(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Bulletin"

BillBRMY 



n < 



BINDIN& US 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



PAN AMERICAN 

UNION 

INDEX 



Vol. LIV 

JANUARY- JUNE 

192 2 




SEVENTEENTH AND B STREETS NW., WASHINGTON, D.C.,U.S.A. 
CABLE ADDRESS for UNION und BULLETIN: "PAU," WASHINGTON 



Q^ 



F 
Uo-5 



INDEX TO THE 
BULLETIN OF the PAN AMERICAN UNION 

Vol. LIV January to June, 1922 Nos. 1-6 

[The Index to illustrations will be found on p. XVI .] 

Pago. 

Agriculture, notes 66, 169, 281, 390, 608 

Argentina: 

Alvear, Dr. Marcelo T. de, President-elect of. 541 

Argentine-Chilean stock exchanges, interchange of quotations between 618 

Aviation — 

Aeronautical school, new, established 412 

Aviation Corps created fifth arm of the military service 620 

Buenos Aires-Montevideo line 169, 402, 608 

Military aviation school at Palomar dissolved 620 

Brazilian Exposition, participation in 170 

Cable, Italian-South American, projected 282 

Cattle, number of, in 67 

Children, labor law for, and women 80 

Education — 

Aeronautics, new school of 412 

Buen Consejo School 87 

Schools open during 1920 191 

Territorial schools, new, created 412 

University registration during 1920 411 

Egg exports from 281 

Finances — ■ 

Bond issue, internal, of 60,000,000 pesos 403 

Budget for 1920 extended to 1921 294 

Loan of $27,000,000 obtained in United States 617 

Foreign trade — ■ 

Egg exports 281 

Exports, principal, 1921 66 

For 1921 386 

Fruit, exports of . . , 609 

Fruit shipments to New York 282 

Long-term sale of products 391 

Meat, frozen, exports to Europe 608 

National products, exports of 281 

New articles in export trade T 66 

Pastoral products, exports of, in 1921 390 

Goats, number of , in 67 

Iguazu Falls power project 608 

Immigration, regulation of 81 

I 



n INDEX. 

Argentina — Continued: . Page. 

Labor accidents in 417 

Labor of women and children, law regulating 80 

La Plata Channel to be cleared 169 

Law Association, International, meeting date advanced 423 

Legislation — 

Labor law for women and children 80 

Minimum wage law 80 

Libraries, public, number of 417 

Linseed production and exportation 390 

Maize production and exportation 390 

Population statistics 95 

Railroads — 

Bahia Blanca-Carmen de Patagones line completed 170 

Transandine amalgamation deed signed 608 

Transandine, new, from Salta to Antofagasta 571 

Sheep, number of, in 67, 391 

Steamship rates, passenger, reduced. United States-Argentina 610 

Sugar production in 1921 390 

Telegraph lines, construction of, authorized 609 

Textile industry, new 170 

Treaties — 

Bolivia, railway convention with 405 

Colombia, arbitration with 406 

Uruguay — Triangulation of Uruguay River 624 

Vacation colonies for delicate children 416 

Wheat production and exportation 390 

Women, labor law for, and children 80 

Wool industry, future of, in 281 

Bache, Louise Franklin: The Junior Red Cross, the League of Children for 

Children 593 

Baker, Henry D.: Little Tobago, Bird of Paradise Island 344 

Baltimore, in tlie Pan American Conference , 250 

Bills of lading and "Hague Rules" 228 

Bird of Paradise Island, Little Tobago 344 

Bolivia: 

Alcohol imports, law forbidding, upheld 296 

Aviation — Woman qualifies as aviator 95 

Finances — 

Debt, public, September 30, 1921 182 

Receipts from export taxes, first six months, 1921 618 

Gold, tax on export of 67 

Irrigation system near Oruro 403 

Land grants made since 1907 171 

Legislation — 

Alcohol imports, law forbidding, upheld 296 

Immigration law, provisions of 186 

Mining company organized 609 

Petroleum — 

Boring machinery received by Standard Oil Co 609 

Development by American capital 67 

Standard Oil Company acquires interests 170 

Standard Oil Co. of Bolivia, statutes approved 283 



INDEX. Ill 

Bolivia — Continued: 

Railroads — Page. 

Mileage, completed and projected 171 

Pan American Railway in 123 

Puerto Suarez-Beni River line proposed 391 

Santa Cruz-Rio Grande line proposed 391 

Villazon-Atocha line 283 

Sewer system for Cochabamba 631 

Sewer system for Oruro 403 

Sewers in La Paz completed 631 

Tariff — Gold, export tax on 67 

Treaties — 

Argentina, railway convention with 405 

China— Peace and friendship treaty ratified 624 

Colombia: Arbitration treaty 624 

Hispanic-American Postal Convention ratified 624 

Venezuela— Arbitration treaty 624 

Book notes 101, 207, 319, 430, 538, 645 

Borton, Francis S. : New art treasure from Mexico 162 

Botanical and Geographical Parallels Between the African and South 

American Tropics 135 

Brazil: 

Achievements of a Century of Independence 433 

Aerial lines to be established 610 

Bandeirantes: Their Deeds and Their Descendants 456 

Barbosa, Dr. Ruy, elected to International Court of Justice 95 

Bridge between Rio and Nictheroy proposed 284 

Cable rates, week-end 201 

Caustic soda factory opened 610 

Cement plant for Santa Catharina 392 

Centennial grounds, lighting of, contract for 315 

Centennial, preparations for the 363 

Century of International Friendship 481 

Child hygiene bureau created 632 

Child welfare in 418 

Congressional buildings, new, authorized 423 

Corumba port improvements 392 

Cotton cleaning and pressing plants 408 

Cotton factories in, statistics 68 

Dona Isabel of Braganga and Orleans 233 

Drugs, poisonous, law relating to use of 81 

Education — Primary schools, interstate conference of 192 

Embassy, legation in Mexico raised to rank of 640 

Federal capital, new, to be started 621 

Finances — 

Banking agencies, new 403 

Banks, supervision of, expense of 294 

Of Pernambuco 403 

Foreign investment, field for 7 501 

Foreign trade — Exports and imports, seven months, 1921 69 

Fortaleza port improvements 392 

Free zone in port of Rio established 187 

Future of Brazil 496 



IV INDEX. 

Brazil — Continued : 

Highway— Page. 

Construction and promotion of 283 

Federal aid for public 621 

Homes for Government employees, bids asked for construction of 621 

Legislation — • 

Drugs, law regulating use of 81 

Federal aid for public roads 621 

Free zone in Rio, decree establishing 187 

Homes for Government employees, bids asked for construction of 621 

National Sugar Exchange established 620 

Sanitary convention, international, approved 197 

Oil-nut resources, protection for 392 

Parahyba port improvements 392 

Pernambuco, finances of 403 

Port improvements at Fortaleza. Parahyba, and Corumba 392 

Program, Official, of Centennial 535 

Public utilities concession in Maceio obtainable 392 

Railroads — 

Electrification of Paulista 283 

Santa Catharina Road, lease and construction of. 407 

Sanitary convention, international, approved 197 

Sliipping^ 

German lines to resume service 67 

Lloyd Brasileiro trans- Atlantic routes 284 

Rates on Lloyd Brasileiro 285 

Rates, passenger, reduced. United States-Brazil 610 

Service, new, to Boston announced 285 

Silk culture and manufacture in 609 

Sugar — 

Exchange, national, created 620 

Valorization of 392 

Telegraph line, Iguazu Falls-Catandubas-Porto Mendes 69 

Treaties — 

Esthonia, independence of, recognized 406 

Italy, immigration convention with 185 

Paraguay — Extradition treaty 624 

United States— Postal Money Order Convention 406 

Uruguay — Extradition treaty 625 

Trip to Centennial Exposition 522 

United States in Brazilian centennial celebration 514 

Wireless stations 67 

Britisli Honduras 262 

Calendars, evolution of, and how to improve them 543 

Call, Arthur Deerin: Latin American countries and the Interparliamentary 

Union 38 

Carr, A. D. : British Honduras 262 

Cavalcanti, Dr. Amaro, death of 378 

Cespedes, Dr. Carlos Manuel de: Cuba, our sister Republic 589 

Chamber of commerce, Central American, organized in New York 292 

Chile: 

Agriculture in 172 

Alcohol, exports of, regulated 408 

American embassy building, new, Santiago 599 



INDEX. V 

Chile — Continued: Page. 

Argentine-Chilean stock exchange, interchange of quotations between . . . 618 

Coasting- trade law 408 

Congress, Chilean Railway 70 

Diplomatic reorganization 82 

Education — 

Agriculture, school of, to be built 193 

Attendance in primary schools 87 

Curricula, amendment of public school. 412 

Industrial 193 

Magallanes, instruction in 87 

Railway university 626 

Salvador Sanfuentes School for Boys 87 

School savings plan 626 

Feminism, progress in 632 

Finances — 

Budget for 1922 404 

Central Institute for Control of Exchange recommended 404 

Debt, public, of 404 

Investments, United States, in Chile 404 

Loan of 110,500,000 secured in United States 78 

Loans, new, authorized 404 

Santiago secures loan of $6,000,000 in United Statet 618 

Foreign trade — 

Fruit exportation 611 

Nitrate exports, January-October, 1921 286 

Highway-construction law 408 

Hydroelectric development in 285 

Legislation — 

Alcohol exports, decree regulating 408 

Coasting-trade law 408 

Diplomatic reorganization, decree for 82 

Highway-construction law 408 

Prohibition zones in coal-mining regions proposed 187 

Library system of 187 

Miners, welfare work among 310 

Nitrate — 

Agreement between producers and buyers 69 

Exports, January-October, 1921 286 

Parasites, used to fight 393 

Producers, Government assistance for 81 

Production, January-October, 1921 286 

Supply on hand, October 31, 1921 286 

Packing plant at Puerto Montt 172 

Port works under construction 393 

Prohibition zones in coal-mining regions proposed 187 

Railroads — 

Congress of railways 70 

Construction of, authorization for .~ 393 

Electrification of Santiago- Valparaiso line 70 

Transandine amalgation deed signed 608 

Transandine lines, data on 173 

Transandine, New, From Salta to Antofagasta 571 

Valparaiso- Vifia del Mar electric line 393 



VI 



INDEX. 



Chile— Continued: Page. 

Social welfare department created by nitrate producers 418 

Tacna-Arica conference, Cliilean delegates to 640 

Tacna- Arica conference, projected 217 

Treaties — 

Arms and Munitions Conventions ratified 186 

Colombia— Convention regarding academic degrees 406 

Sweden, arbitration with 86 

Wireless concession granted German firm 173 

Colombia: 

Aviation — 

Aerial mail service 393 

Commercial, report of German-Colombian company 611 

Census of, 1918 315 

Cigarette factory in Bucaramanga 287 

Cocos Islands, administration of 188 

Coffee, exports to United States, 1920-21 174 

Education, primary instruction in, statistics 88 

Finances — 

Bank, Government, bill to create 409 

Debt, internal, of 78 

Loan from EngUsh firm for £80,000 294 

Silver coins, 3,000,000 coined 182 

Treasury bonds authorized 618 

Foreign trade — 

Coffee exports to United States, 1920-21 174 

Exports and imports, first half 1921, totals 611 

Highways — Chusaca-Tequendama Falls Road to be reconstructed 611 

Hookworm, treatment for 633 

Hospital, modern, in Barranquilla 311 

Insurance, compulsory collective, law for 188 

Legislation — 

Government bank, bill to create 409 

Insurance, compulsory collective, law for 188 

Magdalena River, channel through bar at mouth of 71 

Mail service, aerial 393 

Malpelo Islands, administration of 188 

"Maria," home of 254 

Ospina, General Pedro Nel, president-elect of 325 

Petroleum, operations in 287 

Railroads — 

Cucuta-Magdalena River, funds for appropriated - 296 

Equipment, purchase of 394 

Shipping — German steamship service renewed 174 

Sulphate of soda in 71 

Treaties — 

Argentina, arbitration with 406 

Bolivia — Arbitration treaty 624 

Chile — Convention regarding academic degrees 406 

United States — Ratified 186 

Woolen factory established in Bogota 287 

Commerce: Latin American foreign trade in 1920: General survey 42 

Commerce, notes 66, 169, 281, 390, 608 

Conference, Pan American, of women 35, 109 



INDEX, VTT 

Page. 

Congress of Child Welfare, Third Pan American 365 

Congress, Pan American, of students 57 

Consular reports, subject matter of 99, 205, 317, 428, 643 

Costa Rica: 

Bridge over Rio del Oro 394 

Cartago, as a health resort 116 

Education — Scholarship students arrive in Mexico City 627 

Electric plant for Alajuela 287 

Finances — Customs revenue, six months, 1921 71 

Highways — 

Construction of, in Puntarenas 71 

Law for construction and maintenance of 82 

Upala to Nicaraguan frontier, road constructed 287 

Insurance, fire, decree governing issuance of policies 296 

Legislation — 

Fire-insurance policies, decree governing issuance of 296 

Good roads law 82 

Montezuma mines 394 

Petroleum concession 72 

Railroad, Pacific, earnings of I74 

Treaties — 

France — Postal agreement changed 406 

United States — Extradition treaty 625 

Cotsworth, Mos9s B. : Evolution of calendars and how to improve them 543 

Cross, Dr. Howard: A martyr to science 279 

Cuba: 

Astronomical observatory, New National 164 

Aviation — Habana-Key West service 175 

Cotton, importation of certain, prohibited 395 

Education — 

Diplomatic and Consular Service, course in 89 

Torre, Dr. Carlos de la, appointed president of National University 193 

Wireless telegraphy, course in 89, 413 

Finances — 

Budget for Province of Habana 618 

Debt, internal, amortization of 621 

Interest paid on $10,000,000 American Government loan 182 

Loan of 15,000,000 by J. P. Morgan <fe Co 404 

Treasury receipts, revenues and taxes 183 

Foodstuffs, regulation of price of 82 

Foreign trade: Foodstuffs imported, eight months, 1921 73 

Legations, authorized expenditures for 409 

Legislation — Foodstuffs, regulation of price of 82 

Medical Congress, Sixth Latin American, November 19-26, 1922 641 

Our Sister Republic — Address by Cuban minister to United States 589 

Public works, 75 per cent of employees on, required to be Cubans 622 

Railroads — 

Matanzas-Hershey line opened 395 

United Railroads of Habana, earnings 174 

Shipping serAdce to Canada, new line 72 

Sugar — • 

Crop, estimated 72 

Supply of 72 

110241—22 2 



vm 



INDEX. 



Cuba— Continued: ^ag®- 

Sugar Finance Commission, certain powers taken away 297* 

Telephone system in. ^^^ 

Dominican Republic: 

Bankruptcy law amended 622 

Bills of exchange, law governing 189 

Delinquent minors, care of 622 

Finances— Debt, foreign, February 20, 1922 618 

Highway construction in 73, 612 

Insolvency law of ^1" 

Ijegislation — 

Bankruptcy law amended r 622 

Bills of exchange, law governing 189 

Insolvency law 410 

Loan law 83 

Sales tax law put into effect 622 

Surtaxes, order authorizing remission 297 

Water distribution in arid regions, law of, amended 297 

Leprosarium at Nigua 633 

Loans, law regulating 83 

Parcel-post convention ratified 407 

Railroads— Concession to sugar company to build line 175 

Sales tax law put into force 622 

Steamship freight rates to New York reduced 175 

Sugar centrals, operation and production 612 

Surtaxes, order authorizing remission of 297 

Telephone line, authorization for 395 

Water distribution in arid regions, law of, amended 297 

Dona Isabel of Braganga and Orleans, ex-Prlncess Imperial of Brazil. . 233 

Economic notes 80, 182, 294, 403, 617 

Ecuador: 

Accident, labor, law 83 

Alcoholic liquors, Sunday sale of, prohibited 83 

Cacao — 

Export tax on 176 

Price regulation, efforts at 613 

Education — 

Agricultural instruction in schools. . . : ;v 194 

German teachers engaged 413 

Name and location of secondary and advanced schools 306 

Statistics 194 

Students' Congress, Fourth, of Gran Colombia 305 

System of 305 

Women in universities 627 

Finances — 

Customs revenue, six months, 1921 74 

Income tax, decree imposing 295 

Taxes, new national defense, created 190 

Foodstuffs, exportation of 176 

Foreign trade — 

Exports, principal, 1920 612 

Foodstuffs, exportation of 176 

Imports and exports for 1919 and 1920, totals 73 

Market, Ecuadorean, for foreign products 395 



INDEX. IX 

Ecuador — Continued: Page. 

Highways — Esmeral das-Santo Domingo Road to be built 176 

Income-tax decree 295 

Labor, hours of 189 

Legislation — 

Alcoholic liquors, Sunday sale of, prohibited 83 

Hours of labor 189 

Hydrocarbon deposits law 297 

Labor accident law 83 

Taxes, new national defense, created 190 

Petroleum law 297 

Railroads — Guayaquil-Babahoyo line contracted for 288 

Treaties — 

Great Britain — Postal money order convention put into effect 407 

Venezuela, arbitration with 86 

Universal Postal Convention approved 186 

Yellow fever, Guayaquil free from 312 

Education, notes on 87, 191, 304, 411„626 

Education, section of, report on the 244 

Evolution of calendars and how to improve them 543 

Faulty food In relation to gastrointestinal disorders 328 

Feminist movement In Latin America 353 

Financial notes 80, 182, 294, 403, 617 

Foreign trade: 

"Hague Rules" and bills of lading 228 

Hague Rules, report on the, 1921 401 

Latin American, in 1920 : General survey 42 

Significance of the trade decline of 1921 380 

Theft and pilferage In the United States 220 

Galvao Bueno, Americo de: The Bandeirantes: Their deeds and their de- 
scendants 456 

Gastrointestinal disorders, faulty food in relation to 328 

General notes 95, 200, 315, 422, 640 

Geographical and botanical parallels between the African and South 

American tropics 135 

Gillis, Frederick J. : Pan American Congress of Students 57 

Gould, W. W.: Cartago, Costa Rica, as a health resort 116 

Governing board, Pan American Union Inside front cover, each issue. 

Guatemala: 
Bananas — 

Exports from Puerto Barrios during 1920 , 180 

Growing of, on Pacific coast , 613 

Chicle, concession for extraction of , 613 

Education — 

Agriculture, school of, curriculum of 195 

Commercial school in Guatemala City 308 

• Manual training in schools 91 

School of Pharmacy and Natural Science reorganized. 414 

Finances — 

Budget changes 619 

Debt, internal, liquidation of 85 

Monetary guaranty bureau, law creating 85 

Report first six months of 1921 ^ 184 



X INDEX. 

Guatemala — Continued: Page. 

Jute bag factory established 396 

Legislation — Monetary guaranty bureau, law creating 85 

Mosquito-destroying plant received 203 

Postal rate, increase in 292 

Railroads — Schedule of international 396 

Retalhuleu Province, report of 292 

Telegraph service to United States 76 

Vital statistics - 425 

"Hague Rules" and bills of lading 228 

Hague Rules, report on the, 1921 401 

Haiti: 

Education — Secondary examinations, program of 89 

Finances — 

Receipts, government 405 

Revenue, internal, collected 79 

Taxes, internal, collected 619 

Shipping — 

German service, renewal of 396 

New York-Haiti service 396 

Home of "Maria" 254 

Honduras: 

Aviation school, aeroplanes for 414 

Bridge over Rio Celgualpa 180 

Clothing factory established in San Pedro Sula 614 

Education- 
High school in Danli proposed 414 

New schools planned 308 

Electric light system in Comayagua 180 

Finances — 

Customs revenues, 1921 619 

Liquor revenues, 1921 619 

Highway construction in '. 613 

Laborers' association formed in Chocuteca 313 

Library for workmen opened in Tegucigalpa 200 

Sample products, exhibit of, in chamber of commerce 292 

Tile factory established in San Pedro Sula , 614 

Honduras, British 262 

Heubner, S. S.: Theft and pilferage in the United States export and import 

trade 220 

Industry, notes 66, 169, 281, 390, 608 

Inman, Samuel Guy: The feminist movement in Latin America 353 

Interparliamentary Union, Latin American countries and the 38 

Junior Red Cross: The league of children for children 593 

Kerr, George A. : Quebracho forests of South America 9 

Latin American countries and the Interparliamentary Union 38 

Legislation, notes 80, 186, 296, 407, 620 

Little Tobago, Bird of Paradise Island 344 

Lobo, Helio: A century of international friendship 481 

Lyster, Theodore C: Medical diplomacy 375 

Mail, domestic rates on Pan American 275 

Marchant, Lang\vorthy: 

Achievements of a century of Brazilian independence 433 

Dona Isabel of Braganga and Orleans, Ex-Princess Imperial of Brazil 233 



INDEX. XI 

Page . 

"Maria," Home of 254 

McCarrison, Robert: Faulty food in relation to gastrointestinal disorders 328 

McMahon, Thomas J.: Nauru Island, phosphate treasure island of the South 

Pacific 600 

Medical diplomacy 375 

Mell, CD: Little known but commercially important trees of the West Indies. 149 

Metric measures Back cover, each issue. 

Mexico: 

Art treasure, new, from 162 

Aviation — Concession for mail, passenger and freight service 75 

Bonds, Government, decrees regarding issuance and payment of : . 183 

Cotton spinning and weaving in 74 

Education- 
Appropriation for 194 

Plan of, for 1922 90 

Progress in. 306 

Railway school, creation of 414 

University of Mexico, summer school courses in the 571 

Finances — 

Bonds, Government, decrees regarding issuance and payment of 183 

Budget for 1922 183 

Claims, foreign, against Government 79 

Revenue from alcohol and spirituous liquors 79 

Floating dock at Vera Cruz repaired , . 397 

Foreign trade — 

Mineral exports, January-June, 1921 74 

Petroleum exports, January-June, 1921 74 

Henequen industry, regulation of 290 

Highways — 

Construction of ." 289, 614 

Construction of, in north 398 

Insurance, National Railways to establish industrial 93 

Legislation — Bonds, Government, decrees regarding issuance and payment 

of 183 

Maps, geological, of Mexico, completed 615 

Medicine, practice of, in Sonora 298 

Mineral production and exports 74 

Passports, abolition of, between Mexico and United States 614 

Petroleum — ■ 

Exports of, January-June, 1921 74 

Exports of, December, 1921 289 

Production in 1921 397 

Production of wells 289 

Playground in Mexico City 313 

Postal statistics 74 

Railroads — 

Construction of, in Chihuahua 398 

Improvements in r 75 

Repairs, expenditures in construction and 288 

Seed sterilization plant in Guaymas 74 

Shipping — 

Salina Cruz-Vancouver line started 614 

Service, new, between Galveston and Mexican ports 178 



XII INDEX. 

Mexico — Continued : 

Shipping — Continued. Pag*- 

Service to United States and Central America, new 75 

West coast boats to California, new service 288 

Sonora, practice of medicine in 298 

Tampico, increasing importance of, as port 397 

Telegraph statistics 74 

Workshops, free, establishment of 634 

Monetary units, values of, of Pan American countries Back cover, each issue. 

Nauru Island, Phosphate Treasure Island of the South Pacific 600 

Nicaragua: 

Cattle, regulations governing export and slaughter of 75 

Coffee trees, law to protect 178 

Electric light plants — 

In Juigalpa 398 

In Leon 178 

Fiber, yucca baccata 398 

Public health in 347 

Railroads — Mileage and routes 75 

Tariff— Addition to duty-free list 290 

Wirel ess — 

Apparatus for station given by Mexico received 615 

Concession granted 399 

Oliveira Lima, Dr. Manoel de : The future of Brazil 496 

Osplna, General Pedro Nel, President-elect of Colombia 325 

Panama: 

Agricultural development of, syndicate for 399 

Clinic, free, at Colon 635 

Education — Vocational school, data on 195 

Ferry across Miraflores Lake .• 399 

Finances — City revenues, decree covering collection of 84 

Highways — 

Construction of, plans for 615 

Mensabe-Las Tables Road 399 

Legislation — City revenues, decree covering collection of 84 

Rice, import tax on 615 

Timber operations in 179 

Pan American Conference of Women 35, 109 

Pan American Conference of Women, Baltimore in the 250 

Pan American Conference of Women, Delegates to 350 

Pan American Conference of Women, Latin American delegates to 637 

Pan American Congress of Child Welfare, Third 365 

Pan American Congress of Students 57 

Pan American Railway in Bolivia 123 

Paraguay: 

Bills of Lading, regulations covering 410 

Bridges, construction of 615 

Cable, under-river, inaugurated 400 

Cane industry in 291 

Commercial Travelers' Convention with LTnited States 303 

Consular manifests, regulations covering 410 

Customs bonds, deposit of 291 



INDEX. xin 

Paraguay — Continued : 

Education — Page. 

Military school for apprentices 301 

Paraguayan Institute 628 

Regional Education Council, law on 300 

Teachers, classification and tenure of 299 

Vocational school for women 415 

Finances — 

Budget for 1921-22 • 79 

Revenues and expenditures 183 

Taxes on merchandise ^ 179 

Foreign trade — 

Exports and imports, 1920 and 1921 615 

Exports in November, 1921 291 

Imports in November, 1921 291 

Highway construction in 615 

Hygiene, progress in 635 

Import duties, removal of, on certain articles 84 

Legislation — 

Live stock, tax on 84 

Regional Educational Council, law on 300 

Teachers, classification and tenure of 299 

Live stock, tax on 84 

Parcel post, imports by 410 

Property, distribution of, in 399 

Sanitation, progress in 635 

Tramways, changes in law for construction of 179 

Treaties — 

Brazil — Extradition treaty 624 

Japan, commercial treaty with 86 

United States, commercial travelers' convention with 303 

Peru: 

Alcohol tax recommended be increased 184 

Aqueduct, concrete, constructed 400 

Cattle imports, rules on 85 

Education — 

Academic degrees, commission created to grant 415 

Law on, new 1 

Popular education in 307 

Popular university begins second year; objects of 90 

Finances — 

Budget for 1922 provisionally sanctioned 619 

Loan for construction of sewer system 79 

Silver alloy coinage, issue of, authorized 622 

Highways — 

Huanuco-Puerto Mario Road proposed 291 

Lima-Callao Road to be paved with asphalt 291 

Lima-Yangas Road opened ^ 616 

Legislation — 

Cattle imports, rules on 85 

Education law, new 1 

Petroleum law of 410 

Lighthouses, automatic, installed 400 



XIV II^DEX. 

Peru— Continued. ^age. 

Margarine, production of, from cottonseed oil 401 

Petroleum law of '^^^ 

Railroads— 

Chiclayo-Lambayeque line approved 180 

Peruvian railways 584 

Shoes, manufacture of ^16 

Tacna-Arica conference, Peruvian delegates to 642 

Tacna-Arica conference, projected 217 

Textile fibers, deA^elopment of plants for 291 

Popenoe, Wilson: The home of "Maria" 254 

Postal rates, domestic, on Pan American mall 275 

Public health in Nicaragua 347 

Public instruction, notes on 87,191,304,411,626 

Quebracho forests of South America 9 

Railway, new Transandine, from Salta to Antofagasta 571 

Red Cross, Junior, the league of children for children 593 

Reid, William A . : Trip to the Brazilian Centennial Exposition 522 

Republic of Central America {see also Guatemala, Honduras, and Salvador): 

Federal district, administration of 191 

Monetary unit of 184 

National insignia 86 

Roosevelt, Kermit: Brazil as a field for foreign investment 501 

Salomon, Oscar V. : Peruvian railways 584 

Salvador: 

Auto service between Santa Ana and Ahuachapan resumed 292 

Clinics, free, statistics of 636 

Education — 

Dressmaking school opened 91 

National University, women in the 196 

New school in La Union 416 

Principals, qualifications required of 91 

Public instruction in 1921 628 

Finances — 

Bank, municipal, proposed for San Salvador 1 84 

Expenditures for 1921 620 

Revenues for 1921 620 

Highways — 

Construction of , in 292 

Salvador-Michapa Road repaired 77 

Hookworm, treatment for 203 

Hospital accommodations, new, in La Libertad and Santa Ana 421 

Libraries, municipal, books added to 314 

Library, children's opened in San Salvador 94 

Railroads — Cojutepeque-San Salvador link completed 616 

Vaccination bureau — 

Organization of 97 

Work of 421 

Sampaio, Sebastiao: The United States in the Brazilian Centennial cele- 
bration 514 

Sanitary cooperation, value of, among nations 132 

Sea fight, a famous, in Pan American waters 366 

Social progress, notes on 92, 197, 309, 416, 631 

Tacna-Arica conference, projected 21 7 



INDEX. ^y 

Tejada Sorzano, Carlos: Pan American Railway in Bolivia ^123 

Theft and pilferage in the United States export and import trade 220 

Torres, Arturo: Peru's new education law ' , 

Treaties, international, notes on .'.■.■.■.■.■.■.".■.■;;: ." .' ' 86," 185,' 303,' 405, 624 

Trees, httle Itnown but commercially important, of the West Indies 149 
United States: 

Brazilian Centennial Celebration, United States in 514 

Commercial Travelers' Convention with Paraguay 393 

Embassy building, new, Santiago, Chile ...\\ 599 

Foreign Trade Convention, Philadelphia 4qj 

Hague Rules, report on the, 1921 _ ' ^q. 

Treaties — 

Costa Rica — Extradition treaty ^95 

Venezuela — Extradition treaty ^25 

Ukugcjay: 

Airplane service, Montevideo-Buenos Aires I69, 402 608 

Amusement censorship created ' '.,. 

Day-of-rest law, regulation of g23 

Drugs, regulation governing sale of "302 

Education— Industrial schools, regulation of 19g 

Finances — 

Bank emission 

Budget extended ^qr 

Disposition of $7,500,000 loan ' ^ ' ^ jg^ 

Foreign trade — 

Live-stock imports, decree regulating j^gj^ 

Wool exports _ 

Highways — 

Authorized in Department of Minas gjg 

LaTablada-El Cerro Road to be built .'"" 293 

Immigration statistics „ .„ 

Industries, national, law to promote 3^ 

La Palma port works to be improved 293 

Legislation — 

Day of rest law, regulation of g23 

Drugs, regulation governing sale of '.".". 302 

Industries, law to promote national 302 

Live-stock imports, decree regulating jg^ 

Port works at La Palma to be improved 293 

Port works at Montevideo, appropriations for ....'.".. 402 

Prohibition in army g^o 

Railroads — 

Central Uruguay, report of jg^ 

Guarantees, payment of ^o^ 

Real estate transfers, value of g2o 

Steamship rates, passenger, reduced, United States-Uruguay ." 610 

Steel plant established " 293 

Treaties — 

Argentina— Triangulation of Uruguay River 624 

Brazil — Extradition treaty g25 

Wool, exports of -,, 

Vaux, Patrick : A famous sea fight in Pan American waters 366 



XVI INDEX. 

Venezuela: Page. 

Agriculturists, Congress of 277 

Bridge constructed over Tocuyo River 402 

Coffee shipments from Maracaibo 182 

Education — 

Commercial school created in Barquisimeto 416 

Law, provisions of new, on 303 

Finances — 

Debt, public, of 405 

Silver bolivars, 6,000,000, to be coined 296 

Foreign trade — 

Coffee exports, 1921 617 

Coffee shipments from Maracaibo 182 

Live-stock exports, 10 months of 1921 402 

Highways — 

Altagracia-Mene Road opened 617 

Ciudad Bolivar-Cabimas-Lagunilla Road proposed 293 

Construction of , in 402 

Hotel, new, in Caracas 427 

Legislation — 

Development of natural products regulated 623 

Education law, pro\'isions of new 303 

Natural products, development of, regulated 623 

Petroleum concession 78 

Railroads, mileage of 77 

Silver bolivars, 6,000,000 to be coined 296 

Telegraph station at El Amparo 293 

Telephone line between Urdaneta and Federaci6n authorized 78 

Treaties — 

Bolivia — Arbitration treaty 624 

Ecuador — Arbitration 86 

Italy — Claims convention 625 

Permanent Court of International Justice, resolution establishing, 

ratified 625 

United States — Extradition treaty 625 

Wireless Convention, International, approval of 303 

Verner, S. P.: Certain geographical and botanical parallels between the 

African and South American Tropics 135 

Wells, Wm. C. : Significance of the trade decline of 1921 380 

White, J. H. : Value of sanitary cooperation among nations 132 

YAnes, Francisco J. : Report on the section of education 244 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Abbott, Miss Grace, Chief, Children's Bureau, United States Department of 

Labor 113 

Abbott, Miss Julia, United States Bureau of Education 113 

Africa : 

Central, clearing for a railway line in 146 

Historic Stanley Baobab at Boma 147 



INDEX. XVII 

Page. 

Amencan delegates to Interparliamentary Union 39 

Anderson, Miss Mary, Chief, Women's Bureau, United States Department of 

Labor j23 

Andes, central, slope of the 141 

Angamos, battle of: 

Plan showing positions of battleships 37I 

Scene of the 3g9 

Argentina: 

Alvear, Dr. Marcelo T. de, President-elect of Frontispiece, June. 

Cervantes theater, Buenos Aires — - 

Auditorium of, from stage 158 

Ballroom of I6I 

Box office of 159 

Exterior view of 158 

Refreshment room of I60 

Stairway, principal, of I59 

Vestibule which opens on automobile entrance 160 

Law faculty, University of Buenos Aires, new building for the 388 

Map showing projected railway from Salta to Antofagasta 581 

Policeman, Buenos Aires, of polygot squad 167 

Bard, Dr. Harry Erwin 3 

Bolivia: 

Atocha-La Quiaca Railway, map showing 122 

Atocha station 124 

Bridge spanning the La Quiaca River 128 

Canyon of the Rfo Tupiza 125 

Escoriani, highest point to be reached by Atocha-La Quiaca Railway 127 

Locomotive, type of, used on Boli\ian railways 129 

Valley of the Rfo Suipacha 126 

Viaduct over the Matanzillas 128 

Brazil: 

Amazon River — 

Caving banks of the 144 

Typical view on I43 

Bahia, showing elevators 525 

Barbosa, Councillor Ruy 449 

Belem, Para, theatre at 503 

Bello Horizonte, executive mansion at 495 

Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva, Jos6 440 

Botelho de Magalhaes, Gen. Benjamin Constant, founder of the Republic . 447 

Cochrane de Alencar, Dr. Augusto, ambassador to the United States 454 

Coffee- 
Drying 517 

Loading of, at Santos 519 

Picking berries 516 

Delegates to Third Pan American Conference, Rio de Janeiro 484 

Diamond convoy from mines of 473 

Dom John VI, King of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves ." 434 

Dom Pedro Primeiro 439 

Dom Pedro Segundo, the Magnanimous 442 

Dona Isabel, Princess Imperial 234, 445 

Dona Thereza Christina 443 

Embassy Building in Washington 452 



XVIII INDEX. 

Brazil — Continued. P*se- 

Exposition, general plan of the - 535 

Galvao Bueno, Americo, second secretary of embassy, Washington 455 

Graca Aranha, Capt. Heraclito da, naval attache, Washington 455 

Guanabara Palace, Rio de Janeiro 239 

Lobo, Helio, consul general in New York 481 

Manaos — 

Avenida Eduardo Ribeiro 509 

Floating docks at 506 

Map comparing area of United States with that of 515 

Map, economic, oi ^''** 

Oliveira Lima, Dr. Manoel de, former minister plenipotentiary 496 

Pessoa, Dr. Epitacio, president of Frontispiece, May. 

Piratininga, on the way to "*"! 

Porto Alegre, capital of Rio Grande do Sul - - - 511 

Recife (Pernambuco), views of 523 

Ricken, Commander Guilherme, assistant naval attache, Washington 455 

Rio de Janeiro — 

Academy of Letters, home of the 498 

Aerial railway to the Sugar Loaf 527 

Avenida Niemeyer and Gavea Mountain 513 

Avenida Pdo Branco 529 

Carioca aqueduct 533 

General view of the city, including Botafogo Bay 491 

Historic and Geographic Institute, home of the 498 

Hotel Central 535 

Institute of Lawyers, home of the 498 

Marechal Floriano Square 451 

National Academy of Medicine, home of the 498 

Palace of Sao Christovao 237 

Port works in 1916 502 

Public Library at 499 

Rubber — 

Finished ball of 505 

Industry, on the Amazon 504 

Sampaio, Sebastiao, commercial attache, Washington 455 

Santos Dumont, Alberto, inventor of the dirigible balloon 486 

Sao Paulo — 

Cabucu Dam 510 

Luz Railway station 531 

Power plant of 494 

Sugar mill in 521 

Ypiranga Museum 488 

Silva Rondon, Gen. Candido Marianne da 479 

Silva Xavier, Joaquin Jose da, the Tiradentes 467 

Sousa Leao Gracie, Samuel, first secretary of embassy, Washington 455 

Sousa Leao, Joaquim de, second secretary of embassy, Washington 455 

Statue to be presented to Brazil by citizens of the United States 482 

Sugar mill in 521 

Tiradentes, the, Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier 467 

Ypiranga, cry of 435 

British Honduras: 

Belize, water tront of 264 

Mahogany logs, unloading, in 267 



INDEX. XIX 

British Honduras — ("ontinued. Page. 

Map showing situation of 262 

Native house in interior of 269 

Undergrowth in lowlands of 271 

Calendars, evolution of: 

"Amplitude " diagram of seasonable sunrise points 548 

Aztec calendar stone 561 

Druidical ' ' arrows " at Aldborough near York, England 550 

Dyak calendar makers of Sarawak, Borneo 557 

Egyptian calendar, ancient, of 12 months, shown by signs of the Zodiac 563 

Five-bundles calendar used by American Indians 546 

Four quarters of the moon 543 

Growth of early ideais of length of year 547 

Jacob's sunrise observatory 552 

Monolith at Stonehenge 551 

Month, standard : remedy for calendar defects 569 

Months, sketch showing defects in present method of recording 567 

Moon sticks, Fiji Islands 544 

Obelisk, Delhi, India 556 

Obelisk in center of St. Peter's Square, Rome 554 

Priest of Carthage locating sunrise point 549 

Pyramid and sphinx area, Egyptian birthplace of European calendars... 553 
Pyramid at Medum — 

Eg}T)t's first .• 556 

Section of oldest 556 

Pyramid, "blunted," of Dashur 556 

Pyramid emblem 556 

Pyramid, Great, "shadow floor" of 558 

Pyramids, Gizeh, near Cairo 556 

Pyramid's secret shadow rods disclose its calendar-recording purpose 558 

Spring and summer maps of star groups in celestial sphere 566 

Zodiacal clock in the heavens — Basis of the calendar 560 

Catt, Mrs. Carrie Chapman, president International Woman Suffrage Alliance. . Ill 

Central American Republic, special commission in Washington from 65 

Chile: 

American Embassy building in Santiago 598 

Latorre. Admiral Juan Jose 367 

Map showing projected railway from Salta to Antofagasta 581 

Colindres, Dr. Vicente M., member Central American Commission to Washing- 
ton 65 

Collier, Col. D. C, commissioner general from United States to Brazil's Cen- 
tenary Exposition 131 

Colombia: 

Coat of arms of 327 

Foresters crossing rapid stream of Magdalena system 139 

"Maria" — 

Bath of 260 

Cauca Valley, looking across, from home of 255 

Entrance to "Hacienda de Abajo" 259 

Hacienda around which centers plot of 256 

Oratorio, entrance to the, of the home 258 

Ospina, Gen. Pedro Nel, President-elect of Frontispiece, April. 

Cook, Hon. Willis C, minister of the United States to Venezuela 60 



XX 



INDEX. 



Costa Rica: Page. 

Aguas Calientes, bathhouse at H^ 

Cartago — 

Mercado of j j^ 

Mercado of, exterior view 11' 

Medal struck in honor of centenary 121 

Mount Irazu, crater of 120 

Cottrell, Hon. Jesse S., minister of the United States to Nicaragua 64 

Cross, Dr. Howard: 

Funeral corteg^ - 279 

Remains of, lying in state 278 

Cuba: 

Cespedes, Dr. Carlos Manuel de, minister to United States 59o 

National Astronomical Observatory — 

Dome of, showing telescope 165 

General view of 165 

Marble stairway of 166 

Tractor, TJnited States, on plantation in 389 

Davis, Hon. Roy Tasco, minister of the United States to Guatemala 62 

Dock, modern, scenes on 227, 232 

Ellicott, Mrs. Charles E., president Maryland League of Women Voters 351 

Fonda or tavern in the Chaco 12 

Grau, Admiral IVliguel 367 

Guatemala: 

Arch commemorating Central American independence, gift of Chinese 

colony Cover, January. 

Guatemala City- 
General view of 57 

Plaza in .- 58 

Haiti: 

Horse-radish tree in 153 

Walnut tree. East Indian, in 157 

Interparliamentary Union. American delegates to 39 

Junior Red Cross: 

League of Children for Children 596-597 

March of the, frieze 594-595 

Latorre, Admiral Juan Jose 367 

Lima, Dr. Francisco, member Central American Commission to Washington... 65 

' Limitation of Armament Conference, principals at Frontispiece, January. 

Little Tobago Island: 

Gartapple tree, fruit of the native 347 

General view of 345 

Mammee apple tree: 

An old 150 

Fruit of the 152 

Pulp and one seed of 152 

Matos, Dr. Jose, member Central American Commission to Washington 65 

Mexico: 

Altar, art treasure from 163 

Cathedral and sacristy, Mexico City 571 

Cathedral at Morelia, Michoacdn 576 

Church at Santa Monica, Guadalajara, Jalisco 578 

Church of San Jose, Puebla 577 

Convent of Tepozo Tlan, State of Mexico 573 



INDEX. XXI 

Mexico — Continued. Page. 

El Carmen Church, San Angel, D. F 573 

Ozumba, Mexico State 575 

Patio of Government Palace, Queretaro 576 

Pyramid of the Sun, Teotihuacan 574 

School of Mines, Mexico City 572 

Morales, Hon. Franklin E., minister of the United States to Honduras 130 

Nauru Island: 

Business street of settlement , 603 

King Oweida, of 602 

Lagoon in 607 

Natives working in phosphate deposits of 601 

Police, native, of 604 

Railway crossing 606 

Railway line 605 

Residential street of settlement 603 

.Ospina, Gen. Pedro Nel, President-elect of Colombia Frontispiece, April. 

Pan America, steamship: 

Bedrooms, one of the de luxe, of 587 

Card room, corner of 588 

Children's play room of 588 

Dining room of 587 

General view of 586 

Social hall, portion of 586 

Pan American Conference of Women, leaders in round table conferences 113 

Park, Mrs. Maud Wood, president. National League of Women Voters 36 

Parker, Dr. Valeria, executive secretary'. Interdepartmental Social Hygiene 

Board - - - - 113 

Peru: 

Grau, Admiral Miguel 367 

Grau monument, Callao 373 

President of, with United States special mission to centennial celebra- 
tion Frontispiece, February. 

San Martin monument, scenes at dedication of in Lima 280 

Soda water fountain in Andean city of 168 

Pessoa, Dr. Epitacio, President of Brazil Frontispiece, May. 

Quebracho: 

Assembling point for logs 21 

Bark of the tree 10 

Carts for conveying logs 18 

Extract factory, general view 27 

Extract factory, interior view of 31 

Loading logs on a local railway 23 

Logs gathered in the forest 14 

Sawmill in the forest 16 

Shipping logs, wharf scene 33 

Train carrying Indian laborers 25 

Tree, general view 10 

Ramer, Hon. John E., minister of the United States to Nicaragua 63 

San Martin, portrait of 387 

South, Hon. John Glover, minister of the L^nited States to Panama 61 

Statute to be presented to Brazil by citizens of the United States 482 

Tavern or fonda in the Chaco 12 



XXII INDEX. 

Page. 

Transandine Railway, Salta-Antofagasta, map showing projected 581 

United States: 

Baltimore, Md., Mount Royal Avenue 251 

Baltimore, Md., Moxmt Vernon Place and the Washington Monu- 
ment Frontispiece, March. 

Embassy building in Santiago, Chile 598 

Venezuela: 

Agricultiu"alists' congress — 

Directors of 276 

Medal commemorating 277 

Cunucunuma River, tributan.- of the Orinoco 137 

Forest in delta of the Orinoco 139 

Mangrove tree, stilt roots of, along Orinoco 139 

Orinoco region, views in the 136 

Walnut tree. East Indian: 

In Barbadoes 155 

In Haiti 157 

Willebrandt, Mrs. Mabel W., United States Assistant Attorney General 113 

o 



c> 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 




Page. 
Peru's New Education Law 1 

By Arluro Torres, Instniftor of Sijauish, University of New York. 

The Quebracho Forests of South America 9 

By (ieorge A. Kerr. 

Pan American Conference of Women 35 

Latin American Countries and the Interparliamentary Union .''.S 

By Arthur Deeriii Call, Exet'iilivc Serrclary, Aiiicricau (iroiiji of (ho Interparliameiifary 
I'nion. 

Latin American Foreign Trade in 1920 : General Survey 42 

Pan American Congress of Students 57 

By Frederick J. (iiUis. 

Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce G6 

Argentina — Bolivia — Brazil — Chile — Colombia — Costa Rica — ('ul)a — Dominican Republic — 
Ecuador — Mexico — Nicaragua — Paraguay — Peru — Republic of Central America — Uruguay— 
\'enezuela. 

Economic and Financial Affairs 78 

Chile— Colombia— Haiti — Mexico — Paraguay — Peru — Uruguay. 

Legislation 80 

Argentina — Brazil — Chile — Costa Rica — Cuba — Dominican Republic — Ecuador — Haiti— Nica- 
ragua — Panama — Paraguay — Peru — Republic of Central America — Venezuela. 

International Treaties 8C 

Chile-Sweden — Ecuador-Venezuela — Japan-Paraguay. 

Public Instruction and Education 87 

Argentina — Chile — Colombia — Costa Rica — Cuba — Domuiicau Republic — Ecuador — Haiti — 
Mexico — Peru — Republic of Central America — Uruguay. 

Social Tendencies 92 

Argentina — Chile — Ecuador — Mexico — Peru — Republic of Central .Vinerica. 

General Notes 95 

Argentina — Bolivia — Brazil — Colombia — Costa Rica — Dominican Repuljlic — Ecuador — Pana- 
ma — Peru — Repul)lie of Central America — Uruguay — Venezuela. 

Subject Matter of Consular Reports 99 

Book Notes 101 





VOL. LIV 



JANUARY, 1922 



No. 1 



1 lLi\ 



.S^ 



U'3 NEW EDUCATJON 



By Arturo Torres. 



Instructor of Spanish, University of Xeiv York. 

EVER since the year 1910 the Peruvian Government has been 
considering radical changes in the law of public instruction 
enacted in 1901. A special committee was created for the 
purpose, and a new law drafted which, with such amend- 
ments as were deemed necessary by the Executive, was promulgated 
February 5, 1921. 

The new organic education law not only is very comprehensive 
in its scope but contains many important features more or less new 
to Latin American codes of public instruction and worthy of study. 
The divisions of the law are as follows : 
Section I. Organization and administration. 
Section II. Primary education and normal scliools. 
Section III. Secondary education. 
Section IV. Higher or university education. 

ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION. 

Although all branches of education are under tlie jurisdiction of 
the Department of Public Instruction, the provisions relative to 
organization are intended to give administrative officials ample 
independence of action, to insure that positions requiring technical 
and administrative ability are filled by thoroughly competent persons, 
thus placing education above the sphere of poHtical influence. Means 

1 



2 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

are also provided whereby public interest and initiative may be 
utilized. In di'aftin*^; the new law an attempt has l)een made to 
have it conform as far as possible — given the social, ])olitical, and 
economic conditions in Peru — to the most a|)pr()ved principles of 
school administration. 

The regulations and budgets for primary and secondary education 
proposed by the Director General of Education will be promulgated 
by the President of the Republic and the Minister or Secretary of 
Education, who will also approve appointments for the higher 
positions under the director general's office, regional superintendents, 
and principals of secondary schools. 

A National Council of Education, composed of seven salaried 
members appointed by the Executive for a period of seven years, 
exercises advisory functions, its duty being to render opinions on the 
regulations and curricula in force or on matters relating to primary 
and secondary instruction; to conduct investigations and make such 
recommendations to the Government regarding amendments to laws 
or regulations as the council may deem advisable. 

The Director General of Education, appointed by the Executive for 
a four-year period, with the possibility of rea])])ointment, is invested 
with all the authority and responsibility required for the successful 
conduct of his office. His duties as technical and administrative head 
of primary and secondary instruction correspond to those incuml)ent 
upon a commissioner of education in those States of the United States 
having a centralized school S3stem. He is a non-voting member of 
the National Board of Education, and the head of the General Bureau 
of Education ("Direccion General de Educacion''), which has been 
completely organized as the directing center of a modern and pro- 
gressive educational system. The bureau is made up of the following 
officials and divisions: 

1. The director of examinations and curricula, who as chief of 
the division presides over the national board of examiners appointed 
by the department on his recommendation. 

2. The director of school libraries and museums, and cliief of the 
division of books and supplies. 

3. The director of school building construction, who is chief of the 
division. 

4. The chief of the division of property, income, and accounts. 

5. The chief of the division of personnel and statistics. 

6. The chief of the division of files. 

7. The chief of the office division and secretary of the general 
bureau. 

An innovation worthy of mention is the creation of a regional 
directorship of primary and secondary education in each of the 
administrative divisions of the Repui)lic — northern, central, and 
southern. These directors or superiiitendenls, who iire jij)])ointe(l by 




Photograph by Underwood & Underwood. 

DR. HARRY ERWIN BARD. 



4 THE PAN AMEHICAN UNION. 

the executive, have local jurisdiction over the schools and teaching 
staff, appoint and remove employees, including school physicians, 
authorize the opening of new schools, convoke and direct the teachers' 
institutes, and act as representative of the General Director of 
Education. It is hoped to attain through them a degree of decen- 
tralization of the technical and administrative service without 
jeopardizing the unity of national education. 

As links between the administrative heads and the different com- 
munities the regional superintendents are authorized to appoint in 
each town or district one or more school visitors or commissions of 
primary and secondary education, who shall serve without pay. 
There will also be in each school unit an educational finance l)oard 
charged with the administration of school property and income, 
obtaining bids and seeing that contracts are properh* carried out. 

PRIMARY EDUCATION. 

The provisions of the law as regards this branch of instruction have 
the following objects: (1) To impart at least a certain minimum of 
information to the largest possible number of children and to illiterate 
adults; (2) in addition to this, to prepare cliildren to enter the sec- 
ondary schools and, where this is not possible, to gite them a practical 
training that will enable them at once to earn their living; (3) to adapt 
the schools to the environment of the pupils; and (4) to enlist the 
cooperation of private individuals in tlie educational work of \]\c 
school. 

Primary education is divided into general or common and special 
or vocational sections. Common primary instruction comprises two 
divisions: The three-year elementary or first-grade school and the 
two-year second grade school. 

Elementary education is compulsory for boys and girls between the 
ages of 7 and 14; those over 14 years will be taught in schools for 
adults. All pupils in the primary schools receive free instruction, 
])ooks, and supplies, and poor children will whenever possible be pro- 
vided with food and clothing. This feature, which is not very general 
outside of the United States, and which makes education absolutely 
free, will react favorably on the public school. 

There will be elementary schools in urban, industrial, or rural centers 
having a school population of over 30 children. Second-grade pri- 
mary schools will be maintained wherever there is a regular attendance 
of at least 30 children. The proprietors of farms, mining and manu- 
facturing establishments are obliged to provide free elementary in- 
struction for the children between 6 and 14 in the families of their 
employees, and for that purpose shall establish and equip schools at 
their own expense and pay the salaries of the teachers. These schools 
will be visited by Government inspectors. 



I'EIiU S >vK\V l>;i)Ut'ATIO]SJ ],A\V. 5 

111 the first and second grade schools attention is devoted pri- 
marily to religious, moral, civic, economic, and physical instruction, 
practical hygiene, the Spanish language, manual training, and 
domestic science for girls. In the second grade primary sections 
connected with the secondary schools, English or French will be 
included in the curriculum beginning with the fourth year. The 
course of study will be adapted to the differing conditions prevailing 
in the city and the country and in various regions. Schools for 
natives will have special curricula and text-books and, in districts 
where the Indian dialects prevail, one of the principal aims will be to 
teach the pupils Spanish. All rural schools, and as far as possible 
the urban schools, will have gardens for instruction in agriculture; 
farm schools for the natives will also be organized. 

The establishment of kindergartens for children from 3 to 6 is 
authorized. 

The aim of vocational primary education is to impart a certain 
minimum of information and training of immediate utility for the 
elementary school teacher, for workers in agricultural occupations, 
industry, commerce, and domestic life. It will be given in separate 
institutions called elementary normal schools, agricultural schools, 
etc., and in special sections of the second-grade primary schools. In 
order to be admitted to these institutions the pupil must have passed 
through the elementary primary school; the course is two years in 
length and instruction is free. Local boards will be created to pro- 
mote the founding of this class of institutions. 

SECONDARY EDUCATION. 

Secondary education, like primary, is divided into common or gen- 
eral and special or vocational sections. Common secondary educa- 
tion comprises two divisions of three and two years, respectively. 
The first will include those theoretical and practical studies that are 
considered most necessary. The curriculum is as follows: Religious, 
moral, physical, civic, and economic instruction, Spanish, mathe- 
matics, physical and natural sciences, geography, universal and 
Peruvian history, psychology, English or French, penmanship, draw- 
ing and modeling, manual training, and singing. In the girls' schools 
the time devoted to civics, mathematics, and physical and natural 
sciences is reduced to make room for hygiene and elementary home 
medicine, elementary pedagogy, cutting and fitting, cooki.ng and 
domestic science. In order to eiiter a secondary school, pupils must 
be 12 years of age and graduates of the first and second grade common 
primary schools. 

Vocational secondary education includes agriculture, stock-raising, 
and rural industries; arts and trades for both sexes; ccunmerce; and 
normal training. It will be imparted in separate institutions to be 



THE PAN AMEEICAK tTNIOlST. 



S9]l!SJ8A!Un JOU||/\J 



o 








o 


_l 




J- 


QQ 




o 


=) 




Z3 


CL 




ir 


LJ 




t- 


CC 




z: 


LjJ 




o 






_i 


U. 




Q. 


O 


— 


U- 


\- 




o 


■ZL 




1- 


Ld 




■z. 


Q 




UJ 






^ 


CO 




1- 


LJ 




CE 


Q_ 




< 

Q. 
Ld 


U 




Q 


n: 




UJ 


h- 




1- 







s|OOL|os |B3!UL|08X :>o AiisjaAmfi 



SOOJB|/\| UBS ^O A}lSJ9A!Un 













z 




n 




IS) 


H 




u. 

LU 


< 






C) 




X 


3 
D 
U 




u 




z 
o 


U- 






O 




c/) 


-J 




> 


< 




n 


q: 







LU 




Q 1 


z 




z 


LU 




< 


O 




to 


a 




cc 


n 




o 


H 




H 


(J 




u 


LU 




LU 


Q 




Q 







83!WO S,AJB;9J08S 



S8|!d 



SOllSj^BlS puB ISLJUOSjad 



siunooov 
puB '8LUO0UI 'Ajjadojd 



sSuipimg ^o uojionjisuoo 



saiiddng puB 

'9jn;!UJnj 's>(ooq}x8j. 

SLunasni/M 

pUB SSUBjqn |OOL|0S 



(SJ9UIUJBX3 
JO pjBOg IBUOjlBN) 

Binoujno 

pUB SUOjiBUjUJBXg 



« 
























x> 




tf) 


c 




.52 1 


a) 




E 


c 


E 






Q. 


o 


3 


"D 


W 


C 




CO 


O 




O 




^_ 


£ 




o 


o 










tn 


cd 




> 


c 






o 




o 








bo 












a. 




(/) 















CO 




o 


O 

m 




to 


bo 










T3 


£= 




LU 


e 




O 


CO 






Ul 




o 1 


CO 












O 




m 


_l 







Peru's new education law. 7 

founded in the principal centers of population, under the nanu' of agri- 
cultural, industrial, commercial, normal, or arts and tiades schools, 
technical institute's, etc., and in special sections of the schools for 
common secondary education. These vocatioiud suhjects may he 
taken hy students who have had all or part of the common secondary 
course, as well as by those who desire to combine in one course the 
two branches of secondary instruction. 

Secondary schools shall be provided with dormitories for the stu- 
dents. 

The intent of the law is to bring about real stability in the teaching 
force of the primary and secondary schools; hence the necessity that 
such teachers be thoroughly competent in their own line. Thus it is 
provided that anyone desiring to be an instructor in the primary 
schools must possess a teacher's diploma conferred by a higher or 
elementary normal school. Those not having such diplomas must 
present evidence of possessing certain qualifications and take an 
examination given by the National Board of Examiners. For the 
training of teachers, normal schools will be established, with an 
entrance requirement of at least the first three years of secondary 
education; the course will be three years in length. There will also 
be elementary normal schools. Instruction books and supplies are 
furnished free. In order to encourage teachers to improve their pro- 
fessional preparation, Teachers' Institutes will be held annually in 
each school district. 

Secondary school teachers, as evidence of their fitness, must pos- 
sess the professor's diploma provided for in the law, conferred by the 
Higher School of Pedagogic Science upon completion of its profes- 
sional courses. 

The salaries received by teachers are fixed according to the cate- 
gory of the school in which they serve ; beginning with a stated mini- 
mum they are raised a certain per cent every thi-ee years. The in- 
crease in salary signifies a promotion, depending not only on the 
teacher's length of service, but on merit as well. Salaries are based 
on the assumption that teachers will give all their time to their edu- 
cational work, hence a minimum has been fixed which is considered 
a fair remuneration and the recipient is expected to devote himself 
wholly to teaching. 

On reaching a certain age or being retired for disability, teachers 
and professors will have the right to a pension, and to this end they 
are obliged to pay into the pension fund the equivalent of faur per 
cent of their monthly salary. 

An interesting section of the law is that relative to the funds for the 
maintenance and extension of primary and secondary education. 
The former in particular receives a special incom(^ derivcMl from 10 
per cent of federal revenues and a certain |)roporlion of iniuiici|):il 



8 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

and provincial receipts. A special fund for school buildings is also 
created. 

HIGHER oil UNIVEKSITV EDUCATIOX. 

Higher or university education is provided for at the University 
of San Marcos in Lima, the University of Technical Schools created 
])y the present law, and the minor Universities of Arequipa, Cuzco, 
and Trujillo. 

The universities enjoy full technical and administrative auton- 
omy. Their management is in the hands of the respective Uni- 
versity councils. The administrative officials and professors are 
nominated and elected by the professors themselves, with the excep- 
tion of the president of the new University of Technical Schools, who 
is appointed or contracted for by the Government. The universities 
have their own revenues with which to meet their expenses. 

For admission to higher institutions it is necessary to be 18 years 
old, possess a secondary school certificate and take an entrance exam- 
ination. To enter the faculties of medicine and law, two years of 
preparatory studies in the faculty of philosophy and letters are re- 
quired. Women are admitted as students in all the faculties ami 
may be candidates for the same degrees as men. 

The University of San Marcos is made up of the following faculties: 
Theology, law, medicine, mathematical, physical and natural sci- 
ences, political and economic sciences, philosophy, history and let- 
ters, and the institute of dentistry and pharmacy. 

The University of Technical Schools is composed of advanced 
schools of engineering, agriculture, commerce, industrial arts, and a 
school of pedagogic science to train professors and directors of sec- 
ondary schools. 

The minor universities have only three faculties: Philosophy, his- 
tory and letters; physical and natural sciences; law, and political and 
economic sciences. With the approval of the Government, technical 
courses may be added, such as agriculture, pedagogy, industrial arts 
or commerce, administered directly b}' the university authorities as 
sections or institutes. 

The law provides for the founding of a Universit}^ Student Club, 
with the necessary land, buildings and equipment. Its aim is to 
promote all those social and educational activities that enrich the 
life of the student and are so important for his general development. 
The students, professors, and administrative officers of the Univer- 
sity of San Marcos and the Technical Schools belong to this club. 
The intent of the law seems to have been to construct a real " edu- 
cational ladder" reaching from the kindergarten to the university, 
and offering every opportunity for the development of the ability 
latent in the children and the youth of Peru. 



Tim QUEH'RACnO VIM^ 
K3T3 ()['' 3()U'VH AMlvU,(CA^ 

PERSONAL NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS IN ARGENTINA 

AND PARAGUAY. 



By George A. Kere. 

IT IS a somewhat remarkable caprice by which nature has or- 
dained that the present principal sources of the two most import- 
ant vegetable tanning materials — quebracho and chestnut— 
should be situated in the two continents of the Western Hemi- 
sphere, and at the same time that they should be analogous in so 
many respects that anyone with a knowledge of the habitat of the 
one may glean a very good idea of the habitat of the other. For 
instance in range of latitude and width of forested area, distribution, 
distance from the sea coast, and in many other points they have 
much in common. 

In Argentina and Paraguay, there are three varieties of quebracho 
tree, so-called, namely: in the order of their importance, the que- 
bracho Colorado or red c[uebracho, quebracho bianco or white que- 
bracho, and the quebracho macho, which may mean either the male 
or strong quebracho, most probably the latter, but the author has 
never met anyone who could enlighten him as to this. 

It is the first of these varieties with which we are concerned here, 
as it not only vastly outranks the others in quantity, but also in 
general importance, as being the raw material of the tanning extract 
of commerce, and of immense value and utility as timber. The 
quebracho bianco has value only as timber, while the quebracho 
macho is not sufficiently plentiful to be of much importance in any 
respect, although it ranks next to quebracho Colorado of the more 
northern latitudes in tannin content. The only considerable quan- 
tities of this class of quebracho coming to the writer's notice is in 
northern Paraguay, and for the most part east of the river Paraguay. 
In Argentina, if existant at all-in the course of travel through hun- 
dreds of leagues of forested country none was seen by the aiiUior- 
it is not generally used for the production of tanning extract, but 
is sometimes used in conjunction with cjuel>racho coloradt) in some ol 
the extract plants of upper Paraguay; this, Jiowever, is only possible 

1 Reprinted from the Journal of the American Lealhcr Chemists Associal ion. 



10 THE PAN AMEKICAN UNION. 

when the price of extract is high enough to offset the difference in 
yield, which is 15 per cent to 20 per cent lower. 

Quebracho Colorado is found in quantity from latitude 20° south to 
latitude 31° south, the length of the belt being approximately eleven 
degrees or 760 miles and beginning at the northern limits of Para- 
guay it extends south to about one- third through the Argentine 
Province of Sante Fe, the distance being equivalent to that from 
northern Pennsylvania to the southern limit of the North American 
chestnut belt in Alabama. This region embraces the Chaco Para- 
guay©, the Argentine Province of Formosa lying between the rivers 
Pilcomayo and Bermcjo, the territory of the Argentine Chaco, the 
Province of Santa Fe and that of Santiago del Estero. There is 
also some (piebracho in the southeastern portion of the province of 
Tucuman, but the total forested area of this province being only 
some 216 square leagues, i. e., about 2,000 square miles, the quantity 
is of little consequence, and being rather remote, and the quality 
inferior, it can not be worked profitably for the present. 

The width of the quebracho belt varies a great deal, but it is 
safe to say that nowhere does it exceed 3° to 4° of longitude; its 
eastern limits are well defined by the course of the Parana and Para- 
guay Rivers, from which it extends westward anywhere from 40 to 
325 kilometers — 25 to 200 miles — the variation being due to causes 
which will be referred to later. From this it will be seen this region 
is far from being an unbroken continuous forest such as the Appala- 
chian system carried originally; it consists instead of patches or 
islands, from a few acres to several square miles in extent, or in 
long strips or belts of all dimensions, the intervening spaces being 
great clear levels of grass-covered land or swamp. 

So much do the stands and other characteristics of this timber 
vary in the various sections, that a description of each Province or 
territory will do much to give a comprehensive and comparative idea 
of the whole. Beginning with the Province of Sante Fe, as having 
been the scene of the earliest exploitation of quebracho as a tanning 
material, there was — starting some 30 kilometers from the river, 
and extending from 150 to 200 kilometers inland at the widest part, 
and 350 from north to south — an area originally of about 2,100 
square leagues,^ or 20,000 square miles, bearing quebracho, which at 
a conservative estimate of 18,000 tons per league gives a total original 
tonnage of about 37,800,000 tons, the yield per square league varying 
all the way from 5,000 to 60,000 tons. However, both of these 

2 The Argentine league is 5 kilometers; a square league=25 square kilometers or 2,500 hectares. One 
hectare=2.47 acres. One square leaguc=6,175 acres or 9.61 square miles. A kilometer is 0.62 mile. 

The Paraguayan league is 4.33 kilometers, having been originally 5,000 varas or Spanish yards. A square 
league Paraguayan is 1,875 hectares or 4,631 acres. 

The Brazilian league is 9.68 kilometers or 6 miles. 

The Argentine league is used as the standard throughout this article. 




A Wl^ i>lJiiACHO TREE. 

The quebracho tree usually stands by itself, easily discernible at a distance, ))oth by the character of 
i'ts bark and the peculiar formation of its branches. 




THE BARK OF THEIQUEBRACHO TREE. 

If the quebracho is to be used for its tanninj; extract, the workmen always try the tree, before felling it, 
by testing the thickness of the sapwood; if the latter is too thick the tree is spared, as it is the trunk 
proper that yields most of the tannin. 



12 



THE VA^ AMEKICAX UNIOjS^. 



figures are exceptional, and a variation of 10,000 to 25,000 tons will 
cover the general average. Of the whole area, between 50 and 60 
per cent is really timbered; therefore the actual stand is more dense 
than the yield per league indicates. To present a clearer picture of 
the foregoing to those accustomed to North American methods of 
estimating timber, I may put it this way: The average tonnage per 
acre of total area is 2.9 tons, or 5.8 tons per acre of actual timber, 
and as the average log of this section, including limbs large enough 
to work, weighs 325 kilos — 715 pounds— the stand is equivalent to 
nearly 18 such trees per acre, containing roughly 2,250 board feet, 




A FONDA OR TAVERN IN THE CHACO. 

Frontier inns of this character are favorite meeting places of timbermen, and from them gangs of 
workmen are sent into the quebracho forest for their season's labor. 



log measure, a comparatively light 3"ield until we take into consider- 
ation that these forests resemble our hardwood ones in that they 
carry usually quite a variety of other woods, such as lapacho, curupay, 
quebracho bianco, goyacan, yacaranda, algarroba, palo bianco, etc., 
which bring the total up to quite a respectable figure. As a matter 
of fact it is not imusual to see cut-over tracts, which, but for the 
absence of quebracho, have every appearance of being virgin timber, 
although this is not so true of the forests of vSanta Fe as of some other 
sections, for it is beyond question that this was the most heavily 
timbered section of the quebracho country. 



THE QUEBEACHO FORESTS OF SOUTH AMERICA. 13 

The total tonnage figure given above refers to the original or 
virgin stand, and to arrive at the probable quebracho timber re- 
sources as they exist to-day, we must take into account, that in 
this province quebracho has been cut in ever-increasing quantity 
for purposes other than tannin, for over 100 years, and that for 
about 25 years the great bulk of all the tanning extract was made 
from wood originating in Santa Fe; so to arrive at a reasonable 
conclusion as to the quantity still standing, it is necessary to make 
a very considerable reduction. No data exists on which to base 
an estimate of the cut from the beginning of thenineteenth century to 
the present time, but it is certain that until railway construction 
began in Argentina the quantity was negligible. vSince then, how- 
ever, it has been quite important, growing continuously more so 
with the advent and extension of the tanning extract industry in 
Argentina and Europe during the past 25 years. Illustrating this, 
215,000 metric tons of wood were utihzed in 1901 for the manu- 
facture of extract, in 1913 the quantity had increased to alm^ost 
750,000 tons. From such data as is available and personal inves- 
tigation on the ground, the conclusion is reached that at least 
15,000,000 tons have been cut for all purposes, which deducted 
from the estimate of the original total of 37,800,000 tons leaves 
still available 22,000,000 tons. 

Chaco Argentina. 

The territory of the Argentine Chaco, lying immediately north 
of the Provinces of Santa Fe and Santiago del Estero is rapidly 
becoming the most important source of quebracho Colorado. With 
a total area of upwards of 3,600 square leagues, the forested 
areas comprise some 2,500 square leagues or 24,000 square miles, 
i. e., two-thirds of the entire area, and 20 per cent more than Santa 
Fe originally carried. The stand of timber, however, is not as a 
whole equal to that of the Province just mentioned, nor is there a 
like proportion of timber land or monte to open campo. In this section 
the timber originally grew to within ten kilometers — six miles — 
of the Parana River, which is considerably closer than it was found 
in most places; at present the eastern limit is a few kilometers farther 
west. From there it extends in a northwesterly direction for 300 
kilometers — 185 miles — or more. Beyond 250 kilometers the stand 
becomes very light, and the quality as to tannin content slightly 
inferior. Up to 200 kilometers from the river the stand is heavy 
and the quality, though not equal to the best Santa Fe wood, is very 
good. 

The tim])er belt, it will be noted is wider here than at any other 
point in the entire quebracho region, being somewiiat analogous 
in this respect to the chestnut belt of the Appalachians, which 
77575— 22— Bull. 1 2 



14 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 



widens out at the latitude of Kentucky and Tennessee, extending 
well west into these States, but narrows to both north and south. 

The area extends entirely across the territory from its boundary 
with Santa Fe to the Bermejo River, separating it from Formosa 
on the north, the distance being about 50 leagues or 155 miles; thus 
the forest of the Chaco for the most part lies within a block 50 leagues 
square. Of this area not over 45 per cent is in timber, which cir- 
cumstance, by reducing the yield per league, fails to convey a correct 
idea of the density of growth. It is, however, true that even at a 
very considerable distance from the river, there are leagues carrying 




BIG QUEBRACHO LOGS GATHERED IN THE FOREST. 

It should be noticed that these logs have had the bark removed, and are serviceable either for tanning 
extract or for sleepers. If logs are felled close to a factory, every particle of the wood may be utilized 
for the extract. 



as much as from 40,000 to 50,000 tons, on the other hand there are 
many leagues which will not exceed over 7,500, and a fair general 
average for the 2,500 square leagues is 15,000 tons per league, giving 
a total of 37,500,000 tons. Up to the present the cut has been com- 
paratively insignificant, the surface having scarcely been scratched 
so to speak, and there are still millions of tons within 50 kilometers 
of the river. 

About one-third of the chaco forest is still government or fiscal 
land, and the other two-thirds privately owned. Being fully cog- 
nizant of their value, these fiscal lands are being held to be doled 
out in small lots to the highest bidder, as financial necessity demands. 



THE QUEBRACHO FORESTS OF SOUTH AMERICA. 15 

SANTIAGO DEL ESTERO. 

Adjoining and to the west of Sante Fe and the chaco lies the prov- 
ince of Santiago del Estero, the timbered region of which, so far as 
quebracho is concerned, may be said to carry the westward fringes 
of the forests of Sante Fe and the chaco. As a factor in the total 
resources, it cuts little or no figure and while the author has little 
personal knowledge of this section, the information gathered from 
those who are conducting logging operations there, leads to the con- 
clusion that the timber is both sparse and inferior, and will not 
exceed 2,000,000 or 3,000,000 tons at most. 

TERRITORY OF FORMOSA. 

Next to come under consideration is the territory of Formosa. 
Situated north of the Argentine chaco, and divided therefrom b}^ the 
River Bermejo, it extends to the Pilcomayo, which forms the bound- 
ary between it and the Chaco Paraguayo, a distance of 35 leagues or 
110 miles. The timbered area of this territory has not been very 
thoroughly explored, and though said to be rich in timber, it is a 
reasonable assumption that the forest extends no farther west than 
it does in the chaco in the south, and in the Paraguayan chaco on 
the north. Both of these localities are very well known— espe- 
cially the former — along the Formosa boundary lines, and the knowl- 
edge that the stand of timber becomes lighter and the jungle or 
underwood and parasitic growths more dense as the tropics are ap- 
proached makes it evident that the quebracho-bearing area does 
not exceed 1,150 square leagues or 11,000 square miles. 

Basing an estimate upon the average of the stands on the northern 
edge of the Argentine chaco and on the southern edge of the Para- 
guayan, 8,000 tons per square league or a total for the territory of 
9,000,000 tons is on the liberal side. Enough is known of this region 
to warrant the statement that very great areas are not only subject 
to inundation but consist of permanent swamps or esteros, which 
preclude the presence of timber of any description. 

On this account it will be a long time before the forests of Formosa 
become important to any extent from a commercial standpoint. The 
territory may be said to be virgin, as the cut up to the present 
is immaterial. 

QUEBRACHO IN PARAGUAY. 

The quebracho timber belt of this country lies almost entirel;v' in 
the Chaco, which is all that part of Paraguay west of the river of 
that name. Those familiar with the regions already referred to and 
also the one now under consideration have doubtless recognized that 
once the Pilcomayo River is crossed, going north, a great difference 
in the character of the forest is encountered. Ranging in a broken 



16 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 



and desultory way over 5° of latitude — an ap])roxiniate distance of 
560 kilometers, or 350 miles— the width varies from a few kilometers 
to 80 or 90, but rarely, if ever, exceeds 100 kilometers, or 62 miles. 
Indeed, it is only in very exceptional instances that the width is so 
great; therefore, notwithstanding its great length, the quebracho-pro- 
ducing area does not exceed 1,500 square leagues, or 14,400 square 
miles. 

Nowhere in the whole range does the average stand approximate 
that of the country to the south, and not over 30 per cent of the area 




A SAWMILI, IN Tin-: I'UliEST. 

Mills are Trcquently permanent, substantial plants, to which the rough timber is hauled. Occa- 
sionally, however, it is advisable to carry small mills close to the forest for more rapid handling 
of the raw material. 



is timbered. As a consequence the yield per league falls to about 
3,000 tons or less. A solidly timbered league will not yield at the 
best over 8,000 tons, and selected areas of the best timl)er do not 
average over 4,000 tons. Quebracho has been cut for building and 
other purposes in Paraguay for several hundred years. It is there- 
fore impossible to estimate closely what the original stand amounted 
to. However, the probabilities are that it never exceeded 4,500,000 
tons. A million tons will cover the cut up to the present; but ignor- 
ing the past it is a certainty that the present resources do not exceed 
3,500,()()0 tons, which in comparison with like areas in the south is 
insignilicant. 



THE QUEBRACHO FORESTS OE SOUTH AMERICA. 17 

TOTAL RESOURCES OF ARGENTIXA AND I'ARAGUAY. 

Summed up, the total available tonnage of (juehraelio Colorado now 
standing in these countries is comprised as follows : 

Argentina: Metric tons. 

^ Province of Santa Fe 22, 800, 000 

Territory of the Cliaco 37, 500, 000 

Province of Santiago del Estero , 2, 000, 000 

Territory of Formosa 9, 000, 000 

Total for Argentina 71, 300, 000 

Paraguay T 3, 500, 000 

Grand total 74, 800, 000 

VALUE OF TIMBERLANDS. 

The value of the timberlands under discussion is more or less 
subject to fluctuation; therefore, such as are now cited can only be 
taken as true of the past and present. The tendency in Argentina is 
constantly upward, and there is but little doubt that the next decade 
or two will witness a great appreciation. 

In placing a value upon any given tract much depends upon 
whether it is estimated from a timber, cattle grazing, agricultural, 
or a combination of all three view^points. At present, excepting in 
the vicinity of centers of population and transportation, there is no 
great range of asking prices for tracts involving one or more leagues. 
In Santa Fe there are blocks which would be cheap at $100,000 gold 
per league on account of the timber alone; again, where the land is 
about evenly divided for timber and cattle or agriculture one-half 
the above price would be sufhciently high. In the case of land which 
is low or swampy the value is nominal, and much of it would be dear 
at any price. As a matter of fact, the proprietors of desirable land 
have not within recent years show^n much disposition to sell, under 
which circumstances real values are difficult to ascertain. 

In the Chaco, values have not attained the high levels of the neigh- 
boring province, and good timberlands carrying upw^ard of 20,000 
tons of cjuebracho can be purchased at from $25,000 to $35,000 gold 
per league. Within the last 10 years lands in this section have 
increased in value tremendously; a block of some 90 square leagues, 
distant 30 to 60 miles from the river and with a line of national rail- 
way crossing its base, sold at Government auction 10 or 12 years 
ago for about $7,500 gold per league; to-day this land can not be 
bought for less than $35,000 to $40,000 gold per league. Land quite 
120 miles inland from the river, purchased 20 years ago for 40 ccntavos 
per hectare, or less than $500 gold per league, is now offered at 22 
pesos per hectare, which on normal exchange is equivalent to $24,200 
per league. 



18 



THE PAK AMEHICAN UNtOlsr. 



The Government lands, wliicli are among the best in the Chaco, 
are being disposed of very slowly and with the idea of meeting only 
the demands of natural development. In this Argentina wisely 
recognizes that her forests, which consist mainly of extremely slow- 
growing hardwoods, are practically nonreplaceable, and being at 
best sparsely forested in proportion to her total area, great conserva- 
tism is being exercised in turning them over for private exploitation. 
The method of disposing of these lands has been changed from time 
to time, but at present the procedure is, after surveying and dividing 
the allotment to be sold into league blocks, to advertise for bids at 
so much per ton, the bid having to be accompanied by a small deposit 



I f- 




^^gUgbg^ 




Photograph by C. R. Stiotz 



A BATTERY OF QUEBRACHO CARTS. 



In Paraguay, the two-wheeled cart, drawn by four or more oxen, is still proving its great adaptability. 
In Argentina, however, a four-wheeled wagon is generally employed for hauling the logs. 



as a guarantee of genuineness. On the date specified the timber 
rights are awarded to the highest bidder and a further deposit called 
for, to cover payment for the first year's minimum cut, an annual 
maximum and minimum being established by the Government 
Department of Forestry. Heretofore timber rights so disposed of 
have brought 3.50 pesos Argentine paper, i. e., $1.54 gold per metric 
ton, but it is a certainty that future sales will be at very materially 
higher prices. No one is allowed to bid on more than one league 
and the sales are not open to companies or corporations, nor can the 
rights so acquired be transferred. Upon failure to cut or at least 



THE QlTEBRACttO tOJlESTS OP SOtJTH A.MKKiCA. 19 

pay for the specified annual minimum the timber reverts to the 
Government. PoUtical influence, however, enters into these trans- 
actions to such an extent that considerable latitude is allowed in 
the direction of those who are so fortunate as to control it. 

As to the lands in Santiago del Estero and Formosa, neither a 
sufficient stage of development has been attained nor has a real 
necessity for exploitation arisen which warrants valuation, hence 
any value placed at this time upon the timberlands of these sec- 
tions would be wholly speculative and one man's guess as good as 
another's. 

In Paraguay the entire Chaco, comprising probably 90,000 square 
miles — this depending upon where the northern boundary between 
Paraguay and Bolivia is eventually located — is in the hands of 
private owners, having been long ago disposed of by the various 
governments, not infrequently as recompense for financial or other 
aid in one or other of the many revolutions indulged in by that 
unfortunate country. A notable instance of this is that of a prom- 
inent Argentine capitalist who, for an advance of $300,000 gold, 
was awarded 3,000 square leagues— 13,000,000 acres— the cost figur- 
ing out in United States currency 2J cents per acre. The Govern- 
ment maps show this region all nicely divided into rectangular 
blocks, according to the theoretical disposition as executed in the 
official engineer's office, but as the Chaco Paraguay© has never been 
surveyed, nor yet explored except along the basin of the Pilcomayo 
and for a fringe of 30 or 40 leagues back from the river, the owner- 
ship of any specific boundary is very much a moot point. Few of the 
owners have ever seen their chaco lands, and it is very doubtful if 
they would be able to identify them if they were to see them. How- 
ever, this matter of division is of no interest to the general reader. 
From the paragraph on Paraguay's quebracho resources, it will be 
obvious that as a timber proposition the value is very low, indeed 
it is questionable if they are ever seriously considered as such by 
those who know anything about them, the value of the land for 
grazing being the first desideratum and the quebracho merely inci- 
dental. Primarily land values in this section are based upon prox- 
imity to the river, elevation as regards inundation, water for stock, 
and the proportion of open camp. 

The present value of land bordering the river and extending inland 
10 to 20 leagues — this includes the timbered zone— ranges from $4,500 
to $8,000 gold per Paraguayan league of 4,621 acres; this is eriuiv- 
alent to $6,100 to $10,800 gold per Argentine league of 6,175 acres. 
As to future appreciation in value, as may be gathered, this is a 
matter that will be controlled by the development of grazing and 
agriculture. 



20 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF QUEBRACHO COLORADO. 

As the autlior is confining his remarks to observations made in 
the course of actual practice, a botanical description of this tree 
or its analogies, which if desired may be found in any botanical 
work on subtropical and tropical forest trees, is superfluous here. 

It may be noted, however, that although the term "quebracho" is 
almost universally employed in North America and Europe in con- 
nection with quebracho Colorado on account of its industrial im- 
portance, and to a more limited extent applied to a species the 
bark of which yields medicinal products, it has no botanical sig- 
nificance beyond having been originally applied to any tree the 
wood of which M^as particularly hard or brittle. The word itself 
is derived from the Spanish verb quehrar — to break, and hacha — 
an axe — axe-breaker. Forest trees are found in almost every 
Central and South American country, which are locally referred to 
as quebracho, but which bear no botanical relation to, nor close 
physical resemblance to the quebracho of other countries. 

Compared with its North American parallel — the chestnut — 
the conditions under which the quebracho Colorado flourishes and 
attains its greatest commercial value are quite circumscribed. 
Stretching from north to south over a range of latitude equal to 
that covered by the chestnut belt, the climatic conditions where 
quebracho grows most prolifically are much more uniform, espe- 
cially with regard to temperature. By far the best stands of tim- 
ber are found between latitudes 27° 30' and 31° S., where (he tem- 
perature rarely exceeds 105° F. (40.5° C.) in summer, and seklom 
falls below 28° F. (-2.2° C.) in winter, as against 95° F. (35° C.) 
in summer and as low as 15° F. (- 9.4° C.) below zero in winter for 
the chestnut region, the effective dift'erence lying in the temperature 
below the freezing point. 

A notable feature is that the quebracho and chestnut richest in 
tannin grows in the southern extremities of their respective zones, 
the isotherms of which do not diff"er greatly, but, whereas the que- 
bracho deteriorates toward the Equator, chestnut does so as it 
becomes more remote from it. In the latter case, climate is no 
doubt an important factor, but the same can not be said of quebracho, 
the deterioration being distinctly due to other causes. With the 
chestnut, altitude has a very marked effect upon the tannin contents, 
being equivalent to a latitudinal or chmatic dift'erence, but a thou- 
sand feet higher or lower in the same general locahtyis not noticeable, 
as the tree itself develops in dimension, and is as thrifty on a moun- 
tain top as on the lower levels. Quebracho, however, appears to be 
so very susceptible to variation in levels, that it is rarely if ever 
seen at an elevation as little as 50 feet above the surrounding 
plam, and this no doubt is a prime cause for its running out, at sliort 



22 THE PAN AMEHICAN UNION. 

distances from the rivers which it borders, instead of spreading over 
the entire pampa, in which the general level rises 9 to 10 inches per 
mile towards the west. 

It is not the higher level in itself which affects the growth, but, in 
the author's opinion, the difference in the moisture content of the 
soil. Observations tend to the conclusion that the balance in the 
moisture requirements of the quebracho tree is extremely delicate, but 
regarding this it must be explained that the soil of the pampa region 
is practicall}'^ impervious to water, hence it is from surface flow and 
not by permeation or percolation that drainage is effected. A dif- 
ference of a few feet in level will cause the soil to be almost arid in 
one spot, and a swamp or pond in the adjoining one. Neither of 
these conditions is conducive to the growth of quebracho, and as 
the jump from one to the other is not more than a few feet, it becomes 
apparent that favorable soil conditions for its growth have limitations 
practically unknown in a North American forest. 

The existence of great levels in Santa Fe and also in the Ohaco 
Argentina, which drain slowly enough to furnish the necessar}^ 
moisture to the tree and yet with sufTicient rapidity to obviate long 
or frequent inundation, accounts to a great extent for the superior 
stands of this timber in these sections; on the other hand it is the 
lack of them which has prevented it from attaining perfect develop- 
ment in Formosa and notably in Paraguay. 

Beginning north of the Bermejo Eiver and continuing on to the 
swamps of Puerto Suarez in the southeastern corner of Bolivia, the 
greater part of the country is subject to frequent inun(hition, and 
this is not confined to the esteros or low grounds, as the author has 
at various times ridden many leagues where the forest was from 2 
to 3 or more feet under water. These floods are not altogether the 
results of local rainfall, V)ut are often the result of the overflow of 
the river Paraguay, caused by the tropical rains many hundreds of 
miles to the north in Brazil. In fact great tracts of the Paraguayan 
chaco are often inundated where rain has not fallen for months. 

Wliether by reason of climate, or moisture, or both, there is a 
very marked difference in the character of the timber north of the 
Bermejo; in the Argentine the tree boles are comparatively short 
and thick, and the limbs heavy and of great spread, the limb-wood 
yielding from 10 per cent to 15 per cent of the total weight of the 
tree. In Paraguay the boles are long and slender, straight logs 
averaging between 7 and 8 meters (23 feet to 26 feet) in length as 
against 5 to 7 meters (16 feet to 23 feet) in Argentina, but the limbs 
as a rule are not of sufficient value to pay the cost of cleaning and 
hauling. The most important difference between the timber of the 
north and south consists in the yield of merchantable wood, or the 
proportion rendered worthless by heart rot. 



24 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

In the south, about 10 per cent of the trees are so affected, whereas 
ill Paraguay upwards of 60 per cent are decayed at tlie heart to a 
greater or less extent, many apparently sound, thrifty trees being 
rot-filled shells, a fact that is not always discovered until the ax is 
applied. During a careful examination of the stock in the yard of 
an Argentine tanning extract plant, where 30,000 tons of logs were 
piled so both ends could be inspected, less than 100 were found show- 
ing evidences of havhig had the decayed portion cut oft'. Of course 
there may have been many which were trimmed above the point of 
decay; still the yield per league of merchantable timber is rather 
conclusive evidence that the loss from this cause does not exceed 10 
per cent of the total tonnage. As against this, if Paraguayan logs 
destined for timbers, sleepers, or extract manufacture were trimmed 
in 'accordance with Argentine practice, the loss would be at least 50 
per cent. Figures giveii by an old established Paraguayan extract 
plant, show that 20 per cent of the weight of the logs brought to 
the mill was discarded. These figures do not include trimming done 
in the woods, nor trees considered worthless after felling. Revert- 
ing for a moment to yields and values, it will be noted that the mer- 
chantable que))racho timber north of the Bermejo, for equ.vl areas, is 
only one-tenth that of Argentina. 

The causes of decay appear to be similar throughout the whole 
quebracho region, and so far as observed, there are two principal ones. 
Where trees are standing on ground which has become chronically 
saturated with moisture, the rot begins at the heart of the bole at 
the point where the major roots spread, and gradually extends up- 
ward, eventually converting the trunk into a mere shell; occasionally 
it continues from the trunk into the larger limbs. Trees of all sizes 
and ages are equally subject to it, and the author has noted its 
existence in young trees not over eight inches in diameter. A second- 
ary source of rot is that induced by the introduction of moisture and 
fungoid infection to the interior of the tree through the medium of a 
huge bore worm some three inches long and half an inch in diameter, 
which leaves a bore equal to its own size. These bores are suffi- 
ciently large and numerous to permit the washings during heavy 
rains to enter, and also provide a receptacle for wind-blown and 
insect -borne fungus spores; trees thus attacked succumb very 
quickly and completely. The absence of laboratory facilities pre- 
vented any attempt to determine whether fungi or moisture alone 
was the immediate cause of this decay, but it is quite apparent that 
a considerable excess of moisture is necessary for its promotion. A 
third but minor cause may be the lodgment of parasitic growths in 




•»)>\"5ff.-WWr-EK/~-»''- 



26 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

the crotches of the main Umbs, but as the period of observation did 
not permit of determining whether the rot or the parasite was there 
first, there is room for doubt. 

Decay from the outside is never seen; in fact quebracho coh)rado 
is considered indestructible, even under trying conditions; railway 
cross ties and dock timbers which have been in service 40 years or 
more are, except for surface weathering, as sound as when installed, 
and it is said to resist the teredo or shipworm so destructive to sub- 
merged piling in tropical or subtropical waters. The foregoing 
circumstances point ratlier to fungi as l)eing the chief factor of dis- 
integration of tlie growing timl)er. . . . 

FOREST OPERATIONS. 

When one who has experienced the joys of getting logs or cortl 
wood out of the rugged mountain fastnesses of Virginia, North 
Carolina, or Tennessee, first views the pampa forest, a desire for 
an opportunity to exploit a logging job as simple and easy as this 
appears to be is almost inevitable; a country level to the point of 
monotony, no inaccessible mountain steeps, ravines, or brawling 
boulder strewn water courses to encounter and overcome with roads 
and railways precariously perched upon hillside cuts, no bridges 
and trestles to be continuously bolstered up, nor geared locomotives 
running away round 18° curves and down 4 per cent grades on a 
slippery track; no wonder it makes a strong appeal to those who may 
have had to contend with the Blue Ridge or the Great Smokies. 
From a topographical and climatic point of view, it indeed seems a 
veritable woodsman's paradise, but while comparison is in favor 
of the pampa, the South American forest has its problems. 

Logging is almost invariably done by contract, the individuals 
so engaged being usually in the business on a large scale as it involves 
the investment of considerable capital in equipment. Contracts are 
based upon a price per ton alongside rail, the contractor assembles 
his own labor and as a rule furnishes the necessary live stock, wagons, 
tools, and the other thousand and one appliances necessary; in the 
north (Paraguay) the operators are not infrequently obliged to furnish 
all the equipment and finance the operations, owing to the lack of 
contractors with sufficient capital to carry on the work. 

The tannin extract companies with one or two exceptions depend 
upon their own timber holdings for a considerable proportion of 
their raw material, but also purchase logs in the open market as 
occasion warrants. This is deemed a necessary precaution against 
possible wet seasons, limited forest reserves, etc., and provides a mar- 
ket for sufficient logs to maintain the existence of private organizations 
whose sole business it is, while at the same time the maintenance of 
their own forest operations exerts a stabilizing effect upon prices. 



28 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

Logs for extract manufacturing have in the past been graded 
into five classes, locally termed in the order of their value, Expor- 
tacion, consisting of sound, comparatively straight logs, Tipo Fabrica, 
sound but ill adapted for export shipment, with perhaps occasional 
traces of rot, Ragone, equivalent in the States to laps and limbs, Pica 
or Podrida, worm-eaten and with more or less rot, and Campana, 
fallen timber from which the bark and sap-wood has disintegrated. 

Price is a matter of bargaining between buyer and seller. Prior 
to 1915 logs were laid down alongside rail in Argentina for from 
6 to 8 pesos, i. e., $2.65 to $3.50 per metric ton, with somewhat lower 
figures for the inferior qualities, the cost delivered at mill depending 
upon the railway haul. wSince then the increased cost of operating 
has sent the price up to from 18 to 22 pesos, i. e., to about $8 to $10. 
In Paraguay the prices have always been higher, and during 1920 
were from $10 to $12 at river bank. 

Until 1915 or 1916 the grading of logs was quite strictly observed, 
and large stocks of export material were accumulated for some time 
after the European conflict had brought exportation to a close, but 
with little or no prospect of a resumption of quebracho extract manu- 
facturing in Germany — its principal seat in Europe — the necessity 
for classifying the two or three first grades disappeared and the mills 
are now receiving what might be termed forest run, the average 
quality being decidedl_v better than it was a few years ago. The 
foregoing applies wholly to Argentina, as in Paraguay the difliculty 
which extract plants and sawmills experience in securing an adequate 
supply of raw material precludes the development of an export trade 
in this direction. 

In opening up a boundary of quebracho forest the procedure is 
similar to that practiced elsewhere, the first work being to clear out 
roads about 4 or 5 meters wide and running parallel 1 kilometer apart. 
This is done by men directly employed by the contractor. From 
these roads intersecting picadas or narrow pathways are cut dividing 
the territory into blocks approximately 1 kilometer square, the 
felling and log cleaning being subcontracted to individuals or small 
contractors employing a small number of men, who in turn work by 
the ton. After felling, the trunk and limbs large enough to warrant 
it are stripped of bark and white sapwood, leaving only the clear 
tannin-carrying redwood. The bark and sapwood vary greatly in 
thickness, being anywhere from 1 to 3 inches, the size or age of the 
tree being no index of thickness. The cleaning, which is accomplished 
by hewing off this outside in splinters lengthwise, constitutes four- 
fifths of the labor of the axeman. Men on this work fell and clean 



THE QUEBRACHO EOKESTS OF SOI'TIl AMKIJK'A. 29 

on the average al)()ut lo tons per month per man. During the 
working season the men erect a rude shelter and with tlieir famihes 
hve where they work, all food, clothing, and other supplies being 
sold to them by the contractor. He in turn frequently is compelled 
under his contract to purchase from the company for whom he is 
logo-ing, with the result that the cost of the work to both virtually 
amounts to what it costs to maintain the men and their families. 

After the logs are cleaned they are measured, the weight computed 
from the cubic contents, and the amount credited up to the axeman; 
the contractor's private mark is then stamped or painted upon the 
log, which is then ready to be dragged to the nearest hauling road. 
Here they are picked up b}^ wagon and hauled alongside the railway. 

The hauling is done by oxen — two pairs to tlie wagon — experience 
having demonstrated their superiority to horses or mules in both 
effectiveness and cost, for grazing on the open camp their upkeep is 
practically nil and when beyond working they are, after fattening 
up, worth what they cost as beef for the men. In Argentina the four- 
wheeled wagon is most generally employed, but in Paraguay where 
muddy roads are more prevalent, and there is no limb wood to 
haul, the 8-foot two-wheeled timlier cart is still proving its greater 
adaptability. 

The organization of a successful woods operation in these countries 
is an undertaking which requires all the strictness and precision of a 
military system. The most stringent supervision is requisite to pre- 
vent peculation, graft, and deception with reference to weights and 
measures, and keep in order an outfit more or less inclined to — fiestas, 
let us say. Both contractor and owner must constantly keep reliable 
staffs in the field, checking up the live stock and equipment, for in 
the mind of the simple peon the line between meum and tuum is 
somewhat hazy. 

With regard to lal)or — the system is distinctly that of peonage- 
it is plentiful and for the most part recruited from the peon class, 
who are essentially, with perhaps a slight mixture of Latin blood, 
descended from the aboriginal In(Uan of the country: in intelligence 
and general qualifications they are superior to the southern negro, 
but not equal to the emigrant from southern and southeastern 
Europe, wdio in considerabk^ numbers augment the ranks in the 
slightly more important classes of work; simple minded, their wants 
are few, good natured though quick to provoke to blood-letting, 
they are care free and irresponsible to a degree, and not given to 
work more than is necessary to make buckle and tongue meet. 

Fond of cock-fighting, tava, and card playing, they gamble away 
in a few hours any balance thai may be coining to them nt the end 
TT.JT.J— 2-_'— I'.ull. 1 a 



30 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

of the month and are ready to start over again, without regret for 
the past or hope for the future. 

A fair idea of the personnel, hve stock, and equipment required 
to carry on a moderate sized operation, taking out say 200 tons of 
logs per day, maybe gained from the following tabulation, which is 
subject to modification according to whether the haul is longer or 
shorter than an average of one and a half leagues; the figures given 
however, are based upon actual operation under normal conditions. 

As the men are invariably accompanied by their families, there are 
at least 3,000 men, women, and children to feed, clothe, and admin- 
ister; not a small task in these remote regions, as, for instance, the 
item of beef alone for such an outfit as that above cited requires the 
product of a herd of 25,000 cattle. 

Superintendent and assistant - 

foremen ^^' 

Storekee])ers and assistants '' 

Carpenters and lilaeksniiths ] - 



Axemen . 



350 



Log cart drivers '**'* 

Herding and caring for oxen "* 

Sundry labor "^ 

Total for logging -"^O^ 

Subsidiary work, such as getting out fence i)osts, cross ties and fuel wood 100 

({rand total ''^^ 

TJie capital investment in live stock and equipment for such an 
operation is represented by the following list: 

Oxen, fully l)roken (2,000 at |G5) >;l:^<'. <'<»<» 

Young steers l)eing V)roken for replacement (500 at $45 ) 2l2, 500 

Horses, saddle (100 at $35) :^ 500 

Log wagons (150 at $150) 22, 500 

Box and water carts (40 at $65) ^,600 

Tools, chains, etc 10, 000 

Spare parts and repair material 5, 000 

( 'arpenter and ))lacksmith shops 2, 500 

Total 19S. 'iOO 

The duration of the working season depends entirel}' upon the 
weather, and to a considerable extent in some localities upon how 
prevalent mosquitoes and pulverinos are, for there are periods when 
liuman existence is made unendurable by these pests, especially 
is this so in Paraguay — the land of insects. Extremes of either 
drought or wet effectually put a stop to all work involving the use 
of live stock, the former on account of insufficient water and pasture — 



THK QrEBRACHO FORESTS OF SOUTH AMERICA. 



31 



it requires 12,000 to 15,000 acres of natural grass land to graze the 
live stock for an operation as given above — while in wet weather the 
roads become bottomless canals of li(|ui(l mud in a very short time. 
A fair estimate, perhaps, would be nine months of the year for Argen- 
tina and not to exceed seven in Paraguay. In any event it is impru- 
tlent to rely upon a longer period for stocking the annual require- 
ments of a mill. 




INTERIOR OF A QUEBRACHO EXTRACT FACTORY. 

Modern machinery of the best quality is used in those factories, even when they arc located miles away 
from the centers of civilization. After being prepared in vats and boilers, the quebracho extract is 
jiressed into sacks for drying and it is in this condition that it is shipped to the markets. 



TRANSPORTATION . 



P\)r the transportation of logs to extract plants and sawmills both 
rail and water routes are available, although the latter are employetl 
to a rather limited extent and only wdien logs are brought from 
remote places where there are no railways. The Argentine district 
is well served by the Ferrocarril Santa Fe, a French-owned road, 
which consists of a meter-gauge trunk line running north, with many 
branches east and west, from the city of Santa Fe to Resistencia, 
the capital of the territory of the Chaco. From th(> Parana River 
near Barranqueras (Balilla) the national line, Ferrocarril CV>ntral 



32 THE PAX AMERICAN UNION. 

Norte, runs slightly northwest through the quebracho belt at its 
greatest width for a distance of more than 200 kilometers to Teday. 
from w^ience a branch runs south into the Province of Santiago del 
Estero. These roads are as well built as the resources of the country 
permit, and all things considered render very fair service. 

From these trunk systems the private companies have constructed 
many hundreds of kilometers of 60-centimeter or 24-inch gauge rail- 
way running to the scene of operations, one company alone having 
approximately 300 kilometers of such lines, and nowadays it is (mly 
rarely anyone hauls by oxen more than the distance of 3 leagues. 

In Paraguay practically all transportation of logs is over the lines 
built by the owners of the plants, which, without exception, are 
located immediately on the river; these railw^ays, of course, run only 
from the plants to the forest, and serve in no way to connect up one 
place with another. Several companies whose reserves or equip- 
ment are not sufficient to stock their mills transport such purchases 
as can be made by water exclusively, and all logs and timber destined 
for export are conveyed to the Parana and Paraguay Rivers by rail 
and thence via water to the deep-water ports. 

As may be surmised the construction of railways in the quebracho 
region is a comparatively simple matter; grades are unknown and 
circuitous routes unnecessary, w^hile the erection of bridges or trestles 
presents no real difficulty. The fly in the ointment— for there is 
one — lies in the absence of material suitable for setting up a perma- 
nent roadbed. Stone or gravel does not exist anywhere in the whole 
region, hence the alluvial soil is perforce employed. In wet weather 
it rapidly acquires a soaplike consistency, which makes the main- 
tenance of levels impossible, and not always can the ties and rails 
be kept from sliding off the roadbed altogether. A certain degree 
of permanency is attained l)y covering the cross-ties to the level of 
the ball of the rail with earth, leaving the surface heavily cambered, 
and drained at each rail joint. To maintain these roads in servicable 
comUtion constant labor and attention is necessary, for once water 
gets under the cross-ties, the bed will melt away like soap. 

THE GENERAL ASPECT OF THE FOREST. 

Having dealt with the commercial phases of these forests, a brief 
afterword of general description supplementary to that at the begin- 
ning of this article may not be considered amiss. 

It is in the early summer, for there are really but two seasons 
down there, that the forest of the pampas is at its best. If the sea- 
son has been normally moist one may ride for endless leagues through 
flower -carpeted and 'verdant levels, among islands and miniature 
continents of woodland in a combination wliich rivals in interminable 



I 



34 THE FA^ AMERICAN UNION. 

variety of extent and vista the most beautiful of carefully nurtured 
park lands. 

Primordial in aspect and primordial in fact, for many centuries 
have elapsed since thousands of these trees first proved their right 
of survival by lifting their evergreen crowns above the impenetrable 
jungle of subtropical vegetation and parasite. As though existing 
in dread of the day when the woodman's ax would dispute their 
right to live, it would seem as if they, the monarchs, had reared their 
heads on high and then surrounded themselves with an armed force 
to defy the attacks of the god utility. From the lowly caraguaty to 
the 20-foot cacti, not excluding the tangled drapery of vine and 
creeper, everything that grows seems, with spike and thorn, to be on 
the defensive, and woe betide the man who has ihv hardihood to 
attempt to force their barriers without the ruthless services of the 
machete. Beholding them one feels instinctively, here are the haunts 
of the jaguar, puma, and mountain cat. 

If the grasslands remind one of the disordered profusion of an 
old-fashioned garden, the glories of the flowering shrubs, and great 
blossoming trees would furnish a fitting subject for the pen of a poet 
or the brush of a Maxfield Parrish, for tho riot of color is more like 
the stuft" dreams are made of than prosaic reality. In groups and 
singly, the cerulean blue of the lapachos, cerise and pinks of the palo 
rosa, the blood-warm oranges and reds of the acacias and yellows of 
the para, all form a picture which requires a more skilled pen than 
the writer's to do justice. A single stem from any of these trees 
is almost an armful of blossom. 

Wild animals, game, and V)irds, though in great variety, are not, 
excepting the predatory species, numerous; any lack in this respect, 
however, is made up in others, for there are times when either art- 
ist or philosopher would have difficulty in appreciating the scene 
with the calm born of the silent places of the earth, for in the midst 
of these marvels of generous nature one too often is exposed to the 
torture of the pulverino, a microscopic sand fly, which rises from the 
ground in clouds like morning mist, and which to get a taste of 
human gore will penetrate all but the finest of mosquito nettings ; while 
a not unknown occurrence is for one's horse to lie down under the 
saddle to roll the mosquitos off". So numerous do they become at 
times as to make vision or conversation impossible, not only do they 
get in (mes eyes, ears, and hair, but in the mouth when it is unwarily 
opened. Despite these discomforts, however, the country is healthy 
when life is lived in the open, and binds many to it with the never 
fading charm which vastness of space holds for mankind. 



^AN AMERICAN CON^''^ 



miX o\' wmum a v 



A PAN American confereiico of women will be held in con- 
nection with the third annual convention of the National 
League of Women Voters wdiich is to l)e held in Baltimore, 
Md., April 20 to 29, 1922. 

Cooperating with the League in bringing the Pan American wo- 
men's conference to the United States are the Secretary of State, 
Mr. JTughes, the Secretary of Commerce, Mr. Hoover, and Dr. L. S. 
[{owe. Director General of the Pan American Union. 

The invitations to the Governments of South and Central American 
countries to send delegates to this Pan American conference have 
been forwarded through the State Department and its diplomatic 
representatives in the liepubUcs of Latin America. While not an 
official invitation from tlie Government of the Ignited vStates, the 
plan has received the sanction and approval of administration ofli- 
cials, who view with favor Conferences of this character, which can- 
not fail to promote a better understanding and more friendly rela- 
tions between the citizens of the Repu])lics of this continent. The 
main jiurpose of this conference, according to Mrs. Maud Wood Park, 
national president of the League of Women Voters, is to bring the 
women of the Ignited States into more friendly relations with the 
women of South America, Central America, Mexico, and Canada. 

Baltimore, on the joint invitation of the Maryland League of 
Women Voters, the State of Maryland through Gov. Albert C. Ritchie, 
and the city of Baltimore through Mayor Henry Broening, at the 
national convention at Cleveland last April, was selected as the next 
convention city. The suggestion of the Maryland League of Women 
Voters, that a Pan American conference of women would fittingly 
carry on and strengthen the friendly relations and good will, the 
foundations for which were so admirably laid by the Woman's Aux- 
iliary Committee of the Second Pan American Scientific Conference of 
December-January, 1915-16, and which it is expected the Limitation 
of Armament ( -onference will still further cement, is heartily concurred 
in by Dr. Rowe, of the Pan American Union. 

In making plans for the coming Pan American conferenccv the 
National League of Women Voters consulted wSecretary of State 
Hughes, Secretary of Commerce Hoover, and Dr. Rowe, Director 
General of the Pan American L^nion, by whom they have been 
cordially approved. T\\o plans were first j)resented to Mr. Hughes 
and Mr. Hoover by a delegation consisting of Mrs. Maud Wood Pai'k, 




I 

4 

1 



.^ 



^.je 




MRS. MAUD WOOD PARK 

President of fho National Lcap:iio of Women Voters. 



TAX A.MKKK'AX ('(>M-i;itK XCI': OF WOMKX. 37 

pn^sitlmt of the National League, Mrs. Charles E. EUicott, Mrs. 
William M. Maloy, and Miss Lavinia Engle, representing the Marvland 
League of Women Voters, Gov. Ritchie, and Messrs. Perring and 
Brittain, representing the State and city, l^pon its approval l)y the 
Cabinet officers, the plan was laid before the Baltimore Board of 
Trade by the league, receiving their hearty indorsement. Plans for 
entertaining the distinguished guests are already under way. 

" We have had a number of conventions of the men of the J-*an 
American States," said Mrs. Park in speaking of the coming con- 
vention, "but in my opinion this Pan American conference of 
women will do more to cement good fellowship and create a genuine 
feeling of confidence in diplomatic and international relations than 
any other single act could do.'' 

The tentative agenda for the conference is: 

April 20, 21, and 22. — Round table conferences on the following 
subjects: 

Chikl Welfare, in charge of Miss Grace Abbott, Chief of the Chil- 
dren's Bureau, Department of Labor, LTnited States. 

Education, in charge of Miss Julia A})bott, Kindergarten Division, 
Bureau of Education, Department of the Literior, United States. 

Women in Industry, in charge of Miss Mary Anderson, Chief of 
the Woman's Bureau, Department of Labor, LTnited States. 

Prevention of Traffic in Women, in charge of Dr. Valeria Parker, 
Executive Secretary of the Interdepartmental Social Hygiene Board, 
United States. 

Civil Status of Women, in charge of Mrs. Mabel W^illebrandt, 
Assistant Attorney General, Department of Justice, LTnited States. 

Political Status of Women, in charge of Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, 
President of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. 

Sunday afternoon, April 23. — Mass meeting, addressed by Pan 
American delegates. General subject, ''Leaders Among Women." 

Monday evening, April 2Jf. — Large semi-public dinner; speeches by 
National and Maryland officials and by delegates of the conference. 
General subject: ''International Friendliness." 

April 25, 26, and 27. — Regular meetings of the Annual Conventit)n 
of the National League of Women A^oters. At these meetings the 
delegates to the Pan American Conference will be given all the pi-ivi- 
leges of the floor except a vote. 

Friday, April 28. — ''Washington Day:" Visits to Capitol, Pan 
American Union, and other places of interest. Evening mass meet- 
ing in W^ashington: General subject, " What the Women of the Amer- 
icas Can Do to Promote Friendly Relations." 

Saturday, April 29. — "Annapolis Day:" By invitation of the Gov- 
ernor of Maryland. 



LAI'JN AMEiyCAN COt 
•i'RIES AND THE IN'i'ER^ 
PAELIAMENTAilY 0N|ON 

B3' Arthur Deerix Call 

Executive Secrrlar}!, American Group of the Inlrr/xii-lifnnentari/ Union 

THE Interparliamentary Union exists for the purpose of 
"uniting in common action the members of all pai'liaments 
constituted in national groups in order to bring about the 
acceptance in their respective countries, either by legisla- 
tion or by international treaties, of the principle that differences 
between nations should be settled by arbitration or in other ways 
either amicable or judicial. It likewise has for its aim the study of 
other questions of international law, and in general, of all problems 
relating to the development of peaceful relations between nations." 
Organized in Paris in October, 1888, upon the initiative of William 
Randal Cremer, member of the British Parliament, assisted l)y 
Frederic Passy of the French Chamber of Deputies, there were, in 
1913, 22 nations in the Union. These nations were: Austria, Bel- 
gium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, 
Greece, Holland, Hungary, Japan, Norway, Portugal, Rumania, 
Russia, Servia, Spain, »Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the Ignited 
States. The membership at that time included 886 senators, 2,131 
representatives, 223 members of single chamber parliaments, 3,331 
altogether. The figures for the United States were: 36 Senators, 228 
Representatives, 1 former Member of the Congress; total, 265. Con- 
ferences have been held as follows: 1888, Preliminary Conference, 
Paris, Grand Hotel, October 31; 1889, First Conference, Paris, Hotel 
Continental, June 29-30; 1890, Second Conference, London, Hotel 
Metropole, July 22-23; 1891, Third Conference, Rome, The Capitol, 
November 3-7; 1892, Fourth Conference, Berne, Chamber of the 
National Council, August 29-31; 1894, Fifth Conference, The Hague, 
Senate Chamber, wSeptember 4-6; 1895, Sixth Conference, Brussels, 
wSenate Chamber, August 12-15; 1896, Seventh Conference, Budapest, 
Senate Chamber, September 23-24-26 ; 1897, Eighth Conference, Brus- 
sels, Chamber of Representatives, August 6-9-11; 1899, Ninth Con- 
ference, Christiania, Chamber of the Storthing, August 2; 1900, 
Tenth Conference, Paris, Senate Chamber, July 31-August 1-3; 1903, 
Eleventh Conference, Vienna, Lower Chamber. September 7-9; 1904, 
38 



I 




Ph 


s~.- 


PS 


c«t4 


w 


^01 ^. o 


^ 


'-' S'^' 


g 


5:'r«' 


H 


5"a 


a 




H 




fe 






^ t. 




S t P 


w 


< Ti § 
c) 'Sec 




cs 


d 2: a 


w^ 


t: P.O 


71 OJ 


f^g 


«PJ v! 


zS 


Qj t- 


Ss- 


•- 






1X2 


'nj" 5 


S^ 




■^ .. ^ 


2;S 


.3 '^- 


w;d 


Ef-gS 


wo 


=^J# 


W.r- 


Qj .— 


2: - 


5i— K- 


Sz; 


^ r-"^ 


3 "t^ --* 


kQ 




CO 


'^.W « 


'-'(DC 
^ t- 


OS 




&^h^ 


^ s s 


po 


IS ?"=* 


a 




'■ S-S 


WW 


"53^^ 


Oo 


^K .. 


zo 


C •- a^ 


<:^ 


ss-a 


Q(» 


2S5 




l"5 




S 0. S 


z:>. 


Si 






cc >> ft 


Sec og 


^ 


^ ojcir 


w 


0) > « 




<; 


c S £r2 




SwSs 


w 


2_'^o 


a 


^lll 


e 


w 


ilii 




feO a. 


'/; 


w ^ 1 ..: 


r: 


"3£ = 


X 


Itp 


■— 


w^ c — 



40 'I'HK PAN AMKItlCAN ITNION, 

Twelfth (Conference, St. Louis, U. S. A., Festival Hall of the Exhibi- 
tion, September 12-14; 1905, Thirteenth (conference, Brussels, Cham- 
ber of Deputies, August 28-30; 1906, Fourteenth Conference, Lon- 
don, Royal Gallery, Houses of Parliament, eJuly 23-25; 1908, Fif- 
teenth (\jnference, Berlin, Chamber of the Reichstag, September 17- 
19; 1910, Sixteenth Conference, Brussels, Chamber of Deputies, 
August 30-September 1; 1912, Seventeenth Conference, Geneva, 
September 18-20; 1913, Eighteenth Conference, The 4rague, Cham- 
ber of the States General, September 3-5; 1921, Nineteenth Confer- 
ence, Stockholm, House of Parliament, August 16-20. 

The work of the LTnion is organized under the Interparliamentary 
Bureau, the Interpai4iamentary Council, and an executive commit- 
tee. The Bureau, originally established at Berne, moved to Brussels 
in 1909. During the war it was located at Christiania, Norway. It 
is now at 2 Chemin de la Tour de Champel, Geneva. The manage- 
ment of the Bureau is in the hands of the Secretary General, Dr. 
Christian L. Lange, formerly a member of the Norwegian Parliament. 
The duties of the Bureau are to keep the lists of the members of the 
national groups; to encourage their formation; to serve as an inter- 
mediary between all the groups in their relations to each other; to 
prepare the questions to be submitted to the Council and the Con- 
ference, and to distril)ute in due time the necessary documents; to 
execute the decisions of the Council and of the Conferences; and 
to keep the archives. Since 1899 the work of the Bureau and of the 
Union in general has been directed by an Inter])arliamentarv Council 
composed of two delegates from each national group. The first 
permanent chairman of the Council was M. Auguste Beernaert, 
Belgian Prime Minister. Mr. Beernaert dying in 1912, Lord Wear- 
dale, formerly Hon. Philip Stanhope, was elected J^resident. The 
members of the Interparliamentary (\)un('il, elected at the Stock- 
holm Conference, are as follows: 

President: Rt. Hon. Lord Weardale. 

MEMBERS. 

Germany: Messrs. Schiicking and R. Eickhoff. 

United States: Messrs. Burton and Slayden. 

Austria: Messrs. Mataja and Waber. 

Canada: Messrs. Dandurand and wSmeaton White. 

Denmark: Messrs. Moltesen and Borgbjerg. 

Finland: Messrs. Mantere and Procope. 

Great Britain: Lord Weardale and Sir James Agg-Gardner. 

Greece: Messrs. Baltazzi and Typaldo Bassia. 

Hungary: Messrs. de Miklos and Count Paul Teleki. 

Italy: Messrs. vSchanzer and Belotti. 

Norway: Messrs. Michelet and Mowinckel. 

Japan: Messrs. Tanaka and Nozoye. 



THE 1NTI•:HPA1;LTA.MK^■TA1;Y TXIOX. 41 

Holland : Messrs. Koolen and Kutgers. 

Rumania: Messrs. Etienjie Ciceo Popp and Conslantin llalaceano. 
,Serb-Croate-Slovene State: Messrs. Vouktchevitch and Choumen- 
kovitch. 

wSweden: Messrs. Baron Adelsward and Branting. 
Switzerland: Messrs. Scherrer-Fiillemann and de Menron. 

HONORARY MEMBERS (aRT. 1:5 OF THE STATUTES). 

Messrs. Baron Descamps-David (Belgium), llorst (Norway). 
Fallieres (France), Baron de Plener (Austria), Bartholdt (America). 

The chairman of the Council is ex officio chairman of the executive 
committee. The other members of the executive committee are: 

Rt. Hon. Lord Weardale (Great Britain), president: Messrs. 
Baron Adelsward (Sweden), Burton (America), Schanzer (Italy), 
Scherrer-Fiillemann (Switzerland). 

The Stockholm meeting was attended by representatives from 
Sweden. Great Britain, Holland, Japan, Italy, Norway, Switzerland. 
Germany, Finland, Denmark, Austria, and the United States. The 
American party was made up as follows: vSenator William B. Mc- 
Kinley of Illinois, president of the American group, and Senators 
Joseph T. Robinson of Ai'kansas and Thomas A. Walsh of Montana; 
Representatives Andrew J. Montague of Virginia. Alben W. Barkley 
of Kentucky, Edwin B. Brooks of Illinois, and Fred A. Britten of 
Illinois: former Representative James L. Slayden of Texas: 
Arthur Deerin Call, executive secretary of the American group: 
Mrs. Montague and Mrs. Call. 

The following resolution, submitted by Mr. Slayden of the United 
States and adopted unanimously by the Stockholm Conference, will 
be of special interest to every American Republic. The resolution 
reads: 

Since there are 22 sovereign States included in North, South, and Central America; 
since only two of these, the I'nited States of America and Canada, are associated 
with the Interparliamentary Union; since, in this criss of the world's affairs, it is 
extremely important that the Union and its influence shall be developed as rai)idly 
and broadly as possible; and since the association of these 20 new ,o:roui)s would 
advance materially the develo]iment of the Union; therefore, and in view of these 
facts, be it 

Resolved. That the secretary general of the Interparliamentary Union be directed 
to extend and in its name, through their presiding officers, to the members of the 
national legislatures of the following countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile 
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Repul)lic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, 
Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua. Panama. Paragua> , Peru, El Salvador, Uruguay, and 
Venezuela, invitations to form national groups for associalion with the Interparlia- 
mentary Union. 

