Skip to main content

Full text of "Bulletin"

See other formats


HISTORY To/. 36 

MUSEUM ^afi€€€n^ 

J\ro. y 



THE NEWEST, and one of the most rewarding activities de- 
veloped by the Museum in recent years for its members, 
has been the Members' Children Workshops offered on 
Saturdays during the fall. Presented in 1963 and 1964, 
these workshops have attracted more than 600 children in 
these two years. 

The programs were developed and given by staff mem- 
bers of the Raymond Foundation, which is one of the edu- 
cational divisions of the Museum. Their purpose was to 
introduce our young members to the story of the natural 
world and man. The subjects of the workshops ranged from 
cave men and Indians to spices, fall fruits and colors, rocks 
and minerals, fossils, insects, and animals without back- 
bones. The learning experience was structured to give the 
children an opportunity to meet our scientific staff, to work 
closely with Museum specimens and artifacts, and to seek 
answers to some of their questions about the world around 

In the first year, the programs were offered to youngsters 
from 1 to 13 years old, but younger ones, from 6 to 9, were 
included this year. Parents who brought their children had 
an opportunity to see progress being made in the Museum 
— major construction under way, research, and the prepa- 
ration of new exhibits. It was a pleasure to talk with these 
parents in small groups while they waited for their children. 
But this was just a side benefit for us; all the emphasis in the 
programs was on the children. 

They came with enthusiasm — some shyly, some exuber- 
antly, some bringing their own collections and books, but 
all with alertness and a zest for exploring everything in na- 
ture. Their enthusiasm was contagious and the Museum 
staff loved them. 

When the workshops were over, we asked the young 
people to give us their reactions so that we might incorpo- 
rate them in our planning for future sessions. One 10-year- 
old boy wrote: "I think you learn a lot . . . by just plain 

talking about facts and bringing out more facts." He seemed 
to be expressing the views of so many who eagerly talked, 
looked, examined, felt, sniffed, made tests, watched movies, 
and asked questions and more questions. 

The youngest ones worked with rocks in one workshop, 
and with insects in another. They seemed to get the most 
from handling; one 8-year-old put it: "There were insects 
to touch . . . and I liked dissecting a grasshopper." 

The fossil workshop prompted a 10-year-old boy to write 
"Fossils . . . it's my hobby; it's one job machines can't take 

More girls than boys participated in the spices program, 
where they sniffed aromatic herbs with delight, but at least 
one boy discovered that "spices were interesting because I 
hadn't tasted or given thought (s) to them before." 

After the experiments on rocks and minerals, this com- 
ment came: "I found out you can't tell rocks from the 

The final line in the evaluation of a boy who signed his 
name and gave his age as 12 years, 8 months, was: "I wish 
you had one [workshop] on your plant exhibit. It is fan- 
tastic." And it is "fantastic," as is the whole world of 
nature and man, which offers us all so much to see, under- 
stand, and enjoy. We look forward with pleasure to more 
programs for our young members.  



In the workshops, youngsters discover 

spices, fossils, rocks, insects, 

and the animals hunted 

by prehistoric men 






DR. DONALD COLLIER has been ap- 
pointed Chief Curator of the De- 
partment of Anthropology at Chicago 
Natural History Museum as of Decem- 
ber 1, 1964. 

A member of the Museum's staff since 
1941, Dr. Collier is a specialist in the 
Indians of South America and the Aztec 
and Inca civilizations of Mexico and 

As head of the Museum's Department 
of Anthropology, Dr. Collier replaces 
Dr. Paul S. Martin, who is retiring after 
30 years as Chief Curator. 

Dr. Martin is president of the Society 
for American Archaeology, and expects 
to continue an active program of teach- 
ing and research as Chief Curator Em- 
eritus at the Museum. 

Donald Collier was born on May 1, 
1911, in Sparkill, New York. He did 
his undergraduate work at Stanford 
University and the University of Cali- 
fornia at Berkeley, and received his Doc- 
tor of Philosophy degree in anthropology 
from the University of Chicago. 

After teaching at Washington State 
College, he came to Chicago Natural 
History Museum in 1941 as Assistant 
Curator of South American Archaeol- 
ogy and Ethnology. In 1943 he became 
Curator, retaining this position until his 
present appointment. 

Dr. Collier's research interests are in 
the culture history of the New World, 
especially the rise of the ancient civiliza- 
tions of Mexico and Peru. He has made 
three expeditions to South America and 
several study trips to Mexico for the 

In 1941-42, he directed a pioneer 
study of an archaeologically unknown 
area, the southern highland of Ecuador. 

In 1946 he excavated in the Viru Val- 

ley of Peru, and in 1946 he did archaeo- 
logical surveying and digging in the 
Casma Valley of Peru. His work in these 
coastal sites resulted in new knowledge 
of the beginnings of intensive farming 
and of pre-Inca village life between 2000 
and 500 b.c, and the development of 
urbanization and the mass production 
of handicrafts that took place among the 
Incas between a.d. 1000 and 1500. 

In Mexico, he has studied Aztec and 
pre-Aztec art, the ancient system of mar- 
kets, and the relation of irrigation agri- 
culture to the rise of cities. 

As the son of John Collier, who for 
many years worked for the welfare of 
Indians in the United States and served 
as Commissioner of Indian Affairs from 
1933 to 1945, Collier has also been in- 
terested in the Indians of North Amer- 
ica. He has studied several Indian tribes 
in Oklahoma, Montana, and South Da- 
kota. In addition, he has done archaeo- 
logical work in Arizona, and directed 
one of the early archaeological salvage 
projects in the flood area behind Wash- 
ington's Grand Coulee Dam. 

Collier's investigations into the pre- 
Columbian civilizations of Mexico and 
Central America have provided original 
material and authentication for the Mu- 
seum's exhibition hall on the Aztec and 
Maya Indians. The hall was completed 
under his direction in 1960. 

At present. Collier has begun to plan 
a complete revision and reinstallation of 
the Museum's exhibitions on the Indians 
of South America. 

Collier is a past president of the Cen- 
tral States Anthropological Society and 
a member of the executive board of the 
American Anthropological Association. 
He is a Lecturer in Anthropology at the 
University of Chicago. He also holds 

Dr. Donald Collier 

memberships in the Society for Amer- 
can Archaeology, the Institute of An- 
dean Research, Sigma Xi, and — reflect- 
ing his interest in art — the Renaissance 
Society of Chicago. 

Among his publications are a study of 
peyote — the plant, the cult, and the drug; 
an exposition of radiocarbon dating; 
culture studies of several American In- 
dian tribes; extensive reports of his ar- 
chaeological work in Ecuador and Peru; 
studies of Aztec and Maya art; a general 
book on North American prehistory, 
Indians before Columbus, written in col- 
laboration with Paul S. Martin and 
George Quimby (recently selected for 
the White House library); a book on 
Indian Art of the Americas; and numerous 

Collier is married to the former Mal- 
colm Carr, also an anthropologist. They 
have two college-age sons. 

22 " Pound Pyrite 
Crystal Donated 

RECENTLY a fine specimen of pyrite 
(fool's gold) was donated to the 
Museum. Although pyrite is a fairly 
common mineral the particular interest 
of our specimen is its unusual size and 
the fact that it is essentially a single 
crystal with several well-developed cube 
faces. The faces are nearly six inches 
on a side and the specimen weighs near- 
ly 22 pounds. As such, it is by far the 
largest we have in our collection, and 
in fact it must be as large as or larger 
than any nugget of fool's gold on record 

i from the entire United States. 

It is worthwhile to record the story be- 

' hind this donation. Mrs. Louise Helton 
of Copperhill and Mrs. Etoise Pate of 
Ducktown, Tennessee, visited the Muse- 

Dr. Bertram G. Woodland 
hefts 22-pound pyrite crystal 

um sometime ago. They carried back 
to Tennessee such a favorable impres- 
sion of their visit that they rememljered 
the Museum when an opportunity arose 

to show their appreciation in a practical 
way. The pyrite had been found in 
the Cherokee Mine of the Tennessee 
Copper Company at Ducktown, Ten- 
nessee. Mr. Oliver Hawk of the Ten- 
nessee Copper Company made the 
specimen available and Mrs. Helton 
and Mrs. Pate brought it to the Museum. 

Presentation was made in memory of 
Mr. Lynn Pate (Mrs. Pate's late hus- 
band) and Mr. Paschal Hughes, who 
were killed in a mine accident in the 
Ducktown area in 1963. 

Before making the trip to Chicago, 
Mrs. Helton wrote to Mayor Richard J. 
Daley, who made the arrangements for 
the presentation. In a letter to Mrs. 
Helton, Mayor Daley wrote : 

"I am taking the opportunity to thank 
you for the gift of pure pyrite crystal pre- 
sented to our Museum of Natural His- 
tory. Mr. E. Leland Webljer, Director 
of the Museum, informs me that this 
crystal is a valuable addition to their 

"The city of Chicago is grateful for 
this fine specimen and is especially ap- 
preciative of the kindness expressed in 
making us the recipient of this valuable 
museum piece." 

The Ducktown area, also known as the 
Copper Basin, is a world-famous metal- 
liferous mining region, copper ore hav- 
ing been mined there since 1847. Since 
1907 the sulfur present in the ores has 
been used in the manufacture of sul- 
furic acid, which is now one of the re- 
gion's major products. The ore cur- 
rently mined, about 1,300,000 tons a 
year, contains one per cent both of cop- 
per and zinc, twenty-six per cent sulfur 
and thirty-six per cent iron. Our speci- 
men of pyrite (iron sulfide) contains 
some pyrrhotite (another variety of iron 
sulfide) and chalcopyrite (copper iron 
sulfide). The zinc ore is reclaimed and 
sold to zinc smelters, while the iron, in 
the form of iron oxide, is sintered and 
sold as a high-grade iron ore. 

$200,000 GRANT 

THE MUSEUM has received a grant of 
$200,000 from the Robert R. McCor- 
mick Charitable Trust for general sup- 
port of the Museum's programs of re- 
search and education. The gift is the 
largest private foundation grant received 
in the history of the Museum. 

In accepting the grant. Museum Pres- 
ident James L. Palmer said: 

"Chicago Natural History Museum is 
one of the Chicago institutions that serves 
all ages, from young children to senior 
citizens, and all levels of education, from 
the primary grades to the doctoral and 
post-doctoral level. Opportunities con- 
tinually arise for enlarging and strength- 
ening our contributions to knowledge 
and to the community. The generous 
support of the McCormick Trust is very 
gratifying as we seek to broaden the base 
of public support for the Museum. 


ONE OF THE most difficult, yet most 
important scientific frontiers of our 
time — the human mind — was probed 
by Dr. Francis O. Schmitt, Professor in 
the Department of Biology at Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, during 
the 1964 Holiday Science Lectures 
held at the Museum on December 28 
and 29. 

More than 800 outstanding high school 
students from the Chicago metropolitan 
area were selected by their school 
principals to attend the lectures during 
Christmas vacation. 

Dr. Schmitt began his discussion 
{Continued on page 8) 



A Progress Report 

BOXES — crates — cartons — drawers. 
Truckload after truckload of them, 
all filled with fossil invertebrates, have 
arrived at Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum from the Walker Museum of the 
University of Chicago. \Vhile the new 
quarters are being finished. Geology 
Department staff and assistants are un- 
packing, sorting, labeling, and putting 
the University specimens in standard 
Museum boxes and drawers. 

A year ago, our entire collection of 
fossil invertebrates occupied (to over- 
flowing) 1,672 drawers. The combined 
collections will be distributed (with 
space to grow) among 10,625. Stacked 
one on another, these drawers would 
tower slightly more than half a mile in 
the air. 

This enlarged collection will shortly 
take its place as one of the nation's 
top-ranking "libraries" of fossil inver- 
tebrate sfjecimens. For a library it is, 
not only in the sense that "There are 
sermons in stones, lessons in the running 
brooks," but in the use to which it will 
be put. Members of the Museum staff 
use the specimens daily as reference ma- 
terial in their research — but if this were 
their only use we might well be regarded 
as overindulged. University students 
use the collections both for learning to 
recognize and understand fossils and for 
guiding their first fledgling flights into 
research. Paleontologists from other 
institutions in this country and abroad 
consult this "library" to examine sjjeci- 
mens in their special fields. And, true 

to the uses of libraries, we lend speci- 
mens to qualified researchers for their 
study elsewhere. This practice confers 
a double benefit: on the scholar who 
gets the use of the material and on the 
Museum, whose specimens are thus 
checked in the light of the latest under- 
standing. All of these values and ser- 
vices will now be enhanced in propor- 
tion to the increased size of the col- 

As we unpack the specimens, we find 
one area after another in which our 
horizon is broadened. To our fine col- 
lection of Mississippian crinoids from 
Crawfordsville, Indiana, is added a tier 
of drawers of not only more crinoids, 
but the rarer associated fossils that will 
reveal more of that ancient environ- 
ment. The large Tucker collection of 
Tertiary marine fossils adds many new 
localities and faunas to what we had. 
James Hall's overwhelming quantities 
of corals, clams, brachiopods, and other 
denizens of New York's Devonian seas 
clarify — as even his renowned lithograph 
plates and lucid discussions could not — 
the nature of these classic faunas. Each 
box we open reveals gaps filled and new 
research material available. 

The unpacking has kept up a bustle 
of activity throughout this past year, 
first in a basement room, later in the 
blocked-off half of a major exhibition 
hall — the only space we could locate that 
was adequate for the growing stacks of 
drawers. With space to put the speci- 
mens in standard-sized cardboard trays 

that fit without crowding into their new 
drawers, and with labels neatly trans- 
cribed, we discover with delight fossils 
from areas long since collected bare, 
and among them the prime specimens 
that fell to the lot of the first collectors. 

Transcribing the old labels brings us 
into almost personal contact with legen- 
dary figures of seventy or a hundred 
years ago, men whose names we have 
long known from their writings, as well 
as others who simply collected. 

One of the large individual collections 
was brought together by Charles L. 
Faber, known for a handful of publi- 
cations from Cincinnati in the '80's and 
'90's. Many of the labels, on a stiff rag 
stock, bear the heading "Q.C.N.H. So- 
ciety" in an antique typeface. For some 
days we were puzzled by this abrevia- 
tion, until it occurred to us that Cin- 
cinnati is sometimes called the "Queen 
City of the Ohio," and that there must 
have been an early Natural History So- 
ciety using that name. Some day we 
may find answers to other questions: — 
did Faber acquire the collection upon 
the demise of the Society? Was the 
whole Society just his own name for 
his own collection? There is no men- 
tion of a predecessor in the first number 
of the Journal of the Cincinnati Society 
of Natural History. Most of the speci- 
mens with these labels are from Ger- 
many, probably a reflection of Cincin- 
nati's German heritage (or of Faber's?). 
On a few labels, the locality is noted as 
"Wiirttemberg, Germany," on others 


Eugene S. Richardson, Jr. 
Curator, Fossil Invertebrates 


on the Walker Collection 

as "Western Germany." But most are 
"WGer," which could be either. We 
decided that this more probably meant 
Western Germany, rather than Wiirt- 
temberg, and have so transcribed the 
labels. The labels of the Q.C.N.H. So- 
ciety included catalog numbers, but 
there were no corresponding numbers 
on the specimens, a sad omission when 
label and sjjecimen have drifted apart. 
Curiously, the numbers run only from 
1 to 119, so that in this collection of 
many hundreds of specimens each num- 
ber is used several times. Perhaps the 
numbers refer to pages of a catalog yet 
to be found, rather than to individual 
entries. When Faber collected speci- 
mens himself, he jotted down a mini- 
mum amount of information on a scrap 
of newspaper wrapped with each lot. 
The habit of abbreviating also turns 
up on these. We found the notations 
"BM" on some scraps, "KCM" on 
others. At last, clues from more voluble 
labels led us to interpret these as 
"Booneville, Missouri" and "Kansas 
City, Missouri" — but still, there is al- 
ways a shade of uncertainty in such in- 

Among the fossils of the Haines Col- 
lection, another part of the Walker Mu- 
seum trove, some are cryptically labeled 
"PCIll." Being by this time aware 
of what can be done with abbreviations, 
we shortly concluded that this probably 
meant "Peoria County, Illinois." In 
making this and other such interpre- 
tations, we depend, of course, on our 

Like a vast array of safe-deposit boxes, these drawers containing fossil invertebrates 

from the University of Chicago await their move into new permanent quarters now 

being constructed as an addition to the Museum building. With Assistant David 

Techter taking notes, Dr. Richardson puts numbers on the labels to guide the movers 

in placing the drawers in proper position in their new cabinets. 

general familiarity with fossils. The 
specimens are such as might well have 
come from Peoria County, but not from 
Perry, Piatt, Pike, Pope, Pulaski, or 
Putnam counties. The hundred-year 
old Haines Collection is interesting in 
many ways, and we are gradually form- 
ing an impression of its gatherer. Ap- 
parently she was Mary P. Haines, wife 
of Joshua Haines of Richmond, In- 
diana, and a woman of unusual attain- 
ments. Her specimens are neatly num- 
bered, each one with a small white 
paper rectangle pasted to the fossil and 
bearing a delicately inked number to 
correspond with a tidy catalog entry. 
Her interests were broad, as was her 
correspondence. While her collection 
is predictal)ly rich in Ordovician fossils 
from the vicinity of Richmond, there 
are also many others, including a num- 
Iser of Cretaceous specimens from Tex- 

as, probably sent by a friend. Among 
some papers — including her daughter's 
German lessons — was an alphabetical 
list of the plants that she had seen grow- 
ing in Richmond (including, she notes, 
garden plants), and a letter from a lady 
in California enclosing a fern, still 
sound enough to be placed in the Mu- 
seum's herbarium. 

The most extensive collection, and the 
most impwrtant comjxjnent of the Walker 
accumulation, is the vast collection of 
James Hall (1811-1898). This was 
bought by the University of Chicago 
from Hall's estate. But though thou- 
sands of specimens were unpacked and 
have now served in the instruction of 
generations of students, there was not 
room in the Walker Museum for all of it. 
Over three hundred wooden ijoxes re- 
mained to be unpacked at the time of 
the transfer to Chicago Natural History 


A corner of Exhibit Hall 36 has been blocked off to serve as a workroom for trans- 
ferring University specimens to Museum storage drawers. The drawers seen above 
contain about a quarter oj the expanding collection of fossil invertebrates that will 
eventually be housed in the building addition now under construction. 

Museum. It is the unpacking of these 
specimens that has been the most re- 
warding. Here are the fossils studied by 
America's greatest invertebrate paleon- 
tologist at the time when he was writing 
his renowned series of quarto volumes 
published "by authority of the State of 
New York." Here are proof sheets of 
the lithographed plates, with Hall's no- 
tations to the artists. Here also is a fine 
though inadvertent collection of Amer- 
icana in the form of old newspajiers, 
cigar boxes, pill boxes, used to wrap or 
contain the specimens. The greatest 
number of newspapers date from the 
1870's and '80's, issuing from New York, 
Albany, Cincinnati, and many smaller 
towns. The oldest, from Waterville, 
New York, were printed in 1830 and 
served as packing for a quantity of plas- 
ter and sulfur molds of fossil crinoids. 
As it is pMDSsible that these molds may 
represent important lost specimens, they 
are being kept with all care in our new 
trays and drawers. 

Though a librarian may aspire to ob- 
tain copies of every book in a limited 
field, either in the original or in micro- 

film, our library of fossils can never be 
complete. Many sf)ecies of extinct in- 
vertebrates are known from single frag- 
mentary specimens; others, whose type 
material is now lost, are known from 
old, inadequate publications. Our goal, 
rather, is to have a good general repre- 
sentation of the field of fossil inverte- 
brates, and toward this goal each collec- 
tion brought to the Museum advances us. 
Tiffany, Tucker, Sampson, Sloss, 
Smith, VVeller, James, Jenni, Krantz, 
Bassler, Moore, Plummer — the roll of 
collections goes on. Some are small, 
some large, some important, others less 
so, but all were brought together care- 
fully and even lovingly, and each lends 
its character to the whole that is opening 
before us. They will now be blended 
with the collections already here — Roy, 
Head, Langford, Ward, Dyer, Nelson 
and others — each specimen put with 
others of its kind in a self-indexing ar- 
rangement. Thus both Museum staff 
and visiting scientists can efficiently 
use this magnificent resource, which is 
expected to take its place as one of the 
most renowned and useful of its kind.  


{Continued from page 5) 

of mental processes with a report on 
molecular organization and cell func- 
tion, molecular information processing 
and molecular neurology. His final 
subject was "The Science of the Mind : 
A New Synthesis." Each lecture was 
followed by a lively question-and- 
answer jjeriod. 

The Holiday Science Lectures, now 
in their third year at the Museum, 
afford outstanding high school students 
an opportunity to hear first-hand reports 
on work being done by eminent scien- 
tists of the nation. 

The lectures are presented nationally 
by the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science in cooperation 
with scientific institutions in major cities 
across the country, under a grant from 
the Nation2d Science Foundation.  

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, Illinois 60605 

Telephone: 922-9410 


Lester Armour 
Wm. McConnick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Cliflord C. Gregg 
Samuel InsuU, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 
William V. Kahler 

J. Howard 

Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Edward Byron Smith 
Louis Ware 


James L. Palmer, President 

Clifford C. Gregg, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Edward Byron Smith, Treasurer 

and Assistant Secretary 

E. Leiand Webber, Secretary 


B, LcUad Webber, Director of the Museum 


Donald Collier, Chief Curator of Anchropolog^ 

Louis O. Williams, Chief Curator of Botany 

Raincr Zangerl, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 

Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 

Members arc requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 



.. 1 V "jp.?;'.^ ,a»-,V- --it ■'^-'iW-j 



Museum News 





THE TOMATO hornworm on the cover, 
photographed by John Kohout of 
LaGrange Park, Illinois, is an example 
of the outstanding camera work that 
can again be seen at the Museum during 
the 20th Chicago International Exhibi- 
tion of Nature Photography. Sponsored 
by Chicago Natural History Museum 
and the Chicago Nature Camera Club, 
the competitive exhibition will run 
through February 21, 1965. Color trans- 
parencies will be projected on two Sun- 
days, February 7 and February 14, at 
2:30 P.M. in the Museum's James Simp- 
son Theatre. 

A panel of five judges selected the pho- 
tographs and slides from thousands of 
national and international entries and 
assigned awards to the most outstand- 
ing. Museum staff on the panel are: 
Dr. Fred M. Reinman, Assistant Cura- 
tor of Oceanic Archaeology and Ethnol- 
ogy, and John Bayalis, Division of Pho- 
tography. The other judges are Samuel 
VV. Kipnis and Julius Wolf, well-known 
photographic exhibitors, and Mrs. Isa- 
bel B. Wasson, noted naturalist, lecturer, 
and photographer. 


Two SATURDAY programs for children 
will be presented in March at the 
Museum under the auspices of the Ray- 
mond Foundation. On March 6, Camp 
Fire Girl Day, the theme, "Indian Amer- 
ica," will be explored through color 
movies on Indian life in the forests, 
plains, and deserts. Following the pro- 
gram, direction sheets will be available 

for children interested in exploring re- 
lated Indian exhibits in the Museum. 
On March 27, awards will be given to 
youngsters who participated in the Mu- 
seum's Journey Program in the past year. 
Free and open to all children, the pro- 
grams will begin at 10:30 a.m. in the 
James Simpson Theatre. 


A sum of $32,100 has been awarded to 
Dr. Louis O. Williams, Chief Cura- 
tor of Botany, by the National Science 
Foundation for continuation of his bo- 
tanical field work in Central America 
during the next two years. Dr. Williams 
is currently in Central America collect- 
ing specimens and data on the little 
known plants of that region (see page 7). 

DR. RAiNER ZANGERL, Chief Curator 
of Geology, has been elected presi- 
dent of the Society of Vertebrate Pale- 

KENNETH STARR, Curator of Asiatic 
Archaeology and Ethnology, has 
been appointed a member of the Com- 
mittee on Far Eastern Civilizations at 
the University of Chicago. This follows 
his appointment last year to the Univer- 
sity's Committee on Southern Asian 
Studies. Dr. Starr is one of several Mu- 
seum staff members who, through ap- 
pointment to university faculties, partic- 
ipate in the teaching and supervision of 
doctoral candidates in the Museum fields 
of interest. 

FRED M. REINMAN, Assistant Curator 
of Oceanic Archaeology and Eth- 
nology, has been awarded the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy in Anthropology 
from the University of California (Los 

Dr. Reinman is interested in the in- 
terrelationships between environment, 
culture, and technology. His doctoral 
thesis is an investigation of the ways in 
which oceanic peoples have developed 
increasingly successful fishing tech- 
niques and implements to exploit the 
sea as a source of food. 

CHIEF CURATOR of Zoology Austin L. 
Rand has written the section on 
gnatcatchers and kinglets for a new book. 
Song and Garden Birds of North America, 
just published by the National Geo- 
graphic Society. 

DR. RUPERT L. WENZEL, Curator of 
Insects, and Mr. Henry S. Dybas, 
Associate Curator, attended the nation- 
al meetings of the Entomological Society 
of America, held in Philadelphia. Dy- 
bas served on the program committee 
and as chairman of the section on gen- 
eral entomology. Wenzel moderated a 
symposium on "Past Climates and Pres- 
ent Distributions of North American 

DR. GABRIEL EDWIN, Assistant Curator 
of Vascular Plants, spoke on repro- 
ductive mechanisms in plants at a meet- 
ing of the Illinois State Society of Mi- 

GEORGE I. QuiMBY, Curator of North 
American Archaeology and Eth- 
nology, gave two speeches recently on 
his studies of the Indians and archaeol- 
ogy of the Upper Great Lakes Region 
from 1600-1820. One lecture, on In- 
dian villages, was given at the School of 
Architecture at the University of Illinois 
at Chicago. The other was presented at 
a workshop on archaeology sponsored 
by the Illinois Archaeology Survey and 
held at the University of Illinois at Ur- 
bana. Later Mr. Quimby returned to 
Urbana to conduct a seminar on eco- 
logical causality and culture for the De- 
partment of Anthropology.  


Spring Film Programs 




THE 123rd series of free illustrated 
lectures for adults will be presented 
in the James Simpson Theatre on Satur- 
day afternoons during March and April. 
The lectures begin at 2 :30 p.m.; seats are 
reserved for Members until 2 :25 p.m. 
Following is the complete schedule of 

March 6 
Ranching It in California 

Albert J. Wool 

Overlooking the ocean from Califor- 
nia's Santa Cruz Mountains is a beauti- 
ful country of rolling hills, towering red- 
woods, and clear mountain streams — a 
"land of heart's desire" such as city 
dwellers long for but seldom attain. The 
first film in the Museum's spring series 
offers a chance to get away from it all as 
Albert Wool treats us to a portrait of the 
joys and wonders of western ranch life. 
Filmed on his own 1,300-acre cattle 
ranch on the Pacific shore, his motion 
picture follows the farming and ranch- 
ing operations from planting time to hay 
harvest, from calving time to roundup. 
Along the way you will enjoy bountiful 
wildlife, take to the surf on horseback 
along the Pacific, and see the action at 
junior horse shows and rodeos where 
youngsters compete for fun and glory. 

Old meets new in Clifford J. Kamin' s film 
on Mexico to be shown March 20. 

March 13 
North to Hudson Bay 

David Jarden 

Twenty times in as many years, David 
Jarden and his Indian guides have pit- 
ted their frail canoe against the caprices 
of nature in Ontario's vast northland. 
This time his film records an 850-mile 
trip down the Winisk River to Hudson 
Bay, along the coast, and then by inland 
canoe route from James Bay to Mooso- 
nee. Captured in natural color are the 
wildlife, fishing, Indians, woodcraft, and 
beauty of the great forests that cover this 
northern region. It is a strange hinter- 
land, bright with a myriad of wild flow- 
ers. You will see caribou graze at will, 
watch thousands of Canada geese gather 
for their fall migration, experience the 
finest fishing, thrill to shooting rapids. 

March 20 
Mexico — On the Trail of Cortes 

Clifford J. Kamen 

Few men in history have approached 
the remarkable achievement of Hernan- 
do Cortes. Clifford Kamen's film fol- 
lows the great adventurer's invasion 
route into Mexico and tells the almost 
unJjelievable story of the conquest of the 
Aztec empire. But the film not only re- 
creates the past; it also offers a fresh in- 
terpretation of contemporary Mexican 
life as it has been affected Ijoth by its 
Mayan and Aztec traditions and the in- 
troduction of Spanish culture. Mr. Ka- 
men's well-known animated maps and 
art work add a unique dimension to this 
fascinating portrayal of Mexican history 
and culture. 

{Continued on page 8) 


IN SPEAKING of 3 museum science department as an organ- 
ism with definite structural parts and functions, I am 
aware of the limitations of the metaphor. But such a de- 
partment is an organism of sorts, and as such it has super- 
ficial similarities with real organisms. For example, science 
departments do evolve, thereby increasing in physical and 
functional complexity; they also tend to suffer as a whole 
if one part within them malfunctions; as in real organisms, 
changes in one part of the body have to be in harmonious 
relation to the rest if the whole is to function properly. All 
these things are pertinent to an understanding of the vast 
changes that are currently under way in the Department of 

The early evolutionary history of the department con- 
sisted primarily of (1) filling its maw with food, in the form 
of collections (in contrast to real organisms, museums ingest 
a lot, digest some, but eliminate very little); (2) adding brain 
cells (curators and assistants); and (3) building up the sen- 
sory apparatus, in the form of microscopes and a host of 
other tools for investigation. Since the overall size of the 
body was clearly defined and limited to the third floor of 
the northwest quadrant of the Museum building, and since 
the acquisition of items 1 to 3 above spanned a develop- 
mental period of some 69 years, it was no great surprise to 
discover that the body would hold no more. As a matter 
of fact, the collections of fossil invertebrates, fossil plants, and 
rocks had grown well beyond the storage capacity, with the 
result that large numbers of specimens could no longer be 
properly housed and had to be kept under tables, on top of 
tables, and inaccessibly piled on top of storage cases. Even 
worse, vital research equipment had to be installed in vari- 
ous nooks and crannies all over the department. 

Organisms such as domestic dogs and, even more so, 
man himself are prone to overindulge if tempted with glori- 
ously succulent vittles, and such a fate befell the Department 
of Geology when it was faced with the prospect of taking 
over the famous collection of fossil invertebrates in the 
Walker Museum of the University of Chicago. The moti- 
vation was not all greed, however. Many arguments lead- 
ing to the decision that this vast collection should come to 
the Museum had merit beyond the simple and defendable 
proposition that a museum collection is the more useful to 
scientific inquiry, the larger it is. 

It was perfectly clear at the outset that if this collection 
were to be accepted the organism would have to undergo 
further physical growth to nearly twice its former size, and 
along with this a complete metamorphosis: namely, a pro- 
found redesigning of the parts. At this writing the depart- 
ment can best be described as a disaster area. There is 
building and rebuilding going on everywhere while the 
former contents of the department have to be shunted here 
and there as dictated by the demands of the construction. 
But now the new shapes begin to appear and we can recog- 
nize the look of the future. 

To begin with, the collections, formerly stored in various 
rooms along the corridors of the third floor research area, 
{Continued on page 6) 



of the 

1 Second floor collection storage area 

2 Mezzanine collection storage area 

3 Third floor stack room, General Library 

4 Geology map room 

5 Geochemical laboratory 

6 Rock-sectioning laboratory 

7 Shipping and receiving room and elevator 

8 Student and assistant offices and study areas 

9 Thin-section laboratory 


Chief Curator, Geology 

»ology Department 

10 Photo laboratory, dark room, and diagnostic X-ray machine 

1 1 Exhibit preparation rooms 

12 Office oj departmental artist and illustrator 

13 Offices and workrooms oj curators. University of Chicago prO' 

fessors, assistants, and visiting scientists 

14 Chalmers X-ray spectrograph laboratory 

15 Divisional paleontology library 

16 Maurice L. Richardson fine-preparation laboratory 

17 Preparation laboratories 

18 Collection areas for biostratonomy, fossil fishes, fossil amphib 

ians and reptiles 

19 Classroom 

20 Geology library 

21 Geology office 

22 Office and workroom of Chief Curator 

23 General Library 

24 Museum artists 

25 Editors of scientific publications 

26 Harris Extension 

27 Washroom 

28 Supply storage 
{Drawing by Lido Lucchesi) 


are to be put into an enormous central hold, a space created 
by filling in the light well that was formerly enclosed by the 
departmental quarters. The study collection will occupy 
approximately two-thirds of the 252,000 cubic feet of new 
space; the balance will become the stack room and some 
offices of the General Library. Large as it is, the new stor- 
age range does not accommodate all the collections of the 
Geology Department; biostratonomy as well as fossil fishes, 
amphiliians, and reptiles either remain where they now are, 
or will be moved to storage rooms adjacent to the former 

As is true of any biological metamorphosis, the reorgan- 
ized anatomy is, in part, a compromise with the old. This 
came clearly to our attention when we worked on the plans 
for the research area. There were many limitations im- 
posed by the building in its former condition, and it was not 
possible to achieve an ideal solution in all respects. Ideally, 

Assistant Henry Hot back prepares specimens for study 
in the rock-sectioning laboratory. 

all offices should have access to natural light; ideally, cura- 
tors should be close to their collections, the laboratories they 
most frequently use, and the specialized libraries they most 
often consult. While these and many other considerations 
could probably be satisfied if one were to design a structure 
from the ground up, it soon became obvious that the layout 
of the present building would not accommodate them. 

The new plan, however, will be a functional organism, 
and such compromises as had to be made were mostly ones 
of convenience rather than efficiency. Curators will have 
offices combined with adjacent work rooms, permitting 
them to keep acid bottles and specimens off their desks 
(see plan for location of offices along the outer wall of the 
building). Only one laboratory, the Chalmers X-ray spec- 
trograph laboratory, was placed along the outside walls of 
the building in order to remove it as far as convenient from 
possible vibrations produced by the air-conditioning plant 
at the bottom of the former well. Because there will be a 


concentration of paleontologists in the west half of the de- 
partment, a divisional paleontology library is also located 

On the north side adjacent to the former well there will 
be mostly laboratories, as follows : the geochemical labora- 
tory (in its present location), a rock-sectioning room that 
will house the diflferent rock-cutting devices, a thin-section 
laboratory, a photo laboratory with dark rooms and diag- 
nostic X-ray machine, and a shipping and receiving room 
next to the elevator that will service the hold in the interior 
of the former light well. This room will be used to unpack 
crates that are shipped in from the field and for packing or 
unpacking shipments of specimens being sent for study to or 
from other institutions. Furthermore, there are two offices 
to be used by students and assistants, and a shop to serve in 
connection with the preparation of exhibits. 

On the south side adjacent to the former well there will 
be the Maurice L. Richardson fine-preparation laboratory, 
equipped with instruments that permit the cleaning of ex- 
tremely delicate fossils. A large portion of the fossil fish 
collection will be housed on this side, and a classroom where 
Professors E. C. Olson and Ralph G. Johnson of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago and various members of the curatorial 
staff expect to teach and hold seminars. Student cubicles 
for graduate students engaged in thesis work are located in 
a number of places. 

