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sy3 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN NO. 162. 

(/I A. C. TRUE. Director. 



STUDIES 

■ K 



ON 



THE INFLUENCE OF COOKING UPON THE 
NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MEATS 



AT THE 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 



1903-190-4. 



BV 



H. S. GRINDLEY, Sc. D., 

Professor of General Chemistry, College of Science, University of Illinois, 

AND 

A. D. EMMETT, A. :\I., 

Research Chemist, Xutrition Ihvesligalions, University of Illinois. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PEINTING OFFICE. 

1905. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS ON 
THE FOOD AND NUTRITION OF MAN. 

Note. — For those imbliciitions to whicli a yirice is affixed application should be made to the Super- 
iiiteiiilent of Documents, Coverninent I'rinting Office, Washing-ton, D. C, the officer designated by 
law to sell Government jiuljlieations. Publications marked with an asterisk (*) are notavailable for 
distribution. 

♦Charts. Food and Diet. By W. O. Atwater. (Four charts, 20 by 40 inches.) Price per set, 

unmounted, "o cent.s. 
*Bul. 21. Methods and Ue.sults of Investigations on the Chemistry and Economy of FOod. By \V. O. 

Atwater. V\). 222. Price, 1-5 cents. 
Bui. 28. (Revised edition.) The Chemical Composition of American Food Materials. By W. O. 

Atwater and A. P. Bryant. Pp. 87. Price, 5 cents. 
Bui. 29. Dietary Studies at the University of Tennessee in 1895. By C. E. Wait, with comments by 

W. O. .Vtwater and C. D. Woods. Pp. 45. Price, 5 cents. 
*Bul. 31. Dietary .Studies at the University of Missouri in 1895, and Data Relating to Bread and Meat 

Consumption in Missouri. By H. B. Gibson, S. Calvert, and D. W. May, with comments 

by W. (). Atwater and C. D. Woods. Pp. 24. Price, 5 cents. 
*Bul. 32. Dietary Studies at Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind., in 1895. By W. E. Stone, with com- 
ments by W. O. Atwater and C. D. Woods. Pp. 28. Price. 5 cents. 
Bui. 35. Food and Nutrition Investigations in New Jer.sey in 1895 and 1896. By E. B. Voorhees. Pp. 

40. Price, 5 cents. 
*Bul. 37. Dietary Studies at the ?*Iaine State College in 1895. By W. H.Jordan. Pp..57. Price, Scents. 
Bui. 38. Dietary" Studies with Heference to the Food of the Negro in Alabama in 1895 and 1891). Con- 
ducted with the cooperation of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute and the 

Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabaiaa. Reported by W. O. Atwater and C. D. 

Woods. Pp. 69. Price, 5 cents. 
Bui. 40. Dietary Studies in New Mexico in 1895. By A. Go.'S. Pp. 23. Price, 5 cent«. 
Bui. 43. Los.ses"in Boiling Vegetables and the Coinposition and Digestibility of Potatoes and Egg-. 

By H. Snyder, A. J. Frisby, and A. P. Bryant. Pp. 31. Price, 5 cents. 
Bui. 44. Report of Preliminary Investigations on the Metabolism of Nitrogeu and Carbon in the 

Human Organism with a Respiration Calorimeter of Special Construction. By W. (>. 

Atwater, C. I). Woods, and F. G. Benedict. Pp. 64. Price, 5 cents. 
Bui. 45. A Digest of Metabolism Experiments in which the Balance of Income and Outgo was Deter- 
mined. Bv W. O. Atwater and C. F. Langworthv. Pp. 434. Price, 25 cents. 
*Bul. 46. Dietary Studies in New York City in 1895 and 1896. By W. O. Atwater and C. D. Woods. Pi>. 

117. Price, 10 cents. 
Bui. 52. Nutrition Investigations in Pittsburg, Pa., 1894-1896. By Isabel Bevier. Pp. 48. Price, :< 

cents. 
Bui. 53. Nutrition Investigations at the University of Tennessee in 1896 and 1897. By C. E. Wait. 

Pp. 46. Price, 6 cents. 
*Bul. .54. Nutrition Investigations in New Mexico in 1897. By A. Goss. Pp. 20. Price, 5 cents. 
Bui. 55. Dietary Studies in Chicago in 1895 and 1896. Conducted with the cooperation of Jane 

Addams and Caroline L. Hunt, of Hull House. Reported by W. O. Atwater and A. P. 

Bryant. Pp. 76. Price, 5 cents. 
*Bu]. 56. History and Present ^Status of In.struction in Cooking in the Public Schools of New York 

City." Reported by Mrs. Loui.se E. Hogan, with an introduction by A. C. True, Ph. D. 

Pp.70. Price, 5 cents. 
Bui. 63. Description of a New Respiration Calorimeter and Experiments on the Conservation of 

Energy in the Human Body. By W. O. Atwater and E. B. Rosa. Pp. 94. Prie»<10 cents. 
*Bnl. 66. The Pirysiological Effect of Creatin and Creatinin and their Value as Nutrients. By J. AV. 

^lallet. Pp.24. Price, 5 cents. , 

Bui. 67. Studies on Bread and Bread Making. By Harry Snyder and L. A. Voorhees. Pp. 51. Price, 

10 cents. 
Bui. 68. A Description of Some Chinese Vegetable Food Materials and Their Nutritive and Economic 

' Value. By W^ C. Blasdale. Pp. 48. Price, 10 cents. 
Bui. 69. Experiments on the Metaboli.sm of Matter and Energy in the Human Body. By W. O. 

Atwater and F.G. Benedict, with the cooperation of A. W. Smith and A. P. Bryant. Pp. 112. 

Price, 10 cents. 
*Bul. 71. Dietary Studies of Negroes in Eastern Virginia in 1897 and 1898. By H. B. Frissell and Isabel 

Bevier. Pp. 45. Price. 5 cents. 
Bui. 75. Dietary Studies of University Boat Crews. By W. O. Atwater and A. P. Bryant. Pp. 72. 

Price, 5 cents. 
Bui. 84. Nutrition Investigations at the California Agricultural Experiment Station, 1896-1898. By 

M. E. Jaffa. Pp. 39. Price, 5 cents. 
Bui. 85. A Report of Investigations on the Digestibility and Nutritive Value of Bread. By C. D. 

Woods and L. H. Merrill. Pp.51. Price, 5 cent.s. 
Bui. 89. Experiments on the Effect of Muscular Work upon the Digestibilitv of .Food and the Metab- 
olism of Nitrogen. Conducted at the University of Tennessee, 1897-1899. By C. E. Wait. 

Pp. 77. Price, 6 cents. 
Bui. 91. Nutrition Investigations at the Universitv of Illinois, North Dakota Agricultural College. 

and Lake Erie C:ollege, Ohio, 1896-1900. By H. S. Griudley and J. L. Sammis, K. F. Ladd, 

and Isabel Bevier and Elizabeth ('. Sprague. Pp. 42. Price, 5 cents. 
Bui. 98. The ElTect of Severe and Prolonged Muscular Work on Food Consumption, Digestion, and 

Metabolism, by W. O. Atwaterand H. C. Sherman, and the Mechanical Work and Efficiency 

of Bicvclers, by R. C. Carpenter. Pp. 67. Price, 5 cents. 
Bui. 101. Studies "on Bread and Bread Making at the University of Minnesota in 1899 and 1900. By 

Harrv Snvder. Pp.05. Price, 5 cents. - 
Bui. 102. Experiinents on Losses in Cooking Meat, 1898-190t). By H. S. Grindley, with the coopera- 
tion of H. McCormack and H. C. Porter. Pp. 64. Price, 5 cents. 
Bui. 107. Nutrition Investigations ariiong Fruitarians and Chinese at the California Agricultural 

Experiment Station, 1899-1901. By M. E. Jaffa. Pp.43. Price, 5 cents. 

[Continued on third page of cover.] 



833 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

, OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN NO. 162. 

A. C. TRUE. Director. 



ST U 1)1 KS 



THR IM'l.rENCE OF COOKING UPON THE 
NlTltlTIVE V.\li E OK MEATS 



.\T THK 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, LrB»?ARv 

'^ew York: 

BOTANICAL 

oarden 



1903-1004:. 



H. S. GKLNDLEY, Sc. D., 

Professor of General Cheinistr;/, Collef/e of Science, Universiti/ of Illinois, 

AND 

A. D. EMMETT. A. M., 

Research Chemist, Xutrifion Tnreslifjations, Unirersiti/ of Illinois. 




WASHINGTON: 

G O V E R X M E X T P R I X T I X G OFFICE 

1905. 



THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS 

STAFF. 

A. C. True, Ph. D., Director. 

E. W. Allen, Ph. D., Assistant Director and Editor of Experiment Station Record. 
W. H. Beal, B. a., M. E., Chief of Editorial Division. 

W. H. Evans, Ph. D., Chief of Diiision of Insular Stations. 
Elwood Mead, D. E., Chief of Irrigation and Drainage Investigations. 
John Hamilton, B. S., M. S. A., Farmers^ Institute Specialist. 
Mrs. C. E. Johnston, Chief Clerk. 

NUTRITION INVESTIGATIONS. 

C. F. Langworthy, Ph. D., Editor and Expert in Nutrition. 

F. G. Benedict, Ph. D., In Charge of Respiration Calorimeter Experiments, Middle- 
tovm, Conn. 

R. D. MiLXEH, Ph. B., Editorial Assistant, Middletoum, Conn. 

H. A. Pratt, B. A., Assistant in Dietary Studies, Middlrtown, Conn. 

C. D. Woods, B. S., Special Agent, Orono, Me. 

collaborators. 

H. S. Grindley, Sc. D., Professor of General Cltemistrg, College of Science, University 
of Illinois. 

M. E. Jaffa, M. S., Assistant Professor of Agriculture, University of Gdifornia. 

H. C. Sherman, Ph. D., Instructor in Analytical Chemistry, Columbia University. 

Harry Snyder, B. S., Professor of Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of 
Minnesota. 

C. E. Wait, Ph. D., Professor of Chemistry, University of Tennessee. 



(2) 



irrrHR oi' TRAXsMinAL 



U. S. DEI'AKTMENr 0}f A(;kiculturk, 

Office of Experiment Stations, 
Washington, D. C, Decenibei^W, 1905. 

Sir: 1 have the honor to transmit h(M-ewith a report of the investi- 
gations eondiK-tt^d in liHili-t by H. S. (irindley, prof essor of general 
chemistry at the College of Science of the University of Illinois; and 
A. D. Emniett, research chemist in the nutrition investigations of 
the same institution, in accordance with instructions from this Office. 
As in earlier work. Professor Grindley's object has l)een to secure 
accurate information regarding the losses sustained when meat is 
cooked in different ways,;uid the etl'ects of cooking upon flavor, pala- 
tability, and nutritive value. 

In the course of the investigations, material aid has been rendered 
by Prof. rier])ert W. Mum ford, of the department of animal hus 
bandry of the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, and by Prof. 
Isabel Bevier, of the department of household science, of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois. Acknowledgment should be made of the valuable 
assistance rendered by Miss E. C. Sprague, and Messrs. F. W. Gill, 
S. J. McGrath, and J. M. Barnhart. 

In the present bulletin, which is considered a progress report, the 
details of fifty-one experiments are reported, in which studies were 
made of the nutritive value of difi'erent kinds and cuts of meat cooked 
in various wa3's. 

The investigations reported furnish data of practical as well as sci- 
entific interest, and it is recommended that the report be published as 
Bulletin No. im of this Office. 

Respectfully, A. C. True, 

Director. 

Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 



(3) 



conti:nts. 

Page. 

Intnxhu'tiuii ' 

Historical revu'W 

Analytical inetho<l8 ^^ 

Preparation and analysis of cold-watt-r extracts of meat 1- 

Methodn of analyzing the broths '•'' 

Object and plan of the cooking experin)ents !•' 

Cooking experiments Nos. 107-157 -^' 

Meats cooked by boiling -0 

Series I, experiment No. 107 -^ 

Series II, experiments Nos. 108, 109 -- 

Series III, exj)eriments Nos. 110-113 -'^ 

Series IV, experiments Nos. 131, 132 '»1 

Series V, experiments Nos. 125, 126 ''"^ 

Series VI, experiments Nos. 114-116 •^' 

Meats cooked by boiling compared with those cooked by dry heat 41 

Series VII, experiments Nos. 117-120 ■*! 

Series Mil, experiments Nos. 121-124 '^' 

Series IX, experiments Nos. 141-147 '^«* 

Series X, experiments Nos. 150-156 ^'-^ 

Meats cooked by dry heat and then by boiling 73 

Series XI, experiments Nos. 133-136 '-^ 

Series XII, experiments Nos. 137-140 '9 

Meats cooked by broiling— difference in surface and interior of sample ... 85 

Series XIII, experiment No. 157 ^^ 

Meat juice and meat fiber cooked in different ways 8" 

Series XIV, experiments Nos. 148, 149 ^' 

Beef bones cooked as in soup making ■*"* 

Series XV, experiments Nos. 127-130 ^'l 

Discussion of results ^'^ 

Composition of uncooked meats ^" 

Composition of meats cooked by boiling 1^2 

Composition of meats cooked by roasting, broiling, sauteing, and frying. . 114 

Solubility of uncooked and cooked meats in cold water 121 

Composition of the cold-water extracts of uncooked meats 122 

Composition of the cold-water extracts of meats cooked by boiling. . . 129 
Composition of the cold-water extracts of meats cooked by roasting, 

broiling, sauteing, and frying ^^^ 

The amount and nature of the nitrogenous constituents of uncooked and 

cooked meats 

Forms of nitrogen in uncooked meats ^'^^ 

Forms of nitrogen in meats cooked by boiling 150 

Forms of nitrogen in meats cooked by roasting, broiling, sauteing, 
and frying 

(5) 



Discussion of results — Continued. Page. 

The losses involved in the boiling; and stewinj^ of meats 109 

The losses involved in the roasting;, broiliii";, sautrinjr, and frying,' of meats. 176 

A study of meat broths and soaps 1 81 

Composition of complete meat broths 184 

Composition of clear, filtered meat broths 201 

Nitrogenous constituents of broth 217 

Conclusions 228 



INFLUENCE OF COOKING UPON THE NUTRITIVE, 
VALUE OF MEATS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

In the United States there is a oreater production of meat tlian in 
any other country in the world, our animal products being- second 
only in importance to our cereal pioducts. The reports of the census 
for lltoo show that the meats and meat products slaughtered and pre- 
pared that year by the wholesale packing houses of this country were 
worth at wholesale prices $779,000,000. It nuist be rememl)ered that 
this does not include the value of the meat and meat products which 
pass directl}^ through the hands of the l)utchers and other retailers, nor 
that of animals wliich the farmers and other consumers slaughter for 
their own use, so the total value of the meat and meat products would 
be considerably larger than the figure quoted. 

A detailed study of the results of 267 dietary studies which have 
been made in America shows an average expenditure of 7.2 cents per 
man per day for meats. The cost of meat forms 37.2 per cent of the 
total cost of the food, and the meat furnishes 38.6 per cent of the pro- 
tein, 58.9 per cent of the fat, and 18.5 per cent of the total nutrients 
of the diet. Furthermore, available statistics show that we also con- 
sume more of this food than any other nation, the inhabitants of the 
United States annuall}- using on an average about 120 pounds of meat 
per capita. 

Since it is evident that meats play such an important role in com- 
mercial and domestic economy, it seems obvious that there is abundant 
reason to justify any study, however extended, which will increase our 
knowledge of the nutritive and economic value of meats and their 
products. 

Investigations made from 1898 to 1903 at the University of Illinois 
under the auspices of this Office in cooperation with the university, 
upon the nature and the extent of the losses which meat undergoes 
during the process of cooking, have already been published.'' In con- 
nection with those investigations a large number of experiments were 
made which had for their object the determination of the influence of 

«U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 102 and 141. 

(7) 



8 

the cooking of meats upon their total dig-estibility, and upon the ease 
and rapidity of their dig-estiuii, ard the results obtained, which have 
been described in part," it is expected will soon appear in full as a 
bulletin from this Office. 

During- the year 1903-4 the methods used in these studies have been 
in a number of ways materially extended in scope and moditied in 
form. The plan of the investigations has also been extended with a 
view to studying as completely as possible the influence of different 
methods of cooking upon the nutritive value of meats and the charac- 
ter of the physical and chemical changes which take place in meats 
when they are cooked by various common methods. It is the object 
of this bulletin to describe this work and to give in detail some of the 
results which have so far been obtained. 

The work here reported includes (1) thirty-one experiments made 
to determine the amount of the losses which result in the cooking of 
meats in hot water at different temperatures and for different lengths 
of time, a special feature being a detailed study of the nature of 
the nutritive constituents of the meats before and after cooking; 
(?) four experiments to estimate the amount and character of the 
losses which take place when meats are cooked by pan broiling 
and at the same time to find out the relation existing between the 
nutritive value of the raw^ and that of the cooked meats; (3) three 
experiments to find what losses and changes in nutritive value result 
when meats are cooked by roasting; (4) six experiments to determine 
the losses and also the changes in nutritive value which meats undergo 
when they are cooked by sauteing, frying, gas broiling, and pot roast- 
ing; (5) three experiments to show the influence of the different meth- 
ods of cooking meats upon flavor and palatability, and (6) four experi- 
ments to determine the amount and nature of the substances which 
bones yield when cooked in hot water, as in making soup. 

HISTORICAL REVIEW. 

A review of chemical literature shows that many studies of the 
changes brought about in various proteids, fats, and carbohydrates by 
oxidation by heat or otherwise, and by treatment with water under 
pressure or other methods of hydration and by the action of different 
reagents have been undertaken which, properly considered, would 
throw light on the changes brought about by cooking. But appar- 
ently no attempt has as yet been made to collect and digest this widely 
scattered material. An extended search of the literature of the sub- 
ject indicates that comparatively few experimental investigations have 
been undertaken with the direct object of studying the chemical, histo- 
logical, and other changes which different foods undergo during the 
process of cooking. Considerable has been said by different writers 

"Univ. 111., Univ. Studies, vol. 1, No. 5, p. 1. 



9 

rejjardiiirif the effects of cooking upon nutritive vsilue. and more espe 
cially upon chemical composition and din-estil)ility, Init as a rule tiie 
stuteuuMits are not accompanied by experimental data nor do the 
generalizations always show evidence of being based upon careful 
laboratory investigations. 

Many studies have been made with a view to ascertaining the 
chemical structure of ditierent proteid bodies of animal and vegetable 
origin, and at the present time many investigators are working along 
these lines. The luiijority of the proteids studied, it seems fair to say, 
are not those occurring in meats used as food, and the statement seems 
warranted that up to the present time little is definitely known regard- 
ing the chemistry of uncooked meats, and still less regarding the 
complex changes brought about by different methods of cooking, 
Wlmtever is known, however, is of great interest and value, not only 
for itself but for the suggestions it offers for future lines of work. 

In 1895 Atwater" compiled and studied the results of investigations 
on the changes brought about when meat and other foods are cooked. 
The experimental data regarding the effects of cooking on the compo- 
sition, digestibility, and nutritive value of foods were discussed, as 
well as data regarding the losses resulting during the cooking of 
meats, and also regarding the composition and luitritive value of broth. 

In Konig's'' extended compilation of data relative to the chemistry 
of foods and food products, investigations are sununarized which have 
to do with the cooking of food. That the amount of such data was 
limited is shown by the fact that the summary covers only 16 pages. 

The results of a number of studies, most of them carried on by 
American and English investigators, which add to our knowledge of 
the changes which take place when foods are cooked, have been pub- 
lished but are not included in either of the compilations just cited. 

The changes which take place in the carbohydrates when sweet 
potatoes are baked was studied by W. E. Stone.'' 

Snyder, Frisby, and Bryant'' have reported determinations of the 
losses of nutrients resulting in the boiling of potatoes, carrots, and 
cabbage. Katherine I. Williams'' has studied in detail the chemical 
composition of cooked vegetables as served at the table. Voorhees,/ 
Isabel Bevier,^' Snyder,''' and Woods*' have published results of investi- 
gations showing the losses involved in the process of bread making. 

«U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 21, p. 91. 

b Chemie der Mensclilichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel. 4. ed., vol. 2, p. 1244. 

cBer. Deut. Chem. Gesell., 23 (1890), p. 1406; Agr. Sci., 14 (1890), p. 31. 

<^U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 43. 

«Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, 26 (1904), p. 244. 

/U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 35 and 67. 

S'U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 52. 

^U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 67, 101, and 126. 

^U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 85. 



10 

The chemistry of cooked meats, and the losses and chemical and 
physical changes involved in the cooking of meats have also received 
some attention in recent years. Sch wenkenbecher « has made a special 
study of the composition of cooked foods, both animal and vegetable. 
Katherine I. Williams^ has analyzed a considerable number of sam- 
ples of cooked fish of different kinds. Allen '' reported the results 
of the analysis of a number of different kinds of cooked meats which 
were made in his laboratory by A. R. Tankard. Atwater,'' Grind- 
ley/ Thudicum,/ and Grindley and Mojonnier 'J have made and reported 
investigations which show the nature and extent of the losses which 
meats undergo during cooking by the methods in common use. Offer 
and Rosenquisf^ have studied the nature of the nitrogenous prin- 
ciples of poultry, fish, and different kinds of raw, cooked, and pre- 
served meats and in raw and fried veal. Isabel Bevier and Eliza- 
beth C. Sprague* have reported investigations regarding the influence 
of pans of different kinds and shapes, of time of cooking, of tem- 
perature, and of different shapes and size of cuts, upon the losses 
which occur in the roasting of beef. Grindley and Mojonnier J have 
studied the influence of the cooking of meats upon their total digesti- 
bility and upon their ease and rapidity of digestion. 

M. Rubner,^' in a recent publication, gives in brief a resume of 
researches which have been made in his laboratory upon the chemis- 
try, the cooking, and the nutritive value of meats. The results which 
were obtained will be referred to in detail in connection with the dis- 
cussion of several of the topics considered in this bulletin. 

The investigations carried on in Illinois in the past have been so 
largely devoted to the determination of the losses involved in the 
cooking of meats that they have in the main only indirectly thrown 
new light upon the character and nature of the physical and chemical 
changes which meats undergo during cooking, and they have therefore 
given us only a little additional information regarding the nutritive 
value of cooked meats. The investigations reported in this bulletin 
were undertaken for the purposes of studying as thoroughly as possi- 
ble the changes in nutritive value which meats undergo during the 
process of cooking. 

«Inaug. Diss., Marburg, 1900. 

Uoun Chem. Soe. [London], 71 (1897), p. 649. 

c Commercial Organic Analysis, Philadelphia, 1898, vol. 4, p. 275. 

rfN. Y. State Com. Lunacy, Ann. Rpt., 11 (1900). 

«U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 102. 

/The Spirit of Cookery, London, 1895. 

f/U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 141. 

A Berlin. Klin. Wchnschr., 36 (1899), pp. 937, 968, and 1086. 

i Illinois Station Circ. 72. 

.;Univ. 111., Univ. Studies, vol. 1, No. 5, p. 1. 

^E. von Leyden. Handbuch der Erniihrungstherapie. Leipsic, 1903, 2. ed., p. 84. 



11 



ANALYTICAL METHODS. 

In ordor to iii\ c^tiuatf the nature of tlu' i)liy>i(iil and chemical 
chaniifcs w liicli occur in the cooking of meats, the ordinaiv methods 
for tlie proximate analysis of foods are not sulKcient. Thus, when 
meat is l)oiled. the uwvo (h'termination of the N\ater. protein, fat. and 
ash in the hroth and also in the meat before and after cooking- does 
not li'ive a sutlicient amount of infoi'ination re«,^ardinjjf the proximate 
principles which they contain. Further, there are serious ohjections 
to the customary preliminaiy preparation of air-dried samples, because 
this ])rocedure produces furuhunental changes in the proteid constitu- 
ents and undout)tedly allects to somi* extent the nature of the fats and 
prohahlv also that of the organic extractives. The changes which air 
(Irving brings about in tin^ proteids j)revent subsecpuMit sepaiation and 
examination of these sul)stances. since they are for the most part, if 
not entirely, rendered insolulde by this treatment. Since the investi- 
gations here reported seenn'd to lu'cessitate a study of the water 
extracts of raw and cooked meats in order to distinguish more com- 
pletel}' between their proximate constituents, it seemed desinible to 
analyze the fresh substance of tiie meats without tirst preparing an 
air-dried samjile according to the usual practice. 

In former investigations" carried out in this laboratory an effort was 
made to adapt the ordinary methods to the analysis of the fresh sub- 
stance of both raw and cooked meats without preliminary air diying. 
At that time the results obtained were not as satisfactory as were 
desired. Further work has ))een done, and it is believed that the 
various modifications here introduced in the details of the ordinary 
method have produced more accurate results. 

In general, the method used foUow's the outline of procedure recom- 
mended by the Association of Otticial Agricultural Chemists,'' with 
such modifications as were described in a former bulletin of this Office,'" 
together with further changes of details which have been found neces- 
sary when the fresh substance of meats is used instead of the air-dried 
material. Only these last changes need be described here. Much 
care was taken in preparing and thoroughly mixing the samples for 
analysis. In every case the weighings were made by difference, a 
glass-stoppered weighing bottle being used. For the determination 
of water the samples were weighed in glass tubes with filter- paper 
bottoms, such as are ordinarily used in ether extraction of fat liy the 
Johnson method.'^ In cases where the meat was rather fat, filter blocks 
made of fat-free paper were first put into the tubes, the tubes and theii- 

a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 102. 
^ U. S. Dept. Agr., Division of Chemistry Bui. 46, revised. 
cU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 141. 
t^Amer. Jour. Sci., 13 (1877), p. 190. 



12 

contents were dried at first very slowly in a water oven at a low tem- 
perature, and the determination then continued as usual. 

The fat was determined by exti-acting- witii anhydrous ether the dried 
samples remaining after the estimation of water. After twenty -four 
hours' extraction the samples were removed and intimately ground 
with ionited sand, then transferred again to the moisture tul)es, which 
were loosely plugged with fat-free cotton to prevent an}" of the material 
from being mechanicalh' carried into the flasks, and the extraction 
continued for twelve hours. The usual Kjeldahl method was used for 
the determination of the total nitrogen, special care being taken in 
transferring the weighed meat to the Kjeldahl flask that none of the 
material should adhere to the neck. In the distillation it was found 
that pumice stone was preferable to granulated zinc, as experiments 
made in this laboratory show that zinc reduces some forms of nitrogen 
compounds which are always present in the ordinary alkali, and thus 
introduces a slight error. The ash was determined as usual, but much 
care was taken to heat the muffle very slowly and gradually at first so 
as to prevent loss by sputtering. 

A careful and thorough test of this method for the direct determina- 
tion of water, fat, nitrogen, and ash in the fresh substance of meats 
has demonstrated its accuracy, and it may be considered of unques- 
tionable advantage in these investigations or others of similar nature. 

PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS OF COLD-WATER EXTRACTS OF 

MEATS. 

As has already been said, in order to learn very much regarding the 
chemistry of the cooking of meats it is necessary to distinguish much 
more completely between their proximate principles than is done by 
the ordinary methods of analysis. It was believed that in the meat 
investigations here reported, as well as in future work, this could be 
best accomplished by studying the cold-watei-'extracts of meats. After 
much preliminary experimenting (which it is not necessary to describe 
in this connection), a method of preparation and analysis of the cold- 
water extracts of meats was elaborated and adopted. Since, so far 
as the authors are aware, no method has been as 3'et proposed or 
described for so complete an analysis of meats and other foods, the 
method used is described here in detail. 

The uncooked or cooked meat was cut into small pieces and then 
passed three times thrcTugh a small sausage mill or meat cutter. After 
each grinding, the mill was cleaned and the meat thoroughlv mixed. 
Three portions, of 30 to 33 grams each, were then weighed, the meat 
being thoroughly mixed each time before an}^ of it was removed. 
Each lot of 3U to 33 grams was distributed as equally as possible 
between six small beakers. The samples were moistened with a little 



13 

distilled water and all liiiiips tiroken u}) with a ^lass rod. Fifty cubic 
centimeters of water was then added to each beaker and the contents 
stirred thoroiiiihly for fifteen minutes. After the insoluble residue 
had l)een allowed to settle for three to five minutes, the litjuid from each 
beaker was decanted through filters into ^50 cubic centimeter flasks. 
The insolut)le portion was thorou<4-hly drained and then 25 cu))ic cen- 
timeters of w ater was added. The water and residue were thorou<4hly 
stirred for seven to eioht minutes, and, after settling, decanted upon the 
same Hlter as before. This treatment was continued, 25 cid)ic centime- 
ters of water beinijf used each time, until the filtrate from each portion 
of meat measured about 230 cubic centimeters. The material on the 
filters was allowed to drain completely after each extraction. After 
the last extraction the entire content of each beaker was tlirown upon 
the filter and, when drained, was washed twice with a small quantit}^ 
of distilled water. Each ilask was rinsed twice with water, after 
which the filtrates were coml)ined and diluted to 5 liters. 

Determination of total ftolids and a.'^h. — Portions of the filtrate of 
100 cubic centimeters each were evaporated to dryness in weighed 
platinum dishes. Th« residues were dried in a water oven for one hour 
or until the weight of each was approximately constant. The dried 
residues were ignited carefully over a free flame at a very low red heat 
until colorless or nearly so. The ash was weighed cjuickly, reheated, 
and again weighed. This treatment was repeated until the weight 
was constant. 

Dtteriiihudion of total nitrogtn. — Portions of 1<M) cubic; centimeters 
each were used to determine the nitrogen h\ the usual Kjeldahl 
method. Dilute standard solutions (al)out one-fifteenth normal) were 
used for this part of the work. 

DetermiTiatlon of nitrogen precipitated in the form <f coagulated 
protelds In ncxdral solution.- — Poi'tions measuring 200 cubic centi- 
meters were evaporated upon the water bath to a volume of about 40 
cubic centimeters. The solution was then exactly neutralized with 
decinormal sodium hydroxid solution, litmus paper being used as 
indicator. The neutral solutions were w'armed upon the water bath 
for ten minutes, then filtered at once, and the coagulated residues 
washed thoroughly with hot water. The nitrogen in the residues was 
determined, much care l)e'ing taken to remove all the coagulated 
proteid from the beakers. 

Determination of nitrogen precipitated as alhiunoses hy zinc sul- 
phate. — The filtrates and washings from the above determinations of 
coagulable proteid were evaporated upon the water bath to a volume 
of 30 cubic centimeters and allowed to cool. One cubic centimeter of 
50 per cent sulphuric acid was added and the solution completely satur- 
ated with crystallized zinc sulphate. The solution was heated upon a 
water bath with constant stirring until perfectly clear, allowed to stand 



14 

twelve hours and then filtered, after which the precipitate was thor- 
oughly washed with a saturated solution of zinc sulphate, slig-htl}^ acid- 
ified with sulphuric acid. The nitrogen in the precipitate was then 
determined. 

Determ,inatio7i of nitrogen jyrecvpitated hy tannin and sodium chlo- 
rid. — Measured portions of 200 cubic centimeters each of the cold-water 
extract were transferred to 250 cu})ic centimeter measuring- fiasks 
and 1 g-ram of pure sodium chlorid and 5 cubic centimeters of a solu- 
tion containing 12 per cent of tannin were added. The solution was 
then diluted to 250 cubic centimeters, allowed to stand twelve hours, 
filtered through a dry filter, and the nitrogen determined in a measured 
volume (200 cubic centimeters) of the filtrate. 

Determination of nitrogen precipitated hy phospJiotungstie acid from 
a cold solution. — Measured amounts of 200 cubic centimeters each of 
the cold-water»extract were transferred to 250 cubic centimeter meas- 
uring flasks, with 5 cubic centimeters of 50 per cent sulphuric acid 
and 10 cubic centimeters of phosphotungstic acid solution (prepared 
as directed by Wile}^)." The solution was then diluted to 250 cubic 
centimeters, allowed to stand twelve hours, filtered through a dry filter, 
and the nitrogen determined in 200 cubic centimeters of the filtrate. 

Determination (f nitrogen precip>itated hy jyhosjyhotungstic acid from 
a hot solution. — Measured portions of 200 cubic centimeters each of 
the cold-w^ater extract were treated with 5 cubic centimeters of 50 per 
cent sulphuric acid and then heated to rapid boiling. A slight excess 
(10 to 15 cubic centimeters) of phosphotungstic acid solution was added 
and after boiling gently for five minutes the hot solution was filtered. 
The precipitate was washed thoroughly with boiling water and then 
the nitrogen which it contained was determined. 

Determination of nitrogen precipitated hy Stutzer's reagent. — jNleas- 
ured amounts of 200 cubic centimeters of the cold-water extract each 
were placed in 250 cubic centimeter measuring flasks and 3 cubic cen- 
timeters of Stutzer's reagent was added. The solution was then 
dilmted to 250 cubic centimeters, thoroughly mixed, allowed to stand 
twelve hours, filtered through a dry filter, and the nitrogen determined 
in measured portions (200 cubic centimeters) of the filtrate. 

Determ ination of nitrogen as ammonia. — Portions of 200 cubic cen- 
timeters each of the cold-water extract were distilled with magnesium 
oxid in the form of milk of magnesia and the ammonia thus liberated 
was determined in the usual way. 

Determination of nitrogen compounds precipitated directly l>y 
Srfwi^Vi.*'— Portions of 200 cubic centimeters each of the cold-water 
extract were transferred to Kjeldahl digestion flasks, acidified with 2 

« Principles of Agricultural Analysis, vol. 3, p. 454. 

& This determination has recently been discontinued, as bromin has been proved to 
be an unreliable precipitant for proteids. 



15 

cubic contiinotoi's of nonual hydnu'liloric acid, uiul tluMi treated with a 
.slitifht excess of l)romiii while beinj^ vi<^oroiisly shaken. The mixture 
was allowed to stand twenty-four hours, then filtered, and the precip- 
itate washed thorou«i-hly with water saturated with hroinin. The nitro- 
o;on was then deteruiined in the precii)itated proteid. 

Determi nation of nitnnjeti prec'tpltatedhti lnunnln in the jilt rate from, 
the zinc fodphate jrrecipitate." — The zinc sulphate filtrate was diluted 
with an equal volume of water and '1 cubic centinu^ters of noiiual 
hydrochloric acid was added. The precipitation with bromin was 
coutiuued as in the det«>rmiiiation desciibed above. 

METHODS OF ANALYZING THE BROTHS. 

The methods used in analyzing- tiie l)r<)ths in the experiments here 
reported are fundamentally the same as those descril)ed in pre\ious 
bulletins of this Office.'' Nevertheless, as they diti'ei- in some of the 
details, a l)rief outline of them is here ^iven. U))on removinii- the 
cooked meat from the vessel in which it was boiled, the hot broth was 
immediately tiltered throuo-h a sieve with circular openings of 1 milli- 
meter. The residue in the sicive, consistint>' chiefly of fra<j;nients of 
meat, was added to the cooked meat. The l)roth was rapidly cooled 
to about 15^ C. and strained through a piece of cheese cloth previously 
washed w'ith w^ater, alcohol, and ether. By this means most of the 
suspended coagulated albumin and nearl}' all of the solidified fat were 
separated. This coarse residue, after being washed with cold water, 
was dried and analyzed, first the fat and then the nitrogeii being 
determined. The tiltered broth was diluted with water to a definite 
volume and after thorough mixing six portions of 250 cubic centi- 
meters each were filtered through ash-free filters. In this manner a 
clear broth w'as obtained. The solid material collected upon the filters 
was designated as "'fine residues,'' and the ash, nitrogen, and fat in 
these residues were determined in duplicate. The total solid matter, 
ash, proteid nitrogen, nonproteid nitrogen, and extractives in the clear 
filtered broths were determined by the methods described above for the 
analysis of the cold-water extracts of meats, and in addition, in 
order to get if possible a further insight into the nature of the nitrog- 
eneous constitwents present in broths and to study and compare 
methods for determining these bodies, the following determinations 
were made: Nitrogenous compounds precipitated by bromin directly; 
nitrogenous constituents precipitated by tannin and sodium chlorid; 
compounds of nitrogen precipitated by phosphotungstic acid in the 
cold; nitrogenous substances precipitated by phosphotungstic acid in 

« This determination has recently been discontinued, as bromin has been proved to 
be an unreUable precipitant for peptones. 

& U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 102 and 141, 



16 

boiling solutions; nitrogenous bodies precipitated by Stutter's reagent, 
and nitrogen as ammonia or its compounds. The methods used in 
making these determinations in broths were similar to those 
described above for their determination in the cold-water extracts. 

OBJECT AND PLAN OF THE COOKING EXPERIMENTS. 

The object of the experiments here reported, expressed briefly and 
concisely, was to study: (1) the losses resulting from different proc- 
esses of cooking; (2) the influence of cooking on the composition and 
nutritive value of meats; (3) the nature of the changes in composition 
resulting when meat is cooked by diflferent methods; and (4) the 
nature of the water extracts of raw and cooked meats. 

In planning the work it was naturally found that the results of one 
experiment might help toward the solution of several of these prob- 
lems, and the question of their classification was thereby rendered 
complex. For instance, the main purpose of Series VIII was to test 
the difierences between the changes occurring in difl[erent cuts of 
meat all cooked bj^ the same method, and in the first three experi- 
ments (Nos. 121-123) three different cuts of beef were boiled in 
exactly similar ways. But in the fourth experiment (No. 124) the 
purpose was to study the difl'erences produced bj^ diflerent methods 
of cooking on the same cut, and a piece of meat like that boiled in 
experiment No. 123 was pan broiled. Thus experiment No. 123 
really belongs to two separate series, but for convenience both are 
included in one series. The classification finally adopted is based on 
the kind of meat and the method of cooking rather than upon chrono- 
logical sequence. If the results of any individual experiment can 
advantageousl}^ be used in connection with another series, reference 
can be made to it by number, as will be done in later sections of this 
bulletin. 

Although the method of cooking is not the most important feature 
of all these experiments, it is nevertheless one from which many sig- 
nificant deductions can be drawn. Boiling, pan broiling, roasting, 
sauteing, frying, gas broiling, and pot roasting were the methods 
employed. They were essentially the same as those described in a 
previous bulletin of this Ofiice," any minor variations being given 
with the individual experiments. In experiments Nos. 119, 124, 142, 
and 151 the samples were pan broiled; in Nos. 120, 147, and 156 they 
were roasted; in Nos. 141 and 150, sauteed; in No. 143, fried; in No. 
152, gas broiled; and in Nos. 146 and 155, pot roasted. In the 
remaining experiments (Nos. 107-118,121-123, 125, 126, 131-140,144, 
145, 153, and 154) the meats were cooked by boiling, and a detailed 
description of this method is here given, partly to explain the somewhat 

»TJ. S. Dept. Agr., Oflace of Experiment tStatioue Bui. No. 141. 



17 

conipliratod processes l»y which tlie complete rt>sults were obtained 
ami parti V l)ecause of the special importance of the liroths so produced. 

There is considerable variation in the way in which th(» terms 
"boilinj;," " stewing," and "simmering" are used. In th.- ])resent 
investiii'ation, as was the case in earlier work, the term " l)oiling" 
has been used to cover cooking in hot water at any temperature; how- 
ever, in every case the temperature of the water during cooking 
has been recorded, so it will not l)e diliic-ult, should it at any time be 
desirable, to decide whether the meat was cooked by stewing, sinnuer- 
ing, or true boiling. 

The steps which were taken in developing the experimental methods 
for determining the losses of nutrients and the chemical and nutritive 
changes which result in the cooking of meats by boiling have been 
given in full in previous publications from this OlHce." It is, how- 
ever, necessary to say in this connection that in cooking meat in hot 
or in boiling water it was found that there was no appreciable loss of 
nutritive material by volatilization, ])ut that practically all the nutrients . 
removed from meat l)y this method of cooking passed into the result- 
ing })roth. In reporting the results of these investigations all material 
separated from the meat during the cooking, whether mechanically or 
by solution, has therefore been designated '" loss" by cooking. The 
material thus removed, however, is not necessarily an actual loss from 
the standpoint of household economy if the broth is used as soup or is 
otherwise consumed as food. 

In each cooking experiment one sample of meat was reserved 
uncooked for direct analysis. The portions cooked were weighed 
before and after cooking, and the ditierence in each case was taken 
as representing the total loss in w^eight resulting from the process of 
cooking. The material lost consisted partly of water and partly of 
nutritive ingredients contained in the broth. The broth was analyzed 
by the methods given above (see pages 15, 16), the proteid, fat, ash, 
and organic extractives, both nitrogenous and nonnitrogenous, being 
determined. The total loss in weight minus the weight of these 
ingredients in the broth was assumed to represent the quantity of 
water removed from the meat in cooking. The cooked meat was then 
analyzed and the amount of each nutrient in it was added to that in 
the broth and the sum taken as the amount of the nutrients in the raw 
meat. This was found in every case to correspond so closely to the 
figures obtained by the direct analysis of the uncooked samples that 
it seemed fair to include the results of the two methods in one table, 
as has been done in the report of the experiments. From these 
amounts and the amounts in the broth the percentage loss of each 
ingredient was calculated. 

aU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 102 and 141. 
11480— No. 162—06 2 



18 

The calculation and interpretation of the results of the experi- 
ments may be illustrated hy the followino- examples: In experiment 
No. 108 (p. 22) the weight of the meat before cooking was 1,()0<) grams 
and the weight of the cooked meat 534.54 grams. The total loss in 
weight was therefore 405.46 grams, which is equivalent to a loss of 
46.55 per cent of the weight of the original meat. 

The chemical composition of the edible i)ortion of the meat before 
and after cooking and also of the resulting broth is .shown in Table 3 
(p. 23). The composition of the uncooked beef round was found by 
direct analysis to be: Water 74.04 per cent, proteid 19.63 per cent, 
nitrogenous extractives 1. 37 per cent, nonnitrogenous extractives 1.72 
per cent, fat 3.19 per cent, and ash 1.18 per cent. The same table 
shows that the composition of the cooked beef round from another 
similar sample analyzed after cooking was: Water 59.01 per cent, pro- 
teid 36.27 per cent, nitrogenous extractives 0.33 per cent, nonnitrog- 
enous extractives 0.45 per cent, fat 4.38 per cent, and ash 0.50 per 
■cent. The percentage composition of the complete lu'oth reckoned on 
the basis of the total weight of uncooked meat from which it was made 
as shown by this same table is, proteid 0.64 per cent, nitrogenous 
extractives 1.06 per cent, nonnitrogenous extractives 1.36 per cent, 
fat 0.61 per cent, and ash 0.76 per cent. 

The results of these analyses of the raw and cooked meats and the 
broth have been calculated to the water-free basis and the values thus 
obtained are given in the same table (No. 3). 

The quantities of the nutrients in the uncooked and cooked meats 
and the broth, which are soluble in water, are also given in Table 3, 
section B. Referring to this table, it will be seen that before cooking, 
the beef round used in this experiment, or a sample so similar as to 
be comparable, contained the following nutrients which were soluble 
in cold water: Proteid, 2.77 per cent; nitrogenous extractives, 1.37 
per cent; nonnitrogenous extractives, 1.72 per cent; fat, none; ash, 
0.98 per cent; making a total of 6.84 per cent. On the other hand, 
the same beef round, after cooking by boiling in water as already 
described, contained the following percentages of soluble nutrients: 
Proteid, 0.38; nitrogenous extractives, 0.33; nonnitrogenous extract- 
ives 0.45; fat, none, and ash, 0.29; making a total of only 1.45 per 
cent of material soluble in cold water. 

In like manner the quantity of soluble constituents in the broth as 
actually determined by analysis is given in the same table. The 
amounts of the water-soluble constituents which occur in the meats 
and the broth have been calculated to the water-free basis, and the 
results are also reported in Table 3. Finally, the mitrients in the raw 
and cooked meats and in the broth which are insoluble in cold water 
are given in section C of the table. 

In Table 4, giving the final results of cooking experiment No. 108, 



1'^ 

it will be notiood that the total nutrients in the eooked moat are, water 
815.4:3 onuns; proteid, 193.88 grams; nitrogenous extractives, l.TG 
grams; nonnitrogenous extractives, 2.41 grams; fat, 23.-41 grams, and 
ash, 2.H7 grtims. The entire amount of water in the cooked meat was 
found hy nuiltiplying the weight of the cooked meat (584. 54 grams) 
by the percentage of water (59.01) found in the cooked meat, which 
gave 315.48 grams. By similar calculations the weights of proteid, 
nitrogenous extractives, nonnitrogenous extractives, fat, and mineral 
matter (ash) in the entire cooked meat were obtained. 

In the next line of Table 4 there is given the w^eight of nutrients in 
the broth resulting from the cooking of meat No. 1641. These values, 
with the exception of the data for water, were obtained directly by 
the chemical analysis of the original complete l)roth. In other words, 
by analysis of the entire ])roth resulting in this experiment, it was 
found that it contained 6.42 grams of proteid, 10.68 grams of nitrog- 
enous extractives, 13.59 grams of nonnitrogenous extractives, 6.09 
grams of fat, and 7.57 grams of ash. The sum of these live quantities, 
44.80 grams, represents the total nutrients in the entire broth. This 
quantity, subtracted from 465.46 grams, the total loss in weight result- 
ing in cooking, gives 421. 16 grams, the amount of water removed from 
the meat during the cooking. 

In the third line of Table 4 are given the weights of the nutrients in 
the uncooked meat used in experiment No. 108. These data were 
obtained by adding the weight of each nutrient in the cooked meat to 
the weight of each nutrient found in the broth. The uncooked meat 
(No. 1640) weighing 1,0(»0 grams, may therefore be said to contain 
786.59 grams of w^ater, 200. 80 grams of proteid, 12.89 grams of nitrog- 
enous extractives, 16 grams of nonnitrogenous extractiv^es, 29.50 
grams of fat, and 10.24 grams of ash. It should be noted that these 
figures are obtained 1)}' computation from the analyses of cooked meat 
and broth from sample No. 1641, rather than by direct analysis of 
sample No. 1640. But by comparing them with the percentages 
obtained by direct analysis of sample No. 1640, given in Table No. 3, 
it will be seen that the differences are so slight as to be practically 
negligible. 

The tabulated statement of the several experiments also shows the 
amount of each nutrient remaining in the cooked meat, and the amount 
of each nutrient found in the resulting broth, expressed in percent- 
ages of the total weight of each nutrient contained in the original 
meat. Thus in the experiment in question, No. 108, the w^eight of 
water (315.43 grams) found in the cooked meat was divided by the 
total weight of water (736.59 grams) contained in the uncooked meat 
and then multiplied by 100, which gave the percentage of water (42.82) 
originally contained in the uncooked meat, which still remained in the 
cooked meat. In the same wa}', the percentage of water contained in 



20 

the broth or removed during the cooking was obtained by dividing the 
weight of water (421,16 grams) found in the broth by the total weight of 
water (73«5.5J> grams) contained in the uncooked meat and then multi- 
plying by 100. 

Similar calculations serve to show the percentages of proteid, nitrog- 
enous extractives, nonnitrogenous extractives, fat, and ash remain- 
ing in the imcooked meat, and the percentages of these same nutrients 
which enter the broth during the cooking. In this experiment (p. 24) 
the following percentages of nutrients of the original uncooked meat 
were found in the cooked product: Water 42.82, proteid 96.79, nitrog- 
enous extractives 14.20, nonniti'ogenous extractives 15.06, fat 79.35, 
and ash 26.07. The broth contained the following percentages of the 
nutrients of the original uncooked meat: Water 57.18, proteid 3.21, 
nitrogenous extractives 85.80, nonnitrogenous extractives 84.94, fat 
20.65, and ash 73.93. 

Finally, the table for each experiment gives the percentage of total 
amounts of each luitrient in the uncooked meat which is found in the 
broth. Again, referring to experiment No. 108, the last row of ligures 
in Table 4 gives these data. For example, the weight of water (421.16 
grams) in the broth is divided by the weight of the uncooked meat 
(1,000 grams), and the quotient multiplied by 100 gives the percentage 
of water (42.12) which is removed by cooking, calculated on the basis 
of the total weight of uncooked meat. In the same manner, by 
dividing the weight of proteid (6.42 grams) in the broth b}' the weight 
of the uncooked meat (1,000 grams) and multiplying the quotient by 
100, the product 0.64 represents the percentage amount of nitrogenous 
matter in the broth in terms of the weight of the uncooked meat. 

COOKING EXPERIMENTS NOS. 107-157. 

Each series of experiments is preceded bj' a short statement giving 
its purpose and general plan. The individual experiments then follow, 
and the kind and amount of meat used, the method and time of cooking, 
and any other necessary facts or observations are in every case recorded 
in full. Preceding the tabular statement of the details of each experi- 
ment, is a paragraph giving the weight of the raw and the cooked 
meat, and the actual and percentage loss of weight resulting from the 
cooking. 

MEATS COOKED BY BOILING. 

Series I. — ^Experiment No. 107. 

In this experiment the meat was cooked in water kept at the boiling 
point. The lean beef round which was used was freed from all bone 
and visible gristle and fat, cut into pieces 0.5 to 0.75 inch thick and 0.75 
inch to 1.25 inches long and after being thoroughly mixed was divided 



21 

into two portions; one (sjimplo No. 1639) being cooked and the other 
(No. UV.u) aiiiilyzod raw. Inv(>stiiiati()ns made in (his laboratory have 
.shown that by sueh treatment two sampk^s of meat practiealiy alike in 
chemical composition may with care be obtained from the same cut. 
The first portioti, cut into cubes (sample No. 163S>), was placed in 2,000 
cubic centimeters of vi«;-orously boilino- distilled water. The addition 
of the meat reduced the temperature of the water to 90^ C, but it was 
raised to the ))oiling point a^ain in five minutes, and the cot)kins>- con- 
tinued for tive hours and tifteen miiuites at this tem])erature. The 
libers of the cooked meat had a slightly pink color, and separated 
very easily, but were tough and not easily cut through. During the 
cooking a considerable quantity of shreds separated and settled to the 
bottom of the kettle. 

The weight before and after cooking was as follows: 

Weight of meat l)efore cooking grams. . 1 , 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 541. 86 

Loss in weight in cooking •!•> ■*'^''^- ^■^ 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent . . 4;). 8() 

Tables 1 and 2 show the results of the experiment. 

Table \.— Constituents of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and hroths, soluU<^and Insoluble 
in cold water, experiment No. 107. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1G37 
1639 
1639 



1637 
1639 
1639 



1637 
1639 
1639 



1637 
1639 
1639 



Kind of material. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth(percent uncooked meat ) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth ( percent uncooked meat) 



Water. 



Per ct. 
lf>. 53 
59.68 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 

19.01 

34. 29 

.51 



77.68 
85. 04 
2.10 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 
1.08 

.48 



4.41 
1.19 
3.63 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Pel- ct. 



1.19 
1.25 



9.07 
2.95 
5.11 



Fat. 



Per ct. 
(«) 
(«) 
0.74 



(«) 
(«) 
3.03 



Ash. 



Per ct. 

1.19 

.79 

.67 



4.86 
1.96 

2.72 



Totel 

solid 

matter. 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth ( percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth(percent uncooked meat) 



2.76 
.97 
.34 



11.27 
2.40 
1.40 



.48 



4.41 
1.19 
3.63 



2.22 
1.19 
1.25 



9.07 
2.95 
5.11 



0.98 
.50 
.67 



4.00 
1.24 

2.72 



Per ct. 
(") 
(°) 
4.06 



(a) 
16.59 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 

3.390 

5.640 

.367 



13. 854 

13. 988 

1.499 



7.04 
3.14 
3.15 



28.75 

7.78 

12.85 



0.790 
.309 
.339 



3.229 

.766 

1.386 



a Determination lost. 



2^ 

T.\BLE 1. — Constituents of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, soluble and insoluble 
in cold water, experiment No. 107 — Continued. 

C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



Labo- 


Kind of material. 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 


Total 


ratory 
No. 


Nitiog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


solid 
matter. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1637 


O.N- FRESH BASLS. 

Beef round uncoolced 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 

16.25 

33.32 

.17 

66.41 

82.64 

.70 


Per ct. 









Per ct. 









Per ct. 

(a) 


Per ct. 
0.21 


Perct. 

(«) 
{«) 
0.91 

(a) 
3.73 


Per ct. 
2.600 


1639 


Beef, round, cooiied 




(a) I .29 


5.331 


1639 
1637 


Broth ( percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




0.74 

(«) 
(«) 
3.03 


.86 
.72 


.028 
10. 625 


1639 






13. 222 


1639 


Broth(percent uncooliedmeat) 




.113 



a Determination lost. 
Table 2. — Results of cooking (boiling) experiment Xo. 101 



Labo- 






Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 






ratory 
No." 


Distribution of nutrients. Water. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog» 
enous. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


1639 


Weight of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 


Grams. 
323.08 
418. 03 
741. 11 

Per cent. 
43.59 
56.41 


Qi-ams. 

185. 63 

5.15 

190. 78 

Per cent. 

97.30 

2.70 

.52 


Gravis. 
2.60 

8.88 
11.48 

Per cent. 
22.65 
77.35 

.89 


Grams. 
6.44 


Grams. 


Grams. 
4.28 


1639 


In broth 


12.50 "7.42 
18.94 1 (a) 

Per cent. \ Per cent. 
34.00 (a) 
"«6.00 1 la^ 


6.66 


1637 




10.94 


1639 


Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 


Per ct. 
39.12 


1639 


In brotii 


60.88 


1639 


In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . . 


4L80 


1.25 


0.74 


.67 



a Determination lost. 

Series II. — Experiments Nos. 108, 109. 

The special object of these experiments was to stud}" and compare 
the chemical and nutritive chang-es taking- place when meat is cooked 
(1) b}^ putting- it in boiling- water for ten minutes and then cooking- it 
at 85° C. for three hours, and (2) b}' allowing- it to stand in cold water 
for one hour, gradualh^ increasing the temperature during- the follow- 
ing- hour until it reached So'^ C. and then, tinally, allowing it to cook 
for three hours at this temperature. 

Cooking Expeiumext No. 108. 

The lean beef round used in experiment 108 was freed from all bone, 
visible gristle and fat, cut into cubes about 1 inch .square, and inti- 
mately mixed. 

One sample (No. 1640) was analyzed raw, the other (No. 1641), which 
weighed 1,000 grams, was used for the cooking test. It was placed 



23 

ill -J.OdO ciihic i-critiiiu'tcrs of vi^iorously hoilino- distillod wutcr for ten 
niiiuiti's, tilt' tt'iii|)t'r;ituir tlicii allowed to drop to S5 C. and the cook- 
iin*- contiiiiifd at (his tfmix'iatiin' for thicc iioiii>. 
The W(Mj;-ht lu'fore and aftor cookini:" was as follows: 

Wei^'ht of meat before cooking.' t;rains. . 1. 000. W 

\\\M<,'ht of iiu'at after cooking <lo ,W4.54 

Lo!>s in \veigl\t in eooking '1<^> -t*''""- -tH 

Loss in \vei«rlit in eookinir per cent . . 4(). w 

Th«' details of the cxiu'i-imont are shown in Tahlt's ;> and 4. 

T.MU.K '.i. — ( 'omtilnent.-t of uncooked meats, rooked meatu, and broths, soluhle and Insoluble 
in cold water, experiment No. 108. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



Kind 111 material. 



1640 
1641 
1041 



1640 
1641 
1641 



1 Water. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 

I Per rt. 

Beef, round, iiiicookod 74.04 

Buef. round, cooki-d 59.01 

Brotln percent uncooked meat ) 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Organic 
extractives. 



Pro- 
teid. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Brotli (percent uncooked meat)!. 



enous. 



Perct. 

19.63 

36. -27 

.64 



75. 62 

88.48 
2.48 



Perd. 

1.37 

.33 

1.06 



5.28 

.81 

4.10 



Per ct. 

1.72 

.45 

1.36 



fi. 62 
1.10 
5.24 



Fat. Ash. 



Per ct. 

3.19 

4.38 

.61 



12.29 
10.69 
2.35 



Per ct. 

1.18 

..TO 

.76 



4. .'VS 
l.>2 
2.91 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Per ct. 

27. 09 

41.93 

4.43 



104. 36 

102. 30 

17.08 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per c.l. 

3. 5S0 

,x910 

.444 



13.791 

14.41H 

1.709 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



IWO 
1641 
1641 



1640 
l.i41 
1641 



ON FRE.SH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (percent uncooked meat) 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked j 

Broth( percent uncooked meat), 



2.77 
.38 

.22 



10.68 
.93 
.84 



1.37 

.33 

1.06 



5.28 

.81 

4.10 



1.72 

.45 

1.36 



6.62 
1.10 
5.24 



0.98 
.29 
.75 



3.77 

.71 

2.90 



6.84 
1.45 
3.39 



26. 35 
3 55 
13.08 



0.883 
.168 
.376 



3.401 

.410 

1.447 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1640 
1641 
1641 



1640 
1641 
1641 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth(pereent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (percent uncooked meat) 



16.86 

35.89 

.42 



64.94 

87.55 

1.64 



3.19 

4.38 

.61 



12.29 

10.69 

2.35 



20 
.21 
.01 



.78 
..51 
.01 



20. 25 

40.48 

1.04 



78.01 

98. 75 

4.00 



2. 097 

5. 742 

.008 



10. 390 

14.008 

.262 



24 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



T.\BLE 4. — Results of cooking {boiling) experiment No. 108. 



Ilistrihiitinii of imtrionts. 



Proteid. 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Fat. 



Ash. 



1641 
1641 
1640 



1641 
1641 
1641 



Weight of nvitrient.s: 

III cooked meat 

Ill liroth 

In uncooked meat 

Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

Ill broth 

In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . 



Qrnvis. 
315.43 
421.16 
736. 59 

Per rent. 
42. 82 
.57. 18 



Grams. 

193. 88 

6.42 

200.30 

Per cent. 

96.79 

3.21 



Grams. 

1.76 

10.63 

12.39 

Per cent. 
14.20 

85. SO 



Grams. 
2.41 
13. 59 
16.00 

Per cent. 
15.06 
84.94 



Grams. 

23. 41 

6. 09 

29.50 

Per cent. 
79. 35 
20. 65 



Grams. 
2.67 

7.57 
10.24 

Per ct. 
26. 07 
73.93 



Cooking Experiment No. 109. 

The meat used in this experiment was from the .same cut of beef 
round as that used in the above experiment (No. 108), and it was pre- 
pared for cooking- in the same way. The method of cooking was, 
however, entirely different. The 1,000-grara portion, cut into cubes, 
was placed in 2,000 cubic centimeters of cold water and allowed to 
stand for one hour. The temperature of the water was then gradually 
increased, reaching 85° C. in one hour. The meat was then cooked for 
three hours longer at this temperature. 

The weight before and after cooking was as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 1, 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 517. 48 

Loss in weight in cooking do 482. 52 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent.. 48. 25 

The results of the experiment are shown in Tables 5 and 6. 

Table 5. — Constituents of uncooked meats, cooked meals, and broths, .'soluble and insoluble 
in cold ivafer, experiment No. 109. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 


Kind of material. 


Water. 


Pro- 
tied. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 


ratory 

No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1640 
1642 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round , uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 


Per ct. 
74.04 
59.91 


Per ct. 

19.63 

3.5.20 

1.56 

75.62 

87.80 


Per ct. 

1.37 

.43 

1.02 

5.28 
1.07 
3.93 


Per ct. 

1.72 

.56 

1.34 

6.62 
1.40 
5.16 


Per ct. 

3.19 

3.93 

.59 

12.29 
9.80 
2.29 


Perct. 

1.18 

.51 

.77 

4.55 
1.27 
2.98 


Per ct. 
27.09 
40.63 

5.28 

104.36 
101.34 
20.36 


Perct. 
3.580 
5. 770 


1642 
1640' 


Broth( percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 


.576 
13.791 


1642 






14. 393 


1642 


Broth (percent uncooked meat) 




6.00 


2.220 



25 



Tabi.k f^.—CnnstHiievls of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, sohd)le and iiiKoltdile 
ill rnid water, e.iperimeiit Xo. 10<) — Continued. 

B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



nitory 
No. 



1642 
\6il 



Kind (if inaU'riiil. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (pereenl uncooked meat) 



Water. 



Perct. 



O.N WATER-FREE BASIS. 



1640 
1642 
1642 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooke<l 

Broth(percent uncooked meat) 



teid. 



Peret. 

2.77 

.13 

.17 



10.68 
.3.5 
.66 



Organic 
extractives. 



NitroK- 
eiiouH. 



Perct. 

1.37 

.43 

1.02 



.=i.2« 
1.07 
3.93 



Non. 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Peret. 

1.72 

.."16 

1.34 



6.62 
1.40 
5.16 







Totjil 


Fat. 


Ash. 


solid 
matter. 


Perct. 


Percl. 


Perct. 





0.98 


6.84 





.27 


1.39 





.77 


3.30 





3.77 


26. 35 





.67 


3.49 





2.98 


12.73 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Perct. 

0.883 

.160 

.3.55 



3.402 

.399 

1.367 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1640 
1042 
1642 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, rouiiil. couked 

Brothi percent uncooked meat) 



ON WATER-FPEE B.4SIS. 



1640 ' Beef, round, \incnoked 

1042 i Beef, r.-und, cooked 

1042 Brotlii ix-rceiit uncooked meat) 



16.86 

35.07 

1.39 



61. »1 

87. 45 
5.34 



3.19 

3.93 

.59 



12.29 
9.80 
2.29 



0.20 
.24 



20.25 
39.24 

1.98 



78.01 

97.85 

7.63 



2.697 

5.610 

.221 



10.389 

13.994 

.853 



Table 6. — Remits of cooking {hoiling) experiment No. 109. 



Labo- 

nUory 

No. 



1642 
1642 
1640 



1642 
1642 
1642 



Distribution of nutrients. 



Weight of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

In broth 

In uncooked meat 

Projiortion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

In broth 

In l)rotli on liasis of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . 



Water. 



Grams. 
310. 02 
429. 69 
739. 71 

Per cent. 
41.91 

58.09 



Grams. 

182. 15 

15. .57 

197. 72 

Per cent. 
92.13 

7.87 

1.56 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
2. 23 
10. 21 
12.44 

Per cent. 
17.93 
82.07 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
2.90 
13.38 
16.28 

Per cent. 
17.81 
82. 19 

1.34 



Fat. 



Grams. 

20.34 

5.94 

26.28 

Per cent. 
77.40 
22.60 



Ash. 



Grams. 
2.64 
7.73 
10.37 

Per cf. 
25. 46 
74. ,51 

.77 



Series III. — Experiments Nos. 110-118. 

The four experiment.s in this series were all made with the same cut 
of meat, the object being to determine the nature of the changes in com- 
position and nutritive value and the losses involved when meat is 
cooked (1) in boiling water for the entire period; (2) in boiling w^ater 
for ten minutes and then at 85° C. ; (3) by immersing it in cold water 
and warming graduallv. taking one hour to raise the temperature to 
85^ C. and completing the cooking at this temperature, and (4) b}' 
immersing it in cold water and warming graduall}^, taking one hour to 
reach a temperature of 65° C. , and completing the cooking at 64: to 65° C. 
The entire cut of fresh lean beef round was freed from all bone, visible 



26 



gristle, and most of the visible fat, cut into pieces 0.5 to 0.75 inch 
thick and from (».75 to 1.25 inches long', and thoroughly mixed. Four 
samples (Nos. IH-iS, 1644, 1645, and 1646) were used for the four fol- 
lowing cooking experiments and one (No. 1647) was anah'zed raw. 

Cooking Kxpekiment No. 110. 

The lirst portion, weigliing 1,000 grams, was cut into cubes and 
cooked b}- plunging it into 2,000 cubic centimeters of vigorously boiling 
distilled water. The meat was then cooked for live hours in gently 
boiling water. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams . . 1 , 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 547. 51 

Loss in weight in cooking <lo 452. 49 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 45. 25 

Tables 7 and 8 give the details of the experiment. 

Table 7. — Constituents of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, soluble and insoluble 
in cold water, experiment Xo. 110. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



Kind of material. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



16-17 I Beef, round, uncooked 

1643 Beef, round, cooked 

1643 , Broth(percentuncookedmeat) 



1647 
1643 
1643 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth(percentuneooked meat) 



Water. 



Per d. 
74. lb 
60. 52 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 

18.11 

32. 68 

.62 



70.14 

82. 78 

2.40 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Pa- ct. 

1.41 

.44 

.88 



.^4G 
1.12 
3.39 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 

1.95 

..57 

1.09 



7. .55 
1.44 
4.23 



Fat. 



Per ct. 
4.28 
,5.66 

.85 



16. .58 

14.34 

3.28 



Ash. 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Per ct. 

1.28 

.74 

.64 



4.96 
1.87 
2.47 



Per ct. 

27. 03 

40.09 

4.08 



104. 69 
101.55 
15. 77 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 

3. 350 

5.370 

.379 



12. 979 

13. 602 

1.469 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1647 
1643 
1643 



1647 
1643 
1643 



ON FEESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth(percentuncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth ( per cent uncooked meat ) 



7.05 
2.33 
1.57 



1.41 
.44 



5.46 
1.12 
3.39 



1 95 

.57 

1.09 



7.55 
1.44 
4.23 



0.94 
.44 
.64 



3.64 
1.11 
2.47 



6.12 
2.37 
3.02 



23.70 
6.00 
11.66 



0.744 

.288 
.346 



2.881 

. 729 

1.339 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 






















16.29 

31.76 

.21 






. 







4.28 
5.66 

.85 


0.34 
.30 


20.91 

37.72 

1.06 


2.606 






5.082 


1643 Brotii(percentuncookedmeat) 




.033 


ON WATEK-FREE BASIS. 






















63.09 

80.45 

.83 












16.58 
14.34 
3.28 


1.32 
.76 


80.99 

95.55 

4.11 


10.092 






12. 873 


1643 Broth(percent uncooked meat) 




.130 



27 



T.\BLB 8. — Results of cooking (boiling) e.rperiment No. 110. 



Labo- 








Organic extract- 
ives. 1 




ratt)rv 
No. 


Distribution of iiufricnts. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- J-^^t- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1C43 
1643 


Weight of nutrients: 

In fookud nu'at 

In brotli 


Grams. 
331.36 
411.77 


Grams. Grams. 

178.93 2.41 

6.18 ■ 8. "(•> 


Grams. Grams. 
3.12 30.99 
10. 92 8. 48 
14. 04 39. 47 

Per cent. Per rent. 
22. 22 78. 52 
77.78 21.48 

1.09 .85 


Grams. 
4.05 
6 38 


1617 




743. 12 

Per cent. 
44.59 
55.41 

41.18 


185. 11 

Per cent. 
96.66 
3.34 

.62 


11.17 

Per cent. 
21.58 
78.42 

.88 


10 43 


16-13 


I'roportion of nutrient.s: 


Percent. 
38.83 


1643 




61.17 


1643 


In brotli on basi.s of total 
weight of uncooked- meat ... 


.64 



CoOKINli E.XPEKI.MENT No. 111. 

In thi.s experiment the 1,000 j^rams of meat was cut into cubes and 
placed in vij^orously boiling' distilled water. The temperature of the 
water was maintained at the boiling- point for ten minutes, when the 
lamp was removed and the temperature allowed to fall to 85° C. The 
cooking- was further continued for rive hours at a temperature varying 
between 84 and 85° C. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking graiiiH. . 1 , 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 530. 59 

Loss in weight in cooking do 469. 4 1 

Loss in weight in cooking j)er cent. . 48. 94 

The results of the experiment are shown in Tables 9 and 10. 



Table 9. — Constituent>i of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and brotlis, soluble and insoluble 
in cold water, experiment No. 111. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 


Kind of material. 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 


ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1647 
1644 
1644 

1647 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (percentuncookedmeat,' 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 


Per ct. 
74.18 
69.12 


Per ct. 

18. 11 

34.14 

.56 

70. 14 

83. 51 

2.18 


Per ct. 

1.41 

.40 

.92 

5.46 

.98 

3.55 


Per ct. 

1.95 

.67 

1.20 

7.55 
1.39 
4.63 


Per ct. 
4. -28 
5.75 

.85 

16.58 
14.07 
3.29 


Per ct. 

1.28 

.69 

.70 

4.96 
1.69 
2.71 


Per ct. 
27.03 
41.55 
4.23 

104. 09 
101.64 
16.36 


Per ct. 

3. 350 

5. .590 

.384 

12. 979 


1644 
1644 


Beef, round, cooked . 


13. 674 


Broth ( percentuncookedmeat) 


1.487 



28 



Table 9. 



-f'ondltnenis of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, soluble and insoluble 
in cold water, experhnent No 111 — Continued. 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No." 



1647 
1644 
1G44 



1647 
1644 
1644 



Kind of material. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth(percentuncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth ( percentuncooked meat ) 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 

1.82 

.29 

.22 



7.05 
.71 

.85 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 

1.41 

.40 

.92 



5.46 

.98 

3.55 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 

1.95 

.57 

1.20 



7.55 
1.39 
4.63 



Fat. 



Per ct. 






Ash. 



Per ct. 

0.94 

.38 

.70 



3.64 

.93 

2.71 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Per ct. 
6.12 
1.64 
3.04 



23.70 

4.01 

11.74 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 

0.744 

.174 

.329 



2.881 

.425 

1.274 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1647 


ON FRESH BASIS. 




16.29 

33.85 

.34 

63.09 

82. 80 

1.33 




















4.28 

5.75 

.85 

16.58 
14.07 
3.29 


0.34 
.31 

1.32 
.76 


20.91 

39.91 

1.19 

80.99 

97.63 

4.62 


2.606 


1644 






5.416 


1644 
1647 


Broth (percentuncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




.046 
10. 098 


1644 






13. 249 


1644 


Broth (percentuncooked meat) 




.213 



Table 10. — Results of cooking {boiling) experiment No. 111. 



Labo- 


Distribution of nutrients. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1644 


Weight of nutrients: 


Grams. 
313. 68 
427.17 
740.85 

Per cent. 
42. 34 
57.66 

42. 72 


Grams. 

181. 14 

5.64 

186.78 

Per cent. 

96.98 

3.02 

.56 


Grams. 
2.12 
9.16 
11.28 

Per cent. 

18.79 
81.21 

.92 


Grams. 
3.02 
11.95 
14.97 

Per cent. 
20.18 
79. 82 

1.20 


Grams. 

30. 51 

8.50 

39.01 

Per cent. 
78.21 
21. 79 

.85 


Grams. 
3. 66 


1644 




6.99 


1647 




10.65 


1644 


Proportion of nutrients: 


Per ct. 
34.37 


1644 


In broth 


6.5.64 


1644 


In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat. . . 


.70 



Cooking Experiment No. 112. 

The beef round in the form of cubes was cooked bj' placing the 
entire portion of 1,000 grams in 2,000 cubic centimeters of cold water. 
The water surrounding- the meat was gently warmed, one hour being 
required to raise its temperature to 85° C. The cooking was then 
continued further at 85° C. for five hours. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 1, 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 503. 59 

Loss in weight in cooking do 496. 41 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 49. 64 

The details of the experiment are shown in Tables 11 and 12. 



29 

T.\Hi,K 11. — < V);^s^7((("/(^'* iif iiiicodlcetl mrnls, cookid tindl-i, (iml hritth>t,_xiiliihi, (tnd i 11.10/ iililr 
III colli iinter, cijuriiiinil Xo. 11 J. 

.v. TOTAL Nl'TRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



Kind of niiitorial. 



Water. 



Pro- 
teid. 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Fat. 



Ash. 



Totil 

solid 

matter. 



Tdtal 
nitro- 
gen. 



1M7 
1645 
1645 



1647 
1645 
1645 



ON KKESII BASIS. 

Beef, round, unc(M)ke<l 

Beef, roiniil, cooked 

Broth(iK?rct'nt uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



I'er ct. 
74.1s 
59.84 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth( percent uncooked meat) 



Per ct. 

18.11 

33.23 

.80 



70.14 

82.74 

3.10 



Pcrcf. 

1.41 

.32 

.99 



5.46 

.80 

3.84 



Per rt. 

1.95 

.43 

1.27 



7. 55 
1.07 
4.91 



Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. 



4.28 
5.23 
1.14 



10.58 
13.02 
4.42 



1.28 
.54 
.72 



27.03 

39.75 

4.92 



4.96 104.69 
1.34 9S.97 
2.80 19.07 



Per ct. 

3.350 

5. 420 

.446 



12. 979 

13. 496 

1.726 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 





ON FRESH BASIS. 


















1(>47 






1.82 
.36 
.15 


1.41 
.32 
.99 


1.95 

.43 

1.27 







0.9^1 
.34 
. 72 


6.12 
1.45 
3.13 


0.744 


ir>4."> 






.161 


1645 


BrotlHpcrcent uncooked meat) 




.341 




ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 


















16-t7 
1645 


Beef, round, unco(ike<l 




7.05 
.89 
.57 


5. 46 

.80 

3.84 


7.55 
1.07 
4.91 







3. 61 

.84 
2.80 


23. 70 
3. .59 
12.12 


2. 881 
.401 


1645 


Brotli( percent uncooked meat) 




1.321 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1647 


ON FRESH B.\SIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 




16.29 

32.87 

.65 

63.09 

81.85 

2.53 















s 




4.28 
5.23 
1.14 

16.58 
13.02 
4.42 


0.34 
.20 

1.32 
.50 


20. 91 

38.30 

1.79 

80. 99 
95. 37 
6.95 


2.006 


1645 






5. 259 


1645 
1647 


Broth (percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




.105 
10. 098 


1645 






13. 095 


1645 


Broth ( percent uncooked meat ) 




.405 



Table 12. — Results of cooking {boiling) experiment No. 112. 



Labo- 






Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




ratory 
No. 


Distribution of nutrient.s. 


Water. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enou.s. 


Ash. 


1645 


Weight of nutrients: 


Grams. 
301.35 
447.18 
748.53 

Per cent. 
40.26 
59.74 

44. 72 


Grams. 

167. 34 

8.00 

175.34 

Per cent. 

95.44 

4.56 

.80 


Grams. 
1.61 
9.90 
11.51 

Per cent. 
13.99 
86.01 

.99 


Grams. 
2.17 
12.67 
14.84 

Per cent. 
14.62 

85.38 

1.27 


Grams. 
26.34 
11. 42 
37.76 

Per cent. 
69.76 
30.24 

1.14 


Grams. 
2.72 


1645 


In broth . . 


7.24 


1647 


In uncooked meat 


9.96 


1645 


Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 


Per ct. 
27.31 


1645 




72.69 


1645 


In broih on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat. . . 


.72 



30 



Cooking Experiment No. 11. 'i. 

The meat cut into eub(\s was placed in 2,()U() cubic centimeters of 
cold water which was warmed very slowly, requiring- one hour to 
reach 65° C. The cooking was then continued at HI to 66° C. for five 

hours. 

The losses in weight during the cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams . . 1 , 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking rto 548. (51 

Loss in weight in cooking <1<' 451. 39 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 45. 14 

The detailed results of the experiment are shown in Tal)les 18 and 1-1. 

Table 13. — Constituents of uncooJced meats, rooked meats, and In-otlis, si>hihh' and insohihle 
in. cold voter, experiment No. J 1-1. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 

No. 



1647 
1646 
1646 



1647 
1646 
1646 



Kind of material. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth(percent uncooked meat) 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (percent uncooked meat) 



Pel- cf. 

74.18 
62.93 



Pro- 
tcid. 



Per ct. 

18.11 

32.16 

.91 



70.14 

86.76 

3.51 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 

1.41 

.29 

.92 



.5.46 

.78 

3.55 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 

1.95 

.38 

1.19 



7.55 
1.03 
4.63 



Fat. 



Per cl. 

4. 28 

5. .^7 

.70 



16. .58 
15. 03 
2.71 



Ash. 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Perct. Per ct. 

1.28 27.08 

..55 38.95 

.74 4.46 



4.96 
1.48 



104.69 
105.08 
17.26 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 
3. 3-50 
5. 240 
. 431' 



12.979 

14. 135 

1.701 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1647 
1646 
1646 



1647 
1646 
1646 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth(percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (percent uncooked meat) 



1.82 


1.41 


1.95 





.27 


.29 


.38 





.23 


.92 


1.19 





7.05 


5.46 


7. .55 





.73 


.78 


1.03 





.90 


3.55 


4.63 


" 



0.94 
.24 
.74 



3.64 

.65 

2.86 



6.12 
1.18 
3.08 



23.70 
3.19 
11.94 



0.744 
.138 
.331 



2.881 

.372 

1.283 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1647 
1646 
1646 



1647 
1646 
1646 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth ( percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (percentuncooked meat 



16. 29 

31.89 

.68 



63. 09 

86.03 

2.61 



4.28 

5. .57 

.70 



16. .58 
15.03 
2.71 



0.34 
.31 



1.32 
.83 



20.91 

37.77 

1.38 



80.99 

101. 89 

5.32 



2. 606 

5. 102 

.108 



10.098 

13. 763 

.418 



31 



Tahi-e 14. — Reaitlta of cookhitj (boillmj) experiment Xo 113. 




Iti-lti 
lti-17 



16 If. 
IWC. 



Weiplit of nutrients: 

III conked meat 

In hruth 

In uncooketl metit 

I'mportion of iiiitrieuls: 

In cookert meat 

Iti broth 

In liroih on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . 



Gravis. (Tramf. 

345.21 17C.43 

4W>. 83 9. 06 

7W: 07 1.S5. 49 



Per cnit. 
45. 91 
5-1.09 

40.68 



Per cnil. 
95. 12 

4.8H 



Grams. 

1.59 

9. IS 

10.77 

Per rait. 
14.76 
8.5.24 

.92 



Grams, i Grnmis. 

2. 08 30. .'>{> 

11.94 7.00 

14.02 37. .5<! 



Prr 



III. 
11.84 
85. l(i 



]'n 



rent. 
81.36 
18. 64 



Grams. 
3.02 
7.38 
10. 40 

I'rr cl. 
29.04 
70. 96 



Series IV. -P^xi'ei:i.mknts Xo.s. 181, i;]2. 

The spociiil ohjoct of tliosc two rxjx'riiiu'iits was to dctcrmiiu' tin* 
iiiituro and anioiiiit of los.ses uiul the clmnictcr of the clmnges which 
lean beef round undergoes when cooked in hot wtiter (1) sit s.") (\ — 
that is, at a temperature considerably lower than that of Ijoilint^ 
water — and (2) at the tempei'ature of boiliiijr water. Lean l)eef round 
was .selected, and all the ))one and visible tyristh* but none of the fat 
was removed. The entire portion was cut into small pieces, 0.5 to 
U.T5 inch thick and 0.75 inch to 1.25 inches long, and was then \'erv 
thorouohly mi.xed. Three samples were then taken, two (\os. 1720 
and 1721) for the cookinj^ test and one (No. 1722) for an analysis of 
the raw meat. 

Cooking Experiment No. V.W. 

In the first experiment. No. l'-51, the meat was pluncred into 2,000 
cu])ic centimeters of vio'orously boilino- water and cooked at the boiling 
point of water for ten minutes, when the temperature was allowed to 
drop to 85"^ C. and the cooking continued until the total time of cook- 
ing equaled live hours. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams . . 1 , 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 5.51. 91 

Loss in weight in cooking <lo 448. 09 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 44. 81 

Tables 15 and 16 show' the details of the experiment. 



32 

Tahi.k 15. — ('oii.slilKcnts of uncooked mcntu, cooked meitta, mid hroths, soluhle und hmolu- 
hle in cold iraler, e.i}>erinu'nf Xo. 131. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1722 
1720 
1720 



1722 
1720 
1720 



Kind of niiitfritil. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth(percent uneookedineat) 



ON WATER-FRKE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth(percent uncookedmeat) 



Prr H. 
72. 57 
55.31 



Pro- 
tcid. 



Per ct. 

18.96 

31.88 

.42 



69. 12 

71.34 

1.55 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 

1.12 

.65 

.95 



4.08 
1.45 
3.46 



Non- 
niirog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 

1.99 

.15 

1.34 



7.25 
.34 

4.87 







Total 


Fat. 


Ash. 


solid 
matter. 


Perct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


4.78 


1.09 


27. 94 


11.61 


.51 


44.80 


L26 


.64 


4.61 


17.43 


3.97 


101.85 


25.98 


1.14 


100.25 


4.61 


2.33 


16.82 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1722 
1720 
1720 



1722 
1720 
1720 



ON FBESIl BASIS. 



>kcd. 



Beef, round, uncn 

Beef, round, cookcc] 

Broth(i>crcent uncookedmeat) 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth(percentunci)oked meat) 



2.70 
.16 
.28 



9.86 

.36 

1.05 



1.12 
.65 
.95 



4.08 
1.45 
3.46 



1.99 

.15 

1.34 



7.25 

.34 

4.87 



0.89 
.25 
.64 



3.25 

.67 

2.32 



6.70 
1.21 
3. 21 



24.44 
2. 72 
11.70 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1722 
1720 
1720 



1722 
1720 
1720 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth(percentuncookedmeat) 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth{perceiituncooked meat) 



16.26 

31.72 

.14 



.59. 26 

70.98 

.50 



4.78 
11.61 
1.26 



17.43 

26. 98 

4.61 



0.20 
.26 



.72 
.57 
.01 



21.24 

43.59 

1.40 



77.41 

97. .53 

5.12 



Takle 16. — /?f^s•«/^s■ of cooking {hoilinij) e.rperiment No. 131. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1720 
1720 
1722 



1720 
1720 
1720 



Distribution of nutrients. 



Weight of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

In broth 

In tmcooked meat 

Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

In broth 

In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . . 



Water. 



Grams. 
305. 26 
401.97 
707. 23 

Per crnt. 
43.16 
.5(). 84 



Proteid. 



Grams. 

17.5.96 

4.24 

180. 19 

Per cent. 
97. 65 
2.35 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Grains. 
3.59 
9.49 

13.08 

Per ceiit. 
27.45 
72.55 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Qrams. 
0.83 
13.36 
14.19 

Per cent. 

.5.85 

94.15 



Fat. 



Grams. 
64.08 
12.64 
76. 72 

Per cent. 
83. .52 
16.48 



33 

COOKINC; Exi'EKI.MEXT No. 132. 

The meat used in this experiment was placed directly in 2,000 cubic 
centimeters of vig-orousl^- boiling" watei- and cooked at this temperature 
for live hours. 

The losses in weight daring cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before eooking grams. . 1, 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 549. 72 

Loss in weight in cooking do 450. 28 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 45. 03 

The details of the experiment are recorded in Tables 17 and 18. 



Table 17. — Constituents of uncooked meuti<, conked meats, and broths, soluble and insoluble 
in cold water, experiment No. 132. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labd- 


Kind of material. 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractive.s. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 


nitorv 
No. 


=f|i: 


nitro- 
gen. 


1722 
1721 


ON FKESH BASIS. 

Beef, roimd, uncooked 

Beef, rouiui, cooked 


Per ct. 
72.57 
57. 12 


Per ct. 

18.96 

31.98 

.71 

69.12 
74.58 
2.57 


Per ct. Per ct. 

1.12 1.99 

.65 .50 

.88 1.27 

4.08 7.25 
1.51 i 1.17 
3.21 4.64 


Per ct. 
4.78 
9.01 
1.14 

17.43 
21.01 
4.14 


Per ct. 

1.09 

.63 

.59 

3.97 
1.47 
2.15 


Per ct. 
27. 94 
42.77 
4.59 

101.85 
99.74 
16.71 


Per ct. 
3.392 
5 324 


1721 

1722 


Broth (percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 


.395 
12. 366 


1721 


Beef, round, cooked ' 


12. 416 


1721 


Broth (per centuncookedmeat) 


1.441 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1722 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 




2.70 
.56 
.60 

9.86 
1.31 
2.19 


1.12 
.65 

.88 

4.08 
1.51 
3.21 


1.99 

..50 

1.27 

7.25 
1.17 
4.64 











0.89 
.38 
.59 

3.25 

.90 

2.15 


6.70 
2.09 
3.34 

24.44 
4.89 
12.19 


0.791 


1721 






.297 


1721 
1722 


Broth( percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 




.379 

2.885 


1721 






.694 


1721 


Broth(percent uncooked meat) 




1.380 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 





ON FRESH BASIS. 


















1722 






16. 26 

31.42 

.11 












4.78 
9.01 
1.14 


0.20 
.25 


21.24 
40. (18 
1.25 


2.601 


1721 


Beef, round, cooked . . 




5.027 


1721 


Broth ( percent uncooked meat ) 




.016 




ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 


















1722 






59.26 

73.27 

.38 












17.43 
21.01 
4.14 


.72 
.57 


77.41 
94.85 
4.52 


9.481 


1721 


Beef, round cooked 




11. 722 


1721 


Broth (percent uncooked meat) 




.061 



11480— No. 162—06- 



34 



Table 18. — Results of cooking {boiling) experiment No. 132. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1721 
1721 
1722 



1721 
1721 
1721 



Distribution of imtrionts. 



Weight of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

In broth 

In uncooked meat 

Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

In broth 

In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . 



Water. 



GramH. 
314. 00 
■104. 42 

718. 42 

Per cent. 
43.71 
56. 29 

40.44 



Proteid. 



Chravis. 

175. 80 

7.05 

182. 85 

Per cent. 

96.14 

3.86. 



Organic extract- 
ive.s. 



Nitrog- 
cncous. 



Non- 
nit rog- 
eueous. 



Fat. 



Grairnt. ' Grains. 

3.57 I 2.75 

8.81 12.74 

12.38 15.49 

Per cent.l Per cent. 

28.84 I 17.75 

71.16 82.25 

. 88 1. 27 



Grams. 
49.53 
n.:^5 
60.88 

Per cent. 
81.36 
18.64 



Ash. 



G-rams. 
3.46 
5.91 
9.37 

Per ct. 
36.93 
63.07 

.59 



Series V. — Experiments Nos. 125, 126. 

The special object in the.se experiments was to study the chang-es 
produced in fat beef rump by cooking in water (1) at 85^ C. — that is, 
considerably under the boiling- point of water — and (2) at the boiling 
point of water. Before cooking, the beef rump was freed from all 
bone and gristle but none of the fat was remov ed. It was then 
divided into pieces, 0..5 to 0.75 inch thick and 0.75 inch to 1.25 inches 
long. After a thorough mixing, two portions (Nos. 17o3 and 1704) each 
weighing 1,000 grams, were taken for cooking, while a third (No. 1705) 
was reserved for analysis. 

Cooking Expkki.mext No. 125. 

The first portion in the test, the cubes of meat (sample No. 1703) were 
placed in 2,000 culjic centimeters of vigorously boiling water. The 
temperature was kept at 99.5° C. for ten minutes, then allowed to drop 
to 85° C, at which temperature the cooking continued until the meat 
had been cooked for five hours in all. 

The lo.sses in weight in cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams . . 1 , 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 595. 32 

Loss in weight in cooking <lo 404. 68 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 40. 47 

Tables 19 and 20 give the details of the experiment. 



35 

Tahi.k 19. — C'o;(.s///h(;(/.s' of uiiconh'tl meals, cooked meaf.t, lutd f>rf>t/i.'<, .'<oInhle and Insolii- 
hlr in cold irater, erperiineid No. 1^.5. 

A. TOTAL NirTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



La bo- 
rn tor V 
No. 



Kiinl ■>!" in;iliri:il. 



ON FBESH BASIS. 

1705 Bt'i'f, niini", niicooki'd 

1703 Boof. rump, cdoki'd 

1703 Broth (percuiitiiiicookc'rtnunt i 



Water. 



Organic 
extractives. 



Pro- 
teid. 



Nitrotj- 
ciious. 



Non- 
Ill trot;- 
enoiis. 



Fat. 



Ash. 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Per rt. Per et. Per rt. 

61.22 17.71 

48.34 27.13 0.29 

' . i=> .«•; 



Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. 

20.23 0.91 

0. :U 25. 36 . 43 



Per ct. 

38.85 
51.55 



Total 
nitro- 
tivn. 



Per ct. 
2.834 
4.433 
.3IS 



ON WATER-FREK BASIS. 



1705 Beef, niniii. uncooked 

1703 i Beef. riim[>, cooked 

1703 Broth(pcrcciituncookeclmettt)| 



45. 67 

52. 52 

1.15 



2.23 



.66 



52. 17 

45. 22 

6.08 



2.35 

.83 

1.53 



100.19 
99.79 
13.64 



7.30S 

8. .581 

.897 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



170.1 
1703 
1703 



1705 
1703 
1703 



ON KKESH BASIS. 



Beef, rumi), iiiu'ookcd -. 

Bccl, rumii. cooked ; 0.38 

Brothi percent uncooked meat)! ! .34 

ON WATEK-KKEE BASIS. 

Beef, rump, uncooked ... 

Beef, rump, cooked i , .74 

Broth(pcrceiit uncixikcd meat) .87 



0. 29 
.86 



0.34 
1.03 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER 



0.28 
.59 



.54 
1.53 



1.29 0.154 
2. 82 . 331 



2. .50 
7.28 



. 297 
.8.55 





ON FBESH BASIS. 


















1705 
1703 
1703 




















Beef, rump, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked meat) 


' 26.75 

.11 


U 







23.36 
2.36 


0.15 


50.26 
2.47 


4. 279 
.017 


1705 
1703 


ON WATEK-FREE BASIS. 


1 


















51.78 
.28 










45.22 
6.08 


.29 


97.29 
6.36 


8.284 


1703 


Broth (percentnncooked meat) 




.042 



Table 20. — Re.vilts of cook in g {hoilin(j) erperiment No. 125. 





Distribution of luitrients. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. " 




ratorv 
No." 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- - 
nitroge- 
nous. 


Ash. 


1703 


Weight of nutrients: 


Grams. 
287. 78 
351.80 
639. .58 

Per cent. 
4.5.00 
55.00 

35.18 


Grams. 

161.51 

4.45 

165.96 

Per cent. 

97. 32 

2.68 

.45 


Grams. 
1.73 
8.63 
10.36 

Per cent. 
16.70 
83.30 

.86 


Grams. 
2.02 
10.27 
12.29 

Per cent. 
16.44 
83.56 

1.03 


Grams. 
139.07 
23. .59 
162. 66 

Per cent. 
85.50 
14.50 

2.36 


Grams. 
2. .56 


1703 
1705 

1703 
1703 


In broth 

In uncooked meat 

Proportion of nutrients: 

In coofke<l meat 


.5.94 
8: .50 

Per rt. 
30. 12 
69.88 


1703 


In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . . 


..59 



36 

Cooking Experiment No. 126. 

In this test the small pieces of beef rump (sample No. 1704) were 
put into 2,000 cubic centimeters of vigorously boiling- water and cooked 
for live hours. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weiglit of meat before cooking grams. . 1, 000. 00 

Weiglit of meat after cooking do 565. 45 

Loss in weight in cooking do 434. 55 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 43. 46 

Tables 21 and 22 show the details of the experiment. 

Table 21. — Constitaeuts of uncooked )))cafi<, cooked meala. mid hrotha, soluble and insoluble 
in cold water, experhnent No. 126. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 


Kind of material. 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

.solid 

matter. 


Total 


ratory 
No." 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1705 


ON FRESH B.\SIS. 

Beef, rump, uncooked 


Per ct. 
01.22 
bh. 01 


Per ct. 

17.71 

27.58 

1.01 

45. 67 

61.30 

2.61 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 

20.23 

16.07 

3.09 

52.17 

35. 72 

7.96 


Per ct. 

0.91 

.68 

.53 

2.35 
1.51 
1.36 


Per ct. 

38. 85 

4.5.58 

6.31 

100.19 


Per ct. 
2. 834 


1704 


0.53 
.75 


0.72 
.94 


4.583 


1704 
1705 


Broth i^percentuncooked moat) 

ON WATER-FKEE BASIS. 





.401 
7.30ft 


1704 




1.18 
1.92 


1.60 
2.43 


101.31 1 10.190 


1704 


Broth ( per centun cooked meat ) 


16.28 


1.035 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1705 
1704 
1704 



1705 
1704 
1704 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, rump, uncooked 

Beef, rump, cooked 

Broth ( percen t uncooked meat ) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, rump, uncooked 

Beef, rump, cooked 

Broth ( percentuncooked meat) 



0.90 



2.00 
2.26 



0.53 
.75 



1.18 
1.92 



0.72 
.94 



1.60 
2.43 



0.47 
.53 



1.04 
1.36 



2.62 
3.10 



5.82 
7.97 



0.315 
.379 



. 699 
. 979 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1705 
1704 
1704 



1705 
1704 
1704 



ON FRESH BASI.S. 



Beet, rump, uncooked 

Beef, rump, cooked 

Broth(percentuncookedmeat) 

ON WATER-FREE B.\.SIS. 



Beef, rump, uncooked 

Beef, rum]), cooked 

Broth ( percen tuncooked mnat) 



26.68 
.13 



59.30 
.35 



16. 07 
3.09 



35. 72 
7.96 



0.21 



42.96 
3.21 



95. 49 
8.31 



4. 26S 
.022 



9.491 
.056 



87 



Taule 22. — Jiesults of cookiiiy {buUituj) experiment No. 126. 



I al>i>- 


Iiistribution of iiiitriciits. 


Water. 


I'roteid. 


Organic 
iv( 

Nitrog- 
enous. 


extraet- 


Fat. 




raiorv 
No. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


170-J 
1704 


Weight of nutrient.*: 

In cooked meat 

III iirotli 


Grams. 
311.0ft 
371.44 
IW2. 49 

Per cent, 
■in. ."JS 
:m. 42 

37. 14 


Grams. 

15.=>,95 

10.11 

100.06 

Per rent. 

93.91 

6.09 

1.01 


Grams. 

3.00 

7.4.T 

10. 45 

Per cent. 
28. 70 
71.30 

.75 


Grams. 
4.07 
9.40 
13.47 

Per rent. 
30. 22 
69.78 

.94 


Grams. 
90.87 
30.87 
121.74 

Per coil. 
74.04 
25. 3t> 

3.09 


Grams. 
3.85 
5. 28 


170.T 

1704 

1701 




9.13 


Proportion of nutrients: 


Percent. 
42.17 


ill broth 


57.83 


1701 


Ill broth on ba.sis of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . . 


..53 



Series VI. — Expertment.s Nos. 114-llf). 

Those three experiment.s were phmiied to detenniiie the eli'ect of 
Viiriations in time, temperature, and procedure of cookino- upon the 
aniouiit and composition of the materials which pa.s.s into the broth. 
Lean veal Icii', freed from bone, vi.sible gri.stle. and mo.st of the visible 
fat. was divided into pieces (1.5 to 0.75 inch thick and 0.75 to 1.25 
inches long- and, after thorough mixing', was divided into four samj)les, 
wciuhino- 1,000 grams each (Xos. 1()5"2, 1653, and l<j5-i) for the cooking- 
test and one (No. 1650) for analysis. 

CoOKlNd E.XI'EKIMKNT No. 114. 

The cubes of veal were plunued into vio-orously boiling- water and 
cooked for five hours in gently boiling water. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before t-ooking grain>< . . 1 , 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking <lo 591 . 01 

Loss in weight in cooking 'lo 40S. .'^>9 

Loss in weight in cooking per ct-nt . . 40. 84 

Tables 23 and 21 show the results of the experiment in detail. 

Table 2o.—CoHstituent.s of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, soluble and insoluble 
in cold water, experiment No. 114- 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 


Kind of material. 


W'ater. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 


ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1656 


ON FRESH BASIS. 


Per ct. 
75. 97 
64. 73 


Per ct. 

19.17 

30.95 

.68 

79.77 
87.75 
2.84 


Perct. 

1.26 

1.12 

.67 

5.24 
3.18 
2.78 


Per ct. 

1.94 

1.67 

.96 

8.07 
4.74 
3.99 


Per ct. 

0.96 

1.59 

.07 

3.99 

4.51 

.28 


Per ct. 

1.15 

1.01 

.51 

4.79 
2.86 
2.12 


Per ct. 
24. 48 
36.34 

2.89 

101.86 

103.04 

12. 01 


Per ct. 
3.470 


16,52 
1652 

1656 


Veal, leg. eooked 

Broth(percentuncookedmeat) 

ON WATEK-FREE BASIS. 


5.310 
.323 

14.440 


1652 






15. 055 


1652 


Broth ( percentuncooked meat) 




1.345 



38 

Table 23. — Constituents of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, soluble and insoluble 
in cold ivuter, experiment Xo. 114 — Continued. 

B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLl) WATER. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



Kind of material. 



Water. 



Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractive.s. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

.solid 

matter. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enons. 


Per ct. 


Perct. 


Per ct. 


Perct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


2.83 


1.26 


1.94 





1.00 


7.03 


.44 


1.12 


1.67 





.73 


3.96 


.54 


.67 


.96 





.51 


2.68 


11.78 


5.24 


8.07 





4.16 


29.25 


1.25 


3.18 


4.74 





2.07 


11.24 


2.26 


2.78 


3.99 





2.11 


11.14 



'I'otal 
nitro- 
gen. 



16.56 
1652 
1652 



1656 
1652 
1652 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Veal, leg, uncooked 

Veal, leg, cooked 

Broth(percentuncookedmeat) 



Per ct. 



ON WATER-FREE BA.SIS. 



Veal, leg, uncooked 

Veal, leg, cooked 

Broth (percentuncooked meat) 



Per ct. 

0. 855 
.428 
.301 



3.558 
1.215 
1.254 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 





ON FRESH BASIS. 


















1656 


Veal, leg, uncooked 




16.34 

30. 51 

.14 












0.96 
1.59 
.07 


0.15 

.28 


17.45 

32. 38 

.21 


2. 615 


16.52 


Veal, leg, cooked. . 




4 88'' 


. 1052 


Broth(percentuncookcdmcat) 




.022 




ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 


















1656 


Veal, leg, uncooked 




67. 99 

86. 50 
.58 












3.99 
4.. 51 

.28 


.63 

.79 
.01 


72.61 
91.80 

.87 


10 882 


1652 


Veal, leg, cooked 




13 840 


1652 


Broth (percentuncooked meat) 




.091 





Table 24. — Results of cooking ( 


boiling) 


zxperiment No. II4. 




Labo- 


Water. 




Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




ratory 
No. 


Distribution nf nutrients. 


Proteid. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1652 


Weight of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 


Grams. 
382. 95 


Grams. 
IMS in 


Grams 

6.63 

6. 68 

13 31 

Per cent 
49.81 
50.19 

.67 


Grams. 

9.8,S 

9.58 

19 46 

Per cent. 
■50. 77 
49. 23 

.96 


Grams. 

9.41 

.68 

10.09 

Per cent. 

93.26 

6.74 

.07 


Grams. 
5 98 


1652 


In broth 


379.55 1 6.81 
762. .50 189.91 

Per cent, j Per cent. 
50 22 ! 96 41 


5 09 


1656 


In uncooked meat 


11.07 


1652 


Proportion of nutrients: 

In (■of)ked meat 


Per ct. 
54 02 


1652 
1652 


In broth 

In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . . 


49.78 
37.96 


3.59 
.68 


45. 98 
.51 



CooKix(i Experiment No. 115. 

In thi.s tost tlie veal loo-, cut into cube.s, was quickly immor.'^ed in 
2,000 cubic centimotor.s of vigorously boilins*' distillod watoi'. The 
water wa.s kept as near the boilino- point as po.ssible for teu uiinutes, 
the temperature then allowotl to drop to 85° C, and the cooking- 
continued at a temporature varying- ])etwecn 84^ and 85° C. 

The lo.sses in weight dui'ing cooking wore a.s follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 1 , 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 591.06 

Los.s in weight in rooking do 408. 94 

Loss in weiglit in cooking jicr cent. . 40. 89 

The detailed residts of the experiment are shown in Tables 25 and 26. 



B9 

TvHi.K 25. — <'t»i.ililiit'iit.'^i>f uncooked nientx, cooked tnentK, ntid hrollm, solitltle <ind iusoluhle 
in colli irater, experiiiienl Xo. llo. 

.\. TOTAL NTTKIKNTS IN OUIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



l.atxv I 

nilurv 

N.I. 



1(.56 
16.')3 
lt).i3 



16.')6 
1653 
1653 



Kind >if niati'riiil. 



ox frf:.sh B.\st.s. 

Veal, leg, uncooked 

Venl, leK. cooked 

Broth (iHTceiiluiiciKiki'd meat) 

ON W.VTEIt-KREK BASIS. 

Veal, leg, uiicooTced 

X'eal, leg, cookeil 

Broth(percent iinc( Hiked Mieal ) 



Water. 



IT., 
teid. 



Per ct. Per ct. 
In.'i-i 19.17 
66.65 32.11 
.51 



79.77 
9(i.28 
2. 12 



Orgiuiie 










.'Xtractive.s. 


















Total 


Total 




Non- 
nitrog- 


Fat. 


Ash. 


solid 


nitro- 


S'itrog- 






matter. 


gen. 




rUi.ll>. 










}'er ct. 


Per ct. 


I'er ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


1.26 


1.94 


0.% 


1.15 


24. 48 


3.470 


.69 


1.00 


1.31 


.75 


35.86 


5.360 


.85 


1.13 


.06 


- .62 


3.17 


.3.54 


5.24 


8.07 


3.99 


4.79 


101.86 


14. 440 


2.07 


3,00 


3.93 


2.25 


107.53 


16. 072 


3.52 


4.70 


.24 


2.6G 


13.18 


1.473 



H. .MTHIKNTS SitUKl.K IN CiiMi WATKK 



16 "it; 
1C..53 



1656 
16.53 
16.53 



ON FRESH BASIS. 

Veal, leg, niicooked 

Veal, leg, cooked 

HrollK percent uncooke.l meat) 

(IN W.\TKK-KRK.E B.VSIS. 



Veal, leg, unc.iokeil 

Veal, leg, cooki-ii 

Brotlupereeiil uncooked meat) 



2.83 


1.26 


1.94 





1.00 


7.03 


.49 


.69 


1.00 





.00 


2. 78 


.27 


.•'<5 


1.13 





.62 


2.87 


11. 7H 


.5.24 


8.07 





4.16 


29.25 


1.47 


2.07 


3.00 





1.80 


8.34 


1.14 


3.52 


4.70 





2.60 


11.96 



0.855 

.:«)i 

.315 



3.558 

.903 

1.311 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 





tlN FKESH B.VSIS. 












• 






1656 
16.53 
16.53 


, , ,. , 




16.34 

31.62 

.24 












0.96 

1.31 

.06 


0.15 
.15 


17.45 

33.08 

.30 


2 615 






5. 059 


Brntlui>ercent uncooked meat) 




.039 




ON \V.\TEK-KHEE BASIS. 


















1656 
ir,.53 
1653 


Venl, leg, nncooked 

Veal. leg. ciiuki'il 

BrotlK pereeiit iiiicdoke.l meat) 





67.99 

94.81 

.98 












3.99 

3.93 

.24 


.63 
.45 




72.61 

99.19 

1.22 


10.8S2 

1.5. 169 

.162 



Table 26. — lieHiiltn of cooking (boiling) experiment No. 115. 





l)istrittiitii)n of nutrients. 


Water. 


Froteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




r.itorv 
N.I.' 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


16.5?, 


Weight of nutrients: 


Grams. 
393. 94 
377.26 
771.20 

Per cent. 
51.08 
48.92 

37.73 


Gram.'!. 

189. 79 

5.10 

194. S9 

Per cent. 

97.38 

2. 62 

.51 


Grains. 
4.08 
8.46 
12. .54 

Per cent. 
32.54 
67.46 

.85 


Grams. 
.5.91 
11.31 
17.22 

Per cent. 
34.32 
65. 68 

1.13 


Grams. 

■ 7.74 

.57 

8.31 

Per cent. 

93.14 

6.86 

.06 


Grams. 
4.43 


16.53 


In br.ith 


6.24 


16.56 




10.67 


16.53 


Proportion of nutrients: 


Per ct. 
41.. 52 


16.53 


In broth 


58.48 


1053 


In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat... 


.62 



40 

Cooking Experiment No. 118. 

In this test the portion of veal leg was placed in 2,000 cubic centi- 
meters of cold water. The temperature was then graduall}' raised, 
reaching 85^ C in an hour and the cooking continued for tive hours at 
this temperature. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight, of meat l^efore cooking grams. . 1, 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 586. 78 

Loss in weight in cooking do 413. 22 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 41. 32 

Tables 27 and 28 show the details of the experiment. 

Table 27. — Constituents of nnrooked tnecits, cooked meats, and brotJis, soluble and insoluble 
in cold miter, experimetd No. 116. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No." 



Kind of material. 



Water. 





Organic 










extractives. 








Pro- 
teid. 




Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 






enous. 








Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


19.17 


1.26 


1.94 


0.96 


1.15 


21.48 


31.10 


.29 


.96 


.97 


.64 


33.96 


•1.01 


.76 


1.14 


.19 


.62 


3.72 


l<i.ll 


5.24 


8.07 


3.99 


4.79 


101.86 


99.01 


.92 


3.06 


3.09 


2.04 


108. 12 


4.21 


3.15 


4.73 


.78 


2.60 


15. 47 



Total 
nitro- 
Ren. 



1656 
1654 
16.54 



1656 
1664 
1654 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Veal, leg, uncooked 

Veal, leg, cooked 

Broth (percent uncooked meat) 



Per ct. 
75. 97 
68.59 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Veal, leg, un(!ooked 

Veal, leg, cooked 

Broth (percent uncooked meat) 



Per ct. 

3.470 

5.070 

.404 



14.440 

16.140 

1.683 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1656 
1654 
1654 



16.i6 
1651 
16.54 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Veal,- leg, uncooked 

Veal, leg, cooked 

Broth(percent uncooked meat) 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Veal, leg, uncooked 

Veal, leg, cooked 

Broth(percent uncooked meat) 



2.83 
.60 
.41 



11.78 
1.89 
1.68 



1.26 
.29 
.76 



5.24 

.92 

3.15 



1.94 

.96 

1.14 



8.07 
3.06 
4.73 



1.00 
.50 
.62 



4.16 
1.59 
2.59 



7.03 
2.35 
2.93 



29.25 

7.46 

12. 15 



0.855 
.189 
.307 



3.5.58 

.602 

1.278 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1656 
16.54 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Veal, leg, uncooked. 
Veal, leg, cooked. 



1656 
1654 
1654 



ON WATEU-FRKE BASIS. 



16.34 

30.50 



1654 ! Broth(percent uncooked meat) 60 



Veal, leg, uiii'(,(,ked I 67.99 

Veal, leg, cooked ' I 97.12 

Broth( percent uncooked raeat)j 2. 53 



0.96 
.97 
.19 



3.99 
3.09 



0.15 
.14 



.63 
.45 
.01 



17.45 

31.61 

.79 



72.61 

100.66 

3.32 



2. 615 

4. 881 

.097 



10.882 

15. .538 

.405 



41 



T.\BLE 28. — Rcsulls of cooking (builiiig) experiment Nu. IIG. 



l.al>o- 


1 
Distribution of nutrit-nt.s. Wtiti-r. 




Organic extract- 
ives. 






liiiorv 
.No." 


Proteid. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


1C.T4 
1C..>4 


Weight of nutrients: Grams. 

In cookid meat 402. 47 

In limtli 376.0.^ 


Grams. 

1S2. 49 

10. 12 

192.61 

Per rail. 
94.75 


Grams. 
1.70 
7. 56 
9. 26 

Per cent. 
18.36 
81.64 

.76 


Grams. 
5.63 
11.37 
17.00 


Grams. 
5. 69 
1.88 
7.57 


Grams. 
3.76 
6.24 
10.00 


1654 


Proportion of nutrient.s: Per cent. 


Per rent. Per rent. Per ct. 
33.12 75.17 37.60 


1654 
1654 


In broth 48.30 

111 l)riith on basi.s of total 
weight of uncooked meat... 37.61 

1 


5.25 
1.01 


66.88 
1.14 


24.83 
.19 


62. 40 
.62 



MEATS COOKED BY BOILING COMPARED WITH THOSE COOKED 

BY DRY HEAT. 

Series VII.— Exi'eki.mknts Nojs. 117-120, 

The object of this series of four cooking oxperiinents made with 
the same cut of veal was to determine tlie nature of the changes in 
nutritivt; value and the character and ext«Mit of the losses which take 
place when veal is cooked (1) by immersing- in boiling water for ten 
minutes and then continuing the cooking at S5 C. for live hours; (2) 
bv putting it in cold water and wanning graduall}', allowing one hour 
to reach a temperature of 85^ C, and continuing the cooking at 85- C. 
for live hours; (3) bv pan broiling for fifteen minutes, and (4) by roast- 
ing in the form of a loaf. The entii'e cut of fresh veal leg, after 
freeing it from all bone and visible gristle, was cut into pieces 0.5 
to 0.75 inch thick and from 0.75 to 1.25 inches long, thoroughly 
mixed and divided carefulh' into live portions weighing 1,(H)0 grams 
each, four (Nos. 1664, 1658, 1659, and 1660) to be used for the cooking 
tests and one (1662) for analysis. 

Cooking E.xperi.mext No. 117. 

For this experiment one of the portions of the veal was plunged into 
2,000 cubic centimeters of rapidly boiling water, the temperature kept 
as near the boiling point as possible for ten minutes and then allowed 
to fall to 85^ C, at which temperature the meat was further cooked for 
live hours. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 1, 000.00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 590. 40 

Loss in weight in cooking do 409. 60 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 40. 96 

The details of the experiment are recorded in Tables 29 and 30. 



42 

T.MiLK 29. — CundllKcrits of nncaola'd meats, cooked meats, and broths, soluble ami Ivsolu- 
ble in cold water, experiment Xo. 117. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Organic 
t'xtnictive.'i. 



Kind (if iTiateriiil. 



Water. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 
75. 53 



Nitrog- 
enou.s. 



Veal, leg, uncooked 

Veal, leg, cooked ; 01.8 

Broth(pereeiituneookod meal i 



Per ct. Per ct. 

18. U2 1.08 

29. .^r! . 55 

.0) . 78 



ON WATKR-FREE BASIS. 



Veal, leg, uncooked 1 

Veal, leg, cooked i 

Broth ( percent uncooked meat ) I 



73. 04 

77. 45 
2.60 



4.41 
1.47 
3.18 



Non- 
nitrog- 
euons. 



Per ct. 
1.37 



.91 



5. 60 
1.99 
3.73 







Total 


Fat. 


A.sli. 


solid 
matter. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


3.99 


1.10 


25. 56 


7.77 


.60 


39.28 


.33 


.62 


3.28 


16.31 


4.49 


104.45 


20. 38 


1.73 


103. 02 


1.35 


2. 52 


13.38 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLT) WATER. 





ON FRESH BASIS. 
























1.90 
!50 


1.08 
. .55 

.78 


1.37 

. 77 
.91 







0.91 
..53 
. 02 


5.20 
2.17 
2.81 


0. 050 


1004 
1004 


Veal, leg, cooked 

Brotli(percentuiicookeii meat ) 




.227 
.329 




ON WATEK-FREK BASIS. 


















106''' 






7.70 

.84 

2.04 


4.41 
1.47 
3.18 


5. 00 
1.99 
3.73 







3.72 
1.39 
2. 51 


2L49 
5.69 
11.46 


2. 058 


1604 






.595 


1064 


BrotlK percent uncooked meat) 




1.345 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Veal, leg, uncooked 

Veal, leg, cooked 

Broth (percent iukm lokcd meat ) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Veal,' leg, uncooked 

Veal leg, cooked 

Broth (percent uncooked meat ) 



10.12 

29. 21 

.14 



05. 88 

70. 61 

.56 



3.99 

7.77 
.33 



16.31 

20.38 

1.35 



0.19 
.13 



.77 
.34 
.01 



20.30 

37.11 

.47 



82. 96 

97. 33 

1.92 



Table 30. — Residts of cooking {boilhuj) experiment No. 117. 





Distribution of nutrients. 


\^'ate^. 


Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1664 


Weight of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 


Grams. 
365. 28 
370. 88 
742. 10 

Per cent. 
49. 22 
50.78 

37.09 


Grams. 

174. 35 

(i. :i(i 

180.71 

Per cent. 

90. 48 

3.52 

.01 


Grams. 
3.25 
7.77 


Gra7ns. 
4.55 
9=12 


Grams. 

45.87 

3.31 

49.18 

Per cent. 
93.27 
6.73 

.33 


Grams. 
3.90 


1664 




6. 16 


1002 




11.08 ! 13.01 

Per cent. Per cent. 
29.87 32.99 
70.13 67.01 


10.06 


1664 


Proportion of nutrients: 


Per ct. 
38.77 


1664 




61.23 


1064 


In broth oti basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat... 


.78 


.91 


.62 



48 



CooKINC EXI'JCHIMENT No. 118. 



Ill this test t)nt' i)<)iti<)ii ot" (lie \('al (sample NO. \i\:^><) was put 
2,0(»(» ciihic (•(•iitimclers of cold (listill(M| water. Tlic tciiiperatiire 
s.;ra(liialiy increased, reaciiiiiii' S.'i C in an hour, and the cooking- 
tinned at this teniperatuic t'oi' live houis. 

'I'he losses in weit'lit dnrinu' cookinL;' were as t'oih)Ws: 

Wi'iirlit of meat before evoking graiu.>J.. I, OW. 00 

Weiglit (if meat after cdulviDg do .")74. 114 

Loss in weight in eookiiig do 4'_'o. (KJ 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent . . 4l'. ")1 

Table.s 31 and 32 .show tlie dptaiK^d results t)f the expeiiiuent. 



into 

was 

e(»n- 



Taki.K 'M. — Coiisliliiiiilxol'iiiirodkrd >i»<ils, ctidfcril moils, anil hrclhs, sn/ii/J, ,ii,,l 1, 
Ith' ill mill irali'i; e.iperiiiient Xo. US. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL Sl'BSTANCK. 



nhl- 



La bo- 
ra torv 
No. 



lli.>S 



i(;58 

1G5« 



Kind of iiiatc'i'ial 



Water. 



Pro- 
teifl. 



Organ ii? 
I'Xtrni'tives. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 

Perct. Pn-ft. 

Veal , k's, uncooki'd ";■>. i->.\ 18. OH 

Veal, k'K, coo kfil W.lUi 29.13 

Brothi percent unci lokeil meat 1 1. 02 



IX WATEK-FKEK BA.SIS. 



Veal, Ics, unc(M)keil 

Veal, leg, cooked 

Broth (percent uncooked meat) 



73.64 

82. 43 

4.18 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



I'll- CI. 

I.IW 
.79 



4.41 
1.25 
3. -23 



! Non- 
nit rog- 

iMKins. 



I'nrl. 
1.37 



.5. fiO 
1.5.") 
3.92 



Fat. 



I'nct. 

3.99 

r>.58 

.TiO 



16.31 
15.79 
2.03 



Ash. 



I'nrl. 

*1.10 
..59 
.63 



4.49 
l.(i7 
2. 59 



Total 

.solid 

uiatler. 



25. :^6 
36. 29 
3.90 



104. 45 
102. 69 
15-. 95 



Total 
nitro- 
Kcn. 



I-nrl. 
3. 230 
4.S00 
.417 



13. 200 

13. .582 

1.704 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1G62 
lt).")8 
l(i.58 



1662 

IUSS 
1058 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Voal, leg, uneooke<l 

Veal, lefj. cooked 

Broth ( percent uncooked meat ) 



ON WATEU-FREE BASIS. 



Veal, leg, uncooked 

Veal, leg. coi iked 

BrothfpereeiU uncooked meat) 



1.90 
.31 
.45 


7.76 

.91 

1. 85 



1.08 
.44 
.79 



4.41 
1.25 
3.23 



.5.60 
1.55 
3.92 



0. 91 5. 26 
.40 1.70 
. 63 2. 83 



3.72 
1.13 
2. 58 



21.49 
4.84 
11.58 



0. ftSO 
.190 
. 32(i 



2. 658 

..571 

1.332 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 





ON FRESH BASIS. 
















1662 


Veal, leg, uncooked 


16 12 












3.99 

5.58 

.50 


0.19 

.19 




2(1. 30 

34.. 59 

1.07 


■' 581) 


1658 


Veal, leg, cooked 


28. 82 


-1 610 


1658 


Broth (percent uncooked meat) 


57 


.091 




ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 
















1662 
1658 


Veal, leg, uncooked 

Veal, leg, cooked 


65.88 

81.52 












16.31 
15.79 
2.03 


.77- 
.54 
.01 


82. 96 
97.85 
4.37 


10. .542 
13 Oil 


1658 


Broth (percent uncooked meat) 


2.33 


.372 



44 



I'ABi-E :J2. — RemltH of cooking {boiling) experiment No. 118. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1658 
1668 
1662 



1658 
1658 
1658 



Distribution (if initrii'iits. 



Weight of nutrients: ! Grows. 

In eooked meal .STl.TG 

In broth :ixf,. 02 

In uncooked meat 757. 78 

Proportion of nutrients: ' Per cent. 

In cooked meat 49. 06 

In broth 50. 94 

In broth on basis of total 

weight of uncooked meat 38.60 



Proteid. 



Grams. 

167.48 

10. 22 

177. 70 

Per cent. 

94. 25 

5. 75 

1.02 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. I Grams. 

2.53 I 3.16 

7.91 9.60 

10.44 12.76 



Per cent. 
24.23 
75.77 



Per cent 
24 
75.24 




Cooking Experi.ment No. 119. 

This is the first experiment reported in this bulletin in which the 
meat was cooked by pan l)roilino-. The veal (sample No. 1(551-) was 
passed through a sausage mill three times and thoroughl}^ mixed each 
time. It was then made up into cakes weighing 90 to 100 grams each 
and pan broiled; that is, the meat was placed in a moderately hot, dry, 
cast-iron pan and cooked over a gas ilame for fifteen minutes, or until 
fairly well done, being turn.Kl frequently after it was well seared. The 
frying pan was not greased, nor was any fat added during the cook- 
ing. When cooked, the meat was removed from the frying pan, care 
being taken to scrape ofi' any adhering material, and weighed. 

The difference in weight between the raw and cooked meat showed 
the total loss resulting from cooking, and the difference between the 
amount of each ingredient in the uncooked and cooked meat was 
assumed to represent the losses during cooking. In the ta))les a loss 
is indicated by the minus sign (— ), and an apparent gain by a plus 
sign (+)," as will be explained (p. ISO). 

The losses in weight during the cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 572. 72 

Weight of meat after coi )king do 899. 37 

Loss in weight in cooking do 1 / 3. 35 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent . . 30. 27 

The results of the experiment are shown in detail in Tables 33 
and 34. 

"See U. S. Dept. Agr., OflSce of Experiment Stations Bui. 141, p. 62 et seq. 



45 

Tahi.k oo. — ('oiisfitKt'iils of initooLrd me. ih and CDnked iiiealK Kolahle and insoluhlc In cold 

intter, ci/wrlinent Xo. 119. 

A. TOTAL NITKIENTS IN OKKilNAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1662 
J6.=)9 



Kind of niateriaL 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



1662 Veal, leg-, uncooked , 
16.'i9 ! Veal, leg, eooked 



ON \V.\TER-KRKE B.\SIS. 



Veal, leg, uncooked. 
Veal, leg, cooked 



Water. 



Per. ct. 
75. 53 
65.33 



I'ro- 
teid. 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog 
enous. 



I Non- 
I nitrog- 
enous. 



Per.ci. Per.cl. 
18.02 , 1.08 
26.71 1.33 



73.64 
77.04 



4.41 
3.84 



Per. ct. 
1.37 
1.84 



5.60 
5.31 



Fat. 



Per. cl. 
3.99 
5.20 



16.31 
15.00 



Ash. 



Per. ct. 
1.10 
1.44 



4.50 
4.15 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Per. ct. 
25. 56 
36. 52 



104. 46 
105.34 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per. rt. 
3. 230 
4.700 



13. 200 
13.556 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 





ox FRESH BASIS. 


















1662 


Vfal, leg, uncooked 




1.90 
.42 


1.08 
1.33 


1.37 
1.84 






0.91 
1.29 


5.26 
4.88 


650 


16.59 


Veal, leg, cooked 




.494 




ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 


















1662 


Veal, leg, uncooked 




7.76 
1.21 


4.41 
3.84 


5.60 
5.31 






3.72 
3.72 


21.49 
14.08 


') (i58 


16.59 


Vcal, leg, cooked 




1 425 











C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1662 
16.59 



1662 
1659 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Veal, leg, uncooked. 
Veal, leg, cooked 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Veal, leg, uncooked. 
Veal, leg, cooked 



16.12 
26.29 



65.88 
75.83 



3.99 
5.20 



16.31 
15.00 



0.19 
.15 



20.30 
31.64 



82. 96 
91. 26 



2. 580 
4.206 



10. ni2 
12. 131 



T.\BLE 34. — Re.'<nlt.'< of cooking {pnnhrollhiff) e.rperlment No. 119. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1662 
1659 



1659 



Distribution of nutrients. 



Weight of nutrients: 

In uncooked meat 

In cooked meat 

Lost ( — ) or (apparently) 
gained (-f) ".. 

Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

Lost ( — ) or (apparently) 
gained (-I-) ". . 

Lost (— ) or (apparently) 
gained (-f) in percentages 
of weight of uncooked meat 



Water. \ Proteid. 



Grains. 
432. .ns 
260. 90 



Grams. 
103. 20 
106. 67 

+ 3.47 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Gramg. 
6.19 
5.31 



Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. 
60.31 I 100.00 ; 85.78 



- 39.69 

- 29.98 



+3.36 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
7.85 
7.35 



Fat. 



Grams. 
22. 85 
20.77 



Ash. 



Grams. 
6.30 
5.75 



Per cent. I Per cent. ! Per ct. 
93.63 i 90.90 ! 91.27 



-6.37 
- .09 



-9.10 
- .36 



-8.73 
- .10 



46 

COOKIXG ExrERI.MENT No. 120. 

The fourth portion (sample No. IHOO) of veal leg was passed through 
a sausage mill three times, being thoroughly mixed each time, then 
made into a loaf without the addition of seasoning or an}^ other mate- 
rial and carefully and sl{)\Yly cooked in a gas oven for three hours. 

The losses in weight during the cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat 1)efore cooking grams. . 1, 099. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 854. 18 

Lo.><s in weight in cooking do 244. 82 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent . . 22. 28 

The details of the experiment are recorded in Tables 35 and 36. 

Tablk 35. — ConMltuciit.s of uncooked nieatu and cooked meats soluble and i)ti:oluble in cold 

vxder, experiment JS^o. 120. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



LaVjo- 

ratorv 

No. " 



16t;2 
1660 



1662 
1660 



Kind of material 



>N W.\TER-FREE B.\SIS. 



Veal, leg, uncooked. 
Veal, leg, cooked 



Pro- 
teid. 



ox FRESH B.VSIS. | 

Perct. Pervl. 

Veal, leg, uncooked 7.5. .?3 i IS. 02 

Veal, leg, cooked 68.35 23.69 



73.64 
74. 85 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Prr rt. 
1.08 
1.34 



4.41 
4.23 



I Non- 
j nitrog- 
enous. 



Fat. 



Per ft. Perct. 
1.37 3.99 
1.89 4.65 



16.31 
14.69 



Ash. 



Percl. 
1.10 
1.36 



4.50 
4.30 



Total Total 

solid I nitro- 

matter. gen. 



Per rt. Per ct. 
25. 56 3. 230 
32.93 4.220 



104.46 
104. 04 



13.200 
13. 333 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1662 


ON FRESH B.\SIS. 




1.90 
.41 

7.76 
1.30 


1.08 
1.34 

4.41 
4.23 


1 . 37 

1.S9 

5. 60 
0. 97 


oo oo 


0.91 
1.18 

3.72 
3.73 


.5.26 
4.82 

21.49 
15.23 


0. 650 


1660 






.496 


1662 


ON WATER-FREE B.-VSIS. 




2. 6.58 


1660 


Veal leg cooked 




1..566 











C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 





ON FRESH BASIS. 
















1662 
1660 


Veal, leg, uncooked 


16.12 

23.28 










3.99 
4.65 


0.19 
.18 


20.30 
28.11 


2.5S0 
3.724 




ON W.\TER-FREE BASIS. 






1662 
1660 


Veal , leg, uncooked 

Veal, leg, cooked 


: 65.88 

73.55 










16.31 
14.69 


.77 
.57 


82.% 
88.81 


10.542 
11.767 



47 



Taiu.k lit). — BiKiilh of coitkint] (nntMiuij) rxperhnnif A'o. UO. 



Labo- 
ratory 

No. 



ItUiO 



Di.-itrilmtioii of nutrient.-*. 



Weight of nutrients: 

In uneookefi meat 

In coolicd meat 

Lost (-) or (apparently) 
gained i-f) 

Proportion of nmrients: 

In cooked meat 

Lo.st (-) or (apparently) 
gained ( •-) 

Lost ( -) or (apparently) 
gained ( + ) in percentages of 
weight of uncooked meat — 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Water. I'roteid. 



Grams. 
831). 07 
583. S3 



OraiiiK 
198.04 
202.36 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Oram^. 
11.87 
11. -IS 



-246.21 +l.»2 



Non- 
nil rog- 
cnotis. 



(irninis. 
lo.OC. 
IC). M 



.42 I -t-l.Os 



Per mil. Per rnit. Per eriit. 
70.34 100. tX) 9<i. 4(> 



29. 6f. +2. IS -3. hi 
22.11 - .3'.i .04 



Per ccni. 
100.00 



-f7.17 



Kit. 


.Vsh. 


(irilllK. 

43. 85 
39. 72 


Grams. 
12.09 
11.62 


-4.13 


- .47 


I'er cent. 
90.58 


Per et. 
96.11 


-9.42 


-3.89 


:;s 


.ii| 



Skries VITI. — ExrERTMEM> N(»>. l:iL-li'4. 

Tlii^ iiiiiin ()l>ject in this .sorics of exixM'iimMits w:is to stuclv tin- losses 
uiid to (Irteniiiiio tlic iiutiiro of the chiinjii's which tako [)l;K-e when dif- 
ferent cuts t)f iiiciit- iu'ci<. Hank, and riiiiip arc cooked l)y boilino-. 
Further, in one of the tests (No. 124) the meat was pan hroiled for the 
purpose of eoniparinotheerteet t)f this method of cookino- witii boiling. 

(\)OKiN(. lv\i'i;ui>u:Nr No. IL'I. 

In this experiment a cut of beef neck freed from all bone and visi])le 
o-ri.stle but not from the visible fat was cut into o.T-inch cubes and 
thoroughly mixed. Two uniform .samples were selected, one (No. 16«>5) 
for cooking- and one (No. 1(108) for complete chemical analysis. In the 
cooking test the weighed meat was placed in 2,00<» cubic centimeters of 
vigorously boiling water, cooked for ten minutes at this temperature 
and for live hours at S5° C. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 700. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking fto 384. 35 

Loss in weight in cooking <lo 315. 65 

Loss in weight in cooking per cciit. . 45. 09 

Tables 37 and 38 show the details of the experiment. 



48 

Tablk 37. — Constituents of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and hrofhs, soluble and 
insoluble in cold ivater, experiment No. 121. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN OKIGINAL SUB.STANCE. 



Kind of material. 





Organic 










extractives. 








Pro- 
teid. 






Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 






enous. 








Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


17.75 


0.81 


1.63 


8.77 


1.02 


29.98 


30.86 


.32 


.55 


13.68 


.47 


45.88 


2.09 


C) 


(«) 


1.02 


.67 


W 


61.83 


2.82 


5.68 


30.55 


3.55 


104. 43 


67.68 


.70 


1.21 


30.00 


1.03 


100.62 


7.27 


C) 


(") 


3.55 


2.34 


(«) 



ON FRESH BASIS. 

Per cl. 

Beef, neck, unt'ooked 71. 29 

Beef, neck, cooked ! 54. 40 

Broth(percent uncooked meat) ■ 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. I 

Beef, neck, uncooked I 

Beef, neck, cooked I , 

Broth(percent uncooked meat)' 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, neck, uncooked 

Beef, neck, cooked 

Broth ( percent uncooked meat ) 

ox WATER-KREE BASIS. 



Beef, neck, uncooked 

Beef, neck, cooked 

Broth(percent uncooked meat) 



2.30 

.19 

2.00 



8:02 

.42 

6.97 



0.81 
.32 



2.82 
.70 



1.63 
.55 



5.68 
1.21 



0. 77 5. 51 
.20 1.26 
. 67 2. 89 



.44 
2.34 



19.20 

2.77 

10.07 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1668 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, neck, uix'ouked 




15.45 

30. 67 

.09 

53.81 

67.26 

.30 


OO ooo 


OO ooo 


8.77 

13.68 

1.02 

30.55 
30.00 
3.55 


0.25 
■ .27 


24.47 
44. 62 


2.471 


1665 


Beef, ncrk, ccdkcd 




4.907 


1665 


Broth 1 piTt'cnt uncooked meat) 

ON AVATER-FREE BASIS. 

Beef, neck, uncooked 




.014 


1668 


.87 
.59 


85.23 
97.85 


8.608 








10. 759 


1665 


Broth(percent uncooked meat) 




.048 















a Determination lost. 
Table 38. — Results of cooking {boiling) e.cperiment No. 121. 



Labo- 


Distribution of nutrients. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1665 


Weight of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 


Gramt!. 
209. 09 
(") 
(") 

Per cent. 

(«) 
(") 

(°) 


Grams. 
118.61 
14.63 
(") 

Per cent. 

(") 

C) 

2.09 


Grams. 
1.23 
C) 
(«) 

Per cent. 
(«) 
(«) 

(«) 


Grams. 
2.11 
(«) 

C) 

Per cent. 

C) 


Grams. 

52. 58 

7.12 

59.70 

Per rent. 
88.07 
11.93 

1.02 


Grams. 
1.81 


1665 




4.69 


1668 


In uncooked meat 


6.50 


1665 


Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 


Per ct. 
27.85 


1665 


In brotli 


72.15 


1668 


In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . . 


.67 



a Determination lost. 



49 



COOKIN'C EXPEHIMKNT No. 122. 



In this oxiHMiiiuMit :i \ civ fat cut of boof Hank was used. It was freed 
from all l)ono and \ isil)U> o-ristle, but not from visible fat, cut into 
cubes of about 0.75 inch in size and thoroughly mixed. Two portions 
were taken -one (No. 16H9) for cookino- and the other (No. 1672) for 
analysis. In the cookincr test the weighed meat was put into 2,000 
cubic centimeters of vigorously boiling water, the temperature main- 
tained as n(>ar the boijiiio- point as possible for ten minutes, then 
allowed to dro}) to S,") C. and kept at thi^ point until the total time of 
eooking ecpialed live hours. 

The losses in weight dui'ing cooking wei-e as follows: 

Wt'i<,'lit of meat before eookiuu; >iraiiis.. 1,000.00 

Weight of meat after i-ooking <lo 700.57 

I.O.SH in weight in eooking <lo 299. 43 

LosK in weight in cooking per eent. . 29. 94 

The detailed results of the experiment are shown in Tables 39 and 40. 



T.VHLE 39. — Comtituenls of uncooked meats, cooked ineats, and hrollis. mluble and inmluhle 
in cold icater, experiment No. 12^'. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
rutorv 

No." 



1G72 
liiH9 
1069 



1672 
1669 
1669 



1672 
1669 
1669 



1672 
1669 
1669 



Kind (if iiuiturial. 



ON FKESH BASIS. 

Beef, fliiiik, uncooked 

Beef, flank, cooked 

Broth(perceiit uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-KREE BASIS. 



Water. 



Per ct. 
59.17 
46.46 



Beef, flank, uncooked 

Beef, flank, cooked 

Broth(percentuncookedmeat) 



Pro- 

teid. 



Per ct. 

n. 96 

19. 9« 

.70 



34.19 

37.32 

1.72 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Non- 
nit rog- 
enou.s. 



Fat. 



Per ct. Per ct. ' Per ct. 

0.77 I 0.96 24.95 

.04 .17 I 34.16 

.56 .74 6. 48 



1.89 

.07 

1.37 



2.35 

.32 

3.81 



61.11 
63.80 
15.87 





Total 


Ash. 


solid 




matter. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


0.71 


41.35 


.24 


54.59 


.44 


8.92 


1.74 


101. 28 


.45 


101.96 


1.07 


21.84 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, flank, uncooked 

Beef, Hank, cooked 

Brotli( percent uncooked meat) 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef. Hank, uncooked 

Beef, flank, cooked 

Broth(percent uncooked meat) 



1.21 
.39 

.61 



2.99 

.75 

1..50 



0.77 
.04 

.56 



1.S9 

.07 

1.37 



0.96 
.17 
.74 



2.35 

.32 

1.81 



0.55 
.20 
.44 



1.35 

.37 

1.07 



3.49 

.80 

2.35 



8.58 
1.51 
5.75 



Total 
nit-o- 
gen. 



Per ct. 

2. 479 

3.210 

.292 



6.071 

5. 996 

.715 



0.440 
.077 
.278 



1.078 
.144 
.680 



11480— No. 162—06- 



50 

Table 39. — Constituents of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, soluble and insoluble 
in cold water, experiment No. 122 — Continued. 

C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1672 
1669 
1669 



1672 
1669 
1669 



Kind of materiaL 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, flank, uncooked 

Beef, flank, cooked 

Broth ( percent uncooked meat) 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, flank, uncooked 

Beef, flank, cooked 

Broth(percent uncooked meat) 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 

12. 75 

19.59 

.09 



31.20 

36. 57 

.22 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 






Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 






Fat. 



Per ct. 

24. 95 

34.16 

6.48 



61.11 
63.80 
15. 87 



Asli. 



Per ct. 

0.16 

.04 



.39 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Per ct. 

37.86 

53.79 

6.57 



92.70 

100. 45 

16.09 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 

2.039 

3.133 

.014 



4.993 

5.852 

.035 



Table 40. — Results of cooking {boiling) experiment No. 122. 



Labo- 


Distribution of nutrients. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1669 


Weight of nutrients: 


Grams. 
325. 48 
210. 26 
535. 74 

Per cent. 
60.75 
39.25 

21.03 


Grams. 

139.97 

7.00 

146.97 

Per cent. 

95.21 

4.76 

.70 


Grams. 
0.28 
5.61 
5.89 

Per cent. 

4.75 

95. 25 

.56 


Grams. 
1.19 
7.38 
8.57 

Per cent. 
13.89 
86.11 

.74 


Grams. 

