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rtie fteshyteram Hospital 

tke City <yy ©kicago' 



Chicago, III. 

February, 1936 

No. 85 


Service Given Saves Lives and Eases 

Sufferings of Those Who 

Are Seriously 111 

How much is it worth to have saved 
the life of a mother so that she has 
been able to bring up her family of 
six children to worthy adulthood ? 

Who can estimate the worth of giv- 
ing a child the power of speech instead 
of permitting him to grow up dumb 
and probably become a mentally de- 
ficient burden on the community ? 

Was it not vastly worth while to 
save the life of a brilliant 17-year-old 
youth, stricken with pneumonia and 
having little bodily defense because of 
undernourishment over a long period 
of unemployment and relief rations? 

Certainly none will question the tre- 
mendous worth whileness of providing 
special nursing care required by pa- 
tients such as these and hundreds of 
others who have had this care because 
the gifts of generous friends have 
placed on the nursing staff of the Pres- 
byterian Hospital four endowed nurses 
and two nurses maintained by contri- 
butions made from year to year. 
Care for 1,221 Patients 

During 1935 these six nurses gave a 
total of 1,540 days or nights to 1,221 
different patients. Most of the patients 
receiving this free nursing care were in 
wards, the principal exceptions being 
those whose critical condition required 
their being placed in an emergency pri- 
vate room temporarily. In every in- 
stance the care given was imperative 
because of the patient's condition and 
was continued until that condition was 
sufficiently improved to warrant a re- 
turn to the general nursing care avail- 
able to all patients without extra 

The First Endowed Nurse 

Some years ago a young woman who 
was a patient in the private pavilion of 
the Presbyterian Hospital appreciated 

lella Pearson Molloy Nurse, Ernest A. Hamill Nurse, Helen North Nur 

-Ola.lys Foster Nurse, T. Kenneth Boyd Nurse, extra Molloy Fund Nur 

>ft to right— -Li 
', left to right- 

SO greatly the care given her during a 
serious illness, by a private nurse, that 
following her recovery she took steps 
that would insure such care for many 
future hospital patients who might 
themselves lack funds for this purpose. 
Thus it was that funds for the first 
endowed nurse were given to the Pres- 
byterian Hospital by Miss Helen North. 
The graduate nurse who had cared for 
the donor was appointed as the Helen 
North nurse and began her duties on 
March 11, 1917, continuing in this ca- 
pacity up to the present. During these 
19 years Miss Anne Hettinger, the first 
endowed nurse, has cared for hundreds 
of seriously ill patients who were un- 
able to pay for special nursing. 

The Gladys Foster Nurse 
Gladys Foster was one of the few 

student nurses at the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital who died during the 1918 influ- 
enza epidemic. Her associates in the 
Nursing School and hospital started a 
(Continued on page 3) 


Ten sets of twins were among the 
7X7 babies born during 1935 on the 
maternity floor of the Presbyterian 


United States Senator Pat McCar- 
ran of Nevada was a patient in the 

Presbyterian Hospital from December 
16 to January 10, following which he 
went to Washington to assume his du- 
ties at the present session of Congress. 


The Presbyterian Hospital's share 
of the receipts from the Chicago exhibit 
of llu- ( olkvn Abu, re I )ollbouse at the 
Fair Store during December amounted 
to $563.59, which has been applied to 
the free nurse fund. 


More Patients Admitted and More 

Free Care Given than in 1934; 

New Equipment Added 

Members of the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital Society who braved sub-zero 
weather to attend the 53rd annual meet- 
ing of the society on January 23, 
learned from reports submitted that the 
institution had increased considerably 
the scope of its service to the sick dur- 
ing the year 1935. The report of the 
superintendent, Mr. Asa S. Bacon, 
showed that 10,921 patients were cared 
for in hospital beds and a like number 
in examining and treatment rooms. The 
1934 figure was 10,567. Every state in 
the Union and 48 nationalities were 
represented. More patients received 
free care in 1935, the total being 2,721. 
Of this number 1,204 were children 
cared for in free beds provided by 
donations from Sunday schools, tag day 
receipts and endowment. Eight Sun- 
shine endowed beds were occupied con- 
stantly during the year. 

The cost of free hospital care and 
other free services given to those un- 
able to pay this cost amounted to 
$179,249.76. This large sum does not 
include the skilled services generously 
given to free patients by members of 
the medical and surgical staff of the 
hospital, nor the services of endowed 

Broaden X-ray Services 

In the X-ray department, 14,559 pa- 
tients were cared for during 1935, the 
largest number in the- history of the 
hospital. This increase was due in part 
to the opening of a new X-ray therapy 
department and the installing of a 
200,000 volt therapy machine for can- 
cer control. Other new equipment of 
service to the sick added during the 
year included a new fever therapy ma- 
chine and bath and fittings for hydro- 
therapy. The new milk laboratory on 
the children's floor was described in 
detail in the January number of the 

Mr. Alfred T. Carton, chairman of 
the Board of Managers, called attention 
in his report to the manner in which the 
outlay for improvements in the building 
and facilities is kept at a minimum by 
having much of the work dune by reg- 
ular employees of the hospital. I te ex- 
pressed the appreciation of the Board 
of Managers to the Woman's Board 
for then- invaluable service in mam 
departments of the hospital, and to the 
medical, nursing and business staffs 
for services during the year. 

Dr. E. I'".. Irons, dean of Rush Med 
ical College, called attention to the 

close relationship existing between 


In her report presented at the annual 
meeting of the Hospital Society, Miss 
M. Helena McMillan, principal of the 
School of Nursing, said that the aver- 
age total enrollment for the year 1935 
was 288, including 143 graduate nurses 
employed by the hospital, 87 advanced 
and 58 freshman students. An average 
of 12 graduate and eight student nurses 
cared for a total of 12,116 patients in 
operating rooms as against 11,123 in 
1934. Nurses in attendance in the first 
floor examining rooms managed 28,860 
visits of non-hospital patients of the 
medical staff. Fifty-eight graduate 
nurses gave 21,140 days of special duty 
j to hospital patients. Graduate nurses 
| sent into the homes for private duty 
numbered 179. 

Seventy-two new students were ad- 
mitted to the school last September. 
Beginning with the next class entering 
in September, 1936, candidates for ad- 
mission to the School of Nursing must 
have at least two years of college work 
beyond high school. 


Miss Dorothy Ainsworth, a member 
of the graduate staff since 1929 as 
head nurse, night supervisor and in- 
structor, left January 16 to become 
assistant superintendent of nurses at 
Waterbury Hospital, Waterbury, Conn. 

Miss Mary W. Wilson, supervisor 
of the obstetrical department, returned 
to her duties February 1, after an ab- 
sence of three months, during which 
time Miss Elphia Flugum, from the 
office of superintendent of nurses, sub- 
stituted in the obstetrical department. 

Miss Elsbeth Ilennecke, chief dieti 
tian of our hospital for oven ten years 
recently married Mr. Joseph 1 lam 
mond Stevens and left us to take can 
of her own home. We are fortunati 
in having Miss lieulah llunzicker t< 
succeed her. Miss llunzicker was on< 
ol our dietitians and an instructor ii 
cookery and dietetics at the School o 
Nursing for several years, and she ha: 
returned to us from the University o 
Michigan Hospital. Miss I lunzickei 
holds her U.S. and M.A. degrees fron 
the University of Wisconsin, and sh< 
look her dietetics internship al the km 
versitv of Michigan. 


. / ssi ttan 

rding Secretary — Mrs. Earle B. 

Corresponding Secretary — Miss Lucibel Dunham. 

Treasurer— Mrs. Edward L. Beatie. 

Assistant Treasurer — Mrs. Gordon B. Wheeler. 

Advisory Council- -Mrs. Perkins B. liass, Mrs. C. 
Frederick Childs, Mrs. Albert B. Dick. Mrs. Henry 
C. Hackney, Mrs. Frederick T. Haskell, Mrs. Alva 
A. Knight, Mrs. 1.. Hamilton McCormick, Mrs. J. 
P. Mentzer and Mrs. George R. Nichols. 


I'm" l-'.M'irim;. December 31 , 1936— Mrs. Perkins 
11. Bass, Jr., Mrs. Kingman Douglass, Mrs. Tames 
B. Herrick, Mrs. Alva A. Knight, Mrs. Hen F. Mc- 
("utcbeon, Mrs. Jacob Mortenson and Mrs. William 
Ii. Neal. 

Term Expiring, December 31, 1937— Mrs. Frank 
R. Elliott, Mrs. I.. ('. Gatewood, Mrs. Wilber E. 
Post, Mrs. .1 II. ill Taylor, Mrs. Robert E. Ross and 

1938— Mrs. Peter 

Mrs. It. M. I.innell. 
ab B. Simpson and 


■ medical sc 
Chicago, th 
d Central Fi 
( MIk eis elec 

College i 

hools Of 

e Presby 
ee Dispei 

ted at th 



ilding over are listed on another 
f this BULLETIN. Lunch pre- 
pared by the chef was served in the 
chapel under the direction of the 

Reports of varied activities during 
the last year were presented at the an- 
nual meeting of the Woman's Board 
held in the hospital chapel, January 5, 
1936. The treasurer, Mrs. Edward L. 
Beatie, reported total receipts of $16,- 
010.43 for 1935. Of this sum $8,225.59 
was collected by women in the different i 
churches. Disbursements were $14,- I 

Among the special achievements of 
the year was the completion of the 
$25,000 endowment fund, the income 
from which is to provide linen for the 
hospital from year to year. Funds 
for the support of the Social Service 
department, the pre-natal nurse, the 
hospital library, and free beds in the 
children's wards are provided by the 
Woman's Board, which also makes 
donations to the Occupational Therapv 
department, ward nurse endowment 
fund and aids the hospital in many 
other ways. 

Officers Are Elected 

Mrs. David Wilson Graham, who 
has been identified with hospital inter- 
ests since it was established, continues 
as honorary president. Mrs. Frederick 
T. Haskell, efficient president for the 
last two years, continues on the ad- 
visory council. Mrs. Clyde E. Shorey 
of Oak Park is the new president. 
Other officers elected are : 

Vice Presidents— Mrs. Ernest E. Irons. Mrs. Lin- 
coln M. Coy, Mrs. Charles S. Reed and Mrs. William 
R. Tucker. 

(Continued from page 1) 

fund with the goal of endowing a nurse 
in her memory. The project was en- 
couraged by the late Mr. Albert M. 
Day, then chairman of Board of Man- 
agers, and by other members of the 
board. The Woman's Board became 
interested and Miss Mary Reed gave 
$10,000 toward the endowment, while 
smaller donations were made by many 
others. The Gladys Foster nurse has 
been on duty since January 7, 1921, 
although the endowment is not yet en- 
tirely completed. Miss Naomi White 
is the present Gladys Foster nurse. 

In Memory of E. A. Hamill 

The Hamill family has been active 
in the interests of the hospital since its 
beginning. Following the death of Mr. 
Ernest A. Hamill, his widow estab- 
lished the Ernest A. Hamill Endowed 
Nurse fund on March 15, 1930. Miss 
Orizaba Fry is the nurse supported by 
this fund. 

The Luella Pearson Molloy fund was 
established September 1, 1933. Miss 
Margaret Learned is the Molloy fund 

Mrs. Molloy was in the hospital sev- 
eral times as a patient and so appre- 
ciated the nursing care given her that 
she expressed the wish that all seriously 
ill patients might have similar care. 
She gave an endowment which pays 
the salary of one nurse and nearly all 
the salary of another. 

Since December 11, 1933, an an- 
nual contribution sufficient to maintain 
a nurse has come to the hospital from 
Mr. T. Kenneth Boyd. Extra income 
from the Molloy fund and from other 
friends has made it possible to main- 
tain another nurse since January 2, 
1934. Miss Isla Knight is the Boyd 
fund nurse. Miss Margaret Evjen is 
serving as the extra Molloy fund nurse 
at the present time. 

Eleven Years Afterward 

It is when the service given to a hos- 
pital patient can be viewed in retrospect 
after a period of years that one is best 
able to evaluate what this service has 
meant to the individual, the family 
group and the community. Mrs. D. 
entered the Presbyterian Hospital as a 
patient in 1925. She was a beautiful 
woman in the late thirties and mother 
of six children, the oldest 17 and the 
youngest five years old. Examination 
revealed a condition that would have 
been regarded as hopeless a few years 
ago. Following a complicated opera- 
tion, Mrs. D. required constant nurs- 
ing care for a number of consecutive 
days and nights but her family was 
unable to pay for the services of a 
special nurse. An endowed nurse was 
assigned to care for Mrs. D. as long 
as her condition demanded constant 


A donation of $35,000 en- 
dows a graduate nurse in per- 
petuity to care for seriously 
ill patients who are unable to 
pay for the special nursing 
their condition requires. 

A donation of $1,500 main- 
tains a graduate nurse for one 
year to care for needy patients. 

Donations in any amount 
may be made toward the 
Gladys Foster nurse endow- 
ment fund or toward the sup- 
port of a maintained nurse. 

The service which the Pres- 
byterian Hospital gives through 
its endowed and maintained 
nurses could be greatly in- 
creased if more funds were 
made available for this pur- 

care. She made a satisfactory recovery 
and, during the years that have elapsed 
since, has been physically able to look 
after her home and give her children 
the care that only a conscientious 
mother can give. Her youngest child 
is now sixteen years old. An older 
daughter is married and recently gave 
birth to a child in the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital. All of the children are a credit 
to their mother and worthy citizens of 

Bobby Can Talk Now 

Little Bobby was 27 months old but 
he had never talked. He seemed to 
understand everything that was said 
to him and had every appearance of 
being an exceptionally bright child. 
His inability to speak and a noticeable 
tendency to drag one arm and leg were 
the reasons that led his parents to bring 
him to the Presbyterian Hospital. 
X-ray and clinical diagnosis traced the 
difficulty to the speech center in the 
brain. A staff surgeon operated and 
Bobby came through the operation 
satisfactorily but his condition de- 
manded constant nursing care. En- 
dowed nurses gave the needed care for 
several days and nights. Bobby has 
recovered and is talking! He now is 
an active, happy, normal boy. 

When Pneumonia Strikes 

When pneumonia strikes it takes 
every weapon of a healthy body to with- 
stand the attack. Richard I... a bril- 
liant youth of 17 years, lacked these 
weapons because neither he nor his 
father had work and such relief rations 
as had been obtained were insufficient 
to provide proper nourishment. I le was 
brought to the Presbyterian Hospital 

so seriously ill of pneumonia that an 
oxygen tent was his only hope. When 
a patient is placed in an oxygen tent, 
a graduate nurse must watch both the 
patient and the oxygen tent apparatus 
constantly. Endowed nurses on duty 
day and night helped to win the battle 
for Richard's life during the seven days 
that he was kept in an oxygen tent, 
and at intervals during succeeding days. 
At the end of the second week Richard 
was out of danger and in due time 
made a complete recovery. 

Saving a Young Mother 
Mrs. K. was a pretty Irish girl of 
twenty years, but instead of being 
carefree she was the mother of a 
four-year-old girl and was expecting 
another child soon, when she was 
referred to the Presbyterian Hospital. 
Her husband had deserted her and his 
whereabouts were unknown. When 
she entered the hospital she was in a 
serious physical condition which neces- 
sitated complete rest in bed. After ten 
weeks in the hospital she gave birth to 
a baby boy. Twelve days later, Mrs. K. 
was discharged from the hospital. Dur- 
ing her three-months' stay she had the 
care of endowed nurses at different 
times when her condition was critical. 
After her recovery she was aided by 
the Cook County Bureau of Public 
Welfare and was reunited with her 
little daughter. Her condition has con- 
tinued to improve and with care she 
may hope to live an almost normal life. 
This will mean that her own children 
will not be orphaned as was Mrs. K. 
at the tender age of six years, and prob- 
ably will escape the long train of ill- 
nesses and misfortunes which have 
made their mother's life a constant 

When Family Funds Give Out 

Mrs. J. is a woman in the early six- 
ties, with every indication of living 
comfortably for the remainder of the 
so-called allotted span of three score 
and ten years and perhaps longer. These 
added years are in prospect not only 
because of the marvelous achievements 
of modern surgery, lint also because en- 
dowed nurses were assigned to care for 
her when family resources had been 
exhausted after a considerable sum had 
been paid for special nursing and a pri- 
vate room which her serious condition 
made imperative. iVIrs. J. had two seri- 
ous operations, after which she required 
constant and skilled nursing care. After 
four weeks she was suflicientK im 

proved to go into a ward and receive 
general nursing care. At the end of 

ten weeks she returned to her family, 

the members of which as well as Mrs. 

J. herself will never forget what it 
meant to have endowed nurses avail- 
able in their time of need. 

Central Free 'Dispensary Completes 68th Year 

With 1935 Record of 228,089 Patient Visits. 

Completing its 68th year of service 
to those who are able to pay little or 
nothing for medical care, the Central 
Free Dispensary has a record of 228,- 
089 patient visits for the year 1935. 
Affiliated with both Rush Medical Col- 
lege and the Presbyterian Hospital, the 
dispensary completes a triumvirate of 
institutions offering a well-rounded 
ministry to the sick and affording val- 
uable contributions to the advancement 
of medical science. 

With a medical staff composed of 
180 doctors who are members of Rush 
Medical College faculty, Central Free 
Dispensary is able to give to its pa- 
tients an inclusive service in the field 
of diagnosis and out-patient medical 
treatment. Through affiliation with the 
Presbyterian Hospital free beds are 
available for dispensary patients in need 
of hospital care to the full extent of 
the hospital's ability to furnish such 

Central Free Dispensary is housed in 
the Rush Medical College building at 
1748 West Harrison street. Dr. George 
W. DuVall is the superintendent. The 
nursing staff consists of Miss Ada 
Ouinnel, head nurse ; four graduate 
nurses and student nurses from the 
Presbyterian Hospital School of Nurs- 
ing. Miss Dorothy Cornwell is director 
of the Social Service department and 
has a staff of ten case workers. Com- 
plete laboratory facilities of Rush 
Medical College are utilized for diag- 
nostic purposes. 


Members of the Central Fracture 
Committee of the American College of 
Surgeons were guests at a clinic and 
luncheon in the Presbyterian Hospital, 
January 17. The clinic was arranged 
by Dr. Kellogg Speed, and was a fea- 
ture of the annual meeting of the com- 
mittee, held in Chicago, January 17 and 
18. Guests included Dr. Frederic W. 
Bancroft of New York City, chairman 
of the committee; Dr. Bowman C. 
Crowell of Chicago, secretary ; Dr. 
Frederic J. Cotton and Dr. Charles I.. 
Scudder of Boston, and Dr. William 
Darrach of New York City, authors of 
well known professional hooks; Dr. 
George E. Wilson of Toronto; Dr. 
Frederick J. Tees of Montreal, and 
other outstanding fracture specialists 
from Memphis, New Orleans, Birming- 
ham, Boston, Kansas City, Pittsburgh, 
Philadelphia, New York, Rochester, 
Minneapolis, Portland, and Chicago. 

The annual meeting was held Janu- 
ary 28, in the offices of Dr. Arthur 
Dean Bevan. Officers elected for 1936 
are : 

President— Dr. Robert H. Herbst. 

Vice President — Dr. Oliver S. 

Second Vice President — Mrs. Ger- 
trude Howe Britton. 

Treasurer — Henry W. Austin. 

Secretary — James H. Harper. 

Of the 228,089 patient visits in 1935, 
176,851 or 80.1 per cent were those of 
patients unable to pay the nominal fees 
asked by the dispensary. Only 32.9 
per cent of the income from all sources 
came from patients, and only about 50 
per cent of the cost of caring for pa- 
tients referred by Illinois Emergency 
Relief Commission stations was cov- 
ered by receipts from the Commission. 
Anticipating a further decrease in in- 
come as the result of impending 
changes in the administration of relief 
in Illinois, the board of directors made 
plans at the annual meeting to appeal 
to the public for contributions in order 
that the dispensary may continue to 
minister to thousands of Chicago's sick 


Dr. Adrien Verbrugghen gave an 
address at a meeting of the Irving Park 
branch of the Chicago Medical Society 
in Swedish Covenant Hospital, January 
28 at 9 P. M. His topic was ""Treat- 
ment of Middle Meningeal Hemorrhage 
and Chronic Sub-Dural Hematoma." 
Dr. Peter Bassoe and Dr. O. T. Roberg 
led the discussion following the ad- 

Dr. Kellogg Speed addressed the 
South Chicago branch of the Chicago 
Medical Society in South Shore Hos- 
pital, Friday evening, January 28, on 
the topic "Fractures of the Lower Ex- 



The transfusion of blood from 
healthy persons to the sick has been 
found to he a useful medical procedure. 
However, it is costly and frequentlv 
patients are unable to pay for such lift- 
giving treatment. When the relatives 
of the patient cannot supply the needed 

blood, an outside donor must be called 
upon and this donor must be paid the 
usual sum for this service. A fund to 

patients requiring them has been estab- 
lished in memory of Dr. Edwin R. Le 
( ount by Mrs. I ,e Count. 

The Presbyterian Hospital and mem- 
bers of its Gynecological and Obstetri- 
cal staff were hosts to the monthly 
clinical meeting of the Chicago Gyne- 
cological Society, January 17. Clinics 
both morning and afternoon were held 
in Senn hall of Rush Medical College 
in order to accommodate the large at- 
tendance, numbering more than 80 
members and guests. Several men were 
present from larger towns of adjoining 
states. Luncheon was served in the 
chapel of the Presbyterian Hospital for 
those who wished to remain for the 
afternoon program. 

Many expressions of satisfaction 
from the visitors gratified the staff for 
the work of entertaining them. The 
visitors also expressed appreciation to 
the hospital management for the de- 
licious luncheon served. 


Miss Dorothy Fisher, class of 1930, 
who is now studying for a master's de- 
gree at the University of Chicago, is 
spending some time in the Presbyterian 
Hospital, making a study of nursing 
methods from which she is to prepare 
her master's thesis. Miss Fisher was 
the first recipient of the fellowship pro- 
vided by the Illinois League of Nurs- 
ing Education for students in the 
recently established Department of 
Nursing of the University of Chicago. 







FRED S. BOOTH isst. Secretary 

A.J. WILSON isst. Secretary 


Arthub G. Cabli John - McKinlay 

Am'.iki I!. Dick, Jr. Fred A. Poor 

Johm It. Ok Msi Theodore A. Shaw 

Ai in ki M. Farwki i Rev. John Timothy 
James B. Forgan, Jr. Stone, D.D. 

( ii mji is I!. GooDsrEED R. Douglas Stuart 

Alfred E. Hamill Rorert Stevenson 

Charles II. Hamill J. Hall Taylor 

Edward D. McDougal, John P. Welling 

Jr. Edward F. Wilson 

Rev. Harrison- Ray Anderson, D.D. 
Rev. Harold L. Bowman, D.D. 
Rev. Henry S. Brown, D.D. 
Rev. W. Clyde Howard, D.D. 

ASA S. BACON Superintendent 

II F.R. MAX IIENSKI Asst. Superintendent 

M. HELENA \l. \lll.l AN 

Director, School of Nursiiui 

Tin- Presbyterian II. of the City ..f Chicago 
is .hi Illinois not-for-profit corporation, organized 
July 21, 1883, for tin- purpose of affording surgical 
ami medical aid, and nursing, ... sick ami disabled per- 
sons of everj creed, nationality, and color. Its medi- 
cal stafl is appointed from the faculty of Rush Med- 
ical College of the University of Chicago. 

The Hoard of Managers call attention to the need 
of sifts for current charitable and educational work 
and of (lifts and bequests for endowment and for 
the general purposes of the hospital. 

The PtesiyierilS jHtospita 

tke Q'ity''<3y ©kicago' 



Chicago, 111. 

March, 1936 

No. 86 


Gifts from Churches 

Schools Provide Hospital 

and Sunday 
Care for Many in Need 

From the time the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital of the City of Chicago was estab- 
lished, 53 years ago, Easter Sunday 
has been set aside by the Chicago Pres- 
bytery as the day on which offerings 
have been received in the churches and 
Sunday schools to aid the hospital in 
its work of giving medical and nursing 
care to those of the sick who were 
without means to pay for it. "1 was 
sick and ye visited me" is the approba- 
tion merited by all who have had a part 
in these Easter offerings through the 
years, and by those who on April 12, 
1936, will respond to the annual appeal 
in behalf of the charity work of the 
Presbyterian Hospital. 

Children Endow Cheer-up Beds 

While the larger gifts from men and 
women have been an indispensable fac- 
tor in enabling the hospital to carry 
forward its ever increasing program of 
ministry to the sick poor of all ages, 
eight free beds in the children's wards 
are a perpetual monument to the gener- 
osity of the Sunday school children, 
who have given what they could to help 
make sick children well again. These 
gifts of pennies, nickels, dimes and 
when possible larger sums have accu- 
mulated through the vears to a fund 
of $41,728.88 on March 1, 1936, the 
income from which provides eight 
Cheer-up beds. These beds were occu- 
pied constantly during the year by a 
total of 292 child patients. 

Mrs. William A. Douglass, chair- 
man of the Child's Free Bed commit- 
tee, reports that 44 Sunday schools had 
a part in contributing to this fund last 
year. The total sum for the year was 
$699.52 including a few personal gifts. 



This little girl was one of hundreds of sick children who have been cared for in Cheer-up be 
endowed by Presbyterian Sunday Schoolchildren of Chicago and suburbs. 


Caring annually for 11,000 suffering sick and injured in its beds and a like 
number in its examining rooms. 

Retaining for its humblest patient the highest medical skill from its staff of 
100 picked men. 

Saturating every form of service with a spirit of tender solicitude. 

Following needy patients home for supervision and moral stimulus. 

Adjusting itself hourly to the new needs of the present day. 

Serving the sick with nurses whose character, training and physical health are 
objects of constant consideration. 

Ministering to 2,721 sick poor last year at an expense of $179,249.76 without 
cost to these needy sufferers. (This does not include the free service given by 
the doctors.) 

Spending last year, under the most rigid economy, consistent with highest type 
of hospital service, $795,358.46. 

Striving now in every way to prevent the increased cost of maintenance from 
hindering the width of its benevolent work. 



Chairmen Named By 38 Churches 

To Assist Hospital in Work 

of Mercy During 1936 

Since that day 53 years ago when a 
group of women formed a Ladies Aid 
Society to sew for the newly estab- 
lished Presbyterian Hospital, women 
of the churches have assisted its work 
of mercy in numerous ways. The 
Woman's Board has chairmen in 38 
churches and also enlists the coopera- 
tion of many other friends. Chairmen 
for 1936 are announced by Mrs. Clyde 
E. Shorey, president, as follows: 
First Church — Mus.OscakE. Aleshire 
Second — Miss Lucjbel Dunham 
Third — Mrs. Wilson E. Donaldson 
Fourth — Mrs. Charles S. Reed 
Austin — Mrs. Clement L. Pollock 
Berzvyn — Mrs. A. J. Dunham 
Buena Memorial — Mrs. Henry Hep- 
Campbell Park— Mrs. William C 

Central — Mrs. Otto Berz 
Chicago Lawn — Mrs. F. Crawford 
Drexel Park — Mrs. Agnes White 
Edgezvater — Mrs. George J. Schmidt 
Englewood — Mrs. Cameron Ur<ju- 


Cranston first — Mrs. William R. 

EvanstonSecond — MtssIsabel McNai: 
Fair Oaks— Mrs. B. W. Miller 
Fidlerton Covenant — Mrs. James M. 

Hebron Welsh— Mrs. O. H. Jones 
Hinsdale Union — Mrs. Stanley R. 

Hyde Park ( I 'ailed Church of)— Miss 

I Iarriet F. Gilchrist, Chairman ; 

Mrs. John P. Mentzer, Co-chair- 
Kenwood Interdenominational — M rs. 

Robert Mel )ougal 
LaGrange — Mrs. Ethan Taylor 
Lake Forest— Mrs. C. Frederick 

Lake View -Mrs. Frank Penfield 
Morgan Park — Mrs. William E. 

S 1 1 A R I ' 

Normal Park— Mrs. L. F. Stafford 
Northminster Mrs. Percy E. Burtt 
Oak Park First — Mrs. Frank S. 

Oak I 'ark Second— Mrs. Wm. II. 


Ravenswood Mrs. John C. Tyndall 
River Forest Mrs. Frederick R. 

Riverside Mrs. Nelson W.Willard 
RogersPark -Mrs.W.B.Macpiierson 
Roscland Mrs. Willis B.Townsend 
Trinity Mrs. II. I ,. Jones 
Wheaton M rs. ( 'iiarli.s 1 1. Slocum 
Wilmettc Mrs. Raymond A. Smith 
General Membership Mrs. James 



Trays of ward patients are made 
more attractive and appetizing with 
jelly and other delicacies donated by 
church women and other friends, while 
cash donations are used to supply fresh 
fruit for those who especially need it. 

For the year 1935, the Delicacies 
Committee reported: 6,095 glasses of 
jelly, 37 pints of grape juice, 36 quarts 
of jam, 19 quarts of fruit, 2 l / 2 gallons 
of tomato juice, 2 pounds apple butter, 
one. sack of apples and $248.75 for 
fresh fruit. Mrs. J. P. Mentzer is 
chairman and Mrs. G. G. Olmsted vice 
chairman of this committee. 