Upon the initiative of Senator William li. McKinley. president of 
the United States of America group, a lunnber of the European 
parhaments have actively promoted the Conference on the Limita- 
tion of Armament now in session at Wasliington. 



42 



THE PAN AMERICAN" UNION. 



> 

<1 

I 
o 




< 

is; 

M 

O 

M 
P) 

m 



— — "; cc ^ r* lO t^ o t^ 



»— I t^ O O Oi CD Ol CO ^ "o' 
O«-l<MG0CCOi0r0--CQ0 



CCCCOrPIviO'ft'Of-H- 

■ o c*ic 

JOO- 



Ot^OiOi-HCCCOC 



05CCTt<i-i(NC0C^OO'^ 



t-- a: X ^ : 



- a: -. - - - - 

*-'^ ?2 — Z? ^^ ^ — ^ ?^3 *^ 



o cC' o M- X -^ 1- c^ ot ro 
o M — y: '^3 x ■- j: Tj" ^ 
o c^t I-- o". — T'-t T'- o rn o 
o"-— "^ -r --^' 7-i ' -* -r ^"cTcT 
C -^ ' - -r :m — — t- c^ i^ 
e r: c^j c- — x tM -H ^ ^ 

x''-^ X -"-Tor" 



O '-^ ^ 






C "5J- 1- -. ^ I* t- : 



c^ oc 'T ;r; c; ex; 2C ic ^ 



; o cc ic -r o 
: t-- c; c^ — i^ >: 






g--^^' 



1-1 -^ WrH 



g ^' S 5 :t ^' rr "■"js"^" 

CC CC O OC X' ?C' -^ '-? >o ^ 



coooi— ico;Cc:cr;tC'-iS 



SIC X T- CS I- -^ ,c CI t^ 

GO -^ -^ w t>- 1^^-— raTc^r^ 



: ut -j: -N 3^ -^ o h- ;c c: 

:rcoiMi^-Trc5ooia> 






;^ 



O^O^L*^^ O .-H CO O (M :S 

CO o Oi oi t^'^t--"o'^o'^-^'cr 

t>0;COO:^Hcoot^?i 



ir: lo f 3: c; r^ -r CO o Oi 
^ ^ ro ^ »-':: -.D K o oi x 



otcorooxt^c::cc 
oai-^^-— "cOwO — r- 

CO O O :D LO Gi t>» X t^ uO 
^ ȣ: ro o o t^ CO ;c; cr- oi 



o o (M -^ -O c; o c; 3: 31 
ocJJO"rrc*«c:oxai 
c;orocot'-'~''f^r---f 






O C^) Tf -^ o w CO i^ -^ 3J 

8:£ ^ iC OS '-< ■^ o^co^oT 
lO O .-H r^ (M .-r " - 



; •-< t^ c** »-c CO lo ■" 



LO ex O O: a: QC C^ X CO Ci 

xciCo:-f>-o(Ncscococo 

r^^x'^-H^cTt -*"x''»rf CfTco'^io" 
t^r^co(Nco— cox^y 
C0"O:Ct^r0:D^C0--r: 



C^ <N iC -.S C: C^ ^ X uo iC 



: c. -X ^^ 'I* cs r-< w lO o 

IC^CSCO— COOi-^rt*^ 

< X c^j r: r^ r^ X '^ ^ X 



=. - --:: - — I X o 

O — C-. -r -r -^ CO CO' t^ ct: 



X X 

_ , _;wX.-<iocacotc" 



s -5 



cj u. c3 : 



: 5f K g . ■=■ 






= >~ i] S^ ttj g;S 



4 



LATIN AMERICAN VOV 

Jl=zii;i\^ii A'Li Ny Vy l\k W i^d iJ. ® 3 @ ^ 



FWM 'i'i^'' 



THE foreign commerce of the 20 Latin American Republics 
for the year 1920 amounted to $5,917,681,642, an increase 
of $883,520,843 over the preceding year. Imports increased 
from $1,947,948,717 in 1919 to $2,679,579,566 in 1920, and 
exports from $3,086,212,082 to $3,238,102,076. 

All Latin Aincricn — 10 years' trade. 





Imports. 


Exports. 


Total. 


1911 


$1, 159, 490, 516 
1,242, 512,57s 
1,321,861,199 
907, 841, 133 
809,925,700 
1,040,662,174 
1,367,211,849 
1,494,131,101 
1,947,948,717 
2, 679, 579, 566 


$1,283,232,640 
1,573,533,307 
1,552,750,952 
1,275,312,612 
1,658,469,301 
1,866,966,627 
2,062,424,202 
2,409,036,805 
3, 086, 212, 082 
3, 238, 102, 076 


$2,442,723,1.56 


1912 


2, 816, 045, 885 


1913 


2,874,612,151 


1914 


2, 183, 153, 745 


1915 . . 


2,468,395,001 


1916 


2,907,628,801 


1917 


3,429,636,051 


1918 


3,903,167,90*) 


1919 


5, 034, 160, 799 


1920 


.5,917,681,642 







The table shows that in the period from 1911 to 1920 Latin Ameri- 
can foreign trade more than doubled in value. A very considerables 
part of this increase was due to increases in commodity prices and a 
part to a change in the bases of statistical valuation of exports and 
imports made by some of the countries, especially by Argentina, 
LTrugua}^, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Making due allowance for both, 
the fact remains that the volume of imports and of exports by 
quantities made a large gain in the 10 years, which included the 4 
years of the German war, and that the volume by values made a 
much larger gain. 

Especially great was the gain of $2,000,000,000 made in the last 
two years. On the side of imports it was $1,185,448,465, and on 
the side of exports, $829,065,271. This difference between exports 
and imports of $356,383,194 gives rise to the suspicion that some 
countries of Latin America may have overbought themselves in the 
two years. The figures for the part of the year 1921 available show 
that the idea is not without foundation, since in the earlier months 
of 1921 there was a large falling off in imports, although as the year 
advanced increased importation has developed. The buying power 
of the Latin American countries is more quickly responsive to produc 

4o 



44 THK PAX AMERICAN UNION. 

tion and export than in countries like the United States of broack'r 
and more diversified industry. When exports are larger and prices 
good, Latin America buys to the limit with a tendency to go beyond, 
but when exports drop it stops buying, often more abruptly tlian is 
necessary. All this is because there is no broad diversified industry 
to take up in one place the shock that occurs in another. Tlie 
response to falling exports is almost immediate, and so it is to over- 
l)uying, which seems to have occurred in 1919 and 1920. 

EXPORTS. 

Li (/eneral. — The exports of the Latin-American countries, while 
large in volume and of great value, are comparatively few in mimbei- 
and they differ much among the 20 countries. 

The principal exports of the countries are as follows : 

Mexico. — Gold, silver, antimony, mercury, copper, lead. zinc, 
mineral oils, sisal, hides, and skins. There are some exports of 
rubber, woods, peas, and beans. 

Guatemala. — Coffee, hides, woods, bananas. 

Salvador. — Coffee, silver, bananas. 

Nicaragua. — Coffee, woods, rubber, sugar. 

Costa Rica. — Coffee, bananas, gold, silvei-. 

Panama. — Bananas, ivory nuts, coconuts, rub})er. 

Cuba. — Sugar, molasses, distillates, tobacco, iron and copper ore, 
woods, fruits, hides, and skins. 

Domiiiicd)! Republic. — Sugar, cacao, tol)acco, coffe<'. bananas, and 
hides. 

Haiti -Coffee, cacao, honey, cotton, cotton seed, and logwood. 

Argentina. — Frozen beef and mutton, hides, wool, sheepskins, goat- 
skins, bristles, canned meats, ))eef scrap, tallow, ])utter, grease, bones, 
wheat, flour, corn, linseed, oats, hay, bran, and f[uebrach(). 

Bolivia. — Tin, silver, bismuth, copper, rubber, coco, wolframite. 

Brazil. — Coffee, rubber, beef, hides, yerl)a mate, cacao, tobacco, 
skins, sugar,, gold, manganese, cotton, cotton seed, bran, monazite 
sand. 

Chile. — Nitrate of soda, iodine, copper, silvcj', fruits and giains, 
beans, hides, wool, furskins. 

Colomhia. — Coffee, })ananas, cattle, tobacco, ivory nuts, rubV)ei-, 
cacao. 

Ecuador. — Cacao, ivory nuts, rubber, cofl'ee, gold, hides. 

Paraguay. — Hides, beef, quebracho, yerba mate, tobacco, fruits. 

Peru. — Copper, vanadium, wolframite, mineral oils, rubber, sugar, 
cotton, wool, guano, hides. 

Uru(jua)/. — Wool, hides, ])ecf, tallow, liair, wheat, floui-. 

Venezuela. — Coffee, cacao, rubber, liitlcs, goatskins, gold, jueats, 
copper, sugar. 



LATIN AMEEICAN FOREIGN TRADE IN 1920. 45 

IMPORTS. 

In general. — For most practical purposes we may consider the 
imports of the Latin American countries as identical in kind. What 
one buys, all buy. This is because the great bulk of the imports are 
finished manufactures. Subject to modifications in a few lines of 
goods arising from climatic differences and in a much less degree to 
modifications arising from cultural differences, the wants and needs 
of the peoples of all the countries for finished manufactures is the 
same, and in a general survey these diff'erences may be disregarded. 
Finished manufactures represent the bulk of imports, but not alb 
and it is outside of this classification that one finds radical differences 
in imports. Unfinished manufactures, raw and partly finished 
material for manufacture, manufacturing machinery, and primary 
foodstuff's represent the field of variation. Only the countries that 
have developed manufacturing industries import raw and partly 
finished materials; fibers, especially cotton and cotton yarns; metals, 
in pigs, sheets, and bars; industrial chemicals; leathers, and ma- 
chinery, and tools for manufacturing. None of the countries are 
entirely devoid of some form of manufacture. Boots, shoes, and 
harness are fabricated in all the countries, and bookbinding and 
upholstering are carried on. So the demand for leather exists in all. 
Domestic production supplies this demand for some, but by no 
means for all grades and kinds of leather, and consequently the 
missing kinds and grades and part finished leather goods find a sale 
in all the countries. Nevertheless, leather goods manufacture on a 
large scale is found in only four or five of the twenty countries and 
these countries are the chief importers of leather. So in furniture 
and carriage and other vehicle manufacture every country lias a 
more or less developed industry, although it may be on the small 
shop basis. But even these small shops require raw and part fin- 
ished materials and in general must import the same 

The importation of raw and partly manufactured materials is 
growing and will continue to grow with the development of the local 
manufacturing industries. The trade has already assumed consider- 
able proportions in such countries as Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, and 
Chile. Yet as compared with the importation of raw industrial 
materials by the manufacturing countries of Western Europe the 
Latin American market is quite a small one. It is also a very diver- 
sified one. There are radical differences in the raw material imports 
of Argentina and of Mexico, for example, and these differences must 
be studied in detail. 

There are even greater differences in the importation of foodstufls. 
The Latin American countries produce about three-fourths of all the 
77575— 22— Bull. 1 4 



46 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

coffee produced in the world and nearly the same proportion of cacao. 
These countries likewise furnish more than one half the exportable 
sugar supply, so one might naturally suppose that there was no 
market in any Latin American country for coffee, sugar, or chocolate, 
yet as a matter of fact, about one-half the countries import coffee, 
and more than half, sugar and chocolate. The reason is that not all 
the countries are producers, and some, while producing, do not 
produce in quantity sufficient for the domestic consumption. Brazil, 
with Colombia anil Venezuela and the countries surrounding the 
(^iribbean, except C\d)a and Panama, produce a surplus of coffee, 
but the other countries are coffee importers. Cuba, lirazil, Peru, the 
Dominican Republic, and occasionally Argentina, or some other, 
produce sugar for export, but there are always ten or more Latin 
American countries importing sugar. Only a few countries, Ecuador, 
Brazil, Venezuela, and the Dominican Republic chiefly, export cacao. 
Most of the remainder import chocolate and other cacao products. 

To a greater degree is there diversity in the staple foods, wheat, 
wheat flour, corn, beans, potatoes, salt meats, bacon, lard, and 
butter. Only two countries, Argentina and LTruguay, and occa- 
sionally Chile, produce wheat in exportable quantities and some 
produce not at all. Except these three, all others import large (juan- 
tities of wheat and flour and there is a constant market for the same. 
Most of the countries produce corn sufficient for domestic needs, 
although there may be occasional imports by all, except Argentina, 
Uruguay, and Chile. The first named is a large exporter of corn. 
Potatoes and beans are imported by nearly all the countries, although 
there is a considerable production of beans and on the west coast of 
South America, of potatoes. There is but little importation any- 
where of beef and mutton products. Nearly all the coi'nitries, ex- 
cept Cuba and Panama, are able to supply the home demand, and 
Argentina, LTruguay, Chile, Brazil, Colombia, and sometimes others 
export, Argentina and LTruguay on a large scale. It is different with 
hog products. Until recently no Latin American country possessed 
hogs sufficient to meet the domestic demand for pork, bacon and 
lard, but in the last few years Argentina has established the hog 
industry on an export basis, and ChiL, Uruguay, and Brazil are 
following in the same line. 

The same is true of dairy products, especially butter. Argentina, 
for 50 years a beef exporting country, now exports butter. Uruguay 
Chile, and Brazil are developing the dairy industry. All the other 
countries are importers of hog and dairy products. 

Elaborated foods, such as tinned meats, fish, fruits and vegetables, 
breakfast cereals, fruit sirups, jams, essences, spices, confectionery, 
wines, and liquors are imported by all the countries and may be 
included in the category of manufactured products, of which there 



I 



LATIN AMEPxICAN FOKEIGN TRADE IN 1920. 47 

is no essential difference in kind between the imports of one country 
and any other. 

All of these products, viz, industrial raw materials (to which coal 
for domestic use and fuel oils may be added), elaborated and pri- 
mary foods and beverages account, on the average, for about 20 
per cent of the total imports of all the countries, of which the larger 
part is represented by the interstate trade in foodstuffs, such as 
Peruvian sugar to Chile; Argentine and Uruguayan wheat and flour 
to Brazil; Brazilian coffee to Argentina, Uruguay and Chile; Col- 
oud)ian ])ecr to Pajiama and Cuba; and Brazilian and Paraguayan 
mate aiul fruits to Argentina and TTruguay. The chief food imports, 
outside of interstate imports, are flour, from the United States 
into Brazil and the countries to the north of Brazil, and salt fish, 
from the United States, Canada, and the Scandinavian countries, 
into all Latin America. Most of the mdustrial raw materials, a 
trade in the aggregate not large, are imports from the United States. 
About SO per cent of Latin American imports are finished manu- 
factures derived from the United States and Western Europe, and 
comprehends textiles, clothing, leather manufactures, furniture, 
household utensils, office appliances, tools, hardware, machinery, 
especially the small shop types, agricultural implements, railway 
supplies, engines, motors, glassware, pottery, electrical apparatus, 
paper, mining tools, and the like. As has been said above the 
importation of finished manufactures in kind and qualities is, for 
all practical purposes, uniform as to all the countries. The varia- 
tion is in quantity, the smaller and less developed countries import- 
ing less and the larger and more developed more of the same kinds 
of goods. In textiles and clothing there are some slight variations 
due to climatic differences, the tropical countries taking a smaller 
proportion of the heavier weaves than Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile, 
but the variations of trade in this respect are much less than the 
variations of climate might indicate. 

The variations in imports of finished manufactures is almost en- 
tirely confined to the class including tools, apparatus, and machinery 
intended for special industrial uses. Mining machinery and tools 
have their chief market in Mexico, Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Colombia, 
Central America, Venezuela, and Ecuador; agricultural machinery 
in Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, and Brazil. So the countries that 
produce sugar, especially Cuba, Peru, and Brazil, import sugar- 
mill machinery, and the coffee and cacao producing countries— Brazil, 
Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Central America, the Dominican 
Republic, and Haiti— coffee and cacao cleaning machinery. Argentina, 
Uruguay, Paraguay, Chile, Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia import 
machinery for meat packing, and Argentina and some others for 
butter and^cheese making. 



48 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 





« 




H 




z 




p 




o 


, 


o 






P5 


r-) 


o 


tf 


(U 


W 


« 

^ 


o 


1 


U 


H 


r^> 


P 


•^ 


<{ 


1— ( 


« 


-^< 


H 


w 




l-J 


Pm 


ri 


O 


H 


^ 


CO 
H 


O 


tf 


H 


O 

CM 


|3 


^<1 


n 


W 


M 




P^ 




H 


o 


ro 




M 


(ii 


p 


w 








<«) 




» 








H 




<! 




»-f 



OOO^-OCIWCOOIQO 
OOOC000O'£)O0:'00 



CO 



ooocpc^iooocoioio 

Oi0C0»OcDC(0t1*OO^ 



ooo 



00 lO -rt<O00 o 

r^OJooor- o 
c^Tc^cq'oTco'o' 






■<*< 05 Ci -^ 05 »0 

Ort* OCOb- IM 

■"■^ lO CO »0 CO 
ITD I— 1 lO O »0 



Tt4 CD CO 

eo-H CD 

CO t> >-i 

— Tcd"-^ 



o oeo --H CD 
o o -- -^ 



.-1 oc 



^ M CD CO 



SOOOOQCOOOlO 

r o"^ -^©"cTi-ro" r^ q" 

SOiOi-HOfMCOOOiO 

r^D'oTcD* cTifTi-T lo'f-To 



a>ooocoO'*ix>'i-*»c 

GCcD^I^QOiOt~-COi-' 
Tt^'^iCOCOOi-tOOtNt— 00 

CD «D 



^I^^^QO 



Oifor— »oooc^"^0'-H 



^ C^ -^ lO O i-* CD t^ c 



s^s 



^ -^ r- <-i fo o 

C5 CC CO CD C-1 O-J 

tH"* O C^ »0 1-H 

cDco-^or-^tzT 

00»0 (M O -H 
COf-.<MOOOCO 



OOCOOCOOO-^OO'M^ 

oocDr-r- ic^cD(N»oo 

OOcDCl^Ot^COCOO 



o o 05 r^ CO oi "-H CO Oi 
OOlO cocococ^c^co 
CO ■'P 1-t ^ **< C^ tO c^ c^ 



OCDO»0»0r-I^Cii-HC^ 

ooocs-^»or-»'^'*<co 



.<r-coc<i'-'i-«0 

OOO-^OOcOiOiOCOOi 



SO^-CO»OC^t--.<NO 



o'^co'c^'qo'go" 



)"*o^coiooot^iMm 

)C005'<J*t^CO<NiOaJ-^ 
3i-i{Nr^-*OOOcDCOO 



5 r- oi OC' t^ w — I o 

^ 05 O -^ lO t^ O CD 

- as Tf t- i> CO CO ■^ 
rio'c^r^co-^oT^'" 



) N I-H fH I-H r- CO (M 



5OOC0OOcD< 
3QCOOQOCD! 



Jt^C^OOt^f 



^O"— 'loo^ot^c 



?58 



iir^:^: 



OOi ooo O"^ CO 1/3 OS CO 

OOCO-n^O'^cOcOi-i"^ 
l-^iOr-iOOfM-^CO^t-- 

oTc^cd'c^ crco"c^ (/T'-Tio' 

i-HOOcCOiOt^CiCO'— 'CD 

cT cTirTi-rTjH'i-ri-raro' 



o o cc o »o c 

co'irTo'cr" ' 
(yj (M coco c 



lO— iocoO'«t<r^(Ncoco 

0(NN»OOCstQC^-^C<0 
lOCOU^i— <OCOQ005C^GO 

co't-^if^T'i^o'c^-^rjr C/T^ 

i-HCO—tCOOCOC^C^COO 
■^t~-Oi-iOiiCcDO'-^cD 

"■r-Tr-rccT" co" ^^lO'io 



5 W^M 



(N 



^c^ 



;:'S 



00 "* 



?15 



=?3 



oo 

5? = 



^cooi-^cc^O^co 

> »0 OS CO — I uO O Oi '^ 

rio'og"cr-^"*'»o"co'c^ 

50000l>C^»-H»O00CO 



c^o 



CO O O CD C4 •■ 



CDGCt-^CDai*0«— i"— ''-*CO 
COiOCDOKMOr^COGCC-l 
OC^^<-DOOC0 1-*^0i 

o" co'co'o'ori-H'Tiro'co'o^ 

QtOcD<-tl>C^«-*COO'^ 



C3 t- c3 d'-^J 



3-5 a S'^., 
^ a^ S o m «-2 



as 



•^q 






1- O t.^ O " C3 » 



§3 
t-i a; 






O £ 



>^ - 

03 <p 

p. ^^ 
.S Za 

cs a Eib- 



LATIN AMERICAN iOREiGN TEADE IN 1920. 



49 





H 




Z 




t3 




O 


, 


O 






A 




o 


tf 


(u 


w 


^ 


S 


M 


^ 




o 


1 


f ) 


M 




fi 


o 


■< 




p5 


u 


H 


K 


pc« 


" 


O 


^ 




O 


{21 
O 




M 


CO 


H 


H 


P 

m 


O 


M 




Pi 


G 


H 

M 


< 
o 




P!J 












< 




?: 








H 



^'^ -^ o 00 oi t^ Oi 3i i-t CI 
.-I -(J* O t^ ^ t- 



) -rr CT>0 



f5'<Ero"cD t-^I^'*^ t-^ GC CO 

n<t-c^c^c^oa>^oot- 



fO^W^rH^n-.C'l! 



e^ 



CO 



;c» 



Oicoicot^cO'^aicco 

I^OOci-OOOOi»OOi'-4CO 
(NOOiO^CCCOi-ii-HOi 

o'^CxToT-^CO'to'Oi N 00 lO 



O '^ CJ Oi !>■ -^ O 

S^ 1-4 (N £>- lO O 
005 00 COOiO 

OO^'T^^C^ CO o 
r-1 rfi O O "^ wo 

_ ,-1 O 1-H O: '^f C^ 



CO — o c o »c O I 

. . 05 o o 'r; o CO o 

StCOiOOCOOClO 
, O IC ',0 r-t IC-H CO 



oo't'osoo'r;^ 



«:DcoO '*0«00 cOfhO coco , -_ 

-* ^ CD 1-H O O t-^ C<1 »0 h* OOOi ^ 1- 

C0i-H000iOCC^03rPiM — '"* 

c^t^c^c^To^T-Tc^ 1-4 1-t CO CO ^ 

GO r- CC C^ O t^ CO Oi t— *o -*■ 
OCr-'iOOOi-HOcDiOO 

irToTi^rcrotroo'crco'io'iO 



O O O 1-H O O 00 O O O Ol <— I 

OO-^^OO-fCOO Oi'— < 

OOcD'-'OOt~*Or-iC "^ 

OOtDOiOOS-^OCOO CO 

Ot-iOOiO^CO»C<NX) "-H 



(NOiOC-lOOOcC^C^ 
COC^C«C^O--OCO'^S 

ooo-^ococ^co 



cDOOO000COI^I>O 
CDOOO'000;1:;t--0 

(Nooocsost^oocor- 



OOcDOOOON'-tOiO^ 

:D"*COOCO(MI^^OCD 
N'^CiOCOcDOOr^OiT' 



.— iiOC^O'iOCOd*^'— 'CD 
iC'^COCO'**t^dOt>-'t^ 

coc^ci^'-* a>T-<:o 



Oir-oo-*'^coocD-* 

-^COOOCNC^-XOg^-^rS 
05COOOcDC^"t'-^iOcO 

\e^C^at^-^a^-^C>^':0 CD 

--J ■ to O O CO t-- 1- *£ CC 00 
COOO'-^OOCD'^OO'CC^ 

ccTco c^'^ .-rco'<-^'O^T-* m"" 



OOOOOQ-^0»0 
OOfM-rOOCiOOiO 
OO00iCOOOOi-tO 

o^o^co'oi o o >o c ■^ o 
OOOl'— <oo»ooooo 

O'^C^COOCACOO'^CD 

i-rTcTc^r'^ i-Tci CO 



c^i-t; 



COIM 05 Ci 



,-H-»O'^OC000t^»-4'-* C^OO t^co 
COcDOC10C<»l>»cDt-00 — ■" '^'^^ 
C^COOOi-HOcDCOcD-^t^ 



^^cot^o^^-^-^co CO 
»-icoi-":^Jc<»coc^i>coco o 

»rr co'cd'^i-T rH cr> 



CDiOiOOi-HOOOtOt^Oi 
" -i^CO 

■ CO *o 



NOQOCSOSfO'-'CO 

oeooot^N'-*^c" ^ 



iCI>-00050«-HcCc 

cDco^ooot^i; — ^- 

i-H O CO CO :D O t 

co^c^T-T" 



C^COQC^0lt^^dc 



OiCOOcOC003tDt^t~~-' 
CO-^Ot-COOii-lC^CO' 



cD'^OO'i'C^'-^r-' 



Oi -^ Q CD CD » 



00 GO COi-t -T" 



00 CO 00 C^ CO c<» 



i-t -T" 



«ooo 
»rt CO 



0>t^CDcDCOOiO"^t^CO 
t>.CD0it^iO00C0(NC'lO 
OOCO'-«COCDC500cD'-iCD 



lO r-l tO CO .-H 1— 1 O C<» 



C-l f* CD CD O: I~^ 

oi o ■«r CO o '-' 



;0CG:C'~ "" ■"' """ 

5 t^ CD C 



ooocGJOC-rociO <— <(n 



O O l:^ O O C 



; o cD< 



oc<Jc; 

CO "OL 



^^_ , , i-it>- Ir-O 

DOO -^t^ O lO '<J'0 Ot^ COi-H 23'^ 



COi-HO^'^OcD'^'M' 

lOCO'^t^OiO^O' 

i-iOl'^C^OI>-^COtOO 

-^ic* T-T co'o'r-r co^oTc^rco" 

GOi-iO'rC^'^I-'O:*^'^ 

oT-^ co'oo'^o'f-t CO r* t^ t* 



»OC^i-i 



OOCDOCO-^Ci OOOCl OO CDO 
OO0C^t^t^'**OO(M (NO "^"^ 



t— 0?bOC^COMOOCO OO-H 



(MC^iOCDaiC^»-tCiOiOiO 



C^ CO CI CO CD CO 05 CD -^ rH CJ O 



,-1 »o c^ th rr 



icD^ 
5 CI CO 

:<Nco 

rt>-"co 

. C GO 

■t Ci -^ 
"cD^cD* 
COfH 



^iMiOO 
OscD '^»-H 
00:Di-HOO 

o'o'oc^co'' 

CD ^ ■ 

CO CO 

'irTos CO »o 



O) t^ O GO 00 CD CD '-' CO O CC f-l 



4 to -^ CO CD 



Oi (N I> i-H 



CJl o t~- o 



i-H O 



i^o ooo 



So 5 



« 3 2 

IT} t; 03 



C3 
03 

a 



-<a 



•3'c: ■■5 s?.-- 



a''3 i 
t o S j; o "^^ c ® J- 



05 s 

Sou 



Ph -;1WKoaW^pHt^> 



50 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 



DISTRIBUTION OF TRADE. 

Exports. — ^The United States is the chief market for Latin-American 
products and has been such for over a generation, with a constant!}^ 
increasing importance. Great Britain, Germany, and France have 
been the chief rivals with the United States and, up to about the time 
of the Civil War, these three countries enjoyed almost a monopoly 
in Latin- America produce. But owing to the great industrial develop- 
ment of the United States since about 1875, with which the like de- 
velopment of the three rival European countries, great though it was, 
bears no comparison, the United States became the leading market 
for raw materials. None of the European countries progressed as 
did the United States in the 30 or 40 years before 1914, and it was 
this progress that drew the raw materials of Latin America to its 
mills. Had German industrial progress been in truth the marvel 
that Germanophiles claimed for it, Germany, and not the United 
States, would have absorbed Latin- American exports. The base of 
German industry, as it was likewise the base of American, was coal 
and iron. From 1865 to 1913 Germany increased its coal production 
near tenfold and its iron production twice as much. These figures 
are impressive in any event, but not quite so much so if we remember 
that for the period Germany's coal and iron production only kept 
pace with world's production. From 1865 to 1892 it was a little 
ahead, but after 1892, a little behind world production. 

The marvel of modern industrial progress was that which the world 
as a whole made in the last quarter of the nineteenth and beginning 
of the twentieth century. Not alone England, France, and Germany, 
but also Italy, Austria, Russia, Belgium, India, Japan, and especially 
Canada and some of the Latin American States made wonderful 
progress in manufacturing industries. But greatei- than any other 
was the progress made by the United States. 

Germany increased its production of coal tenfold, but the United 
States more than twentyfold. Germany increased its iron produc- 
tion 18^ fold, but the United States more than 36J fold. 

Coal and iron production in tons {2,240 pounds). 





Coal. 


Iron. 




United 
States. 


Germany. 


United rortninv 
states. t.ermanj. 


1865 

1875 

1913 


24,790,000 
48,200,000 
504,520,000 


28,330,000 
48,530,000 
273,650,000 


845,000 975, 0(K) 
2,056,000 ' 2,129,000 
30,966,000 i 18,987,000 

1 



At the close of the Franco-Prussian War Germany led the United 
States in population (1870, United States, 38,558,371; 1871, Germany, 
41,158,792) and in nearly every line of industry, except agriculture. 



LATIN AMERICAN I'ORElOK TRADE IN lt>20. 51 

Forty-three years later the United States popidatioii was 50 per cent 
greater and its industrial, in particular its manufacturing, output, 
on the whole was far more than twice as great. In fact, the manu- 
facturing plants of the United States in 1913 were about equal to the 
plants of England, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the other 
countries of western Europe taken all together. 

It is necessary to appreciate these facts, otherwise there can be no 
understanding of the position of the United States and of western 
Europe in the trade of Latin America. It is not sentiment, nor even 
proximity, much less is it ships, or loans, or banks, or any other of 
the agencies of commerce that lies at the bottom of the fact that the 
United States is commercially linked to Latin America in a manner 
comparable only to the commercial union that exists among the 
States within its own boundaries. Mexico, Cuba, and at least 10 
other Latin American countries are bound with trade bonds to the 
United States as closely as are Texas, Massachusetts, and Iowa. In 
fact, the United States consumes now and did consume before the 
war a larger proportion of the marketable products of 14 Latin 
American countries than it did or does consume of the marketable 
products of Iowa or Texas. The reason is that the United States is 
the one overshadowing market for what Latin America produces, 
consuming more and paying a better price than any other. 

But there is one exception, and that an important one, the United 
States does not import from Latin America food products of the kind 
that it itself produces in exportable quantities. It is not a market, 
nor likely to develop into one for many years to come, for wheat, 
corn, oats, beef, mutton, and pork. The same basic causes that 
underlie the fact that the United States is and must be the chief 
market for industrial raw material and tropical and semitropical 
foods, such as copper, hides, wool, oil, cane sugar, coffee, and cacao, 
also underlie the fact that Europe, especially England, is and must 
be the chief market for bread and meat. Given a population twice 
as great as it now has, with no corresponding increase in agricultural 
production, the United States would be a market for overseas bread 
and meat. 

All of this is obvious and need not be dwelt upon, but it is the failure 
to appreciate the obvious that accounts for most of the truly colossal 
misunderstandings that are current in the United States (and in 
Latin America also) respecting trade relations between the two. 

Only Argentina, Uruguay, and sometimes Chile produce brx^ad 
grains in exportable quantities. The same countries are the chief 
meat exporting countries, although Brazil, Paraguay, Colombia, and 
some others are becoming such. 

The exports of the two chief bread and moat exporting countries, 
Argentina and Uruguay, in 1920 valued $1,060,578,000. About (10 



52 



THE PAN AMERICAISr UNION. 



per cent of this amount was rejiresented by food, wheat, barley, rye, 
oats, flour, beans, beef, mutton, pork, bacon, cheese, and butter, 
and about 40 per cent by other exports, chiefly industrial raw material, 
wool, hides, skins, horns, hair, tankage, casings, casein, linseed, 
cotton seed, wine lees, quebracho, and mining products. Of the 
first group the United States took only about 3^ per cent, that is 
approximately 120,000,000 out of $600,000,000. Europe, chiefly 
England, took nearly all the remainder. 

But the story is very different as to the second group amounting 
to $400,000,000. Here the United States took near one-half. Take, 
for example, cattle and sheep products. In 1920 the export from 
Argentina of frozen beef was 4,549,679 quarters, of which England 
took 2,886,311 quarters, France 602,735, and the United States 
113,286. Chilled beef, total 629,213 quarters, England 619,390, 
United States 1,445. Frozen mutton, total 1,193,863, England 
1,120,143, United States 19,636. 

Compare these figures with the industrial products of the same 
animals. 



1 



Cattle hides, dry number. . 

Cattle hides, salt do 

Calf skins do 

Sheep skins tons. . 

Wool do 

Hair do 



Total. 



902, 160 

2, 129, 879 

205,471 

11,083 

97, 730 

2,292 



United 
States. 



England. 



466, 268 

1.494,955 

191,423 

2,363 

32,311 

1,162 



86,617 
238, 298 



Germany. 



13,603 



43,994 

116,791 

6,005 

217 

13,047 

50 



This fact runs throughout the whole of Latin American export 
trade, viz, that Europe takes the bread and meat and the United 
States the industrial products, including the by-products of the 
agricultural and grazing industries. 

The proportion of all Latin America exports taken by the United 
States in 1920 was a little over one-half, the other half being interstate 
and exports to Europe. The United States share of the exports of the 
northern group of States, Mexico, Central America, Cuba, Dominican 
Republic, and Haiti, was 83.50 per cent, and of the southern group. 
South America, only 32.61 per cent. 

Latin American exports — 1920, percentcgcs. 





United 
States. 


United 
ICingdom. 


France. 


Germany. 


All Latin America 


50.74 
83.50 
32.61 


18.90 
12.06 
22.63 


6.20 
3.55 
7.62 


1 63 


Northern group 

South America 


0.15 
2 44 







Note.— The German trade is by half or more an estimate. Exports to Germany direct were less than 
the estimates, but this fact is oftset by indirect exports via England, Holland, and the Scandinavian 
countries. 



LATIN AMERICAN FOREIGX TRADK IX K>20. 53 

The difforoiice in percentages of exports to the United States 
l)etwcen the northern and southern groups is due in some measure 
to rehitive proximities and older and better established trade rela- 
tions with the northern group. Of equal consequence is the fact 
that the number of United States citizens in the northern group 
exceeds many times the number in South America. But chiefly 
the difference in percentages is due to the fact that the exports of 
the northern group are all industrial raw materials and tropical 
foods while those of some of the principal exporting countries of 
South America, especially of Argentina and Uruguay, are Temperate 
Zone grains and meat products, which have their logical market in 
Europe. 

Imforts. — The same cause that made the United States preponder- 
ant in Latin American export trade made it also the chief source 
from which Latin American imports came. The enormous increase 
in industrial enterprises in the United States, especially in manu- 
facturing, in the twentieth century and the last two or three decades 
of the nineteenth, irresistibly drew the raw materials of Latin America 
to the United States and it was this increase in manufacturing, far 
outstripping Europe, that made the United States likewise prepon- 
derant in supplying Latin American needs for manufactures. But 
the two events did not synchronize. Preponderance in Latin 
American export trade was attained 30 years or more before the 
United States went to the front on the Latin American import side. 
Li fact, it had only just reached the premier position a year before 
the outbreak of the war, i. e., in 1913. That year it passed Great 
Britain. It had passed Germany and France many years before. 
Not only did the two prepondrances not synchronize but the one was 
not the cause, nor in the initial stages in any marked degree, the 
provocation, of the other. Both grew out of the increase in manu- 
facturing industries in the United States responsive to the domestic 
wants and needs of the United States itself. In fact, it was the 
constantly progressing standard of living, especially in the consump- 
tion of manufactures, that created manufacture and thus drew the 
rubber, hides, metal, and other raw materials to the American mills. 
It was the same progressing standard that drew the increased supplies 
of sugar, coffee, cacao, and bananas. 

American manufacturing industry was the creature of domestic 
demands. So was British, German, French, and all other. Ex- 
porting is an afterthought, and importing raw materials for the -sole 
or chief purpose of exporting the same as finished manufactures 
a yet later thought. Europe arrived at both stages sooner than the 
United States. Sooner, not because of greater enterprise, foresight, 
or commercial acumen, but because the domestic needs of Europe 



54 THE PAN AMEKTCAN UNION. 

were sooner supplied and export became a necessity there earlier 
than here. 

No country has ever attained the position of entire self-sufficiency 
in all lines of manufacture. The United States has covered the 
broadest field, but half the industries of the United States (half in 
number, not half in volume of output) have passed the point where 
they more than supply domestic demands. Many fall below and 
others are practically nonexistent. For these there is no real basis 
for exporting. It is money and effort wasted to seek out the Latin 
American or other foreign field when the United States continues 
to absorb large quantities of identical manufactures from England, 
France, or Germany. Especially is this true in cases where the 
United States tariff rates represent a considerable augmentation — 
as almost without exception they do — in the cost to the consumer 
in the United States. Upon what basis can an American manu- 
facturer expect to compete in Argentina or China on equal terms 
with the European, when at home he can not compete except he be 
sheltered by a high tariff rate ^ Or, to give another phase, why 
should he seek out a foreign market at a lower price when the home 
market at a higher price is unsatisfied ? 

Great Britain, and next France and Germany, prior to the war, had 
more nearly attained self-sufficiency, i. e., they had a larger propor- 
tion of industries that had passed the point of domestic saturation. 
Many of the modern industries of Great Britain have been on an 
exporting basis for more than a century, but lew American inchistries 
liad attained tiiis point much before the opening of the twentieth 
century. This accounts for the fact of the ovei'whclming preponder- 
ance of raw materials and foodstutl's in tlic exports of the United 
States up to about 20 years ago. 

Even yet this class is large, but the proportion of hnishcul manu- 
factures increases as, one after the other, the manufactui-ing inihistries 
of the United States attain the position of ability to supply in an 
adequate manner the home demand, and consequently naturally and 
wisely turn to the foreign field. 

The proportion of finished manufactures in the total exports of 
the United States prior to 1900 was small, but in its exports to Latin 
America the proportion was not small, nor had it been for 20 
years or more. In 1900 finished manufactures represented the bulk 
of the trade and the proportion has constantly increased since. 

Figures of imports for all the Latin American countries by coun- 
tries of origin are not available prior to 1910, at which date the Pan 
American Union began the compilation. The incomplete statistics 
available prior to this date cover the principal countries and the 



I 



LATIN AMEiaCAN FOREIGN TRADE IN l!)2(). 



55 



greater bulk of the trade and show that in 1900 the imports from 
Great Britain were about eciual to the imports irom tlie United States 
and Germany combined, wliieh last two countries were on about 
an even footino;. From 1900 to 1910 the United States gained 
rapidly, leaving Germany behind and challenging the premier position 
of Great Britain. In 1913 it passed Great Britain and has remained 
in the lead ever since. 

Latin-American imports, 1910-1920. 



Year. 


Total. 


From 

Great 

Britain. 


From 
United 
States. 


From 
Ger- 
many. 


From 
France. 


1910 

1911 


$1,0.58,660,249 
1,159,490,516 
1,242,512,578 
1,321,861,199 
907,841,133 
809,925,700 
1,040,662,174 
1,-367,211, 849 
1,494,131,101 
1,947,948,717 
2,679,579,566 


Per cent. 
26.02 
25.73 
24.84 
24.42 
23.92 
20.51 
17.88 
14.89 
16.86 
15.30 
16.72 


Per cent. 

23. .50 
23. 79 

24. .50 
25. 03 
27.94 
42.15 
51.77 
54.79 
49.48 
48.79 
49.72 


Per cent. 
1.5. 55 
16.72 
16.67 
16. .55 
14.62 


Per cent. 
8. 35 
8. 25 


1912 • 

1913 

1914 


S.32 
8.32 
6.64 


1915 


4.65 


1916 




4.45 


1917 . 




3.70 


1918 




3.71 


1919 

1920 


0.15 
2.38 


3.28 
4.36 



These figures are for the imports of all Latin America. The com- 
mercial influence of the United States was and is yet much greater 
in the northern tier of countries than in South America. Even prior 
to 1890, imports into Mexico, Cuba, and Central America were almost 
uniformly greater from the United States than from Great Britain. 
In 1910 the proportions for the northern group were: United States, 
54.91 per cent; Great Britain, 12.61 per cent; Germany, 8.61 per 
cent; France, 6.50 per cent; and of the southern group (South 
America), United States, 18.89 per cent; Great Britain, 30.11 pei- 
(!ent; Germany, 17.67 per cent; France, 8.91 per cent. 

Prior to 1890 imports into South America from the United States 
were chiefly raw materials, lumber, coal oil, turpentine, flour (to 
Brazil mainly). The proportion of finished manufactures was small. 
Raw materials likewise formed a large part of the imports from the 
United States of the northern group of States. In 1900 the propor- 
tion of finished manufactures had increased all around and in 1910 
represented the greater part of imports from the United States, even 
in South America. But up to the beginning of the war South America 
imported more from both Great Britain and Germany than from the 
United States. In 1913 the proportions were: Great Britain, 27.98 
per cent; Germany, 18.51 per cent; United States, 16.41 per -cent; 
France, 8.77 per cent. The next year, 1914 (the war began in 
August), the United States passed Germany, and in 1915 it passed 
Great Britain. Tlie war hastened both events, the passing of Ger- 



56 



THE PAN AMEKICAN tlNlON. 



many by perhaps 3 or 4 years and of Great Britain by perhaps 20 
years, but it was inevitable tliat war or no war the United States 
would go to the front in the imports of South America just as it had 
gone to the front in 1913 in the imports of all Latin America. 

Latin- American imports by groups, 1910-1920, percentages. 



Year. 


From Great Britain. 


From United States. 


From Germany. 


From France. 


Northern. 


Southern. 


Northern. 


Southern. 


Northern. 


Southern. 


Northern. 


Southern. 


1910 

191] 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 


12.61 
13.31 
13.48 
12.33 
11.87 
11.17 
8.72 
6.15 
4.51 
3.76 
5.50 


30.11 
29.55 
28.27 
27.98 
28.60 
25.72 
23.61 
19.44 
22.10 
20.17 
22.22 


54.91 
53.65 
53.58 
54.11 
54.56 
64.69 
73.78 
75.77 
77.37 
62.47 
64.67 


13.89 
14.62 
15.97 
16.41 
17.60 
29.99 
38. 23 
43.85 
37.65 
42.98 
42.38 


8.61 
10.27 
10.27 

9.92 

8.77 


17.67 
18.73 
18. 65 
18.51 
16.88 


6.50 
6.67 
6.86 
6.77 
5.50 
4.61 
3.28 
2.21 
2.20 
2.51 
3.18 


8.91 
8.74 
8.74 
8.77 
7.09 
4.95 


1916 

1917 







5.17 
4.48 


1918 






4 35 


1919 

1920 


0.08 
0.95 


0.22 
3.U 


3.58 
4.94 



1 




PAN AMERICAN CON 
CRKSS OF STUD I 



By Frederick J. Gillis.^ 

IN connection with the official celebration of the first centenary of 
the Independence of Central America, a Pan American Congress 
of university students was held in Guatemala City, in the Repub- 
lic of Central America, from the tenth to the twentieth of Sep- 
tember, 1921. This congress was held under the auspices of the 




Photograph by Frederick J. Gilli-^. 

GENERAL VIEW OF THE CITY OF GUATEMALA. 

Consejo Federal de Estudiantes Universitarios Centroamericanos, the 
Guatemalan Government graciously acting as hosts to the students 
attending. 

The purpose of the congress was to consider the future problems of 
America, problems which will be settled by the men who, today, arc 
students. Several special topics were assigned to individual members 
for presentation, and their views as to the general methods of enforc- 
ing or bringing about the desired result were then discussed in open 
meetings of the congress. Among the subjects discussed were the 
following: 



1 School of Commerce, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. 



57 



58 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 



(a) Means of making effective the League of Pan American 
Students. 

(h) The League of Students and its position with reference to 
Interamerican pohtics. 

(c) The student as a factor in social evokition. 

(d) Student representation in the directing body of university 
faculties. 

(e) The adoption of a universal university system for all the 
Americas. 

(/) The standardization of university programs. 
In order that the students might have a suitabh* phice Cor their 
meetings, the Chinese colony of Guatamela built and ])laced at their 




Photograph by Frederick J. Gillis. 



A PLAZA IN GUATEMALA CITV. 



Clock tower presented by the Mexican colony in honor of the centenary of Central American Independence. 
At the right is seen the bell struck in commemoration of the centennial, on which busts of the national 
heroes stand in relief. In the background is the building wherein were held the meetings of the Congress 
of Students, and which was erected especially for this purpose. 



disposal a very commodious edifice, the architecture and interior of 
which were in keeping with the purpose for which it was constructed. 
Representatives from Mexico, San Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, 
and the United States were in attendance, and the congress was 
formally opened Saturday, September 9, by President Herrera at the 
Rex Theater, the cabinet ministers, student delegates, and student 
executive council being seated on the stage, while the body of the 
theater was fairly packed with the students and their friends. After 
the formal address of welcome by the Guatemalan representative, 
responses in the form of greetings were delivered by delegates from 



PAN AMERICAN CONGRESS OF STUDENTS. 59 

the different countries represented, the writer responding for the 
United wStates. Sessions were then held daily till the twentieth. 

The discussions set forth clearly the student view on the questions 
of the day. Ways and means of promoting communication between 
the student organizations of the different countries of the Americas 
were discussed and plans for establishing branch offices of the Federa- 
tion in Asuncion, Paraguay and in Mexico City, Mexico, were formu- 
lated, these branch offices to be in charge of a paid secretary who will 
devote full time to the interests of the students. 

The Federation of vStudents of Mexico, as well as the Federation of 
Students of Central America, provide their members with identifica- 
tion cards which accord the bearers special privileges in the press, 
stores, and society in general of the respective countries. The mem- 
bers of the Federation of Mexico also enjoy a 50 per cent discount 
on the Mexican railroads and one in the stores which varies from 10 
to 50 per cent. The Federation of both Mexico and Central 
America now aim to make these benefits mutually interchangeable. 
The Mexican delegation, moreover, has offered the Federation of Cen- 
tral America ten scholarships in Mexican institutions to be awarded 
at the discretion of the Federation. But the most immediate benefit 
from this congress will be that resulting from the interchange of 
ideas, the associations enjoyed and the acquaintances formed by the 
students who took part therein. 

The Georgetown School of Foreign Service represented the United 
States at this congress in the persons of Raymond C. Miller, of 
Indiana, and the writer, of Boston. After the congress adjourned 
these two delegates were enabled, through the kindness of the 
Guatemalan Government, to make an extensive trip on horseback 
through the coffee, sugar, and cattle country of the west coast, to 
explore the ruins at Quirigua, and to enjoy a motor boat trip through 
the unusual natural beauty of the Rio Dulce. As a result, these two 
delegates have but one criticism, and that is, that the Guatemalans do 
not suflficiently advertise their wonderful climate and beautiful 
scenery, for w^ere the attractions of Guatemala better known, it 
would surely become a mecca for tourists. 








Photograph by Harris & Ewing. 

HONORABLE WILLIS C. COOK. 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to Venezuela. 



fc^ 




Photograph by Harris & Kwing. 

HONORABLE JOHN GLOVER SOUTH, M. D. 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to I'anama. 



77575— 22— Bull. 1- 




Photograph by Harris & Ewing. 

HONORABLE ROY TASCO DAVIS, Ph. B. 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to Guatemala. 




Photograph by Keystone View Co. 

HONORABLE JOHN E. RAMER. 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to Nicaragua. 




I 



Photograph by Harris & Ewing. 

HONORABLE JESSE S. COTTRELL. 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to Bolivia. 



r AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY 
, AND COMMERCE; 



O 



Treat a South American with courtesy, state the truth about what you have to sell, 
deliver when you promise, deliver what you promise and pack it for shipment so that 
it can stand the transshipping, lightering, etc., and, when the South American is 
satisfied that he is being treated honorably, you will have a staunch lifelong friend. — 
Industrial Canada, Toronto, October, 1921. 

ARGENTINA. 

Principal exports. — The principal exports from Argentina from 
January 1 to September 29, 1921, were as follows: 

Wheat tons.. 1,503,401 Saltoxhides 1,616,057 



I 



Maize do. . . . 2, 164, 690 

Linseed do ... . 1 , 028, 280 

Oats do. . . . 355, 849 

Barley do 45, 742 

Flour do.... 36,711 

Wheat products do 11 2, 404 

Quebracho logs do 5, 952 

Quebracho extract do ... . 91 , 055 

Butter cases. . ()08, 302 

Hay and alfalfa bales. . 175, 907 

Calfskins 167, 037 

Dry oxhides 677, 667 



Horsehides 52, 849 

Sheepskins bales. . 16, 474 

Goatskins do 2, 762 

Wool do.... 252,031 

Hair do.... 2,861 

Tallow pipes. . 130 

Do casks.. 86,794 

Do hogsheads . . 1,215 

Frozen beef (|uarters. . 2, 511, 540 

Chilled beef do.... 1,098,501 

Frozen mutton . . . .carcasses. . 1, 840, 441 

Frozen lanil) do. . . . 757, 914 



Average weights. — 1 bale of wool. 420 kilos: 1 liale of sheepskins, 400 kilos: 1 bale of 
hair, 400 kilos; 1 bale of goatskins, 370 kilos: 1 bale of hay, 50 kilos: 1 pipe of tallow, 
400 kilos; 1 hogshead of tallow, 200 kilos: 1 cask of tallow, 160 kilos: 1 case of butter, 
25 kilos. 

Mail RECORD. — Mail carried by the S. S. American Legion on its 
trip the middle of September was distributed in Buenos Aires 15 days 
after leaving New York — the quickest delivery on record to that time 

New exports. — Oranges have been successfully shipped from 
Buenos Aires to New York, and it is now l)eing planned to attempt 
shipments of grapes on a large scale. Argentine eggs have also 
been sent to the United States, and turkeys, partridges, and other 
game birds have likewise foimd a good market. It is thought that 
all these lines may be further developed. The export of butter in 
the first nine months of 1921 very considerably exceeded the amount 
exported in the same period of 1920, the respective figures being 
608,302 cases of 25 kilos against 400,297 cases. This year the major 
portion, 509,503 cases, went to the United Kingdom, while Italy 
took 49,285 cases. 
66 



AGRICrLTURE, IXDrSTRY, AXD COMMERCE. 67 

Live stock. — Statistics published by the Bureau of Commerce and 
Industry state the number of head of hve stock in the country as 
follows: Cattle, 27,000,050; sheep, 44,850,000; and goats, 4,410,000. 

Public works in Extre Rios. — An official report of the public 
works completed and under way in the Province of Entre Rios from 
January 1 to August 31. 1921, states that the total expenditure in 
that period for school buildings, commissariats, roads, bridges, 
repairs to public buildings, etc., was 1,458,026.84 pesos. 

BOLlVli\. 

BoLiviAX oil iield. — A Bolivian oil field of 5,320,000 acres in the 
Santa Cruz district has been purchased and will be developed by 
American capital. 

Gold export. — On September 15, 1921, a decree was issued stating 
that gold exportation either in ore, dust, nuggets, or ingots 
would be taxed 20 centavos per ounce in accordance with article 5 of 
the law of October 8, 1872, thus rendering ineffective article 7 of the 
decree of February 27. 1918. 

brazil. 

The Lloyd Brasileiro removed to Saxtos. — It has been decided 
by the governing boartl of the Lloyd Brasileiro to transfer the com- 
pany's head office to Santos. With this end in view, orders have been 
issued for the esta})lishment of shops in that city for the execution 
of urgent repairs, as well as a coaling station and deposit of supplies. 

German shippixg. — The German steamship company Hamburg 
Sudamerikanische Dampschiffahrts Gesellschaft will soon resume its 
regular passenger service between Hamburg, Brazil, and the River 
Plate, touching at Boulogne, Vigo, and Lisbon. For this purpose the 
compan}' has accjuired the large steamer de luxe Cap Polonlo, the 
construction of which was finished during the war, and which, accord- 
ing to the terms of the peace treaty, had been turned over to the 
Allies. The steamer is being thoroughly overhauled and adapted for 
the burning of oil as fuel. Another steamer now ready to be placed 
in the service is the Antonio Delfino, which like the Cap Polonio is 
quite new and equipped in the most up-to-date fashion. Other 
steamers are expected to be available short!}'. 

Wireless statioxs. — The Ministry of Ways and Communications 
has rectified certain clauses of the instructions issued with Decree 
No. 14712 of March 7, 1921, granting permission to the Companhia 
Radiotelegraphica Brasileira to install and operate ultrapowerful wire- 
less stations. 

According to the rectification, the grantee engages to establish tlie 
first two stations in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Belem do Para, it 
being expressly understood that none but Brazilian operators are to be 
employed . 



68 THE PAX AMERICAX I'XIOX. 

CoTTOX TEXTILES. — The Ceiitro Industrial de Fia(;"So e Tecelagom 
gives the following data bearing on cotton factories operating in 
Brazil during the second half of the current year: Two hundred and 
forty-two cotton spinning and weaving plants, distributed as follows — 
10 in Alagoas, 17 in Bahia, 9 in Ceara, 14 in the Federal District, 2 in 
Espirito Santo, 16 in Maranhao. 60 in Minas Geraes, 1 in Parahyba. 
7 in Parana, 8 in Pernambuco, 1 in Piauhy, 1 in Rio Grande do Xorte. 
4 in liio Grande do Sul, 23 in the state of Pao de Janeiro, 55 in Sflo 
Paulo, 8 in Sergipe, and 6 in Santa Catharina. The capital invested 
in cotton factories throughout the country amounts to 337,700,000 
rnilreis, and for those situated in the Federal District to 82,000,000 
milreis. The total number of spindles was 1.512,300, distributed as 
follows: Alagoas. 43,000; Bahia, 140,000: Ceara, 24,000; Federal 
District, 411,000: Espirito Santo, 2,500: Maranhao, 80,000; Minas 
Geraes, 130,000; Parahyba, 10,000; Parana, 1,200; Pernambuco. 
94,000; Piauhy, 2.500; Rio Grande do Xorte, 5,000: Rio Grande do 
Sul, 27,000; Rio de Janeiro, 27,000; Sao Paulo, 415,000; and Santa 
Catharina, 2,100. 

The number of looms reached 97,000 for the whole of Brazil, thus 
distributed: .Vlagoas, 1,700; Bahia, 6.000; Ceara, 600; Federal Dis- 
trict, 13,000; Espirito Santo, 120; Maranhao, 2.300; Minas Geraes, 
5,800; Parahyba, 420; Parana, 45: Pernambuco. 3,300: Piauhy, 160; 
Rio Grande do Sul, 900; R^o de Janeiro, 6,000; Sao Paulo, 14,000; 
vSaiita Catharina, 103; and Sergipe, 1,900. 

The average value of the production for the last two years, a time 
of excessive depression, was distributed among the producing centers 
as follows: Bahia, 32,000,000 milreis; Alagoas, 16,000,000 milreis; 
Ceara, 3,000,000 milreis; Federal District, 104,000,000 milreis; 
Espirito Santo, 1,000,000 milreis; Maranhao, 1,000,000 milreis; 
Minas Geraes, 95,000,000 milreis; Parahyba, 1,300,000 milreis; Per- 
nambuco, 21,000,000 milreis; Piauhy, 1,200,000 milreis: Rio Grande 
do Norte, 400,000 milreis; Rio Grande do Sid. 9.000,000 milreis; Rio 
de Janeiro, 45,000,000 milreis; Santa Catharina, 9,000,000 milreis: 
Sao Paulo, 92,000,000 milreis; and Sergipe, 12,000,000 milreis. 

The total c[uantity of raw cotton on hand in the different factories 
of Brazil was 7,380,000 kilos. 

Bkaziliax Coffee Mrssiox. — A Brazilian coffee mission, com- 
j>osed of two Brazilian and one American olhcer of the Chamber of 
Commerce of Santos, the famous coffee port, came to the United 
States last fall to attend the 1921 National Coffee Convention and to 
negotiate a better commercial understanding between Brazilian and 
American coffee dealers, as suggested by the commercial attache of 
the Brazilian Embassy at Washington. The mission visited New 
York, Washington, New Orleans, the second coffee port of the United 
States, and the two greatest distributing centers, wSt. T^ouis and 



I 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. 69 

Chicago. It should be remembered that the State of Sao Paido alone 
exports more than two-thirds of all the world's coffee. 

New telegraph line. — For the telegrapli line to be constructed 
from Iguacu Falls, Catandubas, to Porto Mendes a credit of 80,000 
milreis\as been allotted to the Minister of Pubhc Works. 

Foreign trade.— According to data published by the Board of 
Commercial Statistics for the first seven months of the current year, 
the total of Brazihan exports amounted to 1,075,986 tons, valued at 
886,754,000 milreis, as compared with 1,178,295 tons, valued at 
1,077,496,000 milreis, in the corresponding period of 1920. 

' The importations for the period from January to July, inclusive, 
amounted to 1,582.324 tons, valued at 1,163,753,000 mdreis, in com- 
])anson with 1.814,699 tons, valued at 902,157,000 mih-eis in 1920. 

CHILE. 

Nitrate settlement.— On October 11, 1921, an agreement was 
reached between the representatives of the Association of Nitrate 
Producers, the "Pool" of European buyers, and also other buyers. 
The Mercurio de Santiago on October 12 states that this agreement, 
which was ratified on October 27 by the Association of Nitrate Pro- 
ducers, provides: 

Sehing prices are modified as follows: October, 1921, 10s. 6d. per 
quintal TNovember, 1921, to April, 1922, inclusive, lis.; May, 1922, 
10s. 9d.; June, 1922, 10s. 3d. (For the former scale see the Bul- 
letin for November and October, 1921.) 

The association will pay the buyers the following compensation: 

(a) For all new nitrate sold for delivery between October 1, 1921, 
and March 31, 1922, and loaded aboard ship before the latter date, 
20d. per Spanish quintal. 

(b) For all new nitrate sold for delivery between April 1 and June 
30, 1922, and loaded aboard ship before the latter date, 12d. per 
Spanish quintal. 

(c) For all new nitrate sold for delivery between July 1, 1922, and 
June 30. 1923, and loaded aboard ship before the latter date, 4d. per 
Spanish quintal. 

The total compensations provided for above shall be distributed 
among all the buyers in the proportion and form determined by the 
President of the Republic. 

The association guarantees the buyers for these indemnities a 
minimum of £1,500,000, and if payment of said amount shalUnot 
have been completed by June 30, 1923, the association will con- 
tinue paying the buyers 4d. per Spanish quintal until the sum is 
complete. 

If the association should decide to sell nitrate on eonsignment the 
prices fixed above will apply until June 30, 1922. 



70 THE PAX AMERICAN UNION. 

The contracting parties agree that any difficulty which may arise 
in the fulfillment of the above agreement shall be submitted to the 
President of the Republic as arbitrator. 

The president of the association announced that the buyers to 
benefit by the arrangement would be those who have bought nitrate 
from the association since June 1, 1920, and that nitrate sold for 
Chilean use had been exempted from the scale of prices. 

Assistance to Nitrate Producers. — See page 81. 

Railway electrification.— On September 26, 1921, the Presi- 
dent signed the final decree accepting the proposal of the Westing- 
house Electric Co. for the electrification of the first zone of the central 
railways — that is, the line between Valparaiso and Santiago — a dis- 
tance of 190 kilometers. The total value of the work will be 
$6,290,808.84 and 2,319,707.56 pesos national currency. The Ger- 
man bid was considerably higher. The question of electrification 
has been considered for 1 1 years, and it is thought that this step will 
not only make possible better service for the public but that it will 
represent an annual saving of 10,000,000 pesos, according to the 
estimate of a writer in the Anales del Instituto de Ingenieros. The 
power will be furnished b}^ the Comj)ania Nacional de Fuerza 
Electrica. 

Railway EQinPMEXT. — Freight and passenger cars and 20 broad- 
gauge locomotives have been purchased by the Government from 
four American firms. The total value is between $3,000,000 and 
$4,000,000. Thirty-five firms of many nationalities competed for 
this order. 

Railway congress. — The first Chilean railway congress met in 
September, 1921, in Santiago. More than 200 were in attendance. 
The congress was divided into the following sections: Transport and 
roadbed; traction and repair shops; law and personnel; pensions and 
social welfare; supplies and warehouses; and accounting and statis- 
tics. Members of the congress inspected a train composed of an en- 
gine refitted in Chile, and of a parlor car, a car for the railroad sanitary 
service, second and third class coaches, baggage and freight cars, 
and a caboose, all made either in the railroad shops or a Chilean fac- 
tory. One of the resolutions adopted proposed the establishment 
by the Government railroads of a railway institute to prepare those 
desirous of entering the work and fitting employees for promotion; 
to advance general culture through lectures, libraries, and special 
reviews, and also to further social relations and sport. 

California fruit. — A shipment to Chile of 14 boxes of California 
pears, apples, cherries, grapes, and melons was received in excellent 
condition. As will be recalled by Bulletin readers, Chilean fruit 
was successfulh' shipped to New York last winter, so that an inter- 
change of fruit between the two countries now seems assured. 



I 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AXD COMMERCE. 71 

Railroad. — The railroad from Curacautin to Pua, 38 kilometers 
in length, was opened last fall. Although short, this section is 
imporrant heeause it unites the inland railroads with the main line. 

COLOMBIA. 

Sulphate of soda.— In the municipality of Paipa, Department 
of Boyaca, there are springs whose water contains sulphate of soda 
and other chemical constituents in the following quantities per Uter: 
Dry chloride of sodium, 11 grams; dry carbonate of sodium, 66 
grams; dry sulphate of sodium, 32.4 grams; total 50 grams. Thirty- 
five thousand five hundred and ninety-four liters of water are obtained 
every 24 hours. The analysis shows that in composition it is similar 
to tiie water of Carlsbad, but of a much greater mineral content. 
In 1920, 21,250 kilograms of sulphate of soda were obtained from these 

springs. 

River and harbor works.— The Council of Ministers has approved 
the contract between the Minister of Public Works and the manager 
of the Colombian Co. of Bocas de Ceniza. The company will open a 
channel through the bar kno\NTi as the Bocas de Ceniza at the mouth 
of the Magdalena River, and construct a port for ocean steamers at 
Barranquilla. 

COSTA RICA. 

New INDUSTRY.— a factory making sewer pipes has lately been 
opened in San Jose. 

Customs REVENUE.-La Gaceta of September 8, 1921, states the 
total income derived from custom duties during the first six months 
of the current year as follows: San Jose, 1,930,911.85 colones; Limon, 
1,029,690.99 colones; Puntarenas, 380,749.64 colones; Sixaola, 145,- 
808.16 colones; total, 3,487,160.64 colones, an advance of 388,783.69 
colones over receipts for the same period in 1920. 

Reforestation.— There is a strong movement toward the re- 
forestation of the Republic. The Minister of Promotion has dis- 
tributed thousands of young cedar trees to be planted thi-oughout the 
countrv either as hedges, as shade for coffee plantations, in pas- 
tures, or as forests. Cedar and fruit tree seeds are also being sown 
by school children, the small trees to be distributed to the people of 
the vicinity. The to\\Ti of Tres Rios planted a Centenary cedar. 

Public works in Puntarenas Province.- The municipality of 
Montes de Oro will construct two new roads, those of Esparta canton 
will be repaired, a concrete wharf will be built in the Chomes district 
and a prison erected in Esparta. The civic authorities of the places 
in question are authorized to contract loans for the purpose, guaran- 
teed bv an additional 10 centavo tax on each liter of spirituous 
hquor 'sold during the next 5 years for consumption in the Punt- 
arenas Province. 



72 THE PAX AMERICAN LTNioX. 

Petroleum concession. — The Government has granted to a 
Costa Rican company 10,000 hectares in Guanacaste Province for 
the exploration and exploitation of petroleum and other hydrocarbons. 

CUBA. 

Consular vise. — Bills of lading for less than $5 will henceforth not 
need a consular vise in the case of goods sent to Cuba, according to 
information recently issued bv the Cuban consul general in New 
York. 

Economic conditions. — According to a recent number of the 
Commerce Reports, the stock of sugar left from the 1919-20 harvest 
has been sold, while in September, 1921, 1,400,000 tons, a third of 
the 1920-21 harvest, were still on hand. The 1922 harvest is esti- 
mated at from 2,250,000 to 3,000.000 tons, a considerable decrease 
from the production of 1921. 

The Government has adopted a policy of strict economy, and has 
requested the cooperation of all the commercial enterprises of the 
island in carrying it out. In his message to Congress in September, 
1921, the President recommended the following subjects to be taken 
up in the extraordinary sessions: (1) Readjustment of the budget; 
(2) laws in aid of agriculturalists, especially to regulate h)ans against 
future harvests; and (3) other loans. 

Neav line of steamers. — The Canadian Pacific Railway Co. has 
decided to establish a line of freight and passenger steamers between 
Canada and Habana. The line will run between St. John's, Boston, 
Nassau, Habana, and Kingston. 

Freight on corn and oats. — The Ward Line and the United 
Fruit Co. have reduced the rates on corn and oats between the 
United States and Habana. The rate is now SO. 25 per 100 pounds 
of corn and $0.30 per 100 pounds of oats, including expenses of 
delivei'v. 

New market. — A large modern market was recently opened in the 
Atares district of Habana. The building has two floors and is con- 
structed of reinforced concrete, granite, and marble. On the lower 
floor are the aisles for the sale of vegetables, cereals, foodstuffs, 
clothing, leather goods, and other merchandise. There are also 
cafes, restaurants, and a branch of an important bank. On the upper 
floor arc the booths for the sale of poultry, stands for the sale of 
meat, and marble tables for fish markets. Each place in the market 
has running water and electric lights, and everything is arranged in 
a hygienic and sanitary manner. The patio has two wide entrances 
for trucks. 

There are six elevators for merchandise, and four for the public. 
A large refrigerator has been installed for the use of market venders. 
The cellar will also be used for storing fruit and vegetables over night. 
The company which erected the market has a capital of $5,500,000. 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. 



73 



Foodstuffs. — The Department of Agriculture, Commerce, and 
Labor has pubhshed the following figures regarding articles of food 
imported by Cuba during the eight months ending August 31, 1921: 
Hams and shoulders, 314,698 pounds, valued at $112,674; lard 
50,222,973 pounds, valued at $7,091,874; eggs, 10,597,796 dozen, 
valued at $3,509,181; bacon, 20,020,210 pounds, valued at $2,913,921; 
butter, 485,171 pounds, valued at $211,325; cheese, 1,200,387 
pounds, valued at $383,178; condensed, evaporated, and other 
forms of milk, 23,245,341 pounds, valued at $4,246,549; cottonseed 
oil, 5,170,004 pounds, valued at $1,455,473; wheat flour, 706,640 
sacks, valued at $6,355,582; salt pork, 1,074,732 pounds, valued at 
$180,608; and butter substitutes, 5,990,313 pounds, valued at 
$728,628. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Bridge opened. — At the opening of the bridge across the Yaque 
del Sur River the towns of San Juan de la Maguana and Azua laid a 
commemorative tablet marking their cooperative efforts in build- 
ing the bridge. 

Thirty thousand dollar road. — The Compafiia de Explotaciones 
Industriales de Santo Domingo is to spend $30,000 to build a new 
road from Santo Domingo to Bani b}- way of San Cristobal and 
Yaguate. 

German market for cacao. — A Bremen firm has written to a 
firm in Sanchez stating that Germany is again anxious to make pur- 
chases. Germany is the next largest market to the United States 
for cacao and prices have improved. The cacao planters and the 
German firm are anxious to surpass the development of this market 
before the war. 

ECUADOR. 

Ecuadorian magazine. — The consulate general of Ecuador in 
New York City has begun the publication of a magazine called ''The 
Republic of Ecuador," which is of interest to those concerned in 
trade with that country. 

Electric light and power. — Vinces canton will build an electric 
light and power plant at an approximate cost of 60,000 sucres. 

Imports and exports. — According to a statement of the director 
of customhouse statistics, imports and exports for 1919 and 1920 
were as follows : 





Year. 


Imports. 


Exports. 




Weight. 


Value. 


Weight. 


Value. 


1919 




Kilos. 
36,150,458 
47,692,537 


Sucres. 

24,007,688 

43,283,896 


Kilos. 
78, 984, 858 
82,342,663 


Sucres. 
43 220 558 


1920 




49 755 410 









74 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

The duties collected on imports for the first six months of 1921 
amounted to 4,053,650.56 sucres, and those on exports to 1,972,599.62 
sucres. 

MEXICO. 

Mails and telegraphs.— The Post Office Department increased 
its facilities in the year September 1, 1920-September 1, 1921. 
There were in service 580 main post offices, 35 branch offices, and 
2,128 postal agencies and 6,337 employees. During the period men- 
tioned 101,711,571 pieces of mail were handled, 15,967,445 pieces 
being sent outside the country and 29,618,628 being received from 
abroad. 

Telegraph messages numbered 5,735,670, with a total of 126,126,490 
words. Collections of money on telegrams amounted to 5,536,205.75 
pesos, an increase of 33.11 per cent, while the expenditures amounted 
to 5,050,722 pesos, leaving a favorable balance of 486,000 pesos. 

Cars for mail service. — The Post Office Department has ordered 
from the United States 25 mail cars to ])e placed on the railroad lines 
of the Republic. The cars are 60 feet long, with compartments for 
baggage and mail. 

Seed sterilization plant. — In Guaymas there has recently been 
put into operation a sterilization plant for the cereals of the Pacific 
coast. The plant is a three-story building with American machinery 
equipment, costing approximately 100,000 pesos. This sum is to be 
refunded to the Government by a small percentage on each sack of 
grain sterilized until the cost price of the plant is reached. After 
that the revenue will be given to the administration of the city of 
Guaymas. The plant has a capacity of 50,000 pounds per hour. 

Cotton spinning and weaving. — There are 132 spinning and weav- 
ing factories in Mexico, with 38,294 operatives of both sexes. From 
November 1, 1920, to April 30, 1921, 17,404,684 kilos of cotton were 
woven into 5,718,250 pieces of cotton cloth and 2,136,406 kilos of 
thread. 

Petroleum export. — The total petroleum and related products 
export from January 1 to June 30, 1921, amounted to 14,839,241 cubic 
meters, with a stamp-tax revenue of 28,694,363.75 pesos on the pro- 
duction. 

Mining situation. — In the first six months of 1921 there were 
24,841 clear titles to Mexican mines, and 317,313 claims, and taxes 
amounted to 3,201,995 pesos. During the six months mentioned 
551 titles and 10,947 claims were canceled, which produced a revenue 
of 116,895 pesos. The production of minerals and metals for the 
first six months of 1921 was as follows: Gold, 10,251 kilograms, of 
which 3,423 were exported; silver, 942,718 kilograms, of which 
832,378 were exported; lead, 24,150,519 kilograms, all exported; 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. 75 

copper, 8,838,335 kilograms, all exported; mercury. 16,628 kilograms, 
all exported; graphite, 2.534,371 kilograms, all exported; tungsten, 
13,259 kilograms, all exported; antimony, 10.262 kilograms, all 
exported; molybdenum, 1,324 kilograms, all exported; arsenic, 
483,205 kilograms, all exported; tin. 492 kilograms, all exported. 
The total taxes collected on these products amounted to 1,231,550.78 
pesos. 

Steamer ''Chihuahua." — The Compania Naviera de los Estados 
Unidos de Mexico has recently been established %vith English capital 
in Mexico. The company has lately launched in the shipyard of 
Portsmouth. England, the CMliualiua, the first of a line of six steamers 
to ply between Los Angeles and San Francisco, the ports of Central 
America and the intermediate Mexican ports. It is planned to 
extend the routes to South America later on. 

Railroads and airplanes. — From September 1, 1920, to Sep- 
tember 1, 1921, important improvements were made in the Mexican 
railroads. These include the completion of the La Cumbre Tunnel 
in northeastern Mexico; the reconstruction of the Chihuahua-Ciudad 
Juarez line, and the completion at an early date of the branch between 
Temosachic and Madera; the construction of the double track 
between Tampico and La Barra, and the opening of through train 
service to Nuevo Laredo, Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, and Vera Cruz. 
The Government has granted a concession for aerial mail, passenger, 
and freight service between Mexico City and the principal cities of 
the Republic. 

NICARAGUA. 

Communications. — The principal cities of Nicaragua are con- 
nected by rail and are in touch with the rest of the world by telegraph 
or cable. The 166-mile railroad leaves Corinto on the Pacific, cross- 
ing an iron bridge from the island to the mainland, and ends in 
Granada on the shores of Lake Nicaragua. It passes through four 
large towns and eight smaller ones, as well as a number of districts 
which will become important agriculturally. 

Cattle reglt^ations. — Further regulations have been made in 
addition to the law of June 7, 1917, governing the export and slaughter 
of cattle. Cows and calves under 3 years may not be transported 
to the frontier regions without previous permission. ''Frontier'' is 
defined as being that strip of territory 20 hectares wide extending 
along the national boundary within the Republic. Permission' is 
granted by the Minister of Hacienda, when the petitioner to move 
cattle to these regions furnishes •a bond of 500 cordobas that the 
animals are not to be exported. 



76 THE PA^"^ AMERICAN UNION. 

PARAGUAY. 

Commercial data. — In order to stimulate and develop interna- 
tional trade in the natural and manufactured products of the coun- 
try and to show the market for some of these in comparison with 
that for similar foreign products, the Minister of Foreign Relations 
has requested the Consular and Commerce Bureau to collect general 
information and supplementary data which will show the productive 
power of the country and the present state of certain agricultural 
lines and of the stock-raising industry and its allied branches. Each 
report will indicate the location and extent of the area cultivated, 
the quality and the annual yield of the following products: Yerba 
mate, tobacco, wood, fruits and vegetables, corn, rice, peas, manioc, 
farina, sugar cane, sugar, tannin, quebracho, cattle, leather, jerked 
and preserved meat, suet, and bristles. 

Tax on live stock.— See page 84. 

Removal of import duties. — See page 84. 

PERU. 

Seattle products exhibition. — An exhibition of Seattle products 
was held under the auspices of the Seattle Chamber of Commerce in 
the Parque Zoologico in Lima. The exhibits included articles of food 
and personal use, portable houses, and other manufactures of Seattle. 

Indigene crafts. — The national deputy from La Union has inter- 
ested the President and the Minister of Public Instruction in state 
protection of the indigene craft of rug and cloth weaving in t\w Inca 
patterns. Especially good work has been done at the Crafts School 
for Indigenes at Cotahuasi. The rugs produced are of excellent 
quality and the weaves, designs, and colors are attractive. So far 
this industry has not been extensively developed by the indigenes, 
owing to the lack of markets beyond the limits of the Province. 

Cattle imports. — See page 85. 

republic of central AMERICA. 

Furniture making. — In the Centenary Exposition in Guatemala 
City the exhibits of wooden and willow furniture attracted much 
attention for excellence both of design and finish. 

Telegraph service. — Arrangements are said to have been made 
for future telegraph service between Honduras and the United States 
via Guatemala and Mexico. This will effect a great saving over the 
cost of cablegrams. 

Government committees. — The States have been asked by the 
provisional Federal Council to send nominations for the Federal com- 
mittees on the unification of customs duties and the banking and 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. 77 

monetary system, and also for the general staff for the unification of 
the army. 

Camino real. — The road from San Salvador to Santa Cruz and 
Michapa has been put in condition for use by automobiles and carts. 

URUGUAY. 

Wool export. — ^In the 50 weeks from October 1, 1920, 109,417 
bales of wool of about 470 kilos were exported, making for the period 
approximately 51,426,200 kilos. Comparing this estimate with the 
figures of the year 1919-20 for the same period shows an increase of 
7,069 bales, or 3,000,000 kilos. 

Recent rural expositions. — The recent rural expositions held 
during the fall were: Breeders' Fair, Treinta y Tres, October 18; 
Exposition of Sires and model farm equipment, Estacion Young, 
October 23 ; auction fair of blooded sires and cows of the New Society 
of Stockmen of Tacuarembo, October 30; and the National Exhibi- 
tion Fair held at Mercedes on November 13. 

Poultry show.— The executive committee of the Poultry Asso- 
ciation held a national exhibition of fowls in the Centro Ganadero. 
The president of the Republic offered a gold medal for the finest 
trio of Asiatic fowls of the Brahma, Cochin China, Indian Game, 
or Japanese strains. The Minister of Industry gave a medal and 
certificate of merit for the best trio of the Mediterranean strains: 
Leghorn, Minorca, Catalan del Prat, etc. 

VENEZUELA. 

Livestock exhibition. — Last year there was held in Maracay an 
interesting live-stock exhibition organized under the auspices of 
La Hacienda. More than 300 specimens of live stock of different 
species were exhibited, among which were animals obtained by 
crossing foreign animals with native stock; pure-bred animals, 
raised in the country; native horses; pure-bred horses, raised in 
Venezuela; pack and draft mules: and other mules, the offspring of 
pure-bred imported asses and native mares. Although the exhibition 
was primarily of Venezuelan animals, foreign cattle were also showTi ; 
among these the Shorthorns, Holsteins, Friesians, and Jerseys were 
noticeable. This is the first live-stock exhibition to be held in 
Venezuela in this way. 

First agricultural congress. — The first congress of agri- 
culturalists, stock raisers, manufacturers, and merchants of Venezuela 
assembled in Caracas in June, 1921. More than 200 representatives 
were present. 

Railroads. — The total length of the railroads of the Republic is 
1,039 kilometers. 

77575— 22— Bull. 1 6 



78 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

Petroleum concession. — The Congress lias approved a contract 
between the Executive and a Venezuelan citizen for the exploration 
and exploitation of hydrocarbons in an area 10,000 hectares in 
extent located in the reserved zones of the Sucre district of the State 
of Zulia. 

Telephone lines. — The Executive has approved a contract for 
the construction and exploitation of a telephone system 215 kilo- 
meters long between Federacion district of the State of Falcon and 
Urdaneta district of the State of Lara. Another contract for a 
line uniting all the sections of San Fernando district of the State of 
Apure has also been approved. 



ECONOMICanbfinANCIAL 
;^ AFFAIRS ^^"^ 

CHILE. 

Loan. — A group of United States bankers has made the Chilean 
Government a loan of S10,500,000. It is dated November 1, 1921, 
bears 8 per cent interest, and falls due November 1, 1946. The 
money will be used for improving the railroads and especially for 
electrification. 

COLOMBIA. 

Internal debt. — The internal debt is divided into the consoli- 
dated and the floating debt. The consolidated debt is made up of 
the payment of interest on the par value of bonds, the quotas due, 
according to concordat, to the Roman Catholic Church, and the 
pension service. The floating debt is composed of the various amort- 
izable bonds issued by the State. These bonds may be divided into 
three groups, as follows: Bonds amortizable by monthly auction; 
bonds amortizable by certain specified income of the customs; and 
bonds amortizable in a special manner. 

The annual interest paid by the Government for different items of 
the consolidated debt is as follows: To the Department of Public 
instruction (10 per cent), 66,066.26 pesos; to the Charity Department 
(6 per cent), 8,969.98 pesos; to the Hospital de San Juan de Dios 
(12 per cent), 10,771.68 pesos; to church institutions (4^ per cent), 
38,432.16 pesos; to lay institutions (3 per cent), 13,100.42 pesos; 
total, 137,340.50 pesos. The sums due by concordats amount to 
82,000 pesos annually, and the yearly pension payments to 446,995.68 



ECONOMIC AiS^D FINANCIAL AFFAIRS. 79 

pesos. The total annual appropriation of the treasury for the 
consolidated internal debt is 666,336.18 pesos. 

The par value of the bonds which compose the floating debt is 
shown by the following figures: Colombian bonds, 138,683.77 pesos; 
bonds of the war of 1895, 53,969.70 pesos; bonds of the war of 1899, 
3,537,279.60 pesos; bonds for military rewards, 754,538 pesos; 
bonds for export duties, 620,433 pesos; treasury bonds, 2,813,655 
pesos; vouchers for the Cauca Railroad, 5,268,260 pesos; vouchers 
for the Antioquia Railroad, 1,022,531 pesos; bonds held by foreigners, 
2,860,248.72 pesos; bonds for the Cambao highway, 127,500 pesos; 
Colombian 10 per cent bonds, 7,273,919.31 pesos; treasury certificates, 
4,000,000 pesos; total, 28,945,768.10 pesos. For further information 
regarding the internal debt, the December, 1921, issue of the Bulletin 
may be consulted. 

HA[TI. 

Internal taxes. — The internal taxes collected from October 1 , 
1920, to July 31, 1921, amounted to 584,887.67 gourdes and $142,- 
725.54. The chief sources of revenue were the following: Water 
service, 112,108.50 gourdes and $7,722.41; stamped paper, 126,025.07 
gourdes; licenses, 30 gourdes and $34,184.82; and passports, 
$46,173.85. 

MEXICO. 

Alcohol tax. — The total tax revenue from alcohol and spirituous 
liquors collected during 1920 amounted to 9,566,375.68 pesos, of 
which the sum of 3,320,087.34 pesos was the tax on alcohol; 
2,722,464.57 pesos on imported beverages; 1,267,174.38 pesos on 
wines and beer; and 2,256,649.39 pesos on the manufacture of native 
pulque. 

Foreign claims. — Claims brought against the Government up to 
September 1, 1921, on account of the revolutions amounted to 
221,331,891.21 pesos. Mexican citizens presented 927 claims, 
amounting to 93,906,545.63 pesos, and foreigners, 468 claims, amount- 
ing to 127,425,345.58 pesos. (President's message.) 

PARAGUAY. 

Budget. — In the budget for 1921-22 the total amount allotted to 
expenditures is 1,071,882.96 pesos gold and 105,189,849.35 pesos 
national currency. 

PERU. 

RiMAC LOAN. — The Congreso Regional del Centre has authorized 
the district council of Rimac to contract a loan of 10,000 Peruvian 
pounds guaranteed by the public revenues and property of the district 
for use in the construction of a sewer system and other necessary 
public works. 



80 



THE PAIS^ AMERICAN UNION. 



URUGUAY. 

Bank emission. — The directorate of the Banco Hipotecario sent 
to the Ministry of Treasury a bill proposing to issue 10,000,000 pesos 
in mortgage bonds of series V. These bonds will bear 6 per cent 
annual interest, payable quarterly. The amortization will be made in 
February, May, August, and November of each year, according to 
article 29 of the bank law. The necessity for the new emission is due 
to the fact that of the present issue of series U only 4,772,875 pesos, 
worth remain. 




ARGENTINA. 

Minimum wage law. — Article 6 of the budget law, No. 11027, as 
approved by the Congress, provides the following: 

Every employee or laborer over 18 years of age, without distinction of eex, who 
works at least 8 hours a day in the service of the State, has no other occupation, and 
receives no other remuneration, lodging, or board, will receive a salary of 160 pesos 
national currency per month, or 6.40 pesos per day, as a minimum, no discount for 
board and lodging to exceed 40 per cent. 

The salaries fixed in the budget will be increased in accordance 
with the following scale: Those up to 149 pesos, 50 per cent; from 
150 to 199 pesos, 40 per cent; from 200 to 250 pesos, 30 per cent; 
from 250 to 300 pesos, 20 per cent. 

Labor law for women and children. — The Congress has passed 
a bill prohibiting throughout the country the employment of chil- 
dren under 12 years of age in any work for another person, including 
domestic service. Older children subject to the compulsory educa- 
tion law who have not completed the required amount of education 
are included in the foregoing provision, although they may be author- 
ized to work for their own support or that of their parents or brothers 
and sisters. Boys under 14 years of age and unmarried women 
under 18 shall not carry on for themselves or for an employer any 
street trade, nor may said minors be employed for night work, except 
in domestic service. Women and minors under 18 years of age who 
work in the morning and afternoon shall have a rest of two hours 
at noon. 

Every employer of women and minors under 18 years of age is 
obliged to maintain in good condition his place of business, equip- 



LEGISLATION. 81 

ment, machines, and tools, and so to arrange the work as to avoid 
in every possible way dangers to health, safety, and morality. The 
consumption of alcoholic beverages, either distilled or fermented, is 
prohibited in any building of a firm employing women or minors 
under 18 years of age. 

Immigration regulation. — The President has issued a decree 
requiring that every foreigner entering the country shall, in addition 
to the documents required by the immigration law and regulations, 
obtain from the Argentine consul of the country of origin an indi- 
vidual permit, which the consul will grant on proof of the correctness 
of the data rec^uired to be given. On arriving in Argentina, this 
permit is presented to the immigration authorities, who preserve it 
in the files of the bureau. 

BRAZIL. 

International Court of Justice. — A presidential decree of Sep- 
tember 21, 1921, promulgated Brazil's ratification of the protocol 
of the League of Nations in regard to the International Court of 
Justice. Under condition of reciprocity Brazil accepts the obligatory 
jurisdiction of the court for the term of five years, provided two of 
the powers having permanent seats in the Council of the League also 
accept it. 

Law relating to the use of drugs. — The President has issued 
a decree containing provisions for the enforcement of law No. 4294, 
of July 6, 1921, regulating the importation, sale, or furnishing of 
poisonous substances. According to this law poisonous or narcotic 
substances, such as opium and its derivatives, cocaine, and similar 
drugs, may not be cleared through the customhouse, or be delivered 
when coming through the mails, without a previous permit from the 
National Department of Public Health, said permit to be obtained 
through the board of supervision of the practice of medicine, phar- 
macy, dentistry and obstetrics. The permit shall be required for each 
shipment of such substances, and may be given in the form of a vise 
placed on the document required for the clearing. Persons infring- 
ing this, provision will be liable to a fine of from 500 to 2,000 milreis, 
or double the amount in case of repetition of the offense. 

The same law contains a provision for the establishment of sani- 
tariums for toximaniacs, devoted to the special treatment of persons 
suffering from alcoholic intoxication or the effects of drug poisons, 
such treatment to be both medical and correctional. 

CHILE. 

Assistance to nitrate producers. — A law passed in September 
authorized the President to advance mone}^ to the nitrate produc- 
ers who keep their plants open up to the amount of 7.50 pesos na- 



82 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

tioiial currenc}^ per 46 kilos of nitrate ready for embarkation. This 
offer holds good until December 31, 1922. The advance will be paid 
in drafts to be discounted within the country, and will be met from 
the proceeds of the first exportation. Half the loan may be granted 
in pounds sterling. 

Diplomatic reorganization. — A recent decree contains important 
regulations for the selection and preparation of members of the Dip- 
lomatic Service. Henceforth any person wishing to hold a position 
as secretary or member of the staff in the Chilean diplomatic foreign 
service must pass oral and written tests in the following subjects: 
Universal and national history, Chilean diplomatic history, interna- 
tional law, political constitution of the State, political economy, and 
social and diplomatic usage. Candidates must know French, and 
should know other foreign languages. 

COSTA RICA. 

Good roads law. — A new law for the construction and mainte- 
nance of roads provides as follows: The municipalities are charged 
with the responsibility for the construction, repair, and maintenance 
of the public roads. They will name one or more road commissions, 
membership in which is obligatory, although without compensation. 
The work in general will be under the supervision of a roads bureau 
created in the department of promotion, one of whose members will 
be an engineer experienced in road construction. 

Funds will be derived from the following sources : An annual appro.- 
priation in the budget to cover bureau expenses, salary of an expert 
for each province, and machineiy; the net product of the territorial 
tax; and direct taxes in each canton. 

CUBA. 

International settlements and agreements. — The President 
of the Republic has announced that the Senate has approved the 
settlement of Madrid of April 14, 1891, concerning the suppression 
of false information as to the source of merchandise, revised in 
Washington June 2, 1911 ; the settlement of Madrid of the same date, 
for the international registration of trade-marks, revised in Brussels 
December 14, 1900, and in Washington June 2, 1911; and the agree- 
ment of the Union of Paris of March 20, 1883, for the protection of 
industrial property, revised in Brussels December 14, 1900, and in 
Washington June 2, 1911. 

Price of foodstuffs. — On the initiative of the Secretary of Agri- 
culture, the President of the Republic has signed a decree which 
provides that the profits of wholesale dealers must not exceed 10 per 
cent when they sell to retail merchants, and that the latter in selling 
to the public also must not receive a gi'eater percentage of profit. 



LEGISLATION. 83 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Loan law.— Executive order No. 671 has changed the loan law 
order No. 291 so that professional men, agriculturahsts, industrial 
producers, and laborers may secure loans on the products, instruments, 
utensils, tools, and furniture belonging to their profession or work, 
meantime retaining them for use, using as a guarantee for this class 
of loan-crops, hardwoods, salt, vehicles, portable tools and instru- 
ments used in agriculture, industries, or professions. These loans are 
subject to the making of certain declarations before the mayor. 

ECUADOR. 

Labor accident law. — A labor accident law was signed by the 
President on September 30, 1921. It provides for half pay for tem- 
porary incapacity arising from accidents or diseases produced by the 
laborer's work; and for two years' pay for total incapacity. If the 
accident produces total incapacity for the victim's previous work, but 
leaves him able to perform other duties, the employer must either 
pay him the indemnity or find him work at the same wages. 

The indemnity may be reduced by the judge as to amount or 
length of time for which it is to be paid, the judge taking into con- 
sideration the importance of the work, the financial ability of the 
employer or contractor, and the other circumstances of the case. The 
law also provides for compensation to the family of the workman in 
case of his death as the result of a labor accident. 

Alcoholic liquors. — A legislati\re decree of September 5, 1921, 
prohibits subsequent to January 1, 1922, the Sunday sale of alcoholic 
liquors, guarapo, chicha, and beer. Debts in public establishments 
or saloons for alcoholic drinks, contracted after the law is in force, 
will not be recoverable by civil suit. 

The Executive is empowered to issue regulations concerning saloons, 
bars, and other establishments selling alcoholic drinks, in order to 
restrict the use of such beverages and to subject the establishment to 
strict vigilance. 

HAITI. 

Code of criminal procedure. — The official paper, Lc Moniteur, 
began on October 15, 1921, the publication of a law which changes 
the previously existing code of criminal procedure, bringing it into 
harmony with other legislation and modifying it in accordance with 
modern juridical science. 

NICARAGUA. 

High Commission in Nicaragua. — The Inter-American High 
Commission is an institution working with the Governments of the 
American countries for uniform legislation on commercial and finan- 



S4 T^HE PAN AMERICAN UlS'^IOaST. 

cial matters, preparing and urging the passage of such laws. The 
Inter- American High Commission has its central council in Washing- 
ton, D. C, and has in Nicaragua a national council composed of 9 
men who reside in the capital, Managua. These members are 
appointed for two years' honorary service hj the Minister of Hacienda. 
The purposes of the Nicaraguan section are: To cooperate with the 
other national sections and the main body; to prepare information 
and recommendations to be used b}- the high commission; to prepare 
trade reports; to communicate with the central executive council ana 
other national councils; to publish the works of the section; and to 
issue an annual statement to be published in the official Report of the 
Minister of the Treasury. 

PANAMA. 

City revenues. — Decree No. 11 of October 17, 1921, provides that 
the collection and management of the revenues and expenditures of 
the municipalities shall be in charge of the fiscal agent of the Repub- 
lic, who is to furnish model budgets for the municipalities in 
order to obtain uniformity of taxation and expenditure of revenue. 
Each municipal treasurer is to prepare a tentative budget for his 
district to be submitted to the municipal council, voted upon and 
sent to the fiscal agent for revision before the 20th of December of 
each year. If satisfactory it will be forwarded to the mayor to be 
put into effect on July 1 of the following year. The municipal 
accounts are at all times open to inspection by the fiscal agent. 

PARAGUAY. 

Tax on live stock. — Law No. 538 which went into effect October 
15, 1921, says that each head of cattle slaughtered for public or 
private consumption will be taxed 25 pesos national currency. 
When cattle are sold to packing plants, the same amount will be 
paid as a sales tax by the seller instead of as a slaughter tax. No 
cattle and horses may be transported from one part of the country 
to another nor shipped out of the Republic without a transfer permit 
which will cost 50 centavos national currency for each animal to be 
moved. The export of hides can not be authorized without proof of 
the payment of the slaughter tax. 

Removal of import duties. — In accordance with the terms of 
the new budget, the following articles -will not be subject to import 
duties: Foodstuffs and other edible products, such as fruits and fresh 
vegetables, fresh fish; nonedible seeds; hardware, such as plows, 
picks, spades, mining drills, pumps, ungalvanized iron pipes, coal, 
tools and furniture belonging to immigrants, and used furniture and 
effects belonging to nationals or foreigners who are intending to 
settle in the country; locomotives, machines and repair parts and 



LEGISLATION. 85 

accessories for industrial and farming establishments, for steamboats 
or any other motor-driven machinery; electric, steam, or gasoUne 
motors; rolling stock for railroads and street-car lines; iron or steel 
rails; galvanized iron wire for fences; machinery and accessories for 
irrigation; automobile trucks and autobuses; surgical, physical, 
optical, and chemical apparatus, scientific apparatus, terrestrial 
globes, maps; full-bred stock and breeding stock; plants to be 
cultivated; gold or pure silver in granular form; and other articles. 
Articles of national production returned to the country within six 
months of their export are also included in the foregoing exemption. 

PERU. 

Cattle imports. — A decree has been issued adding to the decree 
of August 6, 1920, the following rules on importing live stock: 
Animals which, upon arrival at their destination, show signs of con- 
tagious disease will not be permitted to land when in serious condition. 
If the symptoms are doubtful the animals will be quarantined. 
If the disease is contagious but not serious the animals will be quar- 
antined under care of Government officials. The expenses of the 
quarantine are to be borne by the owner of the animals. 

Allotment of revenues. — The Congreso Regional del Centro 
has issued law No. 484 whereby the city, country, industrial, and 
ecclesiastical revenues of each Province of the Central Region, after 
payment of expenditures, are to be divided in the ratio of 40 per 
cent to the capitals and 60 per cent to the districts of each Province 
according to the number of inhabitants. 

REPUBLIC OF CENTRAL AMERICA. 

Bureau op monetary guaranty.— By a law promulgated by the 
Republic of Guatemala before its entrance into the Republic of 
Central America a bureau of monetary guaranty is formed with the 
following powers: To buy and sell drafts in American gold on foreign 
countries in return for national bank notes, fixing the corresponding 
commission; to see that the funds due this bureau by law are paid 
to it; to deposit in one or more properly guaranteed foreign banks the 
funds belonging to the bureau; and to issue drafts and checks on 
the funds at its disposal. The Executive is authorized to obtain a 
credit, either internal or foreign, of $5,000,000 to be used exclusively 
for this institution, and in conformity with the present law. It will 
be guaranteed by the securities received from banks and also 'by 
national revenues of Guatemala. 

Internal debt. — By a legislative decree of September 30, 1921, 
the Executive of Guatemala was authorized to liquidate the internal 
debt with the banks in a way conducive to the financial stability of 
the country. 



86 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 



National insignia. — -The national insignia were established by 
the constitution as follows : The coat of arms is an equilateral triangle 
within which appears the chain of five volcanoes on a strip of land 
bathed by both oceans; spanning the mountains is a rainbow, be- 
neath which the rising sun of liberty sheds its beams. In a circum- 
scribed circle in gold are the words Repuhlica de Centroamerica and 
on the base of the triangle, likewise in gold letters, the words Dios, 
Union, Lihertad. The flag has three horizontal stripes, the outer 
blue and the middle white; on the latter the coat of arms previously 
described is placed. In pennants the stripes are vertical. The 
merchant flag does not bear the shield, but the legend Dios, Union, 
Lihertad in silver letters. 

VENEZUELA. 

International Court of Justice. — The Congress has approved 
the protocol relative to the estabUshment of a permanent Interna- 
tional Court of Justice issued by the Assembly of the League of 
Nations in Geneva, and also the statutes for the court. 



^ 



INTERNATIONAL 
./ TREATIES \^ 



chile — SWEDEN. 

Arbitration treaty. — A treaty between Chile and Sweden pro- 
vides that any difference, of whatever nature, which may arise be- 
tween the Governments of Chile and Sweden and which is not settled 
by diplomacy or laid before an arbitral court or the court of the 
League of Nations shall be submitted to a commission composed of 
five members. Ratifications were exchanged May 3, 1921, and the 
treaty has now been promulgated as a Chilean law. 

ECUADOR — VENEZUELA. 

Arbitration treaty. — The arbitration treaty signed in Quito 
on May 22, 1921, by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ecuador 
and the Charge d'Affaires of Venezuela has been ratified by the 
Congress of Ecuador. 

JAPAN — PARAGUAY. 

Commerce treaty. — On August 25 ratifications of the treaty of 
commerce between Japan and Paraguay, signed in Asuncion Novem- 
ber 17, 1919, were exchanged in Santiago. 



^PUBLIC INSTRUCTION^ 
^ ; andeduCATION ; ^ 

ARGENTINA. 

BuEN CoNSEJO School. — This educational institution, started in 
Buenos Aires in 1918, gives a free education to destitute girls, and 
prepares them for useful wifehood and motherhood. In the school 
there are classes in sewing, dressmaking, mending, embroidery, and 
weaving. Wool is brought into the school in the fleece, and is there 
washed, spun into yarn, and woven. The girls are also taught to 
wash, iron, and cook simple nutritious and inexpensive meals. 

Popular university. — The "Sociedad Luz," or popular univer- 
sity, recently opened its new quarters, where there are a large assem- 
bly room, a library of nearly 5,000 volumes, physics, chemistry, and 
zoology laboratories, and rooms for classes in drawing, mechanical 
engineering and dressmaking. 

CHILE. 

Salvador Sanfuentes School. — This advanced Government 
school for boys recently opened its new building in Santiago. It has 
a capacity of 760. In addition to the class rooms there are a dental 
office, a medical clinic, museum, manual training rooms, swimming 
pool, a gymnasium which will seat 1,000 persons, and space to install 
a school lunch system. 

Public primary instruction. — The following figures for June, 
1921, show the increase in primary school attendance since the com- 
pulsory primary education law went into effect; number of schools 
in 1921, 3,082, against 2,994 in 1920; number of pupils registered, 
370,918, against 278,911; and average attendance, 271,580, against 
202,730. 

Centenary of a liceo. — The secondary school for boys of La 
Serena has celebrated its hundredth anniversary. 

Instruction in Magallanes. — In the Territory of Magallanes 
(Magellan) there are 46 primary and secondary schools, 12 of which, 
with an enrollment of 1,576, are supported by the national treasury, 
while 20 territorial schools have an enrollment of 1,450. Over 1,000 
pupils attend the 13 private day schools, and 350 the night schools 
for boys and young men. The census of children in the Territory 
shows 3,164 boys and 3,096 girls between the ages of 5 and 13. 

87 



88 



THE PAN AMERICAlSr UNION. 
COLOMBIA. 



Primary instruction. — In the report presented to Congress by 
the Minister of Pubhc Instruction appear the following data on 
primary instruction m Colombia in 1920: 





Departments. 




Antio- 
qula. 


AtlfVn- 
tico. 


Bolivar. 


Boyaca. 


Caldas. 


Norte 
de San- 
tander. 

I 


Cauca. 


Total schools 


972 


129 


279 


536 


585 


243 


201 






Public 




! 


494 
42 


533 
52 


215 i 

28 I 




Private 
















Advanced boys' schools 






G 

5 

57 

61 






1 


Advanced ^rls' schools 










1 


City schools for boys. . 






119 
101 
260 


61 
55 




City schools for girls ... . 








Rural schools 








Rural schools for bovs 






40 
27 


66 
65 
286 




Rural schools for girls . 










Mixed schools 










Mixed schools — rural 






54 




1 


Mixed schools — city. 






14 






Evening schools 






29 






Model schools 


. .. 










National School of Weaving 












i 


Vocational schools 










i 


Total pupils registered 


81,540 
67,415 


6,115 
4,429 


13,302 
10,460 


29,215 
25,499 


47,027 
41,514 


12,081 
10,070 1 


14,736 


Average attendance 


13,052 













Departments. 








Cundi- 
namarca. 


Mag- 
dalena. 


Nariflo. 


San- 
tander. 


Tolima. 


Valle. 


Totalschools 


830 


197 


284 


461 


348 


323 


Public 






341 

7 


300 


Private 






23 


Advanced boys' schools . . 




'I 

97 
97 


1 




Advanced girls' schools 








City schools for boys 




33 
33 




58 
60 


44 


City schools for girls 






53 


Ruralschools . . 








Rural schools for boys 




37 
34 




8 
7 
12 


i4 
14 


34 


Rural schools for girls 






.Ti 


Mixed schools 








Mixed schools— rural 


49 






132 


Mixed schools— city 










Evening schools 


14 

3 

1 

13 

40,886 

34,561 


11 




8 


6 


3 


Model schools 






National School of Weaving 

Vocational schools 
















2 
19, 914 
19,700 


3 
16,523 
14,930 




Total pupils registered 

Average attendance 


7,205 
5,475 


23,172 
19,453 


26, 741 
21,793 







The departments showed a pronounced increase in registration, and 
a more than proportionate increase in average attendance over the 
1919 figures. 

COSTA RICA. 

Sanitary assisTxVNTs. — Twenty-five young women tliis j^ear took 
the examinations for sanitary assistants in the schools. The course 
in modern school hygiene had been given by the chief of the anky- 



PUBLIC liSiSTRUCTIOX AND EDUCATION. 89 

lostomiasis (hookworm) department and three other well known phy- 
sicians. 

CUBA. 

Course ix wireless telegraphy. — The Department of Com- 
munications has announced the opening of a course of wireless 
telegraphy in the Academy of the Department. To enter the course 
it is necessary to be a Cuban citizen at least 17 years of age of good 
moral character; and to know^ telegraphy sufficiently well to receive 
and transcribe 15 words a minute. 

Diplomatic and consular service. — The National Universit}^ 
has opened a diplomatic and consular service course in the College of 
Public Law. The object of this course wdll be the proper prepara- 
tion of representatives of the Republic in foreign countries, so that 
they will be competent to fill in the most adequate manner the 
positions entrusted to them. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Extra school funds. — The Communes of Esperanza and Guaj^- 
ubin will expend part or all of their surplus funds for additional 
school equipment. 

College of St. Thomas Aquinas. — The college of Santo Tomas 
de Aquino has recently been reopened; it offers high-grade prepara- 
tory work. 

School of Commerce. — The Chamber of Commerce of Santiago 
is to open a school of commerce to supply the need for a school of 
this type. 

ECUADOR. 

School architecture. — In the Ministry of Public Instruction a 
technical bureau of architecture has been organized. 

Scholarships.— Forty scholarships in the girls' normal school, the 
Instituto Normal Manuela Canizares, and 45 in the boys' normal 
school, the Instituto Normal Juan Montalvo, have been assigned to 
the provinces of the Republic, the number for a Province varying 
from one to five for each school. 

New liceo.— The Paulist Fathers have established in Quito a 
new secondary school in which agricultural, commercial, industrial, 
financial, and cultural courses will be given. 

HAITI. 

Secondary examinations,— The new program of secondary 
examinations, with their corresponding weight in the scale of marks, 
is as follows: Course A, written— French composition, 3; Latin 
translation, 3; Greek translation, 2; Spanish or English translation, 2. 
Course A, oral— French, 3; Latin and Greek, 3; Mathematics, 2; 
general history and geography, 2 ; Haitian history and geography, 2 ; 



90 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

physics and chemistry, 1 ; animal physiology, 2. Course B, written — 
French, 3; mathematics, 3; English or Spanish, 2; drawing, 2. 
Course B, oral— French, 3; mathematics, 3; general history and 
geography, 2 ; Haitian history and geography, 2 ; physics and chem- 
istry, 2; animal physiology, 2; cosmography, 1. Philosophy A, 
written— Philosophy, 3; history of Haiti, 2. Philosophy A, oral- 
Philosophy, 3 ; general history and geography, 2 ; organic chemistry, 
2; a modern language, 2; law and political economy, 1; hygiene, 1. 
PhilosophyB, written— Philosophy, 3; science, 3; history of Haiti, 2. 
Philosophy B, oral — Philosophy, 3; mathematics, 3; general history 
and geography, 2; a modern language, 2; law and poUtical economy. 
1; hygiene, 1. The foregoing are the secondary examinations of 
the second degree, taken at the end of the course. Those of the 
first degree follow. Written: French, 3; Latin translation, 2; 
mathematics, 2; Spanish or English translation, 2. Oral: French, 3; 
Latin, 2; mathematics and accounting, 2; physics, chemistry, or 
geology, 2; general history and geography, 2; Haitian history and 
geography, 2; a modern language, 2; civics and ethics, 2. 

History and geography of Haiti. — ^These subjects will form 
part of the written tests for all school certificates, beginning with 
the primary and including the secondary and normal examinations. 

MEXICO. 

Education in 1922. — The Secretary of Public Instruction has pre- 
pared a plan of education for 1922 not only to reach the children 
of the middle classes and give vocational studies to the young people 
but to bring the same facilities to the laboring classes and the in- 
habitants of country districts. The educational budget has been 
increased to permit the opening of 200 more primary schools in 
connection with the normal schools; the establishment of kinder- 
gartens in even the poorest sections of the Federal District; the 
opening of 100 rural schools; the supervision of night schools for 
workmen, substituting practical education for purely cultural 
courses ; the acquisition of several pieces of property and the necessary 
equipment for teaching agriculture; and the establishment of shops 
for students studying arts and trades. To increase the staff of 
teachers a night normal school is to be opened and classes are to 
be held so that teachers may attend them in the vacation period. 

PERU. 

Popular University. — On October 11 the Popular University 
opened its second year to students of both sexes. This university 
was created by order of the First National Congress of Students 
which met last year in Cuzco. The object of the school is to make 
courses available for the laboring class and general public. The 
teachers, who are students in the University of San Marcos, are 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION AND EDUCATION. 91 

presided over by one of the professors. In addition to its cultural 
aims, the objects of this institution are to impress its students with 
the importance of study, to carry on a campaign against alcoholism, 
and to disseminate knowledge regarding personal hygiene and sani- 
tation. The courses include: Spanish grammar; general geography; 
arithmetic; home remedies; botany; physics; geometry; parasitology; 
anatomy; political economy; general history; Enghsh; and other 
subjects. 

Medical clinic class. — Dr. Julian Arce, of the San Koque service 
of the Hospital Dos de Mayo, opened his clinic class in September. 
All medical students and doctors may attend. 

REPUBLIC OF CENTRAL AMERICA. 

Manual training. — Carpentry, weaving, and spinning classes have 
been opened in the boys' primary school of Totonicapan, Guatemala, 
and embroidery and spinning classes in the girls' school of the same 
city. 

School principals. — According to the qualifications demanded of 
principals for Salvadorean high, grammar, primary, or city schools, 
or heads of departments, including kindergartens, candidates must 
either be normal school graduates or first-class practical teachers 
with 10 years' experience; both types of candidate must have tes- 
timonials of good moral character and a health certificate furnished 
by the chief of the school sanitation section. In addition, written 
tests will be given in pedagogical subjects. There will also be a 
problem in school legislation and questions on the main laws in effect 
in Salvador; two tests in practice teaching in any of the following 
subjects: Reading, Spanish, arithmetic, geography, or national 
history. A certificate of approval signed by the director general will 
be the candidate's diploma and he may not be removed from his post 
while his conduct and the quality of his work are satisfactory. 

Dressmaking school. — El Bien del Hogar, a school for cutting 
and dressmaking in San Salvador, has been granted a monthly sub- 
sidy of 100 colones from the State upon the condition that it furnish 
10 free scholarships a year to State appointees. 

Reform school. — Five monks from Italy, engaged by the Salva- 
dorean Government for the management of the reform school of the 
capital, have arrived to take up the work. These new directors plan 
the establishment of a deaf-mute department in connection with the 
school, as they have had much experience in Italy in this line. 

URUGUAY. 

Deaf-Mute Institute. — Seiior Queirolo de Rolando by a donation 
has made possible a basketry class in the Deaf-Mute Institute for 
Girls. A new class in wool spinning and one in physical culture are 
also part of the course. 



ARGENTINA. 



Anticancer league. — The league for social education and -assist- 
ance which was recently founded hopes to take a prominent part in 
the fight against cancer by aiding those suffering from the disease, 
cooperating in scientific research, and spreading the best information 
obtainable regarding the treatment and cure of cancer. The league 
expects to have a publication which will give information as to how 
the first symptoms may be recognized, thus making possible the 
prompt treatment of the disease. 

Minimum wage law. — See page 80. 

Labor law for women and children.— See page 80. 

chile. 

Playground. — The teachers and pupils of the primary, secondary, 
and upper schools will have the exclusive use of the new playground 
in Santiago, for which land is lent by the Potable Water Co. 

Tuberculosis dispensaries. — The Women's Antituberculosis 
Association of Santiago manages two dispensaries, each equipped 
with a laboratory and attended by two physicians. One dispensary 
has an X-ray apparatus, and it is hoped shortly to buy another. The 
members of the association act as clinical assistants. During last 
September 599 patients received attention. 

White cross. — For some time a society of Santiago women under 
the name of the White Cross has conducted a reform school for way- 
ward girls. In 20 months it has rehabilitated and returned to useful 
work more than 200. The house has shops where the girls learn a 
trade, to sew, weave, and do other feminine work. The establishment 
is directed by nuns who have made a special study of modern penal 
methods, psychology, and education. 

COSTA RICA. 

Sanitary Assistants. — See page 88. 

ECUADOR. 

Day nursery.— The first day nursery in Ecuador was opened 
October 9, 1921, in Guayaquil in a reinforced concrete building 
erected through the generosity of the citizens and the efforts of Dr. 
92 



SOCIAL TENDENCIES AND PKOGEESS. 93 

Juan Bautista Arzube Cordero and of the other members of the 
Puericulture Society. 

Bacteriologist. — The position of bacteriologist of the venereal 
prophylaxis service of Pichincha Province has been created by presi- 
dential decree. 

Protection of children. — A society for the protection of chil- 
dren, modeled after that in Quito, is being started in Ibarra. 

Gift to Children's Hospital. — Two residents of Guayaquil have 
given to the Children's Hospital complete equipment, valued at more 
than 12,000 francs, for the operating rooms. The operating tables, 
sterilizers, and other apparatus were purchased in France. 

City physicians. — A corps of city physicians has been established 
in Guayaquil to render emergency service. A physician will be on 
call at any time, and services and medicine will be free to the poor. 
Eight telephone stations have been opened in various parts of the 
city for use in summoning the city physicians. 

Labor accident law. — See page 83. 

Alcohol re liqitors. — Sec page 83. 

MEXICO. 

Industrial insurance. — The board of directors of the National 
Railroad Lines of Mexico have received permission from the Presi- 
dent of the Republic to establish a system of industrial insurance 
from the surplus receipts of the railroads, without depriving the em- 
ployees of any of their salary. This insurance is not only for work- 
men incapacitated in performance of their duties, aged and infirm 
employees, the nearest of kin to those who die in the service of the 
railroad, but for the entire force of workmen, including those who 
have for a stated time served the railroad faithfully and wish to 
retire or go into other business. The amount of insurance will be 
proportionate to the position, salary, and length of service of the 
employee. 

PANAMA. 

City revenues. — See page 84. 

Colon clinic— The clinic started in Colon by the Cristobal 
Women's Club i's caring for about 2,000 cases a month, and has handled 
over 5,000 since it started in June. Indians are coming in from the 
San Bias country for treatment. 

PERU. 

Society for the protection of infancy. — The Society for the 
Protection of Infancy is to receive half of the 10 per cent tax on 
admission charges to places of amusement. This will enable the asso- 
77r)75— 22— Bull. 1 7 



94 THE PAN AMERICAlSr UNION. 

ciation to coordinate and develop, under Government supervision, 
milk stations, day nurseries, convalescent homes, and asylums. 

City milk distribution. — The mayor of Lima has issued orders 
that the police department, which has charge of the granting of 
licenses to vendors of provisions and beverages, shall also issue li- 
censes to milk dealers. Applicants for such licenses must show 
health certificates, furnished free by the h3^giene inspection bureau, 
and must deposit 50 Peruvian pounds. Milk dealers will not be per- 
mitted to continue theu" business unless they fulfill these conditions. 

REPUBLIC OF CENTRAL AMERICA. 

Dispensary car. — Guatemala has established a free dispensary car 
to serve all towns adjacent to its railroads; 2,000 pesos monthly were 
appropriated for medicine and other necessary expenses and $100 
for the salary of the physician in charge. The railroad company will 
furnish the car and the Rockefeller Foundation will cooperate. 

Child health station. — The child health station in Guatemala 
City is continuing its good work. In one month the attendance 
reached 2,019. The average daily expense is calculated at 5 pesos 
for the older children and 8 pesos for the younger ones. The city 
council made a gift of 2,000 pesos and financial support is being 
given in the name of children. 

Children's municipal library. — A municipal library of over 
1,000 volumes has been opened for children in San Salvador and is 
well patronized. Reading rooms such as this are to be established 
in various wards of the city. 

Gota de Leche. — The Gota de Leche, or free milk station, of San 
Salvador was officially opened on September 15. The staff of the 
institution consists of the physician in charge, assistant physician, 
superintendent, medical students, and two nurses trained in the 
Rosales Hospital. 

There have also been established by some of the founders of the 
Gota de Leche other important health centers : The emergency clinic 
with its ambulance; the medical dispensary which cares for a daily 
average of 50 patients; the Santa Lucia and Concepcion venereal 
clinics; and the medical consultation offices in the Departments of 
Santa Ana, Sonsonate, San Miguel, Santa Tecla, San Vicente, Zaca- 
tecoluca, and Cohutepeque. 



ARGENTINA. 

Cervantes theater. —The beautiful new building of the Cervantes 
Theater, on the corner of Calles Libertad and Cordoba in Buenos 
Au-es, was opened a few months ago. The main facade is a faithful 
reproduction of the famous University of Alcala de Henares in Spain, 
and to be consistent with its architecture, the other facade is also in 
the style of the Spanish Renaissance. The theater has a capacity 
of 1,700. The rich stage curtain is a product of the royal tapestry 
factory of Spain. 

Good eoads congress. — The Argentine Touring Club is preparing 
for a good roads congress in Buenos Aires in May, 1922. The execu- 
tive committee intends to include in the program all the different 
phases of the good roads problem of the Republic. Among the 
subjects to be discussed are technical construction, road legislation, 
and the most adequate means for financing an extensive plan for 
highway building. 

Population. — The census of 1914 showed a total population of 
7,885,237 inhabitants, as follows: Argentinians: Males, 2,753,214; 
females, 2,774,071; foreigners: males, 1,473,809; females, 884,143. 
The present estimated population of the Republic is 9,000,000. 

BOLIVIA. 

Bolivian aviatrix. — Senorita Amalia Villa de la Tapia of Potosi, 
Bolivia, has fmished her course in the Bellavista Aviation School of 
Peru and has but to make a flight in her own ahplane, as prescribed 
by the school's rules, to win her pilot's license. It is reported that a 
group of students of the Girls' Lyceum in Peru is raising a sub- 
scription to present Senorita Villa de la Tapia with an au-plane so 
that she may complete her last flying test. 

Opthalmological congress. — Through the Legation of the United 
States the Bolivian Government has been invited to send represen- 
tatives to the International Congress of Opthalmology to be held in 
Washington April 25-28, 1922. 

brazil. 

Dr. Ruy Barbosa.— The election of Senator Ruy Barbosa to the 
International Court of Justice, under the League of Nations, was made 
the occasion of a nation-wide tribute of affection and admiration for 
the venerable Brazilian statesman and jurist. 

95 



96 THE PAX AMERICAN UNION, 

COLOMBIA. 

Dr. Gabriel O'Byrne. — This well-known man, distinguished in 
science and letters, and dean of Colombian journalists, recently died 
in Cartagena. Dr. O'Bryne had served his country in many impor- 
tant public positions. He had been a representative in the Congress, 
counsellor of the Legation of Colombia in Washington, and colonel 
in the army, as well as the incumbent of other offices. He is deeply 
mourned. 

COSTA RICA. 

Statue of first president.— A bronze statue of Don Juan Mora 
Fernandez was unveiled in San Jose on September 15. 

Centenary edition of stamps. — New stamps were issued in the 
denominations of 2, 3, 6, 15, and 30 centimos. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Pasteur treatment.^ — A consignment oi antirabies serum from 
the United States for use in the Pasteur treatment for hydrophobia 
has arrived in the city of Santiago. 

Paintings. — On October 12, an exhibition of paintings by Arturo 
Baez and Simon Dominguez was opened in the Santiago Municipal 
Palace. This is the first exhibit of national paintings held in Santiago. 

Vaccination. — The department of sanitation urges all Dominicans 
who have not been vaccinated to have this done immediately to 
reduce the danger from smallpox. The National Dominican Labora- 
tory is now making the vaccine. 

ECITADOR. 

Paving. — ^A contract for 150,000 square meters of paving in Quito 
has been let by the Pichincha Centenary Committee. An American 
system is to be used. 

