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Full text of "Bulletin"

BULLETIN FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Volume 40, JVumber 7 January 1969 




75th Anniversary 
Lecture Series 



Earth, 

Life 

and Man 



Winter Lectures 
February 2 - March 9 




Carnivorotis reptile Dimetrodon grew to 10 or 11 feet, 
back fin was a notable feature of this Permian animal. 



The 




U. S. Fish and Wildlife field 
party in Michigan collects live 
larval lampreys with portable 
electric shockers. The sam- 
pling indicates the incidence 
of the destructive fish and de- 
termines whether control pro- 
grams are needed in the area. 



This member of the ginger family, genus Costus, has flattened growth in 
bright sunlight, as opposed to normal slow spiral growth in the shade. 




February 2 

COLLECTING FOSSILS AS 

A MUSEUM ACTIVITY 

Dr. Everett C. Olson, 

Research Associate, Geology 

Museum activities from the viewpoint of vertebrate 
paleontology opens the winter series. Dr. Olson 
will describe his experiences collecting fossil rep- 
tiles and amphibians from the Permian (230 million 
years ago) river deltas. These studies have led 
from ancient red beds of Texas to museums in 
Europe and the Soviet Union and formed bases 
for his scientific publications. 



February 9 

CHANGING FAUNA OF 

THE GREAT LAKES 

Loren P. Woods, 

Curator of Fishes 

Many changes have taken place in the fishes and 
fisheries of Lake Michigan in the past 40 years. 
Mr. Woods has accompanied commercial and re- 
search vessels on trips to different areas of Lake 
Michigan over many years and will draw upon 
this long experience in reviewing the nature and 
significance of the changing lake fauna. 



February 1 6 

A WEALTH OF BIOLOGICAL 

DIVERSITY: THE PLANTS 

OF COSTA RICA 

Dr. William C. Burger, 

Assistant Curator, Vascular Plants 

The Republic of Costa Rica, part of the narrow 
isthmus linking North and South Ameirca, is one- 
third the size of Illinois, yet has as great a diversity 
of flowering plants as the entire eastern United 
States. This is only partly explained by the large 
altitudinal range from low, typically tropical areas 
to cool mountain tops. Dr. Burger's talk centers 
around this diversity and will be illusti-ated with 
color slides. 




Dark cloud partially veils an extraordinarily power- 
ful bolt of lightning. 



"Earth, Life and Man," the 75th Anniversary lecture series by Museum Curators, will open its winter group of 
meetings on February 2 and continue on successive Sundays at 2:30 p.m. in the Lecture Hall through March 9. 

As in the first group of lectures, emphasis will be placed on research activities of the scientific staffs in the 
Museum's anthropology, botany, geology and zoology departments. Purpose of the talks is to bring Museum 
Members into closer contact with work being done in the departments and to increase understanding of the physical 
and biological world and the nature, history and evolution of life on earth. 

The "Earth, Life and Man" series is intended primarily for Museum Members but admission will also be open 
to interested members of the general public. Details of the spring group of Curator lectures, which will close the 
series, will appear in a later BULLETIN. 

February 23 

INHERIT THE WHIRLWIND 

Dr. John Clark, 

Associate Curator, 

Sedimentary Petrology 

The beginning of the cooling which led to the last 
Ice Age is marked in the rock strata of 35 million 
years ago. These rocks also show evidence of 
weather cycles of various durations which are con- 
tinuing now. This geological record shows that 
our weather results from two great atmospheric 
power systems, one dominant in summer, the other 
in winter. Dr. Clark will explain how careful 
study of how these functioned in the past may some- 
day enable us to predict specific weather months 
in advance. 

March 2 

THE GENTLE ART OF RUBBING 

Dr. Kenneth Starr, 

Curator, Asiatic Archaeology 

and Ethnology 

An insight into an ancient Chinese graphic arts 
technique and some of its modern western varia- 
tions will be given by demonstration, slides and 
'"idle chatter." Dr. Starr is engaged in writing a 
book on the subject of Chinese rubbings which will 
be published soon. 

March 9 

TULLY MONSTERS AND OTHER WONDERS 

—SOME BYGONE MARINE CREATURES 

OF NORTHERN ILLINOIS 

Dr. Eugene S. Richardson. 

Curator, Fossil Invertebrates 

In the past decade, strip-mining southwest of Chi- 
cago has brought to light hitherto unknown ani- 
mals that lived offshore, on the edge of a Pennsyl- 
vanian delta. Many of these are entirely soft- 
bodied — jellyfish, worms and the Tully Monster — 
preserved in concretions. Both the Museum and 
private amateur collections now include represent- 
atives of species unknown to science and found 
nowhere else. Dr. Richardson and Professor Ralph 
Johnson of the University of Chicago are making 
these animals known in a study program. 



"Galloping horses" are por- 
trayed in this rubbing of a 
second Century Chinese clay 
mortuary tile. 











i 



Artist's rendering of the habitat of marine fauna in 
the seas of Pennyslvanian Illinois. 




^Mi^^^ 



Archaeologists Honor Paul Martin 



The Alfred \'incent Kidder Award for outstanding contri- 
butions to American Archaeology was presented recently to 
Dr. Paul S. Martin, Field Museum's Chief Curator Emeri- 
tus of the Anthropology Department. 

The award, a bronze medal, was established in 1950 and 
is awarded every three years by the American Archaeology 
Association in recognition of leadership and outstanding 
contributions to the field of New World prehistory and Ar- 
chaeology. Dr. Martin, interestingly, worked in 1929 as a 
graduate student under the guidance of Dr. Kidder, a lead- 
ing American archaeologist in whose honor the award was 
created. While working with Dr. Kidder, Dr. Martin dis- 
covered the Temple of the Three Lintels at Chichen Itza, 
Mexico, and was responsible for its excavation and recon- 
struction. 

However, for the past 40 years, his primary interest has 
been the study of the American Southwest, especially Anas- 
sazi and Mogollon prehistory. He is a firm believer in 
student involvement in archaeological work and has con- 
ducted a formal summer program at Field Museum's field 
station in Vernon, Arizona, since 1964 under a National 
Science Foundation grant. His interest in music and sense 
of humor have brightened the field camp routines there. 
Students awaken to Bach and work hard to the sounds of the 
Beatles from a loudspeaker. 

His published reports on archaeological sites in New 



Mexico, Colorado and eastern Arizona have filled a dozen 
volumes of the scientific series, Fieldiana: Anthropology, and 
one section of the upcoming exhibit on the Museum's 
75th Anniversary will be devoted to Dr. Martin's work. 

Although he retired as the Chief Curator of the Anthro- 
pology Department in 1964, after holding that post for 30 
years, he continues actively in research at the Museum and 
conducts a graduate seminar in anthropology at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. 

In receiving the award. Dr. Martin was cited for various 
innovative applications of theories concerning the inter- 
relationships in time and space of cultural traditions of early 
Southwestern peoples and to pottery classification tech- 
niques and for his use of computer processing in the evalua- 
tion of archaeological data. He is one of the few in his field 
to be successful in utilizing this resource. 

In the conclusion of an, as yet, unpublished essay, "The 
Revolution in Archaeology," Dr. Martin wrote "... I have 
changed substantially in both my orientation and tech- 
niques. I have proceeded from the traditional approach 
to a fresh and primary concern with testing hypotheses con- 
cerning human behavior." 

"In the future, I hope to maintain this momentum by 
investigating and adopting any new, valid techniques that 
will allow for a fuller understanding of human behavior. 
I do not fear changes; I welcome them." 





The Kidder Award bronze medal bears on one side a design taken from a carved slate mirrorback excavated by Dr. Kidder at Kaminaljuyu in 
Guatemala. The reverse (right) is a conjectural detail of a Southwestern cliff dwelling. The designs and sculpturing were executed by Tatiana 
Proskouriakoff, an earlier recipient of the Kidder Award. 



Page 4 JANUARY 



The Grand Canyon Trip, Field Museum s September Natural History Tour, will be a geological field trip for energetic 
people. Involving as it does sleeping under the stars, all-day rough hikes up and down the canyons and a week of exciting 
river travel, the Grand Canyon Trip demands vigorous members. Dr. Matthew H. Nitecki, Assistant Curator of Fossil 
Invertebrates, leads the trip. This trip has been planned to provide the maximum possible comfort. Hotel accommoda- 
tions are of the best (as are the horses and mules) and the boat one of the safest. But read Dr. Nitecki's day-by-day 
account of the trip for the complete story. Pre-trip seminars will be conducted on the natural history of the area. 

This trip, like others in Field Museum s series of Natural History Tours, includes a tax-deductible donation ($200) 
in the total cost of $1,025, covering plane fare, hotels and all other costs for the 17 days. (Single rooms are addi- 
tional.) The tour is limited to 28 persons, so make your reservation as soon as possible. The deposit, to be enclosed with 
the reservation, is $200. 



The River That Flows Through Time 



By Matthew H. Nitecki, Assistant Curator, Fossil Invertebrates 



This month's cover shows two 
aspects of exploring the Grand 
Canyon — an exciting ride on the 
Colorado rapids and the peace- 
ful view from a riverside camp- 
site as night falls. Below: Author 
and son hike along the Bright 
Angel Trail (Photos by Dr. Ni- 
tecki, IgorDeLissovoyand William 
D. Turnbull) 



The traveler arriving in Grand Canyon may be given enough time to stand on 
the South Rim and to gaze in wonder into the depth and silence of the 
chasm before being hurried away in his chartered bus to somewhere else. 
If he is lucky and has more leisure he may be allowed to hike part of the way 
down to the River along a trail as busy as Fifth Avenue on Easter Day. 

But there is another Grand Canyon that no man in a hurry sees: The Grand 
Canyon of exquisite loveliness, grandeur and solitude. 

Each area of the Earth has its peculiar beauty. In Grand Canyon this appears 
in its sculpture and in its paintings. The variegated horizontal rock layers 
are deposited upon the preceding flaming layers, and new layers are stacked 
one upon the other, pushing their way upward in steep slopes and sheer 
walls. The figure of buttes, the character of cliffs, the uniqueness of shapes, the 
intense colors are all drastically changed from one giant step to another. 

Each area of the Earth has also its own majesty. Grand Canyon is so immense 
that to all appearances time is stopped, sound is frozen and motion is non- 
existent. Only clouds move silently against the stationary heaven. It is in 
the presence of such majesty that man hears how his heart counts the 
seconds, and how life flows by. It is here that the questions of Beauty and 
Earth are as profound and eternal as the Canyon below is deep and endless. 

And each part of the Earth has its loneliness. The stillness of the 
Canyon is so absolute that at times the falling of the desert petals can be heard. 
The loneliness of the Canyon is so profound that in its presence man often 
whispers in order not to disturb it, in fear of being overheard and out of 
respect to the gifts of Nature. 

Such is the Grand Canyon and the River that we will walk through, float on, 
and experience. There were lonely men who for weeks walked along the 
precipitous walls with the heat of the day their only companion. Others floated 
down the River in small wooden boats, fought the currents of the rapids 
and spent hours in treacherous portages. Now, yearly crowds come by the 
thousands, stay a few hours, litter the rim and depart noisily with souvenirs 
and polaroid pictures. We will do neither. We will hike on the safe and 
well-maintained trails, we will float on large and respected rafts and we will 
arrive after the crowds depart when only the faithful few quietly watch the 
birds hover over the desert. 




JANUARY Pages 



Friday. September 12, 1968 

The trip will begin in the afternoon with the flight to 
Phoenix, Arizona. From there we will travel by bus from 
the desert of central Arizona through the grass and forests 
of northern Arizona to the pine woods of the South Rim. 
We will pass the 12,000-foot-high San Francisco Moun- 
tains south of the Grand Canyon. The South Rim is on 
the Coconino Plateau about 7,000 feet high. It is a flat 
area, a part of the great Colorado Plateau. The weather 
at the rim requires a sweater at night and often during the 
day. A raincoat might be occasionally needed. In Sep- 
tember the nights will frost, the mornings will be crisp but 
the days should be pleasant, warm but seldom over 80' F. 
For dinner and the night we will be in the Lodge in Grand 
Canyon. Evening will be spent in a campfire program 
with the naturalist's talk. 
Saturday, September 13 

The first short half-day hike down along the upper 
part of the Hermit Trail will be one-and-a-half miles long 
and will descend less than one thousand feet. It will 
serve as an introduction to wilderness hiking and to the 
geology of the area. The rocks exposed in this trip are all 
of Permian age and are about 250 million years old. The 
walk will be on a path maintained by the Park but closed 
to the public, except for guided tours. 

The Canyon hike is a reverse of a mountain hike; the 
uphill work comes at the tired end. Plenty of time and 
water, a hat, long sleeves and sun tan lotion are required. 

The afternoon will be spent in a relaxed enjoyable 
pature trip along the rim. The one-mile-long trip will 
concentrate on scenery and vegetation and will end at the 
Yavapai Museum featuring geologic exhibits. 

Dinner and the night's rest will be in the Lodge and 
in the evening there will be song singing at the campfire. 
Sunday, September 14 

To see Grand Canyon from the Rim is an enduring ex- 
perience. But descending into it is unforgettable. The 
perspective and dimensions of the Canyon are entirely new 
and hiking all the way is most rewarding. Thus, our first 
long hike will be to the River down the Kaibab Trail. The 
hike is about 7 miles long and one mile down. Hiking 
boots, water canteen, a shoulder bag for packed lunch 
and physical stamina are required. To avoid blisters, par- 
ticularly common on steep down-slopes, the boots must 
be comfortable and well broken in. Woolen socks are also 
recommended. 

We will walk slowly; in fact, a good part of the day 
will be spent on the descent, during which we will care- 
fully study the geologic sequences of the rocks and inter- 
pret the scenery. In the evening we will swim and relax 
by the pool at Phantom Ranch. We will dine and sleep 
soundly at the Ranch. 
Monday, September 15 

In Grand Canyon, because of its great range of eleva- 
tion, temperature and moisture, several major life zones 
occur. Thus, at the River the climate is that of the Sonoran 
province of Mexico. Plants and animals are scarce and 




Above; View from the 
South Rim of the 
Grand Canyon. Right: 
Barrel cactus, typical 
canyon bottom vege- 
tation. (Photos by 
William D.Turnbull 
and Igor DeLissovoy) 




of the desert. Cacti, agave, yucca and lizards are com- 
mon. We will hike about 3 miles to the Indian Gardens. 
We will travel upon a flat River trail for about one mile. 
Two miles will be steep, rising 1,300 feet up, with pauses 
to study the "hard-rock geology" of the Inner Gorge and 
observe the change in vegetation with the increased alti- 
tude. The rest of the way (3,200 feet) up to the South 
Rim we will travel on mules. We will enter the next life 
zone, the Upper Sonoran, recognized by its juniper and 
pinyon trees. On the top of the Rim the already familiar 
ponderosa pine is common. 

Dinner and night will be back in the Lodge. For 
those who still have enough energy there will be another 
campfire program. 
Tuesday, September 16 

Tuesday morning will be devoted to an introduction 
to the ancient Indians of the Grand Canyon area. Leaving 
the Park, we will stop at the South Rim's Tusayan Museum 
to examine the partially excavated Tusayan ruins built by 
the Pueblo people around 1200 A.D. The Rim itself has 
never been densely populated; however, the adjoining 
area between the San Francisco Mountains and the Little 
Colorado River had at times as many as 8,000 inhabitants. 
This population concentration was caused by the increased 
fertility of the land, enriched by the action of otherwise 
destructive volcanos near Flagstaff. The best preserved 
ruins are at Wupatki Ruins National Monument, which we 
will visit. 

Our afternoon stop will be in the Sunset Crater 
National Monument. The Monument features a cinder 



Paged JA.WART 




Cultivated fields are visible in this aerial view of ttie 
dramatic setting of the Havasu Indian reservation in 
the Grand Canyon country. 
(Photo by S. Silverstein) 

cone 1,000 feet high that was built about 1065 A.D. It 
was the eruption of this volcano that transformed a desert 
into the fertile farmland that was occupied by the Wupatki 
Indians. However, the agricultural prosperity was short- 
lived and by 1300 A.D. the soil was destroyed by wind 
and drought and the Indians moved out. We will climb 
the volcano that so much controlled the life of the Indians 
and study the many aspects of volcanic activities, the 
lavas, cones and fissures. Our night will be spent in 
Flagstaff where we'll visit the Museum of Northern Ari- 
zona. The Museum is situated at the base of the 1 2,000- 
foot volcanic San Francisco Mountains and is surrounded 
by rich forests and cool grasslands. It is a delightful re- 
gional Museum of Science, Art and Anthropology that 
"displays ideas and not things." We have arranged for 
an evening tour. 
Wednesday, September 17 

This is an exciting day that, after the bus ride from 
Flagstaff to the Hualpai Hill, will include a hike to Havasu 
Canyon, perhaps one of the most beautiful and interest- 
ing canyons in the west, a tributary of Grand Canyon and 
in the National Park. We will walk down, and the walk 
will be long and strenuous, somewhat over 10 miles long. 
The longest part of it will be through the hot desert canyon 
along the dry stream bed. The unexpected richness of 
life and the beauty of the Canyon due to Havasu Creek, 
along which we will walk the last 3 miles, will be a re- 
ward to the thirsty and the tired. This unusual stream 
has its origin but a short distance above the Supai Vil- 



lage and because of the ruggedness of the Canyon and 
its precipitous walls the stream forms spectacular water- 
falls cascading down and forming pools of clear and ex- 
quisite beauty in which we'll swim and cool ourselves 
after the long hot journey. We will camp down below 
the village in the National Park Camp Grounds. 
Thursday, September 18 

The Havasupai tribe are the only Indians living within 
the Park. They are peaceful people said never to have 
killed a white man. Their history is old, their occupation 
of the Havasu Canyon probably dating from the twelfth 
century. They supported themselves in the past by agri- 
culture and basket weaving, and are known to have been 
expert horsemen. Today they appear as a tribe of ancient 
grace and charm and a kind of sadness. We will spend 
a day in the company of these people and in examining 
the geologic processes that are best manifested in their 
country. After our Wednesday hike we'll rest, swim and 
take gentle short hikes in and around the village. We'll 
camp out again in the Park's Camp Ground. 
Friday, September 19 

On horseback we will ride the trail to the Hualpai 
Hilltop from where by bus we will proceed to Lees Ferry. 
Lees Ferry is situated between Glen and Marble Canyon 
and between Echo and Vermillion Cliffs. It is the only 
place in a stretch of about 500 miles where the River 
leaves its steep Canyons and allows for easy approach 
from the adjoining plateaus. Lees Ferry, a historical cross- 
ing, was also the Navajos' trading center. We will spend 
a night there in a motel. 

This is the end of the first part of our Grand Canyon 
Tour. The geology we learned in this part is from the 
great sequence of rocks representing about a fourth of 
the Earth's history. The complete history includes the 
period of no life, the period of life's beginning that is 
obscure, and the period of "good" fossil record. We 
have examined the ancient marine communities consisting 
of numerous sea shells, sponges, corals, sea lilies and 
other invertebrate animals. We walked on rocks repre- 
senting the early terrestrial environments full of footprints 
of reptiles and impressions of tree-like ferns. 

Non-biologic aspects of this history we studied from 
rocks of the Inner Gorge that were formed miles deep in 
the earth, or were altered under such high temperature 
and pressure that it is now impossible to decipher their 
original nature. The walls of the outer Canyon are made 
of a great thickness of shales, sandstones and limestones. 
The shales were deposited in shallow seas by great Rivers 
of the past. The limestones were precipitated from warm 
semi-tropical seas by action of innumerable organisms, 
and the sandstones were formed by consolidation of sand 
blown by wind into giant dunes surpassing the recent 
Sahara in their extent. 
Saturday, September 20 through Sunday, September 28 

Our second part of the Colorado trip will consist of 
a nine-day river trip in order to understand the River, her 
power, and the tools she uses to carve this great Canyon, 



JANUARY Page 7 



and, of course, for the sheer joy and excitement of the 
River adventure. We will find, however, that is it a Nat- 
ural History trip providing an excellent opportunity to 
study and understand the natural processes that formed 
this great and unique region of the country. 

The boat trip will be on rubber rafts of the American 
River Touring Association, a non-profit educational asso- 
ciation. Mr. Lou Elliott, the director and leader of the 
boats, who has experienced many American, Canadian 
and Mexican rivers says that: "in all the world there is 
no other trip to compare with a river run through the 
Grand Canyon. Its unparalleled continuation of grandeur 
and intimacy, excitement and calm is a unique scenic ad- 
venture. The side canyon campsites and comradeship of 
fellow passengers live long afterwards as unforgettable 
experiences. The ideal way to see and enjoy the Canyon 
is from the river that made it. This intimate approach 
allows us to get close enough to really observe, to photo- 
graph and to marvel at the endless variety of beauty and 
texture of the canyon walls. The rapids are exciting and 
provide a thrilling experience none can forget." 

It is on the River that we will experience, learn and 
understand the Canyon, the River and the Great South- 
west. A day-by-day account of the river trip is difficult 
to give in advance, because the water level changes and 
thus controls the selection of campsites. 

We will "shoot" an unending line of rapids, some of 
which are but a riffle of no danger to equipment or per- 
sonnel, while others are difficult rocky cataracts dropping 
15 feet, very dangerous to small and to wooden boats, 
but only exciting to our big 48-foot pontoons. At no 
time will we need to portage, but we will have to hold fast 
with both hands, and secure the luggage well. We'll get 
wet and tired — but happy and pleased. 

We will camp out on sandy beaches, without tents or 
shelter — but since it will not rain, the stars and the walls 
of the canyon will be our companions at night. We will 
eat hungrily the food prepared by the crew — and their 
food is good. 

We will travel in two boats and thus rotate pas- 
engers to be able to photograph the passage of the 
rapids. We will swim in the Colorado, close to shores 
with life jackets on, and without jackets in the tributaries 
where we will dive, jump in or just soak. We will hike 
to places of unusual geologic and anthropologic interest, 
sometimes through the most pleasant and enchanting 
stream beds and valleys, at times along steep walls and 
waterfalls. 

But above everything else, we'll live nine days of 
Geology. We will think Earth while we eat, swim, dream, 
walk and relax. We will see and study more Geology in 
this one brief period than can be seen anywhere else in 
comparable time. 

The trip will end at Lake Mead from which we'll travel 
by bus to Las Vegas airport to fly home — sad to leave the 
Great River and a grand fortnight of our lives, but happy 
and proud to have experienced it. 




The Grand Canyon Tour will end here, where the Colorado Riv 
flows into Lake Mead. 




Boat passenger's view of one stretch of the Colon 




Le 

St 

art 
Fa 



Pages JANUARY 




rapids. 




Left: Traveler rests on a rugged trail en- 
route to ancient Indian ruins near the 
entrance to the Park. Below: Lunch break 
along the Colorado River gives tour mem- 
bers time to relax and talk over their ex- 
periences. (Photos on these pages by 
Igor DeLissovoy) 




CLIP AND MAIL THIS COUPON TODAY 
I would like reservations for your Grand Canyon Tour and I enclose my 

(HOW MANY) 

check for a $200 deposit for each reservation 

Name 



Address 



City State Zip 

□ Please check if single rooms are desired, at extra charge. 



Please send information about this tour to my friends listed below: 



Hikers brave a 

exposed trail 

ear Deer Creek 



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JANUARY Page 9 







We don't know 
whose it was 
but it wasn't 

Cleopatra's 

By Christopher Legge 

Custodian of the Collections, 
Anthropology Department 




The marble Greco-Roman sarcophagus on display along 
the west wall of the Museum's Egyptian Hall probably draws 
only casual glances from most visitors, yet on the eve of the 
World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, this same artifact 
caused a brief minor furor. 

During the 1890's, popular interest in things Egyptian 
was rising in intensity. It was natural, then, that this in- 
terest would be reflected in some of the Exposition exhibits. 
Among the attractions there were a "Temple of Luxor" and 
the "Streets of Cairo," where a dancer called "Little Egypt" 
caused both sensation and scandal. The sarcophagus, too, 
was to have been a prominent part of this turn-of-the-cen- 
tury extravaganza and although this never came to pass, the 
artifact's checkered history is an interesting one. 

It was discovered in 1888 by workmen digging a well 
near Alexandria. Unfortunately, the discovery was un- 
attended by any scientific investigation, a lack which has 
defeated later attempts to place it historically. In unearth- 
ing the sarcophagus, the funerary chamber was destroyed 
and the debris scattered. However, it was soon put on dis- 
play with this astonishing notation: 

"Sarcophagus of Queen Cleopatra, discovered at Rani- 
leh, near Alexandria. This sarcophagus was found at a 
depth of 30 feet, but for the convenience of visitors, it has 
been lifted to its present position." 

A second label read, "For particulars apply to Mr. G. N. 
Frangouli, Tobacconist, Alexandria." 

Despite this shaky documentation, "Halligan's Illus- 
trated World's Fair," which described itself as a "Pictorial 
and Literary History of the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion," wrote in its issue of September, 1891, "the recent 
discovery ... of Queen Cleopatra, is by far the most valu- 



JAXUARY Page 10 



able find yet made in curio-fraught Egypt. The proposition 
to bring this interesting historical relic to the World's Fair 
at Chicago makes a consideration of the discovery particu- 
larly opportune. The principle bas-relief is the central one, 
which represents the head of a woman. This is a magnifi- 
cent specimen of the sculptor's art : the woman has an asp 
on each temple and agony is depicted in the expression of 
the face, which is a remarkable one. The well-shaped nose, 
with its full nostrils, the determined jaw indicate the mas- 
terly spirit of a woman accustomed to command. The fore- 
head is rather low but there is evidently a massive head 
behind that and when one compares this bust with that on 
one of the coins struck in Cleopatra's reign, the likeness is 
at once perceptible. Among the remains found in the sar- 
cophagus was a skull of unusual size with a low forehead and 
a great development at the back of the head — undoubtedly 
that of the voluptuous queen." 

Colonel Samuel Lawrence James, an ex-Confederate 
army veteran and prominent citizen of New Orleans, was 
travelling in Egypt about the time the article appeared and 
bought the sarcophagus from the Egyptian government, 
paying $4,000. 

A Chicago newspaper clipping of unknown date, but 
probably shortly before Col. James died in 1894, gives the 
information that owing to a number of complications, he 
decided not to exhibit it on the Fair grounds. It would, 
however, together with the remains of Cleopatra and a num- 
ber of mummies, be soon exhibited at a store at 335 Wabash 
Avenue, which had been converted into an exact but smaller 
reproduction of the famous temple at Denderah. The arti- 
cle claimed that leading scientists had no doubts that the 



sarcophagus was that of Cleopatra. Details of this establish- 
ment have been lost in obscurity and its site, now 514 S. 
Wabash, is occvipied by George Diamond's Steak House. 

In 1904 and probably for several years before, the sar- 
cophagus lay in Blakelee's warehouse on S. Western Avenue. 
In that year, Mr. S. L. James, Jr., as executor of his father's 
estate, gave it to Field Museum. In a letter to the Museum's 
Director he said that although his father had bought it 
under the assumption that it was Cleopatra's, he could not 
vouch for its authenticity. 

The sarcophagus, without a reference to its possible con- 
nection with Cleopatra, is mentioned in the Museum's an- 
nual report as being part of the most important acquisitions 
through gift for the year. Several other Egyptian artifacts 
were included in the acquisition. Any association with "one 
of the most Imperious, wilful and wicked of the world's 
women" ("Halligan's Illustrated World's Fair") has be- 
come even more improbable since then. Present-day archae- 
ologists believe that the central bas-relief represents Medusa 
and that the sarcophagus is one of a group of Alexandria 
sarcophagi of Proconnesian white marble from quarries on 
the island of Marmara in the sea of that name and that in 
round figures they can be dated between 150-250 a.d., 180 
to 280 years after Cleopatra's death. 

The sarcophagus, largely unnoticed in its present digni- 
fied setting, has travelled from Ramleh to Wabash Avenue 
to Field Museum, missing its chance to become a part of the 
great World's Columbian Exposition along the way, but 
nonetheless a subject of astounding claims and, later, of 
academic inquiry — all without revealing its history. To 
that extent, its mysterious aura remains. 





Presumably taken during its excavation in 1888, the sarcophagus is shown at Ramleh, 
where it was first displayed publicly and touted as being that of Cleopatra. 



Colonel Samuel L. James, who bought 
the sarcophagus but declined to display 
it at the Columbian Exposition. The 
Museum acquired it from his estate in 
190i. 



JANUARY Page 77 



The hazards of museum expeditions 
sometimes include last minute changes 
and in the case of the 1968 mammal sur- 
vey led by Field Associates Mr. and Mrs. 
William S. Street, the change was in the 
destination. At the eleventh hour, the 
Streets and the three young scientists 
who are accompanying them were head- 
ing for Iran instead of Turkey. 

A complication came about when the 
Streets learned a Turkish mammalogist 
had planned a study similar to theirs. 
Hearing of this problem, an official of 
the Iran Game and Fish Department 
wrote the Streets, urging that they bring 
their exjjedition to Iran. The Streets 
had led one expedition to Iran in 1962. 
In 1968, they found not only the coop- 
eration of friends there, but a co-sponsor 
for the expedition in the Iran Game and 
Fish Deparmient. Mr. Eskander Firouz, 



Secretary General of the department, 
confirmed this by cablegram and Mr. 
Street flew to Tehran to work out opera- 
tional details. 

Months of field work have been ac- 
complished since then. This expedition 
concentrated on a survey of the mam- 
mals of the mountainous western prov- 
inces of Iran. The party has collected 
specimens and has studied the ecology of 
each place more intensively than was 
possible during the earlier, wider-rang- 
ing Street expedition. 

One member of the Iran Game and 
Fish Department, who cooperated ex- 
tensively in many areas of the expedi- 
tion, is Jerry Hassinger, Leader of the 
Terrestrial Wildlife Unit and in 1965, a 
member of the Street expedition to Af- 
ghanistan. Hassinger worked on the 
expedition data at Field Museum after 



returning to this country; preliminary 
results have been published in the Mu- 
seum's series, Fieldiana. The game de- 
partment arranged that a local depart- 
ment official meet the expedition at each 
new site to advise and help in the field 
work. It also provided a cook and a 
preparator of specimens. In Tehran, a 
game department warehouse served the 
expedition in storing extra supplies, 
spare parts and gear, and the head- 
quarters office provided a mailing ad- 
dress and expedited services during re- 
provisioning visits. Extra vehicles were 
also loaned by the department at times. 
Field Museum has provided the expe- 
rienced expedition leadership of Mr. and 
Mrs. Street and a scientific team, mam- 
malogists Daniel Womochel and An- 
thony DeBlase and parasitologist Richard 
Rust, in the cooperative venture. These 



1968 Street Expedition: 
Field Work in Iran 

Field Museum and the Iran Game and Fish Department cooperate in intensive mammal survey 

Expedition campsite at Koorang in the Zagros Mountains, at an altitude of 8000 feet. In the foreground are Baktiaris, who live in the area. 

(Photos by Daniel Womochel, Expedition Mammalogist) 




r M.% ".x ' 



rr««ii«a<'/> 



. %'»--•/ * . 




p 




Sayed Shakrala of the Pasteur Institute of Tehran is 
one of several Iranians who worked wilh the Street 
expedition. 



The ecology of each site is studied so that preparation of plant speci- 
mens is also important, here undertaken by Mr. and Mrs. Street. 




Co-sponsur of the expedition is the Iran Game and Fish Department which 
supplied personnel and equipment. These expedition members include (from 
left) Hassein, a driver; a game Department hunter; Mr. Farhard Gosamie, 
a Game Department official, and Kamal, the cook. 





Above: Parasitologist Richard Rust and Mrs. 
Street record data from the specimens. Left: 
Mr. Street and Iranian game department per- 
sonnel buy specimens from two Baktiari 
shepherds. 



people planned the field work and 
brought with them two specially- 
equipped International Travelalls, col- 
lecdng equipment and recording supplies. 
The Museum has the right and respon- 
sibility for scientific study of the col- 
lected specimens and scientific publica- 
tion on the results of the expedition effort. 
After study at Field Museum, the mam- 
mal specimens will be preserved there as 
vouchers of the accuracy of the scientific 
publications, for future examination and 



for any further study by qualified investi- 
gators. A synoptic series will be shipped 
to the Iran Game and Fish Department 
for use as an educational collection. 

The Game and Fish Department has 
the privilege of presenting popular as- 
jjects of the expedition in Iranian news- 
papers and magazines. 

Dispatches from the expedition in the 
field report very successful results from 
five campsites at localities distributed 
along the mountainous area of western 



Iran. Working an average of 8 days in 
each locality, the e.xp>edition accumu- 
lated masses of recorded observations on 
the ecology, physiography, weather, 
plants and animals and collected many 
specimens. At the beginning of the last 
circuit afield, the specimen count in- 
cludes more than 1,500 mammals, more 
than 10,000 ectoparasites, more than 
400 reptiles and amphibians and 125 
plants. The field work was scheduled 
to end on December 25. 



JANUARY Page IS 




Education Chief Retires 



Four Decades of Achievement for Miriam Wood 



Miss Wood with a few of the thousands of children 
she has guided through the Museum during her long 



After a 38-year career in Field Museum's Raymond 
Foundation, the Department Chief, Miss Miriam Wood, 
retired on October 18. 

She began her long and active career as a guide-lecturer 
in 1929 and in 1940 became Chief of Raymond Foundation. 
Under her direction, Raymond Foundation expanded and 
developed in several areas. Miss Wood was concerned not 
only with the formal groups visiting the Museum, but with 
the many children and families who came here and did not 
know exactly what they wished to see or what the Museum 
had to offer. She suggested the interest and energy of such 
individuals might be directed by a series of simple guide 
sheets, an idea which grew into the highly successful Jour- 
ney Program. This program has served since as a model 
for many other museums. 

Miss Wood was also a prime mover in the development 
of the Saturday Morning Workshop Series for children and 
grandchildren of Museum Members. As active supporters 
of the Museum, she believes Members and their children 
should enjoy special benefits from Museum resources. In 
the Workshop Program, elementary school-age boys and 
girls are guided in programs which include actual handling 
of artifacts in Museum research areas and in-depth tours of 
Sfjecific exhibition areas. The fifth consecutive series of 
workshops has just been completed and proved to be ex- 
tremely popular. 

The bulk of the Raymond Foundation activities centers 
around the hundreds of groups which visit the Museum 
throughout the year. Guides and tours are provided for as 
many groups as can possibly be accommodated, although 
the mushrooming number of schoolchildren visiting the 
Museum makes it impossible for every group to have a 
guide-lecturer. In 1929, Miss Wood's first year with the 
Raymond Foundation, 480 school groups, a total of 21,576 
children were pro\uded with guide-lecturer programs. What 



a contrast to 1967, when 57,830 children in 1,598 school 
groups benefitted from these tours. 

Her outstanding ability as an educator and administra- 
tor has brought her to national prominence in several mu- 
seum-oriented organizations. At the first session of the In- 
ternational Seminar on the Role of Museums in Education 
'UNESCO' held in 1952, Miss Wood was a delegate repre- 
senting the Natural History Museums of the United States. 
She has also been a member of the American Association of 
Museums, serving as chairman of the Children's Museum 
Section from 1953 to 1954, and at different times has held 
the positions of program chairman, president and council 
member of the Midwest Museums Conference. She was a 
member of the International Council of Museums from 1960 
to 1968 and served as a consultant to the Girl Scout Pro- 
gram Committee from 1959 to 1968. 

Miss Wood's active participation in professional organi- 
zations has been typical of the enthusiasm and dedication 
she has displayed in furthering the aims and goals of mu- 
seum education. In the midst of many demands made upon 
her time, she has maintained her warmth, patience and 
energy and, perhaps most importantly, her sense of humor 
and deep regard for people and their feelings. On more 
than one occasion her keen appreciation for the ridiculous 
has "saved the day" for her staff. Alert to the varied tal- 
ents of her staff, she has always sought to bring out the best 
in those who worked with her. 

We of Raymond Foundation view Miss Wood's retire- 
ment, richly earned though it is, with mixed emotions. 
Thousands of visitors to the Museiun have benefitted from 
her interest and dedication to museum education but none 
more than those of us who were privileged to work with her 
for so many years. The all too frequent modern approach 
to life in general and education in particular of substituting 
form for substance had no place in Miss Wood's philosophy. 
Her philosophy was a simple and effective one: Know in 
your own mind that you are doing your best and then go on. 
She emphasized the positive approach in everything. 

It is with the warmest regards of the Museum staff that 
Miss W'ood begins her retirement by pursuing her lifelong 
hobbies of traveling, photography and reading. Her career 
has been a richly rewarding one. We in Raymond Foim- 
dation, however, reserve the right to feel just a little sorry 
for ourselves for the loss we have sustained. 
— Marie Svoboda 

Acting Chief, Raymond Foundation 



Page U jAWARY 




Two new educational television programs, "Down to Earth" and "From Fish to Mammal," 
have been written by Ernest Roscoe, Raymond Foundation Lecturer in Geology, for use by 
the New Trier Township Instructional Television Systems. Roscoe (center) and Mrs. 
Penny Kneipper, a sixth grade teacher in Wilmette, appeared on the programs, which were 
filmed at the Museum. These programs reach more than 17,000 students in 25 schools. 



January hours: 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., weekdays; 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Saturdays and Sundays. 

CALENDAR OF EVENTS The Museum will be closed on New Year's 

Day, January 1, and open to 5 p.m. on 
January 2 and 3. 

January 2 A planned series of displays of single outstanding items from Museum 
collections will ofjen with the exhibit of a Wedgwood medallion of the English 
circumnavigator, Captain James Cook. Made in 1805, the medallion was a 
75th Anniversary gift to the Museum from Mrs. A.W.F. Fuller. A small case 
in the North Lounge will house the exhibit of these single items, which will 
be changed periodically. 

January 12 Audubon Wildlife Film Series "Hawaii, Paradise of the Pacific," 
narrated by Walter H. Berlet, will be presented as part of the film series 
sponsored by the Illinois Audubon Society. Admission is free. 2:30 p. in. in 
the James Simpson Theatre. 

Through January 27 Javanese Puppets The temporary exhibit features color- 
ful shadow and three-dimensional puppets used in the ancient puppet theatre 
of Java. This is the first public display of these artifacts, which were acquired 
by the Museum in 1893. Hall 9 Gallery. 

Through January Winter Journey "Ancient Sea Monsters" Prehistoric giants 
of the ancient seas are featured in the Winter Journey for children sponsored 
by the Raymond Foundation. Any child who can read and write may parti- 
cipate in the free do-it-yourself program. Journey sheets and information are 
available an Museum entrances. 



MEETINGS: 



Chicago Mountaineering Club, January 9, 8 p.m. 

Chicago Shell Club, January 12, 2 p.m. 

Nature Camera Club of Chicago, January 14, 7:45 p.m. 

Great Lakes Chapter of Sierra Club, January 21, 7:30 p.m. 



Brazil Tour 
Meetings Set 

Three preparatory meetings ha\-e been 
scheduled at the Museum for members 
of the two Field Museum Brazil Tours. 

On January 10 at 8 p.m.. Dr. Austin 
L. Rand, Chief Curator, Zoology, who 
will accompany Tour A, will speak on 
Brazilian birds, and Loren P. Woods, 
Curator, Fishes, will provide information 
on Amazon fishes. On January 17 at 
8 p.m., Brazilian gems and insect life 
will be reviewed respectively by Dr. Ed- 
ward J. Olson, Curator, Mineralogy, and 
Dr. Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator, Insects. 
On January 20 at 8 p.m., Robert C. 
Victor, Staff Astronomer of Abrams 
Planetarium at Michigan State Univer- 
sity and a member of Tour A, will speak 
on the skies of the Southern Hemisphere, 
and Phil Clark, Tour Leader and Field 
Museum Public Relations Counsel, will 
illustrate a talk on Brazilian plants and 
also review that country's current polit- 
ical situation. 

Coupled with recommended reading, 
these meetings are designed to give a 
thorough and interesting background on 
Brazil and the specific areas to be cov- 
ered on the tours. 

Three openings remain for the Brazil 
Tour B, leaving January 22 and return- 
ing February 16. The tour, which will 
visit outstanding natioral wonders, metro- 
politan areas, the Amazon River coun- 
try, and include the Carnival at Bahia, 
costs $2,050 including all expenses and 
a tax-deductible donation of $500 to 
Field Museum. Details on the Tour are 
available by writing : Brazil Tour, Field 
Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt 
Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 
Illinois, 60605. 



FIELD MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

ROOSEVELT ROAD AT LAKE SHORE DRIVE 
CHICAGO. ILLINOIS SOSOS A.C. 312. 922-9410 
FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD. 1893 

E. Leland Webber, Director 

BULLETIN 

Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 



PRINTED BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 

JANUARY Page 15 



Mita. 




m 






1^ 




BULLETIN 

FIELD MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Volume 40, Number 2 February 1969 



k^ 




Field Museums 131st series of Saturday afternoon programs will begin March 1 and continue on successive Saturdays 
through April 26, at 2:30 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. Noted lecturers will offer filmed adventures ranging from the 
exotic South Seas to the rugged stretches of the Arctic. The series is open to adults and the children of Museum Members. 



1969 Spring Film-Lecture Series 



Tahitian Dancers 

Booth's "South Seas Saga' 



March 1 

"South Sea Saga" 

By John Nicholls Booth 

The exciting regions visited by Captain James Cook are re-explored 
in this color film. Warlike tribes in remote areas of New Guinea, 
the strange flora and fauna of Eastern Australia and 'the Great 
Barrier Reef and the historic and romantic island of Tahiti are 
featured. 



March 8 

"Ranch and Range" 

By Albert J. Wool 

The joys of living close to nature are revealed in this 
film record of life on Mr. Wool's ranch in the Santa 
Clara Mountains of California. Close-ups of the wild- 
life of the region are interwoven with the human side 
of a way of life familiar to many Americans two or 
three generations ago. 



March 15 

"The Far, Far North" 

By Walter J. Breckenridge 

The drama of life in the Arctic and sub-Arctic, from 
Hudson's Bay to the village of Little Diomede, which 
faces Siberia across the Bering Strait, is featured in 
this color film. The hardships and rewards of living in 
this environment are emphasized, as is the area's sing- 
ular animal and plant life. 



March 22 

"The Conquest of El Sumidero" 

By Jack L. Currey 

The first successful navigation of the turbulent Rio Girjalva 
of the El Sumidero Canyon in Chiapas, Mexico, spells high 
adventure for a 1 6-man expedition led by Mr. Currey. Rarely 
seen archaeological sites and remote Indian villages are also 
featured. 




Rapids 

Currey's "Conquest' 




Moose 

Breckenridge's "Far North' 



Page 2 FEBRUARY 





Mt. Cook 

Richter's "New Zealand" 




March 29 

"Western Discovery" 

By Laurel Reynolds 

Giant elephant seals, killer whales, porpoises, "living tides"of mi- 
grating shorebirds, redwood forests — these and many other natural 
wonders are the stars of this color film which probes the wilderness 
areas of the Pacific Coast from Mexico to Puget Sound. 



April 5 

"East Africa Today" 

By Arthur C. Twomey 

The history-making 1963 election in Kenya in which a native 
government supplanted British rule is a highlight of this film 
which tours primitive and metropolitan areas of Kenya and 
Tanzania, contrasting aspects of old and new East Africa. 



April 12 

"It's a Small World" 

By Fran William Hall 

The question of why smaller animals have survived and larger, more power- 
ful ones have become extinct throughout periods of the earth's history 
is examined in this film. Mr. Hall emphasizes the role of small animals in 
nature with film studies of animals, birds and insects seldom seen because 
of their small size and secluded habits. 



Hummingbird 
Hall's "Small World" 




April 19 

"Discovering New Zealand" 

By Kenneth Richter 

The contrasting ways of life represented by the ancient 
Maori people and the recent settlers from the British 
Isles are explored|in this color film which also features 
the varied and abundant scenic beauty of this island 
country. 



Folk Dancing 

Linde's "Czechoslovakia' 



April 26 

"Czechoslovakia" 

By Richard Linde 

Mr. Linde offers a film answer to the question, "What is it like behind 
the Iron Curtain?" Many aspects of daily living in this Communist 
country are shown — housing, religion, education, recreation, agri- 
culture and industry. Traditional celebrations which the Czechs 
continue to observe are also featured. 



FEBRUARY Page 3 




Blue Macaw {Andorhynchus hyacinth- 
inus) is one of Brazil's colorful bird 
residents. 




Brazilian 

Bird 

Walk 

By Austin L. Rand 
Chief Curator, Zoology 



Stanley Field Hall 



Those unable to take bird-watching walks in Brazil 
with Field Museum's Brazil Tour this winter can still 
enjoy a short, leisurely stroll to see that country's exotic 
bird life right here in the Museum's halls. On this sim- 
ulated bird-walk, the travel begins at the South Foun- 
tain in Stanley Field Hall. (See the detailed map showing 
the bird walk route and stations.) 

The marshes along the Amazon River are the first stop 
(Hall 20, Station 1). They appear here much as we 
would see them from a launch trip from Manaus, with 
floating lily pads, mud bars and great arum leaves backed 
by swamp forest and palms. A pair of giant jabiru storks 
with naked, blackish heads and necks dominate the 
scene, one with a captured frog in its foot-long bill. 
There are ibis of two sorts, one olive-brown, the other 
white-necked. A pair of the strange crane relatives called 
sun bitterns show their beautifully complicated brown, 
buff, grey and white pattern in a stately dance of male 
to female. Another strange crane relative with yellow, 
black-barred feet rests on an arum leaf beneath which 
nocturnal grey and black boat-billed herons are hiding 
from the light of day. 

Here we also see the advantage of a simulated bird 
walk past Museum habitat groups. On the Amazon itself 
the birds would fly away, or liide in the foliage when we 
approached. Here, we can examine them at leisure- 
today, tomorrow and the next day, if we wish. 

In a darkened recess (Station 2) we see a series of in- 
tensely vivid spots of color flashing in rotation. They 
are patches of iridescence on the plumage of humming- 
birds on which a series of tiny spot lights are focused. 
One by one, the spot lights flash on to give reflections 
that are vivid half a hall away. No wonder these birds 
are called living jewels. 

We move on to the great grass, tree-dotted plains that 
dominate Southern Brazil as the rain forest does the 
Amazon Basin (Station 3). A great, grey, flightless bird, 
the rhea (an American ostrich), stands watching its nest 
of eggs, some of which are beginning to hatch. Nearby, 
a black and white flycatcher rests in a busli and a bur- 
rowing owl, the same species native to our west and 
south, stands by its burrow 



Page 4 FEBRUARY 



Tropical rain forests (Station 1) are similar from 
Guatemala to Manaus and the hills and escarpments 
above Rio. They all have the dark green leaves of the 
forest canopy, the dark, heavily shaded forest floor and 
an abundance of lianas (climbing vines). In this habitat 
group, two parties of toucans— big-billed, noisy, mis- 
chievous, playful acrobats, similar to jays in tempera- 
ment—are eating fruits in the treetops. Less extroverted, 
the woodhewer and wood]jecker on the tree trunks and 
I he bishop grosbeak in the imdergrowth might escape 
notice. 

.\fter observing the birds of Brazilian swamps, rivers, 
forests and grass plains in simulations of their habitats, 
it is valuable to take a close look at the birds themselves. 
These are in the adjacent hall, where Brazilian birds are 
represented in a systematic series of birds of the world. 
We concentrate on the group names first, such as Co- 
linga, Jacamar, Motmot, Toucan, Trogons, and Tina- 
nious. These birds are unfamiliar to many people, since 
they live only in the warmer parts of the Americas, part 
of the great evolution of birds that took place in that 
most bird-rich part of the world. 

Among the most highly evolved perching birds or 
song birds (Station 5) are the tanagers, gay colored fruit 
eaters of the trees, sparrows, including the crested, red- 
headed Brazilian cardinal and the flocks of seed-eaters of 
the grasslands, and the ictcrids—the oropendulas, which 
build hanging nests, the orioles and the grackles. All 
three are dominant groups of the New World Tropics. 

Pausing before the panel of primitive perching birds 
(Station 6) vre see tyrant flycatchers, oven birds (whose 
big stick or mud nests are conspicuous on the road to 
Belo Horizonte in Brazil), spinetails and ant birds. This 
group also includes many common birds of the forest 
and garden. The related wood creepers share the tree 
trunks with woodpeckers. There are also the cotingas, 
such as the bell bird and cock of the rock, and the man- 
akins that dance in the undergrowth. The toucans are 
related to woodpeckers as are the fly-catching jacamars 
that look like giant hummingbirds when perched but 
not when in flight. 

The jay-sized, soft-colored motmots (Station 7) which 
swing their long, spatulate tails in pendulum fashion are 
related to the kingfishers, birds poorly represented in the 
Americas. Trogons, with elegant, restrained brightne.ss, 
are pan-tropical birds with no near relatives. Humming- 
birds, in bewildering variety, are true Americans and 
are related to swifts. 

Among the parrots (Station 8) the brilliant blue, yel- 
low and red macaws are commonly seen in gardens, 
while the green Amazon talking parrots are widely kept 
as pets. 

The great order of cranes and their relatives (Station 
9) is an old group that has declined, leaving strange 
relics that are quite im-cranelike in various parts of the 
world. In Tropical America are the rails, the strange 
luimi>backed trumpeters that vaguely recall guinea fowls. 





Above, Brazilian water birds 
in a Iiabitat setting. Left, 
Rhea watches her eggs begin 
to hatch, in another habitat 
setting. 



the sun grebe and the sun bittern and the long-legged 
cariamas that run swiftly over the plains. The currassow, 
guan and chachalaca are fowl-like birds of tropical 
America related to the barn yard chicken, but are most 
likely to be found in trees eating fruit. 

The muscovy duck (Station 1 1) is native to tropical 
America, where they were first domesticated and domes- 
tic muscovy ducks all over the world are descended from 
these. In the same panel are screamers, turkey-sized 
chicken-footed relatives of ducks, which frequent open 
marshes. The sharp spur on the wrist is used in fighting. 

The tinamous (Station 12) restricted to Latin America, 
resemble tail-less partridges and are their ecological 
equivalent. They are related, however, to the ostrich- 
like rhea, which is seen in the same case. 

On our bird walk, we have seen representatives of 
some birds found only in Latin America. These are part 
of what we call the Neo-Tropical avifauna that arose 
here while that area was separated from the rest of the 
world. 

Emmett R. Blake, Curator of Birds, is an expert in 
these Latin American birds and planned and collected 
some of the exhibits we have seen. He is presently pre- 
paring a book of several volumes on Birds of South 
America, the first of its kind. This will be a valuable 
source of information for those interested in these birds 
and in the meantime, a bird walk through the Museum 
halls will provide an introduction to the birds of South 
America or almost any other part of the world. 



FEBRUARY Paged 




Remick McDowell 

Remick McDowell Elected 
to Museum Presidency 

Civic and business leader Remick McDowell has been 
named the sixth President of Field Museum of Natural 
History, succeeding James L. Palmer who has retired 
from the position he has held since 1964. 

Mr. Palmer will continue his association with Field 
Museum as an honorary trustee. 

Mr. McDowell became a Museum trustee in 1966. He 
is chairman, president and a director of Peoples Gas 
Company and serves as chairman of the board and a 
director of its subsidiary companies, The Peoples Gas 
Light and Coke Company and Natural Gas Pipeline 
Company of America. He joined Peoples Gas in 1940 
and has been a corporate officer since 1942. 

Now 60, Mr. McDowell is also a trustee and vice presi- 
dent of the Orchestral Association and a trustee of the 
Museum of Science and Industry. His directorships in- 
clude Amsted Industries, Inc., Harris Trust and Savings 
Bank and Inland Steel Company. He is a member of the 
Business Advisory Council of the School of Business, 
Northwestern University and a member of the Business 
Advisory Committee of the Chicago Urban League. 

Field Museum's new president is a native Chicagoan. 
He attended Northwestern University and received a 
master of business administration degree from the Uni- 
versity of Chicago in 1954. He is a member of the Chi- 
cago Club, Cliff Dwellers, Commercial Club of Chicago, 
University Club of Chicago and Woodstock Country 
Club. 

Other officers of the Board, all re-elected, are: Harry 
O. Bercher, Bowen Blair and John M. Simpson, vice 
presidents; Edward Byron Smith, treasurer and assistant 
secretary, and E. Leland Webber, secretary and director. 



February "Treasure" 
Prehistoric Craftsmanship 





Front (left photo) and side views of an Acheulian handaxe found 
in Central Tanzania. This artifact, which belongs to the University 
of Chicago, is probably between 60,000 and 75,000 years old. 



A handsome stone handaxe fashioned in prehistoric East 
Africa will be on display as the "Treasure of the Month" 
during February in the Museum's North Lounge. 

Made in the Acheulian tool-making tradition, the hand- 
axe is 12 inches long and 4J/^ inches wide, tapering to a 
point at One end. Although it is oversized in comparison 
with European stone tools of the same type, it was not 
unusually large for the site at Isimila in Central Tanzania 
where it was found, nor for similar tools found at other 
East African sites. One reason for its large size is the 
nature of material of which it is made. The large blocks of 
rock commonly available for use to prehistoric man in 
East Africa yield large flakes which can be worked into 
implements. The 'flint nodules used by prehistoric Euro- 
peans are characteristically smaller. The handaxe on ex- 
hibit is made of mylonite. 

Despite the use of the name "handaxe," this particular 
kind of artifact likely served sevei'al uses and because of 
its size, probably required the use of both hands. The 
tool on display shows careful craftsmanship, with straight 
edges and each side neatly trimmed-. 

Who the people were that made this handaxe is not 
known, but it was |Drobably made between 60,000 and 
75,000 years ago. Human fossils associated with the final 
part of the Atheulian tool-making traditiori are very rare. 
The handaxe used in February's display belongs to the 
University of Chicago.  ;.  

The "Treasure of the Month" display' was created so 
thit single items of particular beauty and interest might 
be shown to the public on their own merits rather than as 
part of larger exhibits.' 



Page 6 FEBRUAR)' 



to the l^ir^alayarp kingd0rr)|> ond noptheQitepn India 



field rDu^ecjTOi) neu;e§t toup 




Summing up a trip to tiie IHImalayan l<ingdoms and 

northeastern India is lii<e trying to describe a new 

coior. It's fantastic, but tias to be experienced to be 

believed. A trip to the Land of Oz — this comes closer. 

Indeed, Air India's magic carpet symbol signifies 

more than comfortable flight. 

But as that carpet comes to rest in a strange land, 

part of the bizarreness is that you yourself have 

become exotic, to the gently amazed inhabitants. And 

they are equally exotic to you, with their vast medley 

of races and complexions, languages, castes and 

religions — above all their different view of the meaning 

of life. For you, it is a new vision, both challenging 

and refreshing. It is a chance to see yourself and 

your culture as others see it. 

The area's natural beauty is equally stimulating and 

revealing. The Hindu and Buddhist respect for life 

has, over the centuries, permitted great populations of 

humans and animals to coexist in often crowded 

proximity: painted storks calmly fish in a road-side 

ditch within yards of a man and bullock ploughing; 

monkeys scamper on a highway jammed with cars 

and camels, water buffaloes and bullocks, bicycles 

and cars; or throw peanuts at worshippers in a temple; 

dozens of iridescent blue-green parakeets shriek 

defiance from a schoolyard tree, where they nest; 

animals vulnerable for their immense size — elephants, 

rhinoceruses and tigers — still roam the forests and 

wild peacocks strut unharmed in farmers' fields. 

You realize why many of these peoples worship the 

mountains. The sheerly rising, snow-peaked Himalayas 

form a backdrop, unreal in its wall-like abruptness, 

to the valley of Kathmandu, or float beyond the 

jungles and elephant-grass of the Nepalese Terai or 

rise on every side of Darjeeling and Gangtok. 

Ancient temples freeze still living theologies into 

stone: the writhing soldiers and women, gods and 

goddesses at Kajaraho and the eloquent marble 

geometry of the Taj Mahal; the many-armed dieties of 

Hinduism and the serene face of the teaching Buddha. 

Contemporary ceremonies form a living link with the 

past through almost timeless repetition, the death and 

renewal of the bathing and burning ghats of the 

Holy Ganges, the flower-garlanded Hindu worshippers 

and chanting Buddhist lamas and the dozens of 

colorful family ceremonies glimpsed on city streets 

and in country huts. 

Add to all this, Field Museum's special interest in 

the area, which goes back to as early as 1908 when 

Anthropologist Berthold Laufer went to Sikkim. To 

bring this interest right into the Tour, Dr. Robert 

Fleming, associated with the Museum since the 

mid-thirties in India and Nepal, will accompany us and 

lead us on bird walks, during our stay in Nepal. 

But join us on our magic carpet for 28 days . . . 

