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a.tura.1 History Survey 



IJATURAL HISTORY SURVEY 

NOV 15 1983 



Contents 

Volume 32 
1979-1981 



TATE OF ILLINOIS 

LLINOIS INSTITUTE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

lATURAL HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION 
;HAMPAIGN, ILLINOIS 



CONTENTS 

ARTICLE 1. -WATERFOWL POPULATIONS AND THE CHANGING ENVIRONMENT OF 
THE ILLINOIS RIVER VALLEY. By Frank C. Bellrose, Fred L. Paveguo, Jr., and Donald 

W. Steffeck, August 1979. 54 p 1-54 

Geological history 1, Historical changes 2, Changes during the present century S, 
Acknowledgments 5, Methods 6, Wetland vegetation 13, Effects of turbidity and sedimentation 
28. Effects of food resources on fall waterfowl populations 34, Summer water levels and fall 
waterfowl abundance 37, Fall water levels 39. Water levels in relation to the duration of stay of 
ducks 39, Management practices and considerations 42, Discussion 46, Summary 48, Literature 
cited 51, List of common and scientific names 52, Index 53 

ARTICLE 2. -PRIMARY INSECT TYPES IN THE ILLINOIS NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY 
COLLECTION, EXCLUSIVE OF THE COLLEMBOLA AND THYSANOPTERA. By Donald 

W.Webb, July 1980. 133 p 55-189 

Acknowledgments 56, Thysanura 56, Ephemeroptera 56, Odonata 57, Orthoptera 57, Plecoptera 
57, Mallophaga 62, Hemiptera 62, Homoptera 63, Corrodentia 77, Neuroptera 77, Coleoptera 77, 
Mecoptera 81, Diptera 81, Trichoptera 92, Lepidoptera 104, Hymenoptera 105, Addendum 133. 
Literature cited 134, Publications referred to in the list of primary insect types 135, Index 137 

ARTICLE 3. -THE GENERA OF NEARCTIC THEREVIDAE. By Michael E. Irwin and Leit 

Lynebgrc. November 1980. 85 p 193-277 

Acknowledgments 194, Abbreviations used in descriptions and figures 194, Family Therevidae 
195, Literature cited 271, Index 274 

ARTICLE 4. -THE LAKE SANGCHRIS STUDY: CASE HISTORY OF AN ILLINOIS COOLING 
LAKE. By R. Weldon Larimore and John A. Tranquilu, Scientific Editors. August 1981. 

459 p 279-737 

The Lake Sangchris project 279, Water quaUty in a cooUng-water reservoir 290, Phytoplankton 
dynamics in a cooling- water reservoir 320, Effects of cooling lake perturbations upon the 
zooplankton dynamics of Lake Sangchris 342, The benthic macroinvertebrates from the cooling 
lake of a coal-fired electric generating station 358, Reproduction, growth, distribution, and 
abundance of Corbicula in an Illinois cooling lake 378, Aquatic macrophytes in Lake Sangchris 
394, Population dynamics of the Lake Sangchris fishery 413, Food habits of some common fishes 
from heated and unhealed areas of Lake Sangchris 500, First-year growth and feeding of 
largemouth bass in a heated reservoir 520, Results of a multiple-objective fish-tagging program in 
an artificially heated reservoir 536, Radiotelemetry observations on the behavior of largemouth 
bass in a heated reservoir 559. Behavioral thermoregulation of largemouth bass and carp in an 
Illinois cooling lake 585, Lake Sangchris creel survey: 1973-1975 594, Distribution and abundance 
of larval fishes in Lake Sangchris (1976) 615. Impingement and entrainment of fishes at Kincaid 
Generating Station 631. Waterfowl studies at Lake Sangchris, 1973-1977 656, Distribution and 
accumulation of trace metals at a coal-fired power plant and adjacent cooling lake 691, Index 731 



Printed By Authority of State ot Illinois 
(N*-700— 12-83) 






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atura.1 History Survey 



..-iL •««»»•"■*' "*"•••■■' 



1981 



blttlinKl 



Waterfowl Populations and the 
Changing Environment of the 
Illinois River Valley 



nlc C. Bellrose 
d L. Paveglio, Jr. 
laid W. Steffeck 



JUL I ^ m] 



TE OF ILUNOIS 

INOIS INSTITUTE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 



.TURAL HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION 
BANA, ILUNOIS 



VOLUME 32. ARTICLE 1 
AUGUST 1979 



us ISSN 0073^918 



[SktvLi^SLl History Swrvey 



Waterfowl Populations and the 
Changing Environment of the 
inois River Valley 



nk C. Bellrose 
d L. Paveglio, Jr. 
nald W. Steffeck 



TE OF ILLINOIS 

INOIS INSTITUTE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

iTURAL HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION 
BANA, ILLINOIS 



VOLUME 32, ARTICLE 1 
AUGUST 1979 



STATE OF ILLINOIS ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

BOARD OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION 
Frank Beal, M.S.. Chairman; Thomas Park. Ph.D.. Biology; L. I. Sloss. Ph.D., Geology; H. S. Gltowsky, 
Ph.D., Chemistry; Stanley K. Shapiro. Ph.D., Forestry; W. L. Everitt, E.E.. Ph.D.. Representing the Presi- 
dent of the University of lUinois; John C. Guvon, Ph.D.. Representing the President of Southern Illinois Uni- 
versity. 

NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION. Urbana, Illinois 

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL STAFF 

George Sprucel, Jr., Ph.D.. Chief 
Alice K. Adams. Secretary to the Chief 



Taxonomist and 



Section of Economic Entomology 

William H. Luckmann, Ph.D., Entomologist and 

Head 
James E. Appleby, Ph.D.. Entomologist 
Edward J. Armbrust. Ph.D., Entomologist 
Marcos Kocan, Ph.D., Entomologist 
Ronald H. Meyer. Ph.D.. Entomologist 
Stevenson Moore, IH, Ph.D.. Entomologist, Extension 
Michael E. Irwin. Ph.D., Associate Entomologist 
Donald E. Kuhlman, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist. 

Extension 
Joseph V. Maddox, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist 
Robert D. Pausch, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist 
RoscoE Randell, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist, 

Extension 
William G. Ruesink. Ph.D.. Associate Entomologist 
John K. Boiiseman, M.S.. Assistant Entomologist 
Catherine Eastman. Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist 
Allan Felsot, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist 
Eli Levine. Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist 
Clarence E. White. B.S., Assistant Entomologist 
Luis R. Zavaleta, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist 
Kevin D. Black. M.S.. Assistant Specialist, Extension 
David A. Gentry, M.S.. Assistant Specialist, Extension 
John Lublinkhof, Ph.D.. Assistant Specialist, 

Extension 
Kevin Steffey, Ph.D., Assistant Specialist, Extension 
Steven Troester, M.E., Assistant Systems Engineer 
Jean G. Wilson, B.A.. Siipemisory Assistant 
Lester Wei, Ph.D., Assistant Professional Scientist 
Charles G. Helm. M.S., Assistant Supffortive Scientist 
Stephen Roberts, B.S., Assistant Supportive Scientist 
John T. Shaw. B.S., Assistant Supportive Scientist 
Daniel Sherrod. M.S., Assistant Supportive Scientist 
Sue M. Hale, Junior Professional Scientist 
Robert J. Barney, B.S., Research Assistant 
Victoria Brunjes. B.S.. Research Assistant 
Michael Burke, M.S., Research Assistant 
Tzu-SUAN Chu, M.S., Research Assistant 
Marion Farris, M.S., Research Assistant 
Janet Harry, B.S., Research Assistant 
Jenny Kocan. M.S., Research Assistant 
Susan Post. B.S., Research Assistant 
Frank Ress, B.S., Research Assistant 
Barbara Stancer, B.S., Research Assistant 
Jo Ann Auble. Technical Assistant 
Ellen Brewer. M.S.. Computer Programmer 
Howard Ojalvo, M.S., Computer Programmer 

Section of Botany and Plant Pathology 

Glaus Grunwald. Ph.D., Plant Physiologist and Head 

Eugene Himelick, Ph.D.. Plant Pathologist 

Dan Neely, Ph.D.. Plant Pathologist 

D. F. ScHOENEWEiSS. Ph.D.. Plant Pathologist 

J. Leland Crane, Ph.D., Associate Mycologist 

Kenneth R. Robertson, Ph.D., Assistant Taxonomist 

Betty Nelson. Assistant Supportive Scientist 

Gene E. Reid, Junior Professional Scientist 

James E. Sfrgent, Greenhouse Superintendent 

Patricia O'Bryan, B.S., Research Assistant 

Robert A. Harrison, Technical Assistant 

Section of Aquatic Biology 

Robert W. Gorden. Ph.D.. Aquatic Biologist and 

Head 
D. Homer Buck, Ph.D.. Aquatic Biologist 
William F. Childers, Ph.D.. Aquatic Biologist 
R. Weldon Larimore, Ph.D.. Aquatic Biologist 
Robert C. Hiltibran, Ph.D., Biochemist 
Allison Brigham, Ph.D., Associate Aquatic Biologist 
Warren U. Brigham. Ph.D., Associate Aquatic 

Biologist 
Richard F. Sparks, Ph.D., Associate Aquatic Biologist 
John Tranquiili, Ph.D., Associate Aquatic Biologist 
Ken Lubinski, Ph.D., Assistant Aquatic Biologist 
Tfd W. Storck, Ph.D., Assistant Aquatic Biologist 
Richard J. Baur, M.S.. Assistant Supportive Scientist 
Dee a. McCormick, M.S., Junior Professional Scientist 
Eu(;ene Sons. Junior Professional Scientist 
Jana Lee Waite, M.S., Junior Professional Scientist 
David P. Philipp. Ph.D.. Research Associate 
Stephen W. Waite. ^LS.. Research Associate 
Harry W. Bergmann. B.S.. Research Assistant 

CONSULTANTS AND RESEARCH AFFILIATES: Systematic Fntomoio(.y, Roderick R. Irwin. Chicago. 
Illinois: Wildlife Research, Willard D. Ki.imstra. Ph.D., Professor of Zoology and Director of Cooperative 
Wildlife Research, Southern Itlinf>i\ l'niver\ily; Parasitoi o(.Y, Norm\n D. Levine, Ph.D., Professor of Veteri- 
nary Parasitology. Veterinary Research and Znology and Director of the Center for Human Ecology, l^nii-ersily 
of Illinois: Entomology, Rohfrt L. Metcalf, Ph.D.. Professor of Biology and Research Professor of Entomol- 
ogy. University of Illinois; and Gilbert P. Walobauer, Ph.D.. Professor of Entomology. University of Illinois; 
Statistics, Horace W. Norton, Ph.D., Professor of Statistical Design and Analysis, University of Illinois. 



Dale Burkett. B.S.. Research Assistant 
Kurt T. Clement, B.S.. Research Assistant 
Larry W. Coutant, M.S., Research Assistant 
Robert Graham, B.S., Research Assistant 
William Kraus, M.S., Research Assistant 
Richard Krause, M.S.. Research Assistant 
Sarah Liehr. M.S.. Research Assistant 
Lance Perry. M.S., Research Assistant 
Thomas Skelly, M.S.. Research Assistant 
Michael J. Sule, M.S.. Research Assistant 
Stephen O. Swadener, M.S.. Research Assistant 
Bruce Taubert. Ph.D., Research Assistant 
Carl Alde, B.S., Technical Assistant 
Elmer Atwood. B.S., Technical Assistant 
Paul Beaty, Ph.D.. Technical Assistant 
Bill Dimond. B.S.. Technical Assistant 
Kathryn Ewing, B,S., Technical Assistant 
Iefe Hutton, B.S.. Technical Assistant 
Sheila Magfe, B.S.. Technical Assistant 
Philip Mankin, Technical Assistant 
Dan Myrick, B.S., Technical Assistant 
F. J. Partenheimer^ B.A.. Technical Assistant 
R. Dan Sallee, B.S.. Technical Assistant 
Ifns Sandberger. M.S.. Technical Assistant 
Michael Sandusky, B.S.. Technical Assistant 
John J. Suloway, B.S., Technical Assistant 
Gary L. Warren. B.S.. Technical Assistant 
Mark J. Wetzel, B.S., Technical Assistant 
Ruth Wagner, Junior Technical Assistant 

Section of Faunistic Surveys and 
Insect Identification 

\Vallace E. LaBer{.f, IMi.D,. Ins, 

Head 
George L. Godfrey, Ph.D., Associate Taxonomist 
Larry M. Page, Ph.D., Associate Taxonomist 
John D. Unzicker. Ph.D.. Associate Taxonomist 
Donald W. Webb, M.S., Associate Taxonomist 
Bernice p. Sweeney, Junior Professional Scientist 

Section of Wildlife Research 

Glen C. Sanderson, Ph.D., WildUfe Specialist and 

Head 
Frank C. Bellrose. Sc.D., Wildlife Specialist 
William R. Edwards. Ph.D.. Wildlife Specialist 
Iean W. Graber. Ph.D., Wildhfe Specialist 
Richard R. Graber, Ph.D.. Wildlife Specialist 
Harold C. Hanson, Ph.D.. Wildlife SpeciaUst 
W. W. Cochran, Jr., B.S., Associate Wildlife Specialist 
Charles M. Nixon. M.S.. Associate Wildlife Specialist 
Kenneth E. Smith. Ph.D., Associate Chemist 
Ronald L. Westemeier. M.S.. Associate Wildlife 

Specialist 
I.ONNiE P. Hansen, Ph.D.. Assistant Wildlife Specialist 
Stephen P. Havera. Ph.D.. Assistant Wildlife 

Specialist 
Richard E. Warner, M.S.. Assistant Wildlife Specialist 
RoBFRT D. Crompton. Junior Professional Scientist 
Ronald E. Duzan. Junior Professional Scientist 
Iames W. Seets, Junior Professional Scientist 
Eva Steger, B.S., Junior Professional Scientist 
Eleanore Wilson. Junior Professional Scientist 

Supporting Services 

WiiM \ G. Dii I man. Properly Control and Trust 

Accounts 
Patty L. Duzan. Payroll and Personnel 
Robert O. Ellis. Assistant (or Operations 
Larr^' D. Gross. Operations Assistant 
L Wii.ii\M I.USK, Mailing and Distrihution Services 
Chris Rohl, Operations Assistant 
Melvin E. Schwartz. Fiscal Officer 

Publications and Public Relations 

RoBFRT M. Zfw\dski. \LS,. Technical Editor 
Shirley McClei.lan. B.S., Assistant Technical Editor 
Li.o^n LeMerf. Technical lllustralur 
Leslie Woodrum. Technical Photographer 

Technical Library 

Doris L. Sublette. \LS.L.S.. Technical Lihrarian 
Monica Li'sk, I.ihraiy Clerk 



CONTENTS 

Geological History 1 

Historical Changes 2 

C:hanges during the Present Century 3 

Acknowledgments 5 

Methods 6 

Sedimentation 6 

Water Depth 6 

Wetland Vegetation 8 

Waterfowl Populations 8 

Moist-Soil Water-Level and Water-Stability Indices 8 

Waterfowl Food Resources 9 

River Levels 10 

Wetland Vegetation 13 

Evaluation of t-he Severance of Lakes from the River 20 

Evaluation of Seasonal Changes in Bottomland Lake Water Levels 20 

Effects on Moist-Soil Plants 20 

Effects on Aquatic and Marsh Plants 21 

Lake Chautauqua 21 

Rice Lake 22 

Cuba Island 22 

Flat, Swan, and Gilbert Lakes 22 

Changes in Water Depths , 23 

Rice Lake 23 

Douglas Lake 23 

Spring Lake 27 

Anderson Lake 27 

Effects of Turbidity and Sedimentation 28 

Effects of Food Resources on Fall Waterfowl Populations 34 

Summer Water Levels and Fall Waterfowl Abundance 37 

Fall Water Levels 39 

Water Levels in Relation to the Duration of Stay of Ducks 39 

Management Practices and Considerations 42 

Discussion 46 

Summary 48 

Literature Cited 51 

List of Common and Scientific Names 52 

Index 53 

This report is published by aulhority of the State of Illinois. It is a contribiitinn from the 
Section of Wildlife Research of the Illinois Nnhiral History Survey. 

Dr. Frank C. Bellrose is a Wildlife Specialist and Fred L. Paveglio, Jr., and Donald W. 
Stefjeck are Research Assistants in the Section of Wildlife Research. 

(I3447-SM-8-79) 



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Waterfowl Populations and the Changing Environment 
of the Illinois River Valley 

Frank C. Bellrose, Fred L. Pavegllo, Jr., and Donald W. Steffeck 



THE VALUE OF THE ILLINOIS 
RIVER valley for waterfowl lies in its 
bottomland lakes that flank the rel- 
atively narrow river channel between 
Spring Valley and Meredosia and be- 
tween Pearl and Grafton. These lakes 
originated in the most recent glaciation 
(Wisconsinan), which profoundly al- 
tered the ancient Mississippi and Illi- 
nois rivers and created the unique Il- 
linois Valley that we find today. Up 
to the 1930's, the Illinois River valley 
was one of the nation's outstanding 
waterfowl hunting areas. Since then it 
has been in a state of decline for a 
variety of reasons, some of which will 
be discussed here. 

GEOLOGICAL HISTORY 

Prior to the Wisconsinan glaciation, 
the Mississippi River flowed down the 
Illinois Valley below the Big Bend at 
Hennepin, Illinois, by means of a now 
buried channel between Bureau and 
northeastern Rock Island counties 
(AVillman Sc Frye 1970). About 21,000 
years ago, the most recent ice sheet, 
the Wisconsinan, moved westward 
past the Big Bend and diverted the 
Mississippi River westward to its 
present channel south of Muscatine, 
Iowa (Willman 1973). As the Wis- 
consinan glaciation retreated, flood 
waters formed the Des Plaines and 
Kankakee rivers, which joined near 
Chnnnahon to create the present Il- 
linois River. From Channahon west- 
ward to the Big Bend at Hennepin, 
tlic Illinois carved a new valley. At 
the Big Bend, the flood waters of the 
glacial melt entered an ancient valley 
of the Mississippi River and followed 
this pathway southward to the present 
Mississippi River at Grafton. 



Because the ancient Mississippi Val- 
ley liirough central Illinois had been 
broailened and deepened by repeated 
pre-Wisconsinan glacial melts, the Il- 
linois River entered a much deeper 
valley below Hennepin than was war- 
ranted by its volume of water. The 
valley has also been considerably filled 
with sediment carried by the glacial 
meltwater. This origin resulted in a 
river with an luiusually low rate of 
fall: 0.03 m per km (0.17 ft per mile) 
between Hennepin and Pekin, and 0.02 
m per km (0.13 ft per mile) from 
Pekin to Meredosia. Forbes & Rich- 
ardson (1920) reported that at ordinary 
levels the flow varied from 2.01 to 4.02 
km (1.25-2.50 miles) per hour. Since 
1938, navigation dams have fmther re- 
tarded the river velocity to about 1.0 
km (0.6 mile) per hour (Starrett 1971). 
The gentle slope of the river below 
the Big Bend has resulted, during 
postglacial times, in the valley's ag- 
grading rather than eroding, as do 
most river valleys. 

The Illinois River's low volume of 
flow for its channel capacity and its 
low rate of fall combined to form the 
imique bottomland lakes associated 
witii the Illinois Valley. Under over- 
flow conditions, the faster-moving wa- 
ters of the channel meet the slower- 
moving backwaters with the result that 
sediment is deposited more rapidly 
along this shear. Through eons of 
time natural levees rose, like barrier 
islands, to separate most of the chan- 
nel waters from the adjacent bottom- 
land waters. Thus evolved bottomland 
lakes, or backwater lakes, as the en- 
gineers term them (Fig. 1). 
The very creation of bottomland 
lakes also set the stage for their ex- 
tinction. The sedimentation that sep- 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. I 




Fig. 1. — Illinois River north of Chillicothe, illustrating the natural banks that formed bot- 
tomland lakes in the Illinois Valley. The channel is shown meandering between Babbs Slough, 
Sawyer Slough, Big Meadow Lake, Wightman Lake, and Sparland Lake. 



arated the lakes from the river chan- 
nel is now rapidly engulfing them. 
Under pristine conditions, this extinc- 
tion of individual bottomland lakes 
would probably have taken himdreds 
of years, and while one generation of 
lakes was being filled with sediment, 
another generation would have been 
formed by the growth of new natural 
levees. Man, through intensive use of 
the land, has greatly accelerated the 
process. 

The Illinois Valley is especially sub- 
ject to sedimentation because its trib- 
utary .streams fall many limes faster 
than does the main stream. For ex- 
ample, the slope of the .S|ioon River, 
an important triljutary, varies from 
0.19 to OM m per km (1-3 ft per mile) 
(Evans 8: Schnepper 1977). Conse- 
quently, the rivers and creeks feeding 
the Illinois River transport enormous 
quantities of finely suspended soils to 
its waters. Since it flows more slowly, 
tlie Illinois in turn deposits a sizeable 



proportion of this load in its network 
of bottomland lakes during floods. At 
lower water stages the river waters 
mingle very little with the backwater 
lakes. Only Peoria Lake, through 
which the river (lows, is contiiniously 
exposed to transported material. 

HISTORICAL CHANGES 

For 150 years following Pere Mar- 
quette's and Loin's Joliet's ascent of 
ihc Illinois River in 167.^, its valley 
was |)opulatetl largclv bv Indians and 
a few white traders and irajipers. In 
1823 several while families lived at the 
present site of Peoria, and Chicago 
was known as a military and trailing 
post (Barrt)us 1910). However, the es- 
tablishment of steamboating in 1S2,S 
bioiighi an influx of immigrants, so 
thai i)v 1810 much of the Illinois Val- 
lev (ouiaincd fi-lS peo])le per square 
mile. 

,\fter 1810 the population of the 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 



valley grew apace. By 1900 there were 
3.3 million people in the Illinois basin, 
95 percent of which lies within the 
state of Illinois. The basin embraces 
slightly over half the area of the state. 

To facilitate transportation, a canal 
was constructed in 1848 from Lake 
Michigan at Chicago to the Illinois 
River at La Salle. In addition, three 
low navigation dams and locks were 
constructed on the Illinois River, at 
Henry in 1871, at Copperas Creek near 
Banner in 1877, and at La Grange in 
1889. These changes appear to have 
had little effect upon the natural biota 
of the Illinois Valley; its lakes were 
still nearly pristine. 

Detailed maps of the Illinois Valley 
made by J. W. Woermann, Corps of 
Engineers, U.S. Army, from 1902 to 
1904 indicate that slightly over one- 
third of the meadows and wooded bot- 
tomlands had been cleared and placed 
in some form of cultivation. 

During tlie late 1890's, the waters 
of the Illinois River still ran compar- 
atively clear. Kofoid (1903:151) de- 
scribed a boat trip across a series of 
bottomland lakes above Havana dur- 
ing high water in late May. Despite 
the high stage, waters were surprisingly 
clear; aquatic and marsh plants were 
besjinning to appear in abimdance, 
with coontail still "at some depth be- 
low the surface." In the waters of 
Thompson Lake (one of the largest 
lakes in the valley), Kofoid could see 
schools of young fry feeding upon 
plankton. Its waters were described as 
"somewhat turbid but more from 
plankton th.m silt." The river channel 
was more turbid from silt and plank- 
ton than were the adjacent lakes. 

Later in the summer, Kofoid (1903: 
l.')5) revisited the same lakes during 
low water. He found "the backwaters 
have been reduced to the lakes, sloughs, 
and marshes which abound everywhere 
in the bottomlands." Most of the lakes 
were choked with aquatic plants or 



rushes. His descriptions of bottom soils 
suggest that they were composed more 
of decayed plant material than of silt. 

CHANGES DURING 
THE PRESENT CENTURY 

From 1900 to the present, the nat- 
ural habitats of the Illinois Valley 
have experienced a sequence of over- 
lapping catastrophic events. Had the 
Illinois River and its backwater lakes 
been a fragile ecosystem, they would 
ha\'e passed into oblivion long ago. 
With varying degrees of success, the 
aquatic communities of the Illinois 
Valley have withstood the ravages of 
man. 

The first pronounced change oc- 
curred in 1900 with the completion of 
the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, 
which diverted water from Lake Mich- 
igan and sewage effluetit from Chicago 
to the Illinois River. The diversion 
ranged from 82.1 cubic meters per 
second (cms) (2,900 cubic feet per sec- 
ond-cfs) in 1900 to 283.4 cms (10,010 
cfs) in 1928; from 1900 to 1938, it av- 
eraged 204.5 cms (7,222 cfs). A U.S. 
Supreme Court decree limited diver- 
sion to 42.5 cms (1,500 cfs) after 1938, 
biu a second decree in 1961 increased 
the rate to 90.6 cms (3,200 cfs). 

Yearly water profiles at Peoria, 
1868-1975, show that low-water levels 
climbed from 131.7 m (432 ft) mean 
sea level (msl) in 1899 to 132.1 m 
(433.5 ft) in 1900 and 133.2 m (436.9 
ft) in 1902. Until the Peoria lock 
and dam became operational in 1938, 
low-water levels averaged aboiu 133.5 
m (138.0 ft) msl. The diversion of 
water into the Illinois River appears 
to have increased low-water levels at 
Peoria between 1.5 and 1.8 m (5 and 
6 ft). Forbes k Richardson (1919:140- 
141) concluded that midsummer levels 
at Havana rose an average of 1.1 m 
(3.6 ft) above prediversion averages. 

The diversion caused the flooding of 
thousands of hectai'es of bottomland 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. I 



forest during the growing season, kill- 
ing the trees and enlarging the back- 
water lakes. Pin oaks and pecans, 
which had grown extensively in the 
valley below Peoria, were especially 
vulnerable to higher water. Their loss 
greatly reduced the mast food supply 
for mallards and wood ducks. 

Overall, though, waterfowl benefited 
from tiie diversion of Lake Michigan 
water as the surface areas of lakes, 
sloughs, and marshes doubled. Prior 
to diversion, about 21,850 ha (54,000 
acres) were in bottomland water areas, 
exclusive of the river channel. The 
diversion of Lake Michigan water ex- 
panded bottomland lakes and marshes 
to slightly over 48,560 ha (120,000 
acres) in the 161,878-ha (400,000-acre) 
floodplain. 

This expanded water area did not 
persist long but shrank due to man's 
next alteration of the Illinois River 
valley. Levee and drainage districts, 
largely initiated between 1903 and 1920, 
placed 82,962 ha (205,000 acres) of bot- 
tomland behind levees (Mulvihill 8c 
Cornish 1929). Natural lakes and 
marshes within the leveed tracts were 
drained. The land in three ilrainage 
districts— Partridge, Cliautauqua, and 
Big Prairie, aggregating 3,238 ha (8,000 
acres)— was not farmed successfully and 
reverted to a seminatural state (Fig. 2). 
Ironically, this drainage district loss in- 
creased the lake and marsh smface area 
to about 28,329 ha (70,000 acres), more 
than the predi version 21,854 ha (54,000 
acres). Irretrievably lost to waterfowl 
were the pin oak and pecan groves that 
had provided important food resources 
during floods. 

At the same time that Illinois Valley 
lakes were being altered by the cre- 
ation of levees and drainage districts, 
the aquatic biota was being threatened 
by yet another serious menace— that of 
mban wastes discliargcd into the Illi- 
nois River. Although a small amount 
of pollution had occurred before 1900. 
the opening of the Chicago Sanitary 
and Ship Canal in 1900 created a prob- 



lem of catastrophic proportions for the 
river and its backwater lakes above 
Peoria (Mills et al. 1966). At first only 
the extreme upper reaches (above Mar- 
seilles) were affected. However, the 
zone of pollution steadily moved down- 
stream luitil by 1922 the upper Illinois 
was essentially a dead river, devoid of 
important aquatic life as far south as 
Chillicothe (Mills et al. 1966). 

Extensive beds of pondweeds, wild 
celery, and coontail, present in Peoria 
Lake between 1910 and 1914, had 
largely tlisappeared by 1920 (Richard- 
son 1921). In 1921, Peoria Lake con- 
tained slight growths of pondweeds and 
algae, so little as to be overlooked by 
the casual observer (Purdy 1930). 

A decline in urban and industrial 
pollution began with the operation of 
treatment plants by the Chicago San- 
itary District in 1922. Pollution con- 
trol was aided by the navigation dams 
tliat became operational in the upper 
river in 1933. These dams reduced the 
rate of flow, thereby resulting in bac- 
terial decomposition of waste products 
witliin a shorter distance downstream. 
A gradual reduction in the urban pol- 
lution of the Illinois River has contin- 
ued to the present time (Richard 
Sparks, Illinois Natural History Sur- 
vey, personal comnuuiication). 

The 9-foot (2.7-m) waterway for nav- 
igation became operational above the 
Starved Rock lock and dam in 1933 ami 
below that point in 1938. The water- 
way below Starved Rock was created 
by dredging the channel deeper ami 
raising tlie water levels by dams al 
Peoria, below Bcardstown. and on the 
Mississippi River at Alton. 

Even as the inbaii and industrial pol- 
lution abated, tlie Illinois River and 
its lakes were subjected to yet another 
degradation, that of pollution from 
sedimentation. Tlie ]3ermanent and in- 
siilious nature of silt pollution makes 
it more iiannful ih.in url).ui polluiion: 
ailiiougii not as ap])arenl, it is aciumu- 
lativc. 

I'his report examines the role ol 



I 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Chancing Illinois Valley 




Fig. 2. — A portion of the abandoned Partridge Levee District located at the northern 
end of Upper Peoria Lake across from Chillicothe, showing a leveed area (center) dewatered 
for moist-soil plant development. 



sediiiieiuation in tlic Illinois Valley: 
its eflects on a(|uatii, niaisli, and moist- 
soil ]jlants and its eficds upon water- 
low! abmulance. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We are indebted to these persons and 
organizations for their (ontribiitions to 
I his paper. 

Pari of the material ])rescnted, par- 
tiiularly that on sedimentation, was 
derived from stndies financed by the 
Department of the Army, Cliicago 
Distritt, (;orps of Enj^incers, Project 
DACW 23-70-6-0066 nmlcr project 
leader Edward Hanses, 

Dr. David L. Gross, Illinois State 



(.eological Siavey, reviewed the section 
on Geological History and made per- 
tinent siiggesiicjiis. Dr. Vernon Wright, 
formerly with the Illinois Department 
of (conservation, ])rovided guitlance in 
the statistical analyses. 

Eorrest Loomis, now with the Illi- 
nois Department of Conservation, con- 
(liKied field stndies and made vegeta- 
lioii maijs of botlonilaiul lakes, 1955- 
1957. 

Drs. Leigh Eredcric kson of the Uni- 
versity of Missouri and David 'Eraugcr 
of the U..S. Eish and Wildlife .Service 
reviewed the pa|)er and offered sugges- 
tions for improvement. 

A number of Illinois Natural His- 



Illinois Natural History Sur\'ey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 1 



tory Survey stafF members contributed 
to this paper: Lloyd LeMere, Tech- 
nical Illustrator, drew the graphs. Dr. 
Glen C. Sanderson, Head, Section of 
Wildlife Research, Mrs. Eva Steger, 
and Harold Henderson did preliminary 
editing. Final editing and preparation 
of the paper for publication was done 
by Robert M. Zewadski, Technical 
Editor. 

METHODS 

Three diverse aspects of Illinois 
River habitat were measured for this 
report: (1) the rate of sedimentation 
in various bottomland lakes, (2) the 
abundance and distribution of aquatic, 
marsh, and moist-soil plants, and (3) 
the abundance of waterfowl as related 
to the availability of aquatic and moist- 
soil vegetation and mollusks (Fig. 3). 

SEDIMENTATION 

Reports on the sedimentation of 
three bottomland lakes have been is- 
sued by personnel of the Illinois State 
Water Survey (M. T. Lee. 1976. Sedi- 
ment deposition of Lake Chautauqua, 
Havana, Illinois. Unpublished Xe- 
roxed report. M. T. Lee and J. B. 
Stall. 1976. Sediment deposition in 
Lake DePue, DePue, Illinois and its 
implications for future lake manage- 
ment. Unpublished Xeroxed report. 
M. T. Lee, J. B. Stall, and T. A. Butts. 
1976. The 1975 sediment survey of 
Lake Meredosia, Meredosia, Illinois. 
Unpublished Xeroxed report). In ad- 
dition, we made sedimentation studies 
on these lakes: Senachwine, Sawmill, 
Billsbach, Sparland, Wightman, Babbs 
Slough, Upper Peoria, Rice, Chautau- 
qua, Anderson, and Meredosia. 

Comparisons between present-day 
water depths and earlier readings were 
possible because of soimdings con- 
ducted in the Illinois Valley in 1902- 
1904 by J. W. Woermann, Assistant 
Engineer, Corps of Engineers, U.S. 
Army. Differences in water depths of 
lakes, sloughs, and marshes were used 



to determine the amount of sedimen- 
tation that has occurred during an in- 
terval of 73-75 years. 

Fortimately, at three lakes sedimen- 
tation could be separated into two 
periods during this time span. At Lake 
Chautauqua, Stall k Melsted (1951) 
studied sedimentation between 1926 
and 1950, and Lee (1976 impublished) 
studied it during 1950-1976. The 
Peoria Project Office, U.S. Army Corps 
of Engineers, took soundings of Peoria 
Lake in 1965. These studies enabled us 
to calcidate the sedimentation at Peoria 
Lake for two periods: 1903-1965 and 
1966-1976. Soundings of Meredosia 
Bay were taken in 1956 by the State 
Division of Water Resources and by 
us in February 1978. Sedimentation 
rates were calculated for the periods 
1903-1956 and 1957-1978. 

WATER DEPTH 

In our 1976 and 1977 soundings, 3- 
10 transects were established across 
each lake. Depths along the transects 
were taken at approximate intervals of 
77.7 m (85 yards) except in Upper Pe- 
oria Lake, where the interval was 228.6 
m (250 yards). The depth of water was 
related to the river stage (i.e., to the 
nearest gauge reading adjusted for the 
slope of the river). From these data the 
mean sea level (msl) elevation of each 
lake bottom was derived. The eleva- 
tions of lake bottoms on the 1902-1904 
y. W. Woermann maps were based 
upon the Mempliis Datum (MD). The 
Memphis Datiun was an arbitrary el- 
evation at Memphis, Tenn., used as a 
reference point in measuring other el- 
evations. The Memphis Datimi was 
converted to msl (1929 general adjust- 
ment) by subtracting a correction fac- 
tor varying from 2.26 to 2.27 m (7.43- 
7.45 ft) depending upon the location of 
the bench marks. 

The areas of bottomland lakes in the 
Illinois River valley were detcrmineil 
by using a planimeter to measure 
the basin areas as delineated by the 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 7 

wooded-vegetation line on the U.S. series of the Woemiann 1902-1904 
Army Corps of Engineers 1933 revised maps. 



LAKE MICHIGAN 




Swan and Flat 

MISSOURI 



ST, LOUIS 



25 

MILES 



50 



50 

KILOMETERS 



Fig. 3. — Map of the Illinois River valley, showing many of the bottonnland lakes included 
in this study of wetland plants, sedimentation, and waterfowl abundance. 



Illinois Natural History Survey Billetin 



Vol. 32, Art. I 



WETLAND VEGETATION 

The areas of waterfowl food plants 
(aquatic, marsh, and moist-soil species) 
were taken from maps drawn by Frank 
Bellrose, 1938-1953, and by Forrest 
Loomis, 1955-1957. Waterfowl food 
plant beds were plotted by rough tri- 
angulation on the base maps provided 
by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 
1933 map series scaled 1:12000 (Bell- 
rose 1941). Later vegetation maps pre- 
pared for 1959 and 1976 were based 
upon aerial photographs interpreteil 
by Bellrose. 

Mapped plant beds were measured 
by planimeter to determine their sizes 
in acres. To weight areas devoid of 
vegetation, acreages of plants were di- 
vided by the acreage of the bottomland 
lake basin mapped each year to obtain 
the percentage of the area covered by 
waterfowl food plants. To compare an- 
nual changes in vegetation composi- 
tion, the abundance of each plant spe- 
cies was determined and related to the 
entire lake basin. The measuretl acre- 
age of each lake basin varied slightly 
from year to year, depending upon the 
specific area mapped. Recent informa- 
tion on the status of wetland plants on 
Gilbert and Swan lakes was derived 
from the files of the Mark Twain Na- 
tional Wildlife Refuge, Quincy, Illi- 
nois. 

WATERFOWL POPULATIONS 

Censuses of waterfowl were taken in 
the Illinois Valley 1938-1970 by Frank 
Bellrose and 1971-1976 by Robert 
Crompton. However, the data are bet- 
ter since 1949, when a light aircraft 
made it possible to cover the valley 
completely 1 day each week from 1 Oc- 
toljer to 1 December. Waterfowl num- 
bers oijtained from the weekly censuses 
were multiplied by seven to obtain the 
duck-days of use for each fall. 

MOIST-SOIL WATER-LEVEL 
AND WATER-STABILITY 
INDICES 

To evaluate the relationship of river 
levels to the abiuuiance of wetland 



plants, a growth-period index was es- 
tablished for wetland plants and a 
water-level index was established bv 
computing weekly averages from daily 
water-level gauge readings. 

We converted National Oceanic and 
.\tmospheric Administration Environ- 
mental Data and Information Service 
daily gauge readings to weekly aver- 
ages. Because of tiie sluggish nature of 
the river, weekly averages adequateK 
reflect its rise and fall. 

The growth-period index was based 
upon the assumption that the earliest 
low-water stage that could benefit wet- 
land plants is 12 18 June, the latest, 
14-20 August. After that date too few 
days remain before the average date of 
the first heavy frost for plants to pro- 
duce a meaningfid amount of seeds. 
The weeks of this 10-week period were 
ranked in descending order with the 
week of 12-18 June ranked 10 and that 
of 14-20 August ranked 1. 

Weekly average gauge readings were 
assigned water-level index values that 
increased as the water level receded 
from the wooded shoreline, exposing 
an area of lake basin for the tlevelop- 
ment of moist-soil plants. The lower 
the river level, the larger the assigned 
water-level index. Water levels at or 
above the wooded shoreline were desig- 
nated as 0. The upper limits of the 
wooded shoreline elevation on the 
Henry gauge is 135.0 m (443 ft) msl 
and on tiie Havana gauge it is 133.2 ni 
(437 ft) msl. 

Each water-level index was multi- 
plied by the growth-period index. The 
resulting products were squared and 
then totaled for the 10-week period. 
The result is the Moist-Soil AVater- 
Lcvcl Index. The products were 
squared because the exposure of muil 
rials is exponentially rather than lin- 
early related to declining water levels. 
With the exception of Peoria Lake, 
lake basins of the Illinois River are 
shallow and platier shaped. Therefore. 
as water levels decline, an ever larger 
proportion of the lake basin is exposed 
as unid flats. 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 



The Moist-Soil Water-Level Index 
was first compared with the moist-soil 
vegetation acreage over a 22-year pe- 
riod, 1938-1959, by linear regression. 
Secondly, the Moist-Soil Water-Level 
Index was compaied by linear regres- 
sion with the fall duck-day use of Illi- 
nois Valley lakes, 1949-1976. 

On the other hand, to evaluate the 
effect of water levels on aquatic aiitl 
marsh plants, a Water-Stability Index 
was calcidated. A level 0.6 in (2 ft) 
above the prevailing low-water stage 
was judged to be optimum for aquatic 
plants. The absolute values of devi- 
ations from this level, based upon 
weekly gauge averages, were totaled for 
the growing season. The larger the 
Water-Stability Index, the more adverse 
were conditions for aquatic and marsh 
plant development. 

WATERFOWL FOOD 
RESOURCES 

A preliminary report on the water- 
fowl food resources of the Illinois Val- 
ley and the factors affecting them dur- 
ing the 1938-1940 period was made 
by Bellrose (1941). We present here 
those findings and others made since 
then. 

From the earlier study (Bellrose 1941) 
it is apparent that the four most im- 
portant factors affecting the abundance 
of duck food plants in bottomland 
lakes of the Illinois River are (1) fluc- 
tuating water levels, (2) turbidity, (3) 
water depth, and (4) competition by 
other plants that provide little or no 
duck food. 

In the present study we sought to 
examine further the effects of each of 
tliese factors upon the vegetation of 
valley lakes, but we also recognize that 
all of the factors are interrelated. Tur- 
bidity stems from sedimentation, which 
in turn alters water depth and may en- 
courage the growth of some weed .spe- 
cies at the expense of more beneficial 
plants. When the river rises, more sed- 
iment is deposited and turbidity in- 
creases. 

Fluctuating water levels can affect 



waterfowl habitats in opposite ways. 
Uncontrolled fluctuations result in min- 
imal development of aquatic, marsh, 
and moist-soil plants. However, con- 
trolled fluctuations can result in highly 
productive food resources if they occur 
within the optimimi 120-day summer 
growing period. 

Because the degree of control of wa- 
ter levels is so important to the water- 
fowl food plant resources of the Illinois 
Valley, we have separated bottomland 
lakes into four classes according to 
their association with the river (Ta- 
ble 1): 

Class I, areas whose water levels 
are completely controlled by chang- 
ing river levels 

Class II, areas that are separated 
from the river at low water stages 

Class III, areas that remain sep- 
arated from the river up to flood 
stage, when the river begins to over- 
top its natural banks 

Class IV, areas that are above the 
river's designated flood stage (bank 
full) 

Class III areas are further categorized 
according to management practices: 
Class IIIA, areas where water levels are 
stabilized at an optimum level below 
flood stage for aquatic and marsh 
plants, and Class IIIB, areas where the 
lake is dewatered for optimum produc- 
tion of moist-soil plants. 

Under severe flooding all areas but 
Spring Lake, near Pekin, come under 
the influence of the river. The entire 
.'>20-ha (1,285-acre) basin of Spring Lake 
is separated from the river by high 
levees; water control structures added 
in 1977 will make it possible in the fu- 
ture to manipulate water levels on 261 
ha (645 acres) of Spring Lake. 

Other wetlands are separated to vary- 
ing degrees from the influence of the 
river, either becau.se of the elevation 
and formation of their basins, or be- 
cause low levees isolate the areas. Low 
levees have been built by private duck 
clubs, the Illinois Department of Con- 
.servation, and the U..S. Fish and Wild- 
life Service to provide .some low-level 
water control on wetlands under their 



10 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 1 



respective ownerships. Most of the 
structures isolating tlie river waters are 
no higlier than the natural banks of 



the river. Pumps are frequently em- 
ployed to assist in the dcwatering and 
rellooding of impounded wetlands. 



Table 1. — Surface areas of Illinois River valley lakes in relation to the degree of separation 
from the influence of the river, 1977.' Figures are in hectares (2.471 acres/hectare). 





Total 
Area 


Class I 


Class 


11 Class III Class IV 


Bottomland Lakes 


(river 
control) 


(slight (moderate (maximum 
control) control) control) 




Peoria 


Pool 






Banner HillUtica Pond 


11.0 






11.0 


Split Rock Lakes 


72.8 






72.8 




Huse Lake 


19.7 




19.7 






Huse Slough and Pond 


31.8 


31.8 








Treetop & Sadnick's lakes 


23.1 




23.1 






Mud Lake area 


33.8 




33.8 






River Mile 216-217 


26.3 


26.3 








Turner Lake 


140.9 




140.9 






Depue Lake & Hicks Slough 


248.1 


242.0 




6.1 




Lyons Lake 


13.7 




13.7 






Spring Lake 


238.2 


125.7 




112.5 




Coleman Lake 


52.6 






52.6 




North Hennepin area 


38.4 






38.4 




Goose Pond 


697.2 


575.8 




121.4 




Senachwine Lake & Hunters Slough 


1,865.2 


1,708.2 


124.f 


32.4 




Siebolt Lake (French Slough) 


178.0 




80.£ 


97.1 




Big Spring area 


20.2 






20.2 




Sawmill Lake 


309.3 


309.3 










Mutl Lake 


26.4 


26.4 










Town Lake area fe Whitney Lake 


37.6 


7.2 






30.4 




Mcrdian Slough 


19.3 


19.3 










Billsbadi Lake 


454.1 


429.4 






24.7 




Weis Lake 


132.9 


132.9 










Sparland Lake (Goose Lake) 


451.9 


451.9 










Fisher's Slough 


147.0 


147.0 










Sawyer Slough 


200.0 


200.0 










Wightman Lake 


258.2 


258.2 










Babbs Slough 


777.2 


777.2 










Big Meadow Lake 


274.6 


274.6 










Chillicolhe Island 


8.1 








8.1 




Douglas Lake-Rice Pond 


912.6 


323.7 






588.9 




Goose Lake 


832.4 


809.3 






23.1 




Upper Peoria Lake 


3,738.9 


3,725.1 






13.8 




Lower Peoria Lake 


1,044.7 


1.044.7 










Beesaw Lake 


77.0 


77.0 






... 






La Grange Pool 






Long Lake & Mud Lake area 


197.8 


197.8 






Pekin Lake area 


290.2 




290.2 




Boot Jack Lake area 


105.8 


105.8 






Kingston Lake area 


30.9 


30.9 






Spring Lake 


520.0 






520.0 


Pond Lily Lake 


28.3 






28.3 


Rice )v- Miserable lakes 


661.2 






539.8 121.4 


Becbe Lake (Big Lake) 


583.5 




547.1 


36.4 


Goose Lake 


333.1 




214.1 


119.0 


Clear Lake 


936.6 




936.f 




Chaulauqua Lake 


1,560.9 




1.560.5 


... 


Liverpool Lake 


74.7 


74.7 






Quiver Lake 


112.2 


112.2 




... ... 


Horseshoe Lake 


9.5 


9.5 






Malanzas Bay area 


197.1 




175.: 


21.9 


Bath Lake 


59.6 


10.2 




49.4 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Chancing Illinois Valley 



11 



The arrangement of levees often sep- 
arates wetlands into more than one 



category. Through tlie years 1938- 
1977, the percentage of the lake basins 



Table 1. 



Continued 







Class I 


Class 


11 Class III 


Class IV 


Bottomland Lakes 


Total 
Area 


(river 


(sligh 


I (moderate 


(maximum 




control) 


centre 


1) control) 


control) 


Moscow Lake 


107.8 


81. 1 




26.7 




Grand Island: Grass, Goose, & 












Jack lakes 


711.4 


72.0 


639.4 






Anderson Lake 


635.4 






635.4 




Patterson li- Mallhews bays 


73.3 


43.8 




29.5 




Snicarle Island area 


45.8 






45.8 




Chain & Slim lakes 


284.4 


284.4 








Stewart Lake 


566.7 


323.9 




242.8 




Ingram Lake 


440.6 






360.3 


80.3 


Crane & Pin Oak lakes 


468.0 




320.5 


22.0 


125.5 


Rainbow Gun Club 


69.6 






69.6 




Long Lake 


60.1 






60.1 




Hickory Island 


29.1 


29.1 








Sanganois Conservation Area 


485.6 






485.6 




Cuba Island 


594.1 






594.1 




Sangamon Bay 


114.5 


II4.5 








Treadway Lake 


275.4 


259.2 




16.2 




Sugar Creek Lake 


74.6 


74.6 








Coleman's Lake 


49.6 




49.6 






Big & Little lakes 


63.0 


63.0 








Wood Slough 


186.4 


180.3 




6.1 




Muscooten Bay & Hager Slough 


311.8 


311.8 




... 




York Lake 


159.0 


159.0 






... 


South Beardstown Lake, 












River Mile 84 


99.1 


99.1 








Big Prairie area 


275.0 




275.0 








Alton Pool 








Meredosia Lake area 


655.1 




588.1 


67.0 




Atkinson Lake 


116.6 


116.6 








Barlow Lake 


20.0 


20.0 








Smith Lake 


71.1 




71.1 






Aliens Lake 


80.9 


80.9 






... 


McCoe Lake 


14.6 


14.6 






. . • 


Jack Ellis Lake 


7.7 


7.7 




. 




Prairie Lake 


8.9 


8.9 




. 




Michael Lake 


10.1 


• > > 




lO.I 




Hurricane Island 


16.2 








16.2 





Godar's Swamp 


36.4 








36.4 




Diamond Island 


105.2 








105.2 




Helmbold Slough 


27.9 








27.9 





The Glades area 


78.1 








78.1 





Twelve Mile Island 


8.1 








8.1 




Stump Lake area 


494.1 








494.1 




Gilbert Lake 


83.8 








83.8 




Swan Lake area 


1,143.2 


1,017.7 




125.5 




Calhoun National Wildlife Refuge 


78.5 








78.5 


Calhoun Point 


161.1 


66.0 
Totals 




95.1 




Peoria Pool 


13,413.2 


11,723.0 


436.* 


J 1,253.5 


0.0 


La Grange Pool 


11,881.7 


2,6.S6.9 


5.008.( 


5 3,389.0 


847.2 


Alton Pool 


3,217.6 


1,332.4 


6,W.l 


; 1.147.5 


78.5 


Totals 


28^12.5 


15,6923 


6,104., 


> 5,790.0 


925.7 


Percen tages 




55.04 


21.', 


11 20.31 


3.25 



" Areas were obtained by measuring lake basins with 
(1933) map series of Ihe Illinois River valley. 



planimcter on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 



12 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 



associated with the river has changed 
as some levees have been destroyed by 
floods and as others have been newly 
constructed. Table 1 shows the waters 
in the four categories of control as of 
the summer of 1977. However, for pur- 
poses of evaluating wetland vegetation 
in association with water levels, the de- 
gree of water level control at the time 
of the study is discussed. Local aher- 
ations in water level were made on cer- 
tain lakes during this period, compli- 
cating their evaluation. 

RIVER LEVELS 

Three navigation dams, at Peoria, 
La Grange, and Alton, influence water 
levels, and thus bottomland lakes, in 
the Illinois River valley. These dams 
began operation late in 1938 and have 
influenced river levels and vegetation 
from the 1939 growing season to the 
present. 

Although the Alton dam is on the 
Mississippi River 24.1 km (15 miles) 
below the mouth of the Illinois River, 
its navigational influence extends 128.7 
km (80 miles) up the Illinois to the La 
Grange lock and dam. Similarly, the 
La Grange navigation pool extends 
125.5 km (78 miles) to the Peoria lock 
and dam, and the Peoria navigation 
pool extends 117.5 km (73 miles) to 
the Starved Rock lock and dam near 
Utica. Other navigation dams— Mar- 
.seilles, Dresden Island, Kraiulon Road, 
and Lockport— form adilitional naviga- 
tion pools upstream, but they are only 
of incidental concern in this report. 

Because of its great height, which re- 
sulted in raising the river level 8.4 m 
(27.7 ft), the ,*\llon dam has had the 
most influence on the water levels of 
lakes upstream from the mouth of the 
Illinois River. Both La Cirange and 
Peoria are low-level ilams, 3.0 m (10 ft) 
ami 3.4 m (11 ft), respectively, and have 
had relatively minor cllects upon ri\cr 
levels. Of course, as with all ilams, 
their greatest control over river levels 
is at the clam site, and their influence 
upstream dcdines according to their 
height and the rate of fall of their 



pools. River control progressively de- 
clines to the tailwaters of the next dam 
upstream, where water levels behave 
aboiu as they did in preimpoiuidment 
days. 

As far as we can ascertain, the Alton 
dam has little influence over river lev- 
els above Pearl, the La Grange dam 
above Havana, and the Peoria clam 
above Henry. One reason that they ap- 
pear to have had so little influence on 
present-day water levels is that when 
they became operational in 1938 the 
diverted flow of water from Lake Mich- 
igan into the Illinois River was reduced 
from 14I.f3 cms (5.000 cfs) to 42.5 cms 
(1,500 cfs). In 1961, the discharge was 
raised to 90.6 cms (3,200 cfs). Both the 
Havana and Henry gauges are about 
midway in their respective navigation 
pools, and they thus provide the best 
record of changing water le\els that in- 
fluence wetland plants. 

We consider the period 15 Jiuie-12 
October to be the most favorable season 
for the development of marsh, aquatic, 
and moist-soil plants. ,\n earlier period 
^voulcl he still better lor ac^uatics, but 
the earlier the date, the less likely is 
low water, because of spring floods. 
The minimum period of dewatering 
(between 15 June and 12 Octolier) 
within which moist-soil plants can pro- 
duce mature seed (although not at top 
yields) is 70 clays. 

A review of river levels at Henry, 
1938-1976, shows that during the 
period 15 Jiuie-12 October seasonal 
means ranged from 1.2 to 2.3 m (3.8- 
7.5 ft) (Table 2). Downstream at Ha- 
vana during the same period, seasonal 
means ranged more widely, from 1.8 
to 3.6 m' (5.9-11.9 ft) (Table 2). 
This greater fluctuation results from 
large iribiuary streams adding their 
sizeable discharges to the Illinois River 
between Peoria and Ha\ana. 

The weekly mean gauge records for 
15 Jiuie-12 October were averaged for 
each year, and siand.nci deviations 
were computed. The lower the mean 
and its standard deviation, the more 
mud Hats were exposed, and the longer 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 



13 



Table 2. — Water level fluctuations (in meters) in the Illinois River 
15 June and 12 October, 1938-1976. 



at two stations between 







Henry Gauge* 






Havana Gauge* 




Year 


Seasonal 






Seasonal 








Mean 


SD 


Range' 


Mean 


SD 


Range 


1938 


1.57 


0.71 


2.25 


3.23 


0.70 


2.04 


1939 


1.25 


0.12 


0.55 


2.19 


0.62 


1.68 


1940 


1.17 


0.04 


0.15 


1.83 


0.24 


0.97 


1941 


1.32 


0.41 


1.74 


2.18 


0.72 


2.83 


1942 


1.27 


0.14 


0.64 


2.46 


0.46 


1.43 


1943 


1.49 


0.55 


2.13 


2.67 


1.14 


3.99 


1944 


1.31 


0.05 


0.18 


2.08 


0.43 


1.61 


1945 


1.44 


0.21 


0.76 


2.74 


0.87 


2.83 


1946 


1.40 


0.40 


1.37 


2.40 


1.00 


2.93 


1947 


1.50 


0.61 


2.29 


2.65 


1.39 


4.08 


1948 


1.27 


0.15 


0.67 


2.17 


0.48 


1.65 


1949 


1.23 


0.11 


0.40 


2.14 


0.40 


1.19 


1950 


1.51 


0.37 


1.19 


2.76 


0.92 


2.59 


1951 


1.68 


0.75 


2.41 


3.15 


1.12 


3.20 


1952 


1.48 


0.57 


1.86 


2.61 


0.97 


2.86 


1953 


1.28 


0.19 


0.70 


2.13 


0.58 


1.95 


1954 


1.40 


0.33 


1.37 


2.32 


0.57 


2.25 


1955 


1.40 


0.36 


1.28 


2.25 


0.64 


2.32 


1956 


1.26 


0.12 


0.46 


1.96 


0.29 


0.88 


1957 


1.61 


0.58 


2.29 


2.56 


1.02 


2.77 


1958 


2.02 


0.82 


2.38 


3.22 


1.29 


2.99 


1959 


1.26 


0.09 


0.37 


1.96 


0.30 


1.16 


I960 


1.45 


0.38 


1.19 


2.!56 


1.05 


3.02 


1961 


1.56 


0.61 


2.16 


2.62 


1.03 


3.29 


1962 


1.39 


0.16 


0.49 


1.81 


0.50 


1.61 


1963 


1.26 


0.10 


0.33 


1.83 


0.19 


0.76 


1964 


1.28 


0.09 


0.37 


2.00 


0.45 


1.86 


1965 


1.45 


0.24 


0.91 


2.50 


0.77 


2.22 


1966 


1.26 


0.08 


0.33 


1.97 


0.46 


1.89 


1967 


1.34 


0.17 


0.64 


2.24 


0.57 


1.74 


1968 


1.60 


0..54 


1.83 


2.40 


0.84 


2.71 


1969 


1 ..59 


0.29 


0.76 


2.81 


0.86 


2.41 


1970 


2.05 


0.81 


2.35 


3.43 


1.25 


3.38 


1971 


1.37 


0.09 


0.46 


2.00 


0.23 


0.88 


1972 


2 27 


0.48 


1.58 


3.64 


0.51 


2.10 


1973 


1.75 


0.71 


2.32 


2.94 


1.24 


3.63 


1974 


2.01 


1.22 


3.41 


3.15 


1.92 


5.33 


1975 


1 .65 


0.61 


2.01 


2.63 


0.99 


2.86 


1976 


1.37 


0.14 


0..52 


2.04 


0.47 


1.65 



" On ihc Henry g^iuge O = 1.10 81 m (4211.1!) ft) msl. 
I" On the Havana giiugc 0= I2!l..1l m (424.28 ft) msl. 
'■ R.iiigc is tlu" difTerfnte hclwrcn cMrcnics. 



they were exposed. Extreme means in 
weekly water levels attest (in most 
(ases) to the wide range in river levels 
durint; the growing; season. Because of 
the navigation dams, minimum levels 
were relatively constant from year to 
year; high water caused the wide range 
above the means. The Peoria and La 
(iiange navigation dams (ombincd with 
divertetl water to stabilize the low- 
water jjrofile of the river. Low-water 
records at Peoria, 1902-1938, averaged 



LS3.4 m (1.37. .5 ft) with a standard devi- 
ation of 0.3 m (1.1 ft); from 1939 to 
197.^), the elevation averaged 133.8 m 
(139.0 ft) with a standard deviation of 
only 0.1 m (0.3 ft). 

WETLAND VEGETATION 

Although Illinois Valley lakes have 
many similarities in gross appearance, 
subtle differences occur among them. 
(;onsec|iiently, a dassification system 
for the lakes is difficult to develop, but 



14 



Ilunois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 1 



to facilitate our discussion, we use the 
following groups. 

The lakes are grouped according to 
their water-level stability (Classes I-IV) 
and by periods: 1938-1942, 1943, and 
1944-1959. The highest flood on rec- 
ord occurred during May and June of 
1943. We sought to determine the ef- 
fect of this tremendous flood on wet- 
land vegetation both in the year it oc- 
curred and in following years. 

Table 3 lists the areas covered by 
wetland plants in six lakes connected 
with the river at all stages (Class I) 
from 1938 to 1942. River bulrush was 



the most abundant species, covering an 
average of 7.3 percent of the lake 
basins; American lotus averaged 6.1 
percent; and marsh smartweed and 
thick potato each had about 2 percent. 
Other wetland species were of only 
minor occurrence, and all species to- 
gether covered only 24.2 percent of the 
lake basins. 

Average areas covered by wetland 
plants in six lakes that were separated 
from the river by barriers at moclerately 
low stages (Class II) are shown in Ta- 
i)le 4. Many of the plant species in 
these lakes belong to an ecological com- 



Table 3. — The average abundance by area of wetland plants in bottomland lakes connected 
with the Illinois River at all water stages (Class I), 1938—1942. Figures are in hectares (2.471 
acres/hectare). 

Toul 
Aver- 
age 
Hec- 
tares 



Species 



Saw- 


Spar- 


mill 


land 


1938- 


1939- 


1941- 


1941 



Babbs Quiver 
1941- 1938- 
1942 1941 



Tread- Muscoo- 
way ten 



1938- 
1941 



1938- 
1941 



per 

Year 

in 

Vegeta- 



Per- 
cent 

of 
Basin 

in 
\'ege ca- 
tion 



Cattail 


... 








0.3 


1.8 


2.1 


0.1 


Giant bur-reed 










2.4 


4.5 


6.9 


0.3 


Longleaf pondweed 






0.9 


trace 


1.1 


13.1 


15.1 


0.7 


Leafy pondweed 












0.1 


0.1 


trace 


Sago pondweed 


15.0 


0.3 


0.7 


0.6 


3.1 


1.4 


21.1 


0.9 


Southern naiad 


- • • 








. . . 


0.1 


0.1 


trace 


Duck potato 


0.8 




5.4 


4.0 


21.7 


13.8 


45.7 


2.0 


Waterweed 


. ■ • 


. . . 


6.2 


0.1 






6.3 


0.3 


Rice cutgrass 


■ ■ ■ 






03 




0.7 


1.6 


0.1 


Wild millet 


• ■ • 


. . . 




5.3 






5.3 


0.2 


Nutgrasses 


OS 






9.1 






9.6 


0.4 


American bulrush 




. . . 




1.4 






1.4 


0.1 


Hardstem bulrush 










0.3 




0.3 


trace 


River bulrush 


48.7 


17.7 


95.6 


0.4 


0.4 


2.2 


165.0 


7.3 


Spike rush 


0.1 






2.1 


5.6 


0.5 


8.3 


0.4 


Duckweeds 


4.0 


. . . 


40.3 








44.3 


2.0 


Pickerel weed 




0.4 










0.4 


trace 


Water stargrass 







0.1 






1.0 


1.1 


0.1 


Marsh smartweed 


2.0 


11.6 


0.4 


0.8 


5.7 


25.9 


46.4 


2.1 


Nodding smartweed 




1.0 










1.0 


trace 


Water hemp 








8.7 






8.7 


0.4 


Coontail 


■ • • 




13.6 


trace 




0.3 


13.9 


0.6 


American lotus 


24.0 








30.1 


84.3 


138.4 


6,1 


Marsh mallow 


0.2 


l.I 










1.3 


O.I 


Total 7'rfrr(ntion 


95J 


32.1 


163.2 


33.4 


70.7 


149.7 


544.4 




Lake basin area 


398.6 


419.3 


339.9 


212.5 


253.7 


628.1 


2.2,52.1 




Vegetation percentage 


23.9 


7.7 


48.0 


15.7 


27.9 


23.8 


OA O 




Open-water percentage 


76.1 


92.3 


52.0 


84.3 


72.1 


76.2 


75.8 


... 



■ Averages for the lime period involved. 
^ Sum of the averages of all lakes. 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Chancing Illinois Valley 



15 



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16 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 1 




Fig. 4. — Extensive mud flats exposed on the west shore of Lake Chautauqua (Class II) a 
few miles north of Havana. Mud flats like these are colonized by plant species that belong to 
an ecological community termed moist-soil plants. 




Fig. 5. — Lush stands of moist-soil plants at Spring Lake. These stands occurred when mud 
flats were exposed early during the summer growing season, 1978. 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 



17 



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18 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 1 



munity associated with mud flats, and 
are termed moist-soil plants (Fig. 4 and 
5). These plants include: teal grass; 
rice cutgrass; wild, Japanese, and 
Walter's millet; nmgrasses; nodding 
and largeseed smartweed; water hemp; 
cocklebiirs; and Spanish needles. They 
covered II. 3 percent of the lake basins 
in 1938-1942, and 13.3 percent in 
1944-1959. In contrast, the moist-soil 
species present in Class I lakes (Table 
3) were limited to rice cutgrass, wild 
millet, nntgrasses, nodding smartweed, 
and water hemp; they aggregated a 
mere I.l percent of those lake basins 
from 1938 to 1942. 

Arrowleaf covered averages of 0.8 
and 1.8 percent of the Class II lake 
basins in 1938-1942 and 1 944-1 959, re- 
spectively. In both Class I and Class II 
lakes river bulrush covered almost the 
same average proportion of lake basins 
(7.3 and 5.3 percent, respectively), but 
American lotus expanded its coverage 
from 6.1 percent in Class I lakes to 17.1 
percent in Class II lakes. Increases also 
occurred in the areas covered by 
aquatic pondweeds, southern naiad, 
waterweed, and coontail: they totaled 
5.2 percent of Class II lake basins, 
1938-1942, and 12.2 percent, 1944-1959, 
up from 2.5 percent present during the 
former period in Class I lakes. From 
1938 to 1942 marsh smartweed more 
than doubled in abundance in Class II 
over Class I lakes, ijut duck potato was 
less abundant (probably because of 
competition with marsh smartweed). 
All wetland plants coveretl 46.8 percent 
of Class II lakes in 1938-1942, and 58.4 
percent in 1944-1959. 

Class III lakes are only alTectcd by 
river levels when flood waters top the 
natural banks that lie ijetwcen lake 
and river. Four lakes in Class IIIA 
were studied during 1938-1959 (Table 
5). Species of wetland plants in Class 
IIIA lakes were similar to those found 
in C;iass II lakes; moreover, the propor- 
tion of wetland vegetation in the lake 
basins was similar to the percentage 



(46.8) in Class II lakes during the first 
period (48.9 percent) but was less in 
the second period (36.5 percent). 

However, there were pronounced dif- 
ferences in the relative abinidance of 
certain species of plants between Class 
IIIA and Class II lakes. Pondweeds, 
southern naiad, and waterweed were 
more abundant in Class III,-\ lakes, cov- 
ering 7.8 percent of the lake basins in 
1938-1942, and 9.6 percent in 1949- 
1959. compared with 2.3 and 5.0 per- 
cent, respectively, in Class II lakes 
(Fig. 6). Coontail was more abundant 
in Class IIIA lakes than in Class II 
lakes during the first period but was 
less abundant in the Class IIIA lakes 
than in Class II lakes during the second 
period (Table 5). Wild rice and 
pickerel weed, unusual marsh plants in 
Illinois, were noticeably present prior 
to the 1943 flood. River bulrush was 
also proportionately more abiuidant in 
Class III,\ lakes than in lakes of the 
other classes. 

Moist-soil plants were almost absent 
(0.6 percent) from Class III.A lakes dur- 
ing the first period and of slight abini- 
dance during the second period (3.7 
percent), much less than in Class II 
lakes. 

Class IIIB lakes must be de^^•atered 
by 1 .August in central Illinois to 
produce moist-soil plants consistently. 
Otherwise, the growing season is too 
short for the plants to mature and pro- 
duce an abuniiant seed crop. Dewater- 
ing b\ 15 July provides a still more 
fa\orablc growing perioil. Prolongetl 
spring floods mav make dewatering in- 
feasii)le in certain vcars, and mitisiun- 
nicr Hoods uiav wipe out moist-soil 
plants well along in growth. Some 
(loods occur so late that the time re- 
maining in the growing season is too 
short for the de\elopmcnt of another 
plant generation. 

Table 6 shows wetland vegetation 
areas, averaged for a number of years, 
at three Class 1 1 Hi lakes. Moist-soil 
species covered 41.7 percent of the lake 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Chancing Illinois Valley 



19 




Fig, 6. — Abundant growth of aquatic plants, primarily coontail, present in Rice Lake (Class 
IIIA) during the summer of 1953 



Table 6. — The average abundance by area of wetland plants in bottomland lakes separated 
from the Illinois River at levels below flood stage and intensively managed by dewatering 
(Class IIIB), 1946-1959. Figures are in hectares (2.471 acres/hectare). 





Bath 


Moscow 


Ingram 


Hectares 


Percent 


Species 


1946-1949" 


1946, 19.50, 
1955, 1956, 


1955, 


in 

\'egetation 


of 
Basin in 






1959 


1956, 1959 


per 

Year" 


\'cgctation 


LonKl^af poiidweed 






0.4 


0.4 


0.1 


Sago pond« ced 






0.1 


0.1 


trace 


Arrowleaf 


... 




8.0 


8.0 


1.3 


Duck potato 


0.3 


1.0 


0.7 


1.0 


0.2 


Teal grass 


1.7 


1.1 


10.1 


12.9 


2.1 


Rice cu (grass 


4.5 


1,S.4 


12.6 


30.6 


5.0 


Wild millet 


0.7 


0.6 


8.9 


10.2 


1.7 


Japanese millet 


8.5 


14.5 


79.6 


102.6 


16.9 


Walter's millet 


3.2 


5.4 


2.2 


10.8 


1.8 


Nutgrasses 


4.6 


2.9 


55.7 


63.2 


10.4 


River bulrush 




0.2 


18.8 


19.0 


3.1 


Marsh smartueed 




0.4 


5.8 


6.2 


1.0 


Water hemp 


2.0 


1.4 


8.8 


12.2 


2.0 


American lotus 


■ ■ • 




3.5 


3.5 


0.6 


Cocklebur 


1.0 




7.0 


8.0 


1.3 


Spanish needles 


1.1 


0.2 




1.3 


0.2 


Other moist-soil plants 


1.3 






1.3 


0.2 


Total vegetation 


28.9 


41.1 


222.2 


2')I3 




Lake basin area 


63.9 


108.0 


435.9 


607.8 




\'egelation percentage 


45.2 


38.0 


51.0 


47.9 


47.9 


Open-water percentage 


.54.8 


62.0 


49.0 


52.1 


52.1 



" AvcriiRcs for tfic time period in\olvcd. 
*• Sum oE the averages of all lakes. 



20 



Illinois Natural History Sur\'ey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, An. 1 



basins, and 6.2 percent was covered by 
other species. Artificially sown Jap- 
anese millet composed nearly half of 
all moist-soil plants; the other species 
occurred naturally. Nutgrasses, rice 
cutgrass, teal grass, water hemp, and 
Walter's millet and wild millet were 
the principal species, listed in descend- 
ing order of abundance. 

Marsh plants— river bulrush (3.1 per- 
cent), arrowleaf (1.3 percent), marsh 
smar tweed (1.0 percent), and duck po- 
tato (0.2 percent)— aggregated 5.6 per- 
cent (Table 6) in Class IIIB, a much 
smaller proportion of the area than 
they covered in other classes of lakes. 

Aquatic plants were almost nonexis- 
tent in Class IIIB lakes. Longleaf and 
sago pondweed (0.1 percent and trace, 
respectively) and American lotus (0.6 
percent) totaled only 0.7 percent of the 
lake basins. These aquatics occurred 
because the lakes were never completely 
drained; usually from one-third to one- 
half of the lake basin retained a shal- 
low residue of water surrounded by 
bare mud flats and shoreward, by zones 
of moist-soil plants. 

EVALUATION OF THE 
SEVERANCE OF LAKES 
FROM THE RIVER 

Data presented in Tables 3-6 show 
that the greater the separation of the 
lake basin from the Illinois River, the 
more productive the lake was of wet- 
land plants. Although after the 1943 
flood, the percentage of the lake basins 
covered by aquatic and marsh plants in 
Class IIIA lakes declined below levels 
in Class II lakes, this difference oc- 
curred for other reasons that will be 
discussed later imder water deptii and 
turbidity. 

Not only did the quantity of wetland 
plants increase with the degree of isola- 
tion from the river water, but the ()ual- 
ity of vegetation for waterfowl food 
also improved. In Class I lakes, river 
bulrush, American lotus, and marsh 
smartweed made up 64 percent of the 



wetland plants, but their production of 
waterfowl food was minute (Low & 
Bellrose 1944). 

River bulrush produces a negligible 
amount of seeds; American lotus pro- 
duces a moderate seed crop, but its 
seeds are too hard for ducks to eat dur- 
ing the fall (Bellrose &; Anderson 1943); 
and marsh smartweed fails to produce 
seed when growing out of water (Low 
k Bellrose 1944), as it does in most 
Class I lakes. 

Class II lakes produced more moist- 
soil plants than did Class III.\ lakes, 
but Class IIIA had a greater abundance 
of aquatic and marsh plants. The 
maximum waterfowl food plant pro- 
duction occurred in Class IIIB lakes 
because of the extensive development 
of moist-soil vegetation resulting from 
controlled drawdowns of water. Most 
moist-soil plants yield large crops of 
seed (Low &: Bellrose 1944) that are 
preferred foods of most dabbling ducks 
(Bellrose &: Anderson 1943). 

Plants most typical of all classes of 
Illinois Valley lakes are river bidrush, 
American lotus, and marsh smartweed. 
These species in their respective niches 
are obviously the most adaptable to a 
regimen of fluctuating water levels. 

Within each class of lakes, the abun- 
dance of wetland plants changes from 
year to year as the water level fluctu- 
ations vary. 

EVALUATION OF SEASONAL 
CHANGES IN BOTTOMLAND 
LAKE WATER LEVELS 

Effects on Moist-Soil Plants 

A comparison of the yearly Moist- 
Soil Water-I.evcl Index (described un- 
der Methods) and the development of 
uioist-.soil plants in the lake basins of 
tlie lower Illinois River valley is shown 
in Fig. 7. (At the time of the study, 
nuul Hats were not extensively exposed 
in the \alley above Peoria because the 
Peoria lock and dam had raised water 
levels.) As the yearly Moist-Soil Water- 
Level Index rose, the proportion of all 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Chancing Illinois Valley 



21 



R = 0.62 
r =0.79 




0.07 



0.06- 



0.05- 



0,01- 



0.03 



0.02- 



0,01 



200 I 600 1 1000 I WOO I 1800 I 2200 I 2500 
too 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 

MOIST-SOIL WATER-LEVEL INDEX 

Fig. 7. — The linear relationship of the 
Moist-Soil Water-Level Index to the abun- 
dance of moist-soil plants per hectare of lake 
basin in the Illinois River valley. 



lake basins covered with moist-soil 
plants likewise increased. The coef- 
ficient of determination (R^ = 0.62) in- 
dicates tliat about 60 percent of the 
annual coverage of moist-soil plants 
was related to the Moist-Soil Water- 
Level Intlex. 

Small rises in water during the 
growing season of moist-soil plants 
destroyed extensive areas of these 
plants, the extent depending upon the 
lieight of the rise and the lateness of 
the season. The havoc that these mid- 
sununer fluctuations wrought on the 
development of moist-soil plant beds 
is only partially measured by the Moist- 
Soil Water-Level Index and is the 
])rincipal reason that it accounted for 
only 60 percent of the plants' coverage 
of lake ijasins. Once eradicated by 
a brief inundation, moist-soil plants 
might not have sufficient time to regen- 
erate, or mud flat areas might be re- 
duced. 



Effects on Aquafic and 
Marsh Plants 

Through the years, 1938-1959, only 
a small coefficient of determination oc- 
curred between the area covered yearly 
by aquatic and marsh plants and the 
yearly variation in the seasonal fluc- 
tuation of water levels. The Water- 
Stability Index for seasonal stability 
on all lakes studied compared with the 
development of marsh vegetation gave 
a coefficient of determination of 0.11 
(11 percent of the variable accounted 
for by fluctuating levels); for aquatic 
plants it was 0.108 (10.8 percent). 

Two items were proposed for further 
analysis: (1) Water levels had various 
effects on aquatic and marsh plants in 
different lakes that we attributed to 
difl^erent elevations and bottom topog- 
raphies of the lake basins. (2) Factors 
other than the degree of water-level 
stability appeared to be more impor- 
tant in regulating the growth of 
aquatic and marsh plants. 

To evaluate further the effects that 
yearly variation in the fluctuation of 
water levels had on aquatic and marsh 
plants, we examined particular Class 
III A lakes more closely. 

Lake Chautauqua.— One of our 
longest series of aquatic plant studies 
was made at Lake Chautauqua, a 
national wildlife refuge. The 1,416-ha 
(3,500-acre) lake is enclosed by levees 
that minimize low-water fluctuations. 
A spillway at 133.4 m (437.5 ft) msl 
permitted river waters above that 
Iieight to enter the lake during the 
years of the study. Unfortunately, ref- 
uge gauge records are available for 
only 8 of the 14 years studied. 

The Water-Stability Index for those 
8 years was compared to the occurrence 
of sago pondweed by linear regression. 
The coefficient of determination was 
0.31, suggesting that water stability ac- 
counted for aboiu 30 percent of the 
yearly change in abundance of sago 
pondweed. American lotus, coontail, 
river bulrush, and duck potato showed 



22 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 1 



only a slight correlation between their 
abundance and the Water-Stability 
Index. 

The highest flood on record in the 
Illinois River valley occurred in late 
May 1943. At Lake Chautauqua the 
flood crested on 25 May, 5.3 m (17.5 
ft) above the normal lake level. It 
inundated other Class IIIA lakes to 
similar depths. Vegetation studies were 
made in late summer after the water 
level had returned to normal. 

The flood eradicated all pondweeds 
from Lake Chautauqua (Table 5); 
coontail declined greatly in 1943 and 
never recovered in subsequent years; 
marsh smartweed and river bidrush 
also suffered losses in abundance that 
were never regained. American lotus 
increased in abundance but subse- 
quently died out in the early 1960's. 

Rice Lake.— At Rice Lake, coontail 
abiuidance increased markedly in 1943, 
apparently because of less competition 
from American lotus (Table 5). The 
high water lessened the area of river 
bidrush on lower sites, enabling marsh 
smartweed to invade stands of bulrush 
and increase in abundance. Flood wa- 
ters submerged the growing plants of 
lotus so deeply that they failed to re- 
cover after the water subsided, perhaps 
enabling white water lily to increase. 

Cuba Island.— Flood waters adversely 
aff^ected the abundance of rice cut- 
grass, coontail, and American lotus at 
Cuba Island (Table 5). Marsh smart- 
weed, however, increased as competi- 
tion from other plants decreased. 

Flat, Swan, and Gilbert Lakes.— 
Flat, Swan, and Gilbert lakes, part of 
the Calhoun Division of the Mark 
Twain National Wildlife Refuge, lie 
in the lower Illinois River valley a few 
miles above the river's confluence with 
the Mississippi River. 

Several relatively small lakes oc- 
curred there before 1939. At that time 
the Alton navigation dam raised water 
levels, increasing the lakes' surface area 
from 445 to 1,943 ha (1,100-4,800 
acres). By 1941, wetland plants had 



developed in a sizeable area where lit- 
tle but lotus had grown before the 
expansion of Flat, Swan, and Gilbert 
lakes in 1939 (Table 7). 

However, the flood of 1943 caused a 
marked reduction in wetland vegeta- 
tion, and the plants appeared late in 
the growing season after the flood had 
subsided. The comeback of wetland 
plants was retarded in 1944 by another 
high flood in the late spring. 

During most of the 1960's, sago and 
longleaf pondweeds, southern naiad, 
and coontail flourished in Swan Lake. 
Beds of these acjuatics aggregated 405 
ha (1,000 acres) in 1965, but a late 
September flood reduced their fall 
availability to waterfowl. A high flood 
in April and a minor one in June 

Table 7. — The abundance by area of wet- 
land plants at Flat, Swan, and Gilbert lakes. 
1941-1944. Figures are in hectares (2.471 
acres/hectare). 



Species 


1941 


1942 


1943 


1944 


Cattail 


. . < 


29.3 


0.4 




Longleaf 










ponclweecl 
Leafy 

pondweed 
Sago 

pondweed 


1 0.0 
0.9 
0.6 






... 


.Southern 










naiad 


16.8 








Duck 










potato 
Arrowleaf 


0.8 
18.0 


e.-T 


8.7 
9.6 


10.8 


Rice 










cutgrass 


14.1 


L'i.9 


4.7 




Wild 










millet 








2.8 


Nut};i asses 


68.2 


,'•.4.4 


9.0 


9.2 


.Softstcra 










bulrush 


0.4 


O.."! 






Spike 
rush 


2.4 




0.2 




Marsh 










smartweed 




19.3 


20.9 


8.9 


Coon la il 


22.0 








While walcr 










lily 






0.4 




American 










lotus 


,14.2 




1.1.2 


61.2 


Marsh 










mallow 






0.2 




Tnlal 










vri^ela- 
lion 


1SS.4 


I2i.5 


673 


92.9 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 



23 



1967 resulted in turbid water through 
much of the growing season, limiting 
the growth of submerged aquatics but 
not that of American lotus or duck po- 
tato. Stable water levels prevailed dur- 
ing the growing season and fall of 
1968, promoting an excellent growth 
of sago and longleaf pondweeds, south- 
ern naiad, and coontail. 

Three floods occurred in 1969: 
spring, July, and October. After the 
spring flood, beds of submerged 
aquatics and American lotus began 
to ap]5ear, only to be destroyed by 
high, turbiil water in July. In spite 
of favorable water levels in 1971 and 
1976, acpiatic plants did not reestablish 
themselves in Flat and Swan lakes. 
Large depositions of new sediments 
were resuspended by wave and fish ac- 
tivity, greatly increasing turbidity. 

Yearly fluctuations in water levels 
liave an influence on aquatic and 
marsh plants, but such fluctuations 
are less important to the welfare of 
tiiese plants than they are to moist- 
soil species. It is also apparent that 
factors other than water-level stability 
have influenced the growth of aquatic 
and marsh plants. Therefore, we eval- 
uated several other factors. 

CHANGES IN WATER DEPTHS 

Semipermanent changes in water 
deptji profoundly affected the vegeta- 
tion at several Illinois Valley lakes: 
Rice, Douglas, Spring, and Anderson. 

Rice Lake 

In 194.5 an earthen dam was con- 
structed at the outlet of Rice Lake, 
increasing its normal minimimi depth 
l)y 0.4 m (1.3 ft). In 195.3 the dam was 
raised an additional 0.5 m (1.5 ft) and 
another 0.4 m (1..3 ft) in 1961. 

These increases in water level at 
Rice Lake severely altered its plant 
communities. With a depth increase of 
0.4 m (1..3 ft) in 1945, river bulrush de- 
clined from covering over 33 percent 
of the basin to merely 1.7 and 1.0 per- 



cent in 1950 and 1953, respectively 
(Table 8). With low water levels in 
1977 and 1978, aboiu 10.1 ha (25 acres) 
of river bulrush have become reestab- 
lished. The abiuidance of marsh smart- 
weed varied from year to year with 
spring water conditions; it covered a 
larger area in 1955-1956 after the wa- 
ter was raised an additional 0.5 m (1.5 
ft) during 1953. Marsh smartweed in- 
vaded areas formerly occupied by river 
bidrush but could not tolerate the ris- 
ing water and disappeared in the 
1960's. 

American lotus declined in abun- 
dance from 15.1 percent of the Rice 
Lake area in 1944 to a trace in 1956 
antl none in 1957. Small beds of lotus 
reappeared in 1977 and 1978 as water 
levels were lowered. 

In the 1950's, coontail markedly in- 
creased in area as a result of the deeper 
water (Table 8). It invaded areas va- 
cated by declining beds of lotus and 
river bulrush. However, the disap- 
pearance of river bidrush and lotus 
increasingly exposed a greater expanse 
of open water to wave action. Waves 
resuspend highly organic bottom ma- 
terials, causing the waters to become 
much more turbid than before. As a 
residt of increased turbidity, coontail 
vanished from Rice Lake in the mid- 
1960's and lias not become reestab- 
lished. 

White water lily increased in abun- 
dance as competition from lotus less- 
ened and as water levels remained 
more stable. However, it could not 
tolerate the increasing wave action and 
turl)idity of the early 1960's and even- 
tually disappeared from the lake. 

Douglas Lake 

Witii the inauguration of the Peoria 
lock and dam in December 1938, the 
minimum water level at Douglas Lake 
was raised aliout 0.6 m (2 ft). At that 
time the area supported the largest 
river bulrush marsh in the state (364.1 
ha, 899.7 acres; Table 9). Over the 



24 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



VoL 32, Art. 1 



CN 



3 

o> 



in 

1 
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a 



■a 

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a 
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Percent 

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Percent 

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Basin 


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Percent 

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Basin 


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X 3 


Percent 

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I 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 



25 



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26 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



\'ol. 32, An. I 



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P3 
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a 
O 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 



27 



next 2 years the river bulrush area in- 
creased slightly, encroaching on the 
black willow zone as a result of the 
increased water depth. Then the 
higher water level began to have an 
effect; river bulrush declined from 
414.0 ha (1,023 acres) in 1940 to 231.3 
ha (571.5 acres) in 1959 and 199.1 ha 
(492 acres) in 1976. 

Wave action increased turbidity as 
the retreat of the river bulrush left an 
expanding area of open water on the 
lake. By the 1950's, the several pond- 
weeds and coontail had disappeared 
(Table 5). Marsh smartweed increased 
to 7.4 percent of the lake basin in 1941, 
as it invaded beds of river bulrush, but 
the increased water depth eventually 
extirpated it in the early 1950's. Wild 
rice became much reduced in area; 
only 1.6 ha (4.0 acres) were found in 
1956 and none thereafter. Pickerel 
weed was gone by 1950 and failed to 
reappear in subsequent years (Table 
9). White water lily increased as a 
result of the greater depth, reaching 
a peak in 1942 when 5 percent of the 
lake basin was covered (Table 9). 
White water lily decrea.sed to only 1.1 
percent of the basin in 1950 and dis- 
appeared thereafter. There was much 
yearly variation in the abundance of 
American lotus, but none was found 
in 1959, 1976, and 1977; only small 
l)eds appeared in other years. Appar- 
ently the increased wave action and 
turbidity were responsible for reducing 
tlie abundance of both aquatic and 
marsh plants. 

Spring Lake 

Spring Lake is a remnant of a large 
bottomland lake leveed and drained 
for a.griculture in 1910. Because it 
was isolated from the Illinois River by 
a large levee and fed by spring waters. 
Spring Lake enjoyed highly stable wa- 
ter levels, and it contained extensive 
beds of aquatic plants in 1938 and 1941 
(Table 10). In 1958 the lake level was 
raised 0.9 m (3 ft), doubling the lake 



Table 10. — The abundance by area of 
aquatic and marsh plants at Spring Lake, 
Tazewell County, 1938, 1941, and 1976! 
Figures are in hectares (2.471 acres/hectare). 



Species 


1938 


1941 


1976 


Sago pondweed 


trace 


0.4 




Longlcaf pondweed 


4.0 








Southern naiad 


31.6 


22.6 






Duck potato 


10.1 


6.5 






Waterweed 


29.1 


1.8 






Wild rice 


0.2 


0.2 






River bulrush 


12.1 


5.1 






Water stargrass 


10.1 


5.9 






Coontail 


78.1 


46.7 


4.0 


American lotus 


8.1 


6.6 




Total vegetation 


183.4 


95.8 


4.0 



area to its current size of 601.0 ha 
(1,4,S5.I acres). 

The increase in water depth com- 
bined with an increase in turbidity 
to produce such unfavorable conditions 
that all but a minute portion of the 
aquatic plants disappeared (Table 10). 
Initially, water depths in the principal 
aquatic beds ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 m 
(2-5 ft); Secchi disk transparencies var- 
ied from 45.7 to 152.4 cm (18-60 
inches). The increased lake size re- 
sulted in greater wave action. Because 
of the resulting turbidity, aquatics 
failed to reestablish themselves in the 
shallow, newly flooded area. The 
flooded lands were composed of highly 
organic material that was easily acti- 
vated by waves. As a result, Secchi 
disk transparencies declined from pre- 
vious readings of 45.7-152.4 cm by 
amounts of 30.5 to 40.6 cm (12-16 
inches). Although water depths ranged 
from 0.5 to 1.2 m (1.5-4.0 ft) over 60.7 
ha (150 acres), turbidity apparently 
prevented aquatics from developing in 
ihc siiallow waters. Not only did tur- 
Ijidity increase as a result of wave ac- 
tion on light soils, but phytoplankton 
production also increased because of an 
increase in domestic pollution. 

Anderson Lake 

Structures placed at the outlet of An- 
derson Lake in 1950 helped stabilize 



28 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 1 



low-water levels. This stabilization ap- 
parently enhanced growing conditions 
for coontail, for it was noticeably more 
abundant during 1955-1959 than in 
1938-1939 (Table 4). Depths over 
much of the lake ranged from 50.8 to 
101.6 cm (20^0 inches). 

The lake level was raised 0.5 m (1.5 
ft) in 1958 and an additional 0.5 m 
(1.5 ft) in 1964. American lotus disap- 
peared from the lake in 1959 and has 
been virtually absent since. Coontail 
began decreasing in abundance in 1959 
and by 1965 had all but disappeared 
from the lake. Marsh smartweed at 
first invaded areas vacated by willows 
as they retreated from the higher water 
level, but ultimately the area in smart- 
weeds began a decrease that continued 
through the 1960's. By 1976 only frag- 
ments of the once extensive marsh 
smartweed beds remained. 

EFFECTS OF TURBIDITY 
AND SEDIMENTATION 

It is apparent from our studies of 
wetland vegetation in Illinois Valley 
lakes that fluctuating water levels, wa- 
ter depth, and turbidity have been 
the prime physical factors affecting its 
abundance. However, fluctuating water 
levels appear less responsible than 
other factors for the steady reduction 
in numbers of aquatic plants during 
the 1960's. 

A linear regression of the aver- 
age weekly water level fluctuations, 
15 June-12 October, for five peri- 
ods (1940-1949, 1950-1959, 1960-1969, 
1970-1976, and 1938-1976) shows no 
significant trend in fluctuating water 
levels through tlie summer months 
(Table 11). Although water levels were 
generally higher between 1938 and 
1976, the variation among years is so 
irregular that the correlation coefficient 
is not significant. Moreover, during 
the critical 1960's, when most of the 
aquatic plants disappeared from the 
Illinois Valley, the degree of summer 



Table 1 1 . — Linear regression of average 
weekly water levels by yearly periods at the 
Havana gauge during 15 June-12 October, 
1938—1976 (x = years in each period; y = 
range in average weekly water level fluctua- 
tions). 



Years 


Intercept 


Slope 


r 


1940-1949 


16.54 


1.005 


0.151 


1950-1959 


23.97 


0.992 


0.015 


1960-1969 


22.49 


-0.904 


0533 


1970-1976 


30.37 


1.581 


0.092 


1938-1976 


17.18 


0.326 


0.168 



fluctuations actually declined (Table 
11). Therefore, we conclude that in- 
creased turbidity and sedimentation 
were responsible for the disappearance 
of most aquatic plants from lakes of 
the Illinois Valley during the 1960's. 

Turbidity results indirectly from sed- 
imentation. A study by Jackson & Star- 
rett (1959) on the turbidity of Lake 
Chautauqua pointed out their close 
relationship. They found that a floc- 
culent false bottom had been deposited 
over the original firm bottom. Fine 
silt and clay particles are readily re- 
suspended in the lake's water by wave 
action and fish movements. Similar in- 
creases in wind velocity caused Jack- 
son Turbidity Ihiit (JTU) readings to 
increase from 174 to 700 in the spring 
of 1953. but only from 50 to 78 in the 
summer of 1953. The much smaller in- 
crease in summer turbidities was at- 
tribiued to dense beds of sago pond- 
weed, which prevented the wind from 
agitating bottom materials. Activities 
of bottom-feeding fish, particularly 
carp, also resuspended bottom sed- 
iments, locally increasing the turbidity 
of Lake Chautauqua. The highly sig- 
nificant correlation between JTU's 
and water transparency measured by a 
Secchi disk in waters of the Illinois 
River valley is shown in Fig. 8. 

Stall &: Melsted (1951) had earlier 
studied the sedimentation at Lake 
Chautauqua. They reported tiiat the 
capacity of the lake had been reduced 
18.3 percent by sedimentation in 23.75 
years. The average amount of sediment 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 



29 




Table 1 2. — The number of Jackson Tur- 
bidimeter Units (JTU's) in water samples 
taken from tributary streams and the main 
channel of the Illinois River, 9 August 1977, 
and Lake Chautauqua, 9 May 1977. 



JACKSON TURBIDIMETER UNITS 

Fig. 8. — The linear relationship of Jackson 
Turbidimeter Units and Secchi disk transpar- 
ency in waters of the Illinois Valley. 



depcsited annually was 76,414 metric 
tons (84,230 tons). The sediment was 
brought into Lake Chautauqua by the 
Illinois River wlien it rose above the 
spillway level or overtopped levees. 

Sedimentation in the Illinois river 
valley is particularly severe for three 
reasons. (1) Clay and fine silt particles 
enter the Illinois River as a result of 
sheet erosion on the intensively farmed 
Big Prairie region of Illinois, which is 
drained by numerous tributary streams. 
(2) The almost colloidal nature of the 
sediments and the velocity of the trib- 
utaries cause much of the sediment 
load to be transported to the main 
stem of the Illinois. (3) The sluggish 
flow of the main channel permits a 
high percentage of this sediment load 
to settle in the backwater lakes. 

Table 12 shows the JTU readings 
near the mouths of the Spoon and 
Mackinaw rivers and in the Illinois 
River at Havana on 9 August 1977 and 
in Lake Chautauqua as flood waters 
entered it on 9 May 1977. The Spoon 



Place 


JTU 


Mackinaw River 




Towerline Road' 


865 


Route 29' 


712 


Manito Road" 


987 


Spoon River, Route 24' 


1,625 


Illinois River. Havana' 


545 


Lake Chautauqua 




115-600 m" 


149 


800-1.600 m' 


95 



" Three separate measurements of one water sample 
averaged. 

•» The average of five water samples taken at 115- 
fiOO m from the river. 

*■ The a\crage of eight water samples taken at 800- 
1.600 m from where the river enters the lake. 



and Mackinaw rivers, important trib- 
utaries of the Illinois, were bankfull, 
and waters of the Illinois River were 
invading Lake Chautauqua. 

The sediment load of the Illinois 
River was much less than the loads of 
the Spoon and Mackinaw rivers that 
enter it near Havana. The waters en- 
tering Lake Chautauqua steadily less- 
ened in turbidity the farther the sam- 
ples were taken from the point of 
entry. We interpret these findings as 
illustrating the loss of sediment load 
as velocity slackens. 

The Mackinaw and Spoon rivers fall 
at much faster rates than does the Illi- 
nois River. The Illinois River drops 
at the rate of 0.01 m per km (0.04 ft 
per mile) from Peoria to Beardstown. 
The Mackinaw River falls at the rate 
of 0.70 m per km (3.7 ft per mile) from 
the upper sampling site to its mouth; 
the Spoon River falls at the rate of 0.57 
m per km (3.01 ft per mile) from the 
sampling site to its confluence with the 
Illinois River. 

These three factors— soil erosion, the 
high velocities of tributaries, and the 
sluggish flow of the main channel— to- 
gether have brought about an environ- 
mental disaster: backwater lakes of the 
Illinois River are filling at a rapid rate 
leading to their early extinction. 



30 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 1 



Fig. 9 shows the sedimentation rates 
in seven lakes above Peoria. These 
lakes are lateral to the river channel, 
except Upper Peoria Lake, through 
which the river flows. The linear re- 
gressions show a high correlation be- 
tween the depth of the water and the 
rate of sedimentation. Sedimentation 
increases as tiie water deej>ens because 
of the greater standing column of wa- 
ter from which sediments precipitate. 
The exceptionally high correlation co- 
efficients (r) confirm this relationship. 

Upper Peoria Lake has a lower sed- 
imentation rate than the other lakes 
because the river transports more sed- 
iment through it than through lateral 
lakes. At 2.1 m (7 ft), the yearly rate 
of sedimentation is 0.01 m (0.056 ft) 
as compared with 0.024-0.027 m (0.078- 
0.090 ft) in the other lakes. The lateral 
lakes are inundated during floods. Re- 
duced current velocity in these lakes 
allows more sediment to precipitate 
than can drop out at the higher ve- 

n2 



locities present in LTpper Peoria Lake. 
There is amazingly little difference 
among the sedimentation rates in lat- 
eral lakes above Peoria. Fig. 9 indi- 
cates that at a water depth of 0.3 m 
(1 ft) in Upper Peoria Lake wave and 
ice action have an erosive effect on the 
shallow margins of the lake bed and 
transport bed material to other areas. 
The same action has affected the shore 
margins of some of the lateral lakes. 

Below Peoria, sedimentation studies 
were made at Rice Lake, Lake Chau- 
tauqua, Anderson Lake, and Meredosia 
Bay (Fig. 10). These lakes have lower 
and more diverse sedimentation rates 
than the upper lakes. 

The differences in sedimentation 
rates among lakes can be accounted 
for by their relative isolation from the 
river. The lakes above Peoria have 
only low, narrow peninsulas of land 
separating them from the river at lev- 
els below flood stage. All of the lat- 
eral lakes studied above Peoria have 



= SENACHWINE, R 

n2 



+0.050 -1 
+0.045 
^ +0,040 

UJ 

5 +0,035 
~ +0.030 

CD 

S +0.025 



-0.005 
-0.010 



• = SAWMILL, R 

= BILLSBACH, 

=SPARLAND, R 

A = WIGHTMAN, R 

O = BABBS SLOUGH, R 

■ = UPPER PEORIA LAKE 

0.83, r = 0.91 < 0.01 



0.98, r = 0.99 < 0.01 
0.98, r = 0.99 < 0.01 
= 0.96, r = 0.98 < 0.01 
0.84, r = 0.97 * 0.01 
0.95 < 0.01 
0.92, r = 0.96 < 0.01 



0.90 
2 




Fig. 9. — Linear relation- 
ships between the depth of 
water and the yearly rate of 
sedimentation in seven bot- 
tomland lakes in the upper 
Illinois River valley between 
Hennepin and Peoria. 



T r 1 1 1 1 

'0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 
DEPTH OF WATER IN METERS 



31 



0.51, r = 0.71 -: 0.01 
= CHAUTAUOUA. 1926-1976. R^ = 0.72, r = 0.85 ' 0.01 
_ ANDERSON, 1903-1977, R^ = 0.56, r = 0.75 < 0.01 
= MEREOOSIA, 1903-1978, R^ = 0.76, r ' 0.87 < 0.01 




Fig. 10. — Linear relation- ~ 

ships between the depth of 2 

water and the yearly rate of S 

sedimentation in four bot- g 

tomland lakes in the lower E 

Illinois River valley between l^j 

Banner and Meredosia. u- 



-0.010 -I 



broad inlets-outlets at their lower ends, 
connecting tiieni to the river at all 
stages. Hence, they are subject to sed- 
imentation from river waters at all 
stages above the minimum. The de- 
gree of separation of lateral lakes from 
the river is greater below Peoria, where 
sedimentation rates among the lakes 
studied are lower and more variable. 

In this group, Rice Lake is the most 
isolated from the river, and it has the 
lowest sedimentation rate of all lakes 
studied. Anderson Lake is protected 
at its upper end by a large agricultural 
levee and on its river side by a natural 
levee 1.8 m (6 ft) above normal river 
level. Meredosia Bay is partially iso- 
lated from the river by an agricultural 
levee at its upper end and by a broad 
lateral peninsula of land that permits 
little ingress of river water until the 
river has risen 3 m (10 ft). Although 
surrounded by levees, Lake Chautauqua 
spillway elevations are 133.4 m (437.5 
ft) msl, 2.2 m (7.3 ft) above normal 
river level. However, water was let 
into the lake through gates when pro- 
jected river rises threatened to overtop 
the spillways; in recent years erosion 
has reduced the spillway level to 132 m 



1 I I I I I 

0.5 1,0 1.5 2,0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 

DEPTH OF WATER IN METERS 



(433 ft) msl. Once river water enters, 
it is trapped in Lake Chautauqua to 
a greater degree than in any natural 
lake; consequently, the sedimentation 
rate is higher than at Rice and Ander- 
son lakes. 

Data previously obtained at Upper 
Peoria Lake, Lake Chautauqua, and 
Meredosia Bay by the U..S. Army Corps 
of Engineers, the Illinois State Water 
Survey, and the State Division of Wa- 
ter Resources, and data obtained by 
us for 1976 ami 1978 enabled us to cal- 
culate linear regressions for the two 
groups of years to determine periodic 
sedimentation rates (Fig. 11, 12, and 
13). Sedimentation rates were appre- 
ciably liigher in the more recent period 
at all three lakes. 

The rise in sedimentation rates in 
the Illinois River valley in recent years 
indicates a pronounced increase in the 
sediment load of the river. The sed- 
iment load appears to have increased 
as a result of the intensified growing 
of row crops on the waterslied of the 
river and an increase in tributary 
stream bank erosion. 

In the early 1900's, lakes in the Illi- 
nois Valley had bottom profiles that 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin Vol. 32, Art. 1 




y-int. slope i" 
1903-1956 -0.2599 0.01129 0.93' 
1957-1978 -0.1466 0.01665 0.a5 : 



0.5 1,0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1.0 
DEPTH OF WATER IN METERS 

Pig 11. — ^The linear relationship between 
the yearly rate of sedimentation and the depth 
of water in Upper Peoria Lake in each of two 
time periods, 1903-1965 and 1966-1976. 

= 1926 - 1950, R^ = 0.41, r = 0.64 < 0.01 



= 1951 - 1976, R^ = 0.50, r = 0.71 < 0.01 



+2.5 



u- >- 

u_^ +2,0 - 

O CXI 



I — UJ , r 



§a +1.0 i 



+0.5 - 




-I—* — I — I 

0,5 1.5 2.5 



DEPTH IN METERS 
Pig 12. — The linear relationship between 
the yearly rate of sedimentation and the depth 
of water in Lake Chautauqua in each of two 
time periods, 1926-1950 and 1951-1976. 

presented a diversity of elevations (Fig. 
14 and 15). By the mid-1970's the bot- 
tom profiles had flattened into platter- 
shaped basins because of the greater 
deposition of sediment in the deeper 
waters. Because sedimentation is dy- 
namic, the amount of silt deposited 



0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 
DEPTH OF WATER IN METERS 
Fig 13. — ^The linear relationship between 
the yearly rate of sedimentation and the depth 
of water in Meredosia Bay in each of two 
time periods, 1903-1956 and 1957-1978. 

in a backwater lake changes as lake 
depths change. Other factors (such as 
the sediment load carried by the nver) 
being equal, the total amount of sed- 
iment deposited per year in backwater 
lakes lessens as the lakes becotne shal- 
lower. Inasmuch as lake beds have 
different elevations, resulting in differ- 
ent degrees and time spans of inunda- 
tions, sedimentation rates differ from 
lake to lake at comparable depths. 

Table 13 shows the total amount of 
sediment deposited in 11 bottomland 
lakes during this century. The lakes 
that were originally deepest have re- 
ceived the greatest amounts of sed- 
iment. The total fill is staggering, 
leaving most bottomland lakes with 
shallow basins that are rapidly being 
filled as sediments "rain down'" from 
the waters above. Because of us 
depth. Upper Peoria Lake in all like- 
lihood will be the last lake remaining 
in the Illinois Valley. Rice Lake prob- 
ably will fill more slowly than the 
other lateral lakes as a result of its dis- 
tance from the river and the relatively 
high elevation of its basin. 

Sawmill. Billsbach, Sparland, Wight- 
man, Babbs Slough, and many other 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 

= 1903 WIGHTMAN LAKE 

-, TRANSECT A 

ly/b RIVER MILE 188.2 

. . . = IQJ-J WATER SURFACE = 440.05 msl 



33 




0.5 
1,0 
1.5H 
2.0 
2.5 



EAST 
SHORE 



100 200 300 1400 500 600 700 

METERS 



800 gdo WEST 

SHORE 



fig. 14. — A cross section 
of each of three lakes — 
Wightman, Babbs Slough, 
and Rice — delineating the 
bottom contours in 1903 
and in 1976 or 1977. 




V 



BABBS SLOUGH 
TRANSECT C 
RIVER MILE 185.2 
WATER SURFACE 440.0 msl 



200 300 



"iioo" 

METERS 



-T- 



"T" 



500 600 



700 WEST 
SHORE 




0.5 
1.0 
1.5- 
2.0- 



EAST 
SHORE 



RICE LAKE 
TRANSECT D 
RIVER MILE 137. 
WATER SURFACE = 




200 



too 



~600~ 



100 300 500 700 



800 1000 1200 WEST 

I I SHORE 

900 1100 



METERS 



Fig. 1 5. — A cross section 
of Senachwine Lake, show- 
ing its bed in 1903 and 
1976, and a cross section 
of Upper Peoria Lake, show- 
ing bottom elevations in 
1903, 1965, and 1976. The 
deep trench in Upper Peoria 
Lake is the channel of the 
river. At Senachwine and 
other bottomland lakes, the 
river channel is lateral to 
their basins. 



SENACHWINE LAKE 

TRANSECT B 

RHER MILE 201.5 

UATER SURFACE = 440.05 BSl 




■"A 



BOTTOM ELEVATION 

-1903 
= 1976 



V / 



^■^ 



EAST 
SHORE 




0.5 
1.0 
1.5-1 
2.0 
2.5- 
3.0 
3,5 
4.0 
H.5 
5,0 
5.5 



I 100 I 800 i 1200 I 1600 I 2000 I 2100 west 
200 600 1000 WOO 1800 2200 ^"""^ 

METERS 




UPPER PEORIA LAKE 

TRANSECT D 

RIVER HILE 172.1 

WATER SURFACE = 440.0 msl 



-- 1903 

• = 1965 
= 1976 



BOTTOM 
ELEVATION 



I 3201 



EAST I 100 I 800 I 1200 I 1600 I 2000 I 2100 I 2800 I 3200 west 
SHORE 200 600 1000 1100 1800 2200 2600 3000 ^"""^ 



METERS 



34 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, An. 1 



Tabte 13. — The total sedimentation, annual sedimentation, and average water depth in 
1976 of 11 bottomland lakes in the Illinois River valley. Sediments and depths are recorded 
in centimeters at normal water levels. 



Lake 



Span of Lake 

Measurement Surface 

ofSed- Elevation" 

imentation msl in 

in Years meters 



Total 
Sedimen- 
tation'' in 
Centimeters 



Average 
Sedimen- 
tation 
Per Year 
in Centi- 
meters 



1976 
Average 
Water 
Depth 
in Centi- 
meters 



Senachwine 


72 


134.1 


107.5 


1.5 


31.1 


Sawmill 


72 


134.1 


107.5 


1.5 


S2 


Billsbach 


72 


134.1 


94.2 


1.3 


17.1 


Sparland 


72 


134.1 


84.3 


1.2 


12.5 


Wightman 


72 


134.1 


103.8 


1.4 


10.1 


Babbs Slough 


72 


134.1 


32.9 


0.5 


11.0 


Upper Peoria 


72 


134.1 


121.1 


1.7 


108.5 


Rice 


74 


133.2 


19.0 


0.2 


70.7 


Chautauqua 


50 


132.6 


43.2 


0.9 


79.9" 


Anderson 


74 


132.4 


30.6 


0.4 


81.7 


Meredosia 


75 


129.3 


97.4 


1.3 


88.4 



" Fill and water depth calculations are based upon surface elevation in meters msl. 

** Average setiimcnt accumulations are based upon differences in depth soundings Liken at each Like in 
two periods. 

" From Lee (1976 unpublished). 



lakes above Peoria evidently have short 
remaining lives (Table 13). 

Lee &: Stall (1976 unpublished) re- 
ported on the sedimentation of Lake 
Depue, a lake lateral to the Illinois 
River above Peoria. They projected 
that in 33 years the lake would fill with 
sediment to 134.4 m (441 ft) msl, the 
current normal lake surface elevation. 
They determined that the average lake 
depth in 1975 was 49.3 cm (19.4 inches). 

The projected life of Lake Chau- 
tauqua, according to Lee (1976 unpub- 
lished), is 92 years, based upon the 
ratio of average depth to the current 
annual rate of rise in the lake bed. A 
sediment survey of Meredosia Bay by 
Lee et al. (1976 tmpublished) led to 
the conclusion that its expected life is 
90 years. 

It is apparent that although total 
sediment deposits theoretically lessen 
as bottomland lakes become shallower, 
the yearly sedimentation rate per cen- 
timeter of water depth has acttially in- 
creased. The intensive growing of row 
crops on Illinois River watershed lands 
has resulted in widespread sheet ero- 
sion. Unless a change occurs in land 
management practices, the years of life 



remaining to Illinois Valley lakes are 
nimibered. 

Between 1945 and 1976, row crop- 
land in the Illinois River basin in- 
creased from 3,496,487 to 5,231,031 ha 
(8,639,700-12,925,700 acres), up 66.8 
percent. In the entire state, row crop- 
land rose from 4,811,883 ha (11.890.000 
acres) in 1945 to 7,911,885 ha (19,550,- 
000 acres) in 1976, an increase of 60.8 
percent (Illinois Cooperative Crop Re- 
porting Service 1968 and 1977). Most 
of the additional row crop area was 
devoted to growing soybeans. All row 
crops expose soils to more sheet erosion 
than do other kinds of crops, but soy- 
beans provide even less protection to 
the land than corn provides. 

EFFECTS OF FOOD 

RESOURCES ON FALL 

WATERFOWL 

POPULATIONS 

For 40 years, Bellrose has observed 
that the availability of food is tlie most 
important factor affecting the abun- 
dance and distribution of waterfowl in 
the Illinois Valley. Yet, there are other 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 



35 



variables affecting the local abundance 
of waterfowl. Moreover, as will be dis- 
cussed, a regression analysis of the an- 
nual availability of natural food re- 
sources is difficult. 

It is almost impossible to quantify 
seed yield, palatability, and availability 
of waterfowl food plants. A study of 
seed and vegetative yield by Low k 
Bellrose (1944) illustrated a wide diver- 
sity among species of wetland plants. 
The yield of any one sp>ecies may vary 
from year to year, depending upon the 
growing period and competition from 
weed species. Fall floods may make 
seeds and other vegetative parts un- 
available to dabbling ducks. Seeds pro- 
duced in one year by moist-soil plants 
may still be available in bottom soils 
in the following year for ducks to feed 
upon at times when current moist-soil 
plant development is at a minimum. 
Mallards obtain a large proportion of 
their food from the waste corn left 
after harvest (Anderson 1959) and are, 
therefore, only partially influenced by 



the availability of naturally occurring 
foods. Many diving ducks, especially 
the lesser scaup, are influenced more 
by the availability of animal than 
plant food. Local duck populations 
are also influenced by yearly fluctu- 
ations in the continental and flyway 
populations of the various species. 

These complex variables, combined 
with the failure of vegetation maps 
adequately to sample waterfowl food 
plant availability, make it difficult to 
compare the abundance of wetland 
plants with that of waterfowl. Never- 
tiieless, we have found a relationship 
ijetween the abundance of wetland 
plants and the abimdance of some spe- 
cies of waterfowl in the Illinois Valley. 

Fig. 16 shows a significant correlation 
between the abundance of moist-soil 
and marsh plants and the number of 
pintails. Anderson's (1959) study of the 
food preferences of the pintail in the 
Illinois Valley pointed up the primary 
importance of the seeds of moist-soil 



CO 

ca 



a: 



>- 
ca 



125 -, 



100- 



75- 



50- 



25- 



R = 0.45 
r = 0.67 
P< 0.05 



1 1 1 1 

0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0,125 

MOIST- SOIL AND MARSH PLANTS 
PER HECTARE OF LAKE BASIN 




I 0.10 I 0.20 I 
0.05 0.15 0.25 



ALL WETLAND PLANTS 
PER HECTARE OF LAKE BASIN 



Fig. 16. — The linear relationship between Fig. 17. — The linear relationship between 
the yearly abundance of pintails and the the yearly abundance of American green- 
yearly abundance of moist-soil and marsh veg- winged teals and that of all wetland plants 
etation in the Illinois River valley. in the Illinois River valley. 



36 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. I 



plants and the secondary importance 
of marsh plants in the diet of this 
species. 

Green-winged teal numbers were in- 
fluenced by the relative abundance of 
all wetland plants (Fig. 17) rather than 



CO 

CQ 



3 



0.50 
0.71 
0.05 



UJ 
a. 

oo 

>- 
<c 

I 




-I r 

0.050 I 0.100 „^ 
0.025 0.075 0.125 

AQUATIC PLANTS 
PER HECTARE OF LAKE BASIN 

Fig. 18. — The linear relationship between 
the yearly abundance of American wigeons 
and that of aquatic plants in the Illinois River 
valley. 




"" 1 ^ 

0.050 I 0.100 I 

0.025 0.075 0.125 
AQUATIC PLANTS/HECTARE OF LAKE BASIN 

Fig. 19. — The linear relationship between 
the yearly abundance of coots and that of 
aquatic plants in the Illinois River valley. 



by that of any particular plant group. 
Yet a food-preferences study of these 
ducks by Anderson (1959) revealed 
their preference for seeds of moist-soil 
plants. 

As might be expected, wigeon and 
coot populations were significantly cor- 
related with the yearly abundance of 
aquatic plants (Fig. 18 and 19). Food- 
preference studies by Anderson (1959) 
revealed the importance of the foliage 
of coontail, sago pondweed, and other 
aquatics in the diets of these species. 

As sago pondweed, southern naiad, 
and coontail became more abundant 
in the mid-1 960's at Swan, Gilbert, and 
adjacent lakes above Grafton, so did 
wigeon and coot populations (Fig. 20). 
The high water levels of 1965-1968 



11 -I 



= COOT 
= WIGEON 




1965 1967 1959 1971 1973 1975 

YEARS 

Fig. 20. — The yearly changes in coot and 
wigeon abundance on Gilbert and Swan lakas, 
Calhoun Unit of the Mark Twain National 
Wildlife Refuge, near Grafton, Illinois. The 
crash in numbers was associated with the dis- 
appearance of submerged aquatic plants. 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Chancing Illinois Valley 



37 



resulted in the eradication of aquatic 
plants by 1969 (as previously described) 
and the consequent collapse of wigeon 
and coot populations. Aquatic plants 
had not recovered by 1976 and neither 
had the local wigeon and coot popula- 
tions (Fig. 20). 

SUMMER WATER LEVELS 

AND FALL WATERFOWL 

ABUNDANCE 

We have previously shown the cor- 
relation between summer water levels 
and wetland plants and that between 
wetland plants and the fall abundance 
of certain species of waterfowl. How- 
ever, our most precise and extensive 
data are on waterfowl abundance and 
water levels. Our evaluation of these 
factors is made on the assumption that 
summer water levels, used to calculate 
the Moist-Soil Water-Level Index, gov- 
ern the growth of moist-soil food plants 
and that they in turn affect the abun- 
dance of fall waterfowl. 

Fig. 21 demonstrates that the fall 
populations of several species of dab- 



bling ducks are reflected in the Moist- 
Soil Water-Level Index. In the upper 
Illinois Valley, above Peoria, only the 
pintail sliowed a significant correlation 
between the Moist-Soil Water-Level 
Index and subsequent fall abundance. 
However, four species of dabbling 
ducks in the lower Illinois Valley (be- 
low Peoria) had significant correlations 
l)etween fall population levels and the 
Moist-Soil Water-Level Index (Fig. 21). 

The slopes of the linear regressions 
indicate that pintail numbers re- 
sponded the most dramatically when 
a high Moist-Soil Water-Level Index 
occurred. (The higher the index, the 
longer the duration of low water.) 
Wigeon and green-winged teal popula- 
tions responded less to these condi- 
tions, and fall blue-winged teal num- 
bers responded only slightly to a high 
Moist-Soil Water-Level Index. 

Fall populations of the mallard, the 
most abundant duck in the Illinois 
Valley, did not show a significant cor- 
relation with the Moist-Soil Water- 
Level Index for two reasons: (1) 



0.30. r ■ 0.54 < 0.01 
0.34, r = 0.59 < 0.01 



700 -1 



Fig. 21." — Linear relation- 
ships between the abun- 
dance of four species of 
dabbling ducks during the 
fall and the Moist-Soil Wa- 
ter-Level Index in the Illinois 
Valley. Upper refers to the 
upper Illinois River above 
Peoria, and lower refers to 
the river below Peoria. 




200 I too I 500 I 800 I 1000 I 1200 I WOO I 1600 
100 300 500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 



HOIST-SOIL WATER-LEVEL INDEX 



38 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 1 



changes in the continental abundance 
of mallards from year to year masked 
local population changes, and (2) the 
mallard obtains much of its food from 
waste grain in harvested corn fields and 
is, therefore, more independent of nat- 
urally occurring food resources than 
are other ducks. 

We employed a multiple regression 
equation (z = ao + ajX + a2y) that in- 
corporated the yearly continental mal- 
lard population as an independent 
variable, the Moist-Soil Water-Level 
Index as an independent variable, and 
mallard duck-day use as the dependent 
variable. Fig. 22 and 23 demonstrate 
that when these variables are eval- 
uated, the Moist-Soil Water-Level In- 



dex also influenced mallard f)opula- 
tions in the Illinois Valley. 

The coefficient of determination (R^) 
suggests that sligluly over half of the 
yearly variation in mallard numbers in 
the Illinois Valley is accounted for by 
variations in the size of the continental 
population and the Moist-Soil Water- 
Level Index. The spread among the 
several Moist-Soil Water-Level Indices 
points up the effects that they have on 
mallard numbers in the upper and 
lower Illinois Valley. As with other 
dabbling ducks, the Moist-Soil Water- 
Level Index illustrates the influence of 
summer water levels on populations of 
mallards more in the valley below Pe- 
oria than above. 



I 11 
£ 10 
- 9- 



5- 
t- 
3 




V/n 



16 18 20 22 21 
MALLARD CONTINENTAL POPULATION IN MILLIONS 



26 



Fig. 22. — Multiple re- 
gression analysis of mallard 
abundance in the upper Il- 
linois Valley in comparison 
with mallard continental 
abundance and the Moist- 
Soil Water-Level Index in 
the upper Illinois Valley. 



15 

m 

13 

12 
11 
10 
9 
8 
7 
6 
5 
1 
3 



REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS 

a = -2144.8 


dj' 0.607 

2.60 




MOIST-SOIL WATER-LEVEL INDEX 2.000 

MOIST-SOIL WATER-LEVEL INDEX 1,500 

MOIST-SOIL WATER-LEVEL INDEX 1.000 

MOIST-SOIL WATER-LEVEL INDEX 500 

MOIST-SOIL WATER-LEVEL INDEX 200 

MOIST-SOIL WATER-LEVEL INDEX 100 



W/r 



Fig. 23. — Multiple re- 
gression analysis of mallard 
abundance in the lower Il- 
linois Valley in comparison 
with mallard continental 
abundance and the Moist- 
Soil Water-Level Index in 
the lower Illinois Valley. 



-T- 



— I— 

2H 



-\ 



MALLARD CONTINENTAL POPULATION IN MILLIONS 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfo^vl and the Chancing Illinois Valley 



39 



We pointed out earlier that a high 
Moist-Soil Water-Level Index reflects 
more extensive mud flats and hence 
more moist-soil plant food resources in 
the lower valley. Therefore, it is not 
surprising that dabbling ducks respond 
more to low water levels in the lower 
than in the upper Illinois Valley. 

We found no significant correla- 
tion between the Moist-Soil Water- 
Level Index and the abimdance of 
diving ducks in the Ilhnois Valley. 
Studies of the food preferences of the 
several species of divers— lesser scaup, 
canvasback, ring-necked duck, and 
ruddy duck— by Anderson (1959) re- 
\ealed that in the Illinois Valley they 
feed primarily on animal life. The 
effect of change in the abundance of 
a staple animal food item on diving 
duck abundance will be discussed later. 

FALL WATER LEVELS 

In the flat-basined lakes of the Illi- 
nois River valley, slight rises in fall 
water levels are advantageous in inun- 
dating moist-soil plant beds so that 
their seeds can be used by ducks. How- 
ever, if the river rises too high, the 
moist-soil plant beds are covered too 
deeply for dabbling ducks to use their 
seed resources effectively. On the 
other hand, when waters remain low 
during the fall, tens of thousands of 
ducks can be observed feeding on mud 
flats and in shallow water early in the 
season. Examination of soil samples 
from these habitats reveals little an- 
imal life but multitudes of seeds of 
moist-soil plants that have been de- 
posited in earlier years. It is assumed. 



therefore, that previous crops of moist- 
soil plant seeds are being consumed. 

It was within this context that we 
analyzed the effect of fall water levels 
on fall popidations of dabbling ducks 
in the lower Illinois Valley. Water 
levels were averaged yearly from 1949 
to 1976 for the period 1 October-1 De- 
cemlier, using the Havana gauge read- 
ings. These average fall water levels 
were compared, using a regression anal- 
ysis, to the yearly fall waterfowl pop- 
idations of several dabbling duck 
species (Table 14). The coefficient of 
determination (R-) implies that fall 
water levels accounted for about 16 
percent of the yearly variation in fall 
popidations of mallards and green- 
winged teals, and for 6-8 percent of 
such variation in the abundance of 
pintails, blue-winged teals, and wigeon. 
In all these species (slope column, Ta- 
ble 14) the numbers of dabbling ducks 
decline when water levels rise above 
normal during the fall. Normal water 
level is considered to be at the tree 
line, and feeding conditions become 
unfavorable for dabbling ducks when 
this level is exceeded. 

WATER LEVELS IN 

RELATION TO THE 

DURATION OF STAY 

OF DUCKS 

The Icngtli of time a duck pauses in 
fall migration in the Illinois Valley is 
dependent upon several factors: (1) 
weather conditions, (2) shooting pres- 
sure and other disturbances, and (3) 
availai)ility of food. Here we discuss 
only the availability of food— as re- 



Table 14. — Average fall water levels" each year in relation to fall abundance of dabbling 
ducks in the lower Illinois Valley, 1949-1976. 



Species 


R» 


r" 


Slope 


y-Intercept 


Mallard 


0.16 


0.40 


-890.096 


18,960,000 


Pintail 


0.06 


0.24 


-49,143 


960,550 


Grccnuingcd leal 


0.16 


0.40 


-47,412 


619.770 


Blue-winged leal 


0.08 


029 


-6^84 


96,290 


Wigeon 


0.07 


0.26 


-21.790 


457,200 



* The higher the average fall water level, the lower the fall abundance of dabbling ducks. 
^r signiBcant at 0.37, < 0.05; and 0.25. < 0.10. 



! 



40 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 1 



fleeted by summer and fall water lev- 
els—in relation to the duration of stay 
of ducks. 

A comparison of the peak weekly 
number of ducks observed with the 
number of duck-days each fall, 1949- 
1976 (Table 15), shows how long each 
particular population inhabits the Illi- 
nois Valley. The ratio of the mean 
peak number of ducks to the mean 
number of duck-days varies from 13.3 
to 27.8 among different species and 
time periods (Table 15). In most in- 
stances the ratio of means varies be- 
tween 19.6 (for tiie wigeon) and 22.5 
(for the mallard). The implication is 
that during the fall season the number 
of duck-days equals about 21 times the 
number of ducks present at the peak 
of migration. Theoretically, if there 
were but one flight in and out of 
the valley, similar maximum numbers 
would occur over a 21 -day period. 
However, because there are numerous 
flights of ducks arriving at and depart- 
ing from the valley, the result is a 
period of increase followed by a period 
of decline. The chronology of fall 
duck populations assumes the shape of 
a bell curve (Bellrose 1944). Omitting 
the tails of the curve, the base roughly 
embraces the following number of days 
for these species: mallard 60, pintail 
55, green-winged teal 60, wigeon 50, 
lesser scaup 55, ring-necked duck 55. 



and canvasback 55 (Bellrose, unpub- 
lishetl data). 

An earlier analysis of mallard recov- 
ery data from bandings in the Illinois 
Valley led to the conclusion that fall 
migrants remain for 16-28 days, de- 
pending upon which of several sources 
of data was deemed the most reliable 
(Bellrose & Crompton 1970). On the 
basis of the earlier band recovery study, 
we interpret the 22.5 ratio of means for 
mallards (Table 15) as reflecting the 
average length of time migrating ducks 
remain during the fall in the Illinois 
Valley. Henceforth we refer to this 
ratio of mean peak number of ducks 
to mean duck-days in the fall as the 
Duration of Stay Index. 

We surmised that between 1949 and 
1976 almost all of the migrating ducks 
listed in Table 15 inhabited the Illi- 
nois \'alley for similar periods of time, 
centering on 21 days. As shown by the 
standard deviation and range, the Du- 
ration of Stay Index varied by year. 
The variation among the years is 
least for the mallard and progressively 
higher for the green-winged teal, pin- 
tail, and wigeon. 

We believe that some part of the 
yearly variation in tlie Duration of 
Stay Index results from the changing 
a\ailability of native food resources. 
Beyond affecting peak numbers, food 
a\ai!abilitv undoubteillv also influences 



Table 15. — A comparison of the mean peak number of ducks recorded each year with 
the mean number of duck-days in the fall, 1949—1976. 



Species 


Mean Peak 
Number 
of Ducks 


Mean Number - 
of Duck-Days 


Mean 


Ratio 

Standard 
Deviation 


Yearly 
Range 


r 


Mallard 


828,170 


18,655,000 


22.5 


3.84 


16..3-.30.5 


0.93 


Pintail 


.34,460 


739.800 


21.5 


6.57 


8.2-36.3 


0.93 


Green-winged teal 


14.000 


389,460 


27.8 


5.37 


13.5-40.3 


0.96 


Wigeon 


20,170 


395.000 


19.6 


9.08 


13.5-54.8 


0.80 


Lesser Scaup* 
1949-1955 


326,800 


6,231,700 


19.9 


5.54 


14.0-27.9 


0.94 


1956-1976 


17,980 


208.150 


13.3 


4.78 


7.2-24.9 


0.88 


Canvasback" 














1949-1955 


66.900 


1,268,000 


19.8 


4.68 


12.5-24.2 


0.93 


1956-1976 


1,360 


25,100 


18.1 


7.08 


7.3-30.2 


0.78 



■ Because of a crash in population levels between 1954 and 
periods: 1949-1955 and I95&-1976. 



1956, the analysis is broken down into two 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Chancing Illinois Valley 



41 



the duration of time that a g^ven seg- 
ment of a duck population spends in 
the \alley. As previously discussed, 
summer water levels determine the de- 
velopment of moist-soil duck food, and 
fall water levels determine their avail- 
ability. 

Multiple regression coefficients (Ta- 
ble 16) compare increases in summer 
water levels as expressed by a decrease 
in the Moist-Soil Water-Level Index 
and increases in fall water levels (inde- 
pendent variables) with the Duration 
of Stay Index (dependent variable) for 
four species of dabbling ducks. The 
coefficient of determination (R^) im- 
plies that rising summer and fall wa- 
ter levels had the greatest adverse ef- 
fect on the green-winged teal, with 
progressively lessening influence on 
pintails, wigeons, and mallards. 

The regression coefficients, Moist- 
Soil Water-Level Index (aj) and yearly 
average fall water levels (32), imply 
that rises in smrimer water levels were 
more adverse than rises in fall water 
levels for the duration of stay by mal- 
lards and green-winged teals. But high 
fall water levels had the greater adverse 
effect on the pintail and wigeon Du- 
ration of Stay Indices. 

Because of its small size and short 
neck, we would expect that the green- 
winged teal among dabbling ducks 
would have the greatest difficulty in 
feeding when water levels are high. 
Low simimer water levels are needed 
either to produce the seeds of moist- 
Table 16. — Multiple regression coefficients 
of the Duration of Stay Index in relation to 
summer and fall water levels in the Illinois 
Valley, 1949-1976. 



Species 


a„' 


a." 


a/ 


RSI 


Mallard 


28.2 


-0.52 


-0.11 


0.07 


Pintail 


33.5 


-0.12 


-1.24 


0.19 


Green- 










winged 










teal 


38.2 


-1.13 


-0.45 


0.24 


Wigeon 


12.8 


2.26 


-1.38 


0.11 



■ Point of intercept. 
•'Slope of summer w.Tlcr lev^l. 
*-' Slofic of f.ill w;iter level. 
•* Coefficient of determination. 



soil plants or to make available mud 
flats that the teal gleans for previous 
seed crops. Pintails also feed upon 
mud flats in late summer and fall, but 
flooding in late summer is not as ad- 
verse for them as it is for the shorter 
necked green-winged teal. However, 
for tmknown reasons, high fall water 
levels have a greater adverse effect 
upon tiie length of stay by pintails. 
High simimer levels favor the wigeon, 
perha])s through the greater produc- 
tion of filamentous algae. Mallards, as 
expected, are more independent of wa- 
ter levels than are other dabblers be- 
caiLse of their ability to obtain a large 
part of tlieir food from waste corn left 
in harvested fields. 

Diving ducks are largely indepen- 
dent of fall water levels, because large 
numbers of lesser scaup and canvas- 
backs feed on animal life and are in- 
dependent of moist-soil plant resources. 
However, a catastrophic loss of finger- 
nail clams, their basic food in the Illi- 
nois Valley, during the mid-1 950's 
(Mills et al. 1966) resulted in a dra- 
tnatic decline in both peak numbers 
and duck-days (Table 15). The lower 
Duration of Stay Index, 1956-1976, 
when fingernail clams have been vir- 
tually nonexistent in the valley, points 
out tliat not only did the Illinois Val- 
ley fail to attract large populations of 
scaup and canvasbacks, but also those 
that stopped in migration remained 
more briefly than they formerly did. 

The highly significant correlation co- 
efficients ()) between mean peak num- 
bers of ducks and mean numbers of 
duck-days (Table 15) implies that 
either expression adequately reflects 
yearly changes in the popidation status 
of ducks in tlie Illinois Valley. It also 
implies that shortly after arriving ducks 
detect the availability of food. If lit- 
tle food is available, they tarry but a 
day or two before continuing in migra- 
tion. Many field observations by Bell- 
rose on ihe behavior of migrating wa- 
terfowl support this contention. It is 



r 



42 



Illinois Natural History Sur\'ey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 1 



becoming more prevalent for large 
numbers of waterfowl that arrive one 
night to leave the following night be- 
cause of food shortages. 



MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 
AND CONSIDERATIONS 

The prohibition of baiting in the 
mid-1930's greatly reduced the duck 



Table 17. — Duck clubs 
acres/hectare). 



in the Illinois River valley. Area figures are in hectares (2.471 





Number 

of 

Clubs 


Total 


Clubs 


Reporting on 


Water Management 


County 


Area 
of 


Number 


Area 


Area 
Under 


Percent 
Under 




Clubs 






Control 


Control 


La Salle 


18 


1,035.6 


9 


784.3 


140.8 


18.0 


Bureau 


30 


1,233.5 


10 


580.7 


138.0 


23.8 


Putnam 


29 


3,055.8 


18 


2,346.7 


1,437.5 


61.3 


Marshall 


38 


3.414.0 


22 


3,040.9 


444.8 


14.6 


Woodford 


26 


1,649.9 


17 


1.217.3 


341.2 


28.0 


Peoria 


6 


739.8 


5 


711.0 


342.0 


48.1 


Tazewell 


1 


47.8 


1 


47.8 


11.3 


23.6 


Fulton 


7 


620.8 


4 


216.5 


141.6 


65.4 


Mason 


62 


8,663.7 


38 


7,182.9 


2,907.7 


40.5 


Schuyler 


2 


502.7 


2 


501.8 


170.0 


33.9 


Cass 


21 


2,536.0 


18 


2,525.3 


381.6 


15.1 


Brown 


1 


85.0 


1 


85.0 


72.8 


85.6 


Morgan 


3 


350.5 


2 


315.7 


6.1 


1.9 


Pike 


I 


35.2 


1 


355 


355 


100.0 


Scott 


2 


15.0 


> • • 








Greene 


4 


599.0 


2 


80.9 


2.0 


2.5 


Calhoun 


1 


52.2 


1 


525 


9.7 


18.6 


Total 


252 


24,636J 


151 


19,7242 


6,5823 


53.4 



.^^h**""- 




Fig. 24. — A harvested corn tield, with cleared areas in front of duck blinds for decoys, 
flooded to attract mallards during the hunting season. Note the small levees used to impound 
water pumped from adjacent wells. 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 



43 



kill by private clubs in the Illinois 
River valley (Bellrose 1944). It became 
necessary for chicle clubs to develop al- 
ternative sources of duck food if they 
were to continue to enjoy a semblance 
of quality hunting. Although waste 
corn left after harvest by mechanical 
pickers temporarily filled the food re- 
cjuirements of mallards, their field feed- 
ing was not necessarily conducive to 
good hunting in bottomland lake 
habitats. 

Consequently, in the late I930's the 
more alert and affluent duck clubs be- 
gan constructing levees to provide ad- 
equate water control, the key to in- 



creasing the growth of waterfowl food 
plants. World War II interrupted this 
development, but in subsequent years 
more and more tracts of bottomland 
have been brought under some degree 
of low-water control. 

A questionnaire sent in September 
1978 to 219 duck clubs in the Illinois 
Valley [those of the 252 clubs owning 
more than 16 ha (40 acres)] elicited in- 
formation on impoiuided areas. About 
one-third of the lands controlled by 
private clubs have levees or other 
structures that permit a degree of wa- 
ter control (Table 17). The heights of 
the levees, as reported in the question- 




Fig. 25. — Beds of Japanese millet sown from a light aircraft on mud flats by a duck club 
to attract waterfowl. To make seeds available for dabbling ducks, millet beds are flooded dur- 
ing the fall. 



44 



Illinois Natlral History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 1 



naire, varied from 0.9 to 1.8 m (3-6 
ft). Although not high enough to keep 
out most spring floods, these structures 



are adequate to prevent flooding by 
many (Ijiit not all) rises during the 
summer. 






Fig. 26. — Duck club impoundment on Goose Lake, north of Havana, where moist-soil duck 
food plants volunteered following dewatering. 



Table 18. — ^Waterfowl lands under state and federal ownership in the Illinois River valley, 
with the area of impoundments subject to or available for dewatering. Area figures are in 
hectares (2.471 acres/hectare). 



Location 



State or 

Federal 

Ownership 



Total 
Area 



Water 
Area 



Percent 
Area Subject of Water 
to AVater Area with 

Level Control \Vater Level 

Conlrol 



Lake Depue 


S 


826.0 


212.1 


lO.I 


4.8 


Cameron Unit 


F 


257.6 


157.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Sparland, Marshall County, 












8c Spring Branch 


S 


2541.3 


1,621.6 


0.0 


0.0 


Woodford County 


S 


1,173.9 


996.5 


0.0 


0.0 


Pekin Lake 


s 


602.2 


221.8 


0.0 


0.0 


Spring Lake 


s 


801.6 


520.0 


300.0 


57.7 


Rice Lake 


s 


1,068.3 


559.8 


306.4 


54.7 


Lake Chautauqua 


F 


1,804.5 


1,378.0 


413.4 


so.o 


Anderson Lake 


s 


863.0 


551.8 


2.0 


trace 


Sanganois 


s 


3,487.5 


689.3 


1,099.6' 


100.0 


Meredosia Lake 


F 


748.7 


63.1 


30.6 


48.5 


Calhoun County & 












adjacent areas 


S 


4,509.9 


1,375.9 


752.7 


62.3 


Calhoun unit 


F 


2,043.7 


1,094.6 


74.9 


6.8 


Total 




20,4282 


9,4413 


2^89.7 


}1.7 



•The larger area under water level conlrol results from ihc potential inundiiiion of bottomlaml timber 
within the impoundment. 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 



45 



Tlie (luck chibs use some of the im- 
[jouiKlnients to grow corn that matures 
in 90 clays, sorghum, buckwheat, or a 
combination (Fig. 24). However, most 
impoundments are used to develop 
moist-soil vegetation; either Japanese 
millet seed is broadcast on mud flats, 
or native plants are permitted to 
volunteer and grow naturally (Fig. 25). 
An increasing number of clubs are re- 
lying at least to some degree on nature 
to provide food from volunteer native 
species (Fig. 26). 

State and federal waterfowl areas i.i 
the Illinois Valley have also been de- 
veloped to provide control of water 
levels in the summer and fall. Data 
in Table 18 show the areas of im- 
poundments on state and federal pub- 
lic shooting grounds and refuges. 
Nearly 20 percent of the government 
areas have water management, a lower 
proportion than the 33.8 percent of 
private duck clubs. 



The degree to which these low 
levees permit dewatering in summer 
and flooiling in the fall depends upon 
their height. The percentages of the 
years 1938-1976 in which water would 
have overtop])e(l a particular elevation 
on liie Henry gauge, Peoria Pool, be- 
tween 15 July and 15 October were 
cakulateti from average gauge readings 
and are sliown in Fig. 27. Similar data 
are shown for the Havana gauge, La 
Grange Pool (Fig. 28). To correct for 
locations upstream from the respective 
gauges, add 1.3 cm/km (0.8 inch/mile); 
downstream, subtract 1.3 cm/km. 

At Henry any levee elevation up to 
134.7 m (442 ft) msl would be over- 
topped about 1 year in every 3, and 
at 135.3 m (444 ft) msl, 1 year in every 
5. Overtopping 132.1 m (433.3 ft) msl 
levees on the Havana gauge has oc- 
curred about every other year, and 
133.3-m (437.3-ft) msl levees were over- 
topped I year in every 5. The La 



Fig. 27. — ^The percentage 
of years, 1938-1976, that 
water levels would have over- 
topped a levee of given ele- 
vation on the Henry gauge 
in the Peoria Pool from 15 
July to 15 October. 



100-1 
90- 
80- 
70- 
50- 
50- 
40- 
30- 
20- 
10- 




i*H 


-^ 


— — 




n n 




METERS 


134.1 


134.4 


134.7 


135.0 


135.3 


135.6 


135.9 


136.2 


136.6 


FEET 


440.0 


441.0 


442.0 


443.0 


444.0 


445.0 


446.0 


447.0 


448.0 



MSL ELEVATION, HENRY GAUGE, ILLINOIS RIVER 



Fig. 28. — ^The percentage 
of years, 1938-1976, that 
water levels would have over- 
topped a levee of given ele- 
vation on the Havana gauge 
in the La Grange Pool from 
1 5 July to 1 5 October. 



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MSL ELEVATION, HAVANA GAUGE, ILLINOIS RIVER 



46 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 



Grange Pool is subject to more fre- 
quent flooding than the Peoria Pool 
because of tlie entrance of the Mack- 
inaw and Spoon rivers below Peoria. 
The lower tlie levee, the lower its 
initial cost and subsequent mainte- 
nance costs. Shallow waters limit the 
size of waves; as waters deepen, waves 
grow, as do their erosive effects on 
levees. Once flood waters overtop 
levees, their erosive force is dimin- 
ished. Consequently, in determining 
the height of a levee, two opposing 
factors must be considered: The 
higher a levee, the more it will cost 
to build and maintain, but the more 
summer floods (15 July-15 October) 
it will exclude. To atteinpt to exclude 
summer floods in all years would be 
unrealistic. 

DISCUSSION 

The degradation of bottomland lakes 
in the Illinois Valley by sedimenta- 
tion has adversely affected waterfowl. 
Aquatic and marsh vegetation declinetl 
almost to the point of extinction dur- 
ing the middle years of the study pe- 
riod (1938-1976). In the last decade, 
only remnant beds of the most tolerant 
plants— American lotus, river bulrush, 
and marsh smartweed— have persisted. 
Of all aquatic and marsh plants in the 
Midwest, these species are the best 
adapted to fluctuating water levels and 
turbidity. Unfortunately, they are poor 
duck foods. American lotus seeds are 
too hard to be palatable to most ducks 
(Bellrose & Anderson 194.S). River bul- 
rush and marsh smartweed produce 
little seed under the existing harsh con- 
ditions—even less than the yield re- 
ported earlier by Low &: Bellrose 
(1944). 

Aquatic and marsh plants used as 
food by waterfowl disappeared from 
the bottomland lakes of the Illinois 
Valley either because of altered water 
levels or because of increased turbidity. 
Altered water levels were of local im- 



portance, but turbidity increases were 
widespreail and far more significant. 

Turbidity increased because of in- 
creased sedimentation. According to a 
study by Jackson S; Starrett (1959:166), 
waves produced by winds and move- 
ments of rough fish resuspended the 
fine bottom sediments. They con- 
cluded, "Tlie rcsuspension of sediment 
particles, which were originally carried 
and deposited in the lake by flood wa- 
ters of the Illinois River, caused the 
high turbidities at Lake Chautauqua.'" 
Stall & Melsted (1951) reported that 
although the largest sediment particles 
at Lake Chautauqua began to settle 
soon after disturbance ceased, much of 
tlie sediment took from 7 to 12 davs to 
settle to the bottom. 

Studies of sedimentation in bottom- 
land lakes by Stall & Melsted (1951), 
Lee et al. (1976 unpublished), Lee k 
Stall (1976 unpublished), and by us 
demonstrate that these lakes are filling 
with sediment at an alarming rate. On 
three lakes— LIpper Peoria, Chautau- 
(lua, ami Meredosia— analyses of two 
different time periods show that the 
annual rate of sedimentation at a 
given water depth has increased. Be- 
cause in two of the three lakes the 
earlier period (which showed a lower 
.sedimentation rate) included more 
years, the sediments deposited in this 
period have been buried more deeply 
than more rcceiulv deposited sediments 
and thus may have been subjected to 
a gieater degree of compaction (Davit! 
L. Gross, Illinois State Geological Sur- 
vey, personal communication). How- 
ever, compaction alone cannot explain 
the great differences between the two 
perioils' sedimentation rates. Hence, 
we conchule that streams tributary to 
the Illinois River are now transporting 
more sediment into the main channel 
than they previously did. 

Sediment tends to make lake bottoms 
more uniform because more material 
is deposited on deep tiian on shallow 
bottoms. Whereas at the turn of the 
century bottomland lake beds had di- 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.: Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 



47 



versified depths, they now invariably 
slope almost imperceptibly from shore 
to renter. At normal water level, av- 
erage depths at the centers of 1 1 bot- 
tomland lakes now vary from 10.2 to 
109.2 cm (4-43 inches) with a mean of 
47.2 cm (18.6 inches). When water 
levels are at the margins of the wooded 
shorelines, it takes little additional 
reduction in water levels to expose 
large sections of the lake basins as mud 
flats. When water level reductions oc- 
cur in early summer (up to 15 July), 
black willows, cottonwoods, and soft 
maples volunteer and grow rapidly on 
the newly exposed mud flats. In an 
amazingly short span of years, what 
had once been part of the lake basin 
accrues to the bottomland forest and 
is lost as potential mud flats for the 
development of moist-soil waterfowl 
food plants. 

During the period 1933-1976, over 
1.376 ha (3,400 acres) of water surface 
(4.2 percent of the total lake acreage) 
in the bottomland lakes below Spring 
Valley were lost to sedimentation. The 
bottomlaml forest invaded as the wa- 
ter surface shrank (Bellrose et al. 
1977): this process is continiung at an 
accelerating rate. Lee Sc Stall (1976 un- 
published) predicted that in 33 years 
sedimentation will entirely fill the 
basin of Lake Depue. 

Lee (1976 luipublished) studied the 
filling of Lake C^hautauqua by .sedi- 
ment and concluded that its life ex- 
pectancy was 92 years. At Meredosia 
Bay, Lee et al. (1976 unpublished) re- 
ported that sediment will fill the lake 
in 90 years. Because Peoria Lake is 
cpiite deep and the Illinois River flows 
through it, Peoria Lake will be the last 
lake in the valley to become extinct 
from sedimentation. 

The loss of aquatic and marsh duck 
food plants combined with the ever- 
sliallower bodies of water have caused 
private duck clubs, the Illinois Depart- 
ment of Conservation, and the U.S. 
Fish and AVildlife .Service to turn in- 
creasingly to dewatering as a method 



of producing moist-soil vegetation for 
duck food. 

The dewatering technique requires 
that mud flats be exposed for 70 90 
days between 15 July and 15 October. 
Dewatering can be accomplished either 
by below-normal river levels during 
this time span or by managers' pump- 
ing out excess water. Small levees 
must isolate the managed unit from 
the river to minimize minor river fluc- 
tuations and to impound waters for in- 
undating moist-soil plant beds after 1 
October. Our studies show that the 
more complete the separation of back- 
water areas from the river, the better 
the development of waterfowl food 
plants. 

Under the most favorable summer 
water levels, a maximum of 44 percent 
of the 28,329 ha (70,000 acres) in lake 
basins of the Illinois Valley would be 
available for moist-soil plant develop- 
ment. Because small summer water 
rises frequently reflood mud flats, 
moist-soil plant development is usually 
limited to between 3 and 20 percent 
of the basin area in the valley. How- 
ever, each year additional acreage is 
being brought under some degree of 
water level control by private duck 
clubs and the Illinois Department of 
Conservation, thereby increasing the 
potential area available for moist-soil 
plant development. 

Although a number of marsh man- 
agers in the Illinois Valley sow agri- 
cultural crops on the drier sites and 
Japanese millet on the wetter sites, it 
is doubtful whether this practice is 
justified. Most volunteer moist-soil 
plants are used intensively by water- 
fowl, which find them highly palatable 
(Bellrose & Anderson 1943). Cockle- 
bur is the most important exception, 
but this "weed" species can be con- 
trolled by a brief reflooding. 

Other species of moist-soil plants of 
value as duck fooil are more tolerant 
of temporary flooding than is cockle- 
bur. All moist-soil plant species con- 
sidered in this study perish when com- 



48 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 1 



pletely inundated. However, after ger- 
mination and early growth on mud 
flats, some species continue to grow 
with the basal part of their stems in 
water. Rice cutgrass and Walter's mil- 
let are species most tolerant of pro- 
longed basal inundation. 

It is imperative that the moist-soil 
waterfowl food resources of the valley 
be enhanced. This enhancement can 
only be accomplished through more 
extensive construction of low levees, 
which, in conjunction with the use of 
pumps, will enable lakes or parts of 
lakes to be dewatered during the sum- 
mer and flooded during the fall. 

Over the past four decades, mallards 
have been able to obtain a large pro- 
portion of their food from waste corn 
in harvested fields (Anderson 1959). 
However, fall plowing and reduced 
waste grain, stemming from more ef- 
ficient combines and new plant va- 
rieties, have reduced the availability 
of corn to mallards. No doubt im- 
provements in harvest equipment and 
plant varieties will continue to de- 
crease the availability of waste grain. 
Therefore, if mallard populations are 
to be maintained at current levels, the 
native food resources will have to be 
enhanced. Because water turbidity sup- 
presses the .growth of aquatic duck food 
plants in the Illinois Valley, the de- 
velopment of moist-soil plant resources 
provides the only feasible means of ac- 
complishing tliis objective. 

Under present cultural practices, 
farmlands of the Illinois River basin 
will continue to be subject to severe 
sheet erosion, tributaries will continue 
to transport soil particles into the Il- 
linois River, and turbidity and sed- 
imentation will continue to degrade 
and fill the shallow bottomland lakes. 

If the degradation of wildlife values 
of tlie Illinois Valley is to be min- 
imized, present levels of soil erosion 
must be reduced. The single most ef- 
fective means of accomplishing this 
goal would be the adoption of min- 



imum tillage practices on slopes de- 
voted to open row crops. Slopes that 
erode severely should be restricted to 
small grain, hay crops, or permanent 
pastures. 

Stream bank erosion also merits at- 
tention. In the last decade, the re- 
moval of trees and other woody vegeta- 
tion from hiuiilreds of miles of stream 
banks has greatly accelerated soil loss. 
A protective "green belt" is needed 
along tributary stream banks if this 
source of sediment is to be reduced. 

Unless stern measures are taken in 
the near future, the lateral bottomland 
lakes of the Illinois River are doomed 
to early extinction. 

SUMMARY 

1.— The Ijottomland (backwater) lakes 
of the Illinois River valley embrace 
about 28,500 ha (70,000 acres) and at- 
tract hundreds of thousands of water- 
fowl during their fall and spring mi- 
grations. All of these backwater lakes 
except Peoria Lake are lateral to the 
river channel. 

2.— The Illinois River occupies a val- 
ley much older than the n^er itself as 
a result of a series of unique geological 
events. This valley in essence was the 
Mississippi River valley before the 
Wisconsinan glaciation. Its bottom- 
land lakes developed because the river's 
remarkably low rate of fall resulted in 
its aggrading rather than degrading. 

3.— Unfortunately, the very principles 
of setlimentation that created the lakes 
also set the stage for their extinction. 
Under pristine conditions this extinc- 
tion would have taken hundreds, per- 
haps tliousands, of years, but man. 
through intensive use of the land, has 
greatly accelerated the process. 

4.— Aquatic and terrestrial habitats 
of the Illinois Valley liave suffered a 
series of cataclysmic events since 1900: 
first, a permanent rise in water level 
from water diverted from Lake Mich- 
igan; second, the draining of more 



I 



Aug. 1979 Bellrose et al.; Waterfowl and the Changing Illinois Valley 



49 



than half of the 161,878-ha (400,000- 
acre) floodplain through the construc- 
tion of levees and pumping stations; 
third, an upsurge in untreated urban 
and industrial pollution during the 
1920's; fourth, the creation of a 2.7-m 
(9-ft) channel and its attendant naviga- 
tion dams in the 1930's; and fifth, an 
acceleration in sedimentation rates fol- 
lowing World War II, apparently re- 
sulting from an increase in the amount 
of open row crops grown within the 
basin. 

5.— Waterfowl food plant resources 
have been dramatically altered by the 
many changes wrought by man. Fac- 
tors that have directly affected the spe- 
cies composition and abundance of the 
wetland plants are (1) fluctuating water 
levels, (2) water turbidity, (3) water 
depth, and (4) competition between 
plant species. 

6.— Fluctuating river levels adversely 
affect the development of aquatic and 
marsh vegetation on those bottomland 
lakes connected with tlie river at all 
stages. In the early years of the study, 
the more the lakes were separated from 
the river, the more extensive were their 
aquatic and marsh plant beds. 

7.— During the earlier years of the 
study, aquatic and marsh plants disap- 
peared from those lakes connected 
with the river at all water stages (and 
thus subject to water-level fluctuations). 
During the later years of the study, 
aquatic plants disappeared and the 
area of marsh plants greatly declined 
in all lakes, even in those enjoying a 
degree of separation from the river and 
minimal water-level fluctuations. In- 
creases in water turbidity and bottom 
softness, stemming from sedimentation, 
appear to be responsible. 

S.— However, low levees and pumps 
have increasingly been used to dewater 
all or part of the lake basins. This 
procedure controls small summer fluc- 
tuations and exposes mud flats for the 
development of moist-soil plants be- 
tween 15 July and 15 October. Moist- 



soil plants— millets, smartweeds, nut- 
grasses, rice cutgrass, water hemp, and 
teal grass— produce an abundance of 
seed palatable to many species of ducks. 
Low summer water levels permit or 
expedite dewatering. Summer rises 
that overtop low levees usually destroy 
moist-soil plant beds. 

9.— Sedimentation is rapidly filling 
in the bottomland lakes of the Illinois 
Valley, reducing their size, degrading 
water quality, and minimizing the di- 
versity of bottom depths. The fine 
silts and clays deposited on the bottoms 
when river waters invade bottomland 
lakes are readily resuspended by wave 
action and the activity of rough fish. 
The consecjuent turbidity reduces the 
euphotic zone to such a shallow depth 
that aquatic plants can no longer sur- 
\i\c. Marsh ]jlants have difficulty main- 
taining footings as bottom soils become 
softer. 

10.— .Sedimentation occins at a higher 
rate in deep water than in shallow wa- 
ter. Thus, most lakes now possess a uni- 
form bottom instead of the turn-of-the- 
century variation in liottom depths. 
(Peoria Lake, through which the river 
channel passes, is an exception.) Lake 
basins are now platter shaped. Esti- 
mated life expectancies are 33 years 
for Lake Depue, 92 years for Lake 
Chaiuauqua, and 90 years for Mere- 
tlosia Bay. 

11.— The abundance of certain spe- 
cies of waterfowl in the Illinois Valley 
is related to the abimdance of native 
food resources. Among the dabbling 
ducks, the size of fall populations of 
the pintail, green-winged teal, and wi- 
geon correlated with the abundance 
of wetland plants. Mallards feed ex- 
tensively on waste grain in harvested 
fields, but even so, when annual vari- 
ations in the continental mallard pop- 
ulation were taken into account, moist- 
soil plant ai)undance influenced the 
abundance of mallards. Diving duck 
popidations were unrelated to wetland 
plant abundance. However, when a 



50 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin Vol. 32, Art. 1 



catastrophic loss of fingernail clams oc- 
curred, diving duck numbers crashed. 
Neither this food resource nor the pop- 
ulation of diving ducks has recovered 
in the ensuing two decades. 

12.— Fall river levels determine the 
depths in bottomland lakes and thus 
the availability of moist-soil plant 
foods. If the river is low and mud 
flats are exposed, moist-soil plant seeds 
will be unavailable to waterfowl. If, on 
the other hand, the river is high and 
mud flats are too deeply submerged, 
the result is the same. The higher the 
fall rise in water, the greater the re- 
duction in numbers of green-winged 
teal, with the same influence to a lesser 



degree on pintails, wigeons, and 
mallards. 

13.— As a result of the disappearance 
of aquatic plants and the prohibition 
of baiting, private duck clubs, the Illi- 
nois Department of Conservation, and 
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have 
placed increasing emphasis on con- 
trolled dewatering of wetland hab- 
itats. Private duck clubs control 23,198 
ha (57,320 acres) of land and water in 
the Illinois Valley and have 6,723 ha 
(16,612 acres) under varying degrees of 
low water level control. State and fed- 
eral agencies control 15,644 ha (38,656 
acres) and have 4,688 ha (11,585 acres) 
under similar water-level management. 



LITERATURE CITED 



Anderson, H. G. 1959. Food habits of migra- 
lory ducks in Illinois. Illinois Natural His- 
tory Survey Bulletin 27(4): 289-344. 

Barrows, H. H. 1910. Geography of the mid- 
dle Illinois \'allcy. Illinois State Geological 
Survey Bulletin 15. 128 p. 

Bellrose, F. C., Jr. 1941. Duck food plants 
of the Illinois River valley. Illinois Natural 
History Survey Bulletin 2 1 (8): 237-280. 

. 1944. Duck populations and kill: an 

evaluation of some wateifowl regulations in 
Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bul- 
letin 23(2): 327-372. 

, and H. G. Anderson. 1943. Prefercn- 



ti.il rating of duck food plants. Illinois Nat- 
ural History Sui-vey Bulletin 22(5):417-433. 
and R. D. Crompton. 1970. Migra- 



lional behavior of mallards and black ducks 
as determined from banding. Illinois Nat- 
ural History .Survey Bulletin 30(3): 167-234. 

, R. E. Sparks, F. L. Pavecuo, Jr., D. 

VV. Steffeck, R. C. Thomas, R. A. Weaver, 
and D. Moll. 1977. Fish and wildlife hab- 
itat changes resulting from the construction 
of a nine-foot navigation cliannel in the 
Illinois Watcnvay from La Grange Lock and 
Dam upstream to Lockport Lock and Dam. 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers District, Chi- 
cago. 120 p. 

Evans, R. L., and D. H. Schnepper. 1977. 
Sources of suspended sediment: Spoon River, 
Illinois. North-Central Section, Geological 
Society of America meeting. Carbondale, 
Illinois. 9 p. 

Forbes, S. A., and R. E. Rkmardson. 1919. 
Some recent changes in Illinois River biol- 
ogy. Illinois State Natural History Survey 
Bulletin 13(6): 139-156. 

, and . 1920. The fishes of Illi- 
nois. 2nd ed. Illinois Natural History Sur- 
vey, cxxxvi -f 357 p. 

Illinois Cooperative Crop Reporting Service. 
1968. Illinois agricultural statistics, field 
crops by counties, twenty-one years, 1945- 
1965. Bulletin 68-4. Springfield. 155 p. 

. 1977. Illinois agricultural statistics 

annual summary 1977. Bulletin 77-1. Spring- 
field. 106 p. 

Jackson, H. O., and W. C. Starrettt. 1959. 
Turbidity and sedimentation at Lake Chau- 
tauqua, Illinois. Journal of Wildlife Man- 
agement 23(2): 157-168. 

KOFOID, C. A. 1903. Plankton studies. IV. 
The plankton of the Illinois River, 1894- 
1899, with introductory notes upon hydrog- 
raphy of the Illinois River and its basin. 
Part L Quantitative investigations and gen- 



eral results. Illinois State Laboratory of 
Natural History Bulletin 6(2):95-629. 

Low, J. B., and F. C. Bellrose, Jr. 1944. The 
seed and vegetative yield of waterfowl food 
plants in the Illinois River valley. Journal 
of Wildlife Management 8(l):7-22. 

Mii.Li, H. B., W. C. Starrett, and F. C. Bell- 
rose. 1966. Man's effect on the fish and 
wildlife of the Illinois River. Illinois Nat- 
ural History Survey Biological Notes 57. 
24 p. 

Mui.MHU.i,, W. F., and L. D. Cornish. 1929. 
flood control report: an engineering study 
of the flood situation in the state of Illinois. 
Illinois Division of Waterways. 402 p. 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis- 
tration Environmental Data and Infor- 
mation Service (U.S. Weather Bureau). 
1939-1976. Daily River Stages Vol. 37-Vol. 
72. 

PuRDV, W. C. 1930. A study of pollution and 
natural purification of the Illinois River. II. 
1 he plankton and related organisms. U.S. 
Public Health Service Bulletin 198. 212 p. 

Richardson, R. E. 1921. The small bottom 
and shore fauna of the middle and lower 
Illinois River and its connecting lakes, Chil- 
licothe to Grafton; its valuations; its sources 
of food supply; and its relation to the fish- 
ery. Illinois State Natural History Survey 
Bulletin 13(15);363-522. 

.Stait,, J. B., and S. W. Melsfed. 1951. The 
silting of Lake Chautauqua, Havana, Illinois. 
Illinois Slate Water Survey, in cooperation 
with Illinois Agricultural Expericent Station, 
Report of Investigation 8. 15 p. 

Starritt, W. C. 1971. A survey of the mussels 
(Unionacea) of the Illinois River: a pol- 
luted stream. Illinois Natural History Sur- 
vey Bulletin 30(5);267-403. 

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Engineers 
Office, Chicago, Illinois. 1933. Illinois and 
Des Plaines Rivers from mouth of the Illi- 
nois River to Lockport. Illinois. 

Willman, H. B. 1973. Geology along the Illi- 
nois Waterway — a basis for environmental 
planning. Illinois State Geological Survey 
Circular 478. 48 p. 

, and J. C. Frye. 1970. Pleistocene 

stratigraphy of Illinois. Illinois State Geolog- 
ical Survey Bulletin 94. 204 p. 

Wofrmann. J. W. 1902-1904. Map of the 
secondary triangulation system of the Illinois 
and Des Plaines Rivers from Chicago, Illi- 
nois to the Illinois River. Corps of Engi- 
neers, Chicago Office, U.S. Army. 



51 



LIST OF COMMON AND SCIENTIFIC NAMES 

With few exceptions the classification of the plants follows Gray's New Manual of Botany, 
seventh edition. The waterfowl classification follows Bellrose's Ducks, Geese and Swans of North 
America, second edition. 



PLANTS 

Algae 
Cattail 



Giant bur-reed 

Pondweeds 
Longleaf pondweed 
Leafy pondweed 
Sago pondweed 

Southern naiad (also 
called bushy pond- 
weed) 

Arrowleaf (also called 
arrowhead) 

Duck potato 

Waterwced (also called 
elodea) 

Wild celery 

Teal grass (also called 
love grass) 

Rice cutgrass 

Wild rice 

Wild millet (also called 
duck millet, barn- 
yard grass) 

Japanese millet 

Walter's millet 

Sorghum 

Com 

Soybeans 

Nutgrasses 

American bulrush 

Softstem bulrush (also 

called roundstem 

bulrush) 
Hardstem bulrush 
River bulrush 
Spike rush 
Duckweeds 

Pickerel weed 
Water stargrass (also 

called mud plantain) 
Black willow 
Cottonwood 
Pin oak 
Pecan 
Buckwheat 



Chlorophyceae 
Typha laiifolia, T. 

angustifolia 
Sparganium 

eurycarpum 
Potamogeton spp. 
Potamogeton nodosus 
Potamogeton foliosus 
Potamogeton 

pectinatus 
Najas guadalupensis 



Sagitlaria calycina 
(formerly Lophoto- 
carpus calycinus) 
Sagittaria latifolia 
Anacharis canadensis 

Vallisneria americana 
Eragrostis hypnoides 

Leers ia oryzoides 
Zizania aquatica 
Echinochloa crusgalli 



Echinochloa 

frumentacea 
Echinochloa walteri 
Sorghum bicolor 
Zea mays 
Glycine max 
Cy perns spp. 
Scirpus americanus 
Scirpus validus 



Scirpus acutus 
Scirpus fiuviatilis 
Eleocharis palustris 
Spirodela polyrhiza, 

Lemna spp. 
Pontederia cor data 
Heleranlhera dubia 

Salix nigra 
Populus delloides 
Quernis palustris 
Carya illinoensis 
fagopyrum 
esculenlum 



Nodding smartweed 
Marsh smartweed 

Largeseed smartweed 
Swamp smartweed 

Water hemp (also 
called pigweed, hog 
weed) 

Coontail 

Yellow pond lily 
White water lily 



American lotus 

Soft maple (also called 

silver maple) 
Marsh mallow 
Cocklebur 
Spanish needles 



ANIMALS 
Mollusca 

Fingernail clams 

Fish 

Carp 

Birds 

Wood duck 
American wigeon 
American green- 
winged teal 
Mallard 

Pintail 

Blue-winged teal 
Canvasback 
Ring-necked duck 
Lesser scaup 
Ruddy duck 

Coot 



Polygonum 

lapathifolium 
Polygonum coccineum 

(formerly muhlen- 

bergii) 
Polygonum 

pennsylvanicum 
Polygonum 

hydropiperoides 
Amaranthus tuber- 

culatus (formerly 

Acnida luberculata) 
Ceratophyllum 

demersum 
Nuphar luteum 

(formerly Nymphaea 

advene) 
Nymphaea tuberosa 

(formerly Castalia 

tuberosa) 
Nelumbo lutea 
Acer saccharinum 

Hibiscus militaris 
Xanthium spp. 
Bidens spp. 



Sphaeiiidae 



Cyprinus carpio 



A ix sponsa 
Anas americana 
Anas crecca 

carolinensis 
Anas platyrhynchos 

platyrhynchos 
Anas acuta acuta 
Anas discors 
Aythya valisineria 
Aylh\a cotlaris 
Aythya affinis 
Oxyura jamaicensis 

rubida 
Fulica americana 



ss 



INDEX 



Algae, 4, 41 

Aquatic plants, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14, 18, 20, 21, 
22, 23, 27, 28, 36, 37, 46, 47, 48 

American lotus, 14, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 27, 28, 
46 

coontail, 3, 4, 18, 21, 22, 23, 27. 28, 36 

longleaf pondweed, 20, 22, 23 

pondweeds, 4, 18, 22, 27 

sago pondweed, 20, 21, 22, 23, 28, 36 

southern naiad, 18, 22, 23, 36 

wateivveed, 18 

white water lily, 22, 23, 27 

wild celery, 4 

B 

Banks (natural levees), 1, 2, 10, 18, 31 
Big Bend, 1 
Bottomland forest, 3 

black willow, 27, 28, 47 

Cottonwood, 47 

pecan, 4 

pin oak, 4 

soft maple, 47 
Bottomland lakes, evaluation ot. 1, 2 

classes, 9, 14, 18 

class I, 9, 14, 18, 20 

class II, 9, 14, 18, 20 

class III, 9, 14, 18 

class IIIA, 9, 18, 20, 21, 22 

class IIIB, 9, 18, 20 

class IV, 9 



Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge {see also 

Lake Chautauqua), 21 
Chicago (Metropolitan) Sanitary District, 3, 4 
Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, 3, 4 
Coot, 36, 37 
Corn (waste), 34, 35, 38, 41, 43, 45, 48 



Des Plaines River, 1 

Dcwatering, 9, 10, 12, 18, 41, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48 

Diversion (water from Lake Michigan), 3, 4, 

12 
Duck clubs, 9, 43, 45, 47 
Duck-day use, 8, 9, 38, 40, 41 
Ducks, dabbling, 20, 35, 37, 39, 41 

blue-winged teal, 37, 39 

green-winged teal, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41 

mallard, 4, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 48 

pintail, 35, 37, 39, 40, 41 

wigeon, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41 

wood duck, 4 
Ducks, diving, 35, 39, 41 

canvasback, 39, 40, 41 

lesser scaup, 35, 39, 40, 41 

ring-necked duck, 39, 40 

ruddy duck, 39 
Duration of Stay Index, 40, 41 



Fall plowing, 48 
I'iiigernail clams, 41 
Floods, effect of, 22, 23, 



46 



Glaciation, Wisconsinan, 
Green-belt, 48 
Growth-period index, 8 



History 

geological, 1 
hinnan, 2, 3 



H 



Illinois Department of Conservation, 9, 47 



Kankakee River, 1 



Lake 

Anderson, 6, 23, 27, 30, 31 

Babbs (Slough), 6, 32 

Billsbach, 6, 32 

Chautauqua, 6, 21, 22, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34, 46, 
47 

Cuba Island, 22 

Depue, 34, 47 

Douglas, 23 

Flat, 22, 23 

Gilbert, 22, 36 

Mcredosia (Bay), 6, 30, 31, 34, 46, 47 

Peoria (Upper), 6, 8, 24, 29, 30, 31, 32, 46, 47 

Rice, 6, 22, 23, 30, 31, 32 

Sawmill, 6, 32 

Scnachwine, 6 

Sparland, 6, 32 

Spring, 9, 23, 27 

Swan (Flat), 8, 22, 23, 36 

Thompson, 3 

Wightman, 6, 32 
Lake-bottom profile(s), 31 
Lake Michigan, 3, 4, 12 
Lcvcc and drainage districts, 4 
Levee elevations, 9, 45, 46, 47, 48 

M 

Mackinaw River, 29, 46 

Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge, 8, 22 
Marsh plants, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, 21, 23, 35, 36, 46, 
47 

duck potato, 14, 18, 20, 21, 23 

marsh smartwced, 14, 18, 20, 22, 23, 27, 28, 
46 

pickerel weed, 18, 27 

river bulrush, 14, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 27, 46 

wild rice, 18, 27 
Memphis Datum, 6 
Minimum tillage, 48 



5S 



54 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 1 



Mississippi River, 1, 12, 22 
Moist-soil plants, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14, 18, 20, 21, 
23, 35, 37, 39, 41, 45, 47, 48 

arrowleat, 18, 20 

cocklebur, 18, 47, 48 

Japanese millet, 18, 20, 45, 47 

largeseed smartweed, 18 

nodding smartweed, 18 

nutgrasses, 18, 20 

rice cutgrass, 18, 20, 22, 48 

Spanish needles, 18 

teal grass, 18, 20 

Walter's millet, 18, 20, 48 

water hemp, 18, 20 

wild millet, 18, 20 
Moist-Soil Water-Level Index, 8, 9, 20, 21, 37, 

38, 39, 41 
Mud flat(s), 8, 12, 18, 20, 21, 39, 41, 45, 47, 48 

N 

Navigation dams, 1, 3, 4, 12, 13 
Alton, 4, 12, 22 
Brandon Road, 12 
Copperas Creek, 3 
Dresden Island, 12 
Henry, 3 

La Grange, 3, 4, 12, 13, 45 
Lockport, 12 
Marseilles, 12 

Peoria, 3, 4, 12, 13, 20, 23, 45, 46 
Starved Rock, 4, 12 



Plankton, 3, 27 

Plant competition, 9, 18, 22, 23, 35 

Pollution 

domestic, 27 

urban, 4 



River gauges 

Havana, 8, 12, 45 
Henry, 8, 12, 45 



Sedimentation (rates), 1, 4, 6, 9, 23, 28, 29, 30, 
31, 32, 34, 46, 47, 48 



Seeds 

availability, 39, 48 
maturity, 12, 18 
preference, 36, 46 
production, 20, 41, 48 
yield, 35 

Soil erosion, 29, 34, 48 
bank, 31, 48 

Spoon River, 2, 29, 46 

Surface area 

bottomland lakes, 4, 48 
row crops, 34, 45, 48 
soybeans, 34 



Turbidity {see water transparency) 



u 

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 9, 47 



Vegetation maps, 8 



w 



Water depth(s), 6, 9, 20, 23, 24, 27, 28, 47 
Waterfowl areas 

federal, 45 

state, 45 
Waterfowl censuses, 8 
Water-level index, 8 
Water levels, 12, 13 

fall, 39, 40. 41, 48 

fluctuation, 9, 12, 20, 23, 28, 46 

stability, 14, 27 

summer, 39, 40, 41, 47 
Water-Stability Index, 9, 21, 22 
Water transparency, 3 

fish activity (effect of), 28, 46 

Jackson Turbidity Unit QTU), 28, 29 

Secchi disk, 27, 28 

turbidity, 9, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29, 46, 48 

wave action (effect of), 28, 46 
Waterway (9-foot), 4 
Wooded shoreline (vegetation line), 7, 8, 39, 47 



Some Publications of the ILLINOIS NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY 



BULLETIN 

\'olume 31, Article 7.— The Mecoptera, or 
Scorpionflies, of Illinois. By Donald W. 
Webb, Norman D. Penny, and John C. Mar- 
lin. August, 1975. 66 p., index. 

\'oliime 31, Article 8.— An Electrofishing Sur- 
vey of the Illinois River, 1959-1974. By 
Richard E. Sparks and William C. Starrett. 
August, 1975. 64 p., index. 

Volume 31, Article 9.— Pesticides and Environ- 
mental Quality in Illinois. By Robert L. 
Metcalf and James R. Sanborn. August, 1975. 
56 p., index. 

Volume 31, Article 10.— The Bantam SunBsh, 
Lepomis symmetricus: Systematics and Dis- 
tribution, and Life History in Wolf Lake, 
Illinois. By Brooks M. Burr. September 
1977. 30 p., index. 

BIOLOGICAL NOTES 

103.— The Types of CoUembola (Insecta) at the 
Illinois Natural History Survey. By Jos6 A. 
Mari Mutt. February 1978. 7 p. 

104.— A Summary of the Life History and Dis- 
tribution of the Spring Cavefish, Chologaster 
agassizi Putnam, with Population Estimates 
for the Species in Southern Illinois. By 
Philip W. Smith and Norbert M. Welch. 
May 1978. 8 p. 

105.— Distribution and Abundance of the Gray 
Squirrel in Illinois. By Charles M. Nixon, 
Stephen P. Havera, and Robert E. Green- 
berg. June 1978. 55 p. 

106.— The Life History of the Cypress Darter, 
Etheosloma proetiare, in Max Creek, Illinois. 
By Brooks M. Burr and Lawrence M. Page. 
July 1978. 15 p. 

107.— Soybean Spiders: Species Composition, 
Population Densities, and Vertical Distribu- 
tion. By Charles D. LeSar and John D. Un- 
zicker. July 1978. 14 p. 



108.— The Nest Biology of the Bees Andrena 
(Melandrena) regularis Malloch and Andrena 
(Melandrena) carlini Cockerell (Hymenop- 
tera: Andrenidae). By Martha Northam 
Schrader and Wallace E. LaBerge. August 
1978. 24 p. 

109.— Illinois Birds: Ciconiiformes. By Jean 
W. Graber, Richard R. Graber, and Ethelyn 
L. Kirk. August 1978. 80 p. 

110— Illinois Birds: Sylviidae. By Jean W. 
Graber, Richard R. Graber, and Ethelyn L. 
Kirk. July 1979. 22 p. 

HI.— Monitoring the Seasonal Appearance and 
Density of the Black Cutworm with a Vir- 
gin Female Trap. By Lynn Pautler, Wil- 
liam G. Ruesink, Hans E. Hummel, and 
William H. Luckmann. July 1979. 7 p. 

112— The Life History of the Least Darter, 
Etheosloma microperca, in the Iroquois 
River, Illinois. By Brooks M. Burr and 
Lawrence M. Page. August 1979. 16 p. 

CIRCULAR 

47.— Illinois Trees and Shrubs: Their Insect 
Enemies. By L. L. English. May 1976 (Sixth 
printing, with revisions). 88 p. 

49.— The Dunesland Heritage of Illinois. By 
Herbert H. Ross. August 1%3 (Reprinted 
May 1974). 28 p. 

51.— Illinois Trees: Selection, Planting, and! 
Care. By J. Cedric Carter. March 1977| 
(Third printing). 123 p. 

52.— Fertilizing and Watering Trees. By Dan j 
Nccly and E. B. Himelick. December 1971 1 
(Third printing). 20 p. 

54.— Corn Rootworm Pest Management in Can- 
ning Sweet Corn. By W. H. Luckmann, J. T. 
Shaw, D. E. Kuhlman, R. Randell. and C. D. 
USar. March 1975. 10 p. 



List of available publications mailed on request 



No charge is made for publications of the Illinois Natural Hi'story Survey. A single copy 
of most publications will be sent free to anyone requesting it until the supply becomes low. 
Cosily publications, more than one copy of a publication, and publications in short supply are 
subjects for special correspondence. Such correspondence should identify the writer and explain 
the tise to be made of the publication or publications. 



Address orders and correspondence to the Chief, 

Illinois Natural History Survey 
Natural Resources Building, Urbana, Illinois 61(01 






yt/ctjr. M-^^ ' 



atura,! 

1 



NATUML MSTWT m\\' 

FEB 8 rr ^ 

LIRPAPV 

Primary Insect Types 
in the Illinois Natural 
History Survey Collection, 
Exclusive of the Collembola 
and Thysanoptera 



aid W. Webb 



'P'^^. 






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>F ILLINOIS 

l>IS INSTITUTE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

JRAL HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION 
VNA, ILLINOIS 



VOLUME 32, ARTICLE 2 
JULY 1980 



f 



I 



U5 155IN 0073-4918 



kra.tura.1 IIisto]:*3r SvLir^vey 



Primary Insect Types 
in the Illinois Natural 
History Survey Collection, 
Exclusive of the Collembola 
and Thysanoptera 



oald W.Webb 



J(0F ILLINOIS 

HOIS INSTITUTE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 



URAL HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION 
^NA, ILLINOIS 



VOLUME 32, ARTICLE 2 
JULY 1980 



STATF OF ILLINOIS ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

BOARD OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION 
FRANK BEAL, MS.. Charrn^an: Thomas Park. Ph.D., Biolo^; H. S^ C^^^^"^, ^"•°„ ^^7'^' 
Walter E. Hanson, M.S., Engineering: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr.. Ph.D.. Forestry: L. L. Sloss Ph.D. 
Geology W L Ever.tt, E.E., Ph.D., Representing the President of the Umverstly of Ilhnois: John C. 
GuYON PhD. Representing the President of Southern Illinois University. 

NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION, Urbana, Illinois 

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL STAFF 

George Sprucel. Jr. PhD . Chief 

AucE K- Adams. Secretary to the Chief 

Section of Economic Entomology 

William H Luckmann. PhD., Entomologist and Head 

jAMEi E. Appleby, PhD , Enlomologut 

EdwardJ. Armbrlist, Ph.D . Entomologist 

Marcos Kocan. PhD,, Enlomologut 

Ronald H. Meyer, Ph.D., Entomologist 

Stevenson Moore, III, Ph D , £nle)mo(ogi!(. Extension 

Michael E Irwin, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist 

Donald E, Klihlman, PhD , Associate Entomologist. Extension 

Joseph V. Maddox. Ph.D., Associate Entomologist 

Robert D. Pausch, Ph.D.. Associate Entomologist 

RoscOE Randell. Ph.D.. Associate Entomologist. Extension 

William G. Rliesink. PhD , Associate Entomologist 

John K Bouseman, M.S., Assistant Entomologist 

Catherine Eastman. Ph D , Assistant Entomologist 

Allan Felsot. Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist 

Eli Levine, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist 

Luis R- Zavaleta, Ph. D., Assistant Entomologist 

Arthur Agnello, M.S.. Assistant Specialist. Extension 

David A, Gentry, M.S., Assistant Entomologist, Extension 

Charles MacMonecle, M.S.. Assistant Specialist. Extension 

Kevin Steffy. Ph.D.. Assistant Specialist. Extension 

Steven Troester. ME.. Assistant Systems Engineer 

Jean G. Wilson. B.A.. Supervisory Assistant 

Lester Wei. PhD , Assistant Professional Scientist 

Charles G Helm, M.S., Assistant Supportive Scientist 

Stephen Roberts, B.S.. Assistant Supportive Scientist 

John T, Shaw. B,S.. Assistant Supportive Scientist 

Daniel Sherbod, M.S., Assistant Supportive Scientist 

Sue M. HALE.yunior Professional Scientist 

Gerald A Schultz. Ph D , Research Associate 

Phillip L Watson, Ph D , Research Associate 

Michael Jeffobbs, Ph D.. Field Entomologist 

Robert J. Barney, B.S.. Research Assistant 

Victoria Brunjes. B.S.. Research Assistant 

Michael Burke, M.S., Research Assistant 

TziiSuAN Chu. M.S.. Research Assistant 

Marion Farris, M.S.. Research Assistant 

Jenny Kocan. M.S.. Research Assistant 

Susan Post. B.S,. Research Assistant 

Frank Ress. B S . Research Assutant 

Gail Kampmeier. MS . Research Technician 

Michael McCuire. MS . Research Technician 

Jo Ann Auble. Technical Assistant 

Ellen Brewer. M.S.. Computer Programmer 

HowARl> Ojalvo. M.S., Computer Programmer 

Section of Bouny anil Plant Pathology 

Claus Grunwald, Ph.D , Botanist and Head 
Eugene Himelick. Ph D.. Plant Pathologist 
Dan Neely, Ph.D . Plant Pathologist 
D.F. Schoeneweiss, Ph D , Plant Pathologist 
J. Leland Crane. PhD Mycologist 
Anton G Endress, V\\ly .Associate Botanist 
Kenneth R Robertson, Ph D . Assistant Botanist 
Betty Neijson, Assistant Supportive Scientist 
Gene E Reid, yunior Professional Scientist 
James E. Sergent, Greenhouse Superintendent 
Robert A Harbison, Technical Assistant 
David R Moore, B.S-. Technical Assistant 

Section of Aquatic Biology 

Robert W, Gorden. Ph D . Aquatic Biologist and Head 
D. Homer Buck. Ph D . Aquatic Biologist 
William F Childers. Ph D . Aquatic Biologist 
R Weldon Larimore. Ph.D.. Aquatic Biologist 
Robert C Hiltibran. Ph D . Biochemist 
Allison Bricham. Ph D . Associate Aquatic Biologist 
Warren U. Bricham, Ph.D., Associate Aquatic Biologist 
Richard F Sparks. Ph D . Associate Aquatic Biologist 



John Tranquilu. Ph.D.. Associate Aquatic Biologist 

Ketl'Rah Reinbold. Ph D.. Associate Aquatic Toxicologist 

Ken Lubinski. Ph.D . Assistant Aquatic Biologist 

David P Phiupp. Ph D . Assutant Aquatic Biologut 

Henry H Seagle. Jr . Ph D . Assutant Aquatic Biologut 

Ted W, Storck. Ph.D.. Assistant Aquatic Biologist 

Bruce Taubert, Ph D . Assutant Aquatic Biologist 

Michael Wiley. Ph D . Assutant Aquatic Biologut 

Richard J Baur, M S , Assistant Supportive Scientut 

Eugene SoNs.yumor Professional Scientut 

Jana Lee Waite, M,S.,yunior Professional Scientut 

Stephen W Waite, M.S. Research Associate 

Dale Burkett. B.S.. Research Assutant 

Kurt T. Clement. B.S . Research Assistant 

Larry W Coutant. M.S.. Research Assistant 

William Kraus. M S.. Research Auulant 

Sarah Liehr, MS . Research Assutant 

Dennis Newman. M.S.. Research Assutant 

Lance Perry. M.S.. Research /issutant 

Thomas Skelly, M.S. Research Assistant 

Stephen O, Swadener, M.S.. Research Assutant 

Bill Dimond. B.S.. Technical Assutant 

John Easterly, B.S.. Technical Assutant 

Katharyn Ewing. B.S.. Technical Assutant 

Jeff Hutton. B.S., Tec hrucal Assutant 

Philip Mankin. BS . Technical Assutant 

Sue Peratt, Technical Assutant 

Pam Powers. MS. Technical Assutant 

Nancy Rue. Technical Assistant 

Jens Sandberger. M.S.. Technical Assutant 

Michael Sandusky, B S., Techrucal Assutant 

John J. Suloway, B.S , Technical Assutant 

Yip Tai-Sabg, B.S . Technical Assistant 

Gary L. Warren. BS,. Technical Assutant 

Mark J, Wetzel. BS.. Technical Assutant 

Ruth Wagner, yunior Technical Assutant 

Section of Faunistic Surveys and Insect Indentification 
Wallace E. LaBerce, Ph D , Jruect Taxonomut and Head 
George L Godfrey, Ph D , Assocuite Taxonomut 
Larry M Pace, Ph D . Associate Taxonomut 
John D L'nzicker. Ph D . Assocuite Taxonomut 
Donald W Webb. MS. Associate Taxonomut 
David J Voegtlin, Ph D.. Assutant Taxonomut 
Bernice P Sweeney, yunior Professional Scientut 
Eugene Miuceky. MS. Research Assutant 
Lawrence W, Keller. BS . Technical Assutant 

Section of Wildlife Research 

Glen C Sanderson. Ph D . Wildlife Specialut and Head 

Frank C Bellrose. Sc D . Wildlife Specialut 

William R Edwards. Ph D WiidUfe Specialut 

Jean W Graber. Ph D . Wildlife Specialut 

Richard R Graber. Ph D . Wildlife Specuilul 

Haroij) C Hanson, Ph D Wildlife Specialut 

W W Cochran. Jr . B S . Assocuite Wildlife Specialut 

Charles M Nixon. MS. Auociate Wildhfe Specuilul 

RoNAijJ L Westemeier. MS . Assocuite Wildlife Specialisl 

LONNIE P Hansen, Ph D . Assutant Wildlife SpecuiUst 

Stephen P Havera. Ph D . Assutant Wildlife Specialut 

Ronald P Larkin. Ph D Assutant WildUfe Specuilul 

Richard E Warner. MS . Auutant Wildlife Specuilul 

Robert D Crompton. yunior Professional Scientut 

Ronald E DuzAN./umor Professional Scientut 

James W Seets. yunior Professional Scientut 

Eva Stecer, B.S . funior Professional Scientut 

Eleanore Wilson, yunior Professional Scientut 

John S Lohse. Ph D . Research Assutant 

H Kathleen Arc her. B S , Technical Assutant 

James Chelsvic, B.S , Technical Assutant 



(Com. on 191) 



CONTENTS 

Acknowledgments 56 

Thysanura 56 

Ephemeroptera 56 

Odonata 57 

Orthoptera 57 

Plecoptera 57 

Mallophaga 62 

Hemiptera 62 

Homoptera 63 

Corrodentia 77 

Neuroptera 77 

Coleoptera 77 

Mecoptera 81 

Diptera 81 

Trichoptera 92 

Lepidoptera 104 

Hymenoptera 105 

Addendum 133 

Literature Cited 1 34 

Publications Referred to in the List of Primary Insect Types 135 

Index 137 

This report is printed by authority of the State of Itlinois It is a contribution from the Section of 
Faunistic Surveys and Insect Identification of the Illinois Natural History Sun'ey 

Donald W Webb is an /Issociate Taxonomist at the Illinois Natural History Survey. 

(1J092-2M-7 80) 




Dr. Herbert H. Ross, 1 908-1 978. A lifetime of work and dedication to the study of systematics and evolL* 



Primary Insect Types in the 

Illinois Natural History Survey Collection, 

Exclusive of the Collembola and 

Thysanoptera 

Donald W. Webb 



SINCE ITS BEGINNING as the 
Natural History Society of Illinois in 1858 
and its subsequent development as the Il- 
linois Museum of Natural History and the 
State Laboratory of Natural History, the 
Illinois Natural History Survey has car- 
ried on research pertaining to the 
systematics and natural history of the 
fauna and flora of Illinois. Much of the 
early material and stimulation for the 
development of a state insect collection 
within the Natural History Survey during 
the late 1800's can be attributed to 
Stephen A. Forbes. His strong interest in 
the development of the insect collection 
was continued by subsequent Chiefs of 
the Natural History Survey and by the 
heads and staff of the Section of Faunistic 
Surveys and Insect Indentification. 

In 1927 T. H. Frison published a list of 
all the insect types in the collections of the 
Illinois Natural History Survey and the 
University of Illinois and the Bolter col- 
lection. This list contained 1,067 primary 
types. Type-specimens in the University 
of Illinois have subsequently been 
transferred to the collection of the Illinois 
Natural History Survey. In the past 50 
years 2,113 primary types have been 
added to the Survey's collection, primari- 
ly through the systematic research of T. 
H. Frison in Plecoptera and 
Hymenoptera; H. H. Ross in 
Trichoptera, Plecoptera, Homoptera, 
and Hymenoptera; H. B. Mills in Collem- 
bola; and L. J. Stannard, Jr., in 
Thysanoptera. The acquisitions of the 
personal collections of J. W. Folsom in 



Collembola and C. A. Robertson in 
Hymenoptera added numerous primary 
types to the Survey's collections. In addi- 
tion, several active workers have 
periodically, or occasionally, deposited 
their types in the Survey's permanent col- 
lection upon completion of specific revi- 
sionary studies. Recently, Gerdes (1977) 
and Mari Mutt (1978) have published lists 
of all of the types of Thysanoptera and 
Collembola, respectively, in the Natural 
History Survey collection. 

In this list only primary types currently 
located in or on loan from the Illinois 
Natural History Survey collection are 
listed along with the original citation for 
each species. The literature citation for 
the designation of ach neotype and lec- 
totype is also cited. To clarify the type- 
designation within the bees of the Robert- 
son collection, lectotype specimens have 
been designated by W. E. LaBerge for 
those species not previously designated in 
the literature. The genera under which 
the species are listed are those under 
which they were originally described. 
Where possible the sex of each type is 
given. The term syntype is used in the 
sense of Article 73c of the International 
Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1964) 
and replaces the term cotype used by 
Frison (1927). 

For simplicity, the 
within each order 
alphabetically, the genera are arranged 
alphabetically within each family, and 
the species are arranged alphabetically 
within each genus. 



various families 
are arranged 



55 



56 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I am indebted to the many specialists 
who responded to queries about their own 
designations and to my associates in the 
Section of Faunistic Surveys and Insect 
Identification for serving as an editorial 
committee for this paper. They are J. K. 
Houseman, G. L, Godfrey, W. E. 
LaBerge, P. W. Smith, and J. D. Un- 
zicker. Each conducted a spot check on 
references within his specialty. The 
manuscript was typed by Mrs. Lois Webb 
and Mrs. Bernice P. Sweeney. Technical 
Editor Robert M. Zewadski edited the 
manuscript for publication. 

COLLEMBOLA 

See Mari Mutt 1978 

THYSANURA 

Lepismatidae 

Ctenolepisma urhana Slabaugh 1940 
Entomol. News 51:95. Holotype 9 

EPHEMEROPTERA 

Ametropodidae 

Metreturus pecatonica Burks 1953 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 26:147. 
Holotype nymph. 

Baetidae 

Baetis anachris Burks 1953 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 26:133. Holotype CT 
Baelis baeticatus Burks 1953 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 26:129. Holotype O- 
Baetu cleptis Burks 1953 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 26:130. Holotype CT 
Baetis elachistus Burks 1953 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 26:127. Holotype CT 
Baetis harti McDunnough 1924 Can. 

Entomol. 56.7. Holotype a 
Baetis herodes Burks 1953 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 26:130. Holotype cr 
Baetis ochns Burks 1953 111. Nat, Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 26:132. Holotype O- 
Baetis pallidula McDunnough 1924 

Can. Entomol. 56:8. Holotype Cf 
Baetis phyllis Burks 1953 111. Nat, Hist, 

Surv. Bull. 26:134. Holotype Cf 
Pseudoctoeon myrsum Burks 1953 111. 

Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 26:139. 

Holotype O" 



Pseudoctoeon veteris McDunnough 
1924 Can. Entomol. 56:8. Holotype a 

Caenidae 

Caenis gigas Burks 1953 111. Nat. Hist. 
Surv. Bull. 26:53. Holotype cr 

Tricorythodes peridius Burks 1953 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 26:48. Holo- 
type o* 

Ephemerellidae 

Ephemerella argo Burks 1947 Can. 

Entomol. 79:232, Holotype CT 
Ephemerella berneri Allen & Edmunds 

1958 J, Kans, Entomol. Soc. 31:224. 

Holotype nymph 
Ephemerella bifurcata Allen 1971 Can. 

Entomol. 103:524. Holotype O" 

nymph 
Ephemerella crenula Allen & Edmunds 

1965 Misc. Publ. Entomol. Soc. Am. 

4:277. Holotype nymph 
Ephemerella denticula Allen 1971 Can. 

Entomol. 103:525. Holotype nymph 
Ephemerella frisoni McDunnough 1927 

Can. Entomol. 59:10. Holotype Cf 
Ephemerella keijoensis Allen 1971 Can. 

Entomol. 103:526. Holotype nymph 
Ephemerella kohnoi Allen 1971 Can. 

Entomol. 103:524. Holotype Cf nymph 
Ephemerella Itta Burks 1947 Can. 

Entomol. 79:235. Holotype 9 n\Tnph 
Ephemerella maxima Allen 1971 Can. 

Entomol. 103:526. Holotype nymph. 
Ephemerella era Burks 1947 Can. 

Entomol, 79:235, Holotype Cf 
Ephemerella rossi Allen & Edmunds 

1965 Misc, Publ. Entomol, Soc. Am, 

4:278, Holotype nymph 
Ephemerella simla Allen & Edmunds 

1965 Misc, Publ. Entomol, Soc, Am. 

4:277. Holotype nymph 

Ephemeridae 

Campsurus primus McDunnough 1924 
Can, Entomol, 56:7. Holotype Cf 

Heptageniidae 

Heptagenia diabasia Burks 1946 Ann, 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 39:610. Holo- 
type Cf 

Heptagenia integer McDunnough 1924 
Can. Entomol. 56:9. Holotype Cf 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



57 



Heptagenia paloka Burks 1946 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 39:612. Holo- 
type O" 

'ron frisoni Burks 1946 Ann. Entomol. 
Soc. Am. 39:608. Holotype O* 

Won natnatus Burks 1947 Ann. Entomol. 
Soc. Am. 39:607. Holotype Cf 

'itenonema areiou Burks 1953 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 26:163. Holo- 
type O" 

Stenonema ares Burks 1953 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 26:170. Holotype O" 

Slenonema lepton Burks 1946 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 39:614. Holo- 
type c 

Stenonema melriotes Burks 1953 III. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 26:174. Holo 
type O" 

Leptophlebiidae 

4talophlebia sepia Thew 1960 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 36:130. Holotype O" 

Delcatidium viltatum Thew 1960 Pan- 
Pac. Entomol. 36:130. Holotype O" 

Paraleplophlehia sli'cta Burks 1953 
111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 26:92, 
Holotype O" 

Thraulodes daidalcus Thew 1960 
Pan-Pac. Entomol. 36:119. Holo- 
type O" 

Thraulodes traverae Thew 1960 Pan- 
Pac. Entomol. 36:120. Holotype cr 

Ulmeritus aduslus Thew 1960 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 36:126. Holotype C 

Ulmeritus balteatus Thew 1960 Pan- 
Pac. Entomol. 36:124. Holotype O" 

Ulmeritus patagiatus Thew 1960 Pan- 
Pac. Entomol. 36:128. Holotype O- 
ODONATA 

Aeschnidae 

Gomphus lentulus Needham 190z Can. 
Entomol. 34:275. Holotype Cf 

Libellulidae 

^omatochlora macrotona Williamson 
1909 Entomol. News 20:78. Holo- 
I type cr 
I ORTHOPTERA 

Acrididae 

Melanoplus macnrilli Hart 1907 Bull. 
III. State Lab. Nat. Hist, 7:261. 
Lectotype O" designated by Prison 
(1927:143) 



Melatioplus scudderi texensis Hart 1906 
Entomol. News 17:158. Lectotype O" 
designated by Prison (1927:143) 

Mesochlora unicolor Hart 1906 Entomol. 
News 17:157. Lectotype cr designated 
by Prison (1927:143) 

Spharagemon saxatile Morse 1894 Proc. 
Boston Soc, Nat. Hist. 26:229. Syn- 
types 20-, 19 

Trimerotropis saxatilis McNeill 1901 
Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 23:440. Lecto- 
type O" designated by Prison 
(i927:143) 

Gryllidae 

Nemohius funeralis Hart 1906 Entomol. 

News 17:159. Holotype 9 
Oecanthus forbesi Titus 1903 Can. 

Entomol. 35:260. Holotype O" 

PLECOPTERA 

Capniidae 

Allocapnta aurora Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:159. Holo- 
type c 

Allocapnia brooksi Ross 1964 Entomol. 
News 75:169. Holotype C 

Allocapnia cunnmghami Ross & Ricker 
1971 111. Biol. Monogr. 45:42. Holo- 
type cr 

Allocapnia curiosa Prison 1942 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:268. Holo- 
type O" 

Allocapnia forbesi Prison 1929 Bull. 
III. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 18:397. 
Holotype O" 

Allocapnia forbesi cornula Prison 1935 
III. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 20:363. 
Holotype O" 

Allocapnia frisoni Ross & Ricker 1964 
Trans. III. State Acad. Sci. 57:90. 
Holotype cr 

Allocapnia fumosa Ross 1964 Entomol. 
News 75:174. Holotype O" 

Allocapnia ilJinoensis Prison 1935 III. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 20:365. Holo- 
type cr 

Allocapnta mdianae Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:162. Holo- 
type 9 

Allocapnia /caniie Ross 1964 Entomol. 
News 75:171. Holotype cr 



58 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Allocapnia loshada Ricker 1952 Indiana 

Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:163. Holo- 

type C 
Allocapnia malverna Ross 1964 Entomol. 

News 75:170. Holotype O" 
Allocapnia mohri Ross & Ricker 1964 

Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 57:91. 

Holotype O" 
Allocapnia mystica Prison 1929 Bull. 

111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 18:399. 

Holotype C 
Allocapnia ohioensis Ross & Ricker 1964 

Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 57:92. 

Holotype cr 
Allocapnia ozarkana Ross 1964 Entomol. 

News 75:172. Holotype Cf 
Allocapnia pechumani Ross & Ricker 

1964 Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 

57:88. Holotype O- 
Allocapnia peltoides Ross & Ricker 

1964 Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 

57:91. Holotype c 
Allocapnia perplexa Ross & Ricker 

1971 111. Biol. MonogT. 45:44. Holo- 
type CT 
Allocapnia polemistis Ross & Ricker 

1971 111. Biol. Monogr. 45:24. 

Holotype O" 
Allocapnia rickeri Prison 1942 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:269. Holotype C 
Allocapnia sandersoni Ricker 1952 

Indiana Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:165. 

Holotype O" 
Allocapnia smithi Ross & Ricker 1971 111. 

Biol. Monogr. 45:46. Holotype O" 
Allocapnia stannardi Ross 1964 Entomol. 

News 75:174. Holotype O" 
Allocapnia tennessa Ross & Ricker 1964 

Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 57:90. 

Holotype CT 
Allocapnia unzickeri Ross & Yamamoto 

1966 Entomol. News 77:267. Holo- 
type c 
Allocapnia virginiana Prison 1942 

111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:269. 

Holotype O" 
Allocapnia warreni Ross & Yamamoto 

1966 Entomol. News 77:265. Holo- 
type O" 
Allocapnia wrayi Ross 1964 Entomol. 

News 75:170. Holotype CT 
Allocapnia zekia Ross 1964 Entomol. 

News 75:171. Holotype cr 



Allocapnia zola Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:166. Holo- 
type O" 

Capnia barhata Prison 1944 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 69:153. Holotype O" 

Capnia distincta Prison 1937 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:86. Holo- 
type c 

Capnia elevata Prison 1942 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 18:64. Holotype Cf 

Capnia jewetti Prison 1942 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 18:63. Holotype O" 

Capnia limata Prison 1944 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 69:155. Holotype O" 

Capnia melia Prison 1942 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 18:61. Holotype Cf 

Capnia oregona Prison 1942 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 18:63. Holotype O" 

Capnia pileata Jewett 1966 Wasmann J. 
Biol. 24:104. Holotype O" 

Capnia projecta Prison 1937 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:87. Holotype a 

Capnia promota Prison 1937 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:88. Holotype cr 

Capnia umpqua Prison 1942 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 18:65. Holotype cr 

Capnia wanica Prison 1944 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 69:151. Holotype C 

Capnia willametta Jcwen 1955 Wasmann 
J. Biol. 13:147. Holotype cr 

Capnura venosa Banks 1900 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 26:245. Syntype 19 

Eucapnopsis vedderensis Ricker 1943 
Indiana Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 12:86. 
Holotype O" 

Isocapnia abbreinata Prison 1942 Pan- 
Pac. Entomol. 18:71. Holotype CT 

Isocapnia agassizi Ricker 1943 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 12:90. Holo- 
type O" 

Isocapnia hyalita Ricker 1959 Can. J. 
Zool. 37:648. Holotype cr 

Isocapnia missourii Ricker 1959 Can. J. 
Zool. 37:651. Holotype cr 

Isocapnia spenceri Ricker 1943 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 12:91. Holo- 
type O" 

Isocapnia spenceri thujae Ricker 1943 
Indiana Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 12:92. 
Holotype O" 

Chloroperlidae 

Alloperla autumna Hoppe 1938 Univ. 
Wash. Publ. Biol. 4:152. Holotype cr 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



59 



Alloperla banksi Prison 1942 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:343. Holotype O" 

Alloperla caudata Prison 1934 Can. 
Entomol. 66:27. Holotype O- 

Alloperla chloris Prison 1934 Can. 
Entomol. 66:27. Holotype O" 

Alloperla concolor Ricker 1935 Can. 
Entomol. 67:256. Holotype cr 

Alloperla delicata Prison 1935 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 61:334. Holo- 
type O" 

Alloperla diversa Prison 1935 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 61:333. Holo- 
type O" 

Alloperla dubia Prison 1935 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 61:338. Holo- 
type O" 

Alloperla elevata Prison 1935 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 61:335. Holotype Cf 

Alloperla exquisita Prison 1935 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 61:337. 
Holotype O" 

Alloperla fraterna Prison 1935 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 61:334. Holo- 
type O" 

Alloperla lateralis Banks 1911 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 37:337. Syn- 
type lo- 

Alloperla lodgei Prison 1935 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 61:340. Holotype O" 

Alloperla mediana Banks 1911 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 37:336. Syntypes 
ICf,. 19 

Alloperla medveda Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:177. Holo- 
type C7 

Alloperla nanina Banks 1911 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 37:336. Syntype 19 

Alloperla neglecta Prison 1935 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 61:336. Holo 
type <y 

; Alloperla nimbilis Hoppe 1938 Univ. 
1 Wash. Publ. Biol. 4:155. Holotype O" 
Alloperla occidens Prison 1937 
111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:96. 
Holotype O' 
Alloperla oregonensis Prison 1935 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 61:332. Holo- 
type O" 

Alloperla pintada Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:186. Holo 
type CT 



Alloperla tamalpa Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:182. Holo- 
type <y 

Alloperla thalia Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:178. Holo- 
type <y 

Alloperla townesi Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:184. Holo- 
type O" 

Alloperla urticae Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:185. Holo- 
type O" 

Alloperla usa Ricker 1952 Indiana Univ. 
Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:178. Holotype CT 

Alloperla vostoki Ricker 1948 Trans. R. 
Can. Inst. 26:413. Holotype cr 

Chloroperla irregularis Klapalek 1923 
Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 63:28. Syn- 
type 19 

Chloroperla orpha Prison 1937 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:91. Holotype O" 

Chloroperla terna Prison 1942 
111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:339. 
Holotype O" 

Hastaperla chilnualna Ricker 1952 
Indiana Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:190. 
Holotype cr 

Utaperla sopladora Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:174. Holo- 
type cr 

Leuctridae 

Leuctra alabama James 1974 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 67:964. Holo- 
type cr 

Leuctra alta James 1974 Ann. Entomol. 
Soc. Am. 67:964. Holotype O- 

Leuctra claasseni Prison 1929 Bull. 111. 
State Nat. Hist. Surv. 18:404. Holo- 
type O" 

Leuctra cottaquilla James 1974 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 67:964. Holotype O" 

Leuctra crow/James 1976 Ann. Entomol. 
Soc. Am. 69:882. Holotype C 

Leuctra forcipata Prison 1937 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:85. Holotype O" 

Leuctra grandis Banks 1906 Can. 
Entomol. 38:338. Syntype lO" 

Leuctra moha Ricker 1952 Indiana Univ. 
Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:169. Holotype O" 

Leuctra projecta Prison 1942 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:260. Holo- 
type O" 



60 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32. Art. 2 



Leuctra rz'cAerz James 1976 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 69:882. Holotype O- 
Megaleuctra kincaidi Prison 1942 

Pan-Pac. Entomol. 18:15. Holotype 9 
Perlomyia sobrina Prison 1936 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:262. Holotype 9 
Perlomyia solitaria Prison 1936 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:261. Holotype O" 
Zealeuctra arnoldi Ricker & Ross 1969 

Can. J. Zool. 47:1114. Holotype cr 
Zealeuctra fraxina Ricker & Ross 1969 

Can. J. Zool. 47:1117. Holotype CT 
Zealeuctra hitei Ricker & Ross 1969 Can. 

J. Zool. 47:1117. Holotype cr 
Zealeuctra narfi Ricker & Ross 1969 Can. 

J. Zool. 47:1118. Holotype O- 
Zealeuctra wachita Ricker & Ross 1969 

Can. J. Zool. 47:1119. Holotype 9 
Zealeuctra warreni Ricker & Ross 1969 

Can J. Zool. 47:1120. Holotype C 

Nemouridae 

Amphinemura puebla Baumann & 

Gaufin 1972 Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Ang. 

Cty. Contrib. Sci. 226:12. Holotype 9 
Nemoura besametsa Ricker 1952 Indiana 

Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:48. Holotype CT 
Nemoura chila Ricker 1952 Indiana 

Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:55. Holotype CT 
Nemoura decepta Prison 1942 Pan-Pac. 

Entomol. 18:13. Holotype O" 
Nemoura delosa Ricker 1952 Indiana 

Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:18. Holotype O- 
Nemoura dimicki Prison 1936 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:256. Holotype O" 
Nemoura foersteri Ricker 1943 Indiana 

Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 12:70. Holotype O" 
Nemoura haysi Ricker 1952 Indiana 

Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:58. Holotype O" 
Nemoura linda Ricker 1952 Indiana 

Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:22. Holotype O" 
Nemoura lobata Prison 1936 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 29:260. Holotype O" 
Nemoura mockfordi Ricker 1952 Indiana 

Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:24. Holotype cr 
Nemoura obscura Prison 1936 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:258. Holotype cr 
Nemoura perplexa Prison 1936 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:259. Holotype cr 
Nemoura pseudoproducta Prison 1942 

Pan-Pac. Entomol. 18:11. Holotype O" 
Nemoura rossi Ricker 1952 Indiana Univ. 

Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:45. Holotype 9 



Nemoura stylata Banks 1920 Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool. 64:324. Syntypes ICf , 19 
Nemoura tina Ricker 1952 Indiana 

Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:35. Holotype cr 
Nemoura tuberculata Prison 1937 111. 

Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:84. Holo- 
type cr 
Nemoura tumana Ricker 1952 Indiana 

Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:29. Holotype CT 
Nemoura varshava Ricker 1952 Indiana 

Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:25. Holotype C7 
Nemoura weberi Ricker 1952 Indiana 

Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:46. Holotype 9 

Peltoperlidae 

Peltoperla laurie Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:154. Holo- 
type 9 

Peltoperla mariana Ricker 1943 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 12:47. Holotype cr 

Peltoperla zipha Prison 1942 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:247. Holotype cr 

Perlidae 

Acroneuria filicis Prison 1942 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:275. Holotype 9 
Acroneuria mela Prison 1942 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:274. Holotype 9 
Acroneuria perplexa Prison 1937 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:79. Holotype 9 
Anacroneuria chiapasa Jewett 1958 Am. 

Midi. Nat. 60:166. Holotype 9 
Anacroneuria crenulata jewett 1958 Am. 

Midi. Nat. 60:171. Holotype 9 
Anacroneuria da m pfi ]ev/ett 1958 Am. 

Midi. Nat. 60:165. Holotype 9 
Anacroneuria flavominuta Jewett 1958 

Am. Midi. Nat. 60:167. Holotype 9 
Anacroneuria nigrolineata Jewett 1958 

Am. Midi. Nat. 60:163. Holotype 9 
Paragnetina fattigi Ricker 1949 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 42:282. Holotype CT 
Perla modesta Banks 1908 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 34:255. Syntype 19 
Perla subvarians Banks 1920 Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool. 64:317. Syntypes icf, 19 

Perla trictura Hoppe 1938 Univ. Wash. 

Publ. Biol. 4:151. Holotype cr 
Perla yakimae Hoppe 1938 Univ. Wash. 

Publ. Biol. 4:150. Holotype CT 



July 1980 



Webb. Primary Insect Types 



61 



Perlodidae 

Arcynopteryx walkeri Ricker 1943 
Indiana Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 12:118. 
Holotype O" 

Arcynopteryx watertoni Ricker 1952 In- 
diana Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:75. 
Holotype O" 

Dictyopterygella knowltoni Frison 1937 
111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:89. 
Holotype cr 

Diploperla arina Frison 1942 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:309. Holotype cr 

Diploperla bulbosa Frison 1942 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:307. Holotype O" 

Diploperla fraseri Ricker 1943 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 12:106. Holo- 
type O" 

Diploperla pilata Frison 1942 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:305. Holotype CT 

Hydroperla dorata Frison 1942 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:295. Holotype O" 

Hydroperla harti Frison 1935 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 20:423. Holotype O" 

Hydroperla nalata Frison 1942 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:293. Holotype C 

Hydroperla parallela Frison 1936 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:261. Holotype cr 

Isogenus hansoni Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:111. Holo- 
type <y 

Isogenus krumholzi Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:112. Holo- 
type cr 

Isogenus tost onus Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:97. Holotype O" 

Isoperla bellona Banks 1911 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 37:335. Syntypes20', 19 

Isoperla burksi Frison 1942 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:332. Holo- 
type O" 

Isoperla cascadensis Hoppe 1938 Univ. 
Wash. Publ. Biol. 4:158. Holotype cr 

Isoperla chrysannula Hoppe 1938 Univ. 
Wash. Publ. Biol. 4:156. Holotype cr 

Isoperla confusa Frison 1935 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 20:441. Holotype O" 

Isoperla conspicua Frison 1935 111. Nat. 
j Hist. Surv. Bull. 20:445. Holotype 9 
[ Isoperla cotta Ricker 1952 Indiana Univ. 
Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:144. Holotype cr 

[ Isoperla davisi ]a.mts 1974 Ann. En- 
I tomol . Soc . Am .67:966. Holotype O" 



Isoperla decepta Frison 1935 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 20:447. Holotype O" 
Isoperla dicala Frison 1942 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 22:321. Holotype C 
Isoperla fumosa Neave 1933 Can. En- 
tomol. 65:235. Holotype 9 
Isoperla insipida Hoppe 1938 Univ. 

Wash. Publ. Biol. 4:157. Holotype CT 
Isoperla jewetti Szczytko & Stewart 1976 

Great Basin Nat. 36:215. Holotype O" 
Isoperla lata Frison 1942 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 22:334. Holotype O" 
Isoperla mo/tn Frison 1935 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 20:455. Holotype CT 
Isoperla namata Frison 1942 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:327. Holotype O" 
Isoperla orata Frison 1942 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 22:323. Holotype 9 
Isoperla patricia Frison 1942 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:313. Holotype CT 
Isoperla pinta Frison 1937 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:92. Holotype O" 
Isoperla richardsoni Frison 1935 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 20:459. Holotype 9 
Isoperla tokula Hoppe 1938 Univ. Wash. 

Publ. Biol. 4:157. Holotype O- 
Isoperla truncata Frison 1937 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:94. Holo- 
type 9 
Isoperla ventralis Banks 1908 Psyche 

15:66. Syntype ICf 

Pteronarcidae 

Pteronarcys scotti Ricker 1952 Indiana 
Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18:147. Holo- 
type O" 

Pteronarcys shelf ordi Frison 1934 Can. 
Entomol. 66:25. Holotype cr 

Taeniopterygidae 

Brachyptera limata Frison 1942 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:255. Holo- 
type CT 
Brachyptera rossi Frison 1942 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:254. Holotype O" 
Brachyptera zelona Ricker 1965 J. Fish. 

Res. Board Can. 22:477. Holotype cr 
Strophopteryx appalachia Ricker 1975 

Can. J. Zool. 53:149. Holotype cr 
Strophopteryx arkansae Ricker 1975 

Can. J. Zool. 53:150. Holotype O" 
Strophopteryx cucullata Frison 1934 

Can. Entolmol. 66:29. Holotype 9 



62 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Strophopteryx inaya Ricker 1975 Can. 

J. Zool. 53:150. Holotype CT 
Strophopteryx ostra Ricker 1975 Can. 

J. Zool. 53:151. Holotype O" 
Taeniopteryx burksi Ricker & Ross 1968 

J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 25:1425. 

Holotype O" 
Taeniopteryx kincaidi Hoppe 1938 

Univ. Wash. Publ. Biol. 4:164. 

Holotype O" 
Taeniopteryx lita Prison 1942 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:249. Holotype CT 
Taeniopteryx lonicera Ricker & Ross 

1968 J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 25:1427. 

Holotype O" 
Taeniopteryx metequi Ricker & Ross 

1968 J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 

25:1431. Holotype O- 
Taeniopteryx ugola Ricker & Ross 1968 

J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 25:1437. 

Holotype O" 

MALLOPHAGA 

Columbicola extincta Malcomson 1937 
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 30:55. Holo- 
type O" 

Machaerilaemus complexus Malcomson 
1937 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 30:53. 
Holotype 9 

Myrsidea bonariensis Malcomson 1929 
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 22:728. Holo- 
type 9 

Philopterus cristata Malcomson 1929 
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 22:729. 
Holotype 9 

HEMIPTERA 

Coreidae 

Carorhintha flava Fracker 1923 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 16:171. Holo- 
type cr 

Cydnidae 

Corimelaena harti Malloch 1919 Bull. 

Ill, State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:215. 

Holotype cr 
Corimelaena interrupta Malloch 1919 

Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:214. 

Holotype O" 
Corimelaena minutissima Malloch 1919 

Bull. III. State Nat, Hist. Surv. 13:214. 

Holotype O" 



Corimelaena polita Malloch 1919 Bull. 

111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:213. 

Holotype 9 
Galgupha aterrima Malloch 1919 Bull. 

111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:211. 

Holotype Cf 

Lygaeidae 

Geocoris frisoni Barber 1926 Bull. 
Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 21:38. Holo- 
type O" 

Miridae 

Agnocoris rossi Moore 1955 Proc. En- 
tomol. Soc. Wash. 57:176. Holotype cr 

Bolteria amicta Uhler 1887 Entomol. 
Am. 3:34. Syntypes 10 

Cyrtopeltocoris illini Knight 1941 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:117. Holo- 
type O" 

Horcias illini Knight 1941 111. Nat. Hist. 
Surv. Bull. 22:172. Holotype Cf 

Hyaliodes brevis Knight 1941 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:58. Holotype a 

Hyaliodes harti Knight 1941 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:57. Holotype C 

Illnacora illini Knight 1941 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:83. Holotype a 

Lopidea chandleri Moore 1956 Entomol. 
News 67:40. Holotype a 

Lopidea wisteriae Moore 1956 Entomol. 
News 67:42. Holotype cr 

Lygus atritibialis Knight 1941 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:152. Holotype a 

Lygus frisoni Knight 1941 111. Nat. Hist. 
Surv. Bull. 22:151. Holotype Cf 

Neolygus geminus Knight 1941 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:163. Holotype cr 

Orthotylus rossi Knight 1941 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:102. Holotype cr 

Orthotylus taxodii Knight 1941 111. Nat. 
Hist" Surv. Bull. 22:101. Holo- 
type O" 

Parthenicus taxodii Knight 1941 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:76. Holo- 
type cr 

Phytocoris arundinicola Knight 1941 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:198. Holo- 
type or 

Pilophorus taxodii Knight 1941 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:121. Holotype CT 

Plagiognathus syrticolae Knight 1941 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:31. Holo- 
type cr 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



63 



Polymerus illini Knight 1941 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:168. Holotype O" 

Reuteria platani Knight 1941 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:95. Holotype 9 

Strongylocoris mohri Knight 1941 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 22:81. Holo- 
type 9 

Nabidae 

Nabis elongatus Hart 1907 Bull. 111. State 
Lab. Nat. Hist. 7:262. Holotype cr 

Pentatomidae 

Euschistus subimpunctatus Malloch I9I9 

Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:191. 

Holotype 9 
Thyanta elegans Malloch 1919 Bull. 

111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:218. 

Holotype cy 

Phymatidae 

Phymata mystica Evans 1931 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 24:717. Holotype C 



HOMOPTERA 

Aleyrodidae 

Aleurodes aceris Forbes 1884 Rep. State 
Entomol. 111. 14:110. Syntypes 39 

Aphididae 

Amphorophora nebulosa Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:275. Holotype 9 
Amphorophora rossi Hottes & Frison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:277. Holotype 9 
Amphorophora sensoriata Mason 1923 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. ?5:189. 

Syntypes 69 
Amphorophora singularis Hottes & 

Frison 1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. 

Surv. 19:279. Holotype 9 
Aphis bonnevillensis Knowlton 1928 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 21:262. Syn- 

type 19 
Aphis caliginosa Hottes & Frison 1931 

Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:182. 

Holotype 9 
Aphis carduella Walsh 1862 Proc. En- 
tomol. Soc. Phila. 1:300. Neotype 

slide designated by Hottes & Frison 

(1931:184) 



Aphis cari Essig 1917 Univ. Cahf. 
Publ. Entomol. 1:317. Syntype 19 

Aphis cephalanthi Thomas 1878 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1(2):11. Neo- 
type slide designated by Hottes & Pri- 
son (1931:186) 

Aphis chetansapa Hottes & Frison 1931 
Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:186. 
Holotype 9 

Aphis cucumeris Forbes 1883 Rep. State 
Entomol. 111. 12:83. Holotype 9 

Aphis decepta Hottes & Frison 1931 Bull. 
111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:192. 
Holotype 9 

Aphis fraternus Strom 1938 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 31:473. Holotype 9 

Aphis funesta Hottes & Frison 1931 Bull. 
111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:194. 
Holotype 9 

Aphis gregalis Knowlton 1928 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 21:259. Syntype 19 

Aphis hiltoni Elssig 1922 Pomona Coll. 
J. Entomol. Zool. 14:61. Syntype 19 

Aphis illinoisensis Shimer 1866 Prairie 
Farmer 18:316. Neotype slide desig- 
nated by Hottes & Frison (1931:199) 

Aphis impatientis Thomas 1878 Bull. 111. 
State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1(2): 12. Syntype 
19 

Aphis knowltoni Hottes & Frison 1931 
Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:199. 
Syntypes 29 

Aphis luridis Hottes & Frison 1931 Bull. 
111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:200. 
Holotype 9 

Aphis nyctalis Hottes & Frison 1931 Bull. 
111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:206. 
Holotype 9 

Aphis pseudobrassicae Davis 1914 Can. 
Entomol. 46:231. Syntype 19 

Aphis pulchella Hottes & Frison 1931 
Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:212. 
Holotype 9 

Aphis signatis Hottes & Frison 1931 Bull. 
111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:219. 
Holotype 9 

Aphis vernoniae Thomas 1878 Bull. 111. 
State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1(2):10. Lecto- 
type 9 designated by Hottes & Frison 
(1931:223) 

Aphis zilora Hottes & Frison 1931 Bull. 
111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:224. 
Holotype 9 



64 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Asiphonaphis anogis Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:225. Holotype 9 
Calaphis betulella Walsh 1862 Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Phila. 1:301. Neotype 

slide designated by Hottes & Prison 

(1931:244) 
Callipterus caryaefoliae Davis 1910 En- 
tomol. News 21:198. Lectotype 9 des- 
ignated by Prison (1927:154) 
Capitophorus corambus Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:281. Holotype 9 
Capitophorus oestlundii Knowlton 1927 

Can. Entomol. 59:235. Syntype 19 
Capitophorus pakansus Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:286. Holotype 9 
Capitophorus patonkus Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:287. Holotype 9 
Cerosipha rubifolii Thomas 1879 Rep. 

State Entomol. 111. 8:121. Neotype 9 

designated by Hottes & Prison (1931: 

231) 
Chaitophorus flavus Porbes 1884 Rep. 

State Entomol. 111. 13:42. Lectotype 9 

designated by Prison (1927:155) 
Chaitophorus neglectus Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:161. Holotype 9 
Chaitophorus negundinis Thomas 1878 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1(2):10. 

Syntype 29 
Chaitophorus populicola Thomas 1878 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1(2):10. 

Syntype 19 
Chaitophorus pusillus Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:163. Holotype 9 
Chaitophorus salicicola Essig 1911 

Pomona Coll. J. Entomol. Zool. 3:532. 

Syntype 19 

Cinara difficilis Hottes & Prison 1931 
Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:153. 
Holotype 9 

Drepanaphis keshenae Granovsky 1931 in 
Hottes & Prison Bull. 111. State Nat. 
Hist. Surv. 19:248. Syntypes 29 

Durocapillata utahensis Knowlton 1927 
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 20:229. Syn- 
types 49 



Eichochaitophorus populifolii Essig 1912 

Pomona Coll. J. Entomol. Zool. 4:722. 
Syntype 19 
Eriosoma mimica Hottes & Prison 1931 

Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:353. 

Holotype 9 
Forda occidentalis Hart 1894 Rep. State 

Entomol. 111. 18:95. Lectotype 9 desig- 
nated by Prison (1927:155) 
Fullawaya saliciradicis Essig 1912 

Pomona Coll. J. Entomol. Zool. 4:737. 

Syntype 19 
Geoica squamosa Hart 1894 Rep. State 

Entomol. 111. 18:102. Lectotype 9 

designated by Prison (1927:155) 
Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis 1909 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 2:199. Lecto- 
type 9 designated by Prison (1927:155) 
Lachnus taxifolia Swain 1918 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 44:11. Syntypes 29 
Lachnus vanduzei Swain 1919 Univ. 

Calif. Publ. Entomol. 3:50. Syntype 19 
Macrosiphum anomalae Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:298. Holotype 9 
Macrosiphum coryli Davis 1914 Can. 

Entomol. 46:48. Syntype 19 
Macrosiphum erigeronensis Thomas 1878 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1(2):7. 

Neotype slide designated by Hottes & 

Prison (1931:305) 
Macrosiphum illini Hottes & Prison 1931 

Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:309. 

Holotype 9 
Macrosiphum illini crudae Hottes & 

Prison 1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. 

Surv. 19:311. Holotype 9 
Macrosiphum illini sangomonensis Hottes 

& Prison 1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. 

Surv, 19:312. Holotype 9 
Macrosiphum kickapoo Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:312. Holotype 9 
Macrosiphum packi Knowlton 1928 Pan- 

Pac. Entomol. 4:169. Syntype 19 
Macrosiphum pallens Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:315. Holotype 9 
Macrosiphum ribiellum Davis 1919 Can. 

Entomol. 51:231. Syntype 19 
Macrosiphum ruralis Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:321. Holotype 9 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



65 



Macrosiphum sanguinarium Hottes & 

Prison 1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. 

Surv. 19:323. Holotype 9 
Macrosiphum tapuskae Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:327. Holotype 9 
Macrosiphum tardae Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:329. Holotype 9 
Macrosiphum venaefuscae Davis 1914 

Can. Entomol. 46:77. Syntype 19 
Macrosiphum zinzalae Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:332. Holotype 9 
Megoura solani Thomas 1879 Rep. 

State Entomol. 111. 8:73. Holotype 9 
Melanoxantherium antennatum Patch 

1913 Maine Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. 

Bull. 213:87. Syntype 19 

Minuticomis gravidis Knowlton 1928 Pla. 

Entomol. 12:60. Syntypes many 
Monellia californicus Essig 1912 Pomona 

Coll. J. Entomol. Zool. 4:767. Syntype 

19 
Monellia nigropunctata Granovsky 1931 

in Hottes & Prison Bull. 111. State Nat. 

Hist. Surv. 19:252. Syntypes 149 
Mordwilkoja vagabunda Walsh 1862 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Phila. 1:306. Neo- 

type slide designated by Hottes & Pri- 
son (1931:361) 
Myzocallis hyperici Thomas 1879 Rep. 

State Entomol. 111. 8:108. Lectotype 

9 designated by Hottes & Prison 

(1931:232) 
Myzus aquilegtae Essig 1917 Univ. Calif. 

Publ. Entomol. 1:314. Syntype 19 
Myzus thomasi Hottes & Prison 1931 

Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:343. 

Holotype 9 
Neosymydobius memorialis Hottes & 

Prison 1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. 

Surv. 19:262. Holotype 9 
Pemphigus ephemeratus Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:365. Holotype 9 
Pemphigus fraxinifolii Thomas 1879 

Rep. State Entomol. 111. 8:146. Syn- 
types 39 
Pemphigus rwfc? Thomas 1879 Rep. State 

Entomol. 111. 8:147. Syntypes 29 



Pemphigus tartareus Hottes & Prison 
1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:369. Holotype 9 
Pergandeidia corni Tissot 1929 Pla. En- 
tomol. 13:2. Syntype 19 
Phymatosiphum monelli D2ivis 1909 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 2:197. Lectotype 9 

designated by Prison (1927:156) 
Plocamaphis terricola Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:173. Holotype 9 
Rhizobius spicatus Hart 1894 Rep. State 

Entomol. 111. 18:104. Syntypes 129 
Rhopalosiphum enigmae Hottes & Prison 

1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

19:235. Holotype 9 
Rhopalosiphum enigmae parvae Hottes 

& Prison 1931 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. 

Surv. 19:237. Holotype 9 
Rhopalosiphum tulipae Thomas 1879 

Rep. State Entomol. 111. 8:80. Syn- 
type 19 
Saltusaphis wanica Hottes & Prison 1931 

Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 19:266. 

Holotype 9 
Schizoneura panicola Thomas 1879 Rep. 

State Entomol. 111. 8:138. Syntype 19 
Schizoneura pinicola Thomas 1879 Rep. 

State Entomol. 111. 8:137. Holotype 9 
Siphonophora acerifoliae Thomas 1878 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1(2):4. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Hottes & 

Prison (1931:247) 
Siphonophora ambrosiae Thomas 1878 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1(2):4. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Hottes & 

Prison (1931:298) 

Siphonophora coreopsidis Thomas 1878 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1(2):7. 
Syntypes IC, 19 

Siphonophora euphorbiae Thomas 1878 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1(2):6. 
Syntype 19 

Siphonophora euphorbicola Thomas 
1878 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 
1(2):6. Syntype 19 

Siphonophora heucherae Thomas 1879 
Rep. State Entomol. 111. 8:66. Syntypes 
many 

Siphonophora minor Porbes 1884 Rep. 
State Entomol. 111. 13:101. Lecto- 
type 9 designated by Prison (1927:156) 



66 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32. Art. 2 



Siphonophora salicicola Thomas 1878 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1(2):8. 

Syntype 19 
Siphonophora setariae Thomas 1878 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1(2):5. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Hottes & 

Prison (1931:234) 
Siphonophora viticola Thomas 1878 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 1(2):5. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Hottes & 

Prison (1931:199) 
Symdobius salicicorticis Essig 1912 

Pomona Coll. J. Entomol. Zool. 4:731. 

Syntypes 29 
Symydobius agrifoliae Essig 1917 Univ. 

Calif. Publ. Entomol. 1:311. Syn- 
type 19 
Thomasia crucis Essig 1912 Pomona Coll. 

J. Entomol. Zool. 4:741. Syntype 19 
Thoracaphis umbellulariae Essig 1932 

Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 6:4. 

Syntype 19 
Thripsaphis hottesi Prison & Ross 1933 

Can. Entomol. 65:152. Holotype 9 
Tychea brevicornis Hart 1894 Rep. State 

Entomol. 111. 18:97. Syntypes 89 
Tychea erigeronensis Thomas 1879 Rep. 

State Entomol. 111. 8:168. Syntypes 3 

immatures 

Cicadellidae 

Dikraneura hamar DeLong & Ross 1950 
Ohio J. Sci. 50:87. Holotype O" 

Empoa albopicta Porbes 1884 Rep. State 
Entomol. 111. 13:181. Lectotype O" 
designated by Prison (1927:149) 

Empoasca alberta Ross 1963 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:216. Holotype O" 

Empoasca alceda Ross & Cunningham 
1960 OhioJ. Sci. 60:314. Holotype CT 

Empoasca altmani Cunningham & Ross 
1965 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58:836. 
Holotype O" 

Empoasca ancella Cunningham & Ross 
1965 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58:838. 
Holotype O" 

Empoasca andresia Ross 1963 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:218. Holotype CT 

Empoasca angustifoliae Ross 1963 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:220. Holotype C 

Empoasca anilla Ross 1959 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 52:315. Holotype cr 



Empoasca arizona Ross 1963 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:221. Holotype O" 
Empoasca beckeri Ross 1959 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 52:310. Holotype cr 
Empoasca canda Ross & Moore 1957 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 50:120. 

Holotype O" 
Empoasca canthella Ross & Cunningham 

1960 OhioJ. Sci. 60:311. Holotype CT 
Empoasca cascada Ross 1963 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:222. Holotype CT 
Empoasca caverna Davidson & DeLong 

1938 OhioJ. Sci. 38:93. Holotype cr 
Empoasca chapingo Ross 1963 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:222. Holotype Cf 
Empoasca cirsia Cunningham & Ross 

1965 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58:838. 

Holotype O" 
Empoasca clinata Ross 1963 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:215. Holotype CT 
Empoasca consecta Ross 1963 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:221. Holotype C 
Empoasca cristella Ross & Cunningham 

1960 OhioJ. Sci. 60:311. Holotype a 
Empoasca crystola Ross 1963 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:215. Holotype O^ 
Empoasca cunninghami Ross 1959 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 52:314. Holotype cr 
Empoasca deckeri Ross & Cunningham 

1960 OhioJ. Sci. 60:312. Holotype cr 
Empoasca eccla Ross & Moore 1957 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 50:120. Holotype cr 
Empoasca exiguae Ross 1963 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 56:220. Holotype cr 
Empoasca fenestra Ross 1959 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 52:312. Holotype O" 
Empoasca fontana Ross 1963 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:223. Holotype cr 
Empoasca foxi Ross & Cunningham 1960 

OhioJ. Sci. 60:312. Holotype cr 
Empoasca foxiella Cunningham & Ross 

1965 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58:836. 

Holotype C 
Empoasca gansella Ross 1959 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 52:312. Holot}'pe cr 

Empoasca gibbosa Cunningham & Ross 
1965 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58:840. 
Holotype CT 

Empoasca gibsoni Ross 1959 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 52:314. Holotype C 

Empoasca gribisa Ross 1963 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 56:219. Holotype O" 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



67 



Empoasca guttiformis Cunningham & 

Ross 1965 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 

58:840. Holotype O" 
Empoasca hastosa Ross & Moore 1957 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 50:119. 

Holotype O" 
Empoasca humilis Ross 1963 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:218. Holotype c 
Empoasca improcera Ross 1963 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:220. Holotype O" 
Empoasca tnaequiformis Cunningham & 

Ross 1965 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 

58:840. Holotype C7 
Empoasca incoata Ross 1959 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 52:313. Holotype O" 
Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore 1957 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 50:120. 

Holotype O" 
Empoasca lacetba Ross & Cunningham 

1960 Ohio J. Sci. 60:311. Holotype cr 
Empoasca lucidae Ross 1963 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:216. Holotype C 
Empoasca mergata Ross 1959 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 52:312. Holotype O" 
Empoasca mexara Ross & Moore 1957 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 50:121. 

Holotype C 
Empoasca millsi Ross 1959 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 52:315. Holotype cr 
Empoasca minetra Cunningham & Ross 

1965 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58:838. 

Holotype Cf 
Empoasca necyla Davidson & DeLong 

1939 Ohio J. Sci. 39: 1 10. Holotype O" 
Empoasca nodosa Cunningham & Ross 

1965 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58:842. 

Holotype O" 
Empoasca occidua Ross 1963 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:220. Holotype O" 
Empoasca ophiodera Ross & Cunning- 
ham 1960 Ohio J. Sci. 60:316. Holo- 
type O" 
Empoasca orthodens Davidson & DeLong 

1938 Ohio J. Sci. 38:91. Holotype O" 
Empoasca ovalis Ross 1963 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 56:217. Holotype O" 
Empoasca panisca Ross & Moore 1957 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 50:120. 

Holotype O" 
Empoasca petaluma Ross 1963 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:222. Holotype Cf 
Empoasca petiolaridis Ross 1963 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:217. Holotype O" 



Empoasca portola Ross 1963 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 56:215. Holotype cr 

Empoasca reddina Ross 1963 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:222. Holotype (7 

Empoasca robacki Ross & Cunningham 
1960 OhioJ. Sci. 60:314. Holotype O- 

Empoasca saxosa Cunningham & Ross 
1965 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58:838. 
Holotype O" 

Empoasca serrula Davidson & DeLong 
1940 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 33:608. 
Holotype O" 

Empoasca sinusina Ross & Cunningham 
1960 OhioJ. Sci. 60:315. Holotype O" 

Empoasca spinuloides Cunningham & 
Ross. 1965 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 
58:842. Holotype O" 

Empoasca sprita Ross 1963 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 56:219. Holotype cr 

Empoasca styliformis Cunningham & 
Ross 1965 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 
58:843. Holotype CT 

Empoasca tecpatana Ross & Cunning- 
ham 1960 OhioJ. Sci. 60:316. Holo- 
type O" 

Empoasca teneris Ross & Cunningham 
1960 OhioJ. Sci. 60:314. Holotype CT 

Empoasca velutina Ross 1963 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:221. Holotypecr 

Empoasca verdia Ross & Moore 1957 
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 50:121. 
Holotype cr 

Empoasca zapoides Ross 1959 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 52:310. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura abolla lemnisca McAtee 
1926 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 
16:131. Holotype 9 

Erythroneura acantha Ross & DeLong 
1950 OhioJ. Sci. 50:296. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura accicurta Hepner 1966 
Fla. Entomol. 49:106. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura acericola Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:88. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura acutalis Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:83. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura adae Hepner 1977 J. Ga. 
Entomol. Soc. 12:363. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura aesculella Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:82. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura albanyensis Hepner 1976 
J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:124. Holo- 
type Cf 



68 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Erythroneura albiquera Hepner 1967 
Entomol. News 78:62. Holotype a 

Erythroneura alevra Ross 1956 Entomol. 
News 67:89. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura alicta Ross 1957 Entomol. 
News 68:185. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura alloplana Ross 1956 En- 
tomol. News 67:88. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura alveyi Hepner 1972 Fla. 
Entomol. 55:269. Holotype CT 

Erythroneura amboyensis Hepner 1972 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 45:431. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura amethica Ross 1957 En- 
tomol. News 68:186. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura ampaiae Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:314. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura ampasa Ross & DeLong 
1953 Ohio J. Sci. 53:86. Holotype CT 

Erythroneura andrewsi Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:121. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura anseri Hepner 1966 Fla. 
Entomol. 49:103. Holotype a 

Erythroneura arenosa Ross & DeLong 
1950 Ohio J. Sci. 50:295. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura arneri Hepner 1969 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 42:130. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura arpegia Ross 1957 En- 
tomol. News 68:188. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura asymmetra Hepner 1973 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 46:186. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura atkinsoni Hepner 1972 Fla. 
Entomol. 55:270. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura tamper?' Hepner 1972 Fla. 
Entomol. 55:271. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura barbarae Hepner 1978 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:134. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura barnesae Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:313. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura beckiae Hepner 1978 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:131. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura beeri Hepner 1972 Fla. 
Entomol. 55:272. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura beUndae Hepner 1976 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 49:207. Holo- 
type c 

Erythroneura benedicti Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:124. Holo- 
type cr 



Erythroneura bicurvata Hepner 1973 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 46:184. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura billi Hepner 1966 J. Kans. 
Entomol. Soc. 39:88. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura blockeri Hepner 1967 En- 
tomol. News 78:72. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura boniorum Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:125. Holotype Cf 

Erythroneura bowmanorum Hepner 1977 
J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 12:362. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura brazzeli Hepner 1966 Fla. 
Entomol. 49:106. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura brendae Hepner 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:21. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura brooki Hepner 1969 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 42:126. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura brucensis Hepner 1975 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 48:6. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura brundusoides Hepner 1976 
J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:315. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura byersi Hepner 1972 Fla. 
Entomol. 55:271. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura caddoensis Hepner 1966 
Fla. Entomol. 49:100. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura callisoga Ross 1956 En- 
tomol. News 67:86. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura camirei Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:119. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura carmiensis Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:316. Holotype CT 

Erythroneura caryaglabrae Hepner 1977 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 50:250. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura cautoides Hepner 1977 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 12:363. Holot^-pe cr 

Erythroneura caverna Hepner 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:23. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura cavipierra Hepner 1967 
Entomol. News 78:64. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura cera Hepner 1966 Fla. 
Entomol. 49:105. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura chambersi Hepner 1976 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 49:208. Holo- 
type C 



I 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



69 



Erythroneura chandleri HepncT 1976 Fla. 

Entomol. 59:296. HolotypeO- 
Erythroneura chehawensis Hepner 1966 

Fla. Entomol. 49:100. Holotype O" 
Erythroneura citrosa Ross 1956 Entomol. 

News 67:86. Holotype O" 
Erythroneura claroides Hepner 1967 J. 

Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:17. Holo- 
type cr 
Erythroneura clarysae Hepner 1976 Fla. 

Entomol. 59:299. Holotype cr 
Erythroneura clavatoides Hepner 1978 J. 

Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:131. Holo- 
type O" 
Erythroneura cliff ordi Hepner 1976 Fla. 

Entomol. 59:293. Holotype O" 
Erythroneura cliftoni Hepner 1977 J. 

Ga. Entomol. Soc. 12:363. Holotype O- 
Erythroneura clydei Hepner 1977 J. Ga. 

Entomol. Soc. 12:363. Holotype O" 
Erythroneura codyi Hepner 1966 Fla. 

Entomol. 49:101. Holotype CT 
Erythroneura coleyi Hepner 1977 J. 

Kans. Entomol. Soc. 50:254. Holo- 
type O" 
Erythroneura collinst Hepner 1977 J. 

Ga. Entomol. Soc. 12:364. Holotype O" 
Erythroneura colmert Hepner 1969 J. 

Kans. Entomol. Soc. 42:132. Holo- 
type O" 
Erythroneura colvardi Hepner 1966 Fla. 

Entomol. 49:95. Holotype CT 
Erythroneura combesi Hepner 1972 Fla. 

Entomol. 55:267. Holotype cr 
Erythroneura comes palimpsesta McAtee 

1924 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

15:43. Holotype O- 
Erythroneura comes pontifex McAtee 

1926 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

16:136. Holotype 9 
Erythroneura comes rufomaculata 

McAtee 1924 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. 

Surv. 15:43. Holotype 9 
Erythroneura comoides Ross & DeLong 

1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:90. Holotype CT 
Erythroneura cooni Hepner 1976 J. Ga. 

Entomol. Soc. 11:121. Holotype cr 
Erythroneura coxi Ross & DeLong 1950 

OhioJ. Sci. 50:295. Holotype Cf 
Erythroneura croiij Hepner 1976 J. Kans. 

Entomol. Soc. 49:211. Holotype cr 
Erythroneura cuneatoides Hepner 1977 

J . Ga . Entomol . Soc . 1 2 : 364 . Holotype O" 



Erythroneura cunninghami Hepner 1966 
J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 1:3. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura curtaega Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:313. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura curtoides Hepner 1972 
Fla. Entomol. 55:272. Holotype CT 

Erythroneura custeri Hepner 1966 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:89. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura daltonorum Hepner 1966 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:81. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura davichi Hepner 1977 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 50:248. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura deformata Hepner 1966 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:85. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura deklei Hepner 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:20. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura denmarki Hepner 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:20. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura dianae Hepner 1976J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 49:205. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura doeringae Hepner 1975 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 48:7. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura dorisae Hepner 1976 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 49:204. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura douglasi Hepner 1967 En- 
tomol. News 78:60. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura dunni Hepner 1976 Fla. 
Entomol. 59:295. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura econa Ross 1957 Entomol. 
News 68:184. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura edeni Hepner 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:20. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura edgari Hepner 1976 Fla. 
Entomol. 59:300. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura ellisi Hepner 1969 J. Kans. 
Entomol. Soc. 42:129. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura emquu Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:88. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura enatoides Hepner 1977 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 12:365. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura enfieldensis Hepner 1976 
J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:126. Holo- 
type c 



70 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Erythroneura eversi Ross & DeLong 1953 
OhioJ. Sci. 53:88. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura extimoides Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Sec. 11:314. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura fagiphylla Hepner 1977 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 50:254. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura fagusae Hepner 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:22. Holo- 
type C 

Erythroneura fergersoni Hepner 1969 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 42:130. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura ferrosa Hepner 1966 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:83. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura florida Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:82. Holotype CT 

Erythroneura floridoides Hepner 1978 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:133. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura frazieri Hepner 1976 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 49:210. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura fretoides Hepner 1977 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 12:364. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura freytagi Hepner 1966 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:83. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura frisoni Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:80. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura fulleri Hepner 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:19. Holo- 
type cc 

Erythroneura fultonae Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:314. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura garretsoni Hepner 1976 
Fla. Entomol. 59:295. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura gemoides Ross 1953 Trans. 
111. State Acad. Sci. 46:190. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura gilesi Hepner 1966 Fla. 
Entomol. 49:97. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura gladysae Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:315. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura glicitla Ross 1956 Entomol. 
News 67:86. Holotype Cf 

Erythroneura greeni Hepner 1969 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 42:127. Holo- 
type C 

Erythroneura guicei Hepner 1972 Fla. 
Entomol. 55:269. Holotype cr 



Erythroneura hamiltonia Hepner 1977 
Fla. Entomol. 60:52. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura hamlinorum Hepner 1977 
J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 12:362. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura hamneri Hepner 1969 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 42:127. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura harei Hepner 1977 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 50:255. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura /larneii?' Hepner 1966 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 1:5. Holotype Cf 

Erythroneura harpola Ross 1956 En- 
tomol. News 67:85. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura /larrz'iz' Hepner 1976 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 49:210. Holo- 
type c 

Erythroneura haspata Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:85. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura havana Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:90. Holotype Cf 

Erythroneura haysensis Hepner 1966 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:79. Holo- 
type C 

Erythroneura /lenderion? Hepner 1967 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:21. Holo- 
type C 

Erythroneura herberti Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:312. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura hibernia Hepner 1966 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:83. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura hildae Hepner 1977 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 12:362. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura hormchunae Hepner 1976 
J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:120. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura hutchinsi We^pnex 1966 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 1:2. Holotvpe O" 

Erythroneura igella Ross & DeLong 1950 
OhioJ. Sci. 50:295. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura ilexae Hepner 1976 J. Ga. 
Entomol. Soc. 11:315. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura ili'cis Ross 1953 Trans. 
111. State Acad. Sci. 46:189. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura imbricariae Ross & De- 
Long 1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:86. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura isei Hepner 1977 Fla. En- 
tomol. 60:54. Holotype O" 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



71 



Erythroneura ivae Hepner 1976 Fla. 
Entomol. 59:297, Holotype O" 

Erythroneura ivani Hepner 1976 J. Ga. 
Emtomol. Soc. 11:312. Holotype C 

Erythroneura jeanae Hepner 1976 J. 
kans. Entomol. Soc. 49:205. Holo- 
typeO" 

Erythroneura joanneae Hepner 1978 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:133. Holo- 
typeO" 

Erythroneura johnsoni Hepner 1972 J. 
kans. Entomol. Soc. 45:432. Holo- 
typeO" 

Erythroneura jonesi Hepner 1976 Fla. 
Entomol. 59:294. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura juglandacea Ross & De- 
Long 1953 Ohio J. Sci. 53:78. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura kanensis Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:314. Holotype C 

Erythroneura kennethi Hepner 1976 
Fla. Entomol. 59:298. Holotype O- 

Erythroneura kingstoniensis Hepner 
1976 J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:124. 
Holotype cr 

Erythroneura kirki Hepner 1967 En- 
tomol. News 78:64. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura knullae Ross 1953 Trans. 
111. State Acad. Sci. 46:192. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura krameri Hepner 1967 
Entomol. News 78:67. Holotype CT 

Erythroneura kuiterti Hepner 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:17. Holotype Cf 

Erythroneura lamucata Ross & DeLong 
1953 Ohio J. Sci. 53:88. Holotype Cf 

Erythroneura larryi Hepner 1966 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:89. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura /a5ferz' Hepner 1977 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 50:248. Holo- 
type cy 

Erythroneura lauriphylla Hepner 1978 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:134. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura leforsorum Hepner 1977 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 12:360. Holotype O- 

Erythroneura leucophylla Hepner 1977 
Fla. Entomol. 60:55. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura levee ki Hepner 1966 Fla. 
Entomol. 49:99. Holotype O* 

Erythroneura lianae Hepner 1976 J. Ga. 
Entomol. Soc. 11:125. Holotype cr 



Erythroneura ligata pupillata McAtee 
1924 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 
15:42. Holotype O- 

Erythroneura lillianae Hepner 1966 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:89. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura lindleyi Hepner 1976 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 49:207. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura lloydiHe^ner 1977J. Kans. 
Entomol. Soc. 50:253. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura loisae Hepner 1978 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:138. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura longifurca Hepner 1966 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 1:3. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura loriae Hepner 1967 En- 
tomol. News 78:70. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura lucileae Hepner 1976 Fla. 
Entomol. 59:299. Holotype CT 

Erythroneura lucora Hepner 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:24. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura lucyae Hepner 1966 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:81. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura lunata McAtee 1924 Bull. 
Ill, State Nat. Hist. Surv. 15:41. 
Holotype C 

Erythroneura lundi Hepner 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:22. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura lyratae Ross & DeLong 
1953 0hioJ. Sci, 53:83. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura lyratiphylla Hepner 1977 
Fla. Entomol. 60:55. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura lyriquera Hepner 1967 
Entomol. News 78:61. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura mallochi McAtee 1924 
Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 15:41. 
Holotype O" 

Erythroneura marilandicae Ross 1957 
Entomol. News 68:183. Holotype O- 

Erythroneura mariquera Hepner 1973 
j. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 46:186. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura martini Wc-pnev 1976 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 49:207. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura maryae Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:313. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura maxife//e' Hepner 1972 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 7:218. Holotype a 



72 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Erythroneura mccomasi Hepner 1978 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:138. Holo- 
typeO" 

Erythroneura meadt Hepner 1966 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:79. Holo- 
typecr 

Erythroneura meridiana Hepner 1977 
Fla. Entomol. 60:53. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura merkli Hepner 1977 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 50:253. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura metopia Ross 1957 En- 
tomol. News 68:185. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura micheneri Hepner 1972 
Fla. Entomol. 55:271. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura millsi Ross & DeLong 1950 
Ohio J. Sci. 50:291. Holotype CT 

Erythroneura mimica Ross 1957 En- 
tomol. News 68:190. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura mitella McAtee 1926 Bull. 
111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 16:132. 
Holotype O" 

Erythroneura mitlini Wepr\er 1977 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 50:250. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura morelandi Hepner 1976 
J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:316. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura morrisi Hepner 1977 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 50:251. Holo- 
type C 

Erythroneura natchezensis Hepner 1967 
Entomol. News 78:70. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura navoides Hepner 1977 
Fla. Entomol. 60:50. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura nebekeri Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:120. Holotype O" 

■Erythroneura neeli Hepner 1976J. 
Ga . Entomol . Soc . 11:121 Holotype cr 

Erythroneura newtonensis Hepner 1978J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:133. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythoneura nielsoni Hepner 1967 
Entomol. News 78:62. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura nigriphylla Hepner 1977 
Fla. Entomol. 60:54. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura nigriquera Hepner 1967 
Entomol. News 78:60. Holotype C 

Erythroneura noevoides Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:83. Holotype O- 

Erythroneura norica Ross 1956 Entomol. 
News 67:88. Holotype O" 



Erythroneura normanti Hepner 1976 
J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:120. Holo- 
type c 

Erythroneura oculata McAtee 1924 
Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 15:39. 
Holotype 9 

Erythroneura odettae Hepner 1977 J. Ga. 
Entomol. Soc. 12:362. Holotype cy 

Erythroneura ostryae Hepner 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:23. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura pagodifoliae Hepner 1977 
Fla. Entomol. 60:52. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura paigeae Hepner 1976 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 49:208. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura paluloides Ross 1953 
trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 46:189. 
Holotype O" 

Erythroneura pamelae Hepner 1967 
Entomol. News. 78:67. Holotype CT 

Erythroneura paramera Hepner 1978 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:137. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura parisensis Hepner 1972 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 45:431. Holo- 
type CT 

Erythroneura parrot ti Hepner 1977 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 50:251. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura parsonsi Hepner 1976 Fla. 
Entomol. 59:295. Holotype a 

Erythroneura pate! Hepner 1967J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:19. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura patriciae Hepner 1966 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:88. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura patricki Hepner 1976 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 49:208. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura patris Ross & DeLong 1953 
Ohio J. Sci. 53:89. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura paulae Hepner 1966J. 
kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:81. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura pecanae Hepner 1976 
Fla. Entomol. 59:297. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura penetura Hepner 1978 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:135. 
Holotype O" 

Erythroneura pfrimmeri Hepner 1977 
Fla. Entomol. 60:49. Holotype CT 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



7S 



Erythroneura phelliphylla Hepner 1977 
Fla. Entomol. 60:54. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura phellos Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:90. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura ptetersi Hepner 1978 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:137. Holo- 
type C 

Erythroneura pttrei Hepner 1973 J. Kans. 
Entomol. Soc. 46:184. Holotype O- 

Erythroneura priniquera Hepner 1967 
Entomol. News 78:68. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura protuma Ross 1957 
Entomol. News 68:188. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura pumicasta Hepner 1967 
Entomol. News 78:72. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura quadratoides Hepner 1977 
Fla. Entomol. 60:51. Holotype C 

Erythroneura quercalbae Ross & DeLong 
1950 OhioJ. Sci. 50:294. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura rangifer Ross & DeLong 
1950 OhioJ. Sci. 50:292. Holotype o- 

Erythroneura ratcliffensis Hepner 1966 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:85. Holo- 
type o" 

Erythroneura reedi Hepner 1967 En- 
tomol. News 78:61. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura reiteri Hepner 1966 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:87. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura repettta McAtee 1926 Bull. 
111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 16:131. 
Holotype 9 

Erythroneura rhodedendronae Hepner 
1978 J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:134. 
Holotype O" 

Erythroneura richardsi Ross 1953 Trans. 
111. State Acad. Sci. 46:189. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura robinsoni Hepner 1966 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:89. Holo- 
type CT 

Erythroneura rolandt Hepner 1977 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 12:364. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura rosenkranzi Hepner 1977 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 50:254. Holo- 
type cr 
I Erythroneura roi5?' Hepner 1966 J. Kans. 
Entomol. Soc. 39:85. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura rubiphylla Hepner 1977 

Fla. Entomol. 60:52. Holotype cr 
Erythroneura rubrarta Hepner 1967 
Entomol. News 78:66. Holotype cr 



Erythroneura rubulna Hepner 1972 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 45:433. Holo- 
type cy 

Erythroneura rugosae Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:80. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura sadleri Hepner 1969 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 42:132. Holo- 
type cy 

Erythroneura saileri Hepner 1977 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 50:253. Holo- 
type C 

Erythroneura salmoides Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:83. Holotype Cf 

Erythroneura sanctaerosae Hepner 1967 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:24. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura sandersoni Ross 1956 En- 
tomol. News 67:90. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura schusteri Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:120. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura scobyensts Hepner 1966 
Fla. Entomol. 49:97. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura scutelleris insolita McAtee 
1926 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

16:133. Holotype 9 

Erythroneura sehringensis Hepner 1966 
Fla. Entomol. 49:97. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura sethi Hepner 1966 Fla. En- 
tomol. 49:100. Holotype. or 

Erythroneura sexpunctata Malloch 1921 
Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 16:25. 
Holotype O" 

Erythroneura shanklandi Hepner 1978 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:137. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura shumiquera Hepner 1972 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 45:431. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura sikorowskii Hepner 1976 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 49:210. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura siloamensis Hepner 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:22. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura similalis Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:82. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura smithi Ross 1956 En- 
tomol. News 67:90. Holo- 
type or 

Erythroneura solomoni Hepner 1977 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc, 50:251. Holo- 
type cr 



74 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Erythroneura sorota Hepner 1975 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 48:5. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura spala Ross & DeLong 1950 
OhioJ. Sci. 50:294. Holotype o- 

Erythroneura spatulata Ross 1956 En- 
tomol. News 67:88. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura sptniterma Hepner 1969 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 42:133. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura staffordi Hepner 1966 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 1:3. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura stannardi Hepner 1967 
Entomol. News 78:66. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura starkvillensis Hepner 1966 
Fla. Entomol. 49:103. Holotype O- 

Erythroneura stoveri Ross & DeLong 
1950 OhioJ. Sci. 50:296. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura styraxae Hepner 1976 Fla. 
Entomol. 59:300. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura tammina Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:86. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura tenilla Ross & DeLong 
1950 OhioJ. Sci. 50:294. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura teshi Hepner 1972 Fla. 
Entomol. 55:269. Holotype C 

Erythroneura tietzi Ross & DeLong 1953 
OhioJ. Sci. 53:85. Holotype a 

Erythroneura tomaneki Hepner 1977 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 12:359. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura tomentosae Hepner 1976 
Fla. Entomol. 59:297. Holotype o- 

Erythroneura tridenoides Hepner 1976 
J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:312. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura tura Ross & DeLong 1953 
OhioJ. Sci. 53:84. Holotype CT 

Erythroneura turoides Hepner 1978 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:135. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura ulmalatae Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:80. Holotype Cf 

Erythroneura ulmarubrae Hepner 1976 
J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:313. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura ulmosa Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:78. Holotype O- 

Erythroneura uniforma Hepner 1976 J. 
Ga. Entomol. Soc. 11:315. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura vartyi Hepner 1977 Fla. 
Entomol. 60:51. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura velox Ross 1953 Trans. 
111. State Acad. Sci. 46:190. Holo- 
type cr 



Erythroneura velutinae Hepner 1977 Fla. 
Entomol. 60:51. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura verae Hepner 1978J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51:138. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura verdana Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:81. Holotype C7 

Erythroneura vierii Hepner 1976 J. Ga. 
Entomol. Soc. 11:125. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura fmjonz' Hepner 1969 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 42:129. Holo- 
type CT 

Erythroneura vulgaris Hepner 1975 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 48:4. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura wandae Hepner 1976 Fla. 
Entomol. 59:299. Holotype a 

Erythroneura weemsi Hepner 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:19. Holo- 
type O" 

Erythroneura whitcombi Hepner 1975 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 48:6. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura whittt Hepner 1976 J. Ga. 
Entomol. Soc. 11:123. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura wilsont Hepner 1966 Fla. 
Entomol. 49:106. Holotype O" 

Erythroneura winslowensis Hepner 1966 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:85. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura luiseiHepner 1966 Fla. En- 
tomol. 49:97. Holotype C 

Erythroneura wiyguli Hepner 1966 Fla. 
Entomol. 49:103. Holotype CT 

Erythroneura wolcottensis Hepner 1973 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 46:185. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura woodruff! Hepner 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:23. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura wysongi Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:84. Holotype cr 

Erythroneura youngi Hepner 1966 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:87. Holo- 
type cr 

Erythroneura zephyr Ross & DeLong 
1953 OhioJ. Sci. 53:84. Holotype cr 

Forcipata ancantha DeLong & Caldwell 
1936 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:73. 
Holotype or 

Ossianniissonia rossi Christian 1953 Univ. 
Kans. Sci. Bull. 35:1153. Holotype cr 

Typhlocyba antigone McAtee 1926 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 68(18):35. Holo- 
type cr 



fl 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



75 



Typhlocyba appendiculata Malloch 1920 

Can. Entomol. 52:95. HolotypeO" 
Typhlocyba athene McAtee 1926 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 68(18):31. Holo- 

typecr 
Typhlocyba escana Ross & DeLong 1949 

Ohio J. Sci. 49:118. HolotypeO" 
Typhlocyba nicarete McAtee 1926 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 68(18):36. Holo- 

typecr 
Typhlocyba phryne McAtee 1926 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 68(18):34. Holo- 

type9 
Typhlocyba piscator McAtee 1926 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 68(18):7. HolotypeO- 
Typhlocyba rubriocellata Malloch 1920 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 15:48. 

Holotype 9 
Typhlocyba rubriocellata clara McAtee 

1926 Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 68(18):21. 

Holotype 9 
Typhlocyba sollisa Ross & DeLong 1949 

Ohio J. Sci. 49:116. HolotypeO" 
Typhlocyba tortosa Ross & DeLong 

1 949 Ohio J . Sci . 49 : 1 1 5 . Holotype O" 
Typhlocyba troza Ross & DeLong 1949 

Ohio J. Sci. 49:117. HolotypeO- 

Coccidae 

Aspidiotus ae5cu/z' Johnson 1896 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 4:386. 

Syntypes 5 
Aspidiotus comstocki ]oh.nsoT]. 1896 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 4:383. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:157) 
Aspidiotus forbesi ]ohnion 1896 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 4:380. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:157) 
Aspidiotus hartii Cockerell 1895 Psyche 

7(Suppl. 1):7. Syntypes 5 
Aspidiotus piceus Sanders 1904 Ohio 

Nat. 4:96. Syntypes many 
Aspidiotus u/me Johnson 1896 Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist. 4:388. Lecto- 
type 9 designated by Prison (1927:158) 
Chionaspis americana Johnson 1896 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 4:390. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:158) 
Chionaspis gleditsiae Sanders 1903 Ohio 

Nat. 3:413. Syntypes many 



Coccus sorghiellus Forbes 1885 Rep. 

State Entomol. 111. 14:71. Syntypes 12 
Coccus trifolii Forbes 1885 Rep. State 

Entomol. 111. 14:72. Syntypes 3 

Euscellidae 

Auridius xanthus Hamilton & Ross 1972 

J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 7:139. Holo- 
typeO" 
Chlorotettix brevidus DeLong 1937 

Entomol. News 48:52. HolotypeO" 
Chlorotettix filamenta DeLong 1937 

Entomol. News 48:53. Holotype O" 
Chlorotettix obsenus DeLong 1937 

Entomol. News 48:52. Holotype CT 
Chlorotettix serratus DeLong 1937 

Entomol. News 48:54. Holotype O" 
Cicadula nigrifrons Forbes 1885 Rep. 

State Entomol. 111. 14:67. Lectotype O" 

designated by Prison (1927:149) 
Cicadula quadrilineatus Forbes 1885 

Rep. State Entomol. 111. 14:68. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:149) 
Cloanthanus atratus DeLong 1945 Ohio 

J. Sci. 45:27. HolotypeO" 
Cloanthanus hastus DeLong 1945 Ohio J. 

Sci. 45:24. HolotypeO" 
Cloanthanus triangularis DeLong 1945 

Ohio J. Sci. 45:27. HolotypeO" 
Cloanthanus varius DeLong 1945 Ohio 

J. Sci. 45:26. HolotypeO" 
Diplocolenus aquilonius Ross & Hamilton 

1970 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63:330. 

Holotype O" 
Diplocolenus brevior Ross & Hamilton 

1970 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63:330. 

Holotype O" 
Flexamia delongi Ross & Cooley 1969 

Entomol. News 80:246. HolotypeO" 
Flexamia prairiana DeLong 1937 Pan- 

Pac. Entomol. 13:32. HolotypeO" 
Flexamia rubranura DeLong 1935 Ann. 

Entomol, Soc. Am. 28:154. Holo- 
typeO" 
Graminella oquaka DeLong 1937 

Entomol. News 48:51. HolotypeO" 
Hebecephalus beameri Hamilton & Ross 

1972 J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 7:136. 

Holotype O" 
Hebecephalus circus Hamilton & Ross 

1972 J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 7:133. 

Holotype O" 



I 



76 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Hebecephalus filamentus Hamilton & 

Ross 1972 J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 7:135. 

Holotype O" 
Laevicephalus harrisi Ross & Hamilton 

1972 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 65:939. 

Holotype O" 
Laevicephalus opalinus Ross & Hamilton 

1972 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 65:940. 

Holotype C 
Laevicephalus peronatus Ross & Hamil- 
ton 1972 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 

65:933. Holotype O" 
Laevicephalus pravus DeLong 1937 

Pan-Pac. Entomol. 13:34. Holotype CT 
Latalus draculus Ross & Hamilton 1972 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 84:442. 

Holotype O" 
Latalus intermedius Ross & Hamilton 

1972 Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 84:439. 

Holotype O" 
Macrosteles jussiaeae Moore & Ross 1957 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 50:112. 

Holotype c? 
Macrosteles urticae Moore & Ross 1957 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 50:114. 

Holotype cr 
Macuellus caprillus Ross & Hamilton 

1970 J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 43:175. 

Holotype C 
Macuellus strictus Ross & Hamilton 1970 

J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 43:174. Holo- 
type O" 
Orocastus (Cabrulus) pinnipenis Ross 

& Hamilton 1972 Proc. Biol. Soc. 

Wash. 84:443. Holotype O" 
Paraphlepsius brunneus ravus Hamilton 

1975 Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 96:43. 

Holotype cr 
Paraphlepsius lupalus Hamilton 1975 

Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 96:47. 

Holotype O" 
Paraphlepsius umbellatus Hamilton 1975 

Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 96:73. 

Holotype O" 
Polyamia herbida DeLong 1935 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 28:155. Holotype O" 
Polyamia saxosa DeLong 1935 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 28:156. Holotype O" 
Psammotetix viridinervis Ross & Hamil- 
ton 1972 Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 
84:443. Holotype cr 
Scaphoideus chelus DeLong & Berry 1936 

OhioJ. Sci. 36:339. Holotype CT 



Scaphoideus curvatus DeLong & Mohr 
1936 Am. Midi. Nat. 17:967. Holo- 
type cr 

Scaphoideus nigrellus DeLong & Mohr 
1936 Am. Midi. Nat. 17:973. Holo- 
type cr 

Scaphoideus radix DeLong & Mohr 1936 
Am. Midi. Nat. 17:969. Holotype cr 

Fulgoridae 

Bruchomorpha bicolor Metcalf 1923 J. 

Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38:186. 

Holotype cr 
Bruchomorpha decorata Metcalf 1923 

J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38:188. 

Holotype cr 
Bruchomorpha vittata Metcalf 1923 J. 

Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38:185. 

Holotype 9 
Euklastus harti Metcalf 1923 J. Elisha 

Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38:195. Holotype cr 
Herpis australis Metcalf 1923 J. Elisha 

Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38:196. Holotype O" 
Liburnia fulvidorsum Metcalf 1923 J. 

Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38:200. Holo- 
type cr 
Megamelanus lautus Metcalf 1923 J. 

Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38:200. 

Holotype O" 
Microledrida flava Metcalf 1923 J. Elisha 

Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38:183. Holotype cr 
Myndus truncatus Metcalf 1923 J. Elisha 

Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38:184. Holotype O- 
Oecleus productus Metcalf 1923 J. Elisha 

Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38:184. Holotype cr 
Oliarus texanus Metcalf 1923 J. Elisha 

Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38:181. Holotype cr 
Oliarus vittatus Metcalf 1923 J. Elisha 

Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38:181. Holotype cr 
Otiocerus wolfii nubilus McAtee 1926 

Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 16:128. 

Holotype 9 
Pissonotus fulvus Metcalf 1923 J. Elisha 

Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38:206. Holotype cr 

Gyponidae 

Gypona albimarginata Woodworth 1887 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:31. 

Holotype cr 
Gypona bimaculata Woodworth 1887 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:32. 

