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New Maori Family 



IN the history of the South Pacific the Maori of New Zealand stand out 
as an exceptional people. Not only did they attain excellence in govern- 
ment, in navigation, and in the art of warfare, but — more importantly — 
their achievements in the decorative arts, in music, and in poetry stand as 
enduring reminders of the sophisticated and artistically sensitive society 
they were able to develop in an isolated area of the world. 

During January the Museum will focus on the Maori in a new featured 
exhibit-of-the-month — a life-size reconstruction of a typical family scene in 
a Maori council house in New Zealand shortly after the coming of the white 
man. The exhibit is located in the Museum's Hall of Polynesian and Micro- 
nesian Cultures (Hall F, ground floor, east), which opened earlier this year. 


Artist-preparator Susan 
Schanck works on life- 
size models for new per- 
manent exhibit in Maori 
Council house. 

The exhibits were pre- 
pared under the direction 
of Dr. Roland Force, 
Curator of Oceanic 
Archaeology and Ethnol- 

Photographs, including 
cover, by John Bayalis 
and Homer Holdren. 

Page 2 January 

Set against a patterned background of 
colored woven mats, the reconstructed 
family of seven includes two children, 
who are playing happily on the floor and 
do not seem to mind their lack of cloth- 
ing, in spite of chilly weather. Their 
grandmother sits opposite them smoking 
a carved pipe. Off in the corner grand- 
father is dozing, while another man 
sleeps on a floor mat. Nearby, an im- 
posing Maori chieftain, with face com- 
pletely tattooed, has risen to welcome a 
male visitor. Across the shoulders of 
both men are draped feather capes of ex- 
quisitely blended colors. Around the 
chiefs neck is a valuable hei-tiki — a green- 
stone neck-pendant representing the 
Maori deity, Tiki, the father of mankind. 
The children are playing cat's cradle, a 
game which their pipe-smoking grand- 
mother appears to be enjoying as much 
as they. In the Maori fashion for women, 
grandmother is tattooed only around 
her mouth. Carved feather-boxes, ances- 
tor figures, and a variety of weapons 
complete the interior scene. 

The council house providing the set- 
ting for the family group is nearly 60 feet 
long, 20 feet wide, and 14 feet high in- 
side. It is one of the largest and finest 
on exhibit in the world today. Maori 
council houses more than 25 feet long 
were always exceptional, and very few 
houses of any size have been preserved. 
The council house is also the only one 
now in existence with a completely 

carved front. Incorporated in the entrance design 
are many eye-shaped pieces of abalone shell. 

The Museum's featured exhibit clearly demonstrates 
the universality of the spiral (pitau) in Maori decorative 
art. Supposedly the pitau evolved from the study of 
natural objects (the term is derived from the first un- 
folding fronds of the fern tree). The web of the spider, 
the wave-like markings on sandstone cliffs, and the 
markings on one's thumb, all have been given by the 
Maori as being the original sources on which the 
carver and tattooer based their designs. The spiral is 
everywhere in Maori decorations — in their carved 
houses, in canoe figureheads and stern-posts, and in the 
elaborate tattooing on their faces and hips. The recon- 
structed family group uses authentic examples of 
Maori decorative arts to create a scene that is accurate 
to the most minute detail. 

A Polynesian people, the Maori are believed to have 
been the original inhabitants of New Zealand. Unlike 
many other native peoples of the South Pacific, how- 
ever, the Maori did not die out with the coming of the 
white man. Instead, they have taken their place in the 
economic and social life of the new society that has 
grown up in New Zealand under the British. 

Marilyn K. Jindrich 

January Page 3 




... -arctic;-' 

::■:■:■: im*?-: : . : 


\ etjvjalti*: 


o mm 


SS : v ' m 

z o 

<5 antarctic 



Above: The duration 
of daylight through the 

Upper right: The 

earth in its orbit around 
the sun. 

Right: The course of 
the sun in the sky.sum- 
mer and winter, over 


7 '5A.M. 




THE seasons follow the sun, which reac : 
22, nearly over the southern tip of Fl< i 
December 22, when it is nearly over Rio 
ment of the sun is caused by the tilt of tl 
earth's orbit around the sun. In the north 
sented to the sun's rays for six months of 
from the sun, has its southern winter and si 
is, of course, true during the southern sum 

In the temperate and polar regions the 
it, producing the succession of the seasons: 1 1 
But in the tropics, where the sun is alway 
seasonal changes they are correlated with 
seasons and wet seasons follow each other w 
season stimulates the greater amount of rep 
dry season is very severe, some species als 


Pole and 
it is the 
winter, v 
The Ian. 
pines; fr< 
shore an 
are snow 
few inse< 
are man; 
— also cl 
rows, am 
and squi 


Barro Colorado, in latitude 10°N.: Here the average 
January temperature is 80°F.. There is no spring, sum- 
mer, autumn, and winter based on temperature. Rather, 
January is the end of the wet season and the beginning 
of the dry; only certain trees lose their leaves, but the 
forest floor is carpeted with rustling dead leaves. Balsa 
trees are loaded with vase-like, ivory-colored flowers six 
inches long, and to these come a dozen species of birds — 
parakeets, hummingbirds, tanagers, and honeycreepers 
— monkeys, and insects, to eat flower parts or juices. 
Another big forest tree bears ripe, two-inch nuts with a 
thin, fleshy coating. Raccoon-like coatis and howling 
monkeys climb among the branches, pick the nuts, eat 
off the flesh, then drop the nuts. These are scooped up 
from the ground by agoutis and peccaries. 


The mouth of the Amazon River, in latitude 0° near 
Para (Caripi): It is early January, with cloudless blue 
skies; a sea breeze; the murmur of water on the beach. 
The river bank is masked with lofty walls of green trees, 
and there are many palms. In the clearings are palm- 
thatched huts; beyond are groves of bananas, mango 
trees, cotton, and papayas. Orange trees are loaded 
with blooms, about which hummingbirds whirl. At dusk,, 
moths come to the flowers, and bats emerge from the 
red tiles of the house roofs. In late January, the dry 
season abruptly ends. On the first rainy night tree frogs, 
crickets, goatsuckers, and owls join in a deafening chorus. 
In the daytime, dragonflies swarm and winged ants and 
termites come forth in great numbers. 


Southern Florida, in latitude 23°-2!t° N.: This t: 
average January temperature of 71 °F., with fro 
occasional years and a growing season of 365 d 
the temperate zone concept of summer and wir 
down. It is summer, judging by swallows feedir 
green, wet prairies, the flowers in the gardens, a 
tivity of butterflies and dragonflies. Ocean b; 
fishing continue, but it is late summer or autui: 
time judging by the green vegetables and ripe or 
the shore birds on the beaches; winter, judging 1: 
less cypress and gumbo limbo trees, the need for 
houses for warmth some days; and spring, judj 
nesting of herons. A visitor from the tropics wo ; 
palms and bamboos familiar, would recognize t 
bougainvillaea and hibiscus, caladium and crotc i 


The La Plata River , i 
It is the hottest mont i 
January temperature o 
season for birds, which > 
is past; rheas and tinar 
on the plains; many o 
still here, and will no 
winter home in Brazil 
equator refugees from 
barn swallows, bobolii 
the many sandpipers, a 
of months ago on the v t 
of the pampas, will sta: 


ief Curator, Zoology 

:s farthest point north on June 
I and its farthest point south on 
aneiro. This apparent move- 
fth's axis to the plane of the 
ummer, the North Pole is pre- 
;hf, while the South Pole, away 
nths of darkness. The reverse 

brings warmth and withdraws 
;, summer, autumn, and winter, 
rly overhead, while there are 
mount of rainfall, so that dry 
nsiderable regularity. The wet 
tion and growth, but unless the 
w and reproduce then. 


jtitude 1,2° about halfway between the North 
quator {2,800 and 2,600 miles away) : Here 
le of the coldest month of the northern 
i average January temperature of -f-27°F. 
• is of snow-covered fields, grey leafless 
ak or maple, occasional groves of green 
ands rimmed with leafless shrubs and dead 
Michigan with an ice barrier along the 
ting wind-driven ice fields. Farmsteads 
and plant life is dormant; many birds, a 
d some bats have migrated south. There 
er birds, such as ducks, on Lake Michigan 
ees, woodpeckers in woodlots, tree spar- 
row hawks in the fields. Raccoon, rabbits, 
save trails in the snow, while shrews and 
ive in burrows beneath it. 

eloigned and illustrated by 

• . John pf iff ner , staff artist 


Western Ellesmere Island, in latitude 80°N., about 600 miles 
south of the North Pole: This is the middle of the arctic night, 
where the sun does not appear above the horizon for four 
months, and the depth of the arctic winter, where the aver- 
age winter temperature is —38°. The annual average tem- 
perature is — 4°F., and arctic conditions are extreme. It is a 
country of glacier-topped mountains; bare ridges blown clear 
of snow, exposing rock, gravel, and sparse, scattered, dwarf 
plants; and snow drifts up to 100 feet deep in sheltered 
places. The rivers and lakes are frozen shut, and new ice, 
six feet or more thick, joins the coast with the equally thick 
ice fields covering the polar sea. All the land birds have long 
since departed, as have the many shore and water birds 
which nested in June. Musk ox feed on exposed plants; 
lemmings in burrows under the snow. 


Southampton Island, in latitude 6i°N.: It is midwinter, 
with a temperature average. of -26°F., and extremes of 
— 60° and +32 F. The tundra snow cover varies from a 
few inches to snowbanks 20 feet deep — at most, a few twigs 
of dwarf willow stick up through the snow. Four to eight 
feet of ice cover the lakes, and there is a foot of snow on the 
sea ice which locks fast the shoreline and extends far offshore 
to where waves keep the sea from freezing. The sun comes 
above the horizon for only a short time at midday. Caribou 
and arctic hares feed in the open; lemmings under the snow"; 
seals and white whales at the edge of -the ice. Wolves, arctic 
foxes, weasels, polar bears, ptarmigan, and snowy owls live 
on the land; eiders, murres, and gulls at the open water. The 
female polar bears- bear young in chambers in the snow. 

mtina, in latitude 85° S.: 
e year, with an average 
The peak of the breeding 

September and October, 
ive young following them 
ummer nesting birds are 

back for their southern 
nonth or so. The trans- 
thern winter, such as the 
How-billed cuckoos, and 
irrived in force a couple 
ns and the flooded ponds 
er couple of months. 


The Antarctic Archipelago ("Palmer Land," "Graham 
Land," etc.), in latitude 62°-70° south: The average January 
temperature is 34 'F. This is the middle of the southern 
summer, with a prolonged antarctic day in a land of extreme 
polar conditions. Mountains rise to 10,000 feet, and even 
in summer the snow falls faster than it melts, so that snow 
lies everywhere except on steep slopes. Much of the adja- 
cent sea is covered with pack ice. Vegetation, all low and 
herbaceous, is at a minimum, and the few land invertebrate 
animals are active for but a small part of the year. About 
25 species of birds have been recorded in the archipelago, 
but some, such as the albatrosses, are wanderers from more 
northern latitudes. Some 15 species of birds breed, drawing 
all their sustenance from the sea; these include penguins, a 
cormorant, a sheath bill, skua, a kelp gull, and the antarctic 
tern, which have eggs or young in January. 



Trustees Meet 

At its December meeting, the Board 
of Trustees elected four members to fill 
vacancies on the Board. They are Bow-en 
Blair, investment banker, John M. Simp- 
son, steel executive, John Shedd Reed, 
railroad executive, and Clifford C. Gregg, 
the Museum's Director. 

John Shedd Reed Clifford C. Gregg 

Mr. Blair is a graduate of Yale Uni- 
versity and is a Partner in the firm of 
Wm. Blair & Co. He is a son of Wil- 
liam McCormick Blair, President of The 
Art Institute of Chicago and a member 
of the Museum's Board. 

Mr. Simpson, President of A. M. Castle 
& Co., steel distributors, is a graduate of 
the University of Chicago. He is a son 
of the late James Simpson, who was a 
member of the Museum's Board and 
who contributed the James Simpson 
Theatre to the Museum. 

Mr. Reed is a graduate of Yale Uni- 
versity and of the Advanced Manage- 
ment Program at Harvard. He is Vice- 
President in charge of Finance of the 
Santa Fe Railway. 

Dr. Gregg has been with the Museum 
since 1926 and has been Director since 
1937. He is a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Cincinnati and is a retired Colonel 
in the United States Army Reserve. 

At the meeting, the resignation of 
Clarence B. Randall, Trustee of the Mu- 
seum since 1946, was accepted with re- 
gret. Since his retirement a few years 

Page 6 January 

ago as Chairman of the Board of Inland 
Steel Company, he has been active as an 
economic adviser in the interests of the 
Federal Government. Mr. Randall cited 
the pressure of other duties and his in- 
ability to attend the Board meetings 
as the reasons for his resignation. 

In Memoriam 

Just as the Bulletin was going 
to press, we received word of the death 
on December 13 of Captain A. W. F. 
Fuller of London, England. Captain 
Fuller devoted his life to the assembling 
of what is recognized as the world's fin- 
est collection of Polynesian and other 
Oceanic artifacts. His splendid collec- 
tion came into the possession of the 
Museum in 1958. 

Captain Fuller was devoted not only 
to Oceanic ethnology but became a de- 
voted member of the Museum. His 
splendid assistance in documenting his 
collection and his generosity in present- 
ing to the Museum some especially fine 
pieces he acquired after the purchase of 
his collection caused the Board of Trus- 
tees in January of 1959 to elect him a 
Patron of the Museum. Subsequently, 
he was elected a Contributor, and in 
November 1961 he was elected a Bene- 
factor. His deep interest in the Museum 
and in his collection continued even to 
the hour of his death. His death is a 
blow to the science of ethnology and he 
is deeply mourned. 

Museum Events 

"An Evening of Renaissance and Ba- 
roque Music" — the fourth program in 
the 1961-62 series offered by the Free 
Concerts Foundation, Mrs. J. Dennis 
Freund, sponsor — will be presented on 
Monday, January 8, at 8:15 p.m. in the 
Museum's James Simpson Theatre. 

The program consists of vocal and in- 
strumental solos, and vocal ensembles, 
both accompanied and a cappella, by 
the following musicians: Charles Bress- 
ler, tenor; Huges Cuenod, tenor; Albert 
Fuller, harpsichord; Donald Gramm, 
baritone; Thomas Paul, bass; and Joseph 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 


Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field, Jr. 
Stanley Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insult, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 
William V. Kahler 


Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoc Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
♦Clarence B. Randall 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 


Stanley Field, President 

Hughston M. McBain, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer 

Clifford C. Gregg, Director and Secretary 

E. Leland Webber, Assistant Secretary 


Clifford C. Gregg, Director of the Museum 


Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology 

John R. Millar, Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 

Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 

Marilyn Jindrich, Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

Iadone, lute. Among the composers 
whose works will be heard are Costeley, 
Milan, Monteverdi, Morley, Dowland, 
Couperin, Scarlatti, de Mudarra, and 

For free tickets, please send a stamped, 
self-addressed envelope to the Museum, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago 5. 

On February 3, Free Concerts Foun- 
dation will present an a capella concert 
by the Netherlands Choir, under the 
direction of Felix de Nobel. Tickets will 
be available after the concert on Janu- 
ary 8. 

The Chicago Chamber Orchestra, 
under the direction of Dr. Dieter Kober, 
will present a series of nine free concerts 
in the Museum's James Simpson Thea- 
tre on selected Sunday afternoons from 

January through May. The complete 
list of dates is as follows : January 7 and 
21, February 25, March 4 and 18, April 
1, 15, and 29, and May 13. On Janu- 
ary 7 will be heard the Suite No. 3 in D 
by Bach, Haydn's Symphony No. 60 in 
C, and Franz Waxman's Sinfonietta for 
String Orchestra and Timpani. On Jan- 
uary 21 the program will include the 
Suite No. 2 in B by Bach, Mozart's An- 
dante for Flute (K. 315), Wagner's 
Adagio for Clarinet and Strings, and the 
Chicago premiere of Bernard Heiden's 
Concerto for Small Orchestra. Admis- 
sion is free and without ticket. Complete 
program information for this series of 
Museum concerts, as well as a schedule 
of the orchestra's other appearances, 
may be obtained from the Chicago 
Chamber Orchestra Association, 332 S. 
Michigan Ave., Chicago (HA 7-0603). 

On Sunday, January 28, the Illinois 
Audubon Society continues its wildlife 
film-lectures with "Nova Scotia — Land 
of the Sea," by Robert C. Hermes. This 
color motion picture records a visual 
journey through the spruce and hem- 
lock forests in Canada's lovely province- 
by-the-sea. J The lecturer follows a tiny 
stream from its woodland source to the 

Atlantic, where time-lapse photography 
focuses on the Minas Basin tides and the 
changing patterns of oceanic life. The 
free film will be presented at 2 :30 p.m. in 
the Museum's James Simpson Theatre. 

The deadline for entries in the 17th 
Chicago International Exhibition of Na- 
ture Photography is January 15. The 
exhibit of photographic work will be 
presented in the Museum from Febru- 
ary 3 through 18, with showings of slides 
in the James Simpson Theatre on Feb- 
ruary 4 and 11 at 2:30 p.m. Photogra- 
phers wishing to enter the exhibition may 
obtain entry forms from Frank Pfleger, 
exhibition chairman, 2347 Harvey Ave- 
nue, Berwyn. 

Staff' Changes 

Dr. Joseph Curtis Moore is joining 
the staff of the Museum on January 1 , 
1962, as Curator of Mammals. Dr. 
Moore attended the University of Ken- 
tucky and received a doctorate at the 
University of Florida. He spent several 
years with the National Park Service in 
the capacity of Park Biologist at the 
Everglades National Park. He is also 
a Research Fellow of the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History in New York. 

Dr. Moore has been a prolific writer of 
both scientific and popular reports in 
the fields of his interest. 

Mr. Philip Hershkovitz, who has been 
Curator of Mammals at the Museum 
since January 1, 1956, and served as 
Assistant Curator and Associate Curator 
since March, 1 947, will become Research 
Curator of Mammals. In this capacity 
he will be able to devote more time to 
the studies he has been conducting. 

Mrs. Dorothy Gibson, secretary in the 
Department of Botany, has been ap- 
pointed Assistant in that department. 
Her appointment comes as the result of 
contributions she has made to botanical 
research while in the service of the Mu- 
seum. Since joining the Museum's staff 
in 1958 she has acquired, through out- 
side study and through working with 
the herbarium, a basic knowledge of 
systematic botany. Studying plants has 
long been an avocation of Mrs. Gib- 
son. Her extensive collections from 
her native state of Kentucky have been 
deposited in the Museum's herbarium, 
and formed the basis for her "Life Forms 
of Kentucky Flowering Plants," pub- 
(Continued on next page) 




No, the peculiar animal pictured is not a dinosaur or even a " living fossil" that has survived from some prehistoric age. It is a 
pangolin, an ant and termite-eating mammal found in Southwest Africa and parts of Asia. Most pangolins grow 15 or 16 inches long, 
excluding the tail, although a few giants have been known to reach the size of a small sheep. The most striking feature of the animal's 
appearance are the horny, overlapping scales that cover all but the under part of the body. It has been claimed that the scaly plating of a 
mature pangolin is so strong and streamlined that it will ward off a .303 bullet fired point blank from a distance of 100 yards. When 
forcefully snapped together, these scales are said to be capable of cutting off the paws of an attacking animal. Small wonder that African 
Bushmen and other native tribes use the scales as charms. The pangolin' s strong front claws, which extend backward as it walks, are 
well adapted for digging into and breaking open the hard mud nests of termites so that the mammal may extend its sticky foot-long tongue 
into the nests' tunnels to scoop up their inhabitants. A pangolin may be seen in Hall 18 during January and February. MKJ 

January Page 7 

lished recently in The American Midland 

The retirement at the close of the year 
of Emil Sella, Curator of Exhibits in the 
Department of Botany, is announced 
with regret. Mr. Sella joined the staff 
of the Museum in 1922 as a glassblower 
and preparator in the Stanley Field 
Plant Reproduction Laboratory of the 
Museum. He advanced over the years 
to Chief Preparator of botanical exhibits 
and in 1947 was appointed Curator of 
Exhibits in the Department of Botany. 
Hundreds of plant models at the Muse- 
um bear silent testimony to his unusual 
ability and skill in reproducing in per- 
manent form a wide variety of plants. 

Mr. George Langford, Curator of Fos- 
sil Plants, also retired at the end of the 
year. Mr. Langford came to the Mu- 
seum in 1949 after his retirement from a 
business career. A native of Denver, 
Colorado, he graduated from Sheffield 
Scientific School of Yale University in 
1897. His great interest in the coal fos- 
sils in the strip mine areas of Wilming- 
ton, Illinois, and his general interest 
both in paleontology and certain phases 
of anthropology brought him to the 
Museum first as a volunteer and later 
as a staff member. 

Dr. C. Earle Smith, Jr., Associate 
Curator of Vascular Plants, resigned at 
the end of the year to accept employ- 
ment with the United States Department 
of Agriculture. He will be stationed at 
Beltsville, Maryland. Dr. Smith joined 
the staff of the Museum in January of 
1959 and has been interested especially 
in tropical vegetation. 

1877 — 1961 

Dr. B. E. Dahlgren, Curator Emeritus 
of Botany, died of a heart attack at his 
home on December 16, 1961. This ended 
a varied career that began with emigra- 
tion from his native Sweden to the United 
States when he was in his teens. After 
receiving his degree from the University 
of Minnesota, Dr. Dahlgren engaged in 
the practice of orthodontic dentistry in 
New York City at the turn of the cen- 
tury. His studies of the comparative 

Page 8 January 

anatomy of the mammalian palate led 
to use of the collections at the American 
Museum of Natural History, and subse- 
quently to an interest in problems of 
museum exhibition. Employing some 
of the materials and techniques of me- 
chanical dentistry, Dahlgren constructed 
models of invertebrate animals, includ- 
ing insects, that were superior to any 
known at the time. Eventually he gave 
up the practice of dentistry and became 
a staff member at the American Museum. 

In 1909, Dr. Charles W. Millspaugh, 
the Museum's first Curator of Botany, 
with the support of Mr. Stanley Field, 
President, induced Dahlgren to become 
head of the department's Division of 
Modeling. In 1935 Dr. Dahlgren be- 
came Curator of Botany, a title that was 
changed the following year to Chief 
Curator of Botany. 

Under his direction a program of bo- 
tanical exhibition was begun that re- 
sulted in the famed Stanley Field Col- 
lection of Plant Models and botanical 
exhibits considered to be the finest any- 
where. Among the most spectacular of 
these is the restoration of a Carbonifer- 
ous forest on display in Hall 38 of the 
Museum. Illustrations of this restora- 
tion have appeared in most textbooks of 
geology published since the completion 
of the exhibit. 

Dr. Dahlgren was an authority on wax 
palms and conducted a number of bo- 
tanical collecting expeditions to Jamai- 
ca, British Guiana, Brazil, and Cuba. 

Scientific Meetings and Honors 

The government of Guatemala has 
honored two former staff members of 
Chicago Natural History Museum for 
scientific work accomplished relating to 
that country. On September 15, Dr. 
Julian Steyermark received Guatemala's 
"Order of the Quetzal" from the Guate- 
malan government at Caracas, Vene- 
zuela. The same honor was bestowed 
on Mr. Paul C. Standley at Tegucigalpa, 
Honduras, on October 11, 1961. The 
honors were bestowed in recognition of 
the scientific studies of these botanists on 
the flora of Guatemala. 

Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator of Insects, 
has returned from a trip to the Canal 
Zone where he worked and conferred 
with Major Vernon J. Tipton, U. S. 

Army. Wenzel and Tipton are writing 
a paper on the batflies of Panama. The 
study is part of a U. S. Army-sponsored 
research program directed by Major 
Tipton, who is Chief of the Environ- 
mental Health Branch of the Division 
of Preventive Medicine, U. S. Army 

Dr. Paul S. Martin, Dr. Donald Col- 
lier, Dr. Roland W. Force, Mr. Phillip 
H. Lewis, and Mr. George I. Quimby, 
all of the Department of Anthropology, 
recently attended annual meetings of the 
American Anthropological Association 
in Philadelphia. Mr. Lewis presented a 
paper on "Comparison of Art of Primi- 
tive and Civilized Societies." His mono- 
graph, A Definition of Primitive Art, has 
just been published by the Museum Press 
(Fieldiana: Anthropology, Vol. 36, No. 
10; 21 pages, 5 illustrations; 50c). At 

Effigy hanger, New Guinea. Illustration from 
"A Definition of Primitive Art" 

the meetings, Dr. Force discussed "The 
Concept of Process and the Study of 
Cultural Change." Dr. Force is now 
en route to his new post as Director of 
the Bernice P. Bishop Museum in Hono- 
lulu, Hawaii. 





New Director Chosen 

The Board of Trustees of Chicago 
Natural History Museum, at its January 
meeting, elected a new Director, a new 
President, and a new Chairman of the 

E. Leland Webber Stanley Field 

Mr. Stanley Field, who has served 
as President of the Museum since 1909, 
was relieved of that duty at his own 
request and elected to the new position 
of Board Chairman. During his 53 years 
as President, the Museum developed in- 
to an institution of worldwide reputa- 
tion, known for its scientific research 
and its outstanding collections. It is 
worthy of note that Museum attendance 
in 1909 was 209,170 against 1,307,567 
in 1961. Expenditures in 1909 were 
$312,934.98 compared with approxi- 
mately $1,500,000 in 1961. In his new 
capacity, Mr. Field will continue to be 
intimately associated with the work of 
the Museum which has made such phe- 
nomenal progress under his direction. 

The new Director is Mr. E. Leland 
Webber, who joined the staff of the 
Museum in 1 950. After serving as Exec- 
utive Assistant to the Director, he was 
appointed Assistant Director in 1960. 
He has been active in the American 
Association of Museums and the Mid- 
west Museums Association. He is also 
a member of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, and 
the Association of Science Museum Di- 
rectors. Mr. Webber lives in Wilmette, 
Illinois, with his wife and three children, 
and has been active in community and 
church affairs. 

He succeeds Clifford C. Gregg, who 
has been Director of the Museum since 

Page 2 February 

1937 and who was elected President of 
the Museum, succeeding Mr. Field. 

Free Lectures and Films 

The Museum's 1962 spring series of 
illustrated travel lectures for adults will 
begin with a film trip to Mandalay on 
March 3, followed on March 10 by a 
motion picture excursion to Germany. 
Travel-lecturer for "The Road to Man- 
dalay" is William Moore, with Gordon 
Palmquist — a familiar lecturer on the 
stage of James Simpson Theatre — pro- 
viding the narrative for "Germany." 
The complete schedule for the spring 
travel lectures will be announced in the 
March Bulletin. The programs to be 
presented each Saturday during Marcn 
and April begin at 2:30 p.m. Reserved 
seats in the James Simpson Theatre will 
be held for Museum Members until 
2:25 p.m. 

The Saturday morning programs for 
children will also be listed in the March 
Bulletin. They begin on March 3 at 
10:30 a.m. in the James Simpson The- 

"Once Around the Sun," a motion 
picture-lecture explaining why the sea- 
sons change, the tides ebb, and the days 
turn to night, is the February 18 pro- 
gram of the Illinois Audubon Society's 
current wildlife film series. The pro- 
gram begins at 2 : 30 p.m. in James Simp- 
son Theatre. 

Free Choral Concert 

The Netherlands Chamber Choir, di- 
rected by Felix de Nobel, will be pre- 
sented in James Simpson Theatre by the 
Free Concerts Foundation on Wednes- 
day, February 7, at 8:15 p.m., in a con- 
cert of a cappella music dating from the 
16th Century to the present. (The date 
has been changed to February 7 from 
February 3, as listed in last month's 
Bulletin.) The choir will sing selec- 
tions by Morley, Farmer, di Lasso, Bar- 
ber, Ravel, and others. Free tickets may 
be obtained by sending a stamped, self- 
addressed envelope to Free Concerts, 
Chicago Natural History Museum, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive (5). 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 


Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field, Jr. 
Stanley Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 

J. Howard 

William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Louis Ware 


Stanley Field, Chairman of the Board 

Clifford C. Gregg, President 

Hughston M. McBain, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer 

E. Leland Webber, Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith, Assistant Secretary 



E. Leland Webber, Director of the Museum 


Pau! S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology 

John R. Millar, Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 


Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 

Marilyn Jindrich, Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

Nature Photo Exhibition 

Nature photographs from all over the 
world will be on display in Stanley Field 
Hall February 3 through 18 in the 17th 
Chicago International Exhibition of Na- 
ture Photography. Sponsored jointly by 
the Museum and the Nature Camera 
Club of Chicago, the exhibition is the 
largest in the world devoted to nature 
photography, and comprises several hun- 
dred of the best of more than three thou- 
sand entries. The entries include both 
color and black-and-white prints, and 
color slides of scenic and unusual natural 
phenomena, plant life, and animal life 
photographed by both amateur and pro- 
fessional photographers. The exhibi- 
tion's most outstanding slides will be 
shown in James Simpson Theatre on 
February 4 and 1 1 (Sundays) at 2 :30 p.m. 

February's Featured Exhibit 

In a world full of strange and curious 
things, the cannonball tree ranks high 
on the scale of the unusual among trop- 
ical trees. It is native to Guiana, the 
general region of northeastern South 
America, where it grows as a tall forest 
tree. A few examples have been estab- 
lished in Florida, one at the Fairchild 
Tropical Garden in Coconut Grove and 
another in the garden of the Royal Palm 
Hotel, Fort Meyers. The name "can- 
nonball" derives from resemblance of 
the reddish brown, six to eight-inch 
spherical fruits to old-time, rusty artil- 
lery shells. 

The tree bears large, showy flowers 
with five to seven fleshy petals colored 
crimson on their inner surfaces. The 
crimson color blends to white at the base 
of the petals where they surround a pe- 
culiar hood-like structure bearing two 
sets of stamens. Numerous short sta- 
mens cover a flat disc at the center of 
the flower while a fleshy, white, re- 
curved extension of the disc terminates 
in an equally numerous set of larger, 
tentacle-like stamens. Large black bum- 
ble-bees that seem to be the principal 
pollinators thus are dusted top and bot- 
tom with pollen as they force their way 
under the hood. Flowers and fruits are 
borne on pendulous branches located on 
the lower part of the trunk well below 
the leafy crown of the tree. These 
branches, gnarled and woody as they 
seem, are appendages of the inner bark 
and are not united with the wood of the 
tree trunk. 

The cannonball tree is ornamental but 
otherwise of no importance to man, 
whereas some of its botanically close rel- 
atives, the Brazil-nut and monkeypot 
trees, the tauary tree, and Colombian 
mahogany serve utilitarian purposes. 
Brazil nuts of commerce are obtained 
from wild trees of the Amazonian forest. 
The angular seeds are contained in thick- 
shelled globular fruits gathered from the 
forest floor after they have fallen natur- 
ally from high in the leafy crown of the 
giant Castanheira do Brasil (Brazilian 
chestnut tree). The tauary tree is the 

The Cannonball Tree 

John R. Millar, Chief Curator of Botany 

source of a bark cloth similar to tapa and 
was used by South American Indians. 
So-called Colombian mahogany is one 
of the numerous substitutes for true ma- 
hogany (Swietenia mahogani). 

The name "monkeypot" refers to the 
form of the fruit, which comes in a vari- 
ety of sizes and shapes, from the giant 
monkeypot, which looks like a scallop 

squash with an opening and lid on one 
end, to others known as monkey's drink- 
ing cups, vases, and so forth, with stop- 
pered openings. The name "monkey- 
pot" may be fanciful, like Lovers' Leap, 
or Jacob's Ladder, or perhaps there is 
truth in the travelers' tales that when a 
monkeypot is baited with sugar a mon- 
{Continued on page 7) 

February Page 3 

Dr. Robert L. Flemin 

Museum Field Associate 

Reports on 

a 1960-61 








Katmandu ~- 

» tT- 



^•^ >»Ghost Lai 

E P & 

1 N D 

1 A V 




Initial Planning 

Early in 1960, while I was in the 
United States, 1 Dr. Clifford G. Gregg, 
Director of Chicago Natural History 
Museum, asked me, as a member of the 
Museum staff living in Katmandu, 
whether I would represent the Museum 
on a forthcoming expedition to the Hi- 
malayas. The expedition was being 
planned by the World Book Encyclo- 
pedia and would be under the direction 
of Sir Edmund Hillary. My particular 
job would be to collect birds and small 
mammals for the Museum. Since my 
vacation was due and I would be return- 
ing to Katmandu from the United 
States in less than a month, I accepted. 

Two weeks later I was jetting to the 
Orient. Plans for the World Book En- 
cyclopedia Scientific Expedition to the 
Himalayas had taken definite shape. 
The major effort would be a study by 

1 Dr. Fleming is representative of the Board 
of World Missions of the Methodist Church 
and Superintendent, Katmandu Area, United 
Mission to Nepal. Readers of the Bulletin 
will remember his article on "The Changing 
Seasons in Nepal" (March, 1960). 

Page i February 

a group of medical men as to the effect 
of altitude on the human body and the 
scaling, without oxygen, of Makalu, the 
world's fourth highest mountain. A sec- 
ond purpose of the expedition would be 
to prove or disprove the existence of the 
"yeti." The third part of the expedition 
would be my work for Chicago Natural 
History Museum. 2 Chief Curator Rand 
outlined a rough program for me : to en- 
list the assistance of several Nepalese 
helpers for my collecting, and to choose 
my own time and area of operation in- 
dependently of Sir Edmund Hillary's 

Planning Our First Expedition 

To make the most of our trip, it 
would be necessary to select men who 
would work well together. I therefore 
conducted four short trial camps near 
Katmandu at various altitudes to 6,000 
feet. Six of us took part in these camps 
— two Americans and four Nepalese. 

2 A grant from the World Book Encyclope- 
dia to the Museum made possible this phase 
of the expedition's work. 

Later we added a Scottish doctor. I 
discovered that these men, despite their 
varied backgrounds, acted as a team. 

One must always keep the weather 
factor in mind when arranging a field 
trip in Nepal. When we made our 
first trial camp in September, the weather 
was wet and miserable. We remained 
at that camp just long enough to be bit- 
ten by mosquitoes; and later two of us 
came down with malignant malaria — a 
fumbling start. We decided that we 
could do better work at less health risk 
in the bright, clear days of fall. Since 
November is our driest month, we fixed 
on that time to set out. 

First, however, we had to furnish sev- 
eral different government departments 
with a complete listing of our proposed 
routes, fire arms, and plans in order to 
secure their formal permission to trek 
through the country. One always needs 
extra time when seeking such permits 
because there are 142 holidays a year in 
Katmandu. When you least expect it, 
you are likely to find an office closed and 
to be told to come back bholi (tomor- 


I B E T 

it Everest 

» / 

Biratna^ar^.— ' 






row). Then you had better check to see 
whether "tomorrow" isn't another of the 
142 holidays. 

Along the Everest Trail 

On November 2 we began our first ex- 
tended trip. Our goal was an area east 
of Katmandu and south of Mount Ev- 
erest. After being driven by car the first 
eighteen miles on our way out of the 
city, the road tapered off and we set out 
on foot. Our equipment was carried by 
porters. Ordinary travelers cover about 
eight miles a day in this fashion, and 
this rate suited us. At night we camped 
by streams in the woods, and we ate the 
food our cook prepared from stores we 
carried or purchased at markets and tea 
houses along the way. After several days 
of such travel (during which two of our 
porters crept away during the night and 
had to be replaced by local men), we 
crossed the rim of a wide valley and 
there, off to the northeast, glimpsed the 
top of the mighty Everest. It was 
crowned with a snow plume that glowed 
with warm pink in the fading sunlight. 
A memorable conclusion to a day's trek 

in the Himalayas! 

On the following day we were up in 
the chilly grey dawn to cross a river on 
a suspension bridge that had seen better 
days. Beyond it, we put out our mam- 
mal traps and admired a flight of thirty 
or forty Kestral falcons. Over the next 
ridge we could see the hills running into 
the high country, the land of the Sher- 
pas, but Everest was not our aim, so we 
soon turned off the trail toward the hills 
on the northeast. Here the Swiss have 
built several model cheese-making in- 
stallations. We pitched our tent on a 
grassy knoll beside one of their "fac- 
tories," and were invited to tea by the 
Swiss, sampled their cheese, inspected 
their wooden-shingled houses, their cow 
and buffalo stalls, and the kiln where 
they make bricks. Among all these signs 
of civilization we saw a score of men 
working on the building of an air strip 
where shortly before there had been only 

It was good to stop here for a bit and 
have time for collecting, instead of hav- 
ing to snatch specimens as we traveled. 
The children had a young civet for a 
pet, and the villagers brought us an 
adult specimen for the Museum. There 
were a few jackals about, and a field of 
millet was being devoured by rats. In 
a scrub jungle we found more of the 
birds we wanted, especially a red-headed 
babbling thrush and the elusive snow 

In the High Country 

Later we climbed toward the Swiss 
milk collecting stations located at vari- 
ous altitudes from 1 1,600 to 12,600 feet. 
As we left the trees behind and made our 
way through masses of rock, we passed 
lovely, large orchids overhanging the 
cliffs along the trail. We found where 
the Kansu rose finch sheltered under 
overhanging rocks above the "Lake of 
Ghosts" (Bhoat Pokhari), and we saw 
the little mouse-hares, relatives of the 
Rocky Mountain pika, pop out of their 
burrows between the rocks when the sun 
warmed the chilly hillside. At these 
heights, white clouds stretched below us 
for miles toward the southwest. 

In the forest fringing a ridge at 10,500 
feet there were laughing thrushes, gros- 
beaks, and rose finches. Blood pheasants 
clucked from the bamboo thickets a bit 

lower down. Along the base of steep 
cliffs at still lower altitudes lived serow 
and musk deer; and we also saw the 
holes of shrews and voles among the 
undergrowth. At one point we halted 
to watch a dozen brilliant Impeyan 
pheasants digging for tubers under the 
evergreen trees. 


Before returning to Katmandu we 
decided to stay a few days at Bigu. A 
new batch of porters led us toward the 
town on a much more difficult route 
than was necessary — -after hacking our 
way through the jungle for nearly a day, 
we reached the well-trodden road we 
should have taken all along. We found 
compensation, however, in being able to 
buy fresh oranges off the tree for one 
pice (M c ) apiece. 

Reaching Bigu on Thanksgiving Day, 
November 24th, we immediately began 
to explore the surrounding countryside. 
And here we made a real discovery — 
the honey guide. Although the Hima- 
layan honey guide — a small, dull bird 
related to woodpeckers — is largely un- 
known, its African counterpart is known 
to be a social parasite. Some of them 
eat beeswax, and at least one African 
species guides humans to bee trees so 
that the men will open the wild hives 
and the birds can eat a share of the wax. 
In about the third century A.D., a Chi- 
nese scholar, Chang Hua, had ascribed 
similar habits to the Asiatic honey guide. 
Now, seventeen centuries later, I was to 
confirm his observations as being true, 
also, of the Himalayan species. 