Finally, there will be changes in the area of the depart- 
mental library, the departmental office, and the office of the 
Chief Curator. By removal of the semipermeable mem- 
branes that now partially subdivide the geology library, a 
very notable gain in capacity will be efTected. The geology 
office will be moved to what is now the map room, and the 
Chief Curator will gain a workroom of his own (he intends 
to continue to do research). 

In summary, the Department of Geology will have a new 
anatomy, a new size, and, hopefully, a revitalized efficiency. 

Dr. Tiber Perenyi, Departmental Artist, discusses an exhibition model 
with Dr. Eugene S. Richardson, Jr. 

The high volcanoes of western Guatemala have a 
fair cover of virgin forests tvhich contain plants still unknown to botanists. 


Chief Curator, Botany 



ONE OF the first things that an observant person wants to 
know when he goes to a new region is the names of the 
conspicuous and more important plants around him, espe- 
cially if those plants affect his everyday life, or even make 
life possible. 

Although the naming of plants is as old as man, the sys- 
tematic study of the world's vegetation, with an attempt to 
attach precise scientific names to each of the kinds of plants 
in the world, has been going on for only a little more than 
two hundred years. 

There are in the temperate and arctic regions of North 
America perhaps some ten thousand species of flowering 
plants. These are quite well known, and most of them have 
been given scientific names. 

In the tropics of the Americas, however — in that region 
between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn 
 — vast expanses still are relatively unexplored. Areas as 
large as Illinois have never been lived in or studied by a 
botanist the year around. The whole of Nicaragua, which 
is right on our door step in this travel-by-jet era, is mostly 
unknown botanically. 

Of the flowering plants alone, it is estimated that there 
are some 100,000 to 125,000 known species in the American 
tropics. Capable botanists studying the flora of these re- 

gions think that as many as one out of every four of its 
flowering plants may still be unknown and unnamed. If 
this estimate is correct, then there should be some 130,000 
to 1 80,000 kinds of flowering plants in the neotropics. 

Ferns, algae, fungi, mosses, and liverworts are other great 
groups of plants found in our tropics. No one knows how 
many kinds of these plants there are, and our scientific 
knowledge of them is much less, even, than of the flowering 
plants. It is possible — even p)robable — that there are more 
kinds unknown to science than are known. 

Exploration of our tropics and research on the vegeta- 
tion proceed hand in hand. It will be a long time before 
the vegetation of the American tropics is as well known as, 
for example, that of the United States. To place the prob- 
lem in perspective: it has been estimated recently that it 
would take one hundred botanists one hundred years just to 
carry on the exploration and study necessary to compile a 
flora of neotropical flowering plants. 

Progress in many other sciences depends upon a knowl- 
edge of the plants and vegetation that cover the face of the 
earth. Research in the botany of the American tropics is 
an open field beckoning to those who would participate in 
a scholarly science in which exploration and discovery make 
living enjoyable and rewarding.  


Film Programs 

{Continued from page 3) 

March 27 
Man Looks to the Sea 

Stanton A. Waterman 

For a new and challenging horizon, 
many Americans in their characteristic 
search for adventure are looking to the 
sea. Through a series of brilliant, full 
color film sequences, we can share Stan- 
ton Waterman's exploration of this 
strange milieu. He shows us divers risk- 
ing their lives in the blue depths of the 
Pacific to harvest precious black coral; 
the attack patterns of the shark, spec- 
tacularly photographed from an under- 
water cage only eight feet away; a wild 
wrestling match with a timid, tenacious 
octopus tickled out of its den; a dazzling 
marine collection of rare and colorful 
reef fish in the out islands of the Ba- 
hamas. Highlights of the film are un- 
derwater shots of the incredible leaps 
made by the porpoises at feeding time 
in the Miami Seaquarium, and the ac- 
tual sound track of porpoise "talk." 

April 3 
Trailing Lewis and Clark to Oregon 

Thayer Soule 

In 1803 the Louisiana Purchase more 
than doubled the size of the United 
States. President Thomas Jefferson per- 
suaded Congress to authorize an explora- 
tion of the new territory, from Cahokia, 
Illinois (then an American outpost on 
the east bank of the Mississippi) all the 
way to the Pacific. Everyone knows how 
Lewis and Clark were chosen for the 
task and how Sacajawea, an Indian girl, 
was Instrumental in their success. Now 
this stirring phase of American history 
comes to life in a film made almost en- 
tirely within ten miles of the actual Lewis 
and Clark route. The motion picture 
not only tells the story of the historic ex- 
jjedition, but shows the undreamed of 
chcmges that have occurred in the terri- 
tory during the 160 years since Lewis 
and Clark forged their way to the sea. 

Turkish girl from Gene Wiancko's ' 
Ancient World — Athens to Cairo. 


April 10 
The Ancient World — Athens to Cairo 

Gene Wiancko 
From Athens to Cairo is a distance of 
only 700 miles; yet within a circle en- 
clc«ing these two cities were enacted 
many of history's greatest epics. Here, 
the still-magnificent relics of mankind's 
ancient glories stand in a living world of 
beauty and charm. In our film journey 
from Athens to Cairo we cross the paths 
of Jesus and Mohammed, Socrates and 
Alexander the Great, Suleiman the Mag- 
nificent and the crusaders, Phoenicians 
and pharaohs. King Tutankhamun and 
King Paul. The ways of life in the east- 
em Mediterranean world today are mov- 
ingly portrayed, and even the ancient 
world seems to live again. 

April 17 
Waterway Wildlife 

Karl Maslowski 
The complete dependence of man and 
wildlife upon an abundance of good 
fresh water is the theme of this dramatic 
color motion picture. A woodchuck 
browsing on a hilltop meadow; bass 
spawning in a limestone creek; factory 
workers turning out steel, glass, and 
cloth — all rely equally on adequate sup- 
plies of uncontaminated water. A noted 
naturalist and conservationist, Karl Mas- 
lowski contrasts the areas devastated by 
man with the beauty of still unsfwiled 

waterways and their wildlife communi- 
ties. We hear the voices of such water- 
way dwellers as tree frogs, wood ducks, 
and Canada geese, and glimpse the fam- 
ilies of red fox and muskrat, cottontail 
and deer. 

April 24 
Hiawatha Country 

Fran William Hall 
Longfellow's image of Hiawatha's 
country is one of timeless appeal. An 
area of soaring mountains and sparkling 
waters, it is one of America's last great 
wilderness regions. Today ore boats ply 
the Gitche Gumee, and remote villages, 
almost forgotten by time, are emerging 
into modern life. Fran William Hall 
captures the spirit of this land in a film 
that shows us the glorious Lake Supe- 
rior "circle," the fabulous iron country 
around Duluth, Ontario's mooselands, 
the top of the Soo, Michigan's Upper 
Peninsula, famous Pictured Rocks, Cop- 
per Harbor, and the vast north woods.  

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, lUinois 60605 

Telephone: 922-9410 


Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P, Isham 
William V. Kahler 

J. Howard 

Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Edward Byron Smith 
Louis Ware 


James L. Palmer, President 

Clifford C. Gregg, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Edward Byron Smith, Treasurer 

and Assistant Secretary 

E. Leland Webber, Secretary 


E. Leland Webber, Director o( the Museum 


Donald Collier, Chiel Curator of Anthropology 

Louis O. Williams, Chief Curator of Botany 

Rainer Zangerl, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 

Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 





Cover From New 
Photographic Exhibit 

THIS month's cover — a delightful 
photographic study of a Korean boy 
imprinting his footsteps on the mud flats 
of his native countryside — is from a new 
exhibit titled "The Character of Korea" 
opening at the Museum on April 1. In 
55 black-and-white photographs, the 
exhibit depicts the beauty and character 
of Korean rural life at the present time. 
The exhibit is sp)onsored by the Amer- 
ican-Korean Foundation, a private, 
non-profit group which undertakes pro- 
jects in Korea in the fields of culture, 
education, health, welfare, and econom- 
ic development. The pictures are the 
work of the widely-known artist-photo- 
grapher ^Vallace C. Marley, motion 
picture coordinator for the United 
States Department of Defense. The ex- 
hibit comes to the Museum in the course 
of a two-year, nationwide tour. 

More than a million Americans have 
visited or seen military service in Korea 
since its liberation from Japanese rule 
in 1945, but few of these have seen the 
country except under the chaotic con- 
ditions of war. "The Character of Ko- 
rea" provides a unique opportunity to 
experience the ancient traditions of ru- 
ral life in peaceful, primitive farm vil- 
lages; to explore the countryside; and 
to enter more deeply into the spirit of 
Korea itself. 

Paleontology Library 

ON THE day after Christmas, 1945, a 
$500 contribution arrived in the 
mail from a Lansing, Michigan, radiol- 
ogist. Dr. Maurice L. Richardson, who 
wrote of his appreciation for the many 
pleasant afternoons he had spent study- 

Maurice L. 

ing the Museum ex- 
hibits. Since the 
donor expressed in- 
terest in vertebrate 
paleontology, his gift 
was set aside in a 
fund to support pale- 
ontological research. 
From this begin- 
ing, the Maurice L. 
Richardson Paleontological Fund has 
developed and grown through consistent 
and increasingly generous contributions 
by Dr. Richardson. 

The income from the fund has been 
used for the purchase of specimens and 
laboratory equipment, but primarily for 
field work — in Illinois, Indiana, Wyo- 
ming, Montana, Utah, Arkansas, Con- 
necticut, Alberta, Quebec, and Austra- 
lia. The collections thus made have 
been the basis of years of staff research, 
and from the research have come, and 
will come, many scientific publications. 

As the fund and its scientific produc- 
tivity have increased, so has the interest 
of Dr. Richardson, who visits the Mu- 
seum several times each year to chat 
with the curators and the Director, 
catch up on current research and scien- 
tific publications, and pick up a few 
books in The Book Shop to satisfy his 
omnivorous reading appetite. Seldom 
in the history of the Museum has any- 
one taken as personal and sustained an 
interest in the work being aided by his 

The Board of Trustees, wishing to 
honor Dr. Richardson, sought a suit- 
able means of doing so. As new con- 
struction and remodeling of the Depart- 
ment of Geology has progressed, and 
as the new paleontology library took 
shape, it seemed eminently fitting that 
this library be named in his honor. 
Thus, at its January meeting, the Board 
designated it the "Maurice L. Rich- 
ardson Paleontological Library." Space 
was allocated on the west side of the 

third floor, and hopes are that the li- 
brary will be fully installed and 
equipped by the time of Dr. Richard- 
son's fall visit. Future students and 
scientists will find the rich resources of 
this library a well-suited tribute to one 
who has so generously aided the re- 
searches which the library contains. 


Norman W. Nelson 

Business Manager 

ON FEBRU.^RY 1 , Mr. Norman \V. Nel- 
son was appointed Business Man- 
ager of Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum. In this newly created position, 
administrative responsibility will be del- 
egated to Mr. Nelson for the business 
and financial operations of the Mu- 
seum. In addition, certain personnel 
and other operational matters, includ- 
ing the ojjeration of the Museum build- 
ing, will come within the jurisdiction 
of the Business Manager. Mr. Nelson 
will work with present department and 
division heads in the conduct of his of- 
fice. The scientific and educational de- 
partments; the library; and the public 
relations and membership di\isions will 
{Phase turn to page 8) 

Page 2 MARCH 

Net-fishing in the lagoon off the northern coast oj New Guinea 

Fred M. Reinman, Assistant Curator 
Oceanic Archaeology and Ethnology 



SINCE very early times, the sea has been a source of food 
for peoples fortunate enough to live along its margins. 
In many areas, fishing, the gathering of shellfish, the hunt- 
ing of different kinds of sea mammals, and the capture of 
turtles have furnished important supplements to a diet of 
terrestrial plants and animals. 

The earliest firm evidence for the use of food from the sea 
comes from the Mousterian site of Devil's Tower in Gibral- 
tar, where limpets and mussels were recovered from nearly 
all levels of the excavation. Even earlier evidence of the use 
of fish is said to come from Africa, and fish remains have also 
been found below a dated level of 40,000 years ago at Niah 
Cave in Borneo. These remains, however, apparently refer 
to fresh-water varieties of fish and indicate that at this early 
time the sea had yet to become an important source of food. 
At later periods, beginning in the Mesolithic, large shell 
mounds are known from many areas of the world. These 
mounds contain many kinds of shellfish, fish bones, and the 
remains of other aquatic animals from both fresh and salt 
water, which indicate an increasing utilization of the aquatic 
resources of man's environment. 

In addition to faunal remains, the archaeologist also finds 
tools indicating the importance of the aquatic environment 
as a source of food. These finds — although rare in the early 
{Continued on next page) 


periods — begin in the Upper Paleolithic. By Mesolithic and 
Neolithic times, they include nearly the entire range of fishing 
and sea hunting equipment: harpoons, gorges, stone net and 
line sinkers, fishhooks, net fragments, traps, hook-making im- 
plements, and many others. 

From the simplest shoreline gathering (sometimes called 
strand-looping) to the more highly complicated techniques 
for sea mammal hunting and fishing, methods for taking food 
from the sea were developed gradually over a long period of 
time. Probably the earliest was to take fish or shellfish by 
hand, or, at most, to use a simple pointed or sharpened stick 
to spear or prize the quarry from the rocks or water. Sea 
mammals and turtles which periodically came ashore could 
also be taken quite easily with simple implements such as 
clubs, knives, ropes, and spears. 

Among these early foods from the sea, shellfish has con- 
tinued- to play an important part in the diet of many peoples. 
However, as a staple food source, shellfish collecting is gener- 
ally associated with a relatively low level of cultural attain- 
ment. Among primitive groups th^t actively fished or hunted 
sea mammals, shellfish played only a minor dietary role. 

To exploit more fully the inshore areas of the sea, more 
highly developed technological devices were needed. In many 
cases, these were probably not new inventions, but were ap- 
plied to the sea by simple transfer from land-oriented hunting 
activities. Examples of such devices are nets of various types, 
spears, arrows, clubs, traps, and perhaps the gorge. All of 
these implements could be used without a great deal of modi- 
fication, simply requiring the addition of weights or floats to 
counteract or utilize the buoyancy of the water. Once these 
inventions or transfers had been made, primitive man gained 
a reliable supplement to his diet without having to leave the 
shallow waters of the reef or the shoreline. 

Still greater utilization of the sea required two further 
advances : the use of some form of boat or raft, and the inven- 
tion of the fishhook. With the first, man was no longer con- 
fined to the beaches and shallow inshore waters, but was able 
to exploit ofTshore areas for new foods or to capture animals 
that used the water as a means of escape. With the second 
device, the fishhook, man no longer needed to limit his exploi- 
tation to the sea's surface waters, but was now able to explore 
and utilize the sub-surface levels and successfully capture 
mid- and deep-water fish. 

In Europe, neither the boat nor the fishhook appears in 
the archaeological record until the end of the Mesolithic peri- 
od. Offshore or deep-sea fishing in Europe did not really be- 
come eff"ective until after the advent of the Neolithic and the 
beginning of farming. With the growth of towns and large 
populations, the demand for products of the sea resulted in a 
more efficient fishery, which included deep-sea fishing, as well 
as whale and other sea mammal hunting. 

THIS general sequence of events in world prehistory can 
also be traced in the archaeological records of localized 
cultures. When men enter a new area having access to the 
sea, they will generally make increasing use of this aspect of 
their environment once it is recognized as a potential source 

of food. Any lessening of available food supplies from the 
land can also stimulate this turning to the sea, and in Oce- 
ania we have an example of this. As groups migrating out 
from the Asian mainland left behind the large islands of In- 
donesia and New Guinea and began to populate the smaller 
Oceanic isles, they found that the abundance of land flora 
and fauna decreased from west to east. Hunting and the 
gathering of wild plants yielded less and less food. On the 
low atolls, the possibilities for horticulture were restricted to 
tree and root crops. The difficulties of maintaining adequate 
supplies of pig, dog, and chicken were such that, by the time 
the easternmost areas of Polynesia were settled, man's de- 
pendence upon the sea as a source of protein had become very 
great. In eastern Polynesia the number of sea fishing and 
hunting techniques employed testifies to the importance of 
sea food to these islanders. 

The wide variety of implements used by the primitive 
Oceanian in his quest for food included nets of all kinds, per- 
manent stone and portable basketry traps of different shapes 
and sizes, weirs and fish fences, spears and fish arrows, the 
harpoon, fish poisons, and, in most areas, the fishhook. If we 
divide the potential fishing area of an Oceanic island or atoll 
into two major zones — inshore and offshore — and further di- 
vide these zones according to the layers of the water in which 
the various fishing implements are used — surface and sub- 
surface — we may then analyze the fishing techinques and im- 
plements used at each level of each zone (Fig. 1.) Such an 

Water surfoce JiA-L^ j 


^y reef flot 
Lagoon y^^ 

— .....a^loce Zone 

^"'N. Sut-surfoce 
N^^^ Zone 

Fig. 1. Schematic cross-section of atoll. 

analysis soon makes clear that the prime target of the Oceanic 
fisherman was the surface waters of inshore reefs and lagoons. 
This area produced most of the sea food the islanders used. 
Relatively few types of fishhooks were used to exploit these 
shallow waters. The Oceanic spinner hook (Fig. 2), especially 
designed for taking bonito and closely related surface feeding 
fish, and the gorge (Fig. 3), were the main implements. The 
Oceanic spinner hook varied only in detail over the whole 
area of its use. It consisted of a shank, fish-like in form, made 
from some type of pearl or other shiny shell material. In 
areas where pearl shell was scarce, other materials, such as 
bone, wood, or stone, were used; in such cases a thin layer of 
pearl or other shell was usually affixed to the shank, presum- 
ably to act as a lure. Attached to the shank was a point made 
of bone, pearl, turtle, or other shell (later metal), which was 

Page k MARCH 

unbarbed for easy removal of the fish. The spinner hook was 
used without bait and trolled behind a moving canoe. 

In Oceania the gorge, like the spinner, was primarily used 
in the surface layer of the sea. The gorge is a very old but 
effective catching and holding device, which archaeologically 
precedes the fishhook and which has been retained in many 
areas where fishing with hooks is also done. It consists of a 
slender wooden stick or bone splinter, pointed at each end, 
with a line attached to its center. When baited, the gorge is 
set so that it lies closely parallel to the line. When the fish 
swallows the bait, the tension on the line pulls the gorge cross- 
wise in the fish's stomach, piercing its sides and effectively 
preventing the fish's escape. Gutting is usually required to 
remove the gorge, and the fish is rarely able to pull himself 
free. Since the gorge is more effective than the hook in hold- 
ing the catch it would seem to be the best choice for devices 
that are left unattended, such as the lines of floats used to 
take flying fish. This is its greatest use in Oceania. 

To catch fish that fed in the sub-surface layer of the lagoon 
and in the deep waters of the offshore zone, many types 
of fishhooks were made from pearl, turtle, and coconut shell, 
or from bone, wood, and occasionally teeth (Fig. 4). Such 
hooks were baited, and generally used with a hand-held line 
rather than a pole. Either permanent or temporary sink- 
ers were added to get the hooks to the proper depth for fish- 
ing. Differences in the size and shape of these hooks suggest 
that their makers had rather specific ideas about the types 
and sizes of fish that could be taken with each. 

A still more specialized instrument is the ruvettus hook 
(Fig. 5), named for the deep-dwelling species, Ruvetlus, which 
it was designed to catch. The ruvettus hook was made in a 
range of sizes from about six inches to over a foot in length. 
A U- or V-shaped forked branch of a tree forms the shank and 
point leg of the hook. Fastened to this is a V-shaped point 
of wood which forms a barb directed back toward the shank, 
reducing the clearance between point and shank to less than 
an inch in the larger hooks. The ruvettus is set in depths of 
up to 2,000 feet, with bait and a sinker attached to the line. 
In attempting to remove the bait, which is affixed to the point 
leg, the fish works his jaw between the point and the shank 
and is firmly secured. Similar hooks were used to take sharks. 

A knowledge of the kinds of fishing equipment used by pre- 
historic fishermen, the zones in which these implements 
were used, and the kinds and amounts offish taken with them, 
is important for the Oceanic prehistorian. Fishing equip- 
ment constitutes an important category of implements recov- 
ered from the archaeologist's excavations. It is necessary to 
have some idea of how such equipment functions in a cul- 
ture in order to make valid inferences about the diet, so- 
cial organization, and general economic conditions of the 
makers of the equipment. More specifically, analysis of 
different types of fishhooks contributes evidence as to the way 
in which the marine habitat was exploited in Oceania, and, 
taken in conjunction with the rest of the fishing complex, will 
enable the archaeologist to make more precise interpretations 
of the role of fishing in the Oceanic economy.  

Fig. 2 (above): Oceanic spinner hooks. 
Sizes range from 3 to 4 inches. 

Fig. 3 (right): Gorge. The slender 
bone splinters swallowed by the fish 
are at the bottom of the photograph. 
These splinters are l^A to 2 inches 
long. Larger ones may approach 6 


uO 6 6 

Fig. 4 (above): Fishhooks used below 
the surface of the lagoon or in deep 
offshore waters. Sizes range from 2 
to 3 inches. 

Fig. 5 (right): Ruvettus hook. 

MARCH Page 5 

DDWIGHT DAVIS, Curator of Anat- 
omy, died February 6th at the 
age of 56. He was at the height of his 
career as a comparative anatomist when 
his monumental work on the giant panda 
was published just two months before his 

As a biological discipline, compara- 
tive anatomy is an old field that had 
its time of intensive work and glory in 
the past century. Its history is studded 
with such famous names as Cuvier, 
Gegenbaur, Fiirbringer, Wiedersheim, 
Owen, Goodrich, and many others. The 
technical literature in the field is all 
but overwhelming in its extent. Under 
these circumstances one may legitimate- 
ly ask whether a man can still make an 
outstanding contribution in this disci- 
pline and measure up to some of the 
illustrious scientists of the past. I think 
Dwight Davis did make a major con- 
tribution and his name will rank among 
the foremost comparative anatomists of 
the 20th century. 

My reasons for this near-prophetic 
statement stem from my close acquaint- 
ance with Dwight's character and work 
habits. He was a perfectionist in all 



his endeavors, and his work habits can 
best be described as meticulous. More- 
over, he was not content merely to build 
upon the philosophical foundations and 
the methodology of his science, as they 
had been laid out liy his predecessors, 
by pragmatically adding to the body of 
knowledge. Instead, he felt that the 
time had come for the field to explore 
new vistas and to undergo a change 
in direction. Characteristically, he pre- 
pared himself ijefore he ventured to put 
his ideas on paper; he read and even 
translated a large part of the exceed- 
ingly difficult German literature that 
deals with the philosophic foundation 
of the science of comparative anatomy 
and the history of the discipline, as a 
first step toward an assessment of what 
the future role of his science should be 
among the ever-growing family of bio- 
logical sciences. 

Then he proceeded to test his ideas, 
developed over many years, on a prob- 
lem close at hand, the comparative an- 
atomy of the giant panda. His anatom- 
ical work on this animal dates back to 
the late thirties, and began with a wind- 
fall: in 1937 the Chicago Zoological Park 
acquired Su Lin, a 
giant panda that lived 
there until April, 1938. 
When Su Lin died, its 
body was embalmed 
and injected at the Mu- 
seum. Davis's original 
purpose was merely to 
establish its systematic 
relationships, which 
were still under dispute 
at that time. This ques- 
tion was soon settled, 
and replaced by prob- 
lems of far broader bio- 
logical significance. 

By the mid-fifties 
most of the anatomical 
and comparative ana- 
tomical evidence was at 
hand and Davis had 
established beyond rea- 
sonable doubt that the 
giant panda is a bear. 
But it is not merely an- 
other bear; it is, struc- 
turally, an "exagger- 
ated" bear. What 

brought about these differences? Could 
the field of comparative anatomy con- 
tribute to such a question? Davis thought 
that it could; although he utilized in- 
sights gained in other biological disci- 
plines, he nevertheless felt that the com- 
parative anatomical contribution was 
most important and fimdamental. In a 
marvelously well-written introduction to 
his memoir on the giant panda he has 
set forth his ideas on the potential power 
of comparative anatomy as an explana- 
tory science. 

Dwight Davis was born in Rockford, 
Illinois, on December 30, 1908, the son 
of a minister. Already as a boy he had 
an interest in natural history, and es- 
pecially in animals. He was educated 
at North Central College in Naperville, 
and did some graduate work at the 
University of Chicago Medical School. 
In 1930 he started his career at what 
was then the Field Museum of Natural 
History as an assistant in the Division 
of Osteology, and in 1941 he became 
Curator of Anatomy. Under his cura- 
torship the Division of Anatomy became 
well known all over the country and 
even abroad, and it served as the meet- 
ing place for scientists of a broad variety 
of specialities. 

Davis's scientific interests did not lie 
exclusively in comparative anatomy. In 
the early part of his career he worked 
and published on herpetological topics. 
Later on he felt the need, in connection 
with a growing interest in functional 
anatomy, for first-hand observations of 
animals in the field; thus he took part 
in a number of expeditions, most no- 
tably one to North Borneo in 1950 which 
resulted not only in many important 
observations, but in a very fine sys- 
tematic study of the mammals of the 
lowland rain forest of North Borneo. In 
all, Davis published over 50 scientific 
papers, and numerous semi-popular 
articles and iiook reviews. 

Dwight was not a gregarious person; 
he felt ill at ease in large groups and 
would usually seek out one or two {per- 
sons with whom he felt a community 
of interest. He also abstained from 
conversation unless he had something 
worthwhile to contribute; he saw no 
sense in talk for its own sake. As a 
colleague he was often difficult, unap- 

Page 6 MABCH 

proachable, sometimes caustic. But 
these were, so to speak, the work-a-day 
clothes of his character; beneath them 
was an entirely different man, congen- 
ial, friendly, even warm, but only his 
closest friends ever really knew this side 
of Dwight's personality. Those of his 
colleagues who did not know him well 
nevertheless admired him and respected 
the quality of his intellectual capabili- 
ties. He was especially envied for his 
talent at organization and the polish of 
his performance, which were particu- 
larly evident in the delivery of an ad- 
dress or a lecture. These attributes were 
clearly the result of the fact that Dwight 
would never do anything casually. It 
was either done right, or not at all, 
and, true perfectionist that he wa.s, he 
never quite satisfied himself with the 
quality of his own accomplishments. 
Contrary to what might be supposed, 
Dwight was always ready and eager to 
cooperate with others in both profes- 
sional and leisure-time projects. 

During the late forties Davis became 
a photographer. It looked like a hobby, 
but was much more than that. To 
him it was a pleasurable means of re- 
cording and documenting observations, 
especially of phenomena related to nat- 
ural history. For this purpose he made 
use of still as well as motion pictures. 

Although Dwight Davis was not a 
regular university professor, he super- 
vised graduate training of a number of 
students at the Museum, was appointed 
Lecturer in Zoology at the University 
of Chicago in 1950, held a visiting pro- 
fessorship at California Institute of Tech- 
nology during 1954, and served as act- 
ing chairman of the Department of Zo- 
ology of the University of Malaya dur- 
ing the fall and winter of 1962-63. In 
1958 he was invited as a participant to 
the International Biological Congress at 
the University of Malaya at Singapore 
in celebration of the centenary of the 
formulation of the theory of evolution 
by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel 

Davis was a member of several so- 
cieties: the American Society of Mam- 
malogists, of which he was a trustee dur- 
ing 1955-61; the American Society of 
Ichthyologists and Herpetologists; the 
Society for the Study of Evolution, which 

Anasazi Indian ritual. From exhibit seen on Spring Journey. 


Ap.ACHE, Pima, Pueblo, Navajo — all 
. are Indians of our Southwest des- 
ert country. Yet each tribe met the 
challenge of desert living in a different 
way. "Indians of the Desert Country", 
Chicago Natural History Museum's 
spring Journey, will give children a 
glimpse into the lives of these Indians. 

Sparse vegetation, little water, and 
extreme temperatures were some of the 
problems to be met. The Navajo In- 
dians, as seen in detailed miniature 
models of their summer and winter en- 
campments, found the answer in sheep 
herding — wandering with their flocks 
in search of forage plants. The Hoho- 
kam Indians, forerunners of the Pima 
tribe, however, were able to settle in 
one place and establish large towns as 
well. A diorama of one of their settle- 
ments and extensive irrigation systems 
that made this possible is on exhibit. 

War bonnets and arrows of the Apa- 
che Indians on display indicate their 

traditional pattern of living — hunting 
and raiding. 

Highlight of the self-guided Journey 
is a life-size reproduction of a Pueblo 
"apartment" interior. In it, an In- 
dian family is busy with the daily tasks 
of weaving, cooking, and making pot- 
tery. Here, too, Journeyers will dis- 
cover for themselves how the walls, the 
storeroom, and even the religious sym- 
bols seen on the wall were adapted by 
the Pueblo Indians to the Southwest 
desert country. 

Many other exhibits showing the col- 
orful rituals and ceremonies, costumes, 
tools, and weapons of these Indians can 
be seen on the Journey. 

Boys and girls interested in taking the 
Journey may pick up information and 
a Journey questionnaire at the Museum 

The spring Journey on "Indians of 
the Desert Country" is available from 
March through May.  

he served as managing editor of the 
journal. Evolution, since 1961; and the 
American Society of Zoologists, which 
appointed him chairman of the Divi- 
sion of Vertebrate Morphology during 

His Alma Mater, North Central Col- 
lege, conferred upon him an honorary 
degree of Doctor of Science in 1963 in 
recognition of his outstanding work as 

a comparative anatomist. 

Dwight Davis will be missed on the 
staff of the Museum, as elsewhere. He 
left a profoimd impression on those who 
maintained close contact with him; the 
impact of his ideas and his personality 
survives among those of us who treasure 
the good fortune of having known him. 
Rainer Zangerl 
Chief Curator, Geology 

MARCH Page 7 


{Continued from page 2) 

continue to report directly to the Di- 
rector. Thus the creation of the posi- 
tion of Business Manager is essentially 
a restructuring of the Director's office, 
which will allow the Director more time 
to devote to institutional planning and 

To his new fxjsition Mr. Nelson brings 
wide administrative exfjerience as cor- 
porate executive and financial officer. 
He was associated with the Cherry- 
Burrell Corporation of Chicago and Ce- 
dar Rapids, Iowa, beginning as a clerk 
after graduation from college and rising 
through a number of positions to be- 
come Vice President-Finance and a 

member of the Board of Directors. He 
has also been an officer and director 
of associated companies manufacturing 
food packaging and processing machin- 
ery, both in the United States and Mex- 

Mr. Nelson was born in Stambaugh, 
Michigan. He received a Bachelor of 
Science degree in Commerce from 
Northwestern University in 1937, and 
in 1944 was licensed as a Certified Pub- 
lic Accountant by the State of Illinois. 

He is married and the father of three 
sons. The Nelson family particularly 
enjoy the outdoors, and have camped 
in most of the national parks of the 
country. Mr. Nelson's avocation is mu- 
sic, and he has been active in organizing 
and directing several choral groups.  


THE FOLLOWING Staff appointments 
and changes have also been an- 
nounced by the Director. 

Department of Zoology 

Hyman Marx, Associate Curator, Reptiles 


Chih-wei Pan, Cataloger; 

Supervisor East Asian Library 

N. W. Harris Public School Extension 

Lido Lucchesi, Preparator 

Division of Photography 

Homer Holdren, Associate Photographer 


George Lamoreux, Captain 



Austin L. Rand 
Chief Curator, Zoology 

V'ULTtjRES are part of Nature's sanitary corps, which also 
includes mammals, such as hyenas; insects, such as some 
flies and beetles; and bacteria. These help to remove the 
bodies of animals that have died in field and forest. In 
more primitive human societies, vultures may help remove 
garbage from villages. 

In man's more highly organized societies, the vulture as 

a sanitary aide is passe. Yet Dr. Kenneth E. Stager of Los 
Angeles County Museum has brought to our attention a 
new way in which vultures have been useful to modern man. 
The turkey vulture in recent years has helped the field engi- 
neers of the Union Oil Company of California locate leaks 
in their large natural gas lines. When a leak was suspected 
in a pipeline in rough country where patrolling was difficult, 
a high concentration of the odoriferous ethyl mercaptan, 
attractive to turkey vultures, was introduced into the line. 
Subsequent patrols noted where turkey vultures concen- 
trated along the line, went there, and found the leak. 

This took advantage of the turkey vulture's sense of 
smell, and focuses attention on the fact that most birds are 
thought to have little or no ability along these lines. Whether 
or not the turkey vulture was an exception had been debated 
for over a century. Experiments had been reported that 
were claimed to show that turkey vultures had no sense of 
smell while others were reported that showed it did have one. 

Obviously there was a discrepancy to be searched out. 
This Curator Stager has done and reported the results in 
a paper published in 1964 and entitled "The Role of Olfac- 
tion in Food Location by the Turkey Vulture (Cathartes 
aura)." The answer proved a very simple one. There is 
more than one kind of vulture. In the United States there 
is the black vulture and the turkey vulture. Curator Stager 
demonstrated very convincingly that the black vulture has 
no useful sense of smell and finds its food entirely by sight. 
On the other hand, the turkey vulture does have a sense of 
smell and uses it to aid its eyes in finding food. Those who 
reported that the turkey vulture had no sense of smell were 
using the wrong sjjecies in their experiments. 

Curator Stager has given us another example of the im- 
portance of museum-type attention to the species and its 
correct taxonomy. It is basic to other fields of biological 

Page 8 MARCH 


. HISTORY ^^, 

-* ^V< 

Vol 36 

No. 4 

fc J^. I 



Searching for evidence 
of marsupial evolution 
in Australii 









Museum has 
long possessed rich 
^ethnological coUect- 
tions from many Ne- 
gro African cultures, 
and is noted for its 
exhibits in this field, 
there has been no Leon Siroto 

African specialist on 

the staff since the retirement of the late 
Dr. \Vilfred D. Hambly in 1953. It is 
with pleasure, therefore, that announce- 
ment is made of the appointment of 
Leon Siroto as Assistant Curator of Af- 
rican Ethnology, beginning March 1. 

A specialist in Negro African culture 
history and art, Mr. Siroto has been 
engaged in research on the traditional 
African societies, and especially their 
material culture and art styles, since 
1950. In 1960-61, under a grant from 
the Ford Foundation, he carried out 
field research on the culture history of 
Negro peoples living along the Sangha 
and Ogowe River systems of the then 
French Congo (Brazzaville) and Gabon. 
Aided by a Fulbright fellowship, he has 
also made extensive studies of African 
ethnographic materials in the museums 
of England, France, Belgium, Switzer- 
land, Holland, and Scandinavia. 

Mr. Siroto has been particularly in- 
terested in investigating the premises 
underlying the use of masks in African 
societies, and the historical development 
of weapons by various African groups. 
His doctoral dissertation, based on his 
field research, discusses the use of masks 
in leadership competition among the 
BaKwele people of western equatorial 

Mr. Siroto became an anthropologist 
after beginning his career an as ento- 
mologist. He received the Bachelor of 
Science degree in entomology from Ohio 
. State University in 1944. In 1945 he 

Page 2 APRIL . 

was awarded the M.A. degree in science 
education by Columbia University. Af- 
ter several years as a Plant Quarantine 
Inspector with the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, Mr. Siroto 
again entered Columbia University to 
pursue graduate work in anthropology. 
Mr. Siroto has taught at Queens Col- 
lege and Georgetown University, and 
has published articles on African art 
and weapons. He is a member of the 
American Anthropological Association 
and a Fellow of the Royal Anthropo- 
logical Institute of Great Britain. 