Holotype cr 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



77 



Gypona bipunctulata Woodworth 1887 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:30. 
Holotype 9 

Gypona nigra Woodworth 1887 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:31. Lecto- 
type O" designated by Prison (1927:151) 

Idioceridae 

Idiocerus apache juniperus DeLong & 
Hershberger 1947 Ohio J. Sci. 47:46. 
Holotype O" 

Idiocerus hebetus DeLong & Hersh- 
berger 1947 Ohio J. Sci. 47:48. Holo- 
type cr 

Idiocerus incomptus DeLong & Hersh- 
berger 1947 Ohio J. Sci. 47:45. Holo- 
type cy 

Idiocerus rossi Freytag 1965 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 91:405. Holotype Cf 

Idiocerus snowi raphus Freytag 1965 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 91:384. 
Holotype cr 

Idiocerus telus DeLong & Hersh- 
berger 1947 Ohio J. Sci. 47:45. 
Holotype cr 

Membracidae 

Telamona irrorata Coding 1894 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:418. 
Syntype Icr 

Psyllidae 

Trioza pyrifoliae Forbes 1885 Rep. 
State Entomol. 111. 14:98. Lectotype O- 
designated by Frison (1927:154) 

Tettigoniellidae 

Calophya pallidula McAtee 1926 Bull. 
111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 16:127. 
Holotype 9 

Tettigonia hartii Ball 1901 Proc. Iowa 
Acad. Sci. 8:61. Syntypes ICT, 19 

Tettigonia similis Woodworth 1887 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:25. Holo- 
type 9 

CORRODENTIA 

Caeciliidae 

Caecilius manteri Sommerman 1943 
Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 45:29. 
Holotype 9 



THYSANOPTERA 

See Gerdes 1977. 

NEUROPTERA 

Ckjniopterygidae 

Coniopteryx (Scotoconiopteryx) cypho- 
dera Johnson 1978 Ann. Entomol. Soc. 
Am. 71 : 163. Holotype O- 

Sialidae 

Sialis cornuta Ross 1937 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:69. Holotype O" 
Sialis glabella Ross 1937 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:71. Holotype cr 
Sialis hamata Ross 1937 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:70. Holotype cr 
Sialis hasta Ross 1937 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. 

Bull. 21:74. Holotype cr 
Sialis iola Ross 1937 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. 

Bull. 21:68. Holotype O- 
Sialis itasca Ross 1937 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:72. Holotype cr 
Sialis joppa Ross 1937 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:67. Holotype o- 
Sialis mohri Ross 1937 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:74. Holotype cr 
Sialis vagans Ross 1937 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:76. Holotype cr 
Sialis velata Ross 1937 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:71 Holotype O" 

Sisyridae 

Climacia tenebra Parfin & Gurney 
1956 Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 105:501. 
Holotype 9 

COLEOPTERA 

Alleculidae 

Lobopoda bicolor Campbell 1966 111. 

Biol. Monogr. 37:28. Holotype O" 
Lobopoda flavifemoralis Campbell 1966 

111. Biol. Monogr. 37:29. Holotype 9 
Lobopoda haitensis Campbell 1966 111. 

Biol. Monogr. 37:158. Holotype 9 

Cantharidae 

Malthinis georgiensis Fender 1966 
Pan-Pac. Entomol. 42:219. Holo- 
type cr 

Malthodes frisoni Fender 1946 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 22:142. Holotype O" 



78 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Malthodes sandersoni Fender 1951 Am. 
Midi. Nat. 46:300. Holotype CT 

Malthodes whittakeri Fender 1951 Am. 
Midi. Nat. 46:550. Holotype cr 

Trypherus frisoni Fender 1960 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 36:110. Holotype O" 

Trypherus pauperculus Fender 1960 
Pan-Pac. Entomol. 36:106. Holo- 
type C 

Carabidae 

Rhadine ozarkensis Sanderson & Miller 
1941 Arkansas Acad. Sci. Proc. 1:39. 
Holotype cr 

Catopidae 

Ptomaphagus (Adelops) shapardi Sander- 
son 1939 J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 
12:121. Holotype cr 

Cerambycidae 

Cyrtinus sandersoni H. Howden 1959 
Can. Entomol. 91:374. Holotype 9 

Chrysomelidae 

Chalepus hebalus Sanderson 1951 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 53:160. Holo- 
type cr 

Demotispa coeruleata Sanderson 1967 
Caribb.J. Sci. 7:137. Holotype O" 

Donacia curticollis Knab 1905 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 7:122. Lecto- 
type 9 designated by Frison (1927:160) 

Sceloenopla mantecada Sanderson 1967 
Caribb.J. Sci. 7:135. Holotype CT 

Xenochalepus mundulus Sanderson 1951 
Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 53:162. 
Holotype O" 

Cicindelidae 

Cicindela illinoensis Mares 1921 
Entomol. News 32:310. Holotype O" 

Cicindela repanda hoosieri Mares 1921 
Entomol. News 32:310. Holotype 9 

Cleridae 

Priocera lecontei Wolcott 1910 Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. Zool. Ser. 7:356. 
Holotype (sex undetermined) 

Coccinellidae 

Hyperaspis congeminala Watson 1969 
Mich. Entomol. 1:368. Holotype O" 



Curculionidae 

Apion agraticum Kissinger 1974 Apioni- 

nae Occurring in the West Indies p. 28. 

Holotype C 
Apion analomum Kissinger 1974 Apioni- 

nae Occurring in the West Indies p. 6. 

Holotype Cf 
Apion chermum Kissinger 1974 Apioni- 

nae Occurring in the West Indies p. 25. 

Holotype 9 
Apion chreum Kissinger 1974 Apioninae 

Occurring in the West Indies p. 16. 

Holotype 9 
Apion latrum Kissinger 1974 Apioninae 

Occurring in the West Indies p. 9. 

Holotype o" 
Apion naulum Kissinger 1974 Apioni- 
nae Occurring in the West Indies p. 10. 

Holotype O" 
Apion nesium Kissinger 1974 Apioninae 

Occurring in the West Indies p. 11. 

Holotype O" 
Apion sandersoni Kissinger 1974 Apioni- 
nae Occurring in the West Indies p. 26. 

Holotype O" 
Apion Iributum Kissinger 1974 

Apioninae Occurring in the West 

Indies p. 29. Holotype 9 
Apion valentinei Kissinger 1974 

Apioninae Occurring in the West 

Indies p. 23. Holotype Cf 
Caecossonus dentipes Gilbert 1955 Pan- 
Pac. Entomol. 31:195. Holotype C 
Conotrachelus anaglypticus Say 1831 

Descriptions of North American Cur- 

culionides p. 18. Neotype cr designated 

by Schoof (1942:123) 
Conotrachelus hayesi Schoof 1942 111. 

Biol. Monogr. 19:85. Holotype cr 
Conotrachelus hicoriae Schoof 1942 111. 

Biol. Monogr. 19:69. Holotype Cf 
Cosmobaris sionilli Hayes 1936 J. Kans. 

Entomol. Soc. 9:28. Holotype CT 
Cosmobaris squamiger Hayes 1936 J. 

Kans. Entomol. Soc. 9:27. Holotype cr 
Lixus albisetiger Chittenden 1930 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 77(I8):2. Holotype 9 

Lixus elephantulus Chittenden 1930 
Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 77(18):24. 
Holotype 9 

Onychylis secundus Burke 1961 Coleopt. 
Bull. 15:4. Holotype cr 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



79 



Sphenophorus minimus Hart 1890 Rep. 
State Entomol. 111. 16:65. Lectotype 
9 designated by Prison (1927:160) 

Elateridae 

Agriotes sagittus Becker 1956 Can. 

Entomol. 88 (Suppl. 1):79. Holo- 

type cr 

Ctenicera lanei Becker 1949 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 42:187. Holo- 

type C 
Denticollis quadrosa Becker 1952 Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 54:108. Holo- 

typeO" 

Elmidae 

Cylloepus parkeri Sanderson 1953 

Coleopt. Bull. 7:38. HolotypeO- 
Stenelmis antennalis Sanderson 1938 

Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 25:695. Holo- 

type cr 
Stenelmis convexula Sanderson 1938 

Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 25:704. Holo- 

typecy 
Stenelmis knobeli Sanderson 1938 Univ. 

Kans. Sci. Bull. 25:677. HolotypeO" 
Stenelmis parva Sanderson 1938 Univ. 

Kans. Sci. Bui. 25:688. HolotypeO" 

Haliplidae 

Haliplus (Haliplus) allisonae Brigham 

1977 Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 

79:254. HolotypeO" 
Haliplus (Liaphlus) tortilipenis Brigham 

& Sanderson 1972 Trans. 111. State 

Acad. Sci. 65:18. HolotypeO" 
Hdliplus (Paraliaphlus) variom.aculatus 

Brigham & Sanderson 1973 Coleopt. 

Bull. 27:137. HolotypeO" 

Heteroceridae 

Neoheterocerus pallidus Say 1823 
J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 3:199. Neo- 
type O" designated by Pacheco (1964:65) 

Neoheterocerus sandersoni Pacheco 1964 
Esc. Nac. Agric. Chapingo Monogr. 
1:58. HolotypeO" 

Hydrophilidac 

Cymbiodyta beckeri picta Smetana 1974 
Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 93:55. 
Holotype O" 



Limnichidae 

(See also Addendum, page 133.) 
Physemus excavatus Wooldridge 1976 
Coleopt. Bull. 30:182. HolotypeO" 

Meloidae 

Linsleya compressicornis neglecta 
Selander 1955 Am. Mus. Novit. 
1730:22. HolotypeO" 

Nemognatha selloa Selander 1957 
Coleopt. Bull. 11:25. HolotypeO" 

Mordellidae 

Mordella longipalpis Ray 1946 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 22:121. Holotype (sex un- 
determined) 

Mordellistena bifasciata Ray 1936 Can. 
Entomol. 68:125. HolotypeO" 

Mordellistena lateralis Ray 1946 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 22:95. Holotype 9 

Mordellistena mixta Ray 1946 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 22:97. Holotype 9 

Pselaphidae 

Actium concavum Becker & Sanderson 

1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 46:416. 

Holotype O" 
Apharus punctatus Becker & Sanderson 

1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 46:459. 

Holotype O" 
A rianops sandersoni Barr 1971 Bull. Am. 

Mus. Nat. Hist. 154:21. Holotype 9 
Arthmius corradus Becker & Sanderson 

1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 46:456. 

Holotype O" 
Arthmius torcerus Becker & Sanderson 

1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 

46:455. HolotypeO" 
Batrisodes cartwrighti Sanderson 1 940 En- 
tomol. News 51:169. HolotypeO" 
Batrisodes curvatus Sanderson 1940 

Entomol. News 51:170. HolotypeO" 
Batrisodes rossi Park 1947 Bull. Chic. 

Acad. Sci. 8:100. HolotypeO" 
Batrisodes sandersoni Park 1947 Bull. 

Chic. Acad. Sci. 8:97. Holotype 9 
Bythinoplectus carenado Becker & 

Sanderson 1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. 

Am. 46:408. HolotypeO" 
Bythinoplectus emargo Becker & Sander- 
son 1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 

46:410. HolotypeO" 
Bythinoplectus trapezodis Becker & 

Sanderson 1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. 

Am. 46:406. Holotype cr 



80 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Cercoceroides grandis Becker & Sander- 
son 1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 
46:460. Holotype 9 

Decarthron aguanensis Becker & Sander- 
son 1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 
46:446. Holotype C 

Decarthron armatum Becker & Sanderson 
1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 46:453. 
Holotype O" 

Decarthron castaneum Becker & Sander- 
son 1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 
46:450. Holotype C 

Decarthron confrente Becker & Sanderson 
1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 46:442. 
Holotype CT 

Decarthron cristatum Becker & Sanderson 

1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 46:452. 

Holotype O" 
Decarthron truncatum Becker & 

Sanderson 1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. 

Am. 46:452. Holotype CT 
Decarthron yaguale Becker & Sanderson 

1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 46:448. 

Holotype O" 

Eupsenius angulosus Becker & Sanderson 
1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 46:418. 
Holotype O" 

Pycnoplectus parki Wagner 1975 
Entomol. Am. 49:168. Holotype C 

Reichen bachta blandura Becker & 
Sanderson 1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. 
Am. 46:426. Holotype O" 

Reichenbachia parki Becker & Sanderson 
1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 46:423. 
Holotype O" 

Rhinoscepsis bonita Becker & Sanderson 
1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 46:412. 
Holotype C 

Scalenarthrus depressus Becker & Sander- 
son 1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 
46:428. Holotype C 

Scalenarthrus femoralis Becker & Sander- 
son 1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 
46:429. Holotype O" 

Scalenarthrus olanchitus Becker & 
Sanderson 1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. 
Am. 46:429. Holotype cr 

Scalenarthrus torrus Becker & Sanderson 
1953 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 46:431. 
Holotype cr 



Scarabaeidae 

Phyllophaga blanda Sanderson 1958 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 31:169. Holo- 
type C 

Phyllophaga epulara Sanderson 1958 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 31:169. Holo- 
type O" 

Phyllophaga falta Sanderson 1950 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 23:92. Holotype cr 

Phyllophaga foxt! Davis 1920 Bull. 111. 
State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:334. 
Holotype cr 

Phyllophaga f rat erna mississipptensis 
Davis 1920 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. 
Surv. 13:330. Holotype C 

Phyllophaga hirticula comosa Davis 
1920 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 
13:337. Holotype cr 

Phyllophaga impar Davis 1920 Bull. 111. 
State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:335. Holo- 
type Cf 

Phyllophaga jonesi Sanderson 1939 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 12:5. Holo- 
type C 

Phyllophaga /odzng? Sanderson 1939 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 12:4. Holotype CT 

Phyllophaga parzidens hysteropyga Davis 
1920 Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 
13:336. Holotype CT 

Phyllophaga pearltae Davis 1920 Bull. 111. 
State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:332. 
Holotype O" 

Phyllophaga perlonga Davis 1920 Bull. 111. 
State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:329. Holo- 
type O" 

Phyllophaga say lori Sanderson 1965 Proc. 
Calif. Acad. Sci. 31:560. Holotype O" 

Phyllophaga soror Davis 1920 Bull. 111. 
State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:333. Holo- 
type c 

Phyllophaga sylvalica Sanderson 1942 J. 
kans. Entomol. Soc. 15:49. Holo- 
type O" 

Serica arkansana Dawson 1947 J. N. Y. 
Entomol. Soc. 55:223. Holotype CT 

Scydmaenidae 

Eubaeocera charybda Cornell 1967 
Coleopt. Bull. 21:9. Holotype C 

Staphylinidae 

Ancylophorus sandersoni Smetana 1971 
Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 79:258. 
Holotype O" 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



81 



Beyeria pulex Sanderson 1943 J. Kans. 

Entomol. Soc. 16:137. Holotype CT 
Lathrotropis caseyi Blaisdell 1906 

Entomol. News 17:71. Syntype ICT 
Lithocharis ardenusS^ndeTion 1945 Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 47:94. HolotypeCT 
Paederus zayasi Sanderson 1967 Coleopt. 

Bull. 21:61. HolotypeO- 
Rimulincola divalis Sanderson 1946 J. 

Kans. Entomol. Soc. 19:131. Holo- 

type O" 
Stenus rosst Sanderson 1957 Trans. 111. 

State Acad. Sci. 50:283. HolotypeO" 
Stenus vista Sanderson 1946 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 39:430. HolotypeO- 

Tenebrionidae 

Eleodes acuta perntgra Blaisdell 1937 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 63:128. 
Holotype 9 

MECOPTERA 

Bittacidae 

Bittacus taratensis Penny 1969 Orient. 
Insects 3:161. Holotype o- 

Panorpidae 

NeopanoTpa byersi Webb & Penny 1979 
Pac. Insects 20:63. Holotype O" 

Panorpa setifera Webb 1974 Entomol. 
News 5-6:171. HolotypeO" 

Panorpa sigmoides Carpenter 1931 Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool. 72:250. HolotypeO- 

DIPTERA 

Acroceridae 

Ogcodes porteriSc\i\m%tr 1953 Wasmann 
J. Biol. 11:319. HolotypeO" 

Agromyzidae 

Agromyza albidohalterata Malloch 1916 

Psyche 23:52. Holotype O" 
Agromyza angulicornis Malloch 1918 

Can. Entomol. 50:79. Holotype O- 
Agromyza aprilina Malloch 1915 Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist. 11:359. Lecto- 

type 9 designated by Prison (1927:192) 
Agromyza aristata Malloch 1915 Can. 

Entomol. 47:13. Holotype 9 
Agromyza assimilis Malloch 1918 Can. 

Entomol. 50:80. Holotype O- 
Agromyza deceptiva Malloch 1918 Can. 

Entomol. 50:78. Holotype 9 



Agromyza destructor Malloch 1916 Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 18:93. Lecto- 

type 9 designated by Prison (1927:193) 
Agromyza fumicosta Malloch 1914 

Entomol. News 25:310. Holotype 9 
Agromyza indecora Malloch 1918 Can. 

Entomol. 50:132. Lectotype O- desig- 
nated by Prison (1927:193) 
Agromyza infumata Malloch 1915 Can. 

Entomol. 47:15. Holotype O- 
Agromyza nigrisquama Malloch 1916 

Psyche 23:53. Holotype 9 
Agromyza pleuralis Malloch 1914 En- 
tomol. News 25:311. Holotype 9 
Agromyza riparia Malloch 1916 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 49:105. Lectotype O- 

designated by Prison (1927:194) 
Agromyza similata Malloch 1918 Can. 

Entomol. 50:178. HolotypeO" 
Agromyza subangulata Malloch 1916 

Psyche 23:51. Holotype O- 
Agromyza subvirens Malloch 1916 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 49:105. Lectotype 9 

designated by Prison (1927:194) 
Cerodontha illinoensis Malloch 1934 Dip- 

tera of Patagonia and South Chile 

6:484. Neotype 9 designated by Prick 

(1952:153) 
Limnoagromyza diantherae Malloch 1920 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 15:147. 

Holotype 9 

Anthomyidae 
Anthomyia dorsimaculata Wulp 1903 

Biol. Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 

2:336. Syntype lo- 
Emmesomyia apicalis Malloch 1917 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 12:115. 

Holotype 9 
Emmesomyia unica Malloch 1917 Bull. 
Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 12:114. 

Holotype 9 
Eremomyioides fuscipes Malloch 1920 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:182. 
Holotype O- 
Eremomyioides parkeri Malloch 1918 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 31:67. Syntypes 

39 

Eremomyioides similis Malloch 1920 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:183. 
Holotype 9 

Gimnomera atrifrons Malloch 1920 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 22:37. Holo- 
typeO" 



82 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Gimnomera fasciventris Malloch 1920 
Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 22:38. 
Holotype cr 

Gimnomera incisurata Malloch 1920 
Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 22:37. Holo- 
type O" 

Hydrophoria collaris Wulp 1903 Biol. 
Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 2:333. 
Syntype lO" 

Hydrophoria flavipalpis Wulp 1903 Biol. 
Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 2:334. Syn- 
type lO" 

Hydrophoria polita Malloch 1920 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:170. Holotype O" 

Hydrophoria transversalis Wulp 1903 
Biol. Cent- Am., Insecta-Diptera 2:334. 
Syntypes lO", 19 

Hydrophoria uniformis Malloch 1918 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 44:297. 
Holotype cr 

Hylemyia attenuata Malloch 1920 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:188. Holotype O" 

Hylemyia bicaudata Malloch 1920 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:193. Holotype CT 

Hylemyia bicruciata Malloch 1920 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:190. Holotype cr 

Hylemyia cilifera Malloch 1918 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 44:311. Holotype CT 

Hylemyia curvipes Malloch 1918 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 44:316. Holotype cr 

Hylemyia extremitata Malloch 1919 
Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 9:309. Holo- 
type cr 

Hylemyia gracilipes Malloch 1920 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:187. Holotype C 

Hylemyia inaequalis Malloch 1920 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:190. Holo- 
type cr 

Hylemyia innocua Malloch 1920 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:186. Holo- 
type cr 

Hylemyia marginella Malloch 1918 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 44:311. Holotype cr 

Hylemyia normalis Malloch 1929 Proc. 
Calif. Acad. Sci. 9:309. Holotype Cf 

Hylemyia occidentalis Malloch 1920 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:191. 
Holotype O" 

Hylemyia piloseta Malloch 1918 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 44:313. Holo- 
type cr 

Hylemyia pluin'alis Malloch 1918 Can. 
Entomol. 50:310. Holotype O" 



Hylemyia spinilamellata Malloch 1918 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 44:312. 

Holotype CT 
Hylemyia substriatella Malloch 1918 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 44:309. 

Holotype cr 
Macrophorbia houghi Malloch 1920 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:173. 

Holotype 9 
Neochirosia setiger Malloch 1917 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 12:36. Lecto- 

type O- designated by Prison (1927:205) 
Neohylemyia proboscidalis Malloch 1917 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 12:38. 

Holotype o- 
Orthachaeta dissimilis Malloch 1924 

Psyche 31:194. Holotype 9 
Pegomyia emmesia Malloch 1920 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 46: 179. Holotype cr 
Pegomyia labradorensis Malloch 1920 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:176. 

Holotype cr 
Pegomyia quadrispinosa Malloch 1920 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:181. 

Holotype cr 
Pegomyia spinigerellus Malloch 1920 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:178. 

Holotype Cf 
Pegomyia subgrisea Malloch 1920 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:180. Holotype or 
Phorbia prisca Wulp 1903 Biol. Cent- Am., 

Insecta-Diptera 2:340. Syntype 19 
Scatophaga grisea Malloch 1920 Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 22:34. Holotype C 

Bombyliidae 

Anthrax anna Co(\\n\\ett 1887 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 14:169. Syntypes 2cr, 29 

Anthrax inauratus Coquillett 1887 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 14:170. Syn- 
types Icr 19 

Cecidomyiidae 

Forbesomyia atra Malloch 1914 Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:235. 

Holotype 9 
Lasioptera muhlenbergiae Marten 1893 

Ohio Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Ser. 

1:155. Syntypes many 
Monardia illinoensis Felt 1935 J. N. Y. 

Entomol. Soc. 43:47. Syntypes 2cr , 449 
Zygoneura fenestrata Malloch 1914 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:233. Lecto- 

type cr designated by Prison (1927:180) 



I 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



83 



Ceratopogonidae 

Bezzta albidorsata Malloch 1915 Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:349. Holo- 

type 9 
Bezzia apicata Malloch 1914 J. N. Y. 

Entomol. Soc. 22:284. Holotype O" 
Bezzia cockerelli Malloch 1915 Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:346. Holo- 

typeQ 
Bezzia dentata Malloch 1914 J. N. Y. 

Entomol. Soc. 22:284. Lectotype 9 

designated by Prison (1927:163) 
Bezzia flavitarsis Malloch 1914 J. N. Y. 

Entomol. Soc. 22:283. Holotype 9 
Ceratopogonfusinervis Malloch 1915 Bull . 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:308. Lecto- 
type <y designated by Prison (1927:169) 
Culicoides crepuscularis Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:303. 

Holotype O" 
Culicoides haematopotus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:302. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:170) 
Culicoides multipunctatus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:296. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:170) 
EufoTcipomyia hirtipennis Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 11:313. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:170) 
Euforcipomyia longitarsis Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 11:314. 

Holotype 9 
Forcipomyia aurea Malloch 1915 Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:318. Lecto- 
type 9 designated by Prison (1927:171) 
Forcipomyia elegantula Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 11:311. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:171) 
Forcipomyia pergandei concolor Malloch 

1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

10:319. Lectotype 9 designated by 

Prison (1927:171) 
Hartomyia lutea Malloch 1918 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 13:18. Holo- 
type 9 
Hartomyia pallidiventris Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:344. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:171) 



Heteromyia aldrichi Malloch 1915 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:326. Holo- 
type 9 

Heteromyia hirta Malloch 1915 Bull. 111. 
State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:330. Lecto- 
type 9 designated by Prison (1927:171) 

Heteromyia opacithorax Malloch 1915 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:329. 
Holotype 9 

Heteromyia tenuicornis Malloch 1915 
Bu.'l. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 
10:328. Holotype 9 

Johannseniella flavidula Malloch 1914 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 
10:230. Lectotype 9 designated by 
Prison (1927:172) 

Johannsenomyia aequalis Malloch 
1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 
10:336. Holotype O- 

Johannsenomyia albibasis Malloch 1915 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 11:315. 
Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 
(1927:172) 

Johannsenomyia annulicornis Malloch 
1918 Entomol. News 29:230. Holo- 
type 9 

Johannsenomyia halteralis Malloch 1915 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:338. 
Lectotype O" desig^nated by Prison 
(1927:173) 

Johannsenomyia macroneura Malloch 
1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 
10:337. Holotype 9 

Falpomyia illinoensis Malloch 1915 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:219. Holo- 
type 9 

Palpomyia nebulosa Malloch 1915 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:322. Holo- 
type 9 

Parabezzia petiolata Malloch 1915 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:359. 
Lectotype O" designated by Prison 
(1927:175) 

Probezzia fulvithorax Malloch 1915 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:354. Lecto- 
type 9 designated by Prison (1927:175) 

Probezzia incerta Malloch 1915 Bull. 111. 
State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:358. Lecto- 
type 9 designated by Prison (1927:175) 

Probezzia infuscata Malloch 1915 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 11:316. Lecto- 
type 9 designated by Prison (1927:176) 



84 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Probezzia obscura Malloch 1915 Bull. 111. 
State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:355. Holo- 

type9 
Probezzia pallida Malloch 1914Proc. Biol. 

Soc. Wash. 27:138. Holotype 9 
Pseudoculicoides johannseni Malloch 

1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

10:311. Lectotype O" designated by 

Prison (1927:176) 
Pseudoculicoides major Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:311. 

Holotype cr 
Serromyia crassifemorata Malloch 1914 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:218. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:177) 

Chamaemyiidae 

Leucopis americana Malloch 1921 Bull. 
111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:354. 
Holotype Cf 

Leucopis major Malloch 1921 Bull. 111. 
State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:352. Holo- 
type 9 

Leucopis minor Malloch 1921 Bull. 111. 
State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:354. Holo- 
type O" 

Leucopis orbitalis Malloch 1921 Bull. 111. 

State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:352. 

Holotype 9 
Leucopis parallela Malloch 1921 Bull. 

111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:353. 

Holotype 9 
Leucopis pemphigae Malloch 1921 Bull. 

111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:350. 

Holotype O" 
Leucopis piniperda Malloch 1921 Bull. 

111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:351. 

Holotype O" 
Neoleucopis pinicola Malloch 1921 Bull. 

111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:357. 

Holotype O" 
Plunomia elegans Curran 1934 The 

Pamilies and Genera of North Ameri- 
can Diptera p. 365. Lectotype O" 

(Illinois, Champaign, 25-VII-1889, J. 

S. Terrill) here designated by J. P. 

McAlpine 
Pseudodinia poltta Malloch 1915 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 49:152. Lectotype 9 

designated by Prison (1927:196) 



Chironomidae 

Camptocladius Jlavens Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:511. 

Lectotype C designated by Prison 

(1927:163) 
Camptocladius flavibasis Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:511. 

Holotype 9 
Camptocladius lasiophthalmus Malloch 

1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

10:509. Lectotype 9 designated by 

Prison (1927:163) 
Camptocladius lasiops Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

10:508. Lectotype a designated by 

Prison (1927:164) 
Camptocladius subaterrimus Malloch 

1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

10:512. Holotype cr 

Chironomus abbreviatus Malloch 1915 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:451. 
Lectotype cr designated by Prison 
(1927:164) 

Chironomus abortiinis Malloch 1915 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:465. 
Lectotype O" designated by Prison 
(1927:164) 

Chironomus alboviridis Malloch 1915 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 
10:482. Holotype 9 

Chironomus basalis Malloch 1915 Bull. 111. 
State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:441. Lecto- 
type cr designated by Prison (1927:164) 

Chironomus claripennis Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:439. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:164) 
Chironomus crassicaudatus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:453. 

Holotype O" 
Chironomus cucini Webb 1969 J. Kans. 

Pntomol. Soc. 42:105. Holotype cr 
Chironomus curtilamellatus MMoch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:474. 

Holotype O" 
Chironomus digitatus Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:483. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:165) 



July 1980 



WEBB: PRIMARY INSECT TYPES 



85 



Chironomus dimorphus Malloch 1915 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:464. 
Lectotype O" designated by Prison 
(1927:165) 

Chironomus dorneri Malloch 1915 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:471. 
Holotype 9 

Chironomus fasciventris Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:438. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:165) 
Chironomus fuscicornis Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

10:466. Holotype O- 

Chironomus fusciventris Malloch 1915 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:465. 
Holotype C 

Chironomus griseopunctatus Malloch 
1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 
Hist. 10:428. Holotype 9 

Chironomus griseus Malloch 1915 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:468. Lecto- 
type cr designated by Prison (1927:166) 

Chironomus /lartz Malloch 1915 Bull. 111. 
State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:457. 
Holotype 9 

Chironomus illinoensis Malloch 1915 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:471. 
Lectotype cr designated by Prison 
(1927:166) 

Chironomus illinoensis decoloratus 
Malloch 1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 
Hist. 10:472. Lectotype O" designated by 
Prison (1927:167) 

Chironomus incognitus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

10:480. Holotype O- 
Chironomus tndistinctus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:477. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:167) 
Chironomus neomodestus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:475. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:167) 
Chironomus nigrohalteralis Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:440. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:167) 



Chironomus nigrox/ittatus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:456. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:167) 
Chironomus obscuratus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:479. 

Lectotype O" desig^nated by Prison 

(1927:168) 
Chironomus parvilamellatus Malloch 

1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

10:479. Lectotype O" designated by 

Prison (1927:168) 

Chironomus pseudoviridis Malloch 1915 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:450. 
Lectotype O" designated by Prison 
(1927:168) 

Chironomus quadripunctatus Malloch 
1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 
10:437. Holotype O- 

Chironomus serus Malloch 1915 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:481 . Lecto- 
type cr designated by Prison (1927:168) 

Chironomus subaequalis Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:440. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:169) 
Chironomus tentans pallidivittatus 

Malloch 1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. 

Hist. 10:445. Lectotype O" designated by 

Prison (1927:169) 

Chironomus tenuicaudatus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:475. 

Lectotype C designated by Prison 

(1927:169) 

Corynoneura similis Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:413. 

Holotype 9 

Cricotopuj flavibasis Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:506. 

Lectotype cr designated by Prison 

(1927:170) 
Cricotopus slossonae Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:502. 

Holotype 9 

Metriocnemus annuliventris Malloch 1915 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 28:46. Lectotype 
O- designated by Prison (1927:173) 

Metriocnemus brachyneura Malloch 1915 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 
10:498. Holotype cr 



86 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Orthocladius albidohalteralis Malloch 

1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

10:528. Holotype9 
Orthocladius bifasciatus Malloch 1918 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 13:42. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:173) 
Orthocladius bremnervis Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:526. 

Holotype O" 
Orthocladius distinctus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:518. 

Lectotype cr designated by Prison 

(1927:174) 
Orthocladius distinctus basalaris Malloch 

1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

10:519. Lectotype O" designated by 

Prison (1927:174) 
Orthocladius distinctus bicolor Malloch 

1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

10:519. Lectotype Cf designated by 

Prison (1927:174) 
Orthocladius flavoscutellatus Malloch 

1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

10:523. Holotype Cf 
Orthocladius infuscatus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:517. 

Holotype O" 
Orthocladius lacteipennis Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:524. 

Holotype O" 
Orthocladius nitidellus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:515. 

Holotype O" 
Orthocladius nitidus Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:515. 

Holotype cr 

Orthocladius obseptus Webb 1969 J. 

Kans. Entomol. Soc. 42:91. Holotype O" 
Orthocladius pilipes Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:522. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:174) 
Orthocladius pleuralis Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:527. 

Holotype O" 
Orthocladius striatus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:517. 

Holotype O" 
Orthocladiuj subparallelus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:522. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:174) 



Paralauterborniella ostansa Webb 1969 

J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 42:102. 

Holotype O" 
Protenthes claripennis Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:387. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:176) 
Protenthes riparius Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:389. 

Holotype O" 
Psectrocladius vemalis Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:520. 

Holotype cr 
Pseudochironomus rex Hauber 1947 Am. 

Midi. Nat. 38:458. Holotype CT 
Pseudochironomus richardsoni Malloch 

1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

10:500. Lectotype C designated by 

Prison (1927:176) 
Stempellina leptocelloides Webb 1969 

J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 42:94. 

Holotype Cf 
Stempellina ranota Webb 1969 J. Kans. 

Entomol. Soc. 42:96. Holotype Cf 
Stempellina rodesta Webb 1969 J. Kans. 

Entomol. Soc. 42:95. Holotype O" 
Tanypus decoloratus Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:370. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:177) 
Tanypus illinoensis Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:376. 

Lectotype Cf designated by Prison 

(1927:177) 
Tanypus inconspicuus Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:371. 

Lectotype Cf designated by Prison 

(1927:177) 
Tanypus marginellus Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:374. 

Lectotype Cf designated by Prison 

(1927:178) 
Tanypus neopunctipennis Sublette 1964 

Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 115:118. 

Holotype Cf 

Tanytarsus confusus Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:490. 

Lectotype Cf designated by Prison 

(1927:178) 
Tanytarsus dubtus Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:496. 

Lectotype Cf designated by Prison 

(1927:178) 



1 



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Webb: Primary Insect Types 



87 



Tanytarsus flavicauda Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:493. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:178) 
Tanytarsus neoflavellus Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:489. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:178) 
Tanytarsus politus Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:493. 

Lectotype C designated by Prison 

(1927:179) 
Tanytarsus similatus Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:494. 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:179) 
Tanytarsus tibialis Webb 1969 J. Kans. 

Entomol. Soc. 42:100. Holotype O" 
Tanytarsus trilobus Webb 1969 J. Kans. 

Entomol. Soc. 42:99. Holotype CT 
Tanytarsus viridiventris Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:49L 

Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:179) 
Thienemanniella mallochi Sublette 1970 

J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 43:88. 

Holotype 9 

Chloropidae 

Anthracophaga distichliae Malloch 1918 

J. Econ. Entomol. 11:386. Syn- 

type 19 
Botanobia bispina Malloch 1918 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 13:109. 

Holotype O" 
Botanobia hinkleyi Malloch 1915 Can. 

Entomol. 47:12. Holotype 9 
Botanobia spiniger Malloch 1918 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 13:109. 

Holotype 9 
ChloTOpisca glabra clypeata Malloch 

1914 Can. Entomol. 46:119. Lectotype 

9 designated by Prison (1927:190) 
Chloropisca obtusa Malloch 1914 Can. 

Entomol .46:118. Holotype O" 
Chloropisca parviceps Malloch 1915 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 17:158. 

Holotype 9 
Dasyopa pleuralis Malloch 1918 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 13:20. 

Lectotype cr designated by Prison 

(1927:190) 



Gaurax apicalis Malloch 1915 Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 17:160. Holo- 
type 9 
Gaurax flavidulus Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 11:361. 

Holotype O" 
Gaurax interruptus Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 11:363. 

Holotype 9 
Gaurax pallidipes Malloch 1915 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 11:362. 

Holotype O" 
Gaurax splendidus Malloch 1915 Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 17:161. 

Holotype O" 
Madiza setulosa Malloch 1918 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 13:110. 

Holotype 9 
Meromyza flavipalpis Malloch 1914 Can. 

Entomol. 46:117. Lectotype O" 

designated by Prison (1927:191) 
Neogaurax fumipennis Malloch 1915 

Entomol. News 26:108. Holotype 9 
Oscinoides arpidia Malloch 1916 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 11:87. 

Holotype 9 
Oscinoides arpidia atra Malloch 1918 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 13:19. 

Holotype 9 
Oscinoides arpidia elegans Malloch 1918 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 13:19. 

Holotype. C 
Oscinoides arpidia humeralis Malloch 

1918 Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 

13:19. Holotype 9 

Chyromyidae 

Aphaniosoma quadrivittatum Malloch 
1915 Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 
11:357. Holotype 9 

Chyromya concolor Malloch 1914 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 16:181. Lectotype 
O- designated by Prison (1927:192) 

Chyromya nigrimana Malloch 1914 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 16:181. Lectotype 
O- designated by Prison ( 1 927 : 1 92) 

Clusiidae 

Clusia occidentalis Malloch 1918 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 20:4. Holotype O" 



88 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Conopidae 

Zodion palpalis Robertson 1901 Can. 
Entomol. 33:284. Holotype O" 

Dolichopodidae 

Argyra similis Harmston & Knowlton 
1940 J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 13:58. 
Holotype C 

Chrysotus anomalus Malloch 1914 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:238. 
Holotype cr 

Chrysotus ciliatus Malloch 1914 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:236. 
Holotype O" 

Chrysotus flaxnsetus Malloch 1914 Bull. 
III. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:239. 
Lectotype O" designated by Prison 
(1927:183) 

Chrysotus spinifer Malloch 1914 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:238. Holo- 
type cr 

Hydrophorus pilitarsis Malloch 1919 
Report of the Canadian Arctic Exped- 
ition 3:51c. Syntypes lO", 19 

Hygroceleuthus idahoensis Aldrich 1894 
Kans. Univ. Q. 2:154. Syntype lO" 

Medeterus caerulescens Malloch 1919 
Entomol. News 30:8. Holotype cr 

Rhaphium rossi Harmston & Knowlton 
1940 J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 13:60. 
Holotype cr 

Drosophilidae 

Amiota setigera Malloch 1924 Bull. 
Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 19:51. Holo- 
type cr 

Phortica minor Malloch 1921 Entomol. 
News 32:312. Holotype Cf 

Empididae 

Tachydromia harti Malloch 1919 Can. 
Entomol. 51:248. Holotype O" 

Heleomyzidae 

Anarostomoides petersoni Malloch 1916 
Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 11:15. 
Holotype O" 

Hilarimorphidae 

Hilarimorpha lantha Webb 1974J. Kans. 

Entomol. Soc. 47:203. Holotype cr 
Hilarimorpha mikii Williston 1888 

Psyche 5:100. Holotype O" 



Hilarimorpha modesta Webb 1974 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 47:215. Holo- 
type O" 

Hilarimorpha robertsoni Webb 1974 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 47:206. Holo- 
type o- 

Hilarimorpha sidora Webb 1974 J. Kans. 
Entomol. Soc. 47:199. Holotype Cf 

Lauxaniidae 

Sapromyza aequalis Malloch 1914 Proc. 

Biol. Soc. Wash. 27:36. Holotype cr 
Sapromyza cilifera Malloch 1914 Proc. 

Biol. Soc. Wash. 27:33. Holotype cr 
Sapromyza citreifrons Malloch 1920 Can. 

Entomol. 52:127. Holotype CT 
Sapromyza fuscibasis Malloch 1920 Can. 

Entomol. 52:126. Holotype CT 
Sapromyza harti Malloch 1914 Proc. 

Biol. Soc. Wash. 27:32. Lectotype o- 

designated by Prison (1927:188) 
Sapromyza inaequalis Malloch 1914 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 27:35. 

Holotype O" 
Sapromyza littoralis Malloch 1915 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 28:47. Lecto- 
type O- designated by Prison (1927:188) 
Sapromyza nubilifera Malloch 1920 Can. 

Entomol. 52:126. Holotype O" 
Sapromyza pernotata Malloch 1920 Can. 

Entomol. 52:128. Holotype O" 
Sapromyza seticauda Malloch 1914 Proc. 

Biol. Soc. Wash. 27:34. Holotype O- 
Sapromyza similata Malloch 1914 Proc. 

Biol. Soc. Wash. 27:30. Holotype 9 

Lonchaeidae 

Lonchaea aberrans Malloch 1920 Can. 

Entomol. 52:131. Holotype 9 
Lonchaea ruficornis Malloch 1920 Can. 

Entomol. 52:130. Holotype 9 
Lonchaea vibrissata Malloch 1914 Proc. 

Biol. Soc. Wash. 27:37. Holotype 9 

Milichiidae 

Meoneura nigrifrons Malloch 1915 Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash. 28:47. Holotype CT 

Muscidae 

Allognota semivitta Malloch 1918 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 44:282. Holo- 
type O" 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



89 



Ariciella flavicornis Malloch 1918 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 31:66. Holo- 

typeC 
Charadrella macrosoma Wulp 1903 Biol. 

Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 2:341. 

Syntypes icr, 19 
Clinoptera hteroglyphica Wulp 1903 

Biol. Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 

2:307. Syntype lO" 
Coenosia aliena Malloch 1921 Entomol. 

News 32:134. Holotype 9 
Coenosia anthracina Malloch 1921 

Entomol. News 32:134. Holotype 9 
Coenosia denticornis Malloch 1920 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:164. 

Holotype 9 
Coenosia femoralis Wulp 1903 Biol. 

Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 2:345. 

Syntype 19 
Coenosia frisoni Malloch 1920 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:165. Holo- 
type <y 
Coenosia laricata Malloch 1920 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:166. Holotype 9 
Coenosia macrocera Wulp 1903 Biol. 

Cent-Am., Insecta Diptera 2: 344. 

Syntype 19 
Coenosia punctulata Wulp 1903 Biol. 

Cent-Am., Insecta Diptera 2:343. 

Syntype 19 
Eulimnophora cilijera Malloch 1920 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:145. 

Holotype O" 
Eulimnophora dorsovittata Malloch 1920 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:146. 

Holotype 9 
Fannia canadensis Malloch 1924 Ann. 

Mag. Nat. Hist. 13:423. Holotype O" 
Fannia lasiops Malloch 1920 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:168. Holo- 
type cr 
Fannia latifrons Malloch 1914 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:240. 

Holotype O" 
Fannia spat hiophora Malloch 1918 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 44:294. 

Holotype 9 
Helina algonquina Malloch 1922 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 17:96. Holo- 
type cr 
Helina bispinosa Malloch 1920 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. ,46:142. Holo- 
type Of 



Helina consimilata Malloch 1920 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:144. Holo- 
type O" 
Helina linearis Malloch 1920 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 46:139. Holotype O" 
Helina nasoni Malloch 1920 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 46:138. Holotype O" 
Helina nigribasis Malloch 1920 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:143. Holo- 
type O" 
Helina nigrita Malloch 1920 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 46:139. Holotype O" 
Helina spinilamellata Malloch 1920 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:140. 

Holotype C 
Helina tuberculata Malloch 1919 Can. 

Entomol. 51:277. Holotype O" 
Hydrotaea cristata Malloch 1918 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 13:93. Holo- 
type C 
Hydrotaea houghi Malloch 1916 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 11:110. Lecto- 

type O" designated by Prison (1927: 

201) 
Leucomelina deleta Wulp 1903 Biol. 

Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 2:329. 

Syntype lO" 
Leucomelina minuscula Wulp 1903 Biol. 

Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 2:330. 

Syntype 19 
Limnophora clivicola Malloch 1920 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:155. 

Holotype O" 
Limnophora socia Wulp 1903 Biol. 

Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 2:326. 

Syntype 19 
Limnophora tetrachaeta Malloch 1920 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:153. 

Holotype O" 
Melanochelia angulata Malloch 1921 

Can. Entomol. 53:63. Lectotype O" 

designated by Prison (1927:204) 
Melanochelia imitatrix Malloch 1921 

Can. Entomol. 53:64. Holotype O" 

Muscina tripunctata Wulp 1903 Biol. 

Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 2:305. 

Syntype lO" 
Mydaea armata Malloch 1920 Trans. 

Am . Entomol . Soc . 46 : 1 35 . Holotype 9 

Mydaea brevipilosa Malloch 1920 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:135. Holo- 
type O" 



90 



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Mydaea concinna Wulp 1903 Biol. 
Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 2:31 7. 
Syntype 19 

Mydaea discimana Malloch 1920 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:136. Holotype 9 

Mydaea neglecta Malloch 1920 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:136. Holo- 
type O" 

Mydaea obscura Wulp 1903 Biol. Cent- 
Am., Insecta-Diptera 2:317. Syn- 
type lO" 

Mydaea persimilis Malloch 1920 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:134. Holotype 9 

Phaonia basiseta Malloch 1920 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:133. Holo- 
type 9 

Phaonia brevispina Malloch 1923 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 48:269. Holo- 
type O" 

Phaonia harti Malloch 1923 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 48:266. Holotype O" 
Phaonia laticornis Malloch 1923 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 48:279. Holo- 
type O" 
Phaonia subfusca Malloch 1923 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 48:273. Holo- 
type C 
Phaonia texensis Malloch 1923 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 48:271. Holo- 
type O" 
Phorbia fuscisquama Wulp 1903 Biol. 

Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 2:340. 

Syntype lO" 
Phyllogaster littoralis Malloch 1917 Can. 

Entomol. 49:228. Holotype C 
Pogonomyia aldrichi Malloch 1918 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 44:281. 

Holotype C 
Pogonomyia aterrima Wulp 1903 Biol. 

Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 2: 335. 

Syntype lO" 
Pogonomyia flavinervis Malloch 1915 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 11:356. 

Lectotype O" designated by Frison 

(1927:207) 
Pogonomyia latifrons Malloch 1918 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 44:281. 

Holotype 9 
Schoei^omyza aurifrons Malloch 1918 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 44:288. 

Holotype <y 
Spilogaster copiosa Wulp 1903 Biol. 

Cent-Am., Insecta Diptera 2:321. 

Syntypes ICT, 19 



Spilogaster parvula Wulp 1903 Biol. 

Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 2:321. 

Syntype 19 
Spilogaster rubripalpis Wulp 1903 Biol. 

Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 2:320. 

Syntype 19 
Spilogaster signatipennis Wulp 1903 

Biol. Cent-Am., Insecta-Diptera 

2:322. Syntypes Xcr, 19 
Tetramerinx brevicornis Malloch 1917 

Can. Entomol. 49:226. Holotype 9 
Xenomydaea buccata Malloch 1920 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 46:144. 

Holotype O" 

Mycetophilidae 

Fungivora comata Laffoon 1956 Iowa 
State J. Sci. 31:196. Holotype O" 

Zygomyia interrupta Malloch 1914 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:234. 
Holotype O" 

Periscelididae 

Phorticoides flinti Malloch 1915 Bull. 
Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 10:87. Lecto- 
type cr designated by Frison (1927:187) 

Phoridae 

Aphiochaeta aristalis Malloch 1914 Bull. 
Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 9:57. Holo- 
type O" 

Aphiochaeta bisetulata Malloch 1915 , 
Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 10:65. J 
Holotype 9 

Aphiochaeta nasoni Malloch 1914 
Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 9:58. i 
Holotype cr ' 

Aphiochaeta pallidiventris Malloch 1919 
Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 14:47. 
Holotype 9 

Aphiochaeta plebeia Malloch 1914 
Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 9:59. 
Holotype C 

Aphiochaeta quadripunctata Malloch 
1918 Entomol. News 29:147. Holo- 
type O" 

Apocephalus pictus Malloch 1918 Ento- 
mol. News 29:146. Holotype O" 

Beckerina luteola Malloch 1919 Can. 
Entomol. 51:256. Holotype 9 

Platyphora flavofemorata Malloch 1915 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 11:353. 
Holotype Cf 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



91 



Rhagrionidae 

Chrysoptlus kincaidi Hardy 1949 Am. 

Midi. Nat. 41:156. HolotypeO" 
Chrysoptlus pilosus Leonard 1930 Mem. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 7:152. HolotypeO- 

Sarcophagidae 

Sarcophaga piva Roback 1952 J. Wash. 
Acad. Sci. 42:45. Holotype O" 

Scatopsidae 

Aspistes harti Malloch 1920 Entomol. 
News 31:275. Holotype O" 

Scenopinidae 

Scenopinus nubilipes Say 1829 J. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 6:170. Neotype O" 
designated by Kelsey (1969:145) 

Simuliidae 

Simulium forbesi Malloch 1914 U. S. 
Bur. Entomol. Bull. 26:63. Holotype 9 

Simulium jo hannsem' HdiTt 1912 Rep. 
State Entomol. 111. 27:32. Lectotype 9 
designated by Prison (1927:181) 

Simulium. venustoides Hart 1912 Rep. 
State Entomol. 111. 27:42. Lectotype cf 
designated by Prison (1927:181) 

Sphaeroceridae 

Borborus scriptus Malloch 1915 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 10:64. 

Holotype O" 

Stratiomyidae 
Eupachygaster henshawi Malloch 1917 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 12:338. 

Holotype 9 
Eupachygaster punctifer Malloch 1915 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 8:316. 

Holotype 9 
Nemotelus bellulus Melander 1903 

Psyche 10:183. Syntype 19 
Nemotelus bruesii Melander 1903 

Psyche 10:179. Syntypes \a , 19 
Nemotelus trinotatus Melander 1903 

Psyche 10:180. Syntypes 20-, 19 
Nemotelus wheeleri Melander 1903 

Psyche 10:182. Syntype 19 
Odontomyia snowi Hart 1896 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

4:256. Holotype O- 
Oxycera albovittata Malloch 1917 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 12:330. 

Holotype 9 



Oxycera aldrichi Malloch 1917 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 12:329. 

Holotype cr 
Oxycera approximata Malloch 1917 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 12:326. 

Holotype 9 

Syrphidae 

Gallic era johnsoni auripila Metcalf 1916 

J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 32:112. 

Holotype 9 
Cnemedon trochateratus Malloch 1918 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 20:127. 

Holotype O" 
Mallota illinoensis Robertson 1901 

Can. Entomol. 33:284. Holotype 9 
Metasyrphus metcalfi Fluke 1933 Trans. 

Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 28:119. 

Holotype 9 
Platycheirus scamboides Curran 1927 

Am. Mus. Novit. 247:6. Holotype O" 
Sphaerophoria cranbrookensis Curran 

1921 Can. Entomol. 53:173. Holo- 
type cr 
Sphegina campanulata Robertson 1901 

Can. Entomol. 33:284. Holotype cr 
Syrphus canadensis Curran 1926 Can. 

Entomol. 58:172. Syntypes \cr , 19 
Syrphus oronoensis Metcalf 1917 Maine 

Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull. 263:162. 

Holotype 9 
Temnostoma trifasciata Robertson 1901 

Can. Entomol. 33:285. Holotype cr 

Tabanidae 

Chrysops sequax tau PhiHp 1955 Rev. 
Bras. Entomol. 3:113. Holotype 9 

Tachinidae 

Cryptomeigenia flavibasis Curran 1927 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 22:145. 

Holotype 9 
Epigrimyia illinoensis Robertson 1901 

Can. Entomol. 33:286. Holotype cr 
Eutheresia interrupta Curran 1929 Can. 

Entomol. 61:33. Holotype 9 
Hyalomya pruinosa Robertson 1901 Can. 

Entomol. 33:284. Holotype o- 
Phorantha humeralis Robertson 1901 

Can. Entomol. 33:286. Holotype cr 
Phorantha pruinosa Robertson 1901 

Can. Entomol. 33:285. Holotype cr 
Wint hernia illinoensis Robertson 1901 

Can. Entomol. 33:286. Holotype cr 



92 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Wint hernia imitator Reinhard 1931 Proc. 
U. S. Natl. Mus. 79:39. Holotype cf 

Tipulidae 

Dicranota iowa Alexander 1920 Can. 
Entomol. 52:78. Holotype 9 

Elliptera illini Alexander 1920 Pomona 
Coll. J. Entomol. Zool. 12:86. Holo- 
type 9 

Limnophila imbecilla illinoiensis Alex- 
ander 1920 Can. Entomol. 52:226. 
Holotype Cf 

Nephrotoma sphagnicola Alexander 
1920 Can. Entomol. 52:110. Holo- 
type 9 

Ormosia frisoni Alexander 1920 Can. 
Entomol. 52:224. Holotype O" 

Tipula maltochi Alexander 1920 Pomona 
Coll. J. Entomol. Zool. 12:91. Holo- 
type Cf 

Xylomyidae 

Xylomyia pallidifemur Malloch 1917 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 12:343. 
Lectotype O" designated by Prison 
(1927:182) 

Xylophagidae 

Glutops rossi Pechuman 1945 Can. 
Entomol. 77:134. Holotype 9 

TRICHOPTERA 

Beraeidae 

Beraea gorteba Ross 1944 111. Nat. Hist. 
Surv. Bull. 23:208. Holotype O" 

Brachycentridae 

Brachycentrus aspilus Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:178. Holotype O" 

Brachycentrus chelafus Ross 1947 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:164. Holo- 
type cr 

Brachycentrus dimicki Milne 1936 
Studies in North American Trichop- 
tera 3:113. Holotype O" 

Brachycentrus lateralis Say 1823 West. Q. 
Rep. 2:161. Neotype O" designated by 
Ross (1944:265) 

Brachycentrus numerosus Say 1823 
West. Q_. Rep. 2:160. Neotype CT desig- 
nated by Ross (1944:264) 

Brachycentrus spinae Ross 1948 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 50:153. Holo- 
type O" 



Micrasema bactro Ross 1938 Proc. 
Entomo!. Soc. Wash. 40:122. Holo- 
type cr 

Micrasema bennetti Ross 1947 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:160. Holo- 
type CT 

Micrasema burksi Ross & Unzicker 1965 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 78:255. Holo- 
type Cf 

Micrasema diteris Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 73:161. Holotype cr 

Micrasema onisca Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 73:160. Holotype C 

Micrasema ozarkana Ross & Unzicker 
1965 Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 78:254. 
Holotype O" 

Micrasema rickeri Ross & Unzicker 1965 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 78:256. Holo- 
type C 

Micrasema scotti Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 73:159. Holotype cr 

Micrasema sprulesi Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:115. Holo- 
type O" 

Micrasema wataga Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:178. Holo- 
type cr 

Oligoplectrum echo Ross 1947 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:164. Holo- 
type O" 

Calamoceratidae 

Heteroplectron amerus Ross 1939 
Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 41:68. 
Holotype O" 

Heteroplectron gameta Ross 1939 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 41:69. Holo- 
type cr 

Glossosomatidae 

Agapetus artesus Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:106. Holotype CT 

Agapetus crasmus Ross 1939 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 41:66. Holo- 
type O" 

Agapetus debilis Ross 1938 111. Nat. Hist. 
Surv. Bull. 21:108. Holotype cr 

Agapetus gelbae Ross 1947 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:132. Holo- 
type O" 

Agapetus illini Ross 1938 111. Nat. Hist. 
Surv. Bull. 21:106. Holotype O" 

Agapetus iridis Ross 1944 111. Nat. Hist. 
Surv. Bull. 23:269. Holotype cr 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



93 



Agapetus jafiwi Ross 1951 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 41:354. Holotype Cf 
Agapetus latosus Ross 1951 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 41:354. Holotype cr 
Agapetus marlo Milne 1936 Studies in 

North American Trichoptera 3:108. 

Holotype O" 
Agapetus medicus Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:107. Holotype CF 
Agapetus ophionis Ross 1947 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:133. Holo- 
type <y 
Agapetus ptnatus Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:107. Holotype cr 
Agapetus taho Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 73:133. Holotype cr 
Agapetus tomus Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:44. Holotype O" 
Agapetus ulmeri Ross 1951 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 41:353. Holotype O" 
Agapetus vireo Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:43. Holotype cr 
Anagapetus bernea Ross 1947 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:131. Holo- 
type O" 
Anagapetus hoodi Ross 1951 Pan-Pac. 

Entomol. 27:143. Holotype cr 
Electragapetus tsudai Ross 1951 J. 

Wash. Acad. Sci. 41:353. Holotype cr 
Glossosoma excita Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:109. Holotype O" 
Glossosoma idaho Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:41. Holotype cr 
Glossosoma montana Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:42. Holotype cr 
Glossosoma pterna Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 73:130. Holotype O" 
Glossosoma pyroxum Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:42. Holotype cr 
Glossosoma schuhi Ross 1947 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:130. Holo- 
type cr 
Glossosom.a velona Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:109. Holotype O" 
Glossosoma verdona Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:110. Holotype cr 
Glossosoma wenatchee Ross & Spencer 

1952 Proc. Entomol. Soc. B. C. 

48:45. Holotype cr 
Paragapetus celsus Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:111. Holotype cr 
Protoptila alexanderi Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:48. Holotype cr 



Protoptila balmorhea Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:45. Holotype O" 
Protoptila cantha Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:113. Holotype cy 
Protoptila coloma Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:45. Holotype cr 
Protoptila erotica Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:113. Holotype O" 
Protoptila jeanae Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:112. Holotype cr 
Protoptila lega Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:48. Holotype cr 
Protoptila palina Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:46. Holotype cr 
Protoptila thoracica Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:114. Holotype cr 

Goeridae 

Goera archaon Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 73:156. Holotype O" 
Goera stylata Ross 1938 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:172. Holotype cr 
Goerita betteni Ross 1962 Entomol. News 

73:132. Holotype O" 
Goerita genota Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:116. Holotype cr 
Goerita semata Ross 1938 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:172. Holotype cr 

Helicopsychidae 

Helicopsyche comosa Kingsolver 1964 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 66:259. 

Holotype cr 
Helicopsyche cubana Kingsolver 1964 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 66:259. 

Holotype cr 
Helicopsyche dampfi Ross 1956 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 46:398. Holotype O" 
Helicopsyche extensa Ross 1956 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 46:397. Holotype cr 
Helicopsyche incisa Ross 1956 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 46:398. Holotype cr 
Helicopsyche limnella Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:179. Holotype cr 
Helicopsyche piroa Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:298. Holotype cr 
Helicopsyche planata Ross 1956 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 46:400. Holotype cr 
Helicopsyche quadrosa Ross 1956 J. 

Wash. Acad. Sci. 46:400. Holotype cr 
Helicopsyche selanderi Ross 1956 J. 

Wash. Acad. Sci. 46:400. Holotype cr 



94 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Helicopsyche truncata Ross 1956 J. 
Wash. Acad. Sci. 46:398. Holotype O- 

Helicopsyche vergelana Ross 1956 J. 
Wash. Acad. Sci. 46:400. Holotype cr 

Helicopsyche woytkowskii Ross 1956 
J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 46:398. Holo- 
type O" 

Hydropsychidae 

Aphropsyche aprilis Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:78. Holotype O" 

Cheumatopsyche aphanta Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:151. Holo- 
type O" 

Cheumatopsyche burksi Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:83. Holotype cr 

Cheumatopsyche campyla Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:152. Holo- 
type c 

Cheumatopsyche enonis Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:153. Holo- 
type <y 

Cheumatopsyche etrona Ross 1941 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:80. 
Holotype O" 

Cheum.atopsyche gyra Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:154. Holo- 
type O" 

Cheum,atopsyche hetma Ross 1939 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 41:68. Holo- 
type O" 

Cheum,atopsyche lasia Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:154. Holo- 
type cr 

Cheumatopsyche m,ollala Ross 1941 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:81. 
Holotype O" 

Cheumatopsyche oxa Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:155. Holotype cr 

Cheumatopsyche pasella Ross 1941 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:84. 
Holotype O" 

Cheumatopsyche pinaca Ross 1941 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:82. 
Holotype O" 

Cheumatopsyche wrighti Ross 1947 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:140. 
Holotype O" 

Cheumatopsyche zion Ross 1947 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:141. Holo- 
type <y 

Homoplectra alseae Ross 1938 Proc. En- 
tomol. Soc. Wash. 40:120. Holotype O" 



Hydropsyche aetata Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:144. Holo- 
type Cf 

Hydropsyche alhedra Ross 1939 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 41:67. Holo- 
type cr 

Hydropsyche ambits Ross 1938 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 40:120. Holo- 
type c 

Hydropsyche antilles Ross & Palmer 
1946 Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 
48:184. Holotype cr 

Hydropsyche arinale Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:143. Holotype cr 

Hydropsyche betteni Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:146. Holotype a 

Hydropsyche bidens Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:142. Holotype CT 

Hydropsyche bronta Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:149. Holotype CT 

Hydropsyche catawba Ross 1939 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 41:67. Holo- 
type O" 

Hydropsyche centra Ross 1938 III. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:150. Holotype CT 

Hydropsyche cheilonis Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:149. Holo- 
type cr 

Hydropsyche comuta Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:141. Holotype O- 

Hydropsyche cuanis Ross 1938 III. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:147. Holotype a 

Hydropsyche decalda Ross 1947 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:138. Holo- 
type O" 

Hydropsyche delrio Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:86. Holotype cr 

Hydropsyche demora Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:86. Holo- 
type cr 

Hydropsyche dicantha Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:146. Holotype cr 

Hydropsyche elissoma Ross 1947 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:137. Holo- 
type cr 

Hydropsyche fattigi Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:88. Holotype Cf 

Hydropsyche frisoni Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:142. Holotype or 

Hydropsyche hoffmani Ross 1962 En- 
tomol. News 73:129. Holotype O" 

Hydropsyche leonardi Ross 1938 111. Nat 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:145. Holotype a 



I 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



95 



Hydropsyche orris Ross 1938 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 40:121. Holo- 
type o" 

Hydropsyche philo Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:90. Holotype cr 

Hydropsyche piatrix Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:148. Holotype O" 

Hydropsyche placoda Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:83. Holotype O" 

Hydropsyche protis Ross 1938 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 40:120. Holo- 
type O" 

Hydropsyche rotosa Ross 1947 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:139. Holo- 
type o" 

Hydropsyche simulans Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:139. Holo- 
type Cf 

Hydropsyche solex Ross 1944 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:271. Holotype cr 

Hydropsyche sparna Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:150. Holotype O" 

Hydropsyche tana Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:151. Holotype cr 

Hydropsyche valanis Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:144, Holotype O" 

Hydropsyche venada Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:91. Holo- 
type O" 

Hydropsyche ventura Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:92. Holotype O^ 

Hydropsyche vexa Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:148. Holotype O" 

Oropsyche houiellae Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:79. Holotype cr 

Parapsyche almota Ross 1938 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 40:119. Holo- 
type O" 

Parapsyche cardis Ross 1938 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 40:119. Holo- 
type Cf 

Parapsyche elsis Milne 1936 Studies in 
North American Trichoptera 3:66. 
Holotype Cf 

Plectropsyche hoogstraali Ross 1947 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:142. 
Holotype O" 

Smicridea caldwelli Ross 1947 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:145. Holo- 
type O" 

Smicridea utico Ross 1947 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:144. Holo- 
type cr 



Hydroptilidae 

Agraylea costello Ross 1941 Can. En- 
tomol. 73:15. Holotype O" 
Agraylea saltesea Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:114. Holotype Cf 
Dibusa angata Ross 1939 Proc. Entomol. 

Soc. Wash. 41:67. Holotype O" 
Hydroptila acadia Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:63. Holo- 
type O" 
Hydroptila ajax Ross 1938 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:127. Holotype O" 
Hydroptila amoena Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:124. Holotype O" 
Hydroptila ampoda Ross 1941 Can. 

Entomol. 73:16. Holotype O" 
Hydroptila angusta Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:130. Holotype Cf 
Hydroptila arctia Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:129. Holotype Cf 
Hydroptila argosa Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:131. Holotype Cf 
Hydroptila armata Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:123. Holotype O- 
Hydroptila berneri Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:67. Holotype O" 
Hydroptila broweri Blickle 1963 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 58:18. Holo- 
type O" 
Hydroptila dentata Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist, Surv, Bull. 21:126. Holotype Cf 
Hydroptila grandiosa Ross 1938 111, Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:126. Holotype O" 
Hydroptila denza Ross 1948 J. Wash. 

Acad, Sci, 38:204, Holotype cr 
Hydroptila fiskei Blickle 1963 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol, Soc, 58:19. 

Holotype O" 
Hydroptila jackmanni BliMe 1963 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 58:17. 

Holotype cr 
Hydroptila latosa Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 73:148, Holotype O" 
Hydroptila lloganae Blickle 1961 
Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 
56:131. Holotype cr 
Hydroptila lonchera Blickle & Morse 
1954 Bull. Brooklyn Entomol, Soc. 

49:123. Holotype Cf 
Hydroptila melia Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:128. Holotype Cf 



96 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Hydroptila metoeca Blickle & Morse 1954 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 49:127. 

Holotype cr 
Hydroptila molsonae Blickle 1961 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 56:132. 

Holotype c? 
Hydroptila nicoli Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:69. Holotype O" 
Hydroptila novicola Blickle & Morse 1954 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 49:124. 

Holotype O" 
Hydroptila pecos Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:64. Holotype cr 
Hydroptila protera Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:131. Holotype O- 
Hydroptila quinola Ross 1947 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:147. Holo- 
type O" 
Hydroptila remita Blickle & Morse 1954 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 49:124. 

Holotype O" 
Hydroptila rono Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:66. Holotype O" 
Hydroptila salmo Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:66. Holotype O" 
Hydroptila scolops Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:128. Holotype cr 
Hydroptila spinata Blickle & Morse 1954 

Bull. BrooUyn Entomol. Soc. 49:123. 

Holotype O" 
Hydroptila strepha Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:68. Holotype cy 
Hydroptila tortosa Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:125. Holotype O- 
Hydroptila tusculum Ross 1947 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:148. Holo- 
type cr 
Hydroptila vala Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:123. Holotype O" 
Hydroptila virgata Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:125. Holotype O" 
Hydroptila waskesia Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:276. Holotype CT 
Hydroptila xella Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:65. Holotype O" 
Hydroptila xera Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:132. Holotype a 
Hydroptila xoncla Ross 1941 Can. 

Entomol. 73:16. Holotype cr 
Ithytrichia mazon Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:124. Holotype cr 
Leucotrichia limpia Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:273. Holotype O" 



Leucotrichia notosa Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Ball. 23:271. Holotype CT 
Leucotrichia sarita Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:274. Holotype cr 
Loxotrichia glasa Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:70. Holotype cr 
Mayatrichia acuna Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:279. Holotype cr 
Mayatrichia ponta Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:278. Holotype O" 
Neotrichia edalis Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:62. Holotype O" 
Neotrichia elerobi Blickle 1961 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 56:132. 

Holotype cr 
Neotrichia falca Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:119. Holotype Cf 
Neotrichia kitae Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:60. Holotype O" 
Neotrichia numii Ross 1948 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 38:205. Holotype O- 
Neotrichia okopa Ross 1939 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 32:629. Holo- 
type O" 
Neotrichia osmena Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:278. Holotype O" 
Neotrichia riegeli Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:61. Holotype cr 
Neotrichia sonora Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:277. Holotype Cf 
Neotrichia inbrans Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:119. Holotype cr 
Ochrotrichia capitana Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:275. Holotype cr 
Ochrotrichia felipe Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:275. Holotype cr 
Ochrotrichia phenosa Ross 1947 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:147. Holo- 
type O" 
Ochrotrichia riesi Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:132. Holotype O- 
Ochrotrichia trapoiza Ross 1947 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:146. Holo- 
type O" 
Ochrotrichia weddleae Ross 1944 111. 

Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:274. Holo- 
type cr 
Ochrotrichia u/q/Wc^v' Blickle 1963 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 58:20. 

Holotype cr 
Orthotrichia baldufi Kingsolver & Ross 

1961 Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 

54:32. Holotype cr 



July 1980 



WEBB; Primary Insect Types 



97 



Orthotrichia curta Kingsolver & Ross 

1961 Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 

54:33. Holotype O- 
Orthotrichia dentata Kingsolver & Ross 

1961 Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 

54:33. Holotype O" 
Oxyethira aculea Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:53. Holo- 
type o* 
Oxyethira aeola Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:117. Holotype cr 
Oxyethira allagashensis Blickle 1963 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 58:20. 

Holotype O" 
Oxyethira anobola Blickle 1966 Entomol. 

News 77:185. Holotype O- 
Oxyethira araya Ross 1941 Can. En- 
tomol. 73:15. Holotype O" 
Oxyethira arizona Ross 1948 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 38:202. Holotype 
Oxyethira lumosa Ross 1948 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 38:204. Holotype CT 
Oxyethira novasota Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:138 Holotype (7 
Oxyethira rivicola Blickle & Morse 1954 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 49:121. 

Holotype O" 
Oxyethira rossi Blickle & Morse 1957 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 52:48. 

Holotype O" 
Oxyethira serrata Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:117. Holotype C 
Oxyethira sida Blickle & Morse 1954 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 49:122. 

Holotype CT 
Oxyethira sodalis Ross & Spencer 1952 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. B. C. 48:46. 

Holotype O" 
Oxyethira verna Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:118. Holotype cr 
Oxyethira zeronia Ross 1941 Can. 

Entomol. 73:15. Holotype cr 
Polytrichia anisca Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:58. Holotype O" 
Polytrichia arva Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol Soc. 67:58. Holotype O" 
Polytrichia contorta Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:60. Holotype cr 

/ Polytrichia eliaga Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 67:57. Holotype O" 

I Polytrichia logana Ross 1941 Trans. 
j Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:54. Holotype C7 



Polytrichia lometa Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:55. Holotype cr 
Polytrichia mono Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:55. Holotype CT 
Polytrichia oregona Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:121, Holotype cr 
Polytrichia shawnee Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:120. Holotype O" 
Polytrichia spinosa Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:121. Holotype cr 
Polytrichia stylata Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:120. Holotype cr 
Polytrichia unio Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:56. Holotype cr 
Polytrichia xena Ross 1938 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:122. Holotype O" 
Stactobia brustia Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:115. Holotype O" 
Stactobia delira Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:115. Holotype Cf 
Stactobia palmata Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:116. Holotype CT 

Lepidostomatidae 

Jenortha cascadensis Milne 1936 Studies 
in North American Trichoptera 3:119. 
Holotype cr 

Lepidostoma cantha Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:118. Holo- 
type cr 

Lepidostoma delongi Ross 1946 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. \m. 39:283. Holo- 
type cr 

Lepidostoma hoodi Ross 1948 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 50:152. Holo- 
type cr 

Lepidostoma jewetti Ross 1946 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 39:285. Holo- 
type cr 

Lepidostoma hnowltoni Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21 '75. Holo- 
type cr 

Lepidostoma knulli Ross 1946 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 39:280. Holo- 
type O" 

Lepidostoma liba Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 67:120. Holotype cr 

Lepidostoma lotor Ross 1^46 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 39:275. Holo- 
type cr 

Lepidostoma lydia Ross 1939 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 41:70. Holo- 
type cr 



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Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Lepidostoma Ontario Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:119. Holo- 
type O" 
Lepidostoma ormea Ross 1946 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 39:275. Holo- 
type o" 
Lepidostoma pleca Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:175. Holotype cr 
Lepidostoma quercina Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:176. Holo- 
type cr 
Lepidostoma rayneri Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:117. Holo- 
type O" 
Lepidostoma rhino Ross 1946 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 39:276. Holo- 
type O" 
Lepidostoma sommermanae Ross 1946 
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 39:286. 
Holotype cr 
Lepidostoma strophis Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:177. Holotype cr 
Lepidostoma swannanoa Ross 1939 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 41:69. Holo- 
type cr 
Lepidostoma veroda Ross 1948 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 50:151. Holo- 
type O" 
Theliopsyche corona Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:174. Holotype O" 

Theliopsyche epilone Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:173. Holotype O" 

Leptoceridae 

Athripsodes alagmus Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:155. Holotype cr 

Athripsodes alces Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 67:95. Holotype cr 

Athripsodes brevis Etnier 1968 Entomol. 
News 79:188. Holotype cr 

Athripsodes cophus Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:156. Holotype cr 

Athripsodes erraticus Milne 1936 Studies 
in North American Trichoptera 3:58. 
Holotype cr 

Athripsodes erullus Ross 1938 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 31:90. Holo- 
type cr 

Athripsodes miscus Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:93. Holo- 
type cr 
Athripsodes nephus Ross 1944 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:230. Holotype cr 



Athripsodes ophioderus Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:157. Holo- 
type O" 
Athripsodes saccus Ross 1938 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 31:89. Holo- 
type Cf 
Athripsodes uvalo Ross 1938 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 31:89. Holo- 
type c 
Athripsodes wetzeli Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:94. Holo- 
type cr 
Leptocella diarina Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull.-23:218. Holotype cr 
Leptocella spiloma Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:219. Holotype Cf 
Leptocella tavara Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:287. Holotype Cf 
Leptocerus oligius Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:160. Holotype Cf 
Leptocerus oxapius Ross 1938 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 31:88. Holo- 
type Cf 
Leptocerus stehri Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:99. Holotype a 
Mystacides sandersoni Yamamoto & Ross 
1966 Can. Entomol. 98:630. Holo- 
type cr 
Oecetis daytona Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 73:153. Holotype Cf 
Oecetis ditissa Ross 1966 Trans. 111. 

State Acad. Sci. 59:13. Holotype cr 
Oecetis eddlestoni Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:160. Holotype cr 
Oecetis georgia Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:98. Holotype cr 
Oecetis nocturna Ross 1966 Trans. 111. 

State Acad. Sci. 59:11. Holotype cr 
Oecetis porteri Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 73:154. Holotype cr 
Oecetis sphyra Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 67:99. Holotype Cf 
Triaenodes aba Milne 1935 Studies in 
North American Trichoptera 2:20. 
Holotype cr 
Triaenodes baris Ross 1938 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 31:88. Holotype Cf 
Triaenodes connata Ross 1959 Entomol. 

News 70:44. Holotype cr 
Triaenodes dipsia Ross 1938 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 31:89. Holo- 
type cr 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



99 



Trtaenodes florida Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:96. Holotype C 

Trtaenodes fuTcella Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:44. Holotype Cf 

Trtaenodes melaca Ross 1947 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:155. Holo- 
type O" 

Trtaenodes nox Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 67:96. Holotype cr 

Trtaenodes perna Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:159. Holo- 
type O" 

Trtaenodes phalacris Ross 1938 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 31:88. Holo- 
type O" 

Trtaenodes smithi Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:40. Holotype O" 

Trtaenodes taenia Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:157. Holotype O- 

Trtaenodes tridonta Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:158. Holotype O" 

Limnephilidae 

Apatelia aenicta Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:162. Holotype CT 
Arctoecia ozbumi Milne 1935 Studies in 

North American Trichoptera 2:39. 

Holotype (7 
Banksiola selina Betten 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:169. Holotype O" 
Caborius kaskaskia Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:198. Holotype 9 
Carborius lyratus Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:163. Holotype O" 
Chyranda cordon Ross 1949 Pan-Pac. 

Entomol. 25:122. Holotype cr 
Colpotaulius rhaeus Milne 1935 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 2:42. 

Holotype C7 
Dicosmoecus aureoventris Davis 1949 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 42:449. 

Holotype O" 
Dicosmoecus canax Ross 1947 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:149. Holo- 
type cr 
Ecclisomyia scylla Milne 1935 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 2:37. 

Holotype O" 
Farula malkini Ross 1950 Am. Midi. 

Nat. 43:421. Holotype O- 
Farula ranieri Milne 1936 Studies in 

North American Trichoptera 3:116. 

Holotype cr 



Glyphopsyche axrigo Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:113. Holo- 
type cr 

Glyphopsyche missouri Ross 1944 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:200. Holo- 
type cr 

Glyphopsyche ormiae Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:163. Holotype Cf 

Homophylax andax Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:112. Holo- 
type cr 

Imania acanthis Ross 1950 Am. Midi. 
Nat. 43:419. Holotype cr 

Imania bifosa Ross 1950 Am. Midi. 
Nat. 43:415. Holotype cr 

Imania cascadis Ross 1950 Am. Midi. 
Nat. 43:415. Holotype cr 

Imania gnathos Ross 1950 Am. Midi. 
Nat. 43:413. Holotype cr 

Lepania cascada Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 67:102. Holotype cr 

Limnephilus acnestus Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:164. Holo- 
type cr 

Limnephilus acula Ross & Merkley 1952 
Am. Midi. Nat. 47:454. Holotype cr 

Limnephilus adapus Ross 1950 Am. 
Midi. Nat. 43:425. Holotype cr 

Limnephilus ademus Ross 1941 Can. 
Entomol. 73:18. Holotype cr 

Limnephilus alconura Ross & Merkley 
1952 Am. Midi. Nat. 47:453. Holo- 
type cr 

Limnephilus aldinus Ross 1941 Can. 
Entomol. 73:19. Holotype cr 

Limnephilus aretto Ross 1938 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 40:121. Holo- 
type cr 

Limnephilus arizona Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:108. Holo- 
type cr 

Limnephilus castor Ross & Merkley 1952 
Am. Midi. Nat. 47:451. Holotype cr 

Limnephilus cerus Ross & Spencer 1952 
Proc. Entomol. Soc. B. C. 48:48. 
Holotype cr 

Limnephilus circopa Ross & Merkley 
1952 Am. Midi. Nat. 47:452. Holo- 
type cr 

Limnephilus conerus Ross 1950 Am. 
Midi. Nat. 43:426. Holotype cr 



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Limnephilus ectus Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:105. Holo- 
type cr 

Limnephilus fagus Ross 1941 Can. 
Entomol. 73:18. Holotype cr 

Limnephilus frijole Ross 1944 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:282. Holotype O" 

Limnephilus keratus Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:165. Holotype O" 

Limnephilus labus Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:105. Holo- 
type O" 

Limfiephilus lopho Ross 1949 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 25:119. Holotype O- 

Limnephilus lunonus Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:107. Holo- 
type cr 

Limnephilus merinthus Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:166. Holo- 
type <y 

Limnephilus nogus Ross 1944 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:281. Holotype O- 

Limnephilus oreus Milne 1935 Studies in 
North American Trichoptera 2:46. 
Holotype O" 

Limnephilus santanus Ross 1949 Pan- 
Pac. Entomol. 25:120. Holotype CT 

Limnephilus sericeus Say 1824 From 
the Narrative of the Expedition to the 
Source of the St. Peter's River, etc., 
Under the Command of Stephen H. 
Long, Major U. S. T. E. 2:309. 
Neotype 9 designated by Ross (1944: 
192) 

Limnephilus taloga Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:166. Holotype O" 
Limnephilus thorus Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:167. Holotype cr 
Neophylax aniqua Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 73:153. Holotype O" 
Neophylax atlanta Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 73:152. Holotype O" 
Neophylax ayanus Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:168. Holotype O- 
Neophylax oligius Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:168. Holotype C 
Neophylax rickeri Milne 1935 Studies in 

North American Trichoptera 2:22. 

Holotype O" 
Neophylax stolus Ross 1938 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:169. Holotype CT 
Neothremma didactyla Ross 1949 J. 

Wash. Acad. Sci. 39:92. Holotype Cf 



Oligophlebodes ardis Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:103. Holotypie Cf 

Oligophlebodes ruthae Ross 1944 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:285. Holotype cr 

Oligophlebodes sierra Ross 1944 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:284. Holotype Cf 

Pedomoecus sierra Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 73:151. Holotype C 

Philocasca demita Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 67:111. Holotype O" 

Philocasca oron Ross 1949 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 25:124. Holotype O" 

Platycentropus plectrus Ross 1938 111, 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:169. Holo- 
type O" 

Platycentropus radiatus Say 1824 From 
the Narrative of the Expedition to the 
Source of the St. Peter's River, etc. 
Under the Command of Stephen H. 
Long, Major U. S. T. E. 2:308. Neotype 
O- designated by Ross (1944:182) 

Psychoglypha avigo Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:113. Holotype C 

Psychoglypha rossi Schmid 1952 Arch. 
Hydrobiol. 47:126. Holotype cr 

Pycnopsyche aglonus Ross 1941 Can. 
Entomol. 73:18. Holotype Cf 

Pycnopsyche rossi Betten 1950 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 43:520. Holotype O" 

Pycnopsyche subfasciata Say 1828 
American Entomology, or Descriptions 
of the Insects of North America 3:pl, 44. 
Neotype Cf designated by Ross 
(1944:195) 

Radema sorex Ross 1941 Trans. Am. En- 
tomol. Soc. 67:101. Holotype CT 

Stenophylax indiana Ross 1938 Proc. En- 
tomol. Soc. Wash. 40:121. Holotype cr 

Molannidae 

Molannodes bergi Ross 1952 Entomol. 
News 63:86. Holotype CT 

Odontoceridae 

Marilia nobsca Milne 1936 Studies in 
North American Trichoptera 3:79. 
Holotype 9 

Psilotreta labida Ross 1944 111. Nat. Hist. 
Surv. Bull. 23:287. Holotype cr 

Philopotamidae 

Chimarra acuta Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:171. Holotype Cf 



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101 



Chimarra boneti Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:171. Holotype cr 

Chimarra brustia Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:176. Holotype o- 

Chimarra calva Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:174. Holotype O" 

Chimarra centralis Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:178. Holotype o- 

Chimarra cornuta Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:175. Holotype O" 

Chimarra curfmani Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:174. Holotype cr 

Chimarra dentosa Ross 1948 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 41:25. Holotype O" 

Chimarra elia Ross 1944 111. Nat. Hist. 
Surv. Bull. 23:269. Holotype cr 

Chimarra embia Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:170. Holotype cr 

Chimarra emima Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:172. Holotype cr 

Chimarra feria Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 67:51. Holotype cr 

Chimarra florida Ross 1944 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:270. Holotype Of 

Chimarra hoogstraali Ross 1956 Evolu- 
tion and Classification of the Mountain 
Caddisflies p. 70. Holotype a 

Chimarra ovalis Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:170. Holotype C 

Chimarra patosa Ross 1956 Evolution 
and Classification of the Mountain 
Caddisflies p. 71. Holotype CT 

Chimarra perigua Ross 1948 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 41:24. Holotype O" 

Chimarra schiza Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:172. Holotype O" 

Chimarra setosa Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:175. Holotype O" 

Chimarra spatulata Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:176. Holotype cr 

Chimarra tsudai Ross 1956 Evolution and 
Classification of the Mountain Cad- 
disflies p. 71. Holotype cr 

Chimarra utahensis Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:134. Holotype O" 

Chimarra volenta Ross 1959 Entomol. 
News 70:170. Holotype Cf 

Dolophilus anillus Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:50. Holotype cr 

Dolophilus occideus Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:134. Holotype cr 

Dolophilus shawnee Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:133. Holotype a 



Dolophilus stratus Ross 1938 Proc. En- 
tomol. Soc. Wash. 40:118. Holotype cr 

Gatlinia mohri Ross 1948 Ann. Entomol. 
Soc. Am. 41:23. Holotype cr 

Paulianodes tsaratanae Ross 1956 Evo- 
lution and Classification of the Moun- 
tain Caddisflies p. 54. Holotype O" 

Philopotamus dorcus Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:132. Holotype cr 

Protarrha peruviana Ross 1956 Evolution 
and Classification of the Mountain 
Caddisflies p. 68. Holotype O" 

Wormaldia dampfi Ross & King in Ross 
1956 Evolution and Classification of 
the Mountain Caddisflies p. 62. 
Holotype cr 

Wormaldia dorsata Ross & King in Ross 
1956 Evolution and Classification of 
the Mountain Caddisflies p. 62. 
Holotype cr 

Wormaldia endonima Ross & King in 
Ross 1956 Evolution and Classification 
of the Mountain Caddisflies p. 62. 
Holotype cr 

Wormaldia esperonis Ross & King in Ross 
1956 Evolution and Classification of 
the Mountain Caddisflies p. 63. 
Holotype O" 

Wormaldia planae Ross & King in Ross 
1956 Evolution and Classification of 
the Mountain Caddisflies p. 64. 
Holotype cr 

Wormaldia sisko Ross 1949 Proc. En- 
tomol. Soc. Wash. 51:157. Holotype cr 

Phryganeidae 

Agrypnia dextra Ross 1938 111. Nat. Hist. 

Surv. Bull. 21:161. Holotype cr 
Ptilostomis semifasciata Say 1828 

American Entomology, or Descriptions 

of the Insects of North America 3:pl. 

44. Neotype cr designated by Ross 

(1944:173) 

Polycentropodidae 

Cernotina astera Ross 1941 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 67:76. Holotype cr 

Cernotina calcea Ross 1938 111. Nat. Hist. 
Surv. Bull. 21:137. Holotype O- 

Cernotina laticula Ross 1951 Rev. En- 
tomol. 22:348. Holotype O" 

Cernotina ohio Ross 1939 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 32:628. Holotype O" 



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Cernotina Oklahoma Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:137. Holotype O- 

Cernotina sinosa Ross 1951 Rev. 
Entomol. 22:346. Holotype O" 

Cernotina spicata Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:138. Holotype O- 

Cernotina stannardi Ross 1951 Rev. En- 
tomol. 22:343. Holotype O" 

Cernotina taeniata Ross 1951 Rev. En- 
tomol. 22:344. Holotype cr 

Cernotina truncona Ross 1947 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:137. Holo- 
type O" 

Cernotina uncifera Ross 1951 Rev. En- 
tomol. 22:348. Holotype cr 

Cernotina zanclana Ross 1951 Rev. En- 
tomol. 22:344. Holotype CT 

Holocentropus glacialis Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:135. 
Holotype O" 

Holocentropus melanae Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:136. 
Holotype O" 

Neureclipsis melco Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 73:134. Holotype cr 

Nyctiophylas uncus Ross 1944 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:70. Holotype O" 

Phylocentropus rabilis Milne 1936 
Studies in North American 
Trichoptera 3:84. Holotype O" 

Plectrocnemia clinei Milne 1936 Studies 
in North American Trichoptera 3:87. 
Holotype cr 

Polycentropus alleni Yamamoto 1967 J. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:127. Holo- 
type <y 

Polycentropus altmani Yamamoto 1967 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:130. 
Holotype O" 

Polycentropus harri Ross & Yamamoto 
1965 Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 78:241. 
Holotype O" 

Polycentropus blickei Ross & Yamamoto 
1965 Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 78:243. 
Holotype O" 

Polycentropus charlesi Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:74. Holotype C 

Polycentropus chelatus Ross & 
Yamamoto 1965 Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 
78:243. Holotype O" 

Polycentropus chenoides Ross & Yama- 
moto 1965 Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 
78:243. Holotype a 



Polycentropus chilensis Yamamoto 1966 

Can. Entomol. 98:911. Holotype a 
Polycentropus clinei Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:87. 

Holotype O" 
Polycentropus colei Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:76. Holotype (7 
Polycentropus deltoides Yamamoto 1967 

J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:130. 

Holotype O" 
Polycentropus dentoides Yamamoto 1967 

J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:132. 

Holotype O" 
Polycentropus digitus Yamamoto 1967 J. 

Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:131. 

Holotype O" 
Polycentropus elarus Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:65. Holotype O" 
Polycentropus elongatus Yamamoto 1966 

Can. Entomol. 98:909. Holotype O" 
Polycentropus iculus Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:74. Holotype Cf 
Polycentropus laminatus Yamamoto 

1966 Can. Entomol. 98:909. Holo- 
type c 
Polycentropus milaca Etnier 1968 En- 
tomol. News 79:189. Holotype Cf 
Polycentropus nascotius Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:73. Holotype O" 
Polycentropus neiswanderi Ross 1947 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:135. 

Holotype cr 
Polycentropus pentus Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:71. Holotype CT 
Polycentropus picana Ross 1947 

Trans Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:136. 

Holotype C 
Polycentropus pixi Ross 1944 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:66. Holotype cr 
Polycentropus recurvatus Yamamoto 

1966 Can. Entomol. 98:912. Holo- 
type cr 
Polycentropus rickeri Yamamoto 1966 

J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 39:688. 

Holotype cr 
Polycentropus robacki Yamamoto 1966 

Can. Entomol. 98:911. Holotype cr 
Polycentropus rosarius Kingsolver 1964 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 66:257. 

Holotype Ci" 

Polycentropus Santiago Ross 1947 Trans. 

Am, Entomol. Soc. 73:136. Holotype O- 

Polycentropus spicatus Yamamoto 1967 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



103 



J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40:131. 

Holotype O" 
Polycentropus weedi Blickle & Morse 

1955 Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 

50:95. Holotype O" 
Psychomyiella lumina Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:139. Holotype C 
Psychomyiella nomada Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:138. Holotype CT 
Tinodes multispinosa Schmid 1972 Nat. 

Can. 99:169. Holotype cr 
Tinodes provo Ross & Merkley 1950 J. 

Kans. Entomol. Soc. 23:66. Holotype cr 
Tinodes sigodana Ross & Merkley 1950 

J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 23:67. Holo- 
type O" 

Psychomyiidae 

Xiphocentron mexico Ross 1949 En- 
tomol. News 60:4. Holotype O" 

Rhyacophilidae 

Atopsyche alconura Ross 1953 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 43:292. Holotype cr 
Atopsyche aplita Ross & King 1952 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 45:192. Holotype O" 
Atopsyche boneti Ross & King 1952 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 45:194. 

Holotype O" 
Atopsyche calopta Ross & King 1952 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 45:188. Holotype cr 
Atopsyche dampfi Ross & King 1952 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 45:194. Holotype O" 
Atopsyche erigia Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 

Entomol Soc. 73:129. Holotype CT 
Atopsyche espala Ross & King 1952 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 45:190. Holotype O" 
Atopsyche explanata Ross 1953 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 43:288. Holotype O- 
Atopsyche japoda Ross & Kin 1952 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 45:20i; Holo- 
type o- 
Atopsyche kamesa Ross & King 1952 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 45:196. Holotype O" 
Atopsyche kingi Ross 1953 J. Wash Acad. 

Sci. 43:289. Holotype O" 
Atopsyche majada Ross 1947 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 73:129. Holotype cr 
Atopsyche ulmeri Ross 1953 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 43:288. Holotype CT 
Atopsyche vatucra Ross 1953 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 43:290. Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila amicis Ross 1956 Evolution 



and Classification of the Mountain Cad- 
disflies p. 120. Holotype cr 

Rhyacophila banksi Ross 1944 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:268. Holotype cr 

Rhyacophila belona Ross 1948 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 41:19. Holotype cr 

Rhyacophila blarina Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:36. Holotype cr 

Rhyacophila bruesi Milne & Milne 1940 
Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 35:154. 
Holotype O" 

Rhyacophila ecosa Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:37. Holotype O" 

Rhyacophila fenderi Ross 1948 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 41:18. Holotype O" 

Rhyacophila fenestra Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:102. Holo- 
type cr 

Rhyacophila gemona Ross 1938 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 40:117. Holo- 
type O" 

Rhyacophila harmstoni Ross 1944 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:268. Holo- 
type cr 

Rhyacophila inculta Ross & Spencer 1952 
Proc. Entomol. Soc. B. C. 48:43. Holo- 
type O" 

Rhyacophila iranda Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:103. Holotype cr 

Rhyacophila jigme Schmid 1970 Mem. 
Entomol. Soc. Can. 66:145. Holo- 
type cr 

Rhyacophila kiamichi Ross 1944 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 23:37. Holo- 
type O" 

Rhyacophila latitergum Davis 1949 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 42:448. Holo- 
type cr 

Rhyacophila ledra Ross 1939 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 41:65. Holo- 
type O" 

Rhyacophila malkini Ross 1947 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:126. Holo- 
type CT 

Rhyacophila manistee Ross 1938 111. 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:104. Holo- 
type O" 

Rhyacophila melita Ross 1938 111. Nat. 
Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:104. Holotype O" 

Rhyacophila milnei Ross 1950 J. Wash. 
Acad. Sci. 40:264. Holotype cr 

Rhyacophila mycta Ross 1941 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:38. Holotype Cf 



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Rhyacophila norcuta Ross 1938 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 40:117. Holo- 

type cr 
Rhyacophila ophrys Ross 1948 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 41:19. Holotype O" 
Rhyacophila oreia Ross 1947 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 73:126. Holo- 
type O" 
Rhyacophila oreta Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:39. Holotype O- 
Rhyacophila parantra Ross 1948 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 41:17. Holotype CT 
Rhyacophila pellisa Ross 1938 Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 40:118. Holo- 
type c 
Rhyacophila perda Ross 1938 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Bull. 21:105. Holotype O" 
Rhyacophila perplana Ross & Spencer 

1952 Proc. Entomol. Soc. B. C. 48:44. 

Holotype O" 
Rhyacophila phryganea Ross 1941 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 67:40. Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila rayneri Ross 1951 Proc. 

Calif. Acad. Sci. 27:66. Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila rickeri Ross 1956 Evolution 

and Classification of the Mountain 

Caddisflies p. 120. Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila teddyi Ross 1939 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 32:628. Holo- 
type O" 
Rhyacophila tucula Ross 1950 J. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 40:261. Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila vaccua Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:94. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila vaefes Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:96. 

Holotype O" 
Rhyacophila vagrita Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:91. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila valuma Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:100. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila vao Milne 1936 Studies in 

North American Trichoptera 3:93. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila vedra Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:97. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila vemna Milne 1936 Studies 



in North American Trichoptera 3:92. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila vepulsa Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:96. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila verrula Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:90. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila vetina Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:91. 

Holotype O" 
Rhyacophila vibox Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:101. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila viquaea Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:92. 

Holotype O" 
Rhyacophila visor Milne 1936 Studies in 

North American Trichoptera 3:91. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila vobara Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:94. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila vocala Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:100. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila vofixa Milne 1936 Studies in 

North American Trichoptera 3:95. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila vohrna Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:94. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila vu Milne 1936 Studies in 

North American Trichoptera 3:93. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila vujuna Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:99. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila vuphipes Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:99. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila inizana Milne 1936 Studies 

in North American Trichoptera 3:97. 

Holotype cr 
Rhyacophila willamelta Ross 1950 J. 

Wash. Acad. Sci. 40:261. Holotype cr 

Sericostomatidae 

Notidobia pele Ross 1938 111. Nat. Hist. 
Surv. Bull. 21:170. Holotype cr 

Sericostoma stannardi Ross 1962 En- 
tomol. News 73:130. Holotype cr 

Sericostoma tetron Ross 1948 Proc. En- 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



105 



tomol. Soc. Wash. 50:154. Holo- 
type cr 

LEPIDOPTERA 

Acrolophidae 

AcTolophus sinclairi nelsoni Hasbrouck 
1964 Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 114:653. 
Holotype O" 

Arctiidae 

Euchaetes bolteri Stretch 1885 Entomol. 

Am. 1:106. Holotype 9 
Halisidota significans Hy. Edwards 1888 

Entomol. Am. 3:182. Holotype Cf 

Ceometridae 

Aspilates behrensaria Hulst 1887 En- 
tomol. Am. 2:210. Syntype 19 

Biston ypsilon Forbes 1885 Rep. State 
Entomol. 111. 14:95. Holotype CT 

Coenocalpe polygrammata Hulst 1896 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 23:288. Syn- 
type 19 (?) see Prison (1927:161) 

Diastictis floridensis Hulst 1898 Can. 
Entomol. 30:164. Syntype lO" (?) see 
Prison (1927:161) 

Diastictis speciosa Hulst 1896 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 23:332. Syntype 19 

Hydriomena neomexicana Hulst 1896 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 23:285. 
Syntype 19 

Plemyria georgii Hulst 1896 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 23:280. Syntype lO- 

Selidosema albescens Hulst 1896 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 23:355. Holo- 
type O" 

Sympherta Julia Hulst 1896 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 23:338. Syntype lO" 
(?) see Prison (1927:233) 

Hepialidae 

Hepialus confusus Hy. Edwards 1884 
Papilio 4:122. Holotype 9 

Hesperiidae 

Poanes viator Edwards 1865 Proc. En- 
tomol. Soc. Phila. 4:202. Neotype cr 
designated by Shapiro (1971:110) 

Noctuidae 

Heliotonche indiana Smith 1908 En- 
tomol. News 19:423. Syntype 19 



Pallachira hartii French 1894 Bull. 111. 
State Lab. Nat. Hist. 4:9. Lectotype O" 
designated by Prison (1927:161) 

Pseudaglossa forbesii French 1894 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 4:8. Lecto- 
type 9 designated by Prison (1927:162) 

Pseudalypia crotchii atrata Hy. Edwards 
1884 Papilio 4:121. Holotype 9 

Notodontidae 

Heterocampa super ba Hy. Edwards 1884 

Papilio 4:121. Holotype 9 
Macrurocampa dorothea Dyar 1896 Can. 

Entomol. 28:176. Holotype 9 

Phaloniidae 

Hysterosia merrickana Kearfott 1907 
Can. Entomol. 39:59. Syntypes 29 

Prodoxidae 

Thia extranea Hy. Edwards 1888 En- 
tomol. Am. 3:181. Lectotype O" 
designated by Davis (1967:44) 

Pterophoridae 

Oidaematophorus glenni Cashatt 1972 J. 
Lepid. Soc. 26:11. Holotype cr 

Pyralidae 

Pyrausta caffreii Flint & Malloch 1920 
Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:304. 
Holotype O" 

Zophodia epischnioides Hulst 1900 Can. 
Entomol. 32:173. Syntype lO" 

Satyridae 

Erebia rhodia Edwards 1871 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 3:273. Syntype Icr 

HYMENOPTERA 

Andrenidae 

Andrena aliciae Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:57. Holotype 9 

Andrena arabis Robertson 1897 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:334. Lectotype 
9 designated by Ribble (1974:117) 

Andrena asteris Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:56. Lectotype 9 
designated by LaBerge (1967:150) 

Andrena banksi Malloch 1917 Bull. 
Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 12:89. Holo- 
type 9 



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Andrena (Melandrenaj barbara Bouse- 
man & LaBerge 1979 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 104:297. Holotype 9 

Andrena claytoniae Robertson 1891 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:59. 
Lectotype 9 designated by LaBerge 
(1971:455) 

Andrena corni Robertson 1900 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 10:50. Holotype 9 

Andrena crataegi Robertson 1893 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc, 20:273. Lectotype 
9 designated by LaBerge (1969:8) 

Andrena rreiiowH Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:56. Lectotype 
9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 7IV-1890, 
C. A. Robertson, No. 9067) here desig- 
nated by W.E. LaBerge 

Andrena (Nemandrena) crudeni La- 
Berge 1971 Pan-Pac. Entomol. 47:54. 
Holotype 9 

Andrena dubia Robertson 1902 Can. 
Entomol. 34:48. Lectotype CT (Illinois, 
Carlinville, 17-IV-1888, C. A. Robert- 
son, No. 7165) here designated by 
W. E. LaBerge 

Andrena erigeniae Robertson 1891 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:52. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 4-V- 
1886, C. A. Robertson, No. 1052) here 
designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Andrena erythronii Robertson 1891 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:53. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
11-IV1888. C. A. Robertson, No. 
7102) here designated by W. E. 
LaBerge 

Andrena flexa Malloch 1917 Bull. 
Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 12:92. Holo- 
type 9 

Andrena forbesii Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:59. Lectotype 
9 designated by LaBerge (1973:263) 

Andrena geranit Robertson 1891 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:54. Lectotype 

9 designated by LaBerge (1977:116) 
Andrena g. maculati Robertson 1897 

Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:333. 

Lectotype 9 (Illinois Carlinville, 

11-IV-I886, C. A. Robertson. No. 

1101) here desginated by W. E. 

LaBerge. 



Andrena helianthi Robertson 1891 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:55. 
Lectotype 9 designated by LaBerge 
(1967:99) 

Andrena heraclei Robertson 1897 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:336. Lectotype 
9 designated by LaBerge (1973:345) 

Andrena hippotes Robertson 1895 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 22:120. Lectotype 
9 designated by LaBerge (1973:295) 

Andrena (Melandrenaj illini Bouseman 
& LaBerge 1979 Trans. Am. En- 
tomol. Soc. 104:355. Holotype 9 

Andrena iltinoiensis Robertson 1891 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:54. Lec- 
totype O" designated by Ribble 
(1968:305) 

Andrena illinoiensis bicolor Robertson 
1898 Trans. Acad. Sci. St, Louis 8:46. 
Lectotype 9 designated by Ribble 
(1968:316) 

Andrena kngiana Robertson 1901 Can. 
EntomoL 33:229. Lectotype 9 
designated by LaBerge (1967:160) 

Andrena lauracea Robertson 1897 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:331. Holotype 9 

Andrena (Thysandrena) Ihtda LaBerge 
1977 Trans. Am, Entomol, Soc, 
103:45, Holotype 9 

Andrena macoupinensis Robertson 1900 
Trans, Acad, Sci, St, Louis 10:48, Lec- 
totype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville. 
17-V-1897, C. A. Robertson, No. 
19427) here designated by 
W. E. LaBerge 

Andrena mandibularis Robertson 1892 
Am. Nat. 26:272. Lectotype O" (Il- 
linois, Carlinville, 17-IV-1888, C, A, 
Robertson, No, 7208) here desig- 
nated by W, E, LaBerge 

Andrena mariae Robertson 1891 Trans, 
Am, Entomol, Soc. 18:58. Lectotype 
9 designated by LaBerge (1973:303) 

Andrena mariae concolor Robertson 
1898 Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 8:46. 
Lectotype O" designated by LaBerge 
(1973:303) 

Andrena nasonti Robertson 1895 Trans. 
Am, Entomol, Soc. 22:120. Lectotype 
9 (Illinois, Carlinville, l-V-1894, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 16323) here desig- 
nated by W. E. LaBerge 



J 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



107 



Andrena nigrae Robertson 1905 Can. 
Entomol. 37:237. Lectotype 9 
designated by Ribble (1968:316) 

Andrena nothoscordi Robertson 1897 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:331. Lec- 
totype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
29-IV-1895, C. A. Robertson, No. 
17109) here designated by W. E. 
LaBerge 

Andrena nuda Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:57. Lectotype 9 
designated by LaBerge (1973:335) 

Andrena perezi Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:51. Lectotype 9 
designated by LaBerge & Bouseman 
(1970:554) 

Andrena personate Robertson 1897 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:336. Lec- 
totype 9 designated by Ribble 
(1968:257) 

Andrena platyparia Robertson 1895 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 22:119. Lec- 
totype 9 designated by LaBerge & Rib- 
ble (1972:290) 

Andrena polemonii Robertson 1891 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:54. Lec- 
totype 9 designated by LaBerge 
(1977:134) 

Andrena pruni Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:51. Lectotype 9 
designated by Bouseman & LaBerge 
(1979:307) 

Andrena pulchella Robertson 1891 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:57. Lec- 
totype 9 designated by LaBerge 
(1967:66) 

Andrena quintilis Robertson 1898 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 8:46. Lectotype 9 
designated by LaBerge (1973:283) 

Andrena rudbeckiae Robertson 1891 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:56. Lec- 
totype O" designated by LaBerge 
(1967:93) 

Andrena rugosa Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:58. Lectotype 9 
designated by LaBerge (1973:331) 

Andrena salicacea Robertson 1900 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 10:48. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 18-IV-1899, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 21578) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 



Andrena salicis Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:53. Lectotype 9 
(lUinois, Carlinville, 18-IV-1886, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 835) here designated by 
W. E. LaBerge 
Andrena salictaria Robertson 1905 Can. 

Entomol. 37:236. Holotype 9 
Andrena 50312' Robertson 1891 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 18:52. Lectotype 9 
designated by Bouseman & LaBerge 
(1979:311) 
Andrena scutellaris Robertson 1893 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:148. Lec- 
totype 9 designated by Ribble (1 967 : 36) 
Andrena serotina Robertson 1893 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:148. Lec- 
totype 9 designated by LaBerge 
(1977:100) 
Andrena solidaginis Robertson 1891 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:55. Lec- 
totype 9 designated by LaBerge 
(1967:140) 
^ ndrena ipiVaeana Robertson 1 895 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 22:120. Lectotype 9 
designated by LaBerge (1973:341) 
Andrena torulosa LaBerge 1971 Pan-Pac. 

Entomol. 47:49. Holotype 9 
Andrena tridens Robertson 1902 Trans. 
Am . Entomol . Soc . 28 : 1 92 . Lectotype cr 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 21-III-1894, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 16244) here designated 
byW. E. LaBerge 
Andrena trimaculata LaBerge 1967 Bull. 
Univ. Nebr. State Mus. 7:68. Holotype9 
(on permanent loan to the Illinois 
Natural History Survey from the 
University of Arizona, Tucson) 
Andrena viciniformis Robertson 1900 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 10:47. Lec- 
totype 9 designated by Bouseman & 
LaBerge (1979:304) 
Andrena violae Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:53. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville. 20-IV-1886, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 884) here designated by 
W. E. LaBerge 
Andrena ziziae Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am, Entomol. Soc. 18:55. Lectotype 9 
designated by Ribble (1968:269) 
A nt hemurgus passt florae Robertson 1902 
Can, Entomol. 34:321. Lectotype O" (Il- 
linois, Carlinville, 31-VII-1902, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 23355) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 



108 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Calliopsis asteris Robertson 1895 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. See. 22:121. LectotypeQ 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 20-1X1893, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 15686) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Calliopsis compositarum Robertson 1893 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:274. Lec- 
totype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
20-1X1888, C. A. Robertson. No. 8654) 
here designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Calliopsis labrosus Robertson 1895 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 22: 122. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 24-VIIM893, C. 
A. Robertson, No. 15264) here 
designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Calliopsis parvus Robertson 1892 Am. 
Nat. 26:273. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 
Carhnville, 28-V-1891, C. A. Robert- 
son, No. 1 1 153) here designated by W. 
E. LaBerge 

Calliopsis rudbeckiae Robertson 1895 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 22:122. Lec- 
totype 9 (Illinois) here designated by W. 
E. LaBerge 

Calliopsis rugosus Robertson 1895 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 22:121. Lec- 
totype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
22-VII-1893, C. A. Robertson, No. 
15235) here designated by W. E. 
LaBerge 

Calliopsis solidaginis Robertson 1893 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 22:274. 
Holotype 9 

Panurginus labrosiformis Robertson 
1898 Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 8:49. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
24-VIII-1893, C. A. Robertson, No. 
15277) here designated by W. E. 
LaBerge 

Panurgus autumnalis Robertson 1895 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 22:121. Lec- 
totype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
28-1X1893, C. A. Robertson, No. 
15874) here designated by W. E. 
LaBerge 

Panurgus novae -angliae Robertson 1897 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:339. 
Lectotype O" (Massachusetts, 
Winchendon, 5-VII-1892) here 
designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Parandrena andrenoides bicolor Robert- 
son 1898 Trans. Acad. Sci. St. 
Louis 8:47. Lectotype 9 designated by 
LaBerge & Ribble (1972:318) 



Parandrena wellesleyana Robertson 1897 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:337. 
Lectotype 9 designated by LaBerge & 
Ribble (1972:328) 

Perditafraterna Timberlake 1929J. N. Y. 
Entomol. Soc. 37:123. Holotype cr 

Perdita gerhardi arenicola Timberlake 
1929 J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 37:119. 
Holotype O" 

Perdita lasiogaster Timberlake 1929 J. N. 
Y. Entomol. Soc. 37:115. Holotype cr 

Perdita maculipennis bilineata Timber- 
lake 1929J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 37:121. 
Holotype 9 

Perditella boltoniae Robertson 1902 Can. 
Entomol. 34:321. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 
Carlinville, 3-1X1902, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 23451) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Trachandrena obscura Robertson 1902 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 28:189. 
Holotype 9 



Apidae 

Ceratina calcarata Robertson 1900 Trans. 

Acad. Sci. St. Louis 10:54. Lectotj-peO" 

designated by Daly (1973:43) 
Epeolus autumnalis Robertson 1902 

Entomol. News 13:81. Lectotype 9 

(Illinois, Carlinville, 20-1X1890, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 9528) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge 
Epeolus cressonii Robertson 1897 Trans. 

Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:344. Lectotype 9 

(No. 3282a) here designated by W. E. 

LaBerge 
Epeolus helianthi Robertson 1897 Trans. 

Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:344. Lectotype 9 

(Illinois, Carlinville, 18-1X1890, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 9496) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge 
Epeolus interrupt us Robertson 1900 

Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 10:55. ■■ 

Holotype 9 | 

Epeolus lectoides Robertson 1901 Can. 

Entomol. 33:231. Holotype 9 
Epeolus lunatus concolor Robertson 

1898 Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 8:51. 

Lectotype 9 (Illinois. Carlinville. 

24-VII-1888, C. A. Robertson. No. 

8174)here designated by W. E. LaBerge 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



109 



Epeolus pectorah's Robertson 1897 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:345. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 18-1X1893, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 15626) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Gnathias cuneatus Robertson 1903 Can. 
Entomol. 35:175. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 
Carlinville, 19-IV-1890, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 9119) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Gnathias cuneatus decemnotatus Robert- 
son 1903 Can. Entomol. 35:175. Type 
specimens lost 

Gnathias cuneatus octonotatus Robert- 
son 1903 Can. Entomol. 35:175. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
19-IV-I890, C. A. Robertson, No. 9119) 
here designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Gnathias cuneatus quadrisignatus Robert- 
son 1903 Can. Entomol. 35:176. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
17-IV-1888, C.A. Robertson, No. 7355) 
here designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Gnathias cuneatus sexnotatus Robertson 
1903 Can. Entomol. 35:176. Holotype9 

Gnathias ovatus Robertson 1903 Can. En- 
tomol. 35:175. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 
Carlinville, 17-IV-1888, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 7347) here desigfnated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Gnathias ovatus hinotatus Robertson 1903 
Can. Entomol. 35:175. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 17-IV-1888, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 7350) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Gnathias ovatus octomaculatus Robertson 
1903 Can. Entomol. 35:175. Lectotype 
9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 17-IV-1888, C. 
A. Robertson, No. 7349) here 
designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Gnathias ovatus plenus Robertson 1903 
Can. Entomol. 35:175. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 17-IV-1888, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 7347) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Gnathias ovatus quadrimaculatus Robert- 
son 1903 Can. Entomol. 35:175. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
21-IV-1897, C. A. Robertson, No. 
19091) here designated by W. E. 
LaBerge 



Gnathias ovatus sexmaculatus Robertson 

1903 Can. Entomol. 35:175. Lectotype 

9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 18-V-1898, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 20903) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge 
Gnathias ovatus unicolor Robertson 1903 

Can. Entomol. 35:175. Lectotype 9 

(Illinois, Carlinville, 28-IV-1900, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 22307) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge 
Melissodes asteris Robertson 1914 

Entomol. News 25:373. Lectotype 9 

designated by LaBerge (1961:552) 
Melissodes autumnalis Robertson 1905 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 31:369. 

Lectotype 9 designated by LaBerge 

(1961:406) 
Melissodes boltoniae Robertson 1905 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 31:368. 

Lectotype 9 designated by LaBerge 

(1961:485) 

Melissodes cnici Robertson 1901 Can. 
Entomol. 33:230. Lectotype 9 
designated by LaBerge (19566:566) 

Melissodes comptoides Robertson 1898 

Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 8:5^. 

Lectotype 9 designated by LaBerge 

(1956a:1092) 
Melissodes coreopsis Robertson 1905 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 31:368. 

Lectotype 9 designated by LaBerge 

(1961:452) 

Melissodes illinoensis Robertson 1895 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 22:126. 
Lectotype 9designated by LaBerge 
(1956a:1014) 

Melissodes nivea Robertson 1895 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 22:127. Lectotype9 
designated by LaBerge (1961:457) 

Melissodes pallida Robertson 1895 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 22:127. Holotype 9 

Melissodes petalostemonis Robertson 
1900 Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 10:53. 
Lectotype 9 designated by LaBerge 
(1956a: 1135) 

Melissodes simillima Robertson 1897 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:355. 
Lectotype 9 designated by LaBerge 
(1961:552) 

Melissodes trinodis Robertson 1901 Can. 
Entomol. 33:231. Lectotype 9 
designated by LaBerge (1961:397) 



110 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Melissodes variabilis Robertson 1905 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 31:368. 

Lectotype 9 designated by LaBerge 

(1956a:1056) 
Melissodes vernoniae Robertson 1902 Can. 

Entomol. 34:323. Lectotype 9 

designated by LaBerge (1961:519) 
Melissodes vernoniana Robertson 1905 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 31:368. 

Lectotype 9 designated by LaBerge 

(1961:515) 
Nomada cressonii Robertson 1893 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:275. Lectotype 9 

(Illinois, Carlinville, 5-IV-1892, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 13158) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge 

Nomada denticulata Robertson 1902 
Can. Entomol. 34:49. Lectotype O" 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 17-IV-1888, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 7346) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Nomada erigeronis Robertson 1897 Trans. 
Acad Sci . St . Louis 7 : 34 1 . Holotype 9 

Nomada illinoisensis Robertson 1900 
Can. Entomol. 32:294. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 17-IV-1888, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 7353) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Nomada integra Robertson 1893 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:276. Lectotype O" 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 17-IV-1888, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 7294) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Nomada luteoloides Robertson 1895 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 22:124. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
3-V-1888, C. A. Robertson, No. 7511) 
here designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Nomada parva Robertson 1900 Can. 
Entomol. 32:294. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 
Carlinville, 14-V-1892, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 13242) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Nomada salicis Robertson 1900 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 10:52. Holotype O" 

Nomada sayi Robertson 1893 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 20:276. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 28IV1887, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 3665) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 



Nomada simplex Robertson 1902 

Entomol. News 13:80. Lectotype 9 

(Illinois, CarHnville, lOIV-1896, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 17800) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge 
Nomada xnburni Robertson 1897 Trans. 

Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:341. Type 

specimens lost 
Phileremus illinoiensis Robertson 1891 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:64. 

Lectotype 9 (IHinois, Carlinville, 

14-VII-1888, C. A. Robertson. No. 

8462) here designated by W.E. LaBerge 
Synhalonia atriventris fuscipes Robertson 

1900 Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 10:54. 

Holotype 9 
Synhalonia illinoensis Robertson 1902 

Can. Entomol. 34:49. Holotype C 
Synhalonia rosae Robertson 1900 Trans. 

Acad. Sci. St. Louis 10:54. Lectotype 9 

(Illinois, Carlinville, ll-VI-1888, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 7813) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge 
Triepeolus micropygius Robertson 1903 

Can. Entomol. 35:286. Lectotype 9 

(Illinois, Carlinville, 29-1X1902, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 23531) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge 
Triepeolus minimus Robertson 1902 En- 
tomol. News 13:81. Holotype 9 
Triepeolus simplex Robertson 1903 

Can. Entomol. 35:285. Lectotype 9 

(Illinois, Carlinville, 14-VIII-1896, C. 

A. Robertson, No. 18665) here 

designated by W. E. LaBerge 
Xanthidium dentariae Robertson 1903 

Can. Entomol. 35:178. Lectotype cr 

(Illinois, Carlinville, 12-IV-1887, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 3600) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge j 

Xenoglossa ipomoeae Robertson 1891 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:65. 

Lectotype 9 (no data) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge 

Argidae 

Hylotoma onerosa MacGillivray 1923 

Psyche 30:80. Holotype 9 
Hylotoma Sparta MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:18. Holotype 9 
Hylotoma spiculata MacGillivray 1907 

Can. Entomol. 39:308. Holotype 9 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



111 



Schizocerus johnsoni MacGillivray 1909 
Can. Entomol. 41:403. Holotype 9 

Sterictiphora apios Ross 1933 Proc. En- 
tomol. Soc. Wash. 35:13. Holotype 9 

Sterictiphora apios atrescens Ross 1933 
Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 35:14. 
Holotype 9 

Bethylidae 

Apenesia discomphaloides Evans 1963 

Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 130:297. 

Holotype O" 
Apenesia exilis Evans 1963 Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool. 130:293. Holotype O- 
Apenesia insolita Evans 1963 Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool. 130:350. Holotype 9 
Dissomphalus singularis Evans 1962 Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 64:77. Holotype 9 
Pseudisobrachium pusillum Evans 1961 

Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 126:297. 

Holotype O" 

Bombidae 

Bombias auricomus Robertson 1903 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 29:177. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Milliron 

(1971:78) 
Bombus alboanalis Franklin 1913 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc 39:385. Syntypes 29 
Bombus impatiens deayi Chandler 1956 

Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 65:116. 

Holotype 9 (queen) 
Bombus imuganensis Hedicke 1926 Dtsch. 

Entomol. Z. p. 422. Holotype CT 
Bombus incarum Franklin 1913 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 39:131. Syntypes 2 

workers 
Bombus laticinctus Franklin 1913 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 39:85. Syntype 1 

worker 
Bombus mexicensis Franklin 1911 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 37:163. Syntype 19 
Bombus mormonorum Franklin 1911 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 37:161. 

Syntypes 3 workers 
Bombus nevadensis aztecus Cockerel] 

1899 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 4:389. Syn- 
type 9 
Bremus atratus alternans Frison 1925 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 51:143. 

Holotype O" 
Bremus caliginosus Frison 1927 Proc. 

Calif. Acad. Sci. 16:376. Holotype O" 



Bremus centralis fucatus Frison 1929 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 55:107. 

Holotype 9 
Bremus centralis stolidus Frison 1929 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 55:107. 

Holotype 9 
Bremus edwardsii russulus Frison 1927 

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 16:374. Holotype 

worker 
Bremus formosellus Frison 1934 Trans. 

Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 24:163. 

Holotype o" 
Bremus formosellus denvatus Frison 1934 

Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 24:166. 

Holotype worker 
Bremus formosellus gradatus Frison 1934 

Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 24:167. 

Holotype O" 
Bremus franklini Frison 1921 Entomol. 

News 32:147. Holotype 9 
Bremus kirbyellus alexanderi Frison 1923 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 48:308. 

Holotype 9 
Bremus kirbyellus arizonensis Frison 1923 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 48:309. 

Holotype 9 
Bremus mearnsi deflectus Frison 1934 

Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 24:173. 

Holotype worker 
Bremus mearnsi dilutus Frison 1934 

Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 24:174. 

Holotype worker 
Bremus melanopygus washingtonensis 

Frison 1926 Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 

52:138. Holotype 9 
Bremus neotropicus Frison 1928 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 23:151. 

Holotype O" 
Bremus niger signatus Frison 1925 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 51:143. Holotype 9 
Bremus pleuralis clarus Frison 1926 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 52:139. 

Holotype O" 
Bremus robustus curiosus Frison 1925 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 51:139. 

Holotype C 
Bremus rufocinctus sladeni Frison 1926 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 52:138. 

Holotype Cf 
Bremus sonani Frison 1934 Trans. Nat. 

Hist. Soc. Formosa 24:175. Holotype O" 
Bremus syliricola lutzi Frison 1923 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 48:309. Holotype 9 



112 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Bremus sylvicola sculleni Prison 1929 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 55:108. 

Holotype 9 
Bremus terricola severini Prison 1926 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 52:139. 

Holotype 9 
Bremus vagans helenae Prison 1929 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 55:110. Holotype O" 

Braconidae 

Adialytus maidaphidis Garman 1885 

Rep. State Entomol. 111. 14:31. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:210) 
Apanteles canarsiae Ashmead 1897 Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 4:127. Syntypes 3 

CT, 29 
Apanteles crambi Weed 1887 Bull. 111. 
State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:8. Lectotype 9 
designated by Prison (1927:211) 
Apanteles ornigts Weed 1887 Bull. 111. 
State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:6. Lectotype 9 
designated by Prison ( 1 927 : 2 1 1 ) 
Apanteles orobenae Porbes 1883 Rep. 
State Entomol. 111. 12:104. Lectotype 9 
designated by Prison (1927:211) 
Apanteles sarrothripae Weed 1887 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:6. Lectotype 
9 designated by Prison (1927:21 1) 
Bracon crassifemur Muesebeck 1927 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 69:9. Holotype CT 
Clinocentrus americanus Weed 1887 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat.Hist. 3:43. Lectotype 
9 designated by Prison (1927:21 1) 
Clinocentrus niger Ashmead 1895 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 4:276. Syntypes 
60- 
Coelinius meromyzae Porbes 1884 Rep. 
State Entomol. 111. 13:26. Lectotype 9 
designated by Prison (1927:212) 
MicToplitis hyphantriae Ashmead 1897 
Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 4:164. 
Syntypes 89 
Microplitis mamestrae Weed 1887 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:2. Lectotype 
9 designated by Prison (1927:212) 
Protonucroplitis garmani Ashmead 1900 
Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 23(1206):132. 
Syntypes 39 

Chalcididae 

Chalets megalomis Burks 1940 Proc. U. S. 
Natl. Mus. 88(3082):250. Holotype 9 



Dtrhinuspaoli Burks 1947 Proc. Entomol. 

Soc. Wash. 49:137. Holotype cr 
Dirhinus perideus Burks 1947 Proc. En- 
tomol. Soc. Wash. 49:138. Holotype cr 
Spilochalcis melana Burks 1940 Proc. 
U. S. Natl. Mus. 88(3082):316. 
Holotype 9 

Cimbicidae 
Cimbex americana nortoni MacGillivray 
1916 Conn. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 
Bull. 22:104. Holotype 9 
Crabo americana rubrosa Ross 1932 Can. 

Entomol . 64 : 250 . Holotype CT 
Trichiosoma confundum MacGillivray 
1923Can. Entomol. 55:161. Holotype9 
Trichiosoma confusum MacGillivray 
1916 Conn. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 
Bull. 22:103. Holotype CT 
Trichiosoma spicatum MacGillivray 1916 
Conn. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 
22:103. Holotype CT 

CoUetidae 

Colletes brevicornis Robertson 1897 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:315. 
Holotype CT 
Colletes eulophi Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:61. Lectotype 9 
designated by Stephen (1954:269) 

CoZ/efw /leuc/ierae Robertson 1891 Trans, 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:61. Lectotype 9 
designated by Stephen (1954:283) 

Colletes ilUnoiensis Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:62. Holotype 9 

Colletes latitarsis Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:60. Lectotype 9 
designated by Stephen (1954:232) 

Colletes nudus Robertson 1898 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 8:43. Lectotype 9 
designated by Stephen (1954:302) 

Colletes producta Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:62. Holot>'pe CT 

Colletes punctata Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:62. Holotype CT 

Colletes similis Robertson 1904 Can. En- 
tomol. 36:276. Type specimen(s) lost 

Colletes speciosa Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am, Entomol. Soc. 18:62. Holotype 9 

Colletes spinosa Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:60. Lectotype 9 
designated by Stephen (1954:241) 

Colletes willistoni Robertson 1891 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:60. Holotype 9 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



113 



Prosopis eulophi Robertson 1905 Can. 

Entomol. 37:236. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 

CarlinviUe, 13-VI-1904, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 23904) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge 
Prosopis flammipes Robertson 1893 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:273. 

Holotype 9 
Prosopis floridanus Robertson 1 893 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:273. Lectotype O- 

(Florida, Inverness, 24-III-1891, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 10607) here designated 

byW. E. LaBerge 
Prosopis illinoisensis Robertson 1896 Can. 

Entomol. 28:138. Lectotype C (lUinois, 

CarlinviUe, 7-VI-1886, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 1547) here designated 

byW. E. LaBerge 
Prosopis nelumbonis Robertson 1890 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 17:318. 

Lectotype 9 (Illinois, CarlinviUe, 

12-VIII-1889, C. A. Robertson, No. 

8997) here designated by W. E. LaBerge 
Prosopis saniculae Robertson 1896 Can. 

Entomol. 28:137. Lectotype CT (Illinois, 

CarlinviUe, 16-V1889, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 8944) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge 
Prosopis sayi Robertson 1904 Can. 

Entomol. 36:274. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 

CarlinviUe, 4-VI-1888, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 7664) here designated 

byW. E. LaBerge 
Prosopis thaspii Robertson 1898 Trans. 

Acad. Sci. St. Louis 8:43. Lectotype 9 

(Illinois, CarlinviUe, 9.VM897, No. 

19494) here designated by W.E. 

LaBerge 

Prosopis ziziae Robertson 1904 Can. 
Entomol. 36:274. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 
CarlinviUe, I8-V-I887, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 4029) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Cynipidae 

Acraspis compressus Gillette 1891 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:197. Type- 
gall 1 

Andricus decidua Beutenmueller 1913 
Insecutor Inscit. Menstr. 1:131. Type- 
galls 4 



Andricus lustrans Beutenmueller 1913 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 39:244. 

Type-galls 23 
Andricus pisiformis Beutenmueller 

1911 Entomol. News22:70.Type-galls2 
Andricus rileyi Ashmead 1896 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 19:121. Syntype gall I 
Andricus rugulosus Beutenmueller 

1911 Can. Entomol. 43:211. Type-galls 

II 
Antistrophus bicolor Gillette 1891 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:197. 

Holotype 9 
Antistrophus laciniatus Gillette 1891 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 

3 : 1 94 . Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:214) 
Antistrophus minor Gillette 1891 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:196. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:214) 
Antistrophus rufus Gillette 1891 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:195. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:214) 
Antistrophus silphii Gillette 1891 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:192. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:215) 
Aulacidea solidaginis Girault 1903 

Entomol. News. 14:323. Syntypes ICT 19 
Aulax bicolor Gillette 1891 Bull. 111. 

StateLab. Nat. Hist. 3:201. Lectotype9 

designated by Prison (1927:215) 
Belonocnema kinseyi Weld 1921 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 59:241. Syntypes 29 
Callirhytis ellipsoida Weld 1921 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 59:227. Syntypes 29 
Callirhytis fulva Weld 1921 Proc. U. S. 

Natl. Mus. 59:226. Syntype 19 
Callirhytis marginata Weld 1921 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 59:225. Syntype 19 
Callirhytis maxima Weld 1921 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 59:217. Syntypes 29 
Callirhytis middletoni Weld 1922 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 61(2440):25. Syn- 
type 19 
Coptereucoila marginata Gillette 1891 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:203. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:216) 
Cynips floccosa Bassett 1881 Can. 

Entomol. 13:111. Type-galls many 



114 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Cynips ignota Bassett 1881 Can. En- 

tomol. 13:106. Type-gall 1 
Cynips quercus futilis Osten Sacken 1861 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Phila. 1:64. Type- 
galls 3 
Cynips quercus majalis Bassett 1864 Proc. 
' Entomol. Soc. Phila. 3:683. Type-galls 3 
Cynips quercus mammula Bassett 1881 

Can. Entomol. 13:76. Syntypes 8 
Cynips quercus punctata Bassett 1863 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Phila. 2:324. 

Holotype 9 
Cynips quercus singularis Bassett 1863 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Phila. 2:326. Type- 
galls 4 
Cynips vesicula Bassett 1881 Can. En- 
tomol. 13:97. Type-galls 2 
Diastrophus scutellaris Gillette 1891 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:191. 

Holotype 9 
Disholcaspis acetabula Weld 1921 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 59:194. Syntypes 29 
Disholcaspis globosa Weld 1921 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 59:196. Syntypes 29 
Disholcaspis lacuna Weld 1921 Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 59:195. Syntype 19 
Dryophanta lanata Gillette 1891 Bull. 

ill. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:198. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Frison 

(1927:216) 
Eucoila septemspinosa Gillette 1891 Bull. 

111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:204. 

Holotype 9 
Eucoilidea rufipes Gillette 1891 Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:205. Holotype 9 
Neuroterus exiguissimus Bassett 1900 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 26:332. 

Type-galls 2 
Synergus magnus Gillette 1891 Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:202. Holotype 9 

Synergus villosus Gillette 1891 Bull. III. 
StateLab. Nat. Hist. 3:202. Lectotype 9 
designated by Frison (1927:216) 

Diprionidae 

Monoctenus juniperinus MacGillivray 
1894 Can. Entomol. 26:328. Holotype9 

Neodiprion warreni Ross 1961 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 54:451. Holotype 9 

Neodiprion werneri Ross 1955 For. Sci. 
1:205. Holotype 9 



Encyrtidae 

Aenasioidea latiscapus Girault 1911 
Can. Entomol. 43:173. Lectotype 9 
designated by Frison (1927:217) 

Anagyrus nubilipennis Girault 1909 
Psyche 16:76. Lectotype 9 designated by 
Frison (1927:217) 

Aphycus stomachosus Girault 1909 Psyche 
16:77. Lectotype 9 designated by Frison 
(1927:217) 

Cristatithorax pulcher Girault 1911 Can. 
Entomol. 43:170. Lectotype 9 
designated by Frison (1927:218) 

MicTOterys speciosissimus Girault 1911 
Can. Entomol. 43:175. Lectotype 9 
designated by Frison (1927:218) 

Signiphora fax Girault 1913 Proc. 
U. S. Natl. Mus. 45:223. Syntypes 3 9 

Eulophidae 

Aphelinus varicomis Girault 1909 Psyche 

16:29. Lectotype 9 designated by Frison 

(1927:221) 
Astichus bimaculatipennis Girault 1912 

Can. Entomol. 44:8. Holotype 9 
Coccophagus cinguliventris Girault 1909 

Psyche 16:79. Lectotype 9 designated by 

Frison (1927:222) 
Encarsia versicolor Girault 1908 Psyche 

15:53. Lectotype 9 designated by Frison 

(1927:222) 
Mestocharis williamsoni GiTa.uh 1911 

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 19:179. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Frison 

(1927:222) 
Prospaltella fasciativentris Girault 1908 

Psyche 15:117. Lectotype 9 designated 

by Frison (1927:222) 
Prospaltella fuscipennis Girault 1908 

Psyche 15:120. Lectotype 9 designated 

by Frison (1927:223) 
Prospaltella perspicuipennis Girault 1910 

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 18:234. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Frison 

(1927:223) 
Tetrastichus anthophilus Burks 1947 

Entomol. News 58:85. Holotype 9 
Tetrastichus caerulescens Ashmead 1897 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 4:130. 

Holotype 9 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



115 



Tetrastichus carinatus Forbes 1885 Rep. 
State Entomol. 111. 14:48. Lectotype 9 
designated by Prison (1927:223) 

Tetrastichus cormus Burks 1943 Proc. 
U. S. Natl. Mus. 93(3170):579. 
Holotype 9 

Tetrastichus hesperius Burks 1947 En- 
tomol. News 58:88. Holotype 9 

Trichaporus aeneoviridis Girault 1912 
Can. Entomol. 44:75. Lectotype 9 
designated by Prison (1927:223) 

Zagrammosoma multilineata punicea 
Girault 1911 Arch. Naturgesch. 77:123. 
Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 
(1927:221) 

Evaniidae 

Brachygaster angustata Prison 1922 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 48:17. 

Holotype O" 
Brachygaster eximia Prison 1922 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 48:19. Holotype O" 
Brachygaster parishi Prison 1922 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 48:20. Holotype O" 
Brachygaster peruviana Prison 1922 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 48:16. 

Holotype 9 
Brachygaster rubia Prison 1922 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 48:14. Holotype 9 
Chalcidopterella macgillivrayi Prison 

1922 Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 

48: 4. Holotype 9 
Evania barbata Prison 1922 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 48:28. Holotype CT 
Evania bella Prison 1922 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 48:22. Holotype cr 
Evania cerinculataFrison 1922Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 48:30. Holotype 9 
Evania clara Prison 1922 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 48:27. Holotype O" 
Evania delicata Prison 1922 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 48:24. Holotype cr 
Evania luculenta Prison 1922 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 48:25. Holotype O- 
Evania mystica Prison 1922 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 48:32. Holotype CT 
Hyptia fraudulenta Prison 1922 Trans. 

