, if no tracks were found coming out, 
the hunters were posted on the entering 
trail and the beaters drove out the tapir. 

By this means our two tapirs were secured. 
One animal stopped directly in front of the 
hunters. The other dashed out between 
two hunters into an open field and was shot 
on the gallop. In this last drive there were 
two tigers in the same spot of jungle, but 
they slipped out to one side. 

A female tapir with a calf crossed the 
river one night and woke us with her splash- 
ing, but she could not be located in the dark. 
At another spot a female and calf were 
located and driven twice. Each time she 
turned back before reaching the hunters, 
either scenting them or going to rejoin her 
calf. In the south one young is born to a 
pair of adults in November or December, 
probably every other year. 

The Malay tapir is larger, with a thicker, 
heavier hide than the Brazilian animal. 
The large cats are the principal enemies of 
tapirs, the jaguar and puma in America 
and the much larger tiger in Asia. So it is 
not surprising that the Malay tapir has 
hide an inch thick on its neck, twice that of 
the American tapir. I collected and skinned 
three of the specimens for the Brazilian 
tapir group (Hall 16, American Mammals) 
(Continued on page 8, column 1 ) 



Page U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



November, 195 It 



MYSTERIOUS FISHES FOUND IN CAVE POOLS AND STREAMS 



By LOREN p. woods 
curator of fishes 



THE WHITE BLINDFISHES living in 
the streams in caves and in other sub- 
terranean waters, such as springs and wells, 
have been the subject of interest and inves- 



totally blind ones with the eye socket 
covered with tissue and no evident eye 
structure. 

Three kinds of white eyeless fishes, the 
big blindfish, Rosa's blindflsh, and the 
small blindfish, live in the underground 




SMALL BLINDFISH FROM SOUTHERN TENNESSEE 

Tubes of the creature's nostrils protrude like horns. Rows of sensory papillae visible on the side of the head. 

Some pigment developed in this white 6sh after it had been kept in the light for one month. 



tigation since they first received public 
attention and description in the early 
1840's. What were fishes doing in rivers 
deep in the earth far from any surface 
connection? How did they sustain life so 
far removed from the necessary source of 
all life, the sun? Why had they entered 
caves? Which surface fishes were their 
relatives? Why had their eyes degenerated? 
How did they find their way about from 
cave to cave and how did they locate food? 
Some of these questions were readily an- 
swered by simple observation. The answers 
to others are still largely incomplete, chiefly 
because no sustained investigation has been 
made of the habits and habitat of blindfishes. 

Sixteen kinds of completely blind, exclu- 
sively subterranean fishes have been dis- 
covered in the underground freshwaters of 
the world. They belong to eight different 
families largely composed of normal-eyed 
fishes with one or two species of each family 
living in total darkness and without eyes. 
Most blindfishes are restricted to a fairly 
small area or to a particular limestone 
formation or cave system. 

In North America two kinds of blind 
catflshes come from the artesian wells in 
Texas. Two kinds of blind brotulas are 
known from the subterranean freshwaters 
of Cuba and one from Yucatan. These 
are especially interesting because all other 
members of the brotula family live in 
the ocean. Another kind well-known to 
aquarists is the cave tetra from San Luis 
Potosi, Mexico. This species reveals a four- 
step gradation in the degeneration of the 
eyes from perfectly eyed, normally pig- 
mented, surface-dwelling individuals to 



waters of the Mississippi Valley, particularly 
in the unglaciated parts of Indiana, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Missouri, northern Arkan- 
sas, and northern Alabama. These fishes are 
all fairly closely related, belonging to one 
very distinct family, the Amblyopsidae. 
The big blindfish lives only in the Mam- 
moth Cave area and in south-central In- 
diana. Rosa's blindflsh, its nearest rela- 
tive, lives in southwestern Missouri and 
northwestern Arkansas. The small blind- 
fish, widely distributed in Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Alabama, and south-central 
Missouri, superficially resembles the other 
two blindfishes but actually is more closely 
related to the only eyed members of the 
cave-fish family — the slightly pigmented 
Agassiz' springflsh (which lives in caves, 
wells, mouths of springs, or even in surface 
streams under rocks) and the rice fish 
(which lives in blackwater swamps and in the 
shady sluggish parts of streams of the coastal 
plains from Virginia to south-central 
Georgia). 

Superficially all three of these species of 
blindfish have the same appearance. When 
alive, the fishes are translucent white, with 
a flush of pink around the gills. When 
dead or preserved, they are pure opaque 
white. The head is flattened on top, snout 
broadly rounded, and body heavy near the 
head, tapering to quite thin near the tail. 
All the fins are broad and rounded (two of 
the three kinds do not have a set of paired 
ventral fins). The vent is not in its normal 
position but has migrated as far forward as 
it can to a position under the gill openings. 

Blindfish are not the sole inhabitants of 
the Mississippi Valley caves. They live in 



company with several kinds of eyeless in- 
vertebrates — crayfish, aquatic sow bugs, 
scuds, worms, flatworms, and mites. All of 
these are sources of food for the fishes. 
These invertebrates with their scavenger 
habits feed on vegetable debris and organic 
materials in mud and water when such 
substances are washed into the underground 
waters from the surface. Some feed on bat 
guano. Occasionally surface-dwelling fishes, 
such as sculpins, minnows, catfish, and 
even sunfish, are found living in under- 
ground streams, but they are normally 
colored and possess eyes comparable to 
those of their species living in surface waters. 
Although sometimes found in considerable 
numbers in underground waters, these sur- 
face species of fishes are probably only 
temporary residents and very likely leave 
the underground habitat to spawn or feed. 

EVIDENTLY FEEL THEIR WAY 

Undisturbed blindfishes observed in caves 
are generally seen just above the bottom of 
the stream or lake moving about by means 
of slow oarlike strokes of the pectoral fins. 
One lazy stroke is followed by a long glide 
until the momentum is dissipated, and then 
another stroke follows. They usually come 
to rest in contact with the stream-bottom 
or a boulder. When they collide with a 
boulder or other object it is usually without 
much force. 

If a strong flashlight beam is held on the 
fishes they slowly move away, but they do 
not pay attention to a weaker diffuse light. 
Sometimes they are alarmed and retreat to 
a hiding place if someone wades in the water 
near them. They are also greatly disturbed 
by the slow approach of a dipnet and, if 
closely approached or touched, they use 
their tail fins to dart wildly away toward 
the surface or under a rock. Occasionally 
they escape by hiding in a cloud of muddy 
water. Although they frequently collide 
with rocks or gravel shoals they seem to 
know their neighborhood and the collisions 
may be deliberate — perhaps they ascertain 
their location by thus "feeling" their way. 
They do not move incessantly, as does the 
Mexican blind tetra, but usually remain 
quietly resting with their tails drooping in 
order to maintain contact with the bottom. 
This more or less continuous contact with 
the solid parts of their home-range must be 
necessary to prevent their being carried 
away and "lost." During our cave collect- 
ing, if we missed capturing a fish we had only 
to return to the same locality later — some- 
times several days later — and there would 
be our fish resting against the same rock as 
when we first observed it. 

It has been demonstrated that the skin of 
blindfishes is sensitive to light and small 
temperature differences. Head, body, and 
even the tail fin have many short rows of 
very sensitive dermal papillae each with a 



November, 195 It 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



nerve fiber exposed at its tip. The eyed 
species of this family also are well equipped 
with these organs and probably rely more 
on them than on their eyes for information 
about their surroundings. 

Fishes of the eternal dark are blind, but 
they certainly are not oblivious to their 
surroundings nor do they fumblingly grope 
their way about as do blinded surface ani- 
mals. Their senses of touch, taste, and 
smell, though perhaps limited to their im- 
mediate surroundings, are so highly de- 
veloped that these fishes do not appear to 
need sight, the sense on which the Primates 
are so dependent and for which an additional 
element, light, is needed. 

INSENSITIVE TO SOUND 

Blindfishes do not appear to be sensitive 
to sound, however. We could clatter our 
equipment or talk in loud voices without 
disturbing them. Some of these fishes that 
we kept in an aquarium would start violently 



pouring from wall or roof. This noise is 
amplified by being echoed and re-echoed 
through the cave, and sometimes it was 
necessary for us to shout in order to carry on 
conversation above the noise that to us 
sounded like several people talking at once 
just around the corner. Such noise loses 
little intensity on transmission through 
water or from air to water. 

Cave fishes are not gregarious but more 
or less solitary, and they pay little attention 
to other fishes as they move about. When 
several were seen fairly close together, 
presumably in a good locality for feeding, 
their position and their movements were 
independent, never grouped. The one ex- 
ception was in a lake where we saw an un- 
usually large fish followed by a close school 
of twelve to fifteen tiny flsh, presumably 
its young. 

The most favorable conditions for cave 
fishes appear to be reaches along the stream 
comparable to long, deep, quiet pools of 




DISTRIBUTION OF CAVE FISH FAMILY IN EASTERN U.S. 

Dashed line marks southern limit of glacial drift; dotted line, the Mississippi Embayment, a Cretaceous 

encroachment of the sea. The x's indicate the range of the riccfish, and the triangle symbols denote that 

of the spring6sh (both of these species are eyed.) The square symbols trace the range of the small blindfish; 

outline circles, the large blindfish, and solid black circles, Rosa's blindfish. 



if we suddenly rapped hard on the table on 
which the aquarium rested. This reaction 
to strong low-frequency vibrations probably 
was sensed as much by touch as by sound. 
The auditory apparatus is normally de- 
veloped in these fishes, and they probably 
can hear as well as most other fishes but 
are ju.st indifferent to sound. While some 
caves are absolutely quiet, others are very 
noisy from water dripping or small springs 



surface streams. They were most often 
found where the water was fairly deep (2 feet 
or more) and where the bottom was thickly 
covered with a layer of fine silt. They 
seemed to congregate around rocks that 
cropped out through the silt. In a few caves 
solitary individuals were living in shallow 
streams with a rocky or gravel bottom and 
a fair current. In such places the fish took 
advantage of every sheltering eddy behind 



rocks and bars and even moved into water 
an inch or so in depth at the edge of the 
stream to avoid the current. 