Drinking water for Guayaquil.— Work is progressing on laying 
pipes under the Guayas River for Guayaquil's new supply of drinking 
water. This enterprise was begun in 1914 by a British concern, but 
was interrupted by the war. 

PANAMA. 

Relapsing fever transmission. — -Experiments. recently made in 
Panama upon American soldiers who volunteered for the test have 
confirmed the doctors' theory that relapsing fever is transmitted by 
the bite of a tick. 

Venezuelan studies leprosy cure. — Dr. E. Noguera Gomez, a 
Venezuelan Government chemist sent bv Dr. L. G. Itriago, national 



GENERAL NOTES. 97 

liealtli oflicer of A'cnoziiola, has arrived in Panama to make a study 
of Chaulmoogra oil as a cure for leprosy. The new treatment has 
produced marked improvement in the leper colony at Palo Seco. 

PERU. 

Winter art exhibition. — The winter art exhibition at the Fine 
Arts Society Salon had many visitors desirous of viewing the works 
of Peruvian artists. There were also some very interesting carved 
wooden figures done in the Inca spirit by a Yugo-Slav sculptor. 

Medicae library. — The first volume of the Peruvian Centenary 
Medical Library is now published. This book contains biographical 
sketches of early Peruvian physicians and edits their contributions 
to medical science. 

republic of central AMERICA. 

Vaccination. — The Salvadorean department of sanitation has 
issued a bulletin on the organization of departmental smallpox vac- 
cination service. The book contains 4 colored maps with accompany- 
ing tables showing area, population, towns and the distance of the 
latter from the department government seat. The book also gives 
the distribution of the year's work among the officials in charge of 
the service. 

URUGUAY. 

Life-saving and salvage station. — Local authorities at Mal- 
donado have made application to the port authorities to have a tug 
stationed at that place because of the frequency of maritime dis- 
asters along that part of the coast. The press states that about 
thi'ee-fifths of the casualties to vessels on the River Plate route 
occur off this notoriously dangerous stretch of coast, news arriving 
at Montevideo at times too late to send effective assistance. 

Medical school conference. — Prof. Weinberg of the Pasteur 
Institute of Paris, specially invited by the dean of the medical school. 
Dr. Manuel Quintela, gave a series of scientific lectures before the 
faculty and medical student body. The lectures were on the fol- 
lowing subjects: Role of microbes in infections of au'borne diseases; 
serotherapy of polymicrobic infections; role of intestinal parasites 
in the etiology of infectious diseases; the reaction of the organism 
to verminous intoxication. 

VENEZUELA. 

Sewers in Caracas. — In the December, 1921, number of Tn- 
genieria Internacional there is an interesting article concerning the 
sewers of Caracas. The author mentions the interest which has 



98 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION, 



been awakened in Venezuela in public sanitation, stating that this 
is reflected in better hospitals, quarantine and port service, as well 
as in the organization of educational propaganda against various 
preventable contagious diseases and in the municipal improvements 
in Caracas and La Guaira. It is calculated that approximately 
$15,000,000 will be spent on different projects in this connection. 

Some time ago a thoroughly modern and complete plan was pre- 
pared for the sanitation of Caracas. This included the drinking- 
water supply and the sewer system. To-day the work for the 
former has been completed, and the construction of a modern sewer 
system, with main line and branches, is under way. The work was 
begun on the highest level, from which the branches were led down 
to join the main. As far as possible straight lines are maintained, 
and at every mouth, curve, or change of grade a larger transverse 
section is installed. The manholes are placed 100 meters apart, 
and also over all curves and almost all the outlets, while in the 
transverse sections too small to admit a man there are inspection 
wells. Ventilators to admit air and light are found every 20 meters, 
and at the entrance to the larger sewers there are screens to keep out 
stones and leaves. Drains have been constructed in the bottom 
to dry out the mud and sand. 

The plan was prepared by Dr. German Jimenez and is being car- 
ried out under the direction of the Ministry of Public Works. 




SUBJECT MATTER OF CONSULAR REPORTS. 



REPORTS RECEIVED TO NOVEMBER 28, 1921. 



Subject. 



Date. 



Author. 



ARGENTINA. 

Production, manufacture, and exportation of Argentine cotton 

Special copy of "Buenos Aires Herald" covering pedigree cat- 
tle show at Palermo. 

Argentine law No. 11,208 for 1920, as applied to 1921 

Publication entitled "Petr61eos y Minas" of Sept. 17,1921 

Extract from "The Review of the River Plate" of Sept. 23, 1921, 
upon the subject of the " Balance of payments of the Argentine 
Republic for the economic year 1919-20." 

New Vrgentine-American Banking Institution 

Construction in northern Argentina 

Annual Report of the Ministry of Public Works for 1920-21 

Disallowanceof Argentine Railway tariff increases. (From The 
Review of the River Plate, Sept. 30 and Oct. 7, 1921.) 

BOUVIA. 

Bolivian national budget for the year 1921 

BRAZIL. 

Imports from all countrie s at port of Para for the month of Aug- 
ust, 1921. 
Market for American millinery in Sao Paulo 



Market for American-made stoves, Pernambuco 

Annual report of commerce and industries of Sao Paulo for 1920. . 

Sugar shipments from Recife for eight months of 1921 

New German steamship line for South America 

Exports from Bahiato the United States for September quarter. . . 

Establishment of stone crusher in Pernambuco 

E xtension of Pernambuco Tramways 

Bahia cocoa shipments for September quarter, 1921 



1921 
Aug. 2 

Sept. 12 

Sept. 22 
Sept. 23 
...do 



Sept. 24 
Sept. 30 
Oct. 6 
Oct. 8 



Aug. 16 

Sept. 16 

Sept. 22 

Sept. 23 

Sept. 25 
Sept. 28 
Sept. 29 
Sept. 30 

Oct. 14 
...do.... 
Oct. 15 



CHILE. 

Educational courses in schools of the Territory of Magallanes Aug. 11 



Market for tire repair material. 



Aug. 12 



Sept. 
Sept. 



Sept. 5 
Sept. 14 
Sept. 30 



.do. 



Crop reports 

Commercial conditions in Iquique 

Economic and descriptive data concerning Coronel ■ 

The market for fish products 

National textile industry and market for ladies wearing apparel. 

Market for tire repair material 

CUBA. 

I 
Exports to the United States July 1 to Sept. 30, 1921 | Oct. 5 

The sale of German cement Oct. 10 

Market for American-made stoves Oct. 19 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Concessionaire for new electric Ught plant at Santo Domingo, ask | Oct. 20 
for extension of time hmit for completion of plant. I 

Reduced freight rates announced on cement and gasoline i do — 

Vessels of Clyde Steamsliip Co., equipped with refrigerator space... .' — do. . . . 



W. Henry Robertson, consul- 
general at Buenos Aires. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Nelson R. Park, vice consul 
at La Paz. 



Geo. H. Pickerell, consul at 

Para. 
E . M. Lawton, consul at Sao 

Paulo. 
C. R. Cameron, consul at 

Pernambuco. 
E . M. Lawton. 
C. R. Cameron. 

Do. 
Thos. H. Bevan, consul at 

Bahia. 
C. R. Cameron. 

Do. 
Thos. H. Bevan. 



Austin C. Brady, consul at 
Punta Arenas. 

Dayle C. MCDonough, con- 
sul at Concepcion. 
Do. 

Homer Brett, consul at 
Iquique. 

Dayle C. McDonough. 

Homer Brett. 

Carl F. Dcichman, consul 
general at Valparaiso. 
Do. 



Charles Forman, consul at 

Nueva Gerona. 
Harold D. Chun, consul at 

Santiago de Cuba. 
Frank Bohr, consul at Cicii- 

fuegos. 



George A. Makinson, vice 
consul at Santo Domingo. 
Do. 
Do. 

99 



100 



THE PAX AMERICAN UNION. 

Reports received to November 28, 1921 — Continued. 



Subject. 



Date. 



Author. 



ECUAPOR. 

Imported tobacco in Ecuador i Sept. 

Ecuadorian market for food products Sept. 

Guayji, the useful Ecuadorian fniit Sept. 

The coffee industry in j;cuador Oct. 

Railroad and highway development in Ecuador Oct. 

GUATEMALA. 

Annual report on commerce and industries for 192ii Oct . 

Ouatemalau export taxes , Oct. 

Fisheries and market for fish products Oct. 



HAITI. 

Fisheries and market for fish products. 



Sepl. 



15 I Frederic W. Coding, consul 

general at Guayaquil. 
21 Do. 

26 Do. 

3 Do. 

Do. 



4 Arthur C. Frost, consul at 

CJuatemalaCitv. 
17 ! Do. 

19 Do. 



23 I Robert Dudley Longyear. 

vice consul " at Port-au 

Prince. 
13 Do. 



Market for American-made stoves Oct 

HONDURA.S. 

Statistics from the Port of Amapala for August, 1921 oci . I'j (! . K. Donald 

MEXICO. 

Company to promote tourist traffic to Yucatan Oct 



Yucatan makes innovation in production of fiber i Oct. 

F'xtension of water svstcm of Juarez .do. 



Cotton growing in Sdnora ' Oct. 

PERU. j 

Market for American-made stoves j Sept. 

Cultivation and importation office in Peru I Oct. 

SALVADOR. j 

New steamsMp service to Europe ' Oct. 

URVCUAY. 

Educational courses in Montevideo schools j Aug. 

Project to make extensions and improvements hi port of Monte- | Sept. 
video and economical dwelling houses to be built by Govern- 
ment in La Teja. 

Excerpt from report of commerce a iid industries for August , 1921 . . Sept. 

Market for rice, canned fruits, and vegetables ' Sept. 

VENEZUELA. 

Coflee sliipments from the port of Maracaibo during September,! Oct. 
1921 

General information on Maracaibo consular district -...do. 



10 i O. Gaylord .\Iarsli, consul a 

Progreso. 
15 ■ Do. 

— j .Tohn W. Dye, consul at Ciii- 

, dad Juarez. 
28 I Francis J. Oyer, ooiisnl at 

I Nogales. 



7 j Claude E. (iuyant, consul in 

I charge Callao-Lima. 
5 Do. 



Lynn W. Franklin, vice con- 
sul at San Salvador. 



3 I David J. D. Myers, consul at 

i Montevideo." 
16 ; Do. 



19 i Do. 
30 Do. 



7 I AVUliam A. Hickey, vice con- 
sul at Maracaibo. 




BOOK NOTES J 



[Publications added to the Columbus Mpmorial Library during July, 1921.1 
ARGENTINE KEFUBLIC. 

Anales del Museo Nacioual de Tlistoria Natural de Buenos Aires. Tomo 30. IJueuos 
Aires, Talleres Graficos del Ministerio de Agricultura de la Nacion, ]9L'0. ilhis. 
559 p. 4°. 
Business conditions in Argentina. Report No. 151, 31st IIax 192]. Buenos Aiivs, 

Ernesto Tornquist & Cia., limitada, 1921. 19 p. 4°. 
Centennial of the birthday of Bartolome Mitre. June twenty-sixth 1821-1921. New 

York, Hispanic yociety of America, 1921. front, port. [6] p. S° 
Discursos hombres Argeutinos. Conferencia leida el 11 de Diciembrc de 1918 en el 
salon de actos piiblicos del Ateneo Uispano Americano de Buenos Aires. [Por] 
Arturo Juega Farrulla. -MonteAideo, 1920. front, port. xA", 330 (2) p. 8°. 
Estudio geologico de la zona de reserva de la explotacion naeional de petroleo en 
Comodoro RiA-ada\da. Por el Doctor Ricardo Wiclimann. Buenos Aires, Minis- 
terio de Agricultura, Direccion General de Minas, (icologia e Hidrologia, Boletin 
25, Serie B. Geologia, 1921. map. 17 p. 8°. 
Estudios geologicos e hidrogeologicos en la zona subandina de las proA'incias de Salta 
y Tucuman. Por el Dr. R. Stappeubeck. Buenos Aires, Talleres Graficos del 
Ministerio de Agricultura, Seccion Geologia, ■\Iineralogia y Mineria, Tomo 14, 
No. 5, 1921. pis. maps. 135 p. 8°. 
Evaluaci6n del Plomo. Por el Dr. Miguel H. Catalano. ]5uenos Aires, Ministerio do 
Agricultura, Direccion General de Minas, Geologia e Hidrologia, Boletin No. 13, 
Serie D. Quimica Mineral y Aguas Minerales, 1921. 32 p. 8°. 
Fifth annual report of the United States Exporters' Association in Buenos Aires. 

Buenos Aires, printed by J. H. Kidd & Co., 1921. 16 p. 12°. 
History of the telephone and telegraph in the Argentine Republic 1857-1921. By 
Victor M. Berthold, chief foreign statistician, American Telephone & Telegraph 
Company. New York, 1921. 38 p. 8°. 
Informe sobre un xdaje de reconocimiento geologico en la parte nordeste del territoiio 
del Chabut, con referencia especial a la cuestion de la proAdsion de agua de Puerto 
Madryn. Por el Dr. Anselmo Windhausen. Buenos Aires, Ministerio de Agri- 
cultura de la Nacion, Dii-eccion General de Minas, Geologia e Hidrologia, Boletin 
24, Serie B. Geologia 1921. maps. pis. 72 p. S". 
Nociones utiles sobre la Republica Argentina. Buenos Aires, Ministerio de Agricul- 
tura, Direccion General de Comercio e Industria, 1921. map. illus. 115 p. 8°. 

BRAZIL. 

Anexos das memorias do Instituto de Butantan. Secyao de Botanica. \o\. 1, Tac. 

1-2. Sao Paulo, 1921. 8°. 2 vols. 
Coffee problem and the present situation in Biazil. Address of Mr. Sebastio Sarupaio, 

Brazilian Commercial Attache for the United States ... at a joint meeting of 

coffee associations of the United States, held at the coffee exchange, New York 

City, on June fi, 1921. 15 p. 8°. 
Mercado de trabalho. Salaries, procuras, aviso aos trabalhadores, anso aos criadoros, 

um pedido aos nossos correspondentes, preco de terras, arrendamento de terras 

etc. Departamento Estadual do Trabalho, S. Paulo, Typ. Brasil de Botscliild 

& Cia., 1920. 98 p. 9°. 
\'ulorization of coffee in Brazil. Compiled by Mary G. Lacy. 21 p. MSS. 4°. [1921.1 

101 



102 THE PAN AIMERICAN UNION. 



Reglamento de sociedades anonimas. (Publicado en el "Diario Oficial" de 24 de 
Diciembre de 1920). Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1920. 30 p. 12°. 

COLOMBIA. 

Colombian literature. By NicoUs Garcia Samudio. Reprinted from The Hispanic 
American Historical Review, Vol. IV, No. 2, May, 1921. p. 330-347. 8°. 

Mensaje del gobernador de Boyacd a la asamblea departamental en sus sesiones de 
1921 e informes de los secretaries del despacho. Tunja, Imprenta del Departa- 
mento, 1921. 112 p. 4°. 

CUBA. 

Comercio exterior. Segundo semestre del ano 1919 y afio natural de 1919. Secre- 

taria de Hacienda. Secci6n de estadistica. Habana, Imprenta "La Propagan- 

dista," 1921. xviii, 435 p. fold, tables. 4°. 
Cuba a winter paradise. Official guide of the national association for attraction of 

tourists. Habana, Imp. Seoane y Ferniindez, [1921]. illus. 8°. pamp. 
Memoria de la administracion del presidente de la rei^ublica de Cuba Mario G. Menocal 

durante periodo comprendido entre el 1° de Julio de 1918 y el 30 de Junio de 

1920. Habana, Rambla, Bouza y C, 1921. 8°. 2 vols. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Lecciones de instruccion moral y ci\'ica. For B. Pichardo. Segundo edicion 
Santo Domingo, Imprenta de C. A. Patin Maceo, 1921. ports. 41 p. 8°. 

ECUADOR. 

Juan de Miramontes Zuazola. Armas antarticas editadas por J. Jijon y Caamaiio de 
la Academia Nacional de Historia. Vol. 1-2. Quito, 1921. 12°. 2 vols. 

GUATEMALA. 

Estatutos de la cdmara de comercio de Guatemala. Guatemala, Tip., San Antonio, 

1921. 30 (1) p. 12°. 

Ley constitutiva de la republica de Guatemala decretada por la asamblea nacional 
constituyente el 11 de diciembre de 1879 y refoi-mada por el mismo alto cuerpo 
el 5 de noviembre de 1887, 30 de agosto de 1897, 12 de julio de 1903 y 11 de marzo 
de 1921. Guatemala, Tip., Nacional "La Instracci6n," 1921. 77 p. 12°. 

HONDURAS. 

Informe del seilor director general de estadistica nacional al sefior ministro de gober- 
naci6n y justicia. 1916. Tegucigalpa, Tip., Nacional, 1918. 763 p. f°. 



Chapultepec: su leyenda y su historia. Por Ruben M. Campos. Fotografias de Jos^ 
M. Lupercio y Gustavo F. Silva. Mexico, 1919. 38 p. 66 plates. 4°. 

Faunas jurasicas de symon (Zacatecas) y faunas creaticicas de Zumpango del Rio 
(Guerrero). Por el Doctor Carlos Burckhardt. Tomo 1-2. Mexico, Departa- 
mento de Aprovisionamientos Generales, Boletfn 33, Instituto Geologico de 
Mexico. 1919-1921. 2 vols. 

Historia antigua de Mexico. Sacada de los mejores historiadores Espanoles y de los 
manuscritos y de las pincuras antiguas de los Indies aividida en diez Ubros: 
Adornada con mapas y estampas e ilustrada con disertaciones eobre la tierra, 
los animales y los habitantes de Mexico. Escrita por el Abate Francisco Javier 



BOOK NOTES. 103 

Olavijero. Tiiiducida del Jtaliano por Joaquin de Mora y precedida de nuticias 

bio-bibliografias del autor, por Luis Gonzales Obregon. Tomo i-2. Mexico, 

Depto. Editorial de la Direcci6n General de las Bellas Artes, 1917. 8°. 2 vols. 
La ensefianza publica en Mexico. Estudio sobre sus deficiencias y la mejor manera 

de corregirlas. Por el Licenciado Guillermo A. Sherwell. Mexico, Imprenta 

Franco Mexicana, 1914. 85 p. 8°. 
Lower California and its natural resources. By Edward W. Nelson. In: "Memoii-s 

of the National Academy of Sciences." Vol. XVI, Washington, 1921. p. 1-194. 

plates, map. 4°. 
Mexican oil situation in a nutshell. A concise analysis of the fundamental principles 

underlying the constitutional rights of the Mexican people. By J. Lara. New 

York, Spanish-American Publishing Co., 1921. 14. p. 8°. 
Notions de la lengua Nahuatl. Par Cecilio A. Robelo. Mexico, Imp. del Museo N. 

de Arqueologia, Historia y Etnologia, 1912. 34 p. 8°. 



Panama-Costa Pdca boundary controversy. Opinion given by Dr. Antonio S. de 
Bustamante. Panama, National Printeiy, 1921. 21 p. 8°. 

PARAGUAY. 

Meteorologia y climatologia. Seccion 24 prognosia del tiempo. Num. 23: Estudio 
de las periodicidades diarias aparentes o reales de las llu\'ias y tempestades. Por 
Moises S. Bertoni. Puerto Bertoni, Imprenta "Ex Sylvis," 1918. 58 p. 8°. 

Plantae Bertonianae. III. Hydnoraceae sistematica & biologia. Por el Dr. Moises 
S. Bertoni. Asuncion, Tallere's Nacionales de H. Kraus, [1916]. 40 p. 8°. 

Registro oficial correspondiente al afio 1911. Asuncion, Imprenta Nacional, 1921. 
311, xxx\'ii ip. 4°. 

PERU. 

Ciencia y arte en la prehistoria peruana. Por el Dr. Edmundo Escomel. [Lima], 
Imp. Sanmarti y Ca., [1920]. 32 p. 8°. 

Compania Adminstradora del Guano. 12a memoria del Directorio correspondiente 
al 12° aiio econ6mico de 1° de abril de 1920 a 31 de marzo de 1921. Lima, Li- 
breria e Imprenta Gil, 1921. fold, tables. 138 p. 8°. 

Contribution a I'etude de quelques mycoses au Perou. Extrait du Bulletin de la 
Soci6t6 de Pathologie Exotique, Tomo XIII, Seance du 13 octobre 1920. No. 8, 
Paris, Masson & Cie., Editeurs, 1920. illus. p. 663-671. 8°. 

Distribution of bird life in the Urubamba Valley of Peru. A report on the birds col- 
lected by the Yale University-National Geographic Society's Expeditions. By 
Frank Chapman. Washington, United States National Museima, Bulletin 117, 
1921. pis. map. 138 p. 8°. 

Imparcial de la Habana y la causa del Peru. Por [Jose Torres Vidaurre]. "Con- 
cepcion." 23 p. 12°. 

La autoseroterapia integral de las microbiosis humanas. Por Edmundo EscomeL 
Montevideo, Tip. Moderna, 1920. 16 p. 8°. 

La endoscopia al alcance de todos los prdcticos. Publicado en la Revista de la Aso- 
ciacion Medica Argentina, Nlims. 193 y 194. Por Edmundo Escomel. Buenos 
Aires, "Las Ciencias", 1921. illus. 7 p. 8°. 

Les hemoparasitismes et les h6moporteurs de germes. Les formules h^moparasitaire 
et h^moleucocytaire precede aussi simple que pratique pour leur 6tude. Par 
Edmundo Escomel. Paris, Masson et Cie., Editeurs, 1920. 8 p. 8°. 

Memoria presentada por el consejo de administraci6n de la cAmara de comercio de 
Lima a la junta general el 29 de marzo de 1920 siendo presidente el Sr. D. Pedro 
D. Gallagher. Lima, Libreria e Imprenta Gil, 1921. fold, tables. 45 p. 8°. 



104 THE PAN AMEEICAX UXIOX. 

lieformas necesarias del cocligo civil comun Peruaiio toudicnitei? a hacer efectiva la 
igualdad civil y juridiea del hombre y la mujer. Tesis para el Doctoradem en 
jurispriidencia por Miguelina A. Acosta Cardenap. I>ima, Imprenta Peruana, 

1920. 24 p. 8°. 

Statistical abstract of Peru 1919. Prepared by the Bureau of Statistics. Lima, Imp. 
Americana, 1920. xii. 159 p. 8°. 

SALVADOR. 

Examen critico de los "Bancos de Emision" en El Salvador y consideracionen 
sobre su funcionamiento y ley que los rige. Tesis de opcion presentada por el 
Doctor Vicente Belanrourt Aramburn. San Salvador, Imprenta Nacional, 1921. 
36 p. 8°. 

UNITED STATES. 

Address of the President of the United States to the Senate .Tidy 12, 1921. Washing- 
ton, 1921. 7 p. 8°. 

American peace society. Ninety-third annual report of the director.- 1921. Wash- 
ington, American Peace Society, 1921. 53 p. 8°. 

Convention for the control of the trade in arms and ammunition, and protocol, 
signed at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, September 10, 1919. New York, American 
Association for International Conciliation, 1921. 29 p. 12°. 

El Libertador Sim6n Bolivar. Discursos proniinciados con motivo de la iuauguracion 
del libertador, regalado por el gobierno de Venezuela a la ciudad de Xueva York 
el 19 de abril de 1921. Washington, Union Panamericana, 1921. 50 p. 12°. 

First year and a half of the League of Nations. By Arthur Sweet^^er. Philadelphia. 
American Academy of Political and Social Science, July, 1921. 10 p. S°. 

Government control and operation of industry in Great Britain and the United States 
during the world war. By Charles Whiting Baker, C. E. Carnegie Endow- 
ment for International Peace. New York, Oxford University Press, 1921. \'ii, 
138 p. 8°. 

Great Britain, Spain, and France versus Portugal in the matter of the expropriated 
religious properties in Portugal. Washington, Carnegie Endownient for Inter- 
national Peace, 1921. 30 p. 8°. 

List of American doctoral dissertations printed in 1918. Prepared by Katharine 
Jacobs. Library of Congress. Washington, G. P. 0., 1921. 200 p. 8°. 

Money and barter. Some economic consequences of the introduction of money and 
bank credit. Francis D. PoUak P^oundation for Economic Research, 1921. 
36 p. 8°. 

Notes on sovereignty. From the standpoint of the state and of the world. By Robert 
Lansing. Washington, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1921. 
94 p. 8°. 

Presidential address at the fifteenth annual meeting of the American Society of 
International Law, April 27, 1921. By Elihu Root. Reprinted from the Pro- 
ceedings of the Ameiican Societv of International Law, Wasliington, 1921. 14 p. 
8°. 

Relation of the discovery and conquest of the kingdoms of Peru. B>' Pedro Pizarro. 
Vol. 1-2. Tianslated into English and annotated by Philip Ainsworth Means. 
New York, The Cortes Society, 1921. 8°. 2 vols. 

Report for the year 1920 of the American Museum of Natural Historv. New York, 

1921. pis. 265 p. 8°. 

A review of the financial, industrial, and commercial situation of the country as an 
aftermath of the great war. An address by Dr. Walter Lichenstein. Delivered 
before the Manitowoc Rotary Club, Manitowoc, Wis., June 27, 1921. 12 p. 8°. 



BOOK NOTES. 105 

Some historical and political aspects of the government of Porto Rico. By Pedro 

Capo-Rodriguez. Reprinted from The Hispanic American Historical Review, 

Vol. II, No. 4, November, 1919. p. 543-585. 8°. 
Telephone and telegi-aph statistics of American Republics, January 1, 1920. New 

York, American Telephone and Telegraph Company, Bulletin No. 10. May, 1921. 

5 p. 4°. 
Twentieth annual report of the Bureau of Agricultiu-e [of the Plulippiue Islands] for 

the fiscal year ended December 31, 1921. Manila, Bureau of Printing, U)2I. 

illus. 65 (3) p. 8°. 
United States Official Postal Guide. July, 1921. Washington, Post Office IJcparl- 

ment, 1921. 928 p. 8°. 

URUGUAY. 

Constitucion de la repiiblica Oriental del Uruguay. Publicada por el Ministerio del 
Interior. Montevideo, Imprenta Nacional, 1919. 61 p. 12°. 

Memoria correspondiente al 4° ejercicio 1919-1920. Administracion nacional del 
puerto de Montevideo. Montevideo, A. Barreiro y Ramos, 1920. 330, xliii 
p. 4°. 

VENEZUELA. 

Academic exercises hi (Gaston Hall, Georgetown University, on the occasiou of the 
conferring of the degree of doctor of laws on Esteban Gil Borges, Minister of 
Foreign Affaii's of Venezuela. April 2(i, 1921. front, port. 24 p. 8°. 

Carabobo! Narracion historia. Por Ricardo J. Alfaro. Panama, Tip., Moderna, 
1921. 32 p. 8°. 

GENERAI, TiOOKS. 

American foreign trade definitions. Issued by The American Chamber of Commerce 

of Sao Paulo. [26] p. 8°. nar. [Text in English and Portuguese.] 
Association Beige Pour la Defense des Detenteurs de Fonds Publics. Dix-neuvieme 

rapport annuel pour I'exercice 1920-1921. Anvers. Imprimerie Neptune, 1921. 

xxxiv, 207, iii p. 8°. 
Documents of the International Financial Conference, statistical memoranda on 

currency, public finance, and trade. Volumes 4 and 5. London, Harrison & 

Sons Ltd., 1921. 4°. 2 vols. 
Espaiia en America. Por Doctor Adolfo S. Carrauza. Madrid, Sucesores de Riva- 

deneyra (S. A.) Artes Gnificos, 1921. 47 p. 12°. 
Hombresde America. [Por] Arturo .Tuega FarruUa. Monte\-ideo, 1921. 343 p. 4°. 
Jos^ Mdrmol. Politica internacional Americana. [Por] Arturo Juega FarruUa. 

Montevideo, 1918. 93 (1) p. 8°. 
Metodo de Ingles com transcrigao fonetica. Volume 1-2. Por P. Jidio Albino 

Ferreira. 2a edi(;ao. Porto, 1920. 8°. 2 v. 
The records of the First Assembly meetings of the committees. 1. League of 

Nations. Geneva, 1920. 617 p. 4°. [Text in French and English. | 

MAPS. 

COLOMBIA. 

Mapa del Rio Magdalena levantado con base en una red astronomica por la oficina de 
longitudes entidad tecnica adscrita al ministerio de relaciones exteriores, 1920. 
Berna, Kummeriy & Frey. Escala 1:1,000,000. Size 21 by 38 inches. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

[Plan of the City of Santo Domingo, Dominican Re))ublic. | Published by LaSociedad 
Historica de Colon, 1921. Size 19i by 30 inches. 



106 THE PAN AMERICAlSr UNIOIST. 

VAKAGUAY. 

Descripci6n fisica y econ6mica del Paraguay. Por Ivloises S. Bertoni. Mapa del 
Paraguay Oriental con una parte del Chaco Paraguayo, las Misiones Argentinas y 
del Alto Uruguay. Con indicaci6n de todas las poblaciones antigua?, actuales 
tribus indigenes, vias de comunicacion, rios navegables, alturas efectivas o aprox- 
imadas sobre el mar, cantidad anual de lluvia, etc. Agi-ologico, fisiogrdfico y 
climatologico 27 Septiembre 1912. Escala 1:1,200,000. Size 18^ by 32 inches. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Map of the world showing production of petroleum for 1917. Prepared I)y U. S. 
Geological Survey, 1919. Size 16 by 25 inches. 

Map of the world showing producing and prospective petroleum fields. [U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey.] Size 16 by 25 inches. (Two original drawings.) 

NEW PERIODICALS. 

[Not heretofore listed.] 

BRAZIL. 

Revista Commercial Brasileira. Santos. Monthly. Anno 1, No. 1, May, 1921. 
(Publication of the Agencia Geral de Informafoes Commerciaes.) 

COSTA RICA. 

La I nformacion Editorial. San Jose. Monthly. Niimero 2, June, 1921. (Publica- 
tion of the libreria Trejos linos., a book store.) 

GUATEMALA. 

El Democrata. Guatemala. Afio 2. Num. 290, June 16, 1921. (Independent 

daily.) 
Servicio Extei-ior. (Boletin extranjero.) Guatemala. Weekly. Num. 13, May 11, 

1921. 
Servicio Exterior. (Boletin Local.) Guatemala. Weekly. Ni'im. 85, May 11, 1921. 

(Organismo oficial de estudio e informacion para promover y cultivar inmigracion 

util, intelectual, material y humana). 



Boletin Municipal. Mexico. Semi-monthly. Tomo 6, Num. 15, April 15, 1921. 

(Organo del Ayuntamienlo de ^lexico ) 
El Independiente. Pachuca, Hgo. A\'eekly. AiJo3, Tomo 2, Numero 106, June 5, 

1921. 

El Maestro. Mexico, Monthly. Num. 3, June 1, 1921. (Revista cultura nacional.) 

La Opinion. Torreon, Coahuila. Daily. Afio 4, Tomo 10, Num. 1139, June 30 
1921. 

PERU. 

LaUni6n. Chincha Alta. Daily. Afio 14, Num. 2969, June 3, 1921. 

SALVADOR. 

Boletin de la Camara de Comercio de El Salvador. San Salvador. Monthly. Ano 
1, Num. 1, February, 1921. 

VENEZUELA. 

Mosaico. Merida. Monthly. Ano 1, Num. 1, June 9, 1921. (Organo de la Tipo- 

graf5a "El Lapiz".) 
El Venezolano. New York. Weekly. Ano 1, num. 4, July, 1921. (Organo de la 

Asociacion Pro-Venezuela.) 



BOOK NOTES. 107 

Publications added to the Columbus Memorial Library during August, 1921. 
ARGENTINA. 

Boletin de la Seccion Argentina de la International Law Association. Numero 4. 

Conferencia de Buenos Aires— 1922. Actas de la junta directiva. Buenos Aires, 

Talleres Graficos Schenon e Hnos. & Linari, 1921. 15 p. 8°. 
Bosquejo de labor universitaria. Discurso pronunciado por Leopoldo Melo. Buenos 

Aires, Imp. EscofEer, Caracciolo y Cia., 1921. 8 p. 8°. 
El cddigo civil en su cincuentenario. Por Alfredo Colmo. Buenos Aires, Talleres 

Grdficos Argentinos de L. J. Rosso y Cia., 1921. 24 p. 8°. 
Investigaciones de seminario. Volume 2. Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires. 

Buenos Aires, Talleres Grdficos Argentines de L. J. Rosso y Cia., 1921. 580 p. 

4°. 
Los exitos y el exito. Por Alfredo Colmo. Extratado de la revista Nosotros, aiio 

xiv, Diciembre, 1920. No. 139. Buenos Aires, Imprenta Mercatali, 1921. 

15 p. 8°. 
Sarmiento sociedad protectora de animales. Memoria correspondiente al ejercicio 

de 1920-1921. Buenos Aires, 1921. 32 p. 8°. 



A familia medeiros. Nova edi^ao refundida. Pelo Julia Lopes de Almeida. Rio 
de Janeiro, Empreza Nacional de Publicidade, 1919. xiii, 328 (1) p. 12°. 



Anuario del Sur de Chile para 1921. [Concepcion], 1921. 90 p. 4°. 

Mensaje leido por S. E. el Presidente de la repiiblica en la apertura de las sesiones 
ordinarias del congreso nacional 1° de Junio de 1921. Santiago, Imprenta Fiscal 
de la Penitenciaria de Santiago, 1921. 84 (2) p. 8°. 

Reciprocal resources of Chile and the United States. Compliments of the Chile- 
American Association, New York, 1921. 20 p. 8°. [Text in English and 
Spanish.] 

Recovery of nitrate from Chilean caliche containing a vocabulary of terms. An 
account of the Shanks system, with a criticism of its fundamental features, and 
a description of a new process. By A. W. Allen, M. A. London, Charles 
Griffin and Company, Limited, 1921. xvi, 50, 32 p. 12°. 

COLOMBIA. 

Memoria del ministro de obras piiblicas al congreso de 1921. Bogotd, Imprenta 
Nacional, 1921. 333 p. 8°. 

COSTA RICA. 

Informe correspondiente al 15 de Julio de 1921. Banco de Costa Rica. San Jose, 
1921. [4] p. 4°. 

CUBA. 

Cuba before Columbus. By M. R. Harrington. Vols. 1-2. New York, Museum of 
the American Indian, Heye Foundation. 1921. illus. 12°. 2 vols. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

C^mara de Comercio, industria y agricultura de Puerto Plata. Memoria anual, 1920. 
Santiago delosCaballeros, 1921. 12 p. 8°. 

ECUADOR. 

Asociacion nacional de los boy scouts del Ecuador. Estatutos. Guayaquil , Imprenta 
Municipal, 1921. 15 p. 8°. 



108 THE PAX AMERICAX UXIOX, 



GUATEMALA. 



The laad beyond Mexico. By Rhys Carpenter. Boston, Richard G. Badger, 1920. 
181 p. front, pis. S°. (Description of Guatemala, Salvador, and Honduras.) 



nON'DURAS. 



Liuiites entre Honduras y Xicarasua. Media(i('>n del ^^oLicrno dc Estados rnic?o.«. 
Aleratos, pruebas y dictaraene.s i)resentadof< por Honduras ante el mediador, 
demostrando la validez y justicia del Laudo pronunciado por el Rey dc Espafia, 
<iue put'o termino alacue.stion. 1020-1921. noimprinl. map. vii,382p. 8°. 



Experiences and observation.* of an American consular officer during; the recent 
Mexican revolution. By Will. B. Davis, M. D. As mainly told in a series of 
letters written by the author to his daughter. Published by the author, 1920. 
Los Angeles, Wayside Press, 248 p. 8°. 

A Maya grammar with bibliography and appraisement of the works noted. By Alfred 
M.Tozzer. Cambridge, Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnol- 
ogy, Harvaid University, 1921. xvi, 301 p. 8°. 

Plantel de ensefianza primaria elemental y superior, con interuado anexo. Institulo 
Sinaloense. Director propietario Prof. Reynaldo Gonzalez, ^uliacan. Pinalon. 
Mexico, 1920-1921. illus. 15 p. S=. 

The sources and authenticity of the ancient Mexicans. By Paul Radin. [l!)20'l. 
Berkeley, University of California Press, 150 p. pis. 8°. (University of Cali- 
fornia Publications in American Archaeology' and Ethnology, Vol. 17, No. 1. 
pp. 1-50.) 

NICARAGUA. 

Memoria de hacienda y credilo publico. Managua. Tiy). Nacional, 1920. 44, 22, 

223 p. 8°. 
Memoria del recaudador general de adixanas por el ])eriodo de Enero 1° de 1920 a 

Diciembre 31 de 1920 y las estadisticas del comercio de 1920. Managua, 1921. 

92 p. 8°. 

PARAGUAY. 

Auales de la universidad nacioual. Memoria de la on-seiianza secundaria y superioi' 
correspondiente al ano acadeniico de 1920. Asuncinn, Imprenta Xacional, 1021. 
65 p. 8°. 

PERU. 

LalenguaYungao Mochicasegunel arte publicado en Lima en 1644. Porellicenciado 
D. Fernando de la Carrera, Vicario del pueblo de reque departamentode Lam- 
bayeque por el Doctor Federico Villareai. Lima. Imprenta Peruana de E. Z. 
Casanova, 1921. front, port. 126 (11 p. 8^ 

La sanidad piiblica en el Peru. Infomiacion sintetica por el delegado del Peru y pro- 
fesorde higiene en la facultad de medicina de Lima, Doctor Carlos P^nricjue Paz 
Soldan. Lima, Imp. Torres Aguirre, 1920. 48 (2) p. 8°. 

SALVADOn. 

Doce afios de labor en el ramo de hacienda y de credito ptiblico en la republica de El 
Salvador, Abril 1909-Marzo 1921. Por Jose E. Suay. Guatemala, Tip. San- 
chez & De Guise, 1921. 206 p. 8°. 

Libro Rosado. Contiene: La actuacion de la cancilleria Salvadorena relativa al 
negociado de union Centroamericana. San Salvarlor, Imprenta Xacional. 1921. 
299 p. 8°. 

O 



Page. 
Pan American Conference of Women 109 

Cartage, Costa Rica, as a Health Resort 116 

By W. W. Gould. 

The Pan American Railway in Bolivia 123 

By Carlos Tejada Sorzano. 
The Value of Sanitary Cooperation among Nations 132 

By J. H. "White, Assistant Surgeon General. L'nited States Public Health Service, and Sub- 
Director. International Sanitary Biu-eau. 

Certain Geographical and Botanical Parallels Between the African and South 
American Tropics 135 

By S. P. Verner. 

Little Known but Commercially Important Trees of the West Indies 149 

By CD. Men. 
The New Cervantes Theatre of Buenos Aires (Photographs) 15S 

A New Art Treasure from Mexico 162 

By Francis S. Borton. 
New National Astronomical Observatory, Cuba 164 

Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce 169 

Argentina— Bolivia— Brazil— Chile— Colombia— Costa Rica— Cuba— Dominican Republic- 
Ecuador —Haiti— Mexico— Xicaragua—Panama— Paraguay— Peru-Republic of Central 
A merica — Uruguay — Venezuela. 

Economic and Financial Affairs 182 

Bolivia— Colombia— Cuba— Haiti— Mexico— Paraguay-Peru— Republic of Central America- 
Uruguay. 

International Treaties 185 

Brazil— Chile— Colombia— United States— Ecuador. 

Legislation 186 

Bolivia— Brazil— Chile— Colombia— Cuba— Dominican Republic— Ecuador— Republic of Cen- 
tral America. 

Public Instruction and Education 191 

Argentina— Brazil— Chile— Costa Rica— Cuba— Ecuador— Mexico— Panama— Peru— Republic 
of Central America — Uruguay — Venezuela. 

Social Progress 1^' 

Argentina— Bolivia— Brazil— Chile— Colombia— Ecuador— Haiti— Mexico— Peru— Republic of 
Central America — Venezuela. 

General Notes -^^^^ 

Argentina — Bolivia — Brazil — Chile — Cuba — Ecuador — Mexico — Nicaragua — Paraguay — 
Peru— Republic of Central America— Uruguay— Venezuela. 

Subject Matter of Consular Reports -05 

Book Notes 207 

III 







2°^^ fee 

■ggQ ^£0 

-o = ■ - "S S S 

■|n| l|l 



'- ■ ■ 5 "^ ^- S 












^ fcj -^ _o c g 'g _c .- 
Zj-J S S'E !>.■= s'^ 









5s = ^•^'^P-!^ 









i^ S ,;:; pi ^ ^ - ■ 



o ,- b£ ? 1- f; "S d 

:- -X fJ -i^ = CO w = 




VOL. LIV 



FEBRUARY, 1922 



'D 



'^ 



ij' r; 1^ L 



NO. 2 






M' 



EMBERS of the National League of AVomen Voters are 
making extensive preparations for the Pan American 
Conference of Women which is to be hekl next April in 
Baltimore, Md., in connection with the third annual con- 
vention of the League. Ofhcial delegates and distinguished women's 
organizations have been invited in all the American countries, 
and already much interest in the plan has been shown. 

The conference planned by the National League of Women Voters 
will in a very real sense strengthen and carry a step forward the splen- 
did initiative undertaken at the Second Pan American Scientific Con- 
gress, when a woman's auxiliary committee was formed to develop 
closer cooperation between the women of the American continent. 
The fine work then begun will receive a further impetus at the Pan 
American Conference of Women to be held at Baltimore in April next. 
The opening feature of the conference will be a series of round- 
table conferences on subjects of especial interest to women. These 
conferences, an outline of which has alread}' been published, include 
such topics as child welfare, education, women in industry, the civd 
status of women, and social hygiene. The sessions will be in charge 
of eminent women, each an expert on her special subject. They 
have been invited by the League of Women Voters to lead the dis-^ 
cussions, but it is expected that delegates from the Pan American 
countries will play an active part, and that the ideas and aims ol" 
women in all three Americas will be fully expressed. 

Such a general interchange of views on the problems which confront 
the women of the world to-day can not help but be of great value. 

in!) 



110 THE PAN AMERICAN" UNION. 

The League of Women Voters has planned its program in the beUef 
that not only will a Pan American gathering of women tend to cement 
a closer bond of fellowship between the American peoples, but that 
very definite results may be achieved through the round-table con- 
ferences. Thinking women everywhere are recognizing to-day the 
necessity of raising the standards for women in industry, of securing 
legislation that will guard the civil rights of women, and of protect- 
ing in every possible way those who need protection. To this end 
it is fitting that the women of the American continent should come to- 
gether to discuss the best means to the desired end, and that they 
should have an opportunity to help one another through friendly con- 
ference and consultation. 

Mrs. Maud Wood Park, president of the National League of Women 
Voters, has said that women are instinctively ready to work together 
for the things that they wish to accomplish, because their interests 
are cooperative rather than competitive. ''Women's distinctive 
interests," Mrs. Park said in a recent interview, ''are in common — 
home making, children, general welfare — whereas men's distinctive 
interests are sometimes of necessity conflicting and have to be 
settled b}^ compromise. There is nothing about the ordinary occu- 
pations of women which is competitive. To illustrate, if the women 
of one nation are able to secure a child-welfare measure, and to 
develop and improve their work along these lines, their step in advance 
is a help and not a hindrance to the women of all other nations. 
The occupations and interests of women are the occupations and in- 
terests of peace, and lend themselves readily to cooperation." 

While the leaders of the round-table conferences will prepare out- 
line programs covering the topics under discussion, they have agreed 
that these programs should be informal and elastic, offering ample 
opportunity for free expression of ideas. 

Miss Julia Wade Abbott, of the Ignited States Bureau of Educa- 
tion, will be in charge of the conference on ''Education." Speaking 
of the plan for this conference. Miss Abbott says: 

It is significaixt that the women of the Western Hemisphere should come togethei- 
at this time to discuss education in its relation to the welfare of women and children. 
This conference should help define what is meant by the term "American education. " 
For the term "American education" should be applied not alone to the 48 different 
State systems in the United States of America. "American" should define an edu- 
cation that is based upon the common needs and interests of the people in this New 
World; in Canada, in the countries of South America and Central America, and in 
the United States of America. On this side of the water we are more or less free from 
academic traditions. As women, we have been the first teachers of the race, and with 
us education has always been related to life. Is it too much to hope that because we 
bring an untrammeled point of view to this conference we may make a real contrilm- 
tion to education? 



PAN AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF WOMEN. Ill 

In discussing educational conditions in tlio different countries the efficiency of the 
schools may ])e"tested by the degree to whicli they are providing for the great oljjectives 
of education— health, practical efficiency, citizenship, and the enjoyment of leisure. 

Miss Mary Anderson, Chief of the Bureau of Women in Industry 
in the United States Department of Labor, who will be the leader of 
the conference on "Women in industry," says: 




MRS. CARRIE CHAPMAN CATT. 

President of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance and Honorary President 
ofthe National League of Women Voters. Leader of the round table conference 
onthe PoUtical Status of Women at the Pan American Conference of Women. 

The conference of the League of Women Voters to be held jointly with the women 
of the South American nations Avill be interesting to the women in industry because bf 
the large import and export of commodities produced in South American countries and 
in the United States. Women in the industries of both countries are faced with 
common problems which must be solved in cooperation. Industrially the Americas 
are linked, and the standards of one must affect those of the other. For instance, 
in both the United States and the South American countries we have commoditiea 
whhh are manufactured in the homes. Home work in these times is not what it was 



112 THE PAX AMERICAN UNION. 

before the development of industry when all the spinning;, the weaving, and the mak- 
ing of clothes, shoes, and gloves, and most of the food i)roducts which are now made 
in the big stockyards, were manufactured in the home. The difference in home work 
now and then is that instead of work going from the home out in the factories, the work 
now is collected in the factories and taken to the home, finished and carried back to 
the factory. The poor conditions which usually surround home work, the child labor 
which enters into it, the impossibility of regulation by law either as to sanitation or 
hours of labor, and the competition of low wages, all militate against the health, happi- 
ness, and efficiency of the individual, the industry, and the community. 

The conference on tlie ''Prevention of traffic in women'' is to be 
led by Dr. Valeria H. Parker, executive secretary of the Interde- 
partmental Social Hygiene Board. Dr. Parker speaks of the plan as 
follows : 

During the past three years the United States Government has been expending 
generous sums of money for social hygiene purposes. The women of the United States 
have supported the (ioA'ernment program acti^'ely. They recognize that much 
remains to be accomplished and are determined to use every effort to prevent the 
reestablishment of the vice districts closed during tlu; war. 

There are many vexatious problems connected with the abolition of the social evil. 
Their solution is not easy. A conference of intelligent women citizens should aid in 
bringing about conditions under which health and character may be better safeguarded 
in the communities and nations represented. 

Miss Grace Abbott is to lead a conference on "Child welfare." Miss 
Abbott is Chief of the Children's Bureau in the United States Depart- 
ment of Labor. She sa3^s of the conference : 

Latin Americans interested in the problems of child care took the initiati\ e in 
calling a Pan American Child Welfare Conference in Buenos Aires in 1916. Its 
objects were to establish and cultivate a common understanding of these problems 
among those who are specialists in that field. A second meeting of the congress was 
held in May, 1919, in Montevideo. On both of these occasions students and workers 
in the field of child care in the United States failed to appreciate the o])portunity which 
the conference offered for comparison and cooperation in the work, as well as for Pan 
American acquaintance and understanding. This invitation to the women of North 
and South America to join with the League of Women Voters in the discussion of child 
welfare and other common problems is therefore a peculiarly happy one. 

A detailed program has not yet been prepared. The Conference on Child Welfare, 
however, will have before it the problem of public pro\Tsion for (1) maternity and 
infancy, (2) child hygiene, (3) child labor and industrial problems affecting children, 
and (4) children in need of special care — the dependent, neglected, defective, and 
delinquent children. It is hoped that formal papers can be all but eliminated and 
informal discussions and exchange of experience and plans can be relied upon to 
make the conference one of really practical value. It ought to be possible to work 
out as a result of these meetings what may be regarded as Pan American standards in 
these several fields of child welfare, which will be an expression of what the women who 
represent the young, rich and powerful Republics of the New World hope they may 
secure for all the children of the American Republics. It may be that out of this 
meeting there will be developed a national rivalry in the care of children and, in con- 
sequence, of the quality of the citizenship. In such rivalry there will be only rejoicing 
on the part of all as the standard is pushed higher and higher. 



I 




LEADERS IN HuUND TABLE CONFERENCES, I'AN AMERICAN CUNFEKENCK OF 

WOMEN. 




Department. „. ^^ — , ... v,.„.t,^. ^. ..„ -- - -.^ .. 

Exeeiilive Seprplary of Ihc Uiiiled Slali's Inionlcpiirl iii('ni:il Sociiil ]IyKi<'iif* Ho;inl. 



114 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

"The civil Status of Women" will be the subject of a conference 
led by Mrs. Mabel Walker Willobrandt, Assistant Attorney General 
of the United States. Mrs. Willebrandt has expressed her opinion as 
to the possibilities of a Pan American meeting : 

The coming together of women from all the Americas in the Pan American Con- 
ference can not but give the greatest impetus toward the accomplishment of the 
common objective of all women — the raising of public opinion and equalization of laws 
in harmony with it to the complete recognition of the partnership status between 
man and woman. 

Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, president of the International Woman 
vSuffrage Alliance and honorary chairman of the National League of 
Women Voters, who is to lead a conference dealing with the "Political 
Status of Women," has said: 

We know that women have particular desires, hopes which are peculiarly tlieii- 
own, ideals which their habits of thought and life have developed within them. It 
is of the utmost importance for all women to draw closely together, so that those who 
think and are able to formulate constructive programs may give to their groups, their 
communities, the highest interpretation of the woman's point of view. 

The round-table conferences are to be held on April 20, 21, and 22. 
On Sunday, April 23, a mass meeting is planned, which will be ad- 
dressed by the Pan American delegates, the general subject being 
"Leaders among women." This topic should call forth not only in- 
spiring stories of the women whose names are recognized in the his- 
tory of the Americas, but news of the great women of our own day, 
pioneers of this generation, who are making the way easier for the 
women and children who are to come. 

On the evening of April 24 a banquet will be held. There will be 
speeches by eminent men and women of the United States and by the 
Pan American delegates. The general subject of these speeches is 
to be "International Friendliness." 

The next three days will be given to sessions of the annual conven- 
tion of the National League of Women Voters. To these meetings the 
Pan American guests are cordiall}^ invited, and all the privileges of 
the floor will be accorded them except a vote. 

The program for the conference will not close until April 29. 
Plans are being made for the entertainment of the delegates during 
the closing days, and many groups and individuals have expressed a 
wish to extend hospitality in some form to the visitors. Bryn Mawr 
College, at Bryn Mawr, Pa., has invited the league to bring its 
guests to the college for a day, when Dr. M. Carey Thomas, its presi- 
dent, will give them a luncheon. Goucher College, in Baltmore, 
also wishes to throw open its doors to the conference guests and 
extends a cordial offer of hospitality and cooperation. 

Other special features that have been planned are a trip to Annapo- 
lis and a day in Washington. The invitation to Annapolis, the capi- 



PAN AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF WOMEN, 115 

tal city of Maryland, comes from the governor of the vState, who will 
receive the delegates. A visit to the United States Naval Academy 
will be included in the program of the day. 

The day in Washington will be given largely to visiting places of 
interest — the Capitol, the Pan American Union, and other public 
buildings. In the evening a mass meeting will be held, at which 
prominent speakers will discuss ''What the women of the Americas 
can do to promote friendly relations" — a subject which embodies the 
guiding thought of the entire conference. 

In planning this conference the League of Women Voters has been 
actuated by a belief in the potential value of such a gathering as a 
factor in the promotion of lasting international friendship, and this 
l)elief is shared by many people to whose attention the plan has been 
brought. Among them is Dr. L. S. Rowe, Director General of the 
Pan American Union, whose interest and cooperation have been 
very greatly appreciated by the officers of the League. Dr. Rowe, 
speaking of the conference, says: 

While there have been a number of movements to bring about cooperation between 
the nations of the American continents, they have been confined ahnost exclusively 
to cooperation among men. 

A notable step in the cultivation of closer ties between the women of the American 
continent was taken at the Second Pan American Scientific Conference, held at 
Washington in 1915. At this international meeting a women's auxiliary conference 
was held. The sessions proved most stimulating and of deep interest to the women 
of all the Americas and, as the result of this conference, a permanent women's 
auxiliary committee was formed which has kept in touch with the leaders of thought 
and action in the Latin American countries. 

The conference planned by the National League of Women Voters will be a further 
step in the same dii-ection . I feel certain it will have a definite and lasting educational 
value in the LTnited States, making known to our people the unportant results which 
the women of the Latin-American countries are now securing both in the enlargement 
of their civil rights and the strengthening of their civic activities. 

In coming to the United States the Latin-American women will derive profit and 
inspiration from the great results which American women are now securing both in the 
betterment of our political life and in the furthering of our civic development. This 
conference is likely to be one of a series which will serve the twofold purpose of making 
the women of the American continent better acquainted with their common aims and 
ideals, and at the same time strengthening the spiiit of solidarity on the American 
continent which has to-day become the most important guarantee to the maintenance 
of the peace of the world. 




CA'RTAnO, CO SI' A KK 



AS A HEALTH RESORT 



J < 



By W. W. Gould. 

• / ^"^ ARTAGO ? Oh, yos; that is the city, somewhere in Central 
« America, that was destroyed by an earthquake a few 

\^^ years ago . . . ." 

Nevertheless, contrary to logic and without apolog}^, 
Cartago still is. Not only is, hut is a larger, better, safer, and more 
popular resort for health and recreation than it was before it was 
destroyed by earthquake a decade ago. 

''Colossal stupidity," continues the man in the street, " to stay on, 
living in a place that is apt to turn turtle any minute." 

To those who do not know Cartago and vicinity at close range it 
is quite incomprehensible. It is the way with men and ants. De- 
stroy their cities and nests and when you pass again they are bigger 
and better than before. San Francisco, Galveston, Chicago, Cartago 
bear witness. 

Cartago is for the same reason it was. It will continue to be for 
the same reasons; and it will be much more important for several 
additional reasons, not the least of which is the pubhcity given its 
virtues by business builders, tourists, and health seekers returning 
from visits to this acme of climatic perfection. 

The lure of petroleum, recently discovered a few hours' ride from 
Cartago, the ever-widening search for beautiful tropical woods, the 
quest for foreign markets for our increasing manufactures, the im- 
proved facilities for convenient travel, the canal, the triumph of 
science over tropical plagues, and finally the eternal, inevitable march 
of emigration of the Anglo-Saxon, now deflected toward the South 
by the Pacific barrier — these are among the new causes that will 
insure the permanence and growth of Cartago and vicinity. 

The outstanding reasons for the existence of Cartago, originally, 
were soil and climate. The soil of the great central plateau of Costa 
Rica is very rich and diversified. The climate is so tempered that 
almost any agricultural product of the Temperate or Torrid Zones 
can be raised within carting distance of Cartago. The productivity 
of the soil in this vicinity is truly wonderful, even with the primitive 
methods now in use. With the application of modern intensive meth- 
ods, it is diflftcult to imagine the results that might be obtained. 

The system of marketing in vogue here is commendable. In the 
mercado (public market), a building occupying an entire block and 
divided into stalls and aisles similar to a church fair, may be found a 
most bewildering variety of fruits, vegetables, meats; articles of 
home manufacture, such as bread, pastry, cheese, butter; utensils 
made from gourds and woods peculiar to the tropics, pottery, basket- 
work, hammocks, leather goods, and a hundred other things that 

116 




Courtesy of W. W. Gould. 

ONE END OF THE MERCADO (PUBLIC MARKET) OF CARTAGO. 

'In the mereado, a building occupying an entire block and divided into stalls and aisles, may be found a 
most bewildering variety of fruits, vegetables, meats, articles of home manufacture, and a hundred other 
things." 




Courtesy of W. AA'. Goul.I. 



TlIK .MKKCADO <)1'' ('A1!TA(;(). 



■llciv daily ilic |ir(i(liiriT brings his wares to sell, and Iutc llir honscwivrs and oMi.ts ..f llic • 
rvcry morning to get their frrsh supiiln'^ lur i ln' day. 



CARTAGO, COSTA RICA, 119 

would require the language of the aboriginal inhabitants to name. 
Here daily the producer brings his wares to sell, and here the house- 
wives and others of the city come every morning to get their fresh 
supplies for the day. The solution of our distribution problem wori<- 
ing smoothly here for generations has proved its efficiency. You can 
get board in Cartago, of the same quality with superior service, for 
half what you would have to pay in any city in the United States. 

This new-old city nestles in a pretty valley near the summit of the 
pass in the continental divide, through which passes the transconti- 
nental railroad of Costa Rica. It is nearly 5,000 feet above sea level 
and nearly equidistant from the two oceans, where the width of the 
continent is only about 170 miles. It is a little over 10° north of the 
Equator. The variation of temperature during the year is about 25°, 
seldom going above 75° or below 50°. The trade winds from the 
northeast, wafting the moisture from the rapidly evaporating waters 
of the Caribbean vSea. supply sufficient rain for the gardens, yet not too 
much, for the elevation is sufficient to escape the heavy downpours 
common to the lower levels of the Atlantic slopes of tropical America. 

Just in the outskirts of Cartago, at Aguas Calientes, is a large hot 
spring that possesses, it is claimed, all the curative and corrective 
virtues commonly attributed to hot mineral springs. The water con- 
tains iron, sulphur, magnesium, and other minerals in small quanti- 
ties. Fresh from the spring it is just about as hot as one can bear to 
drink it. There is a bathhouse and equipment for the service of its 
patrons. It is situated in a picturesque little valley on the bank of a 
small river of clear cold water, and is a delightful place to visit. 

The city water of Cartago is clear and cold as one would wish for 
drinking, and a cold shower in the morning is very invigorating. 
There is a spring in the city, over which is built a large old church, 
which is believed to have supernatural virtues. A large rock lies 
just over the spring, where a box has been provided for the con- 
venience of those visitors who feel moved by charity or reverence 
or whatever motive to leave an offering of currency. 

The mountain streams of the vicinity furnish abundance of power for 
electrical energy, which is furnished so cheaply that it is commonly 
used for cooking purposes instead of wood or coal. A five horse- 
power electric motor running 10 hours a day costs $15 per month. 

The vigorous visitor, of^the red corpuscle,^will want to take a trip 
to the crater of Mount Irazu. This volcano is now active and is an 
impressive sight. Vapors and gas are pouring forth at all times and 
it occasionally gives a little extra puff of smoke and cinders for the 
benefit of the adventurer who is longing for a thrill. From the 
summit of this volcano, on a clear morning, the distant view is most 
wonderful. Turialba on one side and Poas on the other, now extinct 
volcanos, stand as giant guardians of Irazu, while she busies herself 
in her task of relieving the superpressure of the earth's interior. 
The Atlantic on the east and the Pacific on the west are visible from 



CARTAGO, COSTA RICA. 121 

the same spot. This is said to be the only point from which this is 
possible. The rivers to the north and east winding down to the 
sea, the ranges of peaks filing away to the southeast, the jumble of 
crests and Talleys to the south and west present a picture to the eye 
of the observer which no camera can register and no pen can describe. 

You start up the volcano at a very early hour, so as to be there 
before the mists begin to rise from the ocean to obscure the view. 
On the way up, a four hours' trip on horseback, you see very little 
])ut shadows, but as you return you find that the road is flanked 
nearly all the way to the summit with little farms of corn, potatoes, 
grains, and gardens. The soil is a black volcanic ash and very 
productive. 

Halfway up the side of the mountain is a hospital for patients 
afflicted with tuberculosis. Here the patients, if not cured, spend 
their last days in a pleasant atmosphere. If strong enough, they get 
exercise and amusement working in the gardens and grounds about 
the hospital. 

The social atmosphere about Cartago is quiet and friendly, espe- 
cially to the Norteamericanos. The large majority of Costa Ricans 
are favorable to American industries, and a well-behaving American 
will find a friendly hand wherever he goes in Costa Rica. There are 
two theaters in Cartago, where the popular film stars twinkle just as 
they do in the rest of the firmament. In a very beautiful park an 
excellent band gives frequent concerts. There are several large 
churches, and the public schools, the patrons say, are very good. 

San Jose, the capital of Costa Rica, a city of 50,000, is about an 
hour's ride on the railroad from Cartago, and there is convenient 
train service between the cities. A good automobile road is nearly 
completed, which will furnish further convenience. 

This year-round resort is easily reached. A weekly boat from New 
York to Limon, direct; a five hours' ride by rail through one of the 
most picturesque countries ever witnessed puts you in Cartago, the 
city with a wliy. 





COST.V RIC VX MEDAL STHUCIC IN' HON'OR OF CENTENARY. 

The governmi'iil, of Cosia Rica has distnbiilcil medals m f^old, silver, and bronze 
in honor of the one hundredth anniversary of its independenee. The ICin^' of 
Spain, Presidents of the Central American Keimlilies, and President Ilardin.i,' 
were recipients of the gold medal. The Minister of Costa Rica, Seilor Dr. 
Don Octavio Bceche, presented the medal to President Harding at the \\ lute 
House September 27, 1921. 

82020— 22--B nil. 2 2 




— ■Railroads in operalion 

---Kailroads under construction or projected 

100 200 300 4-00 SOO Miles 



MAP SHOWING THE NEW RAILWAY' LINE BETWEEN ATOCHA AND LA QULVCA 



TITR FAN AMKRICAN RAIL 



By CxVRLos Tejada Sorzano. 

THE Pan Ainericaii llailway, which some chiy will connect 
Washington with Buenos Aires and whose main line, or 
branches thereof, will traverse all the countries of North, 
Central, and South America, is still, as a whole, unfinished. 
In reality only Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay have constructed 
their full allotment and are actually connected with the trunk line 
whose southern terminal is in Buenos Aires. 

Much has been written with regard to the relative convenience and 
value of this road, as projected by the Intercontinental Railway Com- 
mission, particularly as regards the main route of this gigantic Pan 
American artery of communication; but it is a lamentable fact, 
however unwilling may be the acknowledgment thereof, that very 
little has been accomplished during the last few years in the way of 
effective construction. With the single exception of one republic in 
which the work has progressed to the point of completing her allot- 
ment, the majority of the remaining republics have advanced little 
beyond the stage of preliminary discussion and study. 

The exception referred to is the Republic of Bolivia which, during 
the last 10 years, has constructed that part of the trunk line running 
from the Chilean frontier at Charana to Atocha on the line destined 
to connect at La Quiaca with the Argentine North Central Railway. 

In 1910 the Bolivian section of the Pan American Railway consisted 
solely of two sections, disconnected and of differing gauge, the one 
between Guaciui and Viacha, with a length of 68 kilometers, the other 
between Oruro and Uyuni, with a length of 325 kilometers. But 
there is now actually completed, in one continuous stretch of (385 
kilometers of the same gauge, the section between Guaqui on Lake 
Titicaca to Atocha, the latter point being only 204 kilometers from 
the Argentine frontier. In addition, Viacha has been connected 
with Arica, the port on the Pacific most advantageously situated with 
respect to Bolivia, thus completing a line of uniform gauge which 
will connect, equally well, the Bolivian Railway system with the 
Peruvian or Chilean. 

' Translated from Sr. Sorzano's original article in Spanish. 

12:5 



124 



THE PAX AMERICAN UNION. 



The only remaining section of the Pan American Kailroad to be 
completed in Bolivia is that between Atocha and Quiaca, a distance 
of 204 kilometers, the contract for which has recently been awarded 
to an American firm, the Ulen Contracting Co., by name. There is 
every reason, therefore, to believe that within a relatively short time 
Bolivia will have completed her share of this vast and effective plan 
of communication between North and South America, and that 
Bolivia will, in conseciuence, soon be in close contact with her north- 
ern and southern neighbors. 

In reality the section referred to — between La Quiaca and Atocha — 
was under way as early as 1915, at which time the Bolivian Govern- 




ATOCHA^^STATIOX, BOLIVIA. 
Tho present lermir.nl of llir Bolivia Uailway. The lino will lii> cNleiulcd friiin ilii- point lo La Qiiiara. 

ment contracted with a French comi^any for a i)art of the construc- 
tion: but, due to the war and other difficulties which have arisen in 
connection with the work in riuestion. the rails have advanced })ut 
little ])eyond La Quiaca, although much of the important woriv, 
including long sections of cuts and fills, has been completed. 

The importance of this section, however, does not lie merely in the 
fact that it is the last link in the Pan American chain to be constructed 
by Bolivia, but rather that these 204 kilometers will complete the 
Bolivian system of railroads and that they will open up a new trans- 
continental route in South America which will greatly facilitate the 
journey from the Pacific to the Pio de la Plata, particularly in point 




THIi PICTURESQUE CANYUN OV THE RlO TUI'IZ 
The hill at llic right will be tunneled to permit the passage of the v 



A. 

ailroad. 



126 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 






of time, which will be appreciably reduced. As is well known, the 
only transcontinental route in South America to-day is that which 
connects Valparaiso with Mendoza and Buenos Aires. As the new 
Bolivian route just mentioned will, however, start from either Arica 
or Antofagasta, the journey from the United States to Buenos Aires 
will be reduced at least two days — the time consumed at present 
between Arica and Valparaiso. In addition, the new route will be 
free from the very serious inconveniences and interruptions not 
unfrequently connected with the passage in winter between Los 
Andes and Mendoza. 




THE VALLF.Y OF TFIK RIO SUIPACHA. 
This valley will 1)0 tr;ivorst'(l by the Aloclin La CJiiiacii Railway. 

The line between Atocha and La Quiaca pi-esents no construction 
difficulties comparable to those which had to be overcome in the 
construction of the line between Los Andes and Mendoza, and its 
maintenance and management will not be nearly so costly because 
of its freedom from the inevitable obstructions and delays caused by 
the heavy snowfall in the upper sections of the latter, not to mention 
the heavy 6 per cent grade and the fact that, in long stretches on 
both the Chilean and Argentine sides, the switchback system is 
employed. 

The line between Atocha and La Quiaca will nowhere carry a grade 
as heavy as 6 percent, nor, although it crosses the Andes at Escoriani, 
a height of 4,350 meters above sea level and much greater than that 
of the highest transandine tunnel in the Los Andes-Mendoza line, 



THE PAN AMERICAN RAILWAY IN BOLIVIA, 



127 



will it 1)0 scourged ])y the lietnv siiowl'alls of tlic latter, since it 
will lie entirely within the Tropics and follow the course of sheltered 
valleys. Moreover, the completion of this line will provide, at rela- 
tively small cost, excellent communication between the northern 
part of Aigentimi and the salitrera region of northern Chile, in 
strong contrast to the present long and diflicult route across the des«rt 
of Atacama, which is seldom achieved in much less than a month. 
It should })e noted, however, that this route, difficult as it is and 
with an almost complete lack of water and provisions throughout, is, 
nevertheless, utilized with profit by the Argentine stockraisers who 
supply cattle on the hoof for consumption in the salitrera region. 




ESCORIANI, 4,3:)0 METERS ABOVE SEA LEVEL 
The Wghest point to be reached by the new railway. 



The stockraisers of northern Argentina, in general, and particu- 
larly those in Salata, are very much interested in the construction 
of a direct railway route which will serve advantageously for this 
class of traffic and also for the direct importation of merchandise 
from the United States to the northern Provinces of Argentina 
through the port of Antofagasta; but the construction of such a route 
would be so costly and the region traversed so arid that should the 
road from Atocha to La Quiaca be constructed without delay, thus' 
providing a continuous route of the same gauge from Salta to Anto- 
fagasta, connecting at Uyuni with the Antofagasta-La Paz Inter- 
national Railway, it may reasonably be hoped that the proposed 
direct line V)etween Salta and Antofagasta through the desert of 







% 




VIADUCT OVKR Till-: MATAXZILLA; 



■fr\lt«jta^|Wl^pft:' 




INTERNATIONAL BRIDGE SPANNING THE LA Ql'IACA KIVKU. 
This briflge on tho Bolivuui-Argontiiie border will carry (lie now railway lint' to its destination at La (Juiaia 



THE I'AX AMEIUCAX liAILWAV IX BOLIVIA, 



129 



Atacaiiia will Ix' ahaiHloncd, since it would not only he uiiiicccssary 
but a waste of capital and effort which, in the interests of the respec- 
tive nations involved, might be better employed. 

Another interesting aspect of the line from Atoclia to La Quiaca is 
that by means of this road Bolivia will not only have uninterrupted 
railway communication with La Paz and Buenos Aires but, because 
of its uniform grade, with all the most important Argentine Provinces 
and cities. Just as soon as it is completied communication wall be 
effected between Arica in Chile; La Paz, Oruro, Cochabamba, Potosi, 
and Tupoza in Bolivia; and the Provinces of Buenos Aires, Cordoba, 
Santa Fe, Tucuman, La Rioja, San Juan, Catamarca, Salta and Jujuy 
in Argentina, utilizing for this purpose the tracks of the Nortli 
Central Argentine Railroad or those of the Central Cordoba, wdiich 
connect wdth Buenos Aires, and all of which are of 1-meter gauge, 
with a combined length of 10,000 kilometers. 

As may readily be seen from the foregoing, there is no more impor- 
tant international railw^ay project actually underway in South 
America than the line from Atocha to La Quiaca, in Bolivia, and it 
is therefore a matter of great interest to all those who follow the 
reciprocal vinculation of the American republics to know that the 
construction of this line is soon to be undertaken by a L^nited States 
firm sufficiently strong financially to bring it to completion without 
difficulty and witliin a reasonably short period of ^-ears. 




\ .. i; \ 1 1 w \ ^ 




Photo by Wide World Photos. 

HONORABLE FRANKLIN E. MORALES. 
Envoy Exlraordinarj- and ^^inisteI■ Plonipotenliary of llie I'niled Stales lo Honduras 



/i^ 




COL. D. C. COLLIER, COMMISSIONER GENERAL FROM THE UNITED STATES 
TO BRAZIL'S CENTENARY EXPOSITION. 

Col. D. C. Collier, of California, has been appointed by President Harding as Commissioner 
General of the United States Commission for the participation in Brazil's Centenary Celel ra- 
tion, which is to he held at Rio de Janeiro in September 1922. 

Mr. Collier has liad previous experience in exposition matters, as he was for five years head of 
the Panama-California Exposition, held in San Diego in 191"), first as Director General and 
later as President. He has visited Brazil on a numljer of occasions. 



Tllli VALUli OF SA:N(. 
TATIT COOPI'RATION 
A.tVlOlMC; NATIONS A °; 



J3y J. H. White, 

Assistant Surgeon General, United States Public Health Service, and Suh-T)i rector, Inlet- 
national Sanitary Bureau. 

THE late Walter Wyman more than 20 years ago had a vision 
of the future good to be derived from a sanitary confedera- 
tion of the American States, and out of this vision grew 
our international sanitary conferences. 

These conferences have become, however, the end, and not, as 
was intended, merely the means toward an end of vaster importance. 
What should be sought by the usual aggregation of the ])est available 
tah'nt of the American Republics attending the conferences is per- 
manent betterment of our international sanitary relations, and not, 
as now, a mutual exchange of reports on sanitation and demography 
in our respective lands with nothing done between meetings. 

A good step forward was taken by the Sixth Conference when 
recommendation was made that each country should appoint its 
delegates to the seventh conference (at Ilabana) at least one year 
before the assembling of that conference, and tliat a i)ulletin should 
be provided for by larger appropriations. 

A far better result could be attained were each nation to main- 
tain a permanent delegation, not limited to the one or two who shall 
attend the conference, but consisting of at least five of its best sani- 
tarians, with authority to convene and, after deliberation with their 
own national health authorities, to discuss questions of international 
import between regular conferences, so that upon the assembly of 
the regular biennial conference a well-thought-out program of things 
practicable and legally possible will ])e available on any and all 
subjects. 

It would be well if these national delegations might also have 
authority to select the man or men of their own number who should 
attend the international conference. 

An essential part of such a program is of course that each nation 
shall provide not only its quota for the support of the International 
132 



VALUE OF .SANITAKY COOPEKATION AMONG NATIONS. 133 

Siinitary Bureau at Washington, but also a sufficient amount to 
defray the expense of its permanent delegation. 

These delegations could exchange opinions with each other to the 
o-reat benefit of all and, in many instances, the matured results of 
many months discussion between two or three national delegations 
could be finally disposed of by the general conference with the best 
possible results to all. 

The original and fundamental idea of these conferences was the 
intent to arrive at such full and frank understanding as to justify 
the removal of a large part of quarantine restraint. 

This goal has not been attained and can hardly be attained through 
the medium of disjointed biennial assemblies which, although excel- 
lent in themselves, always tend to assume the nature of great medical 
society meetings rather than serious congresses of national repre- 
sentatives. 

These conferences were intended to bring about cooperation in 
all sanitary work, and to be effective they must have submitted to 
them well-thought-out plans, and must have as delegates men whose 
personalities are such that their recommendations will be heeded by 
their lawmakers at home. 

Plainly stated, unless the findings of the sanitary conferences can 
he ultimately translated into law in our respective Republics, the 
results will not be satisfactory. 

If we are all prepared, without reservation in any case, to be 
absolutely frank in reporting our sanitary conditions, and if each State 
extends to all others the privilege of maintaining sanitary repre- 
sentatives within its borders, it should ere long be possible to translate 
the conclusion of the international sanitary conferences of the 
American Republics into actual statutory law in all our Republics. 

The ideal status would be that, exactly as we now maintain mili- 
tary and naval attaches in our embassies and legations, each nation 
should send to its legations the best of its sanitarians as sanitary 
attaches. Instead of watching the other nation's military prepared- 
ness, we would do infinitely better to watch with friendly eye its 
advances in conservation of human life and, instead of a covert 
menace, be an open friend and coadjutor. 

With such conditions existent each nation would be fully ami 
promptly apprised of anything of value developed by any other m 
the great work of saving human life and the important work ol 
removing unnecessary hindrance from business; and let us never 
forget that he who fosters safe conditions for commerce also fosters 
health and happiness for his people. 

The final result of such an arrangement, would inevitably be the 
same sort of freedom of sanitary intercourse as now exists between 



134 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 



the States of the American Union and, though it might not come 
c{uickly, it would, if based on absolute sincerity, be permanent and 
of a value beyond calculation in money and in comfort . 

May we not say also that this result would go a long way toward 
the establishment of such feelings of good will between our peoples 
as to lay a very broad foundation for that Interamerican peace and 
friendly understanding which is the constant objective of all true 
Panamcricans ? 

It is believed that the hour has arrived wIkmi all llie world is 
awakening to the need for sanitary })etterment. All are recognizing 
that typhus fever, yellow fever, malaria, smallpox, plague, cholera, 
leprosy and many other diseases need not exist at all if man will 
apply to their destruction one-half the energy and one-tenth the 
treasure he has heretofore applied to the destruction of his fellow 
man; and, further, it is beyond dispute that the elimination of all 
that class of diseases known as '' quarantinal)le" demands absolute 
cooperation. 

If each and all will now pull together it can be done and it will 
be done, and no nobler accomplishment can be c()nceiv(>d than the 
actual sanitary cooperation of Pan America. 




CERTAIN GKOOR API (TCAl. 
ANiD BO'i'ANICAl, I^Al^AI,,., 

f TC^ if (^^ ® *5 o <5 ® o o 

BETWEEN THE AFKKIVN AND SOUTH AMEKK^AN 

TROPICS. 

By S. P. Verner. 

THE lines of certain investigations made by me during a period 
of 25 years in both the African and American Tropics have 
crossed certain other Knes pursued by scientists in the 
Department of Agriculture and elsewhere in this country, 
with results of profound importance to the development of unassim- 
ilated tropical lands. I summarize these investigations and results 
here for the first time. 

It is well known to those interested in the subject that the Tropics 
have contributed amazingly little to the food supply of the world, 
when one considers the enormous extent of tropical territory, the high 
fertility of the soil, and the favorable climatological conditions in 
most of those regions. The ultimate potentialities of the Tropics 
as a source of human food was set forth in a remarkable document 
addressed to me by the late Dr. W. J. McGee, which was read at the 
time by Mr. Walter Page, and pronounced by him to be the most 
splendid epitome of tropical possibilities he had ever read. Dr. 
McGee had been a president of the National Geographic Society, 
head of the Bureau of Ethnology, one of the most distinguished 
members of the United States Geological Survey, and secretary of 
Mr. Roosevelt's Conservation Commission. He was the principal 
promoter of my second African expedition, and a devoted and 
intimate friend until the day of his death. I derived much of the 
inspiration, and a great deal of suggestive counsel in my work in 
Africa and Latin America from him. After 14 years devoted to 
Africa, I went to tropical America, with the original purpose of observ- 
ing the methods of tropical sanitation used by Gen. Gorgas, and of 
making a comparative study of the two Tropics. These latter under- 
takings, together with duties imposed by the war, occupied 11 years. 
During all of the whole 25 years, botanical observation and agricul- 
tural experimentation occupied as much of my time as I could devote 
to it from a strenuous life of exploration and specific undertakings. 

135 




^ I Ij J Mil ■|ip^|ia)ji^yii.)|i)tni, ■> 1 





m 



^S^ 




^m{ > 








■ ^M '' 






VIEWS IX Till'. (iKIX<){'0 COINTUV. 

" Tlic Orinoco is a smaller American Nile." 
L'pper: Above the'Atiires Rapids, showing the savanna vegetation. 
Lower: A lagoon in the llanos or ])rairic section of the Orinoco region 




82020—21' liiil 



138 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

It is well to sketch this resume into four distinct divisions: First, 
the character of tropical lands; second, the aboriginal agricultural 
practices in the undeveloped equatorial and adjoining regions; third, 
the suggestions involved in certain recent conclusions of some scien- 
tific experts; and fourth, the results of the combination of my obser- 
vations and these latter conclusions. 

Broadly speaking, there is a striking geographical and botanical 
parallel between the two Tropics, both in major and minor features. 
The Orinoco is a smaller American Nile, the Amazon is a larger Amer- 
ican Congo. The Magdalena is a smaller American Niger, and the 
Rio de la Plata is an American Zambesi. The minor mountain 
ranges of South America and Africa are both near the Atlantic; both 
are metaliferous, granitic, diamondiferous and are the cause of the pre- 
cipitation enjoyed by the coastal plains in each continent. The major 
axes of elevation in each case are nearer the Indo-Pacific Oceans. 
There is a difference of only a few thousand feet between these major 
elevations. The greater rivers rise in each case in these axes, the 
elevated grassy plateaus of each continent are inclosed between these 
major and minor mountain ranges, and the courses of the great rivers 
under the Equator in eacli Continent determine vast riparian forests, 
which are now the most extensive untouched timbered lands in the 
world. In each case, the major mountain axes are responsible for 
the heavy precipitation which support the vast volumes and give 
rise to the annual floods in the Orinoco, the Amazon, the Nile, and 
the Congo. 

The minor features present e(|ually striking similarities. Along the 
equatorial belt in each Continent it rains almost all the year round 
over a distance of approximately 150 miles on each side of the 
Equator. Then over a region of about 700 miles to the north and 
south, respectively, of this belt there is a dry and a wet season. 
North of the belt, the dr}^ season begins about the first of the year, 
and ends about the middle of May; south of it, the rainless period 
begins about the first of June, and extends until the middle of the 
fall. The almost perennial rains over the equatorial belt maintain 
the enormous volumes of the Amazon, the Nile, and the Congo, while 
the seasonal rains over the watersheds of some of their tributaries 
cause their annual inundations. This fact will be ultimately of 
enormous utility to the development of the regions watered by 
these mighty rivers, because it insures a fixed minimum of water in 
them all the time, while supplying a periodic overflow available for 
irrigation in the dry seasons. Thus the tremendous areas dominated 
by these streams will always possess, somewhere, the advantages of 
both systems of water supply — constant rains for arboreal vegeta- 
tion, and artificially controllable water for types of vegetation best 




FORESTS ALONG NoKTIIKltX l;i\ KllS OF SOUTH AMERICA. 

Upper: A forester's expedition crossing's rapid stream of the iMagdalena system in Colonihia. Center: 
A forest in the delta of the Orinoco." Lower: Stilt roots of the mangrove tree along the Ornioco. 



140 THE PAX AMERICAN UNION. 

developed under it, such as cotton, liemp, rice, and garden truck. 
The oil and raphia palms and the rubber trees of the Congo and the 
Amazon are illustrations of the arboreal types induced by perennial 
rains; the long-staple cotton of Egypt, the peanuts of West Africa, 
and the mate tea shrub and the cassava of South America are illus- 
trations of plants admirably adapted to irrigation. 

Another common minor feature is the alternation of forest with 
grassy plains. I believe I Avas the first to call attention to how 
Stanley went through the agony of fighting tlu'ough the Aruwimi 
Forest on his Emin Pasha relief expedition, when, all unknown to 
him, there were open grassy lands only a few miles away paralleling 
nearly all of his trial through the jungle. The regularity of this 
alternation of river forest with upland plains in Central Africa may 
be said to be the fundamental botanical feature over more than 
3,000,000 square miles. In South America, a strikingly similar 
condition exists. The practical importance of this feature of both 
Tropics lies in the fact that rail and automobile roads may avoid 
the heavy forests by skirting the edges along the plains throughout 
the major part of millions of scjuare miles. It may be remarked in 
passing that this fact has been known and acted upon ))y the natives 
in locating their towns and trails for ages past. Landings for air- 
planes may also be easily arranged upon these inter-riverine plains. 

xVnother common feature is the part played by logs in the dry 
seasons. These are caused by the evaporation from the lakes and 
rivers, extend out from them to a distance proportional to the extent 
of the water surface, and help to mamtain the forest vegetation 
during the dry months. 

Another characteristic of the two regions is the heterogeneity of 
the vegetation. Instead of dense masses of one or a few types sucli 
as pines or hardwoods, which so often characterize colder regions, a 
single acre in both Tropics may contain hundreds of species of plants, 
from the lordly baobab or cuipo to the humble lissochilus or sobralia. 

The last common feature to be mentioned here — and there are 
many more — is the acidity of the soil, and this is the keynote of this 
article. Generally speaking, the soil of both the African and Ameri- 
can Tropics is highly acid. While there are large deposits of lime- 
stone in both regions, notably near Livingstone Falls on the lower 
Congo and in the region of the great African lakes, and in many 
parts of the Amazon A alley, it may be said that there are no vast 
alkaline regions in either of the Tropics comparable to those found 
in the western part of the United States. The alkaline deserts of 
Chile and southern Peru are inappreciable in extent compared witli 
the whole area imder review. There are also local calcareous deposits 
in all the South American countries, notably in Panama, and where 
the extensive coral reefs border the oceans. But most of the great 



142 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION". 

forest regions, as well as the grassy plains, exhibit an acid reaction. 
This is due partly to geological causes which lie outside of this dis- 
cussion, and also to the dense mat of evergreen vegetation. 

Recent investigations, especially those of Dr. Coville, have shown 
the important part played by primeval vegetation in producing and 
maintaining acidity in the soil. Wliile it is true that thoroughl}" 
decomposed humus, even on noncalcareous soils, may exhibit a 
certain degree of alkalinity due to the lime content of vegetation, 
the constant accretion of fresh leaves, grass, and other acid materials, 
keeps the upper layer acid. 

This explains an aboriginal practice that puzzled me for many 
years until I found the key to it. The African natives, both at home 
and in tropical America, follow the invariable practice of burning oif 
newly cleared fields, and of making new fields every year or so, rather 
than of continuing to cultivate the clearing once made for any con- 
siderable number of years. When I first went to Africa I tried to 
break up this practice, but met with the most emphatic and universal 
resistance. The natives said they could not make good crops except 
on recently cleared and burned over land. They proved that they 
were right. I tried many times to grow crops on forest land without 
burning it, and on the grassy velt by turning the grass luider. liut 
I failed repeatedly, and at last turned over the job to the Jialuba, 
and let them have their way. 

The reason is simple. Burning the new grounds afforded ashes 
and other alkaline substances, and also destroyed temporarily much 
of the superficial acidity. I have seen splendid crops of beans, corn, 
pumpkins, and rice grown on bare red clay from which practically all 
of the vegetation and liumus had been ])urne(l ofi". I have also seen 
rich bottom lands and valleys with several feet of humus fail to raise 
anythhig worth mentioning when I, or other white men, tried to 
make gardens there without burning it. 

Ignora;nce of the principles involved was almost tragic during the 
time of the construction of the Congo Railway. With an abundance 
of lime in sight of the right of way, both the Belgians and their black 
laborers suffered greatly from the lack of fresh vegetables, which 
might have been easily raised if the limestone had been burned and 
applied to the soil. Early attempts at gardening were such ludi- 
crous failures, that they were abandoned in favor of tin cans and a 
scorbutic diet. In most parts of the Congo Valley canned vegetables 
have been staple imports for the last 30 years at a cost for transpor- 
tation alone of between 10 and 25 cents a pound. The large elevated 
plateau in the Lake Kivu region, w^here a territory as large as the 
State of Maine lies between seven and ten thousand feet above sea 
level, is climatically adapted to many north temperate crops, but 
nothing has been clones on it, largely because of the acidity of the soil. 




■ 


^. 


CI c 


r , 


< 




.. 4 


H 




/•I 


X 


&ai 


• ktJ 


H 


t^5 


Hi 


r^ 


el 

03 03 


V 


o 


i 


■11 


<D oT 


i 






1 


*-^ 


^ 


\ • 


-A 




V]^ 


^ 


K O 



i; 2« 



CERTAIN (!K()HKAI'H[('.\K AND I'.O'I'A N K'A L I'A KA I J.ELS. 145 

Tropical Ainciica lias had a similar liistory. The very high 
plateaus of the sul)-Aiuleaii regions jirodiice few Euro])eau foods, 
except corn and Irish potatoes, both of wliich are fortunately adapted 
to acid soils. The most interesting exception to this general rule is 
in the country around Bogota. 

The high country around the capital of (\)l()ml)ia lias been made 
to produce some grain and vegetables for local consumption, largely 
because its early settlement led to sufficiently long cultivation by 
the Spaniards to reduce the original acidity of some of the soil, while 
other tracts contain original lime in the soil similarly to that found 
by the early settlers of parts of Kentucky. It must be understood 
that fairly long cultivation reduces acidity by keeping down the 
accession of the natural vegetation. For example, an Irish potato 
field on an acid soil in the highlands of South America will produce 
fine crops for several years, and then wheat may be grown on that 
field, when wheat would have been a failure if planted immediately 
after the first clearing. 

Neither during the French nor the American occupation at Panama 
did the local production of European foods play any considerable 
part in the economic life of the region This was partly due to the 
pressure of food-exporting firms in France and the United States, 
partly to ignorance on the part of local landowners and the rest of 
the community about the influence of soil acidity, and the resultant 
failure to use the abundant lime deposits near the canal. 

Of course even the reduction of soil acidity to the point where 
European food plants could flourish except for the climatic differ- 
ences would not enable the production of all of those crops in the 
- Tropics. But the point of importance in this connection lies in the 
fact that throughout the warm belt in both continents, there are 
plenty of high mountain plateaus where such crops could be raised 
but for the acidity of the soil. Such unused plateaus are, for example, 
within 250 miles of the Panama Canal, within 150 miles of the main 
stream of central Congo, and all along the upper reaches of the 
Amazon. 

Europeans settling in the Tropics either gradually adapted them- 
selves to the tropical diet, or built up a trade in imported foods from 
their mother countries. It is still a debatable question as to whether 
the former practice may not have had something to do with the 
alleged physical degeneration of the white man in the Tropics, while 
the latter alternative increased the expense of living, and proportion- 
ately retarded effective occupation, it also produced the evils in- 
cident to living upon preserved foods transported for a long distance 
and kept for considerable periods in storage. I have known cases 
where traders and missionaries, for 10 years after their settlement 







Courtesy of S. 1'. \ Huui 

THE HISTORIC STANLEY BAOBAB AT BOM A, AFRICA. 



148 THE PAX AMKPJCAX UXIOX. 

there, paid 40 cents a pound for orange marmalade laid down in 
central Africa, when orange trees and sugar cane could have been 
grown in their back yards. If the}" were thus indifferent to the 
possibilities of purely tropical agriculture, it may be easily seen how 
little inclined or able they were to promote the production of the non- 
tropical kind where such w^as possible. 

The important points brought out by the investigations of Dr. 
Coville and others in recent 3'ears are, first, that the use of lime may 
be extended with great profit to man}^ acid uplands and areas not 
hitherto considered as requiring neutralization; and, second, that 
where the expense or inconvenience of lime application is too great, 
certain acid-resistant (or acid-loving) crops should be preferred until 
tlie land, through cultivation and drainage, may cease to be too acid. 
These two conclusions represent the painstaking labors of many 
years, and simple as they may appear, they may become the turning 
point in a great world-wide agricultui'al revoluti(»n. Their im])lica- 
tions and corollaries are too numerous and far-reaching to be dis- 
cussed in detail here, but I am convinced that the}' are .thoroughly 
sound, and of the utmost importance to the development of new lands 
everywhere, and especially in the Tropics. 

My investigations for nearly a generation ])ast in the Tropics not 
only confirm the a])ove conclusions of investigators in America, but 
cause me to predict that if they arc applied to troj)ical regions, 
highlands and lowlands, the volume of crops demanded by Caucasian 
ro(|uirements will be enormously multiplied. For example, cotton, 
which has hitherto been a failure in the Tropics, would take its throne 
far to the soutliward. 1 may remark in passing, however, on this 
point, that there is another re(|uisite to the successful production of 
cotton in the Tropics, the discussion of which lies outside the province 
of this article. A million square miles would be added to the wheat 
lands of the world. Vegetable oils from peanuts, palms, and cotton 
seed could be depended upon in. the day when petroleum begins to 
fail. Many of the white man's best loved garden vegetables — 
cabbage, onions, beans, peas, spinach, and other vitaminous green 
stuff — would flourish alongside the banana and the pineapple. In 
sliort, when the white man learns how to kill acidity in the soil of 
the Tropics as well as he has learned how to kill mosquito larv* 
in their waters, or when he becomes as skilled in adapting crops to 
soil there as he is fast becoming in the adaptation of his physiological 
reaction to special tropical diseases, the really effective Caucasian 
occupation of the tropical world will begin. 



lATTtA', KNOWN RUT 
COMMl':i<(:(MJ,Y (Ml?()l.^ 
•i'AN'i" 'i'ill',l',5 Oi'' 'i'iil^ 

WTsST iNDii'J ;, °: :. 



By C. D. Mell. 

THE MAMMEE APPLE OF THE WEST INDIES. 

THE terjn mammee is derived from the al)()riginal name moniiii. 
and is now variously spelled and pronounced. The tree 
producing this important tropical American fruit is also 
referred to as toddy tree or wdd apricot by the English- 
speaking people. The French call it the abricot or abrocotier and 
the Portuguese abrico de Para. There are several varieties of these 
mammee apples growing all over the American tropics, where tliey 
are called by different names, but the one known best to the botanist 
is Mammea amerlcnna. 

The tree grows to be from 30 to GO feet high, and is planted niore 
or less widely in good rich soil all through the Tropics and as far 
north as Palm Beach, Fla. It has been introduced also into the 
tropical parts of the Old World, because of its fruit, which is very 
much esteemed in all warm countries. Although the tree is more or 
less ornamental when young, on account of its large beautiful dark 
green leaves and its showy fragrant white flowers, it is rarely planted 
in yards or gardens as a decorative feature, because the tree becomes 
stag headed or shows a number of dead branches relatively early in 
life. 

The fruit varies from oblate to round and is from 4 to () inc-hes in 
diameter. Under favorable conditions it attains the size of a child's 
head. It has a more or less rough, russet-colored, pliable leathery 
skin inclosing a yellow, sweet, aromatic pulp in which are from one 
to four large triangular seeds. , The outer leathery rind is about one- 
eighth of an inch thick, and may be removed from a second or tluii 
inner skin that adheres very closely to the pulpy portion of tlie 
fruit. When the rinds are cut while green a briglvt yellow nnicihig- 
inous juice exudes. The inner rind is generally considered luildl.v 
poisonous'nnd often ])roduces colic when eaten hy children. Ihe 

I lit 




AN OLD MAMMEE APPLE TREE. 

'The tree grows to be trom 30 to 60 feet high, and is planted more or less widely in good rieh t^oil all 
through the Tropics and as far north as Palm Beach, Florida." 



IMPORTANT TREES OF THE WEST INDIES. 151 

pulp normally adheres very closely to the seeds, which are often as 
large as hens' eggs. 

The pulp is bright yellow and quite juicy, though firm in texture 
beinfy sweet and somewhat aromatic, remotely resembling the true 
apricots of the temperate climate. To the northern traveler in the 
Tropics who tastes the fruit for the first time it has a more or less 
soapy or even a tarry flavor; others say that the flavor is not unlike 
that of molasses. The fruit is highly relished by the natives of the 
Tropics, and if the best varieties were placed in the northern markets 
a good demand could doubtless be created, for when the rich yellow, 
juicy pulp is sliced and served with wine, or with sugar and cream, 
it has almost no equal and is generally esteemed. In Europe it is 
usually preferred in the form of sauce, preserves, or jam. The fruit 
is used also as a source of alcohol. 

The flowers of the mammee apple yield by distillation an es- 
sential oil used in liquors under the name of eau de Creole. The 
bark when cut yields a yellowish gum or resin, called resina de 
mamey, which is used by the Indians as a cure for itch and to pre- 
vent chiggers from attacking their feet. The bark contains tannin 
and is regarded as being slightly poisonous. 

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE HORSE-RADISH TREE. 

The horse-radish tree, or the Moiinga pterygosperma of botanists, 
is an important species growing naturally in the region of the 
Himalaya Mountains and southward, but now introduced and grow- 
ing wild in practically all parts of the Tropics. It is most highly 
esteemed in India, where all parts of the tree have relatively impor- 
tant uses; in the West Indies the merits of this tree have not become 
so well known and very little use is made of its seeds, bark, and 
roots. In India few trees are more generally cultivated, and yet 
the products of the tree rarely enter into the foreign trade, because 
all the available supplies are sold and consumed locally. 

It is a singular tree, having the general appearance of trees related 
to the logwood or locust tree, but differs markedly in the character 
of the fruit and seeds as well as in the uses and properties of the wood 
and bark. It is rarely over 25 feet high and from 6 to 10 inches in 
diameter at the base. The bark is corky, the wood soft, roots pun- 
gent, and all the young twigs and leaves soft and hairy. The fruit 
is a long whiplike bean or pod from 9 to 18 inches in length and 
usually 9 ribbed, containing three-cornered seeds wmged at the 
angles. 

The wood is said to have been used in Jamaica for extracting the 
dye, but there appears to be no real commercial importance to this 
use. Further experiments along this line may yield interest uig 
results, however; the trunks of the trees are too small and the wood 
too soft to be of much use for other purposes. The bark contains 



I?,II'()|{TAXT TliEES OF THE WEST INDIKS. 



153 



tannic acid used in parts of India for tainiing leather; the tree is 
considered too valuable, however, for other purposes, and its use in 
this connection could not be encouraged unless some important use 
could be found for the wood. The bark also contains a valuable 
gum and a fiber used in making mats, coarse paper, and cordage. 
The roots of young trees 
when scraped do not look ^l^'^ 
unlike those of the horse- 
radish and they have ex- 
actly the same taste and 
use. It is on this account 
that the tree has been 
given the name horse-rad- 
ish tree. In India it is 
eaten extensively in the 
same way that horse-rad- 
ish is eaten in this country. 
It is pungent and astrin- 
gent, and the juice from 
the root bark has been 
used in India also in medi- 
cine. 

The seeds of this tree 
constitute the most im- 
portant product. They 
are about as large as a 
full-grown soyabean, with 
three prominent wings, 
and are called ben nuts, 
because they yield by pres- 
sure the well-known and 
highly prized ben oil so 
largely used by watch- 
makers. This oil has long 
been known as the best 
lubricant for the finest 
machinery. It is far su- 
perior to that of the 
castor bean, and a supply 

of this oil was sought during the late war by those in charge of 
aviation. As a result of this demand these seeds were quite (>xten- 
sivcly collected in Haiti, Porto Rico, and other West Indian islands, 
wiiere the horse-radish tree has widely escaped from cultivation. 

The seeds yield from 30 to 35 per cent of a clear, limjiid and almost 
colorless oil that is ratiiei- thick at ordinary teniperatur(>s and lia- 
S2n20- 22 P.iill. 2 1 




A HORSE RADISH TREE (IROWINT, IN DRV. 
ROCKY SOIL, PETITI GOAVE. HAITI. 

•■lis cultivation eoiikl bo made a profltable industry, since 
the tree grows so rapidly under almost any soil condition 
in any part of the West Indies." 



154 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

almost no odor or flavor. It saponifies very slowly and does not 
turn rancid. It is often used as a salad oil in the West Indies, and 
owing to its great power of absorbing and retaining even the most 
fugitive odors, it is highly esteemed by perfumers as a base in the 
manufacture of perfumery. 

It seems remarkable that a plant with so many important uses as 
the horse-radish tree is not more generally cultivated in our near-by 
Tropics. Its cultivation could be made a profitable industry, since 
the tree grows so rapidly under almost any soil condition in any part 
of the West Indies, where the cost of labor remains relatively low. 
By giving this tree the attention it deserves a profitable industry 
could be developed and maintained at a very small expense antl little 
trouble. The tree may be propagated by seeds or cuttings and will 
thrive in almost any soil where other trees will grow; in fact it is 
found close to the sea, where the roots come in contact with brackish 
water, as well as on the rocky and well-drained hills and mountains. 
It appears to attain its best development in and around towns and 
cities, but will grow and produce amuially an abundance of fruits 
and seed which are easily gathered and readily marketed. 

EAST INDIAN AVALNUT. 

The East Indian walnut (Alhizzia lehhel-) is not a true walnut, 
but belongs to the leguminous family of plants, being closely allied 
to our common black locust. The true walnut of India is the same 
as the so-called English or Circassian walnut {Juglans regia) which is 
used so largely in this country for making furniture and interior 
trim of fine residences. The East Indian walnut of commerce is 
known in the English and American markets also as koko or kukko, 
but in India it generally goes under the name of siris. It must not be 
confused, however, with the wood tliat is now shipped into this coun- 
try from the Philippine Islands under the name of white siris (Alhiz- 
zia 'procera). 

Brandis in his Forest Flora of the Northwest and Central India 
states that this tree attains an average height of about 50 or 60 feet 
with a diameter of 2 to 3^ feet near the ground. The trunk is usually 
cylindrical and clear for at least one-third the total height of the 
tree; trees which were drawn up by bamboos and other trees, forming 
a dense undergrowth, invariably have long, straight trunks, frec^uently 
two-thirds of the total height of the tree. The crown is usually 
spreading, forming a broad, flat top, so that, in many respects, it 
resembles the well-known rain or saman tree of tropical America. 

The natural distribution of the East Indian walnut is extensive, 
ranging from southern India northward through Bengal into the sub- 
Himalaya region, and thence westward to the Indus River, and 
ascending to an elevation of 5,000 feet. Its artificial range of growth 
has been widely extended by planting. It is an exceptionally fine 




T ® 

X ^ 



156 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

tree for shade and ornamental planting, and for this reason it has 
been introduced into practically all parts of India and to a lesser 
extent into Egypt, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, Africa, Australia, and 
tropical America. Over 100 years ago the tree was introduced into 
Cuba, Jamaica, and several other islands of the West Indies, where it 
has now become thoroughly naturalized. It has become recognized 
as a splendid roadside tree, and many beautiful koko avenues may 
be seen in tropical America. In Jamaica the tree is known as fry 
tree or fry wood, in Barbados as woman's tongue, and in Haiti as 
cha-cha. 

The wood was first introduced from India into the English markets 
about 30 years ago, when about 4 tons were shipped, with a cargo of 
padouk, to London, where it is said to have found a readv sale among 
walnut users, and for this reason it has come to be known as wahiut, 
in place of which it was first used. Although it is considerably heavier 
than black walnut, weighing approximately 64 pounds per cubic foot, 
the shipments steadily increased and the wood became well known as 
a desirable furniture and interior finishing material. The sapwood. 
which is nearly white, is usually wide, often occupying nearly one- 
half the radius. This portion of the log is generally not available and 
is cut away before the logs are shipped to market. The heartwood 
is dark reddish brown, darker, nearly black bands alternating with 
bands of lighter color. Although the wood of different logs varies 
greatly in color, it possesses a fine veining which runs curly at times. 
On an average, it may be described as having approximately the same 
color and the same range of figure as our black walnut. It does not 
possess a high degree of luster, and the straight-grained wood has a 
somber tone, which would not compare even with the medium or 
inferior grades of the Circassian walnut. The East Indian walnut 
burrs, like those of any other fancy wood, increase in value with the 
intricacy and rarity of the design and size of the burr. The price of 
such burrs, which are invariably sliced up into veneer, is frequently 
10 to 20 times that of the plain wood, and as much as a hundred time-^ 
the value of the ordinary wood has been paid for extn>mely curious 
and unique burrs. 

The mechanical properties of the East Indian walnut are in many 
respects superior to those of the black walnut. The wood is rather 
tough, fairly durable in contact with the soil, and seasons well with- 
out checking. It is said to take a better surface with less work than 
the American wood and can be worked equally as fast with the same 
ease. It requires less preparation by means of glass paper, because 
the wood is denser; })ut it requires more filling, since the pores are 
larger and more numerous than in black walnut. Polishing requires 
a good deal of time, because the soft or spongy tissue in and sur- 
rounding the pores absorb a good deal of the polishing liquids. 



IMPOKTANT TURKS OF THE WE«T INDIES. 



157 



The uses of the wood are numerous in [lulia, whei-e it is much val- 
ued for sugar-cane crushers, oil pestles and mortars, furniture, well 
curbs, naves, spokes, and other wheelwright work. In southern 
India it forms one of the favorite woods for ship and boat building, 
and in the Andaman Islands it is used for general building purposes. 
In England and America its chief use is for furniture, interior trim, 
and for tool handles and other small articles. The wood is consid- 
ered so valuable in India that the government has fixed a higher tax 




AN EAST INDIAN WALNUT TREE IN HAITI. 

The lor-al name in Haiti is cha-cha, protably signifying chatter, alluding to the 
peculiar rattle of the seeds in the pods. 

upon the felling of trees of this species tluin upon the well-known 
and valuable teak. 

The wood now sells at prices ranging from 40 to 55 cents per cubic 
foot in the log form. The white siris from the Philippines and the 
East Indies, of which several shipments have been received in the 
United States for use as flooring, is somewhat cheaper, though it has 
the same color and nearly similar mechanical properties, but the 
wood is slightly coarser grained. The latter is not hkely to become 
a popular wood in the American markets 




Courtesy ot Plus Ultra. Buenos Aires. 

THE NEW CERVANTES THEATER, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA. 

The Argentine capital's newest theater, erected for and dedicated to, the famous Spanish actress, Maria 

Guerrero, Marchioness of Fontanar, was opened September 5, 1921. 
Upper: Exterior. Lower: The auditorium, from the stage. 




I- 




3 ? 





L'ouitesy of Plus Ultra, Buenos Aiies. 

VIEWS OF THE CERVANTES THEATER, BUENOS AIRES. 

Upper: The vestibule which opens on the automoliile entrance. Note the tile wainscotting in the classic 

Spanish manner. 
Lower: The beautiful refreshment room. 



\fo 




EW AKT TIEASUR 



EXI' 



By Francis S. Bortox. 



THOSE who have visited the cliiirches and cathedrals of 
Mexico know what beautiful works of art they contain, and 
that some of their interiors compare favorably with the 
best known in Europe. They know also that during the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries Spain, then the wealthiest country 
in Europe, sent from Spain and the Low countries a large number of 
architects, stone carvers and masons, sculptors and decorators to 
plan, build, and adorn hundreds of churches, convents, monasteries, 
hospitals, asylums, and other buildings throughout Spanish America. 

Nowhere in the new world did Spain do more in that direction 
than in Mexico. Moreover, during the entire period named, from 
the great Mexican silver mines a constant stream of riches was being 
poured, much of which was expended in churches, chapels, and 
hospitals. Then, too, it was not unusual for private individuals, 
many of whom were owners or part owners of silver mines of almost 
fabulous riches, to build and equip churches at their own expense, 
running sometimes to over 1,000,000 pesos, in addition, to rich and 
splendid private chapels as essential parts of their own city or country 
residences. 

It has been the good fortune of Mr. Frank A. Miller, who has 
done so much to make Riverside, Calif., an art center, to obtain 
recently from the family of an eighteenth century Spanish marquis 
in Mexico one of the finest examples of ecclesiastical art now in the 
United States— an altar from such a chapel as has just been men- 
tioned. 

It is a blaze of gold and color, 25 feet high by 15 wide, and was 
constructed and set up probably not later than 1725, judging from 
the style of the carving and decoration. The front of the altar con- 
tains no fewer than 17 figures, of which 12 are full length, occupying 
their respective niches. Among them are St, Joseph in the larger 
central panel with St. Tobias and St. Raphael on either side. In the 
upper part, occupying conspicuous positions to the right and left, 
are St. Francis and St. Anthony, while elsewhere are seen Santa 
Barbara, Santa Teresa, and San Ignacio, with the famous motto 
of the Jesuit Order: "Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam." At the very top 
lb2 



V'-- 




AN ART TREASURE FROM MEXICO 



-"^ "-^SSli^^'l?t5J,SKiiSS«KSS^SS -- -» --"■' """" 



L()4 TIIK PAN AMKUICAN UNION. 

is u rcprosenlatiou of the Tiinity. But in oidor lo apprccialc ovoii 
ai)])i\)ximatcly llie beauty of this wondoi-rul altar, it must l)e studied 
in detail, slowly, carefully, and reverently; the eye must least upon 
the incomparable shades of color in tlie robes of the saints, softened 
and enriched by two centuries, upon the l)laze of massive beaten gold 
that covers all the surfaces of the pillars, capitals, iluting and flower- 
like carvings, and upon the lifelike expression on the faces of saints 
and angels, wrought by the master's hand long years ago. 

Riverside is certainly to be congratulated on the possession of such 
a treasure. 






CUR/ 



IN the northern part of Casa Blanca, Habana's most picturesque 
suburb, crowning a low hill which rises about 50 meters above 
the level of the sea, may be seen, a little to the southwest of 
the Meteorological Building, the New National Astronomical 
Observatory. 

The observatory is built on a rectangular site, its principal facade 
overlooking the bay of Habana. Between the two edifices mentioned 
stands the Meridional Building and the open-air pavilion housing 
the meteorological instruments. Wide steps of artificial granite lead 
to the vestibule of the observatory, to the right of which is the 
library and to the left an office, which serves also as a reception room. 
Directly in front of the beautiful entrance rises a fine marble staircase 
leading to the upper part of the building, on the first landing of 
which, set in the back wall, is a striking allegorical window of stained 
glass, representing Night — so appropriately described as "the natural 
state of the Universe." In this building are located the laboratory, 
the photographic developing room which is equipped with an adjust- 
able roof, washers, driers, and negative files, and the room, kept at 
an even temperature, which contains the vault with the master clock. 
The principal apparatus of the observatory is a refracting telescope, 
the latest work of the firm of Warner & Swasey, of Cleveland, Ohio, 
who have made some of the largest refractors in the w^orld. The 
lens of the equatorial telescope has a diameter of 254 millimeters 
(1(H inches), calculated by Dr. Hastings, of New Haven, and ground 




■ II m iiiii ■■ r^irair^"--! 

THE NEW NATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY, HABANA, CUBA. 




i \ \ I MiNAl, iil!SKK\ ATolt'i SHOWING TELESCOl'K 



166 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 



by the well-known firm of Brashear from blocks of crystal obtained 
in Germany. 

The total height of the apparatus, when the telescope is turned 
toward the North Pole, is 3.75 meters. The length of the tube, 
without attachments, is about 4 meters. The telescope is provided 
with verniers, electric-light bulbs, and single microscopes. The clock 
fits into the second base, which is about 1 meter in height. The 




MARBLE STAIRWAY OF THE NATIONAL OBSERVATORY OF CUBA, 
ALLEGORICAL WINDOW IN THE BACKGROUND REPRESENTING 
"NIGHT." 



finder is luminous, and has an objective of about 90 millimeters (3^ 
inches) . 

The equatorial telescope is equipped with an adjustable micrometer, 
a photometer, a spectroscope used in the study of solar protuber- 
ances, a polarizing helioscope, and other minor accessories. Upon 
the telescope tube is mounted a photographic camera, of the Astro- 
Petzval type, having an objective of_il60 millimeters (6.3 inches). 



\iA 




Courtesy of M. A. Brackenridge. 

\ BUENOS AIRES POLICEMAN OF THE POLYGOT SQUAD. 



^AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY^ 
" ; AND COMMERCE; " 

ARGENTINA. 

Projected port. — The Administrator of the State railroads has 
conferred with the Director of Navigation and Ports about the resump- 
tion of work on the railwaj^ from San Antonio to Lake Nahuel Huapi 
as part of the Decauville line to be run through Patagonia. It is 
planned to build a dock for ocean vessels at the port of San Antonio 
Este, where rails and other railway material may be unloaded, for 
due to the shallow harbor, San Antonio del Oeste can accommodate 
only coastwise vessels. The expenditure for the 44 kilometers of rail- 
way to be constructed between San Antonio del Oeste and the new 
port of San Antonio del Este will be offset by the avoidance of trans- 
ferring cargoes of material purchased in Germany to lighters for land- 
ing in the former port. 

Clear channel of river plate. — -The Bureau of Navigation and 
Ports and the Ministry of Public Works are considering means to 
clear the channel of the River Plate of some 1 5 vessels which have 
been wrecked there, and which are a danger to navigation. Previous 
to 1919, bids were made to dynamite the hulls but it is now thought 
the work can be done by the Ministry of Marine, which has the expert 
personnel and a certain amount of explosives, while the Public 
Works Department will furnish the dredges and flat boats. 

River Plate Avl^tion Co. — The Compania Rioplatense de Avia- 
cion was formed on September 1, 1921, with an authorized capital of 
1,000,000 pesos. The company has established at San Isidro, 30 min- 
utes from Buenos Aires, an air base with cement hangars, shops, 
warehouses, and a club, and has imported several Airco Rolls Roj-ce 
airplanes similar to those used on the London-Paris air route. These 
machines are provided with comfortable cabins for four passengers, 
and in connection with the company automobile service, will con- 
vey passengers from the Plaza de Mayo to Montevideo twice a week. 
The company expects to make the journey in 2^ hours, or at the 
rate of approximately 180 kilometers an hour. Special trips will 
also be made in 4 hours to Punta del Este for 160 pesos per passenger. 
The present travel time to Montevideo is 8 hours, and thence 6 hom-s 
more by train followed by a long automobile ride to Punta del Este. 
A route is also to be established through the Province of Entre Rios 
with four-seater Breguet-Renault planes on a weekly schedule from 
82020— 22— Bull. 2 5 169 



170 THE PAN AMERICAlSr UNION. 

Buenos Aires to Concordia, Argentina, a 2J-hour trip in direct flight, 
with 10 minutes extra for stops at the Uruguayan towns of Mercedes, 
Fray Bentos, Paysandu, and Sal to, and at Colon and Gualeguaychii 
in Entre Rios, Argentina. 

New textile industry. — A new textile, called formio, made 
from the plant phormiuin tenax, is being manufactured on an is- 
land of the Delta, for sacking, binding cord, sewing thread, and 
general roping. This plant is a native of New Zealand, and from the 
few seeds brought to Argentina as a scientific curiosity 500,000 plants 
were finally obtained. The company which is developing the indus- 
try has an island in the Paransi Mini River where it is raising the 
plant; it has asked the Government for a further concession of 2,500 
hectares to increase the planting, which is very successful in the 
swamps of the Delta. 

Argentine exhibit in Brazilian exposition. — The various pack- 
ing houses of Argentina have offered to the Ministry of Agriculture 
for exhibition in the International Exposition to be held in Rio de 
Janeiro next year, a film of the stock-raising industry of the River 
Plate, which shows the different phases of this business as carried 
on in all the large estancias. The President expects that in all about 
1,000,000 pesos will be spent on the Argentine exhibits and inci- 
dental expenses for the exposition. 

Railway congress. — The Administrator General of Railways has 
appointed a commission of five officials to attend the congress to be 
held in Rome in April by the International Railway Association. 

Patagones railway. — The railway line from Bahia Blanca to Car- 
men de Patagones is completed. Twenty leagues of rail were laid in 
laid in 20 months. 

Shipment of cherries. — The Argentine-American Chamber of 
Commerce reports that the first shipment of cherries ever sent to the 
United States from Argentina left in December aboard the American 
Legion and amounted to 2 tons, part of which was for President 
Harding. This shipment is included in the campaign to seU Argen- 
tine fruit in the United States, mentioned in the last number. 

BOLIVIA. 

Bolivia's oil. — In view of the lessened price of tin which was 
Bolivia's main export, foreign and local investors are now interested 
in oil, says the President's message. Negotiations are being com- 
pleted with the representative of the Standard Oil Co. which takes 
over the holdings of Richmond Levering & Co. On February 28, 
1920, the latter company secured a 1,000,000-hectare oil concession 
in the Departments of Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, and Tarija. 

Bolivian railroads. — According to the President's message read 
October 30, 1921, the national railroads of Bolivia total at present 



AGKICULTUKK, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. l7l 

2,201 kilometers, of which 1,851 are completed and 410 in course of 
construction. On June 30, 1921, the lines of the Bolivian Raiboad 
Co. were estimated to be worth £7,439,477 15s. lOd. The Yungas 
line is not as far advanced in construction as desired, but the rails 
are laid to kilometer 49, and the ballast as far as kilometer 46. A 
five-arched masonry bridge has been constructed at kilometer 45. 
At Purapura a group of worlonen's houses is being completed, with 
a retaining waU on the Choqueyapu to protect them. Traffic now 
extends to kilometer 46 and in a short time will reach kilometer 49. 
The Potosi-Sucre line has been able to break ground for the track 
between kilometers 60 and 81 and extend the track to kilometer 60, 
The branch line to Corocoro showed the usual average of traffic for 
the year; its earnings represented 14 per cent of the capital invested 
in the building of this road. 

The Machaca-Uncia railway was completed in May; during the 
year of partial operation it has carried 41,826 passengers, 47,598 tons 
of freight, and 1,092 tons of baggage and packages. The Ulen Con- 
tracting Co. expects to begin actual work on the Villazon-Atocha line 
in January. Surveys are being completed for the line from Cocha- 
bamba to Santa Cruz. 

A commission has been considering plans for the electrification of 
the Yungas line which include two daily passenger trains and one 
and a half for freight, necessitating 1,800 horsepower. The cost is 
estimated at S2,457,490. 

Land grants. — Land grants conceded by the Government since 
1907 for agriculture, stock raising, and rubber plantations number 
1,224, with a total area of 15,288,669 hectares. Of this, 7,608,628 
hectares represent rubber holdings. Various laws have been passed to 
clarify the holding of such land grants and the quantity ad judicable 
to individual holders. (President's message.) 

Railroad rates. — The Government has permitted the Bolivian 
Railway Co. to raise its fare and freight rates 15 per cent to offset 
the increase in prices of railway material. The new rates will be 
effective until the Government directs then* change. 

Supplementary funds. — The Antofagasta (Chile) and BoHvian 
Railway Cos., in accordance with the agreement referred to in the 
decree of November 7, 1916, have each provided £2,500 semi- 
annually toward a supplementary fund to care for expenditures on 
additional work. These quotas began January 1, 1916, and were 
concluded December 31, 1920, making a total fund of £50,000 as 
fixed in the agreement. Of this sum only £8,232 16s. 7d. has been 
spent. Until this fimd is reduced to £25,000 it is unnecessary to 
resimie payment of the quotas. {President's message.) 



172 THE PAN AMEIUCAN UNIOI^. 

BRAZIL. 

International Cotton Conference. — The National Society of 
A.griculture with headquarters in Rio de Janeii^o has addressed a 
communication to the President of the Industrial Center of Cotton 
Spinners and Weavers inviting the latter organization to cooperate 
in the work of preparing for the International Cotton Conference, 
which is to be held October next imder the joint auspices of the Cot- 
ton Services of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Executive Com- 
mittee of the National Exposition. The Industrial Center of Cotton 
Spinners and Weavers has accepted the mvitation and designated 
its first secretary, Senhor Carlos Julio Galliez, to be its representative 
on the committee of organization. 

Free Zone in Port of Rio de Janeiro. — See page 187. 

CHILE. 

Agriculture. — ^Interest in agriculture is steadily increasing in 
Chile. As an evidence of this fact the recent stock show and the 
agricultural and vetermary instruction conference may be mentioned, 
as well as the agricultural exposition to be held in O'Higgms Province. 

