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Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



January, 1959 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery Hughston M. McBain 

Wm. McCormick Blair William H. Mitchell 

Walther Buchen John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Walter J. Cummings Clarence B. Randall 

Joseph N. Field John G. Searle 

Marshall Field, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Stanley Field Louis Ware 

Samuel Insull, Jr. John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Hughston M. McBain First Vice-President 

Walther Buchen Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 

Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
Patricia McAfee Associate in Public Relations 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



WILLIAM J. GERHARD 

1873-1958 

On December 13, William J. Gerhard, Cu- 
rator Emeritus of Insects, passed away — 
quickly and in the midst of an active life, 
as he would have wished — just three weeks 
before his 86th birthday. His sudden death 
from a heart attack deprived the Museum 
of its oldest and one of its most dedicated, 
honored and beloved staff members. 

Mr. Gerhard assumed charge of the then 
newly created Division of Entomology on 
September 16, 1901. He saw it grow from 
a division consisting of an "old rolltop desk, 
two pencils, two pads of paper, a small 
wooden cabinet" and about 24,000 insects, 
to a well-equipped modern division — with 
collections totaling more than a million and 
a quarter specimens. 

Although he retired as Curator in 1950, 
following a coronary thrombosis, Mr. Ger- 
hard remained active as Curator Emeritus. 
In spite of physical limitations, he was 
rarely absent from work. 

ASPIRATIONS FULFILLED 

His last eight years were probably among 
the most personally satisfying in his entire 
career, for, relieved of administrative duties, 
he devoted almost full time to arranging the 
fruits of his life work, especially the Strecker 
Collection of butterflies and moths, and his 
personal collection of Hemiptera (true bugs) 
which he gave to the Museum. Few men 



have the opportunity, as he did, of seeing 
most of their life work so preserved and 
organized that they can view it integrated 
with the future. He left few "loose ends." 
He was meticulous and thorough. 

Mr. Gerhard was well-known as an au- 
thority on the classification of the true bugs 
or Hemiptera, though he never wrote a single 
original paper on them. As a matter of fact, 
he published few papers, but he assisted 
many of his colleagues in their studies. He 
was truly a "handmaiden of science." The 
author of the only comprehensive manual 
on the Hemiptera of Eastern North America 
stated in his introduction: "The work in its 
present form would not have been possible 
had it not been for W. J. Gerhard, of the 
Field Museum. . . ." 

He at all times submerged his personal 
interests for the good of the Museum, and 
no task was too menial, trivial or onerous 
for him. 

He was uncomplicated, highly predictable. 
He had sharply defined concepts of right and 
wrong, respect for authority, courage to de- 
fend his stand, stubborn self-reliance to the 




HIS LIFE'S WORK 

Characteristically engrossed in his studies of the 

insect world, the late William J. Gerhard is seen 

here in his laboratory. He worked in the Museum 

as an entomologist for 57 years. 

end, a strong belief in hard work. He was 
scrupulous to a fault, modest, and self- 
effacing. 

He was kind to and considerate of all the 
people around him. The children of many 
staff members well remember the candies 
which Mr. Gerhard surreptitiously slipped 
into daddy's briefcase. His sense of humor 
was well-known. He loved to play the role 
of the "devil's advocate" and defender of 
the traditional. 

Although usually mild-mannered, Mr. 
Gerhard could erupt with a violence that 
shattered the nervous system of a neophyte. 
He ordinarily indulged in such emotional 
release only when he accidentally damaged 
a specimen. The explosions diminished in 
frequency in later years after female em- 
ployees moved into offices across the hall 
from the division. 

With tongue in cheek, he was the "con- 
science of us all" and self-appointed critic. 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



Our cover shows a mural, re- 
cently installed in Hall 29 (Plant 
Life), of Gunnera magnifica, a 
strange gigantic herb found at 
altitudes around 10,000 feet in the 
Andes of Colombia. Its local 
Spanish name is "hoja de pan- 
tano" or "swamp leaf." Its enor- 
mous leaves are among the largest 
known in the plant kingdom. 
The plant was discovered in 1944 
by Prof. Harold St. John while he 
was a member of the Cinchona 
Mission of the Foreign Economic 
Administration. Formerly of the 
University of Hawaii, he is now 
professor of botany at Chatham 
College, Pittsburgh. The mural 
is the work of E. John Pfiffner, 
Museum Staff Artist. See page 3 
for an article by Prof. St. John on 
this fascinating plant. 



One curator well remembers the day he 
turned in a monthly work report that item- 
ized to the day his activities of the previous 
month. Mr. Gerhard, report in hand, came 
to him and slyly asked, "But, Mr. — , 
weren't you on vacation for three weeks 
last month?" 

ALWAYS HELPFUL 

He devoted much time to helping ama- 
teurs and students, as well as professionals, 
and gave a number of beginning students an 
opportunity to learn about insects in his 
division. "The boys" who owe him an eter- 
nal debt of gratitude are many, the writer 
among them. The most notable of these 
perhaps, is Dr. William Mann, former Di- 
rector of the National Zoo. 

His advanced formal schooling consisted 
of evening courses at Temple College, as 
well as private instruction in Latin during 
the time he was a Jessup Student. He spent 
a year (1898-99) in Bolivia where he col- 
lected butterflies and moths for A. G. Weeks, 
whose collection is now at Harvard. The 
following year he was partner in a second- 
hand scientific book business. In 1901 he 
was recommended by Dr. Skinner for the 
position at Field Columbian Museum as this 
institution was then named. 

In recognition of his role in North Amer- 
ican entomology, Mr. Gerhard was elected 
a Fellow of the Entomological Society of 
America, of which he was a charter member, 
and of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science. He was elected 
a Contributor to the Museum in 1954, for 
the gift to the Museum of his collection and 
library. He was born near Reading, Penn- 
sylvania, January 3, 1873. He is survived 
by four daughters, two sisters and a brother. 

— R.L.W. 



January, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 3 



GUNNERA, THE MAGNIFICENT - GIANT HERB OF COLOMBIA 



By HAROLD ST. JOHN 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY, CHATHAM COLLEGE 

(Picture on the cover) 

CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MU- 
SEUM has just paid the tribute to 
Gunnera magnifica St. John of making it the 
subject of a mural in Martin A. and Carrie 
Ryerson Hall (Plant Life— Hall 29). This 
species of Gunnera is outstanding as the larg- 
est yet known in that genus which contains 
numerous species of massive herbs. The new 
species was discovered by the writer in 1944 
when serving as botanical explorer for the 
Cinchona Mission of the Foreign Economic 
Administration. This was a United States 
governmental agency devoted to the discov- 
ery and supply of quinine-rich Cinchona bark 
to meet the needs in war time of the armed 
forces in malaria-infested areas. During 
spare time all of the botanists on this mission 
made plant collections which in total have 
added much to the known flora of western 
South America. 

The Andes Mountains enter Colombia from 
the south and soon divide into three parallel 
ranges that dominate the topography of the 
country. The middle and highest one is the 
Cordillera Central. Manizales, the capital of 
the province of Caldas, lies on the western 
slope of this rugged and lofty mountain range. 
The writer and his Colombian assistant, Sr. 
Gustavo Arcila y Arango, drove in their sta- 
tion wagon from Bogota across the Rfo Mag- 
dalena valley, over the pass in the Cordillera 
Central and north to Manizales, which was 
headquarters for the month of November, 
1944. By car it was possible to explore the 
country along the few main roads only, as 
there are almost no secondary roads. The 
back country could be reached only on mules. 

One trip was made up the road towards 
Termales in the valley of the Rio Cinchina. 
The manager of the nearby cattle ranch, 
Finca Cachiri, was Sr. Eduardo Giraldo. He 
hospitably housed us, provided mules, guides, 
and on the first trip accompanied us himself. 
Common in the clearings and at the edge of 
the forest was Cinchona pubescens. This grew 
to large size, 50 feet in height and 20 inches 
in diameter. Its bark is thicker than that of 
the other species of the region, but, unfortu- 
nately, always low — that is well below 3 per 
cent — in quinine content. Hence, it is not a 
good source of the valuable medicine. 

FIRST ENCOUNTER 

On this first trip, November 25, 1944, we 
followed a trail up the little valley and after 
a journey of three miles encountered the Gun- 
nera. The genus was an old friend, but this 
Colombian species was bigger and better than 
any seen before. The fleshy trunks were 3 to 
10 feet long and 16 inches in diameter. The 
terminal bud scales were lance-linear and 
deeply laciniate, pale greenish cream-colored, 
and so numerous as to make the stem apex a 
tangled, shaggy mass. The numerous leaves 



were borne on spiny petioles up to 8 feet 
10 inches in length. The blades were 6 feet 
5 inches in diameter, rounded and shallowly 
lobed, and at base deeply heart-shaped. The 
inflorescences were erect, and when in flower 
20 to 47 inches long, compound spicate. The 
flowers were tiny, only Vie to 6 / M inch long, 
but innumerable and crowded on the spikes 
and of a beautiful rose magenta color. The 
fruiting clusters were 6}4 to 7}4 feet long, 
and 8 to 21 J^ inches in diameter, and bore 
numberless tiny, red drupes. 

At the very first glimpse it was obvious 
that the plant was noteworthy, so it was pho- 
tographed in black-and-white and in color, 
notes were taken, and abundant specimens 
collected. The type specimen is deposited in 
the Smithsonian Institution. There are dupli- 
cates in other herbaria, including Chicago 
Natural History Museum. 

The species was first encountered at an 
altitude of 10,000 feet in a low, but dense 
rain-forest. Individual plants were scattered 
in this moist forest, but in openings where a 
large tree had fallen, Gunnera was common 
and stouter. Then, in more permanent open- 
ings, at the forest edge, and along stream 
banks, it formed extensive, solid stands. It 
was known to the local residents by its Span- 
ish name, "hoja de pantano" or "swamp 
leaf." The people made no use of it, and 
their domestic animals would not eat it, 
doubtless due to the brittle, harsh texture of 



FOR THE BIRDS, AFTER YULE 




the blades and the numerous little spines on 
the petioles. 

MYSTERY OF MIGRATION 

The genus Gunnera has long been known. 
It contains more than 30 species and occurs 
in southwest Africa, the East Indies, the 
Philippines, Tasmania, New Zealand, Ha- 
waii, and South America. Most of the spe- 
cies are tiny, humble, creeping herbs, with 
blades about one inch in diameter. All of 
the large, conspicuous ones are in the sub- 
genus Panke. These occur in the Hawaiian 
Islands, Juan Fernandez, in South America 
for the length of the Andes, and in Costa 
Rica in Central America, 10° north of the 
equator. How they could have migrated be- 
tween the Andes and these distant Pacific 
islands is a puzzle. Certainly they did not 
float on the ocean, or ride on a raft! Their 
fruits are not sticky or armed. Apparently 
birds are the most probable agents of dis- 
persal, as the tiny drupes could be eaten, but 
the stones would have had to remain in the 
digestive system an incredible time on a very 
long flight. For such problems there are no 
solutions that can be proved, and they add 
interest to the mystery of the origin of these 
fantastic herbs. 

Another unique feature of the big species 
of Gunnera is their symbiosis. In the mas- 
sive, fleshy stems are curious blue-green spots. 
They occur radially inward and nearly one 
inch distant from each node. It has been 
proved that the internal symbiont making 
these spots is Nostoc, one of the blue-green 
algae. Species of Nostoc also occur freely on 
the surface of wet soil. Apparently this alga 
enters the young plants through unique 
glands which disappear after completing their 
function leaving the algal cells behind. 

Several of the large species of Gunnera are 
cultivated, particularly in botanical gardens. 
Gunnera manicata is hardy as far north as 
Scotland. The new Gunnera magnifica de- 
serves to be brought into cultivation, as it is 
the largest of all in stature, and its inflores- 
cences are much the largest, and of striking 
beauty because of the dense mass of rose 
magenta flowers. Judging by its cool, moun- 
tainous habitat, this plant should also be 
hardy in many temperature regions. 



Children from Lincoln School in Evanston helped 
decorate the birds' Christmas tree at the Museum. 
The tree, with strings of popcorn, suet cake, cran' 
berries, raisins and peanut butter, was set up as an 
example for families seeking a useful means of dis- 
posal of their trees after the holidays. Those who 
provide such cafeterias for the birds are urged to 
replenish them with food regularly at least until the 
arrival of spring's better days. 



Foreign Visitors Tour Museum 

A group of foreign students and visitors 
representing many countries was brought to 
the Museum on Sunday, December 21, by 
the Holiday Center, operated by the Hos- 
pitality Center of Greater Chicago. The 
visitors were conducted on a special tour by 
Miss Miriam Wood, Chief of the Raymond 
Foundation. 



The areas occupied by exhibits in the 
Museum comprise a space equal to more 
than 12 acres. 



Page 4 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



January, 1959 



THE OLD COPPER INDIANS AND THEIR WORLD 



By GEORGE I. QUIMBY 

CURATOR OF NORTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 
AND ETHNOLOGY 

THE OLD COPPER INDIANS were the 
first fabricators of metal in the Americas 
and perhaps in the whole world. Some of 
them lived as early as 7,000 years ago and 
others survived as late as 3,000 years ago. 
A limited sample of their skeletal remains 
suggests that they were rather tall, fairly 
robust, and well-developed muscularly. 



chilling with cold water. Then it was 
pounded loose with boulder hammers and 
pried away with wooden levers. The copper 
thus obtained was transported to camps and 
villages where it was finished into tools, 
weapons, and ornaments. 

Smelting and casting of copper were un- 
known. The pure copper was shaped into 
the intended form by cold hammering and 
annealing — pounding the copper and heating 




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CHANGING ENVIRONMENT OF OLD COPPER INDIANS 
At left: The region from before 5000 B.C. to about 3000 B.C. At right: Same area about 3000 B.C-1000 B.C. 



The known world of the Old Copper In- 
dians was the Upper Great Lakes region, the 
lands bordering Lake Superior, Lake Mich- 
igan, and Lake Huron. This region, for- 
merly much different from now, actually 
underwent radical changes in climate, flora, 
fauna, and land surface during the periods 
of Old Copper occupancy. For instance, the 
lake levels rose as much as 400 feet, the land 
in places was lifted nearly 500 feet, and the 
forest cover changed from pines to hard 
woods as the climate became hot. There 
may even have been a few stray whales in 
the Lake Huron basin. 

The Old Copper Indians were miners and 
fabricators of copper. All of their copper 
was mined in the Lake Superior basin, mostly 
in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. There 
were many mines along the Ontario shore of 
Lake Superior and there were thousands of 
prehistoric mining pits on the Keweenaw 
Peninsula and Isle Royal in upper Michigan. 

INDIANS' MINING TECHNIQUES 

Remnants of wooden levers, fragmentary 
birchbark buckets, hammerstones, and char- 
coal from fires have been found in old mining 
pits, some of which were at least 20 feet deep. 
From such archaeological evidence the tech- 
niques of prehistoric copper-mining have 
been reconstructed: 

The Indian miners followed the veins of 
pure copper from surface outcrops by digging 
pits and breaking the copper from its rock 
matrix with the aid of fire and water and 
large beach-boulders. 

The rock surrounding the pure copper was 
heated by fire and then cracked by sudden 



and chilling it to keep it from becoming too 
brittle. Most of the copper was fashioned 
into tools and weapons such as socketed axes, 
various types of spearpoints and knives, har- 
poons, pipes, awls, fishhooks, punches, and 
wedges. Ornaments of copper were rare. 
They also made tools and weapons of chipped 
stone and bone. 




Socketed Axes and Gouge of Copper 

The Old Copper Indians made their living 
by hunting and fishing. They hunted with 
the spear and possibly the bow and arrow. 
Among the/animals they hunted were deer, 
elk, barren-ground caribou, lynx, and prob- 
ably bison. Ducks, swans, cranes, and owls 
were among the birds taken. Fish were 
caught with nets, spears, harpoons, hooks, 
and gorges. 

The Old Copper Indians seem to have 
been the first in the Upper Great Lakes re- 
gion to keep dogs. There were two kinds: 
a small dog about the size of a coyote and a 
large one about the size of the largest known 
Eskimo dogs. Boats of some kind certainly 
were used by the Old Copper Indians. Their 



use of island areas that could not have sup- 
ported any winter population demanded the 
use of boats. But whether these boats were 
wooden dugouts or bark or skin-covered ca- 
noes is not known. Although no definitely 
identified dwellings have been found, at one 
site in northern Wisconsin there were post- 
holes suggesting an oval structure about 13 
feet in diameter. 

The dead were buried in cemeteries. The 
Old Copper gravepits contained multiple and 
single interments in a variety of positions. 
There were extended and flexed primary 
burials, secondary burials of bones in bun- 
dles, and cremations. With the dead were 
placed tools, weapons, and ornaments for 
use in the spirit world. 

EXTREMELY ANCIENT CULTURE 

The Old Copper culture is an ancient one 
in the Upper Great Lakes region. Some 
measure of its antiquity is provided by radio- 
carbon dates as early as 5556 B.C. (plus or 
minus 600 years) and 3646 B.C. (plus or mi- 
nus 600 years). Occasional copper artifacts 
representative of the Old Copper culture 
have been found in New York state and 
Kentucky with Archaic cultural remains ra- 
diocarbon-dated at about 3000 B.C. or earlier. 

In addition there is good geological evi- 
dence in support of an early date for the be- 
ginnings of the Old Copper culture. For 
instance, a number of finds of Old Copper 
artifacts as well as some Old Copper sites 
are in areas that would have been under 
water during the Lake Algonquin stage and 
the Nipissing stage of the Upper Great Lakes. 
There are at least three places where evi- 
dence indicates that Old Copper materials 
were covered by deposits and water planes 
of the Nipissing stage. Therefore these par- 
ticular sites and finds must have been in 
position after the Algonquin stage and be- 
fore the Nipissing stage. The Nipissing stage 
had a radiocarbon date as early as about 
3000 B.C., and so these particular Old Copper 
sites and finds must belong to a period older 
than 3000 B.C. 

Thus the geological evidence shows that 
some Old Copper sites and finds are pre- 
Nipissing in age and therefore older than 
3000 B.C., thus confirming the assessment of 
age based upon the radiocarbon dates from 
an actual Old Copper site. It thus seems 
clear that the Old Copper culture had its be- 
ginnings in very ancient times, most likely 
by at least 5000 B.C., and that it lasted for 
many centuries, possibly until the end of the 
Nipissing stage of the Upper Great Lakes, 
about 1000 B.C. 

The environment of the Upper Great 
Lakes, the only world known to the Old Cop- 
per Indians, was radically different then, par- 
ticularly in the Chippewa-Stanley stage of 
the lakes lasting until about 3000 B.C. or 
slightly later. First of all, the lake levels 
were hundreds of feet lower. In the Lake 
Michigan basin Lake Chippewa was 350 feet 
below the present lake level. In the Lake 



January, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



Huron basin Lake Stanley was 400 feet be- 
neath the present lake level. And the waters 
in the Lake Superior basin were some hun- 
dreds of feet lower than at present. 

During this period there were two addi- 
tional large lakes in the region. At the 
northwest lay glacial Lake Aggasiz, which 
at this time drained eastward to the Supe- 
rior basin, and on the northeast were the 
remnants of glacial Lake Ojibwa-Barlow, 
which at its maximum was a tremendous 
body of water caught between the ice front 
and the height of land. This glacial lake 
was drained to near extinction sometime 
during the Chippewa-Stanley stage, so it is 
likely that only the earliest Old Copper In- 
dians had it on the northern periphery of 




Socketed Spearpoints of Copper 

their environment. Lake Aggasiz, on the 
other hand, seems to have persisted much 
longer, lasting at least into the time of the 
Nipissing stage. Artifacts representative of 
the Old Copper culture have been found on 
old beaches of glacial Lake Agassiz in Minne- 
sota and Canada, suggesting that some Old 
Copper Indians actually lived on the shores 
of Lake Agassiz. 

Lake Chippewa drained into Lake Stanley 
by means of a long river through what is now 
the Straits of Mackinac. Lake Stanley 
drained to the Atlantic Ocean by way of the 
Ottawa River through the North Bay, On- 
tario, outlet which at that time stood nearly 
at sea level. 

With such drastically lowered lake levels 
there was, of course, an appreciable differ- 
ence in the relation of water and land. The 
present lake shore would have been 25 miles 
or more inland in many places, whereas the 
former lake shore now lies under 350 or 400 
feet of water. 

In the northwestern part of the Lake 
Michigan basin near Green Bay there would 
have been limestone hills down which ran 
rivers with tremendous rapids or perhaps 
waterfalls that dropped 200 or 300 feet. A 
similar situation would have existed in much 
of the Superior basin and along the northern 
and eastern shores of Lake Stanley in the 
Huron basin. 

Along much of the western shore of Lake 
Chippewa were sloping clay hills covered 
with deciduous forest. Remnants of this 



forest can still be found far beneath the wa- 
ters of Lake Michigan just off Racine, Wis- 
consin. But at the time this forest flourished 
one could have walked directly from Racine 
to Michigan City, Indiana, or from Chicago 
to Benton Harbor, Michigan, through woods 
and dune areas on trails that today could 
only be followed by fish or submarines. 

Along the east shore of Lake Chippewa 
there were sand hills, sloping sand plains, 
and rivers where now there is the deep water 
of Lake Michigan. The area embraced by 
the city of Chicago would have been 360 to 
370 feet above the level of Lake Chippewa 
and 30 miles southwest of its nearest shore. 
From these examples one can see that the 
topography was much different from that of 
modern times. The climate, flora, and fauna 
were different, too. 

CLIMATE BECOMES WARMER 

About 6000 B.C., at the beginning of the 
Chippewa-Stanley stage, the ice front was in 
northern Ontario at about the latitude of 
Cochrane. By the middle of the period the 
ice had retreated northward from this posi- 
tion. The climate was becoming increasingly 
warmer during the Lake Chippewa-Stanley 
stage and was actually hot by the end of the 
stage circa 3000 B.C. 

By the time of the beginnings of the Old 
Copper culture the spruce-fir forest had al- 
ready retreated northward and pine had 
achieved a dominance of the forests over 
much of the region. With the dominance of 
pine had come an increase in the expansion 
of grasses, particularly in the western parts 
of the Old Copper world. 

During the early stages of the Old Copper 
culture in the last half of the Lake Chip- 
pewa-Stanley period the pine dominance be- 
gan to give way to the expansion of the 
hardwood forests with their oaks and chest- 
nut, and the grasslands encroached even 
more upon the forests. 

The Chippewa-Stanley stage was termi- 
nated by the upwarping of the land in the 
vicinity of the North Bay outlet by more 
than 400 feet, presumably caused by post- 
glacial expansion of the earth released from 
the weight of the glacial ice that had re- 
treated from the area some thousands of 
years earlier. With the North Bay outlet 
thus closed there was a tremendous rise in 
water levels climaxed by the Nipissing stage 
of the Upper Great Lakes, which lasted from 
shortly after 3000 B.C. to about 1000 B.C. 
Instead of a single outlet at North Bay there 
were two outlets, one at Chicago and another 
at Port Huron. 

The amount of rise in the Superior basin 
is not known, but it must have been consid- 
erable. The water in the Lake Michigan 
basin rose 375 feet and the level in the Huron 
basin rose at least 425 feet to a single body 
of water with a plane about 25 feet above the 
present level in these basins. 

The shoreline sites of the Old Copper In- 
dians who lived during the second half of the 



Chippewa-Stanley stage were covered by 
hundreds of feet of water, and they are still 
covered in the southern parts of the Upper 
Great Lakes region where there has been no 
appreciable upwarping. 

During the Nipissing stage the climate was 
much hotter than at present or at any other 
time during the past 18,000 or more years. 
Forests dominated by oak and hickory 
reached their maximum northward extension 
and the pine and spruce stands were pushed 
ever northward, too. This was the time of 
the greatest extent of grasslands in eastern 
North America. 

Among the animals living in the Upper 
Great Lakes region in the days when Old 
Copper Indians lived in the area were deer, 
elk, barren-ground caribou, lynx, beaver, 
and bison. There is some evidence of whales 
in the Huron basin inasmuch as whale re- 
mains have been found in a Nipissing stage 
beach deposit. Occasional whales may well 
have entered the Huron basin from the At- 
lantic by way of the North Bay outlet during 
the Chippewa-Stanley low-water stage. Al- 
though whales were not economically impor- 
tant to the Indians, they may well have been 
incorporated into religious beliefs as sea 
monsters. 

After about 1000 B.C. the Old Copper cul- 
ture gradually disappeared. Some of the 
Old Copper Indians had moved northward, 
following the northerly drift of the pine for- 
ests and caribou. Old Copper finds from the 
bed of Lake Agassiz northwest of Lake Supe- 
rior in Manitoba must be the product of this 
late movement northward. And this late 
northward movement ultimately may have 
influenced some Eskimo cultures. 

Those Old Copper Indians who did not 
move northward found themselves in a new 
environment because of the change in cli- 
mate. Their culture probably changed in 
response to the new environment, and per- 
haps some of them were assimilated by the 




Crescent-shaped Knife and Tanged Spearpoint 

Late Archaic Indians who had occupied some 
parts of the Upper Great Lakes region since 
3000 B.C. or earlier. 

In any event, the manufacture of typical 
Old Copper styles of tools and weapons 
ceased, and some forms of Old Copper weap- 
ons seem to have been copied in ground and 
polished slate. However, the technique of 
working copper by cold hammering and an- 
nealing was not lost because at about the 
time of Christ the Hopewell Indians used it 
in the manufacture of copper ornaments. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



January, 1959 



A SURVEY OF FISHES IN AN ILLINOIS STREAM 



By LOREN P. WOODS 

CURATOR OF FISHES 

RUNNING DOWN the west side and 
around the foot of Lake Michigan lies 
a continental divide, the Valparaiso Mo- 
raine, left there by the retreat of the last 
(Wisconsin) glacier. This is a true divide, 
for water falling on the east face of it flows 
through the Great Lakes and out the St. 
Lawrence, while that falling on the west and 
south eventually reaches the Mississippi 
River and Gulf of Mexico. Actually this 
divide is scarcely noticeable when driving 
across it for it is of low relief and the streams 



beneath the surface. This turbidity, char- 
acteristic of most of our streams, results from 
run-off of fields, eroding banks, and livestock 
wading in the channel. These factors intro- 
duce a large amount of exceedingly fine silts 
and clays, of which the soils of the surround- 
ing country have a high percentage, into the 
streams. 

STREAM WATERS CLEAR 

In late winter while the surface water 
is still held frozen on the land the only wa- 
ter entering the stream proper is ground 
water seepage from springs. At this time 




MUSEUM FISH COLLECTORS AT WORK IN HICKORY CREEK, ILLINOIS 



flowing from its summit are usually sluggish. 
In fact, many of the streams have one or 
more of their source tributaries rising from 
the overflow of a marsh held between the 
low glacial-drift hills that make up the di- 
vide. Such a stream is Hickory Creek, ris- 
ing in southwest Cook County, Illinois, 
flowing southwest, and emptying into the 
Des Plaines River at Joliet. Hickory Creek 
and its principal tributary, Marley Creek, 
resemble most of the smaller streams of 
northeastern Illinois in characteristics of low 
gradient, shallow valley, and banks alter- 
nately following along cultivated fields, pas- 
tures, woodlands, or through towns. Hick- 
ory Creek's fauna and flora are largely 
duplicated in the majority of other small 
streams making up our local drainage pattern. 
Hickory Creek is approximately 21 miles 
long from its farthest east tributary to its 
mouth, and it drains an area of about 100 
square miles. During most of the year the 
water is quite turbid so that only by sam- 
pling with seine, dredge, or dip net is it 
possible to learn anything about what lies 



the water is free from silt and it is possible 
to see the stream bed along its entire length. 
The invertebrates that have survived the 
winter, the fishes, and their nesting areas all 
are visible. On February 3 one year, al- 
though the water was clear, in the shallow 
headwater portions of Marley Creek a great 
deal of anchor ice was present and no fishes 
were seen. Anchor ice is formed where the 
current is too swift for the formation of sur- 
face ice. The turbulent water is cooled by 
the air below the freezing point but it does 
not freeze because of its motion. Near the 
bottom or wherever the current is sufficiently 
retarded the supercooled water freezes and 
the ice attaches to stones, frequently to such 
an extent that the whole bottom may be 
covered by ice. 

Supercooling on clear cold nights when the 
air temperature is below zero degrees Fah- 
renheit will often cause the formation of 
innumerable free crystals of slush ice (some- 
times called frazil). The ice crystals may 
be sufficiently abundant to make the water 
milky. Slush ice and anchor ice scouring the 



bed and polishing the rocks or covering up 
the bed may greatly reduce the numbers of 
all kinds of animals in the creek. Some kinds 
of fishes survive living in the mouths of 
springs and some in riffles too swift for the 
attachment of anchor ice, but most kinds 
migrate downstream where they find deep 
holes. 

The thawing of the ice held on land and 
along the edges of the stream along with 
spring rains often swells the volume to flood 
stage. It is well known that during such 
periods of rising waters many kinds of fishes 
migrate upstream. 

The white sucker and creek chub move 
upstream and spawn on gravel beds that 
may be covered with 12 to 24 inches of wa- 
ter only during flood periods, that is, within 
the intermittent portion of the stream. The 
young creek chubs remain in this part of the 
stream and sometimes perish if the water 
falls too rapidly. Other species that migrate 
upstream as far as they can are the stone 
roller, the little green sunfish, and golden 
shiner. The last two species even enter tiles 
draining fields and may work their way up 
to a break so they come out in a flooded field 
or perhaps in a suburban garden. 

Lampreys and carp also migrate upstream 
to spawn, the lamprey very early in spring 
(April) and the carp a little later (May and 
June). The non-parasitic brook lampreys 
spawn on gravel riffles where the water is not 
more than two feet deep. With their sucker 
mouths they carry stones until they have 
constructed a shallow depression about 12 
to 24 inches in diameter. The pair then 
attach themselves to a large stone at the up- 
stream edge of the nest to spawn. The 
freshly laid eggs stick so firmly to the stones 
of the nest that any attempt at dislodging 
destroys them, but after a day or two the 
eggs are washed off and lie loose among the 
pebbles. Carp seek a shallow weedy area for 
their spawning — a marsh or even a flooded 
pasture. Usually one female is attended by 
several males and with much splashing the 
eggs are scattered widely. These eggs are 
adhesive and cling to plant surfaces. Many 
eggs are lost, but carp are very prolific — one 
female will produce 300,000 to 700,000 eggs 
in a season but not more than 400 to 500 are 
deposited at one time. 

Altogether 38 species of fishes have been 
collected from Hickory Creek. Since this is 
a small stream, nearly all the thousands of 
individuals taken have also been small (less 
than 10 inches). They are principally of 
kinds that are most often found inhabiting 
creeks although some kinds also live in 
larger streams or lakes where they grow to 
larger sizes. In Hickory Creek there are 4 
kinds of suckers, 14 species of minnows, 4 
species of catfishes, 5 different sunfishes, 
8 kinds of the dwarf perches (called darters) 
and the mud-minnow, the sculpin, and the 
black-striped top minnow. It is unusual to 
find such a diversified lot of fishes living in 
a stream of this size. The present inhabi- 



January, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



tants of the creek are almost completely 
isolated from other streams by pollution at 
the stream mouth. Studies on Hickory and 
Marley Creeks have been carried on inter- 
mittently by many people during the past 
50 years and a survey made within the last 
five years revealed the same kinds as those 
in Museum collections gathered 50 years ago. 
The fact that until recently the watershed 
and stream have remained relatively un- 
changed is no doubt responsible for this 
stability. 

During the recent survey no little pickerel 
were collected, although these are still abun- 
dant in adjacent streams and were reported 
from Hickory Creek by the early collectors. 
Very likely this one species has disappeared 
from this stream and it is the only one of 
which there is a record of extinction. Two 
exotic species, carp and goldfish, have ap- 
peared in the stream either by invasion or 
introduction since the early survey was made 
around 1905. 

Looking at the stream from the marshes 
at the head to the sludge-laden mouth, simi- 
lar habitats of pools, gravelly riffles, broad 
meandering mud-bottom stretches, and weed 
patches occur again and again. Many of the 
species have very definite habitat preferences 
and no species is found distributed through- 
out the stream in a random or uniform man- 
ner. The rock bass can always be found in 
the deep holes under bridges while the cat- 
fishes and suckers live in the deep, mud- 
bottom holes of meanders or where a trib- 
utary joins the main stream. The sunfishes 
and several kinds of minnows prefer deep 




GREEN SUNFISH AND REDFIN SHINER ON NET 



stretches with gravel or hard bottom and 
the darters and sculpin live on the riffles or 
parts of the stream where the current is most 
rapid. In one stretch there is a forested sec- 
tion and the stream here has more than 
usual gradient, cutting into dense clay. 
Here, in submerged holes in the banks, lives 
the translucent madtom catfish. The lower 
portion of the stream where broad weed 
patches grow in summer is the habitat of 
smallmouth bass 8 to 10 inches long. 



The two most important conditions that 
determine how animals are distributed in 
streams are current and kind of bottom. 
These two conditions influence the vegeta- 
tation, light, and carbon dioxide and oxygen 
content. On the other hand the conditions 
of current and kind of bottom are deter- 
mined by the physiography, the length of 
the stream, and elevation of the source above 
the mouth. 

The habitat preferences change as the fish 
grows. The very young fry of most species 
seek protection in shallows where the grass 
or rushes grow dense and the battle against 
the current is least. As they grow and 
change their feeding habits they move to 
other parts of the stream. 

Since fishes are sufficiently motile they are 
able to seek out the place along the stream 
that suits them best. Once established, the 
individuals tend to remain throughout the 
season. Although they may be temporarily 
dislodged by a summer flood, the majority 
return to the same spot and never wander 
very far from it. 

During the summer the stream population 
is fairly sedentary. The principal move- 
ments and migrations occur in late fall and 
early winter when most kinds of fishes cease 
to feed and seek the protection of deep holes 
where they crowd together. In the spring, 
even before the ice has completely melted 
from all parts of the stream, some kinds — 
for example, the suckers and sculpins — be- 
gin their migrations to suitable spawning 
areas. The other kinds — sunfishes, min- 
nows, and catfishes — disperse later. Several 
kinds of sunfishes re- 
main on the spawning 
beds all summer, hold- 
ing a territory against 
others of the same spe- 
cies, guarding eggs or 
caring for successive 
broods. 

As the population of 
the city and suburbs 
grows, few streams in 
our area remain un- 
changed. Siltation 
and domestic and in- 
dustrial polution re- 
duce the streams to 
conditions far from 
suitable for most kinds 
of fishes. Subdivisions 
and country homes 
along the valley usu- 
ally destroy the very natural beauty that 
made the site desirable. The Hickory Creek 
fauna survived the establishment of farms 
and pastures, but within the past five years 
many sections have changed because of 
growth of villages in the watershed and build- 
ing along the valley. Dredging and straight- 
ening have begun. I predict that a survey 
50 years hence will be so unproductive 
that no biologist is likely to be interested in 
making it. 



STAFF NOTES 



Papers on technical subjects were pre- 
sented before various sections of the meet- 
ings of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science in Washington on 
December 28 by four members of the Mu- 
seum staff: Dr. Robert H. Denison, Cu- 
rator of Fossil Fishes; Dr. Rainer Zangerl, 
Curator of Fossil Reptiles; Philip Hersh- 
kovitz, Curator of Mammals, and, in absen- 
tia, D. Dwight Davis, Curator of Verte- 
brate Anatomy. . . . Emmet R. Blake, Cu- 
rator of Birds, has returned to the Museum 
after nearly half a year in Peru where he 
conducted the Conover Ornithological Ex- 
pedition. His account of collecting in little- 
known areas will appear in the next Bul- 
letin. . . . Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator 
of Insects, attended the annual meetings of 
the Entomological Society of America last 
month in Salt Lake City. He also spent 
several days in study of collections at the 
California Academy of Sciences, San Fran- 
cisco. . . . Loren P. Woods, Curator of 
Fishes, recently lectured on "The Sea Lam- 
prey in Lake Michigan" before the Izaak 
Walton League. . . . Henry S. Dybas, As- 
sociate Curator of Insects, recently spoke 
before the Conservation Council in Chicago 
on "The Periodical Cycada.". . . Allen Liss, 
Custodian of Collections-Anthropology, at- 
tended the recent annual meeting of the 
Illinois Archaeological Survey in Urbana. 



Staff Changes Announced 

At his own request, Dr. Fritz Haas, Curator 
of Lower Invertebrates, has relinquished the 
active control of his division, to assume a re- 
search and consultative status under the title 
of Curator Emeritus of Lower Invertebrates. 
Dr. Alan Solem, Assistant Curator of the di- 
vision, has been promoted to Curator of 
Lower Invertebrates. 

Melvin A. Traylor, Jr., has been promoted 
from Assistant Curator to Associate Curator 
of Birds. 

Miss Patricia McAfee has been promoted 
from Assistant to Associate in Public Re- 
lations. 

The changes are effective from January 1, 
1959. 



Children's Journeys Continue 
To Birds' Winter Resort 

The Museum Journey for children en- 
titled "Chicago — Winter Resort for Birds," 
will continue this month and on to the end 
of February. Boys and girls may take this 
Journey any day during regular visiting 
hours. They may obtain instructions and 
questionnaires at either the north or south 
entrance of the Museum. Those who suc- 
cessfully complete four different Journeys 
receive awards as Museum Travelers. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



January, 1959 



TWO CURATORS SURVEY 
FAUNA OF PANAMA 

On January 7, Dr. Alan Solem, Curator of 
Lower Invertebrates, and Henry S. Dybas, 
Associate Curator of Insects, will depart by 
air for a two and one-half months' field trip 
in Panama. 

Joining the major land masses of North 
and South America, Panama is a highway 
over which animals and plants are gradually 
spreading from one continent to the other. 
It is of particular interest to scientists be- 
cause here one finds living in the same area 
animals and plants that everywhere else in 
the world are isolated from each other. 

A short time will be spent on the famous 
Barro Colorado nature preserve in the mid- 
dle of the Panama Canal. Established in 
1923, this is perhaps the most famous trop- 
ical research station and the scene of many 
important studies on tropical life. More time 
will be spent in surveying the Chiriqui high- 
land area of western Panama. There are sev- 
eral mountains over 11,000 feet in elevation 
and many unusual animals have been re- 
ported from this area. Solem and Dybas 
hope to determine at exactly what elevations 
many of these organisms are found and to 
work out the broad outlines of their ecology. 

In contrast to the high mountain areas are 
the humid lowland jungles of the Province of 
Darien, lying between the Panama Canal and 
the Colombian border. If possible, some time 



will be spent collecting in the vicinity of a 
lumber or mining camp. This region is with- 
out any roads and is considered the major 
obstacle against ever completing the Pan- 
American highway as a continuous road. 

Mr. Dybas will concentrate on the minute 
beetle fauna of the forest floor and Dr. Solem 
will be working with the land and fresh- water 
mollusks. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology 

From: Robert Trier, McKenzie Bridge, 
Ore. — bronze Shiva, silver ornament and 
cotton textile, nephrite pendant, Java, Cey- 
lon, New Zealand 

Department of Botany 

From: H. R. Bennett, Chicago — 1,134 
phanerogams, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana; 
Dr. James E. Canright, Bloomington, Ind. — 
slides of wood sections from samples of 
Drimys, Brazil, Ecuador, Chile; Dr. Albert 
Herre, Santa Cruz, Calif. — herbarium speci- 
men, Usnea ceratina Ach.; Dr. Barbara Pal- 
ser, Chicago — 24 specimens of Ericaceae, 
South Africa 

Department of Geology 

Mr. and Mrs. Oscar Rohwer, Chicago — 
a fossil fish and insect, Wyoming; Union Oil 
Co. of California, Calgary, Alta. — Devonian 
fish fragments 



A BUSY DAY FOR FOUR-H-CLUB CAMERA FANS 




AUDUBON SCREEN-TOUR 
OF GREAT OUTDOORS 

The Illinois Audubon Society will con- 
tinue its series of Sunday afternoon screen- 
tours in the James Simpson Theatre of the 
Museum with the presentation on January 4 
of "Outdoor Almanac," a color motion pic- 
ture with narration by Charles Mohr of the 
National Audubon Society. The program 
will begin at 2:30 p.m. 

Mohr's film, consisting of intimate studies 
of the lives of small animals, combines enter- 
tainment with a real and meaningful signifi- 
cance for all who are concerned with or 
interested in wildlife conservation. The 
picture begins appropriately to the season 
with episodes of animal life in the beautiful 
but harsh realities of winter, but it carries 
on to the fecundity of spring, the lushness 
of summer and the brilliance and nostalgia 
of autumn. 



Last Call for Nature Photos 
The final call for entries of prints and color 
slides for the Fourteenth Annual Chicago 
International Exhibition of Nature Photog- 
raphy has been issued. The deadline for 
receipt of entries is January 17. The Chicago 
Nature Camera Club and the Museum are 
co-sponsors. Prints selected by the judges 
will be displayed in Stanley Field Hall from 
February 7 to 27. 



Boys attending the recent National 4-H Club Congress found many things to photograph during their annual 
visit to the Museum. This year's delegation, about equally split between boys and girls, numbered approxi- 
mately 1,300, representing all states of the Union, and several foreign countries as well. Their trips to Chicago 
were awards for achievement in agriculture, stock-raising, and other activities. 



NEW MEMBERS 

(November 17 to December 15) 

Life Members 

Charles C. Jarchow, Frank M. Whiston 

Non-Resident Life Member 

Dr. Rudolf A. Clemen 

Associate Members 

Lee Winfield Alberts, Frederick Asher, 
Mrs. Millington Domville, Fred L. Goldsby, 
Arthur Hahn, Edwin W. Hirsch, Dr. Charles 
E. Hughes, George R. Ives, George A. Laadt, 
George J. Leahy, Joseph F. Lizzardo, Mrs. 
Ross Llewellyn, Miss Margaret Mellody, 
Dr. Clement J. Michet, Harold A. Moore, 
Donald O'Toole, A. E. Patton, Miss Evelyn 
Rose, M. A. Rosenthal, Robert P. Nessler, 
Richard Norian, Dr. Raymond J. Pellicore, 
Miss Bessie Radovich, William S. Robinson, 
Kenneth V. Zwiener 

Annual Members 

Nathan Allen, Richard F. Babcock, Wal- 
lace R. Baker, Mrs. George Barnett, Eugene 
J. Becker, Nuel D. Belnap, Harold T. Berc, 
Russell O. Bennett, Donald J. Berman, Dr. 
Arthur Bernstein, Russell T. Berry, Dr. 
Chester J. Black, Dr. G. A. Bica, Dr. Henry 
E. Bielinski, Dr. John F. Bimmerle, George F. 
Brown, George M. Burditt, Isadore Cann, 
Miss Alice G. Capes, Dr. Marcus R. Caro, 
Verne T. Costa, Robert S. Engelman, Wade 
Fetzer, Jr., George L. Irvine, Guy C. Kid- 
doo, Martin H. Matheson, Miss Esther A. 
Miller, William S. Oliver, Mrs. Charles S. 
Salmon, John C. Sturgis, Dr. Eugene S. 
Talbot, Jack D. Train, Robert P. Weaver, 
R. Arthur Williams 

PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 






ICAGO, 
TURAli 
>TORY 
ISEUM 



ffuuetin 



Vi>l.30 



Jfo. 2 







Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



February, 1959 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 

THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery William V. Kahler 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen J. Roscoe Miller 

Chesser M. Campbell William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Joseph N. Field Clarence B. Randall 

Marshall Field, Jr. John G. Searle 

Stanley Field Solomon A. Smith 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Louis Ware 
John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Hughston M. McBain First Vice-President 

Walther Buchen Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 

Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
Patricia McAfee Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



THREE NEW TRUSTEES 
ON MUSEUM BOARD 

Three outstanding Chicagoans prominent 
in business, educational and civic affairs were 
elected to fill vacancies on the Museum's 
Board of Trustees at the Annual Meeting 
held January 19. They are: Chesser M. 
Campbell, President of The Tribune Com- 
pany, and publisher of The Chicago Tribune; 
William V. Kahler, President of the Illinois 
Bell Telephone Company, and Dr. J. Roscoe 
Miller, President of Northwestern University. 

Stanley Field was re-elected President of 
the Museum, and begins his 51st consecutive 
year in that office. All other officers were 
also re-elected: Hughston M. McBain, First 
Vice-President; Walther Buchen, Second Vice- 
President; Joseph N. Field, Third Vice-Pres- 
ident; Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer; Dr. 
Clifford C. Gregg, Director and Secretary, 
and John R. Millar, Deputy Director and 
Assistant Secretary. 



EXPEDITIONS OF 1959 

The Museum's plans for expeditions and 
field work this year include the following: 

Continuation of the Southwest Archaeo- 
logical Expedition (25th season). This work, 
on sites in Arizona, will be, as in previous 
years, under the direction of Dr. Paul S. 
Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology. 
Dr. John B. Rinaldo, Assistant Curator of 



Archaeology, will be principal associate in 
the field. 

Dr. Robert F. Inger, Curator of Amphib- 
ians and Reptiles, is leaving this month for 
a project in the Belgian Congo (see page 
7). He will also engage in research in 
European institutions. 

One expedition began operations early in 
January when Dr. Alan Solem, Curator of 
Lower Invertebrates, and Henry S. Dybas, 
Associate Curator of Insects, flew to 
Panama to make a survey of faunal 
distribution. 

George I. Quimby, Curator of North 
American Archaeology and Ethnology, will 
continue his investigations of the past few 
years in the archaeology of the Upper Great 
Lakes region, with trips to the shores of 
Lake Huron and Lake Superior scheduled 
for May and August. 

Dr. John Thieret, Curator of Economic 
Botany, will continue studies of the vegeta- 
tion, particularly the grasslands, in the Great 
Slave Lake and far northern Great Plains 
regions of Canada during the summer. 

Dr. Robert H. Denison, Curator of Fossil 
Fishes, and Orville L. Gilpin, Chief Prepar- 
ator of Fossils, will collect Devonian fish 
specimens in Wyoming and Idaho in the 
latter part of the summer. 

William D. Turnbull, Assistant Curator of 
Fossil Mammals, and Ronald J. Lambert, 
Preparator of Fossils, will excavate fossil 
mammals in the Washakie Basin of Wyoming, 
beginning in June. 

Albert W. Forslev, Associate Curator of 
Mineralogy and Petrology, will collect 
minerals at Arizona mines in September. 

Dr. Fritz Haas, Curator Emeritus of 
Lower Invertebrates, is scheduled for work, 
in a field not yet chosen, during the summer. 

Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator of Insects, will 
collect histerid beetles in Arizona in late 
spring. 

Loren P. Woods, Curator of Fishes, will 
make another fish-collecting expedition 
aboard the Motor Vessel Oregon of the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service. 

Dr. Robert L. Fleming and Dr. Dioscoro 
S. Rabor, both Field Associates in Zoology, 
will continue collecting birds in their respec- 
tive areas, the former in Nepal and the 
latter in the Philippines. 

Non-Museum-staff assignments to col- 
lectors include: Harry A. Beatty to collect 
birds in Dutch Guiana: C. A. Ely to collect 
birds in Mexico; M. A. Carriker to col- 
lect birds in Colombia, and Kjell Von 
Sneidern to collect birds and mammals, 
also in Colombia. 



ASSOCIATE CURATOR 

NAMED IN BOTANY 

Dr. C. Earle Smith, Jr. has come to the 
Department of Botany of the Museum as 
Associate Curator of Vascular Plants. He 
began his botanical training in Florida by 
amassing a large local collection. In spite 



 THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



Our cover shows the pottery fig- 
ure of a man in deep thought. It 
was modeled about 1,500 years ago 
by an Indian artist in Jalisco, 
Mexico. The same theme is the 
subject of a famous sculpture by 
Rodin. As we look at this figure we 
wonder what thoughts preoccupy 
the man depicted. His dejected pos- 
ture and somber face convey the 
impression of sorrowful remem- 
brance of things past or the sadness 
of bereavement. This work is rep- 
resentative of the expressive 
sculptural art of western Mexico. 
Another view of this figure and 
illustrations of other examples of 
pre-Columbian art from Nayarit, 
Jalisco, and Colima are shown on 
pages 4 and 5. 



of an interruption for service in the U. S. 
Navy Hospital Corps and the Marine 
Corps, he completed his botanical apprentice- 
ship at Harvard University (A.B. 1949, A.M. 
1951, Ph.D., 1953). During his college years 
he worked as an assistant in the paleobotan- 
ical collections at Harvard's Botanical 
Museum, participated in an archaeological 
expedition to Bat Cave, New Mexico, where 
he helped excavate a plant series which 
included some of the earliest known Indian 
corn, and made field trips to collect plants 
in Colombia, Cuba and Honduras. He was 
also Research Assistant at the Gray 
Herbarium and Teaching Fellow at the 
Biological Laboratory. In 1953, he became 
Assistant Curator of Botany at the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, where 
his work with the herbarium led to an 
interest in the history of North American 
botany. In 1957, he collected material of 
Spanish Cedar in Mexico, Panama, and 
Venezuela which is being used to clarify the 
scientific names of this group of trees. 



PROGRAMS TO AID 
GIRL SCOUTS 

During February the Raymond Founda- 
tion of the Museum will offer special pro- 
grams to assist Girl Scouts working for their 
nature proficiency badges. 

The four programs, which will be held at 
the Museum each Saturday at 10:30 a.m., 
are devoted to specific nature subjects. On 
February 7 birds will be featured; Febru- 
ary 14, wild plants and trees; February 21, 
rocks and minerals; February 28, insects and 
amphibians. 

Each program consists of a movie illus- 
trating the subject of the day, plus individ- 
ual observation and study in the exhibition 
halls. Instructions are available at the south 
door. Group reservations should be made in 
advance by calling WAbash 2-9410. 



February, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



PageS 



EXPLORER FINDS RARE BIRDS IN WILDERNESS OF PERU 



By EMMET R. BLAKE 

CURATOR OF BIRDS 

THE BOX of birdskins delivered to my 
office that August day in 1955 bore the 
return address of a collector in Cusco, Peru. 
Such shipments are received from various 
sources around the world every year and 
may comprise a single specimen or total as 
many as several thousand. Often the proc- 
essing of these collections is merely a 
routine matter of accessioning, identifying, 
and cataloguing the specimens preparatory 
to filing them away in laboratory cabinets 
for convenient reference as the need arises, 
sometimes months or even years later. 

But this shipment was exceptional. 
Although totaling fewer than one hundred 
birdskins, these were the first to be taken 
in Departamento Madre de Dios, a heavily 




SEVEN-DAY WORK WEEK 
And expedition toil often continues far into the 
night as well. Curator Blake here is seen preparing 
bird specimens in camp near mouth of Rio Inambari. 

forested and largely unexplored region that 
extends from the Andean foothills eastward 
to the Brazilian and Bolivian frontiers. 
Several of the birds represented interesting 
extensions of range, others were forms new 
to our collections, and one obscurely-colored 
specimen, a member of the antbird family, 
I have since described as a distinct new 
species (Formicarius rufifrons). 

I was especially pleased to find that many 
of the birds, including the new species, had 
been collected at the mouth of the Rio 
Colorado, a tributary of Rio Madre de Dios 
and home of the nomadic Mashco Indians of 
unsavory reputation. Obviously, these tribes- 
men were not so truculent as had been sup- 
posed, and indications were that a collecting 
trip through the heart of Madre de Dios 
might now be feasible. If a small collection 
so rich in novelties could be made almost at 
random by several natives traveling on a 
balsa raft, what might not be accomplished 
in the same region by a properly equipped 
Museum expedition? These heady thoughts 



led to the intensive study of maps and all 
pertinent literature, and to correspondence 
with individuals who might have informa- 
tion of value, and ultimately to my trip into 
the Amazonian forests of southeastern Peru. 
Such was the genesis of the Museum's 
Conover Peru Expedition* which returned 
to Chicago late in 1958 after the successful 
conclusion of its field work. For me it had 
been a memorable experience that began 
shortly after dawn on June 1 when Panagra's 
crack airliner, El Pacifico, just twelve hours 
out of Miami, coasted through Lima's 
perpetually overcast sky and abandoned me 
to the courteous but enterprising attentions 
of the Peruvian customs officers. 



INEVITABLE RED TAPE 

The formalities were quickly finished and 
I was plunged almost at once into a seem- 
ingly endless round of conferences with 
governmental officials and others relative 
to the freeing of my guns, ammunition and 
other equipment from customs in the port 
of Callao. Days lengthened into weeks, 
frustration followed frustration, and my 
folio began literally to bulge with documents, 
but finally I was granted the freedom of the 
country. Fortunately, life in the "bush" 
offers few experiences as arduous as those 
which usually confront the leader of a 
scientific expedition 
entering a tropical 
American country. 
The field work that 
follows, be it light or 
ever so strenuous, 
seems a haven of re- 
pose by comparison. 

I planned a leisurely 
canoe trip down Rio 
Madre de Dios from 
its turbulent head- 
waters to Puerto Mal- 
donado. My speci- 
mens would be col- 
lected along the way 
and hunting camps in 
key localities might be 
occupied for as long as 
three weeks. Thus I 
could blanket much of 
Madre de Dios and in 
a single dry season 



ting breath-taking glimpses both of towering 
peaks capped with ice and of the great arid 
alto piano of the interior. But once in Cusco 
there was little time for sightseeing. While 
awaiting the arrival of my equipment by 
rail, it was necessary to pack field supplies 
and arrange for transportation to the eastern 
lowlands. Most important of all I needed 
to find and develop useful local "contacts." 
Among the latter was Dr. Ismael Ceballos, 
a young mammalogist and zoology professor 
of the University of Cusco, who agreed to 
assist me during the early stages of my field 
work near the sources of the Alto Madre 
de Dios. 

Hacienda Villa Carmen, my first collect- 
ing station, is bounded by the Tono and 
Pina Pifia rivers, tributaries of the stream 
I hoped to descend. Nearby, a dozen crude 
huts, one by courtesy designated a hotel, 
comprise the village of Pilcopata. Traveling 
by truck we reached the isolated community 
in a single day via a narrow dirt road that 
much of the way clings precariously to the 
sides of gorges. At several points battered 
remains of vehicles far below bore witness 
to the frequency of landslides. Happily the 
route was interesting and the scenery sur- 
passingly beautiful. In a matter of hours we 
had the experience of descending from barren 
highlands, through luxuriant "cloud forests," 



bring together a col- 
lection that would be 
representative of the 
entire region. 

Cusco, storied capital of the old Inca 
Empire and now a mecca for tourists, be- 
came for a time the base of my operations. 
The two-hour flight from Lima crosses the 
Andes at an altitude of 20,000 feet, permit- 




 ROAD 

= : UNFINISHED ROAD 



♦Named for the late Boardman Conover, a Benefac- 
tor and former Trustee of the Museum, whose gener- 
ous bequest made the Peruvian field work possible. 



AREA IN SOUTHEAST PERU WHERE EXPEDITION OPERATED 



to the humid lowlands. And with each marked 
change in vegetation there was a correspond- 
ing change in bird life that I always find 
fascinating. 

Don Miguel Palomino, the owner of Villa 

Carmen, was for three weeks my genial 

host. He supervised our passage over the 

gorge of Rio Tono on a swaying platform 

(Continued on page 6, column 1 ) 






1. Mother suckling child 



2. Woman with wrap-around skirt 



3. S 



Photographs by John 




8. Man with musical rasp 
9. Kneeling woman 



ANCIENT ART OF 

By DONALD COLLIER, Curator of I 

TWO recently installed exhibits in Hall 8 (Ancient and Mo 
of pre-Columbian clay sculpture from the Mexican states 
logical knowledge of western Mexico is meager, there are ex 
from tombs in the area by pot-hunters. These sculptures, 
grouped roughly into the Nayarit style, found in Nayarit anc 
Colima and Jalisco. These two styles had their beginnings 
Christ and continued to nourish until about A.D. 700. 

Nayarit sculpture (see cover and illustrations numbered 1, 
and sometimes the human figures appear to be caricatures. 



10. Woman with long hair 



11. Seated woman 







p ig dog 




t and Homer V. Holdren 



4. Thinking man 




WESTERN MEXICO 

! American Archaeology and Ethnology 

: Indians of Mexico and Central America) display examples 
Wayarit, Jalisco and Colima. Although systematic archaeo- 
ive private and museum collections of art objects removed 
:h range from a few inches to two feet in height, can be 
s adjoining part of Jalisco, and the Colima style, found in 
ig the Archaic or Formative stage several centuries before 



8, 9, 11) is characterized by simplification and exaggeration, 
men and women are depicted, engaged in workaday, cere- 
lonial, or warlike activities. Their clothing, ornaments and 
ody painting are shown by modeling, incising, and both posi- 
ive and negative (resist) painting. A good example of this de- 
letion of detail is the warrior shown at the right (No. 5) who 
'ears armor of basketry and quilted cotton and carries a stone- 
eaded club. The larger figures are hollow and have an opening 
t the top of the head. 

Colima-style figures (illustrations 2, 3, 6, 7, 10) are natural- 
itic, refined and elegant. Instead of the mat, polychrome- 
ainted surfaces of Nayarit sculpture, they have highly bur- 
ished red, brown, or black surfaces without textural or painted 
laboration. The women have strong, tranquil faces and a 
easant solidity. The Colima sculptors also depicted mammals, 
irds, reptiles, fish and shellfish. Their favorite animal was 
he dog, of which they made a great variety of hollow effigies. 
>ogs were raised by the ancient Mexicans both for food and 
acrificial offerings. It is not clear whether the Colima clay 
ogs were placed in tombs as food offerings or to represent dogs 
acrificed at the funerals to assist their masters in the difficult 
ourney to the land of the dead. 



5. Warrior with armor and club 




6. Hairless dog 

7. Seated man 





mJ-  








V^& 


«* 


^^ 


Vj sk 





Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



February, 1959 



IN PERUVIAN WILDERNESS- 

(Continued from page 3) 

suspended beneath a cable. As we dangled 
high above the cataracts, I was relieved to 
learn that even a dismantled truck had once 
made the same trip in safety. We were soon 
installed in our quarters — the entire second 




READY FOR VOYAGE ON RIVER THROUGH JUNGLE 

Members of the expedition aboard launch. Curator Blake is the one wearing 

hat. Juan Ncuenschwander is seen at his left. 



story of Casa Palomino. The breezeway be- 
came my laboratory through which was 
channeled an endless flow of birds that 
required my prompt attention. Shooting 
birds is only the first and often the easiest 
step in preparation of museum specimens. 
To become of any use to science they must 
also be skinned and stuffed, labeled, cat- 
alogued, dried, and finally packed for ship- 
ment. There are doubtless easier ways to 
pass one's time in the glamorous tropics. 

A typical work day — and there are seven 
to the week for bird collectors — begins at 
dawn and continues until the last specimen 
has been cared for. Birds are most active 
during the early morning hours and a suc- 
cessful hunt usually provides work that may 
continue into the nights. At Villa Carmen, 
and later in Madre de Dios, I went hunting 
as time permitted, but largely depended 
upon the prowess of two local Indians, who 
were provided with guns and ammunition. 
Separately, we scoured the plantation itself 
and roamed the wooded hills in a relentless 
search for birds of widest variety. 

The collection grew rapidly. It soon filled 
to overflowing my specimen trunks, and in 
the space of several weeks came to include 
all of the common species and many of the 
rarer ones. Some of the birds were brilliantly 
colored and others drab, some large and 
some small. When studied in its entirety, so 
representative a collection from an area of 
transition between mountains and lowlands 
will almost certainly throw new light on 
problems of distribution. 

My carefully weighed plan to descend the 



river by canoe had to be abandoned when 
Don Miguel announced that rapids of the 
headwaters would be impassable until the 
October rains. By way of humoring my 
disbelief he took me on a short cruise from 
which I returned wiser, as well as drenched, 
shaken and considerably chastened. The 
necessity of "playing it by ear" as circum- 
stances dictate often 
becomes standard pro- 
cedure in the field. Al- 
though disappointed, 
I hastened back to 
Cusco to work out 
plans for an attempt 
on the Madre de Dios 
from the lower, or 
Puerto Maldonado 
end. 

The chance remark 
of a casual acquaint- 
ance led me to Sefior 
Juan Neuenschwan- 
der, a man whose per- 
sonal qualifications 
and boat equipment 
based at Puerto Mal- 
donado virtually as- 
sured the success of 
my subsequent field 
work. We came to an 
agreement as to costs 
and procedures, hastily packed two months' 
supplies, and set out for the capital of 
Madre de Dios. The first half of the jour- 
ney was overland by a one-way road that 
attains an altitude of 18,000 feet before 
plunging into the lowlands. A brief airplane 
flight from Quincemil to our destination 
offered a birdseye view of the unbroken 
tropical forest that would be our home for 
many weeks. 

A FLOATING LAB 

Neuenschwander's boat, the Neutron, was 
a 35-foot, steel-hulled launch powered by an 
ancient Buick engine of uncertain tempera- 
ment. The small cabin for'ard served as a 
floating laboratory where I worked when 
under way. We also towed a large canoe 
fitted with a powerful outboard motor for 
use in rapids, and for collecting on smaller 
streams. 

The Neutron's crew included two veteran 
rivermen who doubled as hunters — among 
the best I've ever known. The "motorista" 
also cooked, served meals, washed clothes 
and cared for the expedition mascots. In 
time these came to include a brace of baby 
peccaries, a large tortoise, several parakeets, 
a young white-faced night monkey and a 
testy red howler. The latter was a most 
ungrateful beast that bit hands, gorged on 
our last plantains, and deserted us at the 
first opportunity. 

A preliminary shakedown cruise seemed 
in order before undertaking the long and 
difficult trip up the Madre de Dios. For this 
I selected a large tributary stream, Rio 



Tambopata, where valuable collections might 
be made. Our days on the river were much 
alike. Breakfast was finished and camp 
broken by the time the sun was melting 
away the river mist; but not before enough 
birds had been shot to keep me busy at the 
skinning-table until well into the afternoon. 
As I worked, the motor strained against 
the current hour after hour, for as much as 
ten hours a day. Usually the noon meal was 
eaten aboard while under way. Finally, just 
before dark, we tied up at a convenient 
sandbank where supper was quickly cooked. 
Sometimes we went out later to jacklight 
owls and nightjars, or to fish. But more 
often the fire was dead and the camp 
stilled by 8 p.m. 

Our highest point on Rio Tambopata, 
and main collecting locality, was at the 
furthermost civilized habitation, a rubber 
hunter's site a little below the mouth of 
Rio Malinowski. Here we found several 
miles of forest trails that were ideal for 
hunting purposes. I commandeered one of 
the three thatch huts and set up shop on a 
porch overlooking a magnificent sweep of 
the river. 

Collpa was a place of much activity from 
the pre-dawn hours until nightfall. Outlying 
rubber hunters and their families drifted in 
and out at intervals and the yard seemed 
always overflowing with puppies, chickens, 
and dusky, beady-eyed children. The heat 
was often unbearable, the insects insuf- 
ferable, and the curiosity of the natives 
insatiable. But the area teemed with game, 
and with birdlife of such astonishing abund- 
ance and variety that I regretted the 
necessity of returning to Puerto Maldonado 
after a visit of only three weeks. 

INTO REAL WILDERNESS 

The distance by river between Puerto 
Maldonado and the Piro Indian village of 
Manu is roughly twice that as a macaw 
flies. The trip can be made in little 
more than a week by motorized canoe, 
but we stretched it out for a month in order 
to collect along the way. On leaving Puerto 
Maldonado, plantations soon drop behind 
and the region beyond is virtually unin- 
habited, even by Indians. 

Game was everywhere plentiful. We saw 
no jaguars, but their tracks and those of 
tapir, peccary, capybara, and deer were 
conspicuous on almost every mudbank. As 
we plowed somewhat noisily upstream, flocks 
of large-billed terns and skimmers rose from 
the gleaming playas in fright and often the 
boat was paced by heavily-winged herons of 
several varieties. From time to time green 
and blue kingfishers, some little larger than 
sparrows, darted across our bow. Flocks of 
screeching parrots and raucous- voiced bright- 
plumed macaws streamed high overhead 
toward distant fruiting trees. At almost every 
turn in the river we flushed cormorants, 
anhingas, ducks, crested screamers, wood 
ibises, and jabirus. And now and again we 



February, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



caught brief glimpses of more retiring birds — 
sungrebes, sunbitterns, tanagers and others. 
Established camps are essential to serious 
bird collecting. While ascending the Madre 
de Dios we occupied several for as much as 
ten days each. The daily routine at these 
bases was much like that at Collpa, on Rio 
Tambopata, but I preferred to work and to 
sleep ashore under a large tarpaulin erected 
on the wooded embankment. There, in the 
absence of local natives, interruptions were 
at a minimum. As our time ran out, the 
pressure of collecting increased and it was a 
rare day when the growing collection was 



area supported a population numbered in 
thousands. Today there remain fewer than 
two dozen scattered thatch huts, the homes 
of phlegmatic Piro Indians Fortunately, 
the single industry, a primitive sawmill, 
afforded me both shelter and a base of 
operations. The mill shed was small and 
littered, but space for my hammock and 
skinning table was found on either side of 
the shuttling log carriage. As I worked, the 
shrieking buzz-saw at my elbow presumably 
drowned out any opinions I may have voiced 
relating to the rain, the heat, the insects — 
and the noise. 




ASCENDING RIO MADRE DE DIOS 
The course of the expedition boat was flanked by unbroken walls of tropical forest. 



not enhanced by the addition of at least 
several new species. One, a partridge-like 
tinamou, is undoubtedly new to science, and 
several others may yet prove to be so. 

The dry season, affording optimum col- 
lecting conditions, held through September 
and into October. But, as the weeks slipped 
by, angry black thunderheads began to form 
in the hills far to the westward, lightning 
scored the skies at night, and showers be- 
came increasingly a daily occurrence. Then 
came the seasonal rains, the almost contin- 
uous drizzle punctuated by cloudbursts of 
torrential proportions that would continue 
through February, raise the rivers by as 
much as twenty feet, and inundate most of 
the region. 

Our sheltered camp near the mouth of 
Rio Colorado was almost swamped out by 
the first storm and we were never dry there- 
after. Hunting continued, but birds became 
difficult to find in the dim, dripping woods 
and the finished specimens almost impossible 
to dry. We remained for a week longer, but 
finally accepted the inevitable and pushed 
on to Manu. There I remained to round out 
the collection after releasing the Neutron 
and its crew for a speedy return home on the 
crest of the flood. 

Tradition has it that fifty years ago, at 
the height of the rubber boom, the Manu 



Field work of the Conover Peru Expedi- 
tion was concluded at Manu toward the 
end of October. By a stroke of good fortune 
I found passage up the Alto Madre de Dios 
to Hacienda Villa Carmen, head of naviga- 
tion, as supercargo in a mammoth dugout 
canoe powered by an outboard. For us the 
usual three-day trip required a week — a 
week that I'll long remember as a period of 
minor vexations, physical discomfort, short 
rations (for in time even monkey stew 
becomes disenchanting as a steady diet), 
and occasional near catastrophe in the swol- 
len waters. But arrive we did, to be wel- 
comed appropriately by Senor Palomino. 
That same night I crossed the now raging 
Rio Tono, bag and baggage, by cable plat- 
form during a driving rainstorm and boarded 
a truck for the long climb back to Cusco. 

All in all it had been a varied and interest- 
ing field trip, though largely routine as such 
things go. The scientific results will not be 
known for some time to come. First, the 
thousand-odd birds must be identified and 
catalogued, the new forms described and 
named, and the entire collection studied 
critically as steps in the preparation of the 
final technical report. In this manner, little 
by little, slowly and sometimes painfully, 
we learn more about the world around us, 
and of the myriad creatures that inhabit it. 