It came about this way. Near Bigu, 
the villagers told us that they had been 
collecting honey near the cliffs. As we 
approached the place by a narrow path 
winding down beside the cliffs, our bird 
boy, Sagar Rana, who had gone on 
ahead, ran back to us from the bee 
combs. "The men showed me where 
they have been scraping the wax off the 
rocks," reported Sagar, "and there was 
a bird upside down on a comb!" The 
honey guide at last, with its stomach 
crammed full of wax. That evening we 
celebrated our find with a complete 
Thanksgiving Day dinner of curried 
chicken, generously furnished us by the 
head man of the local village. 
{Continued on next page) 

February Page 5 

Here, near the bee cliffs, there was an 
important change in the people. On 
the lower terraces, the villagers had been 
Nepalese-speaking Hindus. On these 
upper hillsides lived Tibetan-speaking 
Buddhists, each with his own neat little 
house fronted by a fluttering prayer flag. 
On one of the upper levels of the village 
was a well-constructed gompa, its central 
portion elaborately decorated with scenes 
from Buddha's life, while on either side 
were separate living quarters for nuns 
and monks. 

At Bigu the medical man of our party 
was very busy. There was no other 
medical aid in the town, and almost half 
the population crowded around the doc- 
tor's tent wanting to be examined and 
to receive medicines. 

Return to Katmandu 

The route from Bigu back to Kat- 
mandu led over a 10,000 foot pass. With 
four weeks of mountain trekking behind 
us, we were able to cover greater dis- 
tances each day. Soon we were down to 
an altitude of 2,700 feet and had a real 
bath in a warm valley stream. The next 
day we met Doctors West and Ward of 
the Hillary expedition; they and their 
sherpas were washing in the river when 
we arrived. They were away very early 

next morning, carrying extremely bulky 
packs. "Getting acclimatized," they 
called it. We set off in the opposite 
direction and soon reached the motor 
road, where we intercepted a truck 
headed for Katmandu. We were now 
"acclimatized," ourselves, to hard trav- 
eling, and as we covered the last eighteen 
miles of our thirty-mile trip that day, we 
enjoyed watching a full yellow moon rise 
and flood the dark hills with pale light. 
Altogether, we had had a wonderful 
experience among the Himalayan hills. 

Eastern Nepal 

Our attention now shifted to far east- 
ern Nepal. This is an area from which 
we have little data concerning birds, and 
from which many new records were to 
be expected. Our party decided, there- 
fore, to spend part of February and most 
of March in the Ham area on the Sikkim 
border near Darjeeling. Accordingly, six 
of us, along with 800 pounds of luggage, 
flew from Katmandu to Biratnagar, the 
taking-off place for our second expedi- 
tion, on February 12, 1961. 

Touring the Terai 

From Biratnagar, we traveled for 45 
miles eastward in two buffalo carts, mak- 
ing about nine miles a day. We passed by 

cultivated fields, jolted through forests, 
and crossed sixteen rivers. How different 
from the birds of the hill country were 
those of the tropical terai: rails and lap- 
wings, bitterns, herons and egrets, terns 
and black-necked storks of the streams 
and marshes were especially conspicuous. 
One day we found the den of an Indian 
fox and watched the young ones gambol- 
ing and basking. At Jhapa, a town with 
a fairly good bazaar but a limited supply 
of food for sale, we camped in the court- 
yard of a temple where all night long 
devotees rang a temple bell when they 
came to pray. Then we turned north to 
the hill country and Ham. 

One village, Santali, interested us par- 
ticularly, for its people were in India be- 
fore Dravidian times (4,000 B.C.) and 
long before the Aryans came (1,500 
B.C.). Part of their fare still comes from 
the wild, for while skirting one reedy 
swamp, we met three Santal boys armed 
with bows and arrows and aided by five 
hunting dogs, each with a bell on its 
neck. The boys had a string of birds: a 
hawk, crane, water hen, kingfisher and 
shrike that they would have for supper. 


A disagreement arose that evening 
{Continued on next page) 

What Is It? 

These horn-shaped objects are known to have been fashioned 
from a variety of materials, such as silver, cloisonne, and tortoise 
shell. The ones in our photograph are of silver and are shown 
at about actual size. Here is a hint. Among the Chinese upper 
classes before the present regime, these objects were a minor, 
but effective, status symbol. 

What are they? . . . They're fingernail guards, worn to protect 
the long fingernails, sometimes several inches in length, that 
symbolized the freedom from manual labor enjoyed by the old 
Chinese leisure classes. Several fine examples of fingernail pro' 
tectors were photographed recently when exhibits in the hall of 
Chinese ethnological materials were dismantled in connection 
with plans now under way to reconstruct the hall completely 
during the coming year. 

Page 6 February 

The Cannonball Tree 

{Continued from page 3) 

.'« : *-^*^*k! 

Also exhibited in Hall 29, near the cannonball tree are other members of 
the monkeypot family. Shown here are the fruits of some of them. The 
name "monkeypot" refers to the form of the fruit, which comes in a variety 
of sizes and shapes, many with stoppered openings. 

key may stick his head in the opening, 
not be able to withdraw it and thus may 
be caught. Or, in another version, when 
a monkey clutches a handful of nuts in 
the interior of a monkeypot, he may not 
be able to withdraw his clenched hand, 
his greed being so great that he will not 
release the nuts even at the risk of being 
caught. At any rate, the "paradise nuts" 
produced by various species of Lecythis 
(the monkeypots) are deemed superior 
in flavor to Brazil nuts; but because the 
fruits lose their "lids" or "stoppers" 
while still on the tree, the seeds or "nuts" 
scatter over the ground and are labori- 
ous to gather, and hence scarce on the 

A full scale reproduction of the lower 
trunk of a cannonball tree may be seen 
in Martin A. and Carrie Ryerson Hall 
of Plant Life (Hall 29, second floor, east), 
opposite the entrance to the Hall of For- 
eign Woods (Hall 27). Other members 
of the monkeypot family may be seen in 
Case 860 near the south end of Hall 29. 

{Continued from preceding page) 

when I proposed camping in a forest 
clearing. Our cartmen strongly disa- 
greed — tigers might attack and kill their 
buffaloes ! But camp we did, despite pan- 
ther and tiger tracks in the sand. As the 
camp went up, the men scurried around 
to find wood and in a few minutes had 
assembled the impressive amount of fuel 
needed to keep a fire going all night. 
Perhaps it was just as well, for the mon- 
keys woke us with alarm calls at mid- 
night, and we heard a panther begin its 
deep-throated "wood sawing" calls at 
minute-and-a-half intervals. At that mo- 
ment, the walls of the tent seemed aw- 
fully thin! The next morning, a man 
from a nearby village reported that one 
of his goats had been killed and eaten 
during the night, and that the carcass of 
one of his pigs was hanging from a fork 
in a forest tree. Probably buffalo meat 
was too tough for the panther, which was 
fortunate for us ! 

In a few days we left our cartmen and 
hired porters and horses for the journey 
farther north. Quickly we left the plains 
behind and started a gentle climb. There 
were small streams and thick, tropical 
forests full of bamboo, tangled vines, and 
tall trees. As we approached Ham, we re- 

called that much of the country nearby 
used to be covered with pines, but not 
a single pine now remains. Well built 
homesteads, cultivated fields, and exten- 
sive terraces of tea bushes now are the 
rule here. The country is one of the most 
advanced in Nepal. Every mile or so one 
finds a village or town. 

A Forest Camp 

We continued to climb rolling hills, 
each one higher than the one preceding. 
After being entertained with tea and a 
radio program by the leading Brahman 
of one town, a guide was furnished to 
take us to a suitable camping place in 
the forest. Here we stayed eight days. 
The ravines were filled with clouds at 
times; cliffs towered overhead. To the 
south, the slopes were dry and grassy. 
On the northern slopes, however, much 
of the forest remained and the ground 
was covered with moss and ferns. Large 
sprays of yellow-green orchids hung from 
the trees above our camp and water 
rushed loudly below us. Small birds 
were plentiful, but one of the most im- 
portant specimens — the Myxornis, a 
bright green, sparrow-sized bird with a 
slender bill and a brush tongue — eluded 
us. We finally found what seemed to be a 

Myzornis drinking sap from a large oak 
tree, and bagged the specimen for fur- 
ther study at the Museum. 

The Lowlands and Home 

After adding many more birds to our 
collection — thrushes, babblers, minivets, 
fulvettes, sunbirds, brush robins, dippers 
and fork-tails from the streams, red- 
starts, wren babblers, flowerpeckers, and 
others — we descended again to the low- 
lands. There it felt and smelled like a 
hothouse in comparison with our forest 
camp. We stayed overnight in a tropical 
mango grove. 

A quick trip to Darjeeling by Land 
Rover, a beautiful view of Kinchen- 
junga, and we began the trip back by 
car. Changing eventually to a little Nep- 
alese train, we reached Simra, where we 
missed the plane and had to camp in the 
airdrome all night. The next morning, 
twenty minutes' flying time brought us 
home to Katmandu on March 23, 1961. 
Our expedition arrived just in time for 
me to be home to celebrate our 25th 
wedding anniversary! 

{As a result of Dr. Fleming's collecting ac- 
tivities in the Himalayas, he has sent the Mu- 
seum some 382 bird and 150 mammal speci- 
mens, including some rarities and new records 
for the country.) 

February Page 7 

This Month's Cover Story 



ii~X T FEELS so shiny" — was the com- 
_L ment, as the boy's hands slipped 
over the surface of the calcite crystal. 
Quickly but thoroughly he "saw" in de- 
tail first the crystal and then a piece of 
graphite, which he described as "slip- 

Though the descriptions were unusual, 
they were easily understood by six of the 
youngster's classmates, who, like the boy, 
were blind. Part of a 28-student group 
studying rocks and minerals in a work- 
shop conducted by the Raymond Foun- 
dation, the seven children were the first 
sightless students to take part in a Mu- 
seum workshop program. 

Page 8 February 

Joanne Evenson 

Staff Member, Raymond Foundation 

They were participating in the pro- 
gram with their 21 sighted classmates in 
the hope that they would get more from 
the experience while in the company of 
their friends. Few modifications in the 
usual workshop were necessary for these 
unusual students. The normal schedule 
— a color film on rocks and minerals, 
time spent in the "laboratory" for the 
testing and the identification of mineral 
specimens, and question sheets answered 
after studying the Museum's geology ex- 
hibits — was followed. However, the 
questions for the blind children had 
been prepared in advance in Braille by 
their teacher, and the minerals were es- 

Above photograph and cover by Division of Photography 

pecially chosen for their definite or un- 
usual texture rather than their color. 

Results were quickly seen. One boy, 
after handling a geode, described the 
quartz crystal-lined stone as "rough on 
the outside but rough and beautiful on 
the inside," an extremely accurate de- 
scription from one who could "see" only 
with his fingers. With their question 
sheets, the blind students were given 
styli with which they could imprint 
their answers in Braille on the special, 
heavy paper provided them. Sighted 
classmates helped them to find the an- 
swers in the exhibit cases. 

At the conclusion of the one-and-a- 
half-hour session, observers felt that the 
blind children had learned as much as 
the sighted. Among the comments 
made by the Braille participants was 
one from Robert Weiland, who was es- 
pecially interested in seeing the meteo- 
rite because "he couldn't believe that a 
rock could be that big." 


■*« -* 

MUSEUM ^ta*cA 


• 4T 




Nature Photography — 
This Month's Cover 

Winners of silver medals in the Chi- 
cago International Exhibition of Nature 
Photography, displayed last month in 
the Museum, represent states from the 
East to the West coasts, and include a 
resident of the Chicago area. 

In the "Print" category, silver medals 
were awarded to: John Kohout, La 
Grange Park, Illinois; Fred E. Unver- 
hau, Danbury, Connecticut; and Charles 
L. Norton, Topfield, Massachusetts. 
(Two prize-winning photographs are re- 
produced on this page.) In the "Slide" 
category, medals went to: Gertrude 
Russ, Glendale, California; Agnes M. 
Hoist, Phoenix, Arizona; and Beatrice 

Nature Photo Winner by Charles L. Norton 

Petersen, Niagara Falls, New York. 
The Bulletin cover, entitled "Guard- 
ing the Nest," is by Grant M. Haist of 
Rochester, New York. 

Children's Programs 

Children will have an opportunity to 
step back into ancient Mexico and to 
compare it with Mexico as it is today 
when the Museum's new Journey for 
spring begins on March 1 . 

"Journey to Mexico" starts at a mini- 
ature view of the great market in Mex- 
ico City in the year 1515, five years 

Page 2 March 

before the coming of Cortez. From 
that embarkation point the journeyer 
travels to such fascinating exhibits as 
the Temple of Quetzelcoatl, in which 
the feathered serpent god was wor- 
shipped, and on to displays showing the 
modern Aztec, Tarascan, and Zapotec 
Indians. Information sheets and ques- 
tionnaires are available at the Informa- 
tion Desk and at the North and South 
doors of the Museum. All children who 
can read and write are eligible, and the 
Journey will be in effect during March, 
April, and May. 

As an introduction to the new Jour- 
ney, and the beginning of the Muse- 
um's spring series of free programs for 
children, the color motion picture, "Jour- 
ney to Mexico," will be presented on 
March 3 at 10:00 a.m. in James Simp- 
son Theatre. During March and April 
free programs for children will be held 
every Saturday morning at this time. 
Following is the complete schedule : 

March 3 — Journey to Mexico 

{Cartoon also) 

March 10— The Red Balloon 

(.4 Parisian boy' s friendship with a red balloon) 

March 17 — The Magic Thread 

girl scout day (Movie, slide story, and stage 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 

Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field, Jr. 
Stanley Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 

J. How 


William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Louis Ware 

rd Wood 


Stanley Field, Chairman of the Board 

Clifford C. Gregg, President 

Hughston M. McBain, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer 

E. Leland Webber, Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith, Assistant Secretary 


E. Leland Webber, Director of the Museum 


Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology 

John R. Millar, Chief Curator of Botany 

Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 


Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 


Marilyn Jindrich, Associate in Public Relations 

Nature Photo Winner by John Kohout 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

March 24 — Islands of the World 


March 31 — Our New Frontiers 

camp fire girl day (Movie and stage show on 
Alaska and Hawaii) 

April 7 — Congo Safari 

museum traveler day (Dr. Robert F. Inger 
of the Museum staff tells the story of his recent 
expedition to the Congo) 

April 14 — Japan Harvests the Sea 

(^1 Disney "People and Places" movie — cartoon 

April 21— NO PROGRAM (Easter 

April 28 — A Night Out with Mr. 

(And other films on the world of nature — cartoon 

(Continued on page 8) 


Indians of the Overland Trail 



The Pawnee Thunder Ceremony 


" The clouds shall touch the earth 
And the earth shall receive power from above." 



hen the first sound of spring thun- 
der was heard by the Pawnee Indians 
who occupied the dry, sandy slopes of 
the Platte River valley before the com- 
ing of the white men, the sound signified 
that the gods were ready to turn their 
attention earthward and to receive once 
again the prayers and offerings that 
opened the religious ceremonial year. 

The voice heard in the thunder was 
that of the god, Paruxti, messenger of 
the supreme deity, Tirawa. As Paruxti 
passed over the land in the first spring 
storm, his voice awakened the earth and 
kindled life anew. Hearing this mes- 
sage, the priests assembled their sacred 
bundles and began a ritual of chants and 
sacrifices that symbolized and ensured 
the renewed concern of the gods for the 
welfare of men. 

It is this event that is portrayed in the 
Museum's featured exhibit for March — 
a miniature diorama, displayed in Stan- 
ley Field Hall, of the Pawnee thunder 
ceremony. Concerning it, the noted an- 
thropologist, Ralph Linton, has written 
in a Museum publication: "The thun- 
der ceremony was, more than any other, 
at the bottom of [Pawnee] ceremonial 
life. ... It promoted the well-being of 
the tribe, and was efficacious in driving 
back the malignant being of the south- 
west, the bringer of disease. It instructed 
the people as to their duties and privi- 
leges in their relationship to the deities; 
and finally it afforded many opportuni- 

ties for direct communication with the 
deities themselves in a number of rites 
of sacrifice . . ." Linton's detailed de- 
scription of this interesting ritual of early 
spring is available at the Book Shop for 
fifty cents. 

Also on exhibit during March is an ex- 
citing gallery of Indian portraits painted 
by Arizona artist Paul Dyck, delineating 
"Indians of the Overland Trail." These 
brilliant, almost lifesize paintings of 
plains Indians in full ceremonial dress 
depict representatives of the Nez Perce, 
Sioux, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Crow, and 
Shoshoni at the zenith of their tribal ex- 

Dyck has lived among a number of 
Indian peoples, having received from 
the Sioux a particularly appropriate 
name meaning "Rainbow Hand." He 
imparts to his paintings, which he calls 
"a labor of love," the qualities of ac- 
curate observation, compassion for the 
American Indian, and an impressive 
command of historical background. In 
the illustrated catalogue that accom- 
panies the exhibit, Dyck writes of his 
work: "The Indian recreated in these 
paintings is the free man of the buckskin, 
porcupine quill, bow and arrow days; a 
primitive man but one rich in his way 
of life . . ." The Museum is pleased to 
bring this special exhibit to Chicago fol- 
lowing its recent successful showing in 
the Phoenix Art Museum. 

P. R. Nelson 

Shoshoni "Digger" Warrior: Paint- 
ing by Paul Dyck. In Western Idaho and 
Nevada, a barren country empty of large 
game, lived the poorer bands of the Shoshoni 
Indians, commonly called "Diggers" by the 
whites. They did not own horses, and lived 
in primitive houses that were mostly mere 
brush shelters. Their fare was rabbits, small 
birds, roots, nuts, seeds, and in bad years 
often only the desert insects. Rarely using 
moccasins or garments, their artistic develop- 
ment was limited to a few work utensils. 
That the "Diggers" survived on their in- 
hospitable land speaks well of them as a 

March Page 3 

the 117th 

Adult Travel Lectures 

March 3 through April 28, 1962 

Osaka Castle. From "Fabulous Japan." 
Page U March 

March 3 — Laos, Focus of Conflict 

Arthur Niehojf 

As village development adviser in 
Laos for the International Cooperation 
Administration during 1959-61, Arthur 
Niehoff lived through the events that 
have made Laos front-page news during 
the past two years. An anthropologist 
and Asian specialist, Niehoff learned to 
speak both Lao and French for his as- 
signment and thereby came to know the 
Lao people well. He is unusually quali- 
fied to present an intimate picture of the 
people and their country. In his au- 
thentic film documentary, Niehoff has 
captured both the old and the new — 
the quiet isolated country of yesterday, 
almost unknown to Americans two years 
ago, and the rapidly changing Laos of 
today, focal point of the current struggle 
for world power. 

March 10 — Germany 

Gordon Palmquist 

Germany, though in the forefront of 
the news, is still an unfamiliar country 
whose problems are not well understood 
by many who have not been there. In 
an attempt to shed light on contempo- 
rary Germany, Gordon Palmquist pre- 
sents the intensely human story of its 
people divided between East and West. 
In his program he contrasts May Day 
scenes of soldiers and tanks in Russian 
controlled East Berlin with a romantic 
children's procession at Dinkelsbuhl, the 
gay life of Munich at festival time, and 
the rich cultural life of rebuilt West 
Berlin. Add to this a Rhine journey at 
grape harvest time and visits to the 
world famous Hanover Industrial Fair, 
the Volkswagen factory, and Mad Lud- 
wig's Castle — and you have a refreshing 

March 17 — Mormon Land High- 

Alfred M. Bailey 

All the magnificent features of our 
country's great West, which have kin- 
dled a desire for adventure and beauty 
in Americans from frontier days to the 
present, are dramatically presented in 
this outstanding film on Utah. Through 
the years, Alfred M. Bailey, Director of 
the Denver Museum of Natural History, 
has photographed the changing seasons 
of this western state, from the deep can- 
yons on its southern borders to the 
rugged mountain tops toward the north. 
Among the highlights of his film adven- 
ture are sequences devoted to Bryce and 
Zion National Parks, Arches National 
Monument, the Natural Bridges to Mex- 
ican Hat, and a six-day journey down 
the rapids of the San Juan into the Colo- 
rado River. 

March 24— The "Yankee" Sails 
Across Europe 

Captain Irving Johnson 

A boat that does almost everything 
but fly was the vehicle employed by 
Captain and Mrs. Irving Johnson to ex- 
plore a Europe unknown to most trav- 
elers. On this trip, the Johnsons' goal 
was to seek out the romantic and out- 
of-the-way places of Holland, Belgium, 
Germany, France, Italy, and Greece. 
The Johnsons' boat, a ketch called 
"Yankee," crossed oceans, negotiated 
tunnels, harbored on remote beaches, 
and folded her sails to dodge under 
bridges. To broaden still further the 
scope of their picture-taking, the John- 
sons carried two motor scooters on deck, 
which they put ashore from time to time 
over a specially built aluminum gang- 
plank. These the two sailors used for 
touring Europe's rolling countryside. 

March 31 — Tangier to Istanbul 

Clifford J. Kamen 

The Strait of Gibraltar, the Suez, and 
the Dardanelles are three gateways that 
have exerted a powerful influence on 
Mediterranean lands since ancient times. 
"Tangier to Istanbul" is a story of those 
three vital waterways. Whether it be 
the mysterious Casbah, the ancient forti- 
fications of Gibraltar, the blue grotto of 
Capri, or the famed cedars of Lebanon, 
Clifford Kamen has the ability to pre- 
sent the familiar from an unconven- 
tional point of view. His film is espe- 
cially noteworthy for its extensive pho- 
tographic coverage of crucial military 
areas where photography is generally 
forbidden. Concluding the program is 
a stop at Istanbul, the world's only city 
that stradles two continents, where the 
historic Basilica of St. Sophia, the Blue 
Mosque, and the most massive city walls 
ever built in ancient times still stand. 

unique covered coaches, while 70-foot 
lions guard the entrances to its fabled 
temples. William Moore has made 
Mandalay the last stop in an enticing 
film trip that includes Singapore, gate- 
way port between East and West; Bang- 
kok, whose Royal Palace is familiar to 
lovers of "Anna and the King of Siam"; 
and Rangoon, home of the Reclining 
Buddha, the largest image of the Hon- 
ored One in the world. 

April 14- 

-Fabulous Japan 

Willis Butler 

Japan's phenomenal industrial recov- 
ery and growth following the war has 
created a country that blends the cul- 
tures of East and West. Motorbike 
rickshaws, 700-year-old plays, television 
towers and skyscrapers, exotic temples 
and shrines — all are intermingled to 
create a new milieu. Willis Butler shows 
in his program that as typical now of 

April 21 — Poland 

Kenneth Richter 

Biscopin, a reconstructed prehistoric 
lake village; Poznan, Poland's first capi- 
tal; Gdansk, the ancient Hanseatic port 
town; glowering Marlbork, greatest of 
the Teutonic castles; Krakow, beautiful, 
undamaged, a gem of the Renaissance; 
Warsaw, "the Paris of the North" — 
these are the places that form the back- 
drop for Kenneth Richter's delightful 
film story about the Polish people. You 
will meet a steel worker in the new So- 
viet-equipped steel complex of Nova 
Huta; a young woman who works among 
the antiquities of a museum in Krakow 
by day and at night joins her friends at 
a Jazz Club that meets in a 16th Cen- 
tury cellar; a University of Warsaw 
student of atomic science; and finally, 
a farm family living in the magnificent 
Tatra Mountains near Zakopane, who 
each Sunday don brightly colored peas- 
ant costumes to attend church in the 
little village of Bukovina. 

Marlbork Castle, seat of the Teutonic Knights. From "Poland." 

April 7 — The Road to Mandalay 

William Moore 

In the heart of Burma, within the 
shadow of Mandalay Hill, lies the mys- 
tic and far-off city made famous by 
Rudyard Kipling. Mandalay, formerly 
the home of Burma's last kings, today is 
a mecca for yellow-robed Buddhists, In- 
dian fakirs, beggars, and snakecharmers. 
Along its busy streets rumble oxcarts, 
rickety two-wheeled carriages, and 

Japan as rice paddies and temples have 
been in the past is the mushrooming of 
new industries, such as the manufacture 
of transistor radios, cameras, and other 
electronic equipment. At the same time, 
no film of Japan would be complete 
without the traditional attractions that 
have captured the hearts of visitors for 
centuries — Mt. Fuji, the world-famous 
gardens of Kyoto, the Kabuki Theatre, 
Tadaiji Temple, and the "Floating 
Shrine" of Itsukishima. 

April 28 — An Ozark Anthology 

Leonard Hall 

Possum Trot Farm in the legendary 
Ozarks, an area abounding in wildlife 
of all varieties, has afforded Leonard 
Hall with many opportunities to observe 
nature. It is on this farm that much of 
his "Ozark Anthology" was filmed. In 
this color motion picture of a pictur- 
esque and seldom portrayed region, Hall 
unfolds the story of the Ozark hills. On 
the soil of one of the oldest land areas 
on our continent live the woodland crea- 
tures that play leading parts in Hall's 
film — raccoon and opossum, chipmunk, 
flying squirrel, and whitetail deer. Great 
blue herons are shown patroling the riv- 
ers, while green herons stalk the spring 
peepers at the water's edge. And in 
the air the great horned owl and the 
osprey soar on tireless wings. There -is 
a human side to this story, as well, in 
glimpses of the mountain people who 
have made their homes in the deep hol- 
lows of the Ozarks. 

All programs begin at 2 :30 p.m. in 
James Simpson Theatre. Reserved seats 
will be held for Museum Members until 
2:25 p.m. 

March Page 5 

L *.: 

Sea lamprey larvae shown in their burrows in mud of lake bottom (re-drawn from Applegate) . 


Shows Different Feeding Structures 

of Larvae 
and Adults 

Figure 1: Mouth of adult sea lamprey. 
Page 6 March 

Figure 2: Head of larval sea lamprey. 


Curator of Fishes 

Recently the Museum placed on ex- 
hibit in the Hall of Fishes (Hall O, 
ground floor, west) enlarged models of 
the mouth of both the larval and the 
adult forms of the sea lamprey. 

These models show the great differ- 
ences in feeding structures between the 
immature and the mature lamprey. The 
adults possess the horny teeth and rasp- 
ing tongue that enable them to cling to 
other fishes and suck their blood (Fig- 
ure 1). But the sea lamprey is a para- 
sitic menace to other fishes only during 
its relatively short adult life. For the 

first four to eight years (nobody knows 
just how many) of its existence, it is a 
blind and harmless larva, called an am- 
mocoete, which lives in a burrow in the 
soft mud of quiet pools and eddies, and 
in the main body of lakes just off the 
mouths of streams. These ammocoetes 
possess a dendritic structure (Figure 2) 
that acts as a filter in separating micro- 
scopic food organisms from the surround- 
ing water. 

Shortly after hatching, the tiny, trans- 
parent ammocoetes work their way up 
through the gravel of their nest, where 
they are caught in the current and car- 
ried downstream. As soon as the cur- 
rent slackens they dive for the bottom, 
burrowing into the soft, oozy mud that 
is usually found there. Here they stay, 
unless washed out by eroding floods that 
sometimes carry them along with their 
cover further downstream or out into 
the main body of the Great Lakes. 

At intervals the larvae come to the en- 
trance of their burrows and feed on the 
microorganisms that are especially abun- 
dant in the thin layers of debris lying on 
the lake bottom. Dr. V. C. Applegate 
of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
has described this behavior in detail: 

"When ready to feed, the ammocoete 
squirms upward in its burrow until the 
oral hood is at or near the surface of the 
bottom. Here it may lie for long periods 
of time, the branchial area expanding 
and contracting as water is pumped in 
and out for respiratory and feeding pur- 
poses. . . . Pumping action into the oral 
hood is easily discernible by following 
bits of detritus suspended near the bot- 
tom as they are drawn into the hood. 
Microscopic organisms are drawn into 
the hood on the water currents. At least 
some of these organisms are separated 
out from the detritus by the sieve appara- 
tus and passed to the intestine for diges- 
tion. Periodically the detritus accumu- 
lated on the sieve is blown out. The 
larva is seen to expand its branchial re- 
gion, the gill openings close, and with a 
rapid convulsive movement of that re- 
gion and the head, a cloud of small par- 
ticles is ejected from the hood. Typical 
pumping is resumed at once ... At irreg- 
ular intervals, the ammocoetes retreat to 
the depths of their burrows for varying 

Rare Lizard Reaches Museum 


Curator of Amphibians and Reptiles 

Several weeks ago the Division of Am- 
phibians and Reptiles received a highly 
publicized lizard from Mr. Tom Harris- 
son, Curator of the Sarawak Museum in 
Borneo. This lizard, called "Jorgen" by 
Mrs. Harrisson but Lanthonotus borneensis 
by herpetologists, is a member of a spe- 
cies about which we know very little. 

Brown without a conspicuous pattern, 
about thirteen inches long, short legs, 
small eyes, flattened head, long tail — 
nothing about this lizard is especially 
striking except to a herpetologist. Scien- 
tific interest attaches to Lanthonotus — the 

the ground in the rain forests covering 
Borneo? These are the simplest questions 
to ask about an animal, yet we had no 

Now, however, the Harrissons have 
supplied at least partial answers. Our 
specimen was found about ten inches 
below the surface in soil of formerly 
cultivated land. The Harrissons kept the 
lizard alive for several months and after 
trying all sorts of food, induced it to eat 
the eggs of the green sea turtle, some- 
thing Lanthonotus never encounters in na- 
ture. "Jorgen" could swim well and 


earless monitor — because it is the least 
known member of the group of lizards 
from which snakes arose. If we are to 
understand the origin of snakes, we must 
first know their ancestors. 

The mere half dozen or so specimens 
that reached museums between 1878 
(when Lanthonotus was first discovered) 
and 1961 were sent by men who ob- 
tained the lizards from natives and were 
not interested in the biology of Lantho- 
notus. All we knew until this year was 
that the animal lived in Sarawak on the 
northwest coast of Borneo. Did it live in 
water? Did it burrow in the soil? Or was 
it one of those many lizards that live on 

would stay submerged for long periods 
in a wash basin, though the lizard was 
found a hundred yards from water. 

Two more specimens of Lanthonotus 
have been caught in the last two months. 
It has always been this way — an animal 
is rare until we know where and how to 
look for it. As more individuals are 
found, it will be possible to make more 
observations on their behavior and to 
study their anatomy more thoroughly. 
Whether these studies will actually help 
us unravel the ancestry of snakes cannot 
be foretold. At the very least we should 
have a better understanding of the evo- 
lution of lizards. 

March Page 7 


{Continued from page 2) 

Free Concerts 

George London, bass, will appear in 
recital at Free Concerts Foundation's 
April 3 (Tuesday) concert at 8:15 p.m. 
in the Museum's James Simpson Thea- 
tre. He will be accompanied by Leo 
Taubman, pianist, in a program that 
will include works by Handel, Schubert, 
and Moussorgsky. 

Also to be presented by the Founda- 
tion during April will be a violin recital 
on Wednesday the 18th by Sidney Harth, 
concert master of the Chicago Sym- 
phony Orchestra. Harth will play the 
sonata recital he performed during his 
1961 Russian concert tour. His piano 
accompanist will be Christiane Ver- 

For free tickets to both events send a 
stamped, self-addressed envelope to Free 
Concerts, Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 
Drive, Chicago 5, Illinois. 

A lecture on "What Is a Chamber 
Orchestra" and a concert for wind in- 
struments will be the March 4 and 18 
(Sundays) free programs of the Chicago 
Chamber Orchestra Association, each to 
be held at 3:30 p.m. in James Simpson 

Exhibition Held Over 

"Winter Fur 'N Feathers," the tem- 
porary exhibit announced in the Decem- 
ber Bulletin, has been so popular with 
the public and with school groups that 
it is to remain on exhibition during the 
spring and summer. While originally 
announced as a winter exhibit, and com- 
bined with the winter Museum Journey 
of the Raymond Foundation, the exhibit 
actually covers both summer and winter 
aspects of bird and mammal coats. 

Staff Changes 

Mr. James I. Good rick joined the staff 
on February 1 as Assistant to the Di- 
rector. After Army service in World 
War II, Mr. Goodrick spent 17 years 
in the field of industrial administration. 
His most recent affiliation has been with 
Wyatt & Morse, Management Con- 

Dr. John W. Thieret, Curator of Eco- 
nomic Botany, resigned on February 28 
to enter the teaching profession. Dr. 
Thieret joined the staff of the Museum 
in October, 1953. Earlier that year he 
had accompanied the late Dr. Bror Dahl- 
gren on a field trip to Cuba in connec- 
tion with the study of palms of the genus 
Copernicia. In January, 1954, he be- 
came Curator of Economic Botany at 
the Museum. He conducted field trips 

to the Great Plains of the United States 
and Canada in 1958, 1959, and 1961. 
Dr. Thieret will be associated with the 
University of Southwestern Louisiana. 

University Cooperation 

Six curators from the Department of 
Zoology and two from the Department 
of Geology will present a new course en- 
tided "Zoogeography, Phylogeny, and 
Evolution" for the University of Chi- 
cago during the winter quarter (Janu- 
ary-March). The course is designed for 
seniors and graduate students in the 
University's Department of Zoology, and 
will introduce them to the range of re- 
search problems that occupy museum 
staff, and acquaint the students with the 
kinds of biological information that can 
be extracted from museum specimens. 

Curators participating in the course 
are : from the Department of Zoology — 
D. Dwight Davis, Curator of Vertebrate 
Anatomy; Henry S. Dybas, Associate 
Curator of Insects; Philip Hershkovitz, 
Research Curator of Mammals; Rob- 
ert F. Inger, Curator of Amphibians and 
Reptiles; Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator 
of Zoology; Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator 
of Insects; and Loren P. Woods, Curator 
of Fishes. Also, Rainer Zangerl, Cura- 
tor of Fossil Reptiles, and William Turn- 
bull, Assistant Curator of Fossil Mam- 
mals, from the Department of Geology. 


Objects like the one shown are often brought to the Museum by 
their collectors, who usually mistake them for fossils. Actually the 
photograph is of a concretion, a name given by geologists to the concentric 
structures that result in nature by the precipitation of some soluble 
mineral about a nucleus. Concretions occur in sedimentary rocks, 
commonly along bedding planes. 

The mineral constituents of concretions consist chiefly of the 
cementing material of the rocks in which they are enclosed. The most 
common cementing minerals are silica, calcite, and iron oxide. These 
are carried in solution by percolating waters from the surrounding rock 
and redeposited around a nucleus, which may be a mineral grain, a leaf, 
or a fossil. Concretions range in size from a fraction of an inch to 
many feet in diameter, and are remarkably diversified in form — sphe- 
roidal, oval, disk-shaped, or fantastically odd and irregular, the latter 
resulting from the fusion of two or more simple forms or by deposition 
around an irregular object. To the imaginative finder, these structures 
may very well resemble familiar animal or artistic forms. 

Concretions in many fascinating shapes are displayed in Hall 34 
(at Soundtrek station 10) and at the east end of Hall 37, where fossil- 
like formations are distinguished from true fossils. 

Page 8 March 



'OLUME 33 
vPRIL 1962 

Tibouchina granulosa: "Flower of Lent' 


EE the human image with fresh in- 
sight through the eyes of primitive art- 
ists; compare the anatomy of your heart 
with the hearts of other mammals; dis- 
cover what would happen to Earth 
plants transported to Mars; and learn 
how to brew a proper cup of tea — all 
at Chicago Natural History Museum's 
once-a-year, behind-the-scenes event — 
Members' Night! 

On April 27, from 7 to 10 p.m., the 
entire staff of the Museum will play 
host to Members in the offices, labora- 
tories, studios, and workrooms not ordi- 
narily open to the public. In addition 
to special exhibits, lectures, and dem- 
onstrations, the curatorial staff will dis- 
cuss their research-in-progress. 

Following is a partial schedule of the 
evening's events: 

In the Department of Anthropology 

"The Human Image in Primitive Art," 
a new exhibit opening on May 1, will 
be previewed by Members in one of the 
world's largest permanent exhibition 
halls devoted to primitive art {Hall 2, 
first floor). Curator Phillip Lewis will 
lecture on the exhibit in Hall 9. On 
the third floor : a special exhibit of objects 
to be found on a Chinese scholar's desk. 
Also, lecture demonstrations on (1) how 
to look up a word in a Chinese diction- 
ary, and (2) tea — the varieties; how they 
are grown and processed; and the proper 
art of brewing. 

In the 
of Botany 

"The Guatemalan Highlands," illus- 
trated talk by Curator Louis O. Williams 
(Hall 9, first floor) . A new exhibit hall 
of economic botany, in progress (Hall 
28, second floor) . On the third floor: What 
happens to growing plants when they 
are subjected to the conditions presumed 
to exist on Mars. And, the "next-of- 
kin" variation in plants. 

Page 2 April 

An invitation to 

Members' Night! 

In the Department of Geology 

On the third floor : Demonstration of 
stereoscopic X-ray techniques used in 
studying fossil fish from Indiana that in- 
habited an epicontinental sea 250 mil- 
lion years ago (see photograph above). 
Devonian fish and Eocene mammals col- 
lected on Museum expeditions to the 
Bighorn Mountains and to western Col- 
orado. Sectioned and polished rock 
specimens showing cone-in-cone struc- 
ture. Concretions and pseudo-meteorites 
— natural formations that fool the un- 
wary collector. On the second floor: The 
reinstalled Hall of Gems and Jewels 
(Hall 72) displays recent acquisitions and 
a bright, new look. 

In the Department of Zoology 

April 27, 1962 

to Northern Rhodesia and Suriname 
(Dutch Guiana). A range of heart spec- 
imens comparing the human heart with 
those of other mammals from huge bears 
to tiny mice. The jewel-like colors of the 
insect world. On the jowth floor: Pearl- 
producing mollusks. Displays of furs and 
skins from rare and exotic animals. On 
the ground floor : An array of fish skeletons 
illustrating the framework that holds a 
fish together. Reptiles and amphibians 
with bizarre forms. 

On the third floor : Birds and mammals 
collected on recent Museum expeditions 

The public exhibition halls, the Book 
Shop, and the cafeteria open at 6, with 
dinner being served (at usual prices) 
until 8. An adjacent room will be avail- 
able for those who bring picnic hampers 
from home. Tea will be served in the 
third floor Library, and other refresh- 
ments in Stanley Field Hall. Soundtrek 
tours are available, and nature films will 
be shown throughout the evening in the 
second floor Meeting Room. At fre- 
quent intervals chartered buses will pro- 
vide transportation to and from State 
Street and Jackson Boulevard. 


Philip Hershkovitz, Research Curator, Mammals 

Illustrations by E. John Pfiffner, Museum Artist 

The Museum's collection of Suriname mam* 
mals and mammalian ectoparasites is now 
the largest and most varied in the world. 

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Suriname and the author's collecting localities: (7) Paramaribo, (2) Lelydorpplan, 
(3) Carolinakreek, (4) Loksie Haiti, (5) La Poule, (6) Dirkshoop. Inset: Position of 
Suriname in the Guianan region (bars) and South America. 

Suriname is a little country on the 
northern coast of South America. It 
has about the same land area as Illinois, 
is almost entirely covered with tropical 
rain forest, and is exceedingly rich in 
bauxite. Formerly known as the colony 
of Dutch Guiana, Suriname is bounded 
on the west by British Guiana, on the 
east by French Guiana, and on the 
south by Brazil. 

Its people are a conglomeration of 
Amerindians, Africans, Asiatics, and 

Europeans. Nearly half its quarter mil- 
lion inhabitants live in the capital city, 
Paramaribo, and most of the others farm 
or raise cattle along the fertile coastal 
strip. This leaves all but a small fraction 
of land in the possession of a meager pop- 
ulation of primitive Indians, Bush Ne- 
gros, and wild animals. 