The annual show of the Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura was 
held at Santiago in October last. Durham cattle, both pure bred 
and crossed, held the most prominent place, but Dutch and Nor- 
mandy cattle, Lincoln Reed shorthorns, and Holsteins were also 
shown. Among the sheep there were Hampshire Downs and Oxford 
Downs, while the swine included Chester Whites, Duroc Jerseys, 
Berkshires, and Poland Chinas. 

There was also a division for farm machinery and tools, in which 
two sections were of special interest. One was that exhibiting a 
large number of agricultural tools, metal parts, leather articles, and 
delicate scientific mstruments for agricultural use, all made in the 
army shop of the War Department. The other showed the farm 
machinery of an American firm, a tractor used as a motor for cutting 
ensilage and a reaper and binder attracting special attention. 

The first conference on agricultural and vetermary instruction was 
held in Santiago October 26 to 30, 1921. The conference hopes to 
increase the dissemination of scientific knowledge among farmers, 
especially those who regard cattle diseases and the loss of crops as 
unavoidable fatalities. 

An agricultural exposition will be held April 5 m O'Higgms Prov- 
ince under the auspices of the Uni6n Agraria. Exhibits will be shown 
and an assembly of provincial agriculturists held to discuss the eco- 
nomic welfare of farm laborers, the formation of rural banks, and 
other vital problems. 

Packing plant. — A packing and refrigeratmg plant covermg 
35 hectares is being built at Puerto Montt. For its products it 



AGPJCULTUEE, INDITSTRY, AND COMMERCE. 173 

will draw upon the stock raised in five southern Provinces— Malleco , 
Cautin, Valdivia, Llanquihue, and Chiloe— w^hicli is calculated to 
consist of 602,528 head of cattle, (U8,162 sheep, and 125,137 swine. 
The capital of the company is £200,000 sterling. 

Road repairs. — Of the 50,000,000 pesos appropriated last year 
for public works, 7,531,347 pesos had been spent on road repairs 
throughout the Republic prior to October 1, 1921. Road machinery 
and tools cost 1,129,000 pesos, and the amount of 339,300 pesos gold 
has been reserved for the purchase of 14 additional road machines. 

New nitrate process. — The Poirrier nitrate process, said to re- 
duce the cost of production by 50 per cent, is being tried out on a 
commercial scale at an oficina in Taltal. 

Transandine railroads. — The Chilean engineers have practically 
finished the preliminary plan for the transandine railroad via Lonqui- 
may, which will ujiite the rich southern zone of Chile to the Zapala 
system of Argentina. 

In the north material has been ordered for the Argentinian section 
of the Salta, Argentina, to Antofagasta, Chile, transandine line; the 
plans for the Chilean section had at latest advices not been definitely 
settled. 

The ad referendum contract for the unification of the present Chilean 
and Argentinian lines, mentioned in the September, 1921, issue of the 
Bulletin, has been approved by Congress and became a law Septem- 
ber 13, 1921. 

Oil tank cars. — A firm m Valdivia has recently constructed 
four oil tank cars of 25,000 and 30,000 liters capacity, which are to be 
used on the Chilean railroads to transport and distribute the prod- 
ucts of a petroleum company. These are the first tank cars of this 
description made in Chile. 

Wxreless telegraph service. — A German fu-m has obtained a 
contract from the Government to construct wireless stations in 
Iquique, Antofagasta, Tocopilla, Valparaiso, Santiago, Concepcion, 
Valdivia, and Punta Arenas. They are to be supplied with electrical 
energy of from 2 to 5 kilowatts, which will permit internal communica- 
tion and the direct transmission of messages to Peru and Argentina, 
as the minimum range will be 2,500 kilometers. The total cost is 
reported to be 1,385,000 gold pesos. The work is to be completed 
within 18 months. 

Railroad commission. — The Government is sending to the United 
States for two years a commission headed by the Director General 
of the Railroads, Senor Manuel Trucco, to inspect and approve the 
materials, machinery, and tools for the electrification of the Santiago- 
Valparaiso Ime. (See the Bulletin for January, 1921.) 

Consul general of Chile. — ^The consul general of Chile in New 
York, Senor Munizaga Varela, was recently the guest of honor at a 



174 THE PAX AMERICAlSr UNION. 

luncheon given in that city by the Chile- American Association. The 
Chilean ambassador, Senor Beltr^n Mathieu, went from Washington 
to attend. Mr. A. C. Burrage, of Boston, in introducing Senor 
Munizaga Varela, paid him a tribute as a life-long student of both 
North and South America. In his response the consul general 
stated his belief that the United States was in a better position than 
any other country to develop Chile's natural resources. 

COLOMBIA. 

Coffee. — During the year ended June 30, 1921, Colombia exported 
to the United States 212,391,512 pounds of coffee, valued at 
$36,718,116. After Brazil, which exported in the same period 
857,454,209 pounds of coffee to the United States, Colombia is 
ahead of any other country in the exportation of coffee to the 
United States. These figures are given by the Union Cafetera Co- 
lombiana. 

Renewal of German steamship service. — Last November the 
steamer Antioquia, of the Hamburg-American Line, called at the 
Atlantic seaports of Colombia, renewing, after seven years, direct 
steamship service between Germany and Colombia. The steamers 
of this line will visit Venezuela, Curasao, Puerto Colombia, Cartagena, 
and Guatemala, and from there will return by the same route to 
Germany. 

COSTA RICA. 

Pacific Railroad. — The earnings of the Pacific Railroad for the 
period January 1 to August 31, 1921, were 1,019,023.66 colones, an 
increase of 160,818.11 colones over receipts for the same length of 
time the previous year. The expenses were 795,222.87 colones, an 
increase of 60,986.39 over the corresponding period of 1920. The 
profit for the eight months was 223,800.79 colones, 99,831.72 colones 
more than the credit balance of January-August, 1920. 

Steamship line.— The East Asiatic Co., of Copenhagen, expects 
to include Puntarenas in the ports of call of its steamships, which 
sail from San Francisco to Europe via the Panama Canal. Coffee 
may thus be exported without transshipment in the Canal Zone. 

CUBA. 

United Railroads of Habana. — The board of directors of the 
Ferrocarriles Unidos de la Habana y Almacenes de Regla, Ltd., has 
published the balance sheet corresponding to the revenues and 
expenses of the consolidated railroads of Habana during the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1921. According to this balance the revenues 
amounted to £6,329,669 sterling and the expenses to £4,848,142 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. 175 

sterling, compared with £5,876,074 and £4,255,372 sterling, respec- 
tively, during the same period of 1919-20. 

New petroleum station. — ^The English tanker San Tirso arrived 
in Habana carrying from Tampico, Mexico, approximately 3,000,000 
gallons of crude petroleum. This is the first of a series of shipments 
made into Cuba by the Anglo-Mexican Petroleum Co., which has 
built two large tanks in Habana. 

Habana-Key West record. — The hydroplane Santa Maria II 
in November made a trip from Key West to Habana in one hour and 
five minutes, establishing a record over this course, and at the same 
time inaugurating for the season the air service between Habana and 
Key West. There are six hydroplanes ready for service in Key West, 
all of the same type as the Santa Maria II. The price of passage 
has been reduced to $50. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Contracts. — The Department of Interior and Police has issued a 
regulation saying that any municipal contract with an individual or 
company involvmg over $500 must first be submitted for approval 
to the department. 

Railroad permit. — ^The Department of Promotion and Communi- 
cations has granted authorization to a sugar company to build, use, 
and operate a railroad on its own property, the Ingenio Angelina. It 
has also received permission to install an aerial cable car across the 
Higuamo River. The railroad begins in San Pedro de Macoris at the 
termmation of this aerial cable to the west of the Higuamo River, 
and is to extend for 7^ kilometers. 

Yaque del Sur Bridge. — The Yaque del Sur Bridge on the Azua- 
San Juan road was recently opened to traffic. The bridge, which is 
of reinforced concrete, is 100 feet long and has two approaches, each 
100 feet long. Work was begun on May 3, 1920, and concluded 
October 9, 1921. Including the structural iron the bridge cost 
$75,000, of which the people of Azua Province contributed $3,000. 
The bridge has been named in honor of Francisco del Rosario Sanchez, 
a Dominican patriot. 

CiBAO Road. — The Cibao Road has been finished up to kilometer 60. 
Wooden bridges have been replaced by reinforced concrete or iron 
bridges and the whole extent of the road is covered with crushed 
stone. 

Reduced freights. — The Columbus Steamship Co., of New York, 
on November 7 reduced freight rates on Dominican exports and 
imports. On the same date the United Fruit Co. reduced its rates 
between the Dominican ports and New York 20 per cent on exports 
plus the present surcharge recently applied. 



176 THE PAX AMERICAN UNION, 

Sugar cane culiivators. — The iissembly of Chambers of Com- 
merce resolved to ask the sugar central owners to give to then- colo- 
nists as compensation for their work 5 per cent instead of 4 per cent 
of the raw material furnished. This provision is suggested for three 
crops, after which time the present contracts will again be effective. 
This measure would enable the colonists to recover to some extent 
the losses of the past two 3^ears. 

Commerce Code. — See page 189. 

ECUADOR. 

Stock company. — ^A stock company has been formed in Milagro 
to promote the rice industry, in connection with which it will install 
a considerable amount of new machinery. The company also expects 
to build an electric light plant for the town. 

EsMERALDAS TO Santo Domingo. — ^A HBW TOdd is to be built from 
Esmeraldas to join the roads which are planned to unite Quito, 
Chone, and Santo Domingo. The necessary money will be obtained 
from the transfer of public lands and from liquor, merchandise, and 
boat taxes. 

Agricultural colonies. — -In pursuance of the Government policy 
of encouraging immigration, 12,000 hectares of land in San Cristobal 
and Isabela, two islands of the Galapagos group, and 15,000 hectares 
in Napo-Pastaza, one of the eastern Provinces, have been granted to 
concessionaries for agricultural exploitation. 

New INDUSTRIES. — See page 190. 

National defense taxes. — See page 190. 

Public works. — Congress has decreed the construction of a wharf 
and customhouse at Guayaquil and has authorized the President to 
make contracts to complete the Quito-Esmeraldas, Sibambe-Cuenca, 
and Ambato-Curaray railroads. 

Exportation of foodstuffs. — The decree of August 27, 1921, 
mentioned in the Bulletin for December last, has by legislative decree 
of September 29, 1921, been repealed, as also the decree for October 
30, 1917, and therefore exportation of foodstuffs may now be freely 
made. 

Agricultural Association. — A legislative decree promulgated in 
October, 1921, extends the export tax of 3 sucres on every 46 kilos of 
cacao until December 31, 1925. Sixty-six per cent of the product 
of this tax is to be used in payment of the notes of the Agricultural 
Association, of the amount owed to banks, and of its other debts con- 
tracted prior to the present decree. The remaining 34 per cent will 
be used for administrative expenses of the association, and in main- 
taining the price of cacao and sustaining the Chobo Experiment 
Station. An inspector named by the President will have full power 



i 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERdl-:. 177 

to officialize a.nd superintend the affairs of the association. The in- 
spector shall keep the President informed of the transactions of the 
association, and the President may direct the association to change 
the tendency of its transactions. When the debts are paid, the Presi- 
dent shall immediately remove the export tax on cacao, as provided 
by article 7 of the legislative decree of December 20, 1912. The di- 
rectors of the Agricultural Association are held personahy, collec- 
tively, and financially responsible for complying with the new decree. 

HAITI. 

Foreign traders' licenses. — One hundred licenses for the fiscal 
year of 1921-22 have been issued through the Department of Com- 
merce to foreign merchants or agents of foreign firms located in Haiti. 

Call for taxes. — The conmiunes of Carice and Sainte Suzanne 
have issued a call for all persons holding land of the public domain 
under precarious title to have the land measured and recorded with 
the local governments in order to make their holdings safe. 

MEXICO. 

Automobile show. — The 1922 automobile show organized under 
the auspices of the automotive group of the American Chamber of 
Commerce will be held in Mexico City from April 16 to 23. The show 
will be open to all dealers in the United States and Mexico, and to all 
makes of automobiles, trucks, and tractors of all countries. 

CoLONiES.^The Mexican Government is determined that no colo- 
nies from any country shall be estabhshed in Mexico unless their 
promotors can show beforehand that the colonists have enough 
money to make a success of their plans, buy lands, equip themselves 
with proper implements for farming, and maintain themselves till 
the crops come in. 

Oil for liners. — The president of the Mexican Petroleum Corpora- 
tion made a statement saying that Mexican oil will run the trans- 
atlantic luiers belonging to British interests in 1922. The negotia- 
tions to secure the supply have been successfully completed between 
Lord Perrie and his associates and American oil men interested with 
the British group in the ownership of the British Mexican Petroleum 
Co., Ltd. 

Good roads. — The Secretary of Communications made the state- 
ment that on January 1 work on all roads, the construction of which 
was discontinued in the last few months, will again be taken up and 
completed as soon as possible. The roads now completed, including 
that to Cuernavaca, will be given the best of care. This is due to 
the good-roads movement recently begun in Mexico. 



178 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

New steamship line. — The Steel Co., an American firm, has 
established a regular passenger and steamship service between Gal- 
veston, Texas City, Vera Cruz, and Tampico. This new steamship 
service will have ships sailing at first every two weeks, and later 
on every week. 

NICARAGUA. 

Electric-light plant. — Leon is to have electric light, derived 
from water power, for its streets and buildings, materials for the plant 
having already arrived. The dam was to be finished by January 10; 
the poles tlu'ough the center of the city have been in place some time. 

Shipping. — Among late steamer arrivals at the Nicaraguan port of 
Corinto is noted that of Baja California, a vessel of the new Latin 
American Line of steamers, en route from San Francisco to South 
American ports. 

Projected coffee-plant protection. — The Mnister of Pro- 
motion has in mind a law to protect the coffee trees in harvest time. 
Many colonists are careless in stripping the trees of their berries and 
break or destroy the plant which furnishes them with their livelihood 
and the coimtry with a considerable source of revenue. Among other 
provisions the proposed law is to contain clauses preventing the cut- 
ting of branches or breaking of trees during the harvesting of the 
crops, which must be done when the tree is in full bearing. Fines 
are to be imposed upon colonists or harvesters who destroy the trees 
and upon plantation owners who do not enforce these provisions. 
Inspectors will probably be sent through the coffee-raising zones to 
oversee the gathering of the berries. It is also suggested by the press 
that a uniform measure be designated for national use and that the 
coffee-cleaning establishments come under the provisions of the law, 
so that the grower may have full protection in the sale of his crop. 

Monkey Point railroad. — It is hoped to begin the work on the 
railroad to Monkey Point early in 1922. 

Inventions. — Don Manuel Borge, jr., professor of sciejices and 
author of a prize-winning textbook on arithmetic, has invented a new 
electric switch by which 10 changes of light can be made. The 
inventor has Nicaraguan and United States patents and is under- 
taking to patent the switch in Canada, England, France, and Italy. 
Sr. Borge is also the inventor of a tortiUa-making apparatus. The 
machine takes the corn, grmds it to the proper fineness, mixes the 
dough, shapes the tortilla, and passes it to an oven, where it is rapidly 
baked. 

PANAMA. 

Moving pictures. — The Universal Film Co. five years ago chose 
Colon as its distributing center for Central and South America. The 
company has recently enlarged its offices and is sending out repre- 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. 179 

sentatives to Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela and will open offices 
in Cartagena, Barranquilla, Medellin, and Bogotc'i. Offices are also 
to be opened in Managua, Nicaragua, and in Salvador to handle the 
business north of Panama, and in Trinidad for the West Indies. 

Timber corporation. — A timber corporation which has its saw 
mill in Darien in the heretofore undeveloped Rio Congo region has 
built a 5-mile narrow-gauge railway to its mills, constructed an elec- 
tric plant, a small ice plant, and a model furnace for drying wood. 
It has also purchased a four-masted sailing vessel of 1,400 tons dis- 
placement with a capacity of 800 tons and cabins for a few passengers. 
This vessel and another similar one will make the voyage from Balboa 
to New Orleans in 13 to 15 days, carrying cargoes of wood. 

PARAGUAY, 

Tramways. — -The Congress issued a decree modifying the law of 
December 7, 1910, which calls for the construction and exploitation 
of the electric tramways of the capital and near-by towns, as follows : 
"This concession will be for 60 years beginning on the date of pro" 
muigation of the present law. At the end of this term the munici- 
pality will have the right to expropriate the whole or part of the con- 
cession, by compensating the holder for the industrial value of the 
said property. The concessionar}^, in compensation for the above 
mentioned changes of the law, will undertake the work of electrifica- 
tion of the present street-car lines up to Villa Morra." 

Taxes. — ^All merchandise placed in storage in the customhouse 
depots will be taxed one-half of 1 per cent a month or fraction of a 
month. All imported goods, with the exception of parcel post, will 
be subject to a port duty of 2 centavos gold for each 10 kilograms of 
gross weight, providing they occasion the use of piers, cranes, labor, 
or other appurtenances of the customhouses. The same tax is laid 
on all exported products of national origin with the exception of 
fruits and vegetables. The tax for slaughtering beef is 25 pesos per- 
head, and for sheep, hogs, or goats, 5 pesos per head. Alcoholic bev- 
erages produced in the country are taxed at 2 pesos legal currency 
per liter. Imported wines are taxed as follows: Common wine in 
barrels, 50 centavos per liter; fine wines in barrels, 80 centavos per 
liter; common wine in bottles, 60 centavos per liter; fine wine in 
bottles, 1 peso 20 centavos per liter; cider, 60 centavos per liter; and 
champagne, 5 pesos per liter. 

Agronomic cooperation. — Former students of the Agricultural 
School are about to form the Pabell6n de Agr6nomos for cooperation 
in matters of material benefit and scientific aid to cultivation. 

Telegraph service.— A new telegraph office has been opened in 
San Patricio, Department of Santiago, connecting with the under- 
river cable which unites the Paraguayan and ^Argentinian lines. 



180 THE PAK AMERICAN UNIOlSr. 

liMMiGEATiox CUSTOM REMISSION. — The Paragiiavan consul gen- 
eral in Buenos Aires has been instructed to inform immigrants that 
they will be allowed entry dut}^ free for their personal clothing, 
furniture, chattels, seeds, industrial and farm machinery, trade tools, 
and blooded stock. Merchandise or other possessions and all goods 
whether within the exemption or not, must be subject to customs 
examination. 

Electric plant. — An electric plant has been established in the 
town of Ypacarai. 

Destruction of locust. — The President has set aside 300,000 
pesos for the campaign against the locust, which, added to the former 
appropriation of 100,000 pesos, makes a sum suflicient to undertake 
to exterminate the pest. Under the Department of Agriculture is 
a central commission in charge of the work, with subcommittees 
in each town. 

PERU. 

Chiclayo-Lambayeque railway. — The proposal has been 
approved to build a narrow-gauge (3-foot) railwaj^ from the city of 
Chiclayo through Lambayeque and the towns of that Province, ter- 
minating at a point on the projected Paita Maranon Railway. The 
Province of Lambayeque is a rich agricultural district which is well 
populated; it also has mineral resources. This is the first railwaj^ 
to run through this region and give egress to mountain products. 

PERU^^AN exposition in London. — The Peruvian consul general 
in London recently held in that cit}^ an interesting exposition of 
Peruvian products. Among the samples shown were: Gold quartz, 
alluvial gold, silver ore, coal, marble, tungsten, molybdenum, and 
vanadium, of which last Peru has the largest production. There 
were also oil, alum, sugar, cotton, and rubber. 

REPUBLIC of central AMERICA. 

Bananas.— During 1920 one fruit company shipped from Puerto 
Barrios 3,194,700 bunches of bananas, while during the first nine 
months of 1921 alone, the exports of this fruit were 3,209,895 bunches. 

New bridge. — Construction has been begun on the new bridge 
over the Rio Celgualpa on the Comayagua-Siguatepeque highroad 
in Honduras. 

Electric light and water. — Comayagua, Honduras, is having 
an electric-light and water system installed. A new radio station is 
also to be built there. 

Locomotives. — In November, 1921, three locomotives, valued at 
$100,000, and 500 tons of material for the railroad were delivered 
at the port of La Union, Salvador. 



A 



AGIUCULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. I8l 

URUGUAY. 

Central Uruguay Railway. — ^The annual report of the Central 
Uruguay Railway for the year ended June 30, 1921, shows £1,277,953 
sterling gross receipts, an increase of £72,063; and running expenses, 
£1,210,035, an increase of £222,380 over the year 1919-20. The 
new rates necessary on account of the increased cost of operation 
did not come into effect until January on the main line and not until 
March 15 for passengers, and May 15 for live stock, on the branch 
lines. 

Port extensions. — Approval has been given to the bill authoriz- 
ing the expropriation of property for extending the port at Pay- 
sandu. Improvements are also to be made in the port at La Paloma. 

Live-stock imports. — A decree has been issued prohibiting the 
importation of live stock from Belgium and Brazil for one year after 
the disappearance of rinderpest from the countries mentioned. 
Animal products in transit must pass through the special offices of 
the National Inspection of Animal Sanitary Police, and in every 
case the goods must be accompanied by the corresponding official 
sanitary certificate. 

Railway guarantees. — The guarantees of the Uruguayan railways 
were paid in London on November 1, 1921, for the quarter ending 
September 30, as follows: Northern Railway, 23,473 pesos; Midland 
Railway, main line, 66,581 pesos; Algorta to Fray Benitos branch 
of same road, 28,757 pesos; Tres Arboles to Piedra Sola branch, 
11,818 pesos; Central Uruguay, Northern Extension, 27,240 pesos; 
and the Eastern Extension of the same, 45,233 pesos. 

Eradication of the large thistle. — The Bureau of Agricultiral 
Defense has issued an ordinance making obligatory the destruction 
of the large thistle in the lands and roads where it grows. It has 
been classed as a pernicious weed and the ordinance calls on all land- 
owners or occupants to exterminate it within the borders of their 
property and in half of the road along the entire extent of their 
lands. Persons not keeping these rules are subject to a fine. 

Ports for plant importation. — ji decree was issued September 
23 providing that Montevideo and Salto be the only ports tlirough 
which plants and other possible carriers of the Aspiciotus pemici- 
osus (a dangerous plant cochineal), might be imported. This small 
insect is prevalent in some of the neighboring countries and therefore 
numerous plants, seeds, and fruits are subject to the sanitary comp- 
troller's ruling on disinfection. 

VENEZUELA. 

Electric light. — The Electric Light Co. of Maracaibo has in- 
stalled a new American 536-horsepower 400-kilowatt turbine which 
will considerably augment its lighting power. 



182 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

Public works in trujillo. — A bridge over the Jimenez River, 
which will assure open communication between Trujillo and Motatan 
even in time of flood, is being constructed at a cost of 40,000 bolivares, 
while another bridge over the Motatan River, on the road from 
Motatan to the district of Urdaneta, will promote commerce in the 
varied products of the latter region. The highway between Valera 
and Motatan, soon to be completed, will facilitate traffic between 
the latter and the terminus of the La Ceiba Railroad. 

Freight reduction. — The Red D Line in November reduced its 
freight rates between Venezuela and the United States. 

Coffee. — During October, 1921, 79,155 bags of cojffee were shipped 
from the port of Maracaibo, against 14,827 in October, 1920. The 
major portion in each case went to the United States, the amount 
for last October being 51,876 bags. Of the present crop, which 
seems to be abundant, the best grades are expected from the more 
temperate zones. 



ECONOMICandFINANCIAL ^' 

;/ AFFAIRS "^^^ 

BOLIVIA. 

Public debt. — On September 30 the public debt was 68,615,502.54 
bolivianos, apportioned as follows: Foreign debt calculated at the 
rate of 1 boliviano to 12i^ pence, 9,749,467.86 bolivianos; internal 
debt, 33,721,221.78 bolivianos; and the floating debt, 25,144,812.90 
bolivianos. (President's message.) 

Railway bonds. — -The annual interest of £187,500 on bonds of 
the Bolivian Railway was promptly met last year. (President's 
message.) 

COLOMBIA. 

Silver coins. — The Conversion Board (Junta de Conversion) 
has entered into a contract with the Equitable Trust Co., of New 
York, for the coining of 3,000,000 silver coins of 50-centavo denomina- 
tion. The work will be done at the Philadelphia Mint. 

CUBA, 

Interest on loan. — The President has authorized the Banco del 
Comercio to send $650,000 to pay the interest and part of the capital 
of the $10,000,000 loan made by the American Government to Cuba 
during the European war. 



i 



ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL. AFFAIRS. 183 

Treasuby receipts. — The Undersecretary of the Treasury has re- 
ported the sum collected in revenues and taxes from May to Novem- 
ber, 1921. Of the total, S35,899,975.06, collections for May amounted 
to $6,449,737.27; June, $5,451,575.00; July $5,517,718.98; August, 
$5,361,587.94; September, $4,630,486.24; October, $4,199,417.13; 
and November, $4,289,452.50. 

HAITI. 

1910 Haitian loan. — The Banque de TUnion Parisienne, the con- 
tractmg bank for the 1910 Haitian 5 per cent" loan, has bought 
back 4,889 bonds of this loan. 

MEXICO. 

Government bonds. — The President of the Republic has issued 
two decrees regarding the issuance and payment of Federal bonds to 
banking institutions, and extending the time for the creditors of the 
banks to exchange their titles for the bonds issued by the banks. The 
first decree says that the bonds the Government will issue, in pay- 
ment of the banking debts, comprise only the amounts these banks 
loaned the Constitutionalist Government, the sum being determmed 
in accordance with article 28 of the decree issued January 31, 1921. 
In these bonds the name of the creditor bank in whose favor the bonds 
are issued will be given; 16 coupons, payable every six months, 
will be attached. The bonds will have a face value of 100,000 pesos 
and earn an annual interest of 6 per cent. 

The second decree was issued with the purpose of amending the 
law of January 31, 1921, referring to the time bank creditors may 
exchange then- titles for bonds, and says that the 10 months' period 
stipulated by article 20 of the decree of January 31, 1921, is extended 
to 16 months, so that the bank creditors may be able to exchange 
then- titles and documents for bonds issued by the banks. This decree 
further states the obligations imposed on the banks by article 24, 
the rights given to the same banks, and the rates of interest that the 
bonds will earn. 

Mexican budget. — ^The total income of Mexico from all sources 
for 1922 is estimated by the Budget Committee at 216,000,000 pesos, 
not countmg the oil export tax, which is applied solely to the amortiza- 
tion of the foreign debt. The income from import duties will be 
about 48,000,000 pesos, and from export duties about 6,000,000 
pesos. The liquor taxes will produce about 23,000,000 pesos and the 
post office 10,000,000 pesos net revenue. 

PARAGUAY. 

Budget. — According to the new budget the expenditm-es of the 
comitry for the next fiscal year amount to 1,071,882.96 gold pesos 



184 



THE PAN AMERK'AX UNION. 



and 105,189.35 pesos legal currency. The revenues are calculated at 
796,000 gold pesos and 98,134,200 pesos legal currency. 

PERU. 

Alcohol tax. — ^I'he Tax Collection Co. has recommended the 
mcrease of the tax on alcohol for the year 1922 to 37 centavos per 
liter of 100 grade Gay-Lussac absolute alcohol made from grapes, and 
proportionately less for inferior grades; for 100 grade Gay-Lussac 
absolute alcohol produced in the mountains, 54 centavos per liter, 
and proportionately less for poorer grades; and for 100 grade alcohol 
produced on the coast, 77^ centavos per Hter, and less for inferior 
grades. The foregoing charges have been approved by the Depart- 
ment of the Treasury. 

Financial adviser. — Dr. W. W. Cumberland has resigned from 
the State Department of the United States to accept the position of 
financial adviser to the Peruvian Government. 

REPUBLIC OF central AMERICA. 

Financial reports of Guatemala. — The Bureau of Accounts 
reported the following figures for the first six months of 1921 : 



Pesos. 



Department treasur- j 

ies: i 

Balance Jan. 1, , 

1921 1 4,031,235.12 

Receipts 62, 390, 438. 97 

Expenditures....! 61,055,689.56 
Balance June 30, 

1921 5,366,004.53 



Dollars. 



15,696.68 
1,986,350.36 
1,946,283.20 

55, 663. 84 



Special funds: 

Balance Jan. 1, 

1921 

Receipts 

Expenditures... 

Balance June 30 

1921 



Pesos. 



915, 763. 05 
17,000,145.95 
17,363,609.58 

552, 299. 42 



Dollars. 



17, 040. 75 
96,948.35 
109, 086. 44 

4, 902. 60 



Central American monetary unit. — The Federal Council has 
fixed as the monetary unit of the Central American Republic a coin 
of 836 milligrams gold, -^^ pure, equal to 50 cents, to be known as 
el Centro Americano. 

Municipal bank. — The Municipal Council of San Salvador intends 
to establish a municipal bank similar to those of some European and 
Argentine cities. The projected bank is to have savings and loan 
departments for municipal employees. 

URUGUAY. 

Disposition of $7,500,000 loan.— A law has been passed making 
disposition of the $7,500,000 loan, as follows: 2,351,387 pesos balance 
due on the current account of the Government with the Banco de la 
Repiiblica at the end of 1920-21; 2,780,000 pesos for the same pur- 
pose as the 3,000,000 pesos of the conversion debt of 1918 authorized 
by the law of May 26, 1920; 1,000,000 pesos for the Treasury notes of 



I 



A 



INTERNATIONAL TREATIES. 



185 



August 1, 1921; 1,275,000 pesos to build a railroad from San Carlos 
to Rocha; 300,000 pesos for drinking-water systems in the towns 
selected by the National Council of Administration: 1,000,000 pesos 
to construct a bridge at Barro del Rio Santa Lucia; 200,000 pesos for 
the appropriation for the upkeep of bridges and roads; 200,000 pesos 
in fulfillment of the law of May 27, 1920; 200,000 pesos for new pubhc 
works. The rest of the loan, with the exception of sums of 100,000 
pesos and 252,933 pesos left unassigned, amounts to $430,000 and 
46,366.22 pesos and is to be used for the expenses incidental to the 
loan. The nominal sum of 3,000,000 pesos of the conversion and 
public works debt of 1918, issued in accordance with the law of 
May 26, 1920, replaced by section B of this law, will be reserved by 
the National Council of Administration in case of a deficit of the 
current fiscal year, to be used only after such deficit is legally 
recognized. 



^ 



INTERNATIONAL 
£> TREATIES \ 



<? 



BRAZIL. 

Immigration convention between Brazil and Italy. — On 
October 10 last a treaty was concluded in Rome between Brazil, 
represented by Ambassador Souza Leal, and the ItaUan Government 
for the purpose of regulating matters relating to immigration. The 
fmidamental point in the negotiations preparatory to the conclusion 
of this treaty was the abrogation of the Prineti decree, which placed 
so many obstacles m the way of Italian emigration to Brazil as to 
embarrass seriously the movement of Itahans to that country. 

The convention just concluded is received with enthusiasm by 
both Brazihans and Itahans, and is expected to result in a great 
inflow of Italian settlers into Brazil. 

The convention contains ample provisions for the protection of 
immigrants by the Federal Government, which is engaged to super- 
vise their contracts with employers, and to encourage the organiza- 
tion and operation of cooperative societies of consumption, credit, 
production, labor, insurance, and relief. 

International Sanitary Convention — See page 197. 

82020— 22— Bull. 2 6 



186 THE PAIS' AMERICAN UNIU2v. 

CHILE. 

Arms and munitions convention. — Chile ratified by law No. 
3,632 of 1921 the convention and protocol of Saint Germain-en-Laye 
concerning the control of traffic in arms and munitions. 

COLOMBIA-UNITED STATES. 

Colombia-United States treaty.— The treaty of April 6, 1914, 
arranged between the United States and the Kepublic of Colombia, 
was ratified by the Colombian Congress and signed by the Acting 
President of the Republic and by the Minister of Foreign Affairs 
on December 24, 1921. It was approved by the United States Senate 
on April 19, 1921. 

ECUADOR. 

International agreements. — The Legislature and President 
have officially approved the Universal Postal Convention, the final 
protocol of the same, the regulations for its execution, and the final 
protocol of the regulation; the convention concerning parcel post, 
the final protocol and the regulation for the execution of the conven- 
tion; and the Hispano-American Postal Convention. 




BOLIVIA. 



Immigration law. — The immigration law promulgated on October 
27, 1921, requires that every person entering the country must have 
the following documents: A passport from his native country with 
a complete personal description and finger prints, viseed by the Bo- 
livian consuls along the course of the immigrant's journey; a health 
certificate stating that the bearer has no infectious or contagious dis- 
ease, viseed by a physician of the place in which the immigrant last 
resided; a certificate from the community of residence that the immi- 
grant has not been tried nor condemned for crimes during the last 
five years, and a certificate that he practices an honest profession. 
Minor children described in the passports of their parents are re- 
quired only to have the health certificate showing freedom from 
disease. 

Mining-tax law.— The mining-tax law of 1920 has proved inade- 
quate in the matter of providing revenue, and therefore the President 
in his October message asked for a revision of this statute. 



LEGISLATION. 187 

Birth and marriage registration.^Oii August 11, 1921, the 
Government issued a decree requiring the registration by parish priests 
of births and marriages without reference to rehgious creeds. In the 
capitals of Departments and thickly populated districts this regis- 
tration is to be made by the civil registration officials. 

BRAZIL. 

Free zone in port of Kio de Janeiro. — Dr. Epitacio Pessoa, 
President of the Kepublic, has issued decrees Nos. 15038 and 15039 of 
October 6, 1921. authorizing the construction of a quay for the estab- 
lishment of a free zone in the port of Rio de Janeiro. The respective 
plan, drawn up by the Federal Inspection of Ports, Rivers, and Canals, 
provides for the construction of a wharf to which vessels may come 
alongside, with a depth of 10 meters at low tide and havuig a length 
of 3 kilometers at Ponta da Ribeira, on the island of Governador, 
according to the provisions of No. XVI and its paragraph of article 
96 of law No. 4242 of January 5, 1921. The construction of the first 
stretch, measuring 900 meters, is estimated in the decree at 29,969,840 
milreis. 

chile. 

Prohibition bill. — Congress has before it a message from the 
President proposing a bill wliich would establish dry zones in the 
coal-mining regions. In these zones the manufacture, sale, and all 
traffic in beverages of an alcoholic content greater than one-half of 
1 per cent would be prohibited. 

Venereal prophylaxis bureau. — A law of October 13, 1921, 
estabhshes under the Sanitation Department a venereal prophylaxis 
bm-eau which is to organize its work in every department of the 
country. The municipal Venereal Disease Institute of Santiago, 
started by Dr. Julio Bustos A., who is to be in charge of the Govern- 
ment bureau, was highly praised in the recent Medical Congress at 
Montevideo by an Argentine authority. 

Libraries. — The library system of Chile is organized by a decree 
issued by the Minister of Instruction on October 29, 1921, into three 
divisions — national, departmental, and school libraries. There 
shall be at least one library in every Department; where there is no 
such special library, that of the boys' or girls' liceo, the normal or 
commercial school, or the upper school of the departmental capital 
shall serve the purpose. Libraries shall be open on working days 
from 11a. m. to 5 p. m. (See also p. 186.) 

Workmen's houses.— A decree of October 29, 1921, authorized 
an 8 per cent bond issue to the amount of 1,000,000 pesos, the pro- 
ceeds to be used by the Upper Council of Workmen's Houses for the 
construction of dwellings in Punta Arenas. 



188 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION, 

COLOMBIA. 

Compulsory collective insurance. — The Colombian Congress 
has approved law 37 of November 19, 1921, which reads in part as 
follows: Six months after the publication of this law all industrial, 
agricultural, or commercial fii-ms, or those of any other kind perma- 
nently established in the country, whose pay roll amoimts to or ex- 
ceeds 1,000 pesos per month, must take out at their own expense col- 
lective life insurance policies in favor of all employees and workers in 
thek respective factories. The face value of the pohcy must be 
equal to the yearly salar}^ received by the employee, up to 2,400 
pesos per annum. The insurance will not be contracted in favor of 
a definite person, but in favor of the company, which is obliged in 
case of death of the insured to pay the full value of the policy to his 
nearest relative whose name appears on the face of the pohcy at the 
time the death occurred. 

Malpelo and Cocos Islands. — The House of Representatives has 
approved a bill assigning to the Department of El Valle the adminis- 
tration and control of the Colombian islands of Cocos and Malpelo, 
located on the Pacific Ocean, near Costa Rica. Cocos Island is 7^ 
kilometers long by 6^^- kilometers wide and is surrounded by a group of 
smaller islands. It contains forests, abundant water, and a varie- 
gated fauna, and has two small bays known as Chatham Bay and 
Water Bay, deep enough to permit the entrance of any steamer. Its 
mountains have an elevation of more than 836 meters. Malpelo 
Island is 2^ Idlometers long by 1 kilometer wide and rises to an alti- 
tude of 253 meters. The high rocks of the shore serve as nests for 
thousands of sea birds, whose guano is extensively used in commerce 
as a fertilizer. There is a distance of 500 miles between the two 
islands. 

Customhouse buildings. — -The Congress of Colombia has passed 
a law appropriating 120,000 pesos for the construction of the neces- 
sary buildings for the customhouse of Buenaventura. 

Census of 1918. — The National Congress has approved the census of 
the Republic taken on October 14, 1918. This census, beginning on 
January 1, 1922, will serve as a basis for all official matters, and will 
be published together with the memorandum presented to the Secre- 
tary of Finance by the Director of the Bureau of Statistics, and 
attested August 29, 1921. 

CUBA. 

Presidential message. — President Zayas in his message to Con- 
gress on November 7, 1921, outlined the four prime objectives of his 
administration, which are: To leave the Republic without debts that 
are not consolidated; to restore special Treasury funds through ex- 



LEGISLATION. 189 

tension of public works; to protect and aid production and in- 
dustry; and to normalize the Govcrmnent expenses with the Federal 
income. The message, which contains about 40,000 words, gives a 
complete accounting of the administration's activities durmg the first 
six months of its existence. 

Advisory comaussion. — The President has issued a decree creating 
an advisory committee whose duties will be to study the present 
customhouse tariff and all sources of revenue of the Republic, and 
present to the Executive a memorandum suggesting the reforms that 
should be made in order to derive the greatest benefit from these 
sources of revenue, taking into consideration the necessity of reducing 
the cost of living and avoiding unnecessary trouble to the taxpayer. 

DOMINICAN KEPUBLIC. 

Commerce code. — The followmg changes have been made in the 
Code of Commerce by Executive order No. 682 : Article 110 shall read : 
Bills of exchange from one place to another or on the same place must 
be dated and show the amount payable, the name of the person who 
pays, the time and place of payment, the value paid in money, in 
goods, on account or in any other manner. The bill of exchange is to 
be drawn to the order of a third person or to the sender and must state 
whether it is the first, second, third, fourth, or other copy. 

Article 618 is changed to read: Lawyers do not need special written 
power of attorney to defend a case in the courts of commerce, but 
are, nevertheless, subject to the same responsibility as that laid down 
in Titulo XVII of the Code of Civil Procedure. Any person not a 
lawyer undertaking the defense of a case must be authorized by the 
principal in the court or by power of attorney. 

ECUADOR. 

Hours of labor. — On October 8, 1921, the President signed the 
law changing the first article of the 8-hour law of September 12, 1916. 
This article now reads: "No day laborer, workman, employee in a 
store, office, industrial establishment, and in general no one engaged 
in any of sort of work, will be obliged to work more than eight hours 
a day, six days a week. The employer or superior will indicate the 
day of rest in the week." This article formerly read: "No day la- 
borer, workman, employee in a store, office, or industrial establishment, 
and in general no one engaged in any sort of work will be obliged to 
work more than eight hours a day, six days a week, nor to work on 
Sundays or legal holidays." 

Tariff revision. — The President has been empowered by Con- 
gress to appoint a commission to frame a tariff revision bill to be pre- 
sented to Congress at its next session. 



190 THE PAN^ AMERICAN UNION. 

New industries. — A recent law provides tjiat the Executive may 
make contracts with persons desirmg to estabhsh new industries, 
allowing them exemption from taxes and duties upon machinery, and 
other concessions. A bond will be required from the prospective 
manufacturers for the establishment of their industries within the 
time allotted in the contract. 

Municipal improvements. — The cit}^ of Gua3'aquil has received 
authority to increase the tax on the linear frontage of buildings in 
order to purchase automatic sprinkling carts, garbage incinerators, 
and vehicles to be used in the sanitary service. The tax on the 
linear frontage of city lots has also been increased, and its proceeds 
may be used to guarantee a loan for a sum adequate for an electric- 
light plant. 

National defense taxes. — A legislative decree which went into 
effect January 1, 1922, created new taxes and increased others for 
the purpose of national defense. The chief taxes are 100 per cent 
surcharge on licenses for unexploited mines; 5 per cent of the gross 
receipts of public spectacles, horse races, etc.; 10 centavos additional 
on each box of imported cigarettes; 20 centavos additional on each 
imported cigar; 20 sucres on each first-class passport and 5 sucres on 
those of other classes; 10 sucres additional on the registration or 
renewal of registration of trade-marks; 1 per cent on the annual 
income of all residents of Ecuador whose income exceeds 1,000 sucres 
and on that of persons deriving income from real or personal property 
in Ecuador; 5 per cent additional tax on the income of nationals and 
foreigners whose property is in Ecuador but who habitually live 
abroad, or who during the last five years have lived or live abroad, the 
same tax in the future ])eing payable by all those living abroad foi- 
more than two consecutive years (students, diplomats, consular ofli- 
cers, and those in military service excepted) ; 50 per cent surcharge on 
import duties on foreign liquors, champagne, silk in the piece or silk 
articles, gold jewelry, precious stones, gold and silver objects, and 5 
per cent ad valorem on automobiles, excepting automobile trucks and 
tractors and motors imported for transport or industrial promotion 
purposes. Additional decrees provide that funds collected for 
national defense are to be used chiefly for the development of aviation, 
especially the aviation school in Guayaquil, and for an army remount 
station. Three veterinary surgeons are to be employed abroad. 

republic of central AMERICA. 

Commissions to draft laws. — Commissions have been appointed 
to draft the following laws for the Republic : General staff and organ- 
ization of the Army; tariff; and banking and monetary law. 

Federal District. — Decree No. 5 of the Provisional Federal 
Council has to do with the Federal District, formerly the Department 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION AND EDUCATION. 191 

of Tegucigalpa. Among its provisions are the following: The Hon- 
duran courts remain as constituted with full jurisdiction in so far as 
this is not contradictory to the Federal laws and constitution. The 
governor of the Department becomes the governor of the District, 
directly responsible to the Provisional Federal Council. District 
funds will be collected as for the Department, and will be spent 
exclusively in the District, for public institutions, schools, communi- 
cations, and similar purposes. 

Negro immigration. — The deposit required of a Negro entering 
the State of Guatemala has been raised from SI 00 to $200, which will 
be returned when the Negro leaves the State. 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 
l&kANDEDUCATIONi; 



«5? 



ARGENTINA. 



Argentine students from Mexican Congress. — The represen- 
tatives of the Argentine Student Federation stopped in New York on 
their way from the International Students' Congress lately held in 
Mexico City. Three of the representatives were on their way to 
Europe to establish branches of the International Federation in 
Spain, France, Italy, Germany, and Austria, and one was going to 
Peru. The second International Congress of Students is to be held 
in Buenos Aires in September, 1922. 

Corrective gymnastics. — In the School for Delicate Children in 
the Parque Lezama special gymnastics are given under the close 
observation of the instructor, to correct physical defects and to 
improve health. Each case is studied separately. Violent games 
and over fatigue are prohibited as being detrimental to the upbuilding 
of the patients. 

Schools open during 1920.— The Revista de Instruccion Primaria 
published the number of schools open in Argentina during 1920 as 
follows: National Council of Education schools, 3,529; Ministry of 
Justice and Pubhc Instruction, 82; official provincial schools, 4,222; 
private schools, 1,154; total, 8,987 schools. The attendance in 
these schools was as follows: National Council of Education schools, 
13,347 students; Ministry of Justice and Public Instruction schools, 
1,214; official provincial schools, 15,749; private schools, 5,131; 
total, 35,441 students. 

Societies for Popular Education.— The Thu-d Congress of 
Societies for Popular Education was held in October in the Medical 



192 THE PAN AMBRICAls^ UNION. 

School. The delegates were well-known college and university pro- 
fessors and men eminent in journalism and in letters. Dr. Elvira 
Rawson de Dellepiane opened the meeting. 

Conservatory of Music. — The Conservatory of Music of Buenos 
Aires, founded by Mr. Albert Williams, director of this institution, 
on March 12, 1893, has 70 branches scattered over the Republic 
between Bahia Blanca and Saita and the Parana and Mendoza. It 
is based on European traditions and counts among its patrons some 
of the most celebrated artists. 

The conservatory also publishes a magazine called La Quena, iho 
object of which is to spread musical knowledge and the newest and 
most perfect methods of cultivating this art. 

brazil. 

Interstate Conference of Primary Schools.— The Interstate 
Conference of Primary Schools, held in Rio de Janeiro in October and 
November, 1921, under the auspices of Dr. Ferreira Chaves, Minister 
of Justice, with the presence of delegates from all parts of Brazil, 
had for its outcome an expression of sentiment in favor of the nation- 
alization of prunary teaching. This sentiment is summed up in the 
conclusions referring to the creation of a "School fund" and the 
establishment of a National Council of Education. According to 
these conclusions, the function of the National Council would be to 
manage and inspect such schools as are maintained by the Federal 
Government, cooperate %vith the States in superintending subsidized 
schools and establish schools for adults and mentally deficient pupils. 
It would be the duty of the council to advise on the appointment of 
teachers for subsidized schools, except in the case of graduates from 
official schools, and to see that instruction in the Portuguese language 
and in Brazilian history and geography was imparted in a manner 
satisfactory to the requirements of the national education. It 
would be the duty of the State authorities to appoint teachers for 
subsidized schools, organize the program and employ every effort 
to secure the best work in the schools. The Union would estab- 
lish normal schools in all parts of the country according to the 
requirements of each section and the financial resources in hand, 
until such time as the Federal Government, by previous agreement 
with the States, should take over the entire work of normal instruc- 
tion. During the intervening period, the Union would promote an 
agreement between the States and the Federal District for the purpose 
of standardizing the courses and programs in all the normal schools 
of Brazil. The Union would strive to create one single teaching body, 
with the same ideals, the same equipment, and the same rights and 
guarantees. The chairs in the primary schools maintained by the 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION AND EDUCATION. 19Ji 

Union would be filled by graduates from Federal normal schools. In 
order to insure a permanent supply of teachers, the Federal authorities 
Avould request the municipal chambers to grant scholarships to their 
young men and women who might desire to study in the Federal 
normal schools. 

CHILE. 

INDUSTRL4.L EDUCATION.— ^Of the three Government institutions 
for industrial education, only the Vocational School of vSantiago, 
described in the December, 1921, number of the Bulletin, prepares 
its graduates to be technical experts, while the industrial schools of 
Chilian and Temuco simply give courses sufficient for sldlled workmen 
and foremen. It has therefore been decided by the Government to 
correlate the courses of the latter schools with those of the first, so 
that graduates of the industrial schools may enter the Vocational 
School with advanced standing. Scholarships will be given to those 
needing them. 

School of agriculture. — A new Government vSchool of Agri- 
culture, for which the sum of 200,000 pesos is available, will be built 
immediately in Aconcagua, the center of an agricultural district. 
This is in accordance with the Government policy of promoting 
agriculture. (See the first item under Chile, p. 172.) 

COSTA RICA. 

San Joaquin schools. — A group of San Joaquin teachers has 
organized, in connection with the schools, committees for providing 
clothing and cocoa, a first-aid cabinet, school savings banks, and 
associations to promote personal hygiene and school sanitation. 
The girls' school has an excellent garden and the boys' a field which 
they cultivate. The latter has produced corn worth 120 colones 
and a like sum is expected from the bean crop. 

CUBA. 

Appointment of rector of university. — Dr. Carlos de la Torre, 
notable naturalist and one of the most distinguished of Cuban profes- 
sors, has been appointed president of the National University. In 
taking possession of his new place. Dr. de la Torre spoke of projected 
changes in the university curriculum, especially in the school of 
pedagogy, to which he hopes to give a practical trend. He desires 
to promote the organization of university teams for all kinds of sports 
and outdoor activities, and to provide living arrangements at a price 
within the reach of all. Dr. de la Torre holds the degree of doctor 
of science from Harvard University. 



194 



THE PAX AMERICAN UNION. 
EOUADOE. 



School statistics. — The Magisterio Ecuatoriano quotes from the 
report of the Minister of Public Instruction the following figures : 



Nmnber 1, 395 

Number pupils registered I 75, 110 

Average attendance C4, 799 




Of the 2,438 teachers, 205 are normal-school graduates, 251 have 
the first certificate (titulo de 1*^), 137 the second, and 935 the third, 
while 910 are without certificate. 

Commercial studies. — -The Sociedad de Estudios Comerciales de 
Guayaquil proposes to furnish its members opportunities for scientific 
study of commercial problems; to give courses in mercantile educa- 
tion, both public and private; to conduct extended investigations and 
to fix principles and methods which would place the mercantile pro- 
fession on a sound basis; to foster Government commercial schools; 
and to promote, with the help of the State and of other societies, the 
establishment of an office of international commercial information. 

Agriculture. — All national schools having sufficient funds will 
include the study of agriculture in their courses, the Colegio Vicente 
Leon of Latacunga alone excepted. Schools may use their funds 
preferentially for the course. The Consejo Interior de Instruccion 
Publica will arrange the courses of study in accordance with agricul- 
tural zones. From the appropriation for the experiment station at 
Chobo sufficient funds will be taken to support 15 scholarships, one 
for each Province. Municipal councils may also support scholar- 
ship pupils in the Ambato Farm School or the Chobo Experiment 
Station. 

Military training. — A legislative decree has made military 
training obligatory in secondary schools and universities. 

MEXICO. 

School appropriation. — The Minister of Education plans to 
spend 27,000,000 pesos of the appropriation for schools in Mexico 
City itself and the surrounding towns. He also intends to add 72 
night schools to the 100 already open and to establish 12 kinder- 
gartens. 

Students' allowances. — By a special proclamation of President 
Obregon, allowances of from 30 to 50 pesos per month have been 
provided for students willing to become trained teachers. 



I 



PUBLIC INSTKT'CTIOX AND EDUCATION. 195 

PANAMA. 

Vocational school. — The Vocational School of Panama is giving 
training to 50 boarding pupils, 30 scholarship students, and 8 indi- 
genes assisted by the Government. The pupils m the ironwork 
section are making the iron doors for the penal colony of Coiba, and 
have executed other public and private commissions. Mechanical 
and foundry sections are under the charge of graduates of the school; 
in the latter a handsome bronze tablet was recently made to place on 
the French monument. There are also automobile, electro-mechani- 
cal, wood-cuttmg, and weaving sections. The director of the last- 
named section thinks that he can introduce hammock making and 
also the weaving of jipi-japa hats as new industries in the school and 
country, as the toquilla straw for the hats grows wild in the interior 
of the country. 

The course is both theoretical and practical, but apprentices are 
taken for practical instruction alone. At the end of the four-year 
course pupils receive a diploma, while apprentices are given a certifi- 
cate. 

Night school for laborers. — The Engineering Society of Panama 
is planning the opening of a night school for laborers which will give 
a regular primary course and advanced training in trades. 

PERU. 

Normal School. — The iVlumni Association of the National 
Normal School recently held exercises commemorating the work of 
the foimder and ex-principal of the school. Dr. Isidro Poiry, a well- 
knowTi Belgian educator. Speeches were made by the Minister of 
Public Instruction, the president of the Normal School, and by a 
deputy who was one of Dr. Poiry 's pupils. The portrait of the 
founder was then unveiled. 

REPUBLIC OF CENTRAL AMERICA. 

School of Agriculture. — The three-year course of the Guate- 
malan School of Agriculture includes mathematics, history, geogra- 
phy, civics, and modern languages, as well as the sciences useful to 
the future agriculturalist and such technical subjects as farm build- 
ing and accounting, rural law and economics, mechanics, and Cen- 
tral American crops. Time is also given to physical training and 
gymnastics. 

Commercial academy.— The Sociedad de Auxilios Mutuos del 
Comercio and the Chamber of Commerce of Guatemala have formed 
a commercial academy to give an opportunity to clerks to prepare 
themselves for better positions. 



196 THE PAI^ AMERICAN UNION, 

Physical teaining.— An American expert has been engaged to 
take charge of ph3"sical training in the schools and armj^ of El wSal- 
vador. 

Young women students. — Seven young women, pupils of the 
Lycee Fran^aise of San Salvador, have been granted permission by 
the President to enter the National Institute (for boys) where they 
may prepare for the' degree of bachelor of arts and sciences and later 
study for a professional career if the}^ so desire. 

URUGUAY. 

Industrial schools. — A decree of November 4, 1921, regulates 
the industrial night courses. These courses will be given exclu- 
sively for men or for women, except in special circumstances, and 
will be established in connection with industrial primary or secondary 
schools or other schools subventioned by the State. The courses are 
given for two hours on every other evening, from March 1 to Decem- 
ber 31. Mechanical drawing and applied mathematics form the 
basis of the program. Sufficient instructors must be provided so 
that no class is over 25 in average attendance. Men students must 
be over 17 years of age, and women over 15. Students who do not 
attend classes two-thirds of the time will be dropped, except under 
extenuating circumstances, and the reduction of trolley fares will 
not be granted except to students who have attended two-thirds of 
the classes during the previous months. 

The Diario Oficial of September 16, 1921, publishes a decree regu- 
lating the sale of articles made in the industrial schools so as not to 
compete with manufacturers' prices. The profits are to be divided 
among the students, 75 per cent to those who participated in the 
work, and 25 per cent to those who have attended the classes regu- 
larly. Pupils of an industrial school doing work for the school are 
to be paid for it. 

VENEZUELA. 

SuBPRiMARY SCHOOL. — -Ground for the subprimary school (Escuela 
Maternal) in Merida has been given by the Municipal Council. 




ARGENTINA. 



Workmen's houses. — The corner stone has been laid for the sec- 
tion of model workmen's houses to be built in a densely crowded 
district of Buenos Aires by the Uni6n Popular Catolica Argentina, 
from the proceeds of a national contribution. 

Jewish orphans. — The Jewish residents of Argentina have wel- 
comed from the Ukraine 100 Jewish orphans ranging from 4 to 14 
years. The children were taken to an asylum in Caballito. After 
they have been for a time in this home they will be sent to different 
agricultural colonies and vocational schools. 

BOLIVIA. 

Birth and marriage registration. — See page 187. 

BRAZIL. 

International sanitary convention. — By decree No. 4349 of 
October 12, 1921, the President of the Republic, Dr. Epitacio Pessoa, 
sanctioned and promulgated an act of Congress approving the Inter- 
national Sanitary convention signed in Paris by the BraziUan dele- 
gates on January 17, 1918. 

Sanitarium for tubercular patients. — Dr. Epitacio Pessoa, 
President of the Republic, has issued a decree opening a special 
credit for the establishment of a tuberculosis sanitarium at Nova Fri- 
burgo, a city in the State of Rio de Janeiro, situated at an elevation 
of 2,835 feet above sea level, and celebrated for its excellent climate. 

Progress of study of Esperanto.— Dr. Epitacio Pessoa, Presi- 
dent of the Republic, entertained recently an important delegation 
of Esperantists, who called to thank His Excellency for the promulga-^ 
tion of the recent decree ranking the "Brazila Klubo Esperanto" 
as an organization of public utility. 

chile. 

Lunch for school children.— The society called ''Ollas Infan- 
tiles" furnishes lunch to approximately 2,000 of the school children 
of Santiago, who otherwise would suffer from lack of nourishment. 

197 



198 THE PAX AMERICAX UXIOX. 

A great improvement in the physical and mental condition of these 
childi'en has been noted. Under Government supervision one lunch 
room for 40 children is provided for every three schools. These 
Government lunch rooms were established in October, 1921. 

Milk stations. — Among the cities in which milk stations for 
babies (Gotas de Leche) are mauitained are San Fernando, Talca, 
and Valdivia. The latter two have recently opened new buildings 
for this purpose. In Valdivia the daily attendance has reached 151). 
The work in Santiago and Valparaiso is already familiar to Bul- 
letin readers. 

National Library. — ^The new edifice of the National Librar}' in 
Santiago, which is to cost 8,000,000 pesos, is rapidly approaching 
completion. The buildmg will have the most modern library ec|uip- 
ment, mcludmg pneumatic tubes for sending books from one part 
of the buildmg to another. 

The director of the National Library last j^ear sent a letter to all 
trade-unions of the city, announcing that for the special benefit of 
their members the library would be open on all working days except 
Saturday from 8.30 to 10.30 p. m., and on Sunday afternoons from 
2 to 5.30. 

Prohibition bill. — See page 187. 

Venereal prophylaxis bureau. — See page 187. 

Libraries. — See page 187. 

Workmen's houses. — See page 187. 

COLOMBIA. 

Library "Camilo Torres." — The Colombian Academy of Juris- 
dence has announced the opening of a public library which will 
be known by the name of ''Camilo Torres" in memoiy of the great 
Colombian jurisconsult. The Government supplied the rooms for the 
library, which is located in the Palace of Justice of Bogota. 

Compulsory collective insurance. — See page 188. 

ECUADOR. 

Child Welfare Congress. — The third American Child Wel- 
fare Congress will be held in Rio de Janeiro in August, 1922, in 
connection with the first Brazilian conference. Sr. don Aloysio de 
Castro, for the executive committee, has invited Dr. L. Izquieta 
Perez to represent the executive committee in Ecuador. The 
second Congress was held in Montevideo March 17-24, 1918. 

Milk station. — The second mUk station, or Gota de Leche, was 
opened in Quito on October 9, 1921. Doctors attend both stations 
every afternoon. 

Labor union headquarters. — Congress by legislative decree 
has given to the Sociedad Artlstica e Industrial del Pichincha a house 



\ 



SOCIAL PROGRESS. 199 

in Quito owned by the nation, this house to be administered by the 
society as headquarters for the labor unions of the capital. 
Hours of labor. — See page 189. 

HAITI. 

Red Cross.— In the annual Red Cross appeal for funds and mem- 
bers the Haitian Chapter states that in Port au Prince it has cared 
for over 40 cases of different diseases a day and hopes to extend 
free dispensary facilities to other Haitian towns. 

MEXICO. 

Handavork of THE BLIND. — In ouc of the halls of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior were exhibited several articles made by the 
blind inmates of the asylum located on San Salvador el Verde Street 
in Mexico City. The exhibition consisted of hats, baskets, matting, 
rugs, brooms, and brushes manufactured from palm leaves and the 
fiber of the century plant. The directors of the asylum and a com- 
mercial company of Mexico have entered into a contract calling for 
delivery of a certain number of rugs and meters of matting, these 
being considered superior to the imported article. An exposition will 
be held in the near future for the purpose of showing these products. 

PERU. 

Casa de Salud reopens. — The hospital in Bellavista known as 
the Casa de Salud is again open to the public after beuig closed for 
a time while improvements were made. 

Child-welfare organizations. — In Lima and Callao the private 
and public institutions for child welfare are the Casa de Convales- 
cencia for sickly public-school children; the Gotas de Leche (milk 
stations) founded by the Government; the Auxiliary Society, with 
its milk station, dispensary, and kindergarten; the Children's Pro- 
tective Society, which also has a milk station; and the Institute for 
Bluid Children. 

Sanitary measures. — In compliance with the sanitation program 
for Callao, business establishments have been asked to drain and 
apply petroleum to swamps on their property to do away with mos- 
quitoes, and to drive out rats to avoid the propagation of contagious 
diseases. 

republic of central AMERICA. 

Child welfare. — In the Gota de Leche of San Salvador Dr. J. 
German Castillo recently gave a popular lecture on the care and 
feeding of children. This lecture was delivered especially for untaught 
mothers. 



200 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 



Libraries. ^.V. popular library for workmen has been opened in 
Tegucigalpa on the initiative of the Mexican minister to Honduras. 
The town of Amapala, in Honduras, has also received a library as a 
gift from the University of Mexico in honor of Amado Nervo. 

A children's reading room has been added to the Municipal Library 
of San Salvador which contains works on agriculture, ethics, history, 
geography, literature, and other subjects. 

VENEZUELA. 

Ked Cross dispensary. — ^The Venezuelan Red Cross maintains a 
dispensary in Caracas visited daily by an average of 60 patients. 
Treatment is also given in the clinic to those suffering from venereal 
diseases. 

Infant welfare. — ^Members of various societies in Caracas have 
united to formulate plans for infant welfare, beginning with prenatal 
care. 




argentina. 

Fourth Annual Exposition of Society of Decorative 
Art. — The exposition of this society showed many interesting pieces 
of decorative sculpture, repousse and open work in metals, leather 
work, shell, ivor}^, jewelry, glyptics, furniture, tapestry, and other 
branches of applied art. Book illustration was well represented. 

BOLIVIA. 

Ambassador to Argentina. — -Sr. don Eliodoro Villazon, former 
President of Bolivia, has recently been appointed ambassador to the 
Argentine Republic. He has had extensive legislative and diplo- 
matic experience. 

Military maneuvers and Red Cross. — A section of the Bolivian 
Red Cross attended the military maneuvers held at Corocoro and 
Tareja with a hospital unit, and a supply of first-aid and comfort 
articles. The Red Cross will also establish a system of transmitting 
correspondence to those in the field. 

City improvements. — -In both La Paz and Cochabamba the sani- 
tation improvements are nearly complete, the work in La Paz being 



GENERAL NOTES. 201 

95 per cent finished and in Cochabamba 70 per cent. The original 
plans in both cases have been changed to permit of the extension of 
sewers to localities not at first considered. (President's message.) 

BRAZIL. 

Preparation of films for the Centennial. — The Minister of 
Justice has instructed all offices subject to his department to furnish 
the Executive Committee of the Centenary with detailed information 
regarding such moving-picture films as may be in their possession, 
with particular reference to the time when they were prepared, as 
well as information regarding the preparation of new films in accord- 
ance with the requirements of the official programme of the cele- 
bration. These films are to be shown within the exposition inclosure 
free of charge on special days, and are to portray the history, 
geography, and civilization of Brazil, through the exhibition of land- 
scape views, customs, and types; clothing and housing; leading 
features of country and city life, with reference to beauty, culture, 
and progress. 

Week-end cable rates. — The All America Cables (Inc.) has 
established the following week-end rates for cablegrams between 
Brazil and the United States: Cables not exceeding 25 words, in- 
cluding name, address, and signature, may be sent "via Colon" for 
5 dollars gold, or approximately 48 milreis. Additional words will 
cost about 1.79 milreis each. The company contemplates opening 
a branch office in Sao Paulo at an early date. 

Important publication on the State of Rio Grande do 
SuL. — The exhaustive work of Senhor Alfredo Rodrigues da Costa, 
entitled "O Rio Grande por Dentro" is rapidly advancing toward 
completion, and is expected to be ready in time for the Exposition 
of the Brazilian Centenary, which will open September 7, 1922. 

chile. 

Flying boat. — The large flying boat presented to Chile by the 
British Government has been christened Zanartu, in memory of the 
Chilean officer who lost his life in an airplane accident last year. 

Smallpox. — Dr. Arturo Atria announced in October, 1921, that 
he beheved that he had isolated the smallpox germ. 

CUBA. 

Fifth medical congress. — The session of the Fifth National 
Congress of Medicine was held in the hall of the Academy of Sciences 
of Habana, December 12-17, 1921. Among the representatives were 
prominent physicians from the medical schools of France, the United 
States, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Porto Rico. There were 
1,700 delegates participating in this assembly. 
82020— 22— Bull. 2 7 



202 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

ECUADOR. 

Bacteriologist. — Dr. Francisco Rojas, a young physician, has 
gone to New York to accept a position in the bacteriological labora- 
tories of the Rockefeller Foundation. The brilliant work of Dr. 
Rojas attracted the attention of Dr. Noguchi when the latter was 
visiting Ecuador. 

MEXICO. 

General Hospital. — The General Hospital of Mexico City under 
the jurisdiction of the Public Benevolent Society has just spent 
200,000 pesos in carrying out necessary repairs and the purchase 
of modern surgical instruments. The hospital has efficient depart- 
ments devoted to osteopathy, hydrotherapeutics and electropathy. 
A magnificent gymnasium equipped with modern apparatus is used 
for the treatment of certain diseases. The hospital also contains 
well-equipped Russian and Turkish baths, besides a tiled swimming 
pool. The electrical department is equipped with modern appliances 
for the application of electrical treatment and baths of different 
degrees of current. This also contains the X-ray apparatus donated 
to the hospital by President Obregon during the celebration of the 
Centenary of Independence of Mexico. The hospital contains 21 
wards, 10 of which are devoted to women and the rest to men. 
There is also a special maternity department, attended by competent 
obstetricians, a section for children, a ward for contagious diseases, 
and one for paying patients. • The remaining departments are 
divided into 2 large wards, each of which contains 36 beds. 

NICARAGUA. 

Wireless station accepted. — The Nicaraguan Government has 
accepted the gift of a wireless station from the Mexican Government. 
It is possible that the station will be erected in the Parque Dario, 
Managua, in front of the lake. Communication will be maintained 
with Bluefields, Prinzapolka, and Cape Gracias, all within Nicaraguan 
territory. 

PARAGUAY. 

New avenue. — The Avenida Venezuela has been finished and con- 
nects with the finest boulevard of the Repubhc, the Jardin Botanico y 
Zoologico of Trinidad. 

Medical mission to Brazil. — Dr. Hackett, director of the branch 
of the Rockefeller Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil, has invited the 
Paraguayan Government to send a representative physician of 
Paraguay to take the two months' course given by the institute in 
methods employed against malaria and hookworm. Dr. Juan 
Francisco Recalde is the physician appointed. 



GENERAL NOTES. 203 

PERU. 

Spanish police mission. — The Spanish pohce mission contracted 
by the Peruvian Government arrived in Lima November 22 and is 
taking up the reorganization of the poUce force. 

Peruvian author wins prize. — The Peruvian author of "Ven- 
cida," Senorita AngeUca Palma, won a triumph in a Uterary contest 
for Spanish and Spanish-American writers held in Buenos Aires. 
The name of the prize-winning work was "Coloniaje Romantico," 
written under the pen name of "Marianela." 

REPUBLIC of central AMERICA. 

Journey of Pan American Official. — The Honorable L. S. 
Rowe, Director General of the Pan American Union, has been com- 
missioned by the Governing Board of the Union to make a journey 
to the Central American Republics. Dr. Rowe sails from New York 
on February 4 for Puerto Barrios. After visiting Guatemala, Dr. 
Rowe will go to Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica., 

Mosquito-destroying plant. — The Ministry of Agriculture of 
Guatemala has received dried and live specimens and seeds of the 
plant Chara, commonly known as the stonewort or brittlewort, which 
is said to be fatal to the larvae of the Anopheles, Culex, and Stego- 
myia mosquito in the water in which the plant is located. This 
wort has the faculty of collecting lime from the stones of its habitat 
and is frequently encrusted with it. The present specimens were 
sent by the Guatemalan consul in Barcelona, Spain, who hopes that 
the cultivation of this plant will help to rid Latin-American countries 
of the propagators of malaria and yellow fever. 

Visiting botanist. — Mr. Paul C. Standley, of the United States 
National Museum, left Washington early in December for a botanical 
collecting trip in Central America, under the auspices of the National 
Museum, Harvard University, and the New York Botanical Garden. 
He will spend four or five months in Guatemala and Salvador, col- 
lecting specimens of plants and notes upon their uses. The data so 
obtained are to be used in the preparation of a descriptive and illus- 
trated account of the flora of Central America and Panama, which 
will be published by the United States National Museum. 

Bacteriological laboratory and hookworm treatment. — Dr. 
Charles A. Bailey, of the Rockefeller Foundation, head of the Salva- 
dorean State Department of Hookworm Prevention, in December 
established a bacteriological laboratory as a part of the system of 
hygiene in the General Sanitation Bureau. The cost, which was 
$1,500, was paid by the Foundation. 

According to the figures of the Department of Hookworm Preven- 
tion, during the week ending October 22, 981 persons were added 
to the list of patients; 1,227 microscopical examinations were 



204 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

made; 676 cases of hookworm diagnosed; cases of other parasites, 
686; 520 received first treatment for hookworm; 232, second treat- 
ment; 84, third treatment; 74, fourth treatment; 6, fifth treatment; 
and 1, a seventh treatment. Treatment for other parasites was 
given to 294. After a second treatment 95 were cured; after third 
treatment, 27; after fourth treatment, 13; after fifth treatment, 4; 
and after the sixth treatment, 1. Four hundred and seventy-nine 
pamphlets were distributed and 120 consultations were given. 

Historical Salvadorean documents. — The Salvadorean Minis- 
try of Foreign Affairs and Public Instruction has recently edited a 
collection of documents copied from the Archivo Ilistdrico de Indias 
of Seville as a souvenir of the Centenary. These documents give 
early precolonial and colonial data on Salvador. 

URUGUAY. 

National Medical Congress. — In the meeting of the Second 
National Medical Congress held last fall, plans were made to hold the 
next congress in Montevideo in 1925. A tentative program was 
suggested for the consideration of the Third Congress, on which were 
the following topics: Fight against cancer in Uruguay; infant mor- 
tality; house sanitation; prophylaxis of epilepsy; gastric troubles 
frequent in Uruguay ; antituberculosis measures on new basis; means 
of arousing interest in child welfare among doctors, local authorities 
and the people. 

Different sections of the Second Medical Congress made valuable 
suggestions to the various authorities. Among them were: Prophy- 
laxis against typhoid, campaign against the disease-carrying fly, the 
formation of permanent committee to combat the carbuncle, and a 
section to consider the teaching of sex hygiene in the public schools 
The -veterinary section made a number of recommendations regard- 
ing the study of animal diseases and their relation to man. 

Gaucho MONUMENT. — On September 26, in Montevideo, the com- 
mission of judges passed on the various models submitted in the com- 
petition for the equestrian monument to the Uruguayan Gaucho 
The first prize was awarded to the model entitled "Alsina," by Jos4 
Zorilla de San Martin; the second prize to the model "Centauro,'" 
by Jose Barbieri; and the third prize to the model "Guazubira," b}* 
Pascual Guissani and Francisco Zorilla de San Martin. The condi- 
tions of the contest were published in the August, 1921, number of 
the Bulletin. 

VENEZUELA. 

Treatment of leprosy. — Dr. Aaron Benchetrit has been studying 
in Hawaii the use of chaulmoogra oil in the treatment of leprosy. 
Dr. Benchetrit found his studies extremely interesting, especially the 
preparation of the Dean derivatives of the oil. 



REPORTS RECEIVED TO DEC. 20, 1921. 



Subject. 



Date. 



Author. 



ARGENTINA. 

Destination of exports from Jan. 1 to Aug. 31, 1921 

Fisheries and the markets for fish prod acts 

Argentine and Uruguayan wool exports for 10 so-called 

seasons. 
Report of the history, woT-k, and service of the United States 

Chamber of Commerce in Buenos Aires. 

Proposed railway lines in Patagonia 

Court decision in regard to the constitutionality of the new rental 

law. 

Disallowance of Argentine raibVav tarifl increases 

Arrival of vessels at Buenos Aires during the first 9 months of 1921 

Argentine budget law for 1921 

Cereal prices 

Exportable surpluses of wheat, linseed, and maize 

First official estimate of area sown to wheat, linseed, and oats — 

Condition o f Buenos Aires banks at the end of Sept . 30, 1921 

Export taxes for the month of November, 1921 

Construction in northern Argentina 



BRAZIL. 

Annual report on commerce and industries for the year 1921 
Bahia import trade and commercial review for 1920 



Bahia State export taxes 

Cotton industry in Brazil 

Market for electrical supplies . 



Pernambuco as a distributing station 

Statement of imports from all countries for month of September, 
1921. 

CHILE. 

Economic and descriptive data concerning Valdivia 



Economic and descriptive data concerning Osorno, and Talca- 

huano. 

Fisheries and the market for fish products 

Economic and descriptive data concerning Talca, Chilian, and 

Traigen. 
Commercial conditions in Tarapaca during October, 1921 

Market for American-made stoves in Chile 

COLOMBIA. 

Development project in BarranquiUa 



Translation of address on Coloinbian-gro\ra cotton . 
Free exportation of gold 



Banks and banking institutions in Colombia . 
Economic notes from Colombia 



COSTA RICA. 

Foreign trade of Costa Rica for 1920. . . 
New patent requirements 



October report on commerce and industries . 

Cement market in Costa Rica , 

The market for stoves 



CUBA. 

New Cuban experimental station. . . 

Market for mu-sical instruments 

Market for American millinery 



Oct. 15 



Oct. 19 
Oct. 20 



Oct. 24 



Oct. 2.5 
Oct. 28 



..do 

..do 

Oct. 29 

..do 

Oct. 31 

..do 

..do 

Nov. 4 
Nov. 8 



Oct. 
Oct. 



Oct. 14 
Oct. 26 
..do 



Oct. 27 
Nov. 3 



Sept. 30 

Nov. 14 

Nov. 15 
..do 



Nov. 2 
Nov. 7 

Oct. 31 

Nov. 4 
Nov. 17 
..do 



Nov. 19 



Sept. 20 
Nov. 2 



Nov. G 
Nov. 19 
Nov. 21 



Oct. 29 
Nov. 8 



.do. 



W. Henry Robertson, consul 
general at Buenos Aires. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Wilbert L. Bonney, consul 
at Rosario. 



A. Gaulin, consul general at 

Rio de Janeiro. 
Thos. H. Bevan, consul at 

Bahia. 
Do. 
A. Gaulin. 
C. R. Cameron, consul at 

Pernambuco. 
Do. 
Geo. A. Pickerell, consul at 

Para. 

Dayle C. McDonough, consul 
at Conception. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Homer Brett, consul at 
Iquique. 

C. F. Deichman, consul gen- 
eral at Valparaiso. 

Edmund B. Montgomery, 
vice consul at Barran- 
quiUa. 

Leroy R. Sawyer, consul at 
Santa Marta. 

E. C. Soule, consul at Carta- 
gena. 

Edmund B. Montgomery. 
Do. 



W. D. Smith, jr., vice consul 

at San Jose. 
Henry S. Waterman, consul 
at San Jose. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Frank Bohr, consul at Cicn- 

fuecos. 
Harold D. Clum, consul at 
Santiago de Cuba. 
Do. ' 

205 



206 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 



Reports received to Dec. 20, 1921 — Continued. 



Subject. 



Date. 



Author. 



ECUADOR. 

Ecuadorian market for certain food products. 



Life and accident insurance of worlonen in Ecuador 

New Ecuadorian industries 

Funds for dredging the Guayas River 

Repeal of law prohibiting exportation of foodstuffs 

Ecuador's imports of foodstulTs in 1920 

Cacao growing in Ecuador 

New contracts for public works authorized 

New municipal taxes 

Construction of a highway from Fsmeraldas to Santo Domingo. 
Law providing fimds for dredging Jubones River 

GUATEMALA. 

Annua] report on commerce and industries for 1920 



Report on commerce and industries for July and August, 1921. . 

Proposed income-tax law 

Maritime movement at Puerto Banios during July and August, 
1920 and 1921. 

Guatemalan receipts and expenditures for .■Vugust, 1921 

Guatemalan telephone company asks for increase in rates 



Market for stoves . 



Foreign importation statistics for extracted honey 

HONDURAS. 

New direct service to Europe from west coast of Central America. 
Statistics of port of Amapala, October, 1921 

MTXICO. 

Increase in foreign shipping at Tampico 

Tax on Mexican fisheries 



Sept. 21 

Oct. 19 
Oct. 21 
Oct. 2fi 
..do.... 
Oct. 29 
Nov. 2 
Nov. 7 
Nov. 8 
Nov. 11 
Nov. 14 



Oct. 4 

Oct. 24 
Nov. 3 
...do.... 

Nov. 21 
Nov. 23 



Oct. 13 

Nov. 8 

Nov. 5 
Nov. 11 

Nov. 4 
...do... 



Spiny lobster fisheries of Lower California 

Abalone fisheries of Lower California 

Quantity of last year's garranzo crop on hand. 



...do... 

Nov. 5 
Nov, 8 



New shrimp packing industry at Guaymas ' Nov. 12 

The tomato industry of Sinaloa Dec. 1 

A building boom in Ciudad Juarez Dec. 5 



PANAMA. 

Market for musical instruments 



September report on commerce and industries 

Laws and regulations regarding preparation of power of attorney 
in Panama. 

Imports and exports for 1920 and first half of 1921 : 

Development of the manganese deposits in the Province of Colon. 

P.1RAGUAY. 

Fisheries and the market for fish products 



No American chamber of commerce in Asuncion 

Appropnations of Paraaxiay for fiscal year 1921-22 

Export taxes on importations into the United States. 

.SALVADOR. 

Exportation of coffee from 1911 to 1920 

Total trade of Salvador for calendar year 1920 

URUGUAY. 

Decrease in farm holdings in Uruguay 



Studies of agriculture in normal schools 

No American chamber of commerce at Montevideo. 
Grains sown for 1921-22 crop 



VENEZUELA. 

Fisheries and the market for fish products. 



Coflee shipments for October, 1921 . 
Bags for coffee 



Report on commerce and industries for October, 1921 . 



Nov. 



...do.... 
Nov. 15 



Nov. 25 
Nov. 26 



Oct. 26 

Oct. 28 
Nov. 2 
Nov. 3 



Oct. 22 
Oct. 31 

Oct. 24 



...do..., 
Oct. 25 
Nov. 7 



Oct. 15 



Oct. 31 
Nov. 9 



Nov. 13 



Frederic W. Coding, consul 
general at GuaTaqull. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Arthur C. Frost, consul at 
Guatemala City. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Robert Dudley Longyear, 
vice consul at Port au 
Prince. 

Avra M. Warren, consul at 
Cape natien. 

G. K. Donald, consul at Te- 
gucigalpa. 
Do. 



Claude I. Dawson, consul at 

Tampico. 
William C. Burdett, consul 

at Ensenada. 
Do. 
Do. 
Francis J. Dyer, consul at 

Nogales. 
Bartlcy F. Yost, consul at 

(!ua\'Tnas. 
William C. Burdett. 
John W. Dye, consul at 

Ciudad Juarez. 

Georcre Orr, consul at Panam a 
Citv. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



Harry Campbell, consul at 
Asuncion. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Lynn W. Franklin, vice 
consul at San Salvador. 
Do. 



David J. D. Myers, consul 
at MontoWdeo" 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



William A. Hickey, vice 
consul at Maracaibo. 
Do. 

Wm. P. Garrety, consul at 
Puerto Cabelld. 

S. J. Fletcher, vice consul at 
La Guaira. 




[Publications added to the Columbus Memorial Librar7 during August, 1921.] 

( Continued from the January number.) 

UNITED STATES. 

Classification. Universal and old world history. European War D 501-659 Library 

of Coniiiess. Washington, 1921. 23 p. 8°. 
History of the New York Times 1851-1921. By Elmer Davis. New York, The New 

York Times, 1921. front, port, illus. xxii, 434 p. 8°. 
Introductory survey of colonial tariff policies. United States Tariff Commission. 

Washington, G. P. O., 1921. vi, 79 p. 8"^. 
List of recent references on the income tax. Compiled under the direction of Herman 

H. B. Meyer. Library of Congress. Washinaton, 1921. 96 p. 8°. 
A merchant marine and a marine insurance company. By William Patrick Hackney, 

Winfield, Kansas. [1921.] 46 p. 8°. 
Official report of the eighth national foreign trade convention held at Cleveland, Ohio, 

May 4, 5, 6, 7, 1921. New York. Issued by the Secretary National Foreign 

Trade Convention Headquarters, 1921. xxxi, 328 p. 8°. 
Schedule of rates for supplies and service furnished to shipping and allied interests at 

the Panama Canal. (Superseding Panama Canal tariff No. 4 and all supplements 

thereto.) In effect July 1, 1921. Mount Hope, C. Z., The Panama Canal Press, 

1921. 42 p. 8°. [Tariff No. 5.] 
Training for the public profession of the law. Historical development and principal 

contemporary problems of legal education in the United States with some account 

of conditions in England and Canada. By Alfred Zantzinger Reed. New York, 

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teachine, 1921. xviii, 498 p. 8° 
War powers of the executive in the United States. By Clarence A. Berdahl, Ph.D. 

Urbana, Published by the University of Illinois, 1920. 296 p. 8°. 



Anuario estadistico correspondieute a 1919. Este numero contiene estadisticas 
referentes a: 1° accidentes del trabajo. 2° migracion del trabajo. 3° oferta y 
demanda de trabajo. 4° articules de primera necesidad. 5° conflictos del tra- 
bajo. 6° ahorro popular. 7° varios (Descanso obrero, trabajo de mujeres y 
niiios y su remuneraci6n filantropia). Montevideo, Tmprenta Nacional, 1920. 
fold, tables. 108 p. 8°. 

Codigo penal y codigo de instrucciiSn criminal . . . Cuarta edicion, corregida y aumen- 
tada. Montevideo, A. Barreiro y Hamos, Editor. 1920. 370 p. 8°. 

Deuda publica de la republica Oriental del Uruguay. Publicaci6n oficial, 1920. 
Oficina de credito publico. 19 p. 4°. 

Diario de sesiones de la h. camara de representantes sessiones extraordinaiias del 
3er periodo de la XXV legislatura. Tomo CCLII del 23 de Septiembre de 1916 
al 23 de Enero de 1917. Montevideo, Imprenta Siglo Ilustrado," 1921. xxiv, 
603 p. 4°. 
La naturalez. Geografia. Tercer grado. Por Arturo Carbonell Debali. Mon- 
tevideo, A. Monteverde & Cia., 1921. map. 30 (3) p. 8°. 

Legislacion aduanera. Leyes, decretos, resoluciones y reglamentos corrospond- 
ientes a las aduanas de la republica Oriental del Uruguay. Recopiladas por 
Vicente B. Antuna. Publicaci6n autorizada por el superior gobierno 1920 Tomo 
VII. Montevideo, Editor, "El Ateneo," 1920. 182, vi, x p. 8°. 

207 



208 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

Opiniones sobre el proyecto de codigo rural, del Dr. Daniel Garcia Acevedo. Mon- 
tevideo, Imp. -'El Siglo Ilustrado," 1918. 36 p. 12°. 

Proyecto de codigo rural. Por el Dr. Daniel Garcia Acevedo. Montevideo, Im- 
prenta Nacional, 1917. Ill p. 8°. 

Registro nacional de leyes, decretoa y otro.i documentos. Tomo 1-2. 1919. Publi- 
cacion oficial. Montevideo, Imprenta Nacional, 1920. 12°. 2 vols. 

VENEZUELA. 

Crustacea from Lake Valencia, Venezuela. By A. S. Pearse. From proceedings of 

the United States National Museum, Vol. 59, pages 459-462. Washington, 

G. P. O., 1921. 8°. 
Cuenta del Ministerio de Fomento presentada al congreso de los Estados Unidos de 

Venezuela en 1921. Caracas, Empresa El Cojo, 1921. fold, tables. 89 p. 4°. 
Cuenta del Ministerio de Obras Publicas presentada al congreso de los Estados Unidos 

de Venezuela en 1921. Caracas, Lit. y Tip. del Comercio, 1921. 126 (1) p. 4°. 
Decreto orgauico de sanidad nacional. Oficina Central de Sanidad Nacional. Cara- 
cas, Tip., America, 1921. 21 p. 8°. 
Decreto reglamentario de la ley de ejercicio de la farmacia. Oficina Central de Sani- 
dad Nacional. Caracas, Tip. AmMca, 1921. 28 p. 8°. 
Discurso pronunciado por el Pbro. Carlos Borges en el inauguracion de la Casa Natal 

del Liberator, restaurada por el gobierno de la rehabilitacion nacional 5 de Julio 

de 1921. Fiestas centenarias de Carabobo. [Maracaibo], Empresa Panorama, 

1921. 27 p. 8°. 
Estadistica mercantil y maritinia semestre de Euero a Junio de 1920. Edici6n oficial. 

Ministerio de Hacienda. Caracas, Tipografia Americana, 1921. 141 p. 4°. 
Marcas de fabrica y de comercio y patentes de invencion. (bmplemento a la memoria 

que el ministerio de fomento presenta a las cdmaras legislativas en 1921. Caracas, 

Tip. Central, 1921. 398 p. 4°. 
Memoria del ministerio de fomento presentada al congreso de los Estados de Venezuela 

en 1921. Caracas, Empresa El Cojo, 1921. map. illus. lii, 267, 151, 102 p. 4°, 
Memoria de Hacienda presentada al congreso nacional en sus sesiones de 1921. Conti- 

ente la actuacion del despacho en ei aiio civil de 1920. Caracas, Tip. Empresa 

El Cojo, 1921. clxiv, 600 p. 4°. 
Memoria que preientada el Ministro de Obras Publicas a las cdmaras legislativas en 

su reunion conntitucional de 1921. Tomo 1-2. Caracas, Lit. y Tip. del Comercio, 

1921. 4°. 2 vols. 
Reglamento sobre importacion, elaboraci6n y expendio de alimentos. Oficina Central 

de Sanidad Nacional. Caracas, Tip. America, 1921. 60 p. 8°. 
Reglamento sanitario de casas de vecindad. Oficina Central de Sanidad Nacional, 

Caracas, Tip. America, 1921. 8 p. 8°. 
Reglamento sanitario devacunaci6n. Oficina Central de Sanidad Nacional. Caracas, 

Tip. America, 1921. 2p. 8°. 
Reglamento sobre notificarion y profilaxia de enfennedades. Oficina Central de 

Sanidad Nacional. Caracas, Tip. America. 1921. 18 p. 8°. 

GENERAL BOOKS. 

Addresses at the fifteenth annual meeting of the American Society of International 
Law. By the Hon. Elihu Root. New York, American Association for Inter- 
national Concilation, 1921. 27 (3) p. 12°. Cover title. (August, 1921, No. 165.) 

Overseas trade. New York, T. B. Browne Ltd., 1921. 8°. pamp. 



BOOK NOTES. 209 

Statesman's year-book. Statistical and historical annual of the states of the world for 
the year 1921. New York and London, Macmillan and Co., 1921. maps, xliv, 
1544, 12 p. 12°. 

Zimmei-mann on ocean shipping. By Erich W. Zimmermann, Ph. D. New York, 
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1921. illus. xvi, 691 p. 8°. 

Publications added to the Columbus Memorial Library during September, 1921. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

Actas y trabajos. Conferencia nacional de profilaxis antituberculosa. Tomos 1-3. 
Rosario de Santa Fe, Talleres de la Biblioteca Argentina, 1920. 4°. 3 vols. 

Comercio internacional Argentino; sus principals cifras preparadas por la seccion 
comercio, N. 11. Direccion general de comercio e industria. Buenos Aires, 
Talleres Graficos del Ministerio de Agricultura de la Nacion, 1921. 95 p. 8°. 

Informes del departamento de investigaciones industriales. Carlos Diaz. Ensayos 
sobre conservacion de la madera. Gas de agua. Buenos Aii'es, Imprenta y Casa 
Editora Coni, 1921. illus. 42 p. 8°. 

Los dioses de la literatura Argentina; metodologia literaria. Por Rafael Roisman. 
Buenos Aires, 1921. 27 p. 12°. 

Reglamento general de los registros genealogicos de la sociedad rural Argentina. 
Buenos Aires, Imp. "Gadola," 1920. 28 p. 12°. 

Rutas del comercio internacional Argentino en 1913 a 1918. Dii-eccion General de 
Comercio e Industria. Buenos Aires, Talleres Graficos del Ministerio de Agri- 
cultura de la Nacion, 1921. 95 p. 8°. 

BRAZIL. 

Commercio exterior do Brasil. Janeiro a Dezembro, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920. 

Directoria de Estatistica Commercial. Rio de Janeiro, Monotypado nas officinas 

da Estatistica Commercial, 1921. 125 p. 4°. (Text in Portuguese, English, 

and French.) 
Documentos para a historia do Brasil e especialmente a do Ceara. Quarto volume. 

Fortaleza-Ceara, Typ. Minerva, de Assis Bezerra, 1921. 238, v p. 8°. 

CHILE. 

Anuario general de Chile. (Recomendado por el Supremo Gobierno.) Informaciones 
generales sobre mineria, agricultura, industrias, comercio, importacion, exporta- 
cion, etc., etc., 1921. Santiago de Chile, Editor propietario, Ricardo Benavides, 
1921. 1148 p. 4°. 

Asamblea de la habitacion barata celebrada en Santiago los dias 28, 29 y 30 de Sep- 
tiembre de 1919. Consejo superior de habitaciones para obreros. Santiago de 
Chile, Imprenta Lit. y Enc. "La Ilustracion," 1920. 397 p. 8°. 

De la non revision des traites de paix. Expose de la delegation du Cliili a la Societe 
des Nations a propos de la demande de la Bolivie centre le Chili en revision du 
traite de paix de 1904. Geneve, Imp. Albert Kundig, 1921. 118, (1) p. 4°. ^ 

Investigaciones etiologicas y epidemiologicas sobre anquilostomiasis. I. Etiologia 
(parte experimental). II. Epidemiologia (Anquilostomiasis en la zona car- 
bonifera de Concepcion y Arauco). Memoria de prueba. Por Walter Fernandez 
Ballas. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Universitaria, 1920. illus. xvi, 257 p. 8°. 

La anquilostomiasis en las zonas carboniferas de Concepcion y de Arauco. Estudio 
patologico y terapeutico. Memoria de prueba. Por Ramiro Herrera V. San- 
tiago de Chile, 1920. illus. fold, table. 112 p. 8°. 

COLOMBIA. 

Colombia: a commercial and industrial handbook. By P. L. Bell. Washington, 
Bureau of foreign and domestic commerce. Special agents series No. 206. 1921. 
front, pis. map. 423 p. 8°. 



210 THE PAN AMEFJCAlSr UNION, 

Compilacion de las leyes, decretos, acuerdos y resoluciones vigentes sobre higiene y 

sanidad en Colombia. Direccion nacional de higiene. Edicion oficial. Bogota, 

Imprenta Nacional, 1920. 385 p. 8°. 
History of the telephone and telegraph in Colombia, S. A., 1865-1921. By Victor M. 

Berthold. New York, 1921. 52 p. 8°. 
Iijforme anual del director nacional de higiene. (Agosto de 1919 a Julio de 1920.) 

Bogota, Casa Editorial de Arboleda & Valencia, 1920. 44 p. 8°. 
Reunido en Medellin del 19 al 26 de Enero de 1913. Congreso medico de Colombia. 

Tomos 1-3. Bogota, Escuela Tipogrdfica Salesiana, 1913, 1916, 1917. 4°. 3 vols. 

COSTA RICA. 

Arancel de aduanas de la repiiblica de Costa Rica. Decretado bajo la administraci6n 
del Licdo. Don Ricardo Jimenez O. Segunda edicion. Corregida y adicionada 
en vu-tud de encargo del supremo gobierno, por Gerardo Volio. San Jos6, Tip. 
Nacional, 1914. 300 p. 8°. 

Memoria de f omen to correspondiente al ano 1920 presentada al congreso constitucional . 
San Jos4, Imprenta Nacional, 1921. 200 p. 8°. 



Memoria correspondiente al curso de 1919 a 1920 que se publica en cumplimiento del 
artfculo 100 del reglamento de la escuela. Escuela de Artes y Oficios de la 
Habana. Habana, Imprenta y Papelerfa de Rambla, Bouza y Ca., 1921. 52 p. 

8°. 

ECUADOR. 

Boundaries between Ecuador and Peru. Memorandum presented to the ministry of 

foreign relations of Bolivia by his excellency Dr. N. Clemente Ponce, envoy 

extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of Ecuador. [Washington, Gibson 

Bros.] 1921. 62, 62 p. 8°. 
Cuenca de Tomebamba. Breve reseiia hist6rica de la provincia de este nombre en 

el antiguo Reino de Quito. Por J. Julio Maria Matovelle. Cuenca, Imprenta de 

la Universidad, 1921. 208 p. 8°. 
Exposici6n de motives y reglamento de trabajos cientfficos de la sociedad de estudios 

comerciales de Guayaquil. Guayaquil, Imprenta y Papelerfa Sucre de Jorge F. 

Molestina, 1920. 28 p. 12°. 
Informe del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores Junio de 1920-Junio de 1921. Quito, 

Imprenta y Enc. Nacionales, 1921. clxxxiii, 137 p. 8°. 

GUATEMALA. 

Memoria presentada al ministerio de gobernaci6n y justicia de los trabajos de sane- 
amiento llevados a cabo para combatir la fiebre amarilla. Por la jefatura de 
sanidad del Literal del Paclfico. Retalhuleu, Talleres Tip. de "El Adelanto," 

1919. 94 p. 8°. 

HAITI. 

Report of the third fiscal period Haitian Customs Receivership 1919. Fiscal year 

October 1, 1918, to September 30, 1919. Washington, G. P. O., 1921. 37 p. 8°. 

Fourth fiscal period. Fiscal year 1920. October 1, 1919, to September 30, 

1920. Washington, G. P. O., 1921. 45 p. 8°. 

HONDURAS. 

Mediaci6n del honorable secretario de Estado de los Estados Unidos. En la contro- 
versia de limites entre la repiiblica de Nicaragua y la repiiblica de Honduras. 
Tomos 1-3. Washington, 1920. 8°. 3 vols. 



BOOK NOTES. 211 

Presupuesto general de ingresos y egresoa para el ano econ6mico de 1921 a 1922 decre- 

tado por el congreso nacional. Tegucigalpa, Tipografia Nacional, 1921. 117, 

(l)p. 4°. 
Referencias sobre Isla de la Bahfa por el senor ex-gobernador politico y comandante 

de armas de aquel departamento, teniente coronel don Rafael Barahona Mejia. 

Tegucigalpa, Tipo-Lito-Fotograbado Nacionales, 1920. 48 p. 8°. 
Reformas al c6digo de instruccidn publica. Tegucigalpa, Tip. Nacional, 1920. 12 

p. 4°. 
Reglamento de higiene y policfa sanitaria. Para la capital, los puertos principales y 

centros de poblaci^n superiores de cinco mil habitantes. Tegucigalpa, Tip. 

Nacional, 1920. d'agr. 68 p. 8°. 

MEXICO. 

A brief description of actual conditions in Mexico. By Samuel G. Vazquez. Los 
Angeles, The Mexican Products Exhibit, 1921. 34 p. 8°. 

NICARAGUA. 

Decisiones arancelarias del recaudador general de aduanas nos. 24 a 41, Junio 20, 
1919 a Junio 23, 1921. No imprint. 19 (1) p. 8°. 

Report of the Collector-General of Customs for the period of January 1, 1920, to 
December 31, 1920, and the statistics of the commerce of 1920. Submitted to 
the Honorable Minister of Finance and Public Credit, Republic of Nicaragua, 
and the Honorable Secretary of State, United States of America. Managua, 1921. 
89 p. 8°. 

PERU. 

Acerca de la asistencia de alienados. Por Victor Larco Hen-era. Lima, 1920. 

57 p. 8°. 
Asilo Colonia de Magdalena. Memoria correspondiente al aiio de 1920. Lima, Tip. 

de la Casa Editora M. Moral, 1920. illus. fold, tables. 114 p. 8°. 
Asilo Colonia de Magalena. Sociedad de beneficencia publica de Lima. Lima, 1920. 

illus. 7 p. 8°. 
I figli del sole. Antonio de Giovanni. Lima, Tip. La Opinion Nacional, 1921. 

23 p. 8°. 
La universidad de la Libertad y su participacion en las fiestas del primer centenario 

de la jura de la independencia por Trujillo el 29 de diciembre de 1820. Tru- 

jillo, Imprenta Comercial, L. H., 1921. pis. 51 p. 8°. 
Ley organica de ensenanza. Promulgada por el poder ejecutivo en cumplimiento 

de la ley No. 4004. Lima, Imp. Americana, 1920. 184 p. 8°. 
Recreos literarios. Miscelania de conferencias, poesfas y artlculos periodisticos como 

ideales que deben encarnarse en las leyes positivas. Por el Dr. Don Jose Ascen- 

Bi6n Urteaga. Cajamarca, Imp. "El Ferrocarril," 1921. 597 (6) p. 8°. 

SALVADOR. 

Codigo de procedimientos civiles de El Salvador. Nueva edici(5n en la que se han 
intercalado lae reformas decretadas hasta 1916. Arreglada por el Dr. Don Belar- 
mino Suarez. San Salvador, Tip. La Uni6n, 1916. vi, 233 p. 8°. 

C6digo penal de la republica de El Salvador. Edicidn que comprende todas las 
reformas decretadas desde el ano 1904 hasta 1920. Arreglada por el Doctor Don 
Rafael B. Colindres. San Salvador, Tip. La Vanguardia, 1920. v, 191, xxiv, 
xp. 12°. 

Estado semestral 30 de Junio de 1921. Banco Agricola Comercial. [San Salvador], 
Diario del Salvador, 1921. [7] p. 8°. 



212 THE PAN AMEEICAN UNION. 

Estado semestral 30 de Junio de 1921. Banco Occidental. No imprint. [7] p. 8°. 
Ley de accidentes del trabajo. Comprende las reformas sancionadas por iniciativa 

del sefior presidente don Carlos Melendez. San Salvador, Imprenta Nacional, 

1916. 14 p. 8°. 
Manifiesto que el sefior Don Carlos Melendez dii'ige a la nacion al tomar posesion, 

ante la honorable asamblea nacional legislativa, de la presidencia constitucional 

de la republica, el 1° de Marzo de 1915, para el cuadrienio de 1915-1919. San 

Salvador, Imprenta Nacional, 1919. 23 p. 8°. 
Mi inconformidad con la doctrina de los articulos 48 del codigo de instruccion criminal 

y 83 del codigo penal. Tesis de doctoramiento publico. Por Rafael Dominguez 

Parada. San Salvador, Imprenta Nacional, 1921. 50 p. 8°. 
Reglamento para la aplicacion de la ley de accidentes del trabajo. San Salvador, 

Tip. El Progreso, [1911]. 16 p. 8°^ 

UNITED STATES. 

American silk trade season 1920-21. Mid-year report of the Silk Association of 
America. 1921. 52 p. 8°. 

Fourteenth census of the United States taken in the year 1920. Volume 1, Popula- 
tion, 1920. Washington, G. P. 0., 1921. 4°. 1 vol. 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum. Volume 57. Washington, 
G. P. O., 1921. illus. X, 689 p. 8°. 

URUGUAY. 

El cultivo del "Phalaris bulbosa" en el Uruguay. Resultados obtenidos de la ex- 

perimentacion de esta planta forrajera. Por Juan Puig y Nattino. Montevideo, 

Imprenta Nacional, 1921. illus. 32 p. 8°. 
El movimento del estado civil y la mortalidad de la republica Oriental del Uruguay 

en el ano 1920. Anuario de la Direccion G. del Registro del Estado Civil. Mon- 
tevideo, Imprenta Nacional, 1921. 75 p. 4°. 
Estados gonerales de administracion piiblica. Ejercicio econ6mico 1918-1919. 

Contaduria General de la Nacion. Montevideo, Imprenta Nacional, 1921. xii, 

361 p. 4°. 
Informe sobre las cuentas correspondientes al ejercicio de 1917-1918. Comision de 

cuentas del poder legislative. Montevideo, Imprenta El Siglo Ilustrado, 1921. 

269 p. 4°. 
La princesa Perla Clara. Comedia fe^rica en tres actos y en verso. Por Jos6 Maria 

Delgado. Montevideo, Cooperativa Editorial "Pegaso," 1921. 115 p. 8°. 
Recopilacion de leyes, decretos, reglamentos, ordenanzas y resoluciones de cardcter 

sanitario. Consejo nacional de higiene. Montevideo, El Siglo Ilustrado, 1918. 

719 p. 8°. 

VENEZUELA. 

Discurso de orden pronunciado en el paraninfo de la universidad central en el acto 
solemne con que la academia nacional de la historia celebro el centenario de la 
batalla de Carabobo. Por J. L. Andara. Caracas, Tip. Cultura Venezolana, 
1921. 10 p. 8°. 

Geografia m^dica de la Isla de Margarita. Por Andres Sanchez. Caracas, Tip. 
Americana, 1921. map. 71 p. 8°. 

La campana de Cai-abobo (1821). Relaci6n hi8t6rica militar. Por Arturo Santana. 
Caracas, Litograffa del Comercio, 1921. illus. pis. ports, maps. 392 p. 4°. 



Anglo-South American handbook for 1921 (incorporating Mexico and Central America). 
Edited by W. H. Koebel. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1921. xxxv, 
929, cxiv p. 8°. 



BOOK NOTES. 213 

Annual report of the board of foreign missions of the Presbyterian Church in the 

United States of America. New York, Presbyterian Building, 1921. illus. 

xiii, 561 p. 8°. 
Federaci6n de Centre America. Discursos pronunciados en la sesidn inaugural de la 

asamblea nacional constituyente, el dia 20 de julio de 1921, por los sefiores 

Licenciado Jose Vicente Martinez y Doctor Policarpo Bonilla. Tegucigalpa, 

Tip. Nacional, 1921. 9 p. 8°. 
Inauguration de I'institut des hautes etudes Internationales. Paris, 19 Avril 1921, 

Bordeaux, Imp. J. Bifere, 1921. front. 49 p. 8°. 
Kimber's record of government debts and other foreign securities, 1921. Edited by 

Albert W. Kimber. New York, A. W. Kimber & Company, 1921. 542 p. 8°. 
La primera reuni6n de la conferencia internacional del trabajo de la liga de las 

naciones. Informe de los delegados del gobierno de Cuba, Dres. Carlos Ar- 

menteros y F. Carrera Justiz. Habana, Imprenta y Papeleria de Rambla, 

Bouza y Ca., 1921. 334, (1) p. 8°. 
Memoria de la delagacion del Uruguay presentada a la VI conferencia sanitaria 

internacional de las republicas Americanas. Montevideo, Imp. "El Siglo Ilus- 

trado," 1920. fold, tables. 233, (1) p. 8°. 
Memoria y conclusiones del primer congreso de expansion economica y ensenanza 

oomercial Americano. Celebrado en la ciudad de Montevideo, por iniciativa 

de la escuela s. de comercio 29 de enero-8 de febrero de 1919. Montevideo 

Imprenta Nacional, 1920. illus. 390 p. 8°. 
Metodo de ingles con la transcripcion fonetica adoptada por la Association Phonetique 

Internationale, l^' volumen. Por P. Julio Albino Ferreira. 3" edicion. Porto, 

Tip. da Empr. Liter, e Tip. Oficinas movidas a Electricidade, 1921. 255 (1) 

p. 12°. 
Pacto de union de Centre America celebrado en San Jose de Costa Rica el 19 de enero 

de 1921. Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores. Tegucigalpa, Tip. Nacional. 

1921. 25 p. 16°. 
Petroleum laws of all America. By J. W. Thompson. Washington, G. P. O., 1921, 

vii, 646 p. 8°. (Department of the Interior. Bureau of Mines. Bulletin 206.) 
Proceedings of the American Society of International Law at its fifteenth annual 

meeting held at Washington, D. C, April 27-30, 1921. Washington, Published 

by the Society, 1921. xi, 159 p. 8°. 
Protocolo de la conferencia de plenipotenciarios Centroamericanos reunida en San 

Jose de Costa Rica el 4 de diciembre de 1920. Secretaria de Relaciones Ex- 
teriores. Tegucigalpa, Tip. Nacional, 1921. 124 p. 4°. 
The Liberator, Sim6n Bolivar, in New York. Addresses delivered on the occasion of 

the unveiling of the statue of the Liberator Sim6n Bolivar presented to the city of 

New York by the Government of Venezuela Tuesday, April 19, 1921. New York, 

American Association for International Conciliation, 1921. 49 p. 12°. 
Treaties and agreements with and concerning China 1894-1919 . . . Compiled and 

edited by John V. A. MacMurray. [Carnegie endowment for international peace.] 

Volume II, Republican period (1912-1919). New York, Oxford University 

press, 1921. map. p. 929-1729. 4°. 
Universal directory of railway officials, 1921. London, The Directory Publishing 

Company, Ltd., 1921. 646, 91 p. 8°. 

Publications added to the Columbus Memorial Library during October, 1921. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

El future edificio de la biblioteca delconsejo nacional de mujeres. La universidad 
femenina. No imprint. No date, front, illus. 8°. pamp. 

Federal system of the Argentine Republic. By L. S. Ilowe. Washington, Carnegie 
Institution, 1921. vii, 161 p. 8°. 



214 ' THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

Memoria . . . por el Miniatro de Justicia e Instrucci6n Piiblica. Afio 1920. Tomo 
1-2. Buenos Aires. L. J. Rosso y Ci'a., 1921. 4°. 2 vols. 

Memoria . . . de la biblioteca del consejonacionaldemujeresde la republica Argen- 
tina. Desde el 1 de Enero de 1918 hasta el 14 de Octubre de 1920. Buenos Aires, 

1920. 114 p. 12°. 

BCLIVIA. 

Bolivia: a commercial and industrial handbook. By W. L. Schurz. Washington, 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, [1921]. front, illus. map. 260 p. 8°. 

Importancia de la instruccion. Filosofla popular. For Medardo Villafan. Pe. 
queno extract© dedicado a las clases obreras. La Paz, Imprenta "El^ctrica," 

1921. 31 p. 12°. 

Notas cablegr^ficas dirigidas a la concilleria del Peru en respuesta a las que ^sta paso 
a Bolivia. La Paz, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, 1920. 30 p. 12°. 



Annuario estatistico de Sao Paulo, 1918. Volume 1-2. Reparti?ao de Estatistica e 
Archive do Estado. Sao Paulo, Typ. do Diario Official, 1921. 4°. 2 vols. 

Informagoes relativas ao petroleo no Brasil, Fornecidas pelo ministerio de agri- 
cultura, industria e commercio. Rio de Janeiro, Typ. Lith. Rohe, 1920. 13 p. 
12°. 

Notas sobre o contraband© de guerra. Por Jos^ Carlos Rodrigues. Sociedad Bra- 
sileira de Direito Internacional. Rio de Janeiro, Typ. do Jornal do Commercio, 
1921. 143 p. 8°. 

Brazil e a educa(;ao popular. Pelo A. Carneiro Leao. 2* edigao. Rio de Janeiro, 
Typ. do Jornal do Commercio, 1918. 230 (1) p. 12°. 

Os accidentes no trabalho em 1919. Departamento Estadual do Trabalho. Sao 
Paulo, Typ. Brasil de Rotschild & Co., 1921. 55 p. 8°. 

Problemas de educagao. Pelo A. Carneiro Leao. Rio de Janeiro, Livraria Castilho, 
1919. xvii, 273 (1) p. 12°. 

S. Paulo em 1920. Pelo A. Carneiro Leao. Rio de Janeiro, Editor Annuario Ameri- 
cano, 1920. 194 (6) p. 12°. 

CHILE. 

Chile. Breves noticias de sus industrias. Por Pedro Luis Gonzalez. Santiago de 

Chile, Imprenta Universo, 1920. 44 p. 8°. 
Chile and Peru. The causes of the war of 1879. By Don Gonzalo Bulnes. Santiago 

de Chile, Imprenta Universitaria, 1920. viii, 160 p. 12°. 
Clasificaci6n y nomenclatura de la estadistica comercial de Chile. Santiago de Chile, 

Oficina Central de Estadistica, 1918. viii, 328 p. 8°. 
Colonia Espaiiola en la republica de Chile 1916-1917. Prologo de D. Enrique Ner- 

casseau y Moran. Editor-porpietario Juan Antonio de Menchaca. Autor Luis 

del Portillo. Madrid, Artes Graficos "Mateu." fronts, illus. f°. 1 vol. 
Conferencia internacional. I. Chile, Peru y Bolivia 1820-1879. II. Tratado de 

Anc6n. Por Anselmo Blanlot Holley. Santiago de Chile, 1919. 60 p. 8°. 
Exposici6n sobre el estado de la hacienda piiblica. Hecha por el seuor ministro de 

hacienda. Ante la honorable comision mista de presupuestos en sesion del 9 de 

Setiembre de 1920. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1920. 61 p. 8°. 
La cuestion del Pacifico. Chile-Peru-Bolivia. Discurso pronunciado por el senor 

don Luis Orrego Luco, diputado al congreso nacional por el departamento de 

Osorno. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1920. 39 p. 8°. 
Legislacion consular de Chile. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta y Litografia "La Ilus- 

tracion," 1916. pis. 169 p. 8°. 
Neutrality of Chile during the European war. By Beltran Mathieu. [Reprinted from 

the American Journal of International Law, Vol. XIV, No. 3, July, 1920.] 8°. 



BOOK NOTES. 215 



COLOMBIA. 

Directorio de telefonos. Compafiia Telef6nica de Cartagena. 1* edicion, Septiem- 

bre, 1921. Cartagena, Tip. Mogoll6n, 1921. 96 p. 8°. 
La higiene piiblica y la organizacion sanitaria en Colombia. For el Dr. Emilio R. 

Coni. Bogota, Casa Editorial Minerva, 1921. 19 p. 8°. 

COSTA RICA. 

Documentos relativos al conflicto de jurisdiccion territorial con la republica de Pana- 
ma y sus antecedentes. San Jose, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. 1921. 
252 p. 8°. 

Historia de la influencia extranjera en el desenvolvimiento educacional y cientifico 
de Costa Rica. For Luis Felipe Gonzalez. San Jose, Imprenta Nacional, 1921. 
xi, 317 (2) p. 8°. 

CUBA. 

Cotizaciones y operaciones verificadas sobre los valores de acciones, bonos y obliga- 
ciones hipotecarias de sociedades, empresas y compauias; y cambios (giros) segun 
datos facilitados por la bolsa privada y colegio de corredores y notaries comerciales 
de la Habana. Afios de 1918 y 1919. Habana, Imprenta "La Fropagandista, " 
1919. fold, tables, xi, 342 p. 4°. 

Memorandum of the Cuban commercial mission: Presented to his excellency the Sec- 
retary of State of the United States of America. Washington, 1921. 20 p. 4°. 



Mensaje del presidente . . . 1921. Quito, Imprenta Nacional, 1921. 51 p. 8°. 

Moratoria o conversion? Estudio economico sobre la conveniencia de mantener 
vigente el decreto legislativo de Agosto 30 de 1914. For V. E. Estrada. Guay- 
aquil, Libreria e Imp. Gutenberg, 1921. 62 (1) p. 8°. 

GUATEMALA. 

Contribucion y bases estadisticas para el estudio de nuestro desequilibrio economico. 
For Juan Maria de Leon. Guatemala, Imprenta "Electra," 1921. 103 (17) p. 8°. 

Discurso oficial pronunciado el 15 de septiembre de 1921, en el centenario de la inde- 
pendencia de la America del Centre. Por Antonio Batres Juuregui. Guatemala, 
Imprenta "La Patria," 1921. lip. 8°. 

Informe presentado al senor ministro de relaciones exteriores por los seiiores licenciados 
don Marcial Garcia Salas, Don Jose Ernesto Zelaya y Don Manuel Valladares, 
sobre la gestion diplomdtica que les confio el gobierno de la republica el dia 9 de 
Abril de 1920. Guatemala, Tip. Sanchez & De Guise [1920]. 35 p. 8°. 

HONDURAS. 

Remarks on Honduras (Central America). By Messrs. Noble and Fen-ari. Based 
on personal observation and investigation and supported by extracts from the 
works of other independent observers. New York, 1921. illus. 32 p. 8°. 



Excavation of a site at Santiago Ahuitzotla, D. F., Mexico. By Alfred M. Tozzer. 

Washington, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 74, 1921. diagr. pis. 

56 p. 8°. 
El temple de Quetzalcoatl en Teotihuacan. Significacion historica del monumento. 

For Enrique Juan Falacios y Miguel 0. de Mendizdbal. Mexico, Imprenta del 

Museo Nacional de Arquelogia, 1921. 22 p. pis. 12°. 



216 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 



Relacion de los ingresos y egresos durante el periodo de dos anos que principia en 
1° de Julio de 1919 y termina en 30 de junio de 1921 y el balance general del 
tesoro. Panama, Imprenta Nacional, 1921. 15 p. 4°. 



Anales del congreso nacional de la industria minera. Tomo 1. Organizacion y 
funcionamiento del congreso. Lima, Imprenta Torres Aguirre, 1921. vii, 
691 p. 8°. 

Departmento de Lambayeque. Monografia historico-geografica. Por Carlos J. Bach- 
mann. Lima, Imp. Torres Aguirre, 1921. front, port. pis. map. 447 p. 8°. 

El Peru. An address by Dr. Harry Erwin Bard, director general of public instruc- 
tion, prepared at the request of the Peruvian Government on the occasion of the 
visit of the Atlantic Squadron, January 31-February 7, 1921. Lima, C. F. 
Southwell, 1921. 25 p. 12°. 

SALVADOR. 

Anales del observatorio nacional meteorol6gico de San Salvador, 1920. [San Sal- 
vador], Imprenta Rafael Reyes [1921]. 67 p. 4°. 

Organizaci6n del servicio de vacunacion departamental. Direccion General de Sani- 
dad. San Salvador, Imprenta Nacional, 1921. diagrs. 68 p. 8°. 

UNITED STATES. 

Aircraft yearbook, 1921. Manufacturers Aircraft Association, Inc. Boston, Small, 
Maynard & Co., 1921. front, illus. (5) 285 p. 8°. 

Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, showing the 
operations, expenditures, and condition of the institution for the year ending 
June 30, 1919. Washington, 1921. xii, 557 p. 8°. 

Inaugural address of Hon. E. Mont. Reily, Governor of Porto Rico, delivered at San 
Juan, Porto Rico, in the Municipal Theatre, July 30, 1921. 32 p. 8°. 

Libraries in the District of Columbia. Compiled by W. I. Swanton. Published in 
Special Libraries, June, 1921. Vol. 12, No. 6, p. 135-153. 8°. 

List of American doctoral dissertations printed in 1919. Prepared by Mary Wilson 
MacNair, Catalogue Division, Library of Congress. Washington, Library of 
Congress, 1921. 167 p. 8°. 

List of principal subjects investigated and reported upon by the United States Tariff 
Commission. Washington, 1921. 34 p. 8°. 

Notes on Iroquois Archeology. By Alanson Skinner. New York, Museum of the 
American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1921. illus. 216 p. 12°. 

Our world trade. January-June, 1921. Value and volume of principal ports and 
imports between United States and chief foreign markets. Washington, Foreign 
Commerce Department, Chamber of Commerce of the United States, 1921. 16 
p. 8°. 

Religion and ceremonies of the Lenape. By M. R. Harrington. New York, Museum 
of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1921. illus. 249 p. 12°. 

Theft, pilferage, nondelivery, breakage, etc., of export and import shipments. Hear- 
ings before the subcommittee on marine insurance of the Committee on the Mer- 
chant Marine and Fisheries. House of Representatives, Sixty-seventh Congress, 
first session. July 18, 19, and 20, 1921. Washington, 1921. 448 p. 8°. 

Thirty-fifth annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of 
the Smithsonian Institution, 1913-14. In two parts — Part 1. Washington, 
G. P. 0., 1921. 794, xi p. 4°. 



^ TABLE OF CONTENTS ^ 



AST ^ ij 

Page. 
Projected Conference between Chile and Peru 217 

Theft and Pilferage in the United States Export and Import Trade 220 

By S. S. Huebner, Expert in Insurance to the ("onimittee on the Merchant Marine and Fisheries 
of the House of Representatives. 

The "Hague Rules" and Bills of Lading 228 

Dona Isabel of Braganga and Orleans, Ex-Princess Imperial of Brazil 23.3 

By Langworthy Marchant, Pan American I'nion Stall'. 

Report on the Section of Education 244 

I5y Francisco I. Vanes, .\ssistant Director of llie Pan American Union, in Charge of the Section 
of Education. 

Baltimore, in the Pan American Conference 250 

The Home of "Maria" 254 

By Wilson Popenoe, Agricultural Explorer for the United States Department of Agriculture. 

British Honduras 262 

By A. D. Carr. 

Domestic Rates on Pan American Mail 275 

Venezuelan Congress of Agriculturists 277 

Dr. Howard Cross : A Martyr to Science 279 

Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce 281 

.Vrgentina — Bolivia — Brazil — Chile — Colombia — Costa Rica — Cuba — Ecuador — Mexico — 
Nicaragua — Panama — Paraguay — Peru — Republic of Central America — Uniguay— 
Venezuela. 

Economic and Financial Affairs 294 

Argentina — Brazil — Colombia — Cuba — Dominican Republic — Ecuador — Uruguay — Venezuela. 

Legislation 290 

Bolivia — Colombia — Costa Rica — Cuba — Dominican Republic — Ecuador — Mexico — 
Nicaragua— Paraguay — Peru— Uruguay — Venezuela. 

International Treaties 303 

Paraguay — United States — Venezuela. 

Public Instruction and Education 304 

Argentina — Bolivia — Colombia — Costa Rica — Dominican Republic — Ecuador— Haiti — 
Mexico — Paraguay— Peru — Republic of Central America — Uruguay. 