MR. GEORGE R. FRiCKE has joined the 
Raymond Foundation education- 
al staff as lecturer in biology. In this 
position, he replaces Mrs. Maryl Andre, 
who has resigned. 

Mr. Fricke received the Bachelor of 
Science degree from Wisconsin State 
University, at Stevens Point, Wisconsin. 
He did his major work in conservation 
and biology, with emphasis on zoology 
and wild life. In the Museum, he will 
be working in the wide range of edu- 
cational programs which the Raymond 
Foundation offers. 


ANEW program to explore ways in 
which museums can help the na- 
tional effort to provide compensatory 
education for the culturally deprived 
child is now under way by Chicago 
Natural History Museum in coopera- 
tion with the Urban Child Center of 
the University of Chicago. 

To develop techniques for solving this 
problem, Mr. Ernest Roscoe, lecturer in 
geology with the James Nelson and Anna 
Louise Raymond Foundation, one of 
the Museum's educational divisions, has 
been appointed a Research Associate in 
the Graduate School of Education of 
the University of Chicago, where he 
will work several days a week under the 

general direction of Dr. Robert D. Hess, 
Professor of Education and Director of 
the University's Urban Child Center. 

The Raymond Foundation has long 
been concerned with making the Mu- 
seum's educational resources more avail- 
able to children from disadvantaged, 
urban backgrounds. "We must find 
ways to attract these young people," 
Roscoe said, "who may not even know 
that we exist, and make their visits to our 
halls meaningful and understandable." 

During the next five months, Roscoe 
will visit urban schools, day nurseries, 
and settlement houses. He will confer 
with teachers, principals, and other edu- 
cators, and also observe and work with 
the children themselves. Some of the 
basic questions he will investigate are: 
How can the Museum's educational re- 
sources (both intramural and extension) 
be made most useful to culturally de- 
prived children? What kinds of natural 
history and anthropological materials 
should be developed for use with these 
children? What educational methods 
are most effective in reaching the dis- 
advantaged at levels from pre-school 
through high school? Should auxiliary 
programs be developed for teachers and 
parents? How can the Museum's pro- 
grams be integrated with other existing 

"By finding answers to such questions 
as these," said Miss Miriam Wood, 
Chief of the Raymond Foundation, "the 
Museum can look forward to increasing 
its contribution to the massive national 
effort now being directed toward broad- 
ening the intellectual horizons of the 
culturally deprived child." 


SCIENCE projects designed by Chicago- 
land students will be on exhibit in 
Stanley Field Hall from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
on Saturday May 15, during the An- 
nual Chicago Area Science Fair.  


MAY 7 

Chocolate Tret 

IF THERE are those who think that newness is not a characteristic of museums, 
let them come to Chicago Natural History Museum on May 7, when "What's 
new?" sets the theme for Members' Night. 

Among the attractions of the Museum's annual open house will be: a major 
exhibition hall, now in the final stages of complete modernization; a new conservation 
laboratory, open to Members for the first time prior to its dedication later in May; 
a preview oj the $875,000 Museum building addition, now at the halfway point in con- 
struction; and a new expedition to Afghanistan, plans for which are just under way. 

When Members and their guests arrive, they will be invited to ascend immedi- 
ately to the second floor, where the renovated Hall of Useful Plants awaits them. 
Here, in a setting made brilliant through the use of bold colors and imaginative 
display techniques, are the plants and plant products indispensable to man. 

Among the exhibits (most are completed; some nearly so) are plant dyes — 
forerunners of modern, synthetic colors; resins — essential to varnishes, medicines, 
perfumes, plastics, and adhesives; and fibers — from which we get scrub brushes, 
rugs, burlap, and fine linen. 

Nearby displays illustrate plants that have been dubbed "pacifiers." Some of 
these, like tobacCo, are smoked, Others, like betel nuts, are chewed. Also shown 
are marijuana, opium, mescal, cocaine, and the hallucinatory mushrooms that are 
important in the life of many primitive societies. 

Exhibits on gums depict the origins of food additives that have become increas- 
ingly important in our diet, as a check of the labels on many kinds of packaged 
foods will show. Housewives with well-stocked spice shelves will want to match 
their varieties against the more than 40 spices on exhibit. While examining the 
spices and their origins, see if you can point out the orchid without reading the 
label. Notice, too, the attractive way boards from old packing cases have been 
used in the background. 

Cases showing the production of tea and coffee, with a miniature replica of 
a tea plantation, are nearing completion. There is also an exhibit on legumes, 
without which civilization might not have been possible; and a nearly completed 
exhibit on natural rubber, upon which our wheeled civilization depends. 

Toward one end of the hall are newly finished models of well known vegetables. 
(Upstairs on the third floor. Members will have an opportunity to see how these 
marvelously realistic plant models are made.) Before leaving the hall, walk around 
once more just to look at the murals. These depict man's concern with plants 
from prehistoric times to but a short while ago. 

In keeping with the botanical theme of Members' Night, Dr. Louis O. Williams, 
Chief Curator of Botany, who has spent a "life-time" in the tropics, will give several 
short lectures during the evening on the origins and romance of useful plants. 
The lecture room adjoins the botany hall on the second floor. In addition to the 
lectures, movies of botanical subjects will also be shown. 

On the opposite side of the second floor, in the Hall of Fossil Plants and Inver- 
tebrates (Hall 37), a special exhibit of paintings will depict the beginnings of life 
in ancient seas, through the Age of Reptiles, the evolution of mammals, and the 
coming of man. The paintings were created for the 1965 World Book Tear Book, to 
illustrate the article on "Out of the Sea: The Life Story of a Continent." The 
copy was written by Dr. Eugene S. Richardson, Jr., the Museum's Curator of 
Fossil Invertebrates. Reprints of this handsome and informative article will be 
available in the hall for Members and their guests. 

Moving on to the third floor. Members will want to view the new conservation 
laboratory in the Department of Anthropology. First of its kind in the Midwest, 
the laboratory contains the latest equipment for preserving archaeological and 
ethnological specimens, such as ancient bronzes and wooden sculpture, clothing, 
household goods, or weapons. Here in the laboratory, artifacts are examined by 
X-ray, microscope, or chemical analysis; washed or cleaned by chemical or electro- 

(Continued on page 8) 


Paula R. Nelson 

australian expedition 
discovers landmark 

fossil site 

ANNOUNCEMENT of an expedition to Australia always quick- 
L ens our interest. Scattered pictures spring to mind: 
aborigines running toward a rain cloud; archaic lungfish 
that come to the water's surface to breathe; flightless birds; 
mammals that lay eggs; and above all the ubiquitous mar- 
supials, mammals that nurture their young in external 
pouches. Which aspect is to be explored? It hardly matters. 
In every field of exploration — paleontology, botany, zoology, 
or ethnology — the Australian continent, free since the Creta- 
ceous to develop its own distinctive modes of life — beckons 
us toward the unusual, the unique, the unknown. 

It is from a 12-months' paleontological expedition "down 
under" that William TurnbuU, Associate Curator of Fossil 
Mammals, has recently returned. With him, as co-director 
of the expedition, was Ernest L. Lundelius, Jr., Associate 
Professor of Geology at the University of Texas. Technical 

Above: the Grange Burn, where the expedition uncovered a 
landmark fossil deposit. {Note basaltic rocks overlying the 
fossil soil.) Right: Bill TurnbuU and son dig out the site. 

assistance in the field research was provided by the directors' 
wives, Mrs. Priscilla TurnbuU and Mrs. Judith Lundelius — 
both trained geologists. 

The expedition set out to find evidence that would illum- 
inate the obscure origin and evolution of Australia's an- 
cestral marsupials. During the Mcsozoic (see geologic table 
on page 6), the pouched mammals, perhaps under pressure 
from their more successful relatives, the placentals, had 
pushed into the outermost regions of the southern hemisphere. 
One of these regions — Australia — was separated from the 
other land masses of the world in the Cretaceous. The con- 

Page i APRIL 

Fossil hunting at these sites 
proved disappointing. 

Above: a limestone quarry. 
Right: a coal bed outcrop. 

Cover: a site where earlier 
collectors had found a nearly 
complete skeleton of an Oli- 
gocene marsupial. 

tinent became a sanctuary, where the old marsupial line, 
free from placental competition, could experience a new re- 
surgence. Marsupials spread everywhere over Australia, 
evolving an abundance of species adapted to every possible 
environment (desert or forest, burrow or tree top) and diet 
(witness koalas that subsist solely on eucalyptus leaves). 

This adaptive radiation, which must have taken place 
during the Tertiary period, unfortunately left little trace. 
The fossil record of marsupial history is, as Turnbull puts 
it, "pitifully scanty." Moreover, no dates are known for 
the few remains of Tertiary mammals that have been found 
in Australia. The difficulty is that the terrestrial strata of 

mammals whose bodies had been washed by ancient streams 
to the sea. Still another possibility would be the fossil soils 
that had been protected from leaching by overlying basalts 
laid down during the volcanic upheavals of the Tertiary. 
The great advantage of all these coast-line formations was 
that they might be correlated by their interfingerings with 
marine rock sequences whose dating is known. 

In Melbourne, therefore, the expedition members set up 
their home base. Here the National Museum of Victoria 
acted as their host and cooperated in every way with their 
research. From this base, the expeditionary party set up 
a series of field camps equipped for fossil collecting and pro- 

Processing specimens at afield camp {lejt). 
Shown below, left to right: handling hulk 
samples oj matrix preparatory to wet-siev- 
ing; wet-sieving; drying the residues so 
that they may be examined for fossils. 

Australia have never been correlated with other land or 
marine rock sequences for which dates are known. The 
Museum expedition hoped, first of all, to discover one or 
more deposits of Tertiary fossils that would help fill in the 
record of marsupial evolution. Secondly, the paleontologists 
wanted to find evidence that would make it possible to date 
Australian fossils more precisely. 

The great risk was that they might fail to locate any 
Tertiary fossils at all. To increase the odds in their favor, 
Turnbull and Lundelius would need to identify and explore 
the most promising geologic formations. 

THE Australian continent contains some of the earth's old- 
est rocks. Across the western two-thirds of its surface 
stretches the archaic pre-Cambrian shield. Ranging the 
eastern margin, from the northern shore to Tasmania, are 
highlands uplifted mainly in the Mesozoic. The most exten- 
sive sequences of Tertiary formations lie along the southern 
coast and in Tasmania. Here, promising localities would be 
outcrops of coal beds and freshwater limestones. Marine 
sediments found near the shore might also contain fossils of 

cessing. Collecting is a^^matter of the paleontologist calling 
upon all his knowledge and experience to identify likely sites; 
then chipping out, digging up, or simply hauling away the 
rocks, soils, and sediments in which fossils might be buried. 
Processing means separating the fossil specimens from these 
matrices. This was done by wet-sieving — back-breaking 
work, in which sediments are washed and sifted through 
several grades of mesh screens that are gently agitated while 
partially submerged in tanks of water. Back at the Mel- 
bourne base, Monash University generously made space 
available for this task. 

Wet-sieving produces residues which must be dried and 
then painstakingly picked over. Every bit of sediment is 
examined — often under a microscope. If the searchers find 
fossil remains, good; but weeks of effort may turn up nothing 
but mineral concentrates. Yet even these have their uses: 
analysis of the minerals, or in some cases of ancient pollens 
found, can provide insight into the environmental conditions 
of the past. Such knowledge helps other paleontologists 
identify promising sites for future prospecting. {over) 

APRIL Pages 

§ w 




2" =• » 

230 '600 


years ago 




g 3 > 







« » 2 




years ago 

181 « 135 


years ago 

years ago 



years ago 



years ago 

years ago 



years ago 

years ago 

1 million 

years ago 

to the present 


When fossils are found (most commonly teeth) the yield 
per volume of residual sediments must be assessed. Add to 
this the paleontologist's general knowledge of how rarely fos- 
sils occur in the beds being sampled, and it is possible to 
estimate the volume of original matrix which must be taken 
to produce an adequate sampling of the fauna. 

Through months of such work, at dozens of localities, 
the paleontologists persisted. There were no dramatic finds. 
In the coal bed outcrops, not a sign of bone turned up. 
However, the expedition did keep samples of coal bed con- 
centrates for future analysis. Though Turnbull and Lun- 
delius searched outcrops of freshwater limestones where work- 
ers of an earlier generation had found fossil deposits, there 
were no new finds. Many of these outcrops, they learned, had 
been quarried out for agricultural lime. Turnbull and Lun- 
delius arranged with the National Museum of Victoria, the 
University of Melbourne, and the Victoria Mines Department 
to borrow the specimens found decades before, so that they 
could be studied at Chicago Natural History Museum and 
eventually be made known to science. 

The near-shore collecting, on which the expedition had 
laid high hopes, proved especially disappointing. Eighty 
years before, a nearly complete skeleton of Wynyardia, an op- 
possum-like Oligocene marsupial, had been discovered in 
a marine formation; and at another shore-line locality a Mio- 
cene faunal deposit had been unearthed. But the Museum 
party was able to uncover only a few fossil fragments from 
marine conglomerates. And by wet-sieving the beach sands, 
they got a single half of what is "probably"a marsupial tooth. 

YET just such a fragment now opened up a whole new 
avenue of discovery. Some eleven years before, Mr. 
E. Gill, of the National Museum of Victoria, had found 
a single mammalian tooth in a fossil soil outcrop on the 
Grange Burn near Hamilton in western Victoria. The ex- 
{ledition members decided to follow up this slender clue. 

Here, they struck pay dirt. Almost immediately, mam- 
malian teeth turned up in material taken from the top layers 
of the Grange Burn outcrops. The party set to work, digging 
out and wet-sieving nearly three tons of fossil soil. This 
yielded some 500 pounds of concentrate. Though only a 
small portion of the residues could be examined during the 
next few weeks, more than 30 teeth, or fragments of teeth, 
representing six species of early marsupials, were found. 
This was a faunal deposit of immense value. 

But were the specimens from the Tertiary, the crucial 
period for marsupial adaptive radiation? The stratigraphic 
evidence seemed clear, but other workers in Australia had 
initially judged their finds to be Tertiary only to recognize, 
on further analysis, that they were no older than Pleistocene. 

Page 6 APRIL 

Dr. Ian MacDougall, of the department of geophysics at 
the Australian National University at Canberra, offered to 
run a potassium-argon test on a sample of the basalt overlying 
the fossil soil. His test showed the basalt to be 4.35 million 
years old. The Grange Burn fossil marsupials were firmly 

In a report to the National Science Foundation, which 
had helped to support the expedition's work, Turnbull and 
Lundelius summed up the significance of the radiometric 
dating of the Grange Burn material : 

"It provides: (1) a check on the stratigraphic age; 
(2) a firm tie to the world-wide chronology; (3) the 
opportunity for better age-determinations of other ter- 
restrial faunas in Australia; and (4) the first positively 
dated pre-Pleistocene fauna for that continent. This 
unquestionably is the most important accomplishment 
of the expedition." 

BEFORE leaving Australia, the expedition rounded out its 
work by investigating several more recent faunal lo- 
calities, including a classic area for Australian paleontology, 
the Wellington Caves of New South Wales. 

This site is one of the best-known Pleistocene marsupial 
deposits on the continent. Large collections have been made 
by a number of scientific institutions, but the internal strati- 
graphy of the cave deposits has never been studied. Many 
earlier workers reported that stratigraphic levels simply could 
not be made out, and thus the possibilities of reconstructing 
the fossil history were severely limited. 

The Museum expedition worked intensively for a week 
in the Wellington Caves. At the end of this period, Turnbull 
reported: "We believe that we have enough evidence to 
show that stratigraphy does exist with the deposits and can 
be interpreted. If we are right, the best thing we can do 
here is to try to document this . . ." The paleontologists 
mapped and photographed the caves and dug copious sam- 
ples from each of the various strata they could discern. Here 
in the Museum, they will compare materials from each level 
to see if they hold evidence of faunal changes. "If future 
study supports our theories," Turnbull adds, "we will have 
shed new light on marsupial development in the Pleistocene, 
and greatly enhanced the value of earlier collections. 

A scientific expedition — however carefully its goals are 
chosen, its methods refined — is always a risk venture. "We 
knew," Turnbull says, "that our chances of succeeding were 
even slimmer than most, since a century of searching before 
us had turned up such a meager fossil record. There is 
particular satisfaction, therefore, in reporting that some of 
our Australian expedition's most important objectives have 
been achieved."  

MUSEUM expeditions in 1965 will again carry scientific 
research into many areas of the world. Highlights 
of this year's schedule are expeditions to Afghanistan and 

Mr. and Mrs. William S. Street of Seattle, who led a 
highly successful expedition to Iran for the Museum three 
years ago, are now planning to go to Afghanistan in June. 
There they will collect specimens for a faunal study of 
Afghanistan's mammals. Since no such study has ever been 
undertaken, the expedition expects to solve many problems 
as to just what species do occur in that remote and beautiful 
coimtry. Mr. Street's personal goal is to resolve, if possible, 
the disagreement as to whether there are more than one 
species of mountain sheep whose ranges come together in 



Accompanying the Streets will be two graduate students 
in mammalogy, selected from applicants in all parts of the 
country. Appointed by the Museum as Expedition Fellows 
are Jerry Hassinger of the University of California at Davis, 
and Hans Neuhauser of the University of Georgia. 

Mr. and Mrs. Street have been appointed to the honorary 
staff of the Museum as Field Associates, in recognition of 
their continuing contributions to science through expedition- 
ary work. 

Also in June, Dr. Fred M. Reinman, Assistant Curator 
of Oceanic Archaeology and Ethnology, will leave for a 
year of research on Guam in the Marianas Islands. Aided 
by a grant from the National Science Foundation, Rienman 
will conduct archaeological surveys and excavations to learn 
more of Guam's prehistoric people. He is especially in- 
terested in studying their exploitation of the sea as a food 

Dr. Louis O. Williams, Mrs. Williams, and Mrs. Dorothy 
Gibson, Custodian of the Herbarium, have just returned 
from a two-months' field trip into Central America. They 
were accompanied during part of the trip by Chester Laskow- 
ski, a graduate student from the University of Michigan and 
by Professor Antonio Molina of Escuela Agricola Panameri- 
cana in Honduras. Field work was done in Guatemala, 
Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Exploratory trips were made 
into two previously unvisited rain forest areas in Costa Rica, 
one on the Atlantic, the other on the Pacific slope near the 
Panamanian border. The specimens and information gath- 
ered are basic to floristic and systematic studies of the plants 
of Central America now in progress. 

In the United States, much of this year's field work will 
(Continued on next page) 



APRIL Page 7 

be carried out in the western half of the country. Dr. Paul 
S. Martin, Curator Emeritus of Anthropology, will return to 
eastern Arizona, site of his investigations into the culture 
and history of the people living in that region from 5000 b.c. 
to A.D. 1400. 

Dr. Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator of Insects, will make a 
short field trip into the Southwest to collect parasites of 
bats, especially flies of the family Streblidae. He hopes to 
obtain additional specimens of some recently discovered, 
undescribed species for a paper he is preparing on Streblidae 
of North America. 

Extending his paleoclimatic studies into South Dakota 
and Montana, Dr. John Clark, Associate Curator of Sedi- 
mentary Petrology, will continue his search for ancient vol- 
canic ash deposits, sandstones, and fossil animals which will 
help to interpret the geography and climate of North America 
30 million years ago. 

Dr. Robert H. Denison, Curator of Fossil Fishes, will 
revisit the Canon City, Colorado, area seeking remains of 
the oldest known vertebrates. These rare fossils occur in 
450-million-year-old sandstones. While small fragments of 
their armor have been discovered, Dr. Denison hopes to 
find better material that will give some clues to the appear- 
ance of these primitive, fish-like vertebrates. 

The Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming will be the site 
of field work by Dr. Patricio Ponce de Leon, Assistant Cura- 
tor of the Cryptogamic Herbarium, and Mr. Robert Stolze 
of the Department of Botany. In Wyoming, they will gather 
plants from this relatively uncollected area for the Museum's 
herbarium as well as for exchange with other institutions. 

Dr. Edward J. Olson, Curator of Minerals, will be one 
of the few heading east. He will travel to New York State 
to collect spinel crystals for exhibit and exchange purfxjses. 

Two of the Museum's staff planning field trips in the 
Midwest during 1965 are Mr. George I. Quimby, Curator 
of North American Archaeology and Ethnology, and Dr. 
Eugene S. Richardson, Curator of Fossil Invertebrates. Mr. 
Quimby will again be exploring the Upper Great Lakes 
region for sites inhabited by Indian tribes from 1600 to 1760. 
Dr. Richardson will continue his search of strip mines in 
Illinois for fossils of the Pennsylvanian period. 

In addition to the expeditions and field trips by Museum 
staff, field associates and collectors working in collaboration 
with the Museum will be gathering data and specimens in 
many parts of the world. Through them. Museum research 
will continue during the year in Nepal, the Philippines, 
South America, New Guinea, and 1^ many islands of the 
South Pacific.  


lytic means; impregnated or coated with preservatives. In addition to demon- 
strations of these techniques, a selection of rare artifacts from Italy, Tibet, and 
other areas will be displayed, some shown "before" and others "after" being re- 
stored to their original beauty. 

The Library and the Department of Geology have arranged a walk-through 
of the new Museum building addition, now in the midst of construction. This 
addition will provide new stack space and offices for the Library; new techniccd 
processing, classroom, and research laboratories for the Geology Department; and 
will house the famed Walker Collection of fossil invertebrates. The walk-through 
will give Members their first opportunity to see the new space and visualize its 
completed appearance. Curators will be on hand to guide visitors through the 
storage area, and we predict reactions of amazement at its tremendous size. 

In other behind-the-scenes areas of the third floor, Members will see the genesis 
of the forthcoming Street expedition to Afghanistan (see page 7). Displays in vari- 
ous curatorial laboratories will also trace the geography of South American mam- 
mals, show the difference between certain whale species, and examine variation and 
convergence in birds. 

On the ground floor, in the divisions of fishes and reptiles, curators will discuss 
specimens collected on recent expeditions to the Indian Ocean and Borneo. On 
the fourth floor, visitors may view research drawing of snail shells and anatomy, 
see five cases of a new exhibit-in-progress, and handle the magnificent furs and skins 
that are always a special delight of Members' Night. 

The Museum's open house begins at 6:00 p.m. and ends at 10:00 p.m. Dinner 
will be served in the cafeteria until 8 o'clock; refreshments will also be available on 
the second floor and in Stanley Field Hall. Free shuttle bus service will operate 
from Jackson and State to the Museum's south door, starting at 6:00 p.m. The 
buses will run at approximately 15-minute intervals, following the regular shuttie 
bus (No. 149) route and making stops along Michigan Avenue at Jackson and at 
Balbo. The last bus leaves the Museum at 10:45 p.m.  

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1S93 

Roofcvelc Road and Lake Shore Drive 


Telephone: 922-9410 


Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel InsuU, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 
William V. Kahler 

J. Howard 

Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Edward Byron Smith 
Louis Ware 


James L. Palmer, President 

Clifford C. Gregg, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Edward Byron Smith, Treasurer 

and Assistant Secretary 

E. Leland Wehber, Secretary 


E. Leland Webber, Director of the Musetun 


Donald Collier, Chief Curator of Anthropolo^ 

Louts O. Williams, Chief Curator of Botany 

Rainer Zangerl, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 

Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 

Members arc requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

Page 8 APRIL 


HISTORY T^^tf ^o.s 
MUSEUM t^^ ^9es 

Gallus Indicus cum panico crcruleo Indico • 

Meta P. Howell, Librarian 

The Museum Library 
in Transition 

"All that mankind has done, thought, gained, 
or been, it is lying as in magic preservation 
in the pages of books." 


THE LIBRARY has been in existence since the early days 
of Chicago Natural History Museum. It comprises the 
general Library, the four departmental libraries (anthro- 
pology, botany, geology, and zoology) and the respective 
divisional libraries. The general and departmental libraries 
are on the Museum's third floor, in the four wings of the 
building; so also are the divisional libraries, with the excep- 
tion of the fish and reptile divisional libraries on the ground 
floor, and the lower invertebrate library on the fourth floor. 
The Museum Library is designed to support the research 
needs of the scientific staff by accumulating and maintain- 
ing literature that contributes to the effectiveness of their 
scientific investigations. Emphasis is placed on the acqui- 
sition of serial publications of scientific societies and research 
organizations because they contain the original research re- 
ports which are of first interest to the scientist. The tax- 
onomic approach to the sciences, in particular, necessitates 
the acquisition of entire runs of serial publications both old 
and new, in many languages, that contain the descriptions 
of names of new genera and species and embody the results 

Page 2 MAT 

of systematic research. Serials, therefore, form the major 
part of the Library's holdings. 

The ever-widening range of the Museum's scientific re- 
search has led automatically to expansion of the number of 
volumes in the Library. Moreover, the extensive exchange- 
of-publications program has also increased the size of the 
Library collection, especially during the past ten years when 
the volume of published research reports has greatly accel- 
erated. This pattern of augmentation has established Chi- 
cago Natural History Museum Library as one of the nation's 
foremost sources of specialized information. There are now 
more than 165,000 volumes on the natural sciences in its 
combined collection. Currently we are the only museum 
library to be a United States Government Depository re- 
ceiving selected publications under the Depository Library 

Due to the overlapping fields of interest of the John 
Crerar Library and this Museum's Library, and to avoid 
costly duplications in the two collections, an acquisition pro- 
gram is practised on a cooperative basis. Many titles, pri- 
marily descriptive natural history required for use with speci- 
men study collections, must be together in one location. 
For this reason, John Crerar Library has transferred hundreds 
of serial publications on the natural sciences and selected 
titles within the scope of natural history to Chicago Natural 
History Museum Library. The foresight of John Crerar Li- 
brary in placing this material in a focal location has served 
the two-fold purpose of making it easily accessible to the 
curatorial staff and their colleagues for taxonomic research 
as well as to scholars and students in general. 

SOME of the Library's most valuable acquisitions have 
come as gifts and bequests. One of the most notable 
special collections given to the Library is the collection of 
Orientalia bequeathed to the Museum in 1934 by the late Dr. 
Berthold Laufer, former Chief Curator of Anthropology and 
well-known sinologist. The collection in content spans the en- 
tirety of East Asiatic history and culture — art and archeology, 
biography, geography, history, literature, philosophy and 
religion, science, and industry. The books are written in 
both Occidental and Oriental languages, and include 7,809 
volumes in Chinese and Japanese. More than 250 Tibetan 
xylographs (books printed from woodblocks) are also con- 
tained in the collection. These fine woodblock editions date 
from the Ming (a.d. 1368-1644) and Ch'ing (a.d. 1644- 

The present East Asia Library stems from this nucleus 
collection. It is housed in a separate room and is a divisional 
library of the Department of Anthropology. The wide range 

Opposite: Li Shih, a hook by Hung Kua {A.D. 1117-84), with 
this edition published in 1871 . It contains reproductions of rubbings 
oj inscribed and decorated tombstones dating jrom the Han Dynasty 
{207 B.C. -A.D. 220) {East Asia Library). 

Right: Color plate of the koala {Phascolarctos cinereus), from 
The Mammals of Australia by John Gould {1804-1881), pub- 
lished in London in 1863 {Ayer Collection). The original oJ this 
photograph is life-size and exquisitely hand colored. 

and diversity of this collection is being augmented by acqui- 
sition of older publications and those currently published, 
thereby bringing this material up-to-date on the languages, 
peoples, and history of the Far East. As a result of Dr. 
Laufer's gift and further comprehensive acquisition, the East 
Asia Library enjoys the reputation of containing many rare, 
irreplaceable, and unique items. 

The contribution made by the late Mr. Edward E. Ayer 
to the collection of ornithological works is of signal impor- 
tance. Due to Mr. Ayer's great interest in natural history, 
he took an active part in foimding the Field Museum, now 
Chicago Natural History Museum. After the organization 
of the Museum, he presented to it his rare and priceless 
library of ornithological works. Many of the volumes are 
of folio size, richly bound, and illustrated with magnificent 
hand-colored plates of both birds and mammals. The origi- 
nal collection has been augmented with hundreds of impor- 
tant acquisitions, including long and complete runs of the 
most outstanding serial publications in this subject field. 

A unique and most welcome gift came to the Library in 
1948 through the generosity of Miss Thora M. Riley and 
Mrs. Emilie Conzelman Riley, the widow of the well-known 
{Continued on page 7) 

MAT Page :i 




MAY 17 marks the opening of the 
Museum's annual exhibition of art 
work by the Junior School of the Art In- 
stitute. The more than 60 paintings, 
drawings, and prints by Chicagoland 
art students will be on display in Hall 9 
through June 13. 

From exhibit of children's art 

All the pictures in the exhibition are 
interpretations of various Museum ex- 
hibits. The young artists, who range in 
age from 6 to 16 years, make regular 
class visits to the Museum to study the 
many patterns, forms, and shapes found 
in the Museum's exhibits on nature and 

THE 15th Annual Amateur Hand- 
crafted Gem and Jewelry Competi- 
tive Exhibition opens June 1 in Stanley 
Field Hall. All entries are prize-win- 
ners in the Chicago Park District's 1965 
amateur lapidary competition. 

Remember . . . 

Members' Night, May 7 

Page 4 MAY 

Members Invited to Hear 
Talk on Expedition 

MEMBERS are invited to hear Loren 
Woods, Curator of Fishes, recount 
highlights of the recent International 
Indian Ocean Expedition. Woods spent 
six months on this scientific venture, 
which was sponsored jointiy by UNESCO 
and the United States Program in Biol- 
ogy. He will present the illustrated talk 
to the Winnetka Chapter of the Izaak 
Walton League on May 25 at 7:45 p.m. 
at the Winnetka Community House, 
620 Lincoln Street, Winnetka. 

Staff Activities 

IN COOPERATION with the National Sci- 
ence Foundation, the Museum will 
offer a ten-weeks' summer course in the- 
oretical and practical archaeology at the 
Museum's field station in Vernon, Ari- 
zona. The course will be open to eight 
male undergraduate students from col- 
leges and universities, who will be chosen 
to participate on the basis of their apti- 
tude, scholarly achievement, and an- 
thropological interest. The program is 
under the direction of Dr. Paul S. Mar- 
tin of the Department of Anthropology. 
He will be assisted by James N. Hill and 
John M. Fritz. 

A TWO-YEAR Study of the classification 
and distribution of about 1 ,000 spe- 
cies of land snails inhabiting the South- 
ern Hemisphere has begun under the 
direction of Dr. Alan Solem, Curator of 
Lower Invertebrates. His project is be- 
ing aided by a $20,500 grant to the Mu- 
seum from the National Science Foun- 
dation. Late this year. Dr. Solem and 
Mr. Laurie Price, of Kaitaia, New Zea- 
land, will travel to Samoa and Tonga 
to collect specimens of land snails for 
their research.  










Pan Am 

THE 75th anniversary of the founding 
of the Pan American Congress, fore- 
runner of the present Organization of 
American States, was celebrated on Pan 
American Day, April 14, at a tea held 
at the Museum in cooperation with the 
Pan American Council of Chicago. 

Because of its long association with 
Latin America, the Museum was espe- 
cially pleased to co-sponsor this event. 
Since its founding in 1893, the Museum 
has worked with scientists, scholars, and 
institutions south of the border to en- 
large our knowledge of the land, the his- 
tory, and the culture of the Americas. 
More than 240 Museum-published re- 
search reports have disseminated this 
knowledge throughout the world. 

ican Day 

During 1 50 expeditions to Central and 
South America, the Museum amassed 
collections vital to the study of Latin 
America's plants and animals; its agri- 
culture, minerals, and volcanoes; its con- 
temporary Indian tribes, and the van- 
ished civilizations that flourished before 
Columbus. These collections now rival 
or surpass those of any other institution 
in the world. Representative samples 
are displayed in the Museum's exhibi- 
tion halls; reserved portions are used in 
research by scientists and scholars 
throughout the Americas and abroad. 

The Museum's present roster of re- 
searchers in Latin America includes Dr. 
Louis O. Williams, botanist; Dr. Donald 
Collier, Aztec and Inca specialist; Mr. 

On display at the"},Pan American Tea was the "Bolivar''' head, a 
recent gift of Mrs. A. W. F. Fuller of London. Here it is viewed 
by Mr. Joseph Redding, President of the Pan American Council, 
Col. John A . Reilly, Director of Special Events for the City of Chicago, 
Museum Director E. Leland Webber, and Dr. Donald Collier, Chief 
Curator of Anthropology. 

In 1826, General Simon Bolivar, hero of the war for independence 
from Spain, presented the head to the British Consul General in Lima. 
7 he figure was made in central Peru during the Spanish Colonial 
period of the late I6th Century. 

Dr. Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator of Insects, 
explains a display on his research in Latin 
America to Miss Judith Pelzmann, Exec- 
utive Vice President of the Pan American 
Council. Dr. Wenzel is preparing for pub- 
lication the first comprehensive treatise on the 
fleas, mites, and ticks of Panama. The vol- 
ume is an indispensable aid to knowledge of 
many disease-carrying parasites. 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, Illinois 60605 

Telephone: 922.9410 


Emmet R. Blake, ornithologist; Mr. 
Philip Hershkovitz, mammalogist; Dr. 
Alan Solem, malacologist; and Dr. Ru- 
pert L. Wenzel, entomologist. 

In reviewing their work, and the Mu- 
seum's 72 years of cooperation in Latin 
America, Museum Director E. Leland 
Webber stated : 

"The results of the scientific work we 
have undertaken in collaboration with 
our Latin-American colleagues can be 
easily assessed. The intangibles — which 
have developed out of a long history of 
good will and mutual endeavor among 
institutions and individuals — though less 
readily measured, certainly stand today 
as of equal significance."  

Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Clifiord C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 
William V. Kahler 

J. Howard 

Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Edward Byron Smith 
Louis Ware 


James L. Palmer, President 

Clifford C. Gregg, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Edward Byron Smith, Treasurer 

and Assistant Secretary 

E. Leland Webber, Secretary 



E. Leland Webber* Director of the Museum 


Donald Collier* Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Louis O. Williams, Chief Curator of Botany 

Raincr Zangerl, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 

Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes o{ address. 

MAY Paged 

John Clark, Curator 
Sedimentary Petrology 



THE great majority of our Museum's collections are made 
systematically, as parts of research projects carefully 
planned by our curators. Occasionally, however, we find 
something of importance accidentally, while we are other- 
wise engaged — rather like searching a lawn for fourleaf clo- 
vers and finding a ten-dollar bill. Two such happy accidents 
which occurred recently have brought fine additions to our 
geological collections. 