FEBRUARY Page 7 



Friday, January 30, 1970 

Having attended three pre-Tour meetings on In- 
dian-Himalayan natural history, many of your 35 
fellow tour members are already well known to you 
when you arrive in midafternoon at O'Hare Airport 
for the flight to New York. At John F. Kennedy Air- 
port that night, you board the Air India 8:30 London 
flight. 
Saturday, January 31 

With a morning arrival in London, you spend part 
of the day resting in your Grosvenor House room, 
joining other Tour members for a cocktail meeting 
in late afternoon. The speaker on Indian cultural 
history is Mr. Douglas E. Barrett, Deputy Keeper of 
Oriental Antiquities, the British Museum. In the 
evening you attend a London theatre performance. 
Sunday, February 1 

The morning is free and during early afternoon, 
you choose between tours of the Indian exhibit at 
the British Museum, the Natural History Museum, 
The National Gallery and the Tower of London. You 
fly to Delhi, via Moscow, leaving London at 5 p.m. 
Monday, February 2 

You arrive in early morning and settle at the Hotel 
Imperial; most of the day is for rest. During late 
afternoon you visit the Delhi Zoo to see its famous 
white tigers and hear a report by a geneticist on the 
complexity of developing this white breed. That 
evening you are welcomed by Indian hosts at a spe- 
cial cocktail party and buffet. The highlight is a 
performance by youthful Bhangra dancers. 
Tuesday, February 3 

You tour old and New Delhi including the 234-foot 
Qutb Minar built by the Moghuls on Hindu ruins in 
the 13th century, the 17th century Moghul Red Fort 
with this legend written on the wall of its throne 
room in golden Persian letters, "If there is a para- 
dise on earth, It is here," the Presidential Palace 
and its impressive, Persian-style Moghul gardens, 
the narrow streets of the bazaar, the Jama Masjid — 
India's largest mosque — and the modern Hindu tem- 
ple to the goddess Lakshmi and the god Narayan. 
You are a guest for morning tea at the home and 
garden of the Ruci Aibaras — a prominent Parsee 
family. A cocktail hour talk and demonstration on In- 
dian and Tibetan rugs is given by Mrs. Sam Madhok. 
Wednesday, February 4 

After a short flight, you arrive at the Rajasthani 
city of Jaipur, built mostly of rose sandstone by the 
Rajput Maharaja Jai Singh in 1727. You experience 
a new transportation thrill — swaying on an elephant 
howdah up a steep bluff to the 17th century Amber 
Palace. Though the Maharajas who ruled here were 
Hindus, the building has marked Moghul influence. 
Grillwork panels of alabaster are so finely carved 
that they served the court ladies as windows. Inlay 
of semi-precious stones and of mirrors is magnifi- 





Tour stops on Field Museum's Tour of Himalayan 
Kingdoms and Northeastern India. 



Pages FEBRUARY 



On this month's cover, the flag of Nepal, 
one of the Himalayan kingdoms on the Tour 
itinerary. 



Left, The Taj Mahal, breathtakingly beautifu, 
in white marble, seems to float against the 
blue sky. 




Painted stork hunts on a lakeshore in the 
Ghana Bird Sanctuary, where millions of 
birds find refuge. 




turies of life are tied together by the Holy Ganges, where 
itional Hindu ceremonials of life and death, of bathing 
cremation, continue changeless. 



cent. You also view the Hawa Mahal — a five-story, 
pink sandstone building of honeycomb design. The 
City Palace Museum contains splendid specimens of 
Rajput and Moghul paintings and ivory sculptures, 
wrought gold and carved peacock doors and a hand- 
somely designed garden where monkeys play. Dur- 
ing the evening, you attend a party hosted by the 
maharaja's son at Sisodia Palace. Rajasthani danc- 
ers perform. Your hotel is a former palace, the 
Rambagh. 
Thursday, February 5 

You visit the Jaipur gem dealers in the morning 
before taking the short flight to Agra, where you stay 
at the modern Clark's Sharaj Hotel. You stand in 
amazement before the incredible Taj Mahal, and 
realize that none of the photographs you have seen 
did it justice. It is geometry in marble. The inlay 
work of semi-precious stones in white marble is 
probably the finest and most extensive in the world. 
A local industry continues this handicraft and ex- 
quisite inlaid boxes and tables in white or black 
marble are sold. You are impressed by both the 
vastness and magnificence of the red sandstone Agra 
Fort and the white marble Itmad-Ud-Daulah, which 
predates the Taj and in its delicate way is almost as 
great a masterpiece. A screen of marble lacework 
is an impressive achievement. The drive from the 
Fort to Itmad-Ud-Daulah takes you through a reveal- 
ing section where most work, play and family life is 
in the streets. 
Friday, February 6 

Today is red letter day for both bird enthusiasts 
and archaeology buffs. You spend the sunrise mo- 
ments at the Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary where 
literally millions of birds live in the trees and lake 
areas. Birds come from as far as Siberia and Tibet 
to winter here and the storks, egrets, cormorants, 
geese, ducks, coots, ibises, snakebirds and other 
waterfowl are particularly numerous. Ornithologists 
from the Bombay Natural History Society meet our 
party and assist in bird identification. During the 
afternoon, following a picnic lunch, you explore 
Fatehpur Sikri, the rich 16th century city built by 
the great Moghul Akbar, 24 miles west of Agra, with 
its triumphal portal, Buland Darwaza, looming 134 
feet over 34 feet of stairs. Here in the courtyard of 
the mosque, behind walls of marble lace, lies the 
tomb of the holy man Shaikh Salim Christi, under 
an elaborate canopy inlaid with mother-of-pearl. 
You stop frequently on the way back to Agra to 
photograph agricultural life. This evening our guests 
for dinner are the ornithologists from the Bombay 
Natural History Society. 
Saturday, February 7 

After an early morning re-visit to the Taj, you are 
driven to Delhi, with a stop along the way at the 
holy city of Mathura, believed to be the birthplace 



FEBRUART Page 9 



of Lord Krishna, one of the incarnations of the god 
Vishnu. During the afternoon you visit the National 
l\^useum to see its sculptures and miniature paint- 
ings in the Persian style. This evening you attend 
the light and sound performance at the Red Fort 
which tells the dramatic history of that building and 
the events which occurred within its red sandstone 
walls. 




Since the mid-30s. Dr. Robert Fleming has collected birds 
for Field Museum in India and Nepal. He holds a branch 
of scarlet-berried Nepalese holly. Ilex doniana. 

Sunday, February 8 

Today you fly to and return from Khajuraho, the 
city of thousand year old temples built by Chandella 
kings to honor both their Hindu and Jain gods and 
to immortalize their sensuous views of life itself. 
"Let the tourist be warned," comments Fodor's Guide 
to India, "some of the decorative sculpture on these 
temples is too revealing for the excessively inno- 
cent; too provoking for the prurient minded . . . Here 
is found the summit of Hindu sculpture — sinuous, 
twisting voluptuous." 
Monday, February 9 

After an early morning flight to the holy city of 
Benares, you take an afternoon tour of Sarnath, the 
deer park where the Buddha gave his first sermon, 
visit a museum, and see Buddhist stupas and tem- 
ples and gardens. Your guide here and accompany- 
ing the tour from here on is Hari Karan Singh, a 
doctoral student in Tantric Hinduism at the Hindu 
University, who will lend the tour a new dimension 
of understanding of Indian and Himalayan religions. 
He will speak to the group during cocktails. You 
stay at Clark's Hotel. 
Tuesday, February 10 

You take an early morning boat ride on the Ganges 
past the bathing and burning ghats and watch young 



men perform the Hatha Yoga exercises, see holy 
men sitting in meditation or praying to the sacred 
river and view young and old as they immerse them- 
selves in the holy waters. You also visit the inner 
city, walking its crowded, narrow alleys to the 
Golden Temple — the Viswanatha. You also see the 
modern Epic Temple with its animated figures telling 
of the life of the Lord Rama, the Durga or monkey 
temple, the Well of Knowledge and a silk factory. 
During the evening, you view a Kalhak dance — one 
of India's four classical dances and a form indige- 
nous to the area. 
Wednesday, February 1 1 

A morning flight takes you to Kathmandu in Nepal 
and you catch your first breathtaking view of the 
Himalayas. After settling in the Hotel Annapurna, 
you take an orientation trip around the city, viewing 
Kathmandu from the heights of Swayambu Nath and 
visiting the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. You meet 
Dr. Robert Fleming, bird specialist and Field Asso- 
ciate of Field Museum, who has resided in Nepal 
and India since the thirties, who will accompany the 
tour during the eight days in Nepal. 
Thursday, February 12 

You visit shops in the Mahabodh section and view 
the pagodaed palaces and temples of the ancient 
Newar capital. The pagoda style of architecture is 
believed to have originated in Nepal. You are driven 
south of the city to the Royal Botanical Garden, 
founded a few years ago by King Mahendra, and 
to the collection of native orchids of the Rev. Sau- 
bolle, S.J., located nearby. You also go on a bird 
walk in a wooded area, visit a Tibetan rug weaving 
center and stop at the Royal Zoo to see rare red 
pandas, which are native to Nepal. 
Friday, February 13 

Travel is north of the city, to the highlands and 
to the Narain Temple, where sacred carp swim in 
large pools and are fed ceremonially. Nearby is one 
of the chain of dispensaries operated under leader- 
ship of Dr. Fleming and his wife. Bethel, a physician. 
During the afternoon you visit Nepal's second city, 
Bhatgoan, in the eastern portion of the Kathmandu 
Valley, where the Temple of the Five Stages is re- 
garded as one of the most beautiful pagoda temples 
in the world. Its stairway is guarded by sculptured 
beasts and gods. It was burit in 1700 by Raja Bhu- 
patindra Malla. 
Saturday, February 14 

You fly to Tiger Tops, in Nepal's tropical lowland 
Terai. You are met near the field which serves as 
airport by elephants which carry you to your tree- 
tops rooms. The living areas are of bamboo and all 
colors used in decorations are those of the jungle. 
The use of kerosene lamps and absence of radios 
add to the total effect of sophisticated rustic. Tasty 
meals are served around a blazing fire in a central 



Page 10 FEBRUARY 



building. During the afternoon you stalk rhinocer- 
oses, wild pigs, monkeys and deer from a howdah 
on your elephant's back. During the evening you 
watch for tigers from the security of a blind. 
Sunday, February 15 

After an early morning bird walk, you again go 
out on the elephants. Evening supplies a second 
chance to see tigers. 
Monday, February 16 

You fly back to Kathmandu via the city of Pokhara, 
where you stop for the spectacular view of the Anna- 
purna range, whose peaks rise sheerly to heights of 
more than 26,000 feet. After lunch you visit Pashu- 
patinath Temple, one of Hinduism's holiest centers 
on the sacred Bagmati River, northeast of Kath- 
mandu. Further east is the famous Buddhist stupa, 
Boddhnath, with its 108 prayer wheels, its brooding 
all-seeing eyes and golden umbrella. You are in 
time for a worship service at the nearby Tibetan 
lamasery temple where you meet some of the young, 
saffron-robed monks. 
Tuesday, February 17 

This morning you take a short flight to the area of 
Mount Everest. The afternoon is free for shopping 
and special tours. 
Wednesday, February 18 

A look at Nepalese agriculture is the highlight of 
this morning's ride out along the Chapagoan road 
to the villages of Chapagoan, Sonaguti and Techo, 
west of the city. There is a walk in the evergreen 
forest, Bajhara Bara, a great place for bird watch- 
ing and interesting for its wild Hoya vines growing 
epiphytically on trees. 

Today is Nepalese National Day and the afternoon 
is spent watching parades and Gurkha soldiers and 
seeing His Majesty King Mahendra and his gracious 
queen, Ratnarajyalakshmi. The king, believed to be 
a reincarnation of the god Vishnu, the Preserver, is 
of the Gurkha line, which conquered Kathmandu 
Valley from the Newar kings in 1768 under the 
leadership of Prithwi Narayan. King Mahendra's 
father, Tribhuvan, restored monarchal power in 1951 
after much of it had been taken by a line of here- 
ditary prime ministers of the Rana family. 

During the evening, you attend a party at the hotel 
honoring the Flemings. Our guests will include 20 
of the Flemings' Nepalese friends. 
Thursday, February 19 

You fly to Bhadrapur in the northeastern corner 
of Nepal, are met at the airport by jeeps which take 
you to the Brahmaputra River which you ford in bul- 
lock carts, and you are met on the Indian side by 
automobiles which take you on the winding moun- 
tain trip to Darjeeling. You stay at the Oberoi Mount 
Everest Hotel and tour this mountainside city during 
the afternoon. Views of the Kanchenjunga range are 
spectacular. 



Friday, February 20 

Tiger Hill is the best spot to view Mount Everest, 
so you make an early morning visit there, stopping 
along the way to investigate the forest of Crypto- 
meria japonica and at the Buddhist Monastery at 
Goom. During the afternoon you see a tea planta- 
tion and visit the Tibetan handicrafts center. 
Saturday, February 21 

You leave after breakfast by car for Gangtok in 
the Kingdom of Sikkim and spend the better part of 
the day viewing the temples and palaces. 
Sunday, February 22 

Darjeeling's famous botanical garden and a resi- 
dential garden occupy the morning. The afternoon 
is free for visits to the market. 
Monday, February 23 

You drive from Darjeeling to Badogra in the low- 
lands, where you catch a plane to Delhi. 
Tuesday, February 24 

Your day is free in Delhi, with afternoon tea at the 
home of Mrs. Meera Sawhney, whose garden is ex- 
ceptional and whose collection of Indian art works 
is extensive. 
Wednesday, February 25 

Free day in Delhi. 
Thursday, February 26 

You fly to London via Moscow. Your hotel is the 
Grosvenor House. 
Friday, February 27 

You fly to New York and Chicago. 




Buddhist stupa stares thoughtfully out across the 
Valley of Kathmandu. 



FEBRUART Page 11 



Museum detective Legge looks for clues to 
human interest stories in one of the many 
storerooms in his bailiwick. 




Sf 



lADOVYIMG A 



HUS£UH DrrSCTJYS 



By Elizabeth Alanne 
Field Museum Press 



A headpiece for an Egyptian mummy, its gilt paint 
still intact, stares unblinkingly as it has for more than 
2,000 years. Primitive masks take on a sinister appear- 
ance in the semi-darkness of a basement storeroom. A 
plaque, partially hidden by other artifacts, testifies that 
William Jones, Ph.D., was "assassinated March 29, 1909, 
while making ethnological investigations for Field Mu- 
seimi among the llongot of the Philippine Islands." 
These items and thousands more inhabit the hunting 
groimds of Christopher Legge, custodian of the Mu- 
seum's anthropological collections. Here, in the Muse- 
um's storerooms and exhibition lialls he not only tracks 
down the answers to mysteries, but the mysteries them- 
selves. 

He searches for unique aspects of artifacts, features 
that hold out the possibility of human interest stories. 
He finds quite a few. One such was a boar's mandible 
carrying on its side a note written in the elaborate script 
of another era— "Great Boar— captured at Ka... (remainder 
of word is illegible)— by Captain Cook, Year 1716." 

Disinclined toward cursory examinations, Mr. Legge 



worried the problem in his customarily thorough man- 
ner. This might involve not only library research, but 
very likely weeks and months of letter writing to any 
part of the world where someone might have an answer 
to his questions. In the case of the inscription on the 
boar's mandible, he learned that Captain James Cook, 
the circumnavigator, had not yet been born in 1716 and 
that Captain Edward Cooke, a member of the privateer- 
ing expedition that rescued .Alexander Selkirk (the pio- 
totype of Robinson Crusoe) from his island prison, al- 
ways spelled his name with an "e." This confirmed Mr. 
Legge's early assumption that the inscription was a hoax. 
Although probably written on the bone many years ago, 
it seems more likely that it was intended as an "amateur 
collector's item" rather than to commemorate a hunting 
coup by a British sea captain. 

In another instance, Mr. Legge found a note regard- 
ing a Solomon Islands canoe prow figure. In its ears are 
bits of glass, purported by one source to have come from 
the spectacles of a luckless missionary who happened to 
be in those islands when strangers were considered fair 



Page 12 FEBRUARY 



game, in the gastionomical sense. Mr. Legge has written 
to an Australian historian friend and to the Custodian of 
Manuscripts at the National Maritime Museum in Green- 
wich to see if, as he believes, this is also a false story. 

Another group of artifacts interests him because they 
are fakes, produced by an Englishman named Little. 
Little dealt in antiquities and, a gifted craftsman him- 
self, later began to copy some pieces and produced many 
outright lakes. He also had an unfortunate penchant for 
"improving" the original in design or form in some cases 
so that ultimately, they would be exposed. Little's Fakes, 
as they came to be known, were eventually sought after 
for their own peculiar qualities. 

A stone sarcophagus, originally left to the Museum 
by the estate of Col. S. L. James in 1904, was once be- 
lieved to have been Cleopatra's (January, 1969, bulle- 
tin ). Mr. Legge pursued this rumor in a two-year round 
of letter writing to points in Europe, North Africa and 
the United States in order to determine the true history 
of the item. Its association with Cleopatra seems false, 
but its complete history remains clouded, a fact which 
is bothersome to Mr. Legge. 

He is not disappointed if his investigations explode 
romantic myths about an item, but he does hope his 
studies will produce a satisfactory conclusion. 

His detective instincts did not suddenly emerge full- 
blown when he began working at the Museum five years 
ago. A native of Great Britain, he served seven years in 
Nigeria as an Assistant District Officer and was a District 
Commissioner in the Fiji Islands for 23 years. There he 
developed an interest in characters connected with the 
romantic period in the South Seas. Information he ob- 
tained about a beachcomber— soldier of fortune who 
traveled under several aliases, "Cannibal Jack"— William 
Diaper— John Jackson, was published in The Journal of 
Pacific History in 1966. His authorship of "Old Cannon 
of Fiji and Rotuma" led to his receiving a "Doctor of 



Cannon Hunting" degree from CHAOS, Cannon Hunt- 
ers Association of Seattle, in 1962. 

Befitting his educational background in history at 
Cambridge University, where he once studied the Amer- 
ican Civil War, he is now digging up information about 
one James T. Proctor. This nephew of Confederate 
General Beauregard was a man much embittered by the 
defeat of the Confederacy. He became a cotton grower, 
then switched to the role of "Blackbirder" in the South 
Sea Island labor trade, which often involved the kid- 
napping of natives. 

While serving in Fiji, Mr. Legge met and married an 
lUinoisan and they moved here after his retirement 
from British Government service. 

As he guides you through some of the Anthropology 
Department's many storerooms (there are 30 in all), he 
will tell you his job is not particularly difficult. "You 
simply have to know where everything is," he said. He 
glosses over the fact that this involves about a quarter 



r^ 


'1 


4 




C 


i 




Boar's mandible (left) bore an in- 
scription (above) which implied the 
object was connected with a well- 
known British sea captain. Mr. 
Legge did considerable research on 
the possibility and found tliat it 
could not have been related to either 
of the two most notable Captains 
Cook. The famous circumnavigator 
was yet unborn in 1716 and the 
other, who participated in the res- 
ale of the prototype of Robinson 
Crusoe, spelled his name with an 
"e." The handwriting style, how- 
ever, indicates the writing was done 
many years ago. 



FEBRUARY Page 13 



At the right is a "Little Fake," a copy of a Maori flute carved 
in wood with stylized faces and haliotis shell inlays. The ends 
are bound with cane wrappings. Only a minute inconsistency 
makes this spurious item identifiable as a fake. The less elab- 
orate flute on the left is genuine. It features a relief carving 
of a face and carving on the mouth, which serves as an 
opening. 




of a million ethnological and archaeological artifacts. 
Items from each geographical area are stored in a spe- 
cific place where they are further arranged by type. 

The items in these many collections range from 
Tibetan religious statuary to gaudy feather capes from 
the Hawaiian Islands. As one follows Mr. Legge from 
one storeroom to another, he finds evidence of scientific 
forays from Cape Horn to Alaska and from the Rift 
Valley to Melanesia. The sheer number of artifacts is 
quite staggering, as is the variety. And should a student 
or scientist ask. to see some specific items, Mr. Legge will 
be able to take him to those items with little hesitation. 

"It was a little tough for the first two years but it's 
not nearly as exciting as it once was. I used to always 
be rimning into little surprises, but now I know just 
about where everything is," he said. One of the "little 
surprises" popped up a few years ago when Mr. Legge 
was called upon to conduct a "little expedition within 
the building." In a remote storage area, a forgotten 



cache of Egyptian stelae had been rediscovered and had 
to be moved to proper quarters in the Anthropology 
Department. 

In some cases artifacts may be stored for years with- 
out being touched. It is also in Mr. Legge's sphere of 
activity to assist the Conservator and Restorer in main- 
taining them. On one occasion the Museum received a 
whopping cleaning bill for restoring the freshness to 
100 fragile costumes. 

One morning recently, Mr. Legge came down a third 
floor corridor carting an object the size of a large pizza 
under his arm. Unsheathing it from a fabric bag, he 
said, "Look here, what do you think of this? It's a Crow 
Indian medicine shield." It was also a round mirror, 
festooned with owl feathers, which read, "Rubel Bros, 
and Co. — Premier Rye Whiskey — Chicago." "There 
should be an interesting story behind this," he said. 

No matter how often he goes through the storerooms 
and halls, it seems certain he will continue to find "little 
surprises" concerning the personal side of the items in 
the collections. You just can't keep a born detective 
down. 




Decorations in the earlobes of this Solomon Islands canoe 
prow figure are purported to be lenses from the spectacles of 
a missionary who fell victim to cannibal natives. Mr. Legge 
doubts this story and is trying to track down some facts 
about it. 



Page 14 FEBRUARY 



Fawcett Named 
To Head Library 

W. Peyton Fawcett, Associate Li- 
brarian at Field Museum for the past 
five years, has been appointed the 
new Head Librarian. 

In his new position, Mr. Fawcett 
has two major concerns. One of these 
is the completion of the reclassifica- 
tion of all library materials, period- 
icals as well as books. This is pres- 
ently about 80 per cent completed 
and Mr. Fawcett expects the process 
to be finished in a year or two. The 
acquisition of new material is another 
important area of concern, he said, 
explaining that the growth of activity 



ill the area of exchange materials is 
particularly notable. 

Mr. Fawcett's career with the Field 
Museum Library began in 1956, when 
he worked here while a student at 
Antioch College. He returned to join 
the library as a full-time cataloger in 
1957 and has been here continuously 
except for two years of service in the 
army. 

Ozark Geology 
Trip in April 

A Geology Trip to the Ozarks will 
again be sponsored this year by Field 
Museum, in cooperation with the 
University of Chicago, April 6-12. A 
wide variety of geological phenomena 



February hours: 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday 

CALENDAR OF EVENTS through Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., weekends 

and on Lincoln's Birthday, February 12. 

February 1-24 24th International Exhibition of N.ature Photography 
Sponsored by the Nature Camera Club of Chicago, prize-winning color and 
black-and-white prints will be displayed in Hall 9 Gallery. Award winning 
slides will be shown at 2 :30 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre on February 2 
and 9. 

February 2 "Earth, Life and Man" Lecture Series continues with "Collecting 
Fossils as a Museum Activity," by Dr. Everett C. Olsen, Research Associate, 
Fossil Vertebrates. The series of lectures by Museum Curators is a feature 
of the Museum's observance of its 75th Anniversary. 2 :30 p.m. in the Lecture 
Hall. 

February 9 "Earth, Life and Man" Lecture Series "Changing Fauna of the 
Great Lakes," by Loren P. Woods, Curator, Fishes, will be presented at 
2:30 p.m. in the Lecture Hall. 

February 1 6 "Earth, Life and Man" Lecture Series "A Wealth of Biological 
Diversity: The Plants of Costa Rica," by Dr. William C. Burger, Assistant 
Curator, Vascular Plants, will be presented at 2:30 p.m. in the Lecture Hall. 

February 23 "Earth, Life and Man" Lecture Series "Inherit the Whirl- 
wind," which explores the effect of weather on the earth, will be presented by 
Dr. John Clark, Associate Curator, Petrology. 2 :30 p.m. in the James Simpson 
Theatre. 

Through February Winter Journey: "Ancient Sea Monsters" Free do-it-your- 
self tour introduces boys and girls to the marine world of prehistoric times. 
Any child who can read and write may participate in the Journey Programs 
sponsored by the Raymond Foundation. Free Journey Sheets are available 
at the Museum entrances. 

Nature Camera Club of Chicago, February 11, 7:45 p.m. 
Chicago Mountaineering Club, February 13, 8 p.m. 
Illinois Orchid Society, February 16, 2 p.m. 
MEETINGS: Illinois Chapter of the American Fisheries Society, February 

17-19. 
Great Lakes Chapter of the Sierra Club, February 18, 7:30 

p.m. 




This unusual fossil brachiopod was collected in 
the area to be visited on the Ozark GeologyTrip. 

will be studied in the field and fossils 
and minerals will be collected in the 
mines and quarries. The trip will in- 
clude four long hikes, for which hik- 
ing clothes will be required. 

The Ozark region is a diversified 
geological area consisting of igneous 
and sedimentary rocks. The oldest 
igneous rocks, once molten, are at 
least one billion years old. The area 
was undersea many times and sedi- 
ments, predominantly limey, were de- 
posited into it. Other geological 
processes produced deposits of mine- 
able ores, particularly lead and iron. 

The group will depart by bus for 
St. Louis on Sunday, April 6. The re- 
turn to Chicago is scheduled for Sat- 
urday evening, April 12. Tuition, 
including all transportation and hotel 
accommodations, is $95. There will 
be an added charge for those wishing 
private accommodations. 

Dr. Matthew H. Nitecki, Assistant 
Curator, Fossil Invertebrates, will 
conduct the trip. For further informa- 
tion and application forms, contact 
Miss Barbara O'Connor, University 
of Chicago Downtown Center, Fl 
6-8300. 



FIELD MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

ROOSEVELT ROAD AT LAKE SHORE DRIVE 
CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60S0S A.C. 312, 922-9410 
FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD. 1893 

E. Leland Webber, Director 

BULLETIN 

Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 



PRINTED BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 

FEBRUART Page 15 



^mrw Wit 



;fcJfA:v' 



Field Museum's 29-day Tour 
of Himalayan Kingdoms and 
Northeastern India is limited 
to nine elephant loads (36 per- 
sons). The $2,657 price in- 
cludes a $500 tax-deductible 
donation to Field Museum and 
all transportation, meals, taxes 
and fees — but not baksheesh. 
The Tour is slow paced to 
assure full coverage of all the 
many dimensions of the area. 
While emphasizing archaeol- 
ogy and natural history, it also 
covers the tourist attractions. 
The personal dimension is 
stressed, too, with visits to 
private homes and gardens 
and with opportunities to meet 
Indian and Nepalese special- 
ists in birds, religions and his- 
tory. Phil Clarl<, the Tour 
Leader, will also serve as Tour 
Botanist. Dr. Robert Fleming, 

a Field Associate of Field Museum, in Nepal, will accompany the group during the Nepal 
Singh, a specialist in Tantric Hinduism, will accompany the group through half the tour. 




T. K. Bapna, a guide in Jaipur, demonstrates India's most exotic mode 
of transportation. 

leg of the trip. Hari Karan 



THE HIMALAYAN KINGDOMS AND NORTHEASTERN INDIA 
JANUARY 30 — FEBRUARY 27, 1970 

CLIP AND MAIL THIS COUPON TODAY 



I would like reservations for your Himalayan Kingdoms and Northeastern 

(HOW MANY) 

India Tour and I enclose my check for a $500 deposit for each reservation 

Name 

Address 



City State Zip 

□ Please check if single rooms are desired, at an extra charge. 



Please send information about this tour to my friends listed below: 

Name 

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Name . . 
Address 
City 



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Zip 



Page 16 FEBRUARY 



Volume 40, Number 3 March 1969 



BULLETIN FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



'^'*^ -..^i. 







HIPPO 

ROBERT RIEMER, 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



WILD CYCLAMEN— 
WALGREEN SILVER BOWL/ 
BEST COLOR PRINT 
WILLIAM J. TRIBELHORN 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 




TWO HUNDRED MILLION YEARS OF DIS- 
APPROVAL ARE WRITTEN ON THE FACE 
OF THIS MONTHS COVER SUBJECT. A 
GALAPAGOS ISLANDS TORTOISE. TUR- 
TLES WORKED THINGS OUT ABOUT 
THAT LONG AGO. AND ALL THIS SO- 
CALLED PROGRESS — BIRDS. MAMMALS. 
MEN. AND NOW MACHINES — MUST SEEM 
FRIVOLOUS. THE PHOTO, WHICH WON 
AN HONORABLE MENTION IN THE EX- 
HIBIT, IS BY GRANT HAIST. ROCHESTER. 
NEW YORK. 







CACTUS BLOSSOM— PSA MEDAL/BEST OF SHOW 
CAROLE HONIGSFELD, ENCINO, CALIF. 



from the 24th Chicago International 

Exhibition of Nature Photography 

February 1969 

sponsored by the Nature Camera Club 
of Chicago and Field Museum 



Page 2 MARCH 



SPLIT AGAVE NCC SILVER MEDAL/ 

BEST PLANT 

T. V. WHITEHOUSE, SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 





TIMBERLINE— HONORABLE MENTION 
TED FARRINGTON, CHICAGO, ILL. 




SAND MOUNTAIN 

ALEXANDER DUPPER. LODI, CALIF. 




MANDRILL— NCC SILVER MEDAL/ 

BEST ANIMAL 

EARL KUBIS, DOWNERS GROVE, ILL. 



LION FAMILY WITH KILL LUDI BLUM, JOHANNESBURG. SOUTH AFRICA 




MARCH Page 3 




DESERT DELIGHT 

JOSEPHINE D'ANGELO, CHICAGO, 



FOG 

RUSSELL K. KOMEN, WARSAW, IND. 




NEARLY 800 NATURE PHOTOGRAPHERS FROM 46 STATES, 
CANADA AND EIGHT FOREIGN COUNTRIES ENTERED THE 24TH CHICAGO INTERNATIONAL NATURE 
PHOTOGRAPHY EXHIBITION THIS YEAR. AWARDS WERE GIVEN FOR THE BEST ANIMAL, PLANT AND 
GENERAL ENTRIES IN THREE DIVISIONS— COLOR SLIDES, COLOR PRINTS AND BLACK-AND-WHITE PRINTS. 
SPECIAL AWARDS INCLUDED THE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA AWARDS FOR BEST OF SHOW 
AND THE BEST AUTHENTICATED WILDLIFE PRINT AND SLIDE, THE MYRTLE WALGREEN SILVER BOWL 
FOR THE BEST COLOR PRINT AND THE ALICE COOK MEMORIAL AWARD FOR COLOR HARMONY. 




ZEBRAS AT WATERHOLE 

W. ROSSINI, JOHANNESBURG, 



SOUTH AFRICA 



THE EAGLE SPEAKS 

LELAND LA FRANCE, CHICAGO, ILL. 




Page 4 MARCH 



Fourth Year for 
Anthropology Course 

For three years, the Raymond Foundation of Field Museum 
has conducted a pioneering Summer Science Training 
Program in Anthropology. The Program, supported by 
National Science Foundation, is designed for high ability 
secondary school students, and combines lectures, dis- 
cussion groups, workshops and field work into an excel- 
lent six- week survey of the broad range of Anthropology. 
This coming summer, the course will feature eminent 
anthropologists from local colleges and universities, who 
will work with students on such subjects as Fossil Man, 
Ancient Civilizations, African Ethnology, and Chicago's 
Ethnic Communities. The program is conducted by 
Harriet Smith, Raymond Foundation Staff Lecturer in 
Archaeology and Edith Fleming, Staff Lecturer in Ethnol- 
ogy. The fifth week of the program will be a continuation 
of an excavation program begun last summer at a local 
Indian site. Patrick and Cheryl Munson, who supervised 
the dig last year, are returning to finish the work. 




The Palos site lies in a Cook County Forest Preserve, it 
was discovered some years ago by Mr. David J. Wenner, 
Jr., a local amateur archaeologist. The generous coop- 
eration and help of the Forest Preserve personnel, partic- 
ularly Roland Eisenbeis, Superintendent of the Department 
of Conservation, and Edward Lace, Forest Preserve Natur- 
alist, were invaluable to the success of the dig. 



Mrs. Munson 
(left) discusses 
pottery found in 
one of the pits 
with students 
Robbie Little 
and Chris Carr. 




from The Palos Site: 
An Early Historic Indian Village 

near Chicago 

a site report by Cheryl Ann Munson and Patrick J. Munson 

University of Illinois, Urbana 

The Munsons, fresh from a year of digging in Africa, arrived 
in Chicago last year just in time to conduct a week long 
dig with the students of Field Museum's Summer Anthro- 
pology Program. The BULLETIN presents here the con- 
clusion of their detailed and interesting site report on a 
small Indian village apparently occupied at the time of first 
European contact in the Chicago area, 150 years before 
the city began. 

In addition to the aboriginal artifacts and features, large 
quantities of animal remains were recovered during the ex- 
cavations. Most numerous were bones of deer and fish, 
although remains of crayfish, a few fresh water mussels, 
and some as-of-yet unidentified birds, turtles, and smaller 
mammals were also recovered. These remains indicate 
that much of the economy was oriented toward deer hunting 
and fishing. 

Only two fragments of hazel nut shells and a common 
bean were found during actual excavation. Other plant 
remains were recovered however by subjecting the soil 
found in the pits to a flotation process. The soil was placed 
in a sieve and submerged in water causing the dirt and rocks 
to sink and the carbonized plant materials to float. Mater- 
ials recovered in this manner were submitted to Mr. 
Leonard W. Blake of the Missouri Botanical Garden who 
identified among them five small fragments of corncobs, 
one corn kernel, several sedge seeds, and a few seeds of 
either lamb's quarter or pigweed. The corn and bean of 
course indicate that these people were agricultural, but the 
nut shells and lamb's quarter or pigweed seeds, all of which 
are wild food plants, indicate that some gathering was also 
practiced. 

The plant and animal remains not only give some in- 
dication of the economic behavior of the people, they also 
suggest the season of occupation. Fish and mussels, and 
particularly crayfish, would have been available essentially 
only between spring and fall. However, the male deer 
skulls which were recovered all had their antlers attached, 
and since deer shed their antlers in late winter and do not 
develop a new set until late summer this would suggest that 
they must have been killed between late summer and late 
winter. But the relative scarcity of nuts from the site would 
argue against a fall-winter occupancy. Consequently, late 
summer would seem to be the primary period when the 
Palos Site was occupied. The inhabitants of the site prob- 
ably had a seasonally diversified economy, moving to other 
sites for fall, winter and spring activities such as nut gather- 
ing, hunting of certain animals, trapping and maple syrup 
making. 



MARCH Page 5 




Mr. Munson (right) maps the site, while students exca- 
vate and screen. 

As previously mentioned, perhaps the most interesting 
aspect of the excavations was the discovery of se\'eral items 
of Europ>ean manufacture deep within three pits in direct 
association with aboriginal artifacts. These items include 
a fragment of a brass or copfjer tinkler, two fragments of 
sheet brass (kettle fragments?), a fragment of a brass ring 
or other ornament made by folding in the edges of a strip 
of brass so that a B-shaped cross-section results, and a 
larger, thicker brass object of the same construction. The 
latter two items are similar to the "double wire" spring 
coil ear or hair ornaments which were found at the early 
historic Zimmerman Site near Starved Rock. Also found 
at the bottom of an aboriginal pit was a heavily corroded 
iron object containing wood in the rust. This might pos- 
sibly be a clasp knife. 

The presence of these European trade goods in associ- 
ation with artifacts of aboriginal manufacture indicates that 
the Blue Island Culture lasted into the early historic period 
and that the inhabitants of the Palos Site were trading 
either directly with Europeans or with other Indians who 
had acquired these materials from Europeans. The site 
seems therefore to have been occupied at, just after, or 
slighUy before the first European contact, which in this area 
occurred in 1673 when Father Jacques Marquette and 
Louis Jolliet traveled up the Illinois and Des Plauies rivers 
and portaged to the Chicago River and Lake Michigan. 
But the absence of glass beads at the site, which were being 
traded into northern Illinois by 1693, suggests that the site 
was occupied for no more than 20 years after the first 
period of contact. 

Students excavating storage pit and screening its contents. 




The tribal identity of groups which are known only 
archaeologically is often a difficult problem. When the 
Blue Island Culture was known only from prehistoric sites, 
some archaeologists, on the basis of the similarity of its pot- 
tery to pottery in Wisconsin which had been identified as 
prehistoric Winnebago, had very reasonably concluded that 
the Blue Island Culture sites in the Chicago region repre- 
sented encampments of Winnebago groups several hundred 
miles to the south of the area they were occupying at the 
period of first Eurojiean contact. However, one of our 
colleagues, Mr. Charles H. Faulkner, who has recently been 
working with similar remains in northeastern Indiana, has 
suggested to us that the Blue Island Culture might represent 
the Miami tribe. Since the excavations of the Palos Site 
have demonstrated that the Blue Island jseoples were living 
in the area at the beginning of the historic jjeriod, and 
since the early historical records do not mention Winnebago 
villages in the area but do note many Miami villages, we 
find Mr. Faulkner's suggestion most reasonable. 

To summarize, we have interpreted the Palos Site as 
representing a Miami camp occupied during the late sum- 
mer months between 1673 and 1693. During this part of 
the year the people subsided by hunting deer and smaller 
animals, by fishing, and by collecting some mussels and 
cra\-fish. They may have grown corn and beans near the 
site or possibly they brought to the site part of their harvest 
from fields elsewhere. Other plant foods, apparend\' in 
limited quantities, were obtained by collecting nuts and 
other wild seeds. Food was cooked and stored in pits dug 
into the ground. The people had a varied tool kit including 
stone and antler points for bow-and-arrow hunting, stone 
kni\'es and scrapers for butchering game and preparing 
hides, milling and hammerstones for cracking and grinding 
nuts and seeds, and bone awls for sewing and weaving. 
\Vell-made pottery vessels were used for cooking and stor- 
age. Unfortunately no knowledge of their house tyfjes or 
burial practices was gained from this season's invesugations, 
but it is anticipated that this deficiency will be rectified by 
additional research at this site. 

The early explorers rarely recorded detailed information 
on the life ways of the Indians they encountered, but 
through archaeology we can recover much of this missing 
information. By reconstructing the cultural patterns man- 
ifested at the Palos and other Blue Island Culture sites we 
have gained a general knowledge of the life ways of the 
Indians who inhabited the Chicago region from A.D. 1300 
to early historic times. In addition, the students who par- 
ticipated in the program have learned how archaeological 
excavations are conducted and they have participated in 
determining who the occupants of the Palos Site were, 
what kind of culture they had, and when they lived at the 
site. But perhaps most important, by answering these 
questions the students have disco\ered what can be learned 
through archaeology. During the summer of 1969, students 
in the next Summer Science Training Program in .\nthro- 
pology will return to the Palos Site and continue this 
exciting endeavor. 




The scaanin; electron microscope fills 
the gap between the optical and the 
electron microscopes, revealing an 
exciting and beautiful world to the 
author. 



Ifi Ai^ eUtn^f t4/n4^etid4^ ^iaAi 



By Alan Solem 

Curator, Lower Invertebrates 



Over the years I have become reconciled to the relevant 
absurdities that enter my mind unbidden during mo- 
ments of intense scientific thought. Hence the sudden 
eruption of Nicholas Butler's definition of an expert as 
"one who knows more and more about less and less," was 
hardly surprising. I was seated on the edge of a typist's 
chair in a darkened room, peering intensely at a small 
television screen on which there were appearing in 
sharply outlined detail, structures that I had been seek- 
ing, without success, to view for more than six years. 
This was during my first visit to Alpha Research and 
Development Company of Blue Island, Illinois, and my 
first opportunity to make use of its scanning electron 
microscope. 

Earlier that afternoon, Mr. John Brown of Alpha 
Research had placed several minute snail shells in a vac- 
uum chamber, coated them with about a 400-Angstrom 
Unit layer of pure gold, then transferred the gilded group 
into the scanning electron microscope specimen chamber. 
A sequence of flashing lights and moving dials traced the 



Top photo shows the actual size of the tiny Patau 
shell, the white dot in the center of the black back- 
ground area. Working down the page: The Patau 
sliell magnified about 75X, then 200X, and finally, 
slightly over 2000X. The original photographs 
show slightly higher magnifications, but space 
limitations in the Bulletin made it necessary to 
reduce them here. 



MARCH Page 7 



reduction of air pressure within the chamber. After a few 
minutes a buzzer signalled that operations could begin. 
By bombarding the gold film on the snail's surface with 
a 20-KV stream of elections, it was possible to produce a 
highly magnified image on a viewing screen. Sure twists 
of positioning knobs by John Brown, slight changes in 
specimen angle, adjustments of the focusing and contrast 
knobs, and there, for the first time, I could see without 
question the true sculptural structures of endodontid 
land snails. Simple clicks of a magnification control, and 
suddenly magnification of the same spot could be changed 
from SOX to 10,000X. 

Few things please a scientist more than being able to 



the infinitely greater depth of field that it produces at 
any given magnification. 1 have seen estimates indicating 
that the scanning electron microscope has 300-500 times 
the depth of field obtainable with the best optical equip- 
ment. The illustrations produced here amply demonstrate 
the high magnification and resolving power of this 
instrument. 

With this tool I could examine structures on the sur- 
face of snail shells with magnification as high as 10,000X. 
By taking a photograph at a particular magnification, 
rotating the specimen only two or three degrees and 
taking a second picture, I can obtain a stereo pair for 
viewing, and thus achieve a three-dimensional portrait 




This relative "giant" among entodontid land snails measures about 1/6 of an inch in life. This series shows the shell 
(from left) at about 60 X magnification, 180 X magnification, 600 X magnification, and 1 800 X magnification. 



confirm a pet prejudice. That afternoon was filled with 
pleasures. In three hours I answered questions that it 
had taken six years of work with the light microscope to 
ask, and, in asking, to know that I could not answer 
them. The answers to those questions lay at or beyond 
the resolution limit of the light microscope. Combining 
the microscope's shallow depth of field, a globular shell 
\\ith marked surface relief, and never enough light on 
the shell, hid the answers that I sought behind a blurred 
fog. 

Scientific progress is intimately connected with the 
continual development of new tools that extend man's 
feeble senses. Decades of careful and patient labors by 
many individuals will come up against a wall beyond 
which our. tools will not reach. 

Since »the mid-1660's, generations of scientists have 
utilized the optical microscope in studying the form and 
fine structure of living organisms. Between the range of 
the standard light microscope and the extremely high 
magnifications of the standard electron microscope, there 
was a visual gap. This has been bridged only by the 
recent production of an effective scanning electron 
microscope. 

The superiority of this instrument lies not primarily 
in the greater magnification of which it is capable, but in 



of these structures. 

Why? What is the importance of the results? 

Why did I ask the previously unanswered questions? 

For the past several years I have been studying the 
endodontid land snails of Polynesia and Micronesia. 
These are quite small, one to five millimeters in adult 
size, land snails that are generally restricted to the leaf 
litter in undisturbed forests on the high volcanic islands 
of the Pacific Basin. After studying almost 30,000 speci- 
mens I have recognized about 280 different species, the 
majority of which had not been previously described. 
My primary concern is not the comparatively simple mat- 
ter of telling species apart, but in trying to learn what 
are the relationships between species and what has been 
the pattern and pathways of evolutionary change within 
the group. My studies have not consisted solely of observ- 
ing the shells, but have included dissection of the soft 
parts wherever possible. 

Early in the study it became evident that there are two 
major taxonomic groups present on the Pacific Islands. 
Anatomical differences are numerous, discrete and easily 
observable from even fragmentary preserved specimens. 

Many species have become extinct within the last 100 
\ears and several specimens have been reco\ered from the 
deep core drilling on Bikini, Eniwetok and Funafuti 



Pages MARCH 



atolls. The specimens from the cores range in age from 
comparatively recent to perhaps 20 million years old. 
It would be most helpful in determining patterns of 
colonization to relate these shells to modern species. 
Obviously they could not be dissected. Hence, a major 
concern of mine has been to learn if there are any shell 
features which serve to distinguish sub-family groupings 
that are based on anatomical differences. For a long time, 
this search appeared unsuccessful. Almost any shell fea- 
ture that was found in members of one sub-family, was 
duplicated one or more times in specimens of the other 
sub-family. While certain average groups of characters 
seemed, in most cases, to distinguish between the dif- 



of the first few whorls is different from that on the re- 
maining whorls, but it isn't possible to make out details. 
Only at the much higher magnification and particularly 
at the 1,000 and 3,000 magnification level is it possible 
to see clearly what are the structural elements of the 
sculpture. Greater differences are demonstrated in the 
very small Fijian shell, with the apex having strands 
arranged in spiral rows and resembling some very pecu- 
liar cake decoration or strings of pasta. What seems at 
first to be a rather simple and crowded sculpture of the 
Austral Island species at higher magnification turns out 
to be an incredibly complex series of jagged-edged swirls 
and dips. 



The actual size of this entire shell is only 1 125 of an inch at its mdest dimension. With the scanning electron microscope, the exquisite details 
of its shell surface have been revealed. PYom left, 180X magnification, 600 X magnification, 1 800 X magnification, and 6600 X magnification. 




ferent groups, I was unable to pick any shell features 
that could be used, without question, to differentiate the 
subfamilies. 

The nearest I had come to a solution was an indica- 
tion that there might be some differences in the very fine 
sculpture on the shell surface. With a few exceptions, the 
sculpture on the apex seemed to correlate with the ana- 
tomical structure. These features were at the limit of 
resolution for the light microscope. I never could be cer- 
lain whether I was seeing or merely wishing to see. 

Two sessions with the scanning electron microscope 
produced results beyond my wildest expectations. Clear 
shell differences exist in the shell microsculpture. The 
technical report and conclusions will appear elsewhere, 
but here we can appreciate these shells for their beauty. 

We have chosen to show you a full series of pictures 
for a Palau Island species whose largest dimension is 
140th of an inch (see actual size picture), details from 
the center sculpture of a Fijian species whose maximum 
size is less than %5th of an inch, and details of a "giant" 
that reaches almost i/gth of an inch. Depth of field limita- 
tions made lOOX magnification an effective limit for 
examining these with the light microscope. Obviously, 
at lOOX magnification sculptural details of the Palau 
shell are scarcely visible. One can see that the sculpture 



My first question, concerning whether there were any 
shell features to separate the sub-family groupings, was 
answered in the affirmative. A more fundamental ques- 
tion was raised. What possibly could be the function of 
such complex ornamentation on the surface of very small 
snails? While we have no certain answer, ideas produced 
by these pictures will lead me back to the scanning elec- 
tron microscope and its operator, John Brown. More 
specimens, more pictures, more ideas, a new area of 
research opened, since what was "in his dim, uncertain 
sight" is clearly seen by electrons. They are far superior 
to both bifocals and binocular microscopes. 



The largest known specimen of Cypraea pulchra 
(Beautiful Cowry), three inches in length, will be the 
featured exhibit during the Fifth Annual Shell Show of 
the Chicago Shell Club at Field Museum in March. 
"Shapes and Patterns of Shells" is the focal point of 
the show which will display larger specimens of beauti- 
ful and unusual shells from all parts of the world. 
About 90 per cent of the l<nown mollusks, however, are 
very small, measuring Va inch or less in size. These, 
too, come in a marvelous array of shapes and patterns 
as demonstrated in Dr. Solem's article about some of 
the tiniest shells known. 



MARCH Page 9 



THE POTATO 

A very short history of a very valuable plant 

by Edward G. Nash 
Managing Editor 



When, in 1962, Robert Akcley of the 
Department of Agriculture wrote that 
an almost perfect diet, in terms of daily 
nutiient allowances, would be five 
pounds of boiled potatoes and a quart 
of milk, I, for one, detected not a ripple 
of public comment. That the potato 
and the cow might well be considered 
man's best friends went almost com- 
pletely vmnoticed. When Akeley went 
on to say that 11 pounds of potatoes 
would have to be eaten, to gain an ex- 
cess of one pound of body fat, compared 
to four pounds of round beef, the silence 
was almost deafening. And still today, 
when the people of this weight-watching 
land start thinking "diet," one of the 
first items to go is the innocent (rela- 
tively) potato. 

Admirers of the plant should not be 
surprised by this; the potato has had a 
difficult time of it in its short history as 
a food plant of worldwide importance. 
More than 30 years ago, Berthold 
Laufer, then Chief Curator of Anthro- 
pology at Field Museum, wrote of 
Solarium tuberosum, "First misjudged, de- 
spised, and ostracized in Europe — even 
persecuted on account of its nightshade 
affinities and maliciously slandered for 
its alleged poisonous properties — the 
potato remained for a long time the 
sustenance of the poor only." 

Botanically, the plant is a member of 
the family Solanaceae, the Nightshade 
family. The very large genus Solatium, 
2,000 or so species, contains the egg- 
plant as well as the potato, and is so 
closely related to the tomato, Lycoper- 
sicon, that some botanists believe the 
two genera should be combined. The 
family contains, as well, the red pepper, 
belladonna, henbane, the Jimson weed, 
tobacco and the petunia, as varied a lot 
as might be found in a large human 
family. After the grasses and the le- 
gumes, Solanaceae is probably the most 



important plant family to Man. But 
the potato's relationship to some very 
deadly plants may well have slowed its 
spread. A European who understood 
very well the political usefulness of, say, 
belladonna, might be unwilling to test 
the nutritional value of its kin. 

The first Europeans known to have 
eaten potatoes were members of a small 
Spanish scouting party in what is now 
the Republic of Colombia. Early in 
1537, the expedition of Gonzalo Jimenez 
de Quesada was struggling through the 
dense forest of the Magdalena Valley. A 
small patrol worked its way up onto the 
plateau to the east and entered the 
Indian village of Sorocota. The na- 
tives fled and, searching the houses, the 
Spaniards found maize, beans and 
"truffles" that were a "dainty dish even 
for Spaniards." He had eaten, of course, 
a potato. 

The plant had been cultivated in 
South America for many centuries; 
more than any other crop, it enabled 
the Peruvian Indian to survive on the 
high, cold, barren Andean plateau. The 
Indians had even developed a freeze- 
dry technique for preserving the tubers 
the year round. In this form, chuno, it 
is still a staple food in the Andes. 

The Spanish, as they developed their 
enormous colonial empire in the New 
World, were quick to see the value of 
the potato as food for the Indians. For- 
times were made transporting chuno to 
the great forced labor mines of Peru and 
Bolivia. The gold and silver of the 
Spanish treasure ships were dug with 
the energy supplied by Solarium. The 
very importance of this food to the 
Indian cheapened it in the eyes of the 
conquerors, and the Spanish never 
understood that the plant itself was 
worth far more than all the precious 
metals they sought. 

Bv 1570 or so. Solanum tuberosum had 



reached Spain, probably as an orna- 
mental plant, or in some ship's stores. 
It was little grown. It turns up in Italy 
a little later and the great herbalists 
began to study it. How it reached Eng- 
land is not clear, but the tradition is 
that Sir Walter Raleigh imported it. 
This could well be true; he was deeply 
interested in agriculture. Raleigh may 
also have introduced it into Ireland. 

In continental Europe, the plant 
spread slowly. It took a royal decree, 
during a famine after the Seven Years' 
War (1763) to bring the plant into cul- 
tivation in Prussia. In Sweden simi- 
larly, the government had to insist on 
its use. In western Europe, the Indus- 
trial Revolution, which required large 
non-farming populations, sparked the 
spread of the plant. In the east, popu- 
lation pressure helped. The potato, 
under ideal conditions, will produce 
more pounds of food per acre than al- 
most any other staple — five times as 
much as rice and ten times the yield 
of wheat per acre, on average. 

But in no country did the food be- 
come more important — to the exclusion 
of almost every other crop — than in 
Ireland. By the 1840s, the Irish had 
been growing the crop for more than 
two hundred years. They were abso- 
lutely dependent on it. When the fun- 
gus Phytophthora infestans blighted the 
potato crops of Europe in the middle 
forties, Ireland was laid waste. By the 
close of the decade, the population of 
that unhappy island had declined by 
2} 2 million people. Many, a million 
perhaps, emigrated to Canada and the 
United States; the others died. Those 
who fled the Famine, and their des- 
cendants, have made enormous contri- 
butions to this country. 

In America, potato consumption 
has been declining, due, to some extent, 
to the prejudice of the weight-watchers. 
We use slightly over 100 pounds a year 
per capita. In France, Germany, and 
Central Europe the use is four times as 
great. Still, as Richard Bissell implies 
in the subtitle to his recent book "How 
Many Miles to Galena?", it is nearly 
impossible to go to an American res- 
taurant without having to answer the 
universal question "Baked, hashed 
brown or French fried?" 



Page 10 MARCH 



ir^ks to Hqe Past 



By Patricia M. Williams 
Field Museum Press 







hi' ' * S\ 



^>s! 







Mf^* 



^/j*!**' 






This necklace indicates the antiquity of bold jewelry designs employing chains. It is made of three Roman gold coins set in circular 

double gold frames, forming three pendants on an ornamental chain. 



Women the world over are in chains — not because they are 
in bondage, but because they are in fashion. Giorgio di 
Sant' Angelo, a currendy popular New York designer, has 
made a great success by wrapping his clients in 85-foot 
lengths of gold chain and recently appeared at the Metro- 
politan Museum with 34 gold chain necklaces hanging 
around his neck. There are chains for belts, necklaces, 
headbans, bracelets and anklets. The Chicago Tribune pre- 
dicts, "1969 should be the year of the big boom for jewelers, 
catering as they will be to the suddenly insatiable appetite 
on the part of both men and women for jeweled baubles, 
bangles, even belts." 

Most of the chains and jewels which will satisfy this 
"insatiable appetite" are inspired by, if not frankly copied 
from, jewelry of the past. Renaissance belts and necklaces 
encrusted with jewels, beads of the American Indian, golden 
Egyptian serpents coiled into bracelets, bell necklaces of 
India and dangling Moroccan earrings are all heaped on 
together to create a fantastic, clanking smorgasbord of 
glitter. 

Carlyle once observed, "The first spiritual want of man 



is Decoration" and this is reflected in the collections of 
Field Museum. Primitive man used almost any small ob- 
jects that could be stnmg together — berries, seeds, feathers, 
sea shells, bone, teeth and claws of animals — to create orna- 
ments which were worn for both decoration and magical or 
religious powers. 

The oldest of all records concerning jewelry making are 
found in Egypt. Egyptian jewelers were practicing their 
craft thousands of years ago — not in a primitive way, but 
with the skill and technique born of years of experience. 
Precious metals and gems were lavished over vases, furni- 
ture and chariots, as well as the Egyptians themselves. 
Everybody — rich and poor, adult and child — owned beads. 

Beads have been called the "Adam and Eve of the 
jewelry family" and have endured in various forms through- 
out the ages. "The trade routes of early times may be 
traced by the beads which blazed their trails. And wher- 
ever the bead went there too, of necessity, went some wave 
of influence caused by the intercourse between various 
countries."' 

Beads appear, too, in the history of early America as 



MARCH Page 77 



they were used to barter with the Indians. Like other ex- 
plorers, Marquette and Joliet carried beads with them as 
gifts for the Indians and Powhattan is known to have sent 
a chain of pearls to John Smith. 

Not only beads, but jewelry of all kinds bedecked the 
rich Roman lady of fashion. Although the following quote 
from 5000 Tears of Gems and Jewelry refers to ancient Rome, 
it could apply to modern man as well. 

"It is curious to note how the ancient Roman jewelry 
reflects the spirit of the times and proclaims, like a blast of 
trumpets, the arrogant pride of riches. The heavy, opulent 
necklaces, bracelets, and rings fairly wallow in wealth of 
gold and suggest that the pieopie who wore them were some- 
what larger than life."- 

Graeco-Roman rings, golden bracelets and necklaces 
studded with stones, dating from 1-400 a.d., are on dis- 




One of a pair of silver ankle bracelets from Nepal. Fashion designers 
predict that similar ornaments may be "in" this year. Jewelry in- 
spired by India remains popular — for the daring and sure of foot, 
an item like that below may be appropriate. It has rings for the big 
and little toes, joined by an elaborate chain-link band. 





This silver chandrahar ("moon necklace") from Nepal 
would warm the heart of any chain-link aficionado. De- 
signs for much of the jewelry currently in fashion is cen- 
turies old. 



play in the Museum's fabulous Hall of Gems. A jewelry- 
lover from any time in history would revel in the treasures 
displayed in this room. There are Egyptian bracelets, rings 
and amulets dating back to 1800 B.C., fashioned of the 
finest gold. Golden Etruscan jewelry of almost unequalled 
delicacy dates back to 7-500 B.C. and provides sharp con- 
trast to the huge silver pieces from the hill tribes of Algeria 
displayed in a nearby case. All through the Museum's 
anthropology exhibits there are indications of man's uni- 
versal fondness for jewelry, all of which adds confidence to 
the security of the jeweler's ciaft. Other crafts may come 
and go, but as long as there are precious metals, jewels and 
people to wear them, the jeweler's craft will endure. 

', ' Francis Rogers and Alice Beard, 5000 Years of Gems and 
Jewelry. Lippincott Co., New York, 1947. 309 pp. 



Page 12 .M.ARCH 



"Plants of Illinois," the Spring Journey for young 
people, will emphasize some of the common, and not-so- 
common, wild flowers and plants found in Illinois. By 
learning to identify some of the plants in the Museum's 
botany halls, boys and girls can readily recognize them 
outdoors this spring and summer, increasing their knowl- 
edge and enjoyment of nature. 

The Journey begins in an Illinois woodland (Hall 29) 
where a wide variety of wild flowers appears in great 
numbers in the spring. They are usually short-lived, be- 
cause, as the trees leaf out, the amount of sunlight reach- 
ing the forest floor decreases sharply. 