Articles for hospital use sewed by 
church women during 1935 totalled 
12,842, including the following: 4,640 
towels, 3,666 tray cloths, 798 glove 
covers, 792 stand covers, 432 infants' 
gowns, 420 diapers, 352 electric pad 
covers, 156 hot-water bottle covers, 228 
inside pillow slips, 54 aspirating bibs, 
48 bedtable covers, 350 infants' sheets, 
528 cart sheets, 342 laboratory towels, 
48 breast binders, 48 dresser covers. 
Miss Grace M. McWilliarns was chair- 
man of the committee in charge of this 
1 he Social Service Committee, Airs. 
Mark Oliver, chairman, reported that 
board members, church women, and 
other friends of the hospital donated 
during 1935 for distribution to needy 
patients : 1,592 pieces of used clothing, 
live complete layettes. 12 kimonas, 12 
knitted bonnets and sweaters and many 
other garments for infants. Four 
church guilds gave 29 patchwork quilts 
for infants' beds and eight blankets for 
full size beds. 



When the world was saddened by 

the news of the tragic deaths of Will 
Rogers and Wile) Post, it learned of 

hospital in I '.arrow, Alaska, which 
ministers to the Eskimos. All over the 

nation thoughts were turned toward 

Thus it is with so many of our hospi- 
tals which are quietly ministering to 
the sick' but rarely are in the minds of 
the public until their services are 
needed. It is when some tragedy oc- 

munitj that the hospital conies into the 


By Mary Louise Morley 
(Children's Floor Supervisor) 

If those whose donations have made 
possible our Cheer-up beds could see 
as we on the children's floor do con- 
stantly how much this free hospital 
care means to sick children and their 
parents they would rejoice over the 
blessings they have helped to scatter 
among "the least of these." 

We have a very bright little girl pa- 
tient, three years old, who is receiving 
treatment for a badly burned face and 
neck. She comes from a home where 
there are many children and not suf- 
ficient funds to pay hospital and doctor 
when illness overtakes them. She likes 
being cared for in a Cheer-up bed 
where she is gradually recovering. If 
we did not have free beds for needy 
children little Angela might not receive 
this care and the nourishment her little- 
body needs to keep up her strength. 

An Accident Victim 

Charles is another small patient who 
occupies a Cheer-up bed when he comes 
to the hospital for frequent treatments 
which are helping him to recover from 
the effects of a serious accident in the 
home. The doctors treat Charles with- 
out pay and we give him expert nurs- 
ing and all the good food be can eat 
and several glasses of rich milk daily, 
so that he usually leaves the hospital 
looking quite husky. He is too young 
to know to whom he owes his free hos- 
pital care, but some day when he is 
older no doubt he will realize that he 
could not have had this care but for 
the kind and thoughtful children in our 
Presbyterian Sunday schools. 

Charles and Angela are only two of 
the Z ( )2 children cared for in Cheer-up 
beds last year. The story of each child 
is one of illness and inability of parents 
to pay for the care needed. Paraphras- 
ing a familiar verse by Emily Dickin- 
son, those who contribute to the child's 
tree bed fund express in a tangible 
manner its sentiment : 

// / can stop one heart from break- 
I shall not lire in vain. 
If I can ease one life from aching. 
Or cool one pain 
Or help one suffering child 
Until he's well again, 
I shall not live in rain. 


livery one of the 2,721 men, women 
and children who were cared for dur- 
ing 1935 in free beds in the Presby- 
terian Hospital came to us ill or hurt 
and without means to pay for the care 
needed. Their stories run the entire 
gamut of human pain and misery, pov- 
erty and misfortune, heartbreak and 
despair. Superimposed against this 
dark background are hundreds of 
stories of health regained and in many 
instances problems worked out which 
had seemed impossible of solution. 

Names of these patients are held 
sacred as are full details of illnesses 
and problems. However, a few facts 
about some of these patients will illus- 
trate the scope of the service given. 
Initials or surnames are not those of 
the patients referred to. 

Keeping a Home Together 

Mr. N. was a skilled workman and 
provided well for his family until de- 
pression years brought unemployment. 
However, he still managed to provide 
food and shelter by doing odd jobs of 
every description. But this fine Amer- 
ican family hardly knew which way to 
turn when Mrs. N. became seriously ill. 
At the Presbyterian Hospital medical 
treatment and hospital care was pro- 
vided and home problems resulting 
from the mother's illness were worked 
out by our Social Service department. 
An agency was found that would pro- 
vide a part-time housekeeper; friends 
of the hospital made it possible to give 
Mrs. N. a wheel chair as a Christmas 
present, and she is again happily super- 
vising home affairs. The five children 
for whom this good home was held to- 
gether range in ages from four to 
eleven years. 

An Ambitious Girl 

The story of Miss D. goes back to 
a preceding year but reveals how co- 
operation between Presbyterian Hospi- 
tals in America's two largest cities 
helped an ambitious girl to regain 
health and go forward with a worthy 
career. This attractive Irish girl had 
come to this country because she 
sought an opportunity to develop her 
talents in a certain field of artistic en- 
deavor. While working as a housemaid 
and attending night school in Chicago, 
she became seriously ill and was ad- 
mitted to our hospital. After 18 weeks' 
care in one of our free beds her con- 
• dition was improved but doctors ad- 
vised a year's convalescence. I ler only 
relatives lived in New York City and 
they were willing to give Miss D. a 
home but could not pay for medical 
care. Our Social Service department 
wrote the Presbyterian Hospital in 


\\\ Una W. Harsen 
An Easter garment? 

One there was who bought 

Us shining raiment at a heavy price. 

Woven it was in pain. Its warp and 

Compound of human suffering and love 

Ours for I he asking 

Here in this world and now, 

Would we but walk in sweet humility ; 

No more pay homage to the god of 

But feel the weight of mankind's utter 

Its sense of helplessness, of blind fu- 

Could -we share one small portion of 

that love 
Which led our Christ to bitter Calvary, 
We would take heed of human misery 
In those brief years that mark our 

mortal span. 
Then might we wear the robe be- 
queathed by Him, 
The garment of the brotherhood of 

— Christian Century. 


Three babies were born on the ma- 
ternity floor of the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital on Leap Year day, February 29. 
as follows : 

Mr. and Mrs. William Osolin, 2827 
North I tarlem Ave., girl at 10 :07 A.M. 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Swierenga, 
1345 South 59th Ave., Cicero, boy at 

Mr. and Mrs. Nils Toll, 1209 North 
Maylield Ave., girl at 5:11 P.M. 

New York and that hospital readily 
agreed to provide medical care. Friends 
of our hospital paid transportation pro- 
vided at halfrate by the New York 
Central. Miss D. spent a year in New 
York, recovered fully and came back 
to Chicago. She completed her busi- 
ness course, now has a good office posi- 
tion and is studying in preparation lin- 
ker chosen profession. 

When James, age 20, became ill of a 
serious ailment, things looked dark not 
only for James but also for the family 
group which he and a brother had been 
supporting. There was no reserve fund 
to pay for hospital and medical care, so 
James was admitted through the Cen- 
tral Free I Hspensary as a clinic pa- 
tient. Following a serious operation In- 
several days and nights. After a few 
weeks he was discharged from the hos- 
pital. Me came back the other day to 
report to the attending surgeon and 
was told that he will be able to go back 
to work soon. A happier person than 
lames scarcely could be found. 


The real story back of any institution 
is that of the men and women who sup- 
port, manage and do the daily work. 
All success is dependent upon their 
ability and devotion as individuals and 
their cooperative spirit. A chapter 
should be devoted to the history of the 
medical and surgical staff, to the offi- 
cers and managers of the hospital, to 
the woman's board, the nursing school, 
the support of the churches and to 
those individuals who have at various 
limes made such generous contribu- 
tions to the institution. Nor should be 
forgotten the loyalty and faithfulness 
of hospital employes of all ranks and 

It is to the many individuals in these 
"roups, working together with but one 
object, that credit is due for the ac- 
complishments of our hospital. 

The medical staff, composed of 100 
picked men, gives careful attention to 
educational work and to the research 
laboratories where all scientific investi- 
gation and tests are made. 

The hospital has one hundred and 
thirty-seven nurses in training. It is 
instructing forty internes and residents 
in the higher branches of medicine. It 
is affiliated with Rush Medical College 
ot the University of Chicago and the 
Central Free Dispensary and is assist- 
ing in the instruction of Rush Medical 

Its X-ray department and labora- 
tories are in charge of full-time experts 
and medical advisors. 

( >ur hospital has given fifty-three 
years of faithful service to the citizens 
ol Chicago and vicinity, during which 
time it has eared for nearly a million 
patients in its beds and in its examining 
and treatment rooms. 

Hundreds of persons have built, are 
building, the Presbyterian Hospital. 
The contribution of each, whether it be 
a glass ot jelly, a large sum of money 
or faithful performance of daily duty, 
is vitally important. When each gives 
according to his ability toward realiza- 
tion ol an ideal of human service, there 
is created a vast wealth in intangible, 
spiritual assets, values which cannot be 
seen, counted or measured, but which 
are really true and permanent. 

From the superintendent of a home 
for old people: "I cannot tell you how 
grateful I am to you for taking Mr. \\ . 
into the hospital. 1 le is most deserving 
and greatly loved by our entire family. 
Although "he is 85.' no doubt he has a 
good many years ahead of him. A Miss 
k. who fractured her hip at 77 re- 
turned to us from your good hands and 
lived eight years afterward." 

Righteous Are Not Forsaken in Time of Illness; 

Members of 32 Churches Given Free Hospital Care 

While the Presbyterian Hospital serves sick humanity regardless of creed, 
it is gratifying to note that adult patients from 32 different Presbyterian churches 
received a total of 4,665 days free care in our hospital during 1935. The cost to 
the hospital of providing this care was $33,914.00. Eleven ministers and mission- 
aries received care in the special room endowed for this purpose by the Woman's 
Board and the Board of the Northwest. 

In addition to the above 382 persons were cared for in our examining and 
treatment rooms. 

Among the expressions of gratitude are the following taken from a few of 
many letters received : 

From a Presbyterian minister: "I 
was in the hospital over live weeks. 
I am persuaded that it was the care i 
had there that saved my life. It is a 
splendid institution — has few equals I 
feel. I am persuaded it deserves the 
fullest cooperation of the churches. 
You treat ministers very generously." 

From a woman church member : 
"We thank you for the many services 
you have made possible for us since 
"last fall. We know that the efficient 
surgical and medical care, excellent 
hospitalization and X-ray treatments 
have done me much good, and appre- 
ciate your kindness." 

From a man church member: "I 
thank you a thousand times. I certainly 
appreciate what you have done for me. 
] am feeling better than 1 have for the 
past 25 years." 

From a church elder: "1 received 
your very kind letter acknowledging 
my small payment on my hospital ac- 
count, wherein you state that the hospi- 
tal is cancelling the balance in order to 
help me out at this time. I have had 
large accounts at the hospital at dif- 
ferent times and have always been able 
to pay same, but now conditions have 
certainly been extremely difficult and 
terrible. We have gone through many 
hardships both financial and physical. 
I cannot express to you in words the 
great appreciation 1 feel toward the 
Hospital for the kindness at this time 
as this account has worried me a great 
deal when J think of the very efficient 
and kind services I received at the hos- 
pital. It will certainly he a pleasure to 
me when conditions improve to send 
some money to the hospital to he used 
lor the care of someone who cannol 
afford hospital care, as I certainly 
know what it means to need it at times 
of suffering." 

From a church deaconess: "We wish 

to express oi 
the arrangeri 
l.'s tonsillecti 

have let her 

procedure th 



condition requi 

. We thank v. 

this ! 


erral. h 

ir help 
kind co 



The .American Cynecological Club, 
whose members are the heads of im- 
portant clinics in metropolitan areas, 
met in Chicago February 20, 21 and 22, 
where they were entertained by the 
resident members in Chicago who also 
gave clinics for them. On Friday the 
club met at the Presbyterian Hospital, 
where the afternoon was devoted to an 
exposition ol technique as shown by 
operations by the Staff members of the 
department of Gynecology and Obstet- 
rics, and interesting cured cases were 

Each year, in the month of Febru- 
ary, the members go to a different city 
and in this way they all are kept fresh 
and alert by contacting their fellow 
members and learning each other's 
ideas. Next year the club will meet in 


Professional addresses given by 
medical staff members during Febru- 
ary included the following: 

WGN, Feb. 4, "Goiter," Dr. Harry 
A. ( tbcrhelman. 

Chicago Medical Society, Feb. 12. 
'Transurethral Resection in Various 
Types ol Bladder Neck Obstruction," 
I )r. I terman L. Kretschmer. 

Stockyards Branch, Chicago Medi- 
cal Society, Feb. 11. "Lantern Slide 
Studies of the Eye (.rounds in the 
Human Eye," Dr. Thomas I). Allen; 
'Acute ( Hitis Media and Its Complica- 
tions," Dr. L. T. Curry. 

Wilson Avenue Y. ivl. C. A., Feb. 3, 
"Fat and Thin," Dr. Willard < >wen 

Sears-Roebuck Y. M. C. A., Feb. 17. 
"Your Eyes Are Your Bread Win- 
ners," Dr.' Elias Selinger. 

Calumet I '.ranch, Chicago Medical 
Society, Feb. 21, "Classification and 
Newer Aspects of Treatment of Rheu- 
matism," Dr. Wilbur E. Post. 

Chicago Urblogical Society, Feb. 27; 
Dr. Hugh I. I'olkev read a paper by Dr. 
Robert 1 1." I lerbst. 

Dr. Arthur Dean I'.evan and Mrs. 
Bevan are spending the winter at Pasa- 
dena, ( aliiornia. 


At the present time, 25 graduates of 
the Presbyterian Hospital School of 
Nursing are serving as missionaries in 
different parts of the world. Of timely 
interest is the fact that the former 
Madeline Vanden Akker, class of 1934, 
is stationed in Ethiopia with her bus- 
hand, Dr. John Alfred Creamer, who 
is a medical missionary. Other mission 
fields in which our graduates are serv- 
ing include Alaska, India, China, Siam, 
South America, Africa, Indian reser- 
vations in the Southwest and the moun- 
tains of Kentucky. The Woman's 
Board of the hospital provides three 
scholarships and a loan fund to assist 
young women who wish to prepare for 
missionary nursing service in our 
School of Nursing. 



The following house doctors finished 
their terms of service February 29: 

Dr. William G. Winter 

Dr. Charles Pugh Brown 

Dr. Francis J. Phillips (substi- 

To take the places of these doctors, 
the following began their service on 
March 1 : 

Dr. Heinz O. E. Hoffmann 

Dr. Paul C. Doehring 

Dr. J. John Westra (substitute) 



ALFRED T. CARTON President' 

HORACE W. ARMSTRONG r uc-f resident 




FRED S. BOOTH 4sst. Secretary 

A, J. WILSON Asst. Secretary 

Arthur G. Cable Joiix McKinlax 

Albert B. Dick, Ik. Fred A. Poor 

Tohn B. Drake Lheodore A. Shaw 

Albert DFarwell ^TdS" ™* 

James BF organ, Jr. r Do uclas Stuart 
Alfred E. Hamill Robert Stevenson 

Charles H. Hamill J. Hall Taylor 

Edward D. McDougal, John P. Welling 
Jr. Edward F. Wilson 

Rev. Harrison Ray Anderson, D.D. 
Rev. Harold L. Bowman, D.D. 
Rev. Henry S. Brown, D.D. 
Rev. W. Clyde Howard, D.D. 

ASA S. BACON Superintendent 

HERMAN HENSEJ Asst. Superintendent 

m. hei.ena McMillan 

Director, School of Nursing 
I'Ih- Presbyterian Hospital of the City of Chicago 
is all Illinois not for-profit corporation, organized 
July Jl. 1883, for the purpose of affording surgical 
anil medical aid. and nursing, to sick and disabled per- 
sons of ever} creed, nationality, and color. Its medi- 
cal staff is appointed from the faculty of Rush Med- 
ical College of the University of Chicago. 

The Board of Managers call attention to the need 
of gifts for current charitable and educational work 
and of gifts and bequests for endowment and for 
the general purposes of the hospital. 

|§i If ©spite 

ojv tks Gity%v Gkicag©-' 



Chicago, 111. 

April, 1936 

No. 87 


Ethylene-Oxygen First Used 
Presbyterian Hospital Now 
Widely Accepted 

By Florence Slown Hyde 

The upward climb of surgery to its 
present almost miraculous heights is 
due in no small measure to the dis- 
covery of agents for safely producing 
insensibility to pain and the complete 
relaxation necessary in delicate opera- 
tions. Hence, anesthesia is recognized 
as an important factor in the advance 
of surgery and in its successful prac- 
tice today. 

Less than a century ago, on March 
30, 1842. Dr. Crawford W. Long, 
young Georgia surgeon, performed the 
first surgical operation on record in 
which ether was used. A little more 
than four years later, on October 16, 
1846, in the Massachusetts General 
Hospital at Boston, the first public 
demonstration of the use of ether was 
staged by Dr. William T. G. Morton, 
young dentist and Harvard medical 
student. Dr. John Collins Warren 
who performed the historic operation 
said at its conclusion, "This is no 
humbug." Dr. II. J. Bigelow, leading 
surgeon of that day declared prophet- 
ically, "I have seen something today 
that will go around the world." 
Other Discoveries Follow 

Dr. Horace Wells of Hartford, 
Conn., used nitrous oxide (laughing 
gas) as an anesthetic for painless tooth 
extractions in 1844 and thereafter. 

In 1847, Sir J. Y. Simpson, eminent 
Scottish obstetrician, announced his 
successful use of chloroform as an 
anesthetic during childbirth. 

To Oliver Wendell Holmes belongs 
the honor of having suggested that 
ether be called an "anesthetic" and that 
the state produced by its administra- 
tion be called "anesthesia." Dr. Holmes 
was at that time professor of anatomy 
and physiology in Harvard Medical 
School. In a letter to Dr. Morton un- 

tlet througli w 
i—i. I),-, b 
dime through 

ixygen are brought 
ding the induction 
flow. Other anes- 
ry Lyons. 

der date of Nov. 21, 1846, Dr. 
Holmes, like Dr. Bigelow, spoke pro- 
phetically when he wrote that the term 
selected "will be repeated by the 
tongues of every civilized race of man- 

Since those historic events from 1842 
to 1847, many other agents have been 
discovered and used more or less suc- 
cessfully to produce general anesthesia 
or as local anesthetics. Taking front 
rank among these is ethylene-oxygen 
discovered by research scientists at the 
University of Chicago and first used by 
surgeons operating in the Presbyterian 

Dr. Luckhardt's Experiments 

Idle anesthetic property of ethylene 
gas was discovered because florists of 
Chicago sought the aid of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago botanical laboratory to 
find out why carnations and sweet peas 
wilted so badly when brought into city 
salesrooms. When Dr. Arno I!. Luck- 
hardt, professor of physiology, learned 

Continued on page 3 




( )n Friday, May 8, the School of 
Nursing committee of the Woman's 
Board will give a card party at Sprague 
Home to obtain funds to carry on the 
activities sponsored by the committee 
of which Mrs. Alva A. Knight is chair- 
man and Airs. Edwin Al. Miller, vice- 
chairman. The committee provides 
needed special lectures, a musical 
director and assists the nursing school 
in other ways not provided for in the 
school budget. The party will begin at 
2 o'clock. The chorus, conducted by 
Mr. Robert R. Birch, will sing at 4 
o'clock. Prizes and refreshments will 
be provided. Tickets are $1.00. 


Dr. Richard Kennedy Gilchrist and 
Miss Madeline Wenger, .March 25,1936. 

Dr. Gilbert B.Greene and Miss Ruby 
Finnern, April 4, VJSb. 


It's time to plan for the needs of the 
children who have been patients in our 
hospital and need the building up that 
results from a rest in a fresh air camp 
this summer. The Needlework commit- 
tee is busy cutting out pajamas for 
children from six to twelve years old, 
because many of the children lack 
these. Odds and ends of yarn are 
ready to be made into sweaters for the 
cool days in camp, and every child 
must have a raincoat. Donations of 
discarded or outgrown raincoats are re- 
quested for this purpose. 

One of the things that many of the 
women patients from less prosperous 
homes worry about while in the hos- 
pital is who is going to launder the 
husband's one and only shirt, so he can 
look respectable when he goes to work, 
if he is fortunate enough to have work. 
Donations of old shirts with or with- 
out collars will be welcomed by the 
Social Service Department for distri- 
bution in such cases. 

In order to facilitate the sewing to 
be done not only for children who will 
be sent to camp but for distribution to 
other needy children whose physical ills 
are ministered to by our hospital, mem- 
bers of the Children's Department and 
Needlework committees are meeting at 
the hospital on the third Monday of 
each month to cut out garments, to be 
given out at the monthly meetings of 
the Woman's Board. 




During the past twenty years suffi- 
cient silver to equip two dining rooms 
in the hospital has been obtained by 
collecting American Family soap wrap- 
pers which were exchanged for silver. 
These dining rooms are the ones used 
by interns and doctors, special nurses 
and other hospital personnel. 

Mrs. Cameron Barber, 232 Ridgeland 
avenue, Oak Park, chairman of the 
Woman's Board committee which col- 
lects soap wrappers announces that 
April 22 is the final date by which time, 
soap wrappers and coupons from soap 
flake boxes must be sent to her for the 
1936 exchange. All friends of the hos- 
pital arc: urged by Mrs. Barber to co- 
operate by collecting and sending in 
wrappers and coupons as her commit- 
tee hopes to obtain needed knives and 
Spoons by this means. 


Dr. Herbert L. Willett was the 
speaker at a special Lenten service held 
by the Woman's Board at the Fort- 
nightly club, Tuesday, March 31, at 
1 1 :00 A. M. Dr. Willett's topic was. 
"Periods of Meditation in World Re- 

"The Lottery Man" is the play to be 
given by our School of Nursing Alum- 
nae Association, April 21 and 22 at the 
Chicago Woman's Club theatre, 72 
East 11th St. Proceeds will be added 
to the fund which helps maintain a 
nurses' cottage at the Naperville Tu- 
berculosis Sanitarium. Miss Florence 
Cooper has charge of the ticket sale. 
Reserved seats are 75 cents and other 
seats are 50 cents. 

The Alumnae Association cleared 
$60 at a bridge party in the Auditorium 
Hotel, March 4, also given for the 
benefit of the Naperville cottage fund. 


Miss Gladys Kartske (1928) was re- 
cently appointed to the staff of the Vis- 
iting Nurse Association of Evanston 
and will have charge of the associa- 
tion's maternity work. 

Miss May Bryant (PJ28) has ac- 
cepted the position of superintendent 
of Gastonia Orthopedic Hospital in 
Gastonia, N. C, and will assume her 
duties this month. 

Miss Carolyn Lindquist (1934) re- 
cently accepted a position as instructor 
of nursing at Greenville General Hos- 
pital, Greenville, S. C. 

Miss Gladys Baldwin (1923) has 
just accepted a position as assistant 
night supervisor and chart room nurse 
at Trudeau Sanitorium, Trudeau, X. V. 



As this issue of our Bulletin goes to 
press, an interesting two-day institute 
for nurses is holding sessions in differ- 
ent institutions in the West Side Med- 
ical Center. The institute is being spon- 
sored by the private duty section of the 
First District Illinois State Nurses' 
association. The program included ad- 
dresses by outstanding medical men 
and women and pertinent demonstra- 
tions by medical and nursing staff 
members of the several institutions in 
which sessions were held. Miss Clara 
I. Bollinger, representative of private 
duty and hourly nursing service for the 
First District, was in direct charge of 
arrangements. Miss Ethel F. Hol- 
brook (1922, Presbyterian Hospital 
School of Nursing) is president of the 
ku-st District. 

.Anion- the institute' events was a 
tea at Sprague Nome for Nurses on 
Thursday afternoon, April 2. ( )n the 
same afternoon -roups of institute vis- 
itors were shown through our new milk 
laboratory on the children's floor, 
where they witnessed demonstrations 

of technique. 

Topics of interest to those connected 
with various phases of hospital admin- 
istration, medical, nursing and other 
hospital services will be discussed at 
the Tri-State Assembly of Hospitals of 
Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsin to be 
held at the Sherman Hotel in Chicago, 
May 6, 7 and 8. On each of the three 
days a general session will be held from 
10:00 A. M. to 12:00 noon, while nu- 
merous group conferences will be held in 
the afternoons. Hospital associations 
of each state will hold business sessions 
following the Wednesday afternoon 
group conferences. 

Men and women prominent in their 
respective fields will discuss at the gen- 
eral sessions each morning ways by 
which the hospital may be adequate in 
the care of patients, adequately 
financed and adequate in the special 
services ottered. Miss Bertha Filing- 
son, operating room supervisor in the 
Presbyterian Hospital, will he one of 
the speakers at the Friday morning 
general session. Members of the ad- 
ministrative and medical staffs of our 
hospital are to take part in some of the 
group conference programs. 


The outpatient obstetrical clinic at 
Central Free Dispensary became an ob- 
stetrical ward for a brief time on Feb- 
ruary 17, when a negro patient gave 
birth to a baby while visiting the clinic. 
"Little Snowball" as he was immedi- 
ately nicknamed weighed only four 
pounds and his tiny black face shone 
from the white cotton in which he was 
wrapped until he and his mother could 
be transferred to Cook County Hos- 
pital. A layette was supplied by the 
Social Service department of the Pres- 
byterian Hospital. "Little Snowball" 
was the first baby ever born in the 
Dispensary Obstetrical Clinic which 
through the cooperation of Rush Med- 
ical College, provides to needy mothers 
pre-natal and home delivery medical 


The Junior class of the School of 
Nursing gave the annual class dance at 
the West End Woman's club. Friday 
evening, March 20, when 150 young 
people passed a delightful evening. 
Chaperons were Miss M. Helena Mc- 
Millan and Dr. and Mrs. L. C. Gate- 


Monday. March 30, was the opening 
day of the spring quarter at Rush Med- 
ical College. Students enrolled for this 
term number 250. Forty-one students 
received four-year certificates at the 
end of the winter term on March 17. 

{Continued from page I) 

that his colleagues in the botany de- 
partment had isolated ethylene, found 
in illuminating gas, as the cause of the 
plant wilting, he thought that perhaps 
ethylene might have anesthetic values 
in the practice of surgery. Dr. Luck- 
hardt's experiments on animals proved 
gratifying, and next he tried out the 
effects of ethylene combined with oxy- 
gen on himself and other voluntary 
human subjects. Following these ex- 
periments Drs. Luckhardt and Carter 
invited a group of surgeons and anes- 
thetists to attend a demonstration of 
ethylene-oxygen in the University of 
Chicago on March 11, 1923. 

Three days later, Dr. Arthur Dean 
Bevan performed in the Presbyterian 
Hospital the first surgical operations 
in which patients were given ethylene- 
oxygen, with Dr. Isabella C. Herb as 
the administering anesthetist. On 
March 16, 1923, Dr. Dean Lewis, a 
member of the Presbyterian Hospital 
staff (now professor of surgery at 
Johns Hopkins University), was the 
second surgeon to make use of ethy- 
lene-oxygen, the administering anes- 
thetist being Dr. Mary Lyons. 
Is Widely Accepted 
The results of these first administra- 
tions were so gratifying to both Dr. 
Bevan and Dr. Lewis that they and 
other surgeons operating in the Pres- 
byterian Hospital continued to call for 
the new anesthetic. Soon surgeons in 
other hospitals recognized the value of 
ethylene. At the end of ten years a 
survey revealed that anesthetists in 220 
hospitals in the United States and 
Canada had administered ethylene- 
oxygen in more than a million opera- 
tions, while many large hospitals re- 
ported that 70 to 80 per cent of all 
anesthesias were with ethylene. 

Dr. Isabella C. Herb, chief anesthet- 
ist and a member of the Presbyterian 
Hospital staff for 27 years, and asso- 
ciate professor of surgery (anesthetics) 
in Rush Medical College of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, regards the dis- 
covery and wide acceptance of ethylene 
as the greatest advance step in the field 
of anesthesia during her nearly forty 
years work as anesthetist. 

Relieves Pain of Childbirth 
Not only has ethylene won its way 
into favor as an anesthetic in general 
surgery but also is used extensively in 
obstetrics. It has been found that the 
judicious administration of ethylene- 
oxygen during labor relieves the pain 
without retarding the natural processes 
of childbirth or affecting either mother 
or child in any deleterious manner. 
Ethylene has proven especially effica- 
cious in Cesarean section births, elimi- 
nating disadvantages and dangers of 
anesthetics heretofore used in these 

Ethylene-oxygen also has proven of 
great value in kidney and bladder op- 

erations in which the patient's condition 
indicated that other anesthetics would 
be less efficient and more hazardous, if 
not out of the question. Specialists in 
pulmonary disease welcomed ethylene- 
oxygen because they found it had no 
deleterious effects on the lungs in cases 
of tuberculosis or pneumonia. 

Not Unpleasant to Inhale 
Ethylene is not unpleasant to inhale 
if administered slowly with a liberal 
amount of oxygen during induction of 
anesthesia.. It has an advantage over 
nitrous oxide in that it produces greater 
relaxation and because better oxygena- 
tion can be maintained throughout long 
and difficult operations. It is regarded 
by many surgeons as superior to ether 
or chloroform because there is nothing 
to eliminate from the body afterward. 
If only ethylene-oxygen has been used, 
there is immediate return to conscious- 
ness after administration ceases. 

In operations requiring a more com- 
plete relaxation than can he induced by 
ethylene-oxygen alone, ether is admin- 
istered for short periods during ethy- 
lene anesthesia. Even in these cases the 
return to consciousness often takes 
place before the patient leaves the op- 
erating room and the distressing after 
effects are greatly lessened. 