A naturalist can begin his studies of 
wild animals in the outskirts of Parama- 
ribo itself. Thence, good roads, navig- 
able rivers, and regular grasshopper 

plane service can speed him in a few 
hours to high forests, isolated savannas, 
and table-topped mountains in the most 
remote and undisturbed corners of the 

Suriname is part of a natural biolog- 
ical area known as the Guianan region. 
This is a vast wilderness territory which 
extends from the Orinoco River in Ven- 
ezuela east to the Atlantic and south to 
the Negro and lower Amazonas Rivers 
in Brazil. The mammals of British Gui- 
ana and some of the highlands of the in- 
terior of Venezuela are fairly well known. 
Those of the remainder of the Guianan 
region are hardly known. Least docu- 
mented are those of Suriname. Less 
than half the number of mammalian 
species presumed to occur there have 
actually been recorded in scientific liter- 
ature. Small rodents, which make up the 
bulk of the mammalian fauna, had been 
nearly entirely passed over in field col- 
lecting and in published records. The 
habits and distribution of Suriname 
mammals had hardly been studied and, 
prior to our work, only a negligible num- 
ber of specimens had been preserved in 
American institutions. 

Review of Suriname Mammalogy 

Suriname mammalogy begins in 1719, 
with, strange as it may seem, the post- 
humous publication in Holland of a 
book on insects by a Dutch artist and 
amateur naturalist, Maria Sibylla 
Merian. Madame Merian arrived in 
Suriname in 1699 to sketch and paint 
its beautiful butterflies and strange in- 
sects. By way of filling up the lower half 
of the last plate of her book, she drew 
what she described as "a kind of wood- 
rat which always carries her young (of 
which there are commonly five or six), 
on her back." She went on to say that 
"when these rats come out of their hole, 
either to play or seek their food, they run 
about with their mother, but when they 
are sated or sense the presence of danger, 
(Continued on page 7) 

April Page 3 

Page It April 

the people of Tepoztlan heve been preparing tribute for the 
Aztec conquerors .... The carriers are loaded and start on the 
march to the capital." 


Chapter highlights from the new 

Raymond Foundation publication for children 

written by Edith Fleming and 

illustrated by Marion Pahl 

A different chapter will be presented each week 

to children attending the Saturday morning programs 

at the Museum this spring 

JOURNEY TO MEXICO, the spring journey for children, 
also follows the Mexican theme 

"Last January Papa . . . 
started to clear a new field. 
First he cut down the trees. 
Then with a machete he 
cut down the bushes and 
shrubs. All the work has 
to be done by hand, 
chopping away at the soil 
with a hoe." 

MARKET DA Y: ". . . Noise and bargaining 
and laughter and strange delicious smells." 

April Page 5 

THE CONQUEST OF MEXICO: "When Cortez and his 
conquistadores reached Tenochtitlan, the capital, Montezuma 
received them kindly. . ." 

SCHOOL DAYS: "Mast of the children in 
the town start school, but many drop out each 
year until by sixth grade there are few left. 
Maria, Pablo's older 
sister, was very sad 
when she had to stop 
school and stay at 
home. She cried a 
great deal. But Pablo 
couldn't understand." 

A MEXICAN BOY: "Pablo's home, like his neighbor's, is 
made of sun-dried bricks and roofed with tile. The door 
of the one-room house opens into a walled yard where 
there is a row of cans filled with bright flowers." 

THE FIESTA: "The dancers from Jalatlaco have made a vow to 
dance at the fiesta this year. Their leaders carry statues of the 
santo and bright-colored banners with the name of their club .... 
They look very fine, both the men and women, with their plumed 
headdresses and their pink and red costumes embroidered with beads. 
A procession winds down the street: women with baskets of flowers 
and incense, men with great candles to be burned in the church, 
musicians with flutes, and a drummer to bring up the rear. 'The 
firecracker tower is coming, ' shouts Pablo . . . ." 



This Month's Cover 

The Lenten season comes to Brazil 
in fall. Through much of the country 
the heavy rainy season is past and many 
trees and shrubs begin to come into 
flower. The subject of our cover, 77- 
bouchina granulosa, is one of the most 
colorful of trees and is to be found, 
often abundantly, from Para and Baia 
in the northeast of Brazil down through 
the coastal ranges and hills to Rio de 
Janeiro and Sao Paulo and westward 
to Bolivia. 

There are many fancy Tibouchinas in 
Brazil. If they come into bloom during 
the Lenten season the common names 
quaresma, flor de quaresma, or quaresmeira 
are often used for them. These names 
may be translated as Lent, flower of Lent, 
or tree of Lent. It is common practice in 
Latin America to name a showy or at- 
tractive plant for a religious holiday dur- 
ing which it is usually in bloom. 

The Tibouchina shown on the cover 
is a model constructed of hand-blown 
glass, wax, and a variety of plastics. 
It is one of the Stanley Field Collection 
of Plant Models displayed in Hall 29. 
The photograph is by the Museum's 
Division of Photography. 

April Concert 

Free Concerts Foundation brings 
George London, baritone, to the stage 
of the James Simpson Theatre on Tues- 
day, April 3, at 8:15 p.m., in a recital 
of works by Handel, Schubert, Brahms, 
and Moussorgsky. 

Sidney Harth, violinist and concert- 
master of the Chicago Symphony Or- 
chestra, will lie the soloist at the Foun- 
dation's free concert on Wednesday, 
April 18. Harth will perform the so- 
nata recital he played during his 1961 
concert tour of the Soviet Union. 

Free tickets for both concerts may be 
obtained by sending a stamped, self- 
addressed envelope to: Free Concerts, 
Chicago Natural History Museum, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. 

Staff Lecture 

Dr. Robert F. Inger, Curator of Am- 
phibians and Reptiles, recently pre- 
sented two lectures to the Department 
of Biology at San Diego State College, 
California. During his study trip to the 
Coast, Dr. Inger also conducted a biol- 
ogy seminar at the University of South- 
ern California, and lectured at the Uni- 
versitv of Southern California. 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 


Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field, Jr. 
Stanley Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 

William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Louis Ware 

J. Howard Wood 


Stanley Field, Chairman of the Board 

Clifford C. Gregg, President 

Hughston M. McBain, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer 

E. Leland Webber, Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith, Assistant Secretary 



E. Leland Webber, Director of the Museum 


Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology 
John R. Millar, Chief Curator of Botany 
Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of Geology 
Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 


Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 


Marilyn Jindrich, Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 


What birds inhabit the Chi- 
cago region, and how may they 
be attracted to the garden? These 
are questions answered by the 
Museum's featured exhibit for 
April entitled, "Resident Birds 
of Chicago." The exhibit dis- 
plays mounted specimens of typ- 
ical birds of this area, and ex- 
plains what plants may be grown 
to provide birds with food, nest- 
ing sites, and protection; what 
water receptacles, feeders, and 
foods are most satisfactory for 
local birds; and how feeding sta- 
tions may be protected from bird 
enemies. The exhibit is located 
at the entrance to Hall 21 near 
the south end of Stanley Field 

Page 6 April 


{Continued from page 3) 

they return to their mother's back and 
twist theintails around that of the parent 
who runs with them into their hole 
again." In spite of the fanciful descrip- 
tion of the tails of the young, and other 
inaccuracies, Merian's little animals can 
be positively identified with the mouse 
opossum bearing the scientific name 
Marmosa murina Linnaeus. 

The next original contributions to Su- 
riname mammalogy were published in 
1734, also in Holland. They appear in 
the first two of four lavish folio-sized 
volumes, called the Most Complete The- 
saurus, or Treasury, of Natural History. The 
author, Albert Seba, was a wealthy 
Dutch naturalist and his collection of 
plants and animals was then the finest 
of its kind. Most of the species shown 
in the Thesaurus had not been previously 
described or figured. Its armadillos re- 
minded people of the armored beasts 
of mythology. The marsupials with their 
pouches for carrying young had never 
been imagined before. The huge bats 
were at once associated with legendary 
ghosts who sucked the blood of sleeping 
persons. The sloths and anteaters with 
their long fore-limbs armed with hook- 
like claws baffled all European savants 
of the time. Some depicted sloths in 
the impossible posture of standing on 
all fours, and others, like Seba, exhib- 
ited the animals in erect man-like poses. 

Seba, like his contemporaries, gave 
only the vaguest indications of the places 
of origin of the animals mentioned in 
his Thesaurus. He did state, however, 
that most of the specimens were col- 
lected through his personal contacts in 
the Dutch colonies. With but one ex- 
ception, all tropical American mammals 
described by Seba could and probably 
did originate in coastal Suriname. 

The great value of the Thesaurus was 
apparent to Linnaeus. In the tenth edi- 
tion of his Systema Naturae, published 
in 1758, the great systematist gave the 
first valid scientific names to 13 of the 
species of Suriname mammals described 
by Seba. This is extraordinary in view 
of the fact that the sum total of South 
American mammals known to Linnaeus 
was only 40. Today nearly 600 species 

Suriname mammalogy began in 7779 with this picture of a mother mouse opossum 
with young on her back, their taiis unreaiisticalty lengthened and entwined around hers. 
The upper half of the plate sliows the life history of the praying mantis. Adapted from 
insects of suriname by Maria Sybilla Merian. 

are recognized. The Linnaean diag- 
nosis and technical name for the com- 
mon opossum of North and South Amer- 
ica, Didelphis marsupialis, is based on 
Seba's account of the Suriname form. 
The other Suriname mammals of the 
Thesaurus which received technical 
names from Linnaeus and other system- 
atists include the woolly opossum, the 
four-eyed opossum, the short-tailed opos- 
sum, Merian's opossum, the two-toed 
and three-toed sloths, the silky anteater, 
the cabassu armadillo, the squirrel mon- 
key, the kinkajou, the remarkable fishing 
bat, Noctilio leporinus, the largest New 
World bat, Vampyrum spectrum, and the 
commonest tropical American bat, Ca- 
rollia perspicillata. For well over two cen- 

turies Seba's Thesaurus remained the 
source for the description of the greatest 
number of Suriname mammals based on 
actual specimens. 

Expedition Objectives 

The principal objectives of the Chi- 
cago Natural History Museum's expedi- 
tion included the collection of as com- 
plete a representation as possible of the 
mammals of Suriname, particularly the 
rodents, primates, and the Linnaean 
species based on Seba and Merian. Field 
studies were to be made of the distribu- 
tion and the relationship of the animals 
to their environment, especially in culti- 
vated areas. Special attention was to 
{Continued on next page) 

April Page 7 

{Continued from previous page) 
be given to the preservation of the ex- 
ternal parasites of mammals. An earlier 
Museum expedition to Suriname, con- 
ducted by Harry A. Beatty (see Bulletin 
for December, 1961), had already made 
a good start toward these objectives, 
although its efforts were mostly devoted 
to collecting birds. With the completion 
of the present field work, all missions 
were accomplished. Now, the Museum's 
collection of Suriname mammals and 
mammalian ectoparasites is the largest 
and most varied in the world and the 
only one of its kind in the western hemi- 

Field Work Begins at Carolinakreek 

The expedition consisted of myself, 
Dr. Jack Fooden, a post-doctoral student 
in primatology, and one or two native 
assistants employed as needed. Dr. 
Fooden and I arrived in Suriname on 
November 15, 1961. Field work was in- 
itiated in Carolinakreek about 32 miles 
south of Paramaribo on the 22nd of 
November. The dry season had already 
ended and the rainy season was gather- 
ing force. The wild mammal popula- 
tion at this time was extremely low. 
The previous dry season had been un- 
usually long and rigorous and few mam- 
mals survived it. Poor collecting here 
was aggravated by the great number 
of Sunday and holiday hunters who 
drove in from Paramaribo with their 
retinues and dog packs. I lost little 
time in finding a more secluded camp 
site, and on the fifth of December the 
expedition was installed at Loksie Hatti 
on the left bank of the Saramacca River 
high up in Bush Negro country. 

Bush Negroes are descendants of 
slaves who escaped into the forest nearly 
three centuries ago. Today, these proud 
and independent people conserve much 
of the way of life of their West African 
ancestors. They live in palm-thatched 
huts in small clearings along the banks 
of the river. They cultivate corn, plan- 
tain, cassava, and other tubers, raise 
some chickens, hunt and fish. Most of 
the men are skillful wood carvers and 
decorators and their most artistic work 
is done to curry the favor of their be- 
trothed or to hold the affection of their 
wives. The Negroes can eschew the de- 
generating comforts and nerve-wracking 

April Page 8 

inventions of European civilization, but 
they cannot resist the status symbols of 
outboard motors for their dugout canoes, 
battery powered radios, cardboard suit- 
cases for their meager personal effects, 
and even umbrellas. All these they can 
and do acquire from the proceeds of log- 
ging, rubber hunting, and other exploi- 
tations of the forest. 

Bush Negroes speak a language of 
their own called talkee-talkee. It is a mix- 
ture of Dutch, French, English, Portu- 
guese, and West African. A young Bush 
Negro, Edwin Dafit, whom I employed 
in the Saramacca, had no difficulty in 
communicating with me although nei- 
ther he nor I understood more than a 
few words of each other's language. Ed- 
win was neat, intelligent, could read and 
write talkee talkee, had a fine sense of hu- 
mor, and was a good worker. 

Collecting in the Saramacca 

Theoretically, every species of Suri- 
name mammals could be found at one 
time or another in the Saramacca region 
within a half day's walking or paddling 
distance of my camp. A few species, par- 
ticularly marmosets and monkeys, might 
be encountered daily. Some mammals 
would appear only during certain fruit- 
ing seasons. The vast majority of species, 
however, are never seen, at least during 
the day. They may be trapped or hunted 
at night in some seasons and might just 
as well be forgotten at other times of the 
year. Many species live in places which 
the best of collectors might overlook, and 
the rising river had made it difficult or 
inexpedient to search for mammals with 
pronounced aquatic proclivities. 

Cultivated and fallow fields bordering 
on the forest create exceptions to the or- 
dinary relationship between the animal 
and its habitat. The fields are magnets 
for many kinds of small herbivores, par- 
ticularly rodents and, naturally, the 
train of carnivores which preys upon 
them. Because the fields are relatively 
secure as habitats, and provide an 
abundance of food, they sustain abnor- 
mally large numbers of individuals. 

Intensive trapping and hunting for 
small mammals in climax forest on the 
camp side of the river was hardly re- 
warding. In spite of all efforts and every 
guile, I got no Merian's opossum and no 
specimens of a common water rat from 

this forest. In contrast, traps set in a 
cassava field upstream on the other side 
of the river yielded Merian's opossum, 
water rats, and other kinds of small 
mammals which were not taken in their 
natural forest habitat. 

Mammals of the Coastal Region 

After a month at Loksie Hatti, the 
number of different species being added 
to the collection had fallen to a point 
where it was no longer feasible to con- 
tinue operations there. The next few 
weeks, from mid-January to early Feb- 
ruary, were spent in the intensively 
cultivated coastal region. Three stations 
were worked successively. The first was 
in Lelydorpplan, an agricultural colony 
about 15 miles south of Paramaribo; the 
second at La Poule, a government ex- 
perimental farm specializing in citrus 
fruits about 21 miles west of Paramaribo; 
and the last was at Dirkshoop, a cit- 
rus farm five miles farther west. The 
most abundant native mammals here 
were squirrel monkeys, sloths, common 
opossums, Merian's opossums, raccoons, 
spiny rats, cotton rats, the common bat, 
Carollia, and the nectar-eating bat, 
Glossophaga. The same species were 
present but rare at Loksie Hatti. A 
progressive increase in the number of 
rats, bats, and small opossums was noted 
with the advancing rainy season. Col- 
lecting now called for more ingenuity 
and foresight than ever to prevent the 
common species from monopolizing the 

By mid-February, it was time to com- 
plete our preparations for the return 
trip to Chicago. In the final days re- 
maining to us, some collecting was done 
in and about Paramaribo in collabora- 
tion with Dr. Van Dosburg Jr., Chief 
Zoologist of the Suriname Ministry of 

The cost of the expedition was de- 
frayed by a grant from the National 
Science Foundation. Much of the suc- 
cess of the expedition was due to Dr. 
D. C. Geijskes, Director of the Suriname 
Museum in Paramaribo, who provided 
many facilities and assisted in other 
ways in expediting our work and travels. 
Studies of the collection in the Museum's 
laboratories have already been initiated, 
and the results will be published in 
scientific journals. 



MAY 1962 

Page 2 May 

RIGHT: SHAMAN'S MASK. 19th Century. 
Tlingit Indians, Alaska 



Early 20th Century. 

Bakota Tribe, 

Gabon Republic, Africa 


in Primitive Art" as 
May signals the open- 
new Hall of Primitive 
galleries of its kind in 

"The Human Image 
the featured exhibit for 
ing of the Museum's 
Art, one of the largest 
the world. 

The exhibit brings to culmination more than two years of 
work. From the fifty to one hundred thousand specimens of 
primitive art in the Museum's archaeological and ethnological 
collections, more than 200 objects have been selected for 
display in the new exhibit. These have been drawn largely 
from primitive societies of Africa and the Oceanic areas of 
Melanesia, Polynesia, Micronesia, and Malaysia; and also in- 
clude art works from American Indian societies of North and 
South America. 

The subject of the exhibit — 
the human image itself — is the 
most universal in the art of any 
people and is especially preva- 
lent in primitive art. Visitors to 
the Hall will see man — and some 
of his gods — portrayed in a mul- 
tiplicity of ways: in calm and 
supernal beauty, as ferocious and 
cruel, or as satirical and funny. 

The first art was probably not 
painting or sculpture at all, but 
the posing, gesturing, and danc- 
ing of the living person. Thus 
many of the images of man pre- 
sented in the Museum's new ex- 
hibition picture him in elaborate 
dress, ready to take part in the 
important social, ceremonial, and 
religious occasions of his life. 
Such moments were caught and 
fixed by the tribal artists in sculp- 
ture, painting, or in the ornamen- 
tation of utensils and weapons. 

Photographs by John Bayalis and Homer Holdren 

Early 20th Century. 
Bafut Tribe, 
Cameroons, Africa 

Early 20th Century. 
Ovimbundu Tribe, 
Algeria, Africa 


in Primitive Art 

By Phillip H. Lewis 
Curator, Primitive Art 

Early 20th Century. 
Ibibio Tribe, 
Nigeria, Africa 

Early 20th Century. 
Baluba Tribe, 
Congo area, Africa 

Other pieces in the exhibit are memorial statues of de- 
ceased relatives, sometimes shown in funeral attitudes, 
sometimes in poses symbolic of ferocity in war or virility 
in procreation. These figures evoke powerful images of 
real persons attempting to establish immediate and per- 
sonal relations with the supernatural forces and beings that 
governed their lives. 

Deities are depicted either directly or through the por- 
trayal of human beings costumed as gods. Thus, although 
the art objects have been removed from their religious and 
social contexts, the new exhibit presents a fragmentary view 
of a hundred religions, as well as a gallery of the myriad 
art styles of the primitive world. 

The new Hall of Primitive Art is located on the main floor 
of the Museum adjacent to Stanley Field Hall. It encloses 
9,000 square feet of exhibition area. An earlier exhibit, 
"Primitive Man Looks at Civilization" (see Bulletin for 
July, 1961) opened last July in the new Hall and, together 
with the present exhibit, will remain on display for an in- 
definite period. 

May Page 3 










For twelve years, the study of Philip- 
pine birds has been one of the con- 
tinuing projects of the Museum. This 
work has been made possible by coop- 
eration between the Museum and Dr. 
D. S. Rabor of Silliman University, Ne- 
gros, P. I., who has interests similar to 
ours. Dr. Rabor heads the science de- 
partment of his university. Each vaca- 
tion period, he takes a group of his stu- 
dents on a field trip to a different part 
of the archipelago, where they study and 
collect natural history material, and es- 
pecially birds. This field work we aid 
with some travel funds and some collect- 
ing material. In return, many of the 
specimens collected come to the Chicago 
Natural History Museum, where our 
large collections provide a basis for com- 
pare k May 

parative and critical studies. 

While Rabor's studies are mostly done 
in the field, he has spent parts of two 
years in Chicago, working in the Mu- 
seum. While my work has been mostly 
done in the Museum, I have spent a few 
months in the field with Rabor. As long 
range projects, Rabor is writing an up- 
to-date handbook of Philippine birds, 
while I have a check-list of Philippine 
birds in manuscript. Each year, there 
is a quantity of new data to add to both. 

It seems timely to pause and review 
what we have accomplished. The most 
obvious is the spendid collection of birds 
we have built up at the Museum. The 
main islands — Luzon, Mindanao, Sa- 
mar and Negros — are well represented, 
and from the first two we have collec- 

tions from different parts of the isles 
showing that each may be as different 
as are different islands. We also have 
important collections from Bohol, Pala- 
wan, Calamianes and Cebu, and through 
earlier exchanges with the old Philippine 
Bureau of Science we have some speci- 
mens from many other scattered islands. 
But the possession of specimens is only 
the beginning. They are the raw mate- 
rial from which one reads new knowl- 
edge, the reference material needed to 
document old knowledge and to re-in- 
terpret it in the light of subsequent dis- 
coveries. Though the major reports are 
still in manuscript, we have published 
preliminary studies on some of our find- 
ings. These include some twenty papers 
totaling over 300 pages. 

Most outstanding are the novelties 
discovered. We have described two new 
bird species. One is a small, greenish 
babbling thrush of the trees, the other a 
brown babbling thrush of the forest floor. 
We have described nearly two dozen new 
subspecies, some of them, like the little 
red-headed owl of Negros, so different 
from their nearest relatives that perhaps 
they, too, should be considered species. 

Not as exciting, perhaps, but even 
more intriguing are the half dozen cases 
where we have discovered that what has 
been considered one variable species 
really represents two quite different ones. 
For example, a large brown fruit pigeon 
is widespread, with a different subspe- 
cies on each major island. But we found 
that both the endemic Mindanao form 
and the form thought to be restricted to 
adjacent Basilan actually occur together 
on the former island and behave there 
as two species, which we now consider 
them to be. The Basilan bird, in the 
isolation of its original island home, has 
evolved into a species that was able to 
recolonize Mindanao, despite the occu- 
pation of the island by the Basilan's 
closest relative. 

A special case of this "circular over- 
lap" is shown by certain little green leaf 
warblers. One type "A" lives on Negros 
and other southern and central islands; 
another type "B," which looks to be a 
subspecies, is found only on Luzon; a 
third type "C" lives on Negros, and 
would be considered a third subspecies 
if it did not overlap the range of "A." 
As subspecies cannot live together, "A" 
and "C" must be considered species. 
The status of the perplexing "B" is solved 
by linking it arbitrarily with "A," with 
the mental reservation that here we have 
a case where two species have evolved 
without the connecting link between 
them having yet been lost. 

A large green parrot has provided a 
case of what we call a checkerboard pat- 
tern of variation. The birds of adjacent 
islands are sufficiently different in size 
and color to be recognized as subspecies 
if it were not that the same characters 
are repeated in more distant populations. 

For example, the Palawan and Min- 
danao populations, or the Talaut and 
Siquijor, are quite similar, but they are 
separated by large areas inhabited by 
different populations. The taxonomic 

treatment of this type of variation by us- 
ing subspecies names for each population, 
based solely on geography, is unsatisfac- 
tory, so we lump them together but point 
out that a checkerboard type of varia- 
tion exists. For such studies, large series 
of specimens are obviously essential. 

We have recorded birds new to the 
Philippines, as well as new range exten- 
sions within the Philippines. For in- 
stance, thirteen species have been added 
to those known from Siquijor, 25 species 
to Bohol, and nineteen to Samar. These 
are the three islands for which we have 
published complete lists, as well as dis- 
cussions of their zoogeography and ecol- 
ogy. There is hardly a page in the older 
books on Philippine birds which does not 
need revision on the basis of our studies. 

The past geological history of the Phil- 
ippines has had its effect on bird distri- 
bution, and for the study of this zooge- 
ography knowledge of the precise ranges 
of the birds is important. For instance, 
the main islands of Luzon, the eastern 
islands of Samar and Leyte, and Minda- 
nao, have similar birds and are grouped 
together as the "eastern province" of the 
Philippines. One unexplained range 
was that of the little crow that was re- 
corded from Samar and Mindanao but 
not found on Luzon, despite the great 
amount of collecting that has been done 
there. There seemed to be nothing in 
zoogeography to explain this. Then 
Rabor collected two specimens on north- 
ern Luzon, showing that the bird does 
occur there (incidentally, it was a new 
subspecies), though it is very rare. This 
recalled that it was also rare in Minda- 
nao, though common on Samar. One 
suspects here that ecological rather than 
geological factors are the important ones 
in determining its occurrence as well as 
its abundance. 

In an attempt to sort out the ecologi- 
cal from the zoogeographical effects on 
distribution, we examined the small is- 
land of Siquijor, which is about fifteen 
miles out in the Sulu Sea from Negros. 
A comparison of the two islands is as 

Negros, area 12,699 square kilometers. . . 

183 breeding birds 

Siquijor, area 235 square kilometers 

83 breeding birds 

This illustrates that the smaller an is- 

land, the smaller the avifauna. We have 
discussed this and other small island ef- 
fects under such headings as "distance 
from other islands," "size of island," 
"first arrivals excluding other colonists," 
"occurrence of two species in a genus," 
"small island species" (some Philippine 
species, like the big white nutmeg 
pigeon, live only on small islands — why, 
we do not know), "change of habitat on 
small islands," and "patterns of varia- 
tion" (for example, birds on small is- 
lands tend to have longer bills). 

Another interesting and puzzling point 
about Siquijor is that certain migrants 
from Asia are much more common as 
winter visitors on this little island than 
they are on other nearby larger islands. 

What all these factors mean is still im- 
perfectly known, but at least we are find- 
ing out some of the facts of distribution 
and occurrence which will repay more 
study, and island distribution and speci- 
ation can nowhere be better studied than 
in the Philippines, where there are more 
than 7,000 islands displaying a remark- 
able range in size. 

Taxonomy and distribution, the kinds 
of birds there are and where they live, 
are the mainstay, the "bread and butter" 
work, of a museum ornithologist. But 
many other points emerge in the course 
of studies, either from looking at speci- 
mens or from field reports. 

In one shipment to the Museum, a 
bulbul's nest had withered brown leaves 
in its lining, leaves that forcefully re- 
minded me of the snake-skin used in a 
Madagascar bulbul's nest. This sparked 
a review of the use of shed snake-skins in 
birds' nests, with the conclusion that the 
important question is not why some birds 
use shed snake-skins, which are very suit- 
able material, but the more general one 
of why some species of birds use nest ma- 
terials which are characteristic and dif- 
ferent from those of other related species. 

A dried tongue attached to a specimen 
of flowerpecker provided material for re- 
viewing the relationships of the flower- 
pecker family. The tongue was brush- 
tipped and quite unlike that of any other 
flowerpecker, but very similar to that of 
certain honeyeaters. Supported with 
certain other data, including the nest 
structure, it appears that flowerpeckers 
{Continued on page 7) 

May Page 5 


News K. Roy 

Sharat K. Roy 

Dr. Sharat Kumar Roy. Chief Cura- 
tor of the Department of Geology, whose 
death occurred on April 17th. was a dis- 
tinguished scientist of outstanding abil- 
ity and achievement. 

Dr. Roy was born 
in India in 1898, 
and attended the 
University of Cal- 
cutta and the Uni- 
versity of London. 
He came to the 
United States in 
1920 and graduated 
from the University 
of Illinois in 1922. 
He received the degrees of Master of 
Science in 1924 from the University of 
Illinois and Doctor of Philosophy from 
the University of Chicago in 1941. 

He began his professional career in 
the Department of Geology of the New 
York State Museum in Albany, and 
joined the staff of Chicago Xatural His- 
tory Museum in 1925 as an Assistant 
Curator in the Department of Geology. 
He has served continuously with the Mu- 
seum since that time, becoming Chief 
Curator of his department in 1947. 

Dr. Roy served in the British-Indian 
Army during World War I. In World 
War II he received a commission as 
Captain in the United States Army Air 
Forces and was discharged with the rank 
of Major in July, 1946. 

In addition to many collecting trips 
in various parts of the United States, 
Dr. Roy was a member of the Second 
Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedi- 
tion of Field Museum in 1927-28; and 
he collected ores, lithological specimens 
and Paleozoic fossils in Newfoundland 
the following year. In 1945, on leave 
from the United States Army, he col- 
lected Permian fossils in mines in eastern 
India and in the Salt Range of northern 

From 1953 to 1961 Dr. Roy conducted 
six field trips to Central America to 
study the volcanos of that region. In 

Page 6 May 

1957-58 he spent one year in Europe 
and India under a National Science 
Foundation grant, engaged in research 
and consultation on stony meteorites, 
concentrating on those containing 
rounded bodies called chondrules. 

He has published more than 30 scien- 
tific papers in the fields of invertebrate 
paleontology, meteoritics and volcanol- 
ogy, and was a Fellow of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society as well as a member 
of numerous professional societies. 

In recognition of his exploratory geo- 
logical work in the Arctic, the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey, in 
1944. honored him by designating one 
of the mountain peaks on Baffin Island 
as "Mount Sharat." 

With Dr. Roy's death the Museum 
staff has lost a colleague of unassuming 
and gentle temperament. He will be 
missed by all who had the privilege of 
knowing him. 

Tutankhamun Treasures 
Coming to Museum 

An exhibit of treasures from the tomb 
of King Tutankhamun will be presented 
at Chicago Natural History Museum 
from June 15 through July 15 under 
joint sponsorship of the Museum and 
the Oriental Institute of the University 
of Chicago. 

The pieces assembled for this exhibit 
are touring major American museums 
to arouse interest in the international 
effort to save a number of ancient Nu- 
bian monuments from being inundated 
by the waters of the Nile on completion 
of the Aswan Dam. Usually on display 
in the Cairo Museum, the King Tut 
treasures have never before been per- 
mitted to leave Egypt. 

Tutankhamun was King of Egypt 
about 1350 B.C. His tomb, with its 
incredible treasures, was discovered by- 
Lord Carnarvon and Howard Carter in 
November of 1 922. The opening of the 
inner burial chamber of the Pharaoh in 
the following February stirred the in- 
terest of the entire world, both because 
of the intrinsic value of the tomb con- 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1S93 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9-UO 


Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field, Jr. 
Stanley Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 

William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Louis Ware 

J. Howard Wood 


Stanley Field, Chairman of the Boird 

Clifford C. Gregg, President 

Hughston M. McBain, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

E. Leland Webber, Secretary 


E. Leland Webber, Director of the Museum 

Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology 

John R. Millar, Chief Curator of Botany 
* Sharat K. Roy, Chief Curator of Geology 
Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 

Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 

Marilyn Jindrich, Associate in Public Relations 

* deceased 

Members are requested to inform the Museun 
promptly of changes of address. 

tents and because they had been pre- 
served, through more than thirty cen- 
turies, in all their pristine beauty. 

From the more than 2,000 exquisite 
objects found in the tomb, the 31 pieces 
selected for the traveling exhibit are of 
particular interest because of their close 
association with the mummified body of 
the boy-king. Among them are his 
favorite hunting dagger and sheath of 
embossed gold, found in the mummy 
wrappings; a richly decorated minia- 
ture coffin of gold, inlaid with carnelian 
and lapis lazuli — one of four that held 
the ruler's internal organs; the cere- 
monial crook and flail, fashioned of gold 
and blue glass, which were the symbols 
of his power: jewelry taken from the 
body; the young king's walking stick, 
embellished with a portrait figure in 
solid gold; and many vases, chests, and 

Figure of young King Tutankhamun in solid 
gold embellishes a gold walking stick found 
in the tomb — one of 34 treasures from tomb 
that will be on display June 15 through 
July 15. 

statuettes of deities that would have sig- 
nificance in the Pharaoh's life beyond 
the grave. 

Also on display will be several objects 
from the tomb of Sheshonq I (the Bibli- 
cal Shishak) ; several pieces from the 
permanent Egyptian collections of the 
Oriental Institute and Chicago Natural 
History Museum; and a stone statue 
from the Egyptian Old Kingdom (about 
2,500 B.C.) which was a gift from the 
United Arab Republic to President and 
Mrs. Kennedy at the opening of the 
exhibit in Washington, D.C This statue 
forms a part of the traveling exhibit at 
Mrs. Kennedy's request. 

The exhibit of Tutankhamun treas- 
ures was organized by the American 
Association of Museums with the coop- 
eration of the Ministry of Culture of the 
United Arab Republic and the Cairo 

Museum. It is being circulated in this 
country under auspices of the Traveling 
Exhibition Service of the Smithsonian 

Children's Art Exhibit 

An exhibit of 50 paintings and draw- 
ings by young artists of the Junior School 
of the Art Institute will be displayed in 
Stanley Field Hall from May 5 through 
June 3 (see cover). As part of their 
regular course of instruction, students in 
the Junior School visit the Museum reg- 
ularly to study plant, animal, and geo- 
logical structures; forms of primitive art 
and design; and the art techniques of 
ancient or remote civilizations. The 
colorful and imaginative works selected 
for the show, entitled "A Child's World 
of Nature," were inspired by exhibits at 
the Museum. Later in the year, the 
exhibit of children's art will be circu- 
lated to other cities under auspices of 
the Traveling Exhibition Service of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Science Fair 

Science projects designed by students 
of the Chicago area will be exhibited in 
Stanley Field Hall from 9 a.m. until 
4 p.m. on Saturday, May 19, in the 12th 
Annual Chicago Area Science Fair. The 
young scientists who will explain their 
displays and demonstrations are stu- 
dents from the sixth grade through the 
final year of high school. They rep- 
resent public, private, and parochial 
schools (as well as a number of youth 
organizations) located within a 35-mile 
radius of Chicago. The science exhibits 
will relate to living things (including 
man), geology, astronomy, matter, and 
energy. Awards will be presented at 
the end of the day on the basis of the 
student's knowledge of his project and 
on the attractiveness and originality of 
his exhibit. The fair is sponsored by 
the Chicago Area Teachers Science As- 

Staff Lecture 

The Northwestern University Geology 
Club heard Bertram G. Woodland, Asso- 
ciate Curator of Petrology, speak re- 
cently on "Methods and Results of the 
Analysis of Small Scale Structures in 
Metamorphic Rocks." 

Free Concert 

The Chicago Chamber Orchestra 
completes its concert season in the Mu- 
seum this year with its performance on 
Sunday, May 13, at 3:30 p.m. in the 
James Simpson Theatre. The con- 
ductor will be Dr. Dieter Kober. Re- 
cently the Chicago Chamber Orchestra 
was featured in a half-hour program on 
CBS television entitled "Music for a 

Longer Museum Hours 

Beginning May 1 the Museum will be 
open from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. 



{Continued from page 5) 

are probably more closely related to 
honeyeaters than has been thought. 

A young female hornbill from Minda- 
nao had the head partly black, like the 
adult female, and partly rufous like the 
adult male. Examination of the skin 
showed that the bird was in moult, the 
rufous feathers being replaced by black 
ones. In birds generally, when the sexes 
are different, it is the female that both 
young resemble, but here we had an ex- 
ample of a species in which both young 
resemble the male. This phenomenon 
is not unknown, but it occurs rarely, and 
in widely separated families. 

When Dr. Rabor and I were traveling 
on Siquijor Island, we discovered that 
the ruddy kingfisher, which lives in the 
forest, feeds to a considerable extent on 
snails. The bird opens the shell to get 
the meat by pounding the snail on a 
rock, a habit which is shared by no other 
kingfisher, so far as we know, and by 
very few other birds. 

Also from our Philippine field work, 
and more especially that of Rabor, it 
seemed to us that the domestic fowl of 
the villages and the jungle fowl of the 
forest, though belonging to the same spe- 
cies, each lived on the same islands with 
very little hybridization. Apparently 
they are kept separate by their respec- 
tive habitat differences. Here we seem 
to have an example of an unusual state of 
affairs for birds: two subspecies living in 
the same area, but in different habitats. 
{Continued on next page) 

Page 7 May 

{Continued from page 7) 

Deforestation and other attendant 
changes have caused the extinction of 
island birds, as is especially well known 
for the West Indies and the Hawaiian 
Islands. No such cases were known from 
the Philippines. But after extensive field 
work on the island of Cebu, from which 
most of the forest has gone since Magel- 
lan landed there early in the 16th Cen- 
tury, Dr. Rabor decided in 1959 that all 
but one of the ten endemic Cebu forest 
birds had disappeared with the forest. 
Among the birds not seen since 1906 
was the golden washed hanging lorikeet. 
However, we have since found that it 
existed up until 1930, for about then a 
considerable number were brought alive 
to Europe and the United States as cage 
birds. This was brought to our attention 
by Mr. Karl Plath, formerly of Brook- 
field Zoo, who, reading Rabor's account, 
brought to us an example of one of these 
1930 birds which he had had alive for 
a time. 

The destruction of forests, especially 
in the lowlands, lends urgency to some 
collecting, notably on Panay and the 
Romblon-Tablas group. The Sulus, 
with such striking endemics, are unfor- 
tunately so filled with unrest as to make 
work there impractical, and the same is 
true for parts of Palawan and southeast- 
ern Mindanao. But there are still parts 
of Palawan that would be worth while. 
The new species discovered in recent 
years from Luzon, Negros, and Minda- 
nao, some from areas "well collected," 
may serve as a guide to indicate that al- 
most any upland forest in the Philippines 
may yield more new forms or range ex- 
tensions. And the abundance of small 
islands in the Archipelago makes an eco- 
logical study of island effects an inviting 

The above will give some idea of the 
progress that Dr. Rabor and I have made 
in the study of Philippine birds, the use 
we have made of the collections, the in- 
formation we have read from skins and 
observations, and made available to the 
scientific world. The work is continu- 
ing, but is never done. 

In planning for the future, we must 
keep in mind that our space, material, 
money, and also time (for our years are 
numbered) are limited; and that I have 
interests in other parts of the world, too ! 

Page 8 May 

B^ Oe.\ocyraV\ /\ 

%*\t <o 

Front "A Child's World of Nature": An exhibit of children's art 
Stanley Field Hall, May 5 through June 3 




HISTORY To/, as j*o.6 

MUSEUM gune 4962 


^^J^rT^^ - 



TK ^ 


, s'j7  



An invitation 

N June 15, history will turn back 
more than 3,000 years for an intimate 
look into the life of Egypt's most publi- 
cized boy king when the exhibit of 
treasures from the tomb of King Tut- 
ankhamun opens at Chicago Natural 
History Museum. 

Members of the Museum and the Ori- 
ental Institute of the University of Chi- 
cago — joint sponsors of the exhibit — 
have received invitations to a Members' 
preview on Thursday evening, June 14. 

A special attraction of the preview 
will be a lecture in James Simpson The- 
atre on "Tutankhamun and his Treas- 
ures" by Dr. Ahmed Fakhry, Professor 
of History of Ancient Egypt and the 
East at the University of Cairo. Dr. 
Fakhry will also lecture at the Museum 
on the same subject on Friday, June 1 5, 
at 7 :00 p.m. and on Sunday, June 1 7, at 
3:00 p.m. 