239.31 

64.81 

304. 12 

Per cent. 
78.69 

21.31 
6.48 


Grams. 
1.68 


1669 




4.37 


1672 




6.05 


1669 


Proportion of nutrients: 


Per ct. 
21. n 


1669 




72.23 


1669 


In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat... 


.44 



Cooking Experiment No. 123. 

In this experiment very fat beef rump was cooked by the method fol- 
lowed in experiments Nos. 121 and 122. All the bone and gristle were 
removed from the meat and the entire cut was divided into pieces 0.5 
to 0.75 inch thick and 0,75 to 1.25 inches long- and thoroughly mixed. 
Three portions were then taken, two (Nos. 1673 and 1674) for cooking 
and one (No. 1676) for analysis in the uncooked condition. One por- 
tion (sample No. 1673) was plunged into 2,000 cubic centimeters of 
vigorously boiling water and kept at this temperature for ten minutes. 
The temperature was then allowed to drop to 85° C, at which point 
it was kept until the total time of cooking equaled five hours. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 1, 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 643. 20 

Loss in weight in cooking do 356. 80 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 35. 68 

Tables 41 and 42 give the detailed results of the experiment. 



51 

T.AHi.K 41. — ('niixlituiiitH of uncooked ineatu, cooked ineuta, and hroth», soluble mid in.vtlulih' 
i)i Cold trater, crperiinent No. 123. 

.\. TOT.\L NTTKIKN'T.^ IX OKKilN.VL .^rBST.WCE. 



Kiiiil of nmteriiil. 



ON FBESH BASI.S. 

Bet'f , rump, uncooked 

Bt'of, rump, conkctl 

Broth( piTceiit lUK'ookL'dmeat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Buff , rump, uncooked 

Beef, rumfi. ci loked 

BrotlK percent uncookedmeat) 



Water. 



Perct. 
52. 26 
38.35 



Pro- 
teid. 



Perct. 

13.69 

19.34 

.-51 



28.68 

31.37 

1.06 



Orgunie 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enou-s. 



Per ct. 

0.66 

.47 

.61 



1.38 

.76 

1.27 



1.84 

.70 

1.79 



Fat. 



Perct. 
32. 38 

•12. as 

6.32 



67.83 
68.18 
13.24 



Total 
Ash. solid 
matter. 



Per rt. 

0.74 

.33 

.50 



1.55 

..54 

l.Ol 



Perct. 
48.35 
62. 60 

8.80 



101.28 
101.55 
18.40 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1676 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, rump, uncooked 




l.M 

.38 
.32 

3.23 
.62 
.67 


0. 66 
.47 

.61 

1.38 

.76 

1.27 


0.88 
.43 

.86 

1.84 

.70 

1.79 











0.61 
.25 
.50 

1.28 

.41 

1.04 


3.69 
1..53 
2.29 

7.73 
2.49 

4.77 


0. 456 


1673 


Beef, rump, cooked 




.212 


1673 
1676 


Broth (percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 

Beef, rump, uncooked 




.245 
.955 


1673 


Beef, rump, cooked 




.343 


1673 


Broth( percent uncooked meat) 




.514 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE I.N COLD WATKR. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, rump, uncooked 

Beef, rump, cooked 

Broth( percent uncookedmeat) 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, rump, uncooked 

Beef, rump, cooked 

Brot h ( percent uncooked meat) 



12.15 

18.96 

.19 



25.45 

30.75 

.39 



32. 38 

42. 03 

6.32 



67.83 
68.18 
13.24 



0.13 



0.27 
.13 



44.66 
61.07 
6.51 



93.55 
99.06 
13.63 



Table 42. — Results of cooking (boiling) experiment No. 123. 



Labo- 


Distribution of nutrients. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




ratory 
No.' 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1673 


Weight of nutrients: 


Grams. 
246.67 
268. 97 
515. 64 

Per cent. 

47.84 
52.16 

26.90 


Grams. 

124. 39 

5.06 

129. 45 

Per cent. 
96.09 
3.91 

.51 


Grams. 
3.02 
6.06 
9.07 

Per cent. 
33. 30 
66.70 

.61 


Grams. 
2.77 
8.55 

n.32 

Per cent. 
75. 53 

.86 


Grams. 

270.34 

63.20 

333.54 

Per cent. 
81. 05 
18.95 

6.32 


Grams. 
2.12 


1673 


In broth . 


4.97 


1676 


In uncooked meat 


7.09 


1673 


Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 


Per ct. 
29.90 


1673 


In broth 


70.10 


1673 


In broth on basi.s of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . . 


.60 



52 



Cooking Experi.ment No. 124. 

For purposes of comparison a sample of beef rump (No. i674) was 
pau broiled, the same cut being- used as in the preceding test 
in which the meat was boiled. The thoroughly sampled beef was 
passed through a .siusage mill three times, being carefully mixed each 
time, and then made up into cakes weighing 90 to 100 grams and pan 
broiled — that is, the meat was placed upon the surface of a moderate!}^ 
hot, dry, cast-iron pan and cooked for thirteen minutes, until fairly 
well done, the meat being turned frequentl}^ after it was well seared. 
No fat was added either before or during the cooking. When suffi- 
ciently cooked the meat was removed from the fr\ing pan, care being- 
taken to scrape oil' as much of the adhering material as possible, and 
then weighed. 

The losses in w(Mght during the cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 571. 12 

AVeiglit of meat after cooldng do 368. 47 

Loss in weight in cooking. do 202. 65 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 35. 48 

The results of the experiment are given in detail in Tables 43 and 44. 

Tahle 43. — ConMituoitx of uncooked meals and cooked meats, mlnhle and insolahle in cold 
water, experiment No. 124. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No." 



1676 
1671 



1676 
1674 



Kind of material. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, rump, niifooked. 
Beef, rump, cooked ... 



O.N WATKR-KKEi; BA 

Beef, rump, uncooked. 
Beef, rump, cooked 



Water. 



Per ci. 
52. 26 
27.46 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 
13. 69 
21.51 



28. 68 
29. 65 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



I Non- 
' nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 
0.66 
1.07 



1.38 
1.48 



Per ct. 
0.88 
1.33 



1.84 
1.83 



Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


32. 38 


0.7-'. 


48.35 


47.39 


1.18 


72. 48 


67.83 


1.55 


10L28 


6.5.33 


1.63 


99. 92 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct.. 
2. 400 
3.786 



5. 027 
5.218 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD W.A.TER. 



1676 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef rump, uncooked 




1.54 
.27 

3. 23 
.37 


0.66 
1.07 

1.3S 
1.48 


0.88 
1.33 

1.84 
1.83 









0.61 
1.07 

1.28 
1.48 


3.69 
3.74 

7.73 
5.16 


0. 456 


1674 


Beef, rump, cooked 




.387 


1676 


ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




.955 


1674 






..534 











C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1676 


ON KUESH BAi^IS. 




12.15 
21.21 

25. 45 
29. 28 

















32.38 
47.39 

t;7.83 
65. 33 


0.13 

.11 

.27 
.15 


44. 66 

6.S. 71 

93. 55 
94.76 


1.944 


1674 






3. 399 


1676 


ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




4.072 


1674 






4.685 











53 



1,11 bo- 1 

niturv 

N... I 



107(1 
1674 



Taiu.E 44. — Resiill.t (if cuoL'itiij {/»ni hrolHnij) rrfnTiiin nt Xo. 1:?4- 



Uistritiutioii <p[ initrients. 



Weight of nutrionts; 

In iiiicuoki'il meat.... 

In I'ooki'd iiR'iit 

Li)st ( — ) or (ni>i>iironlly) 
uained ( +) 



Projiortion of iiiitrieiits: 

III cooki'il nii'iit 

Lost (-) or > (iipjittri-ntly) 
tlHiiu'd (+) 

Lost ( — ) or (aiii>areritly) 
f^aiiieil ( + ) in inrceutajfe.s 
of weight of uncooked meat. 



Water. 


Pn.teid. 


Gnimg. 


Gram*. 


IW. 47 


7K.19 


lUl.lS 


79. 26 


l'J7._''J 


^-1.07 


I'll- ri III. 


Per mil. 


;«.90 


100.00 


- (iC. 10 


+ 1.37 


- 34.54 


+ .19 



Organii- extract 
Ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



llruiiig. 
3.77 
3.94 

+ .17 



Non- 
nitroge- 



(•'raiiin. 
6. 03 
4.90 



Oranifi. 
1«4.92 
174.62 

- 10.30 



Pir cnit. I Ptr cnil. Per cenl. 
100. 00 , 97. 12 i 9-1.43 



-f4. Til 



+ .03 



..■W 



- .02 



5., 57 



- 1.80 



.\sli. 



-t-2..S.J 



-t- .02 



Series IX. — Exim;i;imi:nts NOs. 141 147. 

This serios of spvcii cxpcriiiKMits was iiiadr (o (Ictcriiiiiu' the iiillii- 
eiicc of (lirt'tMcnf inctliods of cookiiiL;' ( 1 ) iH)oii llic .sohildc and iiisoluhlp 
constitiuMits of nieiit, aiul (l!) upon tlir nature and the (|iiant il ics of 
nutrients lost. Lean Iteef I'ound from which all hone, ^ristle, and 
most of the N'isihle fat had heeii renioxcMJ was used in the entire series, 
and was di\ided as follows: (1) A representative cross-stn-tion layer 
al)out one half inch thick (sarnple Xo. 1T<'>4) was reserved for comi)lete 
chemical analysis; (2) three steaks (samples Nos. 1T<)."). ITtK't, and ITtiT), 
1 inch thick, of approximattdy e(|iial size and as similar as j)ossil>le in 
appearance and composition were used in experiments Nos. 141, 142, 
and 143; (3) three pieces (samples Nos. iTtls, 17T<>. and 1771). ahout 5 
inches thick and 4: inches across and as similar as pos.sihle in appearance, 
shape, and size were taken for experiments Nos. 144, 14<», and 147; 
and (4) one portion (No. 1769) was cut into i^-inch cuhes for use in 
experiment No. 14:5. 

EXPERI.MEN'T Xo. 141. 

One of the steaks (sample No. 1765) 1 incli in thickness was sauteed. 
A small amount of beef fat (7.1 grams) was heated in the frying pan 
until it began to smoke, the meat then added and cooked for ten min- 
utes with frequent turning. It was w ell ])rowned but still underdone, 
or rare, and juicy. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 670. 54 

, Weight of meat after cooking do 566. 40 

Loss in weight in cooking do 104. 14 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 15. 53 

The results are given in detail in Tables 4:5 and 4:6. 



54 

Table 45. —CotiKtitnents of uncool-ed meai.i and cooked meats soluble and insoluble in cold 

ivater, crperiment No. 141- 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Kind of iiiaterinl. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked . 
Beef, round, cooked . . . 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked . 
Beef, round, cooked . . . 



Per ct. 
69.92 
64. 02 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 
17.96 
22. ni 



59.71 
62. .56 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 
1.18 
1.88 



3.92 
3.84 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 
1.73 
1.69 



5.75 
4.70 



Per ct. 
8.15 

9.88 



27.09 
27.46 



Ash. 



Perct. 
1.06 
1.18 



3.52 
3.28 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Per ct. 
30.08 
36. 64 



99.99 
101. 84 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 





ON FRESH BASIS. 


















1764 


Beef, round, uncooked 




2.70 
1.03 


1.18 
1.38 


1.73 
1.69 






0.73 
.94 


6.34 
5.04 


811 


1765 


Beef, round, cooked 




.608 




ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 


















1764 


Beef, round, uncooked 




9.00 

2.87 


3.92 
3.84 


.5.75 
4.70 






2.44 
2.62 


21.11 
14.03 


2 695 


1765 






1 690 











C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1764 


ON FRESH BASIS. 




1.5.26 
21.48 

50 71 
















8.15 
9.88 

27.09 
27.46 


0.33 
.2'* 

1.08 
.66 


23.74 
31.60 

78.88 
87.81 


2 44( 


1765 






3 43t 


1764 


ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




8.1U 
9 55t 


1765 


Beef, round, cooked 




59.69 











Table 4B. — Results of cooking (sauteing) experiment No. 141- 



Distribution of nutrients. 



Weight of nutrients: 

In uncooked meat 

In cooked meat 

Lost ( — ) or (apparently) 
gained (-|-) 

Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

Lost ( — ) or (apparently) 
gained (-1-) 

Lost (— ) or (apparently) 
gained (+) in iicrceiitages 
of weight of uncooked meat 



Water. 



Orams. 
468. 84 
362. 61 



Per cent. 
77.34 



- 22.64 

- 15.84 



Proteid. 



Grams. 
120. 43 
127.50 

-f7.07 

Per cent. 
100. 00 

-t-5.87 



-Hi. 05 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Grains. 
7.91 
7.82 

- .09 

Per cent. 
98.86 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
11.60 
9.57 

- 2.03 

Per cent. 
82.50 



- .30 



Fat. 



Grams. 
54. 65 
55.96 

-fl.31 

Per cent. 
100.00 

-f2.40 
+ .20 



b'o 



Cooking Kxpkkimknt No. 142. 

For this oxpeiimeiit juiother one of the .steaks (siimple No. 1766) 
1 iiuli in thickness was pun broiled as follows: After the pan had been 
heated until " blue hot," that is, until the iron has a bluish and 
characteristic appearance which housekeepers n'adily recoi^Miize, the 
meat was put in it and cooked for ten minutes, with frecjuent turning, 
no fat bcino- added either l)efore or durin^,^ the cooking. The cooked 
meat was well browned on the outside, but decidedly underdone, or 
rare, and juicy within. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat V)efore cooking grams. . 673. 91 

Weight of meat after cooking ^lo 563. 37 

Loss in weight in cooking tlo 110. 54 

Loss in weight in cooking pcr cent . . 16. 40 

Tables 47 and 4S give the details of the experiment. 

Xable 47. — ' 'oiii<tiliiri)ts of uurookcd mnils and cooked meaUt soluble and insoluble incold 

water, experiment So. 14~- 

\. TOT.VL NL'TRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBST.\NCE. 



Labo- 

riitory 

No. 



1764 
1766 



1764 
17G6 



f^Kind of material. 



OK FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked. 
Beef, round, cooked 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked. 
Beef, round, cooked 



Water. 



Perct. 
69. 92 
65.61 



Pro- 
teid. 



Perct. 
17.96 
22.31 



59.71 
64.87 



Organic 
extractives. 



XT-. „ Non- 
^^i^og- nitrog- 
enous. .,„„,« 



Fat. 



Perct. 
1.18 
1.46 



3.92 
4.25 



Per ct. Per ct. 
1. 73 8. 15 
1. 72 8. 18 



5.75 
5.00 



27.09 
23.79 



Ash. 



Per ct. 
1.06 
1.19 



3.52 
3.46 



Total Total 

solid nitro- 

matter. gen. 



Per ct. 
30.08 
34.86 



99.99 
101. 37 



Perct. 
3. 261 
4.037 



10. 808 
11.739 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1764 
1766 



1764 
f 1766 



OS FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked. 
Beef, round, cooked 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked . 
Beef, round, cooked 



2.70 
1.37 



9.00 
3.98 



1.18 
1.46 



3.92 
4.25 



1.73 
1.72 



5.75 
5.00 



0.73 
.99 



2.44 
2.88 



6.34 
5.54 



21.11 
16.11 



0.811 
.686 



2.695 
1.996 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1764 


ON FRESH BASIS. 




16.26 
20.94 

50.71 
60.89 
















8.16 
8.18 

27.09 
23. 79 


0.33 
.20 

1.08 
.58 


23.74 
29.32 

78.88 
85.26 


2.440 


1766 






3.351 


1764 


ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




8.113 


1766 






9-743 









Labo- 
ratory 

No. 



1764 
1766 



1766 



56 



T.\BLE 48. — Results of cooking {pan broiling) experiment No. 14^. 



Distribution of nutrients 



Water. 



Weight of nutrients: 

In uncooked meat 

In cooked meat 

Lost {-) or (apparently) 
gained ( -t- ) 

Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat. 

Lo.st ( — ) or (apparently) 
gained ( -t- ) 

Lost (— ) or (apparently) 
gained (-f) in percentages 
of weight of uncooked meat . 



GraniK. 
All. 20 
369. 63 



Per cent. 
78.44 



21.56 



Proteid. 



15.07 



Grams. 
121.03 
125. 69 

4-4.66 

Per cent. 
lOU. uo 

-f 3. 85 



-f- .69 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitroge- 
nous. 



Gravis. 
7.95 
8.23 

+ .28 

Per cent. 
100. 00 

-f3.52 



-I- .04 



Non- 
nitroge- 
nous. 



Grams. 
11.66 
9.69 

- 1.97 

Per cent. 
83.10 



Fat. 



Grams. 
54. 92 
46. 08 

- 8.84 

Per cent. 
83.90 



1.31 



Ash. 



Grams 
7.14 
6.70 



Per ct. 
93.84 



Cooking Experiment No. 143. 

For this experiment the third 1-inch thiclv steak (sample No. 1767) 
was cooked b}^ I'j'ying- in deep fat. A quantity of lard sufficient to 
entirely cover the meat was heated to 200^ C. and to this the meat 
was quickly added. The temperature dropped at once to 160° C. The 
cooking was continued for live minutes. The cooked meat was well 
browned on the edge>, but decidedly underdone, or rare, and juicy in 
the interior. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 666. 11 

Weight of meat after cooking do 471. 08 

i Loss in weight in cooking tlo 195. 03 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 29. 28 

Tables 49 and 50 show the detailed results of the experiment. 

Table 49. — Constituents of unrooled meats and cooled meats soluble and insoluble in cold 

■water, experiment No. 143. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 





Kind of material. 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 


ratory 

'No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1764 
1767 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round , uncooked 


Per ct. 
69.92 

57.78 


Per ct. 
17.96 
27.59 

59. 71 
65. 35 


Per ct. 
1.18 
1.62 

3.92 
3.84 


Per ct. 
1.73 
1.83 

5.75 
4.33 


Per ct. 

8.15 

10.42 

27.09 
24.68 


Per ct. 
1.06 
1.43 

3.52 
3.39 


Per ct. 
30.08 
42. 89 

99.99 
101. 59 


Per ct. 
3. 251 
4.934 


1764 
1767 


^j- j^iiXi WATER-FREE BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cOoked 


10. 808 
11.687 



'Ol 



Tabi.k 49. — Cuut^tHiuiits of uncooked meatu and ronhed tnenfn mJiiUr (Did InsohiUr in cold 
iratfr, experuncnt No. 14-i — Contimit'd. 

B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



LalifH 

rutory 

No. 



1764 
1767 



1764 
1767 



Kiiiil i>f iimtcriiil. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, riiuiul. uncooked . 
Beef, round, cooked 



OS WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Water. 



Per cl. 



ITo- 
teid. 



Perct. 

2.70 

.'A 



Beef, round, uncooked ! 9.00 

Beef, round, cooked 1.'26 



OrRanic 
extriiciivcs. 



Nitrotj- 
enous. 



Non- 
nilrog- 
enous. 



Per cl. Per ct. 
1.18 ! 1.73 
l.tiJ I \.«i 



3.92 
3.84 



5.75 
4.33 



Fat. 



Ash. 



Ptrct. Perct. 
0.73 
1.08 



2.44 

2.58 



Total 

solid 

mutter. 



Per cl. 
6.34 
5.07 



21.11 
12. 01 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 

O.Sll 

.605 



2. 695 
1.433 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1764 
1767 



1764 
1767 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 
Beef, round, cooked . . . 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 



15.26 
27.05 



50.71 
64.09 



8.15 
10.42 



27. 09 
24.68 



0.33 
.35 



1.08 
.81 



23.74 
37.82 



78.88 
89.58 



2.440 
4.329 



8.113 
10. 2.>t 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1764 
1767 



1767 



Table 50. — Results of cooking {frijiiKj in lard) experiment No. 143. 



Distribution of nutrients. 



Weight of nutrients: 

In uncooked meat 

In cooked meat 

Lost ( — ) or (appiuvialy) 
gained {+) 

Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

Lost (— ) or (apparently) 
gained (-f) 

Lost (— ) or (apparently) 
gained ( + ) in percentages 
of weight of uncooked meat 



Grams. 
465.74 
272. 19 

-193.55 

Per cent. 
58.44 

-41. 56 
-29. 06 



Proteid. 



Gramx. 
119.63 
129. 97 

-HO. 34 

Per cent. 
100.00 

+ 8.64 
+ 1.55 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Gramg. 
7.H6 
7. 63 

- .23 

Per cent. 
97.07 

-2.93 

- .03 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Grama. 
11.. 12 
8.62 



Per cent. 
74.83 



-2.5. 17 



Fat. 



Grams. 
54. 29 
49.09 



Per cent. 
90.42 



-9.58 



A.sh. 



Grams. 

7.06 

. 6.74 



Per it. 
95.47 



-4.53 



Cooking Experiment No. 144. 



In this experiment one of the pieces of the beef round which was 
cut about 5 inches thick and 4 inches across (sample No. 1768) was 
plunged into 2,000 cubic centimeters of vigorously boiling water and 
the cooking continued at the boiling point for ten minutes, when the 
temperature was allowed to fall to 85^ C, and maintained at this tem- 
perature until the total time of cooking was equal to three hours. 
The cooked meat was well done and quite dry. The volume of the 
final broth measured 1,7-iO cubic centimeters. 



58 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weiglit of meat before cooking grams. . 1, 027. 72 

Weight of meat after cooking do. . . 639. 87 

Loss in weight in cooking do 387. 85 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 37. 74 

The detailed results of the experiment are shown in Tal:)les 51 and 52. 

Table 5L — Constituents of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, solidde and insoluble 
in cold irater, experiment No. 144- 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1764 
1773 



1764 
1768 
1773 



Kind of materiaL 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Br()th (per cent uncooked 
meat)" 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat)" 



Water. 



Per ct. 
69.92 

58.81 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 
17. 96 
31.19 



.20 



59.71 
75.72 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 

1.18 

.99 

.67 



3.92 
2.40 



2.24 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 
1.73 

1.28 

.73 



5.75 
3.11 



Fat. 



Per ct. 
S.15 
7.51 



27.09 
18.23 



.57 



Ash. 



Per ct. 

1.06 

.89 



3.52 
2.16 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Per ct. 
30.08 
41.86 



99.99 
101.62 



7.46 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 
3. 251 
5.309 

.248 



10. 808 
12. 889 



.823 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1764 
1768 
1773 



1764 
1768 
1773 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat)" 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat)" 



2.70 
.21 



.15 



9.00 
.51 



1.18 
.99 



3.92 
2.40 



2.24 



1.73 
1.28 



.73 



5.75 
3.11 



2.44 



0.73 
.32 



2.44 
.79 



1.53 



6.34 
2.80 



21.11 
6.81 



6.69 



0.811 
.352 



2.695 
.855 



794 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1764 

1768 
1773 



1764 
1768 
1773 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat)" 



ox WATEK-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat)" 



15.26 
30.98 



.05 



.50. 71 
75. 21 



.19 



8.15 
7.51 



27.09 
18.23 



.57 



0.33 

.57 



1.08 
1.37 



.01 



23.74 
39.06 



.22 



94.81 
.77 



2.440 
4.957 



8.113 
12. 034 



a Broth from cooked meat No. 1768. 



59 



T.\BLE 52. — Resnltif of cooking (boiling) experiment No. 144- 



Lrtbo- 


Distribution of nutrients. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1768 


Weight of nutrients: 


Gram«. 
376. 31 
364. 83 
741. 14 

Per cent. 
50.77 
49.23 

35.50 


Grams. 

199. ."W 

2.07 

201.65 

Per cent. 

98.97 

1.03 

.20 


Grams. 

6.33 

C.91 

13.24 

Per cent. 
47.81 
52.19 

.67 


Grams. 
8.19 
7.54 
15.73 

Per cent. 
52.06 
47.94 

.73 


Grams. 

48.05 

1.75 

49.80 

Per cent. 

%.48 

3.52 

.17 


Grams. 
5.69 


1773 


In broth 


4.75 


1764 




10.44 


1768 


Proportion of nutrients: 


Per el. 
54.50 


1773 


In brotli 


45. 50 


1773 


In broth on basis of total 
weiglit of uncooked meat . . . 


.46 



Cooking E.xi'ekiment No. 145. 

In thi.s experiment the beef round (.sample No. 1769), in the form of 
2-inch cubes, was plunged into 850 cubic centimeters of boiling water, 
the temperature of the water then reduced to 85" C. as quickly as pos- 
sible, and the cooking continued at this temperature for three hours. 
The cooked meat was well done and quite dry. The volume of the 
tinal broth before dilution was 675 cubic centimeters. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat ])ef()re cooking grams.. 1,074. 83 

Weiglit of meat after C( tokiiig do 587. 28 

Loss in weight in cooking .do 487. 55 

Loss in weight in cooking I>er cent. . 45. 36 

Tables 53 and 54 giv^e the details of the experiment. 

Table 53. — Comtitueiits of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, soluble and insolu- 
ble in cold water, experiment No. 145. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



Kind of material. 



1764 
1769 
1772 



1764 
1769 
1772 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat) a 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat) « 



Water. 



Per ct. 
69.92 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 
17.96 



.25 



59.71 
79,09 



Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Per ct. 

1.18 

.95 

.75 

3.92 
2.18 

2.50 


Per ct. 
1.73 

.88 

.83 

5.75 
2.02 

2.77 


Per ct 
8.15 
6.87 

.44 

27.09 
15.79 

1.45 


Per ct. 

1.06 

.91 

.52 

3.52 
2.09 

L73 


Per ct 
30.08 
44.02 

2.79 

99.99 
101. 17 

9.27 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 
3.251 
5.810 



10.808 
13.363 



.931 



60 



Table b3.—Constituenfs of uncooked meats, coohed meaU, and hrofhs, soluble oM insolu- 
ble in cold water, experiment No. 14-'> — Continued. 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1764 
1769 
1772 



1764 
1769 
1772 



Kind of iimtcri;! 



ON FRESH BASI.S. 



Water. 



Ptr ft. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat)" • 



ON WATER-KUKK KASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat)" 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 

2.70 

.21 



9.00 
.50 



.55 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 

1.18 

.95 



3.92 
2.18 



2.50 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 
1.73 

.88 



5.75 
2.02 



Fat. 



Per ct. 






Ash. 



Per ct. 

0.73 

.63 



2.44 
1.46 



1.72 



Total 

solid 
matter. 



Per ct. 
6.34 
2. 67 



21.11 
6.16 



7.54 



C. NIJTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1764 
1769 
1772 



lf64 
1769 

1772 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat) « 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat) '< 



15.26 
34.20 



.08 



.50. 71 
78.59 



.27 



8.15 
6.87 



27. 09 
15. 79 



1.45 



0.33 

.28 



.63 
.01 



23.74 
41. So 



78.88 
95.01 



1.73 



a Broth from cooked meat No. 1769. 
Table 54.— Results of cooking (boiling) experiment No. 145. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1769 
1772 
1764 



1769 
1772 
1772 



Distribution of nutrients. 



Weight of nutrients: 

\n cooked meat 

In broth 

In uncooked meal. 



Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

In broth 

In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat. . . 



Water. 



Gramn. 
331.75 
4.57.59 
789. 34 

Per cent. 
42.03 
57. 97 

42.57 



Proteid. 



Grams. 

202. 08 

2.64 

204. 72 

Per cent. 

98. 71 

1.29 

^ .25 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 

5.58 

8.07 

13.65 

Per cent. 
40.88 
59.12 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. Grams. 

5. 17 40. 35 

8.96 4.70 

14. 13 45. 05 



Per cent. 
36. 59 
63 41 



Per cent. 
89.57 
10.43 



Cooking E.xpkriment No. 146. 

In this experiniont loan beef round (.sample No. 1770), cut about 5 
inche.s thick and 4 inches acro.ss, was cooked as a pot roast. A small 
amount of beef fat (1>.3 g-rams) was lieated in a flat-bottomed kettle 
until "smokino- hot," when the meat was added and well browned on 
all sides. A small quantit^^ of water was then added from time to time 
and the cooking continued for three hours, the pot being kept closely 
covered. The cooked meat was well done and medium dr}'. 



fil 



The losses in weight (lurinu' cookiiiii' woi'c as follows: 

"Weight of meat before rooking grams. . 96H. 87 

Weight of meat after cooking do 54r). 08 

Loss in weight in eooking <lo 421. 79 

Loss in weight in eooking per cent. . 43. (>2 

The results of the experiiueiit arc oivcii in detail in Tal)les 55 and 5(3. 

T.vBLE bo. — Vuiistitaenti^ of nncookal uicalt (tntl cooLcd vieals soliihlc a)id insoluble in cold 

water, e.r]>eritiient Xo. 14<>. 

A. TOT.VL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 


Kind of inatorial. 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 


mtorv 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1764 
1770 

1764 
1770 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

ON WATEB-FREE BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 


Per cf. 
(!'.). 92 
r.l. 95 


Pcrct. 
17.96 
34.53 

59.71 
71.86 


Per ct. 
1.18 
1.40 

3.92 
2. 91 


Per ct. 
1.73 
1.69 

5. 7.1 
3.52 


Per ct. 
8.15 
9.66 

27.09 
20. 10 


Perct. 
1.06 
1.21 

3.52 
2. .52 


Per ct. 
30. 08 
48. 49 

99. 99 
100.91 


Per cl. 
3. 251 
5. 972 

10. 808 
12. 429 













B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 






• 




ON FRESH BASIS. 
















- 


1764 


Bi'cf round, uncooked 




2.70 
.31 


1.18 
1.40 


1.73 

1.69 






0.73 

.84 


■'6.31 
4.24 


0.811 


1770 


Beef, round, cooked 


, 


.498 




ON WATKR-KKEE BASIS. 






1764 
1770 


Beef, round, uncooked ..... ..^v. 

Beef, round, cooked ;.i.V.. 


;::::;:. 


9.00 

■■ .65 


3. 92 
2.91 


5. 75 
3.52 






2.44 
1.75 


21.11 
8..'~3 


2. 695 
1.036 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLB WATER. 



1764 


ON FRESH BASIS. 




15. 26 
34.22 

.')0 71 
















8. 15 
9.66 

27. 09 
20.10 


0.33 
.37 

1.08 

.77 


■.,;.74 

-11.25 

78. 88 
92.08 


2. 440 


1770 






5. 474 


1764 


ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




8.113 


1770 






71.21 


11.393 











Table 56. — Results of cooking {pot roast) e.vperiment No. 14f)- 



Distriljution of nutrients. 



Weight of nutrients: 

In uncooked meat 

In cooked meat 

Lost ( — ) or (apparently) 
gained ( + ) 

Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

Lost ( — ) or (apparently) 
gained {+) 

Lost ( — ) or (apparently) 
gained (-1-) in percentages 
of weight of uncooked meat 



Grams. 
676. 04 
283. 17 

-392. 87 

Per cent. 
41.89 

- 58.11 

- 40.63 



Proteid. 



Grams. 
173. 65 

1S8. 22 

+ 14.57 

Per rent. 
100. 00 

-f 8.39 
+ 1..51 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams 

11.41 

7.63 



Per cent. 
66.87 



-33. 13 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 

16.73 

9.21 



Per cent. 
55. 05 



Grams. 

78. SO 
52.65 



Per cent. 
66. 80 



Ash. 



Grams. 
10. 25 
6.60 

- 3.65 

Per ct. 
64. 39 



62 

Cooking Experiment No. 147. 

In this experiment, the last of the series, the lean beef round (sam- 
ple No. 1771), cut about 5 inches thick and 4: inches across, was roasted. 
The weighed meat was placed on the rack in a roasting- pan and put in 
the oven of a_g-as stove. The temperature for the first fifteen minutes 
was 249'^ C. and for the remaining forty-five minutes 193'^ C. The 
cooked meat was well browned, medium underdone, or rare, and quite 
juic}. The quantity of drippings obtained was very small. 

The losses in weight in cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams . . 1 , 104. 40 

Weight of meat after cooking do 920. 92 

Loss in weight in cooking do 183. 48 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 16. 61 

Tables 57 and 58 show the detailed results of the experiment. 



Table 57. — Constitiients of uncooked meats and cooked meats soluble and insoluble in cold 

uater, experiment No. 147. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 





Kind of material. 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 

extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 


ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1764 

1771 

1764 

1771 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 


Per ft. 
69.92 
64.63 


Per ct. 
17.96 
21.45 

59.71 
60.64 


Per ct. 
1.18 
1.36 

3.92 
3.84 


Per ct. 
1.73 
1.55 

5.75 
4.38 


Perct. 
8.15 
9.50 

27.09 
26.86 


Per ct. 
1.06 
1.17 

3. .52 
3.31 


Per ct. 
30.08 
35.03 

99.99 
-99.03 


Per ct. 
3. 251 

3.870 


ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 


10. 808 






10.941 









B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 





ON FRESH BASIS. 


















1764 
1771 






2.70 
.75 


1.18 
1.36 


1.73 
1.55 






0.73 
.96 


6.34 
4.62 


0.811 






.557 


ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 


















1764 
1771 






9.00 
2.10 


3.92 
3.84 


5.75 
4.38 






2.44 
2.71 


21.11 
13.03 


2.695 






1.574 









C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1764 
1771 

1764 
1771 


ON FRESH BASIS. 




15.26 

20.70 

60.71 
58.54 

















8.15 
9.50 

27.09 
26.86 


0.33 
.21 

1.08 
.60 


23.74 
30.41 

78.88 
86.00 


2.440 






3.313 


ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




8.113 






9.367 









63 



Table 58. — Rtiailts of cooking {roasting) experiment No. 147. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



17 f A 
1771 



Distribution of nutrit-iits. 



Wiiter. 



Weight of mitrient.s: Grams. 

Ill uiiciH>ke<l meat 772.20 

I II cooked meiit 5*5. 19 

Lo.<!t (— ) or (apparently) 

gained ( + ) j -177.01 

Proportion of nutrients: Per cent. 

In cooked meat 77. U8 

Lost ( - ( or (ajiparcntly) 1 

gained ( + 1 ' - 22.92 

Lost (-) or (apparently) 
gained ( +) in perecnttvgesof 
weight of uncooked meat ... — 16. 03 



Proteid. 



OramB. 
198. 3.T 
197.54 



Per cent. 
99.59 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
13.03 
12.52 

- .51 

Per cent. 
96.09 

-3.91 

- .05 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
19.11 
1-1.27 



Per cent. 
74.67 



-25.33 



Fat. 



Grams. 
90.01 
87. 49 

-2. .52 

Pa' cent. 
97.20 

-2.80 
- .23 



Grains. 
11.71 
10.77 



Per ct. 
91.97 



-8.03 
- .09 



Series X. — ExrKimiKNT.s Nos. 150-151). 

The object of this series of seven rxi)erinients was siniihir to that of 
Series IX, namely, to deterniine the inlhience of the ditferent methods 
of cookinji^ (1) upon the soluble and the insoluble constituents of meat 
and (-2) upon the character and amounts of the losses of nutrients. 
The lean beef round selected was freed from all bone, gristle, and 
most of the visible fat and divided as follows: (1) A representative 
cross-section cut, about 0.5 inch thick (sample No. 1775), was reserved 
for analysis; (2) three steaks. 1 inch thick, of approximately equal size 
and as near alike as possible in appearance and composition, were cut 
for use in experiments Nos. 150, 151, and 152; (3) three pieces, about 
5 inches thick and 4 inches across, as near alike in appearance, shape, 
and size as po.ssible, were cut for experiments Nos. 153, 155, and 156; 
and (-1) one portion was cut into pieces about 2 inches square for 
experiment No. 154. 

Cooking Experiment No. 150. 

One of the steaks (No. 1776) 1 inch in thickness was sauteed. A 
small amount (12 grams) of beef fat was heated in a frying pan until 
it began to smoke. The meat was then added and cooked for twenty 
minutes, with frequent turning. When done it was well browned, 
underdone, or rare, and juicy. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 641. 09 

AVeight of meat after cooking do 549. 85 

Loss in weight in cooking do 91. 24 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 14. 23 

The details of the experiment are shown in Tables 59 and 60. 



64 

Table 59. — Cunslituents of uncooked meats and cooked meats solnhle and iiixoluhle in cold 

voter, experiment No. 150. 

A. TOTAL NTTUIKXTS IN OKKilXAL SUBSTANCE. 



Kind of niatorial. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Heel', roiiiul. nncooki'd. 
Beef, round, cooked 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uiieooked. 
Beef, round, eooked 



Wnter. 



Per rt. 
7:5. -IH 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 

18.67 



69. S7 
68.30 



Organic 
e.xtractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 
l.i:i 
1.37 



4.23 
4.11 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 
1.40 
1 . 61 



5.24 

4.83 



Fat. 



Per ct. 
4.91 
6.34 



18. .38 
19.02 



Ash. 



Perct. 
1.09 
1.17 



4.08 
3. 51 



Total j Total 
solitl I nitro- 
matter. gen. 



Per ct. 

27.20 
33.26 



101.80 
99.77 



Per ct. 
3.349 
4.083 



12. 534 
12. 246 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 





ON KKESH BASIS. 


















1776 






2.20 
.73 


1.13 
1.37 


1.40 
1.61 






0.87 
.95 


5.60 
4.66 


0.714 


1776 


Beef, round, cooked 




. 556 




ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 


















1775 


Beef, round, uncooked 




8.23 
2.19 


4.23 
4.11 


5.24 
4.83 






3.26 
2.85 


20.96 
13.98 


2 673 


1776 


Beef, round , cooked 




1.667 











C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 





ON FRESH BASIS. 


















1775 






16. 47 
22. 04 










4.91 
6.34 


0.22 
.22 


21.60 
28.60 


2. 635 


1776 


Beef, round, cooked 




3.527 




ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 


















1775 


Beef, round, uncooked 




61.64 
66. 11 



. 






18.38 
19.02 


.82 
.66 


80.84 
85.79 


9.861 


1776 


Beef, round, cooked 




10. 579 











Table 60. — Residts of cooking {saidcing) e.rperiment No. 150. 



Distribution of nutrients. 



Weight of nutrients: 

In uncooked meat 

In cooked meat 

Lo.st ( — ) or (apparently) 
gained (-f ) 

Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

Lost (— ) or (apparently) 
gained {+) 

Lost ( -) or (apparently) 
gained (-r) in percentage of 
weight of uncooked meat .. 



Proteid. 



Grams. 
469. 79 
;^66. 53 

-103.26 

Per cent. 
78. 02 



Grams. 
119. 69 
125. 20 

-f5.51 

Per cent. 
100. 00 

-1-4.60 
-I- .86 



Organic extrac- 
tives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
7.24 
7.53 

+ .29 

Per cent 
100. 00 

-i-4.01 
-f .05 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
8.98 
8.85 

- .13 

Per cent. 
98.55 



Grams. 
31.48 
34.86 

-:- 3.38 

Per cnit. 
100. 00 

H-IO. 74 



-f .53 



Ash. 



Grams. 
6.99 
6.43 



Perct. 
91.99 



- .09 



<>5 

COOKIXC HXI'KIUMENT No. 151. 

One of the steaks (sample No. 1777) 1 inch in thickness was pan- 
hroiled as follows: The pan was heated until "blue hot ''and the meat 
was thou put in it and cooked for ten minutes with frccpient turninji-, 
no fat heini;- added either before or durintr the cooking. The cooked 
meat was well browned, decidedly underdone, or rare, and juic3\ 

The losses in weight during cooking wore as follows: 

Weight of meat Ijefore cooking grams. . 6W. 60 

AVeight of meat after cooking do 5:^6. 05 

Loss in weight in cooking do 12S. 55 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 19. 'Si 

Tables 61 and 02 give the details of the cxperinuMit. 

Table 61. — Constituents of uncooked meats and cooked meats soluble and insoluble in cold 

water, experiment Xo. 151. 

A. TOTAL NfTKIENTS IN ORIGI.NAL SUBSTANCE. 





Kind of material. 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 


ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1775 


ON FKESH BASIS. 


Per ct. 
73.28 
65.74 


Perct. 
18.67 
24.74 

69.87 


Per ct. 
1.13 
1.48 

4.23 


Per ct. 
1.40 
1.72 

5. 24 
5.02 


Per ct. 
4.91 
5.83 

18.38 
17.02 


Pel- ct. 
1.09 
1.24 

4.08 
3.62 


Per ct. 
27.20 
35.01 

101.80 
102. 19 


Per ct. 
3.349 


1777 
1775 


Beef, round, cooked 

ON WATER-FREE B.\SIS. 


4.435 
12.534 


1777 




72.21 ' 4.32 


12.945 

















1775 

1777 



1775 
1777 



1775 

1777 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked . 
Beef, round, cooked ... 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked. 
Beef, round, cooked . . . 



2.20 
.58 



8.23 
1.69 



1.13 
1.-48 



4.23 
4.32 



1.40 

1.72 



5.24 
5.02 



0.87 
1.05 



3. 2(; 
3.07 



5.60 
4.83 



20. 9t; 
14.10 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked. 
Beef, round, cooked ... 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



1775 I Beef, round, uncooked. 
1777 Beef, round, cooked . . . 



16.47 
24. 16 



61.64 
70. .52 



4.91 
5 83 



18.38 
17. 02 



0. 22 
.19 



.82 
.55 



21.60 
30. 18 



80.84 
88.09 



0.714 
.569 



2.673 
1.661 



2. 635 
3.866 



9.861 
11. 284 



11480— No. 162—06- 



66 



Table (52. — ResuUs of cooking {pan broiling) expenment No. 151. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1775 

1777 



Distribution of nutrients. 



Weight of nutrients: 

In uneookert meat , 

In cooked meat 

Lost ( — ) or (apparently) 
gained ( + ) 

Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

Lost ( — ) or (apparently) 
gained ( + ) 

Lost ( — ) or (apparently) 
gained ( + ) in percentages of 
weight of uncooked meat. . 



Water. 



Oraras. 
487. 02 
352. 40 

-134. 62 

Per cent. 
72.36 

-27.64 

-20. 20 



I'roteid. 



Grams. 
124. 08 
132. 62 

+8.64 

Per cent. 
100. 00 

+6.88 
+ 1.29 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
7.51 
7.93 

+ .42 

Per cent. 
100.00 

+ 5.59 
+ .06 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
9.30 
9.22 



Per cent. 
99.14 



Grains. 
32. 63 
31.26 

-1.38 

Per cent. 
96.77 



Ash. 



Grams. 

7,24 
6.65 



Per ct. 
91.85 



-S. 16 
- .09 



Cooking Experiment No. 152. 

The third 1-inch steak (sample No. 1778) was cooked by "gas broil- 
ing-," that is, broiling over a gas flame, for ten minutes, this method 
of cooking being substituted for fiTing in deep fat, the method used 
in the former series of experiments (experiment No. 143), to which 
the present series corresponds. The cooked meat was well browned, 
decidedly underdone, or rare, and juicy. 

The losses in weight in cooking were as follows: 

• Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 662. 97 

Weight of meat after cooking do 551.95 

Loss ill weiglit in cooking ...do 111. 02 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 16. 75 

Tables 63 and (31 give the details of the experiment. 

Table 63. — Constituents of uncooked 7neats and cooked meat.? .soluble and insoluble in cold 

water, e.iperiment No. 152. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1775 

1778 



1776 
1778 



Kind of material. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked. 
Beef, round, cooked 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked . 
Beef, round, cooked 



Water. 



Per ct. 
73. 28 
66. 26 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 
18.67 

22.78 



69.87 
67.52 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous 



Per ct. 
1.13 
1.38 



4.23 
4.09 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 
1.40 
1.62 



5.24 
4.80 



Fat. 



Per ct. 
4.91 
7.64 



18.38 
22.64 



Ash. 



Per ct. 
1.09 
1.22 



4.08 
3.61 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Per ct. 
27.20 
34.64 



101.80 
102. 66 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Perct. 
3.349 
4.088 



12.634 
12. 116 



67 



T\Bi.E 6S.—C(ni>itiliinits of uncooked mcaLt ami cooked meals soluble and insoluble in cold 
irater, exjierimenl Xo. 15.2 — Continued. 

B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



Kiiiil of material. 



Pro. 
teid. 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Fat. 



Ash. 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



ON FRFSH BASIS. 



Per ct. 



1778 



177.5 

n7» 



Beef, round, uncooked. 
Beef, round, ettoked 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 

Beef, rovind, uncooked — 
Beef, round, ccwked 



Per ct. 

•2.20 

.83 



8.23 
2.46 



Per ct. 
1.13 
1.38 



4.23 
4.09 



Per ct. 
1.40 
1.62 



5.24 
4.80 



Pcrct. 





Perct. 
0.87 
1.01 



3.26 
2.99 



Per ct. 
&.60 
4.84 



20.96 
14.34 



Per ct. 
0.714 
.575 



2.673 
1.704 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1775 

1778 



1775 
1778 



ON FREf'H BASIS. 

Beef, round, uneiM)ked — 
Beef, round, cooked 

ON avat?:r-frki'. basi.s. 

Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 



16.47 
21.95 



61.64 
(i.5.06 



4.91 
7.64 



18.38 
22.64 



0.22 
.21 



21.60 
29.80 



80.84 
88.32 



2.635 
3.513 



9.861 
10. 412 



T.ABLE M. — Resnlt.'i of cooking {gas broiling) experiment No. 152. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1775 
1778 



Distribution of nutrients. 



Water. 



Weight of nutrients: 1 Grams. 

In uncooked meat ] 485. 82 

In cooked meat 365. 72 

Lost (-) or (apparently) 

gained ( + ) i -120.10 



Proteid. 



Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

Lost (-) or (apparently) 
gained ( + ) ---■ 

Lost ( — ) or (apparently) 
gained ( + ) in percentages of 
weight of uncooked meat . . . 



Per cent. 
75.28 



-24. 72 



-18. 12 



Grams. 
123. 78 
125. 73 

-1-1.95 

Per cent. 
100.00 

+1.58 
+ .29 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Gramfi. 
7.49 
7.62 

+ .13 

Per cent. 
100.00 

-f-1.74 
+ .02 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Fat. 



Grams. 
9.28 
8.94 

- .34 

Per cent. 
96.34 

-3.66 



Grams. 
32. 55 
42.17 

+ 9.62 

Per cent. 
100.00 

-)-29. 55 
+ 1.45 



Ash. 



Grams. 
7.23 
6.73 



Per ct. 
93.08 



-6. 92 

- .08 



Cooking Experiment No. 153. 

One of the pieces of the beef round (sample No. 1779), about 5 inches 
thick and -i inches across, was cooked by plunging it into 2,000 cubic 
centimeters of vigorously boiling water. This temperature was main- 
tained for ten minutes, and then allowed to fall to 85° C. and kept at 
this point. The total time of cooking was three hours. The cooked 
meat was well done and quite dry. 



68 

The losses in weight in cooking were as follows: 

Weiglit of meat before cooking grams. . 1 , 098. 31 

Weight of meat after cooking do 607. 44 

Loss in weight in cooking do 490. 87 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 44. 69 

The details of the experiment are given in Tables 65 and Q6. 

Table 65. — Coristiiuents of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, soluble and insoluble 
in cold water, experiment No. 153. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 


Kind of material. 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 


ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1775 

177"^ 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 


Per ct. 
73.28 
54.17 


Ptrct. 
18.67 
35.71 

.19 

69.87 
77.92 

.69 


Per ct. 

1.13 

.94 

.73 

4.23 
2.05 

2.75 


Per ct. 
1.40 
1.04 

.87 

5.24 
2.27 

3.27 


Per ct. 
4.91 

7.88 

.38 

18.38 
17.19 

1.56 


Perct. 

1.09 

.84 

.52 

4.08 
1.83 

1.93 


Per ct. 
27.20 
46.41 

2.69 

101.80 
101.26 

10.20 


Per ct. 
3.349 
6.013 


1784 


Brotii (per' cent uncooked 


.295 


1775 


ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




12. 534 


1779 






13. 120 


1784 


Broth (per cent uncooked 




.992 











B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1775 
1779 
1784 



1775 
1779 

1784 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat) " 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat) « 



.16 



8.23 
.44 



.61 



1.13 
.94 



4.23 
2.05 



1.40 
1.04 



.5.24 
2.27 



0.87 
.60 



.52 



3.26 
1.31 



5.60 

2.78 



2.28 



20.96 
6.07 



0.714 
.332 



2. 673 
.724 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1775 
1779 
1784 



1775 
1779 
1784 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat) « 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat) a , 



16.47 
35. 51 



.03 



61.64 

77.48 



4.91 

7.88 



18.38 
17.19 



1.56 



0. 22 
.24 



21.60 
43. 63 



.41 



80.84 
95.19 



2. 635 
5. 681 



9.861 
12. 396 



.014 



a Broth from sample No. 1779. 



()9 



Table 66. — Results of cooking {boiling) experiment No. 15S. 



La bo- 
ra torv 
No. 



Pistribiition of nntrients. 



Water. Protcid 



1779 
17S4 
1775 



1779 
17S4 



Wpi^ht of mitrionts: 

In cookcil moiit 

111 broth " 

Ill uiu'ooked meat. 



Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

In broth" 

In l)roth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meata.. 



Orams. 
329. 05 
461.32 
790.37 

Per cent. 
41.63 
58.37 

42.00 



Grams. 

216. 92 

2.03 

218. 95 

Per cent. 

99.07 

.93 

.19 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Qraitis. 
5.71 
8.07 
13.78 

Per cent. 
41.44 
58.56 



Xon- 
nitrog- 
euous. 



Gram$. 
6.32 
9.60 
15.92 

Per cent. 
39.70 
60.30 



Orams. 

47.87 

4.18 

52. 05 

Per cent. 

91.97 

8.03 



Grams. 
5.10 
5.67 
10.77 

Perct. 
47. 35 
52. 65 



o Broth from sample No. 1779. 
Cooking Exteriment No. 154. 

In this experiment, which i.s a duplicate of No, 14r>, the boot" round 
cut into 2-inch cubes (sample No. 1780) was ])ut into SaO cubic centi- 
meters of boiling water. The temperature of the water was then 
allowed to drop to <S5'^ C. and so maintained, the duration of tiie 
entire cookino- period tx'ino- thi'ce hours. The cooked meat was well 
done and diy. 

The losses in weight during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of nii'at before cooking grams. . 1 , 052. 17 

Weight of meat after cooking do 554. 'IS) 

Loss in weight in cooking do 497. 88 

Loss in weight in cook ing per cent . . 47. .32 

Tables 67 and 68 show the details of the experiment. 

Table 67. — Constituents of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and brotfis, soluble and insoluble 
in cold iruter, experiment No. 154- 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



Kind of material. 



Water. 



Pro- 
teid. 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Fat. 



Ash. 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



1775 
1780 
1783 



1775 
1780 
1783 



ON FBESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat) a 



Per ct. 
73.28 
65.19 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat) a 



Per ct. 
18.67 
36.15 

.25 



69.87 
80.67 



Per ct. 
1.13 



4.23 
1.79 



2.74 



Per ct. 
1.40 
.92 

.90 



5.24 
2.05 



3.35 



Per ct. 
4.91 
6.62 



18.38 
14.77 



Per ct. 
1.09 

.85 



4.08 
1.87 



Per ct. 
27. 20 
45.34 



101. 80 
101. 15 



Per ct. 
3.349 
6.040 



12. 534 
13. 479 



1.027 



70 



Table 67. — Con f<tHnents of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, solidile and insoluble 
in cold water, experiment ]Vo. 154 — Continued. 

B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



Kind of material. 



Water. 



Pro- 
teid. 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Fat. 



Ash. 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat) a 



Per cl. 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat) a 



Perct. 

2.20 

.13 



8.23 
.29 



Per ct. 
1.13 

.80 

.73 



4.23 
1.79 



Per ct. 
1.40 
.92 

.90 



5.24 
2.05 



3.35 



Perct. 





Per ct. 

0.87 

.57 

.53 



3.26 

1.27 



1.96 



Per ct. 
5.60 
2.42 

2.28 



20.96 
5.40 



8.52 



Per ct. 

0.714 

.276 



2.673 
.616 



.953 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat)« 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (per cent uncooked 
meat) « 



16.47 
36. 02 



61.64 
80.38 



.46 



4.91 
6. 62 



18. 38 
14.77 



0.22 
.28 



21.60 
42.92 



80.84 
95.75 



2. 635 

5. 764 



9.861 
12. 863 



.074 



a Broth from sample No. 1780. 
Table 68. — Results of cooking {boiling) experiment No. 154- 



Labo- 


Distribution of nutrients. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1780 


Weight of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 


Orams. 
305. 91 


Orams. 

200. 38 

2. 62 

203. 00 

Per cent. 

98.71 

1.29 

.25 


Orams. 

4.43 

7.70 

12.13 

Per cent. 
36.52 
63.48 

.73 


Grams. 
5.10 
9.42 

14.52 

Per cent. 
35. 12 

64.88 

.90 


Grams. 
36.69 


Grams. 
4.71 


1783 




5. 53 


nib 


In uncooked meat 






10. 24 


1780 


Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per ct. 
46.00 


1783 


In broth a. .. 






54.00 


1783 


In broth on ba.sis of total 






.53 













a Broth from sample No. 1780. 

Cooking Experiment No. 155. 

The second piece of lean beef round (sample No. 1781), cut about 5 
inches thick and 4 inches across, was cooked as a pot roast. A small 
quantity of beef fat (9 grams) was heated in a flat-bottomed kettle until 
"smoking" hot, the meat added, and well browned on all sides. A 
small quantity of water was added from time to time and the cooking 
continued for three hours, the pot being kept closel}" covered. The 
cooked meat was well done and medium dry. 



71 



The losses in weight duriiiii' cookiiij^- were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grains. 

Weight of meat after cooking do. . . 

Loss in weight in cooking -'- -do — 

Loss in weight in cooking, per cent. 



Tables Ot> and 70 show the details of the experiment. 



1,041.83 

55S. 56 

482. 77 

46.36 



Table 69. — CoiuUUnerUs of uncooked meats and cooked meats soluble and Insoluble in cold 

irater, experiment No. 155. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 

No. 



177.') 
17«1 



1775 
1781 



Kind of matiTiiil. 



ON KRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, iiiipooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

ON W.\^TEK-FREK BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 



Water. 



Per cl. 
73.28 
52. 96 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 
IS. 67 
34.61 



69.87 
73.57 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enoas. 



Per ct. 
1.13 
1.11 



4.23 
2.36 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per H. 
1.40 
1.17 



5.24 
2.49 



Fat. 



Per ct. 
4.91 

9.87 



18.38 
20. 98 



Ash. 



Per ct. 
1.09 
1.10 



4.08 
2.33 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Per ct. 
27. 20 
47 86 



101.80 
101. 73 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1775 
1781 



1775 
1781 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked. 
Beef, rounii, cooked 



ON W.\TEK-FREE BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 



2 20 
.42 



8.23 
.89 



1.13 
1.11 



4.23 
^36 



1.40 
1.17 



.5.24 
2.49 



0.87 
.83 



3.26 
1.76 



5.60 
3.53 



20.96 
7.50 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1775 
1781 



1775 
1781 



ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked. 
Beef, round, cooked — 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked. 
Beef, round, cooked 



16.47 
34.19 



61.64 
72.68 



4.91 

9.87 



18.38 
20.98 



0.22 
.27 



21.60 
44.33 



80.84 
94.23 



Table 70. — Remits of cooking (pot roasting) experiment No. 155. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1775 
1781 



Distribution of nutrients. 



Weight of nutrients: 

In uncooked meat 

In cooked meat 

Loss ( — ) or (apparent) gain 
( + )« 



Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

Loss ( — ) or (apparent) gain 

( + )" 

Loss ( — ) or (apparent) gain 
( -I- ) in percentages of weight 
of uncooked meata 



Water. 



Grams. 
763. 08 
295. 81 

-467. 27 

Per cent. 
38.77 

- 61.23 

- 44.87 



Proteid. 



Grams. 
194. 42 
193. 32 



Per cent. 
99.43 



- .57 

- .11 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
11.77 
6.20 

- 5.57 

Per cent. 
52.67 

-47. 33 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
14.58 
.6.54 

- 8.04 

Per cent. 
44.86 

-55. 14 

- .77 



Fat. 



Grams. 
.51. 12 
55.13 

+4.01 

Per cent. 
100.00 

+■!. 84 
-1- .39 



Pei\ ct. 
3. 349 
5.891 



12. 534 
12. 523 



0.714 
.421 



2. 673 

.895 



2.635 
5. 470 



9.861 
11. 628 



Ash. 



Grams. 

11.35 

6.14 



Per ct. 
54.10 



-45.90 



"See U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 141, p. 62 et seq. 



72 

Cooking Experimext No. \nf\. 

The third piece of the lean beef round (sample No. 1782), cut about 
5 inches thick and 4 inches across, was cooked by roasting in the oven 
of a gas stove, the weiglied meat being placed on the rack of a roast 
ing pan. The temperature of the oven for the first fifteen minutes 
was 249° C. and for the remaining forty minutes of the cooking period 
193° C. The cooked meat was well browned, decidedly underdone, or 
rare, and juicy. 

The losses in weight in cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 1, 110. 88 

Weight of meat after cooking do 985. 49 

Loss in weight in cooking do 175. 39 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 15. 79 

The details of the experiment are shown in Tables 71 and 72. 

Table 71. — ('onstilnents <if uncooked meats and cooked )iieatii snluhle and Insoiulle in cold 

irater, experiment No. 16G. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1775 
1782 



1775 
1782 



Kind of material. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked . 
Beef, round, coolied 



ON WATER-FKEE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked. 
Beef, round, cooked 



Water. 



Per ct. 

73.28 
68.68 



Pro- 
teid. 



Perct. 
18.67 
23. 19 



69.87 
73.80 



Organic 
extractives. 



enous. 



Per ct. 

1.13 

.94 



4.23 
2.99 



Per ct. 
1.40 
1.27 



5.24 
4.04 



Fat. 



Per ct. 
4.91 
6.42 



18.38 
17.25 



Ash. 



Perct. 
1.09 
1.16 



4.08 
3.69 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Per ct. 
27.20 
31.98 



101. 80 
101. 77 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 
3.349 
4.011 



12.534 
12. 766 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1775 


ON FRESH BASIS. 




2.20 
1.23 

8.23 
3.91 


1.13 
.94 

4.23 
2.99 


1.40 
1.27 

5.24 
4.04 









0.87 
.95 

3.26 
3.02 


5.60 
4.39 

20.96 
13.96 


0.714 


1782 






.497 


1775 


ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




2.673 


1782 






1.582 











C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1775 


ON FRESH BASIS. 




16. 47 
21.96 

61.64 
69.89 
















4.91 
5.42 

18.38 
17.25 


0.22 
.21 

.82 
.67 


21.00 
27.59 

80.84 
87.81 


2.635 


178'^ 






3.514 


1776 
1782 


ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




9.861 






11.184 











73 



Table 72. — Jiei^iillfi of cooking {roagiing) exjjeriment Xo. 15f>. 



Labo- I 

ratorv 

No. 



1775 
1782 



1782 



Distribution of nutrients. 



Water. Proteid. 



Weight of nutrients: Grams. 

In luicoolied meat 814. 05 

In cooked meat 641. 56 

Loss (— ) or (apparent) gain 

( + )n -172.49 



Per Ct. 
78.81 



Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

Loss (— ) or (apparent) gain 
(+)" 

Loss ( — ) or (apparent) gain 
( + ) in percentages of 
weight of uncooked meat «. 



Grams. 
207. 40 
216. 94 

+ 9.54 

Per ct. 
100.00 

+ 4.60 



15.53 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
12. 55 
8.79 



Per ct. 
70.04 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
15.55 

11.88 

- 3.67 

Per ct. 
76.40 

-23.60 



Grams. 
54.54 
50.70 

- 3.84 

Per ct. 
92.96 



Ash. 



Grams. 
12. 11 
10.85 



Per ct. 
89.60 



aSee U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 141, p. 62 et seq. 



MEATS COOKED BY DRY HEAT AND THEN BY BOILING. 

Series XL — Experiments Nos. 133-130. 

The chief ol)ject of this .series of four experiments was to discover 
w^hat influence the previous browning' of meat has (I) upon the nature 
and quantity of the losses, and (2) upon the ciiaracter of the resulting 
cooked meats. Lean beef round from which all bone, gristle, and 
lumps of visible fat had lieen removed was used in all the tests. The 
entire cut was divided into 2-inch cubes, and after thorouoh mixing 
was separated into live portions — four (Nos. 1748, 1744, 1745, and 
1746) for cooking, and one (No. 1741) for complete chemical analysis. 

Cooking Experiment No. 133. 

Sample No. 1743 was used for the first experiment, and was cooked 
by placing it first in 2,000 cubic centimeters of boiling water and then 
cooking at this temperature for three hours. 

The losses in weights were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 1, 000. 00 

Weight of meat after coolving do 548. 22 

Loss in weight in cooking do 451. 78 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 45. 18 

The details of the experiment are given in Tables 73 and 74. 



74 

Table 73. — Constituents of xincooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, soluble and 
insoluble in cold watei; experiment No. 13S. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Kind of material. 



Water. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 

Per ct. 

Beef, round, uncooked 72. 46 

Beef, round, cooked ' 57. 65 

Broth (percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth (percentuncookedmeat) 



Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Perct. 


Per ct. 


18.91 


1.24 


1.78 


4.52 


1.06 


27.51 


34. 92 


.77 


1.04 


5.06 


.74 


42.53 


.39 


.89 


1.11 


.46 


.62 


3.47 


68.66 


4.50 


6.46 


16.41 


3.85 


99.88 


82. 45 


1.82 


2.46 


11.95 


1.75 


100.43 


■ 1.43 


3.22 


4.03 


1.66 


2, 26 


12.60 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked a 

Broth (percentuncodkedmeat J 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked " 

Broth (percent uncookedmeat; 



2.80 


1.24 


1.78 





0.S9 


6.71 


.33 


.77 


1.04 





.57 


2.71 


.35 


.89 


1.11 





.62 


2.97 


10.15 


4.50 


6.46 





3.23 


24.34 


.78 


1.82 


2.46 





1.35 


6.41 


1.27 


3.22 


4.03 


" 


2.25 


10.77 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round , cooked « 

Broth ( percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked « 

Broth (percentuncookedmeat) 



16 11 

34.59 

.04 



58.51 

81.67 

.16 



4.52 

5.06 

.46 



16.41 

11. 95 

1.66 



17 
.17 



.62 
.40 
.01 



20.80 

39.82 

.50 



75. 54 

94, 02 

1.83 



a Cooked meat from sample No. 1743. 
Table 74. — Results of cooking {boiling) experiment No. 133. 





Distribution of nutrients. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1743 


Weight of nutrients: 


Grams. 
316.05 
417. 08 
733.13 

Per cent. 
43.11 
56.89 

41.71 


Grains. 

191. 44 

3.94 

195.38 

Per cent. 
97.98 
2.02 

.39 


Grams. 
4.22 
8.87 
13.09 

Per cent. 
32.24 
67.76 

.89 


Grams. 

5.70 

11.10 

16.80 

Per cent. 
33.93 
66.07 

1.11 


Grams. 

21. lA 

4.57 

32.81 

Per cent. 
85. 86 
14.14 

.46 


Grams. 
4.06 


1743 




6.22 


1741- 




10.28 


1743 


Proportion of nutrients; 


Per ct. 
39.49 


1743 




60.51 


1743 


In broth on basi.s of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . . 


.62 



75 

Cooking Experiment No. 134. 

The second portion of beef round (sample No. 1744) was plunged 
into boiling water and the temperature of the water maintained as 
near the boiling point as possible for ten minutes. It was then 
allowed to drop to 85° C. and the cooking continued at tliis tempera- 
ture until the total period covered three hours. 

The losses in weight in cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 1 , 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 543. 07 

Loss in weight in cooking do 456. 93 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 15. 09 

Tables 75 and 76 record the details of the experiment. 

T.\ui,E 75. — ('onslitHcittit of uncuoked meals, cooked meats, and hrotlis, sol aide and insoluhle 
in cold ifuter, experiment No 134- 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 


Kind of material. 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1741 
1744 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 


Perct. 
72. 40 
57.88 


Perct. 

18. 91 

35.05 

.33 

68.66 

83.21 

1.21 


Perct. 
1.24 
.79 

.87 

4.60 
1.88 
3.15 


Perct. 
1.78 
1.08 
1.19 

0.46 
2.56 
4.31 


Perct. 

4.52 

4.83 

.31 

16.41 
11.47 
1.14 


Per ct. 

1.06 

.73 

.61 

3.85 
1.73 
2.23 


Pa- ct. 
27.61 
42.48 
3.31 

99.88 

100.85 

12.04 


Per ct. 
3.424 
5. 862 


1744 
1741 


Broth(percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 


.331 
12. 433 


1744 


Beef, round, cooked 




13 917 


1744 


Broth ( percent uncooked meat) 




1.203 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1741 
1749 
1744 



1741 
1749 
1744 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, nuinil, cooked" 

Bri)tiii ptrcent uncooked meat) 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round , uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked" 

Broth(percentuncookedmeat) 



.33 

.28 



10.15 

.78 
1.00 



1.24 
.79 

.87 



4.50 
1.88 
3.15 



1.78 
1.08 
1.19 



6.46 
2. .56 
4.31 



0.89 
.53 
.61 



3.23 
1.26 
2.22 



0.71 
2.73 
2. 95 



24.34 

6.48 
10.68 



0. 846 
.307 
. 322 



3.071 

.728 
1.171 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1741 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 




16.11 

34.72 

.05 

68. 61 

82.43 

.21 




















4. .52 

4.83 

.31 

16.41 

11.47 

L14 


0.17 
.20 

.62 
.47 
.01 


20.80 

39.75 

.36 

75.54 
94.37 
1.36 


2.578 


1749 


Beef, round, cooked a 




5. .555 


1744 
1741 


Broth (percent uncooked meat ) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 




.009 
9. 362 


1749 






13. 189 


1744 


Broth(percentuncookedmeat) 




.032 



a Cooked meat from sample No. 1744. 



76 



T.\nLR 76. — Results of cooking (boiling) e.rperiment No. 134. 



LaV)o- 


Distribution of nutrients. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 

nitrog- 

- enous. 


Ash. 


1744 


Weight of nutrients: 


Grams. 
314.33 
423. 80 
738. 13 

Per cent. 
42.58 
57.42 

42.38 


Grams. 

190. 35 

3.32 

193. 67 

Per cent. 

98.29 

1.71 

.33 


Grams. 
4.29 
8.68 
12.97 

Per cent. 
83.08 
66.92 

.87 


Gi-ams. 
5.87 
11.86 
17.73 

Per cent. 
33.11 
66.89 

1.19 


Grams. 

26.23 

3.13 

29.36 

Per cent. 
89.34 
10.66 

.31 


Grams. 
3.96 


1744 


In broth 


6.14 


1741 


In uncooked meat 


10.10 


1744 


Proportion of nutrients: 


Perct. 
39. 21 


1744 


In broth 


60.79 


1744 


In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . . 


.61 



Cooking Experiment No. 135. 

The third 1,000-gram portion (sample No. 1745) of the beef round, 
cut into 2-inch cubes, was first browned or sauteed in 26.8 grams of 
beef fat for fifteen minutes, and then while, still hot was transferred 
to 2,000 cubic centimeters of boiling distilled water, part of which was 
first used to rinse out the frying pan. The pan was further cleaned 
l)y scraping with a spatula, and all material removed was added to the 
meat. The cooking was continued at the temperature of boiling water 
until the total time equaled three hours. 

The losses in w^eight in cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams . . 1 , 000. GO 

Weight of meat after cooking do 560. 68 

Loss in weight in cooking do 439. 32 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 43. 93 

The detailed results of the experiment are shown in tables 77 and 78. 

Table 77. — Constituents of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, soluble and insoluble 
in cold water, experiment No. 135. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 


Kind of material. 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 


ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1741 


ON FRESH BASIS. 


Per ct. 
72.46 
57.19 


Per ct. 

18.91 

33.28 

.43 

G8. G6 

77.74 

1.56 


Per ct. 

1.24 

.72 

.82 

4.50 
1.68 
2.98 


Per ct. 

1.78 

.79 

1.07 

6.46 
1.85 
3.87 


Per ct. 
4.52 
7.74 

2.48 

16.41 
18.08 
9.00 


Perct. 

1.06 

.73 

.57 

3.85 
1.70 
2.07 


Per ct. 
27. bl 
43.26 
5.37 

99.88 
101.05 
19.48 


Per ct. 
3.424 


1745 


Beef, round, cooked 


5.556 


1745 
1741 


Broth ( percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATEK-FREE BASIS. 


.331 
12.433 


1745 


Beef, round, cooked 




12. 978 


1745 


Broth ( percent uncooked meat) 




1.203 



.4.. 



77 



Tahi.e 77. — Coiutlitueiits a/ uncooked mcati<, cooked iiieaLs, and brotlia, soluble and insoluble 
in cold water, experiment No. 135 — Continued. 

B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



Labo- 
ratory- 
No. 



Kind of material. 



Water. 



Pro- 
teid. 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Xon- 
nitrog- 
enous. 







ToUil 


Fat. 


Ash. 


solid 
matter. 


Perot. 


Per ct. 


Perct. 





0.89 


6.71 





■ .51 


2.26 





.57 


2.79 





3.23 


24.34 





1.19 


6.29 





2.06 


10.11 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



1741 

n.'so 

1745 



1741 
1750 
1745 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked <i 

Broth (percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FKEE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked " 

Broth( percent uncooked meat) 



Perct. 



Per ct. 

2.80 

.24 

.33 



10.15 

.57 

1.20 



Per ct. 

1.24 

.72 

.82 



4.50 
1.68 
2.98 



Per ct. 

1.78 

.79 

1.07 



6.46 
1.86 
3.87 



Per ct. 

0.846 

.270 

.316 



3.071 

.631 

1.146 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



1741 Beef, roiuid,unc<v)ked 

17,50 I Beef, roun<i, cooked" 

1745 ] Brothtporcent uni'ookedmcat) 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



1741 
17.50 
1745 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked" 

Broth(pcrcciit uncooked meat) 



16.11 

33.04 

.10 



58.51 

77.17 

.36 



4. 52 
7.74 
2.48 



16.41 
18.08 
9.00 



0.17 
. 22 



.62 
.51 
.01 



20.80 

41.00 

2.58 



75.54 
96.76 
9.37 



2. .578 

6. 286 

.016 



9.362 

12. 347 

.057 



a Cooked meat from sample No. 1745. 
Tablk 7<S. — Results of cooking {browned in fat, tlien boiled) experiment No 135. 



Labo- 


Distribution of uutrient.s. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




ratory 

No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1745 


Weight of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 


Grams. 
320. 65 
385. 69 
706.34 

Per cent. 
45. 40 
54.60 

38.57 


Grams. 

186.59 

1.29 

190.88 

Per cent. 
97.75 
2.25 

.43 


Grams. 
4.04 
8.19 
12.23 

Per cent. 
33.03 
66.97 

.82 


Grams. 
4.43 
10. 66 
15.09 

Per cent. 
29. 36 
70.64 

1.07 


Grams. 
43.40 
24. 79 
68.19 

Per cent. 
63. 65 
36.35 

2. 48 


Grams. 
4 09 


1745 


In broth 


5 70 


1741 


In uncooked meat 


9 79 


1745 


Proportion of nutrients: 


Per ct. 
41.78 

58.22* 


1745 


In broth 


1745 


In broth on basi.s of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . . 


..57 



Cooking Experiment No. 136. 

The fourth 1,000-gram portion of beef round (sample No. 1746), in 
the form of 2- inch cubes, was first browned or sauteed in 31 grams of 
beef fat for fifteen minutes, and while still hot was transferred to 
2,000 cubic centimeters of boiling distilled water. The same precau- 
tions were used as in the preceding experiment to transfer the sauteed 
meat without loss from the f 17 ing pan to the vessel in which it was 
boiled. The meat was further cooked by maintaining the temperature 
of the water as near the boiling point as possible for ten minutes and 



78 

tluMi iillowino- it to drop to 85- C, keepin<r it at this point until the 
total lime of oookiiio- e([ualed throe hours. 
The losses in weio-ht during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 1, 000. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 557. 76 

Loss in weight in cooking do 442. 24 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 44. 22 

Tables 79 and 80 g-ive the details of the experiment. 

Table 79. — Constituents of uncooked meats, rooked meats, and broths, soluble and insoluble 
in cold water, experiment No. 136. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 


Kind of material. 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 




Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 


ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Fat. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1741 
1746 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 


Per ct. 
72.46 
56.50 


Per ct. 

18.91 

34.13 

.35 

68.66 

78.46 

1.25 


Per ct. 

1.24 

.73 

.84 

4.50 
1.68 
3.03 


Per ct. 

1.78 

.91 

1.10 

6.46 
2.09 
3.98 


Per ct. 
4.52 
7.12 
1.62 

16.41 
16.37 
5.88 


Per ct. 

1.06 

.70 

.61 

3.85 
1.61 
2.20 


Per ct. 

27. 51 

43.59 

4.52 

99.88 

100.21 

16.34 


Per ct. 

3.424 

6.696 

.323 

12 433 


1746 
1741 


Brotln percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 

Beef, round, luicooked 


1746 


Beef, round, cooked 




13 094 


1746 


Broth (percent uncooked meat) 




1.172 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1741 
1751 
1746 



1741 
1751 
1746 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round , cooked a 

Broth( percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked a 

Broth ( percent uncooked meat) 



2.80 
.15 
.21 



10. 15 
.35 
.77 



1.24 
.73 

.84 



4.50 
1.68 
3.03 



1.78 

.91 

1.10 



6.46 
2.09 
3.98 



0.89 
.51 
.61 



3.23 
1.17 
2.19 



6.71 
2.30 
2.76 



24. 34 
5. 29 
9.97 



0.846 
.260 
.?02 



3.071 

.597 

1.096 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1741 
1751 
1746 



1741 
1751 
1746 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked a 

Broth (per cent uncooked meat) 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked a 

Broth (percent uncooked meat ) 



16.11 

33.98 

.14 



58.51 
78.11 



4.52 
7.12 
1.62 



16. 41 
16. 37 
5. 



0.17 
.19 



.62 

.44 
.01 



20.80 

41.29 

1.76 



75.54 

94.92 

6.37 



2.578 

5.436 

.021 



9.362 

12. 497 

.076 



a Cooked meat from sample No. 1746. 



79 



Tahlk so. — JliKullx of cookinij [browned infal, then cooked) experhiicnt Xo. VHi. 



Lubo- 
nitorv 

No. ■ 



Iiistril)iitii)ii 111" niitrifiits. 



Weight of nutrients: 

1746 In cooked meat 

174t; Iubrot)i 

1741 In uncooked meat. 



I Proportion of initrients: 

1746 ' In c(X)ked meat 

174f> In broth 

17J6 In broth on ba.sis of total 

weight of uncooked meat... 



Grams. 
315.13 
397. 2t) 
712.39 

Per rent. 
14.24 



Proteid. 



Grams. 

190. 3ti 

3.45 

193. 81 

Per rent. 
98. 2j 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
4.07 
8.35 
12. 42 

Per cent. 
32.77 
67.23 

.84 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Orams. 
5.08 
10.95 
16.03 

Per cent. 
31.69 
68.31 



Fat. 



Ash. 



Grams. 
39.71 
16.18 
55. 89 

Per cent. 
71.05 
28.95 



Gram J. 
3.90 
6.06 
9.95 

Per ct. 
39.20 
60.80 



Series XII. — Experiments Nos. 137-140. 

The chief ()))j(H-t of this, iis of the precodinj^ sorites, was to study the 
iiitiuenceof previous browning ()f iiu>ats(l) upon the nature and ((luintit}^ 
of the losses and (2) upon the chemical composition and nutritive value 
of boiled meats. Lean beef round from which all bone, oristl(% and 
lumps of vi.sil)le fat had ])een removed, was cut into 2- inch cul)es, 
thoroughly mixed, and divided into live portions, four (samples Nos. 
175-1: to 1757) for cooking and one (No. 1753) for analysis. 

Cooking Experiment No. 137. 

In this test the weighed beef (sample No. 1754) was placed in 2,000 
cubic centimeters of cold water and the water gradually heated, the 
flame being so regulated that at the end of the iirst hour the tempera- 
ture had reached 85'-^ C. The cooking was continued at this tempera- 
ture for three hours. The broth from the cooked meat before diluting 
equaled l,Si>0 cubic centimeters. 

The losses in weight in cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 900. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 481. 82 

Loss in weight in cooking do 418. 18 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 46. 46 

The results of the experiment are shown in detail in Tables 81 and 82. 



80 

Table S\.— Constituents of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, soluble and insoluble 
in cold vater, exjjeriment No. 137. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



Kind of material. 



Water. 



Pro- 
teid. 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enou.s. 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 







Total 


Fat. 


Ash. 


solid 
matter. 


Per ct. 


Perct. 


Per ct. 


4.24 


1.07 


27.17 


6.80 


.70 


44.31 


.86 


.60 


3.92 


16.09 


4.06 


103. 11 


15.54 


1.60 


101.25 


3.28 


2.27 


14.88 



1753 
1754 
1754 



1753 
1754 
1754 



ON FRESH BASIS. 

Per ct. 

Beef, round, uncooked 73. 65 

Beef, round, cooked 56. 24 

Broth (percent uncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASlS. 

Beef, round, uncooked ; 

Beef, round, cooked i 

Broth(percent uncooked meat) 



Per ct. 

19.23 

35. 21 

.54 



72. 98 
80.46 
2.05 



Per ct. 
1.11 

.78 
.86 



4.21 
1.78 
3.27 



Per ct. 

1.52 

.82 

1.06 



5.77 

1.87 
4.01 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



17.53 

1758 
1754 



1753 

1758 
1754 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cookeda 

Broth(percent uncooked meat) 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked" 

Broth(percent uncooked meat) 



2.39 
.20 
.17 



9.09 
.46 
.66 



1.11 
.78 



4.21 
1.78 
3.27 



1.52 

.82 

1.06 



5.77 
1.87 
4.01 



0.92 
.55 
.59 



3.47 
1.25 
2.25 



5.94 
2.35 

2.68 



22. .54 

5.36 

10.19 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1763 


ON FRESH BASIS. 




16.84 

35.01 

.37 

63.89 

80.00 

1.39 




















4.24 
6.80 

.86 

16.09 
15.54 
3.28 


0.15 
.15 
.01 

..59 
.35 
.02 


21.23 

41.96 

1.24 

80.57 
95.89 
4.69 


2.694 


1758 






5.602 


1754 
1753 


Broth (percent uncookedmeat) 

ON AVATER-FREE BASIS. 

Beef round, uncooked 




.059 
10.223 


1758 






12. 801 


1754 


Broth (percent uncooked meat) 




.224 



a Cooked meat from sample No. 1754. 
Table 82. — Residts of cooking (boiling) e.rperiment No 137. 



Labo- 


Distribution of nutrients. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


. Fat. 




ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1754 


Weight of nutrients; 


Oramg. 
270. 98 
382. 90 
653.88 

Per cent. 
41.44 
58.56 

42.54 


Grams. 

169. 65 

4.87 

174. 52 

Per cent. 
97.21 
2.79 

.54 


Grams. 
3.76 
7.75 
11.51 

Per cent. 
32.67 
67.33 

.86 


Grams. 

3.95 

9.51 

13.46 

Per cent. 
29.35 
70.65 

L06 


Grams. 

32. 76 

7.77 

40.53 

Per cent. 
80.83 
19.17 

.86 


Grams. 
3.37 


1754 




5.38 


1753 


In uncooked meat 


8.76 


1754 


Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 


Per ct. 

38.51 


1754 




61.49 


1754 


In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . . 


.60 



81 

Cooking Experiment No. 138. 

Tlie .second portion of beef round (sample No. 1755), cut into 2-inch 
cubes, was placed in 2,(»(»0 cubic centimeters of cold water, the tem- 
perature bein*;- in one hour oniduall}' increased to the boilino- point of 
water, and the cookino- continued at this temperature for three hours. 
The broth from the cooked meat before dilutin<;- etjualed 1,500 cubic 
centimeters. 

The losses in weight in cooking were as follows: 

Weiglit of meat before cooking grains. . 900. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking "lo 48o. o4 

Loss in weight in cooking do 416. (56 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 40. oO 

The detailed results of the experiment are shown in Tables 83 and 84. 

Tablk So. — Constituents oj' uncooked meats, cooked mealK, and broths, soluble and insoluble 
in cold ivater, experiment So. 138. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



Kind of material. 



Pro- 
teid. 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



A.sh. 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



1753 

1755 
1755 



1753 

17.'S5 
175.5 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 

Broth( percent uncookedmeat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Per ct. 
73. 65 
,50.20 



Per ct. 
19.23 
35. 11 

.57 



Beef, round, uncooked 72. 98 

Beef, round, cooked [ 80.16 

Broth (percent uncookedmeat) 1 2. 18 



Per ct. 
l.U 

.74 

.89 



4.21 
L69 
3.38 



Per ct. 

1..52 

.90 

1.00 



5.77 
2.06 
4.03 



Per ct. 
4.24 
7.35 
1.62 



16.09 
16.78 
6.13 



Per ct. 

1.07 

.71 

.03 



4.06 
1.62 
2.40 



Per ct. 

27.17 

44.81 

4.77 



103.11 
102. 31 

18.12 



Per ct. 
3.433 

6.857 
.377 



13.028 

13. 372 

1.4cl 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



17,53 
17.59 
1755 



1753 
1759 
1755 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked« 

Broth(percentuncookedmeat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 

I 

Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round. Cooked a 

Broth(percentuncookednieat) 



2.39 


1.11 


1..52 





0.92 


5.94 


.44 


.74 


.90 





.42 


2.50 


.26 


.89 


1.06 





.63 


2.84 


9.09 


4.21 


5.77 





3.47 


22.54 


1.00 


1.69 


2.06 





.96 


5.71 


.98 


3.38 


4.03 





2.40 


10.79 



0.739 
.309 
.327 



2.805 
.706 
1.240 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 





ON FRESH BASIS. 


















1753 






16.84 

34.67 

.31 












4.24 
7.35 
1.62 


0.15 
.29 


21.23 

42.31 

1.93 


2.094 


1759 






5.548 


1755 


Broth(percentuncookedmeat) 




.050 




ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 


















1753 






63.89 

79.16 

1.20 












16.09 
16.78 
6.13 


.59 
.66 


80.57 

96.60 

7.33 


10.223 


1759 






12. 666 


1755 


Broth(perGentuncookedmeat) 




.191 



11480— No. 162- 



a Cooked meat from sample No. 1755. 
-06 6 



82 



Table 84. — Results of cooking {boiling) experiment No. 1S8. 



Labo- 


Distribution of nutrients. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Asb. 


1755 


Weight of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 


Grams. 
271. 64 
373. 69 
645. 33 

Per cent. 
42.09 
57.91 

41.52 


Grams. 

169. 70 

5.16 

174.86 

Per cent. 
97.05 
2.95 

.67 


Grams. 
3.58 
8.01 
11.69 

Per cent. 
30.89 
69. 11 

.89 


Grams. 
4.35 
9.56 
13.91 

Per cent. 
31.27 
68.73 

1.06 


Grams. 
35.53 
14.54 
50.07 

Per cent. 
70.96 
29.04 

1.62 


Grams. 
3.43 


1755 




5.70 


1753 




9.13 


1755 


Proportion of nutrients: 


Per ct. 
37.57 


1755 




62.43 


1755 


In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat. . . 


.63 



Cooking Experiment No. 139. 

The third weighed portion of the beef round (sample No. 1756), in 
the form of 2-inch cubes, was browned or sauteed in 6.5 grams of beef 
fat for five minutes, and while still hot it was transferred to 2,000 
cubic centimeters of cold water, care being taken to include all the 
browned material from the fr^^ng pan. The water was then slowly 
heated, the temperature at the end of an hour being 85° C. The cook- 
ing was continued at this temperature for three hours. The volume 
of the broth from the cooked meat before diluting equaled 1,740 cubic 
centimeters. 

The losses in weight in cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking '. . . .grams. . 900. 00 

Weight of meat after cooking do 518. 20 

Loss in weight in cooking do 381. 80 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 42. 42 

Tables 85 and 86 give the results of the experiment in detail. 

Table 85. — Const'duentH of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, soluble and insoluble 
in cold water, e.vperlment No. 139. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 


Kind of material. 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

.solid 

matter. 


Total 


ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1753 
17.56 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 


Per ct. 
73.65 
57.22 


Per ct. 

19.23 

32.84 

.32 

72.98 

76.76 

1.21 


Perct. 

1.11 

.75 

.87 

4.21 
1.75 
3.30 


Per ct. 

1.52 

.75 

1.06 

5.77 
1.76 
4.02 


Per ct. 
4.24 
8.00 

.58 

16.09 
18.70 
2.22 


Perct. 

1.07 

.67 

.61 

4.06 
1..57 
2.33 


Perct. 

27.17 

43.01 

3.44 

103.11 
100. 53 
13.08 


Perct. 
3.433 
5. 495 


1756 
1753 


Broth(percentuncooked meat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 


.330 
13.028 


1756 
1756 


Beef, round, cdokcd 

Broth (percent uncooked meat) 




12. 845 
1.253 



83 



Table 85. — Coiistituenti of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, solutile and insoluhle 
in cold ir(tter, e.rperimenl No. 139 — Continued. 

B. XITRIEXTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



Labo- 
ratory 

No. 



Kind of materiiil. 



Pro- 
teid. 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Fat. 



Ash. 



Totjxl 

solid 

matter. 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



1753 
1760 
1756 



1753 
17G0 
1756 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked « 

Broth (percent uncookedmeat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Per ct. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked a 

Broth (per ceutuncookedmeat) 



Percl. 
2.39 

.17 
.17 



9.09 
.40 
.66 



Per ct. 

1.11 

.75 

.87 



4.21 
1.75 
3.30 



Per ct. 

1.52 

.75 

1.06 



.5.77 
1.75 
4.02 



Perot. 






Per ct. 

0.92 

.50 

.61 



3.47 
1.16 
2.32 



Per ct. 
6.94 
2.17 
2.71 



22.54 
6.06 
10.29 



Per ct. 

0.739 

.268 

.306 



2. 805 
.626 
1.163 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1760 
1756 



17.53 
1760 
1756 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked « 

Broth(percent uncookedmeat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round , cooked " 

Broth(percentuueooltedmeat) 



16.84 

32. 67 

.15 



63.89 

76.36 

.56 



4.24 

8.00 

..58 



16.09 
18.70 
2.22 



0.15 
.17 



.59 
.41 
.01 



21.23 

40.84 

.73 



80.57 
95.47 
2.79 



2.694 

5.227 

.024 



10. 223 

12.219 

.090 



a Cooked me&t from sample No. 1756. 
Table 86. — Eesults of cooking {browned in fat, then cooked) experiment No. 1.39. 





Distribution of nutrients. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 




ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1766 


Weight of nutrients: 


Grams. 
296. 51 
350. 79 
647.30 

Per cent. 
45. 81 
.54.19 

38.98 


Grams. 

170. 18 

2.89 

173. 05 

Per cent. 

98.34 

1.66 

.32 


Grams. 
3.89 

7.84 
11.73 

Per cent. 
33.16 
66.84 

.87, 


Grams. 
3.89 
9.53 
13.42 

Per cent. 
28.90 
71.10 

1 1.06 


Grams. 

41.46 

5.25 

46.71 

Per cent. 
88.76 
11.24 

.58 


Grams. 
3.47 


175G 




5.52 


1753 




8.99 


1756 


Proportion of nutrients: 


Per ct. 
38.60 


1756 




61.40 


1756 


In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat . . . 


.61 



Cooking Experiment No. 140. 

The fourth weighed portion (sample No. 1757) of 2-inch cubes of 
beef round, was browned or sauteed in 7 grams of beef fat for five 
minutes, and then while hot it was transferred to 2,000 cubic centi- 
meters of cold water, care being- taken to include all browned material 
adhering to the fr3dng pan. One hour was required to gradually 
increase the temperature to that of boiling water, and the cooking was 
continued at this temperature for three hours. The volume of the 
final broth before diluting equaled 1,260 cubic centimeters. 



84 

The losses in weight in cooking were as follows: 

AVeight of meat l)efore cooking grams. . 900. 00 

Weight, of meat after cooking do 495. 72 

Loss in weight in cooking do 404. 28 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent. . 44. 92 

The detailed results of the experiment are giv^en in Tables 87 and 88. 

Table 87. — Constituents of uncooked meats, cooked meats, and broths, soluble and insoluble 
'in cold ivater, experiment No. 140. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 


Kind of taaterial. 


Wate'r. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 


ratory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1753 
1757 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked 


Per ct. 
73.65 
56.45 


Per ct. 

19.23 

35.01 

.37 

72.98 

80.39 

1.41 


Per ct. 
1.11 

.79 
.89 

4.21 
1.81 
3.39 


Per ct. 

1..52 

.91 

1.08 

b.n 
2.09 
4.11 


Per ct. 

4.24 

6.83 

.65 

16.09 
15.68 
2.46 


Per ct. 

1.07 

.70 

.64 

4.06 
L61 
2.41 


Per ct. 

21. n 

44.24 

3.63 

103.11 

101.68 

13.78 


Per ct. 
3.433 
5 865 


1757 
1753 


Broth ( per cent uncooked meat ) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 

Beef , round, uncooked 


.345 
13 028 


1757 


Beef, round, cooked 




13 444 


1757 


Broth(percentuucookedmeat) 




1.311 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1753 
1761 
1757 



1753 
1761 
1757 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked a 

Broth(percentuncookedmeat) 

ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked a 

Broth (percentuncooked meat) 



2.39 
.49 
.25 



9.09 

1.13 

.93 



1.11 
.79 



4. 21 
1.81 
3.39 



1.52 

.91 

LOS 



5.77 
2.09 
4.11 



0.92 
..=>2 
.63 



3.47 
1.20 
2.40 



5. 94 
2.71 
2.85 



22.54 
6.23 
10.83 



0.739 
.332 
.32:3 



2. 805 
.763 
1. 235 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1753 
1761 

1757 



1753 
1761 
1757 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked 

Beef, round, cooked a 

Broth(percentuncooked meat) 



ON WATER-FREE^ASIS. 



Beef, round, uncooked .' 

Beef, round, cooked " 

Broth(percentuncookedmeat) 



16.84 
34.. 52 

.12 



63.89 

79.26 

.48 



4.24 

6.83 

.65 



16.09 
15.68 
2.46 



0.15 
.18 
.01 



21.23 
41. 53 

.78 



80.57 

95. 3;) 

2.95 



2. 691 

5. 523 

.020 



10. 223 

12. 681 

.076 



"Cooked meat from sample No. 1761. 



85 

Table 8S. — 7v^.<!u//s of cooking {hrmLmed in fat, then hailed) experiment No 14O. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



Distribution of nutrients. 



Water. 



Proteid. 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Fat. 



Ash. 



1757 
17.=>7 
1753 



Weight of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

In broth 

In uncooked meat 

Proportion of nutrients: 

In cooked meat 

In brotli 

In broth on basis of total 
weight of uncooked meat.. 



Grams. 
279. 83 
371. 60 
651. 43 

Per cent. 
■12.% 
57.04 

41.29 



Orams. 

173.55 

3.34 

176.89 

Per cent. 

98.11 

1.89 

.37 



Grams. 

3.92 

8.03 

11.96 

Per cait. 
32.80 
67.20 



Grams. 
4.51 
9.75 
14.26 

Per cent. 
31.63 
68.37 



Grams 
33.8a»| 
5.84 
39.70 

Per cent. 
85.29 
14.71 

.65 



Gram^. 
3.47 
5.72 
9.19 

Per ct. 
37.76 
62.24 

.64 



MEATS COOKED BY BROILING— DIFFERENCE IN SURFACE AND 
INTERIOR OF SAMPLE. 

Series XIII. — Experiment No. 1.57. 

The special objects of this experiment were (1) to determine if pos- 
sible how the cooking of meat by broiling developed Havor, and (2) 
to find out the nature of the chemical changes resulting when meats 
are thus cooked. A steak 1.75 inches thick, the fourth cut taken from 
the sirloin from an animal said to })e a})Out two years old, was cooked 
by gas broiling for twenty minutes. "When cold the cooked meat 
was freed from visible fat and divided into three portions as follows: 
The thin, browned, outer surface (sample No. 1087) was cut awa}" with 
a sharp knife, as little as possible of the gray layer immediately under- 
neath being removed with it. It had an agreeable meaty flavor, sug- 
gesting the savory odors given off from broiling or roasting meat, 
though it seemed rather diy. For the second sample (No. 1698) the 
gray layer, about one-fourth of an inch thick in depth, next the outer 
brown surface was removed. This .sample had a more pronounced and 
pleasing flavor than sample No. 1687 or the inner portion, No, 1689. 
It seemed to have lost some of the uncooked taste of the interior 
portion and to have acquired a little of the savoriness of the outer 
browned surface. 

The inner portion of the steak (sample No. 1689) which was left after 
removing the outer layers was decidedly underdone, or rare, and had a 
very pleasant, fresh, meaty flavor and odor, in these respects more 
nearly resembling uncooked meat than the outer or the middle la3'er. 
These three samples and a portion of the uncooked meat were anal3^zed. 

The losses in weights during cooking were as follows: 

Weight of meat before cooking grams. . 2, 452. 23 

Weight of meat after cooking do 1, 991. 55 

Loss in weight in cooking do 460. 68 

Loss in weight in cooking per cent.. 18. 79 

The results of the experiments are shown in detail in Table 89. 



86 

Tabt.e 89. — Comtitnenifi ofvncooked meats and cooked meats soluble and insnhihle m cold 

water, experiment No. 157. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCK. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1685 
1687 



1688 
1689 



1685 
1687 



1688 
1689 



Kind of material. 



ON FBESH BASIS. 



Beef, sirloin, uncooked 

Beef, sirloin, cooked, browned 

surface 

Beef, material next browned 

surface 

Beef, inner portion 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, sirloin, uncooked 

Beef, sirloin, cooked, browned 

surface 

Beef, material next browned 

surface 

Beef, inner portion , 



Per ct. 
60. 39 



62. 68 
70. 23 



Pro- 
teid. 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 
16.07 



23. 44 
20. 28 



40.57 
47.62 



62.81 
68.12 



Per ct. 
0.84 



1.36 



1.15 
1.14 



2.12 
2.64 



3.08 
3.83 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 
1.39 



1.73 



1.75 
1.66 



3.51 
3.36 



4.69 

5.58 



Fat. 



Per ct. 
20.89 



23.70 



11.20 
7.45 



52.74 
45.99 



30. 01 
25. 03 



Ash. 



Per ct. 
1.11 



1.33 



L18 
1.02 



J. 80 

2.58 

3.16 
3.43 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Perct. 
40.30 



38.72 
31.55 



101. 74 
102. 19 



103. 75 
105. 99 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1685 
1687 



1688 
1689 



1685 
1687 



1688 
1689 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, sirloin, uncooked 

Beef, sirloin, cooked, browned 

surface 

Beef, material next browned 

surface 

Beef, inner portion 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, sirloin, uncooked 

Beef, sirloin, cooked, browned 

surface 

Beef, material next browned 

surface 

Beef, inner portion 



1.81 
.52 



.72 
1.21 



4.57 
LOl 



1.93 
4.06 



0.84 
1.36 



1.15 
1.14 



2.12 
2.64 



3.08 
3.83 



1.39 
1.73 



1.75 
1.66 



3.51 
3.36 



4.69 
5.58 



0.77 
1.04 



1.04 
.92 



1.94 
2.02 



2.79 
3.09 



4.81 
4.65 



4.66 
4.93 



12.14 
9.03 



12.49 
16.56 



C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER 



1685 


ON FRESH BASIS. 




14.26 

24.02 

22.72 
19.07 

36.00 

46.61 

60. 88 
64.06 
































20. 89 

23. 70 

n.20 
7.45 

52.74 

45.99 

30.01 
25. 03 


0.34 

.29 

.14 
.10 

.86 

.56 

.37 
.34 


35.49 

48.01 

34.06 
26.62 

89.60 

93.16 

91.26 
89.43 


2.281 


1687 


Beefi .sirloin* cooked, browned 




3.843 


1688 


Beef, material next browned 




3.635 


1689 






3.051 


1685 


ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




5.760 


1687 


Beef! sirloin, cooked, browned 




7.458 


1688 


Beef, material next browned 




9.740 


1689 






10. 249 











87 

meat juice and meat fiber cooked in different ways. 
Series XIV.^Expeuimexts Nos. 148, 149. 

The object of this series was (1) to dotennine, if possil)!*', whether it 
is the soluble or the insoluble constituents of meats which upon cook- 
ini,^ are so chanjjfed as to produce the characteristic flavor of cooked 
meats, and (2) to learn whether or not the insoluble constituents of 
meat are made solul)le by the process of cooking. No experiments 
of this nature liave been tluis far reported in connection with the 
nutrition investigations made in this laboratory. Fresh U'an ))eef 
round, from which all bone, gristle, and visible fat were removed, was 
selected. The entire cut, weighing about ."> poutids, was divided into 
strips and then passed through a sausage mill four times, lu'lng mixed 
well after each grinding. A sample (No. 1677) of the thoroughly mixed 
meat was reserved for analysis, the results of whicli are given in the 
tables in connection with cooking experiment No. I-IH (pp. IHMM). 

The remainder of the finely divided meat was used for the prepara- 
tion of meat juice and meat Kl)er, as follows: The entir(> (juantity, 
about 4.5 pounds, was placed in a compound screw press, in portions 
weighing about 1.75 pounds each, and subjected to as nuich i)ressure 
as possible. Al)out 700 cubic centimeters of meat juice were obtained. 
The meat liber was now thoroughly moistened with cold distilled 
water (700 cubic centimeters), intimately mixed ])y kneading with 
the hands for thirty minutes, and again pressed, yielding about 800 
cubic centimeters of liquid. The material remaining in the press 
w^as again moistened with water (700 cubic centimeters) and pressed, 
wdien about 900 cubic centimeters of li<iuid were recovered. The three 
quantities of liquid thus removed were combined, making 2,300 cubic 
centimeters in all, diluted with water to 2,500 cubic centimeters, 
thoroughly mixed, set aside, and designated sample No. 1678. The 
meat liber left after pressing out the juice (sample No. 1679) was used 
for cooking experiment No. 149. 

Cooking Experimext No. 148. 

The meat juice (sample No. 1678) w^as divided into six portions of 
400 cubic centimeters each. One portion of the fresh juice was sub- 
jected to complete analysis in triplicate, the results ol)tained being- 
given in Tables Nos. 90 and 91. The results have been calculated to 
show the amount of the difl;erent kinds of nitrogenous constituents 
and the total quantity of proximate constituents in 2,500 cubic centi- 
meters of the meat juice. 



88 

Table 90. — Wrights in grams of the different forms of nitrogen in the 2,500 cubic centi- 
meters of expressed beef juice, experiment No 148. 





In unfiltered juice. 


In filtered juice. 


Laboratory No. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen. 


Insoluble 
nitrogen. 


Soluble 
nitrogen. 


Coagu- 
lated by 
heat. 


Precipi- 
tated by 
ZnS04. 


Proteid 
nitrogen. 


Nonpro- 
teid ni- 
trogen. 


Precipi- 
tated by 
bromiri 
directly. 


167Sa 


Grams. 
9.629 
9.339 
9.700 


Gram. 

0.304 

.326 

.350 


Grains. 
9.325 
9.013 
9.350 


Grams. 
5.824 

5.889 
5.891 


Gram. 
D. 158 
.145 
.265 


Grams. 
5.982 
6.034 
6.156 


Grams. 
3.343 
2.979 
3.194 


Grams. 
4.721 


1678b 


4.742 


1678c 








Average 


9.556 


.327 


9.229 


5. 868 


.189 


6.057 


3.172 


4.732 



Table 91. — Weights in grams of the nvlrients in the 2,500 cubic centimeters of expressed 
beef jvice, experiment No. 148. 







Organic extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 
nitrogen. 


Laboratory No. 


Proteid. 


Nitroge- 
nous. 


Nonnitrog- 
enous. 


1678a 


Grams. 
39.288 


Grams. 
10.430 
9.294 
9.965 


Grams. 
16.845 
17. 394 
15. 331 


Grams. 





Grams. 
11. 156 
10. .531 
10. 812 


Gram^. 
77. 719 
76. 969 
76.781 


Grams. 
9.629 


1678b 

167,sc 

Average 


39. 750 
40.663 


9.339 
9.700 


39.900 9.896 


16. 527 





10. 833 


77. 156 


9.556 



The second portion of the meat juice (sample No. 16T8a) was placed 
on a water bath and heated gradual]}' to 65^ C. B3' the time the tem- 
perature had reached 52*^ C. a considerable amount of coagulated 
albumin had separated, and the liquid, while still retaining some of its 
original color, was beginning to turn brown. At 55^ C. almost all 
the red color had disappeared and the liquid began to change to a 
grayish In-own. At 65° C. the mixture had a ver}- disagreeable alka- 
line taste, which " puckered '' the tongue. No pleasant, meaty flavor 
could be detected. The temperature was maintained at 65^ C. for one 
hour, but the continued cooking at this low temperature produced no 
noticeable change in flavor. For a comparison of the tastes of the 
coagulated cooked residue and the resulting clear filtrate, see the 
description of portion No. 1678e, page 89. 

The third portion of meat juice (sample No. 1678b) was gradually 
heated upon the water bath until it reached a temperature of 85° C, 
and the cooking was continued at this temperature for one hour. 
Careful tests of the precipitate and the filtrate did not show an}'^ dif- 
ferences in taste or odor between this sample and No. 1678a or No. 
1678c and No. 1678e, described below, cooked at about 100° C. 

The fourth portion of meat juice (sample No. 1678c) was cooked with 
constant stirring for one hour at the temperature of boiling water 
upon an asbestos mat over a gas flame. The mixture was not notice- 
ably difl'erent in taste from that obtained with sample No. 1678a. It 
was filtered to remove the coagulated material and washed thoroughly 
with hot water. The precipitate retained the characteristic strongly 



89 

alkaline tasto. Tho filtrate had only a sliuht alkaline taste and a very 
slight meaty flavor. 

The fifth iiieasured portion of meat juice (.sample No. lt)78d) was 
plaeed in an evaporating- dish and carefully and slowly evaporated 
nearly to dryness on a hot plate, with constant stirring during the 
latter part of the process to prevent browning. Savory odors were 
given ott' before evaporation was complete and a thin coating of 
a reddish-brown material was noted on the side of the dish at the 
first level of the li(iuid. After evaporating almost to dryness the 
solid matter had some savory, meaty flavor, but the alkaline taste was 
still very strong. To prevent further browning of the savory prod- 
ucts already formed the solid residue was transferred to a clean dish 
and heated at 130'^ C. for two hours. When thoroughly dried the 
material was pounded in a mortar to break up the hard lumps and 
permit uniform browning. The resulting product was a dark, reddish- 
brown, granular powder, having very little taste. A few grams added 
to hot water colored the water slightly and gave to the solution a very 
slight flavor. The alkaline taste still persisted, even in the brown 
coating produced on the side of the evaporating dish. 

The sixth measured portion of meat juice (sample No. IGTSe) was 
boiled for one hour and the coagulated and cooked proteid removed 
by filtration, the insoluble residue being thoroughly washed with hot 
water. Upon heating, a small additional quantity of coagulated albu- 
min appeared in the filtrate. The liquid was reduced one-half in 
volume, again filtered, and the filtrate further evaporated. The con- 
centrated solution had still a very slight alkaline taste, accompanied 
by a slight savory odor and pleasant flavor. The evaporation was 
very slowly and carefully continued, with constant stirring in such a 
way as to wash down the brownish colored substance formed on the 
side of the dish, and at the same time the sides of the dish were pro- 
tected with asbestos paper to prevent any overbrowning. When 
evaporated until of a rich light-brown color and sirupy consistency, 
the liquid had a flavor very similar to that of commercial meat extract 
with the acid taste strongly emphasized. The browning was con- 
tinued in an oven at 130^ C. until the material had acquired a rich 
dark-brown color. Very little odor could be detected. The flavor 
seemed to be somewhat though not very greatly increased by the 
additional heating in the oven. A small amount of the material dis- 
solved in water had a taste which closely resembled that of ordinary 
commercial beef extract of like dilution. 

The precipitate obtained from sample No. 1678e, as described above, 
retained its strongly alkaline taste even after being well washed. It 
was placed in an evaporating dish and heated in an air oven at 130° C. 
for three hours. Both odor and taste were somewhat improved by 
this treatment, the alkaline taste seeming a little less strong and some 



90 

savoi'}^ odor being developed. The material was then further heated 
in an oven at 130^ C. until it was thoroughly dry, and was then iinel}' 
ground in a mortar to insure uniform Ijrowning and again heated. 
The tinal product was a dry, grajnsh-brown or black granular sub- 
stance, with a very faint odor and practically tasteless. A few grams 
added to distilled water and ])oiled did not cause coloration of the 
water or yield any flavor. 

Cooking Experiment No. 149. 

In this experiment the residue (No. 1679) left after expressing and 
dissolving out the meat juice (see p. 87) was thoroughly mixed, passed 
twice through a sausage mill, again thoroughl}' mixed, and divided 
into seven approximately equal portions, which were used for the tests 
described below. 

The tirst portion (sample No. 1679) was analyzed without further 
treatment, the results being given with the other details of the experi- 
ment in Tables 92, 93, and 94. 

The second portion (sample No. 1679a), weighing 208.1:1 grams, was 
made into a ball, tied in cheese cloth, placed in a beaker containing 
417 cubic centimeters of water at 65^ C, and cooked at this tempera- 
ture for three hours. During the cooking a rather faint odor some- 
what resembling that of melted fat was noticeable. ^ At the end of the 
cooking period the meat fiber was removed from the liquid and the 
flavor of each tested. The cooked meat flber was rather light in color 
and had a ver}^ slight alkaline flavor which resembled that of the meat 
juice. The broth or liquid in which the extracted meat was cooked 
had a reddish-yellow tinge and very little flavor. The results of the 
analysis of the cooked meat and the broth are given in Tables 93 
and 94.- 

The third portion of the extracted meat (sample No. 1679b), weigh- 
ing 161.36 grams, was placed in a beaker containing twice its weight 
(322 grams) of ])oiling water, the temperature of the water reduced to 
85" C. , and the meat cooked at this temperature for three hours. Dur- 
ing the cooking a faint but pleasant odor was given ofl'. The cooked 
meat was darker in color than in the case of sample No. 1679a and had 
only a very slight flavor. The broth or liquid in which the extracted 
meat was cooked had a clear, light yellow color and a rather weak 
though pleasant flavor. The results of the anal3^sis of the cooked meat 
and the broth are given in Tables 93 and 94. 

The fourth portion of the extracted meat flber (sample No. 1679c), 
weighing 162.55 grams, was placed in a beaker containing twice its 
weight (325 cubic centimeters) of boiling water and gently boiled for 
three hours. During the cooking a ver}^ pleasant and savory odor 
was noticeable. The cooked product was much darker in color than 
the other samples (Nos. 1679a and 1679b), and was very dry and some- 



91 

what difficult to masticato and swallow. The broth or li<ini(l in which 
the (vxtractcd meat was cooked had a clear, ]>i-i»;lit yellow color and a 
decidedly better llavor than those from sjiinples Nos. l»;Tt«ji uiul UmIMk 
The results of the analysis of the cooked meat and the broth are t;'iven 
in Taldes '.»:? and 'M. 

The tifth portion of the extracted meat filter (sample No. 1679d), 
weighing 236.04 grams, was made into a small loaf and roasted in a 
gas oven at 193^'«C. for forty-live minutes. There was a thin, well- 
browned layer on the outside of the loaf, wdiile the inside was rather 
moist and the tiber was soft and easy to masticate and swallow. The 
cooked matei'ial had a pleasant thoutih faint meaty flavor, the outer 
crust being somewhat superior in these respects to the inside por- 
tion. The results of the chemical analysis of the cooked meat are 
given in Table i>4. 

The sixth portion of the extracted fiber (sample No. lOTOe), weighing 
206.4 grams, was made into a fiat cake 1 inch in thickness, and broiled 
for twenty miiuites over the Hame of a gas broiler, each side of the 
cake being exposed to the direct tlame for ten minutes. When cooked, 
the upper side of the cake was faiily well hrowntMl, and the lower side 
was ])rowned in some places, while in others it was unchangcnl or only 
slightly yellow^ed. The cooked meat tiber was very di-y and dillicult 
to masticate and swallow and had only a slight flavor, although the 
outside layer had a somewhat more pronounced taste than the inside. 
The juice which exuded from the meat during the cooking was burned 
on the pan. Tables 92-94 summarize the data of the cooking tests. 

Table 92. — Constituents of uncooked meats and cooked meats soluble and insoluble in cold 

water, e.i-periment No. 149. 

A. TOTAL NUTRIENTS IN ORIGINAL SUBSTANCE. 



Labo- 
ratory 

No. 



1677 
1679 



1677 
1679 



Kind of material. 



ON FRESH BASIS. 



Beef, round, raw 

Beef, round, extracted meat . 



ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 



Beef, round, raw 

Beef, round, extracted meat . 



Per ct. 
74.01 
77.61 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 

18.71 
17.77 



71.99 
79.37 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 

1.21 

.47 



4.66 
2.09 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 

3.13 

.90 



12.04 

4.28 



Per of. 
4.63 
4.35 



17.81 
19.43 



Ash. 



Per ct. 

1.05 

.52 



4.04 
2.32 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Per ct. 
28.73 
24.07 



110. &4 
107.49 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 
3.382 
2.993 



13. 013 
13. 367 



B. NUTRIENTS SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



1677 


ON FRESH BASIS. 




2.44 
.66 

9.39 
2.95 


1.21 
.47 

4.66 
2.09 


3.13 
.96 

12.04 
4.28 









0.84 
.39 

3.24 
1.74 


7.62 

2.48 

29.33 
11.06 


0.779 


1679 






.256 


1677 


ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




2.998 


1679 


Beef round, extracted meat .. 




1.142 











92 

Table 92. — Cnymtltnenta of uncooked meats and cooked meats soluble and insoluble in cold 
loater, experiment No. 149 — Continued. 

C. NUTRIENTS INSOLUBLE IN COLD WATER. 



Lnbo- 




Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives." 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

.solid 

matter. 


Total 


riitorv 
No. ■ 


Kind of material. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1677 


ON FRESH BASIS. 

Beef, round, raw 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 
16.27 
17.11 

62.60 
76.42 


Per ct. 







Per ct. 







Per ct. 
4.63 
4.35 

17.81 
19.43 


Per ct. 

0.21 

.13 

.80 

..58 


Per ct. 
21.11 
21.59 

81.21 
96.43 


Per ct. 
2 603 


1679 


Beef, round, extracted meat . . 




2 737 


1677 


ON WATER-FREE BASIS. 




10 014 


1679 


Beef, round, extracted meat.. 




12. 225 











Table 93. — Results of cooking experiment No 149. 





Weight 
of meat 
taken. 


Method of cooking. 


Nutrients in broth expressed in percentage of 
fresh substance. 


Labora- 
tory No. 


Amount 

of water 

taken. 


Temperature. 


Dura- 
tion of 
cook- 
ing. 


Pro- 
told. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Ash. 


Total 

.solid 

matter. 


Total 




At be- 
gin- 
ning. 


During 
cook- 
ing. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


nitro- 
gen. 


1679a .... 
1679b .... 
1679c .... 


Grams. 
208.41 
161.36 
162. 55 


Cc. 
417 
323 
325 


65 

85 
100 


°C. 
65 
85 
100 


Hours. 
3 
3 
3 


Per ct. 

0.13 

.10 

.22 


Per ct. 

0.24 

.28 

.26 


Per ct. 

0.33 

.37 

.33 


Per ct. 

0.18 

.21 

.19 


Per ct. 

0.88 

.96 

1.00 


Per ct. 

0.097 

.105 

120 



T.U5LE. 94. 



-Results of the analysis of cold water extracts of meats used in cooking e.vperi- 
' ment No. 149. 





Kind of meat. 


Water in 
fresh sub- 
stance. 


Method of cooking. 


Labo- 
ratory 


Tempemture. 


Duration 
of cooking. 


No. 


At begin- 
ning. 


During 
cooking. 


1677 


Beef, round, unextractcd, uncooked 


Per cent. 
74.01 
77.61 
66.50 
61.17 
61.77 
65.70 
53.87 


°C. °C. 


Hours. 


1679 

1679a 

1679b 

16790 

1679d 

16796 


Beef, round, extracted, uncooked 








Beef, round, e.xtracted, boiled 


65 
85 
100 
193 


65 

a5 

100 
193 


3 


Beef, round, extracted, boiled 


3 


Beef, round, extracted, boiled 


3 


Beef, round, extracted, roa.sted 


\ 


Beef, round, extracted, gas broiled 











Nutrients soluble in cold water expressed 
percentage of fresh substance. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No." 



1677 

1()79 

1679a 

lfi79b 

lfi79c 

l(;79d 

1679e 



Kind of meat. 



Beef, round, unextractcd, uncooked 
Beef, round, extracted, uncooked... 

Beef, round, extracted, boiled 

Beef, round, extracted, boiled 

Beef, nunid, extnicted, boiled 

Beef, round, extracted, roasted 

Beef, round, extracted, gas broiled.. 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 
2.44 
.66 
.17 
.13 
.48 
.29 
.18 



Organic 
extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 
1.21 
.47 
.38 
.31 
.34 
.71 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 

3.13 
.39 
.44 
.36 
.36 
.99 

1.12 



Ash. 



Per ct. 
0.81 
.39 
.26 
.21 
.19 
.52 
.66 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Perct. 
7.63 
1.91 
1.25 
1.01 
1.37 
2.51 
2.82 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 
0.779 
.256 
.147 
.121 
.186 
.273 
.305 



93 



Tahi.k 94. 



Remits of the anali/itis of cold water c.itracts of medta used in cooking experi- 
ment No. 149 — Continued. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



Kind of meat 



1677 Beef, round, uncxtracted, uncooked 

1679 Beef, round, extracted, uncooked... 

leT'Ja Beof, round, e.xtractoii, boiled 

U>7yli Beef, miuid, e.xtracted, boiled 

167'.tc ' Beef, round, e.xtraeted, boiled 

lt)7yd Beef, round, extracted, roasted 

1679e Beef, round, extracted, gas broiled . 



Nutrients soluble in cold water calculated to 
water-free basis. 



Organic 
extractives. 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 

9.31 

2. 95 

.51 

.34 

1.26 

.«5 

.39 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 
4.66 
2.10 
1.13 
.80 
.89 
2.07 
1.86 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 

12.04 

1.74 

1.31 

.93 

.94 

2. 89 

2.43 



Ash. 



Per ct. 

3.2:i 

1.74 

.78 

.54 

.50 

1.52 

1.43 



Total 

.solid 

matter. 



Per el. 
29. 27 
8.53 
3.73 
2.61 
3.59 
7.33 
6.11 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 
2.997 
1.143 
.439 
.312 
.487 
.796 
.661 



The chancrcfs noted in these experiments may be 1)riefly siinmiarized 
as follows: When tiie jiuce is e.xpre.-^sed from meat the lil)er is ^^vny- 
ish in color and the juice red; that is, the characteristic color of raw 
meat is due to colorint*- mattei-s in solution. In cooking- meat the 
coaoulation of proteid existing- in Tupiid form begins at 52" C. and 
continues as the temperature increases, the precipitation being prac- 
tically complete at 100^. At 52° the red color of the meat juice 
begins to change to brown, the color changes becoming- more pro- 
nounced as the temperature increases. At 65° an unpleasant alkaline 
flavor develops in the juice which is not modified by continued cook- 
ing at 65° to 100 . The fiavor is more pi-onounced in the liquid 
portion of the meat juice than in the coagulated precipitate. At tem- 
peratures considerably over 100° and high enough to cause })rowning, 
savory flavors are developed wdiich are much more pronounced in the 
liquid portion (extractives) than in the solid portion (proteid) of the 
meat juice, the flavor being veiy much like that of commercial meat 
extract. The fiber of the meat from which the juice is expressed had 
little distinctive flavor when cooked in different ways. Temperatures 
high enough to cause browning produced the most flavor. 

These tests indicate that the changes produced in the juice or solu})le 
part of meat by temperatures considerably over 100° are in a large 
measure responsible for the characteristic flavors of meat cooked by 
dry heat. In these tests fat was not studied, as the meat used was 
quite free from visible fat. Meat fats have a characteristic flavor 
which becomes more pronounced on cooking, and when the tempera- 
ture is high enough to brown some of the fat the flavor is markedly 
increased. This browning or oxidation of fats and other bodies is of 
course due to their cleavage b}^ heat. The nature of the chemical 
compounds formed has not been studied, so far as can be learned, with 
special reference to the fats, proteids, and extractives of flesh foods, 
though many studies of the oxidation products of typical fats, proteids, 
and other bodies have been reported. The collection and discussion 



94 

of such materia] is an important matter, and studies with special ref- 
erence to the ])odies existing in fats are needed. From the investiga- 
tions made in this laboratory and other available data, it seems fair to 
conclude that the flavors developed in the cooking of meat ])y the 
ordinar}' household methods are due very largely to the oxidation of 
extractive bodies in the meat juice and to the oxidation of fat. 

BEEF BONES COOKED AS IN SOUP MAKING. 

Series XV. — Experiments Nos. 127-130. 

The four experiments included in this series were made with bones 
rather than meat in order to investigate the losses and changes which 
they sustain when cooked in hot water at different temperatures, as in 
ordinary household soup making. 

In general the same methods were followed as in the tests in which 
meat was boiled, save that no attempt has as yet been made to analj^ze 
the bones before and after cooking. So far the amount and nature 
of the substances which bones yield when cooked in hot water have 
been determined entirely from the chemical composition of the 
resulting broths. 

For the first two experiments (Nos. 127 and 128) beef rib bones, 
scraped to remove as much of the meat as possible, chopped into pieces 
from 0.6 to 1 inch in length, and thoroughly mixed, were divided into 
two portions, each weighing 1,000 grams. The first portion, for 
experiment No. 127, was placed in 2,000 cubic centimeters of vigorously 
boiling water and cooked for five hours. The resulting soup or broth 
was filtered and analyzed according to the methods described in an 
earlier section. 

The second portion of bones (experiment No. 128) was cooked in 
2,000 cubic centimeters of distilled water for ten minutes at the tem- 
perature of boiling water and for five hours at a considerably lower 
temperature, i. e., 84° or 85° C. The soup or broth was analyzed in 
the same way as the meat broths. 

For the last two experiments of this series (Nos. 129 and 130) beef 
shank bones were scraped to remove as much of the meat as possible, 
sawed into pieces about 1.6 to 2 inches long, thoroughly mixed 
and divided into two portions weighing 1,000 grams each. The first 
portion (experiment No. 129) was placed in 2,000 cubic centimeters of 
vigorously boiling water and cooked at this temperature for five hours. 
The resulting broth was subjected to the usual treatment and analysis. 

The second portion of shank bones (experiment No. 130) was cooked 
in 2,000 cubic centimeters of distilled water for ten minutes at the 
temperature of boiling water and for five hours at 84° to 85° C 

The results of these four experiments are given together in Tables 
95 and 96. 



95 



Table 95. — Results uf couking experiments Xok. 1J7-1S0. 



Cooking Labo- 
cxperi- iratory 
ment No. No. 



127 
128 
129 
130 



1707 
1708 
1709 
1710 



Kind of bones. 



Weight Weight 

before 1 after 

cooliing. coolcing. 



Grams. 

Rib 1,000.00 

Rib I 1,000.00 

Shanlc 1,000.00 

Shank 1,000.00 



Grams. 

1,012.5.=S 

1,029. 3.S 

894.00 

871. 52 



La<« ( — ) or 

gain ( + ) in 

weight in 

cooking. 



Grams. 
4- 12. 5.^ 
+ 29.35 
-100.00 
-128.48 



Per cent 

loss(-)or 

gain ( + ) in 

cooking. 



GraTiis. 
+ 1.26 
+ 2.94 
-10.60 
-12.85 





Table 96. — Composition o 


f hn,t1 


.s fron 


cooklit 


y e.rperimcnts *Y(w. 1:^7- 


-ISO. 












Nutrients in broth.s cxpres-sed in 






ing. 


Weight of nutrients in broths. 


percentage of total weight of 




Labo- 




the uncooked bone. 


Ex- 
peri- 
ment 


Tempera- 




Organic 






Organic 






rato- 
ry No. 


ture. !Dura- 




extractives. 






extractives. 






Ku. 


^•"- looi 


of 


Pro- 
teid. 


Ni- 


Non- 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Ni- 


Non- 


Fat. 


Ash. 






ing. 




trug- 


nitrog- 








trog- 


nitrog- 










ning. 


ing. 




enou.s. 


enous. 








enou.s. 


enous. 










°C. 


°C. 


Hrs. 


Grams 


Gram^ 


Grams 


Grams. 


Grs. 


P.ct. 


Perct. 


Per. ct. 


Per ct. 


P.ct. 


127 .. . 


1707 


100 


100 


5 


14.61 


1.40 


6.61 


20.16 


1.20 


1.46 


0.14 


0.66 


2. 02 


0.12 


128... 


1708 100 


85 


.■> 


5.84 


1.21 


3.83 


13.44 


1.34 


.58 


.12 


.38 


1.34 


.13 


129... 


1709 100 


100 


5 


1. 25 


.83 


1.48 


75.63 


..57 


.13 


.08 


.15 


7. 56 .06 


130... 


1710 100 


85 


5 


2.49 


1.30 


1.69 


126.56 


1.08 


.25 


.13 


.17 


12.66 .11 



In experiments 1:^7 and 128 with ril» hones the pereentagesof nutri- 
ents, in terms of the total weioht of the uncooked bone, were as 
follows: Proteid 1.02, nitrogenous extractives 0.13, nonnitrogenous 
extractives 0.52, fat l.<)8, and ash 0.18. In experiments 121> and 130, 
In which shank bones were used, the corresponding percentages of 
nutrients were: Proteid 0.19, nitrogenous extractives 0.11, nonnitrog- 
enous extractives 0.16, fat 10.11, and ash 0.09. From these results 
it appears that the nutritive matter other than fat obtained from the 
small, spongy rib bones is greater than that from the larger and more 
compact shank bones. The shank bones, however, are generally pre- 
ferred for soup making, possibh' because of a certain flavor imparted 
b}' the marrow, which is so abundant. Aside from the fat content, 
the amount of nutrients in bones is small, and it is evident, therefore, 
that the bones contribute verv little to the value of the broth. 



DISCUSSION OF RESULTS. 

In studies of the composition of food comparativel}^ few analyses of 
flesh have previousl}^ been reported in which the proteid nitrogen has 
been difl'erentiated from the nonproteid nitrogen, and so far as the 
writers are aware none have been reported which indicate the total 
amount of nonnitrogenous extractives, though considerable work 
has been published regarding the amount of glycogen and other 
carbohydrates of meat. In most cases the total nitrogen directly 



96 

determined is all reported as from proteid substances. In some cases, 
however, the protcids are subdivided into al))umin, gelatinoids, and 
insoluble proteid. If space allowed it would be interesting in this 
connection to describe the pioneer work of Berzelius, Liebig, Mole- 
schott^ Schlossberger, and Bibra on the chemistry of flesh. It is hoped 
that time and opportunity may in the future be afforded for a thorough 
resume of their researches. 

COMPOSITION OF UNCOOKED MEATS. 

-The limited amount of work on such lines is shown by the fact that 
Konig," who devotes 70 pages to the chemical analyses of various 
kinds of fresh meats in his extended compilation of data on the com- 
position of food, refers to only three investigations in which an attempt 
has been made to distinguish between proteid and nonproteid nitrogen. 

One of these investigations made b}" W. Henneberg, E. Kern, and 
H. Wattenberg'' reports the analyses of 7 different cuts of mutton 
from each of two animals in which the combined extractives, the solu- 
ble proteids, the nonproteid organic extractives, and the ash are given. 
The method used bj^ these investigators and others cited will be briefly 
referred to in connection with the discussion of the cold-water extracts 
of meat (p. 122). At present it sufiices to say that Henneberg, Kern, 
and Wattenberg found that on the average fresh, fat-free mutton 
flesh had the following composition: Water 79.22 per cent, insoluble 
proteids 15.79 per cent, and total soluble matter 5 per cent, including 
albumin 1.61 per cent, nonproteid organic extractives 2.18 per cent, 
and ash 1.21 per cent. Almen c reported analyses of 13 different sorts 
of fish, albumin, organic nonproteid extractives, and proteids soluble 
in hot water (gelatinoids) being determined. It will be of interest to 
state that Almen obtained as an average of the above anal^'ses of fish 
the following results: Water 64.24 per cent, albumin 2.09 per cent, 
extractives 2.56 per cent, gelatinoids 2.55 per cent, insoluble proteids 
12.10 per cent, total nitrogenous matter 19.31 per cent, fat 9.44 per 
cent, and ash 7. 34 per cent. 

A study of the extractives of flesh was made by W. O. Atwater '^ and 
associates in the course of an extended investigation of the chemical 
composition and economic values of fish and invertebrates used for 
food. In the case of 30 specimens of fish, the albumin, the organic 
nonproteid extractives, the proteids soluble in hot water (gelatinoids), 
and the insoluble proteids were determined. As an average of the 
analyses of 24 samples of the edible portion of the flesh of fresh fish 

« Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- iind Gemissuiittel. 4 od., I, p. 185. 
i'Jour. Landw., 26 (1878), p. 549. 
<^ Analyse des Fleisches einiger Fische. Upsala, 1877. 

dAmer. Chem. Jour., 9 (1887), p. 421. Ber. Deut. Chem. Gesell., 16 (1883), 
p. 1839. 



97 

tlioj obtained the followiiifif results: Water 75,52 per cent, albumin 
1.55 per cent, extractives 1.95 per cent, g^elatinoids 2.85 per cent, 
insoluble proteid 11.60 per cent, fat 5.18 per cent, and ash 1.33 per 
cent. The anal^'ses of the edible portion of 7 samples of cured tish 
gave them the following average results: Water 50.53 per cent, 
albumin 0.61 per cent, extractives 3.66 per cent, gelatinoids 3.01 per 
cent, insoluble proteid 15. S6 per cent, fat 9.75 per cent, and ash 15.87 
per cent. 

An extended study of the chemical composition of the carcasses of 
8 pigs was made bv H. W. Wiley, with the collaboration of E. E. Ewell, 
W. H. Krug, T. C. Trescot, and others." The carcasses were divided 
into 11 parts or cuts, and protcids insoluble in hot water, gelatinoids, 
and flesh bases, together with other constituents, were determined in 
air-dried samples of each cut. The average composition of the 8 pigs, 
expressed in percentages of the entire dressed animals, was as follows: 
Water, 36.43; fat, -19.67; proteids insoluble in water, 8.12; gelatinoids, 
1.10; flesh bases, 1.14; total nitrogenous substances, 10.46; lecithin, 
0.023; ash, 2.11; total, 98.90. 

Mention nuist also ha made of the work of Gautier,'' who reported a 
verv complete analysis of fresh nnitton (neck and shoulder) and fresh 
beefsteak. Unfortunately, in spite of considerable efl'ort, we have been 
unable to learn much regarding the methods followed b}^ this investi- 
gator. His results will be considered in detail below in connection 
with the discussion of the cold-water extracts of meat. For purposes 
of comparison we have taken the lil)erty of putting Gautier's analyti- 
cal results in approximately the same form as those mentioned above. 
The data are: For fresh beefsteak — water, 74.75 per cent; insoluble 
proteids, 15.50 per cent; coagulable proteid, 3.06 per cent; nonproteid 
organic extractives, 3.59 per cent; fat, 1.97 per cent, and ash, 1.09 per 
cent; and for fresh mutton — water, 74.92 per cent; insoluble proteids, 
13.66 per cent; coagulable proteids soluble in cold water, 3.32 per 
cent; nonproteid organic extractives, 2.22 percent; fats, 5.32 per cent, 
and ash, 1.25 per cent. 

Oft'er and Rosenquisf" studied the proportions of total nitrogen, 
nitrogen of extractives, and nitrogen of meat bases in fish and differ- 
ent kinds of raw, cooked, and preserved meat, in connection with 
an investigation of the comparative value of white and red meat in 
invalid dietetics. This work is referred to in more detail elsewhere 
(p. 142). 

From a comparison of the data referred to above and those included 
in the present bulletin it seems fair to conclude that the modified 

« U. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau of Chemistry Bui. 53. 

bRev. Hyg. et Pol. Sanit., 19 (1897), p. 394. 

<- Berlin. Klin. Wchnschr., 36 (1899), pp. 937, 968, 1086, 

11480— No. 162—06 7 



98 

methods of anulysis of moat which Uavv boon used in the invostio'ation 
here reported i»*ive consi(h>ral>ly more knowdedo-c reo-iirdiiig the chem- 
ical composition of meats than has ])een g-ained by these earlier 
analyses. Furthermore, they make it possible to compare in detail 
the chemical composition of the same meats before and after cooking, 
so that information regarding the chemical changes which occur in 
the different processes of cooking has thus been obtained. The 
methods which have been used in this work are referred to in some 
detail on preceding pages (p. 12) and have been more fully described 
in another publication." The methods have been very thoroughly 
tested, and the authors are convinced that they give as accurate and 
reliable results as the methods commonly used for the analysis of foods, 
if, indeed, they do not surpass them. 

For the sake of a more ready comparison of the results here obtained 
and those of a number of the previous investigations described above, 
a table summarizing such data is given herewith: 

Table 97. — Summary of analyses showing forms of protelds and the organic extractives 

of meat. 



Kind of meat. 



Mutton (fresh) , Henne- 

berg and associates. . 
Fisli (fresh), Atwater 

and associates 

Fish (cured), Atwater 

and associates 

Fish (fresh), Almen ... 
Fish (salted), Almen .. 
Pork (fresh air-dried), 

Wilev and associates. 
Beef (fresh), Gautier .. 
Mutton ( fresh) ,Gautier. 
Beef (fresh), Grindley 

and associates 

Veal (fresh), Grindley 

and associates 



Num- 
ber of 
analy- 
ses. 



Water. 



Per ct. 
79.22 



50. 53 
73.14 
50.01 

36.43 
74.75 
74.92 

69.13 

75.75 



Proteid. 



Insol- 
uble. 



Per ct. 
15.79 

14.45 

18.87 
13.16 
17.06 

9.22 
15.50 
13.66 

15.52 

16. 23 



Solu- 
ble. 



Per ct. 
1.61 



.61 
2.48 
1.46 



3.06 
3.32 



2.29 
2.37 



Total. 



Per ct. 
17.40 

16.00 

19.48 
15. 64 
18. 52 

9.22 
18. 56 
16.98 

17.81 

18.60 



Organic extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 



1.08 
1.17 



Non 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 



1.62 
1.66 



Total. 



Per ct. 
2.18 

1.95 

3.66 
1.93 
3.56 



3.59 
2.22 



2.70 
2.83 



Fat. 



Per ct. 


5.13 

9.75 

8.48 

10.97 

49.67 
1.97 
5.32 

10.95 

2.48 



Ash. 



Per ct. 
1.21 

1.33 

1.5. 87 

1.40 

16.86 

2.11 
1.09 
1.25 

1.03 

1.13 



The data presented in the above table show that fresh flesh from beef, 
veal, pork, mutton, and fish contains from 1.55 per cent to 3.32 per 
cent of .soluble proteid matter coagulable by heat. The results obtained 
by the different investigators agree quite closely. 

There has been no attempt, except in the first of the investigations 
here reported, to distinguish between the nitrogenous and the non- 
nitrogenous organic extractives. The results summarized indicate, 
however, that fresh flesh from the various sources given above con- 
tains from 1.93 per cent to 3.59 per cent of total organic extractives. 
It must be remembered in this connection that the methods used in 
determining the extractives b}' the difl'erent investigators mentioned 



«Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, 27 (1905), p. 658. 



99 

above are not similar, and this may, in part, account for the slioht 
variations which aj^pear. 

The follow inj;- tables (Nos. !>S and '.»',») ui\-e the analyses of all the 
uueooked meats used in connection with the cooking- experiments here 
reported, the kinds and cuts oY meat bein<;- plainly indicated. In 
each case tij^ures are given for the composition of the fresh substance 
and for the same material calculated to a svater-fri'e basis: 

TABm 98. — Chemical coinponUioii of uncooked meats {fresh substance). 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 


Cooking 
experi- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Water. 




Proteid. 


Organic extractives. 


Insol- 
uble. 


Solu- 
ble. 


Total. 


Ni- 
trog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nit rog- 
ent>us. 


Total. 


1672 


122 

121 
107 
108-109 
110-113 
131-132 
133-136 
137-140 
141-147 
150-156 

123-124 
125-126 

114-116 
117-120 


Beef, Hank 


Per ct. 
59.17 
71.29 
7.5. .53 
74.04 
74.18 
72. 57 
72. 46 
73.65 
69.92 
73. 28 


Per ct. 
12. 75 
15. 45 
16.25 
16. S6 
16. 29 
It). 26 
16.11 
16. S4 

15. 26 

16. 47 


Pel- ct. 
1.21 
2.30 
2.76 
2.77 
1.82 
2.70 
2. 80 
2.39 
2.70 
2. 20 


Per ct. 
13. 96 
17.75 
19.01 
19.63 
18.11 
18. 96 
18.91 
19.23 
17.96 
18.67 


Per ct. 
0.77 
.81 
1.08 
1.37 
1.41 
1.12 
1.24 
1.11 
1.18 
1.13 


Per ct. 
0.96 
1.63 
2. 22 
1.72 
1.95 
1.99 
1.78 
1.52 
1.73 
1.40 


Per ct. 
1.73 


1608 
1637 


Beef, iKck 


2.44 
3.30 


1640 


do 


3.09 


1617 


do 


3.36 


1 72' 


:::::do:;;::;:;:::::..: 


3.11 


1741 
1753 
1764 
1775 


do 

do 

do 

do.... 

Average Nos. 1637, 1640, 
1647.1722,1741,1753,1764, 


3.02 
2.(i3 
2.91 
2. .53 




73. 20 


16.29 


2.52 i 18.81 


1.21 


1.79 


3.00 








1676 


52. 26 
61. 22 


12. 15 


1.54 


13.69 
'■17.71 


.66 


.88 


1.54 


1705 








Average for all beef 






i 






69.13 


15. 52 


2.29 


17.81 


1.08 


1.62 


2.70 


1656 


75.97 
75.53 


16.34 
16. 12 


2.83 
1.90 


19. 17 
18.02 


1.26 
1.08 


1.94 
1.37 


3.20 


1662 


do 


2.45 




Average Nos. 16.56 and 
1662 






75.75 


16.23 


2.37 


18.60 


1.17 


1.60 


2.83 









Labo- 
ratory 
No. ' 


Cooking 
experi- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

■solid 

matter. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen. 


Pro- 
teid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Non- 
pro- 
teid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Ratio 
of non- 
proteid 
to pro- 
teid ni- 
trogen. 


1672 


122 
121 
107 
108-109 
110-113 
131-1S2 
133-136 
137-140 
141-147 
150-156 

123-124 
12.5-126 

114-116 
117-120 


Beef, flank 


Perct. 
24.95 
8.77 


Perct. 
0.71 
1.02 
1.19 
1.18 
1.28 
1.09 
1.06 
1.07 
1.06 
1.09 


Per ct. 
100. 52 
101.27 

ioi.'is' 

101.21 
100. 51 
99.97 
100.82 
100.00 
100. 48 


Per ct. 
2.479 
3. 098 
3.390 
3. .580 
3. 3.50 
3.392 
3.424 
3.433 
3. 251 
3.349 


Per ct. 
2.233 
2.840 
3. 042 
3.140 
2. 898 
3.033 
3. 026 
3.077 
2.873 
2.987 


Per ct. 

0.246 
.2.58 
.348 
.440 
.452 
. 359 
.398 
.356 
.378 
.362 


1: 9.1 


1668 


Beef neck 


1:11.0 


1637 




1: 8.7 


1640 


do 


3.19 

4.28 
4.78 
4.52 
4.24 
8.15 
4.91 


1: 7.1 


lti47 


do 


1: 6.4 


1722 


do. 


1: 8.4 


1741 
1753 


do 

.do 


1: 7.6 
1: 8.6 


1764 
1775 


do 

do 


1: 7.6 
1: 8.3 




Average No.s. 1637, 1640, 
1647, 1722, 1741, 17.53, 1764, 






4.87 


1.13 


100. 59 


3.396 


3.009 


.387 


1: 8.0 




Beef, rump 






1676 


32.38 
20.23 


.74 
.91 


100. 61 
"100. 07 


2. 400 
a2. 834 


2.190 


.210 


1:10.4 


1705 


do 

Average for all beef 

Veal, leg . 














10.95 i 1.03 


100.65 


3. 195 


2. 849. 


.340 


1: 8.3 


16.56 


.96 


1.15 


100. 45 
101.09 


3.470 
3.230 


3.067 

2. 883 


.403 
.347 


1: 7.6 


1662 


do 


3.99 


1.10 


1: 8.3 




Average Nos. 1656 and 
1662 






• 
2.48 


1.13 


100. 77 


3. 350 


2. 975 


.-.- r 


f: s.U 











a Not included in the average. 



100 



Table 99. — Che>nical composition of tmcooked meats {water-free basis). 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 


Cooking 
experi- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Proteid. 


Organic extractives. 


Insolu- 
ble. 


Solu- 
ble. 


Total. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enou.s. 


Total. 


1G72 


122 
121 
107 
108-109 
110-113 
131-132 
133-136 
137-140 
141-147 
150-156 

123-124 
125-126 

114-116 
117-120 


Beef, flank '. 


Per ct. 
31.20 

53.81 
66.41 
64.94 
63.09 
59.26 
58.51 
63.89 
50.71 
61.64 


Per ct. 
2.99 
8.02 
11.27 
10. 68 
7. 05 
9.86 
10.15 
9.09 
9.00 
8.23 


Per ct. 
34.19 
61.83 
77. 68 
75. 62 
70.14 
69. 12 
68. 66 
72.98 
59.71 
69.87 


Per ct. 
1.89 
2.8-2 
4.41 
5.28 
5.46 
4.08 
4. .50 
4.21 
3.92 
4.23 


Per ct. 
2.35 
6.68 
9.07 
6.62 
7.55 
7.25 
6.46 
6.77 
5.75 
5. 24 


Per ct. 
4.24 


166S 


Beef neck 


8. .50 


1637 




13.48 


1640 


do 


11.90 


1647 


do 


13.01 


1722 


do 


11.33 


1741 
1753 


do 

do 


10.96 
9.98 


1764 


do 


9.67 


1775 


do 


9.47 




Average Nos. 1637, 1640, 1647, 
1722, 1741, 1753, 1764, and 
1775 






61. 05 


9.42 


70.47 


4.51 


6.71 


11.22 








1676 


25. 45 


3.23 


28.68 
a 45. 69 


1.38 


1.84 


3.22 


1705 








Average of all beef 














54.45 


8.14 


62. .59 


3.83 


5.78 


9.61 








16.56 


67.99 

65.88 


11.78 

7.76 


79.77 
73.64 


5.24 
4.41 


8.07 
5.60 


13.31 


1662 


..do 


10.01 




Average Nos. 1656 and 1662 . . 






66.94 


9.77 


76.71 


4.83 


6.84 


11.67 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 


Cooking 
experi- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen. 


Proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Non- 
proteidl 
nitro- 
gen. 


1672 


122 
121 
107 
108-109 
110-113 
131-132 
133-136 
137-140 
141-147 
150-156 

123-124 
125-126 

114-116 
117-120 


Beef, flank 


Per ct. 
61.11 
30.55 


Per ct. 
1.74 

3. .55 
4.86 

4. .55 
4.96 
3.97 
3. 85 
4.06 
3. 52 
4.08 


Per ct. 
101.28 
104.43 

io-i.'st)' 

104. 69 
101.85 

99.88 
103.11 

99.99 
101.80 


Per ct. 
6.071 
10. 791 
13. 854 
13. 791 
12.979 
12.366 
12. 433 
13. 028 
10. 808 
12. .534 


Per ct. 
5. 469 
9. 892 
12.431 
12.099 
11. 222 
11.059 
10.986 
11.677 
9. bbi 
11. 179 


Per ct. 
0.602 


1668 




.899 


1637 


Beef round 


1.423 


1610 


.do 


i2.29 
16.58 
17.43 
16.41 
16.09 
27.09 
18.38 


1.692 


1647 


do 


1.757 


1722 


do 


1.307 


1741 


do 


1.447 


17.53 


..do 


1.3.51 


1764 


...flO 


1.2,54 


1775 


do 


1. 3.55 




Average Nos. 1637, 1640, 1647, 
1722, 1741, 1753, 1764, and 
1775 






17. 75 


4.23 


102. 25 


12. 724 


11.276 


1.448 








1676 


67.83 
a52. 16 


1.55 
2.35 


101.28 
alOO. 20 


,5.027 
a 7. 308 


4.589 


.438 


1705 


do 














28.38 


3. .59 


102.27 


11.244 


10. 014 


1.230 








16.56 


3.99 
16. 31 


4.79 
4. .50 


101.86 
104. 46 


14.440 
13. 200 


12. 763 
11.782 


1.677 


1662 


do 


1.418 




Average Nos. 1656 and 1662 . . 






10. 15 


4.65 


103.16 


13.820 


12.273 


1.547 



a Not included in the average. 

These analyses apparently teach us nothing essentially new regarding 
the water, fat, and ash contents of meat, but the}^ do increase our 
knowledge of the nitrogen-free organic extractives and the nitroge- 
nous constituents, including both the proteid and the nitrogenous 
organic extractives. 

By referring to Table 98, page 99, it will be seen that the average 
results here ol)tained for V2 samples of fresh beef flesh were as fol- 
lows: Water 69.13 per cent, insoluble proteid 15.52 pe-r cent, soluble 



101 

proteid 2.29 per cent, total proteid 17.81 per cent, nitrogenous organic 
extractives l.os per cent, noiinitrogenous organic extractives 1.02 per 
cent, total organic extractives 2.70 per cent, fat 10.95 per cent, and 
ash 1.03 per cent. The average amount of nitrogen in different forms 
for the same samples was: Total nitrogen 3.195 per cent, proteid 
nitrogen 2.849 per cent, and nonproteid nitrogen 0.3-ir) per cent. The 
ratio of the nonproteid to proteid nitrogen was 1:8.3. The average 
results obtained in the analysis of 2 samples of fresh veal were: 
Water 75.75 per cent, insohdjle proteid 1«).23 per cent, soluble proteid 
2.37 per cent, total proteid 18.60 per cent, nitrogenous organic extract- 
ives 1.17 per cent, nonnitrogenous organic extractives 1.6<) per cent, 
total organic extractives 2.83 per cent, fat 2.48 per cent, and ash 1.13 
per cent. The average values for nitrogen were: Total nitrogen 3.350 
per cent, proteid nitrogen 2.975 per cent, and nonproteid nitrogen, 
0. 375 per cent. The ratio of the non])roteid to proteid nitrogen was 1 : 8. 

It will be seen that the soluble proteid in uncooked meat forms, 
approximately, 12.80 per cent, or about one-eighth, of the total pro- 
teid. The nonnitrogenous extractives are in all cases somewhat more 
abundant than are the nitrogenous extractives. In general, the soluble 
albumin and the nitrogenous and nonnitrogenous extractives vary 
inversely with the fat; that is to say, the meats which contain the 
most fat have, as a rule, the lower percentage of soluble albumin and 
organic extractives, and vice versa. However, the amount of extract- 
ives in corresponding cuts of meat from different animals may vary 
considerably even when the fat content is about the same. For exam- 
ple, lean beef round (sample No. 1775), containing 4.91 per cent of fat, 
has only 2.53 per cent of organic extractives, while lean beef round 
(sample No, 1647) contains 4.28 per cent of fat and has 3.36 of organic 
extractives. 

The usual method of calculating the percentage of proteid in meats 
by multiplying the total nitrogen by the factor 6.25 evidently gives a 
much higher figure for the true proteids than should be assigned to 
them. For example, if the average total nitrogen (3.195 per cent) 
found in the twelve samples of fresh beef is multiplied by the factor 
6.25, the product obtained is 19.97 per cent. The proteid obtained by 
actual analysis with the methods used in this investigation is only 17.81 
per cent, or a difference of 2.16 per cent. The discrepancy is due to 
the fact that the former value includes organic extractives. Since the 
nutritive value of the organic extractives is certainly much less than 
that of the proteids, the usual method must necessarily lead to errors 
in the determination of the nutritive value of meats and meat products. 



102 



COMPOSITION OF MEATS COOKED BY BOILING. 

So little work having to do with the inlluence of cooking upon the 
composition of meats has been found that it seems unnecessary to take 
it into consideration in discussing the results presented in connection 
with the present investigation. 

The following tables (Nos. 100 and 101) summarize the data Regard- 
ing the composition of the boiled meat, that is, meat cooked in hot 
water, this method of cooking being, as before explained, for con- 
venience designated boiling, whatever the temperature of the water. 
The results are calcidated, as before, to the fresh and to the water-free 
basis : 

Table 100. — Chemical composition of meats cooked by hoUing {fresh substance). 



Labo- 

rrt- 

torv 

N(;. 


Raw 
meat 
used 

No. 


Cook- 
ing 
ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Temperature. 


Dura- 
tion of 
cooking. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


At be- 
gin- 
ning. 


During 

cook- 
ing. 


In.solu- 
ble. 


Solu- 
ble. 


Total. 


16J2 


1640 
1753 

1753 

1741 
1764 
1775 

1640 
1741 
1764 
1775 

1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 

1656 
1662 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
154 

108 
134 
144 
153 

138 
140 

l:!3 
135 

113 
112 

116 
118 


Beef, round 


°C. 
Cold. 
Cold. 


85 
85 


His. 
3 
3 


Per ct. 
69.91 
56.24 


Per ct. 
35.07 
35. 01 


Per ct. 

0.13 

.20 


Per ct. 
35. 20 


17.54 


do 


35. 21 










68. 08 


35. 04 


.17 


35. 21 




Beef, round (browned) 

Average No.s. 
1642, 1754, and 
17.56 


Cold. 


85 


3 




175G 


.57. 22 


32.67 


.17 


32.84 




57. 79 


34.25 


.17 


34.42 




Beef, round (browned) 
Beef, round 


85 
85 
85 


85 
86 
85 


3 

'3 

3 




1746 
1769 


56. 50 
56.49 
55.19 


33. 98 
34.20 
36. 02 


.15 
.21 
.13 


34.13 
34.41 


1780 


do 


36.15 




Average Nos. 
1769 and 1780 






55.84 


35.11 


.17 


35. 28 




Average Nos. 
1746, 1769, and 
1780 












56.06 


34.74 


.16 


34.90 




Beef round 


100 
100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 
85 


3 
3 

3 

3 




1641 


59.01 
57. 88 
58.81 
54.17 


36.89 
34.72 
30.98 
35. .51 


.38 
.33 
.21 
.20 


36. 27 


1744 

1768 


do 

do 


35.05 
31.19 


1779 


do 


35. 71 










67.47 


34.28 


.28 


34. .56 




Beef, round 

Beef, round (browned ) 


Cold. 
Cold. 


100 
100 


3 
3 




1755 
1757 


66. 20 
56. 45 


34. 67 
34.52 


.44 
.49 


35.11 
35.01 




56. 33 

57. 65 
.57. 19 


34.59 

34.59 
33. 04^ 


.47 


35.06 






loa 

100 


100 
100 


I 




1743 


.33 

.24 


34.92 


1745 


Beef, round (browned) 


33. 28 




57. 42 


33. 81 


.29 


34.10 




Average of all 
cooked 3 hours 












57.07 


34.35 


.26 


34.61 




Cold. 
Cold. 

Cold. 
Cold. 


65 

85 

85 
86 


5 
5 

5 

5 




1646 


62. 93 

59.84 


31.89 
32.87 


.27 
.36 


32.16 


1645 


do 


33. 23 




Veal, leg 




1664 


68.59 
64.66 


30.50 
28. 82 


.60 
.31 


31.10 


1658 


do 


29.13 




Average Nos. 
1654 and 1658.. 






66.63 


29.66 


.46 


30.12 




Average Nos. 
1645, 1654, and 
1658 












64.36 


30.73 


.42 


31. 15 

























108 



Table 100. — ( 'hemical compositioti uj meals cooked by boiling {j'rejih substance) — Cont'd. 





Raw 
iui>at 
used 
No. 


Cook- 
ing 
ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Temperature. 


Dura- 
tion of 
cooking. 


Water. 




Proteid 




ni- 
tory 
No. 


At be- 
gin- 
ning. 


During 
cook- 
ing. 


Insolu- 
ble. 


Solu- 
ble. 


Total. 


l&M 


1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 

1672 
1656 
1662 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


Ill 
131 

121 
123 
125 

122 
115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 


Beef, round 


°C. 
100 
100 


°C. 
85 
85 


Hrs. 

5 
• 5 


Perct. 
59. 12 
55.31 


Per ct. 
33.85 
31. 72 


Per ct. 

0.29 

.16 


Per ct. 
34.14 


1720 


do 


31. X8 




Average 






57.22 


32.78 


.23 


33.01 




Beef, neck 


100 
100 
100 


86 
85 

85 


5 
5 
5 




lfi65 


54.40 
38.35 
48.34 


30.67 
18.96 
26. 75 


.19 
.38 
.38 


30.86 


U>73 
1703 


Beef, rump 

do 


19.34 
27.13 




Average Nos. 
1673 and 1703 






43.35 


22. 86 


.38 


23 24 




Beef, flank 


100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 


5 
5 
5 




1()69 


46. 46 
66. 65 
61.87 


19. 59 
31.62 
29.21 


.39 
.49 
.32 


19.98 


ir..-)3 
lt)64 


Veal, leg 

do 


32.11 
29. 53 




Average No.s. 
16-'J3 and 1664.. 






64.26 


30.41 


.41 


30. 82 




.Wcrage Nos. 
I(;44,16.i3.1664, 
16ti.5, 1669, 1673, 
1703 and 1720 












53.82 


27.80 


.33 


28.12 




Beef, round 


100 
100 
100 


100 
100 
100 


5 
5 
5 




1639 


59.68 
60.52 
57. 12 


33.32 
31.76 
31.42 


.97 
.92 
.56 


34.29 


1G43 


do 


32. (j8 


1721 


do 


31.98 










59.11 


32.16 


.82 


32.98 






100 
100 


100 
100 


5 
5 




1704 


55. 01 
64.73 


26. 68 
30. 51 


.90 
.44 


27.58 


1652 


Veal, leg 


30. 95 




Average No.s. 
1639,1643,1652, 
1704, and 1721.. 






59.41 


3Q.73 


.76 


31.49 




Average of all 
cooked 5 hours 

Average of all 
cooked 3 and 










57.86 


29.41 


.47 


29.88 














57.50 


31.57 


.38 


31.95 

















d 
^; 

B 

a) 

a 


a 

Qi 

a 

D 

& . 

X o 

"^ 

be 

C 

3 


Kind of meat. 


Organic 
extractives. 


^ 
^ 


si 

to 

■< 


a 

o 

"3 

o 

. H 

P.ct. 

100.54 


'S 
"3 
o 
H 


1 

c 

"2 
'53 


6 

2 

o. 
c 
o 

p.ct. 

0.138 


26 
P'a 


o 

g 

1 


5 

c 

.1 
2 


i 

p 

o 


3 


&2 

^ a. . 
■•3 o J* 

Cj -M 61) 


1642 


1640 
1753 

1753 

1741 
1764 
1775 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
154 


Beef, round 


P.cL 
0.43 


p.ct. 

0..'S6 


p.ct. 
0.99 
1.60 


P.ct. 
3.93 

6.80 


P.ct. 

0.51 

.70 


P.ct. 
5. 770 


P.ct. 
5.632 


1:40.8 


1754 


do 

Average 

Beef,round (browned) 

Average Nos. 
1642, 1754, and 
1756 


. .78j .82 


100.55 5.884 


5.634 .250 


1:22.5 




.61 


.69 


1.30 


5.37 


.61 


100.55 5.827 


5.633 .194 


1:31.7 


1756 


.75 


.75 


1.50 


8.00 


.67 


100. 23 


5. 495 


5.255 


.240 


1:21.9 




.65 


.71 


1.36 

1.64 
1.83 
1.72 


6.24 


.63 

.70 
.91 

.85 


100.44 


5. 716 


5. 507 


.209 


1:26.3 




Beef, round (browned) 

Beef, round 

do 

Average Nos. 
1769 and 178... 

Average Nos. 
1746, 1769, and 
1780 






1746 
1769 
1780 


.73 
.95 
.80 


.91 

.88 
.92 


7.12 
6.87 
6.62 


100. 09 
100. 51 
100. 53 


5. 696 
5. 810 
6.040 


5. 461 
5.505 
5.784 


. 235 
.305 
.256 


1:23.2 
1:18.0 
1:22.6 




.88 


.90 


1.78 


6.75 


.88 


100. 52 


5. 925 


5.645 


.280 


1:20.3 




.83 


.90 


1.73 


6.87 


.82 


100. 38 


5. 849 


5. 583 


266 


1:21.0 














104 



Table 100. — Chemical composition of meats cooked by boiling {fresh substance) — Cont'd. 



6 

1 


1 

1 


« o 

o 

8 


Kind of meat. 


Organic 
extractives. 


^ 
^ 


J3 
< 


a 
2 



"3 


H 


c 



'S 

"3 


H 


d 

'3 
■a 
'S 

S 

p-( 


s 

c 

0) 0) 

P. 

c 



c 


o 

13 
1 


so 

■s§ 

a <u 
o 


o 


OS -5 a 


1641 
17-14 


1640 
1741 
1764 
1775 

1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 

1656 
1662 

1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 

1672 
1656 
1662 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


108 
134 
144 
153 

138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 

116 
118 

111 
131 

121 
123 

126 

122 
116 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 


Beef, round 

do 


P.ct. 

0.33 

.79 

.99 

.94 


P.ct. 
0.45 
1.08 
1.28 
1.04 


P.ct. 
0.78 
1.87 
2.27 
1.98 


P.ct. 
4.38 
4.83 
7.51 

7.88 


P.ct. 

0.50 

.73 

.89 
.84 


P.ct. 
100.94 
100. 36 
100.67 
100.58 


P.ct. 
.5. 910 
5. 862 
5. 309 
6.013 


p.ct. 
5. 803 
5. 608 
4.991 
5.713 


p.ct. 

0.107 

.254 


1:54.2 
1'W 1 


1768 


do 


.318 l-L'i 7 


1779 


do 

Average 

Beef, round 

Beef, round (browned) 

Average 

Beef, round 


.300 


1:19.0 




.76 


.96 


1.72 


6.15 


.74 


100. ()4 


5.774 


5. .529 


.245 


1:22.6 


1755 
1757 


.74 

.79 


.90 
.91 


1.64 
1.70 


7.35 
6.83 


.71 
.70 


101.01 
100. 69 


5.857 
5. 8.55 


5.618 
5.602 


.239 
.253 


1:23.5 
1:22.1 




.77 


.91 


1.67 


7.09 

5.06 

7.74 

6.40 


.71 

.74 
. .73 


100. 85 


5. 856 


5.610 


.246 1:22.8 


1743 


.77 
.72 


1.04 
.79 


1.81 
1.51 


100. 18 
100.45 


5. 834 
5. .556 


5. .587 
5.325 


.247 
.231 


l-'W 6 


1745 


Beef, round (browned) 
Average 


1:23.1 




.75 


.92 


1.67 


.74 


100.32 


5. 695 


5.456 


.239 


1-22 8 




Average of all 
cooked 3 hours. 

Beef, round ; 






.75 


.88 


1.63 

.67 
.75 


6.49 

5.57 
5.23 


.73 


100. 53 


5. 778 


5.537 


.241 


1:23.0 


1646 


.29 
.32 


.38 
.43 


.55 
.54 


101. 88 
99. 59 


5.240 
5. 420 


5.146 
5.317 


.094 
.103 


r,54 7 


1645 


do 

Veal, leg 


1:51.6 


1654 


.29 
.44 


.96 
.55 


1.25 
.99 


.97 
5.58 


.64 
.59 


102. 55 
100.95 


5.070 
4.800 


4.976 
4.660 


.094 
.140 


1-.52 9 


1668 


do 

Average Nos. 
16.54 and 1658 . . 

Average Nos. 
1645, 1654, and 
16.58 

Beef, round 


1:33.3 




.37 
.35 


.76 


1.13 


3.28 


.62 


101. 75 


4.935 


4.818 


.117 


1:41.2 




.65 


1.00 


3.93 

5.75 
11.61 


.59 


101.03 


5. 096 


4.984 


.112 


1:44.5 


1644 


.40 
.65 


.57 
.15 


.97 
.80 


.69 
.51 


100.67 
100. 11 


5. 590 
5.309 


5. 462 
5.100 


.128 
.209 


r4'> 7 


1720 


do 

Average 

Beef, neck 


1:24.4 




.53 


.36 


.89 


8.68 


.60 

.47 
.33 
.43 


100. 39 


5.4.50 


5.281 


.169 


1:31.2 


1665 


.32 
.47 
.29 


.55 
.43 
.34 


.87 
.90 
.63 


13.68 
42.03 
23. 36 


100. 28 

100.95 

99.89 


5. 039 
3. 245 
4.433 


4.937 
3.094 
4.340 


.102 
.151 
.093 


1'48 4 


1673 


Beef, TUDip 


1'20 5 


1703 


do 

Average Nos. 
1673 and 1703 .. 

Beef, flank 


1:46.7 




.38 

"T04 
.69 
.56 


.39 

.17 

1.00 

.76 


.77 


32. 70 


.38 
.24 

.7.'! 

.66 


100. 42 


3.839 


3.717 


.122 


1:30.5 


1669 


.21 
1.69 
1.32 


34.16 
1.31 

7.77 


101.05 
102. 51 
101. 15 


3.210 
5.360 
4. 900 


3.196 
5.138 
4.724 


.014 
.222 
.176 


l-'^3 3 


1653 
1664 


Veal, leg 

do 

Average Nos. 
1653 and- 1664 . . 

Average Nos. 
1644, 1653, 1664, 
1665,1669,1673, 
1703, and 1720.. 

Beef, round 


1:23.1 
1:26.8 




.63 


.88 


1.51 


4.54 


.71 


101.83 
100.83 


5. 130 


4.931 


.199 


1:24.8 




.43 


.50 


.93 


17.46 


.51 


4. 036 


4.499 


,137 


1:32.8 


1639 


.48 
.44 
.65 


1.19 
.57 
.50 


1.67 
1.01 
1.15 


'5.' 66 
9.01 


.79 
.74 
.63 


ioo.'ei 

99.89 


5. 640 
5. 370 
5.324 


5. 486 
5. 229 
5. 116 


.1,54 
.141 
.208 


135 6 


1643 
1721 


do 

do 

Average 


1:37.1 
1:24.6 




.52 


.75 


1.27 


7.34 


.72 


100. 25 


5 445 


?, 977 


168 


1-S1 a 




Beef, rump 







1704 


.53 
1.12 


.72 
1.67 


1.25 
2.79 


16.07 
1.59 


.68 
1.01 


100.59 
101. 17 


4.583 
5-310 


4.413 
4.952 


170' r'>6 


1652 


Veal, leg 


358 113 8 




Average Nos. 
1639, 1643, 1652, 
1704, and 1721.. 

Average of all 
cooked 5 hours. 

Average of all 
cooked 3 and 
5 hours 






.64 


.93 


1.57 


8.09 


.77 


100.57 


5.246 


5.039 


.207 1:24.3 




.47 
.60 


.65 
.75 


1.12 


11.84 


.60 


100.87 


4.932, 4.782 


.150 1:31.9 




1.35 


9.34 


.66 


100.71 


5.314, 5.123 


.191 


1:26. 8 



105 

Tahle 101. — Clic)iiii'<if roin})o.<<itinn of meatK cooked hi/ hniling {cttlnihited to iratrr-free 





Raw 

meat 

iisod, 
No. 


Cook- 
ing 

iment 
No. 


KiiKl i>f iiu'iit. 


Temperature. 


Dnra- 

tion of 
(•(Mik- 
ing. 


Proteid. 


riitorv 
No. 


At begin- 
ning. 


During 
cook- 
ing. 


Insol- 
uble. 


Soluble. 


Total. 


1642 


1640 
1753 

1753 

1741 
1764 

1775 

1640 
1741 
17t)4 
1775 

1753 
1763 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 

1656 
1662 

1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 

1672 
1666 
1662 


109 
137 

139 

136 

145 
154 

108 
134 
144 
153 

138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 

116 
118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
126 

122 
116 
117 




°C. 

Cold. 

Cold. 


°C. 

85 
86 


Hrt. 
3 
3 


Per a. 

87.45 
80.00 


Peret. 

0.35 

.46 


Per d. 
87.80 


1754 


.. .do 


80.46 










83.73 


.40 


84.13 




Kccf, roiiiKl (browned) . . 

.Vverage Nos. 1642, 
17.^4, iiiid 17.56 


Coid. 


86 


3 




1756 


76.36 


.40 


76. 76 




81.27 


.40 


81.67 




Beef, rmiud (bniwiUMl j . . 


85 
85 

85 


85 
85 
85 


S 
3 
3 




1746 
1769 


78.11 
78.59 
80.38 


.35 
.50 
.29 


78.46 
79.09 


17>'0 


do 


80.67 




Average Nos. 1769 
and 1780 






79.48 


.40 


79.88 




Average Nos. 1746, 
1769, and 1780 












79.03 


.38 


79.41 






100 
100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 
85 


3 
3 
3 
3 




1641 


87.55 
82. 43 
7.5. 21 
77.48 


.93 

.78 
.51 
.44 


88.48 


1744 


. .do 


83.21 


1768 


do 


75. 72 


1779 


do 


77. 92 










80.66 


.67 


81.33 






Cold. 
Cold. 


100 
100 




3 
3 




1755 


79.16 
79.26 


1.00 
1.13 


80.16 


1757 


Beef, round (lirowned) .. 


80.39 




79.21 


1.07 


80.28 






100 
100 


100 
100 


3 
3 




1743 


81.67 
77.17 


.78 
.57 


82. 45 


1745 


Beef, round ( l)rowned ) . . 


77.74 




79.42 


.68 


80.10 




Average of all 












80.06 


.61 


80.67 




Beef, round 


Cold. 
Cold. 

Cold. 
Cold. 


66 

85 

85 
85 


5 
5 

5 
5 




1646 


86.03 
81.85 


.73 

.89 


86.76 


1645 


do 


82.74 




Veal , leg 




1654 


97.12 
81.52 


1.89 
.91 


99.01 


1658 


do.. 


82.43 




Average No.s. 16.54 
and 1658 






89.32 


1.40 


90. 72 




Average Nos. 1645, 
16.54, and 16.58 












86. 83 


1.23 


88.06 




Beef round 


100 
100 


85 
85 


5 




1644 


82. 80 
70.98 


.71 
.36 


83.51 


1720 


do 


71.34 










76.89 


.54 


77.43 






100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 


5 
5 
5 




1665 


67.26 
30.75 
51.78 


.42 
.62 
.74 


67.68 


1673 


Beef, rump 


31.37 


1703 


do 


52. .52 




Average Nos. 1673 
and 1703 






41.27 


.68 


41. 95 




Beef, flank 


ICO 
100 
100 




85 
85 
85 


5 
5 

5 




1669 


36.57 
94.81 
76.61 


.75 
1.47 

.84 


37. 32 


1653- 




96.28 


1664 


do 


77. 45 




Average Nos. 1653 
and 1664 






85.71 


1.16 


86.87 




Average Nos. 1644, 
1653, 1664, 1665, 
1669, 1673, 1703, 
and 1720 












63.94 


.74 


64.68 















106 

T.\BLE 101. — Chemical comjioallion of meats cooked by hoUing {calailated to water-free 

basis) — Continued. 





Raw 
meat 
used 
No. 


Cook- 
ing 
exper 
iment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Temperature. 


Dura- 


PAteid. 


rator> 

No." 


At begin- 
ning. 


During 
cook- 
ing. 


tion of 
cook- 
ing. 


Insol- 
uble. 


Soluble. 


Total. 


1639 


1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


107 
110 
132 

126 
114 


Beef, round 


100 
100 
100 


°C. 
100 
100 
100 


Hrs. 
5 
5 
5 


Per ct. 
82.64 
80.45 
73.27 


Per ct. 
2.40 
2.33 
1.31 


Per ct. 
8.5.04 

82.78 
74.58 


1643 


do 


1721 


do 




Average 




78. 79 

59. 30 
86. .50 


2.01 


80.80 




Beef, rump 


100 
100 


100 
100 




5 


1704 


2.00 
1.25 


61.30 

87.75 


1662 


Veal, leg 




Average Nos. 1639, 
1643, 16.52, 1704, 
and 1721 




76.43 


1.86 


78.29 




Average of all 
cooked 5 hours . . 










72. 95 


1.16 


74.11 




Average of all 
cooked 3 and 5 
hours 










76.19 


.88 


77.07 








1 


d 
"A 

1 

o 




bee 

i 


Kind of meat. 


Organic 
extractives. 






a 
s 

1 

o 


d 

"S 

s 

o 
H 


G 

0) 

.1 

"a 

1 
a, 


6 


1) 


(so 
o ^. 


o 


•Is 

s* 
a. 
c 



1642 


1640 
1753 

1753 

1741 
1764 
1775 

1640 
1741 
1764 
1775 

17.53 
1753 

17411 
1741 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
1.54 

108 
134 
144 
153 


Beef, round 


P.ct 
1.07 

1.78 


P.ct. 
1.40 

1.87 


p.ct. 
2.47 
3.65 

3.06 


P.ct. 
9.80 
15. 54 


P.ct. 
1.27 
1.60 


P.ct. 

101.34 

101.25 


p.ct. 
11 393 


P.ct. 

U flJS 


P.ct. 


1754 


do 


13!446| 12'. 873 


.573 




Average 

Beef, round (browned) .. 

Average Nos. 1642, 
1754, and 17.56 

Beef, round (browned).. 

Beef, round 

do 




1.42 


1.64 


12. 67 


1.44 


101. 30 


13. 920 


13.4 


61 
82 


.459 


1756 


1.75 


1.75 


3.50 


18.70 


1.57 


100.53 


12.845 


12.2 


.563 




1.53 


1.67 


3.20 


14. 68 


1.48 


101. 04 


13. 561 


13.0 


68 

54 
54 

n7 


.494 


1746 
1769 
1780 


1.68 
2.18 
1.79 


2.09 
2.02 
2.05 


3.77 
4.20 
3.84 


16.37 
1.5.79 
14.77 


1.61 
2.09 
1.90 


100.21 

101. 17 

101. 18 


13.0941 12.5 
13.353 12.6 
13 479' 1'' 


.540 
.699 
572 




Average Nos. 176'J 
and 1780 

Average Nos. 1746, 
1769, and 1780 

Beef, round 










1.99 


2.04 


4.03 

3.93 

1.91 
4.44 
.5.51 
4.32 


1.5.28 

15.64 

10. 69 
11.47 
18.23 
17.19 


2.00 

1.87 

1.22 
1.73 
2. 16 
1.84 


101. 18 


13. 416 


12.7 


)5 


.636 


1641 


1.88, 2.05 

.Sll 1.10 
1 881 2. .56 
2.40 3.11 
2.05 2.27 


100. 85 

102. 30 
100. 85 
101 62 


13.309| 12.7 
14 418 14 1 


.604 

9fil 


174-1 


do 


13.917 13!314| !603 

19 SSQi 19 llri' 77i 


1768 


do 


1779' 


do 


101 27 13 120 1'^ .iR"! •'.-''i!* 




Average 




13.013| ..573 
19 826} 546 




1.79 2.26 

1.691 2.06 
1.81 2.09 


4.05 

3.75 
3.90 


14.40 


1.74 


101. .51 13.586 


I 


138 


Beef, round 


17.55 


16.78 
1.5. 68 


1.62 
1.61 


10'> 31 IS S79 


1757 


. 140 

133[ 

ia5 


Beef, round ^browned).. 

Average 

Beef, round 


101.58 


13.444 


12! 862 .582 




1.7.5| 2.08 


3.83 


16.23 


1.62 


101. 95J 13.408 


12. i-- 


4 .564 

19 RfU 


1743. 


1.82| 2.46 
1.68, l.a5 


4.28 
3.53 


11. 95 
18. 06 


1.75 
1.71 


100 43' 13 776 13 1' 


1745 


Beef, round (browned).. 

Average 

Average of all 
cooked 3 hours . . 


101.06, 12.978' 12.438 .540 




1.75 2.16 
1.74 2.05 


3.91 


15.02 


1.73 


100.75 


13. 377| 


12.815 


.562 
.560 


1 


3.79 


15.08 


1.69 


101.22 


13.466 


j 
12. 906 



107 



Taiu.k 101.- 



-Cheiniciil com position of meats cookrd l>i/ hoilimj {ralriildtcd to ir<itn--free 
Ixtnix) — Continued. 



c 


a 1 


X o 

1 


Kind of nu'iit. 


Organic 
extractives. 


i 

p.ct. 
15.03 


-< 


m 

s 

2 



1 


5 

"3 
5 
5 


c 

1 

•0 
'S 

1 




u' 

C 

B 
3 


■: ! 


|i 

in 


p. ct. 
1 Hi 


0. 
a 



1646 
1645 


1 

1647 
1647 

1656j 
1662 

1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 

1672 
1656 
1662 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


113 
112 

116 

lis 

111 
131 

121 
123 
125 

122 
115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 




P.ct. 
7S 


P.ct. 
1.03 


p.ct. 
1.48 


P.ct. 
10.5.08 


P.ct. 

14.135 

13.49ti 


p. rt. 

13.882 

13.23S 


/'. ct. 
0.253 


do 

Veal, log 

do 

.Vverage Nos. 1654 
nnd 16.58 


.80 


1.07 1.87 13-02 


1.34 98.97 


.258 


16M 
1(S8 


.92; 3.0(i 
1.25; 1..55 


3.98 3.09 
2.80^ 15.79 


2.04 
1.67 


108. 12 
102. 69 


16. 140 
13. .582 


15. 842 
13. 189 


.298 
.393 




1.06} 2.31 


3.37 9.44 


1.86 


105.41 


14.861 


14.516 


.346 




Average Nos. 1645, 
16.54. and 1658.... 


.99 

.9K 


1.89 


2.88 10.63 


1.68 


103.26 


14.406 


14.090 


.316 


1644 


1 39 


2.37 14.07 1.69 
1.79, 2.5.98 1.14 


101.64 
100.25 


13. 674 

11.880 


13.362 
11.414 


.312 


1720 


do 


1.4.5^ .34 


.466 




1.22 .87 


2.09 20.03 1.42 100.95 


12.777 


12.388 


.389 




Beef, neek 

Beef, rump 

do 

.\verage Nos. 1673 
and 1703 

Beef, flank 

Veal, leg 





1665 
1673 
1703 


.7o: 1.21 

.76] .70 
..T6j .66 


1.91 30.00 1.03 
1.46 (>8.18 ..54 
1.22j 4.5.22 .83 


100. 62 

101.. 55 

99.79 


11.019 
5. 2l'.4 
S..581 


10. 829 
.5.019 
8.403 


.220 
.245 
.178 




.66 


.6H 


1.34] .56.70 .69 


100.67 


6.923 


6.711 


.212 


1653 
1664 


.07 
2.07 
1.47 


.32 

3.00 
1 99 


.39 63. SO .45 
5.07 3.93 2.25 
3.46 20. 3S 1.73 


101.96 
107. .5;i 
103.02 


5. 99( 
16. 072 
12. 851 


5. 971 
15. 405 
12.392 


.025 
.667 
.4.59 




Average Nos. 1653 
and 1664 












1.77 


2.50 


1 
4.271 12.16 


1.99 


105. 28 


14. 462 


13. 899 


..563 




Average Nos. 1644, 
16.53, 1664, 1665, 
1669. 1673, 1703, 
and 1720 










1.01 


1.20 


2.21 


33. g."! 


1 
1.2l' lOaO.'j 


10. 671 


10.349 


.322 




Beef, round 

do 




' 




1639 
1643 


1.19; 2.95 
1.12 1.44 
1.511 1.17 


4.14 

2.5b 
2.68 


1 Oil 

'i4.'34 i!87;"i6i".5.^ 

21.01 1.47 99.74 


]3.9SS| 13.607 
13.602 13.245 
12.416 11.933 


.381 
.3.57 


1721 


do 


.483 




1.27| 1.8.5j 3.12[ 17. 6S 1.77, 100.6.'= 


13.335; 12.928 


.407 








1704 


1.18: 1.6C 
3.18 4.74 


2.76! 3.5.72! 1..51 


101.31 
103. W 


10.190! 9.808 
15.055 14.040 


.382 


1652 


Veal, leg 


7.92 


4. ,51 


2.86 


1.015 




Average Nos. 1639, 
1643, 1652. 1704, 
and 1721 

Average of all 
eooked 5 hours . . 

.\verage of all 
rooked 3 and 5 






1 
1 

1.64 2.3? 


4.02 


18. 9( 


) 1.94 


101.4] 


13.0.50 12.526 


.524 




1.18J 1.6f 


2.8^ 


24. K 


! l.K 


102. 2f 


1 
) 12.23 


t' 11.857 
3 12.331 


.377 




1.43 1-84 3.27 20.17 1.6( 


) 101.7' 


r, 12.79 


.4.59 










1 


1 


1 





It will be seen that the average results obtained from analysis of 31 
samples of ditt'erent cuts of beef and veal which had been cooked by 
boiling, under the various conditions indicated, were as follows: Water 
57.50 per cent, insoluble pi'oteid 31.57 per cent, soluble proteid 0.38 
percent, total proteid 31.95 per cent, nitrogenous extractives 0.60 per 
cent, nonnitrogenenous extractives 0.75 percent, total organic extract- 
ives 1.35 per cent, fat 9.34 per cent, ash 0.66 per cent, making a total 
of 100.71 per cent. The average nitrogen values for these samples of 
boiled meats were: Total nitrogen 5.314 per cent, proteid nitrogen 



108 

5.123 per cent, and nonproteid nitrogen 0.191 per cent. The ratio of 
nonproteid to proteid nitrogen was 1:26.8. 

If tlu'so results are compared with those obtained for the corre- 
sponding raw meats, it will be seen that there is a marked difference 
between the chemical composition of uncooked meats and meats 
cooked in hot water, the analysis of the 13 samples of the correspond- 
ing uncooked meats (])eef and veal) being as follows: Water 70.08 « per 
cent, insolu])le proteid 15.63 per cent, soluble proteid 2.30 per cent, 
total proteid 17.93 per cent, nitrogenous extractives 1.09 per cent, non- 
nitrogenous 1.63 per cefit, total organic extractives 2.72 per cent, fat 
9.65 per cent, ash 1.01 per cent, making a total of 100.67 per cent. 
The average nitrogen values for the uncooked meats were: Total 
nitrogen 3.219 per cent, proteid nitrogen 2.868 per cent, and nonpro- 
teid nitrogen, 0.351 per cent. The ratio of nonproteid to proteid 
nitrogen was 1: 8.25. 

It is evident that there is a decided decrease in water content of the 
meat when it is boiled in water. The average amount of water in the 
11 samples of uncooked meats was 70.08 per cent, while in the 31 
samples cooked in hot water it was only 57.50 per cent. This corre- 
sponds with results previously obtained in this laboratory, and all go 
to show that there is always a loss of water when meats are cooked in 
hot water. It follows from the above consideration that the cooked 
meats will contain a considerable higher percentage than the raw of 
some or all of the constituents other than water. This is especially 
true of the insoluble proteid, which amounts to 31.57 per cent in the 
cooked meats and to only 15.63 per cent in the uncooked meats; that 
is to say, the percentage amount of insoluble proteid in the cooked 
meats is slightly more than twice as great as in the raw meats. It must 
not, however, be supposed that this greater proportion of proteid in 
the cooked meats is due entirely to the decrease in the proportion of 
water. Some of the increase is due to the coagulation of albumin during 
the process of cooking which renders some soluble proteid insoluble. 

Indeed, one of the most pronounced differences in the chemical com- 
position of cooked and uncooked meats occurs in the amount of soluble 
albumin present. The average (juantity of soluble proteid in the 13 
samples of- raw meat was 2.30 percent, and in the 31 samples of boiled 
meat only 0.38 per cent. In other words, during the cooking of the 
meat 1.92 per cent of the proteid present in the uncooked meat in a 
soluble form was rendered insola])le by coagulation. The actual 
nature of this change will probably ])e Ijetter understood after a study 
of the water-free substances. In the water-free substance of the 
cooked meats there is 76.19 per cent of the insoluble proteid, 0.88 per 
cent of soluble proteid. and 77.07 pei- cent of total proteid. On the 
other hand, the insoluble proteid forms 56.37 per cent, the soluble 

a In the case of water the average represents 14 samples. 



109 

protoid S.89 per cont, and tho total i)i()toid (U.TB per cent of the water- 
free substance of the uncooked meats. 

This difference between the cooked and uncooked meat may be 
further ilhistrated l)y comparing- the ratios of the sohil>K> to the insolu- 
ble proteid. The ratio of the soluble proteid to the insoluble proteid 
in the case of the uncooked meats is 1: G.T, and in the case of the cooked 
meats is 1:86.8. 

Another characteristic diti'erence which is readily observed ])etween 
the chemical composition of uncooked meats and meats cooked by 
boilintr occurs in the (luantities of organic extractives which they 
contaiji, both the nitro(,^en and the nonnitrogenous extractives })eing 
present in much smaller proportions in the freshly cooked meats than 
in the raw. The average values were, nitrogenous extractives 1.09 per 
cent, nonnitrogenous 1.03 per cent, and total organic extractives 2.72 
per cent, in the 13 samples of uncooked meats (beef and veal). The 
analyses of the 31 samples of meats (beef and veal) cooked in hot 
water show that they contained the following: Nitrogenous extractives 
0.60 per cent, nonnitrogenous extractives 0.75 per cent, and total 
organic extractives 1.35 per cent. If the figures are calculated to the 
water-free basis, they will be more strictly comparable. On this 
basis the uncooked meats contained upon an average 3.98 per cent of 
nitrogenous extractives, 5.94 per cent of nonnitrogenous extractives, 
and 9.93 per cent of total organic extractives, and the cooked meats 
contained 1.45 per cent of nitrogenous extractives, 1.84 per cent of 
nonnitrogenous extractives, and 3.27 percent of total organic extract- 
ives. In other words, the boiled meats contained a little less than one- 
third as nmch of the organic extractives as the raw. Examination of 
the broths resulting in the cooking showed that somewhat more than 
two-thirds of these extractive constituents of the meat entered the 
broth during the contact of the meat with the w ater in which it was 
cooked. 

The amount of fat contained in the fresh substance of the uncooked 
and cooked meats is about the same, the average for 13 samples of 
raw meats being 9.65 per cent, and for 31 samples of l)oiled meats 9.34 
per cent. On a water-free basis the percentage of fat in the raw 
meats is 27.40 and in the cooked meats only 20.17. So it appears 
that during the cooking there is actually a loss of fat. This has also 
been demonstrated by analysis of the resulting broths, which are 
found to contain some of the meat fat. 

The data presented show plainly that the ash content of meat cooked 
in hot water is much less than that of the same meat before cooking. 
The analyses of 13 samples of uncooked meats gave an average of 1.09 
per cent of ash, and of 31 samples of boiled meats 0.66 percent. Cal- 
culating these results to a water-free basis, the ash in the raw meats 
is 3.74 per cent and only 1.60 per cent in the cooked meats. 



110 

From what has been said regarding the proteid and nitrogenous 
organic extractives, it follows that the meat cooked In' boiling would 
contain a considerabl}' greater proportion of proteid nitrogen and a 
smaller proportion of nonproteid nitrogen than the raw. The boiled 
meat contained 5.123 per cent of proteid nitrogen and 0.191 per cent 
of nonproteid nitrogen, while the raw meats contained 2.868 per cent 
of proteid nitrogen and (1.351 per cent of nonproteid nitrogen. This 
difference in the relation between the amounts of proteid and nonproteid 
nitrogen in the boiled and the raw meats may be strikingly shown 
t)y calculating the ratio of the nonproteid to the proteid nitrogen in the 
two cases. Thus the ratio of the nonproteid to the proteid nitrogen in 
the cooked meats is 1:26.8, while in the uncooked meats it is 1:8.2 

There is another especiall}' interesting question connected with the 
results here presented, nameh', What influences do slow and rapid cook- 
ing, low and high temperature, and other variations in the methods of 
cooking of meats in water have upon their chemical composition and 
nutritive value? In order that such diflferences, if thev exist, may be 
more readil}' studied, a table has been prepared in which a summary 
of the average composition of meats cooked by different methods is 
given, together with the average composition of the 13 samples of 
raw meats: 



Table 102. — Summary sJiowing the chemical 


composition of boiled 


and u 


ncooked meats. 




Temperature. 


Dura- 
tion of 
cook- 
ing. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Methods of cooking. 


Atbe- 
gini 
ning. 


During 
cook- 
ing. 


Insol- 
uble. 


Solu- 
ble. 


Total. 


BOILED 3 HOITKS. 

Experiments Nos. 109, 137, 139 


°C. 
Cold. 
85 
100 


°C. 
85 
85 
85 


Hours. 
8 
3 
3 


Per ct: 
57. 79 
56.06 
57.47 


Per ct. 
34. 25 
34. 74 
34. 2H 


Per ct. 

0.17 

.16 

.28 


Perct. 
34 42 


Experiments Nos. 136, 145, 1.54 

Experiments Nos. 108, 134, 144, 153 


34.90 

34 .56 






Average of 10 tests (Nos. 108, 109, 134, 
136, 137, 139, 144, 145, 153, 1.54) 




85 


3 


57.14 


34. 41 


.21 


34 62 








Experiments Nos. 138, 140 


Cold. 

100 


100 
100 


3 
3 


56.33 
57. 42 


34. .59 

33.81 


.47 
.29 


35 06 




34.10 




Average of 4 tests (Nos. 133, 135, 138, 
140) 




100 


3 
3 


56.87 


34.20 


.38 


34 58 









Average of above 14 tests 


57.07 


34.35 


.26 


34.61 









BOILED 5 HOURS. 

E.xperiment No. 113 


Cold. 
Cold. 

100 


65 

85 

85 


5 
5 

5 


62. 93 
64.36 

53.82 


31.89 
30.73 

27.79 


.27 
.42 

.33 


32 16 


Exiieriments Nos. 112, 116, 118 


31 15 


Experiments Nos. Ill, 115, 117, 121, 122, 123, 
125,131 


28 12 






Average of 6 te.st-s (Nos. Ill, 118, 121, 
123, 125, 131) 




85 
100 


5 
5 


.56. 70 
59.41 


28.59 
30.73 


.36 
.76 


28 95 


Experiments Nos. 107, 110, 132, 126, 114 


100 


31.49 


Average of above 17 tests 






5 


57.86 


29.41 


.47 


29 88 










Average of above 31 testa with boiled 
meat 






57.50 


31.57 


.38 


31 95 










KAW MKAT. 

Average of 13 tests 






70.08 


15. 63 


2.30 


17 93 











Ill 



T.MU.K 102. — SiDiniKiri/ slioifintj llic rhciiiicdl cotnpanittoii of Inillcd and nncooknl iiwdts- 

Continued. 





Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 


A.sh. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen. 


Pro- 
teid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Non- 
pro- 
teid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Ratio of 
non- 


Method of cooking. 


Ni- 
troge- 
nous. 


Non- 

Jii- 

troge- 

nous. 


To- 
tal. 


proteid 
to pro- 
tein ni- 
trogen. 


BOILED 3 HOURS. 

Kxperiineiits Nos. 109, 137, 139... 
K.vperiment.s Xos. 136, 14o, li>l... 
Kxperiiuents Nos. 108, 134, 144, 153. 


P.cl. 

0. 65 
.83 
.76 


P.rt. 

0.71 
.90 
.96 


P.rt. 
1.36 
1.73 
1.72 


P.ct. 
6. 24 
6.87 
6.15 


P.ct. 

0.63 
.82 
.74 


P. ct. 
100.44 
100. 38 
100. ti4 


P.ct. 

5. 716 
5. 849 
5.774 


P.ct. 
5. .507 
5. 583 
5.529 


P.ct. 

0.209 
.266 
.245 


1:26.3 
1:21.0 
1:22.6 


Average of 10 tests (Nos. 
108, 109, 134, 136, 137, 139, 
144, 145, 1.53, 154) 


.75 


.87 


^ R9 


6.39 


.73 


100.50 


5.779 


5.539 


.240 


1:23.1 








Experiments .'"Jos. 138, 140 


.77 
.75 


.91 1 1.68 
.92 ] 1.67 


7.0» 
6.40 


.71 
.74 


100. 85 
100. 32 


5. 8.56 
5. 695 


5.610 
5. 4.56 


.246 
.239 


1:22.8 
1-22 8 






Average of 4 tests (Nos. 133, 
135, 138, 140) 


.76 


.92 1.68 


6.75 


.73 


100. .59 


5.776 


5.533 


.243 


1 : 22. 8 






Average of above 14 tests . . 


.75 


.88 1 1.63 


6.49 


.73 


100.53 


5. 778 


5.537 


.241 


1:23.0 


BOILED 5 HOl'RS. 

Experiment No. 113 


.29 
.35 

.43 


.38 
.65 

.50 


.67 
1.00 

.93 


5.57 
3.93 

17.46 


.55 
.59 

..51 


101.88 
101.03 

100.83 


5. 240 
.5.096 

4. 636 


5. 146 
4.984 

4.499 


.094 
.112 

.137 


1:54.7 


Experiments Nos. 112, 116, 118... 

Experiments Nos. Ill, 115, 117, 

121, 122, 123, 125, 131 


1:44.5 
1:32.8 






Average of 6 tests (Nos. HI, 

118, 121,123, 12.5, 131) 

Experiment,s Nos. 107, 110, 132, 
126, 114 


.41 
.64 


.54 
.93 


.95 
1.57 


13.77 
8.09 


.53 

.77 


100.88 
100. 57 


4.761 
.5.246 


4.631 
5.039 


.130 
.207 


1:35.6 
1:24,3 






Average of above 17 tests . . 


.47 


.65 


1.12 


11.84 


.60 


100. 87 


4. 932 


4. 782 


.150 


1:31.9 


Average of above 31 tests 
with boiled meat 


.60 


.75 


1.35 


9.34 


.66 


100.71 


.5.314 


.5.123 


.191 


1:26.8 


RAW ME.\T. 


1.09 


1.63 


2.72 


9.65 


1.04 


100.67 


3.219 


2.868 


.351 


1: 8.2 







Examination of the data presented in Table 102 makes it evident tliat 
the different methods of boiling- do not produce differences in chemical 
composition which are nearl}' as marked as the differences between the 
chemical composition of boiled and raw meats. It is interesting in 
this connection to note the influence of the duration of the cooking 
period upon the composition of the meats. It is to be regretted that 
the work here reported does not contain results of cooking experi- 
ments in which similar portions from the same cut of meat had been 
used for cooking in boiling water for three hours and for five hours, 
respectively, so that strictly comparable results could be had. In the 
absence of such experiments, conclusions must be drawn from the 
average results of the experiments presented above in which different 
cuts of meats were used. The average composition of the fourteen 
.samples of meats which were cooked for three hours was: Water 57.07 
per cent, inso]u))le proteid 34.35 per cent, soluble proteid 0.26 per cent, 
total proteid 34.61 per cent, nitrogenous extractives 0.75 per cent, 
nonnitrogenous exti'actives 0.88 per cent, total organic extractives 1.63 



112 

per cent, fat 6.49 per cent, and ash 0.73 per cent. The average nitro- 
gen vahies for the same meats were: Total nitrogen 5.778 per cent, 
proteid nitrogen 5.537 per cent, and nonproteid nitrogen 0.241 per 
cent, and tlie ratio of nonproteid nitrogen to proteid nitrogen was 1 : 23. 
The average composition of the seventeen samples of meats cooked for 
five hours was as follows: Water 57.86 per cent, insoluble proteid 29.41 
per cent, soluble proteid 0.47 per cent, total proteid 29.88 per cent, 
nitrogenous extractives 0.47 per cent, nonnitrogenous extractives 0.65 
per cent, total organic extractives 1.12 per cent, fat 11.84 per cent, and 
ash 0.60 per cent. The average nitrogen values were: Total nitrogen 
4.932 per cent, proteid nitrogen 4.782 per cent, and nonproteid 
nitrogen 0.150 per cent, and the ratio of nonproteid to proteid nitrogen 
was 1:31.9. 

It will be seen that the slight differences in the chemical composition 
of the meats cooked for three hours and those cooked for five hours 
are in part due to the greater proportion of fat in the meats cooked 
for the longer period. Were these average results calculated to the 
basis of fat-free and water-free substance, and so made strictly com- 
parable with each other, the differences would be even smaller. 

From the data here available, it appears that meats cooked in boiling 
water for five hours contain a somewhat higher amount of soluble- 
proteids but a slightly smaller amount of other soluble materials — 
namely, nitrogenous extractives, nonnitrogenous extractives, total 
organic extractives, and ash — than do those cooked in hot water for only 
three hours. The ratio of nonproteid to proteid nitrogen indicates 
this fact. In the meats cooked for three hours this ratio is 1:23, 
while in the meats cooked for five hours it is 1:31.9. 

In the next place it will be of interest to see what the data here pre- 
sented indicate regarding the comparative chemical composition of 
meats cooked in water by different methods, the time l)eing the same. 
Careful study in this laboratory has shown that when meat is cooked 
in water at 80 to 85'-' C, placing the meat in hot or cold water at the 
start has little effect on the amount of the nutrients of the meat which 
pass into the broth. It must be remembered that the meat used in 
the cooking experiments here reported was in the form of 1 to 2 inch 
cubes or else in pieces weighing from 1 to 2 pounds. 

Referring to Table 102, page 110, it will be noted that in the first 
group of three experiments (Nos. 109, 137, and 139) the meat was first 
placed in cold water and the temperature so regulated that it took one 
hour for the water to reach 85*-^ C. The meat was then cooked for 
three hours at that temperature. In the second group of three experi- 
ments (Nos. 136, 145, and 154) the meat was put directly into water hav- 
ing a temperature of 85"^ C. and cooked at that temperature for three 
hours. In the group of four experiments (Nos. 108, 134, 144, and 153) 
the meat was placed first in boiling water for ten minutes and the 



113 

teniporaturo iiUowod to fall to So'^ C, after which tho cooking was 
coiitliuied at this toniperature, the total time of cooking being three 
hours. 

The tal)le shows little difference in the chemical composition of the 
resulting cooked meats, the amount of water-soluble proteid, total 
proteid, and fat being practicalh" the same in the three groups. The 
soluble proteid was slightly higher in the last group; that is, where 
the meat was first put into boiling water and then cooked at 85° C. 
The amounts of organic extractives, both nitrogenous and nonnitrog- 
enous, were somewhat lower in the first group —that is, where the 
meat was first put into cold water— than in the other two groups. The 
difference, however, is not great, being onh' 0.37 per cent. The ash 
was also lower in the first group than in tho other two and somewhat 
higher in the second group than in the third. Further, there was but 
little difference in the ratio of the nonproteid to the proteid nitrogen 
in the three groups. This is especially true in the second and third 
groups of experiments in which the ratio was 1:21 and 1:22.6, respec- 
tivel3\ In the first group the ratio was 1:26.3. 

Referring again to Table 102, page 110, the results are given 
of experiment No. 113, in which the meats were cooked for a 
period of five hours, the meat being placed in cold water at first, 
the temperature then being so adjusted that it took one hour for 
the water to reach 65^ C, and cooking continued at this temperature. 
In the next group (experiments Nos. 112, 116, and 11<S) the meat was 
placed in water, cold at the start, and the temperature so regulated 
that it took one hour for the water to reach 85° C, at which tempera- 
ture the meat was kept for five hours. In the third group (experi- 
ments Nos. Ill, 115, 117, 121, 122, 123, 125, and 131) the meat was 
first placed in water near the boiling point for ten minutes, after 
which the temperature was allowed to drop to 85° C. and the cook- 
ing continued for a period coverino- five hours. 

An examination of the results of these three groups of experiments 
reveals no marked difference in the chemical composition of the cooked 
meat due to the method of cooking. To be sure the average percentage 
of fat in the third group is much higher than it is in the first and sec- 
ond groups, but this is not due, however, to the method used in cook- 
ing the meat but to the character of the meat used. In consequence 
of this higher content of fat in this third group, it follows that the 
average proportion of water, protein, and other constituents for 
this group is correspondingly lower than for the other two groups. 
This fact should be kept in mind in considering the quantities of the 
soluble (constituents in this series. The soluble proteid, the nitroge- 
nous and the nonnitrogenous extractives, are again somewhat lower 
when the meat was put in cold water and then cooked at 65° C. than 
11480— No. 162—06 8 



114 

the}" arc in the two other groups. However, the differences are not 
great, the maximum difference in the total organic extractives being 
only 0.33 per cent. The percentage of ash i.s practicall}" the same in 
the three groups, if the content of fat is taken into consideration. 
There is a greater difference in the ratio of the nonproteid to the pro- 
teid nitrogen than there was in the set of three experiments described 
immediately above, the ratio being 1: 54.7 in the first group, 1:44.5 in 
the second, and 1:32.8 in the third group. 

It seems fair to conclude that, everything considered, the results 
here presented show that onlj^ a very slight difference in the chemical 
composition of similar meats results when they are cooked by immers- 
ing them first in cold water and then in water at 85*^ C, or bv placing 
them in boiling water and then continuing the cooking at 85° C. for 
five hours. 

It is commonly supposed that when meat is plunged into boiling 
water the albumin coagulates and forms a crust which prevents the 
escape of nutritive materials into the broth. It is also believed that if a 
rich broth is desired, to be used either as a soup or with the meat as a 
stew, it is more desirable to place the meat in cold water at the start. 
From the results of these experiments, however, it is evident that under 
these conditions there can be little advantage in using either hot or 
cold water at the beginning. 



COMPOSITION OF MEATS COOKED BY ROASTING, BROILING, 
SAUTEING, AND FRYING. 

The final results of the studies of the changes in composition of 
meats cooked b}^ roasting, broiling, sauteing, and frying are given 
in Tables 103 and 104. It seems best to group the results of the anal- 
yses of meats cooked by these different methods, in the first place 
because only a few tests have as 3'et been made on each of the methods, 
and in the second place because the nature of the chemical changes 
brought about by these methods of apphnng dry heat are apparentlj^ 
quite similar, if we may judge from the results obtained. 

Table 103. — Chemical composillon of meats cooked by roasting, broiling, sauteing, and 

frying {fresh substance). 





Raw 

meat 

used, 

No. 


Cook- 
ing ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extractives. 


ratory 
No. 


Insolu- 
ble. 


Solu- 
ble. 


Total. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 


1770 
1781 


1764 
1775 

1764 
1775 


146 
155 

147 
156 


Beef, round, pot roast. . . 
do 


Per ct. 
51.95 
52.96 


Per ct. 
34.22 
34.19 


Perct. 
0.31 

.42 


Per ct. 
34.53 
34.61 


Perct. 
1.40 
1.11 


Per ct. 
1.69 
1.17 


Perct. 
3.09 

2.28 




Average 

Beef, round, roast 

do 






52. 46 


34.20 


.37 


34.57 


1.26 


1.43 


2.69 


1771 

1782 


64.63 

68.58 


20. 70 
21. 96 


.75 
1.23 


21.45 
23.19 


1.36 
.94 


1. .55 
1.27 


2.91 
2.21 










66.61 


21.33 


.99 


22.32 


1.15 


1.41 


2.56 









115 



Table 103. 



'Chemical composition of meats cooked by roasting, broiling, satiteing, and 
frying {fresh substance) — Continued. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 


Raw 
meat 
u.sed, 

No. 


Cook- 
ing ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic extractive.s. 


Insolu- 
ble. 


Solu- 
ble. 


Total. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 


It'>'"i0 


1662 

1775 
1764 
1775 

1676 
1662 

1764 
1775 

1764 


120 

152 
142 
151 

124 
119 

141 

150 

143 




Per ct. 
68.35 


Per ct. 
23.28 


Per ct. 
0.41 


Perct. 
23.69 


Per ct. 
1.34 


Per ct. 
1.89 


Per ct. 
3.23 




Average Nos. 1660, 
1771, and 1782... 

Beef, round, gas broiled. 
Beef, round, pan broiled. 
do 

Average Nos. 1766 
and 1777 






67.19 


21.98 


.80 


22. 78 


1.21 


1.67 


2.78 


1778 
1766 
1777 


66.26 
65.61 
65.74 


21.96 
20. 94 
24.16 


.83 

1.37 

.58 


22. 78 
22. 31 
24.74 


1.38 
1.46 
1.48 


1.62 
1.72 
1.72 


3.00 
3.18 
3. 20 




65.68 


22.55 


.98 


23.53 


1.47 


1.72 


3.19 




Beef, rump, pan broiled . 
Veal, leg, pan broiled. . . 

Average Nos.l()59, 
1674, 1766, and 
1777 




1G74 
1659 


27.46. 
65. 33 


21.24 
26.29 


.27 
.42 


21. .51 
26. 71 


1.07 
1.33 


1.33 
1.84 


2.40 
3.17 




56.04 


23.16 


.66 


23.82 


1.34 


1.05 


2.99 




Beef, round , .snuteed 

do 




1765 
1776 


64.02 
66. 66 


21.48 
22. 04 


1.03 
.73 


22.51 
22.77 


1.38 
1.37 


1.69 
1.61 


3.07 
2.98 










65.34 


21.76 


.88 


22. 64 


1.38 


1.65 


3.03 




Beef, round, fried 

Average all l>eefn. 

Average all veal .. 

Average beef" 
and veal 

Average roasts, 
gas broiled, pan 
broiled, and sau- 
teed « 




1767 


57.78 


27.06 


.53 


27. 59 


1.62 


1.83 


3.45 




62.42 


24. 87 


.78 


2.5.65 


1.36 


1..58 


2.94 




66.84 


24.79 


.41 


25.20 


1.34 


1.87 


3.21 




63.16 


24.86 


.72 


25.58 


1.36 


1.63 


2.99 




66.14 


22.54 


.82 


23.36 


1.35 


1.65 


3.00 









Labo- 
raory 
No. 


Raw 
meat 
u.sed, 
No. 


Cook- 
ing ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Fat.- 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen. 


Proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Non- 
proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Ratio of 

non- 
proteid 
to pro- 
teid ni- 
trogen. 


1770 
1781 


1764 
1775 

1764 
1775 

1662 

1775 
1764 

1775 


146 
1.55 

147 
156 

120 

1.52 
142 
1.51 


Beef, round, pot roast. 
do 


Per ct. 
9. 66 

9.87 


Per ct. 
1.21 
1.10 


Per ct. 
100.44 
100. 82 


Per ct. 
5. 972 
5.891 


Perct. 
5.524 
5.537 


Per ct. 

0.448 

.354 


1:12.3 
1:15.6 




Average 

Beef, round, roast 

: do 






9.77 


1.16 


100. 63 


5. 932 


5.531 


.401 


1:13.8 


1771 
1782 


9.50 
.5.42 


1.17 
1.16 


99.66 
100.56 


3.870 
4.011 


3.432 
3.711 


.438 
.300 


1: 7.8 
1:12.4 










7.46 


1.17 


100. 11 


3.941 


3. .572 


.369 


1: 9.7 




Veal, leg, roast 

Average Nos. 
1660, 1771, and 
1782 




1660 


4.65 


1.36 


101.28 


4. 220 


3.791 


.429 


1: 8.8 




6.52 


1.23 


100.50 


4.034 


3.645 


.389 


1: 9.4 




Beef, round, gas 




1778 


7.64 

8.18 
5.83 


1.22 

1.19 
1.24 


100.90 

100.47 
100.75 


4.088 

4.037 
4.435 


3. 645 

3.569 
3. 959 


.443 

.468 
.476 


1: 8.2 


1766 


Beef, round, pan 


1: 7.6 


1777 


...do 


1: 8.3 




Average Nos. 
1766 and 1777.. 






7.01 


1.22 


100.61 


4.236 


3.764 


.472 


1: 8.0 



a Not including No. 1674. 



116 



Table 103. 



-Chemiml composition of meats cooked by roasting, hroiUng, sauteing, and 
frying {fresh substance) — Continued. - 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 


Raw 
meat 
used, 
No. 


cook- 
ing ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen. 


Proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Non- 
proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Ratio of 

non- 
proteid 
to pro- 
teid ni- 
trogen. 


1674 
1659 


1676 
1662 

1764 
1775 

1764 


124 
119 

141 
150 

143 


Beef, rump, pan 

broiled 

Veal, leg, pan broiled. 

Average Nos. 
1659,1674,1766, 
and 1777 

Beef, round, saut6ed.. 
do 


Per ct. 

47.39 

5.20 


Per d. 
1.18 
1.44 


Per ct. 

99.94 

101. 85 


Per ct. 
3.786 
4.700 


Per ct. 
3.442 
4.274 


Per ct. 

0.344 

.426 


Per ct. 
1:10.0 
1:10.0 




16.65 


1.26 


100. 75 


4.240 


3.811 


.429 


1: 8.9 


1765 
1776 


9.88 
6.34 


1.18 
1.17 


100. 66 
99. 92 


4.044 
4.083 


3.601 
3.643 


.443 
.440 


1: 8.1 
1: 8.3 


Average 

Beef, round, fried 

Average all beefa 

Average all veal. 

Average beef 
and veal a 

Average roasts, 
gas broiled, 
pan broiled, 
and sauttJeda. 






8.11 


1.18 1 100.29 


4.064 


3.622 


.442 


1: 8.2 


1767 


10.42 


1.43 100.67 


4.934 


4.414 


.520 


1: 8.5 




8.27 
4.93 

7.72 


1.21 1 100.49 


4.537 


4.104 


.433 1 1: 9.5 




1.40 101.67 


4.460 


4.033 


.427 1: 9.4 




1. 24 100. 69 


4.524 


4.092 


.432 


1: 9.5 




6.96 


1.24 


100. 71 


4.166 


3.736 


.430 


1:7.8 



a Not including No. 16T4. 



Table 10^.— Chemical composition of meats cooked by roasting, broiling, sauteing, and 
frying {water-free basis). 





Raw 
meat 
used, 
No. 


Cook- 
ng ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Proteid. 


Organic extractives. 


Labo- 

ratorv 

No. 


Insolu- 
ble. 


Solu- 
ble. 


Total. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Nonni- 
trog- 
enous. 


Total. 


1770 
1781 


1764 
1775 

1764 
1775 

1662 

1775 
1764 
1775 

1676 
1662 

1764 
1775 


146 
155 

147 
156 

120 

152 
142 
151 

124 
119 

141 
150 




Perct. 
74.01 
72.68 


Per ct. 

0.65 

.89 


Per ct. 
74.66 
73.. 57 


Perct. 

2.58 
2.36 


Perct. 
3.16 
2.49 


Perct. 

5.74 


do 


4.85 






73.85 


.77 


74. 12 


2.47 


2.83 


5.30 








1771 
1782 


58. .54 
69.90 


2.10 
3.91 


60.64 
73.81 


3.84 
2.99 


4.38 
4.04 


8.22 


do 


7.03 




Average 


64.22 


3.01 


67.23 


3.42 1 4.21 


7.63 


1660 


Veal, leg, roast 


73. 55 


1.30 


74.85 


4.23 5.97 


10.20 




Average Nos. 1660, 1771. 
and 1782 


67.33 


2.44 


69.77 


3.69 


4.80 


8.49 




Beef, round, gas broiled 

Beef, round, pan broiled 

do 




1778 
1766 
1777 


65.06 
60. 89 
70. .52 


2.46 
3.98 
1.69 


67.52 
64.87 
72.21 


4.09 
4.25 
4.32 


4.80 
.5.00 
.5.02 


8.89 
9.25 
9.34 




Average Nos. 1766 and 
1777 


65. 70 


2.U 


68. 54 


4.29 


5.01 9.30 


1674 
1659 


Beef, rump, pan broiled 


29.28 
75.83 


.37 
1.21 


29. 65 
77.04 


1.48 
3.84 


1.83 
5.31 


3.31 
9.15 


Average Nos. 1659, 1674, 
1766, and 1777 

Beef, round, saut6ed 

do 






.59. 13 


1.81 


60.94 


3.47 


4.29 


7.76 


1765 
1776 


59.69 
66.11 


2.87 
2.19 


62. .56 
68.30 


3.84 
4.11 


4.70 
4.83 


8.54 
8.94 




Average 


62. 90 


2.53 


65. 43 


3.98 


4.77 


8.75 



117 



Tahi.k 104. — nieiiiiriil compomtlon of meals cooked h)/ ronstitig, hroHinf/, mute'mg, mid 
frying {ivater-Jree basii) — Continued. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 


Raw- 


Cook- 

iiigex- 

pcri- 

raent 

No. 


Kind of meat. 


Proteid. 


Organic extractives. 


meat 
used. 
No. 


Insolu- 
ble, 


Solu- 
ble. 


Total. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Nonni- 
trog- 
enoiis. 


Total. 


17(i7 


1764 


143 


Beef, round fried 


Perct. 
64.09 


Per ft. 


Per ct. 
65 35 


Per ct. 
3.H4 


Per ct. 

4 S3 


Per ct. 

« 17 




Average all beef" 

Average all veal 

Average all beef" and 
veal • 








66.15 


2. 20 68. 35 


3.63 4. 28 1 7.91 




74.69 


1.26 75.95 


4.04 j .5.(U 


9.68 




67.57 


1. 05 69. fi> 


3.70 


4.51 


8 21 




Average roasts, gas 
broiled, pan broiled. 








66.67 


2.42 


69.09 


3.96 


4.90 


8.86 













Labo- 
ratory 
No. 


Raw- 
meat 
used, 

No. 


Co<ik- 
ing ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind 111 meat. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen. 


Proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Non- 
{iroteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


1770 


1764 
1775 

1764 
1775 

1662 

1775 
17(i4 
1775 

1676 
1662 

1764 
1775 

1764 


146 
155 

147 
156 

120 

152 
142 
151 

124 
119 

141 

150 

143 




Per ct. 

18.51 
20.98 


Perct. 
2.34 
2.34 


Per ct. 
101.25 
101.71 


Per ct. 
12. 429 
12. 523 


Per ct. 
11.946 
11. 772 


Per ct. 
0.483 


1781 


do 


.751 




.\ verage 






19.75 


2.34 


101.48 


12.476 


11.859 


617 








1771 


26.86 
17.25 


3.31 
3.69 


99. 03 
101.78 


10.941 
12. 766 


9.702 
11.810 


1 239 


1782 


do 


.956 




22.06 


3.50 


100.41 


11.854 


10. 7.56 


1.098 




Veal, leg, roast 




1660 


14.69 


4.30 


104.04 


13. 333 


11.976 


1 367 




Average Nos. 1060, 1771, 
and 1782 






19.60 


3.77 


101. 62 


12. 347 


11.163 


1 184 




Beef, round, gas broiled 

Beef, round, pan broiled 

do 




1778 
17C)(! 
1777 


22. 64 
23. 79 
17. 02 


3.62 
3.46 
3.62 


102. 67 
101.37 
102. 19 


12.116 
11.739 
12. 945 


10..H03 
10.379 
11.5.54 


1.313 
1.360 
1 391 




Average Nos. 1766 and 
1777 






20.41 


3.54 


101.78 


12.342 


10. 967 


1 376 




Beef, rump, pan broiled 

Veal, leg, pan broiled 




1674 
1659 


65.33 
15.00 


1.63 
4.15 


99.92 
105. 34 


5.218 
13. 5.56 


4.744 
12. 326 


.474 
1 230 




Average Nos. 16.59, 1674, 
1766, and 1777 






30.29 


3.22 


102.21 


10. 865 


9. 751 


1 114 




Beef, round, sauteed 




1765 


27.46 
19. 02 


3.28 
3.51 


101. 84 
99. 77 


11.240 
12. 247 


10.010 
10. 928 


1.230 


1776 


do 


1 319 










23.24 


3.40 


100. 81 


11.744 


10.469 


1.275 




Beef, round, fried 




1767 


24.68 


3.39 


101.59 


11.687 


10. 456 


1.231 




Average all beef « 






21.82 


3.26 


101.32 


12. 064 


10. 936 


1.128 




14. 85 


4.23 


104. 69 


13.445 


12. 1.51 


1.294 




Average all beef a and 
veal 






20.66 


3.42 


101.88 


12. 294 


11.139 


1.155 




Average roasts, gas 
broiled, pan broiled, 
and sauteed 






20.42 


3.66 


102. 00 


12. 321 


11.0.55 


1.266 









a Not including No. 1674. 



118 

■ Upon examining- Table 103 it will be readily noted that the amount 
of water contained in meats cooked by roasting, gas })roiling, pan 
broiling, and sauteing is decidedly greater than it is in meats cooked 
bj^ boiling or in meats cooked by pot roasting and frying, the avei-age 
water content in 9 samples of roast, gas ])roi!ed, pan broiled, and 
sauteed meat being 66.13 per cent as compared with 57.5(1, the aver- 
age percentage of water in 31 samples of meat cooked in hot water. 
Two samples of pot roasted meat showed an average of 52.46 per cent 
of water, while one sample of fried meat contained 57.78 per cent of 
water. It will be remembered that the average content of the 1?^ 
samples of uncooked meats was 70. OS, Since meats cooked ])y roast- 
ing, gas broiling, pan broiling, and sauteing contain a considerably 
higher percentage of water than do meats cooked by boiling, it fol- 
lows that if the losses resulting from the cooking are the same the 
former will be poorer in insoluble proteid, total proteid, fat, and 
other constituents. 

As will be seen (Table 103), the percentages of insoluble and total 
proteid are much smaller in the roast, gas broiled, pan broiled, and 
sauteed than in the boiled meats. The average total proteid in the 
former case is 23.36 per cent and in the latter 31.95 per cent. With 
regard to the fat it is difficult to draw definite conclusions, since in the 
first place this constituent is subject to such wide variations in the 
uncooked meat, and in the second place the proportion of fat removed 
.by boiling is much greater than it is in the other methods of cooking. 
When we compare the solul)le constituents, i. e., soluble proteids, 
nitroo-enous and nonnitrogenous extractives, and ash of the meats 
cooked by roasting, gas broiling, pan broiling, pot roasting, frying, 
and sauteing, with those of meat cooked in hot water, striking differ- 
ences are noted, all of the soluble constituents occurring in meats 
being found in much smaller proportion in the latter than in the 
others. As shown b}' the average of the analyses of 12 samples, pot 
roasted, gas broiled, pan ])roiled, fried, and sauteed meat contained the 
following: Soluble proteid 0.72 per cent, nitrogenous extractives 1.36 
per cent, nonnitrogenous extractives 1.65 per cent, total organic 
extractives 2.99 per cent, and ash 1.21 per cent. Referring to Table 
102, page 110, it will be seen that the average of 31 analyses of boiled 
meats gave the following: Soluble proteid 0.38 per cent, nitrogenous 
extractives 0.60 per cent, nonnitrogenous extractives 0.75 per cent, 
total extractives 1.35 per cent, and ash 0.66 per cent. It is thus evi- 
dent that there is a marked difference in the chemical composition of 
meats cooked by methods which do not necessitate contact with water 
and those cooked by immersion in hot water. Meats cooked without 
immersion in water contain, as a rule, more than twice as nuich of the 
soluble organic and inorganic substances which have so nuich to do with 
the production of flavor as those cooked in hot water. 



11^) 

Anothor inaikrd dirt'orence between meats cooked by the different 
methods is tipparont in the ratio of the noiiprotoid to the proteid 
iiitrojxon. In the casr of inoiits cooked l)y othcM- methods than immor- 
sion in hot water, the ratio on an average was 1:9.5, as compared with 
l:2»).S in tiie case of meats cooked in hot water. It is evident that 
there is a fnndamental difference in the nature of the chemical changes 
and tlie loss(>s wiiich result when meats are cooked in hot water and 
when they an> cooked by other methods. Such marked differences in 
chemical composition nuist undoubtedly be accompanied ))y differ- 
ences in nutritive value, and therefore in economic v^alue. Exactly 
what these differences arc must l)e determined mainly by further 
investigation. 

Finally, attention should ])e called to the fact that the available data 
indicate clearly that the meats cooked by methods other than innner- 
sion in hot water resem])le uncooked meats in chemical composition 
nnich more than do meats cooked by })oiling. This is evident in the 
amount of water which they contain. The average amount of water 
found in the analysis of 13 samples of uncooked meats was 70.08 per 
cent. The analysis of 12 samples of roasted, broiled, sauteed, and fried 
meats was OB.IT) per cent, and 31 samples of boiled meats was 57.50. 
This closer resem])lance of meats cooked ))y dry heat to uncooked meats 
is also shown by the amounts of nitrogenous and nonnitrogenous organic 
extractives and ash w fiich they contain. Twelve samph^s of beef and 
veal (sec pages 111 and 117), cooked b}' one or anothei- of the dry meth- 
ods, contained on an average 1.36 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 
l.()3 per cent of nonnitrogenous extractives, 2.i»9 per cent total organic 
extractives, and 1.21 per cent ash. Thirteen samples of uncooked 
meats gave the following average figures: 1.09 per cent nitrogenous 
extractives, 1.63 per cent nonnitrogenous extractives, 2.72 per cent 
total organic extractives, and 1.01 per cent ash. In the case of the 31 
samples of boiled meats the average values were 0.60 per cent nitro- 
genous extractives, 0.75 per cent nonnitrogenous extractives, 1.35 per 
cent total organic extractives, and 0.66 per cent ash. 

Meats cooked by dry heat also resemble raw meats in the ratio of 
nonproteid to proteid nitrogen, the value being 1:9.5 and 1:8. 2, respec- 
tively, and for boiled meats 1:26.8. 

These comparisons are also brought out in Tables 105 and 106. 



120 

Tabi-k 105. — nirmicnl fonijini^ilion of rooked and nnrooked 7ncai.<f {fre.^h sid>stnnce). 



Kiiiil of iiiiul mill nu'tlidd of cooking. 



Beef, raw 

Veal, raw 

Beef, boiled three hours 

Beef, boiled five hours 

Beef, boiled three and five hours 

Beef, pot roast 

Beef, roast 

Veal, roast 

Beef, gas broiled 

Beef, pan I)roiled 

Veal, pan broiled 

Beef, sa\iteed 

Beef, fried 



No. 



aver- 
age. 



Water. 



Per ct. 
69.13 
75. 75 
67.07 
.57. 86 
57.50 
.52. 46 
66.61 
68.35 
66. 26 
.52. 94 
65. 33 
65. 34 
57.78 



Proteid. 



Insolu- 
ble. 



Per ct. 
15. .52 
16.23 
34.35 
29. 41 
31. .57 
34.20 
21.33 
23.28 
21.95 
22.11 
26.29 
21.76 
27.06 



Solu- 
ble. 



Per ct. 

2.29 

2.37 

. 26 

.47 

.38 

.37 

.99 

.41 

.83 

.74 

.42 

• .88 

.53 



Total. 



Per ct. 
17.81 
18.60 
34.61 
29. 88 
31.95 
34. .57 
22. 32 
23.69 
22.78 
22.85 
26.71 
22.64 
27.59 



Organic extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Perct. 

1.08 

1.17 

.75 

.47 

.60 

1.26 

1.15 

1.34 

1.38 

1.34 

1.33 

1.38 

1.62 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Perct. 

1.62 

1.66 

.88 

.65 

.75 

1.43 

1.41 

1.89 

1.62 

1.69 

1.84 

1.65 

1.83 



Kind of iiiral iiml method of cooking 



Beef, raw 

Veal, raw 

Beef, boiled three hours 

Beef, boiled live hours 

Beef, boiled three and five hours 

Beef, pot roast 

Beef, roast 

Veal , roast 

Beef, gas broiled 

Beef, pan broiled 

Veal, pan broiled 

Beef, sautt'ed 

Beef, fried 



Fat. 


Ash. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


a 10. 95 


1.03 


2.48 


1.13 


6.49 


.73 


Ml. 84 


.60 


C9.34 


.66 


9.77 


1.16 


7.46 


1.17 


4.65 


1.36 


7.64 


1.22 


20.47 


1.20 


.5.20 


1.44 


8.11 


1.18 


10.42 


1.43 



Total 

solid 

matter. 



Per ct. 

a 100. 65 
100.77 
100. 63 

b 100. 87 

c 100. 71 
100.63 
100. 11 

101. 28 
100.90 
100. 39 
101. 85 

100. 29 
100. 67 



Total 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 
3.195 
3.350 
6.778 
4.932 
6.314 
5. 932 
3.941 
4.220 
4.088 
4.086 
4.700 
4.064 
4.934 



Proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 
2.849 
2.975 
5. .537 
4.782 
.5. 123 
5.531 
3. .572 
3. 791 
3. 645 
3.657 
4. 274 
3.622 
4.414 



Non- 
proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 



Per ct. 
0.346 
.375 
.241 
.150 
.191 
.401 
.369 
.429 
.443 
.429 
. 426 
.442 
.520 



Ratio of 
nonpro- 
teid to 
proteid 
nitrogen. 



8.3 

7.9 

23.0 

31.9 

26.8 

13.8 

9.7 

8.8 

8.2 

8.5 

10.0 

8.2 

8.5 



" Average of 10. b Average of 16. c Average of 30. 

Table lOli. — Chemicnl (ompositlon of cooked and uncooked meats {water-free basis). 



Kind of meat and method of cooking. 



No. in 
aver- 
age. 



Proteid. 



Insolu- 
ble. 



Solu- 
ble. 



Total. 



Organic extractives. 



Nitroge- 
nous. 



Nonni- 
troge- 
nous. 



Total. 



Beef, raw 

Veal , ra w 

Beef, boiled t hree hours 

Beef, boilfd live hours 

Beef, boik'd three and live hours 

Beef, pot roast 

Beef, roast 

Veal, roast , 

Beef, Kns broiled 

Beef, i)an broiled 

Veal, pan broiled 

Beef, sauti^'cd 

Beef, fried 



Per ct. 
54.45 
66.94 
80.06 
72.95 
79.16 
73.35 
64.22 
73.55 
65.06 
53.56 
75.83 
62.90 
64.09 



Per ct. 

8.14 

9.77 

.61 

1.16 

.91 

.77 

3.01 

1.30 

2.46 

2.02 

1.21 

2.53 

1.26 



Per ct. 
62.69 
76.71 
80.67 
74.11 
77.07 
74.12 
67.23 
74.85 
67. .52 
55. 58 
77.04 
65.43 
65.35 



Per ct. 
3.83 
4.83 
1.74 
1.18 
1.43 
2.47 
3.42 
4.23 
4.09 
3.35 
3.84 
3.98 
3.84 



Per ct. 
5.78 
6.84 
2.05 
1.66 
1.84 
2.83 
4.21 
6.97 
4.80 
3.96 
5.31 
4.77 
4.33 



Per ct. 
9.61 

11.67 
3.79 
2.84 
3.27 
5.30 
7.63 

10.20 
8.89 
7.30 
9.15 
8.75 
8.17 



121 

Tahi.k KUi. — Clifinii'dl coinpos-Hion of cooknl and nncoolced meats {vatcr-free basin)- 

Coiitinueil. 



Kiiiii (if meat Jiinl iiii'thod of cooking, 



Beef, raw 

Veal .raw 

Beef, ItoiliHl three hours 

Beef, l>oile(l five hours 

Beef, boiled three ami live liours 

Beef, pot roast 

Beef, roast 

Veal, roast 

Beef, gas broiled 

Beef, pan broiled 

Veal, pan broiled 

Beef, sauteed 

Beef, fried 



Fat. 


A.sh. 


Total solid 


Total ni- 


Proteid 


matter. 


trogen. 


nitrogen. 


Per d. 


Per ct. 


Perct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


<<30.54 


3.59 


a 102. 27 


11.244 


10.014 


10.15 


4.65 


103. 16 


13. 820 


12.273 


15. 08 


1.(59 


101.22 


13. 466 


12. 906 


b24.C3 


1.52 


b 102. 30 


12. 234 


11.857 


C20.17 


1.60 


<-101..S0 


12. 790 


12. 331 


19. 75 


2.34 


101.48 


12. 476 


11.634 


22. 0(! 


3.50 


100.41 


11.8,54 


10. 756 


14.69 


4.30 


104.01 


13. 333 


11.976 


22. 61 


3.62 


102. 67 


12.116 


10.803 


35.38 


2.90 


101.16 


9.967 


8. 893 


15.00 


4.15 


105. 34 


13. 55() 


12. 326 


23.24 


3.40 


100. 81 


11.744 


10. 469 


24.68 


3.39 


100.59 


11.687 


10. 456 



Noiipro- 
teid ni- 
trogen. 

Per ci. 

1. 230 

1. 547 

. 560 

.377 

.459 

.842 

1.098 

1.357 

1.313 

1.076 

1.230 

1.275 

1.231 



a Average of 10. 



t> Average of 16. 



■ Average of 30. 



SOLUBILITY OF UNCOOKED AND COOKED MEATS IN COLD 

WATER. 

Previous iuvc.stigation.s have shown that a study of the sohibility 
in cold water of meats before and after cooking is of value in deter- 
minino- the nature of the chemical chang-es which meats nnderoo during 
the processes of cooking. Furthermore, it seems more than prob- 
able, especially in the^ light of Armsbj^'s recent experiments on the 
expenditure of energy in digestion and assimilation, '^ that a study 
of the solubility of meats in cold water would throw some light upon 
their real nutritive value and upon the ease and rapidity of their diges- 
tion and assimilation, since experimental data indicate clearly that, 
other conditions being the same, the easil}' soluble nutrients of foods 
are masticated, digested, and assimilated by the animal body with the 
expenditure of less energy than are the less soluble or the insoluble 
nutrients. Again, though the amount of fat present has a decided 
effect, the flavor of meats and of other foods also is undoubtedly 
due chiefl}^ to the soluble constituents present; that is to say, the 
substances which give flavor to meats will be found in the cold- 
water extracts. 

The statements are in accord with Rubner's* conclusions. He says 
in effect that the tenderer the meat the more easily are the flesh bases 
extracted by the saliva, and, other things being equal, the more pro- 
nounced is the pleasant flavor. He further maintains that the quality 
of meat also depends upon the kind and amount of the flesh bases. 
The character of the feed the animals have received has an effect upon 
flavor and quality, as do also age and sex. 

In discussing the results of the study of the hemoglobin content of 

"Armsby, Principles of Animal Nutrition, 1904, p. 372. 

& E. von Leyden. Haudbuch der Ernahrungstherapie. Leipsic, 1903. 2. ed. , p. 86. 



122 

muscular tissue Lohmann and associates" point out that generally, 
though not always, other soluble constituents are present in abun- 
dance when the henioj^loljin content is high. In other words, the red 
meats usually contain the largest amount of extractives and hence 
have the most pronounced flavor (exclusive of that due to fat). 
Although other factors undoubtedlj^ exert more or less influence upon 
it, the hem()glol)in content is very largel}' determined ))y exercise. In 
birds the nuich used muscles contain about three times as much as do 
those which are little used. In game the hemoglobin content is very 
liigli. The ilesh of young animals contains less hemoglobin than that 
of old animals owing to the fact that the nuiscles have been little used. 
Since the amount of other extractives is usuall}' directh' proportional 
to the hemoglobin content, it is obvious that exercise and other fac- 
tors which influence the amount of blood present in the muscular 
tissue may affect the flavor of meat very materially. 

Flavor — that is, the kind and amount of soluble bodies present in 
meat^is known to be influenced })y hanging and storing. If putre- 
factive changes are not prevented amin bodies and later other com- 
pounds of very pronounced odor and flavor are produced, as was 
pointed out by C. Mai'' in a study of meat putrefaction. Cold storage 
checks the action of putrefactive bacteria, but not that of the enzyms 
iioi-mally present in meat. The decided changes in flavor and texture 
which are noted when meat ripens in cold storage and which are 
entii-cly difl'erent from putrefactive changes arc attributed to the con- 
tinued action of these unorganized f(>rmcnts. Meat which has hung 
for a time is generally considered of ])etter flavor than that wdiich is 
freshly killed. According to M. Midler,^ who has studied the changes 
l)roug]it about by enzyms, meat held in cold storage is especially .satis- 
factory for roasting or l)roiling, but from the standpoint of flavor of 
both meat and broth is not as good as freshly slaughtered meat for 
l)oiling. 

In view of these considerations it is evident that more information 
i-egarding the quantities and the nature and character of the materials 
extracted from uncooked and cooked meats is highly '^desirable. 

Composition of the Cold- Water Extracts of Uncookei) Meats. 

The quantity and the nature of the substances extracted from meats 
by cither cold or hot water has apj^arently l)een studied ])ut little. As 
far back as 1847 Justus Liebig,'' in his classical research on the nature 
of the constituents of meat juice, determined in one or two instances 



«Ztachr. Biol., 45 (1903), p. 324. 

^Ztschr. ^nter^l^ch. Nahr. u. Genussnitl., 4 (1901), p. 18. 

'^Arch. llyg., 47 (1<)03), p. 127. 

<^Liebig'y Ann. ('hem., (J2 (1847), p. 257. 

/ 



123 

the total quantit}' of beef and chickon tlosh which was sohible in cold 
and in hot w:it(M-. With l)oof Hosh he ()l)tiiiiu'(l the foHowino- results: 
Material sohiblc in cold water, (5 per cent; material other than fat, 
insohihle in cold water, 17 per cent; fat, 2 per cent, and water, Tf) per 
cent. Of the (5 per cent of material soluble in watiM", 'i.lt.') per cent was 
coai^'ulated by lu'at, the ])alance, H.O;") per cent, remainino- in solution in 
hot water. Of the IT \)vv c<Mit of insoluMe material other than fat, 
0.0 p(M- c(Mit was tjelatinoids, sinc(» it was made soluble by boilino-with 
water. In the easc^ of chicken llesh, S per cent of matcM'ial s()lul>le in 
cold water was found, of which 4.70 per cent was coagulated by heat 
and .'1H(> ])(M- cent remained dissolved in the hot water. 

Other investioatoi-s. about the time of Liebio- or soon after, made 
cold-water extracts of ditferent kinds of flesh mainly with a view to 
securino- mat<M-ial for detailed analysis by the ordinary method; but, 
while tlu? results of tluMr complete analyses are on record," we have 
not as yet found a description of the methods which they employed, 
nor have we found the results of their direct anahses of the water 
extracts. In view of these facts, it does not seem necessary to con- 
sider their work further in this connection. 

There have l)een in later years, however, a num})er of investio-ations 
which should be referred to, namely, those of Almen,'' Atwater and 
associates, '■ Hemieberg- and associates,'' Wiley and associates," and 
Gautier,' which are also mentioned on i^ajifc IHI in connection with the 
discussion of the results of the chemical composition of uncooked 
and cooked meats. 

In his study of Hsh, Almen prejxired a cold-water extract of the 
flesh, and determined the albumin by coa>iulation by heat in the pres- 
ence of a few drops of acetic acid, and the extractives by evaporating 
the water extract to dryness and weio-hiny after removing the coagu- 
lated protcid. This residue was then ignited in order to determine 
the amount of soluble ash, which was subtracted from the total weight 
of the residue, the remainder being designated "extractives." Refer- 
ring to the data on pages 9S and !H), it will bo seen that the extractives 
as obtained by Almen's method correspond to the sum of the nitrog- 
enous and nonnitrogenous extractives and the albumoses as obtained 
by the method used in the present investigations. Almen also deter- 
mined the gelatinoids in the flesh of fish by treating the residue 
insoluble in cold water with boiling water for twelve hours. The 
resulting solution was evaporated to constant weight and calculated 

«Fremy, Encyclopedie Chimique, vol. 9, p. 467. 

& Analyse der Fleisches einiger Fische. Upsala, 1877. 

cU. S. Fish Commission Rpt. 1880, p. 231. 

f'Jour. Landw. (1878), p. 549. 

''U. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau of Chemistry Bui. 53. 

/ Rev. Hyg. et Pol. Sanit., 19 (1897), p. 394. 



124 

as j.(>latiiu)ids. After doductiiio- the fat and insoluble ash, the residue 
loft after tn^atnient with hot water was designated '' insoluble proteid" 
(FU'isfhfaser). 

Atwater and his associates, in their study of the chemical composi- 
tion of lish flesh, determined the inoredients soluble in cold and in 
hot water in a numl^er of samples. I'hey prepared the extract by 
digesting 33.33 grams of the freshly chopped flesh eighteen to twenty- 
four hours in 'yOi) cubic centimeters of cold water and then filtered it. 
Tlie sohil)lc albumin was determined by heating the cold-water extract 
to coagulation, filtering, washing with water and ether, drying, and 
weighing. The total amount of matter other than coagulable proteid 
dissolved l)y the cold water was determined ])y evaporating to dryness 
measured quantities of the filtrate from the coagulable proteid and 
weighing. One sample of the dry residue was used for the determi- 
nation of the ash, and another finely ground Avas used for the estima- 
tion of fat. The total quantity of ash and fat thus obtained was 
subtracted from the crude extract in order to get the true extract, 
which was designated "extractive matters." The same investigators 
also determined the gelatinoids in fish flesh by treating the residue, 
insohible in cold water, with boiling water for about twenty hours. 
The resulting solution was then filtered, the filtrate evaporated to 
dryness, and weighed as crude gelatin. In this fat and ash were 
determined and the pun^ gelatin was estimated l)y deducting the quan- 
tities of ash and fat from the crude residue left upon evaporation. 
The methods used by Atwater and coworkers are quite similar to those 
used by Almen, but it is apparent from the records available that in 
the American work greater precautions were taken with certain 
determinations to get concordant and accurate results. 

Henneberg, Kern, and Wattenberg, in their investigation of the 
chemical composition of mutton, determined the extractives by the fol- 
lowing method: Fifty grams of the fresh flesh were repeatedly treated 
with small quantities of cold water until the volume of the resulting 
filtrates measured 1,000 cubic centimeters. Portions of this filtrate 
were used for the estimation of ash, total dissolved matter, total nitro- 
gen, and nitrogen in the solution after removing the coagulated albu- 
min. The proteid nitrogen— i. e., that coagulated hy heat— was also 
determined by difference. For purposes of comparison or as a test of 
the accuracy of the work, the proteid coagulated by heat was also 
removed, dried, and weighed. The figures for nonprotiud nitrogen 
were multiplied by the factor 6.25 in order to get the amount of the 
so-called nonproteid extractives. The results obtained by Henneberg 
and associates with mutton flesh are comparal)h' wifh those of Atwater 
and Almen with fish flesh. 

Stated briefly, the methods used by Wiley and associates were as 



125 

follows: The f resti meat was air-dried at a temperature of 100° C. or 
slio-litly higher, until the fat had very hiroely separated. The fat was 
poured oil and the dryinj^- continued until the weight beeaiue approxi- 
mately constant, when the residues thus obtained were extracted with 
ether to remove any remainino- fat. The extracted llesh was dried to 
approximately constant weight and then left exposed to the air for 
at least twenty-four hours and aoajn weiiihed. One-gram portions of 
the air-dried sani])le thus prepared were washed Avith ether, and after 
the ether had been allowtMl to evaporate were treated repeatedly with 
small (juantities of water until 800 to •!(»() cul)ic centimeters had been 
used. The nitrogen in the insolul)le residues was determined l)y the 
Kjeldahl method. The tiltrates from the insolu])le portions of the meat 
were placed in Kjeldahl tiasks and used for the determination of the 
matei-ial precipitated l)y bromin (gelatinoids). The nitrogen in the 
bromin precipitates was determined by the Kjeldahl method. The 
percentage of nitrogen in the form of nitrogenous extractives (flesh 
bases) was found by subtracting the sum of the tigures representing 
insoluble nitrogen and nitrogen precipitated by bromin, from the tig- 
ures for total nitrogen. In calculating the percentage of flesh bases, 
tliA factor 8.12 was used, and for tiie other forms of nitrogen, the fac- 
tor 0.25. It is evident from this outline that the results obtained are 
not directly compara])le with those of the other investigations here 
mentioned, since air-dried samples of flesh were used, and there is 
nmch evidence to show that in the preparation of such samples, fresh 
meats undoubtedly undergo various fundamental chemical changes. 

Notwithstanding the fact that so far we have not been able to learn 
the methods used by Gautier in his investigations with meats, his 
results are of decided interest, and the values which he reports for the 
composition of meat are sunmiarized, with the data of the other 
investigators referred to, in the following table: 

Table 107.— Sammar(/ of anali/f^efi of cold-water extracts of meats. 





a 

o 
d 


2 
'3 

2 


Organic extract- 


i 




0) 

a 




Nitrogen. 


22 






"3 



■s 




'S 

p. 

c 



S2 


Kind of meat. 


4) 

be . 

2 


■n 


"3 



.« m 

»5 


Fish (fresh), Almen 


8 
5 
24 

7 
14 

88 

1 
1 


P.ct. 
2.49 
1.46 
1.55 
.61 
1.61 

"3.06 
3.32 


P.ct. 


p.ct. 


P.ct. 
1.93 
3.56 
1.95 
3.66 
2.18 


p.tt. 


p.ct. 


p.ct. P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 




















Fish (fresh), Atwater 

Fish (cured), Atwater 

Mutton(fresh ) I'.Henneberg. 
Pork (air-dried) '', Wiley 


































"i.'i4 

2.24 
1.33 






i.2i 


5.00 0.589 
1 .541 


0.258 
.176 


0.331|1:0.78 
.3651: .48 


0.97 
.59 


3.21 
1.92 






.65 
.60 


6.92 
5.84 








Mutton (fresh), Gautier — 



















1 Results calculated to fat-free substance. , , ,,-,.,<• , ^,^ „>. 

b The samples were air-dried before analysis, but the results have been calculated to fresh substanie. 



126 

From the above summary it is apparent that the present knowledge 
of the cold-water extracts of various kinds of meats is very incomplete. 
Tiic results of Gautier are the most detailed of those which have been 
found on record, although even here it is impossible to calculate the 
jjrotcid and nonproteid nitrogen from his published results. Further, 
the \'alucs for the nonnitrogenous organic extractives as presented 
in the a))ov(^ table are not altogether satisfactory, since it was 
necessary for the authors of this bulletin to recalculate and readjust 
(Jautier's published results in order to include them in the tabular 
eonii)arison. This could not he done with assured accuracy without 
a knowledge of the analytical methods which he employed. 

A number of investigators have reported studies of special groups 
of meat extractives, such as xanthin and other purin bodies, which 
sliould be referred to in this connection. I. W. Hall " has summarized 
the work of earlier investigators on purin bodies and reported the 
results of a number of original investigations. His recentl}' published 
volume includes an extended bibliography. 

The numerous investigations which have been made of the composi- 
tion of commercial meat extract have a direct bearing on the question 
of solu])le constituents of meat, but it does not necessarily follow that 
all constituents found in the extract existed in the nuiscular tissue, 
since some may ))e cleavage products formed when the meat juice was 
evaporated. 

In a recently published study of meat extract, F. Kutscher'' reports 
methjdguanidin and a number of hitherto unknown nitrogenous 
l)odies. It is undoubtedly true that such bodies, if they exist in the 
muscular tissue, are present in very small amounts; however, the 
residts of this and other recentl}' published works of a similar nature 
should be taken into account in future investigations. 

In this summary no reference has been made to the numerous 
investigations which have ])een reported on the amount and propor- 
tion of glycogen and other carbohydrate constituents of flesh, as 
attention was directed especially to the nitrogenous bodies which exist 
in nieut. 

In the present investigation, detailed studies were made of the 
cold-water extracts of meat, and the data ol)tained are summarized 
in the following pages. Tables Nos. 108-113 show the total amount 
of solul)le material in the raw and cooked meats, as well as the kind 
and cut of meat, the method of cooking, and the chemical nature of 
the material dissolved ])v cold water. 

In Tables lOS and l(»i» data are summarized regarding the composi- 
tion of the cold-water extracts of dilferent kinds and cuts of raw meat. 

oThe Purin Bodies of Food Stuffs. Philadelphia, 1904, 2. ed. 
ftZtschr. Untersurh. Nahr. u. Genussmtl., 10 (UH)5), p. 528. 



127 



Table 108. — Chemical composition of the cold-water extracts of raw meats, expressed in 
terms of the total weight of meat taken. 



Cook- 


Labo- 
rato- 
ry 

No. 


Kind of meat. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


To- 
tal 
solid 
mat- 
ter. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen. 


Pro- 
teid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Non- 
pro- 
teid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Ratio Of 

non- 
proteid 
to pro- 
teid 
nitro- 
gen. 


ing 
experi- 
ment 
No. 


Ni- 
troge- 
nous. 


Non- 

ni- 

troge- 

nous. 


To- 
tal. 


122 
121 

107 


1672 
1668 
1637 
1640 


Beef, fiank, raw 

Beef, neek, raw 

Beef, round, raw... 
..do 


P.ct. 
1.21 
2.30 
2.76 
2.77 
1.82 
2.70 
2.80 
2.39 
2.70 
2.20 


P.cl. 
0.77 
.81 
1.08 
1.37 
1.41 
1.12 
1.24 
1.11 
1.18 
1.13 


P.ct. 
0.96 
1.63 
2. 22 
r72 


P.ct. 
1.73 
2.44 
3.30 
3 09 


P.rt. 










P.ct. 
0.55 

.77 
.98 
.98 


P.ct. 
3.49 
5.51 
7.04 
6 84 


P.ct. 

0.440 
.627 
.790 
.883 
.744 
.791 
.846 
.739 
.811 
.714 


P.ct. 

0.194 
. 368 
.442 
.443 
. 292 
. 432 
.448 
.383 
.433 
.352 


P.ct. 

0. 246 
. 259 
.348 
.440 
. 4.52 
.359 
.398 
.356 
.378 
.362 


1:0.79 
1:1.42 
1:1.27 
1:1.01 


110-113 
131-132 
133-13(i 
137-140 
141 147 


1647 


do ... 


1.95 


3.36 


.94 6.12 
.89 6.70 
.89 6.71 
.92 .').94 


1: .65 


1722 
1741 
1753 
1764 
1775 

1676 

1666 
1662 


do 

do 

do 


1.99 
1.78 
1.52 
1.73 
1.40 


3.11 
3.02 
2.63 
2.91 
2.53 


1:1.21 
1:1.13 
1:1.08 


do 


.73 6.34 


1:1.15 


150-156 


. ...do 





.87 


5.60 


1: .97 




.Vverage Nos.1637, 
1640, 1647, 1722, 
1741. 1753, 1764, 
and 1775 

Beef, nimp, raw 

Average of all beef 
samples 

Veal, leg, raw 

do 

Average 

Average of all beef 
and veal sam- 
ples 






2. 52 


1.21 


1.79 


3.00 





.90 


6.42 


.790 


.403 


.387 


1:1.04 


123-124 


1.54 


.66 


.88 


1.54 





.61 


3.69 


.456 


.246 


.210 


1:1.17 




2.29 


1.08 


1.62 


2.70 





.83 


5.82 


.713 


.367 


.346 


1:1.06 


114-116 
117-120 


2.83 
1.90 

2.37 


1.26 
1.08 


1.94 
1.37 


3.20 
2.43 


1 



1.00 
.91 


7.03 
5.26 


.855 
.650 


. 4.52 
.303 


.403 
.347 


1:1.12 
1: .87 




1.17 


1.66 


2.83 


1 ^ 


.95 


6.15 


.753 


.378 


.375 


1:1.01 




2.30 


1.09 


1.63 


2.72 


1 " 


.85 


5.87 


.719 


.309 


.35C 


1:1.05 



Table 109. — Chemical composition of cold-water extracts of meats {water-free basis). 



Cook- 


Labo- 
ratory 
No." 


Kind of meat. 


Pro- 

teid. 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 
solid 
mat- 
ter. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen. 


Pro- 
teid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Non- 
pro- 
tied 
nitro- 
gen. 


ing 
experi- 
ment 
No. 


Ni- 
troge- 
nous. 


Non- 

ni- 

troge- 

nous. 


To- 
tal. 


122 
121 
107 
108-109 
110-113 
131-132 
133-136 


1672 
1668 
1637 
1640 
1647 
1722 
1741 
17.53 
1764 
1775 

1676 

1656 
1662 


Beef, flank, raw 

Beef, neck, raw 

Beef, round, raw 

do 

do 

do 

do 


P.ct. 
2.99 
8.02 

11.27 

10.68 
7.05 
9.86 

10.15 
9.09 
9.00 
8.23 


P. ct. 

1.89 
2.82 
4.41 
5.28 
5.46 
4.08 
4.50 
4.21 
3.92 
4.23 


P. ct. 
2.35 
5.68 
9.07 
6.62 
7.55 
7.25 
6.46 
5.77 
5.75 
5.24 


P. ct. 

4.24 

8.50 

13.48 

11.90 

13.01 

11.33 

10.96 

9.98 

9.67 

9.47 


P.ct. 












P. ct. 
1.35 
2.68 
4.00 
3.77 
3.64 
3. 25 
3.23 
3.47 
2.44 
3.26 


P.ct. 
8.58 
19. 20 
28. 75 
26. 35 
23.70 
24.44 
24. 34 
22. .54 
21.11 
20. 96 


P.ct. 
1.078 
2.183 
3. 229 
3.401 
2. 881 
2.885 
3.071 
2. 805 
2. 695 
2. 673 


P.ct. 
0.478 
1.283 
1.803 
1.709 
1.128 
1.578 
1.624 
1.454 
1.440 
1.317 


P.ct. 
0.600 
.900 
1.426 
1.692 
1.753 
1.307 
1.447 


137-140 

'141-147 

150-156 


do 

do 

do 

Average No.s.l637, 
1640, 1647, 1722, 
1741, 17.53, 1764, 
and 1765 


1.351 
1.255 
1.356 




9.42 


4.51 


6.71 


11.22 





3.38 


24.02 


2.955 


1.507 


1.448 


123-124 


Beef, rump, raw 


3.23 


1.38 


1.84 3.22 





1.28 


7. 73 . 955 


.517 


.438 




Average of all beef 


8.14 


3.83 


5.78 


9.61 





2.94 


20.69 


2.532 


1.303 


1.229 




Veal, leg, raw 

do 






114-116 
117 120 


11.78 
7.76 


5.24 
4.41 


8.07 
5.60 


13.31 
10.01 






4.16 
3.72 


29.251 3.5.58 
21.49 2.658 


1.885 
1. 242 


1.673 
1.416 










9.77 


4.83 


6.84 


11.67 





3.94 


25.38 


3.108 


1.564 


1.544 




Average of all beef 
and veal sam- 
ples 






8.39 


3.98 


5.94 


9.92 


c 


3.09 


21.41 


2.621 


1.343 


1.278 









128 

The data presented show that a considerable proportion of raw flesh 
is soluble in cold water. In the case of 11 samples of beef flesh, the 
extracted material contained on an average 2.29 per cent proteid, 
1.08 per c6nt flesh bases (nitroo-enous organic extractives), 1.62 per 
cent non nitrogenous organic extractives, 2.70 per cent total organic 
extractives, and 0.83 per cent ash, making a total of 5.82 per cent 
soluble matter. The total nitrogen dissolved by cold water averaged 
0.718 per cent, and of this total nitrogen 0.307 per cent existed in the 
form of proteid and 0.346 per cent as nonproteid nitrogen. The ratio 
of nonproteid nitrogen to proteid nitrogen was 1:1.06. 

In the case of two samples of veal the cold-water extract contained 
on an average 2.37 per cent proteid, 1.17 per cent flesh bases, 1.66 
per cent non nitrogenous organic extractives, 2.83 per cent total 
organic extractives, and 0.95 per cent ash, giving a total of 6.15 per 
cent soluble material. The total nitrogen dissolved by cold water 
averaged 0.753 per cent, of which 0.378 per cent existed as proteid 
and 0.375 per cent as nonproteid nitrogen. The ratio of the nonpro- 
teid to the proteid nitrogen was 1:1.01. 

By comparing the data here presented regarding each individual 
nutrient with the results of the complete analysis of the meat as given 
in Tables 98 and 99 (pp. 99, 100), it will be observed that 8.67 to 15.03 
per cent of the total proteid in the beef was soluble in water, the aver- 
age for the 11 samples of raw beef being 12.86 per cent and for the 2 
samples of veal a somewhat greater proportion. All of the nitroge- 
nous and nonnitrogenous extractives were found to be soluble, while 
none of the fat of the flesh went into solution in cold water. The 
greater part of the ash was extracted, the average in the case of beef 
being 80.58 per cent, and in the case of veal 84.96 per cent. 

The total nutrients soluble in cold water, expressed as per cent of 
the total nutrients in the original meat (see p. 99), varies from 7.63 in 
beef rump (sample No. 1676) to 28.71 per cent in veal leg (sample No. 
1656), the average for beef being 18.46 and for veal 24.54 per cent. 
In other words, these experiments indicate that from one-fifth to one- 
fourth of the total nutrients of raw beef and veal are soluble in cold 
water. 

The average results of the experiments here reported also show 
that the solid matter obtained ])y treating beef flesh with cold water 
contains 12.25 per cent nitrogen, 39.34 per cent proteid, 18.56 per 
cent nitrogenous organic extractives, 27.84 per cent nonnitrogenous 
organic extractives, and 14.26 i)er cent ash, but no fat. Judging from 
the data obtained with two samples, the cold-water extract of veal con- 
tains 12.27 per cent nitrogen, 38.60 per cent proteid, 20.36 per cent 
nitrogenous organic extractives, 25.73 per cent nonnitrogenous organic 
extractives, and 15.63 per cent ash. 



129 

It is evident that the nitrogen existing in the cold-water extracts of 
raw meats is ([iiite e((ually divided between protind and nonproteid 
substances, tlie a\'erage ratio for 13 samples of beef and veal being 
1:1.05. 

Composition of the Cold-Water Extracts of Meats Cooked by 

Boiling. 

Tlie tables which "follow sunnnarize data regarding the composition 
of cold-water extracts of boiled meat. 

Tahi.k 1 10. — Clioniail conipos-ition i>f cold-water extracts of meats cooked bj/ boiling {fresh 

substance). 





Raw 

meat 
used 
No. 


Cook- 

iiiKex- 

peri- 

IlU'Ilt 

No. 


Kind of meat. 


Temperature. 


Dura- 
tion of 
toot- 
ing. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic extractives. 


Ln bo- 
ra tor V 
iNo." 


At be- 
gin- 
ning. 


During 
cook- 
ing. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 


1642 


1640 
1753 

1753 

1741 
1764 

1775 

1640 
1741 
1764 
1775 

1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 

1656 
1662 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
154 

108 
134 
144 
153 

138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 

116 
118 




°C. 
Cold. 
Cold. 


°C. 

85 
85 


Hours. 
3 
3 


Per ct. 

0.13 

.20 


Per ct. 
0.43 

.78 


Per ct. 
0.56 

.82 


Per ct. 
0.99 


1754 


.do 


1.60 










Cold. 


85 


3 


.17 


.61 


.69 


1.30 




Beef, round (browned) . 

Average No.s. 1642, 
1754, and 1756 . . . 

Beef, round (browned). 




1756 


Cold. 


85 


3 


.17 


.75 


.75 


1.50 




Cold. 


85 


3 


.17 


.65 


.71 


1.36 


1746 
1769 


85 
85 
85 


85 

85 
85 


3 
3 
3 


.15 
.21 
.13 


.73 
.95 
.80 


.91 

.88 
.92 


1.64 
1.83 


1780 


. ...do 


1.72 




Average Nos. 1769 
and 1780 

Average No.**. 1746, 
1769, and 1780... 






85 


85 


3 


• 1" 


.88 


.90 


1.78 




85 


85 


3 


.16 


.83 


.90 


1.73 


1641 


100 
100 
100 
100 


85 

85 
85 
85 


3 
3 
3 
3 


.38 
.33 
.21 
.20 


.33 
.79 
.99 
.94 


.45 
1.08 
1.28 
1.04 


.78 


1744 


.do 


1.87 




do 


2.27 


1779 


do 


1.98 










100 


85 


3 


.28 


.76 


.96 


1.72 








1755 


Cold. 
Cold. 


100 
100 


3 
3 


.44 
.49 


.74 
.79 


.90 
.91 


1.64 


1757 


Beef, round (browned) . 


1.70 




Cold. 


100 


3 


.47 


.77 


.90 


1.67 








1743 


100 
100 


100 
100 


3 
3 


.33 
.24 


.77 

.72 


1.04 
.79 


1.81 


1745 


Beef, round (browned) . 


1.51 




100 


100 


3 


.29 


.75 


.91 


1.66 




Average of all 










3 


.26 


.75 


.88 


1.63 












1646 


Cold. 
Cold. 


65 

85 


5 
5 


.27 
.36 


.29 
.32 


.38 
.43 


.67 


1645 


do 


.75 








1654 


Cold. 
Cold. 


85 
85 


5 
5 


.60 
.31 


.29 
.44 


.96 
.55 


1. 25 


1658 


do 


.99 




Average Nos. 1654 
and 1658 






Cold. 


85 


5 


.46 


.37 


.75 


1.12 




Average Nos. 1645, 
1654, and 1658 . . . 






Cold. 


85 


5 


.42 


.35 


.65 


1.00 



11480— No, 162—06- 



130 

T.VHLE UO.—rheiaical composition of cold-watev extracts of meats cooked bij boilimj {fresh 

mbstance) — Contiuued. 



1 


Raw I 
meat 
used 
No. 


Cook- 1 


Kind of meat. 


Temperature. 


Dura- 
tion of 
cook- 
ing. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic extractives. 


La bo- 1 

ratory 

No. 


ng ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


At be- 
gin- 
ning. 


During 
cook- 
ing. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 

nitrog- Total, 
enous. 


1 

1644 
1720 


1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 

1672 
16.56 
1662 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


Ill 
131 

121 
123 
125 

122 
115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 




°C. 
100 
100 


°C. 

85 
85 


Hours. 
5 
5 


Per ct. 

0.29 

.16 


Per ct. 

0.40 

.65 


Per ct. Per ct. 
0.57 0.97 


....do 


.15 .80 






100 


85 


5 


.23 


.53 


.36 j .89 












1665 
1673 
1703 


100 
100 
100 

100 


85 

85 
85 


5 
5 
5 


.19 
.38 
.38 


.32 
.47 
.29 


.55 
.43 
.34 


.87 




.90 


do 


.63 


Average Nos. 1673 
and 1703 

Beef, flank 

Veal, leg 

do 

Average Nos. 1653 
and 1664 






85 


5 


.38 


.38 


.39 


.77 


1669 
16.53 
1664 


100 
100 
100 


85 

85 

85 


5 
5 
5 


.39 
.49 
.32 


.04 
.09 
.55 


.17 
1.00 

.77 


.21 
1.69 
1.32 




1*00 


85 


5 


.41 


.62 


.89 


1.51 




Average Nos. 1644, 
1653, 1664, 1665, 
1669, 1673, 1706, 
and 1720 






100 


85 


5 


.83 


.43 


..50 


.93 








1639 
1643 
1721 


100 
100 
100 


100 
100 


5 
5 


.97 
.92 


.48 
.44 
.65 


1.19 
.57 
.50 


1.67 


do 


1.01 


do 

Average 


lOJ 5 1 .56 


1.15 




100 


j 100 5 


.82 


.52 


.75 


1.27 


1704 
1652 




100 
100 


100 
100 


5 
5 


.90 
.44 


.53 
1.12 


.72 
1.67 


1.25 




2.79 


Average Nos. 1639, 
1643, 16.52, 1704, 
and 1721 


i ! 1 






100 


100 5 


1 

.76 


.64 


.93 1.57 




-Vverage of all 
cooked 5 hours. . 

Average of all 
cooked 3 or 5 








j 




.47 


.47 


.65 


1.12 














1 






.38 


.60 


.75 


1.35 














T K^ Raw 
^^«- No. 


Cook- 
ing ex- 
I)eri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Fat. 


Total 
Ash. : solid 
matter. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen. 


Proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Non- 
proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Ratio of 

non- 
proteid 
to pro- 
teid ni- 
trogen. 


1642 
1754 


1640 
17.53 

1753 

1741 
1764 
1775 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
164 




Per ct. 




Per ct. Per ct. 

0.27 1.39 

. 55 2. 35 


Per ct. 

0.160 

.282 


Per ct. 

0.021 

.032 


Per ct. 

0.139 

.2.51 


1:0.15 


..do 


1: .13 











.41 


1.88 


.221 


.027 


.194 
.240 


1: .14 




Beef, round (browned) . 






1756 





..50 1 


2.17 


.268 


.028 


1: .12 




Average No.s. 1642 
1754, and 1756... 





44 


1.97 


.237 


.027 


.210 


1: .13 


1746 
1769 
1780 


Beef, round (browned). 

Beef, round 

do 

Average Nos. 1769 
and 1780 

Average Nos. 1746 
1769, and 1780... 







.51 
.63 
.57 


2.30 
2.67 
2.42 


.260 
.339 
.276 


.024 
.035 
.021 


.236 
.304 
. 2,55 


1: .18 
1: .10 
1: .01 




•! 


.60 


2.55 


.308 


.028 


.280 


1: .10 







.57 


2.46 


.292 


.026 


.266 


1: .10 




i 


' 















131 

Tahi.k 1 \0. — Clu'iiiinil romponUion of cold-water extracts of meatfi cooked hy hoilinij {fresh 

substance ) — Continued . 



Labo- 
utory 
No. 


Raw 

meat 

used 

No. 


Cook- 
ing cx- 

peri- 
ment 

No. 


Kind of iiii'nt. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 

solid 

matter. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen. 


Proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Non- 
proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Ratio of 

non- 
proteid 
to pro- 
teid ni- 
trogen. 


1(V41 


1640 
1711 
1761 
1775 

1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 

1656 
1662 

1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 

1672 
1656 
1662 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


108 
134 
144 
153 

138 
140 

133 

135 

113 
112 

116 

118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
125 

122 
11.-^ 

117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 




Per ct. 




"I 


Pcrct. 

0.29 

.53 

.32 

.60 


Per ct. 
1.45 
2.73 
2.80 
2.78 


Per ct. 

0.168 

.307 

.352 

.332 


Pel- ct. 

0.062 

.052 

.034 

.032 


Per ct. 

0.106 
.255 
.318 
.300 


1:0.58 


1741 


do 

do 


1: .20 
1: .11 


177'J 


do 


1: .11 













.44 


2.44 


.290 


.045 


.245 


1: .18 














.42 
• .52 


2.50 
2.71 


.309 
.332 


.070 

.078 


.239 
.254 


1: .29 


1757 


Beef, round (browned) . . 


1: .31 







.47 


2.61 


.321 


.074 


.247 


1: .30 














.57 
.51 


2.71 
2.26 


.300 
.270 


.053 
.039 


.247 
.231 


1: .21 


1745 


Beef, round (browned) . . 


1: .17 







.54 


2.49 


.285 


.046 


.239 


1: .19 




Average of all 
cooked 3 hours.. 









.49 


2.38 


.283 


.042 


.241 


1: .17 


1646 
1645 






.24 
.34 


1.18 
1.45 


.138 
.161 


.044 
.a57 


.094 
.104 


1: .47 


do 


1: .55 






1654 






.50 
.40 


2.35 
1.70 


.189 
.190 


.095 
.050 


.094 
.140 


1:1.01 


1658 


..do 


1: .36 




Average Nos. 1654 
and 1658 









.45 


2.03 


.190 


.073 


.117 


1: .62 




Average Nos. 1645, 
lOM, and 1658... 









.41 


1.83 


.180 


.067 


.113 


1; .60 








.38 
.25 


1.64 
1.21 


.174 
.234 


.046 
.026 


.128 
.208 


1: .36 


1720 


do 


1: .13 













.31 


1.43 


.204 


.036 


.168 


1: .21 




Beef, neck 




16G5 
1673 







.20 
.25 

.28 


1.26 
1.53 
1.29 


.132 
.212 
.1.54 


.030 
.061 
.061 


.102 
.151 
.093 


1: .29 
1: .40 


1703 


do 

Average Nos. 1673 
and 1703 


1: .66 







.26 


1.41 


.183 


.001 


.122 


1: .50 




Beef flank 




1669 







.20 
.60 
.53 


.80 
2.78 
2.17 


.077 
.301 

. 227 


.063 
.079 
. 052 


.014 
.222 

.175 


1:4.50 


1653 




1: .36 


1664 


do 


1: .30 




Average Nos. 1653 
and 1664 









.56 


2.48 


.264 


.066 
.052 


.198 
.137 


1: .33 




Average Nos. 1644, 
1653, 1664, 1665, 
1669, 1673, 1703, 
and 1720 









.34 


1.60 


.189 


1: .38 















.50 
.44 

.38 


3.14 
2.37 
2.09 


.309 

.288 
.297 


. 155 
.147 
.089 


.154 
.141 
.208 


1:1.01 


1643 


....do 


1:1.04 


IVl 


do 


1: .43 













.44 


2.53 


.298 


.130 


.168 


1: .77 








1704 






.47 
.73 


2.62 
3.96 


.315 
.428 


.144 
.070 


.171 

.358 


1: .84 


165'' 




1: .20 




Average Nos. 1639, 
1643, 1652, 1704, 
and 1721 

Average of all 
cooked 5 hours.. 

Average of all 
cooked 3 or 5 









.50 


2.83 


.327 


.121 


.206 


1: .59 







.39 


•1.98 


.225 


.074 


.151 


1: .49 







.44 


2.17 


.251 


.060 


.191 


1: .31 









132 



Tahi-k 111. 



-Cliemk'iJ coinpo^'dinn of cold-water extracts of meats cooked bi/ boiling 
( water-free nubstance ) . 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 


Raw J 


C'ook- 


Kind of meat. 


Temperature. 


Dura- 
tion of j 
cook- 
ing. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


ueat 
used 
Ko. 


peri- 
ment 
No. 


At be- 
gin- 
ning. 


During 
cook- 
ing. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Nonni- 
trog- 
enous. 


1642 
1754 


1640 
1753 

1753 

1741 
1764 
1775 

1640 
1741 
1764 
1775 

1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 

1656 
1662 

1647 
1722 

; 1668 
1676 
1705 

1672 

; 1656 

1662 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
154 

108 
134 
144 
153 

138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 

116 
118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
125 

122 
115 
117 


Beef, round 

....do 


°C. 
Cold. 
Cold. 


85 
85 


ffoMr.s. 
3 
3 


Per ct. 

0.35 

.46 


Per ct. 
1.07 
1.78 


Per ct. 
1.40 

1.87 




Average 


.40 


1.43 


1.64 


175C) 


Beef, round (l)rowned) 

.\verage Nos. 1642, 17.'i4, 
and 1756 


Cold. 


85 


3 " 


.40 


1.75 


1.75 




.40 


1.53 


1.67 


1746 
1769 
1780 


Beef, round (browned) 


85 
85 
85 


85 
85 
85 


3 
3 
3 


.35 
.50 
.29 


1.68 
2.18 
1.79 


2.09 
2. 02 


do 


2.05 




Average Nos. 1769 and 
1780 


.40 


1.99 


2.04 




Average Nos. 1746, 1769, 
and 1780 








.38 


1.88 


2.05 


1641 
1744 
1768 
1779 




100 
100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 
85 


3 
3 
3 
3 


.93 

.78 
.51 
.44 


.81 
1.88 
2.40 
2.05 


1.10 


do 


2.56 


(Jo 


3.11 


do 


2.27 






.67 


1.79 


2.26 






Cold. 
Cold. 


100 
100 


3 
3 




1755 
1757 


1.00 
1.13 


1.69 
1.81 


2.06 


Beefi round (browned) 

Average 


2.09 




1.07 


1.75 


2.08 


1743 
1745 




100 
100 


100 
100 


3 
3 


.78 
.57 


1.82 
1.68 


2. 46 


Beef! round (browned ) 

Average 


1.85 




.68 


1.75 


2.16 




Average of all cooked 3 








.61 


1.74 


2. 05 






Cold. 
Cold. 

Cold. 
Cold. 


65 

85 

85 
85 


5 
5 

5 
6 





• 1646 
1645 


.73 

.89 


.78 
.80 


1.03 


do 


1.07 


16M 
1658 




1.89 
.91 


1 .92 
1 1.25 


3.06 


do 


1.55 








1.40 


1 1-09 


1 2.31 




Average Nos. 1645, 1654, 
and 1658 








,! 




1.23 


.99 


1 

1.89 




Beef, round 

do 


100 
100 


85 
85 


5 
5 


1 


1644 
1720 


.71 
.36 


.98 
1.45 


1 1.39 
1 .34 


Average 






.54 


1 1.22 


1 •»' 


1665 
1673 
1703 




100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 


5 

5 
5 


.42 
.62 
.74 


.70 
.76 
.66 


1. 21 




.70 


do 


.66 


Average Nos. 1673 and 
1703 






.68 


! .66 


.68 


1669 
1653 
1664 




100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 


5 
5 
5 


1 .75 
! 1.47 

i .84 


.07 
2.07 
1.47 


" r32 


1 Veal, leg 

do 


3.00 
1.99 


Average Nos. 1653 and 
1664 






1.16 


1.77 


2.50 




Average Nos. 1644, 16.53, 
1664, 1665, 1669, 1673, 
1703, and 1720 








.74 


1.01 


1.20 





















133 

T\i?iE \\\.—('linniniJ rnmpoftltiou of rohl-irnter r.rtmrts of meats cooked hy hoiling 
(irater-free mbttlance) — Continued. 



Labo- 


Cook- 
Raw ing 






Temperature. 


Jura- 
ion of 
cook- 
ing. 


Pro- - 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


ra- I 
tory \ 
No. 


neat 1 
ised, 
No. 


ex- 1 
peri- 
ment 

No. 


Kind of meat. 


At be- 
gin- 
ning. 


During 
cook- 
ing. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


*s on ni- 
trog- 
enous. 


1G39 
1643 
1721 


1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


107 
110 . 
132 

126 
114 




100 
100 
100 


°C. Hours. 
100 5 
100 5 
100 5 


Perct. 
2.40 
2.33 
1.31 


Per ct. 
1.19 
1.12 
1.51 


Per ct. 
2.95 


(io 


1.44 


....do 


1.17 




Average 


2.01 ; 1.27 1 


1.85 


1704 
1652 




100 
100 


100 
100 


5 
5 


2.00 
1.26 


1.18 
3.18 


1.60 


Veal, leg 


4.74 




Average Nos. 1639, 16J 
1652, 1704, and 1721 . 


3, 


1.86 


1.63 


2.38 


















Average of all cooked 5 
hours 


1.16- 


1.18 


1.66 




Average of all cooked 3 








.88 


1.43 


1.84 














Labo- 
ratory 
No. 


Raw' 
meat 
used 
No. 

1640 
1753 

1753 

1741 
1764 
1775 

1640 
1741 
1764 

1775 

1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 

1656 
1662 


Cook- 
ng ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Total 
ex- 
tract- 
ives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 
solid 
mat- 
ter. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen. 


Proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Non- 
proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


1S42 
1754 


109 

157 

139 

136 

145 
154 

108 
134 
144 
153 

138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 

116 

118 




Per ct. 
'LAI 
3.65 


Per ct. 




Perct. 
0.67 
1.25 


Per ct. 
3.49 
5.36 


Per ct. 

0.399 

.645 


Per ct. 

0.0.53 

.073 


Per ct. 
0.346 


do 


.572 






3.07 





.96 


4.43 


.522 


.063 


.459 




Beef, round (browned) ... 

Average Nos. 1642, 
17.54, and 1756 

Beef, round (browned) ... 




1756 


3.50 





1.16 


5.06 


.626 


.065 


.561 




3.20 





1.03 


4.64 


.557 


.064 


.493 


1746 
1769 
1780 


3.77 
4.20 
3.84 







1.17 
1.46 
1.27 


5.29 
6.16 
.5.40 


.597 
.779 
.617 


.055 
.080 
.046 


.542 
.699 


do 


.571 




Average Nos. 1769, 
andl780 


4.03 





1.37 


5.78 


.098 


.063 


.635 




Average Nos. 1746, 
1769, and 1780 


3.93 





1.30 


5.62 

3.55 
6.48 
6.81 
6.07 


.664 

.411 

.728 
.855 
.724 


.060 

.150 
.124 

.082 
.070 


.604 


1641 
1744 
1768 
1779 


1.91 
4.44 
5.51 
4.32 








.71 
1.26 

.79 
1.31 


.261 


do 


.604 


do 

do 


.773 
.654 




Average 


4.05 








1.02 


5.73 


.680 


.107 


.573 


1755 
1757 




3.75 
3.90 


.96 
1.20 


5.71 
6.23 


.706 
.763 


.161 
.180 


.545 


Beef, round (browned) ... 
Average ."■. 


.583 




3.83 





1.08 

1.35 
1.19 


5.97 

6.41 
5.29 


.735 


.171 


.564 


1743 
1745 




4. 28 
3.53 



• 


.707 
.631 


.124 
.091 


.583 


Beef, round (browned) ... 


.540 




3.91 





1.27 


5.85 


.669 


. .108 


.561 




Average of all 
cooked 3 hours 






3.79 








1.13 


5.52 


.657 


.097 


.560 




1.81 
1.87 


.65 

.84 


3.19 
3.59 


.372 
.401 


.118 
.142 


.254 


1045 


do 


. 259 






3.98 
2.80 






1.59 
I.IS 


7.46 
4.84 


.602 
..539 


.303 
.142 


.299 


1658 


do 


.397 




Average 


3.40 





i.3e 


6.15 


.mi 


.223 


.348 




Average No.s'. 1645, 
1654, and 1658 .... 




2.88 







1.1« 


5.30 


.514 


.196 


.318 



134 



Tatii.k 111. — Chemical rompomtion of cold-irater extracts of mcato cooked fjj/hoiling {irater- 

free snhf<tance) — Continued. 



Labo- 
ratory 

No. 


Raw 

moat 
used 
No. 


Cook- 
ing ex- 

pi-ri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Total 
ex- 
tract- 
ives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 
solid 
mat- 
ter. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen. 


Proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


Non- 
proteid 
nitro- 
gen. 


164-4 


1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 

1672 
1656 
1662 

« 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


Ill 
181 

125 

122 
115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 


Beef, round 


Per ct. 
2.37 
1.79 


Per ct. 




Perct. 

0.93 

.57 


Per ct. 
4.01 
2.72 


Per ct. 

0. 426 

.524 


Per ct. 

0.113 

.057 


Perct. 
0.313 


1720 


do 


.467 










2.09 





.75 


3.37 


.475 


.085 


.390 




Beef, neck 

Beef, rump 




1666 
1673 


1.91 
1.46 
1.22 




S 


.44 
.41 
.54 


2.77 
2.49 
2. .50 


.290 
.343 
.297 


.066 
.099 
.118 


.224 
.244 


1703 


do 


.179 




Average Nos. 1673 
imd 1703 






1.34 





.48 


2. .50 


.320 


.109 


.211 




Beef, flank 

Veal, leg 




1669 
1653 


.39 
5.07 
3.46 




•0 


.37 

1.80 
1.39 


1.51 
8.34 
5.69 


.144 
.903 
. 595 


.118 
.237 

.ia5 


.026 
666 


1664 


do 


.460 




Average Nos. 1653 
and 1664 






4.27 





1.60 


7.02 


.749 


.186 


563 




Average Nos. 1644, 
1653, 1664, 1665, 
1669, 1673, 1703, and 
1720 






2.21 





.81 


3.76 


.440 


.118 


.322 




Beef, round . 




1639 


4.14 
2. 56 

2.68 







1.24 

1.11 

.90 


7.78 
6.00 
4.89 


.766 
.730 
.694 


.384 
.372 
.208 


382 


1643 


do 


.358 


1721 


do 


.486 




Average 






3.12 





1.08 


6.22 


.730 


.321 


.409 


1704 


2.78 
7.92 






1.04 
2.07 


5.82 
11. 24 


.699 
1. 215 


.320 
.199 


.379 


1652 


Veal, leg 

Average Nos. 1639, 
1643. 1652, 1704, and 
1721 


1.016 




4.01 





1.27 


7.15 


.821 


.297 


.524 




.Average of all 
cooked 5 hours 

Average of all 
cooked 3 or 5 hours 






2.84 





1.00 


5.00 


.561 


.184 


.377 




3.27 





1.06 


5.23 


.604 


.145 


.459 



The data reported show that the cold-water extract of 31 samples of 
boiled beef and veal contained on an average 0.38 per cent proteid, 
0.60 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 0.75 per cent nonnitrogenous 
extractives, 1.35 per cent organic extractives, and 0.11 per cent of 
mineral matter, making a total of 2.17 per cent soluble matter. The 
total nitrogen averaged 0.251 percent, of which 0.060 per cent existed 
as soluble proteid and 0.191 per cent as nonproteid nitrogen. The 
ratio of nonproteid to proteid nitrogen was 1:0.31. Comparison of 
these figures with those on page 127 indicate that ])oiled meat is by no 
means as solul)le in cold water as raw. It must be remembered, how- 
ever, that these figures for the solubilit\" of uncooked and boiled meats 
as reported are not directly comparable, since the uncooked meats con- 
tain much more water than do the cooked meats. It will therefore 
be more .satisfactory to consider the results as calculated to a water-free 
basis. When the results are thus stated (see Table 111. p. 132), we 
find that cold water removed from the 31 samples of boiled flesh on an 
average 0.88 per cent proteid, 1.43 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 
1.84 per cent nonnitrogenous extractives, 3.27 per cent organic 



135 

oxtrac'tivos, and l.(n\ percent asli, making- in all 5.23 per cent soluble 
material. Tpon the same l)asis, tlu> amount of total nitroj>en dis- 
solved hy t'oid water from tlu* ItoiUnl meats averaged 0.604 per cent, 
of which 0.145 per cent existed as proteid and 0.450 per cent as non- 
proteid nitro»;en. 

In the case of raw meats the average values for samples on a water- 
free basis (see TabU' loO, p. 127) are: 8.30 per cent proteid, 3.9<S per 
cent nitrogenous extractives, 5.94 per cent nonnitrogenous (extractives, 

9.02 per cent total organic extractives, 3.00 per cent ash, or 21.41 per 
cent total soluble matter. 'Phi^ average p(>rcentage of total nitrogen 
dissolved b}- cold water from the raw meats was 2,(521, of which 1.343 
existed as proteid nitrogen and 1.278 as nonproteid nitrogen. 

These results show ])lainly that l)oiled nnnits arc much less soluble 
in cold water than similar cuts of raw meat, the total mitrients of raw 
meats being 4.7 times more soUibl(> in cold water than the mitrients of 
meats cooked in hot water. As regards the individual constituents, 
the proteids of raw meats are 0.5 times more soluble in cold water 
than are the proteids of boiled meats. The nitrogenous and nomiitroge- 
nous extractives of both raw and cooked meats are completely soluble 
in water, but the cold-water extracts of uncooked m(>ats contain three 
times as great a ({uantit}' of these substances as do the cold-water 
extracts of boiled meats, calculatcnl to the water-free basis. The cold- 
water extracts of uncooked meats contain three times as much ash and 

4.3 times more total nitrogen, 0.2 times more proteid nitrogen, and 
2.8 times more nonproteid nitrogen than do cold-water extracts of 
meats cooked in hot water. 

By comparing the data here presented regarding each individual 
nutrient in the cold-water extracts of meats cooked b}" boiling wdth 
the results of the complete analysis of the cooked meats as given in 
Table No. 100, it will be found that only 1.10 per cent of the total 
proteid existing in the cooked meat was soluble in cold water, while in 
the case of ihe raw meats 12.8(i per cent of the total proteid was in a 
soluble form. As in the case of the uncooked meats, all of the nitroge- 
nous and nonnitrogenous extractives of the boiled meats were found 
to he solu])le, while none of the fat of the flesh entered into solution. 
A considerable proportion of the ash of the boiled meat w^as soluble 
in water, the average being 60.67 per cent as compared with 80.58 
per cent for 11 samples of raw beef. 

The total nutrients soluble in cold water, expressed as per cent of 
the total nutrients in the boiled meats, varies from 1.47 in beef flank 
(sample No. 1660) to 10.87 per cent in the case of veal leg (sample No. 
1652), the average being 5.02 per cent. In other words, these experi- 
ments indicate that on an average one-twentieth of the total nutrients 
of the cooked meat are soluble in cold water. In the raw meats the 
total nutrients soluble in cold water form 18.46 per cent or a])out one- 
fifth of the total nutrients originally present. * 



136 



The average results of. the 31 analyses of the meats cooked in hot 
■water indicate that the solid matter obtained by extraction with cold 
water contains 11.57 per cent nitrogen, 17.61 per cent proteid, 27.65 
per cent nitrogenous extractives, 31.56 per cent non nitrogenous 
extractives, and 20.28 per cent ash. The corresponding data for the 
raw meats were as follows: 12.25 per cent nitrogen, 39.31 per cent 
proteid, 18.56 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 27.81: per cent non- 
nitrogenous extractives, and 14.26 per cent ash. 

In the case of boiled meat the soluble matter of the cold-water 
extract contains much less proteid matter and considerably greater 
quantities of nitrogenous and nonnitrogenous extractives and ash than 
in the case of raw^ meats. 

It is evident from the data here given, that in the cold-water extracts 
of meats cooked in hot water, the proportion of proteid and the non- 
proteid nitrogen is quite unlike that in the cold-water extracts of 
uncooked meats. In the former the ratio of nonproteid to proteid 
nitrogen is 1:0.31 and in the latter 1:1.05. 

In discussing the chemical composition of meats cooked by boiling 
(p. 113), the conclusion was reached that there were no marked or impor- 
tant diiierences in the chemical composition and nutritive value of 
meats which had been cooked in hot water by difi'erent methods. The 
data obtained in the study of the chemical composition of the cold- 
water extracts of the boiled meats furnish .some additional informa- 
tion on this point, and the following table gives a summary of the 
averages of the results obtained in the analyses of the cold-water 
extracts of meats cooked in hot water by different methods: 

-Summary shoiving the chemical composition of cold-vater extracts of meats 
cooked by different methods of boiling. 



Table 11: 







Tempera- 


^i 




Organic 












o 


2c 






ture. 


a 
c 




extractive.s. 






o 




c 


u 


g^ 








a 










03 


c 


a> 


G 














Ka 


Method of 
cooking. 


c 

0) 


ii) 

a 

S 
'So 


o 
o 

u . 
C-t! 


o si 

3 " 


'3 


T. 

o 
c 


be 

g . 
■si 


3 




JS 


fcl 

s 
1 
"3 


S 


'S 

'S 


g 




O » 

■3 ^ 




> 




3 











o 


as 




o 


o 


y 




^S 




< 


< 


« 


O 


P^ 


!z; 


;z; 


H 


^■^ 


< 


H 


e^ 


fl( 


« 






°C. °C. 


Hrs. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


p.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


p.ct. 


p.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 




Boiled 


3 


Cold. 


85 


3 


0.17 


0.65 


0.71 


1.36 





0.44 


1.97 


0.237 


0.027 


0.210 


1:0.13 


Do 


3 85 


85 


3 


,1« 


.83 


.90 


1.73 





.57 


2.46 


.292 


.026 


.266 


1: .10 


• Do 


4 100 


85 


3 


,28 


.76 


.96 


1,72 





.44 


2.44 


.290 


.045 


. 245 


1: .18 


Do 


lO' 


85 


3 


.21 


.75 


.87 


1.62 





.48 


2.31 


.275 


.034 


.241 


1: .14 


Do 


2 Cold. 


100 


3 


,47 


.77 


.90 


1.67 





.47 


2.61 


.321 


.074 


.247 


1: .30 


Do 


2 100 


100 


3 


,29 


.75 


.91 


1.66 


c 


.W 


2.49 


.2&5 


.046 


.239 


1: .19 


Do 


4 


100 


3 


.3? 


.76 


.91 


1.67 





.51 


2. 55 


.303 


.060 


.243 


1: .25 




14 
1 






3 
5 


.26 
.27 


.75 
.29 


.88 
.38 


1.63 
.67 






.49 
.24 


2.38 
1.18 


.283 
■.138 


.042 
.044 


.241 
.094 


1: .17 


Do 


Cold. 


65 


1: .47 


Do 


3 Cold. 


a5 


5 


.42 


.35 


.65 


1.00 


t 


.41 


1.83 


.180 


.067 


.113 


1: .60 


Do 


H 100 


85 


5 


.3S 


.43 


.50 


.93 


t 


.34 


1.60 


.189 


.052 


.137 


1: .38 


Do 


11 


85 


5 


.35 


.41 


.54 


.95 


c 


.36 


1.66 


.187 


.056 


.131 


1: .44 


Do 


5 100 


100 


5 


,76 


.64 


.93 


1..57 


c 


,5C 


2.83 


.327 


.121 


.206 


1: .59 


Boiled, 5 hours. 


17 




5 


.47 


.47 


.65 


1.12 





.39 


1.98 


.225 


.074 


.151 


1: .49 


Boiled, 3 iiud 


1 






























! 31 
' 13 








.38 
2.30 


.60 
10.9 


.75 
1 63 


1.35 
? 7? 






.44 
.85 


2.17 
5.87 


.251 
.719 


.060 
.369 


.191 
.350 


1: .31 










1:1.05 




! 













137 

Tt is evident from the data in Tabic 112, that tho differences between 
tiu' fheuiical composition of the cold-water extracts of meats cooked 
bv ditlerent methods of boilino- are much less than those which exist 
lietween boiled meats and raw meats. There appear to be, however, 
slight differences in the case of meats cooked for three and for five 
hours. Tlie averag-e composition of the cold-water extracts of l-t 
samples of meats cooked for three hours was 0.26 per cent ])ro- 
teid, 0.75 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 0,88 per cent nonnitroge- 
nous extractives, 1.63 per cent total organic extractives, 0.49 per 
cent ash, and 2.38 per cent total soluble matter. The total nitrogen 
dissolved by cold water averaged 0.283 per cent, of which 0.0-12 per 
cent existed as proteid and 0.241 per cent as nonproteid nitrogen. 
The ratio of nonproteid to proteid nitrogen, was 1:0.17. The aver- 
age composition of the cold-water exti-acts of the 17 samples of 
meats which had been cooked for five hours was as follows: 0.47 per 
cent proteid, 0.47 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 0.65 per cent non- 
nitrogenous extractives, 1.12 per cent total organic extractives, 0.39 
per cent ash, and 1.98 per cent total soluble material. The total dis- 
solved nitrogen averaged 0.225 per cent, of which 0.074 per cent was 
proteid and 0.151 per cent nonproteid nitrogen, the ratio of nonproteid 
to proteid nitrogen being 1:0.49. These results show that the meats 
cooked for the longer time in hot water contained almost twice as 
much soluble proteid, ])ut onlv about two-thirds as much total organic 
extractives, and four-fifths as much ash and total soluble material as 
those cooked for the shorter period. The difierences in the composi- 
tion of the cold-water extracts of meats cooked at different tempera- 
tures are so slight (see Tal)le 110) that it is not deemed necessary to 
consider them in detail here. 

In conclusion it may be said that the analyses of the cold-water 
extracts of boiled meats confirm the deduction made from the data 
regarding their chemical composition, namely, that the diflerent meth- 
ods commonly used in cooking meats in hot water cause only slight 
variations in the composition and solubility, and hence in nutritive 
value and flavor of the resulting product. 

CoMrOSITIOX OF THE CoLD-WATER EXTRACTS OF MeATS CoOKED 

BY Roasting, Broiling, Sauteing, and Frying. 

The results of the analysis of the cold-water extracts of meats 
which were cooked by roasting, broiling, sauteing, and frying are 
summarized in Tables 113 and 114. 



138 

Tablr 113. — Cht'micnl composition of cohl-vnler extracts of meats coolrd fii/ roastincj, 
broiling, saiiteing, and frying {fresJi substance). 





d 

p 

+^ 

03 

0) 

a 
1 


c 

a 

O) 

&6 

o 
o 
o 


Kind of meat and 
method of cooking. 


'2 
2- 


Organic 
extractives. 




.a 

< 


<D 

a 

!2 

1 




1 

'S 




a 

'3 

'33 
2 


a" 
'3 

;c 
'3 

1 
a 



2c 

53 <v 
■S be 



6 
o 


o 
c 

y 

u 


0) 

tao 
O 

o 
"A 


1 


PS 


1770 

1781 


17G4 
1775 

1764 
1775 

1662 

1775 
1764 
1775 

1676 
1662 

1764 

1775 

1764 


146 
155 

147 
156 

120 

152 
142 
151 

121 
119 

141 
150 

143 


Bt'of, round, i>(>t roast 
do 

Average 

Beef, rotind, roast 

do 

Average 

Veal, leg, roast 

Average Nos. 
1660, 1771 and 
1782 


P.rt. 

0.31 

.42 


P.ct. 
1.40 
1.11 


P.ct. 
1.69 
1.17 


P.ct. 
3.09 
2.28 


P.ct. 





p.ct. 

0.84 

.83 


P.ct. 
4.24 
3.53 


p.ct. 

0. 498 
.421 


P.ct. 
0. 050 

.067 


P. ct. 

0.448 

.3,54 


1:0.14 
1: .19 




.37 


1.26 


1.43 


2.69 





.83 


3.89 


.460 


.059 


.401 


1: .15 


1771 
1782 


.75 
1.23 


1.36 
.94 


1.55 
1.27 


2.91 
2.21 







.96 

.95 


4.62 
4.39 


. 557 
.497 


.119 
.197 


.438 
.300 


1: .27 
1: .66 




.99 


1.15 


1.41 


2.56 





.96 


4.51 


..527 


.158 
.066 


.369 


1: .43 


1G60 


.41 1.34 


1.89, 3.23 





1.18 


4.82 


.496 


.430 


1: .15 




.80 


1 91 


1.57 


2.78 





1.03 


4.61 


.517 


.128 


.389 


1: .33 




Beef, round, gas 






1778 


.83i 1-38 


1.62 


3.00 








1.01 

.99 
1.05 


4.84 

6.54 
4.83 


.575 

.686 
.569 


.133 

.219 
.094 


.442 

.467 
.475 


1: .30 


1766 


Beef, round, pan 
broiled 


1.37 

.58 


1.46 
1.48 


1.721 3.18 


1: .47 


1777 


do 

Average No.s. 
1766 and 1777. 

Beef, rump, pan 


1.72 


3.20 


1: .20 




.98 


1.47 


1.72 


3.19 





1.02 


5.19 


.628 


.156 


.472 


1: .33 


1674 


.27 1.07 
.42 1.33 


1.33 

1.84 


2.40 
3.17 






1.07 
1.29 


3.74 

4.88 


.387 
.494 


.044 
.068 


.343 
.426 


1: .13 


1659 


Veal, leg, pan 
broiled 


1: .16 




Average Nos. 
1659,1674,1766 
and 1777 

Beef, round, sautecd. 
do 

Average 

Beef, round, fried 

Average of all 
beef samples. 

Average of all 
veal samples. 

Average of all 
beef and veal 
samples 






.66 


1.34 


1.65 


2.99 





1.10 


4.75 


.534 


.106 


.428 


1: .25 


1765 
1776 


1.03 
.73 


1.38 
1.37 

1.38 


1.69 
1.61 


3.07 
2.98 






.94 
.95 


5.04 
4.66 


.608 
.556 


.165 
.116 


.443 
.440 


1: .37 
1: .26 




.88 


1.65 


3.03 





.94 


4.85 


.582 


.141 


.441 


1: .32 


1767 


.53 


1.62 


1.83 


3.45 






1.09 


5.07 


.605 


.086 
.117 


.519 


1: .17 




.73 


1.33 


1.56 


2.89 


.97 


4.59 


.542 


.425 


1: .28 




.41 


1.34 


1.87 


3.21 

2.94 





1.23 4.85 


.495 


.067 


.428 
. 426 


1: .16 




.68 


1.33 


1.61 





1.01 


4.63 


.535 


.109 


1: .26 



isy 



T\Vii.F.'l'[4. — CJiemiral compo.^itlon of cold-water extrneta of meats cooked hij ronsthuj- hrnil- 
iuij, auntehuj, andfrt/hig {water-free SHbstance). 





d 
-a 

p 

n 


5 
S 
't- 

01 
A 

X c 

bp 

g 


Kind of meat and 
method of cooking. 




Organic extract- 
ives. 


i. 


% 


O) 




S 
1 

1 

Oh 






*3 




o 

a 

S 
2 


0) 
tic 

o 

•Si 

c " 

o 

!5 


1 


a 

3 




S 


H 


a 

'3 



1770 

1781 


1764 
1775 

1764 
1775 

1662 

1775 
1764 

1775 

1676 
1662 

1764 
1775 

1764 


146 

155 


Beef, round, i)oi roa-st. 
do 


P.d. 

o.a5 

.89 


P.ct. 
2.91 
2. 36 


P.ct. 
3.52 
2.49 


Perct. 
6.43 

4.85 


Perct. 




Perct. 
1.75 
1.76 


Perct. 
8.83 
7.50 


Perct. 

1.036 

.895 


Pe'rct. 

0. 105 

.142 


Perct. 

0.931 

.7.53 




147 
156 

.120 

152 
142 
151 

124 
119 

141 
150 

143 


Average 

Beef, round, roast 

..do 


.77 








2.64 3.01 


5.65 





1.75 


8.17 


.966 


.124 


.842 


1771 
1782 


2.10 3.84 
3.91 2.99 


4.38 
4.04 


8.22 
7.03 






.2.71 13.03 
3.02 13.96 


1.574 
1.582 


.338 
.626 


1.236 
.956 




.Average 

Veal, leg, roast 

Average Nos. 
1660. 1771, and 
1782 






3.01 3.42 
1.30 4.23 


4.21 


7.63 





2.86; 13.50 


1.578 


.482 


1.096 


1660 


5.97 


10.20 





3.73 15.23 


1.566 


.210 


1. 356 




2.44 


3.69 4.79 


8.48 

8.89 

9.25 
9.34 










3.15 14.07 

2.99, 14.34 

2.88 16.11 
3.07 14.10 


1.574 

1. 705 

1.996 
1.662 


.391 

.393 

.636 
.273 


1. 183 


1778 
1766 

1777 


Beef, round, gas 
broiled 

Beef, rouniJ, pan 

broiled 

do 

-Vverage 

Beef, rump, pan 
broiled 

Veal, leg, pan broiled. 

Average Nos. 
1659,1674,1766, 
and 1777 

Beef, round, sauteed . . 
do 


2.46 

3.98 
1.09 


4.09 

4.25 
4.32 


4.80 

5.00 
5.02 


1.312 

1.360 
1.389 




2.84 


4.29 


5.01 


9.30 


« 


2.97 15.11 


1.829 


.4.55 


1.374 


1674 
1659 


.37 

1.21 


1.48 
3.84 


1.83 
5.31 


3.31 
9.15 






1.48; 5.16 
3.72i 14.08 


.534 
1. 425 


.060 
.196 


.474 
1. 229 




1.81 


3.47 


4.29 


7.76 





2.79' 12.36 


1.404 


.291 


1.113 


1765 
1776 


2.87 
2.19 


3.84 
4.11 


4.70 

4.83 


8.54 
8.9) 






2.62| 14.03 
2.85| 13.98 


1. 690 

1.667 


.4.59 
.347 


1.231 
1.320 




Average 

Beef, round, fried 

Average of all 
beef samples.. 

Average of all 
veal samples. - 

Average of all 
beef and veal 
samples 






2. 53 


3.98 


4.77 


8.75 





2.73 


14.01 


1.679 


.403 


1.276 


1767 


1.26 


3.84 


4.33 


8.17 





2. .58 


12.01 


1.433 


.203 


1.230 




2.04 


3.46 


4.09 


7.55 





2.52 


12.il 


1.434 


.326 


1.108 




1.26 


4.04 


5.64 


1 9.68 





3.73 


14.67 


1.496 


.203 


1.293 




1.9i 


3.55 


.3. 


7.88 


c 


2.71 


12. .51 


1.444 


.307 


1.137 



The cold-water extract from the 13 .samples of beef and veal cooked 
by dry heat contained on an average 0.68 per cent j)roteid, 1.33 per 
cent nitrogenous extractives, 1.61 per cent nonnitrogenous extrac- 
tives, 2.91 per cent total organic extractives, and 1.01 per cent min- 
eral matter, making a total of 4.63 per cent soluble matter. The 
total nitrogen averaged 0.535 per cent, of v/hich 0.109 per cent was 
present as proteid, and 0.426 per cent as nonproteid nitrogen. The 
ratio of nonproteid to proteid nitrogen was 1:0.26. 

As will be seen by comparison of these figures with those for raw 
meat and for boiled meat given on pages 127 and 129, the meats cooked 



140 

1)y dry heat contain less soluble material than raw meats but more 
sohibio constituents than boiled meats. It is, however, more satisfac- 
tory to c()ini)ar(> the results on a water-free basis. Stated in this form 
(see Table 114), cold water extracted on an average from the 13 sam- 
ples of meats cooked by dry heat 1.92 per cent proteid, 3.55 per cent 
nitrogetious extractives, 4.33 per cent nonnitro^-enous extractives, 
7.88 percent total organic extractives, 2.71 per cent ash. and 12.51 
per cent total s()lu])h^ mutter. 

The corresponding data for the raw and for })oiled meats have 
aln^ady been given (see Tables 109 and 111, pp. 127 and 132). From the 
expei-imental data thus ])resented it is evident that meats cooked })y dry 
heat are 2.4 times as solubUi as boiled beef, but only a litth' more than 
one-half as solubl(> as raw meats. The chief dift'erences in the solubility 
of meats cooked ])y roasting, etc., and raw meats is due to the much 
smaller content of soluble proteid matter, which is 6.38 per cent 
less than in the raw meat. Meats cooked by dry heat also contain on 
an average 2.04 per cent less of total organic extractives and 0.38 per 
cent less ash. 

It is also apparent from the data presented in Tables 111 and 114 
that the water-free substance of roast meats contains al^out 2.3 as 
nmch soluble proteids and nonnitrogenous extractives and 2.5 as much 
nitrogenous extractives and ash as the water-free substance of boiled 
meats. The more pronounced flavor of meats cooked by dry heat as 
compared with those cooked in hot water is without doubt due to these 
additional solu])le constitu(Mits. 

In the light of our present knowledge the cooked meats containing 
this greater amount of s<)lu})le organic and inorganic substances must 
be considered somewhat more nutritious and palatable. 

Th(>se conclusions ai'e in accord with the opinion commonl}' held, 
namely, that roast meats and meats cooked in other ways ])y dry heat 
are more savory and nutritious than ])()iled meats. If the broth from 
boile<l meat is used as soup, gravy or otherwise, of course the total 
nutritive value of the meat is retained, and the boiled meat with the 
soup surpasses the roast. The factors which inlbience palatability are 
also to be considered, and here the advantage is with the meat cooked 
l)y drv heat. From a practical standpoint the diiferences in the nutri- 
tive value of meats cooked by dry heat and those cooked in hot water 
are not great enough to be of nuich imj^ortance, though as regards 
qualities which make u]) flavor the roast meat surpasses the boiled. 

Tables 1 15 and 1 !♦>, which follow, snnnnai-ize the data regarding the 
composition of the cold-water extracts of raw meat, Iwiled meat, and 
meat cooked by dry heat. 



141 



Taiu.k 115. — Arerofjf co))i position of the void-water extracts of uncooked, boiled, and dry- 
rooked meats [expressed in percentage <>f the weight of meat taken). 



Kind of incai aiul 
im'thod of cooking. 



Hi'cf , nnoooked 

Vi'iil. imcoDkud 

Ik'i'f. Ixiilt il three hours 
Heef, l>uiled live hours.. 
Hecf, boih'd three and 

five houi-s 

Jk'cf, pot roast 

Beef, roast 

Veal, roast 

Beef, gas broiled 

Beef, pan broiled 

Veal, |ian broiled 

Beef, sautfied 

Beef, fried 



No. 
in 
av- 
er- 
age. 



Pro- 
tcid. 



Organic extract- 
ives. 



Ni- 



P.ct. 

2.29 

2.37 

.2(1 

.47 



Non- 
,,„„„ , ni- To- 
'^^rtroge- tal. 

nous. 



P.ct. 

1.08 

1.17 

.75 

.47 



.38 .60 
.37 1.26 
.99 I l.l.T 
.41 : 1.34 



.83 
.74 
.42 
.88 
.53 



1.38 
1.34 
1.33 
1.38 
1.62 



P.ct. 
1.62 
1.66 

.88 
.65 

.75 
1.43 
1.41 
1.89 
1.62 
1.59 
1.84 
1.65 
1.83 



P.ct. 
2.70 
2.83 
1.63 
1.12 

1.35 
2.69 
2. 56 
3.23 
3.00 
2.93 
3.17 
3.03 
3.45 



Fat. 



P.ct. 








Ash. 



P.ct. 

0.83 
.95 
.49 
.39 

.44 

.83 
.96 
1.18 
1.01 
1.04 
1.29 
.94 
1.09 



Total 
solid 
mat- 
ter. 



P.ct. 

5.82 
6.15 
2.38 
1.98 

2.17 
3.89 
4.51 

4.82 
4.84 
4.71 
4.88 
4.85 
5.07 



Nitrogen. 



Pro- 

teid. 



Perct. 
0.367 

.378 
.042 
.074 

.060 
. 059 
.158 
. 066 
.133 
.119 
.068 
.141 



Non- 
pro- 
teid. 



Perct. 
0.346 

.375 
.241 
.151 

.191 
.401 
.369 
.430 
.442 
.429 
.426 
.441 
.519 



Total. 



Per ct. 

0.713 
. 753 
.283 
. 225 

. 251 
.460 
. 527 
.496 
..575 
.548 
.494 
.582 
.605 



Ratio 
of non- 
proteid 
to pro- 
teid ni- 
trogen. 



1:1.06 
1:1.01 
1: .17 
1: .49 

1: .31 



1: .30 

1: .26 

1: .16 

1: .32 

1: .17 



T.MJLE 11(5. — Average composition of the cold-water extracts of uncooked, boiled, and dry- 
cooked meats {water-free substance). 



Kind of meat and 
method of cooking. 



Beof , uncooked 

Veal, uncooked 

Beef, l)oileiI three hours 
Beef, boiled five hours. 
Beef, boiled three and 

five hours 

Beef, pot roast 

Beef, roast 

Veal, roast 

Beef, gas broiled 

Beef, pan broiled 

Veal, pan broiled 

Beef, saut(5ed 

Beef, fried 



No. 
in 
av- 
er- 
age. 



Pro- 
teid. 



Perct. 
8.14 
9.77 
.61 
1.16 



.77 
3.01 
1.30 
2.46 
2.02 
1.21 
2.53 
1.26 



Organic extractives, 



Ni- 
troge- 
nous. 



Non- 



troge- 
nous. 



I 
Perct. Perct. 
3.83 • 5.78 
4.83 I 6.84 
1.74 ' 2.05 
1.18 . 1.66 



1.43 
2.64 
3.42 
4.23 
4.09 
3.35 
3.84 
3.98 
3.84 



1.84 
3.01 
4.21 
5.97 
4.80 
3.95 
5.31 
4.77 
4.33 



Total. 



Per et. 
9.61 

11.67 
3.79 
2.84 

3.27 
5. 65 
7.63 
10. 20 
8.S9 
7.30 
9.15 
8.75 
8.17 



Per ct. 


















Ash. 



Perct. 
2.94 
3.94 
1.13 
1.00 

1.06 
1.75 
2. 86 
3.73 
2.99 
2.47 
3.72 
2.73 
2.58 



Total 
solid 
mat- 
ter. 



Per ct. 
20.69 

25. 38 
5. 52 
5.00 

5.23 
8.17 
13.60 
15.23 
14.34 
11.79 
14.08 
14.01 
12.01 



Nitrogen. 



Pro- 


Non- 


teid. 


teid. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


1.303 


1.229 


1.564 


1.544 


.097 


.560 


.184 


.377 


.145 


.459 


.124 


.842 


.482 


1.096 


.210 


1.356 


.393 


1.312 


.323 


1.074 


.196 


1.229 


.403 


1.276 


.203 


1.230 



Total. 



Per ct. 

2.532 

3.108 

.657 

.561 

.604 
.966 
1.578 
1..566 
1. 705 
1.397 
1.425 
1.679 
1.433 



THE AMOUNT AND NATURE OF THE NITROGENOUS CONSTITU- 
ENTS OF UNCOOKED AND COOKED MEATS. 

In a study of the chemi.strv of the digestion of meats, and the nutri- 
tive value of flesh foods, it is highl}' desirable that the present very 
limited knowledge of the nitrogenous principles as they exist in raw 
and cooked meats be extended. 

Such a study is difficult for several reasons. In the first place, a 
considerable number of the nitrogenous constituents of flesh are as yet 
unidentified as individual and characteristic compounds, and the data 
regarding the ph^'sical and chemical properties of those which are 
known are very incomplete and contradictory. In the second place, 
the methods for the qualitative and quantitative separation and estima- 
tion of the various nitrogenous bodies known to exist in animal sub- 
stances are very far from satisfactory. 



142 

In recent 3'^ears much attention has been directed to the study of the 
chemical structure of proteids of animal and vegetable origin, espe- 
ciall}^ as shown by the number and nature of the cleavage products 
obtained ])y the action of difi'erent reagents. In this connection the 
animal proteids arc of especial interest. They have been found to vary 
verv greatly in complexity from scombrin, obtained from the repro- 
ductive organs of mackerel, which, according to Kossel and Dakin,<* 
yields only three or four cleavage products, to such bodies as casein, 
globin, etc. According to E. Fischer's'' investigations, casein yields 
16 cleavage products and in globin, a body isolated from the oxyhemo- 
globin of horse blood, Abderhalden ^' has identified 1-1 cleavage prod- 
ucts. Some of the proteids studied are of importance from tlie stand- 
point of nutrition, while others are not of so great interest in this 
connection; but as a whole such studies are of undoubted value because 
of the data they provide regarding the chemical nature of nitrogenous 
foods, and it is fortunate that so many chemists are turning their 
attention to these problems. 

In their study of the relative merits of white and red meat in 
invalid dietetics. Offer and Rosenquist"^ determined the total nitrogen, 
nitrogen of extractives, and nitrogen of meat bases in a large number 
of samples of tish, poultry, veal, pork, beef, mutton, venison, and 
salted and smoked meats. In some cases analyses were made with 
cooked samples, but in most cases with the raw meat. The smallest 
proportion of total nitrogen, 2.54 per cent, was reported in a sample 
of pork; the highest, 4.09 percent, in dried beef. The majority of 
the samples contained from 0.4 to 0.5 per cent nitrogen of extractives. 
Less than 0.4 per cent was noted in samples of boiled beef (soup meat), 
fillet of beef, pork, and chicken, and over 0.5 per cent in pike, perch, 
scraped beef, and raw and cooked ham. In the case of nitrogen of 
meat bases the largest proportions, 0.071, 0.056, and 0.05 per cent, 
Avere reported in scraped beef, pork, and boiled beef (soup meat), 
respectively, and the smallest proportions, 0.009 and 0.007 per cent, 
respectively, in venison and pike. 

E. Zunz' studied some of the constituents of veal. When 5 kilo- 
grams of lean veal, taken three-quarters of an hour after the calf was 
slaughtered, was boiled, 0.679 gram histidin, 0.138 gram arginin, 0.559 
gram lysin, 0.227 gram leucin, 0,662 gram glutaminic acid, and 0.371 
gram aspartic acid were recovered. 

«Ztschr. Physiol. Chem., 44 (1905), p. 842. See also Kossel, Ibid., p. 347. 
'^Ztsrhr. Physiol. Chem., 33 (1901), p. 151. 
<-Ztschr. Physiol. Chem., 37 (1903), p. 499. 
'? Berlin. Klin. Wchnschr., 3G (1899), pp. 937, 968, 1086. 

« Ann. Soc. Roy. Sci. Med. et Nat. Bruxelles, 13 (1904); abs. in Zentbh Physiol., 
18 (1904), p.' 852. 



148 

In conneotion with tho investi*;!itii)ns here reported it was believed 
that a study of the nature and amount of the nitrogenous con.stitucnt.s 
of raw and cooked meat, which are ordinarily regarded as of particu- 
hir importance in discussions of nutritive value, would prove useful, 
and so an investigation of this sort was undertaken. 

The methods used to obtain the figures (juoted have alieady been 
descril)ed (pp. 18-15). The results of the experimental work are 
given below. 

FOUMS OF NlTlUM.EN 1\ UnCOOKKD M HATS. 

The data regarding the form in which uitiogen occurs in the cold- 
water extract of raw meat aiv summarized in Tables IIT-IIU. Table 
117, showing the data calculated on the ])asis of the total weight of the 
meat, follows. 

Taui.k 117. — Xllrogen records of the cold-tvater extracts of raw meats (residts e.vjn-essed 
in percentage of meat taken ) . 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 


Cooliing 
experi- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of niuiit. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen in 
meat. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen in 
water 
ex- 
tract. 


Nitro- 
gen 

eoagu- 
lated 

by 
heat. 


Nitro- 
gen 
precip- 
itated 

by 
ZnSOt 
(albu- 
mosea). 


Sum of 
eoiigu- 
lable 
and 
albu- 
niose 
nitro- 
gen. 


Nitro- 
gen 
precip- 
itated 
by bro- 
niin in 
nitrate 
from 
ZnS04. 


Proteid 
nitro- 
gen in 
water 

e.x- 
tract. 


1672 
1668 


122 
121 
J 07 
108-109 
110-113 
131-132 
133-136 
137-140 
141-147 
150-156 

123-124 

114-116 
117-120 


Beef, flunk, raw 


Per d. 
2. 479 
3. 098 
3.390 
3.580 
3.350 
3.392 
3. 424 
3 433 
3.251 
3.349 


Per rt. 

0. 4401 
. 6266 
. 7896 
.8832 
.7440 
.7913 
.8457 
.7391 
. 8105 
.7142 


Per rt. 

0. 1744 
.3416 

a. 0416 

«. 0602 
.2221 
! 3996 
.4105 
.3586 
.4048 
.3366 


Per rt. 

0. 0122 
. 0214 

<t. 4004 

a. 3831 
.0609 
.0327 
.0375 
. 0244 
. 0276 
.0154 


Per rt. 

0. 1866 
.3630 
.4420 
.4433 
. 2830 
.4323 
.4480 
.3830 
. 4324 
.3520 


Per rt. 

0. 0072 

. 00.52 

"'.'6088' 



Per rt. 

0. 1938 

. 3682 


1637 
1640 
1647 
1722 
1741 
1753 


Beef, round, raw 

do 

do 

do t 

do 

do 


. 4420 
.4433 
.2918 
.4323 
.4480 
.3830 


1764 


do 


.4324 


1775 


..do 


.3520 




Average Nos. 1637, 
1640. 1647. 1722, 
1741, 1753, 1764, 






3.396 


.7897 


.3554 


.0331 


.4021 


.0088 


a. 4031 










1676 


2.400 


. 4560 


. 2233 


.0200 


.2432 .0027 


.2459 




Average of all beef 






3.195 


. 7128 


.3191 


. 0280 


«. 3645 


l>. 0060 


a. 3665 








1656 


3.470 
3.230 


.8549 
.6503 


.3963 
.2644 


.01.37 
.0238 


.4400 

. 28.S2 


. 0120 
.01.50 


.4520 


1662 


..do 


.3032 










3.350 
3.219 


.7526 

.7189 


.3303 
. 3211 


.0388 
.0290 


.3641 
.3644 


.0135 
<■. 0085 


. 3776 




Average of all beef and 


. 3682 









a Not included in average. 



''Average of 3 analyses. 



c Average of 5 analyses. 



144 

Table 117. — X'ltrogen records of the cold-irater extracts of raio meats [residts expressed in 
2)erceittage uf meat /«A-en)^Continued. 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 



1672 
IOCS 
1637 
1640 
1647 
1722 
1741 
1753 
1764 
1775 



Cooking 
experi- 
ment 
No. 



Kind of meat. 



1656 
1662 



122 
121 
107 
108-109 
110-113 
131-132 
133-136 
137-140 
141-147 
150-156 



123-124 



114-116 
117-120 



' . Nitro- 
Nitro- genpre- 

'""'^ ed by phos- 
bromin pho- 
direct- tungs- 
ly. tic acid 
(hot). 



Non- 



gen in 

water 

extract 



Beef, flank, raw . . 
Beef, neck, raw . . 
Beef, round, raw . 
do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do . 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Average Nos. 1637, 
1640, 1647, 1722, 
1741, 1753, 1764, 
and 1775 



Per ct. 

0. 1463 
.25S4 
.3476 
.4399 
. 4522 
. 3590 
.3977 
. 3561 
.3781 
.3622 



Beef, rump, raw. 



Per ct. 

0. 1903 

. 2129 



.2100 , .1834 



I Nitro- i 
Nitro- genpre-I Nitro- 
gen ;cif)itat-! gen 
preeip | ed by ; precip- 
itated I phos- itated 
by tan- pho- [byStut- 
nin and tungs- zer'.s re- 
salt, tic acid agent, 
(cold). 



Per ct. 

0. 2114 

.2948 



.4129 
.4274 
.4181 
.4437 
.3750 



a. 4154 



. 2206 



Average of all beef 
samples 



.1955 t ('.3605 



Veal, leg, raw 
do 



Average 

.\verage of all beef and 
veal samples , 



. 4029 . 3704 
.3471 I .2257 



.3750 
. 3506 



.2981 
C.2365 



.3888 
.2350 



.3119 
e. 3428 



Per ct. 

0. 2286 
.2978 
. 3785 
.4817 
. 3706 
.3940 
. 4505 
.3718 
.4210 
.3492 



.4022 



.4418 
.2897 



Per ct. 

0. 2516 
.3205 
.3970 
. 4622 
.3600 
.3970 
. 4426 
. 3735 
. 4120 
.3803 



.4031 



. 2258 



.3657 



.4192 
.2534 



.3658 
.3614 



.3363 
.3612 



Per ct. 



Nitro- 
gen a.s 
ammo- 
nia. 



Per ct. 

0. 0105 

.0410 



0.3318 
.2368 
.3988 
.4613 
.3876 



a. 3632 



a. 3633 



.0005 
.1810 
.0162 
.0161 
.0148 
.0139 



b.0404 



.0340 



n.3633 



.0134 
.0199 



.0167 
.0309 



a Average of 5 analyses. 
b Average of 6 analyses. 



c Average of 3 analyses. 
(i Average of 8 analyses. 



f Average of 10 analyses. 

It will be seen that the total nitrogen in the uncooked meats (beef 
and veal) varies from 2.400 per cent in very fat beef rump (sample 
No. 1676) to 3.580 per cent in lean beef round (sample No. 1640), the 
average for 13 samples of uncooked meat being 3.219 per cent. 

The total nitrogen soluble in cold water formed 0.44t)l to 0.8832 per 
cent of the weight of the meat. The lowest figures were obtained 
with sample No. 1672, ver}^ fat beef flank, and the highest as before, 
with sample No. 1640, lean beef round. It will be observed further 
that the water-soluble nitrogen bears a direct relation to the total 
nitrogen in the meat. In other words, the more nitrogen- there is in 
the meat the greater is the amount which will be dissolved by cold 
water. The average figures for nitrogen of compounds soluble in cold 
water are 0.7128 per cent for 11 samples of beef, and 0.7;")26 per cent 
for 2 samples of v(^al, the average for the beef and Aeal together ])eing 
0.7189 per cent. 

The nitrogen in the form of proteids coagulable b}' heat in neu- 
tral solution varied from 0.1744 percent in the beef flank (sample No. 
1672), to 0.4105 per cent in a sample of beef round (No. 1741), the 
average for the raw meats being 0.3211 per cent of the entire weight of 
the fresh meats. The albumose nitrogen, as determined by precipita- 



145 

tion with zinc sulphate, was, us a rule, k\ss than ono-teiith of the nitro- 
gen I'oajiuhitod by heat. Tlie average found in the 11 samples of fresh 
beef was U.(i280 per cent, and in the 2 samples of veal 0.0388 per cent. 

In a few of the raw meats the nitrogen in the form of peptones was 
determined ])y treating with bromin the tiltrate from the zinc sulphate 
prcfipitate. Only a very small amount of precipitate was obtained, 
the average quantity in the six tests l)eing 0.0085 per cent. It has 
recently been fully demonstrated" that the use of bromin as a precipi- 
tant for proteids can not l)e relied upon. 

For the time being we have assumed that the sum of the nitrogen 
coagulated by heat and that precipitated as albumoscs by zinc sulphate 
represents the total soluble proteid nitrogen, except that in the cases 
where bromin has been used as a reagent the nitrogen thus precipitated 
has also l)een included in the proteid nitrogen. Investigations made 
in this laboratory lead to the belief that neither of these methods gives 
entirely trustworthy results, but that for the time being the first is in 
all probability the better method, notwithstanding the fact that the 
filtrate from the zinc sulphate precipitate still contains traces of nitro- 
gen in the form of proteid. While the results thus obtained for the 
solul^le proteid nitrogen can not be considered linal and conclusive, 
they undoubtedly approximate the truth, and there is no doubt that by 
the careful use of these methods comparable results may be obtained. 

The nitrogen of soluble proteid in the uncooked meats analyzed 
varied from 0.1988 per cent in beef ilank (sample No. 1672) to 0.4520 
per cent in veal leg (sample No. 1656), the average for the 13 samples 
of raw beef and veal being 0.3682 per cent. The nitrogen in the form 
of nonproteid substances is quite similar in amount to the nitrogen of 
the soluble proteids, and apparently varies directly as the latter. The 
nonproteid nitrogen varied from 0.1463 to 0.4522 per cent of the 
^veight of the rawmeats, the average for the 13 samples of beef and 
veal being 0.3506 per cent. 

The data obtained indicate that there is a small amount of nitrogen 
invarial)ly present in the form of ammonia or ammonium salts in cold- 
water extracts of raw flesh. This has been found to ))e true even where 
barium carbonate was used to remove the ammonia by distillation. 

As pointed out by C. Mai,* the ratio of ammonia nitrogen to total 
nitrogen increases after meat has been hung for three or four days. 

It is expected that a discussion of the relative value of bromin, 
phosphotungstic acid, tannin, and Stutzer's reagent for the estimation 
and separation of proteid and nonproteid substances will be considered 
in some detail in another publication from this laboratory, the dis- 

« U. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau of Chemistry Bui. 81, pp. 104, 117, and 228. 
&Ztschr. Untersuch. Nahr. u. Genussmtl., 4 (1901), No. 1, p. 18. 

11480— No. 162—06 10 



146 



tiiictly choniical work connected witli the cooperative investigations 
with meat haA'inu- Ijcen carried on for the University of Illinois. It 
will be sufticient at this time to say that these reagents precipitated 
from cold-water extracts of raw meats the following average quantities 
of nitrogen, expressed in percentage of the weight of fresh flesh taken: 
Bromin, O.2305 per cent; phosphotungstic acid in a hot solution, 0.34:28 
percent; phosphotungstic acid in a cold solution, 0.3612 per cent; tan- 
nin and salt, 0.3»il-t per cent, and Stutzer's reagent, 0.3633 per cent. 

In order to get another point of view for these nitrogen values for 
the uncooked meats, the results have been calculated to percentages of 
the total nitrogen of the flesh taken for examination. 

Table ILS. — Nitrofjen recorch of the cold-mater extracts of raw meat.i {results expressed in 
percentage of total nitrogen of meat taken ) . 



Labo- 
ratory 

No. 


Cooking 
experi- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen in 
meat. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen in 
water 
ex- 
tract. 


Nitro- 
gen 

coagu- 
lated 

bylieat. 


Nitro- 
gen pre- 
eipi- 
tated 
bv 
ZnSOi 
(albu- 
mose). 


Sum of 
eoagu- 
lable 
and 
albu- 
mose 
nitro- 
gen. 


Nitro- 
gen pre- 
cipi- 
tated 
by bro- 
min in 
filtrate 
from 
ZnS04 
precipi- 
tate. 


Proteid 
nitro- 
gen in 
water 

ex- 
tract. 


1672 


122 
121 
107 
108-109 
110-113 
131-132 
133-136 
137-140 
141-147 
1.50-156 

123-124 




Per ct. 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100. 


Per ct. 
17.76 
20. 22 
23.29 
24.67 
22. 21 
23. 33 
24.70 
21.. 53 
24.93 
21.33 


Per ct. 

7.03 
11.03 
« 1. 23 
a 1.68 

6.63 
11. 78 
11.99 
10.45 
12. 45 
10.05 


Per ct. 

0.49 

.69 

a 11. 81 

a 10. 70 

1.82 

.96 

1.10 

.71 

.85 

.46 


Per ct. 

7.52 
11. 72 
13.04 
12.38 

8.45 
12.74 
13.09 
11.16 
13.30 
10. 51 


Per ct. 

0.29 

.17 

'"".•26 



Per ct. 
7.81 


1668 


Beef, neck, raw . . 


11 89 


1637 


Beef, round, raw 


13 04 


1640 
1647 

1722 


do 

do 

. . . do 


12.38 

8.71 

12 74 


1741 


do 


13 09 


1753 


do 


11 16 


1764 


do 


13 30 


177.T 


do 


10 51 




Average Nos. 1637, 
1640, 1647, 1722, 
1741, 1753, 1764, 






100 


23. 25 


10. 56 


.98 


11.83 




11 S7 




Beef, rump, raw 




1676 


100 


19.00 


9.30 


.83 


10.14 


.11 


10 25 




Average of all beef 
.samples 




. 




100 

100 
100 


22.09 

24.64 
20.13 


10.08 


.88 


11.28 


ft. 21 


11 35 


j 






1656 


114-116 
117-120 


11.42 
8.18 


1.26 
.74 


12.68 
8.92 


.35 
.46 


13 03 


1662 


do 


9 38 










100 


22.39 


9.80 


1.00 


10. 80 


.41 


11 21 




Average of all beef 
and veal samples . . 






100 


22.14 


10. 03 


.90 


11.21. 


C.28 


11.33 



I Not included in average. b Average nf 3 analyses. c Average of 5 analyses. 



147 



Tahlk lis. 



-Xitroffen rfcnrdK of the cold-milcr extracts of raw vieats {resnitx e.rprexned in 
percentage of total nitroyen of meat taken) — Continued. 



Nitro- 
gt'ii aa 

free 
ammo- 
nia. 




ii Average of 5 analyses. - •«. ' 

b Average of 6 analyses. <i Ai 

f Average of 10 analyses 



c Average of 3 analyses, 
rf Average of 8 analyses. 



It will be observed that the soluble nitrogen found in raw meats 
formed 17.76 to 24.93 per cent of the total nitrogen contained in the 
flesh. The average amount of soluble nitrogen in terms of the total 
nitrogen in the 13 samples of uncooked beef and veal was 23.14 per 
cent. The nitrogen in the form of proteids coagulated b}^ heat in 
neutral solution ranged from 6.63 per cent in a sample of beef round 
(No. 1647), to 12.45 per cent in another sample of this cut (No. 1764), 
the average for the uncooked meat being 10.03 per cent. 

The average albumose nitrogen of the raw meats was 0.90 per cent. 
The average amount of nitrogen precipitated by bromin in the filtrate 
from the zinc sulphate precipitate in the 6 samples in which it was 
determined amounted to only 0.28 per cent of the total nitrogen. The 
soluble proteid nitrogen amounted to 11.33 per cent, the nonproteid 
nitrogen to 10.81 per cent, and the nitrogen in the form of ammonia 
or anmionium salts to 0.51 per cent of the total nitrogen present. 

The different reagents used precipitated from cold-water extracts of 
raw meats the following average quantities of nitrogen: Bromin, 7.97 



148 

per cent; phosphotungstic acid in a hot solution, 10.77 percent; phos- 
photuno-stic acid in a cold solution, 11.11: per cent; tannin and salt, 
11.11 per cent, and Stutzcr's reagent 10.82 per cent. 

The nitrogen values for cold-water extracts of raw meat have also 
been calculated to the basis of total soluble nitrogen present, the 
results being given in Table 119. 

Table 119. — Nitrogen records of the cold-ioater extracts of raw meats {results expressed 
i)i percentage of total nitrogen of cold-water extract). 



Labo- 
ratory 
No. 


Cooking 
experi- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen in 
moat. 


Total 
nitro- 
gen in 
water 

ex- 
tract. 


Nitro- 
gen co- 
agula- 
ted by 
heat. 


Nitro- 
gen pre- 
cipi- 
tated 

by 
ZnS04 
(albu- 
mose). 


Sum of 
coagu- 
lable 
and al- 
buniose 
nitro- 
gen. 


Nitro- 
gen pre- 
cipi- 
tated 
by bro- 
minin 
filtrate 
from 
ZnS04 
precipi- 
tate. 


Proteid 
nitro- 
gen in 
water 
ex- 
tract. 


1672 


122 
121 
107 
108-109 
110-113 
131-132 
133-136 
137-140 
141-147 
150-156 

123-124 

114-116 
117-120 


Beef, iiank, raw 


Per ct. 
2. 479 
3. 098 
3.390 
3. 580 
3. 350 
3.392 
3.424 
3.433 
3. 251 
3.349 


Per ct. 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
IQp 

m 

100 


Per ct. 
39.63 
54.52 
a 5. 27 
«6.82 
29. 85 
50. 50 
48.54 
48. 52 
49.94 
47.13 


Per ct. 
2.77 
3.41 
a 50. 71 
a 43. 38 
8.19 
4.13 
4.43 
3.30 
3.41 
2. 16 


Per ct. 
42.40 
57. 93 
55. 98 
.50. 20 
38.04 
.54. 63 
52.97 
.51.82 
53. 35 
49. 29 


Per ct. 

1.64 

.83 

'""i.'is' 


Per ct. 

44.04 


1668 


Beef, neck, raw 


58 76 


1637 


Beef, round, raw 


55 98 


1640 


do 


50 20 


1647 


do 


39.23 


1722 


do 


54.63 


1741 


do. 


52 97 


1753 


do 


51 82 


1764 


do 


53.35 


1775 


do 


49.29 




Average No.s. 1637, 
1640, 1647, 1722, 
1741, 1753, 1764, 
and 1775 






3.396 


100 


45.75 


4.27 


50.79 




a 50. 93 




Beef, rump, raw 




1676 


2. 400 


100 


48.97 


4.39 


53.36 


.59 


53 95 




Average of all beef 
Samples 






3. 195 


100 


46 40 


4.02 


50.90 


61.06 


ct 51 29 




Veal, leg, raw 






1656 


3.470 
3. 230 


100 j 46.36 
100 40.66 


5.11 
3.66 


.51. 47 
44. 32 


1.40 
2.29 


52. 87 


1662 


do 


46 61 










3. 350 


100 43.51 


4.38 


47.89 


1.85 


49 74 




Average of all beef 
and veal samples.. 






3. 219 


100 


45. 87 


4.09 


50. 44 


(1.32 


51.05 



«Not included in averagre. 



l> Average of 3 analyses. 



e Average of 5 analyses. 



149 



Tahi.k no. — Xitrofjei) records of the cold-iratei- extracts of raw meats {re.iiiltfi e.rprrxsed in 
percetitutje <>/ total nitroijai of cold-water extract — Continued. 



Lal)o- 

ratorv 

No. 


Cooking 
experi- 
ment 
No. 


Kin<l of meat. 


Non- 
proteld 
nitro- 
gen in 
water 
ex- 
tract. 


Nitro- ' 

gen 
precip- 
itated 1 
by bro- 

min 

di- 
rectly. 


Nitro- 
gen 
precip- 
itated 

by 
phos- 
pho- 
tnng- 
atic 
acid 
(hot). 


Nitro- 
gen 
precip- 
itated 
by tan- 
nin and 
salt. 


Nitro- 
gen 
precip- 
itated 

by 
phos- 
pho- 
tung- 
stic 
acid 
(cold). 


Nitro- 
gen 
precip- 
itated 
byStut- 
zer's 
rea- 
gent. 


Nitro- 
gen as 

free 
ammo- 
nia. 


1672 
1C.6S 
ir,37 
1(540 
KUV 
17'"'' 


122 
121 
107 
108-109 
110-113 
131-132 
133-136 
1.37-140 
141-147 
150-156 

123-124 

114-116 
117-120 


Beef, flank, raw 


Per ct. 
55.96 
41.24 
44. 02 


Per ct. 
43.24 
33.98 


Per ct. 
48.04 
48.15 


Per ct. 
61.94 
47.54 
47.94 
54.54 
49.81 
49.79 
53. 27 
50. 30 
51.94 
48.89 


Per ct. 
.57.17 
.51.15 
50. 2S 
.52. 33 
48. 39 
.50.17 
.52. 34 
.50. 53 
50.83 
.53.25 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 
2.38 
6.54 






do 


49.80 
GO. 77 
45. 37 










do 






"4i.'93' 
28.00 
63.96 
56. 92 
.54. 27 


.07 


do 




52.18 
50. .54 
56.57 
.54.74 
52. 51 




1741 
1753 
1764 
1775 


do 


47.03 

48.18 
4(i. 65 




1.92 


do 


2.18 


do 


1.83 


do 


6). 71 


1.95 


Average Nos. 
1640, 1647. 
1741, Ji_7.'S3, 


1637. 
1722, 
1764, 








49.07 




n53.31 


.50.81 a, 51. 02 


47.02 


61.59 










1676 


46.05 40.22 


48.38 


48.93 


49.52 




2.67 


Average of nil 
samples 


beef 






48. 71 ' c 39. 15 


d51.39 


50.44 


51.45 


a 47. 02 


2.44 


1656 
1662 


47.13 
53.39 


43.33 
34.71 


45.48 
36.14 


51.68 
44.55 


49.03 
38.97 




1.57 


do 


3.06 








50.26 39.02 


40.81 


48. 12 


44.00 




2.32 




-Vverage of all beef 
and veal samples.. 






48.95 a 39. 10 


e49.27 


50.08 


.50. 30 


a 47. 02 


2.42 



n Average of 5 analyses. <■ Average of 3 analyses. 

b Average of 6 analyses. d Average of 8 analyses. 

c.\vcrage of 10 analyses 

From the foregoing table it will be seen that 29.85 to 54.52 per cent 
of the soluble nitrogen was present in the form of compounds coagu- 
lable by heat, the average quantity for the 13 samples of raw flesh 
being 45.87 per cent of the total nitrogen of soluble compounds 
precipitated by coagulation. By saturating the filtrate from the 
coagulated proteid with zinc sulphate from 2.16 to 8.19 per cent of 
the soluble nitrogen was precipitated as albumoses, the average 
amount being 4.09 per cent. The average amount of nitrogen pre- 
cipitated supposedly as peptones by bromin in the filtrate from the 
zinc sulphate precipitate in six samples of raw meats was equal to 
1.32 per cent of the total soluble nitrogen. 

The nitrogen of soluble proteids formed 39.23 to 58.76 per cent of 
the total soluble nitrogen, averaging for the 13 samples 51.05 per cent. 
The nonproteid nitrogen ranged from 41.24 to 60.77 per cent of the 
total soluble nitrogen, the average being 48.95 per cent, and the nitro- 
gen existing as ammonia or ammonium salts was on an average 2.42 
per cent. 

The other reagents used precipitated the following average quanti- 
ties of nitrogen expressed in terms of total soluble nitrogen: Bromin, 



150 

30.10 per cent, phosphotungstic acid in a hot solution 49.27 per cent, 
pliospliotungstic acid in a cold solution 50.30 per cent, tannin and 
salt 50.08 per cent, and Stutzer's reagent 47.02 per cent. 

Forms of Nitrogen in Meats Cooked by Boiling. 

In the lollowing pages the data regarding the different forms of 
nitrogen existing in meats cooked hy boiling are summarized, Table 
120 showing the data calculated on the basis of the amount of meat 
used : 

Tablk 120. — Nitrogen records of the colJ-ivater extracts of meats cooiced hy hoUing {results 
expressed in percentage of meat taken). 





6 
'A 

■B 

M 

D 

ta 

<o 

S 

OS 


+3 

c 

a> 

P. 

go 
M 

.g 

O 
O 
O 


Kind of iiimit. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


o 
o 
o 

o 

a 

_o 


a 
a 

•sa 

"3 
o 


wig 

;3^ 

o 


1 

OS'S 

t-l 


■a 1 

'1-5. 

'3 ^ 

|x.a 


13 

ig 

O be 

^° 
11 
11 


•O 1 

aj O 


6 

'A 

>. 

u 
o 

o 
o 
oa 
>A 


.a 

c 
a 

'% 

< 


.3 

o 
o 

OS 

a 




1642 


1640 
1753 

1753 

1741 
1764 
1775 

1640 
1741 
1764 
1775 

1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 

16.56 
1662 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
154 

108 
134 
144 
153 

138 
140 

133 
135 

• 

113 
112 

116 
118 


Boof, round 


°c. 

Cold. 
Cold. 


°c. 

85 
85 


Hrs. 
3 
3 


Per ct. 
5.770 
5.884 


Per ct. 

0. 1598 

.2823 


Per ct. 

0.0025 




Per ct. 

0.0189 

.0321 


Per ct. 

0.0214 

.0321 


Per ct. 


n^\ 


do 






Average . . 






Cold. 


85 
85 


3 


5.827 


.2211 


.0013 


.0255 


.0268 






Beef, round (browned) . 

Average Nos. 1642, 
1754. and 1756 

Beef, round (browned) . 
Beef, round 




1756 


3 


5.495 


.2677 





.0279 


.0279 






Cold. 


85 


3 


5.716 


.2366 


.0008 


.0263 


.0271 




1746 
1769 


85 
85 
85 


85 
85 
85 


3 
3 
3 


5.696 
5.810 
6.040 


. 2.595 
.3388 
.2764 


.0018 

.0075 




.0223 
.0271 
.0205 


.0241 
.0346 
.0205 




1780 


do 






Average Nos. 1769 
and 1780 






85 


85 


3 


5.925 


.3076 


.0038 


.0238 


.0276 






Average Nos. 1746, 
1769, and 1780 

Beef, round 






85 


85 


3 


5.849 


.2916 


.0031 


.0233 


.0264 




1641 


100 
100 
100 
100 


. 85 
85 
85 

85 


3 
3 
3 
3 


5.910 
5.862 
5.309 
6.013 


. 1684 
.3066 
.3520 
.3319 


.0363 

.0064 

.0109 




.0252 
.0458 
.0229 
.0320 


.0615 
.0522 




1744 


do 




1768 


do 


.0338 1 


1779 


do 


.0320 






Average 

Beef, round 






100 


85 


3 


5.774 


.2897 


.0134 


.0315 


.0449 




17.'i5 


Cold. 
Cold. 


100 
100 


3 
3 


5.857 
5.855 


.3090 
.3322 






.0703 
.0784 


.0703 
.0784 




1757 


Beef, round (l)rovvned) . 
Average 






Cold. 


100 


3 


5.856 


.3206 





.0744- 


.0744 






Beef, round 




MA?, 


100 
100 


100 
100 


3 
3 


5.834 
5.556 


.2996 
.2701 


.0031 
.0011 


.0496 
.0378 


.0527 
.0389 




1745 


Beef, round (browned) . 
Average 






100 


100 


3 


5.695 


.2849 


.0021 


.0437 


.0458 






Average of all 
cooked 3 hours 










3 


5.778 


.2824 


.0050 


.0365 


.0415 






Beef, round 








1646 


Cold. 
Cold. 


65 
85 


5 
5 


5.240 
5.420 


.1380 
.1610 


.0062 
.0074 


.0194 
.0333 


.0256 
.0407 


0.0180 


1645 


do 


0163 




Veal, leg 








16.54 


Cold. 
Cold. 

Cold. 


85 
85 


5 
5 


5.070 
4.800 


.1892 
. 1904 


.0117 
.0024 


.0771 
.0284 


.0888 
.0308 


.0064 


1658 


do 


0195 




Average Nos. 1654 
and 16.58 






85 


5 


4.935 


.1898 


.0070 


.0528 


.0598 


0130 




Average Nos. 1645, 
1654, and 1658 






Cold. 85 


5 


5.097 


.1802 


.0071 


.0463 


.0534 


.0141 



151 



Table 120. — Xilrnnen records of the cold-water extracts of meats cooked by boilijui {results 
(xpressed in percentage of meat taken) — Continued. 





d 
1 

3 

m 
S 


c 
.1 

U 

S-d 

be 

.5 

M 

c 
o 
o 


Kind of meat. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


S 
o 

8 

"o 

a 
o 
'•3 

2 

3 

Q 


a 

a 

V 

tsfi 

a 

5 

o 


c 

— a* 

o 


a. 
s 


11 

'3 _ 
2; 


T3 


|5 i 
oa 


d 

o 

s 

o 

jO 
at 
►J 


bb 

.3 

B 

■a 

< 


60 

3 

o 
o 
u 

3 

Q 


a« -la 

11 rj 

B— .tJ .^ « 


1644 
1720 


1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 

1672 
1656 
1662 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


111 
131 

121 
123 
125 

122 
115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 




"C. 
100 
100 


85 

85 


Hrs. Perct. 
5 5.590 


Perct. 

0. 1740 

.2343 


Perct. 

0.0066 

.0075 


Perct. 

0.0308 

.0180 


Perct. Perct. 
0.0374 0.0089 


do 

Average 

Beef, neck 


5 


5.309 


.0255 




100 


85 


5 


5.4,50 


.2042 


.0071 


.0244 


.0315 


166.5 
1673 1 
1703 


100 
100 
100 

100 


85 
85 
85 


5 1 5.039 
5 3.245 
5 4.433 


. 13'2;J 
.2117 
.1536 


.0021 
.0098 
.0131 


.0204 
.0420 
.0476 


.0225 
.0518 
.0607 


.0074 
.0091 


do 

Average Nos. 1673 
and 1703 

Heef. flank 






85 


5 


3.839 


.1827 


.0115 


.0448 


.0563 




1660 


100 
UK) 
100 


85 
85 
85 


5 
5 
5 


3.210 
5.360 
4.900 


.0709 
.,•«)! 2 
.2270 


.0132 
.0169 
.0071 


.0466 
.0495 
.03.53 


.0598 
.0664 
.0424 


.0032 






.0128 


11)64 


do 


.(K)91 




Average Nos. 1653 
and 1664 






100 

100 


85 
85 


5 
5 


5.130 
4.636 


.2641 

.1889 


.0120 
.0096 


.0424 
.0363 


.0544 
.04.59 


.0110 




Average Nos. 1644, 
ia53, 1664, 1665, 
1669, 1673, 1703, 
and 1720 


.0084 




Beef, round 

do 

do 




lfi39 
1643 
1721 


100 
1(K) 
100 


100 
100 
100 


5 
5 
5 


5.640 
5.370 
5.324 


.3087 
.2880 
.2974 


.0387 
.0230 
.0104 


.IKiO 
.1106 
.0789 


.1547 
.1336 
.0893 


".'6i33 




Average 






100 


100 


5 


5.445 


.2980 


.0240 


.1018 


.1258 




1704 




100 
100 


100 
100 


5 
5 


4.583 
5.310 


.3145 
.4284 


.0124 
.0138 


.1316 
.0388 


.1440 
.0526 




16.')2 




.0177 


Average Nos. 1639, 
1643, 16.52, 1704, 
atul 1721 






100 


100 


5 


5.246 


.3274 


.0196 


.0952 


.1148 


O.0155 




Average of all 
cooked 5 hours... 









5 


4.933 


.2251 


.0119 


.0544 


.0663 


6.0118 




Average of all 
cooked 3 or 5 




5.318 


.2510 


.0088 


.0463 


.0551 


61.018 













3 Aveiage of 2 analyses. 



b Average of 12 analyses. 



152 

Table 120. — NUi^otjen records of the cold-water extracts of meats cooked hy hoiling {results 
expressed in percentage of meat taken) — Continued. 



d 

o 

o 

.Q 


6 
Z 
■a 

3 
1 

s 


i +3 

■ p. . 
i< o 

.3 

o 
o 


Kind of meat. 


a 

O f- 

£ 


a 

O p 

!2 

£| 

S.3 


If 

a.S 

Si 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by phosphotungstic 
acid (hot). 


i2~ 


a3 


1 "O-ti 
a a 

a 3 

1 g" 


O 
u 


s 

si 

£ 
2 


1642 


1640 
1753 

1753 

1741 
1764 
1775 

1640 
1741 
1764 
1775 

1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 

1656 
1662 

1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 

154 

108 
134 
144 
153 

138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 

116 
118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
125 


Beef, round 


P. ct. 

0.0214 
.0321 


P.ct. 

0. 1384 

.2502 


P.ct. 


Perct. 


Perct. 

0.0039 

.0420 


Perct. 

0.0102 
.0458 


Perct. 


p.ct. 


P.ct. 


1754 


do 




0. 1564 


0. 0882 


0.0174 




.0268 


.1943 






.0230 


.0280 








Beef, round (browned). 

Average Nos. 1642, 
1754. and 17.56 

Beef, round (browned) . 
Beef, round 










1756 


.0279 


.2398 




.0116 


.0340 


.0593 


.0832 


.0159 




.0271 


.2095 




a. 0840 


.0266 


.0384 


a. 0857 


a. 0167 


1746 
17fiq 


.0241 
.0346 
.0205 


.2354 
.3042 
.2559 




.0083 
.0272 
.0199 


.0308 
.0325 
.0156 


.0494 
.0345 
.0225 


.02911 

.09.37' 

.0692j 


.0130 
.0221 


1780 


do 

Average Nos. 1769 
and 1780 . 


.0210 




.0276 


.2800 




.0236 


-.0241 


.0285 


.0815 




.0216 




Average Nos. 1746 
1769, and 1780 . .'. 

Beef, round 






.0264 


.2652 




.0185 


.0263 


.0355 


.0640 




.0187 


1641 


.0615 
.0522 
.0338 
.0320 


.1069 
.2.544 
.3182 
.2999 






.0223 
. 0560 
.0172 
.0297 


.0325 
.0568 
.0438 
.1313 








1744 
1768 


do 

do 




.0478 
.0346 
.0334 


.0576 
.0876 
.0913 




.0174 
.0246 


1779 


do 


.0164 




Average 

Beef, round 






.0449 


.2448 




6.0386 


.0313 


.0661 


.0788 




.0195 


1755 


.0703 
.0784 


.2387 
.2538 




.0700 
.0848 


.0801 
.0888 


.0898 
.0917 


.1193 

. 1349 


.0230 


1757 


Beef, round (browned) . 
•-Vverage. 


.0234 




.0/44 


.2462 


.0774 


.0845 


.0908 


.1271 




.0232 




Beef, round 

Beef, round (browned) . 

Average . . . . 




1743 
1745 


.0.527 
.0.389 


.2469 
.2312 




.0199 
.0088 


.0565 
.0368 


.0679 
.0568 


.0492 
.0485 





.0192 
.0207 




.0458 


.2390 




.0144 


.0467 


.0624 


0489 




0200 




Average of all 
cooked 3 hours... 

Beef, round 

do 








.0415 


.2410 






.0390 


.0566 


C.0793 


c. 0195 










1646 


.0136 .0944 






.0313 
.0325 


.0202 
.03.56 


1 


.0002 


1645 


. 0570 


.1040 









.0001 




Veal, leg 










1654 


.0952 
.0503 

.0728 


.0940 
.1401: 


0.0131 
.0275 


.0062 
.0210 


".'0482 


.0003 
.0595 






1658 


do 


. 


.0049 




Average Nos. 1654 
and 1658 


i 






.1171 


.0203 


.0136 




.0299 










Average Nos. 1645, 
1654, and 1658 

Beef, round 










.0675 


.1127 






.0404 


.0318 


1 


.0025 














1644 


.0463 -19771 






.0183 
.1048 


.0240 
.1209 


. .. 1-. . 


.0003 


17?n 


do 


.0255 
.0359 


.2088! 




.0299 


.1380 funi 


.0078 




Average 

Beef, neck 










. 1683; 






.0616 


.0725 






.0041 










1665 


.0299 
.0609 
.0607 


.1024! 
. 1.508 
.0929 


.0062 
.0103 


.0108 
.0280 
.0240 


.0322 
.0708. 
.0417, 


.0305 
.1018 
.0491 






.0119 


167.'1 


Beef, nimp 






.0180 


1703 


do 


.0611 


.0468 


.0148 




Average Nos. 1673 
and 1703 






.0608 


.1219 


.0260 


.0563 


.0755 






.0164 















o Average of 2 analyses. 



b Average of 3 analyses. 



c Average of 12 analyses. 



153 



Table 120.- 



-A^ifrogen records of the cold-water extracts of meats cooTced h\j hoiling {res'dts 
exfressed in percentnge of meat taken) — C'oiitiiniod. 



6 

o 

g 
o 
.a 
ee 


1 ' 

s 


i 

a 

.S 

o 
o 

u 


Kind of moat. 


.s 

|§ 

O hi 

1.4 -M 

"^ Ui 

■£ A 


Oo 

II 


S..3 
P 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by phosphotungstic 
acid (hot). 


1- 

S a 

|| 


T3.S 

ll 

as 

e S 

3^ 
«^" 


SI 
•Is 

£» 

a S 

Is 


•0 

s 

•N 

f 


E 

as 

£ . 

SB 

2 

2 


1669 


1672 
165(i 
1662 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


122 
115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 


Beef, flank 

\'eal, leg 

do 

Average Nos. 16.53 
and 1664 


P. a. 

0.0630 
.0792 
.0515 


p. a. 

0.0139 

.2220 
. 17.55 


P.ct. 
0.0062 


Perct. 

0. 09.58 


Perct. 

0.0142 
.0456 
.0452 


Perct. 
0.0487 


Perct. 


^•^^- 


p.ct. 


1653 


.0203 .0083 


.0613 






0.0040 


1664 


.0295 


.02.58 


.0332 






.0214 






... 






.0654 


.1988 


.0279 


.0171 


.0454 


.0473 






.0127 




Average Nos. 1644, 
16.53, 1064, 1665, 
1669. 1673, 1703, 
and 1720 

Beef, round 

do 

do 

-Vverage 










.0521 


.1368 


O.0157 


6.021s 


.0466 


.0587 






.0098 










1639 


.1547 
.1469 
.0893 


.1540 
.1411 
.2081 







. 1050 
.1061 
.0580 


.1278 
.1091 
.1063 








1643 






.0006 


1721 




.1005 


6.0972 


o.oiio 


.0180 




.1303 


.1677 






.0897 


.1144 






.0093 














1704 


.1440 
.0703 


.1705 
.3581 


'."6737 


.11«1 
.0630 


.1379 
.0775 


.1476 
.1001 


.1211 


.1426] .0172 


1652 








Average Nos. 1639, 
1()43, 1652, 1704, 
and 1721 








.1210 


.2064 




.0929 


.0969 


.1182 


.1092 


.0773 .0119 




Average of all 
cooked 5 hours . . . 

Average of all 
cooked 3 or 6 
hours 






.0746 


.1503 


.0241 


.0382 


.0606 


.0692 


.1054 


.0604 


.0085 




.0597 


.1913 


<;.0241 


d.0409 


.0505 


.0635 


«. 08.58 


.0604 


.0136 









a Average of 5 anaylses. 
b Average of 7 analyses. 



c Average of 8 analyses. 
d Average of 23 analyses. 



« Average of 16 analyses. 



It will be seen that the total nitrogen in the boiled beef and veal 
ranged from 3.210 per cent in a sample of beef flank (No. 1669) to 
6.040 per cent in a sample of beef round (No. 1780), the average for 
31 samples of meats cooked in hot water being 5.318 per cent. 

The total nitrogen of compounds soluble in cold water formed 
0.0769 to 0.4284 per cent of the weight of the meats, the average being 
0.2510 per cent. 

The nitrogen in the form of proteids coagulated by heat in neutral 
solution varied from nothing in a considerable number of samples to 
0.0387 per cent in a sample of beef round (No. 1639), the average 
being 0.0088 per cent. As will be seen by reference to Table 117, the 
amounts of coagulable proteid in cold-water extracts of raw flesh was 
36.5 times as great as that in meats cooked in hot water. 

The average amount of albumose nitrogen in the 31 samples of 
boiled meats, as determined by precipitation with zinc sulphate, was 
0.0463 per cent, the average amount in the 13 samples of raw meats 
being 0.0290 per cent. These figures seem to point to the conclusion 
that during the process of cooking meats in hot water the proteids 



154 

undergo hydration to a certain extent. This conclusion is confii-med 
when the amount of albunioses in the meats cooked for three hours in 
hot water is compared with those cooked for five hours. Notwith- 
standing the fact that the average total nitrogen in the samples 
cooked for five hours was decidedly less than in those cooked for three 
hourS; the former contained 0.0544 per cent of albunioses and the lat- 
ter only 0.0365 per cent — that is to say, the longer the time of cook- 
ing the greater the quantity of albumoses found in the resulting 
cooked meat. Further confu'mation is found in the fact that the 
amounts of nitrogen found in the meats cooked mainly at 85° C. was 
0.0329 per cent, wliile in those cooked mainly at 100° C. it was 
0.0791 per cent. 

In the twelve samples of boiled meats in which the nitrogen in the 
form of peptones was determined by the bromin method the average 
amount was 0.0118 per cent. 

The nitrogen soluble proteids ranged from 0.0205 per cent in a sam- 
ple of beef round (No. 1780) to 0.1547 per cent in another sample (No. 
1639) of the same cut, the average for the 31 samples being 0.0597 per 
cent. The average for ♦the corresponding form of nitrogen in meats 
cooked for five hours was 0.0746 per cent, in those cooked for three 
hours 0.0415 per cent, and in the 13 samples of raw meats 0.3682 per 
cent. 

Willie in raw meats the soluble nitrogen was about equally divided 
between proteid and nonproteid substances, this is certainly not the 
case with boiled meats, as it will be seen that the nonproteid nitrogen 
varies from 0.3681 to 0.9139 per cent, the average for 31 samples 
being 0.1913 per cent. While meats which have been cooked for fiA^e 
hours contain much more soluble proteid than do meats which have 
been cooked for three hours, the latter contain considerabl}^ more 
nonproteid nitrogen than the former. The average nonproteid nitro- 
gen in 14 samples of meats which had been cooked for three hours was 
0.2410 per cent, and in 17 samples cooked for five hours it was only 
0.1505 per cent. 

The analyses show that there is a small amount of nitrogen present 
as ammonia or ammonium salts in the cold-water extracts of boiled 
meats. The average of 26 determinations showed 0.0136 per cent 
nitrogen in this condition. 

The average quantities of nitrogen precipitated by various reagents 
from cold-water extracts of boiled meats were: Bromin, 0.0241 per 
cent; phosphotungstic acid in a hot solution, 0.0409 per cent; plios- 
photungstic acid in a cold solution, 0.0635 per cent; tannin and salt, 
0.0505 per cent, and Stutzer's reagent, 0.0858 per cent. 

In Table 121, which follows, the nitrogen records of the meats 
cooked by l)oiling are calculated in the percentages of the total nitro- 
gen contained in the cooked flesh. 



155 



T.vni.E 121. — Nitrogen record,^ of the cold-imtcr extracts of meata cooked b)j boiling {residts 
erpreaned in percentage of the total nitrogen </ meat taken). 





d 

1 
*a 

s 

1640 
1753 

17.53 

1741 
1764 
1775 

1640 
1741 
1764 
1775 

1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 

1656 
1662 

1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 


i 

u 

^ . 

be 
c 
5 

o 
c 

109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
154 

lOS 
134 
144 
1.53 

138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 

116 
118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
125 


Kind (if niPrtt. 


Temper- 
ature. 


to 

.a 

M 
O 
O 

o 

o 

a 
o 
'•3 

a 
1 ft 


.g 

a 

§0 . 

■aa 

o 


.a 

ll 

o 


1 

§1 
d >. 

r 


•a 1 

ei 
h 

aoj 
a 0^ 


Sum of coagulable and 
albumose nitrogen. 


'1 


6 

;z; 
>. 

u 

o 

o 
.o 

k1 


< 


1 
o 
o 
o 
bo 


IS. 


1642 




°c. 

Cold. 
Cold. 


85 
85 


Hrs. 
3 
3 


P.ct. 
100 
100 


p.ct. 
2.77 
4.80 


p.ct. 

0.04 




p.ct. 

0.33 

.55 


P.ct. 

0.37 

.55 


P.ct. 


1754 


.do 














Cold. 


85 


3 


100 


3.78 


.02 


.44 


.46 






Ropf , round (browned) 

Avoiiige Nos. 1642, 
17.54, and 17.56 

Beef, round (browned) 
Beef, roiuid 






17.i6 


Cold. 


85 


3 


100 


4.87 





.51 


.51 






Cold. 


85 


3 


100 


4.15 


.01 


.46 


.47 




1746 
17G9 


85 
85 
85 


85 
85 
85 


3 
3 
3 


100 
100 
100 


4.56 
5.83 
4.58 


.03 

.13 




.39 
.47 
.34 


- .42 
.60 
.34 




1780 


do 






Average \os. 1769 
and 1780 






85 

85 


85 

85 


3 
3 


100 

100 


5.21 
4.99 


.07 
.05 


.40 
.40 


.47 
.45 






Average Nos. 1746, 
1769, and 1780.... 




1641 
1744 
1768 
1779 


Beef, round 

do 

do 

do 


100 
100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 
85 


3 
3 
3 
3 


100 
100 
100 
100 


2.85 
5.23 
6.63 
5.52 


.61 

.11 

.21 




.43' 
.78 
.43 
.53 


1.04 
.89 
.64 
.53 








100 


85 


3 


100 


5.06 


.23 


.54 


.77 






Beef, round 




lyrr 


Cold. 


100 
100 


3 
3 


100 
100 


5.28 
5.67 






1.20 
1.34 


1.20 
1.34 




17.57 


Beef, round (browned) 

Average 

Beef, round 

Beef, round (browned) 

Average 

Average of nil 


Cold. 






Cold. 


100 


3 


100 


5.48 





1.27 


1.27 




1743 
1745 


100 
100 


100 
100 


3 
3 


100 
100 


5.13 

4.86 


.05 
.02 


.85 
.68 


.90 
.70 






100 


100 


3 


100 


5.00 


.04 


.76 


.80 












100 


4.90 


.08 


.63 


.71 






Beef, round 

do....- 










1646 
1645 


Cold. 
Cold. 


65 

85 


5 
5 


100 
100 


2.63 
2.97 


.12 
.14 


.37 
.61 


.49 
.75 


0.34 
.30 


1654 


Veal, leg 


Cold. 
Cold. 


85 
85 


5 

5 


100 
100 


3.73 
3.97 


.23 
.05 


1.52 
..59 


1.75 
.64 


.13 


1658 


do 


.41 




Average Nos. 1654 
and 1658 


Cold. 


85 


5 


100 


3.85 


.14 


1.06 


1.20 


.27 




Average Nos. 1645, 
1654, and 1858.... 

Beef, round 

.do 


Cold. 


85 


5 


100 


3.56 


.14 


.91 


1.05 


,28 


1644 
1720 


100 
100 


85 
85 


5 
5 


100 
100 


3.11 

4.41 


.12 

.14 


.55 
.34 


.67 
.48 


.16 










100 


85 


5 


100 


3.76 


.13 


.45 


.58 






Beef, neek 

Beef, rump 

do 






1665 
1673 
1703 


100 
100 
100 

100 


85 
85 
85 


5 
5 

5 


100 
100 
100 


2.62 
6. .52 
3.47 


.04 
.30 
.30 


.40 
1.29 
1.07 


.44 1 .15 
1.59 ! .28 
1.37 




Average Nos. 1673 
and 1703 








85 


5 


100 


5.00 


.30 


1.18 


1.48 
















' 

















156 



Table 121. — Nitrogen records of the cold-water extracts of meats cooked, h/ hoilinff {results 
expressed in percentage of the total nitrogen of meat talcen) — (^ontimied. 





d 

Oi 

B 


a 

a> 

B 
c 

a . 

bo 

.5 
j^ 





Kind of meat. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


bi 

g 







a 


g 



a 
a 




.s 

ii 




■0 

2 


So 


•0 

u 

al 

CO 




o 

O 

g 
o 

,0 


bb 

.a 

a 
1 

< 


1 




be 

1 


^ c n 


1669 


1672 
1656 
1662 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


122 

115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 


Beef, flank. . 


°c. 

100 
100 
100 

100 


°C. 
85 

85 
85 


Hrs. 

5 
5 
5 


P.ct. 
100 
100 
100 


p.ct. 
2.40 
5.62 
4.63 


p.ct. 

0.41 
.32 
.14 


p.ct. 
1.45 
.92 
.72 


P.ct. 

1.86 

1.24 

.86 


P.ct. 
0.10 


1653 
1664 


Veal- leg 

do 

Average Nos. 1653 
and 1664 


.24 
.19 




85 


5 


100 


5.13 


.23 


.82 


1.05 


.22 




Average Nos. 1644, 
16.53, 1664, 1665, 
1669, 1673, 1703, 
and 1720 












100 


4.10 


.22 


.84 


1.06 


.19 




Beef, round 

do 

do 

Average 


100 
100 
100 


100 
100 
100 






1639 
1643 
1721 


5 
5 
5 


100 
100 
100 


5.47 
5.36 
5.59 


.69 
.43 
.20 


2.06 
2.06 
1.48 


2.75 
2.49 
1.68 


'""."25 




100 


100 


5 


100 


5.47 


.44 


1.87 


2.31 






Beef, rump 

Veal, leg 

Average Nos. 1639, 
1643, 1652, 1704, 
and 1721 




1704 
1652 


100 
100 


100 
100 


5 
5 


100 
100 


6.86 
8.07 


.27 
.26 


2.87 
.73 


3.14 
.99 


"".'33 




100 


100 


5 


100 


6.27 


.37 


1.84 


2.21 


.29 




Average of all 
cooked 5 hours 










5 


100 


4.56 


.24 


1.12 


1.36 


.24 




Average of all 
cooked 3 and 5 
















100 


4.71 


.17 


.90 


1.07 


.24 










"" 













.a 




•a 


■0.2' 


■d 


•a.2 


73 -• 1 "C 


, ^ 







« 




k ■ 


^!>. 


^^ 


.S+» 


a>-^ 




9 


d 



1 

1 


a 
•g 

p^ . 

bo 


Kind of meat. 


Si" 




aB 


CO so 

'S.3 


c a 


n precipita 
osphotung 
cold). 


^1 


s 

go 


1. 

-a 





























a 

03 


s 








g.a 


btg 

Or, 


^•S 






b£3 
+^ 


r 


bo 
2 

4-3 


Hi 


rt 







P4 


'A 


'A- 


;^ 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


2; 


Z 










P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ci. 


P.c<. 


p.ct. 


P.ct. 


164? 


1640 
1753 

1753 


109 
137 

139 


Beef, round 

do 

Average 

Beef, round (browned) 
Avei-age Nos. 1642, 


0.37 
.55 


2.40 
4.25 






0.07 

.72 


0.18 

.78 








1754 




2.66 


1.50 




0.29 




.46 


3.33 






.40 


.48 




















1756 


.51 


4.36 




.21 


.62 


1.08 


1.51 




.29 
























1741 


136 


1754, and 1756 .... 
Beef, round (browned) 


.47 


3.68 






.47 


.68 
















1746 


.42 


4.14 




.15 


.54 


.87 


.51 i 


.23 


1769 


1764 
1775 


145 
154 


Beef, round 


.60 
.34 


5.23 
4.24 




.47 
.33 


.56 
.26 


.59 
.38 


1.61 
1.15 




.38 


1780 


do 

Average Nos. 1769 


.35 




























and 1780 


.47 


4.74 




.40 


.41 


.49 


1.38 


.37 




Average Nos. 1746, 


















1 






1640 
1741 


l.'K 
134 


1769, and 1780 .... 


.45 


4.54 




.32 


.45 


.61 


1.09 j 


.32 


1641 


1.04 
.89 


1.81 
4.34 






38 
.96 


.55 
.97 








1744 


do 




.82 


.98 




.30 


1768 


1764 


144 


do 


.64 


5.99 




.65 


.32 


.82 


1.65 




.46 


1779 


1775 


153 


do 


.53 


4.99 




.56 


.49 


2.18 


1.52 




.27 




.77 


4.29 




0.68 


.54 


1.13 


1.38 




.34 









a Average of 3 analyses. 



157 

Taulk \2l. --i\tOu(jen records of the cold-ioafer extracts of meats cooked by boiling {restdts 
expressed in fercentage of the total nitrogen of meat taken) — C^ontinucd. 



d 

o 

o 


6 

•a 

3 
« 

e 


a 
» 

B 

■c 

o 

k 



c 
o 


Kind of meat 


.g 

S '^ 

IS 

l-l 


a 

a« 

p o 

li 

p ai 

g.s 
z 


11 

p 

z-= 


as 

§25 
it Xo 


'E-3 

c s 


Nitrogen precipitated 
bj' phosphotungstic 
acid (cold). 


It 

C N 

o-t-> 
tiC3 

Z.a 


a '^ 
z 


s . 

2 

z 


1755 


1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 

1656 
1662 

1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 

1672 
1656 
1662 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 

116 

118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
125 

122 
115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 


Beef, round 


P.ct. 
1.20 
1.34 


p.ct. 
4.08 
4.33 


p.ct. 


PcTCt. 
0.12 
1.45 


Perct. 
1.37 
1.51 


Perct. 
1.54 
1.56 


Perct. 
2.04 
2.30 


p.ct. 


p.ct. 
0.39 


1757 


Beef, round (browned) 


.40 




1.27 


4.21 




.79 


1.44 


1.55 


2.17 




.40 




Beef, round 




1743 


.90 
.70 


4.23 
4.16 




.34 
.16 


.96 
.66 


1.16 
1.01 


.84 
.87 




.33 


1745 


Beef, round (browned) 
Average 


.39 




.80 


4.20 




.25 


.81 


1.09 


.86 




.36 




Average of all 
cooked 3 hours . . . 






.71 


4.19 





.66 


.67 


.98 


01.37 




!>.34 


1646 


.83 
1.05 


1.80 
1.92 






.59 
.60 


.38 
.66 






Trace 


1645 


do 










Trace 




Veal, leg 












1654 


1.88 
1.05 


1.85 
2.92 


0.26 
.57 


.12 
.44 












1658 


do 


1.01 


i.24 






.10 




Average Nos. 1654 
and 1658 










1.47 


2.39 


.42 


.28 














Average Nos. 1645, 
1654 and 1658 

Beef, round. . 














1.33 


2.23 


.42 


.28 


.81 


.95 






.05 










1644 


.83 
.48 


2.28 
3.93 






.32 
1.97 


.42 
2.27 






.01 


1720 


do 

Average 




.56 


2.60 


0.76 


.15 




.66 


3.11 






1.15 


1.35 






.08 
















1665 


.59 


2.a3 


.87 
.32 


.69 
.86 
.54 


.62 

2.18 
.94 


.60 
3.13 
1.11 






.24 


1673 


Beef, rump 


1.87 4.a5 






.55 


1703 


do 


1.37 


2.10 


1.38 


1.06 


.34 




Average Kos. 1673 
and 1703 






1.62 


3.38 




.70 


1.56 


2.12 






.45 




Beef, flank. 








1669 


1.96 
1.48 
1.05 


.44 

4.14 
3.58 


.19 
.49 
.60 


.80 

.16 

..53 


.45 

.85 
.92 


.88 

1.14 

.67 









1653 








.07 


1664 


do 

Average Nos. 1653 
and 1664 






.44 












1.27 


3.86 


.55 


.35 


.89 


.91 






.26 




Average Nos. 1644, 
1653, 1664, 16^5, 
1669, 1673, 1703, 
and 1720 










1.21 


2 89 


6.49 


f.59 


1.03 


1.28 


1.99 


.91 


.24 












1639 


2.75 
2.74 
1.68 


2.72 
2.62 
3.91 






1.86 
1.97 
1.09 


2.27 
2.03 
2.00 








1643 


do 

do 










.01 


1721 




1.89 


1.83 


.22 


.34 




Average 






2.39 


3.08^ 






1.64 


2.10 






.18 




Beef, rump 












1704 


3.14 
1.32 


3.72 
6.75 


i.'sg" 


2.51 
1.19 


3.01 
1.46 


3.22 
1.89 


2.64 


3.11 


.38 


1652 


Veal, leg 






Average Nos. 1639, 
1643, 1652, 1704, 
and 1721 










2.33 


3.94 




1.86 


1.88 


2.28 


2.24 


1.67 


.24 




Average of all 
cooked 5 hours... 

Average of all 
cooked 3 and 5 
hours 






1.54 


3.02 


.59 


.86 


1.24 


1.49 


2.11 


1.29 


.19 




1.17 


3.55 


.59 


.76 


.97 


1.26 


1.56 


1.29 


.26 



u Average of 12 analyses. 



6 Average of 5 analyses. 



c Average of 7 analyses. 



158 



It will be noted that the soluble nitrogen in the boiled meats 
ranged from 2.40 to S.07 per cent or the total nitrogen contained in 
the cooked product, the average for the 31 samples being 4.73 per 
cent. 

The average quantity of nitrogen of solu})le compounds coagulated 
by heat in neutral solution was 0.17 per cent, and the average albu- 
mose nitrogen in the cold-water extracts was 0.90 per c^nt, which 
is the same as the corresponding figure for raw meats. In the 12 
samples where nitrogen was precipitated by bromin from the zinc 
sulphate filtrate the amount found was only 0.24 per cent. 

The average amount of soluble proteid nitrogen in the 31 samples 
was 1.17 per cent of the total nitrogen present, and the nonproteid 

3.55 per cent. By reference to Table 118 it will be seen that in raw 
meats the proteid nitrogen is ten times greater than in cold-water 
extracts of boiled meats. The nitrogen in the form of ammonia or 
ammonium compounds made up 0.26 per cent of the total nitrogen 
present in the boiled meats. 

The other reagents used in estimating the nitrogenous compounds 
in the cold-water extracts of boiled meats separated the following 
average amounts: Bromin, 0.59 per cent; phosphotungstic acid in 
a hot solution, 0.76 per cent; phosphotungstic acid in a cold solution, 
1.26 per cent; tannin and salt, 0.97 per cent, and Stutzer's reagent, 

1.56 per cent.. For corresponding results obtained from the raw 
meats, see page 147. 

In Table 122 the figures for the nitrogen of the boiled meats are 
given in percentages of the total soluble nitrogen. 

Table 122. — Nitrogen records of the cold water extracts of meats cooTced by boiling {results 
expressed in percentage of the total nitrogen of the water extract). 





6 
1 

i 


§ 
•S 

M 

o 
o - 


Kind of meat. 


"Tempera- 
ture. 


bb 

.3 

O 

o 
o 

"o 

c 
_c 


c 

& . 

O 


a . 
- 2 

|| 

o 

EH 


2 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by ZnSOi (albu- 
mose). 


§g 

'^ o 
CO 


5 o 


6 

o 
o 

% 

(—1 


g 
'a 
a 


bb 

.g 

o 
o 
o 

_g 

'u 

3 

Pi 


12; 


1642 


1640 
1753 

1753 

liil 
1764 
1775 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
154 




"C. 

Cold. 

Cold. 


°C. 

85 

.85 


Hrs. 
3 
3 


P.ct. 

5.77 
■6.88 


Per ct. 
100 
100 


Perct. 

1.56 




Per ct. 
11.83 
11.37 


Perct. 
13.39 


Perct. 


1754 


.... do 


11.37 




Average 






Cold. 


85 


3 


5.83 


100 


.78 


11.60 


12.38 




Beef, round (l^rowned) 

Average Nos. 1642, 
1754, and 1756 

Beef, round (browned) 




1756 


Cold. 


85 


3 


5.50 


100 





10.42 


10.42 




Cold. 


85. 


3 


5.72 


100 


.52 


11.21 


11.73 




1746 
1769 


85 
85 
85 


85 
85 
85 


3 
3 
3 


.5.70 
.5.81 
6.04 


100 
100 
100 


.69 

2.21 




8.60 
8.00 
7.42 


9.29 

10.21 


1780 


.. do . 


7.42 




Average Nos. 1769 
and 1780 






85 


85 


3 


5.93 


100 


1.11 


7.71 


8.82 




Average Nos. 1746, 
1769, and 1780 












5.85 


100 


.97 


8.01 


8.97 














■== 



159 



Tabi.k 122.— A' ?7ro</en records of the cold-water exlracta of meats cooked by boiling {results 
expressed in perceniaae of the total nitrogen of the water extract)— Coni imu-cl. 





6 

• 3 
Id 

s 


a 

em 

o 
o 
o 


Kind of meat. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


bb 

a 

o 
o 
u 

"S 

a 

i 

s 

ft 


a 

a 
« 
be 
o+i 

•-6 
a 

"3 
o 


-J 

o 


1 

a. 

2 
2 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by ZnSOi (albu- 
.nioses). 


» go 

■° s. 

n 


oi O 

t3 Sm 


d i 
Z 

>. 

i-i 

o 

<d 

t-i 
o 

a 


do 

.a 

c 

i 
< 


1 

o 
u 

1 

a 


III 


1641 
1744 
1768 
1779 


1640 
1741 
1764 
1775 

1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 

1656 
1662 

1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 

1672 
1656 
1662 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


108 
134 
144 
1.3 

138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 

116 
118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
125 

122 
115 

117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 




100 


°c. 

85 
85 
85 
85 

85 


Hrs. 
3 
3 
3 
3 


P.ct. 

5.91 

5.86 

5.31 

S.Ol 


Perot. 
100 
100 
100 
100 


Perct. 

21.55 

2.09 

3.10 




Perct. 
14.96 
14.94 
6.50 
9.64 


Perct. 
36.51 


Perct. 


do ' 


100 


17.03 ' 


do 


100 
]00 

100 


9.60 1 


....do 


0.64 




Average 


3 


5.77 


100 


6.69 


11.51 


18.20 


1755 
1757 




Cold. 
Cold. 

Cold. 

100 
100 


100 
100 


3 
3 


5.86 
5.86 


100 
100 


6 



22.75 
23.60 


22.75 1 


Beef, round (browned) 

Average 

Beef, round 

Beef, round (browned) 


23.60 




100 


3 


5.86 


100 





23.18 


23.18 1 


1743 
1745 


100 
100 


3 
3 


5.83 
5.56 


100 
100 


1.04 
.41 


16.56 
13.99 


17.60 
14.40 






100 


100 


3 
3- 


5.70 
5.78 


100 


.73 


15.28 


16.01 






Average of all 
cooked 3 hours... 


100 2.34 


12.90 15.24 





1646 
1645 




"Coid^ 
Cold. 


65 

85 


5 
5 


5.24 
5.24 


100 4.49 
100 4.60 


14. 06 18. 55 


13.04 


do 


20.68 


25.28 


10.12 


1654 




Cold. 
Cold. 

Cold. 


85 
85 

85 


5 

5 


5.070 
4.800 


100 6. 18 
100 1.26 


40.75 
14.92 


46.93 
16.18 


3.38 


do 


10.24 




Average Nos. 1654 
and 1658 






5 


4.935 


100' 3.72 


27.84 


31.56 


6.ai 




Average Nos. 1645, 
1654, and 1658 


Cold. 


85 


• 5 


5.037 


100 4.01 


25.45 


29.46 


7.91 


1644 
1720 


100 
100 


85 

85 


5 
5 


5.590 
5.309 


100 1 3.79 
100 1 3.20 


17.70 
7.68 


21.49 
10.88 


5.11 


do 






Average 






100 


85 

85 
85 
85 


5 


5.450 


100 3.50 


12.69 


16.19 




1665 
1673 
1703 




100 
100 
100 


5 
5 
5 


5.039 
3.245 
4.433 


100 1 1.58 
100 4.63 
100 8.53 


15.42 
19.84 
30.99 


17.00 
24.47 
39.52 


5.60 




4.30 


do 




Average Nos. 1673 
and 1703 






100 


85 


5 


.?.839 


100 6.58 


25.42 


32.00 




1669 
1653 


Beef flank 


100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 


5 
5 
5 


3.210 
5.360 
4.900 


100 
100 
100 


17.17 
5.61 
3.13 


60.60 
16.43 
15.55 


77.77 
22.04 
18.68 


4.16 




4.25 


do 


4.01 




Average Nos. 1653 
and 1664 








100 


85 


5 


5.130 


100 


4.37 


15.99 


20.36 


4.13 




. Average Nos. 1644, 
1653, 1664, 1665, 
1669, 1673, 1703, 
and 1720 






100 


85 


5 


4.636 


100 


5.96 


23.03 


28.98 


4.57 




100 
100 
100 


1 100 
100 
100 


5 
5 
5 


.5.640 
5.370 
5.324 


100 
100 
100 


12.51 
7.99 
3.50 


37. 57 
38.40 
26.53 


50.11 
46.39 
30.03 




1643 

1721 


do 


4.62 


do 






Average 






100 


100 


5 


5.445 


100 


8.01 


34.17 


42.18 




1704 


Beef, rump 


100 
100 


100 
100 


5 
5 


4.583 
5.310 


100 
100 


3.94 
3.22 


41.85 1 45.79 




1652 




9.06 


12.28 


4. is 




Average Nos. 1639, 
1643, 1652, 1704, 
and 1721 






100 


100 


5 


5.245 


100 


6.24 


30.68 


36.92 


4.38 




Average of all 
cooked 5 hours. . 








4.921 


100 5.61 


25.18 


30.79 


6.08 




Average of aU 
cooked for 3 and 






5.315 


100 


4.13 


19.63 


23.76 


6.08 





















160 

Table 122. — Nitrogen records of the cold-water extracts of meat coolced hy ioUing {results 
expressed in percentage of the total nitrogen of the water extract) — Continued. 



d 

o 

t 

o 

o3 


•a 
1 
1 

E 

a! 


£ 
'u 

a 
P. 

H 

.5 

o 
o 
o 


Kind of meat. 


.3 

si 

*^ * 
Ph 


a 

o 

O o 

g-5 
2; 


1^ 
c S 

as 

2^ 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by phosphotungstic 
acid (hot). 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by tannin and salt. 


Nitrogen percipitated 
by phosphotungstic 
acid (cold). 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by Stutzer's re- 
agent. 


•3 
bCQ 

£ 


£ . 

.*" 03 

gs 


1642 


1640 
1753 

1753 

1741 
1764 
1775 

1640 

1741 
1764 
1775 

1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 

1656 
1662 

1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 

154 

108 
134 
144 
153 

138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 

116 
118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
125 




P.ct. 

13.39 
11.37 


p.ct. 

86.61 
88.63 


P.ct. 


Per ct. 


Perct. 

2.44 
14.88 


Per ct. 
6.38 
16.23 


Per ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


175-1 


do 

Average 

Beef, round (browned) 

Average Nos. 1642, 
17.54, and 1756 

Beef, round (browned) 

Beef, round 

do 

Average Nos. 1769 
and 1780 

Avera~3 Nos. 1746, 
1769, and 1780 

Beef, round 

do 

do 

do 

Average 




55.40 


31.24 


! 6.i6 




12.38 


87.62 






8.66 


11.31 




1 








' 




1756 


10.42 


89.58 




4.33 


12.70 


22. 15 


31.08 


5.94 




11.73 


88.27 


29.87 


10.01 


14.92 


31.16 


j 
: 6.05 


1746 
1769 
1780 


9.29 90.71 1 

10.21 89.79 ( 

7.42 92.58 | 


3.20 
8.03 
7.20 


11.87 
9.59 
.5.64 


19.04 
10.18 
8.14 


11.21 
27.66 
25.04 


5.01 

6. 52 

7.60 




1 i 
8.82 j91.18 I 


7.62 


7.62 


9.16 


26.35 


7.06 




8.98 91.02 




6.14 


9.03 


12.45 


21.30 1 


6.38 


1641 


36.51 63.49 
17.03 82.97 
9.60 90.40 
9.64 90.36 




"is." 59' 
9.83 
10.07 


13.24 
18.27 
4.89 
8.95 


19.30 
18.53 
12.44 
39.56 


1 




1744 
1768 
1779 


18.79 i 

24.89 1 

27.51 1 


5.68 
7.00 
4.94 




18.20 81.80 




all.83 


11.34 


22.46 


23.73 1 


5.87 




Beef, round 

Beef, round (browned) 

Average 

Beef, round 

Beef, round (browned) 

Average 

Average of all 
cooked 3 hours. .. 




1755 
1757 


22.75 '77.25 
23.60 76.40 





22.65 
25.53 


25. 92 
26.73 


29.06 
27.60 


38.61 1 

40.61 i 


7.44 
7.04 




23.18 '76.83 




24.09 


26.33 


28.33 


39.61 


7.24 


1743 
1745 


17.60 82.40 
14.40 185.60 


6.64 

3.26 


18.86 
13.62 


22.66 
20.73 


16.42 1 

17.96 


6.41 
7.67 




1 
16.00 84.00 1 


4.95 


16.24 


.21.70 


1 
17.19 


7.04 




15.24 


84.76 




14.31 


13.40 


19.43 


625.92 I 


be. 45 


1646 


31.59 68.41 
3.5.40 |64.60 






22.68 
20.19 


14.63 
22.11 




.14 


1645 


do 

Veal, leg 








.06 












1654 


50.31 ,49.69 
26.42 73.58 


6.93 
14.44 


3.28 
11.03 


25.32' 


.16 
31.25 




1658 


do 

Average Nos. 1654 
and 1658 


1 


2.57 










38 37 


61.64 


10.69 


7.16 


15.71 


i 






Average Nos. 1645, 
1654, and 1658 

Beef, round 








37.38 ,62.62 


1 


22.76 


17.84 


• 1 


1.32 










1644 


26.60 173.40 
10.88 ,89.12 




10.52 
44.73 


13.79 
51.60 




.17 


1720 


(lo 


12.76 


58.98 i7.ii 


3.33 










18.74 81.26 


! 


27.63 


32.70 


..1 .... 


1.75 




Beef, neck 








1665 


22.60 77.40 
28.77 71.23 


3.32 
4.86 


2.65 
13.23 
15.63 


24.34 
33.44 
27.15 


23.05 
48.09 
31.97 


1 


8.99 


1673 


Beef, rump 


1 


8.50 


1703 




39. 52 


60.48 


39.78 :30.47 


9.64 




.\vcrage Nos. 1673 
and 1703 








.34.15 6.5.86 


' 14.43 


30.30 


40.03 


] 


9.07 

















"Average of 3 analyses. 



b Average of 12 analyses. 



liU 



Table 122. — Xitrogen records of Ihi coltl-irnln tJiracts' of iiieat.i cooked by hoiliuff {results 
expressed in percentage of the total nitrogen of the water extract) — C'oiitinuod. 



1669 
16.i3 
1664 



1639 
1643 
1721 



1704 
1652 



1672 
16->6 
1662 



1637 
1647 






122 
II.') 
117 



Kind of nifut. 



a 

6Cca 

O I- 



P.ct. 

Hoof. Hank 81.93 

Veal, leg 26.29 

do 22.69 



Average Nos. 1653 
and 1664 



24.49 



Average Nos. 1644, 
1653, l(i64, 1665, 
1669, 1673, 1703, 
and 1720 



32.41 67.59 



1722 132 



1705 
1656 



Beef, round. 

do 

do 



-Vvcnigo. 



Beef, rump. 
Veal, leg... 



43.72 ,56.28 



-Vverage Nos. 1639, 
1643. 16.V>. 1704, 
and 1721 



Average of all 
cooked 5 hours... 

Average of all 
cooked for 3 and 
5 hours 



•O •at) 
9 -J. H'*i 






o — 






P.ct. 

18.07 
73. 71 
77.31 



75.51 



50.11 49.89 
-.1.01 48.99 
;«J.03 ,69.97 






Z- 



P.rt. 

8.06 
8. 7.5 
13.00 



10.87 



07.59 



Perct 

33.55 
2.76 
11.37 



7.07 



613. 14 



33.80 



45.79 .54.21 1 36.53 

16.41 ,8.3.59 17.23 ! 14.71 



38.67 



61.33 



35.08 



26. 12 



64.92 9.57 



9.57 



28.35 



1.5.95 



15.13 



3. * 



£f 

1-^ 

Per a. 

18.47 
l.y 14 
19.91 



•a o 



? c g 



Perct. 

36.67 
20. 35 
14.63 



17.49 



30.02 



^:3 



Ea 



Perct. 



P.ct.lP.ct. 

I 

1.32 

9.43 



49.38 



2:1.79 5.17 



34.01 
36.84 
19. .50 



41.40 
37.88 
35.74 



30.12 I 38.34 



43. 8.5 
18.08 



46.93 
2:1.37 



.30.46 37.06 



25.89 



20.06 



29.04 



32.68 



35. 60 



30.06 



5.38 



4.00 



.21 
6.05 



45.34 



3.13 
5.47 



21.67 3.91 



24.23 



a Average of 5 analyses. 



t> Average of 7 analyses. 



The rosult.s given in the table sliow that in a consideral)le number 
of cases there was no nitrogen in the form of compounds coagulated by 
heat, while in other cases the quantitj^ of nitrogen in this form 
reached 17.17 to 21.55 per cent, the average for the 31 samples of 
boiled meat being 4.13 per cent. 

From 6.50 to 60.60 per cent of the soluble nitrogen of boiled meats 
was precipitated as albumoses, the average being 10.63 per cent, the 
average amounts for raw meats being 4.09 per cent. (See p. 148). 
These figures strildngl}^ show the hj-drolyizing action of hot water 
upon the proteid compounds of meats, as do also the following: In 
meats cooked in hot water for three hours 12.90 per cent of the solu- 
ble nitrogen existed as albumose, while in the meats cooked in hot 
water for five hours the amount was 25.18 per cent. In meats cooked 
chiefly at 85° C. it was found that 17.19 per cent, and in those cooked 
mainly at 98.5° C. 25.59 per cent of the soluble nitrogen was in the 
form of albumoses. 

In the 12 samples of boiled meats the average quantity of nitro- 
gen precipitated by bromin m the filtrate from the zinc sulphate pre- 
11480— No. 162—06 11 



162 



cipitate equaled 6.08 per cent of the total soluble nitrogen. The 
soluble proteid nitrogen ranged from 7.42 to 81.93 per cent, averaging 
for the 31 samples 26.12 per cent, and the nitrogen in the form of 
ammonium compounds was 5.13 per cent. 

From the cold-water solutions of meats cooked by contact with 
hot water the reagents mentioned below precipitated the following 
amounts of nitrogen expressed in terms of the total soluble nitrogen: 
Bromin, 9.57 per cent; phosphotungstic acid in the hot solution, 
15.13 per cent; phosphotungstic acid in the cold solution, 24.70 per 
cent; tannin and salt, 20.06 per cent, and Stutzer's reagent 30.06 
per cent. 

Forms of Nitrogen in Meats Cooked by Roasting, Broiling, 
Sauteing, and Frying. 

In the following pages the data regarding the different forms of 
nitrogen existing in meats cooked by roasting, broiling, sauteing, 
and frying are summarized, Ta])le 123 showing the data calculated 
on the basis of the total weight of the sample used. 

Table 123. — Nitrogen, records of the cold-water extracts of meats coohed hy roasting, broiling, 
sauteing, ami frying {results expressed in percentage of meat taken). 



6 

iz; 

c 

g 

o 


6 

:?; 

£ 

s 


g 

a 
■t 

0) 

c 

c 
o 


Kind of meat and method 
of cooking. 


.g 

L 

% 
o 


.9 
II 

cS 

o 


■a 
1 

og 
".a 

p 
2 


1? 
$° 
A- 

;z;-p 


oj 
a- 

~ o 

h 

Is 

3 a 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by bromin in fil- 
trate from ZnSO^ 
precinitate. 


.s 

U 

|S 


1770 
1781 


1764 
1775 

1764 
1775 

1662 

1775 
1764 
1775 

1676 
1662 

1764 
1775 


146 
155 

147 
156 

120 

152 
142 
]51 

124 
119 

141 
150 


Beef, round; pot roast 

do 

Average 

Beef, round, roast 

do 


Per ct. 
5.972 
5.891 


Per ct. 

0. 4978 

.4212 

.4595 


Per ct. 

0.0019 

.0273 

.0146 


Per ct. 

0.0483 

.0395 

.0439 


Per ct. 

0.0502 

.0668 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 

0.0502 

.0668 




5. 932 


.0585 




.0585 


1771 
178? 


3.870 
4.011 


.5567 
.4972 


.0915 
.1732 


.0279 
.0236 


.1194 
.1968 




.1194 
.1968 




Average 






3.941 


.5270 


.1324 


.0258 


.1582 




.1582 








IfifiO 


4.220 


.4956 


.0031 


.0426 


.0457 


0.0206 


.0663 




Average Nos. 1660, 
1771, and 1782 

Beef, round, gas broiled . . 
Beef, round, pan broiled.. 
do 

Average Nos. 1766, 
1777, and 1778 

Beef, iTimp, pan broiled. . . 
Veal, leg, pan broiled 

Average Nos. 1659, 
1674, 1766, and 1777. 

Beef, round, sautSed 

do 

Average 






4.034 


.5165 


.0893 


.0314 


.1207" 




.1275 


1778 
17fi6 
1777 


4.088 
4.037 
4.435 


.5753 
. 6863 
.5693 


.1073 
.1806 
.0648 


.0253 
.0380 
.0288 


.1326 
.2186 
.0936 





.1326 
.2186 
.0936 




4.236 


.6278 


.1227 


.0334 


.1561 




.1561 


1674 
1659 


3.785 
4.700 


.3873 
.4939 


.0086 
.0132 


.0278 
.0370 


. 03(i4 
. 0.502 


.0073 
.0176 


.0437 
.0678 




4.239 


.5342 


.0668 


.0329 


.0997 


.0125 


.1059 


176.5 
1776 


4.044 
4.083 


. 6079 
.5556 


.1336 
.0896 


.0315 
.0260 


.1651 
.1156 




.1651 
.1156 




4.064 


.5818 


.1116 


.0288 


.1404 




.1404 



163 



Tvni-E 123. — .\itro(ien recordft of the cdd-imter extracts of meatu cooked bij roast intj, hroiling, 
sauttiiKj, andfry'nitj {lemlts txprenned in pticentaije of meat /oAT/t)— Continued. 



6 

o 
2 




6 
1 

3 


1 
B 

*z 


] 

Kind of meat and metiiod 
of cooking. 


o 

Eh 


c 

1 

&S 

□ ^ 

-i 

o 


■a 

li 

o 


■2^ 1 

3 C 

•-2 

£"« 
ex 

CO 

t! 


•a 

°i 

-si 

c5- 

3 = 
33 
00 


iso 1 

ti c S 
2..Sn) 

ii.S E * 

£>..= £: 
- — ■5 C 


a 
II 

= 2: 

¥ 


l"fi7 


1764 


143 




Per a. 
4.934 


Perct. 
0.6052 


1 
Perct. 
0.0526 


Per cl. 
0.0330 ' 


Perct. 

0.0856 


Perct. 


Perct. 
0.0856 




Average of all beef 








4.468 


.5418 


.t)846 1 


.0318 


.1164 




.1171 




Average of all veal 






4.460 


.4948 


.0082 ! 


.0398 


.0480 


0.0191 


.0671 




Average of all beef 
and' veal samples. . 








4.467 


.5346 


.0728 


.0330 


.1059 


1 .1094 

1 


d 
'4, 

"5 


6 

;? 

3 

s 

OS 


a 

o 

%. 

X d 

.3 

o 
o 


Kind of meat and nietbod 
of cooking. 


1- 

li 

§■9 


'S.£ 
It 


*^ CO 

■g.3 

si o . 

^% 


.E-o 
o a 

F c 
II 
^>> 


Hi 

C s 
ofr2 
2; 


Is 

■S ai 
pa 

1:3 


S.2 

Is 

c 
I-l 

z 


1770 
1781 


1764 
1775 

1764 
1775 

16()2 

1775 
1764 
1775 

1676 
1662 

1764 
1775 

1764 


146 
155 

147 
156 

120 

152 
142 
151 

124 
119 

141 
150 

143 


Beef, round, pot roast 

do 


Per cl. 

0. 4476 

.3544 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 

0.05.52 

.0443 


Per ct. 

0.0563 

.0486 


Per ct. 

0.0709 

.0584 


Per ct. 

0. 1366 

.1128 


Per ct. 

0.0222 
.0277 










.4010 




.0498 


.0525 


.0647 


.1247 


.0250 




Beef, round, roast 

do 




1771 
1782 


.4373 
.3004 





.1122 
.1090 


.1148 
.1000 


.1259 
.0978 


.1832 
.1631 


.0159 
.0206 










.3689 




.1106 


.1074 


.1119 


.1732 


.0183 








16(10 


.4293 


0.0249 


.0305 


.0398 


.0283 




.0316 




Average Nos. liiCO, 
1771, and 1782 

Beef, round, gas broiled . . 

Beef, round, pan broiled.. 

do 






.3890 




.0839 


.0849 


.0840 


.1732 


.0227 


1778 
176(i 

1777 


.4427 
.4677 
.4757 




. 1476 
i .2237 
1 .1011 


.1333 
.2077 
.0840 


. 1383 
.2218 
.0995 


.2041 
. 2562 
. 1610 


.0197 
.0183 
.0213 




Average Nos. 1766, 
1777, and 1778 

Beef, inimp, pan l)roiled... 
Veal, leg, pan broiled 

Average Nos. 1659, 
1674, 1766, and 1777. 

Beef, round, sauteed 

do 






.4717 




.1624^ 


.1459 


.1607 


.2086 


.0198 


1(>74 
it)59 


.3436 
.4261 


.0245 
.0401 


.0389 
.0449 


.0008 
.0259 


.0204 
.0084 




.0185 
.0246 




.4283 


.0323 


.1022 


.0796 


.0876 


.2086 


.0207 


17ti5 
1776 


.4428 
.4400 


j 1678 

1141 


.1653 
.1149 


.1655 
.1238 


.2114 
.1799 


.0166 
.0198 










.4414 


I 

i 


.1410 


.1401 


.1447 .19.57 


.0182 




Beef, round, fried 

Average of all beef 
samples 

Average of all veal 
samples 

Average of all beef 
and veal samples. . 




1767 


. 5196 


! 


.0909 


.0933 


.1007 : .1715 


.0202 




.4247 


i 


.1095 


.1017 


.1112 a. 1780 


, .0201 




.4277 


! .0377 


.0329 


•0184 


.0281 




.4252 


.0298 


1 

j .0985 


.0911 


.0969 


.1780 


.0213 



a Average of 10 analyses. 



164 

Upon examining the data it will be seen that the total nitrogen in 
meats cooked by dry heat varied from 3.785 per cent in j)an l)roiled 
beef rum]) (sample No. 1674) to 5.972 per cent in a beef round ])ot 
roast (sample No. 1770), the average being 4.467 per cent. 

The total nitrogen soluble in cold water was 0.3873 to 0.6863 per 
cent, the average being 0.5346 ])er cent. 

The nitrogen in the form of soluble proteids coagulated by heat 
ranged from 0.0019 to 0.1806 per cent, the average being 0.0728 per 
cent. 

The average amount of albumose nitrogen in the cold-water 
extracts was 0.0330 per cent, the soluble proteid nitrogen 0.0437 
to 0.2186 per cent, the average being 0.1094 per cent, and the non- 
proteid nitrogen 0.3004 to 0.5196 per cent, the average being 0.4252 
per cent. 

The results of the anah^ses reported show that there is a small 
amount of nitrogen present as ammonium salts in the cold-water 
extracts of meats cooked by dry heat, the average for the thirteen 
determinations bemg 0.0213 per cent. 

The other reagents used to separate the nitrogenous constituents 
of the cold-water extracts of meats cooked by dry heat gave results 
as follows: Bromin, 0.0298 per cent; phosphotungstic acid in a hot 
solution, 0.0985 per cent; phosphotungstic acid in a cold solution, 
0.0969 per cent; tannin and salt, 0.0911 per cent, and Stutzer's 
reagent 0.1780 per cent. 

In the case of raw as compared with fried meat (veal cutlet), 
Offer and Rosenquist"* report 3.4 per cent total nitrogen and 0.53 
per cent nitrogen of extractives in the raw material and 4.38 per 
cent and 0.506 per cent, respectively, in the cutlet fried in a httle 
butter. 

In Table 124 the nitrogen values for the meats cooked by dry heat 
in the Ilhnois experiments are given in' the form of percentages of 
the total nitrogen content of the cooked flesh. 

aBerlin. Klin. Wchnsrhr., 36 (1899\ p. 1086. 



105 



TABI-te 



u.te 124. — XUrogen records of the cold-water extracts of meats cool-edhy roasting, hroiUng, 
sauteing, and frying {^results expressed in percentage of total nitrogen of meat taken). 





= !s 




a 


.a 


•2 


P ' 


fid lla^ 1 

3 s Its cc' 


.a 




^ a 






^j 


a 




StC -'Sr-S 


CiS 




•g ■! 




§ 


9. ^ 


a^ 


Ck 


2 C fS-SN 


&s 


?! 
















a ^ ' 


Kind of meat and niotliod 
of cooking. ; 

i 


2« 


♦J o 

■^3 




^6 

1^? 


§1^ 

11 


j-.a S aj 




1 


^ 


o 




3 


5^ 

o 


o 


I^a 


O 3 
CO 


r 


>A 


C4 


O 




tH 


6h 


z 


z 


z; 


PLi 








- 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per cl. 


Per ct. 


Per cl. 


Per c<. 


Per ct. 


1770 


1764 146 


Beef, round, pot roast 


lUO 


8. 34 


0.03 


0.81 


0.84 




0.84 


1781 


1775 
1764 


155 
157 


do 

.Vviragi' 

Beef, round, roast 


100 


7.15 


.46 


.67 ' 


1.13 




1.13 




100 


7.75 


.25 


.74 ' 


.99 




.99 


1 771 


100 


14.38 


^.36 


.72 


3.08 




3.08 


1782 


1775 
1662 


156 
120 


do 

Average 

Veal, leg, roast 

Average Nos. 1660, 


100 


12.40 


4.32 


.59 


4.91 




4.91 




100 


1.-?. 39 


3.34 


.66 


4.00 




4.00 


1660 


100 


11.74 


.07 


1.01 


1.08 


0.49 


1.57 




















1775 


152 


1771, and 1782 

Beef, round, gas broiled. . . 


100 


12. at 


2.25 


.77 


3.02 




3. 19 


1778 


UK) 


14.07 


2.62 


.62 


3.24 




3.24 


17fifi 


1764 


142 


Beef, round, pan broiled.. 


100 


17.00 


4.47 


.94 


5.41 




5.41 


1777 


1775 


151 


do 

Average Nos. 17(>6 


100 


12. &t 


1.46 


.65 


2.11 




2.11 




















1676 


124 


and 1777 

Beef, rump, pan broiled.. . 


100 


14.92 


2.97 


.80 


3.76 




3. 16 


1674 


100 


10.23 


.23 


.73 


.96 


.19 


1.15 


1&59 


1662 


119 


Veal, leg, pan broiled 

Average Nos. 1659, 


100 


10. 51 


.28 


.79 


1.07 


.37 


1.44 






















1 


1674, 1766, and 1777. 
Beef, round, saut^ed 


100 


12.64 


1.61 


.78 


2.39 j .28 


2. 53 


176'. 


1764 


141 


100 


15.03 


3.30 


.78 


4.08 




4.08 


1776 


1775 
1764 


1.50 
143 


do 

Average 

Beef, round, fried 

.\verage of all lieef 


100 


13.61 


2.19 


.64 


2.83 




2.83 




100 


14.. 32 


2.75 


.71 


3.46 


1 3.46 


1767 


1(X) 


12.27 


1.07 


.67 


1.74 


1.74 


























100 


12.48 


2.05 


.71 


2.76 


.19 


2.78 




Average of all veal 
























samples 

Average of all beef 


100 


11.13 


.18 


.90 


1.08 .43 


1.51 






















and veal samples.. 


100 


12. 27 


1.76 


.74 


2..50 


2.58 




6 


4J 

9 




g . 


1 ■« . 


■§•- 




73.2 




i 












a a 




<d U) 


te S, 








o 2 


*^ O 


^a 




a a 


•5^ 






r^ 


E 




5 C 


S--^ 


ft3 


oca 


^3 


P<<u 


t 


o 


3 


X 6 


Kind of meat and method 




Is 


gSA 


■S9 




2" 


-=5 

ga 


2 


bo 


of cooking. 


2g 

1^ 


^fg 


9 °A 


as 


o 


ti 


1 
o 
o 

o 




Ml'" 

2-^ 


7< 


MB 






6C 

g 








! 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Per c<. 


Per ct. 


1770 


1764 


146 


Beef, roimd, pot roast 


7.50 




0.92 


0.94 


1.19 


2.29 


0.37 


1781 


1775 
1764 


155 
1,i7 


do 

Average 

Beef, round, roast 


6.02 




.75 


.83 


.99 


1.91 


.47 




6.76 




.84 


.89 


1.09 


2.10 


.42 


1771 


• 11.30 




2.90 


2.96 


3.25 


4.73 


'41 


1782 


1775 


156 


do 


7.49 




2.72 


2.50 


2.44 


4.07 


.51 










9.39 




2.81 


2.73 


2.85 


4.40 


.46 










1 


.. 













166 

Table 124. — A^itrogen records of the cold-water extracts of meats cool~ed hy roasting, hroiling, 
sauteing, and fryimj (results expressed in percentage of total nitrogen of meat taken) — 
Continued. 



6 

o 

o 
.c 

C3 


d 

■a 

D 
+J 

cS 
a; 

s 


g 

B 

u 
a> 

P- . 
?° 

^;? 

tJD 

1 
O 
O 


Kind of meat and nietliod 
of cooking. 


s . 

O O 

§.g 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by bromin directly. 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by phosphotungstic 
acid (hot). 


•a 

P..S 
a a 


■0.2 
^" 

oj be 

ft 3 
Coo 

^ft« 


Is 


c3 
£ . 

gs 


1660 


1662 

1775 
1764 
1775 

1676 
1662 

1764 
1775 

1764 


120 

152 
142 
151 

124 
Hit 

141 
150 

143 


Veal, leg, roast 


Per cf. 
10.17 


Per ct. 
0.59 


Per ct. 
0.72 


Per ct. 
0.94 


Per ct. 
0.67 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 
75 




Average Nos. 1660, 
1771, and 1782 

Beef, round, gas broUed... 
Beef, round, pan broiled.. 
do 






9.65 




2.11 


2.13 


2.12 




.56 


1778 
1766 
1777 


10.83 
11.59 
10.73 




3.61 
5.54 
2.28 


3.26 
5.15 
1.90 


3.38 
5.49 
2.25 


4.99 
6.35 
3.63 


.48 
.45 
48 




Average Nos. 1766 
and 1777 






11.16 




3.91 


3.53 


3.87 


4.99 


.47 




Beef, rump, pan broiled. . 
\'ea 1 leg, pan broiled 

Average Nos. 1659, 
1674, 1766, and 1777. 

Beef, round, sauteed 

do 




1674 
1659 


9.08 
9.07 


0.65 

.85 


1.03 
.96 


.02 
.55 


.54 

.18 




.49 
.52 




10.11 





2.45 


1.91 


2.12 




.49 


1765 
1776 


10.95 1 

10.78 


4.15 
2.79 


4.09 
2.82 


4.09 
3.03 


5.23 
4.41 


.41 
.49 




Average 






10.86 




3.47 


3.46 


3.56 


4.82 


.45 




Beef, round, fried 




1767 


10.53 




1.84 


1.89 


2.04 


3.48 


.41 




Average of all beef 
samples . . 






9.71 




2.59 


2.40 


2.61 


4.11 


.45 




Average of all veal 
samples 






9.62 


.72 


. .84 


.75 


.43 




.64 




Average of all beef 
and veal samples.. 






9.70 


.70 


2.32 


2.15 


2.27 


a4.11 


.48 



o Average of 11 analyses. 

The soluble nitrogen found in meats cooked by dry heat forms 7.15 
to 17 per cent of the total nitrogen contained in the cooked meat, the 
average being 12.27 per cent. 

The average quantity of nitrogen of compounds coagulated by 
heat in neutral solution was 1.76 per cent; the average albumose 
nitrogen, 0.74 per cent; the soluble proleid nitrogen, 2.58 per cent; 
the nonproteid nitrogen, 6.02 to 11.59 per cent, the average being 9.70 
per cent, and the nitrogen in the form of ammonia or ammonium com- 
pounds 0.4S per cent. 

The other reagents employed to determine the nitrogen com- 
pounds gave the following average results: Bromin, 0.70 per cent; 
phosphotungstic acid in a hot solution, 2.32 per cent; phospho- 
tungstic acid in a cold solution, 2.27 per cent; tannin and salt, 2.15 
per cent, and Stutzer's reagent, 4.11 per cent. 

In Table 125 the data for the nitrogen of the meats cooked by dry 
heat are given as percentages of the total soluble nitrogen. 



167 

Table l25.^^itrogen record.t of ike rold-imler erliacts of meats cooked hij roasting, broUing, 
sauteing, and frying {results expressed in percentage ^' total nitrogen in water extract). 






Kind of meat and nicthod 
of cooking. 



s 


c 


^ 


o 




o 


Pi 


o 


1764 


146 


1775 


155 


17M 


147 


1775 


156 



q 


i, 




^ 


a 


3^ 
oft 




-3 


cd 






o 




H 


H 



1662 



1775 
1764 
1775 



1676 
1662 



1764 
1775 



Per ct. 

IJocf, round, liot roast 5.972 

do 5.891 



Per ct. Per cl 



100 
100 



Average 5.932 



0.38 
6.48 



3.43 



Beef, round, roast 3.870 

....do : 4.011 



100 
100 



141 



16.44 
34.83 



Average... 



100 25.M 



Veal, leg, roasl 4.220 



.63 



Average Nos. 1660, 
1771, and 1782 ' 4.034 



100 17.30 



Beef, round, giis l)roiled.. 
Beef, round, j)an l)roiled. 
....do 



Average Nos. 1766 
and 1777 



4.088 
4.037 
4.435 



4.236 



100 
100 
100 



18.65 
26.31 
11.38 



18.85 



SO 

a o . 



Per ct. 
9.70 
9.38 



5.01 
4.75 



4.88 



8.59 



6.12 



.2 tc 

3 -a 



•Hi 



B a 
« c " 

SJ2-S ft 



Per ct. 

10.08 
15.86 



12.97 



21.45 
39.58 



Per ct. 



9.22 



23.42 



4.40 
5. .54 
5.06 



Beef, rump, pan broiled..., 3.790 
Veal, leg, pan broiled l 4. 700 



100 
100 



Average Nos. 1659, 
1674, 1766, and 177: 



4.241 



2.22 
2.67 



100 10.65 



7.18 
7.49 



2:J.05 
31.85 
16.44 



4.16 



Per cl. 
10.08 
15.86 



9. 40 
10.16 



1.88 
3.56 



16.96 



Beef, round. sautSed i 4.044 

1.50 ' do i 4.083 

.Vverage 

Beef, round, fried 



100 
100 



21.98 
16.13 



5.18 
4.68 



143 



-Vverage of all beef 
samples 



Average of all veal 
samples 



4.064 



100 I 19.06 



4.9.S4 



4.469 



• Average of all beef 
and veal samples. . 




100 



100 



6.03 



27.16 
20.81 



23.99 



20.89 



9.69 

19.18 



3.86 





+i 




a 


o 


O) 


z; 


B 


-o 


•c 


(D 






ft 


3 


'< o 


03 


"^Z 


0) 


bo 


ti 


fl 


^ 


M 


<S 


o 


tf 


o 


1764 


146 


1775 


155 


1764 


147 


1775 


156 



Band of meat nnd method 
of cooking. 



Beef, round, pot roast. . 
do 

Average 

Beef, round, roast 

do 

Average 



ft^ 



Per ct. 

89.92 
84.14 



87.03 






bCiS 

St 



Per ct. 



;.o oj 



Per ct. 
11.09 
10.52 



10.81 






Per ct. 
11.30 
11.54 



.J3 M 



Per ct. 

14.24 
13.87 



11.42 i 14.06 



ftN 

Mm 



Per ct. 
27.44 
26.78 



27.11 



5.52 



78..55 1 20.15 

60.42 i 21.92 



20.62 
20.11 



22.61 
19.67 



32.91 
32.80 



2.86 
4.14 



69.48 1 ' 21.04 1 20.37 I 21.14 | 32.86 



3.50 



168 



Table 125. — Nitrogen records of the cold-water extracts of meats coolced hy roasting, broiling, 
sauteing, and frying ( results expressed in percentage of total nitrogen in water extract )— 
Continued. 



6 

o 

o 

03 


6 

s 


1 

I. 
go 

.g 

O 
o 
O 


Kind of meat and method 
of cooking. 


Nonproteid nitrogen 
in water extract. 


So 

■a.S 

o O 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by phosphotungstic 
acid (hot). 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by tannin and salt. 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by phosphotimgs- 
tic acid (cold). 


S a 

II 

an 


i. 

"^ OS 

ga 
§> 


IfifiO 


1662 

1775 
1764 
1775 

1676 
1662 

1764 
1775 

1764 


120 

152 
142 
151 

124 

119 

141 

150 

143 


Veal, leg, roast 


Per ct. 
86.62 


Per ct. 
5.02 


Per ct. 
6.15 


Per ct. 
8.03 


Per ct. 
5.71 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 
6 37 




Average Nos. 1660, 
1771, and 1782 

Beef, round, gas broiled.. 

Beef, round, pan broiled.. 

do 

Average Nos. 1766 
and 1777 










i , 
75.20 1 16.07 


16.25 


16.00 




4.46 


1778 
1766 
1777 


76.95 ; 

68.15 1 

83.56 


25.66 
32.59 
17.76 


23.17 
30.26 
14.76 


24.04 
32.32 
17.48 


35.48 
37.34 
28.28 


3.42 
2.66 
3.74 




75.85 


25.18 


52 51 


24.90 


32.81 


3 20 




Beef, rump, pan broiled... 
Veal, leg, pan broiled 

Average Nos. 1659, 
1674, 1766, and 1777. 

Beef, round, sautfied 

do 

Average 

Beef, round, fried 

Average of all beef 
samples 






1674 
1659 


88.72 1 6.33 
86.28 1 8.12 


10. 05 
9.09 


.21 
5.25 


5.27 
1.70 




4.77 
4.98 




81.68 


1 
1 17.37 


12.62 


14.19 


' 4.04 


1765 
1776 


72.84 
79.19 




27.60 
20.54 


27.19 
20.68 


27.23 
22.28 


34. 78 2. 73 
32.38 3.56 




76.02 




24.07 23.94 


24.76 


33.58 1 3.15 


1767 


85.86 
78.94 


15.02 


15.42 


16.64 


28.34 


3.34 






19. 35 


17.75 


19.60 


31.65 


3.84 




Average of all veal 
samples 


86.45 




7.62 


6.64 


3.71 1 5.68 




Average of all beef 
and veal samples . . 


80.09 


6.49 


17.55 


16.04 


17.16 


031.65 


4.12 



a Average of 11 analyses. 

The data summarized above show that 0.38 to 34.83 per cent of 
the sohible nitrogen of meats cooked by dry heat exists in the form 
of coagulable compounds, the average amount being 12.83 per cent. 
The nitrogen present as albumoses was 4.40 to 9.70 per cent, aver- 
aging 6.34 per cent. 

The nonproteid nitrogen ranged from 60.42 to 89.92. per cent, 
averaging 80.09 per cent, and the nitrogen present in the form of 
ammonium compounds was 4.12 per cent of the total soluble nitrogen. 

From the cold-water solutions of meats cooked I)}' dry heat the 
reagents mentioned below precij)itated the following amounts of 
nitrogen: Bromin, 6.49 per cent; phosphotungstic acid in a hot 
solution, 17.55 per cent; phosphotungstic acid in a cold solution, 
17.16 per cent; tannin and salt, 16.04 per cent; and Stutzer's 
reagent, 31.65 per cent. 



169 



THE LOSSES INVOLVED IN THE BOILING AND STEWING OF MEATS. 

It is interesting to consider the data regarding the kind and 
amount of losses sustained when meat is boiled and stewed. 

The following tal)le summarizes the results of all such experiments 
reported in the present bulletin, arranged according to tlie length 
of the cooking period, the method of cooking, and the kind of meat 
used : 

Table 126. — Summary of the losses involved in the cooking of meats in water. 





Cook 




Amount 
used. 


Fat in 
cooked 
meat. 


Method of cooking. 


Lab- 
ora- 
tory. 
No. 


ing 
exper- 
iment 

No. 


Kind of meat used tor cooking. 


Temperature. 


Dura- 


At be- 
ginning. 


During 
cooking. 


tion of 
cookmg. 


164'' 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
154 

108 
134 

144 
153 

138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 

116 
118 

HI 
131 




Grams. 
1,000 
900 


Per cent. 
3.93 

6.80 


"C. 

Cold. 

Cold. 


°C. 

85 
8.5 


Hours. 
3 


1754 




3 




Average 






5.37 


Cold. 


85 


3 


17.56 


Beef, round, browned, 2-inch cubes. 

Average Nos. 1642, 17.54, and 
17.56 


900 


8.00 


Cold. 


85 


3 




6.24 


Cold. 


85 


3 


1746 
1769 


Beef, round, browned, 2-inch cubes. 


1,000 

1,074.83 

1,0.52.17 


7.12 
6.87 
6.62 


85 
85 
85 


85 
85 
85 


3 
3 


1780 


do 


3 










6.75 


85 


85 


3 




Average Nos. 1746, 1769, and 
1780 








6.87 


85 


85 


3 






1,000 
1,000 




1641 


4.38 
4.83 


100 
100 


85 
85 


3 


1744 




3 




Average 4i 






4.61 


100 


85 


3 


1768 




1,027.72 
1,098.31 


7.51 
7.88 


100 
100 


85 

85 


3 


1779 


.do 


3 




Average 






7.70 


100 


85 


3 




Average Nos. 1641, 1744, 17'-3, 
and 1779 


-• 


6.15 


100 


85 


3 






900 
900 




1755 


7.35 
6.83 


Cold. 
Cold. 


100 
100 


3 


1757 


Beefi round, browned; 2-inch cubes. 
Average 


3 




7.09 


Cold. 


100 


3 


1743 
1745 


Beef, round, lean, 2-lnch cubes 

Beef, round, lean, browned, 2-Lnch 


1,000 
1,000 


5.06 
7.74 


100 
100 


100 
100 


3 
3 




Average 






6.40 


100 


100 


3 




Average of all cooked 3 hours. 




6.49 






3 


1646 


1,000 
1,000 

1,000 
1,000 


5.57 
5.23 


Cold. 
Cold. 


65 
85 


5 


1645 


do 


5 


1654 




.97 
5.58 


Cold. 
Cold. 


85 
85 


5 


1658 


. .do 


5 




Average Nos. 1654 and 1658 . . . 






3.28 


Cold. 


1 85 


5 




Average Nos. 1645, 1654, and 
1658 




• 3.93 


Cold. 


85 


5 


1644 




1,000 
1,000 


5.75 
11.61 


100 
100 


85 
85 


5 


1720 




5 




Aver ge 






8.68 


100 


85 


5 

















170 

Table 126. — Snmninnj of the losses involved in the coohing of meats in water — Continued. 



Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
No. 


Cook- 
ing 
exper- 
iment 
No. 


Kind of meat used for cooking. 


Amount 
used. 


Fat in 
cooked 
meat. 


Method of cooking . 


Temperature. 


Dura- 


At be- 
ginning. 


During 
cooking. 


tion of 
cooking. 


1665 


J21 
123 
125 

122 
115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 


Beef, neck, J-inch cubes 


Grams. 

700 
1,000 
1,000 


Per cent. 
13.68 
42.03 
23.36 


°C. 
100 
100 
100 


°C. 
85 
85 
85 


Hours. 


1673 


Beef, rump, 1-inch cubes . . . 


r 


1703 


do 


5 




Average Nos. 1673 and 1703 . . 


32.70 


100 


85 


- 




Beef, flank, fat, J-incli cubes 

Veal, leg, 1-inch cubes 

do 


1,000 
1,000 
1,(K)0 




1669 
1653 
1664 


34.16 
1.31 

7.77 


100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
5i>; 


5 
5 




Average Nos. 1653 and 1664 . . 








4.54 


100 85 


5 




Average Nos. 1644, 1653, 1664, 
1665, 1()69, 1673, 1703, and 1720 

Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 

Beef, round, •]-inch cubes 








17.46 


100 


85 


^^ 




1,000 
1,000 
1,000 




1639 




100 
100 
100 


100 
100 
100 


5 


1643 


5.66 
9.01 




1721 


Beef, round, 1-inch cubes. 


r 










7.34 


100 ! 100 


r 




Beef, rump, 1-inch cubes 

Veal, leg, 1-inch cubes 


1,000 
1,000 




1704 
1652 


16.07 
1.59 


100 j 100 
100 100 


5 












Average Nos. 1639, 1643, 1652, 
1704, and 1721. 




8.08 


1 
100 100 






Average of all cooked 5 hours. 

Average of all cooked 3 and 5 
hours 








11.84 


1 


^ 






1 






9.34 























Cook- 
ing 
exper- 
iment 

No. 


Kind of meat used for cooking. 


Nutrients in the broth expressed in percentages 
of total amounts in uncooked meat. 


Lab- 
ora- 
tory 


Water. 


Pr« 
teidT 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 






Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 

Per ct. 
82. 19 
70.65 


Ash. 


1642 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
154 

108 
134 

144 
153 


Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 


Per ct. 

58.09 
.58. 56 


Per ct. 

7.87 
2.79 


Per ct. 
82.07 
67.33 


Per ct. 
22.60 
19.17 


Per.ct. 
74. .54 


1754 


Beef round, 2-inch cubes. .^ 

Average 


61.49 




58.33 


5.33 


• 74.70 


76.42 


20.89 


68. 02 




Beef, round, browned, 2-inch cul)es. . 

Average Nos. 1642, 1754, and 
1756 




1756 


54.19 


1.66 


66.84 


71.10 


11.24 


61.40 




56. 95 


4.11 


72.08 


74.65 


17.68 


65. 81 




Beef, round, browned, 2-inch cubes. . 




1746 
1769 


.55.76 
57.97 


1.78 
1.29 
1.29 


67. 23 
59.12 
63.48 


68.31 
63.41 
64.88 


28.95 
10.43 


60.80 
51.14 


1780 


do 


54.00 




Average Nos. 1769 and 1780 










1.29 


61.30 


64.16 




.12. .57 




Average Nos. 1746, 1769, and 
1780... .... 










1.45 


63.28 


65.53 




55.31 










1641 


57. 18 
57. 42 


3.21 
1.71 


8,5.80 
66.92 


84.94 
66.89 


20.65 
10.66 


73.93 


1744 


Beef, round, 2-mch cul^s 


60. 79 










.57.30 


2.46 


76.36 


75.92 


15.66 


67. 36 




Beef, round, 1 piece 




1768 


49.23 
58.37 


1.03 
.93 


52. 19 
58. .56 


47.94 
60.30 


3.52 
8.03 


45. 50 


1779 


do 


52.65 




Average 






53.80 


.98 


55.38 


54.12 


5.78 


49. 08 




Average Nos. 1641, 1744, 1768, 






55.55 


1.72 


65.87 


65.02 


10.72 

1 


58.22 









171 



Table 126. — Summary of the losses involved in the cooking of meats in water — Continued. 





Cook- 
ing 
exper- 
iment 
No. 


Kind of meat uswl for cooking. 


Nutrients in the broth expressed in percentages 
of total amounts in uncooked meats. 


Lab- 
ora- 
tory 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 




No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1755 
1757 


138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 

116 
118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
125 

122 
115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 




Per ct. 
.17.91 
57.04 


Per ct. 
2.95 
1.89 


Per ct. 
69.11 
67.20 


Per ct. 

68. 73 
68. 37 


Per ct. 
29.04 
14.71 


Per ct. 
62.43 


Beef^ round,' browned, 2-inch cubes. . 


62. 24 




57.48 


2.42 


68.16 1 


68.55 


21.88 


62.34 




1 

Beef, round, lean, 2-inph cubes 

Beef, round, lejui, biowiied, 2-inch 
cubes 

Average 

Average of all cooked 3 hours. 




1743 

1745 


56.89 
64.60 1 


2.02 
2.25 


67.76 1 
66-97 j 


66.07 
70.64 


14.14 
.36. ,35 


60.51 
58.22- 




55.75 


2.14 


67.37 


68.36 


25.25 


59.37 




56. 40 


2.33 


67. 19 


68.17 


17.66 


59.97 




■S4.09 
59.74 


4.88 
4.56 


85-24 
86.01 


85.16 
85.38 


18.64 
30. 24 


70.96 


1645 


do 

Veal, leg, 1-inch cubes 

.do.. 


72. 69 


1654 
1658 


48.30 
.50.94 


5.25 
5.75 


81.64 
75.77 


66.88 
75.24 


24.83 
13.43 


62.40 
65.12 




Average Nos. Ui."i4 and KmS 

Average Nos. 1045, 1654, and 
16.-)8 






49.62 


5.50 


78.71 


71.06 


19.13 


63.76 




52.99 


5.19 


81.14 


75.83 


22.83 


66.74 








1644 


57.66 
56.84 


3.02 
2.35 


81.21 
72.55 


79.82 
94.15 


21.79 
16.48 


65-64 


1720 


Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 

Average 


69.46 




.57.25 


2.69 


76.88 


86.99 


19.14 


67.55 


1665 
1673 










11.93 
18.95 
14.50 


72.15 




.52. 16. 
55.00 


3.91 
2.68 


66.70 
83.30 


75.53 
83.56 


70.10 


1703 


do 


69.88 




Average Nos. 1673 and 1703 






53.58 


3.30 


75.00 


79.55 


16.73 


69.99 


1669 


39.25 
48.92 
50.78 


4.76 
2.62 
3. .52 


95.25 
67.46 
70.13 


86.11 
65.68 
67.01 


21.31 

6.86 
6.73 


72.23 


1653 
1664 


Veal, leg, 1-inch cubes 

. ..do 


,58.48 
61.23 




Average Nos. 16.53 and 1664 

Average Nos. 1644, 1653, 1664, 
1665, 1669, 1073, 1703, and 1720. 






49.85 


3.07 


68.80 


66.35 


6.80 


59-86 




51.51 


3.27 


76.66 


78.84 


14.82 


67.40 


1639 
1643 


.56.41 
.55. 41 
56.29 


2.70 
3.34 

3.86 


77. 35 
78. 42 
71.16 


66.00 

77.78 
82.25 


! 60.88 




21.48 
18.64 


< 61.17 


1721 




63.07 




Average 






56.04 


3.30 


75.64 


75.34 


20.06 


1 61.71 


1704 




,54.42 
49.78 


6.09 
3.59 


71.30 
50.19 


69.78 
49.23 


25.36 
6.74 


57.83 


1652 




45.98 




Average Nos. 1639, 1643. 1652, 
1704, and 1721 






54.46 


3.92 


69.68 


69.01 


18.06 


1 

57.79 




Average of all cooked 5 hours. . 
Average of all cooked 3 and 5 






52.87 


3.93 


75.85 


75.60 


17.37 


64.66 




54. 45 


3.18 


71.81 


72.13 


17. 50 


62. .55 









172 



Table 126. — Summary of the lof^.ses involved in the eool'ing of 7nenfft in voier — Continued. 





Cook- 
ing 
exper- 
iment 
No. 


Kind of meat used for 
cooking. 


Nutrients in broth expressed in percentages of total 
weight of the uncooked meat. 


Lab- 
ora- 
tory 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 


No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


soUd 
matter. 


1642 
1754 


109 
137 

139 

136 

145 
154 

108 
1,34 

144 
153 

138. 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 

116 
118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
125 


Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 

Beef, round , 2-inch cubes 

Average 


Per ct. 

42.97 
42.54 


Per ct. 

l.,56 

.54 


Per ct. 

1.02 

.86 


Per ct. 
1..34 
1.06 


Per ct. 

0.59 

.86 


Per ct. 

0.77 

.60 


Per ct: 
48.25 
46.46 




42.76 


1.05 


.94 


1.20 


.73 


.69 


47.37 




Beef, roimd, l)rowned, 2-tneh 




1756 


38.98 


.32 


.87 


1.06 


.58 


.61 


42.42 




Average Nos. 1642, 17.54, 






41:50 


.81 


.92 


1.15 


.68 


.66 


45.72 




Beef, round, browned, 2-inch 
cubes 




1746 


39.73 
42. .57 


.35 
.25 
.25 


.84 
.75 
.73 


1.10 
.83 
.90 


1.62 
.44 


.61 
..52 
.53 


44.25 


1769 
1780 


Beef, round, 2-inch cubes 

do 


45.36 




Average Nos. 1769 and 
1780 . 










.25 


.74 


.87 




.53 






Average Nos. 1746, 1769, 
and 1780 










.28 


.77 


.94 




.55 






Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 

Beef, round, 2-ineh cubes 

A verage . 






1641 
1744 


42.12 
42.38 


.64 
.33 


1.06 
.87 


1.36 
1.19 


.61 
.31 


.76 
.61 


46.55 
4.5.69 




42. 25 


.49 


.97 


1.28. 


.46 


.69 


46.14 








1768 


35.50 
42.00 


.20 
.19 


.67 
.73 


.73 

.87 


.17 
.38 


.46 
.52 


37.73 


1779 


do 


44.69 




Average ... 






38.75 


.20 


.70 


.80 


.28 


.49 


41.22 




Average Nos. 1641, 1744, 
1768, and 1779 

Beef, round, 2-lnch cubes 

Beef, round, browned, 2-inch 






40.50 


.34 


.83 


1.04 


.37 


.59 


43.67 


1755 
17.57 


41.. 52 
41.29 


..57 
..37 


.89 
.89 


1.06 
1.08 


1.62 
.65 


.63 
.64 


46.29 
44.92 




Average . 






41.41 


.47 


.89 


1.07 


1.14 


.64 


45.62 




Beef, romid , lean, 2-inch cubes 
Beef, round, lean, l)rowned, 
2-tnch cut es 




1743 
1745 


41.71 
38. 57 


.39 
.43 


.89 
.82 


1.11 
1.07 


.46 
2.48 


.62 
.57 


45. 18 
43.94 










40.14 


.41 


.86 


1.09 


1.47 


.60 


44.56 




Average of all cooked 
3 hours 






40.92 


.46 


.85 


1.05 


.83 


.61 


44.76 


- 


Beef, round, J-inch cubes 

do 




1646 
1645 


40.68 
44.72 


.91 
.80 


.92 
.99 


1.19 
1.27 


.70 
1.14 


.74 
.72 


45.14 
49.64 




Veal, leg, 1-inch cubes 

..do. 




1654 
16.58 


37.61 
38.60 


1.01 
1.02 


.76 
.79 


1.14 
.96 


.19 
.50 


.62 
.63 


41.33 
42.50 




Average Nos. 1654 and 
16.58 






38.11 


1.02 


.78 


1.05 


.35 


.63 


41.92 




Average Nos. 1645, 1654, 
and 16.58 






40.31 


.94 


.85 


1.12 


.61 


.66 


44.49 




Beef, round, ?-inch cubes 

Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 

.\ verage 




1644 
1720 


42.72 
40.20 


.56 
.42 


.92 
.95 


1.20 
1.34 


.85 
1.26 


.70 
.64 


46.95 
44.81 




41.46 


.49 


.94 


1.27 


1.06 


.67 


45.88 




Beef, neck. J-inch cubes. 




1665 




2.09 
.51 
.45 






1.02 
6.32 
2.36 


.67 
.50 
.59 




1673 
1703 


Beef, rump, 1-inch cubes 

.do 


26.90 
35.18 


.61 
.86 


.86 
1.03 


35.70 
40.47 




Average Nos. 1673 and 
1703 






31.04 


.48 


.74 


.95 


4.34 


.55 


38.09 









173 



Table 126. — Summanj of the losses involved in the cooking of meats in uyiter — Continued. 





Cook- 
ing 
exper- 
iment 
No. 


Kind of meat used for 
cooking. 


Nutrients in broth expressed in percentages of total 
weight of the uncooked meat. 


Lab- 
ora- 
tory 


Water. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


! 


Total 


No. 


Nit'-og- nil?og- 


Fat. 


Ash. 


solid 
matter. 


1669 
1653 
1664 


122 
115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

12f) 
114 


Beef, flank, fat, j-incli ciilies. 

Veal, leg, 1-inch cubes 

do 


Per ct. 
21.03 
37.73 
37.69 


Per ct. 

0.70 

.51 

.64 


Per ct. 

0.56 

.85 

.78 


1 

Per CI. Per ct. 

0.74 6.48 

1.13 : .06 

.91 j .33 


Per ct. 

0.44 

.62 

.62 


Per ct. 
29.95 
40.90 
40.97 




Average Nos. 1653 and 
1664 






37.71 


.58 


.82 


1.02 1 .20 


.62 


40.94 




Average Nos. 1644, 1653, 
1664, 1665, 1669, 1673, 
1703, and 1720 

Beef, round, 1 -inch cubes.. 

Beef, round, J-incli cubes 

Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 










34.49 


.74 


.79 


1.03 


2.34 


.60 


39.97 


1639 
1643 
1721 


41.80 
41.18 
40.44 


..52 .89 
.62 .88 
.71 ! .88 


1.25 
1.09 
1.27 


.74 

.85 

1.14 


.67 
.64 
.59 


45.87 
45.26 
45.03 




41.14 


.62 .88 


1.20 


."91 


.63 


45.39 




Beef, rump, 1-mch cubes 

Veal, leg, 1-inch cubes 

Average Nos. 1639, 1643, 
16,52, 1704, and 1721... 

Average of all cooked 
5 hours 




1704 
1652 


37.14 
37.96 


1.01 
.68 


.75 

.67 


.94 
.96 


3.09 
.07 


..53 
.51 


43.46 
40.85 




..39.70 


1 
.71 1 .81 


1.10 


1.18 


.59 


44.09 




37.60 


.78 .82 


1.08 


1.59 


.61 


42.43 




.\vei'age of all cooked 
3 and 5 hours 






39.09 


.63 ! .83 

I 


1.07 


1.24 .61 


43.47 



In the thirty-one experiments here reported with meat cooked in 
hot water the total losses in weight varied from 29.95 to 49.64 per 
cent of the total weight of the fresh meat used, the average being 
43.47 per cent. The smallest loss was observed in experiment No. 
122, in which a cut of fat beef flank was cooked for ten minutes in 
boiling water, and then at a temperature of 85° C. for five hours; and 
the largest loss was in experiment No. 112, in which lean beef round 
was put in cold water, which was heated slowl}* so that the tempera- 
ture reached 85° C. at the end of one hour, and the cooking then 
continued for five hours more at this temperature. The data sum- 
marized alfeo show that the greater part of the loss occurring in boiling 
meats was due to the removal of water, though there was also a con- 
siderable loss of nutrients, including proteids, nitrogenous and non- 
nitrogenous extractives, fat, and ash. 

The amount of water removed during cooking varied from 39.25 
to 59.74 per cent, and averaged 54.45 of the total in the uncooked 
meat. The smallest loss was noted in experiment No. 122, and the 
largest in experiment No. 112, which is in accordance with the state- 
ment in the paragraph above. 

The total proteid recovered in the broth ranged from 0.93 to 7.87 
per cent, averaging 3.18 per cent of the total amount present in the 



174 

raw moat. The smallest loss of this constituent was found in experi- 
ment No. 158 in which a piece ol lean heeH round, cut about 5 inches 
thick and 4 inches across, was cooked for ten minutes in boiling 
watci-, and then at a temperature of 85° C. for three hours; and the 
greatest loss was in experiment No. 109, hi which lean beef round, cut 
into 1-inch cubes, was cooked by putting it into cold water at first, 
then heating slowly so that the temperature reached 85° C. at the 
end of one hour, and finally cooking for tlu-ee hours more at tliis 
tem})erature. 

The proportion of fat originally present in the raw meat which was 
recovered in the broth varied from 3.52 to 36.35 per cent, averaging 
17.50 per cent. The smallest loss was noted in experiment No. 144, 
in which a juece of lean beef round, cut about 5 inches thick and 4 
inches across, was placed for ten minutes in boiling water, and then 
cooked at a temperature of 85° C. for tlii^ee hours. The largest loss 
was observed in ex])eriment No. 135, in wliich lean beef round in the 
form of cubes was browned in a small amount of fat and then cooked 
in water at about 100° C. for three hours. 

The amount of nitrogenous organic extractives removed during 
the cooking varied from 50.19 to 95.25 per cent, averaging 71.81 per 
cent of the total amount originally present. 

The proportion of the nonnitrogenous organic extractives recovered 
in the broth ranged from 49.23 to 94.15 per cent, the average being 
72.13 per cent. 

The mineral substances recovered in the broth varied from 45.50 
to 74.54 per cent, the average being 62.55 per cent. 

In a former bulletin « of this Office a summary of the results of 91 
experiments with meat cooked in hot water made in this laboratory 
up to that time was given. The most important conclusions derived 
from these experiments were that (1) the total losses in weight when 
meat was cooked in hot water varied in individual tests from 10.61 
to 50.20 per cent of the total weight of the fresh meat used, the 
average being 34.35 per cent. (2) The amount of water removed 
during cooking varied from 18.05 to 68.90 per cent and averaged 45.07 
per cent of the total water in the uncooked meat. (3) The total pro- 
tein removed in the broth varied from 3.25 to 12.67 per cent, aver- 
aging 7.25 per cent. (4) The proportion of fat originally present 
in the raw meat, which was recovered in the broth, varied from 0.60 
to 37.40 per cent. (5) The mineral matter recovered in the broth 
varied from 20.04 to 67.39 per cent of the total in the uncooked meat, 
averaging 44.63 per cent. (6) The nutrients in the broth expressed 
in percentages of the total weight of the uncooked meat were on an 
average as follows: Water, 30.75; proteid, 1.41; fat, 1.21; and ash, 

"U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experimeut Stations Bui. 141. 



175 

0.40 pel (-(Mil. (7) Tlic fatt(>r kinds and cuts of moat lost loss 
wator, j)rotoin, and niinoral matter, hut moiv Tat tlian did the loanor 
kinds and outs. (S) Tlio losses inoroasod in proportion to the extent 
of cookino;; that is to say, other thino;s l)eing the same, the longer 
tlie time and the higher the temperature of cooking, the greater tlie 
losses resulting. (D) The dilToront cuts of the same kind of meat 
hehaved very diitorently as regards the amount and nature of the 
losses which tlio}^ underwent when cooked in hot water. (10) The 
larger the piece of meat the smaller relatively the losses. (11) 
When meat is cooked in water at S()° to 85° C, placing the meat 
in hot or in cold water at the start had little efl'eot on the amount of 
material found in the broth. (12) Beef which has been used for 
the preparation of beef tea or broth has lost comparatively little in 
nutritive value, though nuich of the (hivoring material has been 
removed. 

Comparing the average results ol)tained in the thirty-one experi- 
ment s here reported with the average results obtained in ])ro- 
vious work, it will bo noted that tlie losses of water, fat, and ash in 
the former tests are considerably greater and the loss of jM'otoid 
much l<>ss than in the latter. The greater losses of water, fat, and 
ash in the exporinuuits reported in the present bulletin are undoubt- 
edl}^ due to the fact that, vnth two exceptions, all the meats used for 
cooking were cut into small cubes varying in size from 0.75 to 2 
inches. In the ninety-one experiments previousl}^ reported most 
of the meats used were in solid pieces of considerable size, weighing 
as a rule from 2 to 6 ])ounds. The former experiments proved 
conclusively that the larger the piece of meat cooked by boiling the 
smaller the relative losses. The smaller apparent losses of proteid 
materials in the present experiments is due to the fact that a dis- 
tinction has been made between proteid, nitrogenous extractives, 
and nonnitrogenous extractives, while in the former experiments 
these three different classes of substances were all classed under the 
general term protein. 

The experiments summarized in Table 126 confirm the conclusions 
drawn from the earlier experiments, that the amoinit of material 
recovered in the broth when meat is cooked in hot water depends 
directly upon the length of time of cooking. The average losses in 
the fourteen cooking experiments in which the meats were cooked 
for tlu-ee hours, were: 56.40 per cent water, 2.33 percent proteid, 
67.19 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 68.17 per cent nonnitrogenous 
extractives, 17.65 per cent fat, and 59.97 per cent ash. The average 
losses in the seventeen cooking experiments in w^hich the meats were 
cooked for five hours were: 52.87 per cent water, 3.93 per cent 
proteid, 75.85 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 75.60 per cent non- 
nitrogenous extractives, 17.37 per cent fat, and 64.66 per cent ash. 



176 

It should also be mentioned in this connection that the average 
amount of fat in the meats cooked for tlu'ee hours was only 6.49 per 
cent, while in the meats cooked for five hours it was 11.84 per cent. 

Nothwang, " working in Rubner's laboratory, found that on cook- 
ing flesh in water at 100° C. from 57 to 60 parts of cooked meat were 
obtained from 100 parts of the flesh. Of this, 3 to 5 parts were made 
up of the solid matter suspended in the water in which the meat was 
boiled. In the broth he found some coagulated albumin and fat as 
a scum, gelatin, flesh bases (up to 50 per cent of the amount con- 
tained in the fresh meat), and four-fifths of the total salts of the 
meat. 

The influence of the size of the piece of meat upon the resulting 
losses is strikingly shown in cooking experiments Nos. 144 and 153. 
In these two experiments the lean beef round was cut into pieces 
about 5 inches thick and 4 inches across, while the meat used in all 
the other boiling experiments here reported was in the form of small 
cubes. The losses resulting in experiments Nos. 144 and 153 were 
considerably less than those occurring in am^ of the other experi- 
ments. This would indicate the advantage of cutting the meat into 
small pieces in the preparation of soups and broths. On the other 
hand, the meat itself will be more juic}^, better flavored, and of supe- 
rior nutritive value if cooked in large pieces. 

From the data here given it does not seem wise to draw final con- 
clusions regarding the influence of the kind of meat, the fat content, 
and the different cuts of the same kind of meat upon the amount 
and nature of the losses sustained when cooked in hot water. 

THE LOSSES INVOLVED IN THE ROASTING, BROILING, SAUTi^ING, 
AND FRYING OF MEATS. 

A summary of the results obtained in the experiments in which 
meats were cooked by dry heat is given in the following table, which 
includes the data concerning the kind of meat used, the time of cook- 
ing, and the apparent losses or gains of the different nutrients 
expressed as percentages of the total amounts of the corresponding 
nutrients in the uncooked meat and as percentages of the total 
quantity of meat cooked. 

"Arch. Ilyg., 18 (1893), p. 80. 



177 



Table 127. — Summanj of the lossen invoiced in the coolcing of vieats by roasting, broiling, 

sautting, and frying. 







Kind of meat used for 
coolcing. 


Amount 
taken. 


Fat in 
cooked 
meat. 


Method of cooking. 




Kind. 


Total 
time. 


Tem- 
pera- 
ture 
at be- 
gin- 
ning. 


Final 
cooking. 


No. 


ment 

No. 


Tem- 
pera- 
ture. 


Time. 


1770 


146 
155 

147 
156 

120 

152 
142 
151 

124 
119 

. 141 
150 

143 




Gram-1. 

960. 87 

l,frll.33 


Per. ct. 
9.66 

9.87 


Pot roast 

do........ 


h. 
3 


TO. 


°C. 


°C. 


M. 


1781 


do 


3 
























1,004.10 


9.77 














Beef, round 


Roast 

do 












1771 


1,104.40 

1,110.88 


9.50 
5.42 


1 
1 




249 
249 


193 
193 


45 


1782 


do 


45 




Average 






1,107.64 


7.46 














Veal, leg 


Roast 












1660 


1,099.00 


4.65 


3 












Average Nos. 1660, 
1771, and 1782. 

Beef, round 












1,104.76 


6.52 














Gas broiled... 

Pan broiled. . . 

.do 












1778 


062.97 
673. 91 
664.60 


7.64 

8.18 
5.83 


10 
10 
10 








1766 


do 








1777 


. .do... . 










Average Nos. 1766 
and 1777. 

Beef, rump 















669.26 


7.01 












Pan broiled... 
do 












1674 


571. 12 
572. 72 


47.39 
5. 20 




13 
15 








1659 


Veal, leg 










Average Nos. 1659, 
1674, 1766, and 1777. 

Beef, round 














620.. 19 


16.65 














Saut^ed 


1 








1765 


670.51 
641.09 


9.88 
6. .34 




10 
10 








1776 


do 


do 












Average 














6.55. 82 


8.11 


1 










Beef, round 


Fried 


1 








1767 


666.11 


10.42 




10 


200 


160 


10 




Average of sill l;eef 
samples. 

Average of all veal 
samples. 

Average of all beef 
and veal samples. 










1 


1 










i 



















































































Cook- 
ing ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat used for cooking. 


Loss or gain of each nutrient, expressed in percentages, of 
the weight of the luieooked meat. 


Lab- 
ora- 
tory 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 




No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1770 


146 
155 

147 
1.56 

210 


Beef, round 


Per cent. 
-40.63 

-44.87 


Per cent. 
-1-1.51 
- .11 


Per cent. 
-0.39 
- .54 


Per cent. 
-0.78 

- .77 


Per cent. 
-2.70 
+ .39 


Per ct. 

-0.38 


1781 


do 


- .49 




Average 






-42.75 


+ .70 


- .47 


- .78 


-1.16 


- .44 








1771 


- 16. 03 
-15.53 


- .07 
+ .86 


- .05 

- .34 


- .44 

- .33 


- .23 

- .35 


- .09 


1782 


do 


- .11 










-15.78 


+ .40 


- .20 


- .39 


- .29 


- .10 




Veal, leg 

Average Nos. 1660, 
1771, and 1782 




1660 


-22.41 


-1- .,39 


- .04 


+ .10 


- .38 


- .04 




-17.99 


+ .39 


- .14 


- .22 


- .32 


- .08 



11480— No. 162—06- 



-12 



178 



Table 127. — Summary of the losses involved in the cooking of meats hy roasting, broiling, 
sauteing, and frying — Continued. 





Cook- 
ng ex- 
peri- ] 
meni- 
No. 


<.ind of meat used for cooking. 


Loss or gain of each nutrient, expressed in percentages, of 
the weight of the uncooked meat. 


Lab- J 
ora- 
tory 


Water. 


Proteid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 




No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1778 


152 
142 
151 

124 
119 

141 




Per cent. 
-18.12 
-15.07 
-20.26 


Per cent. 
+ 0.29 
+ .69 
+ 1.29 


Per cent. 
+0.02 
+ .04 
+ .06 


Per cent. 
-0.05 

- .29 

- .01 


Per cent. 
+ 1.45 
-1.31 
- .21 


Per ct. 
-0.08 


1766 

1777 


do 


- .07 


do 


- .09 




Average Nos. 1766 and 
1777 






-17.67 


+ .99 


+ .05 


- .15 


- .76 


- .08 








1674 


-.34.54 
-29.98 


+ .19 
+ .61 


+ .03 
- .15 


- .02 

- .09 


-1.80 
- ..36 


+ .02 


16.59 




- .10 




Average Nos. 1659, 
1674, 1766, and 1777... 






-24.96 


+ .70 


- .01 


- .10 


- .92 


- .06 


176.-, 


-1.5.84 
-16.11 


+ 1.05 
+ .86 


- .01 
+ .05 


- .30 

- .02 


+ .20 
+ .53 


- .06 


1776 


l.JO 


do 


- .09 










- 15. 98 


+ -.96 


+ .02 


- .16 


+ .37 


- .08 




143 






1767 


-29.06 


+ 1.55 


- .03 


- .44 


- .78 


- .05 




Average of all beef 
samples 






-24.19 


+ .74 


- .11 


- .32 


- .64 


- .14 




Average of all veal 


-26.20 


+ .50 


- .10 


+ .01 


- .37 


- .07 




Average of all beef and 
veal samples 






-24.50 


+ .70 


- .10 


- .27 


- .43 


- .13 




Cook- 
ing ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat used for cooking. 


Loss or 


gain of ni 
total a 


itrients, expressed ii 
mounts in uncookec 


1 percentages, of 
1 meat. 


Lab- 
ora- 
tory 


Water. 


Proteid 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 




No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1770 


146 

1.55 

147 
1,56 

120 

1.52 
142 
151 

124 
119 

141 
150 




Per cent. 
-58.11 
-61.23 


Per cent. 
+ 8.39 
- .57 


Per cent. 
-33.13 

-47.83 


Per cent. 
-44.95 
-55.14 


Per cent. 
-33.20 
+ 7.84 


Per ct. 
-35.61 


1781 


do 


-45.37 










-59.67 


+3.91 


-40.48 


-50.05 


-12.68 


-40.49 












1771 


-22.92 
-21.19 


- .41 
+4.60 


- .3.91 
-29.96 


-25.33 
-23.60 


- 2.80 

- 7.04 


- 8.03 


1782 


do 


-10.40 






■ 




-22.06 


+ 2.10 


-16.94 


-24.47 


- 4.92 


- 9.22 




Veal, leg 


- 


1660 


-29.66 


+2.18 


- 3. .54 


+ 7.17 


- ■ 9. 42 


- 3.89 




Average Nos. 1660, 
1771, and 1782 






1 

-24.59 


+2.12 


-12.47 


-13.92 


' - 6.42 


- 7.44 


1778 


-24.72 
-21.56 
-27.64 


+ 1.58 
+ 3.85 
+6.88 


+ 1.74 
+ 3.52 
+ 5.59 


- 3.66 
-16.90 

- .86 


. +29. .55 
- 16. 10 
- 4.23 


- 6.92 


1766 


do 


- 6.16 


1777 


.do 


- 8.15 




Average Nos. 1706 and 
1777. 






-24.60 


+5.37 


+ 4.56 


- 8.88 


-10.17 


- 7.16 


1674 


Beef, rump 


-66.10 
-39.69 


+ 1.37 
+ 3.36 


+ 4.51 
-14.22 


- 2.58 
-6.37 


- 5.57 

- 9.10 


+ 2.84 


1659 




- 8.73 




Average Nos. 1659, 
1674,1766, and 1777.. 






-,38.75 


+ 3.87 


- .15 


- 6.68 


- 8.75 


-5.05 


1765 


-22.64 
-21.98 


+ 5.87 
+4.60 


- 1.14 
+ 4.01 


-17.50 
- 1.45 


1 + 2.40 
j +10.74 


- 6.05 


1776 


do 


- 8.01 




Average 






-22.31 


+ 5.24 


+ 1.44 


- 9.48 


+ 6.57 


- 7.03 






= ■ 



179 



Table 127. — Sitntmary of the losfies involved in the cooking of meats hy roastintj, broiling, 
sauteing, and frying — Continued. 





Cook- 
ing ex- 
peri- 
ment 

No. 


Kind of meat used for cooking. 


Loss or gain of nutrients, expressed in percentages, of 
total amounts in uncooked meat. 


Lab- 
ora- 
tor V 


Water. 

Per cent. 
-41.56 


Proteid. 


Organic 
extractives. 


Fat. 




No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Ash. 


1767 


113 




Per cent. 
+8.64 


Per cent. 
- 2.93 


Per cent. 
-25. 17 


Per cent. 
- 9.58 


Per ct. 
- 4.53 




Average of all beef 






-35.42 


+4.07 


- 9.05 


-19.74 


- 6.43 


-12.66 




Average of all veal 






-34.68 


+2.77 


- 8.88 


+ .40 


- 9.26 


- 6.31 




Average of all beef and 






-35.31 


+3.87 


- 9.02 


-le.fri 


- 6.87 


-11.68 









Examination of tliis table shows that in tlio ca.so of two pot roasts 
the av('rati;c lo.ssos oxpivssed as jHTccntaji^os of the sovoral nutrients 
originall}' present were: 59.67 per cent water, 40.48 percent nitrog- 
enous extractives, 50.05 per cent nonnitrogenous extractives, 12.68 
per cent fat, and 40.49 per cent ash. There was an apparent gain of 
3.91 per cent of proteid. 

The average losses in the three roasting experiments were: 24.59 
per cent water, 12.47 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 13.92 per cent 
nonnitrogenous extractives, 6.42 per cent fat, and 7.44 per cent ash. 
Here again there was an apparent gain in the amount of proteid which 
amounted to 2.12 per cent. 

The losses occurring in the single test in which meat was broiled 
over a gas flame were as follows: 24.72 per cent water, 3.66 per cent 
nonnitrogenous extractives, and 6.92 per cent ash. In this experi- 
ment there was an apparent gain in the proteid, nitrogenous extract- 
ives, and fat amounting to, respectively, 1.58, 1.74, and 29.55 per cent 
of the total quantity of each of these nutrients in the uncooked meat. 

In the four pan-broiling experiments the average losses were : 38.75 
per cent water, 0.15 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 6.68 per cent 
nonnitrogenous extractives, 8.75 per cent fat, and 5.05 per cent ash. 
There was an apparent gain of 3.87 per cent proteid. 

In the two experiments in which the meat was sauteed the average 
losses were: 22.31 per cent water, 9.48 per cent nonnitrogenous 
extractives, and 7.03 per cent ash. Again there was an apparent 
gain of proteid amounting to 5.24 per cent, and also an apparent 
gain of nitrogenous extractives and fat amounting to 1.44 and 6.57 
per cent, respectively. 

In the single experiment in which the meat was fried the average 
losses were: 41.56 per cent water, 2.93 percent nitrogenous extract- 
ives, 25.17 per cent nonnitrogenous extractives, 9.58 per cent fat, 



180 

and 4.53 per cent ash. There was an apparent gain of S.G4 per cent 
proteid. 

It is evident from the figures under discussion that a considerable 
loss in weight results from each of these methods of cooking meats. 
Tliis is due chiefly to the evaporation of water, but there are also in 
all instances small losses of total food nutrients. Judging from the 
limited data here available the losses resulting when meat is cooked 
as a pot roast are much greater than those which occur in roasting, 
gas broiling, pan broiling, sauteing, and frying, and the losses which 
take place when meats are cooked })y roasting are apparently greater 
than those in l)roiling, sauteing, and frying. The losses noted in con- 
nection with the roasting, pan broiling, and sauteing experiments 
agree in general with those obtained in previous experiments « in 
which meats were cooked by these methods. 

In all the roasting, broiling, sauteing, and frying experiments here 
reported there was an apparent gain of proteid matter during the 
cooking, and in a few cases there was apparently a small gain of the 
nitrogenous extractives and also of fat, even where the latter had not 
been added either before or during the cooking. It is plainly evident 
that cooking according to these methods could not add nutritive 
material to the meat except where fat was added in the pot roasting, 
sauteing, and frying experiments. With the knowledge at present 
available concerning the nature of the changes resulting in cooking, it 
is not easy to account for this apparent gain of fat and nitrogenous 
substances which occurs during the cooking of meats by those 
methods. This question is being further studied in connection with 
these investigations. 

Attention should be called to the comparatively small losses which 
take place when meats are cooked b}^ dry heat compared with those 
wliich occur when the cooking is done in hot water. The average losses 
resulting in the 13 experiments in which the meats were cooked by dry 
heat, expressed in percentages of the total amount of each constituent 
in the meat, were as follows: 35.31 per cent water, 9.02 per cent 
nitrogenous extractives, 16.64 per cent nonnitrogenous extractives, 
6.87 per cent fat, and 11.68 per cent ash. There was appurently an 
average gain of 3.87 per cent of proteid. 

The average losses occurring in the 3 1 experiments in which the meat 
was cooked in hot water, expressed in percentages of the total amount 
of each constituent of the meat, were as follows: 54.45 percent water, 
3.18 per cent proteid, 71.81 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 72.13 
per cent nonnitrogenous extractiA^es, 17. 50. per cent fat, and 62.55 per 
cent ash. It is thus evident that the losses of nutritive constituents 
which occur in cooking meats in hot water are several times greater 
than those resulting when meats are cooked by dry heat. 

oU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 141. 



181 

Theso difToroncps bctwoon llu' lassos occiirriiifx wlioii meats are 
cooked with and willioii) eoiitaet with hot water are also jjlaiidy 
notieeahle w hen the results are calculated to the basis of the \vei»:;ht of 
the unco()ked meats. The average losses residting in the 1.'^ experi- 
ments in which the meats were cooked by dry heat thus expressed 
were: 24.50 per cent water, 0.10 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 
0.27 per cent nonnitrogenous extractives, 0.43 per cent fat, and 0.13 
per cent ash. The apparent gain of proteid was 0.70 per cent. 

The average losses resulting in the 31 boiling experiments, expressed 
in percentages of the weight of the uncooked meats, were 3!). 09 per 
cent water, 0.63 per cent proteid, 0.S3 per cent nitrogenous extract- 
ives, 1.07 per cent nonnitrogenous extractives, 1.26 per cent fat, and 
0.61 per cent ash. 

These conclusions are in accord with those on page 140, drawn from 
the composition of the cold-water extracts of meat cooked in differ- 
ent wa3s, that cooking meat by dry heat retains more of the nutri- 
tive material than cooking it in hot water. 

A STUDY OF MEAT BROTHS AND SOUPS. 

In connection with the nutrition investigations upon meats carried 
on under the du-ection of this Office" a large amount of luipublished 
data upon the chemical composition and nutritive value of meats, 
broths, and soups has been accumulated. Since the available data 
regarding the composition and true nutritive value of meat broths and 
soups are as yet quite meager, it has been thought l)est to present this 
material in connection with this bulletin. Past investigations have 
shown in a general w^ay that meat broths and soups contain as a rule 
onl}^ small quantities of true nutritive material, consisting of a por- 
tion of the nitrogenous and nonnitrogenous organic extractives (meat 
bases) , proteids, fats, and mineral substances of the meat from which 
thej^ have been prepared. The true nutritive value of broths is still a 
disputed question, because a considerable proportion of their solid 
constituents are composed of the so-called extractives, such as 
creatin, creatinin, organic acids, glycogen, inosite, and unidentified 
organic substances and inorganic salts, and the action of these 
materials upon the animal body is not yet well understood. It seems 
probable, however, that these extractives have little true nutritive 
value and that they act cMefly as stimulants to the body or to the 
process of digestion. 

The extended investigations of Pawlow^ ^ and his associates show 
that the importance of meat extractives as stimulants to the secretion 
of normal gastric juice can hardly be overestimated. These bodies 

oU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 102 and 141 
6 The Work of the Digestive Glands. London, 1902. 



182 

were found to be much more active gastric stimulants than sugar \\dth 
water or any of the other foods or food accessories tested. It seems 
apparent, further, that the stimulation of the flow of gastric juice by 
the specific character of the food eaten is a normal and inijiortantpart 
of digestion. 

If Pawlow's views are correct, and they are supported by a very 
large amount of experimental work of a high order, they furnish an 
explanation of the belief long held by many that soup and l)rotli have 
a value in dietetics out of proportion to the nutritive material they 
supply, and, indeed, they offer an explanation of the value of savory 
foods in general. 

In connection with the work here reported it is interesting to sum- 
marize the more important investigations of the composition of soup 
and broth wliich have been found. For the purpose of studying the 
composition of broth, Konig ** and associates prepared a meat broth 
from 500 grams of beef and 189 grams of veal bones by the ordinary 
household method. They obtained 543 cubic centimeters of strong 
broth or soup, which upon analysis gave the following results: Water, 
95.18; total dry substance, 4.82; proteid, 1.19; fat, 1.48; extrac- 
tives,. 1.83, and total nitrogen 0.19 per cent. A. Payen^ prepared 
tlu-ee soups from meat and bones, using as flavoring materials salt, 
vegetables, and spices. These broths were anal3^zed with the follow- 
ing average results: Water, 97.73; total dry residue, 1.26; organic 
matter, 1.31, and salt, 0.96 per cent. 

Mrs. Ellen H. Richards and Mrs. Mary H. AbelMn 1889 and 1900 
prepared and studied the composition of various kinds of broths. 
The following table gives the results of their analyses : 

Table 128. — Composition of brotlis, heef tea, etc. 



Kind. 



Beef juice from meat slightly broiled 
and pressed (round) 

Beef juice from meat slightly broiled 
and jiressed (neck) 

Beef tea , chopped l)eef heated in bot- 
tle without water 

Beef tea, New England Hospital, 
with water 

Beef tea, with equal weight of water 
two hours at 7U° C, then boiled 
two hours 

Beef tea, with twice its weight of 
water two hours at 70° C, then 
two hours at 85° C 

Beef broth. New England kitchen, 
average of 20 analyses 



Meat. 



Per ct. 
20.8 



21.9 
20. 4 



Total 
soUds. 



Per ct. 
11.9 

0.9 

7.91 

3.23 



3.53 



Solids, 
juice 
filtered 
before 
coagu- 
lation. 



Per ct. 
10.8 



Solids, 
juice 
filtered 
after 
coagu- 
lation. 



Per ct. 
4.93 

4.72 

5.72 

2.55 



Coagu- 
lable 
albu- 
min. 



Per ct. 
0.97 

5.18 

2.19 

.08 



Extract 

of 

meat. 



Per ct. 
3.90 



3. 50 
2.09 



Salts 
or ash. 



2. 02 
4.40 



Per ft. 



1.30 



aCheraic der Menschlichen Nahrungs- und Gcnussmittel. 4. ed., II, p. 1445. 

ft Substances Alimentaires, 1805, p 97. 

cV. S. Dept. Agr., Ollicc of Experiment Stations Bui. 21, p. 92. 



183 

From tlie work al)ove mentioned it is apparent that the amount of 
solids ill moat broths is <!;enorally very small. The analyses of meat 
broths made by us conlirm this conclusion. The I'ollowin^i; tables 
sunnnarizo the results of the analyses of the broths made in con- 
nection with these nutrition investigations since 1898. Table 129 
gives the weight of each nutrient actually found by analysis in the 
clear filtered broths and in the suspended matter in the original 
broth. 

Table 129. — Cmnposition of the clear, filtered broths and the solid matter in the broths. 



Broth 
from 
meat, 
labo- 
ra- 
tory 
No. 



Total nutrients in clear broth. 



Ex- Weight — 
peri- of un- 
monl cooked 
No. meat. 



Total nutrients in suspended 
matter in broth. 



892... 

893... 

771a. . 

771b.. 

894... 

895... 

1027.. 

1097.. 

777a.. 

777b.. 

779a.. 

779b.. 

781a.. 

781b.. 

809a.. 

809b.. 

820a.. 

820b.. 

823a.. 

823b.. 

1091 . . 

1092.. 

1093.. 

1094.. 

1095.. 

1096.. 

1098.. 

1099.. 

1146.. 

1147.. 

1158.. 

1159.. 

1160.. 

1161.. 

1162.. 

1163.. 

1169.. 

1170.. 

1171.. 

1172.. 

1173.. 

1174.. 

1175.. 

1176.. 

1177. 

1178 . . 

1179.. 

1180. 

1181. 

1182. 

1183.. 

1184. 

1205. 

1206 . . 

1211.. 

1212. 

1242. 

1243. 

1368.. 

1369 . . 



Grams. 

1,220.3 

1,477.8 

705.5 

660.8 

433.2 

2,080.6 

2,141.3 

1,139.5 

825.8 

739.5 

750.0 

660.5 

657.0 

755.8 

742.8 

686.6 

915.1 

837.3 

798.1 

944.5 

1,383.1 

1,409.6 

2, 120. 1 

2,193.9 

1,211.8 

1,152.6 

1,017.1 

1,740.5 

713.6 

2,323.1 

1,380.2 

1,435.9 

1,715.9 

1,825.8 

2,393.2 

2,729.8 

1,806.4 

1,923.6 

1,523.7 

1 , 765. 

1,838.5 

1,608.5 

1,882.7 

2,016.7 

1,774.2 

2,334.7 

964.7 

1,284.2 

1,648.3 

1,939.1 

912.8 

1,268.1 

1,237.9 

1,210.2 

2,141.1 

1,529.9 

2,108.6 

1,128.0 

500.0 

2,500.0 



Pro- 
teid. 



Grams. 
1.273 
2.436 
.370 
.605 
.542 
2.473 
2.780 
1.460 
2.208 
2.604 
2.964 
2.824 
2. 170 
2.224 
1.072 
.812 
2.203 
3.385 
.890 
1.390 
1.440 
1.930 
1.680 
1.090 
1.470 
1.890 
1.990 
2.790 
.875 
2. 085 
1.060 



Organic extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Grams. 
6. ,500 
7.375 
5.505 
5.010 
3.869 

15.305 

18.364 
7.960 
5.5l» 
5.624 
5.480 
5. 256 
4.416 
5.052 
5.376 
5.452 
4.005 
4.750 
6.215 
6.940 
8. 246 
7.037 
5.189 
3.915 
8.913 
8.429 
6.268 
8. 766 
4.910 

12.745 
6.408 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 



Total. 



1.144 


3.864 


1.217 


5.212 


2.470 


6.487 


2.825 


5.943 


2.090 


6.374 


2.190 


5.815 


1.260 


6.272 


1.220 


6. 535 


1.950 


5.058 


.980 


5.288 


.850 


6.195 


.960 


6.914 


6.193 


7.966 


7.583 


9. 102 


1.424 


5.923 


2.489 


7.044 


5.710 


7.949 


6.670 


7.096 


1.030 


4.051 


1.750 


4.715 


.970 


6.938 


1.090 


9.595 


3.090 


10.811 


2.510 


10.284 


2.250 


8.658 


1.700 


6.757 


1.080 


4.178 


7.670 


16.783 



Grams. 
7.933 
9.405 
7.411 
7.050 
5.088 
21.025 
16.0.56 
9.600 
7.536 
7.0(i8 
6.864 
6.832 
6.714 
7.448 
7.392 
7.612 
5.507 
6.955 
7.890 
9.055 
10.894 
9.153 
7.301 
7.415 
12.717 
11.561 
10.032 
13.324 
6.575 
16.905 
9.799 



6.009 
8.095 
9.091 
8.465 
8.516 
7.295 
8.378 
9.385 
7.232 
7.732 
8.045 
9.206 
11.191 
11.652 
7.463 
9.982 
13.291 
10.914 
7.949 
9.525 
9.159 
12. 496 
12. 874 
12. 586 
9.902 
7.380 
4.905 
17.204 



Grams 
14. 493 
16.780 
12.916 
12.060 

8.957 
36. 330 
34.420 
17.560 
13. 104 
12.692 
12.344 
12. 088 
II. 130 
13.100 
12.768 
13.064 

9.512 
11.705 
14.105 
15.995 
19. 140 
16. 1!K) 
12.490 
11.330 
21.630 
19.990 
16.300 
22.090 
11.485 
29. (>50 
16. 207 



Ash. 



Total 
nutri- 
ents. 



9.873 
13.307 
15.578 
14. 408 
14. 890 
13.110 
14. 650 
15.920 
12.290 
13. 020 
14. 240 
16. 120 
19. 157 
20. 754 
13.386 
17.026 
21.240 
18.010 
12. 000 
14.240 
16. 097 
22. 091 
23. 685 
22. 870 
18.560 
14. 137 

9.083 
33.987 



Grams. 
5.464 
6.140 
4.044 
3.875 
3. 170 
12.326 
11.620 
5.430 
5.016 
4.576 
4.832 
4.432 
4.010 
4. 760 
4.576 
4. 4lK) 
3.365 
3.920 
4.605 
5.185 
6.320 
5.380 
4.290 
3.390 
7.400 
6.630 
4.990 
6.830 
3. 623 
10.171 
4.818 
9.153 
2.997 
3.998 
4.637 
4.390 
4.490 
4.010 
5.230 
5.210 
4.000 
3.830 
4.880 
5.550 
6.053 
7.008 
4. 045 
4.805 
6.310 
5.890 
3.520 
4.230 
5.550 
7.210 
8.590 
8.440 
7.210 
5.330 
3.070 
12.340 



Grams. 
21.230 
25. 356 
17.330 
l(i. 540 
12. 669 
51.129 
48.820 
24.450 
20.388 
19.872 
20. 140 
19.344 
17.316 
20. 084 

18. 416 
18. 336 
15. 080 
19.010 

19. 600 
22.570 
26.900 
23.500 
18. 4(» 
15.810 
30. 560 
28.510 
23.280 
31.710 
15. 983 
41.906 
22.085 
41. 150 
14.014 
18. 522 
22. 685 
21.623 
21.470 
19.310 
21.140 
22. 350 
18. 240 
17. 830 
19.970 
22. 630 
31.403 
35. 345 
18. 855 
24. 320 
33. 260 
30. 560 
16. 540 
20. 220 
22.610 
30. 400 
35. 370 
33. 820 
28. 020 
21.170 
13.240 
53.990 



Pro- 
teid. 



Grams. 
1.111 
1.576 

- 1.757 
1.936 
.382 
1.713 
1.3.50 
l.(HK) 

.aw 

.387 

.441 

.495 

.422 

. 466 

.334 

.277 

4.419 

5.243 

2.021 

1.832 

.570 

.440 

1.670 

.910 

.970 

. .590 

.330 

2.170 

.185 

.652 

.690 

1.342 

1.066 

.615 

1.178 

..552 

.770 

.450 

1.290 

.590 

.730 

.650 

.210 

.510 

1.107 

1.351 

.658 

1.205 

.910 

1.500 

.300 

.680 

.650 

.480 

.750 

1.150 

1.480 

.840 

1.520 

14. 430 



Fat. 



Grams. 

9.533 

12.623 

5.586 

7.600 

.958 

2.979 

10.190 

2.880 

6.810 

6.722 

8.147 

4.668 

5.734 

3.344 

8.134 

5.082 

1.333 

1.652 

.975 

4.846 

11.740 

9.530 

17. 860 

25.910 

20. 370 

20.190 

31.710 

30.750 

4.312 

8.854 

2.579 

14. 152 

89. 812 

154. 161 

19. 760 

8.471 

51.970 

55. 700 

7.060 

14. 750 

8.490 

72.810 

26. 770 

38. 420 

13. 832 

2.908 

79. 584 

68.266 

2.390 

1.170 

41. 100 

88. 140 

.750 

.630 

.650 

4.860 

1.500 

2.690 

.780 

3.990 



Ash. 



Gvi. 



184 



Table 129.— Composition of the clear filtered broths and the solid matter in the broths — 

Continued. 



Broth 


~ 






Total nutrients in clear broth. 




Total nutrients in sus 
matter in broth 


pended 


from 


EX 
pen- 


Weight 
of un 






















meat 
labo- 




Organic extractives. 














ment 
No 


cooked 
meat 


Pro- 
teid. 








Ash. 


Total 
nutri- 
ents. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Total 
nutri- 
ents. 


ra- 
tory 

No 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 


Total. 












enous. 




















Grams. 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Gram. 


Grams. 


1370 . . 


01 


500.0 


0.990 


4.115 


5.225 


9.340 


3.350 


13. 080 


1.720 


6.300 




8.030 


1371.. 


02 


2,500.0 


2.580 


20. 077 


24.589 


45.200 


15.380 


03. 220 


10. 600 


33. 130 




43. 730 


137ti.. 


63 


520.8 


2.570 


2. 900 


3.336 


6.242 


2.800 


11.670 


1.330 


.260 




1.590 


1377. . 


04 


2,384.5 


7.800 


11.801 


13.819 


25. 020 


9.480 


42.900 


6.690 


3.050 




9.740 


137S.. 


Co 


501.4 


.470 


3.8!8 


4. 104 


7.922 


3.230 


11.620 


.210 


5.520 




5.730 


137'.> . . 


(.i; 


2,502.6 


2.720 


15. 7f)9 


20.305 


30. 104 


10. 470 


49. 300 


3.960 


15.700 




19.600 


13M). . 


17 


500.0 


.890 


2.317 


1.179 


3.490 


3.270 


7. 650 


5.110 


.970 




6. 080 


13S1 . . 


(.S 


2,500.0 


9.380 


i7.C38 


20.542 


38. 180 


11.800 


59. 300 


11.010 


3.600 




14. 070 


13.SL'.. 


(.',) 


500. 


.300 


4.718 


5.531 


10. 249 


3. 210 


13. 700 


. 400 


4.010 




4.470 


13S3 . . 


70 


2,. 500.0 


1.440 


21.938 


26.290 


48. 228 


15.350 


04. 920 


17. 100 


22. 170 




39.280 


Kis-i . . 


71 


500.0 


2.230 


3.439 


4.039 


7.478 


2.430 


12. 140 


2.490 


.430 




2.920 


13cSo . . 


72 


2,500.0 


4. 890 


10. 447 


11.670 


22.117 


7.820 


34.830 


11.190 


4.970 




16. 170 


1381).. 


73 


500.0 


.290 


3.990 


4.851 


8.841 


3.350 


12. 490 


1.780 


3.030 




4.810 


1387 . . 


74 


2,500.0 


3. 100 


14.466 


10. 305 


24.771 


9.150 


37.090 


8. 000 


4.000 




13.260 


1039 . . 


107 


1,000.0 


3.418 


8.877 


12. 501 


21.378 


6. 6()0 


31.455 


1.728 


7.418 




9.146 


1041 . . 


108 


1,000.0 


2.184 


10.633 


13.590 


24.223 


7.520 


33.933 


4.240 


6.087 


"o.'oio' 


10.367 


1042 . . 


109 


1,000.0 


1.726 


10.214 


13. 385 


23.599 


7.725 


33.050 


13.844 


5.935 


.008 


19. 786 


1043 . . 


110 


1,000.0 


4.063 


8.759 


10.916 


19. 075 


6.375 


30.113 


2.121 


8.476 




10.597 


1044 . . 


111 


1,000.0 


2.201 


9.102 


11.954 


21.110 


6.994 


30.311 


3.437 


8.501 




11.938 


1645 . . 


112 


1,000.0 


1.476 


9.903 


12. 667 


22. 570 


7.235 


31.280 


6.529 


11.421 




17.949 


1046 . . 


113 


1,000.0 


2.318 


9.177 


11.944 


21.121 


7.381 


30.819 


6.744 


7.000 




13. 744 


1052 . . 


114 


1,000.0 


5.440 


6.683 


9.582 


16.265 


5.080 


26.785 


1.372 


.683 


".'613' 


2.068 


1053 . . 


115 


1,000.0 


2.740 


8. 465 


11.305 


19. 770 


6.240 


28. 750 


2.359 


.572 




2.930 


1054 . . 


lie 


1,000.0 


4.046 


7.564 


11.366 


18. 930 


6. 220 


29. 195 


6.077 


1.883 


".'oii' 


7.977 


1058.. 


118 


1,000.0 


4.'528 


7.911 


9.597 


17.508 


0.320 


28. 355 


5.694 


4.975 


.009 


10.678 


1604 . . 


117 


1,000.0 


5.001 


7.774 


9. 124 


16.898 


6.150 


28.050 


1.356 


3.306 


.009 


4.671 


1065. . 


121 
122 


700.0 
1,000.0 










4.670 
4.355 


20. 255 
23. 465 


"".'890' 


7.115 
64.807 


.024 
.018 


8.539 


1009.. 


"o.'iis' 


"5."oii' 


"'7.384" 


'ii'ggs' 


65.715 


Iti73.. 


123 


1,000.0 


3.220 


6.046 


8.549 


14.595 


4.965 


22. 780 


1.840 


03. 190 


.005 


65.041 


1703.. 


125 


1,000.0 


3.381 


8. 629 


10. 274 


18.903 


5.932 


28.216 


1.072 


23.585 


.007 


24.663 


1704.. 


126 


1,000.0 


8.749 


7.447 


9.400 


16.847 


5.260 


30. 856 


1.363 


30. 870 


.016 


32.250 


1707.. 


127 


1,000.0 


14.344 


1.396 


6.612 


8.008 


1.200 


23.552 


.270 


20. 161 




20.430 


1708.. 


128 


1,000.0 


5. 596 


1.211 


3.828 


5.039 


1.336 


11.971 


.245 


13. 436 




13.681 


1709.. 


129 


1,000.0 


.883 


.830 


1.480 


2.310 


.564 


3. 756 


.367 


75. 625 


".'665' 


75.997 


1710. . 


130 


1,000.0 


2.266 


1.297 


1.692 


2.989 


1.064 


6.320 


.219 


126. 563 


.019 


126.801 


1720.. 


131 


1,000.0 


2.873 


9.486 


13.361 


22.847 


6.368 


32.088 


1.369 


12.641 


.021 


14.031 


1721 . . 


132 


1,000.0 


0.014 


8.807 


12. 740 


21.547 


5.896 


33. 456 


1.038 


11.348 


.011 


12.396 


1743.. 


133 


1,000.0 


3. .500 


8.871 


11.099 


19.970 


6.200 


29.670 


.443 


4.565 


.010 


5.024 


1744.. 


134 


1,000.0 


2. 700 


8.678 


11.856 


20.534 


6.120 


29.420 


.554 


3.127 


.018 


3. 099 


1745.. 


135 


1,000.0 


3.309 


8.195 


10. 056 


18.851 


5.670 


27.830 


.980 


24. 789 


.027 


25. 796 


1740.. 


136 


1,000.0 


2.130 


8.351 


10.949 


19.300 


6.030 


27. 460 


1.324 


16.180 


.022 


17.526 


1754. . 


137 


900.0 


1.559 


7.753 


9.506 


17.259 


5.340 


24. 159 


3.312 


7.771 


.037 


11.120 


1755.. 


138 


900. 


2.336 


8.007 


9.557 


17.564 


5.080 


25.580 


2.826 


14.530 


.020 


17.381 


1756.. 


139 


900.0 


1.530 


7.830 


9.528 


17.364 


5.490 


24.390 


1.334 


5.255 


.030 


6.618 


1757.. 


140 


900.0 


2.211 


8.029 


9.749 


17. 778 


5.700 


25. 689 


1.127 


5.839 


.022 


6.988 


1772.. 


145 


1,074.8 


1.785 


8.067 


8.957 


17.024 


5.570 


24.380 


.852 


4. 696 


.017 


5. 565 


1773.. 


144 


1,027.7 


1.497 


6.909 


7.544 


14. 453 


4.740 


20.690 


.572 


1.752 


.012 


2.337 


1783.. 


154 


1,052.2 


1.321 


7.702 


9.422 


17.124 


5.520 


23. 965 


1.299 




.015 




1784.. 


153 


1,098.3 


1.777 


8.067 


9.596 


17.663 


5.670 


25. 110 


.258 


"4.'i82' 


.003 


"4.' 437 



Composition of Complete Meat Broths. 

Table 130 for the experiments of 1 898- 1903-, and Table 131 for 
1903-4 give the composition of the original complete broths. Since 
the broths varied in consistency, it was necessaiy to reduce them to 
a common basis before the}^ could be accurately compared. Each 
broth was therefore diluted with water until it reached the density at 
which the amount made from 100 grams of the original meat would 
weigh 100 grams; or, what is the same thing, the point at which the 
broth made from 1 pound of meat would measure 1.04 pints. The 
kind and cut of meat and the metliod of cooking are indicated in 
the tables, which hardl}' need further explanation. 



185 



Tabi-K \^.—Com'po.<fitinn of nriffinnl comflele broth. {ResullK of erperimenis made in 

l,S<)S-li)0.i.) 

[CaUHilatud to the basis, 100 grams of meat give 100 grams of broth, or 1 pound of moat gives 1.04 

pints of broth.] 



1 


Cook- 
ing 
ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat used for cooking. 


Amount 
taken. 


Fat in 

cooked 

meat. 


Method of cooking. 


Labo- 
rato- 


Temperature. 


Dura- 


N'o. , 


At be- 
ginning. 


Durmg 
cooking. 


tion of 
cooking. 


1 1.58 


31 
28 
28 

61 
69 

62 
70 

IS 
21 
23 
22 

65 
21 
73 
23 
22 
20 
20 

51 
48 
54 
18 

66 
19 

74 
19 

16 
16 
26 
26 
35 

27 
27 

29 
29 
30 
30 




Orams. 
1,380.20 
1,211.75 
1,152.63 


Per cent. 
7.10 

7.27 
7.95 


°C. 
100 
100 
100 


°C. 

80-85 
100 
100 


Hours. 


UKI') 


.....do 


2 


lO^Mi 


.do. .. 


2 




Average Nos. 1095 and 1096 . . 

Beef, round, lean, J-inch cubes 

do 






1,182.19 


7.61 
















1370 
1382 


500.00 
500.00 


14.49 
12.39 


100 
100 


80-8.5 
80-85 


2 
2 










500.00 


13.44 










Beef, round, lean, }-inch cubes 

do 








1371 
1383 i 


2,500.00 
2,500.00 


12.70 
10.75 


100 
100 


80-&5 
80-85 


2 

2 








1 


2,500.00 


11.73 










Average Nos. 1370, 1371, 1382, 
and 1383 






















Beef, round, lean, small piece 

.do 












894 
779b 


433.20 
660.50 
686.00 
755.00 


2.70 
5.87 
6.34 
6.50 


100 
100 
100 
100 


80- Vi 
80-8.5 
80-85 
80-85 


2 
2 


809b 


do 


2 


781b 


do 


2 










633.68 


5.35 


1 






Beef, round, lean, small piece 

.do .' 


1 




1378 
779u 


501.41 
7,50.00 
.500.00 
742.80 
657.00 
825.80 
739.50 


7.90 
8.98 
8.99 
9.40 
10.31 
10.52 
11.51 


100 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


80-85 
80-85 
80-a5 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 


2 
2 


138() 


do 


2 


809a 


do 


2 


781a 


do. .. 


2 


777a 


do 


2 


777b 


do 


2 










673.79 


9.66 


1 






Average Nos. 777a, 777b, 779a, 
779b, 781a, 781b, 809a, 809b, 
894 1378 and 1386 


1 






659.20 


8.09 










Beef, round, lean, large piece 

do 






1211 
1205 


2,141.09 
1,237.90 
2, 108. 62 
2,080.00 


1.78 
1.97 
3.45 
3.64 


100 
100 
100 
100 


80-85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 


2 
2 


1242 


do 


2 


895 


....do 


2 










1,891.90 


2.71 










Beef, round, lean, large piece 

. ..do 








1379 
1027 


2,500.00 
2,141.25 
2,500.00 
1,139.48 


8.56 
8.38 
9.23 
10. .53 


100 
100 
100 
100 


80-85 
80-85 
80-8,5 
80-8,5 


2 
2 


1387 


do 


2 


1097 


do 


2 




Average 






2,070.18 


9.18 






:... 




Average Xos. 895, 1027, 1097, 
1205, 1211, 1242, 1379, and 
1387 


1,984.04 


5.95 










Beef, round, fat 






892 


1,220.30 
1,477.80 
1,383.07 
1,409.64 
1,764.97 


19.99 
18.88 
12.84 
12.67 
15.45 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


80-85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 


2 


893 


do 


2 


1091 


do 


2 


109'' 


do 


2 


1172 


do 


2 




Average 






1,451.16 


15.96 








1093 
1094 


Beef, ' ' plate boil , " very f a t 

.do ." 


2, 120. 13 
2,193.89 


32.32 
35.49 


100 
100 


80-85 
80-85 


2 
2 




Average 






2,157.01 


33.90 






1098 




1,017.05 

1,740.51 

713. 60 

2,323.10 


12.54 
18.18 
7.74 
10.00 


100 
100 

100 
100 


80-85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 


3 


1099 


do 


3 


1146 


. ..do 


3 


1147 


do 


3 




Average 






1,448. .56 


12.12 


1 





186 



Table ISO.— Composition of original com-plete hrotJi. {Results of experiments made in 

1898-1903)— Continued. 




Note.— Experiment No. 31 not included in average. 



187 

T.vni.K IW. — Coin/M^sitioii of original comfJete broth. {Results of experiments made in 



1 


*^ 1 


Kind of meat used for 
cooking. 




Percentage composition of original complete broth. 




6 ' 0) 
z ^ 


C 


i 
e 

gs 

o 


1 
■6 

1 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


i 




Nitrogen. 


u 
o 

1 

o 

•i 


.a 

o 
o 


O oj 

♦J n 
Z, j 


b QQ 

c o 


■i 

o 


■6 
o 

u 

PL, 


1 

ft 
§ 
^ 1 


o 


1158 1 
1095 


31 

58 


Beef, round, lean 

do 


p. ct. 

98. 16 ' 
95.72 


P.ct. 
1.84 
4.28 


P.ct.P.ct.] 
1). 13 0.47 
.20 .73 . 


p.ct. 

0.69 ' 
1.05 


P.ct. 
1.16 
1.78 


p.ct. 
0.20 

1.68 1 


P.ct. 

0.35 

62 


P.ct. 

0.021 
.032 
.035 


P.ct. 1 

0.151 

.234 

.234 


P.ct. 

0.172 

.266 


1096 2S 


.do 


95.72 1 4.28 .22 i .73 | 


1.00 1.73 1 1.75 1 .58 


.269 




AverageNos.1095 
ami 1096 

Beef, round, lean, J- 










95.72 


4.28 .21 


.73 


1.03 


1.76 


1.71 .60 


.034 


.234 


.268 


1370 


61 
69 

62 
70 

IS 

21 
23 
22 

65 

21 
73 
23 

22 
20 
20 

51 

48 
54 
18 

66 

19 
74 
19 


95.66 4.U 
96.36 3.64 


.MJ 


82 


1.05 
1.11 


1.87 
2.05 


1.26 .67 
.80 .64 


.086 
.024 


.263 
.301 ! 


.349 


1382 


do 


.15 ! .94 


.325 














96.01 ' 3.99 


.35 1 .88 1 


1.08 


1.% 


1.03 .66 


.055 


.282 


.337 




Beef, round, lean, J- 






1371 

j 


95.72 ! 4.28 .53 .83 
95. 83 4. 17 . 74 .88 


.98 
1.05 


1.81 
1.93 


1.33 

.89 


.61 
.61 


.085 


.266 


.351 


1383 


do 


.118 1 .282 


.400 




Average 








95.78 4.23 .64 


.86 1 1.02 


1.87 


1.11 


.61 


.102 


.274 


.376 




AverageNo8.1370. 
1371. 1382. and 
13&3 














95.89 4.11 


.49 


.87 


1.05 


1.91 


1.07 


.63 


.078 


.278 


.356 


894 
779b 


Beef, roiuid, lean, small 
piece 


%.77 
96.29 
96.55 
96.84 


3.23 
3.71 
3.45 
3.16 


.21 
.50 
.16 
.36 


.89 
.80 
.79 
.75 


1.17 
1.03 
1.11 
.98 


2.06 
1.83 
1.90 
1.73 


.22 
.71 
.74 
.44 


.74 
.67 
.65 
.63 


.034 
.080 
.026 
.0.58 


.28,5 
.2,56 
.•253 
.240 


.319 
.336 


809b 


..do 


.279 


781b 


do 


.298 




Average 

Beef, round, lean, .small 








96.61 


3.39 


.31 1 .81 


1.07 j 1.88 


..53 


.67 


.049 


.259 


.308 


1378 


96.54 


3.46 -14 


.76 
.73 
.80 
.72 
.67 
.67 
.76 


.82 1.58 
.92 1.65 
.97 ' 1.77 
1.00 1.72 
1.02 1.69 
.91 1..08 
.% 1.72 


1.10 
1.09 
.61 
1.09 
.87 
.82 
.91 


64 
.64 
.67 
.62 
.61 
.61 
.62 


.022 
.072 
.066 
.030 
.064 
.0.54 
.064 


.243 
.2.34 
.2,56 
.231 
.214 
.214 
.243 


.265 


779a 

1386 

809a 

781a 

777a 

777b 


do 

'^'.VAo'/"^v/.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'. 

do 

do 

do 

Average 


%. 17 3.83 ! .45 
96.54 3.46 .41 
96.38 3.62 .19 
%.43 3. ,57 .40 
%.65 3.35 .34 
%.35 ' 3.65 1 .40 


.:W6 
.,322 
.261 
.278 
.268 
.307 




96.44 [ 3.56 


.33 


.76 


.94 1 1.67 


.93 


.63 


.053 


.234 


.287 




AverageNo9.777a, 
777b,779a, 779b, 
781a. 7Slb,809a, 
809b, ,S94, 1378, 
and 1386 

Beef, round, lean, large 
piece 


%.49 


3.50 


.32 


.76 


.99 


1.75 


.78 


.65 


.052 


.243 


.294 


1211 


98.28 
98.06 
98.53 
97.31 


1.72 
1.94 
1.47 
2.69 


.18 
.13 
.18 
.21 


.51 
.56 
.41 
.74 


.60 

.74 

.47 

1.01 


1.11 
1.30 

.88 
1.75 


.03 
.06 
.07 
.14 


.40 
.45 
.34 
.59 


.029 
.021 
.029 
.034 


.163 
.179 
.131 
.237 


.192 


1205 
1242 
895 


do 

do 

do 


.200 
.160 
.271 




98.04 


1.96 


.18 


.56 


.71 


1.26 


.08 


.45 


.028 


.178 


.206 




Beef, round, lean, large 

piece 

do 

do 

do 

Average 




1379 

1027 
1.387 
1097 


97.24 
97.18 
97.99 
97.51 


2.76 
'2.82 
2.01 
2.49 


.27 
.20 
.47 
.22 


.63 

.86 
.58 
.70 


.81 
.74 
.41 
.84 


1.44 

1.60 

.99 

1.54 


.63 

.48 
.18 
.25 


.42 
.54 
.37 
.48 


.043 
.032 
.075 
.035 


.202 
.276 
.186 
.224 


.245 
.308 
.261 
.259 




97.48 


2.52 


.29 .69 


.70 


1.39 


.39 


.45 


.046 


.222 


.268 




Average Nos. 895, 
1027, 1097, 1205, 
1211, 1242, 1,379, 
and 1387 


97.76 


2.24 


.23 


.63 


70 


1.33 


.23 


.45 


.037 


.200 


.237 



188 

Table \^.— Composition of original complete broth. {Results of experiments made in 
1898-1903)~Coni\nued. 





i 

C 

1 


Kind of meat used for 
cooking. 


Percentage composition of original complete broth. 




6 
'A 
>. 
o 

1 

o 




a 

o 


■d 
'S 

s 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


■§ 


m 
< 


Nitrogen. 


be 

.rH ID 


do 

gg 


"3 
o 


'53 
+^ 
o 
u 


1 

a 
o 


1 
o 


892 
893 


16 
16 
26 
26 
35 

27 
27 

29 
29 
30 
30 

32 

32 
33 
33 
34 
34 

38 
38 
40 
40 

39 
39 
41 
41 

36 
36 
37 
37 

31 
48 
51 
54 

24 

24 

63 
71 


Beef, round, fat 

.do 


P.ct. 
97.39 
97.32 


P.ct. 
2.61 
2.68 


P.ct. 

0.20 
.27 
.14 
.17 
.10 


p.ct. 
0.53 

.50 i 
.60 i 
.50 
.37 


p.ct. 

0.65 
.64 
.80 
.65 
.53 


P.ct. 

1.18 ' 
1.14 


P.ct. 

0.78 
.85 


P.ct. 

0.45 
.42 
.45 
.38 
.30 


P.ct. 

0.032 
.043 


P.ct. 

0. 170 
.160 


P.ct. 

0.202 

.203 


1091 


....do 


97. 16 2. 84 
97.63 2.37 
97.86 2.14 


1.40 .85 

1.15 .67 

.90 .84 


.022 .192 
.027 .160 
.016 .119 


.214 


1092 


do 


.187 


1172 


do 


.13c 




Average 

Beef," plate boil," very 
fat 






97.47 2.53 


.18 


.50 


.65 


1.15 .80 


.40 


.028 


.160 


.188 


1093 


98.21 
98.06 


1.79 
1.94 


.16 
.09 


.24 
.18 


.35 
.34 


.59 
.52 


.84 
1.18 


.20 
.15 


.026 
.014 


.077 
.058 


.103 


1094 


do 

Average 


.072 




98. 13 


1.87 


.13 


.21 


.35 


.56 


1.01 


.18 


.020 


.068 


.088 


1098 
1099 


Beef, round, rallier fat 
do 


94.56 1 5.44 
96.29 1 3.71 
97.13 ! 2.87 
97.79 i 2.21 


.23 
.28 
.15 
.12 


.62 
.50 
.69 
.55 


.98 
.77 
.91 
.72 


1.60 
1.27 
1.60 
1.27 


3.12 

1.77 

.62 

.39 


.49 
.39 
.50 
.43 


.037 
.045 
.024 
.019 


.199 
.160 
.221 
.176 


.236 
.205 


1146 


.do 


.245 


1147 


do 


.195 




Average 

Beef," plate boil," very 
fat 






96.44 


3.56 


.20 


.59 


.85 


1.44 


1.48 


.45 


.031 


.189 


.220 


1160 


93.89 
90.51 
98.18 
98.88 
95.89 
96.07 


6.11 
9.49 
1.82 
1.12 
4.11 
3.93 


.13 
.10 
.15 
.12 
.16 
.14 


.23 
.29 
.26 
.22 
.35 
.30 


.34 
.43 
.39 
.31 
.47 
.38 


.57 


5.24 


.17 
.22 
.19 
.16 
.25 
.21 


.021 
.016 
.024 
.019 
.026 
.022 


.074 
.093 
.083 
.071 
.112 
.096 


.095 


1161 
1162 
1163 
1169 
1170 


do 

Beef, neck, very fat 

do 

Beef, ribs, verv fat 

do " 


.72 j 8.45 
.65 1 .83 
.53 j .31 
.82 2.88 
.68 2.90 


.109 

.107 
.090 
.138 
.118 




Average of above 
Veal, leg 






95.57 


4.43 


.13 


.28 


.39 


.66 


3.44 


.20 


.021 


.088 


.109 


1177 


97.39 i 2.61 


.41 
.38 
.40 
.42 


.45 
.39 
.48 
.37 


.63 1.08 


.78 


.34 

.30 
.38 
.30 


.066 1 .144 


.210 


1178 
1181 
1182 


do 

do 

do 

Average 


98.30 
97.78 
98.29 


1.70 
2. 22 
L71 


.50 .89 .13 
.81 1.29 .15 
.56 .93 .06 


.061 
.064 
.067 


.12.5 

.154 
.119 


.186 
.218 
.186 




97.94 


2.06 


.40 


.42 


.63 


1.05 1 .28 


.33 


.064 


.136 


.200 


1179 




89.73 
92.70 
93.65 
91.40 


10.27 
7.30 
6.35 
8.60 


.22 
.29 
.15 
.19 


.61 
.55 
.44 
.37 


.77 
.78 
.87 
.75 


1.38 1 8.25 


.42 
.37 
.39 
.34 


.035 
.046 
.024 
.030 


.196 
.176 
.141 
.119 


.231 


1180 
1183 


do 

do 


1.33 
1.31 
1.12 


5.31 
4.50 
6.95 


.222 
• .165 


1184 


...do 


.149 




Average 






91.87 


8.13 


.21 


.49 


.79 


1.29 


6.25 


.38 


.034 ! .158 


.192 


1173 
1174 
1175 


Pork, fresh ham 

do 

..do 


98.50 
94.32 
97.51 
96.95 


1.50 
5.68 
2.49 
3.05 


.15 
.10 
.05 
.07 


.27 
.33 
.33 
.34 


.39 
.48 
.43 
.46 


.66 
.81 
.76 
.80 


.47 
4.53 
1.42 
1.91 


.22 
.24 
.26 
.27 


.024 .087 
.016 .106 
.008 .106 
.011 .109 


.HI 
.122 
.114 


1176 


do 


.120 




Average 






96,82 


3.18^ 


.09 


.32 


.44 


.76 


2.08 


.25 


.015 .102 


.117 


1159 


Beef, round, lean 

do 

do 

. ..do 


96.95 
97.40 
97.40 
97.81 












1.00 
.05 
.32 
.24 


i .63 

! .60 

.55 

.47 






1206 
1212 
1243 


2.60 
2.60 
2.19 


.13 
.24 
.23 


.79 
.67 
.60 


1.03 

.82 
.65 


1.82 
1.49 
1.25 


.021 
.038 
.037 


.253 
.215 
.192 


.274 
.253 
.229 




Average 

Beef, round, lean. 

do 


' 






97.39 j 2.46 


.20 j .69 


.83 


1.52 


.40 


' .56 


.032 1 .220 


.252 


820a 
820b 


97.72 
96.90 


2.28 
3.10 


|.72 
ll.03 


.44 
.57 


.60 ! 1.04 
.83 1 1.40 


.15 
.20 


.37 
.47 


.115 1 .141 
. 165 1 . 183 


.256 
.348 




Average 










97.31 


2.69 


.88 


■.51 


.72 j 1.22 


.18 


! .42 


.140 


.162 


.302 


1376 


Beef, round, lean, one 


97.45 


2. 55 


.75 
.94 


.56 
1 .69 


.64 
.80 


1.20 
1.49 


.05 
.09 


.55 
.49 


.120 
.150 


.179 
.221 


.299 


1381 


do 

Average 


96.99 1 3.01 


.371 




97.22 2.78 


.85 1 .63 


.72 


1.35 


.07 


.52 


1 .135 


.200 


.335 



Taule 1150. Cniitixi.-i'it'iiin of oriiiiiiul Cdiiifdtt* hnith. {Kesultx of ixjurinuiils made in 
1(0)8-1903) — Continued. 





a 


1 






Percentage composition of original complete broth. 


6 

'C 

o 

1 

o 

a 


a. 

8 

a 
8 


Kind of moat used for 
cooking. 


4i 

a) 


•6 

£ 


Organic extract- 
ives. 


33 


4 
< 


Nitrogen. 


1 

c 

s. 

P.ct. 

97.79 


2 • 


<- § 


o . 
2 2 

gs 

•A 


"3 

O 


■6 

2 

p^ 


i 

o 

s. 

a 
o 


■3 
Eh 


1377 


64 

72 

59 
67 


Bee 
Pi 

Bee 
c\ 


f, round, lean, one 


P.ct. 
2.21 


P.ct. 

0.61 

.64 


P.ct. 

0.50 

.42 


P.ct. 

0.58 
.47 


P.ct. 
1.08 
.89 


p.ct. 

0.13 

.20 


P.ct. 

0.39 

.31 


P.ct. 

0.098 

.102 


P.ct. 

0.160 

.135 


P.ct. 
0.258 


1385 


do 


97.90 2.04 


.237 




97.87 


2.13 


.63 


.46 


.53 


.99 


.17 


.35 


.100 


.148 


.248 




f, round, J -inch 


' 


1368 


96.89 
97.25 


3.11 
2.75 


.52 
1.20 


.84. 
.46 


.98 
.24 


1.82 
.70 


.16 
.19 


.61 
.66 


.083 
.192 


.269 .352 


1380 


do 


. 147 . 339 




97.07 2.93 


.86 


.65 


.61 


1.26 


.18 


.64 


.138 


2.08 i .346 






f, round, J-inch 




1 


1369 


60 
68 

35 

17 

g 

25 


Bee 

Cl 


i 
97.10 1 2.90 
97.04 ' 2.96 


.88 

.82 


.67 
.70 


.69 
.82 


1.36 
1.52 


.16 
.15 


..50 , .141 
.47 1 .131 


.215 
.224 


.356 


1381 


do 


.355 






' 






97.07 i 2.93 


.85 


.69 


.76 


1.44 


.16 


.49 1 .136 


.220 


.356 










AverageNos.1368, 
1.36!t. 13T6, 1377, 
13S0. 1381, 1384, 
and 138.5 


1 
1 

97.31 ! 2.69 


.80 


.61 


.65 


1.26 


.14 


.50 


.127 


.194 


.321 


1171 
771a 


Bee 


f, round, lean 

do 


98.06 1.94 
96. .tO 3.50 
96. 05 3. 95 
97.17 2.83 
%.90 1 3.10 


.17 
.30 
.38 
.36 
.34 


.41 .55 
.78 1.05 


.% 
1.83 
1.83 
1.77 
1.70 


.46 
.80 
1.15 
.12 
.51 


.35 1 .027 
.57 i .048 


.131 
.250 
.244 
.2.50 
.2.37 


.158 
.298 


771h 
82:ia 
823b 


do 

do 

do 


.76 
.78 
.74 


1.07 
.99 
.96 


.59 

.58 
..55 


.061 
.0.58 
.054 


.305 
.308 
.291 




AverageNos.771a. 
771b, 823a, and 
82;Jb 










96.65 


3.35 


.35 


.77 


1.02 


1.78 


.65 


,57 


.055 


.245 


.300 














Average of 72 
samplos 

Maximum 

Minimum 


1 , 
96. 64 3. 36 


.33 


.58 


.74 


1.32 


1.25 .45 


.052 


.186 


.237 




98.88 10.27 1.20 .94 
89.73 1.12 .05 .18 

1 


1.17 2,06 
.24 .52 


8.45 , .74 
.03' .15 


1.92 
.011 


.285 
.058 


.375 
.072 




Cook- 
ing 
ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat used for cooking. 


Composition of complete broth. (Water-free 
substance). 


Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
No. 


Pro- 
teid 


Organic extractives. 


Fat. 




Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 

dtrog- 

enous. 


Total. 


Ash. 


1158 


31 

28 
28 

61 
69 

62 
70 


Beef, round, lean. 
...do 




Per ct. 
7.07 
4.67 
5.14 


Per ct. 
25 54 
17.06 
17.06 


■ 9 

Per ct. 
37. 50 
24.53 
23.36 


Per ct- 
63.04 
41.59 
40.42 


Perct. 
10.87 
39.25 
40.89 


Per ct. 
19.01 


1095 




14.49 


1096 


. do 


13.55 




Average Nos. 1095 and 1096 






4.91 


17.06 


23.95 


41.01 


40.07 


14.02 


1370 


Beef, round, lean, J-inch c 
do 




12.44 
4.12 


18.89 
25.82 


24.20 
30.49 


43.09 
56.32 


29.03 
21.98 


15.44 


1382 




17.58 










8.28 


22.36 


27.35 


49.71 


25.51 


16.51 








1371 


Beef, round lean, ,'i-inch cubes.. 
do 




12.38 I 19.39 1 


22.90 
25.18 


42.29 
46.28 


31.07 
21.35 


14.25 


1383 




17.75 


21.10 


14.63 




Average 






15.07 


20.25 


24.04 


44.29 


26.21 


14.44 




Average Nos. 1370, 1371, 1382, 
and 1383 






11.67 


21.30 


25.69 


46.99 


25.86 


15.48 


















1= 




== 


== 


1= 


-^ 



190 

Table 130. — Compositioii of oriqinal complete broth. {Results of experiments made in 

1898-1903) —Continued. 



Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
No. 


Cook- 
ing 
ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat used for cooking. 


Composition of complete broth 
substance.) 


(Water-lree 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic extractives. 


Fat. 




Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 


Ash. 


894 
779b 


18 
21 
23 
22 

6.5 
21 
73 
23 
22 
20 
20 

51 
48 
54 
18 

66 
19 
74 

19 

16 
16 
26 
26 
35 

27 
27 

29 
29 
30 
30 

32 
32 
33 
33 
34 
34 

38 
38 
40 
40 


Beef, round, lean, small piece 

do 


rer ct. 

6.50 
13.48 

4.64 
11.39 


Per ct. 

27.55 
21.56 
22.90 
23.73 


Per ct. 
36.22 
27.76 
32. 17 
31.01 


Per ct. 

63.78 
49.33 
55.07 
54.74 


Per ct. 

6.81 
19.14 
21.45 
13.92 


Per ct. 
22.91 


809 b 


do 


18 84 


781b 


.. ..do .. 


19 94 










9.00 


23.94 


31.79 


55.73 


15.33 


19 94 




Beef, round, lean, small piece 

do 




1378 
779a 


4.05 
11.75 
11.85 

5.25 
11.20 
10.15 
10.96 


21.97 
19.06 
23.13 
19.89 
18.77 
20.00 
20. 82 


23.70 
24.02 
28.03 
27. 62 
28.57 
27.16 
26.30 


45.67 
43.08 
51.16 
47.51 
47.34 
47.16 
47.12 


31.79 
28. 43 
17.63 
30.11 
24.37 
24.48 
24.93 


18.50 
16 71 


1386 


do , 


19 34 


809a 


do ? :. 


17 13 


781a 


do 


17 09 


777a 


do 


18 "'1 


777b 


do 


16 99 




Average 






9.32 


20.52 


26.49 


47.01 


25.96 


17.71 




Average Nos. 777a, 777b, 779a, 
779b, 781a 781b 809a, S09b 
894, 1378, and 1386 






9.20 


21.76 


28.42 


50.18 


22.10 


18.52 




Beef, round, lean, large piece 

do 




1211 
1205 


10.46 
6.70 

12.24 
7.81 


29.65 

28.87 
27.82 
27.51 


34.88 
38.14 
31.97 
37.55 


64.53 
67.01 
59.79 
65.06 


.1.74 
3.09 
4.76 
5.20 


23.26 
23.20 


1242 


do 


23 14 


895 


do 


21 93 




Average 






9.. 30 


28.46 


35.63 


64.10 


3.70 


22 88 




Beef, round, lean, large piece 

do 




1379 
1027 


9.78 

7.09 

23.38 

8.84 


22.83 
30.50 
28.86 
28.11 


29.35 
26.24 
20.40 
33.73 


52.18 
56.74 
49.26 
61.84 


22.83 
17.02 
8.96 
10.04 


15.22 
19. 15 


1387 


do.. 


18 41 


1097 


do 


19 28 




Average 






12.27 


27.58 


27.43 


55.01 


14.71 


18.02 




Average Nos. 895, 1027, 1097, 
1205, 1211, 1242, 1379, and 1387 . 

Beef, round, fat 






10.79 


28.02 


31.53 


59.55 


9.21 


20.45 


892 


7.66 
10.07 
4.93 
7.17 
4.67 


20.31 
18.66 
21.13 
21.10 
17.29 


24.90 
23.88 
28.17 
27.42 

24.77 


45.21 
42.54 
49.30 
48.52 
42.06 


29.89 
31.72 
29.97 
28.27 
39.25 


17.24 


893 


do 


15 67 


1091 


do 


15 85 


1092 


do 


16 03 


1172 


do 


14 02 




Average 






6.90 


19.70 


25.83 


45.53 


31.62 


15 76 








1093 


8.94 
4.64 


13.41 
9.28 


19.55 
17.53 


32.96 
26.81 


46.93 
60.84 


11 17 


1094 


do 


7 73 




Average 






6.79 


11.35 


18.54 


29.89 


53.89 


9 45 




Beef, round, rather fat 




1098 


4.23 
7.55 
5.23 
5.43 

5.61 


11.38 
13.48 
24. 04 
24.89 


18.02 
20.75 
31.71 
32.58 


29.41 
34.23 
55.75 
57.46 


57.35 
47.71 
21.60 
17.65 


9 01 


1099 


do 


10 51 


1146 


do 


17 42 


1147 


do 


19 46 




Average 






18.45 


25.77 


44.21 


36.08 


14 10 




Beef, "plate boil," very fat.. 




1160 


2.13 
1.05 
8.24 
10.71 
3.89 
3.56 


3.76 
3.06 
14.29 
10.64 
8.52 
7.63 


5.56 

4.53 

21.43 

27. 68 
11.44 
9.67 


9.33 
7.59 
35.72 
47.32 
19.95 
17.30 


85.76 
89.04 
45.60 
27.68 
70.07 
73.79 


2 78 


1161 


do 


2 32 


1162 


Beef, neck, very fat 


10 44 


1163 


do 


14 28 


1169 


Beef, ribs, verj- fat 


6 09 


1170 


do 


5 35 




Average of above 






4.93 


9.48 


13.39 


22.87 


65.32 


6 88 




Veal, leg 




1177 


15.71 
22.35 
18.02 
24.56 


17.24 
22.94 
21.62 
21.64 


24.14 
29.41 
36.49 
32.75 


41. as 

52. 35 
58.11 
54.39 


29.88 
7.65 
6.76 
3.51 


13 03 


1178 


do 


17 65 


1181 


do 


17 12 


1182 


do 


17 54 




Average 






20.16 


20.86 


30.70 


51.56 


11.95 


16 34 









1V>1 



T.vni.K r.M) 



"inn position of oriffinal coinjiete broth. (Rtnults of it peri merits inaih in 
I'S'JS- I'JOJ)— Conumwd. 





Cook- 1 

ing '. 

ex- 
peri- 
ment 

No. 


Kind of mi'iit iist'il for cooking. 


Composition of complete broth 
substance.) 


(Water-free 


Lab- 
oni- 
tory 
No. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic extractives. 


Fat. 




Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 


Ash. 


1179 


39 
39 
41 
41 

36 ; 

36 
37 
37 

31 
48 
51 
54 

24 
24 

63 

71 

64 
72 

59 
67 

60 

68 

35 
17 
17 
25 
25 




Perct. 
2.14 
3.97 
2.36 
2.21 


Per ct. 
5.94 
7..W 
6.93 
4.30 


Per ct. 
7. .50 

10.69 1 

13. 70 
8.72 


Per ct. 
13.44 
18.22 
20.63 
13.02 


Per ct. 
80.33 
72. 74 
70.87 
80.81 


Per ct. 
4.09 


1180 


till 


5.07 


1183 


,|o 


6.14 


1184 


do 


3.95 










2.67 


6.18 


10.15 


16.33 


76.19 


4.81 








1173 
1174 


10.00 
1.76 
2.01 
2.30 


18.00 
5.81 
13.25 
11.15 


26.00 
8.45 
17.27 
15.08 


44.00 
14.26 
30.52 
26.23 


31.33 
79.75 
57.03 
62.62 


14.67 


do 


4.23 


1175 


do 


10.44 


1176 


do 


8.85 










4.02 


12.05 


16.70 


28.75 


57.68 


9.55 








1159 

r'06 














do 


5.00 
9.23 
10.50 

8.24 


30.39 
2.5.77 
27.40 


39.62 
31.54 
29.68 


70.00 
57.31 
57.08 


1.92 
12.31 
10.96 


23.08 


1212 


do 


21.15 


1>43 


do 


21.46 










27.85 


33.61 


61.46 


8.40 


21.90 




Beef, round, lean 

do 




820a 
820b 


31.58 
33.23 


19.30 
18.39 


26.31 
26.78 


45.61 
45.16 


6.58 
6.45 


16.23 
15.16 










32.41 


18.85 


26.55 


45.39 


6.52 


15.70 








1376 


29.41 
32.23 


21.96 
22.92 


25.10 
26.58 


47.06 
49.50 


1.96 
2.99 


21.57 


1384 


do 


16.28 










30.82 


22.44 


25.84 


48.28 


2.48 


18.93 








1377 


27.60 
31.37 


22.62 
20.59 


26.24 
23.04 


48?87 
43.63 


5.88 
9.80 


17.65 


1385 




15.20 










29.49 


21.61 


24.64 


46.25 


7.84 


16.43 








1368 


16.72 
43.64 


27.01 
16.73 


31.51 

8.73 


58.52 
25.45 


5.15 
6.91 


19.61 


1380 


.do 


24.00 










30.18 


21.87 


20.12 


41.99 


6.03 


21.81 








1369 


30.34 
27.70 


23.10 
23.65 


23.79 
27.70 


46.90 
51.35 


,5.52 
5.07 


17.24 


1381 




15.88 










29.02 


23.38 


25.75 


49.13 


5.30 


16.56 




Average Nos. 1368, 1369, 1376, 
1377, 1380 1381, 1384. and 1385 . 

Beef, round, lean 

do 






29.85 


22.32 


24.09 


46.41 


5.41 


18.43 


1171 
771a 


8.74 
8.57 
9.62 
12.72 
10.97 


21.13 
22.29 
19.24 
27.56 
23.87 


28.33 
30.00 
27.09 
34.98 
30.97 


49.46 
52.29 
46.33 
62.54 
54.84 


23.76 

22.86 

29.11 

1 4.24 

t 16. 45 


, 18.04 
t 16.29 


771b 


do 


14.94 


823a 




20.50 


823 b 


do 


17.74 




Average Nos. 771a, 771b, 823a, 






10.47 


23.24 


30.76 


54.00 


18.17 


17.37 




Average of 73 samples 






11.54 


19.51 


24.91 


44.42 


28.68 


15.38 










43.64 
1.05 


30.50 
3.06 


39.62 
4.53 


70.00 
7.59 


89.04 
1.74 


24.00 




Minimum 


2.32 



Note. — Experiment No. 31 not included n average. 



192 

Table 131. — Composition of original complete hroth. {Results of experiments made in 

1903-190^.) 



[C^alculatcd to the basis, 100 grMins of meat give 100 grams of broth, or 1 pound of meat gives 1.04 

pints of broth.] 



Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
No. 


Cook- 
ing 
ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kmd of meat used for cookuig. 


Amount 
taken. 


Fat in 
cooked 
meat. 


Method of cooking. 


Temperature. 


Duration 


At be- 
guming. 


During 
cooking 


of cook- 
ing. 


1642 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
154 

108 
134 

144 
153 

138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 
116 

118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
125 

122 
115 
117 


Beef round, 1-inch cubes 


Grams. 
1,000 
900 


Per cent 
3.93 
6.80 


°C. 

Cold. 

Cold. 


°C. 

85 
85 


Hours. 
3 


1754 


Beef, round, 2-uich cubes 


3 












5.37 


Cold. 


85 


3 




Beef, round, l)rowned, 2-inch cubes. 

Average Nos. 1642, 1754, and 
1756 






1756 


900 


8.00 


Cold. 


85 


3 






6.24 


Cold. 


85 


3 




Beef, round, browned, 2-inch cubes. 






1746 
1769 


1,000 

1,074.83 

1,052.17 


7.12 
6.87 
6.62 


85 
85 
85 


85 
85 
85 


3 
3 


1780 


do 


3 




Average 








6.75 


85 


85 


3 




Average Nos. 1746, 1769, and 
1780 










6.87 


85 


85 


3 




Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 






1641 


1,000 
1,000 


4.38 
4.83 


100 
100 


85 
85 


3 


1744 




3 




Average . . 








4.61 


100 


85 


3 




Beef, round, 1 piece 






1768 


1,027.72 
1,098.31 


7.51 
7.88 


100 
100 


85 
85 


3 


1779 


..do 


3 












7.70 


100 


&5 


3 




Average Nos. 1641, 1744, 1768, 
and 1779 










6.15 


100 


85 


3 










1755 


900 
900 


7.35 
6.83 


Cold. 
Cold. 


100 
100 


3 


1757 


Beef, round, browned, 2-lnch cubes.. 


3 






7.09 


Cold. 


100 


3 




Beef, round, 2-inch cubes 






1743 


1,000 
1,000 


5.06 
7.74 


100 
100 


100 
100 


3 


1745 


Beef, round, browned, 2-inch cubes. . 


3 






6.40 


100 


100 


3 




Average of all cooked 3 liours. 










6.49 






3 












1646 


1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 


5.57 

5.23 

.97 

5.58 


Cold. 
Cold. 
Cold. 
Cold. 


65 
85 
85 
85 




1645 






1654 


Veal, leg, 1-mch cubes 


5 


1658 


do 


5 




Average Nos. 1654 and 1658. . . 








3.28 


Cold. 


85 






Average Nos. 1645, 1654, and 
1658 










3.93 


Cold. 


85 


5 




Beef, round, J-inch cubes . 






1644 


1,000 
1,000 


5.75 
11.61 


100 
100 


&5 
85 


5 


1720 


Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 


5 












8.68 


100 


85 






Beef, neck, J-inch cubes 






1665 


700 
1,000 
1,000 


13.68 
42.03 
23.36 


100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 


5 


1673 




5 


1703 


.do. .. . ... 


5 




Average 








32.70 


100 


85 


5 




Beef, flank, fat 5-inch cubes. ... 






1669 


1,000 
1,000 
1,000 


34.16 
1.31 

7.77 


100 
100 
TOO 


&5 
85 
85 


5 


1653 




5 


1064 


do 


5 




Average 








4.54 


100 


85 


5 




Average Nos. 1644, 1653, 1664, 
1665, 1669, 1673, 1703, and 1720 










17.46 


100 


85 


5 









193 

Table 131. — Composition of original complete broth. {Results of experiments made in 

1003-1904. )— Continued. 





Cnnb- 


Kind of meat used for cooking. 






Method of cooking. 


Lab- -j-"-- 


"SS' -'■is 


Temperature. 


Dura- 
tion of 
cooking. 


No". 


iiuent 
No. 




meat. 


At be- 
ginning. 


During 
cooking. 






Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 


Grams. 

1,000 


Per cent. 


°C. 
100 
100 
100 


°C. Hours. 
100 1 5 




1,000 
1,000 


5.66 
9.01 


100 1 5 


17''1 13'' 




100 1 5 












7.34 


100 


100 1 5 




126 
. 114 








1704 


1,000 
1,000 


16.07 
1.59 


100 
100 


100 5 


1652 




100 


5 




Average Nos. 1639, 1643, ltw2, 
1704 and 1721 . . 








8.08 


100 


100 


5 




Average of all cooked .'> hours. 
Average of all cooked 3 and 5 










11.83 






5 
















9.34 






















1,098.31 
700.00 


42.03 
.97 































a 

a 

u 
ai 

P. 

H 

be 

1 
o 
o 
o 


Kind of meat used for 
cooking. 


Percentage composition of original complete broth. 


6 

o 

■s 

o 


i 


a 

o 


2 
1^ 


Organic extrac- 
tives. 


OS 


< 


Nitrogen. 


"=3 

<~ o 
*^ a 

'A 




"3 

O 

Eh 


o 


■6 
o 

u 

d 
o 


■3 

6-1 


1642 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
154 

108 
134 

144 
153 


Beef, round, 1-inch 


P. ct. 
94.716 

96.080 


P.ct. 
5.284 


p.ct. P.ct. 
1.5571.021 


P.ct. 
1.339 


P.ct. 
2.360 


P.ct. 
0.594 


p.ct. 
0.773 


P.ct. 
0.249 

.087 


P.ct. 
0.327 

.276 


P.ct. 
0.576 


1751 


Beef, round, 2-inch 


3.920 .541' .862 


1.056' 1.918 


.863 .598 


.363 








J 






95. 398 


4.602 


1.049 


.942 


1.198 2.139 


.729 .686 


.168 


.302 


.470 




Beef, round, browTied, 




17.56 


96. 555 


3.445 


.319 


.871 


1.059 


1.930 


.584 


.613 


.051 


.279 


.330 




Average Nos. 1642, 
1754, and 1756 

Beef, round, browned, 






95.784 

95.501 
97.214 


4.216 


.806 


.918 


1.151 


2.069 


.680 


661 


- .129 


.294 


.423 


1746 


4.499 
2.786 


.345 

.245 
.249 


.835 

.751 
.732 


1.095 

.833 
.896 


1.930 

1.584 
1 628 


1.618 
.437 


.605 

.520 
.526 


.055 

.039 
.040 


.268 

.241 
.234 


.323 


1769 


Beef, round, 2-inch 


.280 


1780 


do 


.274 




Average 

Average Nos. 1746, 
1769, and 1780 

Beef, round, 1-inch 


97.214 


2.786 
3.643 


.247 
.280 


.742 


.865 


1.606 


.437 


.523 


.040 


.238 


.277 




96. 358 


.773 


.941 


1.714 


1.028 


.550 


.045 


.248 


.292 


1641 


95. 570 
96.688 


4.430 
3.312 


1 
.6421.063 

.332 .868 


1.359 
1.186 


2.422 
2.054 


.609 
.313 


.757 
.614 


.103 
.053 


.341 

.278 


.444 


1744 


Beef, roimd, 2-inch 


.331 




Average 

Beef, round, 1 piece 

do 

Average 






96. 129 


3.871 


.487 .966 


1.273 


2.238 


.461 


.686 


.078 


.310 


.388 


1768 
1779 


97. 759 
97. 275 


2.241 
2.725 


.201 .672 
.185i .735 


.734' 1.406 
.874: 1.609 


.171 
.415 


.462 
.516 


.032 
.030 


.216 
.265 


.248 
.295 




97.517 


2.483 


. 193 . 704 


.804 1.508 


.293 


.489 


.031 


.241 


.272 




Average Nos. 1641, 
1744, 1768, and 1779 


96.823 


3.177 


.340 .835 


1.038 1.873 


.377 


.587 


.055 


.275 


.330 



11480--NO. 162—06- 



-13 



194 

Table 131. — Composition of original complete broth. {Ketiults of experiments made in 

190S-190j^)— Continued. 





i 

B 
•c 

ft 

H 

so 

.g - 

O 

o 

o 


Kind of meat used for 
cooking. 


Percentage composition of original complete broth. 


6 


u 

OS 


a 
■a . 

o o 

"3 
o 

Eh 


'53 

o 
u 


Organic extrac- 
tives. 


a 




> 


'itrogen. 


1 

u 

o 


bs ■ 

(-. o 


it) 

Is 

'3 ° 

is 


"3 
o 


2 
'« 

o 

u 


"2 ' 

o 
u 

a 

O 


"3 
o 

Eh 


1755 


138 
140 

133 
135 

113 

112 

116 
118 

111 
131 

121 
123 

125 

122 

115 
117 

107 
110 
132 


Beef, rornid, 2-incli 


P. ct. 

95. 227 

96. 369 


P.ct. 

4.773 

3.631 


P.ct. 
0.574 

.371 


p.ct. 
0.890 

.892 


p.ct. 
1.062 

1.083 


P.ct. 
1.952 

1.975 


P.ct. 
1.615 

.649 


P.ct. 
0.633 

.636 


p.ct. 

0.092 

.059 


P.ct. 

0.285 

.286 


p.ct. 
0. 377 


1757 


Beef, round, browned, 
2-lacli cubes 


.345 










95. 798 


4.202 


.473 


.891 


1.073 


1.964 


1.132 


.635 


.076 


.286 


.361 




Beef, round, 2-inch 
cubes 




174:3 


96.531 
94. 637 


3.469 
5.363 


.394 
.429 


.887 
.820 


1.110 
1.066 


1.997 
1.886 


.457 
2.479 


.622 
.570 


.063 
.069 


.284 
.262 


.347 


1745 


Beef, round, b^o^vned, 


.331 




Average 






95.584 


4.416 


.412 


.854 


1.088 


1.942 


1.468 


.596 


.066 


.273 


.339 




Average of all 
cooked 3 hours 

Beef, round, J-inch 
cubes 






96. 163 


3.837 


.456 


.850 


1.054 


1.904 


.877 


.603 


.073 


.274 


.348 


1646 


95. 544 

95. 077 
96. 283 
96.097 


4.456 

4.923 
3.717 
3. 903 


.906 

.801 
1.012 
1.022 


.918 

.990 
.756 
.791 


1.194 

1.267 
1.137 
.960 


2.112 

2.257 
1.893 
1.751 


.700 

1.142 
.188 
.498 


.738 

.724 
.624 
.633 


.145 

.128 
.162 
.164 


.294 

.318 
.242 
.253 


.439 


1645 


Beef, round, ^-inch 
cubes ... 


.446 


1654 
1658 


Veal, leg, 1-iiich cubes . . 
do 

Average Nos. 1654 
and 1658 


.404 
.417 




96. 190 


3.810 


1.017 


.774 


1.049 


1.822 


.343 


.629 


.163 


.248 


.411 




Average Nos. 1645, 
1654, and 1658 

Beef, round, f-inch 
cubes 






95.819 


4.181 


.945 


.846 


1.121 


1.967 


.609 


.660 


.151 


.271 


.422 


1644 


95. 775 
95.388 


4.225 
4. 612 


.564 
.424 


.916 
.949 


1.195 
1.336 


2.111 
2.285 


.850 
1.264 


.699 
.639 


.090 
.068 


.294 
.304 


.384 


1720 


Beef, round, 1-inch 
cubes 

Average 


.372 




95. 582 


4.419 


.494 


.933 


1.266 


2.198 


1.057 


.669 


.079 


.299 


.378 




Beef, neck, |-inch cubes 

J5eef, rump, 1-inch 

cubes 




1665 














1.017 
6. 320 


.671 

.497 
.594 






.335 


1673 


91.218 
94. 712 


8.782 
5.288 


.506 
.445 


.605 
.863 


.855 
1.027 


1.460 


.081 
.071 


.194 
.277 


.275 


1703 


do 


1.890 2. .359 


.348 




Average 










92. 965 


7.035 


.476 


.734 


.941 


1.675 


4.340 


.546 


.076 


.236 


.312 




Beef, flan';, fat, J-mch 

cubes 

Veal, leg, 1-inch cubes. . 
. . do 




1669 

1653 
1664 


IH.d.SL' 

!.(;.s:;-_' 
'.)(! 7 lis 


.s. (»18 


.701 
.510 
. 636 


.561 

.847 
.777 


.738 

1.131 

.912 


1.299 
1.978 
1.689 


6.481 
.057 
.331 


.437 
.624 
.616 


.112 
.082 
.102 


.180 
.272 
.249 


.292 
.354 
.351 












96. 780 


3.220 


.573 


.812 


1.022 


1.834 


.194 


.620 


.092 


.261 


.353 




Average Nos. 1644, 
1653, 1664, 1665, 
1669, 1673, 1703, 
and 1720 

Beef, round, 1-mch 






94. 534 


5.466 


.Ml 


.788 


1.028 


1.816 


2. 335 


.597 


.087 


.253 


.339 


1639 


95. 940 
95. 929 
95.415 


4.060 
4.071 
4.585 


.515 
.618 
.705 


.888 
.876 
.881 


1.250 
1.092 
1.274 


2.138 
1.968 
2.155 


.742 
.848 
1.1.^5 


.666 
.638 
.591 


.082 
.099 
.113 


.285 
.280 
.282 


.367 


1643 
1721 


Beef, round, ^-inch 
cubes 

Beef, round, 1-inch 
cubes 


.379 
.395 




Average 








95. 761 


4.239 


.613 


.882 


1.205 


2. 087 - 908 


.632 


.098 


.282 


.380 













195 



Table 



i:\\,—Coinj)oiiition of original comjMe broth. {Resitlfa of (.rjwrimfui!^ made in 
I'iXli-l'XU )— Continued. 



Kind of meat used for 
cooking. 



1704 
1652 



126 
114 



Beef, rump, l-inch 

cubes 

Veal, leg, l-inch cubes. . 

Average Nos. 1639, 
1643, 1652, 1704, 
and 1721 



Percentage composition of original complete broth. 



Organic extrac- 
tives. 



Average of all 
cooked 5 hours — 

Average of all 
cooked 3 and 5 
hours 



Maximum. 
Minimum.. 



P.ct. P.ct. P.ct.P.ct. P.cl. P.ct. P.ct 

93.689 6.3111.0110.745 0.940' 1.685 3.08' 
97.115 2.88.5 .681 .668 .958^ 1.626i .068 



95.617 4.383 0.706 0.812 1.103 1.914 



95. 177 4. 823 



95.619 4.381 



.691 .814 



.581 .831 



1.079! 1.893 



1.0671 1.898 



97.759 8.9181.5571.063 1.359 2.422 
91.082 2.241 .185 .561 .734 1.299 



Nitrogen. 



P.ct. P.ct. 

0..528 0.162 

. 5091 . 109 



1. 176,0. 586j 0.113 



1.593 .613 .111 



1.263 .609 .093 



P.ct. P.cl. 

0.2391 0.401 

. 214 . 323 



0.260 



.261 



0.373 



.370 



.267 .360 



6.4811 .773 .249 .341 .576 
.057 .437 .030 .180 .248 



Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
No. 



Cook- 
ing 
ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 



1642 
1754 



1756 



1746 
1769 
1780 



1641 
1744 



1768 
1779 



1755 
1757 



109 
137 



139 



136 
145 
154 



108 
134 



144 
153 



138 
140 



Kind of meat used for cooking. 



Beef, round, l-inch cubes. 
Beef, round, 2-inch cubes. 



Average 

Beef, round, browned, 2-inch cubes. 

Average Nos. 1642, 1754, and 
1756 



Beef, round, brownied, 2-inch cubes. 

Beef, round, 2-inch cubes 

....do 



Average 

Average Nos. 1746, 1769, and 
1780 



Beef, round, l-inch cubes. 
Beef, round, 2-inch cubes. 



Composition of water-free substance of entire 
complete broth. 




21.64 20.66 



9.26 25.28 



7.67 
8.79 



8.23 



14.49 
10.02 



Average. 



Beef, round, 1 piece., 
....do 



Average 

Average Nos. 1641, 1744, 1768, 
and 1779 



8.97 
6.79 



10.07 



Beef, round, 2-inch cubes 

Beef, round, browTied, 2-inch cubes. 

Average 



12.03 
10.22 



11.13 



18.56 
26.96 



22.76 



24.00 
26.20 



29.99 
26.97 



28.48 



26.79 



26.14 



27.67 



24. .34 
29.90 



27.12 



30.68 
35. 81 



32.75 
32.07 



18.65 
24.57 



21.61 



32.41 



32.83 



46.80 



49.87 



42.90 
56.86 



49.88 



54.67 
62.01 



58.34 



62.74 
59.04 



60.89 



16.63 



16.95 



16.74 



35.96 
15.69 



25.83 



13.75 
9.45 



11.60 



7.63 
15.23 



11.43 



11.52 



22.25 
29.83 



40.90 
54.40 



33.84 

17.87 



26.04 i 47.65 25.86 



17.79 



15.89 



13.45 
18.66 



16.06 



17.09 
18.54 



20.62 
18.94 



18.80 



13.26 
17.52 



196 

Table 131. — Compof<ition of original complete broth. {Results of experiments made in 
J905-J 904 )— Continued. 



Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
No. 


Cook- 
ing 
ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat used for cooking. 


Composition of water-free substance of entire 
complete broth. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic extractive. 


Fat. 




Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 


Ash. 


1743 


1.33 
135 

113 
112 
116 
118 

111 
131 

121 
123 

125 

122 
115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 




Per ct. 
11.36 
8.00 


Per ct. 
25.57 
15.29 


Per ct. 
32.00 
19.88 


Per ct. 

57.57 
35.17 


Per ct. 
13.17 
46.22 


Per a. 
17.93 


1745 


Beef, round, browTied, 2-inch cubes. . 


10.63 




9.68 


20.43 


25. 94 


46.37 


29.70 


14.28 




Average of all cooked 3 liours. . 






11.61 


- 23.34 


28.66 


51.99 


19.92 


16.49 


1646 


20.33 
16.27 
27.25 
26.18 


20.60 
20.11 
20.34 
20.27 


26.80 
25.74 
30.59 
24.60 


47.40 
45.85 
50. 93 
44.86 


15.71 
23.20 
5.06 
12.75 


16.56 


1645 




14.76 


1654 




16.79 


1658 


do 


16.22 




Average Nos. 1654 and 1658 

Average, Nos. 1645, 1654, and 
1658 






26.72 


20.31 


27.60 


47.90 


8.91 


16.51 




23.23 


20.24 


26.98 


47.21 


13.67 


15.92 








1644 


13.35 
9.19 


21.68 
20.58 


28.28 
28.96 


49.96 
49.54 


20.12 
27.41 


16.54 


1720 




13.79 










11.27 


21.13 


28.62 


49.75 


23.77 


15.17 








1665 














1673 




5.76 

8.42 


6.89 
16.32 


9.74 
19.42 


16.63 
35.74 


71.97 
44.61 


5.66 


1703 


do 


11.23 










7.09 


11.61 


14.58 


26.19 


68.29 


8.45 








1669 


7.86 
16.10 
19.44 


6.29 
26.74 
23.75 


8.28 
35.70 

27.87 


14.57 
62.44 
51.62 


72.67 

1.80 

10.12 


4.90 


1653 




19.70 


1664 


do 


18.83 




Average 






17.77 


25.25 


31.79 


57.03 


5.96 


19.27 




Average Nos. 1644, 165 ^ 1664, 
1665, 1669, 1673, 1703, and 1720. 






11.45 


17.47 


22.61 


40.07 


35.53 


12.95 


1639 


12.68 
15.18 
15.38 


21.87 
21.52 
19.21 


30.79 
26.82 
27.79 


52.66 
48.34 
47.00 


18.27 
20.83 
24.75 


16.40 


1643 




15.64 


17''1 




12:89 










14.41 


20.87 


28.47 


49.33 


21.28 


14.98 








1704 


16.02 
23.60 


11.80 
23. 15 


14.89 
33.21 


26.70 
56. 36 


48.91 
2.36 


8.37 






17.64 




Average Nos. 16.39, 1643, 16.52, 
1704, and 1721 






16.57 


19.51 


26.70 


46.21 


23.02 


14.19 




Average of all cooked 5 hours.. 
Average of all cooked 3 and 5 






15.81 


18.82 


24.97 


43. 79 


26.28 


14.12 




13.93 


20.85 


26.62 


47.46 


?3.43 


15.18 










29.47 
5.76 


29.99 
6.29 


35.81 
8.28 


62.74 
14.57 


72.67 
1.80 


20.62 




Mmimum 


4.90 



By referring to Table 130, page 189, it will be seen that the average 
composition of the 72 samples of meat broths, calculated to a common 
basis (100 grams of meat per 100 grams of broth, or 1 pound of meat 
per 1.04 pints of broth) was 96.64 per cent water, 3.36 per cent total 
solids, 0.33 per cent proteid, 0.58 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 
0.74 per cent nonnitrogenous extractives, 1.32 per cent total organic 



197 

extractives, 1.25 per cent fat, and 0.45 per cent ash. The average 
amount of total nitrogen was 0.237 per cent, of wliicli 0.052 per cent 
existed in proteid and 0.186 per cent in nonproteid form. 

Tlie total solid matter in the broths varied from 1.12 i)er cent to 
10.27 per cent of the weight of the meat used. The smallest amount 
was found in broth No. 1163, from cooking experiment No. 33, in 
wliich a large piece of very fat beef neck was cooked at 100° C. for 
ten minutes and then at 80 to 85° C. for three hours. The total 
solids were composed of 0.12 per cent proteid, 0.22 per cent nitrog- 
enous extractives, 0.31 per cent nonnitrogenous extractives, 0.53 per 
cent total organic extractives, 0.31 per cent fat and 0.16 per cent ash. 
Calculated to water-free basis, tliis brotli residue had the following 
percentage composition: Proteid 10.71, nitrogenous extractives 10.64, 
nonnitrogenous extractives 27.68, total organic extractives 47.32, 
fat 27.68, and ash 14.28 per cent. 

The largest quantity of solid matter was found in hrotli No. 1179, 
from cooking experiment No. 39, in which a small piece of leg of mut- 
ton was cooked at 100° C. for ten minutes and then at 80° to 85° C. 
for three hours. The 10.27 per cent total solids consisted of 0.22 
per cent proteid, 0.61 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 0.77 per cent 
nonnitrogenous extractives, 8.25 per cent fat, and 0.42 per cent ash. 
Calculated to a water-free basis, the percentage composition was: 
Proteid 2.14, nitrogenous extractives 5.94, nonnitrogenous extractives 
7.50, total organic extractives 13.44, fat 80.33, and ash 4.09 per cent. 

The richness of broth, as measured bj^ the total solids which it con- 
tains, seems to depend largely upon the sizes of the pieces of meat 
wliich are cooked. In other words, the smaller or the more finely 
divided the pieces of meat used, the richer the resulting broth. This 
may be readily noted in the detailed results given in Table 130. 

The average amount of solid matter in the four broths (Nos, 1370, 
1382, 1371, and 1383) for the preparation of which lean beef round, 
cut into one-half inch cubes, was cooked for ten minutes at 100° C. 
and for two hours at 80 to 85° C. was equal to 4.11 per cent of 
the weight of the meat taken for cooking. The average solid sub- 
stances contained in the eleven broths, reported on page 187, for the 
preparation of which lean beef round, in small pieces weighing about 
1.5 pounds, was cooked for ten minutes at 100° C. and for two hours 
at from 80 to 85° C. was equal to 3.50 per cent of the weight of the 
meat taken for cooking. The average quantity of total solid material 
in the last eight broths hsted upon page 187, which were prepared by 
cooking large pieces of beef round, weighing on the average almost 
4.5 pounds, for ten minutes at about 100° C. and then for two hours 
at from 80 to 85° C. was equal to only 2.24 per cent of the weight of 
the meat taken for cooking. Other experiments here reported con- 
firm the conclusion expressed above, that the smaller the pieces of 



198 

meat (or the more finely divided tlie meat) used, the richer the 
resulting broth. 

It is commonly supposed that ii' meat is placed in cold water, the 
temperature raised gradually and the cooking then continued as 
usual, more of its soluble ingredients are extracted and a richer 
broth obtained than when it is first put into boiling water and then 
cooked at a somewhat lower temperature. The earlier experiments" 
made under the auspices of this Office with meats cooked in hot water 
did not confirm this commonly accepted opinion. On the contrary, 
the results indicated clearly that the temperature of the water in 
which the meat was placed at the start had little influence upon the 
amount of material found in the broth. The data in Table 130 
showing the detailed composition of the complete broths calculated 
to a uniform basis (1 pound of meat per 1.04 pints of broth) points 
clearly to this same conclusion, and also shows plainly the nature of 
the resulting broths when prepared by the two methods. For example, 
in the case of the 11 broths which were prepared by cooking small 
pieces of lean beef round, first for ten minutes in boiling water and 
then for two hours at from 80 to 85° C, the average weight of meat 
taken in these experiments was 659.20 grams, and the cooked meat 
contained upon an average 8.09 per cent of fat, and the average per- 
centage composition of the broths was: Water 96.49, total solid 
matter 3.50, proteid 0.32, nitrogenous extractives 0.76, nonnitrog- 
enous extractives 0.99, total organic extractives 1.75, fat 0.78, and 
ash 0.65 per cent. The average amount of total nitrogen was 0.294 
per cent 0.52 per cent being in proteid and 0.243 per cent in non- 
proteid form. Calculated to a water-free basis, these broth residues 
had the following average composition: Proteid 9.20, nitrogenous 
extractives 21.76, nonnitrogenous extractives 28.42, total organic 
extractives 50.18, fat 22.10 per cent, and ash 18.52 per cent. 

In the case of 4 broths prepared by putting small pieces of lean 
beef round in cold water, raising the temperature gradualh' to 80° C. 
and continuing the cooking for two hours and forty-five minutes 
longer at this temperature, the average weight of meat used was 
777.22 grams and the cooked meat contained on ah average 6.33 ])er 
cent of fat. The average composition of the 4 broths was: Water 
96.65, total solid matter 3.35, proteid 0.35, nitrogenous extractives 
0.77, nonnitrogenous extractives 1.02, total organic extractives 1.78, 
fat 0.65, and ash 0.57 per cent. The average amount of proteid nitro- 
gen was 0.055 per cent and of nonproteid nitrogen 0.245 per cent, or 
0.300 ])er cent total nitrogen. Calculated to a water-free basis, these 
broth residues had the following average composition: Proteid 
10.47, nitrogenous extractives 23.24', nonnitrogenous extractives 

a U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Buls. 102, 141. 



199 

80.70, total orj^aniroxtractivos 54.00, fat IS. 17, and asli 17.37 poroont. 
It is apparent IVoin these ii^ijures that there is httk^ diderenee in the 
eomposition of the broths resu hi m,' fioni the two (hlfeicnt inetiiotls of 
preparation. 

When the several constituents are considered .separately, some 
variation hi the different broths is noted, but it is by no means uniform 
enoutjh for <j:eneral deductions. 

The total [)roteid in the broths varied from ().().") |)er cent in samj^le 
No. 1175, prepared by cooking fresh ham for ten minutes at 100° C. 
and then for. three hours at SO to S5° C, to 1.20 j)er cent in samjile No. 
l.SSO, prepared by placinfj; beef round cut into one-half inch cu])es in 
cold water, raising the temperature slowly to 4S° (\ and cooking at 
about this temjierature for five hours. 

Table 130 also gives the data regarding the composition of the 
total solid matter of the meat broths, calculated to a water-free basis. 
Expressed in this form the average jH-rcentage comjiosition of the 
dry matter from the 73 complete broths was: 11.54 proteid, 19.51 
nitrogenous extractives, 24.91 nonnitrogenous extractives, 44.42 
total organic extractives, 2S.r)S fat, and 15.3S i)er cent ash. It is of 
interest to compare these figures with similar data for the composi- 
tion of uncooked and boiled meats. The average percentage com- 
position of 31 samples of meats cooked in contact with hot water, 
expressed on a water-free basis, was: 77.07 proteid, 1.43 nitrog- 
enous extractives, 1.84 nonnitrogenous extractives, 3.27 total 
organic extractives, 20.17 fat, and l.fiO per cent ash. It is thus evi- 
dent that the water-free substance of broths contained about one- 
seventh as much proteid, seven times as nuich nitrogenous and non- 
nitrogenous extractives, and fourteen times as much total organic 
extractives, somewhat more fat, and more than nine times as nuich 
mineral matter as the dry matter of boiled meat. 

The average composition of 1 1 samples of raw meats on a water- 
free basis was: 62.59 proteid, 3.83 nitrogenous extractives, 5.78 non- 
nitrogenous extractives, 30.54 fat, and 3.59 per cent ash— that is, the 
water-free substance of broths, as compared with the water-free sub- 
stance of uncooked meats, contains over one-sixth as much proteid, 
about four and one-half times as much of nitrogenous extractives, 
nonnitrogenous extractives, and total organic extractives, one and 
one-fourth as much fat, and tliree and eight-tenths as much ash. 

The quantity of ash m the w^ater-free substance of the broths varied 
from 2.32 per cent in sample No. 1161, to 24 per cent in sample No. 
1380, the average being 15.38 per cent. 

By referring to Table 131, page 195, it will be observed that the aver- 
age results obtained in the years 1903 and 1904 from the analysis 
of 31 samples of complete meat broths were: Water 95.619 per cent, 
total solid matter 4.381 per cent, proteid 0.581 per cent, nitrog- 



200 

enoiis extractives 0.831 per cent,nonnitrogeiioiis extractives 1.067 per 
cent, total organic extractives 1.89S per cent, fat 1.263 per cent, and 
ash 0.609 per cent. 

The total nitrogen was 0.360 per cent , 0.093 per cent being proteid 
and 0.267 per cent in nonproteid form. The considerably higher 
result obtained in the last series as compared with the earlier tests 
reported is undoubtedly due to two causes. The first is the fact that 
in the experiments made in 1903-4 the meats were as a rule cut into 
small cubes, thus presenting a large surface to the solvent action of 
the water in wliich they were cooked, while in the earlier experiments 
the meats were as a rule cooked in compact pieces, many of them 
large in size. The second factor which apparently tended to give a 
richer broth in the later series of experiments is the longer time of 
cooking to which many of the meats were subjected. 

Apparently, then, increasing the length of the cooking period 
increases the richness of the broth. Thus the average percentage 
composition of 14 broths cooked for three hours was: 96.163 water, 
3.837 total solid matter, 0.456 proteid, 0.S50 nitrogenous extractives, 
1.054 nonnitrogenous extractives, 1.904 total organic extractives, 
0.877 fat, and 0.603 per cent ash. 

The average percentage composition of the 17 1) roths cooked for 
five hours was: 95.177 water, 4.823 total solid matter, 0.691 proteid, 
0.814 nitrogenous extractives, 1.079 nonnitrogenous extractives, 
1.893 total organic extractives, 1.593 fat, and 0.613 per cent ash. 
Since, however, the meats which were cooked for five hours contained 
almost twice as much fat as those cooked for three hours, this may be 
responsible for the large amount of fat in this broth. 

The range in the proportion of the different constituents may be 
readily seen from the table. Such data are interesting, though they 
are not uniform enough for general deductions. 

Table 131, page 196, also gives the percentage composition of the 
complete broths upon the basis of the water-free substance. Thus 
stated, the average percentage composition in the case of the 31 com- 
plete broths made by cooking small pieces of meat for comparatively 
long periods was: 13.93 proteid, 20.85 nitrogenous extractives, 26.62 
nonnitrogenous extractives, 47.46 total organic extractives, 23.43 fat, 
and 15.18 per cent ash. On this basis of comparison it is apparent 
that the total solid matter of these broths contained considerably 
more proteid matter and nitrogenous and nonnitrogenous organic 
extractives and a somewhat smaller quantity of mineral substances 
and fat than did the total dry substance of the broths made by cooking 
larger pieces of meat for shorter ])eriods. 

In this connection it should be said that the true nature of the 
nitrogenous and nonnitrogenous extractives of broths and of meats 



201 

is as yot practically unknown. In our earlier invest i<j:at ions " upon the 
losses which meats sustain when cooked in hot water it was observed 
that the sum of the proteids. Ilesh l)ases. fat, and ash in clear hroths 
as obtained by analysis was in all cases considerably less than the 
amount of total solids obtained by the direct eva])oration, and this 
quantity of unknown extractives was designated ''other substances." 
The projiortion of the undetermined material or "other substances" 
ranged from 19.9 to 43.4 per cent, and averaged 34.2 per cent of the 
total solids of the clear broth; or, stated in another way, the jiropor- 
tion of unidentified substances in the broth varied from 0.3 to 1.1 per 
cent, and averaged O.S per cent of the total weight of the fresh meat. 

Much time has been devoted in tliis laboratory to the study of unde- 
termined sul)stances in liroths, but tlie publication of the detailed 
results is withheld until further investigations can be made. It is evi- 
dent from the experimental results so far obtained that this material 
contains consideral)le lactic acid, some glycogen, more or less inosite 
and xanthin bases, and traces of acetic and butyric acids. 

In the investigations reported in the later publication referred to 
above,'' notwithstanding the fact that all the determinations of proteids, 
flesh bases, and ''other substances" were carefully made, it was then 
considered more satisfactory in calculating the material lost in cook- 
ing meats to combnie the flesh bases and the so-called "other sub- 
stances" under the name of "extractives," a term wliich has often 
been used in that sense.'" 

Recent studies in connection with these nutrition investigations 
have shown that the cold-water extracts of meats also give results 
similar to those obtained in the analysis of ])roths, namely, that the 
sum of the nitrogenous matters, fat, and mineral matter determined 
by direct analysis is in ever}^ case decidedly less than the total solid 
residue obtained by direct evaporation. This difference ma}^ be seen 
by noting the ]:)roportion of the nonnitrogenous organic extractives 
in Tables 98-104, pages 99-115. 

Composition of Clear, Filtered ]\1eat Broths. 

The methods (see p. 15) used in the determination of the losses 
involved in the cooking of meats in hot w^ater make it necessary to 
separate the constituents of the original complete broths into those 
which exist in the form of suspended matter and those wliich occur 
dissolved in the clear filtered broth. Broths are so frequently served 
clear that it seems desirable to present the available data regarding the 

oU. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bills. 102, 141. 

b U. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment Stations Bui. 141. 

c Mitchell's Flesh Foods, pp. 7, 45, and 48. See also Allen's Commercial Organic 
Analysis, vol. 4, Philadelphia, 1898, pp. 270 and 335; and Halliburton's Textbook of 
Chemical Physiology and Pathology, 1891, p. 418. 



202 

composition of tlio filtorod broths, and in Tables 132 and 133 the com- 
position of the clear, filtered broths, calculated to the basis that 100 
grams of meat per 100 grams of broth or 1 pound of meat per 1.04 
pints of original broth, will be found. The kind and cut of meat and 
the method of cooking are ])lainly shown in the tables, together with 
the weight of meat taken, the weight of the resulting complete broth, 
and the weight of the clear broth. The tables also give the percentage 
composition of the clear, fdtered broth calculated to the basis of the 
water-free substance. 



Table 132. — Composition of clear, fUered hrotli. {ReKiilts of experinieriLt made in 

'1898-190S.) 

[Calculated to the Ijasis, 100 grams of meat give 100 grams of broth, or 1 pound of meat gives 1.04 

pints of broth. 





Cook- 
ing 
ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Method of cooking. 


Weight 
of meat 
taken. 


Weight 
of sus- 
pended 
matter 
in broth. 




Lab- 
ora- 


Temperature. • 


Dura- 
tion of 
cook- 
ing. 


Weight 


tory 
No. 


Atlje- 
gin- 
ning. 


During 
cook- 
ing. 


broth. 


1158 


31 

28 
28 

61 
69 

62 
70 

18 
21 
23 
22 

65 
21 
73 
23 
22 
20 
20 

51 
48 
54 
18 




°C. 
100 
100 
100 


°C. 

80-&5 
100 
100 


Hours. 

n 

2 

2 


Grams. 
1,380.20 
1,211.75 
1,152.63 


Grams. 

3.27 

21.34 

20.78 


Grams. 
1,376.93 


1095 


do 


1, 190. 41 


1096 


do 


1,131.85 




Average Nos. 1095 and 
1096 






1,182.19 


21.03 






Beef, round, lean, J-meh cubes. . 
do 


100 
100 


80-85 
80-8.') 


2 
2 




1370 
1382 


500.00 
500.00 


8.03 
4.47 


491.97 
495. 53 




Average 






.500.00 


6.25 






Beef, round, lean, .',-ineh cubes. . 
do 

Average 


100 
100 


80-85 
80-85 


2 
2 




1371 
1383 


2,500.00 
2,500.00 


43.73 
39.28 


2,4.56.27 
2,460.72 




2,500.00 


41.51 






Average Nos. 1370, 1371, 
1382, and 1383 














23.88 






Beef, round , lean, small piece . . . 
do 


100 
100 
100 
100 


80-85 
80-8.5 
80-&5 
80-85 


2 
2 
2 
2 







894 
779b 


433. 20 
660. 50 
686.60 
755. 80 


1.34 
5.16 
5.36 
3.81 


431.86 
655. 34 


809b 

781b 


do 

do 

Average 


681.24 
751.99 




634. 03 


3.92 






Beet, round, lean, small piece. . . 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


80-&5 
80-8.5 
80-8.5 
SO -85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 




1378 
779a 

1386 
809a 
781a 
777a 


501.41 
7,50. 00 
500.00 
742. 80 
057.00 
825.80 
739. .50 


5.73 
8.59 
4.81 
8.47 
6.16 
7.32 
7.11 


495. 68 
741.41 
495. 19 
734. 33 
650. 84 
818. 48 


777b 


do 


732.39 




Average 






673.79 


6.88 






Average Nos. 777a, 777b, 
779a, 779b, 78Ia, 781b, 
809a, 809b, 894, 1378, 
and 1386.. . 












6.59. .33 


5.80 






Beef, round, lean, large piece 

do 


100 
100 
100 
100 


80-&5 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 


2 
2 
2 

2 




1211 
1205 


2,141.09 
1,237.90 
2, 108. 62 
2,080.60 


1.39 
1.40 
2.98 
4.69 


2,139.70 
1,236.50 


1242 


do 


2, 105. 64 


895 


do 


2,075.91 










1,892.05 


2.62 

















203 

Table 132. — Comjwsition of clear, fiKeretl hmfh. (Reftults of rxpfrvneutK made in 
1808-1903)— Couthmcd. 





Cook- 
ing 
ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of nieut. 


Method of cooking. 


Weight, 
of meat 
taken. 


Weight, 
of sus- 
pended 
matter, 
in broth. 




Lab- 
ora- 


Temperature. 


Dura- 
tion of 
cook- 
ing. 


Weight. 


torv 
No". 


At be- 
gin- 
ning. 


During 
cook- 
ing. 


broth. 


1379 
1027 


GO 
19 
74 
19 

16 
16 
26 
26 
35 

27 
27 

29 
29 
30 
30 

32 
32 
33 
33 
34 
34 

38 
38 
40 
40 

39 
39 
41 
41 

36 
36 
37 
37 

48 
51 
54 

24 
24 


Beef, round, lean, large piece 

do 


"C. 
100 
1(X) 
100 
100 


°C. 

80-85 

80-85 

80-85 

80-85 


Hours. 
2 
2 
2 
2 


Orams. 
2,502.60 
2,141.25 
2,500.00 
1,139.48 


Grams. 
19.60 
11.54 
13.26 
3.88 


Orams. 
2,483.00 
2,129.71 


i:«7 


do 


2,486.74 


1097 


do 


1,135.60 




2,070.83 


12.07 






.\verage Nos. 895, 1027, 
1097, 1205, 1211, 1242, 
1379, and 1387 












1,981.44 


7.34 






Beef, round, fat 

do 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


80-85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 




892 
893 


1,220.30 
1,477.80 
1,383.07 
1,409.64 
1,764.97 


10.64 
14.20 
12.31 
9.97 
15.34 


1,209.66 
1,463.60 


1091 


....do 


1,370.76 


I();t2 


do 


1,399.67 


1172 


..do 


1,749.63 










1,451.16 


12.49 






Beef, "plate boil." very fat 

do 


1(X) 
100 


80-85 
80-85 


2 
2 




1093 
1094 


2,120.13 
2,193.89 


19. .53 
26.82 


2,100.60 
2,167.07 










2,157.01 


23.18 






Beef, round, rather fat 


100 
100 
100 
100 


80-85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 


3 
3 
3 
3 




1098 


1,017. a5 

1,740.51 

713.60 

2,323.10 


32.04 

32.92 

4. .50 

9.51 


985. 01 


1099 


.do 


1,707. .59 


IHfi 


....do 


709. 10 


1147 


do. . .. 


2,313.59 










1,448.57 


19.74 






Beef, "plate boil," ver.v fat 

. .do 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


80-85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 




1160 
1161 


1,715.90 
1,825.80 
2,393.20 
2,729.80 
1,806.37 
1,923.58 


90.88 
154.78 
20.94 
9.12 
52.74 
56.15 


1,625.02 
1,671.02 


1162 




2,372.26 


116.$ 


do . . 


2, 720. 68 


1 1 69 


Beef, riljs, very fat 


1,753.63 


1170 


do '. 


1,867.43 










2,065.78 


64.10 






Veal. leg. ... 


100 
100 
100 
100 


80-85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 


3 
3 
3 
3 




1177 


1,774.20 
2,334.70 
1,648.31 
1,939.09 


14.94 
4.26 
3.30 
2.67 


1 , 7.59. 26 


1178 


.do 


2,330.44 


1181 


do 


1,645.01 


11S2 


do 


1,936.42 










1,924.08 


6.29 






Mutton , leg 


100 
100 
100 
100 


80-85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 


3 
3 
3 
3 




1179 


964.70 
1,284.20 

912.82 
1,268.14 


80.24 
69.47 
41.40 

88.82 


884.46 


IISO 
1183 


do 

do 


1,214.73 
871.42 


11S4 


do 


1,179.32 










1,107.47 


69.98 






Pork. fresh ham 

do 

do ... 


100 
100 
100 
100 


80-85 
80-85 
80-85 
80-85 


3 
3 
3 
3 




1173 
1174 
1175 


1,838.40 
1,608.50 
1,882.66 
2,016.70 


9.22 
73.46 
26.98 
38.93 


1,829.18 
1,535.04 
1,855.68 


1176 


do 


1,977.77 










1,836.57 


37.15 






Beef, round, lean 


100 
100 
100 


80-85 
80-85 
80-85 


5 
5 
5 




1206 


1,210.15 
1,529.94 
1,128.00 


1.11 
6.01 
3.53 


1,209.04 


1212 
1243 


do 

do . . 


1,523.93 
1,124.47 










1,289.36 


3.55 


~ 








1 






1,481.86 


22.41 








20-25 
20-25 


50 
50 


6 
6 




820a 


915. 10 
837.30 


5.75 
6.90 


909.35 


820b 


do 


830.40 










876.20 


6.33 

















204 

Table 132. — f'ompos'd'inn of clear, iiUered broth. (Results of experiments made in 
1898- JDOS )— Continued. 



Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
No. 



Cook- 
ing 
cx- 
pori- 
mcnt 
No. 



1376 
1384 



1377 
1385 



1368 
1380 



1369 
1381 



1171 
771a 
771b 
823a 
823b 



Kind of meat. 



Beef, round, lean, 1 piece . 
....do 



Average. 



Beef, round, lean, 1 piece. 
do 



Average . 



Beef, round, J-inch cubes . 
....do 



Method of cooking. 



Temperature. 



At be- 
gin- 
ning. 



°C. 

20-25 

20-25 



20-2.5 
20 25 



During 

cook 

ing. 



Dura- 
tion of 
cook- 
ing. 



°C. 

47-50 

47-50 



47-50 
47-50 



20-25 
20-25 



Average. 



Beef, round, .'.-Lncli cubes 

do ' 



Average 

Average Nos. 1368, 1369, 
1376, 1377, 1380, 1381, 
1384, and 1385 



Beef, round, lean. 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 



Average Nos. 771a, 771b, 
823a, and 823b 



Average Nos. 771a, 771b, 
820a, 820b, 823a, 823b, 
1171, 1368, 1369, 1376, 
1377, 1380, 1381, 1384, and 
1385 



Average of 73 above . 



47-50 
47-50 



20-25 
20-25 



20-25 
20-25 
20-25 
20-25 
20-25 



Maximum . 
Minimum . 



47-50 
47-50 



57-60 
80 



Hours. 
5 
5 



Weight, 
of meat 
taken. 



Grams. 
520. 77 
500.00 



510.39 



Weight, 
pf sus- 
pended 
matter, 
in broth. 



Grams. 
1.59 
2.92 



2.26 



2,384.54 
2,500.00 



500.00 
500.00 



2,500.00 
2,500.00 



2,500.00 



1,488.16 



9.75 
16.17 



Weight, 
of clear 
broth. 



Grams. 
519. 18 
497.08 



2,374.79 
2,483.83 



2.30 
6.08 



18.42 
14.67 



497. 70 
493.92 



2,481.58 
2,48.5.33 



.99 



1,. 523. 68 
705.50 
660.80 
798. \Q 
944. .50 



1,219.35 



1,427.92 



2,729.80 
500.00 



8.35 
7.34 
9.54 
3.00 
6.68 



6.64 



7.96 



19.45 



154. 78 
1.11 



1,515.33 
698. 16 
a51.26 
795. 10 
937. 82 



Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
No. 



1158 
1095 
10% 



1370 
1382 



Cook- 
ing 
ex- 
peri- 
ment. 
No. 



Kind of meat. 



Percentage composition of the clear, filtered 
broth. 



Per ct. 

Beef round, lean I 98.40 

....do ' 97.43 

do 97.48 



Average Nos. 1095 and 
1096 97.45 



Total 
solid 
mat- 
ter. 



Per ct. 
1.60 
2.57 
2.52 



2.55 



Pro- 
teid. 



Per ct. 

0.08 

.12 

.16 



Organic extractives. 



Nitrog- 
enous. 



Per ct. 

0.46 

.75 

.75 



Non- 
nitrog- 
enous.. 



Per ct. 
0.71 
1.07 
1.02 



Beef, round, lean, .'.-inch 

1 cubes 97.22 

69 ' do 97.22 

Average 97. 22 



2.78 
2.78 

2.78 I 



.20 
.06 



1.06 
1.12 



1.09 



Total. 



Per ct. 
1.17 
1.82 
1.77 



1.90 
2.07 



Ash. 



Per ct. 

0.35 

.63 

..59 



205 

Table 132. — C'omjMJsition of clear, jilttnd broth, {litsnlls nf ispirhm iit.^ miuh' in 
1S98-190S)— Continued. 



Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
.\o. 


Cook- 
ing 
e.x- 
pi-ri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of moat. 


Percentage composition of the clear, filtered 
broth. 




Water. 


Total 
solid 
mat- 
ter. 

Per ct. 

2.58 
2.64 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic extractives. 


Ash. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 




1371 


62 
70 

18 
21 
23 
22 

65* 

21 

73 

23 

22 

20 

20 

51 

48 
54 
18 

66 
19 
74 
19 

16 
16 
26 
26 
35 

27 
27 

29 
29 
30 
30 


Beef, round, lean, J-inch 


Per ct. 
97.42 
97.36 


Per ct. 

0.11 

.06 


Per ct. 

0.84 

.89 


Per ct. 
1.00 
1.07 


Per ct. 
1.84 
1.96 


Per ct. 
0.63 


1383 


do 


.62 




Average 






97.39 


2.61 


.08 


.87 


1.03 


1.90 


.63 




Average Nos. 1370, 1371, 
1382,and 1383 

Beef, round, lean, small piece 
do 






97.30 


2.70 


.11 


.88 


1.06 


1.94 


.65 


894 
779b 


97.07 
97.05 
97.31 
97.33 


2.93 
2.95 
2.69 
2.67 


.12 
.43 
.12 
.30 


.90 
.80 
.80 
.75 


1.18 
1.04 
1.12 
.99 


2.08 
1.84 
1.92 
1.74 


.73 

.68 


809b 


do 


.65 


781b 


do 


.63 




Average 






97.19 


2.81 


.24 


.81 


1.09 


1.90 


.67 




Beef, round . lean , small piece . 
do 

do 




1378 

779a 
1386 

809a 


97. 66 
97.28 
97.48 
97. 49 
97.34 
97.51 
97.29 


2.34 
2.72 
2.52 
2.51 
2.66 
2.49 
2.71 


.09 
.40 
.06 
.15 
.33 
.28 
.36 


.77 
.74 
.81 
.73 
.()8 
.(« 
.77 


.83 
.93 
.98 
l.OI 
1.03 
.92 
.96 


1.60 
1.67 
1.79 
1.74 
1.71 
1.60 
1.73 


.65 
.65 
.67 
.62 


781a 


do 


.62 


777a 


...do 


.61 


777b 


....do 


.62 




Average 

Average Nos. 777a, 
777b, 779a. 779b, 781a, 
781b, 809a, 809b, 894, 
1378, and 1386 

Beef, round, lean, large piece. 
do 






97.44 


2.56 


.24 


.74 


.95 


1.69 


.63 




97.35 


2.6.5 


.24 


.77 


1.00 


1.77 


.65 


1211 
1205 


98.35 
98.17 
98.67 
97.54 


1.65 
1.83 
1.33 
2.46 


.14 
.08 
.11 
.12 


.51 
.56 
.41 
.74 


.60 

.74 

.47 

1.01 


1.11 
1.30 
.88 
1.75 


.40 
.45 


1242 


..do 


.34 


895 


do 


.59 




.\ veragc 






98.18 


1.82 


.11 


.56 


.71 


1.26 


.45 




Beef, round, lean, large piece. 
do 




1379 
1027 


98.01 
97.71 
98.51 
97.84 


1.99 
2.29 
1.49 
2.16 


.11 
.13 
.13 
.13 


.64 
.86 
.58 
.70 


.82 
.75 
.42 
.85 


1.46 
1.61 
1.00 
1.55 


.42 


1387 
1097 


do 

do 


.36 
.48 




Average 






98.02 


1.98 


.13 


.70 


.71 


1.41 


.45 




Average Nos. 895, 1027, 
1097, 1205, 1211, 1242, 
1379, and 1387 

Beef, round, fat 

do 

do 

do 

do 






98.10 


1.90 


.12 


.63 


.71 


1.34 


.45 


892 
893 
1091 
1092 
1172 


98.24 
98.27 
98.04 
98.32 
98.72 


1.76 
1.73 
1.96 
1.68 
1.28 


.11 
.16 
.10 
.14 
.07 


.54 
.51 
.60 
.50 
.37 


.66 
.64 
.80 
.66 
.54 


1.20 
1.15 
1.10 
1.16 
.91 


.45 
.42 
.46 
.38 
.30 




98.32 


1.68 


.12 


.50 


.66 


1.16 


.40 




Beef, "plate boil," very fat . 
do ... 




1093 
1094 


99.12 
99.27 


.88 
.73 


.08 
.05 


.25 

.18 


.34 
.34 


.59 
.52 


.21 
.16 










99.20 


.81 


.07 


.22 


.34 


.56 


.19 




Beef, round, rather fat 

do 

do 

do V. 

Average 




1098 
1099 
1146 
1147 


97.64 
98.14 
97.75 
98.19 


2.36 
1.86 
2.25 
1.81 


.20 
.16 
.12 
.09 


.64 
.51 
.69 
.55 


1.02 
.78 
.93 
.73 


1.66 
1.29 
1.62 
1.28 


.50 
.41 
.51 
.44 




97. 93 


2.07 


.14 


.60 


.86 


1.46 


.47 



206 

Table 132. — Comjxmtion of clear, filtei'ed broth. {Results of cTperiments made in 

1898-1903)— Continued. 



Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
No. 


Cook- 
ing 
ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of moat. 


Percentage composition of the clear, filtered 
broth. 




Water. 


Total 
solid 
mat- 
ter. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic extractives. 


Ash. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous 


Total. 




1160 
1161 


32 
32 
33 
33 
34 
34 

38 
38 
40 
40 

39 
39 
41 
41 

36 
36 
37 
37 

48 
51 
54 

21 
24 

03 
71 

64 
72 

59 
67 

60 
68 


Beef, "plate boil," very fat. . 
do 


Per ct. 
99.14 
98. 89 
99.04 
99.21 
98.77 
98.97 


Per ct. 

0.86 
1.11 
.96 
.79 
1.23 
1.03 


Per ct. 

0.07 

.07 

.11 

.10 
.12 
.11 


Per ct. 

0.24 
.31 
.27 
.22 
.36 
.31 


Per ct. 
0.37 
.49 
.38 
.31 
.49 
.39 


Per ct. 
0.61 
.80 
.65 
.53 
.85 
.70 


Per ct. 

0.18 

24 


1162 


Beef, neck, very fat 


20 


1163 


. .. .do 


. 16 


1169 
1170 


Beef, ribs, very fat ... , 

do.. 


.26 
22 




Average of above 

Veal, leg 






99.00 


1.00 


.10 


.29 


.40 


.69 


.21 


1177 


98.21 
98. 48 
97.98 
98.42 


1.79 
1.52 
2.02 
1.58 


.35 
.33 
.35 
.34 


.45 
.39 
.48 
.37 


.64 
.50 
.81 
.57 


1.09 
.89 

1.29 
.94 


.35 


1178 


do.. 


.30 


1181 


do 


.38 


1182 


do 


.30 




Average 






98.27 


1.73 


.34 


.42 


.63 


• 1.05 


.33 




Mutton, leg 




1179 


97.87 
98.00 
98.10 
98.28 


2.13 
2.00 
1.90 
1.72 


.16 
.21 
.12 
.15 


.67 
.58 
.47 
.40 


.84 
.81 
.91 
.81 


1.51 
1.39 
1.38 
1.21 


.46 


1180 


do. .. 


.40 


1183 


do 


.40 


1184 


do 


.36 




Average 






98.06 


1.94 


.16 


.53 


.84 


1.37 


.41 




Pork, fresh ham 




1173 


99.00 

98.84 

• 98. 92 

98.86 


1.00 
1.16 
1.08 
1.14 


.11 
.06 
.05 
.05 


.28 
.35 
.33 
.35 


.39 
.50 
.43 
.46 


.67 

.85 
.76 
.81 


.22 


1174 


do 


.25 


1175 


do.. 


.27 


1176 


do 


.28 










98.90 


1.10 


.07 


.33 


.44 


.77 


.26 




Beef , round, lean 




1206 


97.49 
97.78 
98.12 


2.51 
2.22 
1.88 


.09 
.17 
.15 


.79 
.67 
.60 


1.03 
.83 
.66 


1.82 
1.50 
1.26 


.60 


1212 


do 


.55 


1243 


do 


.47 




Average 






97.80 


2.20 


.14 


.69 


.84 


1.53 


.54 




Average of 58 above 

Beef, round, lean 

do 






98.07 


1.93 


.15 


.57 


.74 


1.31 


.45 


820a 
S20b 


98.34 
97.71 


1.66 
2.29 


.24 
.41 


.44 
.57 


.61 

.84 


1.05 
1.41 


.37 

.47 




Average 






98.02 


1.98 


.33 


.51 


.73 


1.23 


.42 




Beef, round, lean, 1 piece 

do 




1376 
1384 


97.75 
97.56 


2.25 
2.44 


.50 
.45 


.56 
.69 


.64 
.81 


1.20 
1.50 


..55 
.49 




Average 








97.65 


2.35 


.48 


.63 


.73 


1.35 


..52 




Beef, round, lean, 1 piece 

.do . 




1377 
1385 


98.19 
98. 60 


1.81 
1.40 


.33 
.20 


.50 
.42 


.58 
.47 


1.08 
.89 


.40 
.31 




Average. . 






98.39 


1.61 


.27 


.46 


.53 


.99 


.36 




Beef, round, ?,-iiich cubes 

do : 

Average 




1368 
1380 


97.34 
98.45 


2.66 
1.55 


:22 
.18 


.84 
.47 


.98 
.24 


1.82 
.71 


.62 
.66 




97.89 


2.11 


.20 


.66 


.61 


1.27 


.64 




Beef, round, i-inch cubes 

do 




1369 
1381 


97.82 
97.61 


2.18 
2.39 


.31 
.38. 


.68 
.71 


.69 
.83 


1.37 
1.54 


.50 
.47 




Average... . ... 






97.71' 


2.29 


.34 


.70 


.76 


1.46 


.49 




Average Nos. ]3()8, 
1369, 1376, 1377, 1380, 
1381, 1384, and 1385.... 






97.92 


2.08 


.32 


.61 


.65 


1.26 


.50 



207 



Tvui.K V.i^. -i'oin posit ton of clear, JiKeied hiolh. {Results of experiments made in 
] SUS-1 00 J )—i\mUnuod. 





Cook- 
ing 
ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 

3.') 
17 
17 
25 
25 


Kind of meat. 


Percentage composition of the clear, filtered 
broth. 




Lab- 
ora- 


Water. 


Total 
solid 
mat- 
ter. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic extractives. 


Ash. 


tory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 




ir/1 

77 la 
77 11 J 
S23a 
S23b 




Per ct. 

98.61 


Per cl. 
1.39 
2.48 
2.54 
2.40 
2.41 


Perct. 
0.08 
.06 
.09 
.11 
.15 


Percl. 

0.41 

.79 

.77 
.78 
.74 


Perct. 

0.55 

1.06 

1.08 

.99 

.97 


Per ct. 
0.96 
1.85 
1.85 
1.77 
1.71 


Per ct. 
0.35 


....do 

do 


97.52 
97.40 


.57 
.60 


do 


97.54 
97.59 


.58 


do 


.55 




Average Nos. 771a, 
77lb, 823a, and 82;}b... 

Average Nos 771a, 
771b, 820a, K20b, K23a, 
823b, 1171, 1368, 1369, 
1376, 1377, 13S0, 1381, 
1384, and 1385 


97.53 


2.47 


.10 


.77 


1.02 


1.79 


.58 




97.87 


2.13 


.25 


.62 


.75 


1.38 


.50 




Average of 73 above. . . . 

Maximum 

Minimum 


98. (» 


1.97 .17 


.59 


.74 


1.34 1 .46 




99.27 
97.05 


2.95 
.73 


.50 
.05 


.95 
.18 


1.18 
.24 


2.08 
.52 


1 .73 
.16 




Cook- 
ing- 
ex- 

peri- 
ment 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Percentage composition of the clear, filtered 
broth. (Uater-free substance.) 


Lab- 
ora- 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic extractives. 




tory 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 


Ash. 


1158 


31 

28 
28 

61 
69 

62 
70 

18 
21 
23 
22 

65 
2K 
73 
23 
22 
20 
20 




Per ct. 
5.00 
4.67 
6.35 


Per ct. 
28.75 
29.18 
29. 76 


Per ct. 

44.38 
41.64 
40.48 


Per ct. 
73.13 
70.82 
70.24 


Per ct. 
21.87 


do 


24.51 


1091) 


do 


23.41 




Average Nos. 1095 and 1096 

Beef, round, lean, .',-iiicli cubes 

do 






5.51 1 29.47 


41.06 


70.53 


23.96 


1370 
1382 


7.19 
2.16 


30.22 
34.17 


38.13 
40.29 


68.35 
74.46 


24.46 
23.38 


Average 

Beef, round, lean, .'.-incli cubes 

do 






4.68 32.20 


39.21 


71.40 


23.92 


1371 
1383 


4.26 
2.27 


32.56 
33.71 


38.76 
40.53 


71.32 
74.24 


24.42 
23.49 




Average ; 






3.26 
3.97 


33.14 


39.64 


72.78 


23.96 




Average Nos. 1370, 1371, 1382, 
and 1383 


32.67 


39.42 


72.09 


23.94 


894 

779b 


Beef, round, lean, small piece 

do 


4.10 
14.58 


30.72 
27.12 


40.27 70.99 
35.25 62.37 
41.64 71.38 
37.08 65.17 


24.91 
23.05 


809b 


do 


4.46 1 29.74 
11.24 ! 28.09 


24.16 


781b 


do 


23.59 




Average 


8.59 28.92 


38. 56 67. 48 


23.93 


1378 
779a 


Beef, round, lean, small piece 

do 


3.84 
14.71 
2.38 
5.98 
12.41 
11.24 
13.28 


1 32.91 
27.21 
32.14 
29.08 
25.56 
27.31 
28.41 


35.47 
34.19 
38.89 
40.24 
38.72 
36.95 
35.42 


68.38 
61.40 
71.03 
P9.32 
64.28 
64.26 
63.84 


27.78 
23.90 


1386 


do 


26.59 


809a 


do 


24.70 


781a 


do 


23.31 


7778 


do 


24.50 


777t 


do 


22.88 




« Average 


9.12 


28.95 


37.13 


66.07 


24.81 




Average Nos. 777a, 777b, 779a, 
779b, 7^1a, 781b, 809a, 809b, 
894, 1378, and 1386 


8.93 


28.94 


37.65 


66.58 


24.49 



208 

Table 132. — Coinpofiltion of clear, filtered hroth. (Results of experiments made in 
1S98-190J)— Continued. 



Lab- 


Cook- 
iiig- 
cx- 
pi^ri- 
nient 
No. 


Kind of iiK'at. 


Percentage composition of the clear, filtered 
broth. (Water-free substance.) 


ora- 
tory 


Pro- 
tcid. 


Organic extractives. 




No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 


Ash. 


1211 
1205 


51 
48 
54 
18 

(ifi 
19 
74 
19 

16 
It) 
26 
26 
35 

27 
27 

29 
29 
30 
30 

32 
32 
33 
33 
34 
34 

38 
38 
40 

40 

39 
39 

41 
41 

36 
36 
37 
37 


Beef, round, lean, large piece 

do 


Per ct. 
8.49 
4.37 
8.27 
4.88 


Per ct. 
30.91 
30.60 
30.83 
30.08 


Per ct. 
36. 36 
40.44 
35.34 
41.-06 


Per ct. 
67.27 
71.04 
66. 17 
71.14 


Per ct. 
24.24 
24.59 
25.56 
23.98 


1242 


do 


895 


do 




Average 




6.50 


30.61 


38.30 


68.91 


24.59 




Beef, round, lean, large piece 

do 


1379 
1027 


5.53 
5.67 
8.73 
6.02 


32.16 
37.55 
38.92 
32.41 


41.21 
32.75 
28.19 
39.35 


73.37 
70.31 
67.11 
71.76 


21.10 
24.02 
24.16 
22.22 


1387 


do 


1097 


do 




Average 




6.49 


35.26 


35.38 


70.64 


22.88 




Average Nos. 895, 1027, 1097, 
1205, 1211, 1242, 1379, and 
1387 




6.50 

6.25 
9.25 
5.10 
8.33 
5.47 


32.94 


36.84 


69.78 


23.73 




Beef, round, fat 


892 


30.68 
29.48 
30. 61 
29.76 
28.91 


37.50 
36.99 
40.81 
39.28 
42.19 


68.18 
66.47 
71.43 
69.05 
71.09 


05 57 


893 


do 


24.28 
23.47 
22 62 


1091 


do 


1092 


do 


1172 


do 


23 44 




Average . ..'. 






6.88 


29.89 


39.35 


69.24 


23.88 




Beef, " j)late boil," very fat 

do '. 


1093 
1094 


9.09 
6.85 


28.41 
24.66 


38.64 
46.57 


67.05 
71.23 


23.86 
21 92 




Average 






7.97 


26.54 


42.60 


69.14 


22 89 




Beef, round, rather fat 




1098 


8.48 
8.60 
5. 33 
4.97 


27.12 
27.42 
30. 67 
30.39 


43.22 
41.94 
41.33 
40.33 


70.34 
69.36 
72.00 
70.72 


21 18 


1099 


do 




114() 


do 


22 67 


1147 


do 


24 31 




Average 






6.85 


28.90 


41.70 


70.60 


22 55 




Beef, "plate boil," very fat 

do 




llfiO 
IKil 


8.14 
6.31 
11.46 
12.66 
9.75 
10. 68 


27.91 
27.93 
2S. 13 
27.85 
29.27 
30.10 


43.02 
44.14 
39.58 
39. 24 
39.84 
37.86 


70.93 
72.07 
67.71 
67.09 
69.11 
67.96 


20.93 
21 62 


llti2 


Beef, neck, very fat 


20 83 


llfi3 


do : 


20 25 


ll(i9 


Beef, ribs, vei-y fat 


21 14 


1170 


do 


21 36 




Average of above 






9.83 


28.53 


40.62 


69.15 


21 02 




Veal, leg 




1177 


19.56 
21.71 
17.33 
21.52 


25.14 
25.66 
23.76 
23.42 


35. 75 
32.89 
40.10 
36.07 


60.89 
58. 55 
63. 86 
59.49 


19 55 


1178 


do 


19 74 


1181 


do 


18 81 


1182 


do 


18 99 




Average 






20.03 


24.50 


36.20 


60.70 


19 27 




Mutton, log 




1179 


7.51 
10.50 
C.32 

8.72 


31.40 
29.00 
24.74 
23.26 


39.43 
40.50 
47.89 
47.09 


70.89 
69.50 
72.63 
70.35 


21 60 


1180 


do 


20.00 


1183 


do 


21 05 


1184 


do 


20 93 




Average 






8.26 


27.11 


43.73 


70.84 


20 90 




Pork, fresh ham 




1173 


11.00 
5.17 
4.63 
4.39 

6.30 


28.00 
30.18 
30.56 
30.70 


39.00 
43.10 
39.81 
40.35 


67.00 
73.28 
70.37 
71.05 


22.00 


1174 
1175 
117G 


..'.. .do 

do i 

do 

Average 


21.55 
25.00 
24.56 




29.86 


40.56 


70.42 


23.28 



209 

Table V32.—Comj>osition of clear, -filtered broth. {Results of experiments made in 
18i)S-1903)~Con{\i\\\QA. 





Cook- 
iiig- 
c.x- 
pori- 
niciit 
No. 


Kiiiil of meat. 


Percentage composition of the clear, 
broth. (Water-free substance. 


filtered 


Lal)- 
ora- 
torv 
No. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic extractives. 




Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 


Ash. 


lo(x; 


48 
51 
54 

24 
24 

63 
71 

64 
72 

.59 
67 

* GO 
68 

35 
17 
17 
25 
25 




Per ct. 
3.59 
7.66 
7.98 


Perct. 
31.47 
30.18 
31.91 


Per ct. 
41.04 
37.38 
35.11 


Per ct. 

72.51 
67.57 
67.02 


Per ct. 
23.90 


y)yy 


do 


24.77 


1243 


..do 


25.90 










6.41 


31.19 


37.84 


69.03 


24.56 










8.21 


29.46 


39.34 


68.79 


22.99 








820a 


14.46 
17.91 


E6.51 
24.89 


36.75 
36.68 


63.25 
61.57 


22.29 


820b 


do 


20.52 










16.19 


25.70 


36.72 


62.41 


21.40 








1376 


22.22 
18.44 


24.89 
28.28 


28.44 
33.20 


53.33 
61.48 


24.45 


1384 


do .■-.. 


20.08 










20.33 


26.58 


30.82 


57.40 


22.27 








1377 


18.23 
14.29 


27.62 
30.00 


32.05 
33.57 


59.67 
63.57 


22.10 


1385 


. .do 


22.14 




Average 

Heef, round, i-iiii'li cubes 

(io 






16.26 


28.81 


32.81 


61.62 


22.12 


1368 
1380 


8.27 
11.61 


31.58 
30.32 


36.84 
15.49 


68.42 
45.81 


23.31 
42.58 










9.94 


30.95 


26.17 


57.12 


32.94 




Beef, round, J-inch cubes 




1369 


14.22 
15.90 


31.19 
29.71 


31.65 
34.73 


62.84 
64.44 


22.94 


1381 


do 


19.66 




Average 

Average Nos. 1368, 1369, 1376, 
1377, 1380, 1381, 1384, and 1385. 






15.06 


30.45 


33.19 


63.64 


21.30 




15.40 


29.20 


30.75 


59.95 


24.66 


1171 


5.76 
2.42 
3.54 
4.47 
6.22 


29.49 
31.85 
30.32 
31.71 
30.70 


39.57 
42.74 
42.52 
40.24 
40.25 


69.06 
74.59 
72.84 
71.95 
70.95 


25.18 


771a 


do 


22.99 


771b 


do 


23.62 


823a 


do 


23.58 


8''3b 


do 


22.83 




Average Nos. 771a, 771b, 823a, 
and 823b 






4.16 


. 31. 14- 


41.44 


72.58 


23. 26 




Average Nos. 771a, 771b, 820a, 
820b, 823a, 823b, 1171, 1368, 
1369, 1376, 1377, 1380, 1381, 
1384, and 1385 


11.86 


29.27 


34.98 


64.25 


23.89 






8.96 


29.42 


38.44 


67.86 


23.18 










22.22 
2.16 


38.92 
23.26 


47.89 
15.49 


74.59 
57.12 


32.94 






18.81 









11480— No. 162—06- 



-14 



210 



Table 133. — Com/position of clear, filtered broth. (Results of exferiments made in 

1903~190Jt ) 

[Calculated to the basis, Kio grams of meat give 100 grams of broth, or 1 pound of meat gives 1.04 

pints of broth.] 





Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
No. 


Kind (if meat. 


Method of cooking. 


Weight 
of meat 
taken. 


A\'eight 
of sus- 
pended 
matter 
in broth. 




Cook- 
ing ex- 


Temperature. 


Dura- 
tion of 
cook- 
ing. 


Weight 


peri- 
ment 
No. 


At be- 
gin- 
ning. 


Dur- 
ing 
cook- 
ing. 


of clear 
broth. 


109 
137 


1642 
1754 

1756 

1746 

1772 
1783 

1641 
1744 

1773 
1784 

1755 
1757 

1743 
1745 

1646 
1645 

1654 
1658 

1644 
1720 

1665 
1673 
1703 


Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 

Beef, round, 2-inch cubes 

Average _ _ 


Cold. 
Cold. 


85 
85 


Hours. 
3 
3 


Grams. 

1,000.00 

900.00 


Grams. 
19.79 
11.12 


Grams. 
980.21 
888.88 




Cold. 


85 


3 




15.46 


934 55 




Beef, round, browned, 2 
cubes 

Average Nos. 1642, 
and 1756 


-incli 
1754, 






139 


Cold. 


85 


3 


900.00 


6.62 


893. 38 




Cold. 


85 


3 




12.51 


920 82 




Beef, round, browned, 2 
cubes... 


-indi 






136 


85 
85 
85 


85 
85 
85 


3 
3 
3 


1,000.00 
1,074.83 
1,052.17 


17.53 
5.56 


982 47 


145 


Beef, round, 2-inch cubes 
do 




1,069.27 


154 






Average Nos. 1772 
1783 


and 








85 


85 


3 




11.55 


1,025 87 




Beef, round, 1-inch cubes . 
Beef, round, 2-inch cubes . 

Average 








108 


100 
100 


85 
85 


3 
3 


1,000.00 
1,000.00 


10.37 
3.70 


989 63 


134 




996 30 










100 


85 


3 




7.04 


992 97 




Beef, round, 1 piece. . . 






144 


100 
100 


85 
85 


3 
3 


1,027.72 
1,098.31 


2.34 

4.44 


1,02.5.38 
1,093.87 


153 


do 




Average 




100 
100 


85 


3 




3.39 


1,059.63 




Average Nos. 1641, 
1773, and 1784 


1744, 






85 


3 




5.21 


1,026.30 




Beef, round, 2-inch cubes 

Beef, round, browned, 2-inch 
cubes 




138 
140 


Cold. 
Cold. 


100 
100 


3 
3 


900.00 
900.00 


17.38 
6.99 


882.62 
893. 01 




Average 




Cold. 


100 


3 




12.19 


887 82 




Beef, round, 2-inch cubes. 

Beef, round, browned, 2- 

cubes 








133 


100 
. 100 


100 
100 


3 
3 


1,000.00 
1,000.00 


5.03 
25.80 


994.97 
974.20 


135 


inch 




Average 




100 


100 


3 




15.42 


984 59 




Average of all cooked 3 
hours 












3 




10.51 


974 17 




Beef, round, ?-inch cul)es. 
do 












113 


Cold. 
Cold. 


65 
85 


5 
6 


1,000.00 
1,000.00 


13.74 
17.95 


986 26 


112 




982.05 




Veal, leg, 1-inch cubes 


116 


Cold. 
Cold. 


85 
85 


5 
5 


1,000.00 
1,000.00 


7.98 
10.68 


992 02 


US 


do 


989. 32 




Average Nos. 1654 
1658 


and 




Cold. 


85 


5 




9.33 


990 67 




Average Nos. 1645, 
and 16.58 


1654, 








Cold. 


85 


5 




12.20 


987 80 




Beef, round, t^inch cubes. 
Beef, round, 1-inch cubes. 

Average 








HI 


100 
100 


85 
85 


5 
5 


1,000.00 
1,000.00 


11.94 
14.03 




131 




985.97 




100 


85 


5 




12.99 


987 02 




Beef, neck, J-inch cubes 






121 


100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 


5 
5 
5 


700.00 
1,000.00 
1,000.00 


8.58 
6.5.04 
24.66 


691.42 
934.96 
975.34 


123 


Beef, rump, 1-inch cubes. 
do 




125 






Average Nos. 1673 
1703 


and 




100 


85 


5 




44.85 


955 15 













211 



Table VSli.— Com position of diar, Jiltercd broth, {nesiilt.s of experimenis made in 
190S-l90Jt )— Continued. 



Cook- 






Method of cooking. 


^yeight 


Weight 
of sus- 




ing, 
ox- 


Lal)- 
ora- 
torv 
No". 


Kinil of meat. 


Temperature. 


Dura- 
tion of 
cook- 
ing. 


Weight 
of clear 


pon- 

MllMlt 

No. 


At lie- 
gin- 
ning. 


During 
cook- 
ing. 


taken. 1 matter. 
' in broth. 


broth. 


122 
115 


1669 
16.53 
1664 

16.39 
1643 
1721 

17(H 
1&V2 


Hcef, flank, J-inch cubes 


°C. 
100 
100 
100 


°C. 
85 
85 

85 


Hours. 
5 
5 
5 


Orams. 
1,000.00 
1,000.00 
1,000.00 


Grams. 

65.71 

2.93 

4.67 


Grams. 
934.29 
997.07 


117 


.do 


995.33 




Average Nos. 1653 and 
1664 








100 


85 


5 




3.80 


996.20 




Average Nos. 1644, 1653, 
1664, Kil)."), 1669, 1673, 
1703 and H'^O 


100 


85 


5 


• 


24.70 


937. 81 




Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 

Beef, round, j-inch cubes 

Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 






107 
110 

132 


100 
100 
100 


100 
100 
100 


5 
5 
5 


1,000.00 
1,000.00 
1,000.00 


9.15 
10.60 
12.40 


990.85 
989.40 
987.60 




100 


100 


5 




10.72 


989.28 




Beef, rump, 1-inch cubes 






126 
114 


100 
100 


100 
100 


5 
5 


1,000.00 
1,000.00 


32.25 
2.07 


967. 75 
997.93 




Average Nos. 1639, 1643, 
1652,1704, and 1721 

Average of all cooked 5 






100 


inn 


5 




13.29 


986. 71 




i 










5 




18.49 


963.86 




Average of all cooked 3 


. 




' 




1 






15.03 


968.33 






1 1 








1 


1,098.31 
700.00 


ft). 71 
2.07 


1,093.87 








691.42 




c 


i 





1 


Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Percentage 


composition of clear, filtered broth. 


Cook- 
ing ex- 


Water. 


Total 
solid 
mat- 
ter. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic extractives. 




men t 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 


Ash. 


109 
137 


1642 
1754 

1756 

1746 

1772 
1783 

1641 
1744 

1773 
1784 


Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 

Beef, round, 2-ineh cubes 

Average 


Per ct. 
96.63 
97.28 


Per ct. 
3.37 
2.72 


Per ct. 

0.18 
.18 


Per ct. 

1.04 

.87 


Per ct. 
1.37 
1.07 


Per ct. 

2.41 
1.94 


Per ct. 

0.79 

.60 




96.96 


3.05 


.18 


.96 


1.22 


2.18 


.70 




Beef, round, browned, 2-inch 




139 


97.27 


2.73 


.17 


.88 


1.07 


1.95 


.61 




Average Nos. 1642, 1754, 






97.06 


2.94 


.18 


.93 


1.17 


2.10 


.67 




Beef, round, browned, 2-inch 




136 


97.20 
97.72 


2.80 

2.28 


.22 

.17 


.85 
.75 


1.11 
.84 


1.96 
1..59 


.61 


145 
154 


Beef, round, 2-inch cubes 

do 


.52 


Average Nos. 1772 and 
1783 






t 


■| 1 




97.46 


2.54 


• .20 


.80 


.98 


1.78 


.57 




Beef, round, 1-ineh cubes 

Beef, round, 2-inch cubes 

Average 




108 
134 


96.57 
97.05 


3.43 
2.95 


.22 

.28 


1.07 

.87 


1.37 
1.19 


2.44 
2.06 


.76 
.61 




96.81 


3.19 


.25 


.97 


1.28 


2.25 


.69 


144 




97.98 
97.70 


2.02 
2.30 


.15 
.16 


.67 
.74 


.74 
.88 


1.41 
1.62 


.46 


153 


do 


.52 




Average 







97.84 


2.16 


.16 


.71 


.81 


1.52 


.49 




Average Nos. 1641, 1744, 
1773, and 1784 

1 


97.33 


2.68 


.20 


.84 


1.05 


1.89 


.59 



212 

Tabi-e 133. — f'(»ii}>()sifion of clear, filtered broth. {Results of experiments made m 
1903-190i)—Cont\imed. 



Cook- 
ing cx- 

JXTi- 

inent 
No. 


Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Percentage composition of clear, filtered broth. 


Water. 


Total 
solid 
mat- 
ter. 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic extractives. 




Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 


Ash. 


138 
140 


1755 
1757 

1743 
1745 

1646 
1645 

1654 
1658 

1644 
1720 

1665 
1673 
1703 

1669 
1653 
1664 

1639 
1643 
1721 

1704 
1652 


Beef, round, 2-ineh cubes 

Ucef, round, browned, 2-mch 
cubes 


Percl. 
97.10 

97.12 

97.11 


Per ct. 
2.90 

2.88 


Per ct. 
0.26 

.25 


Per ct. 
0.91 

.89 


Per ct. 
1.08 

1.09 


Per ct. 
1.99 

1.98 


Per ct. 
0.64 

.64 




Average 






2.89 


.26 


.90 


1.09 


1.99 


.64 




Beef, round, 2-inch cubes 

Beef, round, browned, 2-incli 
cubes 




133 
135 


97.02 
97.14 


2.98 
2.86 


.35 
.34 


.89 
.84 


1.12 
1.09 


2.01 
1.93 


.62 
..58 




Average.. . . 






97.08 


2.92 


.35 


.86 


1.11 


1.97 


.60 




Average of all cooked 3 
hours 






97.21 


2.79 


.23 


.87 


1.08 


1.95 


.61 




Beef, round, Hi'eh cubes 

do 




113 
112 


96.88 
96.82 


3.12 
3.18 


.24 
.15 


.93 
1.01 


1.21 
1.29 


2.14 
2.30 


.75 

.74 




Veal, leg, 1-inch cubes 

do 




116 

118 


97.06 
97.13 


2.94 
2.87 


.41 
.46 


.76 
.80 


1.15 
• .97 


1.91 
1.77 


.63 
.64 




Average Nos. 1654 and 
1658. 






97.10 


2.91 


.44 


.78 


1.06 


1.84 


.64 




Average Nos. 1645, 1654, 
and 16.58 






97.00 


3.00 


.34 


.86 


1.14 


2.00 


.67 




Beef, round, J-inch cubes 

Beef, round, 1-ineh cubes 

Average 




111 
131 


96.93 
96.75 


3.07 
3.25 


.22 
.29 


.93 
.96 


1.21 
1.36 


2.14 
2.32 


.71 
.64 




96.84 


3.16 


.26 


.94 


1.29 


2.23 


.68 




Beef, neck, J-inch cubes 

Beef, rump, 1-iiich cubes . 

do 




121 


97.07 
97.56 
97.11 


2.93 
2.44 
2.89 


' 1 






.68 


123 
125 


.34 
.35 


.65 
.88 


.92 
1.05 


1.57 
1.93 


.53 
.61 




Average Nos. 1673 and 
1703 






97.34 


2.67 


.35 


.76 


.99 


1.76 


.57 




Beef, flank, j-inch cubes 

Veal, leg, 1-inch cubes 

do 




122 
115 
117 


97.49 
97.12 
97.18 


2.51 

2.88 
2.82 


.65 
.27 
.,50 


.60 

.85 
.78 


.79 

1.13 

.92 


1.39 
1.98 
1.70 


.47 
.63 
.62 




Average Nos. 1653 and 
1664 . 






97.15 


2.85 


.39 


.81 


1.03 


1.84 


.63 




Average Nos. 1644, 
16.53, 1664, 1665, 1669, 
1673,1703, and 1720... 

Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 

Beef, round, J-inch cubes 

Beef, round, 1-inch cubes 






97.15 


2.85 


.38 


.81 


1.05- 


1.86 


.61 


107 
110 
132 


96.83 
96.96 
96.61 


3.17 
3.04 
3.39 


.34 

.41 
.61 


.89 
.89 
.89 


1.26 
1.10 
1.29 


2.15 
1.99 
2.18 


.67 
.64 
.60 




96.80 


3.20 


.45 


.89 


1.22 


2.11 


.64 




Beef, rump, 1-inch cubes 

Veal, leg, 1-ineh cubes 

Average .\os. 1639,1643, 
1652, 1704, and 1721... 

Average of all cooked 
5 hours 




126 
114 


96.81 
97.32 


3.19 
2.68 


.90 
.55 


.77 
.67 


.97 
.96 


1.74 
1.63 


.54 
.51 




96.91 


3.09 


.56 


.82 


1.12 


1.94 


.59 




97.04 


2.96 


.42 


.83 


1.10 


1.93 


.62 




Average of all cooked 3 
and 5 hours 

Maximum 






97.11 


2.89 


.33 


.85 


1.09 


1.94 


.62 




97.98 
96.57 


3.43 
2.02 


.96 
.15 


1.07 
.60 


1.37 
.74 


2.44 
1.39 


.79 




Minimum 


.46 









213 



T\ni.F. V^:^.— Composition of clear, fltered broth. {Reaults of experhneiils made in 
iW^J-iy04 )— Continued. 



Cook- 
ing ex- 
peri- 
ment 
No. 


Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
No. 

1642 
1754 

1756 

1746 
1772 
1783 

1641 
1744 

1773 
1784 

17.55 
1757 

1743 
1745 

1646 
1645 

1654 
1658 

1644 
1720 

1665 
1673 
1703 

1669 
16.53 
1664 


Kind of meat. 


Percentage composition of the clear, fdlered 
broth. (Water-free substance.) 


1 

Pro- 
teid. 1 

1 


Organic extractives. 




Nitrog- 
enous. 1 

i 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 


Ash. 


109 
137 




Per cent. 
.5.34 ! 
6.62 


Per cent. 
30.86 ' 
31.<.t9 


Per cent. 
40.65 
39.34 


Per cent. 
71.51 
71.32 


Per cent. 
23.44 




22.06 


Average 






5.98 j 


31.43 1 


40.00 


71.42 


22. 75 


139 


Beef, round, browned, 2-incli cubes. 

Average Nos. 1642, 17.54, 1756.. 

Beef, round, browned, 2-incli cubes. 


6.23 


32.23 1 


39.19 


71.43 


22.35 




6.06 


31.69 1 


39.73 


71.42 


22.62 


136 
145 
154 


7.86 
7.45 


30.36 ! 
32.89 1 


39.64 
36.84 


70.00 
69.74 


21.79 
22.81 


do 






Average Nos. 1772 and 1783 — 


7.66 


31.63 1 


38.24 


69.87 


22.30 


108 
134 


6.41 
9.49 


31.20 1 
29.49 1 


39.94 
40.34 


71.14 
69.83 


22.16 


Beef, round, 2-Lneh cubes ' 


20.68 




7.95 


30.35 1 


40.14 


70.49 


21.42 








144 
153 


7.43 
6.C6 


33.17 
32.17 


36.63 
38.26 


69.80 
70.43 


22.77 


do 


22.61 




Average 






7.20 


32.67 


37.45 


70.12 


22.69 




Average Nos. 1641, 1744, 1773, 
and 1784 


7.57 


31.51 


38.79 


70.30 


22.06 


13S 
140 




8.97 
8.68 


31.38 
30.90 


37.24 
37.85 


68.62 
68.75 


22.07 


Beef,' round, browned, 2-incli cubes. 
Average 


22.22 




8.82 


31.14 


37. .55 


68.69 


22.15 


133 

135 




11.74 
11.89 


29.87 
29.37 


37.58 
38.11 


67. 45 
67.48 


20.80 


Beef! round, browned. 2-inch cubes . 
Average 


20.28 




11.82 


29.62 


37.85 


67.47 


20.54 




Average of all cooked 3 hours. 


8.08 


31.22 


38.59 


69.81 


22.00 


113 
112 


7.69 
4.72 

13.95 
16.03 


29.81 
31.76 


38.78 
40.57 


68.59 
72.33 


24.04 


do 


23.27 


116 




25. a5 

27.87 


39.12 
33.80 


64.97 
61.67 


21.43 


118 




22.30 




Average Nos. 16.")4 and 16.58... 

Average Nos. 1645, 1654, and 
16.58 






14.99 


26.86 


36.46 


63.32 


21.87 




11.57 


28.49 


37.83 


66.32 


22.33 








III 


7.17 
8.92 


30.29 
29.. 54 


39.41 
41.85 


69.71 
71.38 


23.13 


131 


Beef round, 1-inch cubes 


19.69 




Average 







8.05 


29.92 


40.63 


70.55 


21.41 


121 
123 












23.21 




13.93 
12.11 


26.64 
30.45 


37.70 
36.33 


64.34 
66.78 


21.72 


125 


do 


21.11 




Average Nos. 1673 and 1703. . . 


13.02 


28.55 


37.02 


65.56 


21.42 


122 


25.90 
9.38 
17.73 


23.91 
29.51 
27.66 


31.47 
39.24 
32.63 


55.37 
68.75 
60.29 


18.73 


115 




21.88 


117 


do 


21.99 




Average Nos. 16.53 and 1664.. 

Average Nos. 1644, 16.53, 1664, 
1665, 1669, 1673, 1703, and 1720 


13.56 


28.59 


35.94 


64.52 


21.94 




13. .59 


28.29 


36.95 


65.23 


21.44 



214 



Table 133. — Compofiition of dear, filtered hroih. {Results of exferiments made in 
i905-i 904)— Continued. 



Cook- 


Lab- 
ora- 
tory 
No. 


Kind of meat. 


Percentage composition of the clear, filtered 
broth. (Water-free substance.) 


ing ex- 
peri- 


Pro- 
teid. 


Organic extractives. 




ment 
No. 


Nitrog- 
enous. 


Non- 
nitrog- 
enous. 


Total. 


Ash. 


107 


1639 
1643 
1721 

1704 
1652 




1 

Per cent. Per cent. 

10. 73 28. 07 

13. 49 29. 28 

17.99 26.25 


Per cent. 
39.75 
36.18 
38.05 


Per cent. 
67.82 
65.46 
64. 30 


Per cent. 
21.14 


110 




21.05 


132 




17.70 










14.07 


27.87 


37.99 


65.86 


19.96 








1''6 


28.21 
20-. 52 


24.14 
25.00 


30.41 
35.82 


54.55 
60.82 


16.93 


114 




19.03 










Average Nos. 1639, 1043, 1652, 
1704, and 1721 


18.19 


26.55 


36.04 


62.59 


19.17 




Average of all cooked 5 hours. 
Average of all cooked 3 and 5 








14.28 


27.88 


36.95 


64.82 


21.08 




11.50 


29.38 


37.68 


67.06 


21.48 










28.21 
4.72 


33.17 
23.91 


41.85 
30.41 


72.33 
54.55 


24.04 






16.93 









By referring to Table 132, page 207, it will be seen that on an aver- 
age the 73 samples of clear, filtered meat broths, when calculated on 
the basis of 100 grams of meat per 100 grams of broth, or 1 pound of 
meat per 1.04 pints of complete broth, had the following percentage 
composition: Water 9S.03, total solid matter 1.97, proteid 0.17, 
nitrogenous extractives 0.59, nonnitrogenous extractives 0.74, total 
organic extractives 1.34, fat 0.0, and ash 0.46 per cent. 

Comparing the data here given for the clear, filtered broths with 
the results obtained for the complete broths, it is evident that the for- 
mer contain much less total solid matter than the latter. The total 
dry substance in the clear, filtered broths varied from 0.73 to 2.95 per 
cent, the average being 1.97 per cent, while the total solid material in 
the complete broths ranged from 1.12 per cent to 10.27 per cent, aver- 
aging 3.36 per cent. In other words, the inorganic and organic mate- 
rial dissolved in the clear, filtered l)roths is equal upon the average to 
59 per cent of the total solid matter of the complete broths. 

The smallest quantity^ of solid matter, 0.73 per cent, was found in 
sample No. 1094, from cooking experiment No. 27, in which a large 
piece of very fat beef, known as "plate boil, " was cooked at 100° C. for 
ten minutes and then at 8.0 to 85° C. for two hours. It was composed 
of 0.05 per cent proteid, 0.18 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 0.34 
per cent nonnitrogenous extractives, 0.52 per cent total organic 
extractives, and 0.16 per cent ash, or, on a water-free basis, 6.85 
per cent proteid, 24.66 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 46.57 per cent 
nonnitrogenous extractives, 71.23 per cent total organic extractives, 
and 21.92 per cent ash. 



215 

The largest quantity of solid mat tor, 2.9') per cent, in the clear 
broths was notod in sani{)le No. 775»b, from cooking experiment No. 
21 , in wliich a small piece of lean beef round was cooked at 100° C. for 
ten minutes and then at 80 to 85° C. for two hours. It consisted of 
OA'S per cent proteid,0.80 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 1.04 per 
cent nonnitrogenous extractives, 1.84 per cent total organic extract- 
ives, and 0.G8 per cent ash, or, on a water-free basis, 14.58 per cent 
proteid, 27.12 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 35.25 per cent non- 
nitrogenous extractives, 62.37 per cent total organic extractives, and 
23.05 per cent ash. 

In discussing (see p. 200) the composition of the complete broths it 
was stated that the richness of the brotlis, as measured by the total 
solids which they contain, seems to depend largely upon the sizes of 
the pieces of meat used, and in order to show that this conclusion was 
justified the average results of the analyses of several series of com- 
plete broths were consid(>red. It will be of interest to study the 
results obtained in the analysis of the clear, fdtered broths from the 
same series of experiments to see whether or not they lead to the same 
conclusion. 

The average amount of solid matter in four clear liltered broths 
(Nos. 1370, 1371, 13S2, and 1383) prepared from lean beef round, cut 
into one-half inch cubes, cooked for ten minutes at 100° C, and then 
for two hours at 80 to 85° C, was equal to 2.70 per cent of the weight 
of the meat taken, and was made up of 0.11 per cent of proteid, 0.88 
per cent of nitrogenous extractives, l.OG per cent of nonnitrogenous 
extractives, 1.94 per cent of total organic extractives, and 0.65 per 
cent of ash, or, on a water-free basis, 3.97 per cent proteid, 32.67 per 
cent nitrogenous extractives, 39.42 per cent nonnitrogenous extract- 
ives, 72.09 per cent total organic extractives, and 23.94 per cent ash. 

The average quantity of total solid material in elcA^en clear broths 
which were made b}- cooking small pieces of lean beef round (about 
1.5 pounds) for ten minutes at 100° C. and then for two hours at SO to 
85° C. was equal to 2.65 per cent of the weight of the original com- 
plete broth. The solid constituents of these eleven clear broths con- 
sisted of 0.24 per cent proteid, 0.77 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 
1.00 per cent nonnitrogenous extractives, 1.77 per cent total organic 
extractives, and 0.64 per cent ash, or, on a water-free basis, 8.93 per 
cent proteid, 28.94 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 37.65 per cent 
nonnitrogenous extractives, 66.58 per cent total organic extractives, 
and 24.49 per cent ash. 

The average amount of total solid material in eight clear broths, 
Nos. 895, 1027, 1097, 1205, 1211, 1242, 1379, and 1387, prepared by 
cooking a large piece of lean beef round (about 4.5 po.unds) for ten min- 
utes at 100° C. and then for two hours at 80 to 85° C. was equal to 1.90 
per cent of the weight of the entire broths, and was made up of 0. 12 per 



216 

cent of protoid, 0.08 per cent of nitrogenous extractives, 0.71 percent of 
nonnitrogenous extractives, 1.34 per cent of total organic extractives, 
and 0.45 per cent ash, or, on a water-free basis, 6.50 per cent pro- 
teid, 32.94 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 36.84 per cent nonnitrog- 
enous extractives, 69.78 per cent total organic extractives, and 23.73 
per cent asli. 

It is evident from these data and those on page 200 tliat the size of 
the piece of meat cooked in hot water influences the composition of 
the complete broth more than it does the clear l)roth. In other words, 
there are decidedlj'^ greater differences in the amounts of total soUds 
in the complete brotlis than in the case of the clear broths, the dif- 
ference being due mainly to variations in proteid and fat. That is 
to say, when meats cut into small cubes are cooked in hot water, 
more fat and coagulated proteid pass into the broth in insohible form 
than is the case when the meats are cooked in single or large pieces. 
There is also a slightly greater quantity of organic extractives and 
ash in the broths in the former case than in the latter. 

Table 132, pages 207-209, gives the chemical composition of the 
total solid matter contained in these clear meat broths. On a w^ater- 
free basis the average values for 73 samples were: Proteid, 8.96 per 
cent; nitrogenous extractives, 29.42 per cent; nonnitrogenous extract- 
ives, 38.44 per cent; total organic extractives, 67.86 per cent, and 
ash, 23.18 per cent. The corresponding data for the same complete 
broths were as follows: Proteid, 11.54 per cent; nitrogenous extract- 
ives, 19.51 per cent; nonnitrogenous extractives, 24.91 per cent; total 
organic extractives, 44.42 per cent; fat, 28.68 percent, and ash 15.38 
per cent. The solid residues obtained from the clear broths differ 
from those obtained from the complete broths, in that they contain no 
fat, and it follows that the proportions of the other constituents, espe- 
cially organic extractives and ash, are higher. 

Although complete meat broths do not actually contain much real 
nutritive material, namely, proteid and fat, they do contain consid- 
erably more of these nutrients than the clear broths. In other words, 
the process of clarifying (filtering or straining) broths removes a con- 
siderable proportion of the true nutritive material present and does not 
alter the amount of the less valuable constituents. 

As reo-ards flavor, it is evident that since the amount of total extract- 
ives is not materialh^ reduced, there will be little difference in flavor 
between complete and clear, filtered broths provided the fat content 
in both cases is the same. 

In the experiments here considered, however, the complete broths 
contained considerable fat, which was removed in the process of fil- 
tration. Since it is well known that meat fat possesses a fairly dis- 
tinctive flavor, its removal would tend to modify the flavor of the 
broth to a greater or less degree. The same conditions would also 



217 

obtain in the household. If the complete broth contained but little 
fat. its flavor would be largel}^ due to the extractives, and, conse- 
quently, little modified by straining. So, too, if the broths were 
liltered so that the fat was melted, and so passed through the strainer, 
but little change of flavor woidd be expected. On the other hand, if 
the original fat content was relatively large, and the fat practically all 
removed by the filtration, the flavor would doubtless be modified 
accordingly. -When the data in Table 1 :Vo regarding the clear, filtered 
broth from small pieces of meat cooked for fairly long periods are con- 
sidered, it will be seen that, taken either individually or as a whole, 
the results are noticeably liigher — that is, the broths are richer than 
those obtained from meats cooked in large pieces for short periods. 

The average percentage composition of 14 clear broths prepared by 
cooking meats for three hours was: Water 97.21, total sohd matter 
2.70, proteid 0.23, nitrogenous extractives 0.87, nonnitrogenous 
extractives 1.08, total organic extractives 1.95, and ash 0.61 per 
cent. The average percentage composition of 17 clear broths from 
meats cooked for five hours was: Water 97.04, total solid matter 
2.96, proteid 0.42, nitrogenous extractives 0.83, nonnitrogenous 
extractives, 1.10; total organic extractives, 1.93, and ash 0.62. The 
more extended boiling perceptil)ly increased the proteid content of 
the broths, though the differences are less marked than in the case of 
the complete broths. 

The differences pointed out may also be noted when the data are 
considered on a water-free basis. (See Table 133.) 

Nitrogenous Constituents of Broths. 

Since the available information regarding the nature of the proteid 
and nonproteid substances occurrmg in meats is not very consid- 
erable, it necessarily follows that the character of these constituents in 
broth is also not very well understood. In view of this fact it seemed 
desnable to undertake at least a preliminary study of these sub- 
stances as they occur in broths in connection with the similar studies 
of raw and cooked meats. " 

The details of the methods used have already been described, pages 
13-15. The results obtained are given in a condensed form in 
Tables 134 to 136, mclusive. 

oSee this bulletin, pp. 141-169. See also Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, 26 (1904), p. 1086, 
and U. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau of Chemistry Bui. 81, p. 110. See also summary on p, 229. 



218 

Table 134. — Nitrogen records of the clear, jiltcred hroth {expressed iv percenlage of meat 

taken for cooking). 



1640 
1753 



1753 



1746 1741 
1769 1764 
1780 1775 



1640 
1741 
1764 
1775 



1753 
1753 



1741 
1741 



1647 
1647 



1658 1662 



1644 1647 
1720] 1722 



Kiud of meat. 



Beef, round . 
....do 



138 
140 



Average 

Beef, round (browned) 

Average Nos.1642, 
1754, and 1756 

Beef , round (browned). 

Beef, round 

do 



Average Nos. 1769 
and 1780 



Average Nos. 174 
1769, and 1780 



Beef, round. 

....do 

....do 

....do 



Average. 



Beef, romid 

Beef, round (bro\\Tied). 

Average 



Beef, round 

Beef, round (lirownied). 



Average. 



Average of all 
cooked 3 hours 



Tempera- 
ture. 



('old 
Cold. 



Cold. 



°C 

85 
85 



Hrs. 
3 
3 



85 



Cold. 



Cold. 



85 



85 



85 



100 85 

lOOl 85 

100' 85 

100 85 



100 



Cold. 
Cold. 



Cold. 



85 



100 



100 100 
100 100 



100 100 



Beef, round . 
....do 



Veal, leg. 
....do.... 



Average Nos. 16.')4 
and 16r)8 

Average Nos. 1645, 
16;)4, and 16.58.. 



1668 


121 


1676 


123 


1705 


125 



Beef, round 

do 

Average.. 

Beef, neck 

Beef, niinp 

do 



Cold. 
Cold. 



Cold. 
Cold. 



Cold, 



Cold. 



&5 



8.5 



Per ct. 
5.770 
5.884 



5. 696 
5.810 
6.040 



5.849 



5.910 
5.862 
5.309 
6.013 



5.774 



Pl-^ 



Per ct. 

0.3550 

.3038 



.3064 



.3017 
.2671 
.2547 



.2609 



.2745 



.3758 
.3224 
.2388 
.2613 



.2996 



5.857 
5.855 



5.856 



5.834 
5.556 



5.785 



5.240 
5.420 



5 5.070 
5 4. 



Average Nos. 1673 
and 1703 



100 
100 



6.097 



5. .590 
5.309 



5.450 



5.039 
3.24.5 
4.433 



3.839 



.3267 
.3253 



.3260 



.3403 
.3156 





•n 1 


•a 






a • 








03 

u. 


+r Co 


.c o 


03 4J 
O cci 


^d 


&s 


.a 


p<(» 


03 C 


o 

i3 


itrogen 
by Zn 
mose). 


O w 

o o 

6 = 


;? 


\z, 


w« 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Perct. 


o.ooos 


0.0271 


0.0279 





.0277 


.0277 



^ o 



Per ct. 



.00041 .0274 .0278,. 



.0273 .0273 



.0030 



.0022 




.0006 
.0027 
.0055 



.0022 



.3280 



.3068 



.3312 
.3410 



.0012 
.0006 



.0116 
.0011 



.30721 
.3260! 



.0018 
.0017 



.3166 .0018 



.3247 .0015 



.0204 



.0247 



.0349 
.043' 
.0206 
.0204 



.0341 

.0265. 

.0201 



.0233 



.0269 



.0349 
.0443 
.0233 
.02.59' 



.0299 .0321 



.0415 
.0393 



.0415 
.0393 



.0404 .0404 



.0548 .0560 
.0523 .0.529. 



.0.536 .0545. 



.0331' .0344 



.02251 .0341 0.0030 
.0198, .0209 .0025 



.0498 
.06851 



.0516 .0132 
.0702, .0023 



.0592 



.0460 



.3289 .0015 .0319 
.35001 .0460 



.0609 



.0078 



.0476 .0060 



.0018 
.3395] .0008; .03901 .03971 .0018 



.0334! 
.0460. 



.2238 .0024 .0028 

.24.53; .0008 .0490 .0498 .0017 
.3307 .00401 .05011 .0541 



.0024 .0496 .0520 ;0017 



219 

Table 134. — Nitrogen records of the clear, filtered hrotli (expressed in percentage of meat 
taken for cooking) — Continued. 





d 

1 

p 

OS 

B 

ad 


a 

a 

0, . 
X 

00 






Kind of meat. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


1 




"0 

1 

3 

Q 


a 
a 

St 

bo 

|| 


c 

a 
a 
60 . 

£| 

"3 



73 

eS 
c « 

c >, 



u 

z 


1i 

OS'S 

a 


rs 

•s| 

3 cS 


•23 ^ 
& « 
II i 


o 
o 

£ 

o 


tab 

M 
♦J 

< 


60 

1 



u 

1 

3 


1669 


1672 
1(5.56 
1()62 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


122 
115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 


Beef, flank 


°c. 
100 
100 
100 


"C. 
85 
85 
85 


Hrs. 

5 
5 
5 


Perct. 
3.210 
5.360 
4.900 


Perct. 

0.2777 
.31.52 
.3292 


Perct. 

0.0019 
.00-14 
.0017 


Perct. 

0.0942 
.0230 
.0754 


Perct. 

0. 0961 
.0274 
.0771 


Per rt. 
0.0018 


1653 


Veal, leg. . 


01.55 


1664 


do 

Average Nos. 1().')3 
and 1604 

Average Nos. 1644, 
Km.^ 1664, 1665, 
1669, 1673, 1703, 
and 1720 

Beef, round 


.0029 




100 


85 


5 


5.130 


.3222 


.0031 


.0492 


.0523 


.0092 




100 


85 


5 


4.636 


.3001 


.0021 


.a528 


.0548 


.0044 


1639 


100 
100 
100 


100 
100 
100 


5 
5 
5 


5.640 
5.370 
5.324 


.3392 
.3458 
.3785 


.0017 

.0035 




.0530 
.0590 
.0962 


.0547 
.0625 
.0962 




1643 


do 


0030 


1721 


do 






Average 






100 


100 


5 


5.445 


.3545 


.0017 


.0694 


.0711 


0030 




Beef, rump 




1704 


100 
100 


100 
100 


5 
5 


4.583 
5.310 


.3787 
.3013 


.oo;« 

.0017 


.1364 
.0706 


1399 




1652 




.0723 


.0148 




.\verage Nos. 1639, 
1643, 16.52, 1704, 
and 1721 

Average of all 
cooked 5 hours . 

Average of all 
cooked 3 or 5 
hours 






100 


100 


5 


5.246 


.3487 


.0021 


.0830 


.0851 


.0089 








5 


4.932 


.3206 


.0026 


.0591 


.0616 


.0054 


















5. .317 


.3144 


..0020 


1.0470 


O.0489 


6.0054 




















4.9 




.3 


a 


"^ ^- 


■3 .a 


-3 


■0 


•3*i 


73 
























































Z 






a 





P.% 






*c 


.1^ 


03 




a 
s 


Z 


i 


K 




to 

P - 


^5 




A3 

'So 


a 


S.3 

'3 • 


'3 m 


.S-o 


s 




X 6 


Kind of meat. 


J3 


■l-> - 




a O.C 


5..S 
e a 


|ft2 




p 

































?. 


A 


^ii 


^p<a 


60s 

o;2 


^^ 


m5 








03 








§ 




i2>-a 


■S >> 

g^ 


as^ 


^>^ 






kI 


« 







PM 


Z 


Z 


Z 


'A 


Z- 


Z 


Z 










P. ct. 


P.rt. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.rt. 


P.rt. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.rt. 


164'^ 


1640 
1753 

1753 


109 
137 

139 


Beef, round 


0.0279 
.0277 


0. 3271 
.2761 






0.0272 
.0284 


0.1144 
.0370 








1754 


do 




0.0300 


0.0511 




0137 




Average 






.0278 


.3016 




.0300 


.0278 


.0757 


.0511 




0137 




Beef, round (hrowTied). 
Average Nos. 1642, 




1756 


.0273 


.2791 




.0285 


.0278 


.0352 


.0479 


i .0135 
























1741 


136 


1754, and 1756... 
Beef, round (browned). 


.0276 


.2941 




.0293 


.0278 


.0622 


.0495 




.0136 


1746 


.0341 


.2676 




.0282 


.0318 


.0339 


. 0167 




.0117 


1769 


1764 
1775 


145 
154 


Beef, round 


.0265 
.0201 


.2406 
.2346 




.0215 
.0226 


.0281 
.0127 


.0297 
.0201 


.0.357 
.0362 




.0115 


1780 


do 


.0126 




Average Nos. 1769 






























and 1780 

Average Nos. 1746, 


.0233 


.2376 




.0221 


.0204 


.0249 


.0360 





.0121 
























1640 
1741 
1764 


108 
134 

144 


1769, and 1780. . . 

Beef round 

do.. . 


.0269 


.2476 




.0241 


.0242 


.0279 


.0295 




.0119 


1641 


.0349 
.0443 
. 0233 


.3409 
.2781 
. 2155 






.0390 
.0390 
.0200 


.1251 
.05.53 
.0272 




j 


1744 




.0349 
.0189 


.0181 
.0330 





.0129 


1768 


do 


.0094 


1779 


1775 


153 


do 


.0259 


.2354 




.0234 


.0110 


.0202 


.0338 




.0097 




Average 






.0321 


.2675 




.02.57 


.0273 


.0.570 


.0283 




.0107 



a Average of 30 analyses. 



6 Average of 12 analyses. 



220 



Table 134. — Nitrogen records of the char , filtered hroth {expressed in percentage of meat taken 

for cooking) — Continued. 



6 

S 

o 

-i 

k3 


1 
d 
'A 

1 

eS 
o 

s 

P5 


a 

<u 

p< . 
X o 

M 

1 

o 


Kind of meat. 


.g 

d 

^ . 

i:6 1 
c 2 

S 


1 

2 

1 


S..S 

p 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by phosphotungstic 
acid (hot) . 


.11 
S a 


Nitrogen precipitated 
by phosphotimgstic 
acid (cold). 


*j bc 

a? 


1 

1-3 

f 


1 

a 

m 
03 

■1 
o 
u 


1755 
1757 


1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 

1656 
1662 

1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 

1672 
16.56 
1662 

1637 

1 1647 

1722 

1705 
' 16,56 


138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 

116 
118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
12.5 

122 
115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

; 126 
114 


Beef, round 

Beef, round (lirowTied). 

Average 

Beef, round 

Beef, round (l)rowned) . 

Average 


P. ct. \ P. ct. 

0. 0415 0. 2852 

.0393 .2860 


p. a. 


P. a. 

0.0425 
.0364 


P.ct. 

0.0421 

.0315 


P.ct. 

0.0426 

.0403 


p.ct. 

0.0532 
.0482 


p.ct. 


p.ct. 

0.0181 

.0176 




.0404 


.2856 




.0395 


.0368 


.0415 .0507 




.0179 


1743 
1745 


.0.560 
.0529 


.2843 

.2627 




.0276 
.0309 


.0879 
.0540 


.0266 
.0545 


.0238 
.0278 




.0156 
.01.59 




.0545 


.2735 




.0293 


.0710 


.0406 


.02.58 




.0158 




Average of all 
cooked 3 hours. 


.0344 


.2724 





.0288 


.0343 


.0473 


.0355 


0135 


1646 
1645 


.0371 
.0234 


.2941 
.3176 






.0385 
.0360 


.0437 
.0385 






.0024 


do 










.0043 


1654 
1658 




.0648 
.0725 


.2424 
.2535 


0.0312 
.0674 


.0196 
.0246 


.0366 
.0822 


.0353 
.0668 






.0121 








.0142 


Average Nos. 1654 
and 1658 

Average Nos. 1645, 
1654, and 1658... 

Beef, round . 










.0687 


.2480 .0493 


.0221 


.0594 


.0511 






.0132 












.0536 


.2712 .0493 


.0221 


.0516 


.0469 






.0102 










1644 


.0352 
.0460 


. 2937 

. 3040 


".'0483 


.03.55 
.0477 


.06121 1 1 .0061 


1720 


do 


. 0540 


.04340.1149 .0117 

1 1 




.0406 


.2989! 


.0483 


.0416 


.0576 






.0089 












1665 
1673 
1703 






.02481 -01.S6 


.03011 .0395 
.0291 .0.338 
.0519] .0589 






.0185 


Beef, rump 

do 


.0515 
.0541 


.1938 
.2766 


.0706 


.0410 
.0.574 


'.0327 


'.'0926 


.01.35 
.0197 




Average Nos. 1673 
and 1703 

Beef, flank 














.0528 


.2352 .0706 


.0492 


.0405 


.0464 




.0166 




1 




1669 


.0979 
.0429 
.0800 


.1798 .0803 
.2723 .0182 
.2492 .0661 


.0436 
.0127 
.0246 


.1019 
.0203 
.0828 


.0912 
.04.54 
.0716 




.0195 


1653 


Veal , leg 


.0143 


1664 






.0140 


Average Nos. 1653 
and 1664 

Average Nos. 1644, 
1653, 1664, 1665, 
1669, 1673, 1703, 
and 1720 






.0615 


2608 


(\Avy 


.0187 


0516 


O.'iR.^ 


1 


' .0142 












.0582 


.2528 


0.520 


rftffl 


0490 


.0.S70 






.0147 








' 


1639 
1643 
1721 


.0547 
.06.55 
.0962 


.2845 
.2803 
.2823 


1 


.0799 .1765 


; 




do 

do 






.072.5 .0950 
.0924, .0928 






.0073 




.0749 


.0441 


.1624 


.0177 




Average 


.0721 


.2824 




.0749 


.08161 .1214 






.012,5 


1704 
1652 


Beef, rump 

Veal, leg 


.1399 
.0871 


.2388 

;2142i .0513 


.087r 
.0391 


.1372 
.0702 


.1218 
.0765 


.06731 .1812 


.0195 
.0137 




Average Nos. 1639 
1643, 16.52, 1704, 
and 1721 

Average of all 
cooked 5 hours. 

Average of all 
cooked 3 or 5 
hours 


.0887 


.260C 


.0513 


.0672 


.0904 


.1125 






.0146 












.0656 


.2611 


.0512 


.0410 


.0614 


.0708 






.0131 












a. 0510 


a. 2664 


b.0512 


C.0343 


.0492 


.0602 


d.0384e.l37S 


/.0133 








1 


1 





a Average of 30 analyses. 
b Average of 8 analyses. 



c Average of 13 analyses. 
d Average of 16 analyses. 



« Average of 4 analyses. 
/ Average of 29 analyses. 



221 

Tabi.k 135. — NUrof/cn records of the clear, filtered broth (expressed in percentmje of total 

nitrogen in uncooked meat). 





d 

•3 
§ 

3 

s 
s 


i 

t. 

n 
§ 


Kiiul of meat. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


bc 

.s 

o 
o 
t> 

o 

1 

2 

p 
Q 


■li 

as 

n 

a o 

o 

6-1 


B 

a 

o 
OJ3 

O 


0^ 

n 

o 

2 




M 

So 

"o 1 
as 


s 

a 
1 

B 
O 

ex 

o 


am 
S a 

ISl 

11 


6 
'A 

o 
a 
1 


.9 
a 

% 
< 


B 

o 
o 

B 

•c 

3 


1642 
17.'54 


1640 
1753 

1753 

1741 
1764 
1775 

1640 
1741 
1764 
1775 

1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 
1656 
1662 

1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
154 

108 
134 
144 
153 

138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 
116 

118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
125 




°C. 
Cold. 
Cold. 

Cold. 


"C. 
85 
85 


Hrs. 
3 
3 


P.ct. 

100 


P.ct. 

9.92 


p.ct. 

0.02 



p.ct. 

0.76 

.81 


p.ct. 

0.78 
.81 


P 


.ct. 


do 


100 8.8.1 










85 


3 


100 9.39 


.01 


.79 


.80 






IJccf , round (browned) . 

Average Nos. 1642, 
1754, and 1756 . . 

Bocf, round (browned). 

IJeef , round 

do 

Average Nos. 1 769 
and 1780 

Average Nos. 1746, 
1769, and 1780... 


=-■ 




\im 


Cold. 


85 


3 


100 


8.93 





.80 


.80 








Cold. 


85 


3 


100 


9.23 


.01 


.79 


.80 








1746 
1769 
1780 


85 
85 

85 


85 
85 
85 


3 
3 
3 


100 
100 
100 


8.81 
8.22 
7.61 


.02 
.06 
.11 


.97 
.75 
.49 


1.00 
.82 
.60 












85 


85 


3 


100 


7.92 


.09 


.62 


.71 










85 


85 


3 


100 


8.21 


.06 


.74 


.81 








1641 
1744 


100 
100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 
85 


3 
3 
3 
3 


100 
100 
100 
100 


10.50 
9.42 
7.35 
7.80 



.02 
.08 
.16 


.97 
1.28 
.63 
.61 


.97 

1.29 

.72 

.77 




do 






1768 
1779 


do 




do 












100 


85 


3 


100 


8.77 


.07 


.87 


.94 












1755 
1757 


Cold. 
Cold. 


100 
100 


3 
3 


100 ! 9. .52 
100 1 9.47 






1.21 
1.14 


1.21 
1.14 




Beef, round (browned) . 
Average 










Cold. 


100 


3 


100 


9.50 





1.18 


1.18 












1743 
1745 


100 
100 


100 
100 


3 
3 


100 
100 


9.94 
9.22 


.04 
.02 


1.60 
1.53 


1.64 
1.55 




Beef, round (browned) . 








100 


100 


3 


100 : 9.58 


.03 


1.57 


1.60 






Average of all 
cooked 3 hours. 

Beef, roiui'l 


= 














8.97 


.04 


.97 


1.01 






Cold. 
Cold. 
Cold. 
Cold. 










1646 


65 
85 
85 
85 


5 
5 
5 
5 


100 i 9.89 
100 10.18 
100 1 8.85 
100 10.09 


.35 
.03 
.05 
.05 


.67 

.59 

1.44 

2.12 


1.02 

.62 

1.49 

2.17 




0.09 


1645 


. ..do 


.07 


1654 
1658 


Veal, leg 

do 

Average Nos.1654 
and 1658 

Average Nos. 1645, 
1654, and 1658... 

Beef, round 

do 

Average 

Beef, neck 

Beef, rumj^ 

do 

Average Nos.1673 
and 1703 


.38 
.07 




Cold 


85 


5 


100 9.47 


.05 


1.78 


1.83 


.23 




Cold 


85 


5 


100 ! 9.71 


.04 


1.38 


1.43 




.17 


1644 
1720 


100 
100 


85 
85 


5 
5 


100 1 9.82 
100 10.32 


.04 



.95 
1.36 


1.00 
1.36 


.05 






100 


85 


5 


100 


10.07 


.02 


1.16 


1.18 








1665 
1673 
1703 


100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 


5 
5 
5 


100 
100 
100 


7.22 
10.22 
11.67 


.08 
.03 
.14 








09 


2.04 
1.77 


2.08 
1.91 


.07 






. 100 


85 


5 


1 
100 


10 95 


.09 


1.91 


2.00 













222 



Table 1 35. — Nitrogen records of the clear, filtered broth ( expressed in fercentage of total 
'nitrogen in uncooked meat) — Continued. 





d 

3 

B 


q 
1 

O' . 
X o 

•S 

o 
o 

o 


Kind of moat. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


be 

1 

o 

o 

"o 
a 

O 

+3 

03 

u 
3 

« 


3 

as 

— o 
c 


3 

c 
bc . 

% 
+^ 
O 
Eh 


0) 

a. 

a t>. 

r 

2 


"Si 

a =i • 


.S to 
•^ g 

03 i; 

a« 

go 

as 

3 OS 
CO 


£ t, ^ 


o 

12; 

B 

O 


ti 

c 

3 

■a 


a 

o 

o 

bo 

3 

o 


1669 
1653 


1672 
1656 
1662 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


122 
115 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 


Beef, flank 


°c. 

100 
100 
100 


°c. 

.S.5 

S5 

■ 85 


Hrs. 

5 

5 


P.ct. 

100 
100 
100 


P.cl. 
11.20 
9.0.S 
10. 19 


0.08 
.13 
.05 


Perct. 

3.80 

.66 

2.33 


Perct. 

3.88 

.79 

2.39 


Perct. 

0.07 

.45 


1664 


do 


.09 




Average Nos.1653 
and 1664 

Average Nos.1644, 
1653, 1664, 1665, 
1669, 1673, 1703, 
and 1720 

Beef, round 

do 

do 

Average 






100 


85 


5 


100 


9.64 


.09 


1.50 


1.59 


.27 




100 


85 


5 


100 


9.97 


.07 


1.85 


1.92 




1639 
1643 
1721 


100 
100 
100 


100 
100 
100 


5 
5 
5 


100 
100 
100 


10.01 
10.32 
11.16 


.05 

.10 




1.56 
1.76 
2.84 


1.61 
1.87 
2.84 


"'".'69 




100 


100 


5 


100 


10. .50 


.05 


2.05 


2.11 






Beef, rump 




1704 


100 
100 


100 
100 


5 
5 


100 
100 


13.36 
8.68 


.12 
.05 


4.81 
2.03 


4.93 
2.08 




1652 


Veal, leg 


.43 




Average Nos. 1639, 
1643, 1652, 1704, 
and 1721 

Average of all 
cooked 5 hours. 






100 


100 


5 


100 


10.71 


.06 


2.60 


2.67 








1 


100 


10.14 


.08 


1.92 


2.01 


0.16 




Average of all 
cooked 3 or 5 
hours 














100 


9.61 


.06 


1.48 


6 1.54 










1 









a 




.3 


Si 




TS.a 


■d 


%■?. 


-t^ 


■s 


.2 
























p 




Z 






S 





+.> a 


•la' 


^1 


^ a 


+j be 

a-fe 
a N 


5 




a 

a- 

03 
o3 

s 



>> 


1 
3 

o3 


P, 
X 

bo 

.3 



Kind of meat. 


bD 
. 

3 2 


'S.3 

2 £ 
52 


1! 

ft.3 


a o-a 


2-a 
E3 a 

aa 
a a 








o3 


a 




2 
S 


0, 
a 











^2 




bH 



k1 


rt 







PM 


;? 


:? 


iz;-^ 


;z: 


iz;^ 


Z 


\z, 










P.ct. 


P.ct. 


p.ct. 


p.ct. 


p. ct. 


p. ct. 


p. rt. 


P.C«. 


p.ct. 


1642 


1640 
1753 

1753 


109 
137 

139 




0. 78 ! 9. 14 

.81 8.04 

! 






0.76 
.83 


3.20 
1.08 








1754 


do 


1 0.87 


1.49 




0.40 




.80 


8.59 


1 


.80 


2.14 










Beef, round (browned) . 
Average Nos. 1642, 










1756 


.80 1 8.13 


.83 


.81 


1.03 


1.40 




.39 




1 


















1741 


136 


1754, and 17.56. . . 
Beef, round (browned). 


.80 8.44 




.85 


.80 


1.77 


1.45 




.40 


1746 


1.00 7.81 




.82 


.93 


.99 


.49 




.34 


1769 


1764 
1775 


145 
154 


Beef, round 


. 82 7. 40 




.66 
.67 


.86 
.38 


.91 
.60 


1.10 
1.08 




.35 


1780 


do , 

Average Nos. 1769 


.60 


7.01 


.38 




























and 1780 

Average Nos. 1746, 


.71 


7.21 




.67 


.62 


.76 


1.09 




.37 
























1640 
1741 


108 
134 


1769, and 1780... 
Beef, round 


.81 


7.41 




.72 


.72 


.83 


.89 




.36 


1641 


.97 
1.29 


9.52 
8.12 






1.09 
1.14 


3.49 
1.62 




1744 


do 




1.02 


.53 




.38 


176S 


1764 


144 


do 


.72 


6.63 




.58 


.62 


.84 


1.02 




.29 


1779 


1775 


153 


do 

Average 


.77 
.94 


7.03 




.70 


.33 


.60 


1.01 




.29 




7.83 





.77 


.80 


1.64 


.85 




.32 









!> Average of 12 analyses. 



o Average of 30 analyses. 



223 

Table 13.5. — Nitrogen records of the clear, filtered broth (expresited in percentage of total 
nitrogen in uncooked meat) — Continued. 



6 

o 

oj 
u 

O 


d 
"A 

•a 

3 

si 
o 

P 

"i 


a 

o 

C 

■2 

a 

X o 

.3 

O 
O 

o 


Kiiid of moat. 


.9 
a 

•S2 

■a 
'S 
o 

u 


a 

f 

^2 
'K 

2 -a 
ft 

§ 


Si -3 
ft3 
a S 
|2 

2-a 
.« >> 
2;* 


&3 

pi 


P 


o ^ 

C3 be 

'S.B 
Z 


■S 6B 

S N 

bDS 


•2 

t-t 

2 


.2 
§ 

a 
a 

sS 

a 

o 

2 


1755 


17.53 
17.53 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 
16.56 
1662 

1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 

1672 
1656 
1662 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
16.56 


138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 
116 
118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
125 

122 
115 

117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 




P. ct. 
1.21 
1.14 


P.ct. 
8T31 
8.33 


P.cl. 


P.ct. 
1.24 
1.06 


P.cl. 
1.23 
.92 


P.cl. 
1.24 
1.17 


p.ct. 
1.55 
1.40 


p.ct. 


p.ct. 
0.53 


1757 


Beef, round (browned). 
.Vveragc 


.51 




1.18 


8.32 


...... 


1.15 


1.08 


1.21 


1.48 




.52 








1743 


1.64 
1.55 


8.30 
7.67 




• .81 
.90 


2.57 
1.58 


.78 
1.59 


.69 
.82 




.46 


1745 


Beef, round (browned) . 


.47 




1.60 


7.99 




.86 


2.08 


1.19 


.76 




.47 




Average of all 
cooked 3 hours. 






1.01 


7.97 




.85 


1.01 


1.37 


1.08 


.40 




1.11 8.78 

. 70 9. 48 

1.87 6.98 

2. 24 7. 85 






1.15 
1.07 
1.05 
2.54 


1.30 
1.15 
1.02 
2.07 






.07 




do 










.13 






0.90 
2.09 


..56 
.76 






.35 


1658 


do 






.44 


Average Nos.1654 
and 1658 

Average Nos. 1645, 
16.54, and 16.58... 














2.06 


7.42 


1.50 


.66 


1.80 


1.55 






.40 












1.60 


8.10 






1.55 


1.41 






.31 
















X.Oa 8.77 


1 


1.06 
1.41 


1.83 
1.59 






.18 


1720 


do 


1.36 


8.96 


i.42 


1.28 


3.39 


.34 




1.21 


8.87 






1.24 


1.71 






.26 
















1665 






.80 
2.94 


.60 
1.71 
2.02 


.97 
1.21 
1.83 


1.28 
1.41 
2.08 






Ro 


1673 
1703 


Beef, rump 

do 

Average Nos. 1673 
and 1703 

Beef, flank 


2.15 
1.91 


8.07 
9.76 






.56 


1.15 


3.27 


.69 




2.03 


8.92 




1.87 


1.52 


1.75 






.63 










1669 


3 95 : 7 o.T 


3.24 

.52 

2.05 


1.76 
.37 
.76 


4.11 

.59 

2.56 


3.68 
1.31 
2.22 






.79 


1.24 
2.48 


7.85 
7.71 






.40 


1664 


do 






.43 




Average Nos.1653 
and 1664 

Average Nos. 1644, 
1653, 1664, 1665, 
1669, 1673, 1703, 
and 1720 










1.86 


7.78 


1.29 


.57 


1.58 


1.77 






.42 












2.02 


8.34 


1.91 


1.24 


1.72 


1.93 






.50 




1 






1.61 
1.96 
2.84 


8.39 
8.37 
8.32 






2.36 
2.16 
2.72 


5.21 

2.84 
2.74 








1643 


do 

.do 






.22 


17"'l 




2.21 


1.30 


4.79 


.52 










2.14 


8.36 






2.41 


3.60 






.37 
















1704 


4.93 i 8.43 


'i.'48' 


3.09 
1.13 


4.84 
2.02 


4.30 
2.20 


2.38 


6.39 


.69 


1652 




2.51 


6.17 


.39 




Average Nos. 1639, 
1643, 1652, 1704, 
and 1721 

Average of all 
cooked 5 hours . 

Average of all 
cooked 3 or 5 
hours . 










2.77 


7.94 




2.14 


2.82 


3.46 






.46 













2.12 


8.20 


al.75 


1.37 


1.98 


2.27 






.43 












61.60 68.09 




cl.ll 


1.54 


1.87 


■ii.ig 




e.42 













a Average 
b Average 



of 8 analyses, 
of 30 analyses. 



c Average of 24 analyses. 
d Average of 18 analyses. 



« Average of 28 analyses. 



224 

Table 136. — Nitrogen records of the dear, filtered hrotli (expressed in percentage of total 

mtrogen in broth). 





6 
\^ 

D 

s 


a 

K 

X 6 

W) 

.3 

o 
o 

o 


Kind of meat. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


ti) 
.3 
a 
o 
o 
o 

"o 

CI 

o 
'•i2 

cS 
u 

a 
« 


O R 
u " 

„ o 

o 
Eh 


a 
a 

•a 

M . 
o^ 
u -^ 

"3 
o 


13 

Oi 

+-» 

oj 

n 

g 


1i 

Is 

Bl 


S e o 
m 


B 
& 

o 

2 

A 

1 
c 


E o 

gfc: 


o 

s 

d 
o 

03 


.g 

a 
< 


bb 

.9 

o 
o 
o 

6X) 

a 


1642 


1640 
1/53 

1753 

1741 
1764 

1775 

1640 
1741 
1764 
1775 

1753 
1753 

1741 
1741 

1647 
1647 
1656 
1662 

1647 
1722 

1668 
1676 
1705 


109 
137 

139 

136 
145 
154 

108 
134 
144 
153 

138 
140 

133 
135 

113 
112 
116 
118 

111 
131 

121 
123 
125 


Beef, round 

..do 


"C. 
Cold. 
Cold. 


°C. 

85 
85 


Hrs. 
3 
3 


P.ct. 

5.770 
5.884 


P.ct. 
100 
100 


p. a. 

0.23 



p.ct. 
7.63 
9.12 


P.ct. 
7.86 
9.12 


p 


.ct. 


1754 












Cold. 


85 


3 


5.827 


100 


.12 


8.38 


8.49 






Beef, round (browned). 

Average Nos. 
1642, 1754, and 
1756 




1756 


Cold. 


85 


3 


5.495 


100 





8.91 


8.91 












Cold. 


85 


3 


5.716 


100 


.08 


8.55 


8.63 






Beef, round (browned) . 
Beef, round 




1746 


85 
85 
85 


85 
85 
85 


3 
3 
3 


5.696 
5.810 
6.040 


100 
100 
100 


.27 
.79 
1.49 


11.04 
9.14 
6.40 


11.30 
9.92 
7.89 




1769 




1780 


do 






Average Nos. 
1769 and 1780... 

Average Nos. 
1746, 1769, and 
1780 






85 


85 


3 


5.925 


100 


1.14 


7.77 


8.91 













85 


85 


3 


5.849 


100 


.85 


8.86 


9.70 








Beef, round 

do 




1641 


100 
100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 
85 


3 
3 
3 
3 


5.910 
5.862 
5.309 
6.013 


100 
100 
100 
100 


0' 
.19 
1.13 
2.10 


9.29 
13.55 
8.63 
7.81 


9.29 
13.74 
9.76 
9.91 




1744 




1768 


do 




1779 


..do 








— 






100 


85 


3 


5.774 


100 


.86 


9.82 


10.68 










1755 


Cold. 
Cold. 


100 
100 


3 
3 


5. 857 
5.855 


100 
100 






12.70 
12.08 


12.70 
12.08 




1757 


Beef, round (browned) . 










Cold. 


100 


3 


5.856 


100 





12.39 


12.39 






Beef, round 




1743 


100 
100 


100 
100 


3 
3 


5. 834 
5. 556 


100 
100 


.35 
.19 


16.10 
16.57 


16.45 
16.76 




1745 


Beef, round (browned) . 
Average . 










100 


100 


3 


5.695 


100 


.27 


16.34 


16.61 






Average of all 
cooked 3 hours . 

Beef, round 










3 


5.778 


100 


.48 


10.64 


11.12 












1646 


Cold. 
ColC 
Coia. 
Cold 


65 
85 
85 
85 


5 
5 

5 
5 


5. 240 
5.420 
5.070 
4.800 

4.935 


100 
100 
100 
100 


3.50 
.32 
.59 
.52 


6.79 
5.81 
16.21 
21.01 


10.29 
6.13 
16.80 
21.53 




91 


1645 


do 


73 


1654 




4 30 


1658 


do 


71 




Average Nos. 
1654 and 1658... 

Average Nos. 
1645, 1654, and 
1658 






Cold. 


85 


5 


100 


.56 


18.61 


19.17 


2.51 




Cold. 


85 


5 


5.097 


100 


.48 


14. 34 


14. 82 




1 91 




Beef, round 




1644 


100 
100 


85 
85 


5 
5 


5.590 
5.309 


100 
100 


.46 



9.70 
13.14 


10. 16 
13.14 




54 


1720 


do 












100 


85 


5 


5.450 


100 


.23 


11.42 


11.65 






Beef, neck 




1665 


100 
100 
100 


85 
85 
85 


5 
5 
5 


5.039 
3. 245 
4.433 


100 
100 
100 


1.07 
.33 
1.21 








1 ''5 


1673 


Beef, rump 


19.98 
15.15 


20.30 
16.36 


69 


1703 


do 






Average Nos. 
1673 and 1703 . . . 


— 






100 


85 


5 


3.839 


100 


.77 


17.57 


18. .33 













225 



Table 13G. — Xitrogen records of the clear, filtered broth (expressed in percentage of total 
nitrogen in broth) — C^ontinued. 





d 

Z 

1 

i 

OS 


a 
o 

E 

U 

ft. 

^1 

ex 

c 

!£ 

o 

c 


Kind of meat. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


60 
.S 

o 

o 

o 
c 
o 
"S 

s 

3 
Q 


B 

c . 
cE 

il 

„ o 
o 


a 
a 

a 

u> 

::£ 

s 

1 


a> 

a. 
08-5 

c >. 

2 


■Si 

II 

c n • 


•a 

IS 


•a J. 


o 



g 

c 


.5 
H 

< 


o 
o 
u 
60 

■g 

3 


lis 

C t» =* 

z 


1669 


1672 
1656 
1662 

1637 
1647 
1722 

1705 
1656 


122 
113 
117 

107 
110 
132 

126 
114 


Beef, flank 


"C. 
100 
100 
100 


85 
85 


Hrs. 
5 
5 
5 


P.ct. 
3.210 
5.360 
4.900 


p.ct. 

100 
100 
100 


p.ct. 

0.68 
1.40 
.52 


p.ct. 

33.92 

7.30 

22.90 


P.ct. 

34.60 

8.69 

23.42 


P.c«. 
0.65 


1653 




4.92 


1664 


do 


.88 




Average Nos. 
1653 and 1664... 

Average Nos. 
1644, 16,i3, 1664, 
166.1, 1669, 1673, 
1703, and 1720 . . 

Beef, round 






100 


85 


5 


5.130 


100 


.96 


15.10 


16.06 


2.90 




100 


&5 


5 


4.636 


100 


.71 


17.44 


18.10 


1.49 


1639 


100 
100 
100 


100 
100 
100 


5 
5 
5 


5.640 
5.370 
5.324 


100 
100 
100 


.50 

1.01 




15.63 
17.06 
25.42 


16.13 
18.07 
25.42 




1643 


do 


.87 


1721 


do 






Average 






100 


100 


5 


5.445 


100 


.50 


19.37 


19.87 






Beef, rump 




1704 


100 
100 


100 
100 


5 
5 


4.583 
5.310 


100 
100 


.92 
.56 


36.02 
23.43 


36.94 
23.99 




1652 


Veal, leg 


4.91 




Average Nos. 
16.39, 1643, 1652, 
1704, and 1721. . 

Average of all 
cooked 5 hours. 

Average of all 
cooked 3 or 5 






100 


100 


5 


5.245 


100 


.60 


23.51 


24.11 










5 


4.932 


100 


.80 


18.09 


18.88 


nl.78 


















5*314 


100 


.66 


6.5.81 


615. 26 





















^ ■ 




a 


a 


■0 


V.~ 


•d 


•a .2 


■«+i 


-o 


, 







a 






2 

O.S 
0. 


s >> 


S^ 


S« 




^a 


.s 


s 


6 
Z 

2 


z 


S 

1 


Kind of meat. 


c 

1. 


§■5 


.■S c 
n3 

'5 
9 o-^ 




3i th 




•a 
.■&o' 


I' 


03 




s .s 




2 
'S 


^2 
2^ 




II 


—2 


25 


|- 


. c3 


ea 













.-SxjS 




.•s5^§ 


.■s f»i 


■^ 




J 


« 







Ct, 


z 


Z-" 


Z 


z-° 


z 


z-^ 


z 


z - 










p.ct. 


p.ct 


p.ct. 


P.c*. 


P.c^ 


P.ci. 


p.ct. 


p.ct. 


P.c«. 


164V 


1640 


Kill 


Beef, round 


7.86 
9.12 


92.14 
90.88 






7.66 
9.35 


32.23 
12.18 








17,54 


1753 137 


do 




9.87 


16.82 




4 51 




Average 


1 






1753 


139 


8.49 


91.51 




9.87 


8.51 


22.21 


16.82 




4 51 




Beef, round (browned) . 
Average Nos. 




1756 


8.91 


91.09 




9.30 


9.07 


11.49 


15.63 




4.41 




























1642, 1754, and 






















1741 


136 


1756 


8.63 


91.37 




9.59 


8.69 


18.63 


16.23 




4 46 




Beef, round (browned). 




1746 


11.30 


88.70 




9.35 


10.54 


11.23 


5.54 




3.88 


1/69 


1764 


145 Beef, round 


9.92 


90.08 


8.05 


10.52 


11.12 


13. .37 




4.31 


1V80 


1775 


154 do 


7.89 


92.11 


' 8. 87 


4.98 


7.89 


14.21 




4.95 






Average Nos. J 
























1769 and 1780... 
.\veraee Nos. 


8.91 


91.09 


8. 46 


7.75 


9.51 


13.79 




4.63 


























1746, 1769, and 




















1640 
1741 




1780 


9.70 


90.30 


8.76 


8.68 


10.08 


11.04 




4.38 








1641 


108 Beef, round 

134 do 


9.29 90.711 ' 

13.74 86.261 10.83 


10.38 
12.10 


33.29 
17.15 








1744 


5.61 




4.00 


r/6s 


1764 


144 do 


9. 76, 90 241 7. 92 


8. .38 


1L39 


13.82 




3.94 


1779 


1775 


153 


do 


9.91| 90.09 8.96 


4.21 


7.73 


12.94 




3 71 




Average 






10.68 89 .32 


ft 24 


8.77 


17.39 


10.79 




3.88 


- 















aAverage of 12 analyses. 
11480— No. 162—06 15 



6Average of 30 analyses. 



226 

Table 136. — Nitrogen records of the clear, filtered broth (expressed in percentage of total 
nitrogen in broth) — Continued. 



1753 
1753 



1741 
1741 



1647 
1647 
16.56 
1662 



Kind of meat. 



1647 
1722 



1665 1668 
1673 1676 
1703 1705 



1669 1672 
1653 16.56 
1664 1662 



1639 1637 
1643 1647 
1721 1722 



1704 1705 
1652 1656 



138i Beef, round 

140' Beef, round (browTied) 

j Average 

133 Beef, round 

135 Beef, round (browned) 



Average 

Average of all 
cooked 3 hours 



113 Beef, round. 

112 do , 

116 Veal, leg 

118. do 



Average Nos. 
1654 and 1658.. 

Average Nos. 
1645, 1654, and 
1658 



P.ct. 

12.70 
12.08 



•-3 .2 



■S.Q 
C.S 






P.ct. P.ct. p.ct 

87.30 13.01 

87.92 11.19 



12.391 87.61 



16.45 83.55. 
16.76 83.24. 



16. 61 83. 39 . 



11.12 88 



11.20 88.80... 
6.86; 93.14... 
21.10 78.90 10.16 
22.24 77.76 20.68 



21.67 78.33 15.42 



111 Beef, round. 
13l| do 



Average . 



121 Beef, neck.. 
123 Beef, rump. 
125 do 



Average Nos. 
1673 and 1703.. 



16.73 83.27 



10.70 89.30. 
13.14 86.861. 



11.92 88.08. 



i ! 11.08 

20.99 79.01 28.7 
16. .36, 83.641 



8.95 



*1 

as 



^ W) 

I ftoS 



p. ct. 1 p. ct. p. ct. P. ct. 

12.891 13.04 16.28 

9.68 12.391 14.82 



a, +J 






11.29 12.72: 15.55,. 



25.83 
17.11 



7.81 
17.27 



6.99i. 

8.811. 



1= E 



P.ct. 

5. 54 
5.41 

5.48 



4.58 
5.04 



12.54 7.90 4.81 



9.61 10.91 14.73 12.0' 



6.38 

7. 55 



6.97 



13.80 



8.31 
16.71 
17.36 



11.62! 13. 19j. 

10.56 11.29 

11.91 11.49' 

25.21 20.49 



18.56 



15.89 



10.79 
13.63 



12.21 



14.42!. 



18.611.... 
15. 43 12. 40 



17.02. 



13.45 17.65.... 
11.86 13.78.... 
15.69 17.81 9.89 



18.68 81.33 17.04 13.78 15.30 



122 Beef, flank. 
113| Veal, leg... 
117 do 



10' 
110 
132 



35.25 64.75 28.92 
13.61! 86.39| 5.77 
24.30i 75.70! 20.08 



Average Nos. 
1653 and 1664... 

Average Nos. 
1644, 1653, 1664, 
1665, 1669, 1673, 
1703, and 1720 . 



18.96 81.04 12.93 



19.20' 80.81 18.93 



Beef, round. 

do 

do 



16.13 83.87 23.56 

18.94 81.06 1 20.97 

25. 42! 74. 58 19. 79 24. 42 



15. 70 36. 69 32. 84 
4.03| 6.441 14.40 
7. 47 25. 15 21. 75 



5. 75 15. 80 



11.91 16.72 



Average . 



20. 16 79.84 22. < 



18.08 



52. 03 
27.47 
24.52 11.65 42.91 



32. 83 



28.00 



4.52 



.72 
1.26 
3.94 
4.36 



4.15 



3.19 



1.85 
3.34 



8.27 
5.50 
5.96 



5.73 



7.02 
4.54 
4.24 



4.S9 



5.C9 



126: Beef, rump. 



114 



Veal, leg. 



Average Nos. 
1639, 1643, 16.52, 
1704, and 1721 . . 

Average of all 
cooked 5 hours. 



36.94 63.06 23.11 36.20 

28.91 71.09 17.03 12.98 23.30 



74.73 



79. 8i 



017. 82 



Average of 
cooked 3 c 
hours 



cl5.93|c84.07 



18.63 25.69 



12.77 18.91 



dll.l9 15.30 



34.6: 



32.16 
25.39 



18.56 



17.77 



12.93 



2.11 
4.68 



3.40 



47.85 5.15 
4..^5 



4.12 



637. 90 



4.22 



/4.35 



oAverage of 8 analyses. 
►Average of 4 analyses. 



cAverage of 30 analyses. 
dAverage of 24 analyses. 



f Average of 16 analyses. 
/Average of 28 analyses. 



227 

From Tablo 134 it will bo seen that the clear, liltered broths contain 
from ().22oS to 0.37S7 per cent total nitrojjen, the averajje being 
0.314-1 per cent. These figures compared with those in Table 108 
show that the amount of total nitrogen in clear meat broths is much 
less than that contained in the cold-water extracts of uncooked meats, 
when the results are expressed u])on the same basis. 

The nitrogen found in the clear, filtered broths in the form of pro- 
teids coagulable by heat in neutral solution varies from none in a 
number of cases to 0.0116 per cent, the average being 0.0020 per cent; 
the albumose nitrogen precipitated with zinc sulphate ranged from 
0.0163 to 0.1364 per cent, averaging 0.0470 per cent of the entire 
weight of the fresh meats: the soluble ])roteid nitrogen varied from 
0.0201 to 0.1399 per cent, the average being 0.0510 per cent, and the 
nonproteid nitrogen in the clear broths ranged from 0.1798 to 0.3409 
per cent, averaging 0.2664 })er cent. 

A small quantity of nitrogen was present as ammonia or ammo- 
nium salts, the average amount being 0.0133 per cent. 

The average quantities of nitrogen precipitated by various reagents 
from clear broths were: Bromin 0.0512 per cent, phosphotungstic 
acid in a hot solution 0.0349 per cent, phosphotungstic acid in a cold 
solution 0.0602 per cent, tannin and salt 0.0492 per cent, and Stutzer's 
reagent 0.0384 per cent. 

In Table 135 the nitrogen records of the clear broths are given in 
the form of percentages of the total nitrogen contained in the uncooked 
flesh. It will be there noted that the total nitrogen found in the 
clear broths forms from 7.22 to 13.36 per cent of the total nitrogen 
contained in the uncooked meat. The average amount of soluble 
nitrogen in the 31 samples of clear brotlis w'as 9.61 per cent of the 
total nitrogen. The average quantity of soluble nitrogen in the raw 
meats w^as 22.14 per cent, and the average amount of soluble nitro- 
gen in the 31 samples of boiled meats was 4.71 per cent of the total 
nitrogen. 

The average values for the different nitrogenous constituents are 
also given. 

These data presented for the clear broths calculated m percentages 
of the total soluble nitrogen show that in a considerable number of 
cases there w^as no nitrogen in the form of compounds coagulated by 
heat, while in others the cjuantity of nitrogen in this form reaches 
0.35 per cent, the average being 0.06 per cent. 

The data for the other forms of nitrogen may also be readily learned 
from Table 136. The general conclusion from all these considera- 
tions of the character of the nitrogenous constituents of clear, filtered 
broths is that, as compared with raw and boiled meats, they are present 
largely as extractives and to but a slight extent in proteid forms. 



228 



CONCLUSIONS. 



The principal conclusions which can be drawn from the studies 
of meat and meat products reported in this bulletin are the following: 
Meats of different kinds and cuts may be analyzed directly and 
with accuracy — that is, without being first previously air dried. The 
solul)le matter in meats may be completely removed by extraction 
with cold water and the preparation and analysis of such cold-water 
extracts is of great importance in studies of the true value of flesh 
foods. The total proportion of raw meat which is soluble in cold 
water is considerable, the average results showing that the cold-water 
extract contains about 2.3 per cent proteid, 1 per cent nitrogenous 
extractives, 1.6 per cent nonnitrogenous extractives, 0.7 per cent nitro- 
gen, and 0.8 per cent ash. None of the fat present in the meat is 
dissolved by cold water. The proportion of each nutrient present in 
the original flesh which is dissolved in cold water is, on an average, 
proteid 13 per cent; organic extractives, including both nitrogenous 
and nonnitrogenous compounds, 100 per cent; ash, 81 per cent; total 
nitrogen, 22 per cent. Of the nitrogen compounds soluble in cold 
water, 46 per cent is coagulated by heat. The nitrogen present is 
about equall}^ divided between proteid and nonproteid bodies. 

Meats cooked by boiling are less soluble in cold water than are 
raw meats, the average amount of nutrients recovered in the extract 
as compared with the total weight of the meats used being 0.4 per 
cent proteid, 0.6 per cent nitrogenous extractives, 0.8 per cent non- 
nitrogenous extractives, 0.3 per cent nitrogen, and 0.4 per cent ash. 
The average ratio of nonproteid to proteid nitrogen is as 1:0.31. 
Expressed as percentages of the amount of each nutrient originally 
present, the average values for the cold-water extract of cooked 
meats are 1 per cent proteid, 100 per cent extractives including both 
nitrogenous and nonnitrogenous compounds, 67 per cent ash, and 1 
per cent nitrogen. As in the case of raw meat, no fat is dissolved by 
the cold water. 

The different methods commonly followed in cooking meat in hot 
water vary somewhat as to time and temperature of cooking, but the 
resulting cooked meats are quite similar as regards composition 
and also as regards the proportion of their constituents which are 
soluble in cold water. 

Meats cooked b}^ dry heat, as in roasting, broiling, sauteing, and 
frying, arS on an average 2.4 times more solu])le in water than 
boiled meats but are only a little more than half as soluble as raw 
meats. The results show that on an average cold water removes 
the following percentage amounts from meats cooked by dry heat: 
Proteid 0.7, nitrogenous extractives 1.3 nonnitrogenous extract- 
ives 1.6, nitrogen 0.5, and ash 1 percent. Considered on a water-tree 



229 

basis, roast meats contain about 2,3 times as much soluble proteid 
and nonnitrogenous extractives and 2.5 times as nmch nitrogenous 
extractives and ash as boiled meats. 

The more pronounced flavor of meats cooked by dry heat as 
compared with those cooked in hot water is without doubt due to 
the larger proportion of soluble constituents which the former con- 
tains. As regards the losses m weight when meat is cooked in hot 
water, the average values show that it is equal to from 10 to 50 per 
cent of the total weight of the fresh meat used, the average being 
about 34 per cent. The amount of water removed by the heat of 
boiling ranges from about LS to 69 per cent, the average being 45 
per cent of the amount original^ present . The total protein removed 
in the broth varies from 3 per cent to 13 per cent, averaging 7 per 
cent. The proportion of fat originally present in the raw meat 
which is recovered in the broth varies from 0.0 to 37 j^er cent, and 
the proportion of mineral matter from 20 to G7 per cent, averaging 
not far from 45 per cent. The nutrients in the broth expressed as 
percentages of the total weight of the uncooked meat on an average 
equal, water 31, proteid 1, fat 1, and ash 0.5 per cent. The 
fatter kinds and cuts of meat lose less water, proteid, and mineral 
matters, but more fat than leaner kinds of meat. The proportion 
of nutrients extracted in the broth is directly proportional to the 
length of time and the temperature of the cooking period. Different 
cuts of some kinds of meat behave differently as regards the nature and 
amount of the losses they sustain when cooked in hot water. On an 
average, the larger the piece the smaller the percentage losses. When 
meat is cooked in water at 80 to 85° C, placing the meat in hot 
or cold water at the start has little effect on the amount of material 
recovered in the broth. Beef used in the preparation of beef tea 
or broth has lost comparatively little of its total nutritive material, 
though most of the constituents which give flavor have been removed. 
The experimental data indicate that on an average 72 per cent of the 
nitrogenous organic extractives originally present in beef is removed 
during boiling, and that the average of nonnitrogenous organic 
extractives removed is also 72 per cent. When meats are cooked 
by dry heat the losses sustained are much smaller than when cooked 
m hot w^ater, being, on an average, water, 35 per cent; nitrogenous 
extractives, 9 per cent; nonnitrogenous extractives, 17 per cent; fat, 
7 per cent, and ash, 12 per cent. On an average there w^as an appar- 
ent gain of 4 per cent proteid, this apparently anomalous value 
being probably due to unavoidable faults in the experimental 
methods or some similar cause. 

As regards the composition of complete or unfiltered meat broths, 
the average results vary, the total solid matter containing from 1 
to 10 per cent of the total quantity of meat used. On an average 



230 

the percentage composition of a large number of broths was, water, 
97; total solids, 3; proteid, 0.3; nitrogenous extractives, 0.6; nonni- 
trogenous extractives, 0.7; total organic extractives, 1.3; fat, 1.3, and 
ash 0.5 per cent. On an average 0.24 per cent of the total nitrogen 
was present as proteids and 0.18 per cent as nonproteid bodies. 
The clear, filtered broths contained less of the important food ele- 
ments, i. e., proteids and fat, than complete or unfiltered broths, but 
practically the same amounts of the different extractive bodies and 
ash. In other words, they have less food value but fully as much 
flavor as the unfiltered broths, provided the fat is removed in both 
cases. Meat fat possesses more or less distinctive flavor, and if pres- 
ent modifies the flavor of the broth. Both filtered and unfiltered 
broths have a low food value as compared with the meats from 
which they are made, or as compared with meats cooked by dry heat 
or in hot water. This is obvious when it is remembered that broth 
or soup is made up largely of water. 

The small amount of nutritive material in broth or soup is chiefly 
in the form of organic extractives. The richness of the broth 
increases as the size of the pieces of meat used in making it decreases. 
An increase in the time of cooking also increases the amount of 
nutrients found in the broth. The broth is very httle richer when 
made from bones as well as meat, the chief nutrients thus added 
being fat and soluble proteid. 

In general the various methods of cooking materially modify the 
appearance, texture, and flavor of meat and hence its palatability, 
but have little effect on total nutritive value. Wliether it be cooked 
m hot water, as in boiling or stewing, or by dry heat, as in roasting, 
broiling, sauteing, or frying, meat of all kinds has a high food value 
when judged by the kind and amount of nutritive ingredients which 
are present. 

o 



%^^ 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS ON 
THE FOOD AND NUTRITION OF MAN-Cuutiimcd. 

Bui 109 Experiments on the Metabolism of Mutter and Knergy in the Human Body, 189S-1900. By 
\V. U. Atwnter ami F. G. Benedict, with the cooperation of A. P. Bryant, A. W. Smith, and 
J. F. Suell. I'p. H7. Price, 10 cents. ^ . „ „ 

Bui. 116. DieUiry Studies in New York City in 189G and 18i>7. By \V . O. Atwater and A. P. Bryant. 

Bui 117 E.xporiments on' the Effect of Muscular Work upon the Digestibility of Food and the MeUib- 

olisuiof Nitrogen. Conducted at the Univer^^ity of Tenneswee, 1899-1900. By C. E. \N ait. 

Pp. 13. Price, 5 cents. „ , , , ,, , ■ .i. ,, 

Bui I'M Experiments on the Metabolism of Nitrogen, Sulphur, and Phosphorus m the Human 

organism. Bv H. ('. Sherman. Pp.47. Price, 5 cents. , „ .- , ,.. 

■ Bui Ve Studies (.11 the liige.stiMlitv and Nutritive Value ot Bread at the University of Minnesota in 

l'.tOO-l>U)J. Kv Harry Snyder. Pp. Tv.'. Price, 5 cent.s „, „ 

Bui l'>9 Dietarv Studies in Boston and Spriiiglicld, Mas.s., I'hiladelphia, Pa., and Chicago 111. By 

Lvdia .Southard Ellen H. Kichards, Snsiinnah Psher, Bertha M. Terrill, and Amelia 

Shapleigh. Edited hv K. 1). Milner. Pp. 103. Price, 10 cents. 
Bui 132. Further Investigations among Fruitarians at tlie California Agricultural Experiment 

Station. Bv M. E. .laffa. Pp.81. Price, .t cents. 
Bui. 136. Experiments on the Metabolism of Matter and Energy in the Human Body, 1900^1901!. By 

W. O. Atwater and F. G. Benedict, with the cooperation of A. P. Bryant, U. I). Milner, and 

Paul .Murriil. Pp. 3:)7. Price, 20 cents. „ „ „ . j, ■, „,. 

Bui. 141. Experiments on Losses in Cooking Meat, 1900-1903. By H. S. Grindley and Timothy 

Mojoiinier. Pp. y.'>. Price, .^ cents. ,. , ,> 

Bui 14X Studies on the Digestibilitv and Nutritive Value ol Bread at the Maine Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station. 1899-1903." Bv C. D. WcM.ds and E. H. Merrill. Pp.77. Price, 5 cents. 
Bui. 149. Studies of the Food of Maine Lumbermen. By C. D. Woods and E. R. Maiisheld. Pp. 60. 

Price, 10 cents. ,,, .. ^ t^/^dtta 

Bui 150 Dietary Studies at the Government Hospital for the Insane, Washington, D. C. By H. A. 

Pratt and K. D. Milner. Pp.170. Price, 15 cents. ,,,,,. , .,*• rw ^o 

Bui. 152. Dietary Studies with Harvard University Students. By Edward Mallmckrodt, jr. Pp. 63. 

Bui 156 Studies on the Nutritive Value of Bread and of Macaroni at the University of Minnesota, 

iyi«-190ri. Bv Harrv Snyder. Pp.80. Price, 5 cents. ,^ ,„, 

Bui. 159. A Digest of Japanese Investigations on the Nutrition of Man. By Kiutaro Oshima. Pp. 226. 
Price, In cents. 

FARMERS' BULLETINS. , 

*Bul. 23. Foods: Nutritive Value and Cost. By W. O. Atwater. Pp. 32. 
Bui. 34. Meats: (;omposition and Cooking. By C. D. Woods. Pp. 32. 
Bui. 74. Milk as Fwid. Pp. 39. 

Bui. 85. Fish as Food. By C. F. Luugworthy. Pp. 37. 
Bill. 93. Sugar as Food. By Mary II. Alul. Pp.27. 

Bui. 112. Bread and the Principles of Bread Making. By Helen W. Atwater. Pp. 39. 
Bui 121. Beans, IVas, aiuVothcr Legumes as Food. By Mary H. Abel. Pp. 39. 
Bui. 128. Eggs and their Uses as F<i(>d. By C. F. Langworthy Pp. 36. 

Bill 142. Principles of Nutrition and Nutritive Value of Food. By W. O. Atwater. Pp. 48. 
Bui. 182. Poultry as Food. By Helen W. Atwater. Pp. 40. ,_ ^ , „ .. x, i.r ■ d i , 

Bui 203 Canned Fruit, Preserves, and Jellies: Household Methods of PreparaUon. By Maria Parloa. 
Pp. 32. 

CIRCULAR. 

Giro. 46. The Functions and Uses of Food. By C. F. Langworthy. Pp. 10. 

SEPARATES. 

♦Food and Diet. By W. O. Atwater. Reprinted from Yearbook of Department of Agriculture for 

1894 Pp 44 
♦Some Results of Dietarv Studies in the United States. By A. P. Bryant. Reprinted from Y'earbook 

of Department of Agriculture for 1898. Pp. 14. „ . ^ r„ ., 

♦Development of the Nutrition Investigations of the Department of Agriculture. By A. 0. 1 rue and 

R D. Milner. Reprinted from Yearbook of Department of Agriculture for 1899. Pp. lb. 
The Value of Potatoes as Food. Bv C. F. Langworthy. Reprinted from Yearbook of Department of 

Agriculture for 1900. Pp. 16. ,. ., , c T^ * * f 

Dietaries in Public Institutions. Bv W. O. Atwater. Reprinted from Yearbook of Department of 

Agriculture for 1891. Pp. 18. „ • . ^ r ^ k i f 

The Cost of Food as Related to its Nutritive Value. By R. D. Milner. Reprinted from Yearbook of 

Department of Agriculture for 1902. Pp. 19. . , ^ ^ ^r v, , <= t^ 

Wheat Flour and Bread. By Harry Snyder and Chas. D. Woods. Reprinted from Yearbook of Depart- 
ment of Agriculture for 1903. Pp. 20. „ . ^ , r ' ,r i, i * 
The Respiration Calorimeter. By W. O. Atwater and F. G. Benedict. Reprinted from Yearbook of 

Department of Agriculture for 1904. Pp.16. . ^ „, ^. t> • * /i 

Scope and Results of the Nutrition Investigations of the Office of Experiment Stations Reprinted 

from Annual Report of the Office of Experiment Stations for the year ended June 30, 1901. 

Pp 50 
Dietary Studies of Groups, Especially in Public Institutions. By C. F. Langworthy. Reprinfed from 

Annual Report of the Office of Experiment Stations for the year ended June 30, 1902. 

Nutrition Investigations at the Government Hospital for the Insane, Washington, D. C. By W. O. 

Atwater. Reprinted from Annual Report of the Office of Experiment Stations for the 

year ended June 30, 1903. Pp.14. t, • . /■ c a i r.^^^^*- 

Dietetics in Relation to Hospitals for the Insane. By W. O. Atwater. Repr.inted from Annual Report 

of the Office of Experiment Stations for the year ended June 30, 1904. PP-^1- ^ ,,., 
Investigations on the Nutrition of Man in the United States. By C. P. Langworthy and R. D. Milner. 

Pp. 20. Document No. 713. 



z' 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OE AGRICULTURE. 

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS— BULLETIN NO. 163. 
A. C. TRUE, Uireclor. 



KiHlCULTURAl. IXSTRUCTION FOR ADULTS 
IN CONTINENTAL COUNTRIES. 



BY 



JOHN HAMILTON, 

FARMERS' INSTITUTE SPECIALIST. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PKINTINd OFFICE. 
1905. 



OFFICIALS IN CHARGE OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES. 

Alabama.— C. A. Gary, professor of veterinary science, Polytechnic Institute, Auburn; G. W. Carver, 

director Agricultural Experiment Station, Tiiskegee. 
Alaska. — C. C. Georgeson, Agricultural Experiment Station, Sitka. 
Arizona. — R. H. Forbes, director Agricultural Experiment Station, Tucson. 
Arkansas. — J. M. 'rillman, president University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. 
CALIFORNIA. — E. J. Wick.son, superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, University of California, Berkeley; 

D. T. Fowler, conductor of Farmers' Institutes in central and northern California, Berkeley; 

A. J. Cook, conductor of Farmers' Institutes in .southern California, Claremont; W. T. Clark, 

assistant superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Berkeley. 
Colorado.— W. L. Carlyle, dean of School of Agriculture, State Agricultural College, Fort Collins; 

Fred. P. John.son, assistant superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Denver. 
Connecticut.— James F. Brown, secretary State Board of Agriculture, North Stonington; .T. i',. 

Schwink, jr., secretary Connecticut Dairymen's Association, Meriden; H. C. C. Miles, secretary 

Connecticut Pomological Society, Mil ford. 
Delaware.— Wesley Webb, secretary Board of Agriculture, Dover; Arthur T. Ncale, director of 

Agricultural Experiment Station, and superintendent of institutes for Newcasfle County, New^ark. 
Florida. — C. M. Conner, professor of agriculture. University of Florida, Lake City. 
Georgia. — H. C. White, president State College of Agriculture, Athens; Harvie Jordan, field agent in 

charge of Farmers' Institutes, 920 Empire Building, Atlanta. 
Hawaii. — J. G. Smith, Agricultural Experiment Station, Honolulu. 
ID.4.H0. — H. T. French, director Agricultural Experiment Station, Moscow. 
Illinois. — Frank H. Hall, secretary Illinois Farmers' Institutes, Aurora. 
Indiana. — W. C. Latta, professor of Agriculture in Purdue University, Lafayette. 
Iowa. — J. C. Simpson, secretary State Board of Agriculture, Des Moines. 
Kansas.— J. T. Willard, director Agricultural Experiment Station, Manhattan. 
Kentucky. — Hubert Vreeland, commissioner of agriculture, Frankfort. 
Louisiana. — J. G. Lee, commissioner of agriculture. Baton Rouge.' 
Maine. — A. W. Gilman, commi.ssioner of agriculture, Augusta. 
Maryland. — W. L. Amoss, director Farmers' Institutes, Benson. 
Massachusetts.— J. L. Ellsworth, secretary State Board of Agriculture, Boston. 
Michigan. — L. R. Taft, superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Agricultural College. 
Minnesota.— O. C. Gregg, director Farmers' Institutes, Lynd. 

Mississippi. — J. C. Hardy, president Agricultural and Mechanical College, Agricultural College. 
Missouri. — Geo. B. Ellis, secretary State Board of Agriculture, Columbia. 
Montana. — F. B. Linfield, director Agricultural Experiment Station, Bozeman. 
Nebraska. — E. A. Burnett, director Agricultural Experiment Station, Lincoln. 
Nevada. — J. E. Stubbs, president Nevada State University, Reno. 
New Hampshire. — N. J. Bachelder, secretary State Board of Agriculture, Concord. 
New Jersey. — Franklin Dye, secretary State Board of Agriculture, Trenton. 
New Mexico. — Luther Poster, president Agricultural and Mechanical College, Mesilla Park. 
New York.— F. E. Dawley, director Farmers' Institutes, Fayetteville. 
North Carolina. — S. L. Patterson, conimi.s^ioner of agriculture, Raleigh; Tait Butler, profes.sor 

veterinary .science. College of Agriculture and Mcchsuiic Arts, field agent, Raleigh. ' 
North Dakota. — E. E. Kaufman, deputy commissioner of agriculture, Bismarck. 
Ohio.— W. AV. Miller, secretary State Board of Agriculture, Columbus. 
Oklahoma Territory. — C. A.-McNal)l), secretary State Board of Agriculture, Guthrie. 
Oregon. — J. Withycombe, director Agricultural )<;;xperiment Station, Corvallis. 
Pennsylvania. — A. L. Martin, deputy secretary of agriculture, Harrisburg. 
Porto Rico.— D. W. May, Agricultural Experiment Station, Mayaguez. 
Rhode Island. — John G. Clarke, secretary State Board of Agriculture, Providence. 
Soi'TH Carolina.— J. N. Harper, director Agricultural Experiment Station, Clemson College. 
South Dakota. — M. F. Greeley, superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Gary. 
Tennessee.— W. W. Ogilvie, commi.ssioner of agriculture, Nashville. 
Texas. — J. \V. Carson, director Farmers' Institutes, College Station. 
Utah.— P. .\. Yoder, director Agricultural Experiment Station, Logan. 
Vermont. — fJeorge Aitken, secretary State Board of Agriculture, Woodstock. 
vIrginia. — G. W. Koiner, commissioner of agriculture, Richmond; A. M. Soule, director Agricultural 

Experiment Station and secretary Virginia State Farmers' Institute, Blacksburg. . 
Washington. — E. A. Bryan, president Agricultural ('oljege and School of Science, Pullman; E. E. 

Elliott, professor of agriculture, Washington Agricultural College; field agent in charge of 

institutes, Pullman. 
West Virginia. — J. B. Garvin, assistant secretary of agriculture, Charleston. 
Wisconsin. — G. B. McKerrow, director Farmers' Institutes; Madi.son. 
Wyoming.— B. C. Buflfum, director Agricultural Experiment Station, Laramie. 



u. s. dp:partment of agriculture. 

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS-BULLETIN NO. 163. 

A. C. TRUE, Director. 



AGKICULTUK AI. IN'STKUCTION FOR ADULTS 
IN CONTINENTAL COUNTRIES. 



BY 



NEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 

GARDEN. 



JOHN HAMILTON, 



FARMERS' INSTITUTE SPECIALIST. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1905. 



THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

STAFF. 

A. C. True, Ph. B.— Director. 

E. W. Allen, Ph.D. — Assistant Director and Editor of Experiment Staiion Record. 

W. H. Beal, a. B., M. ¥..— Chief of Editorial Division. 

W. H. Evans, Ph. D. — Chief of Division of Insular Stations. 

Elwood Mead, D. E. — Chief of Irrigation and Drainage Investigations. 

John Hamilton, B. S., M. S. A. — Farmers' Institute Specialist. 

Mrs. C. E. Johnston. — Chief Clerk. 

EDITORIAL departments. 

W. H. Beal, A. B., M. E. — Meteorology, Soils, and Fertilizers. 

W. H. Evans, Ph. D.— Agricultural Botany and Vegetable Pathologi/. 

J. I. SCHOT.TE, B. 8.— Field Crops. 

C. B. Smith, B. S. — Horticulture and Forestry. 

0. F. Langworthy, Ph. D. — Zootechny and Human Nutrition. 

H. W. Lawson, M. S., M. D.—Agrotechny, Dairy Farming, and Dairying. 

W. H. Beal, 0. F. Langworthy, and H. W. Lawson. — Agricultural Cheiiii.^try. 

E. V. Wilcox, Ph. D. — Economic Zoology, Entomology, and Veterinary Medicine. 

S. M. Woodward, A. M. — Riiral Engineering. 

H. C. Taylor, Ph. D. — Rural Economics. 

D. J. Crosby, M. S. — Agricultural Education. 

(2) 



R OF TRAXSMITTAI.. 



U. 8. Department of Aoricultuke, 

Office of Experi^ient Stations, 
W((s/uNr/fo,), D. r., Octoherm, 1005. 

Sir: The follo\vin<^- bulletin on Agricultural Instruction for Adults 
in Continentul Countries, by John Ibiiuilton, farmers' intstitutc 
specialist of this OtHco, has been prepared with a view to directinjr 
the attention of farmers' institute workers to the methods that have 
been adopted and found useful l)y continental governments in atford- 
ing educational facilities to their adult agricultural population. 

The bulletin is in etfect a supplement to one (No. 155) recentl}^ 
issued by this OfHce on Agricultural Instruction for Adults in the 
British P^mpire, and is in compliance with a requirement of the act of 
Congress making provision for the appointment of a farmers' insti- 
tute specialist in the Department, and detining his duties to l)e "to 
investigate and report uppn the organization and progress of farmers' 
institutes in the several States and Territories, and upon similar 
organizations in foreign countries." 

The manuscript is recommended for publication as Bulletin No. 163 

of this Office. 

Respectfully, 

A. C. True, 

Director. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

Sec7'etary of Agriculture. 

(3) 



CONTENTS. 



Vage. 

Introduction 5 

Austria •. . . 7 

Belgium •. 8 

Bulgaria 12 

Denmark 12 

Franre - 16 

Hungary - - 21 

Italy ..'. 24 

Netherlands 25 

Prussia *. - 26 

Russia • 29 

Sweden 30 



AGKICl I.TURAL IXSTRrCTIOX FOR ADULTS IN 
COXnXEXTAI, COIXTRIES. 



INTRODUCTION. 

In most continental countries the iniijority of the population are 
ent^uoed in utiriculture, and in a nunilx'ias much as 75 per cent depend 
directly upon farniin*>- for their livcliliood. It is to be expected, 
therefore, that where so large a portion of tlie population is engaged 
in this industry special attention would l)e given by the governments 
of these countri(vs to the interests of the farming people. In many of 
them the virgin lands were long ago occupied, and now no new soil is 
to be had except such as ma}' be wrested from the sea, reclaimed from 
swamps, or taken from the desert. 

Because of this restricted area of cultivated land, it was quite man- 
ifest that unless some means could be devised ])y which the same soil 
centiuy after century could be ))rought to produce crops with unfail- 
ing regularity and in constantl}^ increasing abundance, the country 
must eventually become iuiinha})itable and the State consequently cease 
to exist, for it is an historic fact that only nomadic tribes can live in 
a region where agriculture has ceased to ]>e a profitable pursuit. All 
of this has been so generally understood and appreciated by foreign 
nations that long ago their governments gave most careful attention to 
the subject of animal and plant production, with the result that without 
exception the}" have reached the conviction that the only solution of 
the question of improving agriculture sufficiently to enable those who 
pursue it as a calling to maintain themselves in comfort for all time to 
come, and also to produce a surplus for use b}- those engaged in other 
occupations, lies in the proper education of those who conduct its 
operations. 

According}}^ schools and colleges of agriculture were established in 
some countries more than a century ago, and now few foreign nations 
are without institutions established and in part or altogether main- 
tained b}^ the State for the purpose of discovering agricultural truth 
and for disseminating this truth among the masses. In many of them 
the number of such institutions runs into the hundreds. 

(5) 



6 

No more interesting or significant feature is brought out in tlio study 
of the agriculture of foreign lands than the fact that in ever}' country 
all of the people — the peasantry, the landed proprietors, as well as 
those who administer the laws — now look to their agricultural educa- 
tional institutions not only for the solution of present problems in 
production, but also for the discovery of new facts and new methods 
that will insure increased and more profitable crops in the time to come. 

The sincerit}^ and strength of this sentiment is shown in the meas- 
ures that have been adopted b}^ the governments of these countries for 
the perfecting of their systems of agricultural education, as exhibited 
in the statements which appear in this bulletin. State departments of 
agriculture have been established and equipped with expert officials 
who devote all of their time to the interests of agriculture. Univer- 
sities, colleges, normal schools, academies, secondar\^ schools, common 
schools, and numerous special classes are everywhere in operation, 
and in almost all of them the giving of instruction in agriculture is 
made obligatory. In most countries these institutions are aided and 
in a number are wholl}^ supported by the State. The governments 
also encourage the formation of local agricultural organizations, such 
as cooperative associations for special purposes, societies for holding- 
agricultural shows, credit societies, agricultural insurance companies, 
etc., and in most cases grant them financial aid. 

The attention 'of farmers' institute workers is particularly called to 
some features of the work abroad that are characteristic and specially 
worthy of careful consideration. 

The first is the extreme care with which the itinerant instructors 
in foreign countries are selected. In two countries the age qualifica- 
tion is an important item, no one being accepted under 25 years. In 
several a competitive examination is required to be held by a commit- 
tee of experts, and only those passing are permitted to be employed. 
In every country some special qualification is necessary before the insti- 
tute teacher can enter upon this service. 

Another point worth}" of attention is the method of supervision that 
exists in every country. There is everywhere a central supervisory 
authorit}" which holds the local officers and institute teachers and 
workers to strict account for the efficiency and success of the work. 

A third important item is the system of personal visitation by spe- 
cialists made to farms and communities for the i)urpose of giving 
assistance through expert advice. In France particularly this feature 
of the work is emphasized, and its effect is seen in what that country 
has done since this form of aid was undertaken. 

Attention is also called to the various methods in use in disseminating 
agricultural information. There is, first of all, the itinerant lecturer, 
who meets audiences of fanners and delivers one or more addresses, 
much as is now done in the farmers' institutes of the United States. 



Tlioro is also tlu^ specialist, who conducts a niovablo school which is 
located ill a coinimuilty for two or throe weeks and tlicn is transferred 
to another center where a similar class is formed and the instruction 
repeated. Then there is the winter school, located in a rural com- 
nuinitv and continuino- for several months, to which only adults are 
admitted. There are also agricultural hii^h schools which only farm- 
ing people who have had previous practical experience of at least one 
year upon a farm and consideral)le preliminary education can enter. 

Thesvstemof support for the itinerant schools and for the lecturers 
is also worthy of careful study, as are also the methods adopted for 
securing the cooperation of local communities in the work of institute 
instruction. There are likewise the demonstration farms and fields 
organized by a central board having charge of the institute system of 
instruction, over which the itinerant institute teacher is placed, and 
whii-h are used for instruction purposes in connection with the insti- 
tute work in the several communities. Attention is specially called 
to the interest manifested and the part taken by the higher institutions 
of learning, especially by the universities and agricultural colleges, 
in itinerant instruction. 

There is also the teaching of agriculture in the common schools 
made compulsory in most countries, and accompanied b}^ the use of 
school gardens and experiment grounds for purposes of practical train- 
ing and demonstration. Last of all, but by no means the least sug- 
gestive, there is the use of the monthly pul)lication, edited and issued 
by the State as an official medium for disseminating agricultural 
information, free of cost, among the members of the farmers' institute 
societies of the country, keeping them informed with respect to the 
work of the various societies in their own as well as in other States. 

AUSTRIA. 

The distinguishing features of the farmers' institute system of Aus- 
tria are briefly stated by the Austrian minister of agriculture in the 
following communication : 

The establishment of itinerant agricultural instruction in Austria is not very recent 
and the system in operation is regarded as an important factor in the professional 
education of the agricultural population above school age and is of especial value in 
those parts of the country not provided with agricultural schools. 

This instruction is generally given by professional itinerant teachers of agriculture, 
appointed by the State, by the provincial administrations, or by the principal agri- 
cultural corporations in the different dependencies and provinces, but experts in the 
different lines of work closely connected with agriculture and agricultural pursuits 
are also employed for this purpose. The lectures are usually delivered at the meet- 
ings of agricultural societies, at agricultural expositions, stock shows, etc. 

The professional itinerant teachers receive a fixed remuneration for their services, 
including the salary and a lump sum for travelingexpeuses, amounting annually to from 
$720 to $960. The teachers appointed Ijy the State are paid from the State treasury, 



8 

while those appointed by the provincial administrations and agricultural corpora- 
tions receive their remuneration from the funds of the particular province or tiu^ 
private funds of the corporation. The provincial administration as well as the a>iri- 
cultural corporations receive annually very important sul)sidies from the State for tiie 
purpose of maintaining their itinerant agricultural instruction. The remuneration 
of the professional expert is adjusted for each particular case and the amount is 
governed by his standing in the line of work he represents and by the time he is 
employed. 

This instruction does not always consist of single lectures, but very frequently 
courses of lectures lasting several days, and even weeks, on widely different phases 
of agriculture, are given. In this connection the courses on dairying, viticulture, 
orcharding, etc., may be mentioned as enjoying special popularity. These special 
courses are usually given under the auspices of local agricultural societies, which 
draw for this purpose adequate subsidies from State and provincial funds. 

The special duties of the itinerant agricultural teachers, especially of those 
appointed by the State and following the work as a profession, are usually outlined 
in the contract or by particular rules relating to the service, and generally particular 
stress is laid upon keeping in touch with the agricultural population of the district 
and studying the wants and needs of the farmer instead of limiting themselves to 
delivering lectures and giving instructions at regularly appointed times. 

Complete statistics on this phase of agricultural education can not be given, because 
the data of the ministry of agriculture are limited to those lectures and courses for 
which provision has been made by the State or General Government. Reports on 
particular courses frequently appear in the agricultural press of the country, but 
they are so numerous and so scattered that a compilation of them with a view to 
covering the field is a matter of great difficulty. 

BELGIUM. 

There is an agricultural society in each province in Belgium, in 
addition to the Central Agricultural Society of the Kingdom. Each 
of the provincial societies holds annually an agricultural show or fair, 
and a number of them have organized lecture courses upon agricul- 
tural subjects, conducted by expert agriculturists who ^'isit the vari- 
ous sections and give instruction upon subjects arranged under the 
following classitication: (1) Agriculture for adult farmers and farmers' 
wives; (2) agriculture for soldiers; (3) farriery; (i) arboriculture and 
market gardening; (5) apiculture; (6) aviculture, and (7) miscellaneous 
lessons and special lectures. There are also movable dairy schools 
for women. 

The movable schools in agriculture were begun in 1887. Since the 
organization of these courses up to 1903 3,643 lectures have been 
given, attended by 163,055 pupils. In 1902 schools for women were 
introduced, the lectures treating on household economy, hygiene, dairy 
farming, household and farm bookkeeping, aviculture, gardening, and 
the canning and preserving of fruits. During that year 16,312 per- 
sons attended these schools of domestic economy. 



A(iKl( TLTUKK FOR ADULT lAUMEKS AND FARMERS WIVES. 

The courses of lectures given in tlie schools for tanners einl)riice 
the followinii' subjects: The soil; seeds jind their oeruii nation; agri- 
cultural hydraulics; eliMnents of agricultural physiology and chemis- 
try; s[>e(ial crops; cattle foods and feeding; hygiene; zootechny; 
dairying; agricultural 1)ookkeeping; rural laws; rural economy; 
mutual insurance and cooperation; ajid agricultural institutions. 

CfJUKSES OF LECTURES IN AGRICULTURE FOR SOLDIERS. 

Instruction in these courses follows practically the same outline of 
subjects as that given to farmers, except that instead of 'SO lectures 
being delivered as in the case of farmers, the soldiers' course is limited 
to 22. 

The taking of these lectures b}' the soldiers is entirely voluntary, 
those who attend not being exempted from any of the regular military 
duties. Rewards are ottered b}' the agricultural department to those 
soldiers who obtain the most marks in a special examination on agri- 
cultural subjects, and on the recommendation of the lecturer agricul- 
tural books are given to the pupils who are most attentive. The 
reports show that during the last three years 86 courses of lectures 
have been given to soldiers, and that these have been attended by 
2,195 men. 

COUKSES OF LECTURES IN FARRIERY. 

Classes of pupils in farriery are organized every j^ear and instruc- 
tion is given, beginning early in January, continuing through twelve 
lessons. Four of these lessons are reserved for giving practical 
demonstrations in horseshoeing. The pupils are required to pass an 
oral and also a practical examination before a commission composed 
of the veterinar}' inspector, the State agriculturist of the district, and 
the professor in charge of the course. Certilicates of proticiency are 
given to those only who obtain at least five-tenths of the marks allotted 
to the theoretical examination, and six-tenths of those allotted to the 
practical examination. This certificate admits the pupils to the Cen- 
tral Practical Farriery School at Brussels. 

Before a course of lectures on farriery can be organized at least 
twelve pupils must have registered their names, agreeing to attend 
the entire series of lectures. 

COURSES OF LECTURES IN ARBORICULTURE AND MARKET C4ARDENING. 

The programme of the course in arboriculture and market gardening 

consists of fifteen lectures in arboriculture and a number of lessons in 

market gardening. The communal municipalities or the horticultural 

societies who ask for these lectures must agree to furnish a sufficiently 

10749— No. 163—05 2 



10 

large room for class purposes and a moderate-sized fruit garden, 
placing them at the disposal of the lecturer. The courses are onl}'^ 
given where an attendance of at least 20 is guaranteed. Examina- 
tions are held, and to those who pass certificates are awarded b}- the 
board of examination. Between 1895 and 1903, 1,628 pupils have 
been up for this examination, of whom Y31 obtained certificates for 
arboriculture and 104 for market gardening. 

COURSES OF LECTURES IN APICULTURE. 

Until 1902 lectures upon apiculture were equally divided among 
the districts where members of apicultural societies existed. From 
that date these lectures have been given in a series of at least five 
in the same locality. During the last three years 1,571 lessons have 
been given and the courses were attended by 3,000 persons. 

COURSES OF LECTURES IN AVICULTURE. 

Four or five lectures comprise the course on aviculture. The first 
course on this subject was prepared by the inspector of agriculture, and 
required that the lecturers should pass an examination before being- 
permitted to give instruction. The courses at present are prepared by 
the various societies interested in the subject. The popularity of the 
stud}^ is shown by the fact that during the past three years 921 lessons 
were given and the courses were attended by about 20,000 pupils. 

SPECIAL LESSONS AND SPECIAL LECTURES. 

In addition to the foregoing courses, the department of agriculture 
has granted subsidies providing for a certain number of special lessons, 
as upon the choice and feeding of dairy cows; lessons in agricultural 
chemistr}^; agricultural bookkeeping; lectures on the natural sciences 
in their application to agriculture, etc. Eight hundred and fifty lec- 
tures of this character have been given during the last three years, the 
courses all having been organized by the local agricultural associations. 

MOVABLE DAIRY SCHOOLS FOR WOMEN. 

On a Belgian farm the farmer's wife looks after the dair3\ For this 
reason the teaching of the feeding and care of cattle and the elements 
of dairy farming have been made a feature in the movable dairy 
schools for women. These dairy schools are movable, changing 
their location from one agricultural district to another once every 
three months. The first school was founded in 1890, and at present 
ten are reported as l)eing in active operation. 

The establishment of the movable dairy school is usually made at 
the request of the local agricultural associations, and is supported 
either directly by the State or through the i)rovin('iiil association of 
the district. The teaching is both theoretical and practical. lustruc- 



11 

tion is given every da}' except Sundiiys, two hours Ijeing devoted to 
tlie study of tlu^ theory and three hours to practical work. The num- 
ber of pupils is limited to 20, and the attendance at the course is 
free of charo-e. A (lovernment jriant of 2,00(1 francs is awarded to 
these schools for a three-months' course. The applicant nuist l)e at 
h>ast 15 years old, i)ossess a good elementary education, and be in 
physical condition to do the work taught in the schools. Since the 
foundation of the school in 1890, over 2,000 diplomas have been 
awarded. The course at present lasts for four months, and the teach- 
ing of dimiestic economy and aviculture has hcen included in the 
progranune. 

In addition to the system of direct instruction given through the 
mova))le schools, every agricultural district committee in Belgium is 
authorized to establish at the expense of the (Jovernment two fields 
each year for experiments and demonstrations in agriculture, one to 
be used for spring crops and the other for autumn planting. The 
fields are limited to one-half acre each in area. The character of the 
experiments is determined b}^ the delegate appointed by the district 
committee, conjointly with a State agricultural expert. The latter 
determines the varieties of seed, roots, or manures to be experimented 
with. This connnittee selects the agriculturist upon whose land the 
field is to be established, and, inasnmch as the fields are intended to 
supplement the theoretical instruction given in the movable schools, 
thev are usually located in proximity to the centers at which these 
schools are held. 

The farmer upon whose estate the held is established must place at 
the disposal of the committee half an acre of land gratuitously, and 
agree to treat the soil according to the direction of the committee, also 
to furnish gratuitously the necessary farmyard manure. The depart- 
ment of agriculture supplies free of charge the seeds, roots, and 
chemical manures. The State expert prescribes the character of the 
cultivation to be followed and gives specific directions for the care of 
the crop, to which directions the farmers must agree to conform. The 
crop, when raised, is the property of the cultivator, excepting that the 
State expert can take samples if he wishes to do so. 

In addition to the foregoing, the cultivator agrees to grow in the 
following year at his own expense the variety of crop Avhich shall 
have yielded the best returns as regards quality and quantity. 

A similar decree exists respecting the establishing of gardens for 
experiment purposes in connection w ith each provincial agricultural 
society. These gardens are to be used for the growing of new varie- 
ties of seede, roots, etc., with the understanding that the varieties 
recognized as good shall be distributed throughout the province by 
means of the fields for experimentation established in each agricul- 
tural district. 



12 

BTJIiGARIA. 

The throe agricultural colleges and the three agricultural experiment 
stations of Bulgaria emplo}' and send out itinerant teachei-s through 
the country districts to hold schools continuing for from one to two 
weeks, confining the instruction in any one school to a single topic, as 
dairying, apiculture, forestry, etc. 

The itinerant teachers connected with the agricultural colleges and 
experiment stations are employed for the special purpose of conduct- 
ing institute schools. When not engaged in this rural teaching the 
work is given them at the college or experiment station. 

DENMARK. 

The remarkable progress of agriculture in Denmark and its present 
high state of development are due to the careful attention which that 
countr}^ has given to the education of her farming people. 

Denmark, excluding the Faroe Islands, has an area of only 14,789 
square miles — about half as much as the State of Maine or almost 
exactly the size of Maryland and Connecticut combined. The popu- 
lation of Denmark in 1901 was 2,447,111; that of the two States last 
named was 2,096,464 in 1900. 

The commercial importance of the Kingdom lies almost wholly in 
her agriculture, which in the last thirty years has risen from about 
the lowest to the highest place among the countries of Europe. In 
1860 the British vice-consul at Copenhagen reported that "the butter, 
or the articles sold in the market by the yeomen-farmers under that 
name, is execrably bad." At present "Danish butter," "Danish 
bacon," and "Danish eggs" stand in price and quality at the top in 
the English markets. 

Mr. Gill (secretary of the department of agriculture for Ireland), 
after a careful inspection of Danish methods, states that "what may 
be termed the essentials of agricultural progress are illustrated there, 
namely, (1) highly trained intelligence, enterprise, and resourceful- 
ness; (2) the power given to the farmers by organization; and (3) the 
effectiveness with which the Government is able, chiefly through 
these organizations among farmers, to aid them with expert advice, 
technical instruction, and material support." 

Inasmuch as Denmark is perhaps the most conspicuous example of 
what education of the rural people can do for the commercial devel- 
opment of a countr}^, it may be well to present in some detail the 
system that has wrought the change that has taken place in this King- 
dom \n recent years. 

irNIVERSITY. 

At the head of the entire educational system is the Royal University 
at Copenhagen, with an attendance of over 1,300 students. 



13 

There is, also, the Royal Aofricultural and Vcteriiiaiy College of 
Copenha<ion. This institution dates hack to ITTvi, and was known as 
the Koval Veterinary School, to which ther(> was addt>d in iSAi) a 
course of instruction in ao-riculture. and its name changed to that of 
The Royal A«!:ricultural and \'eterinary C'olleoc. The institution is 
controlled and supported entirely l)y the CJoverninent. In addition 
to this central college there are 21 agricultural and hoi-ticultural 
schools in the country, with a total attendance of about 1,000 students. 

EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

In addition to these institutions there are four experiment farms 
for '-esearch in agriculture, and over 500 demonstration fields dis- 
tributed" over the country for testing varieties of grains and forage 
crops, determining the value of various manures, the best methods of 
soil treatment, etc. 

i'eople's high schools. 

There are also 7S p('0})le's high schools, with a reported attendance 
of about 0,000 students. These people's high schools originated in 
Denmaik in 1841. They were founded by patriotic farmers who 
wished to create more interest in the national life on the part of the 
young men and women of the rural districts. 

Admission to the schools was limited to persons over 18 years of 
age, who were required to have had experience in practical farming 
extending over at least one year. There were taught at the tirst in 
these schools the usual subjects of study found in the scheme of gen- 
eral education of that period, excepting that special attention was 
given to the study of the history and literature of Denmark, and the 
students were in addition made acquainted with her lyric poetry and 
popular songs. Later, studies in agriculture were added until now 
the courses of many of the schools are made up chiefly of such 
branches of science as relate to some phase of agricultural production. 

The five winter months are devoted to the teaching of men, and the 
three spring and summer months to giving instruction to women. 

COIVEVION SCHOOLS. 

There are also the common rural schools that children from 7 to 14 
years of age are obliged to attend. 

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES. 

Another notable feature of the industrial system of Denmark, and 
it is in great measure the outgrowth of the educational methods that 
have been adopted, is the system of cooperative societies. In 1903 
there were 3,556 cooperative agricultural societies in Denmark, with 
a membership of 509,121; horse-breeding societies, cattle-breeding 



14 

societies, swine-breeding societies, milk-control unions, egg-collecting 
societies, societies for the purchase of feeding stuffs and manures, 
cooperative abattoi IS. loan societies or credit banks — all on the cooper- 
ative plan. 

LOCAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

There are in addition 107 local agricultui-al societies, with amem1)er- 
ship of 64,800. These local societies hold shows during the sunnner 
and have meetings for discussion during the winter. They also engage 
the services of experts to give advice to their members on farming 
matters, and some of them engage itinerant lecturers. Every tifth 
year these societies join with the Royal Agricultural Society in a 
national fete, consisting of a show, discussions, and excursions, con- 
tinuing for live days. The societies of each province also have united 
into what are known as provincial unions. These unions hold yearly 
exhibitions. 

The State aids all of these organizations. The amount averaged 
$450 to each local agricultural societj^ in 1903, but the subsidies thus 
given are only in aid, and to be available must be supplemented bj- 
private subscriptions by the membership. 

ALLIED AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

The form of alliance that exists among the agricultural organizations 
is full}' and concisely stated by Dr. Herbert G. Smith in a paper read 
before the Cobden Club in 1901. In speaking of the organizations of 
Denmark he says: 

Chief among tliem is the Royal Danish Agricultural Societ)-, founded in 1769, an 
organization which best represents the general agricultural opinion of the country, 
and which is the principal adviser of the Government in agricultural matters. It 
administers large sums on behalf of the Government, and also controls a large num- 
ber of expert and other officers of the State. Its members may be classified as 
follows: (1) Individual members; (2) local agricultural cooperative societies; and 
(3) provincial unions or federations of local societies. Varying fees are paid by the 
members, which fees, with the Government grant, form the income of the Royal 
Danish Agricultural Society. A covmcil of 36 members, with 3 presidents, forms the 
ruling body; 18 men die rs of this council are elected by the local agricidtural socie- 
ties, and 18 by the individual members of the society. The number of local agricul- 
tural societies was (in 1895) 101, the average membership of each society being about 
500. A whole county is sometimes represented by one society, while in other cases 
a group of parishes form a society. The larger parishes often contain four or five 
societies. The majority of these local societies have become federated into provincial 
unions, of which there are four — one for each province. INIost of the members of 
the local cooperative societies are members both of their provincial union and the 
Royal Danish Agricultural Society. 

In each province, in the autumn, a congress is held, to which delegates from the 
local societies are sent, and at which the agricultural interests of the province are 
discussed, and local opinion is formulated. Resolutions relating to measures which 
affect agriculturists are forwarded to the Government, which, as already said, con- 
sults the Royal Daiiish Agricultural Society in agricultural matters. 



15 

Tlio provincial unions, however, beiiifi; of opinion that the Royal Danish Agri- 
cultural Society does not, as at present constituted, suthcieutly rei)resent the general 
body of agriculturists, have created a council, composed of the presidents and vice- 
pri\>iiilents of tlie j>rovincial unions; fortius council a position similar to that of the 
Royal Danish Agricultural Society, as adviser to the (Jovernment, is claimed. It is 
interesting to n<jte that over half of the members of the Danish I'arliamcnt arc i)easant 
proprietors, and many of them have been educatccl at tiie high schools. 

The Royal Danish Agricultural Society assists and acts as an intelligenc-e depart- 
ment for the widely extended system of cooperative societies which are not yet 
affiliated to itself. As, however, the chief members of these societies are also mem- 
bers of the local affiliated societies and of the Royal Danish Agricultural Society, 
these unaffiliated societies in reality form a part of the cooperative organization of 
the country. The various local societies may be classified as fc)llows: ( 1 ) Cooperative 
societies for bacon curing; (2) cooperative societies for collecting and exporting eggs 
(federated in 1895 into a large central society); (.S) cooperative societies for breeding 
and rearing cattle, pigs, and horses; (4) cooperative dairy societies (about 1,200 in 
number); (o) cooperative l)ee-keeping societies, and (0) cooperative horticultural 
and fruit-growing societies. These societies are generously helped by the provincial 
unions and the Royal Danish Agricultural Society. 

SYSTEM OF EXPERTS. 

One of the most useful adjuncts to Danish agriculture is the system of employing 
experts who have proved very elhcient in imparting scientific; knowledge to farmers, 
and introducing uniform principles into agricultural production. In 1903 there were 
25 of these experts in all, who cost the State over £8,000 per anntim. In addition 
there were 27 experts appointed by the local agricultural societies, and partly paid 
by the State. The gratuitous advice of these experts can be obtained through the 
Royal Danish Agricultural Society. The 1,200 cooperative dairies, for instance, are 
frecjuently visited by them and repeated tests made on the relative cjualities of the 
butter, etc., of the various dairies, the decision being communicated to all. 

Danish experts also permanently reside in foreign countries for the ])urpose of 
keeping the Danish societies constantly informed of the reciuirements of foreign 
markets for agricultural jiroduce. 

As a striking instance of the advantages of organization, the following fact may be 
given: Recently it was considered desirable to introduce Yorkshire pigs into Den- 
mark to improve the breed there, and a swine expert was sent to England, accom- 
panied by representatives of the local Danish societies. Large purchases w'ere made 
on behalf of both the Royal Danish Agricultural Society and the local societies, the 
expenses of the expert l)eing contributed to by the Cooperative Bacon Curing Society 
and the Royal Danish Agricultural Society. Thus each Danish farmer was able, at 
a comparatively nominal expense to himself, to improve his swine. 

MOVABLE AGRICULTURAL COURSES. 

The feature of agricultural instruction in Denmark which corre- 
sponds most nearly to the system of agricultural institutes of the 
United States is the movable agricultural courses. These courses 
were originated bj^ private initiative. The following statement, fur- 
nished by the Danish minister, shows the method of their operation: 

Every year the cooperating agricultural societies publish that they are willing to 
organize " movable courses" if a certain payment, suitable rooms for the teaching, 
and good maintenance for the teachers are guaranteed. When these conditions are 



16 

complied with the details as to time, etc., are settled directly between the appli- 
cants and the director of the course. There is no State official in charge of this 
work, Init it is directed on behalf of the cooperating societies by the head master of 
the agricultural school at Lyngby, Sealand. He receives $21(5 a year from a private 
institution to superintend the work. 

The director asks as many as possible of the experienced teachers of the agricul- 
tural schools and others, such as agricultural government advisers, veterinarians, 
etc., to act as lecturers. In 1903 twenty to thirty answered his call. To each course 
are detailed two or three lecturers, of whom one has taken part in former courses 
and is the head lecturer of the course. 

Each course lasts two weeks, i. e., twelve days, with three lectures of forty minutes 
a day, and daily instruction in agricultural bookkeeping of seventy-five minutes. 
During the second week the lessons are followed by debating and question hours. 

The lecturers are chosen by the director with due regard to the wishes of the pupils. 

The lecturers get free transportation and all expenses. They are guaranteed $19 
for one lecture a day and $26 for two. 

Each member of the course pays a fee varying from $2 to $2.70, according to the 
number of members. They further pay 80 cents to $1 each for ledgers for book- 
keeping, room, etc. If the fees exceed the expenses, the excess is divided between 
the lecturers. 

From 1898 to 1902 all expenses were covered by the fees. From 1902 the Govern- 
ment has allowed $1,350, and from April 1, 1904, it has increased the amount to 
$2,700, to assist poor agriculturists to follow the courses. 

The lecturers have other occupations, and they often only give lectures on one or 
a few of the courses. 

During the year April 1, 1903, to March 31, 1904, twenty such courses were organ- 
ized; more were requested, but could not be organized, owing to lack of lecturers. 
The courses were attended by 25 to 75 persons, or on an average by 50, which for 20 
courses gives a total of about 1,000. 

The cost for the students of each course was $80 to $100, exclusive of expenses for 
books, etc. 

FRANCE. 

The dut}^ of providing instruction in agriculture for the people in 
the rural districts of France is recognized by the State, and has been 
made an important part of its system of public instruction. The pri- 
mary and secondary schools, as well as the higher institutions of learn- 
ing, are all required to teach this su])ject, the instruction varying in 
amount according to the grade of school and degree of preparation of 

the pupils. 

The important place that agriculture occupies in the life of the 
French people is shown by the number engaged in this occupation. 
In a population of 38,517,975 in 1896, 6,600,000 were farmers, occupy- 
ing 5,702,752 separate farms. A great majority of these farmers till 
comparatively few acres, 97 per cent of the farm properties in France 
consisting of less than 100 acres. 

The work of giving agricultural instruction is thoroughly system- 
atized, and arranged to reach all of the workers and their children with 
valuable information relating to their occupation. At the head of the 
system is the minister of education and line arts, who is clothed with 



17 

powers that enable him to hold all subordinates engaged in giving 
instruction to strict accountability for the cHicienc}' of their work. 

The civil divisions of France arc, tirst, the connnune, which is the 
elementary unit and varies in size according to the density of popula- 
tion in the locality. There is next the canton, made up of a number 
of comnuuies, usually about 12. Then there is the arrondissement, 
composed of 8 cantons; and, including all of them, there is the depart- 
ment, made up of 4 arrondissements. 

For school purposes the country is divided into lO educational dis- 
tricts called academies. At the head of each academy is a rector, and 
at the head of each civil department constituting the academy is an 
academy inspector. Subordinate to these are the primary inspectors. 
The law also requires that there shall be, in each of the 87 civil depart- 
ments into which the country is divided, at least one normal school for 
the preparation of teachers. 

The giving of instruction in agriculture in all of the schools embraced 
b}' this educational system is made obligatory ])V the State. The 
studies to be taken up and the courses t)f lectures to be delivered must 
be approved b\' the minister of agriculture and commerce before they 
can be undei'taken in any school. As a consetiuence the courses of 
instruction throughout the Republic, in all of the schools, even the 
most elementary, are systematical!}' arranged and have been critically 
considered by (;apal)le authorities and formally approved b}' the minister 
and council of education. 

DEPARTMENTAL AND SPECIAL PROFESSORS OB^ AGRICULTURE. 

In the law reorganizing departmental and communal instruction 
enacted in 1879 it is directed that each "department," of which there 
are 87, shall be provided with one ''departmental professor of agri- 
culture," who is to be at least 25 3'ears of age and is to be appointed 
from among the successful candidates who have passed a competitive 
examination for this position. The examination is written, oral, and 
practical; is arranged by the minister of agriculture and commerce in 
cooperation with the minister of public instruction and fine arts, and 
includes the different branches of agricultural science. 

The departmental professors are divided into four classes according 
to salaries, as follows: First class, $877; second class, $780; third 
class, $682, and fourth class, $585. The first appointment is always 
made at the lowest salary and a promotion to the next higher class 
requires at least three years' service. 

These departmental professors are the chiefs of the agricultural 
service in their departments. They represent the administration of 
agriculture and are under the direct authority of the prefect of the 
department and of the inspector of agriculture. They have under 



18 

their direction the "special" professors of the department, to whom, 
however, thej- leave the greatest possible latitude and initiative. 

It is the duty of the departmental professor to give a two-years' 
course of instruction in agriculture at the normal primary school for 
teachers estal)lished in his department, and if necessary in other estab- 
lishments of pu]»lic instruction; to deliver at least 2G lectures upon 
agricultural subjects ea(;h year at meetings of farmers, and to dissem- 
inate b}' lectures and other means the scientific discoveries and prac- 
tical' methods which tend toward the intelligent and profitable man- 
agement of the soil. It is also their duty to stand in close relation to 
the agricidtural societies and syndicates in order that the}^ may act as 
advisers to those interested in agricultural (Juestions, and to come in 
contact as freely as possible with the rural classes. In this way they 
are expected to keep themselves posted on the current wishes and 
needs of the agricultural people. Each departmental professor is 
required to make report at the close of each 3^ear to the prefect of the 
department in which he resides, to be transmitted to the minister of 
agriculture and commerce of the Republic. 

There is another feature of the work of the departmental professor 
that has been of great value in enforcing his teachings, both in the 
normal schools and in the meetings in the rural districts which he 
addresses. It is the system of practical demonstration that he con- 
ducts in fields selected in various suitable locations in which are shown 
the effects of various manures, modes of culture, and varieties of 
seeds upon crop production. It is stated that in 1894 there were over 
3,300 .such fields being conducted for illustration purposes throughout 
France. 

SPECIAL PROFESSOES OF AGRICULTURE. 

The duties of the special professors are in most respects similar to 
those of the departmental professors, with whom the}' are expected to 
cooperate. They are expected to teach agriculture in the superior 
primary schools, and also to deliver at least 12 lectures annually at 
rural meetings of agricultural people, the object being to make known 
to practical farmers the improved methods in use in the management 
of domestic animals, and which lead to a more profitable production of 
farm crops. Their salaries vary from $-150 to $580 per j-ear. 

The items in the law relating to departmental and communal instruc- 
tion in agriculture, and in the decree by the President of the Republic, 
relative to the departmental and special professors of agriculture, give 
with great particularity the details of the system of itinerant instruc- 
tion in agriculture in operation in France. In order that those who 
are interested in the stud}' of this system may have reliable informa- 
tion at hand, the law and decree are given in full. 



19 

Lair uf June 1'!, 1S79, relative to the departmentul and romnvninl Instruction in ar/rlriiltnre 

in Pi-ance. 

A Kill I, K 1. AVitliiii ;i iK-riutl of six years followiiijr tlu' ])r()iiuilj,':ili()n ul' tin- prosent 
law a rliair of airiii-ulmrf sliall be e.stablishe(l, in acronlaiue uith tlic follo\viii<i; 
rules, in the departments not already i)ossessiii.t,' this institution. 

The j)ro«rrainnie of instruction shall inelude all branches of af^ricultural industry, 
and more specially tlu' study of tlie methods of cultivation of the region. 

Akt. '2. The departmental professors of atrricnltiire will lie chosen liy competition, 
and upon the report of a jury selected liy the minister of agriculture and commerce, 
and constituted in the following manner: 

(1) The inspector-general of agriculture, president; 

(2) The inspector of the academy; 

(3) A professor of chemistry or physics; 

(4) A professor of natural sciences. 

These two last examiners will be chosen from the teaching staff of the agricultural 
institute or of an agricultural school, and, in their default or absence, they must belong 
to the State university. 

(5) A professor of the veterinary college or of the nearest scIkjoI of medicine, or a 
certificated veterinary surgeon. 

(6) Three agriculturists, chosen by the departmental commission from among the 
members of the agricultural associations of the department, who ari' nominated by 
each of these associations. 

(7). A councilor-general, designated Ijy his colleagues. 

The professors of agriculture will be a|)pointed liy an order concerted between the 
minister of agriculture and connnerce and the minister of public instruction and fine 
arts. 

Art. 3. The competition will take place at the chief town of the department; the 
examination will turn upon the general princii)les of agriculture, vine growing, arbori- 
culture and horticulture, and on the sciences in their application to the situation, 
the productions, and the climate of the department. 

Art. 4. The programme of the competition will be decided upon liy the ministers 
of agriculture and public instruction, in accordance with the advice of the agricul- 
tural associations and the general council of the department. 

Art. 5. The candidates must (in order to be admitted to the competition) be 
Frenchmen, and be at least 25 years of age. If they can produce the diploma of 
bachelor of science, or that of the agricultural institute, or of an agricultural school, 
a certain number of marks fixed by the minister of agriculture will be allowed to 
them. 

Art. 6. The professors of agriculture must give lessons at the normal primary 
school (near to which they oitght to reside, if this is possible) , also at other establish- 
ments of public instruction where they are required, and they must give agricultural 
lectures in the different communes of the department to the teachers and agricul- 
turists of the region. 

Art. 7. The salary of the departmental professor of agriculture will be paid from 
the funds of the budget of the ministry of agriculture and from those of the budget 
of the ministry of public instruction. 

The expenses of the journeys will be chargeable to the department. 

Art. 8. The functions, as also the dismissal, of the departmental professors of 
agriculture wall be determined by public administrative enactment. 

The order in question will determine the salary of the departmental professors. 

It will also fix the minimum expenses of the journeys of the professors of agricul- 
ture with reference to each department in accordance with the advice of the general 
council. 



20 

Art. 9. The prnfegsors of agriculture already actually employed, whether they 
have been nominated after competition or not, will not have to undergo the test of a 
new competition. 

AiiT. 10. Three years after the (complete organization of agricultural instruction in 
normal primary schoola elementary instruction in agriculture will be included in 
the obligatory subjects of primary education. 

In those departments, however, in which instruction in agriculture has already 
been organized at the normal primary school for more than three years, the depart- 
mental council of public instruction may decide whether this same instruction shall 
be compulsory in all the primary schools of the department. 

The ]>rogrammes of this instruction in each department will be drawn up after 
consultation with the departmental council of public instruction. 

Decree of June 9, 1880, relative to the departmental professors of agriculture in France. 

Article 1. Each competition to be opened in a department for the appointment 
to the functions of departmental professor of agriculture is to be announced three 
months beforehand by the insertion of a notice in the official journal. 

Within two months, dating from the insertion of this notice, the candidates must 
address their demand to be admitted to the competition either to the ministry of 
agriculture and commerce, or to the prefecture of the department where they reside. 
With their demand they must send in a certificate of birth, a certificate of good con- 
duct and behavior, and a statement setting forth their antecedents, their titles, and 
their scientific works. 

Art. 2. The minister of agriculture and commerce prepares the list of candidates 
admitted to the competition. 

This list is definitely decided upon in concert with the minister of public instruc- 
tion and fine arts. 

Art. 3. The jury is to meet on the day fixed by the order of the minister of agri- 
culture and commerce, by whom it has been constituted, to examine the papers of 
the candidates and to settle the order of the examination tests. 

Art. 4. The competition comprises three sorts of tests: 

A written test, oral tests, and practical tests. 

The programme of the competition, drawn up as set forth in article 4 of the law of 
the 16th of June, 1879, is published in the official journal, with the notice prescribed 
in article 1 of the present order. 

Art. 5. The official report of the operations of the jury is to be addressed, together 
with the papers of the candidates, to the minister of agriculture and commerce, who 
transmits them to his colleague, the minister of education and fine arts, together 
with a scheme for the issue of the appointments. 

The original of the scheme must be deposited at the ministry of agriculture and 
commerce. 

Art. 6. The departmental professors of agriculture can be dismissed by either one 
of the two ministers, after notice to his colleague. 

The decision leads to the complete dismissal of the functionary. 

Art. 7. The salary of the departmental professors of agriculture is paid as follows: 
Half from the funds of the budget of the ministry of agriculture and commerce, and 
half from that of education and fine arts. 

Art. 8. The departmental professors of agriculture are divided into four classes, 
the salaries of which are fixed as follows: 

First class $871.20 

Second class 774. 40 

Third class - - 677. 60 

Fourth class 580. 80 



21 

The first nomination i.« always to the fourth class. 

The transfer from one class to that immediately above it can only take place after 
three years' service at least. 

This promotion is decided upon by the two ministers (of agriculture and com- 
merce and of education and fine arts). 

Art. 9. The costs of the journeys of the departmental professor of agriculture, to 
be charged to the dei)artment by article 7 of the law of June 16, 1879, are fixed in 
each dei)artment by the general c-ouncil; but they nuist not be less than the sum of 
$9(».S0 annually. 

This expenditure must not be deducted from the funds appropriated to the service 
of primary education. 

Akt. 10. The departmental i)rofessor8 of agriculture are especially appointed for 
the department in which they have competed. They may, however, be called upon, 
in consecjuence of an order arranged between the two ministers, to remove into 
another department in whic-h the conditions of agriculture are analogous. 

Akt. 11. Departmental i)rofessors of agriculture, who accept elective appointments 
in the departments to which they have been nominated, are considered to have 
resigned. 

Art. 12. The duties of the departmental professor of agriculture are comprised in 
the conditions set forth in the following articles: 

(1) Agricultural instruction in the normal primary school and, if necessary, in 
the other establishments of public instruction. 

(2) Agricultural lectures in the country districts. 

(3) Works or investigations with which he nmy be intrusted by the prefect of 
the department or by the minister of agriculture and commerce. 

Art. 13. The programme <jf the course given at the normal primary sc^hool is pro- 
mulgated by the minister of education and fine arts, the superior council of public 
instruction approving, after consultation with the minister of agriculture and 
commerce. 

This course is to be followed by pupils of the second and third years. It is based 
on two lessons a week, supplemented by a practical exercise or an agricultural 
excursion. 

Art. 14. The agricultural lectures in the country are to be delivered according to 
a programme decided upon each year by the minister of agriculture and commerce. 
There are to be at least twenty-six in each year. The localities in which they are 
to take place will be decided upon by the prefect. 

Art. 15. A report of these lectures is to be addressed by the professor at the end 
of each year to the prefect of the department, to be transmitted to the minister of 
agriculture and commerce, and also to the general council of the department. 

Art. 16. Independently of the duties specified in the preceding articles, the depart- 
mental professor of agriculture is to furnish to the prefect all possible information 
respecting the agriculture of his department. 

Art. 17. The ministers of agriculture and commerce and of education and fine arts 
are charged, each one as far as he is personally concerned, with the execution of 
this decree. 

HUNGARY. 

Hungary has an area of 125,039 square miles of territory, and had 
a population in 1900 of 19,254,559, about 75 per cent of whom are 
engaged in agriculture. Many of the estates of the nobles embrace 
as much as 500,000 acres; holdings by the peasants range from one- 
half acre to more than 100 acres. In 1895 it was estimated that 48.5 
per cent of the arable land was included in holdings of from 5 to 100 



22 

acres. The small farmers, for purposes of cultivation, add to the area 
that they own in fee portions of adjoining estates, which they lease, 
and for the use of which a mone}' rental is paid. 

In Hungary the State has assumed responsibility for the develop- 
ment of her agriculture to a greater extent than in any other European 
country. The State has organized, controls, and supports a system of 
colleges, schools, demonstration and research stations for instruction 
in agriculture that is remarkably complete. 

There is, first of all, the agricultural college at Magyar-6var, in 
which higher teaching in agriculture is given. Then there are 4 mid- 
dle schools or agricultural colleges very finely equipped. There are 21 
tillage schools, a veterinary college, an arboricultural college, a dairy 
high school, a horticultural college, a poultry-farming school, a bee- 
farming school, a meadow-culture school, 8 schools for vine dressers, 
5 State stock farms, an agricultural museum, 80 model demonstration 
farms, and a large number of Avinter agricultural schools, attended in 
1901 by about 300,000 persons, all of them either cultivators of farms, 
landed proprietors, or teachers. 

The "tillage" or "farming" schools are intended for the education 
of the peasantry in a way to qualify them as managers of small farms, 
or as foremen and head laborers on large estates. The course is of 
two years' duration, and is intensely practical in character. 

The five State farms embrace 163,000 acres of land, and have yielded 
an annual revenue to the Government of almost $1,500,000. They are 
devoted chiefly to the breeding and rearing of pure-bred horses and 
cattle. Each spring, stallions are sent out under the care of soldiers 
and distributed so as to be available- for service in all communities. 
The number of registered stallions in 1901 owned by the Government 
was 3,100. There is also a large number of well-bred bulls sold from 
the stock farms to local communities, the purchase money being raised 
by a tax levied by the parish council. In 1901, 3,428 bulls were 
distributed and sold. 

The poultry farm is managed in much the same manner as the stock 
farms referred to. The roosters are exchanged with the peasants for 
common fowls, as well as are eggs of pure-bred poultry for hatching 
purposes. Over 7,000 roosters were exchanged by the State farms with 
the peasants in a single 3^ear. 

The eighty model farms are conducted chiefly for purposes of demon- 
stration, and are either rented or purchased by the Government. In 
all cases an expeit is placed in charge of each farm, who is under the 
direction of the agricultural minister, and who cultivates such crops 
only as serve to cnlight(Mi the citizens of the particular conununity 
in which the farm is located as to the adaptal)ility of that particular 
crop to their locality. The farms are only used for a few years, when 



23 

they are sold or surrendered, and the stations arc moved to other com- 
munities. In this way the people in all sections of the country are 
made acciuaintod with new and improved methods in agriculture 
through practical demonstrations. 

ITINERANT LECTURERS. 

In addition to the foregoing elaborate system of instruction in agri- 
culture, there is in operation a system of institutes not unlike those of 
the United States. During the year lU()8-4, 3<»0 agricultural meet- 
ings of this character were held in Hungary, at w^hich there were in 
attendance over 24-5000 persons. The meetings were addressed by a 
corps of 635 lecturers. 

The lecture force is divided into two classes. One class is composed 
of what are known as ''itinerant lecturers," and the other as "ama- 
teurs." The ••itinerant lecturers" are appointed by the agricultural 
minister. Their duties are to travel through the lural districts and 
deliver lectures on agricultural matters, making known the newest 
results of experience and the most approved methods for the improve- 
ment of agriculture. These lecturers are employed by the year, and 
are paid salaries ranging from 8050 to 8T50. with from 8T.5 to $200 
additional for house rent and $200 annually for traveling expenses. 

The "amateurs" are chosen from time to time b}^ the local agricul- 
tural societies from among experts and capable landlords, farmers, 
college men, and county and State officials. They lecture only during 
the winter and receive but a small compensation in addition to their 
traveling expenses. These " amateurs " deal more particularly with 
the practical side of agriculture, and are selected with special regard 
to the local conditions that exist in the several communities. 

Many of the lectures are given on Sundays and holidays. This is 
the usual rule when da^^time meetings are held. During week days 
the lectures are given in the evenings in town halls and schoolhouses. 
At times under special circumstances, wiien the attendance is unusu- 
ally large, meetings are held in the open air. 

Many of the lectures are published by the agricultural minister, and 
distributed free among those in attendance at the institute meetings. 
The organization of the courses in the winter schools, together with 
the selection of the dates and places of the meetings, is intrusted to the 
local agricultural societies, who are required to present a detailed plan 
of the course two or three months in advance to the agricultural 
minister. 

In 1903-4 over 2,400 lectures on agricultural subjects were delivered 
in farmers' institute meetings. 



24 

ITALY. 

During" the year 1903 about ninety '' conferences" of farmers, sim- 
ilar to institute meeting's, were held in Ital}. 

The teachers who give instruction in the conferences are chosen 
from among- the doctors of agrai'ian science, graduates of the higher 
agricultural schools of the Kingdom, after a competitive exan)ination 
held by the administration authorities in the several provinces. The 
selections, however, must subsequently be approved by the minister 
of agriculture of the Kingdom. 

Applicants for the itinerant chair of agriculture must submit proof 
of having spent three ycai's in the attainment of the degree of doctor 
of agricultural science, during which time proper training must have 
been had in the application of scientific truth to practical agriculture. 
Preference is given to those who have acquired their training in 
applied science in a school or institute of agriculture, or in connection 
with an agricultural experiment station. The applicant must also have 
undergone an apprenticeship of not less than one 3'ear on an agricul- 
tural estate. The examination consists of a written test, a reading or 
conference, a discussion, and a practical test in the field. 

The lecturers are officially known as directors of itinerant chairs of 
agriculture, and have their office addresses in the capitals of the pro- 
vinces or districts in which they severally reside. They are employed 
during the entire year, and it is their duty to hold meetings in the 
towns, villages, and countr\^ communities of the province or district to 
which they are assigned. 

The functions of the itinerant chair of agriculture are: To hold con- 
ferences of a practical nature in a simple form regarding the various 
phases of agronomy, animal industry, wine, oil making, etc.; to reply 
to oral and written questions from private individuals and societies 
regarding agricultural matters; to institute experimental fields, pub- 
lish results obtained in such experiments, and assume the direction of 
such fields; to collect stati.stics regarding agricultural production in 
the region covered by the chair; to maintain vigilance against the inva- 
sion of parasitic insects and infectious diseases of plants and animals, 
and to publish circulars in simple language containing practical advice 
to farmers. They aim also to develop organization among farmers; to 
establish cooperative societies for the production and sale of agricul- 
tural products; to experiment with agricultural machinery; to intro- 
duce new plants and ])etter methods of cultivation throughout the 
provinces; to devise useful ])lans for the amelioration of agricultural 
conditions in general, and by verbal consultation and written com- 
munications to gi\e expert advice to those who desire it. 

Their salaries range from $700 to $1,000 jxm- year. Three-fifths of 
the expense of n)aintaining itinerant chairs is borne by the province 
or district and two-fifths b}^ the minister of agriculture. 



25 

The total expense for the 3^ear 1903 was about $150,000, of which 
alxnit ^-l-'2,50() was from Government orant throiio-h the minister of 
at,nicultiiro and the hahince l)y eontributions by the provinces and 
districts and ])y the local agricultural organizations. 

NETHERLANDS. 

Each of the eleven provinces of the Netherlands has an agricultural 
societ3\ There is also in the Kingdom a ccntial council of.agriculture, 
composed of representatives electi'd l)y the various provincial societies. 
This central council, which meets periodically at The Hague, endeavors 
not only to improve the agriculture of the coimtry directly by offering 
suggestions to the subordinate provincial soci(?ties, but also acts as the 
adviser in agricultural affairs of the ministry under whose direction 
the department of agriculture is placed. The wisdom and influence 
of this central council are recognized by the State to the extent that 
no important measure affecting agriculture is undertaken by the min- 
istry without the advice and consent of the council. 

In each of the provinces there is also a State professor of agricul- 
ture, whose duties are to deliver lectures on agriculture, to inspect 
jind direct the State experiment stations, of which there arc five; to 
inspect the winter agricultural courses, and to provide instruction for 
primary school-teachers who desire to obtain agricultural certificates. 

There are two kinds of agricultural winter schools. One is local 
or permanent, and is n)aintained by the provincial agricultural society, 
aided by the State; the other is migratory. The permanent schools 
send out itinerant teachers, who give courses of. instruction to farmers, 
who meet and organize classes in the various centers much after the 
manner practiced in Belgium. The courses of study for these mov- 
able schools are arranged with a view to the presentation of a single 
topic and for continuing its discussion until a reasonably thorough 
acquaintance with the subject has been had by the members of the 
class. The courses are also sufficiently numerous to embrace the most 
important subjects of agricultural operj^tion, a separate course and 
school being organized for each. 

The experiment fields and gardens which the Government has estab- 
lished all over the country, and to which reference has been made, are 
utilized by the itinerant teachers in their instruction work, who visit 
them frequently with their classes and observe the results of the various 
experiments as they develop. 

These movable schools of Holland have been found to be a most 
effective means for conveying instruction in agriculture to the homes 
of the people. They bring the experience and observation of men of 
large acquaintance with agricultural affairs to the attention and aid of 
those Avhose occupation and surroundings have limited their knowledge 
of farming largely to what has been practiced in their own communities. 



26 

Throuoh tho aid supplied by the local experiment fields and gardens 
the itinerant teachers are able also to demonstrate in an ocular, and 
therefore most convincing wa}'^, the truth of many of the theori(!s that 
the}' pr(\sent and to show their adaptability to the conditions that exist 
in that particular community. 

PRUSSIA. 

The methods pursued in imparting agricultural instruction in Prussia 
are substantially those in use in the other German States. The Prus- 
sian S3'stem is therefore presented as typical of work of this character 
throughout the Empire. 

In reply to an inquiry respecting the system in use in Prussia cor- 
responding to the farmers' institutes of the United States, the follow- 
ing statement was received from the minister of agriculture and forestry 
of Prussia: 

The different provinces of the Kingdom of Prussia, twelve in number, are pro- 
vided with chambers of agriculture, established by law as bodies representing the 
agricultural interests of the province. Under the auspices of these institutions 
courses of lectures for practical farmers are given each year. The course, as a rule, 
lasts for from two to five days. The lectures are delivered either where the chambers 
are located or at some other convenient and accessible place. 

The instruction is free to all farmers except that in some rare instances a nominal 
tuition is required. The lectures are delivered by professors of neighboring schools, 
by leading practical agriculturists, or by officers of the chamber. The su})iect treated 
in the lecture is usually discussed before adjournment. 

The preparation and selection of the topics, as w-ell as the direction and carrying 
out of the course, is entirely in the hands of the chamber of agriculture, and the 
money paid for the lectures is drawn from their appropriation. The fee for a one- 
hour discourse is usually from 50 to 100 marks [|12 to ?24]. 

The attendance varies considerably in the different provinces, but an average 
attendance upon a course may be assumed to be about 100. These courses for prac- 
tical farmers have proved a success and are considered as a very valuable.complement 
to the activities of the different grades of agricultural schools. 

In a report on agricultural education in north Germany b}' Mr. 
H. M. Jenkins, secretary of the Royal Agricultural Society of Eng- 
land, the sj'stem of agricultural education in north German}^ by 
means of itinerant lecturers is very fully outlined. He states that: 

They travel through the provinces and discuss the more important agricultural 
questions at assendilies of farmers convoked for the purpose. After the lecture, fol- 
low discussions and an exchange of views and experiences. The lecturers are usually 
teachers in the winter agricultural schools who give instruction in these sc1k)o1s in 
the winter and take up the work of traveling lecturers [Wander-Lehrer] during the 
summer. 

The relation existing between the winter agricultural schools and 
the summer courses of lectures is such that for the proper under- 
standing of their respective functions it is necessary that the character 
and purpose of each of these classes of schools should be outlined. 



27 

The object and character of the winter schools are stated ])v Mr. 
flonkins as follows: 

(d) The oljjoft of the aijrieultnral winter sehools is to eoiitimie the general echiea- 
tion of young men wlio have left the elementary schools, as well as to give them 
instrnetion in technical siil)jects hearing uiion agricnltnre, and in agriculture itself. 
Only those young men are received into these schools whose final certificates from 
the elementary schools show that they are in a position to profit by the instruction 
which is given in the winter schools. 

{b) The instruction is arranged for two winter courses in such a manner that in 
the first course the general education is continue<l and the groundwork for the sec- 
ond course is laid. In the second winter the instruction given is chiefly technical. 
Thirty-three hours in each week are devoted to the lessons, and the transfer of pupils 
from the second to the first class depends upon the manner in which they pass tlieir 
examination at the end of the first winter course. 

{(■) The instruction begins on the .Sd or 4th of November in each year, and con- 
cludes with a public examination at the end of the following INIarch. During the 
remaining seven months the pupils are employed on the farms of their jiarents or 
ujion other agricultural holdings, and then the director of the school acts as a travel- 
ing lecturer and adviser within the district for which the school has been organized. 

The foliowino- detailed plan of the studies will give a sufficiently 
accurate idea of the scope of the instruction furnished at these schools: 

FIRST WINTER. 

Hours 
A. — Natural science and agriculture: per week. 

1 . Elementary agricultural chemistry (inorganic) ) 

2. Mineralogy and soils I 

8. Zoology, especially of domesticated animals | 

4. [a) Cattle breeding and rearing - > 7 

{!>) Dairying > 

5. Physics (mechanics and electricity) 3 

6. Farm management, bookkeeping, etc 5 

B. — General education: 

7. German language 5 

S. Arithmetic, land surveying, and leveling 4 

9. Drawing 2 

33 

SKCOND WINTER. 

A.— Natural science and agriculture: 

1. Elementary agricultural chemistry (organic) 7 

2. («) Botany and vegetable physiology (general) - "i 

(h) Agricultural botany and vegetable physiology, including plant > 7 

diseases, irrigation, and gardening J 

3. Physics and meteorology (including light and heat) 3 

4. Farm management (capital, labor, and organization) 5 

B. — General education: 

5. German language 5 

6. Arithmetic, land surveying, and leveling 4 

7. Drawing 2 



33 



28 

The ages of the pupils at the winter schools vary from 15 to 30 
3^ear.s, and the school is divided into two classes, the lower of which 
is regarded as prcparator}- to the higher in the following winter. In 
one school referred to by Mr. Jenkins as typical there was the director, 
who was also the itinerant lecturer of the district, and seven assistant 
teachers, all eniploj^ed in teaching about forty pupils. The salary of 
the director is $750 per year. 

The following set of printed instructions issued b}^ the president of 
the Agricultural Societ}^ of Rhenish Prussia gives in detail the duties 
of the director of the winter school, and also his work as agricultural 
itinerant lecturer: 

During the five winter months, from the first of November to the first of April, the 
director is to give instruction in his school in natural science and in agriculture. The 
remaining seven months he is to spend as itinerant lecturer in his school district. 

His services belong entirely to the society, and he is not permitted to undertake 
any other professional occupation. 

In his double capacity of director of the school and traveling lecturer he has to 
cooperate not only with the several branches of the Agricultural Society of Rhenish 
Prussia, but also with the agricultural authorities and the school inspectors of his 
district, and to use every means to specially interest the latter in the school intrusted 
to his care. 

He is expected to visit the burgomasters, the chief officials of the place, the clergy, 
the schoolmasters, and the principal landowners of his district, with a view of inter- 
esting them likewise in the school. 

THE DIRECTOR AS AGRICULTURAL ITINERANT LECTURER. 

During the months in which there is no school the director of the 
winter school spends hi.s time as agricultural itinerant lecturer in his 
school district. 

(1) After having agreed with the president of the society and with the directors of 
the several divisions of his school district, he is to travel through the said district to 
deliver his lectures, to study the existing agricultural conditions, to point out defects 
to those concerned, to explain their causes, and to specify the ways and means for 
their improvement. 

He is to use his influence toward ])r(>motiiig the execution of such im])rovements 
and to see that they are carried out. 

He has to pay special attention to the aims which the individual farmers have each 
in view and to the arrangements made for the attainment of this end, and to note 
whether aim and arrangement are suited to the circumstances. Further, he must 
direct his attention to the animals, their breeding and use, the number and fitness 
of the male animals, the manner of feeding, the stabling and the management of the 
manure heaps, the condition and extent of the arable land and pasturage in propor- 
tion to the live stock, the implements employed and desirable additions, how far 
artificial manure is used, the draft animals, whetlierthe available capital is sufficient, 
purchase and rent value per acre according to the quality of the soil, drainage, foot- 
[)aths, succession of croj)S, orchard management, horticulture, market gardening, 
winter employment, and piecework. 

He must encourage parents to send their sons to the winter schools. During his 
journeys he must endeavor to visit young men who, having gone through their coun^e 
of studies, have returned home, and encourage them in their work. 



29 

(2) As in many instances in«livitlual means and powers are insufficient, he must 
point out to the small jtroprietors the advantages to i>e gained by intelligent coopera- 
tion, and must give all possil)le information al)Out the establishment of loan societies, 
cooperative foo<l-supply associations, societies for the insurance of live stock, vine 
dressers' societies, agricultural clubs, etc. ; he must point out how such institutions 
can and nnist be created by the farmers themselves ar.d the advantages that may 
accrue from them. 

(3) He must a.ssist in controlling the pro])er application and observance of the 
conditions upon which the subsidies i)aid by the State and the society are granted, 
and for this purpose he will receive a list of the same from the secretary-general and 
must sxate the result in his yearly report. 

He must explain to the agricultural population the objects and usefulness of the 
institution, and the protection and advantage it offers, such as laboratories for chem- 
ical analyses and experiments, stations where bulls, ])<)ars, and staljions are to be 
found, cattle shows and prizes, institutions for the trial of machines and implements, 
agricultural clubs, exhibitions, etc., and encourage their j)articipation in these 
organizations. 

(4) He must give theoretical and practical courses of instruction at the proper 
season on beehives and the j^roper rearing of bees, and on fruit trees and vines and 
their treatment, and also on agricultural bookkeeping on a selected farm. He must 
appoint a stated time for these lectures and issue a i)ul)lic invitation to ail to attend 
them. 

(5) In liis annual or in separate reports he is to make suggestions as to the means 
which should l>e adopted on the part of the society for encouraging such improve- 
ments as he shall have found to be necessary. 

(6) He must visit the existing agricultural schools and improvement clubs on his 
journeys and register and report their condition, hold conferences with the directors, 
and use his influence toward the erection of new clubs. 

(7) He has to keep a diary of everything im2»ortant that he has observed and done 
during his journeys, and include a statement of the same in his report to the president 
of the society. 

The itinerant lecturer is to have a month's holiday from the 15th of July to the 
15th of August. 

RUSSIA. 

A statement of the methods employed in reaching the rural popula- 
tion of Russia with agricultural information has been furnished by 
the Russian minister of agriculture in the following communication: 

Agricultural information is disseminated among the farming population of Russia 
by means of special lectures upon the most important local problems of each locality, 
and by means of systematic courses of instruction in the schools, including full 
details in concise form, upon some one branch of agricultural science. Recently 
information concerning agricultural subjects has been spread among the farming 
population by means of itinerant teachers. By this means the farmers are directly 
met and aided, and the instructors are also enabled to unite with their technical 
knowledge of agricultural science a practical acquaintance and understanding of the 
agricultural and social conditions and needs that exist among the people to whom 
their instruction is addressed. Such an arrangement has made possible an unusu- 
ally wide distribution of agricultural information. 

In these movable courses of lectures the attending farmers acquaint themselves 
with recent investigations concerning the various branches of agricultural science, 
and a similar fund of information is made available through courses given by the 
teachers to pupils in the primary agricultural schools of the various communities. 



30 

As a rule, the themes selected by the lecturers and teachers are such as are cal- 
culated to exert an inflrence in the further agricuiltural develoi)nient of the locality 
concerned. The persons concerned in giving these lectures and courses of instruc- 
tion are agronomists, teachers in agricultural institutions, agricultural inspectors, 
specialists, and instructors in agricultural branches in various educational institu- 
tions. Systematic courses of lectures and instruction are given in practical garden- 
ing, raising field crops, etc. The teachers and lecturers receive for their work suit- 
able compensation from the department of agriculture. 

Agricultural courses for common school pupils were organized in 1903. At this 
time a special connnittee was appointed by the Government for the purpose of pre- 
paring a progrannne of courses and instruction in agriculture, together with a list of 
themes to be discussed, books, charts, and other material to assist in instruction. 
During that year 20 educational institutions offered courses in agriculture, and 450 
persons were enrolled as students in these courses. 

The general administration of "outside" or "itinerant" class work in agricultural 
subjects is a function of the department of agriculture in St. Petersburg. 

SWEDEN. 

Provision for imparting technical instruction in agriculture in 
Sweden, 75 per cent of whose population is engaged. in this occupa- 
tion, is made through schools in the several districts organized and 
equipped for the special purpose. The establishing of a large number 
of stationary schools of agriculture for adults in preference to the itin- 
erant system seems to have been decided upon after a careful exami- 
nation of this kind of instruction in other countries, which accounts for 
the absence of the movable' school. 

Three distinct classes of high schools have been organized and are 
in operation in Sweden: People's high schools for men; people's high 
schools for women, and high schools for peasants. The first of these, 
or the people's high schools for men, was opened in 1868. As the 
title suggests, they are intended for men, the average age at which 
pupils enter being 21 or 22 years, although the minimum age for 
admission is 18. 

The people's high schools at first were supported entirely by private 
subscription, but later were aided by the Government with grants not 
exceeding $800 for schools having a one-year course, and not more, 
than $1,350 for schools having a two-^^ear course, the latter smn being 
given on condition that at least one-fourth of the pupils of the first- 
year course come back the second year. 

The people's high schools are all located in the country, and their 
popularity is evidenced b}^ their number, which in 1903 had reached 
872. The lectures and classes of these schools occupy about twenty- 
two weeks, the school terms being arranged to come between the 
months of November and April, a season of (;omparative cessation of 
field work. 

Each course takes for its completion 955 hours of recitation or 
lectures. 



31 

The subjects taught in the school at Hvilan, as reported by Mr. J. V. 
Jonsson, head master of the people's high school at Kafvesta, are: 

Swedit^h, 120 hour^; Scandinavian history, 80 hours; general history and geog- 
raphy, 100 hours; history of literature, 40 hours; national economy, 20 hours; politi- 
cal and municipal science, 50 hours; physics, botany, zoology, and geology, 45 hours; 
agricultural chemistry, 50 hours; anatomy and hygiene, 10 hours; geometry, 20 hours; 
arithmetic, 100 hours; bookkeeping and practical training, 70 hours; drawing and 
architecture, 90 hours, and gymnastics, 100 hours. 

The course, it will be seen, is constructed with a view to affording 
information upon such topics as enter into a general education. 

It was found after several jears of trial that the pupils who entered 
the people's high schools were for the most part sons of farmers and 
were themselves farmers. It soon Ixn-ame evident not only that one 
winter was too short a period in which to give the training needed by 
these young men, but also that a more technical course of study was 
needed to e([uip them for their work. Accordingly, in 1882 a conuuis- 
sion Avas appointed l>y the King to prepare a scheme for the organiza- 
tion of agricultural instruction in the Kingdom, which resulted in the 
establishment of a second class of schools, called high schools for 
peasants. These sch.ools were intended to give theoretical instruction 
in agriculture to young men over 18 years of age who have gone 
through the i)eo[)lc's high school. For admission to this school they 
must also have prosecuted farming for at least one j^ear. 

The high schools for peasants are with a few exceptions annexed to 
the people's high schools, and are under the innnediate control of the 
agricultural department. They are aided by th(> State, but arc recpiired 
at the same time to provide an equal sum from fees and other local 
sources. The course extends over a period of 20 months. 

The practical training of the students is usually accomplished 
through the school authorities finding positions for them as laboring 
pupils on some large estate, the proprietor supplying them with board 
and lodging and a small compensation for clothes. Sometimes they 
secure positions as under stewards on plantations. 

The courses of stud}- in these schools are chiefly agricultural. The 
subjects given in one at Kafves-ta in 1903 were: 

Physics, 24 hours; chemistry, 38 hours; botany, 29 hours; zoology, 26 hours; 
geology, 40 hours; science of agricultural practice, 84 hours; agricultural economy, 
12 hours; care of domestic animals, 51 hours; veterinary science, 17 hours; dairying, 
10 hours; forestry, 8 hours; building construction, 8 hours; geometrical drawing, 58 
hours; surveying, 71 hours; geometry, 20 hours; arithmetic, 60 hours; Swedish, 60 
hours; municipal expenses, 19 hours; composition, 30 hours; debates, 36 hours; 
bookkeeping, 60 hours; singing, 40 hours, and gymnastics, 70 hours; making a total 
of 871 hours. 

These schools, first established in 1886, have increased until in 1903 
they numbered 239. There are 30 districts in Sweden. In all but seven 



32 

people's high schools have been organizetl, and the effort has been to 
have them so distributed and sufficiently numerous as to make them 
easil}' accessible to young- men in all parts of the Kingdom. 

It is proposed to add '' special " courses for small farmers who can 
not attend school for a whole winter, but who would be greath^ bene- 
fited by having the opportunity to enter upon a brief course of study 
to last only a few weeks. In connection with these special courses 
and as a part of the system of instruction small farms of only a few 
acres are to be attached to the schools as demonstration farms. The 
purpose is to conduct them not for experimentation, but as illustra- 
tions or demonstrations of the best methods of successful agricultural 
production. These "model" farms serve to show how a small farm 
can be successfully managed, and thus encourage the students to pur- 
chase and conduct similar farms for themselves. 

High schools for women were undertaken in 1869 as separate insti- 
tutions, but owing to the brief period, only two or three months in 
the year during which they could be in operation, the project failed. 
Later these schools were organized in connection with the high schools 
for peasants and the people's high schools, as a summer course, begin- 
ning at the close of the men's winter courses and extending over about 
three months, May, June, and July. The studies were of a general 
character during the first year, supplemented by courses in practice, 
such as cookery, canning, weaving, gardening, poultr}^ keeping, etc. 
This practical course is made a special feature in the w^ork of the 
second year. 

In 1903 636 high schools for women had been established and were 
in successful operation. 

The system, therefore, that has been adopted in Sweden, providing 
for the instruction of adults in agriculture, consists in establishing a 
large number of high schools in which agriculture is taught, and which 
are in session for men for five months and for women three months, 
the men attending in the winter during the period of suspension of 
farming operations and the women during the spring and early summer 
after the men's sessions have ended. 



O 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS ON 
FARMERS' INSTITUTES. 

Bri.LETINiS. 

Bulletin No. 79. Farmers' Institutes: Historv and Status in the United States and Canada. Ky L. TI. 
Bailey. Pp. 34. 1900. 

Bulletin No. 110. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the American Association of Farmers' 
Institute Workers, held at Buffalo, N. Y.. September 18 and 19, 1901. Edited by A. C. True, D.J. 
Crosby, and G. C. Creelman. Pp. 5.5. 

Bulletin No. 120. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Meeting of the American As.sociation of 
Farmers' Institute Workers, held at Wa.shington, D. C. .June '24, 25, and 26, 1902. Edited by A.C. 
True and I). J. Crosby for the Office of Kxperiment Stations, and G. C. Creelman for the As.socia- 
tion: Pp. 119. - " 

Bulletin No. 135 (Revised). Legislation Relating /to Farmers' Institutes in the United States. By 
.lohn Hamilton, Farmers' Institute Specialist. Pp. 3.5. 1905. 

Bulletin No. 138. Proceedings of the Fjghth Annual Meeting of the American Association of Farmers' 
Institute Workers, held at Toronto, Ontario, .lune 23 to 2(;, 1903. Edited by W. H. Beal for the 
Office of Experiment Stations, and G. C. Creelman for the As.sociation. Pp. 119. 

Bulletin No. 154. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Meeting of the .\merican A.ssociation of Farmers' 
Institute Workers, held at St. Louis, Mo., October 18 to 20. 1904. Edited by W. H. Beal and .John 
Hamilton for the OHice of Experiment Stations, and G. C. Creelman for the Association. Pp.91. 

Bulletin No. 155. Agricultural Instruction for Adults in the British Empire. By John Hamilton. 
Pp. 9ti. 1905. 

CIRCUI.AK. 

Circular No. .51 (Revised). Li.st of State Directors of Farmers' Institutes and Farmers' Institute Lec- 
turers of the United SUites. By John Hamilton. Pp.32. 1905. 

SEPARATES. 

Farmers' Institutes in the United States. ByD. J. Crosby. ReT>rint from Annual Report of the 
Office of Experiment Stations for the year ended June 30, 1902. Pp. 25. 

Farmers' Institutes in the United States. By John Hamilton. Reprint from Annual Report of the 
Office of Experiment Stations for the year ended June 30, 1903. Pp. 57. 

Farmers' Institutes. By John Hamilton. Reprint from Yearbook, Department of Agriculture, 1903. 
Pp. 10. 

Annual Report of Farmers' Institutes. By John Hamilton. Reprint from Annual Report of the 
Office ot Experiment Stations for the year ended Jinie 30, 1904. Pp. 58. 

Farmers' Institutes in the United States. By John Hamilton. Doc. No. 711. Pp. '20. A pamphlet 
prepared for distribution at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 



Farmers' Institute Lecture No. 1. Syllabus of Illustrated Lecture on the Care of Milk, accompanied 
with 44 lantern slides. By R. A. Pearson. Pp. 12. 1904. 

Farmers' Institute Lecture No. 2. Syllabus of Illustrated Lecture on Potato Di.seases and their Treat- 
ment, accompanied with 47 lantern slides. By F. C. Stewart and H. J. Eustace. Pp. 30. 1904. 

Farmers' Institute Lecture No. 3. Syllabus of Illustrated Lecture on Acid Soils, accompanied with 
53 lantern slides. By H. J. Wheeler. Pp. '28. 1904. 

Farmers' Institute Lecture No. 4. Svllabus of Illustrated Lecture on Profitable Cattle Feeding, ac^com- 
panied with 45 lantern slides. By F. B. Mumford. Pp. 21. 1905. 

Farmers' In.stitute Lecture No. 5. Svllabus of Illustrated Lecture on Silage and Silo Construction for 
the South, accompanied with 50 lantern slides. By A. M. Soule. Pp.31. 1905. 



^00 

i:. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS— BULLETIN NO. 164. 

A. C. TRUE, Director. 



PEOCEEDTXGS 



NINETEENTH ANNUAL CONVENTION 



ASSOCIATION OF AllERICAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND 



rv^nni^TurVT^ tt 



WASHINGTON, D. C, NOVEMBER U-IO, 1905. 



EDITED BY 

A. C. TRUE and W. H. BEAL, for the Office of Experiment Stations, 

AND 

H. C. WHITE, for the Executive Committee of the Association. 



WASHINGTON": 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1906. 



THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. 



Alabama — Auburn: Charles C. Thach." 
Normal: ■^Vm. H. Councill. « Tuske- 
gee: Booker T. Washington. ?' 

Arizona — Tucson: Kendricji C. Bab- 
cock." 

Arkansas— Fayettevllle: J. N. ^ilhnan. « 

California — Berkeleji: Benjamin Ide 
Wheeler.« 

Colorado — Fort ColUm: Barton O. 
xVylesworth.'* 

Connecticut — Starrs: R. W. Stimson.« 

Delaware — Newark: Geo. A. Harter.« 
Dover: W. C. Jason. « 

Florida — Lake City: Andrew Sledd.« 
Tallahassee: Nathan B. Young." 

Georgia — Athens: H. C. White." Savan- 
nah: R. R. Wright." 

Idauo— Moscow : J. A. MacLean." 

Illinois — Urbana: E. J. James." 

Indiana — Lafayette: Winthrop Ellsworth 
Stone." 

Iowa — Ames: Albert Boynton Storms." 

Kansas — Manhattan: Ernest R. Nich- 
ols." 

Kentucky — Lexington: J. K. Patterson." 
Frankfort: James S. Hathaway."- 

Louisiana — Baton Rouge: Thos. D. 
Boyd. a Neiv Orleans: H. A. Hill." 

Maine — Orono: George Emery Fellows." 

Maryland — College Park: R. W. Silves- 
ter." Princess Anne : Frank Trigg. & 

Massachusetts— .Ij^/ifi-s/.- Wm. P. 
Brooks. <^' 

MiCHiCiAN — Agricultural College: J. L. 
Snyder. « 

Minnesota — <St Anthony Park, St. Paul: 
Cyrus Northrop. « ■ 

Mississippi — Agricultural'. College: J. C. 
Hardy." Lorman: L.'j. Rowan." 

Missouri — Columbia : R. :H. Jesse. '^ Jef- 
ferson City: B. F. Allen." 

Montana — Bozeman: Jas. M. Hamilton." 
a President. ?> Principal. 



Nebraska — Lincoln: E. Benjamin An- 

drews.*' 
Nevada — Reno: N. E. Wilson.'' 
New Hampshire— i)M»7(aOT.- Win. D. 

Gibbs." 
New Jersey — A^eir Brunsicick: W. 11. S. 

Demarest." 
New Mexico — Agricultural College: 

Luther Foster. " 
New York — Lthaca: Jacob Gould Schur- 

n:ian." 
North Carolina — West Raleigh: G. T. 

Winston." Greensboro: James B. 

Dudley." 
North Dakota — Agricultural College: J. 

H. Worst." 
Ohio — Columbus: William Oxley 

Thompson. « 
Oklahoma — Sfillwaier: Angelo C. Scott." 

Langston: Inman E. Page." 
Oregon — Corrallis: Thos. M. Gatch." 
Pennsylvania — State College: George "\^■. 

Atherton." <. 

Rhode Island — Kingston: Kenyon L. 

Butterfield." 
South C.^holina — Clemson College: P. H. 

Mell." Orangeburg : Thomas E.Miller." 
South Dakota — Brookings: R. L. Slagle." 
Tennessee — KnoxvUle: Brown Ay res." 
Texas — College Station: H. H. Harriim 

ton." Prairieriew: E, L. Blackshear. '' 
I^TAH — Logan: W. J. Kerr." 
Vermont — Burlington: M. H. Buckham." 
Virginia — Blacksburg: J. M. McBryde." 

Hampton: H. B. Frissell.^ 
Washington — Pullman: E. A. Bryan." 
West Virginia — Morgantown: D. B. Pur- 

inton." Institute: J. McHenry Jones." 
Wisconsin — Madison: Chas. Richard Van 

Hise." 
AVyoming — Laramie: Frederick M. Tis- 

del." 
c Acting president. << Chancellor. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS— BULLETIN NO. 104. 



A. C. TRUE, Director. 



New 



PROCEEDTXGS 



'■''KY 






NINETEENTH AXMAL COXVEXTION 



ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN AliHKHLTrilAL COLLEIiES AM) 
l':\l'EI{l.\IENT STATIONS, 



WASHINGTON, I). C, NOVEMBER U-K!, 1905. 



EDITED BY 



A. C. TRUE and W. H. BEAL, for the Office of Experiment Stations, 

AND 

H. C. WHITE, for the Executive Committee of ihe Association. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1906. 



THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

STAFF. 

A. C. True, Ph. I).— Director. 

E. W. Allen. Ph. D. — Assistant Director and Editor of Experiment station 

Record. 
W. H. Beal. B. a., M. B.— Chief of Editorial Division. 
W. H. Evans, Ph. D. — Chief of Division of Disular Stations. 
Elwood Mead, I). E. — Chief of Irrigation and Drainai/e In rest i(jat ions. 
John Hamilton, B. S., M. S. A. — Farmers' Institute Specialist. 
Mrs. C. E. Johnston — Chief Clerk. 

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENTS. 

W. H. Beal, B. a., M. E. — Meteorolof/i/. Soils, and Fertilizers. 

W. H. Evans, Ph. D. — AyricidtHral Botanii and \eijetable Pathology. 

J. I. ScHULTE, B. S. — Field Crops. 

C. B. Smith, M. S. — Horticulture and Forestnj. 

C. F. Langworthy, Ph. D. — Zootcchny and Human yutrilion. 

H. AV. Lawson, M. S., M. D. — Agrotechng. Dairy Farming, and Dairying. 

W. H. Beal, C. F. Langworthy, ami II. W. Lawson — Agricultural Chemi.^try. 

E. V. Wilcox, Ph. D. — Economic Zoology, Entomology, and Veterinary Medicine. 

S. M. Woodward, M. S., M. A. — Rural Engineering. 

R. P. Teele. M. a. — Rural Economics. 

D. J. Crosby, M. S. — Agricultural Education. 

(2) 



.ElTliR OF TRAXSMITTAL 



U. S. Depart:\iext of A(;Riri^LTURE, 

OlFlCE OF ExPERniENT STATIONS, 

WashirK/to)!, I>. ('., JdniKinj /J, 1906. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith for publication Bulle- 
tin No. KU of this Office, containing the proceedings of the nineteenth 
annual convention of the Association of American Agricultural Col- 
leges and Experiment Stations held at Washington, D. C, November 
14-16, 1905. 

Respectfully, A. C. True, 

Director. 
Hon. James AVilson, 

Secretary of Ac/ricidture. 

(3) 



C0\T1-:XTS. 

Pape 

Officers and committees of the assoc-iation -- '7 

List of delegates and \nsitors in attendance -.-- 9 

Constitution of the association - H 

Minutes of the general session 1-^ 

Address by Hon. James Wilson. Secretary of Agriculture 15 

Report of the executive committee 16 

Report of treasurer - - ^0 

Report of the bibliographer - -0 

Uniform fertilizer and feeding stuff legislation 27 

Report of committee on methods of seed testing - 27 

Forestry in land-grant institutions 27, 53 

Instructions to executive committee regarding Congressional legisla- 
tion ;----- 28.42 

Resolution regarding a department of agricultural education in the 

National Educational Association 2S, 47 

Statistical work of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 29. 49 

Petition of Association of Mining Schools regarding indorsement of 

Mondell bill 29 

Annual address of the president of the association 29 

Report of committee on methods of teaching agriculture 37 

Report of the committee on graduate study -^9 

Report of committee on pure-food legislation 41 

Claims of experiment stations to the consideration of Congress 46 

Standing committees 46, 50. 66 

Address of Hon. William T. Harris. Commissioner of Education 48 

Report of committee on college and station exhibit at the St. Louis 

Exposition '*9 

Resolution regarding National Grange - - 50 

Resolution regarding Prof. W. O. Atwater 51 

Officers of sections and members of executive committee 51 

Animal and Plant Breeding— The American Breeders" Association 53 

Cooperation between the stations and the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture ' ■^~' 

Meeting place of next convention. ^^ 

Election of general officers •''" 

Work of the Office of Experiment Stations in agricultural education. . . 56 

Vote of thanks to Representatives Adams and Mondell 56 

Annual dues . . - - ^" 

Federal aid in control and extermination of the gypsy moth 57 

Memorial to President H. H. Goodell. ^"^ 

Report of committee on indexing agricultural literature 61 

Report of committee on rural engineering - 62 

Nutrition investigations - -- 64 

Miscellaneous resolutions "5 

(5) 



Minutes of the sections - 67 

Section on college work and administration. 67 

Culture studies in land-grant colleges 67 

The field and functions of the land-grant colleges 67 

Relative amounts of pure and applied science in the land-grant 

colleges . 71 

Courses in agriculture, horticulture, and allied subjects 77 

Horticulture 77 

Other features of the course - 83 

A course in horticulture 84 

Comparison of horticulture courses in different institutions-.. 85 

A standard agricultural course 87 

Election t)f members of executive committee and officers of the 

sections 89 

What is a liberal and practical education for an engineer? 90 

A degree course in home economics 92 

What ought a degree course in home economics to include? . . 96 

To what extent should the degrees in land-grant colleges be 

severely technical and scientific? f 99 

Address of Hon. William T. Harris 103 

Discipline — student control 106 

The land-grant colleges and normal schools 117 

The relations of the land-grant colleges to the State universities. -. 119 

The land-grant colleges and the public schools 124 

The ' ' open door ' ' for the land-grant college — the farmers 126 

Section on experiment station work . 133 

Report of committee on agricultural federation . . - 133 

Soil ferlility in relation to permanent agricultiire 134 

Unification of terms used in chemical analysis 148 

Report of committee on methods for the testing of cereals 149 

Some results of an old method for determining available plant food 

in soils 151 

Soil investigation 156 

Officers of the section ^. 170 

Demonstration work by the experiment stations 170 

Index of names --- 187 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 

Diagram I. Seven-year average total produce of corn, oats, and wheat 158 

II. Three-year average yield of clover hay 159 



OFFICERS AND COMMITTFFS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Prcsiiloit. 

M. n, RucKiiAM, of Vermont. 

Tice-Prcsideuts. 

C. C. TiiACH, of Alabama : J. II. Worst, of Xortli Dakota ; 

E. H. Jenkins, of Connecticut; B. I. Wheelek. of California; 

Luther Foster, of New Mexico. 

Secrctiry and Trca-siircr. 

J. L. II ILLS, of Vermont. 

Bihliographer. 

A. C. True, of Wa.shington. D. C. 

Executive Committee. 

H. C. White, of Georgia. Chair.; 
J. L. Snyder, of Michigan : C. F. Curtiss, of Iowa ; 

W. II. .TORDAX. of New York ; L. II. Bailey, of New York. 

officers of sections. 

College Work and Adiniiiistrution. 

C. R. Van Hise, of Wisconsin. Chair.: H. C. Price, of Ohio, Secy. 

C. R. Van Hise, of Wisconsin: II. C. Price, of Ohio. Program me Committee. 

Experiment Station Work. 

B. C. BuFFUM, of Wyoming, Chair.; M. A. Scovell, of Kentucky, Seep. 

H. P. Armsby, of Pennsylvania ; C. F. Cuetiss, of Iowa ; M. A. Scovell, of 
Kentucky, Programme Committee. 

standing committees. 

Instruction in Agriculture. 

For three years, A. C. True, of Washington. D. C. Chair., and T. F. Hunt, of 
New York ; for two years, H. T. French, of Idaho, and H. C. White, of 
Georgia; for one year, J. F. Duggar, of Alabama, and W. E. Stone, of 
Indiana. 

Graduate Study. 

For three years, L. H. Bailey, of New York, Chair., and H. P. Armsby, of Penn- 
sylvania ; for two years, M. H. Buckham, of Vermont, and R. H. Jesse, of 
Missouri ; for one year, W. O. Thompson, of Ohio, and Brown Ayres, of 
Tennessee. 

(7) 



ETicnftion iror7r. 

For three years, K. L. Butteri'iei.d. of Uliode Island, Chair., and C. R. Van 
IIisE. of Wisconsin: for two years, H. W. Kii.ooke, of North Carolina, and 
C. F. CuRTiss. of lo\v:i : Hir one year, A. M. Sori>:. of Virtrinia. and W. M. 
Hays, of \Vashinf;ton. !).('. 

h\ri)criiiniil S1(ili(Jii (>i(i(iiii.:(il ion iiiid I'olicij. 

For three years. Eugene Davenport, of Illinois, Cltair.. and (\ I). Woods, of 
Maine: for (wo years, W. A. Henry, of Wisconsin, and H. J. Waters, of 
Missonri : for one year, M. A. Scovell, of Kentucky, and C. E. Thorne, 
of Ohio. 



LIST OF I)FJJ:(;ATHS and \ISIT{)RS IX ATTHXHANXH. 



Alabama: C. A. riiry. J. F. Dni,:L,'Mr. U. S. Mn<kiiit()sli. C. C. Tlmoli, C. C. 

Tlmch. Jr. 
Arizona: K. ('. R.ihcock. 

Arkansas: A. II. Pnnluf. II. StrouiL J. X. 'rillni.iii, W. <;. Viiicenheller. 
California: E. Mead. K. I. Wheeler. 
Colorado: B. O. Ayleswortli. J. II. Baker. (". T. (Jilletrc. 

Connecticut: L. A. Clinton. Mrs. L. A. Clinton. E. II. .lenkins, K. W. Stimson. 
Delaware: C. P. Ckise. ,T. A. Foord. (J. A. Ilarter. C. E. Penny. W. W(>hb. 
Florida: C. M. Conner. E. K. Flint. 

Georgia: J. S. Carroll. K. .1. Keddin.i;. K. 1. Sniilli. II. ('. Wliite. 
Idaho: II. T. Freneli. J. A. MncEe.in. 
Illinois: It. W. Branclier, E. Davenjioit. S. A. Forties. C. (J. Hopkins, IT. A. 

Ilnston. E. I'. Taylor. 
Indiana: E. AlI)ertson, W. E. Bryan. Mrs. W. L. P>ryan. \V. E. Ston(>, .T. Troo]). 
Iowa: C. F. Curtiss. G. E. MacEean. \V. II. Stevenson. A. B. Storms. Mrs. A. B. 

Storms. H. E. Summers. C. E. Wati-ons. 
Kansas: E. T. Fairehild. E. P. Xicliols. :\Irs. E. P. Xidiols. P. C. Xidiols, F. 

Stron.t;. 
Kentucky: \l. M. Alh-n. S. D. Averitt. C. W. .Mathews. .1. K. I'atterson. .M. A. 

Scovell. 
Louisiana: T. D. Boyd. W. P. Dodson, .T. (i. Eee, W. Xewell. 
Maine: G. E. Fellows. C. D. Woods. 
Maryland: S. S. Buckley. A. B. Gahan. E. O. Garner. II. B. McDonnell. C W. 

Xash, J. B. S. Norton. .1. P. Owens, II. .T. Patterson, P.. E. Porter. M. X. 

Straughn, P. W. Silvester, T. B. Symous. 
Massachusetts: W. P. Brooks, G. E. Stone, II. W. Tyler. 
Michigan: II. F. Buskirk. Mrs. H. F. Buskirk. C. D. Smith, .J. E. Snyder, E. P. 

Taft. 
Minnesota: C. E. Van Barneveld. S. B. Green. Mrs. S. B. Green, IE Snyder, Mrs. 

II. Snyder. 
Mississippi: P. B. Fulton. ,T. C. Hardy. E. P. Eloyd. 
Missouri: .T. C. Jones, II. J. Waters. 
Montana: O. J. Craig, .7. M. Hamilton. A. X. Winchell. 
Nebraska: E. B. Andrew; . E. A. Burnett. T. E. Eydn. 
Nevada: P. B. Kennedy, J. E. Stubbs. 
New Hampshire: W. D. Gibhs, Mrs. W. D. Gibbs, F. W. Morse. Mrs. F. W. 

:Morse, F. W. Pane, Mrs. F. W. Pane, E. D. Sanderson, F. W. Taylor. 
New Jersey: W. H. S. Demarest. J. G. Eipman. W. S. Myers. J. B. Smith. E. B. 

Voorhees, Mrs. E. B. Voorhees, Miss J. A. Voorbees, INIiss :M. W. Voorhees. 
New Mexico: L. Foster, R. F. Hare, W. G. Tight. 
New York: G. G. Atwood, L. IE Bailey, G. W. Cavanaugh. H. E. Cook, P. E. 

Doolittle, D. I. Duncan, J. W. Gilmore. E. B. Hart. B. von Herff, P. L. Huested, 

T. F. Hunt, W. H. Jordan, Mrs. W. II. .Jordan. A. P. INIann, J. G. Schurman. 

L. L. Van Slyke. 

(9) 



10 

North Carolina: (". W. Bnrkett. T. Butler. B. W. Kilfroro. F. B. Vonahlo. C. B. 
Williams. <;. T. Winston. W. A. Withers, K. S. W()f,'liun. 

North Dakota: E. F. I.add. W. Merrifiekl, J. H. Worst, Mrs. .7. II. Worst. 

Ohio: .T. W. .\nios. (!. K. Benton. A. F. Burgess. J. (Vmrtriffht. A. Ellis, Mrs. A. 
Ellis. 11. (". I'rice. W. O. Thompson, C. E. Thornc. 

Oklahoma: 1 >. U. B.oyd. J. Ficdds. (". X. <Jould. 

Oregon: .1. T. A]»iterson. 

Pennsylvania: II. P. Armshy. (i. W. Atherton. W. II. Bishop, Miss F. M. Cook, 
II. A. Surface. .1. Swain. J. II. Washburn. J. A. Woodward. 

Rhode Island: K. L. Buttertield, F. W. Card. ('. Curtice. P.. L. Ilartwell, A. E. 
Stene. C. .1. Wheeler, H. J. Wheeler. 

South Carolina: C. E. Chambliss, M. B. Hardin. .T. X. IIar])er, T. E. :Miller. 

South Dakota: C. Droppers. J. W. Wilson. 

Tennessee: B. Ayres, S. M. Bain. (J. .M. Bentley, J. L. Farmer, C. A. Keffer, 
C. A. Mooers. 

Texas: D. F. Houston. 

Utah: W. J. Kerr, J. T. Kingsbury, P. A. Yoder. 

Vermont: M. H. Buckham. J. L. Hills. 

Virginia: E. A. Bishop, R. J. Davidson. .T. R. Fain. J. E. Phillips. A. M. Soule. 
\y. M. Thornton. 

Washington: E. A. Bryan. T. F. Kane. 

West Virginia: F. E. Brooks. T. C. Johnson. D. P.. Purinton. W. E. Rumsey, 
.T. L. Sheldon. .T. II. Ste\Yart. 

Wisconsin: E. II. Fari'ington. (J. X. Knapp, E. P. Sandsten. H. C. Taylor. C. R. 
Van llise. 

Wyoming: P.. C. ButTuni. F. M. Tisdel. 

United States Department of Agi'iculture : W. M. Hays. Assistant Secretary; 
E. W. Allen. W. II. Beal, D. J. Crosby. W. H. Evans, J. Hamilton. C. F. Lang- 
worthy. II. W. Lawson, J. B. Morman. J. I. Schulte. C. B. Smith. A. C. True, 
and E. V. Wilcox, of the Oflice of Experiment Stations ; E. G. Ritzman and 
G. M. Rommel, of the Bureau of Animal Industry; W. D. Bigelow, C. C. 
Moore, L. S. Munson. A. Seidell. W. W. Skinner. F. P. Veitch. P. H. Walker, 
and H. W. Wiley, of the Bureau of Chemistry : E. S. (i. Titus, of the Bureau 
of Entomology ; C. R. Ball, T. D. Beekwith. J. S. Cates. L. C. Corbett. L. G. 
Dodge, B. T. Galloway, K. F. Kellerman, C. V. IMper. (i. H. Powell. T. R. 
Robinson, C. L. Shear, W. A. Taylor, W. W. Tracy, sr., J. M. Westgate, and 
C. F. Wheeler, of the Bureau of Plant Industry ; T. M. Bell, J. O. Belz, F. E. 
Bonsteel. J. A. Bonsteel. F. K. Cameron, O. L. Ecknian, G. H. Failyer, L. C. 
Holmes. C. A. Jensen, B. E. Livingston. :m. H. Laphani. G. B. Maynadier, J. W. 
Xelson. F. R. Pember, O. Schreiner. J. G. Smith. F. I>. Stevens. W. C. Taber, 
and M. Whitney, of the Bureau of Soils. 

Bureau of Education: L. A. Kalbach. 

Canada: G. C. Creeluiau, H. H. Miller, J. C. Readey. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



This association shall be called the Association of American Agricultural Col- 
leges and Exi)erinient Stations. 

OBJECT. 

The object of this association shall be the consideration and discussion of all 
questions pertaining to the successful progress and administration of the col- 
leges and stations included in the association, and to secure to that end mutual 
cooperation. 

MEMBERSHIP. 

(1) Every college established under the act of Congress approved July 2, 18G2, 
or receiving the benefits of the act of Congress appi'oved August 30, 1890, and 
every agricultural experiment station established inider State or Congressional 
authority, the Bureau of Education of the Department of the Interior, the 
Department of Agriculture, and the Office of Experiment Stations of the last- 
named Department shall be eligible to membership in this association. 

(2) Any institution a member of the association in full standing may send 
any number of delegates to the meetings of the association. The same delegate 
may represent both a college and a station, but shall vote in onlj' one section 
and shall cast only one vote in general sessions. Other delegates may be desig- 
nated by any institution to represent it in sjjecified divisions of the sections of 
the association, but such delegates shall vote only in such divisions, and no 
institution shall be allowed more than one vote in any sectional meeting. 

(3) Delegates from other institutions engaged in educational or experimental 
work in the. interest of agriculture or mechanic arts may, by a majority vote, be 
admitted to conventions of the association, with all privileges except the right 
to vote. 

(4) In like manner, any person engaged or directly interested in agriculture 
or mechanic arts who shall attend any convention of this association may be 
admitted to similar privileges. 

SECTIONS. 

(1) The association shall be divided into two sections: (a) A section on 
college work and administration; (b) a section on experiment station work. 

The section on college work and administration shall be composed of the 
presidents or acting presidentsi of colleges and universities represented in the 
association, or other representatives of such institutions duly and specifically 
accredited to this section, and no action on public and administrative questions 
shall be final without the assent of this section. 

The section oti experiment-station work shall be composed of the directors or 
acting directors of experiment stations represented in the association or of 

(11) 



12 

other i-epresentatives of siu-h stations duly and specifically accredited to this 
section. 

(2) :\Ieuil)ers of these two sections (and no otliers) shall be entitled' to vote 
l)oth in general sessions and in the section to which they respectively belong. 

The reiiresentative appointed by the U. S. Bureau of Education shall be 
assigned to the section- on college work and administration; the representative 
of the Office of Experiment Stations to the section on experiment-station work, 
and the representative of the U. S. Department of Agriculture to either section 
as he may elect and the section by vote authorize ; but such election once made 
and authorized may not be changed during the sessions of a given convention. 

Each section may create such divisions as it may from time to time find desir- 
able, and shall elect its own chairniaii and secretary for sectional meetings, 
whose names shall be rei)orted to the association for record. 

(3) Each section shall conduct its own proceedings, and shall keep a record 
of the same, and no action of a section, by resolution or otherwise, shall be 
valid vmtil the same shall have been ratified by the association in general ses- 
sion, and in the case provided for in the foregoing paragraph (1) shall also have 
been approved by the section on college work and administration. 

MEETINGS. 

(1) This association shall hold at least one meeting in every calendar year, 
to be designated as the annual convention of the association. Special meetipgs 
may be held at other times, upon the call of the executive committee, for pur- 
poses to be specified in the call. 

(2) The annual convention of the association shall comprise general sessions 
and meetings of the sections, and provision shall be made therefor in the pro- 
gramme. Unless otherwise determined by vote, the association will meet in 
general session in the forenoons and evenings of the convention and the sections 
in tlie afternoons. 

OFFICERS. 

(1) The general officers of this association, to be chosen annually, shall be a 
])resident, five vice-presidents, a bibliographer, and a secretary, who shall also 
I)e treasurer, and an executive committee of five members, three of wliom shall 
l)e chosen by the section on college work and administration and two by the 
section on experiment station work : Prorided. hoircrcr. That a member chosen 
by either section need not be a member of that section. The executive com- 
mittee shall choose its own chairman. 

(2) Each section shall, by ballot, nominate to the association in general ses- 
sion for its action, a chairman and a secretary for such section. 

(3) The president, vice-presidents, secretary, and bibliographer of this asso- 
ciation shall be elected by ballot upon nomination made upon the floor of the 
convention, and shall hold office from the close of the convention at which they 
are elected until their successors shall be chosen. 

(4) Any person being an accredited delegate to an annual meeting of the 
association, or an officer of an institution which is a member of the association 
in full standing at the time of election, shall be eligible to office. 

DUTIES OF OFFICERS. 

(1) The officers of the association shall perform the duties which usually 
devolve upon their respective offices. 



13 

(2) The president shall deliver an address at the annnal eonvention hefore 
the association in general session. 

(3) The executive committee shall determine tiie time and place of the annnal 
conventions and other meetings of the association, and shall, between such con- 
ventions and meetings, act for the association in all mattei*s of business. It 
shall issue its call for the annual conventions of the association not less than 
sixty days before the date on which they are to be held, and for special meetings 
not less than ten days before such date. It shall b(> charged with the general 
arrangements and conduct of all meetings called l)y it. It shall designate the 
time and place of the convention ; it shall jn-esent a well-prepared order of busi- 
ness — of subjects for discussion— and shall provide and arrange for the meet- 
ings of the several sections. The subjects provi<lc(l for consideration l)y each 
section at any convention of the association shall conciMitrate the deliberations 
of the sections upon not more than two lines of discnssiim. wliich lines as far 
as possible shall l>e related. Not more than one-third of tlie worlcing time of 
any annual convention of the association shall be confined to miscellaneous 
business. 

FINANCES. 

At every annual convention the association, in general session, shall provide 
for obtaining the funds necessary for its legitimate exi)enses. and may, by ap- 
propriate action, call for contributions upon the several institutions eligible to 
membership; and no institution shall be entitled to representation or participa- 
tion in the benefits of the association unless such institution sliall liave made 
the designated contribution for the year previous to tliat in and for wliich such 
question of privilege shall arise, or shall have said payment remitted by the 
unanimous vote of the executive committee. 

AMENDMENTS. 

This constitution may be amended at any regular convention of the association 
by a two-thirds vote of the delegates present, if the number constitute a (piorum : 
Provided, That notice of any proposed amendment, together with the full text 
thereof and the name of the mover, shall have been given at the next preceding 
annual convention and repeated in the call for the convention. Every such 
proposition of amendment shall be subject to modification or amendment in the 
same manner as other propositions, and the final vote on the adoption or rejec- 
tion shall be taken by yeas and nays of the institutions then and tliere 
represented. 

RULES OF ORDER. 

(1) The executive committee shall be charged with the order of business, sub- 
ject to special action of the convention, and this committee may report at any 
time. 

(2) All business or topics proposed for discussion and all resolutions submitted 
tor consideration of the convention shall be read and then referred, without 
debate, to the executive committee, to be assigned positions on the programme. 

(3) Speakers invited to open discussion shall be entitled to twenty minutes 
each. 

(4) In genei'al discussions the ten-minute rule shall l)e enforced. 

(5) No speaker shall be recognized a second time on any one Subject while 
any delegate who has not spoken thereon desires to do so. 



14 

(6) The hours of meeting and adjournment adopted with the general pro- 
gramme shall be closely observed, unless changed by a two-thirds vote of the 
delegates present. 

(7) The presiding officer shall enforce the parliamentary rules usual in such 
assemblies and not inconsistent with the foregoing. 

(8) Vacancies which may arise in the membership of standing committees 
by death, resignation, or separation from the association, of members, shall be 
filled by the committees, respectively. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOHATION OF AMERICAN AGRI- 
CULTURAL COLLEGES AND E\FERL\1ENT STATIONS. 



MINUTES OP THli Cl'NliRAL SESSION. 



MoRXixc; Sessiox, Tuesday, Novembeu 14, U)05. 

The convoulion was callfd U> onlcr at Id o'clock a. in., at. the Slion-ham llotol, 
by the president, E. 1>. Voorliccs. of New .h-rscy. 

The proceedings were opened with prayer by ^V. II. S. I>euiarest, of New 
Jersey. 

After the call of the roll of (Ielef,'ates to the convention, the regnlar order was 
suspended to f,'ive the Secretary of Agriculture opportunity to address the 
convention. 

AoDRESs BY Hon. .Tamks Wilson, Skcretaby of AoRrcri.TUKK. 

Mr. President axd Gentlemen : I merely dropped in to pay my i-espects to 
you, and make you welcome to the capital city of our counti-y, and bid you j,'od- 
speed in your delibei-ations. I was first a station man before 1 was a department 
man, anil know something about what it is to break new paths throuiih the 
woods alonj,' these lines, and get tlie farmers to send their boys to college, and 
coax legislatures to be generous with the research men, and all that ; and when 
I came down here — with a good deal of reluctance — to do something in the De- 
partment of Agriculture, my prevailing thought was that I would try to make 
that institution subservient to the stations of the country, and to help build 
them up. I found that it was necessary to first build the Department up ; that 
it was not as strong in educated scientists as it should be; that there was not 
very much encouragement given to men of that class, and that it was ditlicult 
to find men to do the work the American farmer wants done, without a stronger 
force of trained men. We found it necessary to prepare to train within our- 
selves. There were so many things to be done that the universities and colleges 
of the land had not yet set about doing, that we have had to do a great deal along 
the line of strengthening the Department : and so I was compelled to turn my 
attention to that one thing and push it in all possible directions, to select strong 
men, and interview Congress occasionally for increased appropriations. We have 
been doing what we can. We have come to the place where I have been able to 
give some thought to the experiment stations of the country. Of course it is 
desirable that the whole should work together as a unit, that whatever the De- 
partment can do to strengthen a station anywiiere it shall do, and that whatever 
cooperation can be had between the Department and the stations shall be had 
along lines that are broad and national in their effects. And then w^hen it comes 
to the point of what the station can do for its own locality, I come up against 
the position that the stations are not strong enough to do all the work that their 
own localities require. 

The Federal Government is not giving the station men money enough. Ihey 
should have more endowment. We can find facilities for cooperation with 
every station in the land, and we are doing that with nearly every station in 

(15) 



16 

some regards, but llie stations have not money enough to equip their staffs 
sutticiently for them to attend to all the reiiuirements of their own people. The 
stations have a great deal compared with what they had some years ago. They 
have edneated men, they have organizatitms, they have buildings, they are in 
touch with their people; but they have not got the wherewithal to do the work 
that the people in the several localities want done, with a very few exceptions. 
To that end I am preparing my rei)ort for Congress and I am earnestly lu'ging 
upon Congress to give the stations more money to enable them to do their work. 
If we could only get that body of honorable gentlemen to comprehend how nuich 
good is coming to the American peoi)le from this research work, the undertaking 
would be already accomplisiied. Our poultry interests in the United States 
amount to over .^."iOO.dOO.OUO a year, and it is growing, and I hope to live to see 
the day when the hen of the United States will pay all the expenses of the 
American (Government. And when Congress meets all they will have to inciuire 
into especially will be the price of eggs. I know of no investment that the 
American people can make that will bring back as great returns to them as the 
thorough (Miuipment of the experiment stations in every State and Territory in 
the land. If you take the money that is given to the Department of Agriculture 
and the money that is given by Congress to you and put it all together, it would 
not build one battle ship. If they will just give us enough to build one battle 
ship every year for a while we will show them what that hen will do. The ])eo- 
ple want this work done, as I have learned. They want their stations provided 
for in better shape than they are now. Some of the States are coming up ad- 
mirably to the requirements of the stations and colleges, and helping them 
along. Some are not. But Congress ann ; and when Congress appropriates 
money it is only the people's money ; that is all it is. And it is only necessary 
now that we should lay our heads together and look to Congress for this 
assistance that is so much needed and work all together for it and I think it 
will come. Congress visually tells us that they uuist economize: "It has come 
to the time in the history of the United States when rigid, strict, economy must 
be practiced." There is no economy I can think of so far-reaching as invest- 
ments of money to help the American farmer to make the most of his acres and 
of himself. 

Gentlemen, I thank you very much. I shall take occasion to drop in and 
listen to your discussions, because I feel at home with you.- And so I wish j'ou 
good morning. 

Report of the Executive Committee. 

H. C. White, of (ieorgia, chairman, sulnnitted the following report of the 
executive committee : 

Your executive committee, appointed at the eighteenth annual convention of 
the association held at Des Moines, Iowa, November 1-."., 1004, met inunediately 
upon adjournment of the convention and organized by the selection of I'resi- 
dent II. C. White, of Georgia, as chairman. Acting under instructions of the 
conunittee the chairman issued and posted to each member of the association, 
under date of January 10, 19(»5, an abstract memorandum of the proceedings of 
the convention of 1904. The proceedings in full were edited by the chairman 
and placed in the hands of the OHice of Exi)eriment Stations, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, for publication, Fel)ruary 2.1, 190."). Six subsequeht meetings 
of the committee were held, as follows : At Washington, D. C, December 7-9, 
1904: January 17-19, 1905: February 8-10. March 24-20, April 12-13, and No- 
vember l.j. Six circulars of information concerning the residts of these meet- 
ings were issued and jiosted to membersi of the association. The call for the 
nineteenth (190")) annual convention was issued June 20, 1!X)5, and the pro- 
gramme for the convention, as arranged by the committee, November 1. 

In recognition of the courteous invitation of the State University of Oi'egon, 
" in belialf of the State of Oregon and the entire Northwest." to hold the nine- 
teenth convention of the association in Portland. Oreg., during the Lewis and 
Clark Exposition, the conunittee entered into correspondence with the officers of 
the ex'position and others in Oregon and the Northwest, but, after due delibera- 
tion, was convinced that it would be inexpedient to accept the invitation. It 
was likewise found inexpedient to acce]it a very cordial invitation to hold the 
tonv<'ntion at the University of Illinois at tlie time of the installation of 
President James in October. At the time the call was issued for the present 
meeting the conunittee was under the apprehension that an extra session of Con- 
gress would be called to convene somewhat earlier, in November. 



17 

The results of tlio attention given liy the connnlttee to the several matters 
referred to it in siit'cilic rt'solntlons of the last annual (Mtnvention have been, in 
the main, connniniicated to members nf tlu' association by aiipropriate cir- 
rnlars, and somewhat in detail. Copies of these circulai-s are hereto attached 
as part of the iccord of the work of the committee. I'.rief reference to these 
matters may. therefore, sullice at this time. 

In an intervii'w with the President of the United States your eoinmitte(> 
renewed the reipiest that had been presented to him on a former occasion in 
iiehalf of the associ^ition, that, in the ai)pointment to the post of Assistant Sec- 
retary of Atrricnlture, then vacant, he would be pleased to consider the desira- 
bilit.v that the incumbent should be one havint; knowledire of and sympathy with 
the work of the a.icricultural experiment stations. Rec(>ivi>d most cordially by 
the I'resident. your committee was informed that he had borne in mind the 
rei)resentations previously ma(h' to him and had decided to ajipoint to the posi- 
tion I'rof. W. M. Hays, of the Minnesota Kxiieriment Station. As is well 
known to the association, the appointee to this important and res])onsibIe i)osi- 
tion is an able worker in agricultural science and a distinguished member of 
this assoeiation. 

After several conferences with the Secretary of War and the ollicers of the 
(Jeneral Staff connected with the Army War College, very desirable modifica- 
tions of th«> regulations governing the detail of army olhcers to the land-grant 
colleges were secured. These modifications were comnnniiciited to members 
of the association in a circidar of date Aih-II T. I'-M).'), and are set forth in 
(ieneral Orders. No. 1(»1, of the War I )eiiartment. issued June 2'.), ]'M)~>\ the 
committee trusts they may be satisfactory to the institutions conci'rned. The 
committee wishes to record here its grateful api)reciation of the frankness, the 
cordiality, and the earnest desire to meet the wishes of the association with 
which the committee was met by the distinguished Secretary of War (lion. 
W. II. Taft). the Chief of Staff ((ieneral Chaffee i. and the officers of the War 
College. 

The committee made diligent effort and emiiloyed every resource at its <'om- 
mand, including personal solicitation of the Speaker and other intluential mem- 
bers of the House of Reprt-sentatives, to aid Hon. II. C. Adams of Wisconsin, in 
securing consideration for his bill to increase the animal ai)propriations to the 
exiieriment stations in the last session of the Fifty -eighth Congress, but without 
avail. So far as could lie ascertained but littl(> objection existed to the propo- 
sition on its merits, but other considerations were represented as preventing 
favorable action at the time. Mr. Adams, who contiiuied and proposes to oon- 
linue his able and energetic advocacy of the measure, expresses his intention 
to reintroduce it in the Fifty-ninth Congress (of which he is a member), to 
convene in December. The committee reconuneiids that the executive com- 
mittee be instructed to cooperate diligently with Mr. Adams in his efforts to 
secure increased annual api»ropriations from the Federal Treasury to the 
agricultural experiment stations established luider the act of 1887. 

Similar effcu'ts were made by the connnlttee in behalf of the measure of Hon. 
Frank W. Mondell. of INIontana. to establish and maintain schools of mines 
uiid mining in connection with the land-grant colleges, with similar result, and, 
apparently, for similar reasons. 

Your committee is forced to the conviction that the efforts of this associa- 
tion to bring the National Legislature to consider seriously the important 
measures affecting the national usefulness of the institutions here represented, 
should, in order to be effective, Ije concentrated at a given time upon a single 
purpose. There can Ite no doubt that the increasing prosperity and the iii- 
creasing growth of industrial occupations throughout the country generally 
and the undertaking or the supervision by the General Government of great 
works of public utility, in which all the States and Territories are interested, 
such as the irrigation of our arid lands and the conservation of our forests, 
will create a demand for increased industrial and technical education and 
research, which, in equity, the individual States should not be expected to 
meet from their own resources, but for which provision should be made to the 
States from the National Treasury. It is inevitable, as it is right, that addi- 
tional appropriations of Federal funds should be made to the land-grant colleges. 
lu due season these claims should be made, and doubtless will be, and it will 
be the legitimate province of this association to initiate the appropriate mea- 
sures for legislation. Such measures, when carefully prepared and .judiciously 
presented, should be advocated with all the power and the influence of this 

21336— No. 164—06 M 2 



18 

association; but, in tlie opinion of the committee, oxpevienco sussests the 
wisdom of concentration of effort upon some single compreliensive, but definite, 
proposition, rather than an attempted support, necessarily weaker, at the same 
time, of several more specialized propositions, however meritorious these in 
themselves may be. This attitude of the association would not prohibit, of 
course, such indorsement as it might be moved to give to other specific mea- 
sures affecting technical echication and resoarch initiated by wise statesmen or 
others. The mining-school l)ill has been l)t'fori> Congress for several sessions. 
It is an extremely meritorious measure and has a number of earnest advocates. 
If the association should so direct, no doubt arrangements may be made for 
the introductit)n of this or a similar bill in the next Congress. Your committee 
submits to the association, however, in view of the efforts which will be re- 
quired in comiection with the proposition which will be made to increase the 
appropriations to the experiment stations, whether it would not he wise to 
withhold for the present specific instructions to your executive committee in 
connection with the mining-school bill or similar measure, leaving the com- 
mittee free to concentrate its efforts to secure the passage of the Adams bill, 
giving, of course, to the mining-school bill, if introduced, such support as may 
be practicable or conditions may .iustify. This done, the association might, 
and in the judgment of the committee should, make appeal to Congress for 
increased appropriations to the colleges for technical education in general, with 
greater hope of success. 

Apropos of these suggestions the committee presents a communication re- 
ceived by it asking action by this convention in connection with a resolution 
adopted bv the American Forest Congress held at Washington, D. C, January 
2-6, lOO,^,"^ urging appropriations by Congress " for promoting the teaching of 
forestry and experiments in forestry in the agricultural colleges and experiment 
stations of the United States." 

The most delicate, and, in some respects, the most important task assigned 
your conunittee by the association at the last annual convention was embodied 
in the following resolution : " In order that Congress may be properly informed 
as to the work of the agricultural experiment stations and its great value to 
agricultural practice and to promote satisfactory relations between the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and the experiment stations, the executive committee of 
this association is hereby instructed to request a hearing before the proper com- 
mittees of Congress for' the purpose of presenting the work and claims of the 
agricultural experiment stations, and to continue conferences with the honoraltle 
Secretary of Agriculture relative to cooperation between his Department and 
the statil)ns." In obedience to these instructions your committee sought a hear- 
ing before the House Conunittee on Agriculture, which was granted at a special 
session, January 18. 1905, most kindly and courteously arranged for by the dis- 
tinguished chairman of the committee, Hon. James W. Wadsworth. of New York. 
The published report of the hearing has been distributed to members of the asso- 
ciation. It was distinctly understood that no argument was to be made for any 
pending measures. The Adams bill had already been favorably reported by the 
conunittee. Your conmiittee was advised to restrict its showing to the " work 
of the agricultural experiment stations and its great value to agricultural prac- 
tice." Director Jordan, of the conunittee. presented in writing an able and 
elaborate review of the work of the stations. At the suggestion of your com- 
mittee the honorable Secretary of Agriculture, the Assistant Secretary, and 
other officials of the Department of Agriculture were present at the hearing. 

As the members of the association clearly understand, it has been feared that 
there might be on the part of Congress a growing tendency to underestimate 
the stations as a factor in agricultural progress and to regard them as occupy- 
ing a subordinate position in the field of agricultural research ; consequently, 
after mature deliberation, it was decided that the i)roi)er course in carrying out 
your instructions was to deal with the Itroad (luestions of jiublic lieiiertt and 
"public i)olicy and seek to estaldish in the congressional mind a certain jjoint of 
\iew as to the relative importance of the stations and as to the wise distribution 
of national aid to agricultural research. 

The situation, as it impressed itself upon us, appeared to demand, therefore, 
the presentation of facts along two lines: (1) A somewhat conqirehensive re- 
view in brief terms of what the stations had alre.ady acconii)lished for practi- 
cal agriculture as a justification for enlarged supi>ort, and (2) a discussion 
of the policy that should be followed in the development of agricultural re- 
search in the United States, whether the prevailing one of centralization with 



19 

an inoroaso of funds for the National Dopartmcnt jrroatly out of proportion to 
tiie incivast' of the resources of tlio iiulivldual stations, thereby inevitahly 
hrinjiinj? the field of research, both ;;eneral and local, more and more within 
the scDpe and direction of the National Department, with the couseipient 
minimizing of station influence, or whether the maintenance of the resoiu'ces of 
the stations in the several States more on a parify with the resomv-es of the 
National l)ei>artment, thus enabling,' theso Staft' institutions to sust.-iin them- 
selves as tli(> leadini,' instruments of research within their resj)ective fields. 

Your committee made the broad claim, which we ix'lieve to be aliundantly 
justified by facts, that the stations have been and still are the most imjiortant 
existinj; factor in aiiricultural research, and strong; i^rouud was taken in favor 
of the proposition that these institutions are the lo.icical, economical, and most 
efficient agency for the stud.v of the agricultural problems which are impor- 
tant in their respectivi- States. The iniblished report of the hearing is, in the 
main, correct, although the spirit and language of the informal (inestions and 
answers ai-e in some instances inaccurately reported. In reading that report 
it has unddubtedly been made clear to you that there was on the part of the 
House conmiittee an ex]»ectation that the statements of the connnittee would 
be of a somewhat different character from those which were ]iresented, and the 
determination of your connnittee to hold itself well within its original pur- 
pose rendered the situation somewhat delicate and dilticult. Ycmr connnittee 
firndy believes that the object sought by the association in directing the 
request for this hearing was full.v accomplished, and the results were, broadly 
considered, good and satisfactory. It is reconnnended that the association take 
appropriate action to secun>. if jiracticable, the jiresentation of the claims of 
the stations to the prop(>r consideration and support of Congress at succeed- 
ing sessions of that body. 

Suiise(piently satisfactory conferences were held with the Secretary, the 
Assistant Secretary, and other officials of the Department of Agriculture on the 
general subject of cooperation of the Department with the stations in research 
work. For satisfactory reasons your committee was led to decide that it would 
be improper to wish to continue these conferences to a definite conclusion at 
the time, but it is confidently believed that a mutual and cordial understanding 
of the views and desires of the stations and of the Department of Agriculture 
in cooperative work has been reached. 

In the matter of the standing conunittees of the association i-eferred to your 
committee, it is reconunended that this convention order — 

(1) That the standing committees of the association be as follows: 

(a) On bibliography. 

(b) On methods of teaching in the land-grant colleges. 

(c) On graduate study. 

(d) On extension work. 

(e) On experiment station organization and policy. 

(2) That each committee shall consist of five members. 

(.3) That the committees shall be appointed and announced by the president 
of the association at the concluding session of each annual convention. 

(4) That the members of the committees, when practical)le and unless the 
president, for good cause, shall otherwise determine, shall be selected from 
those in attendance upon the convention at which the c-onnnittees are api)ointed. 

(5) That vacancies arising between conventions shall Ije filled by the com- 
mittee in which the vacancy has occurred. 

Your committee reports with profound sorrow and regret the death during 
the year of President Henry II. Goodell, of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College, one of the founders and. until his death, a member of this association. 
The peculiar relations of I'resident Goodell to the association have led your 
committee to assign an hour in the programme for this convention to a memo- 
rial of his life and services, and it has been fortunate in securing the consent of 
President ^V. E. Stone, of Indiana, a pupil and friend of President Goodell, to 
make the leading remarks. The association will doubtless be moved to take 
further action to signify respect for the memory of our late distiuguishd mem- 
ber. 

The finances of the association have been economically administered and are 
in satisfactory condition. All obligations have been promptly met, and the 
report of the treasurer will show a considerable balance in the treasury. 

Respectfully submitted for the committee. 

H. C. White, Chainnan. 



20 

The report was accepted. (For discnssion til" its rf'coinmciKlations see p. 42.) 
Report ok Treasi kkk. 

The secretary-treasurer, .1. L. Hills, of N'cnnoiit. sulnuitled the following 
financial statement : 

Report of trvasurcr of tlic U!<siwi(itioit, XoiciiiIk r 1. I'Ju'i. to XorcniJxr 1). HKi'i. 

RECEIPTS. 

Received of E. B. Voorhees, secretary-treasurer $<;3.'}. 92 

Received, refund of advance to joint agent Des Moines 

convention 17.00 

Received, dues 1. 545. 00 

Total $2, 195. 92 

EXPENDITURES. 

Executive committee $1, 095. 45 

Secretary-treasurer, printing, postage, telegrams, etc 24.40 

Railroad certificates, Des Moines 33.20 

Stenographer, Des Moines 28.25 

Wreath, funeral President Goodell — 10.00 

Expense account. President Voorhees, N. E. A. meeting — 8. 75 

1, 200. 05 

Balance in bank November 14, 1905 995.87 

Joseph L. Hills, Srcrrtary-Trrasiircr. 
The report was referred to an auditing couuuittee consisting of W. D. Gibbs, 
of New Hampshire, and B. C. Buffuni, of Wyoming, which subseipiently reported 
as follows : 

Your auditing committee beg to report that they have examined the books of 
the treasurer and that all accounts have been found correct. 

The report was approved. 

Report of the Bibliographer. 

The bibliographer, A. C. True, of the Office of ExperinuMit Stations, sub- 
mitted the following report : 

As has been the custom for a number of years, the more important bibliogra- 
I)hies on agricultural subjects met with during the year have l)eeii noted from 
time to time in the Experiment Station Record, ami have been compiled from 
that source to form the basis of this report. 

An examination of the list here submitted will show the usual annual reports 
on the literature and general progress in animal diseases, bacteriology, chem- 
istry, entomology, plant diseases, sericulture, zoology, and other general lines; 
a few special bibliographies on such subjects as the occurrence of aluminum 
in various ])roducts. North American Fstilaginere, and the loco weed: and a 
considerable number of bibliographies or lists of references accompanying spe- 
cial articles or incorjiorated in text-books. Some of the subjects of the last class 
are as follows: Chemistry of proteids, nitrogen metabolism in plants, weather 
influences. i»lant bri'eding, formation of milk fat, soil bacteria, citrus fruits and 
their culture, textile fibers, timbers of commerce and their identification, and 
cheese ripening. 

All the general bibliographies of agriculture noted in previous reports have 
been continued and a new one on the agricultural literature of Belgium has 
appeared. 

Among the bihliogr:i])bies appearing in bulletins and rejwrts of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and the experiment stations are those 'on the following 
subjects: Soil bacteria and nitrogen assimilation, seed selection according to 



21 

spocifio gravity, a study of reciprocal crosses, invisible micro-organisms, vitality 
and gernjination of seeds, the powdery mildews, .Tapant^se persiunuons, irriga- 
tion in nortlu'rn Italy, c.-irt' iif milk, ndmciiclature of the apple, t'.io n-l.-ilion of 
bacteria to the tiavor of Cheddar cheese. tnl)ercnlosis of animals, comparative 
virnlence of human and bovine tubercle l)acilli for animals, i)otato di.seases. 
reclam.ation of Cape Cod sand dunes, and relation of food to the production of 
milk ;ind bntter fat by dairy c<»ws. 

The i>il)liograi)hies ri'ferred to are more fully described in the following list, 
numbering !»('. in all : 

P.AKKR. C. F. A revision of American siphonajitera, or fleas, together with a 
complete list and liii)liography of the group. Proceedings of the United 
States National .Museum. 27 (1!)04), pp. ,Sr,.V4()0. 

Bakh.\cci. (). Sunnnarisclier I'.ericht fiber die wichtigsten italienischen Arbeiten 
auf dem (;ei)iete der. allgemeinen Pathologic mid i)athologischen Anatonne, 
erschienen im Jahn' I'.HC'.iA brief report on the most important Italian 
literature in the Held of general i)athology and i)athological anatomy for the 
year 10(«). Centralblatt fiir Allgemeine Pathologic^ u. Pathologische Anato- 
mic, 15 (1004). No. 1(J-1T, pp. »)71-71;H. This reitort contains a brief review 
of a large number of Italian books, i)amphlets, and i)eriodical articles on 
general i)atholog:\- classified in 17 sections .according to the i)arts of the body 
affected by different diseases. 

Bass. E. TheraiK'Utische Leistungen in der Tierheilkunde wiihrend der .Tahre 
1901 und T.M>2 (A brief rejiort of veterinary liti-rature coiicei-ning wounds 
for the year l'.»(>l-2(. Deutsche Tieriirztliche Wochenschriri. 12 (l'.Mi4). 
No. 37. pp. .'iC)8-371. A critical disiaission of the literature of the suiiject in 
connection with a bibliography of ."»! titles. 

BAt'MGAKTEX, I'. VOX, and Tangi.. F. .Jahresbericht tilnn- <Iie Fortschritte in der 
Lehre von den pathogenen Mikroorganismen. 11)02 (Animal report on prog- 
ress in the study of ])athogenic micro-organisms. 1!M)2). Leipzig: S. Ilirzel, 
1904. 1. Abt.. pp. ."'.liS. This report contains extended bibliographies relat- 
ing to pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, together with brief ab- 
stracts of the more important articles. 

P.ERLESK, A. lllustra/.ione iconografica degli acari mirmecotili ( .Myrmecophil- 
ous acarids). Kedi.a, 1 (190:5), No. 2, pp. 299-474. A brief l)ibliography of 
the subject is api)eiided to the article. 

BissoN. E. Elenco di pubblicazioni attinenti alia Bachicoltura, che vennero 
fuori nel corso del 190:}-l'.t()4 (List of publications relating to sericulture 
issued during the years 190.V]9(»4). Annuario della K. Stazione Bacologica 
di Padova, 32 (1904), pp. 131-150. A list is given of Iwoks and periodical 
articles on the various lines related to sericulture as published in different 
languages during 1903 and 1904. 

Blakeslee. a. F. Sexual reproduction in the Mucorinere. Proceedings of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 40 (1904), No. 4. pp. 205-319. A 
bibliography of the subject concludes the paper. 

Bodlaxder, G.. et al. Jahresbericht iiber die Fortschritte der Chemie und ver- 
waiidter Telle anderer Wissenschaften. 1904 (Annual report of the progress 
in chemistrv and related parts of other sciences for 1904). Brunswick: 
Friedrich Vi^^weg & Son. 1905, pp. 240. 

BoLTox. II. C. A select l)ibliograpby of chemistry. 1492-1902, second supple- 
ment. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 44 (1904). No. 1440, pp. 4G2. 
This volume contains titles of books published between 1S98 and 1902. in- 
clusive, under the following heads : Bibliography : dictionaries ; history ; 
biography: chemistry, pure and applied; alchemic-al literature in the 19th 
century ; periodicals ; and academic dissertations. 

BoucHEz. i'. Classement methodiciue des travaux. mcmoires, articles, publics 
sur la tuberculose (A svstematic list of articles relating to tuberculosis). 
Revue de la Tuberculose^ 2. ser., 1 (1904), No. 4. pji. 310-328. An elaborate 
list of books, memoirs, and periodical articles published during 1904 on 
the various phases of tuberculosis of animals and man. 

Brown, S. B. A bibliography of works upon the geology and natural resources 
of West Virginia, from 1704 to 19(^)1. and a cartography of West Mrginia 
from 1737 to 1901. West Virginia Geological Survey Bulletin 1, pp. 85. 

BucHAXAX. R. E. A contribution to our knowledge of the develoi)meut of 
Pnoius (i)iieric(tii(i. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Sciences, 1903, 
pp. 77-93. A list of 28 titles is appended. 

Chester. F. D. Soil bacteria and nitrogen assimilation. Delaware Station 
Bulletin 0(i, pp. 24. A list of 20 references is appended. 



22 

Clark, V. A. Seed selection according to specific gravity. Ne\A- York State 
Station Bulletin 250, pp. .'i()7-i25. A list of the more important works 
relating to the subject is a])pended. 

Ci.iNTox, (i. I'. North American rstilaginea'. Proceedings of the Boston So- 
ciety of Natural History, 31, No. 9, pp. 321)-529. A bibliography of over 200 
of the more important articles relating to the Ustilaginca' is appended. 

CoiiNiiKiM. O. Chemie der Eiweisskih-per (The chemistry of proteids). Bruns- 
wick : Friedrich Vieweg & Son, 1904, 2. ed.. pp. XII + 315. The numerous 
footnote references given constitute an extended bibliography of the sub- 
ject. 

CoNNSTEiN. \\. Uber fermentative Fettspaltung (Fermentive cleavage of fat). 
Ergelinisse der IMiysiolog-e. 3 (19(»4). pp. 104-232. A bibliography of 151 
articles is given at the beginning of the article. 

CuMMiNGS, M. B. Fertilization problems: A study of reciprocal cropses. 
Maine Station Bulletin 104. pp. 81-100. A bibliography of 32 papers on 
plant breeding is given. 

CzAPEK, F. Der Stickstoff im Stoffwechsel der Pflanze (Nitrogen metabolism 
in plants). Ergebnisse der Fhysiologie, 3 (1904), pp. 30!) .".:n. A bibliog- 
raphy of 81 titles is given. 

Darbishire, a. D. On the bearing of Mendelian principles of heredity on cur- 
rent theories of the origin of species. Memoirs and Proceedings of the 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. 48 (1904), pt. 3. No. 24, 
pp. 19. A bibliography of the subject is appended to the article. 

Deegexer. p. Die Entwicklung des Darmcanals der Insecten wiihrend der 
Metamorphose (The development of the intestines in insects during meta- 
morphosis). Zoologische Jahrbiicher. Abtheilung fiir Anatomic und Onto- 
genle der Thiere, 2o (1904), No. 4, pp. 499-(jTG. A brief list of references to 
the literature of the subject is appended. 

Dexter. E. G. Weather Influences. New York and London : The Macmillan 
Company, 1904, pp. XXXI +280. A list of 08 references to the literature of 
this subject is given on pages 279-281. 

Dietrich, F., et al. Bibliographie der deutschen Zeitschriften-literatur (Bibli- 
ography of German periodical literature). Leipzig: Felix Dietrich, 1905, 
Vols. XIV, pp. 377; XV, pp. 350. This is a suliject and author index of 
original articles, mainly of a scientific character, published in 1904 in about 
4,000 German periodicals, pamphlets, and newspapers. 

Dorset, M. Invisible micro-organisms. U. S, Department of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Animal Industry Report 1903, pp. 139-150; Circular 57, pp. 
139-150. A list of 20 references to the literature of the subject is appended 
to the article. 

Dunstax, W. K. Kepoi-t on cotton cultivation in the British Empire and in 
Egyi)'t. London : Darling & Son. Ltd., 1904. pp. 40. A list of references to 
the' literature of cotton and its cultivation is appended. 

DuvEL, J. W. T. The vitality and germination of seeds. U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin 58, pp. 90. A list of 52 
references to the literature of the subject is given. 

Dye, L. Les parasites des Culicides (The parasites of Culicidjip). Archives de 
Parasitologie, 9 (1904). No. 1, pp. 5-77. A brief bibliography is appended. 

Felt, E. P. Mosquitoes or Culicidiie of New York State. New York State 
:\Iuseum Bulletin 79, pp. 241-400. A bibliograiihy containing the more 
important references to American species of mosquitoes is appended to the 
bulletin. 

, and JouTEL. L. H. Monograph of the genus Saperda. New York State 

:\Iuseuni Bulletin 74, pp. 80. References are given to the literature of the 
species of this genus. 
Fort, II. Der Obstbau im Tiitigkeitsgebiete der bojnn. Sektion des Landeskul- 
turrates fiir das Kiinigreich BfUnncn (Fruit culture in Bohemia). Prague: 
Anton Purkrabek. 19()4. pp. ;'.9. A bil)liograi)hy of ."8 papers on Bohemian 
fruit culture is given. 
Fruwirth. C. Die Ziichtnng der landwirtschaftlichen Knlturjiflanzen (The 
breeding of agricultural plants). P.erlin : I'aul Parey. T.Mt5. vol. 1. 2. rev. 
ed., pp. XVIII-f.345. A bibllograiihy of 59 works and articles and 31 
periodicals cited in the book is given. 

.'. Referate iiber neuere Arbelten auf dem (Jebiete der PHanzenziichtung 

(References to recent work on i)lant breeding). Journal fiir Landwirt- 
schaft. 52 (1904), No. 3. pp. 209-290. References are given to 31 recent 
articles on plant breeding in couuectioii with dififereut crops. 



2'^ 

(Jlinka. K. Lati'ritos et " teriw ross.-v " des n'sions iropiquos et sous-tropi- 
(lues et tcrres aii;il(>f;i(ines sous les latitudes teiiiiK'ives ( Laterites and red 
soils of tropical aud subtropical latitudes and allied soils of temperate 
latitudes). I'oclivovyedenie | I'edoloKiel, ."i (1!)0;'>), No. o, pi). 2;ir)-2(i4. A 
list of ")() titles is j,'iven. 

GoGiTiDSE. S. Voni t'l)er.i;anjr des Xahrunjisfettes In die Milch ( The transfor- 
mation of food fat into milk fatt. Zeitschrift fiir r.iolosie. Id (1!)(>.">). Xo. 
.'5, pp. 4(>.">— iLMl. \ hililini^raphy is ajipended. 

GoLDHKiUi. .v. Teller die Fortschritte auf deni (Jehiete der ("liemie des Wassers, 
sowie der natiirlichen und kiinstlichen Mineral\viiss<>r (A review of prog- 
ress in the chemistry of waters, especially natural and artificial mineral 
waters). Chenuker Zeitun.ir. 12S (l!)(t4). No. 77. i)p. ()OS-012). A review of 
investigations on this subject containing 184 references to articles which 
appeared during 1!)(»2 and T.to;',. 

Gos.SMAN.N. Die chronisclu' reriarthi'itis Tarsi des I'ferdes (Chronic jieriar- 
thritis tarsi of horses). INIonatshefte fiir jiraktische Thierheilkunde. 15 
(l!Mt4), No. 9-10. pp. :i.sr)-417. A critical review of the literature of the 
subject in comiection with a brief bibliography. 

Grips, W., (JLAdK, F., and .XiKiiKui.i:. (". Die Sclnveineseuche (Swine plague). 
Fortschritte der Veteriniir-llygiene. 2 (10(14). Xos. 1. pi*. ."i-lS ; 2. \)\). 
49-73; :?, pp. 82-107; 4, pp. iv.i-VAT,. A brief list of references to the lit- 
erature of the subject is appended. 

IlAL.STEn. B. I)., and Kelsey. J. A. The i)owdery nuldews. Xew Jersey Sta- 
tions Keport lOO.'i, pp. ~}\7-r>lMi. A list of 34 references to the literature of 
the subject is api)ended to the article. 

Henneguy, L. F. Les insectes (Insects). Paris: Masson & Co.. 1004, pp. 804. 
The literature of various subjects in entomology is briefly reviewed and a 
bibliograi»h.v of (52 jiages is included in the volume. 

IIiLGKR, A., Dietrich, T., et al. .Tahresbericbt iiber die Fortschritte auf dem 
Gesamtgebiete der Agrikultur-Chemie. 190.". (Annual report of the prog- 
ress in agricultural chendstry, 190;'.). Berlin: Paul Parey, 1904, pp. 
XXXVI -f(j(n. 

IIi.ne, J. S. Tabanidu' of the western I'nited States and Canada. Ohio State 
University Bulletin, 8. ser., Xo. 3.") ; reprinted from Ohio Naturalist, 5 
(1904), pp. 217-249. Bibliographical references are given to the species 
treated. 

HoHL. J. Sur quelques bacteries du sol et leur importance pour I'agriculture 
(On some soil bacteria, and their importance in agriculture). Annuaire 
agricole de la Suisse. 5 (1904). No. (5. pp. 201-228. Xumerous references 
to the literature of the subject are given in footnotes. 

Hume, H. H. Citrus fruits and their culture. .Jacksonville, Fla. : The II. and 
W. B. Drew Co., 1904. pp. XXII + 597. A list of 44 references to the 
literature of the subject is given on pages .j57-5(;2. 

, and Heimer, F. C. Japanese persimmons. Florida Station Bulletin 71, 

pp. G8-110. A list is given of 4(3 references to American literature relating 
to the Japanese persimmon. 

Jaccard, p. Les Mycorh.vzes et leur role dans la nutrition des essences fore- 
stieres (Mycorrhiza and its role in the nutrition of forest trees). Journal 
Forestier Suisse, 1904. Xo. 2-3, pp. 30. A bibliography is given of the 
principal works relating to this subject. 

Janasz, S. Beschreibung einiger Zuckerriibenrassen (Description of several 
types of sugar beets). Mitteilungen der Landwirtschaftlichen Institute 
der Kr.niglichen I'niversitiit Breslau. 2 (1904). Xo. 5, pp. 91:3-970. A list 
of 42 references to the literature of the subject is appended to the article. 

Kellerman, W. a. Journal of Mycology, index. Journal of Micology, 10 
(19((4), Xo. 74. pp. 289-392. An index to the first 10 volumes of this 
journ;il. 

Klemaiin. H. Die wirtwechselnden Rostpilze (Hetercecious rust fungi). Ber- 
lin : Borntraeger Bros., 1904, pp. XXXVII -f 4-47. This includes extended 
bibliographies. 

Krarup, a. V. Nogle Unders0gelser over Nedarvning og Variabilitet hos Havre, 
med sjprligt Hens,vn til Muligheden af at isolere fedtrige Typer, der egner 
sig til Ilavregrvnsfabrikation ( Some investigations of transmission and 
variability in oats, with special reference to the possibility of isolating t.vpes 
high in fat adapted to the manufacture of shelled oats). Copenhagen: 
Aug. Bang, 1903, pp. 70. A bibliography of 17 references is appended. 



24 

tvRfGER, r. Untersr.cluingen iiber den Giii-telsehorf dor Znckerriibeii (Investi- 
Kiitiiius on the zonal scab of l)eels). Arl)eiten ans der Kiologiscben Abteil- 
nnu; fiiv Land- und L\)rst\virtschart am Kaiserlichen Gesundheitsamte, 4 
(li)(i4), No. 3, pp. 254-318. A bibliography of 02 titles is appended to the 
article. 

Langstkin, L. Die Kohlehydratbildnng aus Eiweiss (Formation of carbohy- 
drates from protein). Ergel)nisse der Physiologie, :'> (l!»<t4), pp. -i'VA-im. 
A bibliography of 84 articles is given. 

LANCiwoKTHY, C. F., and Austen. I'. T. The occurrence of alnniiulum in vege- 
table i)rodiK'ts, animal products, and natural waters. New York : .Tohn 
Wiley & Sons ; London : Chapman & Hall, Ltd.. 1904. pp. V + 1G8. A bibliog- 
raphy of (>T1 references to reports on the occurrence of aluminium in the 
various products nameil. 

Leidy, -T. Researches in helminthology and parasitology. Smithsonian Mis- 
cellaneous Collections, 4(5, No. 1477, pp. 1-281. Bibliography and abstracts 
of the publications of Joseph Leidy are given. 

Lucas, K. Bericht iiber die wissenschaftlichen Leistungen im Gebiete der 
Entomologie wilhrend des Jahres 1900 (Report on scientific work in the 
field of entomology during 1900). Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte, 67 (1904), 
II, No. 2, 2. half, pp. 289-944. An extensive bibliography of literature 
relating to Ilymenoptera and Lepidoptera published during the year 1900. 

LuGiNGER. J. Streptothricheen als Ursache von Endocarditis beim Rind (Strepto- 
thrices as the cause of endocarditis in cattle). Monatshefte fiir Praktische 
Thierheilkunde, 15 (1904), No. 7-8, pp. 289-.33G. The literature relating to 
the bacteriology of endocarditis in animals and man is critically reviewed 
in connection with a brief bibliography. 

Mc \LPiNE D Native or Blackfellows's bread. The .lournal of the Department 
of Agriculture of Victoria, 2 (1904), No. 10, pj.. 1012-lo2(i. A list of 20 
references to the literature of the subject is appended. 

Matthews, J. M. The textile fibers : Their physical, microscopical, and chemi- 
cal properties. New York : John Wiley & Sons ; London : Chapman & Hall, 
Ltd., 1904, pp. YII + 288. A bibliography of 75 references to the literature 
of the subject is given in an appendix. 

Mayer, P. Zoologischer Jahresbericht fiir 1903 (Zoological Yearbook for 1903). 
Berlin: R. Friedliinder & Son. 1904, pp. YIII+.".9r,. Detailed bibliographic 
lists relating to the various groups of animals. The more important pub- 
lications under each group are briefly abstracted. 

Mead, E. Irrigation in Northern Italy, I. U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Ottice of Experiment Stations Bulletin 144, pp. 100. A bibliography con- 
taining references to 100 of the more important works relating to Italian 
irrigation is given on images 17-23 

Meyer, R., et al. Jahrbuch der Chemie (Yearbook of chemistry). Brunswick: 
Friedrich Viewig & Son. 1904, vol. 13, pp. VII+000. A biographical and 
bibliographical review of the more important advances in pure and applied 
chemistry during the year 1903. 

Michniewicz, a. R. Die LcJsungsweise der Reservestoffe in den ZellwJinden 
der Samen bei ihrer Keimung (The solution of reserve material in the cell 
walls of seed during germination). Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen 
Akademie der Wissenschaften [Vienna], IMathematisch-Naturwissenschaft- 
liche Klasse, 112 (1903), No. 4-7, pp. 48.3-510. A brief bibliography is 
appended. 
Morse, M. Batrachians and reptiles of Ohio. Ohio State University Bulletin, 
8. ser.. No. 18, pp. 91-144. Bibliographic references are given to the species 
known to occur within the State. 
Nedokvociiavev, N. Uber die Speicherung und Reduction der Nitrate in den 
Pflanzen (Conditions of accumulation and reduction of nitrates in plants). 
Izvyestiya Moskovskagho ScrskokhozyaistviMniagho InstTtuta | Annales de 
rinstitut Agronomi(iue de Moscoul, 10 (1904), No. 1. pp. 2.17-347. A bibli- 
ography including 127 titles is ai)i)ended. 
Neuberg, C. Die I'hysiologie der Pentosen und der (Jlukuronsiiure (The physi- 
ology of pentoses and gluconic acid). Ergebnisse der Pliysiologie. 3 (1904), 
pp. 37.3-4.52. A bibliography of 292 titles is given. 
Niciioi.i.s. A. (i. An experimental study on the effect of the blood sera of 
normal and immunized goats in modifying the progress of tulierculous 
infection. Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 
2. ser., 9 (1903), IV, i)p. .3-32. A list of 120 references to the literature 
of serum treatment of tuberculosis is appended to the article. 



25 

Opitz. K. rntorsuc'lnmson iibor BewurzoUuiK uixl P.pstockung oiniser Gctroi- 
(lesorten ( Iiivostij;:iti(ins <tn tlio rootiiif: and tilloriiij: of grains). Mlttoi- 
luiiKi'ii der Laiulwirtschaftlk-lien Iiistituto dor K<)nii,'liclieu Universitiit 
lirt'slau. 2 (1!M)4). No. 4, pp. 74'.>-Sl(;. Nuiiu'i-ous footnote references are 
given and a l)il)lio,i;rapli.v of 78 titles is apix-nded to the article. 

Ottavi, E.. M.\rks( ai.ciii. A., et al. Biltlio^raphia agrononiica universalis. 
C'asale: Ottavi Ums.. 1!)()4. No. (i. pit. 8!>-l!»'J. This is a continuation of the 
general agricultural hihliograpliy noted in itrevious reports. The number of 
articles noted has reached :>.TS<;. 

Tearsox. H. a. Syilahns of illustrated lecture on the care of milk. U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, OtHce of Experiment Stations, Farmers' Institute 
Lecture 1. pp. 1-. References to recent literature of this subject are 
appended. 

Phillips, W. F. R.. and Ki.mhali,. II. II. Recent papers Itearing on meteorology. 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, Monthly Weatlu>r Re- 
view, ;12 (1!MI4). i.p. ••>. <■«•"'>. l-<>. 1T4, 227, 27."., .•idS, :?(;il. 414, 4(il, ."'>(t2, r>r>-2. 

Popper, R, t'ber die Formelemente des ('olostrums, ihre Entstehung und 
Bedeutung (On the foi-med elements of colostrum, their origin and signifi- 
cance). Archiv fiir die (Jesannnte Physiologic des Menschen und der 
Thiere. Ki.l (li»04~l. No. 11-12. i)|>. .".7:!-<il.".. A biltliograjihy is ai»i»ended to 
the article. 

Ragan, W. II. Nomenclature of the ajiple; a catalogue of the known varieties 
referred to in American- publications from 1804 to 1004. U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, I'.ureau of Plant Industry Bulletin Hf!, pp. 383. A bihliog- 
raiihy of the literature considted, comitrising 233 ])apers, is appended. 

Richards, Ellen II., and Woodman, A. (I. Air, water, and food from a sanitary 
standiM)int. New York : John Wiley & Sons ; Eondon : Chapman & Hall. Ltd., 
1004, 2. ed., rev. and enl.. i)p. 2(>2. A list is given of some of Ihc more 
important works bearing on the subjects treated. 

Rogers. E. A. The relation of bacteria to tlie tlavoi's of Cheddar cheese. U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, P.ure.-iu of .\nimal Industry Bulletin <J2, ]^]). 38. 
The appended bitdiography furnishes references to 21 articles used in this 
review. 

Salmon, D. E. Some observations on the tuberculosis of animals. U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. Bureau of Animal Industry Report 100.3, pp. (;0-88. A 
list of .30 references to the literature of this subject is appended to the 
article. 

Sayre, L. E. Bibliography of the loco weed. Transactions of the Kansas 
Academy of Science, 10 (1903-4). pp. 104-107. A bibliography of articles 
relating to the loco weed. 

Schenke, Y. Phosphorsaurer Kalk als Futterbeigabe (Calcium phosphate as a 
part of a ration). Die Eandwirtschaftlichen Yersuchs-Stationen, 58 (1003), 
No, 3—4. pp. 201-312. The article includes a list of .IG references to the 
literature of the subject. 

ScHWEiNiTZ. E. A. DE. DORSET. M.. aud ScHROEDER. E. C. I'^xperimcnts concern- 
ing tuberculosis. II, The comparative virulence of human and bovine 
tubercle bacilli for some large animals. I". S. Dejiartment of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Animal Industry Bulletin ,52. ])t. 2. pp. 100. A brief bibliography 
of the subject Is appended. 

Seligmann, E. Ueber den Einfluss einiger Aldehyde, besonders des Formalins, 
auf die Oxydationsfermente der Milch und des (iunnni arabicums (On the 
influence of certain aldehydes, especiall.v formaldehyde, on the oxidizing 
ferments in milk and gum arable) . Zeitscbrift fiir Hygiene und Infections- 
krankheiten, 50 (1005), No. 1, pp. 97-122. A bibliography is appended. 

Smith. T.. and Reagh, A. L. The agglutination affinities of related bacteria 
parasitic in different hosts. Studies from the Rockefeller Institute for 
:\Iedical Research. 1 (1004). Art. 12; reprinted from .Tournal of Medical 
Research. (1903). No. 3. pp. 270-,300. A bibliography of about 20 publica- 
tions relating to the subject completes the paper. 

Stazzi, p. II corpuscolo di Negri e la diagnosi rapida della rabbla (Negri's cor- 
puscle and the rapid diagnosis of rabies). La Clinica Yeterinaria [Milan], 
27 (1004), Nos. 42, pp. 240-254; 44. pp. 201-205; 40, pp. 273-277. A brief 
list of references to the literature of the subject is appended. 

Stewart, F. C, aud Eustace, H. J. Syllabus of illustrated lecture on potato 
diseases and their treatment. U. S. Dei.artment of Agricultui'e, Office of 
Experiment Stations, Farmers' Institute Lecture 2, pp. 30. A list of 47 
references is appended. 



26 

Stiles, C. "W.. and Hassall. A. Index-catalogue of medical and veterinary 
zoology- r. S. Dejiartment of Agriculture. Bureau of Animal Industry Bul- 
letin :59, pts. 7-1 ;i. pp. 511-!)5U. These parts of this bulletin include authors 
whose names begin with the letters (J to K, inclusive. 

Stoklasa, J., ET AL. Ueber die Isolierung garungserregender Enzyme aus Kuh- 
milch (On the isolation of fermentative enzyms from cows" milk I. Zeit- 
schrift fiir das Landwirtschaftliche Yersuchswesen in Oesterreich, 7 (10<14), 
No. 11, jtp. 7r):j-774. A list of aliout :>(i references is appended. 

Stoxe, II. The timbers of connuerce and their identification. London : William 
Rider & Son, Ltd., pp. XXXVIII+311. A bibliography of 132 references to 
the literature of the sultject is given. 

Teichert. Bakteriologisch-chemische Studien iiber die Butter in der Provinz 
I'osen mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Tuberkelbacillen (Bacteriolog- 
ical and chenncal studies of the butter in the Province of Posen, with espe- 
cial reference to the tubercle l)acillus). Inaugiu-al Dissertation. University 
of Jena, 1004. A l)ibli()graphy of the subject is included. 

Yandevelde, a. J. J. Repertoire des travaux publics sur la composition, I'ana- 
lyse et les falsifications des denrees alimentaires pendant I'annee 1003 
(Review of the literature of composition, analysis, and adulteration of foods 
for the year 1003). Separate from Bulletin du Service de Surveillance de 
la Fabrication et du Commerce des Denrees Alimentaires. 1004. pjx 101. 
This contains 725 references and is the fourth volmne on this subject. 

Yoss. W. i'ber die durch Pfropfen herbeigefiihrte Symbiose einiger Yitisarten. 
ein ^'ersuch zur Lfisung der Frage nach dem Dasein der Pfrophhybriden 
(The symbiosis of grape species in gi-afting; an experiment for the solution 
of the' question of the existence of graft hybrids). I>andwirtschaftliche 
Jahrbiicher, 33 (1004), No. 6. pp. 0(!1-006. A bibliography of .")6 papers on 
the subject is included. 

Waele. II. de. SroG. E.. and Yandevelde. A. J. .J. Sur I'obtention de lait cru 
sterile (Obtaining raw sterile milk). Centralblatt fiir Bakteriologie, Para- 
sitenkunde u. Infektionskrankheiten, 2. Abt.. 13 (1004), No. 1-3. pp. .30-35. 
A list of 21 titles is appended to the article. 

Weber. S. Fber die Beeinflussung des Stoffwechsels durch einige pharmakolo- 
gisch wichtige Stoffe (The influence of active pharmacological principles 
on metabolism). Ergebnisse der Physiologie, 3 (1904). pp. 2.33-280. A 
bibliography of 550 articles is given. 

Westgate. J. M. Reclamation of Cape Cod sand dunes. U. S. Department of 
Agriculture. Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin 65, pp." 38. The bulletin 
concludes with a brief bibliography of the literature relating to the subject. 

Winkler. W. L>er gegenwiirtige Stand der Klisereifungsfrage (The present 
status of the question of cheese ripening). Centralblatt fiir Bakteriologie, 
Parasitenkunde u. Infektionskrankheiten, 2. Abt., 12 (1004), No. 4-5, pp. 
97-105: 0-10, pp. 273-280. A review of the literature of this sul)ject with 
an appended bibliography of 51 articles. 

W^OLL, F. W. On the relation of food to the production of milk and butter fat 
by dairy cows. Wisconsin Station Bulletin 110, pp. 85. A list of 151 ref- 
erences is given in an appendix to this Imlletin. 

Bibliographie agricole Belge. (Agricultural bibliography of Belgium). Brus- 
sels: J. Yandervorst, pp. 170. This is the first part of a l)ibliography of 
Belgian agricultural literature, and includes all books, pamphlets, and 
articles of more than 10 pages which have appeared since 1880. Lists of 
the publications of the Belgian Department of Agriculture and of the prin- 
cipal agricultural journals of Belgium are appended. 

Bihliogkapiiie der Deutschex xaturwissexschaftlichex Lttteratur (Bibli- 
ography of German scientific literature). Berlin: Hermann Paetel. 1004, 
vol. 5, Nos. 25-38, pp. 785-1240. 

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, second annual issue. 
D_Chemistrv. 1004. Oct.. pp. YIII-t-l(t02: F— Meteorology. 1004, Sept.. pj). 
YIII+200; i^-General Biology, 1004, June, pp. YIII + 12(»; M— Botany, 
1004. December, pp. YIII-flll4: Q— Physiology. 1004. July. pt. 1, pp. 
Vni-|-(!20 : pt. 2. i)p. (■)21-13('.(). These volumes consist of author and subject 
indexes to the literature of the subjects mentioned. 

A. C. True. In this connection I desire to call attention to the fact that the 
Office of Experiment Stations wishes to keep up to date its collection of books 
written by college and station officers. As the re.sult of the St. Louis Exposi- 



27 

tion we have now n <iuitt' complete i-ollectioii. pretty well up to date, but as you 
are publishing' books, be sure to remember the Office of Experiment Stations and 
its eolleetion. 

The report of the biidiojiraiiher was aceei>ted. 

I'm FORM Fektilizeb and Feeding Stuff Legislation. 

H. J. Wheeler, of Rhode Island, ehairman of this committee, submitted the fol- 
lowing report : 

Your committee begs to report that duriuf,' the past year reque.sts have been 
received from several States where feediny-stuff legislation was either pending 
or anticipated for suggestions concerning such acts. In all such cases the atten- 
tion of imiuirers has been directed to the points of uniformity already adopted 
and reconnnended by this association. 

Since the last report concerning the efforts to secure uniformity in fertilizer 
laws, the law of the State of New York has been modified, conforming in its 
chief features to the existing reconnnendations of this association and of the 
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. The State of Tennessee is also 
reported to have passed a new act based upon these reconnnendations l)Ut with 
some modifications. It is reported from Florida that the law of that State, 
which was amended in 1901, l>ased upon the reconnnendations, has been found 
to be a vast improvement upon the former act. 

A new fertilizer law was passed by the State of Kansas in 1903 which differed 
in many essential details from the association's reconnnendations and which has 
been officially recognized in that State as capalile ()f much improvement. 

It will be recalled that in a former report it was shown that the reconnnenda- 
tions have already been largely adopted in recent modification of the laws of a 
consideralile numi)er of the States. Nevada. Wyoming. New Mexico, Colorado, 
Minnesota. Arizona. Oregon. Nebraska, and Ftah are reported to have no fertil- 
izer laws. Inquiries have nevertheless been received from Utah and Colorado 
concerning the recommendations of this association, indicating that the matter 
is already coming under consideration in that State. 
Respectfullv submitted. 

II. J. Wheeler. 
Chas. D. Woods. 
E. II. .Ienkins, 
M. A. Scovell, 
H. P. Artvisby, 

Committee. 
The report was accepted. 

On motion of J. L. Hills, of Yermont. delegates and visitoi's in attendance at 
the convention of the Association of State Universities were admitted to the 
privileges of the floor. 

Report of Committee on Methods of Seed Testing. 

The following report was read by the secretary : 

The standing committee on methods of seed testing begs to report that, since 
the adoption bv your association of the revised rules for seed testing, nothing 
on the subject" has called for the attention of this committee, or for report to 
the association. 

Respectfully submitted for the committee. 

E. H. .Ienkins, Chairman. 

The report was accepted. 

Forestry in Land-Grant Institutions. 

S. B. Green, of Minnesota, offered the following resolution : 

Whereas the forests of thisi country are fast disappearing, and little or no 
attention is being paid to their renewal ; and 

Whereas the development of this country is seriously threatened by a shortage 
in timber supplv : Therefore be it 

Resolved hy the Association of American Agricultural Collepes and Experi- 
ment Stations in convention assembled. First. That the national-forestry policy 



28 

of this country should include provision for education and experimentation in 
forestry by tile aj;ricultui-al colleges and experiment stations of tlie different 
States and Territories. 

Second. That the Congress of the T'uited States I)e asked to ap])ropriate 
adequate sums for the promotion of forest education and experimentation in 
the agricultural colleges and experiment stations of the United States. 

Third. That the executive conunittee of this association l)e. and is hereby, 
directed to prepare a suitable bill with this purpose in view, and strongly 
urge its passage by Congress at its forthcoming session. 

The resolution was referred to the executive conunittee. (For further action 
see p. 53.) 

IXSTKrcTIOXS TO THE EXECUTIVE^ COMMITTEE REG.\RniNCi CONGRESSIONAL 

LKfilSI-ATION. 

G. W. Atherton. of rennsylvania. offered the following resolution: 

Rf'Kolrcd. That the executive committee be, and hereby is. instructed to use 
its best efforts to promote the passage of the Adams bill, and also to give such 
assistance to the Mondell bill as in its judgment may l)e advisable and as cir- 
cumstances may justify. 

G. W. Atherton. The resolution, I hope, is plain enough to explain its own 
purpose and purport, which is to concentrate the intiuence of the association on 
the passage of the Adams l>ill. But I would like to say. as explaining, and 
interpreting the second clause, that there is a feeling on the part of those who 
are interested in the INIondell bill that they will not get support enough from 
this association. The Association of State Mining Schools is naturally pushing 
the Mondell bill, and there is no reason to suppose that this asociation, from its 
])ast history and its past committal to this bill, would throw any obstacles in 
the way of that bill, and that it had definitely decided to push for one thing 
now. The purpose of the resolution is to concentrate the attention of the com- 
mittee on the Adams bill and at the same time to leave it free to act. in view 
of the contingencies that arise in the progress of legislation. 

The resolution was referred to the executive committee. (For further action 

see p. 42.) 

E. A. Bryan, of Washington. I think there is perhaps some misunderstanding 
about a reference to the executive committee. As I understand, the one pur- 
pose of such reference is to fix a suitable time for the consideration of the 
matter, and not in order that the executive conunittee may make a report on 
the advisability or inadvisability of this or any other resolution. 

The President. The provision is that resolutions shall be referred to the 
executive committee without debate, to be assigned a place upon the programme. 

E. A. Bryan. And not for the puri)ose of eliciting their views. 

K. L. Buttertield. of Rhode Island, offered the following resolution :' 

Resolution Regarding a Department oe Agricultural Education in the 
National Educational Association. 

Whereas this association believes that the questions involved in the general 
and the technical education of the rural people are of sufficient importance to 
warrant siiecial recognition in the great gatherings of American educators: 

Therefore, be it , . a. , i 

Rcsolrcd. That our executive committee be hereliy instructed to take such 
steps as they mav consider necessary in an endeavor to secure the consent of 
the National* Ediicational Association to add to its list of special departments 
a department or dei)artinents on rural and agricultural education. 

The resolution was referred to the executive committee. (For action on it, 

see p. 47.) 

Thereupon, at 12 o'clock noon, the convention adjourned until S p. m. 



29 
Evening Session, Tuesday, Xovembek 14, 1005. 

The coiivoiition was callod to order at S.oO o'llock p. lu., J. C Hardy, of Mis- 
sissipi)!. first vito-|trcsi(lent, in tlic rliair. 

Statistical Work of the V. S. Departmext oe AoRicrr.Tt'RE. 

IT. J. Waters, of Missouri, offered a resolution relatinj; to tliis worlc. wiiieli 
was referred to the exeeutive eomniittee. (For action on it see p. 49.) 

Petition of Association of Mining Schools Kegardini! Indorsement of Mon- 

DELL Bill. 

A petition from tlie National Association of State Miningc Schools, request*- 
ing a reindorsement by the association of the .Mondeli liill, was presented by 
II. C. White, of Georgia, and was referred to tiic cxci iiti\ t> conuuittee. (See 
p. 42.) 

President E. P>. Voorhees, of New .lersey. was introduced and delivered the 
annual presidential address, as follows: 

Annual Adiujkss of the President of the Association. 

A review of the proceedings of our annual conventions and their relations 
to the develoitinent of the work of the colleges and stations in the last eighteen 
years would doubtless be pr()fital)le and interesting at this time, as showing the 
intluence of this association in iniifying sentiment and directing and concen- 
trating effort along the lines of progress. I shall, however, refer but briefly 
to our early history, but will discuss in a general way some of our i)reseiit-day 
problems, p;irticuhuiy in their relation to the education of the farmer and 
his family. In the early history of this as.sociation there were, as was to be 
expected, two distinct views held by the officers of the institutions, as t(j the 
character of the larger work that should be done by the colleges provided 
lor by the Hatch Act of 1887, and the Morrill Act of 1800. 

On the one hand, those who had received their training in our older insti- 
tutions, were conservative and adhered strongly to the old landmarks in 
reference to educational methods, and with glowing periods and persuasive 
logic demanded in the founding and developing of these new institutions that 
the old curriculum of studies, which had for centuries been found to fulfill 
the requirements in the development of the intellectual faculties of man, 
should be, in large part, retained. They urged that " the student must be 
taught to think : that the powers of reason and memory could be strength- 
ened in no way quite so well as by a rather close adherence to the classical 
studies." On the other hand, those who had been trained mainly in the field 
of action urged quite as strenuously that " the time for a new departure had 
come; that students should be taught to do, as well as to think, and that the 
powers of reason, memory, and observation could be developed quite as well 
by a study of science and its manifestations and ai)plications as by the study 
of subjects formerly regarded as alone capable of leading to that end, and 
demanded the entire elimination of these from the agricultural and other 
courses of a rather scientific character." 

It is evident that rapid progress along the right lines could not be made as 
long as these opposing and, in a sense, antagonistic views were held. A study 
of the proceedings of the conventions shows, however, that wise concessions 
vrere made from time to time on both sides. The conservative parties were 
imable — nor did they persist in their attempt — to resist the logic of the situa- 
tion. The demand for workers in technical fields was imperative, and would 
permit only in exceptional cases that thorough education which the old curricu- 
lum afforded. The others learned, on their part, that technical studies alone, 
while training men more (juickly for practical activity, could not in themselves 
be regarded as sufficient from the l)roader educational standpoint. The best 
men in the technical pursuits, the leaders, whether in chemistry, engineering, 
electricity, the scientists in the various branches of experiment station work, 
had received, as a rule, a broader training than was made possible by the 



30 

strictly technical studies, and tlnis a judicious adjustment was effected. The 
excellent standing of these State institutions to-day : their, in a sense, conserva- 
tive, thoush i)rogressive. character ; their adaptation to the newer conditions 
and requirements are a uioiumient to these men, who. l)y their clearness of 
vision, breadth of view, and unselfishness of purpose, have interpreted the 
trend of the times and its educational needs. The representatives of these 
institutions, who were wise enough to retain the best of the old. while including 
at the same time the best of the new. have secured for them that permanency 
and that degree of pi-esent usefulness which conunand the respect and admira- 
tion of those interested in industrial educ-ition in tliis and all countries. A 
result like this could not have Iteen accomplished without the influence of this 
representative organization. 

On our exi)eriment station side. too. there have been men who have insisted 
that any permanent good to be accomplished must come from investigations of 
a high order : that men should absent themselves from the world and, in their 
laboratories, seek to know the mysteries of nature, and from their discoveries 
to formulate principles which, in their application, would be of inestimable 
{service to the world. Othei'S have urged quite as strongly that the experiment 
station should first demonstrate to the farmers the utility of the stations' work; 
prove, by tests in the field, the barn, and the laboratory, that the principles 
already known are of the greatest service when applied in practice. The 
farmers were crying for bread, in the shape of practical information ; why give 
them a stone, in the shape of scientific disquisitions, upon agricultural matters 
to be sure, but beyond their comprehension? " To know how to do," rather than 
to " know how to enjoy the fruits of higher scientific research," is what the 
farmer needs. As in the case of the colleges, the stations, too. have made great 
progress in their development along right lines. There has l)een, on the whole, 
a fair adjustment and combination of doing and thinking, and many stations 
are now equipped for and are pursuing highly scientific investigations, without 
at the same time losing touch with the farmei-. for whom, primarily, the stations 
were estalilished. Great things have been accomplished, and. as an evidence of 
this, the following figures may be quoted : 

In 1802, when the first complete statistical rei^ort of these institutions was 
made, there were in the various agricultural colleges 11,358 students, of whom 
3,460 were taking agricultural courses. The total revenues in that year were 
$3,444,426. of which .$1,716,108 was received from Federal grants; ,$1,111,588 was 
derived from the various States, and the balance from fees and miscellaneous 
sources. In 1904 there was a total of 56,226 students in the various land-grant 
colleges, of which 12,033 were taking courses in agriculture or allied sulijects. 
The Federal aid granted in that year was .$2,015,136. and State aid. including 
appropriations for buildings and special purposes, $5,617, !»()2 ; in other words. 
$2.17 was received from the various States for every dollar appropriated l)y the 
United States Government. 

In 1802 the several States received under the Hatch Act $690,000 ; in that 
year 13 States appropriated a total of $152,000. In 1004 the increase from the 
Federal Treasury was but $15.(M)0. yet the number of States contributing to the 
support of their experiment stations had increased to 34. and the amount appro- 
priated from $152,000 to $522,391. or a sum from State treasuries nearly equal 
to that from Federal grants. 

While the association is. therefore, to be congratulated upon the. great prog- 
ress that has been made by l)oth colleges and stations in the past twelve years, 
as shown l)y these figures, it should not lie assumed for one moment that because 
the institutions are now well estal)lished ui)on foundations broad and deep; 
that because the su]terstructures in course of erection are showing such evi- 
dences of beauty of form, harmony In adjustment, and utility of purpose, the 
completion of the work may safely be left to itself. There has been no time 
in the history of these institutions that called for greater wisdom of direction 
than the present moment; too great an increase in material wealth may easily 
be a menace, rather than an aid to right development and true i)rogress. for the 
statement that " ii certain amount of money is necessary, liotli for tiie individual 
and for the Government," is api)licable to educational institutions. It must be 
rememl»ered that the value of these institutions, liotli stations and colleges, is 
not determined so much by fine Ituildings, elaborate eciuipment. and exceittional 
facilities for work as l>y the men who direct the work of the various depart- 
ments, and it is (piite conceival)le that tlie supply of men jtroperly trained may 
not keep pace with the growth of eciuijjment and endowment. I am persuaded, 
also, that the increase iu the number of students in a college is not always a 



31 

moasnvo of its rupooss nnd usofulnpss, or tlint tho number of bulletins issued 
from nil oxiu'rinuMit station is a measure of tlic value of the work done tiiere. 
Many boys may liave W'vn drawn from tlic farms to tlio sliortor t-oursos in tlu» 
eolle'ues i>y tlio iiicturcsquc cirmlars calling' attontion to tlie j^reat advanta.i^es 
to be derived from " a little learnin.ij;." These, as a rule, do not ai^teal to the 
best ujen. but ratlu'r to thost- who are attracted by the " j;et-rieh-quiek " plan, 
who from a smattering; of many thin.srs ran take positions which will enable them 
to get a liviuf,' more easily than on the farm. It is a fact. too. that many of 
the most valuable bulletins of the stations are not read, and if read are not 
appreciated at their true worth. 

The j^rowth in material thin.gs, as evidenci'd by larj;e State appropriations, 
may, in other words, indicate not so nmch the awakenin.u; of the farmer him- 
self, or his realization of his educational ni-eds, and th(> demand that they bo 
satisfied, as the prot^ress made in the various States in the I'utirely legitimate 
and proper education of the nonfarmer members of the legislature, for it is a 
notorious fact, that of the States where farmers constitute a large ))roportion 
of the members of the legislature, many have been the most backward in voting 
appropriations for the college of agriculture or for the experiment station. 
The increase in the nund)er of genuine students in the colleges — and by 
"genuine" I mean those who attend for the purpose of actiuiring knowledge 
iind the direct helpfulness of the exjieriment stations to the farmers — have 
been due to the intluence of the work of, or of iK'rsonal contact with, one or 
more men in the institutions, whose l)readth of view, sincerity of i)uri>ose, and 
strength of character have ins|)ired both young and old with the desire to sit 
at their feet, rather than to buildings, ecpiipment, or exceptional facilities. I 
Lave no doubt that the members of this association have felt the i)ossible 
dangers pointed out here as constituting a real menace to future i)rogress, and 
I am sure I shall not be -misunderstood when 1 urge that the pressing needs 
of to-day are for men rather than eiiui]»ment, and that, paradoxiciU as it may 
seem, the duty of this association, as representing the institutions in the various 
States, is to see to it that both a broader and a more elementary education sliall 
be provided. The character of the work of the exjieriment stations is not high 
enough, because of the lack of a suthcient number of broadly trained men in 
the various departments of chemistry, botany, entomology, etc., who are 
capable of planning highly scientitic investigations. Analysts who are unable 
to plan a comprehensive experiment, or to interpret their experimental results, 
are not chenusts ; collectors, unable to originate or pursue a definite and helpful 
line of investigation, are not botanists or entomologists. Experiment stations 
need a larger number of true scientists, if their work is to be of a more permanent 
character. It may be said that scientific investigators of a higher order, like 
poets, "are born, not made." which is undoubtedly true, and hence the greater 
necessity of a larger nuudter of In'oadl.v trained students from among whom men 
may be drawn that shall be capable teachers and investigators. The teaching 
functions of the experiment stations nuist be exercised as long as the great mass 
of farmers are unfandliar with the applications of the principles of science, and 
the beneficial, results of investigations must of necessity remain largel.v indi- 
rect ; none the less the intluence of the stations has already proved of inestima- 
ble value to the country. What it will be when its work touches directly all 
of the various interests of the people, as it surely nuist, can onh- be faintly 
conjectured. The opinion has been expressed that the establishment of the 
land-grant colleges, together with those important branches, the experiment 
stations, was one of the most beneficent acts of legislation ever enacted l)y this 
Government. This opinion is concurred in by all who have given the subject 
careful thought, not only because it has to do primarily with the education and 
consequent uplifting of the industrial classes, but also because in its best 
sense it has to do with the development, conservation, and use of the nation's 
wealth, viz, the elements which constitute its soil, increasiug the intelligence 
and broadening the views both of the man who directs nature's energies in the 
creation of new products, and of him who transforms them into merchantaljle 
forms or transfers them to the consiuners. I do not agr(i3 with those who 
regard the land-grant college as primarily the place where the student may 
secure technical education that shall best fit him for liis duties as a farmer. 
The land-grant college is the farmer's college, but it should furnish opportuni- 
ties for the farmer's boy to secure a training along the lines which shall best 
suit his inclinations, though I believe that those who shall study engineering, 
or law, or medicine, or other technical or professional pursuits, or shall fit 
themselves there to be more helpful to their fellow-men in any direction, should 



32 

acquire there such a knowledge of the prhiciples of agricultural science as to 
enahle them to at least understand the relation of this, the primary industry, 
to the other great industries of the world, and the relation of the latter to the 
products of the farm, as well as to the progress of the country and the benefit 
of all the people. This organization, therefore, represents in an educational 
sense the greatest of all human interests, because it includes them all. Each 
State here represented is an empire in itself, when considered from the stand- 
point of potential development. The possibilities in this direction are so great, 
particularly as concerns the need of improvement in economic and social 
conditions, that those engaged in the wi)rk can not help but chafe under the 
restraint caused l)y the inertness of those forces, governmental and otherwise, 
which should be exercised in their behalf. 

Our first question, then, is, A\hat is the responsibility of this organization V 
for it seems to me that the responsibility for the development and progress 
of agriculture must rest most of all with the institutions that we represent. 
I am well aware that it is the essential duty of an agricidtnral college, in <'om- 
mon with others, to give i)roper instruction to its students, yet l)ecause the agri- 
cultural college in any State is, or should be, at the fountain head of the 
agricultural education, it is not merely directly responsible for the education 
of the students who come to its halls, but indirectly responsil)le for the educa- 
tion of the masses engaged in agriculture. It is not sufficient that this work 
should be touched here and there by the agricultural college, for the mass of 
farmers shall be so instructed as to enable them to take advantage in a prac- 
tical way of the knowledge in our possession. The last United States census 
showed that there were in the United States 5,739,(557 farms and about 11,000,- 
000 farmers, who, with their families, constitute about three-fifths of our 
population, q'he Report of the OHice of Experiment Stations, in its statistics 
of land-grant colleges for 1004, shows that there have been graduated from these 
institutions, since their organization, 57,000 students, or practically one stu- 
dent for each hundred farms. Had all of these students been graduated from 
the agricultural courses, and had they all engaged in farming, only 1 per cent 
of the farms of the country would have been thus directly influenced by the 
agricultural colleges. The facts are, however, that a very small iiroportion 
of this total number of students were graduated from the agricultural courses. 
and of these a ver.v large proportion were not directly engaged in farming, 
though interested in allied occupations, as in the manufacture of fertilizers, 
the management of dairies or creameries, the editing of newspapers, or in 
teaching. It is a fact that the number of graduates from the agricultural 
courses is too small, even now, to make it possible for the varicms institutions 
to secure enough competent instructors, hence the number of men who have 
been educated in these colleges, and whi> are engaged in farming, is too small 
to directly affect agricultural practice in the various States. The wonder is, 
therefore, that any genuine progress has been made, rather than that greater 
progress has not been made. Our progress can be accounted for by the wealth 
of our natural resources, a progress that has been accompanied l)y woeful 
waste. 

That this would apply to any other industry which has made proportionately 
greater progress than has l)een made in farming is true in a sense, but it must 
be remembered that in other industrial lines there are many schools where 
technical education may l)e obtained, whereas in the case of the farmer his 
only school. ])ractically. is his agricultural college, though fortunately there are 
u few notable exceptions. The only means of education available to him 
aside from his agricultural college may be found in the varicms subordinate 
agencies, such as the farmers' institutes, the grange, the press, the State boards 
of agriculture, the agricultural and horticultural societies, and farmers" clubs, 
and the direct influence of these is really (piite limited. The farmers' insti- 
tutes, which are directly educational in their methods, according to avaihd)le 
statistics i-each less than 5 per cent of those living upon farms, and these 
attend institutes l»ecause they are already in t<mch with the experiment sta- 
tions; they do not reach, as a rule, those who are in the gn^atest need. 

I do not desire in any way to belittle the very great service that has been 
rendered l)y these organizations, for I appreciate fully their value, but it caii 
not be claimed even hy the In-oadest interpretation of the term "education" 
that they have been truly educational factors in the sense that the college or 
school is. whei-e jiresciMbed studies are reciuired that are pui'sued in a logical 
way. It is impossible to achieve great ends, or to make genuine and general 
progress in any calling, witliout h;iving those who are directly interested so edu- 



33 

cated and trained in the fnndnmontal prinriplos n]>()ii which tlic industry rests 
as to eiialde tlieni to a.i;nH' as a unit upon essentials. 

It may l)e said also that this education of which we speak is not selfish in its 
chafacter. for while it com-erns directly the farmer and the farmer's interests, 
the actual result of the hroader dissemination of exact knowledj^e will ulti- 
mately redound to the henetit of the entire iK'ople engaj^ed in whatever line of 
industry. This doubtless is true in a decree of all forms of education. Never- 
theless it .seems to me that this educati(»u. which is so intimately related to the 
issues of life, must he considered of relatively ;,'reater importance than any other, 
for it is. in the lonj,' run, a preretiuisite either to the material enjoyment or to 
the usefulness of man, whatever his education may have been in other direc- 
tions. This view is based upon the fact that the capital stock of any counti-y. 
and, therefore, its present and pros])ective wealth, as well as the means whereby 
the wealth may he utilized for the upliftin.tr (tf mankind, lies in the natural re- 
sources of that country. In an aj^ricultural country these resources are in the 
soil, and since the value of the soil, or its sustained jiower to produce crops, is 
measured by the content of nitrot^'en. iihos])horic acid, and jjotash, together with 
the conditions which m.ike them available to plants, it follows that the future 
Itrogress of that country is measured by the intelli^'ence with which these con- 
stituent elements are used. The wasteful use of these, either in the systems 
of farm practice adoi)ted or in the crude transformations that take place in 
their manufacture and distribution, must reduce the possible value of the 
resources, and, therefore, the adeiiuate return in culture or material wealth, 
which alone permits of tlu-se enjoyments accompanyinjj a hi.i:her civilization. 

It is a notorious fact that the farm practice in this country ui) to the present 
time has been wastefid in all these directions, and while this wasteful i)ractice 
can not he char.i^ed exclusively to ignorance on the part of the farmers them- 
selves, the result is identical, and unless we increase our knowledge of the 
means by which the natural forces which are always active may be understood 
and controlled by the mass of farmers, the time is not far distant when this 
country, in common with older countries, will be confronted with the problem 
of feeding the people. 

I am well aware that these natural forces of sun, air, water, and tempera- 
ture, and the principles upon which the sciences of geologj', of chemistry, of 
biology, and of physics are based, and which are all concerned in the proper utili- 
zation of these constituents of our soils, and consequently the true progress of 
the nation, have existed since the beginning of time. Real progress in their 
application was not apparent, however, until the investigations of the geologist, 
the chemist, the botanist, and the physicist had established a reasonable basis 
for a theory that would account for the various phenomena involved in the 
work, and it is through the broader dissemination of the results of the work of 
these investigators in other countries that the latter have been enabled to main- 
tain and increase the fertility of their soils and to provide a larger measure 
for the feeding of their people. The conservation of those basic elements in the 
countries in question is partly facilitated, too, by the disregard of these prin- 
ciples in our country. There is. I admit, no inunediate danger of a shortage 
of agricultural products in this country ; neither is there any immediate danger 
of a general dissemination of knowledge that will result in materially chang- 
ing our farm practice. It is a gradual i)rocess in either case, but unless more 
active measures be taken and strenuous efforts made to provide for the future, 
the rate of progress made by our nation in all those directions, which has made 
us truly great, will he materially reduced. 

Aside from the primary problem of producing crops, and of conserving at the 
same time the principal elements involved in their growth, we must recognize 
that the allied problems of labor, transportation, social conditions, political and 
economic forces, which create so much dissatisfaction and unrest among the 
farmers, as among others, are the result, in part at least, of the ignorance of 
the fundamental principles upon which the industry rests. It is a common 
saying that farming as a business depends more upon the man thiiu upon the 
conditions, and if we will follow up this matter we shall find that where the 
individual is successful, he is so because he has either b.v intuition or force of 
character succeeded in educating himself. He has acquired, by his experience 
and contact with men, those attributes which compel success, which the agri- 
cultural college is destined to give. Take the question of labor, which is such 
an important problem at the present time in our Eastern States and in the 
vicinity of large cities in all sections of the country. There can be no good 

21336— No. 164^06 m 3 



34 

reason, if economic conditions wore properly adjusted, why the farming business 
should not fairly compete in obtaining labor with the manufacturer, whose busi- 
ness it is to prepare for consumption the products which the farmer raises ; and 
yet if the farmer were to pay the same rehitive rate of wages and grant to 
labor the same number of hours that are maintained in the mills he would not 
be able to earn living wages for himself, nmch less secure the profit which the 
manufacturers demand. John INIitchell, the celebrated labor leader, stated in 
the public prints a few weeks ago that " labor was the only commodity which 
permitted the person using it to fix the price fur it, and that he proposed in the 
new arrangements that were to be made that the laborer should fix the price of 
his labor, just as the manufacturer fixed the price of his manufactured product." 
This would seem a reasonable demand, yet John Mitchell ignored the fact that 
these men, occupying more than 5.(i(i<).(K)0 of farms, were doing exactly what 
he claimed was being done only in the case of labor. The farmer seldom fixes 
the price of his produce ; never in the case of many perishable products. It is 
fixed by the purchaser, and presumably based upon the conditions of demand 
and supply. If this were actually the case, no legitimate criticism could be 
made, but the facts are that in too many instances prices are fixed by those 
possessing superior advantages in the way of capital or intelligence, and without 
special reference to supply and demand. The producers on these millions of 
farms should have a share in these adjustments in proportion to their interests, 
and would be able to exercise a proper and legitimate influence if made familiar 
with the principles that are involved. 

In the matter of transportation, too, it would seem that if economic condi- 
tions were properly adjusted more equitable terms for the distribution of the 
products of the farm would be provided. Transportation companies depend for 
their income to a greater degree upon the products of the farm, in both the 
raw and manufactured state, than upon the products of any other industry. 
The tonnage of corn, wheat, hay, and cotton greatly exceeds that of iron, coal, 
or oil ; yet there are no rebates or cut rates offered the farmer. He is chai-ged 
all the traffic will bear. One of the chief causes of the depression of agriculture 
in many sections of our country, and especially In our Eastern States, which are 
within "a short distance of our large cities, is the cost of transportation. It is 
not possible to have perishable products transported in such a way as to enable 
them to reach the consumer at a cost and in a condition that would allow the 
producer to compete with products that are raised upon lands located at greater 
distances from points of consumption. Concrete examples of the influence of 
deflnite knowledge in changing conditions in many of these respects, I have no 
doubt, are familiar to all, as they are to be found in any State, and only illus- 
trate the beneficent results of its broader dissemination. 

The social conditions existing in many, if not all, farming communities also 
need to be improved. The advantages to be derived from education accrue only 
when the social nature of man is properly provided for. The farmer now is, in 
many instances, content to make money on the farm, but is not content with 
it as a home for his family. In fact, many use it as a means of securing a 
competence that would enable them to live elsewhere. 

All of these problems, which affect, both directly and indirectly, the true 
progress of agriculture, and in a sense the stability of our Government, can be 
solved and will be solved in a satisfactory manner only when the essential 
principles which are involved are understood by the masses engaged in the 
work. 

The agricultural colleges must recognize the gravity of these problems and 
give their moral support, not only, but should be the leaders in solving them. 
They must be in such close touch with the educational facilities of the various 
States as to make it possible for the l)oy on the farm to ol)tain an elementary 
knowledge of his business and likewise of its relation to all the other, in a sense, 
subordinate industries. I do not wish to be understood as saying that the col- 
leges should interfere with things that do not concern them, but rather that 
they should take such an interest in all these i)roblems as shall promote the 
proper education of the large number of men engaged in the work. In order 
that this may be partly met, many institutions have established short courses 
in agriculture, where it is possible for students to obtain a certain amount of 
knowledge, good as far as it goes and deserving of encouragement. The col- 
lege should not be content with this, however, as it can not be regarded as the 
best and only thing they can do outside of their regular work ; first, because 
it is not possible thus to reach all the farmers; second, because it is not time 



35 

education and is not far-roaohinp; enousli to onal)lo tho student to mastoi- his 
opportunities lilie one wlio is surruunde«l from bis earliest school days with an 
atmosphere of instruction, where not merely the proper j;eneral knowled.w is 
supplied, hut where the knowledge gained points constantly to the farm. The 
instruction, which is given by means of the farmers' institutes and which is 
now available in nearly every State in the Union, is to be highly connntMided 
and should receive the support of the college ; yet also this work is not strictly 
educational; besides the institutes do not reach, as a rule, that class which is 
in the greatest need of advice and instruction. The agricultural i)ress is a 
mighty force, and if proi»i'rly directed is of very great service, yet this likewise 
is not an educational factor in its true sense. The skilled workman in other 
industrial lines does not regard his trade journal as ;; source of education, but 
rather as a source of information as to the progress that is being made in his 
profession. It is not possible by any of these means to acipiire the sort of 
education which may come from the elementary or high schools. Such educa- 
tion will come only "when those interested in the higher echication will see to 
it that sound learning is provided in all grades. 

The colleges also have a direct resiionsibility as to the kind and amount of 
work that shall be done by the exiteriuient station, while on the other hand, 
the experiuuMit stations have a direct resiionsibility in providing the colleges 
with accurate data for the instruction that shall be given in the various 
branches. The responsibility of the colleges is nnich greater, therefore, than 
that involved in the (piestion of the number of hours that an e.\i)eriment sta- 
tion officer shall teach in the college. This (luestion is important, however, 
not only because the institutions are absolutely distinct, in so far as their 
incomes are concerned, but because the work of each is specifically prescribed 
in the laws establishing them. It is (piite possible that an exact division of 
time and salary may be made, and yet the purpose of the appointment of the 
experiment-station ollicer be defeated simply because it is not a (piestion of 
equivalents as to division of time and jiroportionate jiaynient of salary. It 
is a fact that the progress made by the colleges is coincident in many instances 
with the establishment of the experinu>nt station. This is no discredit to tlie 
college, nor is it to be regarded as a matter of great credit to the experiment 
stations. It was rather a matter of conditions, emphasizing more strongly 
than arguments the question of the interdependent relations of the two insti- 
tutions, the one supplementing the work of the other. The colleges were not 
in a position to come in touch with the farmers ; the experiment stations were, 
and hence the growth of the colleges has been, in a degree, proportion.ate to 
the effectiveness of the work of the experiment stations. The stations, like 
the college, have their work defined in the laws establishing them, and because 
the provisions of the law are capable of a broad interpretation, the character 
of the work tluit shall be done is left largely with the individual institutions. 
The primary function of the experiment station is, however, not to teacli. 
but to conduct experiments which shall secure and establish facts and principles 
that broaden the sciences upon which the practice of agriculture is built, and 
shall thus ultimately remove in large part the uncertainty now involved in its 
pursuit, which leads to the waste of much energy and involves vast fiutincial 
losses. The work in question is broad and complex, and concerns not merely 
the raising of the crude products, and likewise their conversion into mer- 
chantable forms, but also the transformation of vegetable into animal products, 
and their further change into still finer forms. With the varying conditions 
that exist in the different States in respect to the soil, climate, and season, 
and location in reference to markets, the problems for study are almost in- 
numerable, and thus call for broadly trainetl men who shall not only be capa- 
ble of wisely selecting lines of investigation, but shall also be able to plan 
and carry on' investigations in a highly scientific manner. 

There may or mav not be any marked significance in the first paragraph of 
the second section of tlie Hatch Act, which says " that it shall be the object 
and dutv of said experiment stations to conduct original researches and verify 
experiments and publish results." etc. It is abundantly evident, however, 
from a careful study of the work that has been carried out by the various 
stations, that the lines of investigation specified in terms more or less exact 
have more largelv occupied the attention of the stations than original re- 
searches. They liave taken up the work of the various States that seemed to 
be of the most immediate importance, which, though not in all cases strictly 
scientific, has furnished a basis for broader work in the future, while at the 



36 

same time it bas boon of direct service to many in modlfyinfr motbods of farm 
practice and of indirex-t bonoHt, not only to tbo farmers in tbe State in wbich 
tbe station was estal)lisbed, but in many instances in all tbe States of tbe 
Union. 

Prior to tbe establisbment of tbe stations tbere was no oi^portunity for tbe 
farmers to see bow science migbt be applied to practice, and tbe .urcat prof,'ress 
tbat bas been made in farminfj. ])arricularly in tbe use of conunercial fertilizers, 
tbe savin.i; of farm manures, tbe improvement of croi» rotations, tbe feeding of 
cattle for niilk and beef, tbe improvement of pure l)reeds of animals, tbe intro- 
duction of new and better varieties of cereal and forage plants, tbe manufac- 
ture of dairy products, and tbe adopti(»n of business metbods, bave been due to 
tbe work of tbe experiment stations in demonstrating by analysis and control 
experiments tbe economies tbat may bo derived from tbe application of sucb 
.science. Tbe station's intluence. tberefore. bas been tbus far ratber educa- 
tional tban investigational, tliougb, as already ])ointed out, tbe former must 
necessarily precede tbe latter, and wben tbe colleges sball bave attained to tbeir 
full iuHuence tbe necessity for tbe educational side of experiment-station work 
will bave largely disappeared. 

In otber words, tbe stations bave passed tbrougb tbe various stages tbi'ougb 
wbicb all new institutions nuist pass before reacbing tbat degree of stability 
wbicb will enable tbem to broaden tbeir work, and, from tbe farmer's point of 
view, take up tbat wbicb may seem to be of little immediate practical service. 
Many stations are now conducting original researcbes of a very important 
cbar'acter. and of tbe greatest promise in tbe ultimate usefulness of tbe data 
obtained, and at no time in tbe bistory of tbe stations bas tbere been a greater 
need fcjr bigbly-trained men of tbe cbaracter above described. It is tbe mani- 
fest duty of tins association, as representing botb tbe colleges and tbe stations, 
to see to it tbat provision is made for tbe specific training of investigators ; for, 
all tbings considered, our progress bas been measured and its limits fixed by tbe 
men available, ratber tban by material equipment. 

- But wben we compare tbe progress tbat bas been made in tbe acquiring of 
new facts tbrougb original researcb, we find tbat we bave not progressed very 
far. In tbe domain of cbemistry tbe cbief progress bas been in tbe perfecting 
of metbods of analysis and in tbe application of tbe facts already well known, 
ratber tban in tbe establisbing of principles of fundamental importance. Tbe 
same is largely true of tbe otber sciences related to agriculture. Sucb now 
facts as bave been gained bave not contributed materially to tbe development 
of tbat particular science. Mucb bas been learned of ways and means in 
tbemselves of great service, to be sure, yet tbese were bardly the result of deep 
scientibc researcb. 

Tbe stations are confronted to-day, tbougb perhaps in a less degree, with the 
same conditions that confronted tbem in tbeir establisbment in 1887, in refer- 
ence to many problems, the solution of wbich is of the highest economic value. 
We daily witness large areas of our soils lying idle and unproductive because 
we do not know what to do \^'ith tbem. ^Ye are powerless to prevent losses of 
fertility from our soils because tbe causes of loss and means of prevention are 
unknown. We appreciate tbe importance of providing the crops with tbe right 
kinds and proportions of plant food, and yet see money and energy wasted 
because we are unable to give advice that shall be of service in conserving 
and making available tbe essential constituents. The farmers are subjected 
annually to stupendous losses of live stock because we can not correctly diag- 
nose disease and suggest methods of prevention or provide a positive remedy. 
The depredations of pernicious insects and plant diseases still cause the farmers 
to groan in spirit, because suggested remedies are in many cases ineffective. 
I cite tbese facts, not in a spirit of criticism, nor for our discouragement, but 
rather tbat we may l)e incited to greater activity in providing for and promoting 
those linos of work wbicb sball broaden tbe foundations upon wbicb tbe science 
of agriculture rests. We are engaged in a great work, the importance of wbich 
in all its relations it is impossible to adeciuately express in words. It remains 
for us who have' been so signally honored as to be thought worthy to partici- 
pate in it to live up to tbe high ideals set for us in tbe beginning, tbe pursuit 
of which has I'esulted in broadening tbe influence and increasing the helpful- 
ness of the institutions represented in this association. 

At 10 o'clock p. m. the convention adjourned to meet at O.oO o'clock a. m., 
November 15, 1905. 



37 

ISfoRxiNG Session. Wednksdav. Xoveaii'.eu ir>, 1905, 

The convoution was called tti unlrr at ;»..'!(• o'clock a. iii. by llie ju'csidiMil, 
K. li. Voorhees, of New Jersey. 

II. V. White, of (leorgia, announced the order of Imsiness for the day recom- 
mended by tlie executive conmiittee, which was accei)ted witlumt discussion. 

II. ('. White also announced that, on accoiuit of death in his family. Prof. 
L. I). Harvey, of Menomonie, Wis., asked to be e.xcused from presenting the 
paper on " The relation of the agricultural colleges to industrial education in 
its elementary and secondary j)hases," which he had agreed to prepare for this 
convention of the association. 

On motion of Doctor White, the association extended to Professor IIai'V(\v the 
expression of its regret that he could not keep his engagement, and its sym- 
pathy in the sorrow that had come to him. 

Report of ('oMMnxEK o.\ .Methods of Teaching Agriculture. 

The report of the conimitt(M> on tliis subject was read by A. ('. True, as 
follows : 

At the meeting of this association in Washington in 1!)03 there seemed to be 
a desire to have the committee on methods of teaching agriculture investigate 
and report on the f*'asil)ility of teaching agriculture in the rural schools. Your 
committee made such an investigation and embodied its results, along with sug- 
gestions on the nature and extent of such teaching, in a repoi't jtresented at the 
Des Moines meeting. This report was |ml)lished as Circular ('>(• of tlie Office of 
Experiment Stations, and later was I'lnbodied in the proceedings of this asso- 
ciation. The first edition of Circular (>0 (.'"),(iO(l c-ojiies) was exhausted in less 
than six weeks, in another month the second edition of o.OoO was gone, and at 
the present time only 3,500 copies remain of an edition of lO.OoO issued March 
27. As a result of sending the circular to the State suiierintendents of educa- 
tion, requests were received to send it to several thousand county, township, 
and city superintendents of schools. The circular was frequently referred to 
and portions of it quoted by agricultural and educational .iournals, and that 
part of the report designated "Syllabus of Elementary Course in Agriculture" 
was embodied in the very important and comprehensive report of the committee 
of five of the National Educational Association on industrial education in 
schools for rural connnunities. 

The widespread interest thus indicated in the teaching of agriculture in the 
public schools led your committee to continue its investigations along this line 
with a view of reporting on the availability of illustrative material and exer- 
cises for the use of teachers and pupils in school agriculture. The agricultural 
extension officers in a number of the land-grant colleges were consulted. Schools 
in whicli agriculture is being taught were visited, and the text-books and other 
literature prepared for the use of public schools were collected and studied. 
As a result of this work your connnittee has arrived at the conclusion that 
there is an abundance of suitable material with carefully prepared suggestions 
for its use in illustrating the principles upon which the science of agriculture 
is based. But this material is scattered through many text-books, bulletins, and 
circulars of information, and as a natural result the exercises lack cohesion. 
They are not arranged in progressive series and they are neither available 
nor suitable for general use in the public schools throughout the United States. 

Furthermore, many of the best exercises are embodied in i)ul)lications issued 
by agricultural colleges or State departments of education, and their distri- 
bution is limited by law to the States in which they are luMnted. Your com- 
mittee is of the opinion, therefore, that this material should be brought to- 
gether and subjected to a thorough sifting process. Unsuitable material should 
be discarded ; exercises which are suitable for school use in their present form 
should be published with due credit to their authors ; those needing revision 
should be worked over, new exercises should be prepared to fill in gaps, and 
finally all of this material should be pedagogically arranged, suitably illus- 
trated, and published in such form that it can be used to supiilement the text- 
book of agriculture in the pul)lic schools. There should also be a careful study 



38 

of the apparatus and materials needed in connection with the exercises out- 
lined, and a list of these and their i)rol)aI)le cost should he published. 

Considerable pro.i^rcss has been made durin.i; the past year in i;ettinfj together 
material for a repnrt on this subject such as your committee desires to present, 
but some time nuist necessarily elapse before it will be in form for i)ublication. 
Your committee therefore proposes to negotiate with the Office of Experiment 
Stations to prepare such a reiiort as has been suggested herewith and p-.iblish 
it for general distributi(ai throughout the TTnited States. 

The committee proi)oses to continue its work during the next year in two 
lines: (1) A study of courses in agriculture for agricultural high schools and 
other secondary schools, and (2) the more detailed formulation and discussion 
of college courses in animal husbandry to supplement the general outline of 
courses in this subject already published. 

A. C. True, 
T. F. Hunt, 
H. T. French, 
H. H. Wing. 

J. F. DUGGAR. 

Com in litre. 

H. T. French, of Idaho. Before this report is finally disposed of I would 
like to call upon Doctor True to give us some further statement as to the work 
of the Office of Exi)eriment Stations in connection with this report and the 
former reports that have been made. 

A. C. True. The Office of Experiment Stations, as you all know, was estab- 
lished primarily to aid the experiment stations in various ways, and has natur- 
ally become a sort of clearing house for the experiment-station movement in 
this country. The fact that these stations were departments of the agricultural 
colleges, and that the work of the stations themselves was very intimately con- 
nected with the development of the courses of instruction in the agricultural 
colleges, naturally led the Office to take up, at the request of individuals and 
institutions, work relating more directly to agricultural education ; and with 
the progress of the movement for agricultural education in a broader way. the 
Office has naturally broadened its work. This has been especially true since 
the formation by this association of the committee on methods of teaching 
agriculture, the director of that Office having been made a member of that 
committee. 

This work has gone on until we have been drawn into connection with the 
general movement for agricultural education in such a way that the demands 
on us for work in different lines are so large that under present conditions the 
matter is somewhat of an embarrassment because we are not able to meet those 
demands. Through the action of this association and the work of the com- 
mittee on methods of teaching, as well as the work that has been done in con- 
nection with the expositions, particularly the St. Louis Exposition, the Office 
has now a considerable number of publications on agricultural education, and it 
has become recognized in the country to a very considerable extent as an 
agency for the promotion of agricultural education. The result is that not 
only are the institutions represented in this association making appeals to. us 
to aid in this direction, but we are getting ai)i>eals in the same way from other 
organizations, from the State and county suiierintendents of education, and a 
large numl)er of teachers. ;is well as from organizations which represent the 
interest of the agricultural people in this matter. Now, if this work is to go 
on effectively, I think that we must have the cooperation of this association 
with reference to its development. At present the work is done as an incidental 
matter. There is no provision in the law expressly for such work, i>or have we 
any organization for the work beyond the employment of one oHicer who gives 
a part of his time to the work, and rei)resents it in the Office. I refer now to 



39 

Mr. Crosby, who is in ohiirse fs|t(>ciail.v of the iii:i(t(>rs relating? to agricultural 
oducation. altliou.i,'h the rest of the ollicv force, so far as they can, assist in that 
work. 

Now, it has seemed to me that if it is desirable that the Ollice should con- 
tinue this work, and develop it accordinjjc to the demand, we nuist have the work 
recoLcnized by law, and must have some definite i»rovision for it ; and so I have 
asked the Secretary of Agriculture in making up his estimates this year to 
word the appropriation bill so as to provide for this work, and also to estimate 
a certain amount for it. and that he has done. The proposition is to add to that 
provision of the api)ropriation act which allows >is to undertake work in con- 
nection with the farmers' institutes simply the words "and agricultural 
schools." It will then be recognized in the law that we are to work for the 
promotion of agricultural schools as well as the farmers' institutes. Of course 
the term " agricultin-al schools" we shall interpret broadly to include institu 
tions that are engaged in instruction in agriculture. The amount asked for is 
$."),(Mi(), which it seems to me is a sutHciently modest sum for work of that kind 
if it is to l)e made at all efiicient. 

I think that in view of the interest in this matter that seems to be expressed 
here in a gcm-rnl way it is desirable that the association should understand just 
the situation. From our i>oint of view it is certainly desirable that this matter 
should be in some way effectively brought to an issue and decided l»y Congress. 
1 ought to say, perhaps, in this connection, that we have endeavored to manage 
this work in such a way as not in any way to interfere with the work that the 
Office has undertaken in other lines. You will perhaps remember that at some 
previous meeting — I do not rememl)er whether at Des Moines or before that — the 
association expressed itself with reference to the extension of the work which 
the Office is doing on the Experiment Station Kecx»rd, and that has been kept 
steadily in mind. We have received a small increase in our .ijipropriation ; I 
think last year we got about .$2,.500 more in the general appropriation than we 
had previously. And just as far as possible we are endeavoring to meet the 
desire of the association in matters relating to the Experiment Station Record. 
In order to make that publication more comprehensive and at the same time limit 
its work more distinctly to the lines of agricultural science, we have this year 
made a somewhat different arrangement of the departments and have increased 
the staff of tlie Record so as to have editors specifically for the departments of 
rural engineering, rural economics, and agricultural education. Those matters 
had been previously treated of more or less in the Record, but now they will 
receive more space and matters relating to them will be more definitely followed. 
So that we are endeavoring not to neglect the work for which we were jjrimarily 
established. But this matter of agricultural education is particularly pressing 
iust iiow% and if the work is to be put on a definite basis we need the cooperation 
and support of the friends of agricultural education wherever we can find them. 

The report was accepted. 

Report of Committee on Graduate Study. 

A repoi-t from the committee on this subject was read by L. H. Bailey, chair- 
man, as follows : 

The first graduate scliool of agriculture, held in tlie summer of 1902, was 
conducted under the auspices of the Ohio State University and with the coop- 
eration of tlie United States Department of Agriculture and the Association 
of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations. The success of that 
school has led the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment 
Stations to instruct its connuittee on graduate study to consider the question of 
holding other schools of similar character. At its meeting in Des Moiues the 



40 

association reaffirmed its conviction that a graduate school of agriculture is a 
desirable enterprise to be conducted in the summer at different colleges of 
agriculture in rotation, and expressed its desire that this school be held every 
two years. 

The committee on graduiite study was empowered to determine where such 
schools shall be held, and also to request each agricultural college to contribute 
the sum of, say, $25 annually to aid in the maintenanee of such school. The 
connnittee reports that arrangements have been concluded whereby the school 
is to be held at the University of Illinois in the sunnner of inoo. It has also 
asked each of the agricultural colleges whether it could contribute $25 each 
year in aid of a graduate school. Affirmative responses have been received 
from 27 institutions, and negative responses from 15. Four of the institutions 
have expressed doubt as to tiieir ability to contribute, and .3 have not responded. 
Omitting the University of Illinois, at which the forthcoming school is to be 
held, there remain 2G "positive affirmative replies, making an annual assured 
contril)ution at this time of $0.50, or .$l,oUO for the biennium. 

Your committee finds itself without definite powers in respect to the graduate 
school beyond the two items of business mentioned above. The nature of the 
powers delegated to this committee will determine the attitude of the associa- 
tion toward the graduate school, and the measure of responsibility that it 
desires to assume. Your connnittee believes that a graduate school is exceed- 
ingly important for the purpose of aiding the officers in colleges and experiment 
stations in keeping in touch with current progress, of concreting and harmo- 
nizing the work of these institutions, of developing friendships, and of inspiring 
enthusiasm. It believes that the maintaining of a graduate school should be 
a regular and continuing work of this association. Your committee therefore 
makes the following propositions for your consideration : 

(«) The Graduate School of Agriculture is an institution of this association. 

{h) It follows, therefore, that the policy and method of the school are to be 
determined by the association, and that the institution at which the school 
is held in any year is to be the agent of this association. 

If these propositions are adopted, then the committee on graduate study (or 
some other conmiittee created by the association) must be empowered to pro- 
vide for the financial and i)edagogical policies and conduct of the school. The 
committee recommends that : 

(1) The moneys contributed by the different institutions in aid of the school 
shall be paid to the treasurer of this association and by him be paid over to 
the institution at which the school is held. 

(2) The expenditures of these moneys shall be with the advice and consent 
of the committee on graduate study. 

(3) The institution at which the school is held be requested to make to this 
association, for the information of the association and of such institutions as 
may care to conduct such a school, a statement of the expenditures in the 
interest of the school, not only of such funds as are derived from contributions, 
but also from fees and appropriations by the institution itself. 

(4) The committee on graduate study, by and with the concurrence of the 
president of the institution at which the school is held, shall choose a dean of 
such school, and shall, either through the dean or otherwise, and with the con- 
currence of the institution, choose the faculty and determine the course of 
study. 

(5) All local arrangements and all work of publicity lie with the institution 
holding the school. 

(G) The committee be empowered to solicit funds from experiment stations 
as well as from colleges, when such stations are under management separate 
from the colleges, and also from State departments of agriculture and other 
organizations if it should seem wise to do so. 

L. H. Bailey. 

M. H. BUCKHAM, 

A. C. True. 

^y. O. Thompson, 

B. Ayres, 

CoDtmittee. 

On motion of the chairman of the execiitive committee, the discussion of the 
report was proceeded with at once. 

L. n. Bailey, of New York. There are two fundamental propositions which 
should be discussed. I think, before we proceed to the details of the organization 



41 

;in<l coiKluct (if the id-opiiscd school. The lirst is that tho sradnato school of 
a,i,nMculturc is nii institution of this association; that this association is rcsponsi- 
l«lo for it : that it is the creature of this orjjcanization. If this he true, it follows, 
therefore, that the policy and the method of the school are to he determined l»y 
the association, and that the institution at which the school is held in any year 
is to be the a^ent of this association. 

The financial maintenance of this school would come from three sources, so 
far as the connnittee now foresees. In the first place from the contributions by 
the collejres. and, in the second place, from the fees. At the graduate school at 
Columbus three years ago the fees were placeil at $<;, for the reason that other 
fees in other sunniier school work were i)laced at that. The connnittee believes 
that a fee of .$10 would be fair and reasonable. M the oliio school there were 
7r> uiatrii-ulants. \\'e should expect there would be KMi at a succeeding school, 
and at $10 apiece that would make $1,000. the riMnaind<n- of the fund to b(> con- 
tributed by the institution that holds th(> school. The committee feels that 
some nia.ximum limit might be placed on the cost of the graduate school. That 
maximum limit has not be(>n fixed nor definitely discussed. It has been sug- 
gested that $4,000 might be the maximum. 

I think that the association should assume financial responsiiiility only so far 
as its contributions are concerned. The contributions paid into the treasury of 
this association liecome the contrilmtions of the association. But the connnittee 
feels that the financial responsibility of tliis association does not extend beyond 
the contril)utions. 

Tlie reason for the provision for the biennial session is that this association at 
Des Moines expressed its opinion that the graduate scliools should 1)e held 
every two years. Tlie 'committee therefore worked ujion that instruction. 1 
think the connnittee, however, is unanimous in the feeling that this is frequent 
enough, and that a school could not possibly be maintained every year at the 
high pitch and grade at which it is desirable to maintain it. 

The next proposition is merely a corollary of this, or at least a consequence 
of this, for it follows that the policy and method of the school are to be deter- 
mined by the association, and that the institution at which the school is held 
in any year is to be the agent of the association. 

After further discussion by E. Davenport, of Illinois ; D. B. Burinton, of West 
Virginia, and E. A. Bryan, of Washington, a motion made by G. T. Winston, of 
North Carolina, that the report of the connnittee as a whole be adopted by the 
association, and that the committee lie authorized and insti'ucted to iiroci^ed to 
organization of the graduate school for the year 190G, according to the lines laid 
down in the report, was agreed to. 

Report of Committee on Bure-Food Legislation. 

A report from the conmiittee on this subject was presented by the chairman, 
W. A. Withers, of North Carolina, as follows : 

During the past year :\Iaine and New Hampshire have enacted pure-food laws. 
Missouri and Wyoining have each appointed a food and dairy connuissioner to 
whom is intrusted the execution of pure-food laws. Kansas has made a begin- 
ning by authorizing tlie board of health to collect samples and the professor of 
chemistrv in the State university to make analyses of tlie same ; Init no appro- 
priation "for the work has been made. Indiana has made an appropriation and 
has established a laboratory, and by these means will enforce existing laws. 
In North Dakota and Idaho there has been a strengthening of existing laws. 
In other States existing laws have been amended without any very apparent 
gain. But in no State has any pure-food law been repealed except by the enact- 
ment of new^ laws. 

Brogress has been made in the different States, therefore, (1) by establishing 
a food control in States previously without it, (2) by the creation of machinery, 



42 

or by making an appropriation for rendering; existing laws effective, (8) by en- 
acting laws witliont appropriations and making tbe work in so far as it is done 
a gratuity, and (4) l)y amendments which tend to strengthen existing hiws or to 
secure greater uniformity. 

The results which have attended the inspection by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture of imported foods vuuler existing laws of Congress illustrate 
the good effects which would follow the enactment of a law regulating interstate 
commerce in adulterated and misbranded foods, beverages, and drugs. It was 
thought in some quarters that this inspection would hinder or diminish foreign 
commerce in food ])roducts. The experience of two years of inspection, however, 
has shown that this fear is groundless. On the contrary, trade in inspected 
liroducts has greatly increased. Purchasers, feeling that imported goods, such 
■MS olive oil. etc.. have been inspected and are i)ure, are Imying in larger quanti- 
ties than ever before. This confidence of the public in the character of im- 
ported goods will be extended to those of domestic origin subject to interstate 
connnerce. when a national law regulating interstate conunerce is passed and 
enforced. 

Such a law will be of immense advantage also in urging to luiiformity the 
laws and regulations of the various States, thus relieving manufacturers of a 
great deal of annoyance, without in any way diminishing the protection afforded 
to the consumer. 

Your conunittee. therefore, respectfully urges the association to take such 
actit)n as will look to the indorsement of a pure-food measure, its introduction 
to Congress, and its enactment in law. 

]\Iessrs. Wheeler, Patterson, and Withers ask to be relieved of further service 
upon this committee, as their work is not connected with the food control. 

W. A. Withers. 
H. J. Patterson, 
H. J. Wheeler. 

Committee. 

Instructions to the jiIxecutive Committee Regarding Congressional 

Legislation. 

The following reconnnendation of the executive conunittee was laid before 
the convention for consideration by the chairman of the committee, II. C. 
White : 

Your committee submits to the association, in view of the efforts which will 
be required in connection with the proposition which will be made to increase 
the appropriation to the exi)eriment stations, whether it would not be wise to 
withhold for the present specific instructions to your executive committee in 
connection with tbe mining school bill, leaving the committee free to concen- 
trate its efforts to secure the passage of the Adams bill, giving, of course, to the 
mining school bill, if introduced, such support as may be practicable or condi- 
tions justify. 

H. C. White, of Georgia. In connection with that recommendation, the resolu- 
tion offered by President Atherton (p. 28) covers the case largely, and the execu- 
tive conunittee rei>orts back this resolution for consideration at this time with an 
amendment. The recommendation of President Atherton, with the amendment 
by the executive committee, reads as follows : 

Resolved, That the executive conunittee be, and hereby is. instructed to use 
its best efforts to promote the passage of the Adams bill : and 

ResolreiJ, That this association hereby reindorses the Mondell bill and ad- 
vises the executive committee to give such assistance to its passage as. in its 
judgment, may be advisable and as circumstances may justify. 

The adoption of this resolution would be substantially the adoption of the rec- 
ommendation of the executive committee. If the association should continue to 
give instructions to its executive committee t;) urge the passage of specific bills, 
as, for example, a bill known as the "Adams bill." a bill known as the " Mondell 
bill," a bill known as the " Hepliurn bill. — which yr.u have just indorsed — a bill 
in connection with for(>stry. and so forth, that would scatter the efforts of the exec- 



43 

iitive coniinittoo to such an I'xoiit that they would he I'utih' in all casos i)rol)altl.v. 
Now, to avoid iniuiiiiiziiij; the iutiu^MUi' of the association your conunittoe has 
sufTjiestt'd that y<iu consider tho proiiricty of I'ostrictinj,' thcso instructions to tlic 
ixi'cutivc connnittcc. asking it to concentrate its efforts on some particulai- 
nieasui'e. That is the question now. whether it should he the policy of the asso- 
ciation to restrict its instructions to the executive connnittee so as to enable 
the committee to concentrate its efforts on some line of legislation, and that we 
understand to he the effect of President Atherton's resolutions that it is tin- 
sense of the association that the efforts of the committee he concentrated. 

W. (). Thomp.so.n. of Ohio. I do not luiderstand that the executive connnittee 
is asking us to concentrate on the Mondell hill or any other hill, hut they are 
asking us whether or not this association should not say to them. "We desire 
you to concentrate your efforts upon some specific thing in the Impc of success." 
The question before the association, if I understantl it. is now really on the gen- 
eral policy, whether we shall aim for one thing or go out for everything in 
sight ; and the judgment of the executive connnittee seems to be that if we go 
(/ut for everything in sight we will come back with nothing; whereas if we go 
for one thing we may get it, or we may not. Now, there may be a ditt'erence of 
opinion on what we should go for, but the imi»ortant issue is that we should 
concentrate our efforts upon some jtarticnlar thing. 

E. Davexport. of Illinois. M.v view is that we should not bind this committee 
down too closely. If we instruct the connnitt«'e to do one thing, it may be found 
to be something that can not be done. There are three or four pieces of legis- 
lation that we want to see adopted as soon as possible, and it seems to me that 
if we surround our committee with ironclad instructions each year, those in- 
structions may stand in the way of a<'hieving some other thing that might be 
brought al>out. If a particular bill is now in favorable form for passage, at 
the coming session of Congress, and we think that is most likely to pass, and 
we instruct our connnittee to work for that, it may very well be that that bill 
can not pass, and that some other bill may pass. Therefore I am in "favor of 
intrusting our executive committee with a consideralile degree of discretion, 
allowing them to use their own judgment as to where to put the i)ressure and 
the work when the time comes. 

G. T. Winston, of North Carolina. I thought there were some specific recom- 
mendations made by the executive committee in regard to the Adams bill, and then 
in regard to the ^londell bill. If it is only the general recommendation that we 
should concentrate our efforts, I do not desire to ask for a division of the vote on 
the question. If. however, we are to vote for the Mondell bill, I would like more 
information as to the present condition of that bill, for I am frank to say that I 
am not satisfied with that bill as I last saw it, and I do not think that the asso- 
ciation would be satisfied with that bill if it fully understood. It seems to me 
that the time has come for this association to assert itself in protecting the inter- 
ests of the colleges and the kind of education which this association, as I under- 
stand it, was formed to protect and promote. I think there is danger that the 
great interests and the great ideals of education represented by this associa- 
tion are going to be interfered with and checked and obstructed by other in- 
fluences and by other interests and by other ideals of education. If a bill for 
the establishment of mining schools in connection with laud-grant colleges is to 
be so framed that institutions which have no mining departments are able to 
secure the benefits of the appropriations, and so divert them from their proper 
channels, why can not the same thing be done with any other school — a forestry 
school for instance? And, then, why not go back and deal with appropriations 
and institutions already existing? I see no reason why this should not be done. 
It is the principle that I oppose. 



44 

I hope that this assoouition will not indorse the Mondell bill in its ])resent 
shape, and whether we get it or do not f?et it, let ns stand iii>on a i>rinciple. 

H. C. White. The motion before the house is not on tlie (juestion of indorsinjr 
one thing or another. The motion before the house is on the question whether 
the convention will declare its policy as to concentration. The resolutioiis of 
Doctor Atherton, which have come in subsequently, provide for specific instruc- 
tions in regard to the Adams bill and general advice in regard to the Mondell 
bill. Those I'esolutions, however, are not now befon- the convention; The ques- 
tion is now on the motion of Dean Davenport that the reconnnendation of the 
executive committee be adopted, and that it shall he the jiolicy of the executive 
committee to concentrate their efforts rather than diffuse them. 

J. K. Patterson, of Kentucky. I have no scruples whatever about going be- 
fore the Congress of the United States and asking for what our agricultural 
and mechanical colleges need. They get the money from the people, and it is 
their function to disburse to the best advantage this money for the benefit of 
the Republic. I have a perfect right, and this association has a perfect 
right, to go before Congress and ask whatever it wants and whatever it 
needs, and I do not think that it need have any compunction because oV 
States' rights or any other sort of rights. The money in the Tublic Treasury 
belongs to the people, and if we can induce Congress to believe that they are 
making a proper use of the means at their disposal in fostering and supporting 
these land-grant colleges along the lines originally indicated in th6 organic act. 
that is all right. Now, I am interested in the passage of this Adams bill. I 
believe that the experiment stations ought to lie strengthened; and I do imt 
believe that we are in any danger of asking for too nuich in this direction. But 
I am equally interested in the passage of a measure of some kind that will give 
strength to the other side of the provision made for the establishment of these 
colleges, namely, in the direction of mines and mining, which seems to me to be 
a legitimate outcome, a legitimate corollary, from the original establishment of 
colleges for the study of agriculture and instruction in the mechanic arts. 

Now, every State in the Union is iiiterested in the passage of a mining bill. 
We are interested in it. and have made repeated efforts to get it through. It is 
going to come up again this time, whether Ave will or not. If it is not intro- 
duced under the auspices of this association, it will be under the auspices of 
one or two other associations, and they are working diligently to accomplish 
their end. Some of us who attended the meetings of the Association of State 
Universities the other day were also allowed to attend a meeting of the Mining 
Association. The Mondell liill was iiresented in a modified form, and after 
the criticisms of President Atherton and others it was agreed that that was a 
bill which not only harmonized the interests of this association. l>ut also har- 
monized the interests of this association with other interests outside of it. 

Now, whether we will or not. a measure is going to be introduced, and if it 
is not introduced with onr cooperation, and if in consequence of our opposition 
we take no part in the movement, if we even are neutral in the matter, our in- 
terests may suffer. This bill was believed, after it was recast, to be acceptable 
to all concerned. It was accepted by the Mining Association; it was accepted 
unanimously by the jiresidents of the colleges and univci-sit ics outside of this 
association who were ])re.sent yesterday and wlio adjourned yesterday. It seems 
to me that it would be folly for us to williiiold our active coopcr.-ition in this 
niattei*. We may not be the introducers of I be bill, but if that bill ]>e introduced 
by other parties, as it certainly will he by tlicse two other associations, it is 
just possible if we give it the cold shoulder, or betray an attitude of neutrality — 
whether active or not — it will be ])assed to our detriment. We ought not to be 
placed in that attitude. If we believe Ibal that bill sufficiently guards our in- 
terests, if it is not in any important sense antagonistic to our interests, though 



45 

we do not get all wo would othorwiso .ixct if it w;is iiiti-odiici'd by oursclvfs and 
there was nobody else to thwart us. then we ouulit to .i^ivc it o\n- hearty coop- 
eration and our etTeetive eooiteration. 

Now every State in the I'nion is interested in this matter. Vavu Maine is 
interested in it: and Florida is interested; and a i,'reat many o( those States 
which have infant minini,' industries now are interested in it. The State of 
Kentucky is especially interested in it. and we (>xi)ect to work eariu^stly in 
conjunction with whoever introduces this hill. lieiie\ in.:: that in whatever shajte 
it passes now we are anxious to cooperate as heneticiaries, to cooperate in 
placing it upan the statute hooks of these United States. I believe that ought 
to be the attitude of every one of our organizaions. If we can imt get all we 
want, take all we can get. Half a loaf is better than no bread. And if there 
are antagonistic interests which come into the arena, concede a little now. in 
order that y(ai may be able to get your oiiponents to concede a little on th" 
other side, and bye and iiye a Iiill will he produced, some such liill as this tiiat 
was read the other night and was sulmnttcvl to these associations, whi<-h will 
benefit very largely all the interests. 1 s.iutinized that bill pretty carefully. 
and I believe that in the main the agricultural and mechanical colleges which 
compose this organization will be benetit(>d. This is a matter of extreme 
interest to us and to all the institutions in the nation. The agricultural inter- 
ests are now and for a long time will be predominant ; but there are other 
interests that are coming to the front very largely and which will in the end 
l)e potent rivals of the agricultural production of the United States of America. 
:^Iore than 100,000,000 pounds of copper are nnned here every year and sent 
abroad to be manufactured abroad and to come back here for us to buy. Why 
might not these industries be developed to such an extent as to enable us to 
utilize them at home? There are billions of tons of coal that only await the 
industrial energy and intelligence of the mining engineer to be brought to the 
surface and to add inunensely to the wealth of this country : in iron and copper 
and silver and gold there are billions of tons in the bowels of the earth that 
are only awaiting their development. Now. how can this be better accom- 
plished than by adding to the facilities of those mechanical branches of learn- 
ing that are now taught in connection with these laud-grant colleges, placing 
this mining instruction and education right there, so that, by cooperation with 
these other elements, provision for which is made along the scientific lines, 
the greatest amount of energy may be brought to bear, thus bringing together 
a concentration of capital and a diffusion of labor that will yield the greatest 
possible results? Just in connection with these agricultural and mechanical 
colleges ought these schools of mines to be established; and this Mondell bill, 
I seriously and earnestly believe to be instrumental in bringing about that 
same result. If we attempt to bring it about ourselves and ignore the coopera- 
tion of each other's interests, we shall fail. If the Association of State Mining 
Schools attempts to do it without the cooperation of the other two associations, 
they will fail. And if the third one attempts to carry that measure through 
Congress, they will fail, whether through our opposition or our apathy. But 
when we all put our shoulders to the wheel, the appropriation will be secured, 
and in nine cases out of ten it will go where it ought to go, namely, to the 
agricultural and mechanical colleges. 

E. Davenport. I have written out a resolution which expresses the thought 
that I had in mind, and I offer it as carrying out the recommendation of the 
executive connnittee and as a sul)stitute for the resolution of I'resident Atherton. 
It reads : 

In view of the fact that this association has indorsed a number of plans 
looking to appropriations from Congress, and is likely to indorse others of 
similar character ; Therefore be it 



46 

ResoJrcd, That its executive conimittoe be instructed to safeguard the inter- 
ests of all these measures at every point, but to concentrate its efforts at any 
particular session upon the bill or bills which may seem to be in the most 
favorable condition for passage. 

The resolution was adopted, and. after some further discussion, the resolu- 
tion of President Atherton. as amended by the executive committee, was laid 
on the table. 

G. T. Winston offered the following resolution and asked its immediate con- 
sideration, which was agreed to by the executive conmiittee : 

Resolrcfl, That the executive committee be instructed to secure, if possible, 
such changes in the Mondell bill as will ajiply the funds appropriated thereby 
according to the previous i)olicy of Congress in establishing and developing 
colleges for industrial education, such policy being outlined in the Morrill bill, 
the supplemental Morrill bill and the Hatch Act. 

President Winston said, in support of the resolution : 

The purpose of this resolution is that, if the committee can do it, they should 
get us back again the ^Nlondell bill as originally introduced in Congress. It was 
then acceptable to the Association of Mining Schools and this association, and 
it was acceptable to everybody except the State universities. My motion is 
simply that we ask a continuance of the policy of the National Government 
as outlined in the three bills I have mentioned — the Morrill bill, the supple- 
mental Morrill bill and the Hatch Act.- We have those three laws already 
passed by the National Government, and my motion is that we ask Congress 
not to change the policy established by them. It is nothing new I am asking 
for; I am resisting something new, and something which will be the entering 
wedge in controlling any future appropriations that the National Government 
may make. 

At the suggestion of President Thompson, President Winston amended his 
resolution to read as follows : 

Resolved. That the executive committee be instructed to request Congress to 
continue the policy that it has adopted in the Morrill bill, the supplemental 
Morrill bill, and the Hatch Act, according to the lines there laid down. 

The question upon the motion as amended was taken, and the motion was 
agreed to. 

Claims of the Experiment Stations to the Consideration of Congress. 

H. C. White. The second reconnuendation of the executive committee is : 
It is recommended that the association instruct the executive committee to 
take apiiropriate action to secure, if i)racticable, the presentation of the claims 
of the experiment stations to the proper support and consideration of Congress 
at the next session of that body. 

This recommendation of the executive committee was adopted. 

Standing Committees. 

H. C. White. The third and last recommendation of the executive committee 
is in regard to the matter of the standing committees of the association. The 
executive committee offers the following resolution and recommendations: 

Resolved, That all matters affecting the relations of the association to the 
Government departments and to National legislation be assigned to the execu- 
tive committee or to special connnittees raised from time to time to meet 
special exigencies, and that matters relating to the work of the association 
itself be assigned to the standing committees of the association. 

It is recommended (1) that the standing connnittees of the association be as 
follows : 

(a) On bibliography. 

(b) On methods of teaching in the land-grant colleges. 



47 

(e) On graduate study, 
(il) On oxti'iision work, 
(e) On cxpcriincnt station orjranization and iiolioy. 

(2) That eacli (•(ininiittw shall consist of tivo nionihors. 

(3) That tho conunitteos shall be appointed and announced by the president 
of the association at the concluding session of each annual convention. 

(4» That the members of the committees, when practicable and unless the 
president for fiood cause shall othei'wise determine, shall be selected from 
those in attendance upon the convention at which the committees were 
appointed. 

(5) That vacancies arising between conventions shall he tilled by the com- 
mittee in which the vacancy has occurTcd. 

After considerable discussion the resolution offered by the conunittee was 
adopted, and their i-ecomniendations were referred to a special committee con- 
sisting of A. C. True. 1.. II. Bailey. E. A. liryan. W. K. Stone, and C. I). Woods 
to report during the convention. (For report of this conunittee see p. 50.) 

Department or AcKKri.TrR.vi. Education- in the National Edicationai, 

Association. 

The chairman of the executive committee rei'ortcd the following resolution, 
offered by K. I.. liutterheld, of Rhode Island : 

Whereas this association believes that the questions involved in the general 
and the technical education of the rural jn'ople are of sutHcient imitortance to 
warrant si)ecial recognition in the great gatherings of American educators: 
Therefore be it 

Hcftolred. That our executive committee l)e hereby instructed to take such 
steps as they may consider necessary in an endeavor to secure the consent of 
the National Educational Association to add to its list of special departments 
a department or departments on rural and agricultural education. 

K. L. Butterfield. I do not know that this resolution needs any extended 
explanation. It has been presented here after consultation with mend)ers who 
are in touch with the National Educational Association. It seems to me that 
while the suggestion might come from that association that it has already, per- 
haps, a sufficient or too great number of departments, the fact remains that 
the National Educational Association has not yet recognized agricultural edu- 
cation in a sufficient degree. It is true that the subject of rural schools has 
been taken up in the last eight or ten years, and well discussed by that associa- 
tion. It is also true that the I'ecent report of the committee on industrial edu- 
cation is a good piece of work ; but the department that we stand for has not 
been, to my mind, definitely and sufficiently recognized by the National Educa- 
tional Association. It happens that the National Educational Association has 
announced that it is to ask for a bill of incorporation from the next Congre.ss, 
and in that bill there are specified seventeen departments already existing. 

Now, it seems to me that the work of agricultural education has attained 
sufficient dignity to demand from the body of our educators a department. It 
is true that these things may be taken up in a general session, but, as a matter 
of fact, they will not be sufficiently discussed. It also remains true that if we 
had a department of this sort, we, who are members of this association, would 
be charged with the responsibility of supporting it ; but it seems to me that 
would be wholly a good thing, that we ought to be in closer touch than we are 
with that association, and they ought to recognize more fully the relations of 
our special lines of work to the general educational movement of the day. And 
this matter leaves the method entirely with our executive committee, to treat 
it as they see fit, to call it what they see fit, and, in fact, to engage as they see fit 
with the National Educational Association. 

On motion the resolution offered by President Butterfield was adopted. 



48 

Tlon. "William T. Harris, ('oniniissioiier of Education. Uoluix introcluced, spoke 
as follows : 

Address of Hon. William T. Harris. Commissioner of Education. 

Gentlemen. 1 thank .von for this indication that you like to hear or see me for 
a moment and hear a word from ine. and I would like to put in that word ri^ht 
here on the suh.iect that has now heen brought ni) before you. The National 
Educational Association has one large general meeting, as you do. and it ha-* 
ever so many dei)artnients and may have ever so many more. Anyone who is 
interested in any line of education in one of these departments may, if he can get 
together twenty or thirty or forty or Hft.v ])ersons who wish to pursue his spe- 
cial line of investigation, have a dejiartment formed for them, and the general 
executive committee of the association, in going from one cit.v to another yea;- 
by year, make arrangements for them and take care of all the business part of 
it, so that all that these particular specialists who form a new group need to do 
is to meet at that room which is provided for them on the dates specified. T 
think, myself, it is really most important that agriculture — that is, agricultural 
instruction — in the elementary schools, and perhaps also in the secondary 
schools, should be provided for in the National Educational Association, and if 
President Butterfield should l)e charged with that matter and bring it before 
the association it would be very easy to get such a department established, and 
the movement would prove fruitful to the National Educational Association 
itself, because it would get hold of and meet a certain desire and impulse that 
is moving throughout the country to have agriculture recognized. I suppose 
there are various crude attempts all over the country to introduce instruction 
in agriculture. Sometimes that movement stops at the vestibule. When you 
and I, Mr. Chairman, were little boys agricultural instruction in this country 
began at the vestibule, and l»egan by teaching a little book chemistry and a 
little Latin, and things of that kind, and never got beyond that. Of course the 
great point now in our day is that we push beyond the vestibule, and sometimes 
we push so far that we forget that there is any vestibule and that there ought to 
be one. Now is the time when there ought to be a department devoted to agri- 
culture in the National Educational Association. The National Educational 
Association collects at its meetings from 2<).!iO to 35.(»00 people sometimes. We 
had one meeting attended by 36,000 people in Boston last year; a very large 
gathering, and a great market fair, as it were, of education of all kinds. 

Once I was interested in getting up a series of round-table discussions ; it is 
amusing to think of it. and perhai)s some of you here may remember the result 
of it. We had discussions at Saratoga, and we had them on such transcendental 
subjects as Schopenhauer and his pupils in Germany and their pessimistic 
discussions. You could have such discussions in round tables, but not on the 
farm. 

But agriculture should be brought up every year at the educational associa- 
tion and a harvest of the thoughts be gathered there. That was the ob.iect of 
establishing this great market fair of the National Educational Association — 
that each one should bring his contribution to it. and find other jiersons who had 
been working along those lines; and each one taking what is brought by the 
others, each goes home richer by many things than the one thing that he 
brought. That is what will happen in the National Educational Association if 
this section is formed. There will be a gathering together of results and a 
reaping of them, and it will give the agricultural colleges all over the cou-itr\ 
and the State universities which deal with agriculture a part and place. Every 
university, of course, every year finds certain lines on which it wishes it could 
influencethe elementary schools, and each one examines the educational instruc- 
tion in the elementary schools to find something that might be adopted in his 
own State. There are thousands and thousands, sometimes as many as a hun- 
dred thousand programmes of the annual meeting of the association circulated 
all over the country before the meeting. But I need not tell you about the 
National Educational Association, except that it has .$l.")(».(Hi() at interest, income 
to be appro])riated to jn-inting its i>roceedings, so that a good paper on any sub- 
ject always gets printed, and it is possible to get these papers reprinted some- 
times, us the matter is electrotyped. 



49 

Statistical Work of thk V. S. Ukpartment of Ac.ricultttre. 

H. r. White, of (Joorsia. The executivo coinmitteo roports the resohition 
offered by Director Waters, of Missouri (p. 'J'.ti. and recoiiiiueiuls its iiassajie in 
the foHowiiif; aiiieiukHl form: 

Whereas the collection and publication of accurate aiiricultural statistics is of 
importance and of great assistance to the land-grant colleges in connection with 
the teaching of agricultural economics: Therefore, be it 

Rrsolrcd. That it is the sense of the American Association of Agricultural 
Colleges and Experiment Stations that the United States Department of Agri- 
culture should continue the collection and disscnnnation of information and 
statistics with respect to the condition and .yield of farm crops. 

The resolution was adopted as amended. 

Report of Committee on College and Station ExiiiniT at the St. Louis 

Expos rnoN. 

W. IT. .ToRDAN. of New York. Your committee wishes to present yon with a 
document which covers the history of the life of that connnittee, and to call 
to your attention the fact that the initiative of the effort to secure the exhibit 
at St. Louis began four years ago, so that the work of your committee covers 
four years from the initiation of the effort to the final act. Our object in hav- 
ing this report prepared (and we owe many thanks to the Office of Experiment 
Stations for the real labor of the preparation of the report), covering, as it 
does, a complete history of what the comnnttee did. is to put it on file, so that 
it may he available to those who have any such burden in the future, a complete 
record of what was done at the St. Lcmis Exposition, and what steps .-ind ma- 
chinery were used that would pertain to sinular efforts. 

I only wish to make one or two remarks on this. In the first place, we did 
not spend all our money. The main reason for expending only about $90,000 
out of the $100,000 that we had was that we were unable to inaugurate, on so 
extensive a basis as we desired, what was known as the " outside exhibit." 

A. C. True. I take it that the acceptance of this report will hardly include the 
ordinary understanding that it is to be made a part of the proceedings of this 
meeting. We have to deal with the printing of these in the Department of 
Agriculture, and it is, therefore, of interest to me. I woidd suggest that it be 
received with the understanding that it is to be placed on file in the Office of 
Experiment Stations, where it will be available to all future committees who 
have to deal with such matters. I have considerable doubt whether, as Director 
of the Office of Experiment Stations, I could recommend the publication of the 
report in its present form. There are many details in it which would be of 
very little use except to a committee dealing with tlie matter. There is abso- 
lutely no provision in law for the printing l)y the Government of any report of 
the St. Louis Exposition. The only thing that the Government Board has under- 
taken, as I understand it, is the preparation of a catalogue, more or less exten- 
sive, of the exhibit as a whole. If that is to be printed at all it will have 
to be by special act of Congress. In the case of the Chicago exhibit, if I re- 
member correctly, no report was ever printed by the Government. In the 
cases of some of the foreign expositions quite extensive reports have been 
printed. I might say that a somewhat extended report of this exhibit, with 
illustrations, has been published by the Office of Experiment Stations in its 
report for the year 1904, and, as far as I am aware, that covers everything that 
the association desires to have that can be gotten out of this report. 

James K. Patterson, of Kentucky. That report, I have no doubt, contains a 
great deal of valuable matter. I doubt whether any appreciable part of the 

21336— No. 164—06 M 4 



50 

contents is known to nny inomltor of this nssociatiou outside of tlio fommittee of 
the association tliat liad chari^e of it. I douht whetlier ono-tonth of it is Icuown 
to the niemhers wlio liad charge of it. l-'roni tliat point of view, it seems to me 
publicity should be given to it. It seems to me that was a very important 
exhibit. It was not only agricultural, but also mechanical, and I have no 
douI)t there are hundreds and hundreds of jK'rsons throughout the country who 
would read that report with interest. I b(>lieve that every member of the asso- 
ciation into whose bauds it might eome would read it and would profit by it. 
It seems to me that a proi)er appeal made to the National Congress by the 
executive committee of this body, or by any other i)r()perly constituted com- 
mittee representing this body, would olitain recognitiou from that body and en- 
able us to give it to the world. 

A motion that the report be received and i)laced on file in the office of Experi- 
ment Stations was agreed to. 

On motion of AV. D. Gibbs. of Xew Hampshire, a vote of thanks was extended 
to the committee whose duty it was to arrange the exhibit at St. Louis. 

Resolution IJegarding National Grange. 

William P. Brooks, of Massachusetts, offered a resolution, as follows : 

Resolved, That the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experi- 
ment Stations extends to the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry 
assembling to-day at Atlantic City. N. J., its cordial greetings and best wishes 
for a gathering which shall be fruitful in good work. 

The resolution was adopted, and the secretary was instructed to transmit it 
to the meeting of the National Grange by telegraph. 

Thereupon the convention adjourned until 8.30 o'clock p. m. 

Evening Session, Wednesday, November 15, 1905. 

Standing Committees. 

A. C. True, of Washington, 1). C. presented the report of the special commit- 
tee on standing committees, as follows : 

The si)ecial committee on standing committees submits the following recom- 
mendations : 

(1) That the standing committees of the association be as follows : 
((/) On instruction in agriculture. 

{h) On graduate study, 
(c) On e.Ktension work. 
{(I) On experiment-station organijiation and policy. 

(2) That each committee shall consist of six members. When the committee 
is first appointed two members shall be appointed for one year, two members 
for two years, and two members for tliree years. Members api)ointed therafter 
shall serve for three years, except that members appointed to fill vacancies 
sliall serve only during the unexpired I'cmainder of tlu- terms of the members 
whose ])laces they take. 

(3) That the committee shall be apixiinted and announced by the ju'esident 
of the association at the concluding session of each annual convention. 

(4) That the members of the conmiittees. wlien jiracticable and unless the 
president for good cause shall otherwise determine, shall be selected from those 
in attendance upon the convention at which the ai)pointments are made. 

(5) That vacancies arising between conventions shall be filled by the com- 
mittee in which the vacancy occurs. 

For the committee : 

A. C. True, Chairman. 

A. C. Tr[:i:. This report follows finite closely the recoiumendations of the 
executive committee with regard to this matter, the only changes being that 
the committee on liibliography is dropped, as I understand was agreed upon 



51 

this forenoon by tlii" association. Tlic couunittcc ini instruction in a.^ricnlturo 
is substituted for the one on teacliinj: in lan(l-;;rant coilej;es. This is done 
with the idea that this conunittee on instruction in ajiriculture will consider in 
a broad way the courses of instruction in ajj^ricultural colleges and schools 
preparatory thereto, and in that way will take in i)robal)ly all the subjects 
which, under present conditions, are likely to be considered l)y the conunittee. 

The work of the conunittee on extension work would then relate to sndi 
matters as farmers' institutes, correspondence courses, clubs of lioys and iiirls. 
and other matters ordinarily included in such work. 

Another change made is in the extension of the numl)er of members in each 
committee from five to six. This was done in order to make it somewhat 
easier to subdivide the coumiittees into subconunittees for special purposes, and 
also to make possible the other i)rovision insert(>d, that these members be 
divided into classes, so that two new nunnbers might be appointed each year, 
and the older members would hold over, making the term of service, in all, 
three years. 

The third and fourth provislons\ire identical with those of the executive com- 
mittee, and the fifth is also the same, and in any case is hardly necessary, i»er- 
haps, because it follows the standing rule of order of the association. 

Tbe report was adopted. 

Resolution Regarding Prof. W. O. Atwater. 

C. D. Woods, of Maine. Those of us who have been familiar with this associa- 
tion from its earlier days remember how much we owe to the interest in the 
first meetings, and the later meetings, as well, of Trofessor Atwater. who was 
the first director of an experiment station, and the first Director of the Office of 
Experiment Stations. As I presume it is known to most of those here, Professor 
Atwater was stricken more than a year ago, and is now lingering at his home 
in Middletown. With the consent of the executive conunittee I have drawn, 
and now present, a short note of sympathy which I would like to present at this 
time, the executive committee favoring its adoption, and to ask that the secre- 
tary be instructed to report it to Mrs. Atwater : 

The Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations 
regrets that illness prevents Professor Atwater from being present at this meet- 
ing, and as he was the first director of an American agricultural experiment 
station, and the fitst Director of the Office of Experiment Stations, and as in 
other ways he has done much for the work, and will always be remembered, the 
association extends its sympathy, and all wish that he may soon be much 
improved in health. 

The resolution was adopted, and the secretary was directed to transmit the 
same to Mrs. Atwater. 

Officers of Sections and Members of Executive Committee. 

K. L. Butterfield, of Rhode Island, reported that the college section presented 
for members of the executive committee II. C. White, of Georgia; J. L. Snyder, 
of Michigan; and L. H. Bailey, of New York; for chairman of section. C. R. 
Van Hise, of Wisconsin ; for secretary of section. H. C. Price, of Ohio ; for 
programme committee, the chairman and secretary of the section. 

The report was accepted. 

M. A. Scovell, of Kentucky, for the experiment station section, reported as 
follows: For chairman of section, B. C. Buffum. of Wyoming; for secretary of 
section, M. A. Scovell, of Kentucky; for members of the executive committee, 
W. H. Jordan, of New York, and C. F. Curtiss. of Iowa ; for programme com- 



52 

mitteo. II. P. Armslty. of romisylvania ; ('. F. Cm-tiss. of Iowa ; yi. A. Seovell, of 
Kentucky. 

The report was accepted. 

Animal and Plant Brekdino — The American Breeders' Association. 

C. F. C'urtis.s. of Iowa, presented the report of the committee on animal and 
phint l)reeding. as follows : 

Your committee on the American Breeders' Association sul)mits tlie followini; 
rejiort : 

The American Breeders' Association held its first annual meeting at Chani- 
jiaign. 111.. Feln-uary l-;5. 1005, as the guest of the Agricultural College of the 
Fniversity of Illinois and of various State live stock and agricultural associa- 
tions. The meeting was well attended, great interest was taken in all sessions, 
and .\ s])lendid three days' programme was carried out. 

The council has recently issued the first annual report, including, with the 
papers and discussions, a classified directory of meuihers, showing the lines of 
scientific interest with which each inemher is concerned and the lines of pure- 
bred live stock and pure-bred seeds produced. There are now about GOO mem- 
bers, and the association is without debt. 

There is need of a fund to place the association on a permanent basis. The 
members of the Association of Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations 
rnd othei's interested are urged to aid in their respective States in increasing 
the meml)ership and in other ways to help build up this organization. Persons 
who have wealth to devote to public uses could serve a most important public 
purpose by providing a suitable endowment for this promising association. 

The second annual meeting has been called to meet at Lincoln, Nebr., as the 
guest of the College of Agriculture of the Fniversity of Nebraska and of the 
several State societies of live stock, agriculture, and horticulture during " agri- 
culture week." It is expected that the association at its second annual meeting 
will appropriately recognize the good offices of the parent association. 

The work of this connnittee having been accomplished, we recouuneud that it 
he discontinued. 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. M. Hays. 
L. H. Bailey, 

C. F. CURTISS, 

Committer. 
The report was adopted. 

Cooperation Between the Stations and the U. S. Department of 

Agriculture. 

E. A. Bryan, of "Washington. In l)ehalf of the committee on cooperative work 
between the experiment stations and the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, I would say that all matters of concern in connection with cooperation have 
])ecome of such importance that it seemed desirable and necessary that the exec- 
utive connnittee of this association should take immediate cognizance of that 
work, and they have, during the past year, had that matter entirely in charge 
and have already made a report to this association in regard to the cooperative 
work, so that any further report on behalf of the committee seems to be entirely 
unnecessary. 

^Meeting Place of Next Convention. 

E. Mead, of the F. S. Department of Agriculture," presented a large number of 
cordial invitations from California to hold the next convention of the association 
in that State. 

Cordial appreciation of the invitations and of the hospitality extended on the 
previous visit to the State was generally expi'essed and a resolution offered by 

" Kepresenting the California Experiment Station. 



53 

J. K. Patterson was adopted, expressing the sense of the meeting that the invi- 
tations shdnld lie ju-i-cpted if it sctMiis ftvisilde to do so. 

The convention Mdjonrncd at in o'clock p. ni., to meet November K'., ir)u5, at 
o'clock a. ni. 

Morning Session, Titirsday, Xove:mber 10, 1005. 

The convention was called to order at !• o'clock a. ni. l),v the president. 

Forestry in Land-Grant Institutions. 

The chairman of the executive committee rei)orted hack to the association the 
series of preambles and resolutions, by S. B. (Jreen, of Minnesota, already given 
in full on page 27. with the recommendation that they be adopted in the follow- 
ing form : 

Whei'eas the forests of this country are fast lisaiiiieariiig and little or no 
attention is being paid to their renewal ; and 

AVhereas the development of this country is seriously threatened by a shortage 
in tind)er supi>ly: Then'fore be it 

Rcsolrcil bij the Associittiim of Aiiirricnii Af/riciilfiiral CoUcticx and llvitcyinicnt 
fStutioiis ill von rent ion iisscniltlid. That the national foi'estry jtolicy of tins coun- 
try should include ])rovision for education and e.\]ieiMnieiitation in for(>stry by 
the agriciillural colleges and exiieriinent stations of llic din'crent States and 
Territories. 

S. B. (Jreen. Our forest resources seemed at one time to be inexhaustible. 
It seemed as though we had such a wealth of foi'est that we could never use it 
up. But we are fast getting to the point when it is a question where we shall get 
the valuable timl)ers and woods to use in our industries. The increase of stump- 
age value has been enormous in the past ten years. We have been working our 
timber resources just as we would a mine. We have not treated them as though 
they could reproduce themselves, and the land that has been cut over is practi- 
cally nonproductive to-day. It is brush land, burned over every few years, and 
on which the new growth is of little value. There is a shortage of timber, and 
timber is the foundation of many of our industries. 

There is an immense amoiuit of mining riches in the United States that ought 
to be developed, but it is probable that there is hardly a mine made which does 
not have to be heavily timbered ; and there are no heavier consumers of timber 
than our nunes. And in many sections of the country to-day they have ditliculty 
in finding timbers for properly timbering their mines. 

I know of one mine in Minnesota that uses something like SO miles of log 
timber in a year. We have an enormous amount of waste land that is unpro- 
ductive, not only in Minnesota, where we have many millions of acres of that 
kind, l)ut throughout the United States. There is not a State in this country 
that has not an enormous amount of land that is nonproductive and could be 
made productive, if properly cared for, in forests. 

Without forests we are going to be handicapped in the development of this 
country. We have been working a primeval source of timber supply. Some- 
body may say that the forests of Oregon are inexhaustible, or those of the 
Pacific slope ; but they are not. It should be remembered also that more timber 
has been destroyed by fire in this country than was ever cut by the lumbermen, 
and the cause of the fires lies in the lack of realization as to the amount of 
damage that is done by it. There is not a State which does not need forest 
instruction. There are some States where the people are very apathetic in 
regard to this matter. 

The National Government is doing a grand work through its Forest Service 
In the spreading of correct ideas as to forestry throughout this country, and its 



54 

management of the forest-reserve business has been such as to be very gi'atify- 
ing to the Anicriciui people; and yet we need to have, in oi'der to carry that 
work out to its fullness, a better, a higher intelligence among the people as to 
the possibilities of forestry — as to what it is reasonable to expect from forests. 
How can we spread that information, is the question. It seems to me that that 
could be best undertaken by the land-grant college. 

It seems to me that these land-grant colleges are especially fitted for this 
work. Forestry is an agricultural subject, and the subjects which are generally 
taught in our agricultural colleges bear with directness upon forestry, and for- 
estry could be added to these courses very easily. My idea is this, that we 
ought to look upon this matter of instruction in foresti'y in our agricultural 
colleges as a part of the national policy of spreading correct information in 
regard to forestry through this country. Some one may raise the argument 
that iron and concrete and cement are largely replacing wood in construction. 
That is true to a large extent, and yet, in siiite of all that, the per capita con- 
sumption of wood has increased since the substitution of these other materials 
for wood has come into vogue. 

GiFFORD PiNCHOT, of the Forcst Service. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen. I am 
particularly glad to have a chance to say a word on this matter, because I feel 
very strongly, indeed, the desirability of the work that Professor Green has laid 
before you. I think we may fairly divide instruction in forestry into two per- 
fectly separate and clear-cut parts, just exactly as we may divide instruction in 
almost any other professional subject In the same way. On the one band is 
that instruction which is intended to make professionals who will ^iractice law 
or medicine or forestry, or whatever it may be — giving their whole lives to it; 
and on the other side is the instruction upon which the general intelligence of 
the country is based, the instruction that a man needs who is going to give his 
life to something else ; and as I understand Professor Green, it is the second of 
these two lines of instruction that he is advocating. I have gotten from Doctor 
True a statement of instruction in forestry in the land-grant colleges, and the 
figures show that 33 of the colleges are at present engaged in giving such in- 
struction, two or three of them preparing men for professional work, the others 
teaching what may be called " agricultural forestry." Now. we are not going to 
find it possible at any time, I think, to bring trained men in contact with the 
farmer's wood lot unless in the future we should change our ideas of the Gov- 
ernment entirely and begin State supervision of the lumber business. The 
handling of the wood lot by the farmer is going to control forestry over areas 
w^hich are astonishingly large. For instance, there are now at least twice as 
many acres in wood lots in farms as tliere are in national reserves. And if 
a man who owns it can understand how to handle it, or, if he does not, can 
employ a professional forester to come and show him how, there is an enormous 
gain; and, on the other hand, if the men who pass through the land-grant col- 
leges who are not going to make forestry a profession can have the same knowl- 
edge as a student in a l)usiness college has about law, which does not fit him to 
be a lawyer but is of the very greatest service to him in his work, then I think 
a very great service has been rendered. I see no reason whatever, if things go 
on as they are going now, why we should not have better intelligence among the 
masses of our people about forestry than any other country in the world. I 
think our people now understand what forestry means better than any other 
nation. Forestry is a live topic here, and it has never been more live and more 
prominent in the minds of the people than it is just now. All of that means to 
me that this is a most desirable thing to do, and I want to back it up just so 
far as I am able to. I would not want to l)ack it nji — and I want to make that 
perfectly clear, and I should be comi»elled to back the other view — if this 



55 

meant that a lot of men, half edncated in forestry, were solng to he turned 
loose on the conntry as trained foresters. That wonid he the most serions set- 
hack that our forest work could have, and any influence that niijrht he hrousjlit 
to hear aj,Minst it would he a ijood thinjj; to he hrouuht to hear. That would 
put us in the same position that the medical profession wtmld he put in if a lot 
of people could he turned out as regular doctors who had had only six months' 
or a year's training. The profession of forestry and the training for it is an 
entirely different thing from this most desirahle spread of general information 
ahout forest tojtics. 

Now, it is (luite possihle — and I should like to make the offer very heartily— 
if this matter goes through the lAtrest Service can he of use to the different 
land-grant colleges and to the experiment stations in giving advice when 
called upon, and, perhaps, in reconnnending men or furnishing puhlications, or 
in any other similar way. And I want to say that we should he only too glad 
if in any of these directions we can he of use to you if this matter goes 
through. I feel very strongly indeed about it, because we have been taking 
this up, and our attention has been called to it in the Forest Service in the last 
two or three years, that the most desirahle thing that could happen to the 
Forest Service in this country would he to make the general rough outlines of 
it generally known, and. as Professor Green has very well said, the solution 
of this question is in the minds of the people. 

C. A. Keffkk. of Tennessee. It seems to me that the matter of forestry edu- 
cation in the land-grant colleges has about the same relation to technical 
forestry education as has the general course which a college gives to a special 
course in medicine. In many and, in fact, most of the colleges students who 
have taken the biological-science course are given credit for it when they come 
to take their special courses in medicine, and there is a gain to all the people 
wherever the preliminary coui'se in forestry is offered to students at home 
before they shall undertake the technical courses of the larger profession, the 
technical courses that they must have in order to go into the business as 
foresters. There is a gain, then, from the student's point of view and there 
is economy from the student's point of view in offering in the land-grant 
colleges lines of work that shall lead and shall prepare for the more technical 
course that the forestry schools offer. I can see no advantage in multiplying 
technical forestry schools. The country has now a Forest Service. These 
courses would appeal to the students, and we should inevitably prepare men in 
advance of the demands of the country, and it seems to me that this would be 
a misfortune. Aside from that, relief would be given to those professors who 
are attempting to teach forestry in the laud-grant colleges in addition to their 
regular work. In Tennessee, and I think generally in land-grant colleges, 
instruction is given by the horticulturist or the botanist, whose duties in his 
original line would seem to require all his time. There is, then, need of relief 
in this way in this direction, and there is no doubt that instruction offered by 
experts should be just as valuable in this line as in any other line of scientific 
research. I myself have found that there is hardly a more interesting sub.iect 
for the student than forestry. It is a line of work that has two phases. There 
is the biological phase, which so many enjoy, and then there is that larger 
application of the trend of a great principle in general mechanics which is 
yet to be developed, and it seems to me, as one factor in the resources of the 
country, we have in forestry one of the subjects that ought to have a large 
place in the work of the land-grant institutions. If these land-grant insti- 
tutions came closer into the lives of the people this would help us in developing 
the national resources. With forestry there is quite as much need of conserva- 
tion as of development. We have reached a point where the business of lum- 



56 

bering is probably ns thoronsbly developed as any in tbe United States, but 
we have not readiod a place where the business is taking care of the resources 
on which the liusiness is based. It would seem that the source of this business 
is I)eing dissiiiated. We all know that the Imsiness of lumbering is gone from 
the North. In Tennessee, indeed in all the Southern States, there is need of 
careful study of the hard woods of the country. In the Central South there is, 
as you all know, the greatest hard-wood forest of the country, and yet I 
suspect the forester is not as fully advised as he should be as to the best means 
of handling this important forest. From the point of view of the forester, 
and from the larger point of view of those interested in tlie conservation of the 
national resources, it seems to me that anything that <'aii be done in the 
direction of instruction in forestry ought to be commended by this association. 
The resolution as amended was adopted. 

Election of General Officers. 

H. P. Armsby. of Pennsylvania, presented the name of M. 11. Buckham, of 
Vermont, for president of the association. J. K. Patterson seconded the nomi- 
nation. The secretary of the association was instructed to cast a unanimous 
vote for President Buckham. In like manner C. C. Thach, of Alabama, was 
nominated and elected first vice-president ; E. H. Jenkins, of Connecticut, second 
vice-president ; J. H. Worst, of North Dakota, third vice-president ; B. I. 
Wheeler, of California, fourth vice-president; and L. Foster, of New Mexico, 
fifth vice-president; J. L. Hills, of Vermont, secretary-treasurer; and A. C. 
True, of the Office of Experiment Stations, bibliographer. 

Work of the Office of Experiment Stations in Agricultural Education. 

T. F. Hunt, of New York, introduced the following resolution : 

Resolved, That this association recognizes the great value of the work of the 
Office of Experiment Stations in promoting the cause of agricultural education 
hi the United States, and heartily indorses the action of the Secretary of Agri- 
culture in encouraging and aiding the efforts of the Office in this direction. 

The executive committee recommended immediate consideration, and the reso- 
lution was adopted. 

Vote of Thanks to Representatives Adams and Mondell. 

J. L. Snyder, of Michigan, offered the following resolution : 

Resolved. That a vote of thanks be extended to Representative Adams for his 
efforts in behalf of securing increased ai)propriations for the experiment stations 
of the United States. 

The executive committee recommended immediate consideration, and the reso- 
lution was adopted. 

J. K. Patterson. I think we ought to couple the name of Representative Mon- 
dell with that of Representative Adams in the vote of thanks and confidence 
that has just been given expression to in behalf of Mr. Adams. We are all 
interested in that measure, some of us more and some less, but we are also 
interested in the passage of a bill that will add to the existing endowments 
of agricultural and mechanical colleges in the special direction of schools of 
mines and mining and engineering. I believe there is a possibility of passing 
this or some kindred measure, and Representative Mondell has been committed 
to its advocfccy hitherto, and it seems to me it would be a fitting tribute to what 
he has already done, and it would be an encouraging stimulus to further effort 
to couple his name with that of Mr. Adams in the resolutiou just passed. I 



57 

tlierefore luovo that a similar vote of c-ontiaenco and thanks be accorded to 
Uepresentative .Moiidell. and that the secretary l)e directed to transmit tlu' reso- 
hition to him. 

The executive conunittee recommended immcdialc consideration, and tlie mo- 
tion was unanimously agreed to. 

ANNr.\L Dues. 

The secretary moved that the annual dues for each college and station be fixed 
at the usual sum. ."{SI"), for the ensuing year, and the motion was agreed to. 

Federal Aid in Control and Extermination oe the Gypsy Motii. 

H. J. Wheeler, of Rhode Island, offered the followini,' resolution: 

Whereas the jiypsy moth has .Mlready gained a footliold in tlu-ee States in the 
Union ; and 

Whereas it has as yet no eft'ective parasite enemies in the United States and is 
in consequence a menace to the agriculture and forestry of the entire country : 
Therefore be it * 

Resohcd, That this association is of the oi»iniou tli.il tlic tiiiu' has come when 
the Federal Government should lend its aid in tlie control and extermination of 
this pest. 

The executive committee recommended inuiiediate considtn-ation. and the 
resolution was adopted. 

Memorial to I'resident H. II. Goodei.l. 

President W. E. Stone, of Indiana, delivered the foUowini,' memorial address 
upon the life and services of I'resident Henry Hill (ioodell : 

Since the organization of this association few of its gatherings have Iteen 
without the conspicuous and efficient participation of one whose absence from 
the last annual meeting was so notable and the occasion of so much connnent. 
At that time the thought would scarcely have occurred, even to his intimate 
friends, that the long and honorable service of President Goodell to the Ameri- 
can agricultural colleges and experiment stations had been completed. 

In the interval since that meeting his name has been written on the long roll 
of the dead, and the association meets to-day in special session to express its 
respect for his memory and appreciation of his work. 

To some of my hearers no word of mine can convey a better knowledge of 
the worth and work of our late associate than they already possess from their 
personal acquaintance and collaboration with him. But there are many other 
members of this association who from the nature of things must have au 
imperfect knowledge of the services of President Goodell and his contemporaries 
in the early stages of its history. 

A review of his life and work may therefore have a twofold result : It will 
enable us all to rightly value his high worth, and it should impress upon us the 
significance of the work of this association in the iiast. the importance of the 
policies that have been pursued, and the inestimable value of the services of 
those men who have been leaders in the inception and early work of the 
association. 

During all of his active life President Goodell toiled unceasingly in that work 
of the establishment and advancement of agricultural education which has 
been the principal educational event in America in the last half century ; yet. 
strange to siay, he was not by birth, tradition, or training connected with agri- 
culture in any way. Born of missionary parents in a foreign land, and educated 
in a typical New England college of liberal arts, one could scarcely have pre- 
dicted for him such a career as he followed. But a coincidence of events 
brought him. yoiithful, ardent, and resolute, face to face with the beginnings of 
two historic epochs worthy of his entire devotion — the civil war and the estab- 
lishment of the great Federal system of industrial and technological education. 
His character possessed traits which made it impossible for him not to engage 
in these great movements. It was not prevision, for his nature never asked 
hostages of the future : but it was a call of immediate duty, a sense of important 
work to be performed which led him first to the service of his country, and, 



58 

aftei- a brilliant rareer in the field, to enlistment in the first facnlty of one of 
the first colleges to be established under the Morrill Act, where he labored con- 
tinuously and conspicuously until his death. 

Henry Hill Goodell. son of the Kev. William and Abigail (Joodell. was born in 
Constantinople. Turkey. May 20. l.s:'.:t. He prepared for college at AVilli.ston 
<ieminary. Easthampton. Mass.. and graduated from Amherst College in 18G2. 
He was commissioned second lieutenant Company F, Twenty-fifth Connecticut 
Volunteers, August IG, 1802, first lieutenant, April 14. ISdo. and was appointed 
aid-de-camp on the staff of Colonel Bissell, of the Nineteenth Army Corps. July 8. 
He participated in the engagements in Louisiana of Irish Bend and Vermillion 
Bayou, in the siege of Port Hudson, and in the Teche campaign, and was mus- 
tered out of the service August 2G, ISG."*.. 

From 18G4 to 18G7 he was an instructor in Williston Seminary, and at the 
opening of the :Massachusetts Agricultural College in 18G7 was appointed pro- 
fessor of modern languages and English literature. In 1S8G he was elected presi- 
dent of the college ; in 1887 director of the experiment station, filling both these 
oftices until his death. He was an original member and one of the founders of 
the Association of Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, president of 
the association in 1891, member of the executive committee from 1888 to 1902, 
and chairman of the same from 1894 to 1902. In the si)ring of 1905 he went to 
Florida to recuperate from an acute illnes«, and, being homeward bound, died 
on shipboard in Boston Harbor, en route from Savannah to Boston, April 25, 
1905. 

I pass rapidly these milestones of his career to dwell upon certain traits and 
achievements which will give us a true picture of the man. During forty-one 
years he was a teacher, and thirty-eight of these years were given to one insti- 
tution. But if we thinlv of him as a plodding college professor, performing 
only his routine tasks during all of this time, we shall do him injusticv. 
His' character was a rare mixture of energy and enthusiasm, with patience and 
enduring persistence, of breadth of view and love of detail. He was capable 
of the utmost self-forgetfulness in rising to the demands of an emergency. 
He was also able to toil indefinitely at an obscure task which he believed 
worth doing. He possessed and retained an optimistic and enthusiastic cour- 
age characteristic of youth, but with him an inborn trait. He was not self- 
conceited or self-confident, but he was self-reliant, and when he faced any 
issue with cheerful and hopeful trust in the outcome, as he always did. it was 
simply an expression of this side of his character — of his faith in the ultimate 
triumph of right. Those who knew him well had no need to call upon their 
imaginations to picture him in the midst of a desperate hand-to-hand struggle 
in the assault on Port Hudson, acquitting himself with signal bravery, nor to 
see him, after this assault had twice failed, the first man to respond to a call 
for volunteers to lead a forlorn hope. He had all of the martial si)irit and aban- 
don to become the foremost figure at such a time, but without boastfulness or 
swagger, and he had also the greater courage to face the repulses and obstacles 
of life modestly, but unyieldingly. 

More than twenty years ago he stood face to face with an insidious and fatal 
disease, the assaults" of which might well have made the stoutest heart sink. 
But few of his friends knew of it. None ever heard him complain. By sheer 
determination he repulsed the attack and held the foe at bay for years. The 
last years of his life were a constant struggle with disease, but few would have 
guessed the fact, nor would he swerve from the conscientious performance of 
his duties on this account. Some men possess a courage which is inspired by 
excitement. Others have that (luiet courage which is firm under the most 
depressing conditions. President Goodell's courage was a part of himself — 
dominant and ever present. In the hours of deepest trial he was not cast down. 
No danger was great enough nor any misfortune so threatening as to drive 
from his face a cheery smile or from his lips a kindly greeting. 

But this energy and courage were mingled with a genial and sympathetic 
disposition and were tempered with wisdom. These qualities inspired love and 
confidence on the part of his associates. In the army his comrades voluntarily 
placed their pay in his hands and sent him on a long and dangerous journey 
to bring this large sum to a place of safety. I^ater he was trustee of the relief 
fund of his (irand Army post. His fellow-citizens trusted him also, and he was 
identified in a lieli)ful way with all good movements and enterprises in the town 
of Andierst. where In- lived. 

The excellent jmblic library there exists as a monument to his efforts, and it 
gives us insight into his industry and energy to know that for many years he 



59 

iC.ivc his time to the dotails of tho work, so thnt. it is said, more than 7.000 en- 
tries ill tlu' rani <-atal<).i;u(' aro in his iiaiulwritin};-. In a like iiiamuT ho w.is 
vt'stryiiian. delejiato, and (•oiinuittocuiaii in his church and cicM-k of the same 
for twonty-five years. He was president of the Andierst (Miih. representative 
to the iejjishiture. nienih<>r of tlie Massachusetts Horticultural Society .md of 
the Massachusetts A^iricultural Society. 

These were all matters incidental to his real life work, but his interest in 
:ind devotion to them were ch.-iracteristic of the <iuiet. service-seekins? side of 
his nature, which at times could also rise to heitrhts of enthusiastic action. 

To the ^lassachusetts A.i,'ricultural Collejie he devoted his life, hcuinniufj; 
when a younj; man of 2S. from which time until his death, a period of thirty- 
eiyht years, lie jjave unsi)arinKly all that he had in any service which could 
be of value to that institution. He was appointed to instruct in literature and 
modern lanjiuases, but. with a fine spirit of devotion, he did not think it be- 
neath his dignity, as the necessities of the college (hMiianded, to serve at differ- 
ent times as instructor in frynniastics and military tactics, as lecturi'r in ento- 
molo^'v. as instructor in anatomy and ]ihysiol(i,i,'y. and as instructor in rhetoric 
and elocution. He was also for a time secri'tary of the faculty, for fourteen 
years lilirai-iiin. for some months acting president, and. finally, for nineteen 
years president. He rendered this variety of service not because of any rest- 
lessness or special versatility, but strictly from a sense of duty to the colles^e, 
which in its early days was often compelled to utilize all of its resources in 
order to fulfill its oblij^ations to students. As one contemplates this record of 
service he is struck by the devotion, the cai>acity for application exhii)ited by 
President Goodell. and the amount of work whic-li he actually turned off. For 
instance, he was a iiassionate lover of books, and I'.irly took upon himself to 
care for the colkw lil)rary. For many years, in addition to his other duties, 
he was librarian in fact as well as in name, selectin;,' and imrcliasini; Itooks, 
keeping records, preparing the card catalogue, arranging exchanges — all with 
marvelous efficiency — and thus created by liis own personal efforts one of the 
most complete and well-selected agricultural libraries in the country. 

The college was for many years one of the pioneers in the field, located in a 
community in which agriculture was a minor industry, and surrounded by an 
educational atmospliere which was unsympathetic, if not hostile. The condi- 
tions were discouraging and incompatii)le to a young man of Goodell's training 
and temperament, but here again his ((uality of ccmrage. l)ased on confidence in 
the right of things, kept him faithfully at his jiost. and he lived t<» see the day 
when, largel.v through liis own efforts, the college had established itself in the 
esteem of the community, overcome prejudices, and secured a high educational 
standing. Through all of this evolution he adhered persistently to high stand- 
ards of education, such as seemed to him befitting the institution and the intel- 
lectual conditions of the State. 

When lie became ])resident of the institution it stood sadly in need both of 
students and resources. The i)roblems before him were difficult, involving, 
first of all. the establishment of public confidence in the college. His labors in 
this direction were forceful and effective, and he soon succeeded in securing 
needed recognition from the State. During his presidency the real estate of 
the college increased in value one-third ; its equipment, fourfold, and its income, 
threefold. 

His relations with students were firm but kindly ; severe in discipline, but 
only as a last resort, and withal with such sympathy and kindliness of heart 
that few others of the long-time members of the faculty were so well beloved as 
he. He kept up a large correspondence with alumni and old students, result- 
ing in an exceptionally accurate record of all who had ever attended the insti- 
tution. He remembered and could call by name most of those who had come 
under his care. With this record of quiet, unselfish, and effective devotion to 
the institution and its students, it is no wonder that his name is affectionately 
cherished and honored at the Massachusetts College. 

In the work of this association, and in the establishment of the foundations of 
the land-grant colleges and experiment stations. President Goodell had an 
important and almost luiique part. A- full comprehension of this can only be 
had by those who shared with him these labors. With the passage of the 
Hatch Act it became apparent that an organization of tlie executive officers of 
these institutions was a necessity. Tlie attention of Congress could only be 
secured by he presentation of matters of national scojie in concrete and unified 
form. The plan of education and research mapped out for the land-grant colleges 
was too broad, varied and comprehensive, and too vital to permit of its develop- 



60 

ment without organized dirootion. It v.as necessary on more than one oocasion 
to urge upon Deiiartuients of the Government a consideration of conditions 
whicli led to fair and Ix-nclicial rulings with regard to these institutions. Tlie 
questions of jurisdiction and of the relations between the separate institutions 
and governmental I)ei)artments were, and have ever been, of greatest importance. 
The heads of these eolleges were pushing out into new and unexplored regions, 
and felt the need of mutual aid and advice. All of these considerations empha- 
sized to Goodell and his colleagues the necessity of an association for mutual 
aid and protection, as well as for the general advancement of the interests to 
which these institutions were devoted. In the organization of this association 
he was a moving spirit, and in its subsequent work always an active participant. 
He was a member of the executive counnittee from 1SS8 to 1!)02, and during the 
last eight years of this time was chairman of the same. In this capacity he 
labored untiringly, not only in the broader duties of the i)Osition, but in 
inultitudinous details which contrilmted to the success of the organization. One 
can recall distinetly his methods of jireparing and jiresenting the business of 
the association in a complete and finished manner, which expedited the routine 
of its work, even at the cost of apparent officiousness on his jiart. His rare 
tact and insight into human nature : his broad outlook upon the field of agri- 
cultural education ; his wide knowledge of public men, and thorough familiarity 
with the history of the land-grant college movement fitted him for the place of 
leader in the "work of the executive counnittee and enabled him to render 
inestimable service. The attention of Congress and of governmental Dejtart- 
ments has been favoraldy molded by the wisdom and firmness of this com- 
mittee. The threatening danger to the Federal appropriation to the colleges 
and experiment stations through the gradual diversion of the proceeds of the 
sale of public lauds was foreseen and averted through his efforts and leader- 
ship in securing protective legislation in lOOO. His conservative and wise but 
energetic action averted many dangers and laid foundations which will sustain 
our institutions for a long time to come. That we have passed through this 
j)eriod of development so safely is due to a strong organization and able 
leaders, among whom Henry Hill Goodell stands conspicuous. To few. if any, 
of these do the agricultural colleges and experiment stations owe a greater 
debt than to him. 

Such an example should long survive the life that gave it and long continue 
to inspire and guide the members of this association. In meeting new con- 
ditions and emergencies, we shall do well not to abandon those established 
principles which characterize our institutions; we shoidd seek conservative 
vather than too liberal interpretations of the statutes, and we should be willing 
to intrust larger responsibilities and greater freedom of action to tried and 
wise leaders. 

Thus far I have spoken of President Goodell's work and achievements, with 
little reference to his character. But no tribute to his memory may con- 
sistently omit the highest ai)preciation of his personal qualities. He did much, 
he served well, but he will be longest and best remembered for those traits 
which endeared him to all who knew him. 

His was no common spirit. I should like to know more of his ancestry, to 
trace those fine and subtle threads which wove the texture of his character. 
All the substantial qualities of a man of honor were his — frankness, honesty, 
sincerity, courage, fidelity, and much more. He possessed a true nobility of 
soul, an instinctive gentility, a spirit of chivalry which eludes analysis but 
which made itself unceasingly felt. The very fitness and high quality of his 
traits caused him to be sometimes misunderstood. As a matter of fact, no man 
was more democratic ; and although by some deemed aristocratic and distant, 
no man was more genuinely sym])athetic. In truth, he had in him nothing 
vulgar or commonplace; his being repelled f:uniliarity ; his fibers were attuned 
to the sweet and true notes of life, but the coarse and gross affairs of men 
awoke in him no answering chord. 

I have known no man who seemed to embody so much of the chivalrous 
spirit; that spirit which takes no advantage of an opponent, which yields to 
others, which sacrifices all for a friend, which is embodied in the untranslata- 
ble noblesse oblige. His generosity and self-restraint gave always to others the 
opportunity and took to himself the obscure and painstaking task. 

He lived a full and rich life of service in a great cause, and left a record of 
permanent achievements, but the finest and best of his life was known only to 
his intimate friends and to his students, to whom he revealed a true nobility of 



conduct and a splendid clianK-ter that was an insiiiration to all who caino within 
its ilifluonco. 

The exocntivo conuuittco was instructed to provide, if praetichle, for the 
printing of the address in separate form after its appearance in the proceedings. 
M. 11. Ruckhani, of \'erniont. offered the followini^ resolution : 

licsolrctl. That the association desires to put on lu'rnianent record its high 
ai)preciation of the personal character and eminent public service of President 
II. H. Goodell, of the Mas.sachusetts Agricultural College, and especially to hear 
testimony to his wise, brave, and faithful labors in connnending to jmblic com- 
prehension and confidence the cau.se of real and practical education in agri- 
culture in its early days of experiment and conttict. The association also re- 
calls with grateful a])]ireciation President Goodell's laborious and efficient serv- 
ices during his eight years" tenure of the ollice of chairman of the executive com- 
mittee of this association. 

The resolution was adopted by a standing vote of the association. 

Report of Committee on Indexing Agricultiual Literature. 

A. C. True, of Washington, D. C, read a rei)ort from the standing committee on 
this subject, as follows : 

Since the last meeting of the association i)rinted catalogue cards have been 
issued for three standard foreign periodicals devoted to agriculture, "Ainiales 
de la Science Agronomiciue," " Landwirthschaftliche .lalirbiicher." and "Die 
Landwirths'-haftlichen Versuchsstationeii." As is well known, these cards are 
I)rep;ired by the library of the iH-partment of Agricultiu-e and printed and sold 
by the Library of Congress. Tliis cooperative arrangement for furnishing 
printed cards at a nominal i)rice has been satisfactorily accomplished and now 
awaits sullicient encouragement from subscribers to warrant its continuation. 
There are at present only ten subscribers for complete sets and eleven sub- 
scribers for partial sets of the cards. It is estimated that the cards for com- 
idete and ])artial sets together are about ecpial to fifteen complete sets. This 
represents a small number of subscribers compared with the number of scientists 
throughout the country engaged in agricultural research work, and for whose 
benefit the cards are largely prepared. The (piestion now itresents itself after 
one year's trial, as to whether the demand is sufficient to continue this special 
indexing and to add other jieriodicals to the number to be indexed. To make it 
worth while to prepare, print, and distribute such cards, it is necessary to have 
thirty-five additional subscribers at least. If the agricultural college or ex- 
periment station of each State would subscribe for one set of the cards this 
would insure the continuance of this work and make it possible to provide in- 
(Mviduals with whole or partial sets at reasonable cost.' It is estimated that an 
annual subscription of .$2."i from each college or station would be required. 

The al>ove-mentioned iieriodicals have been indexed through 1004, and the copy 
for numbers jaiblished in V.H)~) awaits the decision of those most interested in 
the work as to whether it shall proceed. The cost to keei) the indexing of these 
periodicals up to date will l)e small, but it is hoped that the subscribers will 
desire cards for one additional periodical each year until the indexing covers 
the representative agricultural periodicals. 

It is a question whether the work thus inaugurated will in any case need the 
further attention of a standing committee of this association. It seems probable 
that the interests of the colleges and stations in this matter can be fully met 
through the library of the Department of Agriculture and the Office of Experi- 
ment Stations. The progress of the indexing will naturally be reported each 
year by the Inbliographer of the association. Your committee therefore suggests 
"that it be relieved from further service. 

A. C. True, Chairman. 

H. P. Armsby, of Pennsylvania. I move that the report be accepted, and in 
making that motion I want to say just a word. Our station is one of the few 
which have purchased sets of these cards. I have not followed up the matter 
closely, but I must confess that I am very much astonished at the very small 
number of institutions which are reported by Doctor True as having taken 
advantage of this opportunity. Lean not see how any station can afford to miss 



62 

this opportunity. I do not l)elieve we can afford in our station work to ignore 
the vast masses of material and experimental data which have been accumulated 
in the last fifty or sixty years in foreign countries, and especially in Germany. 
I do not see how we can make proper use of our funds while ignoring that and 
saying that we liave nothing to do with work abroad. Of course the failure to 
purchase one of these sets hardly implies that; yet it almost suggests it. It 
seems to me it is an important matter, and with an index prejtared by the 
library of the Department in this way and available at a cost which is insignifi- 
cant, I can not see how any experiment station in this counti^j- can afford to be 
without it. 

The report was accepted. 

Rkport of Committee on Rural Engineering. 

A report from this committee was read by W. E. Stone, of Indiana, as follows : 

Your committee would report that during the past year there has been a 
perceptible advance in the ]mblic recognition of the need and value of specially 
trained agricultural engineers and an encouraging, if slight, ])rogress in arrange- 
ments for giving this instruction in rural engineering in the colleges of this asso- 
ciation. 

The reasons for giving greater attention to this subject have been enumerated 
in the two previous reports of this committee and need not be repeated here. 
They are found in the changing conditions of farm life and farm labor in this 
country, and, being based on a fundamental need, they will endure and become 
more urgent and apparent until ade(iuate provision is made. 

Among the evidences of progress during the past season is the streugthening 
of the etiuipment in Iowa, the extension of the instruction in Cornell, and the 
provision for a complete course in rural engineering contemplated in Wisconsin. 
'J'be strengthening of the work along experimental lines in a number of institu- 
tions is also clearly apparent, all showing an awakening attention to this subject. 
But along with this there are some unsatisfactory features. Chief of thes»> 
seems to be the lack of a clear perception of the scope of courses in rural engi- 
neering, of what is required to equip young men to do the work needed to bo 
done, of a lack of confidence in the value of courses of this character, which 
must be established before the best results can be obtained. In other words, the 
rural engineer is not yet a definite figure in this country, and our colleges are 
i-till floundering in their efforts to ])rovide for his training. 

In order to ol)tain a more definite understanding of what is regarded as rural 
engineering in the colleges represented in this association and the kind of 
training given under this classification, one of your committee mailed an inqtiiry 
as to the subjects taught, by what professor or instructor, the e(iuipment for 
the work, and the plans for future development. The letter was unfortunately 
mailed too late for more than half of the colleges addressed to pi-epare and 
rettirn replies. Those received, however, show that the greatest progress being 
r.iade is in providing equipment for teaching and ex]ierimental work in farm 
mechanics, Iowa taking the lead in this, being followed closely by Cornell and 
Illinois. There are a number of western institutions giving (•oin])Iete courses in 
irrigation, Colorado and California giving the most thorough training, the work 
in both these institutions giving comi)lete courses in irrigation engineering. 

The replies, however, showed a wide diversity of opinion as to what is in- 
cluded in riu-al engineering. Some seem to indicate that elementary courses in 
carpentry and blacksmithing are entitled to this designation. This your com- 
mittee regards as erroneous. They are related to the training, but they are n > 
more entitled to be classified as a course in rural engineering than a few exer- 
cises in budding and grafting are to be considered a course in liorticulture, or n 
few exercises in stock judging are to be classified as veterinary science. The 
only colleges which are entitled to claim that they are giving courses in rural 
engineering are those which fall within the definition given \n Circular 4."). the 
Fifth Keiiort of the Conunittee on .Methods of Ti'aching Agriculture, or those 
which are giving conqjlete and indeiiendent courses of insti'uction in certain 
well-defined branches of rural engineering, like irrigation engineering or drain- 
age engineering. 

Another and more seriotis defect in the present instruction given by our col- 
leges is the evident fact that the arrangements for giving this instruction are 



63 

in too many rasos moro niakoshifts. In sonio of tho oollogos tlieso suhjpots are 
taught l>.v the (l('i>artnuMit of civil cn^iiniHTin;:. in otluTs by llu' (h'i>artni(>nt of 
uuH-lianic-al oiiKinwi'iiiH. i>i"l '" otliers the woric is a part o( the ilepartment of 
af,'rononiy. In one collefie it is tan^ht by the (lei)artinent of mathematics, in 
anotlier irrij^ation is tanj;ht l>y the department o£ liorticnhiie. in another farm 
machinery is tanirht hy tlie department of animal Imsiianthy. All will a.ujree 
that animal hnshandry tani.'ht l>y the department of horticnltnre wonld 1)0 a 
somewhat anomalous ;irran;,'ement. It mi.irht he Justified on the .t,'round that 
pi,:,'s will I'at the fruit which falls from tlu' trei^s. and hence there is a relation 
between the two subjects, but the teachiufr of animal husitandry by the professor 
of horticulture is no more ineffective than the attempt to develop an effective 
course in rural enjrineerini,' by makin;,' it a part of horticulture or maUinj; it a 
l»art of animal husbandry. 

Furtliermore, there is a lack ^>{ recojrnition for those in charge. No one can 
fail to be impressed by the fact that, so far as the makers of courses of instruc- 
tion are concerned, this work does not stand on an e(|uality with the older estab- 
lished branches. Except for the collejres jjiivini,' a course in iirifration engineer- 
inj:. no institution gives the man in charge of this work eipial rank with the 
man in charg*' of other departments — such as agronomy, animal husbandry, 
horticulture, dairying, etc. Omitting those colleges teaching irrigation en- 
gineering, in only one college — Wisconsin — arc courses in rural engineering 
recognized as a distinct department and accorded rank equal to other depart- 
ments. In this respect the colleges of this country present a striking contrast 
to the recogiHtion given this subject in the leading agricultm-al colleges of 
lOurope. In Sweden. Demnark. Belgium. France. Netherlands, and (lermany 
lural engineering is an independent departmt'ut. with thorough courses of in- 
struction and facilities t'ov experimental work far in advance of anything yet 
conti'inplated in this country. 

Your committee insists that the conception of this work given in the report 
of the connnittee on methods of teaching agriculture was a correct one and 
that the true value of this traiinng, both to the student and to the development 
• )f the agricultural resources of this country, will not be achieved until courses 
in rural engineering are made as defhnte and independent as courses in animal 
husbandry, agronomy, and horticultin-e are now. 

It is not believed that every institution should establish courses in rural 
engineering. Only those which have the eciuipment, or where the conditions of 
agriculture give opportunities for the following of this traiinng, should under- 
take this. In States like California, where the investment in |)um[)s for raising 
water in irrigation runs into millions of dollars, where the high j>rice and 
scarcity of farm labor makes the use of costl.v and complex machinery impera- 
tive, and where irrigation and drainage are a prereiiuisite to the use of the 
greater part of the agricultural land, complete courses in this subject should be 
given, because a knowledge of them lies at the very foundation of successful 
agriculture, and young men equipped for this work have exceptional opportuni- 
ties. Other institutions like Purdue, Illinois, Cornell, and tnany others which 
need not be enumerated, will, it is believed, find it in the line of progress to 
institute these courses. 

Another fact brouglit out by the replies to these inquiries was that all that is 
needed in many institutions to provide for complete courses of instruction is a 
better correlation between existing departments, in order that each may give 
effectively its part of the training. It is believed tliat the establishment of 
courses in rural engineering will be an evolutionary process which will bring 
about a more comi)lete fulfillment of the purpose