Am, Entomol. Soc. 48:12. Holotype O" 
Hyptia jucunda Prison 1922 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 48:7. Holotype 9 
Hyptia neglecta Prison 1922 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 48:10. Holotype O" 



Hyptia spinifera Prison 1922 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 48:9. Holotype O" 

Formicidae 

Lasius parvula Smith 1934 Psyche 

41:213. Syntype 1 worker 
Strumigenys jamaicensis Brown 1959 

Breviora 108:6. Holotype worker 
Strumigenys talpa Weber 1934 Psyche 

41 :63. Holotype worker 

Halictidae 

Agapostemon bicolor Robertson 1893 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:148. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
22-IX-1886, C. A. Robertson, No. 3306) 
here designated by W. E. LaBerge 
Augochlora austrina Robertson 1893 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:147. 
Holotype 9 
Augochlora confusa Robertson 1897 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 
7: 324. Lectotype 9 designated by 
Ordway (1966:601) 
Augochlora matilda Robertson 1893 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:147. 
Lectotype 9 designated by Ordway 
(1966:601) 
Augochlora similis Robertson 1893 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:146. 
Lectotype 9 designated by Ordway 
(1966:589) 
Chloralictus coreopsis Robertson 1902 
Can. Entomol. 34:249. Lectotype 9 
(IlHnois, Carlinville, 23-VI1891, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 11345) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 
Chloralictus foveolatus Robertson 1902 
Can. Entomol. 34:250. Lectotype CT 
(Ilhnois, Carlinville, 31X1901, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 23049) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 
Chloralictus sparsus Robertson 1902 
Can. Entomol. 34:249. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 2-VM886, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 1293) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 
Chloralictus versatus Robertson 1902 
Can. Entomol. 34:249. Lectotype 
9(Illinois, Carlinville, 8-IV-1886, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 543) here designated by 
WE. LaBerge 



116 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Halictus anomalus Robertson 1892 Am. 
Nat. 26:272. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 
Carlinville, 19-V-1891, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 1 1 1 11) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Halictus apopkensis Robertson 1892 Am. 
Nat. 26:272. Lectotype 9 (Florida, 
Inverness, 12-11-1891, C. A. Robertson, 
No. 9991) here designated by W. E. 
LaBerge 

Halictus arcuatus Robertson 1893 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:145. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 29-VI-1888, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 7993) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Halictus ashmeadii Robertson 1892 Am. 
Nat. 26:271. Lectotype 9 (Florida, 
Inverness, 12-11-1891, C. A. Robertson, 
No. 9989) here designated by W. E. 
LaBerge 

Halictus cephalicus Robertson 1892 Am. 
Nat. 26:270. Lectotype9(21-VII-1891) 
here designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Halictus coeruleus Robertson 1893 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:146. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
lO-IV-1889, C. A. Robertson, No. 8806) 
here designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Halictus floridanus Robertson 1892 Am. 
Nat. 26:269. Lectotype 9 (Florida, 
Inverness, 7-III-1891,C. A. Robertson, 
No. 10232) here designated by W. E. 
LaBerge 

Halictus /iar<« Robertson 1892 Am. Nat. 
26:268. Holotype 9 lost 

Halictus illinoensis Robertson 1892 Am. 
Nat. 26:271. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 
Carlinville, 1 2 - VII I - 1 89 1 , C . A. 
Robertson, No. 11933) here designated 
by W.E. LaBerge 

Halictus longiceps Robertson 1892 Am. 

Nat. 26:272. Lectotype 9 (Florida, 

Inverness , 12-11-1891, C. A. Robertson . 

No. 9993) here designated by W. E. 

LaBerge 
Halictus obscurus Robertson 1892 Am. 

Nat. 26:270. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 

Carlinville, 8-V-1891, C.A.Robertson, 

No. 10959) here designated by W. E. 

LaBerge 
Halictus pectinatus Robertson 1890 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 17:315. 

Holotype 9 



Halictus platyparius Robertson 1895 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 22:117. 

Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 

18-V-I887, C. A. Robertson, No. 3995) 

here designated by W. E. LaBerge 
Halictus pruinosus Robertson 1892 Am. 

Nat. 26:269. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 

Carlinville, 22-V-1891, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 11121) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge 
Halictus reticulatus Robertson 1892 Am. 

Nat. 26:268. Lectotype 9 (Florida. 

Inverness, 12-11-1891, C. A. Robertson. 

No. 9987) here designated by W. E. 

LaBerge 
Halictus smilacinae Robertson 1897 

Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:322. 

Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 

21-III-1894, C. A. Robertson, No. 

16247) here designated by W. E. 

LaBerge 
Halictus testaceus Robertson 1897 

Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:323. 

Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 

ll-IV-1896, C. A. Robertson, No. 

17843) here designated by W. E. 

LaBerge 
Halictus truncatus Robertson 1901 Can. 

Entomol. 33:230. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 

Carlinville, 15-VI-1887, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 5076) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge 
Machaeris illinoensis Robertson 1903 

Entomol. News 14:107. Holotype 9 
Paralictus simplex Robertson 1901 Can. 

Entomol. 33:230. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 

Carlinville, 17-IV-1893, C. A. 

Robertson, No. 13817) here designated 

by W. E. LaBerge 

Sphecodes antennariae Robertson 1891 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:63. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
18-IV-1886, C. A. Robertson, No. 845) 
here designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Sphecodes clematidis Robertson 1897 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:320. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
27-VII-1891, C. A. Robertson, No. 
11617) here designated by W . E. 
LaBerge 

Sphecodes davisii Robertson 1897 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:319. Holotype O" 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



117 



Sphecodes heracleiRohenson 1897 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:318. Holotype 9 

Sphecodes minor Robertson 1898 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 8:45. Lectotype 
9(Illinois, CarlinviUe, 27-IV-1897, C. 
A. Robertson, No. 19186) here 
designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Sphecodes pimpinellae Robertson 1900 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 10:51. 
Holotype 9 

Sphecodes pycnanthemi Robertson 1897 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:320. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
6-VII-1894, C. A. Robertson, No. 
16864) here designated by W. E. 
LaBerge 

Sphecodes ranuncw/?' Robertson 1897 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:318. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
25-IV-1896, C. A. Robertson, No. 
18133) here designated by W. E. 
LaBerge 

Sphecodes smilacinae Robertson 1897 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:321. 
Holotype 9 

Sphecodes stygius Robertson 1893 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:145. Lectotype9 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 12-VIII-1891 , C. 
A. Robertson, No. 11944) here 
designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Sphecodium cre5507;« Robertson 1903 En- 
tomol. News 14:106. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 18-V-1887, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 3933) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Ichneumonidae 

Cremaslus cookii Weed 1888 Entomol. 
Am. 4:150. Lectotype 9 designated by 
Prison (1927:212) 

Cremaslus cookii rufus Weed 1888 En- 
tomol. Am. 4:150. Lectotype O" 
designated by Prison (1927:212) 

Cremaslus forbesi Weed 1887 Bull. 111. 
State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:42. Holotype 9 

Cremaslus hartii Ashmead 1896 Bull. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 4:277. 
Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 
(1927:213) 

Glypla phoxopleridis Weed 1888 En- 
tomol. Am. 4:151. Holotype 9 

Limneria (Sinophorus) cariarsiae Ash- 
mead 1897 Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 
4:126. Holotype 9 



Limneria elegans Weed 1887 Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:40. Lectotype 9 

designated by Prison (1927:213) 
Limneria leratis Weed 1887 Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:40. Lectotype 9 

designated by Prison (1927:213) 
Pimpla minuta Weed 1887 Bull. 111. 

State Lab. Nat. Hist. 3:41. Holotype 9 
Spilocryplus canarsiae Ashmead 1897 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 4:124. 

Lectotype C designated by Prison 

(1927:213) 
Tricyphus ater Hopper 1939 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 65:339. Holotype cr 
Trogas bolleri Cresson 1868 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 2:94. Holotype CT 

Megachilidae 

Ammobates heliopsis Robertson 1897 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:352. 
Holotype C 

Anlhidium psoraleae Robertson 1902 
Can. Entomol. 34:322. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville. 22-VII-1889, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 8982) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Coelioxys sayi Robertson 1897 Trans. 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:348. Lecto- 
type 9(Plorida, Inverness, 4-IV-1892, C. 
A. Robertson, No. 13022) here desig- 
nated by W.E. LaBerge 

Dianlhidium boreale Robertson 1902 
Can. Entomol. 34:323. Holotype O" 

Heriadesfloridanus Robertson 1897 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:348. Lectotype 9 
(Plorida, Inverness, 4-IV-1892, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 13022) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Heriades philadelphi Robertson 1891 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:64. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
29-V-1888, C. A. Robertson, No. 7603) 
here designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Megachile floridana Robertson 1895 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 22:125. 
Holotype cr lost 

Megachile rufimanus Robertson 1891 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:65. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois, Carlinville, 
26-VI1888, C. A. Robertson, No. 7976) 
here designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Megachile sexdentata Robertson 1895 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 22:125. 
Holotype O" 



118 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Megachile strophostylis Robertson 1904 
Can. Entomol. 36:277. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville, lO-VIII-1903, C. 
A. Robertson, No. 23785) here 
designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Oligotropus campanulae Robertson 1903 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 29:171. 
Lectotype C (Illinois, Carlinville, 
30VII-1888, C. A. Robertson, No. 
8320) here designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Osmia colUnsiae Robertson 1905 Can. 
Entomol. 37:236. Lectotype cr (Illinois, 
Carlinville, 13-IV-1887, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 3606) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Osmia conjunctoides Robertson 1893 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 20:276. 
Lectotype C (Florida, Inverness, 
17-11-1891, C. A. Robertson, No. 
10134) here designated by W. E. 
LaBerge 

Osmia cordata Robertson 1902 Entomol. 
News 13:79. Lectotype O" (Illinois, 
Carlinville, ll-IV-1901, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 22899) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Osmia illinoensis Robertson 1897 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:347. Holotype cr 

Osmia major Robertson 1902 Entomol. 
News 13:79. Lectotype 9 (Illinois, 
Carlinville, ll-VI-1888, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 7814) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Stelidium trypetinum Robertson 1902 
Can. Entomol. 34:323. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 18-X-1902, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 23607) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Trypetes barbatus Robertson 1903 Trans. 
Am . Entomol . Soc .29:171. Lectotype 9 
(Illinois, Carlinville, 17-VII1888, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 8125) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 

Trypetes productus Robertson 1905 Can. 
Entomol. 37:236. Lectotype O" (Illinois, 
Carlinville, 3-VI-1891, C. A. 
Robertson, No. 11172) here designated 
by W. E. LaBerge 



Melitddae 

Macropis morsei Robertson 1897 Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:338. Lectotype cr 
(Massachusetts, Winchendon, 
5-VII-1892) here designated by W. E. 
LaBerge 

Macropis steironematis Robertson 1891 
Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 18:63. 
Lectotype 9 (Illinois. Carlinville, 
25-VM888, C. A. Robertson, No. 7944) 
here designated by W. E. LaBerge 

Mutillidae 

Lomachaeta punctinota Mickel 1936 
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:293. 
Holotype C 

Mymaridae 

Alaptus intonsipennis Girault 1910 J.N. Y. 

Entomol. Soc. 18:244. Lectotype 9 

designated by Prison (1927:226) 
Anagrus armatus nigriventris Girault 1911 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 37:291. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:226) 
Anagrus delicatus Dozier 1936 Proc. 

Hawaii. Entomol. Soc. 9:177. Holo- 
type 9 
Anagrus epos Girault 1911 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 37:292. Lectotype 9 

designated by Prison (1927:227) 
Anagrus spiritus Girault 1911 Entomol. 

News 22:209. Holotype 9 
Anaphes hercules Girault 1911 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 37:285. Holotype 9 
Anaphes nigrellus Girault 1911 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 37:282. Holotype 9 
Anaphoidea pullicrura Girault 1910 J. N. 

Y. Entomol. Soc. 18:252. Holotype 9 
Anaphoidea sordidata Girault 1909 J. N. 

Y. Entomol. Soc. 17:169. HolotN-pe 9 
Camptoptera pulla Girault 1911 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 2:27. Lectotype 9 

designated by Prison (1927:227) 
Gonalocerus fasciatus Girault 1911 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 37:265. 

Lectotype 9 designated by Prison 

(1927:227) 
Polynema citripes Ashmead 1911 J. N. Y. 

Entomol. Soc. 19:19. Syntypes 29 
Polynema. zetes Girault 1911 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 37:314. Holotype 9 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



119 



Stephanodes psecas Girault 1912 J. N. Y. 
Entomol. Soc. 20:41. Lectotype 9 
designated by Prison (1927:228) 

Stethynium faunum Girault 1911 Trans. 
Am. Entomol. Soc. 37:298. Holotype 9 

Pamphilidae 

Acantholyda modesta MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 18:53. 

Holotype 9 
Caenolyda onekama MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:8. Holotype 9 
Cephaleia criddlei MacGillivray 1912 

Can. Entomol. 44:296. Holotype 9 
Cephaleia dissipator MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:8. Holotype O" 
Cephaleia distincta MacGillivray 1912 

Can. Entomol. 44:296. Holotype cr 
Cephaleia jenseni M.a.cG\\\\\r2iy 1912 Can. 

Entomol. 44:297. Holotype 9 
Itycorsia angulata MacGillivray 1912 

Can. Entomol. 44:295. Holotype 9 
Itycorsia balanata MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:18. Holotype 9 
Itycorsia balata MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:18. Holotype 9 
Itycorsia ballista MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:19. Holotype 9 
Pamphilius dentatus MacGillivray 1912 

Can. Entomol. 44:297. Holotype 9 
Pamphilius fortuitus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ, 111. 20:27. Holotype 9 
Pamphilius persicum MacGillivray 1907 

Can. Entomol. 39:308. Holotype 9 
Pamphilius transversa MacGillivray 1912 

Can. Entomol. 44:297. Holotype cr 
Pamphilius unalatus MacGillivray 1920 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 15:112. 

Holotype 9 

Pergidae 
Acordulecera maculata MacGillivray 

1908 Can. Entomol. 40:169. Holotype 9 
Acordulecera marina MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:170. Holotype cr 
Acordulecera maura MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:168. Holotype 9 
Acordulecera maxima MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:168. Holotype 9 
Acordulecera media MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:168. Holotype 9 
Acordulecera meleca MacGillivray 1921 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 16:23. 

Holotype cr 



Acordulecera mellina MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:169. Holotype 9 
Acordulecera minima MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:168. Holotype 9 
Acordulecera minuta MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:169. Holotype 9 
Acordulecera mixta MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:169. Holotype 9 
Acordulecera munda MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:169. Holotype 9 
Acordulecera musta MacGillivray 1921 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 16:23. 

Holotype cr 

Platygasteridae 
Elaptus aleurodis Forbes 1885 Rep. State 

Entomol. 111. 14:110. Lectotype 9 

designated by Prison (1927:213) 
Platygaster hiemalis Forbes 1888 Psyche 

5:39. Lectotype O" designated by Prison 

(1927:214) 

Pompilidae 

Anoplius hispidulus Dreisbach 1950 Am. 

Midi. Nat. 43:577. Holotype cr 
Pompilinus b e quaer t i Ttie'ishdich. 1949 

Entomol. Am. 29:16. Holotype cr 
Pompilus illinoensis Robertson 1901. 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:202. 

Syntypes80', 149 
Sphex harti Fernald 1930 Ann. Entomol. 

Soc. Am. 24:450. Syntypes \cr , 39 

Pteromalidae 

Arthrolyt'us aeneoviridis Girault 1911 
Can. Entomol. 43:372. Lectotype 9 
designated by Prison (1927:219) 

Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders 
1910 Psyche 17:149. Lectotype 9 
designated by Prison (1927:219) 

Pteromalus fulvipes Porbes 1885 Rep. 
State Entomol. 111. 14:47. Lectotype 9 
designated by Prison (1927:220) 

Pteromalus gelechiae Webster 1883 Rep. 
State Entomol. 111. 12:151. Lectotype O" 
designated by Prison (1927:220) 

Pteromalus pallipes Porbes 1885 Rep. 
State Entomol. 111. 14:46. Lectotype 9 
designated by Prison (1927:220) 

Tritneptis hemerocampae Girault 1908 
Psyche 15:92. Lectotype9 designated by 
Prison (1927:221) 

Urios vestali Girault 1911 J. N. Y. En- 
tomol. Soc. 19:176. Holotype 9 



120 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Scelionidae 

Hoplogryon bet hunei Sanders 1910 Can. 

Entomol. 42:15. Holotype O" 
PhanuTus tabanivorus Ashmead 1896 

Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 4:274. 

Syntypes 7<y , 59 

Siricidae 

Urocerus indecisus MacGillivray 1893 
Can. Entomol. 25:243. Holotype O- 

Urocerus riparius MacGillivray 1893 Can. 
Entomol. 25:244. Holotype CT 
Sphecidae 

Notoglossa americana Robertson 1901 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:204. 

Syntypes 280^, 249 
Notoglossa inornata Robertson 1901 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:203. 

Syntypes So-, 19 
Oxybelus flortdanus Robertson 1901 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:203. 

Syntype lO" 

Tenthredinidae 

(See also Addendum, page 133.) 

Adelomoscleone Ross 1935 Can. Entomol. 

67:202. Holotype 9 
Aglaostigma dentatum Ross 1943 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 45:82. 

Holotype cr 
Allantus universus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:6. Holotype 9 
Amauronematus vacalus MacGillivray 

1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:6. Holotype 9 
Amauronematus vacivus MacGillivray 

1921 J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:28. 

Holotype O" 
Amauronematus Valerius MacGillivray 

1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:6. Holotype cr 
Amauronematus vanus MacGillivray 1921 

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:27. Holo- 
type 9 
Amauronematus venaticus MacGillivray 

1921 J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:29. 

Holotype O" 
Amauronematus veneficus MacGillivray 

1923 J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:169. 

Holotype 9 
Amauronematus venerandus MacGilli- 
vray 1921 J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:30. 

Holotype CT 
Amauronematus ventosus MacGillivray 

1923 J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:169. 

Holotype 9 



Amauronematus verbosus MacGillivray 

1921 J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:29. 

Holotype 9 
Amauronematus veridicus MacGillivray 

1923 J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:170. 

Holotype 9 
Amauronematus vescus MacGillivray 

1921 J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:30. 

Holotype 9 
Amauronematus visendus MacGillivray 

1921 J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:28. 

Holotype 9 
Apareophora rossi Sm\ih 1969 U. S. Dep. 

Agric. Tech. Bull. 1397:118. Holo- 
type 9 
Aphanisus lobatus MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:295. Holotype 9 
Aphanisus muricatus MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:296. Holotype 9 
Aphanisus nigritus MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:296. Holotype 9 
Aphanisus obsitus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:7. Holotype 9 
Aphanisus occiduus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:7. Holotype 9 
Aphanisus odoratus MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:296. Holotype 9 
Aphanisus parallelus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:7. Holotype 9 
Astochus aldrichi MacGillivray 1914 Can. 

Entomol. 46:137. Holotype 9 
Astochus fletcheri MacGillivray 1914 

Can. Entomol. 46:108. Holotype 9 
Blennocampa abjecta MacGillivray 1921 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 16:22. 

Holotype 9 
Blennocampa abnorma MacGillivray 

1908 Can. Entomol. 40:296. Holotype O" 
Blennocampa absona MacGillivray 1921 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 16:22. 

Holotype 9 
Blennocampa acuminata MacGillivray 

1908Can. Entomol. 40:297. Holotype9 
Blennocampa adusta MacGillivray 1908 

Can, Entomol. 40:297. Holotype 9 
Blennocampa amara MacGillivray 1923 

Can. Entomol. 55:161. Holotype 9 
Blennocampa angulata MacGillivray 

1908 Can. Entomol. 40:297. Holotype 9 
Blennocampa antennata MacGillivray 

1908 Can. Entomol. 40:296. Holotype9 
Blennocampa aperta MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:297. Holotype 9 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



121 



Blennocampa atrata MacGillivray 1893 

Can. Entomol. 25:239. Holotype 9 
Blennocampa typicella MacGillivray 

1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:8. Holotype O- 
Caliroa labrata MacGillivray 1909 Can. 

Entomol. 41:360. Holotype O- 
Caliroa lacinata MacGillivray 1909 Can. 

Entomol. 41:357. Holotype 9 
Caliroa lata MacGillivray 1909 Can. En- 
tomol. 41 :361 . Holotype 9 
Caliroa laudata MacGillivray 1909 Can. 

Entomol. 41:356. Holotype 9 
Caliroa lineata MacGillivray 1909 Can. 

Entomol. 41:350. Holotype 9 
Caliroa liturata MacGillivray 1909 Can. 

Entomol. 41:349. Lectotype 9 

designated by Prison (1927:238) 
Caliroa lobata MacGillivray 1909 Can. 

Entomol. 41:355. Holotype 9 
Caliroa lorata MacGillivray 1909 Can. 

Entomol. 41:352. Holotype 9 
Caliroa loricata MacGillivray 1909 Can. 

Entomol. 41:351. Holotype 9 
Caliroa lunata MacGillivray 1909 Can. 

Entomol. 41:353. Holotype 9 
Caliroa nortonia MacGillivray 1894 Can. 

Entomol. 26:324. Holotype CT 
Claremontia typica Rohwer 1909 Can. 

Entomol. 41:397. Syntypes lO", 19 
Cockerellonis occidentalis MacGillivray 

1908 Can. Entomol. 40:365. Holotype 

(sex unkown) 
Craterocercus cervinus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:9. Holotype 9 
Craterocercus circulus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:9. Holotype 9 
Craterocercus cord/ey MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:9. Holotype 9 
Craterocercus infuscatus MacGillivray 

1916 Conn. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 

Bull. 22:106. Holotype 9 
Dimorphopteryx desidiosus MacGillivray 

1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20: 10. Holotype 9 
Dimorphopteryx enucleatus MacGillivray 
1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:10. Holotype 9 
Dimorphopteryx ithacus MacGillivray 
1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:10. Holotype 9 
Dimorphopteryx morsei MacGillivray 
1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:11. Holotype 9 
Dimorphopteryx oronis MacGillivray 
1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:1 1. Holotype 9 
Dimorphopteryx salinus MacGillivray 
1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20: 1 1 . Holotype 9 



Dimorphopteryx scopulosus MacGillivray 

1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:12. Holotype 9 
Dolerus abdominalis Norton 1861 Proc. 

Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8:153. Neotype9 

designated by Ross (1931:66) 
Dolerus acritus MacGillivray 1908 Can. 

Entomol. 40:130. Holotype 9 
Dolerus agcistus MacGillivray 1908. Can. 

Entomol. 40:129. Holotype 9 
Dolerus agcistus maroa Ross 1931 111. 

Biol. Monogr. 12(3):61. Holotype 9 
Dolerus apricus Norton 1867 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 1:236. Neotype9 

designated by Ross ( 1 93 1 ; 94) 
Dolerus aprilis Norton 1861 Proc. Boston 

Soc. Nat. Hist. 8:152. Neotype 9 

designated by Ross (1931 : 85) 
Dolerus apriloides MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:126. Holotype 9 
Dolerus bicolor Beauvois 1805 Insectes 

Recueillis en Afrique et en Amerique p. 

96. Neotype 9 designated by Ross 

(1931:58) 
Dolerus bicolor nigrata Ross 1931 111. 

Biol. Monogr. 12(3):59. Holotype 9 
Dolerus borealis MacGillivray 1893 Can. 

Entomol. 25:238. Holotype 9 
Dolerus clypealis Ross 1931 111. Biol. 

Monogr. 12(3):50. Holotype 9 
Dolerus cohaesus MacGillivray 1908 Can. 

Entomol. 40:128. Holotype 9 
Dolerus collaris Say 1823 West. Q.. Rep. 

2:720. Neotype 9 designated by Ross 

(1931:54) 
Dolerus collaris erebus Ross 1931 111. Biol. 

Monogr. 12(3):55. Holotype 9 
Dolerus colosericeus MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:125. Holotype 9 
Dolerus conjugatus MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:128. Holotype 9 
Dolerus dysporus MacGillivray 1908 Can. 

Entomol. 40:128. Holotype 9 
Dolerus elderi auraneus Ross 1931 111. 

Biol. Monogr. 12(3):69. Holotype 9 
Dolerus elderi rubicanus Ross 1931 111. 

Biol. Monogr. 12(3):70. Holotype 9 
Dolerus eurybis Ross 1931 111. Biol. 

Monogr. 12(3):65. Holotype 9 
Dolerus graenicheri MacGillivray 1914 

Can. Entomol. 46:107. Holotype 9 
Dolerus icterus MacGillivray 1908 Can. 

Entomol. 40:127. Holotype 9 
Dolerus idahoensis Ross 1931 111. Biol. 

Monogr. 12(3):63. Holotype 9 



122 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, An. 2 



Dolerus illint Ross 1931 111. Biol. Monogr. 

12(3):39. Holotype9 
Dolerus illini rufilobus Ross 1931 111. Biol. 

Monogr. 12(3):41. Holotype Cf 
Dolerus inspectus MacGillivray 1908 Can. 

Entomol. 40:128. Holotype C 
Dolerus inspiratus MacGillivray 1914 

Can. Entomol. 46:105. Holotype 9 
Dolerus interjectus Ross 1931 111. Biol. 

Monogr. 12(3):63. Holotype 9 
Dolerus kennedyi Ross 1935 Proc. En- 
tomol. Soc. Wash. 37:90. Holotype 9 
Dolerus konowi MacGillivray 1914 Can. 

Entomol. 46:106. Holotype 9 
Dolerus lesticus MacGillivray 1914 Can. 

Entomol. 46:105. Holotype 9 
Dolerus luctatus MacGillivray 1908 Can. 

Entomol. 40:127. Holotype 9 
Dolerus minusculus MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:126. Holotype 9 
Dolerus monosericeus MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:126. Holotype 9 
Dolerus moramus Ross 1931 111. Biol. 

Monogr. 12(3):62. Holotype cr 
Dolerus napaeus MacGillivray 1923 Can. 

Entomol. 55:65. Holotype 9 
Dolerus narratus MacGillivray 1923 Can. 

Entomol. 55:65. Holotype 9 
Dolerus nasutus MacGillivray 1923 Can. 

Entomol. 55:65. Holotype 9 
Dolerus nativus MacGillivray 1923 

Insecutor Inscit. Menstr. 11:32. 

Holotype O" 

Dolerus nauticus MacGillivray 1923 
Insecutor Inscit. Menstr. 11:35. Holo- 
type 9 

Dolerus necessarius MacGillivray 1923 
Insecutor Inscit. Menstr. 11:35. 
Holotype 9 

Dolerus necosericeus MacGillivray 1923 
Bull. Univ. 111. 20:13. Holotype 9 

Dolerus nectareus MacGillivray 1923 
Insecutor Inscit. Menstr. 11:33. Holo- 
type O" 

Dolerus nefastus MacGillivray 1923 Can. 
Entomol. 55:66. Holotype 9 

Dolerus negotiosus MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:164. Holo- 
type cr 

Dolerus nemorosus MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:164. Holo- 
type 9 



Dolerus neoagcistus MacGillivray 1923 
Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 18:55. 
Holotype 9 

Dolerus neoaprilis MacGillivray 1908 
Can. Entomol. 40:126. Holotype 9 

Dolerus neocollaris MacGillivray 1908 
Can. Entomol. 40:127. Holotype cr 

Dolerus neosericeus MacGillivray 1908 
Can. Entomol. 40:125. Holotype 9 

Dolerus neostugnus MacGillivray 1923 
Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 18:55. 
Holotype 9 

Dolerus nepotulus MacGillivray 1923 
Can. Entomol. 55:68. Holotype cr 

Dolerus nervosus MacGillivray 1923 
Insecutor Inscit. Menstr. 11:31. 
Holotype 9 

Dolerus nescius MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 
Univ. 111. 20:12. Holotype 9 

Dolerus nicaeus MacGillivray 1923 Can. 
Entomol. 55:68. Holotype 9 

Dolerus nidulus MacGillivray 1923 
Insecutor Inscit. Menstr. 11:31. 
Holotype 9 

Dolerus nimbosus MacGillivray 1923 In- 
secutor Inscit. Menstr. 11:33. Holo- 
type 9 

Do/eru5nwa<ui MacGillivray 1923 J. N. Y. 
Entomol. Soc. 31:164. Holotype 9 

Dolerus nocixnis MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 
Univ. 111. 20:12. Holotype 9 

Dolerus nocuus MacGillivray 1923 In- 
secutor Inscit. Menstr. 11:34. Holo- 
type 9 

Dolerus nominatus MacGillivray 1923 In- 
secutor Inscit. Menstr. 11:34. Holo- 
type 9 

Dolerus nortoni Ross 1931 111. Biol. 
Monogr. 12(3):51. Holotype 9 

Dolerus novellus MacGillivray 1923 Can. 
Entomol. 55:67. Holotype 9 

Dolerus novicius MacGillivray 1923 Can. 
Entomol. 55:67. Holotype 9 

Dolerus nugatorius MacGillivray 1923 
Can. Entomol. 55:66. Holotype 9 

Dolerus numerosus MacGillivray 1923 
Can. Entomol. 55:67. Holotype 9 

Dolerus nummarius MacGillivray 1923 
Can. Entomol. 55:159. Holotype 9 

Dolerus niimmatus MacGillivray 1923 
Can. Entomol. 55:159. Holotype 9 

Dolerus nundinus MacGillivray 1923 Can. 
Entomol. 55:159. Holotype CT 



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Webb: Primary Insect Types 



123 



Dolerus nuntius MacGillivray 1923 Can. 
Entomol. 55:158. Holotype 9 

Dolerus nutricius MacGillivray 1923 Can. 
Entomol. 55:159. Holotype O" 

Dolerus nyctelius MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Sec. 31:163. Holo- 
type Cf 

Dolerus osagensis Ross 1935 Proc. En- 
tomol. Soc. Wash. 37:89. Holotype 9 

Dolerus parasericeus MacGillivray 1908 
Can. Entomol. 40:125. Holotype 9 

Dolerus plesius MacGillivray 1908 Can. 
Entomol. 40:129. Holotype 9 

Dolerus polysericeus MacGillivray 1908 
Can. Entomol. 40:125. Holotype 9 

Dolerus refugus MacGillivray 1908 Can. 
Entomol. 40:127. Holotype 9 

Dolerus salmani Ross 1935 Proc. En- 
tomol. Soc. Wash. 37:88. Holotype 9 

Dolerus sericeus Say 1824 From the 
Narrative of the Expedition to the 
Source of the St. Peter's River, etc., 
Under the Command of Stephen H. 
Long, MajorU.S.T.E. 2:320. Neotype9 
designated by Ross (1931 :45) 

Dolerus sericeus centralis Ross 1931 111. 
Biol. Monogr. 12(3):46. Holotype 9 

Dolerus similis nordanus Ross 1931 111. 
Biol. Monogr. 12(3):80. Holotype 9 

Dolerus stugnus MacGillivray 1908 Can. 
Entomol. 40:129. Holotype 9 

Dolerus tectus MacGillivray 1914 Can. 
Entomol. 46: 104. Holotype 9 

Dolerus unicolor Beauvois 1805 Insectes 
Recueillis en Afrique et en Amerique p. 
97. Neotype O" designated by Ross 
(1931:37) 

Dolerus wanda Ross 1935 Proc. En- 
tomol. Soc. Wash. 37:91. Holo- 
type 9 

Emphytus gemitus MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:163. Holo- 
type 9 

Emphytus gillettei MacGillivray 1902 
Colo. Agric. Exp. Stn. Annu. Rep. 
15:113. Holotype 9 

Emphytus halesus MacGillivray 1923 
Bull. Univ. 111. 20:13. Holotype 9 

Emphytus haliartus MacGillivray 1923 
Bull. Univ. 111. 20:14. Holotype 9 

Emphytus halitus MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 
Univ. 111. 20:14. Holotype cr 



Emphytus haustus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:14. Holotype cr 
Emphytus heroicus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:14. Holotype 9 
Emphytus hiatus MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:15. Holotype 9 
Emphytus hiulcus MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:15. Holotype 9 
Emphytus hospitus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:15. Holotype 9 
Emphytus hyacinthus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:16. Holotype 9 
Emphytus yuasi MacGillivray 1921 

Psyche 28:31 . Holotype 9 
Empria cadurca MacGillivray 1923 Can. 

Entomol. 55:158. Holotype 9 
Empria caeca MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:308. Holotype 9 
Empria caetrata MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:305. Holotype 9 
Empria calda MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:307. Holotype 9 
Empria callida MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:306. Holotype 9 
Empria callosa MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:305. Holotype 9 
Empria candidula MacGillivray 1911 

Can. Entomol. 43:310. Holotype 9 
Empria canora MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:310. Holotype 9 
Empria capillata MacGillivray 1911 

Can. Entomol. 43:341. Holotype 9 
Empria caprina MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:307. Holotype 9 
Empria captiosa MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:308. Holotype 9 
Empria carbasea MacGillivray 1911 

Can. Entomol. 43:341. Holotype 9 
Empria cariosa MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:309. Holotype 9 
Empria casca MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:310. Holotype O" 
Empria casta MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:308. Holotype 9 

Empria castigata MacGillivray 1911 Can. 
Entomol. 43:309. Holotype 9 

Empria cata MacGillivray 1911 Can. En- 
tomol. 43:307. Holotype O" 

Empria cauduca MacGillivray 1911 Can. 
Entomol. 43:309. Holotype 9 

Empria cauta MacGillivray 1911 Can. 
Entomol. 43:31 1 . Holotype 9 



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Empria cava MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:306. Holotype 9 
Empria cavata MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:305. Holotype 9 
Empria celebrata MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:308. Holotype 9 
Empria celsa MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:306. Holotype 9 
Empria cerina MacGillivray 1921 Psyche 

28:34. Holotype 9 
Empria cetaria MacGillivray 1921 Psyche 

28:33. Holotype 9 
Empria cirrha MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:16. Holotype 9 
Empria cista MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:16. Holotype 9 
Empria cistula MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:16. Holotype 9 
Empria cithara MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:17. Holotype 9 
Empria columna MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 18:54. 

Holotype 9 
Empria conciliata MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:344. Holotype 9 
Empria concisa MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:346. Holotype 9 
Empria concitata MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:342. Holotype O" 
Empria concreta MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:344. Holotype 9 
Empria condensa MacGillivray 191 1 Can. 

Entomol. 43:342. Holotype 9 
Empria condita MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:342. Holotype 9 
Empria conferta MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:344. Holotype 9 
Empria confirmata MacGillivray 1911 

Can. Entomol. 43:341. Holotype 9 
Empria contexta MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:345. Holotype 9 
Empria contorta MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:343. Holotype 9 
Empria costata MacGillivray 1914 Can. 

Entomol. 46:103. Holotype 9 
Empria culpata MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:343. Holotype 9 
Empria cumulata MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:343. Holotype 9 
Empria cuneata MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:345. Holotype 9 
Empria cupida MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:346. Holotype 9 



Empria curata MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:345. Holotype 9 
Empria evecta MacGillivray 1911 Can. 

Entomol. 43:310. Holotype 9 
Empria nordica Ross 1936 Pan-Pac. En- 
tomol. 12:175. Holotype 9 
Euura maculata MacGillivray 1914 Can. 

Entomol. 46:366. Holotype 9 
Euura minuta MacGillivray 1914 Can. 

Entomol. 46:366. Holotype 9 
Euura moenia MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:17. Holotype 9 
Euura salicicola Smith 1879 North Am. 

Entomol. 1:41. Syntypes lO", 19 
Fenusa lucifex Ross 1936 Trans. 111. State 

Acad. Sci. 29:266. Holotype 9 
Hemitaxonus dediticius MacGillivray 

1923 Psyche 30:77. Holotype a 
Hoplocampa idaho Ross 1943 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 69:81. Holotype Q" 
Hoplocampa makila Ross 1943 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 69:68. Holotype 9 
Hoplocampa nalema Ross 1943 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 69:82. Holotype cr 
Hoplocampa oskina Ross 1943 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 69:71. Holotype O" 
Hoplocampa padusa MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:17. Holotype a 
Hoplocampa pallipes MacGillivray 1893 

Can. Entomol. 25:239. Syntypes 39 
Hoplocampa ritcheri Ross 1943 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 69:72. Holotype O" 
Hoplocampa sialica Ross 1943 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 69:67. Holotype cr 
Hoplocampa spala Ross 1943 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 69:83. Holotype C 
Hoplocampa stricklandi Ross 1943 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 69:73. Holotype C 
Hoplocampa texas Ross 1943 Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 69:69. Holotype cr 
Hypargyricus infuscatus MacGillivray 

1908 Can. Entomol. 40:290. Holotype 9 
Isiodyctium atratum MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:290. Holotype 9 
Keritafidala Ross 1937 111. Biol. Monogr. 

15(2):80. Holotype 9 
Leucopelmonus annulatus MacGillivray 

1916 Conn. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 

Bull. 22:83. Holotype 9 
Loderus accuratus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:19. Holotype 9 
Loderus acerbus MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:19. Holotype 9 



I 



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125 



Loderus acidus MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:20. Holotype 9 
Loderus acriculus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:20. Holotype 9 
Loderus alticinctus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:20. Holotype 9 
Loderus anctsus MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:21. Holotype 9 
Loderus ni'ger Rohwer 1910 Can. En- 

tomol. 42:49. Syntype lO" 
Macremphytus bicornis MacGillivray 

1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:21. Holotype 9 
Macremphytus lovetti MacGillivray 1923 

Psyche 30:77. Holotype 9 
Macrophya bellula MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 18:55. 

Holotype 9 
Macrophya bilineata MacGillivray 1916 

Conn. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 

Bull. 22:96. Holotype 9 
Macrophya confusa MacGillivray 1914 

Can. Entomol. 46:139. Holotype 9 
Macrophya fascialis puella Ross 1931 Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Am. 24:123. Holotype 9 
Macrophya fistula MacGillivray 1920 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 15:114. 

Holotype 9 
Macrophya flaccida MacGillivray 1920 

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 15:113. 

Holotype 9 
Macrophya flicta MacGillivray 1920 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 15:114. 

Holotype 9 
Macrophya magnifica MacGillivray 1893 

Can. Entomol. 25:240. Holotype 9 
Macrophya melanopleura MacGillivray 

1 9 1 4 Can . Entomol . 46 : 1 39 . Holotype 9 
Macrophya minuta MacGillivray 1895 

Can. Entomol. 27:286. Holotype O" 
Macrophya mixta MacGillivray 1895 Can. 

Entomol. 27:77. Holotype 9 
Macrophya nidonea MacGillivray 1895 

Can. Entomol. 27:77. Holotype C7 

Macrophya obaerata MacGillivray 1923 
Bull. Univ. 111. 20:21. Holotype 9 

Macrophya obnata MacGillivray 1923 
Bull. Univ. 111. 20:22. Holotype 9 

Macrophya obrussa MacGillivray 1923 
Bull. Univ. 111. 20:22. Holotype O- 

Macrophya oregona dukiae Ross 1931 
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 24:122. 
Holotype O" 



Macrophya ornata MacGillivray 1914 
Can. Entomol. 46:139. Holotype 9 

Macrophya pluricinctella Rohwer 1909 
Can. Entomol. 41:332. Syntypes 29 

Macrophya pulchella alba MacGillivray 
1 895 Can . Entomol .27:285. Holotype 9 

Macrophya punctata MacGillivray 1895 
Can. Entomol. 27:285. Holotype 9 

Macrophya trisyllabus sinannula Ross 
1931 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 24:127. 
Holotype 9 

Macrophya truncata Rohwer 1909 Can. 
Entomol. 41:331. Syntypes ICf, 19 

Macrophya varius festana Ross 1931 Ann, 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 24:124. Holotype 9 

Macrophya varius nordicola Ross 1931 
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 24:125. 
Holotype 9 

Messa alsia MacGillivray 1923 Bull. Univ. 
111. 20:22. Holotype 9 

Messa alumna MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 
Univ. 111. 20:23. Holotype 9 

Messa arnica MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 
Univ. 111. 20:23. Holotype 9 

Messaanita MacGillivray 1923 Bull. Univ. 
111. 20:23. Holotype 9 

Messa appota MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 
Univ. 111. 20:24. Holotype C? 

Metallus bethunei MacGillivray 1914 
Can. Entomol. 46:366. Holotype 9 

Metallus rohweri MacGillivray 1909 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 2:267. Holotype 9 

Metallus rubi Forbes 1885 Rep. State En- 
tomol. 111. 14:87. Lectotype O" 
designated by Prison (1927:210) 

Mogerus emarginatus MacGillivray 1895 
Can. Entomol. 27:281. Holotype O" 

Monardis pulla Smith 1969 U. S. Dep. 
Agric. Tech. Bull. 1397:114. Holo- 
type 9 

Monophadnoides circinus MacGillivray 
1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:24. Holotype C? 

Monophadnoides collaris MacGillivray 
1 908 Can . Entomol . 40 : 295 . Holotype 9 

Monophadnoides concessus MacGillivray 
1 908 Can . Entomol . 40 : 294 . Holotype 9 

Monophadnoides conductus MacGilli- 
vray 1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:24. Holo- 
type 9 

Monophadnoides consobrinus Mac- 
Gillivray 1908 Can. Entomol. 40:294. 
Holotype 9 



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Vol. 32. Art. 2 



Monophadnoides consonus MacGillivray 
1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:25. Holotype 9 

Monophadnoides conspersus MacGillivray 
1908 Can. Entomol. 40:294. Holotype 9 

Monophadnoides conspiculata MacGilli- 
vray 1908 Can. Entomol. 40:293. 
Holotype 9 

Monophadnoides conspicuus MacGilli- 
vray 1908 Can. Entomol. 40:293. Holo- 
type 9 

Monophadnoides constitutus MacGilli- 
vray 1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:25. Holo- 
type 9 

Monophadnoides contortus MacGillivray 
1923 Psyche 30:78. Holotype 9 

Monophadnoides coracinus MacGillivray 
1908 Can. Entomol. 40:295. HolotypeC 

Monophadnoides cordatus MacGillivray 
1908 Can. Entomol. 40:294. Holotype 9 

Monophadnoides corytus MacGillivray 
1923 Psyche 30:79. Holotype cr 

Monophadnoides costalis MacGillivray 
1908 Can. Entomol. 40:295. Holotype9 

Monophadnoides crassus MacGillivray 
1908 Can. Entomol. 40:294. Holotype 9 

Monophadnoides curiosus MacGillivray 
1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:25. Holotype 9 

Monophadnoides kincaidi MacGillivray 
1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:26. Holotype 9 

Monophadnoides shawi MacGillivray 
1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:26. Holotype 9 

Monophadnus aequalis MacGillivray 1908 
Can. Entomol. 40:292. Holotype 9 

Monophadnus aeratus MacGillivray 1923 
Psyche 30:79. Holotype O" 

Monophadnus assaracus MacGillivray 
1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:26. Holotype O" 

Monophadnus atracornus MacGillivray 
1 893 Can . Entomol .25:239. Holotype 9 

Monophadnus bipunctatus MacGillivray 
1 908 Can . Entomol . 40 : 292 . Holotype 9 

Monophadnus distinctus MacGillivray 
1908 Can. Entomol. 40:291 . Holotype 9 

Monophadnus minutus MacGillivray 1908 
Can. Entomol. 40:291. Holotype 9 

Monophadnus planus MacGillivray 1921 
Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 16:23. 
Holotype O" 

Monophadnus plicatus MacGillivray 
1908 Can. Entomol. 40:292. Holotype 9 

Monophadnus ruscullus MacGillivray 
1923 Psyche 30:80. Holotype O" 



Monophadnus transversus MacGillivray 
1908 Can. Entomol. 40:292. Holotype9 

Monostegia kincaidii MacGillivray 1893 
Can. Entomol. 25:239. Holotype 9 

Monostegia martini MacGillivray 1908 
Can. Entomol. 40:366. Holotype 9 

Nematus robiniae Forbes 1885 Rep. State 
Entomol. 111. 14:116. Holotype 9 

Neocharactus bakeri MacGillivray 1908 
Can. Entomol. 40:293. Holotype cr 

Neopareophora martini MacGillivray 
1908 Can. Entomol. 40:289. Holotype 9 

Neopareophora scelesta MacGillivray 
1908 Can. Entomol. 40:289. Holotype 9 

Neotomostethus hyalinus MacGillivray 
1908 Can. Entomol. 40:290. Holotype 9 

Pachynematus absyrtus MacGiWrvray 1925 
Bull. Univ. 111. 20:27. Holotype 9 

Pachynematus academus MacGillivray 
1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:27. Holotype 9 

Pachynematus allegatus MacGillivray 
1923 Can. Entomol. 55:162. Holotype 9 

Pachynematus corticosus MacGillivray 
1901 N. Y. State Mus. Bull. 47:584. 
Holotype 9 

Pachynematus falonus Ross 1945 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 47:113. Holo- 
type cr 

Pachynematus jamesi Ross 1945 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 47:112. Holo- 
type O" 

Pachynematus miscus Ross 1945 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 47:114. Holo- 
type cr 

Pachynematus painteri Ross 1945 Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 47:115. Holo- 
type c 

Pachynematus rarus MacGillivray 1921 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:30. Holo- 
type 9 

Pachynematus refractarius MacGillivray 
1921 J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:31 . Holo- 
type 9 

Pachynem,atusremissiis'M.dicG\\\\\ra.y\'32\ 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:32. Holo- 
type 9 

Pachynematus repertus MacGillivray 1921 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:31. Hole- 
type 9 

Pachynematus roscidus MacGillivray 1921 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:31. Holo- 
type 9 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



127 



Pachynematus rufocinctus MacGillivray 

1916 Conn. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 

Bull. 22:117. Holotype 9 
Pachynematus setatorRoss\9^b Proc. En- 

tomol. Soc. Wash. 47:113. Holotype CT 
Pachynematus smi'thae Ross 1945 Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 47:116. Holo- 
type O" 
Pachynematus sporax Ross 1945 Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 47:115. Holo- 
type O" 
Pachynematus uvator Ross 1945 Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 47:114. Holo- 
type O" 
Parabates histrionicus MacGillivray 1909 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 2:263. 

Holotype 9 
Paracharactus obscuratus MacGillivray 

1908 Can. Entomol. 40:293. Holotype 9 
Paracharactus obtentus MacGillivray 

1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:28. Holotype 9 
Paracharactus obversus MacGillivray 

1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:28. Holotype 9 
Paracharactus offensus MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:28. Holotype 9 
Pareophora aldricht MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:28. Holotype 9 
Pareophora guana MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:29. Holotype O" 
Pareophora guara MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 18:54. 

Holotype 9 
Periclista confusa MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:291. Holotype 9 
Periclista electa MacGillivray 1923 Psyche 

30:80. Holotype O" 
Periclista entella MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:29. Holotype cr 
Periclista leucostoma Rohwer 1909 Can. 

Entomol. 41:397. Syntypes la, 19 
Periclista linea Stannard 1949 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 75:19. Holotype 9 
Periclista naranga Stannard 1949 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 75:20. Holotype 9 
Periclista occidentalis Rohwer 1909 Can. 

Entomol. 41:398. Syntype 19 

Periclista patchi MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:29. Holotype 9 
Periclista sulfurana Stannard 1949 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 75:28. Holotype 9 
Perineura kincaidia MacGillivray 1895 

Can. Entomol. 27:7. Holotype 9 



Phlebatrophia mathesoni MacGillivray 

1909 Can. Entomol. 41:345. Holotype9 

Phrontosoma atrum MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:367. Holotype CT 
Phrontosoma collaris MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:367. Holotype 9 
Phrontosoma daec/te? MacGillivray 1908 

Can. Entomol. 40:367. Holotype 9 
Platycampus vierecki MacGillivray 1920 

Can. Entomol. 52:60. Holotype 9 
Poecilostoma convexa MacGillivray 1909 

Can. Entomol. 41:402. Holotype 9 
Polybates slossonae MacGillivray 1909 
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 2:265. 
Holotype 9 
Pontania daedala MacGillivray 1921 J. N. 

Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:33. Holotype 9 
Pontania decrepita MacGillivray 1921 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:33. Holo- 
type 9 
Pontania dedecora MacGillivray 1921 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:32. Holo- 
type 9 
Pontania demissa MacGillivray 1921 J. N. 

Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:33. Holotype 9 
Pontania derosa MacGillivray 1921 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:34. Holo- 
type 9 
Pontania destricta MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:168. Holo- 
type 9 
Pontania devincta MacGillivray 1921 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:34. Holo- 
type 9 
Pontania dotata MacGillivray 1921 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29:34. Holo- 
type O" 
Pontania mariana Ross 1929 Proc. En- 
tomol . Soc . Wash . 3 1 : 9 1 . Holotype 9 
Pontania pepii Ross 1929 Proc. Entomol. 

Soc, Wash. 31:96. Holotype 9 
Priophorus acericaulis MacGillivray 
1906 Can. Entomol. 38:306. Holotype9 
Priophorus modestius MacGillivray 1921 

Entomol. News 32:49. Holotype 9 
Priophorus moratus MacGillivray 1921 

Entomol. News 32:50. Holotype 9 
Priophorus munditus MacGillivray 1921 

Entomol. News 32:50. Holotype 9 
Pristiphora ostiaria MacGillivray 1920 

Can. Entomol. 52:236. Holotype 9 
Pristola macnabi Ross 1945 Pan-Pac. 
Entomol. 21:154. Holotype cr 



128 



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Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Profenusa collaris MacGillivray 1914 Can. 

Entomol. 46:364. Holotype 9 
Prototaxonus typtcus Rohwer 1910 Can. 

Entomol. 42:50. Syntype Icf 
Pseudodineura rileda Smith 1976 Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 78:77. Holotype 9 
Pseudoselandria oxalata MacGillivray 

1 9 1 4 Can . Entomol . 46 : 1 04 . Holotype 9 
Pteronidea edessa MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:30. Holotype 9 
Pteronidea edita MacGillivray 1920 Can. 

Entomol. 52:235. Holotype O" 
Pteronidea edura MacGillivray 1920 Can. 

Entomol. 52:233. Holotype 9 
Pteronidea effeta MacGillivray 1920 Can. 

Entomol. 52:234. Holotype 9 
Pteronidea effrenatus MacGillivray 1923 

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:171. Holo- 
type 9 
Pteronidea effusa MacGillivray 1920 Can. 

Entomol. 52:233. Holotype 9 
Pteronidea egeria MacGillivray 1923 Can. 

Entomol. 55:161. Holotype 9 
Pteronidea egnatia MacGillivray 1923 

Can. Entomol. 55:162. Holotype 9 
Pteronidea electra MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:30. Holotype 9 
Pteronidea elelea MacGillivray 1923 Can. 

Entomol. 55:162. Holotype 9 
Pteronidea emerita MacGillivray 1920 

Can. Entomol. 52:234. Holotype 9 
Pteronidea enavata MacGillivray 1920 

Can. Entomol. 52:236. Holotype 9 
Pteronidea equatia MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:30. Holotype Cf 

Pteronidea equina MacGillivray 1920 
Can. Entomol. 52:235. Holotype 9 

Pteronidea erratus MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:170. Holo- 
type 9 

Pteronidea erudita MacGillivray 1920 
Can. Entomol. 52:234. Holotype 9 

Pteronidea evanida MacGillivray 1920 
Can. Entomol. 52:233. Holotype 9 

Pteronidea exacta MacGillivray 1920 
Can. Entomol. 52:235. Holotype C 

Pteronidea excessus MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:170. Holo- 
type 9 

Rhadinoceraea similata MacGillivray 
1 908 Can . Entomol . 40 : 290 . Holotype 9 



Rhogogastera respectus MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:165. Holo- 
type 9 

Rhogogastera respersus MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:165. Holo- 
type O" 

Rhogogastera ruga MacGillivray 1923 
Can. Entomol. 55:160. Holotype 9 

Selandria floridana MacGillivray 1895 
Can. Entomol. 27:281. Holotype cr 

Selandria urbis Ross 1930 Can. En- 
tomol. 62:186. Holotype 9 

Simplemphytus pacificus MacGillivray 
1914 Can. Entomol. 46:363. Holotype 9 

Strongylogaster annulosus cingulescens 
Ross 1932 Can. Entomol. 64:250. 
Holotype 9 

Strongylogaster pacificus MacGillivray 
1893 Can. Entomol. 25:241. Syntypes 
icr, 1 9 

Strongylogaster primatixms MacGillivray 
1893 Can. Entomol. 25:241 . Syntype 19 

Strongylogaster rufoculus MacGillivray 
1894 Can. Entomol. 26:327. Holotype9 

Strongylogastroidea confusa MacGillivray 
1908 Can. Entomol. 40:369. Holotype9 

Strongylogastroidea depressata MacGill- 
ivray 1921 Psyche 28:31. Holotype 9 

Strongylogastroidea potulenta Mac- 
Gillivray 1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:31. 
Holotype 9 

Strongylogastroidea rufinerva Mac- 
Gillivray 1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:31. 
Holotype 9 

Strongylogastroidea rufocinctana Mac- 
Gillivray 1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:31. 
Holotype 9 

Strongylogastroidea rufocinctella Mac- 
Gillivray 1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:32. 
Holotype 9 

Strongylogastroidea rufula MacGillivray 
1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:32. Holotype 9 

Strongylogastroidea shermani MacGilli- 
vray 1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:32. 
Holotype 9 

Strongylogastroidea spiculatus MacGilli- 
vray 1908 Can. Entomol. 40:369. 
Holotype 9 

Strongylogastroidea unicinctella 
MacGillivray 1923 Bull. Univ. 111. 20:33. 
Holotype 9 

Taxonus borealis MacGillivray 1895 
Can. Entomol. 27:78. Holotype 9 



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WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



129 



Taxonus inclinatus MacGillivray 1923 
Psyche 30:78. Holotype O" 

Taxonus innominatus MacGillivray 1901 
N. Y. State Mus. Bull. 47:585. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredella glacialis Ross 1931 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 24:110. Holotype 9 

Tenthredella stricklandi Ross 1931 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 24:117. Holotype 9 

Tenthredella tricolor savanna Ross 
1931 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 24:116. 
Holotype 9 

Tenthredo aequalis MacGillivray 1895 
Can. Entomol. 27:284. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo aldrichii MacGillivray 1900 
Can. Entomol. 32:183. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo alphius MacGillivray 1900 
Can. Entomol. 32:182. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo atracostus MacGillivray 1900 
Can. Entomol. 32:183. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo atravenus MacGillivray 1895 
Can. Entomol. 27:283. Holotype c 

Tenthredo bilineatus MacGillivray 1895 
Can. Entomol. 27:282. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo capitatus MacGillivray 1897 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:108. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo causatus MacGillivray 1900 
Can. Entomol. 32:178. Holotype cr 

Tenthredo dubitatus MacGillivray 1897 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:103. Holo- 
type O" 

Tenthredo fernaldii MacGillivray 1900 
Can. Entomol. 32:177. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo hyalinus MacGillivray 1897 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:108. Holo- 
type O" 

Tenthredo junghannsii yi.a.cGi\V\\xdiy 
1900 Can. Entomol. 32:179. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo lateralbus MacGillivray 1897 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:108. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo linipes MacGillivray 1897 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:104. Holo- 
type C 

Tenthredo lunatus MacGillivray 1900 
Can. Entomol. 32:180. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo magnatus MacGillivray 1897 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:107. Holo- 
type O" 

Tenthredo messica MacGillivray 1897 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:107. Holo- 
type cr 



Tenthredo neoslossoni MacGillivray 1914 
Can. Entomol. 46:138. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo nigricoxi MacGillivray 1900 
Can. Entomol. 32:181. Holotype cr 

Tenthredo nigrifascia MacGillivray 1900 
Can. Entomol. 32:184. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo nigritibtales MacGillivray 1897 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:107. Holo- 
type cr 

Tenthredo novus MacGillivray 1897 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:106. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo obliquatus MacGillivray 1897 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:105. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo olivatipes MacGillivray 1900 
Can. Entomol. 32:180. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo pallicola MacGillivray 1895 
Can. Entomol. 27:80. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo pallipectis MacGillivray 1897 
J.N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:106. Holo- 
type O" 

Tenthredo pallipunctus MacGillivray 
1895 Can. Entomol. 27:282. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo perplexus MacGillivrayl897 
J.N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:104. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo prosopa Stannard 1947 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 40:434. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo rabida MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:110. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo rabiosa MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. r. Entomol. Soc. 31:112. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo rabula MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:112. Holo- 
type Cf 

Tenthredo racilia MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:112. Holo- 
type cr 

Tenthredo ralla MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y, Entomol. Soc. 31:111. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo redimacula MacGillivray 1895 
Can. Entomol. 27:78. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo reduvia MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:108. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo reflua MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:111. Holo- 
type O" 



130 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32. Art. 2 



Tenthredo refractaria MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:113. Holo- 

type9 
Tenthredo refuga MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:167. Holo- 

type9 
Tenthredo regula MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:166. Holo- 

type9 
Tenthredo reliquia MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:168. Holo- 

type9 
Tenthredo remea MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:107. Holo- 

type9 

Tenthredo remissa MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:114. Holo- 
typecr 

Tenthredo remora MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:108. Holo- 
typeO" 

Tenthredo remota MacGillivray 1895 
Can. Entomol. 27:81. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo reperta MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:115. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo replata MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:115. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo repleta MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:111. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo reposita MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:116. Holo- 
type O" 

Tenthredo reputina MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:114. Holo- 
type O" 

Tenthredo reputinella MacGillivray 1923 
Bull. Univ. 111. 20:33. Holotype CT 

Tenthredo requieta MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:167. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo resegmina MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:115. Holo- 
type c 

Tenthredo resima MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:109. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo resticula MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:168. Holo- 
type 9 



Tenthredo restricta MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:110. Holo- 
type O" 
Tenthredo resupina MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:113. Holo- 
type O" 
Tenthredo reticentia MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:114. Holo- 
type 9 
Tenthredo retinentia MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:166. Holo- 
type 9 
Tenthredo retosta MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:109. Holo- 
type cr 
Tenthredo retroversa MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y, Entomol. Soc. 31:167. Holo- 
type cr 
Tenthredo rhammisia MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:33. Holotype 9 
Tenthredo rima MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:110. Holo- 
type C 
Tenthredo ripula MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:109. Holo- 
type O" 
Tenthredo rota MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:34. Holotype 9 
Tenthredo rotula MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:34. Holotype O- 
Tenthredo rubicunda MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:34. Holotype 9 
Tenthredo rubrica MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:35. Holotype 9 
Tenthredo rubricosa MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:35. Holotype CT 
Tenthredo rubripes MacGillivray 1900 

Can. Entomol. 32:178. Holotype O" 
Tenthredo rubrisommus MacGillivray 
1900 Can. Entomol. 32:181. Holo- 
type 9 
Tenthredo rudicula MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:35. Holotype 9 
Tenthredo rufostigmiis MacGillivray 1895 

Can. Entomol. 27:283. Holotype CT 
Tenthredo nana MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:36. Holotype 9 
Tenthredo ruinosa MacGillivray 1923 

Bull. Univ. 111. 20:36. Holotype 9 
Tenthredo ruma MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 

Univ. 111. 20:36. Holotype O- 
Tenthredo rumina MacGillivray 1923 
Can. Entomol. 55:160. Holotype 9 



July 1980 



WEBB: Primary Insect Types 



131 



Tenthredo rurigena MacGillivray 1923 
Bull. Univ. 111. 20:36. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo russa MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 
Univ. 111. 20:37. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo rustica MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:113. Holo- 
type O" 

Tenthredo rusticana MacGillivray 1923 
Bull. Univ. 111. 20:37. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo rusticula MacGillivray 1923 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:166. Holo- 
type O" 

Tenthredo ruta MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 
Univ. 111. 20:37. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo rutata MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 
Univ. 111. 20:38. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo rutila MacGillivray 1923 Can. 
Entomol. 55:160. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo savagei MacGillivray 1900 
Can. Entomol. 32:184. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo secundus MacGillivray 1897 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:105. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo sicatus MacGillivray 1900 
Can. Entomol. 32:179. Holotype O" 

Tenthredo simulatus MacGillivray 1897 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:105. Holo- 
type 9 

Tenthredo slossonii MacGillivray 1900 
Can. Entomol. 32:179. Holotype C 

Tenthredo smectica MacGillivray 1920 
Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 15:113. 
Holotype 9 

Tenthredo stigmatus MacGillivray 1897 
J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 5:108. Holo- 
type O" 

Tenthredo terminatus MacGillivray 1895 
Can. Entomol. 27:283. Holotype 9 

Tenthredo ventricus MacGillivray 1895 
Can. Entomol. 27:284. Holotype O" 

Tenthredo yuasi MacGillivray 1920 Bull. 
Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 15:112. 
Holotype 9 

Tenthredopsis ruficorna MacGillivray 
1893 Can. Entomol. 25:242. Holo- 
type 9 

Thrinax pullatus MacGillivray 1921 
Psyche 28:34. Holotype O- 

Tomostethus nortonii MacGillivray 
1908 Can. Entomol. 40:291. Holo- 
type 9 



Trichiocampus pacatus MacGillivray 
1921 Entomol. News 32:48. Holo- 
type 9 

Trichiocampus paetulus MacGillivray 
1921 Entomol. News 32:48. Holo- 
type 9 

Trichiocampus palliolatus MacGillivray 
1921 Entomol. News 32:49. Holo- 
type 9 

Trichiocampus patchiae MacGillivray 
1921 Entomol. News 32:48. Holotype 9 

Unitaxonus repentinus MacGillivray 1921 
Psyche 28:32. Holotype 9 

Unitaxonus rumicis MacGillivray 1921 
Psyche 28:33. Holotype 9 

Tiphiidae 

Dipogon femur-aureus Dreisbach 1953 

Am. Midi. Nat. 49:832. Holotype 9 
Myrmosa nocturna rufigastra Krombein 

1940 Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 65:454. 

Holotype C 
Neotiphia acuta Malloch 1918 Bull. 

111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:9. Syntypes 

30-, 19 
Tiphia af finis Malloch 1918 Bull. 111. State 

Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:19. Syntypes 40", 19 
Tiphia arida Malloch 1918 Bull. 111. State 

Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:20. Holotype 9 
Tiphia aterrima Malloch 1918 Bull. 111. 

State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:19. Syntypes 

59 
Tiphia clypeata Robertson 1901 Trans. 

Am . Entomol . Soc .27:196. Syntypes 60" 
Tiphia conformis Malloch 1918 Bull. 111. 

State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:22. Syntypes 

10-,29 
Tiphia floridana Robertson 1901 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:195. Syntypes 

20-, 19 
Tiphia illinoensis Robertson 1901 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:196. Syntypes 6C7 
Tiphia inaequalis Malloch 1918 Bull. 111. 

State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:22. Syntypes 

50- 
Tiphia punctata Robertson 1901 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:196. Holotype O" 
Tiphia punctata intermedia Malloch 

1918 Bull. III. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 

13:21. Syntype 19 
Tiphia robertsoni Malloch 1918 Bull. 111. 

State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:23. Syntypes 

89 



I 



132 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Tiphia rugulosa Malloch 1918 Bull. 111. 

State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:15. Syntypes 

10-,29 
Tt'phia similis Malloch 1918 Bull. 111. 

State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:18. Syntypes 

20- 
Tiphia texensis Malloch 1918 Bull. 111. 

State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:20. Syntype 19 
Tiphia tuberculata Malloch 1918 Bull. 

111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. 13:14. 

Syntypes 7 go-, 119 
Tiphia vulgaris Robertson 1901 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:195. Syntypes 

320-, 19 

Trichogrammatidae 

Aphelinoidea plutella Girault 1912 En- 
tomol. News 23:297. Holotype 9 

Aphelinoidea semifuscipennis Girault 
1911 Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 37:4. 
Lectotype designated by Prison 
(1927:224) 

Neotrichogramma acutiventre Girault 
1911 Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 37:40. 
Syntypes lO", 29 

Oligosita americana Ashmead 1909 
Psyche 16:107. Lectotype 9 designated 
by Prison (1927:224) 

Oophthora semblidis Aurivillius 1897 
Entomol. Tidskr. 18:253. Syn- 
types 40", 159 

Westwoodella clarimaculosa Girault 1911 

Trans. Am, Entomol. Soc. 37:67. 

Holotype 9 
Westwoodella sanguinea Girault 1911 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 37:58. 

Holotype 9 



Vespidae 

Odynerus apopkensis Robertson 1901 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:200. 

Syntypes 20" 
Odynerus australis Robertson 1901 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:200. Syntypes 

40-, 19 
Odynerus bicornis Robertson 1904 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:198. Syntypes 

3CT, 19 
Odynerus bifurcus Robertson 1901 Trans. 



Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:198. Syntypes 

3cr, 19 
Odynerus clypeatus Robertson 1901 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:199. 

Syntypes 510", 69 
Odynerus floridanus Robertson 1901 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:200. 

Syntype 19 
Odynerus fundatiformis Robertson 1901 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:200. 

Holotype cr 
Odynerus histrionalis Robertson 1901 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:199. 

Syntypes 180-. 139 
Odynerus illinoensis Robertson 1901 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:202. 

Syntypes 30-, 109 
Odynerus oculeus Robertson 1901 Trans. 

Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:201. Syn- 
types 120', 49 
Odynerus zendaloides Robertson 1901 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 27:202. 

Syntypes 20" 

Xiphydridae 

Xiphydria polia Smith 1976 Trans. Am. 
Entomol. Soc. 102:119. Holotype 9 

Xyelidae 

Macroxyela bicolor MacGillivray 1912 
Can. Entomol. 44:294. Holotype cr 

Macroxyela bicolor hard Ross 1932 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 25:166. Holotype O" 

Macroxyela distincta MacGillivray 1912 
Can. Entomol. 44:295. Holotype 9 

Macroxyela ohsoleta MacGillivray 1912 
Can. Entomol. 44:294. Holotype 9 

Megaxyela langstoni Ross 1936 Entomol. 
News 47:131. Holotype 9 

Pleroneura aldrichi Ross 1932 Ann. En- 
tomol. Soc. Am. 25:158. Holotype 9 

Xyela deserti Burdick 1961 Univ. Calif. 
Publ. Entomol. 17:347. Holotype 9 

Xyela intrabilis MacGillivray 1923 Bull. 
Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 18:53. Holo- 
type O" 

Xyela linslcyi Burdick 1961 Univ. Calif. 
Publ. Entomol. 17:344. Holotype 9 

Xyelecia nearctica Ross 1932 Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 25:160. Holotype 9 



ADDENDUM 



COLEOPTERA 

Limnichidae 



Eulimnichus rugulosus Wooldridge 1979 

Great Lakes Entomol. 12:6. Holo- 

type O" 
Eulimnichus xdsendus Wooldridge 1979 

Great Lakes Entomol. 12:1. HolotypeCr 
Limnichites rudis Wooldridge 1977 Great 

Lakes Entomol. 10:183. Holotype O" 

HYMENOPTERA 

Tenthredinidae 

Melastola ferruginosa Wong 1968 Can. 
Entomol. 100:1054. Holotype 9 



Pristiphora aphanta Wong & Ross 1960 
Can. Entomol. 92:196. Holotype 9 

Pristiphora hucksena Wong & Ross 1960 
Can. Entomol. 92:194. Holotype 9 

Pristiphora paloma Wong & Ross 1960 
Can. Entomol. 92:196. Holotype 9 

Pristiphora valvangula Wong & Ross 
1960Can. Entomol. 92:194. Holotype O- 

Pristiphora venatta Wong & Ross 1960 
Can. Entomol. 92:196. Holotype 9 



133 



LITERATURE CITED 



BousEMAN, J. K., and W. E. LaBerce. 1979. A 
revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the 
western hemisphere. Part IX. Subgenus 
Melandrena American Entomological Society 
Transactions 104:275-389. 

Daly, H. V. 1973. Bees of the genus Ceratina in 
America north of Mexico (Hymenoptera : 
Apoidea). University of California Publications in 
Entomology 74. 1 14 p. 

Davis. D. R. 1967. A revision of the moths of the 
subfamily Prodoxinae ( Lepidoptera : 
Incurvariidae). U. S. National Museum Bulletin 
255. 170 p. 

Frick, K. E. 1952. The status of Agromyza illi- 
noensis Malloch, 1934, and its correct generic 
position ( Agromyzidae, Diptera). Kansas 
Entomological Society Journal 25:150-154. 

Prison, T. H. 1927. A list of the insect types in the 
collection of the Illinois State Natural History 
Survey and the University of Illinois. Illinois State 
Natural History Survey Bulletin 16:137 309. 

Gerdes, C. 1977. Thysanoptera types in collection of 
Illinois Natural History Survey. Entomological 
News 88:271 -279. 

Hottes. F.C, andT. H. Prison. 1931. The plant lice, 
or Aphiidae. of Illinois. Illinois State Natural 
History Survey Bulletin 1 9 : 1 2 1 - 447 . 

International Commission on Zoological Nomen- 
clature. 1964. International code of zoological 
nomenclature adopted by the XV international 
congress of zoology. London. 176 p. 

Kelsey, L. p. 1969. A revision of the Scenopinidae 
(Diptera) of the world. U. S. National Museum 
Bulletin 277. 336 p. 

LaBerce, W. E. 1956a. A revision of the bees of the 
genus Melissodes in North and Central America. 
Part I (Hymenoptera. Apidae). University of 
Kansas Science Bulletin 37:91 1 1 194. 

. 19566. A revision of the bees of the genus 

Melissodes fn North and Central America. Part II 
(Hymenoptera, Apidae). University of Kansas 
Science Bulletin 38:533 578. 

. 1961. A revision of the bees of the genus 

Melissodes in North and Central America. Part III 
(Hymenoptera, Apidae). University of Kansas 
Science Bulletin 42:283-663. 

. 1967. A revision of the bees of the genus 

Andrena of the western hemisphere. Part I 
Caltandrena. (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). 
University of Nebraska State Museum Bulletin 
7:1-316. 

. 1969. A revision of the bees of the genus 

Andrena of the western hemisphere. Part II. 
Plastandrena, Aporandrena. Charilandrena. 
American Entomological Society Transactions 
95:1-47. 

. 1971. A revision of the bees of the genus 

Andrena of the western hemisphere. Part IV. 
Scrapleropsis. Xiphandrena and Rhaphandrena. 
American Entomological Society Transactions 
97:441-520. 

-. 1973. A revision of the bees of the genus 



. 1977. A revision of the bees of the genus 

Andrena of the western hemisphere. Part VIII. 
Subgenera Thysandrena , Dasyandrena , 
Psammandrena. Rhacandrena, Euandrena. 
Oxyandrena American Entomological Society 
Transactions 103:1-143 

and J. K. Bouseman. 1970. A revision of the 



bees of the genus Andrena of the western 
hemisphere. Part III. Tylandrena American 
Entomological Society Transactions 96:543-605. 

, and D. W. Ribble. 1972. A revision of the 

bees of the genus Andrena of the western 
hemisphere. Part V. Gonandrena, Geissandrena, 
Parandrena, Pelicandrena American 
Entomological Society Transactions 98:217-358. 

Mari Mutt, J. A. 1978. The types of Collembola 
(Insecta) at the Illinois Natural History Survey. 
Illinois Natural History Survey Biological Notes 
103. 7 p. 

Miluron, H. E. 1971. A monograph of the western 
hemisphere bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae; 
Bombinae). I. The genera Bombus and 
Megabombus subgenus Bombias Entomological 
Society of Canada Memoirs 82. 80 p. 

Ordway, E. 1966. Systematics of the genus Augo- 
chlorella (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) north of 
Mexico. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 
46:509-624. 

Pacheco, p. 1964. Sistematica, filogenia y 
distribucion de los Heteroceridos de America 
(Coleoptera: Hetcroccridae). EscuelaNacionalde 
Agricultura, Colegio de Post-Graduados, 
Monografias Miscelaneas 1. Chapingo, Mexico. 
155p. 

Kibble, D. W. 1967. The monotypic North 
American subgenus Larandrena o{ Andrena 
(Hymenoptera: Apoidea). University of Nebraska 
State Museum Bulletin 6:27-42. 

. 1968. Revisions of two subgenera of 

Andrena : Micrandrena Ashmead and 
Derandrena. new subgenus (Hymenoptera: 
Apoidea). University of Nebraska State Museum 
Bulletin 8:237-394. 

1974. A revision of the bees of the genus 



Andrena of the western hemisphere. Part VI. 
Subgenus Trachandrena . American 
Entomological Society Transactions 99:235-371. 



Andrena of the western hemisphere subgenus 

Scaphandrena American Entomological Society 

Transactions 100:101-189. 
Ross, H. H. 1931. Sawflies of the sub-family 
Dolerinae of America north of Mexico. Illinois 
Biological Monographs 12. University of Illinois, 
Urbana. 116 p. 
. 1944. The Caddis Flies, or Trichoptera, of 

Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 

23:1-326. 
ScHOOF, H. p. 1942. The genus Conotmchelus Dejean 

(Coleoptera. Curculionidae) in the north central 

United States. Illinois Biological Monographs 

19.University of Illinois. Urbana. 170p. 
Shapiro, A. M. 1971 . Notes of the biology of Poan« 

inalor (Hesperiidae) with the description of a new 

subspecies. Journal of Research on the 

Lepidoptera 9:109 123. 
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CoUeles in America north of Mexico. 

(Hymenoptera, Colletidae). University of Kansas 

Science Bulletin 36:149 527. 



134 



I 



PUBLICATIONS REFERRED TO IN THE LIST 
OF PRIMARY INSECT TYPES 



Journal Names and Abbreviations 

Am, Midi. Nat. — American Midland Naturalist 
Am. Mus. Novit. —American Museum Novitates 
Am. Nat. —American Naturalist 
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. — Annals of the Ento 

mological Society of America 
Ann, Mag. Nat. Hist. — Annals and Magazine 

of Natural History 
Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. — Annales de la Societe 

Entomologique de Belgique 
Arch. Hydrobiol. — Archiv fiir Hydrobiologie 
Arch. Naturgesch. — Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte 
Arkansas Acad. Sci. Proc, — Arkansas Academy of 

Science Proceedings 
Biol, Cent-Am,, Insecta Diptera — Biologia 

Centrali- Americana. Insecta -Diptera 
Breviora — Breviora 

Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. — Bulletin of the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History 
Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. — Bulletin of the 

Brooklyn Entomological Society 
Bull. Chic. Acad. Sci. — Bulletin of the Chicago 

Academy of Sciences 
Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. - Bulletin of the 

Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 
Bull. 111. State Nat. Hist. Surv. -Bulletin of the 

Illinois State Natural History Survey 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. — Bulletin of the Museum of 

Comparative Zoology 
Bull. Univ. 111. - Bulletin of the University of 

Illinois 
Bull. Univ. Nebr. State Mus. - Bulletin of the 

University of Nebraska State Museum 
Can. Entomol. — Canadian Entomologist 
Can. J. Zool. —Canadian Journal of Zoology 
Caribb. J. Sci. — Caribbean Journal of Science 
Coleopt. Bull. — Coleopterists' Bulletin 
Colo. Agric. Exp. Stn. Annu. Rep. - Colorado 
Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report 
Conn. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull-Con- 
necticut State Geological and Natural History 
Survey Bulletin 
Dtsch. Entomol. Z— Deutsche Entomologische 

Zeitschrift 
Entomol. Am. — Entomologica Americana 
Entomol. News — Entomological News 
Entomol. Tidskr. - Entomologisk Tidskrift 
Esc. Nac. Agric. Chapingo Monogr. - Escuela 
Nacional de Agricultura, Chapingo, Monografias 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist, Publ. Zool. Ser. -Field 
Museum of Natural History Publication 
Zoological Series 



Fla. Entomol. — Florida Entomologist 

For. Sci. — Forest Science 

Great Basin Nat —Great Basin Naturalist 

Great Lakes Entomol. — Great Lakes Entomologist 

111. Biol. Monogr. - Illinois Biological Monographs 

III. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. -Illinois Natural History 

Survey Bulletin 
Indiana Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. - Indiana University 

Publications in Science Series 
Insecutor Inscit. Menstr. — Insecutor Inscitiae 

Menstruers 
Iowa State J. Sci. —Iowa State Journal of Science 
J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. -Journal of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
J. Econ. Entomol. —Journal of Economic Entomology 
J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. -Journal of the Elisha 

Mitchell Scientific Society 
J. Fish. Res. Board Can —Journal of the Fisheries 

Research Board of Canada 
J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. -Journal of the Georgia En- 
tomological Society 
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. -Journal of the Kansas En- 
tomological Society 
J. Lepid. Soc— Journal of the Lepidopterists' 

Society 
J. N. Y, Entomol Soc, -Journal of the New York 

Entomological Society 
J. Wash. Acad. Sci. -Journal of the Washington Acad- 
emy of Sciences 
Kans. Univ. Q. — Kansas University Quarterly 
Maine Agric. Exp. Sm. Tech. Bull. -Maine Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 
Mem. Am. Entomol. Soc — Memoirs of the 

American Entomological Society 
Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. - Memoirs of the En- 
tomological Society of Canada 
Mich. Entomol. —Michigan Entomologist 
Misc. Publ. Entomol. Soc, Am. - Miscellaneous 
Publications of the Entomological Society of 
America 
Nat. Can — NaturalisteCanadien 
Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Ang. Cty. Contrib. 
Sci. — Natural History Museum of Los Angeles 
County Contributions in Science 
North Am. Entomol .- North American 

Entomologist 
N. Y. State Mus. Bull. -New York State 

Museum Bulletin 
Ohio Agric Exp Stn. Tech. Ser. Ohio 
Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Series 
Ohio J. Sci. — Ohio Journal of Science 
Ohio Nat. - Ohio Naturalist 
Orient. Insects — Oriental Insects 



135 



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Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Pac. Insects — Pacific Insects 

Pan-Pac. Entomol. — Pan-Pacific Entomologist 

Papilio — Papilio 

Pomona Coll. J. Entomol. Zool. — Pomona College 
Journal of Entomology and Zoology 

Prairie Farmer— Prairie Farmer 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. — Proceedings of the Bio- 
logical Society of Washington 

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. ~ Proceedings of the 
Boston Society of Natural History 

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci— Proceedings of the 
California Academy of Sciences 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. B. C— Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of British Columbia 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Phila— Proceedings of the En- 
tomological Society of Phildelphia 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. — Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington 

Proc. Hawaii. Entomol. Soc — Proceedings of the 
Hawaiian Entomological Society 

Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. Proceedings of the In 
diana Academy of Science 

Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. — Proceedings of the Iowa 
Academy of Science 

Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. — Proceedings of the United 
States National Museum 

Psyche — Psyche 

Rep. State Entomol. 111. -Report of the State En- 
tomologist of Illinois 

Rev. Bras. Entomol. Revista Brasileira de 
Entomologia 

Rev. Entomol. —Revista de Entomologia 

Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis — Transactions of the 
Academy of Science of St . Louis 

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc —Transactions of the 
American Entomological Society 

Trans. 111. State Acad Sci. —Transactions of the 
Illinois State Academy of Science 

Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa — Transactions of 
the Natural History Society of Formosa 

Trans. R. Can. Inst. - Transactions of the Royal 
Canadian Institute 

Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. —Transactions of 
the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and 
Letters 

Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol — University of Cali- 
fornia Publications in Entomology 



Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull — University of Kansas 

Science Bulletin 
Univ. Wash. Publ. Biol —University of Washington 

Publications in Biology 
U. S. Bur. Entomol. Bull —United States Bureau of 

Entomology Bulletin 
U. S. Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull —United States 

Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 
WasmannJ. Biol. —Wasmann Journal of Biology 
West . Q. Rep . — Western Quarterly Report 

Books 

Beauvois, Palisot De. 1895. Insectes recueillis en 

Afrique et en Amerique. Levrault. Paris. 
Curran, C. H. 1934. The families and genera of 

North American Diptera. Henry Tripp. 

Woodhaven. N.Y. 
Kissinger, D. G. 1974. Apioninae occurring in the 

West Indies (Curculionidae. Coleoptera). 

Kissinger Taxonomic Publications, Riverside, 

Calif. 

Malloch, J. R. 1919. The Diptera collected by the 

Canadian expedition, 1913-1918. Pages 34c 90c 

in Report of the Canadian Arctic expedition 

1913-18. Vol. 3. Ottawa. 
. 1934. Diptera of Patagonia and South Chile. 

Vol. 6. British Museum (Natural History). 

London. 
Milne, L. J. 19351936. Studies in North American 

Trichoplera. Vol. 2 and 3. Cambridge, Mass. 
Ross, H. H. 1956. Evolution and classification of 

the mountain caddisfiies. L'niversity of Illinois 

Press, Urbana. 
Say, T. 1824. From the narrative of the expedition to 

the source of the St. Peters River, etc., under the 

command of Stephen H. Long, Major U, S. T. E. 

Vol. 2. Philadelphia. 

. 1828. American entomology, or 

descriptions of the insects of North America. Vol. 
3. Philadelphia. 

. 1831. Descriptions of North American 

Curculionides, and an arrangementof someof our 
known species, agreeably to the method of 
Schonherr. New Harmony. Indiana. 



INDEX 



aba Milne, Triaenodes. 98 
abbreviata Prison. Isocapnia, 58 
abbreviatus Malloch, Chironomus, 84 
abdominalis Norton, Dolerus, 121 
aberrans Malloch, Lonchaea, 88 
abjecta MacGillivray, Blennocampa, 120 
abnorma MacGillivray, Blennocampa, 120 
abolla lemnisca McAtee, Erythroneura, 67 
abortivus Malloch, Chironomus, 84 
absona MacGilHvray, Blennocampa, 120 
absyrtus MacGillivray, Pachynematus, 126 
academus MacGillivray, Pachynematus, 126 
acadia Ross, Hydroptila, 95 
acantha Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura. 67 
acanthis Ross, Imania, 99 
Acantholyda, 119 

modesta MacGillivray, 119 
accicurta Hepner, Erythroneura, 67 
accuratus MacGillivray, Loderus, 124 
acerbus MacGillivray, Loderus, 124 
acericaulis MacGillivray, Priophorus, 127 
acericola Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 67 
acerifoliae Thomas, Siphonophora, 65 
aceris Forbes, Aleurodes, 63 
acetabula Weld, Disholcaspis, 114 
acidus MacGillivray, Loderus, 125 
acnestus Ross, Limnephilus, 99 
Acordulecera, 119 

maculata MacGillivray, 119 
marina MacGillivray, 119 
maura MacGillivray, 119 
maxima MacGillivray, 119 
media MacGillivray, 119 
meleca MacGillivray, 119 
mellina MacGillivray. 119 
minima MacGillivray, 119 
minata MacGillivray, 119 
mixta MacGillivray, 119 
munda MacGillivray, 119 
musta MacGillivray, 119 
Acraspis, 113 

compressus Gillette, 113 
acriculus MacGillivray, Loderus, 125 
Acrididae. 57 

acritus MacGillivray. Dolerus. 120 
Acroceridae. 81 
Acrolophidae. 105 
Acrolophus, 105 

sinclairi nelsoni Hasbrouck. 105 
Acroneuria, 60 
filicis Prison. 60 
mela Prison. 60 
perplexa Prison, 60 
Actium, 79 

concavum Becker & Sanderson. 79 
acula Ross & Merkley. Limnephilus. 99 
aculea Ross. Oxyethira. 97 
acuminata MacGillivray. Blennocampa. 120 
acuna Ross. Mayatrichia. 96 
acuta Malloch. Neotiphia. 131 



acuta Ross, Chimarra, 100 

acuta pernigra Blaisdell. Eleodes. 81 

acutalis Ross & DeLong. Erythroneura. 67 

acutiventre Girault. Neotrichogramma. 132 

adae Hepner, Erythroneura, 67 

adapus Ross, Limnephilus, 99 

Adialytus, 112 

maidaphidis Garman, 112 
Adelomos, 120 

cleone Ross, 120 
ademus Ross, Limnephilus, 99 
adusta MacGillivray, Blennocampa, 120 
adustus Thew, Ulmeritus, 57 
Aenasioidea, 114 

latiscapus Girault, 114 
aeneoviridis Girault, Arthrolytus, 119 
aeneoviridis Girault, Trichaporus. 115 
aenicta Ross. Apatelia. 99 
aeola Ross. Oxyethira. 97 
aequalis MacGillivray. Monophadnus. 126 
aequalis MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 
aequalis Malloch, Johannsenomyia, 83 
aequalis Malloch, Sapromyza. 88 
aerata Ross. Hydropsyche, 94 
aeratus MacGillivray. Monophadnus. 126 
Aeschnidae. 57 

aesculella Ross & DeLong. Erythroneura, 67 
aesculi Johnson, Aspidiotus, 75 
affmis Malloch, Tiphia, 131 
Agapetus, 92-93 

artesus Ross, 92 

crasmus Ross, 92 

debilis Ross, 92 

gelbae Ross, 92 

illini Ross, 92 

iridis Ross, 92 

jafiwi Ross, 93 

latosus Ross, 93 

marlo Milne, 93 

medicus Ross, 93 

ophionis Ross, 93 

pinatus Ross, 93 

taho Ross, 93 

tomus Ross, 93 

ulmeri Ross, 93 

vireo Ross, 93 
Agapostemon, 115 

bicolor Robertson, 115 
agassizi Ricker, Isocapnia, 58 
agcistus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 121 
agcistus maroa Ross, Dolerus, 121 
Aglaostigma, 120 

dentatum Ross, 120 
aglonus Ross, Pycnopsyche, 100 
Agnocoris, 62 

rossi Moore, 62 
agraticum Kissinger, Apion, 78 
Agraylea, 95 

costello Ross, 95 

saltesea Ross, 95 
agrifoliae Essig, Symydobius, 66 



137 



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Vol. 32, Art. 2 



Agriotes, 79 

sagittus Becker. 79 
Agromyza, 81 

albidohalterata Malloch. 81 

angulicornis Malloch. 81 

aprilina Malloch, 81 

aristata Malloch. 81 

assimilis Malloch, 81 

deceptiva Malloch, 81 

destructor Malloch, 81 

fumicosta Malloch, 81 

indecora Malloch, 81 

infumata Malloch, 81 

nigrisquama Malloch. 81 

pleuralis Malloch, 81 

riparia Malloch, 81 

similata Malloch. 81 

subangulata Malloch, 81 

subvircns Malloch, 81 
AgTomyzidae, 81 
Agrypnia, 101 

dcxtra Ross. 101 
aguanensis Becker & Sanderson. Decarthron, 80 
ajax Ross, Hydroptila, 95 
alabama James, Leuctra, 59 
alagmus Ross, Athripsodes. 98 
Alaptus, 118 

intonsipennis Girault, 118 
albanyensis Hepner, Erythroneura, 67 
alberta Ross. Empoasca, 66 
albescens Hulst, Selidosema. 105 
albibasis Malloch, Johannsenomyia, 83 
albidohalteralis Malloch, Orthocladius, 86 
albidohalterata Malloch, Agromyza, 81 
albidorsata Malloch, Bezzia, 83 
albimarginata Woodworth, Gypona, 76 
albiquera Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
albisetiger Chittenden, Lixus, 78 
alboanalis Franklin, Bombus, 111 
albopicta Forbes, Empoa, 66 
alboviridis Malloch, Chironomus, 84 
albovittata Malloch, Oxycera, 91 
alceda Ross & Cunningham, Empoasca, 66 
alces Ross, Athripsodes, 98 
alconura Ross, Atopsyche, 103 
alconura Ross & Merkley, Limnephilus, 99 
aldinus Ross, Limnephilus. 99 
aldrichi MacGillivray, Astochus, 120 
aldrichi MacGillivray, Pareophora, 127 
aldrichi Malloch, Heteromyia, 83 
aldrichi Malloch, Oxycera, 91 
aldrichi Malloch, Pogonomyia, 90 
aldrichi Ross. Pleroneura, 132 
aldrichii MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 
Aleurodes, 63 

aceris Forbes, 63 
aleurodis Forbes, Elaptus, 119 
alevra Ross, Erythroneura, 68 
alexanderi Ross, Protoptila, 93 
Aleyrodidae. 63 

algonquina Malloch, Helina, 89 
alhedra Ross, Hydropsyche, 94 
alicia Ross, Erythroneura, 68 
aliciae Robertson. Andrena, 105 



aliena Malloch, Coenosia, 89 
allagashensis Blickle, Oxyethira, 97 

AUancus, 120 

universus MacGillivray, 120 
Alleculidae. 77 

allegatus MacGillivray, Pachynematus, 126 
alleni Yamamoto, Polycentropus, 102 
allisonae Brigham. Haliplus, 79 
AUocapnia, 57-58 

aurora Ricker, 57 

brooksi Ross, 57 

cunninghami Ross & Ricker. 57 

curiosa Frison, 57 

forbesi Frison, 57 

forbesi cornuta Frison. 57 

frisoni Ross & Ricker 57 

fumosa Ross, 57 

illinoensis Frison, 57 

indianae Ricker, 57 

jeanae Ross, 57 

loshada Ricker, 58 

malverna Ross, 58 

mohri Ross & Ricker, 58 

mystica Frison, 58 

ohioensis Ross & Ricker, 58 

ozarkana Ross, 58 

pechumani Ross & Ricker, 58 

peltoides Ross & Ricker, 58 

perplexa Ross & Ricker, 58 

polemistij Ross & Ricker. 58 

rickeri Frison, 58 

sandersoni Ricker, 58 

smithi Ross & Ricker, 58 

stannardi Ross. 58 

tennessa Ross. 58 

unzickeri Ross & Yamamoto, 58 

virginiana Frison. 58 

warreni Ross & Yamamoto. 58 

wrayi Ross, 58 

zekia Ross, 58 

zola Ricker, 58 
Allognota, 88 

semivitta Malloch, 88 
AUoperla, 58-59 

autumna Hoppe, 58 

banksi Frison, 59 

caudata Frison, 59 

chloris Frison, 59 

concolor Ricker. 59 

delicata Frison, 59 

diversa Frison, 59 

dubia Frison, 59 

elevata Frison, 59 

exquisita Frison, 59 

fraterna Frison, 59 

lateralis Banks, 59 

lodgei Frison. 59 

mediana Banks, 59 

medveda Ricker. 59 

nanina Banks. 59 

neglecta Frison, 59 

nimbilis Hoppe. 59 

occidens Frison, 59 

oregonensis Frison, 59 



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139 



pintada Ricker. 59 
tamalpa Ricker. 59 
thalia Ricker, 59 
townesi Ricker. 59 
urticae Ricker. 59 
usa Ricker. 59 
vostoki Ricker. 59 
alloplana Ross. Erythroneura. 68 
almota Ross. Parapsyche. 95 
alphius MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 129 
alseae Ross. Homoplectra. 94 
alsia MacGillivray, Messa. 125 
alta James, Leuctra, 59 
alticinctus MacGillivray. Loderus. 125 
altmani Cunningham & Ross, Empoasca, 66 
altmani Yamamoto, Polycentropus, 102 
alumna MacGillivray, Messa, 125 
alveyi Hepner, Erythroneura. 68 
amara MacGillivray. Blennocampa. 120 
Amauronematus, 120 

vacalus MacGillivray, 120 
vacivus MacGillivray. 120 
Valerius MacGillivray. 120 
vanus MacGillivray. 120 
venaticus MacGillivray. 120 
veneficus MacGillivray, 120 
venerandus MacGillivray, 120 
ventosus MacGillivray. 120 
verbosus MacGillivray. 120 
veridicus MacGillivray. 120 
vescus MacGillivray. 120 
visendus MacGillivray, 120 
amblis Ross. Hydropsyche, 94 
amboyensis Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
ambrosiae Thomas. Siphonophora. 65 
americana Ashmead. Oligosita. 132 
americana Johnson. Chionaspis. 75 
americana Malloch. Leucopis. 84 
americana Robertson. Notoglossa. 120 
americana nortoni MacGillivray. Cimbex, 112 
americana rubrosa Ross, Crabo, 112 
americanus Weed, Clinocentrus, 112 
amerus Ross, Heteroplectron, 92 
amethica Ross. Erythroneura, 68 
Ametropodidae, 56 
amica MacGillivray. Messa, 126 
amicis Ross, Rhyacophila, 103 
amicta Uhler, Bolteria, 62 
Amiota, 88 

setigera Malloch, 88 
Ammobates, 117 

heliopsis Robertson. 117 
amoena Ross. Hydroptila. 95 
ampaiae Hepner. Erythroneura, 68 
ampasa Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 68 
Amphinemura, 60 

puebla Baumann & Gaufm. 60 
Amphorophora, 63 

nebulosa Hottes & Prison. 63 
rossi Hottes & Prison. 63 
sensoriata Mason. 63 
singularis Hottes & prison. 63 
ampoda Ross. Hydroptila, 95 
anachris Burks, Baetis, 56 



Anacroneuria, 60 

chiapasa Jewett, 60 

crenulata Jewett, 60 

dampfi, Jewett, 60 

flavominuta Jewett, 60 

nigrolineata Jewett, 60 
Anagapetus, 93 

bcrnea Ross, 93 

hoodi Ross, 93 
anaglypticus Say. Conotrachelus. 78 
AnagTus, 118 

armatus nigriventris Girault. 118 

delicatus Dozier. 118 

epos Girault. 118 

spiritus Girault. 118 
Anagyrus, 114 

nubilipennis Girault. 114 
analomum Kissinger. Apion. 78 
Anaphes, 118 

hercules Girault, 118 

nigrellus Girault, 118 
Anaphoidea, 118 

pullicrura Girault, 118 

sordidata Girault, 118 
Anarostomoides, 88 

petersoni Malloch, 88 
ancantha DeLong & Caldwell, Forcipata, 74 
ancella Cunningham & Ross, Empoasca, 66 
ancisus MacGillivray. Loderus. 125 
Ancylophorus, 80 

sandersoni Smetana. 80 
andax Ross. Homophylax. 99 
Andrena, 105-107 

aliciae Robertson. 105 

arabis Robertson. 105 

asteris Robertson. 105 

banski Malloch. 105 

barbara Bouseman & LaBerge. 106 

claytoniae Robertson. 106 

corni Robertson, 106 

crataegi Robertson, 106 

cressonii Robertson. 106 

crudeni LaBerge. 106 

dubia Robertson. 106 

erigeniae Robertson, 106 

erythronii Robertson. 106 

flexa Malloch. 106 

forbesii Robertson. 106 

geranii Robertson. 106 

g. maculali Robertson, 106 

helianthi Robertson, 106 

heraclei Robertson, 106 

hippotes Robertson, 106 

illini Bouseman, 106 

illinoiensis Robertson, 106 

illinoiensis bicolor Robertson, 106 

krigiana Robertson, 106 

lauracea Robertson, 106 

livida LaBerge, 106 

macoupincnsis Robertson, 106 

mandibularis Robertson, 106 

mariae Robertson, 106 

mariae concolor Robertson, 106 

nasonii Robertson, 106 



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Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



nigrae Robertson. 107 

nothoscordi Robertson, 107 

nuda Robertson, 107 

perezi Robertson, 107 

personata Robertson, 107 

platyparia Robertson, 107 

polemonii Robertson, 107 

pruni Robertson, 107 

pulchella Robertson, 107 

quintilis Robertson, 107 

rudbeckiae Robertson, 107 

rugosa Robertson, 107 

salicacea Robertson, 107 

salicis Robertson, 107 

salictaria Robertson, 107 

sayi Robertson, 107 

scutellaris Robertson, 107 

serotina Robertson, 107 

solidaginis Robertson, 107 

spiraeana Robertson, 107 

torulosa LaBerge, 107 

tridens Robertson, 107 

trimaculata LaBerge, 107 

viciniformis Robertson, 107 

violae Robertson, 107 

ziziae Robertson, 107 
Andrenidae, 105-108 

andrenoides bicolor Robertson, Parandrena, 108 
andresia Ross, Empoasca, 66 
andrewsi Hepner, Erythroneura , 68 
Andricus, 113 

decidua Beutenmueller, 113 

lustrans Beutenmueller, 113 

pisiformis Beutenmueller, 113 

rileyi Ashmead. 113 

rugulosus Beutenmueller. 113 
angata Ross, Dibusa, 95 
angulata MacGillivray. Blennocampa. 120 
angulata MacGillivray, Itycorsia. 119 
angulata Malloch, Melanochelia, 89 
angulicomis Malloch, Agrbmyza, 81 
angulosus Becker & Sanderson, Eupsenius, 80 
angusta Ross, Hydroptila, 95 
angustata Prison, Brachygaster, 115 
angustifoliae Ross, Empoasca. 66 
anilla Ross, Empoasca, 66 
anillus Ross, Dolophilus, 101 
aniqua Ross, Neophylax, 100 
anisca Ross, Polytrichia, 97 
anita MacGillivray, Messa, 125 
anna Coquillett, Anthrax, 82 
annulatus MacGillivray, Leucopelmonus, 124 
annulicornis Malloch, Johannsenomyia, 83 
annuliventris Malloch, Metriocnemus. 85 
annulosus cingulescens Ross, Strongylogaster, 128 
anobola Blickle. Oxyethira, 97 
anogis Hottes & Prison. Asiphonaphis. 64 
anomalae Hottes & Prison, Macrosiphum, 64 
anomalus Malloch, Chrysotus, 88 
anomalus Robertson, Halictus, 116 
Anoplius, 119 

hispidulus Dreisbach, 119 
anseri Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 



antennalis Sanderson, Stenelmis, 79 
antennariae Robertson, Sphecodes, 116 
antennata MacGillivray, Blennocampa. 120 
antennatum Patch, Melanoxantherium, 65 
Anthemurgus, 107 

passiflorae Robertson, 107 
Anthidum, 117 

psoraleae Robertson, 117 
Anthomyia, 81 

dorsimaculata Wulp. 81 
Anthomyidae, 81-82 
anthophilus Burks, Tetrastichus. 114 
anthracina Malloch. Coenosia. 89 
Anthracophaga, 87 

distichliae Malloch. 87 
Anthrax, 82 

anna Coquillett, 82 

inauratus Coquillett, 82 
antigone McAtee, Typhlocyba, 74 
antilles Ross & Palmer. Hydropsyche, 94 
Antistrophus, 113 

bicolor Gillette, 113 

laciniatus Gillette, 113 

minor Gillette, 113 

rufus Gillette, 113 

silphii Gillette, 113 
apache juniperus DeLong & Hershberger, 

Idiocerus, 77 
Apanteles, 112 

canarsiae Ashmead, 112 

crambi Weed, 112 

ornigis Weed, 112 

orobenae Porbes, 112 

sarrothripae Weed. 112 
Apareophora, 120 

rossi Smith, 120 
Apatetia, 99 

aenicta Ross, 99 
Apenesia, 111 

discomphaloides Evans, 111 

exilis Evans, 111 

insolita Evans. Ill 
aperta MacGillivray, Blennocampa, 120 
Aphaniosoma, 87 

quadrivittatum Malloch, 87 
Aphanisus, 120 

lobatus MacGillivray, 120 

muricatus MacGillivray, 120 

nigritus MacGillivray. 120 

obsitus MacGillivray. 120 

occiduus MacGillivray, 120 

odoratus MacGillivray, 120 

parallelus MacGillivray. 120 
aphanta Ross, Cheumatopsyche. 94 
aphanta Wong & Ross. Prisliphora. 133 
Apharus, 79 

punctatus Becker & Sanderson. 79 
Aphelinoidea, 132 

plutella Girault, 132 

semifuscipcnnis Girault. 132 
Aphelinus, 114 

varicornis Girault, 114 
Aphididae, 63 66 



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141 



Aphiochaeta, 90 

aristalis Malloch. 90 

bisetulata Malloch, 90 
. nasoni Malloch. 90 

pallidiventris Malloch, 90 

plebeia Malloch, 90 

quadripunctata Malloch, 90 
Aphis, 63 

bonnevillensis Knowlton, 6S 

caliginosa Hottes & Prison, 63 

carduella Walsh, 63 

cari Essig, 63 

cephalanthi Thomas, 63 

chetansapa Hottes & Frison, 63 

cucumcris Forbes, 63 

decepta Hottes & Frison, 63 

fraternus Strom, 63 

funesta Hottes & Frison, 63 

gregalis Knowlton, 63 

hiltoni Essig, 63 

illinoisensis Shimcr, 63 

impatientis Thomas, 63 

knowltoni Hottes & Frison, 63 

luridis Hottes & Frison, 63 

nyctalis Hottes & Frson, 63 

pseudobrassicae Davis, 63 

pulchella Hottes & Frison, 63 

signatis Hottes & Frison, 63 

vernoniae Thomas, 63 

zilora Hottes & Frison, 63 
Aphropsyche, 94 

aprilis Ross, 94 
Aphycus, 114 

stomachosus Girault, 114 
apicalis Malloch, Emmesomyia, 81 
apicalis Malloch, Gaurax, 87 
apicata Malloch, Bezzia, 83 
Apidae. 108 
Apion, 78 

agraticum Kissinger, 78 

analomum Kissinger, 78 

chermum Kissinger, 78 

chreum Kissinger, 78 

latrum Kissinger, 78 

naulum Kissinger, 78 

nesium Kissinger, 78 

sandersoni Kissinger, 78 

tributum Kissinger, 78 

valentinei Kissinger, 78 
apios Ross, Sterictiphora, 111 
apios atrescens Ross, Sterictiphora, HI 
aplita Ross & King, Atopsyche, 103 
Apocephalus, 90 

pictus Malloch, 90 
apopkensis Robertson, Halictus, 116 
apopkensis Robertson, Odynerus, 132 
appalachia Ricker, Strophopteryx, 61 
appendiculata Malloch, Typhlocyba. 75 
appota MacGillivray, Messa. 125 
approximata Malloch, Oxycera, 91 
apricus Norton, Dolerus, 121 
aprilina Malloch, Agromyza, 81 
aprilis Norton. Dolerus. 121 



aprillis Ross, Aphropsyche, 94 

apriloides MacGillivray, Dolerus, 121 

aquilegiae Essig, Myzus, 65 

aquilonius Ross & Hamilton. Diplocolenus. 75 

arabis Robertson, Andrena, 105 

araya Ross, Oxyethira, 97 

archaon Ross, Goera, 93 

arctia Ross, Hydroptila, 95 

Arctiidae. 105 

Arctoecia, 99 

ozburni Milne, 99 
arcuatus Robertson, Halictus, 116 
Arcynopteryx, 61 

walkeri Ricker, 61 

watertoni Ricker, 61 
ardensus Sanderson, Lithocharis, 81 
ardis Ross, Oligophlebodes, 100 
areion Burks, Stenonema, 57 
arenosa Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura. 68 
ares Burks. Stenonema, 57 
aretto Ross, Limnephilus. 99 
Argidae, 110-111 
argo Burks. Ephemerella, 56 
argosa Ross. Hydroptila, 95 
Argyra, 88 

similis Harmston & Knowlton, 88 
Arianops, 79 

sandersoni Barr, 79 
Ariciella, 89 

flavicornis Malloch, 89 
arida Malloch, Tiphia, 131 
arina Frison, Diploperia, 61 
arinale Ross. Hydropsyche. 94 
aristalis Malloch. Aphiochaeta. 90 
aristata Malloch. Agromyza. 81 
arizona Ross, Empoasca. 66 
arizona Ross. Limnephilus. 99 
arizona Ross, Oxyethira, 97 
arkansae Ricker, Strophopteryx, 61 
arkansana Dawson, Serica, 80 
armala Malloch, Mydaea, 89 
armata Ross, Hydroptila, 95 
armatum Becker & Sanderson. Decarthron. 80 
armatus nigriventris Girault. Anagrus. 118 
arneri Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
arnoldi Ricker & Ross. Zealeuctra. 60 
arpegia Ross, Erythroneura, 68 
arpidia Malloch. Oscinoides. 87 
arpidia atra Malloch. Oscinoides. 87 
arpidia elegans Malloch. Oscinoides. 87 
arpidia humeralis Malloch, Oscinoides, 87 
artesus Ross, Agapetus, 92 
Arthmius, 79 

corradus Becker & Sanderson, 79 

torcerus Becker & Sanderson, 79 
Arthrolytus, 1 19 

aeneoviridis Girault. 119 
arundinicola Knight. Phytocoris. 62 
arva Ross. Polytrichia. 97 
ashmcadii Robertson. Halictus, 116 
Asiphonaphis, 64 

anogis Hottes & Frison. 64 



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Aspidiotus, 75 

aesculi Johnson, 75 

comstocki Johnson, 75 

forbesi Johnson, 76 

hartii Cockerell, 75 

piceus Sanders, 75 

ulmi Johnson, 75 
Aspilates, 105 

behrensaria Hulst, 105 
aspilus Ross, Brachycentrus, 92 
Aspistes, 91 

harti Malloch, 91 
assaracus MacGillivray, Monophadnus, 126 
assimilis Malloch, Agromyza, 81 
astera Ross, Cemotina, 101 
asleris Robertson, Andrena, 105 
asteris Robertson, Calliopsis, 108 
asteris Robertson, Melissodes, 109 
Astichus, 114 

bimaculatipennis Girault, 114 
Astochus, 120 

aldrichi MacGillivray, 120 

fletcheri MacGillivray, 120 
asymmetra Hepner. Erythroneura, 68 
Atalophlebia, 57 

sepia Thew, 57 
ater Hopper, Tricyphus, 117 
aterrima Malloch. Galgupha, 62 
aterrima Malloch, Tiphia, 131 
aterrima Wulp. Pogonomyia, 90 
athene McAtee, Typhlocyba, 75 
Athripsodes, 98 

alagmus Ross, 98 

alces Ross, 98 

brevis Etnier, 98 

cophus Ross, 98 

erraticus Milne, 98 

erullus Ross, 98 

miscus Ross, 98 

nephus Ross. 98 

ophioderus Ross, 98 

saccus Ross. 98 

uvalo Ross. 98 

wetzeli Ross. 98 
atkinsoni Hepner. Erythroneura. 68 
atlanta Ross, Neophylax, 100 
Atopsyche, 103 

alconura Ross. 103 

aplita Ross & King. 103 

boneti Ross & King. 103 

calopta Ross & King. 103 

dampfi Ross & King, 103 

erigia Ross, 103 

espala Ross & King. 103 

explanata Ross, 103 

jaboda Ross & King, 103 

kamesa Ross & King, 103 

kingi Ross, 103 

majada Ross, 103 

ulmeri Ross, 103 

vatucra Ross, 103 
atra Malloch, Forbesomyia, 82 
atracornus MacGillivray. Monophadnus, 126 
atracostus MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 



atrata MacGillivray. Blennocampa. 121 
atratum MacGillivray. Isiodyctium, 124 
atratus DeLong, Cloanthanus, 75 
atratus alternans Prison, Bremus, 111 
atravenus MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 
atrifrons Malloch. Gimnomera. 81 
atritibialis Knight. Lygus. 62 
atriventris fuscipes Robertson, Synhalonia, 110 
atrum MacGillivray, Phrontosoma, 127 
attenuata Malloch, Hylemyia, 82 
Augochlora, 115 

austrina Robertson. 115 

confusa Robertson. 115 

matilda Robertson. 115 

similis Robertson. 115 
Aulacidea, 113 

solidaginis. Girault. 113 
Aulax, 113 

bicolor Gillette. 113 
aurea Malloch. Forcipomyia, 83 
aureoventris Davis, Dicosmoecus, 99 
auricomus Robertson. Bombias. Ill 
Auridius, 75 

xanthus Hamilton & Ross. 75 
aurifrons Malloch. Schoenomyza, 90 
aurora Ricker, Allocapnia, 57 
australis Metcalf, Herpis, 76 
australis Robertson, Odynerus, 132 
austrina Robertson. Augochlora. 115 
autumna Hoppe. Alloperla. 68 
autumnalis Robertson. Epeolus. 108 
autumnalis Robertson. Melissodes. 109 
autumnalis Robertson. Panurgus. 108 
avigo Ross. Glyphopsyche. 99 
avigo Ross. Psychoglypha. 100 
ayanus Ross, Neophylax, 100 

B 

bactro Ross. Micrascma, 92 
baeticatus Burks, Baetis. 56 
Baetidae, 56 
Baetis, 56 

anachris Burks. 56 

baeticatus Burks. 56 

cleptis Burks. 56 

elachistus Burks. 56 

harti McDunnough. 56 

herodes Burks, 56 

ochris Burks. 56 

pallidula McDunnough. 56 

phyllis Burks. 56 
bainteri Hepner. Erythroneura, 68 
bakeri MacGillivray. Neocharactus. 126 
balanata MacGillivray. Itycorsia, 119 
balata MacGillivray, Itycorsia. 119 
baldufi Kingsolver & Ross, Orthotrichia. 96 
ballista MacGillivray. Itycorsia. 119 
balmorhea Ross. Protoptila. 93 
balteatus Thew. Ulmeritus, 57 
banksi Prison. Alloperla. 59 
banksi Malloch, Andrena. 105 
banksi Ross. Rhyacophila. 103 
Banksiola, 99 

selina Betten. 99 



I 



July 1980 



Webb: Primary Insect Types 



143 



barbara Bouseman, Andrena, 106 

barbarae Hepner, Erythroneura. 68 

barbata Prison , Capnia, 58 

barbata Prison. Evania. 115 

barbatus Robertson, Trypetes, 118 

baris Ross, Triaenodes, 98 

barnesae Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 

barri Ross & Yamamoto, Polycentropus, 102 

basalis Malloch, Chironomus, 84 

basiseta Malloch, Phaonia, 90 

Batrisodes, 79 

cartwrighti Sanderson, 79 
curvatus Sanderson, 79 
rossi Park, 79 
sandersoni Park, 79 
beamcri Hamilton & Ross, Hcbecephalus, 75 
beckeri Ross, Empoasca, 66 
bcckeri picta Smetana, Cymbiodyta, 79 
Beckerina, 90 

juteola Malloch, 90 
beckiae Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
beeri Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
behrensaria Hulst, Aspilates, 106 
belindae Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
bella Frison, Evania, 115 
bellona Banks, Isoperla, 61 
bcllula MacGillivray, Macrophya, 125 
bellulus Melandcr, Nemotelus, 91 
belona Ross, Rhyacophila, 103 
Belonocnema, 113 

kinseyi Weld, 113 
benedicti Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
bennetti Ross, Micrasema, 92 
bequaerti Dreisbach, Pompilinus, 119 
Beraea, 92 

gorteba Ross, 92 
Beraeidae, 92 

bergi Ross, Molannodes, 100 
bemea Ross, Anagapetus, 93 
bemeri Allen & Edmunds, Ephemerella, 56 
bcmeri Ross, Hydroptila. 95 
besamctsa Ricker, Nemoura, 60 
bethunei MacGillivray, Metallus, 125 
bethunei Sanders, Hoplogryon, 120 
Bethylidae, 111 
betteni Ross, Goerita, 93 
bettcni Ross, Hydropsyche, 94 
betulella Walsh, Calaphis, 64 
Beyeria, 81 

pulex Sanderson, 81 
Bezzia, 83 

albidorsata Malloch, 83 
apicata Malloch, 83 
cockerelli Malloch, 83 
dentata Malloch, 83 
flavitarsis Malloch. 83 
bicaudata Malloch, Hylemyia. 82 
bicolor Beauvois. Dolerus. 121 
bicolor Campbell. Lobopoda, 77 
bicolor Gillette, Antistrophus, 113 
bicolor Gillette, Aulax, 113 
bicolor MacGillivray, Macroxyela, 132 
bicolor Metcalf, Bruchomorpha, 76 
bicolor Robertson, Agapostemon, 115 



bicolor harti Ross. Macroxyela. 132 
bicolor nigrata Ross. Dolerus, 121 
bicomis MacGillivray, Macremphytus, 125 
bicornis Robertson, Odynerus, 132 
bicruciata Malloch, Hylemyia, 82 
bicurvata Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
bidens Ross, Hydropsyche, 94 
bifasciata Ray, Mordellistena, 79 
bifasciatus Malloch, Orthocladius. 86 
bifosa Ross, Imania, 99 
bifurcata Allen, Ephemerella, 56 
bifurcus Robertson, Odynerus, 132 
bilineata MacGillivray, Macrophya, 125 
bilineatus MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 
billi Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
bimaculata Woodworth, Gypona. 76 
bimaculatipennis Girault. Astichus, 114 
bipunctatus MacGillivray, Monophadnus, 126 
bipunctulata Woodworth, Gypona, 77 
bisetulata Malloch, Aphiochaeta, 90 
bispina Malloch. Botanobia, 87 
bispinosa Malloch, Helina, 89 
Biston, 105 

ypsilon Porbes, 105 
Bittacidae, 81 
Bittacus, 81 

taraiensis Penny, 81 
blanda Sanderson, Phyllophaga, 80 
blandura Becker & Sanderson, Reichenbachia, 80 
blarina Ross, Rhyacophila, 103 
Blennocampa, 120-121 
abjecta MacGillivray, 120 
abnorma MacGillivray, 120 
absona MacGillivray, 120 
acuminata MacGillivray, 120 
adusta MacGillivray, 120 
amara MacGillivray, 120 
angulata MacGillivray, 120 
antennata MacGillivray, 120 
aperta MacGillivray. 120 
atrata MacGillivray. 121 
typicella MacGillivray. 121 
blickei Ross & Yamamoto. Polycentropus. 102 
blocked Hepner, Erythroneura. 68 
bolteri Cresson. Trogas, 117 
bolteri Stretch, Euchaetes, 105 
Bolteria, 62 

amicta Uhler, 62 
boltoniae Robertson, Melissodes, 105 
boltoniae Robertson, Pcrditella, 108 
Bombias, 111 

auricomus Robertson, 111 
Bombidae, 111112 
Bombus, 111 

alboanalis Pranklin. HI 
impatiens deayi Chandler, HI 
imuganensis Hedicke, 111 
incarum Pranklin, 111 
laticinctus Pranklin, 111 
mexicensis Pranklin, 111 
mormonorum pranklin. 111 
nevadensis aztecus Cockerell, 111 
Bombyliidae, 82 
bonariensis Malcomson, Myrsidea, 62 



144 



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Vol. 32, Art. 2 



boneti Ross. Chimarra, 101 

boneti Ross & King. Atopsyche, 103 

boniorum Hepner, Erythroneura. 68 

bonita Becker & Sanderson. Rhinoscepsis. 80 

bonnevillensis Knowlton, Aphis. 63 

Borborus, 91 

scriptus Malloch, 91 
boreale Robertson. Dianthidium, 117 
borealis MacGillivray, Dolerus, 121 
borealis MacGillivray, Taxonus, 128 
Botanobia, 87 

bispina Malloch, 87 
hinkleyi Malloch, 87 
spiniger Malloch, 87 
bowmanorum Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
Brachycentridae, 92 
Brachycentrus, 92 
aspilus Ross. 92 
chelatus Ross, 92 
dimicki Milne. 92 

lateralis Say, 92 

numerosus Say, 92 
spinae Ross, 92 
Brachygaster, 115 

angustata prison, 115 

eximia Frison, 115 

parishi Frison, 115 

peruviana Frison. 115 

rubia Frison, 115 
brachyneura Malloch, Metriocnemus, 85 
Brachyptera, 61 

limata Frison, 61 

rossi Frison, 61 

zelona Ricker, 61 
Bracon, 112 

crassifemur Muesebeck, 112 
Braconidae. 112 

brazzeli Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
Bremus, 111-112 

atratus alternans Frison, 111 

caliginosus Frison, 111 

centralis fucatus Frison, 111 

centralis stolidus Frison, 111 

edwardsii russulus Frison, 111 

formosellus Frison, HI 

formosellus derivatus Frison, 111 

formosellus gradatus Frison, 111 

franklini Frison, 111 

kirbyellus alexanderi Frison, 111 

kirbyellus arizonensis Frison, 111 

mearnsi deflectus Frison, 111 

mearnsi dilutus Frison, 111 

melanopygus washingtonensis, Frison, 111 

neotropicus Frison, 111 

niger signatus Frison, 111 

pleuralis clarus Frison, 111 

robustus curiosus Frison, 111 

rufocinctus siadeni Frison, 111 

sonani Frison, 1 1 1 

sylvicola lutzi Frison, 111 

sylvicoia sculleni Frison, 112 

terricola severini Frison, 112 

vagans helenac Frison, 112 
brendae Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 



brevicomis Hart, Tychea, 66 
brevicornis Malloch, Tetramerinx, 90 
brevicornis Robertson, Colietes. 112 
brevidus DeLong, Chlorotettrix, 75 
brevinervis Malloch, Orthocladius. 86 
brevior Ross & Hamilton, Diplocolenus, 75 
brevipilosa Malloch. Mydaea, 89 
brevis Etnier. Athripsodes, 98 
brevis Knight, Hyaliodes, 62 
brevispina Malloch, Phaonia, 90 
bronta Ross, Hydropsyche, 94 
brooki Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
brooksi Ross, Allocapnia. 57 
broweri Blickle, Hydroptila, 95 
brucensis Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
Bruchomorpha, 76 
bicolor Metcaif. 76 
decorata Metcaif, 76 
vittata Metcaif. 76 
bruesi Milne & Milne, Rhyacophila, 103 
bruesii Melander. Nemotelus, 91 
brundusoides Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
brunneus ravus Hamilton, Paraphlepsius. 76 
brustia Ross. Chimarra, 101 
brustia Ross, Stactobia. 97 
buccata Malloch, Xenomydaea, 90 
bulbosa Frison, Diploperla, 61 
burksi Frison. Isoperla, 61 
burksi Ricker, Taeniopteryx, 62 
burksi Ross, Cheumatopsyche, 94 
burksi Ross & Unzicker, Micrasema. 92 
byersi Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
byersi Webb & Penny, Neopanorpa. 81 
Bythinoplectus, 79 

carenado Becker & Sanderson, 79 
emargo Becker & Sanderson, 79 
trapezodis Becker & Sanderson. 79 



Caborius, 99 

kaskaskia Ross, 99 

lyratus Ross, 99 
caddoensis Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
cadurca MacGillivray, Empria, 123 
caeca MacGillivray, Empria, 123 
Caeciliidae, 77 
Caecilius, 77 

manteri Sommerman, 77 
Caecossonus, 78 

dentipes Gilbert, 78 
Caenidae 56 
Caenis, 56 

gigas Burks. 56 
Caenolyda, 119 

onekama MacGillivray. 119 
caerulescens Ashmead. Tetrastichus. 118 
caerulescens Malloch. Medeterus. 88 
caetrata MacGillivray, Empria, 123 
caffreii Flint & Malloch. Pyrausta, 105 
Calamoceratidae, 92 
Calaphis, 64 

betulella Walsh, 64 
calcarata Robertson, Ceratina, 108 
calcea Ross, Cernotina, 101 



July 1980 



Webb: Primary Insect Types 



145 



calda MacGillivray, Empria. 123 
caldwelli Ross. Smicridea, 95 
californicus Essig, Monellia. 65 
caliginosa Hottes & Frison. Aphis, 63 
caliginosus Prison.- Bremus. Ill 
Caliroa, 121 

labrata MacGillivray, 121 

lacinata MacGillivray. 121 

lata MacGillivray. 121 

laudata MacGillivray. 121 

lineata MacGillivray. 121 

liturata MacGillivray. 121 

lobata MacGillivray, 121 

lorata MacGillivray. 121 

loricata MacGillivray, 121 

lunata MacGillivray, 121 

nortonia MacGillivray, 121 
Callicera, 91 

johnsoni auripila Mctcalf, 91 
callida MacGillivray, Empria, 123 
Calliopsis, 108 

asteris Robertson, 108 

compositarum Robertson, 108 

labrosus Robertson, 108 

parvus Robertson, 108 

rudbeckiae Robertson, 108 

rugosus Robertson, 108 

solidaginis Robertson. 108 
Callipterus, 64 

caryaefoliae Davis. 64 
Callirhytis, 113 

ellipsoida Weld, 113 

fulva Weld, 113 

marginata Weld, 113 

maxima Weld. 113 

middletoni Weld. 113 
callisoga Ross, Erythroneura, 68 
callosa MacGillivray, Empria, 123 
Calophya, 77 

pallidula McAtee, 77 
calopta Ross & King, Atopsyche. IDS 
calva Ross. Chimarra. 101 
camirei Hepner. Erythroneura. 68 
campanulae Robertson. Oligotropus. 118 
campanulata Robertson. Sphegina. 91 
Campsurus, 56 

primus McDunnough. 56 
Camptocladius, 84 

flavens Malloch. 84 

flavibasis Malloch. 84 

lasiophthalmus Malloch. 84 

lasiops Malloch. 84 

subaterrimus Malloch, 84 
Camptoptera, 118 

pulla Girault, 118 
campyla Ross, Cheumatopsyche, 94 
canadensis Curran, Syrphus, 91 
canadensis Malloch, Fannia, 89 
canarsiae Ashmead, Apanteles. 112 
canarsiae Ashmead. Limneria. 117 
canarsiae Ashmead. Spilocryptus. 117 
canax Ross. Dicosmoecus. 99 
canda Ross & Moore. Empoasca. 66 
candidula MacGillivray, Empria. 123 



canora MacGillivray. Empria. 123 

cantha Ross, Lepidostoma, 97 

cantha Ross, Protoptila, 93 

Cantharidae, 77-78 

canthella Ross & Cunningham, Empoasca, 66 

capillata MacGilhvray, Empria, 123 

capitana Ross, Ochrotrichia. 96 

capitatus MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 129 

Capitophorus, 64 

corambus Hottes & Frison, 64 

oestlundii Knowlton, 64 

pakansus Hottes & Frison. 64 

patonkus Hottes & Frison, 64 
Capnia, 58 

barbata Frison. 58 

distincta Frison, 58 

elevata Frison. 58 

jewetti Frison. 58 

limata Frison. 58 

melia Frison. 58 

oregona Frison. 58 

pileata Jewett. 58 

projecta Frison. 58 

promota Frison. 58 

umpqua Frison, 58 

wanica Frison, 58 

willametta Jewett, 58 
Capniidae, 57-58 
Capnura, 58 

venosa Banks, 58 
caprillus Ross & Hamilton, Macuellus, 76 
caprina MacGillivray. Empria. 123 
captiosa MacGillivray. Empria. 123 
Carabidae. 78 

carbasea MacGillivray. Empria. 123 
Carborius, 99 

lyratus Ross. 99 
cardeulla Walsh. Aphis. 63 
cardis Ross. Parapsyche. 95 

carenado Becker & Sanderson, Bythinoplectus, 79 
can Essig. Aphis, 63 
carinatus Forbes. Tetrastichus. 115 
cariosa MacGillivray. Empria, 123 
carmiensis Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
Carorhintha, 62 

flava Fracker. 62 
cartwrighti Sanderson. Batrisodes. 79 
caryaefoliae Davis. Callipterus. 64 
caryaglabrae Hepner. Erythroneura. 68 
casca MacGillivray, Empria. 123 
cascada Ross. Empoasca, 66 
cascada Ross, Lepania, 99 
cascadensis Hoppe, Isoperla, 61 
cascadensis Milne, Jenortha, 97 
cascadis Ross, Imania, 99 
caseyi Blaisdell, Lathrotropis, 81 
casta MacGillivray, Empria, 123 
castaneum Becker & Sanderson, Decarthron. 80 
castigata MacGillivray. Empria. 123 
castor Ross & Merkley. Limnephilus, 99 
cata MacGillivray, Empria, 123 
Catawba Ross, Hydropsyche, 94 
Catopidae, 78 
caudata Frison. Alloperla. 59 



146 



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Vol. 32, Art. 2 



cauduca MacGillivray. Empria, 123 

causatus MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 

cauta MacGillivray, Empria, 123 

cautoides Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 

cava MacGillivray, Empria, 124 

cavata MacGillivray, Empria. 124 

caverna Davidson & DeLong, Empoasca, 66 

caverna Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 

cavipierra Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 

Cecidomyiidae, 82 

celebrata MacGillivray, Empria, 124 

celsa MacGillivray, Empria, 124 

celsus Ross. Paragapetus, 93 

centra Ross. Hydropsyche, 94 

centralis Ross. Chimarra, 101 

centralis fucatus Prison, Bremus, 111 

centralis stolidus Prison. Bremus, 111 

cephalanthi Thomas, Aphis, 63 

Cephaleia, 119 

criddlei MacGillivray, 119 

dissipator MacGillivray. 119 

distincta MacGillivray. 119 

jcnseni MacGillivray. 119 
cephalicus Robertson, Halictus, 116 
cera Hepner, Erythroneura, 68 
Cerambycidae, 78 
Ceratina, 108 

calcarata Robertson, 108 
Ceratopogon, 83 

fusinervis Malloch, 83 
Ceratopogonidae, 83-84 
Cercoceroides, 80 

grandis Becker & Sanderson. 80 
cerina MacGillivray, Empria, 124 
Cernotina, 101-102 

astera Ross. 101 

calcea Ross. 101 

laticula Ross. 101 

ohio Ross, 101 

Oklahoma Ross, 102 

sinosa Ross, 102 

spicata Ross, 102 

stannardi Ross, 102 

taeniata Ross, 102 

truncona Ross, 102 

uncifera Ross, 102 

zanclana Ross, 102 
Cerodontha, 81 

illinoensis Malloch. 81 
Cerosipha, 64 

rubifolii Thomas, 64 
cerus Ross & Spencer, Limnephilus. 99 
cerviculata Prison. Evania, 115 
cervinus MacGillivray, Craterocercus, 121 
cetaria MacGillivray, Empria. 124 
Chaitophorus, 64 

flavus Porbes. 64 

neglectus Hottes & Prison. 64 

negundinis Thomas. 64 

populicola Thomas, 64 

pusillus Hottes & Prison. 64 

sahcicola Essig. 64 
Chalcididae, 112 
Chalcidopterella, 115 

macgillivrayi Prison. 115 



Chalcis, 112 

megalomis Burks. 112 
Chalepus, 78 

hebalus Sanderson. 78 
Chamaemyiidae, 84 
chambersi Hepner. Erythroneura. 68 
chandleri Hepner. Erythroneura. 69 
chandleri Moore. Lopidea. 62 
chapingo Ross. Empoasca, 66 

Charadrella, 89 

macrosoma Wulp. 89 
charlesi Ross. Polycentropus. 102 
charyda Cornell. Eubaeocera. 80 
chehawensis Hepner. Erythroneura. 69 
cheilonis Ross. Hydropsyche. 94 
chelatus Ross. Brachycentrus, 92 
chelatus Ross & Yamamoto. Polycentropus. 102 
chelus DeLong & Berry. Scaphoideus. 76 
chenoides Ross & Yamamoto. Polycentropus, 102 
chermum Kissinger. Apion. 78 
chetansapa Hottes & Prison, Aphis. 63 
Cheumatopsyche, 94 

aphanta Ross, 94 

burksi Ross. 94 

campyla Ross, 94 

enonis Ross. 94 

etrona Ross, 94 

gyra Ross, 94 

helma Ross, 94 

lasia Ross. 94 

mollala Ross, 94 

oxa Ross. 94 

pasella Ross. 94 

pinaca Ross. 94 

wrighti Ross. 94 

zion Ross. 94 
chiapasa Jewett, Anacroneuria, 60 
chila Ricker. Nemoura. 60 
chilensis Yamamoto. Polycentropus. 102 
chilnualna Ricker. Hastaperla. 59 

Chimarra, 100-101 

acuta Ross, 100 
boneti Ross, 101 
brustia Ross, 101 
calva Ross. 101 
centralis Ross, 101 
cornuta Ross, 101 
curfmani Ross, 101 
dentosa Ross, 101 
clia Ross, 101 
embia Ross, 101 
emima Ross, 101 
feria Ross, 101 
florida Ross, 101 
hoogstraali Ross, 101 
ovaUs Ross, 101 
patosa Ross, 101 
perigua Ross, 101 
schiza Ross, 101 
setosa Ross, 101 
spatulata Ross. 101 
tsudai Ross, 101 
utahensis Ross, 101 
volenta Ross, 101 