The most favorable type of habitat, 
judging from the hundreds of blind fishes 
seen in it, was an underground lake, 25 to 
75 feet broad, with water 3 to 4 feet deep 
and a bottom of soft silt 1 to 2 feet in 
thickness. A stretch 400 yards long of this 
lake was examined by four slowly stalking 
men, and more than a thousand fish were 
seen scattered over the bottom. Also in 
this place the largest individuals of the 
small blindfish were observed to be almost 
equal in size to average individuals of the 
big blindfish. 

SEEM TO BE HARDY 

All cave fishes we have collected were fat 
and appeared to be in excellent condition. 
They store fat between the lengthwise 
muscle layers along the midline of the back, 
along the midline of the sides, and also in 
the tissues surrounding the viscera. Very 
likely they normally survive fairly long 
periods of starvation and remain in good 
condition. We have kept them for three 
months in an aquarium where they refused 
all food and were not noticeably thinner at 
the end of this time. They have been kept 
for as long as nine months, during which 
time they never ate. All are known to be 
carnivorous. The majority of stomachs 
examined were empty but a few contained 
crayfish and sow bugs. Although we have 
observed the fishes for several hours in the 
caves, we never saw one feeding. 

The egg-laying or spawning behavior of 
the amblyopsids has never been observed 
but it is known that in one species, the 
big blindfish, the eggs are carried in the 
gill chamber of the female and the newly 
hatched young are incubated there also. 
Probably the young stay in the gill chamber 
until they are able to swim and follow the 
parent. There are no observations on young 
re-entering the brooding chamber once they 
have left it. It has been reported that 60 
to 70 eggs are laid by the female into her 
gill chamber, where they remain for about 
two months. The opening of the oviduct 
is located far forward in this group of fishes 
in a position just under the gill openings. 

Fishes with ripe eggs in the ovary or with 
eggs or larvae being incubated have been 
taken from Indiana caves during various 
times from March to November. It is quite 
likely that they spawn throughout the year. 
Although only this bare outline of the re- 
productive habits of the big blindfish ir; 
known, the displacement of the oviduct 
opening and the enlarged gill chamber with 
reduced gills also occur in the other species 
of this family and indicate that they have 
similar habits of caring for their eggs and 
young. 

{To be continued in the next issue) 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



November, 195i 



RARE FOSSILS UNCOVERED IN MUSEUM 'QUARRY' 

By BARBARA POUKOFF 



ROOM 88 — a workshop on the third 
floor of the Museum — has been un- 
officially dubbed "Mecca," a designation 
derived from the name of the Indiana town 
where slabs of shale were removed from a 
quarry and brought to the Museum for 
study of their fossil content by Dr. Rainer 
Zangerl, Curator of Fossil Reptiles, and Dr. 
Eugene S. Richardson, Jr., Curator of Fossil 
Invertebrates. Although the name Mecca 
usually denotes a goal of pilgrims, the Mu- 
seum's Mecca marks not the end but the 
beginning of a pilgrimage — back 240,000,000 
years to the middle of the Pennsylvanian 



found in this country and the knowledge of 
Pennsylvanian marine vertebrates is conse- 
quently very sketchy, since it is based 
almost entirely on isolated fragments such 
as teeth, scales, and fin spines. 

LARGE-SCALE PROJECT 

Curator Zangerl encouraged Curator 
Richardson and Dr. Robert H. Denison, 
Curator of Fossil Fishes, to aid him in 
making a reconnaissance of the Mecca area. 
All three men agreed that the fossils found 
there would furnish new information about 
the marine life of the Pennsylvanian period. 
They mapped out a plan of study, and Pro- 




THE GIANT PUZZLE 

Rainer Zangerl, William D. Turnbull, and Eugene S. Richardson, Jr.. of the Department of Geology, study 

a map of the Mecca quarry to determine if the shale is reassembled correctly in the Museum workroom. 



period and climax of the Coal Age — a pil- 
grimage being made with the help of fossils 
from which Zangerl and Richardson hope 
to learn enough to reconstruct as complete 
a picture as possible of the animals and 
their environment at that remote period. 

As often happens with significant finds, 
the discovery of the Mecca site was purely 
accidental. Curator Zangerl was driving 
along Highway 41 in Parke County, Indiana, 
when he spotted a hillside littered with slabs 
of shale. Thinking that the shale might 
contain vertebrate fossils he stopped to 
investigate. The first slab he examined had 
a shark's fin on it — an unusual find in 
Pennsylvanian deposits. Several return 
trips to the hillside convinced him that the 
site was an unusually rich one — not only 
were marine vertebrates and invertebrates 
abundant, an uncommon occurrence in itself, 
but many of the specimens were partially 
articulated remains. Up to this time few 
such nearly complete remains had been 



ject Mecca was ready for launching. 

The first step was the digging of a quarry 
so that slabs could be removed from the 
hill and brought to the Museum for study. 
Because of the large concentration of fossils 
in the shale, only a small section was needed 
to give a fair sampling of what the deposit 
in the area contained. Permission was ob- 
tained from Noble Auld, owner of the 
land on which the hillside was located, to 
dig on his property. Mr. Auld aided the 
operation by bulldozing about 125 tons of 
dirt off the fossil-bearing shale. The last 
foot of overburden was removed carefully 
by the Mu.seum field party consisting st 
various times of Zangerl and Richardson, 
William and Priscilla Turnbull of the Mu- 
seum's Department of Geology, Peter 
Garrison, a student from Antioch College, 
and Richard McClung of Hyde Park High 
School. 

The plan was to break a section of shale 
(approximately 5 yards long by 6 yards 



wide and 14 inches thick) into slabs and to 
label each slab with a code that would 
make it possible to reassemble them in their 
original pattern back in the Museum. 
Some of the shale, made brittle by relentless 
sun and rain, had to be studied in the field 
because moving it would have caused it to 
disintegrate. The slabs that could be 
transported were loaded on trucks. This 
was done without too much difficulty by 
driving the trucks to the quarry and doing 
the loading right on the quarry site. But 
when the rains came, which they did with 
disconcerting frequency, the dirt road be- 
came as slick as oil and driving on it was 
impossible. On these occasions Turnbull 
and Garrison hauled the slabs through dense 
foliage and up and down gullies to the high- 
way where the trucks were stationed. It is 
reported that each evening these intrepid 
members of the field party renewed their 
strength for the following day's work by 
drinking a brew of sassafras tea made from 
the roots of surrounding trees. 

STUDY BEGINS 

After about ten trips to Mecca, some 
lasting two weeks, the designated part of 
the quarry was successfully transferred from 
Indiana to the Museum workshop. When 
the jig-saw puzzle job of reassembling it 
was completed, the study of the fossils was 
ready to begin. 

Now Zangerl and Richardson, with the 
assistance of Antioch College students 
Peter Garrison and Shirley Hale, are sepa- 
rating the sheets of shale, layer by layer, 
piece by piece, and studying each one for 
fossils. When they find one they record its 
identification and its position on a scale 
chart. They are then able to look at such a 
chart and see what fossils occurred in a par- 
ticular level, where they occurred, and with 
what frequency. When an unknown fossil 
turns up, it is given a code number and is 
laid aside for future identification. Curator 
Zangerl estimates that by the time the 
project is completed, about 180 folio-size 
charts will have been made. 

Several factors are considered in studying 
the fossils. One of these is their state of 
decomposition. Because scientists have de- 
termined through aquarium experiments 
what conditions cause rotting and decay 
and what conditions lead to preservation, 
the state of decomposition of the fossil 
reveals something about the habitat of the 
animal. So many of the Mecca fossils are 
partially or wholly intact that Zangerl and 
Richardson conclude that they were buried 
in a mud lacking in oxygen since the absence 
of oxygen is one of the conditions necessary 
for preservation. 

The frequency with which fossils appear 
in succeeding levels of shale is also im- 
portant. Using a quarter of an inch of 
shale to represent a unit of time, Zangerl 
and Richardson have found that the fre- 
quency with which palaeoniscoid fishes occur 



November, 195 U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



in different levels fluctuates sharply. In 
levels where the density of occurrence is 
highest, they have found a liberal sprinkling 
of most of the other life forms also. From 
this evidence they conclude that, at the time 
of the frequency-peaks, conditions were un- 
favorable to life, causing many animals to 
die and be buried. But those conditions 
changed as indicated by the abrupt decrease 
in the presence of fossils in succeeding levels. 
What circumstances caused this rhythm of 
change may be revealed as the study 
progresses. 

Although much has been accomplished in 
the study of the Mecca fossils, most of the 
work still lies in the future. But the rewards 
so far have been encouraging. Specimens 
of sharks have been found of which, up to 
now, nothing but teeth have been known. 
Other specimens that might prove to be 
entirely new, such as a shrimp-like inverte- 
brate, have been uncovered. We await the 
conclusions of the Mecca study with interest, 
anticipating the time when a look back- 
ward to a more complete picture of life 
240,000,000 years ago may be possible for 
the layman as well as the paleontologist. 



dition, has resigned from the staff but will 
continue to collect for the Museum. He is 
now exploring the Alto Madre de Dios 
River in southeastern Peru, a rich and 
zoologically unexplored area. 