Prior to the discovery of the anes- 
thetic uses of ethylene, nitrous oxide 
gas combined with varying percentages 
of oxygen was used quite generally dur- 
ing the induction period of ether or 
other anesthesia. In recent years ethy- 
lene has replaced nitrous oxide to a con- 
siderable extent. In the Preshyterian 
Hospital both gases are utilized in 
minor surgery and in combination with 
local anesthetics in many types of ab- 
dominal operations. 

New Equipment Installed 
In order that the use of ethylene- 
oxygen might be surrounded with the 
highest degree of efficiency and safety, 
coincidental with the adoption of its 
use in the Presbyterian Hospital, 13 
years ago, extensive improvements 
were made in operating room construc- 
tion and administering equipment. 

Recently a method has been installed 
by means of which ethylene, nitrous 
oxide and oxygen are brought to each 
operating room from large tanks on the 
hospital roof, through brass pipes and 
wall outlets to which flexible rubber 
hose is attached. The hose in turn is 
connected to a portable gas machine 
placed near the operating table, and 
which the anesthetist adjusts moment 
by moment to control the flow of gas 
and oxygen into the induction tube to 
which is attached the mask which is 
placed over the patient's face. This ma- 
chine also is equipped with ether appa- 
ratus, thus making it possible to switch 
instantly to ether administration when 
desired at any time during the opera- 
tive period. 

Portable gas machines are used in 

operating rooms that do not have wall 
outlets, in the obstetrical department 
and in cases where a short anesthesia 
is administered at the bedside for a 
painful dressing or treatment. 
Fears Are Groundless 
The surgeon in consultation with the 
anesthetist decides prior to the opera- 
tion the kind of anesthetic indicated 
by the patient's general condition and 
the nature of the operation to be per- 
formed. Whether the patient is given 
ethylene-oxygen exclusively or in con- 
junction with ether or other anesthet- 
ics, ethylene usually is given for induc- 
tion of anesthesia. From the moment 
the mask is placed over the patient's 
face until the operation is completed, 
the anesthetist is on the job, watching 
the patient's every reaction, knowing 
exactly when to give a little more oxy- 
gen and ready to switch from one 
anesthetic to another to facilitate the 
work of the surgeon and insure a safe 

While patients who come to the op- 
erating room are on the whole less 
frightened than in former years, even 
now when surgical operations are ac- 
cepted more or less as a matter of 
course, many people are needlessly 
fearful about being given an anesthetic. 
As a matter of fact, such fears are 
groundless if the administering anes- 
thetist is competent and is provided 
with efficient equipment. 

Medical Training Essential 
In the Presbyterian Hospital only 
graduate licensed physicians, who have 
had special training in anesthetics, are 
on the staff of anesthetists, and every 
precaution is taken constantly to pro- 
vide apparatus that is efficient and up- 
to-date. Interns receive clinical instruc- 
tion hut are not permitted to adminis- 
ter anesthetics until fully qualified 
through experience gained under close 
supervision. General anesthesias ad- 
ministered in the Presbyterian Hospital 
in 1935 numbered 2,983. 

Children often are needlessly fright- 
ened before coming to the hospital for 
operations requiring anesthesia. Anes- 
thetists and surgeons advise parents not 
to misrepresent to a child what is going 
to happen at the hospital. Of course, it 
isn't necessary to go into all the details 
but it is better to prepare the child by 
telling him that he is going to be put 
to sleep, so that Dr. So-and-So can do 
something for him that needs to be 
done, without hurting him. Then take 
a casual attitude and avoid discussing 
the impending operation with him or 
in his presence. Children who are pre- 
pared in this way usually come to the 
operating room with little fear ami re- 
gard tlie anesthetist as a person who is 
going td do them a favor. .And cer- 
tainly a capable anesthetist should he 
so regarded by every man, woman or 
child who must submit to a surgical 

National Hospital Day Observed May 12 Is Occasion 
For Acquainting Public With Available Facilities 

National Hospital Day is observed each year on May 12. the anniversary of the 
birthday of Florence Nightingale. On this day, the Presbyterian Hospital in com- 
mon with other hospitals of Chicago and throughout the world will hold open 
house, affording the public an opportunity to become acquainted with the facilities 
provided for the care and treatment of the sick and injured. 
There are in the United States 


the present time 6,246 hospitals which 
comply with the standards set up by 
the American Medical Association and 
have been approved by its Council on 
Medical Education and Hospitals. 
These hospitals have a total of 1,076,- 
350 beds and 53,310 bassinets. Patients 
admitted during 1935 totalled 7,709,- 
942. Babies born in general hospitals 
numbered 732,465; a total of 35,784 
were born in maternity hospitals. 

More than half a million men and 
women, including trustees and manag- 
ing boards, auxiliaries, medical and 
nursing staffs and other hospital per- 
sonnel constitute a standing army fight- 
ing constantly against disease and 
death and for the health and happiness 
of the citizenry. It is estimated that 
the work of this army saves the lives 
of 630,000 persons annually. It is fit- 
ting that one day each year should be 
set aside in order that the people of 
each community may pause to learn 
something of the unceasing work of 
our hospitals. 


Dr. Vernon C. David, president of 
our Medical Board, gave, an address on 
''Surgery of the Colon" at the Chicago 
Medical Society meeting on March 11. 
Dr. Carl B. Davis took part in the dis- 
cussion which followed the address. 

Dr. Frank V. Theis. Dr. Carl W. 
Apfelbach and Dr. Adrien Verbrug- 
ghen were among the speakers in a 
symposium on "Arterial Diseases of the 
Extremities" at the Chicago Medical 
Society meeting on March 18. 

Dr. Arthur Dean Bevan was one 
of the speakers in a symposium on 
Appendicitis" at a meeting of the Cos 
Angeles County Medical Association 
on March 13. ' Dr. and Mrs. Bevan 
have since returned home after spend- 
ing the winter in ( ali iornia. 

Dr. G. F. McWhorter gave a talk 
on WAAF, March 24. on "Appendi- 
citis Is an Emergency." 

Dr. E. I. Berkheiser addressed the 
Fulton Count) Medical Society, March 

Dr. Thomas D. Allen spoke at the 
March Id meeting of the Chicago < >p- 
thalmological Society, on "Surgical 
Treatment of Retinal Detachment." 

tribute In Sr. Emmlfc p. Abbott 

April 15. 1BB4— ifflarrb 2G. 133G 

To properly estimate the loss of a 
friend, comrade and colleague is be- 
yond words. The passing of Donald 
Putnam Abbott leaves in us all a feel- 
ing of enduring sadness. Flis love of 
his country, his friends, and his pro- 
fession were fully known. No doctor 
of our time ever gave of himself more 
fully to his patients. He was conscien- 
tious to a fault and throughout his life 
kindness to his patients and his friends 
was a daily virtue. No one will suc- 
cessfully imitate him because he was 
an individualist of no common order. 
His wife and children can cherish pride 
in his accomplishments. 

Donald P. Abbott, after graduation 
from the University of Chicago, en- 
tered Rush Medical College and gradu- 
ated in the class of 1910. After an in- 
ternship at the Cook County Hospital, 
he became an assistant of the late Dr. 
B. W. Sippy with whom he was asso- 
ciated for many years. He served con- 
tinuously on the staff of the Presby- 
terian Hospital and the faculty of Rush 
Medical College where he was an active 
and enthusiastic and highly successful 
teacher and practitioner of internal 
medicine. His publications in medicine 
have been characterized by painstaking- 
study and sterling honesty. He con- 
tributed much to medical society pro- 
ceedings both in Chicago and other 
cities and was highly regarded as a 
speaker in his specialty. 

I lis accomplishments were many and 
varied, but in the last analysis we shall 
miss him most as a friend. 

Vernon C. David. 




fflvs. Dura iH 

. Sfmtrlt 


•S. Dora K. II 

:rrick, mot 

icr of 


lames 11. Ilei 

rick. Mar 

:h 20. 


I lerrick was in 

her ( '7th year and 


lived in ( )ak 1 

ark most 

if her 


She was born i 

] 1839 on 

i I arm 


:d in the area 

now bouiK 

led by 


an, Chicago an 

1 ( >ak I'ai 

k ave- 


and the railr 

»ad. Her 



)h Ketllestrings. 

was an ea 

•lv set- 

tier in Cook County. 

1 f the gauze used in the Presbyterian 
Hospital in 1935 was unrolled and laid 
lengthwise, it would cover a sidewalk 
three feet wide and 124 miles long. 

Nearly one million safety pins used 
in 1935 if fastened together would 
reach entirely around a city block. 

Surgical sponges used in 1935 num- 
bered 600,000. 


Dr. William E. Looby sailed on 
A.pril 6 for Fiberia where he has been 
appointed surgeon in the Firestone 
Company Hospital at Monrovia, under 
a two-year contract. Fiberia is on the 
west coast of Africa about 500 miles 
north of the equator and was founded 
for the repatriation of freed negro 
slaves. After completing his work in 
Fiberia, Dr. Looby plans to spend some 
time studying in Europe. 


An entertainment was held in the 
chapel of the Hospital on Saturday, 
March 21, at 3:00 P. M. for the pa- 
tients and their friends. Mrs. Clement 
F. Pollock, chairman of the entertain- 
ment committee, had arranged a charm- 
ing program in which Patsy and Mar- 
jorie Tice, daughters of Dr. Frederick 
Tice, danced in costume, and Miss Ro- 
berta Swartz gave humorous readings. 
Mrs. Alex. Bain was accompanist. 




HORACE W. ARMS I ROM; Vice-President 

CHARLES IS. (iOODSI'EED Vice-President 



FRED S. BOOTH <lsst. Secretary 

A. J. WILSON Asst. Secretary 


Arthur G. Cable 
Albert B. Dick, Jr. 
John IS. Drake 
Albert D. Farwell 
James B. Forgan, Jr 
Alfred E. Hamill 
Charles H. Hamill 

John McKinlay 
Fred A. Poor 
Theodore A. Shaw 
Rev. John Timothy 

Stone, D.D. 
R. Douglas Stuart 
Robert Stevenson 
J. Hall Taylor 

Rev. Harrison Ray Anderson. D.D. 
Rev. Harold L. Bowman. D.D. 
Rev. Henry S. Brown, D.D. 
Rev. W. Clyde Howard, D.D. 

ASA S. BACON Superintendent 

HERMAN HENSEL Asst. Superintendent 


Director, School of Nursing 

The Presbyterian Hospital of the City of Chicago 
is an Illinois not-for-profit corporation, organized 
July 21, 1883, for the purpose of affording surgical 
and medical aid, and nursing, to sick and disabled per- staff is appointed from the' faculty of Rush Med- 
ical College of the University of Chicago. 

The Board of Managers call attention to the need 
of gifts for current charitable and educational work 
and of gifts and bequests for endowment and for 
the general purposes of the hospital. 

le PrestwCOTai Hospital 



trie Gity o- 







Chicago, III. 

May, 1936 

No. 88 


Maternity Service Has Had No 

Deaths in Last 3,204 Cases 


Much has been said and published 
in recent years about the high national 
rate of maternal mortality and meas- 
ures that might be taken to reduce the 
number of maternal deaths. Our ex- 
perience in the Maternity Service of 
the Presbyterian Hospital proves that 
the complications which take mothers' 
lives are largely preventable and that 
the general hospital may fill a distinct 
and valuable role in the prevention of 
maternal deaths. 

The Maternity Service of our hos- 
pital has three functions : first, to ren- 
der skilled obstetrical care to the pa- 
tients ; second, to teach our young- 
doctors how to give this skilled atten- 
tion ; and third, to study the unsolved 
problems which continue to cause ma- 
ternal deaths. 

Skilled obstetrical care consists of 
the recognition and prevention of 
dangerous disorders and strict adher- 
ence to well founded principles of 
obstetrics. Nowhere in medicine can 
greater service be rendered to women 
than in pre-natal care. In our pre-natal 
clinics at the hospital and the Central 
Free Dispensary every effort is made 
to prevent those complications which 
result fatally. Analysis of 10,000 cases 
reveals that the important disorders 
causing fatalities in obstetrics are : in- 
tection, hemorrhage, toxemias with 
convulsions, heart disease, tuberculosis 
and pneumonia. It was also found that 
foci of infection, especially in badly 
infected teeth and anemia were con- 
tributing factors. Not only do women 
who are physically below par have 
these fatal complications five times 
more frequently than well women, but 
still born babies are greatly increased 
in these sick women. 

(Continued on Page 3) 


Tiny baby Marie, shown in the arm 
supervisor, travelled to our hospital n 
and has since made her home in one i 
On the day that the picture was taken 
tinued to gain in every respect. 

When a member of our out-patient 
obstetrical staff delivered Marie at 
home, it was deemed advisable that she 
be brought to the hospital as soon as 
possible for incubator care, as arc many 
other babies horn prematurely or found 
at full-term birth to be underdeveloped 
or weak. Such babies require a con- 
stant source of external heat and other 
special care which facilities of the ordi- 
nary home cannot provide. 

For the purpose of transporting 
these baliies from their homes to the 
hospital, a portable incubator was de- 
vised by a staff pediatrician and made 
l>v our carpenter and electrician. This 
incubator is essentially a wooden box 
with a hinged top, containing a glass 
window and equipped with three ad- 
justable air vents, a tray containing a 
moist sponge for humidifying purposes 
and heating facilities consisting of an 

f Airs. Dorothy Knight, infant floor 
ltlv in our portable incubator (left) 
>ur hospital baby incubators (right), 
e weighed 4' ± pounds, and has con- 

electric light bull) and electric heating 
pad, and a thermometer. 

When the occasion arises for its use 
the portable incubator is brought up to 
the usual incubator temperature before 
leaving the hospital. On arrival at the 
home heating units are again connected 
to any available outlet to compensate 
for heat lost in transit. If the home is 
too poor to have electricity, hot water 
1 Kittles are used as sources of heat, the 
construction of the incubator being 
such as to retain '.this heat and provide 
proper air conditions. The infant in as 
good condition both physically and as 
regards its temperature as it is possible 
to obtain with facilities available in the 
home, is then placed in the incubator 
and transported to the hospital, where 


11 til 

d dm 

il incubator 
hospital ii 
lal heat be 



Proper Care and Feeding of New 

Born Foundation for Future 


By Clifford G. Grulee, M.D. 

The very reason for the existence of 
hospitals is, of course, care of the sick, 
but very few physicians and almost no 
laymen realize the possibilities of a 
hospital in preventing disease. The 
prevention of disease is not only car- 
ried on by active work, but also by 
education of every one who comes in 
contact with the institution. In smaller 
communities there is often no place ex- 
cept in the hospital for laymen to be 
so educated, so that the functioning of 
the hospital in this capactiy is of para- 
mount importance. In a large city hos- 
pital conditions are somewhat different, 
but the difference is not as great as 
one might suspect. In the matter of 
prevention of disease in children a hos- 
pital has a peculiar opportunity and 
consequently a special duty. This has 
been increasing rather than decreasing 
in the past few years. More and more 
women are coming to hospitals to have 
their babies and as a consequence the 
start of the infant's life lies in the 
hands of the hospital authorities both 
medical and lay. So little attention has 
been paid to this opportunity in the 
past that many who are associated with 
hospital work do not realize its impor- 

Breast Milk Is Best Food 

The death rate among children in 
the first week of life is far greater 
than among individuals in any like 
period thereafter. Therefore, any re- 
duction of mortality at this age is pecu- 
liarly important. At the present time, 
the best hope for the reduction of mor- 
tality in the first few days of life comes 
with proper and adequate prenatal care, 
next comes good obstetrics and then 
the care of the infant in the hospital 
and here an all important question 
arises. There has been, of course, a 
decided betterment in the care and 
feeding of babies during the last 
twenty years. This has been so great 
as to overshadow one very important 
fact and that is, that breast milk is the 
best food for babies. 

In a recent survey on Infant Wel- 
fare babies between 1925-1929, made 
by some members of the Presbyterian 
Hospital Stall', it was shown that 
among 20,061 followed continuously 
in]- nine months during that period, the 

deaths were only 218. < >ne of these 
was accidental. Bui while the babies 
feci entirely on the breast constituted 
IN 1 . per cent, or 9,749, they accounted 
for only (k7 per cent (if the deaths, or 

15, while the children who were en- 
tirely artificially fed constituted W 2 


By Charles M. Dickixsox 
They arc idols of hearts and of house- 
They arc angels of God in disguise; 

His sunlight still sleeps in their tresses. 
His glory still gleams in their eyes; 
Those truants from home and from 

hea z'en, 
They have made me more manly and 

mild : 
And I know how Jesus could liken 
'The kingdom of heaven to a child. 

per cent, or 1,707, showed 66.1 per 
cent of the total or 144 deaths. The 
death rate, therefore, was almost fifty 
times as great among those fed entirely 
on the bottle as among those fed en- 
tirely on the breast. Remember that 
the death rate in this group was ex- 
tremely small, but at the same time the 
deaths among artificially fed babies 
was comparatively very numerous. 
First Two Weeks Decisive Period 
The bearing that this has on the 
subject in question is that it is fre- 
quently determined whether or not a 
child shall be breast fed in the first two 
weeks of life. There has been much 
talk recently in medical circles and 
among the laity about the danger of 
initial loss of weight in the first few 
days of life, but this danger is nothing 
as compared to the danger of employ- 
ing measures which will keep the child 
from nursing the mother. In a series 
of cases which we have been following 
over a number of years at the hospital, 
we have definitely shown to our satis- 
faction that the question of whether or 
not the newborn infant is to lie on the 
breast entirely when it leaves the hos- 
pital depends upon the question of 
whether or not it has been offered arti- 
ficial food. Those that are fed artifici- 
ally practically never get or. the breast, 
or if so, the breast soon gives out. 
Those who are allowed to become hun- 
gry enough so that they stimulate the 
breast by nursing develop the flow of 
breast milk, and are therefore well on 
the way to be breast fed babies when 
they leave the hospital. The first error 
is when someone puts a nipple in the 
baby's mouth and gives it some arti- 
ficial food. There are exceptions to 
this rule, of course, but these are very 
lew. We stumbled on to this fact by 
following closely the condition among 
the newly horn in the out-patient serv- 
ice and we were quite shocked to find 
thai under conditions in tin poorer 
homes, the babies nursed in much lar- 

lion of cases than they did 



[he h 


■ncies can take o\ 
decidedly the job 

that the baby is i 

er the hospital h; 
t to the baby oth 

er the work, hut 

of the hospital 
tarted right. 

With a view to obtaining funds to 
provide hospital care for babies who 
would not otherwise receive such care. 
the Woman's Board of the Presby- 
terian Hospital has established a Ba- 
bies Alumni Fund. Parents, grand- 
parents or other relatives of babies 
born in our hospital or elsewhere are 
invited to enroll their own loved little | 
ones by paying dues of $1.00 per year. 
Checks should be made payable to Mrs. 
William A. Douglass, Chairman, 
Child's Free Bed Fund, 317 North 
Kenilworth Avenue, Oak Park, 111. 


Miss Helen Munson, 1922 graduate 
of our School of Nursing, is the author 
of a recently published book entitled 
"The Story of the National League 
of Nursing Education." The publish- 
ers are W. B. Saunders Co. of Phila- 

Other Preventive Work 

There is, of course, some question 
as to whether the function of a hospital 
consists only in doing service to those 
who enter it, or whether it should be 
also interested in ambulatory patients. 
The Presbyterian Hospital through the 
Central Free Dispensary and through 
its own efforts has shown its interest 
in the latter and has indicated that it 
feels that the hospital service consists 
not only in giving care to patients 
within its walls, but also to look after 
those who may apply who may not be 
sufficiently ill to require such service. 
It also has provided social service 
which acts very often in a manner to I 
prevent disease. If we include such I 
service in the functions of a hospital I 
then indeed the prevention service to I 
children becomes of a great deal of | 
importance. Those children that are 
horn in the hospital can lie taken care 
of in tlie ( >ut-Patient clinics which are 
largely of a preventive nature and in 
this way the general communities can 
be very often relieved of a large bur- 
den of responsibility and debt by pre- 
venting diseases and thus preventing 
hospitalization, Indirectly we could ' 
say thai this is not only a service to the 
community, hut likewise reduces the 
cost of hospital care. This is only of 
course in a wide range and cannot be 
narrowly applied to any single hospi- 
tal. This condition then shows that 
the hospital is a very important cog in 
tlii' wdieel of preventive medicine and 
that the old idea that the hospital was 
responsible lor the cure of disease and 
not its prevention must be abandoned, 
especially in the field of pediatrics. 

(Continued from page 1) 

To combat these difficulties, women 
registered in any department of our 
Maternity Service are objects of spe- 
cial attention and study. Blood trans- 
fusions, hospitalization of all toxic pa- 
tients, consultation heart and anemia 
clinics. X-rays of teeth and chest, and 
blood examination for syphilis are our 
methods of attack. The reward for this 
effort is shown by the fact that no 
maternal deaths have occurred among 
the last 3,204 women delivered by our 
Maternity Service, while one death in 
every 175 deliveries occurs in the 
country at large. 

Doctors Arc Specialists 

The doctors in charge of our Mater- 
nity Service are all trained specialists 
in this field. Unlike many general hos- 
pitals in which any doctor can attend 
a pregnant patient, the Presbyterian 
Hospital permits only those men spe- 
cially trained in obstetrics to deliver 
maternity cases. In this way operative 
deliveries to shorten labor when not 
necessary, Cesarean sections without 
sufficient reason, and many of the pres- 
ent day obstetrical fads which add 
greatly to the maternal death rate are 
not permitted. 

The working set-up of our Mater- 
nity Department consists of the out- 
patient service, hospital house service 
and the service to private patients. 
Our Out-Patient Service 

The ( )ut-Patient Service delivers 
patients in their homes. Its staff con- 
sists of a director, two assistants, one 
resident doctor, interns and medical 
students, a head nurse, infant welfare 
nurses and student nurses. 

When an expectant mother registers 
for this service, which is given without 
charge to women unable to employ a 
private physician, she is told to return 
on a certain date to the pre-natal clinic. 
If she fails to attend the clinic, the 
Social Service Department investigates 
and she is brought in for examination. 
If she is found to be a normal; healthy 
woman, she attends the regular clinic 
thereafter, coming in for a check-up 
every three weeks. If she is not nor- 
mal, or at any time develops abnormali- 
ties, she is sent to a special clinic con- 
ducted by the director. At this special 
clinic all patients not suitable for home 
care are sent to the hospital. We find 
that about one patient in 10 registering 
for home delivery requires hospitaliza- 
tion either during the pre-natal period 
to correct some serious condition or at 
the time of delivery. 

How Hospital Helps 

The cooperation of the Presbyterian 
Hospital in admitting these patients 
demonstrates that the service which the 
medical staff and the facilities of a gen- 
eral hospital are able to give is an im- 
portant factor in the prevention of 
maternal deaths. 

Only those patients that seem safe to 
deliver in the home are allowed to go 


More than 1,000 students in West 
Side professional schools have par- 
ticipated this year in varied activities 
offered at the West Side Y. M. C. A. 
and conducted under the auspices of 
a Student Cabinet composed of repre- 
sentative students from each school. 
Holiday parties, dancing, motion pic- 
tures, lectures and forums on the topics 
of the day, and physical activities are 
included in the student program. 

Groups from different schools use 
the gym for designated periods for 
individual gymnastics and team games. 
For the past five winters, students in 
the Presbyterian Hospital School of 
Nursing have used the "Y" gym regu- 
larlv, their period being from 7 to 8 
o'clock each Thursday evening. 

into labor at home. The patient calls 
the out-patient department when pains 
start. The telephone is covered day 
and night by paid student operators. 
Doctors are on call day and night. Two 
doctors are sent to each case and re- 
main there until after delivery takes 
place. They report the patient's prog- 
ress every hour by telephoning to the 
out-patient department. The resident 
interns, nurses, assistant directors and 
director are subject to call day or 
night if any difficulties develop. 
House and Private Services 

The house service organization is 
essentially the same as the out-patient 
service, except that women registering 
for this service pay a stated fee which 
covers hospitalization at the time of 
delivery as well as pre-natal care at 
clinics held in the hospital. The resi- 
dent doctors, resident obstetrician and 
attending obstetricians are responsible 
for the care of these patients. A grad- 
uate nurse, trained in both pre-natal 
and social service work, serves as a 
connecting link between house service 
patients, the pre-natal clinic and other 
hospital services. 

Private patients receive their pre- 
natal care from a member of the ob- 
stetrical staff at his office and are 
brought to the hospital for delivery. 
To all patients, private or otherwise, 
is offered all the advantages that skilled 
obstetrics and investigative work can 

Train Doctors and Nurses 

Not only do patients receive the 
benefit of these advantages but each 
year more than 125 young doctors, 
students at Rush Medical College of 
the University of Chicago, study in our 
carious clinics, laboratories, labor 
rooms and hospital wards. Every ef- 
fort is made to place these men in the 
right surroundings to learn the pro- 
cedures of diligent and sane obstetrical 
care and to prepare them to serve their 
future patients wisely and skilfully. 


It was in September, 1904, that the 
Presbyterian Hospital Out-Patient Ob- 
stetrical Department made available 
the services of a staff physician and a 
nurse to attend in their homes at the 
time of delivery, mothers who were 
unable to employ a private physician. 
Hie department reported 39 deliveries 
and 01 home visits between Sept. 1, 
1904, and the end of that fiscal year. 
Pioneering in this field of service to 
mothers and babies, the department 
grew from year to year and was one of 
the first agencies in Chicago to stress 
the importance of pre-natal care. 

The department is conducted jointly 
by the Hospital, Central Free Dis- 
pensary and Rush Medical College, 
while the Infant Welfare Society and 
Visiting Nurse Association cooperate 
closely by doing follow-up work in the 
homes. During 1935, 905 mothers were 
delivered by this department. Of this 
number 447 were registered at Central 
Free Dispensary, 235 were referred by 
the Infant Welfare Society and 218 by 
the Chicago Department of Health, 
while five non-registered emergency 
cases were cared for. Miss Mabel 
Hubbard, graduate nurse supervisor in 
charge of the department office, has 
held this position for 15 years. Dr. 
Carl P. Bauer, of Push Medical Col- 
lege faculty and the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital Obstetrical staff, has been director 
lor the past six years. 

( >ur Maternity Department affords 
not only opportunity for service to stu- 
dents in our School of Nursing, but 
also an extensive field for teaching and 
experience in the labor rooms, obstetri- 
cal wards and laboratories and in the 
care of infants. Each student nurse 
also devotes four weeks as an assistant 
in the pre-natal clinics and in district 
nursing work assigned by the Out- 
patient ' >bstetrical Department. Last 
year 41 student nurses made 1,958 
home calls for this department. 

Valuable Investigative Work 

Investigative work in our medical 
teaching department during the last 
year included studies in the toxemias 
of pregnancy; new biological test for 
Hormones in pregnant urine; investi- 
gative work into the bacteriology of 
[Tichomonds infections; study of heart 
disease in pregnancy; study of anemia 
in pregnancy; study of causes of ma- 
ternal and infant deaths in obstetrics; 

the mortality of surgical complications 
of pregnancy; and motion pictures of 
the technique of vaginal operations. 
Results of these investigations appear 
in our leading obstetrical journals. 
( >ur findings in one of these problems 

received a certificate of merit at the 
American Medical Association conven- 
tion in Atlantic ( 'ltv in (line. 1935. 

Our Hospital Maternity Department Complies With 
Standards Set Up By American Hospital Association 

When it is realized that during 1935, 732,465 habies were horn in approved 
general hospitals, while only 35,784 were horn in maternity hospitals, the impor- 
tance of observing standards that safeguard the lives of mothers delivered in 
general hospitals is obvious. The Council on Community Relations and Adminis- 
trative Practice of the American Hospital Association has established such stand- 
ards which are brought up-to-date from year to year in accordance with the 
progress of medical science. These standards outline in detail requirements which 
cover such matters as adequate and properly isolated accommodations for mothers 
and babies; adequate and competent medical, nursing and non-professional per- 
sonnel ; adequate laboratory and special treatment facilities under competent super- 
vision ; accurate and complete clinical records on all patients ; consultation in 
advance of all major obstetrical operative procedures; monthly conferences for 
the review of clinical work of the department; adequate training of all student 
nurses and assignment to the department only under competent supervision. 

The requirements as given fully in 

the 1936 "Manual of Obstetrical Prac- 
tice in Hospitals" are conformed to in 
the Presbyterian Hospital Maternity 
Department, housed separately on the 
sixth and seventh floors of the hospital. 
The professional standing of the 
eight members of our hospital obstetri- 
cal and gynecological staff is revealed 
not only in their teaching positions on 
the faculty of Rush Medical College 
but also in memberships held in impor- 
tant professional societies. The Amer- 
ican Gynecological Society has 100 
members in the entire United States. 
Of these, 30 men are assigned to select 
groups known as Traveling Clubs. 
Three of our staff members belong to 
these select groups. Five of our men 
hold memberships in the American 
College of Surgeons and five are mem- 
bers of the Central Association of 
Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Six 
men belong to the Chicago Gynecologi- 
cal Society. All are members of the 
American Medical Association, Illinois 
and Chicago Medical Societies. 


Dr. Ernest E. Irons, dean of Rush 
Medical College and attending phy- 
sician on our staff, was one of the 
speakers at the annual graduate clinical 
meeting of the Alumni Association of 
the University of Buffalo School of 
.Medicine, April PS. Iff spoke on 
"Chronic Arthritis, a General Disease 
Requiring Individualized Treatment.'' 