A familiar spring wild flower is the jack-in-the-pulpit, 
also called the Indian turnip. Indians boiled the turnip- 
like roots before eating them. Eating the raw roots 
creates a burning sensation in the mouth and tongue. 
The white trillium, one of several species in Illinois, 
becomes pink in color as it matures. Of 24 species of 
violets found here, the blue violet is one of the most 
common and abundant and is, appropriately, our state 
flower. 

A number of interesting jilants are also included in 
the Spring Journey. Mistletoe is a small shrubby plant 
that grows on trees. Birds carry the sticky seeds to trees. 
Upon sprouting, the seeds send root-like suckers through 
the bark so that some nourishment can be obtained from 
the tree. The bloodroot, named for the orange-red juice 
in its roots, has poisonous stems, roots and juice. The 
Indian pipe, found in deep, shady woods, lacks chloro- 
phyll, so it cannot make its own food. It obtains nu- 
trients from decaying wood or from other decomposing 
plant matter. 

Many of Illinois' plants are found in marshes, swamps, 
bogs and in streams and ponds. The tiny flowers of the 
cattail are packed in dense, sausage-shaped spikes. This 
plant offers some food and cover to various species of 
wildlife. The arrowhead, named after its arrow-shaped 
leaves, is sometimes called the duck potato, and water- 
fowl, as well as muskrats, feed on its underwater corms 
or tubers. 

The bladderwort is a rootless plant that grows in water. 
Small bladder-like traps on the leaves often catch small 
insects or crustaceans which the plant absorbs or digests 
to get nutrients. Another "carnivorous" plant found in 
bogs in Northern Illinois is the pitcher plant, which re- 
ceives part of its nourishment from insects caught in its 
water-filled, pitcher-like leaves. 

Open fields contain a wealth of plant life that may 
also be found in vacant lots, backyards and along road- 
sides. The Jerusalem artichoke, or tuberous sunflower, a 
plant native to the United States, has been introduced 
into Europe. Its tubers are eaten and are supposed to 
taste much like potatoes. Both chicory and dandelions 
originally come from Europe. Although commonly re- 
garded as weeds, both are very useful to man. Dandelion 
leaves may be used in salads and the flowers made into 
wine. Chicory roots can be eaten raw, like carrots, or 



Spring Journey 

Plants of Illinois 




The lady's slipper, or moccasin plant, is one of the prettiest of the 
northern orchids. 

when roasted, may serve as a substitute for coffee. 

Both the common and giant ragweed, often sources of 
irritation to those suffering from allergies, produce seeds 
that are eaten by many birds in winter. The milkweed, 
named for the milky juice in its leaves and stems, pro- 
duces fluffy seeds that are spread by the wind. The 
prickly pear, or dune cactus, is found in sandy areas of 
Illinois, such as the dunes region of southern Lake 
Michigan. 

Poison ivy is found in many places in the state and in 
a variety of forms. It takes practice to make sure identi- 
fications of these plants. Even the leaves may vary in 
outline and size. In summer it has white flowers; in fall, 
white, waxy berries. The plant's fluid is irritating to 
human skin, and touching any part of the plant may 
result in blistering and itching. 

The plants featured on the Journey are varied, but 
represent only a small portion of the flora found in 
Illinois. 

The Raymond Foundation's Journey Program is 
planned to help children discover items of interest in 
the Museum. Four different Journeys are offered each 
year. When a child successfully completes four Journeys, 
he receives a Traveler's Award. An Adventurer's Award 
is given to a child completing eight Journeys; an Ex- 
jjlorer's Award to a child completing 12 Journeys. 

Upon completion of 16 Journeys, the Explorer becomes 
a Beagler and is presented with a copy of Charles Dar- 
win's Voyage of the Beagle. After reading this book and 
taking a special journey through the Museum to see 
items related to Darwin's historic Journey, the boy or 
girl becomes a member of the Museum's Discoverer's Club. 
Journeys are offered free to any child who can read 
and write. Information on the program and Journey 
sheets can be obtained at Museum entrances. 

— George Fricke, Raymond Fondation 



MARCH Page 13 




"Running the Rapids." (Illustrations from original engravings in 
Powell's report to Congress.) 

In every century there have been men who, fired by 
a desire for knowledge or personal glory and love of 
adventure, have braved disaster and death to conquer 
the unknown: to go where no man has gone before and 
to see what no human eyes have seen before. One such 
man was Major John Wesley Powell (1834-1902), the 
pioneer explorer of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado 
River. This is the centennial year of that achievement 
and those who elect to take the Museum's Grand Canyon 
tour will have the pleasure of following part of the 
course of his expedition. 

On May 24th, 1869, Major Powell set out from Green 
River City in Utah with a party of nine men and four 
boats. His plan was to follow the Green River to the 
Colorado and the Colorado to the foot of the Grand 
Canyon. He knew that his point of departure was 6,000 
feet above sea level and that during the course of his 
expedition he would descend more than a mile. This 
meant that falls and rapids would be numerous and quite 
possibly deadly. He was also well aware of the many 
rumors and stories told "in the hunter's cabin and the 
prospector's camp." In his Exploration of the Colorado 
River of the West and its Tributaries . . . (Washington, 
1875) he wrote: "Stories were related of parties entering 
the gorge in boats, and being carried down with fearful 
velocity into whirlpools, where all were overwhelmed in 
the abyss of waters; others, of underground passages for 
the great river, into which boats had passed never to be 
seen again. It was currently believed that the river was 
lost under the rocks for several hundred miles. There 
were other accounts of great falls, whose roaring music 



could be heard on the distant mountain-summits. There 
were many stories current of parties wandering on the 
brink of the caiion, vainly endeavoring to reach the 
waters below, and perishing with thirst at last in sight 
of the river which was roaring its mockery into dying 
ears." 

Powell's appreciation of the risks he was taking was 
shown by the great care with which he made his prepara- 
tions. He spent two years making geological studies 
among the heads of the canyons leading to the Colorado 
and collected all the information that he could. He had 
his boats built here in Chicago to his specifications: 
"Three are built of oak; stanch and firm; double-ribbed, 
with double stem and stern posts, and further strength- 
ened by bulkheads, dividing each into three compart- 
ments. Two of these, the fore and aft, are decked, form- 
ing water-tight cabins. It is expected these will buoy the 
boats should the waves roll over them in rough water. 
The little vessels are twenty-one feet long, and, taking 
out the cargoes, can be carried by four men. The fourth 
boat is made of pine, very light, but sixteen feet in 
length, with a sharp cut-water, and every way built for 
fast rowing, and divided into compartments as the 
others." The necessary equipment and provisions for ten 
months were divided into three equal parts and distri- 
buted among the boats so that the expedition would 
"not be entirely destitute of some important article 
should any of the boats be lost." 

These preparations were found to be well warranted, 
for the expedition soon encountered the first of a great 
number of rapids and falls. On June 9th one of the 
boats was completely wrecked and one of its crewmen 
left the expedition a month later saying that he had 
"seen dangers enough." The rest of the party moved on, 
gradually adjusting to the difiiculties and learning to 
master them. Powell quickly developed his method of 
taking the boats through the rapids: "The 'Emma Dean' 
[named for his wife] goes in advance; the other boats 
follow, in obedience to signals. When we approach a 
rapid, or what, on other rivers, would often be called a 
fall, I stand on deck to examine it, while the oarsmen 
back water, and we drift on as slowly as possible. If I 
can see a clear chute between the rocks, away we go; but 
it the channel is beset entirely across, we signal the other 
boats, pull to land, and I walk along the shore for closer 
examination. If this reveals no clear channel, hard work 
begins. We drop the boats to the very head of the dan- 
gerous place, and let them over by lines, or make a 
portage, frequently carrying both boats and cargoes over 
the rocks, or, perhaps, only the cargoes, if it is safe to let 
the boats down." There were frequent spills and mis- 
haps. While running a rapid on July 11th Powell was 
thrown from the boat: "I soon find that swimming is 
very easy, and I cannot sink. It is only necessary to ply 
strokes sufficient to keep my head out of the water, 
though now and then, when a breaker rolls over me, I 
close my mouth, and am carried through it. The boat 



Page 14 MARCH 



is drifting ahead of me twenty or thirty feet, and, when 
the great waves are passed, I overtake it, and find Sum- 
ner and Dunn clinging to her. As soon as we reach 
quiet water, we all swim to one side and turn her over." 
1 he boats were frequently swamped and the provisions 
wetted again and again. July 18th was spent "obtaining 
the time, and spreading our rations, which, we find, are 
badly injured. The flour has been wet and dried so 
many times that it is all musty, and full of hard lumps. 
We make a sieve of mosquito netting, and run our flour 
through it, losing more than two hundred pounds by 
the process. Our losses, by the wrecking of the [boat], 
and by various mishaps since, together with the amount 
thrown away today, leave us little more than two months' 
supplies, and, to make them last thus long, we must be 
fortunate enough to lose no more." 

On August 13th the expedition arrived at the begin- 
ning of the "Great Unknown," the Grand Canyon. 
Powell wrote: "We are three quarters of a mile in the 
depths of the earth, and the great river shrinks into in- 
significance, as it dashes its angry waves against the walls 
and cliffs, that rise to the world above; they are but 
puny ripples, and we but pigmies, running up and down 
the sands, or lost among the boulders. We have an un- 
known distance yet to run; an unknown river yet to ex- 
plore. What falls there are, we know not; what rocks 
beset the channel, we know not; what walls rise over the 
river, we know not. Ah, well! we may conjecture many 
things. The men talk as cheerfully as ever; jests are 
bandied about freely this morning; but to me the cheer 
is somber and the jests are ghastly." In the canyon the 
rapids and falls followed each other in quick succession 
and some seemed almost impossible to run or portage. It 
rained continually, adding to the burdens of the party. 
Sup]jlies were running low, and on August 17th there 
remained "only musty flour sufiicient for ten days, a few 
dried apples, but plenty of coffee." After many vicissi- 
tudes they emerged from the rapids on the 21st. "Good 
cheer returns," Powell wrote, "We forget the storms, and 
the gloom, and cloud covered canons, and the black 
granite, and the raging river, and push our boats from 
shore in great glee." 

The boats moved swiftly now. On August 25th, 
Powell noted: "Thirty five miles today. Hurrahl" and 
on the 26th: "A few days like this and we are out of 
prison." But the 27th brought disappointment, for a 
new and very dangerous set of rapids appeared and 
Powell decided to run them the next morning. That 
evening three of his men, believing that to continue 
would lead to certain destruction, decided to leave the 
expedition and to climb out of the canyon. Powell was 
determined to go on: "To leave the exploration un- 
finished, to say that there is a part of the caiion which I 
cannot explore, having already almost accomplished it, 
is more than I am willing to acknowledge." The next 
morning the remainder of the party, six men in two 
boats, pushed on, leaving behind everything except the 




"The Grand Canon, looking east from To-rd-weap." 

provisions and the expedition's map and records. The 
rapids were successfully run, though with great difiBculty, 
and by evening the men were safely out of danger. At 12 
o'clock on August 29th the expedition passed out of the 
Grand Canyon. "Now," Powell wrote, "the danger is 
over; now the toil has ceased; now the gloom has dis- 
appeared; now the firmament is bounded only by the 
horizon; and what a vast expanse of constellations can 
be seen! The river rolls by us in silent majesty; the 
quiet of the camp is sweet; our joy is almost ecstasy." 

The full story of this extraordinary expedition may be 
read in Major Powell's Exploration of the Colorado 
OF THE West and its Tributaries, of which there have 
been several reprints, one in paperback. It is a fascinat- 
ing book, written in a concise and engaging style. One 
of its most refreshing qualities is the modesty of its 
author; he neglects to mention that he has lost an arm 
at the battle of Shiloh and was one-handed when he 
made his epic descent of the Colorado. 



Field Museum's 17-day Grand Canyon Tour (Septem- 
ber 12-28) will be an exciting trip commemorating 
Major Powell's triumph in being the first to navigate 
the Colorado River. Led by Dr. Matthew H. Nitecki, 
Assistant Curator of Fossil Invertebrates, tour members 
will use the safest and best riding animals and boats 
available, with expert guides on hand as they explore 
the geology and natural wonders of the area. All ex- 
penses (transportation, accommodations, meals, etc.) 
and a $200 tax-deductible donation to Field Museum 
are included in the $1,025 cost of the Tour, which is 
limited to 28 persons. Additional information and res- 
ervations are available by writing: Grand Canyon Tour, 
Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois, 60605. 



MARCH Page 15 



Teschendorf Named Security Chief 

August N. Teschendorf, a former investigator with the Bureau of Investi- 
gation and Identification of the State of Illinois, has been appointed Field 
Museum's Chief of Security. In his new position, Mr. Teschendorf will super- 
vise the Guard force and be responsible for the development and implemen- 
tation of an expanded safety and security program for the Museum. A 
graduate in police administration from Michigan State University, he has 
lectured at several area universities. 

Rowley Fellowship Fund Established 

Field Museum has received $25,000 from the estate of the late Stella M. 
Rowley for the purpose of establishing the William A. and Stella M. Rowley 
Fellowship Fund. The investment income from this fund will be used for 
"the purpose of giving some worthwhile student or students the privilege 
and benefit of continuing his or her studies in a field related to the purposes 
of the Museum," according to the terms of Mrs. Rowley's will. Students will 
be chosen from undergraduate and graduate levels in academic areas corre- 
sponding to the Museum's four departments. Anthropology, Botany, Geology 
and Zoology. 

CALENDAR OF EVENTS March hours: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily. 

March 1 Film-Lecture Series "South Seas Saga" by John Nicholls Booth. 
2:30 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. 

March 2 "Earth, Life and Man" 75th Anniversary Lecture Series "The 
Gentle Art of Rubbing" by Dr. Kenneth Starr, Curator, Asiatic Archae- 
ology and Ethnology. 2:30 p.m. in the Lecture Hall. 

March 8 Film-Lecture Series "Ranch and Range" by Al Wool. 2:30 p.m. in 
the James Simpson Theatre. 

March 9 "Earth, Life and Man" 75th Anniversary Lecture Series "The 
TuLLY Monster and Other Wonders" by Dr. Eugene Richardson, Jr., 
Curator, Fossil Invertebrates. 2:30 p.m. in the Lecture Hall. 

March 15 Film-Lecture Series "The Far, Far North" by Walter J. Brecken- 
ridge. 2:30 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. 

March 22 Film-Lecture Series "The Conquest of El Sumidero" by Jack 
Currey. 2:30 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. 

March 23 "This Earth, This Realm, This England" by C. P. Lyons. Spon- 
sored by the Illinois Audobon Society, the film includes a visit to Slim- 
bridge, the world's largest and most varied waterfowl preserve. 2:30 p.m. 
in the James Simpson Theatre. Admission is free. 

March 29 Film Lecture Series "Western Discovery" by Laurel Reynolds. 
2:30 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. 

March 1-30 Fifth Annual Shell Show Sponsored by the Chicago Shell 
Club, the show includes outstanding collections of rare and beautiful shells 
from around the world. Hall 9 Gallery. Admission is free. 

Through March Spring Journey "Plants of Illinois" The newest do-it-your- 
self tour introduces boys and girls to common and not-so-common plants 
to be found in the swamplands, woodlands and fields of Illinois. Guide 
sheets for the free Raymond Foundation Program are available at Museum 
entrances. 

Chicago Shell Club, March 9, 2 p.m. 

Nature Camera Club of Chicago, March 11, 7:45 p.m. 

MEETINGS: Chicago Mountaineering Club, March 13, 8 p.m. 
Illinois Orchid Society, March 16, 2 p.m. 
Great Lakes Chapter of Sierra Club, March 18, 7:30 p.m. 



FIELD MUSEUM 
OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr. 
Chicago, Illinois 60605 

Founded by Marshall Field, 189.1 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Lester Armour 
Harry 0. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 

William McCormick Blair 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 
Hughston M. McBain 
Remick McDowell 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John S. Runnells 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Gerald A. Sivage 
Edward Byron Smith 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Louis Ware 
E. Leland Webber 
J. Howard Wood 

HONORARY TRUSTEES 

Joseph N. Field 
William V. Kahler 
James L. Palmer 

OFFICERS 

Remick McDowell President 
Harry 0. Bercher, Vice-President 
Bowen Blair, Vice-President 
John M. Simpson, Vice-President 
Edward Byron Smith, 

Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 
E. Leland Webber, Secretary 

DIRECTOR OF THE MUSEUM 

E. Leland Webber 

CHIEF curators 

Donald Collier, 

Department of Anthropology 
Louis 0. Williams, 

Department of Botany 
Rainer ^angerl, 

Department of Geology 
Austin L. Rand, 

Department of ^Zoology 

BULLETIN 



Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 



Page 16 MARCH 



BULLETIN FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Volume 40, Number 4 April 1969 





Childhood, to a child, seems endless; to an adult, 
watching children play, it seems timeless. We 
can hear the chants and see the games today 
that we ourselves used, and our parents before us. 
The boys celebrating the rites of spring on this 
month's cover are twelfth century Chinese, but 
their activities are twentieth century American, 
and a short walk in a Chicago park on a 
Saturday in spring would unroll the rest of this 
ancient painting. 

The work is a scroll painting on silk, a Ming 
(1368-1664) copy of a Sung (Twelfth Century) 
painting by Su Han-Ch'en, called "The Hundred 
Youths." It is on display in Hall 32, at Field 
Museum. 

Of special interest among the games being played 
in the portion of the scroll we have reproduced 
this month, are the little group playing Mongols 
and Mandarins (Twelfth Century cowboys and 
Indians) on the back cover and the kite flyer in 
the upper right hand panel, one of the earliest 
depictions of kite flying known. 
As our contribution to spring. Field Museum is 
presenting a Special Exhibit, 'The Wind in My 
Hands," in Hall 9 Gallery. On display will be old 
and new kites from many parts of the world and 
from several well-known collections, including 
that of Charles Eames, the designer, and of 
Ben Blinn, a Columbus, Ohio, kitist. 

Patricia Williams, of the Bulletin staff, writes 
on kites in the next few pages, and on page 5, 
•by kind permission of James Wagenvoorn, 
author of "Flying Kites," published by The 
Macmillan Company, we reprint instructions 
for several kites. They are, we hope, easy 
enoagh to make that you can impress your 
children without losirig your temper. 




A bird-shaped kite from the Padang High- 
lands, Sumatra, collected by L. C. Cole on 
the Arthur B. Jones Expedition to Malay- 
sia, 1922-23. In Field Museum's col- 
lections. 



Today our skies are filled with planes of all sizes, moon- 
bound rockets, weather-transmitting satellites, deadly pol- 
lutants, and even a few birds. Still, p)eople continue to 
send kites sloft amid the vapor trails to gracefully perform 
their age-old dance with the wind. When Charlie Brown 
of the Peanuts gang, a well-known "kite-ist," isn't hope- 
lessly snarled in his kite string, he is fighting a losing battle 
with a sinister kite-eating tree, but still he pjersists because, 
as kite authority H. Waller Fowler, Jr. says, "There is 
something about building and flying your own kite that 
gets into the blood." 

Fowler must be right because the kite has had a longer 
consecutive run as a plaything than any other toy except 
the doll. Kites were flown in China long before the be- 
ginnings of written history and over the )ears have served 
a variety of practical as well as playful uses. For example, 
kites have been used "as aids to oriental fishermen, when 
their hooks are su.spended from above and no tell-tale 
shadows are thrown upon the water; as transports for air- 
borne firework displays; as probers of clouds for the secrets 
of lightning; as aerial tugs to haul horseless carriages across 
land, and boats across water; . . . and as savers of life in 
the last war when they raised the radio aerials from the 
life-rafts of aircrews adrift at sea." In some civilizations, 
including the Polynesian, kites seem to have had some 
function as symbols of an external soul and were clearly 
associated with deities and heroes. For obvious reasons, 
kites were also looked upon as a means of contact with the 
heavens. 



Page 2 APRIL 





byfatnciaAAVvllanns 
Field Museum Ress 



The spirits were involved in one of the kite's greatest 
military coups, too. When Huan Theng, a great scholar 
and advisor to an emperor of the Han dynasty, was assigned 
to think of a plan to defeat the enemy besieging the palace, 
he used kites. He had several made and attached bamboo 
sounding devices to them. Under the cover of darkness the 
kites were lofted above the enemy and the sounding devices 
moaned and wailed as they vibrated with the wind. Huan 
Theng next sent men into the enemy camp to spread the 
word that the moans and wails were warnings from the gods. 
The enemy fled, the kites were reeled in and the seige was 
over. 

Reversing this procedure somewhat, superstitious people 
in China now fly kites equipped with sounding devices to 
protect their homes from the evil spirits of the night. 

The military has found many uses for kites. Men were 
hoisted aloft to observe operations behind enemy lines, over 
hills or inside forts; William the Conqueror used kites to 
give the signal for a general attack during the battle of 
Hastings; a general of long ago used a kite to draw a line 
across a stream, then used the line to draw a cable across 
and in this way began a bridge — a method which has been 
used by modern engineers. 

The airplane grounded most military kites, but it was 
reported that during World War H some Nazi submarines 
carried large, thrcc-bladcd helicopter-like kites which were 
used to lift a crew member into the air for long-range ob- 
servation. Of course, the sub had to run along the surface 
of the water to create a breeze. The system apparently 
worked well unless an enemy craft appeared unexpectedly. 
The ensuing crash dive must have come as a miserably ab- 
rupt and terminal finale for the high-flying observer. 

Speaking of miserably abrupt finales, several experi- 
ments with man-carrying kites were conducted before suc- 
cess was achieved. The following is an excerpt from a letter 
written by a man who was a kite-passenger at the age of 11 : 

". . . but I found no mention of Dr. Jules Laval of Dijon 
who, in 1854, made several experiments with a kite at least 
10 meters high by 6 wide, flown by four or five men. -At 




The Aerial Voyage of Domingo Gonsales, from Francis 
Godwin's "The Man in the Moone, or a Discourse of a 
Voyage Thither by Domingo Gonsales the Speedy Messen- 
ger," published in 1638. Godvrin was the bishop of Here- 
ford; his work had a considerable influence on literature and 
Sxvift is said to have derived from it the idea of the flying 
island in Gulliver's Travels {1727). Gonsales' trip to the 
moon took eleven days. Travel time to our satellite has since 
been cut to 6 days, round trip. 



the end of its tail it carried a little wickerwork chair, in 
which he got me to sit, holding on to me by means of a rope. 
At this time the kite was some 50 meters in the air ... I fell 
from a height of 9 or 10 meters, but quite slowly and was 
not injured. 

We returned home and I have never again flown from 
a kite." 

This child-bearing kite was easily eclipsed in 1894 by 
Capt. B. S. F. Baden-Powell's 36-foot kite which lifted a 
man 100 feet into the air. The following year Baden- 
Powell topped himself by lifting a 150 lb. man about 100 
feet in the air with a train of five 12-foot kites. 

Benjamin Franklin, a celebrated kite-flyer, conducted 
his famo\is exp>eriment in June, 1752 to demonstrate the 
electrical nature of lightning. Joseph Priestley wrote the 
following description of this experiment based on informa- 
tion from Franklin: "The kite being raised, a considerable 



APRIL Page S 





Alexander Graham Bell's "Siamese Twin Kite," in December 1905. Bell designed a 
series of kites, all based on a single tetrahedal module, which he duplicated hundreds of 
times in various constructions. The Siamese Turin kite required a 25-mile-an-hour irind 
to lift off. (Photo courtesy and copyright National Geographic Society and the Bell 
family) 



Kiting on Long Island 



time elapsed before there was any app)earance of its being 
electrified. One very promising cloud had passed over it 
without any effect; when, at length, just as he was begin- 
ning to despair of his contrivance, he observed some loose 
threads of the hemjsen string to stand erect, and to avoid 
one another, just as if they had been suspended on a com- 
mon conductor. Struck with this promising apf)earance, 
he immediately presented his knuckle to the key, and (let 
the reader judge of the exquisite pleasure he must have felt 
at that moment) the discovery was complete. He perceived 
a very evident electric spark." As Fowler notes, "It is a 
miracle a bolt of lightning didn't wreck both him and the 
experiment. He did have a silk ribbon between the wet 
line and his hand, but that would seem slight insulation 
against the force of lightning." 

In 1749, three years before Franklin's experiments with 
the electric kite. Dr. Alexander Wilson and Thomas Melville 
of Scotland used kites to carry thermometers into the upper 
air to record temperatures high above the earth. For many 
years thereafter weather observations were taken by kites 
carrying the small recording instruments aloft. In fact, the 
world's record for altitude with kites was made at a mete- 
orological observation point at Mount W'eather, Virginia 
on May 5, 1910 when a train of ten kites took about 8J/^ 
miles of piano wire to a height of 23,835 feet. This was no 
casual effort made by one man running along an of)en field 
to loft his kite. It involved a full crew of men, a ground 
winch and several hours of work. 

The United States Weather Bureau stopped using kites 
after 1931, partly because the kite wires endangered air- 



planes and partly because more efficient methods of col- 
lecting data had been developed. 

While our aeronautical and scientific exjjertise has 
generally eliminated most of its practical jobs, the kite 
lingers on. Kite-flying has long been a national pastime 
of the Koreans, Chinese, Japanese and Malayans. In his 
book Chinese Kites, David F. Jue describes a number of 
unusual kite events including The Festival of Ascending on 
High which takes place from the first to the ninth of Sep- 
tember. "After school, students fly kites of all shapes and 
designs. On the ninth day of the festival, the schools declare 
a holiday so that all of the pupils can fly their kites to their 
hearts' content. At the end of the day, when one is finished 
flying his kite, one lets the kite go, string and all. All of 
the evil, bad luck, and sickness are carried away with the 
kite. Custom requires that whoever finds the kite after it 
has fallen to the ground must burn it, just as we burn 
Christmas trees after Christmas." 

Here in America, too, where we are confronted with an 
ever-growing fund of leisure time, the kite fulfills a unique 
and versatile role. Kite-addicts enthusiastically tout kite- 
flying as one of the few sjrorts that can be enjoyed alone, 
with friends, or in competition with others. Windless or 
rainy days may be passed by building kites ranging from 
the basic "3-sticker" to elaborate and artistic kites in the 
shapes of birds, men, ships, butterflies and dragons. The 
project can carry you through "planning, construction and 
control. You are architect, conuactor and pilot in rapid 
succession." Best and most satisfying of all — your creation 
wilier. 



Page 4 APRIL 



Tailless Malay (Eddy) Kite 

Sticks: 2 (A) sticks, %" x %"x42" 

This is a version of the kite patented by photographer 
William Eddy in 1897. It is easy to build and flies ex- 
tremely well. 

Tie the sticks together at the midpoint of the cross stick 
and 9 inches down from the top of the vertical stick. 

Bend the cross stick 4 inches and tie securely. The kite 
is then ready to be covered with strong paper or cloth. 

The bridle for this particular kite is 63 inches long. A 
rule of thumb to keep in mind when building Malay kites of 
various sizes is that the bridle string should be one and one- 
half times the length of the vertical stick. The flying line 
should be tied approximately 80 percent of the distance 
up from the lower end of the bridle line. It can then be ad- 
justed up or down, depending upon the strength of the 
wind. 





Scott Sled 

3 (A) sticks, ys" round x 36" 
1 sheet of plastic or polyethylene 

Cut the sheet exactly as shown in Diagram 1. Take 
particular care to get the triangular vent centered on the 
sheet. Place glue on the sticks and press them into place. 
Then run a strip of reinforced tape around the perimeter of 
the kite to prevent the fabric from fraying or tearing, and 
laysmall stripsof tape over the sticks as shown in the illus- 
tration. Punch holes in the tips of the "wings"and reinforce 
the edges of the holes with glue or light tape. The bridle 
line attaches to the two holes and should extend 72 inches. 
The flying line is tied to the midpoint of the bridle line. 

The Scott Sled is extremely easy to launch and requires 
no running. Simply feed it out at first by hand and then 
let it pull the string out at its own pace. 



The Living-Off-The-Land Kite 

1 square piece of paper 

The sheet of paper can be any size up to 24 inches 
square. Fold it in three steps as shown in Diagrams 2, 3, 
and 4. ' First fold the paper in half along the diagonal. Then 
fold each half back so that the center of the paper is even 
with the two outer fold edges. Then (Diagram 4) fold 
flaps back from the bottom edge so that they are lying flat 
against the second fold. 

Attach a bridle as shown in Diagram 5. If the kite's 
flying motion is erratic, a tail made out of strips of paper 
can be attached to the bottom. 





APRIL Page 5 



Interest High in Tour 
of Himalayan Kingdoms and Northeastern India 



The response to Field Museum's Tour of Himalayan 
Kingdoms and Northeastern India has been so enthusias- 
tic that a second group is being organized. The first 
group. Tour A, will leave January 30, 1970 and return 
February 27. The new Tour B is planned for January 2 - 
January 30, 1 970. Both tours will have the same itinerary. 

Cost of the 29-day tour, including a tax-deductible 
$500 donation to Field Museum and all expenses except 
baksheesh, is $2,657. The countries of Nepal and Sikkim 
are included in the tour as are some of India's most color- 
ful and exciting cities: Delhi; Jaipur; Agra, home of the 
Taj Mahal and the Keolado Ghana Bird Sanctuary; Kha- 
juraho, city of thousand-year-old temples; Benares, on the 
sacred Ganges River; Darjeeling; and Badogra. 

Hari Karan Singh, a doctoral student at Hindu Uni- 
versity in Benares, will accompany the Tour during part of 
the trip as an expert in religions. Also accompanying the 
Tour will be Phil Clark, Field Museum Public Relations 
Counsel and specialist on plants, and, in Nepal Dr. Robert 
Fleming, a bird collector for Field Museum in India and 
Nepal since the mid-thirties. He will share his expert 
knowledge during bird walks and informal conversations 
with Tour members. 

The Tour is limited to nine elephant-loads (36 per- 
sons). Additional information and reservations are avail- 
able by writing: Tour of Himalayan Kingdoms and 
Northeastern India, Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois, 
60605. 




The Deer Park of Sarnaih, near Benares, is sacred to 
Buddhists as the place where the Lord Buddha gave his 
first sermon. Ancient stupa in the center marks the 
place where he spoke. 





Above, Hari Karan Singh, a doctoral stu- 
dent at Hindu University in Benares, 
presses his hands together in the traditional 
Namaste greeting. He mil accompany the 
Tour from Benares to Nepal, Darjeeling 
and Sikkim. Left, Bathers dress after a 
ritual dip in the sacred Ganges River at the 
Holy City of Benares. 



Page 6 APRIL 



In this Diamond Anniversary Year, Members' Night will 
provide a nostalgic backward look at the past 75 years as 
well as focusing on current Museum activities. 

A major attraction will be a preview of the 75th Anni- 
versary Exhibit: "A Sense of Wonder, A Sense of History, 
A Sense of Discovery," which covers the Museum's prog- 
ress from its inception in the 1 890s and explores the philo- 
sophy of the Museum toward the natural sciences. 

The era of the Museum's founding, at the close of the 
Columbian Exposition in 1893, will provide a theme for 



Department of Geology — Actual samples of fossils 
from local strip mines will be on display; "Let's Look At 
Rocks," unusual specimens in Museum collections with 
color slides explaining how the rocks were formed and how 
to interpret them; and a discussion, "How the Deformation 
Structures in Contorted Metamorphic Rocks are Studied." 

Department of Zoology — "The Color Question in 
Gibbons," with illustrations; "Fossil Specimens of Beaked 
Whales Under Investigation;" "Tangible Results of the 
1968 Street Expedition to Iran;" "Variation in One Family: 



MEMBERS' WSt-m 




much of the evening's entertainment as well. Films of 
early expeditions and old slides shown with a lantern pro- 
jector will recreate the early years of Field Museum. There 
will also be live entertainment in Stanley Field Hall. 

In keeping with the Members' Night tradition, behind- 
the-scenes research and work areas on all floors will re- 
main open, with staff members on hand to welcome 
Museum guests and explain aspects of the various exhib- 
its, which emphasize both current research and the Mu- 
seum's history. These departmental exhibits include: 

Department of Anthropology — Outstanding selections 
from archaeological and ethnological collections from 
Americas, gathered in a mass effort especially for the 
World's Columbian Exposition, and which later formed the 
nucleus of the young Museum's collections; a special fea- 
ture in the Conservation Laboratory; and an open house 
in the East Asian Study. 

Department of Botany — A replica of "Ye Olde Apothe- 
cary Shop," complete with medicinal and aromatic herbs, 
condiments and spices in old-fashioned jars; "Sex and the 
Single Plant, or. Plant Reproduction as Seen Through the 
Microscope," and two slide lectures, "Evolution of Flowers 
and Their Insect Pollinators," and "Tropical Climate and 
Vegetation." 



Horns of the Bovidae;" "Some New Birds Described by 
the Museum's Staff Since 1893;" "Giant Turtles — Living 
and Extinct;" "Polaroid Micro-Photography of Skulls;" 
"Photographic Exhibit: Construction of Housing, Division 
of Fishes, 1950;" "Insect Collections — Old and New;"(His- 
tory of the Division); "How to Make an Insect Collection;" 
"Mollusks Old and New, Plus a Visit to Inner Space;" 
"Some Highlights in the History of the Division of Verte- 
brate Anatomy." 

This annual event is a fine opportunity for Members to 
get acquainted with all the M useum's many facets — educa- 
tion, exhibition, research and publication. This year, with 
its historical background as the focal point, the Museum's 
progress can be traced in a concrete way. Memorabilia 
from the Museum's first home in the Palace of Fine Arts in 
Jackson Park and the contributions of the people associ- 
ated with it then and now tell the story. Whether you seek 
out the fine examples of Carl Akeley's taxidermic creativity, 
the huge and elaborate tapestry made in Japan expressly 
for the Columbian Exposition, and the fine collections on 
display in the scientific-departments or simply enjoy a re- 
laxed stroll through the 75th Anniversary Exhibit, we think 
you will find Members' Night 1969 an enjoyable and re- 
warding occasion. 



APRIL Page 7 




75th 

Anniversary 

Exhibit 




May 17 - November 16, 1969 



i.aj^ 



^ Sense of Wonder 




Museums which are dedicated to collecting, studying and pre- 
serving the phenomena of nature do not exhibit these objects for 
their own sake but to enrich the human heart and mind. Each 
object in nature has rich expressive capabilities. A paleolithic tool 
may speak of the dawn of consciousness. A meteorite, of worlds 
beyond our imagining. A cup, of the unity of man. A butterfly, 
of the process which brought us into being. 



A Sense of History 



The opulent, troubled 1890s were the climax of an amazing 
century of industrial and scientific revolution. Field Museum was 
a product of that age, founded by the leaders of a rough, vigorous 
young city. Their far-sightedness has created an institution with 
world-wide exploration and research commitments and educa- 
tional programs for students at every level, drawing visitors from 
all parts of the earth. 




A Sense of Discovery 



Research is one of the fundamental activities of Field Museum 
and because exhibits are a direct link between the research scien- 
tist and the public, three subjects of current curatorial research are 
interpreted here. One display explores the variation in hair, skin 
and eye colors in mammals. Problems in interpreting the fossil 
record are highlighted by a study of our plant model, Cycadeoidea, 
reconstructed from fossil material. Archaeology becomes more 
than an entertaining pastime in the exhibit of Southwestern Indian 
material, which gives us insights into our own culture and its 
dilemmas. 



Pages APRIL 



In order to bring the 75th Anniversay Exhibit before the public, nearly every department contributed the time and 
energy of its staff members. Appropriate material for the exhibit was selected by a committee of scientific staff members 
and Exhibition Department personnel. Hours were spent on research which yielded marvelous old photographs, obscure 
and interesting newspaper clippings, records of expeditions, and even old lantern slides. The collections themselves were 
carefully examined for outstanding specific items to be included in the exhibit — A Sense of Wonder, A Sense of History, 
A Sense of Discovery. Dozens of books were consulted and hundreds of photographs reviewed before the exhibit com- 
ponents were decided upon. The final responsibility for coordinating the tremendous amount of material and designing 
an effective display rested with the newly expanded Exhibition Department. Some of their efforts are recorded here. 



Small models of the various exhibit components 
were set up in this clear plastic, table-sized 
"hall" by Mary David and Robert Martin, 
Exhibit Designers. 





Hours of painstaking work at drafting 
tables are the prelude to a successful ex- 
hibit. Design Director Ben Kozak (left) 
and Kathleen Kuhlman, who works in 
graphics production, concentrate on as- 
pects of the 75th Anniversary Exhibit. 




Restorer Raymond Wielgus treats a patch of decayed wood on an un- 
usual Haida moon crest made about 80 or 90 years ago. II was found 
at Skidgate in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. This 
artifact is one of several in the exhibit on public display in the Mu- 
seum for the first time since the Columbian Exposition. 





Hall 3, which housed the Hall of Man, has been 
revamped for the special exhibit. Malvina Hoff- 
man's sculptures have been placed in other parts 
of the Museum and will be re-installed here in 
1970. The carpet being put down here covers 
nearly 7,500 square feet. 



APRIL Page 9 



JAMES EDWARD LITTLE 

Dealer in Savage Weapons, Curios, Sl<:ins, Morns, Ivory, S:c, 

An Object Lesson 

By 

Christopher C. Legge, Custodian of the Collections, Department of Anthropology 

and 

Edward Q. Nash, Managing Editor 



Museums have their troubles, and two belong to the crim- 
inal classes: The man who is trying to take something out 
of a collection — the thief — and the man putting something 
into a collection — the faker. The subject of this article was 
a Little of both. 



In 1958, when the celebrated Oceanic collection of Captain 
A. W. F. Fuller came from England to Field Museum, it 
contained some dozen specimens which Captain Fuller con- 
sidered to have been manufactured by James Edward Little, 
who was perhaps the cleverest manufacturer of Maori and 
South Sea Island fakes. Little dealt in genuine artifacts, 
altered ones and outright fakes. FviUer, who knew his 
Oceania, knew which was which, and purchased some of 
the fakes for the moral lesson they contained for collectors. 

From Captain Fuller's precise notes, some correspond- 
ence, and newspapers, we have gathered together what little 
is known of James Little's unobtrusive, sad life. 

The General Register Office, Somerset House, London, 
tells us that James Edward, son of James Little Gardener 
and Mary Ann Little, formerly Thomas, was born Decem- 
ber 20th, 1876, at The Lodge, Rockend, Torquay, in the 
County of Devon. His entry into his own peculiar criminal 
specialty was, as it is so often, fortuitous. Fuller writes, 
"Little was an antique furniture dealer and repairer, some- 
where on the South Devon coast. As a sideline, his wife let 
lodgings during the summer months and one year about 
1900, a well-known London dealer of natural history and 
native specimens, J. B. Russell by name, who himself gave 
me these particulars, took these lodgings quite by chance. 
One day he was looking around Little's storeroom when he 
came upon some native curios and, although Little did not 
trade in such things, he promised to look for them in the 
future and pass them on to Russell, with the result that a 
profitable business ensued. Little soon got the hang of 



things, raising his prices and devoted himself largely to this 
form of trading, and advertised in the "Exchange and Mart" 
through which medium Oldman, Beasley and myself got 
into contact with him. I must have made my first purchase 
from him about 1903-4." 

From a simple dealer in Maori and South Sea artifacts, 
Little soon took the first step down his particular primrose 
path. "When he found that good prices could be got for 
good old Maori pieces," notes Fuller, "his procedure was 
to 'get' a rare sf>ecimen and copy it exactly and in the cor- 
rect native way, giving it every sign of age and even 'worm- 
holes.' Most experts were taken in by his work and I under- 
stand that he had quite a trade with the U.S.A." 

About 1907, he left his wife, and she obtained a separa- 
tion order and custody of their two children. After that 
time, he moved about a great deal, though he generally 
stayed in Somersetshire. In November 1913, he may have 
taken the last logical step in his progress. Six Maori green- 
stone artifacts were taken from a showcase in the Salisbury 
and South Wiltshire Museum. Plaster casts replaced them. 
Also taken were several other greenstone artifacts and a 
wooden kotiati — a small fiddle-shaped club. Fuller read 
of the theft, and a few days later received a parcel from 
Little, containing a kotiati. Identification was uncertain, 
and no prosecution resulted. 

About thirty-five flint implements were stolen from the 
^Veston-super-Mare Museum, Somerset in February 1914. 
Little, who was using the name Harris at the time, was tried 
in April for receiving stolen goods. He testified that the 



Page 10 APRIL 



THE WESTON SUPER MARE GAZETTE. WEDNESDAY, APRIL 22. 19U. 



WESTON MUSEUM MYSTEBY. 

No Light on the Disapptarasce of 
Ancieat Flint Implements. 

BRISTOL DEALER ACQUITTED. 

Said Flints were Sold to him bj a 
Stranger. 



l.tttlc further li^ht was thrown upon the 
mviicry surrounding the ilisappiariuicc ol 
b<.-tMX'i:n 30 and 40 Bint implements from the 
Weston public museum at the adjcnirntd police 
courl procctdinfjs on Saturday. The accu-sed, 
Kdward Harris, ot Lansdown Villas, Staple Hill, 
Bristol, who was charged on a warrant with 
stealing the flints and with receiving them welt 
knowinf; them to have been .stolen, told a stor\- 
ot how a "short, dark man," whom he did not 
know, called upon him and sold him the articles 
when he was living at Brtton. This was cor- 
roborated by two witnesses, and the ma;-!*- 
tratcs. Messrs. K. A. Hardwick, B. H. Hill and 
" Kornian. discliarged accusetl alter only a 
•tfs cnniiidcration. 

-■ilcry of the actual thefts remains 

houyh the subse<iucnt move- 

e been made clear up to ;l 



;«idrnl. 
». Kew 



was no accounting lor the 17 locks being forced. 

By Dr. Grey. — There were no means of tellinj; 
when the flints were taken. There was a care- 
taker who had to see that things were all right. 

Detective Sergt. F. Kveleigh. of Scotland 
Yard, said on March 26, he went to Mr. Fenton's 
shop where he saw the implements produced. 
On April 6 he went with Mr. Porch to the shop 
and the flints were identitied from amongst a 
number of others. 

P.C. Carter said on Saturday. February 14. 
he was notified that some flints had been stolen 
from the Museum. He proceeded there and .saw 
that 19 cases had been forced. The locks of most 
of them had been broken. On the following 
Monday he met Mr. H. N. Daviivs at the Museum 
and he Rave witness a rough list of the missing 
flints. On March 27, witness went in company 
with I'.S. Colder, of the Gloucestershire police 
to Harris's place, at lansdown View, Staple 
Hill, told him his object and cautioned him. He 
said "In the year 191 1. I was living ^t 40 Vpper 
.^cade, Bristol. 1 was there, on several occasions, 
oflcreil flint heads and bought some. Twelve 
months ago I lived at \Vcllin;jton. I then came 
to live at Bitton. near Keynsham. In August 
last or about, a short man whom f cannot de- 
scribe brought me 20 Hints, axe heads, arrow 
heads and knives. The most of these 1 sent to 
Mr. Kenton." Witness asketl him if there were 
any horse shoe scrapers amongst them and ho 
replied "No.' " On April S witness arrested 
Harris on a warrant, lie made no reply to the 
charije. 

By Dr. Grey. — He asked prisoner if he V" 
Mr. Morrish. He did not tell Harris t* 
Morrish had told him that he had sol 
to him. When Harris said he did '"^ 
he did not sjiy that either Morri di 
liar. Harris did tvU him that 
Morrish. 

A 

Ih-fer.- 



That was rot the act of a ::ian who had IxiURhL 
a thing well kjiowinu it to have l>cen stolen. 
There were lots of wa>'s by which a receiver of 
stolen goods couid get rid of his ^tuflf, but that 
was not one ol tbem. -Mr. Fenton bought the 
flints in exactly the same way as Mr. Harris did. 
from a man he did not know, and because he 
thought he could make a little profit. 

.K remarkable fact was that there was no dis- 
covery that the flints were misvini; lor about 
eight months. It was rfally an extraordinary 
state of aflairs ; h<~' thought he shoultl open his 
eyes rather wide iit .i state oi affairs like that, 
lie should beyin to wonder and think things. 
KIght months and do discoxery reported, and 
the locks broken open and ca*'.-. rilled ! 

There wr.s not the »;mallest vesti^'e of evidence 
of guilty knowledge id Mr. Harris's mind. It 
was most unfortunate that he happened to buy 
those particular thmg<, but the theory that he 
bought them with an inner knowledge was 
knorki'd on th'" hcul at onee by his cour5;c ot 
conduct. It was a ca^e where ;i j:iry could not 
bring in a verdict except for acquittal and he 
therefore a^ked :hu Bench to Ui-mi<s the ca-e at 
once. 

The mai;isirat''-' retire.I and after an absince 
of only'a few minutes Mr. Hardwick announced 
tlyit pri-soncr would be. actiuitted. 

The \erdict was rea-ivcd with a fervent 
ejaculation of "Than J: God *." by prisoner's 
sister, and there wa--:i!'-osoi:ie*-!:ght applausv. 



Little's first bnish xcith the law ended in acquital, as reported by the Weston-super-AIare Gazette. Shortly after this^ Captain A. W, F. Fuller 
ended his ten years of dealing ivith Little, or "Harris.'* 



man who had sold them to him was a stranger, but appar- 
ently respectable. The evidence was weak; Little-Harris 
was acquitted. 

But the evidence was strong enough for Captain Fuller 
and in May, Little received a delicately worded note which 
severed their ten-year trading: 

"Dear Sir, 

I regret that certain information has come 
to my knowledge which makes me disinclined 
to make further purchases from you & I ac- 
cordingly enclose a cheque for £8 to close the 
outstanding account. By this action I do not 
wish you to assume that I, in any way, cast 
reflection upon you, but I am adopting this 
course as, from what I have learnt, you have 
been somewhat unfortunate with your pur- 
chases of late, 

Yours faithfully, 
A.VV.F.F." 

Although he never dealt with Little again, and indeed 
had never met Little, who seemed to avoid personal contact 
with his customers, Fuller maintained a kind of amused in- 
terest in Little's work. Only a month before his break with 
the dealer, Fuller purchased a quite genuine Maori pre- 
served head from him. Twenty-two years later in Stevens' 
auction rooms in London, he saw a carved wooden mask, 
considered genuine. It seemed familiar and it suddenly 
dawned on him that it had been copied from the original 
head sold to him by Little. He determined to buy it: "It 
fell to me for ten pounds, reasonable as a mere work of art, 



but dirt cheap as an object lesson to all students and espe- 
cially museum curators." Both heads are in our collections; 
the genuine one is on display in Hall J. 

In 1951, Captain Fuller purchased a human tibia trum- 
pet, for £1 10/. He recognized the artist's hand and wrote 
on the label: "This is one of his most interesting and amus- 
ing types of fakes, as it is unlike any Maori object at all. 
Here he has taken a genuine specimen — a Tibetan human 
leg-bone trumpet — pierced it with four key holes and carved 
it with great skill and labour with a 'Maori' pattern of the 
unmistakable Little design, especially his ty{>e of spiral and 
finish. I have not seen more than two or three of this type 
of fake and doubtless it required too much labour. There 
is one in the Musee de L'Homme as genuine!" 

Not even the lowly fish hook escaped the hand of this 
master artisan. We have five faked Pacific fish hooks at 
Field Museum, and it seems certain that Little manufac- 
tured many more, some in Maori style, others Hawaiian. 

James Edward Little's first conviction came in 1915. 
He had visited the Wiltshire Archaeological Soci^y's mu- 
seum at Devizes — its first visitor in three days. Soon after 
he had signed the visitor's book, as "H. Arnold of Swindon," 
a little boy came in and announced that his top had fallen 
through the cellar grating. The caretaker went to help the 
boy; when she got back, "H. Arnold'' was gone, and so was 
a finely carved Maori feather box cover. In its place on 
the chest in the entrance hall was a roughly made soft wood 
imitation. Little was arrested four days later in a cottage 
near Bristol. He was given six months. 

In September 1915, fresh from Devizes gaol, nearly forty 
years old, Little enlisted as a private soldier in the Royal 
Engineers. He saw service overseas, and was discharged 



MAT Page 11 



in 1919 for icasons of health — neurasthenia, a kind of catch- 
all medical discharge. His conduct had been satisfactory. 

He entered the antique business in Bath, after a year's 
convalescence, and lived quietly for more than a decade. 
He had several good patrons. One was Sir Henry Well- 
come (1853 — 1936), the Wisconsin born multimillionaire 
who became head of Burroughs and Wellcome, manufac- 
turing chemists. He founded the Wellcome Museum of 
Medical Science and promoted archaeological research in 
the Sudan. Towards the end of his long life, he became 
somewhat eccentric. He attended most of the ethnological 
sales in London and bought extensively. He would offer 
fifty pounds for a lot — no more, no less. Captain Fuller 
and Professor Henry Balfour of the Pitt Rivers Museum 
succeeded only in offending Wellcome when they pointed 
out fakes in exhibition cases. 

Another patron was Colonel Gaskell. Fuller wrote : "A 
Col. Gaskell, of near Birkenhead, paid him thousands of 
pounds for fakes which, when sold at Glendining's Auction 
Rooms after his death, fetched next to nothing, but which 
nevertheless were circulated round to the museums and col- 
lections of the world. One, a figure, was given to the British 
Museum and was placed in a case. I was only able to get it 
removed with the assistance of Beasley and Oldman." 

The Depression ruined his business and precipitated his 
last dreary attempts at larceny. In 1932, Little attempted 
to steal a jade axe valued at three pounds from the Royal 
Literary and Scientific Institution at Bath. He had substi- 
tued an ordinary piece of stone, painted green, which would 
not have deceived anyone. At his trial, he pleaded that he 
was starving, that the antique trade had almost ceased and 
that worry had brought on his old complaints of neurasthe- 
nia and shell-shock. Six months. 

In February 1934, a number of prehistoric British bronze 



One of Little's "most amusing fakes," a carved 
leg hone trumpet. He was a highly skilled 
carver who took great pains to simulate anti- 
quity in his fakes — even to carving worm holes 
and rubbing various stains into the finish. 
Little was, however, often repetitive in his style 
and motifs, and a trained observer, like Captain 
Fuller, could often recognize his work instantly. 



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At right is a genuine Maori preserved head, tvhich must hate reached 
England before 1831, when a law was passed prohibiting the export of 
these items from New Zealand. Fuller bought it from Little in 1913. 
At left is a New Zealand "Taboo mask" carved in wood. Fuller saw 
this mask for sale in 1935 and recognized it. Little had copied the 
scarification of the original head on this mask. The label read "Mask 
brought home from New Zealand in 181,8 by a relative of General Terry 
of Coombe Park, Bath." The mask was a product of James Little's 
hand and General Terry and Coombe Park, of his imagination. 



implements disappeared from the Museum at Devizes, the 
same from which "H. Arnold of Swindon" had taken a 
Maori feather box cover nearly twenty years before. Little 
was arrested but the charge of theft was dismissed. 

Later that year, he was charged with stealing a few shil- 
lings' worth of spoons and ashtrays and a clock from auction 
rooms in Bath. He was seized on the premises, and in the 
struggle threw sand in the eyes of a captor. Six months. 

In May 1939, more than five years after the Devizes 
theft of bronze items, Little was charged, not with their theft, 
but with knowingly receiving them as stolen goods. G. P. 
Gathercole, a legitimate dealer, testified that he had pur- 
chased twenty-one bronze items from Little in 1934. Litde 
had said they came from an old collector fallen on hard 
times. A Dr. Clouston testified that he had purchased the 
twenty-one from Gathercole and later sold his entire col- 
lection including these twenty-one to the Ipswich Corpora- 
tion Museum in Suffolk. They were identified at the trial 
as belonging to the Devizes Museum. The prosecution held 
that it was incredible for Little to have obtained all the 
specimens by chance. The jury agreed. Twelve months. 

And that seems to have been the end of James Little's 
career. He lived in Torquay after his release from prison. 
Kenneth Webster, a well-known collector of Maori artifacts, 
met him there, living in squalor, in 1947. The General 
Register Office, Somerset House, which has the last word 
on the English, as well as the first, notes his death in Tor- 
quay, 19 July 1953, of toxaemia, at 77. 

He was a masterful carver, a good faker, though repeti- 
tive, and a prize bungler as a thief. He spent too many 
hours producing items that fetched too little on the market. 
He was not a very good businessman. On the other hand, 
he maintained himself in business for years after experts like 
Captain Fuller refused to deal with him. Even after arrests 
and convictions, there were those who dealt with him. All 
of which suggests that, though Little may have been a fool, 
there were worse, and Barnum's remark on the frequency 
of suckers mav be taken as the moral of the lesson. 



"Earth, Life and Man," the 75th Anniversary lecture series by Museum Curators, will be concluded with the spring group 
of meetings beginning April 13 and continuing through May 11 on successive Sundays at 2:30 p.m. in the Lecture Hall. 
Talks will focus on research activities in the scientific departments — anthropology, botany, geology and zoology — and 
will bring Museum Members into closer contact with the work being done to increase understanding of the physical and 
biological world and the nature, history and evolution of life on earth. Although intended primarily for Members, admis- 
sion to the lectures will also be open to interested adults of the general public. 



Spring 
Lectures 



"Earth, Life and Man" ^ , ,^ 

April 13 
75th Anniversary Lecture Series ^^^ ^^ 



View of maasive skull of a whale that was unknown until 196S. 



April 13 

ARE THERE WHALES THAT 
NOBODY KNOWS? 

Dr. Joseph C. Moore, 

Curator, Mammals 
Dr. Moore has been doing increasingly intensive 
studies of various types of whales for the past 18 
years. In his talk, he will concentrate on kinds of 
whales only recently discovered, whales that are 
represented by only a few specimens in all the 
world, and whales that are just now being observed 
for the first time, such as some in the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. His lecture will include estimates of whether 
new species of living whales may be found in the 
future, and if so, where. 



April 20 

PRIMITIVE ART IN 
MELANESIA - NEW IRELAND 

Dr. Phillip Lewis, 
Curator. Primitive Art and Melanesian Ethnology 

New Ireland is a large island in the Bismarck Archi- 
pelago in the Territory of New Guinea in Melanesia. 
Since field work there in 1954, Dr. Lewis has been 
studying the fantastic art of this island in European 
museums and in the very large collection of Field 
Museum. The talk, illustrated with slides, will 
survey the art of New Ireland. Dr. Lewis's Social 
Context of the Art in Northern New Ireland, which deals 
with one aspect of the subject, is being published 
by the Field Museum Press. 




New Ireland Carver at work in 195 If, carving the head of a 
memorial sculpture (malanggan), near Libba, northern New 
Ireland, 




APRIL Page 13 




Dr. Turnbull, left, and Dr. Lundeliiis sift samples of 
rock and scril for fossils during their expedition to Aus- 
tralia. 




The Australian Lungfixh, along with several other bony fishes, is able 
to live out of water for quite long periods of time. 



Diely of the Wari culture near Ayacucho, 
Peru, is skillfully carved of mottled turquoise, 
and dates to about 800 A.D. (On display in 
Hall 4.) 




April 27 

SEARCHING FOR FOSSIL 
MAMMALS IN AUSTRALIA 

Dr. William Turnbull, 
Associate Curator, Fossil Mammals 
During a year-long field expedition in Australia, 
Dr. Turnbull and Dr. Ernest R. Lundelius, Jr., of the 
University of Texas, worked on one of the few sites 
in that country to yield Tertiary fossil mammals, 
mainly marsupials. Dr. Turnbull will describe 
problems and successes in the project and the site's 
significance as the only one on the Australian con- 
tinent to have a time-fixed fossil record. 



May 4 

LAND LIFE OF FISHES 

Dr. Karl Liem, 
Assistant Curator, Vertebrate Anatomy 

Many bony fishes are able to live out of water for 
considerable lengths of time. Dr. Liem, who has 
been doing intensive study on these fishes, will de- 
scribe many interesting evolutionary changes affect- 
ing respiration, blood circulation, reproduction and 
locomotion in respect to the transition from fresh- 
water life to land life. 



May 11 

MUSEUM RESEARCH AND THE 
ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF PERU 

Dr. Donald Collier, 
Chief Curator, Anthropology 
Dr. Collier will review the importance and variety 
of Field Museum research with special attention to 
work in the Department of Anthropology. He will 
talk about his studies of the rise of civilization in 
Peru and will show slides illustrating the cultural 
achievements of the ancient Peruvians. 



Page 14 APRIL 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS AprU hours: 9 a.m. to 5p.m., daily. 

April 5 Film-Lecture Series "East Africa Today," by Arthur C. Twomey. 
2:30 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. Admission to the Film-Lecture 
Series is free. 

April 1 2 "Museum Traveler Day" opens Field Museum's Saturday Morni.ng 
Film Program for Children at 10:30 a.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. 
Before the showing of a color motion picture, "High in the Himalayas," the 
opening program will feature an awards ceremony for successful participants 
in the Museum's Journey Program, sponsored by the Raymond Foundation. 
-Admission is free. 

April 12 Film-Lecture Series "It's a Small World," by Fran William Hall, 
reveals the lives of some of nature's smallest creatures. 2 :30 p.m. in the James 
Simpson Theatre. 