1,425 BIRDS AND MAMMALS 
ARRIVE FROM AFRICA 

A collection of approximately 1,000 birds 
and 425 mammals has been received from 
Angola (Portuguese West Africa) as an 
interim shipment from the operations there 
by the Conover Expedition. The expedi- 
tion, financed with funds provided by the 
late Boardman Conover, Museum Trustee 
and Research Associate in the Division of 
Birds, began its work in January under the 
leadership of Gerd Heinrich, zoological 
collector from Dryden, Maine. 

Included in the shipment of birds is a 
species new to science, a number of new sub- 
species, and specimens that indicate exten- 
sions of ranges beyond previously known 
limits. Nearly all the mammals received 
represent species new to the Museum's 
collections. Although the mammal speci- 
mens are not yet in condition for study, the 
first general survey shows a number of 
species not recorded from Angola. 



Peruvian Mammals Received 

Mammals collected by the Peru Zoological 
Expedition, 1953-54, from the almost un- 
worked part of northern Peru (west of the 
Andes) were recently received by the Mu- 
seum. This collection of 470 specimens, 
together with the first shipment from south- 
ern Peru (south of Lima), fills many gaps 
in our knowledge of the north-south distri- 
bution of Peruvian mammals, reports Colin 
C. Sanborn, Curator of Mammals. Bats 
new to Peruvian fauna are also included in 
the collections. 

Celestino Kalinowski, leader of the expe- 



4-H Youths From All U.S. 
To Visit Museum 

Approximately 1,300 boys and girls from 
all parts of the United States and Canada 
will visit the Museum on November 30. 
These rural youths, who are coming to 
Chicago as delegates to the National Con- 
gress of 4-H Clubs held simultaneously with 
the International Live Stock Exposition, 
have been selected for excellence of achieve- 
ment in their local communities. The 
entire staff of Raymond Foundation lec- 
turers will be assigned to guide the young 
people to exhibits of most interest to them. 



Audubon Lectures to Begin 

The Illinois Audubon Society will open 
its 1954-55 season of five free "screen-tours" 
on Sunday afternoon, November 28, in the 
James Simpson Theatre of the Museum. 
"Wild America" is the title of the first 
presentation, a color film accompanied by 
a lecture by Roger Tory Peterson, one of 
America's noted ornithologists. The pro- 
gram begins at 2:30 P.M. 

The other Audubon film-lectures will be: 
January 9 — "A Missouri Story," by Alfred 
G. Etter; February 27— "Canada North," 
by Bert Harwell; April 3 — "Mormonland," 
by Patricia Bailey Witherspoon; April 24— 
"The Grass Forest," by Robert C. Hermes. 

Admission to all of these lectures is free 
to the general public. Members of either 
the Museum or the Audubon Society may 
obtain reserved seats by presenting their 
membership cards before 2:25 p.m. 



How mosquitoes spread malaria is shown 
in an exhibit in Albert W. Harris Hall 
(Hall 18). 



MEMO TO CAMERA FANS 

Send your entries now for the 
10th Chicago International Exhi- 
bition of Nature Photography, to 
be held at the Museum February 
1-28. Final deadline is January 
15. Entries are accepted in two 
divisions, prints and color slides. 
There are three classifications in 
each division: animal life, plant 
life, and general. The contest is 
jointly sponsored by Nature 
Camera Club of Chicago and the 
Museum. Entry forms with full 
information are obtainable by re- 
quest to the Museum. 



CURATOR DENISON BACK 
FROM EUROPE STUDIES 

Dr. Robert H. Denison, Curator of Fossil 
Fishes, has returned from a year's study- 
trip to Europe under a fellowship from the 
John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foun- 
dation. The primary purpose of his work 
there was to acquire information from mu- 
seum collections and from the field on the 
occurrence of early vertebrates in an attempt 
to determine their habitats. 

He first visited the Paleontologisk Mu- 
seum in Oslo, where there are large collec- 
tions from the Devonian of Spitsbergen as 
well as a small but important collection 
from a single quarry in Ringerike (not far 
from Oslo). During his stay he was for- 
tunate to participate in the discovery in 
Ringerike of abundant fishes in a road cut. 
He worked next at Naturhistoriska Riks- 
museet in Stockholm, which possesses large 
collections from Poland and Spitsbergen. 
This museum, which is extremely active in 
the study of early fishes, has developed 
important techniques for the determination 
of details of their internal anatomy from 
preserved skeletal parts. At the beginning 
of the year he moved to London and the 
British Museum (Natural History). Here 
is the largest collection extant of fossil 
fishes, which includes classical specimens 
representing the first known examples of 
many groups. 

Curator Denison devoted the spring and 
summer months to field work in many 
parts of Great Britain. In Cornwall the 
Devonian rocks outcrop along the shore 
cliffs, and fossils are not uncommon but 
are poorly preserved. In Pembrokeshire, 
South Wales, where rocks of similar age 
are well exposed along the coast, fossils are 
better preserved but are not at all common. 
The borderland between England and Wales, 
an area where the geology of the Devonian 
"Old Red Sandstone" was first deciphered, 
is the source of many of the early collections 
of Devonian fishes. Today the rock out- 
crops are very scarce, since there is no 
longer any quarrying of the Old Red Sand- 
stone and the railroad and road cuts are all 
overgrown, but there are a few localities 
where good specimens may still be obtained. 
In contrast, the Scottish collecting is ex- 
cellent, sometimes yielding entire fishes that 
are beautifully preserved. 

More than 500 specimens were obtained, 
an important addition to the Museum's 
study collection, for they include many 
genera and some families new to us. A few 
of the finer specimens will eventually find 
their way into the exhibits. 



"Trips to the bottom of the sea" may be 
made by visiting the submarine dioramas 
in the Hall of Fishes (Hall 0). There is 
also an underwater view of the life of a 
fresh-water lake in Michigan. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



November, 195 U 



TAPIR GROUP- 

{Continued from page 3) 

in 1927 and found the Malay tapir a much 
more difficult animal to handle. 

The two tapirs collected by the expedition 
weighed between 700 and 800 pounds each. 
It took four men three hours to skin one, 
and four men another three hours to clean 
the skin after it was brought into camp. 
One man spent five hours shaving the skin 
side so that salt would penetrate more 
easily. It was estimated that the basic 
care of one skin in the field required thirty- 
six man-hours and the preparation of the 
skeleton another twelve. Almost daily 
there were showers, the humidity was high, 
and great difficulty was experienced in 
drying the heavy skins. 

The setting of the exhibition group in the 
Museum looks out from a jungle, across a 
meadow to the hills beyond. Two tapirs 
are resting and feeding at the edge of the 
jungle before bedding down for the day. 

The animals were prepared by Leon L. 
Walters, recently retired taxidermist, as- 
sisted by Taxidermist Ronald J. Lambert. 
They were prepared by the celluloid repro- 
duction method originated by Walters and 
are his last work after forty-three years 
with the Museum. The background was 
painted by Staff Illustrator Douglas E. 
Tibbitts. Accessories and groundwork were 
prepared in part by Frank C. Wonder. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month : 

Department of Anthropology: 

From: Teresa Drake, Chicago — Chippewa 
of Potawatomi bandoleer and pouch, Sioux 
pipe bag, Upper Great Lakes and Plains; 
Mrs. Selma O. Nelson, Chicago — pair of 
moccasins (Lapp type), Sweden 

Department of Botany: 

From: Professor L. Branisa, Sucre, Bo- 
livia — 2 lichens; W. L. Culberson, Madison, 
Wis. — 15 lichens; Mrs. Fay K. Daily, 
Indianapolis, Ind. — 556 miscellaneous cryp- 
togams; Mrs. S. J. Digree, Kodiak, Alaska 
— Orchis aristata; Henry S. Dybas, Chicago 
— 51 fungi; Dr. Norman C. Fassett, Madi- 
son, Wis. — 34 phanerogams, Salvador and 
Mexico; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 
— 2 Grindelia, Mexico 

Department of Geology: 

From: Mr. and Mrs. Preston Walker, 
Grand Junction, Colo. — lower jaw of Dip- 
lacodon, several turtles; Carl Zangerl, 
Hazelcrest, 111. — collection of fossil inverte- 
brates 

Department of Zoology: 

From: American Museum of Natural 
History, New York — 49 beetle paratypes, 
149 beetles, Mexico, United States, Ba- 
hamas; Owen E. Atkins, Oshkosh, Wis. — 
bird skin; Dr. Walter C. Brown, Negros 



Oriental, Philippine Islands — 5 frogs; Chi- 
cago Zoological Society, Brookfield, 111. — 6 
bird skins, 2 bird skeletons, 1 orang; 
Stephan J. Copland, Sydney, Australia — 
lizard paratype; Dr. Jack S. Dandy, Auburn, 
Ala. — 2 lampreys; Henry S. Dybas, Chicago 
— 150 insects and allies; Ralph M. Eiseman, 
Chicago — 1 bird skin 

Library: 

From: Dr. Austin L. Rand, Chesterton, 
Ind.; Miss Katharine Harvey, Santa Bar- 
bara, Calif. 