July 1980 



Webb: Primary Insect Types 



147 



Chionaspis, 75 

americana Johnson, 75 

gledicsiae Sanders. 75 
Chironomidae. 84-87 
Chironomus, 84-85 

abbreviatus Malloch, 84 

abortivus Malloch, 84 

alboviridis Malloch, 84 

basalis Malloch, 84 

claripennis Malloch, 84 

crassicaudatus Malloch, 84 

cucini Webb, 84 

curcilamellatus Malloch, 84 

digitatus Malloch, 84 

dimorphus Malloch, 85 

dorneri Malloch, 85 

fasciventris Malloch, 85 

fuscicomis Malloch, 85 

fusciventris Malloch, 85 

griseopunctatus Malloch, 85 

griseus Malloch, 85 

harti Malloch, 86 

illinoensis Malloch, 85 

illinoensis decoloratus Malloch, 85 

incognitus Malloch, 85 

indistinctus Malloch, 85 

neomodestus Malloch, 85 

nigrohalteralis Malloch, 85 

nigrovittatus Malloch. 85 

obscuratus Malloch, 85 

parvilamellatus Malloch, 85 

pseudoviridis Malloch, 85 

quadripunctatus Malloch, 85 

serus Malloch, 85 

subaequalis Malloch. 85 

tentans pallidivittatus Malloch, 85 

tenuicaudatus Malloch. 85 
Chloralictus, 1 1 5 

coreopsis Robertson, 115 

foveolatus Robertson, 115 

sparsus Robertson, 115 

versatus Robertson, 115 
chloris Prison, Alloperla, 59 
Chloroperla, 59 

irregularis Klapalek. 59 

orpha Prison, 59 

terna Prison, 59 
Chloroperlidae, 58-69 
Chloropidae, 87 
Chloropisca, 87 

glabra ciypeata Malloch, 87 

obtusa Malloch, 87 

parviceps Malloch, 87 
Chlorotettix, 75 

brevidus DeLong, 75 

filamenta DeLong, 76 

obsenus DeLong, 75 

serratus DeLong, 75 
chreum Kissinger, Apion, 78 
chrysannula Hoppe, Isoperla, 61 
Chrysomelidae, 78 
Chrysopilus, 91 

kincaidi Hardy, 91 

pilosus Leonard, 91 



Chrysops, 91 

sequax tau Philip, 91 
Chrysotus, 88 

anomalus Malloch, 88 

ciliatus Malloch, 88 

flavisetus Malloch, 88 

spinifer Malloch. 88 
Chyranda, 99 

cordon Ross, 99 
Chyromya, 87 

concolor Malloch, 87 

nigrimana Malloch, 87 
Chyromyidae, 87 
CicadelUdae, 66-76 
Cicadula, 75 

nigrifrons Forbes, 75 

quadrilineatus Porbes, 76 
Cicindela, 78 

illinoensis Mares, 78 

repanda hoosieri Mares, 78 
Cicindelidae, 78 
ciliatus Malloch. Chrysotus. 88 
cilifera Malloch, Eulimnophora, 89 
cilifera Malloch, Hylemyia, 82 
cilifera Malloch, Sapromyza, 88 
Cimbex, 112 

americana nortoni MacGillivray, 112 
Cimbicidae, 112 
Cinara, 64 

difficilis Hottes & Prison, 64 
cinguliventris Girault, Coccophagus, 114 
circinus MacGillivray, Monophadnoides, 125 
circopa Ross & Merkley. Limnephilus, 99 
circulus MacGillivray, Craterocercus, 121 
circus Hamilton & Ross, Hebecephalus. 75 
cirrha MacGillivray. Empria, 124 
cirsia Cunningham & Ross. Empoasca, 66 
cista MacGillivray. Empria. 124 
cistula MacGillivray. Empria. 124 
cithara MacGillivray. Empria, 124 
citreifrons Malloch, Sapromyza, 88 
citripes Ashmead, Polynema. 118 
citrosa Ross. Erythroneura. 69 
claasseni Prison. Leuctra. 59 
clara Prison. Evania. 115 
Claremontia, 121 

typica Rohwer. 121 
clarimaculosa Girault. Westwoodella, 132 
claripennis Malloch, Chironomus, 84 
claripennis Malloch, Protenthes, 86 
claroides Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
clarysae Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
clavatoides Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
claytoniae Robertson. Andrena. 106 
clematidis Robertson. Sphecodes. 116 
cleone Ross. Adelomos. 120 
cleptis Burks, Baetis, 56 
Cleridae. 78 

cliffordi Hepner, Erythroneura. 69 
cliftoni Hepner. Erythroneura, 69 
Climacia, 77 

tenebra Parfm & Gurney, 77 
clinata Ross, Empoasca, 66 
clinei Milne. Plectrocnemia. 102 



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clinei Milne, Polycentropus. 102 
Clinocentrus, 112 

americanus Weed, 112 

niger Ashmead, 112 
Clinoptera, 89 

hieroglyphica Wulp, 89 
clivicola Malloch, Limnophora, 89 
Cloanthanus, 75 

atratus DeLong, 75 

hastus DeLong, 75 

triangularis DeLong, 75 

varius DeLong, 76 
Clusia, 87 

occidentalis Malloch, 87 
Clusiidae, 87 

clydei Hcpner, Erythroneura, 69 
clypealis Ross, Dolerus, 121 
clypeata Robertson, Tiphia, 131 
clypeatus Robertson, Odynerus, 1S2 
Cnemedon, 91 

trochateratus Malloch, 91 
cnici Robertson, Melissodcs, 109 
Coccidae, 75 
Coccinellidae, 78 
Coccophagus, 114 

cinguliventris Girault, 114 
Coccus, 75 

sorghiellus Forbes, 75 

trifolii Forbes, 75 
cockerclli Malloch, Bezzia, 83 
Cockerellonis, 121 

occidentalis MacGillivray, 121 
codyi Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
Coelinius, 112 

meromyzae Forbes, 112 
Coelioxys, 117 

sayi Robertson ,117 
Coenocalpe, 105 

polygrammata Hulst, 105 
Coenosia, 89 

aliena Malloch, 89 

anthracina Malloch, 89 

denticornis Malloch, 89 

femoralis Wulp, 89 

frisoni Malloch, 89 

laricata Malloch, 89 

macrocera Wulp, 89 

punctulata Wulp, 89 
coerulcata Sanderson, Dcmotispa, 78 
coeruleus Robertson, Halictus, 116 
cohaesus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 121 
colei Ross, Polycentropus, 102 
Coleoptera, 77-81, 133 
coleyi Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
coUaris MacGillivray, Monophadnoides, 125 
collaris MacGillivray, Phrontosoma, 127 
collaris MacGillivray, Profenusa, 128 
collaris Say, Dolerus, 121 
collaris Wulp, Hydrophoria, 82 
collaris erebus Ross, Dolerus, 121 
Collembola, 56 
CoUetes, 112 

brevicomis Robertson, 112 

eulophi Robertson ,112 



heucherae Robertson, 112 

illinoiensis Robertson, 112 

latitarsis Robertson, 112 

nudus Robertson, 112 

producta Robertson, 112 

punctata Robertson. 112 

similis Robertson, 112 

speciosa Robertson, 112 

spinosa Robertson, 112 

willistoni Robertson, 112 
Colletidae, 112113 
collinsi Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
collinsiae Robertson, Osmia, 118 
colmeri Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
coloma Ross, Protoptila, 93 
colosericeus MacGillivray. Dolerus, 121 
ColpoUuliiu, 99 

rhaeus Milne, 99 
Columbicola, 62 

extincta Malcomson, 62 
columna MacGillivray, Empria, 124 
colvardi Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
comata Laffoon, Fungivora, 90 
combesi Hepner, Erythroneura, 59 
comes paliinpsesta McAtee, Erythroneura, 69 
comes pontifex McAtee. Erythroneura. 69 
comes rufomaculata McAtee. Erythroneura. 69 
comoides Ross & DeLong. Erythroneura. 69 
comosa Kingsolver. Helicopsyche. 93 
complexus Malcomson. Machaerilaemus. 62 
compositarum Robertson. Calliopsis. 108 
compressicomis neglecta Selander. Linsleya. 79 
compressus Gillette, Acraspis, 113 
comptoides Robertson. Melissodes, 109 
comstocki Johnson, Aspidiotus, 75 
concavum Becker & Sanderson, Actium, 79 
concessus MacGillivray. Monophadnoides. 125 
conciliata MacGillivray. Empria. 124 
concinna Wulp. Mydaea. 90 
concisa MacGillivray. Empria. 124 
concitata MacGillivray, Empria. 124 
concolor Malloch, Chyromya, 87 
concolor Ricker, Alloperia, 59 
concreta MacGillivray, Empria, 124 
condensa MacGillivray, Empria, 124 
condita MacGillivray, Empria, 124 
conductus MacGillivray, Monophadnoides. 125 
conerus Ross. Limnephilus. 99 
conferta MacGillivray. Empria, 124 
confirmata MacGillivray, Empria, 124 
conformis Malloch, Tiphia, 131 
confrente Becker & Sanderson, Decarthron. 80 
confusum MacGillivray. Trichiosoma. 112 
confusa Frison. Isoperla. 61 
confusa MacGillivray, Macrophya, 125 
confusa MacGillivray, Periclista, 127 
confusa MacGillivray, Strongylogastroidea, 128 
confusa Robertson, Augochlora, 115 
confusum MacGillivray, Trichiosoma, 112 
confusus Hy. Edwards, Hcpialus, 105 
confusus Malloch, Tanytarsus, 86 
congeminata Watson, Hyperaspis, 78 
Coniopterygidae, 77 



July 1980 



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149 



Coniopteryx, 77 

cyphodera Johnson. 77 
conjugatus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 121 
conjunctoides Robertson, Osmia, 118 
connata Ross, Triaenodes, 98 
Conopidae, 88 
Conotrachelus, 78 

anaglypticus Say, 78 

hayesi Schoof, 78 

hicoriae Schoof, 78 
consecta Ross, Empoasca, 66 
consimilata Malloch, Helina. 89 
consobrinus MacGillivray, Monophadnoides, 125 
consonus MacGillivray, Monophadnoides, 126 
conspersus MacGillivray, Monophadnoides, 126 
conspicua Prison, Isoperla, 61 
conspiculata MacGiUivray, Monophadnoides, 126 
conspicuus MacGillivray, Monophadnoides, 126 
constitutus MacGillivray, Monophadnoides, 126 
contexta MacGillivray, Empria, 124 
contorta MacGillivray, Empria, 124 
contorta Ross, Polytrichia, 97 
contortus MacGillivray, Monophadnoides, 126 
convexa MacGillivray, Poecilostoma, 127 
convexula Sanderson, Stenelmis, 79 
cookii Weed, Cremastus, 117 
cookii rufus Weed, Cremastus, 117 
cooni Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
cophus Ross, Athripsodes, 98 
copiosa Wulp, Spilogaster, 90 
Coptereucoila, 113 

marginata Gillette, 113 
coracinus MacGillivray, Monophadnoides, 126 
corambus Hottes & Prison, Capitophorus, 64 
cordata Robertson, Osmia. 118 
cordatus MacGillivray, Monophadnoides, 126 
cordleyi MacGillivray, Craterocercus, 121 
cordon Ross, Chyranda. 99 
Coreidae. 62 

coreopsidis Thomas, Siphonophora, 65 
coreopsis Robertson, Chloralictus, 115 
coreopsis Robertson, Melissodes, 109 
Corimelaena, 62 

harti Malloch, 62 

interrupta Malloch, 62 

minutissima Malloch, 62 

polita Malloch, 62 
cormus Burks, Tetrastichus, 115 
corni Robertson, Andrena, 106 
corni Tissot, Pergandcidia. 65 
cornuta Ross. Chimarra. 101 
cornuta Ross. Hydropsyche. 94 
cornuta Ross. Sialis. 77 
corona Ross, Theiiopsyche. 98 
corradus Becker & Sanderson. Arthmius. 79 
Corrodentia. 77 

corticosus MacGillivray. Pachyneraatus. 126 
coryli Davis. Macrosiphum. 64 
Corynoneura, 85 

simiiis Malloch. 85 
corytus MacGillivray. Monophadnoides, 126 
Cosmobaris, 78 

sionilli Hayes. 78 

squamiger Hayes. 78 



costalis MacGillivray. Monophadnoides. 126 

costata MacGillivray. Empria. 124 

costello Ross, Agraylea, 95 

cotla Ricker. Isoperla. 61 

cottaquilla James. Leuctra. 59 

coxi Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 69 

Crabo, 112 

americana rubrosa Ross. 112 
crambi Weed, Apanteles. 112 
cranbrookensis Curran. Sphaerophoria. 91 
crasmus Ross. Agapetus, 92 
crassicaudatus Malloch. Chirononius. 84 
crassifemorata Malloch, Serromyia, 84 
crassifemur Muesebeck, Bracon, 112 
crassus MacGillivray, Monophadnoides, 126 
crataegi Robertson, Andrena, 106 
Craterocercus, 121 

cervinus MacGillivray, 121 

circulus MacGillivray, 121 

cordleyi MacGillivray, 121 

infuscatus MacGillivray, 121 
Cremastus, 117 

cookii Weed, 117 

cookii rufus Weed, 117 

forbesi Weed, 117 

hartii Ashmead, 117 
crenula Allen & Edmunds, Ephemerella, 56 
crenulata Jewett, Anacroneuria, 60 
crepuscularis Malloch, Culicoides, 83 
cressonii Robertson. Andrena, 106 
cressonii Robertson, Epeolus, 108 
cressonii Robertson, Nomada, 110 
cressonii Robertson, Sphecodium. 117 
Cricotopus, 85 

flavibasis Malloch, 85 

slossonae Malloch, 85 
criddlei MacGillivray, Cephaleia, 119 
cristata Malcomson, Philopterus. 62 
cristata Malloch. Hydrotaea. 89 
Cristatithorax, 114 

pulcher Girault. 114 
cristatum Becker & Sanderson. Decarthron, 80 
cristella Ross & Cunningham. Empoasca. 66 
crossi Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
crossi James, Leuctra, 59 

crotchii atrata Hy. Edwards, Pseudalypia, 105 
crucis Essig, Thomasia, 66 
crudeni LaBerge, Andrena, 106 
Cryptomeigenia, 91 

flavibasis Curran, 91 
crystola Ross. Empoasca. 66 
Ctenicera, 79 

lanei Becker. 79 
Ctenolepisma, 56 

urbana Slabaugh. 56 
cuanis Ross, Hydropsyche. 94 
cubana Kingsolver. Helicopsyche. 93 
cucini Webb. Chironomus. 84 
cucullata Prison. Strophyopteryx, 61 
cucumeris Porbes, Aphis. 63 
Culicoides, 83 

crepuscularis Malloch. 83 

haematopotus Malloch. 83 

multipunctatus Malloch. 83 



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culpata MacGillivray, Empria. 124 

cumulata MacGillivray, Empria, 124 

cuneata MacGillivray, Empria, 124 

cuneatoides Hepner. Erythroneura, 69 

cuneatus Robertson, Gnathias, 109 

cuneatus decemnotatus Robertson. Gnathias, 109 

cuneatus octonotatus Robertson, Gnathias, 109 

cuneatus quadrisignatus Robertson, Gnathias, 109 

cuneatus sexnotatus Robertson, Gnathias, 109 

cunninghami Hepner. Erythroneura, 69 

cunninghami Ross, Empoasca, 66 

cunninghami Ross & Ricker, AUocapnia, 57 

cupida MacGillivray, Empria, 124 

curata MacGillivray, Empria, 124 

Curculionidae, 78-79 

curfmani Ross, Chimarra, 101 

curiosa Prison, AUocapnia, 57 

curiosus MacGillivray. Monophadnoides. 126 

curta Kingsolver & Ross, Orthotrichia, 97 

curtaega Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 

curticoUis Knab, Donacia, 78 

curtilamellatus Malloch, Chironomus. 84 

curtoides Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 

curvatus DeLong & Mohr, Scaphoideus, 76 

curvatus Sanderson, Batrisodes, 79 

curvipes Malloch, Hylemyia, 82 

custeri Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 

Cydnidae, 62 

Cylloepus, 79 

parked Sanderson, 79 
Cymbiodyta, 79 

beckeri picta Smetana, 79 
Cynipidae, 113-114 
Cynips, 113-114 

floccosa Bassett, 113 

ignota Bassett, 114 

quercus futilis Osten Sacken. 114 

quercus majalis Bassett, 114 

quercus mammula Bassett, 114 

quercus punctata Bassett, 114 

quercus singularis Bassett, 114 

vesicula Bassett, 114 
cyphodera Johnson, Coniopteryx, 77 
Cyrtinus, 78 

sandersoni H. Howden, 78 
Cyrtopeltocoris, 62 

illini Knight, 62 



daeckei MacGillivray. Phrontosoma, 127 
daedala MacGillivray, Pontania, 127 
daidaleus Thew, Thraulodes, 57 
daltonorum Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
dampfi Jewett, Anacroneuria, 60 
dampfi Ross, Hclicopsyche, 93 
dampfi Ross & King, Atopsyche. 103 
dampfi Ross & King, Wormaldia, 101 
Dasyopa, 87 

pieuralis Malloch, 87 
davichi Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
davisi James, Isoperla, 61 
davisii Robertson, Sphecodes, 116 
daytona Ross, Oecetis, 98 
debilis Rcss, Agapetus, 92 



decalda Ross, Hydropsyche, 94 
Decarthron, 80 

aguanensis Becker & Sanderson, 80 

armatum Becker & Sanderson. 80 

castaneum Becker & Sanderson. 80 

confrente Becker & Sanderson, 80 

cristatum Becker & Sanderson, 80 

truncatum Becker & Sanderson, 80 

yaguale Becker & Sanderson, 80 
decepta Prison, Isoperla. 61 
decepta Prison, Nemoura. 60 
decepta Hottes & Prison, Aphis, 63 
deceptiva Malloch, Agromyza, 81 
decidua Beutenmueller. Andricus, 113 
decked Ross & Cunningham. Empoasca. 66 
decoloratus Malloch, Tanypus, 86 
decorata Metcalf, Bruchomorpha, 76 
decrepita MacGillivray, Pontania, 127 
dediticius MacGillivray, Hemitaxonus. 124 
dedecora MacGillivray. Pontania, 127 
deformata Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
deklei Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
Deleatidium, 57 

vittatum Thew, 57 
deleta Wulp, Leucomelina, 89 
delicata Prison, AUoperla. 59 
delicata Prison, Evania, 115 
delicatus Dozier, Anagrus, 118 
dclira Ross, Stactobia, 97 
delongi Ross. Lepidostoma, 97 
delongi Ross & Cooley, Plexamia, 75 
delosa Ricker, Nemoura, 60 
delrio Ross, Hydropsyche, 94 
deltoides Yamamoto. Polycentropus, 102 
demissa MacGillivray, Pontania, 127 
demita Ross, Philocasca. 100 
demora Ross. Hydropsyche. 94 
Demotispa, 78 

coeruleata Sanderson, 78 
denmarki Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
dentariae Robertson, Xanthidium, 110 
dentata Kingsolver & Ross, Orthotrichia, 97 
dentata Malloch, Bezzia, 83 
dentata Ross, Hydroptila. 95 
dentatum Ross, Aglaostigma, 120 
dentatus MacGillivray. Pamphilius. 119 
DenticoUis, 79 

quadrosa Becker, 79 
denticornis Malloch, Coenosia, 89 
denticula Allen. Ephemerella, 56 
denticulata Robertson, Nomada, 110 
dentipes Gilbert. Caecossonus, 78 
dentoides Yamamoto. Polycentropus. 102 
dentosa Ross, Chimarra, 101 
denza Ross, Hydroptila. 95 

depressata MacGillivray. Strongylogastroidea, 128 
depressus Becker & Sanderson, Scalenarthrus, 80 
derosa MacGillivray, Pontania. 127 
deserti Burdick, Xyela, 132 
desidiosus MacGillivray, Uimorphopteryx, 121 
destricta MacGillivray. Pontania, 127 
destructor Malloch. Agromyza. 81 
devincta MacGillivray. Pontania. 127 
dextra Ross. Agrypnia, 101 



July 1980 



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151 



diabasia Burks, Heptagenia, 56 
diadaleus Thcw. Thraulodes. 57 
dianae Hepner, Erythroneura. 69 
Dianthidium, 117 

boreale Robertson, 117 
diantherae Malloch, Limnoagromyza, 81 
diarina Ross, Leptocella, 98 
Diastictis, 105 

floridcnsis Hulst, 105 

speciosa Hulst, 105 
Diastrophus, 114 

scutellaris Gillette, 114 
Dibusa, 95 

angata Ross, 95 
dicala Prison. Isoperla, 61 
dicantha Ross, Hydropsyche, 94 
Dicosmoecus, 99 

aureoventris Davis. 99 

canax Ross. 99 
Dicranota, 92 

iowa Alexander. 92 
Diciyoptergella, 61 

knowltoni Prison , 61 
didactyla Ross, Neothremma. 100 
difficilis Hottes & Prison, Cinara, 64 
digitatus Malloch. Chironomus. 84 
digitus Yamamoto, Polycentropus, 102 
Dikraneura, 66 

hamar DeLong & Ross. 66 
dimicki Prison, Nemoura. 60 
dimicki Milne, Brachycentrus, 92 
Dimorphopteryx, 121 

desidiosus MacGillivray. 121 

enucleatus MacGillivray, 121 

ithacus MacGillivray. 121 

morsei MacGillivray. 121 

oronis MacGillivray. 121 

salinus MacGillivray. }?,\ 

scopulosus MacGillivray. 121 
dimorphus Malloch. Chironomus, 85 
Diplocolenus, 75 

aquitonius Ross & Hamilton. 75 

brevier Ross & Hamilton. 75 
Diploperla, 61 

arma Prison, 61 

bulbosa Prison, 61 

fraseri Ricker. 61 

pilata Prison, 61 
Dipogon, 131 

femur-aureus Dreisbach. 131 
Diprionidae, 1 14 
dipsia Ross, Triaenodes. 98 
Diptera. 81 92 
Dirhinus, 112 

paoli Burks. 112 

perideus Burks, 1 12 
discimana Malloch. Mydaea. 90 
discomphaloides Evans. Apenesia, 111 
Disholcaspis, 1 14 

acetabula Weld. 114 

globosa Weld, 114 

lacuna Weld. 114 
dissimilis Malloch, Orthachaela. 82 
dissipator MacGillivray. Cephaleia, 119 



Dissomphalus, 111 

singularis Evans, 111 
distichliae Malloch. Anthracophaga, 87 
distincta Prison, Capnia, 58 
distincta MacGillivray, Cephaleia, 119 
distincta MacGillivray, Macroxyela. 132 
distinctus MacGillivray. Monophadnus, 126 
distinctus Malloch, Orthocladius. 86 
distinctus basalaris Malloch, Orthocladius, 86 
distinctus bicolor Malloch, Orthocladius, 86 
diteris Ross, Micrasema, 92 
ditissa Ross, Oecetis, 98 
divalis Sanderson. Rimulincola, 81 
diversa Prison, AUoperla, 59 
doeringae Hepner. Erythroneura, 69 
Dolerus, 121-123 

abdominalis Norton, 121 

acritus MacGillivray, 121 

agcistus MacGillivray. 121 

agcistus maroa Ross, 121 

apricus Norton, 121 

aprilis Norton, 121 

apriloides MacGillivray. 121 

bicolor Beauvois, 121 

bicolor nigrata Ross, 121 

borealis MacGillivray, 121 

clypealis Ross, 121 

cohaesus MacGillivray. 121 

collaris Say, 121 

coUaris erebus Ross, 121 

colosericeus MacGillivray. 121 

conjugatus MacGillivray, 121 

dysporus MacGillivray, 121 

elderi auraneus Ross, 121 

elderi rubicanus Ross, 121 

eurybis Ross, 121 

graenicheri MacGillivray. 121 

icterus MacGillivray. 121 

idahoensis Ross, 121 

illini Ross. 122 

illini rufilobus Ross. 122 

inspectus MacGillivray, 122 

inspiratus MacGillivray, 122 

interjectus Ross, 122 

kennedyi Ross, 122 

konowi MacGillivray, 122 

lesticus MacGillivray, 122 

luctatus MacGillivray, 122 

minusculus MacGillivray, 122 

monosericeus MacGillivray, 122 

moramus Ross. 122 

napaeus MacGillivray, 122 

narratus MacGillivray, 122 

nasutus MacGillivray. 122 

nativus MacGillivray, 122 

nauticus MacGillivray, 122 

necessarius MacGillivray. 122 

necosericeus MacGillivray, 122 

nectareus MacGillivray, 122 

nefastus MacGillivray, 122 

negotiosus MacGillivray, 122 

nemorosus MacGillivray, 122 

neoagcistus MacGillivray, 122 

neoaprilis MacGillivray. 122 



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neocoUaris MacGillivray, 122 

neosericeus MacGillivray. 122 

neostugnus MacGillivray. 122 

nepotulus MacGillivray, 122 

nervosus MacGillivray. 122 

nescius MacGillivray, 122 

nicaeus MacGillivray, 122 

nidulus MacGillivray, 122 

nimbosus MacGillivray, 122 

nivatus MacGillivray, 122 

nocivus MacGillivray, 122 

nocuus MacGillivray, 122 

nominatus MacGillivray, 122 

nortoni Ross, 122 

novellus MacGillivray, 122 

novicius MacGillivray, 122 

nugatorius MacGillivray, 122 

numerosus MacGillivray. 122 

nummarius MacGillivray, 122 

nummatus MacGillivray. 122 

nundinus MacGillivray, 122 

nuntius MacGillivray, 123 

nutricius MacGillivray, 123 

nyctelius MacGillivray. 123 

osagensis Ross, 123 

parasericeus MacGillivray, 123 

plesius MacGillivray, 123 

polysericeus MacGillivray, 123 

refugus MacGillivray, 123 

salmani Ross, 123 

sericeus Say, 123 

sericeus centralis Ross. 123 

similis nordanus Ross. 123 

stugnus MacGillivray, 123 

tectus MacGillivray, 123 

unicolor MacGillivray, 123 

wanda Ross, 123 
Dolichopodidae, 88 
Dolophilus, 101 

anillus Ross, 101 

occidcus Ross, 101 

shawnee Ross, 101 

strotus Ross, 101 
Donacia, 78 

curticollis Knab. 78 
dorata Prison, Hydroperla. 61 
dorcus Ross, Philopolamus, 101 
dorisae Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
dorneri Malloch. Chironomus, 85 
dorothea Dyar, Macrurocampa, 105 
dorsata Ross & King. Wormaldia, 101 
dorsimaculata Wulp, Anthomyia, 81 
dorsovittata Malloch, Eulimnophora, 
dotata MacGillivray, Pontania. 127 
douglasi Hepner, Erythroneura. 69 
draculus Ross & Hamilton, Latatus, 
Drepanaphis, 64 

keshenae Granovsky, 64 
Drosophilidae, 88 
Dryophanta, 114 

lanata Gillette. 114 
dubia Prison. Alloperla. 59 
dubia Robertson, Andrena. 106 
dubitatus MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 



89 



76 



dubius Malloch, Tanytarsus. 86 
dunni Hepner. Erythroneura, 69 
Durocapillata, 64 

utahensis Knowlton, 64 
dysporus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 121 



eccla Ross & Moore, Empoasca, 66 
Ecclisomyia, 99 

scylla Milne, 99 
echo Ross, Oligoplectrum. 92 
econa Ross, Erythroneura, 69 
ecosa Ross, Rhyacophila, 103 
ectus Ross, Limnephilus. 100 
edalis Ross, Neotrichia, 96 
eddlestoni Ross. Oecetis, 98 
edeni Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
edessa MacGillivray, Pteronidea, 128 
edgari Hepner, Erythroneura, 69 
edita MacGillivray, Pteronidea, 128 
edura MacGillivray, Pteronidea, 128 
edwardsii russulus Prison, Bremus, 111 
effeta MacGillivray, Pteronidea, 128 
effrenatus MacGillivray, Pteronidea, 128 
effusa MacGillivray, Pteronidea, 128 
egeria MacGillivray, Pteronidea, 128 
egnatia MacGillivray, Pteronidea, 128 
Eichochaitophorus, 64 

populifolii Essig, 64 
elachistus Burks, Baetis, 56 
Elaptus, 119 

aleurodis Forbes, 119 
elarus Ross. Polycentropus, 102 
Elateridae, 79 

elderi auraneus Ross, Dolerus, 121 
elderi rubicanus Ross, Dolerus, 121 
electa MacGillivray, Periclista, 127 
electra MacGillivray, Pteronidea, 128 
Electragapetus, 93 

tsudai Ross, 93 
elegans Curran, Plunomia, 84 
elegans Malloch, Thyanta, 63 
elegans Weed, Limneria, 117 
elegantula Malloch, Forcipomyia. 83 
elelea MacGillivray. Pteronidea. 128 
Eleodes, 81 

acuta pernigra Blaisdell. 81 
elephantulus Chittenden, Lixus. 78 
elerobi Blickle, Neotrichia, 96 
elevata Prison, Alloperla, 59 
elevata Prison. Capnia. 58 
elia Ross. Chimarra. 101 
eliaga Ross, Polytrichia, 97 
elissoma Ross, Hydropsyche, 94 
EUiptera, 92 

illini Alexander, 92 
ellipsoida Weld. Callirhytis. 113 
ellisi Hepner. Erythroneura. 69 
Elmidae. 79 

elongatus Hart. Nabis, 63 
elongatus Yamamoto. Polycentropus, 102 
elsis Milne, Parapsyche, 95 
emarginatus MacGillivray, Mogerus, 125 
emargo Becker & Sanderson. Bythinoplectus. 79 



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153 



embia Ross. Chimarra. 101 
cmerita MacGiliivray, Pteronidea, 128 
emima Ross. Chimarra. 101 
emmesia Malloch. Pegomyia. 82 
Emmesomyia, 81 

apicalis Malloch. 81 

unica Malloch. 81 
Emphytus, 123 

gemitus MacGiliivray. 123 

gillettei MacGiliivray. 123 

halesus MacGiliivray, 123 

haliartus MacGiliivray. 123 

halites MacGiliivray, 123 

haustus MacGiliivray, 123 

heroicus MacGiliivray, 123 

hiatus MacGiliivray. 123 

hiulcus MacGiliivray, 123 

hospitus MacGiliivray. 123 

hyacinthus MacGiliivray. 123 

yuasi MacGiliivray. 123 
Empididae, 88 
Empoa, 66 

albopicta Forbes, 66 
Empoa»ca, 66-67 

alberta Ross, 66 

alceda Ross & Cunningham, 66 

altmani Cunningham & Ross, 66 

ancella Cunningham & Ross. 66 

andresia Ross, 66 

angustifoliac Ross. 66 

anilla Ross, 66 

arizona Ross. 66 

beckeri Ross, 66 

canda Ross & Moore. 66 

canthella Ross & Cunningham, 66 

cascada Ross. 66 

caverna Davidson & DeLong. 66 

chapingo Ross, 66 

cirsia Cunningham & Ross. 66 

ctinata Ross. 66 

consecta Ross, 66 

cristella Ross & Cunningham, 66 

crystola Ross, 66 

cunninghami Ross. 66 

deckeri Ross & Cunningham, 66 

eccla Ross & Moore, 66 

exiguae Ross, 66 

fenestra Ross, 66 

fontana Ross, 66 

foxi Ross & Cunningham, 66 

foxiella Cunningham & Ross. 66 

gansella Ross, 66 

gibbosa Cunningham & Ross, 66 

gibsoni Ross. 66 

gribisa Ross. 66 

gTjtliformis Cunningham & Ross, 67 

hastosa Ross & Moore, 67 

humilis Ross. 67 

improcera Ross. 67 

inaequiformis Cunningham & Ross, 67 

incoata Ross. 67 

kracmeri Ross & Moore. 67 

laceiba Ross & Cunningham. 67 

lucidae Ross, 67 



mergata Ross, 67 
mexara Ross & Moore, 67 
millsi Ross. 67 

minetra Cunningham & Ross, 67 
necyla Davidson & DeLong, 67 
nodosa Cunningham & Ross. 67 
occidua Ross, 67 

ophiodera Ross & Cunningham, 67 
onhodens Davidson & DeLong, 67 
ovalis Ross, 67 
panisca Ross & Moore, 67 
petaluma Ross, 67 
petiolaridis Ross, 67 
portola Ross. 67 
reddina Ross. 67 
robacki Ross & Cunningham, 67 
saxosa Cunningham & Ross, 67 
serrula Davidson & DeLong, 67 
sinusina Ross & Cunningham. 67 
spinuloides Cunningham & Ross, 67 
sprita Ross. 67 

styliformis Cunningham & Ross. 67 
tecpatana Ross & Cunningham, 67 
teneris Ross & Cunningham, 67 
velutina Ross. 67 
verdia Ross & Moore, 67 
zapoides Ross, 67 
Empria, 123-124 

cadurca MacGiliivray. 123 
caeca MacGiliivray, 123 
caetrata MacGiliivray. 123 
calda MacGiliivray, 123 
callida MacGiliivray. 123 
catlosa MacGiliivray, 123 
candidula MacGiliivray. 123 
canora MacGiliivray, 123 
capillata MacGiliivray. 123 
caprina MacGiliivray, 123 
captiosa MacGiliivray. 123 
carbasea MacGiliivray, 123 
cariosa MacGiliivray. 123 
casca MacGiliivray. 123 
casta MacGiliivray, 123 
castigata MacGiliivray, 123 
cata MacGiliivray. 123 
cauduca MacGiliivray. 123 
cauta MacGiliivray, 123 
cava MacGiliivray. 124 
cavata MacGiliivray. 124 
celebrata MacGiliivray, 124 
celsa MacGiliivray, 124 
cerina MacGiliivray. 124 
cetaria MacGiliivray. 124 
cirrha MacGiliivray. 124 
cista MacGiliivray. 124 
cistula MacGiliivray, 124 
cithara MacGiliivray, 124 
columna MacGiliivray, 124 
conciliata MacGiliivray. 124 
concisa MacGiliivray. 124 
concisa MacGiliivray. 124 
concitata MacGiliivray, 124 
concreta MacGiliivray. 124 
condensa MacGiliivray, 124 



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condita MacGillivray, 124 
conferta MacGillivray. 124 
confirmata MacGillivray. 124 
contexta MacGillivray. 124 

contorta MacGillivray, 124 

costata MacGillivray, 124 

culpata MacGillivray, 124 

cumulata MacGillivray. 124 

cuneata MacGillivray, 124 

cupida MacGillivray, 124 

curata MacGillivray, 124 

evecta MacGillivray, 124 

oordica Ross, 124 
emquu Ross & DeLong. Erythroneura. 69 
enaloides Hcpner, Erythroneura, 69 
enavata MacGillivray, Pteronidea. 128 
Encarsia, 114 

versicolor Girault. 114 
Encyrtidae. 1 14 

endonima Ross & King. Wormaldia, 101 
enfieldensis Hepner, Erythroneura. 69 
enigmae Hottes & Frison, Rhopalosiphum, 65 
enigmae parvae Hottes & Frison, 
Rhopalosiphum. 65 

enoinis Ross. Cheumatopsyche, 94 
entella MacGillivray, Periclista. 127 
enucleatus MacGillivray. Dimorphopteryx, 121 
Epeolus, 108-109 

autumnalis Robertson. 108 

cressonii Robertson. 108 

helianthi Robertson, 108 

interruptus Robertson, 108 

lectoides Robertson. 108 

lunatus concolor Robertson, 108 

pectoralis Robertson. 109 
ephemeratus Hottes & Frison. Pemphigus. 65 
Ephemerella, 56 

argo Burks, 56 

berneri Allen & Edmunds, 56 

bifurcala Allen. 56 

crenula Allen & Edmunds, 56 

denticula Allen. 56 

frisoni McDunnough. 56 

keijoensis Allen, 56 

kohnoi Allen, 56 

lita Burks. 56 

maxima Allen, 56 

ora Burks. 56 

rossi Allen & Edmunds. 56 

simla Allen & Edmunds, 56 
Ephemerellidae. 56 
Ephemeridae, 56 
Ephemeroptera. 56-57 
Epigrimyia, 91 

illinoensis Robertson, 91 
epilone Ross, Theliopsyche, 98 
epischnioides Hulst, Zophodia, 105 
epos Girault, Anagrus. 118 
epulara Sanderson. Phyllophaga, 80 
equatia MacGillivray, Pteronidea, 128 
equina MacGillivray, Pteronidea, 128 
Erebia. 105 

rhodia Edwards. 105 
Eremomyioides, 81 

fuscipes Malloch, 81 



parkeri Malloch. 81 
similis Malloch. 81 
erigeniae Robertson, Andrena. 106 
erigeronensis Thomas. Macrosiphum. 64 
erigeronensis Thomas. Tychea, 66 
erigeronis Robertson. Nomada. 110 
erigia Ross, Atopsyche, 103 
Eriosoma, 64 

mimica Hottes & Frison. 64 
erotica Ross, Protoptila. 93 
erraticus Milne. Athripsodes. 98 
erratus MacGillivray. Pteronidea. 128 
erudita MacGillivray, Pteronidea. 128 
erullus Ross. Athripsodes, 98 
Erythroneura, 67-74 

aboila lemnisca McAtee. 67 

acantha Ross & DeLong. 67 

accicurta Hepner. 67 

acericola Ross & DeLong, 67 

acutalis Ross & DeLong, 67 

adae Hepner. 67 

aesculella Ross & DeLong. 67 

albanyensis Hepner. 67 

albiquera Hepner, 68 

alevra Ross, 68 

alicia Ross, 68 

alloplana Ross. 68 

alveyi Hepner. 68 

amboyensis Hepner, 68 

amethica Ross. 68 

ampaiae Hepner. 68 

ampasa Ross & DeLong. 68 

andrewsi Hepner, 68 

anseri Hepner. 68 

arenosa Ross & DeLong, 68 

arneri Hepner. 68 

arpegia Ross. 68 

assymmetra Hepner. 68 

atkinsoni Hepner, 68 

bainteri Hepner. 68 

barbarae Hepner. 68 

barnesae Hepner. 68 

beckiae Hepner, 68 

beeri Hepner, 68 

belindae Hepner. 68 

benedicti Hepner. 68 

bicurvala Hepner, 68 

billi Hepner. 68 

blockeri Hepner. 68 

boniorum Hepner. 68 

bowmanorum Hepner, 68 

brazzeli Hepner, 68 

brendae Hepner. 68 

brooki Hepner. 68 

brucensis Hepner. 68 

brundusoides Hepner, 68 

byersi Hepner, 68 

caddoensis Hepner. 68 

callisoga Ross, 68 

camirei Hepner, 68 

carmiensis Hepner. 68 

caryaglabrae Hepner. 68 

cautoides Hepner, 68 

caverna Hepner. 68 

cavipierra Hepner. 68 



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155 



ccra Hepner, 68 
chambersi Hepner, 68 
chandler! Hepner, 68 
chehawensis Hepner. 68 
citrosa Ross. 68 
claroides Hepner. 68 
clarysae Hepner. 68 
clavatoides Hepner. 68 
cliffordi Hepner, 68 
cliftoni Hepner. 68 
clydei Hepner. 68 
codyi Hepner, 68 
coleyi Hepner, 68 
collinsi Hepner. 68 
colmeri Hepner, 68 
colvardi Hepner, 68 
combesi Hepner, 68 
comes palimpsesta McAtee, 68 
comes pontifex McAtee, 68 
comes rufomaculata McAtee, 68 
comoides Ross & DeLong, 68 
cooni Hepner, 69 
coxi Ross & DeLong, 69 
crossi Hepner, 69 
cuneatoides Hepner, 69 
Cunningham! Hepner, 69 
curtaega Hepner, 69 
curtoides Hepner, 69 
custeri Hepner, 69 
daltonorum Hepner, 69 
davichi Hepner. 69 
deformata Hepner. 69 
deklei Hepner. 69 
denmarki Hepner, 69 
dianae Hepner, 69 
doeringae Hepner, 69 
dorisae Hepner, 69 
douglasi Hepner, 69 
dunni Hepner, 69 
econa Ross, 69 
edeni Hepner, 69 
edgari Hepner. 69 
elHsi Hepner. 69 
emquu Ross & DeLong. 69 
enatoides Hepner. 69 
enfieldensis Hepner, 69 
eversi Ross & DeLong. 70 
extimoides Hepner. 70 
fagiphylla Hepner. 70 
fagxisae Hepner. 70 
fergersoni Hepner, 70 
ferrosa Hepner, 70 
florida Ross & DeLong, 70 
floridoides Hepner, 70 
frazieri Hepner, 70 
fretoides Hepner. 70 
freytagi Hepner, 70 
frisoni Ross & DeLong, 70 
fuller! Hepner. 70 
fultonae Hepner, 70 
garretsoni Hepner. 70 
gemoides Ross, 70 
gilesi Hepner. 70 
gladysae Hepner. 70 
glicilla Ross. 70 



greeni Hepner, 70 

guicei Hepner. 70 

hamiltonia Hepner, 70 

hamlinorum Hepner, 70 

hamneri Hepner. 70 

harei Hepner, 70 

harnedi Hepner, 70 

harpola Ross. 70 

harrisi Hepner. 70 

haspata Ross & DeLong. 70 

havana Ross & DeLong. 70 

haysensis Hepner. 70 

herberti Hepner. 70 

hendersoni Hepner. 70 

hibemia Hepner, 70 

hildae Hepner. 70 

hormchunae Hepner. 70 

hutchinsi Hepner, 70 

igella Ross & DeLong. 70 

ilexae Hepner. 70 

ilicis Ross, 70 

imbricariae Ross & DeLong. 70 

isei Hepner. 70 

ivae Hepner. 71 

ivani Hepner. 71 

jeanae Hepner. 71 

joanneae Hepner. 71 

johnsoni Hepner, 71 

jonesi Hepner. 71 

juglandacea Ross & DeLong. 71 

kanensis Hepner. 71 

kennethi Hepner. 71 

kingstoniensis Hepner. 71 

kirki Hepner, 71 

knullae Ross. 71 

krameri Hepner. 71 

kuiterti Hepner, 71 

lamucata Ross & DeLong, 71 

larryi Hepner. 71 

lasteri Hepner. 71 

lauriphylla Hepner. 71 

leforsorum Hepner. 71 

leucophylla Hepner, 71 

levecki Hepner, 71 

lianae Hepner, 71 

ligata pupillata McAtee, 71 

lillianae Hepner, 71 

lindleyi Hepner, 71 

Uoydi Hepner, 71 

loisae Hepner, 71 

longifurca Hepner, 71 

loriae Hepner, 71 

lucileae Hepner, 71 

iucora Hepner, 71 

lucyae Hepner. 71 

lunata McAtee. 71 

lundi Hepner. 71 

lyratae Ross & DeLong. 71 

lyratiphylla Hepner. 71 

lyriquera Hepner. 71 

mallochi McAtee. 71 

marilandicae Ross. 71 

mariquera Hepner. 71 

martini Hepner. 71 

maryae Hepner. 71 



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maxwelli Hepner. 71 
mccomasi Hepner, 72 
meadi Hepner, 72 
meridiana Hepner, 72 
merkli Hepner, 72 
metopia Ross, 72 
micheneri Hepner, 72 
millsi Ross & DeLong, 72 
mimica Ross, 72 
mitella McAtee, 72 
mitlini Hepner, 72 
morelandi Hepner, 72 
morrisi Hepner, 72 
natcherensis Hepner, 72 
navoides Hepner, 72 
nebekeri Hepner; 72 
neeli Hepner, 72 
newtonensis Hepner, 72 
nielsoni Hepner. 72 
nigriphylla Hepner, 72 
nigriquera Hepner, 72 
noevoides Ross & DeLong, 72 
norica Ross, 72 
normanti Hepner, 72 
oculata McAtee, 72 
odettae Hepner, 72 
ostryae Hepner, 72 
pagodifoliae Hepner, 72 
paigeae Hepner, 72 
paluloides Ross, 72 
pamelae Hepner, 72 
paramera Hepner. 72 
parisensis Hepner, 72 
parrotti Hepner, 72 
parsonsi Hepner, 72 
patei Hepner, 72 
patriciae Hepner. 72 
patricki Hepner, 72 
patris Ross & DeLong, 72 
paulae Hepner, 72 
pecanae Hepner, 72 
peneiura Hepner, 72 
pfrimmeri Hepner, 72 
phelliphylla Hepner, 73 
phellos Ross & DeLong, 73 
pietersi Hepner, 73 
pitrei Hepner, 73 
priniquera Hepner, 73 
protuma Ross, 73 
pumicasta Hepner, 73 
quadratoides Hepner, 73 
quercalbae Ross & DeLong, 73 
rangifer Ross & DeLong, 73 
ratcliffensis Hepner, 73 
reedi Hepner, 73 
reiteri Hepner, 73 
repetita McAtee, 73 
rhodedendronae Hepner, 73 
richardsi Ross, 73 
robinsoni Hepner, 73 
rolandi Hepner. 73 
rosenkranzi Hepner, 73 
rossi Hepner, 73 
rubiphylla Hepner, 73 



rubrarta Hepner, 73 
rubulna Hepner, 73 
rugosae Ross & DeLong. 73 
sadleri Hepner, 73 
sailed Hepner, 73 
salmoides Ross & DeLong, 73 
sanctaerosae Hepner, 73 
sandersoni Ross, 73 
schusteri Hepner, 73 
scobyensis Hepner, 73 
scutelleris insolita McAtee. 73 
sebringensis Hepner, 73 
sethi Hepner, 73 
sexpunctata Malloch, 73 
shanklandi Hepner. 73 
shumiquera Hepner. 73 
sikorowskii Hepner, 73 
siloamensis Hepner, 73 
similalis Ross & DeLong. 73 
smithi Ross, 73 
solomoni Hepner, 73 
sorota Hepner, 74 
spala Ross & DeLong. 74 
spatulata Ross. 74 
spiniterma Hepner, 74 
Stafford! Hepner. 74 
stannardi Hepner, 74 
starkvillensis Hepner, 74 
stoveri Ross & DeLong. 74 
styraxae Hepner, 74 
tammina Ross & DeLong, 74 
tenilla Ross & DeLong, 74 
teshi Hepner, 74 
tietzi Ross & DeLong, 74 
tomaneki Hepner, 74 
tomentosae Hepner. 74 
tridenoides Hepner. 74 
tura Ross & DeLong. 74 
turoides Hepner. 74 
ulmalatae Ross & DeLong, 74 
ulmarubrae Hepner, 74 
ulmosa Ross & DeLong, 74 
uniforma Hepner, 74 
vartyi Hepner, 74 
velox Ross, 74 
velutinae Hepner, 74 
verae Hepner, 74 
Verdana Ross & DeLong, 74 
vierii Hepner. 74 
vinsoni Hepner, 74 
vulgaris Hepner, 74 
wandae Hepner, 74 
weemsi Hepner, 74 
whitcombi Hepner, 74 
whitti Hepner, 74 
wilsoni Hepner, 74 
winslowensis Hepner, 74 
wisei Hepner. 74 
wiyguli Hepner, 74 
wolcottensis Hepner. 74 
woodruffi Hepner. 74 
wysongi Ross & DeLong. 74 
young! Hepner. 74 
zephyr Ross & DeLong. 74 



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157 



erythronii Robertson. Andrena. 106 
escana Ross & DeLong. Typhlocyba. 75 
espala Ross & King. Atopsychc, 103 
esperonis Ross & King. Wormaldia. 101 
etrona Ross. Cheumatopsyche, 94 
Eubaeocera, 80 

charybda Cornell. 80 
Eucapnopsis, 58 

vedderensis Ricker. 58 
Euchaetes, 105 

bolted Stretch, 105 
Eucoila, 114 

septemspinosa Gillette. 114 
Eucoilidea, 114 

rufipes Gillette. 114 
Euforcipomyia, 83 

hirtipennis Malloch. 83 

longitarsis Malloch, 83 
Euklastus, 76 

harti Metcalf, 76 
Eulimnichus, 133 

rugulosus Wooldridge. 133 

visendus Wooldridge. 133 
Eulimnophora, 89 

cilifera Malloch. 89 

dorsovittata Malloch. 89 
eulophi Robertson. CoUetes. 112 
eulophi Robertson. Prosopis, 113 
Eulophidae. 114 
Eupachygaster, 91 

henshawi Malloch. 91 

punctifer Malloch, 91 
euphorbiae Thomas. Siphonophora, 65 
euphorbicola Thomas. Siphonophora. 65 
Eupsenius, 80 

angulosus Becker & Sanderson. 80 
eurybis Ross, Dolerus. 121 
Euscellidae, 75-76 
Euschistus, 63 

subimpunctatus Malloch, 63 
Eutheresia, 91 

interrupta Curran, 91 
Euura, 124 

maculata MacGillivray. 124 

minuta MacGillivray. 124 

moenia MacGillivray, 124 

salicicola Smith. 124 
Evania, 115 

barbata Prison, 115 

bella Prison. 1 15 

cerviculata Prison. 115 

clara Prison. 115 

dclicata Prison. 115 

luculenta Prison. 115 

mystica Prison, 1 15 
evanida MacGillivray, Pteronidea. 128 
Evaniidae. 115 

evecta MacGillivray. Empria. 124 
eversi Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura. 70 
cxacta MacGillivray. Pteronidea. 128 
excavatus Wooldridge, Physemus. 79 
excessus MacGillivray, Pteronidea. 128 
excita Ross. Glossosoma. 93 
exiguae Ross, Empoasca, 66 



exiguissimus Bassett, Neuroterus. 114 
exilis Evans, Apenesia, 111 
eximia Prison, Brachygaster, 115 
explanata Ross. Atopsyche. 103 
exquisita Prison. AUoperla, 59 
extensa Ross. Helicopsyche. 93 
extimoides Hepner. Erythroneura. 70 
extincta Malcomson. Columbicola. 62 
extranea Hy. Edwards. Thia, 105 
extremitata Malloch. Hylemyia. 82 



fagiphylla Hepner, Erythroneura. 70 
fagus Ross. Limnephilus. 100 
fagusae Hepner, Erythroneura. 70 
faica Ross. Neotrichia. 96 
falonus Ross. Pachynematus. 126 
falta Sanderson, Phyllophaga. 80 
Fannia, 89 

canadensis Malloch, 89 

lasiops Malloch. 89 

latifrons Malloch, 89 

spathiophora Malloch, 89 
Farula, 99 

malkini Ross. 99 

ranieri Milne. 99 
fascialis puella Ross. Macrophya. 125 
fasciativentris Girault, Prospaltella, 114 
fasciatus Girault, Gonatocerus. 118 
fasciventris Malloch, Chironomus, 85 
fasciventris Malloch, Gimnomera. 82 
fattigi Ricker, Paragnetina, 60 
fattigi Ross, Hydropsyche, 94 
faunum Girault, Stethynium, 119 
fax Girault. Signiphora. 114 
felipe Ross. Ochrotrichia, 96 

femoralis Becker & Sanderson. Scalenarthrus. 80 
femoralis Wulp. Coenosia. 89 
femur-aureus Dreisbach. Dipogon. 131 
fenderi Ross. Rhyacophila, 103 
fenestra Ross, Empoasca. 66 
fenestra Ross. Rhyacophila. 103 
fenestrata Malloch. Zygoneura, 82 
Fenusa, 124 

lucifex Ross, 124 
fergersoni Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
feria Ross. Chimarra, 101 
fernaldii MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 
ferrosa Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
ferruginosa Wong, Melastola, 133 
fidala Ross. Kerita. 124 
filamenta DeLong. Chlorotcttix. 75 
filamentus Hamilton & Ross. Hebecephalus, 76 
filicis Prison. Acroneuria, 60 
fiskei Blickle. Hydroptila, 95 
fistual MacGillivray, Macrophya. 125 
flaccida MacGillivray. Macrophya. 125 
flammipes Robertson. Prosopis. 113 
flava Pracker. Carorhintha. 62 
fiava Metcalf. Microledrida. 76 
flavens Malloch. Camptocladius. 84 
flavibasis Curran, Cryptomeigenia, 91 
flavibasis Malloch, Camptocladius. 84 
flavibasis Malloch. Cricotopus. 85 



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flavicauda Malloch, Tanytarsus, 87 
flavicornis Malloch, Ariciella, 89 
flavidula Malloch, Johannseniella, 83 
flavidulus Malloch, Gaurax. 87 
flavifemoralis Campbell, Lobopoda, 77 
flavinervis Malloch, Pogonomyia, 90 
flavipalpis Malloch, Meromyza, 87 
flavipalpis Wulp, Hydrophoria, 82 
flavisetus Malloch, Chrysotus, 88 
flavitarsis Malloch, Bczzia. 83 
flavofemorata Malloch, Platyphora, 90 
flavominuta Jewett, Anacroneuria, 60 
flavoscutellatus Malloch, Orthocladius, 86 
flavus Forbes, Chaitophorus. 64 
fletcheri MacGillivray, Astochus. 120 
flcxa Malloch, Andrena, 106 
Flexamia, 75 

delongi Ross & Cooley, 75 

prairiana DeLong. 75 

rubranura DeLong, 75 
flicta MacGillivray, Macrophya, 125 
flinti Malloch, Phorticoides, 90 
floccosa Bassett. Cynips, 113 
florida Ross, Chimarra, 101 
florida Ross, Triaenodes, 99 
florida Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 70 
floridana MacGillivray, Selandria. 128 
floridana Robertson, Megachile, 117 
floridana Robertson, Tiphia, 131 
floridanus Robertson, Halictus, 116 
floridanus Robertson, Heriades. 117 
floridanus Robertson, Odynerus, 132 
floridanus Robertson, Oxybelus, 120 
floridanus Robertson, Prosopis, 113 
floridcnsis Hulst, Diastictis, 105 
floridoides Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
foersteri Ricker, Nemoura, 60 
fontana Ross, Empoasca. 66 
forbesi. Prison, Allocapnia, 57 
forbesi Johnson, Aspidiotus, 75 
forbesi Malloch, Simulium, 91 
forbesi Titus, Oecanthus, 57 
forbesi Weed, Cremastus, 117 
forbesi cornuta Prison, Allocapnia, 57 
forbesii French. Pseudaglossa, 105 
forbesii Robertson, Andrena, 106 
Forbesomyia, 82 

atra Malloch, 82 
Forcipata, 74 

ancantha DeLong & Caldwell, 74 
forcipata Prison, Leuctra, 59 
Forcipomyia, 83 

aurea Malloch, 83 

elegantula Malloch, 83 

pergandei concolor Malloch, 83 
Forda, 64 

occidentalis Hart, 64 
Formicidae, 115 
formosellus Prison, Bremus. Ill 
formosellus derivatus Prison, Bremus, 111 
formosellus gradatus Prison, Bremus, 111 
fortuitus MacGillivray, Pamphilius, 119 
foveolatus Robertson, Chloralictus, 115 
foxi Ross & Cunningham. Empoasca, 66 
foxiella Cunningham & Ross, Empoasca, 66 



foxii Davis, Phyllophaga. 80 

franklini Prison. Bremus, 111 

fraseri Ricker, Diploperla. 61 

fraterna Prison, Alloperla, 59 

fraterna Timberlake, Perdita. 108 

fraterna mississippiensis Davis. Phyllophaga. 80 

fraternus Strom, Aphis, 63 

fraudulenta Prison, Hyptia, 115 

fraxina Ricker & Ross, Zealeuctra, 60 

fraxinifolii Thomas, Pemphigus, 65 

frazieri Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 

fretoides Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 

freytagi Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 

frijole Ross. Limnephilus, 100 

frisoni Alexander, Ormosia, 92 

frisoni Barber, Geocoris, 62 

frisoni Burks, Iron, 57 

frisoni Fender, Malthodes. 77 

frisoni Fender, Trypherus. 78 

frisoni Knight. Lygus. 62 

frisoni Malloch, Coenosia, 89 

frisoni McDunnough, Ephemerella, 56 

frisoni Ross. Hydropsyche. 94 

frisoni Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 70 

frisoni Ross & Ricker, Allocapnia. 57 

Fulgoridae. 76 

FuUawaya, 64 

saliciradicis Essig. 64 
fulleri Hepner. Erythroneura. 70 
fultonac Hepner, Erythroneura. 70 
fulva Weld, Callirhytis, 113 
fulvidorsum Metcalf, Libumia, 76 
fulvipes Forbes, Pteromalus, 119 
fulvithorax Malloch, Probezzia, 83 
fulvus Metcalf, Pissonotus. 76 
fumicosta Malloch, Agromyza, 81 
fumipennis Malloch. Neogaurax. 87 
fumosa Neave, Isoperla, 61 
fumosa Ross. Allocapnia. 57 
fundatiformis Robertson, Odynerus. 132 
funeralis Hart. Nemobius. 57 
funesta Hottes & Prison. Aphis. 63 
Fungivora, 90 

comata Laffoon. 90 
furcella Ross. Triaenodes, 99 
fuscibasis Malloch, Sapromyza. 88 
fuscicornis Malloch. Chironomus, 85 
fuscipennis Girault. Prospaltella, 114 
fuscipes Malloch, Eremomyioides, 81 
fuscisquama Wulp. Phorbia. 90 
fuscicornis Malloch, Chironomus, 85 
fusinervis Malloch, Ceratopogon. 83 

G 

Galgupha, 62 

aterrima Malloch, 62 
gameta Ross, Heteroplectron, 92 
gansella Ross, Empoasca, 66 
garmani Ashmead, Protomicroplitis, 112 
garretsoni Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
Gatlinia, 101 

mohri Ross, 101 
Gaurax, 87 

apicalis Malloch. 87 

flavidulus Malloch. 87 



July 1980 



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159 



interruptus Malloch. 87 
pallidipes Malloch, 87 
splendidus Malloch. 87 
gelbae Ross, Agapetus, 92 
gelechiae Webster, Pteromalus, 119 
gcminus Knight, Neolygus. 52 
gemitus MacGillivray, Emphytus. 123 
gemoides Ross, Erythroneura, 70 
gemona Ross. Rhyacophila. 103 
genota Ross, Goerita. 93 
Geocoris, 62 

frisoni Barber, 62 
Geoica, 64 

squamosa Hart, 64 
Geometridae, 105 
georgia Ross, Oecetis, 98 
gcorgiensis Fender, Malthinis, 77 
georgii Hulst. Plemyria, 105 
gcranii Robertson, Andrena, 106 
gerhardi arenicola Timberlake, Perdita, 108 
gibbosa Cunningham & Ross, Empoasca, 66 
gibsoni Ross, Empoasca. 66 
gigas Burks, Caenis, 56 
gilesi Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
gillettci MacGillivray, Emphytus, 123 
Gimnomera, 81-82 

atrifrons Malloch, 81 

fasciventris Malloch. 82 

incisurata Malloch, 82 
glabella Ross, Sialis, 77 
glabra clypeata Malloch, Chloropisca, 87 
glacialis Ross, Holocentropus, 102 
glacialis Ross, Tenthredella, 129 
gladysae Hepner. Erythroneura, 70 
glasa Ross, Loxotrichia, 96 
gleditsiae Sanders, Chionaspis, 75 
glenni Cashatt, Oidaematophorus, 105 
glicilla Ross. Erythroneura. 70 
globosa Weld. Disholcaspis. 114 
Glossosoma, 93 

excita Ross. 93 

idaho Ross. 93 

montana Ross, 93 

pterna Ross, 93 

pyroxum Ross, 93 

schuhi Ross, 93 

velona Ross, 93 

verdona Ross, 93 

wenatchee Ross, 93 
Glossosomatidae. 92-93 
Glulops, 92 

rossi Pechuman. 92 
Glyphopsyche, 99 

avigo Ross. 99 

missouri Ross, 99 

ormiae Ross, 99 
Glypta, 117 

phoxopteridis Weed, 117 
g, maculati Robertson, Andrena. 106 
Cnathias, 109 

cuneatus Robertson. 109 

cuneatus decemnotatus Robertson. 109 

cuneatus octonotatus Robertson. 109 

cuneatus quadrisignatus Robertson. 109 



cuneatus sexnotatus Robertson. 109 

ovatus Robertson. 109 

ovatus binotalus Robertson, 109 

ovatus octomaculatus Robertson, 109 

ovatus plenus Robertson, 109 

ovatus quadrimaculatus Robertson, 109 

ovatus sexmaculatus Robertson, 109 

ovatus unicolor Robertson, 109 
gnathos Ross, Imania, 99 
Goera, 93 

archaon Ross, 93 

stylata Ross, 93 
Goeridae, 93 
Goerita, 93 

betteni Ross, 93 

genota Ross, 93 

semata Ross, 93 
Gomphus, 57 

lentulus Needham, 57 
Gonatocerus, 118 

fasciatus Girault, 118 
gorteba Ross. Beraea. 92 
gracilipes Malloch. Hylemyia. 82 
graenicheri MacGillivray. Dolerus. 121 
Graminella, 75 

oquaka DeLong. 75 
grandiosa Ross. Hydroptila. 95 
grandis Banks. Leuctra. 59 
grandis Becker & Sanderson. Cercoceroides. 80 
gravidis Knowlton. Minuticomis. 65 
greeni Hepner. Erythroneura. 70 
gregalis Knowlton. Aphis. 63 
gribisa Ross. Empoasca. 66 
grisea Malloch, Scatophaga, 82 
griseopunctatus Malloch, Chironomus, 85 
griseus Malloch. Chironomus, 85 
Gryllidae, 57 

guana MacGillivray, Pareophora, 127 
guara MacGillivray, Pareophora, 127 
guicei Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
guttiformis Cunningham & Ross, Empoasca, 67 
Gypona, 76-77 

albimarginata Woodworth, 76 
bimaculata Woodworth, 76 
bipunctulata Woodworth, 77 
nigra Woodworth, 77 
Gyponidae, 76-77 
gyra Ross. Cheumatopsyche. 94 

H 

haematopotus Malloch. Culicoides, 83 
haitensis Campbell, Lobopoda, 77 
halesus MacGillivray, Emphytus, 123 
haliartus MacGillivray. Emphytus, 123 
Halictidae, 1 15 
Halictus, 116 

anomalus Robertson, 116 

apopkensis Robertson, 116 

arcuatus Robertson, 116 

ashmeadii Robertson, 116 

cephalicus Robertson, 116 

coeruleus Robertson. 116 

floridanus Robertson, 116 

hartii Robertson, 116 

illinoensis Robertson, 116 



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longiceps Robertson, 116 

obscurus Robertson, 116 

pectinatus Robertson. 116 

platyparius Robertson, 116 

pruinosus Robertson, 116 

reticulatus Robertson, 116 

smilacinae Robertson, 116 

testaceus Robertson, 116 

truncatus Robertson, 116 
Haliplidae, 79 
Haliplus, 79 

allisonae Brigham, 79 

tortilipenis Brigham & Sanderson, 79 

variomaculatus Brigham & Sanderson, 79 
Halisidota, 105 

significans Hy. Edwards, 105 
halitus MacGillivray, Emphytus, 123 
halteralis Malloch, Johannsenomyia, 83 
hamar DeLong & Ross, Dikraneura, 66 
hamata Ross, Sialis, 77 
hamiltonia Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
hamlinorum Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
hamneri Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
hansoni Ricker, Isogenus, 61 
harei Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
harmstoni Ross, Rhyacophila, 103 
harnedi Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
harpola Ross, Erythroneura, 70 
harrisi Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
harrisi Ross & Hamilton, Laevicephalus, 76 
harti Fernald, Sphex, 119 
harti Prison, Hydroperia, 61 
harti Knight, Hyaliodes, 62 
harti Malloch, Aspistes, 91 
harti Malloch, Chironomus, 85 
harti Malloch, Corimelaena, 62 
harti Malloch, Phaonia, 90 
harti Malloch, Sapromyza, 88 
harti Malloch, Tachydromia, 88 
harti McDunnough, Baetis, 56 
harti Mctcalf, Eukiastus, 76 
hartii Ashmead, Cremastus, 117 
hartii Ball, Tettigonia, 77 
hartii Cockerel!, Aspidiotus, 75 
hartii French, Pallachira, 105 
hartii Robertson, Halictus, 116 
Hartomyia, S3 

lutea Malloch, 83 

pallidiventris, Malloch, 83 
haspata Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 70 
hasta Ross, Sialis, 77 
Hastaperla, 59 

chilnualna Ricker, 59 
hastosa Ross & Moore, Empoasca, 67 
hastus DeLong, Cloanthanus, 75 
haustus MacGillivray, Emphytus, 123 
havana Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 70 
hayesi Schoof, Conotracheius, 78 
haysensis Hepner. Erythroneura, 70 
haysi Ricker, Nemoura, 60 
hebalus Sanderson. Chalepus. 78 
Hebecephalus, 75-76 

beameri Hamilton & Ross, 75 

circus Hamilton & Ross, 75 

niamentus Hamilton & Ross, 76 



hebetus DeLong & Hershberger. Idiocerus, 77 
Heleomyzidae, 88 
helianthi Robertson, Andrena. 106 
helianthi Robertson, Epeolus. 108 
Helicopsyche, 93-94 

comosa Kingsolver, 93 

cubana Kingsolver. 93 

dampfi Ross. 93 

extensa Ross. 93 

incisa Ross. 93 

limnclla Ross. 93 

piroa Ross. 93 

planata Ross, 93 

quadrosa Ross, 93 

selanderi Ross, 9S 

truncata Ross. 94 

vergelana Ross, 94 

woytkowskii Ross, 94 
Helicopsychidae, 93-94 
Helina, 89 

algonquina Malloch. 89 

bispinosa Malloch. 89 

consimilata Malloch. 89 

linearis Malloch. 89 

nasoni Malloch. 89 

nigribasis Malloch, 89 

nigrita Malloch, 89 

spinilamellata Malloch, 89 

tuberculata Malloch, 89 
Heliolonche, 105 

indiana Smith, 105 
heliopsis Robertson, Ammobates, 117 
helma Ross, Cheumatopsyche. 94 
hemerocampae Girault. Tritneptis, 119 
Hemiptera. 62-63 
Hemitaxonus, 124 

dediticius MacGillivray. 124 
hendersoni Hepner. Erythroneura. 70 
henshawi Malloch, Eupachygaster, 91 
Hepialidae, 105 
Hepialus, 105 

confusus Hy. Edwards. 105 
Heptagenia, 56-57 

diabasia Burks. 56 

integer McDunnough. 56 

patoka Burks. 57 
Heptageniidae. 56-57 
heraclei Robertson. Andrena. 106 
heraclei Robertson. Sphecodes. 117 
herberti Hepner. Erythroneura. 70 
herbida DeLong. Polyamia. 76 
herecules Girault, Anaphes, 118 
Heriades, 117 

floridanus Robertson, 117 

philadelphi Robertson. 117 
herodes Burks. Baetis. 56 
heroicus MacGillivray. Emphytus, 123 
Herpis, 76 

australis Metcalf, 76 
Hesperiidae. 105 
hesperius Burks. Tetrastichus. 115 
Heterocampa, 105 

superba Hy. Edwards, 105 
Hetcroceridae, 79 



July 1980 



Webb: Primary Insect Types 



161 



Heteromyia, 83 

aldrichi Malloch, 83 
hirta Malloch. 83 
opacithorax Malloch, 83 
tenuicomis Malloch, 83 
Heteroplectron, 92 
amerus Ross, 92 
gameta Ross, 92 
heucherae Robertson, Colletes, 112 
heucherae Thomas, Siphonophora, 65 
hiatus MacGillivray, Emphytus, 123 
hibernia Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
hicoriae Schoof, Conotrachelus, 78 
hiemalis Forbes, Platygaster, 119 
hieroglyphica Wulp, Clinoptera, 89 
Hilarimorpha, 88 
lantha Webb, 88 
mikii Williston, 88 
modesta Webb, 88 
robertsoni Webb, 88 
sidora Webb, 88 
Hilarimorphidae, 88 
hildae Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
hiltoni Essig, Aphis, 63 
hinkleyi Malloch, Botanobia. 87 
hippotes Robertson, Andrena, 106 
hirta Malloch, Heteromyia, 83 
hirticula comosa Davis, Phyllophaga, 80 
hirtipennis Malloch, Euforcipomyia, 83 
hispidulus Dreisbach, Anoplius, 119 
histrionalis Robertson, Odynerus, 132 
histrionicus MacGillivray, Parabates, 127 
hitei Rickcr & Ross, Zealeuctra, 60 
hiulcus MacGillivray, Emphytus, 123 
hoffmani Ross, Hydropsyche, 94 
Holocentropus, 100 
glacialis Ross, 100 
melanae Ross, 100 
Homophylax, 99 
andax Ross, 99 
Homoplectra, 94 
alscae Ross, 94 
Homoptera, 63-77 
hoodi Ross, Anagapetus, 93 
hoodi Ross. Lepidostoma, 97 
hoogstraali Ross, Chimarra, 101 
hoogstraali Ross, Plectropsyche, 95 
Hoplocampa, 124 
idaho Ross, 124 
makila Ross. 124 
nalema Ross, 124 
oskina Ross, 124 
padusa MacGillivray, 124 
pallipes MacGillivray, 124 
ritcheri Ross, 124 
sialica Ross, 124 
spala Ross, 124 
stricklandi Ross, 124 
texas Ross, 124 
Hoplogryon, 120 

bethunei Sanders, 120 
I Horcias, 62 

illini Knight, 62 
1 hormchunae Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 



hospitus MacGillivray, Emphytus. 123 
hottesi Prison & Ross, Thripsaphis, 66 
houghi Malloch, Hydrotaea, 89 
houghi Malloch, Macrophorbia, 82 
howellae Ross, Oropsyche, 95 
hucksena Wong & Ross, Pristiphora, 133 
humeralis Robertson, Phorantha, 91 
humilis Ross, Empoasca, 67 
hutchinsi Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
hyacinthus MacGillivray, Emphytus, 123 
hyalinus MacGillivray, Neotomostethus, 126 
hyalinus MacGillivray, Tenthredo. 129 
Hyaliodes, 62 

brevis Knight. 62 

harti Knight. 62 
hyalita Ricker. Isocapnia. 58 
Hyalomya, 91 

pruinosa Robertson. 91 
Hydriomena. 105 

neomexicana Hulst. 105 
Hydroperia, 61 

dorata Prison. 61 

harti Prison. 61 

nalata Prison. 61 

parallela Prison. 61 
Hydrophilidae. 79 
Hydrophoria, 82 

collaris Wulp, 82 

flavipalpis Wulp. 82 

polita Malloch. 82 

transversalis Wulp. 82 

uniformis Malloch, 82 
Hydrophorus, 88 

pilitarsis Malloch, 88 
Hydropsyche, 94-95 

aerata Ross, 94 

alhedra Ross, 94 

amblis Ross, 94 

antilles Ross & Palmer, 94 

arinale Ross, 94 

betteni Ross, 94 

bidens Ross, 94 

bronta Ross, 94 

Catawba Ross. 94 

centra Ross. 94 

cheilonis Ross, 94 

cornuta Ross, 94 

cuanis Ross, 94 

decalda Ross, 94 

delrio Ross, 94 

demora Ross, 94 

dicantha Ross. 94 

elissoma Ross. 94 

fattigi Ross, 94 

frisoni Ross, 94 

hoffmani Ross, 94 

leonardi Ross, 94 

orris Ross, 95 

philo Ross, 95 

piatrix Ross, 95 

placoda Ross, 95 

protis Ross. 95 

rotosa Ross. 95 

simulans Ross. 95 



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solex Ross, 95 
sparna Ross, 95 
tana Ross, 95 
valanis Ross, 95 
venada Ross, 95 
Ventura Ross, 95 
vexa Ross, 95 
Hydropsychidae, 94-95 
Hydroptila, 95-96 
acadia Ross, 95 
ajax Ross, 95 
amoena Ross, 95 

ampoda Ross, 95 

angusta Ross, 95 

arctia Ross, 95 

argosa Ross, 95 

armata Ross, 95 

berneri Ross, 95 

broweri Blickle, 95 

dentata Ross, 95 

denza Ross, 95 

fiskei Blickle, 95 

grandiosa Ross, 95 

jackmanni Blickle, 95 

latosa Ross, 95 

lloganae Blickle, 95 

lonchera Blickle, 95 

melia Ross, 95 

metoeca Blickle & Morse, 96 

molsonae Blickle, 96 

nicoli Ross, 96 

novicola Blickle & Morse, 96 

pecos Ross, 96 

protera Ross, 96 

quinola Ross, 96 

remita Blickle & Morse, 96 

rono Ross, 96 

salmo Ross, 96 

scolops Ross, 96 

spinata Blickle & Morse, 96 

strepha Ross, 96 

tortosa Ross, 96 

tusculum Ross, 96 

vala Ross, 96 

virgata Ross, 96 

waskesia Ross, 96 

xella Ross, 96 

xera Ross, 96 

xoncla Ross, 96 
Hydroptilidae, 95-97 
Hydrotaea, 89 

cristata Malloch, 89 

houghi Malloch, 89 
Hygroceleuthus, 88 

idahoensis Aldrich, 88 
Hylemyia, 82 

attenuata Malloch, 82 

bicaudata Malloch, 82 

bicruciata Malloch, 82 

cilifera Malloch, 82 

curvipes Malloch. 82 

extrcmitata Malloch, 82 

gracilipes Malloch, 82 

inaequalis Malloch, 82 



innocua Malloch, 82 

marginella Malloch, 82 

normalis Malloch, 82 

occidentalis Malloch, 82 

piloseta Malloch, 82 

pluvialis Malloch, 82 

spinilamellata Malloch, 82 

substriatella Malloch, 82 
Hylotoma, 110 

onerosa MacGillivray, 110 

sparta MacGillivray, 110 

spiculata MacGillivray, 110 
Hymenoptera, 105-132, 133 
Hypargyricus, 124 

infuscatus MacGillivray, 124 
Hyperaspis, 78 

congeminata Watson, 78 
hyperici Thomas, Myzocallis, 65 
hyphantriae Ashmead. Microplitis, 112 
Hyptia, 115 

fraudulenta Prison, 115 

jucunda prison, 115 

neglecta Prison, 115 

spinifera Prison, 115 
Hysterosia, 105 

merrickana Kearfott. 105 

I 

Ichneumonidae, 117 
icterus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 121 
iculus Ross, Polycentropus. 102 
idaho Ross, Glossosoma, 93 
Idaho Ross, Hoplocampa, 124 
idahoensis Aldrich, Hygroceleuthus, 88 
idahoensis Ross, Dolerus, 121 
Idioceridae, 77 
Idiocerus, 77 

apache juniperus DeLong & Hershberger, 77 

hebetus DeLong & Hershberger, 77 

incomptus DeLong & Hershberger, 77 

rossi Preytag, 77 

snowi raphus Preytag, 77 

telus DeLong & Hershberger, 77 
Idiopterus, 64 

nephrelepidis Davis, 64 
igella Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura , 70 
ignota Bassett, Cynips, 114 
ilexae Hepner, Erythroneura, 70 
ilicis Ross, Erythroneura, 70 
illini Alexander, EUiptera, 92 
illini Bouseman, Andrena, 106 
illini Hottes & Prison, Macrosiphum, 64 
illini Knight, Cyrtopeltocoris, 62 
illini Knight, Horcias, 62 
illini Knight, Illnacora, 62 
illini Knight, Polymerus, 63 
illini Ross, Agapetus, 92 
illini Ross, Dolerus, 122 

illini crudae Hottes & Prison. Macrosiphum. 64 
illini rufilobus Ross, Dolerus, 122 
illini sangomonensis Hottes & Prison, 

Macrosiphum, 64 
illinoensis Pelt, Monardia. 82 
illinoensis Prison. Allocapnia, 57 



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163 



illinoensis Malloch. Cerodontha, 81 
illinoensis Malloch, Chironomus, 85 
illinoensis Malloch. Palpomyia. 83 
illinoensis Malloch. Tanypus. 86 
illinoensis Mares. Cicindela. 78 
illinoensis Robertson. Epigrimyia. 91 
illinoensis Robertson. Halictus. 116 
illinoensis Robertson. Machaeris. 116 
illinoensis Robertson. Mallota. 91 
illinoensis Robertson, Melissodes, 109 
illinoensis Robertson, Odynerus, 132 
illinoensis Robertson. Osmia. 118 
illinoensis Robertson. Pompilus. 119 
illinoensis Robertson. Synhalonia. 110 
illinoensis Robertson. Tiphia. 131 
illinoensis Robertson, Winthemia, 91 
illinoensis decoloratus Malloch. Chironomus, 85 
illinoiensis Robertson. Andrena. 106 
illinoiensis Robertson, Colletes. 112 
illinoiensis Robertson. Phileremus. 110 
illinoiensis bicolor Robertson. Andrena, 106 
illinoisensis Robertson. Nomada. 110 
illinoisensis Robertson. Prosopis, 113 
illinoisensis Shimer, Aphis, 63 
Illnacora, 62 

illini Knight, 62 
Imania, 99 

acanthis Ross, 99 

bifosa Ross, 99 

cascadis Ross, 99 

gnathos Ross, 99 
imbecilla illinoiensis Alexander, Limnophila, 92 
imbricariae Ross & DeLong. Erythroneura. 70 
imitator Reinhard, Winthemia, 92 
imitatrix Malloch, Melanochelia, 89 
impar Davis, Phyllophaga, 80 
impatiens deayi Chandler, Bombus, 111 
impatientis Thomas, Aphis, 63 
improcera Ross. Empoasca. 67 
imuganensis Hedicke, Bombus, 111 
inaequalis Malloch, Hylemyia, 82 
inaequalis Malloch, Sapromyza, 88 
inaequalis Malloch, Tiphia, 131 
inaequiformis Cunningham & Ross, Empoasca. 67 
inauratus Coquillett, Anthrax, 82 
inaya Ricker, Strophopteiyx, 62 
incarum Franklin, Bombus. Ill 
incerta Malloch, Probezzia, 83 
incisa Ross, Helicopsyche, 93 
incisurata Malloch, Gimnomera, 82 
inclinatus MacGillivray, Taxonus, 129 
incoata Ross, Empoasca, 67 
incognitus Malloch, Chironomus, 85 
incomptus DeLong & Hershberger, Idiocerus, 77 
inconspicuus Malloch, Tanypus, 86 
inculta Ross & Spencer, Rhyacophila, 103 
indecisus MacGillivray, Urocerus, 120 
indecora Malloch, Agromyza, 81 
Indiana Ross, Stenophylax, 100 
Indiana Smith, Heliolonche, 105 
indianae Ricker, Allocapnia, 57 
indistinctus Malloch, Chironomus, 85 
infumata Malloch, Agromyza, 81 



infuscata Malloch, Probezzia, 83 
infuscatus MacGillivray. Craterocercus, 121 
infuscatus MacGillivray, Hypargyricus, 124 
infuscatus Malloch, Orthocladius, 86 
innocua Malloch, Hylemyia, 82 
innominatus MacGillivray, Taxonus, 129 
inomata Robertson, Notoglossa, 120 
insipida Hoppe, Isoperla, 61 
insolita Evans, Apenesia. Ill 
inspectus MacGillivray, Dolcrus, 122 
inspiratus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
integer McDunnough, Heptagenia, 56 
Integra Robertson, Nomada, 110 
interjectus Ross, Dolerus, 122 
intermedius Ross & Hamilton, Latalus, 76 
interrupta Curran, Eutheresia, 91 
interrupla Malloch, Corimelaena, 62 
interrupta Malloch, Zygomyia, 90 
interruptus Malloch, Gaurax, 87 
interruptus Robertson, Epeolus, 108 
intonsipennis Girault, Alaptus. 118 
intrabilis MacGillivray. Xyela. 132 
iola Ross. Sialis, 77 
iowa Alexander. Dicranota. 92 
ipomoeae Robertson. Xenoglossa. 110 
iranda Ross. Rhyacophila. 103 
iridis Ross, Agapetus, 92 
Iron, 57 

frisoni Burks, 57 

namatus Burks, 57 
irregularis Klapalek, Chloroperla, 59 
irrorata Coding, Telamona. 77 
isei Hepner, Erythroneura. 70 
Isiodyctium, 124 

atratum MacGillivray. 124 
Isocapnia, 58 

abbreviata Prison, 58 

agassizi Ricker, 58 

hyalita Ricker, 58 

missourii Ricker, 58 

spenceri Ricker, 58 

spenceri thujae Ricker, 58 
Isogenus, 61 

hansoni Ricker. 61 

krumholzi Ricker, 61 

tostonus Ricker, 61 
Isoperla, 61 

bellona Banks, 61 

burksi Prison, 61 

cascadensis Hoppe, 61 

chrysannula Hoppe, 61 

confusa Prison, 61 

conspicua Prison, 61 

cotta Ricker, 61 

davisi James, 61 

decepta Prison, 61 

dicala Prison, 61 

fumosa Neave, 61 

insipida Hoppe, 61 

jewetti Szczytko & Stewart, 61 

lata Prison, 61 

mohri Prison. 61 

namata Prison. 61 

orata Prison, 61 



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patricia Prison, 61 

pinta Prison, 61 

richardsoni Prison, 61 

tokula Hoppe. 61 

truncata Prison, 61 

ventralis Banks, 61 
itasca Ross, Sialis, 77 

ithacus MacGillivray, Dimorphopteryx, 121 
Ithytrichia, 96 

mazon Ross, 96 
Itycorsia, 119 

angulata MacGillivray, 119 

balanata MacGillivray, 119 

balata MacGillivray, 119 

ballista MacGillivray. 119 
ivae Hepncr, Erythroneura, 71 
ivani Hepner, Erythroneura, 71 



jackmanni Blickie, Hydroptila, 95 

jafiwi Ross, Agapetus, 93 

jamaicensis Brown, Strumigenys, 115 

jamesi Ross, Pachynematus, 126 

japoda Ross & King, Atopsyche, 103 

jeanae Hepncr, Erythroneura. 71 

jeanae Ross, Allocapnia, 57 

jeanae Ross, Protoptila, 93 

Jenortha, 97 

cascadensis Milne, 97 

jenseni MacGillivray, Cephaleia, 119 

jewetti Prison, Capnia, 58 

jewetti Ross, Lepidostoma, 97 

jewetti Szczytko & Stewart. Isoperla, 61 

jigme Schmid, Rhyacophila, 103 

joanneae Hepner, Erythroneura, 71 

johannseni Hart, Simulium, 91 

johannseni Malloch, Pseudoculicoides, 84 

Johannseniella, 83 
flavidula Malloch, 83 

Johannsenomyia, 83 
aequalis Malloch, 83 
albibasis Malloch, 83 
annulicornis Malloch, 83 
halteralis Malloch, 83 
macroneura Malloch, 83 
johnsoni Hepner, Erythroneura, 71 
ohnsoni MacGillivray, Schizocerus, 111 
ohnsoni auripila Metcalf, Callicera, 91 
onesi Hepncr, Erythroneura, 71 
jonesi Sanderson, Phyllophaga, 80 
oppa Ross, Sialis, 77 
lucunda Prison. Hyptia. 115 
luglandacea Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 71 
ulia Hulst, Sympherta, 105 
unghannsii MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 
uniperinus MacGillivray, Monoctenus, 114 
ussiaeae Moore & Ross, Macrosteles, 76 



kamesa Ross & King, Atopsyche, 103 
kanensis Hepner, Erythroneura, 71 
kaskaskia Ross, Caborius, 99 
keijoensis Allen, Ephemerella, 56 
kennedyi Ross, Dolerus, 122 



kennethi Hepner. Erythroneura. 71 
keratus Ross, Limnephilus, 100 
Kerica, 124 

fidala Ross, 124 
keshenae Granovsky, Drepanaphis, 64 
kiamichi Ross, Rhyacophila, 103 
kickapoo Hottes & Prison. Macrosiphum. 64 
kincaidi Prison. Megaleuctra. 60 
kincaidi Hardy, Chrysopilus, 91 
kincaidi Hoppe, Taeniopteryx, 62 
kincaidi MacGillivray, Monophadnoides, 126 
kincaidia MacGillivray, Perineura, 127 
kinciadii MacGillivray, Monostegia. 126 
kingi Ross, Atopsyche. 103 
kingstoniensis Hepner, Erythroneura. 71 
kinseyi Weld, Belonocnema, 113 
kirbyellus alexanderi Prison, Bremus, 111 
kirbyellus arizonensis Prison, Bremus, 111 
kirki Hepner, Erythroneura, 71 
kitae Ross, Neotrichia, 96 
knobeli Sanderson, Stenelmis, 79 
knowltoni Prison, Dictyopterygella, 61 
knowltoni Hottes & Prison, Aphis, 63 
knowltoni Ross, Lepidostoma, 97 
knullae Ross, Erythroneura. 71 
knuUi Ross, Lepidostoma. 97 
kohnoi Allen, Ephemerella, 56 
konowi MacGillivray, Dolerus. 122 
kraemeri Ross & Moore. Empoasca. 67 
krameri Hepner, Erythroneura, 71 
krigiana Robertson, Andrena, 106 
krumholzi Ricker. Isogenus. 61 
kuiterti Hepner, Erythroneura, 71 



labida Ross, Psilotreta, 100 
labradorensis Malloch, Pegomyia, 82 
labrata MacGillivray, Caliroa. 121 
labrosiforrriis Robertson. Panurginus, 108 
labrosus Robertson. Calliopsis. 108 
labus Ross. Limnephilus. 100 
laceiba Ross & Cunningham. Empoasca. 67 
Lachnus, 64 

taxifolia Swain. 64 

vanduzei Swain, 64 
lacinata MacGillivray, Caliroa, 121 
laciniatus Gillette, Antistrophus, 113 
lacteipennis Malloch, Orthocladius, 86 
lacuna Weld. Disholcaspis, 114 
Laevicephalus, 76 

harrisi Ross & Hamilton, 76 

opalinus Ross & Hamilton, 76 

peronatus Ross & Hamilton, 76 

pravus DeLong, 76 
laminatus Yamamoto, Polycentropus. 102 
lamucata Ross & DeLong. Erythroneura. 71 
lanata Gillette. Dryophanta, 114 
lanei Becker, Ctenicera. 79 
langstoni Ross, Megaxyela, 132 
lanlha Webb, Hilarimorpha. 88 
laricata Malloch, Coenosia, 89 
larryi Hepner, Erythroneura, 71 
lasia Ross, Cheumatopsyche, 94 
lasiogaster Timberlake, Perdita, 108 



July 1980 



Webb: Primary InsectTypes 



165 



lasiophthalmusMalloch, Camptocladius, 84 
la&lops Malloch. Camptocladius, 84 
lasiops Malloch. Fannia. 89 
Lasioptera, 82 

muhlcnbergiae Marten. 82 
Lasius, 115 

parvula Smith, 115 
lasteri Hepner, Erythroncura, 71 
lata Prison, Isoperia, 61 
lata MacGillivray, Caliroa. 121 
Latalus, 76 

draculus Ross & Hamilton, 76 
intermedius Ross & Hamilton, 76 
lateralbus MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 
lateralis Banks, Alloperla, 59 
lateralis Ray, Mordellistena. 79 
lateralis Say, Brachycentrus, 92 
Lathrotropis, 81 

caseyi Blaisdell, 81 
laticinctus Franklin, Bombus, 111 
laticornis Malloch, Phaonia, 90 
laticula Ross, Cernotina, 101 
latifrons Malloch, Fannia, 89 
latifrons Malloch, Pogonomyia, 90 
latiscapus Girault, Aenasioidea, 114 
latitarsis Robertson, CoUetes, 112 
latitergum Davis, Rhyacophila, 103 
latosa Ross, Hydroptila, 95 
latosus Ross, Agapetus, 93 
latrum Kissinger, Apion, 78 
laudata MacGillivray, Caliroa, 121 
lauracea Robertson, Andrena, 106 
laurie Ricker, Peltoperla, 60 
lauriphylla Hepner, Erythroncura, 71 
lautus Metcalf, Megamelanus, 76 
Lauxaniidae, 88 
lecontei Wolcott, Priocera, 78 
lectoides Robertson, Epeolus, 108 
ledra Ross, Rhyacophila, 103 
leforsorum Hepner, Erythroneura, 71 
lega Ross, Protoptila, 93 
lentulus Needham, Gomphus. 67 
leonardi Ross, Hydropsyche, 94 
Lepania, 99 

cascada Ross, 99 
Lepidoptera, 105 
Lepidostoma, 97-98 

cantha Ross, 97 

delongi Ross, 97 

hoodi Ross, 97 

jewetti Ross, 97 

knowltoni Ross, 97 

knuUi Ross, 97 

liba Ross, 97 

lotor Ross, 97 

lydia Ross, 97 

Ontario Ross, 98 

ormea Ross, 98 

pleca Ross, 98 

quercina Ross, 98 

rayneri Ross, 98 

rhino Ross, 98 

sommermanae Ross, 98 

strophis Ross, 98 



swannanoa Ross, 98 

veroda Ross, 98 
Lepidostomatidae, 97-98 
Lepismatidae, 56 
Leptocella, 98 

diarina Ross, 98 

spiloma Ross, 98 

tavara Ross, 98 
leptocelloides Webb. Stempellina, 86 
Leptoceridae, 98-99 
Leptocerus, 98 

oligius Ross, 98 

oxapius Ross, 98 

stehri Ross, 98 
lepton Burks, Stenonema, 67 
Leptophlebiidae, 57 
lesticus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
Leucomelina, 89 

deleta Wulp, 89 

minuscula Wulp, 89 
Leucopelmonus, 124 

annulatus MacGillivray, 124 
leucophylla Hepner, Erythroneura, 71 
Leucopis, 84 

americana Malloch, 84 

major Malloch, 84 

minor Malloch, 84 

orbitalis Malloch, 84 

parallela Malloch, 84 

pemphigae Malloch, 84 

piniperda Malloch, 84 
leucostoma Rohwer, Periclista, 127 
Leuctra, 59 

alabama James, 59 

alta James, 59 

claasseni Prison, 59 

cottaquilla James, 69 

crossi James, 59 

forcipata Prison, 59 

grandis Banks, 59 

moha Ricker, 59 

projecta Prison, 59 

rickeri James, 69 
Leucotrichia, 96 

limpia Ross, 96 

notosa Ross, 96 

sarita Ross. 96 
Leuctridae. 69-60 
levecki Hepner. Erythroneura. 71 
lianae Hepner. Erythroneura. 71 
liba Ross. Lepidostoma. 97 
Libellulidae. 67 
Liburnia, 76 

fulvidorsum Metcalf, 76 
ligata pupillata McAtee, Erythroneura. 71 
lillianae Hepner. Erythroneura. 71 
hmata Prison, Brachyptera. 61 
limata Prison, Capnia, 58 
limnella Ross, Helicopsyche, 93 
Limnephilidae, 99 100 
Limnephilus, 99-100 

acnestus Ross, 99 

acula Ross & Merkley, 99 

adapus Ross, 99 



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ademus Ross. 99 

alconura Ross & Merkley, 99 

aldinus Ross. 99 

aretto Ross, 99 

arizona Ross. 99 

castor Ross & Merkley, 99 

cerus Ross & Spencer. 99 

circopa Ross & Merkley. 99 

conerus Ross. 99 

ectus Ross, 100 

fagus Ross, 100 

frijole Ross, 100 

keratus Ross. 100 

labus Ross. 100 

lopho Ross. 100 

lunonus Ross, 100 

merimhus Ross. 100 

nogus Ross. 100 

oreus Milne, 100 

santanus Ross, 100 

sericeus Say. 100 

taloga Ross. 100 

thorus Ross, 100 
Limneria, 117 

canarsiae Ashmead, 117 

elegans Weed. 117 

teratis Weed. 117 
Limnichidae, 79. 133 
Limnichites, 133 

rudis Wooldridge, 133 
Limnoagromyza, 81 

diantherae Malloch. 81 
Limnophila, 92 

imbecilla illinoiensis Alexander, 92 
Limnophora, 89 

clivicola Malloch. 89 

socia Wulp. 89 

tetrachaeia Malloch, 89 
limpia Ross, Leucotrichia. 96 
linda Ricker, Nemoura, 60 
lindieyi Hepner. Erythroneura, 71 
linea Stannard, Periclista. 127 
linearis Malloch, Helina, 89 
lineata MacGillivray, Caliroa, 121 
linipes MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 129 
Linsleya, 79 

compressicornis neglecta Selander. 79 
linsleyi Burdick, Xyela. 132 
lita Burks. Ephemerella, 56 
lita Prison, Taeniopteryx, 62 
Lithocharis, 81 

ardenus Sanderson, 81 
littoralis Malloch. Phyllogaster. 90 
litloralis Malloch, Sapromyza. 88 
liturata MacGillivray. Caliroa. 121 
livida LaBerge. Andrena. 106 
Lixus, 78 

albisetiger Chittenden. 78 

elephantulus Chittenden, 78 
lloganae Blickle. Hydroptila. 95 
lloydi Hepner. Erythroneura. 71 
lobata Prison, Nemoura, 60 
lobata MacGillivray. Caliroa. 121 
lobatus MacGillivray. Aphanisus, 120 



Lobopoda, 77 

bicolor Campbell, 77 

flavifemoralis Campbell. 77 

haitensis Campbell, 77 
Loderus, 124-125 

accuratus MacGillivray. 124 

acerbus MacGillivray. 124 

acidus MacGillivray, 125 

acriculus MacGillivray. 125 

alticinctus MacGillivray. 125 

ancisus MacGillivray, 125 

niger Rohwer, 125 
lodgei Prison, Alloperla. 59 
lodingi Sanderson. Phyllophaga, 80 
logana Ross, Polytrichia. 97 
loisae Hepner. Erythroneura, 71 
Lomachaeta, 118 

punctinota Mickel. 118 
lometa Ross, Polytrichia. 97 
Lonchaea, 88 

aberrans Malloch. 88 

ruficomis Malloch, 88 

vibrissata Malloch, 88 
Lonchaeidae, 88 
lonchera Blickle, Hydroptila. 95 
longiceps Robertson, Halictus. 116 
longifurca Hepner. Erythroneura. 71 
longipalpis Ray, Mordella. 79 
longitarsis Malloch. Euforcipomyia. 83 
lonicera Ricker & Ross, Taeniopteryx, 62 
lopho Ross, Limnephilus, 100 
Lopidea, 62 

chandleri Moore, 62 

wisteriae Moore. 62 
lorata MacGillivray. Caliroa. 121 
loriae Hepner. Erythroneura, 71 
loricata MacGillivray, Caliroa. 121 
loshada Ricker. Allocapnia. 58 
lotor Ross, Lepidostoma. 97 
loveti MacGillivray, Macremphytus. 125 
Loxotrichia, 96 

glasa Ross. 96 
lucidae Ross. Empoasca, 67 
lucifex Ross. Penusa. 124 
lucileae Hepner, Erythronerua. 71 
lucora Hepner. Erythronerua. 71 
luctatus MacGillivray. Dolerus, 122 
luculenta Prison. Evania. 115 
lucyae Hepner. Erythroneura, 71 
lumina Ross. Psychomviella. 103 
lumosa Ross. Oxyethira, 97 
lunata MacGillivray. Caliroa, 121 
lunata McAtee. Erythroneura. 71 
lunatus MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 129 
lunatus concolor Robertson, Epeolus. 108 
lundi Hepner, Erythroneura. 71 
lunonus Ross. Limnephilus. 100 
lupalus Hamilton. Paraphlepsius. 76 
luridis Hottes & Prison. Aphis, 63 
lustrans Beutenmueller, Andricus, 113 
lutea Malloch. Harlomyia. 83 
luteola Malloch. Beckerina. 90 
luteoloides Robertson. Nomada. 110 
lydia Ross. Lepidostoma, 97 



71 



July 1980 

Lygaeidae. 62 
Lygus, 62 

atritibialis Knight, 62 

frisoni Knight, 62 
lyratae Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 
lyratiphylla Hepner, Erythroneura, 71 
lyratus Ross, Carborius, 99 
lyriquera Hepner, Erythroneura, 71 

M 

macgilUvrayi Prison, Chalcidopterella, 115 
Machaerilaemus, 62 

complexus Malcomson, 62 
Machaeris, 116 

illinoensis Robertson, 116 
macnabi Ross. Pristola, 127 
macneilli Hart, Melanoplus, 57 
macoupinensis Robertson, Andrena, 106 
Macremphytus, 125 

bicornis MacGillivray, 125 
lovetti MacGiUivray, 125 
macrocera Wulp, Coenosia, 89 
macroneura Malloch, Johannsenomyia, 83 
Macrophorbia, 82 

houghi Malloch, 82 
Macrophya, 125 

bellula MacGillivray, 125 

bilineata MacGillivray, 125 

confusa MacGillivray, 125 

fascialis puella Ross, 125 

fistula MacGillivray, 125 

flaccida MacGillivray, 125 

flicta MacGillivray, 125 

magnifica MacGillivray, 125 

melanopleura MacGillivray, 125 

minuta MacGillivray, 125 

mixta MacGillivray, 125 

nidonea MacGillivray, 125 

obaerata MacGillivray, 125 

obnata MacGillivray, 125 

obrussa MacGillivray, 125 

oregona dukiae Ross, 125 

omata MacGillivray. 125 

pluricinctella Rohwer, 125 

pulchella alba MacGillivray. 125 

punctata MacGillivray, 125 

trisyllabus sinannula Ross, 125 

truncata Rohwer, 125 

varius festana Ross, 125 

varius nordicola Ross, 125 
Macropis, 118 

morsei Robertson. 118 

steironematis Robertson, 118 
Macrosiphum, 64-65 

anomalae Hottes & Prison. 64 

coryli Davis, 64 

erigeronensis Thomas. 64 

illini Hottes & Prison. 64 

illini crudae Hottes & Prison, 64 

illini sangomonensis Hottes & Prison, 64 

kickapoo Hottes & Prison, 64 

packi Knowlton. 64 
1 pallens Hottes & Prison, 64 



Webb: Primary Insect Types 



167 



ribiellum Davis, 64 

ruralis Hottes & Prison, 64 

sanguinarium Hottes & Prison, 65 

tapuskae Hottes & Prison, 65 

tardae Hottes & Prison, 65 

venaefuscae Davis, 65 

zinzalae Hottes & Prison, 65 
macrosoma Wulp, Charadrella, 89 
Macrosteles, 76 

jussiaeae Moore & Ross, 76 

urticae Moore & Ross, 76 
macrotona Williamson, Somatochlora. 57 
Macroxyela, 132 

bicolor MacGillivray, 132 

bicolor harti Ross, 132 

distincta MacGillivray, 132 

obsoleta MacGillivray, 132 
Macrurocampa, 105 

dorothea Dyar, 105 
Macuellus, 76 

caprillus Ross & Hamilton, 76 

strictus Ross & Hamilton, 76 
maculata MacGillivray, Acorduleccra, 119 
maculata MacGillivray, Euura, 124 
maculipennis bilineata Timberlake, Perdita, 108 
Madiza, 87 

setulosa Malloch, 87 
magnatus MacGillivray, Tenthredo. 129 
magnifica MacGillivray. Macrophya. 125 
magnus Gillette, Synergus, 114 
maidaphidis Garman, Adialytus. 112 
majada Ross. Atopsyche, 103 
major Malloch, Leucopis. 84 
major Malloch, Pseudoculicoides. 84 
major Robertson. Osmia. 118 
makila Ross. Hoplocampa. 124 
malkini Ross, Parula, 99 
malkini Ross, Rhyacophila, 103 
mallochi Alexander, Tipula, 92 
mallochi McAtee, Erythroneura, 71 
mallochi Sublette, Thienemanniella, 87 
Mallophaga, 62 
Mallota, 91 

illinoensis Robertson, 91 
Malthinis, 77 

georgiensis Fender, 77 
Malthodes, 77-78 
frisoni Pender, 77 
sandersoni Pender, 78 
whittakeri Pender, 78 
malverna Ross. AUocapnia. 58 
mamestrae Weed. Microplitis. 112 
mandibularis Robertson. Andrena. 106 
manistee Ross. Rhyacophila. 103 
mantecada Sanderson. Sceloenopla, 78 
manteri Sommerman, Caecilius. 77 
marginata Gillette, Coptercucoila, 113 
marginata Weld, Callirhytis, 113 
marginella Malloch, Hylemyia, 82 
marginellus Malloch. Tanypus. 86 
mariae Robertson. Andrena. 106 
mariae concolor Robertson. Andrena. 106 
mariana Ross. Pontania. 127 
marilandicae Ross, Erythroneura, 71 



168 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32. Art. 2 



Marilia, 100 

nobsca Milne. 100 
marina MacGillivray, Acordulecera. 119 
marina Ricker. Peltoperla. 60 
mariquera Hepner, Erythroneura, 71 
marlo Milne. Agapctus. 93 
martini Hepner. Erythroneura, 71 
martini MacGillivray. Monostegia, 126 
martini MacGillivray. Neopareophora. 126 
maryae Hepner. Erythroneura. 71 
mathesoni MacGillivray, Phlebatrophia. 127 
matilda Robertson. Augochlora, 115 
maura MacGillivray. Acordulecera. 119 
maxima Allen. Ephemerella. 56 
maxima MacGillivray. Acordulecera. 119 
maxima Weld. Callirhytis. 113 
maxwelli Hepner. Erythroneura, 71 
Mayatrichia, 96 

acuna Ross. 96 

ponta Ross. 96 
mazon Ross. Ithytrichia. 96 
mccomasi Hepner. Erythroneura. 72 
meadi Hepner. Erythroneura. 72 
mearnsi deflectus Frison. Bremus. Ill 
meamsi dilutus Frison, Bremus, 111 
Mecoptera. 81 
Medeterus, 88 

caerulescens Malloch. 88 
media MacGillivray. Acordulecera. 119 
mediana Banks. AUoperla. 59 
medicus Ross, Agapetus. 93 
medveda Ricker. AUoperla. 59 
Megachile, 117-118 

floridana Robertson. 117 

rufimanus Robertson, 117 

sexdentata Robertson, 117 

strophostylis Robertson, 118 
Megachilidae. 1171 18 
Megaleuctra, 60 

kincaidi Frison. 60 
megalomis Burks. Chalcis. 112 
Megamelanus, 76 

lautus Metcalf. 76 
Megaxyela, 132 

langstoni Ross. 132 
Megoura, 65 

solani Thomas, 65 
mela Frison. Acroneuria. 60 
melaca Ross. Triaenodes. 99 
melana Burks. Spilochalcis. 112 
melanae Ross. Holocentropus. 102 
Melanochelia, 89 

angulata Malloch, 89 

imitatrix Malloch. 89 
melanopleura MacGillivray, Macrophya, 125 
Melanoplus, 57 

macneilli Hart, 57 

scudderi texensis Hart, 57 
melanopygus washingtonensis Frison. Bremus. Ill 
Melanoxantherium, 65 

antennatum Patch. 65 
Melastola, 133 

ferruginosa Wong. 133 
meico Ross. Neureclipsis. 102 



melcca MacGillivray, Acordulecera, 119 
melia Frison. Capnia. 58 
melia Ross. Hydroptila, 95 
Melissodes, 109-110 

asteris Robertson. 109 

autumnalis Robertson. 109 

boltoniae Robertson. 109 

cnici Robertson. 109 

comptoides Robertson. 109 

coreopsis Robertson, 109 

illinoensis Robertson. 109 

nivea Robertson. 109 

pallida Robertson. 109 

petalostemonis Robertson. 109 

simillima Robertson. 109 

trinodis Robertson. 109 

variabilis Robertson. 110 

vernoniae Robertson, 110 

vernoniana Robertson. 110 
melita Ross. Rhyacophila. 103 
Mehttidae, 118 

mellina MacGillivray. Acordulecera. 119 
Meloidae. 79 
Membracidae, 77 

memorialis Hottes & Frison, Neosymydobius. 65 
Meoneura, 88 

nigrifrons Malloch, 88 
mergata Ross, Empoasca. 67 
meridiana Hepner. Erythroneura. 72 
merinthus Ross. Limnephilus. 100 
merkli Hepner. Erythroneura, 72 
Meromyza, 87 

flavipalpis Malloch, 87 
meromyzae Forbes, Coelinius, 112 
merrickana Kearfott, Hysterosia, 105 
Mesochlora, 57 

unicolor Hart, 57 
Messa, 125 

alsia MacGillivray, 125 

alumna MacGillivray, 125 

amica MacGillivray, 125 

anita MacGillivray, 125 

appota MacGillivray. 125 
messica MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 129 
Mestocharis, 114 

williamsoni Girault. 114 
Metallus, 125 

bethunei MacGillivray. 125 

rohweri MacGillivray, 125 

rubi Forbes, 125 
Metasyrphus, 91 

metcalfi Fluke, 91 
metcalfi Fluke. Metasyrphus. 91 
metequi Ricker & Ross. Taeniopteryx. 62 
metoeca Blickle & Morse. Hydroptila. 96 
metopia Ross. Erythroneura. 72 
Metreturus, 56 

pecatonica Burks. 56 
Metriocnemus, 85 

annuliventris Malloch. 85 

brachyneura Malloch. 85 
metriotes Burks. Stenonema. 57 
mexara Ross & Moore, Empoasca. 67 
mexicensis Franklin. Bombus. Ill 



July 1980 



Webb: Primary Insect Types 



169 



mexico Ross, Xiphocentron, 103 
micheneri Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 
Micrasema, 92 

bactro Ross, 92 

bcnnetti Ross, 92 

burksi Ross & Unzicker. 92 

diteris Ross, 92 

onisca Ross, 92 

ozarkana Ross & Unzicker, 92 

rickeri Ross & Unzicker, 92 

scotti Ross, 92 

sprulesi Ross, 92 

wataga Ross, 92 
Microledrida, 76 

Hava Metcalf, 76 
Microplitis, 112 

hyphantriae Ashmead, 112 

mamestrae Weed, 112 
micropygius Robertson, Triepeolus, 110 
Microterys, 114 

speciosissimus Girault, 114 
middletoni Weld, Callirhytis, 113 
mikii Williston, Hilarimorpha, 88 
milaca Etnier, Polycentropus, 102 
Milichiidae, 88 
millsi Ross. Empoasca, 67 
millsi Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 72 
milnei Ross, Rhyacophila, 103 
mimica Hottes & Prison, Eriosoma, 64 
mimica Ross, Erythroneura, 72 
minetra Cunningham & Ross, Empoasca, 67 
minima MacGillivray. Acordulecera, 119 
minimus Hart, Sphenophorus, 79 
minimus Robertson, Triepeolus, 110 
minor Eorbes, Siphonophora, 66 
minor Gillette, Antistrophus, 113 
minor Malloch, Leucopis, 84 
minor Malloch, Phortica, 88 
minor Robertson, Sphecodes, 117 
minuscula Wulp, Leucomelina, 89 
minusculus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
minuta MacGillivray, Acordulecera, 119 
minuta MacGillivray, Euura. 124 
minuta MacGillivray, Macrophya, 126 
minuta Weed, Pimpla, 117 
Minuticornis, 65 

gravidis Knowlton, 65 
minutissima Malloch, Corimelaena, 62 
minutus MacGillivray, Monophadnus, 126 
Miridae, 62-63 
miscus Ross, Athripsodes, 98 
miscus Ross, Pachynematus, 126 
missouri Ross, Glyphopsyche, 99 
missourii Ricker, Isocapnia, 58 
miteiia McAtee, Erythroneura, 72 
mitlini Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 
mixta MacGillivray, Acordulecera, 119 
mixta MacGillivray, Macrophya, 125 
mixta Ray, Mordellistena, 79 
mockfordi Ricker, Nemoura, 60 
modesta Banks, Peria, 60 
modesta MacGillivray, Acantholyda, 119 
modesta Webb, Hilarimorpha, 88 
modestius MacGillivray, Priophorus, 127 



moenia MacGillivray, Euura, 124 

Mogerus, 125 

emarginatus MacGillivray, 125 

moha Ricker, Leuctra, 59 

mohri Prison, Isoperla, 61 

mohri Knight, Strongylocoris, 63 

mohri Ross & Ricker, Allocapnia, 58 

mohri Ross, Gatlinia, 101 

mohri Ross, Sialis, 77 

Molannidae. 100 

Molannodes, 100 
bergi Ross, 100 

mollala Ross, Cheumatopsyche, 94 

molsonae Blickle, Hydroptila, 96 

Monardia, 82 

illinoensis Felt, 82 

Monardis, 125 
pulla Smith, 125 

monelli Davis, Phymatosiphum, 65 

Monellia, 65 

californicus Essig, 65 
nigropunctata Granovsky, 65 

mono Ross, Polytrichia, 97 

Monoctenus, 114 

juniperinus MacGillivray, 114 

Monophadnoides, 125-126 
circinus MacGillivray, 126 
collaris MacGillivray, 125 
concessus MacGillivray, 125 
conductus MacGillivray, 125 
consobrinus MacGillivray, 125 
consonus MacGillivray, 126 
conspersus MacGillivray, 126 
conspiculata MacGillivray, 126 
conspicuus MacGillivray, 126 
constitutus MacGillivray, 126 
contortus MacGillivray, 126 
coracinus MacGillivray, 126 
cordatus MacGillivray, 126 
corytus MacGillivray, 126 
costalis MacGillivray, 126 
crassus MacGillivray, 126 
curiosus MacGillivray, 126 
kincaidi MacGillivray, 126 
shawi MacGillivray, 126 

Monophadnus, 126 

aequalis MacGillivray, 126 
aeratus MacGillivray, 126 
assaracus MacGillivray. 126 
atracornus MacGillivray. 126 
bipunctatus MacGillivray, 126 
distinctus MacGillivray, 126 
minutus MacGillivray, 126 
planus MacGillivray, 126 
plicatus MacGillivray, 126 
ruscullus MacGillivray, 126 
transversus MacGillivray, 126 

monsericeus MacGillivray, Dolerus. 122 

Monostegia, 126 

kincaidii MacGillivray. 126 
martini MacGillivray. 126 

montana Ross, Glossosoma, 93 

moramus Ross, Dolerus, 122 

moratus MacGillivray, Priophorus, 127 



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Mordella, 79 

longipalpis Ray, 79 
Mordcllidae, 79 
Mordellistena, 79 

bifasciata Ray, 79 

lateralis Ray, 79 

mixta Ray, 79 
Mordwilkoja, 65 

vagabunda Walsh, 65 
morelandi Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 
mormonorum Franklin, Bombus, 111 
morrisi Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 
morsei MacGillivray, Dimorphopteryx, 121 
morsei Robertson, Macropis, 118 
muhlenbergiae Marten, Lasioptera, 82 
multilineata punicea Girault, 

Zagrammosoma, 115 
multipunctatus Malloch, Culicoides, 83 
multispinosa Schmid, Tinodes, 103 
munda MacGillivray, Acordulecera, 119 
munditus MacGillivray, Priophorus. 127 
mundulus Sanderson, Xenochalepus, 78 
muricatus, MacGillivray, Aphanisius, 120 
Muscidae, 88-90 
Muscidifurax, 119 

raptor Girault & Sanders. 119 
Muscina, 89 

tripunctata Wulp, 89 
musta MacGillivray. Acordulecera, 119 
Mutillidae, 118 
Mycetophilidae, 90 
mycta Ross, Rhyacophila, 103 
Mydaea, 89-90 

armata Malloch, 89 

brevipilosa Malloch, 89 

concinna Wulp, 90 

discimana Malloch, 90 

neglecta Malloch, 90 

obsura Wulp, 90 

persimilis Malloch, 90 
Mymaridae. 118 119 
Myndus, 76 

truncatus Metcalf, 76 
Myrmosa, 131 

nocturna rufigastra Krombein, 131 
Myrsidea, 62 

bonariensis Malcomson, 62 
myrsum Burks, Pseudocloeon. 56 
Mystacides, 98 

sandersoni Yamamoto & Ross. 98 
mystica Evans, Phymata, 63 
mystica Prison, Allocapnia, 58 
mystica Prison, Evania, 115 
Myzocallis, 65 

hyperici Thomas. 65 
Myzus, 65 

aquilegiae Essig, 65 

thomasi Hottes & Prison, 65 



N 



Nabidae, 63 
Nabis, 63 

elongatus Hart. 63 
nalata Prison, Hydroperla. 61 



nalcma Ross. Hoplocampa. 124 
namata Prison. Isoperla, 61 
namatus Burks. Iron. 57 
nanina Banks. Allopcrla. 59 
napaeus MacGillivray, Dolerus. 122 
naranga Stannard. Periclista. 127 
narfi Ricker & Ross. Zealeuctra. 60 
narratus MacGillivray. Dolerus. 122 
nascotius Ross, Polycentropus. 102 
nasoni Malloch. Aphiochaeta, 90 
nasoni Malloch, Helina, 89 
nasonii Robertson, Andrena, 106 
nasutus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
natchczensis Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 
nativus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
naulum Kissinger, Apion, 78 
nauticus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
navoides Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 
nearctica Ross, Xyelecia, 132 
nebekeri Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 
nebulosa Hottes & Prison, Amphorophora, 63 
nebulosa Malloch. Paipomvia. 83 
necessarius MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
necosericeus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
nectareus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
necyla Davidson & DeLong. Empoasca. 67 
neeli Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 
nefastus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
neglecta Prison, Alloperla, 59 
neglecta Prison, Hyptia. 115 
neglecta Malloch, Mydaea, 90 
neglectus Hottes & Prison, Chaitophorus, 64 
negotiosus MacGillivrary, Dolerus. 122 
negundinis Thomas. Chaitophorus, 64 
neiswanderi Ross, Polycentropus, 102 
nelumbonis Robertson, Prosopis, 113 
Nematus, 126 

robiniae Forbes. 126 
Nemobius, 57 

funeralis Hart, 57 
Nemognatha, 79 

selloa Selander, 79 
nemorosus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
Nemotelus, 91 

bellulus Melander, 91 

bruesii Melander, 91 

trinotatus Melander, 91 

wheeleri Melander, 91 
Nemoura, 60 

besametsa Ricker. 60 

chila Ricker, 60 

decepta Prison, 60 

delosa Ricker. 60 

dimicki Prison, 60 

foersteri Ricker, 60 

haysi Ricker. 60 

linda Ricker. 60 

lobata Prison, 60 

mockfofdi Ricker, 60 

obscura Prison. 60 

perplexa Prison. 60 

pseudoproducta Prison. 60 

rossi Ricker, 60 

stylata Banks, 60 



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171 



tina Ricker, 60 

tuberculata Prison, 60 

tumana Ricker, 60 

varshava Ricker, 60 

weberi Ricker, 60 
Nemouridae, 60 

neoagcistus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
neoaprilis MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
Neocharactus, 126 

bakeri MacGillivray, 126 
Neochirosia, 82 

setiger Malloch. 82 
neocollaris MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
Neodiprion, 114 

warreni Ross, 114 

wemcri Ross. 114 
neoflavellus Malloch, Tanytarsus, 87 
Neogaurax, 87 

fumipennis Malloch, 87 
Neoheterocerus, 79 

pallidus Say, 79 

sandersoni Pacheco, 79 
Neohylemyia, 82 

proboscidalis Malloch, 82 
Neoleucopis, 84 

pinicola Malloch, 84 
Neolygus, 62 

geminus Knight, 62 
neomexicana Hulst, Hydriomena, 105 
neomodestus Malloch, Chironomus, 86 
Neopanorpa, 81 

byersi Webb & Penny, 81 
Neopareophora, 126 

martini MacGillivray, 126 

scelesta MacGillivray, 126 
Neophylax, 100 

aniqua Ross, 100 

atlanta Ross, 100 

ayanus Ross, 100 

oligius Ross, 100 

rickeri Milne, 100 

stolus Ross, 100 
neopunctipennis Sublette, Tanypus, 86 
neosericeus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
neoslossoni MacGillivray, Tenthredo. 129 
neostugnus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
Neosymydobius, 65 



memorialis Hottes & Prison, 
Neothremma, 100 

didactyla Ross, 100 
Neotiphia, 131 

acuta Malloch, 131 
Neotomostethus, 126 

hyalinus MacGillivray, 126 
Neotrichia, 96 

edalis Ross, 96 

elerobi Blickle, 96 

falca Ross, 96 

kitae Ross, 96 

numii Ross, 96 

okopa Ross. 96 

osmena Ross, 96 

riegeli Ross, 96 

sonora Ross, 96 



65 



vibrans Ross, 96 
Neotrichogramma, 132 

acutiventre Girault, 132 

neotropicus Prison, Bremus, 111 

nephrelepidis Davis, Idiopterus. 64 

Nephrotoma, 92 

sphagnicola Alexander. 92 

nephus Ross, Athripsodes, 98 

nepotulus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 

nervosus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 

nescius MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 

nesium Kissinger, Apion, 78 

Neureclipsis, 102 
melco Ross, 102 

Neuroptera, 77 

Neuroterus, 114 

exiguissimus Bassett, 114 

nevadensis aztecus Cockerell, Bombus, 111 

newtonensis Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 

nicaeus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 

nicarete McAtee, Typhlocyba, 75 

nicoli Ross, Hydroptila, 96 

nidonea MacGillivray, Macrophya, 125 

nidulus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 

nielsoni Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 

niger Ashmead, Clinocentrus, 112 

niger Rohwer, Loderus, 125 

niger signatus Prison, Bremus, 111 

nigra Woodworth, Gypona, 77 

nigrae Robertson. Andrena, 107 

nigrellus DeLong & Mohr, Scaphoideus, 76 

nigrellus Girault, Anaphes, 118 

nigribasis Malloch, Helina, 89 

nigricoxi MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 129 

nigrifascia MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 129 

nigrifrons Forbes. Cicadula, 75 

nigrifrons Malloch, Meoneura, 88 

nigrimana Malloch, Chyromya. 87 

nigriphylla Hepner. Erythroneura. 72 

nigriquera Hepner. Erythroneura. 72 

nigrisquama Malloch. Agromyza, 81 

nigrita Malloch. Helina, 89 

nigritibiales MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 

nigritus MacGillivray, Aphanisus, 120 

nigrohalteralis Malloch. Chironomus. 85 

nigrolineata Jewett, Anacroneuria, 60 

nigropunctata Granovsky, Monellia, 65 

nigrovittatus Malloch. Chironomus. 85 

nimbilis Hoppe. Allopcrla. 59 

nimbosus MacGillivray. Dolerus. 122 

nitidellus Malloch. Orthocladius, 86 

nitidus Malloch. Orthocladius, 86 

nivatus MacGillivray. Dolerus. 122 

nivea Robertson. Melissodes. 109 

nobsca Milne. Marilia. 100 

nocivus MacGillivray. Dolerus. 122 

Noctuidae, 105 

nocturna Ross. Oecetis. 98 

nocturna rufigastra Krombein. Myrmosa. 131 

nocuus MacGillivray. Dolerus. 122 

nodosa Cunningham & Ross, Empoasca, 67 

noevoides Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 72 

nogus Ross, Limnephilus, 100 



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Nomada, 110 

cressonii Robertson, 110 
denticulata Robertson, 110 
erigeronis Robertson. 110 
illinoiscnsis Robertson, 110 
Integra Robertson ,110 
luteoloides Robertson, 110 
parva Robertson, 110 
salicis Robertson, 110 
sayi Robertson, 110 
simplex Robertson, 110 
viburni Robertson, 110 
nomada Ross, Psychomyiella, 103 
nominatus MacGillivray. Dolerus, 122 
norcuta Ross, Rhyacophila, 104 
nordica Ross, Empria, 124 
norica Ross, Erythroneura, 72 
normalis Malloch, Hylemyia, 82 
normanti Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 
nortoni Ross, Dolerus. 122 
nortonia MacGillivray, Caliroa, 121 
nortonii MacGillivray, Tomostethus. 131 
nothoscordi Robertson. Andrena, 107 
Notidobia, 104 

pele Ross. 104 
Notodontidae, 105 
Notoglossa, 120 

americana Robertson, 120 
inornata Robertson, 120 
notosa Ross, Leucotrichia, 96 
novaeangliae Robertson, Panurgus, 108 
novasota Ross, Oxyethira. 97 
novellus MacGillivray. Dolerus. 122 
novicius MacGillivray. Dolerus. 122 
novicola Blickle & Morse, Hydroptila. 96 
novus MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 129 
nox Ross. Triaenodes. 99 
nubilifera Malloch. Sapromyza. 88 
nubilipennis Girault. Anagyrus, 114 
nubilipes Say. Scenopinus. 91 
nuda Robertson. Andrena. 107 
nudus Robertson. Colletes. 112 
nugatorius MacGillivray. Dolerus. 122 
numerosus MacGillivray. Dolerus. 122 
numerosus Say, Brachycentrus. 92 
numii Ross. Neotrichia. 96 
nummarius MacGillivray. Dolerus. 122 
nummatus MacGillivray. Dolerus, 122 
nundinus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 122 
nuntius MacGillivray, Dolerus, 123 
nutricius MacGillivray, Dolerus, 123 
nyctalis Hottes & Prison. Aphis. 63 
nyctelius MacGillivray. Dolerus. 123 
Nyctiophylas, 102 
uncus Ross. 102 



obaerata MacGillivray. Macrophya. 125 
obanata MacGillivray. Macrophya, 125 
obliquatus MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 
obrussa MacGillivray, Macrophya. 125 
obscura Prison. Nemoura. 60 
obscura Malloch. Probezzia. 84 
obscura Robertson. Trachandrena, 108 



obscura Wulp. Mydaea. 90 

obscuratus MacGillivray. Paracharactus. 127 

obscuratus Malloch. Chironomus. 85 

obscurus Robertson. Halictus. 116 

obsenus DeLong, Chlorotettix, 75 

obseptus Webb, Orthocladius, 86 

obsitus MacGillivray, Aphanisus, 120 

obsoleta MacGillivray, Macroxyela, 132 

obtentus MacGillivray, Paracharactus, 127 

obtusa Malloch, Chloropisca. 87 

obversus MacGillivray. Paracharactus. 127 

occidens Prison. AUoperla, 59 

occidentalis Hart, Forda, 64 

occidentalis MacGillivray, Cockerellonis. 121 

occidentalis Malloch, Clusia, 87 

occidentalis Malloch. Hylemyia, 82 

occidentalis Rohwer, Perclista. 127 

occideus Ross, Dolophilus. 101 

occidua Ross. Empoasca. 67 

occiduus MacGillivray. Aphanisus. 120 

ochris Burks. Baetis. 56 

Ochrotrichia, 96 

capitana Ross. 96 

felipe Ross. 96 

phenosa Ross. 96 

riesi Ross, 96 

trapoiza Ross, 96 

weddleae Ross. 96 

wojcickyi Blickle. 96 
oculata McAtee. Erythroneura. 72 
oculeus Robertson. Odynerus. 132 
odettae Hepner. Erythroneura. 72 
Odonata. 57 
Odontoceridae. 100 
Odontomyia, 91 

snowi Hart. 91 
odoratus MacGillivray. Aphanisus, 120 
Odynerus, 132 

apopkensis Robertson, 132 

australis Robertson, 132 

bicornis Robertson, 132 

bifurcus Robertson, 132 

clypeatus Robertson, 132 

floridanus Robertson, 132 

fundatiformis Robertson, 132 

histrionalis Robertson. 132 

illinoensis Robertson. 132 

oculeus Robertson, 132 

zendaloides Robertson, 132 
Oecanthus, 57 

forbesi Titus, 57 
Oecetis, 98 

daytona Ross, 98 

ditissa Ross, 98 

eddlestoni Ross, 98 

georgia Ross, 98 

noctuma Ross. 98 

porteri Ross. 98 

sphyra Ross. 98 
Oecleus, 76 

productus Metcalf, 76 
oestlundii Knowlton, Capitophorus, 64 
offensus MacGillivray, Parcharactus. 127 



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173 



Ogcodes, 81 

porteri Schlinger. 81 
Ohio Ross. Ccrnotina, 101 
ohioensis Ross & Ricker, Allocapnia, 58 
Oidaematophorus, 105 

glenni Cashatt, 105 
Oklahoma Ross, Ccrnotina, 102 
okopa Ross, Neotrichia, 96 

olanchitus Becker & Sanderson, Scalenarthrus, 80 
Oliarus, 76 

texanus Metcalf, 76 

vittatus Metcalf, 76 
oligius Ross, Leptocerus, 98 
oligius Ross, Neophylax, 100 
Oligophlebodes, 100 

ardis Ross. 100 

ruthae Ross, 100 

sierra Ross, 100 
Oligoplectrum, 92 

echo Ross, 92 
Oligosita, 132 

americana Ashmead, 132 
Oligotropus, 118 

campanulae Robertson, 118 
olivatipes MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 
onekama MacGilhvray, Caenolyda, 119 
onerosa MacGillivray, Hylotoma, 110 
onisca Ross, Micrasema, 92 
Ontario Ross, Lepidostoma, 98 
Onychylis, 78 

secundus Burke, 78 
Oophthora, 132 

semblidis Aurivillius, 132 
opacithorax Malloch, Heteromyia, 83 
opalinus Ross & Hamilton, Laevicephalus, 76 
ophiodera Ross & Cunningham, Empoasca, 67 
ophioderus Ross, Athripsodes, 98 
ophionis Ross, Agapetus. 93 
ophrys Ross, Rhyacophila, 104 
oquaka DeLong, Graminella, 75 
ora Burks, Ephemerella, 56 
orata Prison, Isoperla, 61 
orbitalis Malloch, Leucopis, 84 
oregona prison, Capnia, 58 
oregona Ross, Polytrichia, 97 
oregona dukiae Ross, Macrophya, 125 
oregonensis Prison, Alloperla, 59 
oreia Ross, Rhyacophila, 104 
oreta Ross. Rhyacophila, 104 
oreus Milne, Limnephilus. 100 
ormea Ross. Lepidostoma. 98 
ormiae Ross. Glyphopsyche, 99 
Ormosia, 92 

frisoni Alexander. 92 
omata MacGillivray, Macrophya. 125 
ornigis Weed. Apanteles. 112 
orobenae Forbes. Apanteles. 112 
Orocastus, 76 

pinnipenis Ross & Hamilton, 76 
oron Ross, Philocasca, 100 
oronis MacGillivray, Dimorphopteryx, 121 
oronoensis Metcalf, Syrphus, 91 
Oropsyche, 95 

howellae Ross, 95 



orpha Prison. Chloroperla, 59 
orris Ross, Hydropsyche, 95 
Ortbachaeta, 82 

dissimilis Malloch. 82 
Orthocladius, 86 

albidohalteralis Malloch. 86 

bifasciatus Malloch. 86 

brevinervis Malloch, 86 

distinctus Malloch, 86 

distinctus basalaris Malloch, 86 

distinctus bicolor Malloch, 86 

flavoscutellatus Malloch, 86 

infuscatus Malloch, 86 

lacteipennis Malloch, 86 

nitidellus Malloch, 86 

nitidus Malloch, 86 

obseptus Webb, 86 

pilipes Malloch, 86 

pleuralis Malloch, 86 

striatus Malloch, 86 

subparallelus Malloch, 86 
orthodens Davidson & DeLong, Empoasca, 67 
Orthoptera, 57 
Orthotrichia, 96-97 

baldufi Kingsolver & Ross, 96 

curta Kingsolver & Ross, 97 

dentata Kingsolver & Ross, 97 
Orthotylus, 62 

rossi Knight, 62 

taxodii Knight, 62 
osagensis Ross, Dolerus, 123 
Oscinoides, 87 

arpidia Malloch, 87 

arpidia atra Malloch, 87 

arpidia elegans Malloch, 87 

arpidia humeralis Malloch, 87 
oskina Ross, Hoplocampa, 124 
osmena Ross, Neotrichia. 96 
Osmia, 118 

collinsiae Robertson. 118 

conjunctoides Robertson, 118 

cordata Robertson. 118 

illinoensis Robertson. 118 

major Robertson. 118 
Ouiannilssonia, 74 

rossi Christian. 74 
ostansa Webb. Paralauterbomiella, 86 
ostiaria MacGillivray. Pristiphora, 127 
ostra Ricker. Strophopteryx. 62 
ostryae Hepner. Erythroneura. 72 
Otiocerus, 76 

wolfii nubilus McAtee. 76 
ovalis Ross. Chimarra. 101 
ovalis Ross. Empoasca. 67 
ovatus Robertson, Gnathias, 109 
ovatus binotatus Robertson, Gnathias, 109 
ovatus octomaculatus Robertson, Gnathias. 109 
ovatus plenus Robertson, Gnathias, 109 
ovatus quadrimaculatus Robertson, Gnathias. 109 
ovatus sexmaculatus Robertson, Gnathias, 109 
ovatus unicolor Robertson, Gnathias, 109 
oxa Ross, Cheumatopsyche, 94 
oxalata MacGillivray, Pseudoselandria, 128 
oxapius Ross, Leptocerus, 98 



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Oxybelus, 120 

floridanus Robertson, 120 
Oxycera, 91 

albovittata Malloch. 91 

aldrichi Malloch. 91 

approximata Malloch, 91 
Oxyethira, 97 

aculea Ross. 97 

aeola Ross, 97 

allagashensis Blickle, 97 

anobola Blickle, 97 

araya Ross, 97 

arizona Ross, 97 

lumosa Ross, 97 

novasota Ross, 97 

rivicola Blickle & Morse, 97 

rossi Blickle & Morse, 97 

serrata Ross, 97 

sida Blickle & Morse, 97 

sodalis Ross & Spencer, 97 

verna Ross. 97 

zeronia Ross, 97 
ozarkana Ross, Allocapnia, 58 
ozarkana Ross & Unzicker, Micrasema. 92 
ozarkensis Sanderson & Miller, Rhadine, 78 
ozbumi Milne, Arctoecia, 99 



pacatus MacGillivray, Trichiocampus. 131 
Pachynematus, 126-127 

absyrtus MacGillivray, 126 

academus MacGillivray, 126 

allegatus MacGillivray, 126 

corticosus MacGillivray, 126 

falonus Ross. 126 

jamesi Ross, 126 

miscus Ross. 126 

painteri Ross. 126 

rarus MacGillivray, 126 

refractarius MacGillivray, 126 

remissus MacGillivray, 126 

repertus MacGillivray. 126 

roscidus MacGillivray, 126 

rufocinctus MacGillivray, 127 

setator Ross, 127 

smithac Ross, 127 

sporax Ross, 127 

uvator Ross, 127 
pacificus MacGillivray, Simplemphytus, 128 
pacificus MacGillivray, Strongylogaster. 128 
packi Knowlton, Macrosiphum, 64 
padusa MacGillivray, Hoplocampa, 124 
Paederus, 81 

zayasi Sanderson, 81 
paetulus MacGillivray, Trichiocampus. 131 
pagodifoliae Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 
paigeac Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 
painteri Ross, Pachynematus, 126 
pakansus Hottes & Prison, Capitophorus, 64 
pahna Ross, Protoptila, 93 
Pallachira, 105 

hartii French, 105 
pallens Hottes & Prison, Macrosiphum, 64 
pallicola MacGiMivray, Tenthredo, 129 



pallida Malloch, Probezzia. 84 
pallida Robertson, Melissodes, 109 
pallidifemur Malloch, Xylomyia. 92 
pallidipes Malloch, Gaurax. 87 
pallidiventris Malloch, Aphiochaeta. 90 
pallidiventris Malloch. Hartomyia, 83 
pallidula McAtee, Calophya. 77 
pallidula McDunnough, Baetis. 56 
pallidus Say, Neoheterocerus, 79 
palliolatus MacGillivray, Trichiocampus, 131 
pallipectis MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 
pallipes Porbes, Pteromalus, 119 
pallipes MacGillivray, Hoplocampa, 124 
pallipunctus MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 
palmata Ross, Stactobia, 97 
paloma Wong & Ross, Pristiphora. 133 
palpalis Robertson, Zodion, 88 
Palpomyia, 83 

illinoensis Malloch, 83 
nebulosa Malloch, 83 
paluloides Ross, Erythroneura, 72 
pamelae Hepner. Erythroneura, 72 
Pamphilidae, 119 
Pamphilius, 119 

dentatus MacGillivray. 119 
fortuitus MacGillivray, 119 
persicum MacGillivray, 119 
transversa MacGillivray, 119 
unalatus MacGillivray. 119 
panicola Thomas. Schizoneura, 65 
panisca Ross & Moore. Empoasca. 67 
Panorpa, 81 

setifera Webb, 81 
sigmoides Carpenter, 81 
Panorpidae, 81 
Panurginus, 108 

labrosiformis Robertson, 108 
Panurgus, 108 

autumnalis Robertson. 108 
novaeangliae Robertson, 108 
paolis Burks, Dirhinus. 112 
Parabates, 127 

histrionicus MacGillivray, 127 
Parabezzia, 83 

petiolata Malloch. 83 
Paracharactus, 127 

obscuratus MacGillivray, 127 
obtentus MacGillivray. 127 
obversus MacGillivray, 127 
offensus MacGillivray, 127 
Paragapetus, 93 
celsus Ross, 93 
Paragnetina, 60 

fattigi Ricker, 60 
Paralauterborniella, 86 

ostansa Webb, 86 
Paraleptophlebia, 57 

sticta Burks. 57 
Paralictus, 116 

simplex Robertson. 116 
parallela Prison, Hydroperia, 61 
parallela Malloch, Leucopis. 84 
parallelus MacGillivray, Aphanisus. 120 
paramera Hepner. Erythroneura. 72 