April 13 Audubon Wildlife Film Series "Wild Rivers of North America," by 
John D. Bulger. Over 60 kinds of wild animals are shown in this film journey 
down vmspoiled, scenic rivers. Presented by the Illinois Audubon Society and 
shown free at 2:30 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. 

April 13 A spring group of five lectures by Museum Curators will close the 
Museum's 75th Anniversary Lecture Series, "Earth, Life and Man." "Are 
There Whales That Nobody Knows?" by Dr. Joseph C. Moore, Curator of 
Mammals, will open the spring group of lectures. 2:30 p.m. in the Lecture 
Hall. Admission is free to Members and other interested adults. 

April 19-June 15 "The Wind In My Hands" Field Museum's special temporary 
exhibit for spring displays colorful kites of every size and shape and repre- 
senting many areas of the world. No admission charge. Hall 9 Gallery. 

April 1 9 Saturday Morning Film Program for Children "The Florida Ever- 
glades," in color, will be shown at 10:30 a.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. 
.'\dmission is free. 

April 19 Fihn-Lecture Series "Discovering New Zealand," by Kenneth Rich- 
ter. 2:30 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. 

April 20 "Earth, Life and Man" Lecture series "Primitive Art in Melanesia — 
New Ireland," by Dr. Phillip Lewis, Curator of Primitive Art and Melane- 
sian Ethnology. 2 :30 p.m. in the Lecture Hall. 

April 26 Saturday Morning Film Program for Children "Cub Scout Day" 
color film offering is "Wonders of the World," which explores bird, plant 
and insect life. 10:30 a.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. 

April 26 Film-Lecture Series "Czechoslovakia," by Richard Linde. 2:30 p.m. 
in the James Simpson Theatre. 

April 27 "Earth, Life and Man" Lecture Series "Searching for Fossil Mam- 
mals in Australia," by Dr. William Turnbull, Associate Curator of Fossil 
Mammals, continues the 75th Anniversary Curator lecture series. 2:30 p.m. 
in the Lecture Hall. 

May 3 Latin Day A special program will be held for outstanding Latin stu- 
dents from Chicago area schools. Sponsored by the Illinois Classical Society. 
In the James Simpson Theatre. 

May 4 "Earth, Life and Man" Lecture Series "Land Life of Fishes," by Dr. 
Karel Liem, Assistant Curator of Vertebrate Anatomy, continues the 75th 
Anniversary lecture series. 2:30 p.m. in the Lecture Hall. 

May 1 1 "Earth, Life and Man" Lecture Series is concluded with "Museum 
Research and the Ancient Civilizations of Peru," by Dr. Donald Collier, 
Chief Curator of Anthropology. 2:30 p.m. in the Lecture Hall. 

May 16 Members' Night A preview of the Museum's 75th Anniversary Ex- 
hibit will highlight the evening. The scientific departments on the third floor 
will be open, with special displays reflecting the many areas of Museum re- 
search. A film and other entertainment will round out this yearly event. ' 



Commonly regarded as "just a weed," the dan- 
delion is actually a ttseful plant. It is one of 
many plants included in the Spring Journey, 
"Plants of Illinois," sponsored free for chil- 
dren by the Raymond Foundation. 




May 17 The 75th Anniversary Ex- 
hibit opens. Its triple theme — "A 
Sense of Wonder," "A Sense of His- 
tory," and "A Sense of Discovery" 
— reflects the philosophy and goals 
of the Museum as well as the history 
of its growth. 

Through April Spring Journey: 
"Plants of Illinois" Do-It- Your- 
self tour for boys and girls concen- 
trates upon both common and un- 
usual plants found in the state. Any 
child who can read and write may 
participate in the free program spon- 
sored by the Raymond Foundation. 
Information and Journey Sheets are 
available at Museum entrances. 

MEETINGS 
Illinois Audubon Socieiy, 

April 2, 7 p.m. 
Nature Camera Club of Chicago, 

April 8, 7:45 p.m. 
Chicago Mountaineering Club, 

April 10, 8 p.m. 
Chicago Shell Club, 

April 13, 2 p.m. 
Illinois Orchid Society, 

April 20, 2 p.m. 



FIELD MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

ROOSEVELT ROAD AT LAKE SHORE DRIVE 
CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60605 AC. 312. 922-9410 
FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD. 1893 

E. Leland Webber, Director 

BULLETIN 

Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 



PRINTED BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



APRIL Page 15 




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BULLETIN FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Volume 40, Number 5 May 1969 



Cantering into the Twentieth Century on this 
month's cover is Elmer S. Riggs, a paleontologist 
at Field Museum for more than forty years 
until his retirement in 1942. The photo was 
taken on the Field Columbian Museum 
Expedition to Wyoming and Colorado in 
1899-1900. Riggs brought back some 5 tons 
of paleontological material from the Freezeout 
Mountains of Wyoming. He died in 1 963 
at the age of 94, and would this year 
have celebrated his centennial as we are 
celebrating our 75th Anniversary. 

Any anniversary, personal or institutional, 
produces mixed feelings. Relief, celebration, 
re-examination of goals, brave new resolutions, 
all take part. Certainly, this has been the 
case here at Field Museum. Committees have 
met, long discussions and arguments about the 
identity and purpose of the organization 
have marked the past year or so. Nor is this 
surprising. A Museum of the size and scope 
of Field Museum operates on very many 
different levels, with different goals and 
at different intensities. 

In a sense, all of us here at Field Museum 
are up on that horse with Dr. Riggs. After 
seventy-five years, the gait has increased to a 
near-gallop; our banner flaps in the breeze; we 
move forward. That there is some occasional 
conversation among us as to what constitutes 
"forward" is a healthy sign of the diversity 
and intellectual vigor of this great institution. 

In the following pages, Donald Collier, 
Chief Curator, Anthropology, tells of the 
birth of Field Museum. Further on, Ernest 
Roscoe of the Raymond Foundation writes 
about the early years of the great Illinois 
naturalist John Wesley Powell, who, like 
Lincoln, was born in another state, grew to 
manhood in Illinois, and achieved his final 
greatness in his nation's service. 

The photo on our back cover is courtesy 
of the Chicago Tribune. 




The Ferris Wheel, the greatest engineering feat of the Exposition. 
Standing 270 feet high, it carried 36 coaches, each capable of holding 
60 people. A revolution took 20 minutes. It was an exceedingly pop- 
ular attraction and, even though it cost $362,000, proved to be a money- 
maker for its owners as well as for the Exposition. Towering above 
the Midway, it was the first structure visible to arriving Fair visitors, 
the last one they could see as they went home, and was a symbol of the 
Exposition to many people. 



The first public proposal to hold a Columbian World's 
Fair in Chicago was made by Dr. A. VV. Harlan, a Chicago 
dentist, in a letter to a Chicago newspaper, February 16, 
1882. During the next few years several similar proposals 
were made but no action was taken until a group of 
prominent citizens met in July 1888 and resolved to pro- 
mote a "World's Fair in the City of Chicago to commem- 
orate the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus 
four hundred years ago." They appointed a committee to 
formulate plans. 

Chicago by this time had recovered from the Great Fire 
of 1871, had a million inhabitants, and was growing pros- 
perous as a railway hub, a trading and manufacturing cen- 
ter, and "hog slaughterer to the world." Some of her citi- 



Page2 MAT 




Bird's eye view of the Columbian Exposition, 1893. {Rand, McNally & Co., 1898). The Ferris Wheel may be seen in the background, on the 
Midway. The very large building in the foreground is the Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building. An elevated railway circled the grounds 
and there was a moving sidewalk on the pier jutting into the lake (left foreground). Of all the hundreds of structures and attractions, little remains 
today. The Fine Arts Building (far right) became the Field Columbian Museum and is today the Museum of Science and Industry. The lagoon 
and wooded island and a gilded replica of the Statue of The Republic remain in Jackson Park. 

Chicago Comes of Age 

The World's Columhian Exj^osition and The Birth oj Field Museum 

By Donald Collier 

Chief Curator, Anthropology 



zens \\'ere beginning to look beyond the prairies to the wider 
world. This turning outward and the desire to bring the 
wonders of the world to Chicago were stimulated by the 
Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, the Inter- 
national Exposition in Paris in 1878, and by the ambitious 
plans for the Universal Exposition to be held in Paris the 
following year. 

On July 22, 1889, Chicago's Mayor DeWitt C. Cregier 
appointed a committee to organize and promote the Expo- 
sition. .\ company, "The World's Columbian Exposition 
of 1892," was formed and chartered by the State of Illinois. 
Within two months $5,000,000 was pledged on stock issued 
by the company.' By this time. New York, Washington, 
and St. Louis were also competing to hold the Fair, and the 



four cities laid their claims before Congress. After three 
months of debate in committees and on the floors of the 
House and the Senate, Chicago won out. On April 25, 1890, 
the Congress passed "An Act to provide for celebrating the 
400th anniversary of the discovery of America by Chris- 
topher Columbus, by holding an International Exposition 
of Arts, Industries and Manufactures, and products of the 
soil, mine and sea, in the City of Chicago." The act set 
May 1, 1893, as the opening date, although providing for 
dedication of the Exposition in October, 1892, and author- 
ized $1,500,000 for the United States exhibit. 

The first public appeal for extensive anthropological ex- 
hibits at the Exposition, which would serve as the nucleus 

' By .\pril, 1890, the subscriptions exceeded $10,000,000. 



MAT Pages 



for a permanent museum, was made by Frederick W. Put- 
nam in a communication to a Chicago newspaper on 
May 31, 1890. Putnam was Curator of the Peabody Mu- 
seum and Professor of Anthropology at Harvard University. 
He believed that the Fair offered a great opportunity to 
secure and display "a perfect ethnographical exhibition of 
the past and present peoples of America and thus make an 
important contribution to science, which at the time will be 
appropriate, as it will be the first bringing together on a 
grand scale of representatives of the peoples who were living 
on the continent when it was discovered by Columbus . . ." 
Professor Putnam's proposals for the Fair, although fa- 
vorably received h\ the Fair Directors, did not rovise uni- 
versal enthusiasm. A leading Chicago newspaper vigor- 
ously attacked the plan on September 16. 

If such an exhibition as this is needed it can be amply 
provided for from the collection of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution. If the archaeological enthusiasts think that 
the public has a wild, yearning desire to see skeletons 
from the glacial gravels or detritus from cave floors and 
shell heaps, let them spend their own money. The 
directors have no money to waste on the man of the ice 
sheet or stone monstrosities from serpent mounds — 
Prof. Putnam, like all these dried-up prehistoric spe- 
cialists, mistakes the purpose of the Fair. The directors 
could easily waste five times the amount of money they 
have if they were to listen to the specialists. 
In spite of the opposition of several Chicago newspapers, 
Putnam successfully campaigned for his ideas in speeches 
and press interviews. On February 5, 1891, he was ap- 
pointed Chief of the Department of Ethnology (Depart- 
ment M). He made Franz Boas, then professor at Clark 
University, his chief assistant and head of the Section on 
Physical Anthropology, and George A. Dorsey, one of his 
students at Harvard, head of the Section on Archaeology. 
He then plunged into the organizing of the most extensive 
anthropology exhibit of its kind ever assembled. He was 
also responsible for securing most of the natural history ex- 
hibits at the Fair, including the great exhibition of Ward's 
Natural Science Establishment. 

During the ensuing two years, Putnam, Boas and their 
assistants carried out an unprecedented program of exca- 
vation, collecting, and research that extended from Alaska 
and Greenland to Tierra del Fuego. Altogether, about a 
hundred persons were engaged in these activities. They in- 
cluded nearly all the anthropology students at Clark and 
Harvard, established ethnologists and archaeologists, gov- 
ernment officials, missionaries, and army and navy officers. 
Boas organized a program of physical anthropology that 
collected skeletal material from both hemispheres and gath- 
ered anthropometric data from various Indian tribes, as well 
of measurements of children of various races from the United 
States, Canada, Hawaii, and Japan. These data were or- 
ganized in diagrams and charts for display in the physical 
anthropology laboratory at the Exposition. 

Warren K. Moorehead excavated in 1891-92 the Hope- 
well site situated on the Hopewell Farm in Grant County, 



Ohio. This is the type site for the Hopewell culture. Ma- 
terial from this excavation forms an important display in 
the Field Museum today. George Dorsey spent most of 
1891 and 1892 in South America excavating and collecting 
archaeological and ethnographic material in Colombia, 
Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile. Lt. George Welles, Jr., 
was dispatched up the Orinoco River and was the first 
North American to ascend to near its headwaters. He 
brought back an ethnographic collection from the tribes en- 
countered along the river. Lt. Robert E. Peary was com- 
missioned to make an ethnographic collection among the 
Eskimos of North Greenland. More than 8100,000 was 
spent on this program of excavation and field collecting of 
specimens and data. 



Frederick W. Putnam, Curator of 
the Peabody Museum and Pro- 
fessor of Anthropology, Harvard 
University, was a prime mover in 
the development of anthropologi- 
cal exhibits at the Exposition. 





Edward E. Ayer {1 8^1-1927), a 
founder and the first president of 
Field Museum. A prominent 
and dedicated citizen, Ayer was 
perhaps the most important civic 
and intellectual force behind the 
founding of the Museum. 



Emissaries were sent to various countries of the New and 
Old World to borrow museum and private collections and 
to encourage the foreign governments represented at the 
Fair to include anthropological materials in their exhibits. 
Arrangements were made to bring to Chicago a group of 
Eskimos and delegations from several Indian tribes to occu- 
py typical villages that were being constructed at the Fair. 

On November 28, 1891, in an address before the Com- 
mercial Club of Chicago, Putnam again urged the people 
of Chicago to take advantage of the opportunity afforded 
by the Exposition to found a great natural history museum. 
He outlined in detail the administrative organization of the 
proposed museum, the organization and activities of its 
scientific departments (Anthropology, Botany, Geology, and 
Zoology), and the nature of its exhibits. These proposals 
formed the blueprint of the future museiun. 



Pagt4 MAT 



A brief description of the Exposition will give the setting 
in which Professor Putnam's exhibits were displayed and 
the atmosphere from which sprang the Field Museum. The 
Fair grounds covered the whole of Jackson Park on the lake 
front from 56th Street to 67th Street (553 acres). The Mid- 
way from Stony Island Avenue to Cottage Grove (80 acres) 
was occupied by the Fair concessions, including the "Streets 
of Cairo" and the 270-foot-high Ferris Wheel, which was 
opposite the present Social Science building at the Univer- 
sity of Chicago. The 20 official Fair buildings were mainly 
in Neo-Classical or Renaissance style,- and reflected not at 
all the Chicago school of architecture nor the new sky- 
scrapers with steel skeletons that were then being built in 
the Chicago business district. These buildings, excluding 




The Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building, at the time the largest 
building in the world. The central hall could seat 75,000 people. 
The central corridor was called "Columbia Avenue" and was lined 
on both sides with handsome lamp-posts. The building was designed 
by George M. Post of New York, and was the kind of triumph that 
led Chicago architect Louis Sullivan to remark that the Exposition set 
American architecture back 50 years. 



the numerous foreign, state and territorial structures, had 
a total floor area of 6,320,000 square feet (155 acres). The 
greatest building, Manufactures and Liberal Arts, was the 
largest structure in the world at the time. It was 1,687 feet 
long and 787 feet wide, covered 30.47 acres and had 44 
acres of floor space. The great central hall, 380 by 1,280 
feet, covered 11 acres without a supporting pillar. The 
domed glass roof 237 feet from the floor was supported by 
steel-trussed arches spanning 360 feet. 

The two-story building of the Department of Ethnology, 
which was called the Anthropological Building, with the 
subtitle "Man and His Works," was a modest 255 by 415 
feet with 161,000 square feet of exhibit space. Beside it 
were the native villages and a full-scale model of a prehis- 
toric cliff dwelling in Colorado. 

-The principal architects are listed in the appendix. 



The total cost of the Exposition for landscaping, build- 
ings, and exhibits was close to $34,000,000, the equivalent 
of about $200,000,000 in 1969 currency. The sources of 
these funds were the City of Chicago and Exposition Stock- 
holders, 15,500,000 ;Statesand Territories, 6,000,000; United 
States government, 5,371,000; and Foreign governments, 
7,000,000. 

In spite of the serious financial panic during the summer 
of 1893, the total attendance at the Exposition from May 1 
to October 30 was 20,263,280. The admission fee was 50c. 
The highest daily attendance was on Chicago Day, October 
9, the anniversary of the Chicago Fire, when there were 
716,880 paid admissions. 

Of the less serious exhibits, one of the most popular was 
the Streets of Cairo on the Midway where Little Egypt and 
her sisters demonstrated the Danse du ventre (belly dance) to 
amazed and admiring audiences. There was considerable 
public criticism of the propriety of these performances. Pro- 
fessor Putnam defended the dance as being ethnographic- 
ally authentic and commented with the classical relativity 
of the anthropologist: "What wonderful muscular move- 
ments did these dancers make, and how strange did this 
dance seem to us: but is it not probable that the waltz would 
seem equally strange to these dusky women of Egypt." 

Throughout the summer of 1893 there was agitation for 
and newspaper promotion of the proposal to found a natural 
history museum which would incorporate the collections 
assembled at the Exposition. No concrete action was taken 
until August 11, when the Board of Directors of the World's 
Columbian Exposition appointed Harlow N. Higinbotham, 
President of the Exposition, George R. Davis, Director- 
General of the World's Columbian Commission, and J. W. 
Scott, a member of the Board of Directors, to begin organ- 
izing the museum. They called a public meeting on Aug- 
ust 17, which chose a citizen's committee of nine, including 
Edward E. Ayer, to work on incorporating the museum. 
The larger committee chose the name Columbian Museum 
of Chicago, and selected 65 Incorporators and 1 5 Trustees. 
On August 23 the organizing committee made a public 
announcement of plans and appealed to the exhibitors to 
postpone plans to disperse their collections until the claims 
of the Museum could be laid before them. 

The Incorporators applied for a state charter on Sep- 
tember 16. Only six weeks of the Fair remained. The rais- 
ing of money to purchase collections and to start the Mu- 
seum was stalled and the prospects of success were poor. 
Marshall Field had been asked to give a million dollars to 
start the fund drive. He had replied, "I don't know any- 
thing about a museum and I don't care to know anything 
about a museum. I'm not going to give you a million 
dollars." 

Edward Ayer, who was chairman of the temjxjrary fi- 
nance committee, was asked to make one more try with 
Marshall Field. His effort is best told in Ayer's own words' : 
The next morning I was in Mr. Field's office when 

'From Frank E. Lockwood, The Life of Edward E. Ayer, pp. 189-190. 



MAY Pages 



he arrived at about half past nine. I said : 

"Marshall Field, I want to see you tonight after 
dinner." 

"You can't do it," he replied, "I have a dinner 
party and shall be late." 
"Well, the next night." 
"No, I have another engagement then." 
"Well, I have to see you right away; it is important." 

"You want to talk to me about that darned mu- 
seum," was his reply to this. 

"Yes," I admitted. 

"How much time do you want?" 

I replied, "If I can't talk you out of a million dollars 
in fifteen minutes, I'm no good, nor you either." 

"He got up, closed the door, came back, and said, 
"Fire ahead." 

I commenced in this way, "Marshall Field, how 
many men or women twenty-five years of age or 
younger know that A. T. Stewart ever lived?" 

Not one," he replied. 

I continued, "Marshall Field, he was a greater 
merchant than you, or Claflin, or Wanamaker, be- 
cause he originated and worked out the scheme that 
made you all rich; and he is forgotten in twenty-Jive years. 
Now, Marshall Field, you can sell dry goods until Hell 
freezes over; you can sell it on the ice until that melts; 
and in twenty-five years you will be just the figure 
A. T. Stewart is — absolutely forgotten. You have an 
opportunity here that has been vouchsafed to very few 
people on earth. From the point of view of natural 
history you have the privilege of being the educational 
host to the untold millions of people who will follow us 
in the Mississippi Valley. There is practically no mu- 
seum of any kind within five hundred miles; and these 
children who are growing up in this region by hundreds 
of thousands haven't the remotest opportunity of learn- 
ing about the ordinary things they see and talk about 
and hear about every day of their lives, and it does 
seem a crime not to provide them with the information 
they need." 

I talked fast and steady. Finally, he took out his 
watch and said, "You have been here forty-five min- 
utes — you get out of here." 

I replied, "Marshall Field, you have been better to 
me than you ever have been before; you have always 
said No, and you haven't this time — yet. Now I want 
you to do me a personal favor : I want you to go through 
this World's Fair with me and let me show you the 
amount of material that is there — I mean exactly what 
there is that can be used in a natural history museum; 
for the collections can be gotten very cheap, much of 
the material for nothing. I want you to go through the 
World's Fair with me before you say No." 

"Well, Ed," he replied, "I should like to go through 
with you. George Pullman told me you had shown 
him through and that he had been astounded at the 
quantity of material that was there. My brother Joe 



is here and I should like to have you go with us. V\e 
will do it tomorrow morning at ten o'clock." 

We went through the whole exhibition. When we 
came out a little before one o'clock, I said, "Can 
Norman Ream and I come to your office tomorrow 
morning at half-past nine and see you about this 
matter?" 

"Yes," he answered. 

We were there promptly, and he gave the million 
dollars with which to start the Museum. 
Within a few days there followed gifts of $100,000 each 
from George M. Pullman and Harlow Higinbotham, and 
$50,000 from Mrs. George Sturges. The following month 
Ayer gave his large collection of ethnographic and archae- 
ological material from North America, which had been ex- 
hibited at the Fair and was valued at $100,000. The im- 
mediate financial problems of the Museum were solved. 

One of the first purchases made from the Exposition ex- 
hibits was the collection of Ward's Natural Science Estab- 
lishment, which was bought for $95,000. It included a 
large collection of rocks and minerals, skeletons, mastodon 
bones and other vertebrate and invertebrate fossils, and 
mounted mammals and birds, including two species of birds 
from Australia unique in present Field Museum collections. 
On November 18 the Trustees determined to assemble 
the accumulating collections in the Fine Arts Building, 
which had been built substantially with brick and steel with 
the idea of making it permanent (only the ornamental 
facade was of staff, a plaster reinforced with fiber). Fred- 
erick J. V. Skiff, Chief of the Department of Mines and 
Mining of the Exposition, was appointed acting director and 
was charged with organizing the incoming collections and 
installing them in exhibits. Skiff" was vividly described 
these labors in his address at the dedication of the Museum.'' 
And now began the tremendous task of gathering 
the vast amount of material from every part and corn- 
er, and stretch and recess of these vast grounds: from 
all of the buildings, large and small; from the Midway 
Plaisance and from Wooded Island; from the Forestry 
Building to the Fisheries Building. Hundreds and hun- 
dreds of tons of exhibits, collections and objects of every 
describable character were transported to this building 
at which we are assembled. Then the selection, alter- 
ation, arrangement and rearrangement and elabor- 
ation began. Gradually hall by hall was emptied and 
as the objects of art left the building; a mass of material 
poured in, heterogenous and appalling in extent. .'\nd 
the beautiful products of the artist's brush and the 
sculptor's chisel — ours for only a summer — were sup- 
planted by what we see in these halls today; a sequen- 
tial and systematic exposition of the wonderful and in- 
structive things of the world we live in began to grow. 
Through the same door streamed boxes and bales from 
the Transportation, Mining, Forestry, Electricity, 
Manufactures and Liberal Arts, and state buildings, 

'An Historical and Descriptive .Account of the Field Columbian 
Museum, pp. 13-14. 



Page 6 MAY 



from government buildings and from the Plaisance; 

objects from the remotest lands and the most diversified 

climes ! 
In a reorganization of the Trustees of the Museum on 
January 22, 1894, Ayer was elected President, Martin A. 
Ryerson, Vice-President, and Skiff was appointed Director. 
On May 21, when the new Museum was nearly ready to be 
opened, the Trustees renamed it the Field Columbian Mu- 
suem. On June 2 the Museum was formally opened with a 
reception and addresses by Director Skiff and Edward G. 
Mason, President of the Chicago Historical Society. Thus 
Field Museum was begun. 

It is evident that the great exhibits of the E.xposition and 
the ideas and support for the new Museum developed to- 
gether from 1890 onwards. Putnam was the catalyst, and 
he focused the anthropological and natural history re- 
sources of the coimtry in support of these objectives. The 
Exposition, beyond the immediate result of the founding of 
the Field Museum, set a precedent of large-scale, systematic 
anthropological field work, and crystalized a growing in- 
terest, both popular and professional, in the ethnography 
and antiquities of the New World. The result was that more 
persons were attracted to the pursuit of anthropology and a 
great deal of private money was made available to support 
anthropological and natural science research. 

The World's Columbian Exposition advanced American 
anthropology by a generation. On the other hand, it set 
back American architecture by a generation and a half. 




A view south and west from the top of M(i n ufarl u / < x and Liberal Arts. 
The building to the right is Machinery and, left, the Agricultural 
Building. Early searchlights like the one shown were used for night- 
time illumination and display. 

REFERENCES 
Collier, Donald, and Harry Tschopik, Jr. 

1954. The Role of Museums in American .Anthropology. 
American Anthropologist, 56:768-779. Mcnasha. 

Dexter, Ralph W. 

1 966a. Frederick Ward Putnam and the Development of Museums 
of Natural History and Anthropology in the United States. 
Curator IX:151-155. New York. 



1966b. Putnam's Problems Popularizing Anthropology. American 
&i>n/w/ 54:315-332. Easton, Pennsylvania. 

Flynn, John J. 

1892. Hand-book of the World's Columbian Exposition. The 
Standard Guide Co., Chicago. 

Handy, Moses P., Editor 

1893. The Official Directory of the World's Columbian Exposition. 
W. B. Conkey Co., Chicago. 

.■\n Historical and Descriptive Account of the Field Columbian Mu- 
seum. Field Columbian Museum, Publication 1, Vol. 1, No. 1. 
Chicago, 1894. 

Lockwood, Frank C. 

1929. The Life of Edward E. Aver. A. C. McClurg & Co., 
Chicago. 

Putnam, Frederick Ward 

1891. The Columbus Memorial Museum. Unpublished address 
before the Commercial Club of Chicago, November 28, 1891. 
Field Museum Archives. 

Ralph, Julian 

1893. Harper's Chicago and the World's Fair. Harper & Broth- 
ers, New York. 

Report of the President to the Board of Directors of the World Colum- 
bian Exposition. Rand, McNally & Co., Chicago, 1898. 

Chicago Daily Globe, September 14, 1890. 

Chicago Daily Tribune, September 14, 1890; September 16, 1890; Oc- 
tober 4, 1890. 

Chicago Inter Ocean, January 29, 1891; November 1, 1893. 

Chicago Sunday Herald, October 8, 1893. 

Chicago Times, February 16, 1882. 

Springfield (Illinois) Daily Republican, August 20, 1892. 



APPENDIX 

Principal Architects of the World's Columbian Exposition 

The overall plan of the Fair was made by Daniel Burn- 
ham and his partner John W. Root, who died in 1891. 
Burnham served as Director of Works for the Exposition. 
Later, he made the basic design for the Field Museum 
building in Grant Park, although the final plans and work- 
ing drawings were executed by the Chicago firm of Graham, 
Anderson, Probst & White, successors to D. H. Burnham 
& Company. 

The dominant architectural influence on the Exposition 
came from the Beaux Arts school of New York. 

The principal architects of the Fair and the buildings 
they designed were as follows : 

Robert M. Hunt, New York, Administration 
Jenny & Mundie, Chicago, Horticulture 
McKim, Mead & White, New York, Agricultural 
Adler c&. Sullivan, Chicago, Transportation 
George M. Post, New York, Manufactures and 

Liberal Arts 
Henry Ives Cobb, Chicago, Fisheries 
Burling & Whitehouse, Chicago, Casino 

(Venetian Village) 
Peabody & Stearns, Boston, Machinery 
Solon S. Beman, Chicago, Mines & Mining 
Van Brunt & Howe, Kansas City, Electricity 
Sophia G. Hayden, Boston, Woman's Building 
Charles B. Atwood, Chicago, Designer in Chief of the 
Exposition and designer of the Fine Arts Building 



MAT Page 7 



A Sense of Wonder 



The amazing firmness and flexibility of 
this snake's body is the result of its many 
vertebra, up to 350 individual joints 
(excluding the tail) each of which can 
move 25 degrees. 

The Indian python is a constrictor 
whose range includes much of Southeast 
Asia. It inhabits not only the tropical 
jungles and forests, where it is an adept 
tree-climber, but is also at home on rocky 
mountain slopes and near water. 

It is this snake which is used frequently 
in "snake charmer" acts, where its fierce 
appearance makes most people waiy, if 
not frightened. A 1 2-foot snake does not 
usually appeal to the average citizen as a 
likely pet, but the Indian python (Python 
molurus) one of the "giant" snakes, is 
relatively easy to tame. 

Clifford H. Pope, Research Associate 
and former Curator of Reptiles and 
Amphibians, kept an Indian python as a 
house pet for six years and it spent another 
eight years as the pet of a lecturer, with 
whom it traveled to colleges and universities 
and was handled by hundreds of people, 
reportedly never biting anyone. 

If a python in the wild does decide to 
bite it can be very damaging, although not 
poisonous. As constrictors, pythons 
suffocate their prey, which may include 
anything from a bird to a leopard or a deer. 
Bones are seldom broken in the process, 
although a snake may do this to arrange 
the prey into a shape it can swallow. 
While digesting these huge meals they are 
extremely lethargic and vulnerable to attack. 

Even when active, pythons are not 
especially quick-moving and Pope asserts 
that a man walking rapidly could easily 
outdistance most snakes. Their vision is 
poor and their hearing is not particularly 
sensitive. In attacking another animal, 
they seem to rely on a process called 
"chemoreception," roughly akin to the 
combination of the senses of taste and 
smell in man, possible because of 



"Everything made by human hands looks ter 
unsymmetrical. But in nature every bit of life i 
the more details are brought out, perfectly forr 

Ro: 
In. 
Thf 




Pages MAY 



! under magnification — crude, rough, and 
/ely. And the more magnification we use, 
I, like endless sets of boxes within boxes. " 
I Vishniac 

ireas Feininger, Forms of Nature and Life. 
Icing Press, Inc., New York, 1966. 




In life, the Indian python seems to be a 
very simply constructed creature. The 
actual complexity of its anatomy is 
striking in this skeleton of Python mol- 
urus, one of the items in A Sense of 
Wonder, part of the 75th Anniversary 
Exhibit. This specimen is 14 feet, 6 
inches long, and was purchased from 
Ward's Natural Science Establishment 
shortly after the Museum's founding. 
Photo by Homer Holdren. 



Jacobsen's organ, an organ in the snake's 
head which has no counterpart in man. 
The snake's tongue is essentially an 
organ which transmits impressions to the 
Jacobsen's organ. 

Snakes are evidently capable of learning 
some responses, but Pope admits that 
these animals are very frustrating to test 
psychologically. As cold-blooded animals 
their responses are sluggish and, their faces 
are incapable of registering expression, 
which produces the unending "dead-pan." 

Pythons may be active during the day 
or night and have been encountered in 
groups of from four to eight individuals by 
some people. Male pythons are usually 
smaller than females when full grown, and 
the snakes range in length from 12 to 15 
feet, with a few approaching 20 feet, and 
weigh from 50 to 100 pounds. Their life 
spans in captivity range from 10 to 15 
years, although some have been reported 
to live past 20 years. 

The young have many enemies but 
when they are full grown the list of their 
predators is fairly limited. The main 
defense of these snakes is concealment and 
if this seems unlikely for so large a snake, 
heed Pope's comment that his pet python 
disappeared in his home and was finally 
discovered sleeping inside a box spring. 
Coloration helps many snakes to lie hidden 
in foliage and should a snake be discovered 
it is sometimes able to "bluff" its way out 
of danger by making threatening gestures 
and noises. Usually it must be seriously 
provoked or very hungry to kill. 

Man is the snake's greatest enemy, 
with other snakes running in second place, 
since a snake is an appropriately shaped 
meal for another snake. 



MAT Page 9 



Few Openings Remain on Field Museum Tour 

Himalayan Kingdoms and Northeastern India 
Tour B, January 2 — February 27, 1970 




Bhangra dancers demonstrate their unique, 
traditional dance form. 



Below: Camels and mules crowd wheeled 
vehicles in the pink city of Jaipur, where 
elephants, too, are sometimes part of the 
traffic picture. 



Field Museum's Tour of Himalayan Kingdoms and Northeastern 
India has proven so popular that only 12 places remain open for 
Tour B, January 2-30, 1970, announced last month. Tour A, Janu- 
ary 30-February 27, 1970, is completely filled and has a waiting list. 
Both tours have the same itinerary, visiting Delhi, Jaipur, Agra, Keo- 
ladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary, Fatehpur Sikri, Khajuraho, Benares, 
Sarnath, Kathmandu, Bhatgoan, Boddnath, Chapgoan, Tiger Tops, 
Pokhara, Darjeeling and Gangtok. Phil Clark, Field Museum Public 
Relations Counsel, Chief of Tours, and an expert on plants and garden- 
ening, will lead both tours. The tours will be joined by Hari Karan 
Singh, an Indian expert in Hinduism, at Benares for the remainder of 
the trip. In Nepal, Dr. Robert Fleming, a Museum Field Associate 
for more than 30 years, will accompany the tours as a specialist on 
birds of the area. 

Visits to private homes and gardens will be included in the tour 
in addition to the exciting and well-known religious, historical and 
natural attractions of the area: the Taj Mahal, the 17th Century Red 
Fort in Delhi, the Amber Palace and Hawa Mahal in the pink sand- 
stone city of Jaipur, thousand-year-old temples built by Chandella 
kings to honor their Hindu and Jain gods, a boat ride on the Ganges 
and a flight to Mount Everest. 

The tour is limited to 36 persons (nine elephant loads). Cost 
of the tour, including a $500 tax-deductible donation to Field 
Museum, is $2,657. Reservations and additional information are 
available by writing: Tour of Himalayan Kingdoms and Northeastern 
India, Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. 





Khajuraho' s amazing sculptures dance, march, 
play musical instruments, and make love — 
bringing life and motion to stone. 



Page m MAT 



Major John Wesley Powell, 



Following the Civil War the last unexplored piece of Amer- 
ican real estate was what is now termed the Colorado Pla- 
teaus province, roughly southeastern Utah, northeastern 
Arizona, northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colo- 
rado. Slashing diagonally across this region was the 
Colorado River; — it was all terra incognita. 

We celebrate this month the centennial of the conquest 
of the Colorado. John Wesley Powell's official account of 
his "Exploration of the Colorado River of the West and Its 
Tributaries," published in 1875, is one of the great adven- 
ture stories of all time. An engaging glimpse of this book 
was presented by Mr. W. Peyton Fawcett in the March 
Bulletin. The Colorado has been run many times since, 
in all sorts of craft, upstream and down, at all stages of 
water. It is probably now safer than crossing Michigan 
Avenue during rush-hour traffic, but the thrill and wonder 
of the Canyon Country is still there, as those lucky partici- 
pants in the Museum's September Natural History Tour 
will discover for themselves. 

But it is not with the story of Powell's expedition that I 
am concerned here. The conquest of the Colorado River 
was only part of a brilliant career for Powell which had its 
beginnings in Illinois. The Major, as he was addressed by 
most familiars, was later to play a dominant role in the con- 
solidation of the government's western surveys into the U. S. 
Geological Survey; to become its second Director; to orga- 
nize and become the first Chief of the Smithsonian's Bureau 
of Ethnology; and directly or indirectly guide much of the 
fundamental policy of a host of federal agencies which were 
established in Washington during this period. In the twenty 
years following the Civil War, Washington became one of 
the great scientific centers of the world, and it is generally 
conceded that no man wielded more influence or power in 
that center than Powell. 

Powell was born in Mount Morris, New York, in 1834; 
his father was a circuit-riding Methodist preacher who was 
imbued with the idea of bringing religion to those beyond 
its normal reach on the frontier. The Powell family conse- 
quently kept moving westward — Ohio, Wisconsin, and 
finally Illinois. 

Young Powell's formal education was of a frontier type, 
by modern standards pretty haphazard. If such an educa- 
tion had its weaknesses, it also had its strengths. It gave 
young Wes, says Stegner, "independence, confidence, the 
practical ability to accomplish things that many better- 
trained men lacked. He did not know enough to be dis- 
couraged." The Civil War was to add the final touch — a 
taste for leadership and lessons in organization and com- 
mand of large numbers of men. 



Illinois Naturalist 



By Ernest Roscoe 

Raymond Foundation 




John Wesley Powell in 1859, as first secretary of the 
newly-formed Illinois Stale Natural History Society 
and its Curator of Conchology. He had amassed an 
impressive collection of river shells at this time. 

(Photo from Powell of the Colorado) 



MAT Page 77 



The Chief of the Paiutes talks with Major Powell in Colorado dur- 
ing the 1870s. Powell was interested in ethnology and anthropology, 
as he was in nearly every branch of natural history. (Photo by F. S. 
Dellenbaugh; from The Scientific Monthly, Vol. 15, 1934.) 




Whatever estimates of Powell as a scientist may be, it is 
clear that he was a Naturalist in the best and most compre- 
hensive sense of that term. His interests, even as a young- 
ster, were far ranging, from minerals to prehistoric man. 
In a day when people lived close to nature, and a person 
versed in nature lore was respected, local Illinois legend, 
says Darrah, "endowed Powell with phenomenal knowledge 
and fantastic skills as a naturalist." 

As a lad of 8 or 9, Wes came under the tutelage of one 
George Crookham, another self-taught individual, regarded 
as one of the most learned men of Jackson County, Ohio. 
Crookham's instruction included conducted field trips 
through the countryside, introducing his students to the ele- 
ments of geology, archaeology, and other aspects of natural 
history. Powell also often accompanied Crookham and 
William Mather, later first state geologist of Ohio, on their 
field trips. It is significant in this regard to note that Powell 
is credited as the first professor to employ student field trips 
as an adjunct to formal classroom lecturing, a technique 
quickly picked up by Yale, Princeton, and other leading 
universities. 

Powell's museum experience also began in his early 
youth, again apparently an influence from Crookham. At 
the age of 12 Wes had begun his own museum in Wiscon- 
sin, which included material from the Indian mounds of the 
southern part of the state, as well as insects, flowers, shells, 
and other natural history objects. 

By the early 1850's the Powell family had settled in 
northern Illinois on a 320-acre farm on Bonus Prairie, 
Boone County. Wes, now in his late teens, began acquir- 
ing his "higher" education at Illinois College, Illinois Insti- 
tute, and Oberlin College, sandwiched between various 
teaching jobs. Powell never earned a college degree. It 
was at this time that his attention was focused on the mol- 
luscan fauna of Illinois and adjacent territory. He had 
already collected abundant material from the Great Lakes 
and the smaller lakes of Wisconsin. Now he made a spe- 
ciality of river shells from the Mississippi and most of the 
streams of Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, and Indiana. 

At the 8th annual State Agriculture Society Fair, held 
at Jacksonville, Illinois in September 1860, Powell's collec- 
tion of mollusks won a prize of $25 as the "Best collection 
illustrating the Zoology of Illinois." With this money Powell 
bought a ticket to Detroit to visit Emma Dean. After their 
marriage, Emma was to be an almost constant companion 
on his field trips. On a student expedition to the west she 
would become the first woman to climb Pike's Peak. By 
special dispensation from General Grant, Emma was per- 
mitted to accompany Powell throughout his Civil War duty. 



Page 12 MAY 





Major John Wesley Powell in 1869, after his successful 
Colorado River expedition. 



Expedition party repairing boats at First Granite Gorge, Grand 
Canyon. (Photo from Powell of the Colorado by William Gulp 
Darrah.) 



Shortly after the organization of the Illinois State Nat- 
ural History Society in 1858, Powell was elected its first 
secretary and Curator of Conchology, a purely voluntary 
and unpaid position. Powell was, so far as I can determine, 
the first to bear this title at any institution in Illinois, al- 
though there had been general curators before that date. 

Responding to President Lincoln's call for volunteers in 
May 1861, Powell was sworn in as a private. Company H, 
Twentieth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, relinquishing his po- 
sition of superintendent of schools in Hennepin. Official 
U. S. War Department records include this pertinent data 
-^"Age 27, height 5' 6J4" tall, light complected, gray eyes, 
auburn hair, occupation teacher." Within a few days his 
comrades had elected him to sergeant major, and within a 
month he had been promoted to the rank of second lieu- 
tenant. By October he had become an acting captain of 
artillery. Taking a short leave of absence, Powell married 
Emma in Detroit on November 28. The young couple im- 
mediately left for Chicago and then on to Cape Girardeau, 
Missouri, where Powell was stationed. 

Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, April 6, 1862. Captain 
Powell raises his right arm to signal "Fire." "As the hand 
went up," Darrah relates, "a half-spent minie-ball struck 
the wrist, glanced toward the elbow, and buried itself in the 
flesh." Later an amputation was performed, which would 
leave Powell without most of his right arm. Although never 
without pain from that time on, he returned to active duty, 
was promoted to the rank of major, and participated in the 
seige of Vicksburg. 



Neither the loss of an arm nor his military duties lessened 
Powell's interest in natural history nor entirely circumscribed 
his field work. As his men dug trenches near Vicksburg 
they uncovered numbers of fossil invertebrates. These were 
collected by the Major and Emma, each specimen carefully 
wrapped in cotton, and mailed to his parents' home in 
Wheaton for safekeeping. 

After the war Powell accepted a position as Professor of 
Geology at Wesleyan University in Bloomington, and in 
1866 a similar position at nearby Normal, which he was to 
hold until coming to Washington in the early 1870's. The 
collections of the Natural History Society at this time were 
displayed in the museum rooms on the top floor of the col- 
lege building, but adequate funds for maintaining them 
were not available. Powell went to work persuading the 
faculty members to recognize the value of the collections 
and convincing the administration of the prestige and pub- 
lic recognition which would accrue from a properly main- 
tained museum. The three institvuions involved, the Nat- 
ural History Society, the universities at Normal and Wes- 
leyan, agreed to send Powell to Springfield to plead for a 
small endowment for the museum at State Normal. 

Stegner remarks that "Considering his later successes as 
an imaginative and tenacious Bureau head in Washington, 
his success in this, his first minor local piece of promotion, 
seems a trivial thing. Yet, his campaign in 1866-67 was 
brilliantjy conducted, and it showed for the first time the 
politician and promoter superimposed upon the earnest am- 
ateur naturalist. He was a finished performer as he ap- 



MAT Page 13 





Marble Canyon, Arizona. In the foreground is the Emma Dean shomng the arm- 
chair in which Major Powell sat. (Photo from PoweU of the Colorado.) 



Major Powell and a Paiute Indian, 187S. (Photo 
from Powell of the Colorado.) 



peared before the legislature in Springfield. . . . The whole 
operation was small, but the only thing that was minor- 
league about it was the modesty of Powell's requests. He 
would learn to ask for more later, but he would never im- 
prove upon his performance as a promoter." 

\Vhat Powell got at Springfield was authorization of 
SI 500 a year for the salary of the curator, plus an additional 
$1000 a year for the maintenance of the collections. Back 
in Bloomington with these prizes Powell was promptiy ap- 
pointed to the now-salaried curatorship. Almost casually 
he told the Board of the dream he had of taking an exp)edi- 
tion of students and naturalists to the Rocky Mountains, 
where science had made only the barest beginnings and 
where a museum's collections could be quickly enriched. 
He emerged from this meeting with the promise that half of 
the new maintenance fund of the museum could be devoted 
to support the expedition. 

Space will not permit an account of the two student 
expeditions to the west, nor of the more famous Colorado 
River Expedition of 1869. Regarding the latter, it may be 
noted here that Powell received no federal support aside 
from the permission from his ex-commander, President 
Grant, to draw upon Army stores. The 1869 expedition was 
financed primarily by several Illinois private institutions. 

Powell was one of my childhood heroes. One of my 
biggest thrills as an embryo naturalist came on a field trip 
to the Cave Lakes Canyon near Knab, Utah in 1946. On a 
bitter cold day in early March of that year, I ran across an 
inscription carved into the sandstone on the side of one cave. 



It read: C.(olorado) R.(iver) Ex.(pedition), F. S. Dellen- 
baugh." The thrill of running my numb fingers over those 
still distinct words made it possible to forget all the discom- 
forts of the day. Dellenbaugh's account of his experiences 
with the second Powell expedition still makes fascinating 
reading. 

It was characteristic of Powell that his contributions to 
science should not end with his death in 1902. He willed 
his brain to science, and a paper on it was published by 
Edward A. Spitza in 1903. 

There is no doubt that John Wesley Powell should be 
regarded as one of the pioneer naturalists of Illinois. In a 
wider view, Powell still stands as a shining example of the 
American dream, of what the self-made man may accom- 
plish with honest, steady adherence to a definite purpose. 
"It must have been some satisfaction," Stegner remarks, 
"to provide ideas for the nation's great men, and play poli- 
tics for stakes vital to two-fifths of the United States, and 
have the ear of Presidents. A self-taught Illinois school 
teacher could have done worse." 

References 

The article is based on a paper presented by the author at the 
28th .-Xnnual Meeting of the .\inerican Malacological Union, Wash- 
ington, D. C, June 20, 1961. 

Darrah, William Gulp. 1951. Powell of the Colorado. Princeton 
Univ. Press. 

Stegner, Wallace. 1954. Beyond the Hundredth Meridian: John 
Wesley Powell and the Second Opening of the West. Houghton 
Mifflin Co.. N. Y. 



Page 14 MAT 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS May hows: 9 a.m. to 5p.m. daily. 

May 3 Latin Day A special program will be held for outstanding Latin stu- 
dents from Chicago area schools. Sponsored by the Illinois Classical Society. 
James Simpson Theatre. 

May 4 "Earth, Life and Man" Curator Lecture Series "Land Life of Fishes," 
by Dr. Karel Liem, Assistant Curator of Vertebrate Anatomy, continues the 
75th Anniversary Lecture Series. 2:30 p.m. in the Lecture Hall. 

May 5-29 Canyon Country The special program marks the centennial of 
the Powell Colorado River Expedition. Open to all school and other inter- 
ested groups, the program consists of a film and a self-directed tour, both high- 
lighting the natural history of the Southwest. Advance reservation is required. 
The free program begins at 12:30 p.m., Mondays through Fridays, in the 
James Simpson Theatre. Reservations are being accepted by the Raymond 
Foundation, Field Museum's educational department. 

May 9 Annual Spring Hat Parade A program featviring hats made in milli- 
nery classes conducted by the Chicago Park District begins at 1 :30 p.m. in the 
James Simpson Theatre. Sponsored free of charge by the Chicago Park District. 

May 11 "Earth, Life and Man" Lecture Series "Museum Research and the 
Ancient Civilizations of Peru," by Dr. Donald Collier, Chief Curator of 
Anthropology, closes the 75th Anniversary Lecture Series. These lectures are 
designed to acquaint the public with Field Museum's research efforts and 
broaden awareness and appreciation of the nature of man's environment. 

May 16 Members' Night The annual event includes "open house" in the sci- 
entific departments and research areas of the Museum, including many special 
displays. A highlight of the evening will be a preview of the 75th Anniversary 
Exhibit. 

May 1 7 Field Museum's 75th Anniversary Exhibit — A Sense of Wonder, A 
Sense of History, A Sense of Discovery — opens to the public. The free exhibit 
presents the history of the Museum from its founding in 1893 to its present wide 
scope of research and educational activities. Emphasis is placed on scientific 
efforts of staff members over the past three-quarters of a century. Hall 3, 
through November 16. 

May 24 Chicago Area Science Fair A one-day event sponsored by the Chicago 
Area Science Teachers Association includes displays of original research proj- 
ects by students attending private, public and parochial schools in the Chicago 
area. Awards will be given at the close of the Fair for the best projects in the 
areas of study represented, including astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology 
and general science. Stanley Field Hall. 

Through Jiine 15 "The Wind in My Hands" Temporary exhibit devoted to 
the art, science and fun of kites. The free exhibit traces the history of kites, 
examples of antique and contemporary kite-flying equipment and many excel- 
lent photographs. Hall 9 Gallery. 

Through May Spring Journey "Plants of Illinois" Do-it-yourself tour for boys 
and girls introduces both common and uncommon plants found in the state 
and interesting facts about them. Any child who can read and write may 
participate in the free program sponsored by the Raymond Foundation. In- 
formation and Journey Sheets are available at Museum entrances. 

Chicago Shell Club, May 4, 2 p.m. 

Illinois Orchid Society, May 18, 2 p.m. 

, ,_„-viM/^c Illinois Audubon Society, June 4, 7 p.m. 

MEEIINGS: _, „ /-. t o -i 

Chicago Shell Club, June 8, 2 p.m. 

Nature Camera Club of Chicago, June 10, 7:45 p.m. 

Chicago Mountaineering Club, June 12, 8 p.m. 



LeBus Trust Gift 
Benefits Library, 
Other Programs 

Field Museum has received $5,000 
from the Bertha LeBus Charitable Trust 
for the support of Museum activities. Of 
this amount, S2,000 is designated for the 
purchase of library books during 1969. 
Volumes will be selected by the Library 
Committee and an appropriate plate 
will be placed in each book naming the 
Bertha LeBus Trust as the donor. The 
gift has made possible the purchase of 
books unavailable to the Museum other- 
wise because of budget limitations. 

The remaining $3,000 has been pro- 
vided to help support the Museum's sci- 
entific publishing program which, in 
the monographic series Fieldiana, pro- 
duces some twelve to fifteen himdred 
pages a year. Also aided is the rapidly 
expanding educational effort with grad- 
uate and undergraduate students in the 
natural sciences and Anthropology. 

"Treasure of the Month" A Tsim- 
shian bark shredder from Ankedar 
Village in British Columbia is on dis- 
play in the Museum's North Lounge. 
This beautifully crafted wooden im- 
plement was collected in 1921 by 
George T. Emmons. Tools of this 
type were used to separate and soften 
cedar bark fibers so that they could 
be woven into mats, blankets and 
articles of clothing. The "treasures' ' 
are intended to emphasize single out- 
standing specimens from the Muse- 
um's many collections. The display 
is changed periodically. 

Beginning June 1 Summer Journey 
"Insects" Any child who can read 
and write may participate in the 
Raymond Foundation's free Jour- 
ney Program. 



FIELD MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

ROOSEVELT ROAD AT LAKE SHORE DRIVE 
CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60605 A.C. 312. a22-94ia 
FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD. 1893 

E. Leland Webber, Director 

BULLETIN 

Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 



PKINTED BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



MAY Page 15 







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Did this flower ever bloom ? 



BULLETIN FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Volume 40, Number 6 June 7969 



THIS MONTHS COVER SHOWS A TOP VIEW OF THE 
OPENED FLOWER OF CYCADEOIDEA INGENS AS IN- 
TERPRETED BY WIELAND. (DRAWING BY ARTIST- 
PREPARATOR SAMUEL H. GROVE FROM A PLATE 
IN FOSSIL AMERICAN CYCADS BY G. R. WIELAND ) 



The unlikely-looking object next to Bill Burger 
in the photo at right is made of wood, wax, 
plastic, time, sweat, and a generous dash of 
irony. The first cycad flower, of glass, was 
assembled by John Millar in 1923. Millar, 
later Deputy Director, Chief Curator of Botany 
and Field Museum's first Chief of Exhibition, is 
now retired, although, after fifty years of service, 
he maintains an office in the Museum, the 
"Center for Omphaloskepsis" as the sign on 
his door identifies it. That flower, and many 
other models made by Millar, are still on display 
in Hall 29. 

Sometime in the early thirties, it was decided to 
reconstruct the entire cycad plant. Various 
Curators of Botany did research on it and gave 
advice. Emil Sella, and Frank Boryca of the 
Stanley Field Plant Reproduction Laboratory 
modeled parts, made molds, and dies and cast 
the parts of the plant. Sam Grove, the artist- 
preparator who drew this month's cover, 
assembled and painted much of it. The cycad 
was never very high on our list of priorities, and 
it was worked on a bit at a time, now and then. 
Eventually, some twenty-five years after work 
was begun, the model was finished. Even then, 
the plant did not go on exhibit. While it was 
being decided how and where to exhibit the 
cycad, along came a new explanation of how 
this fossil plant worked. 

At long last, in our Seventy-fifth Anniversary 
Exhibit, in the section called "A Sense of 
Discovery", the cycad model is displayed. We 
have, we believe, transmuted the irony of 
the flower that may or may not have bloomed 
into the gold of an exhibit that symbolizes how 
science moves forward, by constant reassessment 
and reinterpretation of what we know, and by 
the integration of new data with old. 

On the next page. Dr. Burger discusses 
Cycadeoidea, and on the following page, Sam 
Grove's drawings illustrate the various 
interpretations of the flower. Elsewhere in this 
issue, a profile of vertebrate anatomist Karel 
Liem, and a photo story about a very pleasant 
lunch hour. 




William Burger, Assistant Curator of Vascular Plants, examines the 
full-sized model of Cycadeoidea, as interpreted by Wieland, who sug- 
gested that the flowers did bloom. The model is shown installed as 
part of the Museum's 75th Anniversary Exhibit, 



Page 2 JUNE 



CYCADEOIDEA 



Did this flower ever bloom 7 



s 



BY WILLIAM BURGER 

ASSISTANT CURATOR 
AND 

RONALD LIESNER 

ASSISTANT IN BOTANY 



One of the most interesting plant models to be built at 
Field Museum is our restoration of the fossil plant, Cyca- 
deoidea ingens. The model was begun with a glass and wax 
flower constructed in the early 1920's with the help of the 
late Prof. George Wieland of Yale University. In the 1930's 
a complete restoration was begun using steel dies and 
plastic. The plant model was completed in the 1950's. 

These plants lived during the Mesozoic period, 100 
million years ago, when the reptiles ruled the earth. Today 
they are only known as fossil leaves and trunks. As indi- 
cated by the name Cycadeoidea they were related to the living 
cycads, palm-like relatives of the conifers. The fossils were 
first examined intensively by Prof. Wieland who published 
a monograph of these ancient plants and their close relatives 
in 1906 and 1908. 

The methods of preparing fossils for study at that time 
were quite tedious. To see the fine structures, preserved as 
silica, required making a thin slice with a diamond saw. 
This, of course, could not be made too thin as the rock 
might shatter. This slice was then carefully ground down 
until it was thin enough that some light could pass through 
it. In this way the internal structure of the fossil could be 
seen. 

The reproductive structures ("flowers") are found pardy 
imbedded in some fossil trunks. The female parts were 
borne on a cone-like structure in the center of the flower. 
The male parts were borne in sac-like structures around the 
central cone. Wieland thought that these sac-like struc- 
tures were immature and would eventually open outward 
like the leaf of a fern. This interpretation is based on the 
fact that open mature flowers are less likely to have been 
preserved. Also, flowers of related fossil plants did open 
in this way and have been found as compressions. Open 
flowers oi Cycadeoidea have never been fovmd. 

In 1963 Dr. Theodore Delevoryas, also of Yale and 
working with the same fossil material, came to very different 
conclusions about the flowers of Cycadeoidea. He concluded 
that the male structures were mature and did not open up 




at all. This interpretation showed the top of the male 
structures united into a single mass. In 1968, Delevoryas 
modified his earlier views. He now suggested that the upper 
part was lobed like the sections of a tangarine and that the 
spore-bearing parts were borne on ribs. Here also, the in- 
terpretation differs from that of Wieland in that the male 
structures are considered mature and that they do not open 
out as in our model. 

The Wieland model is rather similar to some flowering 
plants alive today and this implies that Cycadeoidea could 
have been their ancestor. The Delevoryas interpretation, 
however, is unlike any flowers alive today and could not 
have played a role in the evolution of the plants we know 
today. 

If Delevoryas is correct we have a model of a fossil cycad 
plant with flowers that never really blossomed (or opened 
up) as we have shown. But the question is hardly resolved. 
There is an unusual opening at the base on the inner side 
of the male structures; exactly where one would expect it 
to be if they were to open as Wieland had suggested. But 
it could be that this is a crack in the fossil and not an opening 
in the plant. These scientific interpretations are only edu- 
cated guesses based on fragmentary fossils over a hundred 
million years old. We may, in fact, never know for certain 
how the flowers of Cycadeoidea actually bloomed. 

REFERENCES 

Delevoryas, T., American Journal oj Botany, 50, 1963, pp. 

45-52. 

Delevoryas, T., Paleontographica, 121. B., 1968, pp. 122-133. 

Wieland, G. R., American Fossil Cycads, Carnegie Institution 

of Washington, 1906. 



JUNE Pages 



Right: Diagrammatic view of the Cycadeoidea 
flower as interpreted by Wieland in 1 906. The 
male structures on the right are unopened while 
those on the left are opened out as Wieland 
suggested. 





Two interpretations of the Cycadeoidea 
flower according to Delevoryas. In the 
diagrammatic view at the left, the male 
structures are united at the top and do 
not open out — according to his 1963 in- 
terpretation. At the right, a diagram- 
matic view of the Cycadeoidea flower 
according to Delevoryas' latest interpre- 
tation (1968). Here the male structures 
are separate at the top and with the spore 
bearing parts borne on ribs. 



Page 4 JUNE 



Summer Journey 



N SECTS 



By George Fricke 

Raymond Foundation 




Weird area in front of the lantern bug's eye (family: Fugaridae) is 
hollow but its certain function is unknown. The flying insect is 3}4 
inches long, lives in Panama. Photo by Hymen Marx. 