NEW MEMBERS 

(September 15 to October 15) 

Contributor 

Henry C. Schwab* 

Associate Members 

Bowen Blair, Paul F. Boyer, Theodore S. 
Gary, Mrs. Milton L. Laing, Carl R. 
Lambrecht, Jr., Nelson A. Oser 

Sustaining Members 

Preston Farley, Jarvis Hunt, Dr. George 
D. Kaiser, John Nash Ott, Jr., Lewis I. 
Van Koert 

Annual Members 

Mrs. Olive W. Ball, C. W. Barrett, Eugene 
C. Bauer, Dr. Mortimer B. Bauer, George 
L. Bayer, P. D. Beaner, Eugene F. Bertrand, 
Wilbur E. Bindenagel, Miss Kay Binder, 
J. L. Brazee, Robert O. Clark, Newton L. 
Compere, Dr. Vincent A. Costanzo, Glenn 
R. Curtis, R. Emmett Dedmon, Larry Delp, 
John Dragisic, J. Howard Euston, Mrs. 
Grant Richard Feye, Alfred F. Finkl, Mrs. 
Alan Fishburn, E. I. Fleming, Albert Frank, 
Sidney Friedland, A. C. Furtwangler, Dr. 
R. B. Gaines, Miss Margaret Gibson, Wins- 
ton Gleave, Dr. Ralph C. Goode, R. A. 
Gorman, Gordon B. Grant, Joseph S. Grant, 
Frank W. Harding, John N. Hatfield, Mrs. 
M. G. Hausler, Jr., Mrs. Marshall L. Hay- 
wood, Jr., Fred C. Hild, Dr. Laurence E. 
Hines, Dr. Arthur M. Ischinger, Edward 
Jiede, Miss Donna Lee Johnson, Leo S. 
Karlin, J. L. Keeshin, Taylor L. Kennedy, 
James L. Ledbetter, Joseph R. Lee, George 
S. Lurie, Miss Zeo D. Lynch, David B. 
Maloney, Miss Laura S. Matthews, Edward 
F. Moore, Maurice Nemeroff, S. Lloyd 
Nemeyer, James F. Oates, Jr., Bartholomew 
O'Toole, George Robert Quin, Lee C. Shaw, 
Richard E. Snyder, Richard P. Steding, 
Harold Stekly, Mrs. Norman J. Stiner, 
Francis Edgar Thacker, E. P. Wilder, Jr., 
Farwell Winston 



Posthumous Honor Voted 
to Henry C. Schwab 

In recognition of a bequest of ten un- 
usually valuable pieces of highly artistic 
Chinese porcelain, the late Henry C. Schwab 
was posthumously elected a Contributor at 
a recent meeting of the Museum's Board 
of Trustees. Contributors are those in a 
special membership classification that in- 
cludes all donors of funds or materials 
valued from $1,000 to $100,000. 



SATURDAY AFTERNOON 
LECTURES CONTINUE 

Four more illustrated lectures in the fall 
series for adults remain to be given in 
November. All begin at 2:30 o'clock on 
Saturday afternoons in the James Simpson 
Theatre of the Museum. Color motion- 
pictures will accompany each of the lectures, 
which are provided by the Edward E. Ayer 
Lecture Foundation Fund. 

Limited accommodations make it neces- 
sary to restrict admission to adults. How- 
ever, on the mornings of the same Saturdays 
the Raymond Foundation presents free 
motion-picture programs for children. 

Following is the schedule of the November 
lectures for adults: 

November 6 — Tomorrow Never Comes 

Neil Douglas 

November 13 — American Indian 
Adventures 

C. J. Albrecht 
November 20 — Argentina 

Nicol Smith 
November 27 — Expedition Ice Cap 

Paul E. Victor 

No tickets are necessary for admission 
to these lectures. A section of tiie 
Theatre is allocated to Members of the 
Museum, each of whom is entitled to 
two reserved seats. Requests for these 
seats should be made in advance by 
telephone (WAbash 2-9410) or in writ- 
ing, and seats will be held in the 
Member's name until 2:25 o'clock on 
the lecture day. 



STAFF NOTES 



Dr. Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of 
Geology, has left for a three-week trip to 
Washington, D.C., where he will continue 
his study of meteorites at the United States 
National Museum . . . Dr. R. M. Strong, 
Research Associate in Anatomy, presented 
a paper on "Iridescence in Feathers" before 
the recent meeting of the American Orni- 
thologists' Union held at the University of 
Wisconsin ... Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, Chief 
Curator of Zoology, lectured on "Evolution 
of Snakes" on October 14 at the College of 
the University of Chicago . . . John R. 
Millar, Deputy Director, and Miss 
Miriam Wood, Chief of the Raymond 
Foundation, attended the meeting of the 
Midwest Museums Conference in Detroit 
. . . Miss Marjory West, who has been 
appointed Assistant to the Librarian, did 
editorial work on the Highland Park News 
before coming to the Museum . . . Karl 
Plath, Curator of Birds, Chicago Zoological 
Park, Brookfield, has been appointed Asso- 
ciate in the Museum's Division of Birds. 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



RULLETIN 

LJ Vol.25.No.]2-Decemberl954 

Chicago Natural 
History Mus e um 




Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



December, 195^ 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall FreLD, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery Hughston M. McBain 

Wm. McCormick Blair William H. Mitchell 

Walther Buchen John T. Pikie, Jr. 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field George A. Richardson 

Marshall Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Marshall Field Fir»t Vice-President 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

CUFFORD C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Shabat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geolosy 

Karl P. Schmidt Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Hakte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
Helen A. MacMinn Barbara Poukoff 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



— ft 1^ is 

A SONG OF YANG KUAN 

By M. KENNETH STARR 

curator of ASIATIC ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

ON NOVEMBER 15 Dr. Hans Stiibel, 
for thirteen months a visiting Fulbright 
scholar in the Department of Anthropology, 
left the Museum on his return to the 
University of Erlangen in Germany. 

An unusually versa- 

Btile man, Dr. Stubel is 
equally recognized in 
the two diverse fields 
of physiology and an- 
thropology, and he 
also has a fund of 
knowledge on a wide 
range of subjects 
spanning the natural 
and social sciences and 
humanities. Born in 
DR. HANS STUBEL Leipzig in 1885, Dr. 
Stiibel received his 
early schooling in Dresden, his boyhood 
home. He then took premedical training 
at Jena where, if one may believe his teasing, 
he drank sour beer and acted rather badly. 
Further medical study at the universities 
of Munich and Jena earned him a medical 
degree in 1908 and then, with the exception 
of a year's research in Italy, he spent the 



period from 1910 to 1914 lecturing in the 
Institute of Physiology at Jena. This 
academic life ended abruptly in 1914 with the 
outbreak of World War I in which he served 
as an army medical officer. Upon his release 
from service Dr. Stiibel returned as full 
professor to Jena, where he remained until 
1923. In that year he decided to accept 
the position of professor of physiology at 
T'ungchi, the German-founded university 
in Shanghai. 

STUDIES china's NON-CHINHBE 

Then began a life that was to carry him 
through nearly thirty years of time and 
through many thousand miles of travel in 
the Far East. Within a few years after his 
arrival in China Dr. Stubel turned his 
questioning mind to the study of the non- 
Chinese peoples who, almost forgotten, are 
scattered throughout China, especially in the 
southeast, south, and west. Working always 
on his own time and with his own purse as 
the provider, he journeyed over a large 
portion of the country. He viewed the 
traditional beauties — classic Peking, the 
birthplace of Confucius in Shantung, the 
stone sculptures of Yunkang, the Yangtze 
gwges, the potala of Lhasa, and the vene- 
rated sacred mountains and religious sites. 
But also, and more important for science, 
he observed and described the manners of 
the non-Chinese peoples who have in varying 
degrees been assimilated by the culturally 
dominant Chinese — the Hsia-min of south- 
east China, the Yao of south China, the Li 
of Hainan Island, the Miao, Lolo, and Lisu 
of southwest China, the nomads of the 
Tibetan grasslands, and the seagoing fishing 
peoples of the islands off the southeast coast. 

His researches carried him to the far 
reaches of China — to Inner Mongolia, the 
countryside of Shantung Province, the high 
plateau that is Tibet, the lonely island 
fishing villages off the southeast coast, the 
rugged highlands of the upper Yangtze, and 
islands of Formosa and Hainan. And then 
too, there were periodic trips to Java, the 
Philippines, and Indo-China. Sabbaticals 
took him on brief trips to Europe via the 
famous Trans-Siberian Railway. 

Not all was gain, however, for his house 
and books in Shanghai were burned by the 
Japanese in 1931, and his next quarters 
north of the city were bombed out in 1937. 
In 1941 he bore the hardships involved in 
the transfer of the university to a small 
village in Szuch'uan, in free West China. 
There were also lonely periods of severe 
illness in isolated mountain villages or 
monasteries, where he himself was his only 
physician. And there was the heartbreak 
of seeing his rare ethnological collections 
and photographs taken by both Nationalists 
and Communists. He brought his manu- 
scripts out of China in 1951 only by dis- 
guising them as ^Tapping paper. But his 
years in China on the whole were deeply 
satisfying, and he often reminisces about 



-THIS MONTH'S COVBR- 



Our cover presents an artist's 
conception of how the Museum's 
new Gorgosaurus skeleton will 
look, when mounted, together 
with the skeleton of a duckbilled 
dinosaur of a type that was its 
frequent prey. The drawing is by 
Miss Maidi Wiebe, artist on the 
staff of the Department of Ge- 
ology. The Gorgosaurus skeleton 
is a gift to the Museum from 
members of its Board of Trustees 
(see article on page 3). 



them with obvious nostalgia. 

In 1951 Dr. Stubel left China and returned 
to Germany, where he took a position as 
professor of anthropology at the University 
of Erlangen. He taught there for two years, 
and then in September, 1953, he came to 
the United States and to the Museum as a 
F^ilbright grantee. During his stay in 
Chicago Dr. Stubel utilized the museum 
and library resources of the city to put into 
publishable form a part of his field notes, 
especially those on the Tibetan nomads. 
In lieu of his own lost ethnological materials, 
he made particular use of the Museum's 
books and specimens. 