The first came last October, when Mrs. Clark and I were 
on vacation in the Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee. 
Since my particular research concerns stream-deposited rocks 
about 30 million years old, this trip was obviously not to be a 
busman's holiday: the rocks in the Smokies are more than 
600 million years old, marine in origin, and very poorly ex- 
posed. I had no particular interest in them. We planned 

Page 6 MAY 

Only the hardest rocks, like these boulders of quartzite in Pigeon Creek, 
Tennessee, are naturally exposed. Mudstones like the one on the oppo- 
site page, are ordinarily hidden beneath the forest plants and soil. 

to spend our days photographing autumn scenery, studying 
trees, and bird-watching. 

However, the road cuts along the parkway near Gatlin- 
burg had recently suffered four major slumps. Jagged gray 
blocks of rock lay in jumbled heaps where entire hillsides had 
slid over the road. Naturally I stopped to look at them, while 
Mrs. Clark stalked a towhee with her binoculars. 

The first rock I inspected showed that these were not the 
usual slates and quartzites at all. Rather, these were rocks 
that had once been soft muds deposited in deep water, prob- 
ably in the sloping trough of a very ancient sea. The plastic 
muds had been broken, folded, and squeezed into all man- 
ner of weird structures as they slumped down into the 
lower parts of the irregular trough. The muds had com- 
pacted just enough to preserve the identity of individual lay- 
ers, before each mass slipped and moved. After movement 
and deep burial, mountain-building pressures had hardened 
them into solid rock without altering them enough to destroy 
the original structures (see Photograph II). 

\'ery recently, errors in construction of this parkway had 
triggered slumps of the solid rock, which tore away the thick 
mantle of weathered soil and revealed the ancient record fresh 
for inspection. Three special events — a particular environ- 
ment of origin, just the right amount of later alteration, and 
an engineering accident — had to happen, through 600 mil- 
lion years of time, in order to produce these rocks and bring 
them to the attention of one geologist who wasn't looking 
for them. 

Muds deposited in marine troughs are not rare; in fact, 
some are forming today. However, the great majority have 
been so metamorphosed that their original structures have 
been destroyed. More recently-formed sediments are so soft 
that they can be collected and studied only with great diffi- 
culty. These were perfectly preser\ed and easily available: 
a really lucky accident. 

I brought a few samples back to the Museum, and a month 
later Kenneth Kietzke of our Department and I took the 
Museum truck back to the Smokies. The National Park 
Service willingly granted us permission to collect. In two 
days we hammered out 147 specimens, totaling about one 
and a half tons, which gave us an excellent representation 
of all the major geologic structures present. Our Museum 
previously had nothing like this collection; few, if any, mu- 
seums in America do. 

OUR SECOND lucky accident came on the return trip. Ken 
and I had decided that, since our Museum had never 
done systematic collecting in Tennessee, we would stop at 
every promising outcrop on the return trip and take samples 
of the invertebrate fossils. These grab-sample collections 
might serve as a geologic road-guide for future work. At 
our sixth stop we found richly fossiliferous rock, with a pro- 
fusion of brachiopods, crinoids, bryozoans, and other inter- 
esting but common invertebrates. Suddenly we noticed 

something else — a tiny shark tooth. Although these, too, 
are not uncommon in rocks of Mississippian age (about 330 
million years old), they prompted us to take a closer look. 

Then we made our really lucky discovery : a small black 
bone ! It couldn't be shark, because they don't have actual 
bones, and it didn't look right for fish bone. Since Ken and 
I are not specialists in the other vertebrates of that extremely 
ancient age, we simply picked up every little slab that showed 
even a chip of bone, packed all of them carefully, and brought 
them home. 

The original find has now been removed from the matrix 
and identified by our colleagues in the Geology Department. 
It is, without doubt, part of the skull of a small, very prim- 
itive amphibian (see Photograph I). This is not quite the 
oldest known amphibian, but it is almost so. Amphibian 
bones of Mississippian age are very rare, and have been found 
in very few places in America; moreover, until now our 
Museum has had none of them. 

So a bird-watching vacation produced a unique collection 
of sedimentary structures, and a routine, road-log inverte- 
brate collection turned up a rare Mississippian amphibian. 
Accidents like these help to build our Museum, to spice our 
lives, and to develop in us a certain humility. Every time 
we find something we didn't expect, we wonder how often 
we may have overlooked something else equally important. 
We have no way of knowing.  

/. Bone from the ear region of a very primitive 
Mississippian amphibian. The picture is several 
times enlarged; the animal would have looked 
something like a mud-puppy about 8 inches long. 

II. This rock was once sojt, plastic mud at the bottom of an ancient sea. 
Before the upper, gray part was deposited, nearby slumps crumpled and squeezed 
the black and white layers. Then the gray layers were deposited over the torn 
edges, and after that the whole mass was very little disturbed. 

The Museum Library in Transition 

{Continued from page 3) 

American entomologist, Charles \'alcntine Riley. Charles 
Darwin, author of the Origin of Species, had an Illinois cor- 
respondent — the man who became the first state entomolo- 
gist of Illinois, Benjamin D. Walsh. The gift consists of 
eighteen letters written by Mr. Darwin to Mr. Walsh, during 
the period from October 21, 1864 to April 3, 1869. The 
collection includes nine holograph letters and nine written 
by an amanuensis. All are signed '■^Charles Darwin,'" and 
all are enclosed in their original postmarked envelopes. 

Among the Library's unique collections are the original 
paintings by the late Louis Agassiz Fuertes, made on the 
Field Museum-CA/ca^o Daily Neivs Abyssinian Expedition 
of 1926-27. These paintings represent the last work of this 
skilled and talented artist and ornithologist. They were 
purchased by Mr. C. Suydam Cutting after the artist's death, 
and presented to the Library by him. As a member of the 
expedition, which traversed a large part of Abyssinia (Ethi- 
opia), Mr. Fuertes found opportunity for life studies of 
African birds that were varied and unusual. The collec- 
tion of 1 08 paintings includes a few of mammals. 

Although not strictly in the area of special collections, 
the divisional libraries house literature in specific fields. As 
an example, the Reptile and Amphibian Division Library 
contains the collection of thousands of reprints on herpe- 
tology bequeathed to the Museum Library by the late Dr. 
Karl Patterson Schmidt, former Chief Curator of Zoology. 
This is one of the finest, most complete, and important 
literature study collections on reptiles and amphibians ever 
assembled, and is invaluable in the research work in herpe- 

The Geology Library has also been the recipient of note- 
worthy gifts. Dr. George Frederick Kunz, who was a Patron 
and a Corporate Member of Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum, and internationally known as a mineralogist and gem 
expert, gave his famous collection of many hundred volumes 
to the Library. Another gift worthy of mention is the five- 
volume collection of photomicrographs of more than one 
hundred meteorites, presented to the Library by Mr. Stuart 
H. Perry. The photomicrographs were made during the 
course of Mr. Perry's studies on the metallography of mete- 
critic iron. These five volumes contain more than 1,400 
photographs, each accompanied by Mr. Perry's valuable in- 
terpretation of the structure revealed. Only three such sets 
have been made and these have been distributed to the 
United States National Museum, the University of Michigan 
(where Mr. Perry conducted his studies), and this Museum. 

As A consequence of the continuing growth of the Library, 
there have been many problems in the overcrowded stacks 
and cramped working quarters. To keep pace with changing 
conditions, to improve working areas, and to cope with an 
ever-rising work load, plans for re-organization of the Library 
were taken into active consideration more than two years 
{Please turn the page) 

MAT Page? 

ago. At that time, the Museum's Administrative Office di- 
rected the Librarian to prepare an estimate of current space 
needs and a projection for the next twenty years. Estimates 
were made from figures reflecting the growth of the Library 
in the past twenty years, and by considering the increase in 
publications which will result from new research programs 
throughout the world. 

The decision to fill in the former lightwell in the north- 
west quadrant of the building at two levels, to provide space 
for expansion, was most encouraging. The third floor level 
was assigned to the Library for stack and office space, and 
when the Museum received a grant from the National Science 
Foundation, construction began. 

The new addition to the Library, now nearing comple- 
tion, nearly doubles its present 96,000 cubic feet of space. 
The greater portion of the addition will be filled with double- 
faced, free-standing, light gray steel book stacks with ad- 
justable shelves. A suspended acoustical ceiling in off-white 
enhances the brightness of the new stack area. The side 
walls will be painted pale blue with white flecks; the end 
walls are insulated glass and aluminum to admit light. Vinyl 
asbestos tile will be used on the floor. Good lighting is 
assured with the installation of continuous fluorescent fixtures 
along the length of the stack area. 

In addition to stack space, the new area will provide 
office space for the Librarian, the Secretary, and the Serials 
Librarian; a Receiving Room for all incoming material; 
and a Browsing Room for the scientific staff. In the latter 
area the scientific staff may gather, undisturbed, to review 
and discuss the daily incoming periodicals and books. All 
rooms in the new addition are air conditioned. 

A short corridor connects the new addition with the 
Reading or Reference section of the Library, which is the 
public service area and center for information, open to any 
reader interested in the natural sciences. Museum Members, 
teachers, students, scholars pursuing advanced studies, col- 
leagues, and other researchers make full use of our resources 
and services, testifying to the importance of our Reference 
Division as a focal point in the Midwest for information on 
the natural sciences. 

* Improvements under way in the Reading Room include 
air conditioning, a more convenient arrangement of facil- 
ities, and a new look achieved by carrying out the same dec- 
orative scheme as that in the new addition. An added 
feature will be an illuminated exhibit case with adjustable 
glass shelves for the display of unique and special items in 
the Library collections. 

The present Cataloging and Technical Processing Divi- 
sions are located in areas partially roofed in glass. The heat 
of the summer sun on the glass contributes to extremely 
uncomfortable working conditions, and to the general de- 
terioration of books housed in those stack sections. In re- 
modeling these areas, the books shelved in both rooms will 
be transferred to the new addition. The stacks now in the 
Cataloging Room will be dismantled and removed, which 
will give sufficient space for a more functional work area. 
A new suspended acoustical ceiling and attractive lighting 
fixtures will add to the functioning of this room. 

Title page of Volume 2 of Ornithologiae, by Ulisse Aldrovandi 
(7522-1605), published in Bologna in 1600 [Ayer Collection). 

Cover: Illustration Jrom the above volume. 

In the Technical Processing Division, badly needed space 
for the assembly and preparation of material to be bound, for 
minor repair jobs, and for the work of labeling and marking 
books, will be provided by the removal of the stacks now 
occupying almost the entire room. This section will include 
the new area designated for the Library's extensive map col- 
lection, which is presently housed in two separate locations. 
Another section of the Technical Processing Room will house 
the microfilm and microcard readers, and, eventually, photo- 
duplication equipment. 

The Library is now in the throes of construction of the 
new addition and remodeling of the other areas described. 
Completion of the work will result in vastly improved con- 
ditions in every section. It is recognized that the concept 
of a modern research library requires much looking and 
planning toward the future in order to fit the program of 
tomorrow as well as today. We hope that the needs of the 
Museum Library will be satisfied by the new construction 
for the next fifteen or twenty years.  

Page 8 MAT 

CHICAGO/> y^jf/ 

N ATU p.^\iIfilil€Ti^ 

r^ HISTORY ^o/.36 


•i # 







Drawing by Gustave Dahlstrom 

Underwater Archaeology in Lake Michigan 

George I. Quimhy, Curator 
North American Archaeology and Ethnology 

UNDERWATER archacology is the re- 
covery, analysis, and interpretation 
of human and cultural remains of the 
past by archaeologists. It differs from 
above-water archaeology only in the 
special skills and techniques that are 
needed to work under water. So far, it 
seems to have been easier to teach diving 
to archaeologists than to make compe- 
tent archaeologists out of divers. There 
is, however, a lack of archaeologists who 
are also divers, though no lack of divers 
who are not archaeologists. Some of 
the latter tend to become underwater 

Page 2 JUNE 

pot hunters or treasure seekers who do 
as much damage to underwater archae- 
ological sites as their land-bound coun- 
terparts do to above-water sites. 

One acceptable solution to the prob- 
lem is to have competent divers work in 
cooperation with and under the direc- 
tion of a professional archaeologist. The 
ideal solution would be to have a num- 
ber of archaeologists acquire sufficient 
training and skill in diving so that they 
could supervise and direct experienced 
divers in underwater excavation of ar- 
chaeological sites. Conceivably, either 

combination could undertake important 
scientific work on the bottom of Lake 
Michigan. Although I have never been 
on the bottom of Lake Michigan, I am 
able to outline in tentative form the ar- 
chaeology of this region from 8500 B.C. 
to A.D. 1700. This can be done by 
using the data of geology, ethnology, 
history, and archaeology to make in- 
ferences about the signs of human ag 
tivity that should be found by divd 
on the lake bottom. 

Lake Michigan is a large body of wa- 

ter. It is 307 miles in length, has a max- 
imum width of 118 miles, a maximum 
^kpih of 923 feet, and a surface area of 
• ^^400 square miles. 

In late glacial times, at about 8500 
B.C., the retreating ice uncovered suc- 
cessively lower outlets on the east side 
of the Lake Huron basin, thereby con- 
siderably lowering the water levels of 
what is now Lake Huron and Lake 
Michigan. Between 8500 b.c. and about 
7500 B.C. the water level in the Lake 
Huron basin was lowered to a plane 390 
feet below the modern lake level, and 
the water in the Lake Michigan basin 
dropped to a point 350 feet beneath the 
present level. This low-water stage is 
called Chippewa in the Lake Michigan 
basin and Stanley in the Lake Huron 

The duration of the Chippewa-Stan- 
ley stage is not now known, but post- 
glacial uplift of the land and the rise of 
the North Bay outlet caused water levels 
to rise again in the Huron and Michigan 
basins, so that about 3000 b.c. the water 
levels were near or at their modern ele- 
vation of 580 feet. What is here im- 
l^^rtant about this radiocarbon-dated 
^^ologic history of the lake basins is its 
meaning for paleo-geography and arch- 
aeology both above and under water. 

Between 8500 b.c. and 3000 b.c. the 
Upper Great Lakes region, which in- 
cludes the Lake Michigan basin, was 
inhabited by Indians who made their 
living by hunting, fishing, and food gath- 
ering. In the early part of this long 
span of time there were groups of late 
Paleo-Indians whose culture was of a 
kind I have elsewhere called Aqua-Piano. 
They lived by the lake shore on the main- 
land or on islands for a part of each year 
and used various forms of large lanceo- 
late knives and spearheads of chipped 
flint characterized by rather straight par- 
allel ripple flaking. These Indians occu- 
pied the region from about 8500 b.c. to 
perhaps 4500 b.c. 

Their culture was succeeded by those 
of the various groups of Archaic Indians 
who were in the region from about 4500 
^^c. to sometime after 1500 B.C. The 
I^B-chaic Indians used various forms of 
notched or stemmed knives and spear- 
heads of chipped flint as well as lanceo- 
late and trianguloid forms. Some of the 

Archaic cultures were manifested by va- 
rieties of spearheads and knives made of 
native copper by cold hammering and 

Sites of the Aqua-Piano tradition as 
well as many Archaic sites are associ- 
ated with fossil beaches and strand lines, 
indicating that these peoples maintained 
settlements along the shores of the Up- 
per Great Lakes. In the northern part 
of the region these sites, especially the 
earliest, are on fossil beaches and strand 
lines that were uplifted, in some places 
several hundred feet, by the post-glacial 
upwarping of the land. But in the Lake 
Michigan basin the same fossil beaches 
and strand lines may be as much as 350 
feet beneath the present mean water 

If the Aqua-Piano groups of Indians 
moved their shore-line settlements lake- 
ward as the water levels fell, there should 
be sites in Lake Michigan all the way 
down from the present level to 350 feet 
beneath this level. By the same token, 
as water levels rose, first Aqua-Piano 
and then Archaic sites should exist from 
350 feet beneath the surface to the pres- 
ent level. (Archaic sites are also associ- 
ated with a late beach stage which was 
25 feet above the modern water level.) 
So on the bottom of Lake Michigan 
there should be ancient Indian sites and 
artifacts dating between 8500 b.c. and 
about 3000 b.c. 

Where might such sites be found? 

In the northwestern part of the Lake 
Michigan basin in Door County, Wis- 
consin, and Delta County, Michigan, 
one can see wave-cut cliffs and sea caves 
in the limestone hills. Moreover, the 
lake bottom, which is also limestone, has 
a topography resembling that of the land. 
From soundings and observations of 
scuba divers I know that there are also 
cliffs and caves beneath the water. Be- 
cause the above-water caves in this area 
were occupied by Archaic Indians, I 
would expect that the underwater caves, 
prior to their submergence, were also 
occupied by Archaic Indians who lived 
there at an earlier time, or by Paleo- 
Indians of the Aqua-Piano tradition. 
About 7500 B.C., what is now the bot- 
tom of northwestern Lake Michigan 
would have been an area of rocky shores 

backed by a limestone escarpment at 
least 350 feet high. There probably were 
spectacular waterfalls and there must 
have been numberless ledges, caves, and 
rock shelters suitable for occupancy by 

South of this area, the bottom of Lake 
Michigan to a depth of 350 feet would 
have consisted of more or less rolling 
land that sloped toward the shore of 
Lake Chippewa and was covered with 
deciduous forests. Remnants of this for- 
est have been found in Lake Michigan 
near Racine, Wisconsin. Underwater 
archaeological sites should be present in 
the fossil beach and strand lines that 
mark the former low-water stages in this 

Underwater sites later than about 
2500 B.C. should be lacking in the Lake 
Michigan basin because there have been 
no appreciable low-water stages since 
that time. It is possible that divers 
might encounter sunken dugout canoes 
that had become waterlogged, or they 
might find artifacts that had been eroded 
from shore-line sites and redeposited in 
deep waters. But, in general, the oppor- 
tunities for underwater archaeological 
research on prehistoric Indian remains 
that are more recent than about 2500 
B.C. seem to be meager. 

With the advent of the Historic Peri- 
od, which began shortly after a.d. 1600, 
the opportunities increase again. Arti- 
facts have been recovered from historic 
sites and wrecks under the water. For 
instance, along the south shore of Lake 
Superior some historic sites are now un- 
der water or washed away because of 
the drowning of that shore caused by 
differential upwarping of the northern 
part of the Lake Superior basin. There 
are artifacts and washed-out sites under 
Lake Superior's waters in the vicinity of 
La Pointe and Long Island. In the 
rivers draining into Lake Superior, Lake 
Huron, and Lake Michigan there are 
the possibilities of recovering Historic 
Period artifacts lost in canoe wrecks. 
Notable recoveries of such items already 
have been made in Minnesota and On- 

In the Lake Michigan basin there 
probably are no Historic Period sites be- 
neath the water, but there should be 
(Continued on page 8) 

JUNE Pages 

Museum News 


Exhibit on Museum activities 
in Stanley Field Hall. 

Dr. George Wells Beadle, Pres- 
ident of the University of Chi- 
cago (center), tours the new 
geology facility with Museum 
Director E. Ldand Webber (left) 
and Dr. Rainer Zangerl, Chief 
Curator of Geology (right) . 

In the Hall of Useful Plants a 
visitor examines an exhibit of 
rare botanical books published 
from 1552 to 1756. Below 
right: Dr. Louis 0. Williams, 
Chief Curator of Botany (cen- 
ter) takes Members through the 
new Hall. 

From a member's point of view 

ON THE evening of May 7, 2,556 Members, their families, and their guests, enjoyed 
a unique view of new developments in research and education at the Museum. 
The record crowd gave a major share of attention to the new Hall of Useful Plants, 
which displays the plants and products on which man's pleasures, economic welfare, 
and progress depend. Other centers of attraction during the Museum's annual 
open house were the Library addition and the new facilities for research and grad- 
uate education in geology, now at the mid-point in construction. 

Cover from Exhibit 
of Children's Art 

THIS month's cover — a painting of 
giraffes, by Germaine Paul, aged 13, 
of Chicago — is typical of the children's 
art being shown at the Museum through 
June 13. The more than 60 art works 
in many media were made by studei^^ 
in the Junior School of the Art Institu^* 
These young artists, who range in age 
from 6 to 16 years, visit the Museum 
regularly with their art classes to study 
the varied patterns and forms found in 
the Museum's exhibits on nature and 
man. Visitors to the art show are enjoy- 
ing the youngsters' bright and imagina- 
tive impressions of Museum displays. 

Exhibit Continues 

EXQUISITELY cut gems, jewelry of orig- 
inal design, collections of polished 
stones, and many decorative objects fash- 
ioned from rock materials are on display 
at the Museum through July 5, in the 
annual exhibition sponsored by the Chi- 
cago Lapidary Club. 

Summer Hours 

BEGINNING Saturday, June 26, the 
Museum will be open until 8 p-^B 
four evenings a week, on Wednesdays, 
Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundays. These 
are the nights of the Grant Park con- 

Pagei JUNE 


certs. The Museum cafeteria will serve 
dinner until 7:30 p.m. On other days 
the Museum is open until 6 p.m. Sum- 
mer hours will remain in effect through 
Labor Day (September 6). 

Staff News 

THEODORE HALKiN, Artist in the De- 
partment of Anthropology, was 
awarded the Logan prize of $1,500 for 
his entry in the 68th annual exhibition 
of artists of Chicago and vicinity held 
at the Art Institute. His prize-winning 
work is a sculpture entitled "Fountain 
No. 1." 

For the Museum, Mr. Halkin designed 
the exhibition hall on "China in the 
Ch'ing Dynasty," which opened in Jan- 
uary of 1964. He is currently working 
^Mu the Tibetan hall, which has been 
^^plsed to the public for complete re- 
designing and reinstallation. 

AT the annual meeting of the Society 
for American Archaeology held re- 
cently in Urbana, Dr. Paul S. Martin, 
Chief Curator Emeritus in the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, was installed as 
President. Other members of the De- 
partment who participated in the meet- 
ings were: Dr. Donald Collier, who 
chaired a session on South American 
archaeology; George L Quimby, who 
was program chairman for the meetings 
and gave a report on a 17th century pre- 
historic site in Michigan; and Dr. Fred 
Reinman, who chaired a session on ar- 
chaeological work in California and the 
Pacific islands. 

New Summer Journey 
for Children 


^^n, ) 

lARSH dwellers" the Museum's 
new summer Jovirney for chil- 
will be in effect during June, July 
and August. 

The Journey acquaints youngsters 
with the many varieties of plants and 

animals found in swamps and marsh 
lands around the Chicago area. 

By Journeying to selected exhibits 
within the Museum halls, children will 
learn to recognize many different marsh 
plants. One is the American lotus, 
whose submerged roots and buds pro- 
vide food for beavers and muskrats. The 
arrowhead, another common marsh 
plant, has underwater corms or root- 
stocks that are gathered and stored by 
muskrats for food. 

Marsh-dwelling animals are also fea- 
tured on the Journey. Muskrats, for 
example, make their houses of mud and 
reeds that grow along the water's edge. 
The large bull frog, whose deep boom- 
ing call is heard at night, also lives in 
wet lowlands. A marsh-dwelling rep- 
tile is the Massasauga, or swamp rat- 
tler — the only poisonous snake in the 
Chicago area. 

Even fishes are included in the Jour- 
ney, since some species, such as the 
northern pike, spawn in marshes around 
the edges of lakes. Other fish feed or 
seek shelter in the marshes. 

.Birds are probably the most conspic- 
uous and beautiful marsh dwellers. The 
red-winged blackbird nests in reeds 
growing in the water. Herons are found 
on the edges of marshes, where they 
prey on fish, frogs, and other small 
aquatic animals. The least bittern is 
often present, but is shy and secretive, 
blending in with the reeds and grasses. 
Exhibits of these birds and their hab- 
itats are stopping-places on the new 

In addition to identifying many marsh 
dwellers, Journeyers will learn about 
the values of marshes to wild life and 
to man. Animals get both food and 
cover from the marshes. Marsh plants 
provide birds with nesting materials. 
Because marshes hold and store water, 
they are important in flood control. Fa- 
miliarity with marsh lands and the wild 
life they shelter adds another dimension 
to our enjoyment of the outdoors.  

This muskrat exhibit is a stopping 
point on the summer journey. 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Mariball Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, Itlinoii 60605 

Telephone: 922-9410 


Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N, Field 
Marshall Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 
William V. Kahlcr 

J. Howar 

Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shcdd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Edward Byron Smith 
Louis Ware 
d Wood 


James L. Palmer, President 

Clifford C. Gregg, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Edward Byron Smith, Treasurer 

and Assistant Secretary 

E. Leiand Webber, Secretary 



E. Leiand Webber, Director of the Museum 


Donald Collier, Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Louit O. Williams, Chief Curator of Botany 

Raincr Zangerl, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 


Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 

Members are requested to infortn the Museum 

promptly of changes of address. 

JUNE Pages 

RARELY WILL readers of the bulletin consider garbage 
to be golden. To archaeologists and botanists, how- 
ever, garbage can prove to be even more valuable than gold. 
One such instance is illustrated by discoveries in the Tehua- 
c5n valley, in the southeastern corner of the state of Puebla, 

The Tehuacan valley is a large trough just inside the 
Sierra Madre Oriental which separates the states of Puebla 
and Vera Cruz. The other side of the valley is formed by 
the lower but very rugged masses of the Sierra de Zapotitlan. 
From the town of Tehuacan, which lies at an elevation of 
about 5,600 feet, the valley drops to about 2,000 feet where 
the major river drainage cuts through the moimtains to the 

The rainfall is rather low and markedly seasonal (the 
annual 15 inches at Tehuacan falls primarily from June 
through September), and the natural vegetation is thorn- 
scrub-cactus forest. During the summer rainy season the 
trees are clothed in full foliage and the shrubs often bear 
flowers and fruit. In marked contrast, few of the plants 
have leaves during the dry season; the landscape is largely 
shades of brown and tan. 

Ever since the discovery of an evolutionary series of corn 
cobs at Bat Cave, New Mexico, archaeologists have been 
aware that the refuse of ancient people inay yield evidence 
for the domestication of crops and the attendant social ad- 
vance called civilization. Among the foremost searchers for 
archaeological plant remains is Richard S. MacNeish, Chair- 
man of the Department of Anthropology at the University 
of Alberta, in Calgary. In the hope of tracing the stages 
in the domestication of corn, MacNeish excavated a series 
of dry caves in northern Mexico in the state of Tamaulipas. 
These excavations provided exciting evidence for the activi- 
ties of local Indians from about 7000 B.C. to historical time, 
but did not reveal the hoped-for transition from wild to 
cultivated corn. MacNeish reasoned that the answer must 
lie further south in Mexico. Another excavation at Santa 
Marta Cave in Chiapas again yielded valuable data, but 
not the elusive transition. MacNeish's conclusion was that 
the correct area must lie between these northern and southern 
sites — but where? 

A search of geological and geographical articles, weather 
records, and travel accounts finally led MacNeish to look 
at the area around southeastern Puebla. Here, geological 
formations promised caves and rock-shelters, the climate was 
dry, and several large springs furnished year-round water. 
Investigation proved that there were indeed caves in the 
Tehuacan valley. A school teacher, hearing of MacNeish's 
interest in caves with plant remains, directed him to the large 
rock-shelter that afterwards became known as Coxcatlan 
Cave. A test pit dug within this cave yielded corn cobs that 
were large near the surface but which became progressively 
smaller downward. 

'Formerly Associate Curator of Vascular Plants in the Museum's 
Department of Botany; now Botanist for the Crops Research Division, 
Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agricul- 

By C. Earle Smith, Jr.^ 

Garbage is Golden 

In the Tehuacan valley of Mexico 

archaeologists have discovered 

the beginnings of agriculture 

in North America 


With his first test samples, MacNeish went to Paul C. 
Mangclsdorf, world authority on corn, and asked for his 
opinion. Mangclsdorf agreed that MacNeish appeared to 
have an evolutionary series for corn which might show the 
transition from wild to cultivated plants. In order to prove 
this, though, the stage must be carefully set. A full scale 
excavation of Coxcatlan Cave would provide basic infor- 
mation, but there might turn out to be only intermittent 
occupation represented at Coxcatlan. Other caves mu^^ 
also be excavated. Because not all of the people had liv^^ 
in caves during the later history of the valley, village sites 
would have to be found and excavated. If the excavations 
furnished plant remains, pottery, tools, and ornaments in 

Pages JUNE 


Exterior view of two Tehuac&n valley caves 
from which plant remains were recovered 

Excavating within the Coxcatldn cave 
(photograph courtesy of the Trustees 
of Phillips Academy) 


the volume hoped for, no archaeologist working alone could 
do the complete job. 

MacNeish then decided to approach the many specialists 
who would be needed to assist the archaeological work and 
aid in interpreting the finds. He also applied for funds to 
hire field help to make the excavations, sort the samples, and 
transport specialists to the area. The R. S. Peabody Foun- 
dation, of Andover, Massachusetts, agreed to act as sponsor- 
^ig agent and home base. Thus the Tehuacan Archaeological- 
I^Btanical Project, with MacNeish as director, was born. 

The National Science Foundation and the Rockefeller 
Foundation agreed to support the Project in a three-year 
program. As the work advanced, more and more people 

joined the group. Scientists mapped the geography and 
geology of the region and surveyed the irregation systems. 
A laboratory was organized where textiles and pottery could 
be examined. Specialists studied the faunal remains and the 
human skeletal materials that were found. Others worked 
on the local ethnobotany as well as the ancient plants and 
pollens. I was asked to analyze the plant materials other 
than maize, beans, and squash.* 

THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL record proved a most remarkable 
one. Altogether, five caves were excavated along with 
five open sites. No one cave or site furnished an unbroken 
record of artifacts (Coxcatlan Cave was the most complete 
record), but the combined record covers a time span from 
10,000 B.C. to A.D. 1500. From the open site excavations, 
the recovered evidence is solely in the form of pottery, stone, 
and bone artifacts. The evidence from the protected caves 
is a remarkable assortment of durable artifacts mixed with 
discarded sandals, bits of string, torn rags, discarded nets, 
and — garbage ! Over 50,000 individual pieces of plants were 
found in the cave deposits. 

Perhaps as important as anything else that the artifacts 
disclosed is the fact that the Tehuacan valley people ap- 
parently were never forcibly invaded or displaced. Thus 
the archaeological record is a smooth one, showing the con- 
tinuous development of one society over a long period of 
time. Concomitant with the development of material as- 
pects, such as the arts of ceramics and weaving, the growth of 
agriculture from a gathering economy could be traced. Yet 
the valley people were not a self-contained group sealed off 
from the rest of Mexico; this is proved by the variations 
shown in their arts and also by the cultivated plants that 
were introduced into the valley agriculture. 

Major finds include some of the earliest cloth known for 
North America. In a stratum dated about 5700 B.C., frag- 
ments of twined cloth were found in associated burials of 
two adults and a child. The condition of the remains suggests 
that a ceremonial burial had taken place: the Tehuacan 
people had developed social ideas involving deities for whom 
rituals were required. 

Another of the important artifactual finds in the Tehua- 
can excavations is the earliest pottery known for North 
America. A number of pieces of crude pottery, belonging 
to strata dated at 2300 b.c. to 1500 b.c, were made with 
thick sides and rough exteriors. The shapes were the same 
as those of stone vessels used in earlier times. No claim can 
be made that the manufacture of ceramic vessels was invented 
in the area, but there is no doubt that these early vessels show 
no sophistication in the art of pottery making. 

Perhaps the most important bits of evidence are provided 
by the plant materials. For the first time, modern man has 
seen the remains of wild corn. Paul C. Mangelsdorf has 

'Chicago Natural History Museum has recently published two of 
Dr. Smith's technical reports on his work with the project. They are: 
"Agriculture, TchuacSn Valley," Fieldiana: Botany, Vol. 31, No. 3 
(January 22, 1965); and "Flora, Tehuacdn Valley," Fieldiana: Botany, 
Vol. 31, No. 4 (February 26, 1965). 

JUNE Pager 

Left: This straight pin, taken from the Tehuacdn excavations, is dated about 100 B.C. It wa^ made from a cactus spine and 
a strip of maguey fiber tied in a turks-head knot. Center: Fiber from the maguey plant was used to fashion this sandal found 
in the Tehuacdn valley. It is about 15 centuries old. Right: Fruit, dating from A.D. 300, found in the Coxcatldn Cave. 

confirmed that the earliest corn cobs, dated at about 5,200 
B.C., are wild corn probably gathered from the nearby areas. 
From these earliest cobs, the Tehuacan excavations furnish 
series of cobs which detail the evolution of maize into several 
races that still grow in Mexico today. Although the Tehua- 
can maize is both wild and the earliest known, the area was 
not the only one in which maize was being domesticated. 
Other (and later) strains of maize found in the excavations, 
including some hybridized with the wild grass, Tripsacum, 
were probably imported from a nearby area of Mexico. 

The earliest avocado seed known was found in one of the 
earliest levels of Coxcatlan Cave. It can be dated as of at 
least 8000 b.c. In later levels, avocado seeds become more 
numerous and show evolution of size and shape. Toward 
the upper part of the deposit, the seeds are more elongate 
and much larger. This is the first evolutionary series known 
for a fruit tree. 

The two fragments of cotton boll discovered in a level 
dated 5700 B.C. are of interest for another reason. For many 
years, some geneticists and anthropologists have argued that 

American cotton is the product of hybridization between a 
wild American cotton and an Old World cotton carried 
across the Pacific by man. The Tehuacan cotton bolls prove 
that the American hybrid cottons were in existence before 
the time when there is any evidence to suggest that man 
crossed the Pacific in a latitude at which cotton could have 
survived the passage. 

Scotty" MacNeish's determination to find the evidence 
for the beginnings of agriculture in America and his 
effort to enlist the cooperation of scientists in many ficl^^ 
have been spectacularly rewarded. The work of the Tehua- 
can Archaeological-Botanical Project has firmly established 
the transition from gathering to agriculture, the evolution 
of maize and avocados, and the age of hybrid cotton. It 
has also created an awareness that Tehuacan is only a 
small part of the story. Many additional excavations are 
needed to fill in the details of the domestication of crop 
plants and the formation of villages and social institutions, 
before we will be able to trace the full history of man in 

Underwater Archaeology 

{Continued from page 3) 

wrecks of freight canoes. And if La 
Salle's trading ship, the Griffin, sank 
in a September storm in 1679, as re- 
ported by Father Hennepin, then the 
wreckage most probably lies on the bot- 
tom of northern Lake Michigan. This 
would be the first shipwreck in Lake 
Michigan, and the only one prior to 
A.D. 1700. 


Borhegyi, Stephan F. de. "The Chal- 
lenge, Nature, and Limitations of Un- 

derwater Archaeology." Diving into the 
Past, ed. J. D. Holmquist and A. H. 
Wheeler. St. Paul: Minnesota Histor- 
ical Society, 1964. 

Hough, Jack L. "Geologic Framework," 
Great Lakes Basin, ed. Howard J. Pincus 
(Publication of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, 
No. 71) Washington, D.C.: 1962. 

. "The Prehistoric Great Lakes 

of North America," American Scientist 
(Easton, Pa.), Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 84- 

Goggin, John M. "Underwater Ar- 
chaeology: Its Nature and Limitations." 
American Antiquity (Salt Lake City), Vol. 
25, No. 3, pp. 348-354. 

Quimby, George I. Indian Life in the 
Upper Great Lakes 11,000 B. C. to A.D. 
1800. Chicago: 1960. 