The carpenters, electricians, and paint- 
ers will soon complete their work on 
Hall 9, which has been completely re- 
modeled for the Tutankhamun Treasures 
exhibit under plans drawn up by Phillip 
H. Lewis, Curator of Primitive Art, and 
James Shouba, Superintendent of Main- 
tenance. Four huge lighting panels, sus- 
pended from the ceiling, will illuminate 
the exhibit and emphasize the exquisite 
craftsmanship and delicate artistic style 
of the jewel-like objects. An example is 
the young king's favorite hunting dag- 
ger, of gold, on which an incised group- 
Page 2 June 

ing of wild animals attacking each other 
forms an interlacing pattern. Also of 
interest to art lovers will be the solid gold 
figurine of King Tutankhamun on the 
head of his walking stick, and the minia- 
ture mummy case, inscribed with hiero- 
glyphics and richly decorated with semi- 
precious stones. 

Most of the 34 objects on display are 
made of gold, decorated with inlaid lapis 
lazuli, carnelian. and colored glass. Two 
vases, a painted chest, and the lid of a 
canopic jar — beautifully carved in the 
form of the king's head — are of alabaster. 

Several objects — amulets, rings, cere- 

monial necklaces, and the dagger — were 
actually found on the king's mummy. 
A flail and a crook, of gold and blue 
glass, symbolize the Pharaoh's power as 
shepherd of his people and overseer of 
their efforts. The crook can be found 
today as the staff of Christian bishops 
while the flail survives as the ceremonial 
fly-whisk of African chiefs. 

Augmenting the exhibit will be sev- 
eral pieces from the permanent Egyptian 
collections of the Oriental Institute and 
Chicago Natural History Museum. 

Large photographs of the Nubian 
monuments and temples on the banks of 
the Nile will serve as a background for 
the tomb treasures. Probably the most 
dramatic are those showing the great 
rock-cut temple at Abu Simbel with its 
colossal statues of Rameses II and his 
queen, Nefertari (mother-in-law of King 
Tutankhamun). The purpose of the ex- 
hibit is to arouse support for the salvage 
program, sponsored by UNESCO, to 
save these ancient monuments from be- 
ing destroyed by the waters of the Nile 
after scheduled completion of the Aswan 
Dam in the late 1960's. 

Although general admission to the 
Tutankhamun Treasures will be 50 cents 
for adults and 25 cents for children, 
Members of the Oriental Institute and 
Chicago Natural History Museum will 
be admitted free. Beginning June 15, 
the Museum will be open from 9 a.m. to 
8 p.m. on Wednesday, Friday, Saturday, 
and Sunday, closing at 6 p.m. on the 
other days of the week. 


of the 


Curator, South American Archaeology and Ethnology 

Museum discoveries are associated in 
the public mind with expeditions 
to far places. Although expedition finds 
are most newsworthy, equally interest- 
ing discoveries are frequently made in 
the course of study of the Museum's re- 
search collections. 

An intriguing example of such a dis- 
covery occurred recently in the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology. In connection 
with the rearrangement of the research 
collection on Mexican archaeology, we 
undertook the sorting and classification 
of several thousand human figurines of 
terra cotta from the Valley of Mexico. 
These came from several cultures and 
date from 1000 B.C. to a.d. 1500. Aside 
from their aesthetic interest and their 
value for yielding cultural information, 
these figurines serve as "index fossils" in 
dating the various archaeological periods 
in central Mexico. 

At the end of the classifying job, I was 
examining the remaining miscellaneous 
lot of unclassified figurine fragments 
when I noticed the hollow head of a 
man that struck me as familiar. After 
examining it I decided that the color 
and texture of the clay reminded me of 
an incomplete Toltec cup that had been 
placed on display in 1959 in the new 
exhibits on Mexican archaeology (Hall 
8, Case 63). The handle of this cup 
was modeled into the effigy of a man, 
whose head had been missing since the 
piece was acquired by the Museum. A 
quick visit to the Mexican hall confirmed 
my hunch, and upon opening the case 
we found that the head discovered 
among the fragments fitted perfectly. 
We have now made a permanent resto- 
ration of the head to the body, from 
which it was separated for more than 
sixty years, and the complete specimen 
is once more on exhibit. 

I turned to the catalogue and acces- 
sion records for a solution to the mystery 
of the missing head. It had been ac- 
quired by the Museum in 1905 as part 
of a large collection of Mexican antiqui- 
ties and ethnological objects purchased 
from Fredrick Starr, who was professor 
of anthropology at the University of Chi- 

cago from 1893 to 1923. The cup was 
in a collection of archaeological speci- 
mens presented to the Museum in 1923 
by the late Martin A. Ryerson, a Bene- 
factor of the Museum and for many years 
a member of the Board of Trustees. Be- 
cause of the freshness of the break on the 
effigy cup it appeared highly probable 
that the fracture had occurred relatively 
recently and almost certainly since the 
specimen had been excavated. I there- 
fore looked for a connection between the 
Starr and Ryerson collections. I dis- 
covered that the head had been pur- 
chased by Professor Starr in about 1895 
from the collection of Antonio Penafiel, 
a well known Mexican archaeologist and 
collector. The Ryerson collection was 

shipped from Mexico in 1895. There is 
no record that the cup came from the 
Penafiel collection, but identification 
marks on its base are similar to marks 
on known Penafiel pieces. 

The evidence points to the following 
probable course of events. The cup was 
intact when excavated and acquired by 
Penafiel. While in his possession and 
prior to 1895, the head was broken and 
separated from the cup. Mr. Ryerson's 
agent acquired the cup in 1895 or 
slightly earlier, and probably Professor 
Starr bought the head after the cup had 
been sold. The two parts came under 
the same roof again in 1923 but were 
not reunited until 1961. 

The cup, which is shown in its com- 
pleted form in the accompanying illus- 
trations, was found in Tlapanaloya, Dis- 
trict of Zumpango, 
about 25 miles 
north of Mexico 
City and closer to 
Tula, the Toltec 
capital. The slight- 
ly humpbacked 
figure that serves 
as a handle is mod- 
eled in Toltec style. 
The man depicted 
wears elaborate earplugs, a necklace, 
and a tassled gee string tied with a sin- 
gle bowknot at the back. At the front 
of the cup is a molded design in relief 
depicting the typical Toltec prowling 
jaguar. The low ring base of the cup 
is also characteristic of the Toltec period. 
It is estimated to date from the tenth 
century a.d. It is a most interesting 
example of Toltec art, now to be seen 
in its original form as the result of a 
quiet but profitable adventure among 
the collections of the Museum. 

June Page $ 



NSF Awards Grant 
for Borneo Study 

Dr. Robert F. Inger, Curator of Am- 
phibians and Reptiles at Chicago Nat- 
ural History Museum, and Dr. Bernard 
S. Greenberg, Professor of Biology at 
Roosevelt University, have been awarded 
a 835,100 grant by the National Science 
Foundation for research on the "Repro- 
ductive Patterns and Population Struc- 
ture of Borneo Amphibians." 

Borneo is a part of the oriental tropics 
where much of the evolution of contem- 
porary groups of reptiles and amphib- 
ians has taken place. Within these 
tropics, the most stable and favorable 

environment is the evergreen rain forest, 
which has probably been in continuous 
existence in Borneo for at least 50 mil- 
lion years. The advantageous qualities 
of the rain forest have fostered the evo- 
lution of more groups of organisms than 
any other terrestrial habitat. 

The organization and dynamics of the 
animal community living within such a 
rain forest are virtually unknown. Inger 
and Greenberg, therefore, intend to 
study the size and composition of the 
animal population, the movements of 
individuals of various species, and the 
annual reproductive patterns of the am- 
phibians of these forests. 

Dr. Inger has long been interested in 
the animal life of Borneo, having made 
collecting trips to the island in 1950 and 

Page 1, June 

1956. This year, he and Dr. Greenberg 
will spend three months in Borneo estab- 
lishing a field base, mapping the area, 
and training assistants. When they leave 
the island, the field work will continue 
under the supervision of Mr. F. W. 
King, a graduate student of the Depart- 
ment of Zoology of the University of 
Chicago. It is estimated that approxi- 
mately 6,000 frogs, snakes, and lizards 
will be collected during the first two 
years of the NSF grant. On returning 
to the Museum, Inger and Greenberg 
will carry out detailed studies of these 
specimens. A full report of the research 
will be prepared during the fourth and 
final year of their study. 

Mrlvin A. Traylor, As- 
sociate Curator of Birds, 
who returned recently from 
a six-months' expedition to 
Africa, examines one of the 
more than 1,500 birds col- 
lected during his trip. 

Focus of Traylor' s field 
work in Africa was Barotse- 
land, a British Protector- 
ate in Northern Rhodesia. 
There Traylor discovered 
two subspecies of lark never 
before described. The ex- 
pedition was supported 
jointly by the Museum and 
the National Science Foun- 

Research Report from Hawaii 

A recent report from Hawaii, where 
Museum field work is also being sup- 
ported by a grant from the National 
Science Foundation (see Bulletin for 
August, 1961), illuminates another aspect 
of the research being done by Museum 
zoologists abroad. 

Dr. Alan Solem, Curator of Lower In- 
vertebrates, has been in Hawaii on the 
first stop of a round-the-world study 
trip. The Hawaiian Islands are re- 
nowned both for their manifold, beauti- 
ful land snails and for their equally beau- 
tiful sea shells. To study them, Dr. 
Solem has not, as one might think, pre- 
pared to do research in the field, well 
supplied with different kinds of nets and 

bottles full of alcohol. Rather, his equip- 
ment so far has consisted mainly of a 
microscope, calipers, drawing material, 
and a camera. 

His work has chiefly been done in the 
laboratories of the Bernice P. Bishop 
Museum in Honolulu, which has rich 
collections of some kinds of snail shells in 
which Dr. Solem is greatly interested — 
tiny shells that look very inconspicuous 
and almost identical to the naked eye. 
Under enlargement, however, a great 
number of distinguishing characters are 
revealed, and these characters vary 
greatly according to the individual kind 
of shell. The describers of these shells, 
working 50 to 100 years ago, did not 
have the elaborate optical equipment 
we now possess; hence their descriptions 
are partly deficient, partly faulty. And 
what is more, they even confused shells 
of similar size and sculpture, believing 
them to be identical. 

Here is where Dr. Solem's work be- 
gan. He has been studying the speci- 
mens of earlier scientists and improving 
their descriptions by amending errors or 
by adding newly discovered characters. 
To his surprise, and almost to his dis- 
may, he has also found that there are 
many tiny shells still undescribed at all. 
More than 300 of these await recogni- 
tion as probable new species, while 
about 4,000 have so far been restudied 
and catalogued. 

Thus one of our staff members uses 
his absence from the Museum to further 
science, not in the field, but in the lab- 

Western States Field Trip 

William B. Turnbull, Assistant Cura- 
tor of Fossil Mammals, is presently trav- 
eling through a number of western states 
on a geology reconnaissance trip for the 
purpose of locating Mesozoic mammal 
localities. Included in his survey of North 
Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, and Colo- 
rado is a stop at Como Bluff, Wyoming, 
one of the most famous early mammal 
localities. Como Bluff is part of the 
Morrison formation noted for important 
dinosaur finds. It also has been the 
center of Mesozoic mammal discoveries. 


Dr. Alfred E. Emerson, Research As- 
sociate, Insects, in the Museum's Depart- 
ment of Zoology and Professor of Zoology 
at the University of Chicago, recently 
was elected a member of the National 
Academy of Sciences. The Academy, 
which has been informally called the 
"hierarchy of American science," func- 
tions as an advisory body on scientific 
matters for the government. Its mem- 
bers are chosen for their distinguished 
and continued achievements in original 

Emerson is the world's leading author- 
ity on the classification and biology of 
termites and is internationally known for 
his contributions in the field of evolu- 
tion. He is one of the few systematic 
zoologists to become a member of the 
Academy, another being the late Karl P. 
Schmidt, former Chief Curator of Zool- 
ogy at this Museum. 

During his affiliation with Chicago 
Natural History Museum, Emerson has 
made notable contributions to the Mu- 
seum's insect collections. Outstanding 
among them is a termite collection that 
is considered one of the finest in the 

Summer Children's Journey 

Young "rock hounds" interested in 
adding to their collections this summer 
won't want to miss the Museum's new 
Journey for children, "Down to Earth," 

■••«•» V • ••■•■ 

which began June 1 and will continue 
through August 31. A planned excur- 
sion through the Museum's geology halls, 
the Journey offers young "prospectors" 
helpful hints on finding and identifying 
rocks in the local area. 

Youngsters wishing to take the Jour- 
ney may obtain further information and 
a Journey itinerary at the Information 
Desk and at the north and south doors 
of the Museum. A questionnaire is 
to be answered during the course of the 
Journey and turned in at the door be- 
fore leaving the building. Completed 
questionnaires are then recorded so that 
each child will receive credit for his 
Journey. Each spring and fall, at a 
special honors program, children who 
have successfully completed specified 
numbers of Museum Journeys are pre- 
sented awards for their achievement. 
The Journeys are sponsored by the Mu- 
seum's Raymond Foundation. 

Annual Lapidary Show 

The 12th Annual Amateur Hand- 
crafted Gem and Jewelry Competitive 
Exhibition, to be shown June 8 through 
July 8 in Stanley Field Hall, once again 
will demonstrate that common earth 
materials in the hands of a craftsman 
can be fashioned into objects of unusual 

The exhibition will feature prize-win- 
ning jewelry of polished stone, polished 

On Members'' Night, 
1962 {held April 27), 1,638 
Members enjoyed a once-a- 
year opportunity to browse 
through workshops, research 
collections, and staff offices 
not ordinarily open to the 
public. In each of the Mu- 
seum's four departments — 
anthropology, botany, geol- 
ogy, and zoology — staff 
scientists and scholars pre- 
pared special demonstra- 
tions relating to their fields 
■% of study. Here we see Dr. 
Kenneth Starr, Curator of 
Chinese Archaeology and 
Ethnology, explain how to 
look up a word in a Chinese 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 

Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field, Jr. 
Stanley Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 

J. How 


William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Louis Ware 
ard Wood 


Stanley Field, Chairman of the Board 

Clifford C. Gregg, President 

Hughston M. McBain, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

E. Leland Webber, Secretary 


E. Leland Webber, Director of the Museum 


Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology 

John R. Millar, Chief Curator of Botany 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 

Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 


Marilyn Jindrich, Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

slab collections, enameled stone work, 
cabochoned and faceted gems, and gem 
collections. Exhibitors are amateur lap- 
idarists residing in the Chicago area. 
Approximately 100 winning entries will 
be included in the display, which is 
sponsored by the Chicago Lapidary Club. 


"The Human Image in Primitive Art," 
which opened the Museum's new Hall 
of Primitive Art on May 1 and was the 
featured exhibit throughout that month, 
will continue to be featured during June. 
This exhibit-of-the-month program, be- 
gun a little more than a year ago, calls 
attention to the Museum's outstanding 
permanent exhibitions — some of them 
new, and some old. The exhibit, "The 
Human Image in Primitive Art," dis- 
plays more than 200 specimens from 
primitive societies of Africa, Oceania, 
and North and South America. 

June Page 5 

In the summer of 1917 a young cooper 
made his first trip to Alaska and began 
working at a whaling station. The ar- 
rival of a loaded ship at the station's fac- 
tory meant putting in twenty-four to 
forty-eight hour stretches constructing 
barrels to hold oil and other whale prod- 
ucts, but between ships there would be 
two or three days of relative leisure. As 
a young boy Walter J. Eyerdam had col- 
lected natural history specimens, includ- 
ing shells; this summer he spent his spare 
hours combing the beaches or operating 
a crude hand dredge from the back of 
a borrowed rowboat. In this way, he 
hauled up living specimens from both 
shallow shoals and rocky bottoms cov- 
ered by 1 50 feet of water. 

Born in Seattle in November, 1892, 
Eyerdam had been trained as a cooper. 

tion to be identified and stored the re- 
mainder in the growing number of 
wooden cabinets that housed his Alaskan 
collection. In 1919, he exchanged shells 
with Mrs. Oldroyd of Stanford Univer- 
sity, and a young Michigan student, 
William J. Clench, who is now Curator 
of Mollusks at Harvard College. They 
were the first in a list of his correspond- 
ents that eventually numbered over 
two hundred. 

Eyerdam's activities as a collector be- 
came widely known, and in 1 927 he per- 
suaded the United States National Mu- 
seum and Thomas Barbour, the distin- 
guished Harvard herpetologist, to send 
him to Haiti to collect both reptiles and 
shells. There he teamed up with Eric 
Ekman, a diligent and eccentric Swedish 
botanist, who taught him the art of plant 

of a 

By Alan Solem 


Lower Invertebrates 

Influenced by an interest in natural his- 
tory, however, he studied mining at the 
University of Washington, and followed 
this by three years as a prospector in 
California before making his Alaskan 

When the whaling station closed for 
the winter, Eyerdam returned to Seattle 
with a large assortment of shells. Many 
were sent to Dr. William Healy Dall and 
Dr. Paul Bartsch of the United States 
National Museum for identification, 
some named specimens being returned 
to the collector. In the following few 
years, Eyerdam continued to earn his 
living as a cooper for Alaskan whaling 
and herring stations, and to devote his 
spare time to shell collecting. Each year 
he sent a few to the Smithsonian Institu- 

Page 6 June 

collecting. The success of this trip earned 
Eyerdam a $200 bonus that enabled him 
to take a needed rest to recover from ma- 
laria and dengue fever. 

The mountains of Kamchatka had 
been glimpsed from a fishing boat in 
1925, and in 1928 Eyerdam seized an op- 
portunity to become nursemaid to forty 
muskrats being shipped from Seattle to 
Siberia, where they were to be intro- 
duced to Karaginsk Island in hopes of 
establishing a fur industry. Two pre- 
vious shipments of muskrats had died in 
transit, but Eyerdam and his partner, 
William Coultas, lost only one, presum- 
ably a patriotic animal, since it jumped 
overboard after escaping from its cage 
and was last seen swimming for the 
United States. When the thirty-six day 

voyage ended, Eyerdam and Coultas 
persuaded the Soviet authorities to per- 
mit them to collect plants in Kamchatka 
from May to September. Their collec- 
tion was then sold to the Riksmuseum in 
Stockholm. On their way to Moscow, 
Coultas and Eyerdam visited the local 
museum in Vladivostok and were greatly 
impressed by a mounted Siberian tiger. 
Returning to New York, they ap- 
proached the American Museum about 
sponsoring a trip to collect Siberian tigers 
for the museum, only to learn that such 
an expedition had just left. They did, 
however, obtain jobs with the Whitney 
South Sea Expedition, and spent a year 
skinning birds in the Solomon Islands. 
As usual, Eyerdam collected many shells 
for himself. 

Leaving the Whitney Expedition, he 
traveled from Singapore to Siberia, vis- 
ited the famous Lake Baikal, continued 
west to Europe, where he married, and 
finally returned to Seattle in the early 
part of 1931. That summer, he again 
visited Alaska, collected plants for the 
Stockholm museum, fishes for the emi- 
nent Michigan ichthyologist, Carl 
Hubbs, and spent a few days each week 
on a herring boat. The next summer saw 
Eyerdam gathering plants in the Aleu- 
tians with the Swedish botanist, Eric 
Hulten. After the end of prohibition, 
the reopened breweries needed all the 
coopers they could get, and it was not 
until 1939 that Eyerdam made another 
collecting trip, this time to Chile, as a 
botanist for the University of California. 
During the decade of the 40's he win- 
tered in Seattle ship yards as a steel chip- 
per and summered in Alaskan herring 
stations as a cooper. Another plant col- 
lecting trip to Chile in 1957 and 1958 
brings his travels up-to-date. 

Twenty-four summers in Alaska had 
produced an unequaled collection of 
Alaskan shells. Moreover, during all his 
trips to Haiti, Siberia, the Solomon Is- 
lands, Europe, and Chile, Eyerdam had 
collected shells at every opportunity. 
Since 1919 he had traded duplicates 
from his collection with shell enthusiasts 
in all corners of the world. Japanese, 
Scandinavian, and Australian biologists 
studying deep sea shells exchanged spe- 
cies from their waters for Alaskan shells 
dredged by Eyerdam from a rowboat. 
Gradually his shell cabinets and ex- 

change packages filled the second floor 
of his house and spilled over to the first 
floor and basement. So many shells ar- 
rived that new packages could not be 
opened, since all available cabinet space 
was full. 

So that he might continue to expand 
a collection that had greatly outgrown 
his storage facilities, Eyerdam recently 
agreed to sell his land and fresh water 
shells to Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum. In April of last year more than 
58,000 specimens arrived at the Muse- 
um. Eyerdam's house still contains his 
more than 120,000 marine shells, with 
exchanges continuing and new boxes 
arriving weekly. 

Today, a young sixty-nine, Walter 
Eyerdam is recognized not only as an 
expert collector, but as an authority on 
shells, mosses, and minerals. Numerous 
species have been named after him 
and his collections have formed, and 
will continue to form, the basis of many 
scientific monographs. Once or twice 
a month he still makes brief collecting 
trips around Seattle and nearly every 
week a lecture on some of his specimens 
or on his many travels is given to a 
Seattle group. He even talks of arrang- 
ing a trip to a "stone age" area of New 
Guinea, to Amazonian Peru, or perhaps 
back to Siberia for more collecting. To 
keep in condition for such a trip, he 
continues as steel chipper in a ship yard. 

Barrel cooper, bird skinner, steel chip- 
per, prospector, lecturer, but above all, 
a great collector of natural history ob- 
jects — this is Walter J. Eyerdam. His 
story gives a brief insight into what lies 
behind the bare announcement that 
"Chicago Natural History Museum has 
just received the very important collec- 
tion of land and fresh water shells, con- 
taining about 58,000 specimens, that 
was formed by Walter J. Eyerdam of 
Seattle, Washington." 

Perhaps ninety per cent of the mol- 
luscan specimens in Chicago Natural 
History Museum were collected by ama- 
teurs such as Eyerdam, and their efforts 
provide much of the raw material for 
our research studies. It is, therefore, 
most fitting that this announcement 
of the acquisition of a new collection 
should feature the man behind the speci- 
mens, rather than the specimens them- 

The Unusual 
Is Where You Find It 

By Ernest J. Roscoe 
Assistant, Lower Invertebrates 

Do you tend to think of museum sci- 
entific work in terms of high adven- 
ture on collecting expeditions to "faraway 
places with strange sounding names"? 
The lure of the exotic is apt to cause us 
to forget that important scientific discov- 
eries may lie just beyond our doorstep. 

On her way to work one late October 
morning, Mrs. Maidi Leibhardt, Muse- 
um artist, noticed an unusual number of 
small land snails — probably several hun- 
dred individuals — on the sidewalk in 
front of her apartment in Oak Park. 
Not all aggregations of snails are un- 
usual, but this one was. For the species 
involved was Cionella lubrica, a form rarely 
known to occur in large numbers. There 
are only a half dozen scattered refer- 
ences in the literature, dating back to 
the early 1840's, which record such con- 
centrations of C. lubrica as were observed 
by Mrs. Leibhardt. 

The detailed environmental circum- 
stances (temperature and other weather 
conditions) at the time of her first obser- 
vation were obtained from Mrs. Leib- 
hardt, and she continued watching the 
site until cold weather drove the snails 
into hibernation. This information has 
now been summarized and compared 
with the meager data given in previous 
reports. Are these concentrations a re- 
sponse to local weather conditions, a re- 
flection of periodic population build- 
ups, or reproductive aggregations? We 
do not have enough data to go beyond 
the formulation of working hypotheses. 
As other isolated observations are 
made known (and we hope the publica- 
tion of this one will stimulate them) our 
store of knowledge will build up. Even- 
tually we will have sufficient information 
on which to base some firm conclusions. 
Had it not been for an alert layman, the 
Oak Park snail concentration, although 
close at hand, would probably have en- 
tirely escaped scientific notice. 

A second instance of a significant 

discovery made close to home also oc- 
curred last year. In late June, Miss 
Joanne L. Evenson, of the Raymond 
Foundation, picked up for her aquarium 
several aquatic snails from a lake near 
Madison, Wisconsin. Within a few days 
the snails died. They were identified as 
Viviparus contecloides, a gill-breathing snail, 
previously known from Wisconsin only 
by a single "dead" shell found in the 
1920's in a stream near Milwaukee. In 
July, Miss Evenson found this species at 
yet another Wisconsin locality, and she 
continues the search for additional ma- 
terial as opportunity affords. 

Miss Evenson's specimens are being 
placed at the disposal of Dr. William J. 
Clench, Curator of Mollusks at the Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 
College, for use in connection with a 
monograph he is preparing on the group. 
He and other malacologists are inter- 
ested in ascertaining the extent of the 
range of this snail in Wisconsin. If, as 
now appears possible, it is fairly wide- 
spread over that state, why has it been 
almost completely overlooked until now? 
Has it recently spread northward from 
Illinois, where it is fairly common? Or 
have we merely failed to look in the 
right places? As is common in scientific 
work, a single discovery has opened up 
several questions. 

These two cases serve to illustrate one 
of the things that makes museum work 
interesting. We never know when some- 
one will bring or send in specimens that 
will prove to be of more than average 
scientific interest. Of course, only a small 
percentage of such cases will have ex- 
ceptional merit. But the average person, 
if he is curious about everything he ob- 
serves, and tries to find out what is al- 
ready known about his observations, 
may well have the satisfaction, as have 
Mrs. Leibhardt and Miss Evenson, of 
helping to lay another brick in the edi- 
fice of science. 

June Page 7 


Book Shop 

The Bird Watcher's Guide 

By Henry Hill Collins, Jr. Golden Press: 

New York. 123 pages. $3.95. 

This is a once-over-lightly, how-to-do- 
it book that tells how to build an active, 
sporting hobby around birds. Pleasantly 
written, easy to read, its 22 chapters cover 
the following: becoming a bird watcher, 
equipment, first steps; identification (five 
pages); how, where and when to see 
birds; trips for birds; the sport, lists, cen- 
suses; houses, baths, cover and planting 
for birds; photographing, banding, con- 
serving birds; bird clubs (including lists 
of) and a set of selected references. The 
chapter on the sport of bird watching 
covers the following topics: "Big day," 
"Big morning," "Small day," "Round 
up," and "Rare bird alert." 

As nearly half of the 123 pages is 
taken up with illustrations, some of them 
excellent color photographs, some in- 
formative art work, and some patches 
of garish color, the text is skimpy. This 
makes necessary a reference to one of the 
publications listed in the back, to locate 
a book where an adequate coverage can 
be found. 


Chief Curator of Apology 

The Giant Snakes 

By Clifford H. Pope. Alfred A. Knopf: 

New York. 290 pages, 25 photographs. 


Probably no one else is as qualified as 
Clifford Pope to write this book. The 
Museum's former Curator of Reptiles 
kept an Indian python named Sylvia 
from the time it was an infant scarcely 
three feet long until it was ten feet, nine 
inches long five years later. As Sylvia 
lived most of this time in Mr. Pope's 
home, the observations on growth, phys- 
iology, and behavior made by Pope were 
detailed and supplied the impetus for 
this book. 

Sylvia's presence also supplied the 
impetus for many stories, true and un- 
true, in the suburb of Winnetka. Neigh- 
bors gradually became accustomed to 

the occasionally strange habits of mu- 
seum curators. The Village of Win- 
netka took all ten feet of Sylvia in stride 
and merely noted on the Popes' card in 
the official files: "Snake in basement," 
for the benefit of water meter readers. 

In this book Pope has brought to- 
gether all that is known of the biology 
and habits of the six giant constricting 
snakes: the boa constrictor, the Indian 
python, the amethystine python, the 
African rock python, the reticulated py- 
thon, and the anaconda. The subjects 
covered include senses, locomotion, 
strength, food, growth, reproduction, 
and relations to man. Information on 
these snakes is buried in hundreds of 
scientific papers, and it took Mr. and 
Mrs. Pope years of digging in libraries 
to assemble it all. 

Some of the information on the giant 
snakes can be understood only in terms 
of the biology of snakes in general. For 
this reason Pope has presented a remark- 
ably complete and concise summary of 
this larger subject. 

The writing has Pope's customary 
clear style. While fascinating to adult 
readers, the book can be read and un- 
derstood by an intelligent twelve-year- 
old. I read this book with eagerness 
and I can imagine that I would have 
done the same if it had been available 
when I was in seventh grade. 


Curator of Reptiles and Amphibians 

Chicago Area Archaeology: Bul- 
letin No. 3, Illinois Archaeology Sur- 
vey, Inc. 

Edited by Elaine A. Bluhm. University 
of Illinois: Urbana. 175 pages, 81 illus- 
trations. $2.00. 

Following are the contents of the Illi- 
nois Archaeological Survey's most recent 
publication : 

"An Archaeological Survey of the DuPage 
River Drainage," by Sanford H. Gates 

"Evidence for an Archaic Tradition in the 
Chicago Area," by Philip D. Young 

"Report on a Back Yard Digging," by 
Jane MacRae 

"Two Early Burial Sites in Lake County," 
by Philip D. Young, David J. Wenner, 
Jr., and Elaine A. Bluhm 

"The Skeleton from the Doetsch Site, Lake 
County, Illinois," by Georg K. Neu- 

"Old Copper Artifacts from Chicago," by 
George I. Quimby 

"The Bowmanville Site," by Gloria J. 

"The Adler Mound Group, Will County, 
Illinois," by Howard D. Winters 

"The Anker Site," by Elaine A. Bluhm 
and Allen Liss 

"The Oak Forest Site," by Elaine A. 

Bluhm and Gloria J. Fenner 
"Indians of the Chicago Area ca. 1650 to 

1816," by Emily J. Blasingham 

These eleven papers, two of which are 
by staff members of the Museum's De- 
partment of Anthropology, summarize 
the results of recent study, survey, and 
excavation of Chicago-area archaeolog- 
ical sites, and review the ethno-history 
of the area. Included in the papers are 
reports of work sponsored and carried 
out by Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum, the University of Illinois, and the 
Illinois Archaeological Survey. 

Bulletin No. 3 can be read with inter- 
est by many throughout the Chicago 
region and neighboring areas, not only 
for the information it contains, but for 

"Gentian Trio" by Fred E. Unverhau, 
Danbury, Connecticut. A top medal winner 
in the 17th Chicago International Exhibition 
of Nature Photography presented at the Mu- 
seum in February. 

the way it points up the archaeological 
losses we have sustained in these areas 
and the critical nature of the sites that 
are left in northeastern Illinois. 


Department of Anthropology 

CHICAGO/^ /£*- 
N ATU RkJjiilletiJJ 

HISTORY vu.33 j*o.7 
MUSEUM g«ty ^962 

Marilyn K. Jindrich 

" The relation of the Chinese to crickets 
and other insects is one of their most 
striking characteristics, and presents a 
most curious chapter in culture-historical 

So wrote Berthold Laufer, 1 distin- 
guished anthropologist and former 
Curator of Anthropology, who con- 
ducted pioneering expeditions to China 
and Tibet for the Museum during the 
early 1900's. According to Dr. Laufer, 
the reason that the Chinese affinity for 
insects — and particularly crickets — is so 
interesting to anthropologists is that it 
represents a curious exception to a uni- 
versal rule concerning man's relation to 
animals. In the primitive stages of life 
man took a keen interest in the animal 
world, observing and studying large 
mammals first, and birds and fishes next. 
But the Chinese were more concerned 
with insects than with any other ani- 
ma'Is; and mammals attracted their 

Page Z July 


Warriors and Musicians 

of China 

attention least of all. 

As a result, the Chinese have made 
discoveries and observations about in- 
sects which still inspire admiration. The 
life cycle of the cicada, for example, one 
of nature's most puzzling phenomena, 
was known to the Chinese centuries ago. 
More significantly, only a people with a 
deep interest in nature's smallest crea- 
tures could have penetrated the mysteri- 
ous habits of an insignificant caterpillar 
to present the world with the discovery 
of silk. 

Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of 

this national predilection for insects is in 
the areas of sports and entertainment. 
While sports enthusiasts in other parts 
of the world have focused their attention 
on baseball diamonds, football fields, 
bull-fight rings, and gigantic soccer sta- 
diums, the Chinese sports fan has been 
concerned with a tiny pottery jar, the 
arena for the most unusual of spectator 
sports — cricket fighting. 

For anyone who might find it difficult 
to imagine a bout between crickets, the 
following description by Laufer sheds 
light on this uncommon sports event. 

" The tournaments take place in an open 
space, on a public square, or in a special 
house termed' Autumn Amusements'. 
There are heavy-weight, middle, and 
light-weight champions. The wran- 
glers are always matched on equal terms 
according to size, weight, and color, and 
are carefully weighed on a pair of wee 
scales at the opening of each contest. A 
silk cover is spread over a table on which 
are placed the pottery jars containing the 
warring crickets. The jar is the arena 
in which the prizefight is staged. As a 
rule, the two adversaries facing each 
other will first endeavor to flee, but the 
thick walls of the bowl or jar are set up 
as an invincible barrier to this attempt 
at desertion. 

"Now the referee, who is called ' Army 
Commander'' or 'Director of Battle' in- 
tercedes, announcing the contestants and 
reciting the history of their past perform- 
ances, and spurs the two parties on to 
combat. . . . The two opponents, thus 
excited, stretch out their antennae, which 
the Chinese not inaptly designate 'tweez- 
ers,' and jump at each other's heads. The 
antennae, or tentacles, are their chief 
weapons. One of the belligerents will 
soon lose one of its horns, while the other 
may retort by tearing off one of the ene- 
my's legs. The two combatants become 
more and more exasperated and fight 
each other mercilessly. The struggle 
usually ends in the death of one of them, 
and it occurs not infrequently that the 
more agile or stronger one pounces with 
its whole weight upon the body of its 
opponent, severing its head completely." 
The period before the matches is one 
of rigid adherence to a number of train- 
ing procedures. Trainers are aware, for 
example, that extremes of temperature 
are injurious to crickets. Therefore, when 
they observe that the tiny antennae of 
the insects are drooping, they conclude 
that their charges are too warm. The 
temperature is then adjusted, the cricket 
being protected at all times from drafts. 
When a trainer judges that a cricket is 
sick from overeating, a change of diet to 

a certain kind of red insect is prescribed. 
If sickness arises from cold, a diet of 
mosquitoes is the remedy; if from heat, 
young green pea shoots are given. A 
kind of butterfly, known as the "bamboo 
butterfly," is the prescription for diffi- 
culty in breathing. 

Even in death the cricket enjoys spe- 
cial attention. In southern China, when 
a cricket champion dies it is placed in 
a small silver coffin and solemnly buried. 
The owner believes that showing such 
respect will bring him an excellent har- 
vest of fighters next year, when he 
searches the area of the burial. These 
ideas spring from the belief that able 
cricket champions are incarnations of 
great warriors and heroes of the past, 
from whom they inherit a soul imbued 
with special prowess. 

This month's Bulletin cover shows a 
scene from an old Chinese scroll paint- 
ing in the Museum's collection. The 
painting depicts the games and pastimes 
of boys — including the three youngsters 
peering intently at a wooden cricket 
cage (like the one in the photograph on 
page 2) which undoubtedly houses the 
local champion. Such cages are only 
one of many objects devised by the Chi- 
nese for the comfort and housing of pet 

For example, there are cricket traps — 
often marvelous works of art — made of 
bamboo or ivory rods. Circular pottery 
jars of common burnt clay with a per- 
forated lid house the insects during the 
summer (many potters are proud of their 
specialization in cricket houses and im- 
press on them a seal with the maker's 
name). Tiny porcelain dishes decorated 
in blue and white hold the insects' food 
and water. Beds and sleeping boxes are 
fashioned of clay. During the winter 
months, the crickets are transferred to 
homes made from gourds, furnished with 
cotton padding beds. These cages are 
shaped by the ingenious method of in- 
troducing the young gourd into an earth- 
en mold, so that as the gourd grows it 
assumes the shape of the mold and is 

permanently imprinted with its designs. 
Such a cage is pictured on page 2. 

Of special interest in the long list of 
cricket equipment are the ticklers used 
for stirring the insects to fight or sing. 
In Peking fine hairs from a hare or rat 
whiskers inserted in a reed or bone han- 
dle are used for tickling; in Shanghai, a 
delicate blade of grass. Ticklers are 
kept in bamboo or wooden tubes, with 
elegant ivory containers being reserved 
for the rich. 

An aspect of cricket enjoyment that 
we cannot omit in this discussion has to 
do with the insect's best-known charac- 
teristic — its melodious chirping. A 6th 
Century Chinese book, T'ien-pao i-shih, 
describes the origin of a charming cus- 

" When the autumnal season arrives, 
the ladies of the palace catch crickets in 
small golden cages. These with the 
cricket enclosed in them they place near 
their pillows, and during the night heark- 
en to the voices of the insects. This cus- 
tom was imitated by all people." 
Instead of using golden cages, how- 
ever, ordinary people placed their crick- 
ets in bamboo or wooden cages — or even 
in a carved walnut shell — and carried 
them tucked inside their dress or sus- 
pended from their girdles. 

Of course, the cricket's chip has had 
its place in Western society as well. 
While some have interpreted the notes 
of the hidden melodist as a portent of 
sorrow, or even an omen of death, in 
England the insect's cheerful notes gen- 
erally have suggested peace and com- 
fort, and the coziness of the homely fire- 

This July — and for several months to 
come — when the evening countryside is 
alive with a chorus of cricket voices, it 
is hoped that the preceding will provide 
our readers with a new dimension in 
their enjoyment of the summer night. 

1 Laufer, Berthold, Insect Musicians and 
Cricket Champions of China, Anthropology Leaf- 
let 22, Chicago Natural History Museum. 

July Page 3 



Rainer Zangerl 




Dr. Rainer Zangerl was appointed 
Chief Curator of the Department of Ge- 
ology of Chicago Natural History Muse- 
um at the last meeting of the Board of 
Trustees. His predecessor in the post 
was Dr. Sharat K. Roy. who died on 
April 17. 

Dr. Zangerl has 
been Curator of Fos- 
sil Reptiles at the 
Museum since 1945, 
when he joined the 
Museum's scien- 
tific staff. Before 
that he had held 
positions at the Uni- 
versity of Notre 
Dame, the Univer- 
sity of Detroit, and 
Middlesex University in Waltham, Mas- 
sachusetts. He was born in 1912 in 
Switzerland, and obtained his formal 
education in that country, receiving a 
doctorate in philosophy from the Uni- 
versity of Zurich in 1936. 

While a member of the Museum's 
staff, Dr. Zangerl has been actively en- 
gaged in research in the field of fossil 
reptiles. This scientific interest has led 
him on expeditions to many parts of the 
United States and Europe. Most re- 
cently, he and Dr. Eugene S. Richard- 
son, Curator of Fossil Invertebrates, 
have focused their attention on the 
Mecca area of Indiana, a region once 
covered by a large epicontinental sea. 
The faunas that they have collected 
from the Mecca and Logan quarries are 
estimated to have lived 240 million years 
ago. Through study of these faunas and 
of sediments from the quarries, Drs. 
Zangerl and Richardson have recon- 
structed the events that occurred in the 
Mecca area during two specific four- 
year periods of prehistory. 

Dr. Zangerl has published the results 
of his research in numerous scientific 
journals and has contributed lead arti- 

Page i July 

cles to several encyclopedias. He is a 
member of the Society of Vertebrate 
Paleontology; the Detroit Academy of 
Sciences; the American Association of 
University Professors; and the Schweiz- 
erische Paleontologische Gesellschaft. 


The Museum has been saddened by 
the death of Mrs. Sara Carroll Field, 
Museum benefactor and wife of Stanley 
Field, Chairman of the Board of Trus- 
tees. Mrs. Field died on June 1 after a 
period of prolonged illness. She was 84 
years of age. Her life-long interest in 
the Museum and a number of charitable 
organizations, and her active participa- 
tion in Chicago's civic and social life will 
be deeply missed. 




A puppet stage production, "The 
Three Bears Take to the Wilderness," 
opens Chicago Natural History Muse- 
um's summer series of free children's 
programs on July 5. The programs will 
be presented every Thursday morning 
through August 9, at 10 a.m. and 11 
a.m., in the James Simpson Theatre. 
On July 5, the delightful puppets cre- 
ated by the Apple Tree Workshop, of 
Chicago Heights, will enact a story based 
on what might happen if the traditional 
three bears lived in a modern city and 
suddenly decided to go back to the 

On the other dates of the summer 
series, color movies about nature and 
science have been scheduled. They are: 
July 12 — "Australia's Coral Wonder- 
land"; July 19— "African Lion" (A Dis- 
ney "True-Life Adventure"); July 26 — 
"Summer Adventure in the Out-of- 
Doors"; August 2 — "Seldom-Seen Ani- 
mals"; August 9 — "Universe." 

The free programs are selected by the 
Museum's educational division, the 
Raymond Foundation. Adults are wel- 
come to attend with their children. 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1S93 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 


Lester Armour William V. Kahlcr 

Wm. McCormick Blair Hughston M. McBain 

Bowen Blair J. Roscoe Miller 

Walter J. Cummings William H. Mitchell 

Joseph N. Field John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Marshall Field, Jr. John Shedd Reed 

Stanley Field John G. Searle 

Clifford C. Gregg John M. Simpson 

Samuel Insull, Jr. Solomon A. Smith 

Henry P. Isham Louis Ware 

J. Howard Wood 


Stanley Field, Chairman of the Board 

Clifford C. Gregg, President 

Hughston M. McBain, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

E. Leland Webber, Secretary 



E. Leland Webber, Director of the Museum 


Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology 

John R. Millar, Chief Curator of Botany 

Rainer Zangerl, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 


Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 

Marilyn Jindrich, Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

Close July 15 

Since their opening on June 15 the 
King Tutankhamun Treasures have at- 
tracted to the Museum thousands of 
visitors from all over the Midwest. In 
the first two weeks of exhibition more 
than 43,000 persons saw the treasures. 
Because of this unusual public response 
— and so that the treasures may be en- 
joyed to the fullest degree — visitors who 
have not seen the exhibit are advised to 
come during the late afternoon, or eve- 
nings on those days when the Museum 
is open until 8 p.m. Those evenings are 
Wednesday, Friday, Saturday, and Sun- 
day, nights of the free Grant Park Con- 
cert presented in the bandshell across 
the street from the Museum. The 
treasures will remain on display here in 
Chicago only until July 15. 


Joseph Curtis Moore 
Curator of Mammals 


A shipment of mammal specimens, 
which includes species that are very 
rare in the great scientific collections of 
the world, has recently arrived at the 
Museum from tropical Ceylon. In wood- 
en boxes tightly covered with white mus- 
lin, addressed with paint, and adorned 
with sealing wax and numerous attractive 
postage stamps, the collection certainly 
arrived in a style suited to its significance. 
From these distinguished parcels the 
Museum has received its first two speci- 
mens of a species of bat called Kerivoula 
picta, the painted bat. Like the more 
familiar red bat of North America, the 
painted bat from Ceylon wears a bright 
coat of orange-red hair, which becomes 
more brilliantly orange to scarlet along 
its wings and contrasts with large patches 
of dark pigment on the flying membrane. 
In painted bats from some geographic 
areas these darkly pigmented patches 
may in life be iridescent. 

One might think that a curator who 
routinely receives study skins of mam- 
mals from far parts of the world would 
become indifferent to any beauty in 
them. But not so. When a curator of 
mammals mentions his examples of the 
painted bat, his appreciation of their 
charm will noticeably warm both his 
choice of words and tone of voice. It 
may seem somehow appropriate that so 
especially attractive a species lives in 
those alluring Oriental countries, Indo- 
nesia, Ceylon, Malaya, and Thailand. 

No one knows much about the painted 
bat. It is said to be rather solitary and 
to live in tropical jungle where it sleeps 
by day, probably hanging from some 
vine like a dead and withered leaf. Ma- 
jor S. S. Flower, the English naturalist, 
said that he found one in Thailand asleep 
"in the flower of a Calla lily." The two 
obtained by Chicago Natural History 
Museum were captured in sugar cane. 

Another species new to the Museum's 
collections and received in this distinc- 
tive shipment from Ceylon is the rusty- 
spotted cat, Felis rubiginosa. Smaller 
than the domestic house cat, the rusty- 
spotted cat is said to be active and cou- 
rageous, and has some reputation for 
raiding chicken houses located near jun- 
gle. The Museum's new specimen came 
from rain forest in the central highlands 
of Ceylon. Although there are four spe- 
cies of cats occurring on Ceylon, the 
rusty-spotted variety is the smallest, and 
the only one restricted in range to Cey- 
lon and southern India. The other 
three species all range widely in south- 
ern Asia. 

From the white muslin packages, also, 
has come the Museum's very first speci- 
men of the ruddy mongoose, a species 
known only from central and southern 
India and Ceylon. This particular mon- 
goose, Herpestes smithi, lives primarily in 
jungle where it preys upon birds, small 
mammals, and reptiles. In Ceylon it is 
said to feed extensively upon the giant 
terrestrial snail of Africa, Achatina Julica, 
which was foolishly introduced into Cey- 
lon in 1900 and quickly became a de- 
structive garden pest. Naturalists re- 
cord that the ruddy mongoose breaks 
open the thick shell of this big mollusk 
by beating it upon a stone, and that one 
may find a number of such broken shells 
scattered about a conveniently protrud- 
ing rock, some split neatly in half down 
the middle. In addition to this kind of 
virtuosity, the ruddy mongoose is re- 
ported to have the temerity to feed upon 
the kill of a leopard, though it departs 
in utter panic upon sensing the return 
of the cat. 

While there are four species of mon- 
goose in Ceylon, one may distinguish the 
ruddy mongoose in the field by its curi- 
ous habit of carrying its long tail with 
the tip curved up. 

A second species of mongoose proves 
also entirely new to the Museum's col- 
lections. This is the mongoose with the 
striped neck, Herpestes vitticollis — the 
largest of all the eleven species in Asia. 
{Continued on page 8) 

July Page 5 

Drawing of a habitat group showing American 
crocodiles captured in Lake Ticamaya, Hondu- 
ras, by former Chief Curator of Zoology Karl P. 
Schmidt. This scene is part of July's exhibit-of- 
the-month, featuring crocodiles, alligators, cai- 
mans, and gavials. The exhibit is in Hall 18, 
first floor, west. A booklet, "Crocodile Hunting 
in Central America," available at The Book Shop 
for 25 cents, describes the capture of the Lake 
Ticamayan crocodiles. 


Paula R. Nelson 

The unforgettably sly crocodile who - - in 
Lewis Carroll's famous lines --"... wel- 
comes little fishes in with gently smiling 
jaws," is the heritage ofall English-speak- 
ing children. From Pliny's carefully re- 
corded observations to Rubens' boldly 
imaginative "Hippopotamus and Croco- 
dile Hunt," studies of this survivor of the 
Age of Reptiles have exerted a unique 
fascination. A recent publication on the 
Nile crocodile by Dr. Hugh B. Cott of 
the University Museum of Zoology, Cam- 
bridge,! is the most complete, modern 
report of this remarkable animal. The 
following article is based on Dr. Cott's 

In the warm, unruffled waters that it 
normally frequents, the Nile croco- 
dile floats low. Little more than its snout 
tip, eyes, and the back of its head are 
above the surface. At an alarm, the ani- 
mal closes its nostrils and immediately 
dives to the muddy bottom. There it 
may remain, fully submerged, for as 
long as an hour. 

The pebbles and stones that the croc- 
odile has swallowed during its lifetime, 

Page 6 July 

and which may account for as much as 
one per cent of its total body weight, 
help to keep it submerged in places 
where a strong current might dislodge 
an animal of lower specific gravity. 
These stomach stones also have an effect 
like the cargo in a ship's hold : they help 
to stablilize the swimming animal. The 
need for such a mechanism becomes ap- 
parent when young crocodiles that have 
not yet begun to accumulate stomach 

stones are placed in deep water. Tail- 
heavy and top-heavy, they cannot lie 
level at the surface like their stone- 
carrying elders, but must move their 
limbs to keep from rolling about. This 
is in marked contrast to the easy poise 
of the floating adult. 

Nights are usually spent in the warmth- 
retaining waters, which are sought again 
by the cold-blooded reptile during the 
intense heat of the next day's noon. 

Mornings and afternoons the crocodile 
shares his basking and breeding grounds 
at the edge of the water with a large 
number of different kinds of birds. From 
the times of Herodotus and Pliny, it has 
been known that certain birds feed from 
the crocodile's body. The food taken is 
tsetse flies and leeches. In addition to 
ridding the reptiles of these parasites, the 
birds give timely warning of danger. 
Basking crocodiles will respond imme- 
diately to the alarm signals of birds that 
become aware of an approaching man 
or boat before their sleeping companions. 

Under modern conditions of intensive 
hunting, few crocodiles achieve their po- 
tential life-span, though individuals in 
captivity have been known to live for 
from 20 to 50 years. Studies of the 
growth rates of these animals suggest 
that a crocodile measuring 15 feet in 
length would be about 76 years old, and 
one measuring 18 feet would be over 
100 years old. If, as is believed, the 
growth rate slows down in later life, 
then the largest known specimens must 
have survived well into their second 

At different periods of their life-his- 
tory, crocodiles utter a variety of sounds. 
There is the croaking of the young while 
still in the egg; the sharp, coughing hiss 
of the cornered reptile unable to make 
its escape to water; the warning growl 
of the female surprised while guarding 
her eggs; and the powerful, open-jawed 
roaring of the male during the breed- 
ing season. 

As in many tropical animals, the re- 
productive cycle of the Nile crocodile is 
correlated with the seasonal rhythm of 
rainfall. The eggs are laid in the dry 
season, in holes dug in coarse sand or 
gravel near the water's edge. The incu- 
bation period coincides with the phase 
of lowest water; and hatching occurs 
after the onset of rains, when the lakes 
and rivers are again rising into flood. 
These are ideal conditions for the newly- 
emerged young, who disperse upon the 
wide-spreading shallows, feeding upon 
the rich harvest of insects that follows 
the rains. 

Among the weedy shallows, in iso- 
lated pools, occasionally at some dis- 
tance inland, and even on nearby tree 
limbs, the young crocodiles from two to 
five years old lead a life of seclusion. So 

successful are they in keeping out of 
sight, shunning both the common bask- 
ing grounds and the open water, that 
many observers report the young ani- 
mals have "vanished." Since these rep- 
tiles have few enemies other than larger 
individuals of their own kind, the segre- 
gation of the young from their elders 
is probably forced upon them by the 
prevalence of cannibalism. 

Young crocodiles feed on insects, 
snails, crabs, frogs, and toads. As the 
reptiles grow, fish, mammals, and other 
crocodiles become the important foods. 
Occasionally birds and lizards are taken. 
The hunting and capturing of prey is 
characterized by stealth, surprise, and 
a final, sudden burst of speed. The 
adult crocodile often lurks off-shore 
near game trails and watering places. 
On sighting an animal that has come 
down to drink, the reptile quietly sub- 
merges and cruises under water to the 
precise spot from which it can make its 
fatal upward rush. A sideways snap of 
the jaws, and the prey is seized, dragged 
down into the water, and drowned. 
When feeding ashore, the crocodile may 
lie in ambush near trails or beside dried- 
up water courses. It is here that the 
deadly tail-stroke or sledge-hammer 
head-blow effectively throws the victim, 
breaks its leg, or flings it into the water. 

The only animals known to kill the 
adult Nile crocodile are the hippopota- 
mus, lion, leopard, African elephant — 
and man. In recent years, the trade in 
crocodile leather has grown to the pro- 
portions of almost a major industry. As 
a result of this commercial exploitation, 
in some areas of the world the crocodile 
is being rapidly reduced and its contin- 
ued existence actually threatened. 

Yet from the points of view of ecol- 
ogy, economics, and zoology, this ani- 
mal is a valuable and important mem- 
ber of its local fauna. For example, 
the Nile crocodile is directly or indirectly 
beneficial to the fishing industry of East 
and Central Africa, since the reptiles 
feed upon species that prey upon fry, 
while eating relatively few adult fish 
themselves. As a producer of high- 
quality leather, the crocodile is a com- 
mercial asset, and under rational man- 
agement could provide a sustained yield 
of skins. More important still, to the 
biologist these animals merit protection 

in their own right. Crocodiles essentially 
like the modern species existed in Juras- 
sic times, and were contemporaries of 
the dinosaurs. As the only members of 
the archosaurian stock which survived 
beyond the Age of Reptiles, they are 
of exceptional scientific importance. 
Studies of their anatomy, physiology, 
ecology, and behavior can throw in- 
direct light upon the biology of ances- 
tors long extinct. 

For these reasons, it is to be hoped 
that the crocodile — which has survived 
over a hundred million years — may con- 
tinue to live as a unique and valuable 
member of the tropical fauna. 

This drawing from July's featured 
exhibit shows the relative sizes 
of living species of crocodile and 
man. The exhibit explains how to 
tell a crocodile from an alligator 
and shows how the crocodile's 
build is especially adapted for life 
in the water. An American alliga- 
tor is shown with her nest and 
eggs, along with the skull of a 15- 
foot man-eater from the Philip- 

1 Cott, Hugh B., "Scientific Results of an 
Inquiry into the Ecology and Economic Status 
of the Nile Crocodile (Crocodilus niloticus) in 
Uganda and Northern Rhodesia." Transactions 
of the Zoological Society of London, Vol. 29, Part 
4, April, 1961. 

July Page ? 


Harry E. Changnon, Curator of Geol- 
ogy Exhibits, conducted a lecture and 
laboratory exercise at the Chicago 
Academy of Science on the identifica- 
tion of minerals, for teachers and stu- 
dents of the Chicago area. 

Dr. Donald Collier, Curator of South 
American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
has been appointed a member of the 
International Committee of the Centre 
International a" Etude Ethnographique de la 
Maison dans le Monde, in Brussels. The 
Committee will study the domestic ar- 
chitecture of the world from a cultural 
and anthropological point of view, to 
determine the relation of each country's 
housing to its physical environment and 
social organization. 

"Archaeological Exploration in New 
Mexico" was discussed by Allen Liss, 
Custodian of Collections, Department of 
Anthropology, at a recent meeting of the 
Earth Science Club of Northern, Illinois. 

Dr. Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of 
Anthropology, and Mr. George Quimby, 
Curator of North American Archaeol- 
ogy and Ethnology, attended the annual 
meetings of the Society for American 
Archaeology at Tucson. Mr. Quimby 
was chairman of a session on the archae- 
ology of the eastern United States, while 
Dr. Martin chaired a session on south- 
western archaeology. 

Mr. George Quimby, Curator of North 
American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
has been appointed Collaborator of the 
National Park Service, Region One. In 
this consultative capacity, he recently 
inspected salvage archaeological opera- 
tions at Ocmulgee National Monument, 

Mr. E. Leland Webber, Director, at- 
tended the Conference of Directors of 
Systematic Collections held in Washing- 
ton, D. C, in March. 

Page 8 July 

Loren P. Woods, Curator of Fishes, 
and Robert F. Inger, Curator of Am- 
phibians and Reptiles, traveled to 
Washington, D. C, last month to attend 
the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Amer- 
ican Society of Ichthyologists and Herpe- 
tologists. Both are members of the soci- 
ety's board of governors and Dr. Inger 
is herpetological editor of its quarterly 
publication, Copeia. 

Sea Shells of the World 

A Golden Nature Guide, by R. Tucker 
Abbott. Golden Press: New York. In 
de luxe hard cover library edition, $3.50; 
limp-bound edition, $1.00. 

There are many books dealing with 
the better-known and more spectacular 
sea shells of the world to which the in- 
terested layman or collector resorts for 
information. These books have two dis- 
advantages: they are bulky and expen- 
sive. Now there is a recently published 
booklet on the same subject which over- 
comes the two handicaps mentioned 
above: it is of pocket-size, and is very, 
almost incredibly, inexpensive, costing 
just one dollar! As far as the contents 
of this recent booklet are concerned, 
they hold to what is promised in the 
title. The selection of shells is good and 
the accompanying figures in color are as 
useful as anyone could wish. Hence 
one really can recommend Abbott's new 
publication wholeheartedly, and hope 
that it will get the vast distribution that 
it deserves. 


Curator Emeritus, Lower Invertebrates 

Drawings for this month's Bul- 

etin by Museum Artist, E. John 

Pfiffner. Photographs by the 

Division of Photography. 


{Continued from page 5) 

The geographic range of Herpestes vit- 
ticollis, like that of the brown mongoose, 
H.fuscus, extends only up into the south- 
ern tip of India, and is thus exceedingly 
small. It may seem a curious thing that 
two mongoose species out of the four 
known to inhabit Ceylon should be so 
limited in distribution. However, the 
Western Ghats (mountains) of southern 
India and the Central Highlands of Cey- 
lon receive torrential rains from the 
southwest monsoons which support the 
lush tropical rain forest that is rare in 
most of the rest of India. Such tropical 
rain forests appear to provide a prolifera- 
tion of niches for similar species in many 
genera of animals. To cite another ex- 
ample besides the mongoose, there are 
three species of the diurnal tree squirrel 
genus, Funambulus, whose ranges are all 
limited to this same area. 

How such a proliferation of similar 
species may have come about is a ques- 
tion that invites speculation. I have 
published one hypothesis seeking to ex- 
plain the origin of the species of squirrels 
local to Ceylon and southern India, in 
which I suggest that the simple mech- 
anism involved is the presumed union of 
Ceylon with the mainland during each 
glacial period of the Pleistocene, and the 
separation of Ceylon from the mainland 
during each interglacial period. (Cey- 
lon and peninsular India have been 
physiographically very stable, and the 
lower and higher sea levels of glacial and 
interglacial periods should obviously 
have accomplished the unions and sepa- 
rations mentioned.) Each union would 
permit mainland species to invade Cey- 
lon; each separation might be long 
enough to allow island and mainland 
populations of any one species to evolve 
differences that would prevent their in- 
terbreeding when rejoined at the begin- 
ning of the next union. These pairs of 
populations would survive as distinct 
species if they evolved habits that would 
enable them to avoid competition with 
one another. Very likely the mongoose 
with the striped neck, the brown mon- 
goose, and even the ruddy mongoose 
originated in this way. 







HISTORY yw. 33 

Philip Hershkovitz 
Research Curator 
Division of Mammals 


"I could distinguish large bats 
swooping about as they out- 
maneuvered the fireflies and picked 
them off inflight." 


Bats are world-wide in distribution, 
but in the tropics they are most 
numerous and diversified. The warm 
nights are filled with the soft beat of their 
wings, the clicking and rasping sounds 
of their voices, and the constant patter 
of falling seeds, fruits, and flowers 
dropped from their feedings. On bright 
nights when no other animal may be 
visible, bats can be seen as flitting shad- 
ows climbing, diving, turning, skimming 
over moonlit waters and careening high 
above the tree tops. 

All bats of temperate latitudes are in- 
sect eaters, and during the winter they 
must migrate or hibernate. Not so in 
the tropics, where there is an abundance 
of flowers and fruits the year round. 
Insect eaters live there, too — many more 

Page 2 August 

kinds than in northern latitudes — and 
there are meat eaters, fish eaters, blood 
suckers, and others with more general 

Insectivorous bats may see or hear 
their prey, but their usual manner of 
hunting and navigating, in general, is by 
echolocation. Bats send out high pitched 
signals and determine the direction, dis- 
tance and perhaps the nature of objects 
by the echoes received. By this means 
bats flying at comparatively high speed 
in pitch darkness can avoid obstacles and 
capture insects with amazing rapidity, 
up to one and even two per second. 
Echolocating sounds emitted by bats, 
particularly those of the larger insect-or 
fish-catching species, are often audible 
to the human ear. The sounds made by 

and their 

smaller bats, however, are usually higher 
and outside our range of hearing. Bats 
also have a repertory of quite audible 
squeaks, chirps, hisses and screams for 
expressing feelings and communicating 
with other bats. 

Insect-eating bats usually catch prey 
in mid-air with their wing or tail mem- 
brane before seizing it with their mouth. 
An insect too large to be devoured in 
flight is carried to a feeding place where 
the bat hangs head down and eats at 
leisure. A bat feeding roost can be rec- 
ognized by the piled-up leftovers of 
wings, legs and other hard parts of in- 
sects. The daytime resting roost, in con- 
trast, is in a dark, well sheltered place 
marked by the accumulation of guano. 

One memorable evening in a tropical 
forest, just as the calls of the tinamous 
and wood quails died out, I saw a myr- 
iad of fireflies scatter out of the trees like 
bursts of stars. I watched the light of 
one of the beetles flying straight toward 
me, then suddenly swerve into a wild, 
careening flight and abruptly disappear 
from sight. Then another and another 
of the drifting lights broke into a swift, 
zigzagging flight and vanished in mid- 
air; meanwhile I could distinguish the 
silhouettes of large bats swooping about 
and feel the beat of their wings and hear 
the crunch of their jaws as they out- 
maneuvered the fireflies and picked them 
off in flight. The evasive flight tactics 
of the fireflies prompts the thought that 
they, too, and perhaps many other in- 
sects, possess a sound wave system for 
warning them of the approach of pred- 
ators just as bats use their system for 
detecting prey. 

Fruit eaters can find their stationary 
food by sight or smell and they use their 
echolocating system in flight for avoid- 
ing obstacles. Only ripe, fragrant fruits 


''Most nectar and pollen eaters have long noses and 
extensible, brush-tipped tongues which can be protruded 
into the floral envelope." 

attract these bats and wild figs are a 
favorite as well as a common food in the 
the forest. Ripe bananas in orchards or 
stores are irresistible. 

A large number of bats feed on the 
nectar, pollen, petals and other parts of 
night flowers. Most nectar and pollen 
eaters have long noses and marvelously 
long, extensible, brush-tipped tongues 
which can be protruded into the floral 
envelope. Small bats which cannot 
reach the pollen or nectar of pitcher- 
shaped flowers from the outside crawl 
inside as far as need be to get their food. 
By their various operations in feeding on 
flowers, bats become pollinating agents 
and there are night-blooming flowers 
specially adapted for attracting and feed- 
ing bats to insure pollination. 

Of the nearly 2,000 kinds of bats known 
to science only two are proven fish- 
catchers. One, the hair-lipped bat, or 
Noctilio, widely distributed over tropical 
America, is about the size of a robin. 
The other, with the technical name, Pi- 
Zonyx, is smaller and restricted to the 
coasts and islands of northwestern Mex- 
ico. Pizonyx is rarely observed and has 
never been identified in the act of fishing, 
but the stomachs of captured individuals 
always contain fish. On the other hand, 
Noctilio is common and easily recognized 
by its comparatively large size, bright 
reddish-orange color and a pervading 
scent not unlike some popular perfumes. 
The bat is often seen before nightfall 
skimming over water. 

The dim, fading light and the swift, 
unpredictable movements of the bat 
make it impossible to see how Noctilio 
catches fish. In an experiment recently 
conducted with special cameras on cap- 
tive Noctilio, it was ascertained that the 

bat drags its large feet through the water 
and hooks whatever small fish may be 
near the surface with its long, sharp, re- 
curved claws. Noctilio may actually see 
the particular fish it tries to gaff or it 
may hook it by chance. Noctilio also 
catches and eats insects over water and 
far from water and it may live indefi- 
nitely on insects alone. 

The omnivorous bats are primarily in- 
sectivorous, but also prey on other bats 
and small, nocturnal vertebrates such as 
frogs, lizards, mice and whatever roost- 
ing birds they can kill. Large insects, 
including beetles, moths, and larvae, 
are favorite articles of diet, and fruits, 
particularly bananas, are eaten along 
with the insects and small animals feed- 
ing on them. The largest New World 
bat, the so-called false vampire, is an 
omnivore. Its body is about the size of 
a large rat and its wingspread exceeds 
three feet. It hawks in wide, smooth 
circles with an unhurried stroke of the 
wings. The clicking or echolocating 
sound made by this bat is loud and rasp- 
ing. The prey is trapped with the wings 
and seized with a crunching bite behind 
the neck. 

True vampire or blood-sucking bats 
are confined to the New World tropics. 
There are three kinds, all the size of a 
mouse. Desmodus is the common, wide- 
spread species found almost everywhere 
in forests and cattle country from Mex- 
ico to Chile and Argentina. Diaemus is 
like Desmodus but prefers the blood of 
birds to that of mammals. Diphylla is 
very poorly known, but presumably its 
habits are like those of Diaemus. 

Vampires subsist on fresh blood alone. 

All parts of their mouth are designed for 
bloodletting and drinking and nothing 
but a trickle of liquid could pass through 
their thread-slender gullets. They scoop 
out a small piece of skin with their sharp, 
scimitar-shaped front teeth, press their 
tongue against the wound, and by curl- 
ing the sides of the tongue downward 
against the cleft lower lip form a tube 
through which the blood flows into the 
mouth. To assist the flow the vampire 
pumps and licks the wound with its 
tongue and sucks with its mouth. It 
may also enlarge the incision with its 
teeth. A vampire can consume about 
two ounces of blood in one night's feed- 
ing. This is more than one or two times 
the weight of the bat. Vampires are 
slow flyers but by using their wings as 
forelegs they scurry nimbly along the 
ground and over their victims. Their 
bodies are exceedingly soft and smooth 
to the touch. If echolocation is used by 
vampire bats for finding objects they 
may also resort to other senses for dis- 
criminating between obstacles, individ- 
uals of their own kind, and their prey, 
which includes other species of bats. 

One of my earliest acquaintances with 
vampire bats was made many years ago 
in the boundary area between Ecuador 
and Peru. I was traveling with a family 
of Indians in a dugout canoe on a trib- 
utary of the Amazon. It was the dry 
season, the river was low, and we spent 
the nights on mosquito-free sand bars. 
Ordinarily such sand bars are free of 
bats, too, and we slept under the stars 
to enjoy the rare night breeze. At dawn, 
after the first night, we saw that the little 
{Continued on page 5) 

"Noctilio drags its large feet through the water and hooks whatever small fish may be near the surface 
with its long, sharp, recurved claws." 

August Page 3 




Fig. 1: Dr. Robert F. Inger and Mr. 

F. Wayne King display anti-leech 

stocking to be worn for protection 

against land leeches in Borneo. 

Fig. 2: Land leech posed on a leaf 
and reaching out for a victim (actual 
size of leech about one and one-half 

J. he Borneo Zoological Expedition, 
1962, will leave Chicago on August 18. 
It would be more correct to say that the 
personnel — Dr. Bernard Greenberg of 
Roosevelt University, Mr. F. Wayne 
King of University of Chicago, and my- 
self — will leave then. For the equip- 
ment and the supplies left in June. 

The main purpose of the expedition 
is to gather information on the breeding 
activity of frogs living in the tropical 
rain forests that cover most of Borneo. 
Frogs and toads living in the Temperate 
Zones generally have relatively short 
breeding periods restricted to a part of 
spring. We suspect, on the basis of 
fragmentary information, that in trop- 
ical rain forests, which are warm and 
wet at all times, frogs and toads breed 
all year round. 

Most zoologists now think that the 
major groups of frogs and toads evolved 
in the wet tropics. As the breeding pat- 
terns are important to the evolutionary 
success of any kind of animal, we must 
learn what they are in tropical frogs. 

The field work connected with this 

Page i August 

research program will consist of collect- 
ing monthly samples of about six species 
of frogs, making notes on their behavior, 
and recording daily rainfall, tempera- 
ture, and relative humidity. 

We also need to know how far an in- 
dividual frog (of the species we will 
study) moves and how fast it matures 
in order to understand the full implica- 
tions of its breeding habits. To get this 
information we plan to mark, measure, 
and release frogs along several forest 
streams. By recapturing (hopefully !) a 
number of these marked frogs, we will 
learn not only their rates of growth and 
movement but also how large the popu- 
lations are. 

As time permits, we will work on 
other field studies, all aimed at increas- 
ing our knowledge of the distribution 
and interrelationships of the animals in 
the rain forest. One of these problems, 
an investigation of the reptiles and am- 
phibians living in epiphytic plants, will 
be the special concern of Mr. King. 
Epiphytes are plants, such as bird's nest 
ferns, pitcher plants, and orchids, that 



grow attached to trees and whose roots 
do not reach the ground. Mr. King will 
try to discover not only what species of 
reptiles and amphibians live in such 
plants but also their abundance, their 
vertical distribution, and the weather 
conditions under which they live. 

What collecting is done on this expe- 
dition will be subordinated to solving 
the particular biological questions raised 
by study of material previously collected 
during the Museum's Borneo Zoological 
Expeditions of 1950 and 1956. 

Though we are concerned primarily 
with the biological problems, we are 
naturally forced to consider logistical 
ones. What supplies and equipment 
will we need? When and how do we 
ship them? The second question is easy 
to answer, merely requiring a telephone 
call to one of the export agents in Chi- 
cago. The answer to the first question 
depends on our previous experience in 
Borneo and the specific projects we will 
tackle in the field. 

Out of curiosity, we counted the dif- 
ferent kinds of items we are taking into 
the field. We found we had 173, not 
including our field clothing. Many of 
these items are strictly for housekeeping : 
for example, we have three packets of 
sewing needles, a folding table, an alarm 
clock, two can openers, three jungle ham- 
mocks, and similar uninspiring but vital 
equipment. Collecting equipment in- 
cludes 30 snake bags, two potato rakes 
(for tearing apart rotting logs), 500 blow- 
gun corks, three headlights, dip nets, etc. 
For preserving and packing specimens 
we have — among many other things — 
5,000 numbered tags, 2,000 plastic bags, 
115 pints of formalin, three plastic hy- 
drators, and dissecting instruments. 

We also have some delicate instru- 
ments such as a hygrometer with a 200- 




foot extension cable, which we will use 
for reading the temperature and relative 
humidity in the bird's nest ferns, and a 
recording thermohumidigraph (Fig. 3) 
for use in more accessible places. In 
addition to these we have a tape re- 
corder, rain gauge, clinometer (for meas- 
uring heights of trees and epiphytes,) 
compass, surveyor's tape, and assorted 
photographic equipment. 

As the success of any expedition nowa- 
days depends upon the quality and quan- 
tity of field notes, we have paper, note- 
books, waterproof ink, and pens. 

One piece of field clothing requires 
special mention — anti-leech stockings 
(Fig. 1). The humid forests of Borneo 
are rich in land leeches and in some 
areas and times every leaf of every bush 
seems to have a hungry leech reaching 
out for the next passerby (Fig. 2). These 
animals are interesting, but their fond- 
ness for human blood makes protection 
against them important. We learned on 
previous trips that an over-stocking made 
of muslin and tied over one's trousers 
below the knee cut down the leech bites 

With the exception of one item, we 
are taking no food from here. All of 
that will be purchased in Borneo. The 
exception consists of two cans of high- 
protein pablum — not for us, but for the 
tadpoles we hope to raise. 

All this material, believe it or not, fit 
into 15 medium-sized boxes. With such 
an assortment of things, the contents of 
each box had to be listed and the boxes 
numbered. Museum men always have 
in their minds the horrible example of 
the large expedition (not from this insti- 
tution, we hasten to add) that arrived at 
its base camp with 100 boxes and not a 
single packing list. 

Months ago a tentative field base was 

selected on the basis of our previous ex- 
perience in Borneo and study of our col- 
lections. The chosen site was in Sara- 
wak and we applied for and received 
permission to work there from the au- 
thorities in Sarawak. 

In many ways this expedition reflects 
the national and international coopera- 
tion vital to scientific progress. Mr. 
Tom Harrisson, Curator of the Sarawak 
Museum, has graciously offered to con- 
tinue the cooperation and help he gave 
previous expeditions of Chicago Natural 
History Museum. Similarly, other agen- 
cies of the Government of Sarawak have 
been helpful as in the past. Our Mu- 
seum hopes that previously published 
results of our work on the Bornean fauna 
and future publications growing out of 
this expedition will be of value to the 
government and people of Sarawak. 

At the national level, the expedition 
is largely financed by the National Sci- 
ence Foundation. Part of the cost, how- 
ever, will be borne by Chicago Natural 
History Museum and Roosevelt Univer- 
sity. Finally, the field work and subse- 
quent research will be carried out by 
representatives of three Chicago institu- 
tions — our Museum, Roosevelt Univer- 
sity, and the University of Chicago. 


(Continued from page 3) 

Fig. 3: Thermohumidigraph for re- 
cording temperature and relative hu- 
midity is placed in field chest for 
shipment to Borneo. 

girl in our company had been bitten by 
a vampire bat on the very tip of her nose. 
The child felt nothing and apparently 
suffered no ill effects. The next three 
nights of our journey were spent in the 
same way and each morning we discov- 
ered that another bit of the tip of the 
girl's nose had been sliced away and 
oozed blood. During these nights all of 
us were equally exposed to vampires. 
Yet, a single bat preyed on the same vic- 
tim night after night. Was it the same 
bat that attacked the child each night in 
successively different camps or was it a 
different bat each night? Did the vam- 
pire prefer the girl because of a predi- 
lection for her type of blood or because 
she slept more profoundly than the 

Years later, in Suriname, I achieved a 
more intimate acquaintance with a vam- 
pire bat. Sleeping accommodations for 
the first night on the banks of my Sara- 
macca River camp in Suriname were 
provisional. I used a hammock as did 
also our native assistant, while my com- 
panion, Dr. Jack Fooden, rolled himself 
in a blanket and slept on his cot. Mos- 
quitoes were absent and no netting was 
used. Minutes after turning off the 
kerosene lantern and dropping off to 
sleep I was awakened with a violent 
start by a sharp pain on the big toe of 
my left foot. A vampire bat had bitten 
me. (It is strange that some victims are 
awakened by the attack of a vampire 
bat, while others sleep soundly through 
repeated attacks.) With the aid of a 
flashlight I saw that a thin sliver of skin 
about one-half inch long had been sliced 
out of my toe. A finely honed razor 
could not have cut more neatly. I 
bandaged the bleeding toe with a hand- 
kerchief, covered my feet with a sheet 
and wrapped the edges of the hammock 
around me. All the while the hungry 
bat remained in attendance, now flying 
back and forth, now hanging nearby in 
watchful expectancy. I spent the early 
part of the night warding off attacks 
made by the animal each time it thought 
I had fallen asleep. The vampire finally 
(Continued on page 8) 

August Page 5 



50 Millionth Visitor 

On July 2, Chicago Natural History 
Museum welcomed its 50 millionth vis- 
itor since the present Museum building 
opened in 1921. The special guest was 

'My gosh, this is really something!" was 
John Witte's reaction when informed by 
Director E. Leland Webber that he was the 
Museum's 50 millionth visitor to its present 

John McFaul Wine. 12 years old, of 
nearby Westchester, Illinois. He had 
come to the Museum with his parents, 
Mr. and Mrs. John S. Witte, and a 
young friend, Steve Larson, especially 
to see the Tutankhamun Treasures. 

The 50th millionth visitor was greeted 
by Director E. Leland Webber, who 
presented him with a $500 Life Mem- 
bership certificate in the Museum and a 
book on ancient Egyptian art. John and 
his family then enjoyed a personally con- 
ducted tour of the King "Tut" exhibit 

Page 6 August 

by Dr. Mohammed H. Abd-Ur-Rah- 
man, First Curator of the Egyptian Mu- 
seum, who has accompanied the Tutank- 
hamun Treasures on their American tour. 
The first annual attendance figure of 
one million visitors to Chicago Natural 
History Museum's present building was 
reached in 1927. In 1937, 14-year-old 
John Ladd, of New York City, had the 
distinction of being the Museum's 20 
millionth visitor. (Mr. Ladd wrote us 
recently from his home in Belmont, 
Massachusetts, that he is "finishing up 
a period of graduate study in anthropol- 
ogy at Harvard University with Pana- 
manian archaeology as my present area 
of specialization. Although circum- 
stances have kept me away from Chi- 
cago and the Museum, I have followed 
its growth and changing exhibits through 
the Bulletin, and as an archaeologist 
have been especially grateful for the 
Museum publications.") Since the war, 
Museum attendance has continued to 
rise, reaching 1,307,567 in 1961, a gain 
of 63,193 over the preceding year. In 
the first six months of 1962, there have 
been 671,866 visitors. 

Treasures A Success 

When the last visitor left the Tutankh- 
amun Treasures late on July 1 5, the final 
day of their exhibition here, attendance 
figures for their one month's display in 
Chicago had reached 123,722. Between 
9 a.m. and 8 p.m. on that final Sunday, 
8,839 persons — a record for the Chicago 
showing — saw the priceless, 3000-year- 
old objects from King Tutankhamun's 
tomb, which had been permitted to 
leave Egypt for the first time. The ex- 
hibit was brought to Chicago under 
joint sponsorship of the Museum and 
the Oriental Institute of the L T niversity 
of Chicago. 

Next stop for the Tutankhamun Treas- 
ures will be Seattle, followed by San 
Francisco and Los Angeles. Before re- 
turning to their permanent home in the 
Egyptian museum in Cairo, the treas- 
ures will tour American cities for an- 
other year. 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 


Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field, Jr. 
Stanley Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 

J. Howard 

William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Louis Ware 


Stanley Field, Chairman of the Board 

Clifford C. Gregg, President 

Hughston M. McBain, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

E. Leland Webber, Secretary 



E. Leland Webber, Director of the Museum 


Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology 

John R. Millar, Chief Curator of Botany 

Rainer Zangerl, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 

Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 

Marilyn Jindrich, Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

His Excellency Mahmoud Riad, Ambas- 
sador of the United Arab Republic to the 
United Nations, and Dr. Ahmed Fakhry, 
Professor of History of Ancient Egypt and 
the East at the University of Cairo, discuss 
the King Tutankhamun Treasures with 
guests at the preview of the exhibit held June 
14. The Ambassador made a special trip from 
\ew Pork to Chicago to be present at the 

on page 8) 

Austin L. Rand 
Chief Curator 

The camouflaged inchworm in the 
black-eyed susan is natural size; the 
enlargement shows how the camouflage 
is achieved. The flower parts — pieces 
of yellow petal and black parts of the 
florets — are bitten off and attached to 
the pair of spines on each segment. 
Silk spun by the caterpillar (and per- 
haps exuded by the spines) holds the 
camouflage in place. When the inch- 
worm is on the "eye" of the black-eyed 
susan, it is very inconspicuous. Note 
the second caterpillar on the flower. 

We found one of the most intri- 
guing examples of camouflage in 
nature in an ornamented or decorated 
inchworm on the black-eyed susans in 
our garden on the last weekend in Au- 
gust. The weather was hot, 95° F., and 
humid, and the black-eyed susans were 
thriving, drinking in the sunshine and 
radiating vitality, like zinnias. 

This heat seems to suit insects, too, 
which never have been more plentiful 
than in these mid-day hours, and the 
black-eyed susans were favorite places 
for a host of them: — flies, some small 
and metallic green, some big, dull and 
brown, and many intermediate ones; 
gnats of various sizes; black-spotted, red 
ladybird beetles, little round, green bee- 
tles with long antennae, and slender 
orange and black beetles; leaf hoppers 
of several shapes and colors; little grey 
moths folding their wings along the 
stems; a red-bodied dragonfly; grass- 
hoppers, some green, some brown; bees, 


from tiny ones to black and buff bumble 
bees as big as the end of my finger; vari- 
ous sizes of wasps, and winged aphids. 
Such profusion of insect life feeding on 
the flowers, on nectars, juices, and tis- 
sues, or on each other, brought special 
predators, too, such as ambush bugs 
with their distinctive black markings, 
which lay in wait, as did the pale, yel- 
lowish white crab spiders. 

Indicative of the minute animals hid- 
den within the microcosm of a single 
flower head, we saw tiny, insect-caused 
galls on the florets, and a diminutive red 
mite which came out onto a petal and, 
as we saw through a lens, seemed to 
scratch its venter with four of its eight 
legs in quick succession before it ran 
back among the florets and disappeared. 

Then Mrs. Rand picked from a flower 
what seemed to be a tiny mass of debris 
of flower parts caught in a bit of spider 
web. It proved to be an inchworm, a 
half-inch long, with bits of yellow petals 

and black floret parts stuck all over its 
back. Imagine our delight at finding 
one of these decorated insects — the cat- 
erpillars of a greenish, geometrical moth 
— about which we had read and won- 

Last year, after having run across a 
photograph of one posed on a golden- 
rod, we spent several days in vain search 
through a nearby goldenrod field. From 
the photograph, which showed a cater- 
pillar as big as a cigarette, we had not 
been prepared for anything this small. 
Now that we knew what to look for — 
such tiny things — we soon found two 
more, and installed them on flowers in 
a dish where we could watch them 
(Continued on next page) 

August Page 7 

through a reading glass. 

Without their decorations these inch- 
worms, despite their small size, would 
still have been unusual. They were dark 
brownish grey with pale grey longitudi- 
nal stripes, and each of the central seg- 
ments had a pair of projections. It was 
to these that the yellow pieces cut from 
the petals and the black pieces from the 
florets of the black-eyed susans had been 
stuck, presumably with silk spun by the 
inchworm. The result camouflaged the 
caterpillar wonderfully against the 
brown-black, yellow pollen-dotted "eye" 
of the flower. 

Much of the time the inchworm looped 
along, in its half circle pose, and browsed 
on the florets as placidly as a cow in a 
meadow. Once, while we watched it, it 
actually broke off part of a floret and, 
bending back, stuck it onto its back. 
Sometimes the inch-worm's head was 
liberally covered with yellow pollen 
grains. The forelegs seem to come into 
play here, but whether they were wiping 
the pollen away or pushing it into the 
caterpillar's mouth we could not tell. 
Occasionally the inchworm made a 
short journey out onto a petal, where it 
was conspicuous against the yellow and 
where it ate scallops into the edge of the 
petal. But soon it would return to the 
dark "eye" with which it harmonized 
so well. 

This type of camouflage seems as won- 
derful as that of the ocean crabs which 
put sponges and algae on their backs for 
concealment or protection. It is quite 
well known to the entomologists, but 
seemed dismissed in a very perfunctory 
way in some of our textbooks by ". . . the 
larvae of these geometrid moths conceal 
themselves by attaching bits of plants to 
their backs . . .," or some such phrase. 
In a more popular book with the photo- 
graph I mentioned above the phenome- 
non was dramatized on a scale that led 
me to look for a much larger caterpillar, 
one that could be watched without dif- 
ficulty. When we did find it, our first 
response was one of chagrin, — "is it as 
tiny as this!" This well illustrates the 
razor edge we try to travel when we 
write of the wonderful happenings in 


{Continued from page 5) 

gave up and I slept undisturbed for the 
remainder of the night. 

The following night, Fooden and I 
slept under mosquito net shelters. Just 
as the light of the lantern faded out, I 
felt the bat strike my net with its wings. 
Not finding an opening, it tried Fooden's 
net with no more success and then flew 
off to find a meal elsewhere. This bat's 
quiet but efficient inspection tours be- 
came routine, and one night its persist- 
ence was rewarded. It found the wall 
side of Jack Fooden's netting snagged 
and raised just a crack above the bed- 
ding of the cot. The vampire snuggled 
inside and scurried on its four limbs to 
the sleeper's face. Sensing the intruder, 
Jack awoke with a cry, jumped out of 
bed, seized a flashlight and searched for 
the bat. I aided, but the alarmed ani- 
mal escaped through the same opening 
it had used for entering. Undismayed, 
the bat hopefully continued its regular 
nocturnal visits during the rest of our six- 
weeks' stay on the shores of the Sara- 


Bulletin drawings by E. John 
Pfiffner. Cover photograph by 
Joanne Evenson. 


{Continued from page 6) 

Children's Program 

"Universe," a color motion picture 
about a journey through space, will be 
presented Thursday, August 9, at 10 a.m. 
and 11 a.m. in the James Simpson Thea- 
tre. It is the last in the Museum's sum- 
mer series of free films for children. The 
program will also include a cartoon, 
"Romance of Transportation." 

Evening Hours Continue 

Summer evening hours of 9 a.m. to 
8 p.m. on Wednesday, Friday, Saturday, 
and Sunday will continue at the Muse- 
um through Sunday, September 2. On 
Monday, Tuesday, and Thursday the 
Museum doors are open from 9 a.m. to 
6 p.m. 

The Museum's late evenings coincide 
with the nights of the free Grant Park 
concerts which begin at 8 p.m. Dinner 
is available in the Museum's cafeteria 
until 7 p.m. on these four evenings each 
week. Free parking is available in the 
north parking lot. 

" The hungry [vampire] bat hanging nearby in watch- 
Jut expectancy." Lower drawing shows skull with 
"scimitar-shaped front teeth." 

Vampire bats, insect eaters, fruit eat- 
ers, nectar eaters, and the means they 
use for getting their food are shown in 
the Museum's Exhibit-of-the-Month — 
"Bats, The Only Mammals That Fly" 
—in Hall 15. 

Page 8 August 

After September 3 the Museum will 
resume its fall schedule of hours — 9 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. seven days a week. 

In Memoriam 

The Museum reports with regret the 
death of Cornelius Crane, Museum 
Benefactor, who died on July 9 at the 
age of 57 in his summer home in Belfast, 
Maine. Mr. Crane was the son of 
Richard T. Crane, Jr., former Museum 
Trustee, and a grandson of Harlow N. 
Higginbotham, Museum President from 
1898 to 1908. 

In 1928 and 1929, Mr. Crane led an 
eleven months' expedition to the south 
seas for the Museum, for which his brig- 
antine yacht, Illyria, was fitted out with a 
scientific laboratory. The late Karl P. 
Schmidt, former Chief Curator of the 
Department of Zoology, accompanied 
the expedition as scientific leader. More 
than 6,000 zoological specimens were 
collected by Mr. Crane and his party in 
the Caribbean and in the Pacific. Upon 
his return, Mr. Crane was named a 
Museum Benefactor by vote of the Board 
of Trustees. 



Desmids: Some of the "jewels 

from Lake Michigan featured 

in September's exhibit-of-the- 


VOL. 33 NO. 9 


Cladophora: A widely 
distributed green alga. 

There are many marvels in the world 
of plant life. It is very difficult to 
see and appreciate many of these, how- 
ever, because they are located in distant 
places, are rare, or are too small to be 
seen without a microscope. Chicagoans 
are fortunate to have at hand, in Lake 
Michigan, one of the most marvelous 
forms of life, the microscopic algae, which 
abound in these waters in a variety diffi- 
cult to imagine — and to have in the 
Museum, in the Hall of Plant Life, a 
series of enlarged glass models, hand- 
blown with exquisite skill to illustrate 
the principal groups of bacteria and al- 
gae. These exhibits bring into view, as 
though one were peering at them through 
a microscope, details of form and color 
in a variety of these tiny plants which 
directly or indirectly are involved in our 
daily lives. It is in overcoming such 
difficulties of size, distance, time, and 
situation that Museum exhibits serve 
their most useful educational purpose. 

Among members of the plant world 
which form a large part of the free swim- 
ming or floating organisms called plank- 
ton, are the diatoms: tiny, one-celled 
algae from 1/5000 of an inch in diam- 
eter up to the size of a pin head. Despite 
their small size, they have an unusual 
beauty scarcely equalled by any other 
form of life in the intricate markings, 
headings, and designs borne by their ex- 
terior cell wall of silica. For this reason, 
diatoms are often called the "jewels of 
the waters." The outer layer of silica 
is as indestructible as glass or quartz. 
Among the great variety of forms we can 
find disc shapes, with radial or concen- 
tric designs, canoe shapes, triangles, 
quadrangles, and other geometric forms. 
Sometimes diatoms live free as single 
units, or they may be united in long fila- 

Page 2 September 

ments set end to end at opposite corners 
to resemble a complicated game of dom- 
inoes, or they may be joined together lat- 
erally like shells in a cartridge belt. In 
addition to beauty of design and unique 
form is the attraction of their golden 
color. When sunlight strikes shallow 
water containing diatoms the water ap- 
pears to glow with a golden light, be- 
cause in addition to the green chloro- 
phyll common to all algae, diatoms 
have a brown pigment which masks the 
chlorophyll and produces the golden 

These ornamented little gems possess 
a special and intriguing method of move- 
ment which is one of the most unique in 
the natural world. Without the aid of 
either flagellae or cilia, which are com- 
mon to other motile unicellular forms, 
the diatoms appear to use a slow-motion 
form of jet propulsion achieved by ex- 
pelling a mucilaginous substance which 
propels them forward. 

Diatoms are a major source of food for 
all animals living in water, beginning a 
nutritional chain when, with the aid of 
sunlight, they build organic matter by 
photosynthesis. Diatoms are eaten by 
very small crustaceans; these are de- 


voured by small fishes and by larger 
crustaceans; these in turn are eaten by 
larger fishes, which may be caught by 
man. Therefore, the chain of life begun 
by the diatoms is ended in the frying 
pan of a lucky fisherman. 

Diatom "shells" form large deposits 
known as diatomaceous earth, which is 
used in many ways — in insulating and 
sound-proofing materials, paints, filters, 
toothpaste, and polishing powders, to 
name only a few. Although some of us 
may think that we and the diatoms lead 
separate lives, we are actually quite close, 
as there are many diatoms not only in 
our bird baths and fish tanks but we also 
brush our teeth with diatoms and take 
baths with diatoms! 

The diatoms are not the only wonders 
offered us by Lake Michigan. There 
are the flagellates, which present char- 
acters of both the animal and the plant 
world, to such an extent that it is impos- 
sible to decide to which of the two great 
groups in which man has divided the 
living world these belong. For instance, 
in comparing a cat and a daisy, it is easy 
to apply our classification keys and de- 
cide which is plant and which is animal. 
Such keys, however, do not easily apply 








to this minute organism, for man's meth- 
ods of classifying living material were 
made before he encountered this form 
of life. Therefore, in observing the spe- 
cialities oiEuglena viridis (a flagellate rep- 
resented in our exhibit) we find that it 
contains chlorophyll as do most plants, 
that it moves about as do most animals 
(and some plants), and that it feeds at 
times as an animal does but at other 
times as a plant, manufacturing its own 
food with the aid of sunlight. Thus 
flagellates represent a generalized way 
of life that many plants and all animals 
still retain at some stage of their life 
cycles: the one-celled flagellate form. 

Among the numerous other forms of 
microscopic plant life in the waters of 
our lake are green algae, many of them 
having unusual shapes that might have 
inspired the futuristic painters (see Scene- 
desmus and Staurastrum in our exhibit). 
One of the most important of the green 
algae, Chlorella, has become almost in- 
dispensable in physiological research 
laboratories because it is easy to obtain, 
to handle, and control, and exhibits very 
rapid reproduction and growth. It was 
chosen by Dr. Melvin Calvin and his 
associates at the Radiation Laboratory 

of the University of California as the 
green plant to be used in their efforts to 
uncover one of nature's most closely 
guarded secrets — the intermediate steps 
in photosynthesis. In addition, this di- 
minutive alga has been considered as a 
possible solution to the problem of feed- 
ing the world's starving millions, as it 
can produce annually an estimated 20 
tons of food per acre as compared with 
1 to 2]/2 tons per acre produced by corn. 
In one day's time Chlorella can double 
its weight, using only the most simple 
materials and sunlight, and thus may 
well be the hope of future humanity. 

In the shallow water of Lake Michi- 
gan's quiet areas are found the so-called 
"blue-green" algae, a group that has 
characteristics of very primitive organ- 
isms. Like bacteria, they have no or- 
ganized nucleus; in fact, in some blue- 
greens there is no evidence of any struc- 
ture resembling a nucleus. Reproduction 
takes place by simple division. They do 
have chlorophyll, enabling them to man- 
ufacture food as do other algae, but it is 
masked by a blue pigment. They, along 
with some of the bacteria, are able to 
utilize free nitrogens in their manufac- 
ture of food, which other algae cannot 

do. They can live alone or in colonies. 
These colonies may appear as filaments, 
or may form large gelatinous masses, 
such as Nostoc. Some genera move about 
by means of oscillation, turning from 
one side to the other, but the remainder 
of the genera are not motile. 

On the lake bottom in shallow water 
can be observed many filaments of green 
color which belong to the sedentary 
green algae. Among them we find the 
common Oedogonium whose various stages 
are clearly illustrated in our exhibit; 
Ulothrix, which literally carpets the shal- 
lows of all of the Great Lakes and is re- 
sponsible for the green appearance of 
Niagara Falls; Cladophora, which has the 
largest world distribution of any fila- 
mentous alga and forms great masses 
known as "lake balls"; and Spirogyra, or 
"water silk," with its ribbon-like chloro- 
plasts interlaced in a spiral form, result- 
ing in such great beauty as often to mo- 
nopolize the attention of the students 
using a microscope. Another green alga 
is Hydrodichtyon, or "water-net," which 
forms colonies in the shape of a mesh 
bag. The net or mesh is made by the 
conjunction of many individuals at cer- 
tain points to form pentagons and hex- 
agons. Although Hydrodichtyon is very 
widely distributed throughout the world, 
it is also "rare" in the sense that it oc- 
curs only in isolated or locally limited 
spots — for example, one population may 
occur in South Africa, another in Si- 
beria, another in Argentina, and one in 

Of course we have to tolerate a few 
inconveniences which accompany these 
marvelous algae — that fishy taste and 
smell of the water in the summer months 
is attributed to oily food reserves built 
up by diatoms and by the flagellate 
Dinobryum instead of starchy food re- 
serves commonly built by other plants. 
The large colonies formed in our lake 
by these organisms may clog filters of 
pumping stations of the city water sup- 
ply. However, when we consider our 
pleasure in their beauty, their great use- 
fulness in numerous manufactured prod- 
ucts, and in our research laboratories, 
the slight difficulties they may cause are 
far outweighed by the many benefits 
afforded us by these micro-organisms 
with which we are closely associated in 
our daily lives. 

September Page 3 


In Memoriam 

The Museum regretfully reports the 
death on July 18 of Dr. Wilfrid D. Ham- 
bly, Curator of African Ethnology from 
1926 to 1952. The noted anthropologist 
died in Chicago at the age of 75. 

Born in Clayton, Yorkshire, England, 
Dr. Hambly was educated at Hartley 
University College and at Oxford Uni- 
versity. He began his career as a teacher 
of biology, turning later to the field of 
ethnology. In 1913 he joined the Anglo- 
Egyptian Sudan Archaeological Expe- 
dition as member for the Wellcome His- 
torical Museum of London. Following 
the first world war, during which he 
served in the British Royal Naval Divi- 
sion, he became a lecturer in biology at 
Eastham Technical College and a re- 
search worker for the Industrial Research 
Board in London. Dr. Hambly came to 
the United States in 1926 to join the staff 
of the Museum. Subsequently he be- 
came an American citizen. 

Dr. Hambly's 26 years of association 
with the Museum were distinguished by 
many noteworthy contributions to the 
field of African ethnology. In 1929-30 
he was leader of the Frederick H. Lawson 
West African Expedition which explored 
the vast area of Angola and Nigeria. 
The collections that he brought back, 
representing many tribes of both coun- 
tries, form a large part of the exhibits in 
the Museum's Hall of African Ethnol- 
ogy. In addition, Dr. Hambly's African 
studies resulted in a number of scientific 
papers published by the Museum, as 
well as many popular books and articles 
for both children and adults. In recog- 
nition of his scholarly research in the 
field of African ethnology, Dr. Hambly 
was awarded the degree of Doctor of 
Science by Oxford University. 

After his retirement, Dr. Hambly con- 
tinued his intellectual pursuits, returning 
often to the Museum. His gentle, warm 
personality will be greatly missed. 


Allen S. Liss has resigned as Custodian 
of Collections for the Department of 
Anthropology to accept an appointment 

Page k September 

as Curator of the Museum of Natural 
History of the State University of Iowa. 
A graduate of the University of Chicago, 
Liss had been a member of the staff of 
Chicago Natural History Museum since 
1955. While associated with the Mu- 
seum he cooperated with the Illinois 
Archaeological Survey in numerous ex- 
cavations of prehistoric Indian sites 
throughout the State of Illinois. His 
new appointment at the State Univer- 
sity of Iowa will include the teaching of 
courses in museology. 

Replacing Liss is Mr. Christopher 
Legge, who joins the Museum's staff 
after 23 years with the British Colonial 
Service in Fiji. 

Legge was born in London, England, 
and received his bachelor's and master's 
degrees from Cambridge University. 
After graduating with honors he stayed 
on at the university to participate in a 
special preparatory program for the Co- 
lonial Service. His first assignment was 
in Nigeria, where he remained from 
1928 to 1934. In 1938 he re-entered 
the British Colonial Service for duty in 
Fiji, where he remained as Commis- 
sioner until 1961. 

Legge has long been interested in an- 
thropology and is currently engaged, 
with Professor J. W. Davidson of the 
Australian National University, in re- 
search on the life of John Jackson, an 
Englishman who lived with the natives 
of Fiji in the 1840's. 


A 200-year-old research project initi- 
ated by King Charles III of Spain in the 
mid-1 700's was brought near to comple- 
tion this summer at Chicago Natural 
History Museum. 

The project began when the Spanish 
king charged a Royal Botanical Expedi- 
tion to New Spain with the task of sur- 
veying the natural resources of his do- 
mains in North America, and especially 
in Mexico. The principal botanists of 
the expedition, Dr. Martin Sesse y La- 
casta, a Spaniard, and D. Jose Mariano 
Mocino, a native of Mexico, visited 
many parts of Mexico and the West In- 

dies between 1788 and 1804. They 
amassed a large collection of approxi- 
mately 7,700 herbarium specimens, rep- 
resenting many species new to science. 

The two botanists never published the 
results of their work, however, and most 
of their collection remained unstudied 
in Madrid until 1936, when the speci- 
mens were loaned to this Museum to be 
mounted and identified. This work was 
begun by Dr. Paul C. Standley, at that 
time Curator of the Herbarium, and was 
continued with frequent and long inter- 
ruptions until his retirement in 1950. 
In 1959, Dr. Rogers McVaugh, Mu- 
seum Research Associate in Vascular 
Plants and a member of the faculty of 
the University of Michigan, undertook 
to prepare a critical catalogue of the 
collection as corollary to his own work 
on a flora of western Mexico. 

This summer Dr. McVaugh spent a 



At this time of year, when we can set 
to take wing for the south's warmer dim 
for children called "Migration." 

The Journey focuses on insects, fisl 
movements east, west, north, south — and 
from mountain to plain; from cold clii 
Journey will learn where the monarch 1 
migration of sea lampreys differs from the 
fishes migrate; what bird "fly ways" pass 
flight during the year; where the black w 
the migrating buffalo in the years before 

Children (and families, too!) wishing 
at the north and south doors of the Must 
Journey has been completed, the filled 
boxes provided at each Museum entranc 
applied toward the Museum's Journey i 
fall Journey on "Migration" will contin 

month at the Museum to further the 
work of identifying, listing, and anno- 
tating specimens and preparing a final 
report on the botanical survey begun 
two centuries ago. As soon as final 
checking of literature and duplicate 
specimens in European herbaria can be 
accomplished, the specimens will be re- 
turned to Spain — as a much more valu- 
able, usable, and botanically important 
collection than King Charles knew. 

Staff Notes 

Mr. William D. Turnbull, Assistant 
Curator of Mammals, recently returned 
from a reconnaissance trip to Montana, 
Wyoming, and Colorado in search of 
new Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary fos- 
sil mammal localities. He examined a 
number of Jurassic formations in these 
western states, including the Morrison 
formation, which produced the earliest 



march butterflies and some birds beginning 
he Museum is featuring a new fall Journey 

birds, and mammals, and their seasonal 
in up and down; from salt water to fresh; 
;s to warm. Children who complete the 
erflies go at the end of summer; how the 
sonal travels of birds and mammals; which 
:r Chicago; which bird makes the longest 

moth is often found; what people followed 
western plains were settled. 

take the Journey may obtain questionnaires 
and at the Information Booth. When the 
questionnaires should be dropped in the 
Each child's questionnaire is recorded and 
rd Program held twice a year. The new 
hrough November. 

known mammal materials from the New 
World. Similar prospecting in several 
Cretaceous formations yielded fossil 
mammal materials from the Dakota, 
Mesa Verde, and Lance formations and 
from a new locality in the Hell Creek 
formation (a Lance formation equiva- 
lent). Greatest success was achieved at 
the Tongue River formation, a new Late 
Paleocene locality in Central North Da- 
kota. There an extensive number of 
small fossil mammal materials were col- 
lected, thanks to the lead and friendly 
assistance of the site's discoverers, Dr. 
and Mrs. Edmund Vinje, of Hazen, 
North Dakota. At the site, pantodonts, 
carnivores, condylarths, multitubercu- 
lates, marsupials, and insectivores were 
recognized, and it is quite likely that at 
least eight or ten orders will be distin- 
guished in the collection when it is 

D. Dwight Davis, Curator of Verte- 
brate Anatomy at Chicago Natural His- 
tory Museum, is one of twelve nationally 
recognized scholars who lectured at 
Harvard University during August at a 
summer institute on the teaching of com- 
parative anatomy. Attending the six- 
weeks' institute sponsored by the Na- 
tional Science Foundation were 40 col- 
lege teachers selected from academic 
institutions in various parts of the United 
States. Purpose of the institute was to 
review and to re-evaluate the teaching 
of comparative anatomy. Davis pre- 
sented five lectures on the history of the 
concepts used in this scientific field. 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 


Five members of the Museum's scien- 
tific staff were among a group of scholars 
selected to conduct the "Science for the 
Citizen" lecture series presented this 
summer by the Chicago Academy of 
Science. The lecturers were: Mr. D. 
Dwight Davis, Curator of Vertebrate 
Anatomy, Dr. Joseph C. Moore, Cura- 
tor of Mammals, Dr. Louis O. Williams, 
Curator of Central American Botany, 
William D. Turnbull, Curator of Verte- 
brate Paleontology, and Dr. Rupert R. 
Wenzel, Curator of Entomology. 

Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cutnmings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field, Jr. 
Stanley Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 

J. Howard 

William V. Kahlcr 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Louis Ware 


Stanley Field, Chairman of the Board 

Clifford C. Gregg, President 

Hughston M. McBain, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

E. Leland Webber, Secretary 



E. Leland Webber, Director of the Museum 


Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology 

John R. Millar, Chief Curatot of Botany 

Rainer Zangerl, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 

Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 


Marilyn Jindrich, Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

This summer zoologists from all over 
the world have been convening in vari- 
ous cities in the United States to exchange 
ideas, compare notes, and to discuss cur- 
rent and future research in their particu- 
lar zoological specialties. Representing 
the Museum at the meetings of the Amer- 
ican Society of Mammalogists held late 
in June at Middlebury, Vermont, were 
Dr. Joseph C. Moore, Curator of Mam- 
mals, and Mr. Philip Hershkovitz, Re- 
search Curator. In Ithaca, New York, 
Dr. Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of 
Zoology, Mr. Emmet R. Blake, Curator 
of Birds, and Mr. Melvin A. Traylor, 
Associate Curator of Birds, participated 
in the XHIth International Ornitho- 
logical Congress. 

At the conclusion of the Ithaca meet- 
{Continued on page 8) 

September Page 5 


FIG. 1 

For most of us the lure of piecing to- 
gether a jigsaw puzzle is irresistible. 
It taxes our ingenuity, completely ab- 
sorbs our attention, measures our ability 
to visualize forms, and, above all, it 
pleases our inherent belief that there is 

Page 6 September 

a pattern to all things and that the 
simplest, most straightforward way of 
putting things together is probably the 
right way. 

Unknown to most people is the fact 
that even today work is being done on a 
jigsaw puzzle of the grandest proportions 
imaginable. The puzzle itself was "man- 
ufactured" about 150 million years ago. 
Even the ancient Greeks, however, who 
were admirably aware of most of the rid- 
dles and puzzles of our physical world, 
didn't see this one. The reason? They 
were standing on it ! 

pie geographical similarity there would 
have to be grave geological, paleonto- 
logical, and biological implications. 
However, as Wegener's opponents and 
critics have pointed out, he was often 
overzealous to the point that he was 
guilty of playing heavily upon evidence 
in favor of the idea and disregarding 
evidence contrary to it. So that the 
reader will not be misled, the writer 
will outline, briefly, evidence on both 
sides of the question. 

In Fig. 1A we see a reconstruction of 
the "original" continent, Pangaea, as 


Perhaps the first person to notice it 
was Francis Bacon in 1620. By that time 
the first, approximately accurate maps 
of the Atlantic Ocean had been made. 
Bacon commented on the remarkable 
similarity in shape of the western coast- 
line of Europe and Africa and the east- 
ern coastline of North and South Amer- 
ica. They appear to lock together like 
the pieces of a gigantic jigsaw puzzle 
(Fig. 1 A). Since that time, as maps have 
improved in their accuracy, this same 
feature has been noted by other reput- 
able men, including the famous French 
zoologist, Georges Buffon (1780), the 
U.S. astronomer, Edward C. Pickering 
(1880), and the German geophysist, Al- 
fred Wegener (1900). 

By and large, the observation was re- 
garded only as an interesting coinci- 
dence. To Wegener, however, it was 
something more than a simple curiosity. 
He made the obvious proposition that 
the continents of the world were once a 
large, single mass, and that at some time 
in the past they split apart and the 
granitic continents "drifted" away from 
each other on top of the underlying 
mantle rocks to the positions in which 
we find them today. This he called the 
hypothesis of continental drift. 

Wegener spent the remaining thirty 
years of his life gathering evidence for 
this hypothesis. Over and above the sim- 

Wegener visualized it. (Because this is a 
flat map projection some of the shapes 
are necessarily distorted. In order to 
view it correctly one would have to use 
a globe.) Note that the correspondence 
between the actual (above water) coast- 
lines is not exact. This is to be expected. 
Each continent has, projecting from its 
coast, a gradually sloping shelf, which is 
under water but still a part of the con- 
tinent. The shelf finally drops offsharply 
to the oceanic deeps. Thus it is the out- 
lines of the continents out to their shelf 
edges that should fit together reasonably 
well. And in fact, as our knowledge of 
the shapes of continental shelves in- 
creases the correspondence becomes bet- 
ter and better. From Fig. 1 A we see that 
Australia, India, Africa, and South 
America all come together, with Ant- 
arctica in the center at the southern 
end of the continent. In the north, Eu- 
rope and North America fit together, 
with Greenland in between. 

In geology the notion of relative time 
is used to place past events and the ages 
of rocks. For example, Carboniferous is 
the name given to rocks and events older 
than the Permian. The Permian is older 
than the Triassic; the Triassic is older 
than the Jurassic, and so on. Thus if a 
large fault (fracture) disjoints a series of 
Permian and Triassic layers but does not 
affect Jurassic layers overlying them, we 

know that the fault occurred some time 
in the Triassic and before the Jurassic. 
The same kind of reasoning is true of 
flexures (folds) in rocks. 

Looking at a series of folds in Africa 
it is possible to date them as lower Trias- 
sic. In Fig. 2, the lines A, B, and C mark 
the axes of three of these large folds. At 
present they go right up to the coast and 
stop. However, if one were to move 
South America adjacent to Africa these 
three folds would be found to continue 
right on into South America. What is 
more, the latter folds are lower Triassic 


in age also! 

In North America the Appalachian 
Mountains first show themselves in west- 
ern Georgia and wend northeastward as 
a chain of high ridges up through Ver- 
mont, eastern Quebec, and Newfound- 
land. At the northern coast of that is- 
land they show no signs of waning in 
size or gradually flattening out. They 
simply stop dead at the coast. By mov- 
ing our jigsaw puzzle piece called North 
America into its interlocking position 
with the piece called Europe, we find 
that the Appalachians connect neatly 
onto the Caledonian Mountains of Eng- 
land and Scotland, continuing on to 
Norway and up to Spitzbergen. Further- 
more, the ages of the folding that warped 
up these mountains on both sides of the 
Atlantic are the same. 

Similarly, the swampy fern forests of 
the Carboniferous are evident today 
from the vast deposits of coal that run 
from Illinois through Pennsylvania, as 
well as through England, northern 
France, Germany, Poland, and the east- 
ern U.S.S.R. Furthermore, ores of some 
precious metals common to South Africa 
are found in similar formations in Argen- 
tina, Antarctica, India, and Australia. 

Over the past one hundred years, pa- 
leontologists and biologists have often 
struggled with the problems presented 
by the known distribution of various 

animals and plants, both extinct and 
presently alive. The extinct plants of 
the Glossoptera group occur as fossils in 
rocks of the same age in Africa, South 
America, and India. Several families of 
worms and scorpions currently show dis- 
tributions over southern South America, 
South Africa, India, and eastern Aus- 
tralia. Some primitive plants and fresh- 
water fishes are found as fossils in the 
(Devonian) Old Red Sandstone of Eng- 
land. In New York State the (Devonian) 
Catskill Formation is strikingly similar 
to the Old Red and carries the same 
fossil groups. Perhaps the most out- 
standing example is the primitive rep- 
tile, Mesosaurus, which exhibits distinct 
physical characteristics and shows no 
clear relationship to later reptile groups. 
Its fossil remains are confined solely 
to Permian rocks in Brazil and South 

If the continents were not once an 
interlocking mass, in order to account 
for these fossil distributions it would be 
necessary to postulate, at various times 
in the past, a series of land bridges, or 
strings of closely spaced islands, criss- 
crossing the Atlantic in order to permit 
the intercontinental migration of animals 
and plants which, though closely related, 
are now found an ocean apart. Indeed, 
many biologists, geologists, and paleon- 
tologists who are severe critics of con- 
tinental drift have suggested such 
bridges. However, when they are pin- 
ned down concerning where these 
bridges connected and when they rose 
and sank, they become vague and non- 
committal. From a geophysical point 
of view such bridges are virtually im- 

From the mass of data which has been 
accumulated by Wegener and his follow- 
ers one could go on presenting evidence 
to support the hypothesis of continental 
drift. For our purposes, we must be con- 
tent with the brief resume presented 
above and go on to look at the other 
side of the question. 

The opponents of continental drift 
point out that the forces required to 
move masses are so large that they would 
have caused a major catastrophe in the 
earth's orbital motion. There is no evi- 
dence of such a world-wide catastrophe 
in the geologic record. For example, a 
force sufficient to move America west- 

ward by 50 degrees of longitude in 30 
million years would be sufficient to halt 
the earth's rotation in one year. 

Moreover, if one looks at the occur- 
rences of modern plants of the dogwood 
family (the genus, Cornus), their distribu- 
tion is found to be eastern North Ameri- 
ica, southern China, and New Zealand ! 
If this kind of scattered distribution is 
possible today, it should not be difficult 
to conceive of ancient plants and ani- 
mals being distributed in South America 
and Africa, or North America and Eu- 
rope, without these continents necessar- 
ily having been joined together. 

On the basis of fossil evidence Wegener 


/ /-^—— A 




\ f .^r 

t| ^*- - B 


VO- A 


I ~^y 


^-^-^v si 

concluded that the actual split took place 
sometime late in the Triassic or early in 
the Jurassic, or about 1 50 million years 
ago (Figs. IB, 1C). Some of his oppon- 
ents, however, claim that sediments col- 
lected from the Atlantic Ocean bottom 
are older than Triassic. If so, the Atlan- 
tic must have been open ocean prior 
to the time when Wegener concluded 
that it was supposed to have formed. 

So the contest goes on even today. 
Perhaps the most significant part of the 
dispute is that concerning the rate of 
continental movement. In principle, 
the Americas need not have drifted 50 
degrees to the west of Eurasia-Africa, 
but, rather, each block could have 
drifted about 25 degrees of longitude 
each way from what is now the central 
Atlantic. Thus any tendency for the 
Americas to stop the earth's rotation 
presumably would have been more than 
compensated by the Eurasian-African 
block going in the other direction. In 
fact, because of the larger mass of the 
latter, the earth would have sped up to 
a fantastic rate if both blocks had moved 
at the same rate away from the center! 

September Page 7 

Furthermore, if the theory of conti- 
nental drift is correct, there is no reason 
to assume that the drifting motion would 
have ceased. It is presumably going on 
today. To test this supposition, Weg- 
ener's modern proponents have searched 
and sifted vast amounts of data covering 
surveys made over the past 100 years of 
points all over the world. Some of their 
conclusions are quite interesting. From 
1823 to 1933 a small island near Green- 
land called Sabine Island has been sur- 
veyed four times by different men. Its 
longitude shows a westward shift of 
about 1300 feet, or about 13 feet per 
year. Similarly, observations of longi- 
tude were made at Godthaab in west 
Greenland by three surveyors on three 
occasions from 1863 to 1922. Their re- 
sults show an apparent average shift 
westward of about 1 2 feet per year. The 
gap between Washington, D.C., and 
Paris. France, appears to be increasing by 
about one inch per year. Madagascar, 
on the other hand, shows an apparent 
motion of a few inches per year in an 
easterly direction. 

The modern opponents of continental 
drift point out, quite rightly, that one 
cannot compare 100-year-old surveys 
with modern surveys. The older deter- 
minations of longitude were subject to 
large errors, and all of the supposed 
shifts are within standard allowances for 
observational error. The defenders of 
continental drift, on the other hand, 
point out that such errors are so-called 
"plus or minus" errors. That is, they 
could be in either direction, east or west. 
If one were to look at enough data one 
would expect to find as many apparent 
shifts, due to errors, in an easterly as well 
as a westerly direction. However, all 
"errors" in studies of movement of the 
Americas (including Greenland, as well 
as other localities)are to the west. Stud- 
ies of Madagascar and Africa show "er- 
rors" to the east, just as they should if 
these land masses are presumed to be 
drifting eastward. 

At the present time, several groups 
are working on accurate determinations 
of longitude to find out if such shifts are 
really taking place. The present tech- 
niques use very accurately timed radio 
signals, which are subject only to very 
small error. Navigational satellites will 
also help immeasurably in this kind of 

Page 8 September 

work. Oceanographers are currently at- 
tempting to obtain good samples from 
the deep Atlantic to determine the age 
of the oldest sediment on its bottom. 

The idea of continental drift admits of 
no middle ground of opinion. Either con- 
tinents drift, or they don't. Thus the hy- 
pothesis has strong defenders and strong 
opponents. Some of the best minds in 
modern geology and geophysics are on 
each side of the dispute. In reality, data 
on the physical properties of the earth's 
mantle and its granitic crustal conti- 
nents are not good enough, even today, 
to say whether continental drift is phys- 
ically possible or impossible. 

We do know, however, that it is pos- 
sible for large pieces of continental rock 
to move limited distances. For example, 
in California there is the famous San 
Andreas fault, which runs through cen- 
tral California and under the city of San 
Francisco. The fault is gradually cutting 
off the southwest side of California and 
sliding it northwestward. By matching 
up rocks on either side of the fault it is 
known that the southwestern block has 
moved some 100 miles northwestward. 
As opponents of continental drift point 
out, however, 100 miles is a fairly small 
distance in contrast to the distances 
whole continents are supposed to have 
moved under the Wegener hypothesis. 

At the present time the solution to the 
problem can only be viewed as a 
matter of opinion until there is quanti- 
tative data one way or the other. Strong 
opinions, unfortunately, often take the 
form of jibing jokes designed to ridicule 
the opposition. Opponents of conti- 
nental drift enjoy telling a small fiction 
about an eminent geologist who was an 
ardent proponent of the hypothesis. 
This gentleman, one day, was rowing a 
boat along the African coast. As he ap- 
proached a protruding ledge of rock he 
observed that it contained a fossil fish. 
Unfortunately, only the tail end of the 
fish remained. Quickly he took out his 
Wegenerian map of old Pangaea and 
found the corresponding point on the 
South American coast. He turned his 
rowboat around and rowed across the 
Atlantic to that place. Sure enough, 
there was a ledge of the same kind of 
rock, and in it he found the head of the 
fossil fish. Only one trouble — it was up- 
side down ! 


(Continued from page 5) 

ings several ornithologists from other 
countries traveled to Chicago to study 
this Museum's bird collections. Mr. 
C. W. Benson, of the Game and Fish- 
eries Department, Chilanga, Northern 
Rhodesia, returned with Traylor, who 
recently spent seven months in Northern 
Rhodesia collecting birds and mam- 
mals. Other foreign ornithologists who 
visited the Museum are: Mr. Rudyerd 
Boulton, Atlantica Foundation, Salis- 
bury, Southern Rhodesia; Mr. Jean 
Dorst, Museum National d'Histoire Nat- 
urelle, Paris; Dr. Ernst Shiiz, Lud wigs- 
burg, Germany. 

Dr. Donald Collier, Curator of South 
American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
attended the annual meetings of the 
Central States Anthropological Society 
in St. Louis. 

Mrs. Paula R. Nelson, Public Rela- 
tions Counsel, has been appointed co- 
chairman of the Science Assembly of the 
Adult Education Council. The Science 
Assembly will plan programs on science 
topics for members of the Council and 
the general public during the coming 

Mrs. Nelson has also been appointed 
to the Awards Committee of the Pub- 
licity Club of Chicago. 

Dr. Louis O. Williams, Curator of 
Central American Botany, attended the 
recent Neotropical Botanical Conference 
sponsored by the National Science Foun- 
dation at the Imperial College of Trop- 
ical Agriculture of the University of the 
West Indies in Trinidad. The confer- 
ence was attended by botanists repre- 
senting several countries in the neotropics 
as well as by specialists from American 
institutions where botanical research has 
a strong neotropical orientation. Dr. 
Williams reports that a beginning was 
made looking toward an integrated re- 
search program which it may be hoped 
will bring greater knowledge to bear on 
problems of that vast region where nearly 
half of the peoples of the Americas live. 


HISTORY vu.33 
MUSEUM 0ci<j<* 

J\To. JO 





Left: Bronze head. Con- 
sidered to be an early 
example of Benin bronze 
casting (perhaps 15th Cen- 
tury). The pupils of the 
eyes and the two strips at 
the center of the forehead 
are iron. 
Height, 734 inches. 

Phillip H. Lewis 
Curator, Primitive Art 

Cover: Bronze ornamental mask. 