He spent the summer 'months journeying 
through the Southwest, where he observed 
some of the Indian life of the region. From 
there he continued along the West Coast, 
visiting museums pnd libraries and con- 
ferring with colleagues. During his final 
weeks at the Museum Dr. Stubel was busy 
bringing to completion his manuscripts on 
the Tibetan nomads. Before he sails for 
Europe on December 11, Dr. Stubel will 
briefly visit the museums and libraries of 
Boston-Cambridge, New Haven, New York, 
and Washington. 

a JOCULAR SCHOLAR 

Dr. Stubel, ever jocular, was asked what 
he would like to have included in this sketch, 
and those who know him well will smile in 
understanding to hear what he said. He 
suggested that he be described as the bent 
old man with the white beard, the red eye, 
the clumsy nose, and the corn on the third 
toe of his left foot. Most of us will better 
remember him as a rather short, very dis- 
tinguished gentleman with a neat white 
goatee who, hands clasped behind his back, 
walked quietly but with firm step through 
the exhibition halls and corridors. And 
those who had the pleasure of being with 
him daily and of enjoying quiet dinners 
with him in the evenings saw him not as a 
man of nearly seventy, but as one much 
younger in years, for his youthful spirit and 
his elastic mind speak of one half his age. 
He is much to be admired and respected, 
(Continued on page 8, column S) 



December, 195J^ 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Pages 



Nepal Birds Collected . . . 

EXPEDITION ALSO CLINIC 
FOR HIMALAYA NATIVES 

By ROBERT L. FLEMING 

THE ARTICLES in the Bulletin that 
always catch my eye are the announce- 
ments of expeditions going into the field. 
Naturally the most interesting of all was 
that of the Himalaya expedition of 1947. 
For this expedition was mine. I was re- 
turning to my station in northern India for 
another seven years where I was high school 
supervisor of Woodstock School, Mussoorie. 
Nine months each year I did school work 
but I had three months free. This was my 
expedition time, to study and collect birds 
and ferns. One season I worked near the 
school in Tehri State and Dehra Dun Dis- 
trict north of Delhi ; other seasons I traveled 
farther afield to central India and, most 
important, east to Ne- 
pal for extensive work 
made possible through 
the generosity of the 
late Boardman Con- 
over of the Museum. 
Now, on furlough, 
back in Chicago, my 
Methodist Mission 
Board has given me 
three months in the 
Museum to study the 
several thousand birds 
I collected and to 
write a report on the 
birds of Nepal. 

"Nepal" is a magic 
name, a country that 
for a century has been 
closed to Occidentals, 
as forbidden as Tibet 
to the north of it. Now 
restrictions are being 
relaxed and the rulers 
have become in- 
terested in progress and western ideas. In 
1949 I was given permission by the Nepal 
government for a three-month trip. The 
country is about the same size and in the 
same latitudes as Florida, lying along the 
southern slopes of the Himalayas. I decided 
to survey a cross-section of the country to 
collect birds from the lowland jungle and 
grasslands (known as the lerai) up to the 
alpine meadows at 16,000 feet, just below the 
ice and snow of ranges rising to 25,000 feet. 

ELEPHANTS USED IN HUNT 

We found officials extremely helpful. 
Field Marshal Rudra Shumshere Jung 
Bahadur Rana, his sons. Governor Dhairiya 
Shumshere, Colonel Ishwar Shumshere, a 
nephew, Sri Bhakti Shumshere, all took an 
active interest in our expeditions. They 
sent elephants for our use in the lowlands 
and gave us guides as interpreters. These 
companions made all the arrangements for 



camp sites, wood, water. Once King of Beasts . . . 



porters, route, 
and food. 

Our collecting that first trip, from Octo- 
ber, 1949, to February, 1950, was a success. 
We got spiny babblers that white men had 
not seen alive for a hundred years, snow 
cocks at 16,000 feet as big as turkeys, 
eleven kinds of pheasants and partridges, a 
new subspecies of babbling thrush, and a 
new fruit pigeon. We found the rain forests 
at 2,500 feet full of birds such as bulbuls, 
drongos, sunbirds, green magpies, and jungle 
fowl. We got an entirely different series 
among the oaks and firs at 10,000 feet — 
finches, titmice, thrushes, nutcrackers, cross- 
bills, and pheasants. There were 256 
different species of birds in all. 

In the terai at 900 feet we hunted birds 
of the plains. We cruised the countryside 
for birds, shooting from elephant back. We 
pushed aside forest trees in pursuit of a 




Courtesy American Museum oi Natural History, New York 

RESTORATION OF GORGOSAURUS ATTACKING PLANT-EATING CONTEMPORARIES 



fish-owl, and we combed tall grass for reed 
warblers. Ordinarily one of us jumped off 
to retrieve a shot bird, but once, wading in 
a pond for jacanas, the mahout had himself 
lowered on the trunk to get the bird. 
Sometimes I felt ridiculous, charging 
through the bru.sh on an elephant after 
nothing larger than a sparrow. But it was 
an effective method of hunting, for we had 
almost 100 per cent recoveries. It was 
tiring, however, and when I got back to 
camp and slid off the elephant's back my 
hips felt dislocated. What was more, I 
found I had been sitting on "sandpaper." 
It took me a day to recover. 

CONTRASTING CULTURES 

As we went up the mountains the change 

in the people of the two main cultures was 

sudden and striking. Below 5,000 feet 

Aryan Hindus live in thatched houses 

(Continued on page i, column 1) 



TRUSTEES GIVE MUSEUM 
RARE GORGOSAURUS 

GORGOSAURUS, a spectacular dino- 
saur, has come to Chicago Natural 
History Museum. 

In his day, some 75 million years ago, 
Gorgosaurus must have been the king of 
beasts, a tall, powerful yet agile flesh-eater 
that preyed upon the more placid vegetarian 
dinosaurs of the time. His jaws are studded 
with large sharp-edged teeth, suggesting 
that he may have been a fearful killer. His 
prey consisted probably for the most part 
of the duckbilled dinosaurs that lacked 
defensive armor. 

The skeleton of Gorgosaurus — only three 

other fossil skeletons of this rare creature 

are known to remain in existence — has been 

acquired by this Museum as a gift from 

members of its Board 

of Trustees. These 

Chicago businessmen 

pledged thousands of 

dollars for the purpose 

at a recent meeting of 

of the Board. 

FORTY FEET LONG 

The Gorgosaurus 
specimen is the larg- 
est, most impressive, 
and one of the rarest 
acquisitions to reach 
the Museum in many 
years. The skeleton is 
about 40 feet long, 
and the head will 
tower more than 15 
feet above the floor 
when Gorgosaurus is 
completely assembled, 
mounted, and placed 
among the paleon- 
tology exhibits in Er- 
nest R. Graham Hall of Historical Geology 
(Hall 38). The task of mounting presents 
a special problem in engineering. 

Gorgosaurus will be ready to go on exhi- 
bition in about twelve to fourteen months 
— that much time, at the least, is expected 
to be required for the intricate tasks involved 
in preparation. He will be in a group with 
a specimen of a duckbilled dinosaur of a type 
upon which he preyed. Preparation of this 
second giant fossil is currently under way 
by Orville L. Gilpin, Chief Preparator of 
Fossils, and his associates. The position of 
the skeletons of the two huge fossil reptiles 
will be that of their action during an attack. 
"It is impossible to place a money value 
on a specimen such as this," says Dr. 
Rainer Zangerl, Curator of Fos.sil Reptiles, 
who will supervise the assembling and 
erecting of the giant skeleton. "To organize 
and dispatch an expedition to go into the 
field and excavate a Gorgosaurus skeleton 



Page k 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



December, 195i 



from the Belly River Formation in which 
it has Iain buried for so many millions of 
years would cost today between $30,000 
and $50,000. But even if the money and 
equipment were available, the attempt 



The only two other known skeletons of 
Gorgosaurus are in the National Museum 
of Canada, at Ottawa, and the United 
States National Museum at Washington, 
D.C. 




Courtesy American Museum of Natural History, New York 

A MOUNTED SKELETON OF GORGOSAURUS COMPARED WITH SIX-FOOT MAN 



would be uncertain of result because the 
fossil is so rare and no prospects are known. 
Still more important, even if another were 
located in the area where this one was 
discovered in 1914 (on the Red Deer River 
in the province of Alberta, Canada, not far 
from Edmonton), we still could not get it, 
because there are now Canadian laws that 
prohibit removal of fossils from the country." 

WEIGHED SIX TONS 

The entire skeleton of Gorgosaurus has 
arrived at the Museum. The skull alone is 
42 inches long, which makes it the largest 
of the known skulls. In life the animal is 
believed to have weighed some six tons. 

The specimen is one of two that were 
collected in 1913-14 by Dr. Barnum Brown, 
famed paleontologist of the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History in New York. 
The other specimen he collected is on exhi- 
bition in the New York museum, which 
made its second specimen available about 
two months ago for purchase by Trustees 
of Chicago Natural History Museum. 




BONES OF PROSPECTIVE VICTIM 
Parts of skeleton of duckbilled dinosaur being re- 
moved from plaster matrix by Orville L. Gilpin, 
Chief Preparator of Fossils. The specimens, when 
articulated and prepared for exhibition, will be used 

in the projected group with Gorgosaurus. 

Gorgosaurus is a first cousin to another 
and better-known terror of the prehistoric 
world — Tyrannosaurus, which also stalked a 
bloody path of destruction among its gentler 
herbivorous contemporaries. 



HIMALAYA EXPEDITION AND NATIVE CLINIC- 



(Continued from page S) 
scattered along the southern slopes of the 
mountains with here and there a shrine to 
Siva, decorated with red poinsettia leaves. 
They gather grain from their well-terraced 
fields to exchange for salt and potatoes from 
the north. As we climbed between the 
Dhaulagiri and Annapurna ranges to 8,000 
feet, we entered the land of the Buddhists, 
who look like the people of Tibet. They 



have Mongolian features, wear padded 
clothing, and speak a different language. 
They have stone houses and set up prayer 
flags, chortan walls, and prayer wheels in 
their temples. Though these cultures are 
so different. Southern and Northern Nepa- 
lese have much in common. We found 
them both jolly and their homes neat. 
They love children and are fond of liquor. 
No wheels are known in the mountains 



of Nepal. Loads are carried by men or 
pack animals. I walked 300 miles accom- 
panied by Dr. Carl E. Taylor (a Harvard 
medical man and my former student), R. T. 
Bergsaker, a Norwegian mountaineer and 
artist, and Harold Bergsma, a high-school 
boy. Seven miles a day was about as far 
as we could go. Our tent was our home. 
When Bergsma became ill with an unknown 
fever and could walk no more, we had to 
carry him sixty miles to the nearest bus. 