Social Progress 309 

.Vrgentina — Chile — Colombia — Cost Rica — Cuba — Ecuador — Mexico — Nicaragua — Para- 
guay—Republic of Central America— Uruguay — Venezuela. 

General Notes 315 

Bolivia — Brazil — Colombia — Cuba — Dominican Republic — Ecuador — Mexico — Nicara- 
gua— Panama— Peru— Uruguay 

Subject Matter of Consular Reports 317 

Book Notes 319 

III 




Photograph by Jas. F. Hughes Co. 

MOUNT VERNON PLACE AND THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT, BALTIMORE. 
Baltimore will be the scene of the Pan American Conference of Women, April 20 to 29, 1922. 




VOT.. LTV 



MARCH, 1922 



No. ^^ 



■J'Vyi'KN CI H 1,1', AND 






TT^'ipa Tp?\ T 



\ 



AT a meeting of the governing board of the Pan American 
/\ Union, February 8, 1922, Sr. Dr. Beltran Mathieu, the 
/ \ Ambassador from Chile, in referring to the recent Con- 
ference for the Limitation of Armament, addressed the fol- 
lowing remarks to Charles Evans Hughes, Secretary of State of the 
United States, and Chairman of the Governing Board: 

Mr. Secretary: 

The world's opinion has been formed as to the results of the Washington conference 
which has just brought its labors to a close with the plaudits of all mankind ringing in 
its ears. This universal applause was the more intense in view of the doubts with 
which the peoples, who had begun to feel themselves dominated by a general scepti- 
cism, had received President Harding's so happily inspired invitation. 

Although attendance upon the conference was limited to certain countries, and to 
special interests, its effects were not so limited. The spirit of the conference, the 
patience aiid wise labor of the statesmen who composed it, have created an atmosphere 
and pointed out the way. More than this, it has awakened a universal conscience 
that now believes in peace, that confides in peace, and will in the future force the 
nations to seek peace by means of those methods rather than by resort to force of 
arms. 

May we not be permitted to felicitate Secretary Hughes, our distinguished presid- 
ing officer, upon the successes in which he took such a leading part, since we have 
followed as sympathetic witnesses his great efforts toward the end now achieved? 

May we not be permitted to express our appreciation of the feelings of confideuce 
that have followed in the wake of this great event and that will esi)ecially permeate 
the atmosphere of this our Pan American home, under the roof of which has been 
written this beautiful page of history? ^ 



218 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

The Secretary of State, in reply, expressed himself as follows: 

My dear Mr. Ambassador and (jentlemen of the Governing Board: 

IVrniit nw to oxpross tlie deepest appreciatioji of the senti;nents that have heeu 
voiced hy the Aml)assador of Cliih". It wan my pri\'ilege, at the Conference on the 
Limitation of Armament, to express on behalf of all the delegates to that conference 
the gratitude which they felt for the action taken by the representatives of Latin 
America in permitting the use of this building for the purposes of the conference. 
It was a matter of regret that the Republics of Latin America could not take part 
directly in the proceedings of the conference, but that was by reason of the definite 
and limited object.s of the conference. Still, I hope that you all felt that you had a 
measure, and a very important degree of participation, and that this building will 
always be invested with the most gracious memories liy reason of the fact that the 
conference met within its walls. In this governing board room the heads of the 
delegations met and planned the order of procedure of the work of the conference. 
In this room also were held the meetings of the various technical subcommittees in 
preparing the work for the full committees of the conference. Here, also, met the 
Chinese and Japanese delegates, and it was at this table that the Shantung controversy 
was settled. [Applause.] That, I think you will agree vdth me, was one of the 
happiest events of this important period. 

In the Columbus Room, on the other side, met the Committee on the Limitation of 
Armament and also the committee dealing with Far Eastern questions, and through 
these spacious halls and corridors the delegates, almost every day for a period of 
nearly three months, passed to and fro, enjoying the privileges of those intimate 
interchanges which made possible their final agreement. 

All parts of this building, in one way or another, were utilized in the work of the 
conference. No place could have been better adapted for that work. The surround- 
ings of any undertaking are important, but when there is a great international meeting 
, t is most fitting that it should be appropriately housed. It was a matter of great 
pleasure to the American delegation that through your courtesy this building could 
be used for the committee work, as the Hall of the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion was used for the plenary sessions. 

I have said that the conference had a certain definite and limited aim. That is 
true, and that is the reason why the conference succeeded. The Ambassador of Chile 
has well observed, however, that its effects are not as limited as its definite purposes. 
The naA^al powers which were engaged in active and really wasteful competition in 
the building of monster ships for fighting purposes have reduced their navies and 
agreed upon an effective limitation. [Applause.] 

The indirect effect of that, I think, is very great. The fact that sea power has been 
bounded in this matter is a consideral)le acliievement, the exami)le of which can not 
fail to have effect in other countries. 

Peoples are not disposed at this time to see moneys raised by taxation spent unnec- 
essarily on instruments of destruction. I take it that the powers not represented in 
tliis conference will voluntarily very largely limit their expenditures for military and 
naval purposes, because of the public opinion arousetl throughout the world through 
the work that this conference has done. 

It is true that we did not succeed in effecting a limitation of auxiliary craft — that is, 
a limitation by agreement. But in limiting the size and number of these capital ships 
with respect to wliich the competition in construction was most keen, there has been 
in practical result a limitation upon auxiliary craft which will be observed in every 
country. There will l)e no disposition to permit extravagant outlays for these purposes. 

Again, in connection with the difficult Far Eastern problems, it has conclusively 
been shown that where there is a disposition to reach amicable adjustments it is not 
profitless to take counsel together. The most acute difficulties can be settled. lu 



THE CHILEAN-PERUVIAN CONFERENCE. 219 

this conference there was, on the part of all the delegations, a generous desire to 
cooperate which was manifested at every stage of the proceedings. We spent no 
time over details of procedure. We all had our national interests to safeguard; we 
proceeded as directly as possible to the ends to be attained. I think there is more 
hope in the world to-day [applause] because of what was achieved. We have had 
aspirations; we have had an intense desire to promote peace, but the way has been 
difficult and concrete dispositions have been relatively rare. It is fortunate that 
renewed hope may now spring up among the peoples of the earth that this dream which 
has been entertained so long is not incapable of realization. We have at least taken a 
long stride forward toward the goal that we have set before us. This hemisphere is 
peculiarly devoted to the interests of peace [applause]. Oirr relations are intimate; 
(»ur interests are interlaced and the condition which in all our countries we most desire 
is that of peaceful industry and happy intercourse with recij^rocal advantages. 

I hope that you will feel in Latin America that while you were not direct participants 
in this conference you are all strengthened and reassured l)ecause it has been held. 
Again, let me thank you most heartily, Mr. Ambassador, for the kindness which you 
have shown in the remarks you have made, and also express my gratitude for the many 
courtesies that have been enjoyed at the hands of this organization. [Applause.] 

During the course of the meeting, Secretary Hughes suggested 
as a tangible proof of the spirit of fraternity which animates the 
board that the hospitahty of the Pan American Building be extended 
to the delegates to the approaching Chilean-Peruvian Conference — a 
suggestion which was accepted with the most cordial unanimity. 
The Chilean Ambassador, in particular, expressed his pleasure in the 
following terms: 

For my part I am indeed grateful for the suggestion formulated by the Honorable 
Secretary of State and accepted by my distinguished colleagues, by which the hos- 
pitality of this edifice is extended to the projected conference between representati\'es 
of Chile and Peru. I am the more grateful because, in the remarks of the Honorable 
Secretary of State regarding the agreements reached at this same table by the dele- 
gates to the recent conference, I see a happy augury for the solution of the question 
to be discussed here by the Chilean and Peruvian delegates; and I can assure you 
that it will be in this same spirit that we shall attend the conference agreed upon, 
thus fully honoring the courteous suggestion of the Honorable Secretary of State. 

His Excellency, Sr. Don Federico Alfonso Pezet, Ambassador of 
Peru, who because of illness was unable to attend the meeting of the 
governing board, expressed his sentiments in this matter in a letter 
dated February 11, 1922, addressed to Dr. L. S. Rowe, Director 
General of the Pan American Union, in the following terms: 

May I, therefore, ask you to permit me to voice ray sentiments as Ambassador of 
Peru in thanking their Excellencies the Secretary of State and my distinguished 
colleagues in the name of my tJovernment and in my own for the unanunous support 
given to the motion of the Secretary of State to place the Pan American Palace at 
the disposal of the (lovernraents of Chile and Peru for the holding of our conferences. 
I feel that no better use could be given to the noble building than to be the meeting 
place for the representatives of two American Republics in their honest endeavor to 
seek a solution of a long-time unfortunate dispute. 

1 most earnestly express the desire that in the serene atmosphere of this (Capital 
<.'ity and in the home of the Pan American Union, the reunion of the sister liepublics 
may be an accomplished fact. 






:_d ;}^ 



Ihf TIIK UNl'i'KD STA'i'E 
EXPORT AND IMPOET 



By wS. S. HUEBNER. 

Expert ill Insurance to the Coiinnittee on the Mereltant Marine and Fisheries of the Honse 

of /le])rcsentiitires. 

WITHIN recent years, losses through theft, pilferage, and 
nondelivery have reached enormous proportions in Amer- 
can commerce. The point has been reached where this 
form of economic waste is proving such a powerful deter- 
rent to our export business as to require immediate action, both Gov- 
ernmental and private. As the chairman of the Committee on Theft 
and Pilferage of the American Manufacturer's Association, repre- 
senting between 70 and 80 per cent of the exporters of the United 
vStates, testified before the subcommittee on Marine Insurance of the 
Committee on the Merchant Marine and Fisheries: ^ "It is ahnost a 
truism to say that the foreign commerce of this country can not go on 
unless we reduce theft and pilferage; we can not continue to deliver 
merchandise contrary to the way it is ordered." 

To a large extent, the problem is world-wide. But our leading com- 
petitors, particularly Great Britain, have already undertaken to elimi- 
nate the causes of the trouble. It is essential that we keep pace with 
our competitors in the solution of the difficulty. The nation that 
effects a substantial improvement will be at a decided advantage in 
foreign markets as compared with countries which neglect the matter 
and continue to operate under the present conditions of appalling 
waste. The problem is strategically associated with the development 
of our foreign trade opportunities and the maintenance of an Ameri- 
can merchant marine. Failure to act promptly, with a view to at 
least meeting the efforts of leading competitors along the same line, 
will soon be bitterly regretted. 

1 Hearings on the subject of theft, pilferage, and nondelivery of export and import shipments were held 
before the subcommittee on Marine Insurance of the Committee ou the Merchant Marine and P'isheries 
House of Representatives, July 18-20, 1921. 

220 



THEFT AND PILFERAGE. 221 

EXTENT OF LOSS THROUGH THEFT AND PILFERAGE. 

Nowhere is the extent of such loss more accurate!}' reflected than 
in the rates charged by marine insurance companies for that type of 
hazard. A collection of such rates from leading American under- 
writers shows that, with respect to many of our foreign markets, the 
insurance rates covering theft, pilferage, and nondelivery are in 
excess — in some instances many times in excess — of those charged 
for all of the ordinary marine risks pertaining to cargo. Reliable 
reports, submitted to the Subcommittee on Marine Insurance last 
July, indicate that within the past two years theft and pilferage 
rates were increased from 200 to 500 per cent, and in a number of 
instances over 1,000 per cent, depending upon the market under con- 
sideration. Moreover, at the lower rates underwriters assumed the 
business willingly, whereas at the higher rates business is only taken 
more or less under pressure and under exceptional circumstances. 

The experience of a number of leading underwriters, who may be 
regarded as representative, will serve to emphasize the problem. 
Thus with respect to the Insurance Company of North America, 
theft and pilferage losses paid during 1916 amounted to $35,574, an 
amount equal to 3 per cent of the total losses paid by the company 
on all marine cargoes of every sort shipped to and from the United 
States. In 1917 the company paid $78,064, equal to 6,8 per cent of 
the total cargo losses, while in 1918, 1919, and 1920 the respective 
theft losses were $108,839, $332,041, and $1,027,414, and the respec- 
tive percentages of such losses to the entire cargo losses, 8.5 per cent, 
27 per cent, and 28 per cent. During the first four months of 1921 
the theft losses paid by this company amounted to $411,348, or at 
the rate of 43 per cent of the cargo losses. These figures, it should be 
noted, do not include inland marine risks, but are limited to ocean- 
going general merchandise of all kinds other than cotton. As the 
company points out, many of these kinds of merchandise, such as 
iron, hemp, jute, etc, suffer comparatively small theft losses, which 
would, of course, increase the percentages on the remaining classes of 
merchandise. 

The experience of the Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co, is equally 
astounding. During 1919 and 1920, that company collected $4()9,609 
in net theft and pilferage premiums and paid out in losses that 
were presented to the company by March 1, 1921, $536,773. No 
allowance having been made in these figures for the cost of operation, 
the company reports a loss of at least $140,000 on this type of business 
for the two years in question, notwithstanding the fact that ''(luring 
that period we had made drastic revisions of the rates to endeavor 
to keep up with the increase in losses, because month after month 
we found that the number of claims being presented was inci-oasing 



222 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

and the aggregate amount of these claims was mounting." Moreover, 
owing to the company's method of statistizing, "nondehvery" losses 
were not included in tlie alxne figure, although this type of loss, 
chiefly due to theft, also showed an enormous increase. Again, 
while the premium income can be determined accuratel}', it is 
impossible to know what the losses against premiums will be until 
months after the shipment leaves port. The company assumes 
accordingly that its experience, as finally determined, will be even 
more unfavorable than that indicated. In March, 1921, eight New 
York underwriting offices combined their figures covering theft, pil- 
ferage, and nondelivery losses paid for the three months of November 
and December, 1920, and January, 1921. As reported to the Con- 
gressional committee, the aggregate loss was SI, 204, 073, being at 
the rate of over $4,800,000 a year for the eight offices only. This 
figure, however, by no means represents the total loss, since there 
must be added the losses (1) of all the rest of the underwriting 
market, (2) those sustained by shippers who carried no theft and 
pilferage insurance, (3) those on imports into this country insured 
in the countries of origin and, (4) those on exports from this country 
insured in the countries of destination. 

Such heavy losses are naturally reflected in insurance rates. 
Prior to the war, only nominal theft and pilferage charges were 
made in connection with merchandise shipments, the rates to South 
American ports, for example, ranging from I per cent to 1 per cent. 
By July, 1921, the rates varied from f of 1 per cent to the United 
Kingdom, 1 to 1^ per cent to France and Spain, 4 to 5 per cent to 
Portugal, 3 to 5 per cent to Italy, and 5 to 15 per cent to Mexico 
and South America, depending on the ports under consideration. 
It is evident, therefore, that the problem is practically worldwide 
in extent. Complaints, however, have been particularly numerous 
with respect to the increase of losses, due to short delivery, in our 
Latin-American trade. 

The insurance companies must not be blamed for having advanced 
their rates so greatly. Rates of insurance, made as they are in a 
competitive market, must reflect the loss they are intended to cover 
plus cost of operation and a reasonable profit. The facts submitted 
during the recent investigation in Congress would indicate that no 
such profit has been made b}^ the underwriters. Instead, a con- 
siderable number of American companies found it necessary by the 
middle of 1921, despite the high rates, to withdraw altogether from 
this field of insurance. Underwriters, generally, have protested 
strongly against existing conditions, contending that the risk of 
theft and nondelivery is transferred entirely to them, despite the fact 
that they do not have the cargo within their custody and are thus 
not in position to exercise any supervisory control. Even when 



THEFT AND PII.FEKAOE. 223 

accepting tlie theft und nondelivery hazard, practically all leading 
underwriters follow the plan, with respect to the hazardous routes, 
of agreeing to pay not more than 75 per cent of any such claim, the 
merclumt being obliged to be a co-insurer for the balance. Merchants 
are thus placed in a very diflicult position, especially since many, if 
not most, of the carriers assume only a nominal liability under their 
bills of lading, and often expressly exempt themselves from all 
liability for theft and pilferage losses. 

THEFT LOSSES MILITATE AGAINST FOREIGN TRADE PROSPECTS. 

The foregoing statement of losses and insurance rates indicates the 
existence of an intolerable economic waste requiring correction at 
the earliest possible date. Even ignoring the element of foreign 
competition such needless waste should not be countenanced. But 
the fact is that foreign competition does enter into the problem most 
vitally. The high increase in rates to cover the theft hazard will 
represent a decided differential against our exports if any of our com- 
petitors should precede us in reducing such losses for their merchants. 
Under such circumstances existing abnormal insurance rates add to 
our exports a cost so high as to result in prohibitive prices for our 
products in the foreign market. 

Reduction of theft losses will redound to the benefit of all parties 
concerned, namely, shipper, carrier, consignee, and consumer. With 
respect to the shipper, present losses tend to kill his trade through the 
loss of his customers. Actual loss of the goods pilfered by no means 
constitutes the whole burden involved. Many prominent exporters 
have advised the writer that an even more exasperating phase of the 
problem is the loss of their market, developed only after long effort 
and great expense, through the dissatisfaction of consignees at not 
receiving their goods as per the terms of the agreement. Merchants 
only take insurance as a precautionary measure — as indemnity against 
possible loss— and have no desire to lose their merchandise in order 
to collect the insurance in dollars. What they want to do is to deliver 
their goods in the foreign market in sound condition, and in that way 
to give satisfaction to the trade. It is, therefore, a terrible discourage- 
ment to the shipper to be deluged with complaints from consignees 
and to be unable to convince them that the nondelivery of the mer- 
chandise is not due to any fault of his, that the goods were in good con- 
dition when delivered to the carrier, and that the matter was entirely 
beyond his control. Besides this, there is the trouble and expense of 
presenting and collecting numerous claims, a factor which in itsell 
constitutes so substantial an overhead charge as to render competition 
difficult. Nor is the shipper able to place the burden of loss on the 
consignee by contractual arrangement. Exporters testified that even 
where the consignee assumes the risk of loss the matter is reflected 



224 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

right back to the shipper with the result that, rather than lose the 
trade permanently, the latter assumes the loss or endeavors to collect 
it with a view to reimbursing his customer. In certain trades also 
the American exporter will be in competition with local manufacturers 
of the same product who are not obliged to meet the tlieft hazard now 
associated with ocean trade and who, therefore, need not charge up 
theft insurance in the price of their merchandise. Under such cir- 
cumstances the handicap of the American shipper may easily be 
understood. 

From the foreign consignee's standpoint, it is clear that he buys 
goods and not dollars. He buys goods because he needs them, and 
is quite as anxious as the shipper to have them arrive safely. Mere 
payment of theft losses in dollars can not be expected to placate him 
for the nondelivery of the merchandise itself. The foreign buyer 
wants to get his goods on time and at the least expense. Desiring 
the goods, let us say, for the spring trade, he orders them in time 
with this object in view. Imagine his temper when, instead of the 
goods, he receives only empty cases or explanations. As one wit- 
ness testified: "He is left without the ability to sell goods. Before 
he can buy a fresh supply his season is past and gone." With his 
overhead largely fixed he has been deprived of the opportunity, 
because of the absence of goods, of making his expected trade profit. 
And even where a portion of the consignment arrives, it is important 
to bear in mind that the sales price of that part will tend to be suffi- 
ciently increased to cover any loss incurred on the nondelivered 
portion. The ultimate consignee pays the cost, insurance, and 
freight, and these items, together with his expected trade profit, are 
passed on by him to the consumer. Hence, heavy theft and pilfer- 
age losses increase prices to the ultimate consumer. "The cost of 
all the goods shipped," as the saying is, "has to be charged against 
the percentage that arrives sound." 

By thus burdening shippers and consignees, directly and indi- 
rectly, theft and pilferage is responsible for the killing of trade in 
certain lines of merchandise and the serious reduction of traffic in 
many others. The disastrous effect upon ocean carriers must be 
apparent. After all, freight is the proverbial goose that lays the 
golden egg for carriers. It would seem that they should be most 
anxious to cooperate in the stamping out of the nefarious practice 
of pilfering cargo. The writer's attention has been called to many 
instances where valuable freight accounts have been shifted from 
one carrier to another simply because of a more reasonable disposi- 
tion on the part of the new carrier to protect cargo and to settle theft 
claims promptly and equitably. Ocean carriers above all other 
interests, it would seem, should be anxious to enhance friendly 
commercial relations between the United States and its southern 



THEFT AND PILFEKAGE. 225 

iieigliboi's. Yet in this trade, particularly, the theft and pilferage 
hazard has been responsible, by creating an unfavorable impression 
regarding the honesty of American exporters, for undoing much of 
the good that other agencies are so earnestly trying to accomplish 
in the way of cultivating freindly relations. 

SUGGESTED REMEDIES. 

Goods in passing from warehouse to warehouse, via railway, dock, 
ship, and foreign port, are necessarily in the possession of different 
interests. It is therefore difficult to determine at what particular 
stage of the entire process of transportation loss or damage to goods, 
especially through theft or nondelivery, has taken place. Insurance 
alone, it is clear, does not constitute a remedy. The mere payment 
of insurance claims does not reduce the economic waste one bit. 
The remedy lies in reducing or eliminating theft itself, as far as 
possible, at each stage of the international transportation. There 
is no royal road to a solution. Substantial headway in stamping out 
the practice can only be expected through cooperative effort on the 
part of all interests concerned, each with respect to the particular 
stage of the voyage during which it has custody of the goods. With 
this thought in view, the following program is suggested : 

(1) Improving the police and magisterial situation at our ports. — 
Underwriters, shippers, and ship operators were a unit in testifying 
during the recent investigation that much of the pilfering is done by 
truckmen handling packages between terminals; by longshore- or 
lightermen during the handling incident to stowage on ship board, 
including careless handling for the express purpose of facilitating 
theft, and by persons who obtain access to piers or stations while the 
goods are waiting transportation. The three interests referred to 
also emphasized the leniency with which theft of this kind is treated 
by the local authorities at many ports, and also pleaded the necessity 
of cooperation on the part of local authorities to secure conviction of 
"fences" which make a practice of purchasing the stolen goods. 
It was the general feeling of witnesses appearing before the Com- 
mittee, that acts of this character should be dealt with severely by 
the local authorities The Committee on the Merchant Marine and 
Fisheries, in cooperation with the United States Shipping Board, 
has already communicated with the mayors of our seaports and the 
governors of our maritime States with a view to having these autliori- 
ties use every available means adequately to safeguard our commerce 
and effectively to detect and speedily punish those who are causing 
the tr()uV)le The response has been very reassuring, and at various 
leading ports the situation is already receiving much more efl'ective 
handling by the police authorities than was previously the case. 



226 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

(2) Inducing shippers, especially tJirough their leading organiza- 
tions, to improve their methods oj pacTcing, to marJc pacl:ages in such 
manner as not to reveal their contents wherever that is possible, and to 
employ only bonded trucTcmen wherever possible, and, where independ- 
enfly employed, bonded lighterage and stevedoring concerns. — -The (com- 
mittee on the Merchant Marine and Fisheries is now communicating 
with the leading shippers' organizations of the country, representing 
some 90 per cent of the Nation's exporting and importing interest, 
witii a view to having them cooperate, and to influence their member- 
ship, along the various lines indicated. Considerable loss, it is true, 
is occasioned by the failure to pack into adequate containers the goods 
described in the bill-of-lading, and this sort of moral hazard will 
always have to be contended with to a certain extent. Yet much of 
the theft loss is attributable to the shipper's ignorance or indifference. 
Shippers have it within their power to materially reduce the theft and 
pilferage hazard by constructing packages so that they will indicate 
on examination the effort of having been opened. Nor is there any 
need foi- plastering the package with all sorts of advertising matter, 
indicating the nature of the contents. Certain excellent manuals 
in the interest of proper packing ai-c readily available and their wide- 
spread use should be brought about through educational efforts on 
the part of our leading shippers' and commercial organizations. 

(3) Increasing the liability oj carriers for thejt and pilferage losses, 
where traceable to the negligence of the carrier, with a view to bringing 
about a greater exercise of care. — -A substantial part of theft losses 
occur while the cargo is in the custody of the carrier. Underwriters 
and shippers were a unit during the recent investigation in asserting 
that under their bills-of-lading carriers assumed virtually no res- 
ponsibility, and that as a consequence there was no inducement for 
the exercise of reasonable care and diligence. The remedy, it was 
argued, should lie in the direction of getting ocean carriers back to 
their former responsibility which they have been permitted by statute 
and court decisions to contract themselves out of. Underwriters, 
particularly, ct)ntend that the entire risk of theft and nondelivery is 
transferred to them, without their being in a position to exercise any 
control whatever. 

As an incentive to proper care, it seems reasonable that carriers 
should be prevented from inserting provisions in their bills-of-lading 
to the effect that "the carrier is not responsible for pilferage or loss 
of contents," or that ''if the carrier becomes liable for any damage 
or loss to said merchandise he shall have the benefit of all insurance 
on said merchandise, etc.," or that " the carrier shall not be liable for 
any loss which can be insured against." It also seems reasonable 
(1) to require the carrier to assume liability for a much higher value 
(say $500) per package than the present nominal valuation of only 



THEFT AND PILFEEAGE. 227 

$100; (2) to have the burden of provmg freedom from habihty rest 
with the carrier, instead of with the shipper, whose disadvantage in 
this respect must be apparent since he does not have custody of the 
goods when they are lost; and (3) to require a reasonable time for 
the filing of claims instead of the ridiculously brief period (often 
only three or five days) now provided under many bills-of-lading. 
These and other bill-of-lading provisions, now commonly used by 
our ocean carriers, are being carefully studied, and it is hoped that, as a 
result, there will soon materiaUze a bill-of-lading better adapted to a 
spirit of fairness and more conducive to the protection of shippers. 
(4) Reducing losses at foreign ports. — This phase of the problem is, 
of course, beyond the control of the United States. During the re- 
cent congressional hearings there was much criticism of practices 
prevailing at certain foreign ports, and the wide difference in insur- 
ance rates attaching to our various foreign trade routes clearly indi- 
cates that the theft and pilferage hazard is not attributable solely to 
conditions prevailing in this country. As late as November 17, 1921, 
the wTiter received a communication from a prominent foreign source, 
explaining that most of the importers of that country had experienced 
losses on high-priced goods coming thi'ough a given port of that 
country which averaged 40 per cent of their total value over the past 
year, and that they were instructing their shippers in the United 
States to send all goods in the future via another port of the same 
country, as losses from pilferage at that port of entry were usually 
much smaller. We must and should frankly admit that a large 
share of the loss occurs at our own end of the line. But it is also 
evident that something should be done to improve conditions at the 
foreign end of the line. The problem is a mutual one. As indicated, 
we are attempting definite ways and means of improving our own situ- 
ation. We sincerely hope, however, that efforts will also be made 
simultaneously to improve conditions at the other end of the line. 




HE "HAGUE RULES'' AND 



A CONSTANTLY growing dissatisfaction has developed in 
recent years among shippers, insurance men, and under- 
writers with the lack of uniformity in ocean-going steam- 
ship bills of lading and the increasingly manifest disposi- 
tion of steamship companies to exempt themselves from every possible 
liability, until, as has been stated in Dr. Huebner's very timely 
article elsewhere in this present issue of the Bulletin, the steam- 
ships are, under the terms of their bills of lading, practically free from 
liability in connection with the safe conduct and delivery of their 
cargo. 

This dissatisfaction was very clearly voiced in the hearings on 
theft and pilferage in the House of Representatives last July and, 
later, in the sessions of the Maritime Law Committee of the Inter- 
national Law Association at The Hague, the deliberations of the 
latter body resulting in a comprehensive and far-reaching agreement, 
which, if put into practice in the form of a bill of lading, would go 
far toward removing the dissatisfaction to which reference has been 
made. 

Since the agreement in question is the only carefully considered, 
comprehensive, and specitic prtjposal thus far sul)mitted, it is to be 
hoped that it will have the support of merchant shippers, at least to 
the extent of directing the attention of their respective carriers 
thereto. 

The full text of The Hague agreement follows: 

ARTICLE I. DEFINITIONS. 

Ill tlicsi' nik's^ 

(a) "Carrier" iucliKkw the owner or the charterer who enters into a contract of 
carriage with a shipper. 

(6) "Contract of carriage" means a bill of lading or any similar document of title 
in so far as such document relates to the carriage of goods by sea. 

(c) "Goods" includes goods, wares, merchandise, and articles of every kind what- 
soever except live animals and cargo carried on deck. 

(d) "Ship" includes any vessel used for the carriage of goods by sea. 

(c) "Carriage of goods" covers the period from the time when the goods are 
received on the ship's tackle to the time when they are unloaded from the ship's 
tackle. 

ARTICLE II. — RISKS. 

Subject to the provisions of Article V, under every contract of caniage of goods by 
sea the carrier, in regard to the handling, loading, stowage, carriage, custody, care, and 
228 



THE "HAGUE KULES" AND BILLS OF LADING. 229 

unloacling of mich ,t;oocls, shall be sul)ject to the responsibilities and liabi lilies, and 
entitled to the rights and immunities, hereinafter set forth. 

ARTICLE III. — RESPONSIBILITIES AND LIABILITIES. 

1 . The carrier shall be bound before and at the beginning of the voyage to exercise 
due diligence to — 

(a) make the ship seaworthy; 

(b) properly man, equip and supply the ship; 

(c) make the holds, refrigerating and cool chambers, and all other parts of the 
ship in which goods are carried, fit and safe for their reception, carriage and pre- 
servation. 

2. The carrier shall be bound to pro\dde for the proper and careful handling, load- 
ing, stowage, carriage, custody, care, and unloading of the goods carried. 

3. After receiving the goods into his charge the carrier or the master or agent of the 
carrier shall on the demand of the shipper issue a bill of lading showing amongst other 
things — 

(«) the leading marks necessary for identification of the goods as the same are 
furnished in writing by the shipper before the loading starts, provided such marks are 
stamped or otherwise shown clearly upon the goods if uncovered, or on the cases or 
coverings in which such goods are contained, in such a manner as will remain 
legible until the end of the voyage; 

(b) the number of packages or pieces, or the quantity or weight, as the case may be, 
as furnished in writing by the shipper before the loading starts; 

(c) The apparent order and condition of the goods. 

Provided that no carrier, master or agent of the carrier shall be bound to issue a 
bill of lading showing description, marks, number, quantity, or weight which he 
has reasonable ground for suspecting do not accurately represent the goods actually 
received . 

4. Such a l)ill of lading issued in respect of goods other than goods carried in bulk 
and whole cai'goes of timber shall be prima facie evidence of the receipt by the carrier 
of the goods as therein described in accordance with section 3 (a), (b) and (c). Upon 
any claim against the carrier in the case of goods carried in bulk or whole cargoes of 
timber the claimant shall be bound notwithstanding the bill of lading to prove the 
number, quantity or weight actually delivered to the carrier. 

5. The shipper shall be deemed to have guaranteed to the carrier the accuracy of 
the description, marks, number, quantity, and weight as furnished by him, and the 
shipper shall indemnify the carrier against all loss, damages, and expenses arising or 
resulting from inaccuracies in such particulars. 

6. Unless %vi'itten notice of a claim for loss or damage and the general nature of such 
claim be given in wTiting to the carrier or his agent at the port of discharge before the 
removal of the goods, such removal shall be prima facie evidence of the delivery by 
the carrier of the goods as describe'! in the bill of lading, and in any event the carrier 
and the ship shall lie discharged from all liability in respect of loss or damage unless 
suit is brought within 12 months after the delivery of the goods. 

7. After the goods are loaded the bill of lading to be issued by the carrier, master, or 
agent of the carrier to the shipper shall, if the shipper so demands, be a "shipped " bill 
of lading, provided that no "received for shipment" bill of laaing or other document 
of title shall have been previously issued in respect of the goods. 

In exchange for and upon surrender of a "received for shipment " l)ill of lading the 
shipper shall be entitled when the goods have been loaded to receive a "sliippcd" 
bill of lading. 

A "received for shipment" bill of lading which has subsequently been noted by the 
carrier, master, or agent with the name or names of the ship or ships upon which the 
86028— 22— Bull. 3 2 



230 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

goods have been shipped and the date or dates of shipment shall for the purpose of 
these rules be deemed to constitute a "shipped" bill of lading. 

8. Any clause, covenant, or agreement in a contract of carriage relie\dng the carrier 
or the ship from liability for loss or damage to or in connection with goods arising from 
negligence, fault, or failure in the duties and obligations provided in this article or 
lessening such liability otherwise than as provided in these rules shall be null and void 
and of no effect. 

ARTICLE IV. — RIGHTS AND IMMUNITIES. 

1. Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be liable for loss or damage arising or result- 
ing from unseaworthiness unless caused by want of due diligence on the part of the 
carrier to make the ship seaworthy, and to secure that the ship is properly manned, 
equipped, and supplied. 

2. Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be responsible for loss or damage arising or 
resulting from — 

(a) act, neglect, or default of the master. marin(;r, pilot, or the servants of the 
carrier in the nav-igation or in the management of the ship; 

(b) fire; 

(c) perils, dangers, and accidents of the sea or other navigable waters; 

(d) act of God; 

(e) act of war; 

(/) act of public enemies; 

(g) arrest or restraint of princes, rulers, or people, or seizure luider legal process; 

(h) quarantine restrictions; 

(i) act or omission of the shipper or owner of the goods, his agent or representatives; 

(j) strikes or lockouts or stoppage or restraint of labor from whatever cause, 
whether partial or general ; 

(k) riots and civil commotions; 

(I) saving or attempting to save life or property at sea; 

(w) inherent defect, quality, or vice of the goods; 

(n) insufUciency of packing; 

(o) insufTiciency or inadequacy of marks; 

(/)) latent defects not discoveral)le by due diligence; 

(q) any other cause ari'-ing without the actual fault or privity of the carrier, or 
without the fault or neglect of the agents, servants, or employees of the carrier. 

3. Any de^dation in sa\'ing or attempting to save life or property at sea or any 
de\iation authorized by the contract of carriage shall not be deemed to be an infringe- 
ment or breach of these rules or of the contract of carriage, and the carrier shall not 
be liable for any loss or damage resulting therefrom. 

4. Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be responsible in any event for loss or 
damage to or in connection with goods in an amount beyond £100 })er package or unit, 
or the equivalent of that sum in other currency, unless the nature and value of such 
goods have been declared by the shipper before the goods are shipped and have been 
inserted in the bill of lading. 

By agreement between the carrier, master, or agent of the carrier and the shipper 
another maximum amount than mentioned in this paragraph may be fixed, provided 
that such maximum shall not be less than the figure above named. 

The declaration by the shipper as to the nature and value of any goods declared 
shall be prima facie e\ddence, but shall not be liinding or conclusive on the carrier. 

5. Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be responsible in any event for loss or 
damage to or in connection with goods if the nature or value thereof has been wilfully 
mis-stated by the shipper. 

6. Goods of an inflammable or explosive nature or of a dangerous nature, unless 
the nature and character thereof have been declared in writing by the shipper to the 



THE "HAGUE RULES" AND BILLS OF LADING. 231 

carrier before shipnient and the carrier, master, or agent of the carrier has consented 
to their shipment, may at any time before delivery be destroyed or rendered innocuous 
l)y the carrier without compensation to the shipper, and the shipper of such goods 
shall be Iia1)le for all damages and expenses directly or indirectly arising out of or 
resulting from such shipment. If any such goods shipped with such consent shall 
become a danger to the ship or cargo they may in like manner be destroyed or rendered 
innocuous by the carrier without compensation to the shipper. 

7. A carrier shall be at liberty to surrender in whole or in part all or any of his 
rights and immunities under this article, i)r()vided such surrender shall be embodied 
in the hill of lading issued to the shipper. 

AKTICI.K V. STKCrAI. CON IIITIONS. 

Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding articles, a carrier, master or agent 
of the carrier and a shipper shall in regard to any particular goods be at liberty to 
enter into any agreement in any terras as to the responsibility and liability of the 
carrier for such goods, and as to the rights and immunities of the carrier in respect 
of such goods, or his obligation as to seaworthiness, or the care or diligence of his serv- 
ants or agent in regard to the handling, loading, stowing, custody, care, and unloading 
of the goods carried by sea, provided that in this case no bill of lading shall be issued 
and that the terms agreed shall be embodied in a receipt which shall be anon-negoti- 
able document and shall be marked as such. 

Any agi'eement so entered into shall have full legal effect. 

ARTICLE VI. — LIMITATIONS ON THE APPLICATION OF THE RULES. 

Nothing herein contained shall prevent a carrier or a shipper from entering into 
any agreement, stipulation, condition, reservation, or exemption as to the responsi- 
bility and liability of the carrier or the shij) for the loss or damage to or in connection 
with the custody and care and handling of goods prior to the loading on and subse- 
quent to the unloading from the ship on which the goods are carried by sea. 

ARTICLE VII. — LIMITATION OF LIABILITY. 

The provisions of these rules shall not affect the rights and obligations of the carrier 
under the convention relating to the limitation of the liability of owners of sea-going 
vessels. 

RESOLUTIONS. 

As recommended by the maritime law committee and passed unanimously by the 
International Law Association in their meeting at The Hague on the 3d day of 
September, 1921. 

1. That in the 0])inion of this association international overseas trade and commerce 
will be ])romoted and disputes avoided, or the settlement thereof facilitated, if the 
rights and liabilities of cargo owners and shipowners, respectively, are defined at an 
early date by rules of a fair and equitable character with regard to bills of lading 
which shall be of general application. 

2. That the association approves under the name of "The Hague Rules, 1921," 
the rules as to carriage by sea framed by its maritime law committee which have 
been settled during this conference after consultation with representatives of the 
interests concerned from numerous maritime States, and recommends the same for 
international adoption. For the purpose of securing prompt and effective action the 
association relies upon the continuance of the cooperation among shii)owners, ship- 
pers, consignees, bankers, and underwriters present and represented at the conference 
which appears to render this proposal at the present time a ])ractical means of 
progress. 



232 



THE PAN AMJ<:KI('AN UNION. 



3. That in the opinion of the International Law Association, tliese rules should 
apply to ships owned or chartered by any government other than shii)s exclusively 
employed in naval or military service. 

4. That these rules be published in English and French, the official languages of 
this conference. 

5. That in the opinion of this association the use of the shipping documents known 
as "received for shipment" bills of lading and like documents has become in many 
cases a necessity of commerce. This association is therefore of opinion that the 
interests concerned should cooperate to remove difficulties which at present attend 
the use of such documents in the cases in which the necessity for their use is generally 
recognized . 

6. Whereas, spec^^al legislation on the subject dealt with l)y these rules exists in 
various States and is proposed in other States, and whereas it will only be possible 
in such States to bring these rules into operation if they be in accord with national 
legislation, it is in the opinion of this association desirable in order to secure uniform- 
ity that such legislation or proposed legislation shall be brought into harmony with 
these rules. 

7. That the executive of the maritime law committee be and is hereby authorized 
and requested to continue its action, in conjunction with the representative l)0(lie:s 
and interests concerned, in order to secure the adoi)tion of the said rules so as to make 
the same effective in relation to all transactions originating after January 31, 1922. 




DONA ISAIU'X Oi'' l3ilA. 
GANCA AND ORl/KANS, 

Dl j' I) i ) A "V f [ © c- o o © o 



By Lang WORTHY Marchant, 

Pan American Union Staff'. 

THE death of Dona Isabel of Bragan^a and Orleans, Countess 
d'Eu, and former Princess Imperial of Brazil, whicli oc- 
curred in Paris on the 14th of November last, struck a note 
of deep sorrow throughout the Brazilian Republic. Mourn- 
ing for the venerable lady, daughter of Dom Pedro Segundo the 
Magnanimous, who thrice occupietl the chair of state in the character 
of regent, and who, but for the revolution, would, in the natural 
course of events, have ascended the throne as Empress of Brazil, is 
not confined to any class, any religion, any political creed. Nat- 
urally her loss is felt most keenly among the survivors of the old 
imperial nobility, her acquaintances and personal friends, from whom 
she had been separated since the expulsion of the imperial family in 
1889; but she is remembered with mingled feelings of admiration and 
respect by the historic Republicans, participants in the revolution, 
which encompassed the downfall of her dynasty, while, among the 
Brazilians of the younger generation, I do not suppose there is one 
who does not feel a thrill of patriotic pride at the mention of his 
illustrious compatriot, who left so glorious an imprint upon the 
pages of his country's history. 

Dona Isabel Christina Leopoldina Augusta Michaela Gabriela 
Raphaela Gonzaga, Princess Imperial of Brazil, heir presumptive 
to the crown, was born in the Palace of Sao Christovao on the 29th of 
July, 1846, and was christened in the Imperial Chapel on the ir)th of 
November of the same year. 

On the 15th of October, 1864, she was married, in the city of Rio 
de Janeiro, to Prince Louis Philippe Marie Gaston d'Orleans, Count 
d'Eu, a grandson of King Louis Philippe, of France. 

The couple had three children, all sons: Dom Pedro, now the only 
surviving child, born on the 15th of October, 1875; Dom Luiz, born 

2^^■^ 




Knini :iii .ild portiait. 



DONA ISABEL, TRINCESS IMPERIAL 



DONA ISABEL OF BRAGANgA AND ORLEANS, 235 

on the 26th of January, 1878; and Dom Antonio, born on the 9th 
of August, 1881. 

Dona Isabel was a shining example of all the domestic virtues for 
which the typical Brazilian wife and mother is conspicuous. The 
Count, her husband, had been accorded by Parliament the title of 
Prince Imperial, and Consort. Technically, however, he had no 
direct part in the Government. Yet he was constantly busy in 
affairs of public interest, exerting himself in matters of education 
and social progress, in all of which things the Princess made it a 
point that he should take the lead. During the Paraguayan War he 
was created marshal of the empire, and distinguished himself in that 
long and arduous campaign. 

Dona Isabel occupies a place of peculiar distinction in Brazilian 
annals because of her direction of public affairs during the three 
periods in which she served as Regent. Paradoxical though it may 
appear to one not familiar with the evolution of the Brazilian nation- 
ality, Dona Isabel inherited from her imperial father the passion of 
democracy, and, while she accepted the pomp and trappings of her 
station as something which seemed to symbolize and substantiate 
the national institutions, her every thought on public affairs was 
bent toward the uplifting and advancement of the people as a whole. 
The poor and lowly were the objects of her special regard, and she 
devoted a great part of her time and resources, when not occupied 
with political affairs, to the organization and maintenance of institu- 
ti(ms of a public-spirited and philanthropical character. 

The condition of the slaves appealed to her very strongly. African 
slavery existed in Brazil, as in the United States, as a relic of colonial 
conditions. As in the United States, the institution was felt to be an 
evil, which must disappear sooner or later, the ''when" being a matter 
dependent on economical expedienc}^. Slavery in Brazil was not 
characterized by any particular forms of cruelty or severity in com- 
parison with the institution as it had existed in other countries, but 
there was a sentiment in favor of emancipation which extended as 
far back as the last quarter of the eighteenth century, a sentiment 
in which even many slaveholders participated. After the middle 
of the nineteenth century emancipation activities began to take 
on a more definite form. 

For a proper understanding of the problems of this stage of Brazil- 
ian politics one must bear in mind that there were two constitutional 
parties — the Conservative and the Liberal. The Conservatives stood 
for permanence, the stabilization of the existing institutions. The}" 
were the unconditional supporters of the throne, the defenders of 
the imperial prerogatives and of the centralization of power in the 
capital; and, of course, they favored the continuation of slavery. 
The Liberals were for diminisliing (he pr(>rogatives of tlie crown. 



236 THE PAX AMERICAX UjSTIOX. 

The}^ favored the difFusion of power among the provincial assemblies 
and the municipalities, and, in general terms, they desired the adoption 
of some policy leading to the suppression of slavery. 

It was part of the system that a defeated ministry could not stand, 
unless the sovereign chose to dissolve Parliament, in which case he 
must immediately call an election. Thus the sovereign might, if 
he saw fit, appoint a ministry from the minority, if he had reason 
to believe the majority had failed to voice the will of the constituents, 
and the issue was decided by an appeal to the voters. 

Dom Pedro Segundo, to whom is due the credit of the complete 
development of the parliamentary system of government in Brazil, 
could work equally well witli either party. Sometimes the Con- 
servatives remained in power during long periods of time, and some- 
times the Liberals held the reins year after year. On the other hand, 
it sometimes occurred that a party held office only during the interval 
between the dissolution of one Pai'liament and the convention of 
its successor. 

All this accorded with the plan of evolutional progress which 
Dom Pedro wSegundo had ado])ted as the invariable policy of his reign. 
His method was to seek the advancement of all the national interests, 
being always careful, however, not to do anything which might 
endanger the security, I will not say of the Empiie or the throne, but 
the transcendent fact of the national unity, which it was the destiny 
of his family to save and perpetuate. 

This is why he was always on the watch to discover the deep-run- 
ning currents of public sentiment, which it was always possible for 
him to meet and satisfy by seeing to it that the vital tendencies of 
the country were uppermost in the Council of State. Evidently the 
parliamentar}' system as he developed it was the only one which would 
have enabled him to attain his object. 

As regards the matter of slavery, Dom Pedro was desirous, from 
motives of humanity, to bring the institution to an end as speedily 
as possible; but he did not wish to do this at the risk of throwing the 
country into confusion. It became his definite object, therefore, 
to take the matter of slavery in hand before it slioukl have tune to 
assume the proportions of a grave political question. With this end 
in view, he outlined, with the assent of the Council of State, a plan 
by which the extinction of slavery would become a guaranteed fact, 
and which would, nevertheless, not meet with violent resistance on 
the part of the Conservatives. 

This plan w^as destined to be put into effect by the Princess Im- 
perial when she served as Regent for the first time, during the absence 
of the Emperor in Europe. 

Her prime minister was the Viscount of Rio Branco, father of the 
Baron of Rio Branco, who gained world-wide fame for his manage- 
ment of the boundary questions of Brazil. 




O C3 

o „- 



238 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

Rio Branco introduced a hill in Parliament for the emancipation 
of the children of all slave mothers. The passage of this bill meant 
that no more slaves could be born in Brazil. It passed rapidly 
through the three requisite readings in each house, and the Regent 
signed it without delay, on the 28th of September, 1871. 

That the passage of this law was not contrary to the wishes of the 
majority of the landowners and the people at large is attested hv 
the fact that the popularity of the Empire and the dynasty docs not 
seem to have suffered thereby. 

During the period extending from the 26th of March, 1876, to the 
25th of September, 1878, Dona Isabel was, a second time, called to 
the regency in the absence of the Emperor during his visit to the 
United States, where he had come to attend the Centennial Exhi- 
bition of Philadelphia in commemoration of the Independence of 
this country. This second regency, like the first, was noted for 
the large volume of important and progressive legislation which it 
produced. 

Ten years later, in 1888, Dona Isabel was at the head of public 
affairs for the third time. Now the scene was all changed. How 
different from the halcyon days of seventy-one, or even the stirring 
but hopeful times of 10 years ago. Her father was away in Europe, 
whither he had gone in search of relief for a serious physical malady. 
Instead of the old-time serenity and the safety of party boundaries 
there was now confusion in the constitutional ranks. During those 
years the abolitionists had grown in numbers and in the vigor of 
their activities, and the Republican Party had come into existence. 

In this emergency whom would the Regent call to her side? Had 
Dom Pedro been at the head of affairs we can divine that he would 
have sought his friends among the ultraconservatives of the Con- 
servative Party. It appeared to niatter little to Dona Isabel what 
were the party affiliations of her ministers provided they were 
abolitionists. Joao Alfredo was her Prime Minister, a Conservative 
leader who had adopted the abolitionist banner. And yet the 
purely monarchial elements of both constitutional parties stood 
ready to join hands in the support of the Regent and the dynasty. 

It seems to me that in those grave moments Dona Isabel had the 
clear perception of the transcendence of her mission, and the pro- 
found realization of a joy that no glittering crown could give, when 
she determined that the hand which had signed the first decree of 
emancipation should complete its task and leave no slaves in Brazil. 
A minister remonstrated, ''Your Highness, reflect that you are 
about to endanger the throne." "Be it so," she replied, ''even 
though the throne should fall, I desire the passage of this law." 

The bill was very short, the shortest, I believe, of which there is any 
record in the annals of the Brazilian Parliament: 'Slaveiv is abol- 



240 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

ished in Brazil. All dispositions to the contrary are hereby re- 
voked." 

The Princess signed the l)ill the very instant in which it was pre- 
sented toiler, on the 13th of May, 1888. The new law was accepted 
everywhere without a murmur. Public and private rejoicings took 
place in every city and town throughout the Empire, and for a time 
it appeared that the direct intervention of the throne in a political 
question of such radical import would not lead to any untoward 
results. But the prophecy of the minister was destined to bo ful- 
filled. The standard monarchical parties were seen crumbling at 
the edges and corners, while the disentegrated elements began to 
group themselves about the nascent ]lej)ublican nucleus. The 
Regent had with her own hand knocked down the pillars of her 
throne, and it was about to fall. 

Strange to say, or rather, naturally, if we reflect on the law of 
cause and effect, the old Conservative Party, the bulwark of the 
monarchy, was the first to show signs of deterioration with the 
desertion of whole phalanxes of its members who went over to the 
Republican camp. The last staunch defenders of the Empire and 
the Braganf/as were the Liberals, who were historically democratic 
to the point of being looked upon as half-way Rejjublicaiis. 

About a year and six months after the decree of abolition, the 
Empire came to an end. Dom Pedro Segundo had returned; but 
his journey had not afforded him any appreciable improvement in 
health. But his home coming had been the occasion of a monster 
demonstration of loyalty and affection. A veritable fever of loyalty 
appeared to have seized the populace. But it was the last upward 
spurt of the flame of the candle about to expire. The expressions 
of loyalty on the part of the manifesters were as sincere as they were 
enthusiastic, but they had no deep roots in any settled policy. These 
deep roots lay elsewhere, in the councils of the Re})ublican leaders, who 
did not swerve from the line of action which tliey had set out to follow. 

The aged Emperor was in no fit condition, physically, to cope 
with the difficulties which beset him on all sides. The Viscount of 
Ouro Preto was at the helm as President of the Council, or Prime 
Minister. Ouro Preto was an uncommonly brilliant statesman, and 
possessed a very powerful personality. He was well calculated to 
guide the ship of state in deep waters, however stormy; but there is 
reason to think that he was of too impulsive and hasty a nature to 
be a safe pilot over the breakers of a threatened revolution. 

A number of army leaders were known to be in sympathy with the 
Republicans. The Government attempted to scatter them through 
commissions to the remote Provinces. The measure oidy served to 
exasperate the army and add violence to the Republican agitation. 



DONA ISABEL Oi'^ BKAGANOA ANU ORLEANS. 241 

A plan was formed under the leadership of Gen. Benjamin Constant, 
an exponent of the positivistic school of philosophy, and president 
of the Military School, for the overthrow of the monarchy and the 
establishment of a Republic in its stead. 

The catastrophe was imminent, and yet the great body of the popu- 
lace, convinced through they were that the days of the Empire were 
numbered, had not the least idea that the end was to be so soon, and 
with so little warning. A like feeling of false security existed in the 
ranks of the supporters of the throne. All felt that possibly, some 
day, the Empire would be succeeded by a Republic, but no one had 
the least conception that the end was at hand. 

A few days before the revolution, I remember seeing for the last 
time the grand old Emperor Dom Pedro Segundo at the college 
which he founded and which bears his name, where he had gone to 
preside over a competitive examination for a professorship. Although 
not what one would be inchned to call an old man — he was not quite 
64 — his hair and beard were completely white, less with age than from 
the incessant cares which had weighed upon this imperial-democratic 
nation builder during the greater part of a reign of 59 years. But 
there was no change in the dignity of his demeanor, no sign in his 
look or his features of any concern for the future of the institutions of 
which he was the symbol. Nothing about him was different from 
the calm and unassuming assertion of majesty that characterized 
him on all state occasions. Did he know^ did he believe in the prox- 
imity of the catastrophe ? If he did, what an example of serenity and 
kingly dominion. 

The revolution declared itself in the early morning hours of the 
15th of November, 1889. The imperial family were at their summer 
residence in the neighboring town of Petropolis, where the Emperor's 
illness had taken a turn for the worse. His physician refused to 
allow the news to be communicated to him. The Empress, the Prin- 
cess and her husband the Prince Consort, could but concur in the 
doctor's decision, and so the crucial moments of the passing of the 
Empire lapsed unknown to the man whose mighty spirit had made 
it the instrument of the political and social organization of his coun- 
try. Let us picture to ourselves what must have been the feelings of 
the assembled family, and particularly of the Princess. 

Many friends and supporters of the regime thought that if Dom 
Pedro did but show himself on horseback in the streets of Rio before 
the revolution had time to settle, the populace would rise and crush 
the revolt. Whether this would have been the result it is hard to 
say. Probably there would have been resistance and bloodshed, 
possibly civil war. On the other hand, it is not certain that Dom 
Pedro Segundo, even had he been in the enjoyment of health and 



242 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

strength, would have so acted at all. In fact, in the light of the 
policy of his whole reign, I do not believe he would have wished to 
retain the scepter at the cost of the blood of his countrymen. It is 
entirely probable that the Princess would have concurred in the 
same sentiments, a supposition which is confirmed by her conduct 
durhig the 32 years of her banishment. The tragedy of the de- 
thronement and expulsion came upon her Hkc a thunderbolt. It 
filled her with anger and indignation, but thcie was nothing in (his 
anger, nothing in its expression, which might in(lica((^ (hat she would 
have it otherwise at the expense of a ivacdon. "Senhor Mallet,'' 
she exclaimed to the general who brought hei- the pleasure of the new 
Government. "You gentlemen are certain to rue the step you are 
taking." But these were the last words of impatience which she was 
known to utter with reference to the events of which she and her 
house were the central figures and victims. 

The family were brought down as prisoners from Pctroj)olis and 
lodged in the Imperial Palace near the waterfront of Pliaroux. Fiom 
there they were taken, in the small hours of the morning, on board 
the steamer that was to bear them away into exile. Tlie Empress 
died shortly after their arrival in Lisbon; Doni Pedro a little later, 
in Paris. It was liis p(>culiar good fortune (ha( his fame sufl'ered no 
ultimate loss even thougli he had been detlironed and exjx'Ued from 
the country which he had rul(>(l. During the first years of the Repub- 
lic, as was natural, it became the fashion to be silent with reference 
to those who had been great in the fallen regime. But as the new 
institutions gradually settled, and the Republic entered into the 
unchallenged possession of its inheritance, natural affection, grati- 
tude, and all the like kindlier feelings regained possession of the 
Nation's heart with regard to those dead and absent rulers who had 
loved Brazil so well. 

Durmg last year the National Congress passed a law repealing the 
decree of banishment and providing for the return of the remains of 
Dom Pedro, the Empress Dona Thereza Christina, and other members 
of the family. 

Dona Isabel received the news with a deep sense of pleasure, but 
not with the joyous enthusiasm with which she would have hailed the 
glad tidings had they arrived a little sooner. The long, long years of 
her exile had been cheered with the ardent hope that some day she 
might be permitted to revisit the land of her birth. By the irony of 
destiny, however, the long looked for hour arrived too late. The 
burden of her years and sorrow for the death of her two sons in rapid 
succession, one of whom fell in the cause of the Allies in the World 
War, had broken her healtli and strength to the point that she felt 
entirely unequal to the fatigue of the journey. 80 it devolved upon 



DONA ISABEL OF BEAGANCA AND ORLEANH. 



243 



her liusbaiid, Prince Gaston d'Orleans, and their remaining son, Dom 
Pedro, to accompany the remains of the Emperor and Empress back 
to their beloved Brazil. 

Their reception was at once expressive of respect for the bearers of 
a sacred charge and the pleasure of welcoming home long absent and 
honored friends and countr3nnen. But the pleasure was dampened 
by the absence of the beloved lady upon whom the people had long 
since bestowed the affectionate appellation of Isabel the Redeemer. 

A Brazilian writer recording her death, observes that the absent 
never grow old. This being so, it is perhaps best that the image of 
the fair-haired Dona Isabel, as it lives in the memory of her contem- 
poraries should suffer no change, and that instead of the weak, infirm 
old lady, bowed under the weight of disaster and sorrow, the picture 
that is to survive from tradition in the hearts of future generations 
be that of the august Princess Isabel, in the splendor of her youth 
and the plenitude of her imperial power. 

By virtue of a presidential decree she was accorded funeral honors 
due to the head of the Nation. Like tributes were offered to her 
memory by the two houses of the National Congress, by the various 
State governments, and by innumerable civic bodies throughout the 
length and breadth of the Republic. But among all the expressions 
of homage that have been lavished upon the departed Princess there 
is none which, could she be cognizant of them, would please her so 
much as the enduring affection in which she is held in the hearts of 
her countrymen. 




SKCTION OF EDUCATION 
' TilK PA^f AM I 'R (CAN 



REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE GOVERNING BOARD OF THE PAN AMERI- 
CAN UNION AT THE MEETING OF JANUARY 4, 192'J, BY FRANCISCO 
J. YANES, ASSISTANT DIRECTOR, IN CHARGE OF THE SECTION. 

During the year that has passed since I had the honor to submit 
the last report on the Section of Education in my charge, this impor- 
tant division of the Pan American Union has unceasingly devoted its 
energies to the work which it was created to perform. 

If the labors of the section have not met with all the success that 
was anticipated, in view of the interest shown in the correspondence 
it has received, it has been due mainly to the economic conditions 
under which the whole American continent has been and still is labor- 
ing. This abnormal situation has prevented students of moderate or 
very limited income, wdio are the ones that most frequently call upon 
the section, from making the journey to the United States; and those 
who by dint of sacrifices might have done this would have found them- 
selves financially so straitened here that they have not dared to 
venture on making the trip. 

As typical, there may be cited the case of six teachers sent by 
their Government, whom the Section of Education, after extensive 
correspondence, was able to place advantageously in the summer 
school of one of the American universities. They came all the way 
to New York, and were then obliged to return home for financial 
reasons, abandoning their plan, and not without some inconvenience 
to the institution that was expecting them. When the circumstances 
were explained, however, the university understood the situation and 
renewed its offer for the following year. 

During the year just closed the Section of Education was consulted 
by 114 students (105 men and 9 women), as follows: from Argentina 
21, Bolivia 6, Brazil 10, Chile 4, Colombia 9, Costa Rica 1, Cuba 12, 
Dominican Republic 2, Ecuador 2, Guatemala 3, Honduras 2, Mexico 
7, Panama 2, Peru 11, Salvador 2, Uruguay 2, Venezuela 4. There 
were also 3 inquirers from Porto Rico, 2 from Spain, and 9 who did not 
state their nationality. By branches of study, they were classified as 
follows: Engineering 29, commerce 17, medicine 14, pedagogy 14, 

244 



SECTION OF EDUCATION. 245 

secondary education 12, dentistry 2, natural sciences 2, liberal arts 2, 
agriculture 1, pharmacy 1, school for defectives 1, and 19 general 
inquiries. Of these 114 students, 15 were offered free tuition; a third 
of the remainder requested financial assistance of some sort. 

It is a pleasure to state that in most cases, when the applicants 
have the necessary preparation, there is no serious difficulty in securing 
their entrance. The section arranged for the admission of 8 new 
students to various institutions of this country, 3 of whom receive 
free tuition; exemption from tuition fees was also obtained for 11 
students already in American universities, whose work had been 
satisfactory; letters of introduction and recommendation were fur- 
nished to 3 teachers who were making a trip of study and observation ; 
16 cases were still pending at the end of the period. Eleven students 
for whose admission the Section of Education had carried on more 
or less extensive negotiations were obliged to withdraw, most of them 
for financial reasons. Inquiries were received from 65 students who 
did not meet requirements. 

In addition to the students just mentioned, 21 teachers (15 men 
and 6 women) applied for positions in this country, 11 of whom 
wished to carry on studies while teaching. Places were found for 
six of these, and a position was offered to another who was unable 
to come to the United States. 

These figures may seem very small, and indeed are, in comparison 
with the total number of Hispanic-American students in this country. 
These students may be divided into three classes: those who come 
on the recommendation of personal friends, the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association or other organizations in close touch with students; 
those who receive allowances from the Latin-American Govern- 
ments; and those who come at a venture, and either through the aid 
of fellow-countrymen here, or by the kindly assistance of the Young 
Men's Christian Association's Committee on Friendly Relations 
Among Foreign Students, the Institute of International Education 
in New York, etc., are enabled to enter some institution. Many of 
these, however, lose time unnecessarily. The greater part of the 
students are unaware of the services offered by the Section of 
Education; others do not think it necessary to apply to the section 
because they are planning to attend some special institution about 
which they have heard from friends. Those who are guided by the 
advice of persons intimately acquainted with American educational 
institutions are in fact generally not in need of the services that the 
section can render. It could, however, be of great assistance to 
many of the government students and those who come without any 
settled plans, and it is worthy of note that many 3'Oung Latin- 
Americans who have come to the United States to study, becoming 

86028— 22— Bull. 3 3 



246 THE PAX AMEEICAN UNION. 

convinced that their own efforts are not sufficient, apply to the 
Section of Education for advice or for assistance in arranging their 
admission to some educational institution. 

During the year 14 students of the United States (10 men and I 
women) wrote to the Section of Education for information regarding 
subjects that they might profitably study in Latin America. Of 
these, two wished to go for the purpose of studying commerce ; four 
were interested in a possible exchange of students between schools 
of this and the other countries, and five were instructors who desired 
to fit themselves better for the teaching of Spanish, etc., by visiting 
some of the countries south of the United States. Two women 
teachers did make trips, provided with letters of introduction from 
the Section of Education; one took a course at the National Univer- 
sity of Mexico, and the other traveled to South America, perfecting 
her knowledge of Spanish while visiting the principal educational 
centers at the capital cities. 

Applications were received from 10 American teachers (15 men and 
31 women) who wished to secure positions in Latin American schools 
or universities. It should also be stated that letters were received 
from 56 other teachers who cither lacked the necessary qualifica- 
tions or were not suflSciently interested to make out formal appli- 
cations. Of the applicants referred to above, 23 were recommended 
by the wSection of Education to various Hispanic-American countries, 
and two are known to have obtained places, one in Peru and the 
other in Porto llico. 

During the year the section received 1,209 letters, an increase of 
34 per cent over the previous year; it sent out 1,367 communications, 
or 2S per cent more than the year before; and in addition 1,700 
circular letters. A detailed index is kept of all inquiries received 
and answered, a record of the experience and qualifications of teachers 
desiring to go to Latin America, certificates of the studies pursued 
by Latin-American students, and, in short, all information needed 
to answer the inquiries received and make appropriate recommenda- 
tions. 

At the request of the Colombian Legation in Washington, the 
section entered into negotiations to secure a kindergarten teacher 
who could speak Spanish to go to Cartagena. The names of various 
competent persons were furnished, but the negotiations had to be 
broken off for financial reasons. The University of Guatemala 
requested the section to obtain for it the general regulations govern- 
ing universities in the United States and Latin America, and these 
were secured by addressing the institutions referred to. The section 
also procured for Guatemala various publications of the United 
States Bureau of Education relative to the teaching of hygiene in 
the schools, and at the present time is engaged in obtaining for the 



SECTION OF EDUCATION. 247 

School of Medicine and Surgery of Guatemala data relative to mod- 
ern types of buildings which will be of assistance in the reconstruc- 
tion of that school. For the Mexican Department of Agriculture 
the section secured information regarding agricultural schools in 
the United States; and the director of the National (Jommercial 
School of Peru was furnished certain data requested by him concerning 
commercial education in Latin America. 

The work of propaganda carried on by the Section of Education 
may be summed up as follows : 

In the Bulletin of the Pan American Union an offer was published, 
and was reproduced in several South American papers, placing the 
services of the Section of Education at the disposal of educational 
officials and of parents, in meeting young students on their arrival, 
if duly informed in advance, and assisting them to reach their des- 
tination; obtaining reports direct from the school authorities relative 
to the student's work, progress, etc., and taking charge of his funds 
whenever possible. 

Articles were published in the Bulletin on agricultural and en- 
gineering instruction in the United States; these also have been 
reprinted. 

A committee of teachers was organized in Habana, in accordance 
with a plan drawn up by the Section of Education, to serve as a 
clearing house for teachers and students desirous of coming to the 
United States. This plan has worked so well that the Section of 
Education would like to see a committee of this kind established 
in each of the capital cities, at least, of Latin America. 

To the departments of education of the various states of the Ameri- 
can Union and of some cities, the Section of Education offered its 
services in securing teachers of Spanish from among those who have 
applied to the section for positions. 

A circular was addressed to the colleges and universities of the 
United States urging the employment of competent Latin American 
students as assistants to the Spanish professors. Six are known to 
have been engaged in this capacity. 

Publicity has been given, both in the Bulletin and through cor- 
respondence, to the summer courses for teachers offered by Mexico, 
and several American teachers were recommended to a private school 
in that country, in response to the request made of the section by 
tlie director of the school. 

The section has not neglected to encourage the study of Spanish, 
Portuguese, and the history and geography of the Latin-American 
countries in the educational institutions of this country, furnishing 
pamphlets and periodicals in these languages to those who have 
requested them, as well as information and advice to teachers who 
have asked the help of the section. 



248 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

Two papers on phases of education in Latin America have been 
prepared, one for the Foreign Relations Committee of the National 
Education Association and the other for the National Association of 
State Universities. 

The United States Bureau of Education has continued to lend its 
hearty cooperation to the work of the Section of Education, furnishing 
information that has been requested from time to time; a cordial 
spirit of helpfulness toward the work of the section has likewise been 
shown not only by the organizations already mentioned, but also by 
the American Association of University Professors, which offered the 
Section space in its journal, and the American Council on Education, 
which appointed the head of the Educational Section as a member 
of its Committee on Latin-American Credentials. 

In response to the request of the Central American Student Feder- 
ation at Guatemala, which planned to hold a Pan American congress 
of university students in the month of September, as a result of 
the efforts of the Section of Education Georgeto^\^l University sent 
two representatives, students from the University's School of Foreign 
Service being selected. On their return to Washington they expressed 
themselves as greatly pleased at the attentions they received. 

The section has rendered services to the Mexican-American Scholar- 
ship Foundation, which, as its name indicates, devotes itself to encour- 
aging the interchange of students and professors between the United 
States and Mexico. The Director General of the Pan American Union 
was appointed honorary president of the foundation and the writer 
a member of the committee for the United States. 

It has likewise cooperated with the Pan American Student League 
organized in New York, in the development of its plan for holding a 
Pan American Congress of Students about the middle of 1922, prob- 
ably in Washington. 

Believing that the summer courses abroad that have been estab- 
lished by such educational organizations as the American Association 
of Teachers of Spanish are of unquestioned importance in cultivating 
closer relations between the educational and cultural elements of the 
different American republics, the Section of Education lent its aid to 
the trip to Venezuela made by a group of Spanish teachers in July 
and August, and the visit made by several others to Mexico. The 
section desires to cooperate toward establishing a steady current of 
teachers and students from all the countries of America, either during 
the school vacations or at any other time, and will gladly do anything 
in its power to assist in carrying out such excursions. 

During the coming year, the Section of Education plans to prepare 
and send to all the press of Latin America a series of articles on 
education in the United States, the different branches of study, 
admission requirements, etc., hoping that they will receive wide pub- 



SECTION OF EDUCATION. 249 

licity. It will likewise supply to United States periodicals and jour- 
nals that give attention to progress and events in the professional 
and student world, monographs on education in Latin America, 
studies that may be pursued there, etc., in order to popularize a 
knowledge of this subject, so important in the cultural life of peoples, 
and to enable those who desire to complete their education in another 
country to properly prepare for it. 

The interchange of students and professors is a subject that 
claims much of the attention of the Educational Section, whicli 
would be glad to serve as a central office for the movement as soon 
as concerted plans can be worked out for its development. 

The section also desires to act as an agency for promoting the ex- 
change of publications between educational institutions of Latin 
America and the United States, in order to disseminate a better 
knowledge of the progress made by the nations of America in the 
various phases of the educational field. 

It is also anxious to have committees of teachers, either of an 
official character or otherwise, organized in each of the capitals and 
principal cities of Latin America, to serve as intermediaries between 
the students and teachers that may wish to come to the United 
States, on the one hand, and on the other the Educational Section, 
which woukl supply these committees with all needed information. 
In Habana, as has already been stated, there is now such a com- 
mittee, appointed by Dr. Ramiro Guerra, professor of pedagogy at 
the Normal School for Men, in cooperation with the Section of 
Education, which submitted a tentative scheme of organization for 
the committee. 

In carrying out all these plans the Section of Education is count- 
ing on the cooperation of the members of the governing board and 
the personal efforts of the Director General of the Pan American 
Union, whose special interest in educational matters, advice, and 
practical knowledge of the subject have given a decided impulse to 
the Section during the past year. 

The detailed part of the work is still handled by Miss Helen L. 
Brainerd, who, in addition to her other duties, devotes time and 
thought to the success of the labors of the Educational Section. 




'\^K\:\:[m:)\x^\, m 'i'((K pan 



PLANS are well under way for the Pan American Conference of 
Women called by the National League of Women Voters for 
April, 1922, in connection with the league's third annual con- 
vention, with the idea that such a conference will have a 
definite helpful effect upon inter- American friendliness. 

Secretary of State Hughes, who is in close sympathy with the 
project, will be the principal speaker at a mass meeting which is to 
be held in Washington, April 28, and w^hich has been designated in 
the conference program as ''Washington Day." 

Secretary Hughes, who breaks a precedent established when he 
became Secretary of State in accepting the invitation extended to 
him by Mrs. Maud Wood Park, president of the National League of 
Women Voters, to speak at this conference, says in his letter of 
acceptance: 

The effort to assenil)le representative women of North and South America in a Pan 
American women's conference is of special interest to all who desire to promote a 
better understandinti between the American Republics. In many Latin American 
countries, as in the United States, women are taking an increasingly large part in the 
study and solution of the social problems which will be discussed at your meeting, 
and an interchange of views in regard to these problems can not but be helpful to all. 
I feel confident that your conference will again demonstrate the spirit of Pan American 
cooperation which has made successful such gatherings as the Pan American Scientific 
and Financial Conferences. Yoti have my best wishes for the success of your 
undertaking. 

The National League of Women \'oters has received, with gratifi- 
cation, messages from the South and Central American Republics, 
expressing interest in the conference. Among the eminent ]jatin 
American women who have expressed their desire to attend the con- 
ference are Miss 13ertlia Lutz, of Brazil; J)r. Alicia Moreau, of Argen- 
tina; and Senora Amalia Mallen de Ostolaza, of Cuba. Acceptances 
of the official invitations are beginning to come to the league, and the 
names of the official delegates will soon be announced. The Domini- 
can Republic has already announced that its official representative 
will be Miss Ana Teresa Pelidas. Miss Pelidas is the first woman to 
qualify as a practicing lawyer in the Dominican Republic. 

The National League of W^omen Voters is an organization having 
for its purpose the training of women to play an intelligent part as 
citizens of the United States. It exists in order tliat tlie women of 
250 



252 THE PAX AMERICAN UNIOK. 

the Nation may have an opportunity to come together for the dis- 
cussion of pubHc problems in their bearing upon the welfare of 
women and children, and that they may study the legislative pro- 
grams with a view to working for improved legislation and the 
upholding of efficient government. It is not a separate political 
party in any sense of the word, for the league believes that men and 
women have a common stake in civilization, a common interest in 
good government, and that only through the cooperation of men and 
women can the best results be obtained. 

Branches of the National League of Women \'oters are organized 
in each of the 48 States. The general annual convention is held, in 
accordance with the invitation of the State leagues, in a different 
State each year, that of 1922 having been extended by the Maryland 
League of Women Voters, under the leadership of Mrs. Charles E. 
Ellicott. 

Baltimore, in which the Pan American Conference of Women and 
the third annual Convention of the National League of Women 
Voters will be held, has for 200 years been famous for its hospitality. 
Plans for the entertainment of the distinguished guests and visitors 
have been made on a scale to maintain these traditions. 

The site of old Baltimore was selected by Benedict Leonard Calvert, 
one of the early governors of Maryland. Its location, at the head of 
Chesapeake Bay, was particularly advantageous, as the need of a port 
was keenly felt by the growing Province of Maryland. 

Much of the romance of the old South clings to the older and 
quainter sections of the city, distinguished by the famous white mar- 
ble steps and colonial (loorwa3's that are the delight of visiting artists. 
On the site of the Cathedral, blessed for so many years by the pres- 
ence of the best loved of American prelates, James Cardinal Gibbons, 
once camped the soldiers of General Wasliington. To-day, from the 
lieights of Charles Street, the first statue ever erected to Washington 
looks down on this spot. At the foot of Charles Street, overlooking 
the harbor, are the stocks where offenders against the Maryland Blue 
Laws were once placed to meditate on their sins. 

In recent years, the advent of the motor car has made it possible 
for Baltimoreans to enjoy the spacious grounds of a country home 
and at the same time conveniently reach the city. The suburban 
development has extended into the Green Spring Valley, out on the 
Rolling Road and Old York Post Road of colonial days. It is in these 
homes that the delegates to the conference will be entertained. A 
series of dinners and receptions in the historic homes of the city and 
vicinity has been arranged. April is a particularly lovely month in 
Maryland, and trips over the perfect roads of the State by motor have 
been planned. 



BALTIMORE, IN THE PAN AMERICAN CONFERENCE. 253 

In Baltimore, the Walters Art Gallery will be opened, and special 
trips to the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Fort McHenry will be ar- 
ranged. It was the flag flying from Fort McHenry that inspired 
Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner, the national 
anthem of the United States. 

The Maryland League of Women Voters is one of the youngest of 
the State leagues. It was organized in 1&20, after the ratification of 
the nineteenth amendment to the Federal Constitution giving women 
the right of suffrage. Its work, so far, has been chiefly educational. 
Classes in the science of being a good citizen have been held in every 
part of the State. These lectures have dealt with the practical prob- 
lems of the State and local governments and have been designed to 
give the women citizens a clearer understanding of the value of the 
newly acquired ballot, and of the practical service they may render 
through its use to State and country. 

The general assembly of the State, in its bi-yearly session, will take 
place this year. A program of legislation has been prepared by the 
league and presented to the assembly for its consideration. This 
program includes such subjects as a State department of child hygiene, 
a children's code commission, mothers' pensions, and laws for the 
equal guardianship of children and for the protection of both boys and 
girls to the age of 18. Other worth-while achievements of the league 
include an industrial survey of the State dealing with health prob- 
lems in the factories and industries employing women, which it is 
hoped will be the basis of legislation for the better protection of the 
health of the women of the State. 

Public work is a new adventure for the women of Maryland, and 
they are feeling their way slowly, but already with creditable results. 
They are eager to meet their Pan American sisters and to hear what 
has been done in the Latin American Republics in the cause of child 
welfare and other movements in which women take a special interest. 

The 10 days of the conference will be so planned that the visitors 
may see as much as possible of the city and the surrounding country. 
The governor of Maryland, the mayor of Baltimore, business and pro- 
fessional men, and the commercial organizations, are cooperating with 
the league that it may be a complete success. 




THE 1 1 DM I', OF "MARIA; 

HEROINE OF SOUTH AMERICA'S GREATEST NOA'EE. 



By Wilson Popenoe, 

Agricullural Explorer for the United Stales Drjxirlwenl of Agriculture. 

IT IS generally conceded that "Maria," l)y Jorge Isaacs, is one of 
the greatest novels yet produced in Latin America. This dis- 
tinction is due not more to the fact that it is a poignantly sweet 

story of romantic love, done by a master hand, than to the de- 
lightful descriptions which it contains of life in the Cauca Valley of 
Colombia about the middle' of the last century. The vivid descrip- 
tions of Caucan scenery, of the simple pleasures of the countryfolk, 
and of the daily routine of a Colombian farm, offer abundant proof 
of the literary genius of one of South America's greatest novelists. 

To me, the story loses much of its charm when translated into 
English. Perhaps it is because our language does not lend itself so 
well as does the Spanish to the fine portrayal of romantic feeling; 
perhaps it is because the work gains much of its unique flavor from 
the abundant use of Caucan colloquialisms whicli do not permit of 
faithful translation. 

If I am correct in believing that the English version is greatly 
inferior to the original Spanish in literary merit, it is easy to under- 
stand why the book has not become as popular in North America as 
it is throughout the Spanish-speaking portions of our hemisphere. 
When the visitor to Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, or any one of a dozen 
other Latin American Republics falls to discussing literature with 
his newly-made Latin ac(piaintances, some one is almost certain to 
in(|uire, "Have you read 'Maria'?" Up to the present, I have 
failed to encounter a single educated Latin American who has not 
done so, and it seems to be the general custom to read it during earl,\ 
youth — the most impressionable period of one's life. The tragic 
ending of the story, as well as the tensely dramatic scenes of one or 
two of the earlier chapters, stir the emotions to their very depths 
and leave imperishable memories. 

The principal characters are two: Efraim (who is none other than 
the author himself) and his cousin, Maria. Efraim's father was an 
English Jew, who came to the Cauca \ alley from Jamaica, after 
having married the daughter of a Spanish sea captain and embraced 
the Christian religion. Maria was the daughtei- of Efi'aim's uncle, 

254 



THE HOME OF "MARIA." 



255 



Solomon, and had been left an orphan while still a bab}-. It had 
been one of Solomon's last requests that his })rother should lake 
the child and bring her up as a member of his own family. 

I^^fraini and his cousin Maria were thus thrown together (hu'ing 
childhood days upon the farm in the (-auca Valley, which was later 
the scene of the most tragic portion of the romance. While still a 
child, Efraim is sent aw^ay to school in Bogota, where he remains 
six years. When he returns he has reached young manhood, and 
Maria is in the full bloom of early youth. Efraim finds himself in 
love with his cousin, and the ensuing months are the most happy and 
idvUic of his life. 




LOOKING ACROSS THE CAUCA VALLEY FROM MARIA'S HOME. 

" I'poti the western mountains, clear and blue, lay the yellow churches of Call, and at the foot of the 
slopes the villages of Yunibo and Viies shown white, "like huge flocks of sheep." ( Maria, Chapter 
Lirr.j 



A cloud, however, hangs upon the horizon. The family desires 
that Efraim go to London to complete his education, and the dreadful 
thought of separation constantly disturbs both himself and Maria. 
\'ery shortly Maria suffers an attack of the hereditary disease which 
caused the death of her mother. The physician called from Call to 
attend her prophesies at first that she will die from the complaint 
within a few years, and Efraim 's despair is complete. Later, how- 
ever, the girl's condition improves so markedly that Dr. Mayn 
retracts his prophecy. Efraim again sees his way clear to man-y 
his adored cousin, but still lives under (he terror of two years of 



THE HOME OF "MAHIA." 25V 

separation if he goes to Europe. Shortly his father receives news 
that he has lost his fortune; Efraim seizes the opportunity to insist 
that the family give up the idea of spending a large sum upon his 
education and urges his father to let him stay in the Cauca and 
assist in managing the farm. In this he is, of course, impelled 
more by his desire to remain by the side of Maria than by filial duty. 
The father, however, is obdurate, and the two lovers count the 
hours as the fateful day of separation approaches. 

The most powerful scene of the novel is probably that in which 
Efraim takes leave of Maria, and starts upon his long journey to 
England. He rises after a sleepless night, and is met at the door 
])y the faithfid Juan Angel, his negro servant, who brings his spurs 
and zamarros (the picturesque garment, ec[uivalent to the chapar- 
rejos of our own Southwest, which is worn by Colombian horsemen) . 
Donning these, he steps into the saZcr or parlor, which he finds unoc- 
cupied. He enters the next room and meets his mother and his 
sister Emma. Both of them tlirow themselves upon his breast and, 
sobbing, bid him Godspeed. Emma, divining his thoughts, motions 
toward the oratorio (small chapel) within which Maria is awaiting 
him. He pushes open the door. The young girl who means more 
to him than life itself is kneeling before a picture of the Virgin, in 
front of which two candles are burning. Realizing his presence, 
she utters a faint cry and, without raising her head, gives him her 
hand. Falling to his knees, he covers it with kisses. As he rises 
to his feet again, Maria, fearful that he is already going to tear 
himself away, springs up and throws her arms about his neck. Her 
hair streaming over her shoulders, and her face buried in his breast, 
she lifts one hand and points to the altar. Emma, who enters the 
chapel at this moment, takes the almost unconscious girl from 
Efraim 's arms, and motions to him that he should leave. He obeys. 

During his first year in London, he receives letters from Maria 
regularly by every mail. After this, they gradually become less 
frequent, until finally, a friend of the family comes to him and breaks 
the news of Maria's failing health. All other remedies having failed, 
it is recommended by the doctor that Efraim return at once, in the hope 
that his presence may yet rescue her from the tomb. He starts imme- 
diately upon the long voyage to Colombia. He lands at the port 
of Buenaventura, whence it is but a few days by canoe and mule 
to his beloved Cauca Valley and Maria. He pushes ahead franti- 
cally, and finally reaches Cali, where he is told the family is awaiting 
him. He enters the house, and is met by Emma, dressed in mourning. 
He realizes instantly the import of this, and falls senseless upon a 
couch. 

Weeks later, he visits the scene of the happiest days of his life — 
the old home at the foot of the central cordillera of the Andes, 20 



258 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 



miles from Cali. Here he opens the cedar chest whicli l)eh)nge(l to 
Maria, and gazes hndngly upon the httk> keepsakes which she has 
k>l't for him. The story ck)ses with a visit to the newly made grave 
in the cemetery at Cali. 

Such, in brief, is the plot of this novel. Its tragic ending stamj)s 
it as quite different from the vast majority of romances which have 
been published during the past century. The Cauca ^^alley, scene 
if the principal action, is one of the most beautiful regions in America; 
on fact, it comes nearer to fulfilling my ideal of a tropi(;al paradise 
than Jiny other spot T have evei' seen. When one has gazed upon 




ENTKANCE TO THE ORATORIO. 

Tliu door at tlie end of the anredor leads into the oratorio or chapel, where Efraim took leave of Maria 

for the last time. 



its glorious landscapes, and basked in the shade of bamboo beside 
one of its crystal-clear streams of cool water, he realizes that it is 
only natural that a literary genius like Jorge Isaacs, with the in- 
spiration of such surroundings, should write a novel which would 
become the classic of Latin America. 

To those familiar with the histor}^ of ''Maria," it is well known 
that a large part of the story is true. Efraim's account of his early 
life on the old farm at the foot of the central cordillera, together with 
the coming of his infant cousin, Maria, to live with the family and 
become a part of it is, I am assured by those who live in the Cauca 
and are conversant with the matter, based upon fact. The later 
portions of the work, including Efraim's race with death from Lon- 



THE HOME OF 



MARIA." 



259 



(loll tt) tlic Cauca, only to find upon reaching C'ali tliat Maria liad 
(lied two weeks previously — all this part of the work, I am told (and 
1 must confess that [ derive much consolation from the knowledge) 
is fiction. 

Many of the scenes portrayed in the book can ])e visited to-day, 
and will be recognized instantly by one who has read his ''Maria" 
carefully. As the visitor to the Cauca crosses the western range of 
the Andes on the train from Buenaventura to Cali, his fellow passen- 
gers are certain to point out to him, upon the farther slope of the 





ENTRANCE TO THE "HACIENDA DE ABA.|i>." 

" The wliitc gateway which, at 70 yards from the house, gave entrance to the 
patio." (Maria, Chapter XXXIII.) 

valley at the immediate foot of the central cordillera, a white speck, 
barely visible at this distance. This is "El Paraiso, " the home of 
Jorge Isaacs, and the "Hacienda de la sierra" of the story. Below 
it is the superb Cauca flowing in a series of wide curves through a 
valley 10 to 15 miles in width whose level floor is a huge pasture 




c S ?j 



•Sag 
•/J . . o 



c3 a^ 2 

SogJ 



ci Si's 2 

O O C3 O 
S M JS O 



THE HOME OF "MARIA" 261 

ill which the cattle are sometimes hidden from sight, so hish is the 
growth of Para grass on this fertile soil. Along the river is a fringe 
of cachimbo trees, whose shade protects the delicate cacao plants 
cultivated beneath them; in October and November these trees are 
gorgeous with their orange-scarlet flowers, and add a delightful 
touch of color to the scene. 

In 1920 I had the good fortune to pass a week at the Hacienda 
''La Manuelita," as the guest of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Eder. This 
was formerly the "hacienda de abajo" (lower hacienda) of the Isaacs 
family, and is mentioned several times in the story of Maria. It is 
one of the prettiest spots in the Cauca, and coincides in every respect 
with the descriptions of it in the book, even to the ''white gateway 
which at seventy yards from the house, gave entrance to the patio." 

In company with Doris Eder, I visited the "hacienda de la sierra," 
altogether the most idyllic spot I have ever seen. Above the front 
door has been placed, in recent years, the inscription "Aqui canto y 
Jloro Jorge Isaacs" (Here sang and wept George Isaacs). The 
various rooms described in the story, and all of the surroundings, 
are recognizable immediately; the place is, however, rapidly falling 
into a state of lamentable decay. The inhabitants of Call talk of 
erecting a monument to Jorge Isaacs; what tribute could be more 
fitting than the preservation of his home, in the precise condition 
described in the pages of his immortal novel '' 

On the fly leaf of my "Maria," I find the following note, written 
on the day I visited "El Paraiso ": 

Azucenas still bloom in the abandoned garden, but the roses are gone, the house 
practically abandoned, and the i^atio grown up to weeds. But the natural setting 
could not be more beautiful — the Cauca Valley spread out below, with the western 
Cordillera in the ha^.y distance, the forest-covered mountains rising immediately to 
the rear, and, a hundred feet to the south, a rushing, crystal-clear brook on its way 
to join the Cauca River. 

He who walks in the abandoned garden can gather flowers of the 
azucena de la montana (wild lily), perhaps from the descendants of 
the very plants which Maria so tenderly cared for dm-ing Efraim's 
exile in London and whose petals she was wont to send him in every 
letter. To one of botanical leanings it is of interest to know that 
this azucena is a species of Orimim. 

Close by the house, at the farther side of the garden, is the tiny 
pool known to people of the Cauca as "Maria's bath." In very 
recent years a small bathhouse has been erected beside it. Upon 
the limpid waters of the pool Maria was wont to scatter rose petals 
on those days when Efraim, returning from the forest or from a long 
ride across the valley, refreshed himself with a plunge. 

To one who has read the story, all of these scenes are filled with 
sad romance, and hallowed with the memories of one of the sweetest 
characters ever portrayed by the hand of man. 
86028— 22— Bull. 3 4 



5^a 



BRITIS]] 



HONDURAS 



By A. D. Carr. 

BRITISH HONDURAS has l)ocn (IcscimIxmI as a lriii<ro of swamp 
witli a mahogany forest in the interior. This is ratlier -^ 
mish^aiUng and api)arently tiie opinion of a man talking «i 
from hearsay only. While no one can deny that these two 
features are both very prominent in the toi)ography of the country, 
they by no means (-onstitute the whole. Indeed this little out-of-the- 




M.Vr OF CEXTU.Vl. AMEIUCA. SUOWIXC THK SITl'ATloX OF lUUTISU 

noxDruAs. 

way colony is fortunate in possessing a large variety of scenery and 
varying types of country. Before going further, let us clearly 
understand its position. The mainland lies approximately between 
88° 10' and 89° 10' west longitude and between 16° and 18° 30' 
north latitude. With tiie Caribbean vSea w^ashing it on the east, it 
has for its western boundary Guatemala and Mexico. To the south 
is Guatemala and to the nortli Mexico. It is thus well within the 
Tropical Zone. 

While it is not true that all the coast is swamp, it must be admitted 
that considerable stretches of it are. But long stretches are fairly 



' From " United Kiiipiro,'' The Royal Cohmial InstituU- .Toiirnal, Sop(piul)cr, I'.»'J1. 
2f.2 



BRITISH HONDUEAS. 263 

irood land. These are high sand ridges, which, as a rule, are planted 
out with coconut. trees. It could be said with as much accuracy that 
the country has a fringe of coconut trees, for when traveling along 
the coast they arc to be seen everywhere. The coastal belt of the 
colony is however, low-lying. As one goes back from the coast the 
country becomes higher until the boundary is crossed into Guatemala, 
where there are considerable mountains. 

In British Honduras itself the highest-known altitude is attained 
in the Cockscoml) Mountains, Victoria Peak reaching a height of 
3,700 feet. The northern half of the colony is not so broken as the 
southern, and there are very few hills. An immense belt of country 
lying between the New River and the Rio Hondo to the extreme 
north of the colony is practically without elevations at all. There 
can be few countries that are better watered than British Honduras. 
Rivers and creeks abound. It must he said, however, that few of 
them are of much use for navigation, at any rate for anything else 
than small dories. The course from the hills to the coast being 
such a short one, they are naturally much broken up by ''runs" and 
''falls," and another feature that interferes with their free navigation 
is the fact that they all have a bar at the mouth which prevents any 
but very shallow draft vessels from entering. The river most used 
for navigation, constituting indeed the "highroad" of the colony, 
is the Old River, at the mouth of which is Belize, the capital. This 
crosses the colony from the Guatemala border to the sea, and on it 
is carried much of the trade and commerce of the Peten district of 
Guatemala. It forms the divide between the level area and the 
mountainous area. All the elevations worth considering lie to the 
south of it. The rivers to the north that cross the level area arc 
generally much better suited for navigation than are those to the 
south, which all have to cut their way through ranges of hills. The 
extreme northern boundary of the colony is formed by the Rio Hondo 
and its branch, the Rio Azul, or Blue River. Entering the sea a few 
miles south and running parallel to the Rio Hondo for the greater 
part of its course is the New River. Between this and the Old River 
the only stream of any importance entering the sea is Northern 
River. vSouth of the Old River the following streams enter the sea: 
Sibun, Manatee River, Mullins River, vStann Creek, Sittee River, 
Southern Stann Creek, Monkey River, Deep River, Golden Stream, 
Moho River, Temash River, and the Sarstoon, the latter river forming 
the southern boundary of the colony. 

Among other noticeable features are the lagoons. Along the coast 
are quite a number of these, some of considerable area. British 
Honduras is, however, perhaps best known, at least lo mariners, 
for the numerous reefs and cayes which guard its low-lying coast 
from rapid erosion. These cayes number at least two luuuh-ed. 



BRITISH HONDURAS. 265 

Some are merely patches of mangrove swamp with no sohd land at 
all. Others are hard sand ridges, lying high and dry and inhabited 
by a few fishermen. All the habitable ones of any size at all are 
planted with coconut trees, and these palm-crowned cayes, nestling 
m the blue waters of a tropic sea, make a very pleasing picture. 
The smaller cayes, lying out of boat routes and perhaps not visited 
more than once or twice during the year by some wandering fisher- 
men, are the nesting places of many sea birds. The largest and best 
known of the cayes is Turnefi'e. This is a large mass of lagoons, 
creeks, and solid land covering roughly an area of 120 square miles. 
While all the cayes have their associations, in rumor and legend 
at any rate, with the old days of the Pirates of the Main, Turneffe 
is especially accredited with being the former haunt of the buccaneers, 
and, it is supposed, hides much ill-gotten treasure. It is also the 
home of large snakes of the constrictor species. 

The vegetation is usually classified as follows : 

(a) The lands along the rivers or creeks which are very fertile are 
known as ''Cohune ridges," owing to the prevalence in such areas of 
the Cohune palm, always a sign of fertile lands in this colony. It is 
generally in such areas also that the mahogany occurs, and where 
this is the marked feature it is referred to as a ''mahogany ridge." 

ib) Areas lying beyond the ''Cohune ridges," which are less fertile 
and more open, known as "broken ridges." 

(c) Areas which produce only a growth of pine trees and a coarse 
type of grass. These are called "pine ridges." There is a tremen- 
dous area of this "pine ridge" carrying an enormous number of pine 
trees. 

Of the forest trees the best known are the mahogany, rosewood, 
and Spanish cedar, cut for export; the sapodilla, from which chicle, 
the crude basis of chewing gum, is bled; the red and black mangrove, 
cotton tree, yemery (used for making native dugout canoes or dories) , 
logwood, and lignum-vitse. There is a native rubber tree, the cas- 
tilloa variety; and the cacao tree is also a native. Sarsaparilla is a 
common growth, as are also the vanilla vine and the castor-oil plant. 
The Cohune palm adds great beauty to the forests with its large 
fronded leaves of any length up to 30 feet, and generally with 
a luxuriant growth of parasitical plants around the base of the leaves. 
There may be hanging from it as many as four bunches of the Cohune 
nuts, looking for all the world like huge bunches of grapes. The nuts 
are probably one of the richest in percentage of oil content of any of 
the oil nuts^ but the difficulty of cracking them to prepare the copra 
(or meat of the nut) has so far hampered the commercial exploitation 
of them. Numerous smaller palms add to the beauty of the ''Bush." 
Orchids are al)undant in many parts of the colony, and at certain 



266 THE PAX AMEBICAX UNIOK, 

times of the j^ear man}" of the forest trees are a mass of beautiful 
blossoms. 

Oranges, hmes, guavas, grapefruit, pineapples, and mangoes are 
among the fruits growTi. The sapodilla tree produces a very nice 
eating fruit locally known as the sapodilla apple. Coconuts, as I have 
already mentioned, are cultivated all along the coast, on the cayes, 
and, to a certain extent, up some of the rivers. Bananas and plan- 
tains are also cultivated, and bananas form one of the principal items 
of export. Sweet potatoes, cassava, and yams are grown for local 
consumption. 

The true natives of the colony are several ])ranches of the Maya 
Intlians whose civilization has long since passed away. The Span- 
iards and British contested for supremacy in this area for a long 
time. African Negroes were brought to this country, as well as 
to other West Iiulian possessions, in large nund)crs, as slaves, by 
their European masters. The (h'sceiuhmts of the same slaves now 
form the greater proportion of the population, and although in general 
conversation they are referred to as "the natives'' they are not 
aboriginal. The whole population is only about 42,000.'' As the 
area is only about 7,500 square miles ant! about 11,000 of the popu- 
lation are in Belize, it will readily be seen that the colony is sparsely 
populated. In addition to the Indians and Negroes there are a 
large number of Caribs, descendants of the wandcu'ing parties who 
in years long past eventually reached this coast from their homes 
in the West India islands, and forined small settlements here. A 
few Spaniards are scatteretl through the eolony, desceiulants of the 
old S[)anish contiuerors. The iiritish population is (juitc a small one. 
Th(M-e are a few families who have heen domiciled in British ilojidui'as 
for several generatii>ns, hut for the most part the British ;ii-c •birds 
of passage." Races have naturally become very mixed. The most 
dominant intermixture is that between the old established Spanish 
population and the Indians, resulting in the brown Spanish-speaking 
people, known throughout Central America as Mestizos. Jn the 
colony of British Honduras the Mestizos form roughly 20 per cent 
of the population. 

The fauna of the colony is extensive. The largest of the native 
wild beasts is the tapir, locally called the mountain cow. The cat 
family is represented by the jaguar, the puma, and the ocelot. The 
jaguar is known locally as the leopard tiger or spotted tiger; the puma 
as the red tiger and the ocelot as the tiger cat. There appear to be 
several varieties of wild pig, but they are generally classed as either 
peccary or warree, the latter being the largest variety. Deer and a 
variety of antelope are common. Ground game includes the arma- 

2 Tho prelimiTKuy rough count of the census recently taken gives the population as 45,291. 



268 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

dillo, the paca (known locally as the gib-nut or gibonet), and a 
variety of the agouti that the natives call a rabbit. Foxes are very 
common — they are not large and their color is more gray than red. 
Raccoons are also common. The kinkajou is a native of these forests 
and is called the night-walker. The coati-mondi is quite common, 
being known as the C{uash. The ant bear, a large species of ant-eater, 
is frequently met with, as is that large and handsome member of the 
weasel family, the tayra, whose local name is the bush-dog. This 
is a very beautiful animal, having a jet-black coat with white mark- 
ings around the head and shoulders. The common opossum, that 
deadly enemy of poultry, is unfortunately much in evidence. A 
smaller variety of opossum is also found — a delightful little animal 
with a delicate brown-colored fur. A prettily-colored squirrel is also 
very common. Baboons are found in certain areas on\j. In the 
rivers is a large variety of otter, chocolate-brown in color, and larger 
than the English otter. The local name for it is water dog. The 
rivers, lagoons, and swamps are the home of both alligators and 
crocodiles. 

Bird life is well n^presented. On the coast the ])elican and the 
frigat(i bird (the man-o'-war bird) are familiar figures. The buzzard, 
or John crow, is everywhere — in the heart of the towns and settle- 
ments and in the remotest parts of the jungle. Game ])irds include 
the curassow, the coc(|uericot -a bird in size and ph3'sical character- 
istics like the common pheasant of England, but in color anything 
from a grayish black to a pale brown — the fpuim, tlie ((uail, ])artridge, 
and the magnilicent wild turkey. A bird called the clucking hen 
abounds in the bush. The egret is also found here, and, as elsewhere, 
is unmercifully butchered for the sake of its ])himage. A large 
variety of the crane species is locally known as the toby full-pot. 
There is a diminutive variety, of the heron family apparently, known 
as the poor Joe. Hawks of all sizes and colors are a continual source 
of worry to the man trying to raise a few fowls. They range from 
big fellows the size of a vulture to small thmgs about the size of a 
thrush, the latter seemingly confining their attention to trees and the 
bush, as they are never seen poising or "hawking" after their prey 
in the open. Along the coast the handsome fish hawk is seen. A 
large variety of humming birds are among the beauties of the ft)rest. 
Their gorgeously colored little bodies, catching and flashing back the 
rays of the sun as they flit from blossom to blossom or poise in their 
quest of the succulent nectars, make a picture long to be remembered. 
Of parrots, there are two varieties, a red-headed and a yellow-headed, 
the latter being the best talker. The parakeet is common, and the 
macaw, a white-faced variety, is frequently found away from settle- 
ments or plantations. Then there are the banana bird, the cardinal 
l)ir(l, and the ])lackbii(l. 1'he toucan witli its gi"eat ungaiidv bill and 




Mj:- 





270 THE PAN^ AMERICAN UNION. 

finely colored plumage is a familiar sight. What would appear to 
be a member of the magpie or jay family is known as the pyam- 
pyam (from its cry) , and while not as large as the magpie it is as 
discordant. It moves in flocks and is the bane of all hunters, as no 
sooner does it see anyone movmg or approachmg than it warns the 
whole forest far and near with its blatant cries. It is mischievous 
and a great thief. In color a grayish brown predominates, but it is 
white on the breast and among the tail feathers. Several varieties 
of the kingfisher (some of them very large bh'ds) may be seen along 
the rivers. The woodpecker is another interesting bird, its big 
scarlet head and crest giving it a distmctive appearance. Perhaps 
the most interesting bird met with is the so-called yellow-tail. It is 
a dull brown with a yellow tail. It belongs to the family of hang 
nests, and its "colonies" of nests are found throughout the countrv. 
The nests are cleverly constructed of woven grasses and are suspended 
from the very end of the most slender braiiclies of some higli tree, a 
|)()sition guaranteeing immunity from practically all risks of molesta- 
tion. In size the nests are about li feet long. Near the point of 
suspension is a small orifice through which the bird enters the nest. 
The same nests apj)ear to be used season after season. Around the 
cayes we get the booby and a variety of tern. Among lizards of 
many varieties that king of lizards, the iguana, is of frequent occur- 
rence, and eagerly hunted by the natives, who esteem it highly as 
food. 

Insects are innuni(Mii])ie in variety and a source of much annoy- 
ance. A clever entomologist could (ind scope for a lifetime's research 
in the Coicsts. The hceth' family appears to be the])est represented, 
ranging from minute varieties scarcely discernible to the eye, to that 
giant of the family, the oryctes rhinoceros, the beetle whose larva 
stage is generally passed in a coconut palm, (o the great detriment of 
the tree. It is known locally as the cocomit bug. The tarantula, 
spider, the scorpion, and the centipede can be looked for in any odd 
corner. Ants of various kinds and sizes are numerous. The most 
beautiful variety is a solitar}^ ant marked very much like a bee. 
The parasol ants (the wee-wee) in long columns of industrious work- 
ers, each with a "parasol," consisting of a leaf fragment over its 
head, are very interesting to watch. The driver ant (known as the 
marching army ant) often takes possession of a planter's house for 
several days, and then having cleared the house of other insect pests 
marches on. Of the other ants found the best known is the red, 
known locally as the fire ant, on account of the virulence of its bite. 
Snakes are numerous. On the hills and dry ridges the rattler can 
always be found. The coral snake, known locally as the bead snake, 
is frequently met with. Perhaps the most deadly of the local snakes 
is the yellow-jawed tommy-goff. There is another known as the 



I 



272 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION, 

jumping goff, from its very objectionable habit of leaping considerable 
distances at its object of attack. A small boa is known as the wowlah. 
This snake is a great enemy of poultry. Among other snakes found 
are — ^to give their local names — the ''clap and sawer" and the 
" thunder and lightning." 

The rivers do not contain a great variety of fish; the mountain 
mullet and the tuba are the principal. In the sea we find among 
the larger fish the tarpon, the sawfish and swordfish, the jewfish 
the snook, the porpoise, and the shark. The small gulf whale is also 
occasionally seen in these waters. The barracouta, kingfish, and the 
Spanish mackerel are abundant, and among the smaller fish are the 
snapper, the mullet, catfish, rockfish, stone bass, bony fish, a fish 
known as old wife, and a red-spotted fish known as the jimm}^ bine. 
The toad fish, a weird repulsive creature, appears to be out of place 
in contemporary fauna; it looks as if it had come down through the 
ages without evolution, existing to-day in the same form as probably 
did its earl}' ancestors in the primeval slime at the dawn of life; it is 
not a large fish; an average specimen would probably measure 9 or 
10 inches over all; the fins seem to be adapted more as pedal extremi- 
ties for creeping and crawling, and not for swimming; a long pro- 
tuberance juts out over the mouth proper, and the body is covered 
with wartlike spots. The remora or sucking fish is also found in 
these waters, as are the stingaree and the whip-ray. Another strange 
creature is the manatee, which assumes very considerable proportions. 
The hawk's bill turtle, the logger-head, and the green or edible turtle 
are all common, the tortoise shell of commerce being obtained from 
the first named. In the rivers exist two small varieties of turtle, 
known as the hicatee and thv^ buckatora. 

The industries of the colony are either purely agricultural or de- 
pendent upon the exploitation of the forest timbers or their products. 
British Honduras is perhaps best known to the average man b}- its 
association with mahogan3^ The quality of the mahogany is thought 
highly of by experts, no doubt because of its uniformity both in 
grade and figuring. Cedar and Santa Maria (a timber very closely 
allied to the mahogany) are also cut. The mahogany industry 
employs quite a big proportion of the local labor, though the lot of 
the mahogany cutter is by no means to be envied. Hunters locate 
the wood, which is seltlom found in compact stands, but generally 
scattered over a wide area. A camp is formed of rude palm-thatched 
huts as headquarters. It must be realized that all the supplies, 
provisions, etc., for the laborers have to be taken considerable 
distances up the rivers and creeks to the "banks," as they term the 
sites of their camps. The transport is by means of dugout canoes. 
The rivers may for month after month be so shallow aiul dry that 
for long stretches a few inches of water only will be found. At such 



BUlTlSll HONDURAS. 273 

places tlu> canoes have to be pushed and hauled, and at the numerous 
falls and rapids all the cargo has to be taken out and carried by hand 
to the head of the obstacle and the canoe pulled over empty. The 
trees having been located, pathways have to be cut to each tree. 
The trees are then felled -and cut into logs, being first cleared of all 
branches. The logs are drawn by steers to the waterside to await 
the floods. Within the last two or three years some of the mahogany 
cutters have been experimenting with the use of caterpillar tractors 
for hauling, and some of them have had to construct tram roads. 
The rain comes generally about the middle and end of the year, 
when the rivers become swollen and flooded and the logs are thrown 
in and floated down to the mouth of the stream, where they are 
rafted and tied up to await measurement and shipment. The 
exportation of logwood was in former years a source of considerable 
revenue, but with the advent of other and cheaper sources of dyes 
the demand ceased. War necessity revived the industry for a 
while. Another dyewood, fustic, is exported in small quantities. 

Perhaps a harder life than the mahogany cutters' is that of the 
chiclero, which is little less lonely and dangerous than the solitary 
rubber gatherer's in the depths of the Congo forest. He bleeds the 
chicle from the sapodilla trees, and thus enables thousands, who prob- 
ably never think of the risks run to obtain it, to indulge in the doubt- 
ful luxury of chewing gum. He may be away for weeks and some- 
times for months in the heart of the forest. For the most part he 
will have to rely upon his skill with the gun for food. The trees are 
bled in the same manner as rubber trees. The gum gets a crude 
treatment and is then made up into blocks for shipment. In this 
crude stage it resembles nothing so much as putty. A large propor- 
tion of the chicle exported from the colony is the produce of the Peten 
district of Guatemala. It is curious that a far superior grade of 
chicle is obtained in the north of the colony; that bled in the south 
is of inferior quality. 

The cultivation of the banana affords employment to a large num- 
ber of laborers, principally in the southern half of the colony. There 
is room for extension, and the colony could easily be in a position to 
load several steamers a week. The cultivation of the coconut is not 
carried on in a very scientific manner, and does not give much em- 
ployment. Sugar is grown to some extent, but not in sufficient quan- 
tity to satisfy even the local demand. Much of it is used for the pre- 
paration of rum; but this is again for local consumption. Tortoise 
shell, sponges, and hides are exported, but all in small quantities. 

Belize, at one of two mouths of the Old River, was the original 
mahogany station of British Honduras, and is popularly reputed to 
rest on a foundation of rum bottles and mahogany chips. It is in 



274 THE PAX AMERICAN UXION. 

any case a most undesirable site for a capital. A large amount of 
business is done in and through Belize, and there are a number of 
up-to-date stores where all classes of merchandise can be purchased. 
The principal other settlements are El Cayo and Benque Viejo, settle- 
ments near the head of the Old River on the western frontier; in the 
north are Corozal and Orange Walk; Stann Creek (the banana port) 
and Punta Gorda to the south are other important settlements. 
Mulhns River, Manatee, and Monkey River are coast villages; there 
livv scattered about several villages, principally near the northerri 
frontier. The interior of the southern half of the colony is a big 
blank, except for a few settlements near Punta Gorda. The colony 
is, for the Tropics, (|uite healthy, the only serious malady being 
malaria, which with care can be guarded against, and is in any case 
not more serious than is, say, the risk of pneumonia in a cold country. 
The average man associates the colony with yellow fever, but tliere 
has not been a case of this for many a long year. 

Tliere is room for tremendous developments. Much of th(> coh^iy 
is as yet not even explored, and there has been no geological or min- 
eralogical survey at all. A few prospectors have reported the exist- 
ence of coal and gold, but have never substantiated their claims. It 
is impossible to say what organized investigation may disclose. \\"\\\\ 
neighboring countries so rich in mineral wealth it seems as il' tJiis 
colony must possess some. It will, if found, probably be to the south 
of the Oh] River. Vague rumors of the existence of oil have often been 
circulated, and it would really seem that there may be some truth in 
them. Should they materialize it will do much to lift this little colony 
out of its present state of lethargy. Lack of any good means of trans- 
portation and communication must always prevent any agricultural 
progress. Good roads or light railways would mean an immediate 
development of latent possibilities in this direction. Jungle trails 
and creeks full of falls and rapids and with dangerous bars to negotiate 
at the mouth are hardly suitable for the transport of bulky products 
of the soil, and at present these are about the only '4ines of comnumi- 
cation." Along the coast, canoes, various types of sailing craft, and 
a few power boats provide transportation. Tliere are only (wo 
points where steamers can pick up their cai'goes from a pier — these are 
both banana centers, one being Stann Creek antl the other a small 
plantation known as Riversdale. 

The colony has a big future, if increased facilities for commerce with 
the outside world were provided and methods of internal transporta- 
tion were improved. At present there is little inducement for the man 
with capital to st(>j) in and attempt to get things going. 



11^ 



DOMESTIC IIATT^,3 ON 



P^ 



WM 



'CM 



M 



DOMKSTIC postal rates arc now in force on mail sent from tlur 
United States to Spain anil its colonies; also to Argen- 
tina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Domin- 
icanRepublic, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Pana- 
ma, Peru, and Salvador. As it has been customary in many countries 
to collect from the addressee twice the amount of postage lacking on 
underpaid mail, the new regime not only removes one of the small 
but exceedingly n-ritating penalties due to carelessness in stamping 
foreign letters and packages, but gives a very considerable new 
impetus to correspondence and trade by reason of the reduced cost 
of communication. 

The Bulletin for March, 1921, reported that the postal convention 
signed in Madrid November 11, 1920, which provided for mutual 
interchange at domestic rates of all classes of mail matter between 
the Pan American Republics, Spain, the Spanish colonies, and the 
Philippine Islands, had been put into force February 1, 1921, prior 
to ratification, by the postal authorities of Bolivia, Colombia, Hon- 
duras, Nicaragua, and Peru, the convention having made provision 
whereby the respective signatory nations might conclude inter- 
conventions of this nature. It was also in effect between the United 
States and the five countries named, as the Post Office Department 
of the United States, in consonance with the authority vested therein, 
had declared the convention in force. 

It is indeed a source of gratification to note the alacrity with which 
so many countries have given their adherence to the Convention of 
Madrid, and to realize that it is a question of but a short time before 
the list of signatories will be complete, so far as working practice is 

concerned. 

275 





Photograph by Manrique & Cia. 

DIRECTORS OF THE FIRST CONGRESS OF VENEZULAN AGRICULTLKISTS, STOCK 
BREEDERS, MANUFACTURERS, AND MERCHANTS. 

Sealed (left to riglit ): Senor Don Juan E. Paris, President (Agriculturist); Seiior Gen. Feli.x Galavis, First 

Vice President (Stock Breedei). 
Standing (left to right): Setior Don Victor V. Maldonado, Secretary General of the Executive Committee 

of the Congress: Seflor Don Carlos Deltino, Second X'ice President (Manufacturer); and Seftor Don 

Tomiis Sarmiento, Third Vice President (Merchant). 



Ill 



FUST CONGRi'SS OF YEN- 



THE thanks of the Pax American Bulletin are due its 
esteemed colleague, Senor Victor V. Maldonado, Director of 
La Hacienda, and Secretary General of the Executive Com- 
mittee, for the receipt of an advance copy of the official 
report of the plan, organization, and complete program of the ''First 
Congress of Venezuelan Agriculturists, Stock Breeders, Manufac- 
turers, and Merchants," held in Caracas from July 2-23, as dulv 
announced in a previous issue of the Bulletin. 

This publication, which constitutes a valuable addition to the 
Columbus Memorial Library, will bear careful study by all those 
interested in the progress and prosperity of the American Republics 
and, particularly, of Venezuela. In it are discussed with luciditv 
and intelligence the chief occupations of the Venezuelan people which 
while not differing greatly from those in a dozen other American 
republics, offer an extensive and profitable field for the investment 
of capital. The reports covering the different kinds of exhibits are 
particularly commendable. 

Such assemblies and conventions as the one discussed can not fail 
to be of benefit, since they stimulate in a scientific way a proper 
exploitation of the natural resources of a nation or people, and it is 
to be hoped that the good example set by Venezuela will soon be 
followed by those American Republics which, so far, have not in- 
augurated similar national undertakings. 

Meanwhile the Pan American Bulletin congratulates the Repub- 
lic of Venezuela and the patrons and members of its first national 
congress of agi-iculturists on their most laudable achievement. 





MEDAL COMMEMORATING THE FIRST CONGRESS OF VENKZIK LAX AGKICl'LTL'RISTS, 

STOCK BREEDERS, MANUFACTURERS, AND ilEJiClIAXTS. 

86028— 22— BulL 3 5 277 




li 



-. « 



V1 



RO 






^i:a^ 



THE Mexican Government, the scientists and citizens of Mex- 
ico in general, united in rendering posthumous homage 
to Dr. Howard Cross of the Rockefeller Foundation who 
died December 26, in Vera Cruz as the result of an attack 
of yellow fever acquired in the prosecution of investigations con- 
nected with that deadly disease. 

The remains of the deceased were embalmed, placed in a casket 
draped with the Mexican and American flags, and transferred from 
^^era Cruz to Mexico Cit}^ on the way to the deceased's home in Edin, 




Courtesy of Dr. Alfonso Pruncda, General Secretary, Superior Boar'I of Health, Mexico City. 

THE FUNERAL CORTEGE LEAVING THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, VERA CRUZ, 
FOR THE RAILROAD STATION. 

Oklahoma, the cortege being accompanied by Drs. Caldwell, Ojeda, 
Ramirez, and Castaiieda and numerous members of the Red Cross of 
Vera Cruz, various scientific bodies, sanitary delegations and repre- 
sentatives of the Medical Society of Vera Cruz. 

Dr. Cross rendered important and heroic service during the late 
war, in addition to eminent service in connection with the present 
yellow fever investigation. He was born in Oklahoma and graduated 
with the highest honors from the University of that State. 

Dr. Cross's untimely death adds one more to the list of martyrs 
to the cause of science. His memory will long be cherished, both 
in Mexico and the United States, with that of Dr. Walter Reed and 
others who have laid down their lives for the benefit of humanity. 

279 





Courtesy of Mrs. W. C. Farabee. 

SCENES AT THE DEDICATION OF THE MONUMENT TO SAN MARTIN', IN LIMA, PERU, 

JULY 24, 1921. 

In connection with the celebration of the centenary of Peruvian independence, a monument to General 
San Martin was unveiled in San Martin Plaza, Lima, at which representatives from thirty-two nations 
were present. LTpper: The President of Peru in his ho\. Lower: OfTicers from the U. S. S. Arizona. 
Oklahoma, and Nevada. 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY^ 
, AND COMMERCE, ' 

ARGENTINA. 

Egg exports. — Argentina has for some time exported eggs and has 
recentl}' increased the amount shipped out of the country. Figures 
show that Great Britain is the largest buyer of Argentine eggs and 
butter. In September Argentina shipped 27,103 cases of eggs, and 
in October, 51,963 cases, with every prospect of a growing trade in 
these food supplies through the European winter. 

Future of Argentine wool industry. — According to the United 
States Commerce Reports of January 2, 1922, the Argentine wool 
industry is manifesting a great development. Formerly wool raised 
in Argentina was sent to foreign countries to be spun, but was returned 
to Argentina to be woven. Spinning mills have been annexed to the 
existing factories and to-day there are many factories in the country 
with departments for washing, spinning, weaving, dyeing, and doing 
everything needed for the transformation of wool into cloth. The 
future can be foreseen in the growing factories, one which covers an 
acre and a quarter, with additional space given over to the houses 
of operatives and foremen. This f actor}" has a capital of 3,000,000 
.pesos and employs 500 men. The wool is purchased in the Buenos 
Aires market. The output of the washers is 4,000 kilos per day; 
the factory has 8,000 spindles, producing 1,200 kilos of thread in 10 
hours. The looms employed are English, German, French, Italian, 
and Spanish. The designs of the cloth produced are numerous and 
varied. 

National exports. — The exports of national products for the 
first 10 months of 1921 is as follows: Wheat, 1,591,255 tons; maize, 
2,395,324 tons; linseed, 1,129,403 tons; barley, 45,853 tons; oats, 
362,574 tons; flour, 39,665 tons; by-products of wheat, 123,887 tons; 
quebracho logs, 6,581 tons; quebracho extract, 103,770 tons; lard, 
634,528 cases; forage, 195,447 bales; calfskins, 188,799; dried cat- 
tle hides, 897,857; salted cattle hides, 1,920,874; colt skins, 59,461; 
sheepskins, 25,032 bales; wool, 288,938 bales; bristles, 3,404 bales; 
tallow, 130 pipes; tallow, 96,774 casks; tallow, 1,215 tuns (225 
pounds each); frozen beef quarters, 2,620,640; chilled beef quarters, 
1,264,469; refrigerated mutton carcasses, 1,906,318; refrigerated 
lambs, 787,893. 

* 281 



282 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

Hydroplanes wanted in Argentixa. — The Argentine Director 
General of Navigation has issued a call for bids for four hydroplanes 
with two extra motors, spare parts, and accessories for use on the 
Bermejo River, according to Commercial Attache Edward F. Feely, 
in Buenos Aires. The hydroplanes must have accommodations for 
eight persons seated, including the pilot and the mechanician. The 
bids are to be in by March 15 and the delivery must be made within 
five months after the award is made. 

Argentine fruit to New York. — One of tlie first large shipments 
of fruit from Argentina arrived in New York January 24, aboard the 
steamship Aeolus, following the December consignment of cherries. 
The shipment consisted of nearly a ton of peaches, plums, and apri- 
cots. Late advices from the United States commercial attache in 
Buenos Aires state that all cold-storage space on the American Le- 
gion, Southern Cross, and Aeolus, sailing in February from that port, 
had been taken for fruit. The February sliipin(>nts are said to be 
of superior quality. AVitli the Chilean fruit shipments and those now 
coming from Buenos Aires, the New York market will have a supply 
of fresh fruits from South America throiiglioiit the winter months. 

Congress of acrictltlral associations. — On December 22 a 
congress of agricultural associations took place in the Consignees' 
Building. Representatives of the following bodies were present: 
Argentine Rural Society, Consignees Society, Agrarian League, and 
the Association of Real Estate Auctioneers. The director of the Live- 
stock Bureau of the Department of Agricultui-e, and tlie presidents of 
the Commerce Exchange and of the Federation of Commerce, Lidiis- 
try, and Production attended. Specialists and members of consult- 
ing boards were also invited. On the program were the following 
topics: Sale policy for farm products as related to tiie price of meat 
for consumption; livestock census and the necessity for its lapid 
completion; regulations for marketing farm products and refrigeiated 
meat to avoid abrupt price changes; means for securing the stabil- 
ization of European markets b\' means of Government export 
credits; elimination of domestic taxes not imposed by municipal or 
provincial governments; and other kindred subjects. 

Italian-South American cable. — A company is being developed 
to lay a cable from Fumicino, on the Tiber near Rome, via Malaga, 
Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Fernando de Noronha, Rio de Janeiro, 
and Montevideo, to Buenos Aires as its terminal. The work is to 
be finished in three years. The company is assured by the Italian 
Government of an average of 6,000,000 words, or 15,000,000 lire, a 
year for 10 years, which will cover the operation, maintenance, 
and amortization costs. A representative of tlie company has been 
visiting: South Amei'fca. 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. 283 

BOLIVLA.. 

Standard Oil Co. of Bolivia. — The Government has approved 
the statutes of the Standard Oil Co. of BoHvia (Inc.), incorporated 
with a capital of S5, 000, 000 to develop the oil fields of the country. 

Belgian industrial mission. — A Belgian Industrial Mission, 
under M. Georges Rouma, recently visited Bolivia on its tour through 
Latin America. The mission was composed of representatives of the 
steel companies, metal and foundry works, and textile factories. 

Villazon-Atocha railroad. — The company constructing the 
railroad from Villazon to Atocha has officially informed the Bolivian 
Government of the placing of bonds for the $7,000,000 loan, and 
that the work is to be started very soon. 

brazil. 

Road construction and promotion in Brazil. — The following 
is quoted from the United States Commerce Reports : 

In the State of Santa Catharina 1,800 kilometers of roads suitable for automobile 
traffic and 200 kilometers of branch roads were constructed during the period of one 
year. The roads of the State in various stages of completion and construction amount 
to 7,350 kilometers, of which 2,100 kilometers are highways in use, 1,950 kilometers 
are highways in construction, 1,600 kilometers are municipal highways, 1,500 kilo- 
meters are branch roads in use, and 200 kilometers are branch roads in construction. 

Considerable activity along the lines of road building and public works is reported 
from the State of Espirito Santo, most of the undertakings being of a local nature. 

The Brazilian Congress has been requested to authorize the construction of a bridge 
over the Rio Grande, connecting the State of Sao Paulo with three adjoining States. 
The bridge is to be 531 meters long and would cost 2,400,000 milreis Q milreis at 
present is equivalent to about $0,123 U. S. currency). 

The development and construction of new roads in Brazil is considered of such vital 
importance that the revival of the old Automobile Club of Brazil is advocated. Such 
a club would seem appropriate in Rio de .Janeiro, a city of over a million inhabitants 
and with between 5,000 and 6,000 automobiles. 

Dealers in automobiles and accessories, established in Rio de Janeiro, have founded 
the Associa(;ao dos Commerciantes de Automoveis e Accessorias do Rio de Janeiro 
with a view to creating a certain unity in the purchase and sale of automobiles and 
accessories. 

Electrification of the Paulista Railway. — Twelve 3,000-volt 
direct-current locomotives are being supplied by the General Electric 
Co. for service on the Paulista Railway. This wall be one of the 
largest railway electrifications inaugurated this year in South America, 
involving 28 miles of double track on a 72-mile project. The gauge 
is 63 inches. The road is located in the vState of Sao Paulo, in the 
heart of the coffee district. It is an important link in the transpor- 
tation of the Sao Paulo crop to the seaboard. 

The Anglo-Brazilian Iron and Steel vSyndicate. — President 
Epitacio Pessoa has issued Decree No. 1.5,074 of October 28, author- 



284 THE PAX AMEEICAX UNION, 

izin<i; the celebration of a contract between the Government and tlie 
Anglo-Brazihan Steel Syndicate (Ltd.) to establish one or more 
plants for melting iron ore, making steel from pig and scrap iron, 
rolling work in hot and cold steel, and iron and steel castings. 

Bridge Between Rio de Janeiro and Nictheroy. — Sebastiao 
Barroso, a Brazilian citizen, has petitioned Congress for a concession 
for the purpose of connecting Rio de Janeiro with the city of Nictheroy 
by means of a metallic bridge running from the embankment of Cas- 
tello Hill on the Rio de Janeiro side to Gragoata on the opposite 
shore. It is understood that the bridge is to have suflicient width of 
span and height to prevent its interfering with navigation. The 
petitioner proposes to construct and operate a wharf and ware- 
houses in Nictheroy. and demands the right to charge toll for pedes- 
trians, as well as docking fees and storage, at rates to be approved by 
the Government. A period of one year is requested in which to sub- 
mit his plans to the Government, another period of two years in 
which to begin the work, and another of six years for the conclusion of 
the same. The petitioner, or company organized by the same, is to 
enjoy the full benefit of o])erating the properties during the pcM'iod of 
the contract, after which tliev are to I'cvert to tlie I^nion without 
indemnity of any sort. 

A NEW gold mink i\ Minas Geraes. — The Club de Engenharia 
met in November hist to hear the report of Engineer C. !{. Fisher on 
the investigation of the gold mine recently discovered at Salt, on the 
Corrego das Cabras, a tributary of the Arassahy River, in the State 
of Minas Geraes. Tlie governing board of the club ap})ointed Prof, 
lleiminger to examine Mr. Fisher's report in detail, after which it 
will be submitted to the consideration of the Secretary of Agriculture, 
Industry, and Commerce. The report is a thoroughly scientific; work, 
and goes to prove that the new mine constitutes the matrix of the 
gold alluvium not only of that district but of the basic gold-bearing 
body of the continent. 

Lloyd Brasileiro trans-Atlantic routes. — Following is the 
general plan of the trans-Atlantic lines of this company now in opera- 
tion: Passenger lines — First line between Santos and New York, 
steamers Avare, Bage, and Curvello; second line, between Santos and 
Hamburg, with the steamers Cuyahd, Caxias, Pocone, and Santarem; 
third line, between Santos and Genoa, devoted specially to the service 
of immigration, steamers Benevente, Santos, and Campos; fourth line, 
between Recife and Hamburg, steamers Baependy, Alfenas and Mar- 
anguape. Cargo lines — first line, between Santos and New York, 
steamers Ayuruoca, Madu, Parnahyba, and Taubate; second line, 
between Santos and New Orleans, steamers Algrete, Jaboatdo, and 
Ingd; third line, between Rio de Janeiro and Liverpool, steamers 
Barbacena, Caxamhu, Joazeiro, and Prlotas; fourth line^ between 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND CO-MMKRCK. 



285 



Santos and Hamburg, steamers Ai/uruoca, Maude, and Parnahyha; 
fifth line, between Rio Grande and New York, steamers Ifjnassu and 
Sahara; sixth line, between Recife and New York, steamers Curytiha 
and Guaratiha: seventh line, between Rio de Janeiro and Hamburg, 
steamers Aracaju and Cahedello. 

All these lines, both on their outgoing and return trips, will coop- 
erate in the coastwise service along the Brazilian coast. 

Capt. Nelson Guilhobel, present chief of the sea-going staff of the 
Lloyd Brasileiro, has been appointed to join the agency at the Liver- 
pool terminus of the new line of cargo steamers which has been estab- 
lished for England. These steamers, on their return to Brazil, will 
perform the service of transporting coal from Cardiff to Rio de 

Janeiro. 

Beginning with this year the Lloyd steamers will carry from 
Engli'sh ports all the coal required for consumption on the Central 
Railway of Brazil. 

Prices of passage ox the lines of Lloyd Brasileiro. — The 
governing board of the Lloyd Brasileiro has decided to effect the fol- 
lowing changes in their passage rates to Europe and the United 
States: First-class passage to Lisbon and the north of Europe, 800 and 
1,000 milreis, respectively ($104 and S130); second-class passage to 
the same points, 300 and 400 milreis ($39 and $54) ; first-class passage 
to the United States, 1,700 milreis ($221). 

New steamer service.— According to press reports Messrs. 
Rogers and Webb, agents for P. lOeppe & Co., of Bergen, Norway, 
have announced that a new steamship service is to be inaugurated 
immediately between Boston and the River Plate and Brazilian 
ports. Five steamers are to be placed in this service, it was an- 
nounced. 

CHILE. 

Hydroelectric development.— There has been recently organ- 
ized in Santiago a company with a capital of £12.000,000 sterling 
whose chief object is to develop electricity from the waterfalls m cen- 
tral Chile for supplying hght and power to Santiago and other cities 
and towns. The new company, which is called the (^ompafna 
Chilena de Electricidad, Limitada, was formed as a combination of 
the Compania Nacional de Fuerza Electrica and the Chilean Tram- 
way & Light Co., and will supply the power for the electrification of 
the first zone of the Chilean railways, between Santiago and \ al- 
paraiso, in addition to the many other uses to which the power wdl 

be put. 

The company has a plant 12 miles from Santiago, with a capacity 
of 20,000 horsepower, and another in Santiago, of 18,000 liorsepower, 
soon to be increased to 28,000. At Maitcnes, 35 miles from Santiago, 



286 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION, 

on the Colorado River, a great plant to be finished the middle of 
1922 is in process of construction. It will furnish 35,000 horsepower. 
Later the company plans to build at Puente de Cristo one of the most 
powerful hydroelectric stations in the workl, capable of developing 
65,000 horsepower. Central Chile will then have at its disposal a 
force of more than 100,000 horsepower, derived exclusively from the 
rivers of that region, a source of incalculable benefit in the general 
progress of the country. 

Railway commission. — A commission of engineers has been sent 
to Germany to inspect the construction of a shipment of rails ordered 
by the Railwa}^ Administration from the Krupp and Stinnes plants 
and to study the use of steel in railway material. The rails ordered 
will weigh about 12,000 tons and will cost approximately 6,000,000 
pesos. 

National Congress of Instruction, Agriculture, and Vet- 
erinary Science.- -The two chief recommendations of this congress, 
which met in Santiago last fall, were the immediate creation of a 
Ministry of Agriculture, considered indispensable for the coordination 
of the efforts being made to promote national agriculture and lay 
down basic principles for the settlement of the great agricultural 
problems of the Republic; and the early passing of the rural code, 
greatly needed in connection with agricultural labor. 

Pacific Fruit Co, — The Pacific Fruit Co,, whose main office is in 
Valparaiso, has been incorporated for a term of 50 years. It \nl\ buy 
and sell fruit and other natural products originating in Chile and 
other countries of South America on the Pacific coast, and will export 
Chilean merchantUse in order to facilitate the purchase of foreign 
fruit and other products. It may also carry on fruit raising or other 
industries. The capital of the company is 500,000 pesos. 

Nitrate propaganda. -The Government has granted the Asso- 
ciation of Nitrate Producers the sum of £40,000 sterling for the pur- 
pose of carr^nng on nitrate propaganda abroad. The producers will 
add £90,000 to this amount. 

Nitrate. — Nitrate statistics up to November 1, 1921, were as fol- 
lows: Production from January to October, 1921, inclusive, 25,398,- 
632 Spanish quintals; exportation for the same period, 21,185,598 
quintals; supply on the coast, October 31, 1921, 32,246 quintals: in 
Europe and Egypt, 17,226,000 quintals on land and 1,876,798 quin- 
tals aboard ship. 

National Sugar Co. — A corporation has been formed in Valdivia 
to cultivate sugar beets and start the manufacture of sugar in the 
Republic. 

Apparatus for making starch. — A Chilean citizen has taken out 
a patent on a machine for making fine starch, which also makes use 
of the other components of the wheat, especiall}' the gluten. With 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE, 287 

slight changes the machine may be used for separating chxyey and 
siUceous substances. 

COLOMBIA. 

WooLEX GOODS. — A factory turning out 1,000 meters of woolen 
goods a day has been established in a suburb of Bogota. It is 
equipped with machinery brought complete from a Belgian factory, 
antl carries on all the processes necessary to the manufacture of the 
finished product, beginning with washing the wool. The company 
intends soon to begin the importation of sheep of the best wool- 
growing breeds. TJiese will be sold on easy terms to farmers in 
order to promote the development of the wool industry. 

Petroleum. — According to the United States Commerce reports, 
an American oil company, the only company now known to be pro- 
ducing oil in Colombia, expected to market oil in the Republic by 
the middle of January. There are three producing wells on the com- 
pany's concession near Barranca-Bermeja, and a refinery and six 
tanks at that place. Seven fuel-oil stations, having a capacity of 
10,000 barrels each, will be built to supply the railway and river 
steamboat service, thus marking a new epoch in Magdalena River 
transportation. 

Cartagena dry dock. — Two American engineers have been in 
Cartagena studying the work to be done in connection with the dry 
dock canal, for which the company has on hand a fund of 120,000 
pesos. 

Cigarettes. — Bucamaranga has a modern cigarette factory whose 
four cutting machines have a capacity of .300 kilograms an hour. 
Other machines complete the process. All are run by electricity, 
and were purchased at a cost of 100,000 pesos gold. 

Cucuta railroad. — See page 290. 

COSTA RICA. 

Alcohol motor fuel. — -The Fabrica Nacional de Licores is man- 
ufacturing motor spirit, a new economical alcohol fuel, which accord- 
ing to reports is being used with great success in trucks, automobiles, 
and road machinery. 

Ala.tuela's hydroelectric plant. — ^A contract has been signed 
for the purchase of land for the construction of an electric light and 
power plant for the municipality of Alajuela and the surrounding 
towns. 

Road to Nicaraguan frontier. — A new road has been built 
from Upala to the Nicaraguan frontier. It will open up communi- 
cation for over 100 farmers of this region who raise cattle and coffee. 
There arc also 250,000 cacao trees around Mexico, Guacalito, 
Upala, Tenorio, and Las Caftas in an area of 70 kilometers. The 



288 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

person who built the road paid 6,000 colones for the work, aiul his 
only request of the Government is that it be given to public use and 
repaired once a year. 

CUBA. 

Railroad rates. — On the 1st of January the reduction of railroad 
rates went into effect, the scale in force on April 30, 1919. ])eing 
reestablished. 

Tobacco industry. — The Union of Tobacco and Cigar Manufac- 
turers presented to the first National Congress of Economic Organi- 
zations a program of measures which it considers important for the 
protection and development of its industry. Among these are reduc- 
tion of taxes and railway rates, improvement of the means of com- 
munication, decrease of duties on necessary machinery, and legislation 
favoring the importation of cottonseed-oil cake for fertilizing tobacco 
fields. The Union also asks for an embargo on the importation of for- 
eign tobacco. 

Sugar Finance Commission. — See page 297. 

ECUADOR. 

Railroad.— The Government has made a contract with Sr. Gaston 
Thoret to build a narrow-gauge railway from Guayaciuii through 
Balzar, Catarama, and Montalvo to the city of Babahoyo and inter- 
mediate stations. 

MEXICO. 

West coast boats. — The new Coinpahia Naviera de los Estados 
Unidos de Mexico will liave six freight and passenger boats sailing 
from Salina Cruz to Los Angeles, California, and calling at the Mexican 
ports en route. The sta}" in each harbor will be long enough to give 
an opportunity for transacting business. A })arty of Los Angeles 
merchants planned to make an excursion via this line during the 
latter part of January, in order to strengthen commercial and friendly 
rehitions between the cities united by this much-needed route. 

Railroads. ^-Since the railway board of national lines has been 
under Government control the following sums have been spent in 
construction and repairs: 1917, 2,227,527.68 pesos; 1918, 3,627,8'4,3.53 
pesos; 1919, 4,944,584.68 pesos; 1920, 3,715,919.98 pesos; and 1921, 
5,074,362.50 pesos. The last amount covers the construction of the 
Cuatro Cienagas line and of those from Durango to Cahitao, Llano 
Grande to El Salto, and Saltillo to Oriente, as well as the cost of 
various other improvements. 

Li the last seven months the freight congestion of 250,000 tons at 
Vera Cruz has been cleared up ; day and night service has been started 
on the Vera Cruz Interocean Raih-oad: the passenger trains from 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. 289 

Laredo and Ciudad Juarez to Mexico City have been provided with 
complete new equipment; and Pullman cars have been added to the 
trains running from Mexico City to Manzanillo and Guadalajara and 
from Vera Cruz to Suchiate, on the Guatemalan frontier. 

Petroleum statistics. — The Government Petroleum Department 
furnished the following figures published in Excelsior for January 2 : 
Of the present 510 producing wells, 296 are in the Tampico region, 
196 in the Tulpan zone, and 18 in Minatitlan. Approximately 
600,000 barrels of oil per day are extracted from these wells, whose 
potential capacity is estuiiated at nearly 10 times as much. One 
hundred and thirtv-five wells are now being perforated— 37 in Tam- 
pico, S9 in Tulpan, and 9 in Minatitlan. In 1921, 58 productive 
wells were bored in Tampico, 90 in Tulpan, and none in Minatitlan, 
while in these zones 42, 50, and 3 wells, respectively, were abandoned. 
The export for December, 1921, was approximately 18,000,000 
barrels, the maximum monthly amount reached up to that tmie. 
I^OADS.— Road making is going on in many parts of the Repubhc. 
The State legislature of Vera Cruz has appropriated 75,000 pesos 
annually for the extension of the automobile road which will eventu- 
ally unite that State with the frontier of the United States, as it is 
to connect with the Tamaulipas roads. It is now under construc- 
tion from Perote to Altotonga. 

Work on the prolongation of the road from Laredo, Tex., to Mexico 
City was begun the 1st of January with the cooperation of the Laredo 
Chamber of Commerce. President Obregon has given his official en- 
dorsement to this road, and the Texas automobile club is planning 
to aid in demonstrating to communities along the route the value of 
such a highway. This road will form an extension of the Bankhead 
highway which connects Washington and Laredo, so that it will 
ev'entually be possible to motor from the capital of the United States 
to the capital of Mexico. 

Construction of the road south from Zacatecas to Juchipila and 
other cities in the State is also under way. Four tractors and 
levelers and the small tools necessary for 100 to 200 workmen have 
been received. 

The State of Guanajuato has bought a complete outfit of road- 
building machinery to be used this year in road improvement. 

SoNORA AND ARIZONA.— A notcworthy feature of the fair held 
in Douglas, Ariz., during the latter part of 1921 was the exhibit of 
natural and manufactured products sent by the State of Sonora, to 
which first prize was awarded. The Cruz Galvez orphan asylum oi 
Hermosillo, Sonora, also had an attractive display, consisting of 
saddlery, shoes, rope, and woodworking products. It is hoped 
that this amicable rivalry between the States of Sonora and Arizona 
will continue. 



290 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

Henequen. — The Comision Reguladora, which formerly controlled 
the production and sale of henequen, is to be succeeded by the 
Comision Exportadora, whose intention is to get rid of the stock 
on hand in the proportion of 2 pounds of the new product to 1 of 
the old. thus probably clearing out the old stock in two years. 
The Yucatan growers are pledged to a 50 per cent decrease in 
production. 

NICARAGUA. 

Consul suggests new market. — The Nicaraguan consul in Los 
Angeles, Calif., has visited the various brick and tile factories to 
learn about raw materials used in this industry. He found that 
the colored minerals, claj^s, and slate were such as Nicaragua has in 
abundance and that those now being used were mostly imported 
from Brazil. He has requested the Minister of Promotion to ship 
samples to the consulates for exhibition to United States industries. 
Samples of aluminum, iron,, copper, and manganese will also be sent. 

Addition to duty-free list. — The Collector General of the 
Customs has added mining accessories, as specified in article 231 of 
the Mining Law, to the duty-free list published in administrative 
circular No. 50 of August 17, 1914. The additions include electrical 
machinery and accessories, all electric batteries, dynamos, insulated 
wire, insulating tape, insulators, engines, rails, spikes, couplings, 
bolts for rails, yarn and cotton waste for machinery, any kind of 
packing, hatchets, emery wheels, carbide of calcium, lubricants, 
any type of miners' lamps, incandescent lamps, electric bulbs, 
asbestos gloves, filter cloth, shavings, marble dust, and litharge. 

PANAMA. 

Alcohol as fuel. — The Government has appointed a commis- 
sion of experts to investigate alcohol as a fuel for motors. The 
commission will go to one of the sugar plantations of Aguadulce to 
make the experiments. Costo Rica is also experimenting along this 
line, and alcohol is already extensively used by Habana taxicabs, as 
Bulletin readers will remember. 

Projected coconut-growers' association. — One of the principal 
coconut growers has suggested through the press that the coconut 
growers of Panama form an association to protect themselves against 
losses due to lack of cooperation and organization. Coconuts have 
dropped from S40 to $17.50 a ton, which reduces the price of the 
chief agricultural product of the Republic to an amount that does 
not recompense the grower for his work. 

PARAGUAY. 

Customs bonds. — A resolution passed by the Directorate of 
Customs on December 9, 1921, states that importers, consignees, 



J 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. 291 

and shippers wishing to get through the customs imported merchan- 
dise for which they have no original consular invoice, may do so 
by depositing in the Banco de la Republica to the Bonds Account a 
sum equivalent to 125 per cent of the value of the merchandise, 
determined in accordance with the tariff of valuations, plus the 
freight, insurance, and other costs, including delivery in the customs 
warehouses, and by presenting the credit slip thus obtained to the 
Treasurer of the Customs. Merchandise not included in the regular 
customs tariff list will be valued by the customs and bonded for 
125 per cent of its valuation. Duty-free merchandise is subject 
to the same conditions. The bonding deposits may be made in coined 
gold or legal tender converted at the official rate, and instead of the 
credit shp mentioned in article 1, coupons of the consohdated 6 per 
cent bonds of 1915 will be accepted. 

Trans-Atlantic steamers. — ^The agent of the Rotterdam-South 
American Line has issued a statement that the steamers of that 
company will now carry a few passengers at very much reduced 
rates to and from Europe and South America. 

November foreign trade. — Imports for November amounted to 
365,351 pesos and exports to 672,927 pesos, leaving a favorable 
balance of 307,576 pesos. 

Canes. — The manufacture of canes, a new industry, is growing in 
Paraguay. There are many fine woods which are suitable for the 
making of walking sticks. Umbrella handles and bracelets of sandal 
wood are also being made. Some foreign demand is already noted 
for these articles. 

PERU. 

Textile fibers.— As it is thought that textile fibers may prove 
to be profitable products of the Republic, two commissions of tech- 
nical experts will be engaged by the President to introduce and pro- 
mote the cultivation of plants providing the raw material in question. 
The importation of machinery for making bags and similar articles 
will be favored. 

New road. — ^A road from Huanuco to Puerto Mario, via Cuchi- 
machay, Panao, and Punta Pinzas, will be constructed from the 
the proceeds of the rural, urban, and industrial taxes of Pachitea 
Province. 

Lima-Callao road.— This road is to be paved with asphalt and 
concrete on a base of concrete covered with crushed stone. The 
concessionary who will have the work done receives the right to 
collect certain tolls for 25 years. 

Agricultural laborers. — See page 301. 

REPUBLIC OF CENTRAL AMERICA. 

Kosmos Line.— The German Kosmos Line of steamers has re- 
newed service in combination with the Roland Line of Bremen, 



292 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

making the trip to ports of the west coast of Central and South 
America via the Panama Canal. 

Increased postal rate. — -As the effective postal rate in Guate- 
mala was paid in paper money whose official exchange was much 
less than the amount paid by the other Governments signatory to 
the Universal Postal Union and did not cover the actual expenses 
of the service, the rates were increasetl as follows, beginning January 
1, 1922: Interior service — business papers or letters, each 15 grams 
or fraction, 50 centavos; postal cards, 25 centavos; and parcels post, 
each 50 grams or fraction, 50 centavos. Other charges are in pro- 
portion. 

Report of Retalhuleu. — According to the October report of the 
political governor of the district of Retalhuleu, Guatemala, the 
municipal revenue amounted to 112,854.31 pesos and the expendi- 
tures to 84,707.40 pesos, leaving a favorable balance of 28,146.91 
pesos. Agriculturists were urged to increase the planting of beans 
as an exportable product. Labor difficulties were settled according 
to the labor law. The Rockefeller Founchition and the local sani- 
tary inspector inspected for mosquito-breeding places. Fines were 
imposed upon those who did not carry out the rules for sanitation. 

Roads. — During the months of August and September throughout 
the State of FA Salvador approximately r2.1.")4 s(|uare meters of 
macadam were laid, 4,099 square meters of new roads built, and 
36,017 square meters repaired. 

ExinsiT or samples. — The Honduran Chamber of Commerce is 
to establish in Tegucigalpa a permanent exhibition of samples, sent 
as a result of the visit of Dr. Marco Del Morales to the United 
States. 

Central x4..merican Ciia.mrer of ComxMERCE.— The Central 
American Chamber of Commerce of New York has been formed by 
the countries of Central America. Last August the five consuls 
from these countries stationed in New York met to form the plans 
for such a chamber as has been created. Each consul proposed two 
citizens of his country residing in New York and doing business in 
that city, and two Ameritian business men residing in Central 
America. This chamber will endeavor to foster trade between 
Central America and the United States and to cooperate with local 
chambers of commerce in the arbitration of shipping and other 
difficulties. 

Oil concession. — The Ministry of Promotion of Salvador has 
granted a petroleum exploration concession of 3,990 hectares to the 
owner of an hacienda in the jurisdiction of Metapan. 

Interurban auto service. — The automobile service between the 
Salvadorean cities of Santa Ana and Ahuachapan has been resumed. 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. 20. '3 

URUGUAY. 

Road. — The road from La Tablada to El Cerro will be constructed 
at a cost of 200,000 pesos, to be covered by an issue of bonds at 6^ 
per cent. 

Port works. — The sum of 142,833 pesos has been appropriated 
for port works at La Palma, including the construction of the via- 
duct, the prolongation of the wharf, and other incidental expenses. 
A permanent dredging service will be maintained in the harbor. 
Trees costing 20,000 pesos w^ll be planted to form a park on Govern- 
ment land near the shore. 

Steamer between Montevideo and Buenos Aires. — A steamer 
making three round trips a week, at a moderate charge for passage, 
has been put into service between Montevideo and Buenos Aires. 

Canning factory. — In accordance with the laws granting ex- 
emption from duties on all machinery destined for industries de- 
pendent on agriculture, the proprietor of a factory for canning 
peaches in Carmelo was allowed free entry for fruit-peeling and 
steam canning machinery. 

Steel plant. — The first steel plant in the Republic has lately 
been estabhshed by a company whose representatives had given 
careful study to model establishments in Cleveland and Chicago. 
The converter has a capacity of a ton and may be used 24 times a 
day. Fifty men are employed. 

Agricultural and industrial exposition.— The exposition 
held last fall in Durazno included, in addition to the usual agri- 
■ cultural and stock exhibits, a display of products of national in- 
dustry. These were a revelation to many who had previously 
thought such articles imported. Among the exhibits were valu- 
able and artistic jewelry, nickeled utensils, brass beds, native furs 
made up attractively, fine*cabinet work, motors and agricultural 
tools, chemicals, cloth, cotton and woolen knitted goods, toys, 
china, hats, hand baggage, wine, preserves, and many other articles. 

Dairy cow registry.— The Rural Association will establish a 
dairy-cow registry, which is expected to prove as beneficial to that 
industry in Uruguay as it has in other countries. 

VENEZUELA. 

New telegraphic station.— The telegraph office at El Amparo, 
in the State of Apure, has been officially opened. It is the terminus 
of the line which extends to the Colombian frontier, passing through 
Valencia, Acarigua, Guanare, Nutrias, Bruzual, Palmarito, and 
Guasdalito. 

New road. — The executive of Bolivar district has ordered the 
construction of a road between Ciudad Bolivar, Cabimas, and Lagu- 
S(j028— 2?— Bull. 3 G 



294 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

nilla. The road will be (j meters wide and will be constructed 
according to the latest advances in scientific road building, with all 
the necessary viaducts and bridges. A special commission has been 
appointed to take charge of the whole project. 



ECONOMICandFINANCIAL* 
ki^ AFFAIRS ^^*4i 

ARGENTINA. 

Budget. — The budget law for 1920 was declared by Congress to 
be effective also for 1921, with changes in the allotments for Con- 
gress, War Department, public works, and subsidies, as follows: 
Congress, 5,726,780 pesos national currency; Interior, 59,479,426.52; 
foreign relations and worship, 4,941,074.01; Treasury, 18,246,600; 
public debt, 124,306,484.94; justice and public instruction, 
88,280,385.48; war, 44,145,357.56; navy, 36,459,117.45; agriculture, 
10,515,860; public works, 14,364,835; pensions, longevity, and re- 
tired pay, 17,641,284.72; public works (in bonds), 55,436,600; 
articles 5 and 6 of the present law (which provide for four montlis' 
salary increases), 18,612,800; subsidies, 14,753,470, giving a total 
of 457,473,475.68 national currency in cash and 55,436,600 in bonds. 
Article 3 of the budget fixes the appropriation for charity and sub- 
sidies as 14,753,470 pesos. 

Short term Treasury notes. — The Minister of the Treasury has 
arranged with the banks of the capital to renew for 180 days at 6 
per cent interest 2,500,000 pesos of the Treasury notes. 

BRAZIL. 

Supervision of banks. — The following quotas for expenses of 
bank supervision were paid into the collector's office of the Federal 
District: Milreis 7,083.33, by the Agenda Financial de Portugal; 
milreis 3,544.16, by the Banco de Petropolis; milreis 354.16, by the 
Sociedade Cooperativa Popular de Credito; milreis 1,305.54, by the 
Canadian Bank of Commerce; milreis 7,083,333, by the Banco do 
Rio de Janeiro; milreis 1.062,500, by the Sociedade Anonyma Coope- 
rativa Auxiliadora; milreis 5,833,333, b}^ the Sociedade Popular 
Brasileira; milreis 1,062,500, by the Sociedade Anonyma Coopera- 
tiva Economica. 

COLOMBIA. 

Loan. — -The Government has obtained a loan for £80,000 from an 
English firm. Half will be used for the service of the foreign debt 
and the remainder for other urgent expenses. 



ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL AFFAIRS. 295 

CITBA. 

Interest ox loax. — The Executive authorized in December the 
payment through the Banco del Comercio of the sum of S650,000, 
interest and amortization on the h)an made by the United States to 
Cuba during the Great War. 

Treasury collections. — The undersecretary of finance has 
I ("ported the amounts collected for revenues and taxes from May to 
November, 1921. The total is $35,899,975.06. divided as follows: 
May, $6,449,737.27; June, $5,451,575; July, $5,517,718.98; August, 
$5,361,587.94; September, $4,630,486.24; October, $4,199,417.13; 
and Novem])er, $4,289,452.50. 

DOMIXICAX REPUBLIC. 

Redemptiox of boxds. — 264 bonds of $500 each, Series D, issue of 
1918, were designated by lot for redemption on January 1, 1922. 
Remissiox of surtaxes — See page 297. 

ECUADOR. 

IxcoME tax decree. — ^A legislative decree imposes an income tax 
on individuals, agencies, banks or business, including foreigners with 
capital invested in Ecuador, or those who have lived in the country for 
over three months. Such persons must make an income tax return 
on an amount not less than 4 per cent of their capital. The exec- 
utive will fix the rate of the tax within the following minima and 
maxima : 

Per cent. 

1.000 to 2.000 sucres i to i 

2.001 to 3.000 sucres i t" * 

3,001 to 4,000 sucres H^ 1 

4,001 to 5,000 sucres i ^f ^i 

5.001 to 7,000 sucres ^ t" 2 

7,001 to 10,000 sucres H tt"* -? 

10,001 to 20,000 sucres -^ ^"^ ] 

20,001 to 30,000 sucres ^ t" '^ 

30,001 to 40.000 sucres - ^ to 6 

40,001 to 50,000 sucres '' ^o !» 

50,001 sucres and upwards " *" ^ ^ 

and 25 per cent additional for each J 0.000 sucres or fraction tliereof. 

Taxpayers having an annual income greater than 5.000 sucres will 
also pav a surtax, regulated as follows: 

5,001 to 7,000 sucres ^ 

7,001 to 10,000 sucres ' 

10,001 to 20,000 sucres ' -^ 

20,001 to 30,000 sucres - 

:iO,001 to 40,000 sucres -^ 

40.000 sucres and upwards 



296 THE PAX AMERICAN UXIOX, 

URUGUAY. 

Budget. — The budget of Government expenses in force to October 
31, 1921, was extended to January 31. 1922. pendins; action on a new 
budget. 

VENEZUELA. 

Silver coins. — 600,000 bolivars have been appropriated to cover 
the coinage of 6.000.000 l)()livars in silver, authorized by a docreo of 
April, 1921. 




BOLIVIA. 



Alcohol i.mpokts. In view of the large imports of alcohol in 
1921, Congress desires to protect the national lifpior manufactories 
and has therefore upheld the law of January 23, 1918, which nation- 
alized the alcohol industry and forbade the importation of foreign 
alcohols and raw material for the distilling of spirits. 

COLOMBIA. 

CucUTA RAILROAD. Tlic Slim of 5,000,000 pesos, at the rate of 
1,000,000 pesos a ycai-. has Ix'cn appropriated from any funds accru- 
ing to the National Treasury during the next five years from sources 
distinct from the ordinary taxes, this amount to be used for con- 
structing a railroad from the city of Cucuta to the Magdalena River. 
The Goverinnent has been granted authority by the same law to 
raise a loan guaranteed by the approi)riation and the income derived 
from the railroad. 

Water service. — Cartagena and other nuinicipalities having ports 
open to foreign commerce have been empowered by a recent law to 
place a tax of 0.4 per cent on real estate in order to meet the payment 
on loans used for the devel()))niont of the water system. 

COSTA RICA. 

Fire insurance decree. — On December 14 the President of the 
Republic issued a decree governing the issuance of fire insurance poli- 
cies. It states that no policies will be issued without previous 
inspection by a Goverimient insurance inspector. Three such 
inspectors will be appointed by the Government to appraise property. 
One will have charge of the fire insurance of real property in the 



LEGISLATION. 297 

capital, one the supplies, furniture, and machinery of the business 
th-ms and industries in the capital, and the third will attend to in- 
surance in the rest of the country. Persons desiring to insure prop- 
erty must present a list and inventory of the same which will then 
be checked by the Government investigator. 

Legislation ox medicine and hygiene. — Don Bienvenido Ortiz 
has recently completed a book containing a compilation of laws on 
medicine and hygiene from 1824 to 1921. 

CUBA. 

Sugar Finance Commission. — The President has issued a decree 
by virtue of which the Sugar Finance Commission, created by decree 
No. 155 of 1921, ceased on January 1, 1922, to exercise the powers 
granted to it for the sale and shipment of sugar produced from the 
1919, 1920, and 1921 crops, with the exception of the sugar on 
shipboard in foreign ports or already contracted for shipment. 
Since January 1 owners of sugar remaining from the crops named 
have been able to dispose of it as desired, noting each sale as 
required by law and reporting it to the Sugar Finance Commission. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Water rights. — Executive order No. 318, the law for the conser- 
vation and distribution of water in arid regions, is amended b}^ 
Executive order No. 689 as follows: Public water rights granted 
under this law for agricultural purposes must be obtained from the 
Department of Agriculture and Immigration by the owners of the 
land or in his name or, in case of a concession, by the concessionary. 
When water rights for a certain parcel of land are once obtained, they 
shall in the future be inseparable from that parcel except when trans- 
ferred by the department for good, sufficient, and equitable reasons. 
A transfer may be made only in favor of other land held by the 
owner of the water rights. If water rights are not properly made 
use of for seven consecutive years, the rights may be declared void 
on the recommendation of the central Government. 

Remission of suRTAXES.^-Article 44 of Executive order No. 282 
provided for certain surtaxes on delinquent property taxes. Execu- 
tive order No. 692 of December 6, 1921, authorized the national treas- 
urer to remit or make reimbursement of half the surtaxes for the fiscal 
year 1921-22, which were paid on or before December 31, 1921, and 
appropriated $15,000 for the purpose. 

ECUADOR. 

Hydrocarbon deposits law. — The law defines as hydrocarbons 
all formations and subterranean deposits of mineral oils, natural 



298 THK PAX AMERICAX UXIOX. 

gases, bitumen, asphalt, wax, and other derivatives of petroknim. 
The State reserves the owjiership of idl hy(h"ocar))on fields or 
deposits, conceding them only as leased for a period not to exceed 
20 years with the privilege of 10 years' extension. Each conces- 
sionary must ])ay a tax of 5-12 per cent of the gross product, accord- 
ing to the zone of production. The payment is to be made in the 
product at the well or in money, as may be decided by the President. 
In case of money payment the rate will be based on the prices of the 
New York and London markets, less the transportation costs. The 
royalty to be fixed according to the previous bases will go up one 
unit each 10 years, but not to exceed the maximum. In addition 
to the previous tax each holder of hydi'ocarbon concessions, or 
unoccupied land, will pay an advance animal land tax per square 
hectare: 20 centavos the first year. 40 the second, 80 the third, and 
from the fourtii year to the end of tiie contract, 1 sucre per hectare. 
This tax gives not only the right to exploration of land l)ut the use 
of water, wood, and other construction materials. 

One provision of the law states that not over .'),000 hectares nor less 
than 500 in each canton may be given to one person or corporation. 
The issuance of several concessions in different cantons of one province 
to the same lessee may not exceed 1 5.000 hectares . . . Persons 
seeking concessions must furnish the bond recpiired by law and prove 
their technical and financial ability. The bond shall amount to 
1,000 to 5,000 sucres with 100 sucres extra for each 100 hectares in 
the concession. ... If exj)l()itation is not begun within four y(>iU's 
after the concession is granted, the latter will be withdrawn. The 
prices for which the ])roducts resulting from exploitation are sold 
shall be approved by the Government, leaving to the lessee a moderate 
but reasonable ])rofit. 

The beds of hydr()carl)ons in the oriental r-egion of the Republic 
are excepted from this law aiul are governed by a special decree 
issued in 1920. Hydrocarbon concessions to contractors for public 
works in Esmeraldas Province ma}^ also be made. 

MEXICO. 

Removal of presidential power. — Under date of December 9, 
1921, a legislative decree signed by the President retracts the power 
of approving the annual budget which was given to the Executive 
by the 27th Legislature. 

Practice of medicine in Sonora. — A recent law regulates the 
practice of medicine and similar professions in Sonora. To practice 
medicme, surgery, obstetrics, odontology, or pharmacy it is necessary 
to have a professional degree legall}' authorized. If an applicant 
does not hold a degree issued by a professional school of the Republic, 
by an approved foreign university, or by a foreign political authority 



LEGISLATION. 299 

\vhich|rociprocallyt recognizes Soiiora permits, an examination by a 
board named by the Government will be necessary. Sixty days' 
time was allowed for registering titles in order that their validity 
might be determined. 

NICARAGITA. 

Projected legislation. — A manufactnrer has arrived in Managua 
to submit to Congress a contract for the production of cloth and 
blankets such as are made in Mexico. If successful in introducing 
his macliinery from Mexico, he intends later to start a hat factory, a 
brewery, and a steam laundry. The representative of an American 
wireless company is also to present a contract for the consideration 
of Congress. The company wishes to establish wireless stations in 
Managua, Bluefields, and Cabo de Gracias a Dios. A labor law is to 
be discussed which will include accidents, hours of the working day, 
and the wages of laborers and artisans. A projected petroleum law 
with features suggested by the Nicaraguan consul iii Tampico will 
also come under discussion. 

PARAGUAY. 

Classification and tenure of teachers. — The law on this 
subject, No. 522 of 1921, provides that: Article 1. Primary public 
school teachers shall be divided into four classes — normal professors, 
normal teachers, elementary normal teachers, and teachers. The 
first three classes are composed of those with diplomas from the 
corresponding institutions, and the last mentioned lack professional 
titles. Article 2. Primary administrative officers and teachers may 
not be discharged as long as they conduct themselves properly, nor 
may they be transferred by the Directorate General without the 
permission of the National Council of Education. The regulations 
will determine measures to be taken in case of neglect of duty. 
Article 3. Promotion will be strictly according to professional rating, 
length and record of service. Article 4. Teacliers' salaries are to be 
calculated according to professional standing, lengtli and record of 
service on the following basis: First class, normal professors, 2,000 
pesos; second class, normal teachers, 1,000 pesos; third class, nor- 
mal elementary teachers, 800 pesos; and fourth class, teachers 
without titles, 400 pesos. Article 5. Salaries thus established are to 
be paid to teacliers whatever their post, unless it be that of a pro- 
fessional chair which will be included in the corresponding budget. 
The President will fix, in accordance with the budget, travel pay, 
excess pay, and increases for special offices. Article 6. No teacher 
may occupy two posts of the same rating except when there is no 
one to fill the vacancy. In such a case the teacher will receive 50 
per cent excess pay. Article 7. Normal teachers who have served 



300 THE PAX AMERICAX UXION. 

as directors of primary schools for 10 years, during 5 years of wliicli 
the schools were graded, will be promoted to the rank of normal 
professor; also those who have shown extraordinary aptitude and 
good character. . . . Article 8. Untitled teachers will be made ele- 
mentary normal teachers if they pass the examinations of the National 
Council of Education. . . . Article 9. Teachers without a title 
with less than 5 years' service may at any time be replaced by teachers 
with a title if their transfer to another place is not possible. . . . 
Article 10. All teachers titled or promoted to such rating have a 
right to a 2^ per cent increase of salary every 5 years up to 20 years 
if they have satisfactorily fulfilled their duties. The remaining 
articles of this law cover the rules for pensions, school management 
and inspection, and other related matters. 

Regional education council.— The latest law on this subject 
provides that the regional education councils shall be directly de- 
pendent upon the National Council of Education. The primary 
schools shall be dependent upon the regional councils of the district 
in which they are listed, but not the normal schools, which are 
dependent upon the National Education Council. 

Each regional council of education is to be composed of a presi- 
dent, two members, and a secretary, the first three appointed by 
the President of the Republic upon the recommendation of the 
National Council of Education, while the secretary is the appointee 
of the National Council of Education. The members' term of office 
is one year, after which they are eligible for reelection. A member 
must be a resident of the vicinity, qualified by character and educa- 
tion, and should preferably be a professional man. 

Regional councils of education have the following duties: To see 
to the fulfillment of education laws, regulations, and orders; to 
watch the progress of schools; to keep the statistics of the schools 
and matters thereto appertaining; to pay salaries, as the money is 
received; to advance in every possible way the progress of popular 
education as to instruction, improvements in the corps of teachers, 
foundation of libraries, and holding of conferences; and to perform 
other similar functions. 

The president of the regional council of schools is the director 
general for the schools of his region and holds office four years. The 
regional director of schools is to represent the regional council in 
public acts before public authorities and educational authorities; 
authorize payments, accounts, and reports; oversee the inspection 
of schools; make a personal inspection at least once a year and report 
to the general directorate of schools ; and go to the capital personally 
each January to report and receive instructions for the new year. 

Each regional council is to have a number of inspectors determined 
annually by the National Council of Education, who are to be located 



LEGISLATION. 301 

in the district, under the orders of the regional council and of the 
regional director. 

Military school for apprentices. — The military school for 
apprentices has been organized by Decree No. 13899 to train boys 
younger than 10 years and not older than 20 to become military 
artisans. Boys who enter must be recommended b}^ the General 
Protectorate of Minors and must have lost father and mother, have a 
health certificate, a vaccination certificate, and a letter from the 
establishment where they have passed the two previous years. The 
studies are in part theoretical and in part practical — Arithmetic, 
Spanish, geography and national history, civics, theoretical military 
instruction and gymnastics, elementary geometry, physiology and 
hygiene, music, singing, and drawing, carpentry and furniture 
making, naval construction, general mechanics, tanning, shoe 
making, and tailoring. Graduates of the school who have not 
remained the 10 years in the school required of entrants under 15 
may work outside in shops by paying part of their wages into the 
savings department and part into the school treasury for board and 
lodging, and thus continue under the tutelage of the school. Students 
over 15 at entrance are to remain in the school for five years. Gradu- 
ates are given a certificate of professional competency. 

PERU. 

Water and drainage systems. — All projects for providing cities 
or towns with drinking water, sewage and drainage systems, and 
for garbage disposal must, according to a recent decree, be submitted 
for approval to the Public Health Bureau, since they vitally affect 
the health of the nation. 

Agricultural laborers. — The agricultural laborers of the 
Peruvian valleys have been asking for an arrangement which would 
assure them higher wages and more permanent employment. In 
connection with the former question, the Minister of Promotion is 
considering a minimum wage scale for each valley, based on the 
cost of living and subject to an increase in relation to the sale price 
of exported products. 

Both wages and employment are considered in a decree of Decem- 
ber 7, 1921, which applies to the agricultural laborers of the Chicama 
and Santa Catalina valleys of Trujillo Province. Some of the most 
interesting provisions follow: 

The length of a working day shall be eight hours, in conformity with the decree 
of January 15, 1919, and any agreement for a longer working day, which may in no 
case exceed 12 hours, must be referred for approval to the Labor Inspection Commis- 
sion. 

Cutting and loading sugar cane shall be paid for according to the weight of the 
amount cut or loaded. Other work in the field shall be gauged by the work done by 
an average laborer in 8 hours. 



302 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

In case of illness proved by a medical certificate the laVjorer lias a rij?ht to receive 
half his wages, plus the food ration usually given him. If he has no family and ia 
treated in a hospital, the food ration need not be given. 

If for any reason there is an oversupply of laborers, those who are dismissed on 
that account will receive two months' wages if they liave worked more than six 
months, and one month's wages if they have worked more than two montlis and less 
than six. This provision may be modified in the light of the information received 
by the Labor Inspection Commission. 

The decree also provides for Government bank inspection of savings 
and mutual benefit societies, sanitary and educational inspection, 
the cessation of contract labor, new telegraph and post offices, and 
the creation of the Labor Inspection Commission already mentioned, 
which is to consist of a Government delegate, an estate o^vne^, and 
a bona fide la})orer. The duties of this commission are important 
as showing the existence and trend of labor legislation: To see that 
the regulations of the present decree are strictly complied with; to 
intervene in and to terminate, in accordance with existing regulations, 
disagreements between employees and laborers : to watch the observ- 
ance of the laws regarding labor accidents, work of women and 
children, weekly rest period (when the Sunday rest period is not 
given), housing, medical attention, schools for lal)orers, and all labor 
laws and decrees now in force or promulgated in the future; and to 
propose to the Ministry of Promotion the means which experience 
may suggest for effecting permanent harmony between employers 
and laborers. 

URUGUAY. 

Promotion of national industries. — A law of December 2, 
1921, offers a monopoly of manufacture for nine years to those who 
establish or reestablish an^^ industry using national raw materials 
or the residue or waste of industries already functioning, whether 
their raw material is native or imported. This monopoly will not 
be granted for the production of articles of food for persons or animals, 
imless the concessionaries are the discoverers of the product. 

Sanitary port regulations. — The National Council of Hygiene 
has established specific rules for the docking of steamers. Those 
which have on board or have had during the passage cases of cholera, 
bubonic plague, yellow fever, or typhus must cast anchor at the 
Flores Sanitary Station. Other regulations are established for less 
dangerous diseases, and a fine is provided for infringement of the 
provisions. 

Sale of drugs. — A recent official resolution, sponsored by the 
National Hygiene Council, provides that all those dealing in cocaine 
and opium or its derivatives must keep a record of receipts and sales 
of those drugs, inspected by the pharmacy bureau. Physicians, 
veterinarians, and dentists are forbidden to prescribe them in quan- 
tities exceeding the maximum dose. Patent or proprietary medicines 



INTERNATIONAL TREATIES. 



303 



contiiiiiin^ the (lrii<^s in question must bear a label indicatino; the 
quality and quantity of their ingredients. 

VENEZUELA. 

Hydrocarbon law. — Congress passed in July of last year a law- 
regarding hydrocarbons. It covers in detail all the points related to 
exploration for and exploitation of depos^its of hydrocarbons. 

Edltcation law. — The main provisions of the new education law 
are as follows: Any competent person in full enjoyment of his civi] 
rights may found schools for any branch of learning without ol)taining 
a license or being subject to official regulations, programs, methods, 
or texts. The law recognizes the following divisions of instruction: 
Subprimary; primary, divided into elementary and advanced; 
secondary, which complements the primary and prepares for higher 
advanced studies; normal, elementary, and advanced; higher educa- 
tion, including medicine, political science, theology, physics, mathe- 
matics, and biological science, and philosophy and letters; special 
education, including agriculture, industries, trades, and other similar 
branches; and physical training. It is hoped that the subprimary 
schools (escuelas maternales) , which include day nurseries and kinder- 
gartens, and the work in physical education will aid materially in 
reducing infant mortality. 

Elementary jH'imary education is obligatory for all children be- 
tweeji 7 and H years of age, and physical training for all students 
under 2 1 . 

The second section of the law refers to legal degrees and certifi- 
cates, and the others to official instruction, the National Council of 
Instruction, and other important subjects. 



^ 



INTERNATIONAL 
.^ TREATIES 



^ 



<? 



I'ARAGL^AY-UNITED STATES. 

Commercial travelers' convention. — By Law 521 the Govern- 
ment of Paraguay approved the Commercial Travelers' Convention 
signed in Washington, D. C, (3ctober 20, 1919, by the diplomatic 
representative of Paraguay, Don Manuel Gondra, and the Secretary 
of State of the United States, Mr. Robert Lansing. 

VENEZUELA. 

International Wireless C-o.^vextion. -Congress has approved 
the participation of Venezuela in the International Wireless Conven- 
tion signed in London July .5, 1912. 



^ public instruction 
^ ;andeducation. ~^ 

ARGENTINA. 

Commencement exhibitions. — Exhibitions of handwork were held 
in many schools before they closed in December for the summer 
vacation. That in the Parana Domestic Science School contained an 
interesting collection of machine drawn work, woven hats, dress- 
making, tailoring, cooking, line laundry, and other specialties. 

In Jujuy the weaving of the Academy Sarmiento pupils and the 
woolen cloth and dyes attracted much favorable attention. The 
designs are mostly Incaic in character. 

The National ^'ocational School in Chivilcoy showed examples of 
carpentry, foundry work, and tool making. 

BOLIVIA. 

New free school. — ^A number of normal graduates who have 
lield important posts as teachers have recently formed a new free 
school. In the morning session arithmetic, reading, writing, com- 
position, metric system, and geometry are taught, and in the after- 
noon session history, geograph}^, and various forms of outdoor and 
indoor physical culture and sports. It will be the endeavor of the 
school to give a well-balanced education, developing the civic, moral, 
and esthetic sense of the pupils as well as their intellectual life. 

Changes in primary education. — The Government has ruled that 
manual training shall be taught in all the primary schools of the 
capitals of departments. The manual-training course begins in the 
fourth year. 

COLOMBIA. 

School in the Sierra Nevada. — A number of parents have sub- 
scribed $15,000 for the foundation of a school in the Sierra Nevada, 
near Cordoba, in the department of the Magdalena. The school will 
be situated at an altitude of 1,400 meters above sea level, where there 
is an average temperature of 18° C. Boys from 14 to 15 years of 
age will be received, and the faculty will be carefully selected. The 
excellent climate and the healthfulness and beauty of the location 
will contribute to the success of this modern high school. 

COSTA RICA. 

Diplomas for normal students. — The President of the Republic 
has issued a proclamation stating the requirements for diplomas as 

304 



PUBLIC II^STRUCTIO:Nr AND EDUCATION. 305 

normal teachers. In the future no teacher's diploma will be registered 
in the ofhce of primary education unless accompanied by a certificate 
shoAving the personal and professional qualifications of the normal 
school graduate. Among the points on which information is asked 
are academic and pedagogical training, practice teaching, and the 
interest of the applicant in child life and problems. For the present 
year the data obtained from the school records will suffice. 

ClosinCx exhibition. — The girls of the Heredia Normal School 
held an exhibition of their manual work done during the year. The 
sum of 3.349 colones was earned by the sale of articles. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Increase in local budgets. — As the 15 per cent of the general 
receipts for the commune of Los Llanos, allotted by law to public 
instruction, amounts to .$5,371.86 more than the sum estimated in 
the budget, the surplus will be spent as follows: Furniture, S700; 
supplies, $371.86; freight and cartage, $100; construction and re- 
pairs, $4,000; and school equipment, $200. 

The commune of Hato Mayo also has a surplus, which in its case 
amounts to $1,961.42; the money will be spent for similar purposes, 
including agricultural tools. 

Another school of commerce. — A school of commerce will be 
established in San Pedro de Macoris under private auspices. The 
new school in Santiago was mentioned in last month's Bulletin. 

ECUADOR. 

Fourth Students' Congress. — The Fourth Congress of Students 
of La Gran Colombia (Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela) will meet 
in Quito in May, 1922, at the time of the celebration of the one- 
hundredth anniversary of the battle of Pichincha. The topics laid 
down for discussion include the following: Program of university 
students regarding the theory and practice of the State concerning 
property, taking into consideration the world socialist movement; 
part to be taken in encouraging immigration; university action tend- 
ing to unify labor legislation in the three countries represented; 
establishment of medical schools; legislative measures for the stand- 
ardization of rules concerning mutual recognition of academic 
titles; reform in the methods of teaching natural sciences and mathe- 
matics, with their practical applications; reform in the teaching of 
law; and the importance of establishing a federation of students of 
La Gran Colombia in order to unify the social, political, and economic 
action of the university students of the three countries. 

Education system. — There are three normal schools in Ecuador. 
The Juan Montalvo Normal Institute at Quito is for young men, and 
the Manuela Canizares Normal Institute in the same city, and the 



306 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

Rita Lecumberrv Normal Institute in Guaya(iuil, for girls. Schools 
giving special instruction are: The Vocational Schools of Quito. 
Tulcan, and Portoviejo, and the Pedro Carbo Commercial High 
School of Bahia de Caraquez. The Vocational School of Quito oft'ers 
courses in typography, binding, photogravure, carriage manufac- 
ture, carpentry, mechanics, shoemaking, saddlery, tailorhig, engrav- 
ing, tanning, and ceramic work. The name, location, and attendance 
of schools of secondarv and advanced education are jxiven beh)w: 



Cities. 


Name of school. 

Bolivar 

Teodoro G6mez de la Barra 


1 Attend- 
ance. 


Tulcan 

Ibarra 




33 
50 


Quito 

Latacunga. . . . 


Mejia 

\'icente Lc(5n 


2S0 

76 


Ambalo 

Riobamba .... 
Guaranda 


Bolivar 

Maldonado 

Pedro Carbo 


62 

120 

67 


Azogues 


Juan B. V&squez 

Benigno Malo 

Bernardo Valdivieso 


48 


Cuenca 

Loja 




225 

124 


Machala 


N uevp de Octubre 


. . 61 


Babahoyo 

Portoviejo.. . . 
Guayaquil. . . . 


Kugenio Espejo 

Olmedo 


tiO 

4S 

385 










Total.... 


.1 fiSQ 




' 



There are three universities: The Central University at Quito, tlie 
University of Guayas at Guayaquil, and the University of Azuay at 
Cuenca. There is also a University .lunt.-i at Loja. The students 
in the universities and the univ(»rsity Junta of Loja are taking iho 
following courses: Law, 297; medicine, 2()1 : science, 69; pharmacy, 
46; dentistry, 37; obstetrics, 23; nursing. 1 1 : total, 744. 

Th(> State supports university instruction })y an annual subsidy of 
80,000 sucres, which, added to the other revenue assigned to this 
branch, amounts to a total of 641,335.57 sucres. There is also a fine 
national library and an astronomical laboratory, which is well 
equij)ped. 

HAITI. 

Courses of study. — The Moniteur of December 3. 10, and 14, 
1921, publishes the courses of study for the trade and domestic 
science school for girls. The subjects of the h()usekeej)ing course 
include clothing, laundry work, foods and nutrition, adulteration of 
foods, theoretical and practical cookery, table service, and house- 
hold accounts. In the Moniteur of December 21, 1921, is given the 
course of study for ^Section C, r./atin-scientific, of the private s(M'ondary 
schools. 

-MK.XICO. 

Progress in educatiox. -In the Jamiary nunil)er of the Bri.LETi.N 
was given a brief outline of the plans of the department of education 
for 1922. One of its chief aims is the eradication of illiteracy; in this 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION AND EDUCATION. 307 

cause many vokinteer teachers are enlisted, while the work is being 
prosecuted by other means as well. A popular center in a crowded 
district of Mexico City is meeting with great success in this direction. 
A new school is to be built early in 1922 on the common land returned 
to each town of the Federal district so that the children of the rural 
sections may receive instruction in the daytime and their parents in 
the evening. 

The schools of Mexico City have been taken over by the Federal 
department. A vocational school, which will also offer a home to 
orphans, was opened in Pachuca on New Year's Day. Every boy 
has his choice of becoming skilled as a carpenter, ironworker, elec- 
trician, automobile repair man, garage foreman, machinist, tailor, 
baker, printer, or shoemaker. All the equipment necessary for a large 
modern shoeshop was ordered from the United States. 

Higher education as well is receiving attention. New universities 
are to be established in three places — Pachuca, State of Hidalgo, 
Merida, State of Yucatan, and Culiacan, State of Sinaloa. In con- 
nection with the last there will be a museum, to which the National 
School of Fine Arts has sent a collection of pictures and the National 
Archeological Museum some casts of primitive Mexican monuments. 
The Department of Education will provide a good library. 

PARAGUAY. 

Medical professor. — The Paraguayan Go^ erimient has engaged 
Prof. Andre, of France, to teach in the school of medicine for three 
years, beginning March, 1922. 

Physical culture. — The physical culture section of the Para- 
guayan Institute is preparing a physical culture program in which a 
swimming contest is to be featured. Under the direction and patron- 
age of the Paraguayan Institute the physical culture idea is being 
spread through the schools and is tending to produce young citizens 
Avith properly developed bodies. 

Classification and tenure of teachers.— See page 299. 

Regional education councils. — See page 300. 

Military school for apprentices. — See page 301. 

PERU. 

Popular education. — Under the name of Universidad Popular 
the students of the University of Lima are conducting classes and 
lectures for workmen in that city and near-by towns, as has already 
been mentioned in the Bulletin. Some of the recent hn-tures have 
covered the subjects of dental hygiene, the effects of alcohol on normal 
and diseased organisms, the necessity of oxygen for good health, with 
illustrative experiments, and practical anatomy, with first-aid instruc- 



308 THE PAX AMERICAN UNION. 

tions ill case of fractures. A campaign of typhoid prevention is also 
being waged by means of printed leaflets. A musical program is 
usually given at the close of the lecture. 

In Trujillo the Students' and Laborers' League has started a free 
"Academia Popular," which opened with the following courses: 
Spanish, practical arithmetic, ethics and civics, constitution of Peru, 
labor legislation, practical geometry, and mechanical drawing. 

School for nurses. — Since 1917 the Lima school for men and 
women nurses in connection with the Dos de Mayo and Santa Ana 
hospitals and the Victor Larco Herrera Asylum has been granting 
diplomas to those completing the course and passing the examination. 
Of the 25 graduates 16 are employed by the Public Charity Society 
of Lima and 9 in private hospitals and clinics. 

REPUBLIC OF CENTRAL AMERICA. 

Private commercial school. — A new jnivate school of commerce 
has been opened in Guatemala City with the following curriculum: 
First year, Spanish grammar, practical arithmetic, first-year English, 
instruction in civics, correspondence, and typing; second year, 
commercial geography, commercial arithmetic, second-year English, 
first-year Frencli, bookkeeping: third year, commercial arithmetic, 
third-year English, second-year French, mercantile and international 
law. Government military accounting and financial law; fourth year, 
fourth-year English, third-year French, political economy and finance, 
stenography and typewriting, and l)ank, agricultural, and mercantile 
accounting. 

Final examinations of agricultural school. — The School of 
Agriculture of Guatemala held its final examinations December 16 
and 17. As part of the closing exercises of the school year it gave 
an exhibition of the farm machinery in use and lield an inspection of 
the plots cultivated by the students. 

New schools in Hondiras. — A new private school for young 
ladies is to be opened in the town of vSanta Ana during the present 
year. In Ocotepeque a board of education has been organized to 
estal)lish a school of secondary instruction for the whole department. 
Atldntida, a paper of La Ceiba, has opened a campaign for a normal 
school to be located in the northern coast region so that teachers 
may be trained for that part of the Republic. 

Boys' school. — A parents' committee in Sonsonate, Salvador, 
has decided to establish a primary and secondary school for boys, 
both boarding and day pupils. 

Girls' vocational school exhibition. — An exhibition of the work 
of the girls' vocational school in San Salvador was held on November 
30, 1921. The exhibits filled three rooms and included painting, 



SOCIAL PROGRESS. 



309 



modeling, artificial flowers, hand and machine embroideries, cutting 
and dressmaking, straw and fancy hats, bookbinding, drawing, and 
other articles. 

URUGUAY. . 

Government department schools. — The Navy has started a 
school for mechanics at the national dry dock. 

A school has been opened by the Interior Department for members 
of the police force desiring to become civil guards. It is hoped 
later to add preliminary courses for those who wish to enter the 
police service. 

Industrial schools. — Readers of the Bulletin will recall the 
progressive industrial schools of Uruguay partially described in the 
February number. Recognizing their usefulness, the Government 
has appropriated 80,000 pesos for new schools of this type to be 
founded m 1922. 




ARGENTINA. 

First girls' camp.^Iu February the first girls' camp for the 
Y. W. C. A. of Buenos Aires was opened in Adela. A party went off 
provided with all the necessities, including gymnasium and bathing 
suits, to enjoy for the first time the freedom of "camping out." 
Volley ball, basket ball, baseball, swimming, and rowing were popu- 
lar sports. After evenings spent around the glowing camp fire, the 
girls slept soundly in their tents under the eucalyptus trees. 

Maternity ward. — A maternity ward built as a memorial to 
Dona Sara de la Serna by her husband, Sr. Pedro Gandulfo, has been 
added to the Hospital Luisa C. de Gandulfo in Lomas de Zamora. 
The new ward has most cheerful surroundings and coloring as its red 
tile roof contrasts with the greens of the surrounding gardens. 

Radium for Buenos Aires Hospital. — Dr. Pedro Jauregui has 
secured in Paris for Don Manuel Escasany 200 milligrams of radium 
for the Spanish Hospital in Buenos Aires. 

Maternity ward for tubercular patients.— A new maternity 
ward for tubercular patients has been opened in the Hospital Vicente 
L6pez y Planes. There are 32 beds in a two-story building with 
steam heat and electric lights, operation rooms, sterilization room, 
nursery, consultation rooms, dispensary, and all the improvements 
86028— 22— BulL 3 7 



310 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

of a modern hospital. This is the first ward for tubercuhxr mothers 
in the country and now such sufferers as formerly could not find 
proper hospital care on account of having this contagious disease will 
have the necessary attention. 

Society for protection of infancy. — It has been decided to 
build at a cost of 300,000 pesos an annex to the Asylum Teodelina 
Alvear de Lezica of the Society for the Protection of Infancy. 

CHILE. 

Chilean League for Social Hygiene.— Last November this 
society, whose purpose is the moral, social, and scientific improve- 
ment of the race, laid the cornerstone for its first polyclinic. In the 
pursuit of its purposes the society hopes to make use of all the 
resources of science for prevention and cure, prophj-laxis against in- 
fection, isolation to prevent further propagation, destruction of the 
foci of infection, opportunity for a complete cure, scientific, hygienic, 
and moral propaganda, and counsel and help towards regeneration 
based on the most modern physiological, psychological, and social 
principles. The league utilizes in the accomplishment of its purpose 
all the individual and social dynamic forces — science, religion, family 
sentiment, public authority, capital, and labor. 

Miners' welfare. — The Mercurio dc Santiago in one of its recent 
numbers gave an account of the provision made by a copper mining 
company, "El Teniente," for the recreation and general social welfare 
of the miners. Comfortable assembly rooms are open Thursdays and 
Sundays. They are supplied with plaj^cr pianos, libraries, and can- 
teens serving soft drinks. The men have " estudiantinaS; " or 
musical clubs, which both play and sing. Moving pictures are offered 
at low prices. A large gymnasium offers an opportunity for boxing 
and other indoor sports, while tennis courts and football grounds are 
provided outside. 

The company intends to construct an industrial school in which the 
miners' children may be prepared for work in the mines as me- 
chanics, electricians, boiler makers, or laborers skilled in other trades. 

The company maintains other institutions beneficial to the miners, 
such as the hospital, which is provided with an excellent laboratory, 
an X-ray machine, and an operating room, and the store in which 
every sort of merchandise is sold at a charge of 10 per cent over 
wholesale prices. 

In the zone in which the mine is situated the sale of alcoholic 
beverages is absolutely forbidden. Guards are employed at a cost 
of 50,000 pesos a year to prevent the introduction of liquor. 

Welfare department. — The boards of directors of the Mortgage 
Bank, the Santiago Savings Bank, and the National Savings Bank 
have formed a welfare department for the employees of those institu- 



SOCIAL PEOGRESS. 311 

tions. This department is divided into three parts — pensions, 
savings, and life insurance. The last wiU be obligatory for aU em- 
ployees under 50 years of age. The amount of the policy will not be 
less than a year's salary nor greater than 50,000 pesos. 

Instituto Sanitas. — This is the name of a modern clinic in San- 
tiago, one of the largest and best in South America. It makes a 
specialty of radiotherapy, for which it is equipped with apparatus of 
200,000 volts. 

COLOMBIA. 

Modern hospital. — A group of distinguished Colombian physi- 
cians has recently established in Barranquilla a modern hospital, 
which is considered one of the most complete in the country. Opera- 
tions are performed by surgeons who are graduates of Colombian or 
United States universities. The clinic has a complete modern outfit, 
including X-ray and bacteriological sections and a ward for the 
treatment of contagious diseases. There are rooms for 25 patients, 
each room being supplied with running water and electric bells and 
fans; the whole building is carefully screened. Graduate nurses are 
in attendance. 

COSTA RICA. 

School for nurses. — -The school for nurses founded in San Jose 
two years ago by Dr. Don Luciano Beeche, then president of the 
school of medicine, held its final examinations in December, gradu- 
ating nine students as trained nurses. 

Throat clinic. — In the Hospital de San Juan de Dios, San Jose, a 
throat clinic has been installed. Free treatment is given to poor 
patients each week day. 

Legislation on medicine and hygiene. — See page 297. 

CUBA. 

Prize babies. — Many Habana mothers brought their babies to 
take part in a baby contest held in December by the department of 
health and charity. Three special prizes were awarded by a com- 
mission of prominent physicians. 

Hospital of the Castilian Society. — ^The Santa Teresa Hospital 
built by the members of the Castilian Society in Habana was opened 
the latter part of last year. There are wards for men and women, 
operating rooms, private rooms for surgical cases, rooms for the 
hospital staff, and a pharmacy. One of the modern conveniences of 
hospital installation is the red light at the door of each room which 
patients may turn on by a button at their bedside, thus summoning 
the nurse on duty. 

Fifth Medical Congress. — Among the important recommenda- 
tions of the Fifth Cuban Medical Congress, whose triennial meeting 



312 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

was mentioned in the last number of the Bulletin, were the following : 
Enactment of a rest law for pregnant women and nursing mothers; 
the sending at public expense of professors from the school of medicine 
to the annual convention held by the medical colleges of the United 
States and Canada; creation of a school dental dispensary in each 
province; installation of a filter plant on the Almendares River to 
improve the Habana water supply; investigation of the academic 
preparation of physicians, pharmacists, dentists, and veterinarians; 
and the formation of a committee to work with the physicians of other 
countries for the organization of a convention of tropical American 
medicine. The next meeting of the Congress will be held in 1924. 

ECUADOR. 

Guayaquil free from yellow fever. — For nearly three years 
Guayaquil has been free from yellow fever. The last case was in 
May, 1919. The record of cases for 1919 shows the progress made in 
the eradication of the disease which previously was a deadly scourge 
to this part of Ecuador. In 1918 there were 460 cases of yellow fever; 
in January, 1919, there were 85 cases of yellow fever; in February, 43 
cases; in March, 17 cases; in April, 3 cases; and in May, 1 case, 
which marked the end. This remarkable change was brought about 
by the work of the Ecuadorean Board of Health in cooperation with 
the experts of the International Health Board of the Rockefeller 
Foundation, who are trying to eliminate yellow fever all over the 
world. A campaign of publicity was carried on to win the under- 
standing and cooperation of the inhabitants in the elimination of the 
mosquito, and all water tanks, barrels, and other water containers 
were covered, or else stocked with fish to eat up the larvae of the 
mosquito. Guayaquil now has no more mosquitos, and consequently 
no more yellow fever. 

MEXICO. 

Home for girls. — Girls who have been brought up in the Hospice 
of Mexico City, which cares for 1,500 destitute boys and girls, T^ill be 
provided early this year with a home in which they can live after they 
have become self-supporting through a trade or occupation learned in 
the hospice. 

Distribution of labor. — ''Among the many benefits derived 
from the revolution," says the monthly publication of the Bureau of 
Labor, "may be mentioned the awakening in rural and city laborers 
of the desire to leave their native places in search of better conditions 
of labor. Formerly workers systematically refused to leave their 
own countryside, and the lack of proper distribution of labor made 
the wage scales in the different States very unequal. . . . Labor 



SOCIAL PEOGEESS. 313 

unions would perform a useful service if they would take upon them- 
selves the duty of informing the labormg class in theh respective 
localities of the true situation in labor centers, thus preventing the 
emigration of laborers when emigration presents no advantages .... 
The"^ Bureau of Labor of the Department of Industry constantly 
collects information on labor supply and demand; these data are 
at the disposition of the public and of the labor unions." 

Libraries.— The library section of the Department of Public 
Education has sent out ''minimum" libraries, selected according to 
the type of community which they are to serve, to 173 towns, dis- 
tributed among 28 States and Territories. These libraries are 
indexed according to the Dewey system. 

Playground in Mexico City.— About 1,600 Mexican children are 
daily using the playground given last September to the Mexico City 
government as a centenary gift. The children are taken in parties 
of 400 at a time, two parties m the morning and two in the afternoon, 
and their play is directed by young Mexican volunteers who have 
been trained by the dhector of the playgrounds. 

El Heraldo, one of the leading daily papers of Mexico City, m an 
editorial article says that nothing so useful has ever been done for the 
Mexican children as the opening of this playground, which cost 
altogether, to estabhsh, equip, and mamtam, 25,000 pesos. Most of 
this money was contributed by the members of the American colony 
m the City of Mexico; but members of the American Chamber of 
Commerce in the United States also sent gifts. 

NICARAGUA. 

Treatment of syphilitic cases. — Two physicians have concluded 
a contract with the Government by which for one year they are to 
administer free to all persons unable to pay, injections of neo-salvUrsan 
or its equivalent when medically prescribed, and also to give medical 
and surgical assistance to the police of Managua. All medicmes 
except neo-salvarsan, which is paid for by the Government, will be 
furnished by the doctors, who are to receive 500 cordobas a month. 

PARAGUAY. 

City milk inspection. — The Municipal Chemical Office of Asuncion 
has undertaken the inspection of milk sold in the city. 

republic of central AMERICA. 

Laborers' assocls^tion.- In Chocuteca, Honduras, a laborers' 
association has been formed under the name of ''Liga de Obreros 
Jose Cecilio del Valle." It hopes to procure agricultural land for 
its members, and also to carry on classes and lectures for their 
mental and moral uplift. 



314 THE PAN AMEKICAN UNION. 

Sanitation office work. — During November the sanitation in- 
spectors of San Salvador visited 736 buildings, including houses, 
hotels, and public places, warning 80 proprietors for failure to 
comply with sanitary requirements, and filed 175 papers of cases 
completed in previous months. Twenty-five fines were imposed. 

Salvadorean Municipal libraries. — ^The mayoralty of San 
Salvador plans to increase the number of books in the municipal 
and the children's libraries. Books which will cost 800 colones 
have been ordered from Spain. 

URUGUAY. 

Infant welfare. — The National Council of Public Assistance 
has received an appropriation of 7,640 pesos a month for the organ- 
ization and running expenses of the infant welfare service, includ- 
ing the wet-nurse registry, the maternity home at El Cerro, and the 
dispensary in Montevideo. 

Antituberculosis League. — The league has in Montevideo four 
dispensaries, a throat clinic, public baths, a sanatorium, an open- 
air school, five stations for the distribution of food, and a wagon 
for the house to house distribution of food. The league also con- 
tributes to various milk stations. In the country outside of Monte- 
video the league has 16 dispensaries and 2 sanatoriums, and pro- 
vides milk for the children in 14 schools. The new dispensary in 
Flores was inaugurated last October. 

Woman inspector. — A woman has been appointed by the bureau 
for the suppression of alcoholism to inspect places frequented by 
women and children. 

Institute for the prophylaxis of syphilis. — The institute 
has recently opened dispensaries in Mercedes, Fray Bentos, and 
Dolores, and will shortly inaugurate others in Colonia, Rosario, and 
Carmelo. 

VENEZUELA. 

Child welfare. — The Venezuelan Red Cross has recently started 
activities along the line of child welfare. It hopes to reduce infant 
mortality; to give prenatal instructions to mothers, so that children 
may be born strong and robust; to protect children of preschool 
age; and to carry on a campaign of information among all classes 
of society. Other institutions which are cooperating are the milk 
stations, the Children's Hospital, the Children's Protective Society, 
and the Red Cross School, where nurses are being prepared to carry 
practical child hygiene work into the home. It will be recalled 
that last month's Bulletin mentioned the initiation of a movement 
for united effort to promote child welfare. 

A branch of the Children's Red Cross was started in Caracas last 
December. 



BOLIVIA. 

Bolivian Almanac. — The Almanaque Boliviano de La Ilustra- 
cion has lately been published. The volume contains 200 pages of 
interesting literature by some of the most important prose writers 
and poets of Bolivia. 

BRAZIL. 

Lighting of the Centennial Grounds. — It is reported that 
the General Electric Co., through its representatives in Brazil, has 
secured a contract for the installation of the services of illumination 
of the exposition of the Brazilian centenary. The work is estimated 
at .$1,000,000. Mr. Durant, manager of the General Electric Co. in 
the Western hemisphere, has asked Mr. W. D. O'Ryan to proceed 
to Brazil, accompanied by a chief engineer and a draftsman. Mr. 
O'Ryan directed the illumination services of the San Francisco 
Exposition, where he elaborated the plan for the famous illumination 
of the tower of jewels and other important displays. Mr. O'Ryan 
was also in charge of the illumination service of the Armament 
Conference at Washington. 

COLOMBIA. 

Doctor Maximiliano Grillo. — Dr. Grillo, an eminent writer of 
prose and poetry, has been appointed minister of Colombia in Brazil. 
He was formerly for some years minister in Bolivia. During his 
recent visit to Washington, Dr. Grillo called at the Pan American 
Building. 

Census. — The 1918 census, referred to in the last number of the 
Bulletin as having been taken as the official basis for various com- 
putations, gives the population of the Republic as 6,295,491 inhabit- 
ants, an increase of 826,658 in six years. 

CUBA. 

Reporters' Club. — The cornerstone of the Reporters' Club in 
Habana was laid on January first. Within the stone were deposited 
copies of each paper published in the Cuban capital and other club 
records. 

Medical Press Convention. — The fourth convention of the 
medical press of Cuba took place in December, 1921, just previous to 
the National Medical Congress. Many subjects of much interest 
were discussed. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Plumbers' licenses. — ^No one not holding a plumber's license 
issued after passing an examination given by the department of sani- 

315 



316 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

tation and charity is allowed to install plumbing in the district of 
Santiago. 

New review. — Santo Domingo Grafico is the name of a new illus- 
trated review issued in the city of Santo Domingo. 

ECUADOR. 

Tablet to Garcia Moreno. — On December 24, 1921, the cen- 
tenary of the birth of Dr. Gabriel Garcia Moreno, a bronze tablet to 
him was unveiled upon the house located where his birthplace form- 
erly stood. The inscription was: "From a grateful nation to the 
greatest of her sons. This place was occupied by the house in which 
the great Magistrate, the honor of the nation, Gabriel Garcia Moreno, 
was born, December 24, 1821. Erected by the Garcia Moreno com- 
mittee of this city (Guayaquil), December 24, 1921." 

MEXICO. 

Dental conference. — The conference of dental surgeons met in 
Mexico City last December. More than 100 were in attendance. 
Three dental surgeons from the Kansas College of Dentistry gave 
highly instructive addresses on various aspects of their profession. 

Ethnology. — A new hall of ethnology containing many exhibits of 
great interest has been opened in the National Museum. 

NICARAGUA. 

Mexico gives library. — The city of Leon has received the gift of 
a public library from the Government of Mexico, in memory of 
Benito Juarez. 

PANAMA. 

San Blas improvements. — Cacique Inapaquina, chief of the 
Tribe of Sasardi of San Bias, has asked the aid of the Panaman Gov- 
ernment to obtain a good aqueduct and a sawmill. The Govern- 
ment has named an appointee to see that the request is granted. 

The bells of Nata. — When the President visited the vocational 
school he saw the bells of the Church of Nata, which were to be recast 
and set. He decided to send them instead to the National Museum, 
as they date back to the colonial period, and have new ones made for 
the church by the vocational school at a cost of about S600 to the 
Government. 

PERU. 

Death of Supreme Court justices. — The death in December, 
1921, of two justices of the Supreme Court, Dr. Mariano Nicolas 
Valcarcel and Dr. Jose Santos Moran, is deeply regretted. Both 
were men prominent in the service of their country. 

URUGUAY. 

Founder of library. — On December 9, 1921, the National Li- 
brar}^ commemorated the 150th anniversary of the birth of Damaso 
Antonio Larranaga, organizer and first director of the public library 
of Montevideo. 



REPORTS RECEIVED TO JANUARY 23, 1922. 



Subject. 



AKGENTINA. 

Cereal prices week ending Nov. 10, 1921. 



Date. 



Author. 



Destination of Argentina's principal exports from Jan. 1 to 
Sept. 29, 1921. , ^. ^ . 

"Review of t he River Plate," Nov. 11, 1921, on the subject of 
" Disallowance of railroad tariff increases." 



Public utilities concession obtainable in Maceio, State of Alagoas . , 

Report on cotton manufacturing industry of Pernambuco con- 
sular district. 

Municipal homes for workingmen in Pernambuco 

New appropriation for Pernambuco Port 

Program of the Rio de Janeiro International Cotton Conference.. 

Public works in Pernambuco 

Project for erection of hotel in Pernambuco 

Silkv/orms in Pernambuco ■ 

Local expositions 



1921. 
Nov. 14 



...do 

...do 



New railway bridge in Pernambuco 

Storage charges and port dues levied on merchandise or ships in 
Port of Pernambuco, and report on finances. 

Educational courses in schools 

Machinery for soap and oil factory in Pirapora 

Rubber exports for month of November, 1921 

Electrification of Central do Brazil Railway 



Market for American-made stoves. 
Market for musical instruments. . . 



Proposed construction of port works in Chile 

Exports from Port of Talcahuano first six months of 1921 . 

Exports to the United States 10 months of 1921 

The rubber industry and market for rubber goods 

Commerce and industries of Tarapaca, 1920 



Fisheries and market for fish products ; 

Proposed organization of a second sugar company near Arica — 

The fruit industry in Chile 

Educational courses in schools 

Market for automobiles and accessories in Chile 

Fisheries and market for fish products 



COLOMBIA. 

Cotton growing in Department of Magdalena. . 
Census of Colombia 

COSTA RICA. 

November report on commerce and industries. 

CUBA. 

Mineral exploitation 



Re-exports of American merchandise from Cuba . 
Road construction and public works in Cuba . . . 



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Preparation of powers of attorney for use in the Republic. 
Dominican educational courses 



Nov. 5 

Nov. 7 

Nov. 10 
Nov. 17 

...do 

Nov. 23 

...do 

..do 

Nov. 28 



Nov. 
Dec. 

■Dec. 
Dec. 
...do. 



Dec. 12 



Nov. 7 

Nov. 8 

Nov. 10 
Nov. 12 

Nov. 13 
Nov. 17 
Nov. 19 

Nov. 22 
Nov. 23 

Nov. 29 
Nov. 30 
Dec. 3 
Dec. 9 



Oct. 12 
Nov. 23 



Dec. 15 



Nov. 22 



Dec. 9 
Dec. 12 



Nov. 28 
Dec. 8 



Raleigh A. Gibson, vice con- 
sul in charge, Buenos Aires. 
Do. 

Do. 



C. R. Cameron, consul at 
Pernambuco. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
A. Gaulin, consul general at 

Rio de Janeiro. 
C. R. Cameron. 

Do. 

A. Gaulin. 

Do. 
Geo. H. Pickerell, consul at 

Para. 
A. Gaulin. 



C. F. Deichman, consul gen- 
eral at Valparaiso. 

B.C. Matthews, vice consu 
at Antofagasta. 

C. F. Deichman. 

Dayle C. McDonough, consu 
at Concepcion. 
Do. 

B.C. Matthews. 

Homer Brett, consul at Iqui- 
que. 

Dayle C. McDonough. 

Egmont C. von Tresckow, 
consul at Arica. 

Davie C. McDonough. 

B. t;. Matthews. 

C. F. Deichman. 

Do. 



Lerov R. Sawyer, consul at 

Santa Marta. 
Edmund B. Montgomery, 

vice consul at Barranquilla. 

Henry S. Waterman, consul 
at San Jose. 



Carlton Bailey Hurst, consul 
general at Havana. 
Do. 
Do. 



Geo. A Makinson, vice con- 
sul at Santo Domingo. 
Do. 

317 



318 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 
Reports received to January 2S, 1922 — Continued. 



Subject. 



ECUADOR. 

New decree on official rate of exchange in Ecuador. 

The cabuya, an Ecuadorian fiber plant 

Increased water supply for Guayaquil 

New building law for Guayaquil 



GUATEMALA. 

September report on commerce and industries . 

Increased postal rates in Guatemala 

The use of cement in Guatemala 

October report on commerce and industries . . . 

Market for condensed milk 

November report on commerce and industries. 

Highway transportation 

Jute sack factory to be established 



Date. 



HONDURAS. 



Laws and regulations regarding the preparation of powers of 

attorney in Honduras, and copy of the civil code. 
Annual report for fiscal year 1920-1921 

Market for tire repair material 



MEXICO. 

Petroleum shipments from Tampico district for October, 1921 . . , 

New law regulating the practice of medicine in Sonora, law of 
Nov. 1, 1921, published Nov. S. 

Regulations applying the new medical law 

Hospital at Madera, Chihuahua 



Automobile road planned between Nogales, Sonora, and the city 

of Topic, Nayarit. 

Proposed public works for Guaymas 

Mexican railroad repair shops will probably be located in Ciudad 

Juarez. 
Mexico increases tarifT upon certain articles , 



NICARAGUA. 

List of the principal American interests in Nicaragua. 

Elour importation 

Export ta.xes on importations into the United States. 



PANAMA. 

Regulations governing the importation of live stock into Panama. 

Agricultural extension work and home economics 

October report on commerce and industries 

Market for water softening apparatus in Panama, water supply 
and analysis. 

Market for American-made stoves 

Certification of inspection of meat exports from Panama 

I'ARAGU.W. 

Educational courses in schools in Paraguay , 



SALVADOR. 

Total exports and imports of Salvador for calendar year 1920 

Public health laboratory in San Salvador 

New steamship service touching ports of Pacific 

Parcel post under complete control of post olhce department of 

San Salvador, but tlie levying of customs charges is to be done 

by the customs authorities as heretofore. 

URUGUAY. 

Annual report of the Central Uruguay Railway 



October report on commerce and industries 

Formation and operation of corporations, and the operation of 

corporations in Uruguay. 
Proposes fairs, expositions, and exhibitions 



Nov. 25 

Dec. 2 
Dec. 5 
Dec. 7 



Nov. 10 

Nov. 23 
Nov. 28 
Nov. 29 
Dec. 5 
Dec. 14 
Dec. 27 
Dec. 28 



Nov. 28 
Dec. 22 
Dec. 27 

Nov. 16 

Nov. 18 

Nov. 24 
Dec. 7 

Dec. 10 

Dec. 11 
Dec. 23 

Dec. 24 



Nov. 



Nov. 22 
Nov. 28 



Nov. 28 



...do 

Nov. 30 
Dec. 3 

Dec. 15 
...do 



Nov. 



Oct. 31 

Dec. 2 
Dec. 9 
Dec. 10 



Nov. 16 



Nov. 23 
Dec. 2 



Dec. 6 



Frederic W. Coding, consul 
general at Guayaquil. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Arthur C. Frost, consul at 
Gutatemala City. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Alexander K. Sloan, consul 

at Ceiba. 
G. K. Donald, consul at 

Tegucigalpa. 
Do. 



Claude I. Dawson, consul at 

Tampico. 
Bartley F. Yost, consul at 

Guavmas. 
Do. , ^ 

John W. Dye, consul at 

Ciudad Juarez. 
W. E. Chapman, consul at 

Ma/.allan. 
Bartlev F. Yost. 
John W. Dye. 

Do. 



Harold Playter, consul at 
Corinlo. 
Do. 
Do. 



consul at 



George Orr, 

Panama. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



Harry Campbell, consul at 
.'Vsimcion. 

Lynn W. Franklin, vice 
consul at San Salvador. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Da^■id J. D. Myers, consul at 
Montevideo. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



BOOK NOTES J 

Publications Added to the Columbus Memorial Library During October, 1921. 
{Continued from February) 

URUGUAY. 

Diario de sesiones de la H. Asamblea General de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay. 
Tomo XIII, Febrero 15 de 1914 a Febrero 15 de 1920. Montevideo, Imprenta 
Nacional, 1921. 564 p. 4°. 

Diario de sesiones de la H. Asamblea Representativa de Montevideo. 2° aiio de la 
1» asamblea. Tomo IV, sesiones del 7 de Enero al 29 de Abril de 1921. Monte- 
video, Imp. Pena Hnos., 1921. xix, 378 p. 4°. 

Diario de sesiones de la H. Camara de Senadores de la Republica Oriental del Uru- 
guay. Tomo CXXI, sessiones de Agosto 12 a Noviembre 5 de 1920. Montevideo, 
Imprenta Nacional, 1920. 629 p. 4°. 

Diplomatica de la defensa de Montevideo. Tomo IV. Por Manuel Herrera y Obes. 
Buenos Aires, Est. Grafico A. de Martino, 1919. 184 p. 8°. 

En el XXV aniversario de su fundacion 1896, 24 de Agosto, 1921. Banco de la Re- 
publica Oriental del Uruguay. Montevideo, Talleres Graficos A. Barreiro y 
Ramos, 1921. fold, tables. 92 p. 8°. 

Legislacion escolar vigente 1906-1918. Recopilaci6n cronologica de acuerdos, cir- 
culates, decretos, leyes, programas, reglamentos, y otras disposiciones relativas a 
la instruccion publica primaria. Consejo nacional de enseiianza primaria y 
normal. Tomo VIII. Montevideo, Imprenta Nacional, 1921. 989 p. 8°. 

Ley y decreto reglamento de timbres y papel sellado para los ejercicios economicos 
1919-1920 y 1920-1921. Direccion General de Impuestos Directos. Monte- 
video, Imprenta Nacional, 1919. 20 p. 8°. 

Reglamento de la biblioteca nacional de Montevideo. (Aprobado por el H. Consejo 
N. de Administracion el 24 de Mayo de 1921.) Montevideo, Imprenta Nacional, 
1921. 18 p. 8°. 

Revista del Archivo General Administrativo 6 coleccion de documentos para servir 
al estudio de la historia de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay patrocinada por el 
gobierno y dirigida por el director del archivo Angel G. Costa. Volumen 10. 
Montevideo, 1920. 279 p. 8°. 

VENEZUELA. 

Catalogo de la sesion de bibliografica nacional. Biblioteca Nacional. Caracas, 

Imprenta Nacional, 1921. 66 p. 8°. 
Discurso pronunciado en Ocumare de la Costa el 28 de Junio de 1921. Por Samuel 

Dario Maldonado. Caracas, Tip. Cultura Venezolana, 1921. 15 p. 8°. 
Discurso pronunciado por el Doctor Rafael Requena, presidente de la camara del 

senado, al clausurar las sesiones ordinarias en el ano de 1921. Caracas, Tip. 

Americana, 1921. 12 p. 8°. 
Discurso pronunciado por el Pbro. Carlos Borges en la inauguraci6n de la Casa Natal 

del Libertador, restaurada por el gobierno de la rehabilitacion nacional, 5 de 

Julio de 1921. Fiestas centenarias de Carabobo. Caracas, Imprenta Bolivar, 

1921. 30 p. 8°. 

general. 

Acceptance syndicate plan for financing exports. By Dr. J. T. Holdswortli, vice presi- 
dent, The Bank of Pittsburgh, N. A. An address delivered before the annual 
convention of the Association of Reserve City Bankers, Buffalo, June 2, 1921. 
27 r> 12° 



320 THE PAN AMERICAX UNIOX. 

[Addresses at opening session] Second International Congress of Eugenics, New York, 
September 22-28, 1921. No imprint. 74 p. 8°. 

Cane sugar. A textbook on the agriculture of the sugar cane, the manufacture of 
cane sugar, and the analysis of sugar-house products. By Noel Deerr. Second 
(revised and enlarged) edition. London, Norman Rodger, 1921, front, pis. illus. 
viii, 644 p. 4°. 

Clu-onicle of Muntaner. Translated from the Catalan. By Lady Goodenough. Vol. 
2. London, Printed for the Hakluyt Society, 1921. map. xxxiii, 371-759 p. 8°. 

Dante y la di\'ina comedia. For Octavio Mendez-Pereii-a. No imprint. No date, 
front, port. 26 p. 12°. Cover title. 

Constitution (I) of the permanent mandates commission. IL Terms of the "C" 
mandates. III. Franco-British convention of December 23, 1920. IV. Corre- 
spondence between Great Britain and the United States respecting economic 
rights in the mandated territories. V. The San Remo oil agreement. New 
York, American Association for International Conciliation, 1921. 56 (2) p. 12°. 

Dictionary of botanical equivalents. French-English; German-English. By Ernst 
Artschwager and Edwina M. Smilev. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkens Co., 1921. 
136 p. 8°. 

French-English dictionary for chemists. By Austin M. Patterson, Ph. D. New 
York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1921. x\ai, 384 p. 12°. 

Infoi-me presentado por el Doctor Pablo Garcia Medina, delegado de la repiiblica de 
Colombia, sexta conferencia sanitaria internacional Panamericana de Montevideo. 
Montevideo, Tip. Moderna, 1920. 17 p. 8°. 

Institute of International Education: International Relations Club. Syllabus. New 
York. No. VI. Modern Mexican historj', by Herbert I. Priestley, 1920. No. VII. 
Hispano-American history, 1826-1920, by William Whatley JPierson, jr., 1921. 
No. VIII. The question of the near east, by Albert Howe Lybyer, 1921. No. IX. 
China under the republic, by Kenneth Scott Latourette, 1921. No. X. The 
Baltic states, by Mary E. Townsend, 1921. 

International Health Board. Seventh annual report, January 1, 1920-December 31, 
1920. The Rockefeller Foundation, New York, 1921. pis. xvi, 150 p. 8°. 

Lignum-^'itse. A study of the woods of the zygophyllaceae with reference to the 
true lignum-vitse of commerce — its sources, properties, uses and substitutes. By 
Samuel J. Record. New Haven, Yale University School of Forestry. Bulle- 
tin No. 6, 1921. pis. 48 p. 8°. 

Memorias del Doctor Mariano Ferreira. Alios 1897-1921. Libro II. Montevideo, 
Imprentay Casa Editorial "Renacimiento," 1921. front, port, illus. 480 p. 8°. 

New world problems in political geography. By Isaiah Bowman, Ph. D. Yonkers- 
on-Hudson, World Book Company, 1921. illus. maps. \'ii, 632 p. 8°. 

Prices and wages in the United Kingdom, 1914-1920. By Arthur L. Bowley. Carnegie 
Endowment for International Peace. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1921. 
XX, 223, 5 p. 8°. 

War government of the British dominions. Carnegie Endowment for International 
Peace. By Arthur Berriedale Keith. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1921. 
xvi, 353, 5 p. 4°. 

Proceedings of the Hague Peace Conference: Translation of the official texts. Pre- 
pared in the division of international law of the Carnegie Endowment for Inter- 
national Peace, under the supervision of James Brown Scott. The conference 
of 1907. Volume II, meetings of the first commission. New York, Oxford 
University Press, 1921. Ixxxi, 1086 p. 4°. 

Program and resolutions. Pan-Pacific Educational Conference, Honolulu. OflScial 
bulletin, fourth edition, August 21, 1921. 24 p. 8°. 



BOOK NOTES. 321 

Publications Added to the Columbus Memorial Library During November, 

1921. 

argentine republic. 

Album de la induetria Argentina del calzado. Buenos Aires, Centre Fabricantes 

de Calzado. Talleres Graficos R. Canals, [1921]. illus. 319 p. 4°. 
Business conditions in Argentina. Report No. 152, 1st October, 1921. Buenos 

Aires, Ernesto Tornquist & Cia., Limitada. 1921. 23 p. 4°. 
Ley de patentes No. 11,026 para 1920 y decreto reglamentario. Departamento de 

hacienda. Publicaci6n oficial. Buenos Aires, 1920. 37 p. 12°. 
Revista del Museo de La Plata. Director Dr. Luis Maria Torres. Tomo XXV (Ter- 

cera serie, Tomo 1). Buenos Aires, Imprenta y Casa Editora "Coni," 1921. 

pis. xxiv, 399 p. 4°. 

brazil. 

Annuario do Jockey-Club 1919-1920. Rio de Janeiro. 12°. 2 vols. 

International centennial celebration. Rio de Janeiro. Washington, 1921. 5 p. 

8°. (67th Cong., 1st sess. House of Representatives. Report No. 428.) 
Mensagem apresentada i. assemblea legislativa em 7 de Setembro de 1921 . . . pelo 

Coronel Dr. Jose Joaquim Pereira Lobo, Presidente do Estado de Sergipe. Ser- 

gipe, 1921. fold, tables. 77 p. 4°. 



Chile y la independencia del Peru 1821-1921. Documentos historicos oficiales. 

Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Cervantes, 1921. illus. 79 p. 8°. 
La cuestion del Pacifico y el tratado de Ancon. (De una encuesta.) Por Julio A. 

Quesada. Buenos Aires, Imp. Otero & Co., 1920. 14 p. 12°. 
The rainfall of Chile. By Mark Jefferson. New York, Oxford University Press, 

1921. maps, illus. 32 p. 12°. (American Geographical Society. Research 

Series No. 7.) 
Recent colonization in Chile. By Mark Jefferson. New York, Oxford University 

Press, 1921. illus. 52 p. 12°. (American Geographical Society. Research 

Series No. 6.) 

COLOMBIA. 

La procfes de Nariiio. Ed. Clavey. Paris, Cohors, Imp. Coueslant, 1921. 15 p. 

8°. 
Memoria que el Ministro de Gobierno presenta al Cocgreso de 1921. Bogota, Imprenta 

Nacional, 1921. ccli, 604 p. 8°. 

COSTA RICA. 

Colegio de Cartage. Por Ricardo Jimenez. San Jose, Publicado por J. Garcia Monge, 

1921. 73 p. 12°. 
Recurso de casacion de Miguel Borges Perez en juicio con Doila Amelia Echeverria 

de Pinto y otros. San Jose, Imprenta, Libreria y Enc. Alsina, 1921. 36 p. 8°. 



Inmigracion y movimiento de pasajeros en el ano de 1920. Seccion de estadfstica. 

Habana, Imprenta "La Propagandista," 1921. diagrs. 24 p. 4°. 
Memoria de los trabajos realizados de Camara de Representantes, Habana. Tomo 

1-3 and 5-9. 1902-1921. Habana, Rambla, Bouza y Cia. 4°. 8 vols. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Report of the fourteenth fiscal period Dominican Customs Receivership. For the 
calendar year 1920. Together with summary of commerce for 1920. Washington, 
Bureau of Insular Affairs, 1921. 98 p. 8°. 



322 THE PAlSr AMERICAN UNIOX. 

Memor^a de la Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura e Inmigracion del 1° de Julio, 

1919. al 30 de Junio, 1920. Santo Domingo, Imp. La Cuna de America, 1921. 
68(1) p. 4°. 

ECUADOR. 

Treinta anos de labor en beneficio del pueblo. Homenaje de juaticia y gratitud. 
Comite "Virgilio Drouet." Barcelona, Imprenta de la Viuda de Luis Tasso. 

1920. front, port. 426 p. 8°. 

GUATEMALA. 

Coleccion Centenario. Guatemala, Editorial "El Sol." I. Tierras floridas. Por 
Ramon AcenaDuran, 1921. II. Vidasesteriles. PorFederico Alvarado F. 1921. 
III. Recatados amores. Por G. Martinez Nolasco, 1921. VI. Mixco,poema dra- 
matico. Por 0. Rodriguez Cerna, 1921. V. "San Luis Gonzaga." Por Adolfo 
Drago-Bracco, 1921. VI. Madre natiiraleza. Por J. Valladares M. 1921. VII. 
'El retorno. Comedia en dos actos. Por R. Valle, 1921. VIII. El ala de la 
montana. Por Flavio Herrera, 1921. 

Compafiia de tel^fonos de Guatemala. Nomina de suscritores Abril de 1921. Guate- 
mala, Tip. Sanchez & De Guise, 1921. 60 p. 8°. 

Manifiesto que el ciudadano Carlos Herrera dirige a los Guatemaltecos. 1° de Octiibre 
de 1921. Guatemala, Tip. Sanchez & de Guise, 1921. 6 p. 8°. 

Memoria de la Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores de Guatemala presentada a la 
Asamblea Nacional Legislativa en 1921. Guatemala, Tip. Sanchez y de Guise, 

1921. 470 p. 8°. 

Plan de estudios, programas e instrucciones para el kindergarten. Ministerio de 
instruccion ptiblica. Gautemala, Imprenta Nacional, 1921. 20 p. 8°. 



Inquiry into occupation and administration of Haiti and Santo Domingo. Hearings 
before a select committee on Haiti and Santo Domingo. U. S. Senate, OGth 
Cong., 1st sess., pursuant to S. Res. 112. . . . Part 1. Washington, 1921. 
104 p. 8°. 

MEXICO. 

Compafiia telefonica y telegrafica Moxicana. Lista de subscriptores de Enero de 
1921. Mexico, Imprenta "La Helvetia," 1921. 425, cccclxi, 9, 11, 11 p. 8°. 

Trading with Mexico. By Wallace Thompson. New York, Dodd, Mead and Com- 
pany, 1921. xi, 271 p. 8°. • 

NICARAGUA. 

Informe de la Alta Comision por el aiio de 1920, presentado al Excelentisimo Presi- 
dente de la Republica de Nicaragua y al Honorable Secretario de Estado de 
los Estados Unidos de America. ]\Ianagua, 1921. 34p. 8°. 

Memoria de la gobernacion, policia y cultos presentada al Congreso Nacional, 1920. 
Managua, Tip. Nacional, 1920. xi, 306 p. 8°. 

Memoria de guerra y marina presentada al Congreso Nacional, 1920. Managua, Tip. 
Nacional, 1920. xv, 137 p. 8°. 

Memoria de Instruccion Piiblica presentada al Congreso Nacional. Managua, Tip. 
Nacional, 1920. fold, tables, various paging. 8°. 

Memoria de relaciones exteriores presentado al congreso nacional, 1920. Tomo 1-3. 
Managua, Tip. Nacional, 1920. 8°. 3 vols. 

PARAGUAY. 

Congreso Nacional diario de sesiones. 1. Sesiones ordinarias (Abril a Agosto), 1920. 
II. Sesiones de prorroga (Setiembre a Diciembre), 1920. Asuncion, Imprenta 
Sudamericana, 1920. 4°. 2 vols. 



BOOK NOTES. 323 



Anales del congreso nacioual de la industria minera. Tomo 1, Organizacidn y 
funcionamiento. Tomo 2, Mineria metalifera y su explotacion. Tomo 5, Sales 
alcalinas, borates, nitratos, fosfatos y cloruros. Tomo G, Concesiones de agua 
para fuerza motriz. Lima, Imprenta Torres Aguirre, 1921. 8°. 4 vols. 

Exposicion documentada sobre el estado actual del problema del Pacific©. Ministerio 
de Relaciones Exteriores. Lima, Imp. Torres Aguirre, 1921. liii, 123, (1) p. 8°. 

UNITED STATES. 

Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the fiscal year ended June 

30, 1921. Washington, G. P. O., 1921. vii, 107 p. 8°. 
Report of the Director of the Carnegie Museum for the period extending from April 1 , 

1920, to June 30, 1921. Publication of the Carnegie Museum, Serial No. 108. 

Pittsburgh, 1921. front, port. Ill p. 8°. 

URUGUAY. 

Anuario de estadistica agricola, afio 1919-1920. Oficina de Estadistica Agricola. 

Montevideo, Imprenta Nacional, 1921. fold, tables, liii, 326, (1) p. 8°. 
Estatutos del banco Italiano del Uruguay. Montevideo, Tip. La Liguria, 1921. 26 p. 

12°. 
Jubilaciones bancarias. Demostracion aritmetica de la perfecta estabilidad de la 

caja. Por el Sr. Esteban A. Elena. La Opinion del director de la escuela 

superior de comercio Don Pablo Fontaina. Montevideo, Tip. La Liguria, 1921. 

18 p. 8°. 
Jubilaciones bancarias. Memorandum del Sr. Esteban A. Elena. Montevideo, Tip. 

La Liguria, 1921. 12 p. 8°. 

VENEZUELA. 

Ley organica del servicio consular de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela con un apendice 

contentivo de las leyes, decretos y resoluciones sobre la materia. Edicion oficial. 

Caracas, Litografia del Comercio, 1921. 94 p. 8°. 
Sobre algunos datos de protozoologia y parasitologia, recogidos en San Juan de los 

Morros. Por Juan Iturbe. Caracas, Tip. "Cultura Venezolana," 1921. pis. 

35, (1) p. 8°. 

GENERAL BOOKS. 

Advertising for trade in Latin America. By W. E. Aughinbaugh. . . . New 
York, The Century Company, 1922. front., illus., xii, 282 p. 8°. 

Allied shipping control. An experiment in international administration. Carnegie 
Endowment for International Peace. By J. A. Salter, C. B. Oxford, At the 
Clarendon Press, 1921. front, xxiii, 372, 5 p. 4°. 

El Americanismo Espauol. Conferencia inaugural, de la serie organizada por la Casa 
de America, de Barcelona, con ocasion de la Feria de Muestras que en dicha 
capital tuvo lugar, durante el mes de abril ultimo, pronunciada el 25 del mismo 
por el presidente de la Union Ibero-Americana, Excmo. Sr. Marques de Figueroa. 
Madrid, Union Ibero-Americana, 1921. 8 p. 8°. 

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Year book, 1921. No. 10. Washing- 
ton, Published by the Endowment, 1921. front, port, xvi, 244 p. 4°. 

Cartas a mi America. II (Union de Sud America). Por Delfino Urquia. Buenos 
Aires, Editor, Calle Peru 538, 1921. 157 p. 12°. 

Cartas de Bolivar 1823-1824-1825. (Con un apendice que contiene cartas de 1801 a 
1822. Notas de R. Blanco-Fombona. Madrid, Editorial-America, 1921. front, 
port. XV, 427 p. 8°. 



324 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

Constitucion politica de la Republica de Centroamerica. Tegucigalpa. Tip., Nacio- 
nal, 1921. 40. (1) p, 4°. 

Constituci6n politica de la Republica de Centroamerica. San Salvador, Imprenta 
Nacional, 1921. Ill p. 12°. 

Diario de sesiones y actas. Ano 1921. l*^' Congreso Postal Panamericano. Buenos 
Aires, Talleres Graficos A. de Martino, 1921. 145 p. 4°. 

La divina comedia de Dante Aligliieri con notas de Paolo Costa adicionadas. Tradu- 
cida el castellano por D. Manuel Aranda y Sanjuiin. Edicion publicada en 1921, 
para conmemorar el VI centenario del divino poeta. Barcelona, Editorial 
Maucci,,1921. front, illus. 606 p. 8°. 

Farmacopea Latino- Americana. Por el Profesor Alfonso L. Herrera. Primera 
edicion. Mexico, Talleres Grdficos de Herrero Hermanos Sues., 1921. front. 
illus. 805, (1) p. 4°. 

Foreign trade markets and methods. By Clayton Sedgwick Cooper. New York, D. 
Appleton and Company, 1922. illus. xv, 440 p. 8°. 

Memoria presentada por el delegado de la republica de Cuba. Dr. Mario G. Lebredo 
. . . sexta conferencia sanitaria internacional de las republicas Americanas 
celebrada en Montevideo (Uruguay) del 12 al 20 de diciembre de 1920. Habana, 
Imp. "La Moderna Poesia," 1921. 83 p. 8°. 

Proceedings of the first congress (London, June 27-July 1, 1921). International Cham- 
ber of Commerce. Paris, International Headquarters, 1921. 189 p. 8°. 

Proceedings of the Hague peace conferences. Translation of the official texts. Pre- 
pared in the division of international law of the Carnegie Endowment for Inter- 
national Peace under the supervision of James Brown Scott. The conference of 
1917. Volume III, meetings of the second, third, and fourth commissions. New 
York, Oxford University Press, 1921. xci, 1162 p. 4°. 

Present problems of the commonwealth of British nations. Conference of prime 
ministers and representatives of the United Kingdom, the Dominions and India, 
held in June, July, and August, 1921. New York, American Association for 
International Conciliation, 1921. 86 p. 12°. 

Program and proceedings. Pan-Pacific Educational Conference, Honolulu, August 
11-24, 1921. front. 247 p. 8°. 

El punto de vista Americano en la sociedad de las naciones. Conferencia pronunciada 
el dla 22 de enero de 1921, por Excmo. Senor Don Rafael Altamii-a en la Union 
Ibero-Americana, Madrid, 1921. 22 p. 8°. 

Relation of South America to the leather industry. By George A. Kerr. Reprinted '. 
from The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, October, 1921. 
p. 528-547. 8°. 

South American naiades: A contribution to the knowledge of the freshwater mussels 
of South America. By Dr. A. E. Ortmann. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburgh. Vol. VIII, No. 3, 1921. p. 451. 

Le vrai Christophe Colombo et la legende. Par Henry Vignaud. Paris, Augustej 
Picard, Editeur, 1921. 230 p. 12°. 



9 



V 




PaKC. 

General Pedro Nel Ospina, President-elect of Colombia 325 

Faulty Food in Relation to Gastrointestinal Disorders 328 

By Robert McCarrisoii, M. D., D. Sc, LL. D., Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of 
London; Lieutenant Colonel, Indian Medical Service, Oxford, England. 

Little Tobago, Bird of Paradise Island 344 

By Henry D. Baker, United States Consul, Trinidad, B. W. I. 

Public Health in Nicaragua 347 

Delegates to the Pan American Conference of Women 350 

The Feminist Movement in Latin America 353 

By Samuel Guy Inman. 

Preparations for the Brazilian Centennial 363 

Third Pan American Congress of Child Welfare 365 

A Famous Sea Fight in Pan American Waters 366 

By Patrick Vaux. 

Medical Diplomacy 375 

By Theodore C. Lyster, M. D., of the International Health Board, Director of Yellow 
Fever Control tor Mexico and Central America. 
Death of Dr. Amaro Cavalcanti -^78 

Significance of the Trade Decline of 1921 380 

By William C. Wells, Pan .Vmericaii Union Stall". 
"Argentine Foreign Trade, 1921 386 

Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce 390 

Argentina — Bolivia — Brazil — Chile — Colomljia — Costa Rica — Cuba — Dominican Re- 
pulalic _ Ecuador — Guatemala — Haiti — Honduras — Mexico — Nicaragua — Panama — 
Paraguay— Peru— Salvador— United States— Uruguay— Venezuela. 

Economic and Financial Affairs 403 

Argentina— Bolivia— Brazil— Chile— Cuba— Haiti— Uruguay— Venezuela. 

International Treaties 405 

Argentina-Bolivia — Argentina-Colombia — Brazil— Chile-Colombia— Costa Rica-France— 
Dominican Republic— Ecuador-Great Britain. 

Legislation 407 

Brazil — Chile — Colombia — Costa Rica — Cuba — Domin ican Republic — Paraguay — Peru — 
Uruguay. 
Public Instruction and Education 411 

Argentina — Bolivia — Chile — Colombia — Cosia Rica — Cuija — Dominican Republic — 
Ecuador — Guatemala — Haiti — Honduras — Mexico — Nicaragua — Panama — Para- 
guay—Peru—Salvador—Uruguay—Venezuela. 

Social Progress '10 

Argentina — Brazil — Chile — Costa Rica — Cuba — Dominican Republic — Ecuador — 
Haiti— ^yiexico— Nicaragua— Panama— Peru— Salvador— Uruguay— Venezuela. 

General Notes 4— 

Argentina — BoUvia — Brazil — Chile — Costa Rica — Chiba — Dominican RepubUc — Ecua- 
dor— Guatemala-Mexico— Nicaragua— Panama— Peru-Salvador— Uruguay— Venezuela. 

Subject Matter of Consular Reports 4-8 

Book Notes 430 




Photograph by HariisA Ewinir. 

GENERAL PEDRO NEL OSPINA, PRESIDENT-ELECT UE COLOMBIA. 



Jii' 




VOL. LIV 



APRIL, 1922. 



No. 4 



PEDRO NEL 03P(^fA^ 
PHE3iDENl^.ELECT OF 
COLOMI^if\ ;» V ;, V 



ON FEBRUARY 12, 1922, a general election was held in the 
Republic of Colombia for the purpose of electing a new 
national executive, in strict conformity with the Federal 
constitution, for the four-year term beginning August 7, 
1922, this date marking the anniversary of the battle of Boyaca, a 
decisive point in Colombia's struggle for independence. Voting 
throughout the Republic was general to an unusual degree, a total of 
650,000 votes being cast for the two candidates, Gen. Pedro Nel 
Ospina and Gen. Benjamin Herrera, representing tlie Conservative 
and Liberal Parties, respectively, of which total 350,000, approxi- 
mately, were in favor of the Conservative candidate. 

General Ospina, the new President-Elect, is no new figure in the 
eyes of his countrymen, as attested by the 35 long years he has de- 
voted to the service of his country and the Conservative party. Not 
once, but many times has his voice been heard in legislative chambers 
in defense of the rights and liberties of his fellow citizens, his broad 
culture and great talent having contributed repeatedly toward the 
establishment of reforms directly related to the progress and well- 
being of Colombia, in general. 

Born in the city of Bogota on July 24, 1858, the son of that dis- 
tinguished citizen and statesman. Dr. Mariano Ospina who occupied 
the presidential chair from 1857 to 1860, the young Ospina received 

325 



320 THK PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

his preliininaiy (Mlucatioii in that same city, coinplotiiig his studies 
later in Europe and, hiter still, in one of the principal universities of 
the United States. 

Upon his return to Colombia he at once entered the field of politics 
by way of journalism. Before long he was elected deputy to the 
State assembly of Antioquia, a position which he held througii several 
subsequent reeleetions until his election to Congress. During Ihe 
civil war of 1900 1 903 he entered the army, rendering most valuable 
services on the side of the Government as chief of the Anti()({uia 
division. 

In 1902, during the administration of Marro(piin, he was named 
minister of war, which portfolio he held until his election, in 1903, as 
senator from Anticxpiia. Shortly afterwards, together with Gen. 
Rafael Reyes, he was sent on a special mission to the United ^States, 
and after his return, from 1904 to 1909, during the Reyes administra- 
tion, he devoted himself to the development of national industries. 

General Ospina entered the diplomatic service in 1911, his first 
appointment being envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary 
before the Government of the Ignited States, whence he passed with 
the same mission to the Court of Belgium, remaining there until the 
outbreak of the World War, whereupon he returned to Colombia to 
again represent Antiofpiia in various capacities, including that of 
governor. No more ekxjuent testimony to his ability, both as a legis- 
lator and an administrator, could be desired than the steady progress 
and the present flourishiiig condition of the State of Antio(|uia, to the 
development and prosperity of which the new Presid(>nt-Elect has for 
a generation devoted his best efforts and energy. 

As an illustration of the sentiments and ideals by which the Presi- 
ilent-Elect is inspired, the Bulletin can not do better than (piote 
the following paragraphs from his speech, accepting the candidacy 
offered him by the Conservative Party : 

Fully realizing the deep significance of this occasion, the utmost and indeed the 
very least word that I can say upon it * * * is: That should the Colomhian people 
point out the path liy which with your support I shall reach the highest place of honor 
and responsibility within the power of a real democracy to l)estow upon its citizen, 
I shall, fully trusting in the help of the divine providence, devote all my powers of 
mind and soul to justifying tlie overwhelming confidence you have reposed in me. 
I shall be loyal to the country, faithful to the principles of its citizenship, its constitu- 
tion, its laws, and to the beliefs of the immense majority of its people who, in the enjoy- 
ment of liberty, order, and progress, are the very basis, and who shape the entire 
program, of our party, and to the defense of these principles I have devoted the greater 
part of my life. * * * 

I shall strive with enthusiasm and perseverence to prepare the mind and will of the 
rising generation for that new order of life which, with or without our wish or consent, 
tliey and we must enter, that life in which the nations of the world are in danger of 
being overwhelmed by the formidable tide of united industrialism and the industrial 
rivalry so greatly accentuated since the Woild War; that life, wliidi, in order 1o avert 



GEN. PEDRO NEL OSPINA. 



327 



disaster, requires new orientation, new moral resources, and teclinical education and 
preparation of the highest order. To this end I shall take advantage of every oppor- 
tunity to endow our people with the necessary means and equipment — the guarantees 
of success — for production in this struggle — ^without which they will vegetate in sterile 
inaction, a condition which, in combination with the natural riches of the country, 
tends to awaken the greed of the more active and powerful nations of the world. To 
this end I consider most important a judicious use of our credit and the mainte- 
nance, at any cost, of a healthy monetary system, with the object, among others, 
of developing the means of communication and other utilities of a national charac- 
ter; and, as the benefits of these improvements will be enjoyed by the coming gen- 
eration even more than by the present, it is both logical and just that the former 
should contribute their share of the cost. * * * 

For the accomplishment of all these undertakings, which form as it were an index 
of realizable aspirations, I sincerely believe that I may count on the divine favor and 
help, with all the more confidence because I recognize my own insufficiency, and 
also on the supj^ort not only of my partisans but of all good Colombians who, with a 
clear comprehension of the present peculiar circumstances, will be able and willing 
to put the good of the country before every other consideration. 

The Bulletin or the Pan American Union offers its congratula- 
tions to the new President-Elect of Colombia, and joins his numerous 
friends, both in the United States and his native land, in wishing for 
him a peaceful, progressive, and prosperous administration. 




COAT OF ARMS OF COLOMBIA. 



FAUT.TY FOOD IM RFl,/\. 
T(()M TO GA3'l'R()(N'l' 
TiNAL DiSOiiai/, 1.^.3' ;. 



I I > 



By Robert McCarrison, M.D., D. Sc, LL.D. 

Fellow of the Royal Colletje of Physicians of London; Lieutenant Colonel, Indian Med- 
ical Service, Oxford, England. 

I propose in this lecture to propoiiiul tlie thesis that much of the 
gastrointestinal cUsorder of civilized peoples at tlie present day is due 
to faulty food. In doing so I shall present evidence of the incidence 
of such disorder among civilized communities and of its comparative 
absence among certain races living under more natural conditions; 
and contrast, in general terms, the food habits of the former with 
those of the latter. I sliall refer to the special relation of perfect food 
to the functional perfection of the gastrointestinal tract; and from 
these sources atlvance presumptive evidence of the effects of faulty 
food in impairing the functional perfection of the digestive system. 
Experimental evidence of these effects will then be given, and atten- 
tion directed to the a])plica])ility of the experimental results to the 
genesis of certain acute and chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Finally 
I shall argue that faulty foods capable of causing similar effects in man 
to tliose pro(kiced experimentally in animals are widely made use of 
at the present day. Having thus introduced the subject to your 
notice I shall leave you to examine for yourselves in the wards, the 
clinic and the home the truth of the doctrine I have propounded. 

PREVALENCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS AMONG CIVILIZED 

PEOPLES. 

It was recently stated by a pu})lic health administrator in England 
that 25 per cent of all patients seeking relief at out clinics did so for 
gastrointestinal disorders. So far as my memory serves me, the state- 
ment was made in order to emphasize the necessity for a study of the 
etiologic factors concerned in the production of this great mass of 
sickness. It has, too, been pointed out w^ithin the last few months 

1 Sixth Mellon lecture read before the Society of Biological Research, University of Pittsburgh, 
Nov. 18, 1921. Reprinted from The Journal of the American Medical Association, Jan. 7, 1922. 

328 



FAULTY FOOD. 829 

that the alarming increase of cancer among town dwellers in Great 
Britain is due, in the main, to the increasing prevalence of gastro- 
intestinal cancer. These are facts of such public concern that they 
demand the close attention of all students of public health; for if by 
any means we can prevent gastrointestinal disorders we shall relieve 
civilized communities of one-quarter of their sufferings. 

In the fascinating pursuit of pathogenic organisms as cause of dis- 
ease we are apt to overlook the claims on our consideration of sufferers 
from noninfectious maladies — the claims, for instance, of the dys- 
peptic or of the sufferer from colonic disease. Possibly this is due 
to the fact that the dyspeptic rarely dies of dyspepsia nor the subject 
of colonic disease from cohtis. Their discomforts, not being catching, 
are no more to their neighbors than a source of irritation; conse- 
c^uently their claims on the consideration of the hygienist are over- 
shadowed by the multitude's demand for the elimination of the mi- 
crobe. The multitude does not know, and we ourselves often forget, 
that the activities of the microbe as a pathogenic agent are very often 
dependent on those very conditions of life which give rise to the dis- 
comforts and sufferings of the victims of such maladies as indigestion 
and mucomembranous colitis. It is these conditions of life and of 
imperfect nutrition which frequently prepare the soil of the body for 
the rank growth of bacterial agents. 

Fortunately within the last few years the attention of investigators 
of disease has been directed into new channels of inquiry, channels 
which take cognizance of the influence of negative factors in the pro- 
duction of disease as well as of positive factors. As is usual in any 
new development, advance has been made along narrow lines; but 
the stream of knowledge has gradually broadened, so that we are 
beginning to appreciate the wider significance of the negative factors 
in the production of disease in general. Chief among them is food 
deficient in some ingredient essential to the body's well-being, such, 
for instance, as vitamins, suitable protein, iodin, phosphorus or cal- 
cium. It sometimes happens that one such essential is present in the 
food in insufficient quantity. Then metabolic harmony ceases or be- 
comes discordant and ''deficiency disease" results. 

It is necessary to emphasize that "deficiency disease" is a question 
not merely of deficiency of vitamins, but of deficiency of any essential 
requisite of a perfect food. Nor is this all, for in practice deiiciency 
of one essential often means excess of another; such, for instance, as 
relative deficiency of vitamin B in the presence of an excess of starch, 
or relative deficiency of iodin in the presence of an excess of fats; the 
excesses may themselves give rise to relative deficiencies of other 
essentials, and especially of those present in the food in relatively 
small quantities. Lack of balance of the food is a fault second only 
in importance to actual want of some essential ingredient. The food 



330 THE PAiSr AMERICAN UXIOX. 

faults encountered in practice are thus often coinpouiuled of defi- 
ciencies in association with excesses. 

The importance of adecjuate food-hahmce is ilhistrated ])y even 
the purest of "deficiency diseases," such as scurvy, concerning which 
Pitz and Lewis have shown that adequate provision of other food 
essentials will delay in guinea pigs the onset of scurvy, induced by 
lack of vitamin C, and prolong their life. The same is true of other 
deficiency diseases, such as polyneuritis columbarum induced by lack 
of vitamin B. My own researches have impressed the importance of 
perfect food balance on me with increasing force within the last few 
months, since I have been able to show that an excess of fats or of 
unsaturated oleic acid in the food may cause a relative deficiency of 
iodin and enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter). It is necessary, 
also, in this connection, to recognize a further fact, namely, that one 
can not in practice dissociate from the effects of deficient and ill- 
balanced foods those of bacterial or protozoal agencies whose ravages 
have l)een made possible by the faulty food. My remarks, therefore, 
are to be considered from these broader aspects, namely, of food 
deficiencies in association with food excesses, and with the fortuitous 
intervention of microbic or other pathogenic organisms. 

FREEDOM OF UNCIVILIZED RACES FROM CASTROINTFSTINAL 
DISTURBAXC ES. 

In considering gastrointestinal disease in the mass, the realization 
is forced on one that since it is so common it must have a very com- 
mon cause. It is helpful, in endeavoring to ascertain the cause of a 
malady widely prevalent in one ccmimunity or race, to contrast the 
conditions of life of such a conununity with those of another that is 
free, or comparatively free, from the malady in (juestion. My own 
experiences have afforded me this opportunity in the case of gastro- 
intestinal disorders. For some nine years of my professional life my 
duties lay in a remote part of the Himalayas where there are located 
several isolated races far removed from the refinements of civilization. 
Certain of these races are of magnificent physique, preserving until 
late in life the characters of youth; they are unusually fertile and long 
lived, and endowed with nervous systems of notable stability. Their 
longevity and fertility were, in the case of one of them, matters of such 
concern to the ruling chief that he took me to task for what he con- 
sidered to be my ridiculous eagerness to prolong the lives of the 
ancients of his people, among whom were many of my patients. 
The operation for senile cataract appeared to him a waste of my 
economic opportunities, and he tentatively suggested instead the 
introduction of some form of lethal chamber designed to remove 
from his realms those who by reason of their age and infirmity were 
no longer of use to the community. Among another of these races, 



FAULTY FOOD. 331 

the custom wliich re([iiire(l an eldest son on pain of death to carry in 
a conical l)asket liis aged and (kx'repit parents to the top of a hi<:;h 
rock from whicli to hurl them to destruction has died out only within 
recent years under the protective influence of liritish rule; and the 
proverb "Everyman's basket for his son" still survives the custom. 
During the period of my association with these peoples I never saw 
a case of asthenic dyspepsia, of gastric or duodenal ulcer, of appen- 
dicitis, of mucous colitis, or of cancer, although my operating list 
averaged 400 major operations a year. While I can not aver that 
all these maladies were quite unknown, I have the strongest reason 
for the assertion that they were remarkably infrecjuent. The occa- 
sions on which my attention was directed to the abdominal viscera of 
these people were of the rarest. I can, as I write, recall most of them ; 
occasions when my assistance was called for in the relief of strangu- 
lated hernias, or to expel the ubiquitous parasite Ascaris lumbricoides . 
Among these people the "abdomen oversensitive" to nerve impres- 
sions, to fatigue, anxiety, or cold was unknown. Their consciousness 
of the existence of this part of their anatomy was, as a rule, related 
solely to the sensation of hunger. Indeed, their buoyant abdominal 
health has, since my return to the west, provided a remarkable con- 
trast with the dyspeptic and colonic lamentations of our highly civ- 
ilized communities. Searching for an explanation of this difference 
in incidence of gastrointestinal disease in the two peoples, I find it, 
in the main, in four circumstances: (1) Infants are reared as nature 
intended them to be reared — at the breast. If this source of nourish- 
ment fails, they die; and at least they are spared the future gastro- 
intestinal miseries wliich so often have their origin in the first bottle. 
(2) The people live on the unsophisticated foods of nature, milk, 
eggs, grains, fruit, and vegetables. I do not suppose that one in 
every thousand of them has ever seen a tinned salmon, a chocolate, 
or a patent infant food, nor that as much sugar is imported into their 
country in a year as is used in a moderately sized city hotel in a 
single day. (3) Their religion prohibits alcohol, and although they 
do not always lead in this respect a strictly religious life, nevertheless 
they are eminently a teetotal race. (4) Their manner of life requires 
vigorous exercise of their bodies. 

FAULTY FOOD. 

Each one of these differences in the habits of my Himalayan 
friends, as compared with those of western peoples, would form, in 
itself, a fitting subject for discourse; but I shall content myself with 
a brief consideration of the first two under the general heading of 
"faulty food." It is not that the races to which 1 have referred 
live under hygienic conditions superior, as to housing and con- 



332 The ^an americMst ttKloN. 

servancy, to those of the masses in the west. On the contrary, in 
both these respects their conditions of life are most primitive. Nor 
is it that in their agricultural struggles with nature they have ac- 
quired any peculiar immunity to the effects of faulty food; they are, 
indeed, as susceptible as others to these effects, as the following 
occurrence illustrates: It fell out that the cultivable lands of one of 
these races were no longer sufficiently extensive for the increasing 
population. To meet this it was decided to colonize another tract 
which had never previously been cultivated. A dozen families were 
settled there, and they made shift to grow upon its granite and infer- 
tile soil such grains as they could. My attention was directed to 
their efforts, and more especially to the results of them, when 10 out 
of 12 adult young men developed paralysis of the lower limbs due to 
lathyrism— a rare malady resulting from the disproportionate use in 
the food of the vetch Latliyrus sativus. These settlers, finding it 
impossible to grow a sufficiency of wheat, had cultivated the hardy 
vetch and used it in too high admixture with their scanty stores of 
wheat. The result was the development of paralysis of the lower 
lim.bs among the male population, while the female members of the 
settlement were unaffected. I mention this dramatic occurrence to 
show you that perfect physique and stability of the nervous system 
did not protect them from the effects of faulty food, and incidentally 
to emphasize the sex variations to be found in maladies resulting from 
food faults. For although in the case of fathyrism the difference in 
incidence of the disease in the two sexes is more marked than in any 
other nutritional malady known to me, yet it is in some nutritional 
diseases a very striking feature. 

We see, then, that as exemplified by certain Himalayan races 
and, as I find from recent reports in the medical press, by such races 
as those of Upper Egypt and northern Nigeria, enforced restriction 
to the unsophisticated foodstuffs of nature is compatible with fer- 
tility, long life, continued vigor, perfect physique, and a remarkable 
freedom from digestive and gastrointestinal disorders, and from 
cancer. I must confess that with these examples before me I find 
myself in accord with Hindhede, who afiirms — and on unequivocal 
evidence — that the two chief causes of disease and death are food 
and (h'ink. 

CONTRAST BETWEEN FOOD HABITS OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLES AND 
THOSE OF CIVILIZED COMMUNITIES. 

Let us now for a moment contrast the habits of these primitive 
people in respect to food with those of our more highly civilized 
communities. The former are content with natural foods — milk, 
eggs, grains, fruits and leafy vegetables — or, if their state of mind be 
not precisely one of contentment, they can at least not better their 



FAULTY FOOD. 333 

lot nor worsen it. These natural foods — ''the protective foods," as 
McCollum has named them — provide in proper qualit}^ and proportion 
the proximate principles and vitamins necessary for nutritional har- 
mony, and the proper vegetable residues for the healthy evacuation 
of the bowels. But the case is different with civilized man. No 
longer is he content with the unsophisticated foods made in nature's 
laboratory, with ''herbs bearing seed" and with "every tree in which 
is the fruit of a tree yielding seed." To him these are '' still for meat," 
but preserved, purified, polished, pickled and canned. Some he 
extracts and distills with the object of procuring concentrates agree- 
able to his taste. His animal food he heats, dries, freezes, thaws, and 
stores. One way or another, by desiccation, by chemicals by heating, 
by freezing and thawing, by oxidation and decomposition, by milling 
and polishing, he applies the principles of his civilization — the elimi- 
nation of the natural and the substitution of the artificial — to the 
food he eats and the fluids he drinks. With such skill does he do 
so that he often converts his food into a "dead" fuel mass, devoid 
of those vitamins which are to it as the magneto's spark to the fuel 
mixture of a petrol-driven engine. Unmindful, too, or more often 
ignorant, of the composition of the fuel-mixture with wliich he charges 
his human machine, he joins deficiencies of some essentials with 
excesses of others, heedless that the smooth running of his bodily 
functions bears intimate relation to the ordered balance of these 
essentials. 

I am not at the moment concerned with the circumstances of his 
civihzation — expediency, penury, prejudice, ignorance, or habit — 
which have compelled man into this dangerous course. It is suffi- 
cient for my purpose that these circumstances exist, and that, in 
consequence of the food habits they have fostered, normal bodily 
function can not be sustained and gastrointestinal function is one of 
the first to suffer. Let me emphasize this point: "Gastrointestinal 
function is one of the first to suffer." This truth is made manifest 
by the clinical evidences of disease that are first to appear in wild 
monkeys fed on deficient and ill-balanced food — loss of appetite, 
depraved appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, dysentery, anemia, unhealthy 
skin, asthenia, and loss of body weight. If the faulty food be per- 
sisted in, other sypmtoms manifest themselves later, due in the main 
to malnutrition of the central nervous systen; but it is the gastro- 
intestinal tract, the functions of digestion, absorption and assimilation 
that are among the first to fail in consequence of faulty food. These 
are the signs that our ship is running upon the rocks, and, as good 
pilots, we must be aware of them. I often think that we are apt to 
assume more readily the oflice of salvors of wrecks than of pilots 
whose function it is to prevent them. 



334 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

But not only is functional failure of the digestive system an early 
evidence of faulty food, but the gastrointestinal tract is often the 
first to exhibit clinical evidence of infection by pathogenic organisms 
in consequence of it. Let me illustrate this last point by an expe- 
rience in my own laboratory: Thirty-six wild monkeys were captured 
in the jungles of Madras and transported with the least possible delay 
to my laboratory in the hills at Coonor. They were in perfect health 
and full of vigor — wild things usually are. I had in these animals 
perfectly normal tissues to work on; a uniciue opportunity to observe 
the first clinical and pathologic effects on normal tissues of the 
agent — faulty food — with which I was working. Each of these 
animals was placed in a separate cage, and all were confined in the 
same animal room. One attendant looked after them all. Twelve 
of them were fed on natural food, the remaining 24 on food deficient 
in some cases in vitamins as well as ill balanced; others were fed on 
natural food in which the living essences had been destroyed by 
sterilization. Those that were naturally fed remained free from 
intestinal disease: those that were fed on deficient and ill-balanced 
food and on sterilized food developed, within a short time in a major- 
ity of cases, diarrhea or actual dysentery. Here, tlien, is an une(|uivo- 
cal instance not only of the effect of faulty food in inducing a specific 
disease such as dysentery but of the protection against it that is 
afforded by a natural and well-balanced food. 

RELATION OF PERFECT FOOD TO FUXCTIO.NAL I'KHFHCTION OF 
GASTROIXTESTIXAL THACT. 

Now, let us consider i'oi' a moment the purposes which perfect food 
subserves. Everyone recognizes that food is taken into the body to 
repair tissue waste, to supply energy, and to provide the proper 
medium for the chemical reactions of the body. But do we always 
visualize these functions of food in relation to the organs of digestion 
themselves, and to the work to be done by the gastrointestinal tract? 
If we did I think we should have no difficulty in realizing the special 
effects on these organs of an insufficient supply of proteins which 
rebuild the digestive tissues and make good their waste, or of those 
constituents of the food which supply energy for the production of 
the digestive secretions and the movements of food along the digestive 
tract, or of salts which provide the proper medium for the chemical 
processes of digestion, or of vitamins which activate the cells of the 
digestive system to healthy function. The effects of deficiency of 
these essentials must of necessity be manifested in failures of digestive, 
absorptive, assimilative, and motor functions of this ini|)(»i-tant r(>gion 
of the body. It is not necessary to make laboratory experiments 
to prove that if a woman lives on white bread, margarin, condensed 
milk, and tea, with a minimum of imported meat and boiled potato. 



FAULTY FOOD, 335 

she is prone to suffer from such digestive disorders as dyspepsia and 
colonic disease. For such a diet does not contain a sufficiency of 
proteins to rebuild the tissues involved in digestion, assimilation, 
and evacuation of the bowel contents; it does not contain a suffi- 
ciency of vitamin to activate the cells of the digestive system to 
healthy function; it is ill balanced, and by its excessive richness in 
starch it favors the development in the digestive tract of fermentative 
organisms, and makes relatively more deficient the vitamins neces- 
sary to healthy cellular action; nor does it contain a sufficiency of 
vegetable residue, of cellulose, waxes, and vegetable salts, to insure 
natural action of the bowels. 

EFFECTS OF FAULTY FOOD. 

Nor do we, 1 think, always consider the dependence of one constit- 
uent of the food upon another for its share in the maintenance of nu- 
tritional harmony. We know that if such essentials as protein and 
inorganic salts be not provided in adec^uate quality and quantity, 
growth must flag and repair of body waste must fail or cease; but do 
we realize that the utilization of suitable protein and of suitable salts 
is dependent on the presence in the food of a sufficiency of vitamins, 
or that the efficiency of vitamins is dependent in considerable measure 
on the adequate supply of these proximate principles? If the tissue 
waste of the gastrointestinal tract be not made good—whether in 
consec[uence of insufficient supply of suitable protein or of its in- 
sufficient utilization— then must the production of digestive juices 
fail, the mechanism of absorption and assimilation flag, the neuro- 
muscular control of the gastrointestinal tract become inefficient and 
the tissues of the tract become the prey of pathogenic organisms. 
It is thus that such a nutritional disease as pellagra arises, and thus 
that the manifold varieties of gastrointestinal disorder due to failure 
of digestive function may come into being. 

It is unwise to consider any of the essential ingredients of food, 
whether proteins, carbohydrates, fats, salts, water or vitamins, as 
independent of the assistance derivable from their associates in the 
maintenance of digestive and nutritional harmony. No doubt, some 
of these have special relations to others, as for instance that of iodm 
to fats, that of vitamin B to carbohydrates, that of vitamin A to 
lipoids, calcium and phosphorus holding substances, and that of 
vitamin C to inorganic salts. But whatever be their special rela- 
tions one to another, they are all links in the chain of essential sub- 
stances requisite for the harmonious regulation of fife's processes, if 
one link ])e broken, the harmony ceases or becomes discord. Of late 
the science of nutrition has tended to assume a too "vitamnnc" 
outlook, and it is well to realize that, important as these substances 
are, man can not live on vitamins alone, nor can he live on pi-oximate 



336 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

principles alone; each is complemental to the other, and deprivation 
of the one leads to starvation as surely as does deprivation of the 
other. Our knowledge of vitamins is still in the making, but it serves 
a useful purpose to have some mental conception of their function. 
I have likened it to the magneto's spark which ignites the fuel mix- 
ture of a petrol-driven engine, liberating its energ}^ — the spark is of 
no use without the fuel nor the fuel without the spark; nay, more, 
the efficacy of the spark is (h'penulent in great measure on the com- 
position of the fuel mixture. 

EVIDENCE OF THESE EFFECTS. 

But if I am to succeed in demonstrating the truth of my claim that 
faulty food is responsible for much of the gastrointestinal ill health 
so common at the present day, I must provide other than presump- 
tive evidence of its effects on the digestive system and convince you 
also that foods having faults capable of causing these effects are now- 
adays extensively used by civilized communities. I propose, there- 
fore, to fulfill the first condition by ocular demonstration and to rely 
upon my argument for the fulfillment of the second. 

For some years past I have been engaged in a study of the effects 
of deficient and ill-balanced food on the various organs and tissues 
of the body, as observable in animals fed on such foods under experi- 
mental conditions. Having reached certain conclusions with respect 
to the digestive organs and gastrointestinal tract in such animals as 
pigeons, rats, and guinea pigs, I repeated my experiments in wild 
monkeys captured in the jungles of Madras so that I might observe 
the effects of faulty foods on animals closely related to man. The 
foods I used were natural foods that had been rendered faulty by 
various means; they were of several classes: 

(1) Foods deficient in all three classes of vitamins, in suitable 
protein in fats and excessively rich in starch. 

(2) Foods deficient in vitamins B and C and excessively rich in 
starch and fats. 

(3) Foods deficient in vitamin C only, in vitamin B only, and in 
vitamins A and B, but well balanced in other respects. 

These classes of food presented for my purpose an adequate range 
of deficiencies alone, and of deficiencies in combination with excesses; 
they include many of the food faults observable in the dietary of 
many civilized people at the present day. Before demonstrating the 
effects of these faulty foods on the digestive organs and gastrointes- 
tinal tract, I must point out very shortly the simultaneous effects 
to which they give rise on the endocrine regulators of metabolism, 
the thyroid gland, the suprarenal gland, and the pituitary body; for 
it is to be remembered that the maintenance of healthy gastrointes- 



FAULTY FOOD. 337 

tinal function is dependent in considerable measure on healthy endo- 
crine action. It would carry me too far afield to develop adequately 
the latter theme— I content myself, therefore, with directing your 
attention to it, and with laying emphasis on the fact that it is neces- 
sary to consider in relation to the changes produced in the digestive 
system by faulty food those that are simultaneously produced by the 
same agency in the endocrine system. As an instance of this inti- 
mate correlation of digestive and endocrine function and disorder, I 
may refer to the simultaneous production by faulty food of colitis, 
of depreciation of liver function, and of suprarenal derangement. 
The first is the most obvious clinical feature of the nutritional dis- 
turbance induced by the faulty food; the occurrence of the second 
may serve to account for the toxic symptoms from which the sufferers 
from mucous colitis suffer, and for the opinion held by some that 
mucous colitis is due to hepatic insufficiency; while the third provides 
some insight into the effects of fatigue, anxiety and cold in precipi- 
tating attacks of mucous colitis in the malnourished subjects of 
colonic disease. The malady is, indeed, as much a disorder of the 
suprarenal glands as of the colon. 

The data afforded by specimens indicate that the profound changes 
resulting in the gastrointestinal tract in consequence of the various 
deficient foods employed are similar in kind in the three species of 
animals I used — pigeons, guinea pigs and monkeys; it may be ex- 
pected, therefore, that they will be similar in kind, if not in degree, 
in human beings whose dietaries have faults similar in kind if not in 
degree to those used in the experiments. I think there is good reason 
to believe that the prolonged use of a moderately faulty food will lead 
to them as certainly as the less prolonged use of a more faulty food. 
Without attempting to analyze them too closely or to attribute to 
each fault a specific effect we may, I think, draw from them certain 
broad conclusions: 

(1) The health of the gastrointestinal tract is dependent on an 
adequate provision of vitamins. The absence of growth vitamins is 
capable of producing pathologic changes in the tract which frequently 
assume the clinical form of colitis. This observation is of the highest 
importance in view of the frequency with which this malady is en- 
countered at the present day. Deficiency of vitamin C is especially 
concerned in the production of congestive and hemorrhagic lesions in 
the tract, and evidences of these may be found in animals which 
have not exhibited during life any of the clinical manifestations of 
scurvy in noteworthy degree. A state of ill health of the gastro- 
intestinal tract may thus be a prescorbutic manifestation of disease 
due to insufficiency of this vitamin, especially when associated with 
an excess of starch or fat or both in the food, 
91335— 32— Bull. 4 2 



338 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

(2) The disorder of the gastrointestinal tract consequent on vit- 
amin deficiency is enhanced when the food is ill balanced. 

(3) The pathologic processes resulting in this situation from defi- 
cient and ill-balanced foods are: 

(a) Congestive, necrotic and inflammatory changes in the mucous 
membrane, sometimes involving the entire tract, sometimes limited 
areas of it. 

(b) Degenerative changes in the neuromuscular mechanism of the 
tract, tending to dilatation of the stomach, ballooning of areas of 
small and large bowel, and probably also to intussusception. 

(c) Degenerative changes in the secretory elements of the tract — of 
the gastric glands, the pyloric glands, the glands of Brunner, the 
glands of Leiberkiihn, and the mucous glands of the colon. These 
changes are such as must cause grave derangement of digestive and 
assimilative processes. 

(d) Toxic absorption from the diseased bowel, as evidenced by 
changes in the mesenteric glands. 

(e) Impairment of the protective resources of the gastrointestinal 
mucosa against infecting agents, due to hemorrhagic infiltration, to 
atrophy of the lymphoid cells, and to imperfect production of gastro- 
intestinal juices. This impairment not only results in infections of 
the mucous membrane itself, but also permits of the passage into the 
blood stream of microorganisms from the l)()wel. 

if) It is to be emphasized that the pathologic changes found in the 
gastrointestinal tract are more marked in some individuals than in 
others; and that, while all of them may occur in one and the same 
subject, it is usual to find considerable variation in the incidence of 
particular lesions in different individujils. 

APPLICABILITY OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS TO GENESIS OF 
G ASTRO-INTESTINAL DISORDERS. 

With these evidences of the effects of faulty food l)efore us, we 
have, I think, good reason to proceed with our investigation of the 
relation of faulty food to the common gastrointestinal disorders of 
the present day. 

It is usually accepted as a proof of the causation of a malady that 
if an investigator by one agency or another can produce in animals, 
under controlled experimental condition, the malady in question, 
then this agency is the cause of the disease, or intimately associated 
with its causation. Consider, then, that by means of faulty food, 
(1) diarrhea, (2) dysentery, (3) dyspepsia and gastric dilatation, (4) 
gastric and duodenal ulcer, (5) intussusception, (6) colitis, and (7) 
failure of colonic function can be produced experimentally. I do 
not argue that they are invariably so produced or that faulty food 



FAULTY FOOD. 339 

is the only cause of them. I do not deny the influence of microbic 
or other pathogenic agents in contributing to their production; in- 
deed, I have ever insisted upon it. But I do maintain that faulty 
food is often at the bottom of their causation, and that the use of 
natural or well-balanced food from birth onward will greatly militate 
against their occurrence. 

I can not remember that by means other than faulty food such a 
disorder as colitis can be so readily produced, if at all: for the experi- 
mental production of amebic dysentery by the oral administration 
of Endameba histolytica cysts is not at all convincing. On the other 
hand, I have seen amebic dysentery arise in deficiently fed wild 
monkeys, while others that w^ere w^ell fed escaped the disease al- 
though subjected to the same risks of mfection. In this instance 
malnutrition had enabled the specific organism to implant itself in 
the tissues of the bowel. If further evidence of the influence of 
faulty food in the production of these gastrointestinal disorders be 
needed, it will be found in abundance in the medical history of the 
late war, during which these disorders were so often the consequence 
of faulty food. In this regard, our enemies have served unwittingly 
one useful purpose — they forced us to concentrate attention on the 
immediate and remote effects of food faults on the human body. 
But our ever present enemies in peace — poverty, prejudice, ignorance, 
habit— are no less responsible in this regard; they, too, beneath the 
vaunted culture of our civilization, inflict upon numbers of our people 
an intolerable load of misery, which it is our duty to relieve. 

I would, therefore, urge on your attention a consideration of the 
effects of faulty food in relation to such acute disorders as infantile 
diarrhea, jail dysentery and asylum dysentery, asking you, while 
remembering the bacteriologic aspects of these maladies, to look on 
them also from the point of view of faulty food. The bacteriologic 
path has led us far in our knowledge of preventable disease, but it 
will lead us farther still if we traverse at the same time the paths of 
malnutrition that so often run parallel with it. In relation to such 
chronic disorders as ''mucous disease" in children, chronic gastro- 
intestinal dyspepsia, pellagra sine pellagra, colonic disease in adults, 
celiac disease, gastric and duodenal ulcer, and chronic intestinal 
stasis, the food factor in their production deserves the fullest con- 
sideration; for if the facts I have laid before you do not provide the 
whole explanation of their genesis, they are, I am convinced, inti- 
mately related to it. Time does not permit me to develop this 
theme further. Full reference has been made to it in my recently 
published book, Studies in Deficiency Disease, where many points 
which of necessity I have omitted from this lecture are set out. 



340 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

EXTENSIVE USE OF FAULTY FOOD. 

Turning now to my last duty, that of presenting evidence that 
faulty food is largely used by many civilized people at the present 
day, I would ask jou to consider first in this connection the increasing 
tendency in modern times to rear infants artificially — on boiled, 
pasteurized and dried milks, and on proprietary foods which are all 
of them vastly inferior to healthy mother's milk in substances essen- 
tial to the well-being of the child — inferior not only in vitamins, but 
also in enzymes, th^Toid derivatives and other essentials. Wlien, 
as is sometimes the case, mother's milk is itself harmful to the child, 
is not this largely the result of her own disordered metabolism that 
in many cases results from improper feeding before, during and after 
pregnancy? For mother's milk may, like the milk of animals, be 
deficient in certain respects if her food be deficient. The milk of 
stall fed cows is not so rich either in vitamin A or in vitamin C as 
that of cows fed in green pastures. 

Again, is not cow's milk — an important dietary constituent of 
young and old alike — gradually becoming a luxury reserved for the 
few? Vegetable margarins are replacing butter even among the 
richer classes. Fresh fruit, certainly in Great Britain, is a compara- 
tive rarit3^ even on the tables of the rich. Green vegetables are 
scanty, and such as there may be are often cooked to the point of 
almost complete extraction of their vitamins and salts. White bread 
has largely replacerl whole-meal bread, and it is notorious that bread 
forms a high ])roporti<)7i of the dietaries of persons of limited means. 
It is notable that, despite the food restrictions imposed upon the 
people of Belgium during the late war, the infant mortality and 
infantile diarrhea decreased greatly — a circumstance which was due to 
the organized propaganda encouraging mothers to nurse their 
infants, and to the establishment of national canteens which provided 
prospective mothers from the fifth month of pregnancy onward with 
eggs, meat, milk, and vegetables. Ag .in. fresh eggs are so expensive 
as to debar the masses from their use. Meat is at best but poor in 
vitamins, and its value in these essentials is not enhanced by freezing 
and thawing. Sugar is consumed in quantities unheard of a century 
ago, and sugar is devoid of the vitamins which the cane juice originally 
contained. The use of stale foods involving the introduction of 
factors incidental to oxidation and putrefaction is the rule; that of 
fresh foods, the exception. 

Can it, then, truly be said that the variety of natural foodstuffs 
consumed by Europeans protects them from any deficiency of 
vitamins? My own clinical experience justifies no such belief; 
rather does it point in the contrary direction. Nor does it appear to be 



FAULTY FOOD. 341 

the experience of the compilers of the thirty-eighth report of the 
British Medical Eesearch Council, who write: ''From a consideration 
of dietaries consumed by the poorer classes in the towTis of Great 
Britain, one is led to suggest that no inconsiderable proportion of the 
population is existing on a food supply more or less deficient in 
fat-soluble factor" — deficient, that is to say, in a vitamin one of 
whose cardinal functions is to maintain the natural resistance of the 
subject against infections. That similar considerations apply in the 
United States also appears from the experience of Osborne, who asserts 
that a large part of the food eaten by civilized people have been 
deprived of vitamin B by "improvements" in manufacture, and of 
Hess, who emphasized that latent and subacute forms of scurvy due 
to insufficient intake of vitamin C are common disorders of infancy. 

But the frequency with which deficient and ill-balanced foods 
are iised is most apparent when the dietetic habits of persons in 
subnormal health are considered. It will surprise those who study 
them to find how many there are, of capricious appetite, who habit- 
ually make use of foods sometimes deficient in calories — for it is not 
the food presented to the subject that counts, but the food eaten 
and assimilated — and often dangerously deficient in one or more 
vitamins, in protein of good biologic value, and disproportionately 
rich in starch or sugar or fats, or in all three. Infants fed on many 
of the proprietary foods in common use come within the category of 
the deficiently fed, unless deficiencies are made good. The food of 
young children is commonly low in vitamin content, and in suitable 
salts and protein, while it is frequently disproportionately rich in 
starch and sugar — a circumstance which enhances the danger of 
vitamin deficiency. It may, indeed, be accepted as an axiom that 
the vitamin value of a child's food is reduced in proportion to its 
excessive richness in carbohydrates. 

But the ranks of the deficiently fed include not only infants and 
young children; they include also those whose food is composed 
mainly of white bread, margarin, tea, sugar and jam, with a minimum 
of meat, milk, eggs, and fresh vegetables. Even among those whose 
diet is more perfectly balanced, the commoner articles of food, as they 
are prepared for the table, are so low in vitamin value that, unless 
they are enriched with a sufficiency of natural foods in the raw state, 
they are prone to cause ill health, and especially gastrointestmal 
ill health. Such is my experience in India, where this European 
patient "can not digest vegetables or fruit," and never touches 
them, "as they carry infection," or that one "suffers so from indiges- 
tion" that he or she lives chiefly on custards and milk puddings; 
whore milk is, of necessity, boiled and reboiled until, as a carrier of 
vitamins, it is almost useless; where meat is made tentler by the 



342 THE PAISr AMERICAN UNION. 

simple device of boiling it first and roasting it afterward; where 
every third or fourth Eui-opean child has mucous disease, the direct 
outcome of bad feeding. So it is that the forms of footl which such 
as these so commonly adopt are those most calculated to promote the 
very disorder from which they seek relief. 

Access to abundance of food does not necessarily protect from the 
effects of food deficiency, since a number of factors — prejudice, 
penury, ignorance, habit — often prevent the proper use and choice 
of health-giving foods. Who in the ranks of practicing ph3^sicians 
is not familiar, among the well-to-do classes, with the spoiled child 
of pale, pasty complexion and unhealthy appetite, of sluggish bowel, 
and often with mucous stools or enuresis, who, deprived of the whole- 
some ingredients of a well-balanced natural food, craves for sweet- 
meats, chocolates, pastries, and other dainties as devoid of natural 
health-giving properties as their excessive use is common? Coji- 
stantly one encounters the anxious mother of the "highly strung," 
"nervous" child "of delicate digestion," whose ignorance of essential 
principles of feeding is only excelled by her desire to do what is best 
for her offspring; who, guided by the child's preferences, supplies 
the means to convert it into a static, constipated, unhealthy skinned 
adolescent, equipj)e(l with digestive and endocrine systems wholly 
unfitted to sustaui the continued exercise of healthy function. Or, 
again, who is not familiar with the overworked anemic girl, static 
and with visceroptosis, acne or seborrhea, and oftentimes with 
vague psychoses, who ekes out a paltry wage for teaching, sewing, 
or selling, satisfying the cravings of her tissues principally with 
white bread, margarin and tea? Or with the languid lady, devoid of 
healthful occupation, who, living in the midst of plenty, deprives 
herself, for some imaginary reason, of substances essential to her 
well-being? Or with the harassed mother of children, oppressed 
with the constant struggle to make ends meet, stinting herself that 
others may not want, exhausted by childbearing and suckling, worry, 
and too little of the right food ? What wonder that such a woman 
is dyspeptic, and that "every bite" she eats "turns on her stomach." 
Some there are, living in luxury, whom ignorance or fancy debars 
from choosing their food aright; others for whom poverty combines 
with ignorance to place an impassable barrier in the way of dis- 
crimmatmg choice. It is for us so to instruct ourselves that we may 
instruct such as these, and use our newer knowledge to the end 
that customs and prejudices may be broken and a more adequate 
dietary secured for those under our care. We may, in our desire to 
promote the health, vigor, and fertility of our people, learn much 
from the practical farmer or stock breeder whose experience has 
taught him that all these evidences of normal functional activity 



FAULTY FOOD. 



343 



of the animal organism are dependent in the main oji one great 
factor — perfect food supply. 

CONCLUSION. 

I trust that I have said enough to serve as an introduction to the 
study of this important subject, than which there is none more 
worthy of the consideration of those whose Ufe is spent, or to be 
spent, in guarding the national health. It seems to me that in re- 
gard to it we have three obvious duties: The .first, to instruct the 
masses as to what to eat and why they eat it; the second, to apply 
the results of our science to the production of natural foods in abun- 
dance and to their widespread and cheap distribution, rather than to 
the erection of institutions for the treatment of maladies due to 
their want; the thhd, and most nnportant, ardently to pursue our. 
investigations and the acquirement of knowledge. In no department 
of human endeavor are the words from the agrapha of Christ more 
pertinent than in their application to the study of the relations of 
food to health and disease: 

Let not him who seeketh, cease from seeking until he hath found: 

And when he hath found he shall wonder. 




LITTLE TOliACKl BIRD '^' 



^ ^Air^JJ,^ \^._.'_.^^ \^ ,!_! 



PA11ADJ5. 



-jf ■.: 



By Henry D, Baker, 

Unite:! SMes Consul, Trinidad, British West Imlies. 

ABOUT 2 miles due east of tlie island of Tobago at its north- 
eastern corner (Tobago is situated about 30 miles to the 
^ northeast of Trinidad, in about 11° 9' north latitude and 
60° 12' west longitude) is a small island known as Little 
Tobago, covering about 350 acres, purchased about 10 years ago by 
Sir William Ingram, the well-known English publisher, for the pur- 
pose of becoming a sanctuary for birds of paradise. To this new 
home about 50 birds were brought from New Guinea, where they were 
obtained at considerable trouble and expense, both cocks and hens 
being included in the importation. At first the birds tended to 
diminish instead of increase in numbers, probably owing to initial 
difficulty in finding sufficient food and water, or to conflict with older 
and stronger local birds, yet in the struggle for existence, the fittest 
not only seemed to survive but, also, during the last three or four 
years to increase largely in numbers. 

Negotiations have recently been concluded for the sale of Little 
Tobago, with its birds of paradise, to a citizen of Newark, New Jer- 
sey, who, it is understood, has planned to have constructed a large 
aviary, where a proportion of the birds might be inclosed within 
wire netting, reaching about 100 feet high and over the tops of fruit 
trees, allowing natural food, and covering sufficient area to permit 
of the maximum amount of exercise and freedom. With the birds 
thus kept in semicaptivity, it is thought it might be possible to 
observe their habits more closely, encourage their larger breeding, and 
especially to conserve all the molting plumes which otherwise might 
be lost in the dense woods of the island or be found only after they 
have become old and damaged. Apparently the purpose would be 
to put into this inclosure only a part of the birds on the island, at 
least until it could be demonstrated whether it would be possible 
to successfully farm them in the semicaptivity as planned. 

The writer on September 7, 1921, made a visit of several hours to 
Little Tobago, a longer visit being impossible on account of the ne- 
344 



LITTLE TOBAGO, BIED OF PARADISE ISLAND. 345 

cessity of catching the coastal vessel Belize, which makes the trip 
around Tobago from Port of Spain, Trinidad, from Monday to Fri- 
day of every week. By permission of the local representative of Sir 
William Ingram, Little Tobago was reached by a rowing boat from 
a place called Spey Side on the mainland of Tobago. The row across 
the channel, which has a considerable current, can only be accom- 
plished in good weather, and takes from an hour to an hour and a 
half. Little Tobago is saddle shaped in appearance, the highest parts 
rising over 500 feet above sea level, and densely wooded almost 
throughout. In the central depression is the house of the caretaker 
of the island, and near by are a number of pawpaw trees, which have 




Photograph by H. D. Baker. 

LITTLE TOBAGO, BIRD OF PARADISE ISLAXD. 

View from the mainland of Tobago. In the depression, about the center of the island, is located the house 
of the caretaker and his family, the only inhabitants. The small island in the channel to the left is Goat 
Island. 

been specially planted with the object of providing abundant fruit 
for the birds at all times of the year. Before these trees were planted 
the birds of paradise had to depend mainly upon such insect life as 
they could find and on the wild fruit of the native Gartapple tree, 
which, when ripe, splits open into about eight petals, looking some- 
thing like a star fish, inside of which are deep cavities filled with 
bright red berries, which the birds pull out with their beaks. 

During dry weather there may be a serious scarcity of water on 
the island, and as the birds live in the tops of the trees, and are 
never observed at ground level, such water supply as they may 
obtain must ordinarily be in the hollows of trees, which might, 



346 THE PAN AMEEICAN UNION. 

during certain periods, altogether dry up. The scarcity of water may 
have been the main reason why originally the birds, after being 
brought here, seemed to diminish seriously in number. Now, how- 
ever, water pots, holding about 1 gahon of water each have been 
placed about 35 feet high in three of the most conspicuous trees of 
the island, in the part where the fruit trees are most abundant. 
These water pots are refilled about twice a month.* 

It is only the male bird or cock which possesses the brilliant golden 
plume which has been so highly valued in the millinery trade. Both 
hens and cocks are chocolate colored throughout, except that the 
male bird has a slight streak of green about the neck, and between 
the months of May and January develops its famous golden plume. 
The bird, exclusive of tail plume, is about 7 inches long, the cock 
usually being slightly larger than the hen. Many of the cast-ofl' 
plumes are found on the island, especially under the trees where water 
is now provided. Some of these plumes examined by me measured 
about 17 inches. The birds are now frequently noticed in all parts 
of the island, but usually only in the early morning from about 6 to 8 
o'clock, or in the afternoon from about 4 to 6 o'clock. During the 
heat of the day they are rarely visible, probably at this time seeking 
shade in the recesses of the forest. During favorable times of the 
day, about their favorite trees, as many as 15 may be noticed in the 
tree tops at one time. Apparently the birds are tamest during the 
period of their bright plumage. 

Little Tobago contains a variety of wild bird life in addition to 
the birds of paradise which have been imported here, includhig hum- 
ming birds, yellow-tail birds, and the kind known as the "king of 
the forest." The birds of paradise seem friendly with the yellow-tail 
birds, with which they may sometimes at a distance be easily con- 
fused, the former birds, however, having longer necks and smaller 
heads, and the male bird, in plumage, a tail of golden and not 
yellow color. While the birds of paradise always stay in the trees, 
and eat only tree fruit or such insects as they can find about the 
trees, the yellow-tail birds are seen often about the ground, and are 
frequent visitors at a field of corn grown by the caretaker of the 
island, which the birds of paradise never touch. A number of sea 
birds are found about the coast, but apparentl}' they do not interfere 
with the birds of paradise. There is never any danger of the birds of 
paradise attempting to cross the 2 -mile channel which separates 
them from the mainland of Tobago. 

An extraordinary fact about the birds of paradise on Little Tobago 
is that, although great effort and expense has been incurred to find 

1 The water supplied in pots in the trees is caught from the roof of the caretaker's house, but when not 
available there may be brought from the mainland of Tobago. 



PUBLIC HEALTH IN NICARAGUA. 



347 



their nests, up to the present time neither nest nor egg has been dis- 
covered, so that breeding and nesting habits are quite a mystery. 
Possibly this might be solved by the aviary experiment as above 
mentioned. The birds seem active but nervous in their habits, and 
are not easily trapped, carefully avoiding anything of a new or 
suspicious nature. 





THE FRUIT OF THE NATIVE GARTAPPLE TREE. 
Formerly the principal food of the birds of paradise on Little Tobago. 






>-^ 



Jt^L 



4=2^ J kJ.^^ X^j. LJ.i A 



THE following extracts, very much condensed, from the 
annual message of the President of Nicaragua, with par- 
ticular reference to the results achieved in the public health 
and sanitation campaign of that Republic, indicate the 
President's belief that the duty of a good government to Ixacer 
algunas ohras de progreso is something more than a pious wish or 
mere words. President Chamorro says: 

Public health, as I have remarked on a former occasion, occupies almost as impor- 
tant a place in the estimation of the Government as the preservation of law and 
order. The Government has therefore given it special attention, and in last year's 
budget a fairly large increase was provided for this purpose. 

The inestimable services rendered by the Rockefeller Foundation must take preced- 
ence in any report on public health, and once again I take deep pleasure in giving 
public testimony of our gratitude to that institution. The director of the founda- 
tion in Nicaragua, Dr. Daniel M. MoUoy, should be especially mentioned, for, Avith a 
perseverance, good will, and energy which we can never sufficiently eulogize, he has 
given a powerful impetus to the rapid execution of tasks whose completion I do not 
hesitate to say is imperative to the national salvation. With the cooperation of the 
foundation, the antihookworm, malaria, and mosquito campaigns have been waged, 
and a National Hygiene Institute established. Of each of these I will speak in detail. 

Besides the hookworm campaign in Masaya, Leon, and Granada this year, intensive 
work was undertaken in the Dei)artment of Rivas wlierc, due to cooperation given by 



348 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

the authorities and inhabitants of the different towns and country districts and the 
use of energetic methods, exceptionally satisfactory results were ol)tained^that is, 
41.23 per cent of those examined were actually cured; this is the highest percentage 
of cures which the Foundation has to date secured. 

During the whole year the campaign against the stegomyia mosquito has been vig- 
orously carried on at considerable expense to the treasury. Although the last case 
of yellow fever in Nicaragua appeared in 1919, the campaign has been continued with 
unremitting energy. 

At the invitation of the Nicaraguan Government, the Rockefeller Foundation at 
the close of last year sent a sanitary expert to collaborate Anth the hookworm depart- 
ment in making the preliminary studies preparatory to fighting malaria, imng the 
means which have proven so efficacious in the southern part of the United States. 
Parts of the cities of Rivas and Puebla were chosen for trying out these measures, 
the campaign beginning with the extermination of the anopheles mosquito in the 
chosen area, actually at the expense of the Rockefeller Foundation, but with a view 
to its being taken over later by the municipalities with Government aid. The experi- 
ence obtained in the southern part of the United States shows that excellent results 
are within the reach of any community having public-spirited citizens and author- 
ities mindful of the good of the community. 

It is still too early to predict the final success of this work as related to the cost, but 
weekly house-to-house visits show that from June to the present date (December, 1921) 
there has been a decrease of more than 30 ])er cent in disease in general and of over 
oO per cent in fevers. If the rate continues to fall for two months more, it can safely 
be affirmed that the results are equal to those secured in the United States — results 
easily obtainable by the residents of any district in Nicaragua, pro\'ided the Govern- 
ment pays for the direction of the work. It may be mentioned in this connection 
that the Nicaraguan assistant to the sanitary expert is being instructed in all 
phases of the work, so that he will be capable of directing the work in any locality. 
May I suggest to the Congress in the interest of public health that the sum of 3,000 
cordobas be approj)riated for extending the benefits of this work to other towns in 
Rivas and to cities such as CJranada, Managua, and Leon? 

Under the direction of the collector of customs an area in Corinto has been ditched 
and drained from the funds destined for port sanitation. This completes the work 
already undertaken and affords almost complete protection against the anopheles 
mosquito and consequently against malarial infection. The general manager of the 
railroad has also given valuable assistance. 

In the further pursuit of public health the Government believes it has taken a most 
important step forward in establishing a National Hygiene Institute, the first of its 
kind in the Republic. In May the Rockefeller Foundation was invited to send a 
representative to study the situation and make the necessary recommendations. 
Readily complying with this request, the foundation in July sent Col. Frederic F. 
Russell, director of the laboratory department of public health of the International 
Sanitary Commission and formerly chief of the laboratory division of the Medical 
and Surgical Department of the United States Army. As a result of Col. Russell's 
detailed study of sanitary conditions it was decided to establish a central laboratory 
in Managua in charge of a bacteriologist and a pathologist provided by the Foundation 
to make all kinds of examinations for the diagnosis of contagious and infectious diseases, 
as well as the chemical and bromatological analyses for determining the purity of 
drinking water and the quality of foods. Branches of this laboratory will be opened 
in the Department capitals, more especially in Granada, Leon, and Rivas, where such 
routine examinations as those of human blood, sputum, etc., will be made by Nicara- 
guans trained under the chief of the central laboratory. In Col. Russell's opinion 
this simple program is sufficient for present needs, and at this time (December, 1921) 



PUBLIC HEALTH IN NICAEAGUA. 349 

the Foundation expert, as well as the laboratory apparatus and supplies bought by 
the Government, are on the way. 

As you will readily comprehend, this is the most important advance made since 
the beginning of sanitation in Nicaragua, as the accurate diagnosis of infectious and 
contagious diseases is one of the most vital factors in public health— above all when 
one takes into account that the laboratory, although modest in its beginning, will 
serve as a basis for the eventual upbuilding of an important National Hygiene Institute. 
The commission named last May to prepare a bill for the reorganization of the 
sanitary laws is preparing to submit, shortly, the results of its labors, and I may state 
now that before 1922 is over we shall have a public health department organized on 
modern principles and served by modern legislation. Col. Russell and Dr. George 
C. Paul offered invaluable suggestions in the preparation of the bill. 

A most important part of the sanitary organization is the instruction and training 
of young Nicaraguans not only in the technical but in the administrative branches of 
the service, and to this end Dr. Salvador A. Masis and Dr. Fausto Robleto are studying 
in the health centers of the United States. 

Another progressive step in health matters was taken with the opening of a syphilis 
clinic in Managua in April, 1921— an endeavor to fulfill one of the primary duties of 
the State to better the physical and moral condition of the Nicaraguan people. 
Although this clinic was begun on a small scale, its reputation spread rapidly through- 
out the country, so much so that patients came in from every Department in search 
of relief. Half of the 72 patients in July were women and children. Extraordinary 
expenses connected with the ^Yar Department unfortunately compelled the closing 
of this clinic the 1st of November, but great satisfaction is felt in the cure of 358 
persons. 

There are other aspects of the public health work which also merit your attention. 
A portable X-ray apparatus. French Army model, has been ordered, so that l)efore too 
long free X-ray service will be available for the poor. An excellent sterilizer of large 
size, the best ever sent to the Republic, with a microscope and various surgical instru- 
ments, was given by the Govei: nent to the San Vicente Hospital in I>eon. A con- 
siderable number of instruments w k.-s presented at the same time to the Granada Hos- 
pital, while that in I\!anagua received 1,000 cordobas from the Government to be ex- 
pended in the purchase of necessary instruments. All this was in pursuit of the Gov- 
ernment policy of promoting to the extent of its ability proper health facilities for the 
poor and for the working classes. * * * 

The record of the medical attention given to the army of 4,000 men during the recent 
campaign in the north is worthy of your attention. Due to rough weather and prevalent 
epidemics, almost all the men were attacked by respiratory diseases or by malaria. An 
emergency hospital was established in Managua, while the patients not accommodated 
there were cared for either in their own homes or in the hospitals by Dr. Burgheim and 
Dr. Alberto Uopez C. These physicians worked day and night for several weeks, 
giving the most expert medical care and using vaccines, serums, and every treatment 
ordinarily available only to the well to do. Of 2,000 cases of influenza, pneumonia, 
malaria, and dysentery thus cared for by the Government, only 4 were fatal, and those 
only because tlie patients were received in a dying condition. The medical serAice 
was so efficient that 95 per cent of the patients were cuied and able to leave again for 
the north a month later. Thanks to the care and the almost superhuman efforts of the 
surgeon major of the Army, Dr. David Stadthagen, the treatment in the north and on 
the frontier was equally efficacious. The Government spared no expense in endeavor- 
ing to restore its soldiers to health, believing that in so doing it was simply fullilling an 
elementary duty and that it was but a feeble recompense for the sacrifices which these 
loyal sons of our country were making for the peace and tranquillity of us all. 



D"RTJ,GATES TO TIF, VN 



WOMEN in every part of the western hemisphere are now 
preparing to attend the Pan American Conference of 
Women in Baltimore, Maryland, from April 20 to 29. 
Already a number of the Pan American Republics have 
accepted the invitation extended to them through the State Depart- 
ment of the United States on behalf of the National League of 
Women Voters, and official delegates to the conference have been 
appointed. 

The Republic of Peru was among the first countries to designate an 
official representative, announcing the appointment of Miss Margarita 
Conroy. Miss Conroy, though of English descent, is a Peruvian 
citizen and speaks both Spanish and English fluently. 

The Brazilian Government has indorsed the appointment of Dona 
Bertha Lutz, who has been chosen by her countrywomen to represent 
the League for the Intellectual Emancipation of Women, of which she 
is the founder and president. Miss Lutz is recognized as one of the 
foremost women of her country, being the first woman to hold the 
ofhce of secretary of the National Museum — a position won in com- 
petitive examination by Miss Lutz in a class of IS, all the others 
being men, many of them university graduates and professors. 

The Governments of Chile and Ecuador, of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, 
Haiti, and the Dominican Republic accepted at an early date the 
invitation to participate in the conference. Madame Charles Dube, 
professor at the normal school of Port au Prince, has been appointed 
official delegate by the Government of Haiti, and the Dominican 
Republic will be represented by Miss Ana Teresa Paradas, one of the 
first woman lawyers of Santo Domingo. Other Governments have 
the matter under official consideration, but at the time of going to 
press the delegates were not yet announced. 

The North American Continent will be represented not only by a 
group of prominent women of the United States but by large delega- 
tions from Mexico and Canada. 

Many organizations of women will send special delegates to the 
conference. The Young Women's Christian Association of Brazil 
350 



PAN AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF WOMEN. 351 

has appointed Miss Lutz and Miss Beatriz de Souza Queiro, of Sao 
PaulO; as its representatives. The Association of Peruvian University 
Women Graduates will be represented by Miss Evangelina Antay. 
Several groups of Cuban women will send delegates, among them El 
Club Femenino de Cuba, which has appointed Mrs. Emma Lopez 
Sena de Garrido, and the Partido Nacional Sufragista, which is send- 




MRS. CHARLES E. ELLICOTT. 
President of the Maryland League of Women Voters. 

ing its founder and president, Mrs. Amalia E. Mallen de Ostolaza. 
The first Canadian organizations to accept the invitation of the League 
of Women Voters were the Catholic Women's League and the Big 
Sisters' Association. Women from Porto Rico and the Philippines 
will also join in the conference. 

In addition to the official delegates and the representatives of 
organizations, many of whom probably will not be designated until 
the last moment, a long list of distinguished Latin American women 



352 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 



has accepted the invitations sent to them individually. The league 
will take pleasure in welcoming among these not only the women 
who are coming from long distances to take part in the meetings but 
women of Hispanic America who are now temporarily resident in the 
United States. Included among the latter are a number of young 
women students in the universities. 

Extensive preparations are being made by the League of Women 
Voters and by the people of Baltimore and of Washington to entertain 
the distinguished guests who are coming to join in the Pan American 
Conference. 

After the foregoing was in type, the Bulletin learned that in addition to the delegates 
mentioned the follomng have been officially appointed: From Paraguay, Madame Maria 
F. Gonzales, Vice Principal of the Normal School, Asuncion; Argentina, Madame Lc 
Breton, wife of His Excellency the Ambassador from Argentina to the United iStates, 
Mrs. Dickinson, representing The National Council of Argentine Women, and Dr. 
Alice Moreau, of Bmnos Aires; Uruguay, Mrs. Celia P. de Vitale, representing the 
Suffrage Alliance of that Republic; Brazil, 3fiss A. D. Marchant; Chile, a delcgatt to 
be selected by the Student Organization. It may he added that President Harding tcill 
nam£ a delegate at large to represent the United States, while Mrs. Jaime C. de Veyra 
and Miss Beatrice La Salle will represent the Philippines and Porto Rico, respectively. — 
(Editor's note.) 




11 I I I', I 



MINI ST MOVT^ 

By vSamuel Guy Inman. 

AA'^LSITOR to South ^Vmerica finds to-day that there are 
three important social movements rapidly developing — 
the labor movement, the temperance movement, and the 
feminist movement. These are naturally very closely 
connected and the leaders in one are generally found very much inter- 
ested in the others. 

The first cause of the awakening of the women of Latin America 
is found in the growing interest in the outside world, which all people 
on the southern continent have so remarkably developed in the last 
few years. The woman's movement in these countries was at first 
simply a coming together of the higher class women for charitable 
purposes under the auspices of the church. In countries like Argen- 
tina, Uruguay, and Chile, where the woman's movement is the 
strongest, they have been gradually developing considerable inde- 
pendence and are now found to be working out their own problems. 
These are more largely concerned with social betterment, community 
service, the education of the poor, etc., than they are in the securing 
of the vote for women, although the latter is the principal platform 
in the organization of several feminist societies. A well-known 
woman educator of Argentina and a leader in the feminist move- 
ment thus describes the situation of women. 

Spain has left her seal on everything. Her religion, her language, her customs, her 
social beliefs, are found in all lands south of the Rio Grande. Women have lived in 
this atmosphere and conservative spirit, so bound to tradition that in some of the 
South American countries the more liberal ideas are practically unknown. How- 
ever, the desire for betterment has broken this conservative spirit in other Latin 
American countries, and feminism as a social rebellion, with all of its exaggerations, 
desires that it have a place assigned to it in the home, in the university, in business, 
and in the professions, sciences, and politics. The Latiir American woman is a 
beautiful type of consecrated maternity, but her education is not sufficient to prepare 
her as a future citizen. Her devotion to her children is admirable and worthy of all 
praise, but she needs an education which will enable her to confront the problems 
of life. Let us take as an example the education that women receive in the Argentine 
Republic, since that is a covuitry which is working toward a new life and an inter- 
change of intellectual ideas with the rest of the world. 

Intellectual edumtion. — Education is obligatory from (he sixth to tlic fourteenth 
year, gii-ls taking the same courses as boys. After that age the girl seldom attends 
school. Her parents are contented to complete her education with a few courses in 
91335— 22— Bull. 4 3 353 



354 THK PAN AxMEltU'AN INloN. 

music, painting, elocution, and languages. Courses on domestic ectmomy, if given, 
are short and impractical. She enters society at a very early age. She is absorbed 
by light conversation and an ambition to make a favorable impression, is some- 
times attracted to ])hilanthro])ic organizations, generally of religious origin, and is 
surrounded by an entirely artificial atmosphere. The middle class girls quite often 
continue their studies by attending the secondary schools, commercial, normal, and 
high schools, etc. The majority of these become teachers, dedicating themselves most 
completely to this profession. Others, with greater ambitions, enter the univer- 
sities, and with a perseverance worthy of all praise, push through their courses 
until finally they become doctors in philosophy, in letters, in chemistry, or in 
pharmacy. A number of such women become physicians, attorneys, and engineers. 
These are not natural ambitions, but are based on the desire to meet the exigencies of 
daily life. The working woman ends her intellectual education in the primary 
school. At 14 she is initiated into the factories or commercial houses. The Govern- 
ment has recently established night schools in order to help her continue her 
education. 

f'hysiral ediicdlion. I'liysical (■ducation is l)y no means satisfactory. S])()rl has 
become popular amcmg a small circle of the cultured classes, but women of the middlr 
and working classes have only enough spare time to secure the needed rest. There 
is to be noted, however, an attempt to secure playgrounds and i)arks, and some com- 
mercial houses are making worthy endeavors to awaken among women interest 
in sports. There are beginning lo apix-ar in the lew ])ul)lic playgrounds some of the 
braver women. Excursions to the (duutry are not fre<iuent. The Argentine woman 
lacks the liberty which the .Xorlh .\merican woman enjoys. She must have her 
])arents or some member of the family always wilh her. which naturally is detri- 
mental to her independent develo|)ment. 

Moral educnt ion. When physical education is deficient, moral education needs 
s])ecial attention. The restriction of liberty, an exaggerated i)rudence, the strict 
religious morality, the absence of comradeship between men and women, the excessive 
vigilance of parents in every detail of life, unfit the girl for the development of indi- 
vidual capacities an<l the nieeling of the problems of life. The consequences of this 
education are easily seen. 1 f wouuvti is to be a comiianion to man, this lack of equality 
ought to be eliminated. 

Lot it bo romomhoiod that thoso ohsorvations on odiication ai)ply 
to tho advancod Arj^ontino, not by any moans to all South Amorioa. 
Tho social status of wonion in tho various countrios and tho amount 
of fi-oodom onjoyod in oach diffor so groat ly that it is diflictilt to 
gonoralizo, so it will 1)0 bottor to spoak of tho situation in oach of 
the countries recently visited by tho writer of those linos. 

PERT. 

Peru is, porhajis, one of the most conservative countrios in South 
Aiiu'rica. Wore it not for a few and very notable exceptions, one 
mi<i-ht say that there is no feminist movement in that country. 
Fortuitately, there are those brave spirits who have contributed 
greatly to the development of the woman's movement. In 1910 tho 
Feminist Congress mot in Buenos Aires, and tho young delegate from 
Peru, Miss Maria J. Alvarndo Rivera, contributed a paper which 
was published in one of the Lima dailies. This caused considerable 



THE FEMINIST MOVEMENT IN LATIN AMERICA. 355 

excitement among the more conservative elements in the community. 
In 1912 Miss Alvarado was invited to deliver a lecture on this subject 
before the Geographical Society. This brought to her aid a number 
of the most distinguished liberals of the city and resulted in the 
organization of a society known as "Evolucion Femenina." The 
j)rinciples established by this society were the following: 

(a) An ample culture which will enable women to carry out, effi- 
caciously, their mission. 

(6) vSince the first need of a State is to develop motherhood, domes- 
tic sciences should constitute the basis of feminine education. 

(c) The dignifying of work for women. 

((]) The defense of women's rights. 

(e) Equality of man and woman before the courts and in matrimony. 

(f) Campaign against all social vices. 

(g) vStimulating the performance of social and altruistic service. 
(h) Adhesion to movements for peace and idealism. 

A remarkable evidence that a new day is dawning for Peruvian 
women is shown in the recent passing of a divorce law which recog- 
nizes a number of rights which must be granted to women. The 
passing of the law was made a test of strength by both conservatives 
and liberals. The victory of the latter evidently means that in the 
next few years women will be called upon to take a much larger 
place in determining what part Peru shall play in the modern world. 

CHILE. 

The most compactly organized feminist movement I found in 
South America was in Chile. There are three large organizations 
which represent three different classes of people — the Club de Senoras 
of Santiago represents the women of the higher classes; the Consejo 
Nacional de Mujeres represents the school-teacher class; the laboring 
women have recently organized a very active society which is taking 
part in the bettering of their own conditions and the improvement of 
general educational and social conditions. 

While Chile has been very conservative socially and ecclesiastically, 
her educational institutions were opened to women nearly 50 years 
ago. When Sarmiento as an exile was living in Santiago, he recom- 
mended the liberal treatment of women and their entrance into the 
university. This latter privilege was granted while Miguel Luis 
Amunategui was minister of education. In 1859, when a former 
minister of education opened a contest for the best paper on popular 
education, Amunategui received the prize. Among the things which 
he advocated in that paper was the permitting of women to enter the 
university, an idea which he had received from Sarmiento. The devel- 
opment of woman's e(hication was greatly delayed by the war between 
Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. President Balmaceda was a great friend of 



356 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

popular education. Under him the first national high school, or 
''liceo," for girls was opened, about 1S90. There are now 49 national 
'4iceos" for girls, all directed by women. Besides these, there are 
two professional schools for girls in Santiago and om^ in each Province. 

The Consejo Nacional de Mujeres maintains a home for girls attend- 
ing the university in Santiago, and does a good deal in various ways 
toward helping the women students in the capital city. There are 
nearly a thousand young women attending the Fniversity of Chile 
at the present time. A more wi(U'-awake c(>m|)any of students will 
not be found in any of the world's capitals. The president of the 
Consejo Nacional is iSra. Labarca Hul)ertson. She and her husband 
both are directors of public schools in Santiago. The former was 
sent to the United States by her Government in 1914 to study the 
educational system. She then became very much interested in the 
feminist movement here, and on returning home was called to direct 
the Woman's Reading Club of Santiago. The conservative element 
of this club not caring to engage in c(»mmunity activities, but desiring 
only the intellectual work of a woman's club, the new Consejo Nacional 
was formed by the more progressive women. Sra. Labarca Hubert- 
son has written several interesting volumes — one on women's activi- 
ties in the United States and another on the secondary schools of 
the United States. She is accompanied in her work by a fine circle 
of women, most of whom are connected with educational work in 
Chile. Several women's periodicals are published in Chile, one of 
the most interest being El Peneca. directed by Senorita Elvira Santa 
Cruz. 

In an address recently given before the Club de Senoras of Santiago 
the well-known Chilean publisher. Picardo Salas Edwards, stated 
the following: 

There have been manifested durint; the last 25 years i)henoniena of importance that 
have bettered woman's general culture and the development of her independence. 
Among them were the spread of establishments for the primary and secondary edu- 
cation of women; the occupations that they have found themselves as the teachers of 
the present generation, which can no longer entertain a doubt of feminine intellectual 
capacity; the establishment of great factories and commercial houses, which have 
already given her lucrative employment, independent of the home; the organiza- 
tion of societies and clubs; and, finally, artistic and literary activities, or the cath- 
olic social action of the highest classes of wcmen, which has been developed as a 

stimulus to the entire sex during recent years. 

***** * * 

Simultaneously with this victory which woman has achieved within her own 
territory a natural force is again enlarging the field of representative government in 
Chile by increasing more and more the proportion of the inhabitants who participate 
in the election of the public authorities and, consequently, in determining the ])olicies 
of the government. 

Chilean women are quick to develop when given an opportunity. 
In this connection the case of a young woman who came to New 



THE FEMINIST MOVEMENT IN LATIN AMERICA. 357 

York about five years ago may be cited. Although at the time of 
her arrival slie had only a reading knowledge of English, from the 
beginning she made her own living, and after a comparatively short 
time was delivering lectures concerning South America before some 
of the most exclusive women's clubs. In three years she became 
editorial assistant on the staff of the Pan American Magazine, pub- 
lished in English, and during a prolonged absence of the editor 
successfully filled that position. She has now returned to Chile and 
is giving her best to the education of girls and the development of 
the feminist movement. 

The women of Chile are doing all kinds of work to help improve 
the social conditions of women and children. In the address of 
Sr. Salas Edwards, previously referred to, he made the following 
appeal, which is really a description of what the women of Chile are 
now doing in their various organizations : 

Who are better acquainted than you with the miserable habitations of the majority 
of the laboring people; who know better than you that the scarcity of food, with the 
aid of tuberculosis and the social evil, is weakening the traditional vigor of the work- 
ing classes; that alcohol and gambling wrest from the hands of innumerable laborers 
their children's bread; and that, as a consequence of all this, the number of those 
whom natural evolution ought to select as the best fitted to rise from their class is 
very limited, instead of this class being the stream to replenish the higher classes, as 
in the great democracies — this being a phenomenon which in itself reveals the gravity 
of our social ills? 

******* 

How, without the cooperation of the public authorities, can we foster the rapid 
improvement of dwellings and the general health, and how can we honestly apply 
the existing restrictions upon alcohol, which our mayors do not enforce, if there be 
not felt in our municipalities, as in other countries, the direct action of the woman 
citizen wlio keeps guard over the family and the race; and how shall we succeed in 
securing, without her decided political activity, the just regulation of labor and the 
establishment of a system for the participation of the working man in the benefits of 
industry, which is the true and only solution of this artificial antagonism of interests? 

The hour for doing something presses, although the political leaders of the present 
day are not aware of its passing. You, who feel and comprehend the sufferings of this 
people, are the ones who can best contribute to this undertaking, before the Chilean 
masses give themselves up in desperation to the agitatois, and before the industrials, 
beaten by exorbitant demands, close their workshops. 

If your activity can be useful in contributing to internal social peace, you are also 
well aware that the great thinker, President Wilson, has sought to found upon the 
sentiments of women future international tranquillity, and that, in order to remove 
the threatening dangers of a new armed peace, he solicited, in the conferences at 
Versailles, the universal recognition of the right of woman to vote. 

In the happily-settled Argentino-( -hiiean question the attitude of the women of the 
two countries was a noble summons to harmony, which it was impossible to ignore 
and which caused things to be viewed wdth calmness. 

President Alessandri, recently elected on a reform ticket, is an 
enthusiastic friend of the feminist movement. During his progressive 
administration women may be expected to gain a great many polil- 



358 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

ical rights, as well as to have iinluinijx'rtHl op})()rtunity in rcndoring 
servico to social development. 

AKGENTIXA. 

The feminist movement of Argentina is much more complex and 
varied than that in any other South American country. Buenos Aires 
is such a large city, and there are so many different national and social 
elements, that movements here can not he analyzed in as simple 
and direct fashion as in other Latin American centers. 

The Socialist Party has had considerable strength in Buenos Aires 
for a number of years. During the hist three or four years the soviet 
movement has developed rapidly, and there are now some 280,000 
inscribed members in this movement among the laboring classes. 
Many of these are women, and they are taking a very active part in 
the propagation of all socialist doctrines, often going to the extremes 
of bolshevism. 

The Consejo Nacional de Mujeres is one of the most dignified and 
progressive of the women's organizations. It makes a careful study 
of women's movements in different parts of the world and invites dis- 
tinguished lecturers to appear before it. One of the most important 
lectures delivered before this body recently was that by Dr. Ernesto 
Quesada, the distinguished Argentine sociologist. Those wishing a 
careful and conservative, though sympathetic, ])resentation of the 
feminist movement in Argentina would do well to read this lecture. 
Dr. Quesada advises the women of Argentina to work first on an edu- 
cational program and, after they have attained eciuality before the 
law, then to take u]) the matter of political equality. 

One of the most active of all Argentine women's organizations is 
the Club de Madres of Buenos Aires. They recently held their fourth 
annual "baby week'' in the Capital. They had the cooperation of 
the best peoj)le of the city, including merchants, physicians, and 
Government oflicials. A large building in the heart of the city was 
placed at their dis})osal for their last exhibit, in June, 1921. They 
had worked out all kinds of charts, showing the infant mortality rate 
and the proper kind of nourishment and care of the young child, and 
gave out all kinds of information along these lines to visitors, to 
interest them in carrying out the purposes of this organization. One 
of the vital statistic charts showed that more babies less than 2 
years of age died in 1914, in Buenos Aires, than the total of persons 
between the ages of 2 and 30. They announced the movement as a 
campaign of education — not an institution of charity; that since in 
Argentina out of every 8 children who are born 1 does not live to 
be 2 years of age, or, in other words, 43,800 children less than 2 years 
of age die every year, the Club proposed greatly to reduce this death 
rate. The competent president of this organization, known in all 



THE FEMINIST IMOVEMENT IN LATIN AMERICA. 359 

parts of Argentina for her interest in social tlevelopment, is Dr. 
Ernestina Lopez de Nelson, the wife of Prof. Ernesto Nelson, who 
is well known to North American educationalists. 

Buenos Aires has been, with Rio de Janeiro, one of the worst 
centers for white-slave trade. Probably for that reason the best 
women of the city have become particularly interested in the move- 
ment for the single standard. A distinguished Anglo-Argentine lady, 
Seiiora Blanca C. de Hume, has made important contributions by 
her writings toward the solution of this problem. 

As early as 1912 we find that some of the farseeing women of Buenos 
Aires were making scientific studies of the condition of women 
workers. Senorita Carolina Muzilli published such an investigation 
for an exposition on social service in Ghent, Belgium, which was highly 
commended by the Government officials of her city. Her most 
interesting survey shows that ev^en in 1919 there was a large number 
of women working in shoe factories, garment factories, and many 
other kinds of small factories in Argentina. As far as statistics were 
available, there were shown to be at that time 205,851 women wage 
earners in factories and commercial houses of Buenos Aires. These 
women were badly underpaid, having to v/ork long hours wath no 
privileges whatever, and always receiving less wages than men. When 
Miss Muzilli began her investigations she found prejudice so great that 
it was impossible to obtain data until she had gotten work in one of 
the factories. For several months she continued in these activities 
until she brought out this remarkable survey of the condition of 
working women, one of the very few scientific studies of industrial 
conditions for women ever made in Latin America. 

Argentine law establishes a difference between the sexes against 
woman. The law limits her condition, excluding her from the man- 
agement of family property, which, without condition, must be given 
into the hands of the husband. If the husband wastes the common 
property, the wife may solicit separation of their properties, if she 
has not, as is usually the custom on being married, assigned to her 
husband all property rights. The woman participates in the increase 
in value of the family property; but where there is a separation of 
this property she receives her personal property again and only half 
of the increase. Laws grant, under certain conditions, the separation 
of man and wife, but incapacitates them from marrying again. 

The following are the demands of the Woman's Rights Associa- 
tion of Buenos Aires : 

1. That all laws be repealed which establish a difference between 
the two sexes and against woman, in order that the latter may become 
fully competent before the law. 

2. That w-omen have the right to hold i)u})lic office and especially to 
become members of the national and regional councils on echu-ation. 



360 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

3. The establishment of special courts for children and women. 

4. Passing of laws for the protection of maternit}^ and for legiti- 
matizing all children. 

5. That all legal prostitution be abolishe<l and that tlie single 
standard for ])oth sexes be established. 

6. E(jualitv of wag(>s. 

7. Equal poiitic;il riglits. 

The Young Women's Christian Association, which has })een 
organized in Buenos Aires for a number of years, has done much to- 
ward awakening women to new interests in life. Although suffering 
from small quarters, they have gathered round them a number of the 
prominent women of Argentina, who are helping them in the conduct- 
ing of night classes, gymnasium, cafeteria, and other services for 
girls working in stores and oflices, and in the stud}' of the general 
means of improving the womanhood of that progressive country. 

Among the many activities which engage the attention of the 
women of Buenos Aires is that of temperance. This has come to bo 
such an important work that they are now planning, with the aid of 
some North American societies, to erect a temperance building in 
Buenos Aires which shall house the various activities along these lines. 

One can, therefore, look forward with confidence to the develop- 
ment of woman's work for woman in the great city of Buenos Aires. 
The Argentine women have always shown themselves to ])e full of 
ideas. It was a woman who suggested in the first place that the peace 
pact between Chile and Argentina be celebrated by the erection of a 
statue of Christ on the boundary line between the two countries. 
Thus the wonderful statue of ''The Christ of the An(k^s," made out 
of the very cannon which were to have been used by these countries 
in destroying one another, now stands in its comnnuuHng isolation on 
the lofty Andes as one of the most impressive monuments in the 
world. 

URUGUAY. 

Uruguay is prol)ably the most liberal of all the South American 
countries — most willing to try new ideas. It is therefore not sur- 
prising to find a very large circle of women in Montevideo who are 
active in all kind of movements for the betterment of their people. 
Uruguay is the only country in Latin America that has a woman's 
university. One of the best woman's magazines has long been pub- 
lished there. The headquarters of the Continental Temperance 
Society, which was organized by Uruguayan women, is located in 
Montevideo. It would not be surprising to see this progressive little 
country become the first of South Amei'ica to grant votes to women. 
President Baltasar Brum, himself a young progressive of a marked 
character, in discussing this question recently, said: 



THE FEMINIST MOVEMENT IN LATIN AMEKICA. 361 

With Aery little understanding of the matter, it has been affirmed that the triumph 
of feminism will destroy the fundamental morality of the family and of society. To 
contradict such an assertion, it is only necessary to remember that this has not happened 
in any of the countries which have decided in favor of the political ecjuality of both 
sexes. Women vote in England. Germany. Denmark. Austria. Switzerland, Aus- 
tralia, the United States, and Canada, etc., without having originated the calamities 
announced by the pessimist. In regard to this matter it would be well to study the 
situation of women in both Catholic and Protestant countries. In the latter women 
are certainly treated with, the greatest respect and consideration. They participate 
actively, on an equality with men. in all subjects of general interest. Their homes 
lose nothing in the matter of comfort, morality, and wholesome joy in comparison with 
Catholic homes, and their children are cared for with no less love and solicitude and 
certainly with more prevdsion than Catholic children. The political activities of the 
Protestant women have not, therefore, destroyed the fundamental morality of society 
nor have they disturled the happiness of the family. 

President Brum is the author of a projected hiw, now being ener- 
getically discussed by the Uruguayan Congress, which aims at 
nothing less than the granting of complete civil, political, and legal 
rights to the women of that nation. The projected law reads as 
follows : 

The Senate and the House of Representatives of the Republic of Uruguay, con- 
vened in general assembly, hereby decree: 

Article 1. W^e recognize the right of women to vote in person or by proxy in both 
national and municipal elections. 

Art. 2. We recognize as belonging to women the rights and duties established 
for men by the electoral laws. 

Art. 3. Women are equal to men before the law, whether civil or j^enal. 

Art. 4. — All provisions contrary to the present law, except No. 3 of Article 187 
and Article 112 of the Civil Code, are hereby set aside. 

BRAZIL. 

The remarkable development of the desire among the women of 
Brazil to get away from their old restrictions and to be of real service 
to their country, may be seen in the development of the Young 
Women's Christian Association of Rio de Janeiro. It was established 
in 1920. In the celebration of its first anniversary, a few weeks 
ago, it was able to report 1,200 members. The press of Brazil often 
carries important articles concerning women. Recently a bill was 
proposed in the National Senate to give women the vote. In a re- 
cent number of the "Jornal do Commercio," the most important 
daily in Brazil, an article covering a page was given over to an 
argument for women's rights. As is there said, 'Only one of the 
Latin-American countries, Costa Rica, in Central America, has given 
the vote to women. In no South American country has she yet 
gained this right. Brazil ought to lead in doing this thing which 
most of the progressive countries of the world have already done." 

One of the most remarkable demonstrations of the change in atti- 
tude in South America toward women was the recent visit of the 
president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of North 



362 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

America, Miss Anna Gordon. Miss Gordon was received not only 
})V the most distin(j;uished women in eacli of the countries. l)ut hy 
the highest Government ofhcials, inchiding the I'residents of prac- 
tically all the countries she visited. In Peru she was given a recep- 
tion in the famous I^niversity of San Marcos, the oldest university 
on the American Continent and until recently one of the most con- 
servative. In Ghile she was also received in tlie Salon de Honor of 
tlie university, was invited to the homes oi" the hest families, received 
hy tlie President of the Rcj)uhlic, and given every honor that a dis- 
tinguished visitor could he given. In Buenos Aires the principal 
women of the city gave her a reception at the Plaza Hotel, where the 
hishop of the Gatholic Church and the hishop of the Methodist Kpis- 
copal Church ai)i)eared side hy side, on the same platform, to advocate 
])rohihition. A gieat meeting was held in the Colon theater, one of 
the most heautiful theaters in the world, where every nation was rep- 
resented in tahlcaux advocating the cause of prohibition. In Monte- 
video and Kio dc .laiiciro the same honors were shown this modest 
little woman. 

The limitation ol' space for this article has heen reached, yet 
hardly a l)eginning has heen made in indicating the important organi- 
zations and the attractive women leaders of the southern continent. 

Students of Latin American .social and political history will have 
noticed that while change may he dillicult to hiing about, once 
started it can run the whole gauntlet of transformation over night. 
It is clear that none of the three movements mentioned at the begin- 
ning of this article will be compelled to go through the long battles 
for recognition that have been necessary in other countries where 
thcii' induence is now universally recognized. With the experience 
of others before them they will leap into prominence very rapidly. 
And here is found both their power for good and foi' evil. The world 
would indeed be much the poorer if it should lose the charming 
modesty, the beautiful femininity, the attractive reserve, the devo- 
tion to home and family which have made Latin American women 
admired the world over. Foi'tunately the danger of a very radical 
feminist movement in countries where for centuries certain restrictions 
have been woman's greatest protection is fully recognized by the 
women of these lands. 

Not only modesty in conduct, but intelligence in improving social, 
economic, and educational conditions, rather than a vulgar campaign 
for "women's rights," mark the attractive personalities and per- 
suasive programs which are guiding the women of South Americn 
toward taking their share in the world's work and ])ringing their 
influence to l)ear in the solution of the world's problems. 



P'R.K?ARA.TI0N3 FOK TIF, 
HR,A/^(f,(AN Cl'N'i'l'NlNlAL 



THE actual stage of progress in the preparation for the Bra- 
zilian Centennial Exposition presents the interesting aspect 
of a brilliant architectural contest. 
The general direction of the work continues in the hands of 
the municipal prefect, Dr. Carlos Sampaio, who is putting forth the 
most vigorous efforts to insure the success of the coming event. 
His immediate aids are Messrs. Alfredo de Nieme3^er, chief of the 
building offices; Ilocha Faria, supervisor of construction; Octavio 
Moreira Penna, in charge of matters connected with civil engineering 
and materials. All these gentlemen are well-known engineers and 
were chosen for the present task in view of their high standing in 
that profession. 

The execution of the artistic work, including architecture, sculp- 
ture, decorations, painting, etc., constitutes a veritable artistic con- 
test carried on by Messrs. Morales de los Rios. father and son, Archime- 
des Memoria, Cuchet, Gastao Bahiano, Chaml)elain Brothers, Nestor 
de Figueiredo, San Juan, Rebacci, Armando de Oliveira, Julio 
Cellini, H. J. Pujol, jr., and many others whose achievement is a credit 
to the School of Fine Arts, of which they are graduates. 

About 4,000 laborers, divided into gangs, are working day and 
night witli might and main. And yet, notwithstanding the epoch- 
making speed with which the various national pavilions and the more 
massive buildings are being put up, there is everywhere visible the 
most punctilious care to combine absolute thoroughness with a high 
degree of perfection in every part. The pavilion being put up for the 
Departments of Communications and Agriculture, under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Morales de los Rios, is an instance in point. 

In front of the park are the sites of the permanent buildings which 
are to be erected by England and France, and which those nations 
will present to Brazil at the close of the exhibition. 

The whole length of Avenida Wilson will be lined with foreign 
pavilions facing a thoroughfare 30 meters (100 feet) in width. 

The principal entrance to the Exhibition will be on the Avenida Kio 
Branco, in front of Monroe Palace. In the last-mentioned buihhng 
will ])e installed post offices, telegraph offices, and acconnnodations 
for the press. 



1 Extract from the Gazeta da Bolsa, Rio de Janeiro. 



364 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

The monumental north arch, in the Brazilian colonial style, is the 
work of Mr. Morales de los Rios. Its decorations are inspired hy the 
flora, fauna, and ethnography of Brazil, and constitute a splenchd 
review of the material and historical past of Brazil. A feature of the 
arch which is worthy of particular attention is the varied use of tiles 
representing Brazilian plant life, and a series of wonderful shields 
bearing the heraldic arms of Rio de Janeiro. 

The amusement park, designed by Morales de los Rios, will be a 
veritable palace of enchantment from the splendor of its installa- 
tions and the endless variety of its diversions. 

The Palace of Festivals and Lectures, designed by Mr. Archi- 
medes Memoria, is a pentagonal buihling forming an immense hall 
100 feet in diameter and 100 feet high surmounted by a dome and 
surrounded with galleries. Two intersecting ])assages furnish light 
for the various de])endencies. 

The installation of sculpture is well advanced. Here will ])e found 
such distinguished sculptors as Cunha e Mello, ^fagalhaes Correa, 
Lacombe, and Kanto. 

The old army barracks of the Trem have been remodeled in the 
colonial style and will constitute the Palace of the Industries. 

The Palace of the States is an immense pile of reinforced cement, 
seven stories in height, which was constructed for the Companhia de 
Cimento Armado by the Paulistan architect J^ijol, sunior. This 
building is to house the exhibits of the various ^States of Brazil. 

The Administration Pavilion, designed by Mr. Rebecchi, is a unique 
and charming specimen of modern architecture. It has two floors, 
both of which are j)rovided with spacious salons. 

The Palace of Minor Industries, the work of Nestor de Figueiredo 
and San Juan, is another splended example of native architecture. 
This pavilion covers a front of nearly 200 feet and will be in the style 
of the eighteenth century. Without sacrificing the unity of classic 
proportions, the architects have succeeded in investing this building 
with a genuinely national character, not omitting even the broad 
eaves and the comfortable verandas of colonial days. 

The Pavilion of Fisheries and Game, designed by Mr. Armando de 
Oliveira, is being constructed at the market landing. It is a fine 
building in colonial style, but original in the fact that it stands on 
wooden piles. 

The buildings mentioned are those on which the work is most 
advanced. There are others, also very interesting, to which reference 
will be made in a subsequent issue. 

The Diario Oficial is publishing a call for tenders for the trans- 
portation of passengers in Japanese cars about the exposition grounds. 
Tenders have also been invited for the establishment of bars, cafes, 
kiosks, and amusement booths on the grounds. 



CONGRESS OF CHILD WELFARE. 365 

There is a gi-owing interest in the prizes wliich are to constitute 
the tombola of the exhibition, the privileges of which are secured 
through the "independence bonds" or Bonus da Independencia. 
Among these prizes we might mention the one presented by the 
firm Cam Oscar MacJiado—a splen(Hd piece of mahogany furniture 
with bronze inlay, containing a silver table service of gi-eat value. 
The American Chamber of Commerce has kindly consented to keep 
these independence })onds in its ofhce in order to facilitate their pur- 
chase by members of the American colon}^ 

In conclusion, the official awards by the jury of judges include the 
grand prize diploma, the honor diploma, the gold medal diploma, 
and the bronze medal diploma. 



riKRD PAN AMERJCAN 
C0i\fGUT,5S OF CHI 



w \i 






jkCTIVE preparations are under way for the celebration, in 
/\ Rio de Janeiro, of the Third Pan American Congress of 
/ \ Child Welfare, which will take place August 27 to vSeptem- 
ber 5, 1922, in connection with the official program commem- 
orating the centenary of Brazilian independence. The organizing 
committee, headed by Dr. Aloysio de Castro, includes Drs. O. de 
Oliveira, F. de Magalhaes, N. Gurgel, A. Peixoto, D. E. Pedreira de 
Mello, M. Filho, C. Monrao, D. Nabuco de Abreu, A. de Faria, E. do 
Nascimiento Silva, and A. de llezende. Official delegates to this 
congress have been designated by Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, 
Paraguay, and Venezuela. Among the medical subjects to be dis- 
cussed are: The feeding of infants and related disorders; cerebral 
tumors; alcoholism; infant pathology; encephalitic syndromes in 
children; epidemic or contagious encephalitis; infantile tuberculosis; 
infantile acidosis; and dysentery. 

It should be noted that the sessions of the First Brazilian Child 
Welfare Convention will be held conjointly with those of the Pan 
American Congress. 

Among other international congresses to be held in Rio de Janeiro 
in connection with the centenary celebration may be mentioned the 
International Congress of Engineers, the Twentieth International 
Congress of Americanists, and the Congress of American History. 



A FAMOUS SEA FIGHT IN 
PAN AMI', U,l CAN WM:\'\\IS. 



By Pathkk Vaux. 

LONG may it ])o ere naval hostilities are foii^lit out oil" the 
coasts of the great American Ke])ul)lic, even in such minor 
. degree as experienced during the Cireat War in the r-l)oats' 
sporadic raids, "^'et away down the littoral of tli(> conti- 
nent to the southward the " I'cal thing" has been encountered, 
and in sev(M-al instances has left a mark in na\al history, 'i'he 
war between Chile and Peru (1879-18S1) * * * hiought forth 
so admirable and staunch a sea officer as Admiral Miguel Cirau — 
he that in the Iluascar engaged two supei'ior Chilean battleships, 
and made the stoutest fight in modern na\al history |)rior to the 
1914 outbreak. Apart from the fine heroism it educed, this engage- 
ment is of interest to all concerned in sea |)owei', for it drives liome 
the truth which was soon realized in the late war the value of 
speed, superior speed, in securing the mastery of I lie sea. Superior 
speed is as needful as superior strength in armor and armament. 

For some days previous to October S, 1S79, Admiral Gran with the 
Hiiascar, and the Thriou. a steam corvette, had heen continuing his 
operations, menacing lh(> poi-ts of Ghil(\ and interru})ting the trans- 
portation of troo])s and stores and Chilean sea trade. In the very 
early morning of the Sth he sighted the Blaiico Kiiailada and Cova- 
doiu/a, together with the Mdiiax ('ousI/'ki but. hamj)ei'ed by strict 
instructions forbidding him to risk Peru's two sole effective units, 
he refused the great advantage given him and made into the south- 
west at full speed. At 5.40 finding the enemy were fallingfast astern, 
he gave orders to steer northward, and being nearly worn out he 
went dow^n to his stateroom and slept. It was his last sleep. 

At 7.15 that morning the Huaficar sighted rising smoke in the north- 
west, and standing over to reconnoiter found the Ahn'irante (Whrnne, 
Loa, and 0'IIi(/(/ln.^, forming the Chileans' second division, in search 
of her. Grau on havnng been aroused headed for eastward, and 
])ut his engines at full speed. Though some five weeks previously 
he had asked in vain that his battleship be sent to Callao for overhaul, 
her bottom being now very foul and speed impaired, he was confident 
that at her 10.75 knots, the Union steaming 12, he could evade an 
encounter. Some 30 minutes later, on the Peruvian flag officer 
perceiving the Ahnirante Cochrane was finding his heels, he flagged 
3(56 



A I'WMOL'S SOUTH AMI 



KAX SKA KKiirr 



8()7 



tlie Union to make for Arifa. The (fliigginn and the Loa chased her 
all day and until night fell, l)ut could not bring her to action. 

Meantime the two Chilean battleships, Almirante Cochrane anil the 
Blanco Encalada, were converging on the Hit a scar as she sought to 
escape into the northeast. At 9.10 the Almirante Cochrane was 
within 4,000 yards, and capable of crossing the Peruvian's bows, 
the men of which therefore were sent to their ((uarters. The admiral, 
alone, went abaft and into the conning tower. 

The Peruvian commander in chief can not be held entirely respon- 
sible for having been caught between the pincers of the Chilean's 





ADMIRAL MKiLEL (IKAT 



ADMIRAL JLAX JoSK LA'I'oi; H F. 



two divisions. Not only were his forces deficient hi scouts, and 
lacked organized communications, but naval affairs were being woe- 
fully mismanaged by General Prado, who personally was on hostile 
terms with the commander in chief owing to the latter's methods of 
thoroughness and initiative. 

The Huascar, of 1,130 tons displacement, 1,200 horsepower, and 
a complement of 200 officers and men, carried two 10-inch muzzle- 
loaders mounted in a turret well forward, one 40-pounder on each 
beam, and one 12-pounder on her afterdeck, together with a Gatling 
in her top. Her side armor was 4i-inch, and turret from 5^ to 7 inch 
steel. The Chileans were of much heavier tonnage. Each dis- 
placed .3,560 tons, were protected by S-inch armor on their batteries 
and 9-inch amidships on the water line belt, and had a pi'otective 
deck of from 2 to 3 incli steel. Their mahi armaments of six .Vincli 
rifles were mounted inside a central box battery. It lias to i)c noted 
also, that the "dead sectors" of the circle of whicli the middle of the 
Huascar's turret was the center were, one of 40° forward and .")0° 



368 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

abaft the turret — one-fourth of the entire circle. On the other hand, 
the Chileans could each bring to bear three heavy guns on the beam, 
four heavy guns forward, or two guns aft, and had no '' dead sectors." 
While they could always bring some of their pieces to bear on the 
Hiiascar, she in many positions could bring her guns to bear on them 
only through sheering. Her conning tower, hexagonal in shape, 
7tV by 8 feet wide and some 5 feet long, was of 3-inch steel backed by 
8-inch teak. Its top was uncovered though sheltered by the navi- 
gating bridge. Placed between the smokestack and the turret, it 
was a death traj). 

The Chilean battleships, which were faster than the II)iascar, and 
commanded by most capable ofiicers, un(hM" Flag Oflicer C\)mman(h'r 
Latorre, presented a very formidable obstacle to the Huascar's 
escape. The Peruvians, however, had full confidence in their com- 
mander in chief. Quiet, unassuming, but (>xacting strict discipline 
and routine. Admiral Don Miguel Grau. a native of Piura, was a 
naval officer of the highest capacity and l)ravery. His men wor- 
shipped him. Their stubborn fight after his death testifies to his 
influence. Not Grau, but the inefficient naval organization and direc- 
tion against which he strove in vain brought defeat to the Huascar. 
Had the gallant officer's previous advice been acted upon, the fight 
of Angamos, if not the course of the war, might have had a different 
ending. 

At 9.25, when the engagement was opened, the Blanco PJncalada was 
5 miles astern, the Covadonr/a was still at a hopeless distance, but the 
Almirante Cochrane only 3,000 yards off the Peruvian's port shoulder. 
It was then that the turret ship opened fire with her 10-inch 
guns. The first projectile went wide. The second, ricocheting, hit 
the unarmored part of the Almirante Cochrane's bows, wrecked the 
forecastle galley, and fell unexploded on her fore deck. Not till she 
was within 2,000 yards did the Chilean return the fire; then her 
broadside broke out, the projectiles sweeping across the Huascar. 
One shell pierced the port armor, entered the turret chamber, set 
fire to the woodwork, and killed and wounded 12 seamen working 
the winches turning the turret overhead. The turret tracks were 
jammed with wreckage, and for 10 minutes the 10-inch pieces were 
out of action. Meantime the Almirante Cochrane took a wide curve, 
and came on a course almost parallel with her foe. One of the 
ni(ascar\'^ 300-pound Palliser chilled shells ruptured her starboard 
side armor, but did no serious damage. 

The Chilean flag officer made effective use of liis battleship. Sta- 
tioning her astern of the enemy some 1,300 yards, he bi'ought all guns 
bearing into group-firing and from the three military tops of his bar- 
kentine-rigged vessel he directed a sharp fire reinforcing the Norden- 
feldts on his bridge and forward superstructure. The Peruvians were 








_J 


s 


H 


H 




rC 


^ 


o 


35 


o 






a 


s 


M 


§ 





91335— 22— Bull. 4 4 



370 THE PAX AMKKU'AX INION. 

cut down at their unprotected gun positions, the latter beconiinji; 
untenable. The gun crews were driven below to take shelter behind 
armor. 

At 9.40 a. m., when the two thundering battleships were almost 
abeam of each other, Admiral Grau made up his mind to ram, and the 
Huascar swerved to port sharply. The AJmirante Cochrane tm-ned 
to port also, and evaded the blow. Five minutes later a shell from 
the Chilean struck the top of the conning tower, burst inside it, and 
blew the gallant Peruvian commander in chief to atoms. The right 
foot was the largest piece of this fine officer's body that could be 
found. Part of the projectile disabled the fighting wheel below the 
tower and separated from it by a wooden grating; and the vessel 
swerved to starboard. Officers hurried to the disaster, and groping 
through the smoke and darkness at the base of the tower came upon 
the body of Lieutenant Ferre, navigating lieutenant, killed by the 
concussion of the explosion as he had stood at the fighting wheel. 

While repairs were being effected on the steering gear, the turret- 
ship fell away to starboard, the AJmiranle Cochrcnie keeping abeam of 
her. As the Peruvians were training their 10-incli guns upon her a 
shell perforated the turret and burst with terrific force, yet without 
damaging the guns. "Reliefs" immediately remanned them. The 
Almlrante Cochrane, sheeted in smoke and flame, kept up a steady lire 
of concentrated broadsides on the Huascar s turret and upper works. 
The Peruvians' superstructure was shot away. Her Ixiats were 
smashed into splinters, and davits, ventilators, chain plates, bul- 
warks and rails twisted and pulverized. Her capstan was carried 
overboard by a projectile striking it. Lieutenant Rodriguez, wlien 
looking out of the port gun aperture of the turret, had his head blown 
off by a shell. The ward rooms and cabins were crowded with 
wounded and dying. But their comrades, now under Commander 
Aguirre, remained at their posts, the firemen showing conspicuous 
coolness. 

The AJmirante Cochrane sought to ram. Discharging lier star- 
board forward gun, she steamed down, but missed, and slid past 5 
yards astern of the Peruvian, firing heavily. A shell penetrated the 
HuaM'arfi starboard quarter, blew a gap in the lower deck, and she 
had her steering gear wrecked again. The turret ship staggered to 
starboard while steering tackle was being rerigged. antl was hit amid- 
ships in the engine room, though the machinery was not damaged. 
When brought under control, she steered badly, and had to be conned 
by Commander Aguerre from one of the turret sighting hoods, orders 
being passed ])el()w to the turr(>t, and thence to the lower deck and aft 
by messenger. Again the Chilean tried to ram, but the J^eruvian 
evaded her, and the Almirante Cochrane narrowly escaped collision 
with the Blanco Encalada, now comino: into the engagement, and was 



o^ 



H,o 




^" 


^ ,t--^^.^ \ \ 






< 


1 


■;, c, /''^ ; : Hij?, . 


J 


1 


/ ; ^--— - 


S 


^H, 


;// 


/ BcO BLANCO 


^"'' / 


/ Co COCHRANE 


/ 


H «=- HUASCAR 


/ 1 





F'rom Los Combatts Navalc. 



THE BATTLE OF ANGAMOS. 



Plan showing the successive positions of tlie l)attleships. The star indicates the point al wliicli the 

Huascar was taken. 



372 THE PAN AMEEICAiSr UNION. 

raked by the Hvascar's fire. The broadside of the Blanco EncaJada 
swept the Peruvian's stern. The gout of shells wrecked wardroom, 
and cabins, killing many of the wounded, together with the men at 
the extemporized steering gear in her aftmost cabin, and rupturing 
the 5-inch steel bulkhead. 

The wounded Peruvians were carried through the narrow hatchways 
and down the ladders into the stokehold, and placed for safety in the 
bunkers. Huddled together upon the coals in that suffocatingly hot 
atmosphere, black with coal dust and the horrors of forthcoming 
doom, they awaited the end. Says one of the engine room crew, "Not 
a whimper came from them. We were Gniu's own men!" 

The Peruvian fhigshij) was now holding erratically eastward. 
She was out of cojitrol, her mast was shattered, smokestack and 
conning tower were mere scrap metal. Her guns were all out of 
action; only the port muzzlc-loach'r of the turret could be fired. 
Smoke, soot, and tlic fumes of burning woodwork lilled the l)oiler 
room and bunkers, and s))reail in thick ch)U(ls ahing the lower deck. 
The water in one of the ])oilei-s falling too low because of the wrecked 
"feed" tu])es became burnt through, jind immense volumes of 
steam sizzling through the gaps in the ruptured hull made the Chileans 
think tlie stokehold was wrecked. The firing died down, for the 
Euascars fiag IxMug shot away, it was believed she had surrendered. 
But a seaman ran along her crumpled afterdeck and hoisted fresh 
colors at the gaff. Immediately the raging of the Chileans' guns 
broke the murky silence. 

An S-inch shell lopped on to the breech of the disabled starboard 
10-inch gun and filled the turret with dead and dying. Not a man 
escaped, including Connnander Aguirre, who was horribly mutilated, 
sawed to pieces by the chips and splinters of metal. 

The Iliiascar by now was cm fire in Ium' ui)p(>r and lower tlecks, in 
particular over the forward magazine. Ilei- hull above water looked 
as if gigantic picks and pickaxes had been plied upon it, tearing it 
out of shape. Fires were falling off in the boiler room and she was 
losing speed. Yet her fourth ofhcer. Lieutenant Garezon, now in 
command, held her up to resistance. 

"We were Grau's own men!" 

In the battered turret the human remains clogging the port gun 
were cleared away and a fresh crew brought it into action. Firing 
spasmodically the Hvascar lurched about, escaping the Almirante 
Cochram's renewed endeavor to ram as if she were a human thing 
endued with instinct to live. It was now the Chilean flag officer who 
signaled the Blanco EncaJada, and the two battleships took up 
station to port and starboard of their enemy and plied her with then- 
broadsides. By this time the Covadonga was within range and also 
opened fire with her two 70-pounders. 




^ssffssaaa^ 




THE GRAU MONUMENT, CALLAO, PERU. 



374 



THE PAi\ AMEKICAX UNION. 



A few minutes later, at 10.50 a. m., Lieutenant Garezon and the 
lew surviving executive oflieers on Ijoard tlie Iliiascar recognized 
their fate. Orders were passed to the engine room to open sea-cocks 
and siidv the ship. On deck towels and handkerchiefs were waved, 
whereupon immediately the firing ceased. When the Chilean boats 
boarded her, Lieutenant Sim])son of the Blanco Encalada on hurry- 
ing below, revolver in hand, found the Iluascars engineers at work 
on the bonnet of the main injection valve and already up to their 
knees in water. In five minutes she would have been settling to 
the bottom, for already she had between 4 and 5 feet of w^ater in 
her hold and many of the shot holes in her sides were coming awash. 
As the sea was calm and the pumps were in orch'r it did not take 
long to free the prize from water and to put out the (ires, louring 
that afternoon the JIuascar was escorted into the neighboring poit 
of Mejillones, where she was temporarily repaired before leaving for 
\ alparaiso. 

During the action that lasted some 90 minutes she had, out of her 
crew of 200 men, a casualty list of 90 killed or wounded, hei- lour 
senior oflieers, inclusive of Admiral Grau, being killed outright. Her 
opponents suffered some 20 per cent loss in personnel and remained 
wdiolly seaworthy. 

Seldom has any shij) of war ol" any nation made a more obstinate 
defense. 

"We were Grau's own men!" Not often does any oflicer render 
such a splendid ])roof of his worth and influence. His few remains 
were buried at Santiago with full military honors, and throughout 
Chile as well as Peru and Bolivia his death brought forth, universally, 
expressions of signal regret. 

It is noteworthy that many of the deductions of Lieutenant Mason, 
United States Navy, in his official report, as eyewitness, to the Sec- 
retary of the Navy on this engagement, became subse(|uently emlxxHed 
in the United States Navy. 





WiEDiCAL DIP'LO 



By Theodore C. Lyster, M. D. 

Of the Jnternationnl Health Board, Director of Yellow Fever Control for Mexico and 

Central America. 

SINCE the middle of the last century we have seen many differ- 
ent methods employed in the attempt to adjust our inter- 
national relations with American republics. Too often we 
have resorted to threats in the form of ultimatums, and even, 
at rare intervals, to the use of armed forces. Following the Spanish 
War and the acquisition of the Panama Canal Zone, our position in 
Latin America was one of extreme delicacy. Relations were even 
more tautly drawn by our intervention in 1914 in the internal affairs 
of a neighboring republic. 

Anyone who has lived in Latin American countries before, during, 
and since the recent war can not help but observe the change in their 
attitude toward us. 

Two great educational factors, together with the lesson of the war, 
have done much to crystallize opinion in the Americas. The first 
of these was the influence exerted by the construction of the Panama 
Canal, far more effective even as an object lesson than as a sanitary 
or engineering feat. Its teachings were carried to the furthest and 
simplest of isolated American homes. The second was the establish- 
ment of the Pan-American L'nion founded on the ideal of equal in- 
ternational rights; offering a neutral zone as a place for the discus- 
sion of inter-American relations, and acting as a distributing agency 
for data valuable as common knowledge. 

With the signing of the armistice there developed a universal reatl- 
justment, and antagonistic influences were either obliterated or 
materially lessened. Almost immediately an invitation was sent 
})roadcast to all nations to resume closer international relations and 
to make reconstruction possible. Toward the close of 1918, Ecuador 
was one of the first Latin American nations to materially change her 
international policy. She now invited, instead of resisted, foreign 
assistance in the development of her national resources. Sanitary 
conditions, however, in her chief port were such as to discourage this. 
American cooperation was asked and given, with the result that 
Guaya((uil soon })ecame an open port, following in the footsteps of 



376 THE PAN AMERICAIST UNION, 

Ilabana, Rio de Janeiro, Panama, Vera Cruz, and the Amazon ports — 
areas long known as danger zones, especially to the traveling public. 
At this time epidemic conditions were most unfavorable in Central 
America and Mexico. The unsettled political status in ever}' one 
of these republics made international relations most unsatisfactor3\ 
The mere handling of epidemics, when once sufficient authority had 
been obtained, was an old story, and reasonable assurances of success 
could be given, depending upon the available supply of well-trained 
personnel and ample funds. Here, however, it was not sufficient 
simply to establish good relations with one repu})li(', or one republic 
after another, ])ut success depended upon uniting all, at one and the 
same time, for the purpose of eliminating a disease — a common 
enemy to them all. Its successful elimination was not made easier 
by the fact that each country discouraged rather than encouraged 
closer relations. 

For over a quarter of a century each rainy season had seen a spread 
of yellow fever along the western and southern ))or(lers of Mexico and 
through Central and South America. As well expressed by President 
Obregon, ''Diseases are no respecters of international borders or of 
diplomacy." The experience of the past had taught the lesson that 
no sooner had one country been freed than another developed the 
disease, thus completing a vicious cycle and perpetuating it from one 
year to the next. 

Just as though the undertaking were a military one, good strategy 
required absolute control and consolidation of each area, later com- 
bining the areas so as to present a single front. The short time 
available and the character of the mission complicated the problem. 
No doubt it could have been met in various ways, but of this we 
can not be certain. One fact, however, is positive — that the method 
finally adopted has not only been successful in bringing six countries 
under unified control, but has evolved a means of so linking the 
boards of health of these various countries that not only has one 
disease been controlled, but the machinery developed to meet other 
international pests. 

The method referred to might be termed the Presidencial Acuerdo 
idea of applying internationally the principles of preventive medi- 
cine. (There have been occasions when the United States has joined 
forces with another American republic to combat an epidemic, but 
never before has it been able to group together practically all of the 
countries of a continent for a common purpose.) 

The term "acuerdo "is a Spanish one, meaning an official public 
act, and in this instance one signed b5" the president of a republic. 
An acuerdo, even when signed by a president, would be of doubtful 



MEDICAL DIPLOMACY. 377 

value unless it had the active support of those responsible for its 
enforcement. Therefore, in preparing an aeuerdo certain factors 
were deemed essential: 

First, that a commission should be named which would be of inter- 
national character and yet would be under the direct administration 
of the president of the board of health of that country. 

Second, that the commission be given an ofRcial status as a part of 
the public health organization. 

Third, that sufficient funds be provided. 

While in Salvador in September, 1919, facing a yellow fever epi- 
demic w^hich threatened to spread further and more rapidly than at 
any time during the last 25 years, the seriousness of the situation and 
the unpreparedness made mandatory some broader method of con- 
trol. International team work was the answer. A memorandum 
was submitted to the President of Salvador, which in form and spirit 
was approved by him and issued as follows : 

With the object of obtaining the cooperation of the persons of this capital and 
tlie remainder of the Republic of Salvador for limiting the spread of yellow fever, 
we publish the following data as a guide and infomiation for the public. 

executive power. 

National Palace of Salvador, 

San Salrador, October 1, 1919. 
The Executive Power, at the request of the Superior Board of Health, and in consid- 
eration of the necessity of outlining effective methods, which will prevent the spread 
of yellow fever in the Republic, establishes the following: 

1. There is created a scientific Commission in charge of combating this epidemic, 
whose attributes will be as follows: (a) Isolation, treatment, and autopsy, conform- 
ing to the laws of the country, and without prejudice to the rights of those to whom 
the body belongs. (6) All antistegomyia work in the Republic. 

2. The police will always give cooperation at the request of the Commission, in 
compliance with these orders. 

3. The Superior Department of Health will transmit immediately to the Commis- 
sion reports, which in conformity with the law should be made by the doctors, of all 
suspected cases of yellow fever which appear in the Republic, and at the same time 
the Department will publish instructions which will relate to the control or prevention 
of yellow fever and which have been submitted by the Commission created by this 
present act. 

4. For carrying out the i)urpose of the Commission there is laid aside 10,000.00 
colones ($5,000.00), which will be placed to their order; carried officially as expenses 
for the installation and maintenance of the respective offices, and for other serWces 
of like character. This appropriation will l)e carried as part of Article 2() of the 
Budget. 

5. The Commission will have telegraphic, telephonic, and postal privileges, and 
passes will be issued for use on all railroads of this country. 

6. For fulfillifig the purpose and objects formerly enumeratetl, there is named as 
Director of the Commission referred to Don T. C. Lyster, and as members — Doctors 



378 THE PAX AMERICAN UNION. 

Salvador Rives Vides, ("arlos A. Bailey, Wenceslao Pareja, and Salvador Peralta L., 
who have expressed their humanitarian sentiments in ac(ei)ting' the responsibility 
to carry on this Avork. 
(Jommunicated. 

(Signed for the Presidenl.) Auguello L., 

Subsecretary of Governm ent. 

In rapid succession the Presidents of Nicaragua, Honduras, and 
Guatemala issued similar acuerdos, followed in 1921 by Mexico and 
British Honduras, thus makino; a tmited front of six nations all 
cooperating with the Rockefeller Foundation to place a disease in 
the archives of medical history as a relic of a foryier generation. 

While the principles underlying this international policy were 
made useful in preventive medicine, this by no means should be 
considered as a limitation of their application. These same principles 
may by adaptation be of some ftiture use in a diplomatic way toward 
cementins; closer and better relations with our neighbors. 



DR, AtV(A[^,() (:;AVA;f,C4NTI 



DR. AMARC) CAVALCANTI, educator, author, jurist, and 
statesman, and one of the most efficient pioneers of Pan 
Americanism, died in Rio de Janeiro on January 28, 1922, 
after a long and distinguished career in the service of his 
country. 

Dr. Cavalcanti was born in Rio Grande do Norte on August 15, 
1851, the son of Maj. Amaro Cavalcanti Soares de Brito, a primary 
school teacher, and Dona Anna de Barros Cavalcanti. After com- 
pleting his course in the humanities, he won, through a competitive 
examination, a Latin professorship in Ceara. Soon after, the provin- 
cial government commissioned him to study the conditions of primary 
instruction in the Ignited States, and while in that country Dr. Caval- 
canti took advantage of the opportunity to study law at Union 
University, from which he was graduated in 1881. 

On Dr. Cavalcanti's return to Brazil the same year, he was admitted 
to the bar and appointed inspector general of public instruction for 
the State of Ceara and director of the secondary school. His na- 
tional and international public career began in 1884 with his elec- 
tion as deputy to the General Assembly. He was subsecpiently and 
successivelv one of the lieutenant governors of his native State, 



|)1{. AMAHO (•AN'Al.CAN'ri. 871) 

senator, minister ])lenipotentiary to Para<]:;uay, deputy for the second 
time, Minister of Justice and of tlie Interior, legal adviser to the Depart- 
ment of Foreign Affairs, delegate to the Third International American 
Congress, justice of the Supreme Court, delegate to the Pan American 
Financial (\)ngress which met in Wasliington in 1915, member of the 
extra-parliamentary committee on the Civil Code, member of the 
Hague Court of Justice, and governor of the Federal District. 

In this last office, to which Dr. Cavalcanti was appointed in Janu- 
ar}^, 1917, he gave a great impulse to the agricultural development of 
the lands l.ying beyond the outskirts of Rio de Janeiro, while at the 
same time he promoted material improvements such as the construc- 
tion of an excellent system of public roads in the District, and street 
widening and extension in the city itself. 

Dr. Cavalcanti who, in addition to his public duties, had for many 
years carried on the practice of law with distinguished success, was at 
the time of his death president of the Brazilian Society of Interna- 
tional Law; active and honorary member of the Institute of the Order 
of Lawyers, and of the Brazilian Historical and Geographical Society; 
and professor of finance in the Academy of Higher Studies. He was 
the author of a large number of works on teaching, finance, political 
economy, law, and other important subjects, included among them 
being several standard authorities in the advanced schools and legal 
practice of the country. 

The loss of Dr. Cavalcanti is keenly felt in this country as well as 
in Brazil, not only because he has been in close touch with our leading 
men and events since his residence here in early life, but because of 
his unceasing activity in Pan American affairs, to which he devoted 
a great part of his thought and efforts up to the time of his death. 



SIGNIFICANCE OF THE 
TRADE BECLFNE OF W9,\ 

By William C. Wells, 

J 'an American Union Staff. 

TRADE between the United States and Latin Anierica for 1921 
showed a decline of $1,806,043,270 as compared with 1920. 
United States iniports from Latin America were 
$1,075,866,525, and exports to Latin America $730,176,744 
less in 1921 than in 1920. The decline in imports was over 60 per 
cent and in exports near 50 per cent. 

It is not unreasonable that such a decline as this has created appre- 
hensions in the minds of Latin Americans that they were losing their 
market in the United States and likewise in the minds of American 
exporters that they were losing their Latin American market. 

Take the case of four Latin American countries, Cuba, Argentina, 
Brazil, and Chile, the aggregate of whose exports to the United States 
represents two-thirds or more of the total imports of the United States 
from all Latin America. In 1920 this aggregate was $1,277,575,966 
and in 1921 only $433,561,644. The comparison explains the uneasy 
feeling in Latin America as to the future of their products. United 
States exports to the four countries fell from $940,859,163 in 1920, 
to $383,152,808 in 1921. The loss in imports in round numbers was 
two-thirds and in exports two-fifths. 

Notwithstanding the figures for the full year's trade are only just 
now available, the monthly reports during 1921 and the experiences 
of importers and exporters have made known the general fact that 
there was occurring a tremendous falling off in trade. Unfortu- 
nately the facts have been very generally misinterpreted both in 
Latin America and in the United States and the facts themselves are 
thrown out of proportion by a failure to comprehend that the con- 
ditions of 1920 were abnormal in the extreme, especially abnorjnal 
as to prices upon which the valuation statistics are based. 

Compare 1921 with a normal before-the-war year, e. g., 1913, and 
we find that the interchange of products has about doubled, or go 
back five years further, 1908, we find it has increased three times over. 
380 



TEADE DECLINE OF 1921. 
Trade of the United States with Latin America. 



381 



Imports from 
Latin America. 



Exports to 
Latin America. 



,u,w ..! $271,915,3.3S 1 $216,999,931 

Q,, .' 426,936,266 i 316,.d60,433 

J99J i 691,127,334 758,124,997 



Total trade. 



$488,915,269 

743, 4%, 699 

1,449, 253, .331 



It is only when we compare 1921 with 1920— imports, SI ,766,993,859 ; 
exports, $1,488,301,743; total, $3,255,295,601— or with 1918 and 
1919__totals$l,791, 175,136 and $2,253,558,234, respectively— that we 
find any falling off in trade. Much of this decline was a price de- 
cline. True trade statistics are of ciuantities, values are secondary. In 

1920 the United States exported wheat flour to Central America, 
Mexico, Cuba, Brazil, and Venezuela to the value of $35,817,990; in 

1921 the value was $18,478,180. This shows a value decline of over 
48 per cent, which is almost exactly the decline in all exports to all 
Latin America. The cjuantity decline, however, was only a little 
over 20 per cent; from 2,870,720 barrels in 1920 to 2,267,649 bar- 
rels in 1921. 

The export of bleached cotton cloth to Central America, Mexico, 
Cuba, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile fell off from $22,879,296 in 1920 
to $4,529,560 in 1921, a loss of SO per cent in value, but the loss in 
quantity was only 60 per cent, from 78,599,978 yards to 30,864,869. 

The export of unbleached cotton cloth to the same countries — 
except to Brazil for which the figures are not available — declined in 
value near 24 per cent, from $5,880,646 in 1920 to $4,553,332 in 
1921, but the quantity increased over 100 per cent, from 26,160,242 
yards- in 1920 to 54,755,351 yards in 1921. Here we have a very 
large increase in trade which appears on the valuation basis as a loss. 

In most textile exports there was a slight decrease in quantities 
and a large decrease in values. In metal goods on the whole there 
was a substantial decline in most lines, running from 10 per cent to 
50 per cent, but there was a margin of from 20 per cent to 30 per 
cent between quantity exports and value exports, with declines 
greater in the latter. 

One of the largest declines was in the case of automobiles. The ex- 
l)()rt of both commercial and passenger machines to Mexico, Cuba, and 
Argentina in 1920 was 18,383 machines, value $24,186,770, and in 1921 
was 10,844 machines, value $9,478,611. The decreasei n vahies was 60 
per cent and in quantities only 40 per cent. Owing to the fact that 
automobile exports to Mexico increased both in number and in value 
the decline in exports to all Latin America were greater than the 
figures for the three countries, including Mexico, show. Complete 



882 THE PAX AMERICAN UNION. 

figures are not available, but the export of automobiles to all Latin 
America fell off much above one-lialf in number and perhaps three- 
fourths in value. 

The chief live animal exports of the United States to Latin America 
is of horses to Cuba and to Mexico. In 1920 Cuba took 2,200 head of 
American horses at the customs value of $437,687, i. e., $199 a head. 
In 1921 the figures were 939 head, value .$148,423, $158 a head. 
Mexico increased its purchase of horses from 3,285 head in 1920, worth 
$230,483, to 10,330 head in 1921, worth $583,825. The per capita 
in the first case was $70 and in the second $58. A considerable num- 
ber of the horses exported to Cuba were high priced racers, which fact 
accounts for the high per capita rate. 

The decreases in trade with Latin America as between 1920 and 1 921 
were greater than the decreases in trade elsewhere, especially on the 
side of imports. The falling off in imports from Latin America was 
approximately 00 percent and from all other countries ai)])roxiniately 
48 per cent. In exports th(> figures are around 50 j)er cent and 45 per 
cent, respectively. Many of the causes that led to the falling off in trade 
with Europe, Asia, and Africa were the same as led to the falling off 
of trade with (\Mitral and Soutii Amei'ica. One of the chief causes, 
showing a decline more apparent tlian real, was tlie price (l(H'line, 
another was the inevitable reaction which had to follow the frantic 
buying craze of 1919 and 1920, and a thiid, in reality a corollary of 
the second, was the oxci- stoci<ed condition of all markets. Broadly 
speaking these induences affected the buying and selling ca])acity of 
Latin America in the sam(> Avay and in a comparable (h'gree as they al- 
fected the buying and selling capacity of othci- countries. Hut there 
were differences. The price declines in l^at in Ameiican ex|)orts ( iniports 
of the Ignited States) were greater than the j)rice declines of I^uropean 
exports (likewise imports of the Ignited States). This fact in a large 
measure accounts for the differences between 00 j)er cent decline in 
imports from I^atin America and 48 per cent decline in imports from 
elsewhere. On the export side the fall in price was more uniform, 
although somewhat greater in the case of exports to Europe, because 
of the greater proportion of agricultural products for which prices 
receded greater than in manufactures, '{'he general falling off in ex- 
ports to Latin America of 50 per cent as compared with a falling off 
in exports elsewhere of 45 per cent if corrected for variations in price 
declines would show a difference greater than the 5 per cent, possibly 
as much as 10 per cent. 

The mad rusli to buy affected all the world in 1919 and 1920. 
There was little difference in degree between J^erlin and Buenos 
Aires, Paris and Ilabana, London and New York, J{ome and Hong- 
kong. It was in effect a commercial craze everywhere. But there 



THADE l)Et'LlNI<: OF ]!)21. 383 

was a marked difference in incentives and purposes. France, Eng- 
land, Italy, and central Europe were buying from necessity that 
which they must have. Near all the world besides was buying from 
prodigality much that was wasteful luxury. Latin American exports 
in 1920 amounted to $3,238,102,076, in 1919, to $3,086,212,082, and 
in 1918 to .$2,409,036,805. Compared with the years before the war 
these figures represented an increase of 100 per cent; $1,283,232,640 
in 1911, $1,573,533,307 in 1912, and $1,552,750,952 in 1913. If 
the increase had represented a substantial increase in production 
and export by quantities all would have been well, but it did not. 
It was almost entirely an artificially inflated price increase. From 
1913 to 1920 there was no great increase in Latin American popula- 
tion, industry, or production. The production of sugar, oil, and a 
few minor products increased, but there was no general increase in 
production and export to warrant the 100 per cent value increase 
from 1913 to 1919 or 1920. An example of price inflation— an 
extreme one —is sugar. In the year immediately preceding the war 
the United States imported from Cuba 4,926,606,243 pounds of 
sugar, valued at $98,394,782; in 1920 the figures were 6,549,286,649 
pounds, value $773,707,181. An increase of less than one-third in 
([uantity is represented by an increase of near eight times in value. 
This, as said, was an extreme case, but there were large advances in 
price of nearly all Latin American exports, wdiile with the exceptions 
noted there was but little increase in quantity exports. Argentina's 
exports in 1913 amounted to $468,999,410, almost entirely agricul- 
tural products, grains, meats, wool, hides, etc. The exports in 1920 
were of the same products in quantities but little greater, but the 
value was $976,596,000. Both figures are from oflTicial Argentine 
sources. 

The craze for buying began in Latin America, as it did in the United 
States, before the close of the war. In 1917 Latin American imports 
amounted to $1,367,211,849, which was above the before-the-war 
figures. In 1918 the figures were $1,494,131,101. During these two 
years it had been with difficulty that Latin America was able to 
secure imports, due to the restrictions imposed by American and 
British war trade boards. Notwithstanding imports for the two 
years went above the figures of 1911, 1912, and 1913. In 1919, with 
restrictions removed, Latin American imports jumped to $1,947,948,- 
717, and in 1920 to $2,679,579,566. Everything was bought, but 
especially articles of luxury. The imports were keeping pace with 
the exports. Whenever times are fhish Latin America buys to the 
limit. 1( is (hsposed to go beyond the limit. This is a condition 
that those familiar with Latin Ameiicjin trade have known for gene- 
rations. Experienced traders look forward to antl prepare for these 



384 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

sudden reversals. There was no radical weakness in Latin American 
markets in 1921. There is none now. There has been no breakdown 
of industry, although many Latin Americans have called it such. 
The whole difficulty is functional and was magnified by those who 
failed to see the perspective. The countries even at the lowest ebb 
were importing but little below the normal, i. e., of the before-war 
period. They were in the ebb of one of those constantly recurring 
periods of overbuying. But since the flood had been higher and 
consequently by comparison the ebb lower they considered it as 
being the absolute low water, which it was not. 

From the known facts we can summarize the condition as follows : 
Latin American decline of trade in 1921 was not so great as the 
valuation figures show. In part it was a price decline. 

Where it was not a price decline on the side of imports it was a 
natural reaction from two or three years of overbuying. This reac- 
tion was forced by a great fall in the prices of most T^atin American 
exports, and in some cases by an actual decrease in foreign demand 
for the products. 

There has been no material shifting of trade either on the import 
or export side. Tlie United States is yet the chief factor in all Latin 
American foreign trade and in nearly every single State of Latin Amer- 
ica. It buys the most and sells the most. 

German trade is reviving but slowly. There is no present indica- 
tion that Germany will ever, except in a few specialties, be a serious 
rival with the United States and England for Latin American trade. 
The rivalry between these two is centered in the southern half of 
South America, with England holding the best position as to all 
classes of textiles and the United States having the advantage in 
metal goods. Elsewhere the United States has the advantage in 
nearly all kinds of goods, except that there is a weakness in textiles 
more or less everywhere. 

On the side of Latin American [)r()ducts — exports of Latin Amer- 
ica — the United States has the advantage, almost the monopoly, in 
almost everything except grain and meat. Raw products of all 
kinds, including the by-products of meat production and foods, except 
grain and meat, find their great market now as in the past in the 
United States. 

The most remarkable single fact in comparing the exports of the 
United States to Latin America in 1920 and 1921 is that, notwith- 
standing the exports to all Latin America fell by near one-half, the 
exports to Mexico gained 7 per cent. In 1920 United States exports 
to Mexico were less than to either Cuba or Argentina. In 1920 
exports to Mexico were near a fifth greater than to Cuba and double 
to Argentina. 



TRADE DECLINE OF 1912, 



385 



Commerce of the United States of America icith Latin America, twelve mon'hs ending 

Dec. 31, 1921. 

[Compiled from reports of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce.] 



Mexico 

Guatemala 

Salvador 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Costa Rica 

Panama 

Cuba 

Dominican Republic . 
Haiti 



North American Republics. 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 



Imports. 



$119, 145, 533 
8,594,936 
2,878,378 
4,920,529 
4,694,002 
5,844,117 
3, 865, 289 
230,374,341 
14,414,142 
2,094,930 



3%, 826, 197 



Exports. 



$221, 
6, 

4, 

11; 
3, 

4; 
23: 

187! 
19: 

8' 



854,304 
091,660 
546,734 
734, 985 
628, 088 
051, 937 
144, 415 
726, 179 
338, 711 
227,297 



490,344,290 



South American Republics . 
Total Latin America 



59,925, 

2, 167, 

96, 326, 

46, 935, 

43,976, 

5,259, 

1, 169, 

14, 733, 

12, 512, 

11,295, 



960 
834 
200 
143 
205 
730 
418 
239 
249 
159 



110, 

3, 

58, 

26, 

17, 

3, 

24, 
13, 
9. 



833,049 
393, 282 
106,414 
487, 166 
734,662 
540,938 
386,951 
028,627 
771,361 
498,257 



Total. 



$340,999,837 
14,686,596 
7, 425, 112 
16,655,514 
8, 322, 070 
9, 896, 054 
27,009,704 
418,100,520 
33, 752, 853 
10,322,227 



887,170,487 



170, 759, 009 

5,561,116 

154,432,614 

73, 422, 309 

61,710,867 

8,800,668 

1,556,369 

38,761,866 

26,283,610 

20, 793, 416 



294,301,137 267,780,707 j 562,081,844 



691,127,334 758,124,997 



1,449,252.331 




91335— 22— Bull. 4 5 



ARGENTINE FOREIGN 

& ^\, ■X'^ a=dJ .'1=^ J. ^ ^A A. ® » ® o o 



IN advance of the actual compilation of Argentine foreign trade 
for 1921, Senor Alejandro E. Bunge, Director General of the 
General Office of Statistics, has made an estimate of the trade 
for that year. This estimate is based upon certain ascertained 
facts, such as amount of duties collected and upon index figures rep- 
resenting quantity and price changes in comparison with preceding 

years. 

According to this estimate the imports and exports for 1921 were 
as follows -.^Imports, 635,000.000 pesos gold; exports 672,000,000 
pesos gold; total, 1,307,000,000 pesos gold. 

Comparing the estimate with the trade of tlie four preceding years 
the results show : 



Imports. 



Pesos gold. 
380,321,000 



t°Ji 500,602,000 

J°}^ 655, 772, OOC 

l°i° 881,334.000 

J^^'j 635,000,000 



Exports. 



Pesos gold. 

550,170,000 

801,466,0(K) 

1,030,965,000 

1,031,388,000 

672,000,000 



These figures show a falling oft", as compared with 1920, of 
246,000,000 pesos gold (27.0 per cent) in imports and 359,000,000 
pesos gold (34.8 per cent) in exports. The actual falling off in 
imports was. however, by no means so great as the above figures tend 
to show. To a large extent the dechne represents a decline in prices 
rather than an actual falling off in imports by quantities. 

According to Senoi- Bunge, the fall in prices of cotton textiles 
amounted t°o 45 per cent, of silk textiles to 35 per cent; of bags and 
bagging to 24 per cent; of edible oils to 20 per cent; of kerosene to 20 
per "cent; of some other petroleum products to 50 per cent, and of 
iron in bars, etc., to 50 per cent. On the whole he estimates the fall 
in prices for the whole list to average alxiut 25 per cent, which shows 
that notwithstanding a value decline of near 28 per cent, the quantity 
decline was only 4 per cent as compared with the preceding year. 
386 




Courtesy of P!ux rifrn, Buenos Airos. 

A NEW PORTRAIT OF SAX MARTIN. 

This painting of great artistic and historic mer't, the work of Bror E. Kronstiand, has l.ccn secured for the 
Jocl<ey Chib, Buenos Aires, by Seiior Cesar Gonzalez Segura, (haiiman of the house committee of that 
club. The artist spent several months in the study of (ieneral San ilartin and his life, and in addition 
had the benefit of advice by Dr. Dellepiane, Director of the Musco Historico and Sr. (ionziilez Segura. 




Courtesy of Reviata JuHdica v dt (,, ,, i.i^ .' 

MODEL OF THE NEW BUILDING FOR THE FACULTY OF LAW OF THE UNIVERSITY 

OF BUENOS AIRES. 

It is expected that this building will be ready for occupancy by the close of the present year. 



C\ 



<-* 




c 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY 
. AND COMMERCE;^ 



AR(iEXTIXA. 

Ageicultural production. — Wheat production in 1921 fimounted 
to 4,620,000 tons; linseed to 1,282,000 tons, and maize to 5,853,000 
tons. At the beginning of 1921 the stocks of wheat on hand amounted 
to 4,782,896 tons; deducting from this figure 1,900,000 tons, the 
amount necessary for consumption and seed, tliere Avas a bahmce of 
2,882,896 tons, of which a})proximately 1,000,000 tons were exported; 
a supply of 1,200,000 tons is tlierefore left for 1922. The linseed 
harvest, added to the excess of tlie year before, gave 1,386,420 tons. 
Deducting from this figure for consum])tion and seed 138,000 tons, 
the exportable balance was 1,248,420 tons, of which about 48,000 
will remain in tlie country. Tlie maize crop, plus the amount left 
from the previous year, amounted to 5,978,000 tons, of which 
2,100,000 tons were needed for consumption and seed, thus leaving 
a balance for export of 3,878,000 tons, reduced at the end of the 
year to somewhat more than 1,200,000 tons. The total amount of 
sugar produced in the country in 1921 amounted to 196,682,280 
kilos. (Revista de Economia y Finnmas.) 

Exports of pastoral products ix 1921. — The Times of Argen- 
tina in its issue of January 30 gives the total export of ])astoral prod- 
ucts for the vear 1921 as follows: 



Salted oxhides 2. li:^'), ] (i7 

Dried oxhides 3, 49S, 206 

Salted calfskins 39, 093 

Dried calfskins 463, 201 

Salted horsehides 1 7, 000 

Dry horsehides 4(), 987 

Wool liales . . 375, 720 

Sheepskins do 41, 499 

Goatskins do 6, 536 

Hair do 5, 459 

Nutria skins do 874 

Preserved meat tons. . 12, 367 

Butter. cases. . ,s75, 784 

Casein tons. . 14, 126 

Tallow do.... 21,478 



Guano tons. 

Bones and l){)no ash . . .do. . . 

Horns do. . . 

Tongues do. . . 

Dried blood do. . . 

Cattle 

Horses 

Mules 

Sheep 

Hide cuttings tons. 

Hoofs do. . . 

Premier jus do. . . 

Wolfram do. . . 

Quebracho extract do. . . 

Quebracho logs do. . . 



10,579 

16,889 

823 

715 

4,908 

3, 619 

662 

434 

5,311 

763 

778 

10, 403 

460 

123, 522 

19. 238 



Automobile show. — The fourth automobile show under the 
auspices of the Argentine Automoljih^ Chib was liekl in Buenos Aires 
393 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AXD COMMERCE. 391 

last Xovember. The chief import ing; liouses displayed passenger 
cars, trucks, tractors, tires, marine and airplane motors, and acces- 
sories. Many American and European automobiles, valued at 
1,745,000 pesos, were exhibited. Sixty-eight passenger cars were 
purchased; they are valued at 773,150 pesos. 

LoxG-TERM SALE OF NATIONAL PRODUCTS. — The minister of foreign 
relations has sent to the Argentine representatives in foreign coun- 
tries a circular announcing that the overstocks of national products, 
such as cereals, meat, and wool, necessary for the food supply and 
manufactures of other countries, are offered for sale on the basis of 
long-term payments. The minister has also informed the legations 
that there are 45,000,000 head of sheep in Argentina and that the 
wool clip of 1921-22 is estimated at 170,000 tons. 

BOLIVIA. 

Proposed railroad. — The manager of the commercial and indus- 
trial firm "Matto Grosso de Bolivia," representing both his own 
compaii}' and the Belgian South American Co. of Brussels, has 
presented to the Government a proposal for constructing and exploit- 
ing a railroad to start from Puerto Suarez, on the eastern frontier, 
cross Chiquitos Province, pass tlu'ough Santa Cruz, and terminate at 
the confluence of the Rios Grande and Piray, a point favorable for 
navigation on the Beni River. The maximum cost of the work, 
including all construction, is estimated at £4,000 per kilometer. 
The Government is asked to guarantee a return of 5 per cent on this 
investment, including buildings erected in Puerto Suarez, while on 
their part the companies offer a guaranty of £40,000 sterling for the 
construction of the work within five years. 

Railroad from Santa Cruz to Rio Grande. — The representative 
of the Madera Mamore Railway Co. has laid before the Government a 
proposal in substitution of the contract made in 1911 for construct- 
ing, owning, and exploiting a railroad from the left bank of the 
Mamore River, through Guayaramerin, to the city of Riberalta on 
the Beni River. This proposal has three alternatives: (a) Con- 
struction of an automobile road from Santa Cruz to Cuatro Ojos, 
Puerto Velarde, or any other point on the Rio Grande convenient for 
loading and unloading steamers; (h) construction of a narrow-gauge 
railroad between Santa Cruz and the chosen port on the Rio Grande, 
making use of a new road, the one now in existence, or the road above 
proposed; ic) erection of an aerial cable between Santa Cruz and the 
proposed river port, using the present route or a new one. Congress 
has the proposition under consideration. 

Railway convention with Argentina. — See page 405. 

Irrigation and sewer system. — See page 403. 



392 THE PAN AMEKICAN UNION. 

BRAZIL. 

Sugar valorizatiox. — A law has been passed relating to the 
exportation of sugar and the protection of the producers, and a credit 
of 50,000 contos of reis has been approved for valorization purposes. 

Protection for Brazilian oil nuts. — A bill has been intro- 
duced in the Brazilian Congress for the protection and development 
of the oil-nut resources of the country. The numerous varieties of 
nuts growing in the northern sections of Brazil have a high oil content 
and are in demand because of their food value and lubricating 
properties. An important trade could be developed by the proper 
culture and handling of these nuts, and it is to this end that an experi- 
ment station is being proposed. It is reported that the coining crop 
will be larger than that of last year, but as yet no figures are available. 
{Commerce Reports.) 

Ports of Fortaleza, Parahyba, and Corumba. — Operations 
have commenced on the construction of breakwater and docks in the 
port of Fortaleza, State of Coara, contract for which was let to a 
British concern some time ago. At present there are no docking 
facilities, all ships touching that port having to anchor far out in the 
ocean and transship cargo and ]:)assengers in smaller boats. The 
improvements consist of a solid masonry construction in deep water 
far from the beach, with the side next the shore built as a dock wall 
and the side toward the sea constructed as a breakwater. 

Fortaleza is the port of entry for all material to be used in the 
extensive reclamation and irrigation projects now under way in the 
State of CearJi. It is expected that these improvements will make 
it a very important port for northern Brazil. 

Improvements are also under way in the port of Paralwba, which 
will permit ships of deep draft to have access to the city. Likewise 
a concession has been secured by the State of Matto Grosso for the 
river port works at Corumbii. {Commerce Reports.) 

Cement plant for Santa Catharina. — The governor of the 
State of Santa Catharina, Brazil, has received word from the super- 
intendent of the municipality of Itajahy to the effect that he has 
organized a company for the manufacture of cement from raw 
materials of the municipal districts of Itajahy and Camboriu, accord- 
ing to a report from Assistant Trade Commissioner Bernard H. Noll. 
( Comm erce Reports.) 

Public utilities concession in Maceio, Alagoas, obtain- 
able. — A law passed last June by the State of Alagoas authorizes 
the governor to expropriate certain public-service companies of 
Maceio, the capital, and to grant all rights of these companies, 
together with a concession for a sewer system in Maceio, to any com- 
pany making the most advantageous offer. {Commerce Reports.) 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. 393 

Ttio Grande Meat Co. — See page 407. 

Lease and construction of Santa Catharina Railway. — 
See page 407. 

Cotton cleaning and pressing. — See page 408. 

CHILE. 

Chemical products. — Several companies making chemical prod- 
ucts have recently united in order to increase production and lower 
the cost of manufacture. The company has already begun to produce 
on a large scale acids which are essential to certain industries, such 
as muriatic and acetic acids, used in the making of fertilizers and 
tanning. It is believed that the united factories will soon be in a 
position to supply the necessities of the national market. 

Port works and railroads under construction. — The Council 
of State has approved the law passed by Congress authorizing the 
President to advertise for bids at a lump sum for the conclusion of 
the harbor protection w^orks at Valparaiso, the complementary port 
works at Antofagasta, the harbor improvements at Constitucion, 
Ir|uique, Talcahuano, Lebu, Puerto Saavedra, and Valdivia, the con- 
struction of a wharf at Puerto Montt, of a wharf and complementary 
works at Tome and Pichilemu, of the railroads from Los Queues to 
Curico and from Parronal to the San Fernando-Pichilemu line, and 
the extension of the Hualane-Constitucion line. All work is to be 
completed within 10 years. 

New electric car line. — The \'alparafso Electric Tramway Co. 
has been granted permission to construct a double-track electric line 
from ^^alparalso to Mna del Mar. Work will begin immediately. 

Nitrate used to fight parasites. — An article appearing in The 
Grace Log, organ of the well-known Grace Co., describes the use of 
nitrate in getting rid of one of the most dreaded cotton pests, the 
weevil, which is said to attack chiefly plants cultivated in impover- 
ished soil which do not have time to mature befoi'e the development 
of the weevil. 

COLOMBIA. 

Aerial mail. — -The vice consul of the United States in Barran- 
quilla states that the Colombian Government is paying the Compaiiia 
Colombo-Alemana de Transportes Aereos, which has a service of 
gliders on the Magdalena River between Barranc|uilla, Girardot. 
and Neiva, a subsidy of 100 pesos for each trip, plus 30 centavos for 
each 15 grams of mail. Each of the five hydroplanes has .500 horse- 
power and can carry three passengers. The advantages of this 
service in going from the coast to Bogota have already been men- 
tioned in the Bulletin. 



394 THE PAlSr AMERICAlSr UNION. 

Mail going up the Magdalona by steamer from Barranf|iiilla to 
Bogota is one or two weeks in transit, according to the condition of 
the river, while by hydroplane it arrives in 24 to 30 hours. Last 
October both mail and passenger service were extended to Cartagena, 
one trip a week being made to that city. 

Stamps for this aerial mail may be obtained in New York from 
Vasc^uez Correa & Co., 1 State Street. The postage is 15 cents for 
each 30 grams. 

Industrial exhibition and historical centenary. — April 7, 
1922, the hundredth anniversary of the Battle of Bombona, won 
from the Spaniards by Bolivar, has been declared a holiday by the 
departmental assembly of Xarino. At that time the department 
will hold an industrial, agricultural, stock, and art exposition in Pasto. 
On the centenary a marble slab will be placed on the traditional 
Bombona Stone to perpetuate the memory of the heroic soldiers 
who fought for the liberty of Colombia. Another feature of the 
day's celebrations will be the opening of the Bombona highway. 

A bronze replica of Tenerani's statue of liolivar will be erected in 
Pasto at a cost to the department of $2,000. 

Railroad equipment. — The Barranquilla Railway & Pier Co. 
is to purchase new cars, locomotives, cranes, freight elevators, plat- 
form scales, new lathes with electric motors for the shops, modern 
machinery for woodworking, and other tools. The amount to be 
expended is £-45,000 sterling. 

roSTA RICA. 

Montezuma mines. — An American company which has devel- 
oped the Aguacate gold and silver mines has ac([uired the well- 
known Montezuma mines and will invest $1,000,000 capital. This 
is certain to bring great development to the district of Xliramar and 
Puntarenas. 

Coffee growers' association. — In the report of the president 
of the Costa Rican Chamber of Commerce note is made of the pro- 
tection afforded by this body to the newly formed association of 
coffee growers in resisting speculation by exporters in crop prices. 
The report also stated that the chamber of commerce was ready to 
give its services free in arbitrating difhculties between insurance 
companies and persons insured in regard to crops, this class of insur- 
ance not coming under the recent rulings. 

Bridge over Rio del Oro. — The President of the Republic 
attended the ceremonies opening the new bridge over the Rio del 
Oro near the town of Piedades de Santa Ana. This bridge opens 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AXD COMMERCE. 395 

up the country roinid about to the great advantage of the agri- 
culturists. 

CUBA. 

The Cubax Telephoxe Co. — ^This company publishes a monthly 
bulletin, La Revista Telefonica Internacional. which not only gives 
an account of telephone developments in Cuba Imt which in the future 
will report on telephones and other means of communication in all 
Spanish-speaking countries. 

In its November number the Revista says that in 1919 the company 
had 29,741 telephones in Cuba, for which there were 59,290 miles of 
line either above or below ground. Since that time this ecjuipment 
has increased to 35,918 telephones and more than 84,000 miles of line. 
Almost 90 per cent of the telephones now in use are automatic; they 
have given excellent service. Such telephones are found in Habana, 
Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Cardenas, Sagua, and Santiago de Cuba, the 
plant in Habana being the largest automatic plant in the world under 
a single roof. 

Last year installations were made in Remedios, the industrial center 
of one of the best sugar, tobacco, and agricultural districts of the 
Republic, so that messages could pass between that city, the other 
parts of Cuba, the United vStates, and Canada. 

Importatiox of cotton PROHIBITED. — A presidential decree has 
strictly forbidden the admission into Cuba of cotton plants or parts 
thereof, buds, seeds, and raw cotton coming from Mexico, Santo 
Domingo, Puerto Rico, and other islands of the West Indies, on ac- 
count of the existence in those countries of the pink boll weevil 
(Gelechia gossypiella). The articles named may be imported from 
other countries under the strict supervision of the bureau of plant 
inspection. 

Electric railway. — In Januar}^ the electric car line between 
Matanzas and Hershey was opened to traffic. Both passenger and 
freight cars are operated. It is hoped that by the middle of the year 
connection will be made with the lines running into Habana. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Telephones. — A telephone line connecting San Pedro de Macoris 
with El Seibo and Hato Mayor will soon be installed at the expense 
of the three towns and the Government. 

ECUADOR. 

Ecuador as market. — Comercio Ecuatoriano names the follow- 
ing articles of import for which it says a market exists or could be 
created in Ecuador: Automobiles and trucks, machine-shop equip- 
ment, cranes and winches, motors, printing machinery, cotton gins. 



396 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

hullers, machinery for making tin cans, pumps, lubricants, rubber 
articles, leather and rubber belting, machinery for extracting vege- 
table oils, refrigerators, portable saws and electrical equipment, tex- 
tile machinery, electrical supplies, drugs and medicines, stationeiy, 
packing material, musical instruments, typewriters, photographic 
material, surgical instruments, sporting goods, toys, motor and other 
boats, sewing machines, animals for breeding purposes, ready-made 
clothing, shoes, jewelry, perfumery, mineral waters, and foodstuffs. 

GUATEMALA. 

Jute bag factory. — The new jute bag factory in Mazatenango 
has a paid-up capital of $11,600, and is to manufacture sacks from 
the plant known in Guatemala as escohUlo. The company's plan- 
tations are near the factory. The sacks will cost about one-third 
the price of those now imported from other countries. 

Abrogation of sugar taxes. — Owing to the reduced price of 
sugar in foreign markets the executive has ordered the abrogation 
of all Government or municipal taxes on the manufacture, export, 
or consumption of sugar, brown sugar, and cane syrups. 

International railway schedule. — Daily passenger trains now 
run from Guatemala through Puerto Barrios, San Jose, Champerico, 
and Ayutla and return, with stops at intermediate stations, making 
connections at Mulua and San Fehpe with the automobiles running 
to Quezaltenango, and in Ayutla with trains on the National Railway 
of Mexico whicli leave Suchiate Sundays, Tuesdays, and Fridays. 

Loan of 200,000 pesos for public works. — The municipality 
of Totonicapan was authorized by the executive to contract a loan 
of 200,000 pesos with the Banco de Occidente, secured by mortgages 
on municipal property. The loan will be used for public works. 

HAITI. 

Renewal of German service. — The Henry Horn, a 2,500-ton 
steamer of the Horn Line, sailing from Hamburg, arrived at Port au 
Prince last December, thus renewing direct maritime communication 
between Germany and Haiti. 

New York to Haiti. — The Clyde Line maintains a steamer in the 
Haitian coasting service, and a weekly direct freight boat from New 
York to Haiti, a trip of 140 hours. Freight leaving Haiti is trans- 
shipped in Kingston for New York, England, and other European 
countries. 

Import duties. — The receiver general of customs has requested 
importers to furnish him with samples of goods in advance of impor- 
tation, so that duties may be indicated and misunderstandings 
avoided. 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. 397 



HONDURAS. 



Land concession. — One hundred and twenty-five hectares of 
land along the free zone of the Tela Railroad Co. in the Department 
of Yoro have been granted to the planter who for five years has been 
raising bananas on this tract. 

MEXICO. 

Petroleum production or 1921. — The statistical section of the 
petroleum department has published complete figures for the total 
production of petroleum in Mexico during 1921, which amounted to 
192,916,775 barrels, 41 per cent of the amount produced in North 
America and 28 per cent of the world product. The report points 
out that in 1901 the total production in Mexico was only 10,345 
barrels. In January, 1921, production was 15,203,551 barrels; in 
November, 21,113,448 barrels; and in December, 23,931,747 barrels. 
The Tuxpan field provided by far the greatest share, since 151,049,163 
barrels came from its wells, while the River Panuco produced 41,764,- 
751 barrels and the Tabasco district 2,861. The total export was 
172,268,136 barrels, or 27,387,621 cubic meters, an increase over the 
preceding year of 26,759,187 barrels. The greatest amount, 99,281,- 
429 barrels, was exported through Tampico, while 69,956,594 barrels 
were shipped from Puerto Lobos and Tuxpan, and 2,859,667 from 
Puerto Mexico. According to Ciuality, the exported oil is divided 
as follows: Light crude petroleum, 1,509,568 cubic meters; fuel oil, 
719,544 cubic meters; heavy crude oil, 642,070 cubic meters; crude 
gasoline, refined gasoline, refined kerosene, asphalt, lubricants, and 
gas follow on a descending scale. 

Floating dock. — The repairs on the floating dock of the National 
Arsenal at Vera Cruz were recently completed, so that in conjunction 
with changes in the shops and the acquisition of new material, the 
arsenal is equipped to repair ships as efficiently as can be done in 
foreign countries. The gunboat Bravo, of 1,800 tons, and the dredge 
Tampico have recently been satisfactorily repaired. The technical 
experts as well as the workmen employed at the arsenal are all 
Mexicans. 

Increasing importance of Tampico as port.— The enormous 
increase in international and local traflric, shown by figures obtained 
from the railroads, the navigation companies, and the Tampico 
customhouse, clearly indicates that Tampico is taking first place as 
port for ocean-going boats. From 20 to 30 ships of all nationalities 
enter daily. During the time of greatest railway freight congestion 
last year, 300 or 400 cars left every day for the interior of the country, 
but while there was a notable diminution in traffic on railway lines 
during last December and January, so that the customary movement 



398 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

was reduced 50 per cent, the Tampico division was not affected, but 
as many cars as in the most congested weeks continued to leave the 
port. 

Important road construction in the north. — Besides the 
great highway which, starting from Nogales, Sonora, will follow the 
west coast for 1,000 miles, another important road from Nogales to 
Puerto Lobos, via Saric, Tubutama, Altar, and Caborca, in one of the 
most prosperous regions of the countiy, will receive Government aid. 
The governor of Arizona and these of the Mexican States of Sonora 
and Sinaloa have recently held several meetings for the purpose of 
promoting the construction of various highways through imited ac- 
tion, since such roads will prove of great benefit commercially. 

Mexican and American chambers of commerce. — The American 
consul at Nogales reports that the chambers of commerce in Mexico 
will hold a meeting in Nogales, Mexico, on April 1, 2, and 3, and that 
on the following day they will meet in Nogales, Arizona, with the 
chamber of conmierce of that city. American business men arc 
invited to attend the conference. The chambers of commerce of the 
cities of Nogales and Tucson, Arizona, are making arrangements for 
a special Pullman train to take both the Mexican and American 
delegates down the west coast to Tepic. a distance of approximately 
700 miles. The trip is expected to take 11 days; its fundamental 
purpose is to accjuire knowledge of the business resources and oppor- 
tunities of the region visited. 

New railroad in Chihuahua.— The United States Commerce 
Reports state that a firm of El Paso, Texas, has been awarded a 
contract for the construction of a railroad 47 miles long from the 
Erupcion mine and the Sierra de los Lainentos to the Candelaria 
station on the National Railway, 65 miles below Ciudad Juarez. 
The line is expected to be open to traffic by August of this year; it 
will l)e used both for freight and passenger service, the former con- 
sisting chiefly of silver and lead ore. 

NICARAGUA. 

Yucca baccata fiber.— The Amsinck Co. of New York reported 
on the sample of yucca haccafa fiber sent them that it was quoted in 
the New York market at 3 to 3\ cents if sent in good condition: that 
is, long, soft, strong, and well cleaned. Softness can be given to the 
fiber by the use of certain types of machines. 

Tobacco growers' association. — An association of tobacco 
growers has been formed in Masaya with the object of starting a com- 
pany to market the crop more advantageoush^. 

JuiGALPA electric LIGHT. — The electric-liglit plant of Juigalj)a 
was put into service in November. 



AGRICULTURE, IXDUSTRY, A]!s^D COMMERCE. 399 

Mail and steamer service. — The directorate of mails has an- 
noimced that parcel post from Great Britain will be expedited b}' 
being sent to New York and thence direct to Bluefields via Xew 
Orleans, and that the Royal Netherlands West India Mail will carry 
mail between Hamburg and the Pacific coast of Central America via 
the Panama Canal. 

Wireless compaxy. — The (iovernment has authorized the Tropi- 
cal Radio Telegraph Co., organized under the laws of the State of 
Delaware, U. S. A., to operate wireless stations in or near Managua, 
Bluefields, Cape Gracias a Dios, and other places in the Republic. 
The Managua station is to be of not less than 25 kilowatts. 

PAXA>!A. 

Ferry across Miraflores Lake. — The President of Panama has 
received a conununication from the Department of State of the United 
States to the effect that if the Government of Panama wishes to begin 
constructing a ferr}- across Miraflores Lake for commercial uses that 
the project will be looked upon favorably b}- the United States 
Government, provided the work is carried on under the supervision 
of the Governor of the Canal Zone. The War Departmient of tlie 
United States has for some time considered the building of such a 
ferry, but funds had never been appropriated for the purpose. 

Mensabe-Las Tablas road. — The Panama Construction Co. is 
constructing the Mensabe-Las Tablas cart road opening up the sur- 
rounding country. A well-equipped dock is to be built in Mensabe 
to fit it as a port for the interior of the Republic. 

Agricultural syndicate. — Press reports state that the Mariposa 
Syndicate has contracted for L36,000 acres in the Provinces of Colon 
and Veraguas. The timber of these lands is estimated at from one and 
one-half to two billion board feet in trees scaling upward of IS inches. 
The property is on the land of the Bocas del Toro-Colon Railroad, 
which will join the Pan-American Railway, connecting the conti- 
nents of North and South America. Corn is to be the first crop 
planted after clearing the land, as it matures in 90 da>'s and three 
crops can be raised during the year. Citrus fruits, coconuts, sugar 
cane, and pineapples will be the next, and special attention will be 
given to raising cattle. 

PARAGUAY. 

Distribution of property. — The latest publication of the gen- 
eral statistics bureau, as c[uoted by the Economista Paraguay©, says 
that outside of Asuncion there are in the rest of the Republic 38.348 
pieces of property held by individuals, the total area being 32,766,938 
hectares. As the total area of Paraguay, excluding Asuncion, is 



400 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 



estimated at somewhat more than 40,000,000 hectares, it appears 
that the State still owns more than 7,000,000 hectares. Of the 
38,348 parcels of rural property, 3,378 occupy less than a hectare. 
The remaining 34,970 are distributed in regard to area as follows: 



Area per parcel in hectares. 



1-10 

11-49 

o0-99 

100-499. . . 
.500-999... 
1,000-1,999 
2,000-2,999 



Number 
of parcels. 



Total 
area. 



17,315 

10, 778 

1,806 

3,019 

854 

814 

290 



78,765 
222,953 
129, 185 
738, 834 
652,707 
1,198,498 
713,342 



Area per parcel in hectares I Number 
of parcels. 



3,000-4,999 

5,000-9,999 

10,000-19,999 

20,000-49,999 

50,000-99,999 

More than 100,000. 



413 

340 
345 
126 
84 
52 



Total 
area 



1,616,799 
2,495,340 
5, 459, 667 
4,082.435 
5. 860, 372 
9, 519, 630 



Taking into consideration only the pieces of property more than 
1 hectare in area and calculating the population of the country at 
650,000, with the hypothesis that every parcel of property has a 
different owner, it is shown that property owners compose only 5.8 
per cent of the population. 

Under-iuver cable. — On January 15 the under-river cable 
between Campichuelo, a short distance north of Encarnacion, and 
Posadas, across the Parana in Argentina, was oflicially inaugurated. 
When this line is connected with the Misiones telegraph system, 
direct communication will be established between Argentina and a 
rich and well-populated zone of the Republic. This new line makes 
the third telegraphic line connecting Paraguay with another country; 
there are now lines via Formosa, Paso de Patria, and Campichuelo. 



PERU. 

Automatic lighthouses. — Six new unattended lighthouses and 
beacons, acquired from a Swedish company, will be erected at the 
following points during the first half of 1922: Isla Centro de Chincha. 
Punta Parada, Punta Atico, Punta Santa Maria, Supe and Huarmey. 

Concrete aqueduct. — A reinforced concrete ac^ueduct 68 feet in 
length and 44 feet high, costing approximately 25,000 Peruvian 
pounds, has been built at Tambo Real by the Sociedad Agricola 
Tambo Real, to carry irrigation water between the two ditches on 
opposite sides of the valley, thus making productive 700 fanegadas 
of land in addition to the 500 fanegadas already under cultivation. 
Water from the same canal operates a 150-horsepower turbine for 
the cotton-ginning establishment. The original irrigation canal 
was dug in Inca times. (1 f anegada equals approximately 1 .59 acres.) 

Cattle boats. — A company with a capital of 200,000 soles has 
been founded in Arequipa to carry on the transport of cattle between 
Callao and the southern ports of the Republic. The company will 
have two 500-ton boats especially built for cattle transport. 



AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND COMMERCE. 401 

Margarine. — A new national industry, the production of marga- 
rine from cottonseed oil, has recently been undertaken in Peru vnth. 
satisfactory results. The margarine sold in Lima for 1 sol a kilo, 
while the imported product was priced at 80 per cent more, and was 
not considered superior in quality. 

Petroleum law. — See page 410. 

SALVADOR. 

Tortoise fishing. — Tortoise fishing off Punta Remedios is draw- 
ing a fleet of canoes to that point. 

New publishing house. — A new publisliing house has been 
founded in San Salvador which is to give more opportunity to the 
young writers of the country. An illustrator has been engaged to 
work with the new publishers. The first book brought out will be 
the Parables of Guyau, translated from the French by Sr. Uriarte, the 
edition to be 2,000 copies. 

UNITED states. 

Foreign trade convention. — The Ninth National Foreign Trade 
Convention will be held in Philadelphia May 10, 11, and 12, 1922. Its 
central theme will be the financing and expanding of foreign trade. 

This convention will study the means of promoting the necessary 
restoration of the power of production and consumption in all the 
great markets of the world; it will examine the conditions confronting 
international commerce; and it will obtain the judgment of leaders in 
business, finance and industry on many matters of vital consequence 
to the American people. 

Report on the Hague Rules, 1921.— These rules, which define 
the rights and liabilities of cargo owners and shipowners, respec- 
tively, were made the subject of a report by the executive committee 
of the National Foreign Trade Council, which said: 

The committee, having considered the Hague Rules, 1921, and the arguments pro 
and con bearing thereon, is of the opinion that the National Foreign Trade Council 
should indorse the Hague Rules, 1921, and should urge their early adoption by Amer- 
ican ocean carriers. 

The committee believes that these rules embody as favorable a readjustment of the 
distribution of liability between shipper and carrier as can at present be secured. 
While fully cognizant that these rules do not satisfy many of the demands of the ship- 
pers, the committee is of the belief that their adoption will constitute a substantial 
step in the right direction, and will, in fact, confer very real benefit on the foreign 
trade of the United States. * * * 

The committee is of the opinion that the principle of uniformity of commercial 
documents, to which the National Foreign Trade Council has frequently declared its 
allegiance, will be materially aided by the adoption of the Hague Rules, 1921. 

The committee urges upon American ocean carriers the desirability of putting these 
rules into effect at the same time that they are first applied in Great Britain, thus 
91335— 22— Bull. 4 6 



402 THE PAN AMERKIAN UNION. 

enabling our shippers to offer their foreign customers shipping documents providing 
as great a degree of protection as will be afforded by our competitors' bills of lading. 
* * * 

URUGUAY. 

Buenos Aires-Montevideo airplane service. — On December 
17 the first trip of the new biweekly airplane service between Buenos 
Aires and Montevideo took place, the distance of 220 kilometers 
across the River Plate being covered in approximately 1 hour and 
10 minutes. The airplane has room for four passengers. On the 
first return trip 1,270 letters were carried to Buenos Aires. 

Port works at Montevideo. — The sum of 9,300,000 pesos has 
been appropriated for widening and deepening the harbor and for 
other port works at Montevideo. The money is allotted as follows: 
River dock, 1,500,000 pesos; passenger station, 200,000; fruit market, 
2,400,000; shipyard at La Teja, 1,000,000; dredges and other equip- 
ment, 1,500,000; deepening of entrance canal, outer harbor, etc., 
1,800,000; reconstruction, 500,000; unforeseen work adjudged neces- 
sary, 300,000; and plans, 100,000. 

Helpful books. — The animal inspection division of the ministry 
of industries maintains a library on subjects related to animal raising 
and care. Books may be consulted at the library or borrowed. 

Agricultural laboratory.— In the laboratory of the stock 
raising and agricultural bureau one section is engaged in the study 
and analysis of seeds and experimentation with plants and new 
methods of cultivation of possible interest to the country, while 
another section makes chemical and botanical analyses and experi- 
mental studies having to do with the subjects within the scope of 
the bureau, such as soil, fertilizers, and forage plants. 

Sheep mange. — A commission consisting of Government officials 
of the animal-inspection service, veterinarians, and representatives 
of rural and stock-raising societies, has been appointed by the na- 
tional council of administraition to suggest to the President the best 
means for eradicating the sheep mange. 

VENEZUELA. 

Exportation of stock. — In the first 10 months of 1921 5,234 
head of stock, weighing 2,339,838 kilos, were exported from Ciudad 
Bolivar. 

New communications. — The construction of a road uniting the 
highways of Bella Vista and El Milagro has been authorized in the 
municipality of Coquivacoa. This will complete the net work of 
highways around Maracaibo, and offer to the motorist a drive through 
beautiful scenery. 

A suspension bridge over the Tocuyo River is under construction 
as part of the highway between the States of Lara and Trujillo. 



ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL AFFAIRS. 



403 



Last December a well-constructed road between Merida and La- 
gunillas was opened to traffic. There are six masonry bridges along 
the route. Like all good highways, this will play an important part 
in the development of the agricultural and business interests of the 
State. 



ECONOMICandFINANCIAL 



P AFFAIRS 



^, 



A h 



m 



ARGENTINA. 

Internal bond issue. — The minister of finance has authorized 
khe inscription in the public debt list of the bonds of the internal 
[loan for 60,000,000 pesos issued in accordance with article 8 of the 
["budget law for use in the constructions described in the sections on 
[public works. The bonds will bear 6 per cent interest, and will have 
[a cumulative amortization of 1 per cent. The emission will be made 
[for the gold equivalent, in order to facilitate its quotation in foreign 
(countries. 

BOLIVIA. 

Irrigation and sewer system. — The minister of finance has 
[authorized the placing of a loan to be used for the canalization of the 
^Desaguadero River from a point near Oruro to that city, for the 
)urposes of irrigation and sewerage. 

BRAZIL. 

Financial conditions in Pernambuco. — The State of Pernam- 
buco, Brazil, is said to be in excellent financial condition, the balance 
on hand on November 16, 1921, having been about 10,000,000 milreis 
(at the end of 1921 the milreis was quoted at $0.1261). According 
to Consul C. R. Cameron there will probably be considerable expen- 
■ diture for public works during the coming year, as it is reported that 
the governor has adopted an extensive building program. {Com- 
merce Re'ports.) 

New Brazilian banking agencies. — The Banco Commercial do 
Estado de Sao Paulo has obtained authorization to open agencies in 
14 cities. The Banco Hypothecario e Agricola de Minas Geraes has 
also received authorization to install an agency in Pouso Alegre, 
Minas Geraes. Authorization granted to the Banco do Brasil per- 
mits agencies at Cuyaba, Matto Grosso; Ipamery, Goyaz; Therezma, 
Piauhy; Uruguayana, Rio Grande do Sul; Montevideo, Uruguay; 
and Buenos Aires, Argentina. There is also a newspaper report to 
the effect that the Banco do Brasil will establish agencies in Paris, 



404 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

London, New York, and perhaps Germany and other countries with 
which Brazil has close commercial relations. Upon recommenda- 
tion of the inspector general of banks, the minister of finance has 
authorized the Banco Popular do Rio Grande do Sul to open a branch 
in the city of Pelotas, according to a report from Assistant Trade 
Commissioner Bernard H. Noll. {Commerce Reports.) 

CHILE. 

Budget for 1922. — The total expenditures of the country for the 
present year have been fixed at 288,244,350.44 pesos legal currency 
and 65,958,045.36 gold pesos. 

United States investments in Chile. — Data collected recently 
show that since 1916 up to date the United States has invested in 
Chile $104,000,000, equivalent to nearly 1,000,000,000 pesos at the 
present rate of exchange. Of this sum $33,971,000 corresponds to 
Government loans and the remainder to private enterprises. Among 
these are to be mentioned the Braden Copper Co., the Chile Copper 
Co., and the Electric Light & Power Co. of Concepcion. 

New loans. — In order to cover the deficit of the fiscal year 1921, 
pay the salaries of public employees, and fulfill other urgent obliga- 
tions, including the foreign debt, Congress passed a special law, 
promulgated December 23, 1921. By it the President is authorized 
to contract a loan of not more than 80,000,000 pesos paper and another 
not greater than £1,500,000. The guaranty offered will be either 
bank credits, renewable treasury notes, or tax-exempt State bonds 
bearing not more than 8 per cent interest. 

Public debt. — The public debt of Chile amounts to 501,151,426 
pesos gold and 145,149,600 pesos paper, exclusive of the sums of 
£1,500,000 and 80,000,000 pesos paper mentioned above, the loan of 
which has not yet been consummated. 

Central Institute for the Control of Exchange. — The 
Chilean section of the Inter-American High Commission has recently 
held various meetings, during which a careful study was made of the 
questionnaire submitted by the central executive council to the 
various national sections. The following important resolution was 
adopted: ''The Chilean section of the Inter- American High Com- 
mission resolves to recommend to the Government of Chile, as the 
means which can most effectively contribute as far as possible to 
regulate international exchange, the immediate creation of a central 
institution which shall exercise control over fiduciary circulation, 
internal credit, and international drafts, in order thus to prepare the 
definite stabilization of currency, as far as circumstances permit.'' 

CUBA. 

Loan. — J. P. Morgan & Co. of New York have recently concluded 
arrangements for a one-year loan of $5,000,000 to the Cuban Govern- 



INTEEISTATIONAl. TREATIES. 



405 



ment. It will be used to pay postal money orders, interest and 
amortization of the public debt, and other similar obligations. The 
loan will bear 6 per cent interest, and is guaranteed by the bonds of 
the 1917 issue and the securities of the unencumbered assets of the 
National bank, amounting together to a face value of $7,000,000. 

HAITI. 

Government receipts. — The Moniteur for January 18, 1922, 
gives the internal tax receipts from October 1, 1920, to November 30, 
1921, as follows: 793,618.55 gourdes and $216,870.92. Consular 
fees for the fiscal year 1920-21 amounted to $13,180.57. 

URUGUAY. 

Budget. — In December Parliament extended the budget of 
expenditures for 1921 for an additional month, that is, until February 
28, 1922. 

VENEZUELA. 

Public debt. — ^According to information of the Caracas branch of 
the Dutch West Indian Bank, published in El Nuevo Diario for 
January 9, 1922, the pubhc debt of Venezuela, in December, 1921, 
amounted to 124,859,319.19 bolivars. The population of the country 
being 2,411,952, this means a per capita debt of 51.76 bolivars. 
With the exception of the Treasury bonds, the public debt pays 3 
per cent annual interest. The issues of 1903, 1904, and 1905, which 
amount to 5,733,490.56 bolivars, are the only ones to which Congress 
has not yet assigned sums for amortization. The 3 per cent diplo- 
matic debt of 1905, which originally amounted to 130,000,000 
bolivars, has been reduced 46 per cent by amortization and expiration; 
that is, to 70,000,000 bolivars. 

New bank building. — The National City Bank of New York has 
just opened the building which will be occupied by its Caracas 
branch. The edifice, which is one of the most beautiful in the city, 
is a copy on a smaller scale of the New York Bank. 



^ 



INTERNATIONAL 
J> TREATIES \ 



«? 



^ 



ARGENTIN A-BOL [ VI a . 

Railway convention.— On January 4, 1922, the minister pleni- 
potentiary of Argentina in Bolivia and the Bolivian Minister of For- 
eign Affairs signed in La Paz the agreement for the construction of 
the railroad from Yacuiba to vSanta Cruz. The preliminary surveys 



406 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

will soon be commenced, and the construction started as soon as the 
route is approved. Argentina will appropriate the money necessary 
for building the line, although Bolivia may also contribute a certain 
amount of capital if it is thought necessary. When the line is fin- 
ished branches will be constructed to Sucre, Cochabamba, Tarija, 
Puerto Suarez, and the Gran Chaco. The Government of Bolivia, 
which will have favorable rates on the railroad, may acquire the 
line, material, and accessories at any convenient time by paying the 
cost of the work. Bolivia will supply the railroad with petroleum 
for its service needs. 

Other parts of the convention establish agreements of great impor- 
tance for the colonization of eastern Bolivia and the commercial 
development of the whole Republic. 

ARGENTINA-COLOMBIA. 

Arbitration treaty. — On August 12, 1921, ratifications of the 
arbitration treaty between Colombia and Argentina, signed in Wash- 
ington January 20, 1912, were exchanged in Buenos Aires. 

BRAZIL. 

Independence of Estiionia. — By decree No. loloo of December 5, 
1921, Dr. Epitacio Pessoa, President of the Republic, recognized the 
independence of Esthonia. 

Postal money order convention. — By decree No. 15145 of No- 
vember 28, 1921, the President of the Republic has ordered the exe- 
cution of the postal money order convention between Brazil and the 
United States, sanctioned by legislative decree No. 4312 of August 7> 
1921. 

CHILE-COLOMBIA. 

Convention regarding academic degrees. — The Colombian law 
No. 60 of December 28, 1921, approves the convention between Colom- 
bia and Chile regarding academic degrees and diplomas and the 
exercise of liberal professions. The convention was signed in Santiago 
June 23, 1921, by the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary of Colombia and the Minister of Foreign Relations of Chile. 

COSTA RICA-FRANCE. 

Postal treaty. — ^The Governments of France and Costa Rica 
have agreed to change Article 3 of the postal treaty of November 9, 
1899. By this change the remitter of funds will pay the tax in the 
country of origin. All postal orders for official uses of the post offices 
or dependent branches of the same are exempt from tax. The office 
issuing postal orders will pay to the office which cashes them 1 per 
cent on the first 100 francs and one-half per cent on sums in excess. 



LEGISLATION. 



407 



This additional act to the treaty was signed in duplicate in Paris. 
December 15, 1921, by the plenipotentiaries of both countries and 
was approved in Costa Rica by President Acosta on January 20, 1921. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Parcel post. — The Republic has ratified the convention of Madrid 
regarding parcel post. 

Ecuador-Great Britain. 

Postal money orders. — The postal money order convention be- 
tween Ecuador and Great Britain, signed May 31, 1916, has been put 
into effect in Ecuador by regulations issued December 29, 1921, by 
the President. Guayaquil and Quito, and through them the pro- 
vincial capitals, will serve as offices of issue and payment. 




BRAZIL. 



Rio Grande Meat Co. — President Epitacio Pessoa has issued 
decree No. 15119 of November 16, 1921, authorizing the Rio Grande 
Meat Co. to operate in the Republic, and approving the by-laws of 
the said company. 

The company will have for its object the industry of fresh and 
packed meats and will start with a capital stock of 2,000,000 milreis, 
divided in 2,000 shares of 1,000 milreis; to be fully paid up at the 
time of signing the by-laws. The company has its head office in the 
city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. 

Lease and construction of Santa Cathartna Railway. — 
By decree No. 15152 of December 2, 1921, the President of the Re- 
public authorized the celebration of a contract with the State of 
Santa Catharina for the leasing of the Santa Catharina Railroad and 
its dependent fluvial navigation. The contract has for its objects the 
leasing of the section of the road between Blumenau and Hansa, 
69 kilometers in length, as well as the section of river navigation be- 
tween Itajahy and Blumenau, and the construction of the extension 
of the road as far as the mouth of the Trombudo River, a length of 
35 kilometers, according to the plans approved by decree No. 10818 
of March 18, 1914. 



408 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

Cotton cleaning and pressing. — Dr. Epitacio Pessoa, Presi- 
dent of the Republic, has issued a decree dated December 13, 1921, 
providing for the estabhshment of plants in the cotton ports of the 
Union for the purpose of cleaning and pressing the product prior to 
shipment. The principal requirements of this decree may be summed 
up as follows : 

The minimum density of the presses is to be of not less than from 
500 to 600 kilos per cubic meter; the services of pressing and clean- 
ing are to be paid for at rates fixed by the Federal Government. The 
plants will bo exploited directly b}^ the Union Government or leased 
or sold in view of public calls for tenders, provided the price obtained 
is sufficient to cover the expenses involved in putting up the plants. 
In case the plants are exploited directly by the Union they will be 
in charge of the cotton service; in case the plants are leased or sold 
the lessees or purchasers will engage to operate them on such condi- 
tions as may be laid down by the Federal Government. 

Service badge. — An act of Congress, signed by the President on 
December 18, 1921, provides for the creation of a service badge to be 
awarded to all officers and men in all branches of the service, as well 
as civilians, who served in the World War. The design on the 
badge will be determined by decree of the Federal Government. 

chile. 

Highway construction law. — A law governing the construction 
and maintenance of all future highway's has been passed by Congress. 
Governors, acting in conjunction with departmental boards, are given 
power to enforce the law, which is expected greatly to benefit the 
system of public roads. 

Export of alcohol. — The treasury department has issued a decree 
regulating the export of alcohol, liquors, wines, and beer in compliance 
with the terms of law No. 3087, promulgated in 1916. The decree 
authorizes the export through any seaport or mountain pass of all 
aforementioned products not subject to tax rebates or to bounties 
now in force. 

Coasting-trade law. — Following its approval by the Chamber of 
Deputies, the Senate has passed the bill which reserves all coasting- 
trade of the Republic to the Chilean merchant marine. 

The right to engage in coastwise trade between Chilean ports may 
be conceded by the President to the ships of other South American 
nations which have given equal privileges to Chilean ships. 

The foreign vessels which only occasionally make voyages to 
Chilean ports must not take part in the coastwise trade after the 
promulgation of the present law (February 6) . 

The law goes into effect 6 months after promulgation. 



i 



LEGISLATION". 409 



COLOMBIA. 



Government bank. — The acting minister of finance sent to Con- 
oress in January a bill for the creation of a bank somewhat similar 
to the Federal Reserve Bank of the United States. The money to be 
used is the $25,000,000 which will be paid according to the terms of 
the recent treaty between the United States and Colombia. 

The first three articles of the bill are as follows: 

Article I. The Government will organize and establish a bank, 
which, serving as agent for the execution of fiscal operations, shall 
aid in the development of national industries. It will be called The 
Bank of the Republic, and its capital will be $25,000,000, provided 
by the national treasury, the sum to be received according to the 
treaty of April 6, 1914, between Columbia and the United States 
being destined to this purpose. 

Article II. Said institution will have the character of a Govern- 
ment bank; but other national banking firms may be shareholders 
in it, as well as every Colombian, either native or naturalized, pro- 
vided that the person or firm take a minimum of 5,000 shares. The 
capital of the bank will be divided into 250,000 shares of a value of 
$100 each. 

Article III. The bank will carry on operations permitted by present 
or future laws to banks which are or may be established in the Repub- 
lic, and will be governed in conformity with statutes determined by 
its governing board and approved by the Government. 

The remaining articles of the bill refer to the creation of a mortgage 
section; loans; issue of notes; gold reserve; bank bills as legal 
tender; the governing board which, with the manager, is to be ap- 
pointed by the Government; branch banks in department capitals; 
rate of interest; and other subjects which must be taken into con- 
sideration. 

COSTA RICA. 

Mines bulletin.— On January 1, 1922, the department of mines 
began to publish a monthly bulletin, giving decrees, commentaries 
thereon, and regulations governing the mining industry of Costa 
Rica, as well as information as to the mineral wealth of the country. 

CUBA. 

Legations. — The President has issued a decree authorizing the 
expenditure during the second half of the present fiscal year of sums 
in payment for supplies, house rent, and salaries of subordinate 
employees for the legations of the Republic as follows : For the lega- 
tions in Colombia, Norway, Panama, Peru, Portugal, Santo Domingo, 
Switzerland; Uruguay, and Venezuela, $2,000 each; for those in BeJ- 



410 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

gium, China, Holland, Italy, and Japan, $2,400 each; for that in 
Mexico, $2,500; for those in Germany, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, 
Spain, France, Great Britain, and Central America, $3,300 each; and 
for that in the United States, $6,000. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Insolvency law. ^Executive order No. 699 contains the law re- 
garding insolvency, treating in detail the cases which may occur and 
the procedure to be followed in each. 

PARAGUAY. 

Consular manifests and bills of lading. — ^The President, in 
conjunction with the customhouse expert and the general bureau of 
customs, has issued regulations covering the form of issue of consular 
manifests and bills of lading. They cover all the requisite formalities 
to be complied with in the port of origin of the shipment, form of 
declaration for merchandise, required weights, freight, insurance, and 
other details. Regulations are also given for overseas cargo with 
destination for Paraguay which is transshipped in intermediate ports. 
This decree goes into effect March 1, 1922. 

Imports by parcel post. — The President has issued a decree the 
purpose of which is to insure the payment of duties on merchandise 
received from foreign countries by parcel post, either insured or un- 
insured. Before the publication of this decree, which went into 
effect January 15, 1922, parcel post was not an authorized method 
for importing merchandise. 

PERU. 

Petroleum law. — Law No. 4452 of January 2, 1922, covers ex- 
ploration for and exploitation of petroleum and other hydrocarbons. 
Some of the chief provisions of the law are as follows: 

Applications for exploration and exploitation shall be made to the 
ministry of promotion (fomento). The superficial area of conces- 
sions shall be divided into areas of 40,000 square meters each, called 
pertenencias. Exploration concessions, which are granted for two to 
six years, may not exceed 15,000 pertenencias on the coast, 20,000 in 
the foothills, and 30,000 in the mountains, while exploitation conces- 
sions, granted for an indefinite period, may not be greater than 1,000 
pertenencias, which must, as in the exploration area, be arranged in a 
rectangular block. The concessionary is required to pay the state at 
least 10 per cent of the gross petroleum extracted from the wells during 
exploration or exploitation, if the deposits are situated within 150 
kilometers of the sea, and otherwise a minimum of 6 per cent. There 
is also a ground tax of 1 Peruvian pound per pertenencia of the con- 



LEGISLATI01>r. 411 

cession when no petroleum is being produced, and one ranging from 9 
to 0.50 sol per pertenencia as the production reaches 1 to 10 tons. 
Crude petroleum and derivatives are exportable only after the 
consumption of the country has been satisfied. The Government 
will maintain employees to ascertain the cost and amount of produc- 
tion and the price of sale of the products destined for national con- 
sumption. The petroleum is subject to export tax, or any impost 
substituted therefor. Concessionaries have the right to establish 
wharves, warehouses, and submarine and subfluvial pipe lines, and 
to expropriate private, national, or municipal property necessary for 
the development of the exploitation work. Those constructing pipe 
lines shall be obliged to allow their use by neighboring concessionaries 
who have none, and owners of refineries must refine the petroleum of 
other producers, provided that the plant has a capacity above the 
o^vner's requirements. 

Transfer of gold funds. — The transfer to a New York bank of 
the gold fund, which amounts to between $18,000,000 and $20,000,000, 
was authorized by law No. 4454 of January 4. Interest will therefore 
henceforth be earned by the gold which, with further deposits in the 
Bank of England, guarantees the bank notes issued by Lima banks 
under Government authority. 

URUGUAY. 

Amusement censorship. — The departmental council of Monte- 
video has created a commission for the protection of children, which 
has power to prohibit the attendance of all children under 14 at any 
public spectacle not approved by the commission. When a theatrical, 
moving picture, or other amusement program is announced, the ad- 
vertisement must state whether children are to be allowed. Children 
may attend only those moving-picture performances which show 
scientific, current topic, scenic, and suitable comedy films— in general, 
those offering simple and inoffensive entertainment. 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 
|^;andEDUCATION 



<? 



ARGENTINA. 



University registration. — During 1920 the registration in the 
University of Buenos Aires was 12,441 students, distributed as fol- 
lows among the different colleges and schools: Law and social sci- 
ence, 1,329; medicine, 5,712; physical, natural, and exact sciences. 



412 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

1,068; agriculture and veterinary science, 570; economics, 365; phi- 
losophy and letters, 308; National Preparatory School of Buenos 
Aires, 1,495; and the Carlos Pellegrini Advanced School of Com- 
merce, 1,594. 

Schools in Territories. — The general inspection division for the 
Territories has been authorized by the national education council to 
start 615 new schools, for which money was appropriated by the 1921 
budget law. 

Psychological and physical tests. — The military aviation school 
at El Palomar now has a laboratory completely equipped for giving 
psychological and physical tests to the students of the school. 

New school of aeronautics.— The board of directors of the 
Argentine Aero Club has resolved to start a school of aeronautics 
at San Isidro, to which the Government has given two 100-horse- 
power Caudron airplanes. A pilot's course is being offered to mem- 
bers of the club. The practical mechanic's courses will last two 
months, and will be given on a Curtis 90-horsepower biplane. An 
Argentine pilot has opened a school for instruction in airplane me- 
chanics at the Villa Lugano aerodrome. 

Teachers' leave. — See page 417. 

BOLIVIA. 

School building. — Sr. Alfredo Schmidt has presented to the 
government of the Department of Santa Cruz a beautiful building 
for the boys' and girls' school at El Puente in the Province of Nuflo 
de Chfi.vez. 

CHILE. 

Amendment of educational curricula. — In order to reform the 
existing curricula of public schools and adapt them to modern peda- 
gogic and economic requirements, as well as to broaden the scope of 
all subjects dealing with the study of Chilean and continental history, 
the ministry of public instruction requested that a special committee 
be appointed. The latter, composed of educational experts, repre- 
sentatives of the university, the board of public education, the board 
of primary education, and of the other branches of the service, has 
already begun the consideration of its task. 

COLOMBIA. 

Professor of agriculture. — The Government has engaged a 
German professor of agriculture for the Advanced School of Agri- 
culture in Bogota. Besides teaching he will have charge of the trop- 
ical plants cultivated at the Government experiment station, and 
will report on agricultural progress in the Republic, advancing it in 
every way possible. 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION" AND EDUCATION. 413 

COSTA RICA. 

SuBPRiMARY SCHOOL SOCIETY. — ^A society knowii as the Patronato 
de las Escuelas Matemales has recently been approved by the Presi- 
dent. The aim of the society, which is to have branches in all parts 
of the Republic, is to promote the founding of subprimary or day 
nursery schools for children from 3 to 7 years of age. The association 
will be located in San Jose. Instruction in these day nursery schools 
will be free, but pay pupils ma}^ be admitted when they belong to 
families able to afford it. 

Canal Zone teachers visit Costa Rica. — ^The principals of the 
high schools of Ancon and Balboa, Canal Zone, visited Costa Rica 
and were most generous in praise of the No. 2 Advanced Girls' School, 
both for its construction and its organization. 

CUBA. 

Academy of Telegraphy. — Last November the Academy of Te- 
legi-aphy of the Department of Habana was officially inaugurated. 
The wireless section is provided with the most modern apparatus and 
equipment; there are two stations for receiving and transmitting 
messages, and a receiving apparatus for extra-length waves which 
registers messages sent from the Eiffel Tower, Nauen, and other sta- 
tions in Europe and in South America. This section also has a direct 
current generator, two for alternating current, amplifiers, and other 
accessories. In the wire telegraphy department, modern innovations 
in apparatus, mounting, and installation have been introduced, as 
well as line circuits and all other equipment necessary to give the 
student an exact knowledge of telegraphy. 

Scholarship prizes. — Senora Piedad Aenia de Bobadilla, daughter 
of the well-known poet Juan Clemente Zenea, has willed S10,000 to 
the University of Habana to be used in encouraging the love of learn- 
ing and advanced study. With the interest of the money two prizes 
will be established, one to bear the name of Emilio Bobadilla (Fray 
Candil) , and the other of the donor. 

DOMINICAN REPL'BLIC 

Kindergarten anniversary. — The first kindergarten in the Re- 
public, founded by Senorita Maria Amiama, a graduate of Columbia 
University, celebrated its eleventh anniversary in January. Besides 
children of kindergarten age, the school takes pupils up to the age of 
11, who are taught by a faculty of nine teachers trained by the founder 
and principal of the school. 

ECUADOR. 

German teachers. — Through the consul of Ecuador in Berlin, the 
President engaged 11 Gennan teachers for the Quito normal schools; 



414 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

they arrived early this year. The ministers of foreign affairs and of 
pubhc instruction of Germany approved the teachers selected. 

GUATEMALA. 

School of pharmacy and natural science. — The school men- 
tioned was reorganized in September. It offers a good course to its 
students, and has provided ample laboratory facilities for their use. 
The museum of zoological specimens contains specimens of native and 
foreign fauna. 

Time schedule. — The inspection section of the department of pub- 
lic instruction has worked out a schedule for the time to be given to 
subjects in the elementary and complementary courses of the pri- 
mary schools of the capital. Approval has been given by the depart- 
ment. 

Conservatory of Music. — The National Conservatory of Music is 
to receive larger appropriations to increase its efficiency. 

HAITI. 

Members of educational councils. — The members representing 
public and free instruction in the national council of the University 
of Haiti and in the regional councils are chosen by secret ballot at the 
vote of the majority of the teaching personnel in schools of all three 
grades of instruction. The elections are held under the school in- 
spectors a month before the terms of the incumbents expire. 

Police school. — Last fall a school for educating future officers of 
the gendarmerie was established. The course lasts two years, and 
is open to young men between 19 and 23 years of age. 

HONDURAS. 

High school. — The municipality of Danli and charitable persons 
of the vicinity are to establish a school for poor boys who have 
finished their primary education. 

Pro-aviation committee. — The young men's club interested in the 
advance of aviation in the country is about to order airplanes from 
Italy for the equipment of the first Honduran school of aviation. 

MEXICO. 

Railway school. — The technical education bureau of the depart- 
ment of education, convinced of the importance of adequate prepa- 
ration for railwa}^ employees, has decided to establish a school which 
will prepare men for such emplo^Tnent. A modern building is being 
erected in San Jacinto at a cost of 150,000 gold pesos. The school will 
prepare skilled engineers and machinists and men trained to operate 
rolling stock, automatic brakes, signals, and the telegraph, to make 



PUBLIC! INSTRUCTION AND EDUCATION. 415 

train charts, to pei-forni station service, and to plan tlie movement of 
freight and passengers. 

Instruction in the graphic arts. — The National School of 
Graphic Arts was opened in February. It offers complete courses in 
typography, linotype operation, photogravure, drawing, and type 
casting. Hundreds of applications for entrance were received, and 
it is confidently expected that this school will give a powerful impetus 
to the national printing industry and the graphic arts. 

NICARAGUA. 

Mine night school. — The Eden mine now has a night school for 
the workmen under the direction of a Catholic priest, who has also 
been director of the school for boys in this localitj^. 

Telegraph school. — The College of the Salesians has instituted a 
course in telegraphy. 

PANAMA. 

Graduate nurses. — The school of obstetrics attached to Santo 
Tomas Hospital recently graduated a class of trained nurses and 
midwives. President Porras presented the diplomas and made an 
address at the graduating exercises. 

PARAGUAY. 

Artigas school. — Work on the Artigas School in Asuncion, 
named in honor of the Uruguayan patriot who died in that city, is 
well advanced. The Government of Uruguay, which will take part 
in the inauguration ceremonies, has expressed the wish that the open- 
ing of the school take place on May 14, Paraguay's independence day. 

Vocational school for women. — The plans for the building to be 
erected for a women's vocational school have been presented to the 
department of public instruction for approval; the cost will be 
1,326,000 pesos legal currency. The school is to be built in memory of 
Senora Rosa Pena de Gonzalez, a well-known educator. 

Surgical clinic. — The school of medicine, through the depart- 
ment of public instruction, has engaged Prof. Pietro Marogna, of the 
surgical clinic of the Genoa Medical School, for the corresponding 
chair in the Paraguayan institution. 

PERU. 

Academic degrees. — A special commission has been created to 
grant degrees and titles to the graduates of universities and other 
private institutions of learning. All university and other authorities 
wishing their students to be eligible to the degrees conferred by this 



416 



THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 



commission must submit for approval their courses of study, the 
students' certificates of admission, and the credentials of the members 
of the faculty. 

SALVADOR. 

New school. — The Colegio Felipe Solano, a new school opened in 
La Union for primary instruction, is to follow the most approved 
methods. 

Evening business school. — On January 15 evening classes in 
business and finance were opened in the building of the Clerks' Asso- 
ciation of Salvador. 

URUGUAY. 

School of mechanical, electric, and electro-mechanical 
TRADES. — A school embracing these subjects has been created by the 
upper council of industrial instruction through the combination of 
the machine shops from Industrial School No. 1 and the School for 
Apprentices in Electrical Work, dependent on the State electrical 
shops. 

VENEZUELA. 

School of commerce. — By executive decree a school of commerce 
has been created in Barquisimeto. 




ARGENTINA. 

Vacation colonies for delicate children. — On December 12 
the vacation colonies for delicate children were opened in Avellaneda 
Park for the third season ; the number registered far outnumbered the 
estimate. The accommodations in Parque Avellaneda and the Rural 
Society grounds are for 2,000 children. 

In the Parque Avellaneda there is a refrigerated milk station 
which can keep more than 1,000 quarts of milk cold for over 30 hours. 
This milk is all certified by the city authorities and is furnished to 
the vacation colonies. Paper cups, napkins, and towels are used and 
everything is arranged in the most sanitary manner. 

The colonies are managed by the national council of education and 
paid for by the municipality of Buenos Aires, in whose budget they 



SOCIAL PROGRESS. 417 

have been made a permanent item. The report for last year des- 
cribes a typical day: 

The children came from their homes in the early morning, and at the sound of a bell 
formed for inspection. Baths of different sorts were given, and then the children 
were summoned to an open-air breakfast. Meanwhile the teachers were arri\-ing and 
receiving their assignments of games and other recreations for the day. At a quarter 
past 9 each teacher set out with her singing group for one of the 33 sectors, some chil- 
dren leading donkeys or other animals, others ready to feed and care for the chickens, 
and still others provided with hoops, tennis racquets, jumping ropes, balls of various 
kinds, or other implements for games. Many carried gardening tools; others had 
brooms and shovels to put the park avenues in a tidy condition. The tiny tots had 
their dolls and doll carriages. Systematic exercises, games of all kinds, drawing, mod- 
eling and other manual training, singing, story-telling, and dramatics filled the morning, 
the occupation lieing changed twice in that time. 

After a nourishing luncheon and a short stroll, the children took a nap in steamer 
chairs under the shady trees. The afternoon was passed with games in still other 
sectors, the teachers making use of favoraljle opportunities to give incidental lessons 
in nature study, geography, history, ethics, and courtesy. After an afternoon lunch 
the street car tickets were given out, and at 5 o'clock the children started home. 
"To-morrow the daily enigma and the hope of the soul athirst for the ideal." 

Teachers' leave. — The national comicil of education has dic- 
tated a resolution to the effect that in the future all pregnant women 
employees, whether teachers, executives, or laborers, will be allowed 
60 days' leave with pay, dating from the first of the ninth month or 
before, if the medical inspector of the school judges that their state 
of health will not permit them to discharge their duties. 

Labor accidents. — The report of the accident section of the 
department of labor. Province of Buenos Aires, for 1921 is as follows: 
Actions filed, 11,691, showing an increase of 2,900 compared with 
1920; compensation deposits in the Banco de la Provincia, 301,499.05 
pesos, covering 33 fatalities with a compensation of 133,643.09 pesos; 
1 case of permanent total incapacity, 2,796.44 pesos; and 181 of 
permanent partial incapacity, 615,059.52 pesos. The preceding 
figures show that 15.4 per cent of the cases were fatal; 0.4 per cent led 
to permanent total incapacity; and 84.2 per cent produced permanent 
partial incapacity, making a total of 215 indemnified cases. 

The deposits made in the accident section from the time it was 
created are as follows: In 1917, 38,321.80 pesos; in 1918, 47,159.08 
pesos; in 1919, 161,437.41 pesos; in 1920, 212,444.42 pesos; and in 
1921, 301,499.05 pesos. 

Public libraries. — The number of Argentine libraries founded 
and maintained by the State has increased in the following proportion: 
In 1910 there were 191 libraries; in 1911, 210; in 1912, 229; in 1913, 
226; in 1915, 433; in 1916, 522; in 1917, 625; in 1918, 720; in 1919, 
825; and in 1920, 885. It was expected that in 1921 they would 
increase to 1,000. There are also 2,128 school libraries and 473 
public circulating libraries, also maintained by the State. 
91335— 22— Bull. 4 7 



418 THE pa::^ amekican uis^ion. 

BKAZIL. 

Child welfare. — In connection with the meetings of the Third 
Pan American Child Welfare Conference and the first Brazilian con- 
ference of the same nature, which are to be held in Rio de Janeiro 
just previous to the centennial exposition in September, the following 
paragraphs from a letter received by the Director General of the 
Pan American Union from Dr. Duprat, of the port health inspection 
service of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, may be quoted as show- 
ing the trend of Brazilian thought and activity : 

Since 1913, we have been endeavoring ourselves to get up to date all our institutions 
of public interest, specially those connected with the welfare of infancy, not only 
whilst under the maternal care, but also of infancy at school. Regretfully, our work 
was severely interrupted by the Great War. * * * 

They are full of truth, the words pronounced by Lord Curzon, at the International 
Congress of Tuberculosis just held at London, when he says that a world solidarity of 
intellectual men is far more lasting and proficous (beneficial) to the human kind 
than the international understandings amongst politicians. 

CHILE. 

Department of social welfare created by the Association 
OF Nitrate Producers. ^This noteworthy initiative on the part 
of an organization which comprises practically all the nitrate inter- 
ests of the country has met with general approval, since it will tend 
effectively to settle the differences which continually arise between 
capital and labor in the most important industrial region of Chile. 
The new department will undertake the study of all problems con- 
nected with the camps, their comfort, spaciousness, appearance, 
cleanlmess and other factors relating to the health and welfare of the 
workingmen. Furthermore, it will endeavor to encourage education 
through the establishment of night schools and educational centers. 
It also plans to maintain dispensaries giving free medical attention 
and medicine. 

Ciulean Red Cross. — In harmony with the humanitarian prin- 
ciples underlying the world-wide movement promoted by the Red 
Cross, the Chilean national society, taking advantage of the Christmas 
holidays, organized a vast drive in the interest of public health and 
the enrollment of new members. Numerous benevolent and charita- 
ble organizations cooperated in the drive, which was highlj^ success- 
ful and represents the first effective step taken by the Chilean Red 
Cross to arouse public opinion and enshrine itself permanently in 
the hearts of the people. As is well known, two central bodies, 
the International Committee of the Red Cross and the League of 
Red Cross Societies, both located at Geneva, help to coordinate the 
activities of the various national societies throughout the world. 



SOCIAL PROGKESS. 419 

COSTA RICA. 

Red Cross smallpox prevention. — The Costa Rican Red Cross 
lias sent out 3 sanitary commissions with stocks of smallpox vaccine. 
Each commission is composed of a medical practitioner and an aide 
who is a member of the Red Cross. All are under the direction of a 
physician. 

CUBA. 

Marianao playground. — The children's playground in Marianao 
was opened the latter part of January. It is thoroughly equipped 
with modern playground apparatus planned to give both entertain- 
ment and healthful exercise. There is a special section for tiny tots 
between 2 and 5 years of age where, in accordance with the best 
playground practice, amusements appropriate for their age are 
provided in a shady place, away from the larger children. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Private hospital. — A Venezuelan physician has opened in Santo 
Domingo a private hospital provided with European and American 
apparatus for giving electrical treatment and making microscopical 
and bacteriological examinations. 

wSmallpox. — The sanitation office of Santiago district has issued 
regulations requiring the reporting of every case of smallpox, under 
penalty of a fine of $25 or 25 days in prison. 

Leper hospital. — ^A new leper hospital has been opened in Nig- 
napor. 

Medical inspection. — During the first quarter of the school year 
87 visits of inspection were made, 612 children examined, and 93 sick 
children and 11 cases of transmissible disease found. 

ECUADOR. 

Venereal prophylaxis. — A dispensary and laboratory for the 
venereal prophylaxis service are to be opened in Quito, under regula- 
tions modeled after those of Uruguay, Argentina, the United States, 
and France. The necessary dispensaries will also be established in 
Guayaquil. 

HAITI. 

Free dispensary. — The St. Francis de Sales Hospital of Port au 
Prince is open every morning to free patients. Children as well as 
adults are treated, and dressings and minor surgical operations are 
performed three times a week. The operating room is well eciuipped 
for its work. 



420 THE PAISr AMERICAN UNION. 

MEXICO. 

Campaign against communicable diseases. — The Federal sani- 
tary department is energetically continuing the campaign against 
communicable diseases, and has reduced in a noteworthy manner 
the severity of epidemics occurring in the country. Smallpox vac- 
cination is being continued on a large scale, as well as disinfection 
for protection against typhus. As a result of spreading oil on pools 
of water, excellent results have been obtained in the fight against 
yellow fever, the cases of fever and deaths caused by the disease 
being reduced last year to 115 and 53, respectively, as against 505 
and 249 reported in 1920. 

School breakfasts. — In view of the beneficial results obtained 
by instituting free breakfasts for poor children in the public schools, 
the department of education has allotted 500,000 pesos of its budget 
to the maintenance and development of this service. At present 
more than 20,000 breakfasts are served daily in various schools of 
the capital. The food is prepared in special kitchens. 

NICARAGUA. 

Petition for prison school. — One of the ex-convicts of the gen- 
eral prison, pardoned in connection with the Centenary celebration, 
has asked permission to continue to instruct those who were his fel- 
low prisoners. As he was a teacher by profession, while serving his 
sentence he taught the other inmates of the prison, and now that 
he is free he wishes to continue the good work. 

PANAMA. 

Playground of the Teachers' Normal School. — The play- 
ground of the Teachers' Normal School was recently opened in 
Panama City. It contains a tennis court, a basket-ball court and 
ample space for other exercises. 

PERU. 

Day nursery.— The Central Market Day Nursery in Lima cares 
for more than 120 children a day and gives them three meals. Two^ 
trained nurses from Germany are in charge, and there is a kindergartenj 
taught by a graduate teacher. 

Third Child Welfare Congress. — Dr. Carlos Enrique Paz Soldan,! 
professor of hygiene m the medical school, has been appointed chair-J 
man of the Peruvian committee on participation in the conference to! 
be held in Rio de Janeiro in connection with the celebration of the] 
centenary in September of this year. The other members of th( 
committee include several women. A questionnaire has been sent! 



SOCIAL PROGRESS. 421 

out, and the committee hopes to present to the congress as full in- 
formation as possible on Peruvian child welfare. 

Yellow fever. — From July to December 31, 1921, there was no 
case of yellow fever in Peru. The physician in charge of the campaign 
against the dreaded disease wrote at that time that although the 
country was free from yellow fever he considered it of the highest 
importance to contmue the work for some time longer, until the dis- 
appearance of the disease not only from Peru but from the entire west 
coast of South America. 

Bacteriological laboratory. — The municipal laboratory of 
Lima prepares rabies and typhoid vaccine, the latter having been 
given to 7,000 persons in 1921. Examinations of blood and sputum 
for typhoid and tuberculosis diagnoses are made free for the poor. 
A daily analysis of the city drinking water shows it to be free from 
typhoid germs, thanks to the constant use of chlorine and aluminum 
sulphate. 

SALVADOR. 

Hospitals.— In December new hospital accommodations were 
opened in two places; the Hospital Salazar in La Libertad and a 
tuberculosis ward in Santa Ana. 

Vaccination bureau. — The number of persons vaccinated 
throughout the country in the week endmg December, 1921, were as 
follows, by departments: San Salvador, 600; Santa Ana, 457; San 
Miguel, 785; La Libertad, 214; Sonsonate, 1178; Ahuachapan, 278; 
Cuscatlan, 125; La Paz, 105; San Vicente, 162; La Union, 61; Chala- 
tenango, 67; Cabanas, 62; Morazan, 78; total for the week, 4,152. 
The total for the same places during the week ending December 10 
was 4,246, or 8,398 persons vaccinated in the Repubhc in two weeks. 

URUGUAY. 

Baby week. — Baby week was held from December 19 to 24, 1921, 
in Montevideo. An instructive exhibition was displayed in the Ate- 
neo, where daily lectures on various aspects of child care were given. 
The subjects included milk stations, by Dr. Bonaba; proper clothing 
and living conditions, by Dr. Maria Armand Ugon; and other related 
topics, discussed by Dr. Duprat, Senor Pucci, and Dr. Luis Morquio. 
Mothers were invited to bring their babies for a competition, when 
money prizes were given the 7 mothers who were considered to have 
best cared for their children, while the 20 healthiest babies also 
received awards. 

Day of rest. — The weekly day of rest has been granted to post- 
men in Montevideo. 

Uruguayan Anti-Tuberculosis League. — Last month's Bulle- 
tin gave a statement of the means through which the league is now 



422 



THE PAN AMEEICAN UNION. 



Carrying on its beneficent work. The figures of what it has accom- 
plished since its foundation in 1902, when 6 patients were under its 
care, are of much interest: Eleven thousand nine hundred and thirty- 
five patients have been cared for; 3,755 persons have been cured and 
returned to useful work; 38,964 persons under observation have 
been given training in hygiene and provided with the means of disin- 
fection; 14,378 visits have been made to patients, both to care for 
them and to improve their living conditions; and apart from the ex- 
traordinary distributions made by the women's committee and the 
amount spent for housing, material assistance has been given to the 
extent of 983,022 kilos of meat, 879,781 kilos of bread, and 1,956,367 
liters of milk. 

Uruguayan Red Cross. — Last December, in the presence of the 
minister of war and naval aff"airs and a distinguished company, the 
president of the Uruguayan Red Cross conferred diplomas and arm 
bands on 63 voluntary Red Cross nurses. Among the peace-time 
activities of the Red Cross are relief work in case of floods and other 
disasters, and hygiene propaganda. A novel form of service is the 
erection of supplementary warning signals at dangerous points 
along the coast. 

Amusement censorship. — See page 411. 

VENEZUELA. 

Fourth Medical Congress. — The fourth meeting of the Vene- 
zuelan Congress of Medicine will take place in Caracas during Decem- 
ber, 1924, when the Republic celebrates the first centenary of the 
Battle of Ayacucho. The chief object of this congress is to carry 
out a complete study of the diseases prevalent in the country and of 
methods of prevention and cure. It therefore forms an institution 
whose purpose is the study of tropical hygiene and pathology as 
related especially to Venezuela. The third congress met in Valencia 
in June, 1921. 




ARGENTINA. 



International Law Association. — The board of directors of the 
Argentine section of the International Law Association has received 
word from the general secretary in London, accepting the Argentine 
suggestion for advancing the date of the meeting in Buenos Aires in 



GENERAL NOTES. 423 

1922, in order to allow members to be present at the celebration of the 
Brazilian centenary. The London executive council has decided to 
charter a steamer sailing July 29. It will have on board the majority 
of the European internationalists going to the conference, which will 
open August 24. Among those from Great Britain will be Viscount 
and Lady Cave, Lord and Lady Phillimore, Sir Henry Duke, president 
of the high admiralty court, Lord Justice Major Younger, and the 
lord chancellor, Viscount Birkenhead. A large group from the 
United States is expected, and many French, Belgian, Dutch, Swedish, 
Norwegian, Italian, and Spanish jurists have also registered. Pro- 
fessor Niemeier, director of the German Review of International Law, 
Dr. Simons, former minister of foreign affairs, and eight other promi- 
nent men are going from Germany. 

BOLIVIA. 

Experiences of scientist. — Through the courtesy of his Excel- 
lency the Minister of Bolivia in the United States the Bulletin is 
privileged to quote parts of a letter received by him from Mr. E. L. 
Hoffman, third vice president and statistician of the Prudential 
Insurance Co. : 

I recently returned from an extended trip to South America, including a stay of 
some four months in the Republic of Bolivia. My journey was for the purpose of a 
scientific investigation into problems of tropical acclimatization, tropical diseases, 
etc., including anthropological and anthropometrical investigations, particularly in 
the lower end of eastern Bolivia. My journey, in brief, through your country was 
from La Paz to Canamina, and from there, via the Bopi and Beni Rivers, to Riberalta, 
with a side trip over the Madre de Dios and the Rfo Orton to Cobija and the Rio Acre. 
The trip yielded results which, I feel sure, will be of profound interest and value to 
the different departments of science to which they refer. It will take some time, of 
course, before the results can be made public, on account of the magnitude of the 
material collected, but I anticipate no serious difficulties in this respect. * * * 

In my judgment the Bolivian tropics, or semitropics, have been much and need- 
lessly maUgned by adventurers and explorers, seeking the abnormal or unusual, for 
the purpose of attracting public attention. In my own case I can bear witness to the 
fact that during nearly five months of contact with all classes of people, under all 
conceivable conditions, involving much hazard and disease exposure, I never met 
with a disabling accident, while I was never robbed of anything, or in personal danger, 
for any reason whatever, while at the same time I did not suffer an hour of illness, 
but returned to this country much improved in health and strength. In my judg- 
ment your Government should leave nothing undone to make the truth about Bolivia 
known to the American people, as one of the most promising fields for American 
enterprise on a large scale. * * * 

BRAZIL. 

New CONGRESSIONAL BUILDINGS FOR Brazil. — The expenditure 
of an amount not to exceed 12,000,000 milreis for the construction 
of new buildings for the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate has 
been authorized, according to a recent consular report. {Commerce 
Reports.) 



424 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

Brazilian discovery of new explosive. — A new high explosive 
called brazilite is reported to have been discovered in Brazil. In 
experiments this explosive resisted without deflagration all mechani- 
cal and chemical tests. Assistant Trade Commissioner Bernard H. 
Noll states that it is claimed that the explosive does not give off 
gases prejudicial to the operator. During the experiments 5,650 
grams were placed in a bored hole, 4 meters 65 centimeters in depth, 
and this charge, when detonated, displaced 200 cubic meters of 
granite. {Commerce Reports.) 

CHILE. 

Distinction conferred upon the ambassador of the United 
States. — The Hon. William Miller Collier has been appointed 
honorary member of the faculty of law and political sciences of the 
University of Chile. An impressive ceremony marked the conferring 
of the honor. 

Exhibit of Latin American art. — The board of fine arts, in a 
recent meeting, approved a resolution in favor of holding a great 
exhibit of Pan American art in Santiago not later than September, 
1923. A committee was appointed to foster the plan. 

COSTA RICA. 

Guide to Costa Rica. — The ex-consul to Col6n, Panama, has 
published a ''Guide for Tourists in Costa Rica," thus filling a long- 
felt need. The book contains a synopsis of the country's history, 
territorial divisions, political administration, population, statistics, 
trade, and investment opportunities. 

CUBA. 

Literary prizes. — In the literary competition organized under the 
auspices of the Liga Patriotica Argentina in wliich A\Titers and poets 
of all the Latin American nations took part, the second prize, 2,000 
pesos and a gold medal, was awarded to Seiior Luis Rodriguez 
Embil, consul general of Cuba in Germany, for his "Poem of Love 
and Death." The third prize, 1,000 pesos and a gold medal, was 
also won by a Cuban, Senor Gustavo Sanchez Galarraga; the title 
of liis poem was "Hymn to America." The first prize was not 
awarded. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Monument to Columbus. — A plan for a tomb to Columbus, sur- 
mounted by an immense lighthouse which would be a beacon far over 
the Carribbean, has been proposed by an American resident in Santo 
Domingo. There is still doubt, however, as to the actual burial place 
of the great discoverer, for the Spaniards claim that his remains are 



I 



IIKNKKAL NOTES. 425 

entombed in the Cathedral of Seville, having been transported there 
from Habana, while the Dominicans are sure that his dust rests in 
Santo Domingo. 

ECUADOR. 

Ecuadorian Academy. — The Ecuadorian Academy, which is a 
correspondent of the Royal Spanish Academy, has been organized in 
Quito with the following charter members: Senor Quintiliano San- 
chez, director; Archbishop Manuel Maria Polit, Senor N. Clemente 
Ponce, Gonzalo Zaldumbide, Dr. Carlos M. Tobar y Borgono, Senor 
Celiano Monge, and Senor Jose Rafael Bustamante. 

GUATEMALA. 

Vital statistics. — In Guatemala City during 1921,4,304 children 
were born and 3,582 persons died, giving the city an increase of 722 
in population. 

Police physical training. — The police force is to be given phy- 
sical training in outdoor sports such as football, and instruction 
in boxing, wrestling, jumping, and fencing. 



i 



MEXICO. 



Special rates for tourists. — The United States Commerce 
Reports state that, with the purpose of stimulating the influx of 
American tourists during the winter months, rates on the Mexican 
railways were considerably reduced for round trips. A ticket to 
Mexico City by way of Ciudad Juarez, returning through Laredo, 
Piedras Negras or Matamoros, was sold for $60. Pullman cars on 
all the principal lines added to the comfort of the journey. 

Argentine actress. — In order to strengthen the intellectual ties 
between Argentina and Mexico and to make known the dramatic 
artists of the former country, the Government of Mexico, on the 
initiative of the department of public education, engaged the famous 
Argentine actress Camila Quiroga to give a series of performances in 
the theaters of Mexico City. These performances, which were ex- 
tremely successful artistically, have tended to increase public interest 
in intellectual and artistic interchange between Hispanic American 
countries, and a series of contracts with the most prominent artists 
of the sister Republics is now being considered. 



NICARAGUA. 



Postponed centenary celebration. — The celebration of the 
centenary of Nicaragua's independence, postponed from September, 
was celebrated on December 23, 24, and 25 with appropriate religious, 
military, and civil ceremonies, the reading of the act of independence. 



426 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

a reception in the presidential palace, and the pardoning of prisoners. 
On those dates only correspondence bearing the special centenary 
stamps was received for mailing in the post offices. 

Madrid honors Dario. — A circle in Madrid has been named after 
Ruben Dario, Nicaragua's famous poet. The agent of La Nacion of 
Buenos Aires offered the offices of that paper in Madrid for the ex- 
hibition of a portrait of the poet painted by Vasquez Diaz, and a 
literary and musical evening was held at the same time. 

City improvements. — The city of Managua has undertaken the 
repair of the streets and the rebuilding of the central police station. 

PANAMA. 

Monument to French canal builders. — The Canal Zone Gov- 
ernment and the municipality of Panama have offered substantial 
contributions toward the erection of the monument which is to com- 
memorate the first builders of the canal. The de Lesseps family have 
informed the French charge d'affaires in Panama that they would 
present to the Government of Panama for the monument a copy of 
the bust of de Lesseps belonging to the Suez Canal Co.; and the Gov- 
ernment of Ecuador has sent a subscription of $500 for the bas-relief 
to be placed at the base of the monument. 

Red Cross aids flood victims. — The Red Cross of Panama aided 
in the collection of supphes for the victims of the floods in Darien. 
The United States cruiser Ashville took the clothing and food sup- 
plies to the flooded regions. 

PERU. 

Monuments. — Peru is to expend 15,000 Peruvian pounds for 
a monument in Lima ''to perpetuate in the Republic the regard and 
affection of Peru for the Mother Country." This will be dedicated 
on Columbus Day, 1924. Another monument will be erected in 
honor of Marshal Sucre on the centenary of the Battle of Ayacucho, 
December 9, 1924. 

Recognition of poet. — Congress has voted a gold medal to the 
poet Jose Santos Chocano, who has recently returned to his native 
country after a prolonged absence. 

SALVADOR. 

New musical mass. — The Salvadorean musician Azmitia has 
composed a new musical setting for the mass, which is to be sung in 
San Miguel Tepezontes. 

URUGUAY. 

Aviation meet. — A very successful aviation meet was held in 
Montevideo last December. Two Avros, two Spads, and a Salm 



i 



GENERAL NOTES. 



427 



were piloted by daring aviators, who thrilled the audience by cork- 
screw and Immelmann turns, the ''falling leaf," and "looping the 
loop." 

VENEZUELA. 

Statue of Bolivar. — ^A bronze statue of Bolivar will be erected 
in the Plaza Bolivar of the city of Porlamar by the State of Nueva 
Esparta in commemoration of the recognition of the Liberator in 
the town of Santa Ana del Norte, in 1816. 

New hotel. — ^In the latter part of last year the Gran Hotel Caracas, 
considered one of the most comfortable, modern, and luxurious of 
the city, was opened to public service. It has rooms with private 
bath, electric bells, and telephones. In connection with the hotel 
there is a farm where vegetables, poultry, and other animals are 
raised. 

Glossary. — Dr. Lisandro Alvarado, the well-known writer, has 
recently published an interesting Glossary of Indigene Words of 
Venezuela. The new work will be useful to etj^mologists, and is a 
valuable addition to research along this line. 




REPOBTS RECEIVED TO FEBRUARY 25, 1922. 



Subject. 



Date. 



ARGENTINA. 

Budget estimate for the municipality of Buenos Aires for 1922. . . . 
Valuation of goods for assessment of duties 



Cereal prices week ending Nov. 10, 1921 ......... 

Destination of Argentina's principal exports Jan. 1 to Sept. 29, 

1921. .... 

Official methods of food analysis employed in Argentma 

Argentine trade for nine months of 1920 — 

Condition of Buenos Aires banks at the end of November, 1921 . . 



Argentine State railways 

Shipping and navigation in 1921 

BOUVIA. 

Total exports of tin from Bolivia for December, 1921 

BRAZIL. 

Installation of self-measuring gasoline curb pumps in Periiambueo 
Hog raising in southern Brazil 



Automobile roads in Pernambuco 

Sugar exports first six months of 1921 

Brazilian cotton exports first six months of 1922 . . 

Report on the Babassu nut 

Cotton shipments from Recife, U months of 1921 . 

Report on the Cashew { Caju) fruit and nut 

Fisheries and the market for fish products 



New steamship line touching Pernambuco 

Present outlooK for beef industry in Rio Grande do Sul. 
Possibilities for American live stock in Brazil 



1921. 
Oct. 31 

Nov. 9 

Nov. 14 
...do 

Nov. 28 
Dec. 28 
Dec. 31 

1922. 
Jan. 2 



Feb. 3 

1921. 
Dec. 3 



Author. 



Crop reports 

Market lor optical goods 

Report on general commercial information on Chile, imports 

and exports by countries, 1920. 
Business and financial conditions of Chile, for period ending 

June 30, 1921. 
Market for cereals 



Market for scientific apparatus and laboratory supplies 

COLOMBIA. 

Reports on commerce and industries for February, March, April, 
and M a V, 1921. 

German steamship line to beijin service in December 

June report on commerce and industries 

Hand pumps used in Colombia 



Dec. 


7 


Dec. 

Dec. 

do 


10 
16 

"ii 

29 
30 
31 


Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 


1922. 
Jan. 9 
Jan. 15 
Jan. 24 


1921. 
Dec. 6 


Dec. 


9 


Dec. 


13 


Dec. 


15 


Dec. 


28 


Dec. 


30 



Educational courses in schools 

Installation of modern telephone system in Barranquilla. 



Proposal to establish a State or national bank of Colombia 

New hospital in Cartagena 

Projected law for the foundation of a bank in the city of Bogota . 
Commerce and industries of Barranquilla, 11 months of 1921... . 



Dec. 12 

Dec. 13 
Dec. 15 
Dec. 19 

Dec. 30 

Dec. 31 

1922. 
Jan. 18 
Jan. 19 
...do.... 
Jan. 21 



COSTA RICA. 

December report on commerce and industries Jan. 17 

Municipal improvements in San Jose during 1921 Jan . 20 

428 



W. Henry Robertson, consul 

general at Buenos Aires. 
Raleigh A. Gibson, vice con- 
sul at Buenos Aires. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
\V. Henry Robertson. 

Wilbert L. Bonney, consul 

at Rosario. 
\V. Henry Robertson. 



W. Duval Brown, consul at 
La Paz. 



C. R. Cameron, consul at 

Pernambuco. 
Samuel T. Lee, consul at 

Porto Alegre. 
C. R. Cameron. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Geo. H. Pickerel!, consul at 
Para. 

C. R. Cameron. 
Samuel T. Lee. 
A. GauUn, consul general at 
Rio de Janeiro. 



Dayle C. McDonough, consul 
at Concepcion. 

B. C. Matthews, vice consul 
at Antofagasta. 

C. F. Deichman, consul gen- 
eral at Valparaiso. 

Dayle C. McDonough. 



Homer Brett, 

Iquique. 
B. C. Mathews. 



consul at 



E. C. Soule, consul at Carta- 
gena. 
Do. 
Do. 
Leroy R. Sawyer, consul at 

Santa Marta. 
Edmund B. MontgomeryJ 
vice consul at Barranquilla^ 
Do. 



E.C. Soule. 

Do. 
Edmimd B. Montgomery. 

Do. 



Henry S. Waterman, consu| 
at San Jose. 
Do. 



SUBJECT MATTER OF CONSULAR REPORTS. 
Reports received to February 25, 19^;?— Continued. 



429 



Subject. 



Date. 



CUBA. 

Immigration into Cuba 

Present and prospective building operations in Cienfuegos. 

Fisheries and market for fish products 

Public control of privately owned forest lands 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

The market for rice 



Mineral deposits and industnes 

Domestication of American corporation and formation of local 
corporations in the Republic. 



Economic conditions. 
Tobacco crop 



ECUADOR. 

December report on commerce and industries. 

GUATEMALA. 

December report on commerce and industries . 

HAITI. 

Report on market for manufactured rubber. . . 

HONDURAS. 



Highway construction 

Formation and operation of corporations and the operation of 
foreign corporations in Honduras. 

MEXICO. 

The retail toy trade in district 

Population of State of Jalisco and of the principal towns 

Hints to traveling salesmen entering the State of Chihuahua — 

The public schools of Ciudad Juarez 

Lettuce shipments from Mexicali district 

Road construction promised in Sonora 

PANAMA. 

New publication in Panama City, dally, EngUsh and Spanish 

sections. The Daily News, and El Diario Nacional. 
Census of the Republic of Panama 



PERU. 

Agricultural census of Provinces of Lima and Callao. 



1922. 
Jan. 9 

Jan. 20 

Jan. 24 

Jan. 27 



192L 
Dec. 19 



Dec. 23 
Dec. 24 



1922. 
Jan. 18 
..do.... 



Jan. 13 



Jan. 31 



.do.. 



The sale of cement 

Contract for Ughting San Pedro Nonualco 

Import duties collected at customhouses of El Salvador from 1916 

to 1920. 
Annual report on commerce and industries for 1920 (exports) 

URUGUAY. 

Proposed purchase by Uruguayan Government of Montevideo 
waterworks. 

VENEZUELA. 

November report on commerce and industries 

Commecre between the port of New Orleans and Venezuelan ports 
December report on commerce and industries 



Jan. 25 
Feb. 2 

Jan. 13 

Jan. 18 

Jan. 30 

Feb. 3 
Feb. 10 

Feb. 11 

Jan. 18 
Jan. 24 

1921. 
Dec. 27 

Dec. 28 

Dec. 29 

1922. 
Jan. 11 

Jan. 12 

Jan. 16 

1921. 
Dec. 27 

...do... 

1922. 
Jan. 16 



Author. 



Carlton Baily Hurst, consul 
general at Havana. 

Frank Bohr, consul at Cien- 
fuegos. 

Harold D. Clum, consul at 
Santiago de Cuba. 

Carlton Baily Hurst. 



W. A. Bickers, consul at 
Puerto Plata. 
Do. 

Geo. A. Makinson, vice con- 
sul in charge, Santo Do- 
mingo City. 

W. A. Bickers. 
Do. 



Frederic W. Coding, consul 
general at Guayaquil. 

Arthur C. Frost, consul at 
Guatemala City. 



Robert Dudley Longyear, 
vice consul at Port-au- 
Prince. 

Albert H. Gerberich, vice 
consul at Puerta Cortes. 

Alexander K. Sloan, consul 
at Ceiba. 



Lee R. Blohm, consul at 

Aguascalientes. 
O. J. McConnico, consul at 

Guadalajara. 
John W. Dye, consul at 

Ciudad Juarez. 
Do. 
Walter F. Boyle, consul at 

Mexicali. 
Francis J. Dyer, consul at 

Nogales. 



George Orr, consul at Panama 
City 
Do. 



Claude E. Guyant, consul in 
charge, Lima and Callao. 

Lynn. W. Franklin, vice 
consul at San Salvador. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



David J. D. Myers, consul at 
Montevideo." 

S. J. Fletcher, vice consul at 
La Guaira. 
Do. 

Do. 



Publications Added to the Columbus Memorial Library During 
November, 1921. 

[ Continued from March . ] 

PERIODICALS. 

[Not heretofore listed.] 

Circular Mensual. Buenos Aires, Ernesto Tornquist & Co., Ltd. Bartolome Mitre 

529. Monthly. (No. 8, August 1, 1921.) 
Comments on Argentine Trade. Buenos Aires, The Chamber of Commerce of the 

United States, Calle Bartolome Mitre 455. Monthly. (Vol. 1, No. 2, Septem- 
ber 15, 1921.) 
Democracia. Buenos Aires, Avenida Caseros, 847. Monthly. (Ano 2, No. 15, 

June, 1921.) (Publicacion del Centro y Biblioteca Leon XIII de la Union 

Democrdtica Argentina.) 
La Gaceta Economica. Buenos Aires, Florida 248. Monthly. (Ano 2, No. 20, 

June, 1921.) 
La Internacional. Avellaneda, Olabarria 248. Monthly. (Afio, 1 No. 7, August, 

1921.) (Publicacion editada por el Centro de Cultura del mismo nombre.) 
Petroleos y Minas. Buenos Aires, Galen'a Giiemes 400. ^Monthly. (Aiio 1, No. 5, 

September, 15, 1921.) 
Revista de la Liga Agraria. Buenos Aires, Maipu 427. Monthly. (Aiio 24, Tomo 

24, April, 1921.) (Associaci6n Nacional.) 
Revista de Medicina Yeterinaria. Buenos Aires, Lavalle 1268, Monthly. (Vol. 6, 

No. 1, Jan.-April, 1921.) (Editada por la Sociedad Medicina Veterinaria.) 
Revista del Medico Pnictico. Buenos Aires, Sarmiento 2210. Quarterly. (Aiio 2, 

No. 7, July, 1921.) 

BOLIVIA. 

Adelante. Sucre, Colegio Nacional Junin. Monthly. (Ano 3, No. 19, July, 1919.) 
La Voz del Pueblo. Trinidad, Beni. Weekly. (Ano 6, No. 4, June 29, 1921). 
6rgano del Partido Republicano.) 



Boletim Hebdomadario de Estatistica Demographo Sanitario, Rio de Janeiro, De- 

partamento Nacional de Saude Publica. Weekly. (Anno 19, No. 35, August 

21-27, 1921.) 
Boletim Odontologico da Associafao Central Brasileira de Cirurgioes-Dentista. Rin 

de Janeiro, Avenida Rio Branco 142. Quarterly. (Anno 9, No. 29, March, 1921.) 
Brazil — The Land of Opportunity. New York, 44 Whitehall Street. Monthly. 

(Vol. 1, No. 1, July, 1921.) (House organ of Companhia Commercial e Maritima. 

Agents Companhia de Navegagao Lloyd Brasileira.) 
Diario Official. (Estado de Aiagoas) Maceio. Daily. (Anno 10, No. 2682, Sept. 16, 

1921.) 
O Triangulo Azul. Rio de Janeiro, Larga da Carioca 11, 2a and. Monthly. (Anno 

1, No. 7, August 31, 1921.) (Boletim mensal da Associafao Christa Feminina.) 



Boletin de la Cdmara Espanola de Comercio de Chile. Valparaiso. Monthly. (Ano 
1, No. 1, December, 1920.) 
430 



1 



BOOK NOTES. 431 

La Guestion Social. Concepcion. Monthly. (Ano 1, No. 2, August 28, 1921.) 
Organo Oficial del Centro Social de Ex-Alumnos Salesianos. 

Memorial del Ej6rcito de Chile. Santiago. (Ano 16, 2nd Semestre, July, 1921. 
Monthly. 

Revista de Instruccion Primaria. Santiago. Monthly. (Aiio 40, Nos. 1-2. March- 
April, 1920.) 

COLOMBIA. 

Comercio. Medellin. Director de la Empresa Periodistica. Monthly. (October, 

1921.) 
Revista de la Cdmara de Comercio de Barranquilla. Monthly. (Ano 4, No. 44, 

September 1, 1921.) 
Union Cafetera Colombiana. Medellin, Calle de Maturin 67-71. Semi-Monthly. 

(No. 10, June 1, 1921.) 

COSTA RICA. 

Boletm Postal. San Jose. Direccion General de Correos. Monthly. (Ano 1, No. 3, 

August, 1921.) 
Diario de Costa Rica. San Jose. Daily. (Ano 2, No. 634, August 13, 1921.) 
Eco de Alajuela, Alajuela. (Tomo 1, No. 1, November 1, 1921.) 
La Escuela Costarricense. San Jose, Apartado 455. Semi-Monthly. (Aiio 1, No. 1, 

June 1, 1921.) 
Mercurio. San Jose, 3a Avenida Este. Semi-Monthly. (No. 4, August 30, 1921.) 
La Tribuna. San Jos6. Daily. (Aiio 2, No. 406, August, 23, 1921.) 



Agricultura y Zootecnia. Habana, Avenida de Italia 20. Monthly. (Vol. 1, No. 2, 

November 1, 1921.) 
La Discusion. Habana. Daily, (Ano 33, No. 306, November 2, 1921.) 
Germinal. Cdrdenas, Cuarta Ave. No. 340. Monthly. (Vol. 1, No. 1, August, 

1921.) 
Havana Life. Havana, 99 Obrapia. (No. 31, Sept. 4-10, 1921.) 
Revista de Medicina y Cirugia de la Habana. Habana, Amistad 34, Semi-Monthly. 

(Ano 26, Tomo 26, No. 15, August 10, 1921.) 
Sanidad Militar. Habana, Neptuno 32, altos. Monthly. (Tomo 1, No. 1, October, 

1921.) 
El Triunfo. Habana, Virtudes 86. Daily. (Aiio 16, No. 258, Oct. 28, 1921.) 



Cultura. Guayaquil. Weekly. (Ano 1, No. 5, Sept. 17, 1921.) 

The Republic of Ecuador. New York, Consulate of Ecuador, 17 Battery Place. 

(Vol. 1, No. 1, September, 1921.) 
Revista del Centro de Estudios Historicos y Geograficos de Cuenca. Cuenca, Uni- 

versidad del Azuay. Bi-Monthly. (Entrega 2*, April, 1921.) 
Revista Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura. Quito, Carrera Venezuela 101. Monthly. 

(Aiio 3, Tomo 5, No. 30-31, Feb.-Mar., 1921. 
El Universo. Guayaquil, Chimborazo 1310. Daily. (Aiio 1, No. 1, Sept. 16, 1921.) 

GUATEMALA. 

El Bien Publico. Quezaltenango, 6'^ Avenida Norte No. 5. Daily. (Ano 1, No. 

57, August 19, 1921.) 
La Nacion. Guatemala, 10* Calle Oriente No. 1. Weekly. (Ano 2, No. 46, August 

20, 1921.) 



432 THE PAN AMERICAN UNION. 

HONDURAS. 

Boletin del Consejo Federal. Tegucigalpa. Monthly. (Afio 1, No. 1, June 28, 1921.) 
Boletin de la Escuela Normal de Varones. Tegucigalpa. Monthly. (Afio 1, No. 1, 

May, 1921.) 
Ei Comercio. San Pedro Sula. Semi- Weekly. (Ano 12, Epoca 1^, No. 406, July 4, 

1921.) 

HONDURAS. 

El Federal. Tegucigalpa. (No. 3, August 25, 1921). Daily. (Boletin de la Asamblea 

Nacional Constituyente.) 
Los Sucesos. Tegucigalpa. Weekly. (Ano 4, Serie 18, No. 70, July 31, 1921.) 

MEXICO. 

Anales de la Sociedad Mexicana de Oftalomologfa y Rino-Laringologfa. Mexico, 

D. F., Donato Guerra 11. Monthly. (Torao 3, 2" dpoca, August, 1921.) 
Bohemia. Guadalajara, Apartado Postal 491. Semi-Monthly. (Tomo 3, No. 2, 

Oct. 15, 1921.) 
Boletin del Consejo Superior de Salubridad del Estado de Chihuahua. Chihuahua, 

Calle Escorza 1103. Monthly. (Afio 1, No. 7, June 30, 1921.) 
Diario Comercial. Mexico, D. F., Apartado de Correo No. 185. Daily. (Afio 1, No. 

149, November 7, 1921). (6rgano de la Confederaci6n de Camaras de Comercio 

de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos.) 
Gaceta Comercial de la Secretarfa de Relaciones Exteriores. Mexico, D. F. Semi- 

Monthly. (Vol. 1, No. 2, July 15, 1921.) 
El Heraldo Naturista. Mexico, D. F., 16 de Septiembre 72. Monthly. (Ano 1, No. 

2, 1921 a 1922.) 
The Pulse of Mexico. Mexico, D. F., 14 Gante. Monthly. (No. 1, November, 1921.) 

NICARAGUA. 

EI Centroamericano. Le6n. Daily. (Ano 4, No. 1098, September 4, 1921.) 
El Pais. Granada, Calle Real. Daily. (Ano 1, No. 160, June 18, 1921.) 

PARAGUAY. 

Boletin de la Direccion de Tierras y Colonias. Asunci6n. (Aiio 1, No. 1, [November], 

1920.) 
Re\ista de la Escuela de Comercio. Asuncion, Escalada 353. Monthly. (Afio 8, 

Epoca 2, No. 1, July 1, 1921.) 
Revista de la Sociedad Cientlfica del Paraguay. Asunci6n, Avenida Espana 505. 

Monthly. (Tomo 1, No. 1, June, 1921.) 



El Automovil. Lima, Plazuela de la Penitenciaria 1199. Monthly. (Ano 1, No. 2, 

July, 1921.) 
La Refoi-ma M^dica. Lima, Boza 318. Monthly. (Ano 8, Epoca 2, No. 76, December, 

1920-1" semestre de 1921.) 

SALVADOR. 

Boletin Sanitario. San Salvador. Quarterly. (Ano 20, 1" trimestre, 1921.) Organo 
de Publicidad de la Direccion General de Sanidad de El Salvador.) 

La Clinica. San Salvador, 12 Calle Poniente No. 22. Monthly. (Serie 6, No, 1. 
Sept. 15, 1921.) (6rgano Estudiantil de publicaci6n mensual de trabajos cieu- 
tificos del Hospital Resales.) 

Cosmos. San Salvador. Monthly. (Afio 1, No. 3, June, 1921.) 



^ 



\ TABLE OF CONTENTS /^ 



m'^^ 



h 



BRAZIL. 

THE CENTENARY OF INDEPENDENCE. 

September 7, 1822— September 7, 1922. 

Page. 
The Achievements of a Century of Brazilian Independence 433 

By Laiigworthy Marchant, Pan American I'nion Staff. 

The Bandeirantes : Their Deeds and Their Descendants 456 

By Amerieo de C.alvao Bneno, Second Secretary, the Emljassy of Brazil at Wasliington . 

A Century of International Friendship 481 

By Helio Lobo, Consnl (General of Brazil in New "i'ork. 

The Future of Brazil 496 

By Dr. Manoel de Oliveira Lima, Former Minister of BrazO to Japan, Sweden, Belgium, and 
Venezuela; Member of Brazilian Academy of Letters. 

Brazil as a Field for Foreign Investment 501 

By Kermit Roosevelt. 

The United States in the Brazilian Centennial Celebration 514 

By Sebastiao Sampaio, Brazilian Commercial Attache for the United States, with headquarters 
at the Brazilian Embassy, Washington. 

Trip to the Brazilian Centennial Exposition 522 

By William A. Reid, Trade Adviser, Pan American Union. . 

Official Program of the Centennial of Brazilian Independence 535 





Copyright by Harris & Ewing. 

HIS EXCELLENCY, DR. EPITACIO PESSOA 
President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil. 




VOL. LIV 



MAY, 1922 



NO. 5 



iNI)l':ri'',NI)l'',NCK :. V 



By Langwortiiy Marchant, 

J'aii Aiiicricdn rnioti Slu/l'. 

LOOKING backward over the first century of Brazilian inde- 
pendence, we find that the opening scene is set on a stage 
that had been prepared by the hand of destiny 13 years before. 
I will therefore crave the reader's indulgence to dwell for a 
few brief moments on the reign of Dom John, first in his character 
of Prince Regent, from his arrival in 1808 to the proclamation of the 
new Kingdom of Brazil in 1815 and thereafter as King John VI, 
down to the date of his departure in 1821. 

It is permissible to suppose that Prince John intended to fix the 
seat of his government definitely in Brazil, and that his return to 
Portugal, resulting as it did from unforeseen circumstances, was a 
complete reversal of his original plan. 

If Dom John had remained in Brazil, naturally there would have 
been no date of independence to commemorate other than that of 
his landing in Rio de Janeiro, March 7, 1808, or else that of the 
creation of the Kingdom of Brazil, December 16, 1815, for by the 
events connected with these dates Brazil was suddenly lifted out 
of the condition of a dependent colony to become the chief unit of 
the Portuguese empire. It was King John's return to Portugal that 
caused a break in the orderly course of events, and made it necessary 

433 



434 



THE PAX AMERICAN TTXION. 



for the Brazilians to proclaim their separation from Portiio;al and 
assert their national independence. 

When Dom John came over, he brought with him a great fleet 
laden with the most valuable treasures of the realm — a necessary 
precaution, in view of the circumstance which determined his migra- 
tion — the imminence of invasion by the armies of Napoleon. Among 
these treasures were precious collections of works of art — paintings, 




DdM JOHN VI, KING OF PORTUGAL, BRAZIL AND 
ALGARVES. 



sculpture, and his own royal library. All these things he used as the 
basis of civic and cultural institutions which he proceeded to estab- 
lish in the colony. 

With the paintings and sculpture he founded the Academy of Fine 
Arts, which has evolved in a marvelous manner through the course 
of the century, increasing in importance and utility until it is now 
the alma mater of many noted artists — painters, sculptors, and 
architects — not a few of whom are at this very time working in 



4Sr) THE PAN AMERICAN L'NlON, 

feverish haste, day and night, erecting and decorating the wonder 
city of the Exposition which is to commemorate the dawn of the 
century of independence. 

With his own private collection Dom John estabhshcd a museum 
of natural history, which has since become the National Museum 
and is now installed in what was once his own royal residence of 
Sao Christovao. 

Another creation of his was the Botanical Garden, in which, with 
his own hand he planted the royal palm from which are descended 
all the other trees of its species in Brazil. The mother palm is 
still growing where King John planted it, inclosed within a railing 
and marked with an inscription. 

When Dom John arrived in Brazil there was a lack of higher 
institutions of learning. It had been the policy of the Portuguese 
Government to encourage the sons of wealthy and inlhiential colonials 
to receive their education at the University of Ooimbra, in Portugal, 
by which means it was thought they would ac(|uire a new lease of 
loyalty, together witli the culture of the motluM- country. Con- 
sequently there had been few establishments of higher education 
except those maintained by the Jesuit fathers, and even these luid 
disappeared with the expulsion of the Jesuits under Pombal in 1759. 
Dom John founcknl schools of higher education in a numl)er of cities, 
the Medical Schools of Rio de Janeiro and lialiia; tiie Engineering 
School of Rio de Janeiro; the law schools of Sao Paulo and Recife; 
in addition to a larg(> numlxT of secondary scliools and academies. 
Dom John also establislied a printing house under the name of 
"Imprensa Regia," or "King's Printing House," for the special pur- 
pose of printing Government matter. Tliis establishment has grown 
since the days of King John, and its name has been changed to that 
of "Imprensa Nacional," or ''National Printing House," but it 
continues to perform its original function of printing Government 
matter, which includes the Diario Ollicial, a daily publication in 
which are recorded all the acts of all the branches of the Federal 
Government. 

The migration of Dom Jolm was the occasion of a complete up- 
heaval in the economic conditions of Brazil. With the exception of 
the interval of the Pombal administration, the foreign activities 
of the colonials were limited to dealing with the mother country, 
ships of other nations not being allowed in the Brazilian ports. The 
internal life of the colony was cramped and oppressed. No manu- 
factures were permitted except those of the coarsest and most neces- 
sary articles. Agriculture was limited in scope to the growing of 
crops for home consumption or for export to Portugal, to be con- 
sumed there or to form the materials of trade for Portuguese mer- 
chants. 



A CENTTRY OF BRAZILIAN INBEPENnENCE. 437 

The only industries of real value, because of their importance and 
the revenue which they brought into the colony, were the extraction 
of gold and precious stones, and the manufacture of sugar, and both 
these were so heavily taxed as to be often ruinous to those engaged 
in them. 

With the arrival of Dom John all this was changed. The ports 
were opened to the ships of all friendly nations. Not only was the 
ban lifted from all industrial pursuits, but the industries were fostered 
in every possible manner. Seeds and plants were brought from the 
Portuguese possessions in Asia and Africa and acclimated in the 
botanical garden in order to enrich the agricultural resources of the 
new Kingdom. Among these was China tea, which King John 
endeavored to make a regular source of revenue. His experiments 
proved successful, and China tea was bidding fair to become a stand- 
ard Brazilian product when its career was suddenly cut short by the 
appearance of its more powerful rival, coffee. 

Had King John \1 been as wise in political affairs as in matters of 
intellectual and material progress, had he not failed to understand 
that the Brazilian national spirit was a reality with which he must 
reckon, however distasteful to his medieval ideas of the divine right 
of kings, it is more than probable that he would never have left 
Brazil, notwithstanding the loud clamors of his Portuguese subjects 
for his immediate return to his Old World Kingdom. Realizing, 
however, that his high-handed policy had completely destroyed his 
popularity in Brazil, King John decided to embark for Portugal, 
which he did on the 21st of April, 1821. 

His departure was as fortunate for Brazil as had been his coming. 
Dom Pedro, his son, whom he left in Brazil, as regent, became the 
champion of the Brazilian cause in opposition to the Portuguese 
reacti