"Insects" have been chosen as the "stars" of the Mu- 
seum's Summer Journey because most children already have 
some interest in them. Many boys and girls have collected 
"lightning bugs" or "fireflies" on warm, summer nights. 
They have collected cocoons in fall and kept them, hoping 
to witness the emergence of a moth the following spring. 

Children taking the Journey during June, July or Aug- 
ust, will become acquainted with the wide variety of insect 
life found in the world today. The insects group is the 
largest in the animal kingdom — probably close to one mil- 
lion different species that come in many sizes and shapes. 

The aphids arc practically microscopic, while the Go- 
liath beetle of Africa may be larger than a mouse. Insects 
have three body parts — head, thorax and abdomen — and 
their bodies come in a wide variety of shapes, from the long 
and slender walkingsticks, to streamlined water bugs and 
diving beedes, to beedes such as the "June bug," which 
are short and heavy-set. 

Insects have six legs, two antennae or "feelers," and 
most have wings. These structures, too, come in a variety 
of shapes and sizes. Antennae may be long, slender and 
clubbed on the tips, as in butterflies, or long, hair-like, or 
even short and feathery, as in moths. They may be longer 
than an insect's body, as seen on some long-horned wood- 
borers. 

Some insects, such as the walkingsticks, are wingless. 
True flies, such as the mosquitos and house flies, have only 
two wings. Most insects have four. Dragonfly wings arc 
transparent and both pairs are similar in size and shape. 
The first pair of wings of beetles are usually hard and shiny. 
The wings of moths and butterflies are covered with scales. 




The southeastern United Stales is the home of the Rhinoceros beetle 
{family: Scarabaeidae). This specimen is 214 inches long and % 
inch wide. It eats fruit. Photo by Hymen Marx. 

The legs of insects are often adapted for special func- 
tions. The front legs on a mole cricket are used for digging. 
The front legs of a praying mantis and of the giant water bug 
are adapted for seizing or catching other insects for food. 
The hind legs of grasshoppers and locusts are adapted for 
jumping. 

To many people, any insect is a "bug," but a true bug is 
an insect with a beak for feeding on liquids or juices. 

After becoming acquainted with the variety of insects 
and with differences between various groups of them, the 
Journey moves to several habitat exhibits in the zoology 
halls. Their colors, shapes and markings often make insects 
hard to find in natural surroundings but they may be found 
in some of the habitat displays if one looks for them. For 
instance, in the Mount Cameroon exhibit in Hall 20, bird 
habitats, one should be able to find at least six insects. 

"Insects" is No. 58 in the Raymond Foundation's Jour- 
ney Program, initiated in 1955 to help children discover 
objects of interest in the Museum on selective do-it-yourself 
tours. An award program recognizes the children's ac- 
complishments in the Journey program. Upon successful 
completion of four different Journeys, a child receives a 
Traveler's Award. When eight are completed, he gets an 
Adventurer's Award, and when he completes 12, he earns 
an Explorer's Award. Four different Journeys are presented 
each year. 

Each spring, a Traveler's Day is held at the Museum. 
Last month, 208 boys and girls were presented with different 
awards in recognition of their participation in the journey 
program. 

Upon completion of 1 6 Journeys, which takes four years, 
a child becomes a Beagler and is presented with a copy of 
Charles Darwin's Voyage oj the Beagle. A special Journey 
takes him through Museum halls to see some of the speci- 
mens that Darwin saw on his historic journey. Upon com- 
pletion of this, the child becomes a member of the Museum's 
Discoverers' Club, which now has a membership of 170. 
The Discoverers' Club meets once a year in the Museum, 
where staff" members present special programs, which some- 
times include glimpses of Museum activities behind-the- 
scenes in the scientific departments. 

Journey sheets and information on the free program 
may be obtained at Museum entrances. 



JUNE Paged 



Look! Up in the sky! 



It's a bird! 



It's a plane! 

No! irs 



a centipede 



"Kiteflying in Indonesia," writes Robert 
Shaplen in a recent /Veuv Yorker, "is more 
than a national pastime, it is a virtual ob- 
session." This attitude became easier 
for Field Museum staff members to un- 
derstand on a recent spring Friday. The 
occasion was prompted by an assign- 
ment given by Associate Professor Wil- 
liam Brincka, of the Art Institute, to his 
class in Three-Dimensional Structures: 
"Design an interesting, flyable kite." 
Other students were invited to partici- 
pate. Mary David, who designed Field 
Museum's kite exhibit, "The Wind in My 
Hands," brought along the guest of honor, 
Ben Blinn, a kitist from Columbus, Ohio. 
Chicago kitists joined in, and staff mem- 
bers of Field Museum spent a long lunch 
hour enjoying the wind in their hands. 







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Below, Ben Blinn and Mary David enjoy lunch. 
Their two seven-foot box kites are at the other end 
of two and a half miles of line, well out over Lake 
Michigan. Blinn uses an electric motor to reel his 
kites in. At left, a lone representative of Illinois 
Institute of Technology prepares his airplane-like 
kite for flight. 






At Right, top, a bird kite wings its way over Grant 
Park; center, the winning kite, designed by Bruce 
Dilts, is a triple box kite. Dilts' kite was judged 
the most readable as well. It was covered with 
the comic sections of Chicago's Sunday papers; 
bottom. Art Institute students Connie Demitriu 
and Sister Electa with Blinn and Bill Brincka. 




^bove. Associate Curator Hymen Marx attempts a lift-off under the 
/vatchful eyes of other staff members. This Gayla bat-kite was 
he second of Curator Marx's flights that afternoon. The first ended 
n tragedy when he discovered, rather too late, that the end of the 
cite string was not attached to the reel. Below, Manuel Vega 
'center) and two friends hold his Centipede kite before lift-off. 
rhe intricate, colorful kite made a number of short flights, landing 
ess abruptly and more gracefully than the others. 




'^-s^^^^' 







Karel Liem: 



A Lesson in Persistence 



By Patricia M. Williams 
Field Museum Press 



Dr. Karel Liem at work in his office, 
studying specimens of air-breathing 
Synbranchid eels. 



The noted British scientist Faraday was once asked how to 
do research. Faraday said, "Start it, carry on with it, and 
finish it." Karel Liem, Field Museum's Associate Curator 
of V^ertebrate Anatomy, might serve as a model for a young 
person asking that question. He is well endowed with de- 
termination, not only in his professional life but in his per- 
sonal life as well. Although scientists are often characterized 
as introverts, Karel Liem is a jovial extrovert who possesses 
unusual perceptiveness, creativity and skill. And he is an 
uncommonly talented scientist. 

Liem was born in Java, Indonesia, and received his 
bachelor's and master's degrees at the University of Indo- 
nesia. He came to the United States in 1958 as part of a 
group of Indonesian students recruited by the International 
Cooperation Administration, Washington, D. C. Individ- 
ual academic preferences were disregarded and the entire 
group was sent to the University of Kentucky. On arrival 
they were given a brief course in American life and man- 
ners, including how to make a phone call and how to behave 
at the dinner table. At one point in the orientation the 
Indonesian students were loaded into a bus and led on a 
pilgrimage to view the elaborate tombs of such famous 
horses as Man O' War. At each tomb the toiu- guide gave 
a brief talk on the illustrious life of that particular horse, 
invariably dissolving into tears as she spoke. The Indo- 
nesians, who have a philosophical attitude toward human 
death, were astounded by this bit of Americana. 



Liem, who had come to America to study comparative 
anatomy, found that there was no one working on this field 
at the University of Kentucky. He explained his needs to 
the university authorities and they sent him to the Univer- 
sity of Cincinnati. Once there, Liem discovered that Cin- 
cinnati had no comparative anatomist either and he re- 
turned to Kentucky. He was next packed off to Brown 
University, which also proved to be without a comparative 
anatoinist, and he returned again to the University of Ken- 
tucky. Refusing to send him to Stanford because it was too 
far away, the authorities directed Liem to the library, in- 
structing him to locate a school in the area with an anato- 
mist on its staff. He chose the University of Illinois at 
Urbana, packed his bags again and headed off in pursuit 
of a suitable doctoral program. At the University of Illinois 
Liem was told that the scientist he was seeking had retired 
in 1947 and the university had no one working in his field 
of interest. Rather than continue his frustrating 20-day 
tour of midwest universities, Liem decided to stay at Ur- 
bana. He worked with the distinguished herpetologist 
Hobart Smith and received his doctorate. 

Soon thereafter Liem's visa expired and he was unable 
to get it extended. He had decided not to return to Indo- 
nesia, which was under Sukarno's leadership, and appealed 
to the American Embassy for help. The embassy, bound by 
regulations, turned Liem's passport over to the Indonesian 
Embassy which refused to return it to Liem, insisting that 



Pages JUNE 



he return to Indonesia. After difficult and expensive legal 
maneuvers, Liem obtained his passport and left America to 
join his parents in Holland. 

As Assistant Professor of Zoology, Liem taught at the 
University of Leiden from 1962 to 1964, when he received 
an offer from the University of Illinois College of Medicine 
to teach comparative anatomy. A struggle with the immi- 
gration authorities began which continued almost until the 
planned departure date. Finally, the visa was issued and 
Liem flew to Chicago to begin a new phase in his career. 

Offering a course in comparative anatomy represented a 
significant change in concept for both the University of Illi- 
nois College of Medicine and Liem. Prior to his arrival, 
the university had presented courses in human anatomy 
only, but it was felt that changing the concept of the course 
would provide greater stimulation and interest. Liem, who 
is now Associate Professor of Anatomy, had to orient him- 
self to a group whose major interest was medical instead of 
zoological, which he did quite rapidly. He enjoys his lec- 
tures and lab work and expresses admiration for the M.D.'s 
with whom he works, describing them as "very quick and 
clever — good with their hands." 

While continuing his full-time position at the College of 
Medicine, Liem joined the staff of Field Museum in 1965 
as Assistant Curator of Vertebrate Anatomy. Although this 
arrangement places a dual burden of responsibilities on 
Liem, he is able to take full advantage of the technological 
expertise and equipment at the College of Medicine and the 
extensive collections and library of the Museum. 

In the Museum's Department of Zoology the compara- 
tive anatomist is in a key position. As Dr. Alan Solem, 
Curator of Lower Invertebrates, says, "the anatomist can 
provide a focus for the other scientists, creating a flow of 
ideas and stimulating new avenues of thought." Dwight 
Davis, Liem's predecessor, fulfilled this role admirably, join- 
ing his colleagues in a number of projects while maintaining 
an independent line of research. Obviously, professional 
respect is the foundation of this interaction and Liem has 
not only earned the respect of his colleagues but their friend- 
ship as well. Dr. Robert Inger, Curator of Amphibians and 
Reptiles, points out that Liem straddles areas of zoological 
research and, although his point of view may vary, his in- 
terests and materials are allied with those of other Museum 
zoologists. Liem is now working on a project with Loren 
Woods, Curator of Fishes, and on another with Hymen 
Marx, Associate Curator of Reptiles, in addition to con- 
tinuing his own research. 

Liem's research has generated great admiration and he 
is consistently described by his co-workers as "original" and 
"highly creative." In a recent issue of Time, a pair of biolo- 
gists noted, "A fish with the ability and inclination to leave 
the water and walk around is, to the best of our knowledge, 
unmanageable." Liem has managed to conduct a series of 
successful research projects on just such a startling fish. He 
first came to the attention of the scientific community for 
his work on the circulatory system of the air-breathing, 
land-walking rice eel, Monoplerus. In most fish the blood is 



pumped first to the gills and then travels at a low pressure 
through the rest of the body. In Monopterus Liem found 
two pumping systems — a small one to the fish's lung-like 
organs and a larger one to the rest of the body. 

While he was studying this fish's unique circulatory sys- 
tem, Liem discovered another interesting characteristic. 
Not only does this astounding fish breathe air and travel 
across land, it changes sex as well ! Monopterus is a member 
of the fish order Synbranchiforines and Liem found that 
most members of this order are born as females and, later 
in life, change sex to become males. As he continued his 
work on this sex reversal, Liem found that in some geo- 
graphical regions males of this order are born as males and 
undergo no transformation. Further research led to the 
conclusion that the sex reversal is linked to hormones. The 
essential anatomical structures are present from birth and 
when the vital hormones are secreted these structures de- 
velop and the female becomes a male. Having carried his 
research to the chemical level, Liem left it and a pharma- 
ceutical company is now exploring the chemical aspects of 
this fish's sex reversal. 

The cichlids of Lake Tanganyika are Dr. Liem's current 
research subject. Although all of the fish of this large and 
closely-related family have descended from one ancestor, 
they have extremely diverse eating habits and mechanisms. 
Some cichlids eat algae and others are planktonic; some eat 
fish of their own size and others crush snails; still others suck 
eggs out of the mouths of mouth-breeders (fish that carry 
eggs in their mouths). To accommodate this variety of 
menus, the fish have developed suitable jaw mechanisms. 

The evolutionary implications of all of his studies have 
been of continuing interest to Liem. Regarding the cich- 
lids, he hopes to show that relatively minor genetic changes 
may have resulted in major morphological changes and is 




This eel is one of the air-breathing Synbranchids, which are one of 
Dr. Liem's current research projects. He is particularly interested in 
the anatomy of this fish order. Concurrently, he is studying the many 
variations within the cichlids, another family of fishes. The eel pic- 
tured is about 18 inches long. (Photo by W. M. Winn.) 



JUME Paged 




In his studies. Dr. Liem employs x-rays and highly magnified 
photos of anatomical structures. X-ray (above) shows the 
head of a Synbranchid eel, revealing part of the complicated 
mechanisms which are adaptive to breathing air and life out 
of water. 









'"i^A^t 



Right: Graceful precision is evident in this highly magnified 
view of the scales of the same eel. Each of the horseshoe-shaped 
patterns lies within an individual scale. (Photos by W. M. 
Winn.) 




Seemingly painted by a surrealist or an abstractionist, these are actti- 
ally magnifications of the gill cell structure of the same Synbranchid 
eel. Photo below is a detail of the left portion of the structure shown 
above. (Photos by W. M. Winn.) 




pursuing this thesis from a functional aspect. The change 
of one structure leads to a chain reaction of other structures 
also changing to accommodate the new. In an effort to 
deduce why certain structures must change, Liem conducts 
surgical experiments in which, for example, he may remove 
a structure to see what the fish can and cannot do without it. 

This study will take 10 to 15 years to complete, during 
which time Liem hopes to go to Europe and study the col- 
lections in museums there. There are about 36 different 
endemic genera in Lake Tanganyika, including 130 sepa- 
rate species, and Liem plans to visit the lake, which he likens 
to "one big laboratory in which nature has conducted a 
huge experiment resulting in the creation of a tremendous 
variety of fish," to study the fish under natural conditions. 

It is this kind of ambitious and innovative research that 
has led Hymen Marx, Liem's friend and Museum co-worker, 
to predict that Liem will one day be the tmdisputed author- 
ity in his field. 

"While it is difficult to lay down the conditions which 
lead to success in research, it is easy to say what makes it 
impossible. The fatal enemy of research is a full engage- 
ment book." At least, that is Sir Lawrence Bragg's opinion 
and Dr. Liem concurs. However, as Liem's reputation 
grows, he is invited to serve on more committees, attend 
more meetings and participate in more councils. Dr. Avistin 
Rand, Chief Curator of Zoology, has served on committees 
with Liem and has foimd him to be "a man of good sense 
and wide interests." Certainly these qualities plus Liem's 
willingness to become involved in matters that concern him, 
make him an asset to any committee and will serve to in- 
crease the demands on his time. Liem, however, has suc- 
cessfully grappled with immigration officials, university red 
tape and sex reversals of land-walking fish and will surely 
find a way to reserve the time needed to fulfill Hymen 
Marx's prediction of success. 



Page 10 JUNE 



A record attendance of more than 5,400 
Members, their families and guests marked 
Field Museum's 75th year on Members' 
Night, 1 969. The Museum officially opened 
to the public on June 2, 1 894. Elements of 
both past and future complemented the pres- 
ent during the event, which offered nostalgic 
glimpses of the "Gay 90s" in the lantern slide 
show of early expeditions and the songs of 
the Avant Garde Barbershop Quartet. A 
highlight of the evening was the preview of 
the dramatic new exhibit — A Sense of Won- 
der, A Sense of History, A Sense of Discovery 
— expressing the scope of natural history, 
the Museum's own origins and history, and 
the important area of scientific research. 
On the third floor, curators explained aspects 
of their studies and research programs to 
those touring the departments to see special 
displays depicting current research and his- 
torical aspects of the collections. (Photo by 
Cfiristopher Micfiaef. ) 




ON OILTR SEVi:XTY-FII<^rH 



REMARKS BY MUSEUM DIRECTOR E. LELANO WEBBER 
ON THE OPENING OF THE 75TH ANNIVERSARY EXHIBIT. 



In 1943, speaking at the observance of the 50th Anniversary 
of the Museum's founding, Robert Maynard Hutchins said, 
"As an educational institution. Field Museum possesses cer- 
tain special advantages. It has no football team. It gives 
no course credits or course examinations and awards no 
degrees. Its labors are not encumbered by the elaborate 
apparatus of academic bookkeeping which has resulted in 
education by the adding machine. The students of the 
Museum come here to learn. Formal education, moreover, 
in schools, colleges and universities is something you finish. 
It is like the mumps, measles, whooping cough, or chicken 
pox. Having had education once, you need not, indeed 
you cannot, have it again. The museum is free from this 
regrettable tradition. It operates on the cradle-to-the-grave 
principle. The Museum is seductive. Perhaps because it 
does not employ compulsion, but woos the learner with art- 
ful wiles, it continues to deceive him into educating himself 
as long as he lives." I do not know what Dr. Hutchins 
would have to say, were he here this evening, about uni- 
versities or about museums, and I think it best perhaps not 
even to speculate on what he might say, but certain it is 
that Field Museum is now as it was 25 years ago — an insti- 
tution for the education and delight of people of all ages, 
of all stations in life, and at all times. 

Through a strange juxtaposition of historic events it has 
happened that each of the Museum's quarter century anni- 
versaries has come at a time of national crisis. At the time 
of the 25th Anniversary in 1918, the nation was in the cli- 



mactic stage of World War I. Twenty-five years later at 
the time of the 50th Anniversary in the fall of 1943, the 
United States was engaged in two hemispheres in the second 
of the world's great struggles. Today we find ourselves 
again at war, and in addition, torn by domestic dissension 
and turmoil that pose the greatest internal threat that the 
United States has faced since the Civil War. 

Yet, in spite of the national crisis in which each of these 
anniversaries occurred, despite the distractions and con- 
flicting demands. Field Museum received a new impetus 
to move vigorously ahead. In 1918, this magnificent struc- 
ture was rising to completion to take its place among the 
great museum buildings of the world. In 1943, the second 
largest gift in the history of the Museum, provided by Mar- 
shall Field III, laid the basis for an expansion of the scien- 
tific staff and a quarter century of intensified scientific ac- 
tivity. Today Field Museum is again in a process of change, 
of modernization, of intensified activity. Since its beginning 
the Museum has been the recipient of strong financial sup- 
port, not only the extraordinary benefactions of the Field 
Family, but also generous and vital major gifts from many 
others — names such as Ayer, Pullman, Harris, Raymond, 
Ryerson, Buckingham, Searle, Simpson, McCormick come 
to mind — and there were many others. 

What will the coming generation find, in five, in 1 5, in 
25 years when the open circle on the banner at the north 
end of Stanley Field Hall is closed on our 100th Anniver- 
sary — what will they experience of a Sense of Wonder, a 
Sense of History, a Sense of Discovery? The answer is ours 
to decide — with those in our city who care enough about 
the quality of life we leave behind to build on the rich 
legacy that has been handed to us. 



JUNE Page 77 




Dr. Austin L. Hand (left), Chief Curator of Zoology, and Dr. Emmet R. Blake, Curator of 
Birds, examine specimens of the Red-Billed Curassow, a nearly extinct Brazilian bird related 
to turkeys and pheasants. The specimens, which are very rare, were gifts of Professor 
Augusta Ruschi, Brazilian naturalist and hummingbird expert. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



June 1-24, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., daily; June 25- 
September J, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., Monday, 
Tuesday, and Thursday; 9 a.m. to 8 p.m., 
Wednesday, Friday, Saturday, and Sunday. 

Through June 15 '"The Wind in My Hands" Field Museum's special spring ex- 
hibit devoted to the art, science and fun of flying kites. The free exhibit 
includes the history of kiting with example of antiqvie and contemporary kites 
and kite-flying equipment and many excellent and unusual photographs. Hall 
9 Gallery. 

Through November 16 Field Museum's 75th Annivers.ary Exhibit: A Sense of 
Wonder, A Sense of History, A Sense of Discovery. The free exhibit em- 
phasizes the scope of the Museum's activities since its founding in 1893, following 
the World's Columbian Exposition. Examples of research programs by Mu- 
seum Curators and other significant work, such as the outstanding taxidermy 
of Carl Akeley, are among the displays, which also include some rare and 
beautiful specimens from the Museum collections. Hall 3. 

Through June Summer Journey "Insects" Increased understanding of the world 
of insects, their life cycles and habits, is the goal of the newest journey, a do-it- 
yourself tour for any boy or girl who can read and write. Free Journey sheets 
and information on the Journey program is available at Museum entrances. 
The program, which features four Journeys each year and an award system 
for participating children, is sponsored by the Raymond Foimdation, the 
Museum's education department. 

I Illinois Audubon Society, June 4, 7 p.m. 
Chicago Shell Club, June 8, 2 p.m. 
N.ATURE Camera Club of Chicago, June 10, 7:45 p.m. 
Chicago Mountaineering Club, June 12, 8 p.m. 



RECEIVE RARE 
BIRD SPECIMENS 

Two extremely rare specimens of a 
nearly extinct Brazilian bird arrived at 
Field Museum's Department of Zoology 
recently. The birds were a gift of Pro- 
fessor Augusto Ruschi, reknowned Bra- 
zilian naturalist and hummingbird 
specialist. He presented the birds to 
Dr. Austin Rand, Chief Curator of Zool- 
ogy, and E. Leland Webber, Field Mu- 
seum's director, at his estate in Espirito 
Santo, during the Museum's second 
Brazil Tour this past winter. 

Professor Ruschi also presented the 
Museum with a set of his publications, 
which include his important studies of 
the biology of hummingbirds. 

The Red-Billed Curassows, rare rel- 
atives of the turkey and the pheasant, 
are deep black with a feathered ruff" on 
the head. The two specimens are the 
first of this species for the Museum. Dr. 
Emmet R. Blake, Curator of Birds, said 
there are probably only about a dozen 
specimens in existence in museums. 

These birds once ranged from mid- 
dle-coastal to southern Brazil but now 
occur rarely only in the middle of their 
former range. As the forest cover is re- 
duced to permit more farming and ur- 
ban development, the population of this 
game bird is declining rapidly. 

July 7 — August 29 Guided Public 
Tours Monday through Friday at 
2 p.m., with movie, "Through These 
Doors" at 3 p.m. in the Lecture 
Hall. Free. 

J uiy 7 — August 24 Cuna Art and Life 
The temporary exhibit explores the 
art and culture of the Cuna, who live 
on islands off Panama and changes 
brought by modern ideas. Hall 9 
Gallery. 



MEETINGS: 



FIELD MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

ROOSEVELT ROAD AT LAKE SHORE DRIVE 
CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60605 A.C. 312. 922-9410 
FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD. 1893 

E. Leland Webber, Direclor 

BULLETIN 

Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 



Page 12 JU.\E 





BULLETIN FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Volume 40, Number 7 July 7969 




The Gray Eminence 
of Kew Gardens 



By Phil Clark 

Public Relations Counsel 



When yoii meet an old friend — at least 103 years old, in 
fact — under completely alien circumstances it's always a 
pleasant surprise. 

It was last fall when I was visiting that greatest center 
for the horticultiirally inclined, Kew Gardens near London, 
that I came upon an old Mexican friend. The friend is 
really a plant, Hechtia argentea — a member of the Brome- 
liaceae or pineapple family — and familiar to me both from 
Mexico's wild canyons in the State of Hidalgo and from my 
own succulent and cacti garden near Mexico City, during 
the ten years that I lived there. 

There it was, and of astonishing size, standing on a 
special bench and with a proud label above it reading: 
"Bromeliaceae. Hechtia argentea. Mexico. This Plant Was 
Exhibited at Brussels in 1864." 1864! No wonder its pine- 
apple-like, richly silver leaves reached about three feet from 
mid-rosette to below the pot edge. 

So exciting was the great age and size of this magnifi- 
cent plant, that I sought out the horticulturist in charge of 
the Kew cacti and succulent collection, an engaging and 
gentle Scot, Edward W. Macdonald. He showed me arti- 
cles about the plant clearly establishing its great age and 
mentioning that it first flowered in 1870 and has flowered 
every year since 1957. 

At this point the story got more interesting, for Kew 
Gardens, believing this plant to be a horticultural variety 
and to be the only one of its kind in the world, had been 
working with all its immense gardening skill to propagate 
the plant. Since Hechtias are dioecious (flowers of only a 
single sex are borne on each plant), it was necessary to cross 
it with Hechtias of other species. Sadly, the young all re- 
sembled the other parent and failed to possess H. argentea' s 
handsome and distinctive silver leaves. 

What fun it was to watch Macdonald's face when I told 
him that I had seen whole canyon sides of the silver rosettes 




Edward Macdonald, in charge of the cacti and succulent collections 
at Kew Garden near London, admires what is probably the world's 
great gray eminence among its kind, the Bromeliaceae species 
Hechtia argentea, which is native to south-central Mexico's arid, 
mountainous areas. This plant was first exhibited at Brussels 
in 1861,. 



Page 2 JULY 



Country like this is home to Hechtia argentea. Above, cliffs near 
Toliman Canyon, not far from Zimapan, Hidalgo. The tree cactus 
of the organ type is Myrtillocactus geometrizans. 





Dra. Helia Bravo, of the National University's Botany Department 
and probably the world's leading specialist on Mexican cadi, peers 
up at a canyon-side of Hechtia argentea near Zimapan. The pine- 
apple-shaped Hechtias gleam in the sunlight, like rosettes of pure 
silver. The cluiin-like cactus dangling from the rock is Opuntia 
stenopetala. 



of H. argentea at the Canon Toliman near Zimapan in 
Hidalgo, Mexico. At first he thought I was confused, but 
on full description of the wild plant, his face flowered in 
smiles. "Well," he said slowly, "this is a great relief, since 
the plant will not become extinct, but it does rather lessen 
the distinctiveness of our specimen, doesn't it now?" 

I pointed out that the Kew plant certainly remained the 
great gray eminence of all Hechtia argentea in the world. 
Surely among himdreds of specimens in Mexico, both wild 
and cultivated, I had never seen one of such health and size. 

Macdonald was interested in hearing about the home 
of his pampered plant. The area, just off the Laredo-Mex- 
ico highway about 60 miles north of Mexico City, at Zima- 
pan, is semi-arid, mountainous and rich in cacti and other 
succulent plants. Ten miles west of Zimapan, the Toliman 
River has cut a giant canyon in which lead mining has been 
underway for many years and continues at a reduced pace. 
The road from the canyon top to the river is narrow, rutted 
and one dizzying hairpin curve follows hard on the last. 

In some places the canyon sides are sheer rock, narrowly 
separated and in others the canyon is quite wide. It is in 
these wider, sunnier areas, where the Hechtia grow in niches 
on the canyon's rocky sides and where the largest numbers 
of cacti may be found. 

Plant hunting is possible in Toliman only in winter, 
since the river is too high during the summer rainy season 
to walk along the ciiffsides and climb up where plants look 
most interesting. 

On one trip, with members of the Sociedad Mexicana de 
Cactologia we collected 30 or 40 cacti species, including the 
strange bishop's cap {Astrophytum myriostigma), the lemon- 
yellow flowered Dolichothele longimama with long, breast-like 
tubercles, the fractured-looking, ribbed Echinofossulocactus 
with crowns of small, candy-striped pink and white blooms 
and several giant barrel cacti (Ferocactus and Echinocactus), 
five species of Agave (which the Mexicans call inaguey and 
we reasonlessly call century plant) and the aforementioned 
Hechtia. 

This collection was mostly planted in Mexico's new 
National Botanical Garden in the lava rock fields near the 
National University south of Mexico City. You can see 
them there — including numerous Hechtia argentea, some 
large, but none so distinguished nor nearly so immense as 
Kew Garden's great plant. 

During a planned Kew Garden visit this summer, I in- 
tend to present Mr. Macdonald with a tiny, potted speci- 
men of this silvery species, which I hope will turn out to be 
the right sex for a mating with Hechtia argentea' s grand old 
man. The plant was collected during Field Museum's 1968 
Mexican Tour, in still another area — from the rocky moun- 
tains between Mexico City and Cuernavaca, along the new 
highway, where it grows in company with a different Hech- 
tia species, one with red-striped, green leaves. It was grown 
for a year in the window of Field Museum's Public Relations 
office, and made its transAtlantic prenuptial flight in June, 
for flowering which we hope won't wait 30 years: .'\ long 
time even as Hechtias count time. 



JULY Pages 




"The Art and_Life of the Cuna Indians," a new temporary exhibit, begins July 9 at Field Mu- 
seum. The exhibit shows how elements of modern, foreign, civilization have been used by 
the Cuna without the sacrifice of their individuality and independence. The intricately hand- 
sewn mo/as on this month's cover are evidence of this adaptibility. Shown on the cover 
(starting at upper left) are: a traditional myth scene, with a baby in a birth hammock suspended 
between two deer. Among the Cuna, deer replace storks as the legendary bringers of new 
babies, and deliver the infants by carrying them on their antlers. Next is an old mola with a 
geometric pattern. The center mo/a, very recent, was inspired by a "Green Beret" training 
center in Panama. Surrounded by parachuting soldiers, the crab-like creature is actually a 
Cuna interpretation of an airplane (lent by Mrs. Regina Holloman). Bottom, two more 
up-to-date mo/as, the first a Panamanian television test pattern (lent by Mrs. Regina Holloman) 
and next an Ovaltine bottle, animated by the Cuna designer, and confined within the traditional 
needle-working style. In the following pages, Mrs. Holloman writes about these remarkable 
people. 



"Medicine stone" and handwritien book of chants. (Lent by F. Louis 
Hoover and the Museum of the American Indian.) 



Acculturation 
and the CUNA 

By Regina Holloman 

Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University 




^ 



Jny 



.m 






1 < < < ; e hI •■  



^' 



The Pan American Highway stops at Chepo, east of Pan- 
ama City, and does not resume until a point well across the 
C'olombian border. In between lies the Darien jungle, 
broken only by networks of rivers and by the Serania del 
Darien, a mountain chain stretching from the Isthmian area 
into Colombia. The Darien is today one of the most inac- 
cessible regions remaining on earth. 

At the time of the Spanish Conquest this area was occvi- 
pied by numerous Cuna-speaking peoples. Estimates vary 
from 300,000 to 700,000. In 1510 Vasco Nunez de Balbos 
became governor of the first Spanish settlement in the 
Darien, Sante Maria la Antigua del Darien, located on the 
western side of the Gulf of Uraba. For 250 years thereafter 
the Cuna were subjected to extreme pressure as the Spanish 
tried to colonize the Darien, extract gold from its numerous 
but small mines, and subject the Indians to political control. 

Cuna pacification was finally achieved in 1787 but it 
was the Spanish who capitulated and not the Cima. Al- 
though greatly reduced in number by disease and warfare, 
the Cuna entered the 19th century in firm control of large 



areas of the Darien region of eastern Panama. Through a 
series of alliances with French and English buccaneers, by 
skillful use of the Darien barrier, and through their willing- 
ness and ability to simplify and modify their formerly com- 
plex social organization the Cuna became almost unique in 
emerging from the Spanish period as an independent people. 

The Darien region, together with the rest of Panama, 
was incorporated into Colombia after that nation obtained 
its independence from Spain. A liberal Colombian govern- 
ment in the mid-1 9th century recognized the internal au- 
tonomy of the Cuna of the coastal region. \Vith the external 
threat removed, the Cima began to move from the coast and 
the interior onto the small coral atolls which dot the Carib- 
bean coast in that area. The new variant on Cuna culture 
which developed in the new environment is what we know 
today as the society of the San Bias Cuna. Only 150 years 
old, San Bias society is nevertheless the successful culmina- 
tion of over 400 years of conflict and competition between 
Cuna and representatives of various Western societies. 

In the 20th century the Cuna social system has contin- 



Page4 JULY 



vied to exhibit traits of flexibility and adaptiveness. Between 
1903. when the region became a part of the newly inde- 
pendent Republic of Panama, and 1967 the Cuna achieved 
an overall literacy rate in Spanish of nearly 50 per cent, 
learned to organize and operate a variety of small businesses, 
and to move between their own villages and the cities of 
Panama with relative ease. Yet when one visits the San 
Bias region for the first time, he is struck not by what is new 
and modern but by what is traditional and uniquely Cuna. 
The cane huts; the sailing canoes; the women in their gold 
noserings, red scarves and beautifully sewn mola blouses; 
the chiefs chanting almost nightly in the town meetings held 
in most villages — these are the events and sights which 
deeply impress the outsider. It is the continuities in the 
Cuna cultural experience which are unique and fascinating. 

Other and larger cultural groups have broken apart un- 
der the stress of contact with the world market, industrial- 
ism and nation-states. Yet the San Bias Cuna have accepted 
their Panamanian citizenship and with the aid of the central 
government have entered upon a controlled program of 
change and development without the destruction of their 
cultural system. With the hope of finding some of the 
reasons for their success in preserving their own way of life 
while adapting to the realities of the modern world, I went 
to San Bias in 1967. The answer, I found, is complex. It lies 
in the strength and flexibility of San Bias social organiza- 
tion, in the caliber of Cuna leadership, in the ecology of the 
region, and in historical accident. 

Thf San Bias Region. The Comarca (Reserve) of San 
Bias is a self-governing region within the Republic of Pan- 
ama. It comprises the archipelago of San Bias and the 
coastal strip and adjacent jungle area to the continental 
divide along the Caribbean coast in the eastern part of the 
Republic. Under terms of an agreement dating originally 
from 1925 the San Bias Cuna enjoy a unique status within 
the Republic. Schools are placed in villages only with the 
consent of local authorities, and officials of the government 
of Panama deal through the regional and local Cuna officials. 

.Although most of the 20,000 San Bias Cuna live on the 
atolls, theirs is a land-oriented rather than an island culture. 
The islets are without fresh water and can be inhabited on a 
year-roimd basis only if they are located near a river. Only 
40-50 of the hundreds of islets are inhabited for this reason. 
A few villages within the territory are located along the 
shore or on the rivers. 

The Cuna exploit their territory economically in two 
distinct but equally important ways. The basis of the sub- 
sistence economy is the plantain, which is grown in a variety 
of species and eaten in several ways. Supplemental foods 
are corn, rice, fruits, sugar cane, fish, and bread. The in- 
clusion of bread as a dietary staple represents a dependency 
upon the market, since wheat flour must be purchased. 
Until about 20 years ago wild game was also a diet supple- 
ment but at the present time the supply is so short that onlv 
a few men in the entire region engage in hunting. To com- 
pensate for the decline in the meat supply the raising of 
domestic pigs and chickens has begun to spread in the region. 



The basis of the cash economy is coconut cropping. 
Every adult controls or has access to some coconut land, 
and every household receives the major portion of its cash 
income from the sale of coconuts. Cuna coconuts are sold 
to small trading vessels. The control of the .San Bias trade 
has been alternately in the hands of Panamanian and Co- 
lombian entrepreneurs. Although coconut prices have fluc- 
tuated widely in connection with world market conditions, 
the eflfects of the fluctuations upon the Cuna has been ade- 
quately cushioned by the subsistence system. For 15 years, 
coconut production has declined because of a serious blight. 

Opportunities for the diversification of agriculture in 
San Bias are limited by the absence of roads connecting 
the region with the cities of Panama. At present, entry to 
San Bias is by boat or by single engine plane, neither suit- 
able for transporting perishable agricultural products. 

The most likely source of future development in San 
Bias is tourism. The natural beauty of the area and the 
exotic visual spectacle presented by San Bias villages and 
the people themselves have a strong appeal. At the pres- 
ent time there are several small tourist facilities operated in 
the area, one by the Cuna themselves. However, the Cuna 
have mixed feelings about the presence of outside entrepre- 
neurs in their territory. The Panamanian newspapers in 
April of this year carried news of the burning of one of these 
facilities by the Cuna in connection with a dispute over the 
terms of its operation. 

Traditional Cuna Culture. Because all cultures are con- 
stantly changing, it is not really accurate to speak of "the 
traditional culture" of a people as if there were a single de- 
scription applicable to all periods in the past. The picture 
of San Bias culture which is presented here is appropriate 





Policemen's sticks are carved by their individual owners and represent 
the owner's authority and influence. They are from three to four feet 
high. (The house-boat and the kneeling figure designs were lent by 
Mrs. Regina Holloman; the two center sticks were lent by the .Mu.''eum 
of the American Indian.) 



JULY Page 5 



for the period around the turn of the century. By that time 
the increased contact brought about by 50 years of life on 
the islands had already had its eflfect, particularly on the 
lives of men. Men's puberty ceremonies, observed until 
around 1850, were already obsolete. With the demise of 
the ceremonies had come an alteration in men's dress. Penis 
shields, received at the time of initiation and worn at least 
ceremonially into the middle of the 19th century had been 
uniformly abandoned in favor of Western-style shirt and 
pants. Dependency on metal tools was well established, 
and each large village relied upon one or more men who 
were bilingual and at least minimally literate to handle their 
dealings with non-Cuna. Cuna men had regularly left the 
area to serve as sailors on foreign vessels for fifty years or 
more. Still, the direct impact of the outside world upon 
the San Bias region was very limited at the turn of the cen- 
tury. The region itself remained closed to all non-Cuna 
except for the crews of the coastal trading vessels. 

Everyday life was dominated by traditional relation- 
ships. In each village leadership was in the hands of a 
group of older inen. These men achieved their positions of 
authority through mastery of traditional knowledge. A 
young man who aspired to leadership apprenticed himself 
to a series of teachers over a period of 1 5 to 20 years. He 
lived with each teacher for one to several years, working 
as a member of the teacher's household during that time. 
Some men traveled to Colombia to study with surviving 
Cuna savants there, and a few studied medicine among the 
neighboring Choco Indians. A developing leader came to 
know a wide territory and the leaders of many villages. The 
education of no two men was exacdy alike, and men of out- 
standing ability in each generation made their own syn- 
theses of the oral tradition, in this way contributing to its 
enrichment as well as its perpetuation. 

A large village usually contained the following special- 
ists: a medicine man (inatulet) who treated the illnesses of 
individuals; a "place curer" {apsoget) who could be called 
upon in the event of disaster, epidemic or some other prob- 
lem which affected the community as a whole; a flute mas- 
ter (kantule) who took charge of the ritual parts of the female 
puberty ceremonies; and a seer-shaman (neU). If a man 
aspired to general political leadership he was expected to 
know something about each of these areas. In addition, it 
was specifically the task of a chief to master the religious and 
historical myths of the oral tradition. 

Underlying all of the branches of knowledge recognized 
by the Cuna is a world view based in what might be called 
a "doctrine of origins." To know the origin of an entity is 
to be able to control it. The origins are recorded in chants 
for curing snake bite, chants for obtaining the assistance of 
good spirits, chants for assisting women in childbirth, chants 
for dispelling demons of various sorts, chants for appeasing 
aff"ronted spirits, chants of the origin of the Cuna people 
themselves and their way of life. Medicine chants are gen- 
erally used in connection with herbal remedies and supple- 
mentary paraphernalia : medicine stones, hot pepper and 
cacao bean incense, and carved figurines called uchus. The 



efficacy of each of these items is dependent upon the user's 
knowledge of its origin. 

A rich and meaningful ceremonial life also derived from 
the traditional religious beliefs. The most important of 
these ceremonies were the singing meetings held almost 
nightly, and the little and big Inna ceremonies held in con- 
nection with female puberty and the readying of the ma- 
tured girl for marriage. 

The Inna ceremonies involved the preparation of fer- 
mented chicha (a drink of corn and sugar cane juice) and 





mam 



Left: Young Cuna woman dis- 
plays elaborately sewn mola 
blouse. Above: Men's coopera- 
tive work group thatching a roof. 
Right: Cuna pillage at the edge 
of the sea. 



prolonged drinking with mass intoxication. The Cuna in- 
terpret the physical state of drunkenness as a condition of 
nearness to God. .\t the Inna the girls' hair is cropped to 
adult length. 

The other major ceremonial event of traditional life, the 
singing meeting, expresses the religious imderpinnings of 
San Bias village organization. Cuna villages are politically 
organized through a town meeting in which all adult males 
participate. In the town meetings common problems are 
discussed and decisions reached by consensus. Separateh' 
or in connection with these talking meetings a singing meet- 
ing was traditionally held. At these times the chiefs ham- 
mock is hung in the center of the meeting hut, and he chants 
from the hammock. 

Cuna chanting is in an archaic or esoteric form of the 



Paged JULY 



language and is not readily understood by the listeners, but 
must be interpreted for them by a "speaker." The subject 
of the chanting varies. Some chants deal with the origins 
and mysteries of Cuna religion and life. Others are more 
like sermons of moral instruction. These latter chants may 
be extemporaneous. 

At the turn of the century the San Bias region was not 
politically imified. Certain chiefs in each generation be- 
came recognized as inter-island leaders by virtue of their 
exceptional learning and personal charisma. In 1903 there 




Above: Cuna youngsters cluster around canoes on a beach near 
their village. (Photos by F. Louis Hoover.) 




were two of these men, each heading a faction composed of 
local chiefs. The association was loose and the ability of the 
inter-island chief to influence events in a community other 
than his own was a fimction of his personal relationship with 
the chief of that village. 

Below the level of the local town meeting the most im- 
portant unit of traditional Cuna society was the extended 
family household. Among the Cima when a man marries 
he joins the household of his wife. The house itself is owned 
by the oldest woman and passes from her to her eldest 
daughter. The head of the household group is her hus- 
band. Agricultural labor is done in common by the men 
of the household working under the direction of the father- 
in-law. Each household has a sleeping hut and a cooking 
hut. If the joint family prospers and grows, more sleeping 



huts are added. In these cases the use of a common kitchen 
signals that several apparently independent family groups 
are actually members of the same household. 

The Cuna have traditionally married within the village. 
The result of centuries of village endogamy is a very high 
rate of genetic anomalies. The most striking of these is 
albinism. The Cuna of Panama have the highest rate of 
albinism in the world — at least .6 per cent of the population. 
The overall rate for Europe is .005 per cent. 

San Bias Today. In one sense, the description of tradi- 
tional Cuna culture at the turn of the century is still appro- 
priate today. Most Cuna remain loyal to the ideals and 
values which were expressed in the traditional relationships. 
However, in their everyday behavior emphases have shifted 
and new relationships and activities have been added. Per- 
haps the major observable change is the increasing hetero- 
geneity of life in San Bias, both between and within com- 
nmnities. At the turn of the century all communities par- 
ticipated equally in the traditional way of life and there was 
very little difference among them, except in size. Today, 
this is no longer the case. Some villages strike one as highly 
traditional, others as highly acculturated. One island is the 
site of the Catholic Mission and the only junior high in the 
region. A Baptist hospital is located on another. Two is- 
lands have government health clinics. Ten have constructed 
airports. Over twenty have a school of some sort. A tourist 
hotel is operated by the people of one island. Ten com- 
munities own trading boats. U. S. Peace Corps personnel 
are assigned in several communities. 

Within the villages the situation is much the same. There 
is a sprinkling of cement houses in many communities and 
some huts have cement floors. About six per cent of all the 
men of the region are employed in nonagricultural occu- 
pations. For the most part these men hold civil service 
or patronage jobs. A very high percentage of the younger 
men in most communities are absent at any given time, 
working in Panama. Also, many young children live and 
work in Panamanian homes in order to attend school there. 

Other changes have affected all segments of the San 
Bias population equally. These are changes in the organi- 
zation of the town meeting, and in the way in which com- 
mercial activities are handled. Today, many town meetings 
are partly or completely secularized. There are very few 
chiefs still living who are qualified as religious specialists in 
the old way. Many villages have both a "business chief" 
and a "singing" or traditional chief. A few have made the 
office of chief elective, with four-year terms of office and 
universal adult suflVage. The range of tasks organized 
through the town meeting has been greatly extended, re- 
flecting the demands of local populations for services such 
as electrification, mail, and air transport. Most of these 
new tasks are handled through a standing committee system. 

Most important from the point of view of economic de- 
velopment has been the growth of sociedades or commercial 
cooperatives. Through their sociedades (which are both 
public and private) the Cuna are able to pool capital and 
labor. A great variety of enterprises is organized by them 



JULY Page? 



in this way. The most common are stores, restanrants, 
commercial agricultural and fishing operations, and trading 
boats. In the case of one store I investigated the initial 
capitalization was S4.25, collected through 25-cent contri- 
butions from each of seventeen members. After about three 
years of operation the store had a net worth of S300 to S400. 
The San Bias sociedades place service to the community 
and to members ahead of profit-making. They are able to 
prosper because the region has remained closed to compe- 
tition from oiUside entrepreneurs. 

Despite the great changes in the level of literacy and the 
occupational profile of the San Bias population, most indi- 
viduals continue to live as members of extended family 
groupings, inost girls have an Inna, and most women (young 
and old) continue to dress in the traditional fashion. In 
the few communities in which modern dress is the standard, 
the change is not recent but dates from the period before 
1925. A general decline in the wearing of nose rings in girls 
under about seven years of age is noticable, however. 

The art of designing and sewing the decorative panels 
for the traditional mola blouses has had its florescence over 
the past ten to fifteen years. The development of mola art 
is perhaps the best indicator we have of the enthusiasm and 
confidence with which the Cuna have undertaken the mod- 
ernization of their culture. A study of the designs of the 
panels provides visual evidence of the harmonious blending 
of the old and the new that is Cuna culture at the present 
time. Many molas are deeply religious. Others reflect the 
fun and excitement provided by novel experiences. Mola 
designs are taken from the labels on cans, off playing cards, 
out of newspapers, and from political caiupaign posters. 

The 1925 Revolt and the Reforms oj Nele Kantule. The his- 
tory of San Bias modernization in this century is not one of 
gradual, progressive change. The years from 1925 to 1930 
were decisive in establishing the direction which San Bias 
modernization would take over the next two generations. 

Shortly after Panama obtained its independence from 
Colombia in 1903, the government adopted an Indian pol- 



Women dancing with musical instruments, apparel and ornaments 
that are typically Cuna. (Photo by F. Louis Hoover.) 




icy which aimed at the economic incorporation of the Indian 
regions within the national system and the rapid accultura- 
tion of the various tribal populations. As a result of this 
policy the San Bias Cima were subjected to extreme pres- 
sure in the decade 1915-1925. Contracts were let to out- 
siders for the commercial exploitation of regional resources 
and Panamanian National Guardsmen were stationed on a 
number of islands. A siuall minority of villages cooperated 
actively with the government. The remainder became in- 
creasingly hostile as land alienation proceeded and abuses 
by Guardsmen increased. In 1925 a large group of islands 
revolted — a success which resulted in the restoration of the 
region's political autonomy and territorial integrity. 

The story of the 1925 revolt is one of those odd turns 
with which history provides us from time to time. A re- 
bellion of sorts was bound to have occurred, but the form it 
took and its outcome were profoundly affected by the pres- 
ence in the area at that time of an American explorer, 
Richard O. Marsh. As Marsh listened to the Cuna stories 
of Panamanian abuses, he became a man with a cause. He 
decided that the only solution to the situation was for the 
San Bias region to be placed under U. S. trusteeship, with 
an American "of the highest character" appointed adminis- 
trator. To this end Marsh returned with a group of Cuna 
to the United States where he marshalled considerable 
support for the Cuna cause. The Panamanian view of 
Marsh's activities is that he wanted to establish himself as 
ruler of an independent San Bias. It is probable that Marsh 
did see himself as the future American administrator of 
high character. 

Returning to San Bias, Marsh assisted one of the inter- 
island chiefs, Nele Kantule, in developing the military strat- 
egy of the revolt. In one day of action in February 1925 
the Cuna forces surprised and either massacred or routed 
all of the National Gviard stationed in the region. When 
Panamanian reinforcements arrived in the Gulf of San Bias 
they found a U. S. cruiser at anchor with the United States 
ambassador and several officials of the Panaiuanian govern- 
ment on board. A treaty was drafted under which the 
Cuna recognized Panamanian sovereignty in return for 
guarantees of their internal autonomy. 

Between 1925 and 1930 Nele Kantule, leader of the 
revolt, organized his followers into a small "Cuna nation." 
He hoped that his government would eventually extend 
over the entire region, but Cuna vmification was not actu- 
ally accomplished until 1945, when the San Bias communi- 
ties adopted their present confederal constitution. Nele and 
his followers did bring about far-reaching changes in San 
Bias culture, however. There is not space to go into detail 
concerning the life and accomplishments of this remarkable 
man who more than any other individual was responsible 
for the ideas and innovations which facilitated San Bias' 
modernization over the past generation. 

Nele used the breathing space created by the success of 
the 1925 revolt as an opportunity for strengthening San Bias 
society. It was his conclusion that the Cima problems of 
the early part of the century had their roots in the increas- 



ing dependency of his people on outsiders for goods and 
services. His solution did not take the form of a movement 
to eliminate foreign cultural influences and return to sonic 
version of Cuna life of the past. Instead, he put forward a 
very explicit and detailed program of reorganization, aimed 
at incorporating the borrowed activities and values within 
the framework of traditional Cuna culture. To this end he 
proposed two very important innovations (among many 
others) — that the local town meetings undertake many new, 
secular activities; and that the people of each town under- 
take the organization of the many commercial activities for 
which they were by that time dependent upon outsiders. 
He preached to his followers that Cuna political and eco- 
nomic independence in the future would depend upon the 
ability of the Cuna population to master basic technical 
and literacy skills. To Nele and his followers moderniza- 
tion was not a goal, but a means to a traditional goal — the 
continued preservation of the Cuna way of life. 

Nele Kantule was not an acculturated man. He was 
both illiterate and monolingual. Although he was a man 
of great personal charisma and genius, these personal traits 
alone cannot account for the appropriateness and far-sight- 
edness of his many reform measures. Nele was the product 
of an excellent educational system — that of traditional Cuna 
culture. His studies included several years spent living with 
acculturated Cuna outside the San Bias region. From these 
men this monolingual Indian learned about the ideals of 
Simon Bolivar, the empire of Queen Victoria, and the fed- 
eral democracy of the United States. His own government 
in later years was modeled after his understanding of the 
American system. The Cuna tradition also placed great 
emphasis on political astuteness and Nele was by training 
as well as inclination a sophisticated politician. 

The Cuna town meeting and the traditional educational 
system together provided effective and flexible cultural de- 
vices for handling problems arising from a continually 
changing social environment. It seems probable that the 
relationship between the Cuna and their chiefs which exists 
through the town meeting system is a very old trait of Cuna 
culture, and that it has served them well as an adaptive 
mechanism for several centuries. We are not used to look- 
ing for evidence of social engineering and directed change 
in preliterate societies. Perhaps it has been a more com- 
mon occurrence in the history of mankind that we have 
thought. The capacity of the human mind for problem- 
solving is a trait characteristic of Homo sapiens. Where the 
social system provides exceptional minds with the necessary 
information and the necessary freedom to choose we can 
expect that those minds will produce original and realistic 
solutions to problems. Although in the long rim it is pos- 
sible to ignore the individual decision-maker as a factor in 
history, and to consider only gross permissive and limiting 
factors such as ecology and technology, this does not mean 
that human choices are irrelevant to the progress of partic- 
ular peoples at particular moments in their histories. The 
story of the San Bias Cuna in the 20th century is the story 
of the interplay of history, culture and the individual. 




Honor Museum Volunteers 

Columbian half-dollars were presented to five men and 44 
women volimteers last month to mark the Museum's 75th 
Anniversary and express appreciation to volimteers for their 
service. The silver coins, struck in 1892 and 1893 in ob- 
servance of the Columbian Exposition, are now collectors' 
pieces. Presentations were made at a reception hosted by 
Museum Director E. Leland Webber and Mrs. Webber. 

During 1968, volunteers contributed 4,001 hours of time 
to the four scientific departments and Raymond Foimda- 
tion, the educational department. Twenty-five volunteers 
aided Raymond Foundation stafl" lecturers by qualifying- 
themselves to conduct some tours for visiting groups. 

The volunteers averaged 12 hours of service a month but 
the indi\'idual contributions ranged from two to more than 
65 hours a month. One volunteer honored was Mrs. Her- 
mon Dunlap Smith, who began in 1936 and was named an 
associate in the bird division for her outstanding work with 
the collections. During World War II, when many scien- 
tists were in the armed forces, Mrs. Smith's efforts kept the 
bird division open. Mr. Sol Gurewitz, who works in the 
Anthropology Department, was cited for donating nearly 
800 hours of time in volunteer work during 1968. 

Those receiving Columbian half-dollars at the volun- 
teers' reception include: Mrs. Richard Bentley, Mrs. 
Thomas D. Burke, Jr., Miss Nora Chandler, Mrs. John 
Randolph Crews, Mrs. Henry Dry, Mr. Stanley J. Dvorak, 
Jr., Dr. Margaret Elliot, Mrs. Robert O. Elmore, Mrs. 
Winston Elting, Mrs. Wendy L. Farber, Rev. Dwaine W. 
Filkins, Mrs. Charles Fuller II, Mrs. Joseph Girardi, Mr. 
Sol Gurewitz, Miss Gertrude M. Hannen, Mrs. Robert C. 
Hyndman, Mrs. Rudolph Karall, Mrs. Clarence Kenny, 
Jr., Mrs. Robert T. Keppler, Mrs. Lorraine Kratz, Mrs. 
Donald Kropp, Mrs. Wallace D. Mackenzie, Mrs. John 
Maris, Mrs. H. F. Matthies, Mrs. Lawrence C. Morris, Jr., 
Mrs. Seymour Nordenberg, Mrs. Ronald A. Orner, Mrs. 
Harry O. Owen, Jr., Mrs. Philip Y. Paterson, Mrs. Her- 
man J. Pfeifer, Miss Mae Provus, Mrs. Harold M. Ross, Jr., 
Mr. Sol Sackheim, Mrs. A. R. Sarabia, Mrs. Eric J. Schnei- 
der, Mr. Wayne Severn, Mrs. C. William Sidwell, Mrs. 
Henry Sincere, Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith, Mrs. James G. 
Speer, Mrs. Clement F. Springer, Jr., Mrs. John Stephens, 
Mrs. Allen W. Swenson, Mrs. Thomas S. Tyler, Mrs. Alex 
B. White, Mrs. Carol S. Williams, Mrs. Philip C. Williams, 
and Mrs. Marvin Wolfson. 



JULY Page 9 



Remember when you were a child and spent rainy 
days browsing through the old stuff stored in the attic? 
What crazy, wonderful things lay hidden in the piles of 
boxes gathering dust among the shadowed rafters! My 
brother and I used to spend many happy hours at this, 
terminated only by the memorable day when we 
discovered our parents' courtship letters and recited 
selected portions of them at the dinner table that evening. 

When a great museum like ours has been in operation 
for 75 years, it inevitably develops an "attic." The 
organized collections stand in compact rows of massive 
cases, each with its rank of drawers, each drawer filled 
with ordered, carefully documented specimens. But at 
the end of every collection stand a few cases labeled 
"Miscellaneous," "Incerlae Sedis,''^ "not catalogued," or in 
one collection blessed with a forthright curator "usable 
junk." Here lie the attic treasures of 75 years. 



Treasures 

in 

the 

Attic 



By Jolin Clark 

Associate Curator, 
Sedimentary Petrology 




Natural forces acting within sediments produced this 
so-called "landscape marble," which can be inter- 
preted as looking like impressionistic trees painted 
against a stormy sky. Once regarded primarily as 
decorative curiosities, landscape marbles may now 
provide scientists with information on how substances 
moving within soft muds contribute to the formation 
of structures in hard rocks. 



Generations of curators have squirrelled them away 
because they couldn't identify them, or because they had 
no use for them at the moment biu thought that a future 
curator might have. 

It was here, in my own collection, that I found three 
very ordinary concretions labeled respectively, "Fossil 
baby?," "Fossil human foot," and "Fossil ham." This 
was sheer nonsense, of course. .Since the concretions were 
of no significance without locality data, I discarded them. 

But the next drawer held a large slab labeled 
"Landscape Marble," with full data. It had originally 
been part of an exhibit of ornamental stone. Beautiful 
gray markings, with trails of brassy pyrite crystals, 
billowed like the clouds of small atomic explosions through 
the layers of creamy limstone. Are these perhaps the 
traces of gas bubbles moving through the age-old, oozy 
mud while it was just beginning to harden into rock? 
We don't yet know, but this specimen may give us some 
of the clues to the processes by which soft muds become 



Page W JL'I.r 





The skull (left) is from Daphoenocyon, an ancient dog-bear creature. The fossil was recently re-identified after 
having been mislabeled for years as Daphoenus, a rather common ancestor of the dog. A few jaws of Daphoen- 
ocyon exist in museum collections, including ours. The one at the right corresponds to the upper right portion 
of the skull. This skidl is the only complete one of Daphoenocyon known. 



more or less porous hard rocks. If so, the study of ground 
water reservoirs and of oil and gas reservoirs will be well 
served by the rock from our Mviseum's "attic." 