CURATOR TO MAKE STUDY 
IN BELGIAN CONGO 

On February 8, Dr. Robert F. Inger, 
Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles, and 
his wife, Mary Lee, will leave for the 
Belgian Congo. Dr. and Mrs. Inger are going 
at the request of the Institut des Pares 
Nationaux du Congo Beige in conjunction 
with a study of amphibians from the Pare 
National de la Garamba. This park is 
located in the northeastern portion of the 
Belgian Congo. The principal objectives of 
the field work are a survey of amphibian 
habitats and the collection and rearing of 
tadpoles. 

In collaboration with the late Dr. Karl 
P. Schmidt who was Curator Emeritus of 
Zoology, Dr. Inger prepared a report on 
amphibians from another national park in 
the Belgian Congo, the Pare National de 
l'Upemba. It was as an outgrowth of the 
Upemba study that the Institut des Pares 
Nationaux asked Dr. Inger to work on the 
amphibians of the Garamba. 



ANIMALS AT NIGHT 
IN AUDUBON FILM 

The first film of its kind — "Animals at 
Night in Color" — will be shown by the 
Illinois Audubon Society in the fourth of 
its current series of screen-tours on Sunday 
afternoons in the James Simpson Theatre 
of the Museum. This unique film will be 
accompanied by a lecture by Howard 
Cleaves. The movie, made by means of 
special techniques which Cleaves developed 
for the purpose, will be presented on 
February 22 at 2:30 P.M. Cleaves stalked 
and captured in color pictures the wildlife 
of Horicon Marsh in Wisconsin, the 
Okefenokee Swamp of Georgia, and other 
localities rich in animal inhabitants. Under 
the spell of strong beams of light employed 
by Cleaves, many timid birds and other 
animals became transfixed. Among those 
which apear in the film are grebes, plover, 
green-winged teal, chimney swifts, gray 
foxes, skunks, deer, alligators, raccoons, 
ospreys, coots and great blue herons. 

Members of the Museum and their guests 
are cordially invited to attend the lecture. 



Attendance Exceeds a Million 
for 32nd Year in a Row 

The number of visitors received at the 
Museum during 1958 was 1,049,401, mark- 
ing the 32nd successive year in which attend- 
ance has exceeded a million. As always, the 
great majority of visitors were admitted free 
of charge. There were 887,808 or more than 
84 per cent in this group, which includes 
those coming on the free days (Thursdays, 
Saturdays and Sundays), and children, teach- 
ers and students who are admitted free on 
all days. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



February, 1959 



NATURE PHOTO SHOW 
FEBRUARY 7-27 

RESULTS of the art of nature captured 
by the art of photography may be seen 
at the 14th Chicago International Exhibi- 
tion of Nature Photography which is to be 
held at the Museum, February 7 through 
February 27. 

Several hundred color and black-and-white 
prints of scenic and unusual natural phenom- 
ena, plant life and animal life, photographed 
by amateur and professional photographers, 
will be on display in Stanley Field Hall. In 



STAFF NOTES 




LION FISH 

An entry in the Nature Photo Show, submitted by 

Richard P. Klein, of Cleveland, Ohio. 



addition to the prints selected for exhibition 
accepted color-slides will be shown on the 
screen of the Museum's James Simpson 
Theatre on two Sundays, February 8 and 
February 15 at 2:30 p.m. Admission to both 
showings is free. 

The annual exhibition, sponsored jointly 
by the Museum and the Nature Camera 
Club of Chicago, is probably the world's 
largest competition devoted solely to nature 
photography and one of the major photo- 
graphic exhibits of any kind. Several hundred 
prints and slides will be shown, of which 
many will depict nature in far distant areas 
of the globe. 

Medals have been awarded to first place 
winners, and ribbons to those receiving 
honorable mention. The Photographic Soci- 
ety of America gave special prizes for slides 
best representing harmony in color. 

The photographs for the show were selected 
by a group of judges composed of: Anne 
Pilger Dewey, photographer; Dr. Roland W. 
Force, Curator of Oceanic Archaeology and 
Ethnology, and William D. Turnbull, Assis- 
tant Curator of Fossil Mammals at the 
Museum; N. J. Schmidt, photographer, and 
Edward T. Triner, biology teacher and 
naturalist. 

The list of contest winners will appear in 
the March Bulletin. 



Dr. Rainer Zangerl, Curator of Fossil 
Reptiles, attended a recent symposium on 
morphology organized by the American 
Society of Zoologists and held at Washington, 
D.C. ... Dr. Robert H. Denison, Curator 
of Fossil Fishes, recently made two study 
trips to scientific institutions in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, and Washington, D.C. While 
in the latter city he also attended the com- 
bined meetings of the American Society of 
Zoologists and the American Society for the 
Advancement of Science. He presented a 
paper on bone patterns in early vertebrates. 
. . . Emmet R. Blake, Curator of Birds, 
has been appointed to the Committee on 
Nomenclature and Classification of the 
American Ornithological Union. . . . 
Andre Nitecki, Cataloguer in the Library, 
will conduct a course in cultural anthropology 
under the title "Ways of Mankind" for the 
American Foundation for Adult Education. 
. . . Frank Jensik has been appointed 
Captain of the Guard. Prior to this promo- 
tion he was Senior Sergeant. 



Last Month of Bird Journey; 
Ancient Seas Next 

February is the last month of the Museum 
Journey for Children entitled "Chicago — 
Winter Resort for Birds." Beginning March 
1, the spring journey, "Life of Ancient Seas" 
will be offered, continuing through May 31. 
Boys and girls taking these Journeys obtain 
instructions and questionnaires at the 
Museum entrances. Those who complete a 
series of journeys on four different subjects 
receive awards as Museum Travelers. After 
eight Journeys they become Museum Adven- 
turers, and after twelve, Museum Explorers. 



NEW MEMBERS 

(December 16 to January 16) 

Contributor 

DeWitt Van Evera 

Life Members 

Avery Brundage, Mrs. Walter A. Krafft, 
Sanger P. Robinson, Mrs. Louis Ware 

Associate Members 

John G. American, Carlyle E. Anderson, 
Horace Barden, Mrs. Henry G. Barkhausen, 
Willmar A. Chulock, J. Beidler Camp, Mrs. 
Clarence L. Frederick, Mrs. Anne Rickcords 
Gait, F. Sewall Gardner, Robert A. Gardner, 
Jr., James R. Getz, Charles Iker, James S. 
Kemper, Lydon Wild 

Sustaining Member 

David Fentress 
Annual Members 

Bruce Adams, James R. Addington, Miss 
Chryl Barclay, William B. Berger, Dr. Stefan 
Bielinski, Dr. Arthur A. Billings, Roger M. 
Cavanaugh, Mrs. Jerome Cerny, Henry E. 
Cutler, Dr. Steven G. Economou, Paul W. 



ADULT FILM-LECTURES 
BEGIN MARCH 7 

"An Adriatic Holiday" will open the 
Museum's 111th series of color films and 
lectures for adults on Saturday, March 7. 
The eight programs in the spring series will 
be given on successive Saturdays during 
March and April at 2:30 p.m. in James 
Simpson Theatre of the Museum. The lec- 
tures, made possible by the Edward E. Ayer 
Lecture Foundation Fund, are free. 

The schedule for March is as follows: 

March 7 — Adriatic Holiday 

Karl Robinson 

March 14 — Wild Life in Deep Freeze 

Carl Eklund 

March 21 — Colorado Through the Seasons 
Alfred M. Bailey 

March 28 — Ireland 
Willis Butler 

A complete schedule of the lectures will 
appear in the March Bulletin. A section 
of the Theatre is reserved for Members of 
the Museum, and each is entitled to two re- 
served seats for each program. Requests 
should be made in advance by telephone 
(WAbash 2-9410) or by mail. Seats will be 
held in the Member's name until 2:25 p.m. 
on the day of the lecture. 



SATURDAY PROGRAMS 
FOR CHILDREN 

The Museum's spring series of children's 
programs will open on March 7 with "Red 
Riding Hood's Shopping Trip," a lively 
puppet show staged by the Apple Tree 
Workshop of Chicago Heights. 

The spring series, sponsored by the James 
Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Founda- 
tion, offers seven free programs to be 
presented on Saturday mornings during 
March and April at 10:30 in James Simpson 
Theatre of the Museum. Again this year 
the museum will honor various young peo- 
ple's organizations. However, all boys and 
girls, whether they are affiliated with a 
group or not, are invited to attend. 

Saturday, March 14 will be Cub Scout 
Day at the Museum. The program scheduled 
for that day, "Canada, Land of the 
Mounties," includes three films which carry 
out the Cub Scout theme for the month of 
March. 

A complete schedule of children's pro- 
grams will appear in the March Bulletin. 

Guenzel, Rembrandt C. Hiller, Jr., William 
P. Hodgkins, Jr., Dr. Georges Jean-Baptiste, 
Paul Jorgensen, Reverend Hilary S. Jurica, 
Richard E. Kleeman, Mrs. Robert Lester, 
Frank J. McCabe, Jr., Charles Molnar, 
Harry V. Roberts, Samuel B. Shapiro, Mrs. 
Minita Trainor, George Woodward 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



CHICAGOjO // *- 



HISTORY 
MUSEUM 



Vol SO 



JVo. 3 
4959 




Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



March, 1959 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery William V. Kahler 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen J. Roscoe Miller 

Chesser M. Campbell William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Joseph N. Field Clarence B. Randall 

Marshall Field, Jr. John G. Searle 

Stanley Field Solomon A. Smith 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Louis Ware 
John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Hughston M. McBain First Vice-President 

Walther Buchen Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 

Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
Patricia McAfee Associate in Public Relations 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



JUNIOR 'BEST SELLERS' 

PUBLISHED FOR CHILDREN 

HAVE YOU EVER READ one of Ray- 
mond Foundation's "Museum Stories" 
for children? 

"Museum Stories" are printed as four-page 
leaflets. Each story presents in clear and in- 
teresting style a specific subject in anthro- 
pology, botany, geology, or zoology. Each 
of the seven young women of the Raymond 
Foundation staff who write the stories spe- 
cializes in one of the four sciences (although 
all are qualified to lecture in general on any 
of them in the course of their duties). The 
stories are illustrated by artists of the Mu- 
seum staff. 

Most of the "Museum Stories" tie in with 
the subjects of the films on the spring and 
fall programs for children presented by Ray- 
mond Foundation in James Simpson Thea- 
tre, and free copies are given to the children 
who attend. Afterwards the leaflets are pub- 
lished in booklets with attractive covers 
(booklets contain eight or nine stories and 
are available at 25 cents each). 

"Museum Stories" have received wide- 
spread recognition and commendation as 
valuable supplemental teaching aids from 
school authorities, parents, and others in- 
terested in education. Because of their 
brevity, attractive illustrations, and pocket 
format, the stories readily command the 



attention of the young readers to whom they 
are addressed and do not encounter the re- 
sistance that a formidable-appearing text- 
book might receive. 

Following is a typical example of the text 
and illustration of a "Museum Story": 

ANIMALS OF THE BIBLE 

By MARYL ANDRE 

In Genesis, the first book of the Bible, we 
find that the people who wrote the Bible 
were very much aware of the world around 
them. They observed and recorded what 
they could see of the natural world. They 
saw the differences among animals of the 
water, the sky, and the land. They could 
see that some swam, some were airborne, 
some walked, and some crawled. They 
watched closely enough to see that each had 
special habits and that each lived in a spe- 
cial place. 

We read in Genesis: "And out of the 
ground the Lord God formed every beast of 
the field, and every fowl of the air; and 
brought them unto Adam to see what he 
would call them: and whatsoever Adam 
called every living creature, that was the 
name thereof." Each man who translated 
the Bible into his own language used the ani- 
mal name familiar to him. Many kinds of 
animals were known by one name (all ani- 
mals that lived in water were called fish), 
and one kind of animal may have had many 
names (cattle were called oxen, cattle, kine, 
bullocks). We try to understand the animal 
names in the Bible in terms of what we know 
of the animal life of ancient times. 

The areas populated by the Israelites, at 
the time of which the Bible tells, included 
great forests, open grasslands, and trackless 
deserts. We try to learn the natural history 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



This Museum is the only place 
in Chicago where you can now see 
a giant panda. Since the death of 
the three giant pandas that have 
been residents of the Brookfield 
Zoo, neither Brookfield nor Lin- 
coln Park Zoo has had an animal 
of this kind. Su-lin, the first zoo 
resident, came in 1937, died in 
1938; Mei-mei died in 1942; Mei- 
lan lived thirteen and a half years 
in the zoo (the longest life in cap- 
tivity of any giant panda on rec- 
ord) and died in 1953. The conflict 
of political ideologies in today's 
world has prevented any zoo re- 
placements because of the United 
States restrictions on imports, 
including even giant pandas, from 
behind the Bamboo Curtain of 
Communist China where these 
fascinating rare animals live. The 
habitat group of giant pandas in 
the Museum, shown on our cover, 
is composed of specimens collected 
in 1928 by the late Brig. Gen. 
Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., and his 
brother Kermit, while leading the 
William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Ex- 
pedition in Central Asia. They 
were the first specimens, either 
living or dead, ever to arrive in 
America. Also on exhibition in 
the Museum, mounted in lifelike 
and characteristic playful atti- 
tude, is Su-lin. 




ving by Staff Artist E. John Phffner 



ANIMALS OF THE BIBLE 



of that part of the ancient world from the 
stories that have been handed down by word 
of mouth and eventually written, centuries 
later, often in story form. Today we base 



our knowledge on fossils found by digging in 

the area. We know what animals lived in 

the Holy Land in one period after another, 

(Continued on page 5, column 2) 



March, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



PageS 



LECTURES RANGE FROM EUROPE TO WILDERNESS TRAILS 



THERE'S SOMETHING for everyone 
in the spring lectures and color films 
to be offered at the Museum on Satur- 
day afternoons during March and April. 
This, the 111th series provided by the Ed- 
ward E. Ayer Lecture Foundation Fund, in- 
cludes not only remote and little traveled 
areas far off the beaten track, but also the 
shores of European countries now beckoning 
to new hordes of travelers as another peak 
season looms. There are filmed trips to such 
popular tourist magnets as France, Sicily, 
and Ireland, as well as the less-known Adri- 
atic coast of Yugoslavia. Those who yearn 
for hardier adventure where few of their 
friends and neighbors are likely to turn up 
will find lectures and films on the most re- 
mote of all wildernesses — Antarctica — as well 
as the faraway Falkland Islands, and the 
jungles of Venezuela. Still others will favor 
the films of nature's beauty in the moun- 
tains of our own Colorado. 

The lectures will be given on the eight 
Saturday afternoons of the two-month sea- 
son in the James Simpson Theatre of the 
Museum. All will begin at 2:30 P.M. Ad- 
mission is free. For Museum Members and 
their guests there are reserved seats avail- 
able. Reservations may be made by mail 
or telephone (WAbash 2-9410). 

Following are dates, subjects and lecturers: 

March 7 — Adriatic Holiday 

Karl Robinson 

The traveler over the usual European cir- 
cuits never sees it, yet the Dalmatian coast 
of Yugoslavia, where Karl Robinson takes 
his audience in color-film, is one of the most 
breathtakingly beautiful regions of the con- 
tinent. He also covers the fascinating in- 
land regions of the Slovenian, Croatian, 
Herzegovingian and Macedonian country- 
sides with their picturesque peoples and a 
history that goes back until it is enveloped 
in the mists of legend. The feats of jousting 
knights of old are revived by skilled horse- 
men, and ancient legends are relived in the 
exciting folk dances of the country. 

March 14 — Wildlife in Deep Freeze 

Carl Eklund 

From late 1956 until February, 1958, Carl 
Eklund was scientific leader of Wilkes Sta- 
tion in Antarctica, one of four major U. S. 
bases in the South Pole area for the Inter- 
national Geophysical Year. In 1939-41 he 
was one of the principal associates of Ad- 
miral Byrd on the U. S. Antarctic Expedi- 
tion. From these experiences in this eerie 
region, Eklund has brought a wealth of re- 
vealing information and thousands of feet of 
exciting color film. One of his outstanding 
exploits was an 84-day trek of 1,260 miles 
through the unknown over a region described 
as the most dangerous crevassed area that 
can ever be encountered. 



March 21 — Colorado Through the 
Seasons 

Alfred M. Bailey 

Here is Colorado at its best. Dr. Alfred M. 
Bailey, formerly a member of the staff of this 
Museum and for years a favorite of our lec- 
ture audiences, is Director of the Denver 
Museum of Natural History. His films are 
packed with beauty and excitement: spring 
in Rocky Mountain National Park; a pack 



RESERVED SEATS 
FOR MEMBERS 
No tickets are necessary for ad- 
mission to these lectures. A sec- 
tion of the Theatre is allocated to 
Members of the Museum, each of 
whom is entitled to two reserved 
seats. Requests for these seats 
should be made in advance by 
telephone (WAbash 2-9410) or in 
writing, and seats will be held in 
the Member's name until 2:25 
o'clock on the lecture day. 



train trip through the Gore Range for big 
game; the Black Canyon of the Gunnison; 
the Garden of the Red Rocks and the Garden 
of the Gods; Mesa Verde; winter skiing at 
Steamboat Springs. It's the next thing to 
making your own trip to this western para- 
dise, and not many people could remain all 
through spring, summer, autumn and winter 
to witness the changing vistas which the film 
brings to its viewers. 

March 28 — Ireland 

Willis Butler 

Erin is the land of Willis Butler's ances- 
tors, and in his film he presents comprehen- 
sive, beneath-the-surface coverage of all the 
country, from Cork to Belfast, and from the 
Aran Islands to Dublin — the geography, his- 
tory, industry, government, tourist attrac- 
tions, and the rich human interest and spirit 
of Ireland. The island's long indented coast- 
line, flanked by mountains and sandy beaches, 
presents dramatic scenic panoramas. Its po- 
sition off the western coast of Europe between 
the Old World and the New enhances the 
interest of its pre-Christian forts, medieval 
castles, and ancient abbeys standing side-by- 
side with modern industrial plants and public 
buildings. And always close by is a back- 
ground of peaceful countryside. 

April 4 — France 

Kenneth Richter 

France, they say, is everybody's "second 
country." Also, for years, politically and 
otherwise, it has been an enigma. To Ken- 
neth Richter, it is the people and their lives 
that make a country interesting — their his- 



tory, their art, their culture, their industries. 
In his film he explains the France of today 
so well that he was awarded the Detroit 
World Adventure Series silver popularity 
trophy. He reviews the beautiful evidence 
of the periods of France's greatness, and then 
presents the nation as it is today — still ex- 
celling in many arts and specialized indus- 
tries despite the tribulations through which 
it has lived. 

April 11 — Sicily, Island of the Sun 

Robert Davis 

In sun-drenched color Robert Davis' film 
surveys this Mediterranean island that was 
settled by the Phoenicians more than five 
centuries before the Christian era. Archae- 
ological treasures of the island include the 
Greek Theatre at Syracuse which was famil- 
iar to Plato and Archimedes, and an ancient 
Roman villa. The Middle Ages are repre- 
sented by Monreale, an architectural wonder 
offering a symphony of dazzling Byzantine 
mosaics, and the medieval village of Erice 
where Venus ruled over the destinies of gods 
and women. Modern crafts, arts, music, and 
dancing of quaint inhabitants are shown 
along with the strides that modern industry 
and commerce have made in Sicily. 

April 18— The Faraway Falklands 

Olin Sewall Pettingill, Jr. 

The Falkland Islands are a windswept, 
treeless land in the far South Atlantic, iso- 
lated from the nearest continent, South 
America, by 300 miles of stormy sea. These 
islands are the nesting place of some fifty 
different kinds of birds which flock there in 
enormous numbers; there are no native land 
mammals, no reptiles, no amphibians, no ob- 
noxious insects. The only predators on birds 
are certain other birds. In his color film, 
Dr. Olin Sewall Pettingill, Jr., brings the ab- 
sorbing story of the life of winged creatures 
in this place where they are so dominant. 
Among the inhabitants are such interesting 
species as albatrosses, penguins, shags, skuas, 
Antarctic pipits, ground tyrants, flightless 
steamer ducks and slender-billed whalebirds. 

April 25 — Ranch of the Purple Flowers 

Robert C. Hermes 

In Venezuela there is a vast cattle ranch 
named "El Hato de Flores Morades" (Ranch 
of the Purple Flowers). It lies in the great 
basin of the Orinoco, and the prairie is dot- 
ted with palmetto groves and jungles. Many 
interesting birds, mammals and reptiles make 
their home there. Robert C. Hermes lived 
there a long time, recording in color film this 
interesting wildlife community as well as the 
life of the ranchers. Among the "stars" of 
his film are azure blue tanagers, sun bitterns, 
blue-winged parrotlets, soldier storks, orange- 
throated chacalacas, scarlet ibises, lizards, 
exotic butterflies, a strange mammal called 
the pecuri, and various monkeys. 



Page U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



March, 1959 



COMMON BIRD NAMES 
ARE ALL CONFUSED 

By AUSTIN L. RAND 

CHIEF CURATOR OF ZOOLOGY 

ONE NAME for one bird sounds a lot 
easier than it is. A European bird which 
an American would think of as a chickadee is 
the great til in England; the Kohlmeise in 
Germany; the Talgmees in Sweden; the 
mesange charbonniere in France and the 
cinciallegra in Italy. No wonder the scien- 
tists of various countries use an international 
system of naming, whereby the bird is known 
to all students, irrespective of their nation- 
ality, as Parus major. 

Even people who speak the same lan- 
guage don't use the same name for a bird. 
The great northern diver, the moorhen, the 
sand martin and the goldcrest of England 
become the common loon, Florida gallinule, 
bank swallow and kinglet of North America. 

Even within the United States the same 
bird passes under different names among 
country people in different places, despite 





oose 



Tailorjs Goose ^ "Tailors Gooses 



Drawing by Ruth Andris 



the standardization that official lists and 
bird books are bringing. The ruffed grouse 
may pass as a birch partridge in New 
England, and as a pheasant in the Carolina 
mountains; the coot of New England may 
be a scoter, which is a duck; while the 
proper coot of the bird books, which is a 
rail, may pass as a mud-hen. 

"official" book names change 

Not only do English names vary with the 
locality among country people, but book- 
conscious bird people of the United States 
who follow the "official" American Ornitho- 
logists Union check-list may have to change 
some English names with each edition of 
the list. The duck hawk of the 1931 edition 
disappears in the peregrine falcon of the 
1955 edition; the willow thrush of 1931 in 
the veery of 1957, and so on, while the 
earlier Bartramian sandpiper and the prairie 



hen of the 1895 edition have become the 
upland plover and a prairie chicken. (In 
the latter the heath hen has now merged.) 

Many birds had no English names when 
the world was being explored and novelties 
were being brought in from its four corners. 
As people began to write and talk about 
them, we adopted "English" names from a 
variety of sources: emu and albatross from 
the Portuguese, cassowary from the Malay, 
mynah from Hindu, kiwi from Maori, and 
tinamou from the Indian. For some, book 
names were coined: rhea from mythology, 
tropic bird from its habitat, road-runner 
from its habit, bobwhite from its call, and 
junco from its scientific name. 

That all is not yet plain sailing in the 
"English name" field can easily be demon- 
strated by asking an ornithologist the dif- 
ference between a pigeon and a dove, or 
between a parrot, parakeet, paroquet and 
parrotlet. 

PLURALS ADD TO CONFUSION 

With such confusion as this, no wonder the 
question of plurals 
causes some trouble. 
Whether or not tit- 
mice was the plural of 
titmouse posed a ques- 
tion that recalled the 
tailor who, having need 
of a tailor's goose, de- 
cided to order two of 
them. Unable to make 
up his mind as to the 
plural, and as neither 
two tailor's geese nor 
two tailor's gooses 
scribbled on his blot- 
ter looked right, he 
finally begged the ques- 
tion by ordering one, 
and adding a post- 
script, "Please send 
two instead of one." 

When I looked up 
"titmouse" I found 
that British ornithologists, who are the 
people that used to use titmouse for the birds 
we call chickadees, have solved the problem 
in their current bird books in an unorthodox 
fashion by begging the question. The word 
titmouse has nothing to do with the word 
mouse used for a small rodent. It comes 
from the Anglo-Saxon mase, closely related 
to the German meise; the Dutch mees. The 
prefix tit, meaning small, was then added, 
so that in Middle English the word became 
titemase or titmase. Then through a false 
analogy with mouse it became titmouse. 
The plural, said Alfred Newton, that noted 
authority of the last century on things 
ornithological, is not titmice, but is titmouses. 
However, when I turn to my unabridged 
Webster dictionary in my office, I find that 
the plural is given as titmice. As the word 
has been chiefly of English usage, I looked 
in the current British bird books to see what 



Canada G-eese 




they used. And I found that the word has 
undergone a further transformation. The 
British have dropped the mouse, and the 
small birds are now known as tits; singular, 
tit. Through a series of transitions over the 
centuries mase became titmase, became tit- 
mouse, and finally became tit. 

Unlike titmouse and mouse, the name 
goose and tailor's goose are related: the big 
smoothing iron of the tailor gets its name 
from the shape of its handle being like that 
of a goose's neck. Yet the plural of titmouse 
is titmice, while the tailor's goose in the 
plural becomes tailor's gooses. 

Like titmouse and mouse, mongoose and 
goose are unrelated words; mongoose comes 
from the mungus of a Sanskritic language 
spoken in Deccan. Yet, while titmouse be- 
comes titmice, mongoose becomes mon- 
gooses in the plural. By analogy one would 
expect moose (for a North American Indian 
word) in the plural to be mooses, but 
singular and plural are the same according 
to my dictionary. 

Analogy just doesn't get us anywhere in 
forming plurals: mouse becomes mice; louse, 
lice; but grouse does not become grice. Just 
how wrong one can be in deducing what 
plurals should be used is well illustrated by 
a story I heard in the north concerning a 
whaling captain whose ship was frozen in 
for the winter in the western Arctic Ocean 
near Herschel Island, back in the heyday of 
northern whaling. Here he came into con- 
tact with the words lynx and muskox for the 
first time. The singular and plural he formed 
as follows: link, lynx; muskok, muskox. 

Sports and occupation often have vocabu- 
laries peculiar to them, and special ways of 
saying things. Sportsmen, gunners, hunters 
and field naturalists, who come into close 
touch with birds in the wild, and who use 
their names in everyday conversation, do 
not form the plural of many bird names as 
do other, more bookish people, but use the 
same form for both singular and plural. This 
has found its way into the dictionaries, as 
one can check by looking up such words as 
canvasback, crane, curlew, willet, gannet, 
grebe, kittiwake and partridge. 

From this state of affairs the bird scientist 
retires thankfully into his ornithology, where 
the vast majority of birds have only one 
current name and name changes, when they 
are proposed, must meet a rigid set of rules 
and be thoroughly documented. 



Brazilian Entomologist Here 

Father Francisco S. Pereira, CMF, of the 
Department of Zoology, Secretariat of Agri- 
culture, Sao Paulo, Brazil, spent February 
studying the Museum's collections of scarab 
beetles. Father Pereira, who is here on a 
Guggenheim Fellowship, is one of the prin- 
cipal authorities on the classification of the 
coprine scarab beetles, a group of about 
9,000 species that includes the well-known 
sacred scarab. 



March, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



NATURE PHOTO CONTEST 
AWARDS ANNOUNCED 

Shown below is one of the top prize-win- 
ning entries in the 14th Chicago Interna- 
tional Exhibition of Nature Photography 
held at the Museum last month in co-opera- 
tion with the Chicago Nature Camera Club. 

It is "Fighting Mantid" by Van Davis, 
of Oakland, California, winner of the first- 
prize medal for prints in the Animal Life 
Section. 

Other medal winners were: Plant Life Sec- 
tion — Prints, "Shadows," by Henry Soron 
of Arlington, Massachusetts; General Sec- 
tion — Prints, "Nature's Compass," by John 
Bajgert, of Chicago; Animal Life — Color 
Slides, "Swallow Quintet," by Mrs. John E. 
Walsh, of Beverly, Massachusetts; Plant 
Life — Color Slides, "Fringed Beauties," by 




MEDAL WINNER 
"Fighting Mantid" by Van Davis, of Oakland, Cali- 
fornia, won first prize for prints in the Animal Life 
Section of the Nature Photo Show held at the 
Museum last month by Chicago Nature Camera Club. 

Raymond E. Schortman, of Easthampton, 
Massachusetts; General — Color Slides, "Si- 
erra Inferno," by M. G. Smith, of Fresno, 
California. Special color slide medals, 
awarded by the Photographic Society of 
America, went to "Iridescence II," by W. S. 
Duggan, of Everett, Washington, and "Dro- 
sera Rotundifolia," by B. Petersen, of Niag- 
ara Falls, New York. In addition, honor- 
able mention ribbons were awarded to 29 
others in the Print Division, and to 66 in 
the Color Slide Division. 

This year's contest and exhibition were 
the largest yet conducted by the Chicago 
Nature Camera Club. The number of en- 
tries was greater than ever before, and the 
quality of photography submitted compared 
favorably with past years. Of the 3,640 pic- 
tures entered, 3,120 were color transparen- 
c es and 520 were prints, including about 
three dozen large color prints made by the 



dye transfer process. Numerous entries 
were received from foreign countries to make 
the exhibition truly international in scope. 
The five judges took two days to reach their 
decisions, yet none of them, in the light of a 
new day, would deny that among pictures 
that failed to receive awards were many 
equal in worthiness to those chosen. 



BIBLE ANIMALS- 

(Continued from page 2) 

beginning with Stone Age man right down 
to the present time. 

From piles of bones that have been exca- 
vated near altars we know which animals 
were used by the Israelites for sacrificial pur- 
poses. Cattle, goats, sheep, turtledoves, or 
pigeons without blemish were chosen as 
offerings. 

The Book of Leviticus tells us which ani- 
mals the Israelites were allowed to eat and 
which they were not allowed to eat. Some 
of the ones that they could eat were animals 
described as cloven-footed and chewers of 
the cud (cattle, goats, ibexes, antelopes, ga- 
zelles), fish with scales and fins, locusts, 
crickets, and quail. Animals that were for- 
bidden for food were the camel, cony, hare, 
swine, eagle, osprey, kite, owl, falcon, raven, 
ostrich, sea gull, cormorant, pelican, vulture, 
stork, heron, lapwing, and bat. Creeping 
things were forbidden: the weasel, mouse, 
tortoise, ferret, chameleon, lizard, snail, and 
mole. You will notice that the bat is grouped 
with birds, while both vertebrates and inver- 
tebrates are talked about in the same group 
of "creeping things." 

The wild animals known to the Israelites 
of the Old Testament were those native to 
Africa and Asia Minor — the lion and leopard, 
the jackal, cobra, and elephant (not named, 
but ivory was referred to frequently). The 
giraffe or "camelopard" was called by the 
Hebrew word meaning "to crop leaves," a 
good description of this long-necked leaf- 
eater. Apes and monkeys were worshipped 
by the ancient Egyptians. 

Some animals were referred to with myth- 
ical or romantic names. "Unicorn" is 
believed to describe the single-horned rhi- 
noceros. The "behemoth" was the hippo- 
potamus, and the "leviathan" was the 
crocodile. 



Daily Guide-Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 P.M. on Monday through Friday and at 
2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available Mon- 
days through Fridays for parties of ten or 
more persons by advance request. 



GUIDEBOOK TO BIRDS 
OF CHICAGOLAND 

The Museum has just published Chicago- 
land Birds — Where and When to Find Them, 
a handy pocket-size guidebook with concise 
text, maps and charts. The booklet was 
compiled by Mrs. Hermon Dunlap (Ellen 
Thome) Smith, Associate in the Division of 
Birds. Maps and drawings are by William J. 
Beecher, Director of the Chicago Academy 
of Sciences. 

Each bird listed is keyed to indicate its 
habitat and the localities where it can be ex- 
pected to occur most often and in greatest 
numbers. The key-symbols refer to a sec- 
tion devoted to major birding areas in the 
vicinity of Chicago. The booklet contains a 
birding calendar suggesting in general where 
to look for birds month by month. Visi- 
tations have been recorded in the Chicago 
area of 366 species of birds, the booklet 
states in a summary of statistical data. 
There are graphs listing the birds, lo- 
calities, and seasons of occurrence; oppo- 
site each of these are duplicate lists with 
provision for the entry of detailed records 
by the bird lovers owning the book. 

Copies are available in the Book Shop of 
the Museum at 50 cents each. Mail orders 
are accepted. 



SECRETS OF THE SEA 
IN AUDUBON FILM 

From the dawn of history man has known 
the sea, lived by it and on it, but an aura of 
mystery still surrounds the creatures that 
exist beneath its surface and along its shores. 
One of the scientists and naturalists who 
have devoted their lives to discovering and 
revealing many of the sea's secrets is Dr. 
G. Clifford Carl, marine biologist and di- 
rector of the Provincial Museum of Natural 
History of British Columbia. Under the 
auspices of the Illinois Audubon Society, 
Dr. Carl will lecture, and show his undersea 
color film "Secrets of the Sea" made beneath 
the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest 
in the James Simpson Theatre of the Mu- 
seum on Sunday afternoon, March 8, at 
2:30 p.m. 

Dr. Carl's area of operations extended 
from the rocky shores of Vancouver Island 
to the bleak fogbound beaches of the Pribilof 
Islands of Alaska. His camera caught such 
intriguing creatures as brilliant orange, yel- 
low and pink starfish, prickly sea-urchins 
pushing themselves over the rocks by means 
of their spines and teeth, hermit crabs spar- 
ring among themselves, a fearful-looking 
skate gliding by on its wing-like fins, an 
octopus slithering through seaweed, fan- 
tastic sea-snails, porpoises at play, and 
whales spouting and diving. 

Admission to the lecture is free, and Mem- 
bers of the Museum and their guests are 
cordially invited to attend. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



March, 1959 



UPPER LAKES FARMERS 
AND ARTISTS, 100 B.C. 

BY GEORGE I. QUIMBY 

CURATOR OP NORTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 
AND ETHNOLOGY 

THE HOPEWELL INDIANS were a 
prehistoric mound-building people who 
occupied parts of the eastern United States 
for more than a thousand years beginning 
around 500 B.C. Their primary cultural 
centers were in the central Mississippi, Ohio, 
and Illinois river valleys. These Indians 
were farmers, traders, and artists of excep- 
tional ability. 

About 100 B.C. some groups of Hopewell 
Indians entered the Upper Great Lakes re- 
gion from their cultural center in the Illinois 
River Valley. Being a riverine people, they 
traveled up the Illinois River to the Kanka- 
kee, then they followed the Kankakee to its 




CEREMONIAL JAR 
An example of Hopewell pottery in fired clay 

headwaters in northwestern Indiana and 
crossed the portage to the St. Joseph River 
Valley of southwestern Michigan. 

After establishing their settlements and 
ceremonial centers along the upper Kanka- 
kee and lower St. Joseph rivers, the Hope- 
well Indians went northward in western 
Michigan, probably first to the Kalamazoo 
Valley, then to the lower Grand River Val- 
ley where they established an important 
ceremonial center at the present site of 
Grand Rapids. 

Somewhat later, groups of Grand River 
Hopewellians settled in the valley of the 
Muskegon River. This was the northern- 
most occupancy of the Upper Great Lakes 
region by Hopewell Indians, although in the 
upper Mississippi region of western Wiscon- 
sin other groups of Hopewell Indians had 
settled even farther north. 

OCCUPIED FOREST AREAS 

In either case the northernmost occupancy 
of each region by Hopewell Indians was 
within a deciduous forest zone which at that 
time probably was dominated by oak and 
hickory, but which in historic times was 



composed principally of maple, beech, birch, 
and hemlock. The northernmost occupancy 
of Hopewell Indians in both the Upper Great 
Lakes and upper Mississippi regions was also 
limited by climate. They favored a rela- 
tively warm climate and did not settle north 
of the line that in modern times designates 
a frost-free season of at least 150 days. 

This climatic limitation on the Hopewell 
Indians must have been related to their agri- 
cultural pursuits. They made their living 
by farming and supplemented their food pro- 
duction by hunting and fishing. They raised 
corn, squash, perhaps beans, and probably 
tobacco. But corn growing most likely was 
limited by the climate. It seems probable 
that in Hopewell times tropical corn had 
not yet been adapted to growth in cooler re- 
gions. Yet by a.d. 1700 Indian corn was 
being raised on the south side of Lake Super- 
ior, well north of the zone of Hopewell occu- 
pancy and in an era probably of cooler world 
climate. 

The Hopewell Indians seem to have 
hunted all of the available animals, particu- 
larly deer. The animals available included 
all or nearly all of those still found in the 
region when the first Europeans arrived 
about a thousand years after the end of 
Hopewell culture. The only domesticated 
animal of the Hopewell Indians was the dog. 

PHYSICAL TRAITS REVEALED 

The physical appearance of the Hopewell 
Indians can be reconstructed from their 
skeletons and some small sculptured figures 
found in their burial places. These Indians 
were of medium height and long-headed or 
medium long-headed. The figurines suggest 
that they were stocky or plump, particularly 
the women, with oval faces and "slant" eyes. 

The men wore breech cloths of animal skin 
or woven fabric and the women wore wrap- 
around skirts of woven cloth or skin. Both 
men and women wore slipper-like moccasins, 
probably made of animal skin. The women 
seem to have worn their hair long in back 
but parted in the middle on top of the head 
and drawn back above the ears. Men re- 
moved some of their hair leaving a forelock 
in front and long hair gathered into a knot 
at the back of the head. 

Their dwellings probably were types of 
wigwams, round or oval in plan with dome- 
shaped roofs, made of saplings covered with 
bark, mats, or skins. 

Their villages and ceremonial centers were 
always along rivers. They erected large con- 
ical or dome-shaped mounds of earth over 
the dead and built earthen walls enclosing 
large areas that were circular, oval, or rec- 
tangular. 

GRAND RAPIDS SITE 

The largest Hopewell ceremonial center in 
the Upper Great Lakes region was at the 
present site of Grand Rapids, Michigan. 
Near the center of town on the west side of 
the Grand River there formerly stood a 



group of about 30 to 40 mounds, the largest 
of which was at least 30 feet high and 200 
feet in circumference. On the opposite side 
of the river about two miles south of the city 
there is a group of 15 mounds the largest of 
which is 15 feet high and about 100 feet in 
diameter. There once seems to have been 
associated with this mound group a large 
rectangular enclosure with low walls of earth. 
A Hopewell site in the St. Joseph River 
Valley, at which there was a group of nine 
mounds, was associated with an enclosure 
about 80 feet wide and 110 feet long, shaped 
like a horseshoe. The walls of earth have 
disappeared but the outline of the enclosure 
still shows in aerial photographs. In the 
Ohio Hopewell center there are many very 
elaborate earth wall enclosures constructed 
by the Indians. 

During a part of each summer some groups 
of Hopewell Indians left their settlements on 
the rivers and moved to the shore of Lake 
Michigan. These summer campsites were 
always located in sheltered hollows among 
sand dunes, usually in areas of land between 
Lake Michigan and an inland lake or river 
estuary. Food refuse collected from one of 
these sites included remains of bear, beaver, 
deer, wolf, muskrat, rabbit, large-mouth 
bass, channel catfish, sheepshead, painted 
turtle, and mussel. 

ENGAGED IN TRADE 

The Hopewell Indians made great use of 
exotic raw materials for the manufacture of 
tools, weapons, ornaments, and objects used 
in religious ceremonies. To obtain these raw 
materials they engaged in widespread trade 
and commerce. 

From the Rocky Mountain region of the 
Far West they obtained obsidian for their 
ceremonial blades and grizzly bear teeth for 
ornaments. Large marine shells they got 
from the South Atlantic coast and the Gulf 
of Mexico. Copper and silver came from the 
mines in the western Lake Superior area, and 
mica sheets came from the Middle Atlantic 
coastal region. Galena or lead was brought 
into the Upper Great Lakes region from 
Missouri and northwestern Illinois. 

Tools and weapons were made of copper, 
stone, and bone. There were ungrooved 
axes of copper and polished stone; awls of 




Q 



HOPEWELL EAR ORNAMENTS 
Spool-shaped, they are fashioned of copper 

bone, antler, and copper; corner-notched 
projectile points of chipped flint; knives of 
chipped flint and obsidian; needles of bone 
and copper; small flake knives; large cere- 
monial blades of chipped flint of unusual 
coloring; graving tools of stone, beaver in- 



March, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



cisors, and copper; and scrapers and drills 
of chipped flint. 

The Hopewell Indians had musical instru- 
ments. Most characteristic were panpipes 
consisting of three or four conjoined tubes 
of bone or reed, graduated in length, and 
bound together with a broad, flat, encircling 
band of silver or copper. They also had 
rattles of various kinds including some made 
of turtle shell and they probably had drums. 

STONE TOBACCO PIPES 

Tobacco pipes made of polished stone were 
of the platform type with a bowl centered on 
a platform and a stem hole from one end of 
the platform to the bowl. Most such pipes 
were simple, symmetrical, curved base plat- 
forms with spool or barrel-shaped bowls. 
Some were elaborate effigy forms with bowls 




COPPER AXES 

Preserved on them by copper salts are the imprints 

of textiles made by the Hopewell Indians. 

carved realistically in the form of animals 
and humans. One such pipe had a bowl 
carved in the form of a bear, another had a 
bowl in the form of a nude woman seated on 
the platform. Still another pipe with two 
bowls had a platform carved to represent an 
alligator. 

The Hopewell Indians had fine pottery 
and utensils. There were spoons made of 
notched mussel shells and probably of wood. 
Large dippers or containers were made of 
imported marine shells. 

Pottery was of several styles. There was 
a utilitarian ware consisting of round or co- 
noidal based jars made of fired clay tempered 
with particles of granitic stone and covered 
on the exterior with the imprints of a cord- 
wrapped paddle. A characteristic Hopewel- 
lian ware similar in paste and form to the 
ware just described differed in that the exte- 
rior surface was smoothed and then deco- 
rated with bands and zones of rather thick 
dentate stamp impressions. 

FIRED CLAY POTTERY 

The finest pottery ever found in the pre- 
historic Upper Great Lakes region was the 
Hopewell ceremonial ware made of fired clay 
tempered with small particles of limestone. 
Characteristic of this type were small quad- 
rilobate jars with flat bottoms. The smooth 
gray surfaces of such vessels were decorated 
with contrasting body zones filled with 
closely spaced impresions of a fine toothed 



dentate stamp rocked back and forth. The 
rims were decorated with a band of fine 
cross-hatching. This pottery probably was 
made only for burial with the dead. 

Some other Hopewell pottery types seem 
to have been copies of this fine ceremonial 
ware. These types, represented by jars with 
round or flat bottoms and bodies that fre- 
quently were quadrilobate, were made of fired 
clay tempered with particles of granitic stone. 
Some of this pottery was relatively plain, 
but most of it was decorated with curvilinear 
zones filled with curved zigzag lines or punc- 
tate impressions. 

Ornaments of the Hopewell Indians were 
made of metal, shell, bone, and stone. Beads 
for necklaces were made of copper, river 
pearls, marine shell, and the canine teeth of 
bears. Spool-shaped ear ornaments of cop- 
per were on some occasions worn at the 
wrists. There were armbands of silver and 
probably of copper. Pendants and breast 
ornaments included those of polished stone, 
copper, perforated and cut animal jaws, bone 
and copper effigies of animal teeth, perfo- 
rated eagle claws, and bear canine teeth in- 
laid with river pearls. Pieces of imported 
sheet mica may have been used as ornaments 
or mirrors. 

WOVE CLOTH WITH FINGERS 

The Hopewell Indians wove cloth by 
means of finger techniques rather than a 
loom. Twining was the most common 
method of weaving. Thread was twisted by 
hand from bast fiber — the soft inner bark of 
certain trees. 

The Hopewell Indians were the outstand- 
ing artists of the Upper Great Lakes region 
and their products were never surpassed by 
the Indians who lived in the region in later 
times. 

The elaborate effigy forms made of sheet 
copper and mica, the complicated geometric 
forms in copper made probably from folded 
patterns, and the delicate engraving on bone, 
shell, and wood so characteristic of the Ohio 
Hopewell center were lacking in the Upper 
Great Lakes region. But the other art forms 
were present, particularly sculpture in stone 
and bone portraying human beings, animals, 
birds, fishes, reptiles, and insects. Probably 
all of Hopewell art had religious and cere- 
monial significance. 

Hopewell art and material wealth were 
lavished on the dead, probably with elab- 
orate ceremonies. Deceased people of high 
rank were buried in subfloor pits or tombs, 
sometimes lined with bark or logs. Tools, 
weapons, utensils, pottery, pipes, and cere- 
monial objects, all of excellent quality, were 
placed in the grave. Bodies were placed in 
an extended or a flexed position. Bundles 
of bones, probably from partly decompressed 
bodies that had been on burial scaffolds, were 
also placed in grave pits. 

When the burials were completed large 
mounds of earth were erected over the grave 



'SEAGOING JOURNEY' 
AWAITS CHILDREN 

A new Journey for children at the Museum 
begins March 1, and will be available to 
child visitors every day through May 31. 
The subject is "Life of Ancient Seas." Chil- 
dren "signing aboard for this cruise" will re- 
ceive their "seagoing orders" and "charts" 
at either the north or south entrance of the 
Museum, and with these "navigation in- 
structions" will find their way to exhibits 
that will give them the answers to such 
questions as: 

"What animals lived in the seas before 
fish?" 

"Were there once coral reefs in the Chi- 
cago area?" 

"Are 'sea-lilies' plants or animals?" 

"When did giant 'sea scorpions' 11 feet 
long live?" 

"Name the flesh-eating swimming reptiles 
that were larger than any of the dinosaurs." 

Children who complete this and three 
other Journeys are certified as Museum 
Travelers; for eight Journeys they are desig- 
nated Museum Adventurers, and for 12 they 
become Museum Explorers. 



Spring Visiting Hours 
Begin at Museum 

Beginning March 1, spring visiting hours 
will go into effect at the Museum. The 
building will be open from 9 A.M. to 5 P.M. 
every day, an extension of one hour over the 
winter hours. On May 1 there will be an- 
other extension, when summer hours, 9 to 6, 
go into effect. 



pits. These mounds were conical or dome- 
shaped. It is likely that only individuals of 
high social position, such as priests and chiefs 
or members of ruling families, were given 
mound burial. 

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 

The Hopewell Indians must have had a 
social organization that included class struc- 
tures, heriditary ranks and privileges, divi- 
sions of labor, ways of organizaing co-opera- 
tive work projects, such as the building of 
mounds and enclosures, and means for indi- 
viduals to become specialized as artists, 
traders, metal workers, and the like. This 
social organization, whatever its actual de- 
tails, was much more elaborate than that of 
any of the earlier prehistoric groups of In- 
dians in the Upper Great Lakes region. 

The period of Hopewell culture in this re- 
gion was from about 100 B.C. to a.d. 700. 
This dating is derived from cross-ties between 
the ceramic stratigraphy in the Upper Great 
Lakes region and that of the Illinois Valley 
Hopewell center where there is an adequate 
number of radiocarbon-dated sites. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



March, 1959 



CHILDREN'S PROGRAMS 
ON SATURDAYS 

A puppet show and six movie programs 
will be presented for children at the Museum 
on Saturday mornings at 10 :30 during March 
and April. Saturday March 28, will be 
skipped because of the Easter weekend. 

This spring series of entertainments is the 
offering of the James Nelson and Anna 
Louise Raymond Foundation. The pro- 
grams will be given in the James Simpson 
Theatre. 

Although five of the shows have been des- 
ignated as special days for various children's 
organizations, all children, regardless of 
whether they are affiliated with these or- 
ganizations or not, are welcome at all pro- 
grams. They may come alone, in groups, 
or with parents or other adults. Admission 
is free, and no tickets are needed. 

Following is the schedule: 

March 7 — Red Riding Hood's Shopping 
Trip 

Puppet stage production by Apple Tree 
Workshop of Chicago Heights 

March 14 — Cub Scout Day 

Canada — Land of the Mounties 

March 21 — Museum Traveler Day 
African Big Game 

March 28— NO PROGRAM— Easter 
weekend 

April 4 — Camp Fire Girl Day 
Tree Finder 

(How to know your trees; narration by 
Marie Svoboda) 

April 11— Y.M.C.A. Day 
Prehistoric Life 

April 18 — Girl Scout Day 
Westward Ho! 

April 25 — Venezuelan Venture 

(Wildlife in plains and jungles; narration 
by Robert C. Hermes) 



STAFF NOTES 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology 

From: Arizona State Museum, Tucson, 
Ariz. — 86 sherds; Mr. and Mrs. Paul 
Blackwelder, St. Louis — 10 clothing items, 
Polynesia; John J. Cella, Glen Ellyn, 111. — 
shrunken head, Ecuador; Allen Liss, Chicago 
— carved spoon, Philippines; Miss Hedwig 
H. Mueller, Chicago — 24 textiles, 2 Cuna 
blouses, 2 belts, Guatemala, Panama, 
Ecuador; Mrs. Evelyn Riley Nicholson, 
Chicago — man's gown, China; Mrs. I. 
Newton Perry, Chicago — snail shell kilt, 
Vabau Islands, Tonga Group; George I. 
Quimby, Chicago — Eskimo clothing, art 
objects, etc., Belcher Islands, Hudson Bay; 
Mrs. Irwin Rew, Evanston, 111.— 12 ethno- 
logical specimens, Northwest Coast; William 



Dr. Theodor Just, Chief Curator of Bot- 
any, was host to a meeting in the Museum 
of the program committee, Section II, Paleo- 
botany, of the 9th International Botanical 
Congress which is to be held in Montreal in 
August. Present were: Dr. N. W. Radforth, 
of McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario; 
Dr. Wayne Fry of the University of Califor- 
nia, Berkeley; Dr. R. M. Kosanke, of the 
Illinois Geological Survey, Urbana; and Dr. 
J. M. Schopf, of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
Columbus, Ohio. . . . Dr. C. Earle Smith, 
Jr., Associate Curator of Vascular Plants, 
spoke at a seminar of biological sciences at 
Northwestern University. His subject was 
"Changing Concepts in Systematic Botany, 
1800-1900." . . . Mrs. Meta P. Howell, 
Librarian, and Mrs. M. Eileen Rocourt, 
Associate Librarian, attended the midwinter 
meeting of the American Library Associa- 
tion held in Chicago. Mrs. Rocourt, as vice 
chairman of the Museum Division of Special 
Libraries Association, represented the divi- 
sion at the association's Advisory Council 
meetings in Highland Park. . . . Loren P. 
Woods, Curator of Fishes, lectured before 
the Isaac Walton League in Hinsdale. 



NOTED SWISS BOTANIST DIES 

Prof. Georges Hochreutiner, Correspond- 
ing Member of this Museum, Honorary Di- 
rector of the Musee, Conservatoire et Jardin 
Botaniques, and Honorary Professor of the 
University, Geneva, passed away on Janu- 
ary 29, in his 86th year. 

Prof. Hochreutiner made a number of ex- 
tensive botanical journeys through the Near 
East and later, around the world. He be- 
came well known for his writings on the trop- 
ical floras of Madagascar and the East In- 
dies, and specialized in the taxonomy of the 
Mallow family (Malvaceae). 

Chicago Natural History Museum's type 
photograph collection contains photos of 
thousands of type specimens of tropical 
American plants on deposit in the Conserva- 
toire in Geneva, and obtained during the 
administration of Prof. Hochreutiner. 



H. Wehrmacher III, Morton Grove, 111. — 
chipped stone scraper 

Department of Botany 

From: Holly Reed Bennett, Chicago— 
662 phanerogams, Wisconsin; Bernice P. 
Bishop Museum, Honolulu — 3 herbarium 
specimens; Dr. Harold C. Bold, Austin, Tex. 
— 3 type specimens of algae, Tennessee; 
California Academy of Sciences, San Fran- 
cisco — herbarium specimen; Dr. C. M. 
Palmer, Cincinnati — 12 specimens of algae; 
Dr. E. E. Sherff, Hastings, Mich.— 119 
vascular plants, Hawaii 

Department of Geology 

From: University of Chicago — collection 
of fossil reptiles, Texas, lower jaws of fossil 



NEW MEMBERS ADDED 
TO MUSEUM ROLLS 

(January 19 to February 17) 

Life Member 

William V. Kahler 

Associate Members 

Frank G. Anger, Miss Anita Carolyn Blair, 
George W. Butler, Herman L. Epstein, G. K. 
Franklin, Herbert Geist, LeRoy E. Hirsch, 
Jarvis Hunt, Arthur Lloyd Kelly, Miss Bar- 
bara Wetten Kelly, T. Lloyd Kelly, Steven 
Michael Klee, John S. Knight, J. Gus Liebe- 
now, Justin MacKiewich, Roger McCormick, 
W. Stirling Maxwell, D. Daniel Michel, Miss 
Edith P. Parker, R. Curtis Patterson, 
Charles D. Peacock III, Ole Selseth, Stan- 
ley M. Sorensen, Martin Topaz, Richard 
Wagner 

Sustaining Member 

Dr. Sam W. Banks 

Annual Members 

James S. Abbott III, Richard H. Alschuler, 
W. W. Anderson, Mrs. Russell H. Arm- 
strong, Mrs. John W. Ashwell, Lyle Rex 
Aten, Mrs. Ralph Louis Atlass, Mrs. Mel- 
ville R. Augdahl, Mrs. Charles C. Averhoff, 
Dr. Meyer Barrash, Robert E. Berns, John 
M. Blair, Ralph J. Boches, Mrs. George M. 
Boehm, George T. Bogert, Edwin Booth, 
Samuel V. Bossov, John S. Boyle, Thomas C. 
Bradley, Stuart Brent, Howard A. Brundage, 
Nicholas J. Bua, Robert C. Buckley, Henry 
A. Budzinski, Louis Buffardi, John C. Bugler, 
Robert J. Burdett, John J. Burns, Jr., 
Charles L. Byron, Edward J. Calihan, Ray- 
mond Canaday, Caleb H. Canby III, John 
P. Carlin, Mrs. George W. Clausing, Nathan 
M. Cohen, Aaron H. Cohn, Louis J. Cohn, 
Nathan M. Cohn, Leonard Colbert, Selwyn 
Coleman, Philip J. Collias, John L. Colmar, 
Mrs. Nicholas B. Commerford, Clarence R. 
Conklin, Philip Conley, Richard T. Cragg, 
Henry Dobro, Carl H. Ebert, Alvin Edle- 
man, Ernest A. Eklund, Saul A. Epton, 
Harold S. Guetzkow, Thomas Z. Hayward, 
Earl W. Hoage, Robert E. Jordan, Mrs. 
Garfield King, Harold W. Lewis, Victor E. 
Marx, George R. McCoy, Durmont W. 
McGraw, Miss Sarah M. Perlstein, Warren 
Peter Piper, Melvyn E. Stein, Robert E. 
Straus, Mrs. Royal C. Vilas, Richard E. 
Voland, Thomas J. Vratny, Lynn A. Wil- 
liams, Hubert J. Wolfe 

reptile, Montana; Dr. Richard Konizeski, 
Missoula, Mont. — 29 Oligocene mammals, a 
lizard scale; Dr. and Mrs. Robert H. 
Whitfield, Evanston, 111. — fossil plant 
specimens 

Department of Zoology 

From : University of Calif ornia, Los Angeles 
— 53 lots of fishes; Dr. William E. Duellman, 
Detroit — a lizard, Mexico; Dr. Robert L. 
Fleming, Kathmandu, Nepal — 184 bird 
skins, 5 frogs, 13 snakes; Harry Hoogstraal. 
Cairo, Egypt — 8 snakes, 25 lizards, 35 bats, 
32 bird skins, Egypt, 40 bird lice, Wales, 
England; Dr. N. L. H. Krauss, Honolulu— 
15 reptiles and amphibians, Malaya, Hong 
Kong, Formosa, Japan; Museum and Art 
Gallery, Durban, Natal, S.Africa — abirdskin; 
Providence High School, Chicago — horse 
skull, human skull, articulated skeleton of 
human hand 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



CHICAGO 
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Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



April, 1959 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery Wuxiam V. Kahler 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen J. Roscoe Miller 

Chesser M. Campbell William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Joseph N. Field Clarence B. Randall 

Marshall Field, Jr. John G. Searle 

Stanley Field Solomon A. Smith 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Louis Ware 
John P. Wu^on 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Hughston M. McBain First Vice-President 

Walther Buchen Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
Patricia McAfee Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



MEMBERS' NIGHT SET 
FOR MAY 8 

MEMBERS' NIGHT this year 
will be held at the Museum on 
Friday, May 8. All Members are 
invited, and any guests they care to 
bring will be welcome. 

Growth and progress in the Museum pro- 
gram will be the theme of the evening. 
The Department of Anthropology will pre- 
sent a special exhibit, "Panorama of the 
Pacific," in Stanley Field Hall as a preview 
of selected objects from the vast Fuller col- 
lection, one of the world's most important 
assemblages of artifacts representing the 
peoples of the South Seas. The collection 
was recently acquired by the Museum from 
Captain A. W. F. Fuller of London (Bull- 
etin, September, 1958, page 3). On view 
also will be various other new anthropologi- 
cal exhibits, notable among which are a 
display of objects from western Mexico in 
Hall 8, and the exhibit in Hall H graphically 
detailing answers to the question, "What Is 
Primitive Art?" 

Another feature of Members' Night will 
be the reopening of Charles F. Millspaugh 
Hall (Hall 26— North American Trees), in 
which both the hall and the exhibits have 
been completely remodeled and refurbished. 
Visitors will see the nearly completed re- 
installation of the meteorite section of 



Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35 — Moon, 
Meteorites and Minerals). The Museum's 
collection of these visitors from outer space 
is one of the largest in the world. In the 
Department of Zoology, visitors who have 
not been in the Museum for some time will 
find new exhibits added to various halls. 

A special exhibit of drawings and paint- 
ings based on Museum exhibits, the work of 
students from the School of the Art Institute 
of Chicago during the past year, will be 
found in Albert W. Harris Hall (Hall 18). 

As on Members' Nights in past years, one 
of the principal attractions will be the "Open 
House" atmosphere in which members and 
their guests are invited to visit the labora- 
tories, studios, workshops and offices of the 
Museum staff on the ground floor and the 
third and fourth floors— areas to which visi- 
tors normally are not admitted. In these 
quarters they will meet the men and women 
whose joint efforts and highly specialized 
skills make possible the Museum's missions 
of the discovery and dissemination of knowl- 
edge. Present will be the curatorial staff 
who conduct scientific research and man 
expeditions to far parts of the world. Also 
on hand, many of them demonstrating their 
unusual techniques and arts, will be the taxi- 
dermists, artists, artist-preparators, techni- 
cians, librarians, editors, and others. 

Open house hours will be from 7 to 10:30 
p.m., but the doors of the building (both 
North and South entrances) will open at 6 
for the convenience of visitors who wish to 
dine in the Museum Cafeteria, where dinner 
will be served from 6 to 8 p.m. at the cus- 
tomary prices. 

At 9:30 p.m. there will be an informal 
reception in Stanley Field Hall, and light 
refreshments will be served. President 
Stanley Field, Director Clifford C. Gregg, 
and other Museum officials will be on hand 
to greet visitors. 

For Members and their guests who arrive 
by private car, ample free parking space is 
available at the north entrance. Special mo- 
tor-bus service has been arranged to accom- 
modate those who do not wish to drive their 
own cars. A free shuttle-bus, marked to in- 
dicate that its destination is the Museum, 
will leave Jackson Boulevard and State 
Street at 15-minute intervals, beginning at 
6:30 p.m. Intermediate stops will be made 
at Jackson and Michigan Avenue and at 
Seventh Street and Michigan. The last 
bus, city-bound, will leave the Museum at 
10:45 p.m. 



THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



"The Mineralogist" on our cover 
is a caricature which appeared in 
a 19th century print. At the time, 
mineralogy was still in its infancy, 
and the artist's conception of one 
of its practitioners symbolizes his 
profession by garbing him in an 
armor of minerals — calcite, mala- 
chite, hematite and quartz. The 
artist's creative throes drove him 
even further into fashioning the 
man's hands of twin quartz crys- 
tals terminated by pyramids form- 
ing his fingers. The mineralogist 
is depicted as making an analysis 
of a mineral by the blowpipe 
method. This method, which is 
still used, is one of the oldest and 
one which requires the least variety 
and amount of reagents. In this 
analysis, a substance is studied by 
noting its characteristic behavior 
with respect to flame coloration, 
fusibility and formation of volatile 
coating when a suitable reagent in 
it is exposed to a blowpipe flame. 
The picture was selected for our 
cover as being appropriate to the 
article on page 3 by Albert W. 
Forslev, Associate Curator of Min- 
eralogy. 



Daily Guide-Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 p.m. on Monday through Friday and at 
2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 



MOVIES FOR CHILDREN 
CONTINUE IN APRIL 

The last four of the Raymond Founda- 
tion's spring series of Saturday morning 
movie programs for children will be given in 
April. These entertainments begin at 10:30 
a.m., and are presented in the James Simpson 
Theatre of the Museum. 

Although three of the shows have been des- 
ignated as special days for various children's 
organizations, all children, regardless of 
whether they are affiliated with these or- 
ganizations or not, are welcome at all pro- 
grams. They may come alone, in groups, 
or with parents or other adults. Admission 
is free, and no tickets are needed. 

Following is the schedule: 

April 4— Camp Fire Girl Day 
Tree Finder 

(How to know your trees; narration by 
Marie Svoboda) 

April 11— Y.M.C.A. Day 
Prehistoric Life 

April 18 — Girl Scout Day 
Westward Ho! 

April 25 — Venezuelan Venture 

(Wildlife in plains and jungles; narration 
by Robert C. Hermes) 



April, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 3 



NEW EXHIBITS SHOW RAPID PROGRESS IN MINERALOGY 



By ALBERT W. FORSLEV 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF MINERALOGY 

THE NEW Hall of Minerals (Clarence 
Buckingham Hall — Hall 35) is designed 
to represent the rapid progress that has been 
made in the field of mineralogy since the 
turn of the century. Before discussing the 




'MINERALOGY'-A MEDIEVAL CONCEPT 
In this old lithographic print, Justitia, Roman goddess of justice, with a scale 
in her lap, pointing her scepter at a young Roman, is apparently presiding 
over "Mineralogy," consisting of not only minerals but rocks and fossils. 
No distinction was made during the Middle Ages between different classes 
of natural objects. 



new hall it may be interesting first to ex- 
amine the historical development of these 
views. 

Although extensive physical evidence ex- 
ists regarding early man's use of rocks and 
minerals in the fashioning of tools and weap- 
ons, we know but little about his views on 
their origin and composition. One of the 
first written records we have is by Aristotle 
(384-322 B.C.) in his Meteorologica in which 
he briefly commented on the subject. He 
proposed that minerals were formed in the 
earth under the influence of rays given off by 
the sun and other heavenly bodies. The rays 
were believed to give rise to certain types of 
vapors which reacted with the elements to 
form stones of various kinds. According to 
him there were four basic "elements": fire, 
air, earth and water. The properties of min- 
erals were determined by the relative pro- 



portion of each of these elements present. 
Metals were believed to consist mainly of 
the elements earth and water, perhaps be- 
cause they became fluid when heated and 
were malleable when hammered. "Fossils" 
such as sulfur and realgar were believed to 
be composed chiefly of the elements fire and 
earth. The term 
"fossil," derived from 
the Latin word fossil- 
is, meaning a thing 
dug up from the earth, 
was used in literature 
as late as the 19th 
century to apply to 
minerals, rocks and 
fossils, and no distinc- 
tion was made between 
the three classes until 
the individual sciences 
of mineralogy, petrog- 
raphy, and paleontol- 
ogy came into being. 
From Aristotle's 
time up until about 
the 16th century, little 
original work was 
done in the field of 
mineralogy. The me- 
dieval writers who 
largely drew their 
ideas from Pliny's 
Natural History (a.d. 
77) and the writings 
of Theophrastus 
(370-287 B.C.) were 
concerned primarily 
with the medicinal 
and mystic properties 
of minerals; and the 
scientists of the same 
period, it seems, were 
interested only in con- 
trolling these magical 
powers. Aristotle's 
explanation of the 
origin of minerals was 
universally accepted for almost two thou- 
sand years, finally to be replaced by two 
other theories which successively came in- 
to prominence. The first of these likened 
the mineral kingdom to the plant and animal 
kingdoms and even assumed that the two 
sexes were involved in the formation of min- 
erals. The assumption was based on the 
idea that minerals had a life cycle and that 
they originated from a seed, grew to maturity 
and frequently decomposed or altered: the 
equivalent of disease in the animal and vege- 
table kingdoms. This postulation, popular 
during the 16th and 17th centuries, gradually 
gave way to "The Theory of the Lapidifying 
Juice," which in many respects was the fore- 
runner of modern theories and represented a 
distinct advance toward a true solution. 
According to this concept, a universal fluid 
circulated throughout the earth depositing 



mineral matter in pores, cracks, and other 
openings in the rock and soil composing the 
earth. 

The advent of extensive mining activity 
in central Europe during the 15th and 16th 
centuries generated widespread interest in 
minerals. The development of mining in the 
Schneeberg district of Saxony in 1420, at 
Annaberg in Saxony in 1495, in Joachimsthal 
in Bohemia about 1520, and at Andreasberg 
in the Hartz around 1570, brought natural 
scientists into greater contact with minerals 
than ever before. They began to pay more 
attention to the physical properties of min- 
erals and in doing so laid the basis for today's 
systems of classification. The most impor- 
tant contributor to mineralogy during this 
period was Georgius Agricola (1494-1555) 
who, as the city physician of the great mining 
towns of Joachimstahl in Bohemia, and 
Chemnitz in Hungary, spent most of his life 
in close association with miners, mines and 
minerals. He was one of the first naturalists 
who relied on personal observation and 
research in the study of minerals and is 
rightfully called "The Father of Mineral- 
ogy." His De Natura Fossilium, published 
in 1546, is considered to be the first textbook 
on mineralogy. In it he described many new 
minerals and presented a classification based 
on physical properties such as specific grav- 
ity, color, hardness and luster. 

From this time on, there was a rapid devel- 
opment of mineralogy as a science, and with 
the advent of chemistry in the 18th century 
new systems of classification utilizing the 
chemical composition of minerals were intro- 
duced. One of the most important con- 
tributors to the field during this period was 
Abraham Werner (1750-1817), whose sys- 
tem of classification using both physical and 
chemical properties of minerals was in use 
throughout Europe at that time. Almost 
concurrently, the Swedish chemist Jons 
Berzelius (1779-1848) determined the mol- 
ecular weights of some 2,000 compounds and 
developed for the first time a chemical classi- 
fication of minerals. Another contributor 
of equal importance, and a contemporary of 
Werner, was Rene-Just Hauy (1743-1821), a 
French botanist- mineralogist, who helped 
found the science of crystallography. He 
developed the basic ideas relating the crystal 
form and cleavage of a mineral to its mo- 
lecular structure. 