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175 



Parandrena, 108 

andrcnoides bicolor Robertson, 108 

welleslcyana Robertson. 108 
parantra Ross. Rhyacophila. 104 
Paraphlepsius, 76 

brunneus ravus Hamilton. 76 

lupalus Hamilton. 76 

umbellatus Hamilton, 76 
Parapsyche, 95 

almota Ross, 95 

cardis Ross. 95 

elsis Milne. 95 
parasericeus MacGillivray. Dolerus, 123 
Pareophora, 127 

aldrichi MacGillivray. 127 

guana MacGillivray. 127 

guara MacGillivray. 127 
parisensis Hepner. Erythroneura, 72 
parishi Prison. Brachygaster. 115 
parked Malloch, Eremomyioides. 81 
parkeri Sanderson. Cylloepus, 79 
parki Becker & Sanderson. Reichenbachia. 80 
parki Wagner. Pycnoplectus. 80 
parrotti Hepner. Erythroneura. 72 
parsoni Hepner. Erythroneura. 72 
Parthenicus, 62 

taxodii Knight. 62 
parva Robertson, Nomada, 110 
parva Sanderson. Stenelmis. 79 
parviceps Malloch. Chloropisca. 87 
parvidens hysteropyga Davis. Phyllophaga, 80 
parvilamellatus Malloch, Chironomus. 85 
parvula Smith. Lasius. 115 
parvula Wulp. Spilogaster. 90 
parvus Robertson. Calliopsis. 108 
pasella Ross. Cheumatopsyche. 94 
passiflorae Robertson, Anthemurgus, 107 
patagiatus Thew, Ulmeritus, 57 
patchi MacGillivray, Perclista, 127 
patchiae MacGillivray. Trichiocampus. 131 
patei Hepner. Erythroneura. 72 
patoka Burks. Heptagenia. 57 
patonkus Hottes & Prison. Capitophorus. 64 
patosa Ross. Chimarra. 101 
patricia Prison. Isoperla. 61 
patriciae Hepner. Erythroneura. 72 
patricki Hepner, Erythroneura. 72 
patris Ross & DeLong. Erythroneura, 72 
paulae Hepner, Erythroneura. 72 
Paulianodes, 101 

tsaratanae Ross. 101 
pauperculus Fender. Trypherus. 78 
pearliae Davis. Phyllophaga. 80 
pecanae Hepner. Erythroneura. 72 
pecatonica Burks. Metreturus. 56 
pechumani Ross & Ricker. Allocapnia. 58 
pecos Ross. Hydroptila. 96 
pectinatus Robertson. Halictus. 116 
pectoralis Robertson. Epeolus, 109 
Pedomoecus, 100 
sierra Ross, 100 
Pegomyia, 82 

emmesia Malloch, 82 
labradorensis Malloch, 82 



quadrispinosa Malloch, 82 

spinigerellus Malloch, 82 

subgrisea Malloch, 82 
pele Ross, Notidobia, 104 
pellisa Ross, Rhyacophila, 104 
peltoides Ross & Ricker, Allocapnia, 58 
Pehoperla, 60 

laurie Ricker, 60 

mariana Ricker, 60 

zipha Prison, 60 
Peltoperlidae, 60 

pemphigae Malloch. Leucopis. 84 
Pemphigus, 65 

ephemeratus Hottes & Prison, 65 

fraxinifolii Thomas, 65 

rubi Thomas, 65 

tartareus Hottes & Prison, 65 
penetura Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 
Pentatomidae, 63 
pentus Ross, Polycentropus, 102 
pepii Ross, Pontania, 127 
perda Ross, Rhyacophila, 104 
Perdita, 108 

fratema Timberlake, 108 

gerhardi arenicola Timberlake, 108 

lasiogaster Timberlake, 108 

maculipennis bilineata Timberlake, 108 
Perditella, 108 

boltoniae Robertson, 108 
perezi Robertson, Andrena, 107 
pergandei concolor Malloch, Porcipomyia, 83 
Pergandeidia, 65 

comi Tissot, 65 
Pergidae, 119 
Periclista, 127 

confusa MacGillivray. 127 

electa MacGillivray. 127 

entella MacGillivray. 127 

leucostoma Rohwer. 127 

linea Stannard. 127 

naranga Stannard, 127 

occidentalis Rohwer, 127 

patchi MacGillivray. 127 

sulfurana Stannard. 127 
peridcus Burks. Dirhinus. 112 
peridius Burks. Tricorythodes. 56 
perigua Ross, Chimarra. 101 
Perineura, 127 

kincaidia MacGillivray. 127 
Periscelididae. 90 
Perla. 60 

modesta Banks. 60 

subvarians Banks. 60 

trictura Hoppe. 60 

yakimae Hoppe. 60 
Perlidae. 60 
Perlodidae. 61 
Perlomyia, 60 

sobrina Prison. 60 

solitaria Prison. 60 
perlonga Davis. Phyllophaga. 80 
perna Ross. Triaenodes. 99 
pernotata Malloch. Sapromyza. 88 
peronatus Ross & Hamilton. Laevicephalus. 76 



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perplana Ross & Spencer, Rhyacophila. 104 
perplexa Prison. Acroneuria. 60 
perplexa Prison, Nemoura. 60 
perplexa Ross & Ricker, Allocapnia, 58 
perplexus MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 
persicum MacGillivray, Pamphilius, 119 
persimilis Malloch, Mydaea, 90 
personata Robertson. Andrena, 107 
perspicuipennis Girault. Prospaltella, 114 
peruviana Prison, Brachygaster, 115 
peruviana Ross, Protarrha, 101 
petalostemonis Robertson, Melissodes, 109 
petaluma Ross, Pmpoasca, 67 
petersoni Malloch. Anarostomoides, 88 
petiolaridis Ross. Empoasca. 67 
petiolata Malloch, Parabezzia, 83 
pfrimmeri Hepner, Erythroneura, 72 
phalacris Ross, Triaenodes, 99 
Phaloniidae, 105 
Phanurus, 120 

tabanivorus Ashmead, 120 
Phaonia, 90 

basiseta Malloch, 90 

brevispina Malloch, 90 

harti Malloch, 90 

laticomis Malloch, 90 

subfusca Malloch, 90 

texensis Malloch, 90 
phelliphylla Hepner, Erythroneura, 73 
phellos Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 73 
phenosa Ross, Ochrotrichia, 96 
philadelphi Robertson. Heriades, 117 
Phileremus, 110 

illinoiensis Robertson, 110 
philo Ross, Hydropsyche, 95 
Philocasca, 100 

demita Ross, 100 

oron Ross, 100 
Philopotamidae, 100 101 
Philopotamus, 101 

dorcus Ross, 101 
Philopterus, 62 

cristata Maicomson, 62 
Phlebatrophia, 127 

mathesoni MacGillivray, 127 
Phorantha, 91 

humeralis Robertson, 91 

pruinosa Robertson, 91 
Phorbia, 82, 90 

fuscisquama Wulp, 90 

prisca Wulp, 82 
Phoridae, 90 
Phortica, 88 

minor Malloch, 88 
Phorticoides, 90 

flinti Malloch, 90 
phoxopteridis Weed, Glypta, 117 
Phrontosoma, 127 

atrum MacGillivray, 127 

collaris MacGillivray, 127 

daeckei MacGillivray, 127 
phryganea Ross, Rhyacophila, 104 
Phryganeidae, 101 
phryne McAtec, Typhlocyba, 75 
phyllis Burks, Baetis. 56 



Phyllogaster, 90 

littoralis Malloch, 90 
Phyllophaga, 80 

blanda Sanderson, 80 

epulara Sanderson, 80 

falta Sanderson, 80 

foxii Davis, 80 

fratema mississippiensis Davis, 80 

hirticula comosa Davis, 80 

impar Davis, 80 

joncsi Sanderson, 80 

lodingi Sanderson, 80 

parvidens hysteropyga Davis, 80 

pearliae Davis, 80 

perlonga Davis, 80 

saylori Sanderson, 80 

soror Davis, 80 

sylvatica Sanderson, 80 
Phylocentropus, 102 

rabilis Milne. 102 
Phymata, 63 

mystica Evans, 63 
Phymatidae, 63 
Phymatosiphum, 65 

monelli Davis, 65 
Physemus, 79 

excavatus Wooldridge, 79 
Phytocoris, 62 

arundinicola Knight, 62 
piatrix Ross, Hydropsyche. 95 
picana Ross, Polycentropus, 102 
piceus Sanders, Aspidiotus, 75 
pictus Malloch, Apocephalus, 90 
pietersi Hepner. Erythroneura, 73 
pilata Prison, Diploperia, 61 
pileata Jewett, Capnia, 58 
pilipes Malloch, Orthocladius, 86 
pilitarsis Malloch, Hydrophorus. 88 
Pilophorus, 62 

taxodii Knight, 62 
piloseta Malloch. Hylemyia, 82 
pilosus Leonard, Chrysopilus, 91 
pimpinellae Robertson, Sphecodes, 117 
Pimpla, 117 

minuta Weed, 117 
pinaca Ross, Cheumatopsyche, 94 
pinatus Ross, Agapetus, 93 
pinicola Malloch, Neoleucopis, 84 
pinicola Thomas, Schizoneura. 65 
piniperda Malloch, Leucopis. 84 
pinnipenis Ross. Orocastus, 76 
pinta Prison, Isoperla, 61 
pintada Ricker, Alloperla, 59 
piroa Ross, Helicopsyche, 93 
piscator McAtee, Typhlocyba, 75 
pisiformis Beutenmueller, Andricus, 113 
Pissonotus, 76 

fulvus Metcalf, 76 
pitrei Hepner, Erythroneura, 73 
piva Roback, Sarcophaga, 91 
pixi Ross, Polycentropus, 102 
placoda Ross, Hydropsyche, 95 
Plagiognathus, 62 

syrticolae Knight, 62 



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177 



planae Ross, Wormaldia, 101 
planata Ross, Helicopsyche, 93 
planus MacGillivray, Monophadnus, 126 
platani Knight, Reuteria, 63 
Platycampus, 127 

vierecki MacGillivray, 127 
Platycentropus, 100 

plectrus Ross, 100 

radiatus Say, 100 
Platycheirus, 91 

scamboides Curran, 91 
Platygaster, 119 

hiemalis Forbes, 119 
Platygasteridae, 119 
platyparia Robertson, Andrena, 107 
platyparius Robertson, Halictus, 116 
Platyphora, 90 

flavofemorata Malloch, 90 
plebeia Malloch, Aphiochaeta. 90 
pleca Ross, Lepidostoma, 98 
Plecoptera, 57-62 
Plectrocnemia, 102 

clinei Milne, 102 
Plectropsyche, 95 

hoogstraali Ross, 95 
plectrus Ross, Platycentropus, 100 
Plemyria, 105 

georgii Hulst, 105 
Pleroneura, 132 

aldrichi Ross, 132 
piesius MacGillivray, Dolerus, 123 
pleuralis Malloch, Agromyza, 81 
pleuralis Malloch, Dasyopa, 87 
pleuralis Malloch, Orthocladius, 86 
pleuralis clarus Prison, Bremus, 111 
plicatus MacGillivray, Monophadnus, 126 
Plocamaphis, 65 

terricola Hottes & Prison, 65 
Plunomia, 84 

elegans Curran, 84 
pluricinctella Rohwer. Macrophya, 125 
plutella Girault. Aphelinoidea, 132 
pluvialis Malloch, Hylemyia, 82 
Poanes, 105 

viator Edwards. 105 
Poecilostoma, 127 

convexa MacGillivray, 127 
Pogonomyia, 90 

aldrichi Malloch, 90 

aterrima Wulp, 90 

flavinervis Malloch, 90 

latifrons Malloch, 90 
polemistis Ross & Ricker, AUocapnia, 58 
polemonii Robertson, Andrena, 107 
polia Smith, Xiphydria, 132 
polita Malloch, Corimelaena, 62 
polita Malloch, Hydrophoria, 82 
polita Malloch, Pseudodinia, 84 
politus Malloch, Tanytarsus, 87 
Polyamia, 76 

hcrbida DeLong, 76 

saxosa DeLong, 76 
Polybates, 127 

slossonae MacGillivay, 127 
Polycentropodidae. 101103 



Polycentropus, 102-103 

alleni Yamamoto, 102 

altmani Yamamoto, 102 

barri Ross & Yamamoto, 102 

blickei Ross & Yamamoto, 102 

charlesi Ross, 102 

chelatus Ross & Yamamoto, 102 

chenoides Ross & Yamamoto, 102 

chilensis Yamamoto, 102 

clinei Milne, 102 

colei Ross, 102 

deltoides Yamamoto, 102 

dentoides Yamamoto, 102 

digitus Yamamoto, 102 

elarus Ross, 102 

elongatus Yamamoto, 102 

iculus Ross, 102 

laminatus Yamamoto, 102 

milaca Etnier, 102 

nascotius Ross, 102 

neiswanderi Ross, 102 

pentus Ross, 102 

picana Ross, 102 

pixi Ross, 102 

recurvatus Yamamoto, 102 

rickeri Yamamoto, 102 

robacki Yamamoto, 102 

rosarius Kingsolver, 102 

Santiago Ross, 102 

spicatus Yamamoto, 102 

weedi Blickle & Morse, 103 
polygrammata Hulst, Coenocalpe, 105 
Polymerus, 63 

illini Knight, 63 
Polynema, 118 

citripes Ashmead, 118 

zetes Girault, 118 
polysericeus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 123 
Polytrichia, 97 

anisca Ross, 97 

arva Ross, 97 

contorta Ross, 97 

eliaga Ross, 97 

logana Ross, 97 

lometa Ross, 97 

mono Ross, 97 

oregona Ross, 97 

shawnee Ross, 97 

spinosa Ross, 97 

stylata Ross, 97 

unio Ross, 97 

xena Ross, 97 
Pompilidae, 119 
Pompilinus, 119 

bequaerti Dreisbach, 119 
Pompilus, 119 

illinoensis Robertson, 119 
ponta Ross, Mayatrichia, 96 
Pontania, 127 

daedala MacGillivray, 127 

decrepita MacGillivray, 127 

dedecora MacGillivray, 127 

demissa MacGillivray, 127 

derosa MacGillivray, 127 

destricta MacGillivray, 127 



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devincta MacGillivray. 127 

dotala MacGillivray, 121 

mariana Ross. 127 

pepii Ross, 127 
populicola Thomas. Chaitophorus, 64 
populifolii Essig. Eichochaitophorus. 64 
porteri Ross, Oecetis. 98 
porteri Schlinger, Ogcodes, 81 
portola Ross, Empoasca, 67 

potulenta MacGillivray, Strongylogastroidca. 128 
prairiana DeLong, Flexamia, 75 
pravus DcLong, Laevicephalus, 76 
primativus MacGillivray, Strongylogaster, 128 
primus McDunnough, Campsurus, 56 
priniquera Hepner, Erythroneura, 73 
Priocera, 78 

Iccomei Wolcott, 78 
Priophorus, 127 

acericaulis MacGillivray. 127 

modestius MacGillivray. 127 

moratus MacGillivray. 127 

munditus MacGillivray. 127 
prisca Wulp. Phorbia. 82 
Pristiphora, 127, 133 

aphanta Wong & Ross. 133 

hucksena Wong & Ross. 133 

ostiaria MacGillivray. 127 

paloma Wong & Ross. 133 

valvangula Wong & Ross. 13S 

vcnatta Wong & Ross. 133 
Pristola, 127 

macnabi Ross. 127 
Probezzia, 83-84 

fulvithorax Malloch. 83 

incerta Malloch, 83 

infuscata Malloch, 83 

obscura Malloch, 84 

pallida Malloch, 84 
proboscidalis Malloch. Neohylemyia, 82 
Prodoxidae. 105 

producta Robertson, Colletcs, 112 
productus Metcalf, Oecleus. 76 
productus Robertson, Trypetes, 118 
Profenusa, 128 

collaris MacGillivray, 128 
projecta Prison, Capnia, 58 
projecta Prison, Leuctra, 59 
promota Prison, Capnia, 58 
prosopa Stannard, Tenthredo, 129 
Prosopis, 113 

eulophi Robertson, 113 

flammipes Robertson, 113 

floridanus Robertson, 113 

illinoisensis Robertson, 113 

nelumbonis Robertson. 113 

saniculae Robertson, 113 

sayi Robertson, 113 

thaspii Robertson, 113 

ziziae Robertson, 113 
Prospaltella, 114 

fasciativentris Girault, 114 

fuscipennis Girault, 114 

perspicuipennis Girault, 114 
Protarrha, 101 

peruviana Ross, 101 



Protenthes, 86 

claripennis Malloch, 86 

riparius Malloch, 86 
protera Ross, Hydroptila, 96 
protis Ross, Hydropsyche, 95 
Protomicroplitis, 112 

garmani Ashmead, 112 
Protoptila, 93 

alexanderi Ross, 93 

balmorhea Ross, 93 

cantha Ross, 93 

coloma Ross, 93 

erotica Ross, 93 

jeanae Ross, 93 

lega Ross, 93 

palina Ross, 93 

thoracica Ross, 93 
Protocaxonus, 128 

typicus Rohwer, 128 
protuma Ross, Erythroneura, 73 
provo Ross & Merkley, Tinodes, 103 
pruinosa Robertson, Hyalomya, 91 
pruinosa Robertson, Phorantha, 91 
pruinosus Robertson, Halictus, 116 
pruni Robertson, Andrena, 107 
Psammotetix, 76 

viridinervis Ross & Hamilton, 76 
psecas Girault, Stephanodes, 119 
Psectrocladius 86 

vernalis Malloch, 86 
Pselaphidae, 79 80 
Pseudaglossa, 105 

forbesii French, 105 
Pseudalypia, 105 

crotchii atrata Hy. Edwards, 105 
Pseudisobrachium, 111 

pusillum Evans, 111 
pseudobrassicae Davis, Aphis, 63 
Pseudochironomus, 86 

rex Hauber, 86 

richardsoni Malloch, 86 
Pseudocloeon, 56 

myrsum Burks, 56 

veteris McDunnough. 56 
PKudoculicoides, 84 

johannseni Malloch, 84 

major Malloch, 84 
Pseudodineura, 128 

rileda Smith, 128 
Pseudodinia, 84 

polita Malloch, 84 
pseudoproducta Prison, Nemoura, 60 
Pseudoselandria, 128 

oxalata MacGillivray, 128 
pseudoviridis Malloch. Chironomus. 85 
Psilotreta, 100 

labida Ross. 100 
psoraleae Robertson. Anthidium, 117 
Psychoglypha, 100 

avigo Ross, 100 

rossi Schmid, 100 
Psychomyiella, 103 

lumina Ross, 103 

nomada Ross. 103 
Psychomyiidae, 103 



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179 



Psyllidae, 77 

pterna Ross, Glossosoma, 93 
Pteromalidae, 119 
Pteromalus, 119 

fulvipes Forbes. 119 

gelechiae Webster, 119 

pallipes Forbes, 1 19 
Pteronarcidae, 61 
Pteronarcys, 61 

scotti Ricker, 61 

shelfordi Prison. 61 
Pteronidea, 128 

edessa MacGillivray, 128 

edita MacGillivray. 128 

edura MacGillivray, 128 

effeta MacGillivray. 128 

effrenatus MacGillivray, 128 

effusa MacGillivray. 128 

egeria MacGillivray. 128 

egnatia MacGillivray. 128 

electra MacGillivray, 128 

elelea MacGillivray. 128 

emerita MacGillivray. 128 

enavata MacGillivray. 128 

equatia MacGillivray. 128 

equina MacGillivray. 128 

erratus MacGillivray. 128 

erudita MacGillivray. 128 

evanida MacGillivray. 128 

exacta MacGillivray, 128 

excessus MacGillivray, 128 
Pterophoridae, 105 
Ptilostomis, 101 

semifasciata Say, 101 
Ptomaphagus, 78 

shapardi Sanderson, 78 
Ptototaxonus, 128 

typicus Rohwer. 128 
puebla Baumann & Gaufin. Amphinemura. 60 
pulchella Hottes & prison. Aphis. 63 
pulchella Robertson. Andrena. 107 
pulchella alba MacGillivray. Macrophya. 125 
pulcher Girault. Cristatithorax. 114 
pulex Sanderson. Beyeria, 81 
pulla Girault, Camptoptera, 118 
pulla Smith, Monardis, 125 
pullatus MacGillivray. Thrinax. 131 
pullicrura Girault. Anaphoidea. 118 
pumicasta Hepner. Erythroneura. 73 
punctata MacGillivray. Macrophya. 125 
punctata Robertson. Colletes. 112 
punctata Robertson, Tiphia, 131 
punctata intermedia Malloch, Tiphia. 131 
punctatus Becker & Sanderson. Apharus, 79 
punctifer Malloch, Eupachygaster, 91 
punctinota Mickel, Lomachaeta. 118 
punctulata Wulp. Coenosia, 89 
pusillum Evans, Pseudisobrachium. Ill 
pusillus Hottes & Prison. Chaitophorus. 64 
pycnanthemi Robertson. Sphecodes, 117 
Pycnoplectus, 80 

parki Wagner, 80 
Pycnopsyche, 100 

aglonus Ross, 100 

rossi Betten. 100 



subfasciata Say. 100 
Pyralidae. 105 
Pyrausta, 105 

caffreii Flint & Malloch, 105 
pyrifoliae Forbes, Trioza, 77 
pyroxum Ross. Glossosoma. 93 



quadratoides Hepner, Erythroneura, 73 
quadrilineatus Forbes. Cicadula, 75 
quadripunctata Malloch, Aphiochaeta. 90 
quadripunctatus Malloch. Chironomus. 85 
quadrispinosa Malloch, Pegomyia, 82 
quadrivittatum Malloch. Aphaniosoma. 87 
quadrosa Becker, Denticollis. 79 
quadrosa Ross. Helicopsyche. 93 
quercalbae Ross & DeLong. Erythroneura. 73 
quercina Ross. Lepidostoma, 98 
quercus futilis Osten Sacken, Cynips. 114 
quercus majalis Bassett, Cynips, 114 
quercus mammula Bassett, Cynips, 114 
quercus punctata Bassett, Cynips. 114 
quercus singularis Bassett. Cynips. 114 
quinola Ross. Hydroptila. 96 
quintilis Robertson, Andrena. 107 



rabida MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 129 
rabilis Milne. T ylocentropus. 102 
rabiosa MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 129 
rabula MacGillivray, Tenthredo. 129 
racilia MacGillivray. Tenthredo, 129 
Radema, 100 

sorex Ross. 100 
radiatus Say. Platycentropus. 100 
radix DeLong & Mohr. Scaphoideus. 76 
ralla MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 129 
rangifer Ross & DeLong. Erythroneura. 73 
ranieri Milne. Farula. 99 
ranota Webb. Stempellina. 86 
ranunculi Robertson, Sphecodes, 117 
raptor Girault, Muscidifurax, 119 
rarus MacGillivray, Pachynematus, 126 
ratcliffensis Hepner, Erythroneura, 73 
rayneri Ross, Lepidostoma. 98 
rayneri Ross, Rhyacophila, 104 
recurvatus Yamamoto. Polycentropus. 102 
reddina Ross, Empoasca, 67 
redimacula MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 129 
reduvia MacGillivray, Tenthredo. 129 
reedi Hepner. Erythroneura. 73 
reflua MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 129 
refractaria MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 
refractarius MacGillivray. Pachynematus. 126 
refuga MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 
refugus MacGillivra, Dolerus. 123 
regula MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 
Reichenbachia, 80 

blandura Becker & Sanderson. 80 

parki Becker & Sanderson. 80 
reileri Hepner. Erythroneura. 73 
reliquia MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 
remea MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 
remissa MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 
remissus MacGillivray. Pachynematus. 126 



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remita Blickle, Hydroptila, 96 
remora MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
remota MacGillivray, Tenthredo. 130 
repanda hoosieri Mares, Cicindela, 78 
repentinus MacGillivray, Unitaxonus, 131 
rcperta MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
repertus MacGillivray, Pachynematus, 126 
repetita McAtee, Erythroneura, 73 
replata MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
repleta MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 103 
reposita MacGilHvray, Tenthredo, 130 
reputina MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
reputinella MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
requieta MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
resegmina MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
resima MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
respectus MacGillivray, Rhogogastera, 128 
respersus MacGillivray, Rhogogastera, 128 
resticula MacGillivray. Tenthredo, 130 
ristricta, MacGillivray. Tenthredo, 130 
resupina MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
reticentia MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
reticulatus Robertson, Hahctus, 116 
retinentia MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
retosta MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
retroversa MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
Reuteria, 63 

platani Knight, 63 
rex Hauber, Pseudochironomus, 86 
Rhadine, 78 

ozarkensis Sanderson & Miller, 78 
Rhadinoceraea, 128 

siinilata MacGillivray, 128 
rhaeus Milne. Colpotaulius, 99 
Rhagionidae, 91 

rhammisia MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
Rhaphium, 88 

rossi Harmston & Knowlton, 88 
rhino Ross, Lepidostoma, 98 
Rhinoscepsis, 80 

bonita Becker & Sanderson, 80 
Rhizobius, 65 

spicatus Hart, 65 
rhodedendronae Hepner, Erythroneura, 73 
rhodia Edwards, Erebia, 105 
Rhogogastera, 128 

respectus MacGillivray, 128 

respersus MacGillivray, 128 

ruga MacGillivray, 128 
Rhopalosiphum, 65 

enigmae Hottes & Prison, 65 

enigmae parvae Hottes & Prison, 65 

tulipae Thomas, 65 
Rhyacophila, 103-104 

amicis Ross, 103 

banksi Ross, 103 

belona Ross, 103 

blarina Ross, 103 

bruesi Milne & Milne, 103 

ecosa Ross, 103 

fendcri Ross, 103 

fenestra Ross, 103 

gemona Ross, 103 

harmstoni Ross, 103 



inculta Ross & Spencer, 103 

iranda Ross, 103 

jigme Schmid, 103 

kiamichi Ross, 103 

latitergum Davis. 103 

ledra Ross, 103 

malkini Ross, 103 

manistee Ross, 103 

melita Ross, 103 

milnei Ross, 103 

mycta Ross, 103 

norcuta Ross, 104 

ophrys Ross, 104 

oreia Ross, 104 

oreta Ross, 104 

parantra Ross, 104 

pellisa Ross, 104 

perda Ross, 104 

perplana Ross, 104 

phryganea Ross, 104 

rayneri Ross, 104 

rickeri Ross. 104 

teddyi Ross, 104 

tucula Ross, 104 

vaccua Milne, 104 

vaefes Milne, 104 

vagrita Milne, 104 

valuma Milne, 104 

vao Milne, 104 

vedra Milne, 104 

vemna Milne, 104 

vepulsa Milne. 104 

verrula Milne, 104 

vetina Milne, 104 

vibox Milne, 104 

viquaea Milne, 104 

visor Milne. 104 

vobara Milne, 104 

vocala Milne, 104 

vofixa Milne, 104 

vohma Milne, 104 

vu Milne, 104 

vujuna Milne, 104 

vuphipes Milne, 104 

vuzana Milne, 104 

willametta Ross, 104 
Rhyacophilidae, 103-104 
ribiellum Davis, Macrosiphum, 64 
richardsi Ross, Erythroneura, 73 
richardsoni Prison, Isoperla. 61 
richardsoni Malloch, Pseudochironomus, 86 
rickeri Prison, Allocapnia, 58 
rickeri James. Leuctra. 60 
rickeri Milne, Neophylax. 100 
rickeri Ross, Rhyacophila. 104 
rickeri Ross & Unzicker, Micrasema, 92 
rickeri Yamamoto, Polycentropus. 102 
riegeli Ross, Neotrichia. 96 
riesi Ross, Ochrotrichia. 96 
rileda Smith, Pseudodineura, 128 
rileyi Ashmead, Andricus. 113 
rima MacGillivray. Tenthredo, ISO 
Rimulincola, 81 

divalis Sanderson, 81 



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181 



riparia Malloch, Agromyza, 81 

riparius MacGillivray. Urocerus. 120 

riparius Malloch, Protenthes, 86 

ripula MacGillivray, Tenthredo. 130 

ritcheri Ross, Hoplocampa. 124 

rivicola Blickle, Oxyethira, 97 

robacki Ross & Cunningham, Empoasca, 67 

robacki Yamamoto. Polycentropus, 102 

robertsoni Malloch. Tiphia, 131 

robertsoni Webb, Hilarimorpha, 88 

robiniae Forbes, Nematus, 126 

robinsoni Hepner, Erythroneura, 73 

robustus curiosus Prison, Bremus, 111 

rodesta Webb, Stempellina, 86 

rohweri MacGillivray, Metallus, 125 

rolandi Hepner, Erythroneura, 73 

rono Ross, Hydroptila, 96 

rosae Robertson, Synhalonia, 110 

rosarius Kingsolver, Polycentropus, 102 

roscidus MacGillivray, Pachynematus, 126 

rosenkranzi Hepner, Erythroneura, 73 

rossi Allen & Edmunds, Ephemerella, 56 

rossi Bettern, Pycnopsychc, 100 

rossi Blickle & Morse. Oxyethira, 97 

rossi Christian. Ossiannilssonia. 74 

rossi Freytag, Idiocerus, 77 

rossi Prison. Brachyptera. 61 

rossi Harmston & Knowlton. Rhaphium, 88 

■ rossi Hepner. Erythroneura. 73 

rossi Hottes & Prison, Amphorophora, 63 
rossi Knight, Orthotylus, 62 

■ rossi Moore. Agnocoris, 62 
'■ rossi Park, Batrisodes, 79 

rossi Pechuman. Glutops. 92 
rossi Ricker. Nemoura. 60 

I rossi Sanderson. Stenus, 81 

i rossi Schmid, Psychoglypha, 100 
rossi Smith, Apareophora, i20 
rota MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 

I rotosa Ross. Hydropsyche. 95 
rotula MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 
rubi Prison. Metallus. 125 

1 rubi Thomas. Pemphigus, 65 
rubia Prison. Brachygaster. 115 
rubicunda MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 
rubifolii Thomas. Cerosipha. 64 
rubiphylla Hepner. Erythroneura, 73 
rubranura DeLong. Plexamia, 75 
rubrarta Hepner. Erythroneura. 7S 
rubrica MacGillivray. Tenthredo, 130 

I rubricosa MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 
rubriocellata Malloch. Typhlocyba. 75 
rubriocellata clara McAtee. Typhlocyba. 75 
nibripalpis Wulp. Spilogaster. 90 
rubripes MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 
rubrisommus MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 
rubulna Hepner. Erythroneura. 73 
rudbeckiae Robertson. Andrena. 107 
rudbeckiae Roberuon. Calliopsis. 108 
rudicula MacGillivray. Tenthredo. ISO 
aidis Wooldridge. Limnichites. 138 
ruficoma MacGillivray. Tenthredopsis. 131 
ruficomis Malloch. Lonchaea. 88 
rufimanus Robertson. Megachile, 117 



rufinerva MacGillivray. Strongylogastroidea. 128 
rufipes Gillette. Eucoilidea. 114 
rufocinctana MacGillivray. Strongylo- 
gastroidea, 128 
rufocinctella MacGillivray, Strongylo- 
gastroidea. 128 
rufocinctus MacGillivray. Pachynematus. 127 
rufocinctus sladeni Prison. Bremus, 111 
rofoculus MacGillivray, Strongylogaster, 128 
rufostigmus MacGillivray, Tenthredo. 130 
rufula MacGillivray. Strongylogastroidea. 128 
rufus Gillette, Antistrophus. 113 
ruga MacGillivray. Rhogogastera. 128 
rugosa Robertson. Andrena. 107 
rugosae Ross & DeLong. Erythroneura. 73 
rugosus Robertson. Calliopsis. 108 
rugulosa Malloch. Tiphia. 132 
rugulosus Beutenmueller. Andricus. 113 
rugulosus Wooldridge. Eulimnichus. 133 
ruina MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 
ruinosa MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 
ruma MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 130 
rumicis MacGillivray, Unitaxonus, 131 
rumina MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 130 
ruralis Hottes & Prison, Macrosiphum, 64 
rurigena MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 131 
ruscullus MacGillivray, Monophadnus. 126 
russa MacGillivray, Tenthredo. 131 
rustica MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 131 
rusticana MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 131 
rusticula MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 131 
ruta MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 131 
rutata MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 131 
ruthae Ross. Oligophlebodes. 100 
rutila MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 131 



saccus Ross. Athripsodes. 98 
sadleri Hepner. Erythroneura. 73 
sagittus Becker. Agriotes. 79 
saileri Hepner. Erythroneura. 73 
salicacea Robertson. Andrena. 107 
salicicola Essig. Chaitophorus. 64 
salicicola Smith, Euura. 124 
salicicola Thomas. Siphonophora. 66 
salicicorticis Essig. Symdobius. 66 
saliciradicis Essig. Fullawaya. 64 
salicis Robertson. Andrena. 107 
salicis Robertson. Nomada. 110 
salictaria Robertson. Andrena. 107 
salinus MacGillivray. Dimorphopteryx. 121 
salmani Ross. Dolerus. 123 
salmo Ross. Hydroptila. 96 
salmoides Ross, Erythroneura, 73 
saltesea Ross, Agraylea, 95 
Saltusaphis, 65 

wanica Hottes & Prison. 65 
sanctaerosae Hepner & DeLong, Erythroneura, 

73 
sandersoni Barr. Arianops. 79 
sandersoni Fender. Malthodes. 78 
sandersoni. H. Howdcn. Cyrtinus. 78 
sandersoni Kissinger. Apion, 78 
sandersoni Pacheco. Neoheterocerus. 79 



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sandersoni Park, Batrisodes, 79 
Sanderson! Ricker, Allocapnia, 58 
sandersoni Ross. Erythroneura , 73 
sandersoni Smetana, Ancylophorus. 80 
sandersoni Yamamoto & Ross. Mystacides. 98 
sanguinarium Hottes & Prison. Macrosiphum, 65 
sanguinea Girault. Westwoodella. 132 
saniculae Robertson. Prosopis, 113 
santanus Ross, Limnephilus, 100 
Santiago Ross, Polycentropus, 102 
sapladora Ricker, Utaperla, 59 
Sapromyza, 88 

aequalis Malloch, 88 

cilifera Malloch, 88 

citreifrons Malloch, 88 

fuscibasis Malloch, 88 

harti Malloch, 88 

inaequalis Malloch, 88 

littoralis Malloch, 88 

nubilifera Malloch, 88 

pemotata Malloch, 88 

seticauda Malloch, 88 

similata Malloch, 88 
Sarcophaga, 91 

piva Roback, 91 
Sarcophagidae, 91 
sarita Ross, Leucotrichia, 96 
sarrothripac Weed, Apantcles, 112 
Satyridae, 105 

savagei MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 131 
saxatile Morse, Spharagemon, 57 
saxatilis McNeill, Trimerotropis, 57 
saxosa Cunningham & Ross, Empoasca, 67 
saxosa DeLong, Polyamia, 76 
sayi Robertson, Andrena, 107 
sayi Robertson, Coelioxys, 117 
sayi Robertson, Nomada, 110 
sayi Robertson. Prosopis, 113 
saylori Sanderson, Phyllophaga, 80 
Scalenarthrus, 80 

depressus Becker & Sanderson. 80 

femoralis Becker & Sanderson, 80 

olanchitus Becker & Sanderson, 80 

torrus Becker & Sanderson, 80 
scamboides Curran, Platycheirus, 91 
Scaphoideus, 76 

chelus DeLong & Berry, 76 

curvatus DeLong & Mohr, 76 

nigrellus DeLong & Mohr, 76 

radix DeLong & Mohr, 76 
Scarabaeidae, 80 
Scatophaga, 82 

grisea Malloch, 82 
Scatopsidae, 91 

scelesta MacGillivray, Neopareophora, 126 
Scelionidae. 120 
Sceloenopla, 78 

mantecada Sanderson, 78 
Scenopinidae, 91 
Scenopinus, 91 

nublilipes Say, 91 
schiza Ross, Chimarra, 101 
Schizocerus, 111 

johnsoni MacGillivray, 111 



Schizoneura, 65 

panicola Thomas, 65 

pinicola Thomas, 65 
Schoenomyza, 90 

aurifrons Malloch, 90 
schuhi Ross, Glossosoma, 93 
schusteri Hepner. Erythroneura, 73 
scobyensis Hepner, Erythroneura, 73 
scolops Ross, Hydroptila. 96 
scopulosus MacGillivray, Dimorphoptcryx, 121 
scotti Ricker, Pteronarcys, 61 
scotti Ross, Micrasema, 92 
scriptus Malloch, Borborus, 91 
scudderi texensis Hart, Melanoplus, 57 
scutellaris Gillette, Diastrophus. 114 
scutellaris Robertson, Andrena. 107 
scutelleris insolita McAtee, Erythroneura, 73 
Scydmaenidae, 80 
scylla Milne, Ecclisomyia, 99 
sebringensis Hepner, Erythroneura, 73 
secundus Burke, Onychylis, 78 
secundus MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 131 
selanderi Ross, Helicopsyche, 93 
Selandria, 128 

floridana MacGillivray, 128 

urbis Ross, 128 
Selidosema, 105 

albescens Hulst, 105 
selina Betten, Banksiola. 99 
selloa Selander, Nemognatha, 79 
semata Ross, Goerita, 93 
semblidis Aurivillius. Oophthora, 132 
semifasciata Say, Ptilostomis, 101 
semifuscipennis Girault, Aphelinoidea. 132 
semivitta Malloch, AUognota, 88 
sensoriata Mason. Amphorophora. 63 
sepia Thew, Atalophlebia, 57 
septemspinosa Gillette, Eucoila, 114 
sequax tau Philip, Chrysofft, 91 
Serica, 80 

arkansana Dawson, 80 
sericeus Say, Dolerus, 123 
sericeus Say, Limnephilus. 100 
sericeus centralis Ross. Dolerus. 123 
Sericostoma, 104 

stannardi Ross. 105 

tetron Ross, 104 
Sericostomatidae. 104-105 
serotina Robertson. Andrena, 107 
serrata Ross, Oxyethira, 97 
serratus DeLong. Chlorotettix, 75 
Serromyia, 84 

crassifemorata Malloch. 84 
serrula Davidson & DeLong, Empoasca, 67 
serus Malloch, Chironomus. 85 
setariae Thomas, Siphonophora. 65 
setator Ross, Pachynematus. 127 
sethi Hepner, Erythroneura, 73 
seticauda Malloch, Sapromyza, 88 
setifera Webb, Panorpa, 81 
setiger Malloch. Neochirosia. 82 
setigera Malloch. Amiota, 88 
setosa Ross. Chimarra. 101 
setulosa Malloch, Madiza. 87 



I 



July 1980 



Webb: Primary Insect Types 



183 



sexdentata Robertson, Megachile, 117 

sexpunctata Malloch, Erythroncura, 73 

shanklandi Hepner, Erythroncura. 73 

shapardi Sanderson. Ptomaphagus, 78 

shawi MacGillivray, Monophadnoides, 126 

shawnee Ross. Dolophilus. 101 

shawnee Ross, Polytrichia, 97 

shelfordi Prison, Pteronarcys, 61 

shermani MacGiUivray. Strongylogastroidea, 128 

shumiquera Hepner, Erythroneura , 73 

sialica Ross, Hoplocampa, 124 

Sialidae, 77 

Sialis, 77 

comuta Ross, 77 

glabella Ross. 77 

hamata Ross. 77 

hasta Ross, 77 

iola Ross, 77 

itasca Ross. 77 

joppa Ross, 77 

mohri Ross, 77 

vagans Ross, 77 

velata Ross, 77 
sicatus MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 131 
sida Blickle & Morse, Oxyethira, 97 
sidora Webb. Hilarimorpha. 88 
sierra Ross, Oligophlebodes. 100 
sierra Ross. Pedomoecus. 100 
sigmoides Carpenter. Panorpa. 81 
signatipennis Wulp, Spilogaster. 90 
signatis Hottes & Prison, Aphis. 63 
significans Hy. Edwards. Halisidota, 105 
Signifora, 114 

fax Girault. 114 
sigodana Ross & Merkley. Tinodes. 103 
sikorowskii Hepner, Erythroneura 73 
siloamensis Hepner, Erythroneura. 73 
silphii Gillette, Antistrophi^s, 113 
similalis Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura. 73 
similata MacGillivray. Rhadinoceraea. 128 
similata Malloch. Agromyza. 81 
similata Malloch. Sapromyza, 88 
similatus Malloch, Tanytarsus. 87 
similis Harmston & Knowlton. Argyra. 88 
similis Malloch, Corynoneura. 85 
similis Malloch. Eremomyioides. 81 
similis Malloch. Tiphia, 132 
similis Robertson. Augochlora. 115 
similis Robertson. Colletes. 112 
similis Woodworth. Tettigonia, 77 
similis nordanus Ross, Dolerus, 123 
simillima Robertson, Melissodes, 109 
simla Allen & Edmunds, Ephemerella, 56 
Simplemphytus, 128 

pacificus MacGillivray, 128 
simplex Robertson, Nomada, 110 
simplex Robertson, Parlictus. 116 
simplex Robertson. Triepeolus. 110 
I simulans Ross, Hydropsyche. 96 
I simulatus MacGillivray. Tenthredo, 131 
I Simuliidae, 91 
Simulium, 91 

forbesi Malloch. 91 

johannseni Hart. 91 



venustoides Hart. 91 
sinclairi nelsoni Hasbrouck. Acrolophus. 105 
singularis Evans, Dissomphalus. Ill 
singularis Hottes & Prison. Amphorophora. 63 
sinosa Ross. Cemotina. 102 
sinusina Ross & Cunningham. Empoasca. 67 
sionilli Hayes, Cosmobaris, 78 
Siphonophora, 65-66 

acerifoliae Thomas, 65 

ambrosiae Thomas, 65 

coreopsidis Thomas. 65 

euphorbiae Thomas. 65 

euphorbicola Thomas, 65 

heucherae Thomas. 65 

minor Forbes. 65 

salicicola Thomas, 66 

setariae Thomas, 66 

viticola Thomas, 66 
Siricidae, 120 

sisko Ross, Wormaldia, 101 
Sisyridae, 77 

slossonae MacGillivray, Polybates. 127 
slossonae Malloch, Cricotopus, 85 
slossonii MacGillivray, Tenthredo. 131 
smectica MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 131 
Smicridea, 95 

caldwelli Ross. 95 

utico Ross. 95 
smilacinae Robertson, Halictus. 116 
smilacinae Robertson. Sphecodes. 117 
smithae Ross. Pachynematus. 127 
smithi Ross. Erythroneura, 73 
smithi Ross, Triaenodes, 99 
smithi Ross & Ricker, Allocapnia. 58 
snowi Hart. Odontomyia, 91 
snowi raphus Freytag, Idiocerus, 77 
sobrina Prison, Perlorayia, 60 
socia Wulp, Limnophora, 89 
sodalis Ross & Spencer, Oxyethira, 97 
solani Thomas. Megoura, 65 
solex Ross. Hydropsyche. 95 
solidaginis Girault. Aulacidea, 113 
solidaginis Robertson. Andrena. 107 
solidaginis Robertson. Calliopsis. 108 
solitaria Prison. Perlomyia. 60 
sollisa Ross & DeLong, Typhlocyba. 75 
solomoni Hepner, Erythroneura. 73 
Somatochlora, 57 

macrotona Williamson. 57 
sommermanae Ross. Lepidostoma, 98 
sonani Prison, Bremus, 111 
sonora Ross, Neotrichia, 96 
sopladora Ricker, Utaperla, 59 
sordidata Girault, Anaphoidea, 118 
sorex Ross, Radema, 100 
sorghiellus Porbes, Coccus. 75 
soror Davis. Phyllophaga. 80 
sorota Hepner. Erythroneura. 74 
spala Ross. Hoplocampa. 124 
spala Ross & DeLong. Erythroneura, 74 
spama Ross, Hydropsyche, 95 
sparsus Robertson, Chloralictus, 115 
sparta MacGillivray, Hylotoma, 110 
spathiophora Malloch, Fannia, 89 



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Vol. 32, Art. 2 



spaculata Ross. Chimarra, 101 
spatulata Ross. Erythroneura, 74 
speciosa Hulst, Diastictis, 105 
speciosa Robertson, Colletes, 112 
speciosissimus Girault. Microterys. 114 
spenccri Ricker, Isocapnia. 58 
spenceri thujae Ricker, Isocapnia. 58 
Sphaeroceridae. 91 
SphacTophoria, 91 

cranbrookensis Curran, 91 
sphagnicola Alexander. Nephrotoma. 92 
SpharagemoD, 57 

saxatile Morse. 57 
Sphecidae. 120 
Sphecodes, 116-117 

antennariae Robertson, 116 

clematidis Robertson. 116 

davisii Robertson, 116 

heraclei Robertson. 117 

minor Robertson, 117 

pimpinellae Robertson. 117 

pycnanthemi Robertson, 117 

ranunculi Robertson, 117 

smilacinae Robertson, 117 

stygius Robertson. 117 
Sphecodium, 117 

cressonii Robertson. 117 
Sphegina, 91 

campanulata Robertson, 91 
SphenophoTus, 79 

minimus Hart, 79 
Sphex, 119 

harti Femald. 119 
sphyra Ross. Oecetis, 98 
spicata Ross. Cemotina. 102 
spicatum MacGillivray. Trichiosoma. 112 
spicatus Hart. Rhizobius, 65 
spicatus Yamamoto. Polycentropus. 102 
spiculata MacGillivray, Hylotoma. 110 
spiculatus MacGillivray. Strongylogastroidea, 128 
Spilochalcia, 112 

melana Burks, 112 
Spilocryptus, 117 

canarsiae Ashmead, 117 
Spilogaster, 90 

copiosa Wulp. 90 

parvula Wulp. 90 

rubripalpis Wulp. 90 

signatipennis Wulp. 90 
spiloma Ross. Leptocella. 98 
spinae Ross, Brachycentrus. 92 
spinata Blickle & Morse. Hydroptila, 96 
spinifer Malloch, Chrysotus. 88 
spinifera Prison. Hyptia. 115 
spiniger Malloch, Botanobia. 87 
spinigerellus Malloch, Pegomyia. 82 
spinilamellata Malloch, Helina. 89 
spinilamellata Malloch. Hylemyia. 82 
spiniterma Hepner, Erythroneura. 74 
spinosa Robertson. Colletes. 112 
spinosa Ross. Polytrichia. 97 

spinuloides Cunningham & Ross. Empoasca, 67 
spiraeana Robertson. Andrena. 107 
spiritus Girault. Anagrus. 118 
splendidus Malloch, Gaurax. 87 



sporax Ross, Pachynematus. 127 
sprita Ross. Empoasca, 67 
sprulesi Ross. Micrasema, 92 
squamiger Hayes, Cosmobaris. 78 
squamosa Hart. Geoica, 64 
Stactobia, 97 

brustia Ross. 97 

delira Ross, 97 

palmata Ross. 97 
staffordi Hepner. Erythroneura. 74 
stannardi Hepner. Erythroneura. 74 
stannardi Ross. Allocapnia. 58 
stannardi Ross. Cemotina, 102 
stannardi Ross, Sericostoma, 104 
Staphylinidae. 80-81 
starkvillensis Hepner. Erythroneura. 74 
stehri Ross, Leptocerus. 98 
steironematis Robertson. Macropis. 118 
Stelidium, 118 

trypetinum Robertson. 118 
Stempellina, 86 

leptocelloides Webb. 86 

ranota Webb. 86 

rodesta Webb. 86 
Stenelmis, 79 

antennalis Sanderson, 79 

convexula Sanderson. 79 

knobeli Sanderson. 79 

parva Sanderson. 79 
Stenoncma, 57 

areion Burks, 57 

ares Burks. 57 

lepton Burks, 57 

metriotes Burks. 57 
Stenophylax, 100 

indiana Ross. 100 
Stenus, 81 

rossi Sanderson, 81 

vista Sanderson. 81 
Stephanodea, 119 

psecas Girault, 119 
Sterictiphora, III 

apios Ross. Ill 

apios atrescens Ross, 111 
Stethynium, 119 

faunum Girault. 119 
sticta Burks. Paraleptophlebia. 57 
stigmatus MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 131 
stolus Ross. Neophylax. 100 
stomachosus Girault. Aphycus. 114 
stoveri Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura. 74 
Stratiomyidae. 91 
strepha Ross. Hydroptila. 96 
striatus Malloch. Orthocladius. 86 
stricklandi Ross. Hoplocampa. 124 
stricklandi Ross. Tenthredella, 129 
strictus Ross & Hamilton, Macuellus. 76 
Strongylogaster, 128 

annulosus cingulescens Ross. 128 

pacificus MacGillivray, 128 

primativus MacGillivray. 128 

rufoculus MacGillivray. 128 
Strongylogastroidea, 128 

confusa MacGillivray. 128 

depressata MacGillivray. 128 



July 1980 



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185 



118 



84 



potulenta MacGillivray, 128 

rufinerva MacGillivray, 128 

rufocinctana MacGillivray, 128 

rufocinctella MacGillivray, 128 

rufula MacGillivray, 128 

shermani MacGillivray, 128 

spiculatus MacGillivray, 128 

unicinccella MacGillivray, 128 
Strongylocoris, 63 

mohri Knight, 63 
strophis Ross, Lepidostoma, 98 
StTophopteryx, 61-62 

appalachia Ricker, 61 

arkansae Ricker, 61 

cucullata Prison, 61 

inaya Ricker, 62 

ostra Ricker, 62 
strophostylis Robertson, Megachile, 
strotus Ross, Dolophilus, 101 
stugnus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 123 
Strumigenys, 115 

jamaicensis Brown, 115 

talpa Weber, 115 
stygius Robertson, Sphecodes, 117 
stylata Banks Nemoura, 60 
stylata Ross, Goera, 93 
stylata Ross, Polytrichia, 97 
styliformis Cunningham & Ross, Empoasca, 
styraxae Hepner, Erythroneura, 74 
subaequalis Malloch, Chironomus, 85 
subangulata Malloch, Agromyza, 81 
subaterrimus Malloch, Camptocladius, 
subfasciata Say, Pycnopsyche, 100 
subfusca Malloch, Phaonia, 90 
subgrisea Malloch, Pegomyia, 82 
subimpunctatus Malloch, Euschistus, 
subparallelus, Orthocladius, 86 
substriatella Malloch, Hylemyia, 82 
subvarians Banks, Perla, 60 
subvirens Malloch, Agromyza, 81 
sulfurana Stannard. Periclista, 127 
superba Hy. Edwards, Heterocampa, 
swannanoa Ross, Lepidostoma, 98 
sytvatica Sanderson, Phyllophaga, 80 
sylvicola lutzi Prison, Bremus, 111 
sylvicola sculleni Prison, Bremus, 112 
syrticolae Knight, Plagiognathus, 62 
Symdobius, 66 

salicicorticis Essig, 66 
Sympherta, 105 

Julia Hulst, 105 
Symydobius, 66 

agrifoliae Essig, 66 
Synergus, 114 

magnus Gillette, 114 

villosus Gillette, 114 
Synhalonia, 110 

atriventris fuscipes Robertson, 110 

illinoensis Robertson, 110 

rosae Robertson, 110 
Syrphidae, 91 
Syrphus, 91 

canadensis Curran, 91 

oronoensis Metcalf, 91 
syrticola Knight, Plagiognathus, 62 



63 



105 



Tabanidae, 91 

tabanivorus Ashmead, Phanurus, 120 

Tachinidae, 91 92 

Tachydromia, 88 

harti Malloch, 88 
taenia Ross, Triaenodes, 99 
taeniata Ross, Cemotina, 102 
Taeniopterygidae, 61-62 
Taeniopteryx, 62 

burski Ricker & Ross, 62 
kincaidi Hoppe, 62 
lita Prison, 62 
lonicera Ricker & Ross, 62 
metequi Ricker & Ross, 62 
ugola Ricker & Ross, 62 
taho Ross, Agapetus, 93 
taloga Ross, Limnephilus, 100 
talpa Weber, Strumigenys, 115 
tamalpa Ricker, Alloperla, 59 
tammina Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 74 
tana Ross, Hydropsyche, 95 
Tanypus, 86 

decoloratus Malloch, 86 
illinoensis Malloch, 86 
inconspicuus Malloch, 86 
57 marginellus Malloch, 86 

neopunctipennis Sublette, 86 
Tanycarsus, 86-87 
confusus Malloch, 86 
dubius Malloch, 86 
flavicauda Malloch, 87 
neoflavellus Malloch, 87 
politus Malloch, 87 
similatus Malloch, 87 
tibialis Webb, 87 
trilobus Webb, 87 
viridiventris Malloch, 87 
tapuskae Hottes & Prison, Macrosiphum, 65 
taraiensis Penny. Bittacus, 81 
tardae Hottes & Prison, Macrosiphum, 65 
tartareus Hottes & Prison, Pemphigus, 65 
tavara Ross, Leptocella, 98 
taxifolia Swain, Lachnus, 64 
taxodii Knight, Orthotylus, 62 
taxodii Knight, Parthenicus, 62 
taxodii Knight, Pilophorus, 62 
Taxonus, 128-129 

borealis MacGillivray, 128 
inclinatus MacGillivray, 129 
innominatus MacGillivray, 129 
tecpatana Ross & Cunningham, Empoasca, 67 
tectus MacGillivray, Dolerus, 125 
teddyi Ross, Rhyacophila, 104 
Telamona, 77 

irrorata Coding, 77 
telus DeLong & Hershberger. Idiocerus, 77 
Temnostoma, 91 

trifasciata Robertson, 91 
tenebra Parfm & Gurney, Climacia, 77 
Tenebrionidae, 81 

teneris Ross & Cunningham, Empoasca. 67 
tenilla Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 74 
tennessa Ross & Ricker. Allocapnia, 58 



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Vol. 32, An. 2 



tentans pallidivittatus Malloch, Chironomus, 85 
Tenthredella, 129 

glacialis Ross. 129 

Strickland! Ross. 129 

tricolor savanna Ross. 129 
Tenthredinidae, 120131, 133 
Tenthredo. 129-131 

aequalis MacGillivray, 129 

aldrichii MacGillivray. 129 

alphius MacGillivray, 129 

atracostus MacGillivray, 129 

atravenus MacGillivray, 129 

bilineatus MacGillivray, 129 

capitatus MacGillivray, 129 

causatus MacGillivray, 129 

dubitatus MacGillivray, 129 

fernaldii MacGillivray, 129 

hyalinus MacGillivray, 129 

junghannsii MacGillivray, 129 

lateralbus MacGillivray, 129 

linipcs MacGillivray, 129 

lunatus MacGillivray, 129 

magnatus MacGillivray, 129 

messica MacGillivray, 129 

neoslossoni MacGillivray, 129 

nigricoxi MacGillivray, 129 

nigrifascia MacGillivray, 129 

nigritibiales MacGillivray, 129 

novus MacGillivray, 129 

obliquatus MacGillivray, 129 

olivatipes MacGillivray, 129 

pallicola MacGillivray, 129 

pallipectis MacGillivray, 129 

pallipunctus MacGillivray, 129 

perplexus MacGillivray, 129 

prosopa Stannard, 129 

rabida MacGillivray, 129 

rabiosa MacGillivray, 129 

rabula MacGillivray, 129 

racilia MacGillivray, 129 

ralla MacGillivray, 129 

redimacula MacGillivray, 129 

reduvia MacGillivray, 129 

reflua MacGillivray, 129 

refractaria MacGillivray, 130 

rcfuga MacGillivray, 130 

regula MacGillivray, 130 

reliquia MacGillivray, 130 

remea MacGillivray, 130 

remissa MacGillivray, 130 

remora MacGillivray, 130 

remota MacGillivray, 130 

repcrta MacGillivray, 130 

replata MacGillivray, 130 

rcpleta MacGillivray, 130 

reposita MacGillivray, 130 

reputina MacGillivray, 130 

reputinella MacGillivray, 130 

requieta MacGillivray, 130 

rescgmina MacGillivray, 130 

resima MacGillivray, 130 

resticula MacGillivray, 130 

rcstricta MacGillivray, 130 

resupina MacGillivray, 130 



reticentia MacGillivray, 130 
retinentia MacGillivray, 130 
retosta MacGillivray, 130 
retroversa MacGillivray, 130 
rhammisia MacGillivray, 130 
rima MacGillivray, 130 
ripula MacGillivray, 130 

rota MacGillivray, 130 

rotula MacGillivray, 130 

rubicunda MacGillivray, 130 

rubrica MacGillivray, 130 

rubricosa MacGillivray, 130 

rubripes MacGillivray, 130 

rubrisommus MacGillivray, ISO 

rudicula MacGillivray, 130 

rufostigmus MacGillivray, 130 

ruina MacGillivray, 130 

ruinosa MacGillivray, 130 

ruma MacGillivray, 130 

rumina MacGillivray, 130 

rurigena MacGillivray, 131 

russa MacGillivray, 131 

rustica MacGillivray, 131 

rusticana MacGillivray, 131 

rusticula MacGillivray, 131 

ruta MacGillivray. 131 

rutata MacGillivray. 131 

rutila MacGillivray, 131 

savagei MacGillivray, 131 

secundus MacGillivray, 131 

sicatus MacGillivray, 131 

simulatus MacGillivray, 131 

slossonii MacGillivray, 131 

smectica MacGillivray, 131 

stigmatus MacGillivray, 131 

terminatus MacGillivray, 131 

ventricus MacGillivray, 131 

yuasi MacGillivray, 131 
Tenthredopsis, 131 

ruficorna MacGillivray, 131 
tenuicaudalus Malloch. Chironomus, 85 
tenuicornis Malloch, Heteromyia, 83 
teratis Weed, Limneria, 117 
terminatus MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 131 
tcma Prison, Chloroperla, 59 
terricola Hottes & Prison, Plocamaphis. 65 
terricola severini Prison, Bremus, 112 
teshi Hepner, Erythroneura. 74 
testaceus Robertson, Halictus, 116 
tctrachaeta Malloch, Limnophora, 89 
Tetramerinx, 90 

brevicornis Malloch, 90 
Tetrastichus, 114-115 

anthophilus Burks, 114 

caerulescens Ashmead, 114 

carinatus Porbcs, 115 

cormus Burks, 115 

hesperius Burks, 115 
telron Ross, Sericostoma, 104 
Tettigonia, 77 

hartii Ball, 77 

similis Woodworth. 77 
Tettigoniellidae, 77 
texanus Mctcalf, Oliarus. 76 



July 1980 



Webb: Primary Insect Types 



187 



93 
100 



ISl 



66 



texas Ross, Hoplocampa, 124 
texensis Malloch. Phaonia, 90 
texensis Malloch, Tiphia. 132 
thalia Ricker, Alloperla, 59 
thaspii Robertson, Prosopis, 113 
Theliopsyche, 98 

corona Ross, 98 

epilone Ross. 98 
|: Thia, 105 

extranea Hy. Edwards, 105 
Thienemanniella, 87 

mallochi Sublette, 87 
thomasi Hottes & Frison, Myzus, 65 
Thomasia, 66 

crucis Essig, 66 
Thoracaphis, 66 

umbellulariae Essig, 66 
thoracica Ross, Protoptila, 
thorus Ross, Limnephilus, 
I Thraulodes, 57 

daidaleus Thew, 57 

traverae Thew, 57 
I Thrinax, 131 

pullatus MacGillivray, 
I Thripsaphis, 66 

hottesi Frison & Ross, 
'i Thyanta, 63 

elegans Malloch, 63 
I Thysanoptcra, 77 
; Thysanura, 56 
i tibialis Webb, Tanytarsus, 87 
i tietzi Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 74 
I tina*Ricker, Nemoura, 60 
' Tinodes, 103 

multispinosa Schmid, 103 

provo Ross & Merkley, 103 

sigodana Ross & Merkley, 103 
Tiphia, 131-132 

affinis Malloch, 131 

arida Malloch, 131 

aterrima Malloch, 131 

clypeata Robertson, 131 
I conformis Malloch, 131 

floridana Robertson, 131 

illinoensis Robertson, 131 

inaequalis Malloch, 131 

punctata Robertson, 131 

punctata intermedia Malloch, 131 

robertsoni Malloch, 131 

rugulosa Malloch, 132 

similis Malloch, 132 

texensis Malloch, 132 

tuberculata Malloch, 132 

vulgaris Robertson, 132 
Tiphiidae, 131-132 
Tipula, 92 

mallochi Alexander, 92 
Tipulidae, 92 
tokula Hoppe, Isoperla, 61 
tomaneki Hepncr, Erythroneura, 74 
tomentosae Hepner, Erythroneura, 74 
Tomostethus, 131 

nortonii MacGillivray, 131 
tomus Ross, Agapetus, 93 



torcerus Becker & Sanderson, Arthmius, 79 

torrus Becker & Sanderson. Scalenarthrus, 80 

tortilipenis Brigham, Haliplus, 79 

tortosa Ross, Hydroptila, 96 

tortosa Ross & DeLong, Typhylocyba. 75 

torulosa LaBerge. Andrena, 107 

tostonus Ricker, Isogenus, 61 

townesi Ricker, Alloperla, 69 

Trachandrena, 108 

obscura Robertson, 108 
transversa MacGillivray, Pamphilius, 119 
transvcrsalis Wulp, Hydrophoria, 82 
transversus MacGillivray, Monophadnus, 126 
trapezodis Becker & Sanderson, Bythinoplectus, 79 
trapoiza Ross, Ochrotrichia, 96 
traverae Thew, Thraulodes, 57 
Triaenodes, 98-99 

aba Milne, 98 

baris Ross, 98 

connata Ross, 98 

dipsia Ross, 98 

Florida Ross, 99 

furcella Ross, 99 

melaca Ross, 99 

nox Ross, 99 

pema Ross, 99 

phalacris Ross, 99 

smithi Ross, 99 

taenia Ross, 99 

tridonta Ross, 99 
triangularis DeLong, Cloanthanus, 75 
tributum Kissinger, Apion, 78 
Trichaporus, 115 

aeneoviridis Girault, 115 
Trichiocampus, 131 

pacatus MacGillivray, 131 

paetulus MacGillivray, 131 

palliolatus MacGillivray, 131 

patchiae MacGillivray, 131 
Trichiosoma, 112 

confundum MacGillivray, 112 

confusum MacGillivray, 112 

spicatum MacGillivray, 112 
Trichogrammatidae, 132 
Trichoptera, 92 105 

tricolor savanna Ross, Tenthredella, 129 
Tricorythodes, 56 

peridius Burks, 56 
trictura Hoppe, Perla, 60 
Tricyphus, 117 

ater Hopper, 117 
tridenoides, Hepner, Erythroneura, 74 
tridens Robertson, Andrena. 107 
tridonta Ross. Triaenodes. 99 
Triepeolus, 110 

micropygius Robertson. 110 

minimus Robertson. 110 

simplex Robertson, 110 
trifasciata Robertson, Temnostoma, 91 
trifolii Forbes, Coccus. 75 
trilobus Webb. Tanytarsus. 87 
trimaculata LaBerge, Andrena, 107 
Trimerotropis, 57 

saxatilis McNeill, 57 



188 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



trinodis Robertson. Meiissodes. 109 
trinotatus Melander, Nemotelus, 91 
Trioza, 77 

pyrifoliae Forbes. 77 
tripunctata Wulp. Muscina. 89 
trisyllabus sinannula Ross, Macrophya, 125 
Tritneplis, 119 

hemerocampae Girault, 119 
trochateratus Malloch, Cnemedon, 91 
Trogas, 117 

bolted Cresson, 117 
trora Ross & DeLong. Typhlocyba, 75 
truncata Prison. Isoperla, 61 
truncata Rohwer, Macrophya, 125 
truncata Ross, Helicopsyche, 94 
truncatum Becker & Sanderson. Decarthron, 80 
truncatus Metcalf, Myndus, 76 
truncatus Robertson, Halictus, 116 
truncona Ross. Cernotina, 102 
trypetinum Robertson, Stelidium, 118 
Trypetes, 118 

barbatus Robertson, 118 

productus Robertson, 118 
Trypherus, 78 

frisoni Fender, 78 

pauperculus Fender, 78 
tsaratanae Ross, Paulianodes, 101 
tsucia Ross, Chimarra. 101 
tsudia Ross, Electragapetus, 93 
tuberculata Prison, Nemoura, 60 
tuberculata Malloch. Helina, 89 
tuberculata Malloch, Tiphia, 132 
tucula Ross, Rhyacophila, 104 
tulipae Thomas, Rhopalosiphum, 65 
tumana Ricker, Nemoura, 60 
tura Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura , 74 
turoides Hepner, Erythroneura, 74 
tusculum Ross, Hydroptila, 96 
Tychea, 66 

brevicomis Hart, 66 

erigeronensis Thomas, 66 
Typhlocyba, 74-75 

antigone McAtee. 74 

appendiculata Malloch, 75 

athene McAtee. 75 

escana Ross & DeLong, 75 

nicarete McAtee, 75 

phryne McAtee, 75 

piscator McAtee, 75 

rubriocellata Malloch, 75 

rubriocellata clara McAtee. 75 

sollisa Ross & DeLong. 75 

tortosa Ross & DeLong. 75 

troza Ross & DeLong, 75 
typica Rohwer, Claremontia, 121 
typicella MacGillivray, BIcnnocampa, 121 
typicus Rohwer, Prototaxonus, 128 

u 

ugola Ricker & Ross, Taeniopteryx, 62 
ulmalatae Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 74 
ulmarubrae Hepner. Erythroneura, 74 
ulmeri Ross. Agapetus, 93 
ulmeri Ross, Atopsyche, 103 



Ulmeritus, 57 

adustus Thew, 57 

balteatus Thew. 57 

patagiatus Thew, 57 
ulmi Johnson, Aspidiotus, 75 
ulmosa Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura. 74 
umbellatus Hamilton. Paraphlepsius. 76 
umbellulariae Essig. Thoracaphis. 66 
umpqua Prison. Capnia, 58 
unalatus MacGillivray. Pamphilius. 119 
uncifera Ross, Cernotina, 102 
uncus Ross, Nyctiopyhlas. 102 
unica Malloch, Emmesomyia, 81 
unicinctella MacGillivray, Strongylogastroidea, 

128 
unicolor Beauvois, Dolerus, 123 
unicolor Hart, Mesochlora, 57 
uniforma Hepner. Erythroneura, 74 
uniformis Malloch, Hydrophoria, 82 
unio Ross, Polytrichia, 97 
Unitaxonus, 131 

repentinus MacGillivray. 131 

rumicis MacGillivray, 131 
univer^us MacGillivray, Allantus, 120 
unzickeri Ross & Yamamoto. Allocapnia. 58 
urbana Slabaugh, Ctenolepisma, 56 
urbis Ross, Selandria, 128 
Urios, 119 

vestali Girault, 119 
Urocerus, 120 

indecisus MacGillivray, 120 

riparius MacGillivray, 120 
urticae Moore & Ross, Macrosteles, 76 
urticae Ricker, AUoperla, 59 
usa Ricker, AUoperla. 59 
utahensis Knowlton, Durocapillata. 64 
utahensis Ross, Chimarra, 101 
Utaperla, 59 

sopladora Ricker, 59 
utico Ross, Smicridea, 95 
uvalo Ross. Athripsodes, 98 
uvator Ross, Pachynematus. 127 



vacalus MacGillivray, Amauronematus, 120 

vacivus MacGillivray, Amauronematus. 120 

vaccua Milne, Rhyacophila. 104 

vaefes Milne, Rhyacophila, 104 

vagabunda Walsh. Mordwilkoja, 65 

vagans Ross, Sialis, 77 

vagans helenae Prison, Bremus, 112 

vagrita Milne, Rhyacophila. 104 

vala Ross. Hydroptila. 96 

valanis Ross, Hydropsyche. 95 

vaientinei Kissinger, Apion, 78 

Valerius MacGillivray, Amauronematus, 120 

valuma Milne. Rhyacophila. 104 

valvangula Wong & Ross, Pristiphora, 133 

vanduzei Swain, Lachnus. 64 

vanus MacGillivray. Amauronematus. 120 

vao Milne. Rhyacophila, 104 

variabilis Robertson, Meiissodes, 110 

varicomis Girault, Aphelinus, 114 

variomaculatus Brigham. Haliplus. 79 



I 



July 1980 



Webb: Primary InsectTypes 



189 



varius DeLong. Cloanthanus, 75 
varius festana Ross. Macrophya. 125 
varius nordicola Ross. Macrophya. 125 
varshava Ricker. Nemoura, 60 
vartyi Hepncr. Erythroneura, 74 
vatucra Ross. Atopsyche. 103 
vedderensis Ricker. Eucapnopsis. 58 
vedra Milne. Rhyacophila, 104 
velata Ross. Sialis. 77 
velona Ross. Glossosoma. 93 
velox Ross. Erythroneura, 74 
velutina Ross. Empoasca, 67 
velutinae Hepner. Erythroneura. 74 
vemna Milne. Rhyacophila. 104 
venada Ross. Hydropsyche. 95 
venaefuscae Davis. Macrosiphum. 65 
venatta Wong & Ross. Pristiphora. 133 
veneficus MacGillivray. Amauronematus. 120 
venerandus MacGillivray. Amauronematus. 120 
venosa Banks. Capnura. 58 
ventosus MacGillivray. Amauronematus, 120 
ventralis Banks. Isoperla. 61 
ventricus MacGillivray. Tenthredo. 131 
Ventura Ross. Hydropsyche. 95 
venustoides Hart. Simulium. 91 
vepulsa Milne. Rhyacophila, 104 
verae Hepner. Erythroneura. 74 
verbosus MacGillivray. Amauronematus. 120 
I Verdana Ross & DeLong. Erythroneura, 74 
iverdia Ross & Moore. Empoasca. 67 
iverdona Ross. Glossosoma. 93 
(vergelana Ross. Helicopsyche. 94 
iveridicus MacGillivray. Amauronematus, 120 
^vema Ross. Oxyethira. 97 
ivernalis Malloch. Psectrocladius. 86 
tvemoniae Robertson. Melissodes, 110 
•vemoniae Thomas, Aphis, 63 
ivemoniana Robertson, Melissodes, 110 
veroda Ross, Lepidostoma, 98 
verrula Milne. Rhyacophila. 104 
versatus Robertson. Chloralictus. 115 
'versicolor Girault. Encarsia. 114 
ivescus MacGillivray. Amauronematus. 120 
vesicula Bassett. Cynips. 114 
Vespidae. 132 
vestali Girault. Urios. 119 
veleris'McDunnough, Pseudocloeon, 56 
Ivetina Milne, Rhyacophila, 104 
jvexa Ross. Hydropsyche. 95 
/iator Edwards. Poanes. 105 
'vibox Milne, Rhyacophila, 104 
;nbrans Ross, Neoirichia, 96 
[i'ibrissata Malloch, Lonchaea, 88 
/iburni Robertson, Nomada. 110 
/iciniformis Robertson. Andrena. 107 
/ierecki MacGillivray. Platycampus, 127 
■ lerii Hepner. Erythroneura, 74 
-'illosus Gillette, Synergus. 114 

insoni Hepner Erythroneura, 74 
Uiolae Robertson. Andrena. 107 
jnquaea Milne. Rhyacophila. 104 

'ireo Ross. Agapetus. 93 

irgata Ross. Hydroptila. 96 

irginiana Prison. Allocapnia. 58 



viridinervis Ross & Hamilton. Psammotetix, 76 

viridiventris Malloch, Tanytarsus, 87 

visendus MacGillivray, Amauronematus, 120 

visendus Wooldridge, Eulimnichus, 133 

visor Milne, Rhyacophila, 104 

vista Sanderson, Stenus, 81 

viticola Thomas, Siphonophora, 66 

vittata Metcalf, Bruchomorpha, 76 

vittatum Thew, Deleatidium, 57 

vittatus Metcalf, Oharus. 76 

vobara Milne. Rhyacophila. 104 

vocala Milne. Rhyacophila. 104 

vofixa Milne. Rhyacophila. 104 

vohrna Milne, Rhyacophila. 104 

volenta Ross. Chimarra. 101 

vostoki Ricker. Alloperla. 59 

vu Milne. Rhyacophila. 104 

vujuna Milne. Rhyacophila. 104 

vulgaris Hepner, Erythroneura, 74 

vulgaris Robertson, Tiphia, 132 

vuphipes Milne, Rhyacophila, 104 

vuzana Milne, Rhyacophila, 104 

w 

wachita Ricker & Ross, Zealeuctra, 60 

walkeri Ricker, Arcynopteryx, 61 

wanda Ross, Dolerus, 123 

wandae Hepner. Erythroneura. 74 

wanica Prison, Capnia. 58 

wanica Hottes & Prison. Saltusaphis, 65 

warreni Ricker & Ross, Zealeuctra, 60 

warreni Ross, Neodiprion, 114 

warreni Ross, & Yamamoto, Allocapnia, 58 

waskesia Ross, Hydroptila, 96 

wataga Ross, Micrasema, 92 

watertoni Ricker, Arcynopteryx, 61 

weberi Ricker, Nemoura, 60 

weddleae Ross, Ochrotrichia, 96 

weedi Blickle & Morse, Polycentropus, 103 

weemsi Hepner. Erythroneura, 74 

wellesleyana Robertson. Parandrena. 108 

wenatche Ross & Spencer. Glossosoma. 93 

wemeri Ross. Neodiprion. 114 

Westwoodella, 132 

clarimaculosa Girault. 132 

sanguinea Girault. 132 
wetzeli Ross. Athripsodes. 98 
wheeleri Melander. Nemotelus. 91 
whitcombi Hepner. Erythroneura. 74 
whittakeri Pender, Malthodes, 78 
whitti Hepner, Erythroneura, 74 
willametta Jewett, Capnia. 58 
willametta Ross. Rhyacophila. 104 
williamsoni Girault. Mestocharis. 114 
willistoni Robertson, Colletes, 112 
wilsoni Hepner, Erythroneura, 74 
winslowensis Hepner, Erythroneura, 74 
Winthemia, 91-92 

illinoensis Robertson, 91 

imitator Reinhard, 92 
wisei Hepner, Erythroneura, 74 
wisteriae Moore, Lopidea, 62 
wiyguli Hepner, Erythroneura. 74 



190 



Illinois NaturalHistory Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 2 



wojcickyi Blickle. Ochrotrichia. 96 
wolcottensis Hepner. Erythroneura. 74 
wolfii nubilus McAtee. Otioccrus, 76 
woodruffl Hepner, Erythroneura. 74 
Wormaldia, 101 

dampfi Ross & King. 101 

dorsata Ross & King. 101 

cndonima Ross & King. 101 

esperonis Ross & King. 101 

planae Ross & King. 101 

sisko Ross. 101 

planae Ross & King. 101 

sisko Ross, 101 
woytkowskii Ross. Helicopsyche. 94 
wrayi Ross, Allocapnia. 58 
wrighti Ross. Cheumatopsyche. 94 
wysongi Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura. 74 



Xanthidium, 110 

dentariae Robertson. 110 
xanthus Hamilton & Ross. Auridius. 75 
xella Ross. Hydroptila. 96 
xena Ross. Polytrichia. 97 
Xenochalepus, 78 

mundulus Sanderson. 78 
Xenoglossa, 110 

ipomoeae Robertson. 110 
Xenomydaea, 90 

buccata Malloch, 90 
xera Ross. Hydroptila, 96 
Xiphocentreon, 103 

mexico Ross. 103 
Xiphydria, 132 

polia Smith. 132 
Xiphydridae. 132 
xoncla Ross. Hydroptila. 96 
Xyela, 132 

deserti Burdick. 132 

intrabilis MacGillivray. 132 

linsleyi Burdick, 132 
Xyelecia, 132 

nearctica Ross, 132 
Xyelidae, 132 
Xylomyia, 92 

pallidifemur Malloch, 92 



Xylomyidae, 92 
Xylophagidae, 92 



yaguale Becker & Sanderson, Decarthron. 80 

yakimae Hoppe. Perla, 60 

youngi Hepner, Erythroneura, 74 

ypsilon Forbes, Biston, 105 

yuasi MacGillivray, Emphytus, 123 

yuasi MacGillivray, Tenthredo, 131 



Zagrammosoma, 115 

multilineata punicea Girault, 115 
zanclana Ross, Cerotina, 102 
zapoides Ross. Empoasca, 67 
zayasi Sanderson, Paederus. 81 
Zealeuctra, 60 

amoldi Ricker & Ross, 60 

fraxina Ricker & Ross, 60 

hitei Ricker & Ross, 60 

narfi Ricker & Ross, 60 

wachita Ricker & Ross, 60 

warreni Ricker & Ross, 60 
zekia Ross, Allocapnia, 58 
zelona Ricker, Brachyptera, 61 
zendaloides Robertson, Odyncrus, 132 
zephyr Ross & DeLong, Erythroneura, 74 
zeronia Ross, Oxyeihira, 97 
zetes Girault, Polynmea, 118 
zilora Hottes & Prison, Aphis. 63 
zinzalae Hottes & Prison, Macrosiphum, 65 
zion Ross, Cheumatopsyche, 94 
zipha Prison, Peltoperla, 60 
ziziae Robertson, Andrena, 107 
ziziae Robertson, Prosopis, 113 
Zodion, 88 

palpalis Robertson, 88 
zola Ricker, Allocapnia, 58 
Zophodia, 105 

epischnioides Hulst, 105 
Zygomyia, 90 

interrupta Malloch, 90 
Zygoneura, 82 

fcncstrata Malloch. 82 



July 1980 



Webb: Primary Insect Types 



191 



EuzABETH A McCoNAHA. Technical Assistant 
Teresa A, Overton. B.S,. Techntcal Assistant 

Supporting Services 
WiLMA G. DiLLMAN. Properly Control and Trust Accounts 
Pattt L. Duzan. Payroll and Personnel 
Robert O Elus. Assistant for Operations 
Larry D, Gross. Operations Assistant 
J. William Lusk. Mailing and Dtstnbutton Services 
Chris Rohl. Operations Assutant 
Melvin E. Schwartz, Fiscal Officer 



Publications and Public Relations 
Robert M Zewadski, MS, Technical Editor 
Shirley McClellan, B S , Assistant Techntcal Editor 
Llovd LeMere. Technical Illustrator 
Lesue Woodrum. Technical Photographer 



Technical Library 

Doris L Sublette. M.S.L S,, Technical Lib- 
Monica Lusk, Library Clerk 



CONSULTANTS AND RESEARCH AFFILIATESiSystematic Entomology. Roderick R. Irwin. Chicago, Illinois. Wildlife Reasearch. 
WiLLARD D Klimstra, Ph D.. pTofessoT of Zoology and Director of Cooperative Wildlife Research. Southern Illinois University, 
Parasitology, Norman D, Levine, Ph.D.. Professor of Veterinary Parasitology. Veterinary Research and Zoology and Director of the Center 
for Human Ecology. University of Illinois; Entomology, Robert L. Metcalf. PhD . Professor of Biology and Research Professor oj En- 
tomology. University of Illinois, and Gilbert P. Waldbauer, Ph.D.. Professor of Entomology, University of Illinois. Statistics. Horace W. 
Norton, Ph D , Professor of Statistical Design and Analysis. University of Illinois 



Some Publications of the ILLINOIS NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY 



BULLETIN 



Volume 31. Article 8— An Elcctroflshing Survey 
of the Illinois River. 19591974. By Richard E. 
Sparks and William C. Starrett. August 1975. 
64 p.. index. 

Volume 31. Article 9. — Pesticides and Environ- 
mental Quality in Illinois. By Robert L. Metcalf 
and James R. Sanborn. August 1975. 56 p.. 
index. 

Volume 31. Article 10.— The Bantam Sunfish, 
Lepomis symmetricus: Systematics and Dis- 
tribution, and Life History in Wolf Lake. Illinois. 
By Brooks M. Burr. September 1977. 30 p.. 
index. 

Volume 32. Article 1. —Waterfowl Populations and 
the Changing Environment of the Illinois River 
Valley. By Frank C. Bellrose. Fred L. Paveglio. 
Jr.. and Donald W. Steffeck. August 1979. 54 p., 
index. 

BIOLOGICAL NOTES 

103. — The Types of Collembola (Insecta) at the 
Illinois Natural History Survey. By Jose A. Mari 
Mutt. February 1978. 7 p. 

104. — A Summary of the Life History and Dis- 
tribution of the Spring Cavefish. Chologaster 
agassizi Putnam, with Population Estimates for 
the Species in Southern Illinois. By Philip W. 
Smith and Norbert M. Welch. May 1978. 8 p. 

105. — Distribution and Abundance of the Gray 
Squirrel in Illinois. By Charles M. Nixon, 
Stephen P. Havera. and Robert E. Greenberg. 
June 1978. 55 p. 

106. — The Life History of the Cypress Darter, 
Etheostonux pToeliare, in Max Creek, Illinois. By 
Brooks M. Burr and Lawrence M. Page. July 
1978. 15 p. 

107. — Soybean Spiders: Species Composition. Pop- 
ulation Densities, and Vertical Distribution. By 
Charles D. LeSar and John D. Unzicker. July 
1978. 14 p. 



108.— The Nest Biology of the Bees Andrena 
(Melandrena) regularis Malloch and Andrent 
(Metandrena) carlini Cockerell (Hymenoptera: 
Andrenidae). By Martha Northam Schrader and 
Wallace E. LaBerge. August 1978. 24 p. 

109. — Illinois Birds: Ciconiiformes. By Jean W. 
W. Graber. Richard R. Graber. and Ethelyn L 
Kirk. August 1978. 80 p. 

110. — Illinois Birds: Sylviidae. By Jean W. Graber, 
Richard R. Graber, and Ethelyn L. Kirk. July 
1979. 22 p. 

111. — Monitoring the Seasonal Appearance and 
Density of the Black Cutworm with a Virgin 
Female Trap. By Lynn Pautler. William G. 
Ruesink. Hans E. Hummel, and William H. 
Luckmann. July 1979. 7 p. 

112. — The Life History of the Least Daner, 
Etheostoma micToperca, in the Iroquois River. 
Illinois. By Brooks M. Burr and Lawrence M. 
Page. August 1979. 16 p. 

CIRCULAR 

47 —Illinois Trees and Shrubs: Their Insect 
Enemies. By L. L. English. May 1976 (Sixth 
printing, with revisions). 88, p. 

49. The Dunesland Heritage of Illinois. By 
Herbert H. Ross. August 1963 (Reprinted May 
1974). 28 p. 

51. — Illinois Trees: Selection. Planting, and Care. 
By J. Cedric Carter. March 1977 (Third 
printing). 123 p. 

52. — Fertilizing and Watering Trees. By Dan Neely 
and E. B. Himelick. December 1971 (Third 
printing). 20 p. 

54. —Com Rootworm Pest Management in Canning 
Sweet Com. By W. H. Luckmann. J. T. Shaw. D. 
E. Kuhlman, R. Randell. and C. D. LeSar. 
March 1975. 10 p. 



List of available publications mailed on request 



No charge is made for publications of the Illinois Natural History Survey. A single copy of most 
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31 



HATUML HISTORY SURVn 

FEB 8r:: 



The Genera of 
Nearctic Tberevidae 



I 



ael E. Irwin 
i^ Lyneborg 



IHE LIBRARY OF THE 



JAil^8xi2 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
AT UR"'"'"'-'^'^'"*''^*'^''' 



>F ILLINOIS 



lf>IS INSTITUTE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

klJRAL HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION 
li\APAIGN, ILLINOIS 



VOLUME 32, ARTICLE 3 
NOVEMBER 1980 



DATE OF ISSO;^ JAl.'UA.lY 22, 155 



us ISSN 0073-4918 



. 



^'a.tui:a«l History SvLi^-vey 



The Genera of 
Nearctic Therevidae 



liihael E. Irwin 
IJ Lyneborg 



fOF ILLINOIS 

OIS INSTITUTE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 



^rURAL HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION 
hVMPAIGN, ILLINOIS 



VOLUME 32, ARTICLE 3 
NOVEMBER 1980 

DATE OF ISSUE JANUARY 22, 1981 



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-->• WAT T\ . ._ 1tr-...»^ 1~\ L' t ■ fe d f^ -rn A 



CONTENTS 

Acknowledgments 194 

Abbreviations Used in Descriptions and Figures 194 

Family Therevidae 195 

Description of Adult 195 

Key to the Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 201 

Subfamily Therevinae 203 

Dialineura Rondani 204 

Pallicephala Irwin & Lyneborg 206 

Viriliricta Irwin & Lyneborg 208 

Dichoglena Irw'm & Lyneborg 210 

Pandivirilia Irwin & Lyneborg 212 

Spiriverpa Invin & Lyneborg 214 

Thereva Latreille 216 

Tabiidaniima Irwin & Lyneborg 219 

Tabuda Walker 221 

Acrosathe Irwin & Lyneborg 223 

Psilocephala Zetterstedt 225 

Penniverpa Irwin & Lyneborg 227 

Lynlinga Irwin & Lyneborg 230 

Brachylinga Irwin & Lyneborg 232 

Litolinga Irwin c& Lyneborg 234 

Rhagioforma Irwin & Lyneborg 236 

Arenigena Irwin & Lyneborg 238 

Arnmonaios Irwin & Lyneborg 240 

Megalingii Irwin & Lyneborg 242 

Megalinga insignata Irwin & Lyneborg 244 

Breviperna Irwin 247 

Nebrkus Coquillett 249 

Cyclotelus Walker 251 

Ozodiceromya Bigot 254 

Chromolepida Cole 258 

Subfamily Phycinae 260 

Phycus Walker 260 

Henicomyia Coquillett 262 

Parapherocera Irwin 264 

Pherocera Cole 266 

Schlingeria Irwin 268 

Unplaced Species of Therevidae 270 

Literature Cited 271 

Index 274 



This report is printed by authority of the State of Illinois. It is a contnbution from the 
Section of Economic Entomology of the Illinois Natural History Survey. 

Michael E. Irwin is Associate Professor of agricultural entomology. Office of Agricultural 
Entomology; Associate Professor of plant pathology. Department of Plant Pathology; and 
Researcher in the International Soybean Program, Office of International Agriculture, all at 
the University of Illinois. He is also an Associate Entomologist, Section of Economic Entomology, 
Illinois Natural History Survey. Leif Lyneborg is Entomologist and Curator of Diptera, Uni- 
versity Zoological Museum, Copenhagen. 

The Office of Agricultural Entomology, Department of Plant Pathology, Office of Inter- 
national Agriculture , Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, and the Illinois Natural History 
Survey provide equal opportunities in programs and employment. 

(48940— IM— 11-80) 




Fig. 1. — Tbereva frontalis Say adult female. 



The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



Michael E. Irwin and Leif Lyneborg 



The first description of a North 
American therevid was of Bibio ab- 
dominalis from the West Indies (Fabri- 
cius 1805). Next, descriptions of Nearc- 
tic Therevidae were pubHshed by a 
European, C. R. W. Wiedemann (1821, 
1824, and 1828), and an American, 
Thomas Say (1823, 1824, and 1829). 
Further descriptions followed thereafter 
by Macquart (1840), Walker (1848, 
1850, 1852, and 1857), Rondani (1856), 
Bellardi (1861), Loew (1869a, 1869&, 
1872, 1874, and 1876), Osten Sacken 
(1877 and 1887), Williston (1886), and 
Bigot (1889). The turn of the century 
nbrought a few new American dipterists 
;into the picture (Johnson 1902 and 
:1926; Adams 1903 and 1904), but by 
ifar the most important therevid worker 
iof that time was D. W. Goquillett, who 
iipublished revisionary monographs of the 
Therevidae (1893a and 18936) and 
iadded greatly to the concepts within the 
Ifamily (1894, 1898, 1904a, 1904&, and 
M910). Following Goquillett, Otto Krober 
111 Germany became the reigning world 
authority on the Therevidae, and he 
added considerably to the number of de- 
scribed species in North America through 
revisions and new descriptions (1911, 
1012, 1914, 1928a, 19286, and 1929). In 
1923 Frank Gole (1923a) published a 
monographic revision of the Therevidae 
of North America. This work has re- 
mained the definitive treatment for the 
jarea for the past 57 years. American 
workers, including Gole (19236, 1925, 
II959, 1960a, and 19606), Hardy (1938 
and 1943), James (1936 and 1949), 
James & Huckett (1952), and Bromley 
,(1937), added occasional new descrip- 
'tions and names to the slowly growing list 
of Therevidae of North America. In the 
late 1960's and 1970's, we became active 
in the area of therevid systematics. 



Lyneborg (1972) revised the Xestomyza 
group of Therevidae, including the 
genus Hcnicomyia from the Western 
Hemisphere, and Irwin (1977a and 
19776) revised three genera of North 
American Therevidae. 

During the course of preparing the 
Therevidae chapter for the soon-to-be- 
published Manual of Nearctic Diptera 
(Ganada Department of Agriculture 
1981), v\'e found that the previously pub- 
lished descriptions of genera were totally 
inadequate to form a framework for the 
therevid species of North America. The 
genus Psilocephala Zett., for instance, 
was found to be polyphyletic, containing 
species from several diverse ancestors. 
An effort to describe the many new 
genera contained herein was begun be- 
cause we realized the definitive nature of 
the forthcoming Manual oj Nearctic Dip- 
tera and the importance of establishing a 
generic base for the Therevidae founded 
on synapomoi"phies. We have restrained 
ourselves from grouping the genera be- 
yond the subfamilial level simply because 
we feel that better natural groupings can 
be formed once genera from other parts 
of the world are included in the scheme. 

We have attempted to place the de- 
scribed species in the new generic con- 
cepts at the end of each diagnosis. All 
North American genera are diagnosed, 
and male terminalia are figured for all 
genera. In total, 29 genera and 143 cur- 
rently valid species have been described 
for North America, excluding A psilo- 
cephala Krober (1914) and its included 
species, longistyla Krober (1914), which 
we feel does not belong within the family 
Therevidae. We have not included 
Melanothereva MaWoch (1932:249) that 
occurs in Chile, Peru, and parts of Ar- 
gentina and contains a single Nearctic 
species, nigra (Bellardi) [1861:92, S 



193 



194 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32. Art. 3 



(Psilocephala)] that, to our knowledge, 
has not been rediscovered since it was 
first described from Mexico. 

The descriptions and keys follow 
morphological terminology developed by 
us. Male terminalia characters were 
originally defined and described by Lyne- 
borg (1968a) and have since been modi- 
fied slightly by Lyneborg (1972, 1976, 
and 1978) and by Irwin (1977(z and 
19776). Female terminalia characters 
were defined and described by Irwin 
( 1976) . Other morphological features are 
generally accepted in Diptera literature, 
and we refrain from detailing them 
here. The immature stages of Therevidae 
have not been used in developing this 
preliminary classification. Larval and 
pupal stadia are being gathered and as- 
sociated with adults in the hope that 
eventually they will help to elucidate the 
proper phylogenetic placement of species 
within genera and genera within supra- 
generic taxa. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We wish to express our deep gratitude 
to Herbert J. Teskey, Canadian National 
Collection, and Donald W. Webb, Illi- 
nois Natural History Survey, for review- 
ing the manuscript. We also vkdsh to 
thank John P. Sherrod for drawing the 
frontispiece, the late Kai L. Elsman and 
Robert Nielsen for illustrating the paper, 
and Sandy McGary for typing the manu- 
script. Robert M. Zewadski, Technical 
Editor of the Illinois Natural History 
Survey, edited the final version for pub- 
lication. 

This publication would not have been 
possible without the loan of material 
from nearly all of the major entomologi- 
cal collections in North America and the 
loan of type material from the United 
States National Museum of Natural His- 
tory, the Canadian National Collection, 
the Philadelphia Academy of Natural 
Sciences, the California Academy of Sci- 
ences, the California Insect Survey 
(Berkeley), the American Museum of 
Natural History, Cornell University, the 
British Museum of Natural History, Mar- 



I 



tin Luther University (Halle), Natur- 
historisches Museum (Vienna) , Zoological 
Museum ( Copenhagen ) , and others. To ' 
the curators who made these specimens 
available, we owe a great debt of grati- 
tude. We especially acknowledge the help 
and encouragement of the curators from 
the University of California at Riverside, 
Saul I. Frommer; the University of Cali- 
fornia at Davis, Robert O. Schuster ; and 
the University of California at Berkeley, 
Evert I. Schlinger. 

We wish to thank these organizations 
for supporting in part the cost of this 
paper: Office of Agricultural Entomol- 
ogy, Office of International Agriculture, 
and the International Soybean Program, 
University of Illinois; and the Illinois 
Natural History Survey. 

Special thanks are due those who en- 
couraged the production of this paper. 
They include Dr. William H. Luckmann, 
Evert I. Schlinger, Frank R. Cole, the 
systematists in the Section of Faunistic 
Surveys and Insect Identification of the 
Illinois Natural History Sur^,ey, the 
dipterists at the Canadian National Col- 
lection, and our wives, Bonnie and Crete, 
who gave unselfishly of their patience • 
and understanding. To all of these we 
express heartfelt gratitude. 

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN 
DESCRIPTIONS AND FIGURES 

ad: anterodorsal 

ae: aedeagus 

av: anteroventral 

c: cerci 

dap : dorsal apodeme 

dc : dorsocentral 

dp: distiphallus 

eap : ejaculatory apodeme 

ep: epandrium 

fi : fore femur 

fa : middle femur 

fs : hind femur 

gc: gonocoxite 

gs: gonostylus 

h: hypandrium 

np: notopleural 

pa: postalar 

pap : parameral apodeme 



I 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



195 



pd: posterodorsal 
pp : parameral process 
pv: posteroventral 
sa; supra-alar 

scutellar 

fore tibia 

middle tibia 

hind tibia 
vap : ventral apodeme 
veps : ventral epandrial sclerite 
vl : ventral lobe 

FAMILY THEREVIDAE 

Description of Adult 

Slender to moderately thick-bodied 
flies (Fig. 1) ; length, excluding anten- 
nae, 2.5-15 mm. Background color light 
yellow to black. Body wholly or partly 
pilose, tomentose, pruinose, or some com- 
bination of these characters; setae usually 
prominent. 

Head. — Hemispherical, not depressed 
at vertex, hypognathous to prognathous. 
Eyes dichoptic in female, holoptic in 
most males, usually without hairs in both 
se.xes. Frons of female wide, reaching 
o( cllar tubercle, often covered variously 
with pollen and scattered hairs; frons 
of male usually small, acutely to broadly 
triangular, tomentose to bare, often with- 
out hairs. Three prominent ocelli set at 
Ncrtex or slightly anterior of vertex. An- 
tenna three segmented, sometimes set on 
prominent frontal protuberance; scape 
variously setose; pedicel usually with a 
ring or two of short setae; first flagello- 
mere without setae, or with setae usually 
confined to basal third ; flagellar style 
comprises 1 or 2 flagellomeres and a 
terminal or subterminal spine set apically 
or subapically on apical flagellomere ; 
spine elongate and prominent in some 
genera, but almost undetectable in others. 
Face often tomentose ; lateral areas pilose 
or not; genae pilose or not, often with 
a darkened tomentose or bare stripe; oc- 
ciput finely tomentose, often densely 
pilose from midpoint ventrally and prom- 
inently setose dorsally; postocular setae 
usually present though often slender. 
Palps one or two segmented, usually pi- 



lose and not prominent, set beside pro- 
boscis in subcranial cavity; proboscis 
slightly longer than palps, usually carried 
within subci-anial cavity. 

Thorax. — Scutum varies from nearly 
square to elongately rectangular when 
viewed from above, often sparsely to 
densely tomentose or pilose or both. 
Scutellum prominent, often without pile, 
but almost always tomentose. Pleuron 
variously pilose; upper portion usually 
densely tomentose; lower portion some- 
times without pollen. One pair postalar 
setae; 1-6 pairs notopleural setae or 
more; 1 or 2 pairs supra-alar setae; usu- 
ally 0-2 pairs dorsocentral setae, but 3 
or more in a few species; 0-3, rarely 4, 
pairs scutellar setae. 

Wing. — Venation remarkably uni- 
form (Fig. 32) ; Ri setose or not; R4 
elongate, usually S-shaped ; cell d has mi, 
m2, nis arising from apex; CuAi does not 
meet posterior margin of cell d ; crossvein 
m-cu present; cell cu-p closed behind; 
cell m3 open or closed; abnormalities 
common in wing venation. Stigma usu- 
ally well-developed. Wing hyaline to in- 
fuscate, sometimes banded or spotted, 
veins often surrounded by darker infus- 
cation. Microtrichia from sparse to dense. 
Calypter well-developed. Halter large 
and well-developed. 

Legs. — Usually fairly long and slen- 
der; hind legs longer than others. Fore 
coxa (Fig. 3) with none to several setae 
on anterior surface; middle co.xa with 
(Fig. 4) or without (Fig. 5) pile on 
posterior surface; all femora bare to 
heavily setose, especially anteroventrally, 
often with long scalelike pile along dorsal 
surface; tibiae and tarsi setulose in defi- 
nite longitudinal rows; fore tibia lacks 
setae anteroventrally. Five tarsomeres 
present; first tarsomere longest and some- 
times swollen; claw with 2 pulvilli and a 
setalike central empodium or without 
empodium. 

Abdomen. — Usually convex to flat- 
tened dorsally and tapering at apex, 
sometimes laterally compressed, always 
with 8 well-developed pregenital seg- 
ments. Fine silveiy pollen often adorns 



196 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



abdomen, covering it completely in male 
of many species and in patterns on fe- 
male. Tomentum and pile present or 
absent, usually longer and denser on 
male. 

Female Terminalia. — Characterized 
by large conspicuous sternite 8, func- 



tioning variously as a digging-anchoring 
apparatus for oviposition, a floor for 
genital chamber, and a guide for penial 
insertion during copulation (Invin 
1976). Stemite 9 (furca), acting as roof 
of genital chamber, completely internal, 
with 2 lateral sclerites fused posteriorly 






Fig. 2-7. 2. — NebWtus pethcidus Coq. male head in dorsal view. 3. — Megallnga insignata Irw. & 
Lyn. fore coxae, prosternum, and cervical lobes. 4. — Palticephala voriegoto (Lw.) middle coxa. 5. — 
Orodiceromyo mexicono Big. middle coxo. 6. — Tobuda varia (Wlk.) head in lateral view. 7. — Dorso- 
frontal view. Scale: 1 mm. 



Nov., 1980 



Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



197 



to a sclerotized bar that contains a mem- glands. Three unsclerotized spermathecae 
branous central sheath through which and 2 accessory glands present. Tergite 
pass ducts of spermathecae and accessory 8 generally unmodified. Tergite 9 usually 




Fig. 8-15. 8. — Thereva plebeja (I.) female head in frontal view. 9. — Antenna. 10. — Psilocephata 
Tunda Lw. female head in frontal view. 11. — Antenna. 12. — Pandivirilia limata (Coq.) hind femur in 
/entral view. 13. — Virilirlda monfivaga (Coq.) hind femora in ventral view. 14. — Pandivirilia limata 
Coq.) male head in frontal view. 15. — Dichogtena amplifrons (Cole) male head in frontal view. Scale; 
l).5 mm for 9 and 11, 1 mm for others. 



198 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



a single sclerite, generally with extended 
lateral margins fused to posterolateral 
margins of furca. Tergite 10 always di- 
vided though often fused with tergite 9; 
digging-anchoring spines often present 
posterodorsally and anterolaterally al- 
though reduced in Phycinae. Sternites 10 
and 11 (hypoproct or subanal plate) 
generally a single plate, usually heavily 



sclerotized though more thinly so in some 
genera of Phycinae. Cerci disc shaped, 
attached to tergite 10 in most groujjs, but 
fused into a single sclerite in Pherocera, 
Parapherocera, and Schlingeria. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 107-114).- 
Fairly uniform in plan. .Sclerites forming 
sternite 8 and tergite 8 unmodified to 
narrowly constricted medially. Tergite 




Fig. 16-25. 16. — ti"fo//nga acuta (Adams) female head in lateral view. 17. — Frontal view. 18. — 
Brachy/ingo faaccalo (Coq.) female head in frontal view. 19. — Arenigena semilaria (Coq.) male head in 
frontal view. 20. — Ammonaios niyeus (Krob.) male head in frontol view. 21. — Arenigena semitorio (Coq.) 
antenna. 22. — Ammonoios niveus (Krob.) antenna, 23. — Rhogioformo macu/ipennis (Krob.) antenna. 
24. — Cyclotelus rufivenlris (Lw.) female fore tarsus. 25. — Penniverpo festino (Coq.) female fore tarsus. 
Scale; 0.5 mm for 21-23, 1 mm for others. 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



199 



9, the epandrium, acting as a large cover- and shapes; bears ventral epandrial 
ing for terminalia, variously haired, often sclerite and cerci apically. Stemite 9, the 
with posterolateral lobes of various sizes hypandrium, large in some genera, nar- 




Fig. 26-32. 26. — Cyc(o*e/us pruinosus Wlk. antenna. 27. — Cyclofe/us rufivenfri's (Lw.) antenna. 
128. — Ozodiceromya mexicana Big. antenna. 29. — Ozodiceromyo signalipennis (Cole) antenna. 30. — 
Cyclofe/us rufiventrh (Lw.) female head in frontal view. 31. — Chromo/epida bel/a Cole male tiead in 
lateral view. 32. — Pandivirilia limata (Coq.) wing. Scale: 1.3 mm for 26, 0.5 mm for 27-29, 1 mm for 
30, ond 0.7 mm for 31. 



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Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



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Fig. 33-41. 33. — Pbycus brunneus (Wlk.) male head in anterodorsal view. 34. — Phycus hrunneut 
(Wlk.) palp. 35. — Henicomyia hubbardii Coq. male head in lateral view. 36. — Antenna of an un- 
named species of Phycvs from southern California. 37. — Paropherocero montono Irw. antenna. 38. — 
Pherocera sp. antenna. 39. — Schlingeria ammobata Irw. antenna. 40. — Paropherocero montono Iwr. 
mole head in frontal view. 41. — -Pherocera sp. mole head in frontal view. Scale: 0.5 mm for 34 and 
36-39; 1 mm for 33, 35, 40, and 41. 



row to absent in others, variously free 
from or fused to gonocoxites. Gcnocox- 
ites fused or free ventrally. Each gono- 
coxite often extends posteriorly as a 
broad to narrow lobe well beyond in- 
sertion of gonostylus, usually with one 
or more additional appendages. These 
appendages include ventromedially a 
ventral lobe that appears to function as 
an aedeagal guide and dorsally a para- 
mere (= dorsal gonoco.xal process). 
Paramere composed of ( 1 ) a rod-shaped 
apodeme most anteriorly on gonocoxite 



and in some groups with a connecting 
sclerotized bridge to aedeagus, (2) a 
midsection closely fused with doreal edge 
of gonocoxite, and (3) a free distal por- 
tion, the parameral process, usually 
shaped as a style beaiing setae apically, 
but entirely absent in many genera. 
Gonostylus variously shaped, moving in 
a dorsoventral or oblique direction and 
not opposed, seemingly lying within 
genital cavity of female during copula- 
tion. Aedeagus consists of a short to long 
variously twisted distiphallus, an elongate 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



201 



or vestigial dorsal apodeme, a simple or 
forked ventral apodeme sometimes hav- 
ing 2 extensions toward tip of distiphal- 
lus, and a variously shaped ejaculatory 
apodeme. Aedeagus attached at one or 
more of three sites, (1) by anterior 
edge of intersegmental membrane below 
epandrium (usually as a basal extension 
of ventral epandrial sclerite) to distal 
margin of dorsal apodome, (2) by para- 
meral apodeme to dorsolateral portion of 
aedeagus, or (3) by ventral lobe to mid- 
ventral section of aedeagus. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF NEARCTIC 
THEREVIDAE 

1. Middle coxa with pile on posterior 

surface (Fig. 4) 2 

Middle coxa without pile on posterior 
surface or with only a few appresscd 
scalelike hairs (Fig. 5) 20 

2. Prosternum with pile in and around 

central depression (Fig. 3) 3 

Prosternum without pile in and around 
central depression 15 

3. Lower frons in both sexes entirely 
shiny; head strongly protruding an- 
teriorly: compound eyes of male sep- 
arated by more than width of ocellar 

tubercle (Fig. 2) 

Nebritus Coquillett (p. 249) 

Lower frons at least partially to- 
mentose; head not strongly protrud- 
ing anteriorly; compound eyes sepa- 
rated at most by width of ocellar 
tubercle 4 

4. Lateral portion of face, at least upper 

part, without pile 5 

Lateral portion of face, at least upper 
part, with pile 13 

5. Paired cervical lobes anterior to 
presternum, each with a strong black 
seta in addition to whitish pile (Fig. 
3). Veins R2+3 and Ri have a deep 
curve before wing margin. Distiphal- 
lus deeply cleft at apex (Fig. 164) . . 

. .Megalinga Irwin & Lyneborg (p. 242) 
Paired cervical lobes anterior to 
prosternum without a strong black 
seta, with only whitish pile present. 
Vein R2*3 usually has a gentle curve 
before wing margin. Distiphallus not 
cleft 6 

6. Macrosctae of mcsonotum all pale. 
Paramcral process present, enlarged, 
and modified distally (Fig. 149 and 
156). Cell ma closed 

. . .Arenigena Irwin & Lyneborg (p. 238) 



Macrosetae of mesonotum usually all 
black; if macrosetae pale (some Ly- 
silinga), then cell ms open. Parameral 
process absent or present and simple. 
Cell m3 only rarely closed 7 

7. Scape in lateral view distinctly wider 
than first flagellomere (Fig. 54 and 
55); pile of scape long and dense. ... 8 
Scape in lateral view narrower than 

or as wide as first flagellomere (Fig. 
21-23); pile of scape short and 
sparse 9 

8. Male frons has pile. Lower part of fe- 
male frons has pile. Fore and middle 
femora without setae. Epandrium 
(Fig. 42 and 43) has posterolateral 
corners only slightly projecting and not 
extending to distal margin of cerci and 
ventral epandrial sclerite; the latter 
often greatly enlarged. Hypandrium 

absent (Fig. 44) 

Dialineura Rondani (p. 204) 

Male frons without pile. Lower part 

of female frons without pile. Fore 
and/or middle femora usually have 
some short setae. Epandrium (Fig. 
48 and 49) has posterolateral corners 
strongly projecting, extending to or 
beyond distal margin of cerci and 
ventral epandrial sclerite. Hypan- 
drium (Fig. 50) present as a small 
narrow transverse sclerite between 
anteroventral margins of gonocoxites. . 
Pallicephala Irwin & Lyneborg (p. 206) 

9. One pair of scutellar setae and genal 
area (Fig. 16) have darkened wedge 
or stripe; ocellar tubercle very promi- 
nent, especially in male 

. . .Litolinga Irwin & Lyneborg (p. 234) 
Two pairs of scutellar setae or genal 
area not darker than lower portion of 
occiput, uniform in color and texture; 
ocellar tubercle normal 10 

10. Palps constricted a short distance 
before apex. Wing strongly maculated. 
Male frons prominent, with long, dense, 
black pile. Female abdomen yellow- 
ish brown with median row of dark 

spots 

Rhagioforma Irwin & Lyneborg (p. 236) 
Palps not constricted apically. Wing 
not strongly maculated. Male frons 
with or without long, dense pile. Fe- 
male abdomen variously colored, usu- 
ally brownish to grayish, without 
median row of dark spots 11 

I 1 . Pile of fore femur pale and erect, 
composed of long, uniform, thin hairs. 
Parameral process large, free; gono- 
stylus simple, slender (Fig. 66 and 

67) ....•...._ 

. . . . Pandivirilia Ij-win & Lyneborg, in 
part (p. 212) 



202 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32. Art. 3 



Pile of fore femur composed of ap- 
pressed whitish, scaly hairs and slen- 
der, erect hairs that are whitish or 
blackish. Paramere without a distal 
portion; gonostylus hook-shaped, bear- 
ing groups of setae (Fig. 122, 129, 
and 130) 12 

12. Dorsocentral setae absent. Abdomen 
orange to reddish brown in both sexes. 
Aedeagus (Fig. 122) about half as 
long as gonocoxite; distal section of 
distiphallus subapical, projecting down- 
ward (Fig. 125) 

. . .Lysilinga Irwin & Lyneborg (p. 230) 
One or two pairs of dorsocentral setae 
present. Abdomen gray or black. 
Aedeagus (Fig. 129) usually more 
than half as long as gonocoxite; distal 
section of distiphallus apical (Fig. 

133) 

Brachylinga Irwin & Lyneborg (p. 232) 

13. Frons (Fig. 20) in both sexes has 
dense, appressed pile of whitish, scaly 
hairs. Macrosetae of mesonotum pale. 
A circular blackish area usually pres- 
ent in and aroimd each anterior ten- 
torial pit 

Ammonaios Irwin & Lyneborg (p. 240) 
Frons in both sexes has pile of erect, 
normal hairs. Macrosetae of mesono- 
tum black. Area in and around an- 
terior tentorial pits not differently 
colored from rest of face 14 

14. Male has epandrium as long as or 
longer in midline than wide (Fig. 
103); aedeagus has ventral projec- 
tions adjoining distiphallus (Fig. 104). 
Male abdomen covered entirely by 
whitish pile. Female frons has pat- 
tern formed by dull pale or dark col- 
ored tomentum, without subshiny to 
shiny calli 

. . .Acrosathe Irwin & Lyneborg (p. 223) 
Male epandrium much shorter in mid- 
line than wide (Fig. 81); aedeagus 
without ventral projections adjoining 
distiphallus (Fig. 83). Male abdomen 
covered entirely by whitish pile only 
in a few species. Female frons (Fig. 
8) in most species has callus or calli 
that are large, shiny, black or at least 

subshiny medially 

Thereva Latreille (p. 216) 

15. Scape (Fig. 6) distinctly longer and 
wider than first flagcllomcre. Head 

protruding anteriorly 16 

Scape not longer or wider than first 
flagellomere. Head not strongly pro- 
truding anteriorly 17 

16. Male has compound eyes (Fig. 7) sep- 
arated by at least width of anterior 
ocellus. Two supra-alar setae and 1 
dorsocentral seta present. Cell m3 
broadly open. Parameral process knob- 
like (Fig. 96) . . .Tabuda Walker (p. 221) 



Male has compound eyes separated 
by less than width of anterior ocellus. 
One supra-alar seta present; dorsocen- 
tral setae absent. Cell ma closed or nar- 
rowly open. Parameral process extends 
beyond level of gonocoxite (Fig. 88) 
Tabudamima Irwin & Lyneborg (p. 219) j 

17. Mesonotal pile of male short, sparse, 
and appressed; hairs shorter than 
width of scape. Hind femur (Fig. 13) 
has sparse, appressed pile and many 
short, scattered, black setae on entire 
ventral surface in addition to normal 
row of strong, anterovcntral setae. . . . 

. .Viriliricta Irivin & L\Tieborg (p. 208) 
Mesonotal pile of male long, abundant, 
erect; hairs distinctly longer than 
width of scape. Hind femur (Fig 12) 
has denser, usually erect pile and at 
most a few short, black, posteroventral 
setae apically in addition to usual row 
of strong anterovcntral setae 18 

18. Male compound eyes (Fig. 15) sep- 
arated by at least width of anterior 
ocellus. Female has black or blackish 
brown tibiae. Female has tergite 4 en- 
tirely shiny black 

Dichoglena Irwin & Lyneborg (p. 210) 

Male compound eyes (Fig. 14) sepa- 
rated by less than half width of ante- 
rior ocellus. Female has yellowish brown 
tibiae. Female has tergite 4 at least 
partly tomentose 19 

19. Lower frons of both sexes has whitish 
pile; upper, lateral portion of face with 
long, whitish pile. Hypandrium (Fig. 
73) present; distiphallus long, its 
tip twisted (Fig. 75) 

. .Spiriverpa Irwin & Lyneborg (p. 214) 

Lower frons of both sexes either with- 
out pile or with blackish pile; upper, 
lateral portion of face in most species 
without pile, but if pile present, then 
black. Hypandrium (Fig. 66) absent: 
distiphallus short, its tip not twisted 

(Fig. 68) 

Pandivirilia Invin & Lyneborg, 

in part (p. 212) 

20. Prosternum has pile in and around 
central depression (Fig. 3) 21 

Prosternum without pile in and 
around central depression 24 

21. A pair of shiny, black, raised calli 
on upper face below antennal bases 
(Fig. 31). Thorax and abdomen 
clothed with totally appressed, broad 
scales in addition to normal pile. . . . 
Chromolepida Cole (p. 258) 

Face without shiny calli. Pile of thorax 
and abdomen composed of semi-ap- 
prcssed, scaly hairs and erect, normal 
hairs 22 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



203 



Cell mj broadly open. Male frons en- 
tirely tomentose and without pile; fe- 
male frons entirely tomentose. Fore 
tibia has at most 2 or 3 very short 
posteroventral setae; fore tibia and 
first tarsomere very slender (Fig. 25) 
. .Penniverpa Irwin & Lyneborg (p. 227) 
Cell ma closed or narrowly open (in 
some Breviperna). Male frons usually 
partly shining and with pile; female 
frons variously shining (not in Brevi- 
perna). Fore tibia has several stout 
posteroventral setae; fore tibia and 

first tarsomere stout (Fig. 24) 23 

Entire frons in both sexes covered with 
tomentum, without shiny areas. Male 
dichoptic. Large, broadly built species 

with short broad antennae 

Breviperna Irwin (p. 247) 

Frons in both sexes at least partly 
shiny. Small and slenderly built spe- 
cies, with slender antennae (Fig. 28 
and 29) . . .Ozodiceromya Bigot (p. 254) 
Hind femur has appresscd, scaly hairs, 
usually also some anteroventral setae. 
Tergite 10 of female heavily spinose; 
distal spines stout, short, projecting 
dorsally and laterally; basal spines 

slim, long, projecting ventrally 25 

Hind femur has erect, normal hairs, 
without anteroventral setae. Tergite 10 
of female slenderly spinose; spines of 

only one kind. PHYCINAE 26 

First tarsomere of foreleg swollen 
(Fig. 24). Scutellum short, with pile 
on margin only; katepisternum with- 
out pile. Male terminalia partly tele- 
scoped and concealed within abdomen, 
usually yellowish. Parameral process 

absent (Fig. 182) 

Cyclotelus Walker (p. 251) 

First tarsomere of foreleg not swollen. 
Scutellum long, with long pile on disc; 
katepisternum has long, pale pile. 
Male terminalia prominently project- 
ing, polished black; parameral process 
large, prominently extends beyond 

gonocoxite (Fig. 107) 

Psilocephala Zctterstcdt (p. 225) 

!6. Scutellar setae absent 27 

One pair scutellar setae present 28 

One or two notopleural setae present; 
mesopleuron without pile. First flagel- 
lomere much longer than scape (Fig. 
35). Middle and hind tarsi have very 
short setae. Genital opening of female 

directed dorsally 

Henicomyia Coquillctt (p. 262) 

Three notopleural setae; mesopleuron 
has long pile. First flagellomere only 
slightly longer than scape (Fig. 39). 
Middle and hind tarsi have very long, 



thin setae. Genital opening of female 

posteriorly directed 

Schlingeria Irwin (p. 268) 

28. Palps distinctly two segmented, with 
apical segment shorter (Fig. 34). Hind 
femur has very short, uniform hairs. 
Cerci of male project posteriorly be- 
yond ventral epandrial sclerite (Fig. 
204). Antenna distinctly longer than 

depth of head (Fig. 33) 

Phycus Walker (p. 260) 

Palps one segmented. Hind femur has 
elongate hairs. Cerci and ventral 
epandrial sclerite of male project the 
same distance posteriorly. Antenna 
shorter than or about as long as depth 
of head 29 

29. Antenna at least as long as depth of 
head; shining, raised callus present 
between antennal base and subcranial 
cavity (Fig. 40); male dichoptic... 
Parapherocera Irwin (p. 264) 

Antenna shorter than depth of head; 
no raised callus between antennal base 
and subcranial cavity; male holoptic 
(Fig. 41) (except for a single unde- 

scribed species from Mexico) 

Pherocera Cole (p. 266) 

Subfamily Therevinae 

These attributes characterize the North 
American members of the subfamily 
Therevinae. 

1. Usually without a strong sclerotized 
bridge between dorsal apodeme of 
aedeagus and paramere; if such a 
bridge is present {Cyclotelus, some 
Ozodiceromya) , hypandrium unde- 
tectable. 

2. Ventral apodeme of aedeagus not 
forked and not vestigial, projects an- 
teriorly as a simple sclerite. 

3. Tergite 10 of female has a group of 
thickened spines (acanthophorites) set 
in posterodorsal and posterolateral po- 
sitions and a second group of thinner, 
often longer spines set lateroventrally 
on tergite 9; tergite 9 fused with ter- 
gite 10. 

4. Intersegmental membrane between 
sternite 8 and stemite 9 (furca) of fe- 
male sclerotized. 

5. Pregenital abdominal segments have 
spiracles in the pleural membrane. 

6. Vein Ri not setose. 



204 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



Genus Dialineura Rondani 

(Fig. 42-47) 

Dialineura Rondani 1856: 155. Type-spe- 
cies: Musca anilis Linnaeus 1761:442 
by original designation. Type-locality: 
Sweden. 

Reference: Lyneborg 1968fc. 

Diagnosis 

Small- to medium-sized, moderately 
slender species. 

Head. • — Frons of male at its narrow- 
est narrower than half width of anterior 



ocellus; frons of female at level of an- 
terior ocellus 2.0-2.5 X as wide as ocellar 
tubercle; male frons entirely tomentose 
with long pile over most of its surface; 
female frons entirely and uniformly to- 
mentose, sometimes with a dull, dark, 
transverse band over middle, with to- 
mentum of lower frons sometimes paler 
than that of upper frons; female frons 
has short, rather sparse pile over most 
of its surface; head markedly protruding 
anteriorly, antennae thus set on a dis- 
tinct protuberance; a dark, dull band at 
antennal level apparent in certain views, 



I 

I 




i 



Fig 42-47. — Diol.neuro onilis (L.) mole terminolla. 42. — GenitoUo in lateral view. 43. — Epandrium 
with appendages in dorsal view. 44. — Right gonocoxite with appendages and aedeagus m dorsal view. 
45. — Aedeogus in lateral view. 46. — Slernite 8. 47. — Tergite 8. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



Nov., 1980 



Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



205 



but facial and genal calli absent; lateral 
jX)rtion of face usually bare, only pilose 
in affinis Lyneborg (1968t: 157 3 ) from 
China; gena has long, pale pile; depth 
of head 1. 1-1.3 X length of antennae; 
scape 1.0-1.3 X as long as flagellum, 
thickened; flagellar style apical and two 
segmented, with a small terminal spine; 
palps one segmented. 

Thorax. — np 2-4 (usually 3), sa 2, 
pa 1, dc 1-3; sc 2; mesonotal pile in male 
long, uniform, erect, pale, with a few 
black hairs intermixed; mesonotal pile 
in female of two types: in the first, 
moderately long, sparse, erect, black and 
in the other short, rather dense, semi-ap- 
pressed, pale; prosternum has long, pale 
pile in and around central depression. 
Wing. — Cell m^ open; veins Ri and Rr, 
of equal length; cell Vi 2. 1-2.4 X as long 
as wide at apex; color hyaline with faint 
grayish or brownish tinge; stigma pale 
brownish to dark brownish. Legs. — Fore 
coxa has 2-4 apical setae on anterior 
surface; middle coxa has long pile on 
posterior surface; hind femur has 6-10 
anteroventral setae. 

Abdomen. — Slender to moderately 
broad, gradually tapering from segment 
3 onward; abdomen not telescoped; 
dorsum somewhat flattened in female, 
more convex in male; male dorsum cov- 
ered entirely by silvery gray tomentum 
and whitish pile; female dorsum exten- 
sively tomentose, some species having 
distinct, dark, shining, anterior bands. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 42-47). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 47) rather large and 
markedly constricted medially; stemite 8 
(Fig. 46) comparatively large, bilobed 
(i.e., has a deep V- or U-shaped incision 
in posterior margin) ; epandrium (Fig. 
143) longer medially than wide, in most 
species more markedly narrowing poster- 
iorly than in the type-species and has 
a distinct, lateral incision (Lyneborg 
1968a) ; cerci free (Fig. 43), well sclero- 
tized, never extending beyond ventral 
epandrial sclerite; ventral epandrial 
sclerite varies greatly in size, in the type- 
species (Fig. 43) not extending beyond 
cerci, but in other species from moder- 



ately (e.g., in gorodkovi) to noticeably 
extending beyond cerci, being longer than 
half length of epandrium; ventral epan- 
drial membrane weak, reaching to near 
anterior margin of epandrium, but not 
attached to anterior margin of aedeagus ; 
parameral apodeme not attached to 
aedeagus; distiphallus (Fig. 44) in dorsal 
view comparatively long and wide, some- 
times provided with small spines; in 
lateral view, distiphallus (Fig. 45) sud- 
denly downcurved with extreme apex 
upcurved; dorsal apodeme 2-4 X as wide 
as distiphallus base, often with 2 tooth- 
shaped outshoots dorsally, its distal mar- 
gin has a semicircular incision; ventral 
apodeme large, usually extending beyond 
dorsal apodeme and narrowly spoon 
shaped; ejaculatory apodeme simple, 
slightly thickened both proximally and 
distally; ventral lobes of gonocoxite long, 
slender, lamellate, directed obliquely up- 
ward and loosely attached to midventral 
surface of aedeagus; parameral process 
short, narrow, reaching far short of 
posterior apex of gonocoxite and rarely 
visible in lateral view (Fig. 42) ; para- 
meral apodeme short and narrow; some 
species show an additional small, finger- 
like process on inner side of gonocoxite 
slightly distad of parameral process in- 
sertion (Lyneborg 1975: Fig. 2); gono- 
coxites not united ventrally except by a 
weak membrane; gonocoxite (Fig. 42) in 
lateral view characteristically projects 
and gradually narrows posteriorly; hy- 
pandrium totally absent. 

Habitat 

The habitat of the North American 
species is totally unknown. 

Distribution 

The one species recorded from the 
Nearctic Region has been found only in 
Manitoba, Canada. Several described 
species occur throughout the Palearctic 
Region. 

Included Species 

gorodkovi Zaitzev 1971:191 $, 9. 
Distribution. — Fort Churchill, Man- 
itoba, Canada; also Siberia in Asia. 



206 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



No undescribed specimens are known Feminine 

to us. Derivation of name: palla (Greek) = 

Genus Pallicephala Irwin & Lyneborg, ball; kephale (Greek) = head. 

new genus (Fig. 4 and 48-55) Type-species: Psilocephala variegata 




Fig. 48-55. — Pollicephala spp. 48-53. — P. willisloni (Cole) male lerminalla. 48. — Genilolia in 
lateral view. 49. — Epondrium with appendages in dorsal view. 50. — Right gonocoxite with appendages 
and aedeagus in dorsal view. 51. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 52. — Sternite 8. 53. — Tergite 8. 54. — 
Antenna of P. voriegofo (Lw.). 55. — Antenna of P. wiliistoni [Cole). Scale: 0.5 mm. 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



207 



Loew 1869^:170 by present designa- 
tion. Type-locality: "Canada" (prob- 
ably eastern Canada) . 

Diagnosis 

Moderate to large-sized, slender to 
heavy-bodied species. 

Head. — Frons of male at its narrow- 
est narrower than half width of anterior 
ocellus; frons of female at level of an- 
terior ocellus 2.2-2.5 X as wide as ocellar 
tubercle; male frons entirely tomentose, 
uniformly colored, and without pile; fe- 
male frons entirely tomentose, either uni- 
formly colored or upper part darker than 
lower part, or has a pair of dark, velvety 
spots; pile of female frons restricted to 
upper two-thirds and in most species 
short and sparse; head rather promi- 
nently protrudes anteriorly; a dull, dark- 
ened band crosses frons at antennal level, 
but facial and genal calH absent; lateral 
portion of face without pile ; genae have 
long pile; head 1.1-1.5X deeper than 
antennal length (Fig. 54 and 55) ; scape 
0.8-1.2 X as long as flagellum, thickened 
in most species; flagellar style apical, 
stout, two segmented, with a small, ter- 
minal spine; palps one segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3-5, sa 1-2, pa 1, dc 1- 
4, sc 1-2; mesonotal pile in most species 
short, pale, and semi-erect to appressed, 
but short, black, erect pile also occurs, 
and willistoni has long pile composed of 
black and white hairs; prosternum has 
long, pale pile in and around central 
depression. Wing. — Cell va^ open (ex- 
cept in variegata) ; vein R4 distinctly 
longer than vein R5; cell r4 1.9-2.5 X 
as long as wide at apex; color hyaline 
with faint grayish-brown tinge, some- 
times maculated ; most species have a 
distinct, brown stigma. Legs. — Fore 
coxa has 2-3 pale or black, ventrally di- 
rected setae close to apical margin; these 
setae are slender in most species, but 
stout in willistoni; middle coxa has pile 
nn posterior surface (Fig. 4) ; hind femur 
with 2-10 anterovcntral setae. 

Abdomen. — Moderately broad to 
broad, gradually tapering from base to 
apex; abdomen not telescoped: dorsum 
of male convex, of female more flattened ; 



dorsum of male entirely tomentose or has 
blackish anterior bands on anterior ter- 
gites; dorsum of female has blackish an- 
terior bands, with posterior parts of ter- 
gites tomentose. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 48-53). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 53) small and only mod- 
erately constricted medially; sternite 8 
(Fig. 52) small, often without a distinct 
incision; epandrium (Fig. 49) shorter 
or slightly longer in midline than wide, 
posterolateral corners greatly project 
and broadly rounded, extending be- 
yond cerci and ventral epandrial scler- 
ite; cerci free (Fig. 49), well sclerotized, 
not extended beyond ventral epandrial 
sclerite; ventral epandrial sclerite sclero- 
tized only as a bilobed area below cerci; 
membrane below epandrium reduced to 
2 narrowly triangular sections posteriorly; 
parameral apodeme not attached to 
aedeagus; distiphallus (Fig. 50) in dorsal 
view short compared with dorsal apo- 
deme, seen laterally (Fig. 51) suddenly 
downcurved; ventral apodeme forms a 
short spoon; ejaculatory apodeme short 
and simple; ventral lobes of gonocoxites 
directed upward, lamellate, narrowing 
distally, and have an attachment to 
ventral surface of aedeagus; parameral 
process large, extending beyond posterior 
margin of gonocoxite; gonocoxites not 
fused ventrally, but attached for a long 
distance by a membrane; gonocoxite in 
lateral view (Fig. 48) shows a process 
posteroventrally ; hypandrium well de- 
veloped, free (Fig. 50). 

Habitat 

Nothing is known of the habitats that 
species of this genus occupy except for 
willistoni, often found in oak grasslands 
along dry or nearly dry stream beds. 

Distribution 

Species in the genus Palliccphala are 
largely found in western North America ; 
one species is found in the Great Lakes 
region of North America. 

Included Species 

flavipilosa (Cole) 1923a:62 $, 9 
(Psilocephala as a subspecies of var- 



208 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



iegata Loew), new combination. 
Distribution. — Central California. 

fuscipennis (Cole) 1923a:62 9 {Psilo- 
cephala), new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Washington. 

occidentalis (Cole) 1923a: 61 $ {Psi- 
locephala as a subspecies of variegata 
Loew) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — • Oregon. 

variegata {'Loe^N) 1869b: 170 5 {Psilo- 
cephala), new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Great Lakes region of 
North America. 

willistoni (Cole) 1965:352 {Diali- 
neura) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Pacific northwest southward 
to San Francisco Bay and Santa 
Cruz County, California. 

crassicornis Y^Wliston 1886:293 5, 
? {Thereva) , not Bellardi 
1861:88. 

No undescribed species of this genus 
are at hand. 

Genus Viriliricta Irwin & Lyneborg, 
new genus (Fig. 13 and 56-60) 

Feminine 

Derivation of name: virilia (Latin) ~ 
male genitals; rictus (Latin) = open, 
gaped. 

Type-species: Psilocephala montivaga 
Coquillett 18936:226 by present desig- 
nation. Type-locality: Los Angeles 
County, California. 

Diagnosis 

Large though rather slender flies. 