• . "A New Look at Geochronol- 

ogy in the Upper Great Lakes Region," 
American Antiquity (Salt Lake City), Vol. 
28, No. 4, pp. 558-559. ^s 


. "The Griffin," Chicago Natural 

History Museum Bulletin (Chicago), Vol. 
35, No. 5, pp. 3-5.  

Page 8 JUNE 




H STORY ^o/.se 


Museum News 

COVER: At Navy Pier, one of 
two especially equipped travel- 
alls (one donated by Interna- 
tional Harvester) is loaded a- 
board a ship bound for Karachi 
(photograph by John Bayalis). 

LEFT: Mr. Jerry Hassinger, 
expedition fellow (left), Mrs. 
Janice K. Street, Mr. William 
S. Street, and Dr. Joseph Cur- 
tis Moore, Curator of Mam- 
mals. During the past six 
months. Dr. Moore has been 
helping to plan the scientific as- 
pects of the Afghanistan mam- 
mal survey. 

Honor Expedition Leaders 

LAST MONTH Museum Trustees and 
their guests attended a dinner at 
the Museum honoring Mr. and Mrs. 
William S. Street of Seattle, who are 
leaders of the Museum expedition to 

The Streets are former Chicagoans, 
Mr. Street having been general manager 
of Marshall Field and Co. from 1943 
to 1946. He was president of Fred- 
erick and Nelson's department store in 
Seattle until his retirement in 1963. 

The purpose of the expedition is to 
make the first complete survey ever un- 
dertaken of Afghanistan mammal spe- 
cies, and to bring back to the Museum 
for this study perhaps 2,000 sample spec- 
imens of the animals found. 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Street are ex- 
perienced hunters. Among the animals 
they hope to collect in Afghanistan are 
the snow leopard, the huge Marco Polo 
sheep, whose horns spiral out to nearly 
four feet across, the gazelle, the Asian 
black bear, and smaller game down 
through about 100 other species to the 
tiniest shrew. 

This is the Streets' second major ex- 

Page 2 JULY 

pedition for Chicago Natural History 
Museum. Exactly three years ago they 
launched a similarly highly mobile, 
seven-month expedition to Iran, bring- 
ing back 1,723 specimens, many of which 
had never been represented in museum 
collections in this country. Readers who 
recall the series of delightful letters writ- 
ten by the Streets from their camps in 
different parts of Iran and published in 
various issues of the Bulletin during 1962- 
63, will be interested to know that Doug- 
las Lay, who was their expedition fel- 
low, has studied those specimens and 
has submitted for publication by the 
Museum the resulting 400-page scien- 
tific report on the mammals of Iran. 

The Streets left Chicago for Afghan- 
istan on June 13. At Karachi, West 
Pakistan, they were joined by two ex- 
pedition fellows for the 800-mile drive 
to Afghanistan up through the Khyber 

The senior fellow, Mr. Jerry Hassin- 
ger, left his doctoral studies at the Uni- 
versity of California in January to help 
purchase, pack, and ship the expedi- 
tion's two travelalls and 5500 pounds 

of other gear. He also studied Asiatic 
mammals in the Museum, and planned 
the detailed itinerary that would enable 
the expedition to accomplish the great- 
est amount of scientific discovery. The 
other expedition fellow, Mr. Hans Neu- 
hauser, left his graduate studies at the 
University of Georgia in June for three 
weeks of preparation at the Museum be- 
fore flying out with Hassinger to join 
the Streets at Karachi. 

Hassinger hopes to submit his study 
of the terrestrial mammals of Afghan- 
istan as a dissertation for the doctorate 
degree, and Neuhauser expects to focus 
on the bats of Afghanistan and to utilize 
his study as a thesis for the masters de- 
gree. Both expect to submit their re- 
search to the Museum for publication. 

When the main part of the expedition 
drives out of Karachi (about the same 
time this article appears), another sec- 
tion of it that has already left the Amer- 
ican University of Beirut in Lebanon 
will be driving a Land Rover more than 
2,000 miles to converge with the Streets 
upon Kabul. Dr. Robert Lewis, a pro- 
fessor at Beirut and the world's author- 
ity on Middle Eastern fleas, was invited 
to join the expedition as its medical 
entomologist. He will make a scientific 
survey of the fleas of the mammals of 
Afghanistan, a work that will have im- 
mediate medical importance because of 
the ability of fleas to transmit diseases 
to humans. Dr. Lewis' graduate stu- 
dent, Mr. Sana Isa Atallah of Jordan, 
accepted an appointment as the expe- 
dition's preparator, and accompanies 
him from Beirut. 

It is an extraordinary new develop- 
ment in the mobility and planning of 
expeditions to undertake a complete sur- 
vey of the mammal species of a whole 
country in one expedition. The Streets 
have already done this for Iran, how- 
ever, and are now well prepared and 
manned to bring this oflf for Afghan- 
(Museum News continues on page 7) 

Drawing by Tibor Perenyi 

Edward J. Olsen 
Curator, Mineralogy 

MOST PEOPLE find it difficult to imag- 
ine the enormous span of geologic 
time. To be told that the earth is five 
billion (5,000,000,000) years old, or that 
such-and-such a rock is "only" two hun- 
dred million years old (200,000,000) 
means almost nothing to us. The num- 
bers are too large and too far out of pro- 
portion to the span of our own lives. The 
geologic column is a representation of 
the long road of geologic time, with 
signposts along the way marked with 
curious names like Jurassic, Permian, 
Silurian, Cambrian, Pre-Cambrian, etc. 
By and large, we tend to think of geo- 
logic time as something quite apart from 
our own lives. Most of us never stop 
to think that we ourselves live in a geo- 
logic epoch. We are first-hand ob- 
servers of a tiny piece of the old earth's 
geologic history. 

It is rather fascinating to consider this 

Are we still living in the ice age, with another 

glacial period ahead? A review of recent evidence 

throws light on this question. 

and to wonder in just what geologic age 
we are now living, and where we are 
heading in the immediate future. There 
is a considerable body of evidence from 
which we can draw definite conclusions. 
Let us begin by reviewing our immediate 
geologic past. 

During the past 325,000 years, much 
of the northern hemisphere passed 
through a vast glacial period, which is 
called the Pleistocene Epoch. It con- 
sisted of seven periods of general climatic 
cooling, with four major and three mi- 
nor southward thrusts of huge circum- 
polar ice sheets. In North America, 
for example, thick ice sheets pushed 
southward from the Canadian arctic 
and covered the northern portion of the 

United States down to the present Ohio 
River valley in the midwest, and not 
quite so far south out on the Great Plains. 
Each southward push was followed by 
a period of warming and melting, with 
decay of ice and its retreat northward; 
this is called a glacial interstage. 

Although we can clearly map the areal 
extent of each of these glacial advances, 
we are not absolutely certain of the 
thicknesses of the great ice sheets. The 
best estimates suggest that they were 
probably 5,000 to 6,000 feet high at 
their centers, thinning to about 100 feet 
thick along the advancing edges. When 
such enormous volumes of water are 
frozen and piled up on the land, the 
{Continued on next page) 

JULY Pages 

volumes of the oceans naturally de- 
crease, and mean sea level is lowered. 
During glacial interstages the increased 
melt water from the receding glaciers 
again raises the mean sea level. Thus 
sea level changes are good measures of 
glacial advances and retreats. 

Along the seacoasts of continents and 
oceanic islands, waves pound away year 
after year and gradually cut benches 
into the rock. If sea level then rises or 
falls a new bench level is cut above or 
below the old one. In low latitudes, 
where living coral reefs occupy coast 
lines just below water level, the reefs 
themselves are often cut into a series 
of benches by changes in sea level. With 
the advent of the carbon-14 dating 
method, the ages of such reef benches 
can be determined, because the coral 
animals deposited their carbon-bearing 
reef material at the time of the bench- 
cutting wave action. Thus it is possible 
to relate past sea level changes with 

Here it must be added that it is only 
possible to find ages for the last single 
period of sea level rise. This is because 
bench levels corresponding to more an- 
cient sea level changes are destroyed 
by each younger cycle of wave action. 
Thus the carbon-14 "clock" is reset after 
each cycle of sea rise and fall. 

Fj. SHEPARD (reference 4), a well- 
known oceanographer from the 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 
has compiled a group of carbon-1 4 dated 
sea level changes from different coasts 
around the world. The dates are de- 
termined on samples of rock, usually 
corals, collected from benches that are 
presently submerged, that are now at 
sea level, or that are above present sea 
level. In addition to Shepard, other 
oceanographers (references 1, 3, and 5) 
have reported dated sea levels. All 
these have been compiled together into 
Fig. 1. 

Individual points, each representing 
a dated sea level, are shown in this fig- 
ure. The points are slightly scattered, 
reflecting errors of analysis in the car- 
bon-14 dating, as well as some samples 
where the rock was affected by chemical 
changes. Some scattering is also due 
to small, minor, short-term oscillations 
in sea level. Nevertheless, a smooth 
curve may be drawn between the points. 

Pageh JULY 

This curve presents some fascinating 
features. The lowest point determined 
is that of a wave-cut bench which is 290 
feet below the present sea level, and is 
17,000 years old. We have no older 
dates until we come to some levels which 
were 10 to 20 feet above present sea level 
around 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. It 
was mentioned before that only the last 
period of sea level rise can be dated. 
However, while this is generally true, an 
obvious exception is possible. If the sea 
ever stood higher than at present, and if 
sea level then fell, this higher level, no 
matter how old, would be preserved well 
above the pounding action of waves. 
Thus the 35,000 to 40,000 year old levels 
have been preserved, while wave action, 
during the period of descending levels, 
has destroyed all lower benches made 
between 35,000 years ago and the time 
when sea level started to rise again and 
mcikc new ascending levels. 

It may be concluded, therefore, that 
sometime between 35,000 years ago, 
when the sea was higher than at present. 

mum glacial advance, when the most 
amount of water was frozen up on land. 

Another interesting feature of this 
curve is its shape. From 18,000 years 
ago almost to the present, sea level gen- 
erally rose with the melting away and 
retreat of the very last glacial advance. 
The rise was not, however, at a constant 
rate, as can be seen from the curve. 
Starting out around 18,000 years ago, 
the sea level began to rise at a rate of 
less than five inches every 100 years. 
The rate of rise reached its maximum 
around 10,000 years ago when it was 
about 35 inches every 100 years, or a 
rate of rise seven times faster than at its 
start. Since that time the rate has been 
steadily dropping, and for at least the 
last 2,000 years the rate has been zero. 
There are, of course, minor oscillations 
of short duration — 100 to 300 years long 
— due to minor climatic fluctuations, 
but the overall effect is that the sea level 
has reached its peak. 

Several oceanographers, in fact, argue 
that the rise reached its peak about 3,000 



1 1 






• ^ 


sea level 








•* \* 




* \' 



A nn' 


I 1 



10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 


FIG. 1. Graph showing changes in mean sea level during past 50,000 years. 

and 17,000 years ago, when it was 290 
feet lower than at present, sea level 
reached a minimum. If we simply draw 
a smooth curve through the points we 
can obtain a rough idea how far the 
level dropped, and at what time. The 
"trough" in our curve is at about 310 
feet below present level, about 18,000 
years ago. This "trough" would then 
correspond to the last period of maxi- 

to 4,000 years ago, and sea level has ac- 
tually started to fall again slightly. 
Bench levels that old have been found 
which lie 8 to 10 feet above the present 
level of the sea. For example, van An- 
del (reference 5) reports a bench level 
on the Brazilian coast which is 8| feet 
above present sea level and is 3,660 years 
old. This level is not considered to be 
due to a minor fluctuation. 


FIG. 2. 






Graph showing changes in oceanic surface water temperature during the Pleistocene Epoch {solid line), and 
into the future {dashed line). {Based on Emiliani, reference 2.) 



200 - 



1 1 

Present sea level 

1 1 


1 1 

1 1 

1 1 



_ r*_T^ - 









* \ 













1 1 

1 1 

1 1 

1 1 

1 .1 


20,000 10,000 






FIG. S. Graph showing changes in mean sea level during the past 50,000 years and projected 
info the future. 

Thus there are apparently two inter- 
pretations of the most recent data. The 
first says that sea level is now at its peak 
and its rate of rise is zero, any higher 
levels being due to minor fluctuations. 
The second view is that sea level reached 
a peak at about 1 feet above the present 
level around 3,000 to 4,000 years ago, 
and is now starting to drop at a very 
slow rate. 

It is not possible to solve this problem 
by making present-day measurements 
over short periods of time. We would 
need the overall effect of the sum of fluc- 
tuations over the next thousand years. 
However, as with any scientific question, 
when one avenue of evidence leads to 
two possible interpretations, we can turn 
to another, independent avenue of in- 
vestigation to try to "break the tie." 

TEN YEARS ago. Dr. Cesare Emiliani 
of the University of Chicago com- 
pleted a monumental piece of work 
which bears directly on this problem 

(reference 2). He examined the aver- 
age temperature record of ocean waters 
over the last 325,000 years by an in- 
genious method devised by Nobel Prize 
winner, Harold Urey. The method is 
based on the fact that the chemical ele- 
ment, oxygen, has two important iso- 
topes, oxygen-16 and oxygen-18. An 
isotope of a chemical element is the 
name given to atoms of that element 
which are the same in every way as the 
element's other atoms, except they weigh 
a little more or less. In the case of oxy- 
gen atoms, one out of every 500 present 
on the earth weighs a little more than 
the other 499 of them. That is, there 
is one oxygen-18 atom to every 499 oxy- 
gen-16 atoms. 

It is known that the microscopic ani- 
mals called plankton, billions of which oc- 
cur throughout the oceans of the world, 
deposit minute shells around themselves. 
These shells are composed of several 
chemical elements, including oxygen. 
Urey determined that the percentage of 
oxygen-18 relative to oxygen-16 in plank- 

ton shell material increased when the av- 
erage temperature of the ocean water 
decreased. So Emiliani collected the 
fossil shell remains of microscopic plank- 
ton from sediment cores dug from ocean 
bottoms. These remains covered a span 
of over 300,000 years into the past. Care- 
ful analyses of the proportions of oxy- 
gen-18 to oxygen-16 were performed 
and then translated into average tem- 
peratures of the oceans in which the 
plankton lived. The results are shown 
in the graph in Fig. 2. 

In this graph, each of the tempera- 
ture highs corresponds to a major or 
minor glacial interstage, and each of the 
lows to a major or minor glacial ad- 
vance. It should be noted that the dif- 
ference in temperatures from the lows 
to the highs is only about 11°, from 73 °F. 
to 84°F. Emiliani collected his fossil 
specimens mostly from lower latitudes 
where temperatures would not have 
dropped severely even during a glacia- 
tion in higher latitudes. In lower lati- 
(Contintied on page 8) 

JULY Pages 




melvin a. traylor, jr. 
associate curator of birds 

ABOUT a year ago there was published The Fabulous Flem- 
ings of Kathmandu^, the story of Drs. Robert and Bethel 
Fleming and the United Christian Medical Mission to Nepal. 
It is an inspiring story, first, of their struggles to get permis- 
sion to enter the country, and then of the growth of the 
mission from a small clinic in Kathmandu to modern hospi- 
tals in Kathmandu and Tansen and numerous clinics in 
outiying villages. 

No one who reads this book could fail to be stirred by the 
courage and dedication of Bob Fleming as superintendent of 
the mission, and his wife, Bethel Fleming, as medical chief of 
the hospital. Their contribution to the people of Nepal in 
introducing modern medicine can only be appreciated when 
it is realized that as recently as 1 5 years ago foreigners were 
barred from the country and there was no medical service 
in our sense of the word at all. 

However, while we at the Museum are proud of the Flem- 
ings and the dedicated work that they are performing, we 
are also happy to realize that it was through Bob Fleming's 
association with the Museum that his first opportimity to 
visit Nepal arose. As Bob says, they entered Nepal "on the 
wings of a bird," and it was his interest in birds that brought 
him to the Museum, first as visitor, then as collector, and 
now as Field Associate and co-author of three publications 
on the birds of Nepal. 

It was in 1937, when on leave from the Woodstock High 
School in Mussoorie, India, to earn his Ph.D. in education 
at the University of Chicago, that Fleming first came to the 
Museum. Seeing an Indian pheasant on exhibition that 
he considered to be mislabeled, he boldly requested per- 
mission to speak to the curator. Thus began an associa- 
tion that has brought to the Museum several thousand birds, 
and to Fleming the delight of traveling the length and 
breadth of India and eventually reaching Nepal. When 
Fleming realized that the Museum would actually pay him 
to pursue his passion for birds, he received a brief but inten- 
sive course in collecting — one chicken skinned joindy with 
curator Emmet R. Blake — and was sent on his way with the 
minimum of equipment and our most fulsome hopes. These 
were justified, for the accession cards for the following years 
read like a gazetteer of India — Punjab, Assam, Manipur, 
Mussoorie — as Fleming used his long Christmas vacations 
to further his collecting. 

By 1 949 Fleming's heart had settled on Nepal, still closed 
to foreigners but with a wealth of fascinating birds. How- 
ever, a foot had been put in the door to Nepal by two Ameri- 

Pagee JULY 

Dr. Fleming examines a pheasant eolleeted for the Museum 
(photograph by Toge Fujihira). 

cans, Walter Koelz and Dillon Ripley, who had collected 
there the two previous years. In mingled hope and des- 
peration Fleming requested permission to go there through 
our embassy in India. To his amazement, permission was 
granted almost immediately, and there ensued an eager 
p)eriod of preparation. Financial support was offered by 
the late Boardman Conover, Research Associate and Trustee 
of the Museum, and Dr. Bethel took over a 1 50-bed hospital 
at Fatehgarh so that Dr. Carl Taylor of the Presbyterian 
Mission could accompany Bob. In October of 1949 the 
party reached Tansen in west Nepal, and the next three 
months were spent collecting along the Kali Gandahk River, 
reaching within 30 miles of the Tibetan border and altitudes 
up to 18,000 feet. 

But exciting as he found the birds in this unknown coun- 
try, Fleming was even more impressed by the tremendous 
need for medical assistance. \Vherever he and Dr. Taylor 
camped word quickly spread that there was a doctor in the 
party, and soon there was a constant stream of patients 
arriving, all desperately needing attention. The slender 
medical resources that they had brought in with them were 
soon exhausted, and Fleming realized that medical work 
was the most important way in which his mission could 
help the Nepalese. This belief was the genesis of the United 
Christian Medical Mission to Nepal, although its consum- 
mation was to require another four years. 

Although the first request to start a medical clinic in 
Nepal was refused, the friends that Fleming had made among 
the governing Rana family asked him to return, both to 

collect and to bring medical assistance. In October of 
1951 he was back again in west Nepal, this time accompanied 
by Dr. Bethel, son Bob, and the Dr. Carl Friedericks. While 
the two Bobs were off collecting, the two doctors established 
a clinic in Tansen. After treating 1,500 patients in 40 
days, they returned to India even more convinced that their 
mission lay in Nepal. Again, though, they were disappointed 
when their request was not granted. It was not till 1953 
that they were to succeed. 

In January of that year the Flemings were able to make 
their first trip to Kathmandu, the capital of the country. 
By now the political climate had changed, the king had been 
restored to power, and outside aid was being sought. After 
collecting in the hills around the Kathmandu Valley, Bob 
gave a lecture to 80 of the leading people of the capital, 
exhibiting his birds and explaining their hopes for the mis- 
sion. Whether it was the impact of his sparkling personality 
(and it is a personality impossible to resist) or whether it 
was just that the time was ripe, not long after their return 
to Mussoorie they received word that their prayers had been 
fulfilled; they were invited to start a medical mission in 
Kathmandu and Tansen. By January, 1954, the mission, 
however modest in the beginning, was a reality, and its 
growth during the ensuing years is a fascinating part of Miss 
Fletcher's book. We at the Museum have followed that 
growth with affection and pride, for we have felt, however 
indirectly, that we have a part in the mission. 

In the meantime. Dr. Fleming has not let the responsi- 

bilities of being superintendent of the medical mission keep 
him from his interest in birds. The results of his earlier 
trips were published in collaboration with Chief Curator 
of Zoology, Austin L. Rand-, and subsequent vacation peri- 
ods have found Fleming always in the field. His travels 
have taken him from Nepal's far western border with Garh- 
wal to the far eastern border with Sikkim, and it is doubtful 
if any man, foreigner or Nepalese, has seen as much of the 
country as he. In 1960-61 he participated in the World 
Book Scientific Expedition to the Himalayas, and I have 
had the pleasure of collaborating with him in publishing the 
results of these collections'. During this past year he has 
been able to devote full time to his scientific efforts through 
the medium of a Fulbright grant. 

Young Bob, Jr. has shared his father's interests since the 
early days when he first accompanied him into the field. 
He himself is now teaching at Woodstock School and working 
on his Ph.D. thesis, which will be, naturally enough, on the 
birds of the Himalayas, This is good news for all of us, for 
it puts off indefinitely the day when we need be concerned 
that there will be no Flemings associated with the ornithology 
of India.  

' Grace Nies Fletcher. The Fabulous Flemings of Kathmandu (New 
York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 1964). 

' Rand, A. L. and Fleming, R. L. "Birds from Nepal," Fieldiana: 
Zoology, Vol. 41, 1957, pp. 1-218. 

' Fleming, R. L. and Traylor, M. A. "Notes on Nepal Birds," 
Fieldiana: Zoology, Vol. 35, 1961, pp. 447-487. 

* ."Further Notes on Nepal Birds," ibid., 1964, pp. 495-558. 


Summer Programs 
For Children 

The Museum's summer series of free 
movies for children begins July 8 and 
runs for six successive Thursdays. The 
programs on the last four dates are sched- 
uled so that children may attend the 
Grant Park Young People's Concerts at 
11:00 A.M. 

Julys 10 and 11:15 A.M. 

The Restless Sea 

Story of one of the "New Frontiers" 
in science: the sea's currents, tides, bi- 
zarre plants and fish, and the effects 
of volcanoes on the ocean floor. 

July 15 10 and 11:00 A.M. 

The Enduring Wilderness 

Some of the scenic areas of Canada, 
where native plants and animals are 
being preserved for our enjoyment. 

Cartoon also 

July 22 10 and 1 P.M. 

Tales of Children 

How children live in the mountain 
villages of southern Spain and Bolivia 
and the fiord country of Norway. 

July 29 10 and 1 P.M. 

From Latin American jungles to our 
own area. Cartoon also 

August 5 10 and 1 P.M. 

The strange and interesting creatures 
of the continent "down under." 

August 12 10 and 1 P.M. 

Ranch Life 
Early days in California and a little 
spoofing of Western movies. 

Cartoon also 

South American 
Hall Reopens 

The Hall of Ancient and Modern In- 
dians of South America (Hall 9) is 
now reopened after having been closed 

since 1962. During that period the space 
occupied by the hall was remodeled to 
make room for a special exhibition area, 
adjacent to Stanley Field Hall, for the 
display of temporary exhibits. 

Visitors to the reopened hall will find 
it rich in materials from the ancient 
cultures of Colombia and Peru and 
the recent Indian tribes that live in 
the tropical forests east of the Andes. 

Among the archaeological materials 
are painted effigy and portrait jars 
which bring to life the ancient Chimu 
people, whose civilization reached its 
height in the eighth century of our era. 
Three new cases display the elegant pot- 
tery made from the first to the eighth 
century by the Nazca and Paracas peo- 
ples of Peru. 

Outstanding among the artifacts made 
by recent Indians are ceremonial cos- 
tumes used by the head-hunting Jivaros 
of Ecuador and Peru. On a backing 
of bark cloth or woven human hair, 
these dance skirts and headdresses boast 
intricate and lovely designs fashioned of 
shell, seeds, dyed bird bones, monkey 
(Continued on next page) 

JULY Page 7 


{Continued from page 5) 

tudes, also, a complete fossil record is 
more likely to be present. It docs not 
actually matter, of course, where the 
cores were collected, for the relative 
changes in temperature, and when they 
occurred, remain the same. Oceanic 
temperature changes are always very 
much less than those on the continents. 
This is because it takes a very long time 
to change the temperature of a large 
body of water, whereas it takes only a 
short time to change the temperature 
of air. 

From Fig. 2 we see that there are 
seven highs and seven lows. All the 
highs are around 84°F., whereas the 
lows vary considerably, corresponding 
to major or minor glacial advances. The 
most recent low occurs at 18,000 years 
ago, marking the most recent glacial ad- 
vance (which, incidentally, covered Chi- 
cago). Referring back to Fig. 1, we see 
that the sea level was at its lowest just 
about 18,000 years ago. Thus two in- 
dependent lines of evidence give the 
same result. This is always encourag- 
ing. In addition, Emiliani has calcu- 
lated that the maximum drop in sea 
level could have been at most 325 feet. 
Fig. 1 shows an appro,\imate drop of 310 
feet, which is quite close to his predicted 

On the other hand, the graph showing 
sea level change shows a peak around 
35,000 to 40,000 years ago, while the 
graph for temperature change shows a 
minor broad peak at 77°F. around 45,- 
000 to 50,000 years ago. This difference 
can be explained by the lag between 
changes in temperature and sea level. 
For example, when temperatures grad- 
ually drop, more and more water re- 
mains frozen on land, thus dropping sea 
level almost as quickly as the cooling 
trend sets in. But when a warming trend 
begins, and large masses of ice begin to 
decay and melt, not all the melt water 
returns to the oceans right away. Due to 
the weight of the ice sheet, the ground 
underneath is often depressed in shallow 
basins which become new lakes. Also, 
glaciers carry and deposit large quanti- 
ties of broken rock, called glacial till, 
which often dam up the rivers and creeks 
through which drainage had previously 

Page 8 JULY 

occurred . The lake country of northern 
Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota, and 
Ontario is an example of a region just 
recently glaciated. Most of these lakes 
are decreasing in size as the drainage 
paths to the oceans become unclogged. 
Thus, after a temperature rise and gla- 
cial decay and retreat, it will take sev- 
eral thousand years for all the melt water 
to drain off to the sea and raise it to its 
preglacial level. 

From Fig. 2 we see that the average 
oceanic temjjerature reached a maximum 
about 6,000 to 7,000 years ago, and has 
dropped since then. Here, then, appears 
to be the answer to the problem of in- 
terpreting recent sea level changes. It 
seems that a peak in sea level could have 
occurred 3,000 to 4,000 years ago. This 
would mean about a 3,000 year lag be- 
tween temperature peak and sea level 
peak, and it indicates that sea level is 
averaging a slow rate of drop at present. 

What does this mean? If we project 
the sea level drop into the future, in a 
smooth continuation of the curve in 
Fig. 1, we find a "trough" at about 15,- 
000 years from now (Fig. 3). Emiliani, 
on the basis of the temperature drop 
over the past 6,000 years (Fig. 2) pre- 
dicts the beginning of another glacial 
advance in about 10,000 years. This 
would put the maximum glaciation at 
about 15,000 years from now! 

Here then, is the answer to our origi- 
nal question. We live in the Pleistocene 
Epoch still. Our whole civilization has 
been born and has grown in the seventh 
glacial interstage (Fig. 2). Ten thou- 
sand to 15,000 years sounds far off, as 
indeed it is. Human beings, however, 
have been around almost two million 
years. Our ancestors have lived through 
seven glaciations already. It is not likely 
that our descendents, 500 generations 
from now, will succumb to so well-known 
an enemy as the eighth glacial advance 
from the north.  


1 . FAiRBRiDGE, R. w. Proceedings of l/ie Royal 
Society of Western Australia (Perth), Vol. 34, 
1947, p. 35. 

2. EMILIANI, c. Journal of Geology (Chicago), 
Vol. 63, 1955, pp. 538-578. 

3. RUSSELL, R. J. Science (Washington, 
D. C), Vol. 139, 1963, pp. 9-15. 

4. SHEPARD, F. P. Ibid., Vol. 143, 1964, 
pp. 574-576. 

5. VAN ANDEL, T. H. Ibid., Vol. 145, 1964, 
pp. 580-581. 


{Continued from page 7) 

teeth, and beetle wings. A new case 
shows examples just received by the mu- 
seum of brilliant featherwork made by 
the Urubu Indians of Brazil.  

This shrunken human head^ thought to he of 
a European woman, is one of four such speci- 
mens once more displayed in Hall 9, 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1S93 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, Illinois 60605 

Telephone: 922-9410 


Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 
William V. Kahler 

Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Edward Byron Smith 
Louis Ware 

J. Howard Wood 


James L. Palmer, President 

Clifford C. Gregg, First ViccPresidcnt 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Edward Byron Smith, Treasurer 

and Assistant Secretary 

E. Lcland Webber, Secretary 



E. Lcland Webber, Director of the Museum 


Donald Collier, Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Louis O. Williams, Chief Curator of Botany 

Rainer Zangerl, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 


Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 

promptly of changes of address. 


HISTORY -vuse 
MUSEUM .j^u^^uu 


j\ro. 8 



"^ J 


Liiii^^^^^%.i9 '-^^^p^^ 

?Sf«^ ^H 

fc^^^^B^^MlpH^.^ :sp-~^ggB^Hy^ ~^^ 


- 'Wfc'^^^^^^^^^^^^^B 

^^^^ ' ^ ^^^^^^^^^^K 

EfcT"" '**' «. 

George I. Quimby, Curator 
North American Archaeology and Ethnology 

Exploring an Underwater Indian Site 

THE FIRST underwater exploration of an Indian village site 
on the bottom of Lake Superior was undertaken jointly by 
Chicago Natural History Museum and The University of 
Michigan's Museum of Anthropology on June 19 in the cold 
waters off Naomikong Point in Chippewa County, Michigan. 

Discoveries made by the diving members of the expedition 
showed that the site was an Indian village of the Middle 
Woodland period occvipied at about the time of Christ and 
subsequently submerged under rising water levels. 

But we are getting ahead of our story. How this expedi- 
tion came into being and why we chose Naomikong Point is 
an important part of our narrative. 

In the last few years Mr. C. Sprague Taylor, lumberman 
and historian of Newberry, Michigan, and his son, Charles, 
had noted flint arrowheads and fragments of pottery on the 
beach at Naomikong Point. In the winter of 1963 Mr. Tay- 
lor brought photographs of some of these artifacts to Chicago 
Natural History Museum for me to examine. And in Octo- 
ber of 1964 Mr. James R. Getz, Museum Field Associate, and 
I visited the Naomikong Point site in the company of Mr. 

Page 2 AUGUST 

Taylor and his son. 

Collecting conditions were not ideal at the time. Snow 
covered the ground to a depth of several inches, a north wind 
swept over Lake Superior, and fresh bear tracks crossed the 
trail into the site. Nonetheless a number of water-worn arti- 
facts were found on the beach and some were even observed 
being tossed up by the waves. It was obvious that the speci- 
mens were coming from beneath the water, but the big ques- 
tion was this: was there really an ancient Indian village site 
on the bottom of Lake Superior or had the artifacts been 
washed into the lake by. wave action cutting into the shore? 
The question could only be answered by exploring the Lake 
Superior waters off Naomikong Point. 

In the spring of 1965 we made our plans for an under- 
water archaeological survey of the area. We would use 
divers, establish a system of measurement, and study the 
landward side of the beach as well as the lake bottom. If 
the site looked promising a University of Michigan field party 
would conduct intensive investigations later in the season, 
under the direction of Dr. James B. Fitting, Curator of the 

COVER : Mrs. Marilyn Fifield {left) checks equipment Jor under- 
water photography oj 2,000-year-old Indian village site on bottom oj 
Lake Superior. Diving with her is John Quimby {right) . 

Left : Preparing to dive. 

Inset : Dr. James Fitting examines artifacts brought up from the 
sunken village. 

(Photographs by C. S. Taylor.) 

Great Lakes Division of the University's Museum of Anthro- 
pology.' We notified Mr. Taylor of our intentions and the 
University of Michigan applied to the United States Forest 
Service, custodian of the land, for a permit to excavate. 

On May 30, in a plane piloted by Mr. and Mrs. Thomas 
B. Fifield of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, I flew over the area in an 
efTort to determine if any cultural remains under water could 
be seen from the air. Although we maintained an elevation 
of less than 400 feet, bad weather hampered our objective 
and we shifted our aerial operations to sites in the Lake 
Michigan basin. 

Meanwhile, back at Naomikong Point, some expert sur- 
veying was under way. A professional surveyor, Mr. Eino 
Sainio, assisted by Mr. Taylor, precisely located and restored 
the meander corner on the shore between sections 8 and 9 
and set station posts 1 00 feet apart along the shore line. These 
station posts were to be our reference points for all measure- 
ments made under water. By means of 100-foot ropes marked 
in ten-foot sections and sightings by engineers' compasses we 
would be able to locate accurately and map the position of 
all underwater finds. 

We were now ready and the exploration date was set for 
Saturday, June 19. 

' I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. Fitting for sup- 
plying his analyses of the data described in this article. 

ierwater photograph oj 2,000-year-old pottery vessel in situ ojf shore 
Naomikong Point, Michigan. {Photograph by Marilyn Fifield.) 

On the appointed day we assembled at our meeting place. 
Most important to our expedition was the presence of Mr. 
Richard Ruppenthal, not only because as District Ranger of 
the Hiawatha National Forest he was in charge of the area 
we were entering, but also because he had a large truck with 
4-wheel drive that could carry our divers and all of our equip- 
ment through the woods to the shore of Lake Superior. 

With Mr. Ruppenthal was Mr. Herman Cameron, Presi- 
dent of the Bay Mills Indian Council, whose ancestors had 
lived at Naomikong Point. 

Our divers were Mr. and Mrs. Fifield, their son, George, 
and my son, John. Mr. Taylor acted as expedition photog- 
rapher, and the land-bound archaeologists consisted of James 
Getz, Dr. Fitting, and myself. 

Mrs. Molly Fitting acted as recorder and Mr. Donald 
Janzen, graduate student at the University of Michigan, cata- 
logued the finds as they were brought ashore. 

Those of us on foot walked down the rough logging road 
to Lake Superior, following the truck that carried our divers 
and equipment. Where there had been falling snowflakes 
on our October trek to the site, there were now large mos- 
quitos in the same abundance. 

Upon reaching the shore, we unloaded the truck and car- 
ried our equipment across a small neck of land to the site. 
The four divers put on their wet-suits, masks, weights, tanks, 
snorkels, and whatever else they needed, then placed our red 
and white diving flags on buoys anchored offshore some 300 

The weather was ideal. Although the water temperature 
was in the 40's, the sun was shining, visibility was excellent, 
and the lake was calm. 

The divers worked under water in 1 00-foot squares based 
on station posts set at 100-foot intervals along the shore. 
Pottery fragments and flint chips found by divers were placed 
in bags made of window screening. These were brought 
ashore and catalogued according to the 100-foot square in 
which they were found. 

Special finds such as collapsed pottery vessels in situ, large 
clusters of sherds, or groups of fire-cracked stones indicative 
of hearths, were marked by buoys, stakes, or rock cairns by 
the diver, who then reported his discovery to the shore-based 
archaeologist in charge of that particular sector. Then the 
location of the find was fixed by measurement and compass 
direction from a shore point related to the line of station posts 
placed 100 feet apart. Next the find was photographed in 
situ under water; and finally it was carefully removed, placed 
in the screen bags, and brought ashore for recording, cata- 
loguing, and analysis. 