Dr. Eugene F. Traut and Dr. Clark 
W. Finnerud were among the speakers 
in a series of health talks given at Navy 
Pier under auspices of the Woman's 
Auxiliary of the Chicago Medical So- 
ciety. Dr. Traut spoke April 23 on 
"Arthritis" and Dr. Finnerud, April 
25, on "(are of the Skin in Summer." 


Patients or friends of the hospital 
desiring extra copies of The Bulletin 
may obtain these free of charge from 
the Superintendent's office. 

fflis& Amm M. Irmun 

Miss Annie M. Brown, a resident 
of Lake Forest for over 60 years, 
passed away, April 2, in her 86th year. 
Among the causes to which her time 
and means were gladly given, none was 
nearer to her heart than the Presby- 
terian Hospital. She became an asso- 
ciate member of the Woman's Board 
in 1895 and an active member in 1896, 
serving most faithfully until recently 
when illness made her feel she should 
resign. Miss Brown was a gentle- 
woman of a type not often met with 
in these days, whose humility of spirit, 
steady conviction of personal duty, and 
gift of a merry heart left an example 
which all would be better for follow- 
ing. Tributes of personal affection for 
Miss Brown and an appreciation of her 
long and faithful service as a board 
member were expressed by many of 
her friends at the April meeting of the 
Woman's Board. 

lr. Sari iSnarli Htr(!!ar%i 

Dr. Earl Roach McCarthy died April 
21, 1936, in the Presbyterian Hospital, 
following a long illness. He was 42 
years old and had been a valued, mem- 
ber of our medical staff for 15 years. 
A tribute containing a detailed account 
of his life and professional career will 
appear in the next issue of The Bul- 

lr. 3Jnl|u JKtMim 

Dr. John Kidlon, noted orthopedic 
surgeon and teacher, and a formei 
member of our surgical staff, died re- 
cently al his home in Newport, R, 1. 
at the age of 84 years. 


Items for the Presbyterian 
Hospital Bulletin should be 
sent to Mrs. Florence S. Hyde, 
Editor, in care of the Super- 
intendent's office. 


Mr. Asa S. Bacon, superintendent 
of our hospital, is one of speakers 
selected to broadcast over a national 
radio hook-up on National Hospital 
Day, May 12. His talk on "The Hos- 
pital — The Home for the Sick" is 
scheduled for 10:30 P. M. over N.B.C. 
The Chicago outlet will be either 


Two delightful musical programs 
were presented on April 28 in the hos- 
pital chapel and at Sprague Home for 
Nurses, respectively, by the Sterling 
Male chorus of 75 voices, conducted 
by Richard L. Wesselius. The chapel 
program was given at 8:00 P. M. and 
the program at the nurses' home at 
8 :30. Chorus and solo numbers were 
enjoyed by appreciative audiences in 
both institutions. 


It is within comparatively recent 
years that the care of children has 
come to the front as a highly special- 
ized branch of medical practice, desig- 
nated as "pediatrics." Of 99 pedia- 
tricians in the entire country holding 
membership in the American Pediatric 
Society, three are on the staff of the 
Presbyterian Hospital, while seven of 
our staff pediatricians are members of 
the American Academy of Pediatrics, 
All are members of the American 
Medical Association, Illinois and Chi- 
cago Medical Societies. 




MllKAl T W. ARMSTROXO Ii, c-l>, csident 

CHARM'S It. (iOODSI'EED I'u v 1', anient 



FRED S BOOTH Asst. Secretary 

A. J. WILSON Asst. Secretary 

Arthur G. Cable John McKinlay 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. F^d A. Poor 

John B. Drake Theodore A. Shaw 

.,„„ r, Tf. „,„_., Rev. John Timothy 

Albert _D. Farwell St0NEi d d 

James B Iorgan, Jr. r Douglas Stuart 
Alfred E. Hamill Robert Stevenson 

Charles H. Hamill J. Hall Taylor 

Edward D. McDougal, John P. Welling 
Jr. Edward F. Wilson 

Rev. Harrison Ray Anderson, D.D. 
Rev. Harold L. Bowman. D.D. 
Rev. Henry S. Brown, D.D. 
Rev. W. Clyde Howard, D.D. 

ASA S. BACON Superintendent 

HERMAN HENSEI Asst. Superintendent 


Director, School of Nursing 

The Presbyterian Hospital of the City of Chicago 
is an Illinois not-for-profit corporation, organized 
July 21, 1883, for the purpose of affording surgical 
and medical aid, and nursing, to sick and disabled per- 
sons of every creed, nationality, and color. Its medi- 
cal staff is appointed from the faculty of Rush Med- 
ical College of the University of Chicago. 

The Board of Managers call attention to the need 
of gifts for current charitahle and educational work 
and of gifts and bequests for endowment and for 
the general purposes of the hospital. 

ntsttffjiiai H©spifa 

tke Gity (yy Skicagc^ 



Chicago, 111. 

June, 1936 

No. 89 


Variety of Diets as Prescribed by 

Doctors are Served to Hospital 


By Florence Slown Hyde 

"When do we eat, and what?" is a 
vital question to all of us. It is of even 
greater importance to the hospital pa- 
tient whose desire for food is seldom 
normal, while adequate and properly 
prescribed nourishment is an indispens- 
able factor in his recovery regardless 
of the cause of illness or incapacitation. 

When a patient is admitted to the 
Presbyterian Hospital, the attending 
doctor furnishes to the dietitian a writ- 
ten order for the diet to be served and 
every variation from this made during 
the patient's stay in the hospital is done 
only as directed by the doctor. There 
are certain standard diets which are 
designated as — general diet, soft diet, 
and liquid diet. 

Many Special Diets 

Among the specific variations of the 
general diet are — full meat free, full fat 
free, high calorie, low calorie, ulcer and 
bowel management, and those for pa- 
tients suffering from hypertension (high 
blood pressure) cardiac (heart) condi- 
tions, and anemia. There are special 
post-operative diets for surgical patients. 
In a class by themselves are the quantita- 
tive (weighed) diets which are listed as 
— diabetic, ketogenic, obesity, and acid 
ash diets. Every item on these quantita- 
tive diets is weighed on scales graduated 
in grams so that the specific amount 
prescribed is served, while all food that 
comes back uneaten is weighed to de- 
termine the exact amount of nourish- 
ment actually taken by the patient. 

Whether a patient is permitted a 
general diet or one that is highly re- 
stricted, the dietary department cooper- 
ates with the doctor by providing prop- 
erly balanced rations, prepared and 
served as attractively as possible. This 
is accomplished in the Presbyterian 
Hospital by means of teamwork on the 

part of a scientifically trained and thor- 
oughly experienced head dietitian and 
an executive chef of wide experience 
and recognised achievements in the cul- 
inary field. 

Back in 1890, when our hospital con- 
sisted only of the Ross and Jones Build- 
ings, and the Hamill Wing, one kitchen 
on the fifth floor prepared the food for 
the patients 1 trays and hospital person- 
nel. Food was largely a matter of sus- 
tenance, rather than a therapeutic agent 
or a thing to be looked forward to and 
enjoyed. The kitchens and the serving 
of food was under the supervision of 
the matron of the hospital, for at this 
time there were no trained dietitians. 
Central Serving Unit 

As the hospital was enlarged, kitchens 
were established on different floors, to 
which food was distributed from one 
central preparation unit which was 
moved from the fifth floor to the base- 
ment. In 1912, there were eleven dif- 
ferent units from which patients' trays 
were served. About this time, our super- 
(Continned on Page 3) 


Doors of three different camps will be 
open this summer to a limited number 
of former child patients of our hospital, 
selected by our Social Service Depart- 
ment as in need of such outings. Eight- 
een children whose principal needs are 
fresh air, good food and a good time 
will be sent to Holiday Home at Wil- 
liams Bay. 

Arden Shore camp for girls and Ar- 
den Shore Boyville camp will furnish 
all summer outings to some of our little 
boys and girls who seriously need the 
health building care jjiven at those 
camps. Child patients whose hearts fail 
to act properly will be sent to Camp 
Reinberg, operated by the Cook County 
Bureau of Public Welfare for cardiac 

Patients or friends of the hospital de- 
siring extra copies of The Bulletin may 
obtain these free of charge from the 
Superintendent's office. 


Members of Hospital Staff on 

Programs of National 

and State Meetings 

Members of our hospital medical, 
nursing and administrative staffs were 
speakers at several important conven- 
tions held recently, while others partici- 
pated in these meetings as officers, com- 
mittee chairmen or interested members. 

Dr. Herman L. Kretschmer was re- 
elected treasurer of the American Medi- 
cal Association at its convention in 
Kansas City, May 11-15. He also was 
reelected president of the American 
Board of Urology, Inc., a professional 
group that is working in cooperation 
with the Council on Education and 
Hospitals to raise standards so that bet- 
ter equipped and better trained urolo- 
gists shall be available throughout the 

Dr. James Herbert Mitchell addressed 
the A.M. A. convention section on der- 
matology and Dr. W. O. Thompson 
read a paper on "An Adrenal Cortex 
Extract Effective in Addison's Disease" 
before another section. At the meeting 
of the Association for the Study of 
Glands of Internal Secretion held in 
Kansas City, May 12, Dr. Thompson 
read a paper which was a report of a 
study made by Dr. Arthur Dean Bevan, 
Dr. N. J. Heckel, Dr. P. K. Thompson 
and Dr. W. O. Thompson. This group 
and Dr. S. J. Taylor III also presented 
at both the A. M. A. and the Illinois 
State Medical Society conventions a 
scientific exhibit on glands of internal 

A paper covering a study of certain 
treatment for Peripheral Circulatory 
Diseases, prepared by Frank V. Theis, 
M.D. and Milnor Freeland, Ph.D. was 
read by Dr. Theis at the A. M. A. con- 
vention. Dr. Peter Bassoe was chair- 
man of the scientific exhibit on nervous 
and mental diseases and Dr. Clark Fin- 
nerud was chairman of the exhibit on 
dermatology and sy philology. A spe- 
cial exhibit on fractures was arranged 
by a committee headed by Dr. Kellogg 
Speed. Dr. Bertha A. Klien was chair- 
man of the exhibit on malformations of 
the eye. 

At Illinois Convention 

Members of our staff who were 
speakers at the Illinois state convention 
in Springfield, May 19-21 were: 

Pediatricians meeting, Dr. Clifford 

C. Grulcc and Dr. Arthur H. Parmelec; 
section on surgery, Dr. Herman L. 
Kretschmer; symposium on Amoebiasis, 
Dr. Gatewood and Dr. E. F. Traut. Drs. 

D. B. Hayden, L. W. Curry, Richard 
Watkins, George E. Shambaugh, Jr. and 
W. F. Moncrieff took part in group 
conference discussions of nose and eye 


Spring quarter graduation for Rush 
Medical College was a feature of the 
University of Chicago convocation pro- 
gram on June 16 in the university 
chapel. Ninety candidates received 
M.D. degrees, while 77 received four- 
year certificates. The annual faculty 
and alumni dinner was held that eve- 
ning in the Palmer House with Dr. 
George H. Coleman as toastmaster. 

Dr. R. T. Woodyatt presented a chart 
exhibit on "Diabetic Coma, Its Preven- 
tion and Treatment." Dr. Elias Selinger 
took part in the discussion of a paper 
on "Treatment of Trachoma." 

Dr. Arthur H. Parmelee was vice- 
chairman of the pediatricians section. 

At Other Meetings 

The annual meeting of the American 
Association for the Study of Goiter 
brought outstanding medical men to 
Chicago June 8 and 9. Members of 
our medical staff were hosts at a clinic 
session in our hospital, Tuesday morn- 
ing, June 9, followed by a luncheon in 
the chapel, attended by 60 visitors and 
staff members. Dr. W. O. Thompson 
presented at one of the convention ses- 
sions a paper on "Inter-relations of Pit- 
uitary and Thyroid" covering a joint 
study of this subject by himself, Dr. P. 
K. Thompson, Dr. S. G. Taylor III, and 
Dr. L. F. U. Dickie. 

Dr. Carl Apfelbach, pathologist on 
our staff, was elected president of the 
Chicago Pathological Society at its an- 
nual meeting, May 1 1 . 

Dr. Robert Herbst, past president of 
the American Urological Association, 
attended the convention of that organ- 
isation in Boston, May 18-21. 

Dr. Adrien Verbrugghen was one of 
the speakers at the annual meeting and 
clinical session of the Central States 
Society of Industrial Medicine and Sur- 
gery, at Springfield, May 19. His topic 
was "Injuries to the Brain and Spinal 

At the annual meeting of the Amer- 
ican Surgical Association in Chicago, 
May 7-9, Dr. Kellogg Speed and Dr. 
H. L. Kretschmer were speakers. Dr. 
Vernon David was secretary and Dr. 
Arthur Dean Bevan a member of the 
council of this association. 

Miss Karla Jorgenson, director of our 
Social Service Department, attended the 
annual convention of the National Con- 
ference of Social Work in Atlantic City, 
May 24-30. 

Mr. Asa S. Bacon, superintendent of 
the Presbyterian Hospital, was one of 
the speakers at the annual meeting of 
the Michigan State Hospital Association 
m Grand Rapids, May 28 and 29. 

Ir. iEarl IRnarrj iflrOJartriy 

Non. 15. 1B94 - A;iril 211. 1936 

Dr. Earl Roach McCarthy died in the 
Presbyterian Hospital, April 20. He had 
suffered bravely for many months from 
a progressive arterial hypertension; and 
we, who had worked with him and 
loved him, felt that the end came as a 
welcome release from the obligation to 
continue his struggle. 

He was born Nov. 15, 1894 in Le- 
Mars, la. His youth was spent in Port- 
land, Ore. His academic education was 
received at Dartmouth College and the 
University of Chicago. He was gradu- 
ated from Rush Medical College, class 
of 1921, and served his internship in the 
Presbyterian Hospital from 1921 to 
December, 1922. After a brief period 
of practice Dr. McCarthy went to Eu- 
rope for further study, which he pur- 
sued for two postgraduate years. Upon 
his return he became associated with 
the teaching in the Surgical Department 
of Rush Medical College and joined the 
Presbyterian Hospital staff as an assist- 
ant attending surgeon. From that time 
until the onset of his illness he gave 
himself without stint to his work as my 
associate, to his patients and students, 
and to the hospital. 

He had always been interested in 
medical research and writing. During 
his student days he had worked on a 
problem connected with the action of 
the pancreas and had isolated, accident- 
ally, a preparation later to be known as 
insulin. Inasmuch as his problem lay 
elsewhere, he did not recognise the im- 
portance of the preparation with which 
he was dealing at that time. He con- 
tributed to medical literature an out- 
standing piece of work on tumors of the 
carotid body. 

The death of Dr. McCarthy has term- 
inated what promised to be a brilliant 
career. On that account the hospital 
and the staff have cause to regret great- 
ly his passing. Still more do we mourn 
our loss of a cheerful, unassuming work- 
er; a loyal and devoted comrade. 

Arthur Dean Bevan 

Several members of the Presbyterian 
Hospital Nursing staff assisted in the 
committee work involved in entertain- 
ing the convention of the American 
National Red Cross at the Stevens Hotel 
in Chicago, May 11-14. As secretary of 
the Chicago Red Cross Nursing com- 
mittee, Miss Ella Van Horn of our 
School of Nursing staff was busy before 
and during the convention helping in 
various ways. Other members of our 
staff assisting in the guard of honor at 
the registration desk, at the reception 
and in other capacities were Miss Desse 
Greek, Miss Jane High, Miss Florence 
Cooper, Miss Helen Johns and Miss 
Joanna DeVries. 

(Continued from Page 1) 
intendent conceived the idea of serving 
trays to different floors from one central 
unit, utilising dumb waiters to carry 
trays to floors that were in a vertical 
relationship to the central serving unit. 
The result of this idea is our present 
central diet kitchen which has been in 
operation for about ten years. At the 
present time, this kitchen serves all pa- 
tients in the Pavilion and in the seventh 
floor maternity department. 

The quantitative kitchen adjacent to 
the central diet kitchen serves the 
weighed diets for all patients m the 
hospital. This centralization of the 
food service has made it possible to have 
a better trained person for each phase 
of the work. It was possible also to 
adequately equip one central unit, 
whereas to equip similarly the five kitch- 
ens which were replaced would have 
been both expensive and impractical. 
Food odors and the noise and clatter of 
dishes were removed from the floors in 
that section of the hospital. Food costs 
were decreased without lowering food 
standards. All supplementary nourish- 
ments as well as meal trays are served 
from the diet kitchen. 

Telautograph Is Useful 

Where food service is centralized, a 
quick accurate means of communication 
to floors served is essential. A telauto- 
graph, an electrical device which trans- 
mits handwriting, fulfills this need. Diet 
orders, messages to hold trays or to 
serve trays, orders for supplementary 
nourishments, etc. are written on the 
telautograph sending apparatus located 
on each floor, signed by the sender, and 
transmitted automatically to the central 
serving unit. Some may wonder why 
the use of the telephone is not more 
practical. However, numbers given over 
the telephone may be misunderstood, 
while the telautograph message is in 
writing, transmitted exactly as written 
by the sender. 

Diet kitchens on each floor serve both 
private room and ward patients m the 
Jones and Murdoch buildings under the 
supervision of floor dietitians. Food is 
dispensed in bulk by dumb waiters from 
the main kitchen to these serving units. 
Whenever funds for this purpose be- 
come available, the hospital manage- 
ment plans to equip these buildings with 
a central diet kitchen unit in order that 
this efficient and economical food serv- 
ing system may prevail throughout the 

In addition to the advantages already 
mentioned, the easily administered and 
prompt procedure by which trays are 
set up in the central diet kitchen is of 
particular interest. The first step in pre- 
paring the tray is placing on it the silver 
and cold food for which the menu on 
the tray calls. This may include a salad, 
dessert, (other than ice cream) glass of 


The Silver Committee of the Wo- 
man's Board has reported that 15,200 
American Family soap wrappers and 
soap flake panels were collected the past 
year and exchanged for 14 dozen tea- 
spoons and six dozen dessert spoons to 
be used in the first floor dining rooms. 
The committee of which Mrs. Cameron 
Barber is chairman, hopes to collect 
more soap wrappers this year in order 
to replenish the supply of knives and 

milk, small pitcher of cream for coffee 
or tea, crackers if soup is to be served, 
tomato juice, orange juice, or similar 
items on the patient's individual menu 
as prepared in advance by the dietitian 
in accordance with the orders of the 
doctor. After being set up with these 
items, trays are placed on a four-deck 
cart which is wheeled to the steam table 
and the short order cooking unit. Here 
the hot food listed on the menu is 
placed on the tray in piping hot dishes. 
If broiled meat or eggs in some form are 
listed, these are prepared by the short 
order cook. Toast, rolls, or other bread, 
and butter are added here, if on the 

At the proper moment when the 
short order is ready, other hot foods 
which the menu calls for are placed on 
the tray, as is also the hot beverage. If 
ice cream is to be included, it is placed 
on the tray last. There is a final check 
by a dietitian to ascertain that the food 
on the tray accords with the menu. Now 
the tray is ready to be placed in the 
dumb waiter and reaches the patient 
within two minutes after the hot food 
is placed thereon. Each dumb waiter 
can carry four trays and by systematical- 
ly planned serving, four trays are ready 
to be placed in the waiter at the same 
time and dispatched to the floors by 
pressing the proper button. Serving 
maids on each floor take the trays from 
the dumb waiter and carry them to the 
patients, each tray being labelled with 
the proper room number. 

To facilitate preparation of weighed 
diet trays, the quantitative kitchen is 
equipped with a small food preparation 
and steam table unit. The former in- 
cludes a broiler and gas burners for 
cooking short order items, and in addi- 
tion there is a bain marie to keep food 
warm when it must be held for a short 

Dishwashing is done with electrical 
equipment and in accordance with all 
sanitary rules of the Chicago Depart- 
ment of Health. If a patient is suffer- 
ing from an infectious condition of any 
kind, his tray is properly designated 
and the dishes and silver thereon are 
sterilized for fifteen minutes before be- 
ing washed in the usual manner. Trays 

thus designated include those of patients 
having severe colds, dysentery, or 
strepticocci infections. 

In addition to being equipped with 
facilities for keeping hot food hot until 
it reaches the patient, diet kitchen serv- 
ing units have refrigeration facilities for 
keeping cold foods and cold beverages 
at the proper temperature. 

While the actual needs of the patients 
are regarded as of paramount import- 
ance, insofar as is possible under neces- 
sary medical and other limitations the 
dietary department considers the prefer- 
ences of patients. It also adapts its 
services to the exigencies that arise con- 
stantly. If a patient is absent in the 
X-ray department, examining rooms, or 
special treatment rooms at meal time, 
his tray is served when he returns to 
his room or ward. If supplementary 
nourishment between meals is deemed 
necessary, these are served in accord- 
ance with the wishes of the attending 

In addition to the food service for pa- 
tients, the dietetics staff supervises the 
service in the first floor dining rooms for 
resident doctors and interns, special 
nurses, office, laboratory and other per- 
sonnel, and the service in the basement 
dining rooms for hospital employes. 
Has Trained Staff 

The dietitian m charge, Miss Beulah 
Hunzicker, prepared for her highly re- 
sponsible duties here by taking her B.S. 
and M.A. degrees in dietetics at the Un- 
iversity of Wisconsin, and served her 
dietetics internship in the University of 
Michigan Hospital. Seven trained dieti- 
tians and a diet kitchen supervisor com- 
prise Miss Hunzicker's staff. 

In the dietary department, the stu- 
dent nurses receive the training in diete- 
tics that is required in their nursing 
course. Each preliminary student nurse 
is assigned to twenty days service in the 
dietary department, while advanced stu- 
dents have an assignment of 38 days. At 
the present time four student nurses are 
on duty in this department. 

Those on the dietetics staff other than 
dietitians and student nurses number 36. 
This number includes the people on 
relief duty and night duty. Each em- 
ployee receives a full physical examina- 
tion before he or she is hired for work, 
and a careful watch is kept so that no 
one reports for duty unless in excellent 
health; this insures that only well peo- 
ple work in our food department. 

Special nurses and other employes on 
night duty in the hospital are served a 
midnight meal in the dining rooms, and 
at 6:30 in the morning the day nurses 
arrive for breakfast so they can begin 
duty at 7:00 o'clock. These meals to- 
gether with calls for extra nourishments 
for patients require the dietary depart- 
ment to operate twenty four hours a 

Dietetic Values, Purity and Flavor Are Ruling 

Factors in Kitchens Presided Over by Chef 

The proof of the hospital patient's diet is not only in the eating but in extent 
to which the food taken has been selected and prepared with a view to dietetic 
values and freedom from bacteria. In the Presbyterian hospital an executive chef is 
responsible for ordering all food supplies, while all cooking is done under his super- 
vision. Chef and head dietitian plan the menus together so that all items required 
for the varied diets will be available each day. 

-aesimile of certificate 
Chefs of Cuisine As 
ih pastry, second for 

i display 
"fish Vm'd 

Everything in the way of raw food supplies is personally inspected by the chef 
before it enters the kitchen and all food cooked in the main kitchen is inspected by 
the chef before being dispatched in well covered containers to diet kitchen units. 

Among the culinary feats which a hospital chef must perform is that of making 
edible numerous dishes from which one 

or more of the usual ingredients are 
eliminated because of dietary require- 
ments of different patients. Digestibil- 
ity and nutritive value are predominant 
factors in cooking procedures. Take 
vegetable soup, for example. Our chef 
uses only fresh vegetables, which are 
drained after being washed thoroughly, 
then salted and allowed to simmer for 
one hour in their own juices, after 
which water is added for patients un- 
able to eat soup containing meat stock, 
while the latter is added for other pa- 
tients and employes. 

Desserts that look attractive and arc 
digestible include fruit pastries with a 
crust made of sugar, flour, butter and 
milk; blanc manges, Bavarian creams, 
fruit whips, souffles, ice creams and ices 
in an endless variety of flavors and 

The standard recipe used by our chef 

for 15 gallons of vanilla ice cream calls 
for eight gallons of 22 per cent cream, 
40 eggs, 15 pounds of sugar, three 
ounces of French leaf gelatine and two 
Mexican vanilla beans. The ingredi- 
ents are combined in proper order and 
cooked well but not allowed to boil. 
When cool, the mixture is poured into 
our ice cream freezing machine through 
a small opening near the top of the 
mixing cylinder. After being frozen 
it is forced out through another opening 
into five gallon cans. These cans are 
set in a ten-degree below freezing re- 
frigerator for 24 hours, then placed in 
an ordinary refrigerator for six to ten 
hours, after which the ice cream is suffi- 
ciently soft to be served. From the 
time the ice cream mixture is poured 
into the freezing machine until it is dip- 
ped out to he placed on the trays, it is 
not touched by human hand or exposed 
to bacteria from any source. 


Number of 

meals served daily 

in the Presbyterian Hospital 

varies from 

1,900 to 2,100. 

Each day 

we use on an av- 


300 lbs. 

loaf bread. 

360 qts. 

whole milk. 

100 qts. 

rich cream. 

500 lbs. 

of meat. 

140 doz 


60 lbs. 

creamery butter. 

72 heads of lettuce. 

And oth 

er food supplies in 


For one serving to patients 

and first floor dining rooms, it 


30 gals 

of ice cream. 

100 lbs. 

Danish pastry. 

180 lbs. 

baked ham. 

52 doz 


60 doz 

hard rolls. 

About Our Chef 

Mr. Erich Bode, who is now in his 
fifth year as our executive chef, received 
his early culinary training from a fam- 
ous chef in Germany, following which 
he held positions in leading hotels of 
Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, 
Belgium and the French Riveria. He 
came to this country in 1923 and was"? 
engaged as chef in first rank hotels in 
Milwaukee and Chicago before joining 
our staff. 


Telephone: Seelev 7171 








FRED S. BOOTH Asst. Secretary 

A. J. WILSON Asst. Secretary 


Vrthur G. Cable 
U.bert B. Dick, Ji 

I in 



James B. Forgan, Jr. 
Alfred E. Hamii.l 
Charles H. Hamii.l 
Edward D. McDougall, 

Rev. John Timothy 

Stone, D.D. 
R. Douglas Stuart 
Robert Stevenson 
J. Hall Taylor 
John p. Welling 
Edward F. Wilson 
REV. Harrison Ray Anderson, D.D: 
rev. Harold L.Bowman, D.D. 
Rev. Henry S. Brown, D.D. 
Rev. W. Clyde Howard, D.D, 

ASA S. BACON Superintendent 

HERMAN HENSEI Asst. Superintendent 

M. HELENA McMILLAN Director, School of Nursin t 

The Presbyterian Hospital of the City of 
Chicago is an Illinois not-for-profit corpora- 
tion, organized July 21, 1883, for the purpose I 
of affording surgical and medical aid, and 
nursing, to sick and disabled persons of every 
creed, nationality, and color. Its medical staff 
is appointed from the faculty of Rush Medical 
College of the University of Chicago. 

The Board of Managers call attention to 
the need of gifts and bequests for endow- 
ment and for the general purposes of the 

The ftebytomi Mospto 

tke Gity cry Q\\icacj& 



Chicago, 111. 

September, 1936 

No. 90 


Unified Medical School Plan Will 

Continue and Broaden West 

Side Teaching 

Combining the high scholastic ideals 
of a great university, the traditions and 
achievements of a century-old medical 
school, and the facilities of a hospital 
dedicated to high ideals of service, the 
new program now being initiated at 
Rush Medical College by the University 
of Chicago is fraught with far-reaching 
possibilities for the advancement of 
medical science and the mitigation of 
human suffering. 

Though affiliated with the University 
of Chicago in 1898, Rush did not be- 
come an integral part of the University 
until 1924. Owing to the fact that the 
University had another medical school 
on the South Side, there has been some 
uncertainty as to the ultimate fate of the 
West Side school. As a result of formal 
action taken early this summer by the 
Board of Trustees of the University, the 
School of Medicine which has been 
conducted in the division of Biological 
Sciences at the University and Rush 
Medical College will henceforth he 
one School of Medicine, and the West 
Side program of teaching and research 
will be continued and broadened. 
Announces New Program 

In announcing the new program at 
the Rush Medical College Alumni din- 
ner June 16, 1936, Mr. Frederic Wood- 
ward, vice-president of the University 
of Chicago, said in part: 

"It has been definitely settled again 
that medical teaching and research will 
be continued on the West Side and all 
the resources that we can command will 
be devoted to it. Furthermore, it has 
been decided to unite the medical work 
on the West Side and on the South Side 
in one administrative organisation. 
There will be one medical school operat- 
ing within the Division of Biological 
Sciences of the University and on the 
West Side it is our purpose to develop 


Rush Medical colleee course was given in this frame building, in rooms b, 
t was located on Clark street, near Randolph. 

a program which will have in the long 
run two important functions. 

"First, advanced teaching, thoroughly 
scientific in character leading to certi- 
fication of specialists in various fields; 
second, to direct prolonged study after 
the M. D. degree." 

New Dean Named 

Dr. Emmet B. Bay, has been ap- 
pointed as Associate Dean of the Divi- 
sion of Biological Sciences, and will de- 
vote his full time to the administration 
ot the West Side unit of the medical 
school, working out details whereby the 
teaching program of the South and 
West Side portions of the one school 
may be unified and developed in keep- 
ing with the highest scholastic and pro 
fessional objectives. 