RECLASSIFICATION ESTABLISHED 

One of the most famous mineralogists of 
the 19th century was James D wight Dana, 
who removed much of the confusion that 
existed, and clarified the classification of 
minerals. His System of Mineralogy, first 
published in 1837, is a classic and contains a 
wealth of information of acknowledged ex- 
cellence. Although the first two editions 
(1837 and 1844) used a Latin nomenclature 
along the lines of botany and zoology and a 



Page i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



April, 1959 



classification based on the external features 
of minerals, he completely rejected this ap- 
proach in his later editions (1850, 1854, and 
1868) and followed a chemical classifica- 
tion. The work was continued by his son 
Edward S. Dana, with a sixth edition in 1892. 
With the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen 
in 1895 and work by E. von Laue and Sir 
William Bragg in 1912 on the diffraction of 
X-rays by crystals, a new era in mineralogy 
began. For the first time it became possible 
to determine the arrangement of atoms 
within a substance. The relationship be- 
tween chemical composition, atomic struc- 
ture and external crystal form has been 
determined for many minerals and continues 
to be a major field of research in mineralogy. 
The information obtained so far has been 
used to set up a modern system of classifica- 
tion based on these properties and has 
resulted in the publication of the seventh 
edition of Dana's System of Mineralogy. 
This new work in three volumes contains 
detailed information and data for almost 
2,000 minerals. The first two volumes have 
been published, and the third, dealing with 
the silicates, is in preparation. 

SCOPE OF EXHIBITS 

In the new Hall of Minerals, hundreds of 
specimens, models and illustrations are used 
to depict the present day ideas on the phys- 
ical-chemical composition, formation and 
classification of minerals. The mineral spec- 
imens displayed include common and rare 
species collected from many parts of the 
world. 

The arrangement of the hall follows, in 
general, a chemical classification based on 
the seventh edition of Dana's System of 
Mineralogy. Minerals of simple chemical 
composition such as native elements and 
sulfides are exhibited near the east end of 
the hall, and the complex silicate minerals 
at the west end. Within the individual ex- 
hibits, the minerals are arranged according 
to their chemical formula and crystal struc- 
ture. Models and diagrams are used in 
conjunction with crystals of various minerals 
to illustrate the manner in which the external 
crystal form reflects the atomic structure. 

The Chalmers Crystal Collection, housed 
in four special exhibition cases, is used to 
illustrate the classification of minerals and 
crystal forms, the difference between min- 
erals and rocks, and the physical properties 
of minerals, such as hardness, color, streak, 
cleavage and luster. 

NOTEWORTHY SPECIMENS 

Throughout the hall many impressive 
specimens are to be seen. Some are exhibited 
in specially built niches because of their large 
size. Among them are a 312-pound block 
of lapis lazuli recovered from an Inca grave 
in Peru, two exceptionally large selenite 
crystals, and a spectacular wulfenite cluster 
showing a delicate network of golden crystals. 



Several exhibits are devoted to uncommon 
features of minerals such as twin crystals, 
where two or more individuals have sym- 
metrically intergrown; and phantom crystals, 
where because of interruptions during the 
growth of a crystal, outlines of its crystal 
form are preserved in its interior. Another 
exhibit is devoted entirely to pseudomorphs: 
minerals that have taken the crystal form of 
another through substitution or alteration. 

The Hall of Minerals will present to the 
visitor an interesting introduction to the 
members of the Mineral Kingdom and the 
concepts of the mineralogist living almost 
2,300 years after Aristotle. 



Books 



A FIELD GUIDE TO REPTILES AND 
AMPHIBIANS of the United States 
and Canada East of the 100th Merid- 
ian. By Roger Conant, illustrated by 
Isabelle Hunt Conant. 366 pages, 40 color 
plates, 62 figures, 248 maps. Houghton 
Mifflin Co., Boston. $3.95. 

This twelfth volume of the Peterson field 
guides is an outstanding contribution to the 
study of the natural history of the eastern 
United States and Canada. It is a little ap- 
preciated fact that the amphibian and reptil- 
ian fauna of this region is one of the richest in 
the world, even rivaling many teeming areas 
of the tropics. Thus the Conants took on a 
man-sized job in preparing this guide and 
have been remarkably successful. 

Every species (and many important races) 
of crocodilian, turtle, snake, lizard, salaman- 
der, frog, and toad occurring east of a line 
drawn from central Texas to central North 
Dakota and Manitoba is illustrated — 266 
in color and 117 in black-and-white. The 
distinctive characteristics of each animal are 
indicated on the portraits by short black 
lines, a helpful technique associated with the 
Peterson series. In addition, a short text 
passage devoted to each species describes the 
animal in greater detail, comparing it with 
other, superficially similar, species. These 
aids to identification are supplemented by 
ingenious drawings of certain features that 
are difficult to illustrate in a portrait. With 
the help provided by this guide, every inter- 
ested person should be able to identify most 
of the amphibians and reptiles found in the 
area covered. 

The word "most" is used in the preceding 
sentence for two reasons. In the first place, 
no key or other aid to identification can pos- 
sibly anticipate all of the possible freaks of 
nature that may be spewed up from time to 
time. In the second place, the interrelation- 
ships of some species are so complex that 
even the professional biologist is not sure ex- 
actly where one species ends and another be- 
gins. The pond and river turtles known 
locally as "cooters" and "sliders" form the 



outstanding example in our fauna of such a 
complicated group, and they have done more 
to teach American herpetologists humility in 
the face of the complexities of nature than 
any other element of our reptilian fauna. 

Within the space limitations of a "guide," 
the text of the Conant book contains a sur- 
prising amount of information not directly 
concerned with identification. Besides giv- 
ing the distinguishing features, the text for 
each species mentions the characteristic hab- 
its and habitats, and includes notes on the 
food and breeding habits, plus, in the case 
of frogs and toads, a description of the voice. 
The book also includes sections on the collec- 
tion and care of captive animals and on the 
treatment of snake bite. Consequently, quite 
apart from the attraction of the colored plates, 
this book has much to recommend it and will 
be equally useful to the eager Boy Scout, the 
interested traveler, and the professional herpe- 
tologist. At $3.95 it represents one of the 
best bargains for the natural history library 
I have seen in a long time. 

Robert F. Inger 

Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles 



BRITISH MAMMALS. By Maurice Bur- 
ton. Oxford University Press (1958), 
64 pages, illustrated. Price $2.75. 

The restrictive title of this book should 
not deter anyone who wants to learn about 
mammals. The author explains in simple 
layman's language what mammals are, how 
they get about, eat, sleep, keep house, court, 
rear young, defend themselves, play, and 
express emotions. Animals that perform 
the biological functions described here can 
be found in any woodland, but the author 
lets the universally familiar animals of the 
British landscape play the roles. 

Little space is devoted to purely technical 
descriptions. When the author mentions an 
anatomical character, it is for the purpose of 
explaining how and why it helps the animal 
live. The style of the book is simple and 
direct. The text is factual and devoid of the 
whimsy and studied cuteness that often 
creep into books for beginners. The numer- 
ous line-drawings are skillfully executed and 
so cleverly conceived that they convey their 
message without the aid of text. The author 
not only answers the first scientific questions 
the novice asks, but he goes on and answers 
those that would logically follow. 

The student and amateur naturalist in the 
American Middle West will find this little 
book just as enlightening, satisfying and 
stimulating as will his British counterpart. 
Philip Hershkovitz 
Curator of Mammals 



A reproduction of a flowering branch of 
the mountain camellia (Stewartia penlagyna), 
a showy member of the tea family, has been 
added to Martin A. and Carrie Ryerson 
Hall (Plant Life— Hall 29). 



April, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



HOW MUSEUM AIDS POLICE IN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION 



By PATRICIA McAFEE 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 

SINCE LT. JOHN ASCHER, Director of 
the Chicago Police Department's Scien- 
tific Crime Detection Laboratory, discov- 
ered the Museum several years ago, sci- 
entists here have been working in what 
might be considered a strange or at least 
unusual capacity — assisting in criminal in- 
vestigations. 

Finding a natural scientist in the field of 
criminal investigation is not really so strange 
when methods of scientific research are con- 




FIGHTS CRIME WITH SCIENCE 
Lt. John Ascher at his desk as Director of Chicago 
Police Department's Scientific Crime Detection 
Laboratory. In a number of cases members of the 
Museum staff have assisted Ascher and his associ- 
ates in identifying physical evidence. 

sidered. Scientists are continually searching 
for new knowledge to add to the old. They 
make observations and accumulate facts, 
piece the facts together, interpret them and 
sometimes fill in voids from knowledge of 
the past, in order to determine what hap- 
pened years ago, what is evolving today, and 
what might evolve in the future. 

Methods of procedure in criminal investi- 
gation are somewhat similar. Evidence 
must be collected, examined and inter- 
preted to reconstruct crimes which took 
place in the past. 

Of course, neither scientific research nor 
criminal investigation is as simple as these 
brief statements might suggest. Both take 
hours of painstaking work, but in criminal 
investigation, time is at a premium. It is 
not always possible to take hours to try end- 
less experiments in an attempt to identify a 
piece of evidence. 

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE 

The men at the Crime Laboratory are 
experts in their field, but it would be prac- 
tically impossible for them to have a sci- 
entist's knowledge of all the things that 
appear in criminal cases as physical evidence. 



Because of the critical importance of the 
work, experts are consulted whenever pos- 
sible. It is in the identification of physical 
evidence that experts at the Museum assist 
the Crime Lab. 

Shortly after a crime has been discovered 
and the police have reached the scene, the 
physical evidence is collected. In more 
fortunate instances the evidence may be a 
personal belonging of the criminal himself or 
something as conclusive as a fingerprint. 
But, unfortunately, this is not always the 
case; the evidence may be a footprint in the 
mud, a hair or hairs from an attacker, or 
trace materials from a piece of clothing. At 
a "sterile scene" — a scene cleared of in- 
criminating evidence— there may be nothing 
suggesting the offender, but only micro- 
scopic matter that might aid in determining 
where the crime was committed. 

The evidence is often natural, such as 
plant matter, mineral particles from soils, 
animal products, the living animal or effects 
of the living animal. Therefore, natural 
scientists are called upon for help when 
necessary. Physical evidence is vitally im- 
portant, as it sometimes can decide the 
innocence or guilt of a man and it is essential 
that it be examined carefully and thor- 
oughly. Often there is little enough evi- 
dence, making it doubly important that 
what there is be fully explored. 

Steel filings, particles of powder from an 
explosion, paint, glass fragments, stomach 
contents, traces of soil, pollen, etc., are all 
possible clues that may link the perpetrator 
with the crime or determine the scene where 
the crime was committed. Soil is frequently 
valuable because it can disclose whether a 
person was or was not at a specific place. 



X-ray spectrograph has also been used in 
analyzing materials for the Crime Labora- 
tory. This instrument differs from the 
diffraction unit in that it determines which 
chemical elements are present in a substance. 
The X-ray techniques mentioned are gen- 
erally superior to ordinary chemical analyses 
because they identify without destroying the 
evidence, which may be needed for court 
testimony. 

One case in which the diffraction unit was 
especially valuable in solving the crime was 
reported by Lt. Ascher. A man had mur- 
dered his wife, carried her body away in his 
car and dumped it in an alley. The soil later 
taken from his shoes and from the brake 
pedal of his car was identical with the soil 
in the alley where the body was found. 

Careful analyses of soil, grease, dirt, paint 
and other substances may lead to the dis- 
covery of the perpetrator of the crime, as in 
the case mentioned, or they may be useful in 
determining whether the substance was in- 
troduced at the site where the body was 
found, or if it was on the body before death. 
Analyses can indicate also that the substance 
came from another place, suggesting that the 
crime was not committed at the location 
where the body was discovered. 

Imagine that a body is found in a ware- 
house outside the city. Boxes and tools are 
strewn about the room giving the impression 
that some sort of struggle had taken place. 
A preliminary investigation fails to reveal 
any apparent clues — the victim's shoes are 
clean; there is nothing actually signifying 
that the murder was committed in the ware- 
house. An intense investigation reveals 
traces of pollen on the victim's clothing. 
The killer had murdered elsewhere, cleaned 




I D I 





DETECTION BY DIFFRACTION 

X-ray diffraction photographs of quartz (top) and plaster of paris (bottom) illustrate how different sub- 
stances can be identified, for use as clues, by their characteristic X-ray patterns. 



The Museum's X-ray diffraction unit, 
which in scientific research is used primarily 
for the identification of minerals, has been 
used to identify soil specimens and other 
chemical compounds for the Crime Lab. 
X-ray diffraction methods give reliable quan- 
titative and qualitative analyses of nearly 
all chemical compounds. The Museum's 



the victim's shoes and hands of dirt and 
carried the body to the warehouse. The 
only existing evidence is the pollen. The 
Crime Laboratory can identify pollen as 
pollen, but it is important to know what 
kind of plant it came from. This would be a 
likely case to bring to the Museum. If the 
pollen had previously been scientifically 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



April, 1959 



described, a botanist could possibly identify 
the plant and, perhaps, from a knowledge of 
the area, suggest sites where the plant grows, 
enabling the police to begin a search for the 
scene of the crime. 

CLUES FROM ANIMALS 

Zoologists have helped the Crime Lab by 
identifying unexplainable marks that have 
appeared on bodies subjected to exposure. 
The marks, they discovered, were those 
made by certain animals that inhabit the 
Chicago area. Identifying hair and bones 
as human or other animal, and if not human, 
what kind, also falls to the zoologist. 

Not all of the cases on which the Museum 
has given assistance have been homicides. 
Burglaries are prevalent. Fragments of safe 
insulation or steel filings are sometimes the 
only clues to follow. These are materials 
that can be identified with the X-ray diffrac- 
tion unit. In one case, a factory had been 
robbed and a suspect was later picked up. 
In the suspect's station wagon there was 
discovered an unusual chemical compound 
which after analysis proved to be identical 
with the stolen material. The identification 
linked the auto with the crime. 

Scientists can sometimes calculate the 
length of time that inorganic matter has 
been in a particular place. For instance, a 
suspected kidnap-vehicle brought up from a 
lagoon was examined by Museum scientists. 
From the vegetation and small animal life 
which had accumulated on the car while it 
was submerged, they could tell how long it 
had been under water. The results indicated 
that it was there before the crime, thereby 
ruling out the previous owner as a possible 
suspect. 

The Museum can supply only information 
which may make evidence meaningful. The 
Crime Laboratory must piece it together to 
form a complete account of the crime. A 
few instances have been mentioned where 
the Museum served the Police Department 
in the past. In the future there will, no 
doubt, be discovered additional ways in 
which the Museum can co-operate in crim- 
inal investigation. 



ANCIENT FORERUNNER OF WHISTLING KETTLE 



Bacteria-Free Birds 

Freedom from bacteria had been reported 
as one of the unusual features of Antarctic 
birds. This was investigated by scientists 
with the 1957-58 Argentine Antarctic Ex- 
pedition. Penguins examined did have cer- 
tain types of bacteria (anaerobic), but were 
free of other common types (aerobic). The 
absence of these bacteria was found to be 
correlated with anti-bacterial substances in 
the shrimps on which the penguins fed, 
which in turn were found in the tiny floating 
green plants (phytoplankton) on which the 
shrimps fed. 

Bulletin of American Institute of Biological 
Sciences, June, 1958. 



By DONALD COLLIER 

CURATOR OF SOUTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 
AND ETHNOLOGY 

LIKE many modern devices that are 
based on old principles, the whistling 
kettle has an old analogue in the pottery 
whistling jar of ancient America. Pre- 




MONKEY-EFFIGY WHISTLING JAR 

Columbian whistling pots, which operate by 
means of a current of air, come from both 
Peru and Mesoamerica. They are usually 
composed of two vessels joined near the 
bottom by a hollow tube. One is open- 
mouthed or has a vertical spout, and the 
other is a human or animal effigy closed at 
the top save for the whistle opening. The 
whistle is sounded when air is forced through 
it by pouring water into the open or spouted 
vessel, or by rocking the half-filled pot so 
that the water pours into the effigy chamber. 

A beautiful and rare whistling vessel from 
Mexico, shown in the accompanying illus- 
trations, has recently been put on exhibition 
in Hall 8 (Ancient and Modern Indians of 
Mexico and Central America). It came from 
a tomb near Mitla in Oaxaca. It consists of 
a vase attached to a monkey effigy. The 
whistle opening is in the back of the monkey's 
head. It is made of a very fine ware called 
Thin Orange. The ware, the form of the 
vase, and the style of the incised and punc- 
tuated decoration on the vase make it cer- 
tain that this vessel was made during the 
Early Classic period, between a.d. 200 and 
600. 

Although there are about twenty known 
whistling pots from Mesoamerica, only four, 
including the one described here, are of Thin 
Orange ware. Thin Orange ware is impor- 
tant to archaeologists because it was widely 
traded. It serves as a horizon marker or 
"index fossil" of the Early Classic, and gives 
evidence of the wide extent of commerce 
during that period. The ware is very com- 
mon at Teotihuacan, near Mexico City, and 
at one time this great Classic site was 
thought to be the place of its manufacture. 
We now know it was made in southern 
Puebla, probably at Ixcaquistla. From 



there it was traded northwestward to Tlax- 
cala, Teotihuacan and Tula, westward as far 
as Jalisco and Colima, southward to Monte 
Alban and Mitla, and southeastward to 
Uaxactun and Kaminaljuyu in Guatemala 
and Copan in Honduras. 

It is easy to understand why Thin Orange 
was so popular. Its exceptional thinness, 
delicacy, lustrous finish, and appearance of 
fine workmanship are as appealing today as 
they were fifteen hundred years ago. It is a 
pleasure to handle a Thin Orange piece. To 
make a pottery with such delicate walls 
(1-4 mm. thick) required an exceptionally 
strong and plastic clay, and it could not be 
successfully imitated with ordinary clay. 
But the makers of Thin Orange also had 



WHISTLE 




CROSS-SECTION OF WHISTLING JAR 

great technical skill in modeling, slipping and 
controlled firing. Many of the effigy forms, 
particularly those of dogs and humans, are 
graceful and beguiling. These potters met 
the great demand for their elegant product 
by decorating the vases with mold-made 
ornaments and duplicating some of the effigy 
vessels in molds. 



Museum Journey for Children 

"Life of Ancient Seas" continues as the 
topic of the Museum Journey for children 
during April and May. Directions for in- 
coming children are passed out at the north 
and south entrances. Children who visit 
the exhibits indicated and fill in answers to 
questionnaires become Museum Travelers 
after completing this and three Journeys on 
other subjects. Eight Journeys qualify them 
as Museum Adventurers, and twelve as 
Museum Explorers. The Journeys are an 
activity of the Raymond Foundation. 



The Asiatic sloth-bear mother often 
carries her baby on her back while searching 
for insects and worms under stones and logs, 
as shown in a habitat group in William V. 
Kelly Hall (Hall 17). 



April, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 






1 
it/- 



*j* ** 







Earliest migration to America as depicted by exhibit 
in Hall 4. It suggests the crowded condition of men 
and animals in northeastern Asia after the glaciers 
began to recede, and emphasizes the ease with which 
the journey could be made across Bering Strait to 
the New World. 



THE DISCOVERY 
OF AMERICA* 

(Circa 23,000 B.C.) 
By PAUL S. MARTIN 

CHIEF CURATOR OF ANTHROPOLOGY 

COLUMBUS usually receives the credit 
for discovering the New World, but this 
honor should be given to migrants from 
northeastern Asia, whom we call the Amer- 
ican Indians. 

Detailed studies of the physical (racial i 
aspects of the American Indians show that 
they are all essentially Mongoloids, although 
there is some diversity among the various 
tribes of North, Middle and South America. 
This may be due to the fact that the Amer- 
ican continent was interpenetrated (via 
Bering Strait) by successive groups of Asiatic 
migrants. These may have represented a 
composite of several racial strains, but pri- 
marily they were Mongoloid. In other 
words, some of the divergences of physical 
types, now observable in the Indians, first 
appeared in Asia and were then preserved in 
the New World. 

Since no possible ancestral forms of mod- 
ern man have ever been found in the New 
World, we may be sure that man did not 
originate here. Furthermore, since the 
American Indian may certainly be classed as 
belonging to the Mongoloid branch that 



* The article above is from the Prologue to Digging 
Into History, a 158-page book by Dr. Martin, just pub- 
lished by the Museum (Popular Series — Anthropology, 
No. 38). The rest of the book deals with the findings 
of fifteen years of work in the Southwest, led by Dr. 
Martin, to excavate sites of the ancient Mogollon 
civilization of New Mexico and Arizona. The book, 
illustrated with many photographs, a map, and drawings 
by Gustaf Dalstrom, Artist of the Department of 
Anthropology, is available at the Museum for $1.50 — 
mail orders accepted. It is written especially for lay- 
men and students. 



originated in the Old World, we may be 
confident that he came from Asia. How he 
came and when and why are fascinating 
questions about which we have some infor- 
mation and some guesses. We guess that he 
entered by the easiest and shortest route and 
that would have been by Bering Strait, for 
here the distance between the Old and New 
Worlds is a mere sixty miles at the present 
time. If man started drifting into the New 
World about 25,000 years ago, it is safe to 
assume that he walked from Asia to America 
on dry land, for the two continents were con- 
nected by a land bridge. Even in much later 
times, when the land connection between the 
two continents was broken, man could have 
crossed by boat or on ice, for the strait was 
narrower and shallower then. 

The date of the earliest migrations from 
Asia to America cannot be exactly stated at 
present. It is safe to say, however, that man 
was present in the New World at least 25,000 
years ago. 

A few migrants to the New World may 
have reached our shores by boat from the 
Pacific Islands, but it is usually conceded 
that such voyages were few in number and 
probably came about as a matter of chance 
rather than by intention. Furthermore, if 
such accidental voyagers lived to tell the 
tale, they and most of their specialized 
knowledge, traits, and techniques probably 
were largely, if not entirely, submerged by 
the civilization of their hosts. 

There are speculations concerning the 
origin of the American Indians— such fables 
as Atlantis; the Lost Continent of Mu; the 
"lost" tribes of Israelites who were merely 
deported about 725 B.C. to Assyria and who 
may be described as displaced, enslaved and 
shuffled about, but not lost; and the like; but 
all of these "hypotheses" may be labeled as 



fiction based on fancies, opinions, and chance 
analogies. 

The consensus of most anthropologists 
today is that the Indian is an Asiatic who 
wandered into the New World and here in- 
dependently developed an impressive series 
of cultures that range from a modest set of 
attainments to higher civilization. 



ANIMALS ARE THE 'STARS' 
IN AUDUBON FILM 

The final offering in the current series of 
screen-tours by the Illinois Audubon Society 
is "Animals at Home and Afield" to be pre- 
sented in the James Simpson Theatre of the 
Museum on Sunday afternoon, April 19, at 
2:30. Robert C. Hermes, well-known nat- 
uralist-photographer, will be the lecturer. 
There are many amazing episodes in his color 
film. One sequence shows the amusing 
antics of some acrobatic tree frogs. In 
another, Hermes has caught the moment 
when a score of baby octopuses in an ocean 
lagoon first see the light of day. Some 
ravens put on a clown-like sideshow of their 
own, while raccoons display their prowess at 
tightrope walking. Hermes enters into 
many aspects of the private lives and private 
worlds of the creatures that share our earth, 
its air, and its seas. 

Admission to the lecture is free, and 
Members of the Museum and their guests 
are cordially invited to attend. 



Argentinian Scientist Here 

Dr. Argentino Bonetto, head of the game 
and fish department of Argentina, recently 
visited this Museum to study dry and 
alcoholically preserved material of South 
American fresh-water clams. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



April, 1959 



TWO GRANTS RECEIVED 
FOR MUSEUM WORK 

The National Science Foundation recently 
awarded substantial grants to Chicago Nat- 
ural History Museum for the continuation 
of two research projects. They are the 
Mecca project under the direction of Dr. 
Rainer Zangerl, Curator of Fossil Reptiles, 
and Dr. Eugene S. Richardson, Jr., Curator 
of Fossil Invertebrates; and the study of 
animals of Borneo under the direction of 
Dr. Robert F. Inger, Curator of Amphibians 
and Reptiles. 

The Mecca project, which has been in op- 
eration since 1954, involves the detailed study 
of a thin band of black shale deposited in 
west-central Indiana some 250,000,000 years 
ago in the Pennsylvanian period. Dur- 
ing the last four years the primary concerns 
have been the collection of specimens from 
the site and the charting of the fossil remains 
for future study. The field work is now com- 
plete, but the greater task of studying, collat- 
ing, and evaluating the evidence is yet to come. 

The grant from the National Science Foun- 
dation will enable Richardson and Zangerl, 
the principal investigators, to continue the 
paleoecological study of the area at an accel- 
erated pace. Within three years they hope 
to be able to reconstruct the environmental 
conditions that existed during the time of 
deposition of the shale almost exactly as 
if it were happening today and we were able 
to witness the process. 

Inger, since 1950, has been studying the 
reptiles and amphibians of Borneo, how they 
got there, their distribution, and their effect 
upon one another within the complex envi- 
ronment of the rain forest. Part of the 
grant will make it possible for Inger to 
study type specimens of animals housed in 
museums in Europe and other parts of 
the world. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology 

From: Mrs. John Foster Gilchrist, Chi- 
cago — Aztec pottery figurine, Mexico; E. T. 
Wiltsee, Centerburg, Ohio— Jicarilla Apache 
Indian water basket, Chama, New Mexico. 

Department of Botany 

From: Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia — 21 phanerogams, South Amer- 
ica; Prof. P. Maheshwari, Delhi, India- 
flowering specimens of Lemna and Wolffia. 

Department of Geology 

From: Mrs. Ethel Doerrer, Tinley Park, 
111. — 4 trilobites and a fossil shrimp; Willard 
P. Leutze, Richmond, Ind.— a fossil Euryp- 
terid, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Department of Zoology 

From: Dr. N. L. H. Krauss, Honolulu— 47 
amphibians and reptiles, an eel, Panama, 
Washington State, India, Ceylon, Indo- 
China and Philippines; Colin C. Sanborn, 



Marcella, Ark.— a fox; Dr. Jeanne S. 
Schwengel, Scarsdale, N. Y.— marine shells 
and cowry shells, worldwide; Frank E. Sim- 
mons, Oglesby, Tex. — 16 inland mollusks; 
Dr. Victor G. Springer, St. Petersburg, Fla. 
— 99 fishes; Dr. Fritz Zumpt, Johannesburg, 
South Africa — a frog, 4 snakes, parasites, 
sucking and biting lice, South Africa. 



NEW MEMBERS ADDED 
TO MUSEUM ROLLS 

(February 18 to March 16) 

Life Member 

Dr. J. Roscoe Miller 

Associate Members 

Harold W. Alenduff, Rosecrans Baldwin, 
Jay Berwanger, James P. Dillie, Mitchell 
Edelson, Jr., W. H. Garvey, Jr., S. Ashley 
Guthrie, Joseph Halouska, J. H. Herz, 
Howell H. Howard, Frank D. Huth, Arthur 
K. Kribben, Delafield Kribben, Herbert F. 
Lello, David N. McCarl, Frank B. Papier- 
niak, Henry Perlman, Holman D. Pettibone, 
John J. Poister, George A. Reilly, Budd Sills, 
Lendol D. Snow, George Tonn, Eugene C. 
Travis, William M. Trumbull, Dr. Edward 
F. Webb, Arthur Wlochall. 

Sustaining Members 

Richard McClung, Mrs. Lenora C. West- 
erhold 

Annual Members 

Mrs. Wolcott S. Allison, Norman Andrea- 
sen, Mrs. Luther B. Andrews, Mrs. Otis G. 
Andrews, Henry X Arenberg, Mrs. Alex J. 
Arieff, John A. Arnold, Mrs. W. Russell 
Arlington, Mrs. Frederick T. Aschman, 
Mrs. Milton S. Axelrad, Joseph Wm. Bag- 
nuolo, William F. Benoist, Jr., Irving Birn- 
baum, Thomas J. Boodell, Joseph Boren- 
stein, Arlie O. Boswell, Jr., Floyd E. Britton, 
Bernard B. Brody, Ben C. Brostoff, Edward 
I. Brown, Aloys L. Bruckner, Joseph E. 
Brunswick, Paul W. Brust, Russell Bun- 
desen, Jewell V. Burk, Arnold L. Burke, Lee 
M. Burkey, Jr., Thomas D. Burlage, Merwin 
R. Burman, Robert S. Burrows, David T. 
Busch, R. Cadmore, John R. Caffrey, 
Joseph B. Caracci, Robert P. Carey, Sher- 
man Carmell, Robert Cavanaugh, George R. 
Cermak, George J. Cervenka, William F. 
Coale, Jr., John T. Coburn, David L. Cogh- 
lan, Jack A. Cohon, Jack Z. Cole, Miss 
Natalie Crohn, Lawrence J. Dahlgren, Jules 
Dashow, David Davidson, John W. Dawson, 
Theodore C. Diller, Harry A. Dow, Jr., 
George Echt, Samuel Edes, Nathan N. 
Eglit, Richard L. Ekstrand, Maurice R. Ely, 
Paul W. Goodrich, George E. Hachtman, 
Mrs. Melvin J. Hagen, Mrs. Burton W. 
Hales, Edward W. Hallauer, Miss Alice 
Howe, Mrs. Florence H. Hunter, Miss 
Margaret L. Moran, Walter M. Norton, 
Miss Mary E. Sage, Eugene B. Schultz, Jr., 
Robert Tremper. 



FOUR TRAVEL LECTURES 
OFFERED IN APRIL 

Four more lectures in the spring series 
for adults remain to be given on Saturday 
afternoons in April. Illustrated with color 
motion pictures, the lectures will be given 
at 2:30 p.m. each Saturday in the James 
Simpson Theatre of the Museum. They are 
provided by the Edward E. Ayer Lecture 
Foundation. Admission is free. Museum 
Members and their guests are admitted to 
a reserved section of the theatre upon pres- 
entation of membership cards. Following 
are dates, subjects and lectures: 

April 4 — France 

Kenneth Richier 

April 11 — Sicily, Island of the Sun 

Robert Davis 

April 18— The Faraway Falklands 

Olin Sewall Pettingill, Jr. 

April 25 — Ranch of the Purple Flowers 

Robert C. Hermes 



STAFF NOTES 



Dr. Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of 
Geology, gave a film-lecture on volcanoes 
of Mexico and Central America for a recent 
meeting of the Chicago Lapidary society . . . 
Dr. Eugene S. Richardson, Jr., Curator 
of Fossil Invertebrates, spoke before the 
Northern Biology Teachers' Association at 
Oregon, Illinois, on the Museum's Mecca 
(Indiana) paleontological project. . . . 
Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator of Insects, 
recently made studies of collections in 
museums of Washington, New York and 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. . . . Dr. Roland 
W. Force, Curator of Oceanic Archaeology 
and Ethnology, has been appointed Asso- 
ciate Editor of a new worldwide anthro- 
pological journal, Current Anthropology. 
Recently he attended a Philadelphia meeting 
of a National Science Planning Board group 
working out plans for the "Man and Culture" 
portion of the Century 21 Exposition to be 
held in Seattle in 1961. He also gave a 
lecture on the Palau Islands before a Chester- 
ton (Indiana) audience. . . . Bertram G. 
Woodland, Associate Curator of Petrology, 
recently lectured before the Kennicott Club 
on trends of thought in geology. 



The systematic collection of fishes in 
Hall O includes primitive fishes, sharks, 
rays, and a series of bony fishes that range 
from herrings and salmon-like fishes to 
spiny-rayed fishes and such odd forms as 
trigger fishes and angler fishes. 



PLEASE NOTIFY MUSEUM 
IF YOU'RE MOVING 

Members of the Museum who change 
residence are urged to notify the Museum 
so that the Bulletin and other communi- 
cations may reach them promptly. A card 
for this purpose is enclosed with this issue. 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



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MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 

Friday, May 8, 7 to 10:30 p.m. 

'PANORAMA OF THE PACIFIC 



Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



May, 1959 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 
Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 

THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery William V. Kahler 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen J. Roscoe Miller 

Chbsser M. Campbell William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Joseph N. Field Clarence B. Randall 

Marshall Field, Jr. John G. Searle 

Stanley Field Solomon A. Smith 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Louis Ware 

John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Hughston M. McBain First Vice-President 

Walther Buchen Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
Patricia McAfee Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



SOUTHWEST EXPLORERS 
RETURN TO 'DIG' 

IN MAY the 1959 Southwest Archaeolog- 
ical Expedition of the Museum will begin 
its fourth season of operations in an area 
south of the Petrified Forest in Arizona. 

Among the objectives of the expedition 
will be the finding of more clues indicating 
the ancestral background of the American 
Indian and of the Western Pueblo Indians 
in particular. Even more specifically the 
archaeologists hope to uncover additional 
evidence which will link up the history of 
the present-day Zuni Indians with that of 
prehistoric tribes who lived around the head- 
waters of the Little Colorado River. 

Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of An- 
thropology, is the leader of the expedition, 
and Dr. John B. Rinaldo, Assistant Curator 
of Archaeology, is his principal associate. 
Other members of the Museum staff who 
will take part in the work are Allen Liss and 
Howard Anderson of the departmental staff. 
Several college students and local residents 
have also been engaged to help with the re- 
search and digging operations. This will be 
the Museum's sixteenth season of exploring 
the Mogollon culture and the twenty-fifth 
of the expeditions to the Southwest. 

The destination of these archaeologists, 
out to search for traces of the early Indians, 
is Vernon, a small town located in rugged 
mountainous country about 120 miles north- 
east of Phoenix. In this area among the 



yucca, cedars, cacti and tumbled-down ruins 
they hope to uncover tools, weapons, pot- 
tery vessels, ceremonial objects, dwellings or 
other artifacts which have a generic resem- 
blance to those of the modern Zuni or Hopi 
Indians. 

By a classification of these artifacts and a 
comparison of the different styles produced 
with those from other prehistoric and his- 
toric villages previously explored, they will 
gradually piece together a picture of a way 
of life directly ancestral to one of the West- 
ern Pueblo Indian tribes. 

PREVIOUS FINDINGS SUMMARIZED 

What have they been able to fit together 
from the shattered fragments recovered 
so far? 

Because they have been reconstructing a 
series of life-ways extending through several 
time-intervals back 3,000 years or more, this 
picture might be likened more readily to a 
motion picture, consisting of a sequence of 
frames starting with the earliest remains of 
this culture. This early period — the first 
frame in the picture — is called the Concho 
Complex. At this time the Indians were 
nomadic hunters and gatherers, dwelling 
along the shores of extinct lakes. The evi- 
dence for this mode of existence consists of 
small piles of burned rock and charcoal which 
mark their ancient fires, grinding slabs, hand- 
sized stones for use in milling, bone fragments 
of the animals they hunted, spear points, 
knives and scrapers. These and other re- 
mains show they probably built light brush or 
skin shelters near their hearths and that they 
gathered seeds, nuts, berries and roots, and 
hunted deer, rabbits and other small game 
for food. It is assumed that they wove san- 
dals and baskets and that they cooked in 
these baskets by stone-boiling with the rocks 
found in their former hearths. This culture 
has been dated by radioactive carbon at 
about 1500 B.C. and it probably lasted until 
the time of Christ or later. 

The next frame in our movie shows a 
later group of the same Indians who made 
pottery, practiced agriculture, and lived in 
pit-houses — deep excavations with hard clay 
or gravel walls plastered with adobe, and 
roofed over with a heavy post, timber and 
earth structure. Whether this "pit-house" 
period immediately succeeded one much like 
the Concho period, or if there was a transi- 
tional phase similar to that found in the pre- 
viously explored Pine Lawn Valley of New 
Mexico, will be determined by further sys- 
tematic search this summer and possibly by 
future excavation. 

Succeeding the pit-house period was one in 
which the people split up into smaller groups 
consisting of fewer families, and began to 
build houses with stone masonry walls, either 
partly or entirely above ground. Several 
additional styles of painted pottery and tex- 
tured decorated pottery were made. 

As time went on, population increased and 
the later villages were much larger and fre- 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



A temple image from Hawaii — 
one of only two similar idols known 
to remain in existence — is shown 
on our cover. Prior to its acquisi- 
tion by Captain and Mrs. A.W.F. 
Fuller, of London, this specimen 
was included in an 18th century 
private collection. It was believed 
by the family who owned it that 
an ancestor who had sailed with 
Captain Cook on his third voyage 
had brought it to England. Im- 
ages such as this are known to 
have stood in open-air platform 
temples ("heiaus") and to have 
been carved by tribal artists at the 
order of powerful chiefs. The pic- 
tured specimen is among the 
objects selected from the Fuller 
collection, now the property of 
the Museum, for the special ex- 
hibit to be staged on Members' 
Night, Friday, May 8. 



quently had large ceremonial structures 
nearby. The majority of the pottery is 
more elaborately decorated and there is evi- 
dence of considerable specialization in tool 
types. 

LINKS WITH THE ZUNI 

Now, what has been found to link this cul- 
ture specifically with that of the Zuni Indians? 
Probably the most definitive clue is continu- 
ing and overlapping styles of pottery decora- 
tion which have their latest representation 
in historic Zuni pottery designs, as distin- 
guished from those of other Pueblo Indian 
groups. Further close resemblances have 
been noted in architecture — in the character 
of the late prehistoric ceremonial rooms, and 
in the manner of growth of villages as a 
cluster of rooms rather than as rows of rooms 
along a street or plaza. 

At the present stage of these investiga- 
tions we find it possible to reconstruct many 
of the crafts practiced by these Indians, to 
learn how they made their tools, weapons 
and pottery, and to visualize much of what 
their subsistence economy was and some- 
thing about their community organization. 
However, we still find it difficult to visualize 
their religious institutions or spiritual life 
except in the most general terms. We hope 
that a tie-up with one of the historic groups 
— probably the Zuni — will give us added in- 
sight into these aspects. 

Several sites will be excavated in 1959. 
Probably additional ceremonial structures as 
well as one large later site will be dug into. 
We also hope to discover a dry cave which 
contains well preserved wooden and textile 
objects to fill out gaps in our knowledge of 
these crafts and to increase our knowledge of 
the social habits of these people. 



'.».»«,▼«.. . -. «,«.•»-• » »*. 



May, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 3 



PANORAMA OF THE PACIFIC FOR MEMBERS' NIGHT, MAY 8 

THE romantic South Sea islands, so often described in song and story, are the origin of the main attraction of this 
year's Members' Night at the Museum. Visitors entering Stanley Field Hall Friday evening, May 8, will be 
greeted by "Panorama of the Pacific," a display of artifacts from the collection of Captain and Mrs. A. W. Fuller. 



In the past year, the Museum has pro- 
gressed in its exhibition program, and also 
in the research which adds to the sum total 
of man's knowledge. Museum Members 
have contributed to this growth and prog- 
ress, and they are invited with their friends 
to view the new exhibits in all departments, 
and visit with the staff in the offices and 
workshops "behind the scenes." 

Open House 

For those who wish to come early and dine 
at the Museum, the Cafeteria will be open 
from 6 to 8 p.m. 

Traditional "open house" will be held from 
7 to 10:30, during which time the scientists, 
artists, preparators and technicians will meet 
with Members in their working quarters on 
the third, fourth and ground floors. In these 
offices, laboratories, studios, and shops, usu- 
ally inaccessible to the public, the staff will 
discuss their unique work and explain the 
intricate processes involved in creating Mu- 
seum exhibits, some of which will be seen for 
the first time on Members' Night. 

Tours of the third and fourth floors will be 
conducted by the Raymond Foundation staff. 
However, those wishing to wander independ- 
ently through the offices and laboratories are 
welcome to do so. The vast study collec- 
tions, which far outnumber the specimens 
in exhibition halls, will also be available for 
inspection. 

During open house hours, visitors are urged 
to see the exhibits which have been added 
since the last Members' Night. 

New Exhibits 

"Panorama of the Pacific" (Stanley Field 
Hall) does not represent the "islands" as 
they are extolled in song and story today, 
but it does represent a past culture which 
existed in Australia, Polynesia and Melane- 
sia. "Panorama" includes objects, both utili- 
tarian and ceremonial, of wood, shell, stone, 
bone, fiber, and coral. The techniques used 
in making these remarkable carved and dec- 
orated artifacts without the aid of metal tools 
have been lost with the passage of time, and 
it is only in museums and private collections 
that these vestiges of past cultures may be 
seen. The Fuller collection, assembled dur- 
ing some 60 years, was acquired by the 
Museum from its London owners last year. 

Another important feature on this year's 
roster of exhibits is the newly reopened 
Charles F. Millspaugh Hall of North Amer- 
ican Trees (Hall 26). The major part of 
the hall has been completely reinstalled, re- 
modeled and relabeled to explain the natural 
history of North American trees, particularly 
those of the United States. New cases have 



been added representing principal forest areas 
and indicating distribution, past and pres- 
ent; "Forests of the Past," now petrified; 
stratification in a forest, and "How a Tree 
Works." 

Clarence Buckingham Hall of Meteorites, 
Moon, and Minerals (Hall 35) has been re- 
modeled to present today's ideas on the phys- 
ical-chemical composition, formation, and 
classification of minerals. This hall has one 
of the largest collections of meteorites — the 
only tangible visitors from outer space which 
have yet descended to this planet. 

New additions have been added to the 
Hall of Ancient and Modern Indians of Mex- 
ico and Central America (Hall 8) represent- 
ing cultures of the Gulf Coast, Western 
Mexico, Oaxaca, Zapotec, Mixtec, Guerro, 
and Teotichuacan. 

"What Is Primitive Art?," a recent an- 
thropological exhibit providing the answer 
to that question, is located in Hall H on the 
ground floor. 

Drawings and paintings by adult and 
junior students of the School of the Art In- 



stitute will be found in Albert W. Harris 
Hall (Hall 18) and the north corridor of the 
ground floor. The art work was inspired by 
exhibits seen by the students at the Museum 
during classes. 

Printed guides will direct Members to addi- 
tional new exhibits in the halls of anthropol- 
ogy, botany, geology and zoology. 

The evening will close with light refresh- 
ments served in Stanley Field Hall and the 
Library. President Stanley Field, Director 
Clifford C. Gregg and other Museum officials 
will greet Members in Stanley Field Hall. 

Transportation and Parking 

Free parking is available at the north en- 
trance of the Museum for those who drive. 
For those who do not drive, a special shuttle 
bus with signs indicating that it is destined 
for the Museum will leave Jackson Boule- 
vard and State Street at 15-minute intervals 
beginning at 6:30 p.m. City-bound service 
will continue until 10:45 p.m. Stops will be 
made both ways at Seventh Street and 
Michigan, and at Jackson and Michigan. 



SCHOOLS' SCIENCE FAIR 
AT MUSEUM MAY 16 

The world of the future as visualized by 
America's youngest generation of scientifi- 
cally-inclined minds will be on exhibition for 
one day all over the vast area of Stanley 
Field Hall of the Museum on Saturday, 
May 16. That is when this year's Chicago 
Area Science Fair will be staged by young- 
sters ranging from elementary sixth-graders 
to high school seniors. At these fairs here 
in past years there have been astonishing 
creations in the way of elaborate demonstra- 
tions and fantastic models of everything from 
nuclear engines and robots to the life-cycle 
of a cicada or the human circulatory system. 
In addition, the children who have designed 
these exhibits are prepared to give very so- 
phisticated and accurate expository lectures 
on their subjects for groups of visitors to 
each individual display. 

The show will be on from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
The participants include pupils of public, 
private and parochial schools of Chicago and 
within a 35-mile radius of the city. In this 
respect it differs from the Chicago Public 
Schools Student Science Fair, held in April, 
which was limited to public schools within 
the city limits. Prizes and other awards will 
be made at the close of the day to each grade- 
level from 6 through 9. Awards on a subject- 
area basis will be made in the grades from 
10 through 12. The event is sponsored by 
the Chicago Teachers Science Association. 
A number of working scientists and engineers 



STAFF NOTES 



Dr. Alan Solem, Curator of Lower In- 
vertebrates, and Henry S. Dybas, Associate 
Curator of Insects, have returned from a 
three-month zoological expedition in Pan- 
ama. . . . George I. Quimby, Curator of 
North American Archaeology and Ethnol- 
ogy, recently made studies at museums in 
East Lansing and Grand Rapids, Michigan, 
in connection with his research project into 
the archaeology of the Great Lakes region. 
He also studied private collections. . . . Dr. 
Theodor Just, Chief Curator of Botany, 
and Dr. Roland W. Force, Curator of 
Oceanic Archaeology and Ethnology, were 
interviewed about their fields of science on 
Radio Station WAAF in April. Emmet R. 
Blake, Curator of Birds, and Eugene S. 
Richardson, Jr., Curator of Fossil Inverte- 
brates, will be heard in the same series at 
5:30 p.m. on May 3 and May 10 respec- 
tively. Mr. Blake lectured on the work of 
his recent expedition to Peru before the 
Kennicott Club, Chicago, and the Evanston 
Bird Club. . . . Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator 
of Insects, attended the recent Conference 
of the North Central States Branch of the 
Entomological Society of America at Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 



ex- 



from the professions and industry are <=a- 
pected to attend for the purpose of consult- 
ing with promising students to aid them in 
their further development toward careers. 




Captain Fuller and 
Curator Force 
during documen- 
tation and pack- 
ing in London. 



S.S. Rutenfjell with the Fuller Collection on board. 



Four tons of Pacific Islanc 
at Chicago's 



THE PA 

Museum Member 
of archaeological and 
the first public exhibi 
ago (BULLETIN, Sept 
part of the Museum' 
collection itself, but 1 
Curator of Oceanic Ar> 
of the collectors and a 
journey from London 




Museum personnel dismantling a large shipping case. 



Specially built boxes containing long 

specimens required a number of men 

because of their weight. 

Page i 



Individual boxes were checked Bf 
for their last 









) terials being hoisted ashore 
I: umet Harbor. 



Safe arrival at the Museum. 



TFIC'S BEST COMES TO CHICAGO 



N -S 



'ill have the opportunity of viewing selected specimens from the famed Fuller Collection 

nological materials from the South Seas on Members' Night, May 8, 1959. This will be 

of this collection since it was begun by Captain A. W. F. Fuller of London over 60 years 

ber, 1958). This remarkable assemblage of objects from the Pacific world now forms a 

icific Research Laboratory. The Museum is fortunate to have acquired not only the 

i wealth of documentation supplied by Captain and Mrs. Fuller. Dr. Roland W. Force, 

i eology and Ethnology, spent six months of 1958 in London where he recorded the remarks 

: iged for packing and shipment. On these pages an abbreviated version of the collection's 

the Museum is depicted. 




iy were loaded onto the freight elevator 
n their long journey. 



Dance Mask from the 
Torres Straits. 



Safely ensconced in the Museum's Pacific Research Laboratory, 

several rare items are examined by President Field as members of 

the press note details. 

Page 5 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



May, 1959 



THE VARIED PEOPLES OF THOUSANDS OF PACIFIC ISLES 



By ROLAND W. FORCE 

CURATOR OF OCEANIC ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

THE YEAR 1959 will be remembered for 
the admittance of seven small islands, 
situated 2,000 miles west of the coast of Cali- 
fornia, as our 50th state. The Hawaiian Is- 
lands of today are vastly changed from what 
they were when Captain James Cook, the 
great English explorer, landed there about 
180 years ago. Honolulu is a modern 20th 
century city with thriving industries, beauti- 
ful homes, wide boulevards, schools, muse- 
ums, and all the trappings of a contemporary 
metropolis. In the years following their dis- 
covery by Captain Cook, the Hawaiian Is- 
lands became the crossroads of the Pacific 
even though they were among the last islands 
to be discovered by Europeans. 

The so-called age of discovery in the Pa- 
cific began with Magellan's ill-fated initial 
crossing of the ocean in 1520 and culminated 
with Cook's three voyages (1768-79). The 
most restricted view of the Pacific was prob- 
ably that of Balboa. Seven years before 
Magellan's voyage, Balboa stood on a peak 
in Panama and looked out over what he 
termed the South Seas. The most pano- 
ramic view of the Pacific was probably 
Cook's. On his voyages he and his men 
touched the Society Islands, New Zealand, 
the Hervey Islands, eastern Australia, the 
Tuamotus, the Marquesas, Niue, New Cale- 
donia, Norfolk Island, Tubuai, many other 
smaller islands, and, of course, Hawaii. He 
used the newly developed chronometer and 
sextant to chart the Pacific so expertly that 
little revision in the maps he made has been 
necessary. Plants were collected, natives 
sketched and described, notes were taken on 
natural resources, harbors were listed, cur- 
rents were noted, and, in general, exhaustive 
information of all descriptions was collected. 

Of especial importance to anthropology is 
the fact that Cook also collected ethno- 
graphic specimens on many of the islands 
he visited. All in all, this man and his sail- 
ing companions solved most of the major 
mysteries of the Pacific and, as one author 
has put it, left little for voyagers who fol- 
lowed him to do but admire. Some who 
followed in his footsteps found much to do, 
however. The traders, missionaries, whalers 
and others who ventured into the newly dis- 
covered island world, either inadvertently or 
deliberately, caused the Pacific cultures to 
change. Disease and warfare as well as 
blackbirding took their toll of islanders' 
lives. Those who survived these plagues 
were influenced by the teachings offered and 
the examples set by the newcomers. The 
wheels of cultural change were set in motion 
and the process of sweeping cultural altera- 
tion, which is still in progress, was initiated 
— the Pacific of old was destined to be lost. 

Of all the points worth stressing about the 
Pacific, there are two which stand out. One 
is size. The Pacific is a vast region compos- 



ing approximately one-third of the earth's 
surface. The second point worthy of stress 
is that of contrast and variation, brought 
about in part by vastness and isolation. This 
great area of the world stretches from South- 
east Asia to the west coasts of North and 
South America. Ten thousand islands lie 



Principal feature for Members' 
Night (Friday, May 8) will be a 
special exhibit of objects from the 
recently acquired Fuller Collec- 
tion of Pacific Islands Material 
Culture. In the accompanying 
article. Dr. Force summarizes the 
historical and ethnological back- 
ground of the South Sea islands 
that the Fuller collection docu- 
ments. 



scattered over the face of what we also call 
Oceania. They vary from tiny atoll islets 
barely visible above the pounding surf to 
continental Australia, three million miles 
large. Contrast and variation in the Pacific 
are greater than most suspect. There are 
deserts in Australia, muggy, insect-ridden 
equatorial mangrove swamps in coastal Mel- 
anesia, and snow-capped "alps" towering 
12,000 feet in New Guinea. There is con- 
trast and variation in climate, island size, 
elevation, soil, resources, fauna, flora, and 
in people. 

MAGMA AND MIGRATIONS 

The Pacific and the people who live and 
have lived there can be understood only 
when viewed against a backdrop of geog- 
raphy and geology. Great tectonic shifts in 
the corpus of the earth occurred about a 
hundred million years ago in the western 
Pacific. Intense folding and faulting thrust 
up great ridges which rose from the floor of 
the Pacific mostly in an east-west direction. 
Mountains were raised above the surface of 
the water, basaltic magma erupted, and vol- 
canoes formed even higher peaks. Later the 
great ridges submerged thousands of feet and 
left only the peaks of the great sub-aquatic 
Cordilleras exposed. 

Another kind of eruption took place in this 
part of the world about the end of the Ice 
Age, or roughly some 25,000 years ago. It 
was a gradual eruption and was composed of 
people. Perhaps trickle is a better adjective 
than eruption if we view the events of his- 
tory in Pacific settlement in proper perspec- 
tive. Small bands of relatively primitive 



MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 
Friday, May 8 



people with few possessions and even fewer 
ideas of where they were going began to 
trickle out of Southeast Asia. They moved 
relatively short distances — they had only 
flimsy water craft and many were lost. Per- 
haps in a score of generations only a few 
islands might be traversed, but constant 
population pressures, inter-tribal wars and 
accidents of weather and navigation resulted 
in a steady, if slow, eastward migration into 
the Pacific. Later some peoples became 
skilled boat builders and intrepid sailors. 
Techniques of food and water storage and 
star navigation were improved and learning 
from experience — some of it disastrous — en- 
abled these dauntless mariners to penetrate 
into virtually all parts of Oceania. The Pa- 
cific at last had people. 

With their bare feet they scuffed through 
beach rubble, trod on red volcanic soil or 
bleached coral sand to gain a toehold. They 
built simple thatched houses, fished the la- 
goons, and farmed marshy plots, some- 
times fertile, sometimes awesomely sterile. 

With them, these voyagers brought their 
customs, their ways of life, their values, their 
beliefs in God and nature, their languages 
and, of course, they also brought their skin 
colors, their hair and nose forms, their stature 
and all of the other physical characteristics 
with which their ancestors had provided them. 

They traded their ways of life and cus- 
toms as well as their racial characteristics 
with other people they met and then became 
isolated and developed in ways peculiar to 
themselves. For example : many Pacific peo- 
ples ornamented their persons by tattooing, 
but patterns, techniques, and special fea- 
tures became highly stylized and representa- 
tive of only one area. The Maori of New 
Zealand concentrated on facial tattooing and 
curvilinear designs. The Marquesans, on 
the other hand, tattooed the entire body — 
even to the eyelids and soles of the feet — in 
designs strikingly different from their Poly- 
nesian neighbors in faraway New Zealand. 

WHO AND WHERE 

In each little island enclave, people built 
a distinctive culture which shared a com- 
mon core with many others but was still 
remarkably different from that of any other 
group. Isolation for long periods of time 
tended to promote cultural, linguistic and 
racial differences. However, the Pacific may 
be broken up into several larger enclaves in 
which there are basic similarities. 

Polynesia (which means many islands) is 
a great triangle in the east. It has at its 
apexes Easter Island on the east, Hawaii on 
the north, and New Zealand on the south. 
Micronesia (small islands) forms a belt across 
the northern Pacific from the Marshalls to 
Palau in the west. It is bordered on the 
south by the equator. 

South of this median line on our globe in- 
(Continued on page 8, column 1) 



May, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



NATURE-ART STUDENTS 
DISPLAY CREATIONS 

The lively imagination of the young child, 
and the more advanced artistic skill of 
the adult combine to produce a colorful and 
refreshing show of art work by students of 
the School of the Art Institute in a special 
exhibit at Chicago Natural History Museum. 

The special exhibit, which will continue 
from May 1 through May 31, includes nearly 
100 paintings and drawings in many mediums 
by junior school students (first through 
twelfth grades) and adult day students based 
on exhibits in this Museum. The exhibits 
provide the students with new forms and 
subject matter to observe and paint. The 
wide range of the students' ages affords an 
interesting representation of the progressive 
stages in the development of an artist. 

Forty paintings by students in the junior 
school, under the direction of Edithe Jane 
Cassady, will be displayed in the north cor- 
ridor of the ground floor. Delightful inter- 
pretations of Museum exhibits, particularly 
of the animal habitat groups, are exhibited 
in the children's works. Not yet restricted 
by the confines of reality, they have injected 
life and action into their subject matter — 
even to the extent in one painting of animat- 
ing a skeleton and placing it amidst a field 
of flowers. 

Art work hy first-year adult students in 
basic drawinjclasses, instructed by Richard 








IT'S ALL ONE TRANSPARENT EAGLE 
A multiple-image drawing showing the bird from 
different points of view, stressing linear relation- 
ships. Included in this month's special exhibit at 
this Museum from the School of the Art Institute, 
it is the work of Richard Chen, a first-year student 
in the adult basic painting and drawing class. 

Keane and Ethel Spears, and the second- 
year adult classes, conducted by Tom Kap- 
salis, will be located in Albert W. Harris 
Hall (Hall 18). These drawings and paint- 
ings are representative of the adults' ap- 
proach to subject matter which they cannot 
come into contact with inside the classroom. 
Naturalistic studies of animals and birds, 
and abstract works based on realistic forms 
predominate in the exhibit. Multiple image 
drawings of the same figure from different 



angles, emphasizing linear relationships, com- 
prise a smaller portion of the works. 

Selecting the paintings and drawings to be 
exhibited this year were Marion Pahl, Staff 
Illustrator, and Phillip Lewis, Assistant 
Curator of Primitive Art, at the Museum. 

The instructors in the junior school whose 
students are represented are Mrs. Berta 
Caul, Joseph S. Young, Mrs. Donald No- 
votny, Mrs. Martha Larson, Barbara Aubin, 
Herb Forman, Eugene Szuba, Diane Von 
Eitzen, Alvin Nickel, Adelheid Hirsch and 
Constance Racht. 



MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 

Friday, May 8 



NEW MEMBERS 

(March 17 to April 15) 

Non-Resident Life Member 

Mrs. Vera Lash Smith 

Associate Members 

Dr. Irving Blumenthal, Dr. Milton Braun, 
A. C. Buehler, Jr., Mrs. Robert F. Carr, 
Robert Diller, W. J. Foell, Lester E. Frank- 
enstein, George D. Hardin, William P. 
Hypes, Floyd E. Jessen, William J. Keene, 
Dr. M. J. Kostrzewski, Frank B. Kozlik, 
L. S. Larson, John A. Leith, Robert J. Ley, 
Mrs. Mason A. Loundy, Mrs. John A. Mac- 
Lean, Jr., Arnold D. K. Mason, Raven I. 
McDavid, Jr., Oscar L. Moore, Wilbur C. 
Munnecke, Carroll Dean Murphy, Jr., Mrs. 
Fentress Ott, Robert E. Pflaumer, Robert C. 
Preble, Mrs. John A. Prosser, Douglas K. 
Ridley, Mrs. George P. Rogers, Miss Marion 
H. Schenk, Mrs. Vaughn C. Spalding, Jr., 
Allen P. Stults, Roy E. Sturtevant, Car- 
roll H. Sudler, Jr., Leon F. Urbain, M. P. 
Venema, Mrs. Maurice Weigle, Dr. Eman- 
uel C. Wilhelm, Howard L. Willett, Jr. 

Sustaining Members 

Arthur Joel Bell, R. J. Hepburn, Fran- 
cis M. Rich 

Annual Members 

Dr. Arthur C. Albright, John E. Alden, 
Mrs. John W. Allyn, Max Alper, Donald W. 
Alshire, Dr. Erwin Angres, Dr. Charles H. 
Armstrong, Mrs. John E. Armstrong, Mrs. 
Paul L. Armstrong, Mrs. Homer Askounis, 
William F. Austin III, Mrs. L. C. Ayshford, 
Dr. Bernard Baker, Gerald A. Barry, Dr. 
Edward W. Beasley, Irving L. Berkson, 
Arthur J. Bernstein, Irwin S. Bickson, Rich- 
ard J. Billik, T. S. Bird, Vincent J. Bolger, 
Gerald G. Bolotin, Palmer C. Boothby, 
John J. Bransfield, Jr., Merton B. Brody, 
Ralph E. Brown, William E. Cahill, Charles 
D. Callahan, L. Yager Cantwell, Howard W. 
Clement, James W. Clement, Franklin A. 
Cole, Dr. Lome Costello, Miss Bernice Dahl, 
Mrs. Dino D'Angelo, Mrs. Jack Davidson, 
Mrs. Landon DeLove, James P. Economos, 
Thomas S. Edmonds, Irving W. Eiserman, 
Walter Erman, George J. Fox, Maurice A. 
Frank, Sidney S. Gorham, Jr., Gerald J. 
Graham, Robert C. Gunness, Mrs. Bessie 
Neuberg Heinze, John Howard, Robert Ire- 



HALL OF TREES REOPENS 
WITH NEW EXHIBITS 

AS THEY STROLL through the newly 
remodeled Charles F. Millspaugh Hall 
of North American Trees (Hall 26), visitors 
can choose their summer vacation spot in a 
woodland region, pick out the proper wood 
for furniture, and learn the natural history 
of North American trees. The Hall of North 
American Trees is to be reopened on Mem- 
bers' Night, Friday, May 8. 

Designed to present the natural history of 
North American trees, particularly those 
of the United States, the hall contains cases 
exhibiting 84 species of hardwood and soft- 
wood trees. A large fossil tree stump 250,- 
000,000 years old, found in a Pennsylvania 
coal mine, rests in the center of the hall. On 
the walls surrounding it are four entirely new 
exhibits. 

The standing cases, each devoted to a sin- 
gle tree species, contain a section of the trunk 
with bark, a branch, large pieces of lumber 
showing the wood structure, a distribution 
map, and summer and winter photographs. 
In addition, explanatory labels stress inter- 
esting aspects of the natural history of the 
tree, and list important fungus diseases, in- 
sect pests, and characteristics and uses of 
the wood. 

One of the new exhibits illustrates the 
principal forest areas of the United States; 
smaller maps show the change in original 
forest coverage from the time of the arrival 
of the white man to the present, and the fact 
that one-third of the land area of the United 
States is still covered with woodland. Of 
unusual interest are the colorful and highly 
polished large sections of petrified wood 
which document eloquently "Forests of the 
Past" in another new exhibit. 

Details of the major structural elements 
and principal functions of a tree, and the 
mystery of plant reproduction are illustrated 
and explained by "How a Tree Works." The 
fourth new exhibit shows the complex 
aggregation of tree and other plant species in 
an Illinois forest and also how the composi- 
tion of forests varies at increasing elevations 
on a mountain side. 

A new arrangement of cases and the 
beautifully painted transparencies give a 
feeling of outdoor spaciousness in the Mu- 
seum's indoor "forest." 



land, Miss Barbara Jacobs, Albert J. Jan- 
torni, Samuel Jastromb, Howard F. Jeffers, 
Ray T. Johnson, Loring M. Jones, Mrs. 
Ramonda Jo Karmatz, Samuel N. Katzin, 
Mrs. Arthur J. Leighton, Julius Loeffler, 
Maurice D. Mangan, Fred B. Mattingly, 
Edward H. McDermott, Wyllys K. Morris, 
William S. North, A. E. Paxton, Mrs. Phyl- 
lis Rossow, Mrs. Thomas J. Salsman, Rob- 
ert L. Sanders, Harry Schaden, Dr. I. Joshua 
Speigel, Henry Stefany, Arthur Sturm, Rich- 
ard B. Trentlage, Paul W. Weber, David 
Maxwell Weil, R. L. Wenger, Mrs. Ednyfed 
H. Williams, Martin Zitz. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



May, 1959 



PEOPLES OF THE PACIFIC- 

(Continued from page 6) 

eluding most of New Guinea and myriad is- 
lands to the east and northeast, lies Melane- 
sia (the black islands). Still farther south is 
Australia. 

Farther west is Malaysia or, as it is some- 
times called, Indonesia. Here are the islands 
which cluster about the feet of Asia — islands 
which have felt the impact of countless waves 
of Asiatic peoples who have surged out of the 
great continent in search of new homes. In- 
fluences have been received from the high 
cultures of Asia — from India and even from 
the Near East. 

Melanesians are darker-skinned people 
with bushy or frizzly hair, somewhat larger 
than Malaysians and with distinctive nose 
and head forms. Variation is extremely 
great between island groups however, and 
the heterogeneity is present even between 
lowland or coastal peoples and their highland 
neighbors in diverse New Guinea. 

Polynesians are relatively tall, well- 
muscled, straight- or wavy-haired and light- 
skinned. The racial affinities with the major 
Caucasoid or white stock are apparent. 
Malaysians generally show racial affinities 
with the peoples of Asia. 

As we might expect because of their geo- 
graphic position between the Polynesians 
and the Malaysians, Micronesians range be- 
tween the two in their physical characteris- 
tics. The Australian aborigines are an addi- 
tional variant in physical type and represent 
the earliest migrants into the Pacific. 

Variation within each of the major areas 
is extremely great and it is not at all uncom- 
mon to discover an individual in one area 
who, if he were in another, would pass as any 
"native on the street." Variation in culture 
and language is also exceedingly great. Ways 
of thinking with respect to family organiza- 
tion in one island may relate to the mother's 
line — in another, the father's. Some people 
eat dogs; others eschew this tasty dietary 
supplement. For one island there is a supreme 
deity — on another a pantheon of nature dei- 
ties — on still another there are both. 

Linguistically, the peoples of the Pacific 
appear to substantiate the Biblical story of 
the Tower of Babel. Many languages of the 
world may be traced to a common antece- 
dent stock. So it is with numerous Pacific 
languages which may be traced to Malayo- 
Polynesian or Austronesian — a root or main- 
stem language family such as Indo-European. 
We have much yet to learn about the lan- 
guages of the Pacific and this fact holds as 
well for other features of Pacific culture. 

REMNANTS AND RESEARCH 

The fact remains that while we understand 
a good bit about Pacific peoples, there is still 
much to know and as time goes by and con- 
tact between the Pacific and the rest of the 
world increases in frequency and intensity, 
there is less and less opportunity for under- 



standing this remarkably variable and vast 
region. Just as the Hawaii of today is vastly 
changed from what it was in Captain Cook's 
day, so are other island cultures changing. 

It is with this realization in mind that the 
true worth of the Fuller Collection of archae- 
ological and ethnological materials from the 
South Seas can be appreciated. More than 
60 years of discriminating collecting of ob- 
jects brought back from the Pacific by early 
explorers, missionaries, and government offi- 
cials has resulted in one of the most impor- 
tant collections of Oceanic materials ever 
made. Captain and Mrs. A. W. F. Fuller of 
London have devoted their lives to the task 
of preserving the physical remnants of island 
cultures now either extinct or very different 
from their aboriginal state. The collection, 
brought here from England last fall, consists 
of materials from Australia and Tasmania, 
Melanesia, and Polynesia and provides nu- 
merous opportunities for scholarly research 
and exhibition. In and of itself, the Fuller 
Collection stands as a testimonial to the 
great breadth, the variation, and the con- 
trast of an island world which is fast becom- 
ing submerged by Western World culture. 
In short, it provides a panorama of the Pa- 
cific of yesteryear. 



MUSEUM MEMBERS' NIGHT 

Friday, May 8 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month: 

Department of Zoology 

From: Dr. Reznear M. Darnell, Milwau- 
kee — 41 lots of invertebrates, Lake Pont- 
chartrain, La.; Richard Graybeal, Great 
Lakes, 111. — 25 lots of non-marine shells, 
Idaho and California; Philip Hershkovitz, 
Riverdale, 111. — 180 reprints of scientific arti- 
cles; Harry Hoogstraal, Cairo, Egypt — 35 
bird skins; Leslie Hubricht, Catonsville, Md. 
— collection of land shells, Sharon, N. Y.: 
Dr. Paul D. Hurd, Jr., Berkeley, Calif.— 
11 Xylocopid bees, U. S., Central America 
and South America; Dr. Karel F. Liem, Ur- 
bana, 111. — 46 frogs, Java; Dr. Reinaldo 
Pfaff, Colombia — collection of shells; Ray 
Summers, Petaluna, Calif. — two species of 
cowrie shells, Easter Island and Philippines; 
John A. Wagner, Riverside, 111. — 454 butter- 
flies and moths, U. S. and Mexico; Dr. H. B. 
Sherman, Gainesville, Fla. — bat parasites; 
Dr. Alan Solem, Oak Park, 111.-12,000 
shells; Tarpon Zoo, Tarpon Springs, Fla. — 
2 snakes, Colombia; Lt. Col. Robert Traub, 
Kuala Lumpur, Malaya — 310 batflies, Ma- 
laya, Madagascar, India; Tom Whisnant, 
New Orleans — a turtle, Libya; William Abler, 
Chicago — a butterfly; Animal Welfare 
League, Chicago — a snake; Bernard Benesh, 
Burrville, Tenn. — 321 insects; University of 
California, Los Angeles — 48 lots of fishes; 
Robert J. Drake, Tucson, Ariz. — land snails, 
Mexico; Dr. Robert E. Kuntz, APO 63, San 
Francisco — a bat, 462 reptiles and amphib- 
ians, Formosa. 



BIOLOGICAL EDITORS MEET 

The Conference of Biological Editors held 
its second annual meeting in Chicago on 
April 11 and 12, with Chicago Natural His- 
tory Museum functioning as host. More 
than 60 editors of the country's leading bio- 
logical journals participated in the program. 
The local arrangements were made by a com- 
mittee consisting of Dr. Theodor Just, Chief 
Curator of Botany, and Miss Lillian Ross, 
Editor of Scientific Publications at the Mu- 
seum. Dr. Just was elected Vice-Chairman 
for the ensuing year. 



Journeys for Children Continue 

May is the final month for children desir- 
ing to participate in the spring Museum 
Journey on "Life of Ancient Seas." 