TRAVELING CLINIC 

Dr. Taylor was our medical officer and 
helped us with the trip. Soon operations 
and medicines for the local people took more 
and more of his time. We roped off a space 
in front of the tent to keep back the crowds. 
Dr. Taylor, with one of us as assistant, 
removed a cancer from the face of the mayor 
of Tansing; he drained a bucket of pus from 
a man with a liver abscess and an hour later 
the patient asked for bread for the first 
time in a month; he made usable fingers 
for several who had fallen into fire and had 
burned their hands. He repaired hairlips, 
and one young girl followed our party a 
whole week until we could stop long enough 
to operate and, incidentally, improve her 
chances of marriage. These cases were 
handled under the open sky with a stone 
wall or our tin trunks for the operating 
table. When we returned over this route 
two months later we were able to check 
on our patients. 

The success of our first journey led to 
subsequent ones. In 1951-52 we revisited 
Tansing and Bokhara in western Nepal. 
The third time, 1952-53, we went to Kailali- 
Kanchanpur in the extreme southwestern 
corner of the country. Governor Dhariyia 
Shumshere entertained us and arranged for 
us to collect in the hills of Doti. From 
there we traveled down through India and 
paid our first visit to Kathmandu. Later 
in 1953 we went to eastern Nepal, where I 
again met my first Nepalese friend, Colonel 
Ishwar Shumshere who had been so good 
to us on our first trip and helped us to go 
to the hills of Okhaldhunga in front of 
Mount Everest. Thus we have been able to 
take a cross-section of birds from all parts 
of the country. 

Our first Nepal expedition was for birds, 
with medical work incidental. The impor- 
tance of our medical work to the Nepalese 
was a factor in our getting permission to 
return for later bird work. The medical 
work done on these expeditions, first by 
Dr. Taylor, later by Dr. Bethel Fleming, 
my wife, and Dr. Carl W. Friedericks, led 
to our being invited to establish a several- 
year medical program in the country. Now 
when I return next year, I go not to India 
but to Nepal. There, in the Kathmandu 
Valley, I shall feel privileged in my spare 
time to continue renewed collecting and 
field study of the birds of Nepal. 



December, 195Jt 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



INSECT 'SPECIAL' EXHIBIT 

MADE PERMANENT 

Members' Night visitors at the Museum, 
when introduced for the first time to the 
drawers of insects, bird and mammal skins, 
etc., that make up the Museum study 
collections, often inquire, "What is all this 
for?" This question, by far the most com- 
monly asked by laymen, has shown the 
need for an exhibit that would explain the 
reason for undertaking the time-consuming 
and painstaking work of building study 
collections. Such an exhibit, "The 'Why' 
of Museum Insect Collections," was designed 
by Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator of Insects, 
and Margaret G. Bradbury, Artist. As 
originally planned, this exhibit was to be 
a feature for Members' Night only, but 
it has proved so popular and it so success- 
fully explains a little-known and vital part 
of a museum's work that it is to be a per- 
manent exhibition in Albert W. Harris Hall 
(Hall 18). Although it deals specifically 
with study collections of insects, the exhibit 
applies equally to other study collections in 
the Museum, for they all serve essentially 
the same purpose. 



ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTOR 
HOME FROM AFRICA 

Harry Hoogstraal, Head of the Depart- 
ment of Medical Zoology, U. S. Naval 
Research Unit in Cairo, Egypt, and Field 
Associate of the Museum, has returned to 
the United States after two years in Africa 
and the Near East. He will work at the 
Museum for a short time on his current 
study of ticks and tick-borne diseases caused 
by viruses, rickettsiae, spirochetes, and 
bacteria. After continuing these studies in 
Washington, D.C., London, and Paris he 
will return to Cairo early next year. 

Mr. Hoogstraal has sent thousands of 
mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians 
to the Museum collected while he was 
working in such places as Uganda, Belgian 
Congo, Madagascar, and Kenya. 



STAFF NOTES 



Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator of Insects, 
has been appointed to the Committee on 
Professional Status and Standards of the 
Entomological Society of America. He will 
attend the first meeting of the committee 
during the annual meeting of the society to 
be held at Houston, Texas, from December 
6 to 9 (the society recently merged with 
the American Association of Economic En- 
tomologists to form a single organization of 
about 4,000 professional members) .... Dr. 
Robert F. Inger, Curator of Amphibians 
and Reptiles, spent two weeks at the Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology, at Harvard, 



conferring with Arthur Loveridge, a world 
authority. The subject of their discussions 
involved problems that have arisen in 
identifying the large collection of frogs sent 
to the Museum in a research project by the 
Institute of the National Parks of the 
Belgian Congo .... Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, 
Chief Curator of Zoology, recently lectured 
to the Biology Club of Valparaiso University 
on the biogeographical relations of Peru 
.... Philip Hershkovitz, Associate Cu- 
rator of Mammals, recently conducted a 
seminar at the University of Illinois (Ur- 
bana) on "Zoogeographical Relationships of 
the Mammalian Fauna of Colombia." . . . 
Robert A. Krueger has been appointed 
Assistant Auditor of the Museum. Mr. 
Krueger, who completed his studies at 
Northwestern University, has been on the 
staff of industrial firms. 



THE HOUSING PROBLEM 
FOR A DOLL 




{Photo . 



irtesy United Ptess) 



With the Yuletide holidays approaching, 
Susan Most, of Berwyn, Illinois, ponders 
over which is more interesting — a modern 
doll's hou.se like those now displayed in the 
shops or a toy tepee from the American 
Indian collections of the Museum. 



NATURE'PHOTO HOBBYISTS 
REMINDED OF CONTEST 

Send your entries now for the 
10th Chicago International Exhi- 
bition of Nature Photography, to 
be held at the Museum February 
1-28. Final deadline is January 
15. Entries are accepted in two 
divisions, prints and color slides. 
There are three classifications in 
each division: animal life, plant 
life, and general. The contest is 
jointly sponsored by Nature 
Camera Club of Chicago and the 
Museum. Entry forms with full 
information are obtainable by re- 
quest to the Museum. 



DALLWIG SUNDAY TALKS 

SUSPENDED FOR 1955 

With regret it is announced that Paul G. 
Dallwig, Layman Lecturer of the Museum, 
will not present his usual series of Sunday 
afternoon lectures at the Museum during 
1955. Unusual activity in his professional 
work and his desire to have new material 
ready for his next series at the Museum 
necessitated the cancellation of his plan to 
resume his Layman Lectures in January. 
In addition, the heavy demand for his 
services on the public lecture-platform 
throughout the Midwest has reached pro- 
portions considerably exceeding his esti- 
mates. He has thus been forced to defer 
his interesting Sunday afternoon programs 
until a later date. It is confidently expected 
that his next series will be presented at the 
Museum beginning in January of 1956. 



Four Added to Contributors' Roll 

In recognition of notable contributions 
to the Museum, four Museum Trustees 
have been added (one posthumously) to the 
roll of Contributors. This is an honor in 
perpetuity extended to persons whose gifts 
in funds or materials range in value from 
$1,000 to $100,000. The four recently added 
are: Marshall Field, Jr., editor and publisher 
of the Chicago Sun-Times; John G. Searle, 
John P. Wilson, and the late Albert B. 
Dick, Jr. 



Gift of Plant Collection 

Recently the Museum received a notable 
gift from Valparaiso University through the 
courtesy of Dr. H. B. Poncher, Acting Head 
of the Department of Biology, and Dr. 
William Bloom of the same department. 
Dr. John W. Thieret, Curator of Economic 
Botany at this Museum, was instrumental 
in obtaining it. This gift, known as the 
Karl Demetrio Collection, consists of 5,625 
herbarium specimens of flowering plants 
collected mostly between 1860 and 1900 in 
the United States, Europe, Australia and 
the West Indies. 



Audubon Lecture on January 9 

The next "screen-tour" of the Illinois 
Audubon Society will be presented in the 
James Simpson Theatre of the Museum on 
Sunday afternoon, January 9, at 2:30 
o'clock. Alfred G. Etter, the lecturer, will 
show his film "A Missouri Story." Admission 
is free to the general public. 



Museum Closed on Christmas 
and New Year's Day 

On Christmas and New Year's Day the 
Museum will be closed so that its employees 
may spend the holidays with their families. 
These are the only days in the year that 
the Museum is not open to visitors. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



December, 195i 



MYSTERIOUS FISHES FOUND IN CAVE STREAMS 



By LOREN p. woods 
curator of pishes 

(Contimied from last month's Bulletin) 

The cave environment offers one of the 
most secure ways of life there is, provided 
animals can adjust to the absence of light. 
Dangers from predators are probably at a 
minimum. Sculpins are found in caves 
more frequently than are cave fishes, pos- 
sibly because they are more easily seen since 
they are larger, darker, and not so shy as 
cave fishes. Sculpins are carnivorous and 
often two or three times the size of cave 



posed to the same dangers from birds and 
other fishes as small surface-stream fishes. 
However, under such circumstances they 
are very Hkely somewhat protected by the 
turbid condition of the floodwaters. 