Presbyterian Hospital 

Sharing in this new program of teach- 
ing and research, the Presbyterian 
Hospital will continue the relationship 
established with Rush Medical College 

when the hospital was founded 53 years 

ago, under which the Hospital Medical 
staff is appointed from Rush faculty, 
which body has control of all clinical 
instruction given in the hospital. 

Central Free Dispensary- 
Central Free Dispensary, located in 
the Senn MemoriaRBuilding of the col- 
lege group, and affiliated with the Pres 
byterian Hospital, will continue as an 
out-patient clinical teaching center, 
staffed by Rush faculty men and wo- 
men, and giving to the sick poor the 
benefits of extensive medical knowledge 
and continuous research. 

Will Seek Endowment 

Long cherished plans for the rchahili 
tation of the present West Side college 
plant and lor obtaining ot endowment 
to support advanced research and teach 
ing may now be promulgated with the 
assurance that this portion ol the School 
of Medicine of the University oi < 'In 
eago will remain on the West Side. 


Founded by Dr. Daniel Brainard 

Named for Pioneer Doctor and 

Colonial Patriot 

Chicago was a village of but 3,000 
population, not yet incorporated as a 
city, when a far-visioned young doctor 
by the name of Daniel Brainard ob- 
tained in February, 1837, from the Illi- 
nois Legislature, a charter to establish a 
medical school, to be named in honor 
of Benjamin Rush, pioneer in American 
medicine, active member of the Contin- 
ental Congress from Pennsylvania and 
signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. The story of Rush Medical Col- 
lege is not only the story of the first 
institution of learning chartered m Illi- 
nois and still in existence. It also is the 
story of an institution which has been 
in the vanguard of the advancing march 
of medical science and the story of not 
a few men nationally and international- 
ly acclaimed for their professional 
achievements. It is a story of begin- 
nings out of which grew other institu- 
tions destined to fill a large place in the 
care and treatment of the sick and dis- 
abled of Chicago and the great West. 
And, intertwined with the story of the 
men who built the sure foundation on 
which was reared Rush Medical College 
is the story of leadership and active par- 
ticipation in civic enterprises which 
have had a vital part m Chicago's re- 
markable growth and progress. 
Two Great Pioneers 

Dr. Brainard obtained his M. D. de- 
gree from Jefferson College in Philadel- 
phia in 1S34 and came to Chicago two 
years later. He was, for a time, editor 
of Chicago's first newspaper, The Chi- 
cago Democrat. 

The charter incorporating Chicago 
as a city was granted a few days after 
the charter for Rush Medical College 
was granted. Dr. J. C. Goodhue, who 
assisted in obtaining the Rush charter 
and later became one of the college 
trustees, was a<=memher of the first city 
council and was instrumental in having 
drawn and passed the ordinance estab- 
lishing the public school system. 

The panic of 1837 interfered with Dr. 
Brainard*s plans to start a medical school 
immediately, but he taught anatomy and 
surgery to a few private students and 
spent two years (1839-40) studying in 
Paris. The first Rush College announce- 
ment was issued m October, 1843, and 
the first term of sixteen weeks began 
on December 4, following. Lectures 
were delivered to 22 students in rooms 
belonging to Dr. Brain, ird's office suite 
in a frame building located on Clark 
street near Randolph. A shed m the 
i .ii oi the building was used as a dis- 
secting room. 


In his introductory address to 
students at the beginning of the first 
term of Rush Medical College, Dec. 
4, 1843, Dr. Brainard said: 

"We believe the school we this 
day open is destined to rank among 
the permanent institutions of the 
State. It will pass in time to other 
and better hands; it will live on, 
identified with the interests of a 
great and prosperous city." 

Requirements for the M. D. degree 
were three years 1 study with a respect- 
able physician and two courses of lec- 
tures at the college. Two years of priv- 
ate practice were accepted as equivalent 
to one course of lectures. This prob- 
ably aeounts for the fact that there was 
one graduate at the end of the 'first} 
term. He was William v Butter JwrtEA 
son of Hon. Justin Butterfewftri nioneer 
Chicago lawyer. Dr. Buttenfcilfi's par- 
ticipation in the Mexican war impaired 
his health and he died at an early age, 
after engaging in a limited practice 
which brought him some distinction. 
^ Dr. James V. Z. Blaney, Dr. M. L. 
Knapp, Dr. John McLean and Dr. 
Brainard comprised the first Rush facul- 
ty of four men. 

Graduates Number 10,129 

The first college building was erected 
in the summer of 1844 and, as related 
in a separate article, was succeeded by 
other structures built and equipped to 
provide facilities for a growing institu- 
tion in which was taught a science and 
profession that was constantly enlarg- 
ing in scope. New faculty members of 
outstanding ability came to Rush as the 
years passed and the sis;e of the stu- 
dent body increased as the fame of the 
school spread throughout the country. 
Those who have received the M. D. 
degree at Rush, to date, total 10,129 of 
whom 6,000 are living. 

Rush graduates have practiced med- 
icine in all parts of the world. Many 
have won distinction as surgical and 
medical specialists in various fields. 
Others have filled important teaching 
positions on the faculty of their alma 
mater or .it other well known medical 
schools. Rush men have made out 
st, Hiding contributions to medical liter, i 
ture and to the advancement of medical 
science. In the early days when the 
great West was being settled, Rush 
graduates went out to the little towns 
and hamlets, where, as general practic 
doners, thev filled an indispensable 
place in the lives of the pioneer build 
ers of an empire. These men. known 
only to those whom they served in ac- 
cordance with the knowledge gained 
and the ideals taught at Rush, are as 
much a part of the glorious history of 

this century-old medical school as are 
those whose names are known national- 
ly and internationally. 

Chicago's First Hospital 

"Cliniques", as they were then called, 
were held from the first. Dr. Blaney 
had opened at his office in the Sherman 
House, m 1839, the first free medical 
dispensary in Chicago. When Rush be- 
gan its first course in 1843, this dispens- 
ary was taken over as a clinical teaching 
center and was located m the first col- 
lege building erected m 1844. In 1846, 
Chicago's first general hospital was es- 
tablished by public authorities with 
Rush faculty members in charge. This 
hospital, which had a capacity of 100 
beds, was located in a large warehouse 
at the corner of Kinz,ie and Wolcott 
(now State) streets. The college dis- 
pensary was moved to this building, 
where clinical instruction was given to 
Rush students for three years. This is 
referred to variously in early historical 
data as "Tippicanoe HalR and the "Chi- 
cago Hospital." 

First Operation With Ether 

Here on January 12, 1847, Dr. Brain- 
ard performed the first operation on 
record, west of the Alleghemes, for 
which an anesthetic was administered. 
Dr. Charles H. Quinlan, dentist, who- 
had obtained the formula used by Dr. 
Horace Wells at Hartford, Conn, in 
1844, administered ether. Here, also, 
on January 24, 1847, chloroform was 
first used as an anesthetic, ten days be- 
fore its first recorded use in New York. 
Dr. Blaney is credited with having 
demonstrated the value of chloroform as I 
an anesthetic about the time that Sir 
James Y. Simpson was conducting his 
experiments in Scotland. Dr. Blaney 's 
findings were made public shortly after 
Dr. Simpson announced, in 1847, his 
successful use of chloroform as an an- 
esthetic during childbirth. 

Demonstrate Ethylene-Oxygen 

Seventy-six years later on March 14, 
192 3, another Rush Professor of sur- 
gery, Dr. Arthur Dean Bevan, per- 
formed in the Presbyterian Hospital the 
first operations in which cthylene-oxy 
gen was used as an anesthetic. Dr. 
Isabella Herb, associate professor of 
surgery (anesthetics) was the anesthet- 
ist. Ethylene has since replaced ether 
to a large extent in many hospitals of 
the United States and Canada. 

What became of the hospital on 
Km-ie street is not revealed in any 
available data, but the college circular 
for 1849-5(1 announces the addition to 
the staff of Dr. N. S. Davis and the plan 
to establish a new hospital in which 
"bedside clinical instruction" was to be 
given. Thus eventuated, in 1850, the 
(Continued on rage 3, Col. 2) 


The first building erected especially 
to house Rush Medical College was built 
in the summer of 1844 at the southeast 
corner of Indiana (now Grand Avenue) 
and Dearborn streets. It cost $3,500. 
This structure was rebuilt m 1855, at a 
cost of $15,000., obtained by issue of 
bonds mostly subscribed for by mem- 
bers of the faculty. An addition was 
built and other improvements made on 
this building in 1867. This building 
and practically all furnishings and equip- 
ment were destroyed in the great fire of 

Erection of a new permanent build- 
ing was deferred until 1875, by which 
time it was known that the new Cook 
County Hospital would be located on 
its present site, and a new Rush Med- 
ical College building was erected diagon- 
ally opposite at the corner of Harrison 
and Wood streets. 

Dr. J. P. Ross was chairman of the 
building committee, other members of 
which were Dr. Moses Gunn, who suc- 
ceeded Dr. Brainard in the chair of sur- 
gery; Dr. Joseph W. Freer, president of 
the college; and Dr. E. L. Holmes. In 
his dedicatory address on October 4, 
1876, Dr. Ross stated that the total 
cost of the building and site was 
$54,000. of which $33,500. had been 
contributed by regular members of the 
faculty while $11,000 had been loaned 
by Central Free Dispensary. A mem 
orial tablet in Rush amphitheatre credits 
Dr. Ross with having raised a large por- 
tion of the funds required to erect this 
building. Pending erection of the 1876 
building, a rude temporary structure was 
built on the grounds of the Cook 
County Hospital, then located at 18th 
and Arnold (now Wentworth avenue) 
streets. Because this building extended 
partially below the street, it was called 
the "college under the sidewalk". It 
cost less than $4,000. but housed the 
college for four years. 

In 1893 a five-story laboratory build- 
ing was erected on Harrison street 
across from the college building. Most 
of the $80,000. required to erect this 
building was contributed by members of 
the faculty in memory of Dr. Brainard 
and other early professors. 

The Senn Memorial building was 
built in 1903 at a cost of $127,000. of 
which $75,000. was contributed by Dr. 
Nicholas Senn, who had joined Rush 
faculty in 1888 at the age of 44, and 
became internationally famous as a sur- 
geon, teacher of surgery, and author of 
numerous textbooks and published 


ILM h 

ge faces Harrison st 

cct at Wood street. 

Frederick H. R.uvs 

in in memory .,1 S. V 

ght, with entrance tc 

Central Free Dispensa 

(Continued from Page 2) 
Illinois General Hospital of the Lakes, 
which later became Mercy Hospital, 
and served as a clinical teaching center 
until 1 859. At that time Dr. Davis and 
others withdrew from Rush and estab- 
lished a medical school which ultimate- 
ly became Northwestern University 
School of Medicine. These men took 
the Mercy Hospital clinical service with 
them. Dr. Brainard, Dr. Joseph Presley 
Ross, Dr. G. K. Amerman and associates 
now leased the City Hospital, which had 
been established in 1854 to care for 
cholera patients. Dr. DeLaskie Miller, 
professor of obstetrics at Rush for 30 
years, was one of the founders of thk- 
hospital and its medical and surgical di- 
rector. In 1856 a new building had 
been erected at 18th and Arnold streets 
at a cost of $75,000., but owing to a 
conflict between the homeopathic and 
regular divisions of the medical profes- 
sion, the new building was unoccupied 
until leased by the Rush group. 
Other Clinical Centers 
In 1863, this hospital was com 
mandeered by the government for the 
care of soldiers. The United States 
Marine Hospital, which had been es 
tablished in Chicago in 1852, was open 
to Rush for clinical instruction, as it had 
been since its establishment, and the 
college dispensary afforded opportuni- 
ties for clinical teaching as did also the 
Chicago Eye and Ear Infirmary, founded 
by Dr. E. L. Holmes in 1858. Dr. W. 
B. Herrick, who joined Rush faculty in 

1844, was the first medical director of 
the U.S. Marine Hospital. Other mem- 
bers of Rush faculty held important 
places on the staff of that hospital for 
many years. 

Following the civil war, Dr. Amer- 
man and Dr. Ross were instrumental, as 
members of the County Board, in hav- 
ing Cook County take over the City 
Hospital, which then became Cook 
County Hospital and was thereafter 
open to Rush for clinical teaching. 

In 1867, a new chair on the college 
faculty was created for Dr. J. P. Ross, 
who, it was announced, would have "es- 
pecial supervision of clinical instruc- 
tion. 11 At that time the college dispens- 
ary was known as the Charity Dispens- 
ary, and Dr. Ross became its president. 

Central Free Dispensary became the 
out-patient clinical teaching center in 
1873 and the Presbyterian Hospital was 
founded in 1883. How these institu- 
tions have worked with Rus'h faculty 
through the years is related in separate 

University Affiliations 

Rush Medical College had a more or 
less nominal affiliation with Lake Forest 
University from 1S87 to 1S9S, when 
affiliation with the University of Chi- 
cago was brought about, largely through 
the efforts of Dr. Edward L. Holmes, 
who was president of the college at that 
time. Final legal adoption by the Uni- 
versity took place m 1 1 ->2 4, when assets 
of the college became the property ol 
the University. 


Opened Its Dcors 52 Years Ago 

This Month— Affiliated With 

Rush Medical College 

The desire of Rush Medical College 
for a hospital affording adequate oppor- 
tunities and facilities for clinical instruc- 
tion; the faith and vision of Dr. Joseph 
Presley Ross, and the ready response 
of public spirited Presbyterians of Chi- 
cago were the factors which, 53 years 
ago, brought into existence the Presby- 
terian Hospital of the City of Chicago. 

Dr. Ross had been an influential fig- 
ure in medical activities of Chicago for 
more than 20 years prior to 1880. His 
leadership in important enterprises is re- 
ferred to m several other articles m this 
Bulletin. His part in the founding of 
the Presbyterian Hospital may well be 
termed the crowning achievement of a 
life crowded with unselfish service to 
his fellowmen. 

Rush Initiates Project 

Rush trustees and faculty voted in 
1879 to establish a hospital and to raise 
$15,000. for a hospital building. Sub- 
sequently, Dr. Ross obtained a gift of 
$10,000. from his father-in-law, Mr. 
Tuthill King, who was a member of the 
First Presbyterian Church, and set about 
to enlist the interest of other Presbyter- 
ians of means. Chicago at that time had 
a population of 650,000, and only one 
general hospital under Protestant religi- 
ous management. This was St. Luke's 
on the South Side. The West Side, on 
which lived half of Chicago's growing 
population, had no general hospital of 
any kind except Cook County Hospital. 
Only 1,749 beds were available in the 
hospitals of the entire city. These were 
some of the facts set forth by Dr. Ross 
when he sent out, under date of July 2, 
1883, letters to a number of prominent 
Presbyterians, inviting them to join as 
managers in establishing a Presbyterian 
Hospital. With each letter was sent a 
list of the men who were being invited 
to serve and the draft of a proposed 

Charter Is Obtained 

The response was prompt and grati- 
fying. A charter was obtained on 
July 21, 1883 and the first meeting of 
the managers was held December 13, 
1883. An agreement was reached with 
the trustees and faculty of Rush by 
., |,,, |, ,|,, m- .uid hospital building on 
which $25,000. had been expended were 
deeded on January 2, 1 884, to the Board 
of Managers of Presbyterian Hospital 
of the City of Chicago. 

At that time it was agreed that the 
hospital medical staff should be nomi 
nated by the college faculty and that the 
faculty would have sole charge ol elm 
ical instruction given in the hospital. 

ill lirr iv 

11 ii lllfti i 


This picture shows front and partial side view of the 
oss building, completed and opened in September, 
384. Ii cosl J32.O00. and was located on Wood 
reet midway between Congress and Harrison, adjacent 

■ It. 1-1, M. 1,, .1 I ..11,..,-. It had .. capacity of 45 beds. 

As a result of this agreement, the hos- 
pital has had on its staff, throughout 
the years, and will continue to have on 
its staff, men and women outstanding in 
the medical profession. 

Dr. R. C. Hamill and Dr. D. W. 
Graham, who like Dr. Ross were active 
Presbyterians and members of Rush 
faculty, had worked in close coopera- 
tion with Dr. Ross in bringing the hos- 
pital enterprise to this successful out- 

First Officers of Board 

Officers of the first Board of Man 

President Daniel K. Pearsons 
Vice -preside ut —Charles M. Henderson 
Treasurer George W. Hale 
Corresponding Secretary - Cyrus H. 

McCormick, Jr. 
Recording Secretary William A. 


Now ensued a season of much activ- 
ity m order that the building might be 
completed, furnished and opened to pa 

tients as soon as possible. The interest 
of the church women was enlisted and 
in May, 1884, formal organization of a 
Ladies Aid Society was effected. The I 
story of the Ladies Aid Society, which • 
later became the Woman's Board of the ! 
hospital, is told briefly in a separate J 

Our First Medical Board 

The hospital was opened in Septem- | 
ber, 1884. Members of the first Med- 
ical Board were: J. Adams Allen, R. C. 
Hamill, Charles Gilman Smith, R. N. 
Isham, R. G. Bogue, William H. Byford, 
James H. Etheridge, H. P. Mernman, 
Joseph P. Ross, H. M. Lyman, Norman | 
Bridge, Moses Gunn, D. W. Graham, J 
C. f. Parkes, E. W. Whitney, Edward 1 
L. Holmes, Lyman Ware, DeLaskie | 
Miller, J. Suydam Knox, James Nevins 
Hyde, R. D. MacArthur, and John A. | 

The first intern was Dr. Lawrence H. I 
Prince, still in active practice. Miss A. j 
E. Steere was in charge as head nurse 
and director of the hospital training 1 
school for nurses. Dr. E. P. Davis was | 
resident physician. Dr. French Moore- 
was curator; James A. Stewart was pur- 
veyor and Mrs. Stewart, matron. 
Dr. Stehman Pioneers 

Dr. Davis served as resident physician^ I 
and medical superintendent until late in | 
1885 when Dr. H. B. Stehman was ap- I 
pointed medical superintendent. Dr. 
Stehman continued m this capacity un- 
til ill health forced his retirement m 
1900. Under his wise direction the j 
hospital was enlarged considerably and j 
became firmly established. Much credit 
is due Dr. Stehman for his capable and 
persevering work in the interest of the 
Presbyterian Hospital. 

Has Had Ten Presidents 

During its 53 years of history, the 
Presbyterian Hospital has had as presi- I 
dent of its Board of Managers, ten dif- j 
ferent men, to whose splendid leader- j 
ship much credit is due for the work :] 
accomplished by the hospital. These 
men and the years during which they 
served in the office of president are as 

























Mr. Day retired as president in the 
spring of 192 3 and was president em- 
eritus^ until his death in 1933. Mr. 
McDougal succeeded Mr. Shaw in 
October, 1928. 

{Continued on Page 5) 

(Continued from Page 4) 
Medical Board Presidents 

Those who have served as presidents 
of the Presbyterian Hospital Medical 
Board are as follows: 

1883-1889 DR. JOSEPH P. ROSS 

1889-1898 OR. EDWARD L. HOLMES 

1898-1901 DR. DAVID W. GRAHAM 


1903-1905 DR. WALTER S. HAINES 

1905-1906 DR. F. C. HOTZ 

1906-1908 DR. I. NEVINS HYDE 

1908-1913 DR. lAMES B. HERRICK 

1913-1916 DR. G. E. SHAMBAUGH, SR. 



1920-1924 DR. DEAN D. LEWIS 

1925-1928 DR. ERNEST E. IRONS 

1928-1936 DR. VERNON C. DAVID 

Since that auspicious day 52 years ago 
this month, when the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital opened its doors, more than 
320,000 patients have been cared for in 
our hospital beds and a like number in 
our examining and treatment rooms. 
These patients were admitted regardless 
of race, nationality or creed. Thousands 
unable to pay have received free care or 
paid only a part of the cost of care re- 

Much Given — More Needed 

This ministry of service to the sick 
and disabled has been made possible be- 
cause scores of men and women have 
given freely of their time as Managers 
and as members of the Woman's Board; 
through the generous service given by 
members of the medical staff, and faith- 
ful service on the part of hospital per- 
sonnel. Many of these and thousands 
of others have given of their means — 
gifts ranging all the way from the pen- 
nies of the Sunday School children to 
sums reaching into thousands of dol- 
lars — in order that the hospital might 
have free beds and endowed nurses to 
care for the needy, facilities for diag- 
nosis and for medical and surgical care 
of all patients, and beautifully appointed 
private rooms for those able to pay for 
such accommodations. 

Much has been given and much has 
been accomplished. Much more is need- 
ed to enable the Presbyterian Hospital 
to fulfill its part in the new program 
now being inaugurated at Rush Medical 
College; to provide improved facilities, 
and continue our ministry to the sick on 
a scale commensurate with the larger 
opportunities now knocking at our 



Service given by members of the 
Presbyterian Hospital during the world 
war embraced an overseas Hospital 
Unit, No. 13 headed by Dr. Dean D. 
Lewis and staffed by many of our most 
valued doctors and nurses. Including 
those on the Hospital Unit staff and 
others who served in various capacities 
overseas or in this country, the Presby- 
terian Hospital service flag for 1917 had 
78 stars, while the number was in- 
creased to 160 in 1918. 

This picture of our present hospital building gives an excellent view of the 
private pavilion facing Congress street at Hermitage avenue (left). The main 
entrance is seen at the right, near the corner of Congress and Wood streets. 

The first hospital building completed 
in September, 1884, was enlarged in 
1887 by the addition of the Hamill 
wing, built at a cost of $12,000. con- 
tributed mainly by Dr. Ross and Mr. 
Cyrus H. McCormick, Jr. in memory of 
Dr. R. C. Hamill. It increased the 
capacity to 85 beds. 

The Daniel A. Jones Memorial build- 
ing was completed and furnished in 
1889 at a cost of $120,000. which in- 
cluded a bequest left by Mr. Jones and 
additional funds from the Jones estate. 
The hospital now had 325 beds and was 
considered the finest and most modern 
west of the Alleghenies. 

In 1908 the Private Pavilion wing 

was added and a power house erected 
at a cost of $300,000. The number of 
beds was increased to 435. 

The Jane Murdoch Memorial, com- 
pleted in June, 1912, replaced the or- 
iginal Ross and Hamill wings. It is set 
apart principally for the use of women 
and children and was made possible by 
a gift of $175,000. from the late Thomas 

Additions and improvements have 
since been made in the Jones Memorial 
and other buildings. The value of the 
hospital buildings, the nurses' home, 
sites and equipment as carried on our 
books at the present time is $2,080,000. 

Application For Charter 

We, the undersigned, being citizens of the United States desiring to form a 
Society, NOT FOR PECUNIARY PROFIT, pursuant to an act of the General 
Assembly of Illinois, entitled "An Act concerning Corporations," approved, April 18, 
1872, do hereby certify that the following is a true statement of the name, or 
title, by which such society shall be known in law , the particular business and object 
for which it is formed, the number of its managers, and the names of same selected 
for the first year of its existence, viz: 

1. The name by which this Society shall be known shall be The Presbyterian 
Hospital of the City of Chicago. 

2. The object of the Society is the establishment, support and management 
of an institution for the purpose of affording surgical and medical aid and nursing 
to sick and disabled persons of every NATIONALITY, CREED and COLOR. 

3. The officers of this Society shall be under the direction of Board of twenty- 
eight Managers. 

4. The number of Managers of this Society shall be 28 after the first year 
of its existence. The names of those selected for Managers for the first year are as 
follows: Tuthill King, Daniel K. Pearsons, William Blair, Robert C. Hamill, John 
H. Barrows, C. M. Henderson, John B. Drake, Nathan Corwith, Samuel M. Moore, 
Henry W. King, W. H. Wells, Henry Waller, Henry M. Lyman, James ML Horton, 
Willis G. Craig, Cyrus H. McCormick, Jacob Beidler, Joseph P. Ross. 

Henry D. Dement, 
July 21, 1883 Secretary of State 


Million Patients Given Medical 

Care in 69 Years — Is Teaching 

Center for Rush College 

Central Free Dispensary had its be- 
ginning in Brainard Dispensary which 
was founded in 1867 at 232 West Ran- 
dolph street. At that time Rush Med- 
ical College had its own dispensary 
which was known as the Charity Dis- 
pensary and had been in more or less 
continuous existence since 1839 when 
Dr. Blaney opened a dispensary in his 
office>4Ti the Sherman House. 

The Herrick Free Dispensary was es- 
tablished by the Chicago Relief and 
Aid Society following the great fire of 
1871. It was located on Wright street 
near 12th street. . 

Both Herrick and Brainard Dispen- 
saries received funds from the Relief 
and Aid Society. When the two dis- 
pensaries were combined in 1873 and 
incorporated as the Central Free Dis- 
pensary of West Chicago, a fund of 
$5,000. belonging to Herrick Dispensary 
and $4,000. belonging to Brainard Dis- 
pensary were combined and additional 
funds obtained so that Central Free Dis- 
pensary had a fund of $1 1,000. 

This fund of $11,000. was loaned to 
Rush Medical College for 99 years, and 
was applied to the cost of the new col- 
lege building, completed in 1876. In 
accordance with an agreement entered 
into at that time Central Free Dispens- 
ary became affiliated with Rush Medical 
College as its clinical teaching center 
and when the new building was com- 
pleted, moved into quarters on the first 

Now In Senn Building 

When the Senn Building was com- 
pleted in 1903, the Dispensary moved 
into its present location at 1748 Harri- 
son street. 

The application for the charter which 
was granted to "Central Free Dispen- 
sary of West Chicago" on March 3, 
1873, states that the corporation is not 
for pecuniary profit and that "The ob- 
jects for which said Corporation is 
formed shall be to aid all persons who 
are sick and unable to pay for medical 
attendance; to diffuse vaccinations by 
continuous and unwearied efforts and to 
do this work efficiently at a very small 
cost and with no pecuniary profit." 

The first officers were: 

President A. E. Bishop 

Vice-president A. G. Throop 

Secretary J. W. Farlin 

Treasurer Dr. J. P. Ross 

Incorporators, also designated as the 
Board of Directors for the first year 
were: A. E. Bishop, A. G. Throop, 
John F. Eberhardt, John Crighton, E. 

Ingals, S. P. Walker, P. W. Gates, J. P. 
Ross, Chas. E. Chase, Hugh Templeton, 
Samuel Hoard and Philip Adolphus. 

Dr. J. P. Ross also was president of 
the Medical Board, Dr. Norman Bridge 
was vice-president, and Dr. E. F. Ingals 
was secretary. The dispensary cared 
for 11,733 patients that year. 

Dr. Philip Adolphus was medical di- 
rector and continued in that capacity 
until 1902, when that office was abol- 
ished and the work of the dispensary 
was placed in charge of a committee of 
Rush faculty men while the dispensary 
staff consisted of a lay distributor, drug- 
gist and two visiting physicians. 

For many years Dr. John M. Dodson, 
dean of Rush Medical College, and Mr. 
James H. Harper, Registrar, managed 
Central Free Dispensary. In 1915, Mr. 
John Ransom was selected as superin- 
tendent. At that time, Dr. James B. 
Herrick was president of the Board of 
Directors. Mr. Ransom remained until 
1920. During his tenure, a social serv 
ice department was organised which at 
the present time consists of a director, 
ten case workers, and five clerical as- 

Following Mr. Ransom, Mrs. Ger- 
trude Howe Britten became superin- 
tendent. Mrs. Britten retired in 1925 
and was succeeded by Dr. George W. 
Duvall who is superintendent at the 
present time. 

After the retirement of Dr. James B. 
Herrick in 1922, Dr. George E. Sham- 
baugh, Sr., served as president until his 
retirement in 1933. At the present time, 
Dr. Robert H. Herbst is president of the 
Board of Directors. 

One Million Patients 

During the last ten years, new pa- 
tients admitted and return visits have 
increased greatly. More than 220,000 
patients 1 visits were recorded in 1935. 
Eighty per cent of this number could 
not pay the admission fee of fifty cents. 
They were accepted as free patients and 
supplied with special service when 
necessary in the diagnosis and treat- 
ment of their physical disabilities. 

While earlier records are incomplete, 
available data reveals that Central Free 
Dispensary and its predecessors, Brain- 
ard and Herrick Dispensaries have given 
medical care to at least one million dif- 
ferent patients who have made a total 
of at least 4,500,000 dispensary visits. 
The dispensary is staffed entirely by 
members of the faculty of Rush Medical 
College, whose services are given with- 
out charge to dispensary patients. 

Through affiliation with the Presby- 
terian Hospital, free beds are available 
for dispensary patients in need of hos- 
pital care insofar as the hospital is able 
to furnish such beds. 


Members of Rush faculty have par- 
ticipated actively in the founding of 
practically every professional organiza- 
tion of medical men, local, state and na- 
tional, now in existence. Dr. N. S. 
Davis is credited with having taken the 
lead in bringing about the national con- 
vention in 1846, which resulted m the 
formation of the American Medical As- 
sociation. Dr. Austin Flint, who lec- 
tured at Rush in 1844-45, enunciated in 
his introductory address to Rush stu- 
dents many of the ethical doctrines 
which later found a place in the code of 
the A. M. A. Both Dr. Davis and Dr. 
Flint filled the A. M. A. presidency in 
later years while connected with other 
institutions. Dr. Brainard was vice- 
president of the A. M. A. in 1850 and 
Dr. William H. Byford held the same 
office m 1857. 