One of the archaeologically significant finds was that of a 
whole pot. Although it was broken, all of the pieces were in 
place on the lake bottom. Moreover, the sherds were en- 
crusted with carbonized food remains, showing that the pot 
probably had broken while food was being cooked in it, and 
that broken pot, food and all, had fallen into the hearth where 
it remained until found by one of our divers. 
{Please turn the page) 

AUGUST Page 3 

It was this find and several others that proved conclu- 
sively that there was a village site under water and that the 
artifacts had not just been washed into the lake by wave ero- 
sion of the shore. For one thing, wave action would have 
resulted in considerable smoothing of the pottery. It would 
look as if it had been sanded. Moreover, the carbonized en- 
crustation would have been worn away. And, finally, the 
broken pieces would have been scattered around and would 
not have been found in one place. 

The other significant finds bearing on this problem were 
hearths marked by clusters of fire-cracked stones, and a pot- 
tery sherd with powdered red ocher still adhering to it. The 
hearths could not have been washed into place and the pow- 
dered red ocher would not have remained on the sherd if it 
had been tumbled in sand and rock by wave action. 

Thus the evidence clearly shows that there is an Indian 
village site beneath the waters of Lake Superior just off 
Naomikong Point. The explorations of our divers indicate 
that the ancient village extended in an east-west direction for 
about 500 feet and up to about 300 feet along a north-south 
axis. However, since this was a limited and preliminary sur- 
vey the explorations are incomplete and the village area may 
turn out to be larger than this. 

The age of the site can be determined by the kind of pot- 
tery found in it. The pottery found by our divers consisted 
of Middle Woodland types which elsewhere have been radio- 
carbon dated at 200 b.c. to about a.d. 200. 

This pottery was made of fired clay tempered with small 
particles of stone and decorated with various kinds of stamped 
impressions. The kinds of stamps used in decorating the 
pottery included pseudo-scallop shell, and bar and dentate 

The 300 or so sherds collected were studied and analyzed 
in detail at the University of Michigan. According to Dr. 
Fitting, the overall distribution of the kinds of Middle Wood- 
land pottery found at Naomikong Point is co-terminus with 
a zone of pine-hemlock-northern hardwood forest that ex- 
tends westward from New York to Manitoba. This zone is 
called the Lake Forest formation. And since the various 
manifestations of Middle Woodland culture found within this 
zone seem to be generally related to each other, Dr. Fitting 
believes that the name "Lake Forest Middle Woodland" 
would be an apt term for the entire regional tradition. 

Local expressions of this tradition, however, are recog- 
nizably different from each other and can be separated as 
cultural variants; thus the Naomikong Point finds are a new 
variant of the Lake Forest Middle Woodland. Other mani- 
festations of the Naomikong Point variant may be found on 
the south shore of Lake Superior at some future date. At the 
present time its closest relationships are with Middle Wood- 
land materials found recently at a site on Isle Royale and at 
another site on Bois Blanc Island near Mackinac Strait. 

How did an Indian village site that existed 2,000 years 
ago come to be under the waters of Lake Superior in 1965? 

We know from geological evidence that the north shore 
of Lake Superior has been rising for thousands of years and 
is still rising. Between the Nipissing stage of about 3000 b.c. 
and the present, the north shore has been upwarped at least a 


hundred feet in some areas. 

This upwarping is caused by expansion of the land that 
had been compressed by the tremendous weight of the ice in 
the continental glaciers that covered the area for thousands 
of years during the last Ice Age. When the glacial ice melted, 
the land began to rise. And since the north shore is rising 
more than the south shore the waters are flooding or drown- 
ing the south shore. 

If one can picture a tilted basin with one side up higher 
than another, one can visualize how the waterward margins 
of the low side become submerged even though the volume 
and level of water remain unchanged. This situation is anal- 
ogous to what has happened to the south side of Lake Superior. 

The Middle Woodland Indians living at the time of Christ 
probably had a village some considerable distance from the 
lake shore. In all likelihood this site was covered by humus 
or by blown sands after it was abandoned by these Indians. 
In any case, it seems likely that the Middle Woodland occu- 
pational debris was buried before encroachment of the water. 

Then, as the shore line receded before the eroding waters 
washing on it because of the tilting of the Lake Superior basin, 
the buried village site became submerged. Wave action de- 
stroyed the soils and any cultural levels above the Middle 
Woodland village, but did not cut into the site itself probably 
until this century. 

Now the waves are excavating the top portions of the old 
village which at the present time is on the bottom of Lake 
Superior. And it was this wave-excavated part of the 2,000- 
year-old site that was seen and surveyed by our divers on this 
first underwater exploration of a Middle Woodland village 
site in the Upper Great Lakes region.  

Above : Fragments of pottery, 
decorated with stamped impres- 
sions, found in the underwater site. 

Left: Ancient knives of chipped 
quartzite from the bottom of Lake 
Superior. {Photographs by Dr. 
James Fitting.) 


Shape of leaves, the flower, 
thejruit, and an unpleasant odor 
help to identify the Jimson-weed, 
or thorn apple. 

'TT'he family of plants to which the po- 
-*- tato belongs is popularly called the 
potato, or nightshade, family. Botanists 
universally refer to the family as "the 
Solanaceae." This large and, to man, 
important group of plants contains mem- 
bers that produce such foods as potatoes, 
tomatoes, sweet and hot peppers, and 
eggplants. Tobacco is also an econom- 
ically important member of the family; 
and several drugs come from the Sola- 
naceae. An old and important drug is 
belladonna, used to relieve pain. Atro- 
pine, commonly used by oculists to dilate 
the pupil of the eye to facilitate exami- 
nation, comes from the same plant. Sev- 
eral ornamentals are also found in the 
family: petunias, so conspicuous in an- 
nual plantings around Chicago, are an 

Weeds are to be found in the potato 
family, too. Weeds have been defined 
as "plants out of place." One of these 
plants is the Jimson-weed, which is also 
called thorn apple, Jamestown-weed, 
apple-of-Peru, and stramonium. When 
the spiny fruits are conspicuous then per- 
haps the commonest name is "thorn ap- 
ple." Stramonium is the name of the 
drug that comes from this plant; it is an 
alkaloid that is used much as is bella- 

Vacant lots and ciJtivated fields around 
Chicago often contain plants of Jimson- 
weed, which is probably a native of Amer- 
ica. Normally no one would pay much 

Louis O. Williams 
Chief Curator of Botany 

Ihorn apples are not for eating 

attention to the plants if it were not that 
children sometimes pick the thorn apples 
and test them out to see if they are good 
to eat. All parts of the Jimson-weed are 
toxic but the seeds contain a greater 
amount of the toxic alkaloid than do 
other parts of the plant. 

Every year the Museum receives fran- 
tic telephone calls about children who 
have eaten a plant and are sick. The 
plant described and the symptoms given 
often indicate that another child has ex- 
perimented with thorn apples. 

Symptoms that may be present in poi- 
soning from Jimson-weed include: di- 
lated pupils, delirium, thirst and dry 
mouth, lack of coordination, headache, 
nausea. If these symptoms, or part of 

them, appear in a child and it is sus- 
pected that he has eaten from a wild 
plant, he should be taken to a doctor or 
a hospital immediately. 

In any plant poisoning, specimens of 
the plant causing the distress should be 
taken to the hospital so that they may be 
accurately identified, for not all poisons 
are treated in the same way. 

The spiny fruit (half as big as your 
thumb to the size of a small egg), leaf 
shape, and the disagreeable odor of the 
plant will all help in the identification of 
this weed. We suggest that you destroy 
Jimson-weeds around your property, or 
if there are too many, then show them 
to children and explain that they are not 
to be eaten.  


A youngster attending last jeafs workshop proudly displays his insect collection. 

An invitation to 


AN OPPORTUNITY' to meet Museum staff, and work with 
specimens and materials from the Museum's scientific 
collections, is again offered in a series of unique workshops 
open to the children and grandchildren of Members. These 
workshops will be held on Saturdays in October. 

Designed by the Raymond Foundation to stimulate and 
develop interest in the study of nature and man, the work- 
shops have been enthusiastically received by Museum Mem- 
bers and their families since the fall of 1963. 

This year, classes are offered for four different age groups: 
there are seven sessions for boys and girls aged 10 through 13; 
two for children aged 8 and 9; two for those 6 through 9; and 
one for children 6 and 7. All workshops last about one 
and one-half hours. 

Reservations are necessary, and an application form is 
enclosed with this month's Bulletin. Since workshops are 
limited to small groups, and it is not always possible to ac- 
commodate all applicants, we urge you to mail in your reser- 
vations early. Resei-vations will be accepted in the order in 
which they are received. Each applicant accepted will re- 
ceive a confirmation card which will serve as an admission 
card to the workshops. 

Page 6 AUGUST 

Following is a complete schedule of dates, hours, and 
workshop subjects: 

October 2 
Indians of the Woodlands and Plains 

10:30 A.M. or 1:30 p.m. 

For ages 10-13 
Harriet Smith in charge 

In different regions, Indian tribes developed a life that 
fitted their kind of country by exploiting materials furnished 
by nature. In this workshop, youngsters will handle these 
raw materials and see for themselves how their qualities were 
utilized in the making of tools, weapons, and household equip- 
ment. Movies that show how Indian tribes lived in the wood- 
lands and western plains before the settlers came give a basis 
for class discussions comparing different Indian ways of life. 

October 2 

10:30 A.M. for ages 6-9 

1:30 P.M. forages 10-13 

George Fricke in charge 

What birds live in the Chicago area? How can we attract 
them to our yards? This workshop introduces youngsters to 
the common birds whose appearance and habits should be 
familiar to all. In both sessions, study of feathers and Mu- 
seum specimens will help tell the story of birds. 

October 9 

10:30 A.M. for ages 6-9 
1 :30 P.M. for ages 10-13 
George Fricke in charge 

Insects are the easiest animals to collect, and October is 
still early enough to start your own collection if you know 
where to look and how to begin. This workshop will help 
boys and girls to identify insects of the Chicago area, and to 
make their own collection. 

October 16 
Cave Man to Civilization 

10:30 A.M. or 1:30 p.m. 

For ages 10-13 
Edith Fleming in charge 

A movie on the life of the cave men, which shows how 
they hunted prehistoric animals, opens this workshop. In 
the following discussion-demonstration period, boys and girls 
will examine real tools used by cave men thousands of years 
ago, learn how they were made, and compare them with tools 
of today. 

October 16 
Boneyard Zoo 

10:30 A.M. or 1:30 p.m. 

For ages 6-7 
Ernest Roscoe in charge 
Fossil remains of ancient fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, 
and mammals will be investigated in the exhibition halls and 
through examination of specimens. 

October 23 

10:30 A.M. for ages 8-9 
Ernest Roscoe in charge 
A beginner's introduction to rocks and minerals by means 
of specimen study, demonstrations, and informative sessions 
in the exhibition halls. Topics include: what are rocks? how 
are they formed? what characteristics are useful in identify- 
ing rocks and minerals? 

October 23 
Rock and Mineral Kingdom 

1 :30 P.M. for ages 10-13 
Ernest Roscoe in charge 
A more advanced program on rocks and minerals. In- 
cluded is practice identification of specimens with the aid of 
a key. 

October 23 

Spices: Trail-Blazers to New Lands 

10:30 A.M. or 1:30 p.m. 

For ages 10-13 
Marie Svoboda in charge 
Spices were once so much in demand that the search for 
them drew explorers to strange and distant lands. What 
were these spices worth their weight in gold? Where did 
they come from? How do we use them today? Boys and 
girls will have a chance to explore these questions by means 
of specimens and exhibits. 

October 30 
World of Fossils 

10:30 A.M. for ages 8-9 
Ernest Roscoe in charge 
Youngsters will learn the main ways in which plants and 
animals become fossils, and how to identify the major groups. 
Stress is on the fossils likely to be found in the Chicago area. 
Highlights of the session include a movie 
and work with specimens. 

October 30 ^ft''':il^-'^'-it^ 

Life Through the Ages '^^ ■^^^ 'j^' 
1 :30 P.M. for ages 10-13 'Mi 5^ \ 
Ernest Roscoe in charge ' ' ' 

An introduction to geology from the historical point of 
view, including the development of plants and animals from 
the Cambrian Period to the Ice Age. The session offers a 
movie and work in the exhibition halls with question sheets, 
as well as handling of specimens.  

AUGUST Page 7 




Chicago's banking and financial cen- 
ter along LaSalle Street is enlivened these 
days by a series of exhibits in the win- 
dows of the American National Bank 
and Trust Company of Chicago. En- 
titled "A Salute to Chicago's Libraries," 
the displays call attention to the many 
technical, research, and other specialized 
libraries that provide essential resources 
for the continuing growth of the city's 
intellectual and cultural life. 

The Museum Library, under the lead- 
ership of Mrs. Meta P. Howell, Librar- 
ian, has been pleased to cooperate in the 
setting up of the window display on Chi- 
cago Natural History Museum. With 
the help of Mr. John R. Millar, Chief 
Curator Emeritus of Botany, a colorful 
and varied group of materials from the 
Museum collections has been assembled 
to illustrate the relationship of the Li- 
brary to Museum scholarly and scien- 
tific inquiry. 

Museum Members are well aware of 
the important services that the Library 
furnishes not only to the Museum staff 
but to scientific colleagues resident or 
visiting in the city, and (through inter- 

library loan) in other parts of the coun- 
try. The Library is also responsible for 
an exchange of publications with major 
educational and scientific institutions in 
nearly every country of the world. In 
an article published in the May, 1965, 
Bulletin, Mrs. Howell described the 
Library's holdings and services, and out- 
lined the major expansion of its facilities 
which has just been completed. 

Prehistorian Appointed 

When the Museum's hall on the Stone 
Age of the Old World (Hall C) was 
completed in 1933, the latest theories 
on prehistoric man were incorporated 
in the exhibits. As many new discover- 
ies have been made since that time, plan- 
ning for re-installation of the hall will 
be one of the inajor projects to be under- 
taken by the Museum's new Assistant 
Curator of Prehistory in the Department 
of Anthropology. 

Dr. Glen H. Cole was appointed to 
this position as of June 1, 1965. His 
two-year appointment has been made 
with the assistance of a grant from the 

Mrs. Meta P. Howell, Museum Librarian, 
and Mr. Allen P. Stultz, President of the 
American National Bank and Trust Com- 
pany oj Chicago, view the exhibit on the Mu- 
seum'' s Library in one of the bank's windows 
overlooking Washington Street, near LaSalle 
Street, in Chicago. 

Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthro- 
pological Research. 

Dr. Cole will also make an inventory 
and assessment of the Museum's Euro- 
pean and African prehistory collections, 
and do research on the paleolithic cul- 
tures of East Africa and South Arabia. 

Dr. Cole is a graduate of Reed Col- 
lege and received his Ph.D. in anthro- 
pology from the University of Chicago. 
He has done archaeological field work 
in Illinois, Colorado, northern Mexico, 
Arabia, and in East, Central and South 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, Illinois 60605 

Telephone: 922-9410 

Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J, Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P, Isham 
William V. Kahler 

J. Howard 

Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Edward Byron Smith 
Louis Ware 


James L. Palmer, President 

Clifiord C. Gregg, First ViccPresidcnt 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Edward Byron Smith, Treasurer 

and Assistant Secretary 

E. Leland Webber, Secretary 



E. Leland Webber, Director of the Museum 


Donald Collier, Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Louis O. Williams, Chief Curator of Botany 

Rainer Zangcrl, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 


Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 

promptly of changes of address. 

Page 8 AUGUST 



i HISTORY ^^. se ^0.9 

MUSEUM ^M<fem«fo» 49eS 


r ■'t^S 

^^ \' i^ 





p^pt "^^^f^ 


Wet-blasting. Walter C. Reese, Preparator. 

Conservation Laboratory 

is Opened 

Donald Collier 
Chief Curator, Anthropology 

Photographs by the Dioision oj Photography 

AFTER several years of study and planning, the Museum 
has recently opened a conservation laboratory in the De- 
partment of Anthropology. This new facility was made pos- 
sible by generous grants from the Wenner-Gren Foundation 
for Anthropological Research in New York and the Robert R. 
McCormick Trust in Chicago. The laboratory, which will 
be dedicated formally this fall, has been named the Robert R. 
McCormick Conservation Laboratory. 

The purpose of the new laboratory, which is operated by 
Mrs. Christine Danziger, Conservator, is to preserve the hun- 
dreds of thousands of rare and irreplaceable specimens in the 
Museum's anthropology collections. These specimens are of 
varying ages from ancient to modern and come from all parts 
of the world. They are made of a great variety of materials, 
including stone, minerals, metal, pottery, glass, bone, ivory, 
horn, shell, wood, vegetable fibers and gums, fur, leather, 
rawhide, feathers, paper, and bark cloth. Each of these ma- 
terials involves particular problems of conservation and some 
are much more perishable than others. Because of this di- 
versity a very wide range of techniques and procedures is 
needed to preserve the collections. 

The new laboratory is divided into three sections. The 
first contains the conservator's office with space for the con- 
servation library and the storage of conservation records. A 
detailed record is kept of every specimen treated in the lab- 
oratory. Also in this room are an area for the examination 
of specimens as they enter the laboratory and facilities for 
chemical analysis of specimens. There is an adjoining stor- 
age room for supplies and equipment and for holding speci- 
mens in various stages of treatment. 

The second section of the laboratory contains the x-ray 
installation. The 150-kilovolt industrial x-ray machine is 
used in the diagnosis of specimens needing treatment, espe- 
cially the metal objects. Next to the x-ray room are a dark 
room for developing film, and a small room for the study of 
x-ray pictures and the viewing of specimens in ultra-violet 
light. The corridor off these rooms contains a refrigerator 
for storing film and chemicals and space for a vacuum oven. 
The latter is used to dry specimens and to impregnate them 
with preservatives. 

The third section is devoted to the cleaning and treatment 
of specimens. It is equipped with ample washing facilities, 
an apparatus for demineralizing water, equipment for elec- 
trolytic treatment of metals, and a chemical fume hood for 
carrying on procedures involving explosive or toxic chem- 
icals. There are abundant electrical outlets, supplies of gas 
and compressed air, and additional plumbing outlets for 
future expansion of the washing facilities. 

One of the most complex problems in conservation is the 
preservation of ancient metal objects. The Museum has a 
large number of archaeological specimens of copper, bronze, 
and silver from ancient Italy, Egypt, Persia, and China. 
Many of these are badly corroded. Of particular concern 
are the bronzes suffering from "bronze disease," a form of 
continuing corrosion caused by chloride salts which contami- 
nate specimens while buried in the ground. We decided to 
devote the first major effort of the conservation laboratory 
to the treating of these metal objects, although work on 
other types of specimens would be carried on also. 

A special problem came up in the treatment of Tibetan 
specimens in conjunction with the planned reinstallation of 
the Tibetan exhibition hall. Several hundred vessels, figu- 
rines, and ornaments of copper, brass, silver, or a combination 


of these needed to be cleaned for exhibition. These date from 
the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. We desired 
that they be bright and polished — just as they were when dis- 
played on altars in the lamasaries. The specimens were badly 
tarnished and many were covered with a brownish lacquer 
which was very difficult to remove. Hand polishing was ex- 
tremely time consuming and not completely effective. 

After much investigation and experimentation, Mrs. Dan- 
ziger concluded that the job could be done mechanically. 
The necessary equipment was acquired and installed near the 
laboratory. First the objects are wet-blasted with spherical 
glass beads of about the fineness of flour grains. This treat- 
ment removes soot, grease, lacquer, and most of the tarnish. 

Cover: ^^ Dancing Ghosts.'' These brass religious objects from Tibet 
have recently been cleaned and polished in the Robert R. McCormick 
Conservation Laboratory. The Museum'' s treasured collection of 
Tibetan materials is currently being restored for display in a new Ti- 
betan hall. 

X-ray diagnosis of specimens. Mrs. Christine Danziger, Conservator. 

Cleaning and treatment room. 

Polishing mill. 

Then the specimens are placed in a vibrating polishing mill 
which contains small ceramic cylinders moistened with a de- 
tergent and a corrosion inhibitor. The objects emerge beau- 
tifully polished and absolutely clean. The silver ornaments 
receive an additional silicone coating to prevent tarnishing. 
The conservation laboratory was planned by the writer 
and Mr. Phillip H. Lewis, Curator of Primitive Art, in con- 
stant consultation with Mrs. Danziger. The new laboratory 
is open and the conservation program is laimched. But it 
will be several years before all aspects of the program are 
fully developed and we have solutions to the various problems 
that face us. And during this period we shall adopt new 
methods and techniques as they emerge from the rapidly de- 
veloping field of scientific conservation.  


Summer Classes a Success 

Ernest Roscoe (right) with group of teachers attending Museum's summer course in earth science 

Both students and teachers spent part 
of their vacations attending classes at the 
Museum this year. 

A course in earth science, sponsored 
by the Museum's Raymond Foundation, 
was attended by 31 elementary teachers 
from the Chicago area. The course was 
designed to give participants an oppor- 
tunity to explore the scope of earth sci- 
ence and its application to the Chicago 
school curriculum. 

Five course sessions were conducted 
by Ernest Roscoe, guide-lecturer in ge- 
ology for the Raymond Foundation. A 
final field session was led by Harry 
Changnon, Curator of Exhibits, Depart- 
ment of Geology. 

According to Roscoe, the recent addi- 
tion of geology to the science curricula 
of secondary schools is now being felt at 
elementary school levels; many educa- 


tors suggest that earth science now be in- 
troduced in the primary grades. At the 
same time, most elementary teachers 
have had little or no training in this sub- 
ject. It was to meet this need that the 
Raymond Foundation decided to offer a 
pilot course during the summer. 

"Our limited time did not permit us 
to more than scratch the surface of this 
large subject," Roscoe said, "but judg- 
ing from the responses received from the 
participants, the program proved very 

"We feel," wrote two young teachers 
just beginning their careers, "that the 
earth science course will be extremely 
helpful in our future teaching." An- 
other teacher wrote: "This workshop 
gave us a 'bird's-eye-view' which I feel 
was essential as a first step, especially for 
those of us with no college geology to 

draw upon." Especially gratifying was 
the comment: "My only regrets are that 
I did not discover earlier the thrill of 
this science and that the course was too 

Miss Miriam Wood, Chief of the Ray- 
mond Foundation, and her staff hope 
that an expanded program can be of- 
fered next summer based on the experi- 
ence gained from this pilot project. 

The summer program for selected high 
school students, offered for the second 
year, was a series of seminars on science 
and man. Designed to augment the stu- 
dents' knowledge of biology and geology 
and to provide an introduction to an- 
thropology, the seminars featured work 
with Museum specimens and discussions 
with the scientific staff. The seminars 
were conducted by Miss Edith Fleming, 
Miss Harriet Smith, and Miss Marie 
Svoboda, guide-lecturers in anthropol- 
ogy, archaeology, and botany; and Mr. 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, Illinois 60605 

Telephone: 922-9410 

Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 
William V. Kahler 

J. Hov 

Hughston M. McBaia 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Edward Byron Smith 
Louis Ware 
'ard Wood 


James L. Palmer, President 

Clifford C. Gregg, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 

Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Edward Byron Smith, Treasurer 

and Assistant Secretary 

E. Leiand Webber, Secretary 



E. Leiand Webber, Director of the Museum 


Donald Collier, Chief Curator of Anthropology 

Louis O. Williams, Chief Curator of Botany 

Rainer Zangerl, Chief Curator of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology 


Paula R. Nelson, Public Relations Counsel 

Fall Journey 

Few children who played on the 
beaches of Lake Michigan this summer 
realized that the sand around them may 
have concealed countless sapphires, to- 
pazes, and rubies. A pirate's treasure? 
No. The gems — tiny ones, it's true — 
are among the more than thirty minerals 
that make up the beach sand. 

The fascinating story of a "common- 
place" material, sand, is the subject of 
the Museum's new fall Journey, "The 
Sands of Time." 

Children taking the self-guided Jour- 
ney through the Museum exhibition halls 
will learn how sand is formed, how it is 
carried for miles by wind, water, and ice 
and heaped into dunes and moraines. 

The exhibits show the most common 
minerals found in sand, and explain their 

On the Journey youngsters may be 

''Calico rock''' {bleached sandstone) 

surprised to discover that sand is highly 
valued — not for its minuscule gem frag- 
ments — but for its many economic uses: 
as an abrasive, as a soil lightener, as a 
primary ingredient in glass, and as a 
building material. 

Boys and girls interested in taking the 
new fall Journey, "The Sands of Time," 
may pick up their tour directions at the 
Museum doors. 

The Journey is available from Sep- 
tember through November.  

Staff Notes 

Robert Stolze 

Two Department of Botany members. 
Dr. Patricio Ponce de Leon and Mr. 
Robert Stolze, made a collecting trip to 
the Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming 
during June and July. Among other in- 
teresting places, they were able to go 
afoot into the Cloud's Peak Wilderness 
area, where there was still much snow in 

the passes of the "high country." Their 
collections of both flowering plants and 
cryptogams may be the first from this 
region. Duplicates will be distributed 
to the Museum's correspondents as soon 
as they are ready. 

Wyoming celebrated the 75th anni- 
versary of statehood this year. Most 
men grew beards for the celebration. 
Mr. Stolze, who cooperated, is shown 
with "anniversary" beard seated at his 
"period" desk in the botany department. 

Dr. Glen Cole, Assistant Curator of 
Prehistory in the Department of Anthro- 
pology, has recently returned from a con- 
ference held in Burg Wartenstein, Aus- 
tria. Sponsored by the Wenner-Gren 
Foundation, the conference brought 
together geologists, paleontologists, and 
prehistorians from many countries to dis- 
cuss a systematic approach to the study 
of early man in Africa during the later 
Tertiary and Quaternary periods. Be- 
fore the conference. Dr. Cole studied Af- 
rican paleolithic materials in the muse- 
ums of Spain and England. 

Mr. Leon Siroto, Assistant Curator of 
African Ethnology, gave an illustrated 
lecture at Roosevelt University in con- 
nection with the university's training 
program for Peace Corps members plan- 
ning to work in Sierra Leone, Africa. 

A distinguished summer visitor was 
Dr. Rolf A.M. Brandt, from the Sea to 
Medical Research Laboratory of the 
Department of Medical Zoology in 
Bangkok, Thailand. A parasitologist, 
Dr. Brandt came to the Museum to study 
its collections of freshwater snails as part 
of his research on the role of these ani- 
mals in parasitology. 

Dr. In-Cho Chung, Assistant Curator 
of Vascular Plants, has resigned from the 
Department of Botany to accept a teach- 
ing position at Chicago Teachers Col- 

Mrs. Paula R. Nelson, Public Rela- 
tions Counsel and Managing Editor of 
the Bulletin, has also resigned to be- 
come News Director for the Welfare 
Council of Metropolitan Chicago.  


La Rochelle harbor. 



Making fish nets. Both scenes Jrom the October 16th film-lecture on France. 

ONCE MORE the Museum's fall series of film-lectures for 
adults projects a brilliant image of nature and people 
around the world. 

All of the motion pictures are filmed in color, and pre- 
sented personally by outstanding lecturers specializing in 
world travel and natural history. 

The programs will be given in the James Simpson Thea- 
tre on Saturday afternoons at 2:30 p.m. from October 2 
through November 27. Reserved seats are held for Museum 
Members until 2:25 p.m. 

The complete schedule follows: 

October 2 
German Panorama 

Alfred Wolff 
Here is a fresh vantage point from which to enjoy the 
many-sided German scene. This new film, a distinguished 
addition to Alfred WolfTs Know Tour World film series, shows 
us a land famed for its castles, folklore, dramatic history, 
sports, and scenery. Beginning with the fabulous treasures 
of the Emperor Charlemagne, the film transports us to 
Oberammergau, the Rhine castles, the Grand Prix auto race 
at Neubergring, medieval Rothenburg, a daring glider school, 
East and West Berlin. Accompanying every scene, WolfTs 
narration both informs and transmits his pleasure in finding 
beauty, art, and charm. 

October 9 

Margaret Baker 
Formed by the merging of four British colonies — Singa- 
pore, Malaya, Sarawak, and North Borneo — Malaysia faces 
unfriendly neighbors without, and political disunity within. 
Margaret Baker knows the diverse peoples of this troubled 
area intimately, having owned a rubber plantation in Ma- 
laya and traveled widely throughout Southeast Asia. She 
has photographed the new nation in depth and detail : Kuala 
Lumpur, the capital; Prime Minister Rahman, the founder; 
and dissident Singapore, now a separate governmental unit. 
Contrasting with the rapidly changing political situation are 
scenes of everyday life on a rubber plantation and in the vil- 
lages and cities. The result is an authoritative documentary 
that bespeaks the divided nation's geography and people; 
its present problems and its potential for the future. 

October 16 
Along the Rivers of France 

Philip Walker 
The total history of France comes to life along its rivers. 
From Le Havre, where Atlantic liners disembark their pas- 
sengers, pleasure cruisers sail up the Seine to Rouen, where 
Joan of Arc was burned at the stake. Beyond, the Seine flows 
to Paris and to Fontainbleau, palace of Napoleon and the 
kings of France. The river Marne empties into the Seine 
from the Champagne country. Chateaux representing a cen- 
turies-old record of kings and queens line the valley of the 

Loire. The Garonne wends toward Bordeaux, the great wine 
center and harbor for Atlantic ships. Past Lyon and Avignon, 
the Rhone flows through Aries, a city made famous by Van 
Gogh and Gauguin but also an important Greek town as 
early as the sixth century B.C. Every bend discloses a newly 
fascinating scene until wc reach Marseille and journey's end. 

October 23 
Today's Stone Age People 
The Australian Aborigines 

Jens Bjerre 
In a nearly impenetrable land of sand dunes, stony des- 
erts, and scorched plains live today some of the last survivors 
of primitive man. Jens Bjerre has sought them out in the 
Australian interior to record the custouis of a race now almost 
extinct. His documentary probes the aborigine's religion and 
magic : we watch the ceremony for the big holy snake, and the 
initiation rituals that transfer the strength of the old himters 
to the young men. The daily life of these Stone Age people, 
the tattooing of the young women by burning scars into their 
skin, the hazardous conditions and constant search for nour- 
ishment, are reminders of the contrasts in human culture that 
still remain in the world. There is a tense kangaroo hunt 
with wooden spears for weapons, and a glimpse of the totem 
dances through which the dancers ascend in trance to the 
Great Spirit. 


Australian boomerang. Hall D, east. 

October 30 
Look to Finland 

Hjordis K. Parker 
The majestic forests of Finland tie into the daily lives of 
her people during all four seasons of the year. In mid-winter, 
lumbermen fell the trees and drive them down the turbulent 
rivers to the saw mills. Young champions run, race, and 
turn somersaults on the floating logs. Equally daring ski 
jumpers compete for our attention with graceful girl gym- 
nasts, performing in the Helsinki stadium. At the nation's 
capital young people enjoy a traditional sauna bath, we meet 
President and Mrs. Kekkonen, and watch the nation's arti- 
sans creating the crafts that are famous around the world. 
Christmas is spent on a farm, among scenes of idyllic beauty. 
{Continued on next page) 



Scene Jrom the October 30th Jilm-lecture on Finland. 

Then abroad to Lapland, where the Laplanders hold a rein- 
deer round-up and compete in games under the midnight 
sun. Other highlights are the uncovering of a thousand- 
year-old Viking site, and an exploratory tour of Finnish archi- 
tecture, from the castles and churches of the thirteenth cen- 
tury to the airy structures of modern times. 

November 6 
Monsoon Mosaic 

Telford H. Work 
As director of the Virus Research Center in Poona, India, 
Dr. Work specializes in the epidemiology of tropical diseases. 
His avocation is wildlife, which he has photographed in every 
inhabited continent. Dr. Work is especially familiar with the 
many and varied wild animal populations of India : Langur 
monkeys and Mysore elephants; spot-billed pelicans that nest 
near the Bay of Bengal; the paddybird that catches polliwogs 
in the rice fields; Sarus cranes, cousins of our "Whoopers"; 
and the cattle egret associated with India's sacred cattle. 
All are dependent on the monsoon wind which carries the 
rainy season to the parched land. Dr. Work has combined 
his lively records of each animal population into a delightful 
"mosaic," demonstrating that the wildlife of Kipling's India 
still abounds. 

November 13 
Scotland and Wales 

Ed Lark 
Though long a part of the British Empire, Scotland and 
Wales have retained their own character and individuality. 
The Welsh heritage permeates each scene of Lark's film as he 
moves his color cameras from countryside to industrial city 
of Swansea, from coal mining town to seaside or mountain 
resort. We view fishermen in their ancient coracles, and 
skilled mountaineers; linger at the birthplace of Lawrence of 


Arabia and at the famed International Eisteddfod Folk Festi- 
val. On turning to Scotland, Lark shows us Stone Age dwell- 
ings and medieval castles, and traces the story of the kilt. 
There are visits to Ayr, where Robert Burns lived, and to 
Balmoral Castle, home of Queen Elizabeth. We tour all the 
major cities — Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen; the Highlands; 
Loch Ness and Loch Lomond; and the unspoiled Scottish 
isles — Skye, the Orkneys, and the Shetlands. 

November 20 
A Second Look at Africa 

Arthur C. Twomey 
Following up his film, Changing Heart of Africa, Arthur 
C. Twomey' s second look at the African continent is to the 
east. There, Kenya, Uganda, and Tanganyika — which has 
united with Zanzibar to form Tanzania — are countries on 
the move. What is it like in East Africa today? Dr. Twomey 
seeks answers to this question in his film-study of three new 
nations whose history is being made against a majestic back- 
ground of mountains, lakes, and plains; of wildlife and still 
primitive tribes. 

November 27 

High Horizons 

Colorado Wilderness 

William Ferguson 
High Horizons is the far reaching story of a vital natural 
resource — water. Told by a naturalist, the film begins with 
the melting snows above timberline in America's Rocky 
Mountains, and follows the waters as they drop past the Colo- 
rado upland meadows to the fertile prairies below. Ferguson 
and his wife have long made their summer home at Estes 
Park, where they are close neighbors to the wildlife of the 
foothills and snow-capped peaks. In their film, the sweep of 
wilderness Colorado, its beauty and action, its animals and 
plants, are vividly portrayed.  


Fig. 1. Buffalo hunt 

Plains Art from a Florida Prison 

by GEORGE I. QUIMBT, Curator of Ethnology, Thomas Burke Memorial Washington 
State Museum and Professor of Anthropology, University of Washington, 
formerly Curator of North American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
Chicago Natural History Museum 

The vividly illustrated Indian sketchbook discussed 
in this article, along with several other examples 
of Plains Indian art, will be displayed in Stanley 
Field Hall during October. 