The summer journey, which will be offered 
through the period from June 1 to August 31 
will be entitled "Goin' Fishin'." Details will 
be announced in the next Bulletin. 

Children wishing to participate in any of 
the Journeys will be given instructions and 
questionnaires at either the north or south 
entrances. Those w T ho successfully answer 
the questions in four Journeys become Mu- 
seum Travelers. After eight Journeys there 
are awards as Museum Adventurers, and 
twelve as Museum Explorers. 



Collecting Birds in Egypt 
Melvin A. Traylor, Jr., Associate Curator 
of Birds, left early in April for a field trip 
to Egypt. Flying to Cairo, Traylor joined 
Harry Hoogstraal, Museum Field Asso- 
ciate, who has been stationed there for 
several years as a member of a U. S. Navy 
medical research unit. Together with Hoog- 
straal, Traylor will collect bird specimens 
and make studies of ornithological problems. 
For the past three years, Traylor has been 
engaged in research on birds sent to the 
Museum by Hoogstraal. After completing 
his field work, he will probably stop in Lon- 
don, en route homeward, for studies of col- 
lections at the British Museum (Natural 
History). 



Visiting Hours Extended 
for Summer Season 
Effective May 1 and continuing through 
September 7 (Labor Day) visiting hours at 
the Museum are extended by one hour. 
The Museum will be open daily, including 
Sundays and holidays, from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. 



Botanist from Indonesia Here 
Dr. A. J. G. H. Kostermans, professor of 
botany at the University of Indonesia at 
Bogor, and head of the botanical depart- 
ment of the Indonesian Forest Research In- 
stitute, spent a week last month in research 
on collections in this Museum. 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



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Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



June, 1959 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 

THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Ism am 

Sewell L. Avery William V. Kahlek 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchbn J. Roscoe Miller 

Chbsser M. Campbell William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Joseph N. Field Clarence B. Randall 

Marshall Field, Jr. John G. Sbarle 

Stanley Field Solomon A. Smith 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Louis Ware 

John P. WuajN 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Hughston M. McBain First Vice-President 

Walther Buchen Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
Patricia McAfee Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



THINGS THAT MAKE 
A BOTANIST 'TICK' 

In the introduction to Flora of Guatemala, 
a recently published scientific volume in the 
Museum's botanical series, Fieldiana, there 
occurs a statement that indicates how such 
scientific research is brought to successful 
fruition, through the co-operation of many 
people besides scientists. The statement, 
with special modifications here and there, 
would be equally applicable to projects in 
the other sciences within the Museum's 
scope — anthropology, geology and zoology. 
It reveals something of how Museum men 
become "simpatico" with the countries they 
explore, and the people they encounter in 
the course of their work. The authors are 
Dr. Paul C. Standley, Curator Emeritus of 
the Herbarium, and Dr. Julian A. Steyer- 
mark, former Curator of the Herbarium. 
They say: 

"Almost every botanical publication is the 
result not of the labor performed individu- 
ally by its author but of the co-operation 
over a long period of years of a large num- 
ber of persons, ranging from learned scien- 
tists, some of whom date back to the time 
of Linne or even earlier, down to the most 
humble and illiterate peasants. It would be 
preposterous for any one person at the pres- 
ent time to claim full personal credit for such 
a piece of work. It is, indeed, questionable 
whether some of the humblest of the co-op- 
eratives, whose names never appear in print, 



do not often deserve prime credit for their aid. 

"At any rate, a very large number of 
people have co-operated, over a hundred 
years or more, to make possible the present 
account of the flora of Guatemala. So far 
as the botanists are concerned, they all must 
have enjoyed their work, else they need not 
have been doing it. Very few botanists ever 
are forced to travel to foreign lands; rather, 
they fight for the privilege. 

"It is hard to believe that there is any 
normal person in North America or Europe 
who would not find something to interest 
him in Guatemala. Every one would find 
some phase of nature or man in Guatemala 
that would be new to him and should there- 
fore hold his interest for at least a fleeting 
instant. Beauty, perhaps fortunately, can 
not be measured by any scientific standard, 
but if it could, Guatemala would have few 
superiors in natural beauty. Nowhere are 
there more beautiful and majestic moun- 
tains, lovelier lakes and forests, more beauti- 
ful wild and cultivated flowers. Nowhere 
is there a climate that is more agreeable and 
more invigorating. Nowhere will one find 
more interesting, more highly varied, and 
more picturesque people than in Guatemala. 

"The people of Guatemala have contrib- 
uted much more to the accumulation of 
data on which our Flora is based. From the 
highest to the most humble they have been 
exceedingly helpful when informed of the 
purpose in our work of collecting and study- 
ing the flora of their country. This is no 
surprise to one familiar with the people of 
all Central America. It would be a surprise 
and at once arouse painful speculation, if 
the people were otherwise than helpful or 
agreeable. From the people of pure and 
mixed Spanish blood the greatest courtesy 
and consideration are to be expected as a 
matter of course; it is a racial trait. In 
Guatemala the Indians and the poor among 
the ladinos yield nothing in breeding to their 
social superiors. We have found them in- 
variably dignified, courteous, kindly, and 
hospitable. Some of their standards of kind- 
liness as exhibited among themselves may 
seem different from ours, but it must be 
understood that the poor of Central Amer- 
ica often fight to exist under the most stern 
and harsh conditions. What at first glance 
may seem harsh to us need not be so for 
people actually concerned in the matter. 
A northerner may wince and shudder when 
he sees the heavy work performed by small 
children, yet let him observe the care with 
which a father watches over them, and he 
will realize that there is no intentional cruel- 
ty. Certainly no people are more tender and 
just to their children than the Indians of 
Guatemala. 

"We prefer the Central Americans to help 
us when we go collecting, and so far as their 
ability and understanding of the work went, 
they were beyond criticism. 

"It is quite out of the question to mention 
(Continued on page 7, column 1) 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



Our cover picture, entitled 
"Bearded Lion," is a product of 
the art-and-design-in-nature 
classes conducted in this Museum 
by the School of the Art Institute 
of Chicago. It is the creation of 
Bernita Friedman, 11, of 714 Junior 
Terrace, Chicago, who is in the 
Junior School of the Institute. It 
was one of 40 included in a special 
exhibit at the Museum last month 
(there was also a selection of work 
by adult students whose advanced 
classes likewise rely on this Mu- 
seum for material used in art 
studies). The picture is featured 
here for the sake of readers who 
missed the exhibit or who haven't 
really seen a lion recently. 



MEMBERS' NIGHT CROWD 
TOPS ALL RECORDS 

Museum Members' Night for 1959, held 
May 8, drew the largest assemblage of guests 
ever to attend one of these events — 1,620, 
compared to 1,268 who came for Members' 
Night in 1958. 

The occasion was made more festive by 
the illumination for the first time of part of 
the exterior of the building, as a test of the 
new floodlighting which is in process of in- 
stallation in conjunction with the city pro- 
gram for public buildings. 

The show inside the Museum was domi- 
nated by the special anthropological exhibit, 
"Panorama of the Pacific," which visually 
told the story of a part of the world that 
seems to have special allure for nearly every- 
body^the isles of the South Seas with all 
their magic and romantic spell — and which 
presented to the public for the first time any- 
where, selected items from the famed Fuller 
Collection. (Incidentally, for those who 
missed it, this exhibit will remain on public 
view through July 15.) 

New exhibits in the Departments of Bot- 
any, Geology and Zoology also attracted 
throngs. Throughout the evening, capacity 
loads of visitors boarded the elevators to the 
third and ground floors to participate in the 
open house features in laboratories, studios 
and offices of the scientific, technical and art 
staffs where demonstrations were given of 
techniques employed in the Museum's work. 
As the evening approached its close, the vis- 
itors gathered at the refreshment tables in 
Stanley Field Hall and the Library, and the 
crowd seemed to radiate the impression 
that a gala evening had been enjoyed by all. 



Treetop groups of orangs and gibbons are 
among the interesting habitat groups of 
Asiatic mammals in William V. Kelley Hall . 



June, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



PageS 



A NEW DISPLAY OF ANCIENT MEXICAN ART (900-500 B.C.) 




FIGURINE HEAD 

OF TLATILCO 

In Olmec style. 



By DONALD COLLIER 

CURATOR OF SOUTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 
AND ETHNOLOGY 

A RECENTLY INSTALLED EXHIBIT 
in Hall 8 (Ancient and Modern Indians 
of Mexico and Central America) shows the 
art of Tlatilco in the Valley of Mexico. The 
Indians of Tlatilco lived during the middle 
Pre-Classic period, about 900-500 B.C. The 
exhibited specimens, which are part of the 
largest and most representative Tlatilco col- 
lection in the United 
States, were acquired 
by the Museum as a 
part of an extensive 
exchange with the 
National Museum of 
Mexico in 1950. The 
Tlatilcans raised corn, 
squash, beans, and 
chili ; gathered wild 
plants, fruits and 
fibers; and caught fish 
in rivers and in nearby 
Lake Texcoco. Their 
villages of wattle-and- 
daub houses with thatched roofs sheltered 
100 to 300 persons. They did not build 
mound structures or temples. Little is known 
of Tlatilcan religion except that there was a 
cult of the dead. 

The finest products of the craftsmen- 
artists of Tlatilco were pottery vessels and 
hand-modeled figurines, which were placed 
in graves along with offerings of red ocher. 
These potters made polished brown, red, or 
black vessels in a variety of forms: dishes, 
bowls, jars, long-necked bottles, stirrup- 
spout jars, vases, and effigy forms. These 
were decorated by incising, rasping, groov- 
ing, carving, punching, rocker stamping, 
painting in red or white, and occasionally by 
negative painting. 
The effigy vessels de- 
picted men, dogs, 
pecarries, racoons, 
birds, and fish. The 
Tlatilco sculptors 
made several varieties 
of figurines, commonly 
of women and rarely 
of men, ranging from 
2 to 12 inches in 
height. Most common 
and characteristic are 
the charming, deli- 
cately modeled female 
figurines called by 
archaeologists Type D 
and nicknamed the 
"Pretty Girl" type. 
These have large, 

slanting eyes, upturned noses, small mouths, 
and ample hips. Their red-painted hair is 
worn in several styles, including shaving 
part of the head. They wear turbans, bands 
or other head ornaments, and have painted 




'GLAMOR GIRL - 

OF TLATILCO 

Face of figurine is 

painted red and yellow. 



designs on the face and body. Most of them 
are nude, but a few wear "ballet" skirts. A 
few have two heads or a double face with 
two mouths, two noses and three eyes, a 
concept used by Picasso in several paintings. 

A third aspect of plastic art was the mak- 
ing of pottery masks and seals. The masks, 
with cut-out eyes and mouth, depicted hu- 
man and jaguar faces. The flat stamps and 
cylindrical stamps were used to press or roll 
designs on cloth and the body. 

There is evidence in Tlatilco art of a strong 
influence from the Olmec style, which was 
flourishing at the same period on the Gulf 
Coast and seems to have spread also to Mo- 
relos, not far to the south of the Valley of 
Mexico. This influence can be seen in the 
thick-lipped, "baby-face," and other figu- 
rines in pure Olmec style found at Tlatilco, 
and in bottles and vases incised with feline 
motifs in unmistakable Olmec style. These 
highly stylized designs, representing the 
mouth, gums, claws, and spots of the jaguar, 
are manifestations of a powerful jaguar-deity 




TLATILCO HUMAN EFFIGY BOTTLE 

cult. Rocker-stamping is also characteristic 
of Olmec ceramics. Looking farther afield, 
we find many Tlatilco and Olmec traits, in- 
cluding rocker-stamping, stirrup-spout vessels, 
negative painting, and cylindrical stamps, in 
the Playa de los Muertos culture on the 
Ulua River of Honduras. 

A FELINE DEITY 

Far to the south many of these traits are 
found in the widespread Chavin style of 
Peru. Evidence of this complex in interven- 
ing areas — Ecuador, Colombia, and Central 
America — has been accumulating in recent 
years. It looks now as if there was a wide 
diffusion during the middle Pre-Classic pe- 
riod of a complex of ceramic traits, design 
motifs and the concept of a feline deity with- 
in Mesoamerica and from Mesoamerica to 



South America. Apparently maize, which 
was domesticated in Mexico or Guatemala, 
reached Peru at about the same time and 
probably as part of the same culture spread. 
The Classic civilizations in both areas devel- 
oped from this formative complex. It is be- 
cause of these wide relationships as well as 
its intrinsic qualities that Tlatilco art is of 
such interest and importance. 



JUNIOR SCIENTISTS PROVE 
THEIR TALENTS 

Scientists of tomorrow gave proof of their 
ability to meet demands of the future at this 
year's Chicago Area Science Fair held at the 
Museum on May 16. 

Nearly 125 exhibits filled Stanley Field 
Hall and brought over 9,000 visitors to the 
Museum that day. The event, sponsored by 
the Chicago Teachers Science Association, 
included the work of children enrolled in the 
6th through the 12th grades in Chicago 
Public Schools and public schools within a 
35-mile radius of the city. 

Adult visitors to the Museum were greatly 
impressed by the comprehensive grasp the 
young students had of their subject matter. 

Many branches of science were represent- 
ed by individual exhibits, and the children 




INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY DRAMATIZED 
Young science researchers at Chicago Area Science 
Fair held at the Museum May 16 demonstrate the 
facts about an industrial process. They are Bob 
Stickgold of Wilmette Junior High School, and 
Nancy Bohac of the eighth grade at the Jonas E. Salk 
School in Rolling Meadows. 

provided lucid explanations of them. A 
panel of judges, who systematically toured 
Stanley Field Hall visiting the exhibits and 
listening to the lectures, chose outstanding 
exhibits as prize-winners. 



One of the most unusual of woody plants, 
the two-leaved Tumboa, shown as it grows 
in its native South African desert, may be 
seen in Martin A. and Carrie Ryerson Hall 
(Hall 29, Plant Life). 



Page i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



June, 1959 



AMATEUR LAPIDARIES 
DISPLAY CREATIONS 

DINOSAUR BONES no longer belong 
only in museum exhibits and study 
collections or little boys' pockets. They have 
taken their place among precious and semi- 
precious stones as objects for the lapidar- 
ies' art. 

Seventy-three polished dinosaur bones are 
one of the unusual prize-winning entries in 
the Ninth Annual Amateur Handcrafted 
Gem and Jewelry Competitive Exhibition 
to be on view in Albert W. Harris Hall (Hall 
18) of the Museum, June 5 through June 30. 

The special exhibit, sponsored by the Chi- 
cago Lapidary Club, includes a large and 
varied collection of cut and polished stones, 
and finished jewelry. The wide range of 
originality displayed in creating jewelry in 
unusual designs is of especial interest in this 
year's show. Gems mounted in gold and 
silver, and gold and copper combinations are 
featured in the exhibit. The display includes 
the work both of members of the Chicago 
Lapidary Club and qualified non-members 
who were awarded prizes or ribbons in a 
contest that took place last month. All of 
the contestants live in Chicago and suburbs 
within a 50-mile radius of the city. Many 
of them attended lapidary classes held in 
Chicago Park District field-houses. 

The long and intricate processes involved 
in designing the gems and jewelry, from the 
first steps of cutting the rough unfinished 
stones to fashioning them into handsome 



pendants, bracelets, rings and other pieces 
of jewelry, were completed entirely by the 
individual contestants. As they attain more 
and more experience these amateur lapidar- 
ies develop into advanced craftsmen, often 
equal to professionals. 

Two classifications, each divided into ten 
craft divisions, comprise the special exhibit. 
The classifications are novice and advanced; 
novices have had up to two years of experi- 
ence and the advanced lapidaries more than 
two. The craft divisions are (1) individual 
gems, cabochon-cut, (2) faceted individual 
gems, (3) collections of specific gems, (4) gen- 
eral gem collections, (5) collections of pol- 
ished pieces or slabs, (6) individual pieces of 
jewelry, (7) sets of jewelry, (8) enameled 
jewelry, (9) special pieces, (10) enameled 
special pieces. 

The winners of the five top awards are as 
follows: Dalzell Trophy (Robert A. Dalzell 
Memorial) for the exhibit adjudged the "best 
of the show" — J. Lester Cunningham for his 
King Size Cabochon Collection; Presidents' 
Trophy for outstanding lapidary work — 
Alvin Ericson, for a brilliant-cut blue titinia; 
Councilmen's Trophy for outstanding jewelry 
— J. Lester Cunningham, for a ring, pendant 
and earrings of white tube agate; Juergens 
Award for best lapidary work by a novice — 
Virginia Mitchell, for a carved jet medallion; 
Milhening Award for outstanding jewelry 
by a novice — Florence Horning, for a set of 
earrings, pendant, and bracelet of rutilated 
quartz. 



DINOSAUR-GEM FANTASY 



SPECIAL MAGIC SHOW 
FOR CHILDREN 

A special magic show in which several lead- 
ing professional magicians, and some clowns 
as well, will appear on the stage of the James 
Simpson Theatre of the Museum, will be 
given for children on Thursday morning, 
July 2. This is the opening program in the 
summer series presented by the James Nel- 
son and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation. 
Motion pictures will be presented on each 
of the following six Thursdays through 
August 13. 

There will be two performances of the 
magic show, one at 10 a.m., and the second 
at 11. The movies, titles of which will be 
announced in the July Bulletin, will also 
each be given two showings, with the first 
at 10 a.m. but with the hour of the second 
varying considerably. 

The performers for the July 2 Magic Show 
are being booked through the courtesy of the 
International Congress of Magic which is 
meeting at the Hotel Sherman from June 30 
to July 4. The arrangements were made by 
the two local host groups, the Society of 
American Magicians, Chicago Chapter, and 
the International Brotherhood of Magicians, 
Chicago Chapter. First magician definitely 
signed for the program is Frances Ireland, a 
well-known local member of the profession. 



STAFF NOTES 



Dr. Clifford C. Gregg, Director, will sail 
in mid-June for Europe. He will be a speaker 
at the meetings of the International Council 
of Museums to be held at Stockholm, July 
1-8. The paper he will present is "A Study of 
Improvement of the Methods of Conservation 
of Zoological Material." He has also been 
invited to be a member of an international 
committee of fifteen which will meet at Oslo, 
June 28-30 for preliminary discussions in 
preparation for the Stockholm assemblage. 
. . . Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator of Insects, 
has been appointed to the advisory board of 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica. He will serve 
as consultant in the field of entomology. . . . 
Gustaf Dalstrom, Artist of the Department 
of Anthropology, was awarded the Jules F. 
Brower Prize at a recent Art Institute show. 
His successful painting is titled "Cloudy 
Day." ... Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief Cur- 
ator of Anthropology, Dr. Donald Collier, 
Curator of South American Archaeology and 
Ethnology, and George Quimby, Curator of 
North American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
attended the annual meeting of the Society of 
American Archaeology in Salt Lake City. 
. . . Dr. Rainer Zangerl, Curator of Fossil 
Reptiles, recently gave a seminar lecture at 
the University of Indiana. 




Seventy-three selected pieces of petrified 
dinosaur bone, cabochon-cut and polished 
to form gems, provide this unique exhibit 
which won first prize in the specific gem 
collections section (advanced division) in the 
Chicago Lapidary Club's Gem and Jewelry 
Show, on view in the Museum this month. 
This exhibit is the production of J. Lester 
Cunningham. It is accompanied in the 
exhibition hall by the well-known jingle 
"The Dinosaur," written in the '20's by the 
late Bert Leston Taylor, famed as the 
original columnist of the Chicago Tribune's 
"A Line-o-Type or Two." Following are 
Taylor's verses: 

Behold the mighty dinosaur, 
Famous in prehistoric lore, 
Not only for his power and strength 
But for his intellectual length. 

You will observe by these remains 
The creature had two sets of brains — 
One in his head (the usual place) 
The other in his spinal base. 

Thus he could reason 'A priori' 
As well as 'A posteriori.' 
No problem bothered him a bit 
He made both head and tail of it. 

So wise was he, so wise and solemn, 
Each thought filled just a spinal column. 
If one brain found the pressure strong 
It passed a few ideas along. 

If something slipped his forward mind 
'Twas rescued by the one behind. 
And if in error he was caught 
He had a saving afterthought. 

And as he thought twice before he spoke 
He had no judgment to revoke. 
Thus he could think without congestion 
Upon both sides of every question. 
Oh, gaze upon this model beast, 
Defunct ten million years at least. 



Annual Report on Press 

The Annual Report of the Director for 
1958, a book of 175 pages with 25 illustra- 
tions, covering the activities of all depart- 
ments and divisions of the Museum, is on 
the press. Distribution of copies to all 
Members of the Museum will begin soon. 



June, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



MUSEUM COLLECTORS' ADVENTURES IN PANAMA 



By ALAN SOLEM 

CURATOR OF LOWER INVERTEBRATES 

THE PANAMA Zoological Field Trip was 
terminated in early April with the return 
of Henry S. Dybas, Associate Curator of 
Insects, and the writer. Equipment and 
specimens are en route to Chicago from 
Panama City, and the nearly 20,000 mollusks, 
even more insects, and assorted spiders, 
snakes, frogs, lizards, and millipeds will be 
many months in processing for the collection, 
and study by the collectors and many other 
scientists. 

As important to our studies as the speci- 
mens are the ideas and impressions obtained 
from the tropical environment. Dybas had 
not been in the continental tropics since 1941 
and this was my first trip to any tropical 
region. We were both entering a new world 
of experiences and rapidly shed many pre- 
conceived notions. 

One of our main interests was to compare 
the snail and insect faunas of original forest 




PANAMA'S LARGEST GROUND SNAIL 
The adult, 2 to 3 inches in size, is hidden behind 
the teeth of the aperture, which may serve as pro- 
tection against predacious insects. The young snail 
(fully extended) has no apertural teeth. Commonly 
encountered in the wet season, these snails burrow 
deep into the soil during dry periods. On Barro 
Colorado, a Museum collector took by force the 
only living specimen seen from a coati-mundi who 
had intended to lunch on it. 

areas and the cultivated fields and recently 
abandoned areas of human habitation. By 
seeing the changes in animal life which occur 
in going from "natural areas" to human 
habitation, eventually some information 
helpful to man's settling tropical areas might 
accumulate. To orient ourselves, we spent 
three weeks on Barro Colorado Island in the 
middle of the Panama Canal. 

ABUNDANT ANIMAL LIFE 

When Gatun Lake, which furnishes water 
to operate the canal and forms the central 
channel, was made by damming the Chagres 
River, the big hill called Barro Colorado be- 
came an island. In 1923 it was set aside as a 
wild-life reserve and since then has been 
undisturbed except for the poking and prying 
of scientists and poachers. Perhaps nowhere 
in tropical America can so many mammals be 



easily seen by visitors. Monkeys, sloths, 
peccaries, coati-mundi, armadillos, ant-eaters, 
and agoutis can all be seen in the wild within 
a day or two of one's arrival. The rest of 
Panama is a startling contrast. In two 
months after leaving Barro Colorado we saw 
one armadillo, two squirrels, and three rabbits. 
But our main interest was in the snails, and 
tiny insects of the forest floor. We had plan- 
ned our trip to arrive at the end of the rainy 
season and try and follow some of the species 
into the places where they aestivate during the 
dry season. Forest floor animals need moist- 
ure in large quantities and during the dry 
season must hide deep in the soil or in tiny 
pockets of moisture. Unfortunately, the dry 
season came a month earlier than usual, and 
living snails proved almost impossible to find. 
An additional problem was caused by the fact 
that Barro Colorado had in the past 100 years 
probably been completely cut over several 
times. Botanists consider that it is rather 
scrubby second-growth forest and it probably 
does not have as rich a soil fauna as a more 
mature forest. 

PROTECTIVE FORMATION 

Perhaps the most striking part of our stay 
on Barro Colorado was the nightly display of 
insects attracted to the lights of the station. 
Over 500 species of moths were seen and large 
numbers of protectively colored grasshoppers 
and mantids. Many of the more spectacular 
insects were captured alive and the next day 
posed against a natural background for 
photographing. On unnatural backgrounds 
the insect would wander restlessly or fly away, 
but if the proper setting could be found they 
would pose for minutes without moving. 
Most of the mantids would assume a hunting 
posture, but we were most impressed by the 
grasshoppers. Many are obviously shaped 
like leaves, some even with rust spots on their 
wings, but to see one species with a pointed 




LEAF MIMIC 

Grasshopper-like insect, related to the katydids, on 

branch of a tree on Barro Colorado Island, in the 

Panama Canal. It provides a perfect example of the 

principle of protective resemblance in nature. 

brown nose put the nose against a twig and 
hold its body like a leaf growing from the 
twig is a sight no biologist would forget. 



TWO NEW CONTRIBUTORS 
ELECTED BY TRUSTEES 

Captain A.W.F. Fuller, of London, was 
elected a Museum Contributor at a meeting 
of the Board of Trustees on May 18. The 
honor was in recognition of his gift to the 
Museum of a unique and valuable "hei-tiki" 
of green jade from New Zealand. A hei-tiki 
is a large and heavy idol formerly worn as a 
neck-pendant by Maori chiefs under the old 
religion of the islands. The specimen from 
Captain Fuller is one of the finest pieces of 
its kind in the world, and was brought to the 
Museum on behalf of the donor by Houston 
M. McBain, First Vice-President of the 
Museum, upon his return from a recent 
visit to Britain. 

Also elected a Contributor (posthumously) 
was Dr. Jesse R. Gerstley, of Chicago, in 
recognition of a gift in stocks and cash. 



Three weeks passed all too quickly and we 
then moved to Panama itself to seek out 
moist, mature forest. Areas which can be 
reached easily have long since been cut over 
and planted to crops, and the dry season 
means just that — no rain whatsoever. 
Mountain slopes brushed by the Atlantic 
winds were still moist and at Cerro Campana 
and El Valle we did find moist forest pockets, 
but even here it was not the mature forest 
we sought. 

BOUNTIFUL YIELD OF SPECIMENS 

Finally, in the mountains of Chiriqui in 
western Panama we found the right condi- 
tions. A stand of virgin timber, protected for 
40 years by a naturalist, but now being cut, 
yielded more specimens than any area of 
equal size I've ever encountered. Four days 
were spent collecting minute snails in an area 
not more than 50 feet in diameter. Probably 
25 species of land snails, only four of them 
previously recorded from Panama, were 
found in this one patch of forest. A striking 
contrast was seen in a coffee grove 400 feet 
away which had three species of snails. It 
would be hard to find a more dramatic 
example of how man's activities alter the 
native fauna. 

The collecting trip is over, and months of 
sorting, labeling, dissecting, measuring, and 
careful study of the specimens await. The 
sometimes tedious compilation of factual 
data will be lightened by remembering the 
live land snail saved from a coati's lunch 
for the collecting bottle, or the freshwater 
snails that interrupted one village's washday. 
Most important, the interpretation of the 
compiled facts will be immeasurably aided 
by having seen the animals where they live 
and not just as specimens in a glass tube. A 
much more critical, deeper knowledge of the 
snail can be acquired after seeing it where it 
lives than ever could be done from a dead 
specimen. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



June, 1959 



THROUGH RAIN-FORESTS 
IN CENTRAL MALAYA 

By D. DWIGHT DAVIS 

CURATOR OF VERTEBRATE ANATOMY 

THE INTERNATIONAL Biological Con- 
gress held last December at the Univer- 
sity of Malaya in Singapore, the first such 
congress ever held in Malaya, was an outstand- 
ing success. Guests from twelve countries, 
representing four of the five continents, par- 
ticipated in the program, which ran from 8:30 
in the morning to 5 in the afternoon every 
day for a week, with lectures and discussion 
groups each evening. Sunday was taken up 
with conducted field trips to places of spe- 
cial biological interest on Singapore Island. 
The general theme of the congress was di- 
vided between evolution, especially as it is 
seen in the tropics, and tropical ecology. The 
writer was official representative of Chicago 
Natural History Museum. 

I had planned, following the congress, to 
spend about two months in the field in vari- 
ous parts of Malaya, exploring the country 
and collecting specimens for the Museum's 
reference collections and exhibition halls. 
Thanks largely to the extraordinary gener- 
osity of John R. Hendrickson, of the Zoology 
Department of the University of Malaya, it 
was possible to carry out this program in the 
short time I had available. Together we 
visited representative lowland areas in vari- 
ous parts of central and southern Malaya, 
including several localities of historical in- 
terest because they were worked a century 
ago by Alfred Russel Wallace and described 
in his classical work The Malay Archipelago. 
The spirit of Wallace, who with Charles 
Darwin propounded the currently-accepted 
theory of evolution, was much in evidence 
during the congress and throughout my stay. 

CIVILIZATION LEFT BEHIND 

Our first trip was to the King George V 
National Park, an area of about 1,700 square 
miles in central Malaya. The park is reached 
by an overnight train trip on the "Golden 
Blowpipe" from Singapore to Kuala Tem- 
beling, where civilization ends and the train 
turns northwest on its way to the Siamese 
border. The last 50 miles to the park is an 
all-day trip by small river boat up the Tem- 
beling River to park headquarters at the 
mouth of the Tahan River. The park is a 
virgin rain-forest, much of it still unsur- 
veyed, and is without roads and has only a 
few jungle trails. It is typical of the im- 
mense Indo-Malayan rain-forest that once 
covered much of southeastern Asia, but has 
been destroyed or seriously damaged by man 
over most of its former range. Destruction 
of the remnants of the forest is still going on; 
in western Malaya we walked through a new 
clearing where the stumps of giant forest 
trees were still smoldering among newly- 
planted seedling rubber trees. 

Rain-forest is an endlessly fascinating fea- 
ture of the tropics to biologists. It is more 



favorable to life than any other land habitat, 
and here life has evolved with an exuberance 
unmatched anywhere except in certain parts 
of the sea. The biological problems are al- 
most overwhelming, and challenging new 
questions come up daily during field work. 
One of the results of this favorable environ- 
ment is that it provides a haven for archaic 
forms that elsewhere have lost out in the 
struggle for existence. This extends even to 



visitor often sees for the first time things he 
previously knew only from books. I will 
never forget my first sight, in such a patch 
of forest, of the giant pitcher plants for which 
the Indo-Malayan forest is famous among 
botanists. Slogging cross-country through a 
particularly bad patch of forest in western 
Johore, I almost stepped on them, a cluster 
of globular pitchers, each the size of my fist, 
on the forest floor. Later 1 saw bigger and 




NEW YEAR'S EVE IN THE MALAYAN JUNGLE 

Celebrating a successful collecting trip as well as the beginning of 1959, Curator D. Dwight Davis, expedition 

leader (at extreme right) attends party with his associates in camp on the flank of Mount Ophir. 



primitive human cultures, and one of the 
memorable events during our travels in the 
park was to stumble upon a group of pigmy 
Negritos, whose culture is as primitive as any 
that survives today. Naked except for a 
skimpy loincloth and armed with blowguns 
and poisoned darts, these people have no 
fixed abode but wander in the forest as no- 
mads, hunting and gathering food. Later 
we came upon a spot beside the trail where 
these same people had the day before been 
digging edible roots from the jungle floor. 

Subsequent trips took us to Bukit Seram- 
pang, on the flanks of Mount Ophir on the 
Malacca border, and to Gunong Pulai and 
other mountain areas in southern Malaya. 
All the lowland parts of southern Malaya 
have been cleared and are under intensive 
cultivation, mostly rubber, and the only re- 
maining vestiges of the original forest are on 
hills and mountains unsuited to cultivation. 
Fortunately a good deal of the plant and ani- 
mal life of the Malayan rain-forest is able 
to make a go of it in these patches of forest, 
and may be expected to survive there as long 
as the trees are left standing. Much of the 
biology of the rain-forest can be studied effec- 
tively even in these situations. Here too the 



more spectacular species of pitcher plants in 
other parts of Malaya, but none had the im- 
pact of the first encounter. 

COSMOPOLITAN PARTY 

The composition of our field parties varied 
from time to time, but always had an inter- 
national flavor. We happened to be in the 
Mount Ophir area at the end of the year, 
and our New Year party was a truly poly- 
glot affair. Seven of us — two Americans, 
two Chinese, two Malays, and an Iban from 
western Borneo — welcomed the new year 
crowded together in a little thatch lean-to 
in the jungle, with conversations going on 
in four languages and the heavy air of the 
jungle night perfumed with the odor of joss 
sticks burning to repel mosquitos. Our or- 
chestra for this occasion was the distant hal- 
looing of a Tamil rubber planter, shouting 
throughout the night to drive sambar deer 
away from his young rubber trees. It was 
a proper climax for a day in which we had 
succeeded in getting tape recordings of the 
astonishing progression of jungle sounds that 
accompanies the change from late afternoon 
to evening, and then later had had the good 
fortune to collect two species of giant flying 



June, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



squirrels, each the size of a small cat, within 
a few yards of each other in the forest. 

The ecology of the tropical rain-forest is 
being studied by a small but enthusiastic 
group of botanists and zoologists in Malaya. 
To a considerable extent these men are de- 
pendent upon background studies that can 
be made only in the great museums of Amer- 
ica and Europe. The interchange of ideas 
that results from occasional working together 
in the field is of immense benefit to both 
sides, and a formal congress such as the one 
recently held in Singapore is an equally im- 
portant step in the direction of scientific 
teamwork. 

This trip was financed in part by a grant 
from the National Science Foundation. 



HOW BOTANTIST "TICKS"- 

{Continued from page 2) 

here all the persons to whom we are indebted 
for assistance in our field work in Guate- 
mala, their help often of a most practical 
and frequently very substantial nature. We 
are sure they do not expect thanks beyond 
those offered at the time their services were 
performed." 

Of interest also is a section of Standley's 
and Steyermark's plan of the Flora, viz. : 

"We have collected most of the vernacular 
names [of the plants covered by the book]. 
Others have been taken from the labels of 
other collectors, and some from publications 
whose accuracy we trust. . . . The vernacu- 
lar names entered here doubtless include 
some mistakes, even after the best of care, 
and this is particularly probable in case of 
non- Spanish terms. 

"There is much more to be done in the 
field of Guatemalan vernacular names. In 
published lists we have seen many plant 
names whose identity it is impossible to 
guess. The value of a particular vernacular 
name varies usually in proportion to the 
importance of the plant. If the plant is one 
of which some definite use is made, or a 
showy and conspicuous one, the vernacular 
name is likely to be fixed and in common 
usage. If the plant is inconspicuous, or if 
no use is made of it, the vernacular name 
often is open to suspicion and seldom is in 
common use. However, the local standards 
of importance and individual ideas of beauty 
or conspicuousness may differ from those of 
the questioning botanical collector. It al- 
ways is unwise to press for a vernacular 
name, and it is much better to ask for one 
indirectly. Many people have a talent for 
manufacturing them on the spot and find 
great satisfaction in fooling a foreigner and 
boasting about it afterwards. The senior 
author greatly admired the ability in this 
respect of a small boy at Jutiapa. He hap- 
pened to have a remarkable knowledge of 
the plants of the region, but he was not 
content with what he really knew. He 
would invent a name almost as quickly as 
a new plant was found, and his names often 



were extraordinarily suitable and subtle — 
too much so for belief. Adults in country 
districts think they will lose face if they can 
not supply a name for any plant found, and 
will often make a clumsy effort to manufac- 
ture one. And a great many Central Amer- 
icans, like natives of the United States, 
make mistakes in recognition of plants, thus 
giving them incorrect names belonging to 
other plants. People who recognize wild 
plants easily when in the ground, often are 
unable to place them when they see a de- 
tached branch in a work room. Woodsmen 
usually pay more attention to the bark and 
trunk of a tree than to any other portion of 
it, and if reliable names for trees are desired , 
it is better to obtain them from a qualified 
person standing by the tree in question." 



Books 



DIGGING INTO HISTORY. By Paul S. 
Martin; drawings by Gustaf Dalstrom. 
157 pages, 48 halftones, 15 text-figures, 
1 map. Chicago Natural History Museum 
— Popular Series, Anthropology, No. 38. 
$1.50. 

Digging into History is the story of fif- 
teen years' investigation of the prehistoric 
Indians of west-central New Mexico, under 
the leadership of Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief 
Curator of Anthropology at Chicago Natural 
History Museum. This handsome book is 
written for the non-specialist and the begin- 
ning student, and not only sketches the life 
of the people, as it can be inferred from their 
rubbish and their ruined houses, but also 
undertakes to explain the purposes and pro- 
cedures of archaeology. This dual aim re- 
sults in a book with a great deal of food for 
thought, and the many definitions and ex- 
planations sometimes crowd so closely that 
careful reading is needed. The story of the 
past is interrupted with interesting discus- 
sions of the means by which archaeologists 
find and interpret the evidence for that story. 

The narrative of Digging into History be- 
gins very near the beginning of human his- 
tory in the New World, for the Southwestern 
United States is one of the regions through 
which the first migrants from Asia wandered. 
Besides hunting big game — bison and ele- 
phants, particularly — the wandering bands 
also gathered the seeds of many wild plants. 
Through their increasing familiarity with the 
possibilities of plant foods, they slowly came 
to place greater and greater dependence on 
maize, and by 500 B.C. it was their mainstay. 
Both hunting and the gathering of wild plant 
foods continued but declined in importance; 
the increasingly large and numerous per- 
manent agricultural communities depended 
chiefly on maize, beans and squash. Settled 
life and a more certain food supply were ac- 
companied by changes in almost every other 



SPECIAL EXHIBITS 

The following special exhibits are sche- 
duled for the summer months: 

Panorama of the Pacific, through July 15, 
Stanley Field Hall. This exhibit, which 
was the feature of Members' Night, May 
8, displays selected material from the 
Fuller Collection of South Seas artifacts. 

Amateur Gem and Jewelry Show, spon- 
sored by the Chicago Lapidary Club. 
June 5-30, Albert W. Harris Hall (Hall 
18). See story on page b. 

The Music Makers — Exotic Musical 
Instruments of the World. June 24- 
August 31, Edward E. and Emma B. Ayer 
Hall (Hall 2). 

Indian Art of the Americas, August 1- 
September 30, Stanley Field Hall. Select- 
ed objets d'art from the North, Central, 
and South American collections of this and 
other leading museums. The exhibit co- 
ordinates with Chicago's Festival of the 
Americas in connection with the Pan 
American Games. 



Museum Books Recommended 
on List for Schools 

Three books published by the Museum 
are listed in "An Inexpensive Science Li- 
brary," a catalog of paperbound books rec- 
ommended for high school libraries, pub- 
lished by the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science and the National 
Science Foundation. The Museum selec- 
tions occur in the list of 30 titles in the 
section on archaeology and anthropology. 
They are: Prehistoric Men, by Robert J. 
Braidwood; The Civilization of the Mayas, by 
J. Eric Thompson, and People of the South 
Pacific, by Albert B. Lewis. 



aspect of life, and Martin describes the 
changes through the centuries in house archi- 
tecture, village plans, dress, religious prac- 
tices, and all the other aspects of the Indians' 
lives for which evidence has been unearthed. 
Although there are a few comments on the 
relationships of this corner of the Southwest 
to other regions, the emphasis in this book 
is on the long record of slow but persistent 
change in this one small area. It is an im- 
pressive record, spanning some 10,000 years, 
and it is instructive of the ways in which man 
both depends on his natural environment, 
with all its constraints, and also continually 
discovers new means of transcending its mo- 
mentary limitations. Martin tells the story 
with both imagination and proper scientific 
restraint. Everyone who has an interest in 
Indians, in the past, or in learning how his- 
tory is unearthed will find this book enjoy- 
able reading. 

Richard B. Woodbury 
University of Arizona 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



June, 1959 



A 'FISHING' EXCURSION 
OPEN TO CHILDREN 

Some of the most interesting and unusual 
living animals are found in the earth's 
numerous bodies of water. For an intro- 
duction to these animals, both rare and 
common, the Museum offers its summer 
journey for children— "Goin' Fishin'." 

The Journey, presented by the Raymond 
Foundation, will direct youngsters to the 
Hall of Fishes where they will see fresh and 
salt-water fishes that make their homes in 
lakes, tropical oceans, warm coral seas, and 
tide pools. Sharks and rays feared by man, 
exotic inhabitants of a Bahama coral reef, 
bizarre living fossils, and more common 
North American fishes that might be hooked 
on a vacation fishing trip are some of the 
animals that boys and girls will see and learn 
about. 

Questionnaires, obtainable at the north or 
south entrance to the Museum, take the 
place of rods and reels on this fishing trip, 
which is open to all children visiting the 
Museum any day in June, July or August. 

This Journey and three others successfully 
completed entitle a child to an award as a 
Museum Traveler. After eight different 
Journeys he may become a Museum Adven- 
turer. After twelve Journeys he may be a 
Museum Explorer. Sixteen Journeys entitle 
him to take a very special Journey, which 
admits him to a Museum Club. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology 

From: Mrs. Joel Baker, Nashville, Ohio — 
woman's gown, Manchuria; Mrs. Robert C. 
McNamara, Winnetka, 111.— 3 pottery ves- 
sels, Arizona and New Mexico 

Department of Botany 

From: Holly Reed Bennett, Chicago— 640 
phanerogams, Michigan; Chicago Academy 
of Sciences — specimen of Asimina triloba, 
Missouri; Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da 
Amazonia, Belem-Para, Brazil — 63 speci- 
mens of Lentibulariaceae; Mrs. Dorothy 
Gibson, Chicago — 30 vascular plants, Ken- 
tucky; Dr. Louis O. Williams, Beltsville, 
Md. — 3 specimens of Telrorchidium, Hon- 
duras 

Department of Geology 

From: Arthur Hahn, Chicago — a fossil 
cephalopod, Illinois; Robert E. Houston, 
Greenville, Miss. — slab of marcasite; Mar- 
tin Seifert, Carrollton, Tex. — 4 Cretaceous 
invertebrates; Mrs. C. E. Thatcher, Brook- 
field, 111. — 2 slabs nephrite jade; Mr. Tri- 
comi, Chicago — amethyst quartz with pyrite, 
Ontario 

Department of Zoology 

From: Dr. R. M. Darnell, Milwaukee — 
5 fish specimens; J. W. Donovan, Palm 
Beach, Fla. — a fresh-water snail, Lake Tan- 
ganyika, Africa; Dr. John R. Hendrickson, 
Singapore — a caecilian, 98 frogs, 12 turtles, 



a fish; Celestino Kalinowski, Peru — 397 in- 
sects; Dr. J. N. Knull, Columbus, Ohio — 
27 beetles, Southwest United States; N. L. H. 
Krauss, Honolulu, Hawaii — 4 lizards, New 
Caledonia and New Hebrides; Dr. Marshall 
Laird, Quebec, Canada — 36 lizards, Tokelau 
Islands; Dr. Jean Rageau, Noumea, New 
Caledonia — 13 lots of non-marine shells; Sea 
Fisheries Research Station, Haifa, Israel — 
16 fish specimens, Mediterranean and Red 
seas 



NEW MEMBERS 

(April 16 to May 15) 

Life Member 

John McKinlay, Jr. 

Associate Members 

Alfred C. Ames, John T. Barlow, Dr. Hugo 
C. Baum, L. B. Buchanan, Mrs. John Whea- 
ton Cameron, George V. Campbell, William 
S. Deree, James F. Duffy, Carl Gustafson, 
M. J. Holland, Mrs. William O. Hunt, Byrne 
A. Jackson, Robert B. Jarchow, Lawrence 
Kasakoff, Mrs. Jerry J. Kearns, J. E. Lever- 
ing, Colonel M. M. Philipsborn, Jr., Byron 
M. Sykes, Paul H. Tolpin, Mrs. Murray 
Vale, Norman Vaughan 

Sustaining Member 

Nathan E. Jacobs 

Annual Members 

Ralph J. Abramson, Harry Adler, Ken- 
neth H. Anderson, William Apatoff, Mrs. 
Albert I. Appleton, Mrs. Leo Arnstein, Mrs. 
Floyd G. Arpan, Mrs. Walter G. Ashton, 
Mrs. Wallace G. Atkinson, Mrs. George M. 
Avalon, Mrs. C. Avgerinos, Dr. John J. 
Ballenger, Isadore Baskin, Dr. B. B. Batko, 
Jack W. Baum, Dr. Ralph Baylin, Dr. 
Barry O. Beguesse, Paul Bere, W. H. Bin- 
ford, Charles W. Boyd, Hartman L. Butler, 
Jr., Mrs. Louis Crawford, Roger Eklund, 
Kenneth G. Enright, Reuben S. Flacks, 
A. C. Friedsam, Ralph A. Gabric, Chester 
N. Goltra, Morton Haberman, Raymond 
Harkrider, Miss Nettie Hart, Dr. Eugene 
Hoffmann, Vincent P. Ignowski, Michael L. 
Igoe, Jr., Spencer E. Irons, Aaron M. Jacobs, 
Aaron Jaffe, James J. Kane, Constantine N. 
Kangles, Wallace I. Kargman, Eugene Kart, 
Bernard B. Kash, Daniel D. Kaufman, John 
C. Kayner, Marshall V. Kearney, Delmar L. 
Kroehler, R. C. Leimbacher, Mrs. J. H. 
Luken, Paul W. Majerus, John Neukuckatz, 
Robert C. Ransom, Sr., M. Hudson Rath- 
burn, Mozart G. Ratner, Richard S. Raysa, 
James E. Rhines, Mrs. Paul Russell, George 
Q. M. St. George, Gerald B. Saltzberg, Ber- 
nard S. Sang, Leonard B. Sax, Morris Sax- 
ner, C. Stuart Siebert, Jr., Henry J. Spanjer, 
Jr., Eugene Strojny, O. H. Warwick, Mrs. 
M. R. Wendt, Dean Wessel, Lawrence H. 
Whiting, Dr. George E. Ziegler 



Daily Guide-Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 p.m. on Monday through Friday and at 
2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 



MUSEUM TO BE OPEN 

SOME EVENINGS 

In co-operation with the Chicago Park 
District, Chicago Natural History Museum 
will extend its visiting hours to 8 p.m. on 
Wednesday and Friday evenings during the 
Grant Park concert season, June 24 to 
August 12. On these evenings the exhibits 
will be open to visitors, and dinner will be 
served from 5:30 to 7:30 p.m. in the Museum 
Cafeteria for the convenience of concert- 
goers and others. 



Musical Instrument Exhibit 

"The Music Makers," a special exhibit of 
primitive musical instruments of the world, 
will be on display from June 24 to August 31 
in Edward E. and Emma B. Ayer Hall 
(Hall 2). Various forms of wind, percussion 
and stringed instruments used by native 
people in Africa, Asia, Pacific islands, etc. 
will be shown. Many of these are quite 
fabulous in design as well as tone. 



More Parking Available 

Additional parking space is now available 
to Museum visitors. When the free parking 
space to the north of the Museum is filled on 
Saturdays and Sundays, the Chicago Park 
District will permit visitors to leave their 
cars in the lot at the southeast corner of the 
Museum for a 25-cent fee, from 10:30 a.m. to 
Museum closing time. These facilities will 
be opened also on weekdays during the 
summer whenever the number of Museum 
visitors' automobiles requires the additional 
space. 



Field Work in Insects 

In June, Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator of 
Insects, will leave on a collecting trip through 
the Great Plains of the northern United 
States, and of Saskatchewan and Manitoba 
in Canada. In addition to collecting, he will 
devote much of his time to studying the 
ecology of specific localities in order to explain 
the puzzling distributions of certain beetles of 
the family Histeridae. He will return in late 
July. 



Technical Publications 

Fieldiana: Anthropology, Vol. 49, No. 1. 
Late Mogollon Communities. Four Sites of 
the Tularosa Phase, Western New Mexico. 
By Paul S. Martin, John B. Rinaldo, and 
Eloise R. Barter. 144 pages, 57 illustra- 
tions, 5 tables. $4. 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 39, No. 8. The 
Venomous Coral Snakes of Trinidad. By 
Karl P. Schmidt. 9 pages, 3 illustrations. 
25c. 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 39, No. 10. Geo- 
graphic Variation in the Central American 
Colubrine Snake, Ninia Sebae. By Karl P. 
Schmidt and A. Stanley Rand. 25c. 



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Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



July, 1959 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 

THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery William V. Kahler 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen J. Roscoe Miller 

Chesser M. Campbell William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Joseph N. Field Clarence B. Randall 

Marshall Field, Jr. John G. Searle 

Stanley Field Solomon A. Smith 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Louis Ware 

John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Hughston M. McBain First Vice-President 

Walther Buchen Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 

Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
Patricia McAfee Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



NORTHWESTERN U HONORS 
PRESIDENT STANLEY FIELD 

At its commencement exercises held June 
15, Northwestern University conferred on 
Stanley Field, President of the Museum, an 
honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. The 
honor was in recognition of Mr. Field's many 
years of service to civic 
institutions of Chi- 
cago, particularly this 
Museum, but also to 
the Chicago Zoological 
Society (Brookfield 
Zoo), and the John G. 
Shedd Aquarium. He 
has not only been Pres- 
ident of the Museum 
for more than 50 years, 
but has been President 
of the Aquarium since 
its founding. He is 
one of the guiding spir- 
its of the Zoo, having served many years as 
chairman of its Building and Grounds Com- 
mittee and its Executive Committee. 

This is the second time an LL.D. degree 
has been conferred on Mr. Field. In De- 
cember, 1930, this honor was bestowed by 
the University of Chicago. In the nearly 
30 additional years that have intervened he 
has been tireless in his activities, and it is 
most appropriate that the Chicago area's 
two leading universities should have con- 
ferred upon him their highest commendation. 




STANLEY FIELD 



Books 



A CENTURY OF BIOLOGICAL RE- 
SEARCH— Bulletin, Illinois Natural 
History Survey. Vol. 27, Article 2, pages 
85-234, 25 figures. 

The Illinois Natural History Survey from 
its beginning has been a unique organization 
covering fields of research and investigation 
that in most other states are the concern of 
several separate commissions. Its founders, 
Benjamin Walsh, William LeBaron, Cyrus 
Thomas, and its chief for 60 years, Stephen 
Forbes, were the men who built the institu- 
tion, set its high standards and indicated the 
fields of investigation in which the survey 
has made its principal contributions. 

This stock-taking publication begins with 
a history of the founding and development 
of the Survey by Dr. Harlow B. Mills, the 
present chief. The remaining eight chapters 
by other staff members cover various aspects 
of the work of the present organization as 
follows: Economic Entomology — Decker; 
Faunistic Surveys (since 1923 principally in- 
sects) — Ross; Applied Botany and Plant 
Pathology — Carter; Aquatic Biology — Ben- 
nett; Wildlife Research— Scott; Publications 
and Public Relations — Ayars; Library — 
Warrick; and Former Technical Employees 
—East. Each of the chapters follows a 
similar outline with a chronological account 
of the section organization, development of 
its major research programs and a discussion 
of future needs in this field. "Throughout 
its century of existence this organization has 
attempted to meet the needs of the economy 
of Illinois with an eye to the state's future 
requirements" (Ross). 

Loren P. Woods 
Curator of Fishes 



Assistant Curator Named 
in Mammal Division 

Dr. Karl Koopman has been appointed 
Assistant Curator of Mammals, and has be- 
gun his duties. Born in Honolulu, Dr. Koop- 
man has lived on the mainland since he was 
two years old. He received his undergradu- 
ate and postgraduate training as a zoologist 
at Columbia University, and in 1949 was 
awarded the University's Newberry Prize 
for excellence in vertebrate zoology. 

Dr. Koopman taught biology in Queens 
College, Flushing, New York, from 1952 to 
1958, and was assistant curator of mammals 
at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia before coming here. 



A new sparkle has been added to the 
exhibits pertaining to the peoples of the 
Malay Peninsula and Indonesia by re- 
arrangements and reinstallations recently 
made in Hall G. 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



With its new exterior silhouette- 
lighting, the Museum building has 
become a jewel-like spectacle each 
evening for thousands of motor- 
ists on the Lake Shore Drive, and 
for thousands of other persons in 
Grant Park for the summer con- 
certs and other attractions. 



NEW MEMBERS 
OF MUSEUM 

(May 18 to June 15) 

Associate Members 

George Chazanow, James J. Daly, Louis G. 
Davidson, Dr. Harry Gomberg, Edward J. 
Haedike, W. C. Havelaar, James C. Hemp- 
hill, William Katz, Mrs. John M. Lowrie, 
R. L. Nafziger, Dr. Marguerite Oliver, 
Raymond L. Perlman, Herbert F. Philips- 
born, Sr., Paul M. Plunkett, Myron H. 
Post, Mrs. William H. Rentschler, Mrs. 
Frank E. Rubovits, Frank Sedlacek, 
N. M. Silberman, Mrs. Robert E. Spiel, 
H. B. Tellschow, Mrs. Clarence F. Wiley 

Annual Members 

Raymond H. Achtner, C. Jere Albright, 
Mrs. Herbert C. Altholz, Theodore W. An- 
derson, Jr., Mrs. C. William Applegate, Mrs. 
Howard Arvey, Mrs. C. Henry Austin, Alex 
H. Bacci, Louis N. Balluff, Dr. S. R. Bazell, 
Dr. Irvin S. Belgrade, Richard M. Bennett, 
Eugene P. Berg, Harvey Berman, Stanley R. 
Billick, Raymond H. Borkenhagen, A. R. 
Brandzel, George E. Brogan, Robert Em- 
mett Burke, Miss Catherine E. Carpenter, 
Gale A. Christopher, Nicholas P. Conglis, 
James F. Cooke, Joseph E. Dempsey, Rich- 
ard Duffey, Daniel J. Edelman, Harold L. 
Eisenstein, Richard J. Faletti, George M. 
Flint, Dwight Follett, Arthur J. Gallagher, 
Jr., Billy B. Gillespie, Miss Martha P. Gober, 
Miss Ruth Goshert, Mrs. A. T. Graham, 
Dr. R. P. Gwinn, Louis J. Haddad, 
Charles R. Hall, Louis P. Haller, 
Miss Helen Heggie, Mrs. David A. Hill, 
Melvan M. Jacobs, Charles J. Kaleta, Dr. 
Lawrence Kaplan, Ralph B. Kraft, Mrs. 
Brunson MacChesney, Dr. A. Maciunas, 
Dr. Ronald B. Mack, Mrs. M. F. Mac- 
naughton, Dr. Roe J. Maier, Dr. John J. 
Manning, E. E. Mark, H. C. Mathey, Jr., 
Mrs. Arthur T. Moulding, Dr. Andrew Nagy, 
Dr. Lester A. Nathan, Dr. George F. O'Brien, 
Dr. James J. O'Hearn, Dr. Y. T. Oester, 
E. B. Padrick, Roy I. Peregrine, Lawrence B. 
Perkins, Mrs. Arnold Perry, Arden J. Rearick, 
William A. Redmond, Mrs. Charles A. Reed, 
Mrs. R. C. Rolfing, Arthur B. Sachs, James 
V. Sallemi, Joseph H. Sanders, Charles N. 
Salzman, Douglas S. Seator, Claude T. Seitz, 
R. C. Shropshire, Edwin W. Sims, Jr., Philip 
Spertus, William Spooner, John W. Stanton, 
Milton Stein, W. R. Stephens, Jr., Reuben 
Stiglitz, Burton I. Stolar, Philip Tallman, 
Morris S. Telechansky, Jack B. Temple, 
Hugo J. Thai, John H. van der Meulen, 
James R. Ware, Donald O. Waterbury, 
Dr. H. Lawrence Wilsey, Mrs. Roger V. 
Wilson, Walter Wyne 



July, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page S 



SPECIAL EXHIBIT SHOWS EXOTIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 



By PATRICIA McAFEE 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 

MUSIC is often called the universal lan- 
guage. This is appropriate in the 
sense that all people participate or at least 
listen to some form of music. But in an- 
other respect music is no more communica- 
tively universal than is speech. Man has the 
ability to speak and this has led to the de- 



vices of North and South American Indians, 
and of peoples of Asia, Africa, and Oceania 
make up the exhibit, which is in Edward E. 




MUSEUM 'COMBO' IS BORN 
E. John Pfiffner (left), known in jazz-music circles 
as well as for his work as Museum Staff Artist, and 
Allen S. Liss, Custodian of Collections — Anthro- 
pology, try a few "hot notes" on exotic instruments. 
Pfiflner is playing a nagasarum, a type of clarinet 
from India. Liss essays a wild beat on a saron, 
Javanese form of xylophone. 



velopment of distinct languages which enable 
him to communicate with other human be- 
ings. But there still is no universal language 
with which all people can communicate — 
and just so, there is no music that is under- 
standable, or melodious, to all ears. 

We with our Western background would 
recognize music of many other cultures only 
as sounds or noises. But in the context of 
the society which engendered it, these other 
forms of music possess a definite communi- 
cative function — a function largely limited 
to one particular culture alone. For that 
matter, there are definite musical cleavages 
among groups within our own society. To 
the "long-hair music" group most jazz, and 
all rock-'n'-roll are as separate and uncom- 
municative as the music of the most primi- 
tive culture, while to some of the adherents 
of these varieties of American-European mu- 
sic, both the old masters and the modern 
classics are equally incomprehensible. 

WIDE VARIETY IN EXHIBIT 

"The Music Makers," as a current special 
exhibit of exotic musical instruments is called, 
exemplifies the great diversity in the "uni- 
versal language" of music by presenting a 
wide variety of musical instruments from 
many parts of the world. Music-making de- 



THE MUSIC MAKERS, special ex- 
hibit described in the accompany- 
ing article, will continue on display 
through August 31, in Edward E. 
and Emma B. Ayer Hall (Hall 2). 
For music lovers attending the 
Grant Park Summer Concerts of- 
fered by the Chicago Park District, 
the Museum will extend its visit- 
ing hours to 8 p.m. on Wednesday 
and Friday evenings through Au- 
gust 12. Dinner will be served in 
the Cafeteria to 7:30 p.m. 



and Emma B. Ayer Hall (Hall 2) and will 
remain on display until August 31. In one 
respect most of the exotic instruments are 
similar to those of our own civilization — 
most of them fall into the same three main 
divisions of strings, winds (including reeds), 
and percussion. 

Museum visitors will find some of the mu- 
sic makers in the exhibit totally unfamiliar, 
while others will register as familiar because 
of their resemblance in form to Western in- 
struments. This similarity in many cases 
may exist only in appearance, however; the 
sound produced is very apt to be foreign to 
our ears because we are accustomed to the 
fixed tonal values of Euro-American music. 
The function is likely to be equally alien to 
our conception of the use of musical instru- 
ments. 

In Western societies music has taken on an 
importance in its own right — music for the 
sake of music. It is listened to chiefly for 
the purpose of deriving pleasure. Many of 
the music makers displayed in this exhibit 
were used to perform definitely less secular 
functions. Some were played in the theatre 
and as an accompaniment to the dance, but 
thespian and terpsichorean arts may have 
had religious or ceremonial overtones now 
rarely present on the stage or in Western 
music. Other instruments are known to have 
been used strictly in religious ceremonies. 
There is still considerable mystery about the 
use and method of playing many non- Western 
instruments, particularly those which are 
ancient. 

SPECIFIC INSTRUMENTS 

The use of a small double whistle, one of 
the archaeological pieces displayed, is un- 
known. It is the product of 15th century 
Aztec civilization in the Valley of Toluca. 
The whistle produces three tones and has a 
small hole in the back which probably en- 
abled the owner to insert a string to carry 



it around his neck. Little else is known 
about it. 

Several Tibetan instruments are displayed. 
Tibetan civilization traditionally has been 
oriented to religion, and the musical instru- 
ments of this culture play a large part in 
rituals. A flute made from a human thigh 
bone, a conch-shell trumpet mounted with 
silver and turquoise, and a lapa — a 9-foot 




CO-ED COMPLETES TRIO 

Susanne Fried, Antioch College student-worker 

temporarily employed at the Museum, plays a sitar — 

a guitar from India. 

long copper trumpet, were used in religious 
ceremonies and, as in the case of the conch- 
shell trumpet, were also part of the religious 
paraphernalia which resided on the altar. 

Primitive societies are chiefly concerned 
with music as an important factor in religious 
ceremonies, suggesting that music may have 
originated from religious practices and later, 
in some cases, assumed a more secular func- 
tion. In the exhibit is a friction drum from 
New Ireland that was used in rituals to honor 
the ancestral dead. It is reported that pre- 
ceding the ceremony a number of men, form- 
ing a sort of orchestra, hid themselves in the 
second story of the house where representa- 
tions of ancestors were displayed. At the 
proper time the men stroked the drum with 
their hands, heating it by friction, and pro- 
ducing a sound which gave the illusion of the 
presence of supernatural beings. 

The use of the friction drum to produce 
noises suggesting the supernatural is similar 
in this respect to the use of the bull-roarer 
by Melanesian people of the Gulf of Papua 
in New Guinea. A bull-roarer is a long, nar- 
row piece of wood attached to a string which 
makes a whirring or humming sound when it 
is whirled in the air. Bull-roarers are found 
in many areas of the world and are mainly 
ceremonial in use. The wide geographic 
range, and the diversity of peoples among 
whom bull-roarers are found, is illustrated 
(Continued on page 6, column 3) 



Page k 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



July, 1959 



FEAST OF DEAD' RELEASED HURONS' SOULS 



By GEORGE I. QUIMBY 

CURATOR OF NORTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 
AND ETHNOLOGY 

THE HURON and their close relatives, 
the Tionontati or Tobacco Huron, lived 
in Ontario between Lake Simcoe and Georg- 
ian Bay and westward of Lake Simcoe to 
Lake Huron. The combined Huron and 
Tobacco Huron are estimated to have had a 
population of 45,000 to 60,000 persons at the 
beginning of the 17th century. However, 




HURON BURIAL CEREMONY 

An old print shows an artist's conception of a mass reinterment ritual that was 
believed by the Indians to release the souls of the dead. 



by the middle of the 17th century their num- 
bers had been reduced drastically by intro- 
duced diseases, war, and famine, and the 
tribal remnants had been driven from their 
homeland. 

The Hurons lived in towns and villages 
some of which were protected by circular 
palisades. Within the towns and villages, 
houses were arranged in regular rows along 
streets and separated from one another for 
protection against fire. One of the largest 
of the Huron towns, Cahiagne, contained 200 
large dwellings in which lived 4,000 to 6,000 
persons. 

The Hurons obtained their food by farm- 
ing. In the cleared fields near their towns 
and villages they raised corn, beans, squashes, 
and sunflowers for sustenance and tobacco 
for smoking. The men cleared the land of 
trees and brush by cutting and burning, but 
the women planted the food crops, tended 
the fields and did the harvesting. 

It has been estimated that the Huron har- 



vested 390,000 bushels of corn annually and 
that they had 23,300 acres of corn under cul- 
tivation. There must have been miles of 
fields surrounding the Huron villages. So 
extensive were these fields that one French 
missionary got lost in them while walking 
from one village to another. 

The Hurons had the most elaborate social 
and religious life of all the Indians living in 
the Upper Great Lakes region. They be- 
lieved that the world was perched on the 
back of a giant turtle. 
The sun at night dis- 
appeared into a tunnel 
in the earth and came 
out at the opposite end 
each morning. 

The supernatural 
creator of the world 
and of the Huron peo- 
ple was named Yos- 
caha. He was a benev- 
olent spirit who lived 
in the sky. His grand- 
mother, Ataensiq, 
seems to have been an 
evil spirit. There was 
also a class of numer- 
ous spirits called Oki 
who had power for 
both good and evil. 
The Oki were present 
in rivers, rocks, and 
other places, in ani- 
mals, and in situations 
such as voyages, fish- 
ing trips, trade, war, 
and ceremonial feasts. 
The Oki seem to have 
been expressions of a 
power similar to the 
manitou of the Algon- 
kian speaking peoples. 
The power of the Oki 
was also present in amulets and charms of 
various kinds kept by the Hurons. The Oki 
manifested themselves to individual humans 
in dreams. The Hurons believed that dreams 
were the language of the soul. 

The soul, according to the Huron, had five 
aspects or conditions of being. It animated 
the body and gave it life. It was possessed 
of reason. It enabled thinking and delibera- 
tion. It made possible affection for others. 
And it separated itself from the body after 
death. 

VILLAGES OF SOULS 

The Hurons believed that souls, after 
death, went to various villages of souls in 
the sky. These soul villages of the Huron 
af terworld were devoid of reward or punish- 
ment and supernatural life in them was 
essentially the same as natural life on earth. 

Some souls after death followed the Milky 
Way, the road of souls, to a great soul village 
toward the setting sun. They journeyed to- 



gether, dressed in fine robes and carrying 
their equipage, all taken with them in soul 
form from their common grave. 

Other souls such as those of very old peo- 
ple and young children not capable of a long 
journey traveled to a different soul village 
less distant. Souls of Hurons killed in war 
also had a separate village. 

Souls did not go to their respective soul 
villages until after an elaborate mass burial 
ceremony known as the Feast of the Dead. 

Ordinarily when a Huron died his corpse 
was placed in a bark coffin raised on painted 
wooden posts nine or ten feet high, but those 
killed in war or drowned were buried in a 
flexed position in shallow graves. Souls of 
these Indians remained in the vicinity of the 
Huron villages. Infants were buried in the 
roads between villages so that their souls 
might enter passing women and be born 
again. 

The Feast of the Dead was held at eight-, 
ten-, or twelve-year intervals. It was a 
national ceremony at which all of the dead 
from each Huron town were removed from 
their temporary graves and brought to a 
designated place for mass burial. 

A SOLEMN SPECTACLE 

In preparation for the Feast of the Dead 
the living Indians of each town and village 
removed the bodies from their temporary 
graves. The bones were lovingly stripped of 
remaining flesh and/or cleaned by relatives 
and mourners of the deceased. An eyewit- 
ness account from the missionary Jean de 
Brebeuf in 1636 follows: 

"I was present at the spectacle, and will- 
ingly invited to it all our servants; for I do 
not think one could see in the world a more 
vivid picture or more perfect representation 
of what Man is. For, after having opened 
the graves, they display — all these corpses — 
long enough for the spectators to learn — 
what they will be some day. The flesh of 
some is quite gone, and there is only parch- 
ment on their bones; in other cases, the 
bodies look as if they had been dried and 
smoked, and show scarcely any signs of 
putrefaction; and in still other cases they 
are still swarming with worms. — finally, 
after some time they strip them of their 
flesh, taking off the skin and flesh (by hand- 
fuls) which they throw into the fire along 
with robes and mats in which the bodies 
were wrapped." 

After being stripped of flesh the bones 
were placed in beaver skin bags or rearticu- 
lated and dressed in fine robes and adorned 
with bracelets and strings of beads. Some 
bags of bones were arranged to form human 
effigies that were ornamented with strings of 
beads and bands of long fur dyed red. 

The bodies from each town and village 
having been prepared, they were then trans- 
ported on the backs of the villagers to the 
spot designated for the mass burial. This 
(Continued on page 6, column 2) 



July, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



NAMING A ROCK 

By BERTRAM G. WOODLAND 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF PETROLOGY 

EACH WEEK we receive rock specimens 
to be identified. Some come by mail 
and others are brought to us by visitors. 
Not infrequently we are asked what is the 
actual difference between various rocks and 
how do we know what names to give them. 
First, what is a rock? A rock is an aggre- 
gate of one or more minerals, which are the 
naturally occurring chemical substances 
which make up the earth's crust. This geo- 
logical definition of a rock includes not only 




GRANITE SPECIMEN 
It is composed of feldspar, quartz and biotite. 

the solid and hard materials but also loose 
sands, clays, and volcanic ash. To the civil 
engineer concerned with constructional ma- 
terials and foundations, however, a rock is 
something hard; the soft loose materials are 
referred to as earth or soil. The choice of 
name or names given to rocks has been much 
influenced by their use for certain purposes. 
For example in the building and monumental 
stone trade, "granite" is a name used for a 
wide variety of rock types many of which the 
geologist would not call granite. 