Head. — Frons of male at its narrow- 
est at least as wide as width of anterior 
ocellus; frons of female narrow, at level 
of anterior ocellus 1.3-1.8X as wide as 
ocellar tubercle; male frons dull to sub- 
shiny, usually extensively darkened over 
most of its area, silver-gray to whitish 
tomentum usually restricted to lower, 
lateral parts; upper male frons has lateral 
rows of short, black, semi-appressed hairs 
(a few hairs may occur on lower frons) ; 
female frons extensively tomentose or 
subshiny black, tomentum dark, with 
richer, but shorter pile than that of male ; 



head moderately to greatly protruding 
anteriorly; facial and genal calli absent; 
lateral portion of face without pile; gena 
has a few short hairs; head depth 1.2- 
1.4X antennal length; flagellum slender, 
1.4-1.7 X as long as scape; scape slender: 
flagellar style apical, two segmented, with 
a minute terminal spine; palps one seg- 
mented. 

Thorax. — np 4-5, sa 2, pa 1, dc 1-2, 
sc 2; mesonotal pile of both sexes short, 
sparse and semi-appressed, not longer 
than width of scape; prostemum bare in 
and around central depression. Wing. — 
Cell ma open; vein R4 distinctly longer 
than vein R5; cell r^ 2.7-3.0 X as long as 
wide at apex; color hyaline with grayish 
to brownish tinge; stigma distinct. Legs. 
— Fore coxa has 2-3 apical setae on 
anterior surface; middle coxa has sparse, 
short, whitish pile on posterior surface; 
hind femur (Fig. 13) has sparse, ap- 
pressed pile, especially at base, 5-7 an- 
teroventral setae, many additional, short, 
scattered, black setae on ventral surface; 
fore and middle femora usually have 
ventral setae in similar position. 

Abdomen. — Male abdomen distinct; 
rather wide, short, tapering from base to 
apex (in montivaga) ; in other species 
longer, more slender, and nearly equally 
wide throughout; dorsum always dis- 
tinctly convex ; male dorsum may be en- 
tirely tomentose or may have a pattern 
of shiny black and tomentose areas; fe- 
male dorsum shiny brownish to blackish 
with tomentose areas laterally on first few- 
segments. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 56-60). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 60) comparatively large 
and strongly constricted medially; ster- 
nite 8 (Fig. 59) also rather large, more 
or less distinctly incised along posterior 
margin; epandrium (Fig. 58) about as 
long at midline as wide, with large, 
broadly rounded posterolateral corners: 
cerci free, well sclerotized, not projecting 
beyond ventral epandrial sclerite; ventral 
epandrial sclerite large, reaching or nearly 
reaching anterior margin of epandrium, 
without distinct attachment to anterior 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



209 




Fig. 56—60. — Viriliricta montivaga (Coq.) male ierminalia. 56. — Right gonocoxite with appendages 
and oedeagus in dorsal view. 57. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 58. — Epandrium with appendages in 
dorsal view. 59. — Sternite 8. 60. — Tergite 8. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



margin of aedeagus; ventral epandrial 
sclerite rather well sclerotized, especially 
fKisteriorly, where it is pointed and keel 
shaped, and diverges from cerci ; para- 
meral apodeme without attachment to 
aedeagus; distiphallus in dorsal view 
gradually tapering, in lateral view posi- 
tioned in same plane as longitudinal axis 
of aedeagus (Fig. 57) ; dorsal apodeme 
large, rectangular; ventral apodeme long, 
slender; ejaculatory apodeme extends 
slightly anteriorly beyond dorsal apo- 
deme; ventral lobes of gonocoxites mod- 
erately large, rounded and directed 



toward and loosely attached to ventral 
surface of aedeagus; ventral lobes not 
attached ventrally along midline; para- 
meral process protrudes prominently be- 
yond level of posterior margin of gono- 
coxite; parameral apodeme moderately 
long and slender; gonocoxites not united 
ventrally (Fig. 66) even by a membrane; 
gonocoxites in lateral view short and 
truncate posteriorly; hypandrium absent. 

Habitat 

Little is known about the habitat of 
these species. An adult of V. montivaga 



210 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



was captured while resting on a leaf of 
a bush near a stream. All species seem to 
inhabit mountainous areas. 

Distribution 

Two species exist in the mountains of 
eastern North America and a third in 
western North America. 

Included Species 

canadensis (Cole) 1923(z:57 ? {Psilo- 
cephala) , new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Ontario, Canada. This 
species may prove to be conspecific 
with grandis (Johnson) . 

grandis (Johnson) 1902:24 5 {Psiloce- 
phala) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Quebec, Canada, and New 
York. 

montivaga (Coquillett) 1893fc:226 $, 
$ {Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — Mountains of Cali- 
fornia, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah. 

One undescribed species from Ten- 
nessee is at hand. 

Genus Dichoglena Irwin & Lyneborg, 
new genus (Fig. 15 and 61-65) 

Feminine 

Derivation of name: dicha (Greek) = 

in two parts; glene (Greek) = eyeball. 
Type-species: Psilocephala amplifrons 

Cole 1925:85 by present designation. 

Type-locality: New York, West Danby. 

This species was erected as latifrons 

Cole 1923a: 73 not latifrons Frey 1921: 

82 [Aristothereva] . 

Diagnosis 

Medium- to large-sized flies from some- 
what slender to slightly broad. 

Head. — Frons of male (Fig. 15) at 
its narrowest distinctly wider than, and 
up to twice as wide as, width of anterior 
ocellus; frons of female narrow, at level 
of anterior ocellus only 1.4— 1.5 X as wide 
as ocellar tubercle; male frons in frontal 
view dull brownish to blackish, in dorsal 
view shows silver gray tomentum, with 
sparse but rather long, black pile laterally 
on upper and/or lower part ; female frons 
subshiny to shiny black or brown nearly 



overall, or on upper half only; pile denser 
than in male; head only slightly pro- 
trudes anteriorly; facial and genal calli 
absent; lateral portion of face bare; gena 
has short, stiff pile which may extend to 
lower face; head depth 1.2-1 .3 X length 
of antennae; scape slender, 0.5-0.6 X as 
long as flagellum; flagellar style apical, 
two segmented, with a minute terminal 
spine; palps one segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3-4, sa 2, pa 1. dc 0-2, 
sc 2; mesonotal pile of male long, erect, 
uniform, whitish ; hairs much longer than 
width of scape; mesonotal pile of female 
much shorter, semi-appressed, black ; pro- 
sternum bare in and around central de- 
pression. Wing. — Cell nis open; vein 
Ri longer than vein Rj; cell Tt 2. 1-2.5 X 
as long as wide at apex; color hyaline 
with grayish brown tinge; stigma dis- 
tinct. Legs. — Fore coxa has 2 or 3 
apical setae on anterior surface; middle 
coxa has whitish pile on posterior sur- 
face; hind femur has 4—5 anteroventral 
setae. 

Abdomen. — Slender, only slightly 
tapering from base to apex, and not 
telescoped ; dorsum convex to rather flat- 
tened; male dorsum entirely covered by 
silver gray tomentum and by whitish pile; 
female dorsum extensively shiny to sub- 
shiny blackish, with small areas of to- 
mentum on posterolateral comers of ter- 
gites 2-3 and 5-6 ; tergite 4 entirely shiny 
(cf. Viriliricta, Pandivirilia, and Spiri- 
verpa). 

Male Termin.a^lia (Fig. 61-65). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 64) comparatively very 
large, wider than epandrium. moderately 
constricted in middle; sternite 8 (Fig. 
65) also large, only indistinctly incised 
posteriorly; epandrium (Fig. 63) shorter 
in midline than wide; posterolateral cor- 
ners of epandrium greatly projecting: 
cerci free, well sclerotized, do not project 
beyond ventral epandrial sclerite; ventral 
epandrial sclerite well sclerotized overall, 
short, tapering anteriorly, far short of 
reaching anterior margin of epandrium; 
parameral apodeme without attachment 
to aedeagus; distiphallus in dorsal view 
(Fig. 61) narrow and short compared 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera OF Nearctic Therevidae 211 




_ 65 

Fig. 61—65. — Dicboghna amplifrons (Cole) male terminalia. 61. — Right gonocoxite 
with appendages and aedeagus in dorsal view. 62. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 63. — 
Epandrium with appendages in dorsal view. 64. — Tergite 8. 65. — Sternite 8. Scale: 
0.5 mm. 



with rest of aedeagus, suddenly down- 
curved, terminating in a long, S-curved 
tube (Fig. 62) ; in caudal view straight; 
dorsal apodeme rectangular; ventral 
apodeme narrow and longer than dorsal 
apodeme; ejaculatory apodeme flat in 
lateral view, greatly enlarged distally in 
dorsal view; ventral lobes of gonocoxites 
large, rounded, directed obliquely up- 
ward and backward, with a strong at- 
tachment to ventral surface of aedeagus ; 
parameral process slender, prominently 
protruding beyond posterior margin of 
gonocoxites; parameral apodeme rather 
long and narrow; gonocoxites (Fig. 67) 
not united ventrally, but touch for a 
long distance; gonocoxite in lateral view 
truncate with lower, posterior comer pro- 
jecting; hypandrium present as a band- 
shaped sclerite firmly attached to gono- 
I coxites (Fig. 61). 

1 Habitat 

Nothing is known of the habitat oc- 
cupied by adults or larvae of species in 



this genus. All specimens examined were 
apparently collected in forested areas. 

Distribution 

Members of this genus are found in 
the western, central, northeastern, and 
eastern portions of the United States 
(California, Colorado, Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut, New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Florida, Illinois, and 
Kansas) and in eastern Canada (On- 
tario) . 

Included Species 

amplifrons (Cole) 1925:85 3 (Psilo- 
cephala), new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Southeastern Canada and 
northeastern to eastern USA. 
latifrons (Cole) 1923a: 73 $ {Psilo- 

ccphala), not Frey 1921:82 [Aris- 

tothcreva) . 
borealis (Cole) 1923a: 126 9 {The- 
reva) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Michigan, northern Illinois. 



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Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



melampodia (Loew) 1869a:9 9 {Psilo- 
cephala), new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Central to southeastern 
USA. 

nigrina (Krober) 1914:53 9 [Psilo- 
cephala), new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Florissant, Colorado. 

A few undescribed species fit within 
the boundaries of this genus; these are 
from western North America. 

Genus Pandivirilia Irwin & Lyneborg, 
new genus (Fig. 12, 14, 32, and 66-71) 

Neuter, but as adjective takes feminine 
form. 

Derivation of name: pando (Latin) = 
lay open; virilia (Latin) = male geni- 
tals. 

Type-species: Psilocephala limata Co- 
quillett 1894:99 by present designa- 
tion. Type-locahty : Colorado and 
Washington. 

Diagnosis 

Head. — Frons of male (Fig. 14) at 
its narrowest distinctly narrower than 
width of anterior ocellus ; frons of female 
narrow, at level of anterior ocellus 1.5- 
1.8 X as wide as ocellar tubercle; male 
frons usually has silver gray to whitish 
tomentum, in a few species tomentum 
somewhat darker above; frons without 
pile, or with dark pile on lateral, lower 
part only; female frons darker on upper 
half than lower half, either caused by 
brownish tomentum or because upper 
frons distinctly subshiny to shiny brown- 
ish black to black overall, never foiTning 
bare, polished calli, since upper darkened 
frons has distinct, black pile; head mod- 
erately protrudes anteriorly; facial and 
genal calli absent; lateral portion of face 
and gena without pile or pile sparse and 
restricted to lower face and gena; head 
depth 1.4-1.8 X antennal length; scape 
slender, 0.5-0.8 X as long as flagellum: 
flagellar style apical, two segmented, 
with a small terminal spine; palps one 
segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3-6, sa 2, pa 1, dc 1-2. 
sc 2 ; mesonotal pile of male long, erect. 



uniform, sometimes composed of both 
pale and dark hairs; pile distinctly longer 
than width of scape; mesonotal pile of 
female shorter and more appressed; 
prostemum bare in and around central 
depression. Wing (Fig. 32). — Cell ma 
open; vein Rj longer than, or at least as 
long as, vein R5; cell Ti 2.0-2.5 X as long 
as wide at apex ; color hyaline, often with 
a grayish or brownish tinge; stigma usu- 
ally distinct. Legs. — Fore coxa has 1-3 
apical setae on anterior surface; middle 
coxa with long, whitish pile on posterior 
surface; hind femur (Fig. 12) has 5-8 
anteroventral setae and usually a few 
short posteroventral setae near apex. 

Abdomen. — Rather slender, gradu- 
ally tapering from base to apex, not tele- 
scoped ; dorsum convex to rather flat- 
tened; male dorsum with silver-gray to 
whitish tomentum and exclusively whit- 
ish pile; female dorsum has broad, shiny, 
blackish, anterior bands on anterior seg- 
ments. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 66-71). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 70) small and greatly 
constricted medially; stemite 8 (Fig. 71) 
small, bilobate, with deep, V-shaped in- 
cision on posterior margin ; epandrium 
(Fig. 69) from nearly as long along mid- 
line as to distinctly longer along midline 
than wide, with prominently projecting 
posterolateral corners and with a deep 
incision in posterior margin; cerci free, 
well sclerotized, do not project beyond 
ventral epandrial sclerite; ventral epan- 
drial sclerite large, reaching to anterior 
margin of epandrium, with or without a 
weak, membranous attachment to an- 
terior margin of aedeagus; ventral epan- 
drial sclerite largely membranous, only 
a small area below cerci sclerotized ; para- 
meral apodeme without attachment to 
aedeagus; distiphallus in dorsal view 
(Fig. 67) short and narrow compared 
with rest of aedeagus, suddenly down- 
cuned and slightly S-cuived (Fig. 68), 
in caudal view straight; dorsal ap)odeme 
rectangular, arched: ventral apodeme 
long, equally wide or slightly widening 
distally; ejaculatoiy apodeme usually 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctig Therevidae 213 




Fig. 66-71. — Pandivirilia limala (Coq.) male terminalia. 66. — Gonocoxite with appendages and 
aedeagus in ventral view. 67. — Right gonocoxite with appendages and oedeagus in dorsal view. 
68. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 69. — Epandrium with appendages in dorsal view. 70. — Tergite 8. 
71. — Sternite 8. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



slightly extended anteriorly beyond dor- 
sal apodeme; ventral lobes of gonocoxites 
large, rounded, directed obliquely up- 
ward, with a membranous attachment to 
ventral surface of aedeagus; ventral lobes 



connected along midline by a membrane; 
parameral process protrudes prominently 
beyond level of posterior margin of gono- 
coxite; parameral apodeme short and 
narrow; gonocoxites not united ventrally 



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Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



(Fig. 66), in lateral view short and trun- 
cate posteriorly ; hypandrium absent. 

Habitat 

Specimens of this genus have been col- 
lected in forested areas in mountains of 
western North America. A pupa was col- 
lected from an old pine log in the San 
Bernardino Mountains, California. 

Distribution 

Most species are from western North 
America (British Columbia, Washington, 
Oregon, California, Idaho, Utah, Colo- 
rado, Montana, Nevada, Arizona) with 
at least one species from the northern and 
eastern United States (Wisconsin, New 
York, Maine) and eastern Canada (Nova 
Scotia, Ontario). 

Included Species 

argentifrons (Cole) 1923a: 56 $ {Psi- 
locephala) , new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Pennsylvania. 

hussi (James) in James & Huckett 
1952:265 S, § {PsUoccphala),new 
combination. Distribution. — Can- 
ada (Yukon Territory) southward 
into northwestern USA (Washing- 
ton). 

limata (Coquillett) 1894:99 9 {Psilo- 
cephala), new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Western North America. 

pollinosa (Cole) 1923a: 72 3 [Psilo- 
cephala), new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Sierra Nevada Moun- 
tains, California. 

Several undescribed species are at 
hand. 

Genus Spiriverpa Irwin & Lyneborg, 
new genus (Fig. 72-79) 

Feminine 

Derivation of name: spira (Latin) = 

twist; verpa (Latin) = penis. 
Type-species: Thereva luniilata Zetter- 

stedt 1838:523 by present designation. 

Type-locality: Norway. 

Diagnosis 

Medium-sized, moderately broad spe- 
cies. 

Head. — Frons of male at its narrow- 
est no wider than half width of anterior 



ocellus; frons of female at level of an- 
terior ocellus 1.8-2.0 X as wide as ocellar 
tubercle; tomentum on male frons uni- 
formly whitish silver, or at most indis- 
tinctly darker on upper lateral part; pile 
all whitish and long, restricted to lower 
lateral portion of frons; tomentum on 
female frons darker on upper half than 
on lower half; pile blackish above, whit- 
ish below, shorter and more appressed 
than in male; head moderately protrudes 
anteriorly; facial and genal calli absent; 
lateral portion of face and gena has long, 
whitish pile; antennae (Fig. 79) 0.7- 
0.8 X as long as depth of head; scape 
slender, 0.6-0.7 X as long as flagellum; 
flagellar style apical, two segmented, 
with a minute terminal spine; palps one 
segmented. 

Thorax. — np 2-4 (usually 3), sa 2- 
3 (usually 2), pa 1, dc 1-2 (usually 2), 
sc 2; mesonotal pile in male dense, uni- 
form, erect, rather long and whitish; in 
female two types of pile; one is moder- 
ately long, scalelike, appressed, whitish, 
and the other is longer, normal, erect, and 
blackish; prostemum without pile in and 
around central depression. Wing. — Cell 
ma open at wing margin (closed in some 
males) ; vein Rj longer than vein R5; 
cell Ti 2. 1-2.3 X as long as wide at apex; 
color grayish hyaline with pale brownish 
stigma. Legs. — Fore coxa has 2 apical 
setae on anterior surface; middle coxa 
has long, \vhitish pile on posterior sur- 
face; hind femur has 5-7 anteroventral 
setae. 

Abdomen. — Rather slender, gradu- 
ally tapering from anterior margin of 
segment 3 to apex; abdomen not tele- 
scoped, rather flattened on dorsum; male 
dorsum lias silver-grayish tomentum and 
long, whitish pile; female dorsum has 
blackish anterior bands on fii-st segments 
and shorter, partly blackish pile. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 72-78). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 77) rather large and 
greatly constricted medially; stemite 8 
(Fig. 78) also large with a wide incision 
in posterior margin; epandrium (Fig. 76) 
from nearly as long in midline as to dis- 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg : The Genera OF Nearctic Therevidae 215 

tinctly longer in midline than wide, widi ners forming a deep incision in pos- 
strongly projecting, posterolateral cor- terior margin; cerci free, well sclero- 




Fig. 72-79. — Spiriverpa lunulala (Zetl.). 72-78. — Mole lerminalia. 72. — Right gonocoxile with 

appendages and aedeagus in dorsal view. 73. — • Gonocoxites and hypandrium in ventral view. 74. 

Aedeagus in lateral view. 75. — Distiphallus in caudal view. 76. — Epandrium with appendages in dorsal 
view. 77. — Tergile 8. 78. — Sternite 8. 79. — Antenna. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



216 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



tized, not projecting beyond ventral 
epandrial sclerite; ventral epandrial 
sclerite large, reaching to anterior margin 
of epandrium, with a membranous at- 
tachment to anterior margin of aedeagus ; 
ventral epandrial sclerite largely mem- 
branous, only portion below cerci well 
sclerotized; parameral apodeme without 
attachment to aedeagus; distiphallus 
(Fig. 74) very long, slender, its apex 
(Fig. 75) twisted to the right (with re- 
spect to specimen as a whole) ; dorsal 
apodeme short, V shaped, continuing 
into a membrane; ventral apodeme nar- 
rowly spoon shaped ; ejaculatoiy apodeme 
flat in lateral view, with a spoon-shaped 
distal extension in dorsal view; ventral 
lobes of gonocoxite large and complex, 
directed upward at an angle of about 
45° to longitudinal axis; ventral lobes 
connected on their ventral surface by a 
weakly sclerotized membrane; this mem- 
brane binds the gonocoxites postero- 
ventrally (Fig. 73) ; a membranous at- 
tachment also present between ventral 
lobes and ventral surface of aedeagus; 
parameral process long, very slender, 
may or may not reach beyond level of 
posterior margin of gonocoxite; para- 
meral apodeme also long and slender; 
gonocoxites not united ventrally, in lat- 
eral view obliquely truncate posteriorly; 
hypandrium (Fig. 73) free, forming a 
narrow band adjoining anterior margin 
of gonocoxites. 

Habitat 

We do not know the exact habitat of 
this group of species, but many speci- 
mens have been collected in the sand 
dunes along the Great Lakes, especially 
along the eastern shore of Lake Michi- 
gan. We suspect that species in this genus 
inhabit sandy substrates. 

Distribution 

Species of the genus Spiriverpa are 
found along the Atlantic coast from Flor- 
ida to Vermont, in Ontario and Ne\\' 
Brunswick, Canada, and throughout tlie 
New England, Great Lakes, and Midwest 
states (including Kansas) westward 



through Colorado to Oregon and north- 
ward to Alaska, including parts of 
Canada. 

Included Species 

albiceps (Loew) 1869&:166 9 {The- 
reva) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Northeastern United States. 
?albifrons (Say) 1829:156 $ [The- 
reva) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Indiana. 

bella (Krober) 1914:64 3, 9 [The- 
reva) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Northeastern United States. 
(This species may be conspecific 
with senex (Walker) .) 

bella iiigrimana (Krober) 1914:64 3 
(Thereva), new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Massachusetts. (This 
subspecies may be the same as bella 
(Krober).) 

candidata (Loew) 1869a:8 3 (The- 
reva), new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Eastern North America and 
westward along the Great Lakes. 
(This species may be synonymous 
with senex (Walker) .) 

cinerascens (Cole) 1923a: 97 9 [The- 
reva), new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Oregon. 

cockerelli (Cole) 1923a :99 3, 9 
[Thereva) , new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Rocky Mountains, espe- 
cially Colorado northward into 
Canada. 

mYom (Coquillett) 1894:101 9 [The- 
reva) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Soutliern portion of mid- 
westem United States. 

senex (Walker) 1848:224 $ [The- 
reva), new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Southeastern Canada. 

There are a few undescribed species i 
within this genus from \Nestern North f 
America and one described species from 
northern Europe. 

Genus Thereva Latreille 
(Fig. 8, 9, and 80-87) j 

Feminine 

Thereva Latreille 1796:167. Type-spe- 
cies: Musca plebeja Linnaeus 1758; 
subsequent monotypy by Latreille 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctig Therevidae 217 





Fig. 80-87. — Therevo plebeja (L.) male terminalia. 80. — Genitalia in lateral view. 81. — Epandrium 
iwith appendages in dorsol view. 82. — Epandrium with appendages in ventral view. 83. — Aedeagus in 
lateral view. 84. — Aedeagus in dorsal view. 85. — Right gonocoxite in ventral view. 86. — Tergite 8. 
87. — Sternite 8. Scole: 0.5 mm. 






( 1802 : 441 ) . Type-locality : Northwest- 
em Europe. 

Thereua, Loew error. 

Reference: Coquillett 1893a, Cole 1923a. 

Diagnosis 

Medium- to large-sized, hca\y-bodied, 
usually densely pilose species. 



Head. — Frons of male at its narrow- 
est much narrower than half width of 
anterior ocellus; frons of female (Fig. 8) 
at level of anterior ocellus 2. 0-3. OX as 
wide as ocellar tubercle; frons of female 
almost always has a pattern formed by 
differentially colored tomentum and cen- 



218 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



tral, shiny callosity (in some species there 
are two callosities on raised portions of 
frons) ; frons of male variously tomen- 
tose and pilose, only rarely with a shining 
callosity; head of each sex exceptionally 
wide ; eyes of both sexes have single facet 
size; long, thin pile over frons (espe- 
cially lower part above antennae of fe- 
males), face, and genae of both sexes; 
gena wide in frontal view; head pro- 
trudes slightly at level of antennae ; head 
depth 1.0-1.3 X antennal length (Fig. 
9) ; scape 0.8-1.2 X as long as flagellum; 
flagellar style apical, two segmented, with 
a short, heavy terminal spine; palps one 
segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3-5, sa 1-2, pa 1, dc 
0-2, sc 2; mesonotal pile usually long, 
dense, erect on males; mesonotal pile of 
two types on female: one is short, erect, 
usually dark, the other is appressed, 
bronze colored ; presternum has long pile 
in and around central depression. Wing. 
— Cell ms open or closed ; veins R4 and 
R5 of about equal length; cell T4 about 
1.5-2.5 X as long as wide at apex; color 
variable, from hyaline to heavily mottled, 
veins in some species surrounded by dark 
infuscation; stigma usually distinct, light 
to dark brown. Legs. — Fore coxa with 
2-5 (usually 4) apical setae on heavily 
pilose anterior surface; middle coxa has 
long pile on anterior and posterior sur- 
faces ; femora have setae in anteroventral 
position or setae lacking on fore and/or 
middle femora. 

Abdomen. — Moderately broad, taper- 
ing abruptly toward apex; abdomen not 
telescoped; dorsum somewhat flattened 
in female, more convex in male; pattern 
variable, with tomentum entirely whitish 
gray (rare) to brownish in definite bands 
(common) ; abdomen of both sexes 
pilose, pile usually erect, denser and 
longer on male. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 80-87). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 86) rather variable, large, 
and greatly constricted medially; sternite 
8 (Fig. 87) variable, generally large, rec- 
tangular shaped, posterior margin often 
notched; epandrium (Fig. 81 and 82) 
wider than long along midline, postero- 



lateral margins not extending posteriorly 
as far as cerci; cerci free, well sclerotized; 
ventral epandrial sclerite (Fig. 82) com- 
posed of a sclerotized midposterior section 
below cerci and 2 lateral sclerotiza- 
tions attached by a membrane to postero- 
lateral margins of epandrium, but not 
extending anteriorly to base of epan- 
drium and not strongly connected to 
aedeagus; aedeagus (Fig. 83 and 84) 
rather small, simple; parameral apodeme 
not attached to aedeagus; distiphallus 
short, slightly downcurved distally, in 
dorsal view several times wider basally 
than distally; dorsal apodeme broader 
and projects anteriorly farther than ven- 
tral apodeme ; ejaculatory apodeme sim- 
ple, stick shaped; gonocoxites not united 
ventrally except by a thin membrane, 
usually broadly rounded posteriorly, often 
with a distinct projection; parameral 
process long, fingerlike, often extending 
to or beyond level of posterior comer of 
epandrium; gonostylus (Fig. 85) ^vell de- 
veloped, long, usually directed posteriorly 
and dorsally, thicker basally than distally, 
and hooklike apically; ventral lobe (Fig. 
85) long, irregularly shaped, not extend- 
ing posteriorly to ajiex of gonostylus: by- . 
pandrium present as a narrow sclerite 
between ventrobasal part of gonocoxites. ' 

Habitat 

Species in the genus Thcrcva seem re- 
stricted to mountainous areas and to the 
northern boreal and coniferous zones in 
North America. Ii-win reared larvae from 
mixed montane leaf litter from the San 
Bernardino Mountains in southern Cali- 
fornia. 

Distribution 

The genus Thcrcva ranges widely over 
the Holarctic Region and parts of the 
Afrotropical Region (Lyneborg 1976; 
Lyneborg & Spitzer 1974) , but within the 
Western Hemisphere it is generally con- 
fined to the boreal and mountainous 
areas of western, northern, and eastern 
Nortli America. 

Included Species 

albopilosa Krober 1912:256 $ . Distri- 
bution. — Colorado. 



I 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 219 



aurofasciata Krober 1912:263 $ . Dis- 
tribution. — Southern Colorado. 

bakeri Cole \923a -.124: $, $. Distri- 
bution. — Southern CaHfomia. 

brunnea Cole 1923a: 108 5,9. Dis- 
tribution. — British Columbia, Can- 
ada, and Washington. 

cingulata Krober 1912:267 ? . Distri- 
bution. — Colorado. 

comata Loew 1869(z : 7 3 . Distribution. 

— California. 

concavifrons Krober 1914:70 9. Dis- 
tribution. — New Mexico. 

diversa Coquillett 1894:100 S . Distri- 
bution. — Colorado. 

rfMp/zm Coquillett 1893a: 198 3, 9. 
Distribution. — South Dakota and 
Montana. 

egressa Coquillett 1894:99 $. Distri- 
bution. — Colorado. 

flavicauda Coquillett in Baker 1904: 
23 9 . Distribution. — Nevada. 

flavicincta Loew 1869^:168 S- Dis- 
tribution. — Northeastern United 
States. 

gilvipes Loew 1869&:168 9. 

flavipilosa Cole 1923a: 125 S. Distri- 
bution. — Fresno County, California. 

flavohirta Krober 1914:70 9. Distri- 
bution. — Colorado. 

foxi Cole 1923fl:112 S. Distribution. 

— Washington. 

frontalis Say 1824:370 5, 9. Dis- 
tribution. — Northwestern United 
States and southwestern Canada. 

fucata Loew 1872:74 S, 9. Distri- 
bution. — California. 

fucatoides Bromley 1937:99 $, 9. 
Distribution. — Utah. 

hirticeps Loew 1874:382 9. Distribu- 
tion. — San Francisco Bay area, Cal- 
ifornia. 

johnsoni Coquillett 1893a: 200 9 . Dis- 
tribution. — Washington. 

macdunnoughi Cole 1925:87 5, 9. 
Distribution. — Alberta, Canada. 

nebulosa Krober 1912:264 $. Distri- 
bution. — California. 

neomexicana Cole 1923a: 117 9. Dis- 
tribution. — Southern Nevada. 

nigripilosa Cole 1923a: 110 $. Distri- 
bution. — British Columbia, Can- 
ada. 



niveipennis Krober 1914:66 $. Dis- 
tribution. — Central coastal Cali- 
fornia. 

pseudoculata Cole 1923a: 121 $, 9. 
Distribution. — Utah. 

strigipes Loew 1869fo:169 9. Distri- 
bution. — Winnipeg, Canada. 

ustulata Krober 1912:265 $. Distri- 
bution. — Winnipeg, Canada. 

utahensis Hardy 1938:145 9. Distri- 
bution. — Utah. 

Genus Tabudamima Irwin & Lyneborg, 
new genus (Fig. 88-93) 

Feminine 

Derivation of name: Tahuda ^= genus 
name in the Therevidae; mimos 
(Greek) or mimus (Latin) = imitator. 

Type-species: Thereva melanophleba 
Loew 1876: 112 by present designation. 
Type-locality: San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia. 

Diagnosis 

Small, moderately broad species. 

Head. — Frons of male at its narrow- 
est narrower than width of anterior 
ocellus; frons of female 1. 8-2.0 X as wide 
as ocellar tubercle; male frons entirely 
tomentose, with long, black pile; tomen- 
tum on frons gray; female frons entirely 
tomentose, often with dark transverse 
band and shorter pile than that of male; 
frons impressed; head noticeably pro- 
trudes anteriorly; facial and genal calli 
absent; lateral portion of face and gena 
has long pile, black on face, white on 
gena; head depth 1.0-1.1 X antennal 
length; scape thickened, 1.3— 1.5 X length 
of flagellum ; flagellar style apical, ob- 
viously one segmented, with a minute 
terminal spine; palps one segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3, sa 1, pa 1, dc 0, sc 
2 ; mesonotal pile in male very long, uni- 
form, composed of white and black hairs; 
mesonotal pile in female of two types: 
the first is moderately long, scalelike, 
semi-appressed, white, and the other is 
long, erect, black; prosternum without 
pile in and around central depression 
(this may be difficult to discern because 
of long, dense pile on fore coxa). Wing. 
— Cell ma closed or narrowly open ; vein 



220 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 




Fig. 88—93. — Tabudamima mehnopbteba (Lw.) male terminalia. 88. — Genitalia in lateral view. 
89. — Right gonocoxite with appendages and aedeagus in dorsal view. 90. — Epandrium with ap- 
pendages in dorsal view. 91. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 92. — Sternite 8. 93. — Tergite 8. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



R4 longer than vein R5; cell r4 2. 1-2.2 X 
as long as wide at apex; color grayish hy- 
aline in male, but has more brownish 
tinge in female; veins very strong and 
dark; vein R4 often has recurrent vein 
near base; stigma blackish brown. Legs. 
— Fore coxa has at most a single, apical 
seta on anterior surface ; middle coxa has 
whitish pile on posterior surface; hind 
femur has 4-5 anteroventral setae. 

Abdomen. — Slender, gradually taper- 
ing from segment 2 to apex; abdomen 
not telescoped; dorsum somewhat flat- 
tened in both sexes; dorsum of male en- 
tirely tomentose and pilose; tomentum 
silveiy white; dorsum of female has 
broad, blackish anterior bands on first 
tergites, otherwise tomentose; tomentum 
gray on female dorsum. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 88-93). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 93) comparatively large 
and greatly constricted medially; sternite 
8 (Fig. 92) large, broad oval, with semi- 
circular incision in posterior margin ; 
epandrium (Fig. 90) shorter in midline 
than wide, its posterolateral corners 
prominently extended, but simply 
rounded; cerci free, strongly sclerotized, 



elongate, but not extending beyond ven- 
tral epandrial sclerite; ventral epandrial 
sclerite only sclerotized beyond cerci, con- 
tinuing anteriorly into a weak membrane 
reaching to about middle of epandrium, 
with no attachment to aedeagus; para- 
meral apodeme without attachment to 
aedeagus; distiphallus (Fig. 89) gradu- 
ally tapers, in lateral view (Fig. 91) 
short and only moderately curving; dorsal 
apodeme oval; ventral apwdeme short 
and broad; ejaculaton' apwdeme shaped 
like a rod; ventral lobes of gonocoxites 
large, rather complex and have a mem- 
branous attachment to ventral surface of 
aedeagus; parameral process moderately 
long and slender (Fig. 89) ; gonocoxites 
not united ventrally, not even attached 
by a membrane: in lateral view (Fig. 88") 
gonocoxites nearly circular in shape; hy- 
pandrium (Fig. 89) free, forming a long, 
very narrow strip. 

Habitat 

Little is known of tlie habitat of diese 
species except that several specimens 
were collected in coastal sand dune habi- 
tats in California. 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 221 



Distribution 

Species in the genus Tabudamima 
seem confined to the northwestern United 
States, with specimens collected from 
Washington, Oregon, California, and 
Nevada. Those from California are con- 
centrated in the San Francisco Bay area 
southward along the coast to San Diego 
County and inland in the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains and in the San Bernardino 
and Santa Rosa mountains of southern 
California. 

Included Species 

mclanophlcba (Loew) 1876:317 $, 

9 (Thcrcva), new combination. 

Distribution. — San Francisco Bay 

area, California. 

There are several closely related unde- 

scribed species in this genus. 

Genus Tabuda Walker 
(Fig. 6, 7, and 94-100) 

Tabuda Walker 1852:197. Type-species: 
Thereva julvipes Walker 1852:197 by 
original monotypy ( = T. varia Walker 
1848:221). Type-locality: Florida. 

Metaphragma Coquillett 1894:97. New 
synonym. Type-species : Xestomyza 
planiceps Loew 1872:75 by original 
designation. Type-locality: California. 

Diagnosis 

Medium- to large-sized, robust flies. 

Head (Fig. 6 and 7) . — Frons of male 
at its narrowest from as wide as anterior 
ocellus to as wide as ocellar tubercle: 
frons of female at level of anterior ocellus 
about 2.5 X as wide as ocellar tubercle; 
frons without distinct tomentum pattern, 
or at most with a pair of small, dark 
patches laterally: pile on lower frons 
moderately thick, composed of long, 
black hairs; upper frons bare or has thin 
jjile laterally; head moderately to promi- 
nently protruding anteriorly, antennae 
thus set on a distinct protuberance; facial 
and genal calli absent; lateral portion of 
tace and gena has long pile; head depth 
1.0-1.3X antenna! length; scape thick- 



ened, 1.7-2. OX as long as flagellum; 
flagellar style apical, stout, obviously one 
segmented, with a minute terminal spine; 
palps one segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3-5, sa 2, pa 1, dc 1, 
so 2; mesonotal pile of two types: one is 
moderately long, scalelike, rather dense, 
semi-appressed, and the other is long, 
erect, sparse; prostcrnum without pile in 
and around central depression. Wing. — 
Cell nis open; vein R4 longer than vein 
R5; cell r4 2.3-2.6 X as long as wide at 
apex; color grayish brown to brown, with 
darker stigma or anterior margin inten- 
sively darkened, and with darker patches, 
especially around crossveins. Legs. — 
Fore coxa with 1 or 2 apical setae 
on anterior surface; middle coxa with 
whitish pile on posterior surface; hind 
femur with 5-8 anteroventral setae. 

Abdomen. — Rather broad, with sides 
nearly parallel from segments 1 through 
3; thereafter, abdomen tapers slightly 
and gradually; male abdomen distinctly 
telescoped; abdominal tergites 6 and 7 
visible only as narrow bands; dorsum of 
abdomen somewhat flattened; male dor- 
sum has silver gray tomentum; female 
dorsum mostly subshiny to dull brown. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 94-100). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 100) small and greatly 
constricted medially; stemite 8 (Fig. 99) 
small, oval, has a semicircular incision 
into posterior margin; epandrium (Fig. 
97) shorter in midline than wide, its 
posterolateral comers rounded ; cerci free 
(Fig. 97), strongly sclerotized, elongate, 
extending distinctly beyond ventral epan- 
drial sclerite ; ventral epandrial sclerite 
reaches or nearly reaches anterior mar- 
gin of epandrium, but has at most a loose 
and weak attachment to anterior margin 
of aedeagus; ventral epandrial sclerite 
has three strongly sclerotized areas: a 
small semicircular area below cerci and 
a larger pair below epandrium; para- 
meial apodeme and ventral lobes of 
gonocoxite not attached to aedeagus; 
disti|)hallus (Fig. 98) rather long, S 
curved ; a semicircular, narrow, sclero- 
tized ring in dorsal membrane surrounds 



222 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 







Fig. 94—100. — Tabuda varia Wlk. mole terminalla. 94. — Genitalia in lateral view. 95. — Gono- 
coxites and hypandrium in ventral view. 96. — Gonocoxites with appendages and aedeagus in dorsol 
view. 97. — Epandrium with appendages in dorsal view. 98. — Aedeagus in laterol view. 99. — Sternite 
8. 100. — Tergite 8. Scale; 0.5 mm. 



proximal portion of ejaculatoiy apodeme ; 
ventral apodeme large, narrowly spoon 
shaped distally; ejaculatory apodeme has 
enlarged proximal and distal sections; 
ventral lobes of gonocoxite (Fig. 96) 
small, narrow, directed upward, but not 
visible in ventral view; parameral pro- 
cess strongly united with dorsal surface 
of gonocoxite, at most a wartlike process 
present; parameral apodeme distinct but 
small; gonocoxites (Fig. 95) not united 
ventrally, short and high in lateral view 



(Fig. 94), project dorsally; h^-pandrium 
(Fig. 95) free, foiTning a long, narrow 
band adjoining anterior margin of gono- 
coxites for a long distance. 

Habitat 

Little is known as to the habitat that 
these interesting looking flies occupy. One 
specimen of planiceps was collected in 
sand dunes near San Francisco. Two 
specimens of borcalis were collected on 
sand near coyote holes (Cole 1923a: 83). 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



223 



Distribution 

Species of Tabuda appear to be con- 
fined to the western coast of North 
America {T. planiceps) , eastern North 
America [T. varia) , and north-central 
North America {T. horealis). 

Included Species 

borealis Cole 1923a: 82 5, ?. Distri- 
bution. — Saskatchewan, Canada. 
planiceps (Loew) 1872:75 2 [Xesto- 
myza) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Western coast of North 
America from British Columbia, 
Canada, southward to southern 
California, United States. 
varia (Walker) 1848:221 ? [The- 
reva) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Eastern North America from 
Florida northward to Massachusetts 
and westward to Pennsylvania. 
julvipes Walker 1852: 197 $ , new 
u name for Thereva nervosa 

Walker. 
nervosa Walker 1848:223 $ 
{Thereva), not Loew 1845:28. 
No undescribed species of Tahuda are 
known to us. 

Note 

The genus Metaphragma was created 
by Coquillett (1894:97) for Xestomyza 
planiceps Loew 1872:75. T. planiceps is 
unique in having an additional crossvein 
between R5 and vein Mi that forms a 
1 closed cell anterior to the discal cell. 
This additional cell is similar in shape 
and size to the discal cell; however, in 
characters such as those of the male 
terminalia, planiceps falls within the 
strict definition of Tabuda. For that rea- 
son we have synonymized Metaphragma 
Coq. with Tabuda Walker. 

Genus Acrosathe Irwin & Lyneborg, 
new genus (Fig. 101-106) 

Feminine 

Derivation of name: akra (Greek) = 
projection; sathe (Greek) = phallus. 

Type-species: Bibio annulata Fabricius 
1805:68 by present designation. Type- 
locality: Denmark. 



Diagnosis 

Medium-sized, moderately thick-bodied 
species. 

Head. — Frons of male at its narrow- 
est narrower than width of anterior 
ocellus (in bimaculata (Cole) about 3X 
as wide as anterior ocellus) ; frons of 
female at level of anterior ocellus 1.3— 
2.4 X as wide as ocellar tubercle; male 
frons tomentose; tomentum silvery white 
to gray, upper comer more or less dull 
black or brown (with two dull darkened 
areas in bimaculata) ; male frons has 
long, usually pale, pile; lower part of 
female frons tomentose and pilose, as in 
male, tomentum silvery gray, pile pale 
straw; upper part of female frons to- 
mentose, often with dull black areas, 
tomentum brownish to brownish gray, 
pile brown or black; head distinctly pro- 
trudes anteriorly at antennal level ; lateral 
portion of face and gena has long, pale 
pile; head depth 1.2-1.5X antennal 
length; scape slender, 0.8-1 .OX as long 
as flagellum; flagellar style apical, two 
segmented, with a small terminal spine; 
palps one segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3-4 (usually 3), sa 1- 
2 (usually 2), pa 1, dc 1-2, sc 2; meso- 
notal pile of male of some species long, 
erect, uniform ; mesonotal pile of male of 
other species and of all females of two 
kinds: one is long to moderately long, 
erect, normal, and tlae other is shorter, 
semi-appressed, scalelike; prosternum has 
long pile in and around central de- 
pression. Wing. — Cell m^ in most spe- 
cies closed and has short common vein 
to wing margin; cell ma occasionally 
open; vein R4 distinctly longer than vein 
R5; cell Ti 2.0-2.2 X as long as wide at 
apex; color grayish hyaline, but a couple 
of species show brownish infuscations 
around crossveins; stigma pale brown. 
Legs. — Fore coxa with 2 or 3 apical 
setae on anterior surface; middle coxa 
has whitish pile on posterior surface ; 6-8 
rather stout anteroventral setae over en- 
tire length of hind femur. 

Abdomen. — Moderately broadly built, 
gradually tapering from segment 2 to 
apex, not telescoped; dorsum somewhat 



224 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



flattened in both sexes; dorsum of male 
entirely tomentose and pilose, these being 
silvery white to gray; dorsum of female 
in most species has dark anterior bands 
on at least tergites 2-4, but a couple of 
species have tergites entirely tomentose, 
tomentum gray. 

Male Termin alia (Fig. 101-106). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 105) large, wider than 
epandrium, and medially constricted for 
a long distance; sternite 8 (Fig. 106) 
trapezoidal, its lateral margins straight 
or concave; posterior margin of sternite 
8 has semicircular incision; epandrium 
(Fig. 103) large, markedly convex, as 



long medially as, or longer than, wide; 
posterolateral comers of epandrium trun- 
cate in type-species (Fig. 103), more 
sharply pointed in North American spe- 
cies; cerci free, ventral epandrial sclerite 
well sclerotized below cerci, continuing 
anteriorly into a weak, narrow mem- 
brane, often loosely attached to anterior 
margin of aedeagus; some species ha\e 
a strong, narrow attachment bet%veen 
lateral edge of epandrium/ventral epan- 
drial sclerite and midsection of paramere : 
parameral apodeme without attachment 
to aedeagus; distiphallus (Fig. 102) slen- 
der, in lateral view (Fig. 104) more or 




Fig. 101-106. — Acrosafhe annulalo (F.) male terminalio, 101. — Genitalia in ioleral view. 102. — left 
gonocoxite with appendages and aedeagus in dorsal view. 103. — Epandrium with appendages in dorsal 
view. 104. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 105. — Tergite 8. 106. — Sternite 8. Scole; 0.5 mm. 



Nov., 1980 



Irwin & Lyneborg : The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



225 



less downcurved; dorsal apodeme short; 
ventral apodeme large, forming a narrow, 
deep trough; 2 anterior processes arise 
from base of distiphallus; these processes 
either shorter than or as long as disti- 
phallus ; they are distinct at species level ; 
ejaculatory apodeme simple, stick shaped; 
ventral lobes of gonocoxites, as in Psilo- 
ct'phala (Fig. 110), large, heavily sclero- 
tized, and suddenly curved, forming a 
dorsal, anteriorly directed, distal portion 
strongly attached to midlateral section 
of aedeagus; parameral process large, 
free; gonocoxites free ventrally, but at- 
tached by a membrane; hypandrium 
(Fig. 102) narrow, comparatively large. 

Habitat 

The type-species is widespread in 
Europe, occurring mainly on coastal 
dunes. Most of the North American spe- 
cies are found in coastal dunes, but A. 
vialis inhabits mountainous areas and is 
often found on lake beaches. 

Distribution 

The genus Acrosathe is Holarctic, with 
about 10 species occurring in the Pale- 
arctic Region. Within the Nearctic Re- 
gion, one species, A. bimaculata, is found 
in North Carolina; the other species are 
confined to western North America 
(British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, 
Idaho, California, Baja California) . 

Included Species 

bimaculata (Cole) 1923a:98 § [The- 
reva) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — North Carolina. 

novella (Coquillett) 1893a:200 3, 9 
[Thereva] , new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — .Southern California. 

o/wi-a (Coquillett) 1893a: 199 ,5 [The- 
reva) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Coastal area of California. 

pacifica (Cole) 1923a: 103 S, 9 
[Thereva], new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Coastal area of central 
California. 

vanduzeei (Cole) 1923a: 105 3, ? 
[Thereva) , new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Coastal area of north- 
central and northern California. 



vialis (Osten Sacken) 1877:274 $ 
[Thereva) , new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Sierra Nevada Moun- 
tains, California. 
There are a number of undescribed 
species from the inland parts of western 
North America. 

Genus Psilocephala Zetterstedt 
(Fig. 10, 11, and 107-114) 

Feminine 

Psilocephala Zetterstedt 1838:525. Type- 
species: Bibio imberbis Fallen 1814:5; 
subsequent designation (Coquillett 
1910:597). Type-locality: Sweden. 

Diagnosis 

Medium- to large-sized, thin to mod- 
erately broad species. 

Head. — Frons of male at its narrow- 
est distinctly narrower than half width 
of anterior ocellus; frons of female at 
level of anterior ocellus 1.8-1.9 X as 
wide as ocellar tubercle; male frons to- 
mentose and without pile, tomentum sil- 
very gray; female frons tomentose an- 
teriorly, upper three-quarters shiny 
blackish with a circular, depressed, 
wrinkled area medially, tomentum sil- 
very gray; blackish part of frons has 
short, black pile; head only very slightly 
protrudes at antennal level; lateral por- 
tion of face without pile; gena has whit- 
ish pile similar to, but shorter than, lower 
occipital pile; head depth 1.3-1.6 X an- 
tennal length; scape slender, 0.4-0.5 X 
as long as flagellum ; flagellar style apical, 
two segmented, with a small terminal 
spine; palps one segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3, sa 2, pa 1, do 2, sc 2 ; 
mesonotal pile of male long, erect and 
uniform, composed of pale and darker 
hairs, which are distinctly longer than 
width of scape; mesonotal pile of female 
much shorter, entirely dark, partly erect, 
partly semi-appressed ; presternum bare 
in and around central depression. Wing. 
— Cell m.-i usually closed, rarely open, 
and common vein usually short; veins 
R4 and Rr, about equal in length; cell r4 
about 2.5 X as long as wide at apex; 
color hyaline with faint brownish tinge; 



i 



226 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



stigma pale brown ; no other markings on Abdomen. — Rather broadly built, in 



wing. Legs. — Fore coxa has 2 or 3 
apical setae on anterior surface; middle 
coxa without pile on posterior surface; 
hind femur has 3-4, rather slender, an- 
teroventral setae. 



male gradually tapering from segment 3 
to apex; in female tapering from seg- 
ment 5 to apex ; abdomen not telescoped ; 
dorsum convex in male, more flattened 
in female; male dorsum entirely tomen- 




Fig. 107—114. — Psilocephala imberbis Fall, male terminolia. 107. — Genitalia in lateral view. 108. — 
Gonacoxites with appendages and hypandrium in ventral view, 109. — Left gonocoxite with appendages 
and aedeagus in dorsal view. 110. — Right gonocoxite with appendages in ventral view. HI. — Epondrium 
with appendages in dorsal view. 112. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 113. — Sternite 8. 114. — Tergite 8. 
Scale: 0.5 mm. List of abbreviations appears on pages 194 and 195. 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 227 



tose except for polished black terminalia, 
tomentum silvery gray; female dorsum 
mostly shining black, but with marked 
pattern of silvery gray tomentum on seg- 
ments 1-3 and 5-6. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 107-114). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 114) wide, greatly con- 
stricted for a short distance medially; 
stemite 8 (Fig. 113) nearly semicircular, 
only slightly incised along posterior mar- 
gin; epandrium (Fig. 107 and 111) no- 
ticeably convex, shorter in midline than 
wide, but has prominently projecting 
posterolateral comers, which are broadly 
lamellate; cerci free, well sclerotized, not 
projecting beyond ventral epandrial 
sclerite; ventral epandrial sclerite strongly 
reduced, restricted to a distinctly bilobed 
sclerite lying below and similar in size 
to cerci; apparently membrane lacking 
beneath epandrium; parameral apodeme 
without attachment to aedeagus; disti- 
phallus (Fig. 109) in dorsal view nearly 
circular, in lateral view (Fig. 112) quite 
flat and straight; dorsal apodeme nar- 
row proximally, but gradually wider to- 
ward apex; ejaculatory apodeme very 
slender; ventral lobes of gonocoxites 
(Fig. 110) large and strongly sclerotized, 
rising first in a vertical position, then 
suddenly curving anteriorly and termi- 
nating distally in a section firmly at- 
tached to midlateral part of aedeagus; 
ventral lobes not, or at most very weakly, 
attached along midline (Fig. 108) ; para- 
meral process strongly sclerotized and 
lather broad; parameral apodeme long, 
narrow; gonocoxites not united ventrally, 
not even by a distinct membrane; gono- 
coxites truncate in lateral view (Fig. 
107) ; hypandrium present as a small, 
triangular sclerite (Fig. 108). 

Habitat 

Specimens in this genus occupy for- 
ested zones. Very little is known of spe- 
cific habitats. 

Distribution 

The genus Psilocephala is Holarctic. 
Within the Nearctic Region, specimens 
at hand are from these areas: Canada 
(Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, Mani- 



toba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Yukon Ter- 
ritory, District of Mackenzie, and British 
Columbia) ; United States of America 
(Alaska, Washington, Oregon, northern 
California, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, 
Montana, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michi- 
gan, Pennsylvania). One male specimen 
is labeled from Douglas, Arizona. This 
specimen appears to be from outside the 
normal range of the genus, or it might 
be mislabeled. 

Included Species 

conspicua (Walker) 1848:223 9 
(Thereva) . Distribution. — Nova 
Scotia. 
munda Loew 1869a: 9 $ . Distribution. 
— Great Lakes Region of North 
America. 

melanoprocta Loew 1869a: 11 $, 
subsequent synonymy (Krober 
1912:239). 
vicina (Walker) 1848:222 3 [The- 
reva) . Distribution. — Nova Scotia. 
P. conspicua (Walker) and munda 
(Loew) may well prove to be synony- 
mous with vicina (Walker). 

The western specimens have not been 
studied closely; they could represent one 
or more distinct, undescribed species, or 
they could prove to be western popula- 
tions of vicina (Walker) or munda 
(Loew) . 

Genus Penniverpa Irwin & Lyneborg, 
new genus (Fig. 25 and 115-121) 

Feminine 

Derivation of name: penna (Latin) = 
feather; verpa (Latin) = penis. 

Type-species: Psilocephala festina Co- 
quillett 1893fc:225 by present designa- 
tion. Type-locality : Florida. 

Diagnosis 

Small- to medium-sized flies of very 
slender build. 

Head. — Frons of male at its narrow- 
est narrower than half width of anterior 
ocellus; frons of female narrow, at level 
of anterior ocellus 1.0-1.3 X as wide as 
ocellar tubercle; male frons high, nar- 
row, entirely tomentose and without pile, 
tomentum .silvery (one species from 
Peru has a silvei7 golden tomentose frons 



228 



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Vol. 32, Art. 3 




Fig. 115—121. — Penniverpa festina (Coq.) male terminolia, 115. — Gonocoxites with oppendoges and 
hypandrium in dorsal view; the natural positions of the anterior and posterior ends of aedeagus ore 
shown. 116. — ■ Epandrium with appendages in dorsal view. 117. — Left gonocoxite with ventrol lobe and 
gonostylus in caudal view. 118. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 119. — Aedeagus in dorsal view. 120. — Ter- 
gile 8. 121. — Sternile 8. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



with a few stout hairs on its lower half) ; 
female frons entirely tomentose, either 
uniformly silveiy or upper part darker 
than lower part; female frons has short, 
sparse black pile on upper half; head 
moderately protrudes anteriorly; lateral 
portion of face without pile; gcna bare 
or with sparse white pile; head depth 
1.5-1.8X antennal length: scape slender, 
0.3-0.5 X as long as flagellum; flagellar 
style apical, two segmented, with a small 
terminal spine; palps one segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3-4, sa 2, pa 1, dc 0, 
so 1-2 (usually 1 ) ; mesonotal pile of 
two kinds: the first scmi-appressed, pale, 
and the other erect, black, usually shorter 
than scape; mesonotal pile of male gen- 



erally longer and denser dian that of fe- 
male; presternum has pile in and around 
central depression. Wing. — Cell nia 
broadly open; \ein K^ slightly longer 
than Rs; cell r4 about 2.6-2.8 X as long 
as wide at apex; color hyaline with pale 
brownish stigma. Legs. — Fore coxa has 
2 strong apical setae on anterior surface; 
middle co.xa without pile on posterior 
surface or with a little pile in that jxisi- 
tion in one South American species; hind 
femur has at most 3-4 short, slender 
anteroventral setae. Foreleg (Fig. 25) 
exceptionally long. 

Abdomen. — Slender in both sexes, en- 
tirely cylindrical in male, doi'sum more 
flattened in female, tapering from seg- 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



229 



ment 2 to apex; male dorsum entirely 
covered by silver tonientum and whitish 
pile; female dorsum has pattern of black- 
ish bands and whitish tomentose areas. 
Male Terminalia (Fig. 115-121). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 120) about as wide as 
epandrium and greatly constricted me- 
dially; sternite 8 (Fig. 121) rectangular, 
with incisions in both anterior and pos- 
terior margins; epandrium (Fig. 116) 
shorter in midline than wide, its postero- 
lateral comers broadly rounded; cerci 
(Fig. 116) rather weakly sclerotized and 
finely haired, fused along basal part; 
ventral epandrial sclerite projects slightly 
more than cerci ; posterior section of ven- 
tral epandrial sclerite rounded; a setose 
pair of S-cuived sclerites attached by 
membranes to posterior edge of epan- 
drium; these sclerites not attached over 
midline by a distinct membrane, but their 
anterioiTnost corners are loosely attached 
by weak membranes to anterior margin 
of aedeagus; parameral apodeme without 
attachment to aedeagus; aedeagus (Fig. 
I 118 and 119) long and slender; disti- 
phallus in lateral view (Fig. 118) very 
flat and gently downcurved, a double row 
of long setae on proximal part; dorsal 
apodeme (Fig. 119) long and slender; 
ventral apodeme (Fig. 119) as long as 
or longer than dorsal apodeme, in dorsal 
view gradually tapering ; 2 processes arise 
from midsection of aedeagus, nearly par- 
allel to distiphallus and pointed apically; 
these processes converge, and the usually 
setose apices meet either above or below 
the distiphallus in lateral view; ejacula- 
toiy apodeme veiy slender and short, 
completely contained between dorsal and 
ventral apodemes in dorsal view; ae- 
deagus loosely attached to ventral lobes 
of gonocoxites; ventral lobes (Fig. 115 
and 117) complicated, rising dorsally, 
fonning a lamellate structure, and often 
having a spine on exterior surface not 
lar from the distal, dorsal edge; the 
gonostylus (Fig. 115 and 117) remark- 
' ably complicated, showing many modifi- 
< ations in several undescribed species; 
'gonostylus more or less U shaped, com- 
posed of exterior and interior ventrally 
.united sections; interior section relatively 



consistent in shape; exterior section with 
strong modifications, from a simple tooth, 
or a long process with a group of distal 
spines and a narrow projection stretching 
toward the ventral lobe (as in the type- 
species), to the distal spines being absent 
and the narrow projection being replaced 
by strong setae ; many more modifications 
will certainly emerge when the numerous 
species are described; parameral process 
long, free; gonocoxites free ventrally, at- 
tached by a weak membrane; a distinct, 
free hypandrium present, but not always 
as large as illustrated (Fig. 115). 

Habitat 

We have only encountered a few spe- 
cies in nature. All have been found in 
veiy sandy areas or in dry sandy washes. 
A species from Lima, Peru (probably 
gracilis Krober 1911:507) was captured 
abundantly in a sandy cornfield. 

Distribution 

Judging from the material at hand, 
we conclude that this genus occurs in 
the southern United States (Arizona, 
Texas, Florida, and Georgia) and south- 
ward through Mexico, the West Indies 
(Cuba, Jamaica, and Trinidad), Central 
America (Panama, Honduras, and Gua- 
temala) , and portions of South America 
(British Guiana, \'enezuela, Brazil, Ecua- 
dor, Peru, and Bolivia) . 

Included Species 

festina (Coquillett) 1893&;225 $, ? 

{Psilocephala) , new combination. 

Distribution. — Georgia, Florida. 

(Other literature records probably 

refer to other, closely related, mostly 

undescribed species. ) 
At least four additional species, all 
from South America, can be placed in 
the genus Pennivcrpa, including senilis 
(Fabricius) ( 1805 :68) , new combination, 
which was reported by Lyneborg (1969: 
390) probably to be from northeastern 
South America. Several undescribed spe- 
cies are mainly from the West Indies and 
Central and South America, but at least 
one undescribed species occurs in Texas, 
Arizona, and northeastern Mexico. 



230 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



Genus Lysilinga Irwin & Lyneborg, 
new genus (Fig. 122-127) 

Feminine 

Derivation of name: lysis (Greek) ~ 
free, loose; linga (Sanskrit) = penis. 

Type-species: Psilocephala aurantiaca 
Coquillett 1904fe: 177 by present desig- 
nation. Type-locality: Claremont, Cal- 
ifoiTiia. 

Diagnosis 

Medium-sized, slender-bodied species 
with little pile on body. 

Head. — Compound eyes of male 
nearly touch for a considerable distance; 
eyes of male not divided into two distinct 
facet sizes. Frons of female narrow, upper 
half only slightly wider than ocellar 
tubercle, with lower half expanded to 
slightly more than twice width of upper 
half. Head about 1.2-1.4X wider than 
high; ratio of the distance between the 
lower, inner corners of compound eyes 
and head height 0.5-0.6; antennae rather 
low on head, inserted at three-fifths of 
head height; width of head 2.6-3.0 X 



that of frons at antennal insertion ; genae 
small, rounded, tomentum undifferenti- 
ated from that of face. Head hypogna- 
thous; proboscis small, fitting into sub- 
cranial cavity and not reacliing antennal 
base; palps one segmented, slender, rod- 
like, usually pale colored, thinly pilose, 
shorter than proboscis. Head depth 1.2- 
1.4X antennal length; scape 0.4-0.6 X as 
long as flagellum; fiagellum laterally com- 
pressed, pear shaped, wider (dorsoven- 
trally) than scape; flagellar style short, 
of apparently two segments plus terminal 
spine. Short, sparse, appressed pile on 
upper frons of female. Frons and face of 
male usually without pile or setae (in L. 
occipitalis occasional specimens have a 
few setae on lower central frons) , cov- 
ered with dense, silvery tomentum. Lower 
frons and face of female and genae and 
occiput of both sexes also densely to- 
mentose, tomentum silvery. Upper frons 
of female usually has siKeiy to brown 
tomentum and a pair of usually large, 
brown velvety spots tangential to each 
compound eye at division of browTi and 
silvery tomentum. (In an undescribed 





Fig. 122—127. — Lysitinga aurantiaca (Coq.) male terminalia. 122. — Right gonocoxite with append- 
ages and aedeagus in dorsal view, 123. — Gonocoxites, hypandrium, and aedeagus in ventral view. 
124. — Epandrium with appendages in dorsal view. 125. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 126. — Sternite 8. 
127. — Tergite 8. Stole: 0.5 mm. 



I 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 231 



species from Mexico, the velvet spots are 
very small.) Head deeper ventrally than 
dorsally, giving the appearance, when 
viewed laterally, of a rounded isosceles 
triangle, the ocelli foraiing a point and 
the lengths of occiput and frons forming 
I the long sides. The side from the anten- 
, nae to the lower genae appears rounded. 
Ocellar tubercle has sparse, short setae in 
some species, lacks setae in otliers. 

Thorax. — np 3, sa 2, pa 1, dc 0, sc 
1-2; thoracic setae from dark brown to 
black (L. aurantiaca, undescribed spe- 
cies from Mexico) to yellowish white 
(L. occipitalis, L. subrufa) . Mesonotal 
pile short, sparse, appressed, yellow-metal- 

, lie scalelike, more abundant on males. 
Mesonotal tomentum grayish to brown 

i with no discemable pattern of vittae. 

1 Prostemum has elongate white pile in 
and around central depression. Wing. — 
Cell ms widely to narrowly open; ratio 
of lengths R4/R=, 1.0-1.1; cell r^ 2.2- 
2.6 X longer than wide at apex; wings 

I hyaline with a darkened area around 

I. stigma (and cell ri darkened in males of 
an undescribed species from Mexico) . 
Legs. — Fore coxa has 2 large setae on 
apical half of anterior surface; middle 
coxa has pale, sparse, scalelike pile on 
posterior surface; fore femur has a single 
seta in the av position; middle femur 
without setae; hind femur has a row of 
av and pv setae, av setae fewer but 
stouter than pv setae. All femora have 
scalelike pile, especially along dorsal 
margin. 

Abdomen. — Slender, tapering toward 
apex, cylindrical in cross section; ab- 
dominal segments not telescoped; pile 
sparse, appressed, usually short. Tomen- 
tum of both sexes silvery, generally re- 
stricted to posterior margins of tergites 
1, 2, 3 and often 5 and 6 (except in male 
of undescribed species from Mexico that 
has silvery tomentum covering abdo- 
men). Ground color often red, orange, 
yellow, or light brown. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 122-127). — 
Tergite 8 elongate, bilobate at lateral 
margins, very thin medially (Fig. 127) ; 
sternite 8 a small bilobate sclerite (Fig. 
i26). Epandrium large (Fig. 124), 



slightly wider than long measured along 
midline; posterolateral margins not mod- 
ified. Cerci elongate, shorter than ven- 
tral epandrial sclerite, separate from 
one another; ventral epandrial sclerite 
simple elongate, not keeled, not deeply 
cleft; intersegmental membrane basad 
of ventral epandrial sclerite weakly 
sclerotized laterally, connecting to sclerite 
and anterior margin of aedeagus (this 
connection not obvious because of trans- 
parent membrane) ; this membrane also 
attached to posterolateral portion of 
epandrium. Gonocoxites (Fig. 122 and 
123) free for their entire length; hypan- 
drium narrow, bridgelike, connecting 
gonocoxites; parameral process absent 
although gonocoxites project posteriorly 
and greatly enlarged; parameral apodeme 
attached to lateral margin of dorsal 
apodeme by thin, transparent membrane. 
Ventral lobes of moderate size, dentate, 
not upright, weakly attached to center 
of aedeagus, free from one another (Fig. 
123) ; gonostylus elongate, reaching apex 
of expanded gonocoxite, twisted dorsally 
like a large hook ; ratio of aedeagus basad 
of center/distad of center about 1/1; 
ratio of width of phallus base/width of 
dorsal apodeme, 4/1. Aedeagus (Fig. 
122 and 125) of moderate size; distiphal- 
lus short, strongly curved, with a peculiar 
hoodlike appendage above and projecting 
posteriorly; ventral apodeme short, nar- 
row, about as long as ejaculatory apo^ 
deme; dorsal apodeme heavily sclero- 
tized laterally into two parallel bars; 
distal end of ejaculatory apodeme slightly 
enlarged laterally, dorsoventrally flat- 
tened. 

Habitat 

Little is known about the habitat of 
various species of Lysilinga. In Riverside, 
southern California, a malaise trap set 
in a small wash on a sparsely vegetated 
hillside yielded several specimens of L. 
aurantiaca over a period of several 
months. 

Distribution 

Lysilinga is, judging from sjiecimens 
examined, confined to western North 



232 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



America: southern California, Arizona, 
and New Mexico in the United States; 
Sonora, Chihuahua, Oaxaca, and Guer- 
rero in Mexico. 

Included Species 

aurantiaca (Coquillett) 1904i>:177 3 
(Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — Southern California, 
Arizona, and New Me.xico; Sonora, 
Mexico. 

occipitalis (Adams) 1904:443 S {Psi- 
locephala), new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Southern California, 
Arizona, and New Mexico; Sonora 
and Chihuahua, Mexico. 

subrufa (Cole) 1923a: 68 ? {Psilo- 
cephala), new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Arizona and southern 
California. (This species maybe con- 
specific with L. occipitalis.) 

There is one undescribed species from 
Guerrero and Oaxaca in southwestern 
Mexico. 

Genus Brachylinga Irwin & Lyneborg, 
new genus (Fig. 18 and 128-135) 

Feminine 

Derivation of name: brachys (Greek) 
= short; linga (Sanskrit) = penis. 

Type-species: Psilocephala baccata Co- 
quillett 1893t>:226 by present designa- 
tion. Type-locality: Los Angeles and 
San Bernardino counties, California. 

Diagnosis 

Small- to medium-sized, often slender 
species. 

Head. — Compound eyes of male 
touch to nearly touch for a short dis- 
tance; eyes of male not divided into two 
distinct facet sizes. Frons of female (Fig. 
18) rather narrow in most species, upper 
half only slightly wider than ocellar 
tubercle, lower half expanded to 2-3 X 
width of ocellar tubercle. In an unde- 
scribed species from San Bias, Nayarit, 
Mexico, female frons very wide, 2.3 X 
width of ocellar tubercle at level of an- 
terior ocellus, 4X width at antennal in- 
sertion. Head squat, 1.2-1.6X wider than 
high; distance between lower, inner cor- 



ners of compound eyes 0.6-0.8 X head 
height; antennae about midway or 
slightly lower on head, between 40 and 
70 percent of head height above antennal 
insertion; genae small, rounded, tomen- 
tum usually undifferentiated from that 
of face (small group of species along 
Pacific Coast from Sonora, Mexico, to 
Panama has differentiated tomentum on 
genae). Head slightly prognathous in 
most species, hypognathous in others; 
proboscis relatively large, reaching to or 
slightly beyond base of antennae in most 
species: palps Vi-Vi length of proboscis, 
often yellowish to yellowish-brown. Head 
depth 1.2-1.4X antennal length; scape 
0.5-0.8 X as long as flagellum; first flagel- 
lomere pear shaped to elongate; dorsal 
portion of scape sparsely to densely cov- 
ered with thickened, dark setae ; antennae 
covered with a fine tomentum; flagel- 
lar style short, of apparently two seg- 
ments plus terminal spine. Pile on fixins 
of male variable, from absent to abun- 
dant, from erect to appressed, from short 
to long: pile on female also variable al- 
though never entirely absent. Frons, face, 
genae, and occiput clotlied in coarse to 
fine pi-uinose tomentum, often brown. 
gray, or silveiy; upper and lower frons 
not differentiated by pattern or color of 
tomentum; frons of female (Fig. 18) 
often has a velvety brown spot tangential 
to each compound eye ; this spot large 
and round or small and flattened against 
eye margin; in some species no spot is 
evident. Frons of male either with or 
without small spot; if spots exist, they 
are flattened against each compound eye. 
Ocellar tubercle has few to several setae. 

Thorax. — np 3, sa 1-2 (usually 2), 
pa 1, dc 0-2 (usually 2), sc 2; thoracic 
setae dark brown to black. Mesonotal 
pile generally spai-se, thin, erect, with 
scalelike, bronze-colored appressed pile; 
pile generally denser on males than on 
females. Mesonotal tomentum usually 
grayish to brown without discernible pat- 
tern of \ittae. Wing. — Cell m,, fmm 
widely open to closed : ratio of lengths 
R4/R5 about 1.0-1.1; cell r^ 2.0-3.2\ 
longer than wide at apex: \vings hyaline 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



233 




Fig. 128—135. — Rrachylinga baccata (Coq.) male terminalia, 128. — Gonocoxites and 
hypandrium in ventral view. 129. — Left gonoccxite with appendages and aedeagus in 
dorsal view. 130. — Left gonoccxite and gonostylus in lateral view. 131. — Epandrium 
with appendages in dorsal view. 132. — Ventral epandrial sclerite. 133. — Aedeagus in 
lateral view. 134. — Sternite 8. 135. — Tergite 8. Scale; 0.5 mm. 



with a darkened area around stigma in 
some species and darkened areas sur- 
rounding the veins in a few species. Legs. 
— Fore femur has 0-1 av setae (usually 
1 ) ; middle femur has no setae ; hind fe- 
mur has a sparse row of av and pv setae ; 
scalelike, appressed as well as thin, erect 
pile on all femora. 

Abdomen. — Slender (especially in 
male), tapering toward apex, cylindrical 
in cross section; pile sparse, semi-ap- 
pressed in most species; tomentum 
sparse, usually silvery along sides of fe- 
males, covering all of doreum in males 
of most species {B. pavida males lack 
this feature). Ground color often dark 
brown or black. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 128-135). — 
Segment 8 from slightly to greatly re- 
duced; sternite 8 (Fig. 134) a rounded 
sclerite, notched on the posterior margin ; 
tergite 8 from narrowly constricted (as 
in B. pavida) to broadly constricted (as 
in B. baccata (Fig. 135) and B. abdotn- 
inalis). Epandrium (Fig. 131) of mod- 
erate size, usually wider than long, ratio 



of length/width along midlines from 0.7 
to 1.0; posterolateral margins not modi- 
fied; cerci as long as to considerably 
shorter than ventral epandrial sclerite 
and usually free from one another; ven- 
tral epandrial sclerite (Fig. 132) simple, 
often notched apically, usually relatively 
large with respect to cerci ; interseg- 
mental membrane basad of ventral epan- 
drial sclerite weakly sclerotized, with 
small, lateral shields fitted into postero- 
ventral portion of epandrium in soine 
species and not, or at most vei"y weakly, 
connected to anterior margin of aedeagus. 
Gonoco.xites (Fig. 128) free over entire 
length, usually simple in form, but in 
some species elongate posteriorly; hy- 
pandrium small, thin, free, bridgelike, 
attached to both gonocoxites by mem- 
branes; aedeagus attached to ventral 
lobes of gonoco.xites; parameral process 
absent or very minute; parameral 
apodeme attached to lateral margin of 
aedeagus by a thin, transparent mem- 
brane; ventral lobes of moderate size 
(small in a few West Indian species). 



234 



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Vol. 32, Art. 3 



weakly attached to center of aedeagus; 
gonostylus usually elongate, curved dor- 
sad, and with a tuft of setae on extreme 
posteroventral portion in a few species; 
gonostylus reaches beyond (posteriorly) 
distiphallus and, in most species, beyond 
gonocoxite extensions; ratio of aedeagus 
basad of center/distad of center, usually 
0.67-0.80, in a few cases 1.0-1.4 (e.g., B. 
ahdominalis) ; ratio of width of phallus 
base/width of dorsal apiodeme, 0.15-0.44, 
most North American species ranging 
between 0.3 and 0.4. Aedeagus variable, 
usually of moderate size; distiphallus 
short (as in B. abdominalis) to long [as 
in B. sericeifrons (Krober 1928a: 34) 
from Chile], with those of most North 
American species of moderate length ; 
distiphallus simple, downcurved apically; 
ventral apodeme short, broader at base 
than at apex, shorter than dorsal 
apodeme, and usually shorter than ejac- 
ulatory apodeme, in B. abdominalis very 
broad and forked apically; dorsal apo- 
deme shieldlike, broader apically than 
basally, generally more heavily sclero- 
tized along lateral margins; distal end of 
ejaculatory apodeme club shaped, in B. 
abdominalis very large, triangular. 

Habitat 

Many of the species inhabit dry can- 
yons in Mediterranean zone vegetation ; 
others are found along beach areas in 
and amongst dune vegetation. Species of 
Brachylinga are not found in extreme 
deserts but are often associated with mar- 
ginal desert habitats. 

Distribution 

Brachylinga occurs throughout much 
of the drier zones of the Nearctic and 
Neotropical regions. One group is found 
in the southwestern USA and western 
Mexico, another in Chile, Peru, and 
Ecuador; yet another is found in the 
West Indies and Florida. 

Included Species 

abdominalis (Fabricius) 1805:12 [Bi- 
bio) , new combination. Distribution. 
— Puerto Rico, West Indies. 



vexans (Curran) 1926:2 3, 9 
[Psilocephala] . new s\Tionym. 

baccata (Coquillett) 1893b: 226 S, 9 
(Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — California. 

cinerea (Cole) 1923a: 65 3, $ [Psi- 
locephala], new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — New Mexico. 

monensis (Curran) 1926:2 9 [Psilo- 
cephala), new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Mona Island, \Vest Indies. 

morata (Coquillett) 1893fc:225 3, 9 
[Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — New York, New Jer- 
sey, Florida. 

obscura (Coquillett) 1893fe:229 9 
[Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — Jamaica, West In- 
dies. 

pavida (Coquillett) 1893b: 226 3 
[Psilocephala) , ne\v combination. 
Distribution. — Arizona, California: 
Baja California, Mexico. 

pilosa (Krober) 1914:47 3 [Psilo- 
cephala], new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Arizona. 

platycera (Loew) 1872:114 9 [Psilo- 
cephala], new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Cuba, \Vest Indies. 

laticornis (Loew) 1869a: 10 9 

[Psilocephala] , not Loew 1856. 

? slossonae (Coquillett) 1893b: 227 9 

[Psilocephala slossoni) emendation. 

new combination. Distribution. — 

New Hampshire. 

slossoni (Coquillett), improper 
original spelling. 

squamosa (Hardy) 1943:24 3, 9 
[Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — Key W'est, Florida. 

tepocae (Cole) 1923b: 461 9 [Psilo- 
cephala), new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Sonora, Mexico. 

More than 10 species of Brachylinga 
are undescribed, and several species are 
described from South America. 

Genus Litolinga Irwin & Lyneborg, 
new genus (Fig. 16, 17, and 136-141) 

Feminine 

Derivation of name: litos (Greek") = 
simple; linga (Sanskrit) = penis. 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 235 




Fig. 136-141. — lilolinga ocula (Adams) male lerminalia. 136. — Left gonocoxile with appendages 
and aedeagus in dorsal view. 137. — Left gonocoxite with appendages in ventrolateral view. 138. — Epan- 
drium with appendages in dorsal view. 139. — Aedeagus in loteral view. 140. — Tergite 8. 141. — Slernite 
8. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



Type-species: Psilocephala acuta Adams 
1903 : 222 by present designation. Type- 
locality: Englewood, Clark County, 
Kansas. 

i Diagnosis 

Small- to medium-sized, usually slen- 
der species. 

Head. — Compound eyes of male al- 
most touching for a considerable dis- 
tance; eyes of male of two distinct facet 
sizes, with a linear indentation on eye 
surface where different facet sizes meet. 
Frons of female (Fig. 17) extremely 
wide, more than 3X width of ocellar 
tubercle at level of antennal insertion 
and more than 2X width of ocellar 
tubercle at vertex. Frons of male has 
light to dark brown velvety patch con- 
tiguous with each compound eye ; frons 
sf female usually has distinct rounded, 
dark brown velvety spot contiguous with 
;ach compound eye (one undescribed 
iperies from Texas has minute crescent- 
ihaped velvety patches) . Frons and face 
ii both sexes completely tomentose ; to- 
nentum buff to brown; frons and upper 
ace of male without pile or setae; frons 



of female has scattered, sparse, short 
setae above velvety spots, otherwise up- 
per face and frons without pile or setae. 
Genae protrude as lobes below compound 
eyes (Fig. 16), always with a patch of 
darker brown tomentum running to sub- 
cranial cavity. Head triangular in shape 
when viewed from side, with ocelli form- 
ing upper point, base of genae a second 
and antennal insertion a third, with an- 
tennae placed very low on head. Ocellar 
tubercle has many short setae angled 
forward, originating mainly from pos- 
terior portion. Head 0.6-0.8 X as deep 
as antennal length; scape of male 0.4— 
0.5 X as long as flagellum; scape of fe- 
male 0.5-0.6 X as long as flagellum. 
Scape stout; first flagellomere exagger- 
atedly pear shaped with a longer termi- 
nal style composed of a single segment 
plus a blunted apical spine. Palps one 
segmented although on some specimens 
they may ajjpear to be two segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3, sa 1-2 (usually 2), 
pa 1, dc 0, sc 1-2; all thoracic setae dark 
brown to black ; mesonotal pile of both 
sexes pale, mostly silvery, appressed, 
sparse in general ; prostemum with elon- 



236 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32. Art. 3 



gate white pile in and around central 
depression. Wing. — Cell nis widely open ; 
ratio of lengths R4/R5 0.93-1.05; cell u 
2.0-2.8 X longer than wide at apex; 
wings generally have mottled brown 
patches between veins, amount of dark- 
ened area differs between species. Legs. 
— Fore coxa has 2 large, black setae on 
anterior surface, 1 apical, the other about 
midway between apex and base of coxa; 
hind femur has 3-7 anteroventral setae. 

Abdomen. — Rather slender, gradually 
tapering from segment 2 toward apex; 
abdominal segments not telescoped ; male 
dorsum flattened, most species have a 
patina of fine silvery tomentum; ground 
color dark to light brown. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 136-141). — 
Tergite 8 only moderately constricted in 
middle (Fig. 140) ; stemite 8 a small, 
nearly circular sclerite (Fig. 141). Epan- 
drium (Fig. 138) about % as long as wide 
along midline, with sharp posterolateral 
comers extending nearly to level of pos- 
terior margin of ventral epandrial scler- 
ite; cerci extend slightly beyond ventral 
epandrial sclerite; ventral epandrial 
sclerite simple, about 2 X as long as cerci, 
posterior margin incised in several spe- 
cies; sclerotization of intersegmental 
membrane anterior of ventral epandrial 
sclerite weak, connecting this sclerite 
with anterior margin of aedeagus; sclero- 
tization of intersegmental membrane does 
not reach posterolateral portion of epan- 
drium. Gonocoxites (Fig. 136) free for 
their entire distance; hypandrium free, 
small, bridgelike, connecting gonocoxites; 
parameral process present as a short 
finger; parameral apodeme weak, not at- 
tached to aedeagus; ventral lobes of 
gonocoxites relatively large, lightly sclero- 
tized, and weakly attached to ventral cen- 
ter of aedeagus; gonostylus elongate, 
twisted toward distiphallus, usually blunt ; 
ratio of aedeagus basad of center/distad 
of center about 2/1 ; ratio of width of 
phallus base/width of dorsal apodeme 
1/4. Aedeagus (Fig. 136 and 139) large, 
distiphallus simple, short, downward 
curved; ventral apodeme thin, short, 
bladelike, about % as long as dorsal 
apodeme. not entirely covering ejacula- 



tory apodeme; dorsal apodeme generally 
covers ejaculatory apodeme ; anterior end 
of ejaculatory apodeme clublike, enlarged, 
though dorsoventrally flattened. 

Habitat 

Specimens of Litolinga have been col- 
lected in the beach sands of the Gulf of 
Mexico and inland in sand dunes of Kan- 
sas and Texas. Lar\ae of one species, L. 
acuta (Adams), are known predators of 
Elasmopalpus Ugnosellus (Zeller), the 
lesser com stalk borer, on peanuts in 
Texas (Johnson 1978). 

Distribution 

Litolinga is restricted to the south- 
eastern and south-central United States 
(Florida, Kansas, Texas) and along the 
eastern coast of Mexico (Tamaulipas, 
\'era Cruz) . 

Included Species 

acuta (Adams) 1903:222 5, 2 {Psi- 
loccphala) , new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Kansas, Texas. 

pallida (Krober) 1914:45 S {Psi- 
loccphala) , new combination, 
new synonym. 
? bolboccra (Osten Sacken) 1887:162 
9 {Thcrcva), new combination. 
Distribution. — Presidio, Me.xico. 
(From the description, the species 
seems to belong within Litolinga.) 
holhoceras, Krober 1914:64, error 
in spelling. 
tergisa (Say) 1823:39 3 {Thcrcva), 
new combination. Distribution. ^ 
Florida. 

tcrgissa, LeConte 1859 : 57. unjusti- 
fied emendation. 
corusca (Wiedemann) 1828:232 
S {Thereva) Cole 1923a: 71. 
There aie about three undescribed 
species. 



Genus Rhagiofoniia Irwin & Lyncborg, 
new genus (Fig. 23 and 142-147) 



Feminine 



Derivation of name: Rliagio, a genus ol 

flies; forma (Latin) = shape, form. 
Type-species: Psilocephala macidipennis 



1 



I 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 237 



Krober 1914:45 by present designa- 
tion. Type-locality: San Jose del Cabo, 
Baja California, Mexico. 

Diagnosis 

Moderately large-sized, slender species. 

Head. — Frons of male at its narrow- 
est much narrower than half width of 
anterior ocellus; frons of female at level 
of anterior ocellus 2.0-2.2 X as wide as 
ocellar tubercle; male frons raised, with 
brownish-gray tomentum and long, black 



pile over entire surface; female frons has 
brownish-gray tomentum, unpattemed, 
slightly concave in middle, and has short, 
appressed pile on upper two-thirds ; head 
rather prominently protrudes anteriorly 
at antennal level; head depth 1.2-1.4X 
antennal length (Fig. 23) ; scape slender, 
0.6-0.8 X as long as flagelluin; first flagel- 
lomere constricted at base; flagellar style 
long, slender, two segmented, with a dis- 
tinct, terminal spine; palps one seg- 
mented. 




Fig. 142-147. — Rbagioforma maculipennis (Krob.) male terminalia. 142. — Right gonocoxite with 
appendages and aedeagus in dorsal view, 143. — Epandrium with oppendages in dorsal view. 144. — 
'Epondrium with appendages in ventral view. 145. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 146. — Tergite 8. 147. — - 
Sternite 8. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



238 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



Thorax. — np 3-4, sa 2, pa 1, dc 2, sc 
2; mesonotal pile of male long, dense, 
erect, that of female much shorter and 
more appressed; presternum has long 
pale pile in and around central depression. 
Wing. — Cell m, open or closed at wing 
margin; vein R* much longer than vein 
Rs ; cell Ft about 2 X longer than wide at 
apex; wing grayish -brown with pattern 
formed by dark shadows around cross- 
vein and distal portion of longitudinal 
veins; stigma dark brown. Legs. — Fore 
coxa has 2 strong black setae: 1 apical 
on anterior surface and 1 subapical on 
exteroanterior margin; hind femur has 
5-7 anteroventral setae, a few postero- 
ventral setae. 

Abdomen. — Rather slender and grad- 
ually tapering from base toward apex; 
dorsum noticeably convex in both sexes; 
dorsum of male entirely tomentose and 
pilose ; tomentum silvery gray, pile white ; 
dorsum of female yellowish brown, with 
black spots in midline, pile sparse and 
very short, strongly resembling the ab- 
dominal pattern found in many species 
of Rhagio F. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 142-147). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 146) large and strongly 
constricted along middle; stemite 8 (Fig. 
147) very large, broadly oval, with semi- 
circular incision posteriorly; epandrium 
(Fig. 143) shorter in midline than wide, 
with pointed, projecting, posterolateral 
corners; cerci free (Fig. 143), well sep- 
arated and sclerotized, sparsely haired, 
large; ventral epandrial sclerite (Fig. 
144) extends slightly beyond cerci, pos- 
terior margin cleft, anteriorly reaching 
only to level of middle of epandrium, the 
anterior part separated along midline 
and from part below cerci: parameral 
apodeme without attachment to aedea- 
gus; distiphallus (Fig. 142) wide proxi- 
mally and gradually tapering, in lateral 
view (Fig. 145) only slightly curved: 
dorsal apodeme (Fig. 142) long, oval: 
ventral apodeme shaped like a very nar- 
row spoon; ejaculatory apodeme (Fig. 
142) small, with distal part expanded: 
ventral lobes of gonocoxite (Fig. 142) 
large, lamellate, loosely attached to ven- 



tral surface of aedeagus; parameral pro- 
cess absent, but parameral apodeme well 
developed, short and thick; gonocoxites 
not united ventrally, only attached by a 
weak membrane anteriorly; hypandrium 
(Fig. 142) present, free. 

Habitat 

Unknown. One female was taken 
drinking from a small stream in an other- 
wise dry area in northern Baja California. 

Distribution 

The genus Rhagioforma is apparently 
restricted to Baja California, Mexico. 

Included Species 

maculipennis (Krober) 1914:45 $ 
(Psilocephala), new combination. 
Distribution. — Baja California, 
Mexico. 

No undescribed species of this genus 
are knov^m. 

Genus Arenigena Irwin & Lyneborg, 
new genus (Fig. 19, 21, and 148-156) 

Feminine 

Derivation of name: arena (Latin) = 

sand; gena (Latin) = bom in. 
Type-species: Thereva semitaria Coquil- 

lett 1893a: 198 by present designation. 

Type-locality: Southern California. 

Diagnosis 

Medium-sized, slender to moderately 
broad species. 

Head. — Eyes in male (Fig. 19) abso- 
lutely touch for a rather long distance; 
frons of female at level of anterior ocellus 
about twice as wide as ocellar tubercle 
and only slightly widens toward bottom 
of eyes; frons in both sexes entirely to- 
mentose, not patterned, with at most a 
few hairs on the upper frons of female; 
head only very slightly protrudes anteri- 
orly; gcna has very short, pale pile; 
head depth 1.5-1.7 X antennal length 
(Fig. 21): scape slender. 0.5-0.9 X as 
long as flagellum : flagellar style two seg- 
mented, with a distinct terminal spine; 
palps one segmented. 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 239 



Thorax. — np 3, sa 2, pa 1, dc 1-2, 
sc 2; all thoracic setae pale; mesonotal 
pile in both sexes of two types: one is 
long, appressed, pale, scalelike, and the 
other is short, erect and pale or dark; 
prostemum has long, whitish pile in and 
around central depression. Wing. — Cell 
ma closed; veins Ri and R5 equal in 
length; cell r^, 1.9-2.1 X as long as wide 
at apex. Legs. — Fore coxa usually has 



3 setae on anterior surface: 2 on apical 
half and 1 on basal half of anteroexterior 
margin, the latter rarely missing; hind 
femur has 6-8 anteroventral setae. 

Abdomen. — Rather slender, gradu- 
ally tapering posteriorly from segment 2 ; 
male dorsum convex or somewhat flat- 
tened, densely covered with whitish-gray 
tomentum and whitish pile; female dor- 
sum yellowish, subshiny, frequently with 




Fig. 148-156. — Arenigena spp. 148-155. — A. semilaria (Coq.) mole terminalia. 148. — Gonocoxites 
with appendages (left gonostylus omitted) and hypandrium In ventral view. 149. — Rigiit gonocoxite with 
appendages and aedeagus in dorsal view. 150.. — Left gonocoxite in lateral view. 151. — Aedeagus in 
lateral view. 152. — Epandrium with appendages in dorsal view. 153. — Epandrium with appendages 
in ventral view. 154. — Tergite 8. 155. — Slernile 8. 156. — A. morcida-group right gonocoxite with ap- 
pendages and aedeagus in dorsal view. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



240 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



grayish to grayish-brown anterior bands 
on anterior segments. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 148-156). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 154) comparatively large 
and constricted for rather a short dis- 
tance in middle; stemite 8 (Fig. 155) 
also rather large, oval, in some species 
with a low, wide incision along midpoint 
of posterior margin; epandrium (Fig. 
152) shorter in midline than wide, with 
short, rounded posterolateral comers; 
cerci free, rather weakly sclerotized; ven- 
tral epandrial sclerite (Fig. 153) large, 
often e.xtending beyond cerci, tapering 
anteriorly and reaching to anterior mar- 
gin of epandrium, where folded 180° 
and attached to anterior margin of 
aedeagus, this attachment markedly well 
sclerotized; parameral apodeme has a 
weak, membranous attachment to aedea- 
gus in semitaria (Fig. 149), a more 
sclerotized attachment in the marcida 
group (Fig. 156); aedeagus (Fig. 151) 
has gradually tapering, curving disti- 
phallus, broad, rectangular to ovoid dor- 
sal apodeme, short, simple ventral 
apodeme, and short ejaculatoiy apodeme 
that widens slightly distally; ventral lobes 
of gonocoxites (Fig. 148) weakly sclero- 
tized, without a distinct attachment to 
ventral surface of aedeagus; parameral 
process (Fig. 149 and 156) present and 
variously modified distally; parameral 
apodeme short; gonostylus hook shaped, 
sometimes with an apical comb of setae; 
gonocoxites (Fig. 148) in ventral view 
attached by a rather wide membrane in 
midline, this membrane continuing pos- 
teriorly into weakly sclerotized ventral 
lobes, each gonocoxite being clearly de- 
marcated; hypandrium (Fig. 148) free 
as a narrow, well-marked sclerite along 
the anteroventral comers of the gonocox- 
ites. 

Habitat 

Species of Arcnigena are found in 
desert habitats with sparse vegetation 
and sandy substrates; specimens have 
been taken from desert washes. 

Distribution 

Arenigena is a desert genus, found 
from Idaho into Mexico and from Cali- 



fomia eastward to Colorado, New Mex- 
ico, and Texas. 

Included Species 

brunnea (Krober) 1914:46 9 {Psilo- 
cephala), new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Arizona. 

marcida (Coquillett) 18936:228 $ 
(Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — Southern Califomia. 

semitaria (Coquillett) 1893a: 198 $, 

9 [Thereva] , new combination. 

Distribution. — Southem California. 

Several undescribed species occur in 
this genus. 

Genus Ammonaios Irwin & Lvneborg, 
new genus (Fig. 20, 22, and 157-161) 

Masculine 

Derivation of name: ammos (Greek) = 
sand; na/o (Greek) = to dwell. 

Type-species: Thereva nivea Krober 
1914:64 by present designation. T\-pe- 
locality: Mesiila Valley, New Mexico. 

Diagnosis 

Moderately large, heavy-bodied spe- 
cies. 

Head. — Frons of male (Fig. 20) at 
its narrowest distinctly narrower than 
half width of anterior ocellus; frons of ' 
female at level of anterior ocellus 2.1- 
2.4 X as wide as ocellar tubercle; male 
frons has whitish tomentum and whitish, 
scaly pile; female frons has entirely pale 
tomentum, not markedly patterned, and 
like male has appressed, pale, scaly pile: 
head only slightly protiiides at antennal 
level: lateral portion of face and gena has 
scaly pile; facial and genal call! absent; 
head depth 1.4-1.8 X antennal length 
(Fig. 22); scape slender, 0.3-0.6X as 
long as flagellum; flagellar stvle apical, 
two segmented, with a distinct temiinal 
spine ; palps one segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3-5, sa 1-2, pa 1, dc 
1-2, sc 2; all setae slender and pale; 
mesonotal pile in both sexes dense, uni- 
form, pale, mostly scaly, and semi-ap- 
pressed to appressed; prostemum has 
long, whitish pile in and around central 
depression. Wing. — Cell m^ closed ; veir. 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 241 





Fig. 157—161. — Ammonaios niveus (Krob.) male terminalia. 157. — Right gonocoxite with append- 
ages and aedeagus in dorsal view. 158. — Gonocoxites with appendages and hypandrium in ventral 
view. 159. — Epandrium with appendages in dorsal view. 160. — Tergtte 8. 161. — Sternite 8. Scale: 
0.5 mm. 



R4 longer than vein R5; cell r4 1.9-2. OX 
as long as wide at apex; color uniformly 
hyaline, pale brownish, or with a whitish 
tinge; stigma pale or dark brownish, or 
costal margin more extensively darkened. 
Legs. — Fore coxa with 2 pale, slen- 
der apical setae on anterior surface, 
sometimes an additional seta more 
basally; middle coxa has whitish scaly 
pile on posterior surface; hind femur has 
2-8 pale to dark anteroventral setae. 

Abdomen. — Rather broadly built, in 
both sexes gradually tapering from seg- 
ment 3 to apex ; dorsum flattened in both 
sexes; male dorsum entirely covered with 
thick, long, appressed, scaly whitish pile 
that completely covers integumental sur- 
face; female dorsum yellowish brown to 
grayish yellow, with ill-defined, darker 
anterior bands on anterior segments ; pile 
much sparser and shorter than on male. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 157-161). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 160) and sternite 8 (Fig. 
161) large. Epandrium (Fig. 159) 
shorter in midline than wide, postero- 
lateral comers rather sharply pointed ; 
cerci free, rather weakly sclerotized, 



never extending beyond ventral epan- 
drial sclerite; ventral epandrial sclerite 
(Fig. 159) very wide, more or less 
strongly extending beyond cerci, and 
more or less ventrally directed; ventral 
epandrial sclerite reaches anterior mar- 
gin of epandrium and has a membran- 
ous attachment to aedeagus; parameral 
apodeme has a more or less distinctly 
sclerotized bridge to dorsal apodeme of 
aedeagus; aedeagus has a long, narrow, 
downcurved distiphallus; dorsal apodeme 
tapers distally; ventral and ejaculatory 
apodemes small; ventral lobes of gono- 
coxites short and weak, not attached to 
aedeagus; parameral process large and 
stout, often slightly spoon shaped; para- 
meral apodeme stout; gonostylus vari- 
ously shaped; gonocoxites short, tnancate 
distally, ventrally (Fig. 158) attached by 
a membrane; hypandrium narrow and 
laterally fused to gonocoxites. 

Habitat 

Species in the genus Ammonaios are 
inhabitants of very xeric zones and can 
be found as adults on and near shifting 



242 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



sand dunes. Larvae have been reared 
from sand taken from areas near vegeta- 
tion in shifting dunes. This genus is not 
known to occur in coastal areas and 
seems restricted to inland dune systems. 

Distribution 

Southwestern United States (Oregon, 
California, Idaho, Utah, Nevada, Ari- 
zona, New Mexico, Texas) and northern 
Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Chi- 
huahua, Coahuila) . 

Included Species 

niveus (Krober) 1914:64 $ {The- 
reva nivea) , new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — New Mexico. 

At least four additional, unnamed spe- 
cies are at hand. 

Genus Megalinga Irwin & Lyneborg, 
new genus (Fig. 3 and 162-168) 

Feminine 

Derivation of name: me gas (Greek) = 
large; linga (Sanskrit) = penis. 

Type-species: Megalinga insignata Irwin 
& Lyneborg, herein described, by pres- 
ent designation. Type-locality: Death 
Valley, California. 

Diagnosis 

Medium- to large-sized, slender to 
moderately broad species. 

Head. — Frons of male at its narrow- 
est narrower than half width of anterior 
ocellus, or eyes tangential; frons of fe- 
male at level of anterior ocellus from 2 
to nearly 3X as wide as ocellar tubercle, 
gradually widening downward to bot- 
tom of eyes; frons has entirely grayish 
tomentum, either without distinct pat- 
tern or with two small, dark tomentose. 
circular areas on lower frons at eye mar- 
gin; male frons without pile; female 
frons has sparse, short, black, semi-ap- 
pressed pile on upper two-thirds; head 
moderately protrudes anteriorly; face 
without pile; genae ridge shaped, with 
darker tomentum than rest of head and 
short, black pile; head depth 1.4-1.7 X 
antennal length; scape slender, 0.4— 0.6 X 
as long as flagellum; flagellar style two 



segmented with a distinct terminal spine; 
palps one segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3, sa 2, pa 1, dc 1-3, 
sc 2; mesonotal pile mostly short, semi- 
appressed to appressed, pale: additional 
sparse pile of very short, black, erect 
hairs sometimes occurs on midanterior 
portion; prostemum has long whitish 
pile in and around central depression; 
each cervical lobe anterior to prostemum 
has a strong, black seta ( Fig. 3 ) . Wing. 
— -Cell ma open; vein R2 + 3 has a deep 
curve apically; vein R4 longer than vein 
R5; cell ri 1.6-1.8X as long as wide at 
apex; whitish-hyaline, with strongly 
marked pattern of dark brownish patches. 
Legs. — Fore coxa has 2 stout setae on 
apical half of anterior surface and an 
additional stout seta near base on antero- 
exterior margin; hind femur has 5-6 an- 
teroventral setae, some shorter postero- 
ventral setae, often arranged in a close 
group near apex. 

Abdomen. — Rather narrow, gradu- 
ally tapering from base to apex: dorsum 
convex, especially in male; dorsum of 
male has pale grayish tomentum; dor- 
sum of female yellowish to brownish, due 
to thinner tomentum, and not distinctly 
patterned. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 162-168). — • 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 167) about as wide as 
epandrium and greatly constricted in 
middle; stemite 8 (Fig. 168) rather 
large, with broad incision in posterior 
margin; epandrium (Fig. 162) shorter in 
midline than wide, its posterolateral cor- 
ners broadly rounded, with a broad, in- 
folded margin; cerci (Fig. 162) free, 
strongly sclerotized, not extending beyond 
ventral epandrial sclerite ; this sclerite 
large, reaching to anterior margin of 
epandrium, not attached to anterior mar- 
gin of aedeagus, entirely membranous, 
only a hoi-seshoe shaped sclerotized area 
(Fig. 166) below cerci; aedeagus has two 
attachments (Fig. 164) to parameres and 
gonocoxites: a long, weak, membranous 
bridge stretching from distal corners of 
dorsal apodeme to midsection of para- 
mere, and a stronger attachment between 
ventral lobes of gonocoxites and ventral 



V Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



243 



surface of aedeagus; aedeagus (Fig. 164 270°, its apex being deeply cleft; ventral 
and 165) of a very remarkable shape; apodeme arises at a right angle from base 
distiphallus forms a right angle with of distiphallus, extending parallel to dor- 
die heavily sclerotized, rectangular dorsal sal apodeme, but much narrower and 
apodeme and curves downward for about shorter; ejaculatory apodeme about as 




Fig. 162—168. — Megaiinga insignala Irw. & Lyn. male terminolia. 162. — Epandrium with append- 
ages in dorsal view. 163. — Gonocoxites with appendages in ventral view. 164. — Right gonocoxite with 
appendages and aedeagus in dorsal view. 165. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 166. — Ventral epandrial 
sclerite and cerci in ventral view. 167. — Tergite 8. 168. — Sternite 8. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



244 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



long as ventral apodeme and very slender. 
Ventral lobes of gonocoxites (Fig. 163) 
very large, attached in midline for a long 
distance, and also attached to body of 
aedeagus; parameral process very long 
and slender, but its apodeme very re- 
duced; gonocoxites (Fig. 163) in ventral 
view attached by a strong membrane over 
midline but a ventral synsclerite is not 
formed, as each gonocoxlte is clearly de- 
marcated by a strongly sclerotized and 
pigmented inner margin; a similar strong 
membrane attaches the ventral lobes for 
a long distance; a free hypandrium is 
not present, but a hypandrial element 
may enter into the fusion of the antero- 
ventral corners of the gonocoxites. 

Habitat 

The two species listed below occupy 
distinct habitats, one in the deserts of 
the southwestern United States, the other 
in the coastal dunes and beaches of 
southern Mexico, Guatemala, and El 
Salvador along the Pacific Ocean. 

Distribution 

This genus is apparently restricted to 
the deserts of the southwestern United 
States and the coastline of Sinaloa, Mex- 
ico, southward to El Salvador. 

Included Species 

insignata Irwin & Lyneborg, described 
below. Distribution. — Southern Cal- 
ifornia, Arizona, and northern Baja 
California. 
One undescribed species of Mcgahnga 
is known from Sinaloa, Nayarit, and 
Guerrero, Mexico, and Ahuachapan, El 
Salvador. 

Megalinga insignata Irwin & Lyneborg, 
new species 

Derivation of name: in (Latin) = not; 
signatus (Latin) ^ mark. 

Description 

See Table 1 for selected measurements 
of the holotype and most paratype ma- 
terial. 

Male, holotype, specimen number 



5144^, 8.96 mm in length, excluding 
antennae. Ground color pale tan overall; 
pile generally short, but longer on genae, 
lower occiput, and laterally on abdomen ; 
all pile whitish to pale yellow: tomentum 
silver to golden, moderately dense. 

Head. — Frons narrow, the eyes large, 
diverging only slightly from middle of 
frons toward genae; eyes at their closest 
separated by about half the width of the 
anterior ocellus. Pile lacking on frons and 
face, long on occiput and rather dense on 
lower occiput; genae flanged, enlarged, 
with short dark brown hairs on ventral 
surface. Ocellar triangle prominent, with 
about 12 short, blackish bristles; occiput 
has a single row of postocular setae, 11 on 
each hemisphere. Tomentum very fine, 
brownish golden centrally and grayish 
silver laterally on frons and face; genae 
have dark brown tomentum; occiput has 
white tomentum: frons has two minute, 
crescent shaped marks of brown tomen- 
tum, one tangential to each eye. Anten- 
nae tan to yellowish-tan; scape has a 
single large black seta projecting antero- 
dorsally from dorsal surface and 2 such 
setae projecting anteroventrally from ven- 
tral surface; pile whitish, rather short on 
scape and pedicel, black, very short on 
basal third of flagellum: tomentum fine, 
whitish on scape and pedicel, thinner on 
flagellum; scape slightly longer than 
wide; pedicel about half as long as wide: 
flagellum about 2.5 X longer than wide, 
exaggeratedly pear shaped; style com- 
posed of two subsegments plus terminal 
spine, basal subsegment short, apical sub- 
segment about 2X as long as basal sub- 
segment, teiTninal spine short, blunt. 
Proboscis browTi, large, reaching almost 
to base of antennae; palps yellowish, 
reach about three-fourths distance to 
apex of proboscis, one segmented though 
with a deep constriction about one-fourth 
distance from base to apex. 



' Each specimen has been assigned a unique 
number to facilitate the association of data. 
This number appears below the specimen on 
a separate yellow label bearing, besides the 
number, the words, THEREVIDAE/M.E. 
IRWIN/SPECIMEN #. 



i 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 245 



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246 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



Thorax. — Mesonotal vittae rather 
indistinct; tomentum silver grayisii, 
rather dense, covering all of mesonotum, 
scutellum, and pleural areas; pile short, 
appressed, dense on and near scutellum, 
white with a few golden tan patches 
along anterior part of faint narrow vit- 
tae on mesonotum. Mesonotal macro- 
setal pattern: np 3, sa 2, pa 1, dc 2, sc 
2, black. Pile tliin, white, elongate, con- 
fined for the most part to anepistemum, 
pleurotergite, and coxae. Wing. — Veins 
yellowish brown with darker patches in 
several areas: at fork R4 + 5, along veins 
R4 and R5, near tip of R2+3, along vein 
R2+3 below darkened stigma, along most 
crossveins (not humeral crossvein), and 
thinly along veins Mj, M2, and M3. Veins 
M3 and M4 do not meet, distance be- 
tween them at wing margin 0.16 mm; 
vein R2 + 3 curves dorsally at tip; vein R4 
exaggeratedly sinuate; halter very pale 
tan overall. Legs. — Legs yellowish 
brown; femora have white, mostly ap- 
pressed pile, scalelike dorsally; femoral 
setal pattern: fi 3 av; f2 2 av, 1 pv; fa 
4 av, llpv. Tibial setal pattern: ti 3 ad, 
4 pd, 4 pv; t2 2 ad, 4 av, 3 pd, 3 pv; ta 
7 ad, 6 av, 4 pd, 4 pv. Fore coxa has 3 
prominent, black setae, 1 basal and 2 
apical. 

Abdomen. — Yellowish brown with 
silver gray tomentum and white pile; 
fascia slightly differentiated by a more 
tanish tomentum. 

Male Terminalia. • — Very large, 
darker brown than abdomen. See generic 
description for description of male ter- 
minalia. 

Varl^tion of Males in Paratvpe Se- 
ries. — Mean length, excluding anten- 
nae, 9.13 mm ± standard deviation of 
0.28 mm. Measurement differences are 
presented in Table 1. Femoral setal pat- 
tern: fi av 3-4, pv 0-1; f2 av 1-4, pv 
1—3; fs av 4-6, pv T-IL Tibial setal pat- 
tern: ti ad 3-5, av 0, pd 3-4, pv 2-4; to 
ad 2^, av 2-4, pd 3-4, pv 3-5; U ad 
4-9, av 4-8, pd 3-8, pv 2-6. 

Variation of Females in Paratype 
Series. — Mean length, excluding anten- 



nae, is 11.30 mm ±: standard deviation 
of 0.92 mm. Females are significantly (at 
1 -percent level) larger than males. Table 
1 presents selective measurements of fe- 
male paraty^ses. Females are similar to 
males except as follows: females have 
less dense tomentum and less dense pile 
overall. Frontal differences are great, 
as can be seen from Table 1 ; upper 
frons has sparse, short, black setae; a 
pair of small half crescent dark brown 
spots, one tangential to each eye, occur 
at the junction of upper and lower frons; 
a slightly darker tan strip of tomentum 
connects eye margin and antennal inser- 
tion. Femoral setal pattern: fi av 2-6, 
pv 0-2 {5151 has pd 1 ) ; f, av 3-5, pv 
2-5; fa av 4-8, pv 6-9. Tibial setal pat- 
tern: ti ad 3-4, av 0, pd 2-5, pv 4; ta 
ad 3-4, av 2-3, pd 3-4, pv 3-4; ta ad 
6-10, av 6-9, pd 4-7, pv 4-7. 

Female Terminally. — Tergite 8 
rather large, squarish, wdth a transverse 
band of black setae about midway from 
anterior to posterior ends; stemite 8 
elongate, a similar band of black setae 
about one-third distance from base to 
apex, widi a small central hump covered 
with small setae centrally along posterior 
margin, without any incisions on pos- 
terior margin; vaginal apodeme (stemite 
9) a complete sclerotized, elongate ring, 
taking up most of space abo\e stemite 
8, with a thin sclerotized connection 
posteriorly to tergite 9 and an extraor- 
dinary sclerotized structure involving the 
sclerotization of the spermathecal duct 
and a triangular sclerotized apparent 
apex of the duct that might represent a 
united spermathecae (Irwin 1976) ; in- 
tersegmental membrane connecting ster- 
nite 8 and vaginal apodeme heavily 
sclerotized, containing 2 sclerites united 
along midline of stemite 8 and connected 
to lateral portion of sclerotized ring of 
vaginal apodeme. Tergite 10 has about 
8 thickened spines in the posterodorsal 
position, and tergite 9 has about 6 diin- 
ner, longer spines in the posteroventral 
position; some finer setae anterior of 
posterodoreal spines on tergite 10: cerci 
widely separated, have a dense patch of 






Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 247 



black setae, connected to one another by 
a transparent membrane; subanal plate 
pointed apically, fitted beneath tergites 
9 and 10 and does not extend posteriorly 
beyond cerci. 

Specimens Examined 

Holotype : $ , 5144, California Acad- 
emy of Sciences type number 13670; 
Bennetts Well, Inyo County, California; 
30 March 1952; on indefinite loan from 
the California Insect Survey, University 
of California, Berkeley; A. E. Michel- 
bacher, collector. Paratypes: 5 males, 12 
females from these localities: 

MEXICO: Baja California Norte: 
Bahia de los Angeles, 1 April 1973, J. T. 
Doyen & J. A. Powell, ? , 5151 (CIS to 
CIS).i 

UNITED STATES: Arizona: Mari- 
copa County: Tempe, 8 May 1964, F. F. 
Hasbrouch, $, 5150 (ASU to ASU). 

California: Imperial County: Brawley, 
14 April 1959, E. I. Schlinger, 9 , 5146 
(EIS to UCR). Riverside County: Coa- 
chella, 25 May 1938, E. C. VanDyke, 
9 , 5147 (CAS to CAS) . San Bernardino 
County: Needles, 3 May 1964, P. Tor- 
chio & G. Bohart, S, 5149 (USU to 
USU) ; 9 air miles south of Baker at 
Zzyzx Springs, 24 April 1977, C. T. 
Kitayama ( malaise trap ) , $,5134 (CIS 
to MEI), 9, 5135 (CIS to CIS), 5136 
(CIS to UCD) ; same data, 25 April 
1977, 9 , 5137 (CIS to MEI) ; same data 
as last except, G. W. Ulrich, 9 , 5138 
(CIS to USNM) ; same data, 26 April 



^ Specimen loan institutions and deposi- 
tories (abbreviations in parentheses) : Arizona 
State University, Tempe (ASU); California 
Academy of Sciences, San Francisco (CAS) ; 
California Insect Survey, University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley (CIS) ; Canadian National 
Collection, Ottawa (CNC) ; Illinois Natural 
History Survey, Urbana (INHS); M. E. 
Irwin Collection (MEI); Evert I. Schlinger 
Collection (EIS) ; University of California, 
Davis (UCD) ; University of California, River- 
side (UCR) ; United States National Museum 

if Natural History, Washington, D.C. 

(USNM); Utah State University, Provo 
fUSU); Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, 
Denmark (ZMC). 



1977, M. E. Buegler (hand netted), 9, 
5139 (CIS to CNC); same data, 27 
April 1977, 9, 5140 (CIS to INHS). 
Inyo County: Furnace Creek, Death 
Valley, 27 March 1961, M. E. Irwin, 9 , 
5141 (MEI to ZMC) ; same data, D. R. 
Miller, 9, 5142 (UCD to MEI) ; same 
data, 8 April 1939, E. G. Linsley, $, 
5143 (CIS to CIS) ; Bennetts Well, 
Death Valley National Monument, 15 
April 1968, J. Bigelow & M. A. Cazier, 
9, 5145 (ASU to ASU); Tecopa, 30 
May 1955, J. Belkin, $ , 5148 (UCR to 
UCR). 

Genus Brevipema Irwin 

(Fig. 169-175) 

Feminine 

Breviperna Irwin 19776:288. Type-spe- 
cies: Psilocephala placida Coquillett 
1894:99 by original designation. Type- 
locality: Listed as "Florida," appar- 
ently in error (Irwin 19776:293). 

Reference: Irwin 19776. 

Diagnosis 

Large, robust species. 

Head. — Frons of male at its narrow- 
est about as wide as anterior ocellus; 
frons of female at level of anterior ocellus 
nearly twice as wide as ocellar tubercle; 
frons without distinct pattern of to- 
mentum; pile on lower frons moderately 
dense, sparse on upper frons, composed of 
rather long, black hairs; antennae set on 
low protuberance; facial and genal calli 
absent; lateral portion of face and gena 
bare; antennae 0.6-0.8 X as long as 
depth of head; scape 0.8-0.9 X as long 
as flagellum; flagellar style apical with 
two segments and a teiTninal spine; palps 
one segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3-5 (usually 4), sa 2, 
pa 1-2 (usually 1), do 0-1, sc 1-3 (usu- 
ally 2) ; mesonotal pile of two types: 
one is long, scalelike, sparse, semi-ap- 
pressed, and the other is short, thin, erect, 
sparse : prostemum has pile in and 
around central depression. Wing. — Cell 
ms open or closed; vein Rj longer than 
vein Rs; cell t^ about 2X as long as wide 



248 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



at apex; color hyaline with dark brown 
stigma. Legs. — Fore coxa has 2 apical 
setae on anterior surface; middle coxa 
without pile posteriorly; hind femur has 
7-9 anteroventral setae. 

Abdomen. — Broad, nearly parallel 
sided from segments 1 through 3, there- 
after, abdomen tapers shai-ply to apex; 
segments 5-8 telescoped within segments 
3-4 in males; female segments not tele- 
scoped ; dorsum of abdomen flattened, 
more so in males than in females; male 
dorsum densely clothed in silver tomen- 
tum; female dorsum lacks silver tomen- 
tum. 



Male Terminalia. — Tergite 8 (Fig. 
175) small and narrowly constricted me- 
dially; stemite 8 (Fig. 174) small and 
broadly bilobate; epandrium (Fig. 172) 
large, covering most of terminalia, dis- 
tinctly shorter than wide, with f»ostero- 
lateral margins bidentate; cerci free, ex- 
tending slightly beyond ventral epandrial 
sclerites; ventral epandrial sclerite (Fig. 
172) not keeled, not united to anterior 
margin of aedeagus; parameral apodeme 
attached by a thickened, wide, nonsclero- 
tized membrane to dorsal apodeme of 
aedeagus and ventral lobes broadly at- 
tached by a nonsclerotized membrane to 




Fig. 169-175. — Breviperno placida (Coq.) mole lerminalio. 169. — Genitolio in lolerol view. 170. — ' 
Gonocoxites with appendages and aedeagus in dorsal view. 171.- — Gonocoxites with appendages in \ 
ventral view. 172. — Epandrium with appendages in venlrol view. 173. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 
174. — Sternite 8. 175. — Tergite 8. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 249 



center of aedeagus; distiphallus (Fig. 
173) elongate, slender, with an asymetri- 
cally twisted tip; a nearly closed, sclero- 
tized ring surrounding proximal portion 
of ejaculatoiy apodeme is loosely at- 
tached to ventral lobe; ventral apodeme 
short and narrow; ventral lobes fused 
basally, elongate, forming a posteriorly 
directed continuation to central portion 
of gonocoxites; distal parameral process 
reduced, only a basal apodeme existing; 
gonocoxites (Fig. 171) broadly fused 
yentrally and flattened; hypandrium ab- 
sent or completely fused with gonocox- 
ites, not identifiable. 

Habitat 

Breviperna placida inhabits forested 
mountainous zones, but specific habitats 
are unknown. 

Distribution 

The genus Breviperna is found pre- 
dominantly in southeastern Arizona. 

Included Species 

placida (Coquillett) 1894:99 2 [Psi- 
locephala). Distribution. — South- 
eastern Arizona. 
No undescribed species are known to 
us. Breviperna milleri Irwin (1977^:294, 
9 ) was found to belong to the genus 
Ozodicero7nya Bigot, based on subse- 
quent material containing a male. 



Genus Nebritus Coquillett 

(Fig. 2 and 176-181) 

Xebntus Coquillett 1894:98. Type-spe- 
cies: N. pellucidus Coquillett 1894:98 
by original monotypy. Type-locality: 
Southern California. 

Zionea Hardy 1938:144 new synonym. 
Type-species: Z. tanneri Hardy 1938: 
144 by original monotypy. Type-local- 
ity: North Fork, Provo Canyon, Utah. 

Diagnosis 

Large- to medium-sized, slender bodied 
species. 

Head (Fig. 2) . — Frons of male wide, 
at level of anterior ocellus 1.6— 2. OX as 
wide as width of ocellar tubercle; frons 
of female at level of anterior ocellus 2.5- 



3.0 X as wide as width of ocellar tuber- 
cle; frons strongly patterned: lower part 
raised, forming a polished black callus, 
upper part with brownish to brownish- 
gray tomentum surrounding the polished 
black ocellar tubercle; frontal pile very 
long and erect, extending below level of 
antennal bases; head prominently pro- 
tnading anteriorly; antennae set on dis- 
tinct protuberance; lower frontal callus 
extends between antennal bases and 
foiTns an upper midfacial callus below 
antennae; a polished black callus also 
located ventrally on face ; upper postocu- 
lar margin thickened and polished black ; 
lateral portion of face without pile; gena 
has long pile; antennae 1.0-1.3 X as long 
as depth of head; scape 1.2-1.5 X as 
long as flagellum, slender or thickened; 
flagellar style subapical, placed in a 
groove on exterior surface of first flagel- 
lomere a considerable distance basad of 
apex; number of segments in flagellar 
style not discemable without dissection; 
palps one segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3-4, sa 2, pa 1, dc 0-1, 
sc 2; mesonotal pile in both sexes of two 
types: one is long, erect, black, rich, and 
the other is moderately long, semi-ap)- 
pressed to appressed, pale, rich, but 
largely restricted to lateral parts of meso- 
notum and to two bands on middorsum; 
presternum has long pile in and around 
central depression. Wing. — Cell m^ 
open; veins R4 and R3 about equal in 
length or R-, slightly longer; cell Ti 2.5- 
3.2 X as long as wide at apex; grayish 
brown to brown, frequently most in- 
tensively pigmented along anterior mar- 
gin or pigment arranged in broad streaks 
along veins; veins coarse; stigma dis- 
tinct. Legs. — Fore coxa has 2-3 apical 
setae on anterior surface; middle coxa 
has whitish pile on posterior surface ; 
hind femur has 4-12 anteroventral setae. 

Abdomen. — Broad at base, gradually 
tapering from base or from segment 2 to 
apex, not telescoped ; dorsum flattened, in 
both sexes dull, with grayish to brownish 
tomentum, or dorsum subshiny, without 
any marked pattern. 

Male Terminaua (Fig. 176-181). — 
Tergite 8 variable, in the type-species 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 




177 



181 



Fig. 176-181. — Nebritus pellucidus Coq. male terminalia. 176. — Right gonocoxite with oppendages 
and oedeogus in dorsal view. 177. — Gonocoxites with appendages in ventral view. 178. — Epondrium 
with appendages in dorsal view. 179. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 180. — Sternite 8. 181. — Tergite 8. 
Scale; 0.5 mm. 



(Fig. 181) small and strongly constricted 
medially; sternite 8 (Fig. 180) rectangu- 
lar to bilobate; epandrium (Fig. 178) 
only about half as long medially as wide, 
its posterolateral corners infolded ; cerci 
rather large, free, well sclerotized, not 
extending beyond level of ventral epan- 
drial sclerite; ventral epandrial sclerite 
large, extending to or nearly to anterior 
margin of epandrium, with a membra- 
nous attachment to anterior margin of 
aedeagus; ventral epandrial sclerite as a 
whole well sclerotized, keel shaped api- 
cally below cerci ; parameral apodeme not 
attached to aedeagus; distiphallus rather 
long compared with rest of aedeagus, 
downcurved; dorsal apodeme semicircu- 
lar, its distal margin with two lateral pro- 



jections; ventral and ejaculatory apo- 
demes small, weakly sclerotized: ventral 
lobes of gonocoxites large, spoon shaped, 
directed oblicjuely upward, with distinct 
attachment to ventral surface of aedea- 
gus; parameral process long and slender, 
noticeably projecting beyond posterior 
margin of gonocoxite; parameral apo- 
deme short; gonocoxites (Fig. 177) not 
united ventrally except by a membrane; 
gonocoxite in lateral view broadly 
rounded posteriorly; hypandrium broad 
throughout, united with anterior margin 
of gonocoxites for a rather long distance. 

Habitat 

The two described species are found 
in montane habitats; the one undescribed 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



251 



species seems confined to coastal sand 
dunes. 

Distribution 

Western North America. 

Included Species 

pcllucidiis CoquUlett \894 -.98 $, 9. 
Distribution. — Southern California 
(Monterey, San Luis Obispo, Kern, 
San Bernardino, Riverside, Los An- 
geles, and San Diego counties) and 
Mexico (Baja California Norte) . 
tanneri (Hardy) 1938:144 5 {Zio- 
nca) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Western LInited States 
(Utah, Nevada, and California) and 
northwestern Mexico (Baja Califor- 
nia Norte) . 
One undescribed species is at hand 
from the coastal dunes of California 
(Monterey, San Luis Obispo, Ventura 
counties) . 

Note 

In all basic respects of male terminalia 
and other obvious synapomorphies, tan- 
neri conforms to the ground plan of pel- 
lucidus. These two species are, in our 
judgment, closely related. Therefore, we 
have synonymized Zionea with Nebritus. 

Genus Cyclotelus Walker 
(Fig. 24, 26, 27, 30, and 182-187) 

Masculine 

Cyclotelus Walker 1850:4. Type-species: 
pruinosus Walker; subsequent designa- 
tion (Becker 1912:315). Type-local- 
ity: South America. 

Furcifera Krober 1911:524, new syno- 
nym. Type-species: jascipennis (Cole) 
by subsequent designation (Cole 1960a: 
165) (= Cyclotelus socius Walker 
1850: 6, new synonym). Type-locality: 
Brazil. 

Epomyia Cole 1923a: 26. Type-species: 
Thercva pictipennis Wiedemann by 
original designation. Type-locality: Sa- 
vannah, Georgia. 

Reference: Cole 1960a [as Furcifera) . 

Diagnosis 

Small to rather large species (4.5-13 
mm) , moderately slender. 



Head. — Frons of male at its narrow- 
est much less than half width of anterior 
ocellus; female frons (Fig. 30) at level 
of anterior ocellus 1 .5 X as wide as ocellar 
tubercle ; head 0.6-0.9 X as high as wide, 
slightly more circular in males; com- 
pound eyes of female of uniform facet 
size, of male divided (e.g., pictipennis 
(Wied.) and rufiventris (Loew) ) or 
at least with smaller facets ventrally; an- 
tennal insertion 0.6-0.7 X distance from 
vertex to genae; frons at antennal in- 
sertion 0.3-0.4X (females) or 0.2-0.3X 
(males) as wide as head; genae slightly 
flanged, dark tomentum contrasting with 
silvery tomentum of lower face; head 
hypognathous ; proboscis does not reach 
antennal base; palps one segmented, 0.7- 
l.OX as long as proboscis, thin basally, 
thicker distally, incurved toward tip, 
densely covered with thick hairs, espe- 
cially basodorsally and distoventrally; 
head 0.5-1.1 X as deep as antennal 
length (Fig. 26 and 27) (North Ameri- 
can species tend to have antennal length 
about equal to head depth) ; scape 0.5- 
2.0 X as long as flagellum (though in the 
North American species the range is 0.5- 
0.7X), 0.1-0.4X as wide as long (range 
0.3-0.4 X in North American species) ; 
scape sparsely covered with thin to me- 
diumly thick hairs; dorsobasal surface of 
first flagellomere has a few short hairs, 
basal third more or less constricted, more 
so in South American species; flagellar 
style often not entirely terminal, either 
subterminal (i.e., set on outer lateral 
portion of apex — usually the North 
American species) or distinctly aterminal 
(Fig. 26) (i.e., set on outer lateral por- 
tion about two-thirds from base of first 
flagellomere — usually South American 
species including the type-species) ; style 
of 1—2 visible segments plus spine, ap- 
proximately one-tenth as long as first 
flagellomere; frons lacks (male) or at 
most has a few short, inconspicuous setae 
on upper portion (females) ; 10-25 stout, 
usually darkly colored occipital setae per 
side in a single row paralleling eye mar- 
gin from vertex to about one-third dis- 
tance to bottom of eye, then incurving 
sharply around a stripe of silvery tomen- 



252 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



turn tangential to lower eye margin, and 
then downcurving for a short distance; 
pile lacking on frons, face, lateral areas 
of face and genae, moderately dense, 
elongate on ventral occiput, generally 
absent on ventral occipital tomentose 
stripe tangential to eye margin; tomen- 
tum fine, powdery, covering most of frons 
(male) or mainly lower part of frons 
(female) (Fig. 30), entire face and ven- 
tral occiput; gena has dark tomentum; 
upper frons of male has triangle of dark, 
velvety tomentum; frons of female has a 



well-defined central patch and often two 
smaller patches tangential to compound 
eyes of dark, velvety tomentum; usually 
area between female velvety tomentose 
patch and ocellar tubercle shiny, lacks 
tomentum. 

Thorax. — np 2-4 (usually 3), sa 
usually 2 (North American species) or 
1 (South American species), pa 1, dc 0, 
sc usually 2 (North American species) or 
1-3 (usually 1, South American species) ; 
mesonotal pile sparse, moderately short 
(male) or very short (female), erect, 




184 



187 



185 



Fig. 182-187, — Cyclotelus pruinosus Wlk. male terminalia, holotype. 182. — Genitalia in laleral 
view. 183. — Epondrium with appendages in dorsal view. 184. — Gonocoxites with appendages and 
aedeagal parts in ventral view, 185. — Left gonocoxite with appendages and oedeogus in dorsal view. 
186. — Tergite 8. 187. — Slernite 8. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lvneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 253 



occurring over entire surface except 
scutellum; mesonotal tomentum of two 
types: one is long, scalelike, semi-ap- 
pressed, sparse, and the other is pollinose, 
dense, forming vittae and patterns; scu- 
tellum has velvety tomentum and often a 
marginal row of dense, enlarged scale- 
like tomentum — or pile — in an erect, 
vertical position ; scutellar setae also as- 
sume erect position ; pile lacking on most 
of pleurae, sparse on anepistemum and 
upper, lateral portions of prosternum, 
dense in a longitudinal row on pleuro- 
tergite; pollinose tomentum relatively 
sparsely covers most of pleural region, 
lacking on anepimeron. Wing. — Hya- 
line to infuscate with various, usually 
: transverse, patterns in browns, yellows, 
and/or grays ; vein R4 shallowly S curved ; 
R4 usually longer than R,-,. Legs. — An- 
terior surface of coxa 1 has 2 apical setae ; 
posterior surfaces of coxae 1 and 2 shiny, 
not pilose, and at most very sparsely to- 
mentose; femora have small, slender, al- 
most exclusively av or pv setae; setae on 
feniui 3 from occupying distinctly av 
and pv positions (mostly North American 
species) to scattered over ventral sur- 
face (mostly South American species) ; 
pile on anterior and dorsal surfaces of 
femur 3 scalelike, appressed; on ventral 
surface short, sparse, thin: tibia 1 rela- 
tively straight, elongate to stout, with 
dorsal setae lacking or at least shorter 
tlian width of tibia 1; basitarsus 1 (Fig. 
24) swollen, enlarged. 

Abdomen. — Narrow, nearly parallel 
sided from segment 1 through 4; there- 
after abdomen tapers rapidly; segments 
6-8 of males telescoped within segment 
T and ta]jer is cut to blunt point; seg- 
ments of females not telescoped and ta- 
per is long and pointed; dorsum of 
abdomen flattened, more so in males; 
tergites generally not fasciate, though 
iiTgite 2 is brown or gray fasciate in a 
iew species; pile pattern variable, never 
dense; dorsum of males and, to a lesser 
degree of females of a few species, densely 
"■iUer. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 182-187). — 
Sternite 8 (Fig. 187) shallowly to deeply 



bilobate; tergite 8 (Fig. 186) narrowly 
constricted medially; epandrium (Fig. 
183) large, covering most of terminalia, 
1.3-1.8X (the higher values occurring 
in North American species) wider than 
long (bisected medially longitudinally 
and latitudinally), with outer posterior 
margins extended hindward to about 
level of apex of cerci and ventral epan- 
drial sclerite, almost always bidentate: 
cerci (Fig. 183) slightly shorter than 
ventral epandrial sclerite: cerci joined 
only basally; ventral epandrial sclerite 
not keeled, usually incised ; intersegmen- 
tal membrane basad of this sclerite 
weakly to heavily sclerotized, strongly 
attached to sclerite base with 2 arms 
firmly attached to posterolateral projec- 
tions of epandrium, and weakly to firmly 
attached to anterior margin of aedeagus : 
gonocoxites (Fig. 184) solidly fused along 
ventral margin, with an elongate, pos- 
terior projection (Fig. 182) extending 
beyond apex of gonostylus (South Amer- 
ican s])ecies) or not (common North 
American s]3ecies). According to Lyne- 
borg {1969:407) , sumichrasti (Bellardi) 
has a broader projection, but clearly this 
species falls within the concept limits 
of Cyclotelus. Hypandrium lacking or 
completely fused with gonocoxites, not 
identifiable; aedeagus not attached to 
ventral lobes, but attached to parameral 
apodeme (Fig. 185) by a heavily sclero- 
tized rod, which bows anteriorly beyond 
gonocoxal cavity and sharply hindward 
and forms a firm connection to the pos- 
terolateral edge of the aedeagal dorsal 
apodeme: parameral process (Fig. 185) 
free, very reduced, knoblike; ventral lobes 
fused basally, elongate, probably function 
as a guide for the thin, elongate disti- 
phallus; length of aedeagus basad of 
center 1.5-2. OX length distad of center 
(Fig. 185) ; aedeagal dorsal apodeme and 
inner dorsal shield each more than twice 
as wide as base of distiphallus; this 
cur\ed slightly u[)ward, outward, arching 
downward and inward, and slightly out- 
ward at tip: aedeagal ventral apodeme 
usually narrow (usually less than half as 
wide as inner shield, but nearly as wide 



254 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletif 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



in one South American species), elongate 
(slightly longer than inner dorsal shield) , 
not forked; inner dorsal shield shallowly 
bilobate; ejaculatory apodeme large to 
mediumly small, the distal end expanded, 
usually horizontally flattened. 

Habitat 

E. I. Schlinger (personal communica- 
tion) has collected specimens in Pervi 
alighting on sunlit paths in otherwise 
dense, dank tropical forests. R. H. 
Painter (Cole 1960a: 168) has collected 
specimens of rtifiventris (Loew) in "sand 
dunes" at Medora, Kansas. Three spe- 
cies, rufiventris, pictipennis, and colei, 
have been abundantly collected at Sand 
Ridge State Forest, Mason County, Illi- 
nois, on oak forested expanses of sand. 