A FLORIDA prison became a lively center of Plains Indian art 
during the years 1875 to 1878 when some 72 Indians 
captured on the western frontiers were held as prisoners of 
war in Fort Marion at St. Augustine. Art flourished in this 
unlikely environment because it was encouraged by their 
humane jailor, Lieutenant Richard H. Pratt, who had fought 
against them in the West. About a third of these young war- 
riors of the Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Kiowa tribes made pic- 
tures in color using materials supplied by Lieutenant Pratt. 
Many of the pictures were in bound sketchbooks and the sub- 
ject matter consisted of recollections of tribal life, their east- 
ward journey by prison train in the spring of 1875, and their 
life as prisoners of war in Florida. The former warriors took 
readily to art because recording their manly exploits in color 
on prepared hides had long been a part of their cultural tra- 
dition in the days of their tribal life. 

A number of sketchbooks made by the Indians at Fort 
Marion exist in various collections. A beautiful example, the 
work of an Indian named Cohoe, has recently been published 
with a commentary by Dr. E. Adamson Hoebel and Karen 
Daniels Petersen.' In the collections of Chicago Natural His- 
tory Museum there is a heretofore unknown sketchbook made 
by the Fort Marion prisoners. It is the work of Howling Wolf 
and Soaring Eagle, who probably were Cheyenne Indians. 

The new sketchbook (catalog number 83999) was given 
to Chicago Natural History Museum by Mrs. A. W. F. Fuller 
of London, England and was formerly in the collection of the 

• I would like to express my appreciation to Karen Daniels Petersen 
for supplying important parts of the information used in preparing this 

late Captain A. W. F. Fuller who obtained it in 1930. It 
measures 8^^ x 11 3^ inches and contains eight pictures done 
in color with crayon, ink, and pencil used in combination. 
Like others of its kind some of the pictures closely resemble 
paintings on robes or tipi curtains. Others are uniquely Fort 
Marion in style and content. The subject matter is divided 
between recollections of tribal life and their long overland trip 
by rail from the western Plains to their prison in St. Augus- 
tine, Florida. The sketchbook, as a chronological record of 
events, makes more sense if viewed from the back to the front 
of the book, and I consider them in this reverse order here. 

The first picture (fig. 2 in this article) represents a scene 
and event prior to the captivity of Howling Wolf and Soar- 
ing Eagle. It probably is a ceremony of one of the Indian 
soldier societies. The rituals are being performed inside a 
tipi and the woinen of the tribe are seated outside in the fore- 
ground. The men at the right of the tipi are holding um- 
brellas decorated with eagle feathers. 

The cover illustration shows a ceremony probably being 
performed by one of the soldier societies at a time antedating 
the outbreaks of 1874. A group of 26 Indians is seated in a 
circle, probably inside a tipi. At the near end of the circle 
there are two women wrapped in one blanket. 

A spirited buff"alo hunt is shown in figure 1. A party of 
mounted hunters splendidly dressed and armed with bows 
and arrows is in pursuit of bison. Four of the buffalo have 
been wounded by arrows. 

Figure 3 seems to represent another soldier society cere- 
mony that took place prior to 1874. The locality probably 
is one of the several forts at which the Cheyenne were given 

Fig. 2. Indian ceremony 



Fig. 3. Ceremony at Army post before uprising 



rations before the Darlington Agency was established. The 
Indian warriors in a U-shaped line probably are intended to 
be standing. The women are in a double row behind them. 
The two dance directors, carrying decorated lances and wear- 
ing elaborate headdresses trailing eagle plumes, are mounted 
on horses. In the background are military post buildings, 
Indian women, and United States soldiers. 

Figure 4 also represents a United States military post and 
some events that took place there, after the outbreak of 1874. 
The Indians are encamped outside the fort in a grassy area 
with two ponds and a winding stream. Guarded by U. S. 
cavalry and foot soldiers with guns and bayonets, two groups 
of Indian men (twenty in one group, ten in the other) are 
being listed or registered by an army officer who is writing 
on a tablet. The man behind him in civilian dress may be 
an interpreter. Elsewhere in the picture there are other In- 
dians, soldiers, 4 clusters of tipis, military buildings, and an 
American flag. In the upper left hand portion of the picture 
there is a group of white men and one white woman in Vic- 
torian dress. 

The subject of the next picture (fig. 5) is a journey on a 
prison train. A steam locomotive and three cars are shown 
in three different places. Probably the artist intended to in- 
dicate the beginning of the trip, a stop at a military post some- 
where enroute to Florida, and the departure from the military 
post. There are guards on the train, but not many soldiers 
in the rest of the picture. Twenty-three Indians in a line are 
being given water or food by two soldiers while two other 
soldiers stand guard with rifles and bayonets. Behind the 
Indians there are 22 white men possibly intended to represent 

newspaper reporters or crowds of onlookers, and one soldier, 
perhaps meant to be Lt. Pratt. The buildings may be those 
at some station where the train stopped for servicing. The 
artist has drawn these buildings so that one views the front 
and both sides simultaneously, a convention used frequently 
in this sketchbook. 

Figure 6 shows a large body of Indians at a military estab- 
lishment. The Indians are being issued blankets, buckets, 
axes, and other useful items which are piled in the center of 
the scene. A sutler's wagon drawn by horse probably has 
just delivered these supplies which are being distributed by 
chiefs. Also in the center of the picture there is a chief talk- 
ing to a bearded white man who stands back to back with an 
Indian who is speaking to the assemblage. The lines from 
his mouth signify speech and it rather looks as if he is speak- 
ing forcefully. In his left hand he holds a pipe and a fringed 
pipe bag. In the upper half of the scene two chiefs are dis- 
playing blankets and buckets they have taken from the pile. 
Dashed lines show their tracks. Similarly in the lower half 
of the picture there are two chiefs whose tracks indicate that 
they have been at the pile of goods displayed in the center 
ground. The chief at the left is smoking a pipe. The chief 
at the right is distributing food from his bucket. .Mthough 
all of the action is taking place within a military post there 
is only one soldier in evidence. He stands at the right. 

The last picture (Figure 7) shows the arrival of the Indian 
prisoners at Jacksonville in the spring of 1875. At the right 
there is the train with steam locomotive that brought the In- 
dians to Florida. It is standing on a pier at the end of its 
journey. The Indians have now been transferred to a steam- 

Fig. 4. Indians under guard at Army post 

Fig. 5. Enroute to Florida prison 


boat that carries them part of the way to their prison at St. 
Augustine. In the background is a crowd of white onlookers. 
The steamboat in the center of the picture also carries sol- 
diers armed with rifles and bayonets. The ocean and boats 
were a new experience to these Indians of the Plains. Al- 
though the artist has done a good job with the small gaflT- 
rigged sloop at the lower left of the scene, the auxiliary 
schooner in the lower right is sailing backwards or else he has 
reversed the rigging. In any case, he has successfully por- 
trayed the radical change from the world of the Plains to the 
world of the sea which must have impressed the Indian pris- 
oners tremendously. It was on the bottom of this picture that 
Howling Wolf and Soaring Eagle signed their sketchbook. 

The Indian prisoners were released from their Florida 
captivity in April of 1878. A number of the prisoners. Soar- 
ing Eagle among them, then entered the Hampton Institute, 
a Negro agricultural and industrial school in Virginia. There 
one former Cheyenne warrior became an apprentice tailor 
among fifty Negro girls. In the summer of 1 879 Soaring Eagle 
was among a group of Indians working on farms in New Eng- 
land. Howling Wolf returned to his western home and for a 
while at least tried to live like a white man. Only their art 
remains, evoking the doomed way of life of the Plains Tribes, 
and their troubled contact with the expanding Republic. 

Ewers, John C, review of E. Adamson Hoebel and Karen Daniels -^ 
Petersen, Commentators, "A Cheyenne Sketchbook by Cahoe." Eth- '"'^ 
nohistory, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 67-68. Bloomington, Indiana, 1965. ^ 

Hoebel, E. Adamson and Karen Daniels Petersen (Commentary by), 
A Cheyenne Sketchbook by Cohoe. University of Oklahoma Press. Nor- 
man, Oklahoma, 1964 




Fig. 7. Nearing journey's end. Fort Marion 

Fig. 6. Issuing equipment 

I _, _„ 


■^1 'V'-siiirn 

Mr. Qiiimby,Jor many years Curator of North American Archaeol- 
ogy and Ethnology at Chicago Natural History Museum, recently 
resigned from the Museum to accept an appointment to the faculty 
of the University of Washington and to the staff of the Thomas 
Burke Memorial Washington State Museum. He will remain con- 
nected with Chicago Natural History Museum as Research Asso- 
ciate, North American Archaeology and Ethnology, and it is hoped 
that his name will continue to distinguish the pages of the Bulletin. 

*'-''Hk>'UL'likM,"M/u 'M'Mi 


Expedition truck beside camp at Paghman 



Kabul, Afghanistan 
August 2, 1965 

JAN and I landed in Kabul June 23. The further delay of 
M.S. Hastings with our shipment suggested that we leave 
Tehran direct for Kabul instead of Karachi. A good thing, 
too ! That time was well spent in establishing contacts with 
government officials and in gradually learning the ropes. 

On June 26 I received a cable from Henry Selz of the 
CARE Mission in Karachi, advising the Hastings had ar- 
rived. He had the shipment off the boat and cleared in 48 
hours. Shanawaz, Ltd. and International Harvester had 
the cars serviced and ready to go almost simultaneously. 
I flew to Karachi on the 28th of June, intending to fly back 
after clearance was completed, but when I found how ready 
everything was to go, I decided to stay with mammalogists 
Jerry Hassinger and Hans Neuhauser and make the trip up 
to Kabul with the shipment. Jan meanwhile, in Kabul, 
hired a cook and was buying provisions. From one point 
of view it was a good choice to motor back to Kabul, but 
from the personal point of view it was an endurance con- 
test. The Pakistan scenery was interesting, but the heat 
was so unbearable that one nearly lost interest in anything 
but survival! 

Our two cars, trailer and truck left Karachi at 6 p.m. on 
the 29th, and arrived at Hyderabad about 10 p.m. Shana- 
waz, Ltd. sent a man along to check the cars that night, 
which he did from midnight to about 2 a.m. At 5 a.m. we 
were up and away shortly thereafter. That day I got a taste 
of what it is like to ride in heat registering about 118°. We 


finally arrived at Rahim Yar Khan, where arrangements 
had been made to stay at the Lever Bros. Compound (they 
manufacture a number of products here) where they take 
pity on poor travelers like us, bless them. Slept in the home 
of Mr. Howe, the manager, in, of all things, an air-condi- 
tioned room. Restored, we spent the next day with wet 
bath towels over our heads and dripping water, as often as 
we could find water to soak in. By-passed Lahore and 
Rawalpindi with a short cut through the desert and then 
decided to drive on at night. Arrived at Campbellpore 
about 3 a.m. Slept on the front seat until 6 a.m. and then 
to Peshawar, where we arrived Friday, July 2. With every- 
thing closing at noon, I took on the chore of clearing Paki- 
stan Customs while the men went to bed in the Dean Hotel. 
With the help of a sympathetic major in the Pakistan Cus- 
toms we cleared the shipment ourselves. 

The land of historic Khyber Pass belongs to Pakistan but 
it really is Pushtu country and in some ways considered 
"No Man's Land." Must have taken us an hour to nego- 
tiate it. No photographing is allowed. The Militia there 
reminded me of pictures of Pancho \'illa, men with black 
mustaches, each with a rifle and one or two bandoleers of 
cartridges slung over his shoulder. Along the way various 
British regiments have put their insignias on the cliffs for all 
to see. On one disastrous retreat only one British soldier 
reached safety; it's easy to understand why. A handful of 
defenders could run over the tops of mountains bordering 
the pass and with plenty of cover pick off the poor invaders 
struggling to escape below. This particular stretch of coim- 
try is ruled by local chiefs and naturally attracts many try- 

Mr. and Mrs. William S. Street, Field Associates of the Museum, 
here report on the progress of the Afghanistan Expedition, which left 
Chicago in mid-June (see Bulletin, July, 1965) and is engaged in 
collecting mammals and their parasites in that country. 



ing to escape justice and get asylum in it. All along above 
us we could see the Militia squatting on rocks watching the 
road below. Seeing it one almost has the feeling it's play 
acting, but when I proposed to take a picture of one of the 
men at the entrance gate, he clearly wasn't playing. He gave 
me a negative answer and was pretty serious about it, too. 

Needless to say, I slept that afternoon and night and the 
next day we made Kabul in the early evening, about 1150 
miles all told. All the road through West Pakistan is paved 
for one car, with shoulders on each side. We played chicken 
with every car coming in our direction. If he was bigger 
than we were, we veered first. If he was smaller, he moved 
first. There were a few nonconformists; so there always was 
the unexpected. Glad Jan wasn't along. She wouldn't 
have had a nerve left that wasn't in shreds. 

Dr. Lewis, our Medical Entomologist, and Sana Atallah, 
his graduate student assistant, arrived at Kabul the night 
of July 4, having driven from the American University at 
Beirut; so the party was now complete. The shipment was 
now through Customs, and we were ready to repack and get 
out of Kabul as soon as possible. In this process Brian Rear- 
don, the local representative of International Harvester, and 
his wife, Helen, have been of tremendous help. His five 
years of experience really count. 

Our first camp was at Paghman from July 12 to July 23, 
only about ten miles from Kabul, altitude 8,000 feet. This 
was an area Jerry wanted to check on because mammal 
specimens had been previously collected there. We col- 
lected over 200 specimens and obtained some nice series of 
species previously reported but very limited in quantity. 

Next we went to Shumbul village in the Shibar Pass area 
of the Hindu Kush, on the road east to Bamian. Here our 
camp was at 8,500 feet, and we worked up to 9,800 feet, the 
height of the pass. As in Paghman, this was a place pre- 
viously collected and again we added good series of certain 
mammals where earlier collectors got only very few. To 
date our collecting is doing very well. With four men out 
collecting and Jan and I available part time for that, and 
all of us skinning when necessary, I can see that we are very 
likely to exceed the numbers of the Iranian trip. We have 
found that if we have a big result in some 24 hours of trap- 
ping and hunting we can put up almost fifty specimens under 

We returned to Kabul with some 350 specimens of mam- 
mals and from these Dr. Lewis had obtained about 800 fleas 
and over a thousand ticks, etc. Before you gulp at these flea 
figures, remember we have to catch the mammal before we 
can collect its fleas, and not all individual mammals have 
fleas. Bob Lewis is delighted with our ecto-parasite collect- 
ing. He and Sana are both good mammal collectors them- 
selves so they contribute tremendously to our result. How- 
ever, from the mammal collecting viewpoint only, getting 
ecto-parasites frequently means an extra visit to the traps, 
usually about 10:30 p.m., making bedtime for the collector 
about midnight and then up at five to pick up the rest of the 
traps. This is because the parasites tend to leave a body 
that gets cold. After about four days in a row of this kind 
of going I try to insist on the men slowing up. My guess is 

Map showing route of expedition 


'•j' ■^, 

U. S. S. R. 

/'■'? ^ 

: ■^ 1 

^■'> ; ..._.J 

i •''' 

'T / •^. 

. 'V 

/•v. ,''" 

^ \ / 

■>iwPESHAWA« >.. 

< "^ 



:> / 7 <. 

! '^ 

/" -W -^ ^. 

\ ^ 

; \ : 

( ^ ... ; r ( 1 

''^■i C> <■' 

^- I 

] ^ •-- 

\ / 

.' ^ / 


/ 1 

<b ? 


\ / / 

\ ^ 

J .-'' 



""•x ^ 

^/^ ' 


.J ( 

/ / INDIA 


. ~\ 

1* — . 


' ^ifc. ^\ 

■^ii^-crr^Hj^i^^v-ir-r^ — ="-=^vH,^g^^/ 







\-;^»w^ 1 


they arc now beginning to realize that a six-months expe- 
dition is different from a two or three-week trip. So, as time 
goes on, we will pace ourselves better. 

We are camping high where the nights are cool. The 
land about us is thoroughly cultivated in every piece possible 
(and some impossible spots from our point of view). Culti- 
vation is, of course, along the rivers which provide the irri- 
gation in the mountainous areas. Crops are wheat, barley, 
peas, corn, potatoes, alfalfa, with some patches of other veg- 
etables. We've seen stands of wheat three and a half feet 
high. All is planted in very small patches of not more than 
one or two acres. Grain is cut by hand sickle (they are do- 
ing it now) and threshed by beating it or running animals 
over it. 

The mountains generally appear bare from a distance 
but when one is collecting plants as Jan is doing (I'm No. 2 
boy in this work) it is surprising to see the variety. I think 
she has almost 100 specimens already and mostly all dif- 
ferent species. 


The fall lecture series for adults continues on Saturday 
afternoons during November. The programs are given in the 
James Simpson Theatre, beginning at 2 :30 p.m. Reserved 
seats are held for Museum Members until 2 :25 p.m. Follow- 
ing is the schedule of the November programs. Descriptions 
of the entire series were published in last month's Bulletin. 

November 6 
November 13 
November 20 
November 27 

Monsoon Mosaic (India) 
Telford H. Work 

Scotland and Wales 
Ed Lark 

A Second Look at Africa 
Arthur C. Twomey 

High Horizons, 
Colorado Wilderness 
William Ferguson 

The Illinois Audubon Society's 1965-66 series of free na- 
ture film programs begins on October 31 with the showing of 
Teton Trails. Mr. Charles Hotchkiss will narrate the film in 
person. The program begins at 2 :30 p.m. in the James Simp- 
son Theatre. 

Cadette Girl Scouts are invited to three programs at the 
Museum designed to help them earn nature proficiency 
badges. The projects center on Trees and Wild Plants (Oc- 
tober 9), Birds and Mammals (October 16), and Rocks and 
Minerals (November 7). The programs begin in the James 
Simpson Theatre at 10:15 a.m. with a movie on the day's 
subject and then continue into the Museum halls for study 
of related exhibits.  

Our camp life is the best. We hate to come to town for 
we're actually more comfortable in camp. Beds are better, 
no noise, less likely to come down with something (if we're 
careful and while we are in the high mountains), good food 
prepared by Nadir, our cook, and served by Abdul, his 
helper. After we located Syed Mohammed (he had been 
recommended to us) and got him up from Kandahar, he 
turned out to be good at driving and interpreting but was 
also fat and lazy and not too trustworthy. So he went back 
after ten days to Kandahar, and we have found a man 
named Lai Mohammed to drive and interpret. With him 
we think we're in luck. 

Each of us except Dr. Lewis and Sana (who by living in 
Beirut so long are definitely immunized to some degree) has 
had one or two bouts with dysentery, accompanied by tem- 
peratures between 1 00 and 1 02 . Most of us have lost weight 
(I'd guess about ten pounds or more) and are happy for it. 
Generally speaking, Kabul has been very enervating to 
Jan and me. During the day we often exhaust our capacity 
and can do nothing but sit and try to cool off in the evening. 
High (6,000 ft.) and dry it takes a toll for a while. Until 
December, January and February we won't encounter too 
much cold weather unless we're high (10,000 to 15,000 ft.) 
in the mountains and by winter we'll be heading south to 
the desert. 

For two weeks we have had an Afghan student from the 
Kabul University Agricultural School, Aminnudin by name. 
Must have been quite an experience for him but he learned 
to skin, clean skulls, and go night hunting and trapping with 
the men. 

— William S. Street 


Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive Chicago, Illinois 60605 

Telephone: 922-9410 


Lester Armour 
Wm. McCormick Blair 
Bowcn Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field* 
Clifford C. Gregg 
* Deceased 

Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
James L. Palmer 

John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpsoa 
Edward Byron Smith 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 


James L. Palmer, President 

Clifford C. Gregg, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 
Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Edward Byron Smith, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 
E. Leland Webber, Secretary 

E. Leland Webber 

Donald Collier, Department of Anthropology 

Louis O. Williams, Department of Botany 

Rainer Zangerl, Department of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Department of Zoology 


Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 

Kathleen Wolff, Associate Editor 




HISTORY roi.3e ^«.y/ 

MUSEUM ^y<»>e»Hiet /96S 


# \<i 

, t 


> kS , 

*^ >- « 

A 44 

A* -•- 

S -^ - 





J» T>d 







V ^ 



f ^ 

Robert F. Inger, Curator, Amphibians and Reptiles 


OUR general knowledge of natural history is largely based 
on observations made in the Temperate Zone. That 
is not surprising since most biologists have lived and worked 
(and still do) in the Temperate Zone. The tropics have been 
relatively neglected. To a certain extent, this regional limi- 
tation has caused biologists to think in fixed terms that may 
be misleading. For example, we tend to think that most 
animals have an annual rhythm. 

The yearly cycle of the seasons in the Temperate Zone 
has profound effects, as we all know, on the activities of 
animals. Birds migrate north and south on a regular sched- 
ule. Frogs call only at certain times, and each species has 
its own particular breeding season. Insects are dormant in 
the winter. And so on. Through expermentation and ob- 
servation we have learned that changes in length of day, 
increasing temperatures, and in some cases regular changes 
in rainfall may trigger these various kinds of cyclic behavior 
in animals. 

We can also understand easily why these creatures must 
behave cyclicly. Frogs are cold-blooded. Their body tem- 
peratures drop as temperatures in the environment fall. At 
near-freezing temperatures, their movements are as slow as 
molasses in January and at much below 32° they freeze to 
death. Insects have the same limitations. Birds are warm- 
blooded and can keep their body temperatures high. But 
they need food, which becomes very scarce in winter. Any 
bird species which feeds on insects must move south in the 
fall or die of starvation. 

The parts of the tropics that support rain forest, besides 
being very warm all year, have heavy rainfall in every month. 
The cold-blooded animals can remain active at all times. 
Since plants thrive throughout the year, food, both animal 
and vegetable, is abundant continuously. One of the trig- 
gering signals for Temperate Zone animals — changing day 
lengths — is weak or even absent near the equator where 
the difference between the longest and shortest days is only 
a few minutes. We know that in the continuously humid 
tropics plant species rarely exhibit regular seasonal or cyclic 
behavior. But we know very little about the annual behavior 
patterns of the animals in that environment. 

To learn something about the annual patterns of tropical 
reptiles and amphibians was one of the major goals of the 
Borneo Zoological Expeditions, 1962-64. Participants in 
these expeditions were the late Dr. Bernard Greenberg, F. 
Wayne King, William Hosmer, James P. Bacon, Jr., and 
myself. The bulk of the field work was carried out by King, 
Hosmer, and Bacon. The Expedition was supported by 
National Science Foundation. 


The basic field plan called for collecting and preserving 
twenty to forty individuals of several species of frogs and 
lizards each month. By recording the date and habitat in- 
formation for every animal caught, we hoped to be able to 
detect any changes in abundance and position of these 
species during the year. The preserved specimens were to 
be examined in the Museum laboratory; the presence and 
number of eggs in the females would reveal the pattern of 
reproductive activity. 

We knew from previous experience that snakes would not 
be caught in sufficient numbers to give us adequate monthly 
samples. And they were not. The numbers captured each 
month were sufficient for four species of lizards and six 
species of frogs. The frogs lived along stream banks and were 
active only at night, All four lizard species were tree dwellers, 
but two were active only at night and two only during the 

Climate in the rain forest is in reality composed of a num- 
ber of microclimates. The microclimate in the tree crowns 
is very different from the climate close to the ground. The 
sun shines through the open branches of the tree crowns, be- 
coming filtered out by successive layers of branches until 

Left, native collector gathering data from typical Bornean forest 
stream; cover, Phoxophrys nigrilabies, a rare lizard native to Borneo, 
in a defensive posture. 

near the ground one sees only scattered flecks of sunlight. 
As a result, the air in the tree crowns is heated each day to a 
greater extent than is the air near the ground; relative hu- 
midity drops more during mid-day up in the tree crowns than 
below the canopy formed by the branches. An animal, such 
as one of our arboreal day-time lizards, is active only when 
the temperature is high. Our nocturnal lizards not only 
are active in the trees when the temperature is low and hu- 
midity high, but they also sleep on the ground under logs 
during the day and avoid the higher temperatures altogether. 
Thus the two sets of lizards lived in diflferent microclimates. 

None of these species showed any change in position or 
numbers during the year. Moreover, it is clear that they 
breed throughout the year. In each monthly sample of 
lizards, for example, we found some females with eggs ready 
to be laid. All adult males contained sperm. 

This result is not surprising for, as we have seen, the cli- 
mate of the rain forest neither imposes the necessity nor 
provides the triggering signals for cyclic activity. The fact 
that the nocturnal and diurnal lizards lived in different 
microclimates had no effect. 

One of the other results of our study was not expected. 
Our collecting yielded adequate samples for estimating the 
number of eggs per clutch in 9 species of lizards. The 


SEPT. 1 














82'.- - - 











i '^^iy^l^-'^^^^'-^^ii-:::- 

ll 1/ iJ 


~-' .<frj;'-^y_^r^w^;^': ' -— . r^' T^' 25 ' ^ ^ *^ ^ — ^ 


largest clutch consisted of 5 eggs, which is rather small for 
lizards. Much larger clutches (5 to 12 or more eggs) are 
found in related lizards living elsewhere in the oriental trop- 
ics. Those places, though tropical, have distinct dry seasons 
and the lizards living there breed only during three or four 
months of the year. 

Generally, animals lay enough eggs to maintain their 
populations at a more or less steady level. Let us imagine 
two species of lizards that are alike in many ways. Let us 
say that they have similar population sizes, the same food, 
the same predators, and the same life span; and let us also 
stipulate that the females of each can lay a clutch of eggs 
each month of the breeding season. In order to maintain the 
same population size, both species will have to produce the 
same number of eggs during the total breeding season. If the 
breeding season of Species A is half as long as that of Species 
B, there is only one way that A can produce as many eggs 
as B: by having a clutch size twice as large as B"s. 

Now, going back to our real lizards from the seasonal 
tropical climate, we can see that they must have larger 
clutches than rain forest lizards because they have only 3 
or 4 months instead of 12 in which to produce the year's 
quota of offspring. 

It frequently happens in biological research that we start 
out with one goal or question in mind and end by reaching 
others. In this case the search for an answer to the original 
question (namely, do these animals show seasonal rhythms) 
led us to insights into problems of productivity.  

Left, chart showing "microclimatic" temperature changes at two 
forest levels: below, Draco maximus. one of the flying lizards char- 
acteristic of Borneo. 



1916 -1965 

The death of" Marshall Field, in September, cut short 
a life of public service which added new distinction to an 
already famous name. Chicago Natural History Museum, 
of which he had been a Trustee since 1946, shares the sorrow 
of Chicago at the loss of this remarkable man. 

Mr. Field was born in New York City, attended St. 
Paul's School, and graduated from Harvard University with 
a Bachelor of Arts degree, magna cum laude, in 1938. He 
attended the University of Virginia Law School, from which 
he received his Bachelor of Law degree in 1941, after being 
elected president of his graduating class. 

His record as a naval officer in World War H from 1942 
to 1945 was a distinguished one. For more than two years 
he participated in every major naval engagement in the 
South Pacific, and he was awarded the Silver Star, Presi- 
dential Unit Citation, and Purple Heart as recognition for 
his conduct in the Battle of Santa Cruz. 

-After the war, he joined the Chicago Sun Times, founded 
by his father. After assumption of many departmental re- 
sponsibilities from riding circulation trucks to that of assis- 
tant publisher, he succeeded his father as editor and publisher 
on October 1, 1950. He also was Chairman of the Board 
of Field Enterprises, Inc., a Director of Marshall Field & 
Company and of the First National Bank of Chicago. 

Mr. Field's participation in civic affairs was broad. He 
was Vice President and Director of The Field Foundation, 
Inc. and Chairman of the Board and Director of The Field 
Foundation of Illinois, Inc. In addition to serving as a 
Trustee of Chicago Natural History Museum, he was a 
Trustee of the University of Chicago, the Art Institute of 
Chicago and Presbyterian-St. Luke Hosipital. 

He had a great faith in the vigor and vitality of Chicago 
and hoped to devote much of his life to the building of a 
greater city. Although the demands on his time were many, 
he was deeply interested in the Museum and its future and 
he maintained close touch with its programs. 

Marshall Field's death at 49, at the period in his life that 
he hoped would begin his greatest contribution to Chicago, 
is a loss that only those who knew his intense dedication can 
know. A man unassuming in demeanor and considerate 
of all, he desired little other than that he serve his city and 
country to the best of his ability. 

^^// €£ ^€'m^ 

One of the world's notable gem collections, consisting of 
more than one thousand cut and uncut stones of nearly every 
known variety, is open once more to the public in the Mu- 
seum's Hall of Gems, after the installation of a modern elec- 
tronic security system. 

Several choice specimens from the Museum's collection of 
uncut gem crystals have been exquisitely faceted recently by 
a local lapidarist, Mr. Walter Kean, of Riverside. These lat- 
est additions to the Hall of Gems include a 296-carat kunzite 
of lilac color, a 91 -carat topaz, and a 13-carat tourmaline. 
Photographs of these gems are shown scattered on this page. 

Page 4 

From Ceylon and Burma, a selection of blue, yellow, and 
white sapphires are displayed in the Hall. Six are large 
"star" sapphires, three of these weighing more than 130 carats 
each. Also shown are two fine "star" rubies. 

The larger emeralds are displayed in uncut crystals. Em- 
eralds come from crystals of the mineral beryl, and so do the 
aquamarines, which differ from emeralds only in color. The 
largest faceted aquamarine in the Hall is an unusually perfect 
stone, one of the Crane collection, weighing 341 carats. Only 
slightly smaller is the 331 -carat Hope aquamarine. 

The collection of faceted topazes in shades of blue, white, 
pink, and golden, is unusually comprehensive. One of the 
largest, of rose color, weighs 290 carats. The cut topazes 
may be compared with a gigantic uncut topaz crystal weigh- 
ing 90 pounds — one of the largest ever found. 

A highly prized specimen is an 11.51-carat alexandrite, a 
rare variety of chrysoberyl discovered in Russia in 1833 and 
named after Czar Alexander II. Alexandrites appear green 
in the daylight, but have the magic-like quality of changing 
to red under artificial light. 

There is also a remarkable collection of historic jewelry in 
the Hall. The rarest pieces, of lapis lazuli and gold, were 
uncovered by a Museum expedition to Kish, in ancient Baby- 
lonia, and are four or five hundred years older than Abraham. 

Other cases hold fine examples of jewelry from India, 
from ancient Egypt, Greece, and Etruria, and from the Aztec 
and Inca civilizations. 

by Bertram G. Woodland, Curator, 
Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology 

AT the present time the earth's land area, comprising about 
, 29% of its surface, has an average height above sea level 
of 2,700 feet. The agents of erosion, running water, ice and 
wind, which derive their energy from the sun (an external 
source) and gravity (an internal source), are forever acting 
on the land's surface and slowly removing its material to the 
surrounding oceans. Erosion is, in general, more active the 
higher the land stands above the sea. Measurements of the rate 
of denudation (i.e., the load of sediment carried by the rivers) 
show that the eroding agents would lower the land surface to 
near sea level in a relatively short time, geologically speaking 
— say, a few million years, which is very brief in relation to 
the earth's age, some 4' 2 billion years. So the question of 
why there are mountains is a very real one indeed. 

The short explanation is that mountains are created by 
the internal energy of the earth, which acts continuously to 
renew elevations for further attack by erosion. There is thus 
a constant struggle between external and internal sources of 
energy; so far, and apparently for billions of years to come, 
the internal energy prevails in supplying mountains to be re- 
moved by denudation or slumping. Geological studies show 
that for at least 3^2 billion years mountains have been thrust 
up in one place or another and from time to time. The up- 
lifts are very slow affairs by human standards, although it has 
been possible to measure the rate of some of the earth's move- 
ments. The most obvious manifestations of the earth's inter- 
nal energy are earthquakes, such as the Alaskan one of March 
1964 when an area of some 75,000 square miles was affected 
by uplift or subsidence (the maximum uplift reported was 
over 45 feet), and volcanic activity. A further spectacular 
form of evidence of the effectiveness of uplift in rejuvenating 
the land is that rocks that must have formed beneath the 
ocean are now to be found in the highest mountain peaks, 
e.g., on the peak of Mt. Everest nearly six miles above sea level. 

Before attempting to indicate current ideas on the mech- 
anisms and energy sources for mountain building let us first 
examine some of the characteristics of mountains and the 
techniques of study applied to the problem of why they are 

Mountains are not moimtains because of high elevation 
alone but because they stand high above the surrounding 
land. The higher this differential elevation or relief the more 
imposing the mountains. Rugged and dramatic mountains 
may rise 3 to 4,000 feet on the seacoast, while the plains east 
of the Rockies which are actually higher in elevation are rela- 
tively flat and featureless. Thus location of the uplift, as well 
as amount, influences to some extent the development of re- 
lief. More important in this respect is the age of the uplift. 
Initially, a broad uplifted area may be devoid of relief, but, 
as rivers form and valleys are cut, relief develops and eventu- 
ally reaches a maximum. Then it becomes less and less as the 
residual masses (mountains) far removed from the rivers are 
gradually worn down. Marked relief can also be formed 
directly by the uplift process if adjacent blocks are thrust up 
varying amounts or if uplift of some blocks of the earth's crust 
is accompanied by subsidence of adjacent ones. In this way 
block faulted mountains are formed, the uplifted masses being 
separated from the lower blocks by ruptures or faults. Very 
fine examples of such mountains are the Sierra Nevada range 
of California and the numerous ranges of Nevada and western 
Utah where the fault scarps are sometimes exposed by recent 
movements along the faults. Erosion here does not make the 
relief but immediately starts to reduce it, following each uplift. 

One type of mountain which is not formed by the usual 

mountain building 

Mallory, the great mountaineer who disappeared more than jorty 
years ago within a Jew hundred feet oj the summit oj Everest, is 
supposed to have said that men climb mountains "because they are 
there.^^ This famous statement, while it says a great deal about 
man, says little about mountains. The mountains were not always 
"there." The very peak on which Mallory lost his life, six miles 
above sea level, contains rocks which were formed on the ocean floor. 
This article, and several to follow in coming issues of the Bulletin, 
tells much of what we know about the rise and fall of mountains, 
about processes which began not long after the birth of our planet 
and continue today. 




•^ ^ 



uplift mechanism is the volcano. Here outpourings of molten 
material from below the crust and carrying with them some 
of the reserves of the earth's heat accumulate on the surface 
to great heights and form some of the most majestic moun- 
tains in the world, such as Mt. Rainier, Washington, and 
Fujiyama, Japan. Mauna Loa, Hawaii, is a huge volcanic 
pile rising over 30,000 feet above the surrounding Pacific floor. 
Other extinct volcanic mountains in the Pacific have sunk 
under their own weight beneath the ocean — some to support 
coral growths as atolls, others to form sea mounts and guyots 
which have flat tops, formed by wave erosion before they sank. 

Dome mountains as the name suggests are more or less circu- 
lar or oval shaped uplifts, some of which were caused by in- 
trusion of magma (molten rock) into the earth's crust, e.g., 
the Henry Mountains of Utah, or by intrusion of rock salt 
squeezed up from depth, of which there are excellent exam- 
ples in Iran, or by uplift of the whole crust such as in the 
Black Hills of South Dakota. Fold mountains are characteris- 
tically formed of parallel ridges and valleys which have re- 
sulted from erosion of beds thrown into simple linear wrinkles 
the arches of which are called anticlines and the intervening 
troughs synclines. A classic example is the series of parallel 
ridges of the Appalachians west of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 
It is to be emphasized that these ridges and valleys are not the 
simple direct result of the folding but of denudation of such 
a folded series of rocks. 