The naming and classifying of rocks are 
rendered inherently difficult by the very 
great diversity of types and by the fact that 
few completely sharp distinctions can be 
made becuase of the many gradational vari- 
eties. However, a classification and an ac- 
cepted system of naming of rocks are essen- 
tial for purposes of comparison and descrip- 
tions of occurrences throughout the world. 
Such a system should, apart from just pro- 
viding a name, ideally provide as much in- 
formation as possible about the composition, 
nature, origin and relationships of a rock. 

IMPROVEMENT IN CRITERIA 

A major difficulty arises when the criteria 
for separating and naming the rock types are 
considered. Originally rocks were named 



and described solely from their appearance 
to the naked eye or with a simple hand lens, 
and many of the names are still applied to- 
day, although often not in just the same way, 
as more detailed criteria are now used. About 
the middle of the last century a great impe- 
tus to the systematic detailed description, 
naming and classification of rocks was pro- 
vided by the use of the polarizing microscope 
to examine very thin slices of rock (i.e., thin 
enough to transmit light). This enabled 
more accurate determination of the actual 
mineral species and their relative quantities 
in a rock to be determined. During the last 
one hundred years many rocks have been so 
examined and named and a number of com- 
plex scientific classification systems proposed. 

At the present time rocks are named and 
classified on the basis of a number of criteria. 
Although in part these have a genetic sig- 
nificance, it still has not proved possible to 
erect an entirely genetic classification, and 
many of the criteria, for practical reasons, 
are thus of an arbitrary nature. 

As an example of the difficulties involved 
mention might be made of the three main 
classes of rocks which are generally accepted 
and are based on origin. These are: (1) ig- 
neous — rocks formed from the cooling of hot 
molten material (magma) an example of 
which is volcanic lava; (2) sedimentary — 
rocks formed from material accumulated by 
the action of water, wind, glaciers, and grav- 
ity, the majority deposited in the sea forming 
such rocks as limestone and sandstone; (3) 
metamorphic — rocks which have been pro- 
duced from pre-existing rocks by the action 
of heat and/or pressure, usually deep in the 
earth's crust, an example of which is marble. 
Now, while it is generally possible to classify 




THIN SECTION OF GRANITE 

The components are indicated as follows: F — feld- 
spar; Q — quartz; B — biotite; M — magnetite; and 
A — apatite. 



a rock as belonging to one of these classes, by 
applying certain simple criteria — e.g., sedi- 
mentary rocks usually possess well developed 
and characteristic stratification — it is by no 
means always so easy, particularly for small 
specimens brought into the laboratory by a 



SPECIAL EXHIBITS 

The following special exhibits are sched- 
uled for the summer months: 

Panorama of the Pacific, through July 15, 
Stanley Field Hall. This exhibit, which 
was the feature of Members' Night, May 
8, displays selected material from the 
Fuller Collection of South Seas artifacts. 

The Music Makers — Exotic Musical 
Instruments of the World. Through 
August 31, Edward E. and Emma B. Ayer 
Hall (Hall 2). 

Indian Art of the Americas, August 1- 
September 28, Stanley Field Hall. Select- 
ed objets d'art from the North, Central, 
and South American collections of this and 
other leading museums. The exhibit co- 
ordinates with Chicago's Festival of the 
Americas in connection with the Pan 
American Games. 



visitor and for which there is no field data, 
or which may be pebbles found in gravel or 
the soil. Some metamorphic rocks may have 
many of the criteria of igneous rocks, partic- 
ularly if they were derived from the latter or 
if under ultra-metamorphism the rock mass 
was so changed as to appear like an igneous 
rock. Volcanic ash, the product of explosive 
volcanic eruptions, may be deposited in the 
sea and be mixed with varying quantities of 
other sediments so that there may be a com- 
plete gradation from a pure volcanic ash to 
a sedimentary rock. 

Geological classifications do not, of course, 
satisfy the civil engineer, who would wish to 
see a rock classification using criteria of engi- 
neering importance. So far this also has not 
been possible, but perhaps in time a way may 
be evolved to relate the purely geological sys- 
tem to one of value to engineers, miners and 
others concerned with working in or exploit- 
ing rocks. 

CLASSIFICATION BY GEOLOGISTS 

The criteria utilized by geologists are: (1) 
field occurrence, that is, the way in which 
the rock occurs in nature; (2) mineralogical 
composition; (3) the structure and texture of 
the rock — the way in which the mineral grains 
are aggregated together, and (4) chemical 
composition. Of these the most important 
criteria are texture, structure, and mineral- 
ogical composition. Sometimes these can be 
sufficiently ascertained with a hand lens to 
give a name to a specimen in the field. How- 
ever, this is not always possible and the geol- 
ogist has to be satisfied to use accepted and 
well understood field names of a broad na- 
ture, leaving until later the necessary detailed 
laboratory work. In the laboratory a binoc- 
ular microscope, with magnifications up to 
40 times, is of great value for determining 
the grain size, shape and the mineralogic 
composition of hand specimens. For further 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



July, 1959 



details recourse must be made to microscopic 
examination of thin sections. 

Thin sections of rocks are prepared by cut- 
ting a thin wafer of the sample, usually 
about one inch square, with a diamond saw. 
One side of this slice is then ground smooth 
with abrasive on a rotating lap wheel and 
the smooth surface is cemented to a glass 
slide (usually 1%" x 1") with a medium such 
as Canada balsam, which is liquid when hot, 
and hard and strongly adhesive when cold. 
The wafer is then ground thin on lap wheels 
using successively finer abrasive, and is fin- 
ished off by rubbing on a glass plate with 
very fine abrasive until the standard thick- 
ness of 3/100 of a millimeter is attained. 
This thickness is determined by observing 
the optical properties of some known min- 
eral under the microscope, e.g., quartz. The 
thin section is then covered with a thin glass 
cover slip which is also cemented to the slice 
with Canada balsam. The section is then 
ready for examination with the petrographic 
microscope, which is equipped with special 
apparatus for the observation of the optical 
properties of minerals. In particular, it has 
attachments for polarizing the light which 
passes through the thin section. In this way 
the optical properties of the mineral compos- 
ing the rock are determined, and from them 
the kinds of minerals present, their quanti- 
ties and arrangement and other data can be 
obtained. These are then used in the classi- 
fication of the rock and in determining its 
origin and history. The polarizing micro- 
scope can also be used to examine crushed 
grains extracted from a rock to determine 
the identity of a mineral if the preparation 
of a thin section is not required, or to deter- 
mine some of the optical data best obtained 
in this way even if a thin section is available. 
Most minerals are transparent in thin sec- 
tion but there are many which remain quite 
opaque, particularly the ore minerals, such 
as the ores of copper, lead and iron. These 
are microscopically examined by preparing 
highly polished surfaces and observing them 
in reflected light. 

CHEMICAL TESTS USED 

Chemical methods are often important 
aids in determining rock composition. Qual- 
itative tests for minerals or elements help in 
determining mineral species while bulk quan- 
titative analyses are important in comparing 
the chemical composition of rocks and un- 
derstanding their modes of origin. It should 
be emphasized that rocks which have had 
widely different histories and have different 
mineralogic composition and different tex- 
tures may have very similar chemical com- 
positions, so that a chemical analysis alone 
is insufficient to determine a rock. For some 
rocks a chemical analysis is necessary to ac- 
curately identify and classify it, e.g., volcanic 
glasses which are devoid of minerals. In 
addition, other techniques may be brought 
into service to aid in determining the com- 



position of rocks, e.g., X-ray methods to 
identify minerals, particularly very fine- 
grained aggregates such as clays. 

However, the polarizing microscope re- 
mains the most useful, and essential instru- 
ment for the description, naming and classi- 
fying and elucidation of the origins of rock 
types. 

There are a number of exhibits in the 
Museum illustrating the criteria used in the 
classification of rocks together with exam- 
ples of some of the types. At the west end 
of Hall 34 (Physical Geology and Rocks) 
there are a number of cases concerned with 
the study of rocks, the common minerals 
which compose at least 99 per cent of the 
rocks of the earth's crust, and the classifica- 
tion and naming of the igneous, sedimen- 
tary and metamorphic rocks. In Clarence 
Buckingham Hall (Mineralogy and Meteor- 
ites — Hall 35) there is one exhibit showing 
how physical properties may be used to 
identify the minerals of a hand specimen. 



FEAST OF DEAD— 

(Continued from page 4.) 

was a ceremonial journey purposely drawn 
out over two or three days. 

At the place selected for burial there was a 
large pit 30 to 60 feet square and up to 10 
feet deep. At the edge of the pit was a high 
scaffold or platform. Bodies were hung from 
poles on this scaffold and bundles of bones 
were placed on the platform. After lengthy 
ceremonies and rituals in which the whole 
Huron nation participated, the bodies were 
placed in the pit along with beautiful fur 
robes, pottery, weapons, tools, ornaments, 
food, and utensils. 

Hundreds of people were thus buried and 
thousands of useful articles were lavished 
upon the dead. At the end of the Feast of 
the Dead the souls of the Hurons buried in 
this way departed from Huronia and went to 
the various soul villages in the sky. 

An appraisal of the Huron feast of the 
dead is available in the journal of the mis- 
sionary, Theodat Gabriel Sagard, who wit- 
nessed it in 1623 or 1624. He wrote, 
"Christians, let us reflect a little and see if 
our fervors for the souls of our relatives — are 
as great as those of the poor Indians toward 
the souls of their fellow deceased, and we 
shall find that their fervors surpass ours, and 
that they have more love for one another in 
this life and after death than we, who say we 
are wiser and are less so in fact — ." 



Parking Space Expanded 

Additional parking space has been made 
available to Museum visitors. When the 
free parking facilities at the north end of the 
building are filled to capacity, cars may be 
left in the lot at the southeast corner of the 
building where the Chicago Park District 
charges a flat fee of 25 cents between 
10:30 a.m. and 6 p.m. 



MUSIC MAKERS- 

(Continued from page S) 

by the presence in the exhibit of one, similar 
in form and use, from the Hopi Indians of 
Arizona. On the Gulf of Papua a ceremony 
is performed in which the men of the village 
mass together and run, shouting, blowing 
shell trumpets, and whirling bull-roarers. 
The loud and weird noises they make are 
intended to indicate to the remainder of the 
village population, especially the women, 
that a great and monstrous creature has 
risen from the sea and has entered the men's 
clubhouse. Later masked figures emerge 
from the lodge, giving the impression that a 
supernatural event has occurred. 

The Javanese have developed quite an 
elaborate type of orchestra to accompany 
their dances and theatricals. Our exhibit in- 
cludes a number of the instruments used. 
One is a type of xylophone played on the 
same principles as our own similar instru- 
ment. It is fancifully carved and has painted 
animal heads as end decorations. It consists 
of a set of gongs increasing in size, and in 
depth of tone, hung in a frame. 

In most primitive societies, important 
events of human life over which the individ- 
ual has no control — especially birth, puberty, 
death (all of which are awesome even in a 
complex civilized society) — are celebrated by 
religious ceremonies aimed at providing an 
explanation of the mysteries of life. The 
most important function of music in these 
cultures is the observance of these cere- 
monials. In our society, too, birth and death 
are still basic themes in music, but our music 
generally has changed to strictly listening 
functions rather than the expression of the 
human experiences to which it relates. 



"Fishing" Trips for Children 

"Goin' Fishin' " continues as the theme 
of the Museum Journey for children through 
July and August. The Journey may be made 
any day. Children receive instructions at 
either entrance to the Museum. Those suc- 
cessfully completing this plus three journeys 
on other topics receive awards as Museum 
Travelers. After eight Journeys they be- 
come qualified for designation as Museum 
Adventurers, and after twelve as Museum 
Explorers. After sixteen Journeys a child 
becomes eligible for a final project and ad- 
mission to a Museum Club. 



Come and See Us Now 

A Museum Member recently sent the fol- 
lowing note along with a check for member- 
ship renewal: 

"When I was 10 years old, I took my first 
visit with our school class. I have never for- 
gotten that memorable trip. All children 
should make that trip. That first visit is 
still a wonderful memory of the Museum. 
I am 70 years old now. Best wishes. . . ." 



July, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



RESEARCH ON BIRDS, 
TICKS AND VIRUSES 

By MELVIN A. TRAYLOR 

ASSISTANT CURATOR OF BIRDS 

DURING April and early May I was for- 
tunate in being able to work with Naval 
Medical Research Unit No. 3 in Cairo, Egypt, 
as a guest of the Bureau of Medicine and 
Surgery, U. S. Navy. Among the many en- 
demic diseases being studied at NAMRU 3 
are the arthropod-borne viruses. These are 
the viruses in which the agency that trans- 
fers the disease from one vertebrate host to 
another is an arthropod, usually a mosquito 
or a tick. Since the vertebrate host is in 
many cases a bird, this study is naturally of 
interest to ornithologists. It was in order to 
help with the collection and identification 
of possible bird hosts that I was invited to 
Cairo. 

Our knowledge of birds as major hosts of 
various viruses has mostly been gained since 
the war. Previously it was believed that 
most arthropod-borne viruses of medical or 
veterinary importance were maintained by a 
direct cycle between man or the domestic 
animal and the arthropod vector. However, 
it is now known that in a great many viruses 
the primary cycle of infection is from bird 
to arthropod to bird, and it is only during 
periods of explosive outbreaks that the dis- 
ease becomes of medical importance. Indeed, 
from the point of view of the virus, the in- 
fection of man is an unfortunate accident 
since he dies before he can circulate the virus 
and reinfect other arthropods. Birds, how- 
ever, are ideal hosts. They are exposed to 
and attractive to the vector, whether tick or 
mosquito; they are susceptible to the virus 
and circulate it in sufficient concentration 
to infect the arthropod; and as rapid breed- 
ers they produce a large number of non- 
immune individuals each year to perpetuate 
the disease. 

VARIED HOSTS FOR VIRUSES 

In this country the viruses which have 
been demonstrated to have birds as hosts are 
Eastern and Western Equine and St. Louis 
encephalitis. The cycle of each of these is 
similar although varying in the specific hosts 
involved. The disease shows a rapid growth 
in late spring and summer when the mos- 
quito population reaches its height. It is at 
this time that there is a peak population of 
young, non-immune birds in the nest, and 
they are readily susceptible to infection from 
the bites of infected mosquitoes and, in turn, 
transmit the virus to new mosquitoes. It is 
at this period of maximum incidence of in- 
fection that the disease may spread to man 
or horses. This active stage lasts but a short 
time, but the virus is able to pass the winter 
in hibernating mosquitoes which start the 
cycle over again the following spring. Sim- 
ilar life histories have been demonstrated for 
Japanese B encephalitis in Japan and West 
Nile virus in Egypt. Russian Spring-Sum- 



mer virus also has a similar cycle, but in this 
case ticks rather than mosquitoes are the 
arthropod vector. 

Besides the importance of birds as hosts, 
there is strong indirect evidence that they 
serve as long-range disseminators of viruses. 
Eastern Equine encephalitis is found along 
the east coast of the United States, the gulf 
coast of Mexico, and the north coast of South 
America and eastern Brazil. This distribu- 
tion fits the migration pattern of many birds 
that breed in the eastern United States, mi- 
grate across the Caribbean or along the coast 
of Mexico and winter in northeastern South 
America. This agreement in range between 
the disease and migrant birds certainly sug- 
gests that birds have been the main instru- 
ment in spreading the virus. The irregular 
appearance of Murray Valley encephalitis in 
south Australia is also most easily explained 
through the agency of migrating birds. This 
virus is endemic in New Guinea and tropical 
north Australia, and appears at long inter- 
vals in epidemic form in south Australia. It 
appears to be introduced by migrant water 
birds who carry it south with them, partic- 
ularly in years of heavy rainfall. 

CARRIED MANY MILES BY BIRDS 

Among the tick-borne diseases, a recent 
explosive outbreak of Russian Spring-Sum- 
mer virus in the Kyasanur Forest of southern 
India is strongly suggestive of introduction 
by migrant birds. This is the first recognized 
occurrence in a tropical region of this virus, 
although there is evidence that there was a 
previous localized infection in Saurashtra a 
few hundred miles north, and introduction 
by birds is the only logical explanation of 
such a long jump from previous areas of in- 
fection. The virus was probably carried in 
infected ticks transported by the birds, rather 
than in the birds themselves since the latter 
are infectious for only a short period. There 
is ample evidence that birds carry ticks for 
many hundreds of miles during migration. 
Dr. Harry Hoogstraal, Field Associate of the 
Museum and medical zoologist at NAMRU 3, 
has trapped migrant birds from Equatorial 
Africa carrying larval ticks of species un- 
known in Egypt, and has succeeded in rais- 
ing the ticks to maturity. This transportation 
of ticks explains the occasional presence of 
small colonies of African ticks in southern 
Europe and, since an infected tick remains so 
for life, is an ideal agency for the transmis- 
sion of viruses. 

Although so much has been learned about 
the life histories and probable dissemination 
by birds of many viruses, the task still re- 
mains of demonstrating the actual transport 
of the diseases by infected birds or ticks. 
This must be a co-operative venture involv- 
ing virologists, entomologists and ornitholo- 
gists; birds must be trapped in large numbers 
on migration and identified, blood samples 
must be taken to determine the presence of 
antibodies from previous infection or of acute 



INDIAN ART EXHIBIT 
COMING IN AUGUST 

An exhibit entitled "Indian Art of the 
Americas" will be on display in Stanley Field 
Hall from August 1 to September 28. In- 
cluded will be art objects made during the 
last 2,500 years, and ranging in origin from 
Alaska to southern South America. This 
will be the first major exhibit in the United 
States to show Indian art of the entire hemi- 
sphere. 

The exhibit will be one of the features of 
the Festival of the Americas, which is to be 
a series of cultural events held in conjunction 
with the Third Pan American Games. The 
exhibit will include art objects of first qual- 
ity from the great Indian collections of Chi- 
cago Natural History Museum, and also 
outstanding material borrowed from eight 
of the other leading anthropology museums 
of the United States. An illustrated cata- 
logue is in preparation and will be available 
to visitors. 



Here's Haven for Children 
During Summer Vacation 

Safety — when your children are at the 
Museum you don't have to worry. 

Comfort — when the midsummer heat is 
sizzling, the Museum is one of the coolest 
places in Chicago. 

The thrills of discovery are experienced in 
roaming among one of the world's finest as- 
semblages of natural history material. 

These are the advantages for children 
whose parents utilize the facilities of the 
Museum as a haven for children to visit for 
hours, or a whole day at a time at intervals 
during the long school vacation. They were 
cited by Dr. Clifford C. Gregg, Director, in 
issuing his annual invitation when Chicago's 
public schools closed on June 26. With 49 
large exhibition halls to cover, children may 
make frequent visits without exhausting the 
Museum's potentialities for a lively day. 

viremia, and the ticks must be collected, 
identified and tested for infection. Such a 
program is being initiated this autumn by 
NAMRU 3 at a station along the north coast 
of Egypt where migrant birds from Europe ar- 
rive in tremendous numbers. Having worked 
with Harry Hoogstraal for several years, 
identifying the birds that are his tick hosts, 
I am naturally looking forward with a great 
deal of interest to the results of the program 
this fall. It is certainly to be hoped that 
enough positive evidence will be obtained of 
the transportation of viruses by birds to 
make possible an intensive study of the spe- 
cies involved. 

I cannot close without expressing my appre- 
ciation for the generous hospitality I received 
at NAMRU 3. Captain John Seal, MC, 
USN, commander of the unit, gave me every 
facility for carrying on my work. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



July, 1959 



LIGHTS GIVE MUSEUM 
NIGHT LUSTER 

THE BEAUTY of the architecture of Chi- 
cago Natural History Museum's monu- 
mental building may now be enjoyed at night. 
Exterior silhouette-lighting has been installed 
on all four sides, limning its classic outlines 
for all who pass by in automobiles or afoot. 

The new lights were installed in response 
to a program for public buildings instituted 
by Mayor Daley to make Chicago a brighter 
and more beautiful city. The lights were 
turned on in full display for the first time on 
June 16, as the culmination of a dedication 
ceremony held on the north steps of the 
Museum. Representatives of the institu- 
tions involved threw switches that succes- 
sively lighted up this building along with the 
Art Institute of Chicago, the John G. Shedd 
Aquarium, and the Chicago Park District 
Administration Building. 

The audience at the ceremony was wel- 
comed by Stanley Field, President of the 
Museum, and Dr. Clifford C. Gregg, Director. 
William L. McFetridge, Vice President of 
the Chicago Park District, presided. Other 
park commissioners, city officials, trustees 
and executives of all the museums, and rep- 
resentatives of the Chicago Association of 
Commerce and Industry participated. Music 
was furnished by the Chicago Civic Chorus 
under the direction of Dr. William Francis 
Bergmann. 

Work is currently under way to floodlight 
the Adler Planetarium, and eventually other 
Chicago structures will be lighted as the pro- 
gram for the beautification of Chicago is 
expanded. The illumination is expected to 
rival that which long has gained for Paris 
the name "City of Light." 

The lighting at this time signalizes the 
opening of Chicago's 1959 gala summer — 
the summer of the Seaway opening, the visit 
of Queen Elizabeth, the arrival of a U. S. 
Navy fleet, the International Trade Fair, 
the Festival of the Americas, and the Pan 
American Games. But the program goes 
far beyond this summer of festivities — it is 
planned that the lights will be on every night 
henceforth, in all seasons, and in all the years 
to come. 



SUMMER LECTURE-TOURS 
GIVEN TWICE DAILY 

During July and August, daily lecture- 
tour service will be expanded to a two-a-day 
program, mornings as well as afternoons. 
Although during this period there will be no 
tours on Saturdays or Sundays, visitors to 
the Museum will be welcomed during the 
regular hours, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. 

Except on Thursdays, the morning tours, 
which begin at 11 o'clock, will be devoted to 
the exhibits of a single department. All the 
afternoon tours, given at 2 o'clock, and also 
the 11 a.m. tour on Thursdays, will be gen- 



eral tours of the outstanding exhibits in all 
four departments. 

Lecturers of the Raymond Foundation 
staff conduct the tours. Following is the 
schedule for each week during July and 
August: 

Mondays: 11 a.m. — The Animal Kingdom 
2 p.m. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Tuesdays: 11 A.M. — People and Places 
2 p.m. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Wednesdays: 11 a.m. — The World of Plants 
2 p.m. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Thursdays: 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. — Highlights 
of the Exhibits 

Fridays: 11 A.M. — The Earth's Story 
2 p.m. — Highlights of the Exhibits 



STAFF NOTES 



Philip Hershkovitz, Curator of Mam- 
mals, Dr. Karl F. Koopman, recently ap- 
pointed Assistant Curator of Mammals, and 
Miss Sophie Andris, Osteologist, attended 
the meetings of the American Society of 
Mammalogists in Washington, D.C. . . . 
Loren P. Woods, Curator of Fishes, was a 
delegate to the meetings of the American 
Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists 
in San Diego, California. . . . Dr. Fritz 
Haas, Curator Emeritus of Lower Inverte- 
brates, attended the American Malacalog- 
ical Union meetings at Haverford, Pennsyl- 
vania. In late July he will begin collecting 
non-marine mollusks in the Great Smokies 
Mountains. . . . Dr. Alan Solem, Curator 
of Lower Invertebrates, is on a study tour 
of museums in San Francisco, Los Angeles, 
San Diego, Tucson, Denver and Boulder. 
He is also filling lecture engagements in the 
west. . . . George I. Ouimby, Curator of 
North American Archaeology and Ethnol- 
ogy, recently studied Upper Great Lakes 
archaeological material in the Museum of 
Anthropology at Ann Arbor, Michigan. . . . 
Allen Liss, Custodian of Collections — An- 
thropology, attended the Illinois Archaeolog- 
ical Survey meeting at Springfield. . . . Mrs. 
M. Eileen Rocourt, Associate Librarian, 
has been elected chairman of the Museum 
Division, Special Libraries Association. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month: 

Department of Botany 

From: H. R. Bennett, Chicago — 337 phan- 
erogams, Michigan; Dr. Barbara Palser, 
Chicago — 21 specimens of Ericaceae, South 
Africa 

Department of Geology 

From: Dr. Raymond Alf, Claremont, 
Calif . — 16 fossil mammals, 2 fossil reptiles, 



SUMMER ENTERTAINMENTS 
FOR CHILDREN 

The Raymond Foundation will present 
seven entertainments for children on Thurs- 
day mornings during July and August — a 
stage show, and six programs of motion pic- 
tures. The programs will be given in the 
James Simpson Theatre of the Museum, 
with two performances of each, the first at 
10 a.m., and the second, due to differences 
in the length of films, with some variations 
in hour as indicated in schedule below. 

No tickets are needed. Children are wel- 
come to come alone, accompanied by parents 
or other adults, or in organized groups. Fol- 
lowing are the dates and titles: 

July 2 — Special Magic Show 
(10 and 11 a.m.) 
A stage production, featuring International 
Magicians, and clowns 

July 9 — Davy Crockett 
(10 and 11:1^5 a.m.) 
The original Disney interpretation of "the 
King of the Wild Frontier" 

July 16 — Summer Exploration 
(10 and 11 a.m.) 
Exploring the out-of-doors; also a cartoon 

July 23 — Camping in Canada 
(10 and 11 a.m.) 
Also: Spirit of Algonquin, and a cartoon 

July 30 — Mysteries of the Sea 
(10 and 11 a.m.) 
Coral Wonderlands; also the cartoon folk- 
tale, The Fish and Fisherman 

August 6 — Saludos Amigos (Special for the 
Festival of the Americas) 

(10 and 11 a.m.) 
A Disney story of a visit to our Latin 

American neighbors south of the border; 

also a cartoon 

August 13 — Dumbo (repeated in response 
to many requests) 

(10 and 11 :S0 a.m.) 
Disney's story of a baby circus elephant 



Nebraska; Robert E. Houston, Greenville, 
Miss. — 3 fossil mammals 

Department of Zoology 

From: Miss Ivete Barbosa, Recife, Brazil 
— 50 inland shells; Rezneat M. Darnell, 
Milwaukee — collection of non-marine mol- 
lusks, Louisiana; W. E. Eigsti, Hastings, 
Neb. — a bird skin, 19 fleas, 4 ticks, Borneo 
and Nebraska; Dr. Henry Field, Coconut 
Grove, Fla. — a species of land shell, South 
Arabia; Harry Hoogstraal, Cairo, Egypt — 
55 bird skins; Frank Kovacik, Indian River 
City, Fla. — a scarab beetle; Prof. Lean-Luc 
Perret, Cameroons, West Africa — 2 frogs; 
Melvin Traylor, Winnetka, 111.— 37 land 
shells, Tripoli, Libya 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 






CHICAGO/^ /£,,- 
HISTORY To/, so jvo.8 

MUSEUM ^yw/ 4959 

/ 




Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



August, 1959 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 

THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery William V. Kahler 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen J. Roscoe Miller 

Chesser M. Campbell William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Joseph N. Field Clarence B. Randall 

Marshall Field, Jr. John G. Searle 

Stanley Field Solomon A. Smith 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Louis Ware 
John P. Wilson 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Hughston M. McBain First Vice-President 

Walther Buchen Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 

Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
Patricia McAfee Associate in Public Relations 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



MUSEUM ACQUIRES MUSEUM 

By ALAN SOLEM and 
EUGENE S. RICHARDSON, Jr.* 

NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUMS had 
their start as cabinets of miscellaneous 
specimens accumulated by individuals. Some 
of these private collections formed the nuclei 
of many of the world's foremost scientific in- 
stitutions, including the British Museum 
(Natural History). 

The instinct to collect still is present in 
mankind and, late last year, Chicago Nat- 
ural History Museum acquired a collection 
of natural history objects of such vast size 
that it must be counted a museum in itself. 
Formed by the late C. D. Nelson, for many 
years head of a biology department in a 
Grand Rapids, Michigan, high school, Mr. 
Nelson devoted most of his later years to the 
collecting and exchange of natural history 
objects. 

Items such as dried plants, Indian skele- 
tons, turtle shells, pickled crabs, Mexican 
pottery, stuffed rabbits, metal ingots, and 
arrowheads were hidden in the mass of fos- 
sils, minerals, and shells that comprised the 
bulk of the material. Over nine tons of spec- 
imens in more than 4,000 separate containers 
were removed from the house, sorted, boxed, 
and prepared for shipment to the Museum. 



* Dr. Solem is Curator of Lower Invertebrates; Dr. 
Richardson is Curator of Fossil Invertebrates. 



Seven tons of these specimens occupying 
about 700 cubic feet of space were retained 
by the Museum. 

The Division of Lower Invertebrates ac- 
quired a mass of boxes measuring 8 x 12 x 4H 
feet, which probably contains between 250,- 
000 and 300,000 shells. The Division of Fos- 
sil Invertebrates has close to 83,000 specimens 
to sort, label, identify, and catalogue. Fossil 
plants from this collection comprise perhaps 
1,400 specimens, and there is an assortment of 
more than 4,000 rock and mineral samples. 

Mr. Nelson purchased some of this mate- 
rial, and received some in exchanges with 
fellow hobbyists, but he personally collected 
a very large portion. A large bureau on his 
sun-porch, crammed with road maps, notes 
on collecting localities, and the names of hob- 
byists in every state of the union attested to 
his keen interest and future plans for col- 
lecting. 

Summer vacations were spent traveling 
and collecting. After his retirement from 
teaching twelve years ago, his summer avo- 
cation was extended throughout the year and 
included many trips to Florida and the West 
Coast of the United States. Mention almost 
any collecting locality in North America 
famed for its shells, rocks, or fossils, and 
somewhere in the Nelson collection is a box 
or two of specimens from that locality. 

Large collections of bird and mammal skins 
had previously been donated by Mr. Nel- 
son to Western Michigan University, and 
shortly before his death, he presented 66,000 
pairs of fresh-water clam shells to Michigan 
State University. Thus, the seven-ton por- 
tion now at Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum is only part of the efforts of this amaz- 
ing hobbyist. 

The basis of the shell collection was formed 
by a Detroit resident, Frederick Stearns, who 
became interested in shells during a business 
trip to Japan in 1889. In the next seven 
years, Stearns managed to accumulate 14,- 
386 species of shells (perhaps 150,000 speci- 
mens). Early in Nelson's career, he acquired 
the Stearns collection. Most of these speci- 
mens are still in the Nelson collection, in addi- 
tion to the at least 100,000 shells which 
Nelson collected personally. 

So far, only a few boxes from this collec- 
tion have been opened, and it will be several 
years before we can hope to have finished 
sorting and cataloguing this huge assortment. 
Every box contains something new to our 
collection and increases our respect for Nel- 
son's diligence. Unlike most collectors, he 
was not content with one example, but wanted 
many specimens to show variation in size, 
color, age, and sculpture. From a scientist's 
viewpoint, such series are far more valuable 
than any single specimen, no matter how 
beautiful or perfect in size and shape. 

Only a few of the 983 boxes of fossils have 
been unpacked, but particularly impressive 
are the thousands of Devonian corals, Juras- 
sic plants from Oregon, Devonian inverte- 
brates from New Mexico, and many other 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



Our cover shows a detail from a 
carved wooden feast bowl of the 
Kwakiutl Indians of Vancouver 
Island, British Columbia. The 
bowl, which is 40 inches long, is in 
the form of a human figure. The 
part shown here is 12} 2 inches high. 
This bowl belonged to a chief, who 
used it to serve food in a potlatch 
feast. Its capacity is about five 
gallons. It is included in the special 
exhibit of Indian art (see pages 3, 
4 and 5). 



specimens from famous localities. Some of 
these duplicate material already in our col- 
lection, but the duplicates can be used to ex- 
change with museums in other parts of the 
world for material which we lack. 

The finest individual specimen, a partial 
cycad trunk nearly two feet tall, has been 
gratefully accepted by the Botany Depart- 
ment and earmarked for display in the syste- 
matic botany sequence. 

Franklin Furnace in New Jersey, Crest- 
more in California, Bedford in New York, 
and the Michigan copper district are all 
names which kindle lights in the eyes of min- 
eral collectors. Nelson visited all of these 
sites, and more, in the days before amateurs 
had cleaned out the readily available deposits 
of beautiful and unusual minerals with which 
these names are associated. The many, many 
fluorescent minerals from Franklin Furnace 
are particularly welcome additions to our 
Museum. 

Besides the nearly 4,000 mineral specimens, 
there are almost 1,000 rocks, ores, geodes, 
concretions, and other geological items added 
to the collections of the Department of Ge- 
ology. 

We live in an age of compartmentalized 
knowledge, in which most people are masters 
of one tiny field of knowledge. The amazing 
Nelson collection is now split up among the 
four departments of the Museum where it 
will be studied by members of at least a 
dozen divisions, and will involve eventually 
work by at least 20 scientists and their as- 
sistants. 

In each area of knowledge we can perhaps 
make more detailed studies than were pos- 
ble for Mr. Nelson. But there is not one of 
us who will not be continually amazed that 
one man could have accomplished so much 
in so many different fields in one lifetime. 

Such breadth of knowledge was character- 
istic of the early naturalists, but with the 
vast increase in scientific knowledge it is 
rarely encountered today. It is indeed a 
privilege for Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum to have acquired the life's work of such 
an amazing person. 



August, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



PageS 



INDIAN ART OF ENTIRE WESTERN HEMISPHERE IN EXHIBIT 



By DONALD COLLIER 

CURATOR OF SOUTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 
AND ETHNOLOGY 

INDIAN ART OF THE AMERICAS, a 
special exhibit celebrating the Festival of 
the Americas and the Third Pan American 
Games, will be on display in Stanley Field 
Hall from August 1 to September 28. This 
will be the first major exhibit in this or any 
other museum in the United States to cover 
the ancient and recent Indian art of the 
entire western hemisphere. The objects dis- 
played were selected by the writer; the 
exhibit was designed by Daniel Brenner, 
well-known Chicago architect. 

The purpose of the exhibit is to present 
outstanding examples of the major art styles 
of the last 2,500 years and to demonstrate 
the richness and variety of Indian art. More 
than half of the 106 objects in the exhibit 
were chosen from this Museum's great col- 
lection of Indian art. The remainder were 
generously loaned by the following museums 
and individuals: The American Museum of 
Natural History, New York; A. G. Atwater, 
Chicago; The Brooklyn Museum; Milwaukee 
Public Museum; Museum of the American 
Indian, Heye Foundation, New York; The 
Museum of Primitive Art, New York; the 
estate of Dr. Matthew Taubenhaus, Chicago; 
Textile Museum, Washington, D. C; The 
University Museum, Philadelphia; United 
States National Museum (Smithsonian 
Institution), Washington, D. C. 

Examples of pieces in the exhibit are 
shown on the cover and on pages 4 and 5. 
A wide variety of mediums is included — 
stone and ceramic sculpture; carvings in 
stone, wood, bone, ivory, and shell; orna- 
ments of gold, silver, and bronze; textiles; 
and featherwork. The ceramic vessels, many 
of which are in effigy form, are decorated by 
modeling, carving, incising, and painting. 
Some of the gold ornaments are cut, ham- 
mered and soldered; others are cast by the 
lost-wax technique. 

COLOR AND TEXTURE CONTRASTS 

Indian artists often combined several ma- 
terials in a single sculpture to achieve con- 
trasts of color, texture, and light-reflecting 
properties. Several examples of this process 
are included in the exhibit. A Tlingit head- 
dress ornament is carved from wood, inlaid 
with abalone shell, and overlaid with brass. 
Both the abalone and the brass give brilliant 
color contrast and reflect light from various 
angles. A Peruvian mummy mask of wood 
is painted, has inlaid eyes of blue and white 
shell, and is furnished with a woven turban 
studded with gold bangles and topped by a 
gold plume. A statue of an Aztec god is 
carved from lava rock and painted red. The 
god's heart is represented by a piece of 
glossy obsidian the size of a hen's egg set 
into the chest. An Inca llama figurine of 
silver wears a silver-studded "saddle" blanket 



Fifteen pictures of Indian art 
masterpieces will be found on 
pages 4 and 5. 



inlaid with red pigment and bordered with a 
crimped ribbon of gold. 

Included in the exhibit are art objects of 
such primitive groups as the Eskimos, the 
Indians of British Columbia, the Crow 
Indians of Montana, the prehistoric Pueblo 
Indians, the ancient Hopewell Indians and 




Courtesy U. S. National Museum 

Engraving on conch shell, Spiro culture. 

the Middle Mississippi Indians of the Middle 
West, and the Indians of the Amazon Basin. 
The two Hopewell specimens, which are 
figures of women exquisitely modeled in 
clay, come from the Knight Mounds in 
Illinois. The art of such civilized groups as 
the Mayas and Aztecs of Mexico and the 
Mochicas and Incas of Peru is well repre- 
sented, and several rare examples of the 
indigenous art of the West Indies are shown. 
Many of the art objects depict religious 
ideas or were designed to be used in religious 
rituals or magical practices. For example, 
the Eskimo mask in the exhibit was worn 
by a shaman, and the Tlingit salmon-fishing 
charm, which depicts a bear holding a salmon 
in its mouth, was placed on stilts in the 
middle of a river to increase the salmon run. 
The Crow painted shield, which possessed 
magical properties, shows a grizzly bear 
facing a shower of bullets. The design was 
revealed to the owner in a vision, and as 
long as he carried the shield in battle he 
was safe from bullets. 

CAT AND SERPENT DEITIES 

Much of the art of the civilized societies 
of Mexico and Peru depicts deities or motifs 
derived from religious concepts. The two 
most important beings in the religion and 
art of these two areas are a feline deity, 



usually a puma or a jaguar, and a serpent 
deity, shown as a rattlesnake or the mythical 
feathered serpent in Mexico, and as other 
kinds of snakes in the Andes. Both these 
beings were associated in varying ways with 
fertility and rain, and sometimes feline and 
ophidian characteristics were combined in 
the same deity. The great variety of ways 
of depicting these two motifs is well illus- 
trated in the exhibit. 

In size the objects range from a 14}^-foot 
male figure of wood, which served as a house 
post of a Salish chief in British Columbia, 
to a Maya jade head 2)^ inches high. 

The Pan American countries represented 
in the exhibit are the United States, Canada, 
Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, 
Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, 
Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Jamaica, 
Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. 

A catalogue, Indian Art of the Americas, 
has been prepared to accompany the exhibit 
and is on sale at the Museum. It includes 
an introduction to Indian art, descriptions 
of the pieces in the exhibit, and 68 illus- 
trations. 

The exhibit owes much of its interest to 
the splendid objects loaned by the museums 
mentioned above. It could not have been 
brought to completion without the whole- 
hearted co-operation and skillful help of 
many individuals in various departments 
and divisions of this Museum. 



PACIFIC PICTURE BOOK 
OFFERED FREE 

The June issue of the WFMT Fine Arts 
Guide, a monthly magazine devoted to 
Chicago cultural activities, art features, and 
the programming of Radio Station WFMT, 
included a series of photographs of selected 
specimens from the newly acquired Fuller 
Collection of Archaeological and Ethnological 
Materials from the South Seas. Many of the 
specimens illustrated are included in the 
Panorama of the Pacific temporary exhibit 
of the Fuller Collection which has been 
extended for an additional period of 60 
days. It may be viewed in Albert W. Harris 
Hall (Hall 18) of the Museum, and copies 
of the Fine Arts Guide are available free of 
charge upon request at the Museum Book 
Shop. 



Whooping Cranes Thriving 

The whooping cranes' status improves, 
according to data from Ottawa, Canada. 
Thirteen years ago there were only 20 alive; 
last year there were 31, as follows: 26 wild 
birds, including four young, and five zoo 
birds including two young. This year there 
are at least 34, as follows: 28 wild birds, 
including two young; and six zoo birds, 
including one young. 






1. Stone rattlesnake, Aztec 



2. Chibcha gold figurines, Colombia 



3. Hopewell figure 





MASTER} 

SOME of the objects in the 
Immediately to the left (N i 
chihuilicue, goddess of runnin i 
The Hopewell clay figurine (No i 
jaguar form (No. 13) from Peri 

The objects illustrated are fr 

of Nos. 3, 6 and 13, which ar> i 

Natural History, New York, arls 

6 and 13, courtesy American Museum and Universal 

illustrated catalogue of the exhibition is available i 



15. Gold pendant 



7. Coffin front, Haida, British Columbia 



9. Painted shield, Crow, Montana 



10. Aztec figure 




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5. Kwakiutl mask, British Columbia 



6. Negative-painted jar, Recuay, Peru 



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ECES OF INDIAN ART 



irent exhibit "Indian Art of the Americas" are shown on these pages. 
5) is a Tolima style pendant of gold from Colombia. No. 4 shows Chal- 
iter. The gold figures shown in No. 2 were cast by the lost-wax process, 
was found in Illinois and dates from about 200 B.C. The stone bowl in 
tes from about 800 B.C. 

i the collection of Chicago Natural History Museum, with the exception 
spectively from Milwaukee Public Museum, the American Museum of 
ie|University Museum, Philadelphia. The photographs (except photos 
luseum) were made in the Museum's Division of Photography. A fully 
$1.00 postpaid. 




8. Chibcha figure, Colombia 



13. Stone jaguar bowl, Chavin, Peru 



14. Chimu vase, Peru 






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Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



August, 1959 



PITY POOR PIGEON: HOST TO A COMMUNITY 



By AUSTIN L. RAND 

CHIEF CURATOR OF ZOOLOGY 

A PIGEON flying by may seem to be all 
alone, but the chances are it is really 
a whole community. The bird is like an is- 
land with its own flora and fauna, carrying 
at least some of the 70 or so plants and ani- 
mals that have been recorded as living on or 
in the domestic pigeon. These include two 
species of ticks, eight of mites, a fly, a bug, 
six lice, nine roundworms, eighteen tape 
worms, three flukes, eight protozoans, two 
fungi, nine bacteria, four viruses, and doubt- 
lessly many others. 

Ignoring the smallest microscopic animals 
and plants, the number of individuals of some 
of the larger animals (the flies and ticks may 
be as large as a housefly, and the tapeworms 




several feet long) are impressive. A thou- 
sand tapeworms have been found in the in- 
testines of a single pigeon, 30 pigeon flies 
among the feathers of a single bird, and 20 
bird lice on a single feather. 

Just as the animals on an island divide the 
living space among themselves (birds in the 
trees, rabbits on the ground, moles burrow- 
ing, and fish in the streams), so do the ani- 
mals and plants on the pigeon divide the 
living space. Among the feathers are flies 
and lice; on the skin, ticks and mites; bur- 
rowing into and under the skin, mites; under 
the eyelids, roundworms (eye worms) ; in air 
passages, mites, roundworms, and fungi; in 
the intestines, tapeworms, roundworms, pro- 
tozoans and bacteria; in the blood stream, 
roundworms (filaria), protozoans and viruses; 
in the tissues, roundworms; and in the brain, 
viruses. 

Even with animals living among the feath- 
ers on birds, some occupy special habitats. 
Some broad, round lice live on body feathers; 
some longer, more slender ones prefer the 
head or wings; some mites prefer to live on 
the quills, and some very small lice and mites 
seem to prefer to drill a hole in the shaft and 



live inside it. Some roundworm members of 
a bird community do not live out their life 
span in the same part of the bird. Their 
peregrinations are probably something like 
this: the egg, swallowed by the bird, hatches 
in the intestine where the adult life of the 
worm is spent. However, it first spends ten 
days traveling. First penetrating the wall 
of the intestine, the young worm is caught 
up in the bloodstream and swept into the 
liver, thence to the lungs and heart. Finally 
it burrows from the lungs to the windpipe 
and finally to the gullet, whence the route is 
prosaic, via the alimentary tract to its adult 
habitat, the intestines. 

The food of the different members of this 
community is as various as their form. Flies 
and ticks, some mites, and some lice may 
suck blood; some lice 
may eat downy parts 
of feathers; some mites, 
living inside quills, 
may feed on the pith 
found there, others 
may eat scurf and skin 
debris; worms in the 
intestines lie in a bath 
of partly digested bird 
food and absorb it 
through their body 
wall; some round- 
worms (filaria) and 
protozoans may feed 
on the blood. 

Probably all birds 
support sizable com- 
munities of other ani- 
mals, and of course 
there is the question of 
how they arrive on the 
"bird island." Some, like lice, undoubtedly 
are handed down by parent to offspring when 
the adults are brooding, through contact. 
The antiquity of some of these heirlooms 
may be judged by the fact that a species of 
louse may be found on only one species of 
bird. The passenger pigeon, for example, 
had an endemic louse, and when the last 
passenger pigeon died, the last of this spe- 
cies of louse died with it. 

There are also strange and complicated 
life histories tied up with colonizing. Some 
roundworms simply lay great numbers of 
eggs, as many as 12,000 a day, and depend 
on a few of them being swallowed by the 
right kind of bird. But with some flukes, the 
life cycle is very complicated. Male and fe- 
male organs may be present in the same indi- 
vidual and self-fertilization is the rule, thus 
avoiding the necessity of two animals finding 
each other in the dark labyrinth of the bird's 
insides where they live. The eggs, passed 
out by the bird, in some species may be 
eaten by a snail where the young passes part 
of its life. Then the snail may be eaten by 
a fish, where the fluke passes more of its life, 
and finally the fish is eaten by a bird, in 



whose body the worms pass their adult life. 

Yet other animals, like the one-celled ani- 
mals that cause malaria, some roundworms 
(filaria), and some viruses, are carried by 
such vehicles as mosquitoes, which receive 
them when they bite one bird, and pass them 
on accidentally to the next bird they bite. 

This of course brings our pigeon back into 
perspective. As the filaria in the blood 
stream is a tiny unit in the bird-island-com- 
munity, so the pigeon is a small unit in a 
larger community. In this community it 
eats seeds, gives pleasure to some people who 
like to feed peanuts to pigeons on elevated 
railway stations; adds to the supply of poul- 
try on the market; is the main actor in pigeon 
racing; is the main food of duck hawks win- 
tering in cities; and in the Egyptian Delta is 
one of the reservoirs of the virus which causes 
"West Nile Fever." 

Such communities as that outlined for a 
pigeon of a city street are not restricted to 
birds, of course. Mammals, fish, snails and 
worms all may have other, smaller animals 
living on or in them. Each animal is a com- 
munity in itself. Even the pigeon fly may 
have a mite on it, and the mite in its turn 
may carry bacteria. 

An ideal, balanced community would exist 
happily, each species not interfering unduly 
with other species, though individuals must 
continually go to the wall. A pendulum, 
however, is a better comparison than a bal- 
ance when thinking of populations; and even 
then, if you take the long view, there are al- 
ways species that lose out, no matter if they 
are as big as dinosaurs or have teeth as long 
as a sabre-toothed tiger. There is always 
something getting out of balance. Often it 
has to do with a new invasion of an animal 
or plant, as the chestnut blight from Asia 
that wiped out the American chestnut; the 
rabbits introduced on Laysan Island that 
disrupted the whole community of nesting 
birds by eating up all the vegetation; the 
African giant snail in the Pacific islands; and 
the blood-destroying protozoan in Brazil 
which caused a malaria outbreak that killed 
thousands of people when certain mosqui- 
toes were introduced from Africa. 

Such widespread devastation by one ani- 
mal or plant "kills the goose that lays the 
golden egg" for the invader finally suffers 
from food shortage. That natural checks 
and controls may develop is nowhere better 
illustrated than by the Australian cottony 
cushion scale insect which, introduced into 
California about 1868, threatened the citrus 
industry, but was brought under control by 
introducing its counter-pest, an Australian 
ladybird beetle. 

Such intricacies are fascinating studies, 
showing the interdependence of living things. 
But no one biologist can be expected to know 
how to classify and name all these diverse 
organisms — which is preliminary to talking 
about them — let alone have the time to work 
out all their life histories. Thus the studies 
are co-operative and piecemeal. The bird 



August, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



specialist sends the lice from a bird to a louse 
specialist; the specialist in ticks sends the 
birds from which his ticks came to an orni- 
thologist for identification. With the recog- 
nition of the role that some of the units of 
these communities play in spreading and 
causing human disease, public health and 
tropical medicine units have devoted much 
time of many people to studying these prob- 
lems, but these people, too, depend on the 
work of museum specialists, or develop their 
own specialists to work with series of reference 
specimens, in effect museum-type collections. 

The personnel of Chicago Natural History 
Museum have not only studied the classifica- 
tion of many animals, great and small, in 
which they are specialists, but have also 
helped specialists in other groups and have 
been helped by them. They have also stud- 
ied the relations of some animals to their en- 
vironment, whether it be the trees and the 
weather, neighbors of similar size and habits, 
or host-parasite relationships. 

Museum scientists have participated in 
many unusual activities. They have de- 
scribed a new lizard from the stomach of an 
African goshawk; described how cows help 
a Central American cuckoo catch grasshop- 
pers; and evaluated the relationship of fla- 
mingoes in view of their lice being more like 
those of geese and ducks, rather than those 
of storks and herons. They have also ad- 
vised on bats' share in the recent cases of 
rabies in the United States; commented on 
why birds wipe ants on their feathers; and 
helped with the demonstration that coloniza- 
tion of African ticks in Europe may be 
brought about by the agency of migrating 
birds. With a student of viruses they have 
discussed how a recently discovered Indian 
virus, which affects men and monkeys, oc- 
curs in birds, and is transferred by ticks, may 
have been introduced into India from Rus- 
sian points to the north by migrating birds, 
either in their bloodstream or in ticks they 
carried. 



Books 



SEA TREASURE. A Guide to Shell 
Collecting. By Kathleen Yerger John- 
stone. Houghton Mifflin Co., 1957. 
247 pages. 8 color plates, numerous line 
drawings. $4. 

Nearly every person who visits the sea- 
shore picks up a few shells on the beach and 
brings them home as vacation mementos. 
Usually the interest is fleeting and the beach- 
worn shells or curio-shop souvenirs gather 
dust on the mantle or are buried in a small 
box 'way back in an overcrowded attic. 
Yet the beautiful forms, colors, and in- 
tricate ornamentation of seashells some- 
times kindle a curiosity that rapidly grows 
into a desire to have more and more kinds, 



bigger and better specimens, and rare 
species that "Mr. Jones" doesn't have. 
Many people are bitten by the "shell bug." 
Some pass beyond the "stamp-collecting" 
stage and through their interest in the shell 
as part of a living organism become very 
competent amateur naturalists. If infected 
early enough, professional biologists may 
even result from "shell fever" (the author 
of this review is an example). 

The gaps between the levels of interest 
are large and bridged but slowly. Recent 
years have produced a revival of interest 
in shell-collecting as a hobby, and many 
excellent books have been published that 
aid the collector in identifying his specimens. 
For the person with some background in- 
formation and a definite interest, these 
books offer excellent summaries of the 
common species and are often instrumental 
in converting an admirer of beautiful shells 
into a serious amateur student of mollusks. 

The biggest gap, and the hardest one to 
cross, is that between the first flicker of 
interest and the first attempt to make 
a collection of shells. The identification 
manuals, with their imposing scientific 
names and pictures of a bewildering variety 
of shells, are confusing to the novice and 
may even discourage a potential hobbyist. 
There has long been a great need for an 
introduction to shell-collecting that at- 
tempts to explain general principles and 
provides guidance for the person with an 
interest but no knowledge. Sea Treasure 
does this more than adequately. Written in 
a very simple style, it can be understood by 
an intelligent nine- or ten-year-old; yet it 
offers enough information to be of value to 
the new conchologist of sixty-five. Few 
books are at all comparable. R. Tucker 
Abbott's Introducing Sea Shells is aimed at 
a higher level of interest and might serve as 
the next step for a budding conchologist. 
The only other general introduction, A. 
Hyatt Verrill's Handbook for Shell Collectors, 
contains many inaccuracies and is not 
recommended. 

Besides the expected summaries on how 
and where to collect shells and the mechanics 
of housing, cleaning, and identifying a shell 
collection, Sea Treasure adds several very 
useful features. 

From the viewpoint of a scientist, three 
items are extremely welcome. The emphasis 
on the shell as part of a living animal 
(Chapters 5 and 6) is a long overdue subject 
for consideration in popular books on shells. 
Few people realize that conservation of good 
localities is as important to other shell 
collectors as the fish-and-game laws are to 
sportsmen (Chapter 10, "Don't be a Pig"). 
And the advice on the care and handling of 
museums by the amateur (pp. 109-111) 
may help alleviate one of our biggest head- 
aches as professional malacologists. 

Sea Treasure is not an identification 
manual, and the illustrations were chosen 



SPECIAL EXHIBITS 

The following special exhibits are sched- 
uled for the summer months: 

Panorama of the Pacific, through August 
31, Albert W. Harris Hall (Hall 18). Se- 
lected material from the Fuller Collection 
of South Seas artifacts. 

The Music Makers — Exotic Musical 
Instruments of the World. Through 
August 31, Edward E. and Emma B. Ayer 
Hall (Hall 2). 

Indian Art of the Americas, August 1- 
September 28, Stanley Field Hall. Select- 
ed art objects from the North, Central, 
and South American collections of this and 
other leading museums. The exhibit co- 
ordinates with Chicago's Festival of the 
Americas in connection with the Pan 
American Games. 



to show unusual or particularly beautiful 
shells, thus serving to lure the reader 
further. The black-and-white drawings are 
excellent, but the many color-figures suffer 
from an "artistic" treatment. While 
generally accurate, the intensified coloration 
and surface "sheen" of the pictures may 
make the actual specimens seem dull and 
unattractive by comparison. 

For the person who knows nothing about 
shells and wishes to learn, Sea Treasure is 
unhesitatingly recommended. As a museum 
scientist who receives many requests for 
general information on how to collect shells, 
I welcome Sea Treasure as a useful and 
accurate aid to help answer these questions. 

Alan Solem 
Curator, Lower Invertebrates 



Technical Publications 

The following technical publications were 
issued recently by the Museum: 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 36, No. 4. Catalogue 
of Type Specimens of Reptiles and 
Amphibians in Chicago Natural History 
Museum. By Hymen Marx. 90 pages. 
$1.25. 

Fieldiana: Anthropology, Vol. 36, No. 8. 
The Old Copper Culture and the Keweenaw 
Waterway. By George I. Quimby and 
Albert C. Spaulding. 13 pages, 7 illus- 
trations. 40c. 

Fieldiana: Anthropology, Vol. 36, No. 9. 
Lizard Hunts on the North Coast of Peru. 
By Allan R. Holmberg. 18 pages, 15 illus- 
trations. 75c. 

Fieldiana: Botany, Vol. 29, No. 4. Mono- 
graph of the Genus Russella (Scrophularia- 
ceae). By Margery C. Carlson. 70 pages, 
7 illustrations, 3 maps. $1.50. 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 39, No. 11. The 
Races of the Shrike Lanius validirostris. 
By Austin L. Rand and D. S. Rabor. 
2 pages. 10c. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



August, 1959 



TWO MORE MOVIES 
FOR CHILDREN 

The two final programs in the Raymond 
Foundation's summer series of free movie 
programs will be given on the mornings of 
the first two Thursdays in August. The 
shows are presented in the James Simpson 
Theatre of the Museum, and two perform- 
ances of each are offered. No tickets are 
needed. Children are welcome to come alone, 
accompanied by parents or other adults, or 
in organized groups. 

The remaining dates and titles are: 

August 6— Saludos Amigos (Special for the 
Festival of the Americas) 

(10 and 11 a.m.) 
A Disney story of a visit to our Latin 

American neighbors south of the border; 

also a cartoon 

August 13 — Dumbo (repeated in response 
to many requests) 

(.10 and 11:30 a.m.) 
Disney's story of a baby circus elephant 



Children's "Fishing" to End 

August is the last month of "Goin' 
Fishin'," the summer Museum Journey for 
children. The Journey may be made any 
day. Instructions are given to participating 
children at either Museum entrance. 

Beginning September 1, and continuing 
through November 30, a new Journey, 
"Giant Plants," will be offered. Details will 
appear in the next Bulletin. 

Children successfully completing four 
Journeys on different subjects are designated 
Museum Travelers. After eight Journeys 
they receive awards as Museum Adventurers; 
after twelve they become Museum Explorers. 
After sixteen Journeys they become eligible 
for a final project and admission to a 
Museum Club. 



Staff Notes 



William D. Turnbull, Assistant Curator 
of Fossil Mammals, and Ronald J. Lambert, 
Preparator of Fossils, have completed their 
season's paleontological field work in 
Washakie Basin, Wyoming, and returned 
with their fossil collections. . . . Mrs. Meta 
P. Howell, Librarian, attended the recent 
meetings of the American Library Associa- 
tion in Washington, D. C. . . . Dr. Roland 
W. Force, Curator of Oceanic Archaeology 
and Ethnology, attended a meeting in New 
York last month of the Subcommittee on 
Man preparing for the Century 21 Exposi- 
tion to be held in Seattle in 1961. Dr. Force 
also made study visits to the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, the 
Brooklyn Museum, and the Peabody Museum 
in Salem, Massachusetts. 



Save Elms, Lose Birds 

The summer robin population on the 
Michigan State University's North Campus, 
East Lansing, decreased from 185 pairs in 
1954, to three adults in 1958, due to inten- 
sive spraying to control elm bark beetles 
and to control mosquitos. The poison is 
accumulative, according to Prof. G. J. 
Wallace. 

Audubon Magazine, Jan.-Feb., 1959 



NEW MEMBERS 

(June 16 to July 16) 

Associate Members 

Edward C. Becker, George L. Briggs, L. 
B. Buchanan, George A. Duclos, James H. 
Dunbar, Jr., Winston Elting, Rogers 
Follansbee, Raphael N. Friedman, Fred W. 
German, Frank G. Gillett, Howard E. Green, 
David J. Harris, A. J. Jacobson, Mrs. John 
Andrews King, R. H. Lamberton, Robert 
J. Ley, Donald MacArthur, John T. Moss, 
Gilbert H. Scribner, Jr., Henry Shapiro, 
William M. Spencer, Robert D. Stuart, Jr., 
Maxfield Weisbrod, Mrs. W. R. Zitzewitz 

Sustaining Members 

Milton Searle Carstens, John V. Dodge, 
Donald K. Keith, C. Virgil Martin 

Annual Members 

Mrs. Fred Almond, Gilbert Altschul, Mrs. 
Frank R. Anderson, Mrs. Stanley D. 
Anderson, John W. Baird, Dr. Knowlton E. 
Barber, Frank Benestante, James Brown, 
IV, Edwin Butterfield, Thomas M. Clarke, 
Mrs. Robert E. Cleveland, Maurice W. 
Coburn, Louis L. Cohen, Mrs. B. J. Cohn, 
George D. Crowley, J. Edgar Daniels, James 
N. Davis, Merle S. Deardorff, Darrell D. 
Decker, Dr. Willis G. Diffenbaugh, John J. 
Donovan, Earl S. Ebers, Jr., J. E. Eddy, 
E. A. Ederer, Mrs. John K. Edmunds, 
Walton F. Ehren, Mrs. Clarence E. Ellison, 
Reverend Michael Fourcade, S. I., Mrs. 
Anthony Giacobe, Lee R. Gignilliat, Jr., 
A. J. Goldsmith, Miss Myrene Gray, Arthur 
G. Hailand, Mrs. Joseph Halla, Jr., F. W. 
Hawley, Jr., Russell N. Head, Jack Heeren, 
Irvin E. Houck, Mrs. J. Roy Hubbart, Mrs. 
Fred E. Hummel, Melvin Kanter, Alvin L. 
Kaplan, John F. Kelley, John E. Kelly, Jr., 
Paul C. Kjelstrom, D. M. LeHockey, Brian 
Charles LeMauk, Bennett S. Levy, Fred G. 
Litsinger, Dr. Audley M. Mackel, Dr. Adolph 
M. Mailer, Dr. Frank P. Mangan, Dr. 
Philip Mann, Miss Ruth S. Moore, John 
Mullin Naghten, Dr. Thomas J. Naughton, 
Knute Nelson, Lincoln K. Nelson, Leo 
Newcombe, Dr. Joshua Oden, Dr. Ignacio 
Odiaga, Richard J. Penner, Mrs. Charles H. 
Percy, Mrs. James A. Rahl, Eugene Riegler, 
N. H. Rudd, Bernard Sachar, Benjamin I. 
Simpson, Mrs. Ernest Skaff, Taylor G. 
Soper, T. R. Stahl, William P. Sutter, 
Charles Taub, Joseph A. Tecson, Joseph D. 
Teitelbaum, Parker W. Thomas, Miss 
Dorothy Turck, Mrs. James T. Venerable, 
Donald K. Weiser, Robert A. Wilbrandt, 
Eugene A. Wilhelm, John H. Willmarth, 
Robert H. Wilson, Marvin J. Wolfson, Glenn 
Wray, Miss Karyl Yost 



SUMMER LECTURE-TOURS 
GIVEN TWICE DAILY 

During August, daily lecture-tour service 
will be continued on a two-a-day schedule, 
mornings as well as afternoons, as in July. 
Although during this period there will be no 
tours on Saturdays or Sundays, visitors to 
the Museum will be welcomed during the 
regular hours, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. 

Except on Thursdays, the morning tours, 
which begin at 11 o'clock, will be devoted to 
the exhibits of a single department. All the 
afternoon tours, given at 2 o'clock, and also 
the 11 a.m. tour on Thursdays, will be gen- 
eral tours of the outstanding exhibits in all 
four departments. 

Lecturers of the Raymond Foundation 
staff conduct the tours. Following is the 
schedule for each week during August: 

Mondays: 11 a.m. — The Animal Kingdom 
2 p.m. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Tuesdays: 11 A.M. — People and Places 
2 p.m. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Wednesdays: 11 A.M. — The World of Plants 
2 P.M. — Highlights of the Exhibits 

Thursdays: 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. — Highlights 
of the Exhibits 

Fridays: 11 A.M. — The Earth's Story 
2 p.m.— Highlights of the Exhibits 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month: 

Department of Botany 

From: Dr. E. E. Sherff, Hastings, Mich.— 
35 phanerogams, Hawaii; C. A. Sylvester, 
Evanston, 111. — 81 phanerogams 

Department of Geology 

From: Dr. Eigel Nielsen, Copenhagen, 
Denmark — cast of Eocene turtle skull 

Department of Zoology 

From: Miss Peggy Blake, Evanston, 111.— 
a bird skin; British Museum (Natural His- 
tory), London— 219 reprints of publications 
on mammals; Norman R. French, Idaho 
Falls, Ida.— 7 bird skins, a marmoset, 
Ecudaor; C. E. Hoger, St. Louis— 6 land 
shells, Illinois; Harry Hoogstraal, Cairo, 
Egypt — 107 mammals, a frog, 33 lizards, 52 
snakes; Karl Plath, Oak Park, 111.— a bird 
skin, Philippines; Scripps Institution, La 
Jolla, Calif. — 71 fish specimens, Mexico; 
Dr. Fritz Zumpt, Johannesburg, South Africa 
— 4 mammal skins, a mammal skull, 
Mozambique and Southwest Africa 



Visitors deeply interested in subjects 
covered by Museum exhibits are welcome to 
seek further information by consulting books 
in the Museum's reference library where 
135,000 volumes, one of the largest collec- 
tions in the specialized fields of natural 
history, are available. 



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Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



September, 1959 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Ishaii 

Sekei.l L. Avery William V. Kahler 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen J. Rosooe Miller 

Chesser M. Campbell William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Joseph N. Field Clarence B. Randall 

Marshall Field, Jr. John G. Searle 

Stanley Field Solomon A. Smith 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Louis Ware 

John P. Wilson* 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Hughston M. McBain First Vice-President 

Walther Buchen Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

* Deceased July 26, 1959 



THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sh ah at K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
Patricia McAfee Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



RECEPTION AT MUSEUM 

OPENS AMERICAS FESTIVAL 

The opening on July 30 of the special ex- 
hibit, Indian Art of the Americas, in Stanley 
Field Hall, at a preview for Members of the 
Museum and other invited guests, proved to 
be one of the liveliest and most successful 
evening events ever staged in the Museum. 

It was not only a Museum event, but the 
official inaugural of Chicago's Festival of the 
Americas for cultural exchanges between all 
the nations of the western hemisphere in the 
fields of painting, sculpture, music, ballet 
and drama — a prelude to the Pan American 
Games. 

Preceding the preview of the Museum ex- 
hibit, the Women's Committee for the Pan 
American Games entertained some 400 guests 
at a gala international dinner party in the 
dining rooms of the Museum. Present were 
Chicago civic, artistic, and business leaders, 
and the consular corps not only of Pan Amer- 
ican countries but also the representatives of 
nations of Europe, Asia, Africa and elsewhere. 
A message from President Eisenhower to the 
assemblage was read by Mayor Daley. The 
dinner was followed by a reception in Stanley 
Field Hall. The Mayor and Mrs. Daley 
headed the reception line of distinguished 
persons. 



At the same time the Museum was host 
to its membership, who participated in the 
preview of the exhibit and were served re- 
freshments. In all, 1,387 persons attended 
the evening's festivities. 

Through the courtesy of Mrs. J. Dennis 
Freund, a concert of chamber music was per- 
formed in the James Simpson Theatre by 
members of the Grant Park Symphony 
Orchestra, with Thor Johnson conducting. 
Highlight of the program was the world pre- 
miere of a new composition with an American 
Indian motif, the Concerto for Oboe and 
Strings, Opus 87, by Dr. Jack Frederick 
Kilpatrick, authority on American Indian 
Music. 

The 50 or more members of the Women's 
Committee whose planning, hard work, and 
sharing of expenses contributed tremendously 
to the success of the event co-ordinated their 
efforts through Mrs. Frederick W. Specht, 
chairman, Mrs. O. A. Jackson and Mrs. A. D. 
Plamondon, Jr., co-chairmen. The respon- 
sibilities for the myriad chores connected 
with the occasion were divided between sev- 
eral subcommittees. 

Indian Art of the Americas will remain on 
exhibition in Stanley Field Hall through 
October 28. The first major exhibit in the 
United States to cover ancient and recent 
Indian art of the entire western hemisphere, 
its time scope is the last 2,500 years, and its 
geographic scope from Alaska to southern 
South America. A detailed description by 
Dr. Donald Collier, Curator of South Amer- 
ican Archaeology and Ethnology, together 
with a two-page layout of pictures appeared 
in the August Bulletin. Copies of an illus- 
trated catalogue compiled by Dr. Collier are 
still available from the Museum at $1 post- 
paid. 



STAFF NOTES 

Albert W. Forslev, Associate Curator of 
Mineralogy, will leave early in September on 
a mineral collecting expedition to the copper 
mining districts of New Mexico and Arizona, 
and the borax deposit of the Death Valley 
region of California. . . . Dr. Robert H. 
Denison, Curator of Fossil Fishes, and 
Orville L. Gilpin, Chief Preparator of Fos- 
sils, are collecting Devonian fish specimens 
in Wyoming, Idaho, and the Canadian prov- 
ince of Alberta. . . . Dr. John Thieret, 
Curator of Economic Botany, is engaged in 
field work in the Great Slave Lake and far 
northern Great Plains regions of Canada. 
. . . Dr. Theodore Just, Chief Curator of 
Botany, attended the 9th International Bo- 
tanical Congress in Montreal last month. 
He presented a paper on Cycadaceae at a 
meeting of the Paleobotanical Section. . . . 
George I. Quimby, Curator of North Amer- 
ican Archaeology and Ethnology, has been 
elected a Fellow of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science. . . . Dr. 
Donald Collier, Curator of South American 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



Shown on our cover is a view of 
part of a new diorama recently in- 
stalled in Hall 8. The scene is the 
Great Market in the Aztec capital, 
now Mexico City, shortly before 
the arrival of Cortez. In the fore- 
ground are seen fresh fish being 
unloaded from a dugout canoe, 
and the fruit and vegetable sec- 
tion. Farther back are jars of 
honey, sacks of ground chocolate, 
and live turkeys and dogs. Behind 
the market is the great pyramid 
of Tlatelolco, and a snow-covered 
volcano is seen in the distance. 
Further details are given on page 3. 



Archaeology and Ethnology, participated as 
a member of a panel discussion of the Fes- 
tival of the Americas on "The American 
Scene" television program over Station 
WNBQ (Channel 5) on August 16. He gave 
a commentary on the current special exhibit, 
"Indian Art of the Americas," and showed 
illustrative material. . . . D. Dwight Davis, 
Curator of Vertebrate Anatomy, recently 
lectured on his Malayan exploration for 
members of the Kennicott Club. 



JOHN P. WILSON 

1877-1959 

With deep regret, the Museum learned of 
the death at Charlevoix, Michigan, on July 26 
of John P. Wilson, a Trustee of the Museum. 
Mr. Wilson was elected to the Board of Trus- 
tees in 1932, and since 1933 had served as a 
member both of the 
Finance Committee 
and the Executive 
Committee. 

Mr. Wilson was an 
outstanding Chicago- 
an. He was senior 
partner of Wilson and 
Mcllvaine, attorneys, 
and had served as a 
director of Marshall 
Field and Company, 
International Harves- 
ter Company, The John P. Wilson 
First National Bank 

of Chicago, The United States Trust Com- 
pany of New York, and the General Electric 
Company. He gave generously of his time 
and money for the benefit of others, and 
served as a member of the Board of Trustees 
of the University of Chicago, the Children's 
Memorial Hospital, and the Newberry 
Library. 

His wise counsel and outstanding service 
to the Museum over a period of more than a 
quarter of a century are deeply appreciated. 
He will be greatly missed. 




September, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



PageS 



NEW AZTEC DIORAMA COMPLETES MESOAMERICAN HALL 



By DONALD COLLIER 

CURATOR OF SOUTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 
AND ETHNOLOGY 

THE REINSTALLATION of Hall 8 (An- 
cient and Modern Indians of Mexico and 
Central America) was completed recently 
with the opening of a diorama showing Aztec 
life. The scene is the Great Market at Tla- 




WATERWAYS IMPORTANT THEN, TOO 

Dugout canoes landing at this canal terminal have brought Iresh fish and dry 

goods direct to market. 



telolco in a.d. 1515, nearly five years before 
the arrival of Cortez. Tlatelolco and Tenoch- 
titlan were twin cities forming the Aztec 
capital, which today is Mexico City, the cap- 
ital of Mexico. 

The Aztec market exhibit was created by 
Dioramist Alfred Lee Rowell. It is one of 
the most elaborate, beautiful, and informa- 
tive of the remarkable series of dioramas 
depicting Indian life that Mr. Rowell has 
constructed for the Museum during the past 
eighteen years. The series includes ten dio- 
ramas dealing with Indian groups in the 
United States, two with the Mayas, one with 
the Aztecs, and one with the Incas of Peru. 

As we approach the Aztec diorama we see 
a great square thronged with people and 
crowded with merchandise. The market is 
bordered on three sides by covered galleries 
supported by columns ("arcades") in which 
vendors and artisans have their stalls. In 
the background is the great pyramid of Tla- 
telolco with its twin temples, and far away 
rises the eastern range of mountains domi- 
nated by the snow-capped volcanoes, Ixtac- 
cihuatl and Popocatepetl. 

WOMEN FIGHT FOR BARGAINS 

To our right in the market is the cotton 
cloth and clothing section. On display are 
women's skirts and blouses (huipils), men's 
mantles, cloth, raw cotton, hanks of dyed 
thread, and a feather blanket. Two women 



are struggling for possession of an embroi- 
dered blouse (see illustration) as at a bargain 
sale in a modern department store. 

Nearer the center of the plaza is the head 
of a canal at the edge of which two dugout 
canoes are unloading dry goods and fresh fish 
(illustration). Tenochtitlan-Tlatelolco is an 
island city in Lake Texcoco, connected with 
the mainland by three 
stone causeways. An 
aqueduct brings fresh 
water from the distant 
shore, for the lake wa- 
ter is brackish. The 
city is cut by many ca- 
nals which are spanned 
by wooden draw- 
bridges. The lake 
serves not only as a 
means of defense of the 
city but also as a wa- 
terway for thousands 
of canoes carrying food 
and produce and raw 
materials to the city, 
to return with cargoes 
of merchandise. 

To the left of the 
canal is the fruit and 
vegetable section (illus- 
tration). We see corn, 
squash, beans, toma- 
toes, peppers, sweet 
potatoes, avocados, 
and pineapples. Some of these have been 
brought from the warmer, lower country to 
the south and east of the Valley of Mexico. 
Farther to the left are the pottery section 
(illustration) and the flower stalls. We see 
great stacks of water jars, cooking pots, 
bowls and plates, grater bowls with tripod 
legs for grinding chile, braziers, and finely 
painted and burnished bowls and vases. 

FLOWERS IN'pROFUSION 

The Aztecs were very fond of flowers, 
which they used in everyday life and for 
ceremonial purposes. They cultivated tube- 
roses, dahlias, marigolds, cosmos, and zin- 
nias. We see many of these in the market, 



Exhibit of Indian Art 
Extended to Oct. 28 

The special exhibit, Indian Art of 
the Americas, originally scheduled to 
end September 28, has been extended 
to October 28. Included in the show, 
located in Stanley Field Hall, are se- 
lected art objects from the North, 
Central and South American collec- 
tions of this and other leading mu- 
seums. The material represents some 
2,500 years of creative effort. 



and customers are carrying flowers along 
with their other purchases. 

Farther back in the market we see for sale 
ground chocolate, turkeys, fattened dogs 
raised especially for eating, grinding stones 
for mealing corn, cordage and rope of maguey 
fiber, wood and wood products, stone images 
of the corn goddess to be used in household 
shrines, flake knives of obsidian being made 
on the spot, dyes and pigments, feathers — 
and even slaves. A barber is cutting a cus- 
tomer's hair with a razor-sharp obsidian knife. 
Freshly baked tortillas are available for the 
hungry shoppers. 

These are some of the things we see in the 
Great Market. Our limited space prevents 
enumerating all of the merchandise available 
or describing all the kinds of distinctively 
dressed people who make up the throng — 
the porters, boatmen and artisans, the ven- 
dors and merchants, the housewives and 
children, the military men, the market offi- 
cials and juvenile officers. To paraphrase 
Bernal Diaz, who visited the Tlatelolco mar- 
ket with Cortez and Montezuma on a No- 
vember day in 1519, we wish we could tell 
of all the things that are sold in the market, 
but they are so numerous and of such dif- 
ferent quality, and the market place with its 
surrounding arcades is so crowded with peo- 
ple that one would not be able to tell about 
it all in two days. 




TURMOIL IN CLOTHING DEPARTMENT 

Determined women fight it out over an embroidered 

blouse while the distressed merchant looks on. 



The sources of information on which the 
Aztec diorama is based are of considerable 
interest. Of primary importance were three 
documents: The True History of the Conquest 
of New Spain by Bernal Diaz del Castillo; 
The Five Letters of Hernando Cortez; and the 
Codex Mendoza. Diaz's eyewitness account 
of the conquest of Mexico contains a vivid 
description of the Great Market at Tlate- 
lolco. A fine copy of the first edition of this 
book (Madrid, 1632), opened to the pages 
describing the market, is on display at New- 
berry Library as part of the exhibit on early 
books relating to Pan American history. 
Cortez's letters, which were written to 



Page k 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



September, 1959 



Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman 
Emperor, between 1519 and 1526, are an 
account of the conquest and a record of 
his observations of the life and customs of 
the Mexicans. They constitute one of the 
most remarkable documents of the Period of 
Discovery. 




POTTERY FOR SALE 
Although decorated for eye appeal, this pottery was 
made for utilitarian purposes primarily. Much of 
it has been preserved to the present day, providing 
archaeological data and treasures for museums and 
art collectors. 

The Codex Mendoza, a document assem- 
bled shortly after the Spanish Conquest, con- 
tains a pictographic account of Aztec history; 
Montezuma's Tribute Roll; and a general 
account of Aztec customs illustrated by na- 
tive artists. This codex was Mr. Rowell's 
most useful source of information on cos- 
tumes and accessories and hairdress, on the 
appearance of many of the items of merchan- 
dise in the market, and on the character and 
appearance of the military and civilian offi- 
cials. He mastered the difficult 16th cen- 
tury handwriting in which the explanations 
in the codex are recorded — with the flour- 
ishes, inconsistencies of spelling, omissions 
and abbreviations — and became a true au- 
thority on the kinds and quality of tribute 
accorded Montezuma by all the hundreds of 
towns under Aztec domination. 

Other useful sources were Bernardino de 
Sahagun's Historia General de las Cosas de 
Nueva Espana, and the illustrations for this 
work, done by Aztec artists, called the Codex 
Florenlino. Archaeological studies and in- 
terpretations of Aztec culture were indis- 
pensable. 

The Museum's excellent Aztec collection, 
which is displayed in cases flanking the dio- 
rama, furnished models for many of the arti- 
facts shown in the market scene. Data on 
fish and cultivated plants came from books 
and the collections of the Departments of 
Zoology and Botany. Helpful advice was 
received from Dr. Alfonso Caso, distinguished 
Mexican archaeologist, and J. Eric S. Thomp- 
son, Museum Research Associate in Central 
American Archaeology. 

These are the sources from which Mr. 
Rowell drew his understanding of Aztec life 
and commerce. The details of the market 
are as authentic as painstaking study and 



imaginative insight can make them. To this 
accuracy of detail he has added that inde- 
finable artistic ingredient which renders the 
diorama both alive and believable. We see 
not a clever collection of archaeological de- 
tails but a scene of lively human activity, 
the very epitome of Aztec daily life. The 
reader will have to see for himself the humor- 
ous scenes, the squabbling, the crises, the 
bartering, and the gossiping, all being en- 
acted within the teeming market throng at 
Tlatelolco. 

It is fitting that the new Mesoamerican 
hall should be completed in time for the 
Festival of the Americas and the Third Pan 
American Games now being held in Chicago. 
There are exhibits of archaeological and eth- 
nological material from Panama, Costa Rica, 




BUSY FOOD SECTION 

Fruit and vegetables are heaped in front of a woman 
making tortillas on a charcoal brazier. 



Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, British 
Honduras, Guatemala, and Mexico. The 
completeness of the Mexican archaeological 
exhibits and the high quality of the objects 
shown are due in part to the extensive ex- 
change carried out with the National Mu- 
seum of Mexico in 1950. The exhibits in 
Hall 8 form a rich and varied complement to 
the works of art in the special exhibit "In- 
dian Art of the Americas," which will be on 
display in Stanley Field Hall until Octo- 
ber 28. 



Russian Arts Group on Visit 

A group of sixteen distinguished Russian 
artists, actors, writers, musicians, and educa- 
tors visited the Museum briefly on August 17. 
Included were Pavel Markov, Director of the 
Moscow Art Theatre; Vladimir Kandelski, 
Director of the Stanislavsky Music Theatre, 
and Evan Martynov, musicologist and critic 
for Pravda. The group was sponsored by the 
International Cultural Exchange Service of 
the American National Theatre and Acad- 
emy. Mrs. Lydia Kislova, representing 
Supreme Soviet Praesidium-American Cul- 
tural Relationship, was group leader and 
principal interpreter. Dr. Donald Collier, 
Curator of South American Archaeology and 
Ethnology, and John R. Millar, Deputy 
Director, were hosts and guides. 



GEM WITH QUALITIES 
OF A CHAMELEON 

By HARRY CHANGNON 

CURATOR OF EXHIBITS — GEOLOGY 

AMONG the vagaries of nature none 
pleases milady more than the chame- 
leon-like behavior of the gem called alex- 
andrite. By day, for her afternoon teas, 
alexandrite gives her a cool emerald-green 
color to match her sparkling chatter and 
chic attire. For an evening dance at the 
club under the subdued lights of the ball- 
room, her alexandrite (without consulting a 
genie) changes to a soft columbine-red to 
match her luxurious surroundings and re- 
laxed mood. 

This dual-purpose gem is one of several 
varieties of the mineral known as chryso- 
beryl. In composition, chrysoberyl proper 
is a beryllium aluminate, and when pure it 
is transparent. However, as is commonly 
the case with minerals, it may contain minute 
amounts of impurities, such as oxides of iron 
and chromium, which tint the mineral, im- 
parting pleasing bright colors of yellow, 
green, and brown. 

Chrysoberyl possesses the necessary attri- 
butes to be classed as a precious stone — 
rarity, hardness (only surpassed by corun- 
dum and diamond), and beauty. It has long 
enjoyed a steady but limited demand as a 
gem. Through the years different varieties 
have been more popular than others. Dur- 
ing the reign of Louis XIV of France, bright 
yellow chrysoberyls were popular and com- 
manded almost the same price as diamonds. 
Today, two varieties, alexandrite and cat's- 
eye (a cloudy chatoyant variety), are most 
in demand and command high prices. 

Alexandrite is a bright blue-green to emer- 
ald-green variety of chrysoberyl that possesses 
a remarkable dichroism. Dichroism is the 
property of presenting different colors in two 
different directions. It is possessed by many 
gemstones, but the chameleon-like behavior 
of alexandrite is unique. By daylight it is 




Illustrations by Maidi Wiebe 

GEM WITH 'BUILT-IN GENIE* 
To possess an alexandrite gem would be like owning 
one with a magical character, because it changes color. 



September, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



bright grass-green or emerald green, and in 
artificial light it is red to violet. Alexandrite 
has, therefore, been described as "an emerald 
by day and amethyst by night." To accen- 
tuate this peculiar character the gem must 
be cut to a certain thickness, the contrast in 
color being less pronounced in a gem cut with 
little depth. Suitable thickness of the trans- 
mitting layer is an important factor. 

Although chrysoberyl proper has been 
known for several centuries, the alexandrite 
variety was not discovered until 1833. The 
discovery was made in the once famous Rus- 
sian emerald mines situated on the right bank 




'ALL-SEEING EYE' 
Moslem potentates commonly wore cat's-eye gems 
as emblems of good fortune, and to remind their 
subjects of the omniscience of their ruler — a cen- 
turies-old version of the "Big Brother*' concept. 

of the Takovaya River, near the town of 
Ekaterinburg, in the Ural Mountains. It so 
happened that the discovery was made on 
the day set apart for celebrating the birthday 
of Alexander II, Czar of Russia, in whose 
honor the stone was named. That circum- 
stance, coupled with the gem's fascinating 
display of red and green, which were then 
the national colors, made it very popular in 
Russia and it was worn with great pride. 

Russian alexandrites were found, together 
with emeralds and many other minerals, in 
schist and granites. The alexandrites oc- 
curred as star-shaped triplets consisting of 
three crystals twined together, single un- 
twined crystals being extremely rare. Most 
of the rough alexandrite crystals found were 
cloudy or full of fissures, and unfit for cutting 
as gemstones, but occasionally they con- 
tained small transparent portions that were 
free of flaws and markedly dichroic. It was 
from these portions that gems were cut. 
Alexandrite gems from the Russian mines 
were rarely large, but displayed excellent 
color. When alexandrites were first placed 



on the market the color change was little 
understood by dealers or buyers, and a consid- 
erable mysticism was attached to it. Because 
of the rarity of the stone and its popularity 
in Russia, good alexandrites of any size sold 
at high prices, both in Russia and in the gem 
markets of the world. 

For some time the Takovaya locality was 
the only source of alexandrite. Later it was 
found with pebbles of ordinary chrysoberyl 
and other precious stones in the gold sands 
of the Sanarka River in the southern Urals. 
Both areas were worked out before the close 
of the 19th century and have only been 
worked intermittently since that time. 

SUPERIOR GEMS IN CEYLON 

About the middle of the 19th century alex- 
andrites were found in comparative abun- 
dance in the gem-gravels of Ceylon. This 
area, which soon became the most important 
source of alexandrite, still continues to fur- 
nish a very limited number of gem-quality 
alexandrites to the gem market each year. 
The Ceylonese alexandrites show the charac- 
teristic dichroism of the Uralian specimens 
and, on the whole, are of finer quality. The 
columbine-red color seen by artificial light 
is especially beautiful and, in general, the 
stones are larger. One of the largest reported 
from this area weighed 63 J^ carats. The 
average alexandrite from this area weighs 
about 4 carats. 

Ceylon is also noted for the cloudy cha- 
toyant green to honey-yellow variety of 
chrysoberyl called cat's-eye. This variety 
when properly cabochon-cut in an elongated 
oval shows a bright chatoyant line of light 
across the top of the curved surface of the 
stone. This phenomenon suggests the pupil 
of the eye of a cat; hence the name cat's-eye. 
The phenomenon is caused by a multitude 
of parallel microscopic channels within the 
stone. When such a stone is cabochon-cut 
with the channels in the same plane as the 
base of the gem, the cat's-eye effect is at- 
tained. Because the channels in chrysoberl 
are hollow, a soft opalescent effect is also 
produced that is not present in other min- 
erals cut and sold as true cat's-eye, such as 
varieties of quartz and tourmaline that have 
a fibrous structure. 

True cat's-eye chrysoberyl has long been 
a popular stone in the Far East. It was, at 
one time, a favorite gem of the Moslem 
potentates who wore large cat's-eyes, often 
carved in the form of some animal, on the 
front of their turbans as an emblem of good 
fortune and to remind their subjects of the 
"all-seeing eye" of their ruler. In the West- 
ern world cat's-eye is esteemed as a novelty 
gem and is to be had only at high prices. 

CAVEAT EMPTOR A GOOD RULE 

The uninformed buyer when offered either 
an alexandrite or cat's-eye at a bargain 
should be wary. Although alexandrite has 
never been successfully synthesized, syn- 



Museum Awarded Research Grant 

for Borneo Project 

Chicago Natural History Museum has been 
awarded a grant of $6,800 by the National 
Science Foundation for the support of basic 
research in systematics and zoogeography of 
the fresh-water fishes of North Borneo. The 
project is to be carried out by Dr. Robert F. 
Inger, Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles. 

thetic corundum and synthetic spinel that 
display a color change are incorrectly offered 
for sale by dealers as "synthetic alexandrite." 
The tourist who succumbs to the wiles of the 
sidewalk hawker in a foreign port offering 
to part with a large alexandrite at a sacrifice 
may gain a pleasing stone, but at a price far 
in excess of that for which he could have 
purchased a similar synthetic from his own 
jewelers. 

Synthetic corundum appears lavender, re- 
sembling amethyst, under artificial light, but 
a bluish-gray by daylight, bearing little or no 
resemblance to alexandrite. Synthetic spinel 
displays green to red tints somewhat similar 
to the alexandrite and, although not truly 
dichroic, it is easily passed off as genuine to 
the inexperienced. Good quality synthetic 
corundum or spinel showing a change of color 
can be purchased for a few dollars per carat, 
but true Ceylon alexandrites of good color, 
when available, command prices near those 
of diamonds. Perfect alexandrites with good 
color change, weighing more than 5 carats, 
are so rare that they have become collectors' 
items, and almost any price will be paid for 
their possession. Chrysoberyl cat's-eyes are 
to be had at prices much below those asked 
for alexandrites, but they command prices 
far above the more plentiful and less exotic 
quartz and tourmaline cat's-eyes. 

Ordinary chrysoberyl, in a variety of col- 
ors, has been found in alluvial gravels of the 
rich mineral district of Minas Gerais, Brazil. 
It is, as a general rule, of poorer quality than 
the chrysoberyl of Ceylon. Gem quality 
alexandrites and cat's-eyes are practically 
unknown in the district. Other places where 
chrysoberyl has been found are Haddam, 
Connecticut, and Greenfield, New York, in 
the United States, and the gem-gravels of 
Southern Rhodesia, Madagascar, and Upper 
Burma. 

Cut and faceted specimens of several vari- 
eties of gem-quality chrysoberyl of excep- 
tional size and beauty from Ceylon, Brazil 
and Russia are exhibited in the Museum's 
H. N. Higinbotham Hall of Gems (Hall 31). 
Outstanding among them is an alexandrite 
of superior quality, weighing 11 M carats and 
having an estimated value of $11,000. Two 
excellent Ceylon cat's-eyes are also exhib- 
ited. When their fascinating chatoyancy is 
compared with that displayed by the quartz 
cat's-eyes exhibited in an adjoining case, it is 
readily understood why true chrysoberyl 
cat's-eye is much preferred. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



September, 1959 



ANT COLONY ASSISTS FOSSIL COLLECTORS IN WYOMING 



By WILLIAM D. TURNBULL 

ASSISTANT CURATOR OF FOSSIL MAMMALS 

FOR the fourth consecutive year, the 
Museum sent an expedition this sum- 
mer into the Washakie Basin of southern 
Wyoming to collect fossil mammals. This 
season's work was limited to a six-week 
period in June and July during which time 
Preparator Ronald Lambert and I collected 
mainly from the Lower Washakie beds. In- 
asmuch as these trips have yielded an ade- 
quate collection upon which to base a faunal 
study, this trip also marks the end of our 



and bones of the rare, 50,000,000-year-old 
rodents and insectivores. The technique of 
collecting fossils from ant-hills is long estab- 
lished, having been in use by paleontologists 
before the turn of the century. As a result 
of my reference to this technique in the Octo- 
ber, 1958 issue of the Bulletin, many inqui- 
ries have been made concerning it. Therefore, 
Mr. Lambert and I assembled a photographic 
record of our technique which is described 
below. 

The ant colonies construct cone-shaped 
mounds for their nests. These mounds usu- 



work more energetically at its collecting 
task. The rest is up to us. 

There are three stages to the technique: 
first the surface of any ant-hill in the vicinity 
of an eroding outcrop is examined for fossils. 
(Caution: the ants have a fiery bite which 
stings for 15 minutes!) Generally none are 
found, but once a hill is located containing 
specimens, its surface is scraped, shoveled 
clean of the pebble shingle, and the removed 
material is dry-sieved, or preferably it is 
sacked up, and hauled to water to be wet- 
sieved. This treatment eliminates much of 




program of intensive sys- 
tematic prospecting in the 
Washakie formation. Per- 
haps larger collections could 
have been made had we 
prospected solely for 
specimens, instead of 
searching the less promising looking rock 
fades too, but the collections would then 
have been representative of fewer paleoeco- 
logical situations. It is doubtful, for example, 
that we would have found our microfauna 
localities with their treasures of rodent, in- 
sectivore, carnivore and other small mam- 
malian materials had we followed any other 
method of prospecting. 

This year we put further effort into re- 
working these microfauna localities. At the 
1957 locality in the Upper Washakie beds 
we obtained a small block of fine-grained 
sandstone with two clumps of rodent bones 
showing on the surface. Only careful prep- 
aration of the slab will reveal whether or not 
we have collected nearly complete skeletons. 
The prospects are encouraging. 

At the 1958 ant-hill locality (Lower Wash- 
akie) we again employed the same crew of 
thousands of industrious red ants that last 
year helped us to collect the tiny fossil teeth 



OPERATION ANT-HILL'- A PHASE OF THE SEARCH FOR FOSSILS* 



ally measure five or six feet 
across and stand a foot or 
more in height. The mound 
serves as a physical protection 
for the nest which is within 
and beneath it, and in addition helps to 
regulate the internal environment of the 
chambers and passageways. Worker ants 
build, repair, and enlarge the mound by haul- 
ing in sand grains, pebbles, small stones, and 
any other object of a size and weight they 
can transport. Winds further modify the 
surface of the mound by blowing away the 
finer sand until a shingle of the coarser ma- 
terials is concentrated over the entire surface. 
If one of these ant-hills happens to be lo- 
cated on, or near (within an ant's walking 
distance, that is), a rock outcrop that con- 
tains even a small number of the rare little 
fossil bones or teeth, it is certain that the 
pebble-sized fossils will eventually be incor- 
porated into the mound by the undiscrimi- 
nating ants. This nearly tells the story of 
the ants' efforts on our behalf — as described 
below, a kind of incentive compensation 
scheme can usually induce the colony to 



the bulk of dirt, silt and sand, and leaves a 
residue of the larger-sized particles consisting 
of stony pebbles and, we hope, a few mam- 
mal teeth. These concentrates are examined 
under low magnification at the Museum and 
each rare tooth or bone is picked out. The 
vast majority of the isolated teeth obtained 
by this technique are those of small fish, rep- 
tiles, rodents and insectivores. Occasionally 
a small carnivore, primate or marsupial tooth 
will turn up too. The incentive compensa- 
tion plan I mentioned above depends upon 
the instinctive survival reaction of the dis- 
rupted ant colony. Provided that little dam- 
age is done to the ant-hill or its colony, 
beyond the removal of the surface of the 
mound, the colony will survive. Then the 
ants appear to work with frenzied vigor at 
the task of repairing their roof and the hill 
may profitably be re-collected the follow- 
ing year. 

Actually, ant-hill collecting occupied us 
for but a few days' time. Most of the time 
was spent in prospecting and collecting in 
the more conventional manner which yielded 
several fine specimens each of titanothere 
and uintathere post-cranial materials. These 



* Photos indicate how tiny insects aid Museum paleontologists in Washakie Basin area in Wyoming. Left: Typical ant-hill being inspected for the presence of 

tiny fossil mammal teeth concentrated there by the ants. Center: Sieving the surface shingle of a hill to concentrate further the tooth-sized particles. Right: 

Closeup of the surface of a hill. Four mammal teeth found in it lie on the man's finger. Left inset: Closeup of a hill after the pebble-shingle has been removed, 

showing ants actively at work. Right inset: Enlargement of a rodent's molar tooth from the hill. (Photos by Preparator Ronald J. Lambert.) 



September, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



will enhance the study collections notably. 
We discovered two interesting crocodile 
skulls; and a weathered-out, but nearly com- 
plete, little uintathere skull was found for 
us by young Mr. Potter, the son of Gardner 
Potter, operator of the Eversole Ranch. The 
Roy Eversoles, John Corsons, Elza Eversoles 
and the Potters have all been good, helpful 
neighbors and friends to us during these col- 
lecting trips and we are much in their debt 
for the help they have given us. 

Now that the collecting phase of the work 
is finished, facing us is the task of getting the 
collections prepared before the materials can 
be studied in earnest. Several years of work 
with the Washakie collections lie ahead. 

The expedition to Wyoming this year 
was financed by the Maurice L. Richardson 
Paleontological Fund. 



KATCHINA CULT TRACED BACK TO A.D. 1250 



CHILDREN'S JOURNEY 
ON GIANT PLANTS 

"How big is it?" youngsters often inquire. 
The query is a general one, asked indiscrimi- 
nately about plants, animals, rocks, the earth, 
the universe. Children seem to derive a kind 
of satisfaction from knowing the size and 
weight of an object — "the bigger the better!" 

Many giants are members of the Plant 
Kingdom. One of the oldest and largest of 
living things is a plant. Another giant plant 
is not only the largest of its kind, but it also 
grows at the almost incredible rate of 16 
inches a day. Still another giant plant, sur- 
prisingly enough, consists mainly of water, 
being able to store up to 30 tons of it in its 
tissues during heavy but infrequent rainfalls. 

Generally, giant plants grow in the warmer 
regions of the earth, but even the Chicago 
area can boast of one plant unique for its 
huge size. 

Children can find out what these giant 
plants are on the Museum's Fall Journey 
(No. 19), "Giant Plants," offered during 
September, October, and November. It will 
direct children to some of the most unusual 
plants in the world. 

The journey sheet is available to all boys 
and girls who can read. It may be picked 
up at either the North or South Door of the 
Museum. When completed, the journey 
sheet with the youngster's name and address 
on it is dropped in the barrel at either door. 

A boy or girl who successfully completes 
four different journeys becomes a Museum 
Traveler. Eight different Journeys qualify 
aspirants as Museum Adventurers, and 
twelve as Museum Explorers. Upon the 
successful completion of 16 different Jour- 
neys, a youngster qualifies for a Special 
Journey, which may admit him to a Mu- 
seum Club. MARffi gv0BODA 



By PAUL S. MARTIN 

CHIEF CURATOR OF ANTHROPOLOGY 

THE 1959 Archaeological Expedition to 
the Southwest under the leadership of 
the writer has found a remarkable ruin on 
the banks of the Little Colorado River, a few 
miles away from Springerville, Arizona. It 



excellent and much better than that of the 
later walls. 

Two large depressions probably indicate 
the location of kivas — ceremonial chambers 
or sanctuaries wherein were performed the 
esoteric parts of religious ceremonies. One 
of these may be excavated later this season. 




MOUND IN SOUTHWEST YIELDS TRACES OF PAST 
Site of Museum expedition's excavations, near Springerville, Arizona. 



Common wild flowers of the United States 
are well represented among the exhibits in 
Martin A. and Carrie Ryerson Hall (Plant 
Life, Hall 29). 



is located on the ranch of Robert Hooper who 
has been most co-operative and friendly. 

The ruin was first discovered and an- 
nounced to scientists in 1917 by Dr. Leslie 
Spier, at that time a member of the staff of 
the American Museum of Natural History. 
Then, for approximately 40 years it was 
"lost" in the sense that archaeologists either 
did not know of the report in which the ruin 
was briefly described or were not interested 
in following it up. The local ranchers and 
collectors, of course, knew about it but did 
not realize its significance. 

Work has not progressed very far as yet; 
but already we know that this ancient village 
was at least two stories high and that there 
are walls on top of walls, rooms upon rooms, 
walls under walls, sealed-up doorways deep 
down in the earlier parts of the town — all of 
which indicate earlier structures and changes 
in building plans. Thus the nickname "The 
Troy of Arizona." Other towns like this 
have been found; but the maze of earlier 
walls running under later ones is more com- 
plex than any we have ever before encoun- 
tered and the nickname, although given in 
jest, seemed suitable. 

OLDER MASONRY BEST 

The masonry of the earlier parts of the 
town, found many feet below the surface, is 



Some of the earlier rooms had been de- 
spoiled by the later inhabitants who used 
the rooms as convenient garbage dumps. In 
this ashy refuse we have found many excel- 
lent tools of bone and stone plus discarded 
and broken pots and pieces of pots. 

The dating of all parts of this hamlet is not 
yet fixed, but we feel fairly sure that the lat- 
est portions of it immediately precede Table 
Rock Site, dug last year. We also guess that 
perhaps the deeper rooms may be 50 to 100 
years earlier than the latest ones — which are 
tentatively dated at about A.D. 1300. 

KATCHINAS DEPICTED 

Two tantalizing fragments of a pottery 
bowl of remarkable significance have been 
recovered. When glued together, one can 
see two representations of masked figures 
called "katchinas." Katchinas were benefi- 
cent supernatural beings that, under certain 
circumstances, could be impersonated by a 
man wearing a mask. We cannot determine 
from these fragments whether or not several 
of these katchinas were depicted on the bowl 
interior, perhaps holding hands and dancing 
in a slow ceremonial rhythm, but we con- 
jecture that such is probably the case. 

Some years ago it was assumed that the 
katchina cult, masks, and other ceremonial 
(Continued on page 8, column 1) 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



September, 1959 



TRAVEL LECTURES, FILMS 
START OCTOBER 3 

The Museum's 112th series of travel lec- 
tures, illustrated with color motion pictures 
will be given on Saturday afternoons begin- 
ning October 3, and continuing through 
November 28. There will be nine programs, 
all starting at 2:30 P.M. in the James Simpson 
Theatre of the Museum. Admission is free. 
The lectures are provided by the Edward E. 
Ayer Lecture Foundation Fund. 

The schedule for October is as follows: 

October 3 — The Philippines 
Erie Pavel 

October 10 — People and Places in India 
John Moyer 

October 17 — A Missouri Story 
Alfred G. EUer 

October 24 — Mexico 
Phil Walker 

October 31 — Splendors of Persia 
Clifford Kamen 



KATCHINA CULT- 

(Continued from page 7) 

paraphernalia were due to Spanish-Roman 
Catholic influences. More recently, the ar- 
chaeologists from Harvard University uncov- 
ered murals on the walls of kivas that were 
certainly painted at about a.d. 1400 — about 




KATCHINAS ON POTTERY 
Fragment of bowl unearthed by Museum expe- 
dition, showing heads of two impersonators of 
supernatural beings. Such a bowl is believed to 
have been imbued with extreme sanctity. Dating 
from about A.D. 1250. this and other specimens 
just excavated are the earliest extant evidence of 
the presence of the "Katchina Cult." 

1 50 years before the advent of the Spaniards. 
In these murals, one can clearly see masked 
figures, undoubtedly katchina figures. The 
murals themselves may be altars, and painted 
thereon in colors are scenes that probably 
represent actual ceremonial performances. 
Since then a few other such murals have 
been found. These discoveries, then, ex- 
ploded the idea that katchina masks and 
other details concerning the ceremonialism 
of the"katchina cult" were Spanish in origin. 
The two fragmentary parts of a katchina 



bowl that we excavated assume great signifi- 
cance, for now we know that masked men 
were impersonating katchinas or supernat- 
ural beings and that, in brief, the katchina 
cult was present by a.d. 1250 to 1300 at 
least, and possibly much earlier. It is my 
feeling that the religious beliefs concerning 
katchinas and the whole cult were probably 
Mogollon in context and may go back to the 
beginning of the Christian era. Present re- 
search suggests that the katchina cult and 
some aspect of the katchina ceremonies may 
be the result of stimulus from Mexico. 



NEW MEMBERS 

(July 17 to August 14) 

Non-Resident Associate Member 

F. W. Pain 

Associate Members 

Samuel W. Block, Paul Caspers, John W. 
Cole, Earle M. Combs, Jr., Lee Cooper, 
Charles W. Desgrey, Joseph R. Ernest, 
Harry C. Faust, Mrs. James H. Ferry, Jr., 
Jones B. Frankel, Dr. Stanton A. Friedberg, 
Arthur Gettleman, Joseph J. Greeley, Thomas 
A. Harwood, Arent J. Jacobson, Horace W. 
Jordan, Joseph J. Kass, Samson Krupnick, 
Gordon Leadbetter, A. K. Maxwell, Jr., 
Joseph E. Nathan, Elmer G. Norell, Harry D. 
Perkins, Frederick Roe, Joseph H. Schwartz, 
William W. Sims, Francis B. Stine, J. McWil- 
liams Stone, Sr., Paul Stratton, George 
Tiberius, William A. P. Watkins, Frederick 

F. Webster, Horace O. Wetmore, Harry J. 
Williams 

Annual Members 

Dr. Robert Adler, Dr. Carl Apple, Mrs. 
Julius Auerbach, Mrs. Helen A. Augustus, 
Mrs. Warren G. Bailey, Mrs. Peter M. 
Baird, Jr., Andrew W. Bunta, Mrs. Coula P. 
Butler, Hyman Bryer, Jack L. Camp, John 
C. Castanes, John T. Chadwell, Gordon 
Close, Di. Donald F. Fanner, W. N. Fritts, 
Dr. Vladimir C. Flowers, Dr. Melvin C. 
Godwin, C. A. Grentzner, R. P. Gwinn, 
Mrs. C. E. Hansen, Sol W. Herman, Warren 
Jackman, Maurice H. Jacobs, Mrs. Mabel S. 
Johnson, George Keck, Victor E. LaRue, 
L. J. Laurion, Seymour N. Logan, Dr. Aud- 
ley R. Mamby, Francis Mangan, Dr. Charles 
R. Matera, Robert V. Mehaffey, John F. 
Meissner, Dr. Robert S. Mendelsohn, Miss 
Sarah E. Mildren, Albert Mohr, Jr., Mrs. 
Albert E. Munn, Mrs. Thomas S. McEwan, 
Herman A. Neiburger, Mrs. Mae Sexton 
O'Brien, Jr., Mrs. Charles H. Percy, Clif- 
ford J. Peterson, E. J. Pool, Dr. William T. 
Raleigh, Franklin J. Rich, Miss Virginia M. 
Roos, Irving J. Sachs, Sidney Salins, Joseph 
M. Scanlan, Leonard Schanfield, John W. 
Schelthoff, Max Segal, Mrs. Arthur B. Sei- 
bold, Jr., William R. Seibert, Al B. Sheen, 
Morris T. Singer, Alex Stikkers, Mrs. John 
Otto Stoll, Mrs, Paul Sywulka, Mrs. Adrian 
Tabin, Mrs. Albert Tabin, Seymour Tabin, 
Mrs. John Ailes Taft, Warren G. Tyk, Mrs. 
H. H. Urbach, Mrs. J. W. Van Gorkom, 
Robert A. Van Meer, J. A. Volkober, E. Al- 
gerd Waitkus, Dr. O. B. Williams, Dr. Ralph 

G. Willy, Dr. Earle E. Wilson, Dr. Drake 
R. A. Witty, Dr. Theodore Worth, Dr. Vic- 
tor J. Zielinski 



MOVIES FOR CHILDREN 
BEGIN OCTOBER 3 

The strange and fascinating wonders of 
the desert will come alive on the screen in 
Walt Disney's True Life Adventure story, 
"The Living Desert," on October 3 in t he 
Museum's James Simpson Theatre to open 
the Museum's fall program of movies for 
children. The motion picture, which cap- 
tures all the beauty of the desert in color, is 
the first in the series of films. 

Children will be able to see these movies 
free every Saturday morning during October 
and November at 10:30, and are invited to 
come alone, accompanied by adults, or in 
groups. The series of free programs is spon- 
sored by the James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Foundation. 

Other movies scheduled include: 

October 16 — Adventures of Huckleberry 
Finn 

Mark Twain's classic story of the Missis- 
sippi River, and a sequel to Tom Sawyer 

October 17 — Gulliver's Travels 
The animated technicolor picture of Jona- 
than Swift's literary classic of Gulliver's 
travels to the Kingdom of Lilliput 

October 24 — A World Is Born 

The story of life on this earth in prehistoric 



times 



Also a cartoon 



October 31 — Between the Tides 

Nature's mysteries of the sea — "the edge 
of the unknown" . . . Also a cartoon 

A complete schedule of the nine children's 
programs for October and November will 
appear in the next Bulletin. 



Malacologist Returns 

Dr. Fritz Haas, Curator Emeritus of Lower 
Invertebrates, has returned from a field trip 
of three weeks in the northwest corner of 
North Carolina. Near the little town of 
Highlands, the highest incorporated town 
east of the Rocky Mountains, situated at an 
elevation of 4,000 feet, there is one of the few 
inland biological stations of the United States. 
There Dr. Haas had his headquarters, and 
from there he searched the surrounding 
mountains and woods for representatives of 
mollusk life. 



West Indies Fish Collecting 

Fishes of West Indian waters from the vicin- 
ity of Puerto Rico to the Virgin Islands, and 
from the Saba Bank in the Lesser Antilles 
will be collected by Loren P. Woods, Curator 
of Fishes, this fall. He has been invited by 
the United States Fish and Wildlife Service 
to join a research and exploratory cruise 
aboard the motor vessel Oregon, on which in 
past years he has made several other expedi- 
tions. 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



CHICAGOjO it ..- 

HISTORY vux, 
MUSEUM Mb 
/ 




SEE THE WORLD— 
Autumn Film-Lectures 
Saturdays at 2:30 p.m. 
October 3-November 28 



Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



October, 1959 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

TELEPHONE: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Ish am 

Sbwbll L. Avery William V. Kahler 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen J. Roscoe Miller 

Chesser M. Campbell William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Joseph N. Field Clarence B. Randall 

Marshall Field, Jr. John G. Searle 

Stanley Field Solomon A. Smith 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Louis Ware 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Hughston M. McBain First Vice-President 

Walther Buchen Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Auiitairf Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
Marilyn Jindrich Assistant in Public Relations 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



SCULPTURES AND PHOTOS 
OF INDIA IN EXHIBIT 

"People and Places in India," another in 
the Museum's special exhibits that have 
been drawing more and more public atten- 
tion, will be on display October 2 in the 
west end of Albert W. Harris Hall (Hall 18) 
and will continue on exhibition through 
November 30. 

Planned to coincide with the opening, on 
October 3, of the Museum's fall travel lecture 
series, the exhibit of sculptures and photo- 
graphs will be supplemented by a color mo- 
tion picture, also called "People and Places 
in India," personally narrated by John Moyer 
of the Museum staff, to be presented on 
October 10. Moyer's film will be the second 
in the series of travel programs and includes 
sequences corresponding to many of the still 
photographs in the exhibit. One sequence 
shows in detail how the small clay models 
of Indian people that are a part of the 
exhibit were made by native craftsmen. 

The special exhibit comprises 36 of these 
figures, as well as 40 photographs taken 
all over India. The human figures were 
modeled by artist-members of a small caste 
of people living in the village of Krishnagar 
in West Bengal state, about 70 miles north 
from Calcutta. This village is today the 
chief center of this particular art. The figures 
are modeled directly in clay, sun dried, then 



colored to bring out the flesh tones, and 
finally dressed in actual textiles representa- 
tive of the different types of clothing worn 
in India. 

The photographs, selected from more than 
400 negatives, were taken over a period of 
three years while Mr. Moyer, who is in 
charge of the Division of Motion Pictures, 




PRIMITIVE WATER SERVICE 

Sculpture of native tribal girl with jug represents 

one of many diverse peoples living in India. Her 

type is found in the state of Bihar. 

was on leave of absence from the Museum 
to perform a special assignment as a 
consul of the United States. The photo- 
graphs chosen demonstrate the different 
types of country one crosses in traveling 
from the northern boundary of India along 
the Himalayan range down to the rain 
forests of Cape Comorin in the extreme 
southern tip. The different peoples and 




SNAKE CHARMER 
Clay model represents one of the sights so familiar 
to travelers in India that it has become symbolical. 



castes who comprise the population of India 
are shown engaged in their various typical 
daily activities. 

The small figures in the exhibit are note- 
worthy in that the process of modeling them 
is one of the many cottage industries that 
India is trying so hard to preserve for future 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



Our cover is intended to typify 
the easy way of world travel — by 
means of the color films and lec- 
tures offered at the Museum on 
Saturday afternoons during Octo- 
ber and November (see page 3). 
Specifically, this picture of the sa- 
cred elephant of the Maharajah 
of Mysore is a scene from the 
October 10 lecture, "People and 
places in India," to be given by 
John Moyer as the second pro- 
gram in the series. The occasion 
pictured is an annual celebration 
in southern India known as the 
Dessurah. This pampered ele- 
phant, which does no labor and 
which no one is allowed to ride, 
is "dressed" in costly and luxuri- 
ous trappings — purple velvet cov- 
erings, a hand-tooled leather sad- 
dle that is a work of art, and gar- 
lands of flowers. Floral designs, 
repainted every day, adorn the 
creature's trunk, forehead, eye 
areas, ears, legs and tail. The 
elaborately costumed men are offi- 
cials, and mahouts, or elephant 
attendants. In the background 
at right appears part of the south 
wing of the maharajah's palace, 
the largest and most ornate struc- 
ture of its kind in India. 



generations. Many years ago there were 
toy-makers in nearly every village in India 
turning out dolls and toys of wood and clay 
for local fairs and for the amusement of 
children. With the importation of toys into 
India in recent times, mainly from China, 
this native art is slowly dying out. Today 
there are only a few families with the skill 
and knowledge to capture and faithfully 
reproduce the facial characteristics and mode 
of dress of the many different types of people 
who live in India. 

The government of India is anxious to 
preserve and to promote the cottage and 
small-scale industries to help the economy 
of the country. The handicrafts of any 
country have always revealed the innate 
artistic tastes of the people, and Indian 
craftsmen have for centuries been known 
the world over for the beauty of form and 
color they attain. Indian potters and sculp- 
tors from prehistoric times have been master 
craftsmen, and the figurines of the people 
of India in the exhibit are exquisite examples 
of their work. 



An interesting exposition of the principles 
of fish coloration and how certain fishes 
change colors under varying conditions is 
offered in the Hall of Fishes (Hall O). 



■» • "*• ~ . ~ . • 



October, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



PageS 



SEE THE WORLD: FILM-LECTURES TO BEGIN OCTOBER 3 



AN OPPORTUNITY to see the world 
through the eyes of experienced ex- 
plorers is offered those who attend the Muse- 
um's 112th illustrated travel lecture series. 
The lectures will be given each Saturday 
at 2:30 p.m. during October and November 
in the James Simpson Theatre. 

The color motion pictures, accompanied 
by narratives delivered by the "wandering" 
photographers, reach to the far corners of 
the world for subject matter — from the 
sparsely populated plains of wind-swept 
Patagonia to mysterious India, a land teem- 
ing with people. 

The travel series is sponsored by the 
Edward E. Ayer Lecture Foundation and 
is free to all Museum visitors. Members 
of the Museum may claim reserved seats 
by presenting their membership cards before 
2:25 p.m. on the lecture day. 

Following is the schedule: 

October 3 — The Philippines 

Eric Pavel 

Corregidor, the United States' last fortress 
against the Japanese invaders at the end 
of World War II, focused the attention of 
the world on the group of 7,100 islands off 
the southeast coast of Asia — the Philippines. 
Geographically lying in the Pacific Ocean, 
culturally the Philippines float on the cross- 
stream of East and West, old and new. 
Eric Pavel takes you to the fascinating is- 
lands for an enlightening glimpse of their 
beauty and unique customs. In the rich 
valleys of Luzon you'll see active Mayon 
volcano, the world's most perfect cone; cock 
fights and town fiestas; the life of the family 
around its Nipa hut. And in striking con- 
trast you'll see modern Manila — Pearl of the 
Orient — completely rebuilt after the war. 

October 10 — People and Places in India 

John Moyer 

India . . . timely and timeless ... a land 
of mystery and intrigue, its fascination spur- 
ring men like Columbus to strike out on a 
strange ocean in hopes of reaching its alluring 
shores. A land of superlatives, India to this 
day stimulates men's imagination and in- 
terest. John Moyer takes you to mysterious 
India in an unusual film of that country, 
including a first-hand account of the Dus- 
serah, famous religious celebration at My- 
sore. From Calcutta, largest city in the 
Far East, to Mt. Kanchanjungha, third 
highest in the world, to Cherrapunji, wettest 
spot on earth, India beckons for an enjoyable 
and memorable experience. 

October 17 — A Missouri Story 

Alfred G. Etter 

Rural Missouri, which has made import- 
ant contributions to the American tradition, 
has become a part of many famous books 
and stories. However, with the construction 
of more and more tollways and super- 



highways to create a giant transportation 
network across the nation, the existence of 
the undisturbed pastoral scene, the family 
farm, and the woodlot is being threatened. 
Before it was too late, Dr. Alfred Etter, 
native Missourian, recorded life as it used 
to be on an old Missouri farm — the daily 
chores, the caprices of the seasons. "A 
Missouri Story" is an acknowledgment of 
the permanent value of scenic, wild, and 
natural places. 

October 24 — Mexico 

Phil Walker 

Mexico is often characterized as a land 
of "variety and spice" — spice because the 
native cuisine is probably some of the hot- 
test you'll find anywhere in the world; and 
variety, because the topography of Mexico 
is as varied as all of the world combined, 
and with almost as many variations of 
weather. In Phil Walker's colorful motion 
picture you visit many cities of this interest- 
ing land, including Mexico City, Guada- 
lajara, and Acapulco, as well as the vast 
and open Mexican countryside. The fiestas 
portrayed in the film characterize Mexico 
as a country apart, continuing customs that 
elsewhere would be revived only for tour- 
ists and special holidays. 

October 31 — The Splendors of Persia 

Clifford J. Kamen 

Long noted for its riches that made it once 
the greatest and most powerful empire on 
earth, Persia is experiencing today a rebirth 
in world influence by virtue of possessing an 
important and valuable commodity — one of 
the world's richest reserves of petroleum. 
Thus Persia (Iran) is again on the threshold 
of becoming a strategically important mod- 
ern nation. Clifford J. Kamen's "The 
Splendors of Persia" is a comprehensive and 
accurate film narrative in which you will 
see Persia's vast deserts that conceal its 
great oil reserves; Abadan, the world's larg- 
est oil refinery; quiet gardens, like those 
which inspired Omar Khayam; Isfahan, the 
jewel city of the Moslem world; primitive 
mountain tribes; lovely oases; and magni- 
ficent jewels that have graced the crowns 
of Persian monarchs for thousands of years. 

November 7 — Scotland 

Nicol Smith 

The "high road" to an enjoyable after- 
noon is found in Nicol Smith's motion pic- 
ture on Scotland, land of heather, bagpipes, 
and kilts, when you tour its rolling hills 
and marshy glens. From ancient castles to 
bustling fishing ports Scotland is a country 
steeped in tradition. Harwick is an import- 
ant stop in which Nicol Smith's film fea- 
tures the story of sheep and the superb 
woolens which are among the world's best. 
There is the Mull of Galloway, the southern- 
most point in Scotland, rich in legend and 



history. And not to be left out of any film 
of Scotland is Edinburgh, the beautiful city 
of parks and palaces, an old and romantic 
shrine for the traveler. 

November 14 — Probing Antarctica 

Finn Ronne, USNR 

Captain Finn Ronne, Commander and 
scientific leader of the Ellsworth Station 
in Antarctica during 15 months of the Inter- 
national Geophysical Year, returns to the 
Museum stage with an exciting account de- 
signed to dispel the misguided ideas of those 
individuals accustomed to thinking of Ant- 
arctica as a barren, uninteresting wasteland 
of bleak ice and snow. His color film shows 
how he and 38 fellow scientists lived, worked, 
and found recreation on the Antarctic ice cap 
as it is seen when illuminated by the rainbow 
colors of the summer sun when it breaks 
over the vast frozen expanses of snow and 
ice. Portrayed in both its drama and humor 
is the unusual Antarctic wild life — baby 
seals from birth to their first swimming 
stroke, killer whales lurking silently in the 
chill waters, and the comedian of the South 
Pole, the Emperor Penguin. Via motion 
picture you will travel 1,100 miles with 
Captain Ronne, sharing with him all his 
thrills and discoveries. 

November 21 — Patagonia 

Malcolm Miller 

Sparsely inhabited, a land of constant 
high winds, a territory unfamiliar even to 
many people who have traveled extens- 
ively, Patagonia, at the far southern tip of 
South America, is a land of unusual scenes, 
cities, and people. Dr. Malcolm Miller takes 
you on a 5,000-mile jeep trip across the 
vast lands of Argentinian Patagonia. In 
the film are included the story of the Pata- 
gonian sheep rancher, a visit to a Patagonian 
Shangri-la, and a flight to Aconcagua, the 
western hemisphere's highest mountain. Of 
especial scientific interest is the material on 
the magnificent glaciers, the huge unex- 
plored ice cap, and the strange forms of 
wild life in its sub-Antarctic mountains. 

November 28 — Japan 

Gordon Palmquist 

A mixture of the ancient and the modern 
is Japan, a country of colorful Oriental 
tradition that has survived through the 
centuries. Gordon Palmquist presents the 
beauty of Japan in an up-to-date film story 
of the Japanese people. From growing rice 
at the foot of Mt. Fuji, to a Japanese Shinto 
wedding, and from geisha dancing, to a 
championship Sumo wrestling match you 
are given a glimpse of Japanese life as it 
existed in the past; while, on the other hand, 
Japan shows its modern face at Hokkaido 
University, Tokyo and Hiroshima, and in- 
side one of Japan's up-to-date camera fac- 
tories. 



Page I, 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



October, 1959 



ANCIENT AZTECS HAD 'COMMERCIAL ARTISTS' 



By ALFRED LEE ROWELL 

DIORAMIST — ANTHROPOLOGY 

SOMETHING more than 400 years ago 
Don Antonio de Mendoza, the first vice- 
roy of New Spain, signed a report on the 
history and mores of the Aztec people and 
dispatched it by the first Europe-bound ship 
for delivery to Charles V of Spain, Emperor 
of Everywhere except England, France and 




AZTEC HISTORY 
Glyphs recording capture of town named Huipilan. 

a few other places. The ship was captured 
by French pirates, and the report intended 
for the Spanish king went instead to the 
Royal Cosmographer of France. Later it 
was sold to a British diplomat, and even- 
tually it reached the Bodleian Library at 
Oxford. In 1925 the National Museum of 
Mexico published a photographic facsimile 
edition, with explanatory text in Spanish, 
under the title Codex Mendocino. A copy 
of this edition is now in the Library of Chi- 
cago Natural History Museum. 

The work is in three parts: (1) The History 
of the Aztecs up to the Conquest; (2) the 
famous Tribute Lists of Montezuma; and 
(3) Aspects of Aztec Life and Social Organi- 
zation. 

All three parts were produced by the Aztec 
equivalent of what we call commercial artists. 
This statement may sound strange since we 
are accustomed to think of Indian art as 
decorations on pottery, crude designs painted 
on shields, rough pieces carved from stone, 
or some other non-objective work extremely 
unlike our present-day commercial art. But 
the function of these Aztec artists was to 
produce a record rather than works of art; 
to represent tangibles rather than to express 
emotions; to deal with facts more than with 
feeling. They were reporters, not editors or 
commentators, and their work was strictly 
objective — and thus is closely akin to the 
motivation of commercial art. Like all good 
commercial artists, they were well skilled in 
their trade. 

Bernal Diaz del Castillo, in his True His- 
tory of the Conquest, gives an example of their 
draftsmanship. When Montezuma heard 
that the Spaniards had landed in the region 



of Veracruz, the delegation he sent to meet 
them included artists who were to bring back 
portraits of the Spaniards and pictures of 
their equipment — "the whole army, in fact, 
including even the two greyhounds." When 
the Aztecs returned after reporting to Monte- 
zuma, they brought "a Mexican chieftain 
named Quintalbor who looked like Cortez 
both in face and stature. He had been sent 
on purpose because when Montezuma saw 
the portraits of Cortez he recognized imme- 
diately the resemblance to Quintalbor. In 
our camp we called Don Hernando 'our 
Cortez,' and Quintalbor ' the other Cortez.' " 

Only a skilled artist could have drawn a 
likeness good enough to produce these results. 

The historical account in the first part of 
the Codex appears to be nothing more than 
repetitions of burning temples, but these are 
pictographs or picture-writing, and the artist 
who drew them was serving as a scribe. Each 
picture of a burning temple is really a glyph 
meaning surrender or conquest, and each one 
has with it the name glyph of a town. The 
two together, of course, mean the conquest 
or surrender of that town, with or without 
burning or destruction, and each series means 
that those towns were added to the empire 
during the years indicated by the calendar 
symbols on the margin of the page. Thus it 
was literally true in this case that anyone 
who could learn to write could learn to draw, 
because anyone who could write in picto- 
graphs had already learned to draw. 

The drawings in the second part of the 
Codex are different. Here the artist acted as 
a bookkeeper. The Tribute Lists, as the 
name implies, showed the amount and kind 
of tribute required to be brought in by the 
pueblos named by the glyphs on each list. 
The amounts were fantastic: one list shows 



rscr*-^ 



>$f*2?P 






& 




~J$ 






,ftrliJf«?,V 



&-«,, 



«»»-»jr.' 



DISCIPLINE IN OLD MEXICO 

Picture from Codex Mendocino showing an Aztec 

father punishing his son by holding the boy's head 

in the acrid smoke of burning chili peppers. 

that thirteen pueblos were compelled to send 
in once a year 3,200 mantles, 400 breech 
clouts, and 400 women's dresses along with 
some other material. The method of making 
an entry was to make a drawing of an object 
with a number symbol to show the quantity. 
Whatever else might be said about these 
drawings, they had to be accurate — they 
were "legal language." 



In the third part of the Codex, the artist 
recorded clearly and understandably some of 
the details and practices of daily living, such 
as the training of children, which must have 
been rigorous. The punishment illustrated 
for an 11-year-old was to hold the child in 
the smoke of burning chili-peppers. Two 
men, apparently the prototype of officers of 
a juvenile court, are shown dissuading a youth 
who wanted to go vagabonding — one is giv- 
ing him a haircut with an obsidian blade, 
while the other is burning his head with fire- 
brands. 

A wonderful page makes a comparison be- 
tween respectable youths and delinquents. 
An upper-class young man, perhaps the son 
of an official, is shown in the attitude of not 
working, on his way to the teacher to be edu- 
cated. Two boys destined to be unskilled 
laborers are tearfully receiving instruction 




MONTEZUMA'S BOOKKEEPING 

This glyph is an example of Aztec accounting entry. 

It signifies 400 pieces of cloth 22H feet long with 

design as shown. The pine tree represents 400, and 

each pair of thumbs means a fathom of 5H feet. 

from the Superintendent of Works; several 
middle-class artisans are teaching their re- 
spective skills to their sons. In contrast to 
all this respectability are the vagabond, the 
thief, the gambler, "the vicious one of evil 
tongue and gossip" (shown in the attitude of 
idleness), the drunkard — and drunkardess — 
with a threatening noose at the end of the 
list. It speaks well for all who follow his 
calling that the artist had enough respect for 
it to include himself and his son among the 
solid citizens. 

The punishment for drunkenness is ex- 
tremely severe, but it all ends on what some 
people might consider a high note — perhaps 
a fitting conclusion for any remarks about 
commercial artists. That is, it is indicated 
that when people reached a ripe old age, they 
were free to drink all they wanted, or could 



' ^ ^  £m' 



October, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



contain, and nobody was permitted to in- 
terfere with their enjoyment. 

More than thirty years after the Conquest, 
and after the introduction of the Roman 
alphabet, the Spanish authorities still found 
the work of the Aztec artists so valuable 
that a Chair of Pictography was established 
at the University of Mexico in 1553. Now, 
four centuries later, we still are able, like 
the 16th century Spaniards, to make good 
use of this ancient art. The Codex was prac- 
tically our only source for the details of 
clothing and headdress as well as much of 
the other material shown in the Aztec dio- 
rama recently installed in Hall 8 (Ancient 
and Modern Indians of Mexico and Central 
America). It would have been possible, with- 
out the Codex, to conjure up a model of a 
market, but it could not have been the live- 
appearing, authentic Market of Tlatelolco 
we were able to produce from the work of 
these capable Indian artists. 



NATURE'S SECRET: SOURCE OF U.S. DIAMONDS 



AZTEC TRADE 

By DONALD COLLIER 

CURATOR OP SOUTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 
AND ETHNOLOGY 

Display of the Aztec Market diorama re- 
cently installed in Hall 8 (Ancient and Mod- 
ern Indians of Mexico and Central America) 
has given rise to questions by visitors to 
the Museum concerning the method of ex- 
change of goods in the Great Market. 

The Aztecs did not have money, that is, 
an exchange medium of fixed value. Trans- 
actions were carried on by means of barter. 
However, there were several products with 
intrinsic value that served as mediums of 
exchange and helped to balance inequalities 
in barter. The most important of these 
was cocoa beans, which were in universal 
demand for making the chocolate drink of 
which the Aztecs were so fond and which 
is still drunk in Mexico today. The chocolate 
beans were grown in tropical zones and 
transported to the cool plateau of the Az- 
tecs. There was even "counterfeiting" of 
the beans in a manner which anticipated 
the wooden nutmegs of Yankee traders. The 
beans were hollowed out and filled with clay 
so as to have the same weight and appearance 
as before the tampering. We can imagine 
wary vendors biting chocolate beans instead 
of coins. 

Other products used in exchanges were 
quills of gold dust, thin crescent-shaped 
knives of copper (not useful as knives) and 
jade and turquoise. But none of these was 
as important as the cocoa beans. The Az- 
tecs did not prize gold highly for itself but 
valued it for its suitability for casting orna- 
ments by the lost-wax process. 



By ALBERT W. FORSLEV 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF MINERALOGY 

ONE DAY in March, 1867, a man by the 
name of John O'Reilly, returning from 
a hunting trip near the Vaal River in South 
Africa, stopped to rest at the farm of Shalk 
van Niekerk in the Hopetown district. While 
examining an assortment of pebbles that Mr. 
van Niekerk had collected, he noticed one 
which seemed to stand out from all the rest. 
Because of O'Reilly's interest Mr. van Nie- 
kerk presented him with this stone. Upon 
arriving at Colesburg, Mr. O'Reilly showed 
it to a government official, who, finding that 
it cut glass, asked O'Reilly if he might send 
it to Grahamstown for identification. This 
was agreed upon and shortly thereafter they 
received the following letter: " I congratulate 
you on the stone you have sent me. It is a 



span, Bulfontein, DeBeers, Kimberley, and 
Jagersfontein had been discovered. 

Needless to say these discoveries turned 
one of the most worthless possessions of 
Great Britain into one of the most valuable. 
The subsequent development of the diamond 
industry in South Africa has made the word 
"diamond" almost synonymous with "Africa." 

FOUND EARLIER IN U.S. 

It is perhaps a little-known fact that dia- 
mond finds in our own country predate the 
South African discovery. A 23^-carat 
rough diamond was found in 1855 in Man- 
chester, Virginia, by a man grading one of 
the streets. It is believed that this stone, 
called the "Dewey diamond," may have been 
brought down from the mountains by the 
James River during spring floods. Since that 




PROFESSIONAL TREASURE SEEKERS 
Old photograph shows workers sorting gravel for diamonds in South Africa. 



The story of three billion years of life is 
told in two halls of fossils — Frederick J. V. 
Skiff Hall (Hall 37) and Ernest R. Graham 
Hall (Hall 38). 



veritable diamond, weighs 21 J 4 carats, . . . 
It has spoiled all the jewelers' files in Grahams- 
town; and where that came from there must 
be more." 

This event was destined to open a new 
chapter in South African history, for Mr. 
O'Reilly's stone was the first diamond found 
in South Africa. 

The discovery naturally touched off a 
"rush" on the van Niekerk farm but no fur- 
ther important finds were made until two 
years later when the famous "Star of South 
Africa" was found, a pure white diamond of 
83 % carats. (A model of this diamond is 
displayed in H. N. Higinbotham Hall of 
Gems— Hall 31). 

The first true diamond deposits in South 
Africa were discovered in alluvial sediments 
(sand and gravel) at Barkly West on the 
banks of the Vaal River in 1869. Within 
two years the famous "pipe" mines of Dutoit- 



time two other diamonds have been found in 
Virginia under equally unexpected circum- 
stances. 

Altogether, several thousand diamonds 
have been found in the United States. Al- 
though the major deposit and only signifi- 
cant one occurs in Arkansas, well authenti- 
cated finds have been reported from at least 
thirteen states. 

The Arkansas diamond field is near Mur- 
f reesboro in Pike County. Here the diamonds 
occur in volcanic pipes composed of perido- 
tite, an occurrence similar to that of the 
South African "pipe" mines. Almost 50,000 
stones have been found since John M. Hud- 
dleston discovered the first one in 1906 about 
two and one-half miles south of Murfrees- 
boro. Although less than 10 per cent have 
been of gem quality and most of these small 
in size, occasional large stones have been 
found. The largest diamond ever found in 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



October, 1959 



the United States comes from this deposit. 
It is a rose-tinted stone called the "Uncle 
Sam," which weighed 40.23 carats when 
found in 1924. Some recent diamonds found 




Js Mm irliafyov on lookirty for ? 

Cartoon by Maidi Wicbe 

in Arkansas include a perfect 15.33-carat 
blue-white stone found on March 4, 1956 and 
a 3-carat blue-white diamond found in May 
of the same year. 

Although several efforts have been made 
over the years to recover diamonds on a com- 
mercial basis from this deposit, none have 
been successful. It is now known as " Crater 
of Diamonds" and for a fee visitors are per- 
mitted to prospect in the mine area. For 
those who may be interested in trying their 
luck, I might point out that most of the dia- 
monds are found in the spring when they are 
uncovered by heavy rains. 

The only other place in the United States 
where a diamond has been reported found in 
the rock in which it was formed is in a perido- 
tite dike near Syracuse, New York. A grad- 
uate student at Syracuse University is re- 
ported to have found a small transparent 
stone in 1920. 

OTHER OCCURRENCES 

The next most important occurrence of 
diamonds in this country is in alluvial de- 
posits where the diamonds have been weath- 
ered out of the original rock matrix, carried 
to distant points by streams, and deposited 
with sand and gravel. Some 400 or 500 
stones have been recovered from Californian 
deposits in the western foothills of the Sierra 
Nevada. Most were chance discoveries made 
largely during placer gold mining operations 
prior to 1920. The majority of these stones 
are small and show a yellowish tinge. 

Other occurrences of diamonds in alluvial 
deposits have been reported from Idaho, 
Oregon, and Washington, but these have 
produced only a few small stones. 

The largest "alluvial" diamonds have been 
found in the Southeast, in West Virginia, 
Virginia, and North Carolina. Alabama and 
Georgia claim a few small stones. The larg- 
est of the southeastern stones is the "Punch 
Jones" diamond found at Peterstown, West 
Virginia in 1928. It weighed 24.46 carats 
and was supposedly found by a Grover 0. 
Jones and his son while pitching horseshoes. 
It was named after Mr. Jones' son whose 
nickname was "Punch." 



It is interesting to note that although "allu- 
vial" diamonds have been found in many 
places in this country, the original source of 
the stones has never been discovered. Not 
too far away from these finds are areas of 
peridotite and other basic rocks from which 
these stones may have been derived. A 
search for diamonds in these rocks has, how- 
ever, so far proved unsuccessful. 

GREAT LAKES FIELD 

A relatively large number of diamonds 
has been found in the Great Lakes region 
in association with the glacial drift deposited 
by the ice sheet that at one time covered the 
north-central United States. These are 
called "immigrant" diamonds since the 
original source of the stones was probably 
in the rocks of southern Canada, in the re- 
gion south of Hudson Bay. These diamond- 
bearing rocks were eroded, transported by 
the glaciers during Pleistocene times, and 
deposited with other glacial sediments in the 
states of Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, and 
Ohio. The diamonds were separated from 
their rock matrix and occasional stones have 
been discovered purely by chance. 

Wisconsin lays claim to about 20 stones, 
the largest being a wine-yellow diamond 
weighing 21 \i carats, discovered by a farmer 
while plowing a field at Kohlsville in 1886. 
As would be expected, many of these stones 
have interesting histories after their discov- 
ery. For example, a diamond over 15 carats 
in weight, found while digging a well near 
Waukesha, was purchased by a Milwaukee 
jeweler for $1. After the true value was dis- 
covered, the original owner tried to buy back 
the stone for $1.10 and upon refusal of the 
jeweler to accept this offer, brought suit 
against him. The case was carried to the 
state Supreme Court which handed down a 
decision in favor of the defendant on the 
grounds that he had been ignorant of the 
value of the stone at the time of purchase. 

Other Wisconsin diamonds of note weigh- 
ing between two and seven carats have been 
found at Oregon, Saukville, and Burlington. 

Only one diamond has been found in 
Michigan, an 11-carat diamond found at 
Dowagiac, about twelve miles northwest of 
Niles. The area was subsequently searched 
for more but with negative results. 

Ohio, likewise, has furnished one diamond 
— a perfect white one weighing 6 carats found 
near Milford in 1897. 

TEN IN INDIANA 

At least ten authenticated finds have been 
made in Indiana. Nine of them were in 
Morgan and Brown counties in the south- 
central part of the state. One of 3.33 carats 
has been found near Peru, Indiana. 

Before you set out to look for diamonds, I 
would like to point out that with the excep- 
tion of the Arkansas diamonds all of the 
finds have been completely accidental. Many 
people have gone out expressly for the pur- 
pose of finding the source rocks of the "allu- 



vial" and "immigrant" diamonds, but no one 
has succeeded. That is not to say that no 
one ever will, but the diamond-bearing rocks 
may have long been eroded away. Because 
a stone will cut glass is no proof that it is 
diamond for there are many minerals harder 
than glass. One of these is quartz, the most 
common individual mineral species. 

Because of the appeal that diamonds have 
to most people and the high value associated 
with the gem varieties, it is needless to say 
that many frauds have been perpetrated on 
unsuspecting and unknowing individuals over 
the years. 