SUBTEaiRANEAN TEMPERATURE CONSTANT 

In addition to constant darkness, the 
underground habitat usually has a nearly 
constant temperature. This temperature in 
our midwestern subterranean waters is 
from around 52 to 58 degrees F. depending 
on the latitude, since this temperature 




Photo by George F. Jackson, Evansvitle, Indiana 

MUSEUM COLLECTOR FISHING UNDERGROUND 
Loren P. Woods, ready with dipnet, seeks specimens in large pool inhabited by cave6sh in subterranean 

recesses of Wildcat Cave, Indiana. 



fishes. Although several stomachs of scul- 
pins from caves have been examined and 
only invertebrate remains found, the scul- 
pin is a possible predator. 

In most caves we find raccoon tracks in 
the muddy banks along the stream. The 
raccoons enter the caves to catch crayfish 
and they may take an occasional fish, but 
again we know of no evidence that they 
ever do. Another possible mammal predator 
is the mink. Its appetite for fish is prover- 
bial and there is certainly no reason that a 
mink could not enter caves and capture 
fish, but here also the evidence is lacking. 

We frequently hear reports in cave regions 
that cave fishes are washed out of caves in 
time of flood, a phenomenon that we have 
never observed. If the reports are true, 
then cave fishes feeling their way along a 
stream to re-enter a spring or cave are ex- 



generally reflects the mean annual tempera- 
ture of the locality. The air temperature 
in Mammoth Cave, for example, varies 
from 52 to 56 degrees F. but the water 
temperature varies scarcely one degree in 
the course of a year or from year to year. 

Other conditions of the cave waters vary 
considerably. A short time after heavy 
surface rains the underground streams begin 
to rise, and quiet confined brooks become 
raging torrents. Some cave streams may 
rise only slightly with but a small increase 
in current, and some may exhibit little or 
no change. Heavy rains, washing life-sus- 
taining silt and nutriment into the caves, 
usually cause the underground streams to 
become turbid, and they may remain so for 
many days after a rain. 

Subterranean streams vary in their con- 
ditions as much as surface streams in size. 



current, bottom, and bank. They may cut 
through solid rock or be broken into many 
rivulets among large boulders; they may 
form waterfalls or rapids or in their sluggish 
meanders form broad sandbars or mudflats; 
they may be dammed and form a broad 
deep lake. In some places floods leave iso- 
lated backwater pools, or the stream that 
is a rushing torrent in time of high water 
may at low water be fragmented by mud- 
banks and boulders into a disconnected series 
of ponds. The streams may wander in 
broad meanders in rooms of great width 
entering and leaving a particular cave. 
Springs appear to be numerous in ground- 
water streams but tributaries few. 

Throughout the range of the Mississippi 
Valley blindfishes there are vast untilted 
limestone formations lying beneath the sur- 
face. Frequently an outcrop occurs at the 
surface, usually along valleys of large rivers. 
These formations, which are very thick, 
were deposited on the beds of ancient con- 
tinental seas. During the long period of 
time that they have been under dry land 
they have become honeycombed with anas- 
tomosing tubes of varying size by the dis- 
solving action of ground-water. Some of 
the tubes are now filled completely or partly 
with clay, some with water, and some are 
dry with only occasional springs or clay 
banks. The drainage of regions underlaid 
with a network of solution channels is often 
largely underground, with only a few large 
surface streams and some of these may 
originate as a large spring or disappear 
underground as a "lost river." 

During the 19th century and the early 
part of the 20th only a few widely separated 
caves were known to contain fishes. The 
underlying rock strata of the intervening 
areas were not well known and it was as- 
sumed that each cave system contained an 
isolated population of animals. It was 
believed that cave fishes only rarely made 
their way from cave to cave through surface 
streams or that they were accidentally dis- 
persed in times of flood by being washed 
frorn their caves and carried downstream, 
subsequently entering and establishing 
themselves in new caves. 

APPARENTLY NOT ISOLATED 

Underground dispersal does not appear to 
be more difficult for subterranean fishes 
than surface dispersal is for surface fishes. 
The difficulty in demonstrating this belief 
lies in the lack of ability of collectors to 
penetrate into underground waters in 
enough localities to prove that the popula- 
tions seen are not geographically isolated. 
It is known that the solution channel net- 
works cross under large river beds and also 
under the ridges forming divides between 
surface drainage systems. The dispersal of 
aquatic cave animals would seem to be 
limited by the extent of particular limestone 
formations carrying suitable streams and 
the degree of dissection of these formations 



December, 195i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



by surface erosion. Another factor that 
would bring about isolation or prevent oc- 
cupation would be for the cave-bearing 
strata to be buried deeply under rocks of 
later periods or under glacial drift. 

The arrival of a glacier tying up the 
ground-water under it and shutting off all 
food, finally burying the habitat under a 
thick layer of drift, would exterminate any 
subterranean vertebrates. No cave fishes 
are known to live in the glaciated part of 
the Mississippi Valley. If they were once 
living farther north than now, they have for 
some reason not returned since the retreat 
of the glacier. There are two or three vague 
reports of amblyopsids in northern Ohio, 
northern Indiana, and southern Michigan, 
and it is not impossible that some may 
eventually be found in these areas. 

EXPLORATION IS RIGOROUS 

Cave exploration is strenuous work and 
usually not very rewarding. During the 
past three years Dr. Robert F. Inger, Cura- 
tor of Amphibians and Reptiles, and the 
writer have searched the waters of more 
than fifty caves and springs finding cave 
fishes in only twelve or fifteen of them. 
The great majority of caves investigated 
contained fair-sized streams but not enough 
headroom, so that we covered as much dis- 
tance in the caves by crawling or wading 
as we did by walking. The water ranged 
from knee-deep to as deep as it was possible 
to wade, and sometimes the ceiling would 
be so close to the water that it would be 
difficult to keep the light from being ex- 
tinguished. It was necessary to maintain 
a grip on the lamp and dipnet while climb- 
ing, wriggling, or wading along, alternately 
watching the water for fishes and the ceiling 
for projecting rocks. 

Because of conditions in these low wet 
caves, equipment was kept to a minimum. 
For light we used miners' acetylene lamps 
with 8-inch reflectors. These lamps, which 
were much more satisfactory than flashlights 
or gasoline lanterns, could be dropped, sub- 
merged, or pushed ahead as we crawled, 
and they would still function, giving a 
strong, diffuse light. Fish were collected in 
large wire strainers lashed to a 3- to 4-foot 
handle. Cloth dipnets could not stand cave 
conditions and moved too slowly through 
the water, warning the fish of their approach. 
Eight-ounce jars with formalin were used 
to preserve the fish and a two-quart tin 
pail was satisfactory as a temporary con- 
tainer for living fishes. Even this small 
amount of impedimenta on occasion seemed 
almost too much to be dragging along. 

Cave fishes may be reduced in numbers 
in some readily accessible caves, but they 
will never be exterminated by collectors. 
However, they are in grave danger of ex- 
termination in many areas of their range 
because of various engineering activities of 
man. The impoundment of large streams 
for purposes of hydroelectric power, navi- 



gation, or recreation raises the ground-water 
level, flooding the caves completely, ponding 
the streams that feed them, and no doubt 
rendering many of the cave-fish habitats 
sterile and unfit places to live because the 
food is washed into higher caves or deposited 
on the bottom of the newly formed lakes. 

This may cause temporary dislocation, 
but it is not nearly so serious a threat as 
the development of many oil fields, particu- 
larly through the Ohio River Valley. The 
salt water and oil from numerous wells go 
down into the underground water and pol- 
lute widespread areas. Another important 
source of pollution in some regions lies in 
extensive mining and quarrying operations. 
Silt from stamping and washing operations 
and sludge from the mines render the nearby 
waters uninhabitable. A few caves have 
been utilized as natural .sewers by industries 
or population centers. 

Fortunately the best areas for caves and 
cave animals are not yet polluted because 
they lie in wild or sparsely populated re- 
gions. But certainly large sections of their 
former range are no longer available to 
these inhabitants of the underworld. 



Expedition to Collect Fishes 
in Mexican Waters 
Loren P. Woods, Curator of Fishes, left 
November 26 for Mexico on an expedition 
to collect marine fishes. He plans to collect 
along the Pacific coast in the vicinity of 
Salina Cruz and Acapulco and on the Gulf 
of Mexico coast in the Bay of Campeche. 
He expects to work largely from vessels 
of the local fisheries. 



"Highlights Tours" Oflered Daily 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered 
daily except Sundays under the title 
"Highlights of the Exhibits." These tours 
are designed to give a general idea of the 
entire Museum and its scope of activities. 
They begin at 2 p.m. on Monday through 
Friday and at 2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available Mon- 
days through Fridays by advance request. 

Although there are no tours on Sundays, 
the Museum is open from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 



Technical Publications 

The following technical publications were 
issued recently by Chicago Natural History 
Museum: 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 33, No. 4. Philip- 
pine Zoological Expedition, 19^6-19^7, 
Systematics and Zoogeography of Philip- 
pine Amphibia. By Robert F. Inger. 
July 23, 1954. 351 pages. $6. 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 26. Notes 
on Frogs of the Genus Telmatobius, with 
Descriptions of Two New Peruvian Species. 
By Karl P. Schmidt. July 23, 1954. 11 
pages. 20c. 

Fieldiana: Geology, Vol. 10, No. 17. Fauna 
of the Vale and Choza, 7; Pelycosauria: 
Family Caseidae. By Everett Claire 
Olson. July 29, 1954. 12 pages. 25c. 

Fieldiana: Geology, Vol. 10, No. 18. Fauna 
of the Vale and Choza, 8; Pelycosauria: 
Dimetrodon. By Everett Claire Olson. 
July 29, 1954. 6 pages. 10c. 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 34, No. 27. Bats 
from Chimantd-Tepui, Venezuela, with Re- 
marks on Choeroniscus. By Colin Camp- 
bell Sanborn. July 23, 1954. 5 pages. 
10c. 