Distribution 

Members of the genus Cydotelus have 
been found throughout the New World 
tropics of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, 
Uiuguay, Bolivia, and Peru and in 
southern, eastern, and central Mexico, 
through the eastern portion of the United 
States, and westward to the Rocky Moun- 
tains (e.g., Texas and Montana) and 
northward into Canada (Manitoba) . 

Included Species 

bellus (Cole) 1923a: 32 $, 9 [Epo- 
niyia bella), new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Texas: Macdona, Hi- 
dalgo County: Laguna Madre, 25 
miles southwest of Harlingen : Pa- 
dilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico. 
colci Irwin & Lyneborg, new name for 
scutellaris Loew 1869b, not Walker 
1857. Distribution. — Central and 
eastern United States. 

scutellaris Loew 1869Z):171 9 
(Psilocephala), not Cydotelus 
Walker 1857:133 (Brazil, Uru- 
guay, Paraguay) . 
hardyi'iCole) I960fl:167 {Furdjcra), 
new combination. Distribution. 
— Brownsville and Los Borregos, 
Texas. 

flavipes Hardy 1943:26 $ (Epo- 
myia), not Krober 19286:113. 



pictipennis (Wiedemann) 1821:63 9 
(Thereva). new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Eastern North America 
to Michigan and Texas. 

crythrura Loew 18696:172 3 
(Psilocephala) . 
rufiventris (Loew) 1869a: 126 2 (Psi- 
locephala), new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Ontario. Canada: Rhode 
Island, Massachusetts. New Jersev. 
Virginia, Maryland, Florida, AVash- 
ington, D.C., Ohio, Indiana, Illi- 
nois, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska. 
Kansas, Texas, New Mexico, and 
Arizona. 

lacteipennis Krober 1914:53 S 
(Psilocephala ) . Cole 1960a : 168. 
siitnichrasti (BeWardi) 1861:91 $ (Psi- 
locephala), new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Tuxpango. Orizaba, and 
Tabasco, Mexico. 
All of the species from America north 
of Mexico have probably been described. 
There are 14 apparently valid species de- 
scribed from South America. Probably 
a few species remain undescribed from 
Mexico and Central America, and un- 
doubtedly there are several undescribed 
species from the Amazon Basin north- 
ward to Panama. 

Genus Ozodiceroniva Bigot 
(Fig. 5, 28, 29. and 188-193) 

Feminine 

Ozodiccromya Bigot 1889:321. Type-spe- 
cies: mcxicana Bigot 1889:321 bv ori- 
ginal monotypy. Type-locality: Mexico. 

Ozodiceromyia Bigot, error (Bieot 1889: 
323). 

Ozocliccroiiyma. error (W'ulp 1898). 

Diagnosis 

Small and slender to large and robust 
species. 

He.\d. — Frons of male at its narrow- 
est narrower than half widUi of anterior 
ocellus; frons of female at level of an- 
terior ocellus 1.3-2.3 X as wide as ocellar 
tubercle: frons of female at le\el of an- 
tenna 2.8-4.6 X as wide as ocellar tu- 
bercle: male frons from slightly raised in 
some species (e.g., californica) to flat- 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborc: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 255 



tened. narrow in most species, but broad 
in nanclla and closely related species, tri- 
angular shaped and with some shiny bare 
area, usually central ; male frons has some 
tomentose areas in most species; female 
frons broad, with shiny bare callus of 
various sizes and shapes, usually sur- 
rounded by fine tomentum; frons, face, 
and genae of both sexes with or without 
pile; pile usually short and concentrated 
on upper frons of female ; tomentum on 
frons, face, and occiput usually silvery; 
genae usually enlarged, tomentum 
darker; head greatly (e.g., mexicana) 
to slightly protiTiding anteriorly at anten- 



nal level; head depth 0.4-1.4X antennal 
length (Fig. 28 and 29) ; scape usually 
slender, 0.5-1.3 X as long as flagellum; 
first flagellomere variously shaped from 
elongate to pear shaped, with setae re- 
stricted to basal third; flagellar style 
usually apical, from long to short, usually 
two segmented, with a distinct, terminal 
spine (although mexicana (Fig. 28) and 
argentifera have style subapical, and 
spine of female californica not distinct) ; 
palps one segmented. 

Thorax. — np 3-4 (usually 3) , sa 1-2 
(usually 2), pa 1, dc 0-2 (usually 0-1), 
so 1-2 (usually 2) ; mesonotal pile of one 




189 



193 



Fig. 188-193. — Ozodiceromya mexicana Big. male lerminolio. 188. — Genitalia in lateral view. 
189. — Right gonocoxite with appendages and aedeagus in dorsal view. 190. — Epandrium with append- 
ages in dorsal view. 191. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 192. — Sternite 8. 193. — Tergite 8. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



256 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32. Art. 3 



or two types, either simple, erect, rela- 
tively long or simple, long, erect and 
scalelike, appressed to semi-appressed, 
usually bronze to copper colored ; pro- 
sternum has pile in and around central 
depression. Wing. — Cell m.-. closed at 
wing margin; vein R4 slightly longer than 
vein R5; cell r4 about 2.3 (range 1.6- 
2.9) X longer than wide at apex; color 
hyaline with darkened areas on some spe- 
cies but not highly mottled; stigma usu- 
ally dark brown; costal cell darkened in 
some species. Legs. — Fore coxa has 2 
strong, apical setae; fore femur has 0-12 
(usually 2-4) setae; hind femur has 4-20 
anteroventral plus posteroventral setae 
(most are anteroventral) ; basitarsus of 
foreleg often swollen (cf. Fig. 24) . 

Abdomen. — Moderately slender to 
broad, gradually tapering from segment 
2 to apex; segments 5-8 often telescoped 
within segments 2-5 of male; abdominal 
segments not telescoped in female ; dor- 
sum flattened in both sexes, dorsum of 
male usually has dense silveiy tomenlum ; 
both sexes moderately pilose; female ab- 
domen has grayish silvery tomentum 
along posterolateral corners of segments. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 188-193).— 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 193) rather large, 
strongly constricted for most of medial 
portion; sternite 8 (Fig. 192) ovoid to 
rectangular, with a deep to shallow notch 
medially in posterior margin; epandrium 
(Fig. 190) shorter in midline than wide, 
ratio of medial length to width 1.7- 
4.0; posterolateral corners from greatly 
flanged (as in some species near nanclla) 
to squarish, from extending posteriorly 
beyond cerci to not, from dentate to 
blunt or smooth, variable; cerci (Fig. 
190) free, well separated and moderately 
to weakly sclerotized; posterior margins 
of cerci and ventral epandrial sclerites 
subecjual, cerci longer in some s]5ecies, 
shorter in others; ventral epandrial scler- 
ite thinly to moderately sclerotized, with 
1 sclerotized island beneath cerci pos- 
teriorly rounded or notched and 2 elon- 
gate islands attached to posterolateral 
margins of epandrium, usually luiiied 
along midline of epandrium and extend- 
ing anteriorly usually to or nearly to 



anterior margin of epandrium, sometimes 
extending anteriorly beyond epandrium; 
these anterior sclerites usually thinly, 
often membranously, attached to an- 
terior margin of aedeagus ; aedeagus rela- 
tively large ; distiphallus variously shaped, 
from thin, tubelike to flattened, from 
long, sinuate, sometimes recurved be- 
neath gonocoxites to short; tip of disti- 
phallus usually thin, sometimes bulbous, 
swollen, some species (e.g., anomala) 
having a hooklike projection ventrally at 
base of distiphallus ; dorsal apodeme from 
triangular to rectangular and sometimes 
truncate, the lateral margins often more 
heavily sclerotized. usually as long as or 
longer and much wider than ventral 
apodeme ; ventral apodeme thin, scoop 
shaped, longer than dorsal apodeme in a 
few species; ejaculatoiy apodeme usually 
simple, sticklike, large and club shaped in 
a few species; center of aedeagus has a 
variously modified receptacle for proxi- 
mal end of ejaculatoiy apodeme : ventral 
lobes well-developed, project dorsally and 
anteriorly and cradle distiphallus. usually 
rounded, not connected to aedeagus; 
parameial apodeme has occasionally a 
sclerotized and more commonly a mem- 
branous connection to lateral portion of 
aedeagus, this connection seems lacking 
in a few species (as in Fig. 189) ; para- 
meral process usually vestigial or knob- 
like, present in the type-species (Fig. 
188) as an S-curved sclerotization closely 
adjoining posterior margin of gonocoxite. 
not pilose; paraineral a]5odenie heavily 
sclerotized, situated far from anterior 
margin of gonocoxite; gonocoxites solidlv 
united ventromedially over entire length 
in most species, o\er anterior third in a 
few; posterior margin of gonocoxites has 
1 or 2 (sometimes none) posteriorly di- 
rected protuberances, either ]X)inted or 
flangelike; the dorsal portion of these 
protuberances may represent the parain- 
eral process, as in mexicana (Fig. 188) : 
hypandrium absent or completely fused 
with gonocoxites, not discernible. 

Habitat 

Specimens can be encountered in 

mountainous en\iionmenls and in des- 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 257 



erts; adults at times can be found on 
shrubs containing aphid honey dew. 
Larvae of one species were found in 
mounds of dirt pushed up by gophers, 
while larvae of a different species were 
collected in sandy soils beneath sage- 
brush. Ozodiceromya is a diverse genus, 
! and the habitats occupied by its various 
species are also diverse. 

Distribution 

The genus Ozodiceromya is found 
throughout the Nearctic Region south- 
ward into Ecuador and Venezuela in the 
Neotropical Region. The southwestern 
! United States and northwestern Mexico 
i seem particularly rich in species. 

Included Species 

albertensis {Co\&) 1925:86 5, 9 [Psi- 
locephala) , new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Alberta, Canada. 

aldrichi (Coquillett) 1893&:227 5 
(Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — Southern California. 

anomala (Adams) 1904:444 $, $ 
{Thereva) , new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Arizona, New Mexico, 
and north-central Mexico. 

arg^nf a<a (Bellardi) 1861:89 3 [The- 
reva], new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Cordova, Mexico. 

argentifera (Krober) 1929:418 $ 
[Phycus] . Distribution. — Vera 
Cruz, Mexico. (This species name 
has been associated with specimens 
of Ozodiceromya with very long an- 
tennae from southern Arizona. 
Whether the specimens from south- 
em Arizona are conspecific with the 
holotype from Vera Cruz is not 
known though an assumption of con- 
specificity seems unwarranted.) 

arizonensis (Cole) 1923a:45 S, 2 
{Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — Arizona. 

californica (Krober) 1912:259 S 
(Thereva), new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — California. 

coloradensis (James) 1936:341 $, 5 
{Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — Colorado. 

costalis (Loew) 1869a: 11 ? (Psilo- 



cephala), new combination. Distri- 
bution. — California and Nevada. 

crassicornis (Bellardi) 1861:88 $ 
(Thereva), new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Truqui, Mexico. 

davisi (Johnson) 1926:300 5 (Psilo- 
cephala), new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Southport, North Caro- 
lina. 

flauipennis (Cole) 1923a: 42 S, 9 
(Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — East-central United 
States. 

jrommcri Irwin & Lyneborg, new 
name for Psilocephala lateralis 
Adams 1904. Distribution. — South- 
em California, Arizona, and north- 
western Mexico. 

lateralis (Adams) 1904:444 3 
(Psilocephala) , new combina- 
tion, not Eschscholtz 1822. 

frontalis (Cole) 1923a: 40 $, 9 
(Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — Northeastern United 
States. 

germana (Walker) 1848:222 3 (The- 
reva) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Southeastern United States. 

hoemorrhoidalis (Macquart) 1840:26 
$ (Thereva), new combination. 
Distribution. — Southeastern United 
States. 

haemorrhoidalis, unjustified emen- 
dation. 

johnsoni (Coquillett) 1893^:228 9 
(Psilocephala), new combination. 
Distribution. — Southeastern United 
States. 

levigata (Loew) 1876:319 9 (Psilo- 
cephala), new combination. Distri- 
bution. — Central California. 

laevigata, unjustified emendation. 

melanoneura (Loew) 1872:74 $ 
(Thereva) , new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — California. 

metallica (Krober) 1914:68 $ (The- 
reva), new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — New Mexico. 

mexicana Bigot 1889:321 2 . Distribu- 
tion. — Mexico. 

setosa (Krober) 1912:211 3, 9 
(Euphycus setosus), new com- 
bination, new synonym. 



258 



Illinois Natural History Surv'ey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



milleri (Irwin) 1977^:294 9 {Brevi- 
perna) , new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Puebla, Oaxaca, Mexico. 

montiradicis (James) 1949:10 $, 9 
[Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — Colorado. 

nanella (Cole) 19606:118 5, 5 
(Tliereva) , new combination for 
nana Cole 1959, not Fallen 1820. 
7ia7ia Cole 1959:148 [Thereva), 
not Fallen 1820 for pygmaea 
Cole 1923a, not Fallen 1820. 
pygmaea Cole 1923a: 89 {The- 
reva), not Fallen 1820. 

nigra (Say) 1823:40 9 [Thereva], 
new combination. Distribution. — 
Pennsylvania. 

nign'maria (Krober) 1912:238 9 [Psi- 
locephala), new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Colorado. 

notata (Wiedemann) 1821:114 S 
[Thereva) , new combination. EHs- 
tribution. — Georgia. 

obliquefasciata [J^Lroher) 1911:504 $, 
9 [Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — Costa Rica (this spe- 
cies may also be found in parts of 
Mexico and in other parts of Cen- 
tral America) . 

platancala (Loew) 1876:321 9 [Psi- 
locephala), new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Texas. 
? ruficornis (Macquart) 1840:25 $ 
[Thereva), new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Carolina. 

riigijrons (Krober) 1914:54 9 [Psi- 
locephala), new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Chihuahua, Mexico. 

schroedcri {Kxoher) 1911:503 9 [Psi- 
locephala), new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Costa Rica (this species 
may also occur farther north in Cen- 
tral America) . 

signatipennis (Cole) 1923a :47 S, 9 
[Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — Northwestern United 
States. 

subnotata (Johnson) 1926:299 3, 9 
[Psilocephala) , new combination. 
Distribution. — St. Augustine, Flor- 
ida. 



univittata (Bellardi) 1861:90 9 [Psi- 
locephala), new combination. Dis- 
tribution. — Puebla, Mexico. 
xanthohcLsis []a.mts) 1949:12 3 [The- 
reva), new combination. Distribu- 
tion. — Colorado. 
There are several as yet undescribed 
species of Ozodiceroinya, especially from 
western North America and Mexico. 
Many of the listed sjjecies, especially 
those from the eastern part of North 
America, are probably synonyms. 

Note 

We place species from several genera 
into Ozodiceromya primarily on the basis 
of male terminalia. As it stands, we be- 
lieve the genus is monophyletic, but it 
might profitably be divided into three or 
more genera at a later date, once the 
species have been properly sorted out. 

Genus Chromolepida Cole 
(Fig. 31 and 194-199) 

Feminine 

Chromolepida Cole 1923a: 23. Type-spe- 
cies: Psilocephala pruinosa Coquillett 
1904a:91 by original designation. T^^pe- 
locality : Granada, Nicaragua. 

Diagnosis 

Small, slender species. 

Head (Fig. 31). — Compound eyes of 
male almost touch for a considerable dis- 
tance; eyes of male of two distinct facet 
sizes, different facets either meeting along 
a line across the eye or grading gradually 
with no sharp line of differentiation. 
Frons of female exceptionally wide at 
level of anterior ocellus, slightly wider 
than twice width of ocellar tubercle, 
widening to about 3.5 X width of ocellar 
tubercle at level of antennal insertion. 
Frons of both sexes has a rounded to 
oblong, shining callosity above antennal 
bases and silveiy and velvety tomentum. 
Velvety tomentum in the foim of t\\o 
rounded patches, each adjacent to a 
compound eye of female, usually as a V- 
shaped wedge on the frons abo\e the 
shining center callosity of the male. Re- 
mainder of frons of both sexes has siKeiy 



I 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 259 






199 

Fig. 194—199. — Chromolepida bella Cole male terminalia. 194. — Epandrium with ap- 
pendages in dorsal view. 195. — Epandrium with appendages and aedeagus in ventral view. 
196. — Left gonocoxite with appendages and aedeagus in dorsal view. 197. — Left gonocoxite 
with appendages and aedeagus in lateral view. 198. — Tergite 8. 199. — Sternite 8. Scale: 
0.5 mm. 



tomentum, except for a bare, shiny area 
near the vertex of female. Head slightly 
protrudes anteriorly. Two prominent fa- 
cial calli below antennal bases and 
slightly offset to the sides (Fig. 31 ) . Gena 
usually has a darkened tomentose area. 
Lateral portions of face without pile. 
Antenna (Fig. 31) 130-160 percent as 
long as head depth; scape 1.6-2.4X as 
long as flagellum, slender; flagellar style 
subapical, located in a laterally directed 
cavity, apparently one segmented with 
a distinct apical spine. Palps one seg- 
mented. 

Thorax. — np 2-4 (usually 3), sa 1, 
pa 1, dc 0, sc 1-2 (usually 1) ; all tho- 
racic setae dark brown to black; meso- 
notal pile of both sexes pale, of two 
types: one is appressed, silvery to metal- 



lic golden scalelike, and the other semi- 
to fully erect, the latter very short on fe- 
male, much longer on male; prosternum 
usually without pile in and around 
central depression; a few sparse hairs 
can be found in prosternum of some 
males. Wing. — Cell m,3 closed ; veins 
R4 and R5 about the same length, or Rr, 
slightly longer; cell Tf 1.8-2.2 X longer 
than wide at apex. Legs. — Fore coxa 
has 2 subapical setae on anterior surface; 
middle coxa lacks pile on posterior sur- 
face; hind femur has 1—5 anteroventral 
setae. 

Abdomen. — Rather slender, gradu- 
ally tapering from segment 2 toward 
apex: segment 7 of male is sometimes 
partially telescoped into segment 6; male 
dorsum flattened, densely covered with 



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appressed, elongate silvery scales; dor- 
sum of both sexes often partially orange 
and dark brown. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 194-199).— 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 198) relatively large, 
strongly constricted in middle; stemite 
8 (Fig. 199) also large, oval, very slightly 
incised posteriorly ; epandrium (Fig. 194) 
about 1.5X as wide as long along mid- 
line, otherwise as long as wide; postero- 
lateral corners of epandrium flanged, 
sharpened; cerci free, moderately sclero- 
tized; ventral epandrial sclerite (Fig. 

195) large, extends beyond cerci, sclero- 
tized to level of posterior margin of 
epandrium, anteriorly becoming more 
membranous and weakly attached to an- 
terior margin of aedeagus; aedeagus 
(Fig. 197) has very large, S-curved disti- 
phallus; dorsal apodeme broad, rectangu- 
lar; ventral apodeme long, thin; ejacu- 
latoiy apodeme short, weak; ventral 
lobes of gonocoxite short, supporting the 
base of the phallus but not attached to 
the aedeagus; parameral apodeme (Fig. 

196) large, directed inward, apex situ- 
ated below lateral margin of dorsal apo- 
deme, but without a strongly sclerotized 
connection to the dorsal apodeme; para- 
meral process lacking; gonocoxites (Fig. 
196) separated, attached anteriorly by 
a narrow, crescent-shaped hypandrium; 
posteriorly directed scoop-shaped portion 
ventrally on each gonocoxite; gonostylus 
usually long, curved dorsally at apex. 

Habitat 

Species in Chromolepida occupy rather 
diverse habitats. C. hella occurs in the 
coastal dunes near San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia. Undescribed species were col- 
lected in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, 
Sierra County, California, in a meadow 
on Daucus pusilliis flowers. Another un- 
described species was collected on tropi- 
cal roadside vegetation near Mazatlan, 
Mexico. 

Distribution 

Species in this genus are confined to 
the western portion of North America 
from Oregon, Idaho, Utah, and Colo- 
rado southward through New Mexico, 



Arizona, and California to Mexico, Cen- 
tral America, and northern South Amer- 
ica, at least Venezuela and Colombia. It 
has not been recorded from the West 
Indies. 

Included Species 

bella Cole 1923a: 24 $,9. Distribu- 
tion. — West coast of California. 

mexicana Cole 19236:460 9. Distri- 
bution. — Sonora, Mexico. 

pruinosa (Coquillett) 1904a: 91 5 
(Psilocephala) . Distribution. — Nic- 
aragua, Central America. 

There are several undescribed species 
in this genus. 

Subfamily Phyeinae 

These attributes characterize the sub- 
family Phyeinae. 

1. Dorsal sclerotized bridge present be- 
tween dorsal apodeme of aedeagus 
and parameral apodeme, or if absent 
(Henicomyia) , the hypandrium very 
large and haired, and dorsal apodeme 
of aedeagus reduced. 

2. Ventral apodeme of aedeagus deeply 
forked or vestigial. 

3. Tergite 9+10 of female slenderly and 
sparsely spinose, the spines of only 
one kind. 

4. Intersegmental membrane between 
stemite 8 and sternite 9 (furca) of 
female membranose, not sclerotized. 

5. Pregenital abdominal segments have 
spiracles incorporated in the tergal 
sclerites. 

6. \"ein Ri often setose, though not 
setose in Schlingeria. 

Genus Phycus Walker 
(Fig. 33, 34, 36, and 200-207) 

Masculine 

Phycus Walker 1850:2. Type-species: 
Xylophagus canacens Walker 1848 
( = Xylophagus hrunneus Wiedemann 
1824) by original monotypy. Type-lo- 
cality : North Bengal, India. 

Reference : Lyneborg 1978. 

Diagnosis 

Moderately sized, slender species. 
Head (Fig. 33) . — Frons of both sexes 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctig Therevidae 261 




Fig. 200-207. — Phycus brunneus (Wied.) male terminalia. 200. — Gonocoxites with appendages 
land aedeagus in dorsal view. 201. — Gonocoxites and rigtit gonostylus in ventral view. 202. — Ventral 
: epandrial sclerite. 203. — Epondrium with appendages in dorsal view. 204. — Genitalia in lateral view. 
'205. — Right gonocoxile and gonostylus in internal view. 206. — Tergile 8. 207. — Sternite 8. Scale: 
. 0.5 mm. 



I at its narrowest from as wide as to more 
than twice as wide as ocellar tubercle, 
wider in female than in male of same 
species; eye margins Oiily slightly diverge 
from level of ocellar tubercle toward 
genae; frons bare or with sparse, scanty 
pile, its pattern composed of shining 
black areas and tomentose areas; face 
and gena without pile; head slightly to 
distinctly protrudes at antennal level ; 
facial and genal calli absent; head depth 
0. 7-0.9 X antennal length; ratio of 
lengths of scape and flagellum differs 
greatly among species, in the unnamed 
North American species (Fig. 36) scape 
about 0.6 X as long as flagellum; flagellar 
style terminal, two segmented, with a 
\ery small terminal spine; palps two 
segmented (Fig. 34) . 

Thorax. — np 1-2, sa 1, pa 1, dc 0-1, 
sc 1 ; mesonotal pile short, uniform, erect, 
])ale or blackish ; prostemum bare in and 
around central depression ; pleural pile 
very short and sparse. Wing. — Cell ma 



usually closed and petiolate, rarely open ; 
veins Ri and R5 about same length ; cell 
r4 2.2-2.6 X as long as wide at apex; 
ground color hyaline to rather intensively 
brown, clouding very apparent near apex 
of wing. Legs. — Fore coxa moderately 
long, sparsely haired, and with 1 or 2 
slender apical setae ; middle coxae bare 
on posterior surface; all femora without 
setae; tibiae have very short setae. 

Abdomen. — Slender, especially in 
male, as wide as long, laterally com- 
pressed toward apex; dorsum convex, 
shining black or reddish brown ; pile 
sparse and short. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 200-207). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 206) comparatively wide 
and only moderately constricted medi- 
ally; sternite 8 (Fig. 207) lar'^e and sim- 
ple; epandrium (Fig. 202) very simple, 
without incisions or other modifications, 
may be shorter or longer in midline than 
maximum width ; cerci free, well sclcro- 
tized, extending posteriorly beyond mar- 



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Vol. 32, Art. 3 



gin of ventral epandrial sclerite. This 
sclerite (Fig. 202) large, well sclerotized, 
setose, extending to anterior margin of 
epandrium, but without attachment to 
aedeagus; aedeagus (Fig. 200) laterally 
attached by a strongly sclerotized bridge 
to midsection of paramere; distiphallus 
forms a fine, downwardly directed tube; 
ventral apodeme shaped as two narrow, 
widely separated sticks; ejaculatory apo- 
deme large; paramere composed of a 
distal process, which curves inward and 
downward approaching base of gonosty- 
lus, and a stout basal apodeme ; gonocox- 
ites (Fig. 201) not united ventrally, at- 
tached only anteriorly by a very narrow 
membrane; a minute remnant of a hy- 
pandrium ex-ists at anterior margin of 
gonocoxites in some species; gonocoxite 
without a ventral lobe (Fig. 205) . 

Habitat 

In Africa Phycus species are often 
found running along dead or dying tree 
trunks in riverine habitats. In southern 
California, an undescribed species can 
be encountered running (a fast walk) on 
rock faces directly below Washingtonia 
palms in desert canyon bottoms. 

Distribution 

The genus is represented in North 
America by a single undescribed species 
occurring in southern California and 
northwestern Mexico. There are about 
20 species of Phycus in the Old World 
distributed throughout the Afrotropical 
Region, the Middle East, the Indian sub- 
continent, and eastward to China and 
the Philippines. The Afrotropical species 
were revised by Lyneborg ( 1978) . 

Note 

The genus Ataenogera (Krober 1914) , 
with several species in Central and South 
America, is extremely similar in general 
appearance to certain species of Phycus. 
However, the two genera are quite dis- 
tinct, the best distinguishing characters 
being: (a) palps two segmented in Phy- 
cus, one segmented in Ataenogera; (b) 
fore coxae have 1-2 apical setae in Phy- 
cus, but 4-6 setae in Ataenogera; (c) 



ventral epandrial sclerite large and free 
in Phycus, smaller and fused laterally 
with epandrium in Ataenogera; (d) hy- 
pandrium e.xtremely small, or even ab- 
sent, in Phycus, but large in Ataenogera; 
(e) ventral apodeme of aedeagus com- 
p)Osed of two long, narrow rods in Phycus, 
but totally absent in Ataenogera. 

Genus Henicomyia Coquillett 

(Fig. 35 and 208-214) 

Feminine 

Henicomyia Coquillett 1898:187. Type- 
species: hubbardii Coquillett 1898 by 
original monotypy. Type-locality: Fort 
Grant, Arizona. 

Reference: Lyneborg 1972. 



a 



a 

3 



I 



Diagnosis 

Long, slender species. 

Head (Fig. 35) . — Frons of both sexes 
at its narrowest wider than ocellar tu- 
bercle, slightly wider in female than in 
male; eye margins gradually but con- 
sistently diverge from ocellar tubercle 
downward to ventral aspect of head; 
frons bare and with patteiTi of grayish 
tomentum and shining black areas; 
face and genae bare; lower occiput has 
short, sparse pilosity; head distinctly pro- 
trudes at antennal level ; facial and genal 
calli absent; head depth 0.4-0.8 X an- 
tennal length; scape very short haired, 
0.3-0.6 X as long as, and often distinctly 
narrower than, flagellum; flagellum very 
short haired; flagellar style tenninal, ob- 
viously one segmented, very short com- 
pared ^vith first flagellomere; a terminal 
spine is not discernible; palps two seg- 
mented. 

Thorax. — np 1-2, sa 1, pa 1, dc 0, 
sc 0-1 ; mesonotal pile very short, uni- 
form, erect; prosternum has short, sparse 
pile in and around central depression; 
pleura practically bare. Wing. — Cell mj 
closed and petiolate; veins R^ and R5 
about the same lengdi; cell ri 3.8-5.3 X 
as long as wide at apex: ground color 
hyaline, with a brownish band from out- 
run of R2 + 3 to region apical of discal 
cell; ape.x of second basal cell may be 
clouded. Legs. — Fore coxae very long, 
sparsely haired, and with 1 or 2 short 



i 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



263 



'apical setae; middle coxae bare on pos- 
terior surface; all femora long, slender, 
and extremely short haired; appressed, 
scalelike pile lacking; setae absent. 

Abdomen. — Long, slender in both 
sexes, nearly cylindrical or slightly later- 
ally compressed, not markedly tapering 
toward apex; dorsum generally dark, 
mostly shining black, with at most small, 
inconspicuous areas of pale tomentum; 
pattern similar in both sexes; abdominal 
pilosity very short, sparse. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 208-214).— 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 213) large, rhomboid, 
with dense, uniform pilosity; sternite 8 
(Fig. 214) large, unifoimly pilose; epan- 
drium (Fig. 210) about as long in mid- 
line as maximum width, its shape sim- 
ple; cerci free (Fig. 210), rather small, 



well sclerotized ; ventral epandrial sclerite 
(Fig. 210) distinctly extends posteriorly 
beyond cerci; sclerotized part of ventral 
epandrial sclerite small, restricted to the 
portion below cerci; anterior part of 
ventral epandrial sclerite membranous, 
not attached to anterior margin of 
aedeagus (cf. Phycus, Fig. 200) ; aede- 
agus completely free, without marked 
attachments dorsally (to parameral 
apodeme) or ventrally; distiphallus 
broad and wide, upright, terminates in 
two processes (Fig. 209), of complicated 
stiTiCture; dorsal apodeme vestigial, rudi- 
mentary; ventral apodeme forked, com- 
posed of two widely spaced, stout arms; 
ejaculatory apodeme large; dorsal mar- 
gins of gonocoxites connected over mid- 
line by a weakly sclerotized membrane 




Fig. 208-214. — Henicomyia hubbardii Coq. male terminalia. 208. — Gonocoxites with appendages 
and oedeagus in dorsal view. 209. — Gonocoxites with appendoges, hypondrium, and distiphallus in 
ventral view. 210. — Epandrium with appendages in dorsal view. 211. — Genitalia in lateral view, oedeagus 
omitted. 212. — Aedeagus in lateral view. 213. — Tergite 8. 214. — Sternite 8. Scale; 0.5 mm. 



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Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



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attached to triangular outshoots ( = 
parameral apodeme) (Fig. 208) ; this 
connection not attached to aedeagus; 
distal parameral process not developed; 
gonocoxite in lateral view (Fig. 211) has 
an incision posteriorly; gonostylus a sim- 
ple staff; gonocoxites (Fig. 209) not 
united ventrally; however, attached by 
a membrane; a membrane also attaches 
the enormous triangular hypandrium 
with the anterior, ventral edges of the 
gonocoxites. 

Habitat 

Hcnicomyia hubbardii has been col- 
lected inside of houses at windows in 
Portal, Arizona. Virtually nothing is 
known of the habitat of Henicomyia 
species. 

Distribution 

Species of Henicomyia range from the 
southwestern United States (Arizona and 
Colorado) through Mexico, Costa Rica, 
and Amazonian Peru to Brazil. 

Included Species 

hubbardii Coquillett 1898: 187 $ . Dis- 
tribution. — Arizona, New Mexico, 
possibly southward to Mexico City, 
Mexico if varipes is a synonym, as 
suggested by Lyneborg (1972:367). 
hubbardi Cole 1923a: 17, unjusti- 
fied emendation. 
? varipes Krober 1912:213 9 
(Lyneborg 1972 : 364) . Distribu- 
tion. — Mexico City, Mexico. 
Five described species occur in the 
Neotropical Region, one from Costa 
Rica, one from Peru, and three from 
Brazil (Lyneborg 1972). 

Genus Parapherocera Irwin 

(Fig. 37, 40, and 215-221) 

Feminine 

Parapherocera Irwin 1977a: 438. Type- 
species: montana Irwin 1977a: 442. 
Type-locality: 6 km south of La Ru- 
morosa, Baja California Norte, Mex- 
ico. 

Reference: Ii-win 1977a. 



Diagnosis 

Small, slender species; length, exclud- ■ 
ing antennae, 4-5 mm; males and fe- 
males about the same size. 

Head. — Frons of male (Fig. 40) at 
its narrowest wider than ocellar tubercle; 
frons of female at level of anterior ocellus 
about twice as wide as ocellar tubercle; 
eyes of both sexes of uniform facet size; 
frons of both sexes mostly shining, bare, 
with a few patches of tomentum along 
eye margins; antennal insertion about 
midway between ventral portion of genae 
and vertex; antennae as long as or longer 
than depth of head (except in P. mac- 
swaini females, which have antennae 
slightly shorter than head depth) ; face 
below antennae protrudes anteriorly 
farther than frons above antennae; 
scape (Fig. 37) 0.5-0.8X as long as 
flagellum; flagellar style terminal, two 
segmented with an apical spine; palps 
one segmented, very large. 

Thorax. — np 2-4 (usually 3), sa 1, 
pa 1, dc 0-1, sc 1; mesonotal pile sparse, 
short, uniform, erect, some black and 
some white; prostemum bare in and 
around central depression ; pleural area 
without pile; anepistemum. pleuroter- 
gite, and pteropleurite without tomen- 
tum; rest of pleural region and coxae 
have silver tomentum. Wing. — \'ein Ri 
setose; cell ms closed; veins R^ and Rs 
about equal in length : cell rj about 2-3 X 
as long as wide at apex ; ground color hya- 
line. Legs. — Fore coxa moderately long, 
with 2 apical, black setae and erect, thick- 
ened pile over anterior surface; fore and 
middle coxae bare or veiy sparsely tomen- 
tose on posterior surface, not pilose; fe- 
mora without setae; fore tibia lacks setae 
or has at most a single seta in die antero- 
dorsal position ; hind tibia without setae 
in posteroventral position, but has 0-7 
setae each in other three positions. 

Abdomen. — Slender, cylindrical, ta- 
pered posteriorly in both sexes; dorsum 
strongly convex, shining; pile sparse, 
short. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 215-221). — 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 220) large, only slightly 



f 



B 
Ef 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 



265 



constricted medially; stemite 8 (Fig. 
221) large, rectangular; epandrium (Fig. 
217) about as long as wide measured 
medially; cerci slightly bilobate, fused 
to one another, extending posteriorly 
slightly beyond ventral epandrial sclerite; 
ventral epandrial sclerite (Fig. 215) 
elongate, shield shaped, covering mid- 
posterior portion of epandrium, tapering 
anteriorly, and strongly attached to pos- 
terior edge of the broad and strongly 
sclerotized parameral bridge (Fig. 215) ; 
aedeagus rather large (Fig. 218) ; ventral 
apodeme (Fig. 216) has strong, diverging 
arms; dorsal apodeme short, narrower 



than base of distiphallus, distally sharply 
curved dorsally where it attaches to an- 
terior margin of parameral bridge; ejac- 
ulatory apodeme (Fig. 216 and 218) very 
large, extending anteriorly well beyond 
gonocoxites, anterior end triangular, 
wedge shaped; distiphallus (Fig. 218) 
short, thick, with a short, sharp, apical 
section; gonocoxites (Fig. 219) have 2 
posteroventral projections, not united 
ventrally; parameres very broad and 
heavily sclerotized, strongly connected by 
a bridge over midline and attached to 
ventral epandrial sclerite at posterior 
edge, while aedeagus hangs on under- 




Fig. 215-221. — Parapherocera monlana Irw. mole terminalio. 215. — Right gonocoxile with append- 
jages, ventrol epandrial sclerite, and aedeagus in dorsal view. 216. — Gonocoxites with appendages 
land aedeagus in ventral view. 217. — Epandrium with oppendoges in dorsal view. 218. — Aedeagus in 
lateral view. 219. — Genitalia in lateral view. 220. — Tergite 8. 221. — Sternite 8. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



266 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



side of anterior edge; distal portion of 
paramere slightly exceeds posterior mar- 
gin of gonocoxite; parameral apodeme 
bulbous, enlarged; gonostylus elongate, 
projecting posteriorly beyond distiphal- 
lus; ventral lobes lacking; hypandrium 
lacking. 

Habitat 

Species in the genus Parapherocera 
can be found in mountainous regions, 
usually between 900 and 2,300 m above 
sea level. Most species have been en- 
countered in sandy washes in pine-sage- 
brush woodland. 

Distribution 

Parapherocera seems confined to the 
western United States (Oregon and Cali- 
fornia) and the extreme northwestern 
part of Mexico (Baja California Norte). 

Included Species 

macswaini Irwin 1977a:448 $, 9. 
Distribution. — Southeastern portion 
of the Sierra Nevada mountain 
range of southern California. 



montana Irwin 1977a:442 $ , 9 . Dis- 
tribution. — Southern California and 
northern Baja California in these 
mountain ranges: San Jacinto, 
Santa Rosa, Laguna, and Sierra 
Juarez. 

wilcoxi Irwin 1977a: 446 5,5. Distri- 
bution. — San Bernardino Moun- 
tains, southern California. 

One undescribed species has been dis- 
covered in Lake County, Oregon. 

Genus Pherocera Cole 
(Fig. 38, 41, and 222-227) 

Feminine 

Pherocera Cole 1923a: 20. Type-species: 
signatifrons Cole 1923a: 21 by original 
designation. Tj'pe-locality : Alamo- 
gordo, New Mexico. 

Diagnosis 

Small, generally slender species ; length, 
excluding antennae, 2.7-7.4 mm; male 
usually slightly smaller than female. 

Head (Fig. 41). — Frons of male at 
its narrowest much narrower than width 




Fig. 222-227. — Pherocera sp., new species closely related to signatifrons Cole, mole termir.olio. 
222. — Right gonocoxite with appendages and oedeogus in dorsal view, 223. — Gonocoxite with op- 
pendoges and oedeogus in ventrol view. 224. — Epondrium with oppendoges in dorsal view. 225. — 
Aedeogus in loteral view. 226. — Tergite 8. 227. — Sternite 8. Scale: 0.5 mm. 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera OF Nearctic Therevidae 267 



of anterior ocellus (except in one unde- 
scribed species from Mexico, which has 
frons wider than ocellar tubercle) ; frons 
of female at level of anterior ocellus 1- 
2X as wide as ocellar tubercle; eyes of 
female small, of uniform facet size ; those 
of male larger, having smaller facets 
ventrally and often a definite line of de- 
marcation between lower and upper 
facets; frons of male small, triangular, 
often completely tomentose, sometimes 
thinly pilose; frons of female almost al- 
ways has species-characteristic calli of 
various shapes and sizes, usually sur- 
rounded by tomentum and, in some spe- 
cies, by thin pilosity; antennal insertion 
about midway between ventral portion 
of genae and vertex, sometimes a little 
lower; antennae (Fig. 38) slightly 
shorter than depth of head, sparsely to- 
mentose; head often protrudes anteriorly 
at level of antennae; scape 0.3-0.5 X 
as long as flagellum; flagellar style ter- 
minal, one or two segmented, with an 
apical spine; palps one segmented, 
slightly shorter than proboscis. 

Thorax. — np 2^ (usually 3), sa 1, 
pa 1, dc 0-1 (usually 1), sc 1-2 (usually 
1) ; setae from black to pale; mesonotal 
pile thin to moderately dense, covering 
mesonotum, scutellum, and pleural area; 
tomentum dense to sparse, covering 
mesonotum, scutellum, and most of 
pleural region, with some bare areas in 
some species; coxae tomentose. Wing. — 
\'ein Ri setose; cell ma closed, with vein 
Ma + CuAi extending or not extending 
to wing margin; veins R4 and R5 about 
equal in length; cell r* about 2-4 X as 
long as wide at apex; ground color 
hyaline or translucent, pale yellow to 
white. Legs. — Fore coxa moderately 
long with 2 (infrequently 3) apical, black 
setae and erect, thickened pile over an- 
terior surface; fore and middle coxae 
tomentose on posterior surface, not 
pilose; femora without setae; fore tibia 
lacks setae or has at most a few setae in 
the posteroventral position. 

Abdomen. — Slender, cylindrical, ta- 
pered posteriorly in both sexes; dorsum 
flattened to convex, often shining, with 



tomentum or bare, and often posterior 
margin of tergites fasciate. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 222-227).— 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 226) only slightly con- 
stricted medially; stemite 8 (Fig. 227) 
shield shaped, rounded posteriorly; epan- 
drium (Fig. 224) squarish, slightly wider 
than long along midline, posterolateral 
margins not greatly modified; cerci (Fig. 
224) generally bilobate, fused to one 
another, extending posteriorly beyond 
ventral epandrial sclerite; ventral epan- 
drial sclerite of various shapes, usually 
well sclerotized, wider distally and taper- 
ing anteriorly, not obviously united to 
epandrium, but anterior margin united 
to aedeagus in a few species; aedeagus 
(Fig. 225) moderately small in most spe- 
cies; ventral apodeme elongate, forked, 
always extends anteriorly beyond nearly 
vestigial dorsal apodeme, always extends 
anteriorly slightly less than ejaculatory 
apodeme; ejaculatory apodeme rod 
shaped, proximally fitting into a pocket 
in middle of aedeagus; distiphallus usu- 
ally blunt, straight, in most species curved 
ventrally at apex, thinner, variously 
curved in some species; gonocoxite (Fig. 
223) has an inner posteroventral projec- 
tion of different shapes characteristic of 
distinct species; gonocoxites not united 
ventrally; paramere heavily sclerotized, 
large, both halves connected to one 
another by a sclerotized bar formed dor- 
sad of aedeagus; parameral process 
slightly exceeds posterior margin of gono- 
coxite (excluding ventral posteriorly pro- 
jecting process), usually bulbous; para- 
meral apodeme somewhat pointed, 
heavily sclerotized; gonostylus projects 
posteriorly beyond distiphallus, pointed 
club shaped in most species; ventral lobes 
lacking; hyjmndrium lacking. 

Habitat 

Species within this genus occupy a 
wide variety of habitats from very xeric 
inland shifting dunes to coastal dunes, 
diy washes, and montane environments. 
These habitats are discussed in detail by 
Irvvin (1971). 



268 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



Distribution 

Members of the genus Pherocera are 
found throughout a large portion of 
western North America from Oregon 
through Utah southward through Texas 
and California and into western Mexico 
and southward as far as Puebla. 

Included Species 

albihalteralis Cole 1923a:22 9. Dis- 
tribution. — Southwestern United 
States and northwestern Mexico, in- 
cluding Arizona, Nevada, Texas, 
New Mexico, extreme easteiTi Cali- 
fornia, and Sinaloa, Mexico. 
flavipes Cole 1923a: 22 ?. Distribu- 
tion. — Western North America, in- 
cluding Idaho, Utah, New Mexico, 
Nevada, Arizona, and California in 
the United States, and Baja Cali- 
fornia Norte and Baja California 
Sur in Mexico. 
nigripes Cole 19236:459 ?. Distribu- 
tion. — Ildefonso and San Pedro 
Nolasco islands in the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, Mexico. 
signatifrons Cole 1923a: 21 ?. Distri- 
bution. — New Mexico. 
Thirty species in the genus Pherocera 
have been described but not formally 
published (Irwin 1971). One further un- 
described species has been collected since 
that date. 

Genus Schlingeria Irwin 
(Fig. 39 and 228-234) 

Feminine 

Schlingeria Irwin 1977a: 424. Type-spe- 
cies: ammohata Irwin 1977a: 427. 
Type-locality: Algadones Sand Dunes, 
10 km north of Glamis, Imperial 
County, California. 

Reference: Irwin 1977a. 

Diagnosis 

Small, squat species; length, excluding 
antennae, 4.5-7.5 mm; female larger and 
heavier than male. 

Head (Fig. 39). — Frons of male ai 
its narrowest much narrower than width 



of anterior ocellus; frons of female at 
level of anterior ocellus about 2X as 
wide as ocellar tubercle; eyes of female 
small, of uniform facet size; those of male 
large, have lower facets smaller than 
upper facets and a distinct demarcation 
line separating facet sizes; lower frons 
of female has a large shiny callus; rest of 
frons has powdery white tomentum; 
frons of male lacks callus or callus very 
small; antennal insertion low on male, 
about two-thirds of distance from vertex 
to genae; antennal insertion about mid- 
way between vertex and genae on 
female; head depth about 1.3 X anten- 
nal length (Fig. 39) ; face below anten- 
nae does not protrude beyond frons; 
scape 0.4-0.7X (male) or0.6-0.8X (fe- 
male) as long as flagellum; flagellar style 
terminal, one segmented, with a partially 
recessed terminal spine; lower face and 
genae have sparse white pile: palps one 
segmented ; mouthparts very small. 

Thorax. — np 3-4 (usually 3). sa 1. 
pa 1, dc 0-1, sc 0; mesonotal setae pale: 
mesonotal pile whitish, sparse, thin, erect, 
on male long, on female short; prester- 
num bare in and around central de- 
pression; pteropleurite bare of tomen- 
tum; stemopleurite and pleurotergite 
sparsely tomentose; rest of pleural area 
and coxae ha\'e dense silvery tomentum. 
Wing. — Vein Rj not setose: cell m., 
closed; R4 slightly longer than R5; cell 
r4 about 2X as long as wide at apex; 
ground color translucent white, veins 
pale whitish yello^v. Legs. — Fore coxae 
short, with short, thin pile over entire 
anterior surface; fore and middle coxae 
very sparsely tomentose, not pilose; fe- 
mora without setae; fore tibia lacks setae; 
middle tibia lacks setae in the postero- 
dorsal and posteroventral positions, has 
none to a few in the antero\entral posi- 
tion and none to many (15) in the an- 
terodorsal position; hind tibia lacks setae 
in the anterodorsal, posterodorsal, and 
posteroxentral positions, has 4-8 setae in 
the anteroventral position : males have 
more tibial setae than females. 

Abdomen. — Swollen, wider than high, 



Nov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 269 




Fig. 228-234. — Schtingeria ammobata Irw. male terminalia. 228. — Gonocoxiles with appendages 
and aedeogus in dorsal view. 229. — Gonocoxiles with appendages and aedeagus in ventral view. 
230. — Epandrium wilti appendages in dorsal view. 231. — Genitalia in lateral view. 232. — Aedeogus 
in lateral view. 233. — Tergite 8. 234. — Slernite 8. Scale; 0.5 mm. 



tapers sharply at apex in female; smaller, 
cylindrically shaped, and gradually taper- 
ing to apex in male; male abdomen has 
sparse, erect, elongate pile; female ab- 
domen has sparser, shorter pile; dorsum 
of both sexes tomentose, that of male less 
densely than that of female. 

Male Terminalia (Fig. 228-234).— 
Tergite 8 (Fig. 233) only slightly con- 
stricted; sternite 8 (Fig. 234) rhomboid; 
epandrium (Fig. 230) much wider than 
long; cercus (Fig. 230) slightly bilobate, 
both halves solidly fused along midline, 
extends posteriorly slightly beyond ven- 
tral epandrial sclerite; ventral epandrial 
sclerite shield shaped, does not extend to 
anterior margin of epandrium, and is not 
attached to parameral bridge or aede- 
agus; aedeagus (Fig. 232) rather short; 
ventral apodeme elongate, reaching an- 
teriorly almost to apex of ejaculatory 
apodeme; dorsal apodeme very short, 
solidly attached to posterior edge of para- 
meral bridge; ejaculatory apodeme mod- 
erately long, rod shaped; distiphallus 
slender, curved downward; gonocoxites 
(Fig. 229) rounded, not united ventrally. 



with two posteriorly directed spinose pro- 
jections at the inner lateral posterior 
margin of each gonocoxite; parameres 
form a large, hood shaped lobe distally; 
midsections of parameres strongly united 
to one another by a sclerotized bridge; 
parameral apodeme strong; gonostylus 
short, scjuat, with sharp point projecting 
outward and upward, not extending to 
tip of distiphallus; hypandrium lacking; 
ventral lobe lacking. 

Habitat 

The one known species, ammobata, 
has been collected in inland deserts, al- 
ways associated with sand dune environ- 
ments. 

Distribution 

Schlingeria occurs throughout most of 
the Colorado and the southern portions of 
the Mojave deserts of California and 
Arizona, extending southward into the 
Sonora Desert of northwestern Mexico. 

Included Species 

ammobata Iivvin 1977a:427 $, 9. 
Distribution. — Los Angeles, San 



270 Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin Vol. 32, Art. 3 

Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial plagiata Harris 1835:596 {Thereva), 

counties, California, and Sonora, nomina nuda. This name was later 

Mexico. referred to Stichopogon trifasciatus 

At present no undescribed species of (Say) (Diptera: Asilidae) by Osten 

Schlijigeria a.re known. Sacken (1887:170). 

Unplaced Species of Therevidae pygrnaea Krober 1911:515 9 (Psiloce- 

CMraia Harris 1835:596 {Thereva) , nom- phala) . Distribution. — .Saint Thomas 

ina nuda. Island, West Indies. 



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INDEX 

Page entries in boldface type refer to the principal treatment of the subjects; however, 
references to the illustrations are not given. Italicized names are currently in synonymy. 



abdominalis (Fabricius) 1805 (Bibio) 

BRACHYLINGA 193, 233, 234 

ACROSATHE Irwin & Lyneborg, new 

genus 202, 223-225 

acuta (Adams) 1903 (Psilocephala) 

LITOLINGA 235, 236 

affinis Lyneborg 1968, DIALINEURA. . .205 
albertensis (Cole) 1925 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

albiceps (Loew) 1869 (Thereva) 

SPIRIVERPA 216 

albifrons (Say) 1829 (Thereva) ? 

SPIRIVERPA 216 

albihalteralis Cole 1923, PHEROCERA. .268 

albopilosa Krober 1912, THEREVA 218 

aldrichi (Coquillett) 1893 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

ammobata Irwin 1977, SCHLINGERIA 

268,269 

AMMONAIOS Irwin & Lyneborg, new 

species 202, 240-242 

amplifrons (Cole) 1925 (Psilocephala) 

DICHOGLENA 210, 211 

anilis (Linnaeus) 1761 (Musca) 

DIALINEURA 204 

annulata (Fabricius) 1805 (Bibio) 

ACROSATHE 223 

anomala (Adams) 1904 (Thereva) 

OZODICEROMYA 256, 257 

APSILOCEPHALA Krober 1914 193 

ARENIGENA Irwin & Lyneborg, new 

genus 201, 238-240 

argentata (Bellardi) 1861 (Thereva) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

argentifera (Krober) 1929 (Phycus) 

OZODICEROMYA 255, 257 

argentifrons (Cole) 1923 (Psilocephala) 

PANDIVIRILIA 214 

ARISTOTHEREVA Frey 1921 210 

arizonensis (Cole) 1923 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

ATAENOGERA Krober 1914 262 

aurantiaca (Coquillett) 1904 (Psilocephala) 

LYSILINGA 230, 231, 232 

aurata Harris 1835 (Thereva), nomina 

nuda 270 

aurofasciata Krober 1912, THEREVA . . .219 
baccata (Coquillett) 1893 (Psilocephala) 

BRACHYLINGA 232, 233, 234 

bakeri Cole 1923, THEREVA 219 

bella Cole 1923, CHROMOLEPIDA ...260 
bella (Cole) 1923 (Epomyia) CYCLOTELUS 

(see bellus (Cole) 1923) 254 

bella (Krober) 1914 (Thereva) 

SPIRIVERPA 216 

bcllus (Cole) 1923 (Epomyia bella) 

CYCLOTELUS 254 



bimaculata (Cole) 1923 (Thereva) 

ACROSATHE 223, 225 

bolbocera (Osten Sacken) 1887 (Thereva) 

? LITOLINGA 236 

bolboceras, LITOLINGA [see bolbocera 

(Osten Sacken) 1887) 236 

borealis Cole 1923, TABUDA 222, 223 

borealis (Cole) 1923 (Thereva) 

DICHOGLENA 211 

BRACHYLINGA Invin & Lyneborg, 

new genus 202, 232—234 

BREVl'PERNA Irwin 1977 . . . .203, 247-249 

brunnea Cole 1923, THEREVA 219 

brunnea (Krober) 1914 (Psilocephala) 

ARENIGENA 240 

brunncus (Wiedemann) 1924 (Xylophagus) 

PHYCUS 260 

bussi (James) 1952 (Psilocephala) 

PANDIVIRILIA 214 

californica (Krober) 1912 (Thereva) 

OZODICEROMYA 254, 255, 257 

canadensis (Cole) 1923 (Psilocephala) 

VIRILIRICTA 210 

candidata (Loew) 1869 (Thereva) 

SPIRIVERPA 216 

canescens (Walker) 1848 (Xylophagus) 

PHYCUS (see brunneus (Wiedemann), 

1824) 260 

CHROMOLEPIDA Cole 1923 .202, 258-260 
cinerascens (Cole) 1923 (Thereva) 

SPIRIVERPA 216 

cinerea (Cole) 1923 (Psilocephala) 

BRACHYLINGA 234 

cingulata Krober 1912, THEREVA 219 

cockcrelli (Cole) 1923 (Thereva) 

SPIRIVERPA 216 

colei Irwin & Lyneborg, new name, 

CYCLOTELUS 254 

coloradensis (James) 1936 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

comata Loew 1869, THEREVA 219 

concavifrons Krober 1914, THEREVA ..219 
conspicua (Walker) 1848 (Thereva) 

PSILOCEPHALA 227 

corusca (Wiedemann) 1828 (Thereva) 

LITOLINGA (see tcrgisa (Say) 

1823) 236 

costalis (Loew) 1869 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

crassicornis (Bellardi) 1861 (Thereva) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

crassicornis Williston 1886 (Thereva) 

PALLICEPHALA (see willistoni 

(Cole) 1965) 208 

CYCLOTELUS Walker 1850 . .203, 251-254 
davisi (Johnson) 1926 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

DIALINEUR.\ Rondani 1856. .201, 204-206 



il 



274 



Vov., 1980 Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 275 



DICHOGLENA Irwin & Lyneborg, new 

genus 202, 210-212 

liversa Coquillett 1894, THEREVA 219 

luplicis Coquillett 1893, THEREVA 219 

2,cssa Coquillett 1894, THEREVA 219 

•iPOMYIA Cole 1923 {see CYCLOTELUS 

Walker 1850) 251 

■lythrura (Loew) 1869 (Psilocephala) 

CYCLOTELUS {see pictipennis 

(Wiedemann) 1821) 254 

ascipennis (Cole) 1960, CYCLOTELUS 

{<.ee socius Walker 1850) 251 

iistina (Coquillett) 1893 (Psilocephala) 

PENNIVERPA 227, 229 

lavicauda Coquillett 1904, THEREVA . .219 

lavicincta Loew 1869, THEREVA 219 

lavipennis (Cole) 1923 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

lavipes Cole 1923, PHEROCERA 268 

lavipes (Hardy) 1943 (Epomyia) 

CYCLOTELUS {see hardyi (Cole) 

1960) 254 

lavipilosa (Cole) 1923 (Psilocephala) 

PALLICEPHALA 207 

lavipilosa Cole 1923, THEREVA 219 

lavohirta Krober 1914, THEREVA 219 

«xi Cole 1923, THEREVA 219 

rommeri Irwin & Lyneborg, new name, 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

rontalis (Cole) 1923 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

rontalis Say 1824, THEREVA 219 

.Licata Loew 1872, THEREVA 219 

ucatoides Bromley 1937, THEREVA ...219 
uhipes Walker 1852, TABUDA {see 

varia (Walker) 1848) 221,223 

■URCIFERA Krober 1911 {see 

CYCLOTELUS Walker 1850) 251 

uscipennis (Cole) 1923 (Psilocephala) 

PALLICEPHALA 208 

;crmana (Walker) 1848 (Thereva) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

nliipes Loew 1869, THEREVA {see 

flavicincta Loew 1869) 219 

;orodkovi Zaitzev 1971, DIALINEURA. .205 
;racilis (Krober) 1911 (Psilocephala) 

PENNIVERPA 229 

;randis (Johnson) 1902 (Psilocephala) 

\TRILIRICTA 210 

laemorrhoidalis OZODICEROMYA {see 

hocmorrhoidalis (Macquart) 1840) ...257 
lardyi (Cole) 1960 (Furcifera) 

CYCLOTELUS 254 

4ENICOMYIA Coquillett 1898 

193, 203, 260, 262-264 

.irticeps Loew 1874, THEREVA 219 

I'H morrhoidalis (Macquart) 1840 

Thereva) OZODICEROMYA 257 

nibbardi, HENICOMYIA {see hubbardii 

Coquillett 1898) 264 

Mil>bardii Coquillett 1898, HENICOMYIA 

262,264 

nibcrbis Fallen 1814 (Bibio) 

PSILOCEPHALA 225 



insignata Irwin & Lyneborg, new species, 

MEGALINGA 242, 244-247 

johnsoni (Coquillett) 1893 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

johnsoni Coquillett 1893, THEREVA ...219 
lacteipennis (Krober) 1914 (Psilocephala) 

CYCLOTELUS {see rufiventris (Loew) 

1869) 254 

laevigata (Loew) 1876 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA {see levigata (Loew) 

1876) 257 

lateralis (Adams) 1904 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA {see frommeri 

Irwin & Lyneborg, new name) 257 

laticornis Loew 1869 (Psilocephala) 

BRACHYLINGA {see platycera Loew 

1872) 234 

latifrons (Cole) 1923 (Psilocephala) 

DICHOGLENA {see amplifrons (Cole) 

1925) 210, 211 

levigata (Loew) 1876 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

limata (Coquillett) 1894 (Psilocephala) 

PANDIVIRILIA 212, 214 

LITOLINGA Irwin & Lyneborg, new 

genus 201, 234-236 

longistyla Krober 1914, 

APSILOCEPHALA 193 

lunulata (Zetterstedt) 1838 (Thereva) 

SPIRIVERPA 214 

LYSILINGA Irwin & Lyneborg, new 

genus 202, 230-232 

macdunnoughi Cole 1925, THEREVA ..219 
macswaini Irwin 1977, PARAPHEROCERA 

264, 266 

maculipennis (Krober) 1914 (Psilocephala) 

RHAGIOFORMA 236, 238 

marcida (Coquillett) 1893 (Psilocephala) 

ARENIGENA 240 

MEGALINGA Irwin & Lyneborg, new 

genus 201, 242-244 

melampodia (Loew) 1869 (Psilocephala) 

DICHOGLENA 212 

melanoncura (Loew) 1872 (Thereva) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

melanophleba (Loew) 1876 (Thereva) 

TABUDAMIMA 219, 221 

melanoprocta Loew 1869, PSILOCEPHALA 

{see munda Loew 1869) 227 

MELANOTHEREVA Malloch 1932 193 

metallica (Krober) 1914 (Thereva) 

OZODICEROMYA 257 

METAPHRAGMA Coquillett 1894 {see 

TABUDA Walker 1852) 221, 223 

mexicana Bigot 1889, OZODICEROMYA 

254, 255, 256, 257 

mexicana Cole 1923, CHROMOLEPIDA 

260 

millcri (Irwin) 1977 (Breviperna) 

OZODICEROMYA 249, 258 

monensis (Curran) 1926 (Psilocephala) 

BRACHYLINGA 234 

montana Irwin 1977, PARAPHEROCERA 

264,266 



276 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 3 



montiradicis (James) 1949 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 258 

montivaga (Coquillett) 1893 (Psilocephala) 

VIRILIRICTA 208, 209, 210 

morata (Coquillett) 1893 (Psilocephala) 

BRACHYLINGA 234 

munda Loew 1869, PSILOCEPHALA . . .227 
nana (Cole) 1959 (Thereva) 

OZODICEROMYA [see nanella 

(Cole) 1960) 258 

nanella (Cole) 1960 (Thereva) 

OZODICEROMYA 255, 256, 258 

NEBRITUS Coquillett 1894 . . .201, 249-251 

nebulosa Krober 1912, THEREVA 219 

neomexicana Cole 1923, THEREVA 219 

nervosa (Walker) 1848 (Thereva) 

TABUDA (see varia (Walker) 1848).. 223 
nigra (Bellardi) 1861 (Psilocephala) 

MELANOTHEREVA 193 

nigra (Say) 1823 (Thereva) 

OZODICEROMYA 258 

nigrimana (Krober) 1912 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 258 

nigrimana (Krober) 1914 (subspecies of 

Thereva bella Krober) SPIRIVERPA. .216 
nigrina (Krober) 1914 (Psilocephala) 

DICHOGLENA 212 

nigripes Cole 1923, PHEROCERA 268 

nigripilosa Cole 1923, THEREVA 219 

nitoris (Coquillett) 1894 (Thereva) 

SPIRIVERPA 216 

nivea Krober 1914 (Thereva) AMMONAIOS 

{see niveus (Krober) 1914) 240, 242 

niveipennis Krober 1914, THEREVA ...219 
niveus (Krober) 1914 (Thereva nivea) 

AMMONAIOS 240, 242 

notata (Wiedemann) 1821 (Thereva) 

OZODICEROMYA 258 

novella (Coquillett) 1893 (Thereva) 

ACROSATHE 225 

obliquefasciata (Krober) 1911 

(Psilocephala) OZODICEROMYA ...258 
obscura (Coquillett) 1893 (Psilocephala) 

BRACHYLINGA 234 

occidentalis (Cole) 1923 (Psilocephala) 

PALLICEPHALA 208 

occipitalis (Adams) 1904 (Psilocephala) 

LYSILINGA 230, 231, 232 

otiosa (Coquillett) 1893 (Thereva) 

ACROSATHE 225 

OZODICEROMYA Bigot 1889 

203, 249, 254-258 

OZODICEROMYIA Bigot 1889 {see 

OZODICEROMYA Bigot 1889) 254 

OZODICERONYMA, 'Wu\p 1898 {see 

OZODICEROMYA Bigot 1889) 254 

pacifica (Cole) 1923 (Thereva) 

ACROSATHE 225 

PALLICEPHALA Irwin & Lyneborg, 

new genus 201, 206-208 

pallida (Krober) 1914 (Psilocephala) 

LITOLINGA {see acuta Adams 1903) 
236 



PANDIVIRILIA Irwin & Lyneborg, new 

genus 201, 202, 210, 212-214 

PARAPHEROCERA Irwin 1977 

198, 203, 264-266 

pavida (Coquillett) 1893 (Psilocephala) 

BRACHYLINGA 233, 234 

pellucidus Coquillett 1894, NEBRITUS 

249, 251 

PENNIVERPA Irwin & Lyneborg, new 

genus 203, 227-229 

PHEROCERA Cole 1923. .198, 203, 266-268 
PHYCUS Walker 1850 . . .203, 260-262, 263 
pictipennis (Wiedemann) 1821 (Thereva) 

CYCLOTELUS 251, 254 

pilosa (Krober) 1914 (Psilocephala) 

BRACHYLINGA 234 

placida (Coquillett) 1894 (Psilocephala) 

BREVIPERNA 247, 249 

plagiata Harris 1835 (Thereva), nomina 

nuda 270 

planiceps (Loew) 1872 (Xestomyza) 

TABUDA 221, 222, 223 

platancala (Loew) 1876 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 258 

platycera Loew 1872 (Psilocephala) 

BRACHYLINGA 234 

plebeja (Linnaeus) 1758 (Musca) 

THEREVA 216 

pollinosa (Cole) 1923 (Psilocephala) 

PANDIVIRILIA 21 

pruinosa (Coquillett) 1904 (Psilocephala) 

CHROMOLEPIDA 258, 260 

pruinosus Walker 1850, CYCLOTELUS. .251 

pseudoculata Cole 1923, THEREVA 219 

PSILOCEPHALA Zetterstedt 1838 

193, 203, 225-227 

pygmaea (Cole) 1923 (Thereva) 

OZODICEROMYA {see nanella 

(Cole) 1960) 25a 

pygmaea Krober 1 9 1 1 (Psilocephala) 

UNPLACED 270 

RHAGIOFORMA Irwin & Lyneborg, 

new genus 201, 236-238 

ruficornis (Macquart) 1840 (Thereva) 

? OZODICEROMYA 258 

rufivcntris (Loew) 1869 (Psilocephala) 

CYCLOTELUS 254 

rugifrons (Krober) 1914 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 258 

SCHLINGERIA Irwin 1977 

198, 203, 260, 268-270 

schroederi (Krober) 1911 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 258 

scutellaris (Loew) 1869 (Psilocephala) 

CYCLOTELUS {see colei Irwin & 

Lyneborg, new name ) 254 

semitaria (Coquillett) 1893 (Thereva) 

ARENIGENA 238, 240 

senex (Walker) 1848 (Thereva) 

SPIRIVERPA 216 

senilis (Fabricius) 1805 (Bibio) 

PENNIVERPA 229 



kov., 1980 



Irwin & Lyneborg: The Genera of Nearctic Therevidae 277 



ericeifrons (Krober) 1928 (Psilocephala) 

BRACHYLINGA 234 

etosa (Krober) 1912, OZODICEROMYA 

{see mexicana Bigot 1889) 257 

etosus Krober 1912 (Euphycus) 

OZODICEROMYA {see mexicana 

Bigot 1889) 257 

ignatifrons Cole 1923, PHEROCERA 

" 266, 268 

ii;natipennis (Cole) 1923 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 258 

lossonae (Coquillett) 1893 (Psilocephala) 

? BRACHYLINGA 234 

ilossoni (Coquillett) 1893 (Psilocephala) 

? BRACHYLINGA {see slossonae 

(Coquillett) 1893) 234 

ocius Walker 1850, CYCLOTELUS 251 

'IPIRIVERPA Irwin & Lyneborg, new 

genus 202, 210, 214-216 

(quamosa (Hardy) 1943 (Psilocephala) 

BRACHYLINGA 234 

trigipes Loew 1869, THEREVA 219 

lubnotata (Johnson) 1926 (Psilocephala) 

■ OZODICEROMYA 258 

lubrufa (Cole) 1923 (Psilocephala) 

( LYSILINGA 231, 232 

lumichrasti (Bellardi) 1861 (Psilocephala) 

; CYCLOTELUS 253, 254 

TABUDA Walker 1852 202, 221-223 

■fABLTDAMIMA Irwin & Lyneborg, new 

I genus 202, 219-221 

fcanneri (Hardy) 1938 (Zionea) 

I NEBRITUS 249, 251 

lepocae (Cole) 1923 (Psilocephala) 

BRACHYLINGA 234 

rr-isa (Say) 1823 (Thereva) 

LITOLINGA 236 



tergissa, hITOhlNGA {see tergisa (Say) 

1823) 236 

THEREUA {see THEREVA Latreille 

1796) 217 

THEREVA Latreille 1796 ....202, 216-219 
univittata (Bellardi) 1861 (Psilocephala) 

OZODICEROMYA 258 

ustulata Krober 1912, THEREVA 219 

utahensis Hardy 1938, THEREVA 219 

vanduzeei (Cole) 1923 (Thereva) 

ACROSATHE 225 

varia (Walker) 1848 (Thereva) TABUDA 

221,223 

variegata (Loew) 1869 (Psilocephala) 

PALLICEPHALA 206, 207, 208 

varipes Krober 1912, HENICOMYIA {see 

hubbardii Coquillett 1898) 264 

vexans (Curran) 1926 (Psilocephala) 

BRACHYLINGA {see abdominalis 

(Fabricius) 1805) 234 

vialis (Osten Sacken) 1877 (Thereva) 

ACROSATHE 225 

vicina (Walker) 1848 (Thereva) 

PSILOCEPHALA 227 

VIRILIRICTA Irwin & Lyneborg, new 

genus 202, 208-210 

wilcoxi Irwin 1977, PARAPHEROCERA 

266 

willistoni (Cole) 1965 (Dialineura) 

PALLICEPHALA 207, 208 

xanthobasis (James) 1949 (Thereva) 

OZODICEROMYA 258 

XESTOMYZA 193, 221, 223 

ZIONEA Hardy 1938 (see NEBRITUS 

Coquillett 1894) 249, 251 



i 



Some Publications of the ILLINOIS NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY 



BLlLLETIN 

Volume 31. Article 9. — Pesticides and Envi- 
ronmental Quality in Illinois. By Robert L. 
Metcalf and James R. Sanborn. August 
1975. 56 p., index. 

Volume 31, Article 10. — The Bantam Sun- 
fish, Lepomis symmetricus: Systematics and 
Distribution, and Life History in Wolf Lake, 
Illinois. By Brooks M. Burr. September 
1977. 30 p., index. 

Volume 32, Article I. — Waterfowl Popula- 
tions and the Changing Environment of the 
Illinois River \'allcy. By Frank C. Bcllrose. 
Fred L. Paveglio, Jr., and Donald W. 
StefTeck. August 1979. 54 p., index. 

Volume 32, .\rticle 2. — Primary Insect Types 
in the Illinois Natural History Survey Col- 
lection, Exclusive of the Collembola and 
Thysanoptera. By Donald W. Webb. July 
1980. 138 p., index. 

BIOLOGICAL NOTES 

104. — A Summary of the Life History and 
Distribution of the Spring Cavefish, Cholo- 
gaster agassizi Putnam, with Population 
Estimates for the Species in Southern Illi- 
nois. By Philip W. Smith and Norbert M. 
Welch. May 1978. 8 p. 

105. — Distribution and Abundance of the 
Gray Squirrel in Illinois. By Charles M. 
Nixon, Stephen P. Havera, and Robert E. 
Greenberg. June 1978. 55 p. 

106. — The Life History of the Cypress Darter, 
Etheostoma proeliare. in Max Creek, Illi- 
nois. By Brooks M. Burr and Lawrence M. 
Page. July 1978. 15 p. 

107. — Soybean Spiders: Species Composition, 
Population Densities, and Vertical Distribu- 
tion. By Charles D. LeSar and John D. 
Unzicker. July 1978. 14 p. 

108. — The Nest Biology of the Bees Andrena 
(Melandrena) regularis Malloch and An- 



drena (Melandrena) carlini Cockcrell (Hy- 
menoptera: Andrenidae). By Martha Nor- 
tham Schrader and Wallace E. LaBerge. 
August 1978. 24 p. 

109. — Illinois Birds: Ciconiiformes. By Jean 
W. Graber, Richard R. Graber, and Ethelyn 
L. Kirk. .August 1978. 80 p. 

110. — Illinois Birds: Sylviidae. By Jean W. 
Graber, Richard R. Graber, and Ethelyn L. 
Kirk. July 1979. 22 p. 

111. — Monitoring the Seasonal .\ppearance 
and Density of the Black Cutworm with a 
Virgin Female Trap. By Lynn Pautler, 
William G. Ruesink, Hans E. Hummel, and 
William H. Luckmann. July 1979. 7 p. 

112. — The Life History of the Least Darter, 
Etheostoma microperca, in the Iroquois 
River, Illinois. By Brooks M Burr and 
Lawrence M. Page. August 1979. 16 p. 

113. — -The Life Histories of Etheostoma 
olivaceum and Etheostoma striatulum. Two 
Species of Darters in Central Tennessee. By 
Lawrence M. Page. August 1980, 14 p. 

CIRCULAR 

49. — The Dunesland Heritage of Illinois. By 
Herbert H. Ross. August 1963 (Reprinted 

May 1974). 28 p. 

51. — Illinois Trees: Selection, Planting, and 
Care, By J. Cedric Carter, March 1977 
(Third printing). 123 p. 

52. — Fertilizing and Watering Trees. By Dan 
Neely and E. B. Himelick. December 1971 
(Third printing). 20 p. 

54. — Corn Rootworm Management in Can- 
ning Sweet Corn, By W, H, Luckmann, 
J, T. Shaw, D. E, Kuhlman, R, Randell. 
and C, D, LcSar, March 1975. 10 p. 

55. — Observing, Photographing, and Collect- 
ing Plants. By Kenneth R. Robertson, 
August 1980, 62 p. 



List of available publications mailed on request 



No charge is made for publications of the Illinois Natural History Sirvev, .\ single copv 
of most publications will be sent free to anyone requesting it until the supply becomes low. Costly 
publications, more than one copy of a publication, and publications in short supply arc subjects 
for special correspondence. Such correspondence should identify the writer and explain the usr 
to be made of the publication or publications. 



.'Vddress orders and correspondence to the Chief, 

Illinois Natural History Survey 

Natural Resources Building 

607 E. Peabody, Champaign, Illinois 61820 



yO^'^'^-' 







NATURAl W\W^ Wm 

MAR- 1 8- 1932 



The Lake Sangchris Study: 
Case History of an 
Illinois Cooling Lake 



Jon Larimore 
. Tranquilli 



EDITORS 



.LINOIS 
(ilNSTITUTE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

14L HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION 
MGN, ILLINOIS 



VOLUME 32, ARTICLE 4 
AUGUST 1981 



i 



f 



us ISSN 0073—4918 



itturail History Survey 



i The Lake Sangchris Study 

i Case History of an 

"inois Cooling Lalce 



^3ldon Larimore 
li A. Tranquilli 



(FIC EDITORS 



: F ILLINOIS 

I IS INSTITUTE OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

i 

IRAL HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION 
UPAIGN, ILLINOIS 



VOLUME 32, ARTICLE 4 
AUGUST 1981 



STATE OF ILLINOIS ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF NATLTRAL RESOURCES 

BOARD OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION 
FRA^fK Beal, M.S.. Chairman. Vacant, Biology, H. S Gutowsky, PhD . Chemutry, Walter E, Hanson. MS , Engmeermg, Lorin L 
Nevunc.Jr.. Ph.D., Forestry; L.L, Sloss, Ph.D.. Geology. W.L, Everjtt, E.E., Ph.D.. Represerumg the President of the University of lUmois. 
John C. Guyon. Ph.D., Representing the Prestderit of Southern llhnots University 



NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION, Champaign. Illinois 
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL STAFF 

PaulG. Risser. Ph.D. Chief 
Alice K. Adams, Secretary to the Chief 



Section of Aquatic Biology 

Robert W Gorden. Ph D . Aquatic Biologist and Head 

D. Homer Buck, Ph.D., Aquatic Biologist 

William F. Childers. PhD , Aquatic Biologist 

R. Weldon Larimore. Ph.D., Aquatic Biologist 

Richard F. Sparks. Ph.D . Aquatic Biologist 

Robert C. Hiltibran, Ph.D.. Biochemist 

Allison Bricham, Ph.D., Associate Aquatic Biologist 

Warren U. Bricham, Ph.D., Associate Aquatic Biologist 

Ketiirah Reinbold, Ph.D., Associate Aquatic Toxtcologist 

John A. Tranquilli, Ph D,. Associate Aquatic Biologist 

Ken Li'BINskj, Ph.D.. Assistant Aquatic Biologist 

David P. Philipp. Ph.D . Assistant Aquatic Biologist 

Henry H, Seacle.Jr,, Ph D,. Assistant Aquatic Biologist 

Ted W. Storck. Ph.D , AssistarU Aquatic Biologist 

Bruce Taubert. Ph.D.. Assistant Aquatic Biologist 

Michael Wiley. Ph.D., Assistant Aquatic Biologist 

RichardJ. Baiir, M.S , Assistant Supportive Scientist 

Eugene SoNs.yunior Professional Scientist 

Jana Lee Waite, M.S.jfumor Professional Scientist 

Stephen W. Waite, MS, Research Associate 

Dale Burkett. B.S., Research AssistarU 

Larry W, Coi'Tant, MS. Research Assistant 

Jeffrey Koppelman. B.S.. Research Assistant 

Samuel Lynch, B.S., Research Assistant 

Dennis Newman, M S , Research Assistant 

Lance Perry. M.S.. Research AsststarU 

Todd Powless. M.S., Research Assistant 

Thomas Skelly. M.S., Research Assistant 

Michael Wallendorf, B S . Research Assistant 

Frank Zumwalt. M.S., Research Assistant 

Joan Brower. B.S . Technical Assistant 

Christina Clark, B.S.. Technical Assistant 

Robert Davis, B.S , Technical AsststarU 

Bill DiMOND, B.S.. Technical Assistant 

Kathryn Ewing, B-S.. Technical Assistant 

DwicHT Garrels, M.S., Technical Assistant 

Rebecca Grosser. B.S., Technical AsststarU 

Aleta Holt, B S,, Technical AsststarU 

Jeanine Kasprowicz, B.S.. Technical AsststarU 

Shirley Lowe. B S.. Technical Assistant 

Philip Mankin. B.S., Technical Assistant 

Steven Miller, B.S., Technical AsststarU 

Sue Peratt, Technical Assistant 

Brenda Peters, Technical Assistant 

Michael Retzeh. MS, Technical Assistant 

Thomas Rice. M.S., Technical Assistant 

Jens Sandbercer, M.S., Technical Assistant 

Michael Sandusky, B,S,. Technical Assistant 

Paul Shetley, B.S,, Technical Assistant 

Stephen Sobaski. B.S,, Technical Assistant 

Pam Tazik. MS., Technical A ssutant 

Jeffrey VAN Orman, B.S., Technical Assistant 

Gary L. Warren. B.S , Technical Assistant 

MarkJ. Wetzel. B.S., Technical Assistant 

Ruth Wagner, yumor Technical Assistant 

Section of Botany and Plant Pathology 

Claus Grunwald, Ph.D , Botanist and Head 
Eugene Himelick, PhD , Plant Pathologist 
Dan Neely, PhD,, Plant Pathologist 
D F. ScHOENEWEiss. Ph.D , PlarU Pathologist 
J. Leland Crane, Ph.D., Mycologist 
Anton G. Endress, Ph.D , Associate Botanist 
Kenneth R, Robertson. Ph.D., Associate Botanist 
Betty Nelson, Assistant Supportive Scientist 
Gene E. REiD.yumbr Professional Scientist 
James E. Sergent, Greenhouse Superintendent 
Robert A. Harrison, Technical Assistant 
David R. Moore. B.S-, Technical Assistant 

Section of Economic Entomology 

William H Luckmann. PhD . Entomologist and Head 

James E. Appleby, Ph.D., Entomologist 

EdwardJ. Armbrust, Ph.D., Entomologist 

Marcos Kocan. Ph D,. Entomologist 

Ronald H. Meyer, Ph.D.. Entomologist 

Stevenson Moore, III, Ph.D., Entomologist. Extension 

Michael E. Irwin. Ph.D., Associate Entomologist 

Donald E. Kuhlman. Ph.D.. Associate Entomologist. Extension 



Joseph V, Maddox, Ph.D.. Associate Entomologist 

Robert D. Pausch. Ph.D.. Associate ErUomologist 

RoscOE Randell, Ph.D.. Associate Entomologist, Extension 

William G. Ruesink. Ph.D . Associate ErUomologist 

John K. Bouseman, M.S.. Assistant Entomologist 

Catherine Eastman, Ph.D . Assistant Entomologist 

Allan Felsot, Ph.D.. AsststarU Entomologist 

Eu Levine, Ph.D.. AsststarU Entomologist 

Luis R. Zavaleta. Ph D,. AsststarU Entomologist 

Arthur Acnello, MS, AsststarU Specialist. Extension 

Charles MacMonecle. M.S . AsststarU Specialist, Extension 

Kevin Steffy, Ph.D.. AsststarU Specialist. Extension 

Steven Troester, M.E., Assistaru Systems Engineer 

Jean G. Wilson, B.A,, Supervisory Assistaru 

Lester Wei, Ph.D., Assistaru Professional Scientist 

Charles G Helm. M.S.. AsststarU Supportive ScierUtst 

Stephen Roberta, B.S., AsststarU Supportive Scientist 

John T. Shaw. B.S,, Assistant Supportnv Scientist 

Sue M Hale, yumor Professional Scientist 

William Lamp. Research Associate 

Gerald A Schultz, Ph.D , Research Associate 

Michael Jeffords, Ph.D., Field Entomologist 

Robert J. Barney. M.S . Research AsststarU 

Tzu SuAN Chu. M.S.. Research AssutarU 

Jenny Kogan. M.S., Research Assistant 

Susan Post. B.S,, Research Assistaru 

Gail Kampmeier. MS . Research Techructan 

Michael McGuire. M.S., Research Technician 

Jo Ann Auble. Technical AsststarU 

EiXEN Brewer, MS , Computer Programmer 

Joan Traub, Clerk Typist II 

Section of Faunistic Surveys and Insect indent if ication 

Wallace E. LaBerge. Ph.D , Insect Taxonomtsl and Head 
Larry M Page. Ph.D.. Taxonomtsl 
George L. Godfrey. Ph.D.. Associate Taxonomist 
John D, Unzicker, Ph.D.. Associate Taxonomist 
[>onald W Webb. Ph.D.. Associate Taxonomist 
David J, Voegtlin, Ph.D , AssutarU Taxonomist 
Bernice p. Sweeney. yumor Professional Scientist 
Eugene Miliczky. M S . Research Assistaru 

Section of Wildlife Research 

Glen C Sanderson, PhD . Wildlife Specialist and Head 

Frank C Bellrose. ScD,, Wildlife SpeciaUsl 

Harold C Hanson, Ph.D. Wildlife Specialist 

WiLUAM R. Edwards, PhD , Wildlife Ecologtst 

Jean W Graber. Ph D.. OmUhologist 

Richard R Graber. Ph D . Ornithologist 

W W. Cochran. Jr. B.S., Associate Wildlife Specialist 

Charles M. Nixon, MS., Associate Wildlife Ecologtst 

Ronald L Westemeier. MS . Associate Wildlife Ecologtst 

Stephen P Havera. Ph D.. Assistaru Wildlife Ecologtst 

Ronald P, Larkin, Ph D.. AssutarU Wildlife Ecologut 

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CONSULTANTS AND RESEARCH AFFILIATES; Aquatic Biology. James R, Karr. Ph.D.. Professor of Ecology, Ethology and Evolution. 
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Preface 



Lake Sangchris, in central Illinois, 
provides cooling water for the Kincaid 
Generating Station, a coal-fired electric 
generating plant that was developed by 
Commonwealth Edison Company of 
Chicago in the early 1960's. 

During the years 1961 through 1963 
several engineering reports were prepared 
for Commonwealth Edison Company 
regarding the construction of Kincaid 
Generating Station and its cooling lake. 
By July 1963 the company had decided to 
proceed with construction, starting the 
following summer. The first electrical 
power was produced at the plant in June 
1967. 

Legal issues have arisen along with the 
development of Kincaid Generating 
Station. Even before the construction of 
the lake, questions were raised 
concerning public use of cooling 
reservoirs. This led to several years of 
negotiations with the Illinois Department 
of Conservation and an ultimate 
agreement in 1969 for the management 
of the lake and surrounding lands as a 
recreation facility. Until this time 
Commonwealth Edison's only necessary 
legal licenses had been those to construct 
a dam across Clear Creek and for the 
construction and operation of a sewage 
treatment facility. Passage of the Illinois 
Environmental Protection Act of 1970 
and the adoption of water-quality 
regulations under the Illinois Pollution 
Control Board in 1972 made it necessary 
for the company to gather environmental 
information in support of the lake as a 
waste-water treatment facility.' 



'Dr. Richard G. Monzingo. Aquatic Biologist, 
Commonwealth Edison Company, has provided this 
updated account of the regulatory history of Lake 
Sangchris. 

On July 18, 1974, the Pollution Control Board 
(PCB) of the State of Illinois ruled (in PCB 
73-245/248 consolidated) that Lake Sangchris is not 
a "treatment works" but is. in fact, "waters of the 
state." The Board determined that an operating 
permit was required with respect to discharges from 
the Kincaid Generating Station into Lake Sangchris 
and that as a condition to the issuance of the 
permit. Commonwealth Edison Company would be 
required to demonstrate compliance with the 
thermal standards contained in Chapter 3, Rule 



Limnological data were urgently needed; 
so the company contracted with 
Limnetics, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 
to conduct limnological baseline studies. 
Limnetics, Inc., studied the lake from 
June 1971 to June 1972 and submitted a 
report to the company entitled A 
Limnological Survey of Lake Sangchris, 
Illinois dated December 1972. In May 
1973 Limnetics, Inc., filed another 
report with Commonwealth Edison, A 
Second Limnological Survey of Lake 
Sangchris, Illinois, based on studies 
conducted during October 1972. 

Additional unpublished reports that 
have served as background materials in the 
present study include fish sur\e\'S by the 
Division of Fisheries, Illinois Department of 
Conservation, in October 1971 and 1972. 
These reports are on file in the division's 
office in Springfield. A report by William 
Anderson, Illinois Natural History 
Survey, on the mercury levels in the flesh 
of Lake Sangchris fish was submitted to 
Commonwealth Edison in 1972. The 
Illinois Natural History Survey also 
completed a report to Commonwealth 
Edison in 1973 entitled Comparative 
Limnological Literature Survey — Sang- 
chris Lake, which compared information 
on Lake Sangchris with available 
information on five reservoirs of similar 
size, geographical location, and general 
hydrological characteristics. Soon after 
the beginning of the present study in 
August 1973, Mr. Edward Juracek, 
biologist with Commonwealth Edison, 
presented a report entitled Lake 
Sangchris: Case History of an Illinois 



203(i)(l-4) or to obtain regulatory relief from these 
standards. 

In PCB R75-2, Commonwealth Edison proposed 
a regulation that would exempt artificial cooling 
lakes (impounded) from otherwise applicable 
thermal standards of Rule 203(i)( 1 -4) and requested 
specific thermal limitations for Lake Sangchris. On 
29 September 1975, the Board ruled instead to set 
standards by which individual artificial cooling 
lakes could receive specific thermal limitations. In 
addition, the Board did not approve the specific 
thermal limitations for Lake Sangchris because the 
limitations were not based on historic temperatures 
in the lake. 

In April 1976, Commonwealth Edison proposed 



Cooling Lake as part of a workshop on 
energy production and thermal effects; 
the papers read at that workshop were 
published in January 1974 by Limnetics, 
Inc. Juracek's report contained much of 
the information mentioned in the 
preceding paragraphs and served as a 
review of the development of the power 
plant, its lake, and the legal statutes 
associated with the Kincaid Generating 
Station. 

Under contract with Commonwealth 
Edison Company, the Illinois Natural 
History Survey studied this cooling lake 
ecosystem intensively from August 1973 
through August 1977 to determine the 
effect of the thermal discharge and 
combustion byproducts on the local 
environment. Investigations included 
detailed studies of water quality, 
plankton, aquatic macrophytes, clams, 
benthos, fish, fish harvest or creel, water- 
fowl, trace metals, and pesticides. Some 
studies (water quality, benthos, clams, 
and aquatic macrophytes) were 
terminated in 1976, and others were 
initiated to consider the distribution of 
larval fishes in the cooling loop and the 
effect of the impingement and 
entrainment of fish by the power plant. 

In June 1 975 , the Illinois Natural History 
Survey received additional support from the 
Electric Power Research Institute(EPRI)of 
Palo Alto, California, to expand investigations 
at Lake Sangchris. The expanded work 
consisted of three parts: (1) a study of the 
relationship between the fisheries and the 
physicochemical conditions associated 
with power production, including fish 



the following specific thermal standards based on 
historic fact: the effluent temperature shall not 
exceed 99°F (SVC) during more than 7 percent of 
the hours in the 12-month period ending with any 
month and shall at no time exceed H1°F (44°C) 
(PCB 7611). In December 1976. an economic 
impact statement prepared by the Illinois Institute 
of Environmental Quality indicated that both 
economic and environmental considerations 
favored the proposed standards. On 13 October 
1977, the Board approved the proposed standards. 
The Board commented that although the records in 
R76-2 and 76-11 contained other useful reports 
concerning Lake Sangchris. the most valuable 
testimony came from studies performed by the 
Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS). 



temperature preferences, potential 
dangers to the biological system, benefits 
to plant and animal communities, and 
causes of environmental degradation 
associated with power production; (2) 
construction of a fish production model 
from the large accumulation of physical- 
chemical-biological data; and (3) a 
comparison of fish production in Lake 
Sangchris with that of Lake Shelbyville, a 
nearby flood control reservoir. This work 
has been completed, and a four- volume 
final report. Evaluation of a Cooling Lake 
Fishery, has been published by EPRI 
(1979-1980). However, those investigations 
cannot be completely separated 
from the work supported by Common- 
wealth Edison and reported here.^ 

The investigative work was carried 
out by an interdisciplinary team of 
specialists. Administration and overall 
coordination of the project were handled 
at the Illinois Natural History Survey 
headquarters in Urbana, while field 
activities were coordinated through a 
field station at Kincaid, a few miles from 
the lake. Most of the fishery biologists 
were based at the field station; other 
team members were based in Urbana 
where more extensive laboratory and 
analytical facilities were available. 

The Lake Sangchris Project enjoyed 
consistent support and cooperation from 
officials of Commonwealth Edison 
Company, especially from John H. 
Hughes, Head of the Environmental 
Quality Section; Edward Juracek, James 



On 11 May 1978, the Board approved 
Commonwealth Edison's 203(i)(5) demonstration 
(PCB 77-309). This demonstration (similar to the 
USEPA 316 (a) demonstration) incorporated the 
records of the previous three hearings, including all 
of the data from the Illinois Natural History Survey 
studies. 

The studies the INHS performed also provided 
data to support the 316(a) (thermal) and 316(b) 
(intake) demonstrations to the USEPA. The 316(a) 
demonstration was accepted on II May 1977 and 
the 316(b) demonstration was approved on 2 
January 1979. 

'Fishery investigations were continued at Lake 
Sangchris in 1979, when funding for fishery 
management research was received for a 3 year 
period from Federal Aid in Fish Restoration 



C. Rice, and Richard Monzingo, project 
managers during the investigations; and 
Bud Stauffer, Charles PoHto, and Ed 
Swenson, Kincaid Generating Station 
superintendents. Commonwealth Edison 
also contributed substantially toward the 
publication costs. We sincerely appreciate 
the help that made the investigations 
possible and pleasant. 

We are also indebted for the help we 
received from many University of Illinois 
and Eastern Illinois University students in 
both field and laboratory studies, other 
members of the Illinois Natural History 
Survey staff, and Illinois Department of 
Conservation personnel stationed at Lake 
Sangchris State Park and in the Fisheries 
Division. 

We acknowledge the help of Dr. 
Loren Wheeler, presently at the 
University of Arkansas, for his statistical 
advice with reference to the Corbicula 
paper, and Dr. Clyde Anderson, 
presently at Michigan State University, 
for his statistical help on the fish 
population dynamics, fish tagging, and 
radiotelemetry papers. 



Dr. Louis A. Krumholz, University of 
Louisville, critically reviewed the 
manuscripts. We sincerely appreciate. his 
valuable technical suggestions and 
recognize that his skills and editorial 
discipline contributed greatly to the final 
development of this monograph. 

Manuscripts were also reviewed by 
various members of our Siu^ey staff. The final 
editing of the entire set of manuscripts 
was done by Robert M. Zewadski, 
Technical Editor, and by Shirley 
McClellan, Assistant Technical Editor. 
Technical Illustrator Lloyd LeMere did 
much of the drafting, and various staff 
members contributed photographs. 
Jana Waite, Administrative Assistant in the 
Section of Aquatic Biology, carefully 
typed the final copy. To these, our 
supportive associates, we extend sincere 
appreciation for their careful work. 

Careful readers will notice some defi- 
ciency in up-to-date literature, resulting 
from the time required to edit and print 
such a large monograph. Please notice 
the submission date at the bottom of the 
first page of each chapter. 



R. Weldon Larimore 

Principal Investigator, Lake Sangchris Project 

Aquatic Biologist, Illinois Natural History Survey 



John A. Tranquilli 

Project Leader, Lake Sangchris Project 

Associate Aquatic Biologist, Illinois Natural History Survey 



CONTENTS 

The Lake Sangchris Project 279 

R. Weldon Larimore and John A. Tranquilli 

Water Quality in a Cooling- Water Reservoir 290 

Allison R. Brigham 

Phvtoplankton Dynamics in a Cooling- Water Reservoir 320 

Robert L. Moran 

Effects of Cooling Lake Perturbations upon the Zooplankton Dynamics of Lake 

Sangchris 342 

Stephen W. Waite 

The Benthic Macroinvertebrates from the Cooling Lake of a Coal-Fired Electric 

Generating Station 358 

Donald W. Webb 

Reproduction, Growth, Distribution, and Abundance of Corbicula in an Illinois 

Cooling Lake 378 

Herbert Dreier and John A. Tranquilli 

AftUATic Macrophytes in Lake Sangchris 394 

Robert L. Moran 

Population Dynamics of the Lake Sangchris Fishery 413 

John A. Tranquilli, Richard Kocher, and John M. McNurney 

Food Habits of Some Common Fishes from Heated and Unheated Areas of Lake 

Sangchris 500 

Michael J. Sule, John M. McNurney, and Donald R. Halffield, Jr. 

First- Year Growth and Feeding of Largemouth Bass in a Heated Reservoir 520 

Michael J. Sule 

Results of a Multiple-Objective Fish-Tagging Program in an Artificially Heated 

Reservoir 536 

John A. Tranquilli, John M. McNurney, and Richard Kocher 

Radiotelemetry Observations on the Behavior of Largemouth Bass in a Heated 

Reservoir 559 

John A. Tranquilli, Donald W. Dufford, R. Weldon Larimore, Richard Kocher, and John M. 
McNurney 

Behavioral Thermoregulation of Largemouth Bass and Carp in an Illinois Cooung 

Lake 585 

Valerie J. Smith and John M. McNurney 

Lake Sangchris Creel Survey: 1973-1975 594 

John M. McNurney and Herbert Dreier 

Distribution and Abundance of Larval Fishes in Lake Sangchris (1976) 615 

Harry Bergmann 

Impingement and Entrainment of Fishes at Kincaid Generating Station 631 

Wesley Porak and John A. Tranquilli 

Waterfowl Studies at Lake Sangchris, 1973-1977 656 

Glen C. Sanderson and William L. Anderson 

Distribution and Accumulation of Trace Metals at a Coal-Fired Power Plant and 

Adjacent Cooling Lake 691 

Kenneth E. Smith and William L. Anderson 

Index 731 

This report is printed by authority of the State of Illinois. It is a contribution from the Section of Aquatic 
Biology, Section of Faunistic Surveys and Insect Identification, and Section of Wildlife Research of the 
Illinois Natural History Survey. 

(18657 -4M 8 81) 

i5 



1 




Photomosaic of the Lake Sangchris area, showing the intensive agricultural development. (Aeri 
photographs courtesy of the Illinois Department of Transportation.) 



The Lake Sangchris Project 



R. Weldon Larimore and John A. Tranquil 



INTRODUCTION 

Reservoirs constructed specifically for 
the dissipation of waste heat constitute a 
relatively new aquatic environment that 
creates both problems and attractive 
potentials. The most apparent environ- 
mental problems are those associated 
with waste heat from a production 
process; the most obvious benefits are 
recreational, especially the unique 
opportunity for open- water fishing in a 
northern climate during winter. To eval- 
uate the detriments and benefits of a 
cooling-lake ecosystem, one must 
consider the physical attributes of this 
man-made system before attempting to 
understand the more complex biological 
relations. Those relationships include the 
entire trophic structure of the aquatic 
ecosystem. 

These physical functions and their 
associated biological systems have been 
intensively investigated at Lake 
Sangchris, an 876-ha cooling lake that 
serves a coal-fired, steam-driven electric 
generating station in central Illinois. 
There it has been found, for example, 
that the plankton population was directly 
associated with the water currents 
produced by pumping, the benthos was 
influenced by the modification of bottom 
substrates in the discharge canal, and fish 
distribution was affected by temperature 
gradients within the cooling loop. Before 
these and other relations are fully 
reported in the series of papers presented 
in this monograph, it seems necessary to 
point out the physical factors that 
ultimately drive the associated biological 
system within a cooling lake. 

Any cooling lake is a massive heat 
exchanger that takes waste heat from the 
plant's condenser system and transfers it 



Dr. R. Wcldon Larimore is an Aquatic Biologist 
and Dr. John A. Tranquilli is an Associate Aquatic 
Biologist in the Section of Aquatic Biology, Illinois 
Natural History Survey. 



to the environment. The efficiency of 
that exchange depends on the local 
climate, the morphometry of the lake 
basin, the exposure of the lake surface to 
wind, the volume of water moving 
through the plant and through the lake, 
and the amount of heat carried away 
from the condenser tubes. The efficiency 
of the heat-exchanging process is also 
related to several peculiar physical 
characteristics of water, such as its 
specific heat, heats of vaporization and 
fusion, and density at different 
temperatures. 

In most lakes, the primary source of 
heat is radiant energy from the sun, with 
lesser amounts from groundwater seepage 
or through conduction from the air or 
from the basin materials. By design, an 
additional source to a cooling lake is the 
heat that must be removed in power 
production to convert spent steam to 
water. Although part of the radiant heat 
penetrates the water mass and is 
transmitted into deeper waters by 
conduction and convection, heat from 
both the sun and the power plant is 
distributed throughout the lake 
ecosystem by the force of wind on the 
water surface and, in a cooling lake, by 
the circulation produced by the 
withdrawal and discharge of cooling 
water at the power plant. 

In the process of exchanging heat 
from the power plant to the environment, 
the cooling lake serves as a heat sink that 
absorbs and stores heat for various 
lengths of time. The high specific heat of 
water permits the absorption of large 
amounts of heat with relatively modest 
increases in water temperature. Although 
some heat is transmitted by conduction 
into the lake sediments, the total heat 
capacity of most lakes is primarily 
proportional to the water volume, 
because the water has the high specific 



279 



280 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32. Art. 4 



heat and capacity to absorb heat. The 
heat storage capacity of most lakes in 
temperate regions is significantly reduced 
during the summer by stratification, 
caused by differential density layers that 
serve as barriers to the mixing of warm 
surface waters into the cooler deep 
waters. In a cooling lake, where currents 
produced by pumping prevent thermal 
layers from being maintained, such 
stratification may never be established or 
may last for only short periods. If part of 
the thermal discharge from the power 
plant enters the deeper waters of the lake, 
the deeper layer may warm at nearly the 
same rate as the surface waters, so that 
there is less difference in density from top 
to bottom and mixing is facilitated. 

Heat acquired by a lake from the sun 
or from electric power production is 
largely dissipated through evaporation 
and back radiation. Lesser amounts of 
heat are lost through conduction to the 
air and to basin materials. The enormous 
amounts of heat involved in the 
evaporation of water (539.6 calories per 
gram of water) keep our temperate and 
tropical lakes from being much warmer 
than they are in the summer and establish 
a lake as an efficient heat exchanger for 
dissipating heat from either natural 
sources or from industrial processes. 

The rate of evaporation (and thus of 
heat loss) increases with increased 
temperature and with reduced vapor 
pressure, barometric pressure, and 
salinity. The increase in evaporation with 
increase in temperatures moderates or 
damps thermal maxima: as summer 
temperatures rise or as more thermal 
wastes are introduced, the loss of heat 
through evaporation is greatly increased. 
Back radiation, on the other hand, is 
virtually independent of temperature and 
thus assumes a higher percentage of heat 
dissipated at progressively lower 
temperatures. 

The greater the exposure of the lake's 
surface to air movements (wind), the 
greater will be the heat dissipation. A 
lake with high banks, banks covered with 
tall trees, or a surface area arranged in 
many coves will not be as efficient a heat 
exchanger as an open lake with a long 



fetch in a flat basin. With other 
conditions being similar, heat loss 
through evaporation is more rapid from 
high-altitude lakes with lower barometric 
pressure than from low-altitude lakes. 
The decrease in evaporation with 
increased salinity makes a brackish-water 
coastal lake a less efficient heat dissipator 
than a freshwater lake and suggests 
reduced heat transfer in cooling lakes in 
which salts have accumulated. 

For heat to be discharged from a lake 
into the atmosphere through any 
dissipating process, the heat must be 
delivered to the surface layers. Since 
convection currents are generally weak 
and since water is a relatively poor heat 
conductor, wind-induced circulation is 
the primary transport mechanism and 
depends largely on lake morphology and 
the exposure of the lake surface to winds. 

Winter ice on lakes virtually 
eliminates evaporation and permits only 
small heat and water losses through 
sublimation. It is, however, of little 
concern in cooling lakes in the Midwest, 
because open water is maintained 
throughout the year by the heated dis- 
charge. 

Heat gains and losses not only 
determine a lake's annual heat budget 
and its effectiveness in dissipating waste 
heat from a power plant, but also impose 
a strong influence on the lake's biological 
systems. Primary and secondary 
production are directly proportional to 
water temperature within the range of 
temperature in which metabolism occurs 
normally. Each organism has an optimal 
temperature for maximal growth as well 
as limits of tolerance for high and low 
temperatures above and below which it 
cannot survive. But the controls of 
biological systems are not restricted to 
temperature alone. 

Stress, whether due to temperature 
extremes or one of the many other 
physical or chemical parameters that 
modify physiological and behavioral 
functions, is relatively simple to detect 
and measure in individual organisms and 
usually can be determined for any 
species, even though each life state may 
have to be considered distinctly. Prob- 



Aug. 1981 



Larimore & Tranquilli: The Lake Sangchris Project 



281 



lems of a much greater complexity are 
encountered in measuring stress in a 
community composed of many kinds of 
organisms of different life stages. For 
instance, a temperature change might 
modify diatom photosynthesis, which 
would alter the forage base of the gizzard 
shad and thus affect the forage base for 
the largemouth bass. Such interactions in 
communities of plants and animals 
should be the primary concerns in 
evaluating environmental disturbances. 
The elevated temperature of a cooling lake 
may impose short-term stresses on an 
individual plankter or fish, but the most 
important consideration is whether such 
stresses cause measurable changes in the 
trophic structure or function of the 
aquatic community. 

Under the stress of an environmental 
disturbance, individual organisms may 
die, adjust (acclimate) to the new 
conditions, or behaviorally adapt by 
moving away. If the natality, mortality, 
metabolism, or longevity is affected, the 
relative abundance, growth rate, or 
behavioral activity, and thus the place of 
that organism in the community, will be 
altered. The environmental modification 
may not only have direct influences on 
the individual of a particular species, but 
can also have a more subtle effect by 
changing an animal's food resources, the 
abundance of its predators, or the 
occurrence of pathogens. From man's 
point of view, changes in the community 
are not necessarily detrimental. An 
attractive sport fish may displace an 
unattractive rough fish, or a species 
entirely new to the community may be 
able to survive and thrive in the modified 
habitat. As an example, the threadfin 
shad, a species with a low temperature 
threshold, may be desirable for man's 
interests because of its value as a forage 
base for sport fishes, whereas other 
species, such as pathogenic fungi or 
protozoa or blue-green algae that thrive 
at elevated temperatures, may be highly 
undesirable. 

Industrial production of waste heat 
has a direct influence on the physical 
systems that function naturally in a lake. 
At Lake Sangchris, the operation of the 



electric generating plant modifies the 
daily and seasonal physical relations men- 
tioned in the preceding paragraphs. 
Discharged heat, impingement of 
organisms on intake screens, entrainment 
of organisms through the pumps and con- 
denser tubes, and water currents produc- 
ed by pumping are the primary opera- 
tional influences at Lake Sangchris and 
at most cooling lakes. 

The quantity of heat discharged and 
the amount of water moving through the 
plant determine the total temperature 
change produced by the electrical 
generating station. Increased pumping 
rates yield reduced temperatures along 
with higher intake velocities and thus 
increase the impingement and entrain- 
ment of aquatic organisms. The higher 
discharge velocities result in greater 
mixing of the heated waters. 

Most industries, and especially power 
plants, have scheduled shutdowns for 
maintenance and unscheduled ones for 
emergency repairs. The continuity of 
plant operations plays an important role 
in the physicochemical characteristics of 
a cooling lake. Effects of a shutdown are 
most drastic during winter, when 
organisms acclimated to warm discharge 
waters suddenly become exposed to much 
colder water as the thermal discharge 
stops but pumping continues to move 
cold water into the system. 

Lake Sangchris experienced many 
shutdowns during the 4-year period of 
study. Although such irregularities 
caused only minor difficulties in the 
interpretation of overall temperature 
effects, sudden changes in waste heat 
discharge did permit observations of the 
most severe thermal conditions. While 
temperature shock may cause mortality 
among aquatic organisms, more often it 
simply modifies the immediate habitat 
and produces subtle behavioral changes 
in the animals. 

THE INQUIRY 

When this investigation began, there 
were many questions regarding the effects 
of thermal discharges and combustion 
byproducts on the fauna and flora of 



282 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 4 



cooling lakes and the lands surrounding 
them. Those questions could most readily 
be answered by careful examination of a 
relatively confined, closed-cycle cooling 
system, such as Lake Sangchris. The 
following is a partial list of questions 
toward which this investigation was 
directed. 

What factors govern water quality in 
a cooling lake ecosystem? 

How is the annual temperature re- 
gime affected by power plant 
operation, and what is the effect 
of the circulation and mixing of 
waters on their physical and 
chemical constituents? 

Is photosynthesis inhibited at high 
temperatures, and do blue-green 
algal forms become dominant? 

What aquatic vciscular plants are pres- 
ent, and how are their distribu- 
tion and biomass affected by the 
thermal discharge? 

Are the phytoplankton and zooplank- 
ton communities in heated and 
unheated areas quantitatively and 
qualitatively similar? 

Is zooplankton production enhanced 
or depressed by the thermal 
effluent, or is normal seasonal 
variation reduced? 

What inhibits benthic production in 
the discharge canal? 

How does the diversity of benthic or- 
ganisms in cooling reservoirs 
compare with that of unheated 
reservoirs in the region? 

Is the life history of the Asiatic clam, 
Corbicula, altered in a cooling 
lake? 

Is the standing crop of fish in cooling 
lakes within the range expected 
for reservoirs of similar size in the 
Midwest? 

How do fish populations respond to 
the thermal effluent — are they 
attracted or repelled — in different 
seasons? 

Will fish travel relatively long 
distances in a thermal gradient to 
select preferred temperatures? 

Does production of fish in cooling 
lakes decline with increasing age 



of the impoundment, as often 
occurs in unheated reservoirs? 

Is fish growth enhanced or depressed? 

Do fish in heated and unheated areas 
of a cooling lake have similar 
feeding habits? 

How does the thermal effluent affect 
the timing of reproduction by 
fishes? 

What effect does the effluent have on 
spatial, temporal, and vertical 
distribution of fish larvae? 

Is the standing stock of fish in the lake 
significantly reduced by impinge- 
ment of individuals on the 
traveling intake screens or by 
entrainment of fish eggs and 
larvae through the condensers? 

Are fish kills common as a result of 
cold shock and/or gas supersatur- 
ation, and are the fishes in cooling 
lakes under stress and thus more 
susceptible to infestation by 
parasites or infection by disease 
organisms? 

Which fish species occur most often in 
the fisherman's catch, in which 
areas and seasons? 

Are catch rates by anglers reduced or 
enhanced by the thermal effluent? 

How are airborne particulates from the 
power plant stack distributed in 
the land and water surrounding 
the generating facility? 

Are heavy metals, such as mercury, 
being magnified as they pass 
through the food chain, and are 
they being concentrated in the 
predatory fish? 

How are the behavior and migration of 
the large numbers of waterfowl 
attracted to cooling lakes altered? 

Do the high transmission lines em- 
anating from power plants 
present hazards to flying birds? 

Are waterfowl that ingest slag ad- 
versely affected, and what is the 
effect on the lake of nutrient 
loading by these large bird 
populations? 

The strength of the Lake Sangchris 
case history lies in the intensive sampling 
program simultaneously carried out over 



Aug. 1981 



Larimore & Tranquilli: The Lake Sangchris Project 



283 



a 4-year period by a team of investigators 
approaching the problems of ecosystems 
by looking at all trophic levels. 

LAKE SANGCHRIS AND THE 

KINCAID GENERATING 

STATION, LOCATION AND 

DEVELOPMENT 

The Kincaid Generating Station is 
located in central Illinois 24 km (15 
miles) southeast of Springfield. It was 
developed by Commonwealth Edison 
Company from 1963 through 1966 to 
supply electricity to northeastern Illinois. 
The plant is adjacent to Peabody Coal 
Company's No. 10 mine, which supplies 
the fuel for steam production. Lake 
Sangchris, constructed to provide cooling 
water for the plant's condenser system, 
was formed by damming Clear Creek, a 
small tributary to the South Fork of the 
Sangamon River. Clear Creek flowed 
from south to north. Above where it was 
dammed the stream was divided into 
three branches, so that the resulting lake 
was composed of three relatively long and 
narrow arms that converged northward 
toward the dam (Fig. 1). 

Over 5,000 ha of land were acquired 
for the plant and its cooling lake. The 
lake covers 876 ha, a 30-m buffer zone 
around the lake comprises approximately 
275 ha, and the company gave the state 
of Illinois 607 ha to be used for recreation 
and wildlife habitat. The plant, slag 
pond (32 ha), and adjacent agricultural 
fields occupy the remaining area. 

THE GENERATING STATION AND 
COOLING SYSTEM 

The Kincaid Generating Station be- 
gan commercial operation in 1967. The 
plant, positioned between the southern 
ends of the western and middle arms of 
Lake Sangchris, is a coal-fired facility 
with two 616-megawatt steam turbine 
units. Water carrying the waste heat is 
discharged 1.5 m below the surface 
through a 4,6-m diameter pipe into a 
canal (1,100 m long and 30 m wide) that 
flows into the middle (discharge) arm of 
the lake. Waste heat is dissipated rapidly 



as the water moves through the middle 
(discharge) arm toward the dam and then 
into the west (intake) arm, a 16.1-km 
(10-mile) course to the plant's cooling 
water intake structure. Condenser 
cooling water is drawn from the lake by 
four pumps, each with a capacity of 
160,000 gpm (10.1 mVsec) or a total 
capacity of 640,000 gpm (40.4 mVsec). 
The intake pumps are located 18.3 m 
below the surface of the lake. A skimmer 
wall prevents the circulation of water 
from the upper 6.1 m of the water 
column (Porak & Tranquilli 1981: Fig. 
2). The intake canal is approximately 6.1 
m.deep, 1,219 m long, and 30 m wide. 

Depending on the plant loading and 
the amount of water being pumped, the 
recirculating water moves through the 
cooling loop in about 11 days. The 
cooling loop constitutes approximately 64 
percent of the lake's area. The eastern 
(control) arm of the lake receives heat 
from the plant only through back 
circulation at its confluence with the 
discharge arm. 

Gross electrical output for the 
Kincaid Generating Station from 
September 1973 through August 1977 
generally showed a dicyclic annual trend 
with peak power output during winter 
and summer and reduced loads during 
autumn and spring (Fig. 2). Two 
exceptions to this generalization occurred 
as a result of scheduled maintenance and 
repair work on one of the two units in the 
winter of 1974-1975 and on both units for 
a 46-day period during the summer of 
1976. Production outages of both units 
for 3 or 4 days at a time were not 
uncommon during the 4-year study 
period (Fig. 2), but outages for more than 
1 week occurred only twice, during the 
summer of 1976 for about 6 weeks and for 
8 days during November 1976. 

While maximum power production 
and a continuous heat load throughout 
the study period would have been the 
most desirable experimental situation, 
the production record of Kincaid 
Generating Station was typical of coal- 
fired units, and the changing power plant 
loading factor may have been more stress- 



284 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 4 




Aug. 1981 



Larimore & Tranquilli: The Lake Sangchris Project 



285 



ful to the biota of the cooling lake than a 
steady load would have been. 

THE LAKE BASIN 

The Lake Sangchris basin is near the 
center of Illinois (Fig. 1), with 89° 29' 
west longitude bisecting the basin that 
extends from 39° 39' north latitude at the 
dam southward to 39° 29' north latitude. 
The 18,880 ha (73 square miles) drainage 
basin lies mostly within northwestern 
Christian County, and only a small 
portion of the basin extends westward 
into Sangamon County. 

The basin is in the northwestern part 
of the Springfield Plain, a physiographic 
province that crosses central Illinois 
southwest of the Shelbyville Moraine. 
The province has a flat to rolling surface 
occasionally incised by shallow valleys. 



Fifteen to 60 m of unconsolidated drift, 
loess, and alluvium overlie Pennsylva- 
nian bedrock (Willman et al. 1967). Two 
major coals, Springfield (No. 5) Coal and 
Herrin (No. 6) Coal, underlie the area. 
Each varies up to 2 m in thickness in that 
area. Herrin Coal is mined for the 
Kincaid Generating Station. 

The soils surrounding the lake proper 
are dark and moderately permeable, 
having developed from moderately thick 
loess. Immediately surrounding the lake 
are three main soil types— Illiopolis silty 
clay loam, Ipava silt loam, and Bolivia 
silt loam — overlain with 2-3 m (7-10 feet) 
of upland loess. Farther south of the lake 
and in the lake's upper drainage basin, 
Herrick silt loam and Virden silty clay 
loam are overlain with about 2 m (5-7 
feet) of loess (Fehrenbacher et al. 1950). 



Aerial view of Kincaid 
Generating Station and the 
disctiarge canal. 




286 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 4 



< 



E 



to 



C3 
■g 
to 
o 



Q. 
0) 

$ 

CO 

o 

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(0001 > A«a/H«l<l N0ll<ll3N3t> SSOIIS 



These are highly productive soib, and 
when properly farmed, are not 
particularly erodable. 

Before inundation the soils of the lake 
basin were light colored and moderately 
permeable and had developed under 
timber vegetation from moderately thick 
loess. Hickory gravelly loam (sides of the 
valley) and Radford silt loam (bottom of 
the valley) constitute the major soil types 
(Fehrenbacher et al. 1950). These soils 
are only moderately fertile and are 
subject to serious erosion. 

Central Illinois, including the 
Sangchris basin, has a typical continental 
climate with sharp seasonal changes, 
including warm summers and cold 
winters (NOAA Environmental Data and 
Information Service 1972 and 1978). 
Average monthly temperatures range from 
25»C in July to - S^C in January (Fig. 3). 
Although the summers are humid, there 
are no distinct wet and dry seasons. Mean 
monthly precipitation varies considerablv. 
as can beseen in Fig. 4 ; it ranges from a little 
over 10 cm in May and June to slightly less 
than 5 cm in January, with an annual 
average of 89 cm. Wind velocities of more 
than 64 km/ hour are not uncommon for 
brief periods in most months, with prevail- 
ing winds southerly during most of the vear 
and northwesterly only in late fall and 
spring. Such winds have a profound 
effect on the stability of the exposed 
waters of Lake Sangchris, which has low 
banks and relatively little tree growth 
along its shoreline. 

THE LAKE 

Lake Sangchris was formed during 
1963-1966 by damming Clear Creek, a 
small tributary of the South Branch of 
the Sangamon River. The stream and its 
tributaries were low gradient and 
collectively had a mean flow of 1.2 
m'/sec (U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency 1975). 

The lake began to fill as the dam was 
being finished, and water reached the 
spillway level (elevation 178.3 m above 
sea level) in June 1966, thus completing 
the 876-ha cooling reservoir. The 



Aug. 1981 



Larimore & TRANquiLLi: The Lake Sangchris Project 



287 



impoundment produced a lake composed ern end at the dam. Only near the dam 
of three narrow arms joined at the north- and in stream channels do depths exceed 




JAN 



FEB. MAR. APR. HAY JUNE JUL. AUG, SEPT, OCT. NOV. DEC. 



Fig. 3. — Mean monthly air temperatures near Lake Sangchris, 1 973-1 977, and for the combined 
40 years before 1973 (labeled MEAN). 



1974 



r20 




CD 

I— 

I— 

D_ 

LU 



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 

JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JUL. AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. 

Fig. 4. — Mean monthly precipitation near Lake Sangchris, 1973-1977, and for the combined 
years before 1973 (labeled MEAN). 



40 



288 Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 

Table 1. — Physical characteristics of Lake Sangchris. 



Vol. 32, Art. 4 



Characteristic 



Measurement 



Surface area 

Maximum depth 

Average depth 

Volume 

Shore length 

Maximum effective length 

Maximum effective width 

Area of drainage basin 

Spillway elevation (msl) 

Mean hydraulic retention time 

Volume development index 

Surfacearea-to-volume ratio 

Shoreline development index 



876 ha (2,165 a) 

13.7 m (45 ft) 

4.6 m (15 ft) 

37.4 X lO'm' (1.320.74 x 10«ft>) 

160 km (93 miles) 

4.950 m (16,240 ft) 

1,170 m (3,840 ft) 

18,880 ha (46,652 a) 

178.31 m (586.0 ft) 

438 days 

1.08 

0.23 m-'(0.07 ft"') 

14.23 



9 m. Although not a deep lake, Lake 
Sangchris has an average depth of 4.6 m 
(Table 1), a depth similar to those of 
many central Illinois reservoirs of 
comparable size. The volume develop- 
ment index, which compares the volume 
of the lake to the volume of a cone with a 
base equal to the area of the lake and a 
height equal to the maximum depth, 
suggests a bowl-shaped basin. The ratio 
between surface area and volume (Table 
1) further suggests a somewhat flattened 
basin. In general, the higher that ratio, 
the greater the cooling capacity of lakes 
of the same volume, since most of the 
heat dissipation is at the water's surface. 

Although Lake Sangchris has a maxi- 
mum effective length of less than 5,000 m 
and a maximum effective width of slight- 
ly over 1,000 m (Table 1) only at the 
dam, the effective exposure to the wind is 
maximized by the long, nearly parallel 
arms of the lake. And, too, the dendritic 
surface arrangement, with a relatively 
high shoreline development value of 
14.23, expressing the relation of total 
shoreline to a circle with a circumference 
equal to the area of the lake, suggests 
protection from straight sweeps of winds. 
In actuality, the fmgerlike arrangement 
of the surface area exposes the waters to 
relatively long fetches, increasing wave 
action and heat exchange with the 
atmosphere. 

The relatively small flow of water 



feeding Lake Sangchris (1.2 m'/sec) 
results in a mean hydraulic retention time 
of 438 days (U.S. EPA 1975). This is a 
very low rate compared with those of 
several nearby reservoirs, such as Lake 
Shelbyville (131 days). Lake Springfield 
(176 days), and Lake Lou Yaeger (121 
days). The low flow through Lake Sang- 
chris not only limits heat dispersal by 
internal currents, compared with such 
heat dispersion in reservoirs with more 
rapid flushing rates, but also virtually 
eliminates loss of heat from the lake by 
discharge over the dam and thus any 
thermal effects on the receiving waters 
below the lake. 

The morphology of Lake Sangchris is, 
if not unique, at least nearly ideal as a 
cooling lake and for thermal studies. It 
permits efficient heat dissipation through 
a relatively long cooling loop, minimizes 
the thermal effects on biological systems 
by having many side coves and an 
unhealed arm, and provides a convenient 
size and arrangment for experimental 
work. 

REFERENCES CITED 

Fehrenbacher. J.B.. R.S. Smith, and R.T. Odeix. 
1950. Christian County soils. University of 
Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station Soil 
Report 73. 64 p. 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion Environmental Data and Information 
Service. 1972. Local climatological data: 
Springfield. Illinois. National Climatic 
Center, Asheville, N.C. 



Aug. 1981 



Larimore & Tranquilli: The Lake Sangchris Project 



289 



. 1978. Local climatological data: Spring- 
field. Illinois. National Climatic Center, 
Asheville, N.C. 
PoRAK, W., and J. A. Tranquilli. 1981. Impinge- 
ment and entrainment of fishes at Kincaid 
Generating Station. Pages 631-655 in R. W. 
Larimore andj. A. Tranquilli, eds., The Lake 
Sangchris study: case history of an Illinois cool- 
ing lake. Illinois Natural History Survey 
Bulletin 32 (4). 



U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1975. 
National eutrophication survey. Report on 
Sangchris Lake. Christian County, Illinois. 
Working Paper No. 314. Corvallis 
Environmental Research Laboratory, 
Corvallis, OR. 15 p. -^ appendices. 

WiLLMAN, H.B., ET AL. 1967. Geologic map of 
Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey, 
Urbana. 



Water Quality in a Cooling 
Water Reservoir 



Allison R. Brigham 



ABSTRACT 

Lake Sangchris is an 876-ha reservoir 
constructed from 1963 to 1966 as a 
cooling water supply for Commonwealth 
Edison's 1 ,232-megawatt coal-fired 
Kincaid Generating Station. Two factors 
govern existing water quality in the lake: 
the operation of the power plant and 
urban and agricultural runoff from the 
watershed. 

The annual temperature regime is 
affected by plant operation as waste heat 
is dispersed and eliminated through the 
lake. More important, however, is the 
beneficial side effect of plant operation 
on water quality: the lake does not 
achieve permanent thermal or chemical 
stratification during summer and winter. 
Because of the circulation and mixing of 
water in the lake induced by plant 
operation, the deleterious effects of 
stratification (anoxic waters; formation 
of decomposition gases, such as ammonia 
and hydrogen sulfide) are uncommon to 
absent. In addition, waste heat is 
dissipated quickly. Generally, 
approximately 70 percent of the added 
heat is lost by the time the water mass has 
flowed halfway around the cooling loop. 

Chemical input to the lake is derived 
primarily from surrounding urban and 
agricultural areas. During periods of high 
surface runoff (spring thaw and following 
heavy rains), turbidity increases in the 
lake. Chemical constituents associated with 
turbidity, such as phosphorus, iron, and 
frequently, organic nitrogen, enter the 
lake chiefly via this route. Urban 
influences are highly localized in the 
southern portion of the east arm of the 
lake and are reflected in slightly elevated 
organic phosphorus concentrations. 



Dr. Allison R Brigham is an Associate Aquatic 
Biologist in the Section of Aquatic Biology, Illinois 
Natural History Survey. 

This chapter submitted in Jan. 1980. 



INTRODUCTION 

Lake Sangchris is an 876-ha 
impoundment surrounded by flat to 
gently rolling agricultural land in 
Christian and Sangamon counties in 
central Illinois (Fig. 1)'. The primary 
purpose associated with the creation of 
Lake Sangchris was to provide adequate 
condenser cooling water for the coal-fired 
Kincaid Generating Station of Common- 
wealth Edison Company, a plant with a 
net generating capacity of 1,232 
megawatts. Maximum cooling water flow 
through the plant is 640.000 gpm, or 
approximately 900 mgd. As water flows 
through the plant, the water temperature 
rises betwen 7° and 10°C. 

Water flow around Lake Sangchris 
follows a circular pattern. The power 
plant is located between the west and 
middle arm's of the lake at the extreme 
southern end adjacent to Illinois Route 
104. Cooling water is taken into the plant 
at the southern end of the west arm, 
pumped through the plant, and 
discharged into the southern end of the 
middle arm. This continuous pumping 
action creates a flow which proceeds 
north along the middle arm to the dam 
area, then south along the western arm of 
the lake to the intake canal, a total 
distance of approximately 16 km. Flow 
time varies from 7 to 11 days, depending 
upon the time of year and the volume of 
plant operation. 

The operation of the Kincaid 
Generating Station is the predominant 
influence upon water quality in Lake 
Sangchris, not only because of the 
additions of waste heat from the 
generation of electricity, but also because 
of the velocity maintained around the 
cooling loop, resulting from the 
operation of the pumps. The 32-month 
water quality study in the lake was 
intended to document baseline conditions 
to support biological investigations and to 



290 



Aug. 1981 



Brigham: Water Quality 



291 




;, LAKE SANGCHRIS 

1/ I I I J 



r 



/ 



Fig. 1. — Location of Lal<e Sangclnris and the water-quality sampling stations. 



determine what, if any, water quality 
problems existed as a result of plant 
operation. 

METHODS 

Stations were selected (1) to 
characterize any potential effect of 
condenser passage upon water quality as 
water flowed around the cooling loop 



[Station 5 (discharge point) to stations 4, 
3, 2, and 1 (plant intake)] and (2) to pro- 
vide a control site potentially unaffected 
by power plant operation (Station 7). 
Locations of the sampling stations appear 
in Fig. 1, Six sites were sampled for 
routine water quality analyses. Stations A 
and B were sampled for water 
temperature and dissolved oxygen 
profiles only. 



292 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 4 



Sampling was conducted at biweekly 
intervals from September 1973 through 
August 1974 and at monthly intervals until 
the termination of field sampling in April 
1976. Approximately 140 water tempera- 
ture and 95 dissolved oxygen profiles were 
recorded from each Lake Sangchris 
station from September 1973 through 
August 1976. 

Sample profiles were collected at all 
stations at these depths from September 
1973 through August 1975: m, 2 m, 5 
m, and 7 or 8 m, stations 1 and 2; m, 5 
m, 10 m, and 12 m, Station 3; m, 2 m, 
and 5 m, stations 4 and 7; and m, and 2 
m, Station 5. The 2-, 7- or 8-, and 12-m 
depths were eliminated for the final 
sampling period (September 1975 
through April 1976). 

Samples were collected with a 4.2- 
liter plastic Kemmerer bottle. Field 
measurements included water temp- 
erature and dissolved oxygen profiles at 
1-m depth intervals, hydrogen ion 
concentration (pH), and free carbon 
dioxide. Laboratory methods are 
summarized in Table 1. Where more 



than one method is described for any 
variable in Standard Methods for the 
Examination of Water and Wastewater, 
13th edition (American Public Health 
Association, American Water Works 
Association, and Water Pollution Control 
Federation 1971), the method used is 
listed in Table 1. For continuity, the 13th 
edition was used throughout the study. 

Statistical analyses were performed on 
the variables which constituted the regu- 
lar biweekly or monthly sampling 
program. Descriptive statistics consisting 
of the number of measurements, mean, 
standard deviation, and minimum and 
maximum values are included in Table 2 
for each sampling station. Model I 
analysis of variance followed by the 
modified Duncan multiple-range test 
(Kramer 1956) were used to assess the 
relationships among variables at stations 
in the lake. In this way it was possible to 
determine whether significant differences 
existed among stations for any variable 
and to demonstrate which stations were 
significantly different. References to 
statistical significance in the text imply 



Table 1 . — Methods and equipment used in analyzing physical and chemical variables monitored 
at Lake Sangchris. 



Variable* 



Method and Equipment 



Water temperature (C) 

Dissolved oxygen 

Free carbon dioxide 

Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) 

Total alkalinity (as CaCOj) 

EDTA hardness (as CaCO,) 

Specific conductance (^tmho/cm at 25 °C) 

Total dissolved ionizable solids (as NaCl) 

Nitrate (as N) 

Nitrite (as N) 

Ammonia (as N) 

Organic nitrogen (as N) 

Total nitrogen 

Chloride 

Total phosphorus (as P) 

Soluble orthophosphate (as P) 

Turbidity (Jackson turbidity units) 

Total iron 

Soluble iron 

Sulfate (as S) 

Organic carbon (total, particulate, dissolved) 

Molybdate- reactive silica (as SiOj) 



Mercury thermometer and thermocouple circuitry 

YSI Model 51 A DO meter 

Titrimetric method and nomographic method 

Sargent-Welch Model PBX meter 

Standard methods with Metrohm autotitrator 

EDTA colorimetric method (autoanalyzer) 

YSI Model SCT meter 

By calculation from specific conductance 

Cadmium reduction method (autoanalyzer) 

Diazotization method (autoanalyzer) 

Modified phenate method (autoanalyzer) 

Total Kjeldahl method (autoanalyzer modified phenate method) 

Sum all forms 

Argentometric method with Metrohm autotitrator 

Stannous chloride method 

Stannous chloride method 

Monitek Model 150 turbidimeter 

Phenanthroline method 

Phenanthroline method 

Turbidimetric method 

Direct injection with Oceanography International carbon system 

Molybdosilicate method 



shown u mg/ 1 except where other uniti are indicated. 



Aug. 1981 



Brigham: Water Quality 



293 



significance at the 0.05 level unless 
another level is specified. 

Logarithmic transformation wfas used 



here for all input data. This treatment 
equalizes variances when variances are 
proportional to the squares of the station 



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294 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 4 



means, typically the case for water 
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296 



Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 



Vol. 32, Art. 4 



tests are that experimental errors be 
independently and normally distributed 
and that variance be homogeneous (data 
are homoscedastic). These assumptions 
are generally invalid for water quality 
measurements, but the regular 
heterogeneity of variance displayed by 
these data may be approximately 
normalized by transformation. 

Model I linear regressions for three of 
the most influential variables (water 
temperature, dissolved oxygen, and 
turbidity) were performed on pooled data 
from stations 1 (0 and 5 m), 3 (0, 5, and 
M) m), 5 (0 m), and 7 (0 and 5 m). In the 
resulting equations, the relationship 
between the two variables in each 
equation is only a functional one. not 
actually a cause-and-effect one. 

Each of the equations in Table 9 
represents the best fit of Y on X. For each 
pair of variables, the linear regression 
and four forms of curvilinear regression 
(Y = a + fe log X; Y = a + b antilog X; 
Y = a + 6 X^ and log Y = a + 6 log 
X) were calculated. Tests of significance 
were performed on each of these 
curvilinear regressions. The five 
equations were compared to determine 
which function of X best accounted for 
the variation in Y. Equations in Table 9 
are significant at the 0.001 level. 



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

HOMOGENEITY IN THE 
WATER COLUMN 

Lake Sangchris is a reasonably 
shallow impoundment: in the main 
channel of the cold-water arm the lake is 
7-10 m deep; in the vicinity of the dam it 
is approximately 15 m deep; the 
warmwater arm, however, is generally 
more shallow, ranging from 5 to 8 m in 
depth. The overall shallowness 
throughout most of the lake combined 
with the velocity created by the flow of 
water through the power plant keep the 
lake water well mixed. With the 
exception of those measured at Station 3, 
5 or fewer of 24 physical and chemical 
variables analyzed demonstrated any 
significant differences (0.05 level) as 
depth varied (Table 3). 

Dissolved oxygen, both as 
concentration and percentage of 
saturation, exhibited significant 
differences with depth at all stations 
except Station 5, the point of discharge 
from the power plant. Concentrations at 
corresponding depths among stations 
were remarkably similar. Even though 
the lake water was well mixed, the photic 
zone was generally less than 2 m deep. 
Conseque