The pupils of the eye are iron and 

a chased copper strip runs down 

the nose. The mask was worn as a 

personal ornament, hanging at the 


Height, 734 inches. 

Photographs by the Division 
of Photography. 

All illustrations are from the 
Fuller Collection. 


Art often establishes a bridge between peoples of diverse ways of life. 
i Not dependent upon spoken or written language, art appeals directly 
to all men. Visual images that are created and displayed are perceived 
and, to some degree, understood. Although we do not always know all 
the meanings and implications that these images hold for the people for 
whom they are made, often the images are clear enough so that they seem 
familiar to us. 

The art of Benin, to be featured in a special exhibition starting Octo- 
ber 19th and scheduled to run until December 9th, often projects such 
familiarity to those seeing it for the first time. It is a fairly naturalistic 
art style, and there is little doubt as to what is being depicted. People, 
clearly recognizable as Africans or as Europeans, various animals and 
implements, all are represented in the art objects. 

This recognition of subject matter helps us to feel comfortable in the 
presence of Benin art, but there is another, less apparent point of famili- 
arity, also. Benin art is not primitive art; rather, it is art arising in a 
society in many ways comparable to European societies, with a king, a 
court, and guilds of artists and artisans. Thus it was made under cir- 
cumstances similar to much of the art with which we are more familiar. 

Of course, there are unknown meanings and contexts of Benin art, 
for experts as well as for laymen. In spite of this, the viewer of Benin 
art feels more recognition than mystery. In primitive art, on the other 
hand, one feels that the subject matter is less understandable, that the 
styles are more bizarre, that there is more of terror, mystery, and the 
supernatural involved in the art. 

It was not until after 1897 that Benin art was seriously considered by 
Europeans, although the Kingdom of Benin had been known in Europe 
since 1485, when the Portuguese first visited it. It is possible that a few 
objects of Benin art found their way to Europe before 1897, but only after 
the tragic events leading up to and including the Punitive Expedition of 
1897, mounted by the British against the Kingdom of Benin, did the art 
burst into the consciousness of Europeans. 

Three factors were important in the quick acceptance of and great 
interest in Benin art. First, there was the excitement generated by the 
military action and the acquisition of art objects as spoils of war. Second, 
in the late 1 890's and the first decades of the 20th Century several large 
museums had either just started (as in the case of this Museum) or were 
actively building collections, and consequently were eager to acquire new 
finds on the market. A third and important factor is a complex one that 
can only be mentioned here: namely, that the atmosphere of rapidly 
changing tastes, standards, and styles in the world of European art was 
very receptive to the acceptance of many new art forms, and Benin art 
was included among these. 

The exhibition combines the Museum's Benin collection with the large 
and important Benin collection of the late Captain A. W. F. Fuller, which 
has been generously loaned to Chicago Natural History Museum by Mrs. 
Fuller. The 329 pieces on display comprise the largest exhibition of 
Benin art ever shown in this country, and perhaps in the world. A fine 
early bronze head has also been loaned to the exhibition by the City Art 
Museum of St. Louis. 

In planning this special exhibition, the Museum has been especially 
fortunate in having the assistance of Dr. Philip J. C. Dark, Professor of 
Anthropology at Southern Illinois University. Dr. Dark's knowledge of 
Benin and its art, and his work in the Benin History Scheme, have 
helped to make the exhibition an authoritative one. Dr. Dark is the 
author of the catalogue of the exhibition. 

Above fight: Bronze plaque. A unique feature 
of this plaque is the representation of two Euro- 
peans with such disparity between their sizes. 
Bronze plaques were used to decorate the inte- 
rior walls of important buildings. 
Height, 1634 inches. 

Center: Terracotta head. Heads of terracotta are 
rare in Benin art. 
Height, 10$$ inches. 

Right: Bronze pendant plaque. A European is 
depicted riding a horse. Pendant plaques were 
worn as personal ornaments. 
Height, 644 inches. 

October Page 3 

The Museum's fall series of illustrated 
lectures for adults invites attention 
to both the American continent and 
Europe. Programs will be presented in 
the James Simpson Theatre on Saturday 
afternoons during October and Novem- 
ber. All of the motion pictures are in 
color and are narrated in person by their 
nationally known producers. Lectures 
begin at 2 : 30 p.m.; reserved seats will be 
held for members until 2 :25 p.m. 

October 6 


Alfred Wolff 

Noted for friendliness, beauty, and 
charm, Austria has long been a favorite 
of travelers abroad. The background 
for Alfred Wolffs film is the memorable 
scenery of the country — its peaceful val- 

Page i October 

leys, picturesque villages set against 
jagged mountain ridges, romantic cas- 
tles and sumptuous gardens, and, of 
course, the beautiful blue Danube. High- 
lights of the program are film clips of the 
1961 meeting in Vienna between Presi- 
dent Kennedy and Premier Nikita Krush- 
chev, and the glittering Concordia Ball, 
Viennese social event of the year. The 
film includes a stop at a theater-on-the- 
sea in Bregenz, and attendance at a 
noble wedding in an ancient castle. 

October 13 

Dwight Nichols 

Linking North and South America is 
the Central American group of republics, 
a vital and historic portion of the west- 
ern hemisphere. Guatemala, Honduras, 





El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and 
the crossroads nation of Panama can 
claim the unusual distinction of being 
located between two great continents 
and two great oceans. In these coun- 
tries corn was first produced, and from 
them also come mahogany, most of the 
world's bananas, and a wealth of gold, 
silver, and copper. The heritage of 
Aztecs, Mayas, and Spanish conquista- 
dores is seen today in Central America's 
architecture and customs. And like the 
varied population it supports, the Cen- 
tral American landscape presents many 
"faces" — ancient ruins, jungles, smoking 
volcanoes, the Panama Canal and the 
scenic glories of the Pan-American High- 

October 20 


Paul D. R. Ruthling 

The education of a naturalist's chil- 
dren living in our southwestern Indian 
country presents quite a contrast to the 
education usually acquired in the large 
eastern and midwestern cities of the 
United States. Paul D. R. Ruthling 
gives a sensitive description of "growing 
up" in the Southwest in a first-hand film 
account of the daily life of his two little 
daughters on a 560-acre ranch border- 
ing the Indian pueblo of Tesuque, seven 
miles north of Santa Fe. At his ranch 
and in Scottsdale, Arizona (his winter 
base), Ruthling studies reptiles and works 
with the Indians of the Southwest, en- 
couraging their crafts and arts and pub- 
licizing their work through exhibits and 
lectures. His children's adventures with 
the Indians and with the animals of the 
area provide the theme for this warm 
and personal film-lecture. 




October 27 



Hjordis Kittel Parker 

Five university students enjoying a 
day in the Tivoli gardens in Copen- 
hagen provide Mrs. Parker the means 
for introducing five distinctly different 
parts of the Kingdom of Denmark. For 
those who think of Denmark only in 
terms of Copenhagen, the film holds 
some startling surprises, for in this small 
country can be found a wide cross-sec- 
tion of cultures. Through flashbacks to 
the earlier lives of the students, each of 
whom comes from a different part of the 
country, the story of Denmark's diverse 
cultures is told — the dairy and farming 
people of Jutland who work all day 
against a landscape of idyllic beauty; 
the fishermen of the island of Bornholm, 
in the Baltic sea, whose existence depends 
on filling their nets with silvery herring; 
the fairytale atmosphere of Odense, 
home of Hans Christian Andersen; and 
Arctic Greenland — the world's largest 
island — whose inhabitants live in mud 
huts and modern homes and pursue a 
frugal but vigorous life along its coasts. 

November 3 


Thayer Soule 

Thousands of miles of back roads in 
rolling green countryside; villages of 
thatched cottages and mellow stone 
houses — this is the England that many 
visitors never see, the England that de- 
fies stereotyping. Thayer Soule follows 
the island's winding roads, taking his 
camera over the moors, where wild po- 

nies roam; far away to rocky headlands; 
past the sea, with its white beaches and 
quiet coves, to fishing towns and ruined 
castles; along rivers lazing through green 
fields; and down to the shores of moun- 
tain rimmed lakes. Although Soule's 
intent is to present the less familiar by- 
ways of Britain, he does not fail to in- 
clude a touch of the pageantry that is 
part of every Englishman's heritage — 
in particular, the majestic State Open- 
ing of Parliament by the Queen. 

November IO 

William Ferguson 

A motion picture journey of 600 mil- 
lion miles at first sounds incredible, yet 
every one of us travels that distance an- 

nually as the earth orbits the sun. Wil- 
liam Ferguson's film records such a 
journey in the form of a trip through 
the seasons. The stage is the entire 
United States — its fertile Midwest, its 
contrasts of mountains and prairies, for- 
ests and deserts, and shorelines — east, 
west, and south. Beginning with New 
Year's Day, each month passes in turn, 
its cast appearing in a brief but brilliant 
drama that shows us the natural events 
and phenomena distinctive to each sea- 

November 17 


Stanton Waterman 

Approximately 1,500 years before 
Christ an ancient cargo ship met disas- 
ter off the Asia Minor coast and sank 
100 feet to the bottom of the sea. More 
than 3,000 years later, during the sum- 
mer of 1959, an American diving expe- 
dition discovered the wreck. As the 
ship's cargo of copper ingots, bronze 
weapons, and tools was raised to the sur- 
face, Stanton Waterman, expert diver- 
photographer, recorded the historic treas- 
ure hunt in dramatic underwater motion 
picture sequences. Occasionally Water- 
man left the underwater world to visit 
the classic Cyclades and Dodecanese is- 
lands in the Aegean, and to explore a 
strange "City of the Dead" on the re- 
mote southeastern coast of Turkey. 

November 24 

Fran William Hall 

One of America's most imposing na- 
tional treasures, Yellowstone National 
Park annually draws millions to its 
scenes of grandeur. The elk, moose, 
coyote, antelope, buffalo, and black bear 
have somehow learned to live with these 
human visitors and seem almost tolerant 
of their sight-seeing. But Hall is par- 
ticularly interested in Yellowstone "out 
of season" when the people are gone and 
the wildlife is undisturbed. It is this 
Yellowstone that he captures in film, 
presenting the great park's aspects and 
moods that few people have ever seen. 

October Page 5 




Colin Campbell Sanborn, who served 
the Chicago Natural History Museum as 
Curator of Mammals from 1936 to 1955, 
died on August 28, 1962, at the age of 65 
at his home in Marcella, Arkansas. He 
had retired from active work at the Mu- 
seum in 1955. News of his death was re- 
ceived with deep regret by the many 
members of the staff who had been his 
friends and colleagues during his 33 
years of association with the Museum. 

Born June 12, 1897, and educated in 
public schools in Evanston, Illinois, Mr. 
Sanborn came to the Museum in 1922 as 
a preparator in the Division of Birds. In 
1924 he transferred his interests from 
birds to mammals but retained a certain 
consistency by specializing in mammals 
that fly. Appointed Assistant Curator of 
Mammals in 1931, he became Curator 
of Mammals in 1937. 

To permit him to visit the British Mu- 
seum in 1 948, for a six months' study of 
bats, Sanborn was awarded a fellowship 
by the John Simon Guggenheim Memo- 
rial Foundation. His achievement of au- 
thority on bats of the world led to his be- 
coming a Special Consultant to the 
Unite*! States Public Health Service in 
1953, when the country became aroused 
over transmittal of rabies to people by 
bats. In this capacity he made an ex- 
tensive field trip to Trinidad. He re- 
ceived a five-year National Science 
Foundation grant in 1954 for a world- 
wide study of the Microchiroptera. 

Curator Sanborn made seven expedi- 
tions for the Museum, to Peru, Chile, 
Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, the Aleu- 
tian Islands, and Thailand. He was an 
active member of the American Society 
of Mammalogists for many years and 
served both on its board of directors and 
as a trustee. He was a charter member 
of the Kennicott Club, a limited mem- 
bership club of naturalists in the Chi- 
cago area, and served it in various ca- 
pacities, including president. 

Colin Campbell Sanborn published 
23 scientific papers in Fieldiana: £ool- 


ogy, 19 scientific papers and notes in the 
Journal of Mammalogy, 15 papers in 7 
other scientific journals in the United 
States and 12 papers in 8 scientific jour- 
nals of other countries. 

Sanborn served two years in World 
War I in the field artillery. He entered 
World War II commissioned direct in 
the navy as a senior grade Lieutenant, 
and during his 3J^ years of service ad- 
vanced to the rank of Lieutenant Com- 
mander, serving principally at Lima, 
Peru. He is survived by his wife, Cath- 
erine Sanborn, who lives in Marcella, 
Arkansas, and two adult daughters, 
Louise Ann and Judith. An especially 
able field man, "Sandy" was liked and 
respected not only by his colleagues in 
the Museum but by his contemporaries 
in other institutions, as well. 


During the past year several new gems 
have Ijeen added to the exhibits in Higin- 
botham Hall. Mrs. Cyril L. Ward of 
Evanston generously donated five excel- 
lent opal pieces. These are mounted as 
pins and pendants, each one framed in 
gold with diamond and ruby settings. 

Through purchase from the Mrs. Joan 
A. Chalmers Fund, the Museum ac- 
quired a large crystal (in the rough) of 
the gem, kunzite. The crystal weighs 
three and one-half pounds. Kunzite 
crystals of this size are exceedingly rare. 

Most recently, a beautiful cornucopia 
clip of diamonds set in platinum was 
placed on exhibit in the Hall of Gems. 
The clip contains several hundred dia- 
monds, the largest of which are close to 
one carat. This fine piece was given 
jointly by Mr. Seymour Oppenheimer, 
Mrs. Edward H. Oppenheimer, and 
Mrs. Edward Weiss. 


In recent years, many gifts have been 
received from Members and friends of 
the Museum, in memory of departed 
friends and relatives. 

In view of the increasing number of 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbaah 2-9410 


Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field, Jr. 
Stanley Field 
Cliflord C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 

William V. Kahhr 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Louis Ware 

J. Howard Wood 


Stanley Field, Chairman ol the Board 

Clifford C. Gregg, President 

Hughaton M. McBain, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

E. Leland Webber, Secretary 



E. Leland Webber, Director of the Museum 


Paul S. Martin, Chiel Curator ol Anthropology 

John R. Millar, Chiel Curator of Botany 

Rainer Zangerl, Chiel Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chiel Curator of Zoology 


Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 


Marilyn Jindrich, Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 

promptly of changes of address. 

these memorial gifts, the Museum has 
now inaugurated a Museum Memorial 
Fund into which all such gifts may be 
placed. This will assure that a perma- 
nent record will be kept of all persons 
thus honored, together with the names 
of those who send gifts in their honor. 

This fund will not replace any of the 
memorial funds now on the records of 
the Museum, nor will it prevent the 
founding of specific memorial funds in 
the future. It will, however, provide a 
lasting record of the thoughtfulness of 
friends of the Museum in honoring those 
whom they held in esteem. 

Those wishing to honor departed 
friends or relatives need only write to 
the Museum. Appropriate notice of gifts 
received will be sent to the next of kin, 
or other person designated by the donor. 
(Continued on page 8) 



The law of the conservation of en- 
ergy is a fundamental principle in 
the operation of our physical universe. 
Stated in everyday words it says that 
you can obtain only as much energy out 
of a system as you put into it. 

As an example we might consider a 
boy standing in a cornfield throwing a 
large stone straight up into the air. In 
order to throw the stone upward he has 
to put a certain amount of energy be- 
hind it. When the stone has reached the 
top of its climb this energy is nullified by 
the gravitational pull of the earth, which 
pulls it back down. As the stone falls it 
goes faster and faster and finally hits the 
ground. When it hits, it stops dead. All 
of its energy of motion is transformed 
into frictional heat energy. Literally, 
the stone warms the ground under itself 
very slightly for a brief time until the 
heat diffuses away. 

In an ideal situation the energy lost 

we haven't drifted away from it. The 
answer is "no." Why? Because light 
and fluorescence of light are forms of 
energy also. 

Sunlight, for example, is known to 
consist of a mixture of colors from infra- 
red through red, orange, yellow, green, 
blue, and violet to ultraviolet. The mix- 
ing together of these colors produces 
what we call white light. However, as 
we know, we can use a prism to break 
up white light into its various colors. 
Each pure color has its own particular 
wavelength. As the word "wavelength" 
implies, light has certain characteristics 
of waves, behaving much like waves in 
a lake. However, the wavelengths for 
light are exceedingly small. For exam- 
ple, red light's wavelength is about 26 
millionths of an inch, while ultraviolet 
light's wavelength is only 15 millionths 
of an inch. To us these are very small 
numbers. But to an atom inside a crys- 



in heating up the ground is equal to the 
energy the boy put into throwing the 
stone. Thus, energy was transferred 
from the boy to the ground by way of 
the stone's motion, but the total energy 
of the situation has not changed one bit. 
What the boy lost, the ground gained. 

To carry this idealized situation a step 
further, suppose the heat released where 
the stone fell were totally absorbed by a 
corn plant growing beside the boy. If 
the boy were to eat the corn (containing 
a certain number of calories — that is, 
energy), he would gain back the energy 
he used to throw the stone, and we 
would be back where we started. 

This concept of the conservation of 
energy governs every process, from the 
burning of a match to an atomic explo- 
sion, from the throwing of a stone to the 
propelling of a rocket ship into space. 
But the subject of this article is fluores- 
cence in minerals, and you might ask if 

tal they are relatively large, because 
most atoms have dimensions of only 
about 5 billionths of an inch ! 

Most minerals are transparent to most 
wavelengths of light. That is, light 
passes through and out of the minerals 
just as the boy's stone passed through 
the air. The air in that case was dis- 
turbed slightly, but not seriously. How- 
ever, the atoms in some crystals become 
radically disturbed when light of very 
short wavelength (ultraviolet) impinges 
upon them. Instead of all the light 
passing through, some of the energy of 
the light is absorbed, causing a brief dis- 
ruption in the arrangement of atoms in 
the mineral, in the same way that the 
stone briefly warmed the ground that 
it hit. 

To understand this better, we might 
imagine ourselves sitting in a small row- 
boat in Lake Michigan when a strong 
wind is blowing. Suppose we were rid- 

ing over waves that were 100 feet high. 
If these wave crests were a mile apart 
(that is, had a wavelength of one mile) 
we would rise slowly 1 00 feet and gently 
slide down the trough between the waves. 
We would be in no serious danger. How- 
ever, suppose the crest-to-crest distance 
became shorter and shorter. When the 
crests were half a mile apart, we would 
still ride them out smoothly. But when 
they came to be a thousand feet apart 
we would be experiencing something 
like a roller coaster ride. When they 
reduced to 100 feet, we would be vio- 
lently shoved upward 100 feet and 
slammed down again. We are now in 
danger of being turned over because we 
are being hit with large amounts of en- 
ergy in short intervals of time. 

When very short wave ultraviolet light 
disrupts the atoms in a mineral in this 
same way, it imparts to them a large 
part of its "up and down" energy. The 
atoms attempt to go back to their stable 
positions, and in doing so they give off 
the energy they receive in accordance 
with the law of the conservation of en- 
ergy. This energy is emitted from the 
mineral in the form of light waves again. 
The wavelength might be blue, green, 
yellow, red, etc. The color will depend 
on the kinds of atoms in the mineral. 
Thus, the mineral is said to fluoresce. 
The length of time it fluoresces de- 
pends, again, on the kinds of atoms pres- 
ent and the time it takes them to settle 
down once the light has been shut off. 
For some minerals this time may be 
several minutes. These exhibit a slow 
fading away of their fluorescence, and 
are said to be luminescent. 

Probably the best fluorescent sub- 
stances in the mineral kingdom are those 
minerals which have the atom calcium 
in them. Good examples are calcite, 
fluorite, scheelite, and autunite. The 
colors which these minerals fluoresce 
under ultraviolet light depend to some 
extent upon the other kinds of atoms 
present. Calcite will fluoresce pink, 
yellow, and carmine red. Scheelite usu- 
ally fluoresces yellow to light blue. Fluo- 
(Continued on page 8) 

October Page 7 

rite usually fluoresces blue, while autu- 
nite fluoresces light green. The color 
which a fluorescent mineral gives off is 
in no way related to its color as you see 
it in normal light. 

It is not even possible, at present, to 
predict whether visible fluorescence will 
occur. We know that some calcium min- 
erals usually fluoresce well, yet the com- 
mon mineral gypsum (also a calcium- 
bearing mineral) does not fluoresce in 
ultraviolet light. The property of fluo- 
rescence seems to depend in part on the 
way the atoms are arranged in a partic- 
ular mineral. A certain symmetry of 
arrangement controls the freedom with 
which the fluorescing atom may react 
to the incident ultraviolet light. Going 
back to our analogy of the boat in Lake 
Michigan, suppose, instead of a row- 
boat, we were in a large freight boat 
loaded with fifty thousand tons of iron 
ore from Minnesota. Such a massive 
boat would still heave up and down but 
would react more sluggishly to the waves 
pounding it. Further, let us imagine 
that the boat is firmly anchored to the 
bottom. The waves would wash over it 
but it would move only a little, being 
fixed in place by the lengths of anchor 
chain. So the atoms in some minerals 

may be thought to be more firmly "an- 
chored" than in other minerals. 

However, it is possible to obtain fluo- 
rescence from all minerals if we use wave- 
lengths of light even shorter than the 
ultraviolet. These very short wave- 
lengths of around 40 billionths of an 
inch are called X-rays. Under X-rays 
all minerals fluoresce. Unfortunately, 
they fluoresce "colors" which have X-ray 
wavelengths and are completely invisi- 
ble to our eyes. We might think of 
X-ray waves as having so much energy 
that they are capable of breaking even 
the strongest anchor chains our ship 
could put down. 

Returning to visible fluorescence, we 
might point out that it is not solely con- 
fined to minerals. Some natural wood 
materials as well as some petroleum oils 
fluoresce in ultraviolet light. Fluores- 
cence may also be stimulated by other 
kinds of energy. Travelers at sea are 
often astounded to see large patches of 
ocean water glowing with an eerie bluish 
light. This is caused by millions of mi- 
nute organisms, called plankton, which 
float on the ocean's surface. Probably 
most remarkable of all is the lumines- 
cence of some jellyfish and insects ("fire- 
flies"). In these cases the glow is turned 

off and on by the animal itself. From 
what we have said already, we now 
know that the animal is providing en- 
ergy, in some form, to cause it to glow 
in this way. How it does this is now 
fairly well understood. The animal sup- 
plies chemical energy to a certain mole- 
cule which absorbs the energy and gives 
off light of equal energy. 

Fluorescence in minerals is viewed 
with awe by many people. However, 
as we have attempted to show in this 
article, it is only an example of the law 
of conservation of energy. In our world 
and in the spaces beyond, this law is 
operating at all times, in all processes. 
It is also evident in every machine we 
build and use. We put energy into an 
auto in the form of gasoline, and from it 
we obtain energy in another form — the 
forward motion of the car. 

Recently the Museum has installed 
new ultraviolet lights in its exhibit case 
of fluorescent minerals. These lights 
operate on a timer so that one may see 
specimens of minerals, woods, and oils 
change their colors as the lights switch 
from white to ultraviolet. The case, 
located in the corridor between Halls 36 
and 37 (second floor, west), is the Mu- 
seum's exhibit-of-the-month for October. 


(Continued from page 6) 


Two Museum staff members received 
the Doctor of Philosophy degree from 
the University of Chicago at the convo- 
cation held August 31. The Ph.D. in 
Zoology was conferred upon Dr. Rupert 
L. Wenzel, Curator of Insects, while Dr. 
Bertram G. Woodland, Associate Cura- 
tor of Petrology, received his doctorate 
in Geology. Recently Dr. Wenzel was 
appointed Lecturer in the Department 
of Zoology of the University of Chicago. 


The Orpheon Chorus of Coimbra, a 
male choral group from Portugal now on 
its first American tour, will open the 
fourth season of musical events to be pre- 
sented in Chicago by the Free Concerts 
Foundation. Considered one of the finest 
choral groups of Europe, the 80 mem- 
bers of the Orpheon Chorus will per- 

Page 8 October 

form, with instruments, in the Museum's 
James Simpson Theatre on Sunday, 
November 4, at 8:15 p.m. For free tick- 
ets, send a stamped, self-addressed en- 
velope to Free Concerts Foundation, 
Chicago Natural History Museum, 
Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago 5. 

Future concerts planned by the Foun- 
dation include: Julius Katchen, pianist, 
on Tuesday, November 27; Gerard Sou- 
zay and Maureen Forrester in joint re- 
cital on Wednesday, January 16; the 
Komitas Quartet, a chamber music 
group from the U.S.S.R., on Wednes- 
day, February 6; and the Lucerne Fes- 
tival Strings on Tuesday, February 26. 
All concerts will be given in the James 
Simpson Theatre. 

Mrs. J. Dennis Freund, Founder and 
Sponsor of Free Concerts Foundation, 
has also announced that the Foundation 

w'.ll present concerts this season in Wash- 
ington, D.C., New York City, Paris, and 


The Museum's fall series of free movies 
for children will begin on October 6. 
Programs will be presented each Satur- 
day morning at 10:30 a.m. in the James 
Simpson Theatre. Following is the com- 
plete schedule: 

October 6 — The Young of Animals 

October 13 — Central America 

October 20 — Children in Cactus Land 

October 27— Scotland 

November 3 — Animals in Winter 

November 10— This Curious World 

November 17 — Challenge of the Ocean 

November 24 — -The Real Yellowstone 


HISTORY vol.33 no. 11 

MUSEUM November 1962 


A report from the 


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A Field Report From Iran 

The Museum is pleased to 
publish in this issue of the 
Bulletin a first field report 
from the W. S. and J. K. Street 
Expedition of Chicago Natural 
History Museum to Iran. 

Headed by Mr. William S. 
Street of Seattle, the expedition, 
which has been in the field since 
August 1st, is making a study of 
Iranian mammals. Not only 
will these animals be studied in 
their natural habitats, but a 
large variety of mammal skins 
and skeletons will also be 
brought back to the Museum 
for further research. 

A few months ago, Mr. Street 
resigned the chairmanship of 
of the Seattle World's Fair cor- 
poration in order to lead the 
Iranian expedition. A former 
executive vice president of Mar- 
shall Field &Co., Mr. Street had 
retired earlier this year as presi- 

Page 2 November 

dent of Seattle's Frederick and 
Nelson department store. He is 
an experienced and enthusias- 
tic collector of large mammals 
from distant places and con- 
tributed the Museum's Alaska 
brown bear habitat group. 

Mrs. Janice K. Street, who 
shares her husband's interests 
in photography, fishing, and 
big-game hunting, is with him 
on this expedition in Iran. A 
third member of the expedition 
is Mr. Douglas Lay, a mammal- 
ogist who is especially interested 
in bats. Mr. Lay brings to the 
party in Iran not only his pro- 
fessional knowledge, but the ex- 
perience he has gained from two 
extensive mammal collecting ex- 
peditions into Tabasco, Mexico. 

Further reports from the 
Streets on the expedition's ac- 
tivities will appear in future 
issues of the Bulletin. 

William S. Street 

The Tehran 
Palace Hotel 

July 23: While we were still in London, 
Dr. F. C. Fraser of the British Museum 
turned us over to Mr. J. E. Hill, who 
obligingly spent all day with us. What- 
ever we wanted to see, if it was in the 
Museum's mammal collection, Mr. Hill 
dug it out; so our stop was well worth- 
while. The museum's collection of scien- 
tific material was impressive — in excess 
of 250,000 mammal specimens. 

At Tehran we were met by several del- 
egations of persons, all there to help our 
expedition. The two American Embassy 
people got to us first. With their help our 
luggage was cleared through customs. 
Then we scooped up the others, and had 
a coke at the hotel with everybody. 

over: Mr. Street and Mr. Lay don ap- 
opriate gear for hunting at night. They 
e atop the specially equipped travel-all 
nated by International Harvester Comp- 
y for the expedition's use in Iran. 

eft: The expedition members in camp. 

The hours of work for most offices 
here are from seven or seven-thirty in 
the morning to one o'clock, at which 
time they close for the day. Banks are 
open from seven-thirty to twelve noon. 
The customs office closes at one, so if 
there is any delay — another day is gone. 
Despite that, the Embassy cleared our 
guns and ammo and the air freight ship- 
ment promptly. We expect the ocean 
shipment tomorrow, and shall start un- 
packing and sorting immediately. We 
have obtained permission to use storage 
space in the Red Lion and Sun ware- 
house. After loading our trucks, we'll 
look at the equipment that is left and de- 
cide whether we can bear to leave any 
of it. 

Eskander Firouz, Secretary of the 
Game Council of Iran, had a frank talk 
with us. The Game Council would help 
us, and he hoped that we, in turn, could 
help the Council, sometime, to develop a 
management and conservation program 
for their fauna. I made it clear that in 
putting together the comprehensive 
study and collection we intended — with 
subsequent publication — we would au- 
tomatically provide them with the be- 
ginnings of a program, since they would 
know more about their mammals than 
they now do. Firouz is interested pri- 
marily in programs for the large game 
mammals, partly in order to preserve 
them for hunting, but I think the Coun- 
cil will become more interested in small 
mammals as their representative goes 
with us and sees what we do. 

Kosrow Sariri of the Game Council 
will be with us for six weeks. Apparently 
he knows the country and has done a lot 
of hunting. Tall, athletically built — I 
suspect he'll be terrific as our chief of 
staff. In addition, two or three wardens 
will be with us, also, to help us hunt. 

We will begin our hunting in a pre- 
serve on the right of the Chalus Road. 
Our first camp will be high, about 
10,000 feet. We'll get there by mules ar- 
ranged by the Game Council. Sariri will 

help us with our food list. I expect that 
with only mules for transport we'll oper- 
ate a stripped-down camp at first, and 
our food list will be shorter than we 
might otherwise have. Yet we expect to 
eat well on wild meat and plenty of rice ! 

Camp Doab 

The Alborz Mountains 

(10,900 feet elevation), August 4: Our 
first camp is about 20 kilometers east of 
Gachsar, on the crest of the Alborz 
Mountain ridge. We arrived on August 
1st. It was a long trek up. We had 19 
animals — horses and mules — to pack us 
in. Doug walked all the way. I'm glad I 
rode about two-thirds of the distance, be- 
cause we arrived at four o'clock in the 
afternoon and at five I was off to look 
for sheep. I arrived back at camp that 
night after nine, dead tired, with a split- 

ting headache, but with three rams of 
Ovis orientalis. We shot them at 12,400 
feet elevation ! — hence the headache and 

All told, there are twelve of us in camp 
— Kosrow Sariri, the Adjutant Inspector 

in charge of field wardens, two wardens, 
a cook, a driver, three Iranian workers, 
Douglas Lay, Mrs. Street and myself. 

Today we were to leave at 5:00 a.m. 
for goats, but a windstorm and clouds 
came up and obstructed our plans. It 
was just as well, for after yesterday I was 
glad to sleep ten hours instead of six. 
We were up to 13,100 feet yesterday. 
After side-hilling up the whole moun- 
tain to about 2,200 feet above camp, and 
then coming back straight down the rock 
slides, I was stiff as a board today. 
But the weight's coming off, and I feel 
stronger each day. By the time we pull 
out for our next camp I expect to be in 
pretty good physical shape. 

The mountains surrounding us are 
magnificent, and the coloring in the rock 
slides seems unbelievable : there is an 
immense amount of turquoise and blu- 
ish rock. Alpine flowers are abundant 
and we have found them as high as we 
have gone. Some of these we have 
picked and are preserving in an impro- 
vised press. 

Doug is working hard with his trap 
lines, not catching as many specimens as 
he'd like, but getting some variety. Get- 
ting ibex is apparently going to be tough. 
They stay high in the rocky areas, some 
of which are impossible for us to reach. 
There is a great deal of green on the 
mountains almost all the way up, pro- 
viding lots of feed for the game as well 
as for herds of sheep and goats. 

Shepherds travel up and down these 
mountains as though they were walking 
on the level. One herd we saw had 
1 ,300 animals, of every color imaginable : 
black, brown, grey, white, tan, and all 
combinations. Mrs. Street thought the 
most fetching sight was the occasional 
ram, billy, or ewe with a string of bright 
blue beads around its neck. We visited 
one shepherd's cottage, well above our 
camp, where eleven men and boys were 
staying. The place was built into the 
hill on three levels. The lowest was 
where they baked bread and stored their 
milk and cheese; it was as cool as a root 
cellar. Every so often one of the men 
would go down to their village, taking 
the butter they made. Their churn 
looked like a hollowed out log with a 
plunger filling the top. 

{Continued on page 8) 

November Page 3 



Art of Benin 

On the evening of October 18 an in- 
terested audience of several hundred 
Members and guests enjoyed a preview 
glimpse of the Museum's new exhibi- 
tion, "The Art of Benin," which opened 
to the public the following day. 

More than 330 objects from Benin — 
the largest number ever assembled in 
this country — trace the artistic and cul- 
tural life of this historic African kingdom 
from the time of its discovery by Portu- 
guese travelers in 1485 down to the pres- 
ent century. Members who missed the 
preview are urged to schedule an early 
visit to this unique exhibition, since it 
will remain on display through Decem- 
ber 9 only. 

New Research 

on Tropical Insects 

Biting insects which are suspected car- 
riers of tropical diseases will be studied 
under a three-year grant to Chicago 

Top: Mr. Phillip H. Lewis, Curator 
of Primitive Art, discusses a magnifi- 
cently carved elephant tusk with Mr. 
Charles Okpala, Nigerian student at 
the University of Chicago. 

Center: Dr. Donald Collier, Curator 
of South American Archaeology and 
Ethnology, answers questions from a 
group of Members. 

Left: Members of the Museum's 
Board of Trustees, and distinguished 
anthropologists from the Chicago area 
and abroad, congratulate Dr. Philip 
J. C. Dark (center), Professor of An- 
thropology at Southern Illinois Univer- 
sity, who was consultant for the exhibi- 
tion. Reading from left to right: Dr. 
Clifford C. Gregg, President; Mr. 
Joseph N Field, Second Vice Presi- 
dent; Dr. Dark; Dr. Fred Eggan, 
Chairman, Department of Anthropol- 
ogy, University of Chicago; Dr. Mel- 
ville J. Herskovits, Director, The Af- 
rican Institute, Northwestern Univer- 
sity; Dr. Adrian A. Gerbrands, Asso- 
ciate Director, The Royal Museum of 
Ethnography, Leiden, Netherlands. 

Natural History Museum from the United 
States Army Medical Research and De- 
velopment Command. 

Director of the study is Dr. Rupert L. 
Wenzel, Curator of Insects. As Malari- 
ologist for the U. S. Army in Brazil dur- 
ing World War II, Wenzel organized 
the Army's program to control malaria — 
a mosquito-borne disease — in the areas 
surrounding bases on the air transport 
route supplying the Africa and China- 
India theaters. 

The study will be based on the Mu- 
seum's extensive collections of fleas, ticks, 
mites, chiggers, and batflies acquired 
over a period of many years from north- 
ern South America and Panama. Med- 
ical researchers realize that many of these 
insects, which live as parasites on other 
animals, transmit diseases from their 
hosts to man. But until these potential 
disease carriers are identified and classi- 
fied, and their life histories known, no 
program aimed at controlling them can 
be organized. 

The Army's grant of $32,080 over a 
three-year period will now enable the 
Museum staff, and collaborators from 
other institutions, to carry out a program 
of basic research on the identification, 
classification, and biology of these in- 
sects, some of which affect the health of 
millions of people living in underdevel- 
oped areas of the world. 

The grant also provides for publica- 
tion of a unique and comprehensive vol- 
ume containing the first extensive infor- 
mation ever compiled on the host-parasite 
relationships of the biting insects of Pan- 
ama; illustrations of these insects and 
keys to their classification; complete lists 
of their host mammals; and analyses of 
the biological and geographical environ- 
ment in which these insects live. 

The 16 papers to be included in this 
publication are now being prepared by 
Dr. Wenzel and other biological re- 
searchers in the United States, Mexico, 
and Panama who are collaborating with 
the Museum on this project. The Ecto- 
parasites of Panama will be published by 
Chicago Natural History Museum. 

Page 4 November 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 
Telephone: WAbash 2-9410 

East African 
Photographs Shown 

The intricate mosaic of tribal life in 
East Africa and the island of Zanzibar 
is evoked in a new photographic exhi- 
bition being shown in the Museum's 
Stanley Field Hall through November 30. 

The photographs were made by Dr. 
Robert F. Gray, Associate Professor of 
Anthropology at Tulane University, dur- 
ing two field trips to East Africa in 1950- 
51 and 1954-56. Of special interest to 
Gray were the customs of four East Afri- 
can tribes — the Segeju, the Wambugwe, 
the Gorowa, and the Sonjo. Most of the 
photographs in the exhibit reflect daily 
life in these tribes. 

The Segeju are one of approximately 
a dozen Swahili- and Bantu-speaking 
peoples inhabiting Tanganyika and 
southern Kenya. Because most of the 
Segeju villages are located on the coast, 
they have been influenced by coastal 
Arabs for many centuries. As a result, 
every Segeju village has at least one 
mosque and a school where the children 
memorize long passages from the Koran 
and are taught a smattering of Arabic. 
A blend of Islamic and pagan elements, 
the popular religion of the Segeju in- 
cludes elaborate rituals in which the 
whole village takes an active part. 

The Wambugwe, another Bantu- 
speaking tribe numbering about 8,000, 
live on the floor of the Rift Valley in 
northern Tanganyika. Their unusual 
rain-making ceremonies have provided 
abundant material for Gray's camera 

In recent years the cattle auction has 
become the major social event of the 
Gorowa, still another tribe of Tan- 
ganyika. The auctions were started by 
the government of Tanganyika to de- 
velop one of the major resources of the 
country by providing a market outlet 
for cattle. The photographs show crowds 
of people turning out for the auctions, 
which have added a new, commercial 
aspect to tribal life. 

Inhabiting an isolated stretch of land 
extending into both Kenya and Tan- 
(Continued on page 8) 

November Page 5 


William V. Kahl;.- 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searlc 
John M. Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Louis Ware 
Howard Wood 
Stanley Field, Chairman of the Board 
Clifford C. Gregg, President 
Hughston M. McBain, First Vice-President 
Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 
Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 
Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 
E. Leland Webber, Secretary 

Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field, Jr. 
Stanley Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 



B. Leland Webber, Director of the Museum 


Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology 

John R. Millar, Chief Curator of Botany 

Rainer Zangerl, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 

Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 


Marilyn Jindrich, Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

Children from a Segeju village 

The Human Skull — 

An Evolutionary Puzzle 

The living treeshrews of tropical Asia closely resemble the 
earliest fossil primates. The head still has the long foxlike 
form of other primitive mammals. 

Once upon a time biologists took it for 
granted that the human body was a 
sort of final perfection toward which na- 
ture aspired. All other animals repre- 
sented various levels of this aspiring for 
perfection, and a favorite game was try- 
ing to arrange all creatures in a "scale of 
beings," with the simplest and least per- 
fect at one end, and man, the highest 
and most perfect, at the other. 

We know now that this was nonsense; 
there is no transcendental perfection in 
nature. Far from being perfect, the 
human body has an astonishing num- 
ber of imperfections, most of which could 
have been corrected by any moderately 
competent design engineer. Most of the 
human body is primitive, too, compared 
with that of other mammals. A few 
parts are drastically modified from the 
old ancestral condition. This is espe- 
cially true of the head, and trying to 
understand just what happened to the 
brain and skull during the evolution of 
man has challenged the ingenuity of sci- 
entists for generations. 