DO YOUR CHRISTMAS SHOPPING IN EASY CHAIR! 
LET THE MUSEUM TAKE OVER THE JOB 

Christmas shopping is made an easy task by two special services 
offered by Chicago Natural History Museum. You need not stir out of 
your home — and you don't have to wrap any packages. Here's how 
you can buy and send your gifts in complete comfort, away from all 
crowds and confusion: 



(1) Christmas Gift Memberships 

Send to the Director the name and 
address of the person to whom you wish 
to give a Museum membership, together 
with your remittance to cover member- 
ship fee (see enclosed Christmas gift 
membership order form). 

An attractive Christmas card will 
notify the recipient that through your 
generosity he has been elected a Member 
of the Museum. He will receive also his 
membership card and information on 
membership privileges. 



(2) Museum Book Shop Gifts 

Books endorsed for scientific authen- 
ticity by members of the Museum staff 
are on sale in the BOOK SHOP. The 
selection is for both adults and children. 

When desired, the BOOK SHOP will 
handle orders by mail and telephone 
(WAbash 2-9410). It will undertake all 
details of wrapping and dispatching gift 
purchases to the designated recipients, 
together with such personal greetings as 
the purchaser may specify, charging only 
postal costs. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



December, 195 ^ 



TOYS FOLLOW PATTERNS 
OF EACH CULTURE 




In these pre-Christmas weeks, this picture 
will kindle familiar emotions in those who 
have a child or grandchild in their midst. 
In the foreground, from the Museum's 
Department of Anthropology, a miniature 
Eskimo in his kayak and a sledge with dog 
team emphasize the fact that toys have 
been important among all peoples and in 
all ages. The boy comparing modem toys 
from current displays in the shops with the 
Eskimo playthings is Paul Kosin, of Berwyn, 
Illinois. Scattered throughout the Mu- 
seum's anthropological collections are toys 
from varied cultures, some from ancient 
Babylonia dating back more than 3,000 
years. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month: 

Department of Botany: 

From: Holly R. Bennett, Chicago— 960 
phanerogams; Dr. E. Lucy Braun, Cincin- 
nati — 2 phanerogams, Ohio and Illinois; 
Northw^estem University, Evanston, 111. — 
"Index to American Botanical Literature"; 
Mrs. Ellen T. Smith, Lake Forest, 111.— false 
lily of the valley, Juneau, Alaska; Valparaiso 
University, Valparaiso, Ind. — 5,625 plants, 
United States, Europe, Australia, and 
West Indies; Dr. Chester S. Nielson, 
Tallahassee, Fla. — 245 algae; Mrs. E. 
C. Perry, Chicago — Polygonum bald- 
schuanicum; Dr. Eugene S. Richardson, Jr., 
Chicago — 2 fungi; Lillian A. Ross, Chicago 
— Melaleuca nesophila, California; Camillo 
Sbarbaro, Spotomo, Italy — 200 bryophytes; 
Emil Sella, Chicago — 4 fungi; Dr. Earl E. 
Sherff, Chicago — 640 plants, Hawaii; John 
W. Wood, Maplewood, La. — Quercus, 
Orange, Texas 

Department of Geology: 

From: Murray Copeland, Ann Arbor, 
Mich. — 4 slides of mounted Pennsylvania 
ostracods 

Department of Zoology: 

From: Sergio Arias C, Caracas, Venezuela 
— collection of non-marine shells; Lt. Col. 



Kenneth Bums, Fort Sam Houston, Texas 
— 2 bats in alcohol; Chicago Zoologi(»l 
Society, Brookfield, 111. — 2 snake skeletons, 
Africa; Dr. Robert L. Fleming, Mussoorie, 
India — 172 birdskins; Florida State Board 
of Health, Jacksonville, Fla.— 56 bats; 
General Biological Supply House, Chicago 
— 5 sea turtles, 18 flying lizards, India; Dr. 
Alfred Heinzelman, Piura, Peru — 3 rats; 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard B. Roger, Westmont, 
111. — 14 shore birds. Lake Calumet; Harry 
Hoogstraal, Cairo, Egypt — 2 mammals, 43 
birdskins, 144 frogs, 143 lizards, 31 snakes, 
5 turtles, collection of land shells, Egypt 
and Turkey; Dr. John C. Neess, Madison, 
Wis. — 5 lizards. New Mexico and Mexico; 
Northwestern University, Chicago — 15 dog 
skulls, 12 cat skulls, 2 sets of elephant teeth, 
17 reptile skulls, 3 amphibian skulls; Dr. 
Orlando Park, Evanston, 111. — collection of 
shells, world-wide; Dr. Charles H. Seevers, 
Homewood, 111. — 101 vials of determined 
termites, 92 vials of partly determined ants, 
14 other insects. United States, Neotropics, 
Philippine Islands; Lt. Col. Robert Traub, 
Washington, D.C. — 3 slides of chigger mites, 
paratype of Euschongastia calunosa Traub 
and Audy, North Borneo; Dr. Louis O. 
Williams, Tegucigalpa, Honduras — lizard; 
George T. Johnston, Rye, N. Y.— 390 fishes; 
Clark E. Jones, Miami, Fla. — six lots of tree 
snails; Rev. Brother M. Lesage, Achimota, 
Gold Coast, Africa — 6 frogs, 4 lizards, 67 
snakes; Dr. Jeanne S. Schwengel, Scarsdale, 
N. Y. — collection of sea shells; U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Pascagoula, Miss. — 
833 fishes. Gulf of Mexico 



NEW MEMBERS 

(October 18 to November 15) 

Contributors 

Albert B. Dick, Jr.,* Marshall Field, Jr., 
John G. Searle, John P. Wilson 

Associate Members 

William S. Allmart, Seymour S. Cunning- 
ham, George H. Dapples, William R. 
Dickinson, Jr., Miss Josephine Fritsch, 
Joel Goldblatt, John E. Mossman 

Annual Members 

William A. Barr, Miss Nettie A. Bau- 
mann, Herbert A. Beigel, B. A. Bimdorf, 
Mrs. C. O. Brewer, George E. Brewer, 
James E. Burd, Edward J. Chaplicki, W. K. 
Coolidge, Walter L. Darling, Dennis De 
Witt, Byron C. Drachman, Gerard J. Eger, 
Mrs. Charles William Fisher, Mrs. Marie 
Gallas, Leon S. Glaser, Samuel Gore, 
Bernard J. Hahn, Dr. John M. Hajduk, 
Marchand B. Hall, John C. Hanna, B. J. 
Hoddinott, George R. Ives, Edward F. 
Johnson, George H. Kane, Paul J. Keller, 
Dr. B. C. Kolter, James H. Kristof, A. H. 
Kulikowski, Edward N. Lee, Alexander 
Leighton, Joseph F. Lizzardo, Mrs. Sidney 
Loewenstein, H. Norris Love, Earle Ludgin, 
Stefano Luotto, Dr. I. R. McCall, Franklin 
J. Meine, W. P. Moore, Dr. Edward L. 
Moran, Kenneth S. Nathan, Stanley R. 
Norberg, Henry J. Nord, F. R. Peake, Dr. 
I. Pilot, A. S. Roebuck, Miss Thyra J. Ruth, 
Miss Marjorie Scanlon, F. Girard Schoettler, 

* Deceased 



A SONG OF YANG KUAN 

(DR. HANS STUBEL) 

(Continued from page 2) 
for his human qualities as well as for his 
scholarly abilities. 

A vignette of the doctor must include 
references to his courtesy and dignity of 
manner bred of his European background; 
his friendliness, his tolerance, and his human 
understanding springing from association 
with many peoples; his cosmopolitan sophis- 
tication bom of wide travel; his talents as 
a conversationalist, his unusual sense of 
observation, his keen mind, and his con- 
scientiousness as a scholar; his objectivity 
and lack of prejudice; and, to flavor the 
whole, his sharp wit and warm sense of 
humor. 

It was with real emotion that some of us 
saw him leave, and we can only hope that 
he will have another opportunity to return. 
But for now, he has gone, and in way of 
expressing our feelings we may find satis- 
faction in the sentiment of a Chinese poem 
of T'ang times, in the eighth century. 

The poem by Wang Wei describes a scene 
in which a man urges his friend to have one 
more cup of wine before parting and going 
westward alone through the Yang Kuan, a 
distant frontier gate in the far northwest 
of China, established two thousand years 
ago during the Han period. The allusion 
to Yang Kuan in Chinese literature and 
folklore has for nearly two millenia connoted 
the parting of friends and loved ones, and 
so here, for Dr. Stubel, we may sing a song 
of Yang Kuan. 



Dr. Howard M. SheafF, Harvey Z. Sheek- 
man, Mrs. Albert W. Sherer, Mrs. Ann 
Spector, John Stahl, Emanuel G. Stavish, 
Mrs. John E. Stoker, Wilfred Tracy, Floyd 
E. Von Ohlen, Andrew J. Watt, Marshall 
White, Dr. F. M. Whitsell, Dr. Emilia 
Wojnarowsky, Miss Lydia Wulf, Wallace 
E. Yehnert 



Botanical Index Received • 

Recently the Department of Botany re- 
ceived as a gift from Northwestern Uni- 
versity Library the Index to American 
Botanical Literature, issued regularly since 
1894 by the Torrey Botanical Club, oldest 
botanical society in the United States. 
Consisting of more than 75,000 printed 
cards, the Torrey Botanical Club Index 
aims to list under the authors' names all 
papers and books pertaining to American 
plants. Now housed in two steel cabinets 
in the Library of the Department of Botany, 
this index provides a valuable source of 
reference to all interested users. The 
transfer of this gift was arranged through 
the courtesy of Ian W. Thom, Chief of 
Technical Service, Charles Deering Library, 
and Dr. Margery C. Carlson, Associate 
Professor of Biology, both of Northwestern 
University. 

PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



X