Following is a list of American Med- 
ical Association presidents, who were 
members of Rush faculty either during 
or preceding their elevation to that 

DR. N. S. DAVIS, 1864 and 1865 
DR. DEAN D. LEWIS, 1933 

Dr. Malcolm L. Harris of Chicago, a 
Rush graduate, was A.M. A. president in 

Rush men have held many other 
offices in the A. M. A. and headed num- 
erous specialized professional organiza- 
tions. Dr. Herman L. Kretschmer is 
treasurer of the A. M. A. at this time. 

Dr. William B. Herrick, who joined 
Rush faculty m 1844, helped organize 
the Illinois State Medical Society in 
1850 and was its first president. Other 
Rush men have filled the presidency 
and other offices in both the Illinois 
and Chicago Medical Societies. 



Rush Medical College Library is re- 
yarded as one of the best medical li- 
braries in the country. It was organized 
in March, 1899, by the faculty, the 
nucleus being a gift of 2 59 volumes 
from the department of pathology. 
Complete medical libraries of Dr. Jona- 
than Adams Allen, Dr. Henry Lyman 
and Dr. Christian Fenger have been 
donated to the library, as have also 
numerous smaller collections. The 
library now houses more than 30,000 
volumes. Miss Catherine A. MacAuliff 
has been in charge as librarian since its 


Mrs. D. W. Qraham, Charter Member in 1884, 

Still Active on Woman's Board of Hospital 

Mrs. David W. Graham is the only 
surviving charter member of the Ladies 
Aid Society which was formally or- 
ganized in May, 1884. After 25 years 
had elapsed, the Ladies Aid Society be- 
came the Woman's Auxiliary Board and 
is now known as the Woman's Board of 
the Presbyterian Hospital. According 
to Mrs. Graham, several meetings of 
church women had been held earlier 
that year and work in behalf of the 
new hospital was well under way when 
formal organization took place. Mrs. 
Herrick Johnson, wife of a professor at 
the Presbyterian Theological Seminary 
was elected president at the meeting 
held in May, 1SS4, but ill health made 
it necessary for her to resign shortly, 
and Mrs. D. C. Marquis, whose hus- 
band also was on the Seminary faculty, 
succeeded to the presidency which she 
held for 1 1 years. 

Furnished First Hospital 

The Ladies Aid Society furnished 
the first hospital, opened in September, 
1884. Furnishings included all bed and 
table linen, utensils used from kitchen 
to operating room, screens, wheel chairs 
and other articles. Membership on the 
board of this society consisted of 76 
women, representing 17 churches and 
the Theological Seminary. 

Have Raised #745,843. 

The Woman's Board now has repre- 
sentatives in 38 churches and a general 
membership of interested women who 
are not Presbyterians. From 1884 to 
January 1, 1936, the women comprising 
this useful organization have raised for 
hospital purposes a total of $745,843,75. 

Although this large sum has provided 
hospital furnishings, free beds for chil- 
dren, endowed nurses, a social service 
department, and has met many other 
hospital needs, it is only a part of the 
story of the accomplishments of the 
Woman's Board. Clothing has been 
provided for needy patients, delicacies 
have been donated for ward patients, 
entertainments have been given for pa- 
tients able to enjoy such diversion, and 
'-ountWs other needs have been met 
through donations and personal service 
given by the women. 

Those who have served as presidents 
through the years are as follows: 

1884-1895 MRS. D. C. MARQUIS 


1897-1909 MRS. CHARLES D. HAMIl L 

1909-1920 MRS. DAVID W. ORAHAM 

1920-1928 MRS. PERKINS B. BASS 




Mrs. D. W. Graham is still active as 
honorary president. Her years of out- 
standing service in behalf of the hospital 
have been possible not only because of 
her own capabilities and charming per- 

sonality but because of her intimate un- 
derstanding of hospital needs due to the 
fact that her late husband was a mem- 
ber of our first hospital staff and con- 
tinued as a staff member and active 
participant in hospital affairs through- 
out his life. Dr. Graham was professor 
of surgery at Rush Medical College for 
many years and was regarded as a lead- 
ing surgeon of Chicago. 


Further evidence that the School of 
Nursing of Presbyterian Hospital is 
recognized as one of the foremost 
schools of this kind m the country was 
given in June of this year, when Miss 
M. Helena McMillan, director of the 
school and superintendent of nurses in 
the hospital, was awarded the Walter 
Burns Saunders medal for distinguished 
service in the field of nursing education. 
The award was made at the biennial 
convention of the three national nurs- 
ing organizations - The American 
Nurses' Association, The National 
League of Nursing Education and The 
National Organization of Public Health 
Nursing — held in Los Angeles. The 
presentation was made by Miss Elnora 
Thomson, director of nursing education 
at the University of Oregon in Portland, 
former president of the American 
Nurses' Association and a graduate of 
our school (class of 1909). Miss Mabel 
M. Dunlap, Vice-president of the Amer- 
ican Nurses' Association, another grad- 
uate (1912), presided. Mrs. Alma H. 
Scott, a graduate of 1907, now head- 
quarters director of the American 
Nurses' Association, had on hand the 
roses presented to Miss McMillan by 
the Board of Directors of the American 
Nurses' Association. 

School Opened in 1903 

When the Presbyterian Hospital was 
opened in September, 1884, a course for 
nurses was inaugurated under the direc- 
tion of Miss A. E. Steere, head nurse, 
but was discontinued when Miss Steere 
left to take charge of the Illinois Tram 
ing School for Nurses, March 18, 1885. 
At that time arrangements were made to 
have the nursing care in the hospital 
given under the direction of the Illinois 
Training School, and with the excep- 
tion of a second short interval when the 
hospital had its own school, this plan 
continued until 1903, when our present 
School of Nursing was organized with 
Miss M. Helena McMillan as director. 


Of all the loyal friends who served 
on the first Board of Managers and first 
Medical Board, many of whom con- 
tinued to give active service for many 
years, all but one have passed to their 

Dr. John A. Robison, now a consult- 
ing physician, was on our first staff as 
attending physician for diseases of the 
throat. Dr. Robison not only has been 
a valued member of our medical staff 
from the beginning, but also was a mem- 
ber of the Board of Managers and its 
assistant secretary from 1885 to 1907. 
He was secretary of the Medical Board 
from 1886 to 1908. Dr. Robison was a 
member of Rush faculty for 21 years 
and has filled many important profes- 
sional positions including that of presi- 
dent of the State Board of Health. 

Ranking second to Dr. Robison in 
number of years as a member of our 
medical staff is Dr. James B. Herrick, 
who joined the staff in 1891, as assist- 
ant attending physician for diseases of 
the throat. He became an attending 
physician in 1896 and has been consult- 
ing physician since 1919. He filled at 
different times the offices of president 
and vice-president of our medical board. 
Dr. Herrick was professor of medicine 
at Rush Medical college for many years 
and is now professor emeritus. He also 
was identified actively with Central Free 
Dispensary for many years. 

The third oldest staff member m point 
of years of service is Dr. Arthur Dean 
Bevan who joined our staff in 1892 and 
became head of the surgical staff m 
1894. Dr. Bevan is widely known as a 
surgeon, teacher of surgery at Rush 
Medical College and author of text- 
books on surgery and anatomy. He is 
now an attending surgeon on the Pres- 
byterian Hospital staff and the Nicholas 
Senn Clinical Professor of Surgery at 

William A. Douglass, first secretary 
of the Board of Managers, continued in 
this capacity until his death m 1935. 
His son, Kingman Douglass, is now 
secretary of the Board of Managers. 
His widow is chairman of the child's 
free bed committee of the Woman's 
Board, and his daughter. Mrs. Clyde E. 
Shorey, is president of the Woman's 


Rush Medical College will celebrate 
m 1937 the 100th anniversary of the 
granting ot Us charter Dr. Robert H 
Herbst is chairman of the Centennial 
Committee named by the Alumni Asso- 


The 38th annual convention of the 
American Hospital Association will be 
held in Cleveland, starting September 
28 and culminating in the observance 
of American Hospital Day on October 
2. Newton D. Baker, former Secretary 
of War, will be the guest speaker at 
the annual banquet on Wednesday eve- 
ning, September 30. Among the topics 
to be discussed will be the new social 
security legislation, hospital councils and 
group hospitalization plans, and im- 
proved hospital buildings and equip- 
ment. Technical and educational ex- 
hibits, and numerous demonstrations 
will be features of the convention. 

On American Hospital Day, the 
Great Lakes Exposition now being held 
in Cleveland, will be the scene of a 
special hospital program. The object 
of the American Hospital Association as 
stated in its constitution is: 

"The object of this Association shall 
be to promote the welfare of the people 
so far as it may be done by the institu- 
tion, care, and management of hospitals 
and dispensaries with efficiency and 
economy; to aid in procuring the co- 
operation of all organizations with aims 
and objects similar to those of this As- 
sociation; and in general to do all things 
which may best promote hospital effi- 

It has a total membership of 4,362. 


Tag Day for the Children's Benefit 
League will be observed in Chicago and 
suburbs Monday, October 5. The Wo- 
man's Board will have taggers at the 
following places: 

Entrance to hospital. 

Marshficld Elevated Station. 

Boston Store block— State and Dearborn. 

W.-st Side of 1.., Salle street at Adams and 

Quincy streets. 

Argyle Street Elevated Station. 

Madison street at Western Avenue, N.E. corner. 

Madison street at K den Avenue, N.W. corner. 

Western Electric Company's entrance. 

Lake Forest. 

As the money collected by our hos- 
pital taggers comes direct to the hospital 
and is used for the free work done for 
the children, we shall appreciate it if 
all those who contribute to the tag day 
boxes would try and buy their tag from 
hospital taggers. 

The first meeting of the Woman's 
Board following the summer vacation 
also will take place on October 5. 

Steraribt . llrrljUu* 

Miss Assunda A. Bcrardi, graduate of 
our School of Nursing, (1930) and 
head of our Special Service Department 
for five years, was married to Henry P. 
Prehler on July 3. Her place is being 
filled by Miss Ruth Smith, also a grad- 
uate of our School of Nursing (1931). 

Sr. Hilliam £, luhrman 

1B 1 JT - 133G 

Dr. William L. Buhrman, pediatrician 
on our staff, died suddenly on June, 11, 
1936 at his home, 7427 South Shore 
drive. Dr. Buhrman was born in Nash- 
ville, Tenn. and was 39 years old. He 
was graduated from the University of 
Illinois College of Medicine in 1922 and 
in addition to being on the staffs of the 
Presbyterian and Children's Memorial 
Hospitals was clinical instructors in ped- 
iatrics at Rush Medical College. 

Sr. (Sparge A. alarnaan 

1065 - 1U3G 

Dr. George A. Torrison died in the 
Presbyterian Hospital, June 20, 1936, of 
complications resulting from injuries re- 
ceived when he was struck by a taxicab 
last October. Dr. Torrison was born in 
Manitowoc, Wis., March 23, 1865. He 
was graduated from the college of physi- 
cians and surgeons at Columbia Uni- 
versity in 1889 and came to Chicago in 
1891. He was an outstanding laryn- 
gologist and otologist of Chicago for 45 
years, was a member of the staffs of 
Presbyterian, Lutheran Deaconess and 
Lutheran Memorial Hospitals and pro- 
fessor of otology and laryngology at 
Rush Medical College. 

iHrii. (JOlinpr GPnmihtj 

Mrs. Oliver Ormsby, wife of Dr. 
Ormsby, attending dermatologist on the 
Presbyterian Hospital staff, died June 
8, 1936 at her home, 290 Forest avenue, 


The charity work of the Presbyterian 

Hospital is made possible through gifts 

from those who wish to share in this 

ministry to the sick. 

$50,000 entitles the donor to name a 
twelve-bed ward, which shall remain 
as a perpetual memorial to the donor, 
or any other individual he wishes. 

$20,000 carries the same privilege for a 
four- or six-bed ward. 

$10,000 entitles the donor to designate 
a room in the Private Pavilion which 
shall be named its desired by the 
donor and remain as a perpetual mem 

$35,000 endows a graduate nurse to 
care for seriously ill patients in the 

$7,500 designates a bed in perpetuity. 

$5,000 designates a bed during one life. 

$5,000 designates a bed m the Chil- 
dren's Ward in perpetuity. 

$300 annually designates a bed in the 
general wards. 

$100 or more constitutes the donor a 
life member of the institution. 

A yearly donation of $10 constitutes an 
annual member. 


The second annual circular of Rush 
Medical College issued for 1844-45 lists 
Dr. Brainard as "President and Profes- 
sor of Surgery". He continued to serve I 
as president of the college and professor 
of surgery until his death in 1866. 

From 1866 until 1898, Rush had four 
presidents, as follows: 

1866-1871 Dr. fames Van Zandt Blaney 

1871-1877 Dr. Joseph W. Freer 

1877-1890 Dr. Jonathan Adams Allen 

1890-1898 Dr. Edward L. Holmes 

Following affiliation with the Uni- 
versity of Chicago in 1898, the college 
faculty was headed by a dean. Those , 
holding this office have been as follows: | 

1898-1900 Senior Dean. Dr. Henrv M. Lyman; 

Junior Dean, Dr. John M. Dodson 
1900-1923 Dean of Faculty, Dr. Frank M. Bill- 

ings; Dean of Students, Dr. John M. 

1923-1924 Acting Dean, Dr. Ernest E. Irons 
1924-June 1936 Dr. Irons served as dean of 

Rush, which became an integral part 

of the University of Chicago in 1924. 
July 1, 1936 Dr. Emmet B. Bay was appointed 

dean of the West Side section of the 

combined medical schools of the Un: 

versity of Chicago. 


Historical articles and data in this 
Bulletin were written by Mrs. Florence 
S. Hyde, Editor of the Presbyterian 
Hospital Bulletin, whose sources of in- 
formation were Rush College announce-" 
ments, annual reports of various institu- 
tions and numerous books found in 
Rush College and John Crerar Libraries. 


ITS) West Congress Street Chicago, Illinois 

Telephone: Seeley 7171 




IKIRAt r W. ARMSTRONG Vice-President 




FRED S. BOOTH Asst. Secretary 

A. J. WILSON Asst. Secretary 

Arthur G. Cable John McKinlav 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Frkd a. Poor 

John B. Drake Theodore A. Shaw 


James B. Forgan, Jr. r Doug J v j Stuart 

Alfred e. Hamill Robert Stevenson 

Charles H. Hamill j. hali Taylor 

Edward d. McDougal Ioiin p Welling 

Rev. Harrison Ray Anderson, D.D: 
rev. Haroi d L.Bowman, D.D. 
Rev. Henry S. Brown, d.d. 
rev. W. Ci yde Howard, D.D. 


ASA S. BACON SufcrtntondeM 

HERMAN HENSEL Asst. Superintendent 

M. HELENA McMII.I.AN Direcinr, School of h'urjini 

The Presbyterian Hospital of the City of 
Chicago is an Illinois not-for-profit corpora' 
tion, organised July 21, 1883, for the purpose 
of affording surgical and medical aid, and 
nursing, to sick and disabled persons of every 
creed, nationality, and color. Its medical staff 
is appointed from the faculty of Rush Medical 
College of the University of Chicago. 

The Board of Managers call attention to 
the need of gifts and bequests fr ->dow- 
ment and for the general purpr the 


The Presliytefliatfi fl-tospftta 

trie Glty <yy Gkicago 



Chicago, 111. 

October, 1936 

No. 91 



Used With Success in Treatment 

of Varied Ailments — Radium 

Boon To Many 

By Cassie Belle Rose 

Quite by accident, and in the course 
of other scientific research, William 
Konrad Roentgen, a professor of phys- 
ics in Germany, discovered X-ray forty- 
one years ago. In his laboratory a 
loaded photographic plate holder had 
been placed under a thick book in 
which was an old iron door key which 
served as a book mark. When the 
plate was developed the key was shown 
clearly. Professor Roentgen, a keen 
observer, at once searched for the 
cause of this unusual picture. He found 
that this photographic effect was pro- 
duced when an electric current was 
passed through the glass bulb, called a 
Crooke's tube, with which he had 
been experimenting. It occurred even 
though the tube was carefully wrapped 
in black paper. Hence, Roentgen be- 
lieved it was due to "an invisible light" 
or a "new kind of ray", which he 
called X-ray because of its unknown 
character, and which we often call 
Roentgen-ray in his honor. 

Discovery Startles World 

Other experimental photographs fol- 
lowed. A picture of a leather pocket- 
book containing scissors and several 
coins showed the scissors and coins 
plainly, while the purse was scarcely 
visible. A picture of a hand showed 
bones clearly and flesh faintly. Thus 
Professor Roentgen learned that dense 
objects, or those opaque to X-ray, 
could be photographed easily, while 
those not opaque to X-ray photograph- 
ed only slightly or not at all. 

Roentgen's discovery startled the 
world. The news flashed to America 
and every laboratory from Edison's 
down to that of the high school boy, 
set about trying to produce X-rays. 
(Continued on Page 3) 


Members of the X-ray staff of the Presbyterian Hospital and Rush Medical College are 
shown grouped around the biplane X-ray fluoroscope machine, which affords views through the 
body m two directions at the same time. Dr. Cassie Belle Rose, head of the department, is 
standing at extreme right with her hands resting on one of the fluoroscopic screens. The other 
screen is shown in a horizontal position over the operating table. The two screens are adjusted 
in different positions and at various angles to guide operative work as explained on page 2. 
Dr. F. H. Squire, medical assistant, is standing next to Dr. Rose. Others in the picture, left to 
right, are: Harry X. Smith, technician; Dr. I. A. Wiles, intern; Chris Jordan, technician; Miss 
Jessie MacLean, record secretary; Miss Mabel Walsh, technician; Olaf Foss, dark room tech- 
nician; Miss Gretchen White, X-ray therapy technician; Harry Bergman, orderly and film file 
clerk; Mrs. Helen Lyon, reception secretary; Mrs. Mabel Brewer, secretary. 


Twenty-seven young women will re- 
ceive graduate nurse diplomas from the 
Presbyterian Hospital School of Nurs- 
ing at graduation exercises to be held 
in Sprague Home, Oct. 27 at 3 P. M. 
Rev. William Chalmers Covert, D.D. 
LL.D., of Philadelphia, will deliver the 

Baccalaureate services will be held in 
the hospital chapel, Sunday evening, 
Oct. 25, at eight o'clock. The sermon 
will be by Dr. John Timothy Stone, 
president of the Presbyterian Theolog- 
ical Seminary. 


6, 1936 


Mildred E. Castell and Dr. W 
m M. McGrath were married, Sc 
The bride was gra 
School of Nursing 
served as a highly t 
se on the lower secoi 
ispital. Dr. McGra 
D. degree from Ru 
of the University 
He served his inter 
pita! and was reside 
October 15, 193? 
i, following which i 
tant physician, and 
d younger men on o 

tern he 

uated from our 
193 2 and had 
ficient head inn 

floor of the h 
received his M. 
Medical Colleg* 
Chicago in 103 3 
ship in our hoi 
physician from 
January 1, 103 
became an assii 
one of the vahu 
hospital medical 


Biplane Machine Guides Surgeon 

in Removing Foreign Bodies 

and Setting Fractures 

By F. H. Squire, M. D. 

William Konrad Roentgen discov- 
ered, early in his experimental work, 
that X-rays would cause a cardboard 
screen covered with metallic salts such 
as barium platinocyanide to become bril- 
liantly illuminated. He found that sub- 
stance, placed between the X-ray tube 
and this screen, cast shadows on the 
screen. This was the beginning of 

Soon medical men were using X-rays 
to outline tissues of the body, and, with 
experience they came to differentiate 
between normal and various pathologi- 
cal changes in the body. In this work 
both films, which gave still pictures, 
and fluoroscopy, which allowed visual- 
ization of moving substance were used. 

Fluoroscopy is used most extensively 
in the study of the chest and gastro- 
intestinal tract. In these examinations, 
the size, shape and action of the heart 
and lungs can be ascertained. Any dev- 
iation from normal can be detected by 
a change in size, shape or density. The 
experienced roentgenologist interprets 
these changes as revealing the presence 
of heart disease, tuberculosis or other 
pathological conditions arising in these 

View Action of Organs 

Many organs of the body have a sim- 
ilar density, and for this reason do not 
cast shadows which can be differen- 
tiated from each other. However, or- 
gans that are hollow may be filled with 
a harmless metal, such as barium sul- 
phate. This metal stops X-rays so that 
the contour and lining of the cavity can 
be studied as a silhouette. In studying 
the gastro-intestinal tract, the patient is 
observed while he drinks barium sul- 
phate. The esophagus, stomach, and 
small intestine are studied in turn as 
the barium passes into these organs. 
The position, outline, lining and action 
of the organs can be accurately deter- 
mined from the moving silhouette pro- 
jected on the fluoroscopic screen. By 
this study, strictures, ulcers, tumors, 
foreign bodies and other pathological 
conditions within the organs may be 
recognized. Examination of the large 
bowel is a similar procedure, except 
that barium is injected into the bowel 
as an enema. 

The great value of fluoroscopic work 
is that we arc able to watch the normal 
movements of the organs over a period 
of time, from many different angles, 
and thus can recognize minute changes 
and locate small lesions which may be 
missed on a single film. Films are then 

taken of the organs to confirm fluoro- 
scopic findings and to form permanent 
records for future study and compari- 

Another important branch of fluoro- 
scopy deals with the reducing or "set- 
ting" of fractures and the removal of 
foreign material, especially metallic, 
which has entered the body. For this 
work, two fluoroscopes have been erect- 
ed in the same room, making it possible 
to look through the body in two direc- 
tions at the same time. This room is 
equipped with a special ventilating and 
lighting system so that it can be used 
as an operating room. All switches are 
covered and all equipment is construct- 
ed so that anesthetics may be adminis- 
tered with complete safety. The lights 
are diminished in such a manner that 
one may see the image on the fluoro- 
scopic screen but are brght enough so 
that operative work can be carried on 
with precision. 

This biplane fluoroscopic equipment 
was the first of its kind to be installed 
in a Chicago hospital and was the gift 
of the late Mrs. James A. Patten. In 
this room, fractures can be accurately 
reduced while a visual image of the 
fragments guides the work of the sur- 

Removing Foreign Bodies 

However, the most important use of 
the biplane fluoroscope is the removal 
of foreign bodies, such as safety pins, 
needles, screws, bridges, teeth, and so 
forth. It is especially valuable in the 
removal of foreign bodies from the 
lungs. By watching in two planes, the 
bronchoscope can be directed so that 
the operating surgeon can approach a 
foreign body with ease and can accur- 
ately carry out its removal. This usual- 
ly is done with very little damage to 
the lung tissues because definite visual- 
ization of this procedure enables the 
surgeon to draw the sharp point with- 
in the bronchoscope before removal. 
The time required for this procedure 
has been markedly diminished and for- 
eign bodies can be removed at the first 
examination. Before the biplane fluoro- 
scope was available this operative pro- 
cedure was frequently very long and 
in many instances had to be repeated at 
later dates because of failures. For these 
reasons one can readily understand the 
important place that this machine oc- 
cupies in decreasing human suffering 
and the saving of lives. 


Items for the Presbyterian 
Hospital Bulletin should be 
sent to Mrs. Florence S. Hyde, 
Editor, in care of the Super- 
intendent's office. 

Within three years after the discov- 
ery of the Roentgen-ray, the Presby- 
terian Hospital installed what was then 
termed an "X-ray outfit." Ours was the 
second hospital in Chicago to offer the 
benefits of the new discovery to its pa- 
tients. This "outfit" purchased in 1898 
was the gift of William and Edward T. 
Blair. It cost $438.33. 

Dr. Joseph S. Smith was the first 
head of the new department, continu- 
ing until 1906. He was familiarly 
known as "X-ray Smith" because of his 
devoted interest in the development of 
this new branch of medical science. 

In striking contrast to that first small 
"X-ray outfit" is our present X-ray de- 
partment, representing an investment of 
many thousands of dollars. There are 
six rooms, equipped to take X-ray films 
of different parts of the body and for 
fluoroscopic work; a portable machine 
for taking bedside pictures when neces- 
sary; and an X-ray therapy department 
in which was installed a year ago the 
latest type of equipment for the treat- 
ment of disease by Roentgen-ray. There 
are two treatment rooms, waiting room, - 
office and control rooms in this depart- 

All equipment in our X-ray depart- 
ment complies with safety requirements, 
including those of the fire underwriters. 
Non-flammable films are used exclusive- 
ly. All films of patients kept on hand 
for record purposes and future refer- 
ence are stored in a fire-proof vault 
with outside ventilation. 

Dr. Rose Heads Department 

Dr. Cassie Belle Rose has been in ac- 
tive charge of the department since 
1922, and had been a member of our 
X-ray staff for five years prior to that 
date. Dr. Rose also heads the depart- 
ment of radiology in Rush Medical Col- 
lege, from which she obtained her 
M. D. degree in 1914. Her Rush faculty 
title is that of associate clinical profes- 
sor of surgery (radiology). In 1934, 
Dr. Rose became a diplomate of the 
American Board of Radiology. She is 
the author of 13 articles on subjects 
pertaining to X-ray, published in pro- 
fessional journals. 

Dr. F. H. Squire, medical assistant in 
the department, received his M. D. de- 
gree from the University of Iowa 
School of Medicine and, just prior to 
joining our staff in 1929, completed a 
three-year fellowship in radiology at the 
Mayo Clinic in Rochester. He is assist- 
ant clinical professor of surgery (radi- 
ology) in Rush College. 

(Continued from Page 1) 

Since then, many improvements have 
been made, both in tubes and equip- 
ment, so that now an X-ray film may be 
taken in a split second, instead of the 
long exposure of an hour or more that 
was formerly required. 

An X-ray film is similar to a kodak 
film and is developed in the same way. 
Prints can be made from an X-ray 
negative as from a kodak negative, but 
usually the X-ray negative itself is 
studied as an aid to diagnosis. By 
holding the X-ray film (negative) to 
the light outlines and shadows on it 
are clearly visible. 

Diagnose Shadows on Film 

In order to diagnose a film, it is im- 
portant to be familiar with the normal. 
Different diseases make different shad- 
ows on the film, and it is the business 
of the roentgenologist to know what is 
indicated by these variations from the 
normal shadow. 

X-ray helps greatly in the diagnosis 
of broken bones. Films show the sever- 
ity of the break, and the position of 
the various pieces of the bone both 
before and after setting the fracture. 
Subsequent films show the progress in 
healing and the return of the bone to 
normal. Diseases of bone, such as 
tumors, infections, tuberculosis, arth- 
ritis, rickets, scurvy, and many others, 
show characteristic changes on the X- 
ray film. 

Reveals Lung Tuberculosis 

Lung tuberculosis can be diagnosed 
with certainty earlier with the aid of 
X-ray films of the chest than by any 
other means, and this is often the only 
means of diagnosis. The greatest hope 
for cure of this insidious disease lies 
in its early recognition. Hence, X-ray 
has been an important factor in reduc- 
ing the tuberculosis death rate. 

Many large industries, and other 
places where people work in large 
groups, now have chest films made of 
each employee. Chest films are made of 
all in-coming nurses and interns of the 
Presbyterian Hospital, and all students 
of Rush Medical College. Many health 
authorities predict that the time is near 
when X-ray chest films will be included 
in a medical examination of all pupils 
in our public schools. Chest films also 
help greatly in diagnosis of many 
other diseases of the lungs and of the 

" X-ray films of the sinuses and teeth 
are useful adjuncts in the study of dis- 

Abdomen Difficult Field 

Since the information obtainable 
from X-ray films depends upon varia- 
tions in density of the object rayed, the 
abdomen, because of its almost uniform 
density, is a difficult field for X-ray 
study. Kidney stones, hard gall stones 

1935 TOTALLED 20,715 

During 1935, the total number 
of films taken in the Presbyterian 
Hospital X-ray department was 
20,715. Gastro-intestinal fluoro- 
scopies numbered 3,251. A chest 
fluoroscopy is routinely done on 
all patients coming for a gastro- 
intestinal fluoroscopy, and on most 
patients coming for heart or lung 

X-ray therapy treatments total- 
led 3,829 of which 2,402 were 
given to hospital patients, while 
1,427 were given to patients of 
Central Free Dispensary. 

Ninety-four patients received 
radium treatment, 82,404 milli- 
gram hours of radium having been 

The total number of patients 
cared for in different branches of 
our X-ray department was 14,559 
of whom 10,730 were referred 
through the hospital, and 3,829 
were referred by the dispensary. 

and similar dense structures, tend to 
impede the passage of X-rays and 
therefore cast white "shadows of in- 
creased density" on the film. Con- 
versely, air in the stomach and bowel 
and similar areas of lessened density, 
expedite the passage of the rays and 
cast black "shadows of decreased dens- 
ity" on the film. By filling the hollow 
organs of the abdomen with a substance 
more opaque to X-ray than the sur- 
rounding tissues, a silhouette of the 
cavity may be reproduced on the X-ray 

In 1924, Dr. Evarts Graham of St. 
Louis, son of Mrs. D. W. Graham, 
honorary president of the Woman's 
Board of our hospital, developed a 
chemical compound which, if injected 
into the patient's vein, is carried by the 
blood stream into the gall bladder. This 
compound, being X-ray-opaque, casts a 
shadow of the gall bladder on the film. 
Study of this shadow makes it possible 
to determine whether the gall bladder 
is functioning normally and if gall 
stones are present, usually reveals them. 
More recently a new compound has 
been developed which can be given by 

For Kidney Diagnosis 

For many years it has been possible 
to visualise the kidneys, ureters and 
bladder by injecting a contrast medium 
through small tubes which are inserted 
into the lower urinary tract. In 1930, 
a chemical substance was developed 
which can be injected into the patient's 
vein, to be later execreted by the kid- 
neys. This substance fills the cavity of 

each kidney, and casts a shadow on 
the X-ray film. In addition to showing 
changes which may have occurred in 
the size and shape of these cavities, the 
kidney function is indicated by the 
rapidity of the filling and emptying as 
shown on a series of films. 

Radiation Therapy 

In addition to the diagnosis of dis- 
ease, the X-ray department is often 
called upon to help in the treatment of 
certain diseases. This is done by 
means of radiation derived from an X- 
ray tube and is called X-ray therapy; 
or, from radium, called radium therapy. 

The Presbyterian Hospital owns 205 
milligrams of radium, which cost $15,- 
000 and is in charge of the X-ray de- 
partment. A year ago, our X-ray 
therapy department was greatly en- 
larged, and a new 200,000 volt, con- 
stant potential machine was installed. 

Results Are Beneficial 

It may be of interest to state that 
more than 50 per cent of the patients 
who come for radiation therapy do not 
have cancer or a malignancy of any 
kind, but rather a benign lesion which 
can be helped and, usually cured, by 
X-ray or radium. It is true that can- 
cers are treated by radiation, often with 
great success. This is particularly true 
of skin cancers. In nearly all cases the 
patient's life is prolonged in comfort, 
even in those unfortunate cases where 
the cancer is too far advanced for a 
cure. Early diagnosis and treatment 
give the best chance of cure. 

In every instance, however, the X- 
ray or radium must be carefully applied 
and in the proper dosage. It should 
always be given under the supervision 
of one well trained in this field. With 
constantly advancing knowledge of ra- 
diation therapy, better results are ob- 
tainable and real progress is being made 
in the fight against this dread disease. 

Students Are Taught 

Since ours is a teaching hospital, con- 
nected with a great medical school, the 
teaching of roentgenology is one of the 
important functions of staff of the X- 
ray department. Lectures and confer- 
ences are given by Dr. Rose and Dr. 
Squire, not only for the medical stu- 
dents, but also for the resident staff of 
the hospital. One might say that it is 
a teaching institution for the attending 
staff, as well, because every doctor sees 
the films of his own patients, and fre- 
quently those of other patients, and 
discusses them with the roentgenolo 
gists, much to the advantage of all, 
particularly the patients. 

Frequently, in these consultations 
over X-ray films, the little reference 
library, close at hand is gratefully used. 
It was the gift of the late Miss Jessie 
Breese, formerly head of the hospital 
Social Service department. 

Program For Administrators' Institute Has 

Series of Demonstrations in Our Hospital 


The Presbyterian Hospital was the 
scene of a number of demonstrations 
embraced in the program of an Insti- 
tute for Hospital Administrators con- 
ducted by the American Hospital Asso- 
ciation, September 9 to 23. Seminars 
with lectures and round table discus- 
sions, held at the University of Chicago, 
were supplemented by visits and demon- 
strations at a number of hospitals. 
Registrants numbering 103 came from 
30 different states, Canada, Hawaii and 
Nova Scotia. 

Topics covered in the demonstrations 
held at our hospital were as follows: 

Sept. 10 — Patients' Library Service, 
Miss Selma Lindem, librarian; Occu- 
pational Therapy, Miss Winifred Brain- 
erd, director; Woman's Board, Mrs. 
Clyde E. Shorey, president. 

Sept. 17 — Business Management, Mr. 
Frank C. Gabriel, accountant; Central- 
ized Food Service, Miss Beulah Hun- 
sicker, dietitian; Pediatrics, Dr. Clifford 
G. Grulee, attending pediatrician. 

Sept. 21 — Anesthesia, Dr. Mary 
Lyons, anesthetist; Medical Records, 
Miss Marge Clay, record room; Air 
Conditioning in Hospitals, Mr. Asa S. 
Bacon, superintendent. 


Members of our executive staff who 
attended the 38th annual convention of 
the American Hospital Association 
were: Mr. Asa S. Bacon, superinten- 
dent; Mr. Herman Hensel, assistant su- 
perintendent; Miss Selma Lindem, 
librarian, and Miss Winifred Brainerd, 
Occupational Therapy director. The 
convention was held in Cleveland, Sept. 
28 — Oct. 2 and was attended by over 
3,000 delegates. Mr. Bacon was re- 
elected treasurer, an office which he has 
held since 1906. He also was named 
chairman of the Membership Commit- 
tee and a member of the committee on 
Arrangements of the Institute for Hos- 
pital Administrators, and the commit- 
tee on Membership Structure and Asso- 
ciation Relation. Mr. Hensel gave an 
address before the hospital library sec- 
tion on "Benefits and Costs of Hospital 
Library Service." 

Mr. William Gray, our hospital 
pharmacist, attended the convention of 
the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion at Dallas, Texas, Aug. 25, 26 and 


The fall term opened Oct. 1, with 30 
new students admitted. This is the 
first class to enter our School of Nurs- 
ing under the new requirement that 
each entrant have at least two years 
of college work beyond high school. 

On Oct. 22, at the Blackstone hotel, 
the Alumnae luncheon will take place 
at noon, and in the same hotel that 
evening, the Alumnae dance will be 
given with members of the 1936 class 
as guests. Members of the graduating 
class will be entertained at dinner in 
Sprague Home on the evening of Oct. 

Dr. H. S. Stalker, assistant superin- 
tendent of (In- Vancouver ( reneral Hos- 
pital was a recent visitor at our hos- 
pital, while in Chicago for the purpose 
of gathering information on hospital 

(Sari #l?ilip laurr 

1S9B - i33B 

On September 19, Carl Philip Bauer, 
assistant professor of obstetrics and 
gynecology at Rush Medical College 
and assistant attending obstetrician and 
gynecologist at the Presbyterian Hospi- 
tal, passed away unexpectedly. Though 
not feeling well the last morning of his 
life he nevertheless went to the hospital 
and did his full morning of exacting 
work. Death came to him quite sud- 
denly in the evening. Thus passed a 
rare spirit. He was only 40 years old. 

Dr. Bauer received his bachleor's de- 
gree from Lake Forest College and his 
M.D. degree from Rush. His intern- 
ship was served in Los Angeles County 
Hospital. He never spared himself and 
continually measured his efforts with an 
exacting rule. He was learned in his 
specialty, clever in the execution of his 
work, was frankly honest and above- 
board at all times, was outspoken in his 
opinions, and conscientious to the ex- 
treme. He hated palaver, pussy-foot- 
ing and deceitful diplomacy. He met 
difficult situations squarely and was al- 
ways dependable in any emergency. Iiis 
loss will always be felt, for his like is 
not replacable. His students will never 
have a finer example of a meritorious 
obstetrician and a skillful gynecologist. 
In his work as director of the Out- 
Patient Obstetrical Department for the 
last five years. Dr. Bauer maintained 
the same high standards which char- 
acterized all of his work. 

Dr. Bauer married Anne Mossbcck, 
a graduate of the Presbyterian Hospital 
School of Nursing. Their one child is 
a girl, now two years old. 

N. Sproat Heaney 

HHrfl. ^iilurntrr Itftsljrr 

Mrs. Sylvester Fisher, died in Los 
Angeles, August 2 2, 1936. Mrs. Fisher 
represented the Woodlawn Presbyter- 
ian Church on our Woman's Board for 
a number of years. She had made her 
home in California for the past several 

Many needy families who are 
brought in touch with our hospital be- 
cause of illness are greatly in need of 
warm clothing and shoes as winter ap- 
proaches, Miss Karla Jorgensen, Social 
Service, told members of the Woman's 
Board at the first meeting of the fall 
season, held Oct. 5 in the hospital 
chapel. Demands for assistance of vari- 
ous kinds have greatly increased be- 
cause of the greatly restricted public re- 
lief program. Miss Jorgensen also gave 
a report of the National Conference of 
Social Work which she attended in 

Miss Selma Lindem, librarian, re- 
ported that 7,607 books were circulated 
among 1,268 different patients during 
the summer months. She also gave a 
report of her participation in the library 
round table sessions at the recent con- 
vention of the American Hospital Asso- 

It was announced that the Thanks- 
giving offering in the churches will be 
taken as usual, and that funds will be 
used for various purposes, which may 
be designated by church groups if de- 

Board members were informed of the 
birth of a son to Dr. and Mrs. John 
Timothy Stone m the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital, October 3. 


Telephone: Seeley 7171 








FRF.D S. BOOTH Asst. Secretary 

A. J. WILSON Asst. Secretary 

Arthur G. Cable John McKixlay 

albert B. Dick, Jr. Fred a - Poor 


_ „ _ Rev. John Timothy 


James B. Forgan, Jr. r D ouglas s tuart 

Alfred E. Hamill Robert Stevenson 

Charles H. Hamill j. Hall Taylor 

Edward D. McDougai. John P. Welling 

jr. Edward F. Wilson 

REV. Harrison Rav Anderson, D.D: 
REV. Harold L.BOWMAN, D.D. 
Rev. HENRT S. Brown, D.D. 
Rev. W. Clyde Howard, D.D. 

ASA S. BACON Superintendent 

HERMAN HENSEL Asst. Superintendent 

M. HELENA McMILLAN ... .Director, School of Nursini 

The Presbyterian Hospital of the City of 
Chicago is an Illinois not-for-profit corpora- 
tion, organized July 21, 1883, for the purpose 
of affording surgical and medical aid, and 
nursing, to sick and disabled persons of every 
creed, nationality, and color. Its medical staff 
is appointed from the faculty of Rush Medical 
College of the University of Chicago. 

The Board of Managers call attention to 
the need of gifts and bequests for endow 
ment and for the general purposes of the 

ojv tke City \yy Sklcago 



Chicago, 111. 

November, 1936 

No. 92 


High Educational Standards and 

Ideals of Service Upheld by 

Our School of Nursing 

Have you ever come back from ob- 
livion, floundering in a sea of pain fol- 
lowing an operation, and in those 
fleeting moments of consciousness found 
by your bedside a pleasant-faced person 
in a white uniform, who knew exactly 
what to do to ease the suffering a little 
and whose very presence gave you an- 
chorage and reassurance? Then, after 
you no longer needed a special nurse, 
do you recall the buoyant cheerfulness 
with which the general duty graduate 
and student nurses did for you so effici- 
ently those innumerable tasks involved 
in the day and night care of a hospital 
patient? Or, perhaps you or some 
member of your family, seriously ill at 
home, have required the services of the 
private duty nurse, who, without re- 
course to consultation with supervisor 
or house doctor, was adequately pre- 
pared to meet the unexpected emer- 
gency between visits of the family doc- 
tor. Whatever your need in the way of 
nursing care has been or may be, only 
the best that high ideals of service and 
thorough preparation educationally can 
supply is good enough for you and 

Upholds High Standards 
When the Presbyterian Hospital es- 
tablished its own school for nurses, 33 
years ago, advanced standards both as 
to curriculum and organisation were 
adopted. Through the years the school 
has sought to keep pace with the ever 
enlarging scope of nursing education. 
From the beginning our School of Nurs- 
ing has had the eight-hour day for stu- 
dent nurses, the six months' preparatory 
course and the requirement that all 
students admitted have at least a high 
school education. Beginning with the 
new class entering this fall the educa- 
tional requirement now is two years of 
college work beyond high school. 


In this picture Miss Johanna G. DeVnes, representing the faculty of our School of Nurs- 
ing, is shown with class officers representing the student body as follows: 

Back row, left to right — Eva M. Wiberg, president class of 1936: Ruth D. Getzelman, 
secretary 1936; Miss DeVries, instructor; Harriet E. Boot, president 1937; Irmgard Mahler, 
secretary 1937. 

Front row, left to right — Estalene T. Spears, president class of 1938; Caroline E. Rockwell, 
president 1939; Ruth M. Ritchie, vice-president 1939; Barbara M. Cruickshank, secretary 1939; 
Margaret D. Burke, secretary 1938. 

Affiliation with Rush Medical College 
of the University of Chicago and as- 
signment of students for nursing prac- 
tice in the Presbyterian Hospital affords 
instruction by members of Rush faculty 
and members of the hospital medical 
staff, the latter including both classroom 
and bedside instruction. Science courses 
are taught by members of the faculty of 
the University of Chicago and by grad- 
uate nurse instructors. 

The Presbyterian Hospital affords 
experience in medical, surgical, gyne- 
cological, obstetrical and children's nurs- 
ing, while its private service prepares 
nurses for private duty nursing. The 
out-patient obstetrical department af- 
fords experience in meeting the prob- 
lems of the home care of obstetrical 
patients. Varied experience is gained 
in the clinics of Central Free Dispensary 
and Rush Medical College, as well as 
in the hospital pharmacy, diet kitchens, 
{Continued on Page 3) 


Mr. Ernest Griffiths, F. R. C. S., of 
London and Mr. W. A. Lyon, secretary 
of the Seaman's Hospital Association of 
England, were guests of Dr. Kellogg 
Speed in our hospital recently for the 
purpose of studying traumatic recon- 
struction cases. 

TAG DAY NETS #1,425 

Two hundred taggers from our Wo- 
man's Board collected $1,425. for child 
welfare work in our hospital, on the 
Children's Benefit League tag day ob- 
served in Chicago and suburbs on Oct. 
5. Last year's tag day receipts were 
$1,004.21. Mrs. William R. Tucker 
was general chairman and Mrs. H. C. 
Patterson, vice-chairman of the tag day 

Dr. William G. Hihhs has been 
elected secretary of our hospital med- 
ical board to fill the vacancy caused by 
the death of Dr. Carl P. Bauer. 

Director of Our School of Nursing 7th in U. S. 

To Receive Saunders Distinguished Service Medal 

In 1930, William L. Saunders II of Philadelphia established, in memory of his 
father, the Walter Burns Saunders Medal for Distinguished Service in the Cause of 
Nursing. In accordance with the wishes of Mr. Saunders this medal is awarded 
each year to "a nurse who has made to the profession or to the public some out- 
standing contribution, either in personal service, or in the discovery of some nursing 
technic, that may be to the advantage of the patient and to the profession." 

The 1936 recipient of the Saunders 
Medal is M. Helena McMillan, director 
of the School of Nursing of the Presby- 
terian Hospital. A committee composed 
of the presidents of the three national 
nursing organizations and Mr. Saunders 
selects the recipient. 

The first award made in 1930 hon- 
ored, posthumously, S. Lillian Clayton, 
former president of the American 
Nurses' Association. Other recipients 
prior to 1936 were as follows: 

1931- -Mary Sewell Gardner, pioneer 
in the field of public health nursing. 

1932 — Annie W. Goodrich, pioneer 
in nursing education and formerly Dean 
of Yale University School of Nursing. 
1933 — Clara D. Noyes, director of 
the American Red Cross Nursing Serv- 
ice until her death in June, 1936. 

1934— Annabelle McCrae, for many 
years instructor in theory and practice 
of nursing at Massachusetts General 
Hospital in Boston. 

1935— Adda Eldredge, Director of 
the Department of Nursing, State 
Board of Health of Wisconsin. 
Presented at Convention 
The 1936 medal was presented to 
Miss McMillan at the biennial conven- 
tion of the American Nurses' Associa- 
tion, the National League of Nursing 
Education, and the National Organiza- 
tion for Public Health Nursing held in 
Los Angeles in June. In presenting the 
medal, Miss Elnora Thomson, director 
of nursing education at the University 
of Oregon, past president of the Amer- 
ican Nurses' Association and graduate 
of our School of Nursing (1909) said 
that from the beginning of her work, 
Miss McMillan had the concept of the 
School of Nursing as an educational in- 
stitution rather than as a hospital serv- 
ice. Among her other contributions to 
the nursing profession, the speaker cited 
Miss McMillan's advocacy of a reason- 
able working day for graduate nurses 
and nursing service to the community 
by means of central registries; her in- 
terest in affiliation of schools of nurs- 
ing with higher educational institutions 
and her concern that lay persons should 
understand and participate in nursing 

Honored by First District 
The nurses of the First District Illi- 
nois State Nurses' Association honored 
Miss McMillan at a testimonial dinner 
at the Drake hotel, Oct. 14. Miss Ethel 
Holbrook, president of the association, 
and graduate of our School of Nurs- 

ing (1922), presided during the pro- 
gram which included addresses by Mrs. 
David W. Graham, honorary president 
of the Presbyterian Hospital Woman's 
Board; Miss Alice E. Dalbey of Spring- 
field, president of the Illinois State 
Nurses' Association; Dr. James B. Her- 
rick, representing the medical staff of 
the Presbyterian Hospital; Miss Nellie 
X. Hawkinson, president National 
League of Nursing Education; Mr. Al- 
fred T. Carton, president Board of 
Managers of Presbyterian Hospital; 
Miss Edna L. Foley, chairman Red 
Cross Nursing Service, Chicago; Mrs. 
Ernest E. Irons, chairman Central Coun- 
cil of Nursing Education; Miss Sybil 
Davis, representing the Alumnae of the 
Illinois Training School for Nurses of 
which Miss McMillan is an alumnus; 
and Miss Florence A. Coon, president 
of the Alumnae Association of the Pres- 
byterian Hospital School of Nursing. 

Speakers who represented the organ- 
izations interested in nursing education 
and nursing service told of the numer- 
ous activities of Miss McMillan in those 
organizations. Miss Foley said that 
Miss McMillan had served the Amer- 
ican Red Cross in various capacities 
since she became an enrolled Red Cross 
Nurse m 1912. 


More than 600 of the 1410 graduates 
of our School of Nursing are members 
of the Alumnae Association, which en- 
gages in many activities for the benefit 
of the school and the nursing profession 
in general. The association maintains 
the Mary Byrne endowed room in our 
hospital for active members, and con- 
tributes around $200 annually toward 
the cottage maintained at Naperville 
Sanitarium by the First District Nurses' 
Association. Funds have been raised 
also for the Gladys Foster endowed 
nurse fund, sick benefit and loan funds 
for nurses, graduate scholarship fund, 
the School of Nursing endowment fund 
and many other purposes. 

Officers of the association are: presi- 
dent, Florence A. Coon; first vice-presi- 
dent, Esther Salzman; second vice- presi- 
dent, Katherinc Livingstone; corre- 
sponding secretary, Mildred Castcll Mc- 
Grath; recording secretary, Marjorie 
Keil; treasurer, Mrs. Dick Van Gorp; 
editor News Letter, Ruth Schmidt. 


Of those who have been graduated 
from our School of Nursing, 259 are 
known to be doing institutional work; 
212, private duty nursing; 84, public 
health nursing; 20, industrial nursing; 
23, missionary work; and 17, miscellane- 
ous work including hourly nursing, so- 
cial service, physiotherapy, X-ray, edi- 
torial and other individual work. One 
graduate has a position with the Trans- 
continental and Western Air Lines. 
Two graduates have become practicing 

Among those who hold important ! 
executive or teaching positions are: 

Carol Martin (1906), Director of Nursing 
Education, State of Nebraska, Lincoln. 

Mrs. Alma Ham Scott (1907), Director of 
Headquarters, American Nurses' Ass'n, New 
York City. 

Lina D Davis (1907), Superintendent of 
Nurses, General Hospital, Bakersfield, Calif. 

Mrs. Candice Monfort Lee (1907), Super- 
intendent of Nurses, Oklahoma City Hospital, 

Elnora E. Thomson (1909), Director of 
Nursing Education, University of Oregon, 

Ruth A. Brown (1910), Superintendent of 
Nurses, Wyandotte General Hospital, Mich. 

Alma Foerster (1910), Superintendent Red 
Cross Nursing, Racine, Wis. 

Alice M. Morse (1910), Superintendent 
Nurses, Eastern Maine General Hospital, 
Bangor, Me. 

Ada T. Graham (1911), Secretary, Utah 
Tuberculosis Ass'n, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Charlotte F. Landt (1911), Night Super- 
visor, Cook County Hospital, Chicago. 

Mabel Dunlap (1912), Vice-President, 
American Nurses' Association. 

Catherine M. Buckley (1912), Dean of 
School of Nursing, University of Cincinnati; 
president, Ohio State Nurses' Ass'n. 

Eula Butnenn (1914), Director Public 
Health Nursing, University of Minnesota, 

Mrs. Estelle G. Koch (1914), Superin- 
tendent of Nurses, City Hospital, Cleveland, 

Helen I. Denne (1915), Professor of 
Nursing, University of Wisconsin, Madison. 

Lila Belle Fletcher (1916), Director of 
Nurses, Wisconsin General Hospital, Madi- 

Mary H. Cutler (1916), Superintendent 
of Nurses, Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati. 

Mary Dunwiddie (1920), Superintendent 
County Home for Crippled Children, West 
Chicago, 111. 

Dorothy Rogers (1921), Assistant Profes- 
sor of Nursing, University of Chicago. 

Helen W. Munson (1922), associate editor, 
American Journal of Nursing, New York 

Edna Lewis ( 1923), Instructor in Public 
Health Nursing, George Peabody Teachers' 
College Nashville, Tenn. 

Catherine A. Clow (1924), Health Direc- 
tor, State Normal School, Fredonia, N. Y. 

Mrs. Janet F. Korngold (1924), Superin- 
tendent of Nurses, St. Luke's Hospital, 

Marjorie M. Ibsen (1926), Superintendent 
Highland Park Hospital, Highland Park, 111. 

Sylvia M. Melby (1926), Superintendent I 
of Nurses, Fairview Hospital, Minneapolis. 

Lois Merle Morrow (1929), Acting Direc- 
tor School of Nursing, Graduate Hospital, 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

Edwina McDougall (1924), Superintendent 
of Nurses, Northwestern Hospital, Min- 
neapolis, Minn. 

{Continued from Page 1) 
operating rooms and occupational ther- 
apy department. Experience in com- 
municable disease nursing is arranged 
at the Chicago Municipal Contagious 
Disease Hospital, while the psychiatric 
and neurological departments of Cook 
County Hospital are open to our stu- 
dents. Similar privileges are granted 
by the Chicago Visiting Nurse Associa- 
tion, the Infant Welfare Society of 
Chicago and the Rural Nursing of Cook 

Health and Character Essential 

Students meeting the educational re- 
quirements for entrance also must be in 
good health and of good character and 
personality. On or before admission, 
students are given a complete physical 
examination by the school physician, in- 
cluding X-ray chest films. Before being 
assigned for nursing experience in com- 
municable diseases, students are passed 
as being physically qualified and have 
been successfully inoculated against 
typhoid fever, smallpox, diphtheria and 
scarlet fever. 

The student nurse's eight-hour day 
and 48-hour week embraces time given 
to class instruction in numerous sub- 
jects and that given to practice nursing. 
At the end of the six-months prepara- 
tory course, the student is assigned to 
nursing duty in the hospital for a part 
of each eight-hour day, provided she 
has shown evidence of a general fitness 
for nursing, good health and the ability 
to carry the didactic courses. 

Nursing Assignments 

All nursing assignments are carried 
out under the direct supervision of 
graduate nurses. In this connection it is 
interesting to note that during 1935 an 
average of 123 graduate nurses and 64 
advanced student nurses were on gen- 
eral duty in the Presbyterian Hospital. 
Of these, 95 graduates and 50 advanced 
students were engaged in bedside nurs- 
ing and floor duty. An average of 19 
graduate nurses were on duty in operat- 
ing rooms, delivery rooms and first floor 
examining rooms, while an average of 
14 advanced students were gaining ex- 
perience in diet kitchens, serving rooms 
and operating rooms. An average of 
19 students were gaining experience in 
affiliated work outside our hospital. 

During 1935 an average total of 288 
nurses was enrolled in the school. Of 
this number 143 were graduates, 87 
were advanced students and 58 in the 
first six months period. 

In addition to an average of 123 grad- 
uates and 64 advanced students on gen- 
eral duty in the hospital, 58 graduate 
nurses gave a total of 21,140 days spec- 
ial duty to patients in the hospital. 
Endowed and maintained graduate 
nurses gave a total of 1,540 days special 
duty to 1,221 seriously ill ward patients 
who required this extra care but were 


The School of Nursing of the 
Presbyterian Hospital has played 
a conspicuous role in the field of 
nursing education. Its 1,410 grad- 
uates have gone out to uphold high 
standards as nurses and to fill im- 
portant executive and teaching posi- 
tions. For 3 3 years its graduates 
and students have cared for Presby- 
terian Hospital patients and given 
extensive service to the needy sick 
who visit the clinics of Central 
Free Dispensary and Rush Medical 

Its small endowment, now 
amounting to $63,260.86, has been 
a factor in these accomplishments. 
Those who wish to aid education 
in a field of vital importance to 
human welfare are invited to con- 
tribute to this endowment in order 
that our School of Nursing may 
continue to keep pace with advanc- 
ing standards and enlarging 

unable to pay for it. A total of 179 
nurses were sent from the hospital office 
for private duty in homes. 

At Central Dispensary 

Presbyterian Hospital graduate and 
student nurses comprise the nursing 
staffs in the various clinics at Central 
Free Dispensary. Last year student 
nurses gave a total of 1,532 days in re- 
turn for experience in these clinics; 541 
days service in the out-patient obstetrical 
department and 651 days in the pre- 
natal clinics of Rush Medical College, 
making a total 1,958 calls on 905 
mothers whose babies were delivered in 
their homes by members of the out- 
patient staff. Forty-four students spent 
an average of 24 hours each assisting at 
the baby welfare clinic maintained by 
Rush Medical College in Central Free 
Dispensary. Other affiliated work 
claimed 2,004 hours from students dur- 
ing the year. 

Students comprising the new class ad- 
mitted this October came from 15 dif- 
ferent states, China and South America. 
Twelve have college degrees and the 
remaining 18 have had at least two 
years of college work. 

When our hospital decided to estab- 
lish its own School of Nursing in 1903, 
Miss M. Helena McMillan was selected 
to take charge of the new project. Miss 
McMillan had been graduated from 
McGill University and the Illinois 
Training School for Nurses. She was 
at that time a resident of Henry Street 
Settlement in New York City and previ- 
ously had organized the School of Nurs- 
ing at Lakeside Hospital in Cleveland, 
Ohio. To Miss McMillan was assigned 
the task of organizing the school and 
the dual role of director of the educa- 
tional program and the nursing service 
in the Presbyterian Hospital. Her suc- 
cess in coordinating the two programs is 

attested by the record of her 3 3 years' 
service here and the recognition accord- 
ed her as a leader in the field of nursing 

School Committee 
A school committee, composed of 
three members of the hospital Board of 
Managers, three members of the Wo- 
man's Board and six ex-officio members, 
administers the affairs of the Presby- 
terian Hospital School of Nursing. Mr. 
John P. Welling is chairman, other 
members of the committee being: Mr. 
Arthur G. Gable, Mr. Alfred E. Hamill, 
Mrs. Alva Knight, Mrs. Edwin M. 
Miller and Mrs. Ernest E. Irons. Ex- 
officio members are: Mr. Alfred T. Car- 
ton, president of the Board of Man- 
agers;, Mrs. Clyde E. Shorey, president 
of the Woman's Board; Mr. Asa S. 
Bacon, superintendent of the hospital; 
Miss M. H. McMillan, director School 
of Nursing; Dr. Vernon C. David, presi- 
dent hospital Medical Board; Miss Flor- 
ence Coon, president Alumnae Ass'n 
of School of Nursing. 

Medical Consultants 

Medical consultants representing 
Rush Medical College of the University 
of Chicago and the Presbyterian Hospi- 
tal Medical Staff are: 
Ernest E. Irons, M.D., Ph.D. Clinical 

Professor of Medicine, Rush Medical 

Lee C. Gatewood, A.M., M.D. Associate 

Clinical Professor of Medicine, Rush 

Medical College. 
Edwin M. Miller, B.A., M.D. Assistant 

Clinical Professor of Surgery, Rush 

Medical College. 

Consultants representing the gradu- 
ate body of the School of Nursing are: 
Miss Helen I. Dennt ( 1 9 IS ) , Professor 

of Nursing, Director School of Nurs- 
ing, University of Wisconsin. 
Miss Catherine M. Buckley (1912), 

Dean School of Nursing, University of 

Miss Dorothy Rogers (1921), Assistant 

Professor of Nursing, University of 


Dr. L. C. Gatewood is physician to the 

Sprague Home For Nurses 

Sprague Home, located across the 
street from the hospital, is the home of 
both the School ni Nursing and the 
student body, as well as 60 members of 
the hospital nursing staff and graduate 
nurse group. It also provides dressing 
rooms and lockers for the use of non- 
resident graduates. Meals are served in 
eight relays for a daily average of 262 

This commodious building was erect- 
ed in 1913. It cost $350,000. and was 
made possible by gifts from friends oi 
Mr. O. S. A. Sprague, from the estate of 
Mr. Albert A. Sprague and a bequest 
left by Mrs. A. A. Sprague. 


The Woman's Board of our hospital 
has always taken a keen interest in our 
School of Nursing and in the cause of 
nursing education in general. Mrs. 
Alva Knight is chairman and Mrs. Ed- 
win M. Miller is vice chairman of a 
large committee of board members ac- 
tively engaged in assisting the school 
in numerous ways. Miss Helen V. 
Drake is honorary chairman. 

The sum of $25,000. has been con- 
tributed by the Woman's Board to the 
school endowment fund. The board 
also provides three scholarships and a 
student loan fund, provides lectures on 
current events and sponsors the Flor- 
ence Nightingale chorus. This chorus 
was organized shortly after the world 
war and was the first group of its kind 
formed in this country. Membership in 
the chorus is compulsory to all first year 
student nurses who pass the vocal test. 
The director is Mr. Robert E. Birch. 

Our Woman's Board has been active- 
ly identified with the Central Council of 
Nursing Education since the council was 
formed soon after the world war. Repre- 
sentative clubwomen, civic leaders, wo- 
men's auxiliary hospital groups, nurs- 
ing organizations and heads of most of 
better schools of nursing in Illinois and 
adjacent states organized the Council 
with a view to raising standards of nurs- 
ing education on all fronts. It has done 
much to educate the laity concerning 
those institutions and agencies which 
uphold adequate standards and has shed 
the light of publicity on several fly-by- 
night attempts to commercialize nursing 
education for private gain at the ex- 
pense of the public welfare. Mrs. Ernest 
E. Irons, one of the vice-presidents of 
our Woman's Board, is chairman of the 
Council at this time, and other board 
members have held offices in the Coun- 
cil from time to time. 


Chicago Pathological Society, Oct. 
12 — Dr. Carl Apfelbach, newly elected 
president, spoke on "Modern Concepts 
of Cirrhosis of Liver." On Nov. 6, he 
addressed the Central Society of Clinical 
Research at the Drake hotel. 

American College of Surgeons, Phil- 
adelphia, Oct. 19-23— Dr. Vernon C. 
David gave an address on "Intestinal 
Obstruction". Dr. Kellogg Speed par- 
ticipated in the section meeting on frac- 
tures. Dr. David also addressed a meet' 
ing of the Interurban Surgical Society 
in Baltimore in October. 

Dr. Arthur W. Fleming completed 
his service on our house staff, October 
31. House staff men beginning service 
Nov. 1 are Dr. Chester H. Waters and 
Dr. J. John Westra. 


Commencement exercises for the class 
of 1936, Presbyterian Hospital School 
of Nursing, were held in the auditorium 
of Sprague Home, Tuesday afternoon, 
Oct. 27 at 3 o'clock. A most interest- 
ing and appropriate address was de- 
livered by Dr. William Chalmers 
Covert, D. D. LL.D. of Philadelphia. 
Mr. Alfred Carton, president of the 
Board of Managers of the hospital pre- 
sided and presented diplomas to 27 
graduates. The invocation was by Rev. 
E. N. Ware, hospital chaplain. Thelma 
Jensen Herferd sang two soprano solos, 
accompanied at the piano by Adrienne 
Cooper. The Florence Nightingale 
chorus directed by Mr. Robert Birch 
sang one number. School pins were 
presented by Mrs. Alva A. Knight, 
chairman of the School of Nursing 
committee of the Woman's Board. 

The class gift to the school, presented 
at the class night dinner, is a framed 
portrait of Miss May Russell, dean of 
the School of Nursing and for many 
years a member of the faculty. 

Dr. John Timothy Stone, D. D. LL.D. 
was the speaker at the baccalaureate 
service in the hospital chapel, Sunday 
evening, Oct. 25. Musical numbers 
were given by Miss Lois C Geerds, 
Miss Maxine E. McCormick, Miss Au- 
gusta R. Heneveld and the Nightingale 

CLASS OF 1936 
Ruth Armstrong, Bloomington, 111. 
Jane Chadwick, Racine, Wis. 
Helen Marie Colvin, Hammond, Ind. 
Edna M. Eittreim, Decorah, Iowa. 
Elizabeth May Gallion, Chester, Nch. 
Ruth Dorothy Geitzelman, Chicago, 111. 
M. Kathryn Harris, Mineral Point, Wis. 
Alice Henderson, LaBelle, Mo. 
Lizzie Kempers, Sioux Center, Iowa. 
Mane M. Kolbus, Highland Park, 111. 
Mary Margaret Kusel, Hooper, Neb. 
Duns Helen Leavens, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Frances Louise Lowry, Bethany, Mo. 
Jean MacKenzie, Watertown, S. D. 
Myrtle Irene Malan, Patoka, 111. 
Grace E. Myers, Benton Harbor, Mich. 
Elizabeth Peasley, Chariton, Iowa. 
Winifred Player, West Chicago, 111. 
Adella F. Remus, Benton Harbor, Mich. 
Emma R. Rodenbeck, Chester, Nch. 
Mary Elizabeth Simons, Kentland. Ind. 
Miriam M. Slight, Newton, Iowa. 
Mary Isabclle Taylor, Mcintosh, S. D. 
Merna Tcrrill, Pipestone, Minn. 
Mary Catherine Truesdalc, LaGrange, Ind. 
Eva Margaret Wiberg, Woodstock, 111. 
Helyn Sherwood Wilder, Chicago, 111. 


Dr. Herman L. Kretschmer attended 
the first joint meeting of The Clinical 
Society of Genito-Urinary Surgeons and 
the recently organised Clinical Society 
of Genito-Urinary Surgeons of Great 
Britain in London, Sept. 4 and 5. He 
also attended the meeting of the Inter- 
national Society of Urology in Vienna, 
Austria, Sept. 9-11. 


The modern nursing education move 
ment owes its inception to Florence 
Nightingale, who established the first i| 
modern school of nursing at St. Thomas 
Hospital in London in 1860, using forf 
this purpose funds which a grateful na- 
tion contributed in appreciation of Miss 
Nightingale's outstanding service during 
the Crimean war. 

Various institutions in the United 
States' attempted to train nurses in a i 
small way from 1798 on and in the 
early seventies of the last century, the> 
first modern nursing schools in this 
country were started at hospitals in Bos- 
ton, New York and New Haven. Chi' 
cago fell into line when the Illinois 
Training School for Nurses was chart' 
ered in 1880 and began its first course) 
of training, May 1, 1881. 

With the exception of two short peri' 
ods during which our hospital under- 
took to tram its own nurses, nursing 
care in the Presbyterian Hospital was fl'' 
given under the direction of the Illinois II 
Training School until 1903, when our l| 
present School of Nursing was organ- K 


The name of the first graduate of 
Rush Medical College was printed in- 
correctly in our September Bulletin. 
The first graduate was William Butter- 
field instead of William "Butterworth" 
as published erroneously. 


175 3 West Congress Street Chicago, Illinois 

Telephone: Seeley 7171 








FRED S. BOOTH Asst. Secretory 

A. J. WILSON Asst. Secretary 

Arthur G. Cable John McKinlay 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Frki > a - Poor 

John B. Drake Theodore A. Shaw 

ALBERT D. FARWELL Jto^e" D.^ "" 


Alfred E. Hamill Robert Stevenson 

Charles H. Hamill j. Hall Taylor 

Edward D. McDougal John P. Welling 

jr. Edward F. Wilson 

Rev. Harrison Ray Anderson, D.D: 
Rev. Harold L.Bowman, D.D. 
Rev. Henry S. Brown, D.D. 
Rev. W. Clyde Howard. D.D. 

ASA S. BACON Superintendent 

HERMAN HENSEI Asst. Superintendent 

M. HELENA McMILLAN Director, School of Nursinf 

The Presbyterian Hospital of the City of 
Chicago is an Illinois not-for-profit corpora- 
tion, organized July 21, 1883, for the purpose 
of affording surgical and medical aid, and 
nursing, to sick and disabled persons of every 
creed, nationality, and color. Its medical staff 
is appointed from the faculty of Rush Medical 
College of the University of Chicago. 

The Board of Managers call attention to 
the need of gifts and bequests for endow- 
ment and for the general purposes of the 

Flue Pres toyferlai jHtospfta 

trie Gity <yy ©kicagc^ 



Chicago, 111. 

December, 1936 

No. 93 




Christmas in the hospital! This will 
he a new experience for many of our pa- 
tients this year, but one which need not 
detract from the real significance of 
Christmas. But for the coming of the 
Christ Child, whose humble advent is ob- 
served throughout the world on Decem- 
ber 25, there probably would be no such 
institution as a modern hospital and 
there certainly would be no Presbyterian 
Hospital established and maintained to 
care for the sick in His name. If one 
must be ill or disabled at this season of 
the year, one still has reason for rejoicing 
because Christian ideals of service have 
made possible the hospital care needed. 

The Christmas message brings to the 
hospital patient the assurance that re- 
gardless of the pain and misfortune that 
may be ours during this span of life there 
is a better world beyond. It also brings 
the assurance of strength to bear what- 
ever must be borne here and now, if we 
will but ask this of Him in faith. 

Will Spread Cheer 

As Christmas day approaches many 
plans are afoot to spread cheer and good 
will among our patients. The usual 
Christmas service will be conducted in 
the hospital chapel on Sunday, Dec. 20, 
at 1 1 A.M. for patients who are able to 
attend. Rev. E. N. Ware, who has been 
our hospital chaplain for 25 years, con- 
ducts this service and also makes a special 
effort to carry the Christmas message to 
the bedside of patients as he goes about 
his daily rounds of visits. 

Early on Christmas morning the fresh, 
young voices of our student nurses will 
be heard in the corridors singing the old 
(Continued on page 3, col. 3) 


And they came into the home and saw the young child with Mary his 
mother; and they fell down and worshipped him; and opening their 
treasures they offered unto him gifts, gold and frankincense and myrrh. 

—Matt. 2:11. 

This nativity scene was modeled in clay six years ago by a patient, Stanley Kellogg, who was a 
protege of Lorado Taft. He did it with the help of our Occupational Therapy Department, 
which, in accordance with his wishes, has retained it. Each Christmas, in an appropriate setting 
of evergreen branches in the lobby of the main hospital entrance, it tells again the story of the 
Christ Child and the Wise men. 

O, Little Town of Bethlehem 

O, little town of Bethlehem, 

How still we see thee lie; 
Above thy deep and dreamless sleep 

The silent stars go by. 
Tet in thy dar\ streets shineth 

The everlasting Light; 
The hopes and fears of all the years 

Are met in thee tonight. 

For Christ is born of Mary; 

And gathered all above. 
While mortals sleep, the angels \eep 

Their watch of wondering love. 
O. morning stars together 

Proclaim thy holy birth; 
And praises sing to God the King; 

And peace to men 


How silently, how silently, 

The wondrous gift is given! 
So God imparts to human hearts 

The blessings of His heaven. 
A(o ear may hear his coming, 

But in this world of sin, 
Where meel{ souls will receive Hi 

The dear Christ enters in. 

O. holy child of Bethlehem 

Descend to us. we pra\. 
Cast out our sin, and enter in. 

Be born in us today. 
We hear the Christmas 

The great glad tidiv 
O. come to us, abide with us. 

Our Lord Emmanuel. 



Much Labor, Modern Equipment 

and Scientific Technique 

Safeguard Patients 

It requires unremiting and conscienti- 
ous work on the part of many men and 
women to carry through the rigid obser- 
vance of cleanliness and asepsis required 
in every hospital department in order 
that patients may be safeguarded against 
dirt and microbes. In the Presbyterian 
Hospital the rigid scientific asepsis tech- 
nique employed by the nursing and medi- 
cal staff is supplemented by proper pro- 
cedures and precautions in kitchens and 
serving rooms, in the laundry and in the 
performance of every hospital house- 
keeping task. 

In the housekeeping department 58 
men and women are kept busy under the 
direction of Mrs. Martha Wolfe, matron, 
who has held this position for twelve 
years and who was in the department 
for 13 years before becoming matron. 
Five housekeepers oversee the work done 
on the different floors. 

1,005 Windows; 845 Steps 

It requires the full time services of 
two men to wash regularly the 1,005 
windows of the hospital. Two women 
are occupied in scrubbing daily the 845 
steps comprising the different hospital 
stairways. One man keeps all the brass 
and nickel shining. Another does noth- 
ing but clean rugs with a special ma- 
chine and antiseptic process. One woman 
keeps the 100 Venetian blinds clean. 
Other men and women perform a variety 
of cleaning tasks throughout the hospital. 

All window curtains are changed at 
least once each week, and curtains on 
screens are changed often, in some in- 
stances daily. 



Cooking pans, utensils and containers 
used in the hospital kitchens are not on- 
ly washed by sanitary methods hut are 
sterilized in steam boxes under high pres- 
sure for at least 10 minutes. Floors are 
scrubbed twice daily. Walls are washed 
often and a fresh coat of paint is applied 
yearly. Employees observe rigid rules as 
to personal cleanliness, one of which is 
that anyone who has been out of the kit- 
chen washes his hands thoroughly on his 
return, before resuming his duties. 

Many other precautions taken in the 
preparation and serving oi food assure 
cleanliness and freedom from bacteria. 
Mr. Eric Bode, executive chef, and Miss 
Beulah Hunsicker, head dietitian, have 
under their direction an employed per- 

innel of 75 men and women. 


Every day except Sunday is wash day 
in the Presbyterian Hospital Laundry, 
located in a separate service building 
adjacent to the other hospital buildings. 
And the wash is a sizable one, too, never 
less than a mere 8,000 pounds daily! 
John Witek, our laundry foreman, has 
been with us for 13 years. Men and 
women employed under his direction 
number 27. A special soap which has 
both cleansing and antiseptic properties is 
manufactured in the laundry, utilising all 
waste grease from the hospital kitchens 
and a large amount of fresh, prime tallow 
purchased in 100-pound lots. 

All linens sent down from operating 
or obstetrical delivery rooms are washed 
separately from other laundry, after be- 
ing rinsed and treated with a germicide 
solution which removes stains and kills 

The laundry washes and irons all hos- 
pital linen and garments used by patients, 
attending doctors, interns and nurses, as 
well as all washable furnishings of the 
hospital. Blankets and similar articles are 
fluff dried in a special machine. All per- 
sonal laundry is done for student nurses, 
members of the graduate nursing staff, 
interns and other resident personnel. 


It takes a lot of soap, scouring pow- 
der, germicides and antiseptics to carry 
through our hospital program of clean- 
liness and asepsis. 

In the laundry the weekly require- 
ment is 800 pounds of the jelly-like 
soap manufactured there. 

For general cleaning we use each 

200 lbs. of soap powder. 
158 lbs. of scouring powder. 
231 1-lb. bars of cleaning soap. 

For aseptic purposes we use: 

10 barrels of green liquid surgical 
soap each month. 
1 barrel of cresol, diluted to 20 
to 30 times, in three months. 
50,000 bichloride of mercury tab- 
lets in six months. 
Smaller quantities ol numerous 
other antiseptics and disinfect- 

For ordinary . personal cleanliness 
needs of patients and hospital person- 
nel, toilet soap requirements this year 

15,000 6-OZ. bars 

5,000 v 4-o:. bars 
12,500 2 oi bars 

600 6-oz. bars of castile soap 
for maternity babies and in- 
fants on the children's floor. 


Rigid aseptic procedures are an im- 
portant factor in safeguarding the lives 
of mothers and babies cared for in our 
maternity department and m our Out' 
Patient Obstetrical Service. 

Of the last 4,013 mothers delivered up 
to Dec. 1 by members of our obstetrical 
staff in the hospital and in homes, there 
have been no deaths due to childbed 
fever. Of these 4,0 1 3 mothers, only two 
have died from any cause connected with 
childbirth, and neither of these deaths 
occurred in our hospital. One was an 
out-patient who died of pneumonia 
which had been contracted before labor 
began. The other patient died of an 
embolus following her return home. 

Our hospital maternity department is 
housed on floors separate from other 
parts of the hospital and has its own staff 
of interns, nurses and helpers whose 
duties are confined wholly to that de- 
partment. In this and other respects our 
maternity department complies with the 
standards of the American Hospital Asso- 
ciation and the American College of Sur- 
geons. Labor and delivery rooms are not 
located on the same floor with the pri- 
vate rooms and wards in which mothers 
are cared for and on which the nurseries 
are located. 

Use Sterile Supplies 

Sterilized packs containing linens and 
other supplies are kept in readiness in 
the delivery room as are also packs con 
taining sterile instruments. For the new 
born babies sterile packs are at hand con 
taining blanket, sheet, clothing and other 
supplies required. Throughout the in- 
fant's stay in the hospital, similar sterile 
packs are used. Infant and maternity sup- 
plies are washed separately in the laun- 
dry, then assembled in packs and sent to 
the sterilizing room. An average of 75 
pieces of sterile linen is required for each 
delivery including articles used for the 
patient and surgical caps, gowns and 
masks worn by doctors and nurses. Clean 
linen is used freely in the care of mater- 
nity patients throughout their stay here. 
In every obstetrical procedure asepsis 
technique is rigidly employed. 

Miss Mary M. Wilson is the specially 
trained obstetrical nurse in charge of a 
staff composed of 16 graduate nurses, 8 
student nurses and five helpers whose 
hours on duty are staggered to cover the 
entire 24 hours. Miss Mary Watson is 
in charge of the delivery room and Miss 
Alice Studer, the nursery. 


Elaborate asepsis procedures are ob- 
served in the eight operating rooms of 
the Presbyterian Hospital. Miss Bertha 
Ellingson is the surgical nurse in charge. 
The personnel consists of 14 graduate 
nurses, 7 of whom are specially trained 
surgical nurses; 10 student nurses, 4 
women helpers and 4 men orderlies. In 
addition, men and women helpers from 
the housekeeping department do the 
routine cleaning of floors, walls, win- 
dows, sinks, etc. Each night floors are 
scrubbed thoroughly. After each opera- 
tion the floor of the room in which it took 
place is cleaned. After all infectious 
cases floors are treated with deodorants 
and antiseptics. 

Linen used in the operating rooms is 
specially folded for later aseptic hand- 
ling, placed in bags and sterilised. It 
remains in the bags until needed for use 
in the operating room. Pitchers, basins 
and other granite ware are washed and 
scoured after being used, placed in bags 
and sterilised. Surgical instruments re- 
quire special care in the way of cleansing, 
sorting, assembling and sterilizing. To 
give some idea of the work involved in 
these procedures it may be stated that 
about 800 pieces of linen, 700 instru- 
ments, 85 pairs of rubber gloves, 200 
pieces of granite ware and many special 
supplies are required on an average 
operating day. 

Having sterilized everything that is to 
;be used in operations the technique of 
handling these articles aseptically is a 
rigid one, requiring highly trained per- 
sonnel. In a future article in our Bulletin 
we plan to explain in greater detail the 
scientific aseptic procedures which safe- 
guard each patient cared for in our oper- 
ating rooms. 


All of the dressings prepared in the 
sterile supply room, most of the granite 
ware used in different departments and 
most of the linens used in operating 
rooms and maternity department are 
sterilized in our big autoclave steam steril- 
izer in the basement. Everything is en- 
closed in bags when sent to the sterilizing 
room and remains therein until it is taken 
'Out and handled aseptically for use by 
patients, nurses and doctors. Here, also, 
are sterilized such medical supplies as 
ointments, glycerine and intravenous 
solutions. Ingebregt Tveite is in charge 
jof this sterilizing room. 

The operating room has a separate bat- 
tery of sterilizers while smaller sterilizers 
idjacent to operating and delivery rooms 
are used to sterilize instruments and vari- 
ous small articles. The first floor examin- 
ing room has its own sterilizer for 




Forty men are employed in the main- 
tenance and repair department of the 
Presbyterian Hospital. Frank Mahr, 
chief engineer has been with us for 28 
years. Assistant engineers, firemen and 
other employees in the heating and power 
plant number 14. 

Recent improvements include the in- 
stallation of a new and larger transformer 
in the power plant, two new boilers and 
conversion of the heating plant to burn 
oil during the three coldest months and 
gas the other nine months. This type of 
heating is expected to prove more effi- 
cient and cleaner than the coal burning 
plant used heretofore. 

The chief engineer and his assistants 
take care of all heating and power equip- 
ment, the hospital lighting system and 
all electrical and mechanical equipment 
throughout the hospital. 



It may be a baby incubator designed 
by a pediatrician, some new device 
needed in the X-ray room, framework 
for a fracture bed, a reading rack for a 
patient or candle-holders for Christmas 
decorations. Whatever it is, John Kolar 
and his two assistants in our hospital 
carpenter shop can probably make it, to 
say nothing of responding to emergency 
calls to build up a heel on a patient's 
shoe and such like. 

In addition to all of the out-of-the 
ordinary articles which are required from 
time to time, our carpenter shop takes 
care of repairing our furniture, makes 
new cabinets, tables, screens and many 
other articles. Locks are repaired here 
and keys made for hospital doors. All 
sorts of repair jobs are sent to the car- 
penter shop, thus prolonging the useful- 
ness of hospital furnishings and saving 
much expense. 


For electric lighting and for power to 
operate laundry equipment, elevators, 
pumps, X-ray apparatus, and various 
electrical devices used in the care and 
treatment of patients, our electric cur- 
rent consumption ranged from 47,846 to 
63,208 kilowatt hours each month this 

instruments, supplies and other articles 
used in that department. Duty rooms on 
each hospital floor are equipped with 
small sterilizers which are used by nurses 
as needed. Kitchens have their sterilizers 
as explained in another article. 


Seven men are employed full time 
throughout the year to do all the paint- 
ing, varnishing and decorating required 
to keep the hospital buildings and fur- 
nishings in proper order. They also wash 
walls when this is needed and take care 
of some other heavy cleaning tasks. 
George J. Scheidel, Sr., of our paint 
shop, has the distinction of having been 
a hospital employee longer than any other 
member of our personnel, having been 
here since 1892. He formerly had charge 
of the paint shop but in recent years 
turned this responsibility over to his son, 
George, Jr. who has worked in this de- 
partment for 23 years. 

It often is necessary to have painters 
and decorators work at night in order to 
avoid interfering with the regular day- 
time activities. Recently the examining 
rooms, which are a beehive of activity 
during the day, were redecorated 
throughout by men working on a night 
shift. Walls of the first floor corridors 
have been washed this month and the 
floors refinished, this work also being 
done at night. 


(Continued from page 1) 
and beloved Christmas carols. The Social 
Service Department will see to it that the 
less fortunate among our present and 
former patients receive suitable remem- 
brances, this being made possible by gen- 
erous friends. 

For the Children 

Santa Claus will find his way to our 
children's wards and every child will 
awaken on Christmas morning to find 
that he has not been missed. 

Christmas baskets provided by the 
Chicago Rotary Club and by hospital 
employees will be distributed to needy 
families known to our Social Service De- 
partment. Children of hospital employees 
and a large group of children of the 
community invited by the Social Service 
Department will be entertained at the 
annual Christmas party given at Sprague 
Home for Nurses, at 6:30 P.M., Dec. 23. 

Our chef is planning to prepare the 
nicest dinner possible and always has 
some pleasant surprise tor everyone. Our 
dietitian gives much thought to planning 
attractive Christmas dinner menus for 
patients on special diets, who must needs 
forego some of the time-honored food 

In these and many other ways the 
Presbyterian Hospital will say once more 
as did Tiny Tim, 'God bless us everyone.' 


Eighteen women have become Life 
Members of the Presbyterian Hospital 
Woman's Board since this form of mem- 
bership was established a year ago. Life 
membership is acquired by payment of 
$100 on the part of an active member, 
who thereafter is exempt from payment 
of annual dues, but not from other ob- 
ligations of the Board. All receipts from 
Life Memberships are invested and the 
income only is expended upon recom- 
mendation of the finance committee. 

Life Members are: Mrs. Frederick T. 
Haskell, Mrs. C. Frederick Childs, Mrs. 
A. B. Dick, Miss Helen Drake, Mrs. 
David W. Graham, Mrs. E. E. Irons, 
Mrs. F. W. Leach, Mrs. George R. 
Nichols, Mrs. Mark Oliver, Mrs. Philip 
F. W. Peck, Mrs. Wilber Post, Mrs. W. 
E. Sharp, Mrs". Clyde E. Shorey, Mrs. 
Frank S. Smith, Mrs. Lawrence Dunlap 
Smith, Mrs. Norman S. Stone, Mrs. 
Robert Stuart and Mrs. J. Hall Taylor. 


Several members of our Woman's 
Board opened their homes during the 
Thanksgiving season for teas given in the 
interest of the annual Thanksgiving 
offering for hospital purposes, while 
many other board members distributed 
offering envelopes among Presbyterian 
church women and other friends. Those 
who were hostesses at teas included Mrs. 
L. Hamilton McCormick, Mrs. James W. 
McCulloh, Mrs. Robert H. Herbst, Mrs. 
Charles B. Ford and Mrs. S. Austin 
Pope. Mrs. W. B. McKeand of Hinsdale 
is chairman of the Thanksgiving offering 
committee. Mrs. Kellogg Speed of High- 
land Park is vice-chairman. 


Miss Mary Louise Morley, charge 
nurse on our children's floor, spoke at 
the December meeting of our Hospital 
Woman's Board. She told of a recent 
trip during which she visited hospitals in 
Cincinnati, New York and Boston for 
the purpose of observing their methods 
of caring for infants and children. 


Sprague Home was the scene of the 
annual homecoming held by our School 
of Nursing on Nov. 1 1. A large number 
of Alumnae and other friends of the 
school were entertained at a buffet 
luncheon at noon and at tea, served from 
3 to 6 o'clock m the afternoon. Among 
those from a distance was Miss Jeanette 
Veldman, who is on leave from her work 
as a missionary nurse in China 



Three elevators in our hospital are 
operated on a 2 4 -hour schedule by 1 1 
men, working in shifts. During the 
morning hours all elevators are .kept very 
busy taking doctors from floor to floor 
and patients to and from operating, ex- 
amining and treatment rooms. Somewhat 
fewer doctors and patients are trans- 
ported during other hours of the day, 
but there are more visitors to take to and 
from the different floors in the after- 
noons and evenings. On those afternoons 
and evenings when visitors are admitted 
to wards, the front elevator near the 
main entrance does a business compara- 
ble to that of a department store eleva- 
tor on bargain days. All this is a heavy 
load on our power plant requiring at 
peak hours as much as 1,000 horse power. 


Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Evans of the 
Chicago Symphony Orchestra presented 
a charming program of piano and violin 
duets in our hospital chapel, Saturday 
afternoon, Dec. 5. A large group of pa- 
tients and hospital personnel greatly en- 
joyed the program which was so gener- 
ously given by these two artists. 


North Central Illinois Medical Asso- 
ciation, Dec. 1, at Streator — Dr. Gate- 
wood spoke on "Lesions of the Illeum". 

Chicago Surgical Society, Dec. 4 — 
Dr. Mark Loring gave a case report on 
"Solitary Diverticulum of the Cecum". 

Dr. Ehas Selmger addressed the staff 
at St. Joseph's Hospital, Elgin, Thursday, 
Nov. 12. 

Chicago Society of Industrial Medi- 
cine and Surgery, Nov. 23 — Dr. Ed. 
M. Miller spoke on "Fractures Around 
the Elbow Joint in Children". 

St. Joseph County Medical Society, 
Dec. 3, at Elkhart, Ind. — Dr. Herman 
L. Kretschmer gave a talk on "A Doctor 
Looks at Europe". 

An exhibit entitled "Glands of In- 
ternal Secretion" prepared by Dr. W. 
O. Thompson, Dr. Arthur Dean Bevan, 
Dr. N. J. Heckel, Dr. P. K. Thompson, 
and Dr. S. G. Taylor, III was shown at 
recent meetings of the Mississippi Valley 
Medical Society in Burlington, Iowa: 
Ohio State Medical Society, in Cleve- 
land; and Interstate Postgraduate Medi- 
cal Association in St. Paul, Minn. 


Unlimited hot water is an essential 
factor in hospital cleanliness and asepsis 
as well as in ministering to the comfort 
ol patients. In our hospital the average 
DAILY consumption of hot water is 
60,000 gallons. 


Our hospital employs three policemen, 
working m shifts so that one is always I 
on duty, day and night, to patrol streets 
and alleys in the vicinity and otherwise 
guard the safety of patients, personnel 
and buildings. In addition a watchman 
on duty inside the building throughout 
the night, patrols the entire building at 
intervals inspecting all first floor and 
basement entrances and windows as well 
as all fire escape exits to make sure that 
no intruders are about. Our policemen 
are Andy Tranchita, Bill Tranchita and 
Dan Yucella. Charles Lake is our inside 
night watchman. 

From 7 A.M. to 2 A.M. a doorman is 
on duty at the main entrance to take 
care of taxi service. Those working on | 
this job alternate shifts are Charles 
Titley and Fred Theman. 

Dr. James B. Herrick was one of the 
speakers at the December meeting of the 
North Side branch of the Chicago Medi- 
cal Society. His subject was, "Dr. Charles 
T. Parkes as I Knew Him". 




Telephone: Seeley 7171 







FRED S. BOOTH Asst. Secretary 

A. J. WILSON Asst. Secretary 

Arthur G. Cable John McKinlay 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. Fred A. Poor 

John B. Drake Rev. John Timothy 

James B. Forgan, Jr. Stone, D.D. 

Albert D. Farwell R. Douglas Stuart 

Alfred E. Hamill Robert Stevenson 

Charles H. Hamill J. Hall Taylor 

Edw. D. McDougal, Jr. John P. Welling 

Edward F. Wilson 


Rev. Harrison Ray Anderson, D.D. 

Rev. Harold L. Bowman, D.D. 

Rev. Henry S. Brown, D.D. 

Rev. W. Clyde Howard, D.D. 


VERNON C. DAVID, M.D. President 



ASA S. BACON Superintendent 

HERMAN HENSEL Asst. Superintendent 

M. HELENA McMILLAN Director, School of Nursing 


Florence Slown Hyde, Editor 

The Presbyterian Hospital of the City of 
Chicago is an Illinois not-for-profit corpora' 
tion, organized July 21, 1883, for the purpose 
of affording surgical and medical aid, and 
nursing, to sick and disabled persons of every 
creed, nationality, and color. Its medical staff 
is appointed from the faculty of Rush Medical 
College of the University of Chicago. 

The Board of Managers call attention to 
the need of gifts and bequests for endowment 
and for the general purposes of the hospital.