We are accustomed to thinking of the 
human head as a thing of beauty. Poets 


have lauded the "noble brow," the "chis- 
elled nose," the "molded chin." Artists 
have labored to capture and preserve 
the perfection of a human countenance. 
Things are not so simple for the anato- 
mist; as a human being he joins his fel- 
lows in admiring a beautiful face or a 
noble head, but as an anatomist he knows 
that even the head of a Venus is really 
one of the most deformed objects in na- 
ture. Humanizing the vertebrate head 
was a rather astonishing process of plas- 
tic deformation, but the result is no more 
"perfect" than the head of a horse or a 

No real progress in understanding the 
human skull was possible until this idea 
had developed. Men were reluctant to 
give up the lovely egocentric notion that 
they represented the one perfect goal 
toward which all nature had been striv- 
ing. The idea of evolution, of descent 
with modification, was accepted only a 
hundred years ago. The idea of the 
evolution of man was accepted reluc- 
tantly, even by most biologists. "De- 
scent with modification" meant that the 
human skull, like the rest of the human 

Curator, Vertebrate Anatomy 

body, was only the last in a long series 
of rather makeshift adaptations. 

The devious history of the human skull 
could not be written truly until the facts 
were available. Only the fossil record 
could supply the historical facts, and fos- 
sils accumulate slowly. It was not until 
1927 that Professor W. K. Gregory pub- 
lished the first of his famous "fish to man" 
reviews, tracing the evolution of the 
human skull through the actual fossil 
record instead of trying to reconstruct it 
from the skulls of living species of ani- 
mals as others before him had done. 1 
The Museum's Exhibit-of-the-Month, 
"The History of the Human Skull," 
shows eight stages in the evolution of 
man's skull, based on Professor Greg- 
ory's work. Though the number of fos- 
sils in the museums of the world has 
probably more than doubled since 1 927, 
the new discoveries have not changed 
the plot of Professor Gregory's story; 
they have only refined the details. 

The fossil record showed that the an- 
cestry of the human skull goes back 
through primitive primates, then prim- 
itive insect-eating mammals with skulls 
like hedgehogs, then mammal-like rep- 
tiles, pelycosaurian reptiles, and so on 
back to the fishes. The lineage was not 
particularly hard to work out once the 
fossils had been collected, but it merely 
showed what had happened. Then biol- 
ogists began to wonder how and why the 
changes leading to the human skull had 
come about. This was a very different 
kind of problem. It was also far more 
difficult to solve. 

The skull of the earliest fossil primates 
was like the skull of other unspecialized 
mammals — long and foxlike, with the 
brain lying on a flat bony bed directly 
behind the face. The axis of the skull 

1 Gregory, W. K., "The palacomorphology 
of the human head; ten structural stages from 
fish to man." Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 2. 

was in a straight line, a neat and un- 
crowded design that had worked out so 
well it had not changed much since the 
Age of Fishes. This arrangement is still 
preserved in the modern treeshrews of 
tropical Asia, the lowliest of the living 

In the human skull this old design is 
deformed almost beyond recognition. 
The once-straight axis is bent around 
into horseshoe shape, the floor of the 
skull is ballooned out in all directions, 
the face is shrivelled to a fraction of its 
former size and tucked in beneath the 
brain. What could have been respon- 
sible for this astonishing transformation? 
There are really two questions involved 
here — the question of the advantages of 
the change, and the question of the bio- 
logical machinery whereby the change 
was brought about. 

For a time most biologists thought 
nearly everything that had happened to 
the human body was a result of man's 
getting up on his hind legs and standing 
erect. The erect posture freed the hands 
for manipulating things, and this in turn 
put a premium on curiosity and intelli- 
gence and consequently made a highly 
developed brain advantageous. Obvi- 
ously the hands had taken over some of 
the functions of the jaws, and this was 
thought to explain the degeneration of 
the human jaws and teeth. The axis of 
the skull was bent because the skull was 
now balanced on top of the neck instead 
of in front of the neck as it once was; it 
would scarcely do to have the face point- 
ing up into the sky. 

This rather naive view runs into trou- 
ble if we try to use it to explain every- 
thing. Actually the brain is relatively 
large in all primates, whether they stand 
erect or not. This remarkable fact has 
not been satisfactorily explained. Many 
biologists believe this mysterious tend- 
ency in the primate stock toward enlarge- 
ment of the brain is the key to the evolu- 
tion of the human skull, and indirectly 
to the evolution of other features of the 
human body. If this view is correct, 
then the deciding event that foreshad- 
owed the eventual evolution of man took 
place in the brains of the very first pri- 
mates. An extraordinary thing about the 
primates is that representatives of all 
levels of their evolution, from the prim- 
itive treeshrews and lemurs through vari- 

In the earliest primates the head 
was long and foxlike, very similar 
to the head of other primitive mam- 
mals. The same pattern is found 
in the human head, but it is de- 
formed almost beyond recognition. 
Trying to explain this remarkable 
transformation has challenged the 
ingenuity of scientists for genera- 

The globular skull of the dwarf 
King Charles spaniel resembles 
the human skull in many ways. 
It, too, was derived from an elon- 
gate skull — the wolf like skull of a dog — and some anatomists think the causes for this transformation 
were similar to those involved in the origin of the human skull. 

ous kinds of monkeys and apes right up 
to man, are still living today. Such prim- 
itive and intermediate evolutionary types 
usually become extinct; their wholesale 
survival is most unusual. The most likely 
explanation is that the large size of the 
primate brain (or rather the intelligence 
that large size implies) enabled even the 
lowest primates to get by in competition 
with other animals where other primi- 
tive mammals could not. 

The leading advocate of the theory 
that the brain, rather than upright pos- 
ture, was primarily responsible for shap- 
ing the human skull was the late Franz 
Weidenreich. 2 In the developing em- 
bryo the differentiation and growth of 
various parts of the head are controlled 
by different factors, making the head a 
mosaic of independent subassemblies 
that are fitted together during develop- 
ment to form a whole. The face is inde- 
pendent of the cranium, the central nerv- 
ous system is controlled by its own set of 
factors, and so on. Consequently, any- 
thing that speeds up the growth rate of 
the brain would not affect the growth 

2 Weidenreich, Franz, "The brain and its 
role in the phylogenetic transformation of the 
human skull." Transactions of the American 
Philosophical Society, Vol. 31, 1941. 

rate of the skull, although the develop- 
ing skull would accommodate itself as 
best it could to the expanding mass of 
the brain. 

By assembling evidence from a great 
variety of sources, Weidenreich tried to 
show that an abnormally large brain — 
in dwarf dogs, for example — deforms the 
skull in ways that are remarkably sim- 
ilar to the human condition. The avail- 
able bone material simply adapts itself 
to the size and contours of the huge 
brain. At the opposite extreme, the 
growth of the brain is sometimes ar- 
rested in man to produce a condition 
known as microcephaly. Weidenreich 
showed that in microcephalics the skull 
is similar to that of the anthropoid apes 
— in such persons the growth rate of the 
skull remains normal, but the bone ma- 
terial is not stretched and deformed by 
a huge brain to the extent that it is in 
normal persons. 

Evidently the biological machinery in- 
volved in remodeling the foxlike skull of 
a treeshrew into the globular skull of 
man was complex. It was not as com- 
plex as we once thought, however, and 
there seems no reason to think it cannot 
be deciphered. Both the Weidenreich 
theory and the erect-posture theory are 
{Continued on page 8) 

November Page 7 

{Continued from preceding page) 
over-simplifications, as first approxima- 
tions almost inevitably are. Neither is 
wholly correct, but there is undoubtedly 
a good deal of truth in both. The mys- 
tery of how gross changes in the struc- 
ture of vertebrates are produced is slowly 
giving way to the combined efforts of 
geneticists, experimental morphologists, 
and comparative anatomists. Before 
long we may know not only the what, 
but also the how and why, of that de- 
formed structure, the human skull. 


{Continued from page 3) 


{Continued from page 5) 

ganyika, the Sonjo possess a culture 
that in most respects has advanced very 
little beyond the neolithic level. Until 
recently the region was inaccessible to 
motor vehicles; thus the Sonjo, who as 
yet have had relatively little contact with 
the outside world, still wear their tradi- 
tional skin garments. The fervour with 
which the various religious rituals of the 
tribe are enacted is captured in a num- 
ber of Gray's photographs. 

Finally, the exhibit portrays the con- 
glomerate population of Zanzibar, for 
many centuries the main trade emporium 
of East Africa. Gray's pictures record 
the population of varied tribal and eth- 
nic origins encountered on the narrow 
streets of Zanzibar City — Hindu mer- 
chants, turbaned Sikhs, Swahili fisher- 
men, European businessmen and sea- 
men, Muslim holy men, Arab sailors 
with long curved daggers thrust into 
their belts, Persians, and Chinese. 

In his photographic studies, Dr. Gray's 
aim has been "to portray tribesmen as 
human beings rather than as scientific 
specimens." At the same time he has 
recorded visual aspects of tribal life 
which are difficult to communicate in 
other ways. Dr. Gray himself has se- 
lected the 68 pictures in this exhibition 
from a file of some 4,000 negatives taken 
during his East African field work. 

Winter Hours 

Beginning November 1 the Museum 
will observe winter hours of 9 a.m. to 
4 p.m. Monday through Friday and 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Saturday and Sun- 
day. These shorter hours will continue 
through February. 

Page 8 November 

August 6: Kosrow Sariri is leaving camp 
today for Tehran with about 1 1 skele- 
tons and skins of Mouflon and our five 
goat specimens: two billys, one nanny, 
and two kids. In Tehran, Sariri will 
crate this shipment and send it on its way 
to Chicago. 

The Game Council collected all of 
these specimens for us except for the two 
rams I took myself. I would like to have 
taken a billy, but when I had a chance, 

Mouflon got in the way. 

According to our altimeter, I have 
hunted as high as 14,300 feet. I took one 
ram at about 12,700 — the other at 
13,700 — less allowance for any altimeter 
error. Breath comes a little hard when 
you first get to these altitudes, but I feel 
wonderful now — just when we're leaving ! 

Camp number two will be in the forest 
due north of us, and down to about 
6,000 feet. 


Dr. Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of 
Zoology, was elected President of the 
American Ornithologists Union at the 
Annual Meeting held recently at Salt 
Lake City, Utah. 

Staff Changes 

William E. Lake, Museum Chief Engi- 
neer, retired last month after 42 years of 
service. "Bill" Lake 
came to Chicago 
Natural History Mu- 
seum in 1920, just 
before construction 
on the present build- 
ing was completed, 
and has served as 
Chief Engineer since 
1939. His record of 
service is one of the 
longest in the Muse- 
um's history. Mr. Lake has moved to 
Ludington, Michigan, and he will be 
missed greatly by all his Chicago friends. 

William E. Lake 

On October 1, Mr. James R. Shouba, 
formerly Superintendent of Maintenance, 
was appointed to the new position of 
Building Superintendent. In this capac- 
ity, Mr. Shouba will coordinate opera- 
tions relating to the Museum building 
and assume over-all responsibility for the 
Divisions of Engineering and Mainten- 

Mr. Leonard Carrion, formerly Assist- 
ant Chief Engineer, replaces Mr. Lake 
as Chief Engineer, and Mr. Jacques Pul- 
izzi has been appointed Assistant Chief 

Mr. Gustav A. Noren, formerly Assist- 
ant Superintendent of Maintenance has 

been appointed Superintendent of Main- 
tenance to replace Mr. Shouba. 

Museums Conference 

Miss Miriam Wood, Chief of Ray- 
mond Foundation, and Mr. E. Leland 
Webber, Director, attended the Mid- 
west Museums Conference held in Min- 
neapolis during October. Mr. Webber 
participated in a panel discussion titled 
"Museums — Their Programs and Prob- 

Free Concerts 

Julius Katchen, European pianist tour- 
ing America for the first time, will be 
the featured artist of the Free Concerts 
Foundation's second program for the 
season on Tuesday, November 27, at 
8:15 p.m. 

Third program in the Foundation's 
1962-63 concert series will be a joint re- 
cital by Gerard Souzay, baritone, and 
Maureen Forrester, soprano, on Wednes- 
day, January 16, at 8:15 p.m. 

For free tickets to the concerts send a 
stamped, self-addressed envelope to Free 
Concerts Foundation, Chicago Natural 
History Museum, Roosevelt Road and 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5. 

Audubon Lecture 

The mountains, prairies, and vast wil- 
dernesses of the Province of Alberta are 
the subject of the full color motion pic- 
ture, "Alberta Outdoors," to be pre- 
sented in the James Simpson Theater on 
Sunday, December 9, at 2:30 p.m. Nar- 
rated by the well-known naturalist, 
Edgar T. Jones, the free program is 
sponsored by the Illinois Audubon So- 




Fig. 1 — Bronze bust of god,Serapis 
(actual size 3 X A inches) 


The Great God of Hellenistic Egypt 
and the Grea>Roman World 


Mr. Oikonomides is studying for a graduate degree in clas- 
sical archaeology at the University of Chicago. Born in 
Greece, he is a graduate of the University of Athens. While 
Assistant Curator at the Acropolis Museum in Athens, and 
later at the Epidauros Museum, he participated in several 
excavations in his native country. 

The collection of Greek, Etruscan, 
and Roman antiquities at Chicago 
Natural History Museum is one of the 
most interesting in the Midwest. One of 
the most important specimens in the col- 
lection is a bronze bust, 3% inches high, 
of the god Serapis (Fig. 1). 

The worship of Serapis was introduced 
into Egypt by Ptolemy I (305-283 B.C.), 
and in the times of his successors the cult 
spread all over the Greco-Roman world. 
For the Egyptians the new god was yet 
another form of their old deity, Osiris; 
thus Serapis was worshiped in the tradi- 
tional way together with Isis and Horus 
(or Harpocrates). For the Greeks and 
the Romans, however, Serapis repre- 
sented a combination of the divine fea- 
tures of the three great sons of Saturn : 
Zeus, Pluto (or Hades), and Poseidon. 
An ancient Greek scholar has described 
this conception of the nature of Serapis : 

" The powers and honors of the other gods 
are separate; men call upon one god for 
this purpose, upon another for that pur- 
pose. He, the leader of the choir, holds 
the beginning and end of everything in his 
hand. . . . Hence there are those who wor- 
ship this god alone, in the place of all the 
gods; and there are others who, though for 
each special purpose they resort to some 
particular divinity, yet couple Serapis 
with that divinity, as being Him to whom 
the whole world alike gives peculiar exal- 
tation. . . . He has, as the poets would 
say, the keys of earth and sea; seeing 
that, even after life has come to its neces- 
sary end, Serapis remains still the Lord 
of men . . . who assigns its place to each 
soul "» 

The most famous sanctuary of the new 
divinity was a monumental temple in 
Alexandria containing a cult statue of 
the god. Serapis sat on a richly deco- 
rated throne, clad in a chiton and hima- 
tion of dark blue. The head of the god 
was of gold, and crowned with the tradi- 
tional modius; 2 the face was sober, strong, 
yet mild and mysterious. The god's 
jeweled eyes gleamed through the dark- 
ened temple from the richly decorated 
and lighted cella. According to ancient 
sources, the sculptor who made the statue 

1 Aristeides, Aelius, Praise of Serapis, written in 
the third century a.d. 
•An ancient grain measure. 

Page 2 December 

was Bryaxis the younger, a pupil of the 
famous Skopas. 

On a gold bracelet in the Museum's 
collection (Fig. 4) the temple of Serapis 
at Alexandria, with the statue of the god 
wearing the modius, appears in relief. 
As far as I know, this is a unique repre- 
sentation of the temple and has only one 
parallel : the relief on a clay lamp from 
the Athenian Agora, which represents 
the local temple of Serapis, together with 
the cult statue of the god. 

From the many statues and statuettes 
of Serapis known to be in various mu- 
seums and collections, only a few are 
accepted as echoes or copies of the cult 
statue made by Bryaxis. The most fa- 
mous of these copies are two busts in the 
Vatican Museum in Rome. The bronze 
bust in the Museum's collection (Fig. 1 ) 
belongs stylistically to the same group as 
the Vatican busts and is possibly the best 
bronze copy of this type in a museum in 
the United States. The "Chicago Sera- 
pis" can be dated between the second 
and first centuries B.C. Although a minor 
work of art of its period, it preserves 
clearly the fine features of its original. 
The eyes were jeweled, and on the mo- 
dius olive tree branches were carved 
with very fine lines (now obscured by 
corrosion) . 

Three other representations of Serapis 
are also in the Museum's collection. A 
clay bust from Egypt dates from the Ro- 
man period (Fig. 5). The face is not pre- 
served, but the copy is interesting be- 
cause it tries to imitate the bronze busts. 
A clay lamp from Egypt also preserves a 
bust of Serapis in relief (Fig. 3). We rec- 
ognize immediately the Bryaxis type, 
but the features are not clear because the 
mold was ruined by the time this lamp 
was produced. 

A signet stone, with a bust of Serapis 
(Fig. 2), completes the set of "Serapis 
monuments" at Chicago Natural History 
Museum. It can be dated from the late 
Hellenistic period, but does not add new 
knowledge to the history of the statuary 
" The market-places are full, and the har- 
bors, and the broad places of the cities, 
with those who tell the manifold things 
Serapis has done. Should I seek to nar- 
rate them, though an unending series of 

Fig. 2 — A signet stone with a 
bust of Serapis (enlarged approx- 
imately three times) 

Fig. 3 — A clay I amp from Egypt 
with a barely discernible bust of 
Serapis appearing in low relief 
(actual size shown) 

ABOVE: Fig. 4 
Gold bracelet in the de- 
sign of the temple of 
Serapis in Alexandria, 
with the statue of the 
god in relief (enlarged 
approximately three 

RIGHT: Fig. 5 
A clay bust of Serapis, 
dating from the Ro- 
man period, found in 
Eg ypt (actual size 




The Holiday Science Lectures 
— A New Program 
for Outstanding 
High School Students 

Dr. Rene Jules Dubos, eminent micro- 
biologist and pioneer discoverer of anti- 
biotics, will be the speaker in a new series 
of Holiday Science Lectures to lie given 
at the Museum for high school students of 
exceptional ability in science or mathe- 
matics. The program is sponsored jointly 
by the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science and the Museum. 

Four illustrated lectures will be pre- 
sented to outstanding students from the 
tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grades who 
have been nominated by public, paro- 
chial, and private high school principals 
from Chicago and the surrounding coun- 
ties. The lectures will be given in the 
James Simpson Theatre from 10 a.m. to 
noon, beginning on Wednesday, Decem- 
ber 26, and ending on Saturday, Decem- 
ber 29. 

Dr. Dubos, who is Professor at the 
Rockefeller Institute in New York, will 
speak on the subject, "Microbes in Health 
and Disease." 

The Holiday Science Lectures were be- 
gun in New York City in 1 959 as part of a 
continuing program of the AAAS to in- 
crease public understanding of science. 
Under a grant from the National Science 
Foundation the program was expanded 
to include, in 1961, the cities of San 
Francisco and Cincinnati. In 1962-63 
Holiday Science Lectures will be pre- 
sented, in cooperation with local univer- 
sities or museums, in Chicago, Boston, 
New York, Seattle, and Los Angeles. Na- 
tionally known scientists scheduled to 
speak, in addition to Dr. Dubos, are: 
Dr. Lyman Craig, Dr. Theodosius Dob- 
zhansky, Dr. Mark Kac, Dr. Stanford 
Moore, Dr. William Stein, and Dr. Paul 

The Museum is especially pleased that 
Dr. Dubos will deliver the Holiday Sci- 
ence Lectures in Chicago, since he is 
noted for his ability to write and speak as 
well as for his research. His most recent 


book, The Unseen World, published this 
year, is an outgrowth of a similar series of 
talks he gave to selected high school stu- 
dents in New York when this program 

Dr. Dubos is a member of the National 
Academy of Sciences, past president of 
the Society of American Bacteriologists, 
and an editor of the Journal of Experi- 
mental Medicine, His books include: 
Pasteur and Modern Science, published in 
1960; The Mirage of Health, in 1959; The 
White Plague — Tuberculosis, Man, and So- 
ciety (1952), and in 1961, The Dreams of 
Reason. Among the many awards he has 
received for his contributions to science, 
the most recent are the Robert Koch 
Centennial Award of the Koch Institute 
in Berlin in 1960, and the Modern Medi- 
cine Award for Distinguished Achieve- 
ment in 1961. 

Souzay Returns 
in Free Concert 

Gerard Souzay, French baritone, whose 
performance in the Free Concerts Foun- 
dation's program series last year received 
praise from critics and public alike, will 
return to the stage of the James Simpson 
Theatre on Wednesday, January 16, for a 
joint recital with Maureen Forrester, so- 
prano. The concert will be the two vocal- 
ists' only Chicago appearance in their 
first joint concert tour of America. The 
program begins at 8 :15 p.m. 

For free tickets to the concert send a 
stamped, self-addressed enveolope to Free 
Concerts Foundation, Chicago Natural 
History Museum, Roosevelt Road and 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5. 

Winter Hours 

On Christmas Day, December 25, and 
New Year's Day, January 1, the Museum 
will be closed to enable the Museum's 
staff to spend the holidays with their fam- 
ilies. During December, January, and 
February, the Museum is open from 9 a.m. 
to 4 p.m. Monday through Friday, and 
from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Saturday and 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1S93 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 5 

Telephone: WAbash 2-9-UO 

William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Louis Ware 

Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowcn Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field, Jr. 
Stanley Field 
Clifford C Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 

J. Howard 


Stanley Field, Chairman of the Board 

Clifford C. Gregg, President 

Hughston M. McBain, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowcn Blair, Third Vice-President 

Solomon A. Smith, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

E. Leland Webber, Secretary 



E. Leland Webber, Director of the Museum 


Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator of Anthropology 
John R. Millar, Chief Curator of Botany 
Rainer Zangerl, Chief Curator of Geology 
Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 


Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 


Marilyn Jmdrich, Associate in Public Relations 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

Audubon Lecture 

"Alberta Outdoors," a color motion 
picture about the mountains, prairies, and 
vast wildernesses of the Province of Al- 
berta, will be presented in the James 
Simpson Theatre at 2 :30 p.m. on Sunday, 
December 9, by the Illinois Audubon So- 
ciety. The film is narrated in person by 
Edgar T. Jones. 

Cultural Groups Visit 
"Art of Benin" 

A number of Chicago's cultural organi- 
zations have scheduled programs at the 
Museum centered around the current ex- 
hibition, "The Art of Benin." 

Among groups that have already viewed 
the centuries-old bronzes from Africa is 
the Society for Contemporary American 
Art. Sixty of their members attended a 
dinner meeting on November 13 in the 

Another group that toured the exhibi- 
tion in November were participants in the 
University of Chicago's Fine Arts Pro- 
gram, students of Mr. Theodore Halkin, 
artist in the Department of Anthropology. 

On December 6, the Committee for 
Roosevelt University's African Studies 
Program will hold a dinner meeting at the 
Museum especially to see the exhibition 

Director E. Leland 
Webber (center) and Phil- 
lip H. Lewis, Curator of 
Primitive Art (left), dis- 
cuss the Museum's cur- 
rent special exhibition, 
"The Art of Benin;' 
with three members of the 
Society for Contemporary 
American Art: (from left 
to right) Mrs. Albert H. 
Newman, Mrs. Charles 
F. Cutter, and Mr. Wil- 
liam E. Hartmann, Pres- 
ident of the Society. 

of African court art. The evening's pro- 
gram will include a performance of Af- 
rican dancing, singing, and drums by the 
Chicago chapter of the Pan-African Stu- 
dent Organization in the Americas. 

Also in December, members of the 
South Side Community Art Center have 
arranged a tea in the Museum and a 
viewing of the exhibition at that time. 

The exhibition remains on display 
through December 9 only. 

Geology Staff Artist 

Dr. Tibor Perenyi, Hungarian-born 
sculptor, was appointed Geology Staff 
Artist on October 1. He fills a position 
that has been vacant since the resignation 
of Mrs. Maidi Wiebe Leibhardt earlier 
this year. 

Dr. Perenyi brings to the Museum a 
wide background of experience in the 
field of art. Before leaving Hungary in 
1956, Dr. Perenyi had achieved national 
recognition as a portrait sculptor. His 
busts of prominent people and of children 
had been displayed in numerous art ex- 
hibitions in Budapest and he was a per- 
manent exhibitor in the annual Winter 
Exhibition of the Hungarian Museum of 
Fine Arts. 

When he arrived in the United States, 
Dr. Perenyi was immediately commis- 
sioned by a number of Americans to do 
several busts. For the past three years 
he has been designing and painting ana- 
tomical models for a leading firm in this 
field, while continuing his work as a free- 
lance sculptor. 

New Museum Journey 
for Children 

Why does the earth look the way it 
does? What forces of nature are con- 
stantly at work changing the face of the 

The Museum's new winter Journey for 
children, "Understanding Scenery," pro- 
vides answers to these questions in a care- 
fully plotted trip to exhibits that show 
the variable surface of our planet and 
explain how it got that way. A question- 

Gift Suggestions from the 
Book Shop 

Here are just a few of the many items 
now available at the Museum Book Store 
which should please a number of persons 
on your holiday shopping list. Prices men- 
tioned include tax and postage. 

Museum Stories. These booklets 
have been written by the Museum 
staff to stimulate the curiosity of 
young readers about man and the 
world around him. They form a 
junior encyclopedia of natural his- 
tory. Each story book contains ap- 
proximately 12 pages with black and 
white illustrations. A complete set 
of 30 booklets is $6.75. 

Songbirds of America. A high fi- 
delity recording, accompanied by 
text and commentary, with full color 
photographs of 26 familiar song 
birds. This 10" x 10* volume is 
available at 33M rpm for $5.20. 

Precious Stone — Gemstone Set. A 

collection of 30 genuine rough stones 
from around the world. This set 
contains a synoptic tables of names, 
hardness, specific gravities, refractive 
index, crystal forms, chemical formu- 
las, and places of origin at $4.35. 

As usual, the Book Shop carries a wide 
selection of books on art, anthropology, 
botany, geology, and zoology, which 
make fine gifts for both adults and child- 
ren. Jewelry and craft objects from many 
countries are also available to help make 
your Christmas shopping easy and pleas- 

naire to be filled out on the Journey is 
available at the Information Desk and 
at the north and south entrances to the 
Museum. Children who deposit a com- 
pleted questionnaire in the boxes pro- 
vided at each door will receive credit 
leading to a certificate of award. All 
Journeyers are honored at a special 
awards program held twice each year 
at the Museum. 

dccember Page 5 

Field Work in Iran Continues 

Camp Two, Near Sama 

North Slope, Elburz Mountains 

(4,200 feet elevation) 

August 24: That good man, Kosrovv Sa- 
rin, 1 turned up in camp on the night of 
the 22nd, not only laden with such desid- 
erata as butter, fruit, cookies, bread, and 
loafcake, but with a stack of letters. We 
were delighted to hear from the Muse- 
um. By now you will have heard about 
the wild sheep and goat specimens which 
are en route. We thought hunting that 
group of animals quite exciting. 

At this moment there is much activity 
in camp. Douglas is skinning the first 
hare over in front of his tent under the 
interested eye of a villager who resem- 
bles, more than a little, a brigand. Kos- 
row Sariri and Nicola, our driver, have 
started a fire under a huge copper kettle 
borrowed from the village and are boil- 
ing bear bones. Bill is well away from 

the tents skinning a jackal, while I sit 
under a huge walnut tree happily writ- 
ing to you. 

So far we have taken 27 mammal spe- 
cies in all. At this camp we have added 
to the collections a doe and a fawn 
maral, 2 one roebuck, one bear beauti- 
fully silver tipped, three jackals, one 
hare, one pig, plus some bats, rats, and 
mice. The dormice are large and fluffy 
tailed — very pretty. They live in the 
walnut trees. The ones caught here are 
rolling fat, but the ones Doug took at 
6,000 feet are much thinner by com- 

The hunting here is rather hard; the 
hills are dry, the padding of leaves and 
twigs extremely crackly. The night 
hunting has not yet produced very much. 
Bill and Doug sit in the spare tires on 
top of the truck and come leaping down 
when they see any shining eyes. It's slim 
picking, but we are rather pleased with 
what we have obtained. 

1 Representative of the Game Council of Iran 
who has acted as "chief-of-staff" for the expe- 

Page 6 December 

2 Maral is a name for the large Persian form 
of the red deer, Cervus elephus. 

Janice K. Street 

Mrs. Street continues the nar- 
rative, begun in the November 
BULLETIN, of the W. S. and J. 
K. Street Expedition of Chicago 
Natural History Museum to 
Iran. Members of the expedi- 
tion include her husband and 
the expedition's leader, Mr. 
William S. Street, and mam- 
malogist Douglas Lay. 

The trip over the Chalus Road down 
here to our second camp was spectacu- 
lar. We drove to 10,000 feet, then 
through a one-lane tunnel over a mile 
long. On the other side of it we started 
down one horseshoe curve after another. 
In places we went through narrow can- 
yons cut through the rocks, sometimes 
with great overhangs of rock. 

We passed through a couple of villages 
where houses were of stone and mud, 
usually with no windows. The village 
shop, if there was one, was merely a dark 
hole in a wall. Always, though, a table 
or two with chairs, where you could stop 

LEFT: William S. Street kneels to photo- 
graph one of his field "prizes" held by 
Douglas Lay. 

for tea, were set out by the road. Or 
in an out-of-the-way place you might 
see a man with a samovar, and one or 
two little glasses on china saucers, sell- 
ing tea. The tea is served in the glass, 
you then pour the tea in the saucer, put 
a sugar lump in your mouth, and drink 
from the saucer. 

At Pal-e-Dowab (under 2,000 feet ele- 
vation), we turned off the main road 
and traveled about 1 5 miles over a rough, 
rocky, winding side road to camp. It 
took us two hours, and we felt shaken up 
for the first time. The camp is at 4,200 
feet, with hills on both sides and higher 
mountains beyond. It is delightful. I 
have the same feeling here that I did at 
Doab, of hills overlapping as far as one 
can see. 

The hills are dry with scrub growth 
(much thorn bush), which grows heavier 
as you go up higher toward the forest. 
Yet in spite of the dry hills and rocky 
terrain there is a feeling of lushness in the 
green fields of rice and arzan, the great 
walnut trees, and the small vegetable 
gardens. Every so often there is an oa- 
sis. In the center of a velvet green field 
one may see several piles of stones placed 
there when the field was cleared. All 
the fields are tilled and worked by hand 
or with the aid of crude implements. 

Looking from our tent down-valley we 
see green fields, trees, berry bushes, and 
other crops. They give the appearance 
of lavishness but do not show how hard 
the people work to wrest a living from 
the hill. They have done a remarkable 
job putting in the irrigation ditches 
which make the green possible. Back 
of us to either side a narrow valley 
runs between high rock cliffs and winds, 
slowly climbing, among the bases of the 
hills. These hills are rugged looking and 
splendid, with green trees growing out 
of the rock. There are many thistles all 
around us — some yellow, some just plain 
thistle color, but the ones I love are a 
periwinkle blue. There are also blue 
daisies, and, believe it or not, blue but- 
terflies to match. Charming! 

The village of Sama is quite close. 
The people have very, very little. Many 
of the children have immense tummies 
from dietary deficiency. But they are a 
friendly, happy people. In the early 
morning we hear the boys taking the 

cattle, and the men starting out with 
mules or horses for the fields, going along 
the trails on either side of camp, singing 
and laughing. 

The houses are stone, chinked with 
mud and straw. One affluent citizen, 
whose house is walled away from the 
rest, allowed us to look inside. There 
were three rooms : one, the kitchen area 
— very cool inside, with plastered walls. 
Across one corner hung a baby bed. A 
sack of wheat and a sack of another grain 
stood side by side. In one corner a col- 
lection of elegant copper utensils and a 
kerosene single burner. On the lone 
shelf, two lamps. The next two rooms 
were locked and identical — large, high- 
ceilinged, and deliriously cool. On the 
floor were lovely Persian rugs. Neat bed 
rolls with round pillows on top were 
stacked at the back. In the yard were 
rugs and mats with arzan and wheat 
spread on them to dry. 

We went to the village armed with 
two cameras, one a Polaroid, and a 
pocket full of balloons. At first the 
women all covered their faces and ran 
to hide. I took a picture of two young- 
sters and had them show it. That did it. 
We were swamped. Everyone wanted 
"aks" (pictures). It was an interesting 
experience, photographing the women 
with babies on their backs and tiny chil- 

dren carrying babies. The women and 
children all dress alike : a long, full print- 
ed cotton shirt; then a shift, perhaps red 
or a print, goes over that, split on the 
sides for freedom in walking. Some 
women also wear a sleeveless jacket that 
may have silver-looking coins on the 
edges. Always a scarf is tied over and 
around the head, back far enough to 
show a piece of hat attached to the scarf. 
It's shaped like the front of an overseas 
cap — black with silver braid and a touch 
of red. With their first reticence over, 
the women now come to camp in ones 
or twos each day for a picture, and have 
lost all shyness. 

Douglas is going to be away for a 
couple of days working the traps for a 
few mice in another area. He had hoped 
to go up the mountain today for more 
dormice, but for the first time there are 
low clouds and fog, and he will have to 

A few days ago, Bill took off with Isa, 
the local Game Council man. They left 
camp and started straight up the moun- 
tains where they hunted and camped at 
6,500 feet, then went on up to 8,400 
where the two maral were taken. A 
beautiful, but precipitous piece of coun- 
try, with extremely large trees, six to eight 
feet through: alders and beeches, with 
{Continued on next page) 

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Ht = camps 

December Page 7 

(Continued from preceding page) 
thousands of trilliums below. Holly, too. 
One thing I can say, this country is 
good for the waistline. We've all tight- 
ened up the belts a bit, which calls for 
some boasting. Bill is doing his best to 
have the same waistline measurement as 
Doug. I measure each of them every 
few days. (Just between the two of us, 
I pull the tape tighter when measuring 
Bill !) Before too long we will move on 
to the Caspian. 

Camp Six, near Rezaiah 
On the banks of the 
Bardasar Chay (River) 

September 18: Our tents are set up among 
the willow trees overlooking a small river 
— really a stream — some distance from 
the road. A hill rises directly behind us 
and an old flour mill is built into it. 
Made of rock and mud, it's been there 
for over a hundred years. The miller 
grinds the wheat on a stone wheel. The 
mill is built over water ditches, so he 
controls the water. We are almost sur- 
rounded with ditches. 

The mill is built on three levels: one 
where the wheat is poured, one where 
the miller (a nice gentle soul who looks 
as though a breath of wind would blow 
him away) keeps his meager belongings, 
and the lowest where the wheel is, and a 
trough into which the flour falls. Out- 
side, in a large flat area, the wheat is 
sifted before being ground. 

Driving from Chalus westward along 
the Caspian coast, we experienced some 
delightful moments. We enjoyed seeing 
the tea plantations. Through binoculars 
we could see the neat rows of tea plants 
way up the mountain sides. Girls in 
gaily colored dresses were picking tea 
leaves in the fields. The tea factories are 
the best looking buildings we have seen, 
painted and surrounded with gardens. 

Beyond Bandar Pahlovi we drove 
through miles of wild pomegranate, 
some in bloom, some with fruit. 

At Astara we stopped at a small cav- 
iar packing plant. It comprised two 
square rooms, not large, connected by 
a roofed passageway. One room held 
the vats for sturgeon. The caviar is put 
in salt water, then drained in large sieves. 
In the other room, the caviar was packed. 
The place was painted white and blue 
and was very clean. 

Page 8 December 


days ran on and on, the list would still be 
incomplete. For his mighty works have 
not come to a standstill: there are more 
today than yesterday. Each day, each 
night, adds new ones to the tale." 

The conception of one almighty god 
in Hellenistic religion, as incorporated in 
the image of Serapis, spread throughout 

(Continued from page 3) 

the Mediterranean. The most efficient 
propagators of his worship were the sail- 
ors and mariners who carried the cult to 
the Black Sea and the coast of the At- 
lantic Ocean. The temple of Serapis at 
Eboracum, near York, in Britain, and 
the cults at Silchester and London, give 
an idea of the northern boundaries of 
the god's worship in the ancient world. 

Beyond Astara we drove over plateau 
country, 5,200 feet high. It reminded 
us of eastern Washington. Dry farming 
was done and we saw quantities of wheat 
being threshed with water buffalo or by 
hand. Plowing was done with a buffalo 
and crude implements. Tremendous 
amounts of land were under cultivation. 
Every bit of green was being gathered 
and stored. 

Here we began seeing the Turkish 
style villages. They are completely dif- 
ferent from the others, with square mud 
houses, flat-roofed, and a series of courts 
seemingly connecting everything. There 
were a few small windows, or more often 
just a door. Many of the houses were 


Chinese belt toggles, photographed 
to almost exact size, create an unusual 
checkerboard effect on this month's cover. 
What are belt toggles? As their photo- 
graphs show, they are beautifully fash- 
ioned objects, two to three inches in size, 
made from ivory, wood, lacquer, metal, 
jade, or other hard materials, including 
seeds. Traditionally, belt toggles were 
used by Chinese gentlemen as counter- 
weights for various personal accessories 
— cases for pipes, fans, and spectacles, 
portable writing sets, portable eating 
kits — which were carried suspended 
from a cord looped over the belt. Most 
of these toggles date from the 19th Cen- 
tury, but some are older, including one 
inscribed with the date, 1403. The 20 
pieces pictured on the cover are part of a 
collection of 237 recently presented as a 
gift to the Museum by Miss C. F. 
Bieber of Santa Fe, Mew Mexico. All 
will be displayed in the Museum's 
hall of Chinese and Tibetan ethnology 
(Hall 32) whose reinstallation is in 

built wall to wall. Elsewhere, winding 
walkways ran between quite high walls. 

The flat roofs of the houses were used 
for storage, as was evidenced by the 
stacks of straw and the high, cone- 
shaped stocks of winter fuel — patties of 
cow dung and straw. After being made, 
these are dried on the walls. The vil- 
lagers' cattle and sheep looked very good, 
and where land has been irrigated, vege- 
tables were growing. 

Ardabil was a busy town. We were 
intrigued by the many horse-drawn car- 
riages. There wasn't one in good repair. 
The fenders were frayed and merely tied 
on, the upholstery was torn and patched 
— but the driver sat high and proud in 
his ragged coat. Many of the carriages 
were painted blue or red and decorated 
with a row of colored flowers. The 
horses not only sported beads and bells, 
but red yarn tassels or pompoms were 
attached in several places. 

Two-wheeled carts carried tanks of 
water to sell. Children would run out 
and try to turn the spigot on and take 
some water. The driver carried a stick 
and when he saw them he would leap 
off and give chase. Meanwhile, the 
horse just plodded on. 

This is a fertile valley, with much to- 
bacco and large vineyards. Both crops 
are being picked now and dried. There 
is also a large sugar factory. While some 
sugar beets are grown in this vicinity, 
most are sent in from Khoi and other 
places. Melons grow everywhere, and 
these are the sweetest yet. 

A few days ago, Bill, Nicola, and I left 
camp at 8:30 a.m. and took off to find 
new jerboa fields. We had been told 
that the jerboas sometimes came out in 
daytime. Found a most promising look- 
ing field, loaded with burrows, but 
saw no animals. Decided to return at 
dusk. (To be continued)