Other mountain ranges are much more complex than those 
described above. They are composed not only of intensely 
folded sedimentary rocks but of large volumes of highly al- 
tered rocks, called metamorphic rocks, and vast cores of igneous 
rocks, particularly of a granitic type. Such mountains form 
the most prominent relief of the continents — the Himalayas, 
the Alps, the Andes, the White Mountains of New Hampshire, 
the Blue Ridge of Virginia and North Carolina, the coast 
ranges of the North American Pacific coast, and many others. 
Because they form the most prominent relief features of our 
continents and because the making of these types of moun- 
tains has been very important throughout the geological evo- 
lution of the earth, at least for the last 332 billion vears, it is 

with these we will now be particularly concerned. 

These complex mountains form very long but relatively 
narrow linear belts which can be traced both by broad physi- 
cal continuity and approximate contemporaneity of origin for 
hundreds and even thousands of miles. Within each belt 
there are, however, a number of zones which differ in details 
of structure and age of formation. The large thickness of sedi- 
ments that were originally deposited to form the great masses 
presently exposed in the ranges demands that the area now 
uplifted must have experienced a long period of considerable 
subsidence. This is in contrast to the adjacent continental 
areas which bear much reduced thicknesses of the sedinients 
of the same age as those in the mountain belt. The latter has 
thus been a very active region experiencing subsidence of sev- 
eral miles and uplifts of perhaps ten miles or more. The ad- 
jacent continental crust areas were relatively stable, moving 
up or down no more than a few thousand feet. The long 
subsiding zones which receive great thicknesses of sediment 
are known as geosynclines while the resultant uplifts are called 
geanticlines. Another feature of these belts is the great amount 
of volcanic and other igneous activity. Much volcanic mate- 
rial is incorporated with the geosynclinal sediments. The 
nature and composition of the volcanic material alter both 
in place and time during the development of the mountain 
belt. Early manifestations of activity in the geosyncline are 
lavas and igneous rocks of basic and ultrabasic types, some 
of which when altered now provide us with asbestos deposits 
in northern Vermont and Quebec. Later the lavas become 
more acidic and the periodic geanticlines are capped by vol- 
canoes issuing, with explosive violence, a characteristic lava 
in marked contrast in composition to the quieter effusions of 
the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of such volcanoes are found 
today on the Indonesian islands. The mountain-building 
episode often culminates in the intrusion of truly gigantic 
amounts of granitic type rocks, such as form the Sierra Ne- 
vada moimtains. Later in time solutions migrating upward 
have produced many of the ore deposits from which we ob- 
tain our copper, tin, lead, and zinc supplies. But a further 
important characteristic of these mountain belts is that the 

Left: Glacier National Park, Montana, showing ancient flat-lying beds which have been uplifted into a plateau and then deeply eroded to form 
attractive mountain scenery. Right: Bear Butte, South Dakota, a dome, exposing the core of igneous rock with turned-up sedimentary strata 
around the base. The previous page shows the Grand Tetons of Wyoming, examples of a block of the crust uplifted between 75 and 50 
million years ago; the rocks, however, were reconstructed during an orogeny around 2,600 million years ago. 

sedimentary rocks have been intensely folded and deformed 
in a very complex way and large masses of rocks, under the 
influence of high temperatures and pressure, have been trans- 
formed into completely new types. In these metamorphic 
rocks the deformations have induced new structures, com- 
monly obliterating all of the characteristic features that mark 
bedded sedimentary rocks. New minerals have grown and 
chemical compositions may have altered. 

The mountain belts which exhibit the results of the forces 
supplied by the earth's internal energy on such a great scale 
are known as orogenic belts. At the present time certain ero- 
genic belts are high mountainous regions and are of geolog- 
ically recent origin, as their birth dates from less than 50 
million years although their developmental history goes back 
much longer. Such are the Alps, Himalayas and the moun- 
tains of Burma, Sumatra and Java. Other orogenic belts 
have reached their acme of activity much earlier, e.g., the 
Appalachians of Pennsylvania some 250 to 300 million years 
ago and the New Hampshire White Mountains some 370 
million years ago. These mountainous regions owe their 
present elevation to uplifts long after their orogenesis, with 
its attendant igneous intrusions and metamorphism, had 
ceased. Even older mountain systems, e.g., the Adirondack 
region of about one billion years ago, are high ground today. 
But many orogenic belts are to be recognized in the low-lying 
parts of all continents, for example, in Canada around Hud- 
son Bay. Such regions have remained remarkably stable for 
a very long period of time and we call them stable platforms 
or shields. In them the deep roots of the old orogenic systems 
are exposed to our view to provide evidence of mountain- 
building dating back to about 314 billion years. They are 
exceedingly complex geologically and we have so far only 
pieced together the merest fragments of their history. We 
have no record at all of the first billion years of our planet. 

A LL the tools and methods of all the branches of geology 
'» as well as of physics and chemistry are applied in the 
study of such a complex problem as orogenic belts and their 
origin. Generations of geologists have studied the sedimen- 
tary rocks, determined their order of formation and erected 
a time scale based on fossil content so that the sedimentary 
rocks can be traced and followed from one exposure to another 
and from one mountain side to another, enabling the struc- 
ture of the once horizontal rocks to be worked out and the 
form of the complex folds and dislocations to be deciphered. 
In this way, too, we can determine if whole sequences have 
been completely overturned so that they are now upside down : 
they often are. Further careful work also provides evidence 
of the depositional history in a geosyncline — the varying thick- 
nesses of sediment, the recognition of uplifts that interrupted 
deposition and caused erosion, whether local or widespread, 
and events of a more catastrophic nature which caused slump- 
ing of already deposited sediment into deeper parts of the 
geosyncline. Detailed studies of the sedimentary rocks them- 
selves and of any fossils they contain tell us much about the 
environment in which they formed. By tracing their lateral 
and vertical extents and changes we build up a picture of the 
geographic distribution and its alteration with time. These 

Dome Mountains 

Block Fault Mountains 

Fold Mountains 

Complex Mountains 


data give us a dynamic insight into the history of the trough. 
The igneous rocks demand study to determine their chemical 
and mineralogic composition, distribution, age and geographic 
and chemical relationships. From the mass of data so gleaned 
generalizing principles are attempted which can be dove- 
tailed into all the other data to present an ever more com- 
plete understanding of the nature of events and their timing 
in the orogenic belt. 

The metamorphic rocks need special study and techniques 
of their own, too. Wc must try to determine the nature of 
the original rock types. Assuming that they were sedimen- 
tary rocks, for example, we face major problems, as their 
metamorphism and deformation commonly erases most if not 
all the evidence that would be available to us if they were in 
their original state. Not only is the depositional history very 
difficult to piece together, but frequently even the order in 
which the rock layers were formed is problematical. This 
makes it difficult to correlate the rocks from one area to an- 
other; and so to build up an idea of the structural disposition 
and form of the rock masses. However, the rocks in their 
transformation have within them many data relating to the 
stages of deformation and recrystallization and the operation 
of the forces which caused these changes. New textures and 
structures imparted to the rock bear a systematic relation to 
the overall structure of an area. By careful recording of data, 
usually obtained by microscopic examination of numerous 
rock samples throughout an area, it is possible to appreciate 
relationships and to understand the geometry of the internal 
structures. Gross structures can thus be interpreted and di- 
rections of movement of the rock masses which produced the 
structures inferred; it is even possible to recognize two or 
more stages of deformation overprinted in the same rocks. 
The perfect cleavage of slate, a low grade metamorphic rock, 
and the micaceous foliation of schist, a higher grade rock 
type, are structures which are imparted to the rock during 
metamorphism and have nothing to do with layering as seen 
in sedimentary rocks. It is such structures, and others, that 
are studied to develop relationships and interpret the defor- 
mation history. Chemical and mineralogic examination of 
metamorphic rocks enables us to differentiate rock masses 
into differing environments of alteration. Deep in an oro- 
genic structure, pressure, temperature, and the a\ailability 
of solutions that catalyze reactions are variables which pro- 
duce different products from essentially the same initial rock. 
The occurrence and distribution of these various zones also 
tell us much of the dynamics of orogenesis and its mecha- 
nisms, although again it is often complicated by the overprint- 
ing of more than one type of alteration at different times dur- 
ing the total history of the belt. Also, of course, rocks that 
have been through one cycle or orogenesis may be incor- 
porated into a new orogenic belt and reworked. In the Alps, 
the geosyncline which later gave rise to the Alpine orogenic 
belt formed on a basement of an older Eurof)ean mountain 
system, called the Hercynian orogenic belt (roughly equiva- 
lent in age to the Appalachian orogenic belt south of New 
York State). The Hercynian rocks were then caught up, 
deformed, altered, and thrust to great elevations in the Alpine 

orogenesis. In this way portions of a continent are made 
over, in some areas probably several times, although the evi- 
dence of earlier episodes becomes lost if the later reworkings 
are too numerous or thorough. 

The special study of land forms and their mode of origin 
also has its part in understanding the orogenic process both 
in principle and in a particular case. Evidence of erosion 
surfaces sheds inuch light on oscillations of the land, particu- 
larly in the areas that are regarded as sites of active orogenesis 
today. Such an area is the Indonesian island arc of the West- 
tern Pacific. Here many geologists, particularly the Dutch, 
have collated a remarkable amount of information, often 
under the difficult conditions of tropical forest, pertaining to 
the development of geosynclines, geanticlines, volcanism, de- 
formation and intrusive activity which has been traced over a 
wide area. It has been shown that the history of an orogenic 
belt is extremely complex and that the zones of subsidence 
and uplift migrate in time both along the belt and at right 
angles to it. It might be mentioned here that the data made 
available by the study of the Indonesian area, which is still 
an active orogenic belt as witnessed by the numerous volca- 
noes and earthquakes and observable recent changes in levels 
are, of course, supplemented by the study of older orogenic 
belts which have been worn down by denudation to reveal 
the deeper structures. 

Radioactive dating is proving to be a very useful tool par- 
ticularly in studying the relationship of the old, now much 
denuded orogenic belts of a billion years of age and older. 
Here the evidence is so obscured by the complexities revealed 
that correlations of rocks can hardly be made in the usual 
ways. Dating of events such as major intrusions and meta- 
morphisms in the various belts, however, is beginning to en- 
able us to decipher the relationships and ages of the various 
belts in the shield areas. 

This article will be continued in subsequent issues of the Bulletin. 

Special Exhibit 


November 20 and 21 

Hundreds of orchids — -fresh-cut blooms and flowering plants — 
will be on display at the Museum November TO and 21 when 
the Illinois Orchid Society presents its annual show. 

To be held in Hall 9, the display will also include an exhibit 
showing the native origins of many of the species, a series of 
paintings of orchids, and an educational exhibit by the Depart- 
ment of Botany. The Society's Jilm The Secrets of Sewing 
and Germinating Orchid Seeds will be shown during the 
two-day show. 


HISTORY To^.36 ^..,2 

MUSEUM &ec0m4o* 4965 



'uR correspondents are Dr. Fred M. Reinman, Assistant 
Curator, Oceanic Archaeology and Ethnology, leading the 
Marianas Islands Archaeological Expedition, on Guam; 
Mr. and Mrs. William S. Street, Field Associates in Zoology, 
heading the Afghanistan Expedition, based in Kabul; and 
Dr. Alan Solem, Curator, Lower Invertebrates, conducting 
the South Pacific Field Trip, in Western Samoa. 


Cinematic expeditions invariably live in tents; some Mu- 
seum expeditions do, some don't. From Dr. Reinman, Hous- 
ing is practically non-existent. . . . From Dr. Solem, the Casino 
Hotel is standard Somerset Maugham, with 12 foot ceilings, slowly 
rotating Jans, lizards scurrying on the walls and ceilings, three inch 
roaches on the floors and walls, weather-beaten exterior, undoubtedly 
termites . . . accommodations are very tight here. A happier note 
from Mr. Street, A perfect camping spot. . . . Each time we say we 
shall never find a spot like our present camp, but next we seem to get 
a belter one still. The one really bad camp we have had was in the 
Wakhan Corridor. It was very dusty and had no trees, but there we 
drank water Jrom the river, good cold snow water, cool and safe. 

Red Tape 

Although the authorities are generally extremely coopera- 
tive, on occasion mix-ups occur, and sometimes the sad real- 
ities of the Cold War touch the scientific expedition. Tou'll 
be pleased to know, writes Solem, that I'm accompanied by the only 
officially approved illegal entrant into Western Samoa oj my acquaint- 
ance. The entry visa for Mr. Price (a New Zealand collector, 
assisting Dr. Solem) was not provided in time to reach him in New 
Zealand. . . . Red tape still raises its ugly head. Despite starting in 
April we still do not have a visa to Tonga for Laurie Price. I am now 
trying the cousin oj the prince who is the favorite nephew of Queen 
Salote to get a visa for him. The Street Expedition was lucky 
enough to get permission to enter the Wakhan Corridor, a 
thin finger of Afghanistan which runs between the Soviet 


Union and Pakistan and barely touches on China. A num- 
ber of other expeditions were refused entry into the area. 
The Government sent an escort with the Streets: The Soviet 
border is no more than 25 or 50 yards away on the Oxus River, and 
we go alongside it. With us are the Colonel, a Major Jrom Faizabad 
and three or Jour soldiers. When Jan (Mrs. Street) went plant 
collecting a soldier went with her. Bob Lewis (expedition ento- 
mologist) had a soldier with him when he took off to Jind something 
in the valley behind us. The AJghans are taking no chances oJ our 
accidentally causing a border incident. 

Wild Animals 

Lions, tigers and crocodiles are fine on film, but the real 
animal enemies are somewhat smaller. From Dr. Reinman, 
The bees are still at it. Fve been tagged six times since the last letter, 
twice yesterday, and my arm is swollen Jrom wrist to elbow. * * * 
Samoan houses offer ideal ventilation and perjectjeedingjor mosquitos. 
Europeans, i.e., all non-Polynesians, are expected to set an example, so 
each Wednesday we now gulp eight hetrazan tablets. The enemy 
may not only attack the scientist, but even his subject : at low 
elevations tiny ants seem to have eradicated the land snails, as in 
Hawaii and Tahiti. Alas, poor endontodids, IJear you may be gone. 
Sometimes, the enemy is even smaller than that: from Mr. 
Street, Most everyone has had a touch oJ dysentery . . . Sulpha really 
helps to knock it out with the first symptoms. Cholera is still present 
and our cook has been sufficiently impressed so that our tea water Jrom 
the ditch is really boiled. 


Getting there is not always half the fun. A scientist must 
have courage : / learned that Samoan drivers equal the Indian cab 
drivers in Fiji — previously my nominees Jor the world's worst; even 
a touch of daring: a couple oJ the sites (on Guam) apparently had 
never been seen by archaeologists. In one oJ these areas we had to go 
over afijlyjootjace oJ sheer cliff hand over hand on a ^th inch manilla 
line to get to a rock Jail we could climb down. It was the most in- 

and the silver screen 

Addicts of late evening television are familiar with the scientific expedition as a cliche of 

Grade B adventure and horror films. They know that in the search for knowledge, the 

devoted and strikingly handsome scientists must undergo appalling dangers, which they overcome 

with great fortitude and bad acting. 

While all leaders of expeditions for Chicago Natural History Museum are strikingly 

handsome, or at least presentable, we have long felt that in other respects the cinematic version 

of the scientific expedition presents a somewhat distorted picture. From the letters 

and reports of three expeditions presently working in the field for Chicago Natural History Museum, 

we have compiled a composite picture of the actual difficulties and joys of expedition. 

We present it in the public interest — and to set the record straight. 

accessible place we have entered yet, and even so we found pottery 
scattered around. . . . Stamina is essential : About twenty miles west 
oj Aqcha, Afghanistan, the road . . . was really a series of dust-cov- 
ered holes in which the car would drop a foot on one side, come out 
of it, and go into another on the other side. . . . When promised 
means of transport do not appear, the scientist on expedi- 
tion must call on his ingenuity and adaptability to save the 
day: This morning we took a taxi out to our snail collecting sta- 
tions, as usual. When all else fails, desperate steps are taken : 
Sunday we had a six mile hike (fortunately downhill), since every- 
thing in Samoa stops as completely as a bible-belt town on Sunday, 
and where on a weekday there was a car a minute, we saw none in 
two hours. Nice crop of blisters, too. 


Museum expeditions are luckier with the inhabitants of 
their areas than their screen counterparts. The local people — 
both Guamanians and statesiders working here — have been very help- 
ful. Some of them have done wonders in terms of struggling through the 
boondocks on hikes for various reasons and really know quite a bit 
about the island'' s archaeology. Locals do not always appreciate 
the value of scientific research: Collecting "sisi" (snails) /or 
purposes other than eating them is beyond reason to the Samoans . . . 
they are a very likeable people. Many officials go out of their 
way to help exf)editions. A commissioner of the village of 
Dawlatabad, Afghanistan, had dinner waiting for the Streets 
after they finished a long desert journey: In a courtyard with 
the moon flooding the place with light we were seated on cushions on a 
rug. He hadnU realized that there would be eleven of us, but soon we 
were all eating kebobbed lamb, eggplant sauce, rice, fried eggbread 
and melon, topped of by tea. When it comes to hospitality we West- 
erners cannot hold a candle to the officials in this part of the world. 


The rainy season has set in on Guam with all its fury and the last 
few days have found us looking like Japanese stragglers just coming 

in to give ourselves up after twenty years in the jungle. Much too wet 
to take pictures or do more than scrawl shorthand notes on a soggy pad. 

* * * Generally, Kabul has been enervating for Jan and me. Dur- 
ing the day we often exhaust our capacity and can do nothing but sit 
and try to cool ojf in the evening. High and dry, it takes a toll for a 
while. * * * Rains are heavy and frequent in Samoa, mildly annoying 
when light, incapacitating when torrential since my glasses lack wipers 
and without glasses I can't see the snails. Hot and wet or hot and 
dry, there is not much that can be done about climate. Only 
the recollection of the weather they have left behind provides 
comfort : / think we have gotten as used to the heal and humidity of 
Guam as our genes will allow and therefore, while you freeze in Chi- 
cago, we just go on looking for an occasional breeze. * * * 91° today 
in Samoa, with the usual saturated humidity. I would feel better if I 
could read of a blizzard in Chicago, but mail only comes in on Sundays. 

The End 

As the long awaited words the end flash on the screen, 
our hero has found the lost temple or exotic animal, has 
vanquished disaster and gained the heart of the young lady 
(whom we forgot to mention). Our expedition leaders, hav- 
ing already gained the heart of the young lady, are generally 
married and often take their families into the field. Nor is 
the finish of a real exfjedition so conclusive: months of diffi- 
cult and painstaking research await them at the Museum, as 
they study and evaluate their finds. But the excitement of 
success in their field work greatly outweighs the minor incon- 
veniences of life in the field. Our box score: 2,010 specimens 
from well over fifty species of Afghan mammals, plus thousands of 
fleas and other parasites, botanical specimens, reptiles and amphibians. 

* * * Although cut, battered and bruised and above all SOAKED, 
we carry on. Gets more exciting every day with each new indication 
that many sites on Guam remain to be discovered. Even smaller 
results are important : We have doubled the known material of one 
new endontodid snail — we have found the second specimen. 


WHAT do I do in the Museum? How do we get speci- 
mens? What do we do with them? and why do we have 
so many? These are the questions answered by the new ex- 
hibit of five cases just installed in Hall 13, using birds to illus- 
trate the points. In one form or another, I have been asked 
these questions many times. They are easier to answer when 
you are talking to an individual. You can evaluate your lis- 
tener and modify your pitch until you see you are getting 

A satisfactory answer must be an intellectually satisfying 
one. It must fit into the questioner's background of informa- 
tion and his way of thinking. It must correlate with his frame 
of reference, and by building on what he has, enlarge his hori- 
zons. An answer in different terms is needed for a research 
meteorologist, a college teacher, a business executive, and an 
intelligent layman. 

To answer the research meteorologist is easiest, for he is 
a man of few words even if they are big ones. I am a museum 
zoologist, specializing in ornithology and using specimens in 
my studies. 

The college professor is a bit more complicated, for he 
likes to have things spelled out in a way that he can repeat 
to his class. For him I am a naturalist, one whose studies 
center around information to be read from sfjecimens. Zoo- 
geography, speciation, ecology, and behavior are my sfjeclal 
interests. In these fields of study I make the results available 
to students by publishing them in journals and books, and 
available to the general public through the preparation of 
exhibits — three-dimensional displays of specimens, art work 
and text. 

To the business executive, I say the Museum is like a fac- 
tory of knowledge with wholesale and retail outlets. The 
raw material is specimens from field and forest, and our notes 
made while collecting this material. These, along with in- 
formation in books, we process to produce new information, 
or to reinterpret old information in new ways. This we 
wholesale in the form of scientific papers and monographs, 
to be used by the retailers, the teachers and writers who pre- 
pare lectures for college courses and books for the public. 
Some information we prepare for the retail trade ourselves. 


Zoology's newest exhibit 

Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator, Zoology 


in books and articles for the general public. Some we retail 
by incorporating it into exhibits to place in our own museum 
exhibition halls, which are seen by an impressive total of 
1,500,000 visitors annually. 

For the intelligent layman, the best answer I have been 
able to devise is, "I write books about birds. Other curators 
in Zoology write about other kinds of animals." The printed 
page is familiar to inost people and this gives a first common 
meeting ground. From this it is easy to talk about the speci- 
mens needed to supply the information; the Museum's role 
in providing facilities for study; the ways of getting specimens 
and the facts and ideas to be secured by studying specimens. 
Finally, one comes to the ultimate role of this information 
which will affect our understanding of man and nature, an 
understanding that becomes increasingly important in our 
complex modern world. 

To explain this story to an individual is one thing. To 
prepare an exhibit to convey the same story to the cross sec- 
tion of the American public represented by our million and 
a half annual visitors, is another. The exhibit must be color- 

Exhibit panel showing scientist at work in the field 

ful, intriguing enough to attract the visitor, and interesting 
enough to hold him. The story should be told simply enough 
to reach the completely uninitiated, yet with enough intellec- 
tual content and artistic merit to appeal to the sophisticated. 
There must be enough diversity in material and approach so 
that there is something for everyone. 

With these as our guidelines, we have prepared the story 
in five unit cases. We have given it the running title of the 
FLOW OF INFORMATION to indicate that the information comes 
from animals in the wild that are brought as specimens to the 
Museum, where they are interpreted, and the information 
finally gets to the public by way of various books, or through 

The first of the five cases simply points out that Zoology 
is the study of animals, and that the Museum has specialists 
in mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, fishes, insects, 
and mollusks, each group illustrated with specimens. Though 
each type of animal needs different specialized techniques, 
the basic goal of the specialist in each is the same : to under- 
stand living nature. 

The second unit case, labeled expedition and using birds 
as examples, shows specimen-collecting. A curator sits at 
a table in camp, surrounded by his equipment, preparing 
specimens and writing notes. Finished, dried specimens partly 
fill an open trunk. Real objects, replicas, photographs, sil- 
houette cutout figures, and art work tell the story one way, 
while the story is also outlined in another, in two outsized 
pages of "comic book" type cartoons. 

The third unit, labeled research, shows the curator in 
his study, bent over his work table, with his material and ref- 
erence works spread out in front of him, near a case of speci- 
mens. Actual specimens are arranged to the left to show some 
of the puzzling problems that have been solved by museum 
researchers. On the stand below is a handwritten manuscript 
and a typescript that have been used in a book. 

The fourth case, exhibition, shows how exhibits are 
made, from the original planning, layouts, pilot models, 
through art work, modeling and casting, taxidermy and re- 
producing of plant material, to the finished specimens and 
paintings. This provides a glimpse behind the scenes of the 
sort of work that goes into the exhibits of animals in Zoology 
exhibition halls. There one can see a synopsis of the various 
groups of animals in systematic series, and also these animals 
in habitat groups from various continents, giving windows on 
the world. 

Finally, the fifth case, communications, shows the all- 
important flow of information from book to book to people. 
The dull looking scientific reports on the left are read by only 
a few people. But they provide the scientific basis for the 
more popular books with gaily-colored jackets in the center 
of the case, books read by the many. Ultimately, some of 
this information is gathered and woven into theories pub- 
lished in readable, philosophical books such as those shown 
to the right. From these theories come ideas that influence 
man's thinking, his social activities, and his concept of him- 
self and the world around him. Lastly, the newspapers pub- 
lish items about nature in its many aspects, giving the reading 
public an additional opportunity to be biologically literate. 




This month's cover: a bronze plaque of 
a King of Benin, assisted by two cour- 
tiers. From Chicago Natural History 
Museum's extensive collection of objects 
from Benin, Nigeria. 


Two self-guided tours, especially designed for the holiday 
season, await yuletide visitors to the Museum. One directs 
visitors to exhibits of plants and animals of Biblical times, and 
the other introduces children to the new winter Journey, 
"Winter Greens." 

The new Journey takes a close look at some of the most 
familiar plants of the holiday season — red-berried holly, firs, 
waxy mistletoe — and uncovers some fascinating and little- 
known facts about the greens. Youngsters and their families 
taking the self-guided tour will learn, for example, how an 
animal "plants" mistletoe; will learn of some unusual by- 
products of the Christmas tree, and discover that it is only 
the female holly plant that produces red berries. 

Available from December through February, the new 
Journey on "Winter Greens" will also acquaint visitors with 
some of the legends and lore that surround these holiday 

Boys and girls who wish to answer the questionnaire ac- 
companying the Journey will receive credit in the Museum's 
Journey Program. 

The annual self-guided tour of "Bible Plants and Ani- 
mals," available from mid-December through mid-January, 
takes visitors to exhibits linked with the Scriptures. 

The plague locusts that caused famine many times in the 
Bible lands; the young lions described so vividly in the 
psalms; and the camel, are a few of the animal exhibits to 
be seen. 

Some of the plants featured on the tour have now all but 
disappeared from Biblical countries. Among these are the 
cedars of Lebanon, the magnificent evergreens which fur- 
nished wood for the Temple of Solomon. Other exhibits 
show the olive tree, date palm, fig, and grape. 

Direction sheets for both self-guided tours are available 
at the Museum entrance doors. 



THE urgent problems of water resources and use will be ex- 
amined in a day long conference entitled "Water Plan- 
ning, State of Illinois and Chicago Metropolitan Area" to be 
held at Chicago Natural History Museum on January 12. 
The program, sponsored by the League of Women V^oters of 
Illinois, is divided into a morning session on National and 
State Water Planning, and an afternoon session on Chicago 
Metropolitan Area Water Planning. Speakers at the morn- 
ing session will include Mrs. Arthur E. Whittemore, League 
of Women Voters, on "League Accomplishments on the 
National Water Scene"; William C. Ackermann, Chief of 
Illinois State Water Survey, on "Water Resources Planning 
in Illinois"; Gene H. Graves, Director, Department of Busi- 
ness and Economic Development, State of Illinois, on "Eco- 
nomic Advantages of Good Water Management." 

"Water Resources Management in the Chicago Metro- 
politan Area" by Dr. Gilbert White, Professor of Geography, 
University of Chicago, and "Guidelines to Intergovernmen- 
tal Cooperation in Metropolitan Water Management" by 
Matthew Rockwell, Executive Director, Northeastern Illi- 
nois Planning Commission, will be the topics of the afternoon 

Admission to the conference is free but reservations are 
required and may be obtained by writing League of Women 
Voters, 67 E. Madison Street, Chicago, Illinois, 60603. 


THE American Woodwind Quartet, whose members include 
three former Chicago Symphony players, inaugurated a 
new series of Indiana University faculty and student concerts 
at the Museum November 30. 

The Beaux Arts Trio will present the next program in the 
series January 1 1 . Composed of Menahem Pressler, piano; 
Daniel Guilet, violin; and Bernard Greenhouse, cello, the trio 
has been called by The Washington Post "... one of the world's 
superlative ensembles." 

Subsequent programs will feature the Indiana University 
Chamber Singers, March 8, and the Indiana University 
Opera Theater, April 19. 

All programs begin at 8:15 p.m. 

The Museum will send free tickets for the concerts to 
those requesting them in writing before each performance. 
A self-addressed, stamped envelope should be included with 
the ticket request. 

Dr. Kusch 


DR. POi.YKARP KUSCH, Nobcl Prize Winner and atomic 
physicist from Columbia University, will be speaker at 
the 1965 Holiday Science Lectures to be held at the Museum 
December 28 and 29. In the audience will be approximately 
800 outstanding science students from Chicago area high 
schools who were selected for the two-day series by their school 
principals and science teachers. 

Dr. Kusch will present four illustrated lectures dealing 
with the developing knowledge of the electron, one of the 
fundamental particles of the universe. Title of the lecture 
series is "The Magnetic Dipole Moment of the Electron." 
It was for his work in this area that Dr. Kusch was awarded 
the 1955 Nobel Prize in Physics. 

Dr. Kusch will also discuss the general environment in 
which physics has been done in the past thirty years, tracing 
and commenting upon some of the very startling changes 
that have occurred. A question and answer period will 
follow each session. 

The Museum is especially pleased that Dr. Kusch will 
deliver the Holiday Science Lectures, since he is noted for 
his teaching ability as well as for his scientific research. Con- 
sidered to be one of Columbia University's most stimulating 
teachers. Dr. Kusch received the "Great Teacher Award" 
from Columbia's Society of Older Graduates in 1959. 

The Holiday Science Lectures, now in their fourth year 
at the Museum, are sponsored by the American .-Xssociation 
for the Advancement of Science in cooperation with scientific 
institutions in major cities across the country. The entire 
Holiday Science Lecture program is made possible by a grant 
from the National Science Foundation. The purpose of the 
program is to bring high school students a first-hand report 
of work being done by the nation's foremost scientists. 

In previous years, the students have heard Dr. Rene Jules 
Dubos, microbiologist and pioneer discoverer of antibiotics, 
who is Professor at the Rockefeller Institute in New York; 
Dr. William A. Fowler, nuclear physicist from California In- 
stitute of Technology; and Dr. Francis O. Schmitt, molecular 
biologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 


THE Curatorship of Vertebrate Anatomy, vacant since the 
death of Dr. D. Dwight Davis early this year, has been 
filled by the appointment of Dr. Karel F. Liem as Assistant 
Curator of Vertebrate Anatomy. Dr. Liem is Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy in the College of Medicine, University of 
Illinois in Chicago, and will continue in his faculty post. The 
dual appointment, which highlights the increasing collabo- 
ration between Chicago Natural History Museum and the 
metropolitan Universities, will allow Dr. Liem to maintain a 
program of teaching at the University of Illinois and conduct 
research programs at both institutions. 

Dr. Liem was born in Java, Indonesia, and gained the de- 
gree of Master of Science from the University of Indonesia in 
1958. He received his doctorate in Zoology from the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, Urbana, in 1961 and then became Assistant 
Professor of Zoology at the University of Leiden, The Nether- 
lands, where he served as Acting Head of the Department in 
1963. He joined the Faculty of the University of Illinois in 

His research is concerned with the analysis of feeding and 
respiratory functions in the air-breathing and sometimes ter- 
restrial fishes, including the lungfishes, the climbing perch, 
and the mud skipper. These fishes, which seem to be evolv- 
ing in the direction of land life, may provide a valuable par- 
allel to the great vertebrate leap from water to land, from 
fish to amphibian. 

Dr. Liem is also interested in sex difTerentiation in fishes. 
An Asian air-breathing fish, Monopterus albus, is invariably 
born a female, according to experiments by Dr. Liem, and 
changes to a male at two and a half years. One Florida fish 
is a true hermaphrodite, with the ability to fertilize its own 
eggs. The genetic and evolutionary problems raised by these 
fishes are being studied by the new Assistant Curator. 


Aid to Medical Research 


DR. JACK FOODEN, Associate in Mammals, Department of 
Zoology, returned recently from a four-month study trip 
in seven European countries. He measured and recorded 
observations upon more than two thousand specimens of ma- 
caque monkeys in 1 5 European museums. His trip completes 
the primary, or data-gathering stage of an intensive taxo- 
nomic revision of the genus Macaca, a genus which includes 
the principal species of monkey used experimentally in med- 
ical and biological research. This is the rhesus monkey, Ma- 
caca mulatta, which lives in India, Pakistan, Burma, Thailand, 
North \'ietnam, and China. 

The genus Macaca contains about a dozen species accord- 
ing to the most recent authorities, and all but one of the dozen 
are Oriental. These eastern species range from Kashmir 
2,000 miles south to Ceylon, from West Pakistan 3,500 miles 
eastward to Northern Honshu, Japan, and 4,500 miles south- 
eastward from West Pakistan to Timor, Celebes and the 
Philippines. Their greatest north-south range is from Hon- 
shu to Timor, which is 50° of latitude. The one western spe- 
cies, Macaca sylvana, lives in Morocco and Algeria, nearly 
4,000 miles from its nearest relative, M. mulatta, and extends 
the geographic range, albeit discontinuously, to more than 
9,000 miles, from Timor to Morocco. The range of the genus 
Macaca thus greatly exceeds that of any other living genus of 
primate except man. 

The number of species of Macaca, the wide geographic 
range and the truly immense amount of knowledge that many 
kinds of research have yielded on the one species, mulatta, 
would in themselves make this taxonomic revision of the genus 
Macaca one of much importance. Other factors, however, 
endow this study with a sense of urgency. One factor is the 
growing knowledge of the importance of the macaque mon- 
keys as reservoirs of diseases affecting mankind and trans- 
mitted from monkey to man by biting insects in the sub- 
stantial part of the earth that the macaques coinhabit with 
man. Another factor is the explosive expansion of medical, 
behavioral, anatomical, and other federally-supported re- 
search on live macaques of several species. For this research 
to have significance, a medical scientist in field or laboratory 
needs to know infallibly the species of macaque his research 
involves. In the state of knowledge oi Macaca existing today, 
this is not possible. Dr. Fooden's study of the great suites of 
specimens available in the larger museums of the world today 
intends to close these knowledge gaps with a completeness 
never possible before. 

This research is supported by a Public Health Service 
grant from the National Institutes of Health to Chicago Nat- 
ural History Museum where Dr. Fooden does his research on 
afternoons and weekends. Dr. Fooden is an Assistant Pro- 
fessor at Illinois Teachers College — Chicago (South). 

Lion-tailed Macaque, the Indian species Macaca silenus 


Founded by Marshall Field, 1S93 

Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive Chicago, Illinois 60605 

Telephone: 922-9410 


Lester Armour 
Wm. McCortnick Blair 
Bowen Blair 
Walter J. Cummings 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 

Henry P. Isham 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoc Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 

John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Edward Byron Smith 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 

James L. Palmer, President 

Clifford C. Gregg, First Vice-President 

Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 
Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 

Edward Byron Smith, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 
E. Leland Webber, Secretary 

E. Leland Webber 

Donald Collier, Department of Anthropology 

Louis O. Williams, Department of Botany 

Rainer Zangerl, Department of Geology 

Austin L. Rand, Department of Zoology 


Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 

Kathleen Wolff, Associate Editor