About a year after this, my technician and I were 
relaxing one afternoon — both of us tired from our regular 
duties, we were spending a happy hour browsing through 
a drawer of fossil jaws labelled " Oligocene-Dogs? — 
Miscellaneous."' As I picked up one jaw, he yelled "Hey 
isn't that — ? It's Cjmaprimadon.'" And it was, the second 
known specimen of a fantastic fossil animal we had found 
in the South Dakota Badlands that summer. It was a 
relative of the shrews and moles, but its head was as big 
as an otter's, it probably climbed trees, and it almost 
certainly killed its prey with venom inserted by its grooved 
front teeth. No other museum in the world is known to 
have any! Now we have two. The aged, crumbling 
label read, "Dog? Baur collections. South Dakota 
Badlands, 1893." The man who placed that specimen 
in our attic has been dead for 60 years. 

The next specimen we picked up was a skull and jaws 



labelled "Daphoenus — Chadron Formation — Sioux County, 
Nebraska 1922." A glance told us that it wasn't the 
relatively common ancestral dog, Daphoenus. This was 
the strange, primitive dog-bear, Daphoenocyon. Several 
museums have lower jaws, but this was the first time 
anyone had seen the skull. It had lain all these years 
concealed by its wrong identification: no one would 
bother to look at a somewhat battered skull of Daphoenus 
when we had several excellent ones for study. 

Our exploring the Mviseum "attic" had been profitable 
indeed. A Fieldiana publication now describes our 
Cymaprimadon, and the Daphoenocyon skull will be described 
in a future scientific paper. 

Actually, we try to review our miscellaneous collections 
every few years, in the light of current knowledge. New 
information enables us to eliminate worthless specimens 
like the "fossil human foot," identify specimens like the 
dog-bear that couldn't be recognized before, and read 
new significance into formerly unimportant things like 
the landscape marble. 




Drawing of Cymaprimadon jaw ivhich 
had lain, mislabeled as a probable fossil 
dog, in a Museum drawer for more than 
50 years. The animal it proved to be 
was identified for the first time in 1967. 
Field Museum has the only two known 
museum specimens of this ancient rela- 
tive of the shrews and moles, a dangerous 
animal that evidently had a poisonous 
bite. 



JULY Page 11 



Volunteers Benefit Student Visitors 



The volunteer program in education 
at Field Museum is proving to be as 
successful as its initiators hoped when it 
was begun in the fall of 1967 by the 
Raymond Foundation. Its purpose was 
to help supplement the regular staff of 
lecturers who were overwhelmed by the 
increasing numbers of school groups 
visiting the Museum each year. 

In 1966, over 300,000 people visited 
the Museum in organised groups. With 
only five full-time lecturers on its staff, 
Raymond Foundation could serve only 
about 20 per cent of these. Even with 
staff lecturers carrying a full schedule, 
nearly a quarter of a million young visi- 
tors received no help to make their 



Museum visit more meaningful. 

Raymond Foundation relayed its 
request for help to the then newly- 
formed Women's Board of Field Mu- 
seum. Through the board's efforts, the 
full-time lecturers were ultimately sup- 
plemented by 14 dedicated women who 
volunteer their time and energy in con- 
ducting various typesof group programs. 

The vokmteers begin as "greeters," 
helping direct groups to coatrooms, 
lunchroom areas and areas of special 
interest on days when the average num- 
ber of visiting children is 3,000 or more. 
Once familiar with the Museum itself 
and with techniques involved in working 
with children in a Museum setting. 



July hours: 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., Monday, 
CALENDAR OF EVENTS Tuesday and Thursday; 9 a.m. to 8 p.m., 

Wednesday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday. 

July 1 Summer Series of Children's Movies "A Crazy, Mixed-Up Dog" The 
free showings are at 10 a.m. and 1 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre, spon- 
sored by the Raymond Foundation. The series is offered before and after the 
Thursday children's concerts sponsored by the Chicago Park District in Grant 
Park. 

July 17 Summer Series of Children's Movies "The Gre.at Swamp" depicts a 
boy"s adventures in swamp country. 10 a.m. and 1 p.m. in the James Simpson 
Theatre. Admission is free. 

July 24 Summer Series of Children's Movies "Living Things Are Everyvn^here" 
10 a.m. and 1 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. Admission is free. 

July 31 Summer Series of Children's Movies "Nature's Oddities" is the final 
film in the series. It focuses on imusual animals from many areas of the world. 
10 a.m. and 1 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. Admission is free. 

July 7- August 29 Guided Public Tours Professional staff lecturers will pro- 
vide free guided tours to visitors at 2 p.m. daily, Monday through Friday. 
A movie, "Through These Doors," which shows glimpses "behind the scenes," 
will be presented at 3 p.m. in the Lecture Hall. 

July 9 -October 12 The Art and Life of the Cuna Indians This temporary 
exhibit explores the history and culture of these people who live on islands off 
the coast of Panama, and how they have reacted to modern ideas. Hall 9 
Gallery. 

Through November 16 75th .Anniversary Exhibit "A Se.nse of Wonder, .\ 
Sense of History, A Sense of Discovery The free exhibit emphasizes the 
scope of the Museum's activities since its founding in 1893, following the 
World's Columbian Exposition. Choice specimens from the Museum collec- 
tions and examples of current research programs by Musemii curators are in- 
cluded in the exhibit. Hall 3. 

Through August Summer Journey "Insects" The fascinating world of insects, 
which has the largest number of species in the animal kingdom, is the subject 
of the Raymond Foundation's current Journey for boys and girls. The free 
do-it-yourself tour is open to any child who can read and write. Journev 
sheets and additional information are available at Museum entrances. 



volunteers have the opportunity of in- 
creasing their individual skills and tech- 
niques, by assisting the professional staff 
as they conduct programs. Soon the vol- 
unteers may take their own groups of 
very young children on short, simple 
tours. After work with the professional 
staff and a concentrated reading pro- 
gram, volunteers are assigned to regular 
school groups on the same basis as the 
staff lecturers. 

These present volunteers can now 
offer a total of 22 different programs 
and as an example of their valuable 
service, Raymond Foundation notes 
they conducted 181 tours for nearly 
6,000 children in 1968 and during the 
first three months of 1 969 presented 1 22 
tours to 3,417 children. Even so, only 
20 per cent of visiting groups are now 
helped because of a 30 per cent increase 
in organized group visits over the past 
two years. 

Volunteers are still needed, espe- 
cially during the fall and spring when 
the number of groups wishing to parti- 
cipate in Raymond Foundation pro- 
grams is at its peak. 

A few openings remain for Field 
Museum's 17-day Grand Canyon Tour, 
limited to 28 persons. From September 
12-28, Dr. Matthew H. Nitecki, Assist- 
ant Curator of Fossil Invertebrates, will 
lead tour members, with an emphasis 
on the Canyon's geology. A week-long 
raft trip on the Colorado River will cli- 
max the trip. Cost of the tour, including 
all expenses and a $200 tax-deductible 
donation to Field Museum, is $1,025. 
Reservations may be made by writing 
Grand Canyon Tour, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois, 
60605, or by telephone, 922-0916. 



FIELD MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

ROOSEVELT ROAD AT LAKE SHORE DRIVE 
CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 6060S A.C. 312. 922-9410 
FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD. 1893 

E. Leland Webber, Director 

BULLETIN 

Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 



Page n JULY 



PRINTED BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



3E 



^ 




BULLETIN FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Volume 40, Number 8 August 1969 




On this month's cover, the mystique of jade: Timeless beauty and appeal are 
carved into this delicately designed representation of a phoenix carrying a 
little boy on its back. Carved in soft gray jade, the piece is from theT'ang 
period, and is shown actual size. The Chinese quotation, from Shuo Wen 
Chieh Tzu, by Hsu Shen, reads, "Jade is the fairest of stones." 




The Fa^ resf of Sfones 

By Elizabeth Alanne 

Field Museum Press 

Even a very superficial study of jade and its use as an artistic medium brings one 
quickly to an awareness of the stone's mystique, to use a currently popular term. 
More ancient legends and superstitions surround jade, perhaps, than any other 
stone among the many gems, stones and metals prized for their rarity and beauty. 
Regardless of price, the other stones seem to lack the personal impact that jade 
has had for individuals and, possibly, even civilizations. 

Reverence for jade reached its highest proportions in China and the use of the 
stone is most commonly associated with that country, but jade was discovered 
and used in several widely separated areas. It was believed to have magical 
properties and was used in important ceremonies and by persons of high rank. 

The Mayas and Aztecs of Mesoamerica used and worked or carved jade, and 
objects of jadeite were used extensively in religious rituals. Body jades were put 
in tombs to prevent decomposition of the dead; sacrificial knives were made of 
jade; and jade, worn next to the skin, was believed to ward off evil spirits and cure 
disease. It was also used in powdered form as a medicine. 

According to legend, these pre-Columbian Indian civilizations valued jade 
more than any other medium of exchange, including gold. Especially prized was 
the emerald green shade, which resembled the plumage of the sacred quetzal. 

Evidently the tradition of jade carving in Mesoamerica was many centuries old 
when the Spanish explorers came, and it largely died out after the Spanish Con- 
quest. 

The Maoris of New Zealand also had access to jade and carved primitive 
pieces from it — mainly ornaments, talismans, and weapons which were used by 
those with prestige and high rank. There is also evidence that peoples in Turke- 
stan, Persia and Alaska revered jade, believing that the ingestion of powdered 
jade would confer immortality. 

But nowhere was jade more important than in China. According to one 
legend, recounted by Richard Gump in his book, Jade, Stone of Heaven, the right 
to rule China rested in the possession of a particular piece, the Precious Jade of 
Ho. Ho is described as a poor man who saw a phoenix alight on a rock. Believing 
the rock to be jade. Ho presented it to three successive emperors. To his mis- 
fortune, the first two did not believe the stone was jade, and each had one of Ho's 
feet cut off. Undeterred, he brought it to the third emperor, a man who recognized 
the fineness of the stone, accepted the gift and rewarded Ho. One version of the 
legend says the stone was carved into a pi (a flat ring-shaped ritual piece which 
represented Heaven) and another that it was carved into a seal. In any event, the 
Precious Jade of Ho has reportedly figured in the wars and upheavals of China 
since about 9 A.D. It was said to have been taken to Shanghai in 1936, along with 

Carvings in the round have appeared in great numbers since the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 
220 A.D.) hut are difficult to date because styles have remained quite constant. Animals, natural 
objects, hitman figures, and mythological creatures have been consistently popular subjects for 
jade carvers. Nearly all these pieces can easily be held in one's hand. Dating is approximate 
for the carvings shown: (From top) bearded sage, Han Dynasty; reclining horse, T'ang Dynasty; 
reclining goat, Han Dynasty; a miniature headdress. Sung Dynasty; another reclining horse, 
Ch'ing Dynasty; and a lion-like creature, not dated but probably Sung or earlier. 



Page 2 AUGUST 




stylized natural forms made of thin, fiat pieces of jade, with some surface design, are typical of early Chinese jade carvings, 
versions of a tiger; bottom row, from left: "monster" head, bird, and dolphin. 



Top row shows three 



other Chinese treasures, to keep it from the Japanese in- 
vaders. Its present whereabouts is unknown. 

References to the stone's political significance stand a 
poor second to the testimonies for its value to the individual, 
however. Of utmost importance in understanding its 
mystique in China is the fact that the Chinese believed jade 
was an intermediary between Earth and Heaven. It was 
this quality that was worshipped, not the stone itself. 

Originally, jade was used in China for making ritual 
objects and sea's and insignias for kings and nobles. Jade 
jewelry was apparently introduced during the late Chou 
period (600-221 B.C.) and by the 18th century, the use of 
jade for personal adornments and decorative purposes far 
outweighed that used for ritual objects, although these were 
still used on formal occasions. The use of jade for purely 
decorative purposes was probably at least partially due to 
an increased availability of the stone. Nevertheless, the use 
of jade was largely restricted to royalty until well into the 
19th century. 

The use of jade was by no means limited to the outside 
of the man. Powdered jade, mentioned in connection with 
other civilizations, was a very popular medicine in China. 
Doses of powdered jade were swallowed to obtain a variety 
of highly-desirable results: as a cure-all; for prolonged life; 
to obtain powers of invisibility and levitation; to prevent 
one from being thrown from a horse; to ward off evil; and, 
in large amounts, it conferred immortality. It might be 
interesting, on quiet, rainy evenings, to ponder the possible 
amount of jade that disappeared into alimentary canals 
over the centuries for these reasons. 

In the strict geological sense, what we know as jade may 
actually be either of two separate substances, nephrite and 
jadeite. Its occurrence is restricted in that individual de- 
posits are isolated, although these may occur in widely 
separated parts of the world. Oddly enough, neither neph- 
rite nor jadeite has ever been known to occur in China, the 
country in which it has had the most widespread use. 

The original source for Chinese jade was probably a 



nephrite deposit in the K'un Lun Mountains in what was 
Chinese Turkestan. It has also been found in Siberia, 
British Columbia, New Zealand, Poland, Japan, Italy, 
Southern Rhodesia and Brazil, and in Alaska, California, 
Washington and Wyoming in the United States. Jadeite 
is known to occur only in Burma, Mexico, California and 
Guatemala. Although the list of sources seems imposing, 
many of the deposits have jade of poor quality or have very 
small amounts of high quality stone which are quickly used 
up. 

Nephrite is the more common of the two types of jade. 
It is a silicate of magnesium, fibrous, hard to fracture, and 
soapy in appearance. There are two types of nephrite: 
actinolite, which contains iron, and tremolite, which con- 
tains little iron. Both are called nephrite, just as nephrite 
and jadeite and both called jade. 

Jadeite is a silicate of sodium, more easily broken than 
nephrite and able to take a more brilliant shine when pol- 
ished. In its uncarved state, jadeite has an oxidized shell 
which makes it very difficult to judge the quality of the 
stone. The composition of Mexican jadite is slightly dif- 
ferent from Burma jadeite, which is called "gem quality." 
Jadeite was not introduced into China until after 1784. 

Despite these differences in composition, nephrite and 
jadeite are similar in appearance to one another and there 
is a wide range of colors in both. 

Those unfamiliar with jade often tend to think of it as 
being only green and, indeed, the "gem quality" jade found 
in some jewelry is the deep, rich emerald green found only 
in jadeite. Jade in its pure state, however, is white. It is 
an iron impurity that gives it its variety of hues. Some 
shades of color appear exclusively in nephrite — the whitish 
"mutton-fat" and "spinach" green flecked with black — 
while "emerald" green, mauve and light blue are peculiar 
to jadeite. The Chinese recognized hundreds of fine grada- 
tions of color and have given many of these highly imagi- 
native names. Calling upon the animal, vegetable and 
mineral kingdoms for inspiration, jades of various shades 



AUGUST Pages 




Small jadeite mask, probably 
from the Valley of Mexico, is 
an example of the vigorous 
carvings produced by the pre- 
Columbian Indian civiliza- 
tions of Mesoamerica. Unlike 
the Chinese, the Indians had 
no metal tools and had to rely 
on less efficient instruments. 



Even today, many jade deposits are in difficult areas to 
work and are expensive to mine. Weather is a factor, for 
instance, in Burma where mining operations can only be 
carried on successfully from March to May. 

No small part of jade's mystique is in its artistic possi- 
bilities. 

"Jade is tough, hard and heavy; it takes and keeps a 
good edge; its fine colors and polished surface must have 
been the pride and joy of craftsman and warrior alike."' 

We have mentioned carving frequently without de- 
scribing this important craft, which in most cases determines 
the value of a piece of jade. In China the position of the 
jade carver was analagous to that of a goldsmith in Europe, 
much as jade held the position of value in China that gold 
does in the Western world. 

Jade is, in fact, not literally carved but is formed through 
the use of an abrasive. It resists chiseling, but it can actu- 
ally be cut with sand, water and a piece of string as the only 
tools. This method is used to cut large boulders of jade into 
smaller pieces, using the string as a two-man saw. 



'Hansford, S. Howard, Chinese Jade Carving, p. 57. 




A green nephrite spoon, Ming 
period. Jade vessels for serv- 
ing food and drink became 
popular under the Mongol 
rulers (Yuan Dynasty), em- 
perors who stressed the prac- 
tical, even in the use of jade. 



are identified as: "chicken bone," "rice," "ivory," "young 
onion," "pearl," "egg," "apple," "imperial," "peach," 
and, in the case of the two-tone jades, such picturesque 
phrases as "sky-after-the-rain" and "moss-en tangled-in-the- 
snow." The color range includes yellows, greys, greens, 
browns, reds, and more rarely, mauves, blues and pinks. 
Colors are frequently mixed with white in a single piece of 
jade, creating a cloudy two-tone effect. Almost every piece 
of jade, therefore, has its own individual color characteristics. 

Lumped under the name jade, nephrite and jadeite both 
possess toughness, a strangely attractive "coolness" to the 
touch, and an affinity to exquisite carving work. 

The small size of the earliest jade carvings are indicative 
both of the limitations of early tools and of the scarcity of 
the stone, not only in its natural state, but in the amount 
that could be successfully mined. Evidently the first pieces 
used in China were actually pebbles, fished out of streams 
that carried bits of jade from its mountain sources. 

In the mountains, primitive — and often wasteful — meth- 
ods were used to obtain the stone, such as heating it by fires 
during the day so that the jade might be cracked by the 
cold night temperatures acting upon it, and other similar 
methods. 



This Maori hei-tiki neck or- 
nament is unusually large, 
about 81/0 inches high, but the 
design is one often repeated by 
the native jade carvers of New 
Zealand. This specimen, urith 
abalone shell inlays, is from 
the A. W. F. Fuller Collection. 




Page 4 AUGUST 



Earliest carvers probably used quartz sand and water, 
a very slow abrasive, in working jade and their finished 
pieces were usually flat, and thin with some surface relief. 

Carving in the round — which included vessels for food, 
statues and many personal adornments — were not done 
until after the advent of the rotary tool. The discovery of 
the treadle-wheel also made jade carving easier and in- 
creased the artist's freedom since he no longer had to use 
one hand to hold the piece while working it with the other. 
The introduction of harder and more efficient abrasives over 
the years also produced changes in aspects of the jade work- 
ing craft. When S. Howard Hansford visited Peking in 
1939, carborundum, which came into use between World 
Wars I and H, was the most widely used abrasive, but 
other, older ones were also used for special effects. Some 
connoisseurs of jade carving believe that pieces worked with 
sand, crushed garnets or corundum, the slower abrasives, 
show more control of the carving and produce a finer finish. 

The carver's tools have remained largely unchanged 
over the years, consisting of drills, gouges and grinders, used 
with the treadle wheel. The Chinese have had the use of 
metal tools and diamond points on some of their tools for 
many centuries. 

In Mesoamerica, jade workers produced some excellent 
pieces without the benefit of metal tools, which were not 
introduced until after the Spanish Conquest. Bone, wood 
and even cactus needles were evidently used by jade carvers 
in the pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. 





One of very few jades from the long transitional period in Chinese 
history, which saw many short-lived dynasties, is this beautifully de- 
signed and crafted white jade lady, Wei period {about 386-589 A.D.). 
Despite apparent internal turmoil, the period was a creative one which 
brought the first landscape paintings, prose literature, and advances 
in the jade carving art. 



Incredibly intricate and delicate openwork is an example of the elab- 
orate designs popular during various periods of jade carving. White 
nephrite incense burner is from the Ming period. 



When brought to a carving shop, the stone is carefully 
examined for flaws and quality before being cut into smaller 
pieces. The artist will study one of these cut pieces until he 
decides what design will best suit its individual qualities. 
The design is drawn on the stone and an apprentice will 
"rough cut" the stone. If flaws appear, the design must be 
changed or reworked. The artist then begins the laborious 
fine carving process, slowly forming the jade by use of 
abrasives and the various tools of his craft. Polishing is the 
final step, accomplished with a "secret" paste called pao yao 
and the use of leather polishing wheels and points. 

Jade carving is a highly regarded craft and there is a 
long period of apprenticeship involved in becoming an 
expert. Many carvers become so specialized that they do 
only one type of carving, such as making rings, or doing a 
particvilar type of openwork design. 

Jade's history as an utilitarian and artistic medium in- 
dicates that even prehistoric man appreciated its work- 
ability. Neolithic tools have been found in China, appar- 
ently made near the jade source in Turkestan and brought 
into China. The pieces are usually tools or weapons, but 
a few are believed by some scholars to be ritual pieces. 

The dating of Chinese jade artifacts is a very tricky busi- 
ness. "There is no branch of Chinese antiquarian studies 
so deficient in reliable chronological data as that of the 
jades. . . .'"- 

Most ancient jades have turned up in markets or were 
sold to dealers or collectors by individuals. They were 
found by farmers while plowing, or carried off from a site 
by tomb robbers, and in various ways removed from their 
original settings without any scientific supervision or docu- 
mentation. Dr. Kenneth Starr, Curator of Asiatic Archae- 

* Hansford, Chinese Jade Carving, preface. 



AUGUST Pages 



ology and Ethnology, notes that in recent years there has 
been a great deal of scientific excavation and dating of 
ancient jades by Chinese archaeologists. Although China 
is closed to American scientists, the reports of these findings 
appear in professional journals. 

For the most part, jades are assigned to periods by styles 
in which they are made, and they reflect the tastes of a 
specific period. Animal carvings are an exception, because 
their form and styles often reflect the peculiarities of the 
particular pieces of jade used, rather than the will of the 
craftsman. 

Judging from the earliest carved jades known fioni 



Dynasty (960-1279 A.D.). Interest in ancient forms and 
designs continued but the lavish ornamentation was re- 
placed by simpler, sturdier pieces. 

Jade carving reverted to realism and practical uses 
imder the Mongol rulers of the Yuan Dynasty, but at the 
sacrifice of Chinese symbolism in design and form. Jade 
was used increasingly for bowls, cups and other pieces used 
for serving food. 

In the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.) which followed, 
jade working on the whole was expanded, but, under the 
influence of Confucianism, artistic creativity was restricted. 
A few new forms emerged, including the first few snufT 




Two enduring ritual designs found in Chinese jade earring are the ts'ung (left), the symbol for Earth, which appeared during the Chou Dynasty, 
and the pi (center), the symbol for Heaven, which has been constant in jade carving since neolithic times. The early ritual jade (right) is prob- 
ably a knife blade, with holes believed to be used for lashing the object to a handle. 



China, the tradition of jade carving was already established 
by the Shang Dynasty (?1523-?1027 B.C.). Characteristic 
of this period are thin representational weapons, tomb jades 
and accessories of early nature worship. The thin, flat styl- 
ized form of carving persisted into the middle of the follow- 
ing Chou Dynasty (?1027-221 B.C.). Whether this was due 
to technical limitations and the scarcity of jade or because 
of tradition is unknown, but carvings in the roiuid are very 
rare during this time. 

In the late Chou period, the designs on jade pieces 
shifted from simple to extremely ornate, so much so that 
some of the objects are unrecognizable. 

Many jades were destroyed during the brief reign of the 
Ch'in Dynasty emperor, a man who wished to eliminate all 
records of previous emperors. 

A renewed interest in naturalism and return to simpler 
design occurred during the Han Dynasty (206 B.C. — 220 
A.D.). Sculptural full rounds appeared, an indication that 
the rotary tool had come into common use. 

The next 400 years were transitional ones, filled with 
turbulence, and the history of jade carving is obscured. 
Establishment of the T'ang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) ushered 
in an opulent period with jade appearing in many personal 
adornments, such as belt buckles, combs and jewelry. 

The pendulum swung back again during the Sung 



bottles and an assortment of muscial instruments of jade — 
flutes, bells and chimes. 

The elevation of the jade carving art to its highest level 
occurred in the Ch'ing Dynasty (1644-1911 A.D.). The 
emperor K'ang-hsi (1662-1722 A.D.) established jade carv- 
ing studios on the palace grounds. The demand for and 
interest in jade carving increased gready. Some of the 
largest jades ever made emerged from these palace studios 
in the reign of a later emperor Ch'ien-lung (1736-1795 
A.D.), although he personally favored, small, delicately 
carved objects in pure white jade. The artists were en- 
couraged to be as creative as they wished in developing the 
possibilities of jade as an artistic medium. It was also 
during his reign that jadeite was introduced into China. 

From the close of Ch'ien-lung's reign through the present 
innovations in jade working and carving have not been 
notable. Much as the rise and fall of hemlines is cyclical, 
ornamentation on jade pieces shifted from the simple to the 
extra-elaborate from time to time, but the designs and 
general approach to working the stone have remained 
essentially unchanged. 

While jade has had a long history of use in China and 
in ancient civilizations elsewhere in the world, its entire 
■"history"" as an item of any importance in the United States 
could be contained in the memory of a person now living. 



Page 6 AUGUST 



The western world as a whole seemed disinterested in jade for hundreds of years 
although there were certainly individuals who were aware of its existence and use. 
Marco Polo, the Venetian merchant who spent many years in China, must have 
realized the esteem the Chinese held for jade, yet it apparently had no value for 
him since he did not introduce it into Europe when he returned. Spanish sailors 
connected with the conquest of the New World purportedly carried bits of jade 
as a sufjerstitious protection against kidney ailments, but the Spanish nobility, who 
coveted a great many things they found in the Americas, were apparently unim- 
pressed by jade even though the Aztecs placed it high among their treasures. 

Not until the Boxer rebellion in China at the t\irn of the century did pieces of 
worked jade begin to appear in the United States in any numbers. Brought back 
by American soldiers who fought there, and later by missionaries who went to 
China, it affected whatever caprice dictates the moods and fancies of art collectors 
and it experienced a mercurial ascent into favor. This popularity is presently 
combined with a relative scarcity of the stone, particularly jadeite. An embargo 
on trade of any items from Communist China interdicts the importing of all jades 
from the Far East that cannot be proven as coming from outside China. 

Uninfluenced by any religious or superstitious traditions, in America the value 
in jade lies with the individual finished object. The quality of the stone, the artis- 
try of the design, the workmanship, and the age of the piece are all factors in 
determining its worth. 

Still, the stone has a mystique for Americans as well as Chinese. Virtually un- 
known here a century ago, jade is sometimes now as costly as diamonds. C. D. 
Peacock, Chicago's oldest retail jewelers, reports that the demand for jade jewelry 
is increasing every year and the market value of the stone is at its highest level in 
history. However, the price range for jade jewelry is astonishingly wide. One 
can buy a jade ring for SI 25 or for 817,000. A string of polished nephrite beads 
may cost up to $20,000. As with other jade carved pieces, jewelry is evaluated 
individually in terms of the quality of the stone, its color, its size and the finished 
piece, including the use of other valuable materials. Jade is ill-suited to mass pro- 
duction and the will of the artist must bend to the nature of the stone. It is not 
only the fairest of stones, but perhaps the most demanding as well. 

A major American figure in the early study of jade and jade carving was 
Berthold Laufer, who began his career with the Museum in 1907 and was Chief 
Curator of Anthropology from 1915 to 1934. His monograph Jade, published by 
Field Museum Press in 1912, was a pioneer work in its field. Lavifer's enthusiasm 
for and interest in jade led to the acquisition of about three-quarters of Field 
Museum's jade collection, one of the finest in the United States. Fortunately, the 
collection was developed when there were still many pieces available representing 
not only the various periods of jade carving in China, but the many variations of 
color and quality found in jade as well. 

The foundation of the jade collection was acquired by Laufer on two separate 
expeditions to China, the Blackstone Expedition in 1908-1910 and the Marshall 
Field Expedition in 1923. The largest single acquisition, at least half the present 
collection, was the Bahr Collection, purchased in 1927. This was made possible 
primarily because of a large contribution from Mrs. Frances Gaylord Smith, who 
later bequeathed her personal collection of jades to the Museum as well. 

During the next six months or so, the Hall of Jades will be closed so important 
arrangement and labeling changes can be made to conform with more recent dis- 
coveries made in the field of dating these artifacts. 

From the ancient, flat-cut ritual /(/-rings to an intricately carved censer of mod- 
ern times, the history of jade is contained in the Hall of Jades. As for its mystique, 
this lies within the fairest of stones and in the eye and mind of the beholder. 

REFERENCES 
Gump, Richard, Jade, Stone oj Heaven, Doubleday & Co., Inc., Garden City, New York, 1962. 
H.A.NSFORD, .S. Howard, Chinese Jade Carving, Lund Humphries & Co., Ltd., London, 1950. 






Virtually unrestricted freedom of artistic ex- 
pression was enjoyed by jade carvers of the 
Ch'ing Dynasty, many of whom worked in 
studios on the palace grounds. Jade was uti- 
lized in many ways — not always with the most 
pleasing aesthetic results, however, but tvith an 
eye to exploring every artistic possibility of the 
stone. Such diverse pieces emerged as (from 
top) an unornamentcd translucent bowl of rare 
blue jade; representation of natural forms in a 
"jade mountain" placed on a carved wood ped- 
estal; and an elaborately carved green censer 
dominated by mythological lion-dogs and styl- 
ized plant forms. 



AUGVSr Page 7 



Sixth Year for Childrens' Fall Workshops 




An opportunity to meet staff members and work with specimens and materials from the Museum's scientific collections 
will again be available in a series of fall workshops for the children and grandchildren of Museum Members. Designed by 
the Raymond Foundation to stimulate interest in the study of natural history, the workshops provide small group instruction 
in a variety of topics for various age groups. The Saturday programs last about one hour for younger children, and about 
one and a half hours for older ones. Extra time should be allowed if specimens are being brought for identification. 

Reservations are necessary and an application is included below. We urge that these be sent in early since the size of 
each session is limited. Each applicant will be scheduled into one program only and reservations will be accepted in the 
order in which they are received. Applicants accepted will receive a confirmation card which will admit them to the workshop. 



October 4 

Life in an Old Dead Tree 

George Fricke, Leader 



For ages 5-7 

Parents are also invited 



10:30 a.m. 
1 :30 p.m. 

This program for family groups shows the difTerent kinds 
of animals that might make their homes in an old dead tree 
and the ways in which they take advantage of the protection 
it offers. 

October 11 

Indians of Woodlands and Plains 

Harriet Smith. Leader 
For ages 8-11 10:30 a.m. 

Indian tribes developed ways of life adapted to their spe- 



cial environments and in doing so, showed great skill in 
utilizing natural materials to suit their needs. In this work- 
shop, youngsters will handle various naturally-occurring 
raw materials and learn how the Indians used them in mak- 
ing tools, weapons and household equipment. Movies of 
Indian life in both the woodlands and on the western plains 
will be shown. 

October 18 

Prehistoric People of Illinois 

l-larriet Smith. Leader 
For ages 12-16 1 :30 p.m. 

An opportunity to handle both actual prehistoric Indian 
tools and the raw materials from which they were made is a 
feature of this workshop. In addition to learning about 
ways these people adjusted to life in their environment, the 



Pages AUGUST 



session includes practice in identifying and sorting materials 
according to how they would be found at an actual "dig" 
and a discussion of what can, and cannot, be learned from 
the archaeological record. 

October 18 

Boneyard Managerie 

Ernest Roscoe. Leader 
For ages 6-8 10:30 a.m. 

1 :30 p.m. 

This workshop will "rattle the skeletons in a few closets"' 
by discussing the prehistoric relatives of familiar animals 
found in zoos and aquaria. Children should be accom- 
panied by at least one parent. Be prepared for a few sur- 
prises ! 

October 25 

Caveman to Civilization 

Edith Fleming, Leader 
For ages 1 0-1 3 1 0:30 a.m. 

A movie on the life of the cave men and how they hunted 
prehistoric animals opens this workshop. Boys and girls 



will also examine actual tools used by cave men thousands 
of years ago, learn how they were made and compare them 
with modern tools. 



November 1 



Bones to Bodies 

Ernest Roscoe, Leader 



10:30 a.m. 



For ages 6-8 

Parents are also invited 

This workshop emphasizes the structure of the verte- 
brate skeleton. Specimens and Museum exhibits will illus- 
trate the important points of the subject. 

November 8 

Earth's Changing Crust 

Ernest Roscoe, Leader 
For ages 6-8 10:30 a.m. 

Parents are also invited 

How mountains are formed and worn down, how caves 
are made, how a geyser works, how volcanoes are formed, 
and why glaciers move will all be discussed in this workshop. 
The program will help you to understand the geology of 
natural surroundings both at home and on your travels. 



If there is more than one child in your family who wishes to attend a workshop, please make a 
duplicate application for each child. 



FALL WORKSHOPS FOR MEMBERS' CHILDREN 

SATURDAYS in the MUSEUM, 10:30 a.m. and 1:30 p.m. See article for details on programs. Please list the 
program you wish to attend in order of your preference. Sorry, only one program can be scheduled for each child. 



Program 



Date 



Hour 



1st choice 



2nd choice 
3rd choice 
4th choice 



Name 



Age 



Tel. 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip 



Membership in name of 



Cut along dotted line and mail to: 

Raymond Foundation, FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605 



AUGUST Page 9 



THE 17-YEAR CICADA: 
A Four 'Year "Mistake"? 

By Henry S. Dybas 

Associate Curator, Division of Insects 



\ cry early this June, we began to receive calls at the 
Museum about the emergence of 1 7-year cicadas, commonly 
called "locusts." We soon realized that off-year cicadas 
were emerging in many parts of the Chicago area in un- 
precedented numbers, four years ahead of schedule. Nothing 
on this scale had ever been reported in the hundreds of 
technical papers written abovit these insects. Something 
very unusual was happening. 

The emergence of periodical cicadas in 17-year cycles 
is well-documented. An entry in Thomas Jefferson's Account 
Book for the year 1775 mentions their appearance in Virginia 
that year and recalls their previous emergence in 1758. 
Emergences in 1741 and 1724 and are also cited on the 
testimony of a Dr. Walker. Other early observers inde- 
pendently reached the same conclusion as Jefferson that "it 
appears then that they come out periodically once in 17 
years." Even today, 200 years later, this is by far the 
longest life cycle known in insects. 

The 17-year periodical cicada populations in eastern 
North .\merica do not all emerge above ground at the same 
time. Each has its own particular 17-year schedule and its 
own geographic territory. Jefferson's brood (called Brood 
II by entomologists) occurs on the Atlantic seaboard from 
Connecticut to North Carolina. It last appeared in 1962 
and is scheduled next in 1979. The only northern Illinois 
brood is Brood XIII, which last emerged in 1956 and is due 
in four years (1973). In the South, the same cicadas — as 
nearly as anyone can tell by looking or listening to them — 
appear on a 13-year schedule. Like the 17-year variety, 
these occur in different broods, each emerging in its own 
particular year. No intermediate cycles of 14, 15, or 16 
years have ever been foimd. 

The precise interval of 1 7 years between successive emer- 
gences has been repeatedly confirmed so many times in all 
the known populations of periodical cicadas that it permits 
long term predictions of a kind virtually unique in field 
biology. Dr. Monte Lloyd of the University of Chicago 
and I were able to plan our 1962 field work in Virginia well 
in advance, with complete confidence that the cicadas 
would appear exactly on schedule — and they did. 

At the end of a 17-year cycle, periodical cicadas char- 
acteristically appear in such enormous numbers that they 
satiate all the birds and other predators and still leave a 
comfortable surplus for reproduction. Biologists believe 
the lightly-synchronized mass emergence is a key element 
in this insect's survival. If the same number of cicadas were 




An adult 17-year cicada suspended from the nymTph shin 
from which it hns just emerged. It emerges in the evening 
and by morning will have darkened and will fly to the 
treetops. (Photo by Lee Jenkins.) 



spread out over several years, the argument goes, they 
would probably nearly all fall victim to their enemies, 
leaving few for reproduction. All kinds of predators — other 
insects, snakes, racoons, skunks, grackles and crows — seem 
to ignore everything except feeding on cicadas. One night 
I had to interrupt my studies to forcibly take my dog back 
to the car because he was gorging himself so on emerging 
cicadas that I became concerned. 

Cicada numbers can be estimated with considerable 
accuracy by counting emergence holes in the ground. In 
the last emergence in the Chicago area, we found 133,000 
per acre (about 200 by 200 feet) in the upland woods in our 
study area. In the adjacent floodplain we found the record 
number of a million and a half per acre.' 

The periodical cicada should not be confused with the 
annual cicadas which produce the characteristic "buzz- 
saw" sound in the treetops on hot summer days. These are 
predominantly black and green and do not have the red 
eyes and orange wings of the periodical cicadas. They are 
annual in the sense that some individuals appear every year 
but require a number of years, presently unknown, to 
develop underground. 

Occasionally, individual periodical cicadas come out 
during the wrong year. Since the 1956 emergence in 
northern Illinois, we have recorded about a dozen stragglers 
in the Chicago area. They obviously represent only a triv- 
ial fraction of the local population and also may be at a 
great disadvantage compared to cicadas coming out in a 
normal emergence year in that they rarely survive the at- 
tacks of their enemies long enough to leave any offspring. 

This June it quickly became apparent that the emerging 



Page 10 AUGUST 



cicadas were too numerous to be stragglers. Through the 
mass media, we asked individuals for information on 
periodical cicada activity in their neighborhoods and we 
got an astonishing response. More than 500 persons 
ranging in age from five to 86, took the time to supply us 
with information or specimens. Chicago and more than 
80 communities ringing it were represented. Many re- 
ported only a few specimens but others reported thousands. 
One pair of keen observers in Hinsdale, a 10-year-old girl 
and her brother of 9, wrote me that they collected 2,350 
nymph skins in a small area and offered a shoe-box-full as 
proof. (We accepted and confirmed the count.) 

An empty nymph skin is tough, lasts a long time, and is 
the best evidence for emergence. The skin represents the 
stage that develops underground enclosed in an earth cell 
and sucks sap from tree roots. Normally, in the 1 7th year, 
the nymph emerges from the ground, leaving a smooth, 




Empty nymph skins are evi- 
dence for the emergence of 1 7- 
year cicadas. These skins are 
approximately natural size. 




Each dot represents a community reporting emergence of premature 
17-year cicadas in June, 1969. A dot may indicate one or many re- 
ports, some consisting of hundreds of specimens. Communities which 
reported cicadas are listed on Page 12, although some may have been 
accidentally overlooked in this preliminary listing. The range of 
Brood XIII is shovm in the inset (left) hy dashed lines. Dots indi- 
cate premature 1969 cicadas in Iowa. 



round hole about J^-inch diameter, and crawls up a nearby 
tree trunk or plant stem. It fixes itself firmly, the skin splits 
down the middle, and the soft, creamy white adult, with 
red eyes and black patches on the back, emerges. The 
crumpled wing pads are pumped out and wings fully ex- 
panded, the body becomes hardened and colored, and the 
next morning the adult works its way to the treetops, leaving 
the empty nymph skin behind. The shells eventually drop 
to the ground very near where they had originally devel- 
oped underground. In previous studies. Dr. Lloyd and I 
worked out techniques for extracting much information 
from measurements of the skins and from their numbers and 
distribution. 

The fact that the cicadas appeared 13 years after the 
previous (1956) emergence could suggest they were 13-year 
cicadas (and they were so interpreted in one newspaper 
article) but there is no history of a 13-year brood in this 
area and the emergence was 100 miles north of the nearest 
13-year brood. Cicadas can expand their ranges only very 
slowly and there is no possibility that this could represent 
a recent undetected range expansion of 1 3-year cicadas. 

It is inconceivable that this June emergence could rep- 
resent a previously unknown brood of 1 7-year cicadas in the 
Chicago area. It would have appeared in 1935 and most 
recendy in 1952 and there are no records of such a brood. 
In a densely populated area such as this it could not have 
escaped notice. 

The only remaining conclusion is that these are genet- 
ically 17-year cicadas derived from the 1956 emergence of 
Brood XIII that have emerged in 13 years, four years ahead 
of schedule. Thanks to the cooperation of many people 
who supplied information, the evidence for this is very 
strong. First, all reports are from within the known range 
of Brood XIII. Secondly, most people who had lived at 
their present address in 1956 reported that cicadas had 
emerged from the same places in 1956. They have come 
out in record numbers for an off-year, but in much smaller 
numbers than in a normal cicada year. The assumption is 
that only a part of the underground population has made 
a four-year mistake. We will test this by complete nymph 
skin counts in certain defined areas this year and we will 
return each year through 1973 to find out what percentage 
of the underground population was affected this year. 

What is the significance of this premature emergence? 
The fact that different broods of 17-year cicadas are out of 
phase with one another in different geographical areas sug- 
gests that similar events have happened in the past giving 
rise to new broods which would continue to emerge on 
17-year cycles, but different from those of the parent 
broods. Then, of course, the life-cycles of southern 13-year 
cicadas and northern 17-year cicadas also differ. In our 
thinking about the possible evolutionary paths of these in- 
sects, Dr. Lloyd and I postulated that it was more likely 
that some environmental factor (like a period of extreme 
weather, for instance) affected the development of cicada 
nymphs by four years, than by some other interval. We 
were only making an educated guess, however, and never 



AUGUST Page 11 



really expected to have a ringside seat at such a phenom- 
enom, if, indeed, that is what happened in June. 

Were there special factors operating on this last cicada 
cycle to make so many cicadas take a 1 3-year track instead 
of the normal one of 17 years? We don't know yet and 
perhaps we never will. However, we plan to compare 
general weather conditions since 1956 carefully with those 
of the 17 years prior to 1956 to see if there has been some 
conspicuous change. There is also a high concentration of 
reports from the residential suburbs ringing the city. This 
may be evidenee of an important effect of the large metro- 
politan area on the local climate. Perhaps it is the effect of 
human disturbance (herbicides, pesticides, fertilizers). Per- 



haps the concentration of reports merely reflects the high 
density of residents and gardeners in the suburbs. Many 
possibilities like these will have to be tested against our field 
data. 

Can a premature emergence in niunbers like these give 
rise to an incipient new brood — one that is out of phase with 
the parent brood and on its own schedule of emergence? 
We don't know. However, the June weather was not suit- 
able for cicadas, which need sunshine and warm weather to 
form singing choruses and to reproduce. No choruses were 
reported and it is probably safe to say that no effective 
reproduction occurred and no new incipient brood was 
established. 



Reports on the emergence of 17-year cicadas came from the following Illinois communities: 



Addison 

Argo 

Bellwood 

Berkeley 

Berwyn 

Black Hawk Heights 

Broadview 

Brookfield 

Calumet City 

Clarendon Hills 

Chicago Heights 

Crete 

Chicago 

Deerfield 

Des Plaines 

Downers Grove 

East Hazelcrest 

Elk Grove 

Elmhurst 

Elmwood Patk 

Evanston 



Evergreen Park 

Flossmoor 

Glencoe 

Glen Ellyn 

Glenview 

Glenwood 

Harwood Heights 

Hazelcrest 

Highland Park 

Highivood 

Hinsdale 

Hometown 

Homewood 

Justice 

La Grange 

La Grange Park 

Lake Forest 

Lemont 

Lincolnshire 

Lisle 

Lombard 



Lyons 

Merrionetle Park 
Midlothian 
Morton Arboretum 
{North of Lisle) 
Morton Grove 
Mount Prospect 
Norridge 
Northhrook 
Northfield 
North Riverside 
Oak Forest 
Oak Lawn 
Oak Park 
Orland Park 
Ottawa 
Palatine 
Palos Heights 
Palos Hills 
Palos Park 



Park Forest 
Park Ridge 
Riverdale 
River Forest 
River Grove 
Riverside 
Riverwoods 
Skokie 
Steger 
Stone Park 
Tinley Park 
Villa Park 
Westchester 
Western Springs 
Wheeling 
Willow Springs 
Wilmette 
Winnetka 
Wood Dale 
Worth 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



August hours: 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., Monday, 
Tuesday and Thursday; 9 a.m. to 8 p.m., 
Wednesday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday. 



Through August 29 GumEO Public Tours Professional staff lecturers will provide 
free guided tours to visitors at 2 p.m., daily, Monday through Friday. A 
movie, "Through These Doors," which shows glimpses of behind-the-scenes 
activity at the Museum, will be shown at 3 p.m. in the Lecture Hall. Tours 
begin from the north entrance of Stanley Field Hall. 

Through October 12 The Art and Life of the Cuna Indians Temporary ex- 
hibit explores the history and culture of this people who live on islands of the San 
Bias Archipelago off the coast of Panama. Although some aspects of modern 
civilization are now part of their lives, they have successfully maintained many 
of the customs and attitudes which are specifically their own. Hall 9 Gallery. 

Through November 16 75th Anniversary Exhibit: "A Sense of Wonder, A 
Sense of History, A Sense of Discovery" The free exhibit emphasizes the 
scope of the Museum's activities since its founding in 1893, following the 
World's Columbian Exposition. Choice specimens from the Museum collec- 
tions and examples of current research programs by Museum curators are 
included in the exhibit. Hall 3. 

Through August Summer Journey "Insects" The fascinating world of insects, 
which has the largest number of species in the animal kingdom, is the subject 
of the Raymond Foundation's current Journey for boys and girls. The free 
do-it-yourself tour program is open to any child who can read and write. 
Journey sheets and additional information are available at Museum entrances. 



Would You Like To Help 

Field Museum Membership continues 
to increase. It is up 73 per cent in the 
last three years and is now 16,500. 
More people need the Museum. We 
need more Members. 

We are looking for women to inter- 
view prospective Members, telephoning 
three to five hours daily, four or five 
days a week. Salaried. Please call 
Mrs. Roder, 922-2410. 



FIELD MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

ROOSEVELT ROAD AT LAKE SHORE DRIVE 
CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60605 A.C. 312. 922-9410 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD. 1893 

* 

E. Leland Webber, Director 

BULLETIN 

Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 



Page 12 AUGUST 



PRINTED BY FIELD MUSEU.M PRESS 




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Religious wood carving is one of the most prevalent art forms in Mexico. The subject matter was introduced by 
the Spaniards in the early 1500s' but the carving is done in a local folk style. The angel on this month's Cover 
has a remarkably realistic, human look. It is among a collection of pieces of pre-hispanic. Colonial and contem- 
porary Mexican art depicting aspects of Mexican culture at the Fiesta Mexicana. 



..^ 



Fiesta 



Mexicana: 



Popularly termed an "eye of God," this device of yarn and 
icood teas used by Huichol Indians in their shrines to ward 
off evil. This art form predates the Colonial period and is 
indigenous to the Indian cuUure. 




The arts of the Mexican people are numerous and richly 
varied, expressing a cultural heritage that has drawn upon 
the brilliant prehispanic civilizations of the Toltecs, Maya 
and Aztec Indians and the colorful and deeply religious 
Spanish influences of the Colonial period. The era of in- 
creasing technology and modernization is adding still an- 
other thread to the complex fabric of Mexican culture. 
Because they embrace aspects of the several distinct influ- 
ences of the past, intermingled with regional characteristics, 
the art forms of contemporary Mexico are an appropriate 
medium for understanding the culture of the Mexican peo- 
ple, who form an important group in Chicago. There are 
90,000 Mexican-Americans in the city itself and a total of 
about 120,000 in the greater Chicago area. 

In bringing Fiesta Mexicana to the public. Field Mu- 
seum is striving to increase the imderstanding of contem- 
porary Mexican culture by non-Mexicans and to draw the 
local Mexican community into a wider participation in 
the cultural life of Chicago. To provide the most vital 
expression of Mexican culture today, artifacts and static 
displays will be presented as a complement to live demon- 
strations, where Mexican artisans will offer the public an 
opportunity to see how various objects are made. Selec- 
tions incorporating both the Indian and Spanish back- 
grounds of Mexican culture will be performed by dances 
and musicians throughout the Fiesta. 



As visitors learn about the Mexican art of today from 
the practicing artisans, the stadc displays will provide an 
insight into the ancient and recent indigenous art forms from 
which the conteniporar\' art forms derived. Exhibits on 
Colonial and prehispanic art will be on loan and the Mu- 
seum's outstanding permanent exhibits on prehispanic and 
recent Indian cultures will also be utilized in the Fiesta. 
An interesting display of 75 folk and indigenous costumes, 
organized by the National Museum of Anthropologv' of 
Mexico, illustrates Mexican Indian dress appropriate for a 
variety of age groups and occasions — childhood, youth, 
marriage, religious observances and social occasions. The 
costumes, too, are a means of studying the influences of past 
cultural periods upon the contemporary Mexican scene. 

Briefly, the art forms of the Mexican peoples — including 
pottery, weaving, wood carving, sculpture, jewelry and 
metalwork — originally worked with designs and methods 
restricted to a tribal or geographical group. Later, the 
great prehispanic Indian civilizations of Mexico spread their 
influence throughout the area that would become Mexico 
and their art forms, with their vigorous designs, imaginative 
mvtholQgical representations and lavish ornamentation 
left a lasting impression on the art of the country. Eve 
today, centuries after the Mayan and .^ztec cultures de- 
clined, artists copy or rework many of these ancient 
designs often adapting them to new artistic media or uses. 



Page 2 SEPTEMBER 



1 




Elaborately decorated papier-mache skull is a contemporary piece, 
used in the religious observance of "The Day of the Dead," also called 
All Souls' Day. 



D 




J 




An Indian woman of Hualla, Mexico, weaves cloth on a backstrap 
loom. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Daniel Rubin de la Borbolla.) 



A Chiapas, Mexico, Indian weaves a long belt or sash, a piece of 
clothing which has been indigenous in Mexico for centuries. Patterns 
and designs may be determined by tribal or regional ciistom and are 
often based on ancient motifs. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Daniel Rubin 
de la Borbolla.) 



The Spanish Conquest of the new world brought with it 
art forms then prevalent in Spain. It also brought Christi- 
anity. The religious art of the early 16th century, then, 
played a vital part in the development of art among the 
peoples of Mexico. Carvings and paintings and ceramics 
with religious themes or motifs remain popular with Mexi- 
can craftsmen. Sometimes the two influences are combined 
within the designs of individual objects. 

The Mexican-American of Chicago has many new in- 
fluences to deal with, those tied up in the sophisticated, 
technologically-oriented urban scene. They are usually 
very different from the influences which guided his life in 
Mexico and they have presented him with many problems 
and many challenges. Photographer Orlando Cabanban 
spent many weeks in the Mexican-American communities 
photographing the events in their everyday lives. A photo 
essay composed of these pictures will be exhibited at the 
Fiesta. In combination with the prehispanic artifacts, the 
Colonial art exhibit, the demonstrations by contemporary 
Mexican craftsmen, and the music and dance presentations, 
the Fiesta will provide a panorama of the major elements 
of contemporary Mexican culture in a capsule form. 

All labeling on exhibits will be bi-lingual, in English and 
Spanish. The Mexican Chamber of Commerce and Indus- 
try, the Consulate General of Mexico, and the Mexican 
Tourism Department in Chicago are working closely with 
the Museum in organizing the Fiesta. Financial support 
for the Fiesta has been given by the Illinois Arts Council, a 
state agency; the Robert McCormick Charitable Trust, the 
Bertha LeBus Charitable Trust, Mexicana .\irlines, and the 
National Endowment for the Humanities. 



SEPTEMBER Page 3 



An Impressive Past A Vigorous Present 

Art and Culture in Mexico 



r 



Aztec Calendar stone, 
from Mexico, circa 
U80-U90 A.D. 




Members' Fiesta 

September 12: An exciting advance preview of Fiesta Mexicana will be 
held for Museum Members and their families from 6 to 10 p.m. The "Mem- 
bers' Fiesta" will feature singing and dance entertainment at 7, 8, and 9 p.m. 
in Stanley Field Hall, demonstrations of Mexican crafts such as weaving and 
pinata- and flower-making, and a motion picture. A photo essay "Mexicans 
of Chicago — 1969," by Orlando Cabanban, will be on display as will a 
special exhibit of pre-Hispanic, Colonial and Contemporary Mexican folk 
art. A "Mexican marketplace" will ofTer high quality Mexican art and 
handicrafts for sale. Light refreshments in the Mexican mood will be served. 



"El Grito" Celebration 

September 15: "El Grito," a celebration in observance of Mexican independence will be sponsored by the Mexican com- 
munity of Chicago from 8 to 11 :30 p.m. in the Grant Park Bandshell. Fiesta Mexicana will have special hours that day, 
from 9 a.m. to 8 p.m., with live entertainment and craft demonstrations in Stanley Field Hall at 7 p.m. 

Illustrated Lecture Series C 

OuTST .ENDING experts in Mexican history and culture will bring their own special interests vividly alive in a series of illustrated 
lectures on consecutive Sunday afternoons, from September 14 through October 5, during Field Museum's Fiesta Mexicana. 
The lectures, complemented with color slides, will be held at 3 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre, free of charge. They 
offer an excellent opportunity to learn about the exciting arts and complex cultural background of the Mexican people from 
internationally-known authorities. 

September 14: Dr. Merle G. Wachter is an art historian and chairman of the Art Department of the University of the 
Americas in Mexico. In surveying the "Mexican Arts of the Colonial Period," Dr. Wachter will explain the blending of 
Indian and Spanish influences that give rise to modern Mexican culture, a blending that is clearly seen in Colonial church 
art and popular arts. 

September 21 : Mr. Norman F. Carver is an architect and photographer 
whose interest in the ancient architecture of Mexico has led to his becoming 
an expert in the subject. He will bring his informative study, "Silent Cities: 
Precolumbian Architecture," to the Museum for an encore during the Fiesta. 

September 28 : Dr. Daniel Rubin de la Borbolla is an eminent Mexican 
anthropologist. A former director of the National Museum of Anthropology 
and the National Museum of Popular Arts and Industries, he is well qualifieP 
to offer an insight into "The Art of a People: Contemporary Mexican Folk 
Arts," which focuses on the richness and diversity of Mexican popular arts. 

October 5: Carlos R. Margain, an archaeologist and Secretario Tecnica 
of the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico, traces the meanings 
and the specific techniques found in contemporary folk arts back to the Prf' 
historic cultures. "The Precolumbian Past of Modern Mexican Culture^ 
explores the way in which elements of arts and indigenous ways of life have 
survived through adaptability during a series of Precolumbian conquests. 




Page 4 SEPTEMBER 



Fall Journey 







Mexico 




Busy Aztec market scene at Tlatelalco, about 1515 A.D. Detail from 
a diorama in Hall 8 



Children will "visit" Mexico in the Fall Journey which 
begins this month and lasts through November. The Jour- 
ney will include a glimpse of a Mexican market before the 
»~^ime of Columbus and information on the ancient civiiiza- 

>4ions that flourished there, as well as introducing youngsters 

to the toys, clothes, and everyday life of Mexicans today. 
The exhibits are primarily in Hall 8. 

Mexico is Journey No. 59 in the Raymond Foundation's 
program instituted in 1955 to help children discover objects 
of interest in the Museum on selective do-it-yourself tours. 
An award program recognizes the children's accomplish- 
ments in the Journey program. Upon successful completion 
of four Journeys, a child receives a Traveler's Award. When 
eight Journeys are completed, he gets an Adventurer's 
Award, and when he completes 12, he earns an Explorer's 
Award. Four different Journeys are presented each year. 

Each spring, a Traveler's Day is held at the Museum 
to present awards and in 1969, 208 boys and girls were pre- 
sented with different awards in recognition of their partici- 
pation in the program. 

Upon completion of 1 6 Journeys, which takes four years, 
a child becomes a Beagler and is presented with a copy of 
Charles Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle. A special Journey 
takes him through Museum halls to see some of the speci- 
mens that Darwin saw on his historic journey. Upon com- 
pletion of this, the child becomes a member of the Museum's 
Discoverers" Club, which now has a membership of 170. 
The Discoverers' Club meets once a year in the Museum, 
where staff members present special programs, which some- 
jimes include glimpses of Museum activities behind the 
scenes in the scientific departments. 

Journey sheets and information on the free program 
may be obtained at Museum entrances. 



Museum Hosts First 

Convention of North 

American Paleontologists 

The North American Paleontological Convention on 
September 5, 6, and 7 is an unusual event, marking the first 
combined meeting of five organizations of scientists who 
specialize in the study of fossils. Previously, the members 
of these bodies met separately, rarely exchanging research 
data and ideas with those in other paleontological disci- 
plines. Announcements of the Chicago meeting attracted 
worldwide interest within the scientific community. Even 
though most of the participants are from North America, 
visiting scientists from Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, 
England, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Sweden and West 
Germany plan to attend. 

Convention organizers, headed by Dr. Rainer Zangerl, 
Convention President and Field Museum Chief Curator of 
Geology, have developed 14 technical sessions to cover 
many phases of paleontology, facilitating the flow of infor- 
mation among scientists from universities, museums, oil 
companies, geological surveys and oceanographic institu- 
tions. The 81 papers to be presented range from the chem- 
ical composition of fossils and the evolution of microorgan- 
isms to the impact of computers on the concepts and re- 
search in paleontology and how the specialty ought to be 
taught in universities. 

Five geological field trips in widely scattered states will 
precede the Convention and local field trips to the Thorn- 
ton Quarry and Peabody Coal Company (Pit 11) are 
planned for early arrivals to the meeting. The technical 
sessions will be held at the Museum, as will the Convention 
banquet. The keynote speaker will be Dr. Philip H. Abel- 
son of Carnegie Institution, whose subject is "The Evolution 
of Proteins." There will also be several informal sessions 
and social events. 