New Assistant Appointed 
in Public Relations 

Marilyn Jindrich, a native Chicagoan, has 
been appointed Assistant in the Museum's 
Division of Public Relations. She fills the 
vacancy made by the 
resignation of Patricia 
McAfee who has moved 
to another city because 
of her recent marriage. 

Miss Jindrich is a 
graduate of the Medill 
School of Journalism 
of Northwestern Uni- 
versity with the degree 
of Bachelor of Science. 
At the Museum she 
will work in press, tele- 
vision and radio activi- 
ties, in association 

with H. B. Harte, who has been Public 
Relations Counsel since 1927. The position 
also includes associate editorship of the 
Bulletin. At Northwestern Miss Jindrich 
was a leader in numerous campus activities. 
She has been employed in several capacities, 
but the Museum position is the first in the 
profession for which her journalistic training 
has qualified her. 




Marilyn Jindrich 



Archaeological Reconnaissance 
During July and August, George I. Quim- 
by, Curator of North American Archaeology 
and Ethnology, made field trips to arch- 
aeological sites in northern Michigan. He 
was seeking information about the environ- 
ment of Archaic Indians in the period from 
6000 B.C. to 1500 B.C., and trying to locate 
Late Woodland sites of the period from 
a.d. 1500 to 1650. Test excavations were 
undertaken in three important sites, and 
surface collections were obtained from five 
sites. 



Changes in Visiting Hours 
This year, autumn visiting hours at the 
Museum, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., will continue 
in effect through October 31, instead of 
changing in mid-month as in past years. 
Beginning November 1, and continuing 
through February 28, the winter schedule 
will go into effect: 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. (5 p.m. 
on Saturdays and Sundays). 



October, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



STAFF NOTES 



Dr. Donald Collier, Curator of South 
American Archaeology and Ethnology, par- 
ticipated in sequences of a film surveying 
the special exhibit, Indian Art of the Amer- 
icas. The motion picture, made for the U.S. 
Information Service, records all activities 
embraced in Chicago's Festival of the 
Americas and Pan American Games, and 
will be shown to audiences around the 
world. Dr. Collier was interviewed also on 
a radio program of World Wide Broad- 
casting System, Inc. (WRUL) directed par- 
ticularly to Spanish-speaking countries of 
Latin America. . . . Dr. Austin L. Rand, 
Chief Curator of Zoology, and Emmet R. 
Blake, Curator of Birds, attended the recent 
meetings of the American Ornithologists' 
Union in Regina, Saskatchewan. . . . Dr. 
Robert F. Inger, Curator of Amphibians 
and Reptiles, has returned from four months 
of field work in the Belgian Congo, and 
three months of studies in major European 
museums. . . . Dr. Alan Solem, Curator of 
Lower Invertebrates, was elected Counselor- 
at-Large at a recent meeting of the Malaco- 
logical Union in Philadelphia. . . . D. Dwight 
Davis, Curator of Anatomy, attended the 
meetings of the American Institute of Bio- 
logical Sciences at Pennsylvania State Uni- 
versity, after which he proceeded to Wash- 
ington, D.C., for certain studies at the U.S. 
National Museum. . . . Robert J. Reich, a 
native Chicagoan, has been appointed Cus- 
todian of the Herbarium. . . . Dr. Kenneth 
Starr, Curator of Asiatic Archaeology and 
Ethnology, lectured on Chinese rubbings 
before a student-and-faculty group at the 
University of Michigan, and gave a demon- 
stration of this art on a television program 
from the Ann Arbor station. 



Adm ission Is Free .  . 

CHILDREN'S MOVIES 
ON SATURDAYS 

Nine programs of motion pictures for 
children will be presented in the autumn 
series of the Raymond Foundation. Admis- 
sion is free, and the shows will be given 
in James Simpson Theatre of the Museum 
on Saturday mornings at 10:30. Children 
may come alone, in organized groups, or 
accompanied by adults. 

Dates and titles of films are as follows: 

October 3 — The Living Desert 

Walt Disney's True Life Adventure story 
of the life of creatures that inhabit the 
desert 

October 10 — Adventures of Huckleberry 
Finn 

Mark Twain's classic of youth on the 
Mississippi River 



October 17 — Gulliver's Travels 

Jonathan Swift's story of Gulliver's Travels 
to the Kingdom of Lilliput ... In ani- 
mated color 

October 24— A World Is Born 

The story of life in prehistoric times . . . 
Also a cartoon 

October 31 — Between the Tides 

Mysteries of nature in the sea . . . ."the 
edge of the unknown." Narration for the 
Strange Sea Animals section by Maryl 
Andre of Museum staff . . . Also a cartoon 

November 7 — The Magic Horse 

An animated cartoon based on the old 
Russian folk tale about a boy and his 
tiny horse that has magical powers 

November 14 — The Adventures of Chico 

A children's favorite: the story of a little 
boy and his pet bird in Mexico 

November 21 — Kon Tiki (Museum Trav- 
eler Day — presentation of awards to child- 
ren who have completed series of Museum 
Journeys) 
The voyage of a group of young Scandi- 
navians from South America to Pacific 
islands on a balsa raft 

November 28 — An All-Cartoon Pro- 
gram 

Willy, the Operatic Whale; Susie, the 
Blue Koop; and A Cowboy Meets a Horse 

An innovation will be made with this 
season's programs: each boy and girl attend- 
ing will be given an exploration sheet direct- 
ing them to Museum exhibits in which they 
can see material related to the stories of 
the films. 



Technical Publications 

The following technical publications were 
issued recently by the Museum. 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 36, No. 3. Report 
on a Collection of Marine Fishes from 
North Borneo. By Robert F. Inger. 
67 pages, 1 illustration, 1 map. $1. 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 42, No. 2. Philip- 
pine Zoological Expedition 19i6-19i7. 
New Birds from the Philippines. By 
Austin L. Rand and D. S. Rabor. 
6 pages. 15c. 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 39, No. 12. The 
Races of the Bush Shrike Dryoscopus cubla. 
By Austin L. Rand. 3 pages. 10c. 

Fieldiana: Geology, Vol. 10, No. 32. Fauna 
of the Vale and Choza: H. Summary, 
Review, and Integration of the Geology and 
the Faunas. By Everett Claire Olson. 
52 pages, 20 illustrations, 1 map. $1.25. 

Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 39, No. 13. Tarsal 
Ligaments of the Spectacled Bear Tre- 
marctos ornatus. By D. Dwight Davis. 
15 pages, 7 illustrations. 40c. 



GIANT PLANTS ARE LURE 
ON CHILDREN'S JOURNEY 

"Giant Plants" continues as the subject 
of the Museum Journey for children through 
October and November. It may be taken 
by any boy or girl, any day, at any time 
within Museum visiting hours. At either 
entrance of the building, children will re- 
ceive, on request, their "travel directions" 
which will guide them to various exhibits 
showing some of the world's largest kinds 
of plants. From these, the youngsters may 
obtain the information enabling them to 
fill in the answers to questionnaires which 
accompany the Journey directions. 

With the completion of this and three 
Journeys on other subjects, children receive 
awards as Museum Travelers. Those who 




ON THE TRAIL IN MUSEUM 
Campfire Girls follow Museum Journey "travel" 
directions in quest of knowledge about giant plants. 

complete eight Journeys qualify as Museum 
Adventurers; twelve Journeys win them the 
title of Museum Explorers. Those who go 
on to the successful completion of 16 Jour- 
neys are eligible for a Special Journey which 
may admit them to a Museum Club. 



Millions for Publications 

Presently about 1,300 serial publications 
containing biological contributions are pub- 
lished in the United States (including Alaska 
and Hawaii), and Canada. It has been esti- 
mated that in 1954, 144,000 articles on bio- 
logical topics were published throughout the 
world. It is quite likely that this number 
will be much larger for 1959. Considering 
present printing and production costs it can 
easily be computed that this involves a mul- 
timillion dollar business, not counting costs 
of the original research which led to the writ- 
ing of these papers. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



October, 1959 



AUDUBON SCREEN-TOURS 
OFFERED AT MUSEUM 

A series of six Sunday afternoon screen- 
tours will again be presented during the 
fall and winter in the James Simpson 
Theatre of the Museum under the auspices 
of the Illinois Audubon Society. The sched- 
ule of these lectures, accompanied by pic- 
tures in color, is as follows: 

October 18 — River of the Crying Bird 

Allan D. Cruickshank 

November 15 — Designs for Survival 

William Anderson 

December 13 — Adventures in Color With 
American Birds and Big Game 

Cleveland P. Grant 

January 17 — Wild Europe 

Roger Tory Peterson 

February 21 — Roanoke Northwest 

G. Harrison Orians 

March 20 — Wildlife Down Under 

Alfred M. Bailey 

The opening program on October 18 tells 
the story of Florida's Wakulla River that 
flows south from a point just outside Talla- 
hassee all the way to the Gulf of Mexico. 
The river's name comes from the Indians 
and means "mysterious water." Its course 
lies through a wilderness of cypress knees 
and moss-draped trees filmed in marvel- 
ous color by the lecturer, Allan Cruickshank. 
The region abounds in wondrous wildlife 
including the American egret, alligators, 
and the anhinga or snake-bird. 

Seats in the reserved section of the 
Theatre are available to Members of the 
Museum, as well as members of the Illinois 
Audubon Society, on presentation of mem- 
bership card in either organization. All the 
lectures begin at 2:30 p.m., and admission 
is free. 



NATURE PHOTO ENTRIES 
WELCOMED NOW 

Preparations are now under way for the 
Fifteenth Annual Chicago International Ex- 
hibition of Nature Photography, jointly 
sponsored by the Nature Camera Club of 
Chicago and the Museum. The exhibit will 
be held in the Museum from February 6 to 
26. Photographers, both amateur and pro- 
fessional, are urged to send their entries 
early; the deadline will be January 18. It 
is expected that many vacation travelers 
will find pictures of animal life, plant life, 
and scenery on their travels that are worthy 
of submitting for this contest, which year 
after year has been the largest anywhere in 
the world devoted exclusively to nature 
subjects. 

The Nature Camera Club will award 



medals and ribbons for prints and color 
slides selected by the judges either as best 
in their classifications or deserving of hon- 
orable mention. Additional special prizes 
will be awarded by the Photographic Society 
of America. 

Contestants may submit up to four en- 
tries in each of two divisions: (1) prints, 
and (2) color slides. Prints may be either 
in black-and-white or in color. Each of the 
two divisions include three classifications: 
Animal Life, Plant Life, and General (scen- 
ery, clouds, geological formations and other 
natural phenomena). Upon request, the 
Museum will furnish entry forms and full 
information; entries should be mailed di- 
rectly to the Museum. 



Exhibit of Indian Art 
Extended to Oct. 28 

The special exhibit, Indian Art of 
the Americas, originally scheduled to 
end September 28, has been extended 
to October 28. Included in the show, 
located in Stanley Field Hall, are se- 
lected art objects from the North, 
Central and South American collec- 
tions of this and other leading mu- 
seums. The material represents some 
2,500 years of creative effort. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology 

From: Jay Barrymore, Chicago — 2 amu- 
lets, Egypt; Miss Alice MacKinlay, Chicago 
— Southwestern U. S. effigy pottery recep- 
tacle, Durango, Colo.; Charles E. MacNab, 
Chicago — 34 projectile points and 4 scrapers, 
Saudi Arabia; Miss Katherine Pope (be- 
quest of), Chicago — 4 wooden bowls, Hawai- 
ian Islands; Miss Sarah Smartz, Chicago — 
burial mat, Solomon Islands; Raymond Wiel- 
gus, Chicago — Budji buruburu drum, Papuan 
Gulf, New Guinea 

Department of Botany 

From: Dr. Leandro Aristeguieta, Caracas, 
Venezuela — herbarium specimen; H. R. Ben- 
nett, Chicago — 730 phanerogams, Michigan 
and Wisconsin; Mrs. Dorothy Gibson, Chi- 
cago — 52 vascular plants, Kentucky; Dr. 
Edward Nelson, Chicago — 20 phanerogams, 
Sweden; Dr. Edward F. Webb, Skokie, 111.— 
17 cryptogams, 77 phanerogams, Alaska 

Department of Geology 

From: Mrs. Faith E. Baldwin, Chicago — 
a locket with opals; Albert Nicholas, Chi- 
cago — amber, Danzig, Poland; Dr. E. S. 
Richardson, Libertyville, 111. — 5 fossil fish, 
3 fossil plants; R. E. Wilmer, Aiken, S. C. — 
mineral, garnet chip 

Department of Zoology 

From: University of California, Los Angeles 
— 2 fish paratypes, Mexico; Harry Hoog- 
straal, Cairo, Egypt — 117 bird skins 



MONTH'S ENROLLMENT 
OF NEW MEMBERS 

(August 17 to September 15) 

Non-Resident Life Member 

Mrs. Philip Sidney Post 

Associate Members 

Dr. A. Allan Bates, Lee F. Biedermann, 
John R. Bradley, John A. Brandenburg, 
Cameron Brown, Mrs. Dorothy M. Burwell, 
Clifford B. Cox, Trevor L. Davies, Robert 
Dick, Henry X. Dietch, E. Ross Gamble, 
Dr. Stanford R. Gamm, James W. Gee, G. 
F. Gerk, Robert Hixon Glore, Andrew C. 
Graham, James J. Gregory, Herman Harris, 
Dr. Schuyler Dean Hoslett, E. Richard 
Kuehne, John G. Lambertsen, Arthur 
Lorentz, J. de Navarre Macomb, Jr., Dr. 
David Bremner Maher, Miss Margaret 
Mellody, Raymond Mostek, Charles F. 
Murphy, Arnold Newberger, Walter Nietsch- 
mann, Robert E. Potter, Jr., John H. Riley, 
Paul B. Shoemaker, Dr. Bruce A. Spooner, 
Dr. Hans von Leden, Allen B. Wilson, L. 
Ylvisaker 

Annual Members 

Bruce Adams, Norbert F. Armour, Robert 
S. Arnold, Miss Florence Harriett Bade, Dr. 
Thomas G. Baffes, Michol Bairn, Edward 
Benningsen, Mrs. Lucille T. Blakesley, 
Robert Blumenfeld, Frank H. Bopp, Roy 
D. Bradley, J. L. Brazee, Gerald W. Brooks, 
Norman E. Bueter, Philip F. Casello, Mrs. 
Mitchell S. Corbett, Robert A. Crawford, 
Dr. Dominick A. Daniele, Leon M. Despres, 
William Dess, Fred W. Eckert, Mrs. Jerome 
Factor, Mrs. Edward W. Fahey, C. R. Free- 
man, Charles K. Goldberg, Benjamin E. 
Goodman, Mrs. Alice Goodrich, Leonard W. 
Gopp, William Haddow, William R. Hage- 
dorn, Dr. J. M. Hajduk, John L. Hall, Daniel 
J. Hallahan, John Hehnke, H. L. Hendrick- 
son, Matthew J. Hickey, Jr., B. J. Hoddi- 
nott, Fred K. Hoehler, Randall T. Holden, 
Eugene X. Humphrey, Miss Ruth Hunt, 
Arthur M. Jens, Jr., W. J. Jensen, Frank S. 
Kanelos, Mrs. Walter H. Knoebel, Saul 
Korshak, C. W. Kreuger, Richard W. Krit- 
zer, Sr., Overton F. Kuhn, F. H. Kullman, 
Jr., Mrs. Ray W. Leonard, A. A. Lipsey, 
James E. Lowden, Miss Georgia A. Lynch, 
James Mclntyre, Mrs. Daniel P. McMahon, 
Mrs. Ernest Noyes, Dr. Oscar B. Nugent, 
Dr. M. F. Ocasek, Klaus Ollendorff, John 
F. Parmer, W. H. Robinson, Ralph Rose, 
William D. Sampson, George J. Schaller, 
J. Herzl Segal, Thomas J. Sheehan, Earle A. 
Shilton, E. Courtney Sorrelle, F. L. Spreyer, 
Dr. Joseph Stagman, Robert B. Stitt, Frank 
C. Stover, William D. Sunter, C. R. Taaffe, 
Saul O. Tannenbaum, John Temple, Mrs. 
Ivan L. Tyler, Norman Ulrich, Mrs. Dan 
Unger, Dr. Charles S. Vil, Anthony P. Vin- 
centi, Dr. Harold C. Voris, Dr. Maggie L. 
Walker, Dr. S. Y. Wang, Dr. Milan M. 
Wasick, Dr. J. Lewis Webb, Dr. Michael S. 
White, Dr. Jack Williams, Dr. Seymour D. 
Wishnick, Dr. Ernest S. Wolf, Dr. N. S. 
Zeitlin, Dr. Theodore N. Zekman 



The spell of the Orient may be felt in 
a visit to the exhibits of ancient China 
(George T. and Frances Gaylord Smith 
Hall— Hall 24), Chinese jades (Hall 30), 
and modern China and Tibet (Hall 32). 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 




I CHICAGO/}* /£ Wf- 
HISTORY vu so jto>. // 

MUSEUM jVovetn^t 4959 



DARWIN 
CENTENNIA, 



Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



November, 1959 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive. Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery William V. Kahler 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen J. Roscoe Miller 

Chesser M. Campbell William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Joseph N. Field Clarence B. Randall 

Marshall Field, Jr. John G. Searle 

Stanley Fibld Solomon A. Smith 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Louis Ware 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Hughston M. McBain First Vice-President 

Walther Buchen Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
Maruvyn Jindrich Assistant in Public Relations 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



GIFT SUGGESTION 

Chicago Natural History Museum offers 
an opportunity to thoughtful persons to share 
in the progress of scientific discovery through 
Membership in the Museum. Membership 
dues and contributions assist greatly in financ- 
ing the Museum's research and educational 
work. 

The recipient of a Museum Membership 
will receive the following: 

(1) Free admission to the Museum for the 
Member, the Member's family and 
house guests. 

(2) Reserved seats at all lectures and film 
presentations. 

(3) Use of the Museum's excellent library 
for information and study. 

(4) The Museum's monthly Bulletin 
and the Annual Report of the Director. 
Certain other Museum publications is- 
sued during the term of Membership 
will be sent upon written request. 

(5) Special discount privileges at the Mu- 
seum's Book Shop, which carries care- 
fully selected books on the natural 
sciences and an outstanding collection 
of items suitable for gifts. Children's 
books are a feature. 

Life and Associate Members are exempt 
from payment of dues (the fees are deduct- 



ible for federal income tax purposes). Fees 
from these Memberships are permanently 
invested and only the income is used for 
budget purposes. Increasing the endow- 
ments provides one of the best means of 
assuring the growth of this institution. 

MEMBERSHIPS 

Annual $ 10. 

Sustaining (annually for six years) $ 25. 

Associate $100. 

Non-Resident Associate .... $ 50. 

Life $500. 

Non-Resident Life $100. 

For information, write to the Director of 
the Museum, or telephone WAbash 2-9076. 



PIGEONS' FLIGHT 

VIEWED WITH FRIGHT 

We have received from Carl S. Miner, a 
Chicago consulting chemist and Associate 
Member of the Museum, the following amus- 
ing jingle inspired by the article "Pity Poor 
Pigeon: Host to a Community," by Dr. 
Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 
(Bulletin, August, 1959, page 6): 

Till now when I saw pigeons fly 
Away up yonder in the sky 
I much enjoyed their graceful motion. 
Then I had not the slightest notion 
That they were hosts to noxious things 
That crawl or creep or fly on wings. 
Now when I see them overhead 
I'm filled with fear, also with dread, 
Of what might happen. So in fright 
I pull my hat down very light. 
Knowledge is power, but sometimes it 
Limits enjoyment quite a bit. 



Winter Visiting Hours Begin 
Effective November 1, visiting hours at 
the Museum will be 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. (5 p.m. 
on Saturdays and Sundays). This schedule 
will prevail through February 28. 



Off-Calendar Birds 

The egg-laying calendar of the sooty terns 
of Ascension Island, near the equator in mid- 
South Atlantic, is unique in the bird world. 
The records now extend from 1941 to 1958, 
and the birds are known to breed every 9.7 
months, instead of every 12 months as is the 
rule for other birds. 

The seas surrounding Ascension are evi- 
dently rich in food for the birds the year 
'round, so they could breed any time. Why 
they should do so every 9.7 months (prac- 
tically every 10 lunar months) is a mystery. 

Auk, 1959 



-THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



Charles Darwin was a prolific 
author. In addition to the "Origin 
of Species" he wrote more than a 
dozen books in the fields of bot- 
any, geology, and zoology. Our 
cover, designed by Assistant Pho- 
tographer Homer V. Holdren and 
Staff Artist E. John Pfiffner, shows 
Darwin against a background sym- 
bolizing the themes of the most 
important of his books. 



LECTURES FOR ADULTS 
DURING NOVEMBER 

The final four lectures on science and 
travel in the autumn series will be given on 
Saturday afternoons at 2:30 in the James 
Simpson Theatre of the Museum. All of 
the lectures are illustrated with color mo- 
tion pictures. Provided by the Edward E. 
Ayer Lecture Foundation, the programs are 
free to all Museum visitors. Members of 
the Museum may obtain reserved seats by 
presenting their membership cards before 
2:25 p.m. on the chosen lecture day. 

Following is the November schedule: 

November 7 — Scotland 

Nicol Smith 

November 14 — Probing Antarctica 

Finn Ronne, USNR 

November 21 — Patagonia 

Malcolm Miller 

November 28 — Japan 

Gordon Palmquist 




Some of the earliest tools made by man are 
available to researchers in the study collec- 
tion of the Department of Anthropology. 



EXPLORING ANTARCTICA AREA 

Members of International Geophysical Year expe- 
dition make helicopter flight around mass of ice 
in Weddell Sea. From Captain Finn Ronne's film, 
to be shown on November 14. 



November, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page S 



CENTENNIAL OF DARWIN'S 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES' HAILED 



By D. DWIGHT DAVIS 

CURATOR OF VERTEBRATE ANATOMY 

CHARLES DARWIN'S celebrated book, 
The Origin of Species by Means of Nat- 
ural Selection, was published just a hundred 
years ago, on November 24, 1859. Few 
ideas affected the whole fabric of human 
thought so profoundly as the idea Darwin 
was trying to prove, that species of animals 
and plants were not created fixed and im- 
mutable. In a very real sense the publication 
of the Origin marked the end of an era 
that goes back to the beginning of recorded 
human thought, and the dawn of a new era 
whose consequences we cannot even dimly 
discern. For the first time man saw himself 
standing alone in a universe he had scarcely 
begun to understand. The prospect was 
terrifying. It is impossible for us today to 
appreciate the intensity of feeling, the out- 
raged indignation, the emotional panic, with 
which Darwin's ideas were greeted by many, 
including many of his fellow scientists. Yet 
this reaction might have been foreseen (and 
was indeed foreseen by Darwin himself), for 
nothing before or since has so humbled man 
as did the implication that he is kin to the 
rest of nature. The last serious attempt to 
demolish this concept by an appeal to irra- 
tional emotion was the Scopes trial held in 
Dayton, Tennessee, in 1925. 

A hundred years is enough time to provide 
some historical perspective, and biologists 
and humanists the world over are seizing 
the centennial anniversary of the publication 
of the Origin to assess its status today, and 
to appraise our present understanding of 
evolution in general. 

Historical research has clarified Darwin's 
place in the history of man's attempt to 
understand nature and himself. It has long 
been clear that Darwin did not originate the 
idea of evolution, and that he did not prove 
that evolution took place. Nowhere does 
he claim to have done so. The idea that 
species are related through common ancestry 
is an old one that cannot be attributed to 
any one man. That evolution did in fact 
take place can be proved in only one way — 
by seeing the actual record of evolutionary 
change in the rocks laid down while these 
events were happening. If there were no 
fossil record biologists would still be debat- 
ing the fact of evolution. 

DARWIN'S FORERUNNERS 

Darwin did not even originate the idea of 
natural selection, the concept most inti- 
mately associated with his name. His grand- 
father, Erasmus Darwin, himself a most re- 
markable man, came close to hitting upon 
the idea of natural selection in 1794. Recent 
historical research has unearthed an aston- 
ishing number of books and articles written 
in England during the first half of the 19th 
century that explicitly attribute the creative 
role in evolution to natural selection. Most 



of these are nearly forgotten now, but some 
were immensely popular in their time, and 
all were certainly well known to Darwin. 

Conspicuous among these pioneers were 
William Lawrence, a physician, Edward 
Blyth, a naturalist, and the philosopher 
Herbert Spencer. Spencer even coined the 
historic phrases "struggle for existence" and 
"survival of the fittest," which are often 
attributed to Darwin. Finally, the young 
Alfred Russel Wallace, who for years had 
been collecting and observing animals in the 
tropical jungles of the East Indies, in 1858 
sent Darwin a draft of a theory of evolution 
by natural selection so similar to Darwin's 
that Darwin wrote in astonishment and dis- 
may, "I never saw a more striking coinci- 
dence." Only now are we beginning to ap- 
preciate the extent to which evolutionary 
thought was working, like yeast, in the 
minds of Englishmen during the early 19th 
century. In England the idea of evolution 
was no philosophical plaything, but a bold 
attempt to understand the workings of na- 
ture in terms of known forces. 

Seemingly "scooped" by others on every 
point, we may well ask why Darwin is cele- 
brated, and why the Origin is considered 
one of the handful of great books that have 
profoundly influenced humanity. In part 
the explanation is simple. Except for 
Wallace, the notions of Darwin's prede- 
cessors were not scientific theories but specu- 
lations unsupported by facts. The history 
of philosophy is full of such flights of fancy, 
which may be stimulating and inspirational 
but do not represent any real advance in 
understanding. Wallace's claims are not so 
easily disposed of, for his explanation of 
evolution was arrived at exactly as Darwin's 
was — through deduction from an enormous 
mass of observations. It was Wallace's mis- 
fortune to be far away in the jungles of the 
East Indies when the storm broke in Eng- 
land. If he had returned to England earlier 
he might not have been eclipsed so com- 
pletely by Darwin. Yet we cannot imagine 
the brilliant but erratic Wallace compiling 
the Origin. It was the overwhelming mass 
of data painstakingly marshaled by Darwin 
in the Origin that forced a reluctant hu- 
manity to abandon its belief in special crea- 
tion, the most powerful superstitition that 
ever enslaved the mind of man. Perhaps 
the most important ingredient in Darwin's 
genius was the tenacity that kept him pa- 
tiently gathering and sorting data for twenty- 
five years. 

It was probably inevitable that some 
would try to deify Darwin as a unique genius 
whose insight enabled him to peer into the 
void and see what no man before him had 
dreamed of. There have been such men in 
the history of science, but Darwin certainly 
was not one of them. Nothing in history 
is more certain than that sometime during 
the third quarter of the 19th century some 



British biologist would have written an 
"origin of species by means of natural selec- 
tion." Scientific knowledge in general, par- 
ticularly in geology and paleontology, had 
reached a level that was making it im- 
possible for any fair-minded person who 
knew the facts to doubt that evolution did 
take place. In England the medieval stran- 
glehold of the church on the minds of men 
had relaxed enough to make it safe to ex- 
press such opinions publicly. And for more 
than fifty years influential British scholars 
had been suggesting — but without any proof 
— that natural selection is the agent of evo- 
lution. 

MILESTONE IN HUMAN THOUGHT 

The fact that Darwin and Wallace inde- 
pendently developed identical theories at 
the same time was no accident. In all fair- 
ness we must recognize that Darwin was 
something of a child of fortune, who hap- 
pened to be at the right place at the right 
time. It is not quite correct to say that 
Darwin and the Origin altered the course 
of human thought; rather they are symbols 
of an important milestone in the evolution 
of human thought. Yet such an appraisal 
of Darwin's place in history would be 
grossly unfair, for it was Darwin who 
wrote the Origin of Species, and it was the 
Origin that breached the last bulwark of 
romantic idealism in science. To argue that 
another might have done it is fatuous. Dar- 
win was far more than a mere plaything 
of fate, but there is no need to make more 
of him, or of the book, than they were. 

What, then, is the status of natural selec- 
tion as a scientific theory today? No one 
can question its historical importance, but in 
science no concept has standing merely be- 
cause it once caused a stir, however great. 
The only test of a scientific theory is whether 
it continues to account for all new facts as 
they are discovered. If it does not, the 
theory is dead and only historians continue 
to study its corpse. 

Natural selection has had its times of 
trouble when new observations, particularly 
in paleontology and genetics, seemed to 
doom it, but it has survived all such tem- 
porary misinterpretations. By far the most 
serious defect in Darwin's argument was the 
supposition, then general among animal 
breeders, that the characters of the parents 
blend in their offspring, like inks of different 
colors poured together. Discerning critics 
quickly pointed out that a favorable varia- 
tion would therefore quickly be diluted and 
lost, so natural selection could not possibly 
work. Knowing that artificial selection does 
work, Darwin wrestled with this problem 
for years, and lost because the laws of 
heredity were then unknown. When Men- 
del's experim ents revealing the laws of hered 
ity were rediscovered in 1900 the difficulty 
disappeared, but by then Darwin had been 



Page U 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



November, 1959 



dead for eighteen years. Today natural se- 
lection is more firmly entrenched than ever 
— one of the foundation stones of our inter- 
pretation of living nature. Yet, like any 
theory in science, it will always be a pro- 
visional explanation. It will ever be tested 
against new observations and experiments, 
and the moment a discrepancy appears the 
theory will either be modified or abandoned. 
There is no place for sentiment in science. 
Charles Darwin was a naturalist. Nature 
is so vast and complex that we are forced to 
study it by isolating tiny fragments in the 
laboratory, where each is worked on by a 
specialist. Such dismemberment may lead 
to grievously wrong interpretations of na- 
ture, and so someone must try to put these 
fragments back together and view nature as 
an organized whole. This is the job of the 
naturalist. Like nearly all naturalists of his 
time, Darwin was an amateur. Things have 
become vastly more complex since Darwin's 
time, and no longer can the amateur com- 
mand the materials and equipment for carry- 
ing on biological research. 

CAUTION ALWAYS ESSENTIAL 

The naturalists of today are mostly in the 
world's few great natural history museums, 
where the tradition of working in the final 
great laboratory of nature itself is still car- 
ried on. This is a proper and necessary func- 
tion, for biologists, like Antaeus, are strong 
only as long as their feet touch the ground. 
Specialists we must have, but it is all too 
easy to mistake a tiny fragment of nature, 
isolated in a man-made laboratory, for all of 
nature and reach catastrophically wrong con- 
clusions. Naturalists may never again dis- 
cover anything half so important as natural 
selection, but they will always be science's 
link with the firm ground of nature from 
which all science is drawn. Providing this 
vital link with reality is one of the most 
important functions of a natural history 
museum. 

As one of the heirs of the Darwinian tradi- 
tion, it is fitting for Chicago Natural History 
Museum to join in commemorating the cen- 
tenary of the publication of the Origin of 
Species. A special exhibit, titled "Dar- 
win's Origin of the Species," will be on dis- 
play in Stanley Field Hall during the months 
of November and December. The exhibit 
consists of six panels that trace the history 
of the Origin and explain the meaning of, 
and the evidence for, natural selection. In- 
cluded in the exhibit is a copy of the rare 
first edition of the Origin of Species, loaned 
for the occasion by the John Crerar Library 
of Chicago. Holograph letters written by 
Darwin and specimens from the Museum's 
collections that were collected by him on the 
voyage of the Beagle will also be on display. 



One of the world's outstanding gem col- 
lections may be seen in H.N. Higinbotham 
Hall (Hall 31). 



A SPECIAL EXHIBIT 
OF DARWINIANA 

AT A TIME when scholars from all over 
XI the world are gathering on the Univer- 
sity of Chicago campus to discuss the mean- 
ing and modern-day implications of Charles 
Darwin's The Origin of Species, a book that 
shook the world when it was first printed, 
and when numerous learned societies are 
publishing essays discussing that same book, 
Chicago Natural History Museum is bring- 
ing to the public a special graphic exhibit on 
this subject. 

The special exhibit, titled "Darwin's Ori- 
gin of Species," commemorates the first pub- 
lication of the theory on November 24, 1859, 
and will go on display in Stanley Field Hall 
November 1, continuing through Decem- 
ber 31. 

Six panels tell the story of Origin by ex- 
plaining the meaning of, and the evidence 
for, natural selection — the book's theory that 
in the "struggle for existence" those charac- 
teristics will be retained that best enable an 
organism to cope with life and to survive. 
The first panel traces the historic voyage of 
the Beagle on a colored map of the world, 
focusing on specimens that Darwin collected 
and studied at different points of the voyage. 
It was on that voyage that Darwin formu- 
lated many of his first ideas regarding evo- 
lution. Panel 2 presents the logical develop- 
ment of Darwin's ideas that came out of the 
voyage, in the areas of paleontology, embry- 
ology, and comparative anatomy. The third 
panel is devoted to the numerous books that 
Darwin wrote before and after publication 
of Origin, each concentrating on a different 
area of life, but all influenced by his theory 
of evolution. 

EXAMPLES OF PROCESSES 

More explicit examples of the basic think- 
ing involved in natural selection, as Darwin 
saw it, are embodied in Panels 4, 5, and 6. 
Three examples of the operation of natural 
selection are shown in Panel 4: oak leaves, 
beetles, and variations in domestic pigeons. 
Panel 5 pictorially demonstrates six forces 
that play a part in natural selection: disease, 
competition, food, co-operation, climate, en- 
emies. Finally, Panel 6 shows how a species 
produces progeny in excess of those that 
will ultimately survive to assure continuity 
of the species — a point in which Darwin 
became interested after reading Mallhus On 
Population. To demonstrate this point, the 
panel shows Darwin's classic example of the 
possible geometric increase of two elephants 
over a period of 750 years to 19 million 
elephants — the number that would roam the 
earth in the event that none of the elephant 
offspring died or were killed after birth. 

Responsible for planning the exhibit are 
Dr. Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zool- 
ogy, D. Dwight Davis, Curator of Verte- 
brate Anatomy, and E. John Pfiffner, Mu- 
seum Staff Artist. 



Daily Guide-Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 p.m. on Monday through Friday and at 
2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available 
Mondays through Fridays for parties of ten 
or more persons by advance request. 



FILMS FOR CHILDREN 
ON SATURDAYS 

The autumn series of free motion pictures 
for children continues in November with 
programs to be presented on each of the 
four Saturday mornings at 10:30 a.m. in 
the James Simpson Theatre. Children may 
come all alone, in organized groups, or ac- 
companied by adults. No tickets are needed. 

Dates and titles of films are as follows: 

November 7 — The Magic Horse 

An animated cartoon based on the old 
Russian folk tale about a boy and his 
tiny horse that has magical powers 

November 14— The Adventures of Chico 

A children's favorite: the story of a little 
boy and his pet bird in Mexico 

November 21— Kon Tiki (Museum Trav- 
eler Day — presentation of awards to child- 
ren who have completed series of Museum 
Journeys) 

The voyage of a group of young Scandi- 
navians from South America to Pacific 
islands on a balsa raft 

November 28 — An All-Cartoon Pro- 
gram 

Willy, the Operatic Whale; Susie, the 
Blue Koop; and A Cowboy Meets a Horse 

Each boy and girl attending will be given 
an exploration sheet directing them to Mu- 
seum exhibits in which they can see material 
related to the stories of the films. 



Educational Toy 

"Pancho," the Grasshopper, currently on 
sale in the Museum's Book Shop is a recent 
addition to the line of scientific toys. The 
accurate reproduction of the grasshopper 
was made possible by the assistance of 
Henry S. Dybas, Associate Curator of In- 
sects, and by specimens supplied the manu- 
facturer by this Museum's Division of Insects. 

Molded in plastic in natural colors, 
"Pancho" is an excellent introduction to the 
study of insects. Because of its enlarged size, 
12 inches in length, children can easily ob- 
serve details of the grasshopper and come to 
better understand how this insect lives. 



November, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



DARWIN, AN ORCHID, 
AND A MOTH 

By THEODOR JUST 

CHIEF CURATOR OF BOTANY 

IN THE PREFACE to the second edition 
of his book, entitled The Various Con- 
trivances by Which Orchids are Fertilized by 
Insects (1877), Charles Darwin pointed out 
that "during the two or three years after its 
appearance" (1862) he received " through the 
kindness of various correspondents in differ- 
ent parts of the world, a large number of 
letters, especially from Fritz Miiller in South 
Brazil, communicating to me many new and 
curious facts." One of these communications 
concerned the Madagascar epiphytic orchid, 
Angraecum sesquipedale, whose flowers have 




Courtesy or Nature Magazine 

PROBOSCIS OF SPHINX MOTH 

Used in pollination. (Drawing by Fritz Muller) 

spurs one foot long or more, which contain 
nectar. Pollination of these flowers "must 
depend on some gigantic moth," as Darwin 
predicted. 

The June 12, 1873 issue of Nature (A 
Weekly Illustrated Journal of Science) con- 
tains a request for information concerning 
this orchid by W. A. Forbes. Promptly, 
Hermann Muller sent a reply published in 
the July 17, 1873 issue of the same journal, 
under the title of "Probosces Capable of 
Sucking the Nectar of Angraecum sesquipe- 
dale." In this reply, Hermann Muller re- 
ported the findings of his brother, Fritz 
Muller, in Brazil concerning a sphinx moth 
with a proboscis of " about 0.25 metres." The 
above illustration shows this proboscis "in 
its contorted condition" with "at least 20 
elegant windings." 

In the January 31, 1907 issue of Nature, 
E. W. Swanton asked once more for the 
name of the moth that could pollinate this 
orchid. In reply, Alfred Russel Wallace, 
co-discoverer of natural selection, stated that 
he had "not heard of any moth from Mada- 
gascar with an exceptionally long proboscis," 
but that he had heard "of one from East 
Africa with a proboscis the length required." 



He did not realize how close to the truth he 
had come. In March of 1903 Walter Roth- 
schild and Karl Jordan published their "Re- 
vision of the Lepidopterous Family Sphingi- 
dae" which contains the description of a new 
genus, Xanthopan, whose single species, mor- 
gani, occurs in Africa as expected by Wallace. 
Included in the revision is also the description 
of a new subspecies, praedicta. This name 
indicates that the long expected discovery 
was made, for it was found that this sub- 
species occurs only in Madagascar and that 
its tongue "is long enough — about 225 mm. 
(8 inches) — to reach the honey in short and 
medium-sized nectaries of Angraecum." As 
even the longest spurs fill up to "one-fourth 
of the nectary," this subspecies apparently 
can reach nectar in these flowers. 

Inasmuch as Wallace missed the informa- 
tion published in his country, it should not 
surprise us that the bulk of the pertinent 
botanical and entomological literature failed 
to pick up this name and description and 
transmit them to their readers. It seems 
particularly appropriate to call attention to 
Xanthopan morgani praedicta at this time in 
the hope of filling this vacuum forever. 

Angraecum sesquipedale is " so far the finest 
of the species" of this genus of more than 100 
kinds of epiphytic orchids, many of which 
are grown in greenhouses. A model of this 
species, made in the Museum's Plant Repro- 
duction Laboratories, is a permanent exhi- 
bit in the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29— 
Martin A. and Carrie Ryerson Hall), but 
presently is on display in the temporary 
Darwin exhibit. 

I am greatly obliged to Rupert Wenzel, 
Curator of Insects, for his assistance with 
the entomological literature. 



2 'KNOW-YOUR-CHICAGO' 
GROUPS VISIT MUSEUM 

Two groups of about 100 persons each vis- 
ited selected exhibits in the American Indian 
halls at the Museum on September 29 and 30 
on field trips conducted by University Col- 
lege of the University of Chicago in correla- 
tion with its series of "Know Your Chicago" 
lectures now in its eleventh year. As part 
of a study of the subject " Great Cities of the 
Past," the visitors were conducted to such 
exhibits as the dioramas of an Inca village in 
Peru, a Maya village, a market in ancient 
Mexico City, and the special exhibit " Indian 
Art of the Americas." Dr. Donald Collier, 
Curator of South American Archaeology and 
Ethnology, addressed them in the Lecture 
Hall before the Museum tour. Staff lectur- 
ers of the Raymond Foundation assisted in 
conducting the tours. Mrs. Laurence Car- 
ton, Mrs. Snelling S. Robinson, and Mrs. 
William Bowe were tour leaders for the 
Know Your Chicago organization. 



PRIMITIVE ART LECTURE 
OFFERED AT MUSEUM 

The exotic art of Western (Dutch) New 
Guinea will be explored in a lecture in 
James Simpson Theatre of the Museum on 
Friday evening, November 6, at 8:15. Dr. 
Simon Kooijman, anthropologist, Curator of 
the National Museum of Ethnology in Lei- 
den, The Netherlands, and an authority on 
New Guinea art, will present an illustrated 
lecture entitled, "The Art of Western New 
Guinea and its Cultural Background." Dr. 
Kooijman is the author of The Art of Lake 
Sentani, the first monograph on primitive 
art published by the new Museum of Primi- 
time Art in New York. During Dr. Kooij- 
man's visit to the United States he will 
lecture at the Museum of Primitive Art in 
connection with its current exhibition, The 
Art of Lake Sentani. He also will travel 
within the United States to inspect impor- 
tant collections of New Guinea art. As 
part of his visit to Chicago Natural History 
Museum, Dr. Kooijman has kindly con- 
sented to lecture to the members and friends 
of the Museum. 

Dr. Kooijman's lecture will deal with an 
aspect of primitive art not stressed enough, 
the relationship of the art to its cultural 
background. He is extremely well qualified 
to deal with art in such terms — having 
studied both the art objects in museums 
and also the people who made them in 
New Guinea. 

Chicago Natural History Museum and 
the Department of Anthropology of the 
University of Chicago are jointly sponsoring 
the lecture at the Museum. Admission will 
be free. Museum Members and friends are 
urged to use this opportunity to hear a 
distinguished authority on primitive art. 



'DESIGNS FOR SURVIVAL' 
NEXT AUDUBON TOPIC 

This month's Sunday afternoon screen- 
tour of the Illinois Audubon Society is "De- 
signs for Survival," to be presented on 
November 15 at 2:30 p.m. in the James 
Simpson Theatre by William Anderson. In 
his color film and talk, Anderson will show 
phases of the life of many animals from 
insects and fishes to birds and mammals 
illustrating how nature adapts them to meet 
environmental conditions and to compete 
against inimical forces for the survival of 
their species. 

Admission is free. Museum Members and 
their guests are cordially invited to attend. 

Another Audubon screen-tour, "Adven- 
tures in Color With American Birds and 
Big Game," by Cleveland P. Grant will be 
presented on December 13. 



Mineral resources of the state of Illinois 
are featured in an exhibit in Hall 36. 



Now approaching a total of 7,000, the 
Museum's membership has reached the high- 
est figure in the institution's history. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



November, 1959 





v^/W 



A w Vfl 



MYSTERY OF HANDWRITING ON THE WALL IN SOUTHWEST 



By PAUL S. MARTIN 

CHIEF CURATOR OF ANTHROPOLOGY 

FOR the past four months my colleagues 
and I have been digging in the ruin of a 
prehistoric apartment house that we found in 
Arizona, on the east bank of the Little Colo- 
rado River on the ranch of Robert Hooper of 
Springerville. At first sight the ruin resem- 
bled a small hill. Scattered on its surface 
were fragments of pottery and stone tools, 
and pieces of dressed stone that were rem- 
nants of the ancient walls. 

We started to dig in the top at the middle 
of the hill to keep ourselves from being 
"painted into a corner," so to speak. By 
working from the middle rooms outward, we 
could carry the dirt and rocks in wheelbar- 
rows over the filled-up rooms. We probably 
removed about two million pounds of dirt 
and rock or about 1,000 tons. Since we could 
not afford to excavate the entire site, we dug 
two tiers of rooms at right angles to one an- 
other. One tier was an east-west section, the 
other a north-south one. The two rows of 
rooms, excavated at right angles through the 
site, probably gave a fair sample of the con- 
tents of the ancient building and its architec- 
tural complexities. We discovered numerous 
tools of stone and bone, and 10,000 potsherds 
which we washed, counted, and classified. 

The building was occupied about 650 years 
ago (a.d. 1300-1325). This date is only an 
estimate, based on the types of pottery we 
found, and their resemblance to other kinds 
that have been discovered and dated. A few 
families probably settled in this fertile valley 
because of the abundance of water and the 
profusion of wild life. Here they could have 
hunted and farmed easily; and the ability to 
farm was important, for fanning was their 
basic industry. 

ROOMS FREQUENTLY ADDED 

At first the pueblo was probably a one- 
story building with ten or fifteen rooms, all 
exceedingly well-built. Rooms were added 



The drawings heading this page represent a se- 
lection of petroglyphs from the walls of the pueblo 
excavated by the Southwest Archaeological Expe- 
dition during its 1959 season. A few of the figures 
are readily identified as men, a snake, and other 
animals. (Drawings by Gustaf Dalstrom, Artist 
in the Department of Anthropology.) 



from time to time, as the families grew in 
size. Families increased rapidly among these 
people because it was customary for the 
daughters to bring their husbands home to 
live in the mother's dwelling-place. 

At least ten sealed doorways were found — 
all in the rooms on the ground floor. Some 
of the sealed doors opened into other apart- 
ments and some of them led to the outside. 
Why were these doors sealed? Did maraud- 
ers so often molest the family that an un- 
scalable wall and an entrance through the 
roof seemed safer? Or did the river overflow 
and flood their rooms? We know that the 
river overflowed at times, for we found river 
gravels and silt just below the refuse. Seal- 
ing the doorways would have kept out the 
floods. 

Shortly after the doorways were plugged, 
another architectural change occurred. The 
ground-floor rooms were all filled with dirt 
and rocks, the walls were cut off at the top, 
and the roofs were ripped off. Then new 
rooms were built on this fill, which was four 
or five feet above the ground-floor levels. 
The walls of the upper rooms do not coincide 
with the earlier, lower walls. The lower 
rooms were filled up, but the new walls criss- 
cross the old ones. One wall carried straight 
up from bottom to top would have been 
stronger, but the new, late walls were built 
on soft, shifting earth and must have been 
very unstable. Apparently, the people who 
built the upper rooms had resolved to pay no 
attention to the earlier floor plan — they 
wanted a pueblo that was completely differ- 
ent from the earlier building in both organi- 
zation and arrangement. We know of few, 
if any, similar ruins in the Southwest. Why? 

POTTERY CHANGED SLOWLY 

Did the original inhabitants flee from their 
homes after fighting floods? And did another 
group of Indians find the deserted pueblo, 
decide to revamp it to suit their needs and 
their style, and to rebuild it with their make- 
shift masonry? I would gladly accept this 
apparently logical explanation, if the pottery 
and tools reflected any abrupt change in 
workmanship. Instead, we have traced a 
slow continuous trend from the earlier types 
to the later. The amount of black-on-white 
pottery decreased and gradually more poly- 
chrome and glaze appeared. Also, there is no 



great difference in time between the earlier 
and the later types. The earliest would date 
at about a.d. 1300 and the latest at about 
1350-1375. The stone and bone tools show 
the same slow change. I am unwilling to 
relinquish the "Replacement Hypothesis," 
but I must say I have little evidence to sup- 
port it. 

In many of the rooms designs were in- 
scribed on the walls. Some of these picto- 
graphs — the geometric designs — had been 
incised, probably with a bone tool. Others, 
resembling men, mythical birds and other 
animals, had been pecked into the soft sand- 
stone walls, probably with a hammerstone. 
The significance of these figures is a mystery, 
but I think it is fair to say that they were 
not the work of some prehistoric "beatnik." 
They probably were associated with hunting 
rites or other religious rituals. However, 
they are among the few pictographs in the 
Southwest that can be associated with a cer- 
tain people and that can be dated. Most of 
those found in the area have been drawn on 
the rock walls of canyons or on boulders, and 
so are difficult to ascribe to any certain peo- 
ple or date. 

As told in the September Bulletin, we 
also found traces of the Katchina Cult in the 
pueblo. The Katchinas were supernatural 
beings who could bring rain and could aid 
the people in many other ways. Katchinas 
were often impersonated by men wearing 
masks and elaborate costumes. 

THREE KIVAS FOUND 

In the pueblo we found three kivas. Kivas 
were sacred underground chambers used by 
men, where rituals were conducted. We ex- 
cavated two kivas, one of which was rectan- 
gular, with a platform at one end. A tunnel 
permitted fresh air to flow by gravity into 
the room — an early example of ventilating 
apparatus. The other kiva was smaller (per- 
haps 8 by 10 feet), and its floor was paved 
with large flagstones. A small ventilator tun- 
nel and a round chimney-like shaft furnished 
fresh air to the occupants of this kiva. The 
largest kiva was not excavated this season. 

Three other projects were completed dur- 
ing our field season. On one site, where we 
worked last year, we excavated a Great Kiva 
— a round one — which contained several bur- 



November, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



ials. This site should probably be dated 
about a.d. 1000 to 1100. 

We also searched for other archaeological 
sites within an area of about 300 square 
miles. This work was done both by car and 
on foot. The sites thus found and recorded 
this season date from about 1500 B.C. to 
A.D. 1400 — a span of almost 3,000 years. 
Two caves were found during this survey, 
one of which was excavated. The cave had 
been occupied sporadically for short periods 



of time, perhaps by hunters and traders, 
from the 8th century to the 15th. 

Our primary interest this summer was to 
bridge certain gaps in the chronology of 
Mogollon-Zuni history. Last summer we 
excavated a pre-Zuni (Late Mogollon) site, 
the date of which, about a.d. 1350, was 
fixed by radiocarbon and tree-ring dating. 
These three sites excavated this summer 
have been dated from a.d. 700 to about 
1350, and these sequences join neatly with 



our researches in western New Mexico. But 
there are still many gaps in the chronology — 
mainly the centuries before a.d. 1000. 

Our work is cumulative, for we find that 
the research of each season gives us more in- 
sight into the problems produced by the 
work of previous years. We continue to ac- 
cumulate information on how men solved 
their problems in the past; how they con- 
quered some obstacles and were overcome by 
{Continued on page 11, column S) 




ON THE 'DIG' IN ARIZONA — Southwest Archaeological Expedition, 1959. (1) View of progress in excavation of kiva or ceremonial chamber. (2) Martin Hoff- 
man, a student-worker, points to pictographs on wall and tries to decide whether these works of art were the creation of a prehistoric abstractionist or a pri- 
mordial "beatnik." In foreground is a firepit of the ancient Indians. (3) Margaret Alder, another student-worker, cleans or! burial objects with whiskbroom, 
trowel and camel's-hair brush. Shown is one of the finds, a seed jar nested in a bowl. The burial, that of a woman, is in an abandoned kiva and dates to 
about A.D. 1000. (4) General view of the pueblo, principal site of this year's excavation. Members of digging crew standing in rooms provide a key to scale 
size of site. (5) Miscellaneous small tools recovered by diggers. At top is leg-bone of a large animal from which rings (center, right) are cut. At sides of photo- 
graph are bone awls; In center is portion of a bracelet made from shell received in trade from Indians on Gulf of California, and arrowheads. 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



November, 1959 



'DARKEST AFRICA' TRULY 
IS GLARINGLY BRIGHT 

By ROBERT F. INGER 

CURATOR OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES 

AFTER three and one-half months in 
l Africa, it is difficult to say what is 
the most impressive aspect of that great 
continent. Perhaps the first thing to say- 
is that Africa is the bright continent rather 
than the dark one, for in its vast tropical 
belt the sun has a glaring brilliancy that 
seems to press a man's eyeballs into his 
skull. Even wearing a broad-brimmed hat 
and sun-glasses does not protect against the 
intense light of the mid-day sun. 

The great density of the human popula- 
tion is, if anything, more astounding than 
the force of the sun. We thought that 
Africa would be full of wide open spaces, 
but our impression is that it is full of people. 
Our plane from Europe to Leopoldville in 
the Belgian Congo touched down in Kano, 
northern Nigeria, to refuel. From 5,000 
feet above that semi-arid region, we could 
see at least as many evidences of human 
habitation as one might see from a similar 
altitude above northern Illinois. 

In the Belgian Congo people were swarm- 
ing everywhere. Riding in a jeep along 
one of the many dirt roads, we would often 
say to ourselves, "Ah, now we are really 
out in the wild bush." And then we would 
round a turn to see a cluster of grass huts 
and half a dozen shouting, laughing children 
jumping up and down in front of a few 
banana trees and waving at us with great 
delight. Or if no huts were visible, we would 
see a man on a bicycle, or a woman wrapped 
in brilliantly colored calico walking grace- 
fully along the road. 

FIELD WORK BEGINS 

However, we went to Africa on a zoological 
mission — "we" being my wife and myself. 
The Institut des Pares Nationaux du Congo 
Beige had asked me to study a large collec- 
tion of frogs and toads from the Pare Na- 
tional de la Garamba, which is in the extreme 
northeastern part of the Belgian Congo. It 
was in connection with that study that we 
undertook the field work. 

The Pare National de la Garamba is one 
of four national parks in the Belgian Congo. 
Its 1,250,000 acres (roughly twice the size 
of Rhode Island) lie in savanna, a tropical 
grassland in which the spacing of trees varies 
from widely scattered to almost contiguous. 
The landscape is not as spectacular as, say, 
the Colorado Rockies or the Swiss Alps. But 
the gently undulating hills that seem to go on 
forever create a powerful impression. With 
the change of season from dry to wet, the 
grasses and, therefore, the entire country- 
side change from straw color to rich, deep 
green. To sit on a rise and look across the 
rolling landscape, to see the contrast between 
patches of young and dead grass, and to 
watch a group of dark cape buffalo or a 



herd of red hartebeest grazing gives a quiet 
satisfaction that is not easily forgotten. 

The park was given its particular location 
in order to protect the last Congo popula- 
tions of giraffe and white rhino. Although 
the increase in the number of white rhinos 
progresses slowly, the giraffes have been a 
great success. We did not make a census, 
but we estimate that we saw giraffes three 
to five hundred times in our three months. 
For some reason it is difficult to watch 
giraffes moving without laughing. At least 
it was impossible for our native assistants 
to watch them without laughter, in which I 
admit we participated. Despite the fact 
that we saw giraffes every day, we could 
not get over the feeling that this must surely 
be the most improbable animal in the world. 

ABUNDANCE OF ELEPHANTS 

We saw elephants every day too. Ele- 
phants are extremely abundant in the Gar- 
amba, perhaps too numerous, for there are 
signs that they are destroying the range 
in places. On one occasion while riding 
in a jeep, we spotted a herd numbering 
150 to 300. I cannot distinguish between 
150 and 200 or 300 elephants. But from 
the size of the mass, the clouds of dust, 
and the length of time they took to pass, 
there must have been many more than 100. 
Futoyo, my principal native assistant, who 
has worked in the Garamba for more than 
ten years and who knows the mammals 
and their habits very well, estimated the 
herd at 500. That was an over-estimate, 
but herds that size have been seen before 
in the Garamba. 

There is something satisfyingly solid about 
an elephant. It is not just its size — its 
shape and the quiet, dignified manner in 
which it moves across the savanna also 
have a lot to do with that impression. Some- 
times, however, its dignity evaporates. One 
morning the men and I were caught by a 
sudden, heavy rainstorm and took shelter 
under a clump of trees growing along a 
creek. We had seen three elephants about 
250 yards away on the other side of the 
stream before the rain began, but had paid 
as little attention to them as they had to us. 
Then we discovered that they, too, wanted 
to take shelter under "our" trees. Slowly 
flapping their ears and swinging their trunks, 
they came closer and closer as though oblivi- 
ous of us. When they were about fifty 
feet away, Futoyo shouted, "Hey! Where 
you going?" (In Lingala, not English.) The 
elephants wheeled and shot off in the oppo- 
site direction, trunks up and tails streaming, 
followed by gales of laughter. 

The black rhinoceros, the second African 
species, also lives in the Garamba, making 
the park one of the few places where both 
it and the white rhino occur. Rhinos are 
not as numerous in the Garamba as are 
the other large mammals, but we saw them 
often. To round a sharp curve in the track 
and suddenly to see a rhino scarcely thirty 



feet away is a marvelous experience. Shaped 
like huge bricks and set close to the ground, 
the rhinos left us with an impression of mas- 
siveness that we never got from elephants. 

LIONS AVOID PEOPLE 

Unlike some other famous African parks, 
the Garamba has never been open to tourists. 
As a result, in the Garamba the lions are 
not accustomed to people and definitely do 
not lie around in the open unconcernedly 
as cars drive by. Quite the contrary. They 
are not often seen — we saw them only twice 
— but they can be heard every night. When 
they are surprised in the open, they snarl and 
head for other places in a hurry. Cape 
buffalo, water buck, hartebeest, roan ante- 
lope, and several small kinds of antelope 
are common in the Garamba and each 
species adds to the interest of the park. 

In fact there were so many interesting 
creatures — birds, ants, termites, grasshop- 
pers, and dung beetles, to name just a few — 
that we often had to remind ourselves that 
our three months in the Garamba were to 
be devoted to amphibians. The frogs of 
any tropical region are varied and numerous; 
we collected roughly thirty species and prob- 
ably overlooked five to ten others. These 
species occupy a variety of habitats. Many 
live only in the large permanent marshes. 
Others live only in narrow, densely-wooded 
ravines that mark the courses of certain 
small streams. Still others are found 
throughout the savanna. Some spend all 
of their lives in water, whereas others climb 
up the papyrus and reeds of the marshes, 
and some hop across the ground. There 
are tiny species, literally no larger than 
your small fingernail, and large species, the 
size of our bullfrog. The coloration of cer- 
tain species was quite handsome. One tree- 
frog had a dark brown back that was spotted 
with red, a white abdomen, a lemon-yellow 
throat, and red legs. Several species were 
bright grassy-green and one had a gold stripe 
on each side. 

Unfortunately these beautiful colors fade 
when the frogs are preserved. And many 
had to be preserved. One hundred years 
ago man's ignorance was so colossal that 
the main purpose of most zoological field 
work was simply to collect so that we might 
learn what animals lived in the various 
regions. Now we have a rough answer to 
that problem, and field zoology is directed 
increasingly to the study of the ways in 
which the animals live and how their lives 
are interwoven. One of the primary goals 
of our field work was to obtain detailed 
habitat information on each species of frog 
in order to determine ultimately the spatial 
relationships of the entire fauna. In effect 
we asked ourselves a series of questions 
about each species. Does it live in papyrus 
marsh or open ponds? If in the marsh 
does it perch on vegetation or does it remain 
in the water? If it climbs on the papyrus 
stems, how high above the surface of the 



November, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 9 



water does it sit? One foot? Two feet? 
Six feet? 

METHODICAL RECORDS 

To answer questions of this sort it is 
necessary to collect specimens, number them, 
and record the numbers opposite notes on 
the exact situations in which they are found. 
Back in the Museum laboratory, the notes 
on several thousand frogs can be analyzed 
and perhaps answers to the questions will 
emerge. This process of analysis is not 
easily done in the field because many species 
cannot be named with certainty away from 
a laboratory and a library. And it is no 
good having a collection of notes attached 
to species called who's-it or what's-it. We 
must have the notes associated with, say, 
Rana grandisonae so that information col- 
lected in the Pare National de la Garamba 
can be compared with similar information 
gathered in other parts of Africa. Science 
is not a mere collection of facts; it is a 
series of relationships based on facts. And 
in our branch of natural science, as well as 
in all others, these relationships cannot be 
derived without proper identification of the 
animals (or plants or molecules) involved. 

At this stage of the game, when the study 
of our specimens and notes has just begun, 
it is impossible to say how many questions 
we succeeded in answering. But this much 
is certain: if our field work was successful, 
we have probably raised more questions than 
we have answered. For it is in the nature 
of science that solutions to one set of prob- 
lems reveal other problems that we could 
not even conceive before. 



MINERALOGY IN VERSE 

AT DARWIN HOME 

The unusual poem, reprinted here with 
a paraphrase of its original introductory 
material and footnotes, was published in 
The American Journal of Science, and Arts, 
Volume 5, in 1822, as part of a series occupy- 
ing ten pages, put forth with a sufficient 
supply of footnotes, abstracts, subtitles, and 
morals to equip a definitive edition of 
Paradise Lost. The name of the author 
does not appear. The material was un- 
covered for reprinting in the Bulletin by 
Eugene S. Richardson, Jr., Curator of Fossil 
Invertebrates. The 1822 spellings are re- 
tained. 



The Granitogony, a bit of 19th century 
natural history in metrical form, was written 
in 1811, when the author was on a visit at 
Derby, the former residence of Dr. Erasmus 
Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin. 
In the company of a few scientific friends 
it was suggested, that, if Erasmus Darwin, 
who wrote an outline of evolution in verse, 
had lived to see the progress of geology, 
he would have favored the world with 
another poem, The Loves of the Mountains. 



Impressed with this idea, the author, on 
the following day, to amuse himself on a 
long and solitary walk in December, com- 
posed the following verses. They were 
written and shown on his return, and the 
Moral quatrain was afterwards added. 

At the period when this poem was com- 
posed, the author was more disposed to 
adopt the theory of those philosophers who 
assert that the world has been baked, than 
that of the German Geognosists, who 
assert that it has only been boiled. He 
later inclined to a midway faith, and was 
disposed to believe that the crust of our 
planet has been stewed, fire and water 
being equally operative in its formation. 

GRANITOGONY 

OR 

THE BIRTH OF GRANITE 

In ancient time, ere Granite 1 first had birth, 
And formed the solid pavement of the earth, 
Stern Silex 2 reign'd, and felt the strong 

desire 
To have a son, the semblance of the sire. 
To soft Alumina 3 his court he paid, 
But tried in vain to win the gentle maid; 
Till to caloric and the spirits of flame 
He sued for aid — nor sued for aid in vain : 
They warm'd her heart, the bridal couch 

they spread, 
And Felspar 4 was the offspring of their bed: 
He on his sparkling front and polished face 
Mix'd with his father's strength his mother's 

grace. 
Young Felspar flourish'd, and in early life 
With pale Magnesia lived like man and wife. 
From this soft union sprang a sprightly 

dame, 
Sparkling with life — and Mica* was her 

name. 
Then Silex, Felspar, Mica, dwelt alone, 
The triple deities on Terra's throne. 
For he, stern Silex, all access denied 
To other gods, or other powers beside. 6 
Oft when gay Flora and Pomona strove 
To land their stores, their bark he rudely 

drove 
Far from his coast; and in his wrath he 

swore 
They ne'er should land them on his flinty 

shore. 
Fired at this harsh refusal, angry Jove, 
In terrors clad, descended from above; 
His glory and his vengeance he enshrouds, 
Involved in tempests and a night of clouds: 
O'er Mica's head the livid lightning play'd, 
And peals of thunder scared the astonished 

maid. 
To seek her much-loved parents quick she 

flew; 
Her arms elastic round their necks she threw, 
"Thus may I perish, never more to part, 
Press'd to my much lov'd sire's and grand- 
sire's heart!" 
So spoke the maid. The thunder-bolt had 

fled, 
And all were numbered with the silent dead. 



But, interfused and changed to stone, they 

rise 
A mass of Granite 7 towering to the skies. 
O'er the whole globe this ponderous mass 

extends, 
Round either pole its mighty arms it bends; 
And thus was doom'd to bear in after time 
All other rocks of every class and clime. 
So sings the bard that Granite first had birth, 
And formed the solid pavement of the earth: 
And minor bards may sing, whene'er they 

list, 
Of Argillaceous or Micaceous Schist. 

MORAL 

(The friend to whom this poem was shown 
in 1811, suggested the propriety of annexing 
a Moral. In compliance with general 
custom, the author followed the advice. It 
would, however have been more consonant 
to his own modesty, to have left the moral 
application to the reader's sagacity than to 
have thus obtruded it on his notice.) 

Learn hence, ye flinty hearted rocks, 

Your burthens all to bear, 
Lest Jove should fix you in the stocks, 

Or toss you in the air. 

THE AUTHOR'S COPIOUS FOOTNOTES 

Appended to his poem, the author offered 
the following extensive explanations of var- 
ious points: 

'Granite. — This rock is essentially com- 
posed of three minerals, Quartz, Felspar, and 
Mica united, without any cement, or with- 
out interstices between them; frequently 
the three minerals appear to penetrate each 
other. Hence it has been supposed that 
these minerals were crystallized and united 
when the mass was in a state of fusion. 

2 Silex. — This earth is one of the principal 
constituent elements of the three minerals 
that form Granite. Quartz is nearly pure 
Silex; it is more imperishable than Felspar 
or Mica. 

3 Alumina. — This earth is soft and unctu- 
ous when moist. It is a constituent part of 
Felspar, in which it is combined with a large 
portion of Silex, and with other ingredients. 
As Silex and Alumina cannot be made to 
combine chemically by water, the Muse has 
properly sought aid from caloric to promote 
their union. 

4 Felspar, when crystalline, is distin- 
guished by its laminar structure and smooth 
shining face. 

6 Mica. — The descent of Mica may be 
rather dubious: the quantity of Magnesia 
which enters into the composition of this 
mineral, as given in some analyses, is very 
small. 

6 Siliceous earth alone is extremely un- 
favorable to vegetation, and granitic rocks, 
in which this earth abounds, remain for 
ages denuded and barren. 

7 Granite forms the summits and peaks of 

(Continued on page 12, column S) 



Page 10 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



November, 1959 



'Do-lt-Yourself' Project 



A PERSONAL HERBARIUM 
FOR THE HOME 

By C. EARL SMITH, Jr. 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR, VASCULAR PLANTS 

HAVE YOU EVER had the urge to press 
a flower? If so, then you have come a 
long way toward assembling your personal 
collection (or herbarium) of dried plant 
specimens. Almost everyone decides to make 
a record of plants which he knows or partic- 
ularly likes. Many people make a collection 
photographically. It is equally easy to make 
a permanent record of the plants themselves, 
and it is far less expensive. 

For hundreds of years, horticulturists and 
botanists have kept a record of the plants of 
interest to them. Pressed specimens 200 and 
300 years old still preserve the form and 








SPECIMEN COLLECTED BY LINNAEUS 
Founder of modern system of nomenclature pre- 
served this plant prior to 1800. It is still good. 

characteristics of the species although they 
may lose their original fresh color. If one 
needs to soften a plant part to dissect it, the 
piece may be dropped into a small amount 
of water and boiled gently for a few minutes. 
It is then ready to be manipulated; it is as 
soft as it was when fresh. 

The major supplies needed for plant press- 
ing are not difficult to obtain. A stock of old 
newspapers to absorb moisture and hold the 
specimens is the first requirement. The sec- 
ond is a method of holding the plant flat 
while it is drying. Otherwise it will tend to 
curl badly as the different plant tissues 
contract unevenly. An old board and some 
bricks for weights will suffice. Once the 
specimen is dry, it may be kept in its fold 
of paper indefinitely. 

Those of us who are involved in handling 
large'numbers of plant specimens have sev- 



eral refinements in technique and equipment 
which make the drying process faster and 
easier. Between each fold with a specimen 
we insert a sandwich made of two sheets of 
blotting paper (called driers) the size of the 
half newspaper fold between which is a piece 
of corrugated cardboard (a ventilator) of the 
same size. Obviously, the driers absorb the 
moisture readily, and the corrugated card- 
board facilitates its dispersal into the sur- 
rounding air. A stack of specimens between 
their sandwiches is ordinarily held tight 
between two lattice frames of wood by a 
pair of web straps or ropes. To supply the 
ultimate in speedy drying, the loaded plant 
press is placed over a heat source so that 
most plant specimens will dry within 36 
hours. Of course fleshy plants like orchids 
will require a longer time to dry, and a 
few, such as the cactus plants which are 
particularly adapted for retaining their 
moisture, will take many days. I have even 
had cacti in the press for as long as two 
weeks and still they promptly sprouted again ! 

SHRUBS AND TREES 

If you wish to make specimens of shrubs 
and trees, a branch tip with leaves and 
flowers or fruits cut to fit the size of the half 
news sheet is sufficient. Small soft plants are 
usually collected with their roots (many 
times you must be careful to collect the 
basal rosette of leaves which will remain 
firmly anchored to the ground when the 
flower spike is carelessly pulled). If you 
become sufficiently interested in this fasci- 
nating hobby, you may also wish to collect 
the non-flowering plants such as the mosses 
which form the bright green woodland car- 
pets, and the lichens which vary in color 
from green to gray to white and are usually 
firmly attached to the tree trunk or rock on 
which they grow. When a lichen is too 
firmly anchored to remove, a piece of the 
substrate must be taken with it. Mosses and 
lichens may be put directly into small brown 
paper sacks (candy sacks in which you 
used to get your penny jaw-breakers). These 
are allowed to dry without pressing. 

Aquatic plants are another group requir- 
ing special care for the submerged kinds. 
These include both a non-flowering group 
known as algae — the seaweeds of the ocean 
shore— and flowering plants like Cabomba 
which are frequently sold for aquariums. 
Because these plants are soft and depend 
upon the buoying effect of the water to hold 
them up, they can't be picked up and placed 
on the news sheet for pressing. To make nice 
looking specimens, float them in water in a 
shallow tray, slide a piece of stiff bond paper 
under them, and lift gently so that the water 
flows evenly off the sheet. For algae which 
are frequently gelatinous, a sheet of waxed 
paper must be placed over them to prevent 
them from sticking to the covering sheet of 
newspaper. 

Dried plant specimens can be useful as 
well as being solely a record of a trip or an 



occasion. While the color will change in 
many plants when they are exposed to light, 
most plants are easily recolored with trans- 
parent photographers' tinting paints. 
Mounted in frames, they make attractive 
"flower prints" — frequently much more 
accurately detailed than those available at 
a print shop. Or try mounting them between 
two thin sheets of rice paper and making 
them into decorative lamp shades. They can 
even be placed between sheet plastic (the 
translucent kind makes a more effective 
background) and incorporated into a decora- 
tive screen or mounted in a French door in 
place of glass. 

When you get started on your plant 
collection, the children will want to get into 
the act. For the youngsters, whose interest 
lags more quickly, specimens of common 
trees or flowers can be quickly sealed (with 
an iron) between two sheets of heavily 
waxed paper. A little experience will soon 
determine the correct heat and pressure. 
Here, the thinness of the specimen is impor- 
tant, as the waxed paper will tend to bulk 
irregularly around thick parts. My children 
like to take such specimens to school to 
demonstrate common plants when the teacher 
is teaching a general science section on 
plants. This works equally well for colorful 
autumn leaves, as plants encased in waxed 
paper retain their freshness for some time. 

Once you have accumulated a few speci- 
mens, the problem of mounting them for 
use or display arises. Because you have been 
preparing your specimens to fit a half news 
sheet, they are now correctly proportioned 
to fit a standard sized sheet of herbarium 
mounting paper (11 J^ x 16!^ inches). Any 
heavy white paper cut to this size will do, 
although a good quality paper is needed for 
permanence. Formerly, specimens were 
dropped into a thin sheet of glue on a glass 
plate, transferred to the paper, and then 
reinforced with gummed linen tape (Holland 
tape of the bookbinders). Most large herbaria 
now use a plastic adhesive. The specimen is 
laid on the paper and plastic strips are 
placed across to hold the plant in place. 
Where a plant tends to be unruly and 
stands up from the paper, a small weight 
will hold it down until the plastic hardens. 
The herbarium of the Museum just instituted 
this method of mounting in the spring. In 
the first month, mounting output rose 211 
per cent as there is only one handling of the 
specimen; the label is glued into place with 
the same plastic. The adhesive is dispensed 
from ordinary plastic squeeze bottles (ours 
are bright red and labeled ketchup). 

LABELING IS IMPORTANT 

The label hasn't been mentioned before, 
but it is one of the most important parts of 
a scientific collection. The legend should 
include the place and date collected, any 
data which will not be apparent from the 
specimen — flower color, height of tree, etc. — 
and the collector's name. Be sure and leave 



November, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 11 



space for the name of the plant when you 
have made the identification. Many valuable 
supplementary data on the type of soil, the 
locations of the plant in relation to other 
plants and other facts are easily and perma- 
nently recorded on the label. If you plan to 
collect many specimens, a field notebook 
carrying notes behind consecutive numbers 
can easily be matched with numbers on the 
margin of the newspaper when you come to 
the labeling later on. 

Identifying the collections is sometimes a 
problem. For a start, one of the books deal- 
ing with common wild flowers or trees of 
your region is recommended. Once the 
vagaries of botanists and their whims for 
placing plants in certain families regardless 
of flower color are conquered, you will find 
a pattern emerging which will enable you to 
recognize plant families as you gather the 
specimens. Now is the time to graduate to 
more technical books and articles dealing 
with the plants of specific areas or specific 
groups of plants. While the language of 
botany may seem hard, don't despair. You 
will soon be thankful for the more specific 
meaning of a botanical term when you 
realize how difficult it would be to describe 
the characters of a plant in common English 
words with their many connotations. 

COLLECTING FUNGI 

Fungi have purposely been ignored in the 
previous discussion. This great group of 
plants includes many parasitic diseases of 
other plants like the rusts and mildews. 
These are easy to collect (you just press the 
infected part of the host plant), but they are 
rather difficult to identify without a good 
microscope. The mushrooms of the woods 
and fields are more easily identified, but they 
are more difficult to collect readily. While 




MODERN METHOD 
Most present-day herbaria in the United States use 
a plastic cement to strap plant to a herbarium sheet. 

they are fresh, either an accurately colored 
drawing (or photograph) must be made, or 
detailed color notes taken. Then spore prints 
are desirable to ascertain the color of the 
spores. These are made by breaking off the 
cap and leaving it bottom-side down on a 
piece of paper over night. The resulting 
spore pattern may be fixed in place by 
gently spraying with artists' fixative. Fre- 
quently, fleshy fungi must be plunged into 



boiling water or a preservative like formal- 
dehyde to kill insects which continue to feed 
on them after you have gathered them. Only 
now are the specimens ready to be dried. 
Don't press them though— they squash into 
an unrecognizable mess. The results are 
usually quite shriveled except for the woody 
bracket fungi frequently seen growing on 
tree trunks. 

You will find many pleasant returns from 
a plant collection. Whether it is to be used 
primarily for decorative effects, or as a 
means to a knowledge of the plants around 
you, you will find that you have acquired 
a new manual skill and a much greater 
awareness of the out-of-doors. 

To help you start, here is some recom- 
mended reading for techniques in pressing 
and mounting: 

Lawrence, G. H. M. Taxonomy of Vas- 
cular Plants. New York. 1951. (See 
Chapter II, Field and Herbarium 
Techniques). 

How to find a name: 

Bemson, Lyman. Plant Classification. 
Boston. 1957. (See Chapter I, Identifica- 
tion of Vascular Plants). 

You'll want to look carefully through both 
of these. Once you have a few specimens, 
try identifying them here: 

Mathews, F. S. Field Book of American 

Wild Flowers. New York. 1929. 
Wherry, Edgar T. Guide to Eastern 

Ferns. Lancaster, Pa. 1937. 
MacDougall, W. B. Field Book of 
Illinois Wild Flowers. Illinois Natural 
History Survey Manual I. 1936. 

For a more technical treatment on the 
vascular plants of Illinois: 

Jones, George Neville. Flora of Illinois. 
Amer. Midi. Natural. Mono. Ser., 
Notre Dame, Ind. ed. 2. 1950. 

Now you're on your own. You'll find 
many books both general and specific, on 
the shelves of your local library. Others are 
listed in the first two books above. Happy 
plant hunting! 



Botanist Completes Survey 

Dr. John W. Thieret, Curator of Economic 
Botany, has returned to the Museum from a 
two-month field trip in the Great Slave Lake- 
upper Mackenzie River region, Northwest 
Territories, Canada. Much of his time was 
devoted to a survey of the flora and vegeta- 
tion along the newly-opened Enterprise- 
Mackenzie River Highway, including the 
spur to Kakisa Lake. Four days were spent 
at Lake-on-the-Mountain atop the Horn 
Plateau, reached by airplane. Both the 
highway and the plateau are areas that pre- 
viously had not been explored botanically. 
Dr. Thieret was assisted in the field by Rob- 
ert Reich of Chicago, who recently was ap- 
pointed Custodian of the Herbarium. 



STRING QUARTET TO PLAY 
IN MUSEUM THEATRE 

A series of five chamber music programs 
will be presented by the Festival String 
Quartet in the James Simpson Theatre of 
the Museum. The first will be given on 
the evening of Wednesday, December 9; 
the others will be given on the second 
Wednesday evening of each of the next 
four months. Admission to the concerts 
will be free, and all of them will begin at 
8:15 P.M. 

The Festival Quartet is composed of 
Sidney Harth, Chicago Symphony Orchestra 
concert-master, and his wife Teresa — vio- 
linists; Rolf Persinger, assistant first violist 
with the Chicago Symphony; and Harry 
Sturm, also with the Chicago Symphony, 
who shares the symphony orchestra's first 
cellist position. At the December 9 con- 
cert Leon Fleisher, pianist, will appear as 
guest artist with the quartet. 

The programs are provided by the Free 
Concerts Foundation, Inc., and were made 
possible by Mrs. J. Dennis Freund, well- 
known civic leader and president of the 
foundation. 

Tickets may be obtained by calling in 
person at the Museum, or by writing Free 
Concerts, Chicago Natural History Museum 
(Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago 5) and enclosing a stamped, self- 
addressed envelope. 



SOUTHWEST EXPEDITION - 

(Continued from page 7) 

others; how they were frustrated by defeat- 
ism and inertia; how, in short, man uncon- 
sciously reached for civilization. 

In a sense we are tying together the threads 
of past cultures and in so doing we are gain- 
ing an understanding of the human spirit. 
Such knowledge levels all barriers, whether 
linguistic, spatial, or temporal. Henry Brooks 
Adams said that a teacher affects eternity; 
he can never tell where his influence stops. 
And so it is with knowledge of a culture. We 
date it, but it is timeless and affects eternity. 

The accomplishment of the physical as- 
pects of our work is not easy or glamorous. 
Throughout the summer with its attendant 
heat, insects, dust, and sweat, we have been 
aided, amused, comforted and vastly bene- 
fited by the help of our colleagues: Miss 
Margaret Alder, Howard Anderson, Michael 
Fox, Martin Hoffman, Allen Liss, William 
Longacre, Mrs. Martha Perry, Mrs. Ruth 
Rinaldo, Roland Strassburger, and Mark 
Winter. A true flame of comradeship has 
been kindled between all of us as a result of 
a satisfactory but hard season's work. Such 
a summer welds us all close together. Thanks 
of a boundless nature must be extended to 
the owners of the ranches in the Vernon area 
who munificently co-operated with us: Rob- 
ert B. Hooper of Springerville; Earl Thode 
of Vernon, and E. I. Whiting of St. Johns. 



Page 12 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



November, 1959 



JOURNEYS FOR CHILDREN 

November is the last month in which chil- 
dren can complete the Museum Journey on 
the subject of "Giant Plants." It may be 
taken by any boy or girl, any day, at any 
time within Museum visiting hours. At 
either entrance of the building, children will 
receive, on request, their "travel directions" 
which will guide them to various exhibits 
showing some of the world's largest kinds 
of plants. From these, the youngsters may 
obtain the information enabling them to fill 
in the answers to questionnaires which ac- 
company the Journey directions. 

Beginning December 1 a new Journey will 
be offered under the title "Animals of the 
Ice Age." This will continue as the subject 
through January and February. 

With the completion of four Journeys on 
different subjects, children receive awards as 
Museum Travelers. Those who complete 
eight Journeys qualify as Museum Adven- 
turers; twelve Journeys win them the title 
of Museum Explorers. Those who go on to 
the successful completion of 16 Journeys are 
eligible for a Special Journey which may ad- 
mit them to the Museum Discoverers Club. 



STAFF NOTES 



NEW MEMBERS 

(September 16 to October 16) 

Associate Members 

Herbert R. Arnold, George Hugh Barnard, 
Jason Ernest Bellows, Aldis J. Browne, Jr., 
John C. Butler, Edgar J. Call, Anthony R. 
Chiara, Morton A. Davis, Vernon K. Evans, 
Mrs. Frank Fink, Mrs. J. Dennis Freund, 
Miss Lenore Helmich, Dr. G. Duncan Hink- 
son, Russell D. Hobbs, Glen W. Holderby, 
Paul F. Ilg, Walter L. Jacobs, Dr. George D. 
Kaiser, A. T. Kearney, J. L. Keeshin, Alfred 
S. Markus, Mrs. James W. Merricks, Mrs. 
Michael F. Mulcahy, Roy B. Munroe, Mrs. 
Paul Rowan, Dr. Edward C. Smith, Miss 
Kate Staley, E. Norman Staub, Mrs. Clem- 
ent D. Stevens, Frederick W. Straus, Mrs. 
Isabel B. Wasson, William T. Young 

Sustaining Members 

Rex J. Bates, Dr. Harry K. Waddington 

Annual Members 

Richard F. Adler, Miss Esther Aldige, 
Dr. Carl A. Asher, Mrs. Harriet K. Babbitt, 
Mrs. Oscar Babbitt, Mrs. Houghton Baer, 
Mrs. Robert A. Baer, Mrs. David R. Bair, 
Thomas A. Banning, Jr., George S. Barnes, 
Charles R. Barrett, Dr. Robert G. Barrick, 
Raymond M. Barron, J. V. Barton, Max 
Becker, Jesse Bedford, Dr. Emily Bianco, 
Z. S. Birks, Joseph W. Bonner, Clarence G. 
Brack, Harry Buchardt, Benjamin B. Chod- 
ash, Abbott Coburn, Mrs. Thomas H. Coch- 
rane, Sander W. Cole, Mrs. Henry R. Cone- 
dera, Miss Florence W. Cuthbert, Charles A. 
Davis, Walter L. Darfier, William Tucker 
Dean, Reginald Dellow, William J. De- 
Stories, Dave Ellison, Harold R. Fagerson, 
Dr. Stanley Fahlstrom, William Harrison 
Fetridge, Mrs. Thomas Fisher, Louis Fish- 
man, Dr. J. Fitz Simmons, Mrs. Ray H. 
Freeark, Gaylord A. Freeman, Dr. Samuel 



Bertram G. Woodland, Associate Cura- 
tor of Petrology, recently was guest speaker 
for the Chicago Lapidary Club. His topic 
was "Discoveries Through Geology." . . . 
Dr. Eugene S. Richardson, Jr., Curator 
of Fossil Invertebrates, recently lectured on 
"Fossils of Illinois" at Maine Township High 
School. . . . William D. Turnbull, Assistant 
Curator of Fossil Mammals, spoke before 
the Kennicott Club on "Geology and Fauna 
of the Washakie Basin." . . . E. Leland 
Webber, Executive Assistant, and Miss 
Miriam Wood, Chief, Raymond Founda- 
tion, represented the Museum at the annual 
meeting of the Midwest Museums Confer- 
ence in Toledo, October 21-23. Miss Wood 
was chairman of the program committee, 
and moderator of the session on Education 
in Museums. Mr. Webber was a speaker 
in the session on Museum Sales Desks. 



Recorded Bird Calls Banned 

The use of recorded calls of ducks and 
geese by hunters has been prohibited by both 
the Canadian and United States Wildlife 
Services. This was done because the re- 
corded calls, of geese especially, are too effec- 
tive in luring the birds within shooting range, 
resulting in an excessive wildfowl kill. 

(Auk, 1958, p. 87) 



Garrick, Dr. Hugo Gerlofson, Howard Good- 
man, Dr. H. C. Gornstein, Kenneth A. 
Halvorson, William G. Hart, Byron Harvey, 
Miss Alice Hayde, John J. Hayes, John G. 
Heiland, Dr. Helen Heinen, Robert L. Hey- 
mann, Mrs. Clarence W. Hines, Milton W. 
Hirsch, Paul A. Iaccino, Forest A. King, 
Leroy Kramer, Jr., Dr. Charles Lafferty, 
A. J. Lindquist, Mrs. Luther M. Lorance, 
A. W. Lukas, Bjarne Lund, Jr., Mrs. M. R. 
Mackaye, Richard W. Massey, Dr. Irene T. 
Mead, Eugene Mittleman, Edward Murray, 
Mrs. Herman Neal, Charles W. Nicol, Rob- 
ert A. Nooden, Dr. Donald E. O'Brien, 
Dr. Daniel J. Pachman, James Thomas 
Patton, Henry R. Portis, Kenneth C. Prince, 
John P. Purdy, Edward E. Reda, Samuel S. 
Reid, Lester G. Rees, Malcolm S. Riegel, 
Frank J. Riha, George A. Rink, Harry A. 
Rioff, Manuel Rosner, Robert J. Roulston, 
Charles Rozmarek, Dr. A. H. Rudolph, Kurt 
J. Salomon, David A. Schallman, Robert 
Sargent Shriver, Jr., Franklin Bliss Snyder 
Jr., Walter Stearns, Mrs. F. H. Steinmann, 
James R. Sterling, John N. Stern, Lynn 
Stewart, Mrs. Raymond F. Smith, E. R. 
Clifford Strand, J. E. Sullivan, Mrs. J. 
Thomas Taussig, John R. Taylor, Charles 
Teitel, Sidney A. Teller, David Tesher, E. B. 
Urann, A. L. Van Ness, Leroy N. Vernon, 
Earl A. Vondrasek, William F. Wagoner, Dr. 
Anders J. Weigen, Morton Weinress, Dr. 
Irving Weissman, Sidney Wells, Dr. Samuel 
D. Willens, Thomas L. Williams, Jr., Miss 
S. Edna Wilson, J. W. Wirth, Dr. Lester 
Wishingrad, Dr. Joseph Zoltan 



MINERALOGY IN VERSE 

(Continued from page 9) 

lofty mountains. It is also supposed by 
geologists to be the lowest rock with which 
we are acquainted, forming a foundation for 
other rocks in every part of the globe. 

At the time when this poem was written, 
"philosophers" were still discussing the two 
points of view of the origin of igneous rocks. 
One group, the Neptunists, were convinced 
that granite and its allies were deposited, 
like sandstone or shale, from sea water; the 
other group, the Plutonists, held to a theory 
of igneous origin. Modern knowledge of 
physical chemistry has upheld the latter 
view. Silex is the archaic name for silica, 
the oxide of silicon. Felspar, of course, is 
now called feldspar. Caloric, a noun, was 
the current name for heat in chemical 
writing. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology 

From: Mrs. Lyman J. Carlock, Oak Park, 
111. — Oriental ethnological materials; Louis 
H. Fuchs, Downers Grove, 111. — Oriental 
ethnological objects; Dr. David C. Graham, 
Englewood, Colo. — porcelain jarlet, string of 
beads, China; Mrs. Walter S. Haldeman, 
Cape May, N.J. — Mandarin coat, China; 
Mrs. Harold E. Rucavado, Tucson, Ariz. — 
22 pottery and stone objects, Costa Rica 

Department of Botany 

From: H. R. Bennett, Chicago— 736 phan- 
erogams; Dr. Henry Field, Turkingham, 
Mass. — 3 bracket fungi; Fisheries Research 
Board, London, Ont., Canada — 15 phanero- 
gams; J. Soukup, Lima, Peru — 14 plants; 
Dr. L. H. Tiffany, Evanston, 111.— 10 phan- 
erogams 

Department of Geology 

From: Earl Christensen, Hammond, Ind. 
— 3.62-carat brilliant cut white beryl; W. P. 
Leutze, Richmond, Ind. — Silurian fishes; 
Dr. Rainer Zangerl, Hazelcrest, 111. — copper 
casts of five specimens of Glarichelys knorri 
(turtle), Switzerland 

Department of Zoology 

From: Sophie Andris, Chicago — fox squir- 
rel; Paul F. Basch, Ann Arbor, Mich. — non- 
marine shells, Guatemala; Dr. S. Stillman 
Berry, Redlands, Calif. — snails and clams; 
Mrs. W. G. Bott, Arlington Heights, 111. — 
sea shells; Dr. John C. Briggs, Vancouver, 
B. C, Canada — a fish specimen; Mrs. Har- 
riet Burkhart, Union City, Pa. — shells, 
Jamaica; Emery P. Chace, San Diego, Calif. 
— land snails, Eastern Pacific; Steve Col- 
lings, Rockville, Ind. — several hundred mil- 
lipedes; University of Colorado, Boulder — 
non-marine snails; Walter J. Eyerdam, Seat- 
tle — pearly freshwater mussels; Florida State 
Board of Conservation Marine Laboratory, 
St. Petersburg, Fla— 3 fishes; L. H. Fuchs, 
Downers Grove, 111. — 2 pair of deer antlers, 
Philippines; Harry Hoogstraal, Cairo, Egypt 
— 54 mammals, 99 bird skins, 100 insects and 
allies, 25 lizards, 33 snakes, 46 ticks, bird lice 



PRINTED BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 




Bulletin 



CHICAGO 
NATURAL 

HISTORY vuso jto.* 
MUSEUM at—mi* *»& 



Page 2 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



December, 1959 



Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour Henry P. Isham 

Sewell L. Avery William V. Kahler 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Walther Buchen J. Roscoe Miller 

Chbsser M. Campbell William H. Mitchell 

Walter J. Cummings John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Joseph N. Field Clarence B. Randall 

Marshall Field, Jr. John G. Searle 

Stanley Field Solomon A. Smith 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Louis Ware 

OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Hughston M. McBain First Vice-President 

Walther Buchen Second Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg Director and Secretary 

John R. Millar Assistant Secretary 

THE BULLETIN 

EDITOR 
Clifford C. Gregg Director of the Museum 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Theodor Just Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand Chief Curator of Zoology 

MANAGING EDITOR 
H. B. Harte Public Relations Counsel 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
Marilyn Jindrich Assistant in Public Relations 



Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



WILDLIFE OF AMERICA 
IN AUDUBON FILM 

An exciting journey, in color motion pic- 
tures, from the marshes of the Dakotas to the 
Rocky Mountains of Canada will be presented 
in the Illinois Audubon Society's Sunday 
screen-tour on the afternoon of Decem- 
ber 13 in the James Simpson Theatre. 

Cleveland P. Grant, well-known natural- 
ist formerly of the Museum staff, and a long- 
time favorite of Chicago audiences, will be 
the lecturer. He will show his recently com- 
pleted film, "Adventures in Color With 
American Birds and Big Game," preparation 
of which required four years of intensive 
effort under difficult conditions in remote 
lairs of four-footed and winged creatures. 

The lecture begins at 2 :30 p.m. Admission 
is free. Members of the Museum are cor- 
dially invited to attend, and to bring guests. 



STAFF NOTES 



New York Museum Honors McBain 

The trustees of the American Museum of 
Natural History in New York honored 
Hughston M. McBain last month by elect- 
ing him as a member of their board. Mr. 
McBain, First Vice-President of Chicago 
Natural History Museum, has been a Trus- 
tee of this Museum since 1946. 



George I. Quimby, Curator of North 
American Archaeology and Ethnology, re- 
cently made a field trip to Whitehall, Mich- 
igan, where as part of his Upper Great 
Lakes Paleo-Indian studies he examined sedi- 
ments dredged from a bay in White Lake. 
At the Museum of Anthropology in Ann 
Arbor he studied archaeological collections, 
and in Grand Rapids he conducted a Paleo- 
Indian seminar for the Michigan Archaeo- 
logical Society. . . . Dr. Roland W. Force, 
Curator of Oceanic Archaeology and Ethnol- 
ogy, lectured on "Cultural Changes in the 
Palaus" at the Borg- Warner Research Cen- 
ter of the Scientific Research Society of 
America. . . . Dr. Kenneth Starr, Curator 
of Asiatic Archaeology and Ethnology, pre- 
pared text and a pictorial feature on Chinese 
rubbings for the December Fine Arts Guide 
published by FM Radio Station WFMT. 
Earlier issues have featured Museum ma- 
terial on the South Pacific, primitive art, 
and American Indian art, through the co- 
operation of Curator Force, Phillip H. 
Lewis, Assistant Curator of Primitive Art, 
and Dr. Donald Collier, Curator of South 
American Archaeology and Ethnology. . . . 
Dr. John B. Rinaldo, Assistant Curator 
of Archaeology, has been appointed to the 
panel of editors of Archives of Archaeology 
of the Society of Archaeology Publications. 
. . . Dr. Theodor Just, Chief Curator of 
Botany, recently spoke on "Biogeography 
and Continental Drift" before the Confer- 
ence of Midwest College Biology Teachers 
at Notre Dame University. . . . Dr. John W. 
Thieret, Curator of Economic Botany, 
attended the Symposium on Systematics at 
Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. He 
also was guest speaker before the Kiwanis 
Club of Lake Forest, Illinois. . . . Dr. Rainer 
Zangerl, Curator of Fossil Reptiles, and 
Dr. Robert H. Denison, Curator of Fossil 
Fishes, attended the meetings of the Society 
of Vertebrate Paleontology in Pittsburgh. 
Dr. Denison was elected secretary-treasurer. 
Dr. Zangerl and Albert W. Forslev, Asso- 
ciate Curator of Mineralogy, attended meet- 
ings of the American Geological Institute. 
. . . Dr. Karl Koopman, Assistant Curator 
of Mammals, spoke on "West Indian Zoogeo- 
graphy" before the Zoology Club of the 
University of Chicago. . . . Rupert L. Wen- 
zel, Curator of Insects, lectured on "The 
Field of Entomology" before the Biology 
Club at the Chicago Academy of Sciences. 
D. Dwight Davis, Curator of Anatomy, 
was guest speaker on "Mammalogy" at an- 
other meeting of the same organization. 



■THIS MONTH'S COVER- 



The design reproduced on the 
cover is an ink rubbing of the 
inscribed "head" of an ancient 
Chinese roof tile, the whole of 
which tile is illustrated on page 3. 
The felicitous inscription, most 
appropriate in the month of 
Christmas, reads "Chlang-le wei- 
vang" (^^^3^:)— "lasting hap- 
piness, without end." There is 
some wistfulness in such a 
thought, for as the Chinese say, 
"The years do not wait for us," 
and yet few, indeed, are they 
who have even moments of deep 
happiness. Rubbings of such 
inscriptions long have been col- 
lected by Chinese scholars, whose 
interest, however, is not so much 
in the sentiment expressed, as 
in the archaic forms of the 
characters. 



4-H BOYS AND GIRLS 
TO VISIT MUSEUM 

The first day of December will be 4-H Day 
at the Museum. Junior farmers and cattle 
breeders from most of the rural areas of the 
United States, and several foreign countries 
as well, will continue a tradition of many 
years by visiting the Museum in large groups. 
Approximately 1,300, both boys and girls, 
selected in their local areas in recognition of 
their achievements, and dispatched as dele- 
gates to the 38th National 4-H Club Con- 
gress, held in Chicago in conjunction with 
the annual International Livestock Exposi- 
tion, will compose the groups brought to the 
Museum. 

The lecturers of the Raymond Founda- 
tion, and other members of the Museum 
staff, will conduct tours of exhibits for some 
of the young visitors, and will arrange assist- 
ance in other forms for those who seek out 
for themselves the material in the Museum 
especially coinciding with their personal in- 
terests. The 4-H groups represent some of 
the finest elements among America's youth- 
ful citizens, and the Museum staff is always 
especially happy to welcome these visitors. 



The entire geological sequence of life, cov- 
ering some billions of years, is indicated by 
exhibits in Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37) 
and Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38). 



Daily Guide-Lectures 

Free guide-lecture tours are offered daily 
except Sundays under the title "Highlights 
of the Exhibits." These tours are designed 
to give a general idea of the entire Museum 
and its scope of activities. They begin at 
2 p.m. on Monday through Friday and at 
2:30 p.m. on Saturday. 

Special tours on subjects within the range 
of the Museum exhibits are available Mon- 
days through Fridays for parties of ten or 
more persons by advance request. 



December, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 3 



'RUBBING' AGAINST HISTORY AND CULTURE OF CHINA 



By MARILYN J1NDRICH 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 

A CHILD is seated in the middle of the 
floor. Around him are strewn nickels, 
dimes, pennies, quarters. With the coins the 
youngster is industriously engaged in an ab- 
sorbing task of coin reproduction, putting 
out copies with almost production-line skill. 
No, this is no precocious " child counter- 
feiter" laying the groundwork for a future 
career. His reproductions are not the lead- 
slug variety, or something of that sort. His 
are crayon reproductions on paper . . . rows 
and rows of currency patterns made by placing 
paper over the coins and applying a crayon 
to the paper surface. Doubtless, everyone 
at one time or other during his childhood has 
found enjoyment in some similar activity, 
whether the object copied be coins, tiles on 
the bathroom floor, or text book covers doo- 
dled over during a particularly deadly por- 
tion of a lagging lesson. What junior doesn't 
know is that his entertaining pastime had its 
beginning 1,400 years ago in China. His 
efforts are actually a variation of the ancient 
Chinese art of "rubbing," an example of 
which appears on this Bulletin issue's 
cover. 




SOURCE OF OUR COVER DESIGN 

The inscription on the head of this ancient roof 

tile in the Museum's Chinese collections was used 

in making the ruhbing for this Bulletin. Specimen 

dates from Han period (207 B.C. -A.D. 220). 

What exactly are "rubbings?" How does 
one make an actual rubbing, as it is done in 
China? What is the value of rubbings? 

LARGE COLLECTION HERE 

These are questions that Dr. Kenneth 
Starr, Curator of Asiatic Archaeology and 
Ethnology, has been answering since his ar- 
rival at Chicago Natural History Museum 
in 1953. This situation has arisen because, 
with the Museum's collection of rubbings at 
his disposal— it is one of the largest and most 
representative in the world — Dr. Starr has 
had opportunity actively to pursue study of 
the ancient art, and to delve deeply into the 
history and technique of Chinese "rubbings." 
As a result the curious often seek him out for 
a rundown on the subject. 



That these explanatory excursions into 
the art and history of "rubbings" sometimes 
make unusual demands of Dr. Starr's knowl- 
edge is demonstrated by a recent television 
appearance he made at Ann Arbor, Michi- 
gan, for the University 
of Michigan. "The 
Gentle Art of Rub- 
bing" was the theme 
of the television show, 
and in connection with 
it Dr. Starr was asked 
to make a rubbing of 
an inscription on a 
tombstone from China. 
The stone was a trib- 
ute to a deceased Uni- 
versity of Michigan 
professor who had 
spent a number of 
years in that country 
in service to the Chi- 
nese government. The 
tombstone had been 
sent to his family. Dr. 
Starr made a rubbing 
of the inscriptions on 
the stone, with the 
step-by-step process 
recorded on film. 
Later the film was 
shown as part of the 
TV program. 

This again leads us 
to the earlier questions 
of what are rubbings 
and how are they 
made? Specifically, 
"rubbings are ink-on- 
paper copies of low- 
relief or intaglio (in- 
cised) inscriptions and 
designs on stone, met- 
al, fired clay, and other 
hard materials." 

According to Dr. Starr, their origin dates 
back to the 5th or early 6th century in China 
when the technique was used to copy stone- 
cut classical texts. The texts, by reason of 
their content and history, often were revered 
by the people as great guideposts in the 
"journey through life." As a result, the peo- 
ple would travel long distances to copy par- 
ticular texts. For many years the copying 
was done by hand — a lengthy and tedious 
job. The necessity for streamlining the ardu- 
ous copying process was eventually recog- 
nized by some enterprising individuals who 
hit upon the idea of direct transferral of the 
texts from the stones themselves. And so 
. . . "rubbings" were born. 

But now let's turn to the actual mechanics 
of making a "wet rubbing," as distinguished 
from a "dry rubbing" mentioned earlier, 
made with a crayon or pencil. First of all, 
the ingredients used in the process are paper, 
sizing liquid, brushes and pads, and an ink- 



ing wad. Just as the quality of the materials 
that go into the construction of a building 
often determine its durability and beauty, 
so, too, certain refinements in the type and 
quality of the materials used in making "rub- 




INCISED STONE SLAB, AND RUBBING 
The traditional love of antiquity manifested by the Chinese, and their penchant 
for memorializing poetic or philosophic passages, are exemplified in the inscrip- 
tion on the small polished piece of calcareous limestone above at left. It is a 
poem, which is copied in the ink rubbing at the right. The back of the stone is 
an irregular layer composed of a tangled mass of fossil trilobites from the 
Paleozoic Era, hundreds of millions of years ago, and its age probably attracted 
a scholar's reverence. 



bings" greatly influence the end product. 

Depending on the purposes for which the 
"rubbings" were made, extraordinarily unique 
variations in the materials and technique of 
"rubbing" were developed by the Chinese. 
Unfortunately, many of the refinements in 
materials and methods employed in the mak- 
ing of ancient rubbings fell into disuse and in 
the progress of time have gravitated to the 
category of "lost arts." Dr. Starr, after sev- 
eral years of painstaking translation of old 
Chinese writings, has unearthed a number of 
the unusual methods that were used. 

In brief, the technique used in making a 
"rubbing" involves a multi-stepped process. 
It can be explained as starting first with the 
actual cleaning of the object to be copied, 
after which step comes the application of the 
paper. The paper, that already has been 
sized with a special sizing liquid, is laid on 
the object and tamped to bring it into inti- 
(Continued on page 8, column 1) 



Page i 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



December, 1959 



'HE INFLUENCED THE COURSE OF DARWIN'S LIFE' 



By THEODOR JUST 

CHIEF CURATOR OF BOTANY 

THROUGHOUT his life, Charles Darwin 
regarded Alexander von Humboldt as 
"the greatest scientific traveller who ever 
lived." It was Humboldt's "Personal Nar- 
rative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions 
of America During the Years 1799-1804" 
that affected the whole subsequent course of 
Darwin's life. 
Today it is well known that Humboldt's 




ALEXANDER von HUMBOLDT, 1769-1859 
From an old engraving 

travels in tropical America were possible only 
after securing permission from the king of 
Spain to explore the Spanish possessions 
which, like those of Portugal and Holland, 
had so far been closed to travelers. The 
observations and collections made on this 
expedition gave Humboldt the data to estab- 
lish plant geography on a scientific basis. 

In addition to the botanical and zoological 
collections, Humboldt acquired the first geo- 
logical specimens and numerous data of a 
geodetic character, as well as information on 
the various Indian tribes, their languages, 
artistic accomplishments, and mode of life. 
On June 9, 1802, he climbed Chimborazo 
near Quito, Ecuador, to a height of 19,286 
feet (actual height 20,577 feet) and thus ac- 
complished what no one before had dared. 
This climb has been compared with the con- 
quest of Mount Everest in recent years. 
Humboldt and his companion, Aim6 Bon- 
pland, after traveling and collecting in Vene- 
zuela, Cuba, Peru, and Ecuador, continued 
their work in Mexico. Before returning to 
Europe, Humboldt spent eight weeks in the 
United States, three of which he spent with 
Jefferson at Monticello discussing, among 
other things, a Panama canal project. Hum- 
boldt also visited Peale's Philadelphia Mu- 
seum, then the largest of its kind in the New 
World, and the "American Linnaeus," Henry 



Muhlenberg, in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 
Upon returning to Europe in August of 1804 
he was welcomed as the second Columbus. 

FINANCED OWN TRAVELS 

The entire trip was financed by Humboldt 
himself, using for this purpose 33,500 thalers, 
or one-thiid of his inheritance. The botan- 
ical collections amounted to 6,200 species, 
over half of which were new, and are mostly 
deposited in the Museum National d'His- 
toire Naturelle in Paris. Fortunately, Chi- 
cago Natural History Museum now has many 
photographs of these type specimens and 
small portions taken from the original sheets 
(see illustration). 

The study of the collections made in the 
Americas required 20 years, involving Hum- 
boldt, Bonpland, at first Willdenow of Ber- 
lin, and later, K. S. Kunth. Many novelties 
described by them bear the unmistakable 
combination of their initials, H.B.K. The 




Specimen collected by Humboldt and now c\lii- 
bited in Paris Museum. 



results were published in a famous set of 30 
volumes accompanied by more than 1,200 
plates by Turpin. Humboldt again financed 
this enterprise and thus reached the end of 
his resources. He then returned home to 
Berlin and was appointed to the King's 
Council. In this position, he was sent on 
many important diplomatic missions, but 
was never obliged to stop his scientific in- 
vestigations and writing. 

In fact, by 1829 he decided to make an 
extensive trip to Central Asia and the Cas- 
pian Sea. Accompanied by a geologist, C. G. 
Ehrenberg, and a mineralogist, G. Rose, they 
brought back valuable collections and data. 
While in Russia, Humboldt predicted on geo- 



logical grounds that diamonds would be found 
in the Ural Mountains. This prediction was 
quickly substantiated by a prominent land- 
owner. 

The later part of his life was devoted to his 
effort to present nature as a whole in his 
classic work Cosmo3. In this respect he at- 
tempted what Aristotle and Albert the Great 
had tried before. In doing so, Humboldt 
proved to be a polyhistor, a man of univer- 
sal knowledge. 

Apart from his extensive collections of 
plants, it is interesting to note that he started 
his botanical studies by writing about low 
plants found underground near the School 
of Mining at Freiberg, where he studied geol- 
ogy. After that he applied the available 
knowledge of chemistry to agriculture and 
the physiology of plants. In South America 
he gathered all he could about cinchona and 
rubber plants. He also proposed the first 
system of growth forms of plants based on 
their appearance rather than the structure 
of the flower, as used by Linnaeus for classi- 
fication. Then followed his famous books 
on the foundations of plant geography. 

Humboldt's last biographer, Prof. Helmut 
de Terra of Yale University, has attempted 
to appraise in general terms Humboldt's con- 
tributions to the following sciences and 
humanities: anthropology, astronomy, bot- 
any, geography, geology, geophysics, mete- 
orology, oceanography, physiology, and 
zoology. He also has given us a list of towns, 
counties, mountains, currents, and other geo- 
graphic sites that bear Humboldt's name. 
In short, Humboldt was famous while he 
lived and, personally or by correspondence, 
in contact with the intellectual and political 
leaders of his time, ranging from Goethe and 
Schiller to Simon Bolivar and Thomas Jef- 
ferson. He held honorary membership in 
ten learned societies in the United States, 
the oldest in the American Philosophical So- 
ciety of Philadelphia dating from 1804. Like 
Charles Darwin, he is being honored this 
year by various scientific societies and insti- 
tutions. 



Museums Professional Group 
Elects Miriam Wood 

At its recent annual meeting, held in 
Toledo, Ohio, the Midwest Museums Con- 
ference accorded a signal honor to Miss 
Miriam Wood, Chief of this Museum's 
Raymond Foundation staff, by electing her 
as president for the ensuing year. The 
choice of Miss Wood for this post stems 
from her active participation and construc- 
tive work in the Conference over a period 
of several years. She has attained a high 
standing among colleagues in educational 
activities of museums for school children 
also because of the notably effective develop- 
ments in this field made under her direction 
of the Raymond Foundation. 



December, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 5 



'BIRDS OF THE WORLD' NEARING COMPLETION 



By EMMET R. BLAKE 

CURATOR OF BIRDS 

THE MUSEUM'S Synoptic Series of Birds 
of the World (Boardman Conover Hall 
— Hall 21) is nearing completion with the 
recent installation of a new exhibit showing 
representative birds of 20 additional families. 
As with previous sections of this series, the 
birds of each family or closely related group 
of families are mounted in lifelike attitudes 
on raised panels, the better to enable one to 
recognize the distinctive characters of each. 
The 43 species shown 
in the new exhibit were 
selected to illustrate 
the range of variation 
to be found in each of 
20 bird families having 
a combined total of 
more than 700 species. 

The four orders, or 
major taxonomic 
groups encompassed 
by the new exhibit, in- 
clude birds of striking 
diversity. Some, as 
the hummingbirds, are 
notably small and 
others conspicuously 
large. Trogons, king- 
fishers, motmots and 
bee-eaters have bril- 
liant plumage that is 
in strong contrast with 
the drab appearance 
of swifts, nightjars and 
various others that ap- 
pear nearby. Oilbirds, 
potoos, nightjars and 
other nocturnal birds 

vie for attention with those of more "nor- 
mal" daytime habits. Some of the birds 
shown are solitary in habits while others pre- 
fer to live in flocks. And geographically, 
virtually all parts of the world except the 
polar regions are represented by some of the 
bird families brought together in this exhibit. 

To the ornithologist all birds are of some, 
if not equal interest. When sufficiently well 
known, even birds of undistinguished appear- 
ance often are found to have characteristics 
that excite the imagination. Consider the 
coly or"mousebird" of Africa, a rather small, 
crested bird with a long tail and dun-colored 
plumage. Although "just another bird" to 
the uninformed, colies are amazingly acro- 
batic and often hang head downward; in- 
deed, some authorities state that they even 
sleep in this position. 

Or consider the hornbills of Africa, tropical 
Asia and certain Pacific islands. The 45 spe- 
cies include some of the most grotesque of 
birds, but the family is perhaps best known 
by reason of its peculiar nesting habits. In 
some species the female enters the hollow- 
tree nest before the eggs are laid and plasters 
herself in with mud brought by the male. 



There she remains until the young are fledged, 
the duty of feeding the family being assumed 
by the male. 

Nightjars and their relatives occupy a sep- 
arate panel and at a glance are seen to share 
certain physical attributes. Most note- 
worthy are the soft dull plumage, weak feet, 
decidedly long wings, large eyes, expansive 
gapes and (usually) very weak bills. All are 
essentially nocturnal in habits, and most of 
them prey on insects skillfully captured in 
flight. Several of these birds have remark- 




SECTION OF NEW BIRD EXHIBIT 
The Kingfishers. They vary greatly in size and color, but all have conspicuous 
anatomical similarities. Belying the family name, many species live in dry 
regions and prey on insects instead of fish. Counter-clockwise from upper left, 
the birds above are representatives of the: White-breasted, Common, Least 
Green, Kookaburra and Ringed species. 



able abilities only recently suspected and 
verified. For example, the poor-will, a west- 
ern relative of the night hawk, is now known 
to be capable of true hibernation, and in this 
it may be unique among birds. Oilbirds, 
strange nocturnal denizens of northern South 
America, nest on ledges in deep caves from 
which they emerge at night to feed on the 
fruits of palms. Only in recent years has it 
been known that these birds avoid obstacles 
in the darkness, as do bats, by emitting 
sounds that rebound from hard surfaces. 

The marvels of bird flight are perhaps best 
exemplified by swifts and hummingbirds, 
both represented in the new exhibit by sev- 
eral species. Swifts are aerialists of the 
highest order and appear to spend most of 
the daylight hours feeding on the wing. Re- 
ported flight speeds approaching 300 miles 
per hour undoubtedly are erroneous, but 
certain tropical swifts are considered the 
speediest of all birds and have been clocked 
at better than 100 miles an hour. Hum- 
mingbirds are slow by comparison, yet they 
too have astonishing aerial abilities, includ- 
ing that of reverse flight. Most remarkable, 
however, is the rapidity of a hummingbird's 



FREE CONCERTS BEGIN 
ON DECEMBER 9 

For the first time since 1930, James Simp- 
son Theatre will resound with the strains of 
chamber music at the opening performance 
of the Festival String Quartet on Wednes- 
day, December 9, with noted pianist Leon 
Fleisher featured as guest artist for the eve- 
ning. 

The musical program will consist of Beet- 
hoven's "String Quartet Opus 59, No. 2," 
"Piano Quartet in E Flat Major," by Mo- 
zart, and Dvorak's "Piano Quintet." The 
string quartet is composed of members of 
the Chicago Symphony orchestra, including 
Sidney Harth, concertmaster. 

The first chamber music concerts ever pre- 
sented in the Museum were launched in 1926 
under the sponsorship of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Sprague Coolidge. The concerts were free 
and were received with such enthusiasm that 
they were continued in the years 1927, 1928, 
and 1930 with the Chicago Chamber Music 
Society joining Mrs. Coolidge in sponsoring 
the concert series. All the series featured 
the music of the Gordon String Quartet. 

This year's free chamber music concerts 
are provided by the Free Concerts Founda- 
tion, Inc., and were made possible by Mrs. 
J. Dennis Freund, president of the founda- 
tion. Following the December 9 perform- 
ance, concerts will be given on January 12, 
February 10, March 9, and April 13, 1960. 
The performances begin at 8:15 p.m., and 
those attending may enter the Museum 
through the north, south, or west doors. 

Tickets may be obtained by calling in per- 
son at the Museum or writing Free Concerts 
Foundation, Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum (Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago 5) and enclosing a stamped, self- 
addressed envelope. Guest artists for the 
January 12 concert are Phyllis Curtin, so- 
prano, and Ray Stille, oboist, both well- 
known to Chicago music lovers. 



Museum Not Open to Visitors 
Christmas or New Year's 
In accordance with its custom, the Mu- 
seum will be closed on Christmas and New 
Year's day, to permit all of its employees to 
enjoy the holidays with their families. These 
are the only days in the entire year on which 
the Museum is not open to the public. 



wingbeats, which may exceed 60 per second 
and can be seen only as a blur. Obviously, 
with birds as with people, greater familiarity 
often reveals unsuspected abilities that merit 
admiration. 

The new exhibit was designed by the 
Division of Birds, and prepared by Staff Taxi- 
dermist Carl W. Cotton and Assistant Taxider- 
mist Peter Anderson; art work is by E. John 
Pfiffner, Staff Artist. 



Page 6 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



December, 1959 



THE CHRISTMAS ISLANDS 
DEFY YULE TRADITION 

WITH THE SEASON fast approaching 
when countless columns in countless 
publications will be devoted to stories of the 
Nativity, Santa Claus, red-nosed reindeers, 
and Christmas customs and traditions, it 
seems only fitting that among all the reams 
of Christmas copy at least a few paragraphs 
should be devoted to the island that is the 
namesake of that popular holiday — namely, 
"Christmas Island." 

First of all, it is necessary that one rather 
confusing fact be cleared up right from the 
start. And that is, there is not "a Christ- 
mas Island" — there are two such islands. 
What's more, neither is located near the 
North Pole, as popular Christmas lore would 
favor placing them. On the contrary, one 
Christmas Island is located in the Pacific 
ocean south-southeast of Hawaii in a chain 
of islands called the Line Islands, and the 
other is found in the Indian Ocean just south- 
west of Java. (We'll call them "Pacific 
Christmas" and "Indian Christmas" to sim- 
plify identification.) 

Now, when the word " Christmas" is men- 
tioned, automatically a number of popular 
symbols flash to mind — churches, Santa 
Claus, Christmas trees, carols, shopping, etc. 
An appropriate thought, considering the is- 
lands' name, is how well do the Christmas 
islands live up to the concepts associated 
with their name? 

NO SNOW, NO HOLLY . . . 

Going down the list, the first to be crossed 
off is snow. The tropical locations of the 
islands take care of that score. "Indian 
Christmas" is completely covered by luxu- 
rious tropical vegetation, while on the other 
hand, "Pacific Christmas" is a low semi- 
barren, uninhabitable island famous for its 
beautiful colors — but without much in the 
way of fauna, and without soil that will grow 
fruits and vegetables usually found in the 
tropics. 

Naturally, it follows that under such cli- 
matic conditions, Christmas trees as we know 
them are also definitely out. And those pro- 
verbial halls would have to go undecorated 
if they depended on the Christmas islands 
for their supply of holly and mistletoe. 

Reindeer? There are none on the Christ- 
mas islands, of course. As a matter of fact, 
there are no animals whatever of comparable 
stature or size. "Pacific Christmas" is in- 
habited mostly by birds (and lots of them), 
turtles, land crabs, rats, and recently cats. 
The animal life on "Indian Christmas" is 
similar, mostly birds, rats, bats, and certain 
kinds of insects. 

WHENCE THE NAME? 

At this time a perfectly reasonable and 
legitimate question to ask is, "How ever did 
the islands become labeled with such a mis- 
nomer?" A little history supplies the answer. 



EXHIBIT OF DARWINIANA 
IN SECOND MONTH 




The special exhibit, "Darwin's Origin of 
Species," opened last month to mark the 
centennial of the publication of the great 
naturalist's theories, will remain on view in 
Stanley Field Hall through December 31. 
There are six panels, each dealing with a 
phase of the Darwin story. Included are 
holograph letters written by Darwin, speci- 
mens he collected on the historic voyage 
of the Beagle, and a copy of the rare first 
edition of Origin of Species. In the photo- 
graph above, part of the exhibit is viewed 
by two high school girls — Karen Selchow, 
of Woodstock, Illinois, and Kathy Nelson 
of Chicago. 



Let's go back to the year 1777. It is win- 
ter, and at a place called Valley Forge an 
army of American revolutionaries led by 
General George Washington is courageously 
holding its own against the elements in one of 
the fiercest winters the men had ever experi- 
enced — a winter later to be recorded in all 
U. S. history books. At the same time that 
struggle was going on at Valley Forge, on 
the other side of the earth another battle 
was being waged by a crew of able seamen 
led by a distinguished English navigator and 
explorer, Captain James Cook. But theirs 
was a struggle with the sea. Captain Cook 
was navigating the Pacific Ocean on a voyage 
that was destined also to get into history 
books. 

On December 24, 1777, Captain Cook 
sighted land, a small island atoll in mid- 
Pacific. His ship was running low on food, 
so Captain Cook sent a party ashore to for- 
age for additions to the ship's supplies. 
When the group returned the only thing they 
brought with them was a number of large 
turtles and the disheartening news that there 
was very little else besides turtles and birds 
to be found — and no fresh water. That eve- 
ning when Captain Cook went to his journal 
he suddenly realized it was Christmas Eve. 
And that is how Christmas Island in the 
Pacific got its name. 



As for "Indian Christmas," we have to go 
back a little bit further in history for its 
christening. The year was 1643. A home- 
ward bound merchant ship of the East India 
Company, commanded by Captain Williams 
Mynors, was passing through the Indian 
Ocean when it unexpectedly came upon an 
atoll not shown on its charts. The day was 
December 25, Christmas Day. And so, an- 
other island was named. It was not always 
called Christmas Island, however, for a num- 
ber of years after Captain Mynors landed on 
the atoll, some other voyagers landed there 
and gave it the name "Moni." On a few 
maps that name still appears, but Christmas 
Island is presently its official name. 

BOTH ARE ATOLLS 

It is a rather curious fact that the two is- 
lands, owned by the British, were discovered 
on the same day of the year, and conse- 
quently both named "Christmas Island," 
for the pattern of the subsequent develop- 
ment of the two is strikingly similar. As 
already mentioned, both are atolls ("Pacific 
Christmas" with 222 square miles is the larg- 
est atoll in the world), and although one is 
covered with luxurious tropical vegetation 
and the other is barren in comparison, they 
have in common the fact that they lack any 
appreciable surface water. This factor dis- 
couraged human habitation on either for a 
number of years. 

The first considerable settlement on the 
islands occurred around the end of the 19th 
century, prompted by the hope of economic 
exploitation. Both the atolls appeared to be 
rich in phosphates, " Indian Christmas" hav- 
ing a number of large limestone outcrops, 
and "Pacific Christmas" having deposits of 
guano. (These deposits consist of the accu- 
mulated excrement of birds, usually sea fowl, 
and occur in rainless areas along the ocean. 
Guano has commercial use as fertilizer.) 

The first few attempts at profitable exploi- 
tation of the atolls were rather unsuccessful, 
and as a result the islands changed hands a 
number of times. In 1940, however, " Indian 
Christmas" exported 238,006 tons of phos- 
phates under the management of the Christ- 
mas Island Phosphate Company. Produc- 
tion stopped for a period during World 
War II when the island was occupied by the 
Japanese. The productivity of "Pacific 
Christmas" has been less notable. Although 
it was leased in 1913 to the Central Pacific 
Coconut Plantations, Ltd., by the British 
government for a period of 87 years for the 
production of coconuts, oil, pearl shell, and 
guano, since 1930 it has been used mainly as 
a British air stopover. 

These are the stories of the Christmas is- 
lands, rather insignificant in their impact on 
history and the world's economy, and equally 
insignificant in their effect on the Christmas 
season . . . sure is a shame they don't have 
any reindeer ... or snow . . . or . . . Santa 
Claus! 

Marilyn Jindrich 



December, 1959 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



Page 7 



FOUR 'JOURNEYERS' NAMED 
FIRST 'DISCOVERERS' 

A most unusual graduating class received 
diplomas November 21 on the stage of 
James Simpson Theatre. In the class were 
only four students, ages 11 to 15 years, 
and the "degrees" they received were not 
based on academic courses completed but 
on the successful accomplishment of 17 Mu- 
seum "Journeys." 

The graduates are participants in a special 
educational research program for children 




started by the Museum's Raymond Foun- 
dation in March, 1955, and they are the 
first to complete 17 Journeys. (Nearly 5,000 
Journey sheets have been turned in since 
1955). The Journeys direct children to Mu- 
seum exhibits that deal with various pre- 
scribed topics. "Passports," travel charts, 
and questionnaires for the Journeys are 
issued to interested children at the Museum 
entrances. 

The 17th Journey, which qualified the four 
for graduation and membership in the Mu- 
seum's newly formed " Discoverers' Club," is 
entitled "Voyage of the Beagle." It leads 
"journeyers" into fields in which Charles 
Darwin pioneered in his voyage on the ship 
of that name in 1831-36 — a voyage on which 
he formulated most of his ideas concerning 



evolution. The journey is particularly timely 
in this centennial year of the "Origin of 
Species," commemorated in the Museum 
with a special pictorial Darwin exhibit which 
will be on display in Stanley Field Hall 
until December 31. 

The four graduates now being admitted to 
the Museum's "Discoverers' Club" are: 
Boyce Brunson, 11, and his sister Carol, 12, 
of Chicago; Konrad Banasak, 15, of Whiting, 
Indiana; and Janet Mangold, 11, of Livonia, 
Michigan. 

At the " commencement" program, awards 
were given to 43 other children in various 




FOUR 'YOUNG DARWINS'-the first youngsters 
to complete a lull course of Museum Journeys and 
win membership in the Discoverers' Club — are 
shown in the three pictures on this page. They are: 
Konrad Banasak, 15, Whiting, Indiana; Janet Man- 
gold, 11, Livonia, Michigan; and Carol Brunson, 12, 
with her brother Boyce, 11, of Chicago. 

stages of study at the Museum by Deputy 
Director John R. Millar: 20 received "Mu- 
seum Traveler" recognition for completing 
four Journeys; nine were named "Adven- 
turers" for eight Journeys; five were cited 
as new "Explorers" for 12 Journeys; and 
nine who completed 16 Journeys were ad- 
mitted to the next group to do "The Voyage 
of the Beagle." 



New Journey Topic 

"Animals of the Ice Age" is scheduled 
as the new Journey for December, January, 
and February. It is based on the unusual 
animals that lived in the Chicago Region 
from 10,000 to one million years ago, such 
as the prehistoric elephants (mastodons and 
mammoths) and the giant beavers that 
reached lengths of nearly five feet. The 
Museum's skeleton of a giant beaver is 
one of very few known complete specimens. 
The Journey may be taken at any time 
during regular visiting hours. 



NATURE PHOTO CONTEST 
JUDGES SELECTED 

Five judges, including two members of the 
scientific staff of the Museum, have been se- 
lected to rule on the acceptance of photo- 
graphs for exhibition, and the award of medals 
and ribbons in the 15th Chicago Interna- 
tional Exhibition of Nature Photography. 

The deadline for entries in this contest, 
sponsored jointly by the Chicago Nature 
Camera Club and the Museum, is Janu- 
ary 18. The exhibition of successful entries 
will be held in Stanley Field Hall of the 
Museum from February 6 to 26. 

Those named to the panel of judges are: 
Mrs. George W. Blaha, APSA, photographer 
and naturalist; Arthur Hunter, teacher and 
naturalist; Ray Sauers, photographer; and 
the two Museum staff members, Dr. Alan 
Solem, Curator of Lower Invertebrates, and 
Dr. John W. Thieret, Curator of Economic 
Botany. 

In addition to the exhibit of prints, there 
will be two screenings of color slides on Sun- 
day afternoons, February 7 and 14, at 
2:30 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre of 
the Museum. 

For years this contest and exhibition have 
been the world's largest in the field of nature 
subjects, as well as one of the largest photog- 
raphy contests of any kind. In each of the 
two divisions of the contest (prints and color 
slides) there are three subject classifications: 
(1) Animal Life; (2) Plant Life; and (3) Gen- 
eral, which comprises scenic views, clouds, 
geological formations, and other inanimate 
natural phenomena. Contestants may sub- 
mit up to four entries in each division. The 
Museum will furnish entry forms and other 
information upon request. Entries should be 
mailed directly to the Museum. 

In addition to medals and ribbons awarded 
by the Nature Camera Club in each classifi- 
cation of the two divisions, special medals 
for slides best illustrating color harmony in 
nature will be awarded by the Nature Divi- 
sion of the Photographic Society of America. 



GIFTS TO THE MUSEUM 

Following is a list of the principal gifts 
received during the past month: 

Department of Anthropology 

From: Walter Bujak, Cleveland — Ozalid 
copy of rubbing of Maya stone disc 

Department of Botany 

From: H. R. Bennett, Chicago — 1,007 
phanerogams, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois; 
Dr. J. G. Hawkes, Birmingham, England— 
292 phanerogams, Mexico and Central Amer- 
ica; Magill College Herbarium, Montreal — 
3 phanerogams; Dr. Barbara Palser, Chicago 
— 5 phanerogams, California; Milton W. San- 
derson, Urbana, 111. — 58 phanerogams, Do- 
minican Republic 

Department of Geology 

Harold Hinds, Portland, Ore. — partial 
{Continued on page 8, column 3) 



Page 8 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BULLETIN 



December, 1959 



CHINESE RUBBINGS- 

(Continued from page 3) 

mate contact with every detail of the surface 
to be reproduced. When the paper is dry it 
is ready for inking with the "inking wad." 
As the result of this final inking step, there 
eventually emerge the outlines and designs 
of the decorative features under the paper 
. . . and there you have a rubbing! This is, 
of course, but a skeleton description of the 
art as actually practiced. 

Although it is ordinarily thought of as be- 
longing to antiquity, the art of making rub- 
bings can be applied just as well to modern 
or contemporary subjects; so that instead of 
using an ancient stone text or "oracle bone" 
for reproduction, the design work on a piece 
of pottery, any artfully tooled metal, de- 
signed glass, or the like, may be used. The 
resultant "rubbing" may be utilized in many 
ways for desired decorative ends. 

This brings us to the last question remain- 
ing to be answered — namely, of what value 
are "rubbings?" Aside from pure aesthetic 
considerations, or from the opportunity the 
art provides for the development of a most 
interesting hobby, or from the commercial 



use of rubbings on book jackets, magazine 
covers, etc. (the Museum's collections have 
often been used for such purposes), rubbings 
have become rich sources of information, es- 
pecially for students of the humanities. 

The life and customs of civilizations of cen- 
turies long past were recorded in stone reliefs 
on tomb exteriors and interiors, stone pillars, 
"oracle bones," and other structures of artis- 
tic and archaeological significance. Many of 
these monuments no longer exist, having fall- 
en prey to the destructive forces of nature 
and man. In many cases our only record of 
their existence and of the cultures in which 
they were made lies in "rubbings" made of 
them while they were still standing. 

And so the technique that started as a 
shortcut for the mass dissemination of Chi- 
nese doctrine has survived through the ages 
to emerge as a little-known art but one that 
has made, and will continue to make, impor- 
tant contributions in the unfolding of the 
history of the world. 



Primitive jewelry, both ancient and 
modern, from many parts of the world is 
included in H.N. Higinbotham Hall of Gems 
and Jewels (Hall 31). 



NEW MEMBERS 

(October 19 to November 16) 

Life Members 

Mrs. G. C. Hodgson, Judd Sackheim 

Non-Resident Life Member 

Egington Franklin 

Sustaining Member 

Sam Fink 

Associate Members 

Joseph Barbera, A. R. Basile, Nuel D. 
Belnap, Alfred S. Berens, Charles C. Blish, 
Ralph L. Braucher, William B. Browder, 
Allen E. Bulley, James E. Burd, Mrs. H. L. 
Calvin, Hugh Campbell, Junius F. Cook, 
Jr., Dr. Richard S. Cook, John S. Coulson, 
D. E. Davidson, Frank P. De Lay, Robert J. 
Doucette, A. F. Escudier, Preston Farley, 
Miss Johanna C. Glaman, Burton W. Hales, 
Jr., Dr. M. B. Hopkins, Reinhardt H. Jahn, 
Dr. Joseph H. Kiefer, Arthur Lehr, Ross O. 
Major, Dr. Gilbert H. Marquardt, Allen W. 
Mathis, Edward Michalko, Harold B. Myers, 
John Nash Ott, Jr., Richard J. Radebaugh, 
Howard C. Reeder, Max K. Ruppert, Mrs. 
Mary H. Russell, Charles F. Schwartz, Bur- 
ton E. Simonson, Richard E. Snyder, Dr. 
H. Frederick Staack, Jr., Mrs. Norman J. 
Stiner, Orlin I. Wahl, Dr. Lydia Walkowiak, 
Mrs. John E. Wells, John Warren Wells, 
Mrs. Russell Wiles 

Annual Members 

William H. Allaway, Mrs. C. Paul Amer- 
man, Howard W. Andersen, Dr. Freida Gri- 
gorovitch Barsky, Samuel Bernstein, Donald 
R. Booz, William M. Brandt, Benjamin M. 
Brodsky, George V. Burns, Dr. H. W. 
Christy, W. K. Coolidge, Dr. C. D. Cory, 
Dr. August F. Daro, Leonard S. Davidow, 
Mrs. S. E. Dean, Jr., F. J. Dittrich, Richard 
Dohner, Miss Louise Drapier, Einar J. Ed- 



fors, O. J. Eigsti, Mrs. Benjamin F. Ellis, 
Miss Virginia Esten, Edwin Feulner, Jes- 
eph B. Fitzer, Irvin J. Fox, Jack Freeman, 
Hugh H. Gallarneau, Edward R. Glick, An- 
drew C. Hamilton, Gideon Haynes, Jr., 
Herman H. Henkle, Joseph M. Jacobs, W. 
Beaumont Jordan, Michael M. Kachigian, 
Louis C. Karbiner, Dr. W. L. Keck, Sivert 
Klefstad, A. C. Knutson, Dr. Robert H. 
Koff, Louis A. Kolssak, R. E. Long, Francis 
E. Luthmers, Dr. Eugene F. Lutterbeck, 
Michael H. Lyons, Merwin Q. Lytle, Dr. 
Herman Mackoff, George G. Mah, Samuel 
C. Maragos, Frank O. Marks, Frank G. 
Marshall, Edward C. McLean, Dr. E. L. 
McMillan, Frank McNair, Dr. H. P. Nedoss, 
William L. O'Brien, Mrs. Keith L. Paden, 
Dr. John M. Palmer, Joseph J. Pellettiere, 
Richard S. Pepper, Dr. Willis J. Potts, Ed- 
mund D. Putnam, Mrs. Bernard J. Rix, 
Mrs. Richard L. Rogers, R. W. Robinson, 
Philip Rootberg, William L. Runzel, Jr., 
Anthony M. Ryerson, Robert James Sadlek, 
Thomas P. Scanlan, Mrs. Herbert S. Schelly, 
Fred H. Schildt, Joseph Schonthal, Edward 
H. Schwartz, R. V. Searson, Dr. S. J. Shafer, 
Harry G. Shaffer, Dr. Leon S. Shalla, Marc 
A. Shantz, Leo C. Sheldon, Leo Singer, Floyd 
Slasor, O. O. Smaha, Dr. Charles J. Smalley, 
Howard J. Snitoff, Mrs. F. W. Specht, Ralph 
W. Stark, Mrs. Harry Stollery, Elmer H. 
Stonehouse, William G. Stophlet, E. H. Stu- 
benrauch, Dr. Fred J. Stucker, G. Truman 
Thomas, Warren H. Thon, Winfield Tice, 
George C. Tracy, M. G. Van Buskirk, Mrs. 
Edwin P. Vanderwicken, A. H. Van Kampen, 
Dr. Frank J. Veverka, Dr. Anton J. Vlcek, 
Frederick C. Von Brauchitsch, John C. Voo- 
sen, Dr. Hans Wachtel, Mrs. William Ernest 
Walker, Dr. Richard W. Watkins, George T. 
Weick, Robert B. Whittaker, Ralph E. Wil- 
liams, Wallace E. Wing, Dr. Sidney S. Wise, 
Mrs. Lloyd Wynne, Orrin E. Wolf 



CHRISTMAS SHOPPING 
EASY VIA MUSEUM 

The Museum offers two unique 
special services that make Christmas 
shopping easy. If you use them you 
don't have to leave your home, you 
stay away from crowds, and you don't 
have to wrap packages. Everything 
you need to do can be done at your 
own desk. But, if you prefer to come 
in to shop, there's free parking, and 
bus transportation. 

First, there is the plan for giving 
Museum Memberships as Christmas 
gifts. This is completely described in 
a separate circular enclosed with this 
Bulletin. 

Second, there is the Museum BOOK 
SHOP, which handles orders by mail 
or telephone (W Abash 2-9410). It 
has a fine selection of books for both 
adults and children, all endorsed by 
members of the Museum scientific 
staff. It offers unusual art objects, 
notably authentic native wood-carv- 
ings recently received from Africa. 
There are also novelties, toys, and 
items for juvenile collectors. The 
BOOK SHOP will handle all details 
of wrapping and mailing gift purchases 
to recipients, together with such per- 
sonal greetings as the purchaser may 
specify, charging only postal costs. 



GIFTS TO MUSEUM- 

(Continued from page 7) 

skeleton of fossil salamander; W. P. Leutze, 
Richmond, Va. — 21 specimens fossil euryp- 
terids, West Virginia 

Department of Zoology 

From: Chin Phui Kong, North Borneo — 
17 frog larvae, 104 fishes; Harry Hoogstraal, 
Cairo, Egypt — 338 bird skins, 3 birds in alco- 
hol, 4 mammals; Malaria Survey and Control 
Branch, Fort Clayton, Canal Zone — 427 bat- 
flies; Dr. Orlando Parks, Evanston, 111. — 
658 bird skins, 690 mammals, Middle West; 
Dr. Karl F. Koopman, Chicago — 45 reprints 
of publications on mammals; Comdr. Rob- 
ert E. Kuntz, San Francisco — mollusks, For- 
mosa; H. de Sousa Lopes, Rio de Janeiro — 
inland shells; Charles Many, New Orleans — 
12 land snails; Mrs. J. T. Mauer, Chicago 
— 16 North American moths; Mrs. R. E. 
McNamara, Kirkwood, Mo. — freshwater 
mollusks; Dr. Rodger D. Mitchell, Gaines- 
ville, Fla. — 3 water mites; Museum and Art 
Gallery, Durban, South Africa — 3 bird skins; 
Mrs. Winston Parker, Kirkwood, Mo. — 
freshwater mollusks; Mrs. Henry Pope, Glen- 
coe, 111. — 2,000 minute marine shells, Baha- 
mas; Dr. Gerbert Rebell, New Brunswick, 
N.J. — 3 albino rats; Werner Reifsteck, New 
Haven, Ind. — a freshwater snail; Dr. J. D. 
Sauer, Madison, Wis. — 40 snails, Mauritius; 
Dr. Jeanne S. Schwengel, Scarsdale, N.Y. — 
— mollusks and marine snails; R. R. Tal- 
madge, Willow Creek, Calif. — 120 snails 



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