A special exhibit of fossils collected and donated to the 
Museum by amateur collectors will be on display in the 
lobby of the James Simpson Theatre during the Convention. 
Unusual specimens on loan from private collections will 
also be shown. 

The Convention is sponsored by the Paleontological 
Society, the Society of Economic Paleontologists and Min- 
eralogists, the Society of Vertebrate Paleontologists, the 
American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists, the 
Paleobotanical Section of the Botanical Society of America 
and Field Museum. The importance of the conference is 
evidenced by a $25,000 grant to the Convention by the 
National Science Foundation towards the publication of all 
papers given at the meeting. The grant has been accepted 
by Field Museum, as host institution. Publication of the 
proceedings will be undertaken by .'Mien Publishing Com- 
pany of Lawrence, Kansas. 



SEPTEMBER Page 5 



Ptom-, Diken- and Ariaspisl 



( 



BY PATRICIA M. WILLIAMS 

FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 




Dr. Denison studies some of the fossil fish specimens in the Museum's impressive collection. 



At one time or another most of us have wondered what the 
world will be like in the 21st century. Some men translate 
their musings into movies, like 2007; A Space Odyssey; others 
advance their controversial predictions phrased in peak- 
load words like "magnetoplasmadynamics,"' "hypnopae- 
dia," and "niariculture."* All of this prophesying is good 
fun, of course, and is made even more so by the fact that 
no one can prove it's wrong — yet. 

But suppose we turn back in time — not a mere hun- 
dred or thousand years, but millions — past cavemen, past 
the first flowering plants and first birds, even beyond the 
dinosaurs to a time earlier than that of trees and reptiles. 
We are in the beginning of the Ordovician period 500 mil- 
lion years ago. What was the world like then? Who or 
what, if anything, lived here then and what were they doing? 



* Magnetoplasmadynamics: the science of putting the fourth 
state of matter — electrified gas — to work. 

Hypnopaedia: sleep teaching. 

Mariculture: cultivation of the seas of the earth. 



Well, the world was, naturally, physically a very differ- 
ent place. At the beginning of the Paleozoic in the United 
States there were no Appalachian Mountains, no Rocky 
Movm tains, no coastal ranges on the west. Then, the spread 
of the Ordovician seas resulted in what was the greatest 
flooding of the North American continent during all of 
Paleozoic time and at least half of the continent was sub- 
merged beneath the warm water before it was over. The 
first and very primitive land plants grew during the Silurian 
period (430-400 million years ago) and it was during this 
time that they became sufficiently abundant in fresh water 
and on land to offer a stable food source for animals. The 
Devonian period (400-350 million years ago) is commonly 
referred to as "the Age of Fishes," because, for the first time 
in the history of the earth, a group of vertebrate animals, 
the fishes, occupied a prominent part of the organic world. 
The Devonian fishes were not like anything today's angle(^ 
might reel in. For example, some had vacuum-cleaner-like 
mouths instead of movable jaws. Many of these jawless 
fishes had no scales, but were covered with bony plates. 



Paged SEPTE.MBER 



Dr. Robert H. Denison, the Musevim's highly respected 
^urator of Fossil Fishes, has centered his research on the 
_^rdovician, Silurian and. especially, the Devonian periods. 
He has provided new information and added immensely to 
the knowledge of this very critical area in time — the very 
base of vertebrate life on earth. In "A Review of the Habi- 
tat of the Earliest Vertebrates" {Fieldiana: Geology, Vol. 11, 
no. 8, 1956), which is usually mentioned as his most sig- 
nificant work, Dr. Denison took issue with the classic view 
that early vertebrates were fresh water forms, some of which 
later migrated into the seas. He presented a thorough and 
careful review of all data on the occurrences, habitat and 
adaptation of the early vertebrates and concluded that 
"vertebrates originated in the sea and did not begin to en- 
ter fresh waters until some time in the Silurian." This 
publication reached and affected the thinking of a great 
many people and since Denison offered this independent 
conclusion, he has been joined in it by most American 
paleontologists. 

Dr. David Bardack, Associate Professor, University of 
Illinois, Chicago Circle, and Museum Research Associate, 
cited Denison's "The Soft Anatomy of Bothriolepis" (Jour- 
nal of Paleontology, 1941) as another important publica- 
tion. The form of some of the internal organs of Bothrio- 
lepis, an armored fish from the Upper Devonian of Scaume- 
nac Bay, Quebec, was preserved because, apparendy, the 
fish swallowed extremely muddy water. The muddy water 
'fogged up the respiratory apparatus and the fish died, 
-^he muddy water then filtered into those internal organs 
which opened into the exterior and, finally, the mud-filled 
fish was buried with coarser sand. Dr. Denison's examina- 
tion of the preserved forms of these organs indicated several 
things, including the fact that the alimentary system was a 
primitive, straight, uncoiled tube without an expanded 
stomach region, but was specialized in having a complex 
spiral valve. Based on this investigation, Denison also offered 
the earliest evidence of lungs in vertebrates. 

In "New Silurian Heterostraci from Southeastern Yu- 
kon" {Fieldiana: Geology, 1963) Dr. Denison made a unique 
contribution to paleontology by introducing three new gen- 
era, the Tom, Dick and Harry of the Silurian age — 
Ptomaspis, Dikenaspis and, with a cockney touch, Ariaspis. 
Like the theories made about the future, Denison's pale- 
ontological statements are also phrased in exotic and strange- 
sounding words, but there the similarity abruptly and firmly 
ends. Denison's conclusions are not the product of idle 
day-dreams or wishful thinking, but are founded on expert 
interpretation of tangible evidence as well as years of train- 
ing, research and hard work. Although it might be tempting 
and certainly understandable to speculate about the goings- 
on in the far distant past, Denison never does. He has pub- 
lished a great deal and all of his work has been described 
by his fellow paleontologists as "absolutely reliable," "thor- 
Jugh and sound," "accurate," "original" and — perhaps 
surprisingly — "imaginative." As Dr. Everett Olson, Pro- 
fessor of Vertebrate Paleontology, University of California 
and Museum Research Associate, savs, Dr. Denison is a 



very methodical and orderly worker and, yet, "at the same 
time he has the ability to see past the mundane details to 
the greater possibilities as well as descriptive" — a combina- 
tion not found in all paleontologists' work. 

Denison is descriptive and theoretical about fossils. As 
Hugh Miller, an early expert in the Devonian, once said, 
"This interest in a science such as geology must consist in 
the ability of making dead deposits represent living scenes." 




Dorsal shield of Ptomaspis canadensis, shown X2, one of the three 
new genera of Silurian fossil fishes described by Dr. Denison in 1963. 



Obviously, then, the first thing the paleontologist must do 
is get hold of some "dead deposits." 

To do this. Dr. Denison has gone on a number of field 
trips, including the famous Wendell Phillips University of 
California African expedition in 1947. Since joining the 
Museum staff in 1948, Dr. Denison has made many trips 
to the early vertebrate localities in North America and, as 
a Guggenheim fellow, he visited a large number of fossil 
localities in Norway, Sweden and Great Britain. 

It was in Oslo in 1953 that Denison made a discovery 
that landed him on the cover of a Norwegian magazine. 
He had spent the entire day searching a well-known fossil 
site for new specimens and had found nothing. Giving 
up, he sat down on a rock to have a cigarette and wait for 



SEPTEMBER Page 7 



a bus. As he smoked and waited, he looked down and there 
at his feet was a complete fossil of an eurypterid. (Euryp- 
terids were scorpion-like creatures that inhabited the Silu- 
rian sea floor.) Denison took the eurypterid to the Paleon- 
tologisk Museum where Professor Heintz, the museum 
curator, and several of his students greeted it with great 
excitement and immediately piled into a bus and rushed 




Dikenaspis yukonensis (above) and Ariaspis ornata; fossils of the 
dorsal shields of these fishes, shown X2. The new genera of fishes 
were discovered in the Yukon. 




back out to the site. Although they had visited and exam- 
ined the area many times before, they found several new 
fossils that day. 

While the Norwegian eurypterid remained in Norway, 
Dr. Denison has added enormously to the Museum's col- 
lections. Dr. Rainer Zangerl, Chief Curator of Geology 
and a renowned paleontologist himself, says that Dr. Deni- 
son has enlarged the Museum's collection of fossil fishes 
"from virtually zero to one of the best in the country." 
Dr. Zangerl went on to say that almost the entire collection 



of primitive vertebrates has been gathered by Dr. Denison. 

Dr. Denison is now studying pteraspids from a Lower 
Devonian site in the Big Horn Mountains of VVyomir/ 
where he has collected with groups from the Museum for' 
at least three summers. While he is primarily working on 
the systematic relationships among the pteraspids. Dr. Deni- 
son is also interested in the growth of these creatures. Until 
now, no one has ever had any very young pteraspids to 
study and some workers assumed that the creature's shell 
was not formed until the pteraspid was an adult. However, 
Dr. Denison has now examined very young pteraspids and 
has determined that they possess a thin layer of dentine and 
that, later, bone forms below this dentine layer to create 
the shell. 

Histology — a study of tissues — is particularly effective 
with the small fossil bits that Dr. Denison often has to work 
with and he is among the first American paleontologists to 
extensively apply the techniques of paleo-histology to his 
work . These techniques provide a way of analyzing paleon- 
tological material to determine ontogenetic and phyloge- 
netic relationships. That is, both the relationships within 
an individual's life development and the development or 
evolution of a whole group. As Dr. Denison's work is so 
closely concerned with the evolutionary relationships among 
fish — who descended from whom? what evolved independ- 
ently? did vertebrates evolve in the fresh water or the sea? 
— it is obvious why these techniques would be of use to him. 
With his characteristic modesty and reticence, Denison de^ 
nies being an expert in histology, saying, "I've never eveV. 
taken a course in it." How could he? The only course in 
paleohistology in North America is offered at the Univer- 
sity of Chicago by Dr. Zangerl — and Dr. Denison. 

As a child in Massachusetts, Denison did not dream and 
plan for the day when he would be acclaimed an expert in 
fossil fish — in fact, he got into that area of research by acci- 
dent. He wrote his doctoral thesis at Columbia on fossil 
mammals and planned to concentrate his career on them. 
However, jobs were still scarce in 1937 and he accepted a 
position as Assistant Curator of the Museum at Dartmouth 
College where they had no collection of fossil mammals. 
They did, though, have a collection of early vertebrates and 
Denison began work on them. 

Today Dr. Denison is one of three men in the United 
States working on vertebrate life of the early Paleozoic. 
There are paleontologists in Europe, most notably Scandi- 
navia and Great Britain, working in this area as well. \Vith- 
out qualification, Denison's colleagues rank him as "one of 
the best," "a world expert," and "top ranking." Dr. Deni- 
son was invited to present a paper at the Fourth Nobel 
Symposium in Stockholm and the number of other scien- 
tists at the symposium who referred to Dr. Denison's work 
is most impressive. Denison is most often characterized as 
a typical New Englander because of his subtle wit, reserved 
manner and reluctance to admit to his many achievemen/ 
Dr. Bardack expressed the sentiments of many people when 
he said, "He's a great guy. I think a lot of him as a paleon- 
tologist and a human being." 



Page 8 SEPTEMBER 



Julian B. Wilkins Elected 
") to Museum Board of Trustees 

The election of Chicago lawyer Julian B. Wilkins as a 
Trustee of Field Museum of Natural History has been an- 
nounced by Remick McDowell, President of the Board of 
Trustees. 

A member of the firm of Wilkins, Wilkins & Wilkins, he 
is secretary and director of Law in American Society Foun- 
dation and a former member of the board of managers of 
the Chicago Bar Association. He is also organizer, general 
counsel and director of the Seaway National Bank of Chi- 
cago. In addition to his interest in Field Museum, Mr. 
Wilkins serves as a board member of Children's Memorial 
Hospital and Chicago Child Care Society. 

Mr. Wilkins is a graduate of Harvard Law School and 
also holds a bachelor of arts degree from the University of 
\\'isconsin. He and his family reside at 5640 South Harper 
in Chicago. Mrs. Wilkins is a charter member of Field 
Museum's Women's Board. 




Julian B. Wilkins 



Donald A. Edinger 



Donald Edinger Named Chief 
of New Education Department 

Donald Edinger has assumed the duties of a new position 
at Field Museum, that of Chairman, Department of Educa- 
tion. The new department will include Raymond Founda- 
tion, Harris Extension and other public programs, although 
each of these programs will retain its individual identity and 
functions within the department. As the new department 
develops, all educational programs below the graduate level 
will fall within its scope. 

.\s a recent science teacher, science consultant and sci- 
ence supervisor in the Kern Comity, California, school sys- 
tem, and co-author of a high school biology curriculum, 
"Biology, A Process Approach," Mr. Edinger brings both 
professional scientific and educational experience to his new 
position. He holds M.S. and M.Ed, degrees and for the past 
five years has been engaged in graduate work in botany at 
the University of Arizona. 



Area Geology Field Trip 
Series Set for October 

Three all-day Saturday field trips will be conducted to 
local areas of geologic interest this fall by Dr. Matthew H. 
Nitecki, Assistant Curator of Fossil Invertebrates. The first 
excursion will be to Palos Park to observe the results of gla- 
ciation; the second, to the Wilmington district to examine 
the ancient swamps that produced deposits of commercial 
coal, and to Kentland, Indiana, to explore a supposed 
ancient meteorite crater; and the third trip will be to the 
Starved Rock area to study the effects of deforming forces 
on the layered sedimentary rocks. There will be many 
opporunities to collect and identify rocks and fossils. 

These field trips are offered jointly by Field Museum, 
Department of Education, and the University of Chicago, 
Downtown Center. The introductory lecture will be held 
in the University of Chicago, 65 E. Soiuh Water Street, on 
Saturday, October 4, at 10 a.m. The trips will be by char- 
tered bus on successive Saturdays: October 11, 8 a.m. - 
3 p.m., Palos Park; October 18, Wilmington and Kentland, 
8 a.m. -6 p.m.; and October 25, Starved Rock, 8 a.m. - 
6 p.m. Further information is available from Mrs. Maria 
Matyas or Miss Barbara O'Connor, University of Chicago, 
65 E. South Water Street, Chicago, Financial 6-8300. 

Students Active in Summer 
Education-Work Programs 

Twenty-four college students worked in various suunner 
programs at Field Museum this year, programs which en- 
abled both graduate and undergraduate students to earn 
money and receive practical experience in the scientific fields 
of anthropology, botany, geology, paleontology and zoology. 

Of these students, 10 were Shinner Scholars, who partici- 
pated in a scholarship-work program organized by the 
Ernest G. Shinner Foundation of Chicago and the Museum. 
These students received a $300-a-month stipend and under 
the guidance of Museum staff members had an opportunity 
to apply laboratory and classroom techniques to practical 
problems related to their areas of academic concentration. 
Two additional students were admitted to summer training 
through programs established by the Bertha LeBus Chari- 
table Fund and the Crowell Collier and MacMillan Foim- 
dations. 

The remaining 12 students are active in a 10-week pro- 
gram, "New Perspectives in Archaeology," underway at 
Field Museum's field station in Vernon, Arizona. Supported 
by the National Science Foundation and supervised by 
Paul S. Martin, Field Museum's Chief Curator Emeritus, 
this program enables students to obtain experience in prac- 
tical and theoretical archaeology during their undergrad- 
uate years. Each participant conducts an independent 
research project based on his work at the archaeological 
excavation and receives all living expenses and an allotment 
toward travel. 



SEPTEMBER Page 9 



T H 
FALL 



EDWARD 
FILM- C 



In some parts of the world, ancient traditions flourish amidst rapid technological 
growth. In other places, wild creatures still follow the timeless patterns of their lives, 
relatively unhampered by civilization. The all too rapidly vanishing aspects of life in 
settings ranging from the Far East to Old Vienna have been recorded in exciting color 
films by well known lecturer-filmakers. They have thoroughly documented not only the 
paradoxes of changing ways of life for the human beings who live in these places, but 
for the wildlife of the areas as well. The nine films will be shown free on successive 
Saturdays from October 4 through November 29 at 2:30 p.m. in the James Simpson 
Theatre. Seats will be reserved for Members until 2:25 p.m. Attendance is limited to 
adults and children of Members. 



Backstreet 
Green's "Hong Kong" 



Regent Day 
Chickering - Porlerfield 
"Miniature Countries" 





OCTOBER 4 

HONG KONG by Ray Green 

Resting uneasily at the border of Red China, Hong Kong is one of the world's 
most fascinating places. Some ancient Oriental traditions continue in con- 
trast with the frantic pace of industry and commerce that characterizes 
Hong Kong. The color film reveals many facets of this exotic, bustling, and 
sometimes troubled crossroads of the Orient. 



c 




Surfing 
Lark's "Hawaii" 



OCTOBER 11 

HAWAII by Ed Lark 

Hawaii's colorful history, from the creation of the islands through its 
first settlement, the influences of missionaries, and its phenoinenal 
growth as our 50th state, will be traced in this exciting film. Seldom- 
visited locations, unusual celebrations and sporting events, and wildlife 
are included along with views of Hawaii's well-known attractions. 

OCTOBER 18 
PAGEANT OF INDIA by Gera/d Hooper 
The sweep of India's breathtaking scenery and wildlife, its romantic landmarks, and 
the diverse customs of its many peoples are captured in brilliant color in this film. 
In India, 5,000 years of continuous civilization have left a legacy of architecture, art, 
folklore and traditional events which firmly co-exist with India's strivings toward 
modernization and technological growth. 

OCTOBER 25 
BRAZIL by Clay Francisco 

Many energetic and talented people are shaping Brazil's promising future, expressed today in its ambitious capitaj^ 
Brasilia, and exciting cities of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. Yet, much magnificent and wild country lies inland. 
Strange animals and flora inhabit the rainforests near the Amazon. Indians, too, continue to live there as their 
ancestors did centuries ago. The color film contrasts many moods and facets of this giant of South America. 



Page 10 SEPTEMBER 



E. 
:X E C T U R E 



AVER 
S E R i 



E S 



NOVEMBER 1 

LION PRIDE />/ Cleveland and Ruth Grant 

A rare study of totally wild African lions reveals secrets of animal behavior in an intimate, 
sympathetic and understanding way. The Grants spent five months in Mozambique and 
Rhodesia filming three prides of lions in contiguous territories, showing the daily life and 
adventures of these beautiful "big cats" and other wild animals which share their range. 

NOVEMBER 8 

EUROPE'S MINIATURE COUNTRIES by Lisa Chickering and Jeanne Porterfield 

Liechenstein — Andorra — SMOM — San Marino — Monaco: these miniature countries sandwiched 
in on the European continent preserve unique aspects of the cultures and histories of Switzerland, 
Spain, France and Italy. One country boasts castles and crowned heads, another has no army 
and no taxes and contains skyscrapers and herds of wild horses within its borders. These are 
but a few of the fascinating sights to be found in these tiny nations. 




Amazon Traders 
Francisco's "Brazil" 



NOVEMBER 15 

THAI LAN D by Kenneth Armstrong 

The 30 million people of Thailand are the most pros- 
perous and literate in Southeast Asia. With many 
natural resources and industrial growth, it would 
seem secure. Yet, it feels threatened by Red China. 
Mr. Armstrong, an experienced war correspondent, 
shows the temples, festivals, people and wildlife of 
Thailand against the background of quiet preparation 
for conflict, if the necessity arises. 



NOVEMBER 22 

PORTRAITS OF AUSTRIA by Curtis Nagel and William Moore 

The "portraits" in the film range from Tyrolean Alpine villages, to the historic sites 
of Austria's military and musical past, to modern Vienna, where some of the grandeur 
of an earlier day is retained in such institutions as the world-famous Spanish Riding 
Academy with its exquisitely-trained white Lippizaner stallions. 



NOVEMBER 29 

OUR GREAT SOUTHWEST by Willis Butler 

An intensive study of Arizona and New Mexico, where all living things must adapt 
to the desert environment. The prehistoric residents of the area are studied through 
—^liff dwellings. The Indians of today are on reservations, many living essentially as 
_^heir tribes have for centuries. Metropolitan areas created by the power projects 
and irrigation are shown, as is the restored frontier town of Tombstone, and an excit- 
ing view of the Grand Canyon from a plane flight 3,000 feet down into the canyon. 




Apache Dancer 
Butler's "Southwest" 



SEPTEMBER Page II 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 



September hours: The Museum will be open 
from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. on Labor Day, Sep- 
tember 1, and from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily 
beginning September 2. 

September 5-7 North American Paleontological Convention North Amer- 
ican paleontologists and visiting foreign scientists representing many fields of 
interest will come together in one meeting for the first time. 

September 12 "Members' Fiesta" provides Museum Members and their fam- 
ilies with a preview of the Fiesta Mexicana from 6 — 10 p.m. Special enter- 
tainment, including a mariachi band, will be added to the regular features of 
the Fiesta. Performances in Stanley Field Hall will be at 7, 8, and 9 p.m. 

September 1 3 Fiesta Mexicana The Museum's salute to Chicago's Mexican 
community opens to the public with live folk dance and musical programs 
daily except Monday at 11 a.m., noon, and 3:30 p.m., 11 a.m., 1 p.m. and 
3:30 p.m. on Saturday, and at 1 p.m. and 2:30 p.m. on Sunday, live demon- 
strations of arts and crafts from 9:30 a.m. — 4:30 p.m., daily except Monday, 
and multi-screen slide projections. Films relating to Mexican history, art, 
culture and archaeology, will be shown daily. A series of lectures on consecu- 
tive Sundays beginning September 14 round out the program, which runs 
through October 5. A concurrent exhibit of pre-Hispanic, colonial and con- 
temporary folk art, and a photo-essay on Chicago's Mexican population re- 
main on display through November 9. See Pages 2-4. 

September 14 Fiesta Mexicana Lectures — "Mexican Arts of the Colonial 
Period" opens the fovtr-lecture series. Dr. Merle G. VVachter, Chairman. 
Art Department, University of the Americas in Mexico City, is the speaker. 
All lectures will be at 3 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre and are free. 

September 1 5 "El Grito" Celebration, marking Mexican Independence, will be 
sponsored by the Mexican Community of Chicago from 8 — 11 :30 p.m. in the 
Grant Park Bandshell. Fiesta Mexicana will be open from 9 a.m. — 8 p.m. in 
connection with the occasion, featuring live entertainment and craft demon- 
strations in Stanley Field Hall at 7 p.m. 

September 21 Fiesta Mexicana Lectures — "Silent Cities: Precolumbian Ar- 
chitecture" will be presented by Norman F. Carver, Jr., a practicing archi- 
tect and author of a pictographic essay, Mexico and the Maya. 

September 28 Fiesta Mexicana Lectures — "The Art of a People: Contem- 
porary Mexican Folk Arts," by Dr. Daniel Rubin de la Borbolla, a former 
director of the National Museum of Anthropology and the National Museum 
of Popular Arts and Industries in Mexico City. 

October 4 Fall Lecture Series "Hong Kong" by Ray Green. A color film study 
of the bustling, crowded, exotic crossroads of the Orient. 2:30 p.m., James 
Simpson Theatre. 

October 5 Fiesta Mexican Lectures — "The Precolumbian Past of Modern 
Mexic-vn Culture will be explored by Carlos R. Margain, Secretario Tecnica 
of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia in Mexico. 

October 1 1 Fall Lecture Series "H-Wvaii" by Ed Lark. The history and develop- 
ment of the exciting islands are shown as well as contemporary views of our 
50th state. 2:30 p.m., James Simpson Theatre. 

Through October 12 Art and Life of the Cuna Indians Temporary exhibit 
on the Indians of San Bias, Panama. The people are highly independent as a 
slide-show of their activities shows, yet they often express outside influences 
through their arts, with surprising and beautiful results. Hall 9 Gallery. 

Page n SEPTEMBER 



CORRECTION: 

CHILDRENS' 
WORKSHOPS 

Please note: The workshops for No- 
vember 1, Bones to Bodies, and for 
November 8, Earth's Changing 
Crust, are for children ages 10-13 
years. It was incorrectly stated in 
the August Bulletin that these work- 
shops were for ages 6-8. 



r 



CALENDAR {continued) 

Through November 16 Field Mu- 
seum's 75th Anniversary Exhibit 
The three-part presentation — A Sense 
of Wonder, A Sense of History, 
A Sense of Discovery — shows the 
scope of the Museum's activities since 
its founding after the World's Co- 
lumbian Exposition in 1893. Many 
of the Museum's choicest specimens 
are part of the dramatic and unusual 
display. Hall 3. 

Through November Fall Journey 
"Mexico" The Museum's perma/^~ 
nent Mexican collection (Hall 8) re*-— 
veals the mighty civilizations of Pre- 
Columbian Mexico and the everyday 
life of Mexican peoples then and now. 
Any child who can read and write is 
welcome to take this free do-it-your- 
self tour sponsored by the Raymond . 
Foundation. Free Journey sheets and 
information on the Journey program 
are available at Museum entrances. 

MEETINGS: 
Chicago Shell Club, 

September 14, 2 p.m. 
N.ATURE Camera Club of Chicago, 

September 9, 7 :45 p.m. 
Illinois Orchid Society, 

September 21, 2 p.m. 



FIELD MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

ROOSEVELT ROAD AT LAKE SHORE DRIVE 
CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60605 A.C. 312. 922-9410 
FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD. 1893 

E. Leland Webber, Director 

BULLETIN 

Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 



c 



PRINTED BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 




BULLETIN FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Volume 40, ]S umber 10, October 1969 



GARDENS 




^- 





%c GARDENS 
f GREAT BRHAIN 



Phi/ Clark, who wrote the accompanying article and 
took the photographs, will lead the tour, "Eden Re- 
visited: A Tour of Britain and its Gardens." He spent 
two months this summer in Britain, selecting the best 
gardens and other points of interest. He is the former 
Editor of Horticulture magazine, published in Boston, 
the former garden editor of Living for Young Home- 
makers magazine, was for almost 20 years garden editor 
of The News, Mexico DF, and is the author of the book 
published in Mexico, "A Flower Lovers' Guide to Mexi- 
co." He is Field Museum's Chief of Natural History 
Tours and its Public Relations Counsel. 



Photo, left: The Lion of England, one of ten royal "Queen's Beasts," sculptured in Portland stone by 
James Woodford and presented by HRH Queen Elizabeth II to the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew in 
1958. 

The contrasting beauty of two British gardens is shown on our October cover. Delightful, thoroughly 
English, informality dominates a tropical garden, above, on the Scilly Islands at Tresco Abbey. Here, 
tropical foliage is given English landscaping treatment uniting white flower balls of Ti Plant (Cord'yVme 
australis) from New Zealand, palms (Phoenix canariensis) from the Canary Islands, and blue flower 
spikes of Pride of Madeira (Eschium sp.). Below, the Long Walk, a bit of equally English formality 
in the gardens of Hidcote Manor in Gloucestershire, employs closely manicured hedges of hornbeam 
(Carpinus betulus) with a Monterey Pine (Pinus radiata) at right. 



The visitor who looks beneath the surface finds a 
Britain beyond the cardboard unreality of the travel folders. 

First, he encounters a whole mosaic of different re- 
gional accents, folkways and traditions — dramatic con- 
trasts in attitudes and holdovers in mannerisms. Another 
side of the British reality few tourists see: the island na- 
tion's magnificent natural history, its forests and heaths, 
meadow flowers and the dwarfed vegetation of the moun- 
tainsides, the varied bird life and the European red deer 
which still run in herds on the great estates. 

But best of all is the British "feel "for natural history — 
the way in which British garden estates and cottagers' 
floral borders blend the botany buff's zeal for plant collec- 
tions and the landscaper's artistic sense of the improved 
natural; the avid fascination of most British for the country's 
birds and their love for domestic animals. 

Everyone expects, of course, the medieval castles 
perched upon the bluffs, but many are surprised to dis- 
cover the widespread archaeological remains — lonely 
cairns on Cornwall hilltops, mysterious stone circles in 
Derbyshire pastures, and bronze age standing stones in the 
Scottish highlands. The archaeology-oriented find their 
enthusiasm to be a British national passion. 

For these reasons, FieW Museum plans a natural 
history tour of England, Scotland and Wales — May 30 



through July 4, 1970. The tour cost of $2,445 covers all 
expenses (except tips) and includes a $600 tax deductible 
donation to Field Museum. Tour membership will be 
limited to the first 25 persons to pay the $600 deposit. 
Botanical and horticultural specialists will accompany the 
group. The program, for 36 event-filled days, follows: 
Saturday, May 30 

Your British Overseas Airways flight, 567, leaves from 
Chicago's O'Hare Airport at 6:30 p.m. , [| 

Sunday, May 31 

You arrive in London at 9 a.m. and settle in your room 
at the Hotel Grosvenor on Hyde Park. The day is free for 
you to rest and to become familiar with downtown London. 
Unless otherwise noted, all meals are at the tour hotels. 
Monday, June 1 

The Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, in Surrey, just south 
of London, is one of the world's most comprehensive bo- 
tanical collections. Just now, it is ablaze with Rhododen- 
dron species and horticultural varieties. Iris and early 
peonies also provide dramatic dolor. 
Tuesday, June 2 

You'll make an early morning bird watch in Selsdon 
Wood Nature and Bird Preserve, near Croydon outside 
London. In the ferny shade of this forest of English oaks 
and European beeches, you get some idea of what the 



Page 2 OCTOBER 



primeval London area was like and may get some ideas 
about what we should do near our American urban centers. 
After lunch at the Grosvenor, you tour the British archae- 
ological sections of the British Museum. Dinner is at 
Bentleys. 
Wednesday, June 3 

This morning you meet Roy Hay, the Garden Editor of 
the Times of London and one of England's most prominent 
horticulturists. He accompanies us to the Gardening 
Centre at Syon, where lupines make a sensationally colorful 
showing and where new horticultural varieties are grown. 
After lunch at the swank Planter's Grove, you visit Syon 
House, the residence of the Dukes of Northumberland. 
The house was begun in 1 547, but the richly decorated 
interior was done in 1762. 
Thursday, June 4 

You see some of London's highlights — Westminster 
Abbey, Parliament and the Tower — during the morning. 
The afternoon is free, with dinner at Samuel Pepys' 
Restaurant overlooking the Thames. 
Friday, June 5 

The tour moves by motor coach to Canterbury where, 
during the morning, you view the great Cathedral. After 
lunch, you visit Sissinghurst Castle, in the Weald of Kent. 
Here is a garden creation of two gifted people. Vita Sack- 
ville-West and her husband, Harold Nicolson. Vita 
Sackville-West was one of England's great garden writers 
and poets. Her ancestors lived in the castle, and its 16th 
century twin-towers stand as a centerpiece of the garden. 
"Profusion, even extravagance and exuberance within the 




Roy Hay, Garden Ed/tor 
of the Times of London, 
will be one of the garden- 
ing experts to host Tour 
members. 



confines of the utmost linear severity "was her landscaping 
aim, and this she achieved. Head Gardners Pamela 
Swerdt and Sibylle Kreutzberger, who worked with 
Vita Sackville-West, show us around. After dinner at 
our hotel, the Old Fellbridge in East Grimstead, you hear a 
talk "American Plants in English Gardens," by England's 
outstanding nurseryman and plant breeder. Will Ingwersen. 
Saturday, June 6 

You visit Ingwersen's Nursery, famous for its rock 
plants, then spend the afternoon in Nymans gardens, resi- 



dence of the Earl and Countess of Rosse, in Sussex. It is 
a garden which blends imperceptibly from wild to informal 
to formal and back again. Great cedars of Lebanon 
spread their shaggy, light green branches over vast Vic- 
torian lawns, a long pergola of wisteria makes a fragrant 
walk to a Japanese garden, English style, and a wilderness 
of pines, spruces, chamaecyparises, arborvitaes, firs and 
other evergreens from throughout the world is reached 
through a long avenue of old English limes. Will Ingwersen 
accompanies us, to give his expert insight. After dinner at 
out hotel, the Hog's Back, in Seale in Surrey, we hear a talk 
by Mr. Hay, "A Chat About England and English Gardeners 
and Their Funny Little Ways." 
Sunday, June 7 

Most of the group attends Anglican services at the 
Losely Church in Seale — where crusaders' marks may be 




Mystic Lanyon Quoit, a 2000 B.C. galley grave on a heath- 
er-covered Cornish hill is an important, but seldom-visited 
British archaeological site. 

seen on the walls. You spend the afternoon as a guest of 
Roy Hay at his 16th Century house and in his interesting 
experimental gardens. Dinner is at the Hog's Back. 
Monday, June 8 

Frances Perry, author of numerous gardening books, 
joins the tour today and stays with us through Wednesday. 
On the way to Shakespeare Country, you pause at Oxford 
to see the grounds of the Waterperry Horticultural School 
and of the Oxford Botanical Garden, Britain's oldest bo- 
tanical garden, founded in 1620. Dinner is at your hotel 
in Stratford -on -Avon, Alveston Manor. After dinner, Mrs. 
Perry shows slides of Galapagos birds. 
Tuesday, June 9 

Today's feature is Hidcote Manor gardens — a series of 
gardens separated by hedges, mostly in modified informal 
style with massed plants of a single kind as though wild. 
Some gardens emphasize a single color or color combin- 
ation, as blue Meconopsis poppies with yellow Primulas. 
The Manor is located in the hilly Cotswold area, where you 
see many traditional houses with dark paneling on light 
facing and often with hay thatch roofs. After dinner, you 



OCTOBER Page 3 



attend a play at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre. 
Wednesday, June 10 

You visit the principal Shakespeare locations — Shake- 
speare's birthplace, the Anne Hathaway Cottage with its 
lovely cottage style garden. Halls' Croft with an outstanding 
herb garden, and New Place with an Elizabethan knot 
garden. 
Thursday, June 1 1 

Today's highlight is that magic circle of giant stones — 
Stonehenge. Now believed by archaeologists to date from 
between 3,000 and 2,450 B.C., the method of transporting 
the huge stones from Wales to Wiltshire and of topping 
groups of two stone slabs with a third, remain a mystery. 
Dinner is at our hotel, the White Hart, in Salisbury. 
Friday, June 12 

Salisbury Cathedral leaves you in astonishment as great 
as did Stonehenge: this time for the architectural, engineer- 
ing and artistic accomplishment of 13th Century English- 
men. You visit the nearby garden of Mr. and Mrs. H. F. W. 
Cory, who have you for tea in their garden, which includes 
some rare English wildflowers among the perennial border 
plants. You find Stonehenge relics and the Bustard dio- 
rama, showing an extinct British turkey-like bird, at Salis- 
bury Museum. Dinner is at the Red Lion. 
Saturday, June 13 

Today you see the epitome of the English "Paradise 
Garden," which makes a British garden tour "Eden Re- 
visited": Stourhead. Over 2,500 acres in extent, the great 
garden includes artificial lakes, falls developed in existing 
streams and masterully contrived garden pictures, such as 
the Doric style Temple of Flora on a lake. Carefully 
blended colors — coppers, golds, and greens of trees, the 
brilliant variety of Rhododendron blooms and the giant 
trees collected from all over the temperate world are 
remarkable. This great garden was largely inspired by 
the admiration for Italian romantic landscape painting 
by Sir Henry Hoare the Younger, who inherited the estate 
in 1741. After lunch at the Spread Eagle, you visit the 
Georgian style Stourhead's Palladian Revival house. 
Sunday, June 14 

Before services at Salisbury Cathedral, you go on a bird 
and wild flower walk in Blackmoor Copse, maintained 
mainly as a butterfly refuge by the Wiltshire Trust for Nature 
Conservation. The tour is accompanied by a local bird 
watcher, Mr. H. F. W. Cory. Dinner is at the Haunch of 
Venison, a small jewel of architectural evolution which 
began evolving in 1320. 
Monday, June 15 

Today's trip is through scenic rural Dorsetshire and 
Devonshire into Cornwall and finally to Penzance, where 
you dine at your hotel, the Queen's. 
Tuesday, June 16 

During the morning you tour St. Michael's Mount, a 
14th Century castle on a rocky hill in the sea. You picnic 
in the lonely Cornish hills with their cover of heather, near 
the 2,000 B.C. galley grave of Lanyon Quoit. That after- 



noon at Trengwainton Estate, Lady Bolitho shows the tour 
some of the botanical highlights of her gardens, famous 
for their Rhododendron species. Magnolia collections and 
warm temperature plants like Australian tree ferns. You 
visit the remains of an iron age settlement at Carn Euny 
and return to Penzance with stops to see San Creed 
Church and the fishing boats at Newyn Harbour. 
Wednesday, June 17 

Today you see a Britain you never dreamed existed: 
a tropical England! After a 28-mile helicopter ride you 
reach St. Mary's Isle and from there boat to Tresco Isle, 
another island of the Scilly group. At Tresco Abbey, you 
find Mexican, African and South Pacific plants flourishing 
in the planned informality of an English garden. 
Thursday, June 18 

This morning you go bird watching in a boat, near the 
Isle of Annet, where puffins, cormorants, guillemots, razor- 
bills, oyster catchers and many kinds of gulls may be seen. 
David Hunt, of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, 
accompanies the bird watch. 
Friday, June 19 

You travel to Llandudno, in northern Wales, dining at 
your tour hotel, the Imperial. 




Formal parterre garden of Drummond Castle in Scotland is 
made up of clipped box, yew, Japanese maples, purple 
and light lavendar violas and foliage plants. 



Saturday, June 20 

Today you visit Wales' leading example of the paradise 
garden, Bodnant at Tal-y-Cafn — a series of gardens which 
area related chain moving from English informal to wilder- 
ness to English semi-formal to English paradise or picture 
garden. Vistas throughout the 75 acres of gardens are 
carefully planned for their focal points and display of plants 
of unusual beauty, size and rarity. Highlights: the La- 
burnum arch, almost 100 years old; many Rhododendron 
hybrids developed at Bodnant; the waterlily ponds, the 
exquisite rose garden among towering Chamaecyparis 
lawsoniana var. erecta virides nearly 100 years old, and 



Paged OCTOBER 



deciduous forests along the Hiraethlyn River, which con- 
tain interplantings of elegant flowers. The turreted, ivy- 
suited graystone castle, built in 1749, stands on great 
sweeping lawns interrupted by huge English oaks. Tour 
is guided by Head Gardener Charles Puddle. Returning to 
Llandudno, you tour Conway Castle, a fortress built in 
1283. 
Sunday. June 21 

Magnificant Welsh scenery unfolds as you travel 




Dawyck in southern Scotland has been a center of arbor- 
culture for 300 years. Its wilderness gardens include a fir 
planted in 1680 and a larch planted by Linneaus in 1725. 



through hills which rise sharply and finally reach the pine- 
fir-larch forests of the valley of Betwys y Coed. The tour 
pauses to inspect Capel Garmon in Derbyshire, a Stone 
Age rock-lined passage among the ferns and hillside gras- 
ses. Other points of scenic interest are Swallow Falls 
rushing through a rocky channel down the forested hill- 
sides, Snowdonia Mountain and Caernavon Castle, the 
13th Century castle where the Prince of Wales was in- 
vested. Lunch is at the Royal Victoria at Llanberis. 

Monday, June 22 

The trip from Llandudno through Cheshire to the Peak 
District is through gentle hills and oak-beech forests. You 
lunch at your hotel, the Palace in Buxton. The afternoon 
includes visits to Bakewell Church, where some tombstones 
carry Viking inscriptions from the pre-Christian era, to the 
Medieval House Museum and Haddon Hall, residence of 
the Dukes of Rutland, to see a medieval manorial home and 
its terraced gardens of wall and bed roses. 
Tuesday, June 23 

You picnic near the site of one of the most important 
and least-visited archeological sites in Britain, Arbor Low, 
a circle of stones on an artificially raised area, dating from 
the Stone Age. The afternoon is spent at Chatsworth, 
home of the Dukes of Devonshire, in Derbyshire. The 
palatial home was begun in 1687. The gardens were 



designed by the great Launcelot "Capability" Brown and 
feature a skillful blending of rolling forest, semi-formal and 
informal gardens. There are block-long herbaceous bor- 
ders, a rose garden and box labyrinths. 

Wednesday, June 24 

The trip from Buxton to the Lake Country is an en- 
chanting blend of hills, forested pastures and lakes. You 
stay at Windermere. 

Thursday, June 25 

Today's drive is through the Lake Country and a region 
of high hills and into Scotland. Not far north of the border, 
you are received at the Balfour family estate, Dawyck, by 
Mrs. Alastair Balfour. Here, trees from many parts of the 
temperate world have reached immense size. The grounds 
have been owned by persons interested in arborculture for 
300 years. A larch that was planted there by Linneaus in 
1725 still stands. The wilderness areas are heavily inter- 
planted with rare trees and flowering shrubs of which 
Rhododendron, Azaleas and Laburnums make a particular 
show just now. After tea with Mrs. Balfour, the tour goes 
on to Edinburgh, where you dine at the North British 
Hotel. 
Friday, June 26 

You tour Castle Hill which looks over the city — St. Giles 
Cathedral, site of many historic events, John Knox House 
and Holyrood House. After lunch you may shop before 
tea at The Cedars, an intimate garden featuring a rockery 
and belonging to Dr. and Mrs. E. A. Cormack. Mrs. Cor- 
mack is an avid rock gardener and has a library collection 
of rare horticultural volumes. Dinner is at the Edinburgh 
apartment of Brodrick Haldane, Scottish landscape photo- 
grapher. 
Saturday, June 27 

The entire day is devoted to the Royal Botanical 
Garden, one of the world's outstanding collections of 
living plants, both for the beauty of their arrangement and 
the variety. The rock gardens cover acres. There are also 
woodland gardens, a heather collection, an arboretum, 
plant families garden, experimental gardens and perennial 
borders. The greenhouses are the last word in modernity 
and offer varied climactic stiuations. A Henry Moore 
sculpture and handsome view of the Edinburgh skyline add 
to the charm of the hilltop. Dr. H. R. Fletcher, Regius 
Keeper of the Garden and one of Britain's outstanding 
horticulturists, will greet the tour. 

Sunday, June 28 

Two sharply constrasting castles and gardens in Perth- 
shire will make an exciting program today. Keillour Castle, 
where you are greeted by Major and Mrs. George Knox 
Finlay, is a Victorian building on the foundations of a very 
old castle. The gardens are that delightful blend of im- 
proved wilderness and informal borders. Major Finley 
breeds plants and shows you some he has developed. 
Across a drawbridge to turreted Drummond Castle, Its 
older parts dating to 1 491 , you find a formal garden begun 
in 1630 by John Drummond, Second Earl of Perth and 



OCTOBER Page 5 



ancestor of the present Earl of Ancaster, who will meet 
the tour if he is in residence. The colorful parterre was 
Italiancized at the time of the coronation of Queen Victoria. 
Throughout the day, the General Organizer of Scotland's 
Garden Scheme, Mrs. Poppy Davenport, will accompany 
the tour, and give it the benefit of her knowledge of Scot- 
tish gardens. You dine at your hotel, which overlooks 
Loch (Lake) Earnhead. > 

Monday, June 29 

Today's trip to Inverness is through misty highlands 
covered with gray-green heather, past flocks of long-haired, 
black-faced sheep, along rushing mountain streams and 
blue-black lochs. You stop at the Nature Trail on Ben 
Lawers (or Mount Lawers) for a wildflower and bird walk, 
with G. C. Colmer, the resident naturalist. Plants include 
many miniature alpine species. You dine at your hotel, 
the Station, in Inverness. 
Tuesday, June 30 

MacBeth will come to mind as you tour Cawdor Castle, 
setting of the final scenes of the Shakespearian tragedy. 
The castle is gray stone, spike-turreted and entered over a 
drawbridge — everything one imagines of a castle. Gardens 
are semi-formal and feature roses, Meconopsis poppies. 
Primulas and formally pruned box hedges and shaped 
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana trees. On the return to Inver- 
ness, you see the three Bronze Age cairns of Clava, the 
battlefield of Culloden where Bonnie Prince Charles was 
defeated and the lair of the Loch Ness monster. 
Wednesday, July 1 

Traveling north and west, you come through forested 



highlands past immense, deep blue lochs and finally to 
Poolewe, on the Atlantic. Closeness to the ocean has 
altered the climate enough so that on the large hillside 
gardens of Inverewe you find many semi-tropical plants 
alongside cold country pines and alpine rockery plants. 
The rock garden contains an unusual collection and the 
experimental gardens are the point of origin of many new 
plants to horticulture. 
Thursday, July 2 

You travel through Central Scotland to Helensburgh, 
just north of Glasgow. After lunch at your hotel, the 
Queen's, you tour Glenearn Garden and have tea with its 
owners, Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Gibson. Most of the garden 
is in the wilderness style. Highlights are some of the huge 
old Rhododendrons, one planted 130 years ago by the 
great Sir Joseph Hooker, who created this hybrid form, 
and two particularly rare and beautiful flowering vines 
naturalized on the estate. You view Loch Lomond before 
dinner. 
Friday, July 3 

The tour flies to London, from which you travel to 
nearby Wisley, the 200 acres of handsomely planted ex- 
perimental gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society. The 
reason for this return to the London area is to see the 
gardens in another season, for it is now the time of peonies, 
roses, annuals, perennial border plants and early heaths. 
Dinner is at the tour hotel, Grosvenor House. 
Saturday, July 4 

You fly, at 2 p.m. on BOAC flight 568, from London 
airport with arrival at Chicago's O'Hare at 5 p.m. 



Stone lion sculpture guards the entrance to Chatsworth, Derbyshire home of the Dukes of Devonshire. 




CLIP AND MAIL THIS COUPON TODAY 
1 would like reservations for Field Museum's Natural History Tour of 

(HOW MANY) 

England Scotland and Wales, "Eden Revisited: A Tour of Britain and It's Gardens." 
I understand the $2,445 price of the 36-day tour covers all expenses (except tips) 
and includes a $600 tax-deductible donation to Field Museum. 

1 enclose my check for a $ 600 deposit for each reservation 

Name 



Address 



City State Zip 

□ Please check if single rooms are desired, at an extra charge. 

Please send information about this tour to: 

Name 

Address 

City State Zip 




CHICAGO EXHIBIT 

OF 

MOON mm 

OCTOBER 10 - NOVEMBER 9 



The Sea of Tranquility, where the Apollo 11 Astronauts collected the samples. (Natioruxl 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Apollo 8 photo.) 



Histoiic rock samples collected on the Apollo 1 1 moon 
landing in the Sea of Tranquility will be on public dis- 
play for the first time in the Chicago area at Field Mu- 
seum from October 10 through November 9 during regu- 
lar Museum hours. A special Members' Preview of the 
moon rocks will take place from 12 Noon to 9 p.m. on 
October 9, following a press preview. This exciting ex- 
hibit was made possible through the cooperation of the 
University of Chicago and the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration (NASA). Financial assistance for the 
exhibit was provided by The Field Foundation of Illinois. 
The exhibit will include information on preliminary 
studies of these specimens, supplemented by a photo dis- 
play and meteorites from the Museum's great collections 
for comparison with the moon samples. The photo 
display will include moon landing photos of Astronauts 
Neil .Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael Collins; 
scientists studying the moon samples, and enlargements 
of the actual moon rocks. 

Scientists expect to find many long-sought answers to 
<juestions about the origin and nature of the moon as 
research continues. Preliminary studies of the lunar rocks 
have already suggested some interesting answers to the 
(juestions man has asked about the moon. 

Preliminary studies indicate that long after the Earth 
formed and was a cooler, solid body, the moon passed 
near it and was caught in its gravitational field. Other 
theories had suggested the moon and Earth (and perhaps 
Mars) condensed together out of a hot mass of matter as 
it swirled around the primitive sun, or that the moon 
was torn out of the Earth by the gra\ilaiional pull of a 
passing star. Significant differences in chemical com])o- 
sition of rocks from the moon and those found on Earth 
indicate the two bodies did not have a common origin. 
Rocks similar to basalt, or gabbro, but with significant 
differences in chemical composition, minerals, and tex- 
lural featmes were found at Tranquility Base. The lunar 
rocks have too much titanium and too little sodium in 



them to be identical with the common basalts or gabbros 
foimd on Earth. Before Apollo 1 1 we expected to find a 
dead, airless planet made of rock like basalt or gabbro 
since these rock types best fit the color, density and light 
reflectivity observed on the moon. 

"Class beads," the origin of which is presently un- 
known, were one of the distinguishing characteristics of 
the rock samples from the moon. No similar beads are 
found on Earth. It is possible that they were formed in 
the vacuum of the moon from molten rock splattered by 
meteorite impacts or volcanic activity. Red glow spots, 
probably due to small lava outpourings, have been seen 
through telescopes several times in the last 10 years. 

The craters on the moon are considered to be the re- 
sult of two processes: large meteorites imjiact the moon's 
surface and explode. This triggers the melting of rock 
below the explosion crater causing lava to flow out onto 
the crater bottom. 

Prior to the Apollo 1 1 success, chance encounters with 
meteors have provided the only samples available for 
study from outside the Earth. The moon is pitted with 
the craters caused by the im]jact of meteors and its sur- 
face should have many meteorite fragments scattered 
over it. 

Further study of these moon rock samples will prob- 
ably confirm many of these tentative conclusions. Un- 
doubtedly, they will also create a great many new, 
unanswered, questions. The samples on display at the 
Museum are to be used by several scientists affiliated with 
the University of Chicago and Argonne National Labora- 
tory in research projects approved by NAS.A which relate 
to s]jecial problems presented by this material. 

The principal investigators on the various research 
teams are Professor Joseph V. Smith, Professor Edward 
.\nders. Professor Stefan Hafner, Professor Robert N. 
Clayton, Professor Anthony Turkevitch and Dr. Ceorge 
Reed. Dr. Reed is with Argonne National Laijoratories. 
The other scientists are from the University of Chicago. 



OCTOBER Page? 




Musicians of tfie i\/lar/achi Potosino from Chicago contribute tfie sounds of /\/lexico 
to the Festivities of a special preview evening for l\/luseum l\/lembers. 



The sights and sounds of M( 
three weeks, the Museum w; 
maker and a paper cutter — w| 
Mexican art forms. The exi' 
and age groups, a display Ici 
Field Hall, Mayo Indian dam 
Mexican-American communi 
The Fiesta was the Museum 
to draw the Mexican-Amerii 
vide non-Mexicans with a dn 
and cultural influences. Fini 
Council, a state agency; the i 
cana Airlines, the National E 
de Turismo Museo Nacional 
Community. j 




Elaborately costumed dancers of the 
Balet Folklorico de Frederico Z. Rod- 
riguez perform exciting stylized folk 
dances of Mexico for Fiesta visitors. 
The dancers are from the Chicago 
Mexican-American Community. 




Rigf 

gom 

her 

dem 

five 



The contemporary Mexican tiger costume is examined by Mr. Amado Coronado and his sons, Eduardo, 
Rudolf o and Ricardo, visitors to the Fiesta Mexicana. 





The painstakin 
looming serai 
visitors to the 
ketplace" by R 
er from the Sti 



t filled Field Museum this fall when Fiesta Mexicana was presented. For 

lost to Mexican artisans — a weaver, a flower-maker, a jeweler, a pinata- 

emonstrated their skills amidst static displays of historic and contemporary 

also featured 75 Mexican costumes related to different geographic areas 

i by the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. In Stanley 

performed centuries old dances and chants, and groups from the Chicago 

itertained Museum visitors with folk dances inspired by Spanish influences. 

.ilute to the Mexican-Americans of Chicago. The program was designed 

I into closer contact with the cultural mainstream of Chicago and to pro- 

)r insight into the origins and variety of Mexican contemporary art, dance 

fal Assistance for the Fiesta Mexicana was provided by the Illinois Arts 

lert McCormick Charitable Trust; the Bertha LeBus Charitable Trust; Mexi- 

ii/vment for the Humanities; Consejo Nacional de Turismo, Departamento 

i^ntropologia, of Mexico; and members of Chicago's Mexican-American 




Mr. and Mrs. R. Budnick examine an intri- 
cately embroidered Huicfiol Indian costume 
from a group of 75 costumed mannikins 
loaned to the Museum's Fiesta Mexicana by 
the National Museum of Anthropology in 
Mexico City. 



^rs. Elvira Villa- 
if Chicago and 
ihter. Clara, 10, 
'ate howthefes- 
tas are made. 





irk involved in hand- 
is demonstrated for 
• bit's "Mexican Mar- 
' fo Martinez, a weav- 
;)/ Mexico. 



When in the early morning 
the sun rises and the flowers 
spread their petals in the 
fields I walk with great joy 
and eat. 

At mid -day when I go to 
rest in the shade I walk 
cautiously for fear of the 
hunter and I sniff the breeze 
to locate him and hide. 
When the sun is setting I 
go to the beach to play and 
to my resting place to be 
ready to eat flowers in the 
morning. 




The "deer dance." indigenous to Precolumbian 
Mexico, is performed by Jesus Alamea, a Mayo 
Indian from Ahome, Sinaloa. Four singer-drum- 
mer accompianists complete the performing 
group. The deer dancer's leggings are cocoons 
with stones inside to create a rattling sound. 
The chant of the singers is translated at the left. 
(Photo by Nickerson) 

OCTOBER Page 9 



Paleontological Convention Notes . . . 



By Eugene S. Richardson, Jr. 

Curator, Fossil Invertebrates 



Photo, top: Dr. Harold Scoit {left) of the University of 
Illinois, Urbana, announced the discovery of the conodont 
animal by William Melton, Jr. (center) of the University of 
Montana. Dr. Eugene S. Richardson, Jr. (right). Field 
Museum's Curator of Fossil Invertebrates, chats with them 
during a break in the meetings. 

Photo, center: Dr. Marvin Weller (left), an expert in 
stratigraphy from the Walker Museum, University of 
Chicago, and Dr. Alfred S. Romer (right). Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, a pioneer in 
paleontology in the United States, were among the distin- 
guished scientists attending the Convention. They are 
shoum with Mrs. Weller and Mrs. Romer in Stanley Field 
Hall on the banquet night. 




When the paleontologists of North America felt the need to 
meet together for the first time, rather than in the tradi- 
tionally separate annual meetings of their five professional 
societies, the site chosen was Field Museum, September 
5-7, 1969. Early in the planning it appeared that perhaps 
as many as 500 specialists might come: palynologists, 
vertebrate and invertebrate paleontologists, micropaleon- 
tologists, stratigraphers; members from the oil industry, 
museums, universities, state and federal surveys. The 
actual attendance was nearly 700. This final program of 
the Museum's 75th Anniversary Year filled a busy and 
spirited weekend. 

The technical sessions, developed by Dr. Ellis S. Yochelson, 
United States Geological Survey, consisted of 14 symposia 
with invited speakers, the topics ranging widely: Teaching 
Paleontology, Phosphate in Fossils, Higher Biologic 
Categories, Reefs, Ultra-microplankton, and others of 
broad interest to the profession. Symposia met three at a 
time, using James Simpson Theatre, the Lecture Hall and 
part of the Hall of Fishes. Special exhibits occupied the 
stair landings, three of them calling attention to the collecting 
and investigating activities of amateurs. A small loan 
exhibit from the United States National Museum displayed 
some of the celebrated fossils of soft-bodied animals from 
the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia, 
many of them known to Field Museum visitors from the 
skillful restorations in a habitat group in Hall 37. 

One of the Convention's most dramatic events began 
unexpectedly during the two-hour lunch break 
on the first day of the Convention. William G. 
Melton, University of Montana, unwrapped a 
small parcel of recently collected Coal Age 



Photo, right: An unidentified Convention visitor studies one of 
the paleontological exhibits, a series of x-rays of Devonian fos- 
sils, the unusual hobby of Dr. Wilhelm Stiirmer, a physicist from 
Erlangen, West Germany. Dr. Zangerl gave a special report 
on these x-rays at the Convention. 



Page HI OCTOBER 



fossils from the Little Snowy 
Mountains, principally fishes. 
Curators Zangerl and Denison 
examined them with a 
microscope. The fishes, 
including several kinds of both 
sharks and scaly fishes unknown 

to science, drew their first attention. But there were also several 
soft-bodied bottom-dwelling invertebrates, a type of association 
reminiscent of the two great Coal Age faunas with which the Museum 
has long been involved (Indiana black shales and Illinois ironstone 
concretions). While looking closely at one of these strange forms. 
Dr. Zangerl realized that he was actually seeing the long-sought 
"conodont animal." This was speedily confirmed by several conodont 
specialists, rounded up from among Convention members. Conodonts, 
tiny tooth-like structures, have been known for more than a century, 
and have been intensively studied, but never had a trace been seen 
of the animal they belonged to. The problem of how to place 
conodonts in the biological classification has given rise to a voluminous 
though indecisive technical literature. The makings of an answer were 
now at hand. When the afternoon session of the scheduled 
symposium on "Extraordinary Fossils" was called to order. Melton, 
first on the program, gave his paper on the occurrence of the Montana 
fossils. Word that something was afoot had gotten about and some 
500 paleontologists were present. Then, by prearrangement. Melton 
introduced Dr. Harold Scott of the University of Illinois, who formally 
announced the new discovery and showed a lantern slide of one of the 
five specimens, hastily but clearly photographed by Denison. 

This Convention will long be remembered by those attending, and 
not alone for the exciting discovery of the conodont animal. The 
scholarly environment, the careful preparation of the sessions, the 
Museum's facilities, the energetic help of volunteers, the participation 
by amateur paleontologists — all contributed toward its success. 






Photos, from top: Social highlight of the Convention was a banquet held in 
Stanley Field Hall; W. S. Hopkins, a member of the Geological Survey of 
Canada, Alberta, looks over a display of fossils loaned by the Eastern Mis- 
souri Society for Paleontology, one of several amateur groups which loaned 
materials for exhibits; Dr. Rainer Zangerl (center). Curator of Geology at 
the Museum and Convention president, chats with the banquet's keynote 
speaker. Dr. Philip H. Abelson, who spoke on "The Evolution of Proteins." 
Mrs. Zangerl is at the left; Several foreign guests attended the Convention, 
although it was geared toward North American paleontologists. Here three 
Japanese scientists, Toshima Tanai (left), Sapparo, Kinji Konishi, msiting 
professor at the University of California, Riverside, and Tokio Shikama, 
Yokohama, inspect an exhibit of Mazon Creek fossils. 



PEWTER 

BY PATRrCIA M. WILLIAMS 



FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 




A charawng pewter piece depicting a little boy playing a flute as he rides a water buffalo. The buffalo's lead chain is of brass. The figure is 
among the pieces in a large Chinese pewter collection donated to the Museum by one of its early benefactors, Edward E. Ayer. 



Although pewter has been cherished for centuries, it does 
not have the glamor or intrinsic value of gold or silver. 
There has never been a Pewter Rush; a pewter standard to 
rise and fall; a legendary lost pewter mine or fortune-seekers 
panning for pewter. Nonetheless, pewter, a tin alloy, is 
currently enjoying a great resurgence of popularity and 
novice collectors are busily learning the pewterer's termi- 
nology. Many of these terms sound as if they were culled 
from Alice in Wonderland — consider: booge, cloff and lim- 
beck. These are easily equalled by hanap, cri, mutchkin, 
quaigh, and writhen-knop. 

For all of that, however, pewter is not mere whimsy or 
a passing fancy. It "has played an important part in the 
development of civilization, both as a medium for artistic 
expression and as a material from which domestic utensils 
were fashioned," wrote the historians of pewter, B. M. Os- 
burn and G. O. Wilbur. Although it is not now on display. 
Field Museum possesses a fine collection of pewter illustrat- 
ing the history and uses of pewter in China and elsewhere. 

The exact date when pewter was first used cannot be 
pin-pointed, but it is known that some 2,000 years ago the 
Orientals were making pewter with great skill and crafts- 
manship. These ancient pewterers used an alloy of tin with 
a large percentage of lead, as this type of pewter was soft 
and easy to work. Later, they developed a harder and more 
brittle pewter containing a large proportion of antimony 
which was adapted for casting and stamping intricate and 



delicate forms. They also engraved graceful designs on their 
pewter and inlayed it with gold, copper, brass, jade and 
ivory. According to Emanuele Stieri, "The ancient Japa- 
nese metal craftsmen employed a few special secrets of their 
own in the handling of pewter. Their work is of such a 
curious tint that if it were not a fact, one would hardly be- 
lieve these articles were made of pewter. Once the old 
craftsmen finished a piece of work, that piece of metalcraft 
was never polished. It was only rubbed with a soft rag. 
After some time, the surface of the metal became coated 
with a faint green rust. This rust was usually two tinted, 
the lighter forming the ground and the darker tint of rust 
showing in patches which gave the old piece an artistic 
luster." 

The Museum's collection, which was gathered and do- 
nated by the Museum's first president, Edward E. Ayer, 
contains a great deal of Chinese pewter, some dating back 
to the Ming Period (1368-1644) and other pieces dating 
to the Kang-hi Period which ended in 1722. Dr. Berthold 
Laufer, the late world renowned authority on the anthro- 
pology of China and Chief Curator of Anthropology, ob- 
tained many of the choicest specimens of Oriental pewter 
for the Ayer Collection. There are Chinese candlesticks, 
teapots, ewers, chafing dishes, finger bowls and a number 
of unusual serving pieces lining the Museum's shelves. A 
bowl for serving duck is covered with a figure of a duck; a 
bowl for fish is topped by a fish. The cover of a large chaf- 



Page 12 OCTOBER 



ing dish is shaped like two peaches with leaves and, inside, 
the dish is separated into five covered compartments. The 
five covers are ornamented by, respectively, a goose, a duck, 
a crane, a carp and a deer. Finally, an engraved motto — 
"May yoii rise in office as high as the sim" — completes the 
trimming. This dish must have been an ideal wedding gift 
— if the bride's cooking was a disaster, the groom could still 
enjoy the dish it was served in. 

Mr. Ayer purchased many pieces of Chinese pewter from 
Miss Grace Nicholson, owner of the Oriental Shop in Cali- 
fornia and, in a letter to Frank C. Lockwood, author of The 
Life of Edward E. Ayer, Miss Nicholson related the following 
conversation between Mr. Ayer and Mr. Hartman, buyer 
for the Oriental Shop: 



"Specimens of Roman pewter excavated in England leave 
no doubt that pewterware was made in England by the 
Roman legions." At the time of the Roman invasion of 
Britain (55 b.c.) the Romans had already developed con- 
siderable skill in pewtercraft. Besides making pewter uten- 
sils, the Romans used pewter for coins and seals of office. 
Many of these ancient Roman seals, which were of all 
shapes, sizes and forms, have been found in the county of 
Westmorland, England, but because they made excellent 
solder, they have been almost entirely destroyed by the 
tinkers of the area. 

The development of pewtercraft in most European coun- 
tries was obscured during the Dark Ages. Pewter was for- 
bidden for church use at the Coimcil of Westminster in 1175 




This unusual Chinese serving dish is for serving fish, as indicated by the design of its cover. The fish's eye is made of green glass. This was 
collected by the late Berihold Laufer in Peking during the Mrs. J. B. Blackslone Expedition of 1908-10. 



"Charley, I want to make the Ayer collection of old 
pewter world renowned." 

"That is easy," Mr. Hartman replied. "Why not 
start right now and buy our old Chinese pewter?" 

"But there is no such thing," said Mr. Ayer, aston- 
ishment in his voice. "I want real pewter — rare pieces 
— for I won't get much encouragement from the Mu- 
seum unless they are unusual." 

Mr. Hartman left the room and soon returned with 
four odd-shaped pewter dishes and a candlestick. 

"Are you sure these are pewter, Mr. Hartman? Dr. 
Laufer would laugh at me if I sent them to the Museum 
and they proved to be imitations." 

Miss Nicholson handed him a glass and requested 
him to scratch one of the articles on the base. He did 
so; satisfied himself that this was genuine pewter and 
forthwith bought more than forty pieces. From that 
time on he cared little about Europe and American 
specimens, but bought every Oriental piece he could 
secure. These purchases from Miss Nicholson formed 
the basis of the extensive Chinese collection of which 
he was so proud." 
While there are no examples of it in the Ayer Collection, 



but by 1194, when church plate was requisitioned to ransom 
Richard I, it seems to have been in use. Apparently, it was 
allowed when gold and silver were not available and was 
distinctly permitted in France by the Councils of Ninies in 
1252 and of Albi in 1254. 

Pewter was used regularly by various Inns of Court and 
for a long time it was a kind of tradition that, on giving up 
their silver plate to further the cause of Charles I, the Inns 
were graciously allowed to have pewter of the same shape 
and with the same hallmark as evidence of the loan of silver 
and as a pledge for its eventual return. 

Despite the widespread use of pewter in continental Eur- 
ope, England was undoubtedly the pewter center of the 
medieval world. There is no record stating definitely when 
the pewter craftsmen of England first met together, but 
there is a record of a pewterers' group meeting in 1305. 
Then, "during the reign of Edward III (1348) a number of 
prominent English pewterers, who had a tremendous pride 
in their craft, established a well-organized guild to prohibit 
dishonest workmanship or products and to protect the in- 
dustry of pewterers by eliminating those who did not adhere 
to the strict regulations of the guild." This guild became 
very powerful and passed laws giving themselves the right 



OCTOBER Page 13 




Bamboo leaves of highly polished brass are inlaid in this pewter serving 
tray from the Edward E. Ayer Collection. The rim is bordered by 
brass and three rows of a triangle pattern. The piece is partially 
varnished in black. 




The familiar dragon motif is employed in this censer. The creature 
carries a house on its back. (Edward E. Ayer Collection.) 



to destroy all poor and inferior pewter. Naturally, this re- 
sulted in a lot of in-fighting and name-calling and competi- 
tors busily turned in reports of punk pewter on one another. 
In 1503 the guild was granted a charter by the crown and 
became known as the Worshipful Company of Pewterers. 
The guild's monopoly of pewtercraft held firm until early 
in the eighteenth century when modern inventions and dis- 
sension began to corrode the guild's strength. By 1851 pew- 
tercraft was officially listed as a nearly extinct art. 

In the Museum's Ayer Collection there are a number of 
pewter guild cups, or hanaps, dating back to the Worshipful 
Company of Pewterers' period of influence. They are elab- 
orate things, generally 17 to 24 inches high, covered with 
curlicues, crests, figures and engravings. A seventeenth 
century tanners' guild cup from Germany has eight fancy 
medallions hanging from lions' heads carved on the sides 
of the cup, an armored knight with a pennant on the top 
of the cup and the whole thing is supported by three winged 
heads. 

Many of the tankards in this collection are every bit as 
ornate and imaginative as the guild cups and some look 
as though they were designed by Walt Disney. For exam- 
ple, a tall tankard from Austria is shaped and engraved to 
look like a medieval tower. Halfway vip the tower is a little 
balcony with a tiny man standing on it and a brass coat of 
arms completes this ale-drinker's delight. Another rather 
spectacular tankard is from Germany and the lid features a 
spread-winged eagle holding a key in his beak. At the base 
of the tankard is an arched niche containing a three-inch- 
tall knight in tarnished armor. 

The Worshipful Company of Pewterers also played a 
part, although a negative one, in the development of Amer- 
ican pewter. The guild discouraged the emigration of Eng- 
lish pewterers to America because, in part, they wanted to 
sell their own pewter to the colonies. They were very suc- 
cessful with this gambit and as late as the mid-eighteenth 
century the value of pewterware shipped to America com- 
pared very favorably with that of other important commod- 
ities. England also slowed up the development of a native 
pewtercraft in America by being reluctant to sell tin, one 
of the chief ingredients of pewter, to the colonies. Eventu- 
ally, pewterers did come to America from European coun- 
tries and, finally, from England. Pewter became more 
popular in America than in any other country and pewter 
pieces of all kinds were used here longer than anywhere else. 

During World War II and until 1953, the manufacture 
of pewter wasn't allowed because tin was reserved for essen- 
tial purposes. However, since the removal of these restric- 
tions, the world production of pewterware has exceeded the 
amount of pewter produced in any similar period in history. 

The manufacturers of the best modern pewter proudly 
boast that their product contains no lead, but is generally 
composed of about 91% tin, 7.5% antimony and 1.5% cop- 
per. The copper adds ductility and working properties and 
antimony whitens and adds hardness. In addition to these 
physical properties, the Royal Holland Pewterers claim that 
the manufacture of pewter "demands a sympathy and knowl- 



I'aoe 14 OCTOBER 



edge and craftsmanship that cannot be gained on a pro- 
duction line, or by a few years' apprenticeship." Artistic 
and mystic requirements aside, pewter is very easy to work. 
It can be stretched, compressed and bent into ahnost any 
shape, will not harden or stiffen as it is being worked and 
resists oxidation indefinitely. 

In the last ten years, as modern pewter has grown in 
popularity, the ranks of enthusiastic collectors of antique 
pewter have swelled tremendously and the competition for 
genuine antique pieces is keen. Unfortunately, very little 
of the early pewterware has survived and it is imusual for a 
collector to find a piece dating back beyond the seventeenth 
century. This is partly because most pewter was used for 



Field Museum. Aver was "a natural-born collector" and 
collecting "was his chief recreation and delight." W'hcn 
asked how he became interested in pewter, Ayer answered, 
"The only things in the world which are without interest 
are the things of which we are ignorant. . . . The moment 
we know a little about a thing it becomes interesting to us, 
and then we are led on indefinitely in pursuit of it. . . . So 
it was with this wide interest that I began to take note of the 
pewter in the museums of Europe." The beginnings of the 
pewter collection were given to the Art Institute, but later, 
as it grew, the whole lot was transferred to Field Museum 
where it has added its muted luster to the Museum's great 
store of treasures. 



Right: Intricate Chinese serving piece 
contains five separate food compart- 
ments with small covers bearing figures 
of a duck, a carp, a goose, a crane and a 
deer. The handle for the main cover is 
shaped like two peaches with leaves. It 
is from the Edward E. Ayer Collection. 




Left: Pewter dish foi serving duck has three parts; a lower bowl to hold 
hot water, an inner bowl which contains the food, and a cover in the form 
of a duck. The piece is from China, one of a collection made on the 
Blackslone Expedition in 1908-10. 



domestic utensils and took a lot of abuse. It was inexpen- 
sive to begin with and, as the users knew it could be easily 
recast, they probably took very little care of it. In the 
Middle Ages travelling pewterers went from town to town 
repairing damaged pieces of pewter or melting down old 
pewter to create new articles. During World Wars I and II 
many valuable pieces of pewter in England were sold for 
scrap and thus further depleted the world's remaining fvmd 
of old pewter. 

This scarcity, of course, increases the interest and value 
of the pewter collection gathered by Edward E. Ayer for 



Glossary of Terms 
booge: the part of a plate between the rim and the bottom. 
doff: scrap metal 
cri: the name given to the crackling sound emitted by tin 

and by good pewter when bent. 
mulchkin: a Scottish messure containing five gills. 
limbeck: a still 
hanap: a goblet 
quaigh: a shallow circular drinking vessel, somewhat like a 

deep saucer. 
ivrithen-knop: a rare type of knop (knob). 
Reference: Chats on Old Pewter, by H. J. L. J. Masse. 



OCTOBER Page 15 




The annual Jewel 
Foundation grant is 
presented to E. Leiand 
Webber (right) by 
William H. Newby of 
Jewel Companies, Inc. 
The Trustees of the Jewel 
Foundation this year 
approved an increase 
from $1 ,000 to $2,000. 

In the next few months firms 
and corporations as well as 
interested individuals mil he 
asked to support the Field Mu- 
seum year-end effort to raise 
an additional $i.70,759 to bal- 
ance the 1969 budget. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS October hours: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., daily. 

October 4 Fall Film-Lecture Series "Hong Kong," by Ray Green. A color film 
study of the bustling, crowded, exotic crossroads of the Orient. 2:30 p.m., 
James Simpson Theatre. Free. 

October 5 Fiesta Mexicana Lecture Series concludes with "The Precolumbian 
P.\ST OF Modern Mexican Culture," by Carlos R. Margain, an archae- 
ologist and Secretario Tecnica of the National Museum of Anthropology in 
Mexico. 

October 11 Fall Film-Lecture Series "Hawaii," by Ed Lark, covers the history 
and development of the exciting Islands as well as the contemporary scene in 
our 50th state. 2:30 p.m., James Simpson Theatre. 

October 18 Fall Film-Lecture Series "Pageant of India," by Gerald Hooper, 
is an exciting color film study of the diverse customs and many cultural con- 
trasts in this ancient country. 2:30 p.m., James Simpson Theatre. 

October 25 Fall Film-Lecture Series "Brazil," by Clay Francisco, explores this 
South American "giant" from the untouched wildness of the Amazon River 
jungles to the sophisticated and vibrant city of Rio de Janiero. 2:30 p.m., 
James Simpson Theatre. 

November 1 Fall Film-Lecture Series "Lion Pride," by Cleveland and Ruth 
Grant, is a rare and sympathetic film of the daily lives of these beautiful animals 
in several African locations. 2:30 p.m., James Simpson Theatre. 

November 8 Fall Film-Lecture Series "Europe's Miniature Countries," by 
Lisa Chickering and Jeanne Porterfield. Interesting and sometimes surprising 
details are shown in films from Leichenstein, Andorra, SMOM, San Marino, 
and Monaco, 2:30 p.m., James Simpson Theatre. 

Novembers Fall-Film-Lecture Series "Thailand," by Kenneth Armstrong. The 
many facets of everyday life in this exotic country are shown against the back- 
ground of preparation for possible conflict with Red China. 2 :30 p.m., James 
Simpson Theatre. 

Through October 5 Fiesta Mexicana Live dance and musical entertainment, 
demonstrations by Mexican craftsmen, exciting displays of Precolumbian, 
Colonial and contemporary Mexican art, and a photographic essay of Chicago's 
Mexican community, by Orlando Cabanban, form the basis for the Fiesta, the 
Museum's salute to the Mexican population of Chicago. Formal entertain- 
ment programs in Stanley Field Hall are scheduled for 11 a.m., noon, and 
3:30 p.m., Tuesday through Friday; 11 a.m., 1 p.m., and 3:30 p.m. on Satur- 
day; and at 1, 2:30, and 4:15 p.m. on Sunday. Films about Mexico will be 
shown daily. No demonstrations or entertainment on Monday. Handcrafted 

Page 16 OCTOBER 



CALENDAR (continued) 

Mexican jewelry and other crafts for 
sale at the "Mexican Market." The 
Fiesta is open during regular Mu- 
seum hours. 

Through October 12 Art and Life of 
the Cuna Indians Temporary ex- 
hibit on the Indians of San Bias, 
Panama. The people are highly in- 
dependent as a slide-show of their 
activities shows, yet they often ex- 
press outside influences through their 
arts, with surprising and beautiful 
results. Hall 9 Gallery. 

Through November 16 Field Mu- 
seum's 75th Anniversary Exhibit 
The three-part presentition — A 
Sense of Wonder, A Sense of History, 
A Sense of Discovery — shows the 
scope of the Museum's activities 
since its founding after the World's 
Columbian Exposition in 1893. 
Many of the Museuin's choicest 
specimens are part of the dramatic 
and imusual display. Hall 3. 

Through October Fall Journey Mexico 
Self-guided tour for boys and girls 
concentrates on both Precolumbian 
and Contemporary Mexico, de- 
picted in Hall 8. Free Journey sheets 
and information on the Raymond 
Foundation's Journey program are 
available at Museum entrances. 

MEETINGS : 

Chicago Mountaineering Club, 

October 9, 8 p.m. 
Chicago Shell Club, 

October 12, 2 p.m. 
Nature Camera Club of Chicago, 

October 14, 7:45 p.m. 
Illinois Orchid Society, 

October 19, 2 p.m. 
Illinois Audubon Society, 

October 26, 2:30 p.m. 



FIELD MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

ROOSEVELT ROAD AT LAKE SHORE DRIVE 
CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60605 A.C. 312. 922-9410 
FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD. 1893 

E. Leiand Webber, Director 

BULLETIN 

Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 



PEINTED BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



BULLETIN FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Volume 40, Number 11 November 1969 



(Ol^l'KCTfOA 



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omsiiiBtis 



Ips plus rpiiiai"(|iial)lps 



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PUOFKSSOR 0RLAN1>0 l^ARK 
lDOl-1969 



On September 23, Field Museum lost a distinguished 
Research Associate with the death of Orlando Park, 
Professor of Biology, Northwestern University. Prof. Park 
joined the faculty of Northwestern in 1934. He was made 
a Research Associate (insects) of the Museum in 1955. 
In 1968, he retired from the University to devote full 
time to his favorite research specialty, the systematics 
and biology of pselaphid beetles. He was internationally 
recognized as an authority on this family. 

But Professor Park was best known to the scientific 
community at large as an ecologist, and most of the more 
than 100 papers that he wrote or co-authored dealt with 
ecology. He was a pioneer in the study of activity rhythms 
of animals in relation to nocturnal ecology of forest 
commimities. He was co-author of two ecology books, 
including the classic Principles of Animal Ecology 
written with VV. C. AUee, A. E. Emerson, T. Park, and 
K. P. Schmidt, and also wrote a textbook on entomology, 
soon to be published. His eminence in ecology was 
recognized by election to the Presidency of the Ecological 
Society of America in 19-15. He was a member of more 
than a dozen other scientific societies, and was a Fellow 
of the Entomological Society of America, the National 
S{>eleological Society, and the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science. Since 1953, he served as a 
Consultant to both the Division of Biology and Medi- 
cine of the Atomic Energy Commission and the Oak 
Ridge National Laboratory. 

While the professional achievements of a scientist may 
be impressive, they tell little about him as a person. 
"Lan" Park was an extraordinary person. To those out- 
side his family he kept various facets of his life in sep- 
arate compartments, and took some pleasure in keeping 
them so. Friends had to find out about him for them- 
selves. Despite a bluff exterior, he was extraordinarily 
sensitive. His sensitivity extended to his concern for his 
family and to his students. 

He was born in Elizabethtown, Kentucky, October 13, 
1901. As a youngster he spent much time stalking and 
playing Indian in the forest, and he developed an en- 
during love of nature. At age 14, he wrote the first of a 
series of still unpublished nature stories, with such in- 
triguing titles as "Bosky Beetle" and "Diana of the 
Forest". He continued writing these throughout his 
adult life. 

When he was about 17, Park moved with his family 
to Ocean Springs, Mississippi. There he somehow came 
under the spell of Lil Hardin, wife of Louis Armstrong, 
who taught young Lan to play chord jazz piano. He not 
only came to know many of the great jazz pianists, but 




The late 
Dr. Orlando Park 



during his University years, he helped defray his school 
expenses by playing himself. Most of his professional 
acquaintances knew nothing of his virtuosity until they 
heard him play with the "Academic Cats", a "combo" 
composed of scientists and professors from Northwestern 
University and the Chicago Academy of Sciences. Yet, 
Park could not read music. 

One of the greatest surprises to his colleagues was the 
announcement in the Chicago papers, of a book entitled 
"Sherlock Holmes, Esq. and John H. Watson, .M.D., An 
Encyclopaedia of Their Affairs", authored by Orlando 
Park and published by Northwestern University Press, 
in 1962. We had known "Lan" for nearly 30 years, yet 
knew nothing of this interest. He was an active member 
of the Baker Street Irregulars. 

Professor Park is survived by his wife Betty, his 
daughter Patricia Englemann, his mother Mrs. Samuel 
P. Park, and his brother. Professor Thomas Park of the 
University of Chicago. His personal research collection 
of pselaphid beetles, second in importance only to those 
of the Paris and British Museums, has been willed to 
Field Museum, together with his library. 

— Rupert L. Wemel, Curator of Insects 



Page 2 NOVEMBER 



What Makes Orchids So Special? 

By Patricia M. Williams 
Field Museum Press 

Florists have been instructing us to "say it with flowers" 
lor years. If you're going to take their advice, you might 
as well let orchids do the talking. Orchids have long 
been acclaimed as the aristocrats of flowers — the exotic 
ultimate in mystery and, usually, price. 

Rex Stout, the creator of the fat and fabulous fictional 
detective Nero Wolfe, once wrote, "Of all flowers going, 
the orchid is the least compatible with office desks and 
I lie sort of things that take place at them. A banker or 
businessman may have on his glass top desk a vase of 
sAveet peas or peonies, or a bowl of pansies, without 
arousing any suspicion of his soundness or integrity; 
but what would be thought of one who sported a pair of 
orchids alongside the morning mail? An orchid is not a 
llower as a gladiolus or a poppy is a flower; it is a signal 
lor seduction, a beckoning of the exotic, a banner of 
sophisticated romance. 

"For no good reason. Other flowers have come from 
strange and inaccessible places; others are expensive; 
others are large and flamboyant nnti have suggestive 
forms; others look well at the girdle or on the shoulder 
of a pretty woman. But an orchid is an orcliid. So " 



This month's cover is the charm- 
ing title page of a rare study of 
Indonesian orchids. The book, 
published in Amsterdam in 1858, 
was written by Charles de Blunie. 
Director of the Royal Herbarium 
at Leiden. It is in the collection 
of Louis Williams, Chief Curator 
of Botany. 



Popularly known as "Lady's Slip- 
per," Cypridium reg^inae is one of 
the several orchids occurring nat- 
urally in northern Illinois. It can be 
found in forest preserves and wood- 
lands in the spring. (Photo by Al- 
bert Vatter.) 




So men hunt, grow and buy them with as much enthu- 
siasm as they tell great tales about them. There are 
stories told of a marvelous orchid that was owned and 
treasured, but for some unknown reason slowly dwindled 
and died away until its lovely blooms became only a 
memory. The cavalry to the rescue! The British army 
forced its way into the closed boundaries of Tibet — pre- 
sumably on other business— and restored the lost orchid 
to the world. 

One variety of Dendrobhim, a particularly lovely 
orchid, came to the auction room in London from 
Burma where it was found growing on a skull — the skull, 
it was said, of a man who had given his life to find the 
exotic flower and failed. 

Over the years many men have hunted orchids with 
varying degrees of success. Captain Bligh of the HMS 
Bounty brought a few orchid plants to England from 
Jamaica in the latter part of the eighteenth century and 
as early as 1519 Cortez' men discovered the vanilla orchid 
in Mexico. Although fewer in number, there are still 
orchid hunters in Brazil, Peru, Asia and Costa Rica 
today. At first it seems like an easy, glamorous way to 
earn a living— walking through tropical forests scanning 
the swaying treetops for beautiful orchids— until you 
remember that the trees in the tropics house many forms 
of plants and animal life, not all friendly, such as ter- 
mites, hornets, ants, and snakes. There are other factors 
which would not meet any union's standards of accept- 
able working conditions— fevers, poor or non-existent 
housing, unfriendly natives, impure water, and irregular 
payment. The fringe benefits must be terrific, however, 
because as an old orchid hunter said, "You'll curse the 
insects and you'll curse the natives. Your lips will crack 
and you'll lick them and taste the salt of your own sweat. 
The sun will burn you by day and the cold will shrivel 
you by night. You'll be racked by fever and tormented 
by a hundred discomforts, but you'll go on. For when a 
man falls in love with orchids, he'll do anything to 
possess the one he wants."^ 

Although he shows no signs of being cracked, burned, 
shrivelled, racked or tormented. Dr. Louis O. Williams, 
Chief Curator of Botany, has hunted and loved orchids for 
years. Recently voted an Honorary Member in American 
Orchid Society for life and the former editor of both the 
American Orchid Society Bulletin and Ceiba, he has described 
literally hundreds of orchids. Of the over 200 articles 
Dr. Williams has had published, more than half of them 
have been on orchids. 

Accustomed as we are to seeing only a few varieties of 
orchids decorating a centerpiece or perched on a woman's 
shoulder, it may seem surprising that Dr. Williams has 
found so much to say about them. However, the Or- 
chidaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants 
in the world, consisting of several hundred genera and 
15,000 or more species and varieties are found over 

^MacDonald, Norman, The Orchid Hunters • Farrar & 
Rinchart, Inc., Neio York, N. Y. 1939. 




Lycaste virginalis alba 
orchid, is the national flo 




The only orchid plant which currently 
as contrasted with decorative, use is va 
A model of this plant, from which va; 
is on display in Hall 28. 



Paged NOVEMBER 



vhite nun 
Tuatemala. 



Orchids growing wild in the forests of 
British Guiana. These are Oncidium 
lanceanum. 




One of the most beautiful 
tropical American orchids 
is Cattleya schroederae. 



'actical, 
inifolia. 
derived. 




practically the entire globe. Of course, many do not grow 
in the arctic regions or in the arid sections of the con- 
tinents. According to Dr. Williams, the Lae Peninsula 
of New Guinea has the most and widest variety of or- 
chids, more than any comparable area in the world. 

It was not in orchid-covered New Guinea, though, that 
Dr. Williams saw his most memorable display of orchids. 
It was near Diamantina, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 
He had come to the edge of a limestone sink, and there, 
many feet below, was a tangled, lush green forest 
crowned with thousands of blooming orchids— Ca/</e)ia 
labiata, an especially colorful bloom. 

An orchid does not have to be large and glamorous 
to find favor with Dr. Williams. He denies having a 
favorite orchid— "I like them all"— and mentioned re- 
cently coming across a tree covered with very small- 
only 1 cm. high — bvit very lovely Pleurolhallis orchids. 

Vanilla is the only commercial product of the large 
orchid family and Dr. Williams and his wife make their 
own. They buy a pound of vanilla pods from a phar- 
macy in Tegucigalpa and, following the recipe in the 
National Formulary of the United States, prepare enough 
vanilla extract to last for a couple of years. The Williams' 
claim that there is a definite difference between the 
commercial product and their own and that may well 
be. Mrs. Williams substitutes vodka for the alcohol and 
water called for in the recipe. 

Although the manufacture of vanilla is the only non- 
ornamental use for orchids today, the plants did have 
other uses in the past. It was once believed that orchids 
had restorative and procreative powers and that they 
were of use in easing painful illnesses. More than 2,000 
years ago the Greeks, Theophrastus and Dioscorides, ad- 
vanced the theory that most plants, including orchids, 
could be used medicinally. Throughout Europe, espe- 
cially during the Renaissance, these ancient Greek ideas 
were followed and even today primitive people in some 
parts of the world use orchids as medicine. But modern 
doctors and druggists don't agree with the old Greek 
ideas and not a single species of orchid has been retained 
in today's pharmacopoeia as an indispensable source of 
any drug. 

Though they have no pharmaceutical value, their 
beauty alone has made orchids the basis of a multi- 
million dollar industry in the United States and England. 
In his book American Orchid Culture, E. A. White 
wrote, "An orchid is a mysterious flower in every sense 
of the word, in origin, coloring, and form; in its culture 
and also in its effect on the minds of people. Just as 
mysterious as the orchid bloom itself, is orchid distribu- 
tion by growers and wholesalers. No one outside the 
florist industry can possibly understand the delicacy 
with which the sale of orchids is supervised and the 
mechanical perfection with which the fluctuation of price 
is guided according to the supply and demand." 

At Dr. Williams' suggestion I visited Hausermann's 
Orchids, Inc. in Elmhurst, 111. This family operation, 



NOVEMBER Page 5 



which has 1 1 5,000 square feet devoted to the exotic blooms, 
produces an annual yield of 400,000 orchids. Although 
they sell an average of 7,000 to 8,000 orchids a week, in 
the week before Mother's Day — their biggest holiday — 
they sell 50,000. Even on paper that's a lot of orchids, 
but when you stand in the midst of thousands of orchid 
plants it's simply overwhelming. 

The Hausermanns have been working on meristem cul- 
ture, a comparatively new method of orchid growing which 
they hope will be able to assure not only healthier, more 
durable and lovelier flowers, but a controlled blooming 
time as well. Leaving the meristem laboratory, Ernie 
Hauserniann joked, "We just hope that we won't be a week 
or so off in our calculations. Then there we would be — 
one week after Mother's Day — stuck with 50,000 orchids 
in full bloom that nobody wants." 

All of the orchids at Hausermann's require and get 
special care. There are elaborate watering systems and 
temperature and lighting controls. Ernie told me that 
when the wind turns and comes blowing out of indus- 
trial Chicago the pollution can and does kill 20-30 per- 
cent of the blooming orchids. That's bad enough, but 
in Los Angeles, long the smog capital of the world, 
orchid growers have lost 90 percent of their orchid crop 
to pollution. 

Orchid crop? It sounded strange to me, too, but the 
Hausermanns refer to themselves as farmers and their 
fabulous orchids are a crop to them just as alfalfa, corn 
or beans are to another, more average, farmer. They 
don't rhapsodize or wax poetic over their beautiful crop. 
A particular favorite of Ernie's rated being called "cute" 
or "a nice little thing." Although he used such prosaic 
words, I'm sure he is constantly aware of the beauty of 
his annual bumper harvest. He delighted in opening 
cartons prepared for shipping and astounding me with 
double rows of outrageously lovely, Supreme-sized 
Cattleya orchids. 

While the bulk of their business is in these corsage 
orchids, the Hausermanns have devoted 5,000 square 
feet to orchids for the hobbyist. In these orchid rooms 
are the flowers that orchid hunters search for and that 
botanists write about. Many of these seldom-seen orchids 
are bought from orchid hunters and some of them are 
hardly recognizable as orchids at all. They are waxy and 
thick and the color is spotty— almost like a bad plastic 
reproduction; others are surprisingly hued. There are 
fire engine red orchids, brown spotted ones and sun- 
shine yellow orchids. The delicate intricacy of a spray 
ol tiny tropical blossoms is utterly charming and in its 
way far more attractive than some of the huge and 
violently colored florist's orchids. 

These imusual orchids are sold to the many orchid 
fanciers across the coimtry. There are a number of orchid 
societies and a library could be filled with books on 
orchids alone. For example, Field Museum has published 
i,7!4 pages of scientific orchid literature and has found 
a ready market for them. Dr. Williams, who has a large 



and impressive library of orchid books, told me that in 
keeping with the enthusiastic interest in them, the price 
of orchid books has soared tremendously in recent years. 

"What," I asked him, "accounts for this enthusiasm for 
orchids? Why do people pay so much just to read about 
them? Why do they devote so much effort to growing 
them? Why do they risk their lives searching through the 
jimgles for them? Just what makes orchids so special?" 

For a moment this knowledgable orchid expert looked 
at me as though I had asked the dumbest of questions 
and then he slowly and carefully explained, "It's simply 
because orchids are so very beautiful." And I guess that 
says it all. 




Cattleya dowiana is one of tropical America's fanciest orchids. 
The flower is large and predominantly white, with centers of 
deep, rich magenta and pink. 

A blaze of small, colorful Epidendrum stamfordianum 
orchids grow on a stalk. The tropical American blos- 
som is greenish-yellow with maroon spots. 




Paged NOVEMBER 



S'ovcmbrr hours: 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Mondays through Fridays; 9 a.m. to 

CALENDAR OF EVENTS "i p.m., Saturdays, Sundays, November 

11 (Veterans' Day), November 28 
(Thanksgiving Day), and November 29. 

Through November 9 Moon Rock Exhibit First public Chicago showing of 
lunar material to be studied by I'niversity of Chicago scientists. These 
rock samples were collected by Astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin 
Aldrin during the historic Apollo 1 1 lunar landing in the Sea of Tran- 
quility. The exhibit is in the Jade Hall (Hall 30) on the second floor, 
east. Free to the public during regular Museum hours. 

Through November 9 Fiicsta Mfxicana The exhibits of ancient and con- 
teinijorary Mexican art forms continues in Hall 25, second floor, east. The 
Museum's salute to Chicago's Mexican-American community includes a 
photo display, "The Mexican-American in Chicago— 1969," by Orlando 
Cabanban. Crafts demonstrations by Mexican artisans will continue until 
November 2 only. 

November 15 Fall Lecture Series "Thailand" by Kenneth Armstrong. The 
many facets of everyday life in this exotic coimtry are shown against the 
background of preparation for jjossible conflict with Red China. 2:30 p.m., 
fames Simpson Theatre. 

November 22 Fall Lecture Series "Porikaits of Austria" by William Moore 
includes glimpses of her contributions in both the arts and politics with 
examples of how landmarks are being preserved, such as the Spanish 
Riding Academy in Vienna, the last national school of its type in the 
world. 2:30 p.m., James Simpson Theatre. 

November 29 Fall Lecture Series "Our Great Southwest" by Willis Butler 
leviews the area's past and present and includes films of spectacular scenery 
with a startling airplane flight down into the Grand Canyon. 2:30 p.m., 
James Simpson Theatre. 

November 29 - January 25, 1970 Eskimo Masks: The World of the 
Tareumiut New temporary exhibit ex|jloies the lives of people who hunt 
sea mammals in the hostile environment of the coast of northwest Alaska. 
The masks used by these people in ceremonies related to hunting, and 
whaling in particular, form the basis of the exhibit. Hall 9 Gallery. 

Through November Field Museum's 75th Anniversary Exhibit— A Sense of 
Wonder, A Sense of History, A Sense of Discovery— continues indefi- 
nitely in Hall 3. The scope of Museum activities since its founding in 
1893 is emphasized in a dramatic exhibit which includes some of the 
choicest specimens in the Nfuseum's collections. 

Through November Fall Journey "Mexico" The self-guided tour for boys 
and girls concentrates on both Piecolumbian and contemporary Mexico, 
depicted in Hall 8. Free Journey sheets and information on the Raymond 
Foundation's Journey program are available at Museum entrances. 

Beginning December 1 Winter Journey "It's a Rocky World" explores the 
difTerent kinds of rock that make up our planet and their importance in our 
lives. The do-it-yourself tour, sponsored by Raymond Foundation, is free to 
any child who can read and write. Journey sheets and information on the 
Journey program are available at Museum entrances. 

December 7 Illinois .Audubon Society Film "Death Valley — Land of Con- 
trasts" is shown free at 2:30 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. 
Illinois Audubon Society, November 5, 7 p.m. 
Chicago Shell Club, November 9, 2 p.m. 

MEETINGS: Nature Camera Club of Chicago, November 11, 7:15 p.m. 

Chicago Mountaineering Club, November 13, 7:45 p.m. 
Friends of Our Native Landscape, November 30, 2 p.m. 



Israeli Archaeologist 
To Speak 

Magcn Broshi, Israel Museum's Chief 
Curator of the Shrine of the Book, gives 
a sfiecial lecture for Field Museum mem- 
bers and the interested public on De- 
cember 7. Mr. Broshi, an authority on 
the Dead Sea Scrolls, will speak on .Ar- 
chaeology in Israel: The Dead Sea 
Scrolls." The free lecture begins at 
4:15 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. 

Slightly over a year ago, fragments of 
scrolls found at Masada were shown at 
the Field Museum in a special major ex- 
hibit entitled "Masada: King Herod's 
Fortress." These writings are perma- 
nently stored at the Shrine of the Book 
in Jerusalem. 

The Shrine of the Book is part of the 
Israel Museum. A repository for the 
Dead Sea Scrolls and other ancient writ- 
ings pertinent to Israel's past, this un- 
usual-looking building is shaped like the 
lid of the clay jar used centuries ago to 
store the important documents. Today, 
the ancient manuscripts are protected in 
underground vaults located below the 
dome of the Shrine. 

Mr. Broshi led the archaeological ex- 
cavation at Tel Megadim and has par- 
ticipated in other important Israeli digs 
such as Masada, Hazor, Beit Shearim 
and Beit Yerah. He is a contributor to 
the book From the Beginning, which deals 
with various topics related to archaeol- 
ogy, history, art in Israel and the Israel 
Museum. 

Mr. Broshi holds a Master of Arts de- 
gree from the Hebrew University. He 
also attended the University of Chicago. 

Field Museum presents this special 
lecture with the cooperation of the Is- 
rael Government Tourist Office. Mr. 
Broshi is traveling in the United States 
under the auspices of the Israel Ministry 
of Tourism. 



FIELD MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

ROOSEVELT ROAD AT LAKE SHORE DRIVE 
CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60*09 A.C. 312. •22->4IO 
FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD. 1893 

E. Leland Webber, Director 

BULLETIN 

Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 



PRINTEO BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 

NOVEMBER Page 7 




Make your Holiday Shopping a Joy 

Here's a helpful suggestion for an unusual gift 
— Membership in the Field Museum of Natural 
History. It will express your thoughtfulness not 
just once, but all through the year. Many of our 
Members present this unusual gift year after year. 

To be sure of pleasing your customers, special 
friends and dear ones, return the form enclosed 
in this Bulletin. 



Eskimo 
Masks 



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The World 

of the 

Tareumiut 



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Tareumiut Eskimo masks represent- 
ing humans and stylized whales 
recur often among these hunting 
peoples of Point Hope in northwest 
Alaska. In the whale masks, the ani- 
mal's tail becomes a nose and whale 
"blowholes" are the figure's mouth. 
On this month's cover, and at the 
right, are pairs of masks illustrating 
a human (left) and a whale. All the 
masks shown in this photo-story are 
included in the temporary exhibit 
now in Hall 9 Gallery. 





Eskimo Masks: the World of the Tareumiut 



A temporary exhibition entitled "Eskimo Masks: the World of the Tareumiut" opened in the Hall 9 gallery on 
Saturday, November 29, 1969 and will run through'Sunday, March 1, 1970. 




A human viask with detail work shown in sculpturing of 
facial planes and the addition of caribou incisors for "teeth." 



One of the largest and oldest concentrations of popu- 
lation along the barren, windswept coast of northwest 
.\laska is the Eskimo village of Tigara, or Point Hope. 
This community, located well above the 68th parallel 
and nearly 150 miles north of Kotzebue Sound, has been 
occupied continuously for at least 2000 years by people 
whose economy depends primarily on the hunting of sea 
mammals. 

Like the residents of a number of other communities 
in northwest Alaska, the people of Point Hope have, for 
centuries, hunted the huge bowhead whales each spring 
as they move up the coast on their annual migration 
through Bering Strait. Whaling is a communal activity 
involving a number of crews, each one using a large skin 
covered boat, an umiak. Each whaling captain (umelik) 
is responsible for preparing his boat and equipment and 
securing the services of a crew. 

Historically the umelik held an important f>osition in 
Point Hope village life. He was normally the wealthiest 
man in the large extended family that, in the past, char- 
acterized village social organization, and his position and 
prestige were achieved through skill, energy and the in- 
heritance of property. Very often he was a shaman 
(angatkok) as Avell. Angatkoks were men or women who 
had vision experiences and special powers which segre- 
gated them as persons possessing unusual control over 
nature and natural forces. There was always one in every 
whaling crew. 



Page! DECEMBER 




The mask above represents only part of a face, possibly 
a whale's blowholes. 



certain that they were intimately connected with the de- 
sire to placate the spirits of whales and thereby to insure 
success in whaling. 

It is apparent that angatkoks were responsible for most 
of the concepts expressed in the masks from Point Hope 
which were meant to interpret their vision experiences. 
Dm ing each of his journeys to the land of the spirits, the 
angalkok would receive many fresh impressions of new 
spirit faces. On his return he would carve, or ask others 
to carve, wooden representations of the spirits he had 
seen. 

It should be emphasized that the aim of the mask 
carver was not to make a realistic copy but to interpret 
the idea that had originated in a vision. Perhaps the 
most surprising thing about Point Hope masks is that 
despite the tremendous variety of spirits and mythologi- 
cal beings in the Eskimo cosmology, most carvings are 
in recognizable human or animal form. This fact em- 
phasizes the close relationship between man and animals 
that had its expression in the spirit as well as the real 
world. 

Because of the importance of masks in the ceremonies 
of the Point Hope Eskimos, many were made, and they 
frequently are found in collections of ethnographic ma- 
terial obtained in northwest Alaska around the turn of 
the century when the traditional way of life was still 



Living in a rugged environment where the procure- 
ment of food through the seasonal cycle of subsistence 
activities was uppermost in the minds of all adults, it is 
not surprising that in aboriginal times the religious and 
ceremonial life of the Point Hope Eskimo largely cen- 
tered around the important supernatural relationship 
between men and animals. Dances were a significant 
aspect of ceremonialism, the chief purpose of which was 
to bind the human world to the supernatural world by 
means of a set of formal procedures. The greatest num- 
ber were designed to insure a continuous food supply. 
People realized that the spiritual forces were at work 
manipulating the basic needs of subsistence as well as 
life itself and that these supernatural forces needed to 
be placated and made aware of the wants and needs of 
men. 

Carved wooden masks were always an important part 
of dances and ceremonies at Point Hope. The masked 
dances and festivals, in addition to influencing the spirits 
of game animals, also fostered social cohesiveness by en- 
abling the entire community to take part in activities 
which, in addition to fulfilling serious ceremonial func- 
tions, also had considerable entertainment value. 

.\s might be expected, a good many ceremonies in 
which masks were used at Point Hope were connected 
in one way or another with whaling. The significance of 
these ceremonies and the sequence of events cannot, at 
the present time, be clearly determined since they have 
not been performed since about 1910. However, it seems 




This unusual mask is a distorted representation of a human face. 

DECEMBER Page 3 




Hand held 
false face 



Mouse mask 



Page 4 DECEMBER 




Human mask 

extant. One such collection was made in 1897 by Mr. 
Miner W. Bruce for Field Museum of Natural History 
which acquired the material the following year. Mr. 
Bruce had come to Alaska as first superintendent of the 
reindeer station at Port Clarence on Seward Peninsula. 
His collection contains 24 wooden masks and a single 
puppet doll figure. These, together with five additional 
masks of approximately the same age collected by John 
Borden for the Museum in 1927, form one of the largest 
collections of Point Hope masks in any museum and are 
the nucleus for this exhibition. Ten additional masks 
collected by Sheldon Jackson, a Presbyterian minister 
and first General Agent of Education in Alaska, in 1891 
have been borrowed from the museum bearing his name 
in Sitka, Alaska. Besides the masks mentioned above, 
the exhibition will also include some related ethno- 
graphic material from Point Hope including two ex- 
cellent wooden carvings associated with whaling and 
previously described for readers of the Bulletin (Vol. 38, 
No. 11, November, 1967). 






Human mask 
with "teeth" 



Human mask 




Whale mask 





The whaler Progress in her final days, as a museum of whaling artifacts and exotic curiosities at the World's Columbian Exposition, 
1893. Some of those specimens are now in the Field Museum collections. 

By Christopher Legge 

Custodian of Collections, Anthropology 



For nine years the whaling bark Progress had been laid 
up in New Bedford, Massachusetts. She had returned from 
her last voyage in 1882, and the whaling industry had been 
depressed. Almost certainly the career of the Progress was 
over. But there was one last voyage left in her, and that 
was to Chicago. 

Progress had been built as the Charles Phelps at Westerly, 
Rhode Island in 1843. Stonington, Connecticut, near 
Mystic, was her home port for sixteen years and she whaled 
in the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. When the Civil War 
broke out, the Federal Government purchased her to be 
sunk at the entrance to Charleston harbor in the blockade. 
There was a change in plans: she was used as a store ship. 
At war's end she was rebuilt in New Bedford and named 
Progress. 

In 1866 her career as an Arctic whaler began. She made 
$200,000 in two seasons in those rich grounds. Progress had 
her finest hour, though, in September, 1871, nearly all the 
Arctic whaling fleet lay above the Bering Strait that month. 
A sudden unexpected south westerly wind drove the pack 
ice and trapped thirty-three ships. Their crews, with some 
women and children, abandoned ship, took to their boats 
and made for the Progress and four other whalers which lay 
in clear water to the south. 1,200 souls crowded into these 
five ships and were landed safely at Honolulu, five weeks 
later. 

More than twenty years later, in New Bedford, Henry C. 
Weaver, a Chicagoan in iron and coal, conceived the idea 
of displaying the Progress at the World's Columbian Ex- 



position in Chicago. Weaver's mother was a member of the 
Phelps family, and probably related to the Charles Phelps 
for whom the Progress was originally named. He was 
joined in the project by several other Chicagoans. The plan 
was to establish a floating Museum of whaling. In June 
1892, the bark Progress, 358 tons, left for its final berth at 
Jackson Park, Chicago. It was towed down the St. Law- 
rence, through the Welland Canal and the Great Lakes by 
a tug with the engaging name Right Arm. She was anchored 
in the South Pond, at the World's Columbian Exposition. 

When the Exposition opened, a banner hung between 
two of her three masts: "Arctic Whaling Museum, 10,000 
marine curiosities between decks." Admission was twenty- 
five cents. Weaver and his associates had assembled a 
great variety of "curiosities." Log books, ambergris, 
clothing worn by members of the Greely relief expedition 
to Ellesmere Island in 1883, and Eskimo ethnological speci- 
mens, some of which remain in Field Museum's collections, 
were among them. There was a large collection of whaling 
implements, now in the Peabody Museum, Salem, Massa- 
chusetts. A number of items were unconnected with the 
Arctic or whaling: the mummified body of an Australian 
aborigine, a live Fijian chief, and a quadrant which had 
been brought over in the Mayflower. 

When the Field Columbian Museum was being organ- 
ized at the end of the Exposition, parts of its original collec- 
tion were items from the Progress. We received several 
shells from all over the world, and, along with Eskimo 
material, some thirty-six artifacts from the South Pacific. 



DECEMBER Page 5 




071 display during the 1969 Members' Night were these artifacts 
from the Anthropology collections, originally exhibited as part 
of tlie Arctic Whaling Museum display aboard the Progress. 



This past year, in preparing for our Seventy-fifth Anniver- 
sary, a number of these items were displayed. They include 
a shark's tooth sword, and coconut fiber armor (cuirass, 
leggings and helmet) from the Gilbert Islands and two 
ceremonial adzes from the Cook Islands. These adzes may 
represent Tane, the Polynesian drum-and-adze god, or, as 
another theory goes, they were used by a carver in life, and 
ceremonially mounted after death to honor both carver and 
god. Unfortunately, there is no hard data on the specimens 
prior to their appearance on the Progress. 

As for the Progress, nee Charles Phelps, her end was un- 
happy. The floating Arctic Whaling Museum lost her pro- 
moters 535,000 according to one report, and Progress leaves 
history in a laconic entry in the Wreck Returns of Lloyd's 
Register of Shipping for the Quarter ending June 1893: 

"Progress — On exhibition in Chicago : to be afterwards 
broken up. 




Winter Journey 



It's a Rocky World 



A close-up of the bark Progress as a floating museum at the 
Columbian Exposition. Photo courtesy of the Chicago Historical 
Society. 



The first rocks which geologists have ever been able to 
study at first hand from another planet were recently placed 
tn display at the Museum. Probably few earthlings failed 
to watch on live TV the collecting of these specimens on 
July 20 by the Apollo II astronauts. Some preliminary stud- 
ies have been made on the moon rocks, and now samples 
have been distributed to investigators all over the world. 
We eagerly await the reports on these studies early next 
year. 

Interpretation of the moon rocks can be made only by 
those with a knowledge of earth rocks and rock-forming 
processes. Our planet is essentially a ball of rock about 
8,000 miles in diameter. From its outer layer, the crust, 
geologists have identified about 1 ,600 kind of rocks. What 
kinds occur below the crust and into the core are still im- 
answered questions. 

All problems in geology go ultimately back to rocks. 
They are the "documents" by which geologists read the 
history of the earth's crust. Each rock specimen is a sample 
of a portion of the crust. Each rock sample has had a his- 
tory, the clues to which are in the rock itself. 

Rocks are all around us, even in the city where man has 
used several kinds as building stones. From rocks come 
most of man's resources, including the soil in which he 
grows his food. The anthropologist uses rocks to indicate 
the major divisions in man's cultural evolution — old stone 
age, new stone age, and the ages of metals. 

The Winter Journey is designed to acquaint boys and 
girls with the main types of earth rocks, their classification, 
and the processes by which they were formed. 

"It's A Rocky World" is Journey number 60 in a series 
begun in 1955. With the successful completion of each 
series of four Journeys, boys and girls are awarded a certifi- 
cate and title: Museum Traveller (four Journeys); Museum 
Adventurer (eight Journeys) ; Museum Explorer (12 Jour- 
neys). After 16 Journeys have been completed the Explorer 
becomes a Beagler, ready to undertake a special Journey 
which carries him throughout the Museum to study some 
of the natural history materials observed by Charles Darwin 
on his famous "Voyage of the Beagle." Successful Beaglers 
are awarded a certificate making them members of the elite 
Discoverers Club. 

There is no charge for taking any of the Museum Jour- 
neys. Copies of the Journey question sheet and further 
information on the program may be obtained at the Mu- 
seum entrances. The Winter Journey runs from Decem- 
ber 1 to February 29. 

— Ernest Roscoe, Raymond Foundation 



Page 6 DECEMBER 



»-«-^» •__- 




Rhododendrons like these from the Scottish 
estate of Glenarn, near Helensborough, will be 
at the height of bloom during Field Museum's 
tour of Britain, May 30-July 4. Phil Clark, for- 
mer editor of Horticulture magazine and Field 
Museum Natural History Tours Chief, will lead 
the tour. Leading British garden specialists will 
join the tour at several points. The all-expense 
36-day tour is $2,445, including a tax-deductible 
$600 donation to Field Museum. The Tour Is 
limited to 25 Members. 



FIELD MUSEUM'S MAGNIFICENT NATURAL HISTORY TOUR 

Eden Revisited: A Tour of Britain and Its Gardens 



Hidcote Manor garden in Shakespeare country has 
many surprising changes in mood and color as 
paths lead through carefully manicured hedges from 
one garden "room" to another. Below: Yew pillars 
stand between two gardens. 




A Henry Moore statue faces 
the Edinburgh skyline from 
the Royal Botanic Garden, 
where some of the world's 
finest plant collections are 
maintained. Reservations for 
the British gardens Tour may 
be made by calling 922-9410, 
or writing: Natural History 
Tour, Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 
Illinois, 60605. 





Stourhead, 2,500 landscaped acres, brings 
to life in the uniquely English way, the land- 
scapes of the romantic era, particularly those 
painted by the Italians of the period. The 
temple on a peaceful hill overlooking the 
water is only one of the beautiful settings 
here. Members of the tour will have tea with 
owners of many of the featured gardens. 



DECEMBER Page 7 



CALENDAR 

OF 

EVENTS 



December hours: 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., 
Mondays through Fridays; 9 a.m. to 
5 p.m., Saturdays and Sundays, and from 
December 22 to January 2. The 
Museum will be closed on December 
25 (Christmas) and January 1 
(New Year's Day). 

Through January 25 Eskimo Masks: The World of the Tareumiut A 
temporary exhibit of carved wooden masks collected during the turn of 
the century at Point Hope, Alaska, are the basis for understanding the 
relationship between these hunting peoples, the animals they pursued, and 
their concept of supernatural powers. The exhibit also includes some 
artifacts on loan from the Sheldon Jackson Museum in Sitka, Alaska. The 
free exhibit is in Hall 9 Gallery. 

Continuing in December Field Museum's 75th Anniversary Exhibit— A 
Sense of Wonder, A Sense of History, A Sense of Discovery— continues 
indefinitely in Hall 3. The scope of Museum activities since its founding 
in 1893 is emphasized in a dramatic exhibit which includes some of the 
choicest specimens in the Museum's collections. 

Through February Winter Journey "It's a Rocky World" explores the 
different kinds of rock that make up our planet and their importance in 
our lives. The do-it-yourself tour, sponsored by the Raymond Foundation, 
is free to any child who can read and write. Journey sheets and informa- 
tion on the Journey program are available at Museum entrances. 



MEETINGS: 



Nature Camera Club of Chicago, December 9, 7:45 p.m. 
Chicago Mountaineering Club, December 11, 8 p.m. 
Illinois Orchid Society, December 21, 2 p.m. 



Workshop for the Blind 

The Field Museum of Natural History is considering an exhibit specifically for 
the blind. In order to bring this about a great deal of information must be learned 
both by the department of education and the departinent of exhibition. We would 
like to conduct a number of workshops to learn answers to many questions which 
must be solved prior to the design of such an exhibit. Such questions as how many 
objects can we use and still maintain continuity, how much time is required for 
objects to be studied, what kind of objects are most exciting, and what kinds of 
verbal clues are necessary — all these must be answered. Only nonsighted persons 
can answer these questions. Could you bring this innovative program to the 
attention of a blind person of your acquaintance? 

.\lthough we will be operating in the form of an experiment, it is felt that the 
objects and what the observer will feel with them will be most rewarding. 

We would prefer to limit enrollment to not more than four single-handicapped 
persons per workshop and will reserve the option to balance the workshop accord- 
ing to age or interest. Members and their children will be given first preference. 

If you wish to participate in the workshops, please write to — 

Department of Education, 
Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, Illinois 60605 

including the following information : Name, age, address, telephone, membership 
name, date preferred — January 10, 17 or 24, Saturdays at 10:30 a.m. 

Pages DECMEBER 



SEARCHING FOR AN 
UNUSUAL GIFT? 

Give Mennbership in Field Museum 
of Natural History and you will be 
remembered and appreciated all 
through the year. Your shopping can 
be completed by a telephone call to 
922-9410, ext. 206. 



History of Life and Earth 

A ten-week non-technical course on the 
theoretical aspects of the problems and 
questions of the Earth Sciences will be 
offered jointly by Field Museum of Nat- 
ural History and the University of Chi- 
cago. Broadly, the course will include 
those aspects of Natural History that are 
customarily included in the domain of 
geology and paleontology. 

Varieties of subject matter will be dis- 
cussed, but the main emphasis will be 
focused upon the problems that are of 
current general interest: 

The mechanism of the formation of 
matter in stars and in the solar system; 

Recent discoveries concerning the un- 
derstanding and description of the solar 
system; 

The internal anatomy of the earth 
and the theories of its development; 

Early history of the process called life, 
its antiquity and its fossil record. 

The course will be offered at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, Downtown Center, 
65 East South Water Street. It will 
be conducted by paleontologist Dr. 
Matthew H. Nitecki and mineralogist 
Dr. Edward Olsen of Field Museum. 
The lectures from 1 1 :30 A.M. until 
1 :00 P.M. will start on January 7. 

For further information and registra- 
tion form please write or phone Mrs. 
Maria Matyas, or Miss Barbara O'Con- 
nor at the University of Chicago, Down- 
town Center, Financial 6-8300. 



FIELD MUSEUM 

OF NATURAL HISTORY 

ROOSEVEUT ROAD AT LAKE SHORE DRIVE 
CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60605 A.C. 312. 922-9410 
FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD. 1893 

E. Leland Webber, Director 

BULLETIN 

Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 



PRINTED BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS