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Agricultural Experiment Station 



VOLUME IX 



BOTANICAL 



of the 

Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station 

Publications 

> 

consisting of 

BULLETINS 85-95 

ANNUAL REPORTS 1918-1921 

TIMELY HINTS FOR FARMERS 136-139 

AND 

EXPERIMENT STATION CIRCULARS 33-41 



Tucson, Arizona, 1918-1921 



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GOVERXIXG BOARD 



(REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY) 

Ex-Officio 

HIS EXCELLENCY, THE GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA 

THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 

Appointed by the Governor of the State 

EPES RANDOLPH, Chancellor Tucson 

ESTMER W. HUDSON, Tempe 

JAMES G. CdMPToN, Secretary Tucson 

JOHN H. CAMPBELL, LL.M., Treasurer Tucson 

WILLIAM SCARLETT, A.B., B.D Phoenix 

TIMOTHY A. RIORDAN Flagstaff 

EDMUND WELLS Prescott 

LOUIS D. RICKETTS, ScD., LL.D Warren 



RUFUS B. VON KLEINSMID, A.M., D..Sc., J.D President of the University 



D. W. WORKING, B.Sc, A.M Dean College of Agriculture, Direct )r 

♦ROBERT H. FORBES. Ph.!) : Kosearch SiMcialist 

JOHN J. TIIoRNDER, A.M Botaui.st 

ALBERT E. VINSON, I'h.D Agricultural Chemist 

GEORGE E. P. SMITH, B.S., C.E Irrigation Engineer 

RICHARD H. WILLIAMS, Ph.D Animal Husbandman 

WALTER S. CUNNINGHAM, B.S Dairv Husbandman 

CHARLES T. VORHIES, Ph.D ■...Entomologist 

WALKER E. BRYAN, M.S Plant Breeder 

GEORGE E. THOMPSON, B.S.A Agronomist 

FRANKLIN J. CRIDER, M.S Horticulturist 

JAMES G. BROWN, M.S Pl.nnt Patholosrist 

tFRANClS R. KENNEY, B.S.A Poultry Husbandman 

ROYAL B. THOMPSON. B.S.A I'ouJtrv Husbandman 

tHEBER H. GIBSON, A.M Professor of Agr-rulturnl Education 

CLIFFORD N. CATLIN, A.M ^...Associate Agricultural Chemist 

WILLIAM E. CODE, B.S. C.E Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

ALLEN F. KINNISON, B.S.A Assistant Horticulturist 

RALPH S. HAW^KINS, B.S.A Assistant Agronomist 

HAROLD C. SCHWALEN, B.S Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

ELIAS H. PRESSLEY, B.S Assistant Plant Breeder 

STANLEY P. CLARK, B.S Assistant Agronomist 

RICHARD N. DAVIS, B.S Assistant Dairy Husbandman 

DAVID W. ALBERT. B.S Assistant Horticulturist 

ERNEST B. STANLEY, B.S , Assistant Animal Husbandman 

tSTUART W. GRIFFIN. M.S Assistant Agricultural Chemist 

tWILLlAxM E. SCHNEIDER, B.S Instructor in Animal Husbandrj- 

ETHEL N. IKENBERRY, B.S Secretary College of Agriculture 

iF. H. SIMMONS ;Foreman, Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Station 

C. J. WOOD Foreman, Salt River Vallev Experiment Farm 

T. L. STAPLEY Foreman, Tempe Date Orchard 

CARL CLARK, B.S. Foreman, Prescott Dry-Farm 

M. H. WOODY Foreman, Sulphur Spring Valley Dry-Farm 

LESLIE BEATY, B.S Foreman. Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Station 

J. R. REED Foreman, University Farm 



*tJn leave. 
[■Resigned. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



VOLUME JX 



Page 

Bulletin No. 85 — March 1, 1918. A Study oi" M.\rketing Conditions in the 
S.-\LT River Valley, Akizon.v, J. H. Collins. 

Bulletin No. 86 — October 30, 1918. IM.\chine-Made Cement Pipe for Irri- 
gation Systems and Other Purposes, G. E. P. Smith 71 

Bulletin No. 87 — December, 1918. Insect Pests of Interest to Arizona Cot- 
ton Growers, A. W. Morrill 173 

Bulletin No. 88 — May 15. 1919. Use -and Waste of Irrigation Water, 

G. E. P. Smith 207 

Bulletin No. 89— August 15, 1919. The Yuma Mesa, A. E. Vinson, F. J. 

Critler, and G. E. hompson 225 

Bulletin No. 90 — December, 1919. Growing Cotton in Arizona, G. E. 

Thompson and C. J. Wood 267 

TwentA'-ninth Annual Report, Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1918: 

Financial statement, report of operations by Dr. R. B. von 
KleinSmid, Acting Director ; reports from the departments 
by the Staff 277 

Bulletin No. 91 — Fattening Native Steers for Market: 1920, R. H. Williams 359 

Bulletin No. 92 — September, 1920. The Supply, the Price, and the Qual- 
ity of Fuel Oils for Pump Irrigation, G. E. P. Smith 397 

Thirtieth Annual Report, Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1919: 

Financial statement, report of operations, Director D. W. 
Working ; reports from the departments by the Staff 397 

Thirty-first Annual Report, Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1920 : 

Financial statement, report of operations. Director D. W. 
Working ; reports from the departments by the Staff 42.T 

Bulletin No. 93 — August, 1921. Feeding Cotton Seed and Cotton Seed Prod- 
ucts TO Range Steers, E. B. Stanley 485 

Bulletin No. 94— January, 1922. The Olive in Arizona, F. J. Crider 493 

Bulletin No. 95 — February 25. 1922. The Colorado River and Arizona's In- 
terest IN its Development, G. E. P. Smith 529 

Thirty-second Annual Report, Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1921 : 

Financial statement, report of operations. Director D. W. 
Working; reports from the departments by the Staff 547 



Note : Therel is a duplication of paging in Bulletin 92 and in the Thirtieth and 
Thirty-first Annual Reports. 



UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA 
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

Agricultural Experiment Station 



Bulletin No. 85 

ASTUDY OF MARKETING 
CONDITIONS 

in the 

SALT RIVER VALLEY. 
ARIZONA 



By J. H. COLLINS, 

Investigator in Market Surveys, Bureau of Markets, United States 
Department of Agriculture 



University of Arizona and U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Co-operating. 

Tucson, Arizona, March i, 1918. 



UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

GOVERNING BOARD 

(REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY) 

Ex-Officio 

HIS EXCELLENCY, THE GOVERNOR OF ARIZONA 

THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 

Appointed by the Governor of the State 

WILLIAM V. WHITMORE, A. M.. M. D Chancellor 

RUDOLPH RASMESSEN Treasurer 

WILLIAM J. BRYAN, JR., A. B Secretary 

WILLIAM SCARLETT. A. B., B. D Regent 

JOHN P. ORME Regent 

E. TITCOMB Regent 

JOHN W. FLINN Regent 

CAPTAIN J. P. HODGSON Regent 



RUFUS B. VON KLEINSMID, A. M., Sc. D President of the University 



Agricultural Staff 

ESTES P. TAYLOR, B. S. Agr Assistant Dean and Director of Extension 

.JOHN J. THORNBER, A. M Botanist 

ALBERT E. VINSON, Ph. D Biochemist 

CLIFFORD N. CATLIN, A. M Assistant Chemist 

GEORGE E. P. SMITH, C. E Irrigation Engineer 

FRANK C. KELTON, M. S Assistant Engineer 

GEORGE F. FREEMAN, Sc. D Plant Breeder 

WALKER E. BRYAN, M. S Assistant Plant Breeder 

STEPHEN B. JOHNSON, B. S Assistant Horticulturist 

RICHARD H. WILLIAMS, Ph. D Animal Husbandman 

WALTER S. CUNNINGHAM, B. S Assistant Animal Husbandman 

HERMAN C. HEARD, B. S. Agr Assistant Agronomist 

AUSTIN W. MORRILL, Ph. D Consulting Entomologist 

CHARLES T. VORHIES, Ph. D Zoologist 

LELAND S. PARKE, B. S State Leader Boys' and Girls' Clubs 

AGNES A. HUNT Assistant State Leader Boys' and Girls' Clubs 

MARY PRITNER LOCKWOOD, B. S 

State Leader Home Demonstration Agents 

IMOGENE NEELY County Home Demonstration Agent, Maricopa County 

HAZEL ZIMMERMAN 

County Home Demonstration Agent, Southeast Counties 

CHARLES R. ADAMSON, B. S County Agent, Cochise County 

LEO L. LAYTHE, B. S County Agent Pima-Pinal Counties 

CHARLES R. FILLERUP County Agent, Navajo-Apache Counties 

ALANDO B. BALLANTYNE, B. S County Agent, Graham-Greenlee Counties 

"W. A. BARR, B. S County Agent, Maricopa County 

W. A. BAILEY, B. S County Agent, Yuma County 

DeLORE NICHOLS, B. S County Agent, Coconino County 

HESTER L. HUNTER Secretary Extension Service 

FRANCES M. WELLS Secretary Agricultural Experiment Station 

The Experiment Station offices and laboratories are located in the Uni- 
versity Buildings at Tucson. The new Experiment Station Farm is situated 
one mile west of Mesa, Arizona. The date palm orchards are three miles south 
of Tempe (cooperative, U. S. D. A.), and one mile southwest of Yuma, Ari- 
zona, respectively. The experimental dry-farms are near Cochise and Pres- 
cott, Arizona. 

Visitors are cordially invited, and correspondence receives careful atten- 
tion. 

The Bulletins, Timely Hints, and Reports of this Station will be sent free 
to all who apply. Kindly notify us of errors or changes in address, and send 
in the names of persons who may find our publications useful. 

Address, THE EXPERIMENT STATION, 

Tucson, Arizona, 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 5 

Geography and Topography - 7 

CHmatic Conditions 9 

Soil Conditions H 

Transportation FaciUties - 1 1 

Land Values I3 

Storage Facilities I4 

Industries Allied with Agriculture I5 

Specific Marketing Problems i8 

Grain i8 

Alfalfa 21 

Dairy Products 25 

Cotton 29 

Cantaloupes 3^ 

Honey 42 

Fruit 43 

Livestock 49 

Potatoes 51 

Lettuce 53 

Miscellaneous 5" 

The Marketing Problem as a Whole 59 

Present and Future Outlets 59 

General Problems and Difficulties 62 

General Remedial Measures 66 

Conclusions 69 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig. I Pima Cotton at the Tempe Gin, Salt River Valley....Frontispiece 

Fig. 2 Poorly Graded Alfalfa Hay 23 

Fig. 3 A Substantial Factor in the Newer Dairy Industry 28 

Fig 4 Loading Cantaloupes at Glendale 39 

Fig. 5 A Typical New Citrus Development on the North Side of 

the Salt River Project 44 

Fig. 6 Bearing Date Palms in the Tempe Orchard 58 





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A STUDY OF MARKETING 
CONDITIONS 

m the 

SALT RIVER VALLEY, ARIZONA 

By J. H. Collins, 

Investigator in Market Surveys, Bureau of Markets, United States 
Department of Agriculture. 



INTRODUCTION 



That portion of Maricopa County, Arizona, known as the Salt 
River Valley, since the completion of the Roosevelt Dam in 191 1, has 
enjoyed a position of considerable prominence among irrigated dis- 
tricts of the Far West. It would appear that a commercial study of 
the agriculture of this area should be of major importance to those in- 
terested in western irrigation agriculture. The investigation outlined 
in this report while ostensibly embracing Maricopa County in its en- 
tirety has been confined for obvious reasons to the intensively farmed 
district within the County. Since more than four-fifths of the irrigated 
area lies in the Valley of the Salt River, it has seemed advisable to 
refer to the entire area under consideration as the Salt River Valley. 
This decision has been strengthened by a realization of the fact that 
this terminology carries a greater significance outside the State of 
Arizona, where persons who have heard of this Valley do not readily 
connect it in their minds with the less well known County of which 
it is a part. The irrigated area lying below the confluence of the Salt 
and Gila Rivers known as the Buckeye and Arlington Valleys, together 
with scattered areas in outlying portions of the district, comprising a 
total of about 30,000 acres, are often considered as not belonging to 
the Salt River Valley proper. The distinction, however, is a rather 
fine one, and since the agriculture of these areas belongs essentially to 
the entire district it has seemed best to avoid confusion by ignoring 
unnecessary distinctions. The term Salt River Valley as used in this 
bulletin refers to all lands which, because of topographical relations, 
would naturally be a part of the entire Valley and should be dis- 
tinguished from the Salt River Project whose lands constitute only a. 



6 Bulletin 85 

portion of the Salt River Valley and are watered exclusively from 
irrigation works constructed by the United States Government. 

Several interesting economic conditions make a study of market- 
ing conditions in the Salt River Valley a matter of keen interest to the 
student of the commercial side of agriculture. This compact and 
fertile Valley affords an excellent study of a clearly defined agricultural 
unit. Surrounded on all sides by desert and with no similar area of 
any consequence within more than 200 miles, the Salt River Valley is 
practically an independent unit. Another important fact is that for the 
area embraced, this Valley has a more diversified form of agriculture 
than can be found in most other areas of like size. Records compiled 
for the years 1916 and 1917 show that more than 16 crops were pro- 
duced with aggregate acreages exceeding 500 acres each. This classi- 
fication takes no recognition of the varied nature of the livestock in- 
terests of the Valley and does not take into consideration other forms 
of agricultural wealth. The farms of the Salt River Valley are tilled 
by farmers from all parts of the world. Many of these farmers are 
comparatively recent additions to the population of the Valley and 
hence the communal and commercial interests of the producers have 
not yet become fused so that community action is the regular and ac- 
cepted procedure. Then, too, it must be remembered that the com- 
mercial problem has only recently come to the front as such. In this 
respect the Salt River Valley differs materially from many of the 
irrigated districts of California. The latter state has long been a 
region of surplus production and the problem of finding an outlet for 
products not saleable locally has been for some time a pressing one 
for the California grower. The result has been that many of Califor- 
nia's problems have been worked out through years of experience, 
and most of the older communities in that state have established a 
proper commercial procedure. This procedure is now in the formative 
stage in Arizona. 

While irrigation by white settlers in the Salt River Valley dates 
back to about 1867, the district is comparatively new in commercial 
development. The advent of Federal assistance in 1902-1904 marked 
the beginning of the present regime in the Valley. The Roosevelt Dam 
was completed in 191 1. and at that late date came the emergence of 
the Salt River Valley as an established region of surplus production, 
together with the problems attending such a changed condition. 

Many of the newer order of farmers came from the humid dis- 
tricts of the East and Middle West and found themselves facing con- 



Introduction — Geography and Topography 7 

ditions with which they had had httle or no previous experience. The 
period of expansion immediately following the opening of the Gov- 
ernment Project was largely a period of rearrangement so far as agri- 
cultural plans and activities were concerned. The natural questions 
which first arose in the minds of \'^alley farmers concerned themselves 
with the most profitable form of agriculture to be adopted. Fertile 
soils and excellent climatic conditions have operated to give full sway 
to a period of what might be termed experimental research on the part 
of producers and State and Federal experiment stations. Having thor- 
oughly established the fact that a great range of activity is permitted 
under natural conditions, it has been gradually becoming more apparent 
that future profits must lie in a coordination of activities and a system- 
atizing of the entire agriculture of the Valley. The present era is 
therefore one of readjustment and to that extent has made a commer- 
cial study of interest and importance. 

This study of marketing conditions was made during the crop 
season of 191 7 and the recommendations made in this bulletin and the 
conclusions reached have to do with conditions as they exist. It has 
been necessary in some cases to overstep the boundaries of a survey 
devoted purely to marketing problems. It often has been found im- 
possible to segregate the financial and commercial problems from other 
factors which have entered into a consideration of the farmers' returns 
for products sold. There has been, therefore, no attempt to eliminate 
those extraneous matters which at first glance might not appear per- 
tinent to the value of the work. A commercial viewpoint of the entire 
problem has necessitated a complete survey of the field. 

Geography and Topography In view of the fact that the geo- 
graphical location of Maricopa County and the internal arrangement 
of the irrigated territory within this County have a bearing on the 
commercial phases of agriculture, it seems best briefly to review these 
conditions. 

Reference to a map will show that Maricopa County is located in 
the south-central part of Arizona. The irrigated areas which col- 
lectively constitute the Salt River Valley, range in altitude from about 
950 feet to 1250 feet. The average altitude is about iioo feet. 

The main body of irrigated land is irregularly oblong in shape and 
extends from the Agua Fria River on the west to the Eastern Canal 
which lies east of Gilbert and Chandler. The approximate total length 
of this oblong district is about 36 miles, while its average width is 



8 Bulletin 85 

about 12 miles. Another strip of land lying below the confluence of 
the Salt and Gila Rivers with an average width of three miles and 
extending foi about 20 miles along the Gila River constitutes the 
Buckeye and Arlington Valleys. The main body of irrigated land is 
roughly divided into two nearly equal parts by the Salt River. Phoenix, 
the commercial center of this territory is also the geographical center 
of the irrigated district. The entire district may be divided arbitrarily 
into several groups based on sources of water supply. The Salt River 
Project comprises an area of about 205,000 acres, constituting by far 
the largest individual unit in the V^alley. Another area of about 21,000 
acres lying immediately south and west of Tempe also receives water 
from canals constructed by the Government, but the land owners in 
this territory are not members of the Salt River Valley Water Users' 
Association. Their water supply is based on old water rights existing 
before the inauguration of the Salt River Project. Water is brought 
to this land by Project canals, the land owners through a co-operative 
association paying a certain annual rental for the use of these Project 
canals. Another district of about 2500 acres lying north and east of 
Mesa and known locally as the Lehi District is also watered from Project 
canals on approximately the same basis as are the lands operated under 
the Tempe rights. It thus will be seen that a total of about 230,000 
acres consisting of (i) the Salt River Project, (2) lands operated 
under the Tempe rights, and (3) the Lehi District, are all irrigated 
from water impounded by the Roosevelt Dam and furnished through 
canals constructed by the Government. The Buckeye and Arlington 
districts referred to in a previous paragraph, together comprise about 
20,000 acres and are watered from the Gila River. As a matter of fact, 
a large portion of the waters flowing through the channel of the Gila 
River in this territory consists of seepage and surplus waters from the 
irrigation of the larger Valley above and does not really constitute the 
normal flow of the Gila River from regular sources. An area which 
lies in the delta between the New River and the Agua Fria, and north- 
west of the Salt River Project is known as the Marinette District. This 
land derives its water supply from the flood waters of the Agua Fria 
supplemented by water pumped from wells during periods when the 
gravity flow is not sufficient adequately to supply this territory. A 
scattered acreage which lies southeast of the Salt River Project in the 
vicinity of Higley, comprising an aggregate acreage of about 2000 acres, 
is watered by pumps. A recent development immediately south of 
Chandler has brought about 5000 acres under irrigation through the 



Introduction — Climatic Conditions 9 

installation of pumping machinery. An additional acreage is being re- 
claimed in this district. It will be noticed that by far the greater part 
of the farm land is irrigated from the gravity flow and that pumping 
or supplementary pumping cares for a relatively small percentage of 
the total area being farmed. 

There seems to be no particular specialization of crops in any of 
the above mentioned districts which collectively constitute the Salt 
River Valley. However, a study of crop conditions for the season of 
191 7 leads to the conclusion that for reasons other than the arbitrary 
division of territory according to water supply, there is a rather ill 
defined specialization. For instance, it is found that while alfalfa hay 
is shipped in commercial quantities from all points in the Valley, there 
is a more pronounced development of this particular industry on the 
south side of the Salt River Project. Shipments from the towns of 
Mesa, Gilbert and Chandler constitute more than 50% of the total 
hay shipments from Maricopa County. Citrus and deciduous fruits 
while produced in scattered acreages over the entire Valley are pro- 
duced more extensively on the higher lands of the north side. In a 
strip of territory extending from Glendale to Scottsdale and lying near 
the Arizona Canal, we find the greater portion of the fruit development 
in the Salt River Valley. Cantaloupes are produced in fairly restricted 
areas around Glendale, Mesa and Phoenix. Long staple cotton, while 
universally grown throughout the entire territory, probably finds its 
greatest development on the south side. The grain acreage is scat- 
tered but there is a more or less marked consolidation of the grain 
producing territory in the western part of the north side and on the 
south side in the vicinity of Tempe. Alfalfa seed production is largely 
confined to the Buckeye Valley. Potatoes are grown in commercial 
quantities only in the western and northwestern sections of the north 
side. Watermelons are produced around Phoenix and Glendale. All 
this crop specialization, however, has very little to do with the arbitrary 
division of the territory according to water supply. Climatic and soil 
conditions in most cases have been the deciding factors in the cropping 
scheme. 

Climatic Conditions The climate of the Salt River Valley is 
marked by extremes in both the daily and annual range of temperatures 
with very little rainfall and a small amount of humidity. The sum- 
mers are long and hot while the winters are mild and dry with only 
occasional freezing temperatures. Records of the Weather Bureau at 
Phoenix show that an average of 267 days in the year receives more 



lO BULLKTIN 85 

than 80 per cent of the possible amount of sunshine. Data compiled by 
the Phoenix office of the Weather Bureau shows that for the period 
from 1905 to 1916 the lowest recorded temperature was 16° while the 
highest was 117°. 

The growing season is longer than in almost any other irrigated 
district. Reports of the United States Weather Bureau show that the 
growing season, that is, the season between killing frosts, is approxi- 
mately ten months at Phoenix. 

There is a fairly wide variation in extreme winter temperatures in 
certain portions of the Valley. The areas having the highest altitudes 
lying near the foothills are of course less subject to frost. In fact, the 
frost risk in certain of these favorably located districts is so small that 
citrus groves have been a decided commercial success. There is no 
area in the entire Valley which can be considered as strictly frost proof 
but the risk in what might be termed the citrus belt is not too great for 
commercial success. In general, climatic conditions in the Salt River 
Valley have admitted of a very great diversification of production. Prac- 
tically all of the staple crops which have ever been grown under irri- 
gated conditions can be produced in this section successfully. The ex- 
treme length of the growing season coupled with the hot summers and 
mild winters have permitted the growing of certain important special 
crops whose success is dependent upon climatic conditions. There is 
perhaps no more favorable location in the United States for the produc- 
tion of long staple cotton. Dates bear abundantly and many of the 
finer varieties seem to find the Salt River Valley a natural habitat. 
Olives, figs and citrus fruits are successful by reason of the compara- 
tively mild winters. 

An annual rainfall of slightly more than eight inches is distributed 
rather irregularly throughout the year, the least occurring in April, 
May and June and the heaviest in July. Rains occur occasionally dur- 
ing the winter months. The comparatively small rainfall makes it pos- 
sible to produce and cure alfalfa hay of excellent color. Occasional 
unexpected rains during the spring and early summer months cause 
some damage to both hay and grain. It so happens that the rainiest 
season of the year is coincident with the harvesting period for canta- 
loupes. The problem is not as serious practically as it appears from 
casual observation. There have been, however, some decided losses of 
melons caused by unwelcome rainfall. A rain during the cantaloupe 
picking season may result in many of them cracking open in the field 
and considerable quantities of those which appear superficially to be 



Introduction — Soil Conditions — Transportation Facilities ii 

undamaged do not stand up well under shipment. Rainy periods, even 
during the month of July, are usually far enough apart so that most 
of the merchantable melons can be safely loaded for market. The dan- 
gers of unexpected rain during the summer months have deterred many 
apricot and peach growers from attempting to dry any considerable 
portion of their output. The condition of the dried fruit market, how- 
ever, during the 19 17 season induced many growers to try drying their 
fruit and in general the results were satisfactory. It is possible that the 
dangers attending such a procedure have been magnified in the minds 
of the growers and it is probable that if market conditions warrant 
there will be an even greater quantity dried during succeeding seasons. 
Soil Conditions There are in general about six types of soils 
existing in relatively large areas throughout the agricultural district 
in the Salt River Valley. The Maricopa Gravelly Loam lies near the 
outskirts of the Project and occurs in largest quantity around Peoria 
and along the Arizona Canal in the vicinity of Camelback Mountain. 
Most of the citrus development in the Valley occurs on this type of 
land. The Maricopa Sandy Loam constitutes the greater portion of 
the soil on the south side surrounding Mesa and Gilbert. There is 
also a considerable area of this soil on the north side adjoining the 
Maricopa Gravelly Loam. A slightly heavier soil known as Glendale 
Loess constitutes nearly one-third of the soil area on the north side 
of the Salt River Project and lies in the center of the north side. The 
Maricopa Loam, a still heavier loam soil, lies in irregular patches 
north and west of Phoenix and south of Tempe. A relatively incon- 
siderable area of clay loam and some heavy adobe soil which lies 
immediately around Phoenix and just south of Tempe constitute the 
principal other types of soil in the Valley. 

This variation in soil types has been reflected more or less in the 
character of the crops produced on those soils and has resulted in some 
crop specialization on soil types particularly fitted to certain crops. 
For example, most of the commercial potato acreage lies in the lighter 
loam soils west of Glendale. The same territory also produces most 
of the bean crop of the Valley. Cotton, grain and alfalfa are largely 
grown irrespective of soil types, while it appears that dates do well on 
■ soil which is too alkaline to produce other crops. There are certain 
districts in the Valley having alkaHne soils, but the greater portion of 
the Valley is free from this defect. 

Transportation Facilities . Present facilities for crop transpor- 
tation are adequate, although the Salt River Valley is not reached by the 



12 Bulletin 85 

main line of any railroad. The Arizona Eastern, which connects with 
the main east and west line of the Southern Pacific system at Mari- 
copa, and a branch of the Santa Fe System, known as the Santa Fe, 
Prescott and Phoenix Railroad, which joins the main line of the Santa 
Fe at Ash Fork, Arizona, connect the Valley with outside markets. 
While the advantages of a main trunk line are obvious the transporta- 
tion problem for this district is not an acute one because of this lack. 

The Arizona Eastern Railway being a subsidiary property of the 
Southern Pacific Company, and the Santa Fe. Prescott and Phoenix 
Railroad being a part of the Santa Fe System, the Salt River Valley 
is furnished the same class of service as is furnished elsewhere through- 
out the country by these two systems. In so far as concerns the trans- 
portation of perishable commodities under refrigeration from distant 
markets, the Pacific Fruit Express Company furnishes the necessary 
cars for the Arizona Eastern, and the Santa Fe Refrigerator Despatch 
Company furnishes the necessary cars for shippers on the Santa Fe, 
Prescott and Phoenix Railroad. In its efficiency the service is the 
same as that furnished elsewhere in sections served by these refrig- 
erator car lines. An interurban electric line 10 miles long extends 
from Phoenix to Glendale and traverses an important fruit and truck- 
ing belt. Considerable quantities of fruits and vegetables are trans- 
ferred from this line to the steam lines at Phoenix and Glendale. The 
total railroad mileage within the irrigated district alone is about 100 
miles. One principal line enters the Valley at Marinette in the north- 
west corner of the main irrigated district and passing through Peoria 
and Glendale terminates at Phoenix. The other carrier enters the 
irrigated district at a point about 9 miles south of Tempe and also has 
a terminus at Phoenix. Branches of the latter road also extend from 
Phoenix westward to Hassayampa through the Buckeye Valley and 
Eastward through Tempe and Mesa, to points beyond. At Mesa a 
further subdivision occurs, one line extending south through Chandler 
and passing out of the irrigated territory at the edge of the cotton dis- 
trict, while the other branch extends in a southeasterly direction 
through Gilbert and leaves the irrigated territory in the vicinity of 
Higley. The most remote points in the Valley are about 12 miles frorn 
transportation facilities, while the average distance from farm to 
loading station is from 4 to 6 miles. There are within the farming 
district about 10 billing stations and about 15 non-agency stations, or 
a total of about 25 loading points for farm products. Refrigerator 
cars are iced at Mesa, Phoenix and Glendale. Icing facilities have 



Introduction — Land \'alues 13 

been sufficient in the past for refrigerator shipments from Phoenix 
and Glendale, but during the 191 7 cantaloupe season icing equipment 
at Mesa was taxed to capacity during rush periods. 

In so far as the Arizona Eastern Railway is concerned, it never has 
a solid train load of cantaloupes ready to move at any one time. It keeps 
in touch with the despatcher's force on the main line of the Southern 
Pacific and whenever it is possible for an eastbound train to pick up 
any cantaloupes at Maricopa, the requisite number of cars are sent 
down from Mesa to Maricopa in an "extra" for that purpose. 

Freight rates on agricultural products are still more or less in 
process of readjustment and although complete tariff schedules are 
in effect, there doubtless will be some revision in the future. Surplus 
production of certain crops is a relatively new phase of agriculture 
in the Salt River \^alley and it may take some time for the carriers to 
adjust themselves to changing conditions. There doubtless will be 
more favorable commodity rates offered on certain products, notably 
potatoes, when the acreage becomes of sufficient importance to con- 
stitute a valuable source of income to the railroads. 

Land Values In general it may be said that prices for good 
farming land in the Salt River Valley are moderate when consideration 
is given to the various factors which influence land values. The fertility 
of the soil in this territory would naturally have a decided influence 
on prices. Another factor which has considerable commercial signifi- 
cance is the long growing season. Since the completion of the Roose- 
velt Dam, the question of an adequate supply of water for most of the 
land in the Valley has been settled, and water-right litigation has been 
reduced to a minimum. There has been, of course, a considerable rise 
in values since the completion of the Salt River Project. The exten- 
sion of the area which could be devoted to the production of citrus 
fruits and olives and the success which the long staple cotton growers 
have attained during the past season have had a tendency to increase 
general farm prices. Irrigated land ready for crop sells at from $100 
to $500 per acre. The average price for good land, however, will range 
from $150 to $200 per acre. Under the Reclamation Project the water 
cost is to be repaid the Government on liberal time arrangements. It 
will be seen from this statement that livestock production, dairy farm- 
ing, and general farming can be successfully carried on without the 
necessity for carrying too heavy an overhead charge for land rentals. 
It seems altogether likely that livestock production, dairying and gen- 



14 BUI.LETIN 85 — Storage Facilities 

eral farming will continue to be the most important forms of agricul- 
ture in the Salt River Valley, although the long staple cotton industry 
lias come into distinct prominence during the 191 7 season. At present 
land prices are not sufficiently high to prohibit diversification. This 
is evidenced by the fact that there is great diversification throughout 
the entire Valley. The Salt River Valley has gained immeasurably 
from the fact that land values have not been inflated unduly and it 
thus has been possible for the farmer to have a wide latitude in his 
attempts to determine the most profitable crops to produce. 

Storage Facilities Storage facilities for farm products are largely 
in the hands of private individuals. There are practically no farmers' 
co-operative warehouses or storage in this district. This is significant 
in view of the fact that large quantities of farm products are produced 
which would normally go into storage for periods ranging from one 
to six months. Commercial storages for grain are operated by millers, 
seed merchants and others whose business is the buying and selling of 
grain. These warehouses have individual capacii"ies ranging from 
3,000,000 pounds to 8,000,000 pounds. The total storage capacity of 
the commercial grain warehouses operated by the seven principal grain 
handlers is approximately 65,000,000 pounds. There is only one grain 
elevator in the Valley, the balance of the storage space providing only 
for grain stored in sacks. Other elevators are now building to fill 
present deficiencies. Estimating the average yield of barley to be 1,800 
pounds per acre and the average yield of wheat to be i ,500 pounds per 
acre, it will be seen that present storage space is adequate to care for a 
grain crop from about 40,000 acres. Any sudden increase in acreage 
above that noted would necessitate farm storage or the building of 
additional warehouse space. There are four grain warehouses in 
Phoenix, two in Mesa, four in Tempe and two in Glendale. Grain 
producers in the Buckeye District are farthest removed from storage 
facilities. It is difficult to estimate the quantities of grain normally 
stored on the farm, but at most it is a relatively small percentage of 
the total crop. There is need for adequate grain storage space at 
some point in the Buckeye Valley. It also would save considerable 
hauling if a grain warehouse should be built at some point about six 
or seven miles west of Phoenix on the railroad which serves the Buck- 
eye Valley. 

The usual charge for grain storage is five cents per 100 pounds 
ior the season. One of the disadvantages of the public storage to the 



Introduction — Industries Allied With Agriculture 15 

small grain producer who has good grain, is that unless he has a 
reasonably large quantity to store, his grain is stacked with that of 
other farmers, and in case of withdrawal for sale he might have re- 
turned to him grain other than that which he placed in storage. The 
large grain producer can usually arrange at the warehouse to have his 
grain kept in a separate stack, which can be inspected by buyers if 
necessary. 

Hay warehouses are located at Gilbert, Peoria, Glendale, Phoenix, 
Tempe and Mesa. Only a relatively small proportion of the hay pro- 
duced in the Salt River Valley is baled and placed under cover. There 
are a number of large hay sheds owned by some of the larger alfalfa 
growers and capable of storing relatively large quantities of baled hay 
on the farm. Most of the hay crop in the Valley, however, is stacked 
in the open and either fed loose from the stack or baled later for ship- 
ment. There are no covered storages other than those on the farms 
which are available for the hay producer. While, of course, the cheap- 
est method of storing hay is the stack method, it is evident that addi- 
tional hay storage space for good baled hay would be profitable for the 
farmers. Cold storage space for perishable commodities is available 
in Glendale. Phoenix and Mesa. Practically all of the space which is 
utilized for storing of dairy products or fruits and vegetables is used 
by local creameries or wholesale dealers. Storage by farmers or farm- 
ers' associations is practically unheard of. 

At the present time the storage question is one which should be 
given attention. During the average season the farmer who stores 
his grain at harvest time and sells it at a later period often benefits 
from such a practice. The same statement applies to hay. The 19 17 
season was, of course, an exceptional one, but the fact remains that 
hay prices at the time of the first cutting of alfalfa averaged around 
$12, while October prices approximated $25 per ton. Certain farmers 
who held part of their surplus for a later market have nearly doubled 
their income by such procedure. This, of course, brings up the ques- 
tion of the advisability of building additional hay storage space and 
there seems little doubt that considerable additional space can be 
utilized by the producers of high grade baled alfalfa hay. 

Industries Allied With Agriculture While the Salt River 
Valley is essentially unorganized for either production or marketing, 
there has been built up a fairly permanent series of allied industries 
which naturally accompany any large agricultural enterprise. In 191 7 



i6 Bulletin 85 

there were three creameries and one evaporating plant to care for dairy 
products; one canning plant and one sugar factory (both of which 
were inoperative during 191 7) ; four flour mills to care for grain 
products ; eight cotton gins and one cotton oil mill to care for cotton 
products ; and two pickling plants for olives. During the 1916 season 
four creameries instead of three were in operation, but at the time of 
writing three creameries and one evaporating plant were handling 
larger quantities of butter fat than had been handled when the fourth 
creamery was in operation. A second evaporating plant was in process 
of construction during 1917. The total number of cotton gins in iyi6 
was five. 

Some interesting changes have occurred during the five years 
ending in 191 7. During this period there was a very rough and un- 
systematic rearrangement of agricultural activities. Dairying gradu- 
ally has been coming into its own as one of the primary sources of 
farm wealth in the Salt River Valley. This gradual growth of the 
dairy industry appears to have been merely a healthy development of a 
profitable industry. Long staple cotton prior to 191 7 occupied a com- 
paratively modest place in the general planting scheme. The sudden 
increase in demand and the success attending the experimental grow- 
mg of the two leading long staple cottons in the Salt River Valley, 
caused a phenomenal increase in the acreage planted in 191 7. The 
production of market hay has fluctuated from season to season, while 
the total acreage in alfalfa for the five years ending in 1917 was fairh"^ 
constant. During the growing season the farmer usually has had his 
choice of selling large quantities of his hay for shipment or feeding it 
to stock on the farm. The condition of the baled hay market usually 
determines whether or not any considerable quantity of hay is shipped. 
Grain production has varied directly with the market price at harvest 
time. A season of low prices has almost invariably been succeeded by 
a period of decreased acreage. The livestock industry has been a fairly 
constant quantity, although war demands have curtailed the normal 
increase which might be expected along this line. The most notable 
fact concerning the livestock industry in 1917 was the great decrease 
in the number of hogs over previous seasons. Data compiled by the 
iJnited States Reclamation Service shows a decrease on the Project 
!n 1917 of about 60 per cent in the total number of hogs. 

It is not strictly correct to state that there has been no community 
taction in the Salt River \'allev. There alwavs has been a realization 



Introduction- 17 

of the fact that community effort is desirable, but activities up to the 
time of writing- have been sporadic and not part of any organized plan. 
Two types of organization have been attempted in the past. A few 
efforts have been made to bring the growers of certain communities 
together for co-operative selling. In some instances these efforts have 
met with some measure of success, but in general such organizations 
have failed through lack of strength. Another type of organization, 
designed not especially for marketing, but for general community bet- 
terment, has been tried out with fair success. A number of Farm 
Improvement Associations have been organized a few years at vari- 
ous points in the Valley. These, together with other farmers' organ- 
izations, are being made the basis of a County Farm Bureau, with wide 
and useful functions, but not developed at this time as a special mar- 
keting organization. 

The existence of these various community groups is desirable chiefly 
because they can be revived temporarily if necessary and made to serve 
as nuclei for concerted action. In many cases, they constitute the only 
tangible bond which unites the producers of a community and it has 
been possible in the past to make use of their existence to reach the 
individual through his connection with the association. 

As might be expected, attempts also have been made to organize 
producers along more strictly commercial lines. During the 1917 
season there were in existence three or four such farmers' marketing 
associations. Their membership at best is limited and their existence 
is largely due to the efforts of a few individuals. Practically all these 
organizations have been built up entirely around the ideas of their 
farmer organizers, who have not had the benefit of expert advice or 
counsel in planning the organization. A few have remained in exist- 
ence for periods ranging from one to three years, while some hav^ 
gone through various forms of reorganization and are still !n existence. 
In all cases, there has been a definite and decided problem to solve and 
the organizers have gone at the solution of this problem in the most 
direct way. The goal to be attained has been always prominently 
before them, but it is unfortunate that their plans have not been definite 
enough in some instances to secure desirable results. With one or two 
exceptions, these farmers' marketing associations are such only in 
name. They are weak because their individual and collective obliga- 
tions have been ill stated in their constitutions and by-laws, and such 
contracts as have been entered into have not been sufficiently binding 



i8 Bulletin 85 — Grain 

to stand up under adverse conditions. As might be expected, also, few 
of them have made adequate provisions for proper financing.* 

One or two small marketing associations, however, stand out from 
the rest so far as strength and stability are concerned. The association 
which handled practically all of the commercial lettuce crop of the 
Valley in 191 7 was well organized and well managed in many respects. 
The strength of this organization rests largely upon the fact that they 
have narrowed their field of operations to certain specific purposes and 
have not attempted to handle more than could be satisfactorily handled 
through an association which necessarily had a limited membership. 
The citrus growers' association has never adopted a systematic selling 
plan. This is the one important inconsistency in connection with this 
organization. The association has been, however, the prime factor in 
holding the citrus interests together and for this reason alone can be 
said to have fulfilled its mission. 

SPECIFIC MARKETING CONDITIONS 

Grain The Salt River Valley is not a region of surplus grain 
production. The principal grains are barley, milo maize, wheat, oats 
and corn. The latter two are grown in comparatively small quantities. 
The annual acreage planted to grain is not a uniform quantity from 
season to season. Prevailing market prices determine very largely the 
annual acreage which is devoted to the production of small grains. A 
great reduction in the quantity of wheat produced in 191 7 was largely 
caused by the fact that most of the 1916 crop was sold by producers 
at $1.65 per 100 pounds, which made this crop comparatively unprofit- 
able. 

Yields vary with the season and with the individual. Barley will 
average about 1,800 pounds to the acre, and wheat about 1,500 pounds. 
More than 90 per cent of the wheat is Early Baart, a semi-hard wheat 
which does well in this section. A small quantity of California Club 
wheat is also produced. Little effort has been made to encourage the 
production of well matured, clean grain. One weakness in the present 
system of marketing is the fact that the farmer whose grain is dirty 
receives practically the same price as the farmer who has been careful 
to produce a high class, marketable product. This has practically 
placed a premium on slack methods of harvesting and has not encour- 

* U. S. Department of Agriculture. Bulletin No. 541, Co-operative 
Organization By-laws, by C. E. Bassett and O. B. Jeeness, 1918. 



Specific Marketing Problems 19 

aged the production of good grain. Individual grain acreages are com- 
paratively small. Material assembled by the Arizona State Council of 
Defense and the County Agricultural Agent in 19 17, covering 476 
typical grain fields with a total acreage of 21,420 acres, shows that 458 
of these fields, comprising 16.880 acres, were each 120 acres or less 
in extent. 

Most of the grain is sold by the farmers at harvest time to local 
buyers. Millers, wholesale grain dealers and seed merchants buy over 
90 per cent of the commercial output. Warehouse space can, of course, 
be secured for commercial storage, but, as a rule, most of the grain 
stored in these warehouses has already been purchased by the ware- 
house owner. Buyers owned about 80 per cent of the grain stored in 
1916. It is significant, however, that in 191 7 approximately one-half 
of the grain in storage on September i was owned by farmers. The 
following table shows the quantity of wheat, milo maize, barley and 
flour shipped into the Salt River Valley in 1916 and 1917 from points 
outside of the State: 



Table I Grain and Flour Shipped into the Salt 


River Valley 


Commodity Carloads, 


VjIO 




Carloads. V.H7 
{To October) 


Wheat „ 4 






7 


Barley . 30 


25 


Milo Maize 18 

Flour 101 


13 
91 









It will be noted that the quantity of wheat imported is negligible, 
while fair quantities of milo maize and barley are brought in from Cali- 
fornia. On the other hand, practically no grain or flour is shipped 
from Valley points to points outside of the State. It will be seen that 
the local markets of the Valley and State consume much more grain 
and flour than is produced in the Salt River Valley. The two prin- 
cipal problems for the Valley grain producer are those relating to seed 
and prices. No systematic attempt has been made to provide seed to 
grain growers at reasonable prices. Some seed is brought in from 
California, Kansas and the Northwest, and still larger quantities are 
supplied from local sources. Many grain growers dispose of prac- 
tically their entire crop at harvest time and then re-buy at advanced 
prices for the next season's planting. 

Strange as it may seem, a reasonable price basis for grain has 
never been established between the producer and the buyer. The cus- 



20 Bulletin 85 

tomary condition of the local wheat market emphasizes this lack. 
Every year millers and grain wholesalers base local prices on the price 
for wheat at terminal market points. The growers have always taken 
the stand that inasmuch as the Salt River Valley is not a district of 
surplus production, and practically no grain or flour goes outside the 
State, the local market prices should be the prices at terminal market, 
plus the freight necessary to bring grain into the Valley. There has 
been no attempt on the part of the two factions to compromise on this 
matter and neither side has cared to make a clean-cut statement of the 
issues at stake. It will be noted that while comparatively little wheat 
is annually imported, there are considerable quantities of flour shipped 
into the Valley, largely from Kansas points. The contention of the 
farmers is that if the Kansas miller can afford to buy wheat at terminal 
market prices, convert it into flour, pay the freight on this flour to 
Valley points, and sell this flour in competition with that manufactured 
locally, the local miller should be able to purchase wheat on the basis 
of terminal prices, plus the freight to Valley points and operate as 
profitably as the Kansas miller. The growers, however, fail to recog- 
nize the fact that most of the flour so imported is hard wheat flour, 
while much of that manufactured from Valley wheat is milled from 
semi-hard wheat. There is an active demand for both classes of flour 
in Arizona, but there is a price differential of 40 cents to 50 cents per 
100 pounds in favor of the hard wheat product. The local miller thus 
has an argument which is more or less sound. It would appear from 
a careful investigation of the entire situation that the proper price for 
local wheat should lie somewhere between the two price extremes men- 
tioned. A fair scale of prices would encourage grain production in 
the Salt River Valley greatly and by increasing the volume of their 
business should enable grain handlers to operate with no reduction of 
annual profit, but on a slightly smaller margin of profit per 100 pounds 
of grain handled. As matters now stand, it is annually an open ques- 
tion as to what will be the price basis for Valley grain. 

Four flour mills were in active operation in the Salt River Valley 
in 191 7. The daily flour output of each of these mills approximated 
50 to 60 barrels per 1 1 hour run. The two Phoenix mills consolidated 
7iear the close of the 191 7 season. Another Valley mill was destroyed 
by fire and will be rebuilt on a modern scale in time to care for the 
1918 crop. Hence, there will be three large flour mills in operation 
during the 1918 season. Less than one-half of the flour milled in the 



Specific Marketing Problems — Alfalfa 21 

Valley is sold at points within the Valley proper. The remainder is 
shipped largely to mining towns throughout Arizona. 

Over 90 per cent of the grain is handled in sacks. The labor cost 
of sacking this grain, the cost of the sack itself, and unnecessary labor 
charges for extra handling are of course reflected in the price received 
by producers. One of the Valley mills now has an elevator arrange- 
ment for handling bulk grain, while another mill is building a large 
modern elevator and will encourage its patrons to furnish bulk grain. 
The handling of grain in sacks is such an expensive operation that 
there is little excuse for its continuance in this district. 

It does not seem practicable or feasible to urge the formation of a 
co-operative grain marketing organization. The chief drawback is 
that individual acreages vary greatly and the membership of a grain 
marketing association would change so appreciably from season to 
season that it would not be possible to introduce the necessary flexi- 
bility into the plan of organization. There should be concerted action, 
however, by grain growers looking toward better grading of their 
product for market, more economical methods of handling the grain 
?.nd better understanding with the buyers as to prices. 

Alfalfa In common with other irrigated sections of the West, 
the Salt River Valley produces large quantities of alfalfa. Prior to 
191 7 approximately 50 per cent of the irrigable territory in the Valley 
was devoted to alfalfa. In general, this alfalfa acreage is utilized by 
producers for pasture, for commercial hay production and for seed. It 
is difficult to estimate the total acreage used annually for pasturing 
livestock. Many fields are devoted very largely to this purpose. A 
still larger area is pastured occasionally between cuttings. When it 
is remembered that the Valley is a very important dairying district 
and that fattening range stock for market is also an important phase 
of agriculture, it is possible to appreciate the value of alfalfa pasture 
to Valley farmers. 

This district has been for a good many years a region of surplus 
hay production. Certain districts, notably near Gilbert, Peoria and 
Chandler, produce large quantities of hay for commercial shipment. 
This hay is field-baled and usually moves to market shortly after har- 
vest. The following table shows the number of cars of hay shipped by 
stations from the principal Valley points in 1916 and 1917: 



22 Bulletin' 85 

Table II Carloads of Hay Forwarded ix 1916-1917 



Station Carload, 1916 



Carload, 1917 
I (To Octohcr) 



Peoria I 661 | 597 

Glendale I 475 1 • 503 

Phoenix 1 457 | 632 

Tempe I 262 | 290 

Mesa and Gilbert I 1781 I 1877 

Chandler - I 563 1 565 

Total I 4199 | 4464 

It will be noted that there is a heavy movement of hay from cer- 
tain sections of the Valley. Yields vary with soil and cultural condi- 
tions, but average 5 tons per acre. Little or no attempt has been made 
to grade alfalfa hay. The careless producer secures nearly as good 
prices as the farmer who has gone to some trouble to put up a superior 
product. Johnson grass is a troublesome pest in some sections of the 
Valley and where it has taken hold it constitutes the chief foreign 
element in the hay. Weed seeds carried by the wind and irrigation 
water have caused the hay in certain fields to be of inferior grade. 
Climatic conditions are such that hay of an excellent color can be put 
up if care is exercised. 

Large quantities are shipped to the mining centers in Arizona and 
New Mexico. Jerome, Globe, Douglas, Bisbee, Nogales, Naco, Fort 
Huachuca and Prescott, in Arizona, and Hachita, Deming, Lordsburg 
and Gallup, in New Mexico, use large quantities of Salt River Valley 
hay. Much of the hay billed to Naco, Douglas and Nogales finds its 
way into the mining districts of Northern Mexico. During the past 
two years there has also been a considerable movement of hay from 
Valley points to El Paso for diversion to points across the border into 
Mexico or to smaller towns in Western Texas. In 19 17, owing to the 
drought which prevailed in Western Texas, hay from the Salt River 
Valley was shipped as far East as Houston and San Antonio. As a 
matter of fact, Western Texas is usually an excellent market for con- 
siderable quantities of alfalfa hay from the Salt River Valley and other 
irrigated valleys in the West. 

Hay prices to producers have varied greatly in past years. Data 
compiled by the United States Reclamation Service indicates that prices 
have ranged as low as $6 per ton at the farm. The average price 
paid the farmer for hay in 1916 ranged from $12 to $15 per ton. 
Prior to the first cutting in 1917, some growers were contracting with 
buyers for hay delivery at about $12 per ton. With an extraordinary 
demand becoming manifest early in the season, the price rose rapidly, 



Sr'F.CH-ic Makki-tinc. ruoi'.LEMS 



23 




24 Bulletin 85 

averaging about $18 in the middle of the season and closing in Decem- 
ber at approximately $30 for good baled hay delivered to the loading 
platforms. 

Practically all the hay sold from the farm is purchased by local 
buyers who in turn re-sell to their customers in other parts of the 
Southwest. About five local firms ship approximately four-fifths of 
all hay which goes out of the Valley. Only in exceptional cases is 
there direct sale from producer to consumer. With the local market 
largely controlled by a very few firms, the hay producers of the Valley 
have in many cases doubted whether or not a real competitive market 
existed. On several occasions large hay producers in the Valley have 
attempted to negotiate directly with buyers in nearby mining towns 
for direct sale. Usually they have found themselves unable to make 
such sale because they were unable to guarantee the grade of hay 
which would be delivered. The buyer in practically all cases preferred 
to deal with local dealers with whom he had established business rela- 
tions and upon whose representations he could rely. The farmer has 
had no means of assuring buyers that he could deliver hay which was 
up to specifications. The complete lack of any system of local inspec- 
tion has therefore entirely precluded the possibility of direct selling. 
A system of local hay inspection, whereby the producer could utilize 
the services of a competent hay inspector at a nominal fee would 
enable the farmer to place his hay on the market on equal terms with 
the large hay shipper and thus save for himself the speculative profits 
which are absorbed by local hay handlers. 

Very few farms have hay sheds which are sufficiently large to 
care for any considerable quantities of baled hay. It usually is neces- 
sary for the farmer either to stack his hay in the field or to bale it 
and sell at once. Farm storage for baled hay is necessary if producers 
are to get the benefit of seasonal price changes in the hay market. 

Very small quantities of alfalfa seed are produced in the main 
body of irrigated land in the \^alley. Most of the alfalfa seed whicb 
is produced in this territory comes from the Buckeye A^alley. Even 
in this district alfalfa seed production is usually incidental to hay pro- 
duction. If seasonal and price conditions are satisfactory, growers in 
this district allow one cutting of alfalfa to go to seed, harvest the crop 
and then again resume hay production. As might be expected, the 
annual production of seed varies greatly. During some seasons it is 
difficult to secure a good crop of alfalfa seed, while in other seasons 
the alfalfa seed crop is the most profitable one of the season. The 



Specific Marketing Problems — Daiuy Products 25 

alfalfa seed chalcis fly has been an important factor in reducing yields 
of seed in the Buckeye District in past years. During some seasons 
the damage is relatively small. In other years from one-third to one- 
half the crop has been destroyed. The seed is of fair quality and is 
usually clean. Practically all of the crop is sold to a few local buyers 
who re-sell the seed in other parts of the Valley and also do some 
shipping to outside points. The high prices paid for alfalfa hay in 
191 7 resulted in a relatively small quantity of seed being produced, but 
should conditions be reversed another season, seed would doubtless 
again become an important feature of alfalfa production in the Buckeye 
Valley. Most of the alfalfa seed is sold immediately after harvesting. 
It has been found that at this time there is little active competition 
from other districts and prices have usually been more satisfactory 
than those prevailing a few months later. There is no adequate pro- 
vision for the storage of alfalfa seed. Some seed doubtless could be 
stored on the farm, but few farms have proper storages for this com- 
modity. It does not appear, however, that this is a serious problem, 
because the producers are anxious to sell their seed immediately. 

Dairy Products The dairy industry is one of the most important 
forms of specialized agriculture in the Salt River Valley. The natural 
adaptation of the Valley to the production of alfalfa, the large grain 
yields which can be secured and the possibility of growing large quan- 
tities of practically all desirable dairy feeds, coupled with mild winters 
prevailing in this section, make the Salt River Valley an excellent dis- 
trict for dairying. The national census for 1910 credited Maricopa 
County with 12,660 dairy cows out of a total of 28,862 in the entire 
State of Arizona. The same authority states that in 1909 2,357,753 
gallons of milk, 22,004 gallons of cream, 626,583 pounds butterfat 
were sold. The annual report of the United States Reclamation 
Service states that in 191 6 there were 48,628 dairy cattle on the Salt 
River Project alone, while the same authority states that in 1917 this 
total had risen to 50,975 head. In addition to stock on the Project 
proper, there is probably one-half as much again in other parts of the 
Valley. It should be understood, however, that not all of these were 
milking cows at the time the report was issued. The approximate 
number of milking cows in the entire Valley in 191 7 was probably 
about 50,000. 

Most of the dairy herds of the Valley are of Holstein-Friesian 
stock. Practically all other standard breeds of dairy cows are repre- 
sented, however. The 1917 project report of the Reclamation Service 



26 Bulletin 85 

indicates that 21,460 cows whose owners report complete returns 
brought in an average of $173,375 per month. This shows an average 
of $8.07 per cow per month and probably is a representative figure for 
the entire Valley. As might be expected in a district where extensive 
development of the dairy industry has been fairly recent, there is a 
considerable amount of inferior stock. At the same time, there are 
some very fine individual herds and the general character of dairy 
stock is improving each year. A comparatively sudden interest in 
silo building was manifested in 1917, and has had a most beneficial 
effect on the entire dairy industry in the Valley. About 17 silos were 
in existence in the Valley early in 191 7. By midsummer this number 
had increased to about 40 and in November 45 silos were in use and 
3 or 4 were in process of construction. 

The dairy industry in the Valley has built itself largely around 
the problem of supplying milk and butterfat to creameries and 
evaporating plants. Considerable quantities of milk and cream are also 
retailed in Phoenix, Mesa and Tempe. There are in existence at the 
present time three creameries, all located in Phoenix, one evaporating 
plant located in Tempe and another evaporating plant in process of 
construction at Glendale. During 1916 and for the first seven months 
of 1 91 7, there w^as another creamery in operation at Glendale. These 
plants care for most of the dairy products originating in the Valley. 
No stringent requirements are laid by the creameries upon their 
patrons. Practically all milk or cream which is in even a reasonably 
satisfactory condition is accepted and this has acted in some cases to 
encourage slack methods of handling milk and cream on the farm. 
In 191 6 about 4,001,900 pounds of butterfat were collectively handled 
by the commercial plants in the Valley, while about 3,501,000 pounds 
were handled by the same firms during the first nine months of 1917. 

These figures indicate more graphically than words the volume 
of the commercial dairy business in the Salt River Valley. Prices paid 
for dairy products during the past two years have varied from 31 cents 
for butterfat in cheese milk in September. 191 6, to 55 cents for butter- 
fat in the same form in October, 1917. The following table represents 
an average of prices paid by all creameries and evaporating plants dur- 
ing certain months of 191 7 and shows the very rapid increase in price 
which became manifest during the later months of 1917: 



Specific Marketing Problems 



27 



Table HI Average Prices Paid for Butterfat in 1917 



- - , In Churn 1 In Sweet In Cheese 
J^onth Cream 1 Cream Milk 

1 1 1 


In Who}. 

MiJk 


February 


42c 
40c 
41c 

45c 

47c 


45.0c 
42.0c 
47.0c 
48.0c 
51.5c 


47.5c 
46.0c 
47.0c 
50.0c 
53.0c 


47.5c 


April 


48.5c 


July 


52.5c 


September 


56.0c 


October 


59.0c 



The prices paid for butterfat in various forms have been fairly 
well in line with prices for dairy products in other sections, when 
overhead charges and costs of operation are taken into consideration. 
Evaporated milk, butter and cheese are the chief products turned out 
by the manufacturing plants. Data collected from the creameries indi- 
cate that the overrun in these plants varies from about 21 to 24^/2 per 
cent. The quantity of cheese produced per 100 pounds of milk ranges 
from about 7^ to 93^ pounds. In 1916 about 2.750,000 pounds of 
butter and 1,100.000 pounds of cheese were collectively produced by 
the creameries in the Valley. This does not include the butter and 
cheese manufactured on the farm, but represents only that which was 
produced by commercial plants specializing in the production of these 
commodities. During the first nine months of 191 7 about 1,850,000 
pounds of butter and 1,250,000 pounds of cheese were produced by the 
same concerns. Only one grade of butter is turned out by each plant. 
This butter is packed in one-pound cartons of the flat type customary 
in the West. Full cream and half-skim cheese have been produced at 
various times, although at the present time some of the creameries are 
producing full cream cheese only. By far the greater part of the but- 
ter and cheese produced in the Salt River Valley finds a market in the 
Valley itself or in other parts of Arizona. Some butter goes to points 
in New Mexico, to El Paso, Texas, and even as far as San Antonio 
and Houston. Occasionally carloads of cheese have been placed in 
Los Angeles, while in 191 7 two carloads of cheese went as far East 
as Philadelphia. The principal market, however, for butter and cheese 
is within the State borders of Arizona, and of that sold within State 
borders about two-thirds of the butter and one-half of the cheese is 
sold outside the Salt River Valley in the mining centers of the State. 

One of the heaviest charges which the dairymen in the Valley 
have to pay is that for the collection of butterfat. More than half of 
the milk and cream which is handled by the creameries and evaporating 
plants is gathered on motor trucks operated by these plants. As might 
be expected, with plants doing a competitive business, the various col- 



28 



Bulletin 85 




Fig. 3 — A substantial factor in the newer dairy 
industry. 



Specific Marketing Problems — Cotton 29 

lecting routes are duplicated niauy tiuies iu the rei^ular course of busi- 
ness and this in turn makes the cost of collection per pound of butter 
fat relatively heavy. Investiij^ations show that the cost of collecting 
butterfat ranges from about 2 cents per pound to as high as 6^ cents 
per pound. This wide range is traceable to the fact that it is more 
economical to collect butterfat in cream than in whole milk and also 
it is relatively expensive to haul either cream or milk from more 
distant points in the \'alley. As a matter of fact, motor trucks operated 
by creameries haul milk and cream for distances as great as 50 miles. 
The average length of haul, however, is much less than this, and prob- 
ably does not exceed from 7 to 9 miles. Some important economies 
could be effected by arranging a division of territory for gathering 
purposes. It is altogether possible to add from 2 to 4 cents per pound 
to prices paid for butterfat if waste energy be eliminated in gathering 
milk and cream. The 35 trucks now devoted to the collection of milk 
and cream in the Valley probably could be replaced bv 20 to 25 trucks 
if the average territory covered by each truck were enlarged by elimin- 
."ting duplication of routes. 

Cotton In 191 7 the production of long staple cotton ceased to be 
a side line in general agriculture and became one of the leading indus- 
tries in the N'alley. I' or a number of years prior to 1917, cotton was 
produced on a fairly extensive scale, the acreage ranging from 1,500 
acres to c),ooo or 10.000 acres. The development of superior types of 
cotton, the sudden realization on the part of growers that Arizona is 
climatically suitable for the jiroduction of Egyptian long staple- cotton, 
and the prevailing high prices paid for cotton ginned in 1916, all com- 
bined to create a sudden flurry in the cotton industry of the Valley. 
Several years ago it was established experimentally that long staple 
cotton could be produced in the Valley. This information, however, 
was not utilized immediately by farmers in the Valley, who took 
merely a passive interest in cotton growing. When prices for long 
staple cotton passed the 50 cent mark, however, a large number of 
producers began to take more than a passing interest in the possibilities 
of cotton culture. The following table shows the approximate long 
staple cotton acreage for a period of years, together with the number 
of bales ginned each year : 



30 Bulletin 85 

Table IV Acreage and Yields of Long Staple Cotton 

Acreage Balt9 Ginned 



1913 1 5,000 1 - 2,030 

1914 1 11,500 I 6,060 

1915 i 3,300 I 1,145 

1916 1 7,300 I 3,260 

1917 ' 32,000 *13,500 

* Approximately. 

It will be noted that average yields are not extremely high. On 
the other hand, it must be remembered that long staple cotton pro- 
duction in this section of the country is still in an experimental stage 
with respect to individual experience. This was especially true in 
191 7, when an imusual acreage was planted. A large part of this 
cotton was cultivated by growers who had had little or no experience 
in cotton culture. A few cotton growers had produced short staple 
cotton in the Southern States, but even this did not materially assist 
them in handling the problems of long staple production. The cotton 
producers have not yet found themselves and it will doubtless take a 
number of years' practical experience on a large scale before they will 
be able to make the most of natural advantages. All things considered, 
however, they have produced an excellent crop in spite of their in- 
experience. 

For several years prior to 191 7 there had been a steadily de- 
creasing acreage of short staple cotton. In 191 7. however, the danger 
of attempting simultaneous production of both long and short staple 
cottons was thoroughly brought home to the growers and no short 
staple cotton was planted at any point in the Valley. Two varieties of 
long staple cotton were grown in 191 7. Of the total acreage of about 
32,000 acres, approximately 6,700 were of the Pima type, while the 
remainder was of the Yuma type. Both of these cottons had been 
grown in previous years in the Valley. Practically all of the long- 
staple cotton produced prior to 191 7 was of the Yuma type, while 
Pima cotton had been produced only in a small way. Both of these 
cottons have been developed through the efforts of plant breeding 
experts of the United States Department of Agriculture. The acre- 
age of Pima cotton in 191 7 represented the first widespread production 
of this variety. Pima cotton was developed at the Government plant 
breeding station at Sacaton just south of the Salt River Valley and 
was experimentally produced for several years prior to 191 7. In the 
latter year a sufficient quantity of pure bred Pima seed was available 



Si'ix'ii'ic M.\KKi;Ti\r. Pkoklkms 31 

to plant a]~»proximately 6,700 acres. The control of this seed rested 
largely with the United States Department of Agriculture, whose 
experts were anxious to preserve a pure strain of this desirable type. 
In order that there might be no admixture of the Pima and Yuma 
strains, it was determined to restrict the planting of Pima seed to a 
definite territory within the \'alley, to have this cotton ginned sepa- 
rately from Yuma cotton, and to prevent the planting of any of this 
seed within any territory which was contiguous to plantings of Yuma 
cotton. The Tempe Cotton Exchange administered the distribution of 
Pima seed to growers in a limited district south of Tempe. No Pima 
seed was planted outside of this district and no Yuma cotton was pro- 
duced within the arbitrary boundaries of this restricted area. In 
order that tliere might be no misunderstanding as to the purposes and 
provisions of this plan, every cotton grower who secured Pima seed 
through the Tempe Cotton Exchange executed a contract which was 
designed to continue the control of l^ima seed by the Tempe Cotton 
Exchange. A copy of this contract follows : 

TEMPE COTTOX EXCHANGE 

PIMA COTTON growers' CONTR.ACT 

THIS AGREEMENT MADE BETWEEN 

a resident of the County of IMaricopa, and State of Arizona, herein- 
after called the Grower, and the Tempe Cotton Exchange, a corpora- 
tion, having its place of business at Tempe, in said County and State, 
hereinafter called the Exchange, witnesseth : 

That the Grower as is now and 

will at all times prior to the first day of March, 1918, continue to be 

in sole control of acres of land 

hereinafter particularly described, on which he proposes to grow and 
harvest a crop of pima cotton during the season of 191 7, which said 
land is situate near Tempe, in the County of Maricopa. State of Ari- 
zona, as particularly described as follows, to-wit : 



in Township Range..- of the Gila and Salt 

River Base and Meridian, containing acres. 

That the Grower is desirous of securing from the Exchange a 
sufficient quantity of Pima cotton seed to plant said land during the 
season of 1917, and has applied to said Exchange for said seed; 



^2 Bulletin 85 

That the Grower, in consideration of the Exchange furnishing" 
said PIMA cotton seed to him, and of the benefits and privileges to be 
received by him from the Exchange under this contract for himself, 
his executors, administrators and assigns, hereby covenants and agrees 
with the Exchange, its successors and assigns, as follows : 

1. To plant the seed furnished him under this contract only upon 
such ])art of the land above described as may be selected and approved 
by the duly authorized representative of the Exchange, and under no 
circumstances will any of said seed be planted on any other land, or 
used or disposed of for any purpose whatsoever than the planting of 
all or such part of the above described premises as may be selected and 
approved by said representative of the Exchange, and should any seed 
furnished under this contract be not planted on said land prior to the 
first day of May, 1917, then the Grow'er shall return all unplanted 
seed to the exchange not later than the tenth day of May, 191 7. 

2. That none of said seed will be planted within a distance of 
less than one-quarter of one mile of any land on which cotton of any 
variety other than pi ma is then being or is to be planted during 
the season of 191 7, or upon any land which shall have been planted 
to cotton of any variety, other than pima. during the season of 1916; 
Provided that the Exchange may. in writing endorsed on this con- 
tract, w^aive the foregoing requirements of this clause "2". 

3. That the Grower shall deliver to the Exchange, for the pur- 
pose of ginning, and baling, all of the seed cotton that may be pro- 
duced or grown from the seed furnished under this contract, and the 
Exchange, its successors or assigns, shall have the sole right and 
privilege of ginning and baling all the products of the cotton croi) 
produced from the seed that may be so furnished. 

4. That the representatives of the United States Department of 
Agriculture and the representatives of the Exchange, or either of 
them, shall at all times have the right to go upon the above described 
premises of the Grower for the purpose of seeing iiie said land is 
properly suited for the growing of Pima cotton ; that said land is 
properly prepared for planting ; that the seed furnished under this 
contract is properly planted ; that the Grower at all times after the 
seed is planted, properly thins, cultivates, irrigates and otherwise 
handles and cares for the crop grown from the seed so furnished. 

5. That the representatives of said De])artment or the Exchange, 
or either or both, may go upon said premises at any and all times and 
*'rogue" all of such portion of the cotton plants ])roduced from saifi 
seed as said representative or any of them may deem best, and that 
said representatives, either of the Department or of the Exchange, 
mav at anv time destroy any of such plants or portions of si id crop as 
thev mav deem best with a view of maintaining the purity of said 
pima variety of cotton, and should such rei)resentatives or any 
thereof so require, this ajiiilicar.t will, at his own exi)ense, destroy any 



Si'i:cii-ic Makkktinc. Pkcklicms 33 

such plants or parts of said cro]) as said representatives or any of them 
may direct. 

6. That the Ivxchant^e. its assents or assigns, shall at all times 
during the period in which said crop is being planted, grown, matured 
and harvested, have the right to enter upon said premises, and inspect 
said crop or any and all work done or being done in connection there- 
with and take any and all such measures as it may deem necessary or 
proper to protect such crop and thereafter handle and manage the 
same, for such period as the Exchange may deem best, and from time 
to time, as the croj) or any part thereof jiroduced from said seed shall 
have been harvested and delivered to the gin of the Exchange, and at 
all times thereafter, the F^xchange. its successors and assigns, shall be 
deemed the sole and unconditional owner thereof, for the purpose of 
insuring and otherwise protecting the same, and shall have the exclu- 
sive right of possession and control thereof for the purpose of ginning 
the same and baling the lint cotton and recovering the seed therefrom, 
and the collection and disbursement of all proceeds from the sale of 
said lint cotton. 

7. The Grower will receive and in good faith comply with ail 
suggestions and directions relative to the i)reparation of the land there- 
for, and the ])lanting. thinning, cultivating, irrigating, harvesting and 
delivering of the cro]) grown from said seed as may be given from 
time to time by the representatives of the Inited States Department 
of Agriculture or of the Exchange or both. 

8. That all seed ])roduced from the imm.x seed furnished under 
this contract shall at all times not only after the same is harvested, 
and ginned, but at all times while the same is being grown, matured 
and harvested, be and remain the sole i)ro])erty of the Exchange, it 
being understood, however, that the Exchange will pay the Grower 
for the merchantable cotton seed so grow^n and delivered to it pursuant 
to this contract, at local oil mill prices as the same may exist on the 
respective dates when the cotton from said crop may be ginned. 

9. The Grower hereby promises to pay to the Exchange on de- 
mand for all seed that mav be furnished to him under this contract 
prior to April i, 1917, at 'the rate of $60 per ton. and for all seed 
that may be furnished to him under this contract after April i, 1917, 
at the rate of $65 per ton. and further promises to pay to the 
Exchange on demand all other indebtedness of every kind and naturr- 
which may become due and owing by him to the Exchange on account 
of or in any wise connected with or incident to this contract or the 
production of the crop to be grown from the seed furnished under this 
contract, whether said indebtedness be for services rendered, materials 
furnished, money advanced, accounts or obligations guaranteed or 
assumed or otherwise, and for the purpose of securing and guarantee- 
ing the payment of anv and all sums of money and indebtedness as 
above provided, the Exchange shall at all times have a first lien and 
claim not only against the seed that may be furnished under this con- 



34 Bulletin 85 

tract, but also against all crops and products of every kind produced 
from said seed, as well as the proceeds from the sale of any and all 
such crops and products, which said lien shall attach and at all times 
remain against said seed and the crops and products produced there- 
from, not only prior to the time when such seed may be planted, but 
also at all times while such crops and products are being grown, 
matured, harvested, ginned, baled and marketed. For the purpose of 
effectively securing the payment to the Exchange of all such sums of 
money and indebtedness as above provided, the Exchange shall have 
the sole and exclusive right and the Grower does hereby irrevocably 
appoint the Exchange as his agent to collect, receive, receipt for and 
disburse all proceeds that may be received from the sale of any and 
all crops and products grown from any and all seed furnished under 
this contract. 

The Exchange in consideration of the faithful performance by 
the Grower of each and all his foregoing covenants, agreements and 
promises, hereby agrees with the Grower as follows : 

1. That during the period of growing, maturing, harvesting, 
ginning and baling of the crop produced from the seed furnished the 
Grower under this contract, it will assist the Grower in any reasonable 
way that it may be able to so do, to obtain any necessary financial aid 
which the Grower may require to enable the Grower to properly grow, 
mature, harvest, gin, bale and market the lint cotton produced from the 
seed furnished under this contract. 

2. That it will receive from the Grower at its gin in Tempe, 
Arizona, or at such other place as it may select, all merchantable seed 
cotton produced from the seed furnished under this contract and in 
the due operation of its gin during the ginning season of 1917, gin and 
bale such cotton and charge the Grower for such ginning and bajing 
at a rate not exceeding three (3) cents per pound of the gross weight 
of each bale of lint cotton ginned from said crop. 

3. That it will pay the Grower for all merchantable cotton seed 
grown from the seed furnished the Grower under this contract and 
delivered to it pursuant to the terms of this contract at local oil mill 
prices as the same may exist on the respective dates when the seed 
cotton grown from the seed furnished under this contract may be 
ginned during the season hereinbefore mentioned. 

4. That in addition to the ginning charges above mentioned, it 
will charge the Grower on the lint cotton ginned and baled at the rate 
of one-half cent per pound on the gross weight of each bale of lint 
cotton ginned from said crop to cover the expenses of insuring, pro- 
tecting, storing and handling the products produced from the seed 
furnished under this contract. 

It is hereby mutually agreed between Grower and Exchange 
that from time to time as the lint cotton produced from the 
seed, furnished under this contract shall be sold and the proceeds 



SrECii'ic MAKKirriM. 1'k(ii;i.i;.ms 35 

thereof received by the Exchange, also as the seed from tlie crop pro- 
duced from the seed furnished under this contract shall be ginned as 
hereinbefore provided and the value thereof credited by the Exchange 
to the Grower, the Exchange will first deduct from any such proceeds 
and credits all or such oart of any sums of money or indebtedness as 
it may deem best then owing by the Grower to the Exchange, and will 
then pay any balance of such proceeds and credits, if any, to the 
Grower, or to his successors or assigns. 

The several covenants and agreements of the respective parties 
hereto shall extend and be binding upon their respective heirs, execu- 
tors, administrators, successors or assigns. 

In witness whereof, the Grower has hereunto set his hand 
and the Exchange has caused this agreement to be executed by 
its President, attested by its Secretary, and its corporate seal to be 

hereto affixed this day of 1917. 



Grower 
Tempe Cotton Exchange 
By 



President 
ATTEST : 

Secretary 

This interesting contract was sufficiently explicit to provide for 
the perpetuation of a pure strain of Pima seed. An expert cotton 
classer connected with the Bureau of Markets of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, who spent several months in the Salt 
River Valley in icjij. directed the classing of more than 1,000 bales 
of cotton prior to December i. His investigations showed that the 
Pima staple ranged in length from i^)-^ inches to i^ inches, averaging 
I 11-16 inches. Yuma staple averaged Ys inch shorter than Pima. 
Thfe greater length of the Pima staple doubtless will be a deciding 
factor in future plantings. Buyers in 191 7 had little to guide them in 
differentiating between varying lengths of staple. In general, how- 
ever, Yuma cotton sold for from 2 to 6 cents per pound less than Pima 
cotton of the same grade. 

The problem of securing labor for picking the 191 7 crop was a 
very serious one. The Salt River Valley Cotton Growers' Association, 
an organization of cotton producers, designed largely to care for labor 
problems, undertook to solve the difficulty by bringing laborers into 



36 Bulletin 85 

the Valley from the southern states and from Mexico. A fund was 
raised by subscription among cotton growers and dealers in the Valley 
and this money was used for- labor importation. Railroad fare was 
advanced to prospective laborers and they were required to repay this 
advance from the first wages secured in the cotton fields. Growers 
who desired to secure cotton pickers applied at the central employment 
office of the association and were assigned a share of the laborers 
who were brought into the Valley. The prices paid for cotton picking 
ranged from $2.50 to $4.00 per 100 pounds of seed cotton. Prevailing 
high prices for other forms of farm labor took many pickers from the 
cotton fields and the crop was not harvested as rapidly as was desired 
bv the growlers. In all likelihood the labor problem will remain one 
of the serious problems connected with cotton culture in the Salt River 
A'alley. 

There are at present in the Valley eight cotton gins, located at 
Glendale, Phoenix, ToUeson. Tempe, Mesa and Chandler. There are 
Tio cotton compresses in the Valley and the bales arc shipped as they 
are turned out from the gin. Prices received for long staple cotton 
have varied greatly in past years. In 19 14, owing to the demoralized 
condition of the general cotton market, prices to the grower ranged as 
low as I4>4 cents per pound of lint. In 1916 the price started at 30 
cents a pound, rose with rapidity to 47 cents a pound and in November 
had reached 53 cents. Forty-four bales of Pima cotton of the 1916 
crop, which were held until early in the Spring of 191 /, sold for 58.6 
cents per pound. A considerable portion of the 1917 crop was sold 
under contract prior to harvest. These contracts, some of which were 
executed in the early Spring before cotton was planted, and others as 
the season progressed, called for delivery at picking time at price.^ 
ranging from 30 cents a pound to more than 50 cents a pound. The 
cotton which was unsold at picking time opened at about 53 cents, rose 
rapidly to 58 cents, then to 75 cents, and by December i a few sales of 
Pima cotton had been made at the unprecedented figure of 80 cents 
per pound. 

It appears that Arizona long staple cotton is especially suited to 
the manufacture of high class automobile tire fabric and a considerable 
proportion of this cotton is being so utilized. Its tensile strength also 
makes it desirable for the manufacture of the fabric used for aero- 
plane wings. A considerable part of the Yuma cotton produced in 
1917 was grown by or sold under contract to automobile tire com- 



Si'ia'ii-ic M.\Ki;i:riN(. TuoitLKMS .?7 

panics. Several tliousand acres, however, of this type, together witli 
most of the Pima cotton was open for competitive bid.-, at the be.s:innin^' 
of the pickinjT^ season. 

Cotton marketing: is largely an individual pn^imsition and there 
are no farmers' co-operative associations designed entirely for the 
marketing of cotton. In 1917 representatives of thread companie.-;. 
together with buyers representing important cotton factors in the East, 
offered an outlet for that cotton which was not .sold for tire fabric. 
The commercial center of the cotton industry in the Salt River \alley 
!.; at Tempe. At this point there is the only large open cotton market 
in the Vallev and competitive buying is conducted on a more extensive 
scale than at an\ other ])oint. 

A .serious difficulty in 1917 was the lack of authentic informa- 
tion on the part of the growers concerning prices for Sakellardies and 
other Egyptian cottons. This, together with the confusion of ideas 
conccrnhig the relative commercial values of Arizona long staple cot- 
ton and the im])orted product from Egypt provoked an imsettled 
market. The (|uestion of relative values was settled largel\ by pre- 
liminary reports made by the cotton expert of the United States 
department of Agriculture. These rei^orts. cou])led with authentic 
i^rice quotations on ICgyptian cottons, determined primary prices paid 
to ])roducers and offered the first .satisfactory price basis established 
in the \alley. With preliminary prices established at a fair figure, 
the bulk of the sales was made at prices which reflected true values 
under conditions ])revailing on the long staple cotton market. It i-^ 
desirable that authentic price quotations for Egyptian and Sea Island 
cottons be published in local papers i)eriodically throughout the season 
in order that growers may be informed as to general long staple cotton 
conditions. It is also desirable that an open competitive market be 
maintained in the Valley in order that producers may benefit by gen- 
eral market changes. It may prove necessary for growers to consign 
some of their product to storage in New England if prices in the local 
market are not satisfactory. Cotton stored at some convenient point 
in New England would be readily salable as spot cotton to spinner, 
who might not otherwise manifest an interest in Arizona cotton. Action 
of this sort would presuppose some form of co-operation among the 
growers. As a matter of fact, it probably will be necessary for the 
growers to consider at an early date the question of uniting for 
co-operative marketing. 



38 lU'LLETix 85 — Cantaloupes 

Caxtaloupes The cantaloupe crop is the most important of what 
might be termed the "speculative" crops of the Salt River Valley. 
Practically all of the crop is produced in fairly restricted areas around 
Glendale. Mesa. Phoenix and Chandler. The industry started in a 
small way in igo8 and has maintained a fairly steady growth to the 
present time, although there have been some intervening years when 
the acreage was small. In 1916 the total commercial acreage was 
about 2,000 acres. In 191 7 about 3,100 to 3,200 acres were planted to 
cantaloupes, but the area from which marketable melons were actually 
harvested did not exceed about 2,800 acres. Cantaloupe growing in this 
Valley, as in all similar districts of the West, is a very specialized 
form of agriculture. Practically all of the crop is grown under con- 
tracts executed between growers and eastern commission houses. 
About 6 or 8 cars were handled independently l^y local firms in the 
Salt River Valley, while an inconsiderable acreage furnished melons 
for local consumption. One or two inexperienced growers attempted 
independent growing of cantaloupes in 191 7 and having neglected to 
provide marketing facilities, found themselves unable to sell their 
melons for prices which would pay for the expenses of harvesting. 
The contract referred to is essentially the same as that in vogue in 
other cantaloupe districts in the West. The provisions of these con- 
tracts have already been discussed in considerable detail in publications 
of the United States Department of Agriculture.^ 

They provide for the furnishing of seed and crate material by the 
distributor at specified prices to the grower, for cash advances to the 
grower through the growing season and at harvest time, and stipulat-e 
that for service rendered the distributor shall receive a commission of 
15 per cent of the gross sales. The practice of making liberal cash 
advances to growers throughout the growing season is gradually being 
eliminated. Some of the distributors each year have been lowering 
the usual cash advances, while in 191 7 one of the large distributor^ 
made no cash advances whatever, although customary advances of seed 
and crate material were made as formerly. 

All melons are packed on the farm in field packing sheds. The 
standard crate, containing 45 melons, the pony crate, containing 54 
melons, the standard flat crate, containing 12 or 15 melons, and the 
jumbo flat crate, designed to care for larger melons, are the chief 

1 See Schleu.ssner, O. W., and Kitchen, C. W., Marketing and Distribution 
of Western Miiskmelons in 1915. TT. S Department ot Agriculture Bulletin 
401 



Spkcii-ic M.\KKi:iiN(. l'u(ii:i.i:.\i; 



39 




40 Bulletin 85 

containers in use. Small quantities were shipped in 1917 in special 
containers, such as the pony flat crate and the special flat crate for 
pink meat melons. 

Inspection is accomplished at the loading platform when melons- 
are delivered by the grower for shipment. Field inspectors for the 
distributing concerns attempt to visit as many field packing sheds as 
practicable each day in order to advise with growers as to methods of 
picking and packing. Most of the cantaloupes, however, are produced 
on small individual acreages and it is manifestly impossible for a 
limited inspection force to give adequate inspection at packing sheds. 
Hence, the real inspection is that given at the loading platform. oMany 
of the cantaloupes are grown by Japanese growers. In 191 7 more 
than one-half of the commercial acreage was controlled by the Japan- 
ese. This was particularly true in the Glendale-Phoenix district, where 
the Japanese cantaloupe growers were greatly in the majority. In past 
seasons most of the pink meated melons were grown in the Glendale 
district, while the production of this type on the south side around 
Mesa was merely incidental. A noticeable feature of production in 
191 7 however, was the small acreage in Burrell Gems. Only about 300 
acres or approximately 10 per cent of the total acreage were pink meat 
melons and most of these were produced around Mesa. This was 
largely due to the fact that Glendale growers received unsatisfactory 
returns in 1916 on their pink meats and in 1917 abandoned this type. 
The growers of Burrell Gems in the vicinity of Mesa, however, re- 
ceived very satisfactory returns in 1917 and it is likely that the 1918 
season will see an increased acreage of pink meat melons produced in 
the Valley. About 60 acres of the white rind melons, known to the 
trade as the "Honey-Dew" melon, were grown in 1917. Most of 
these were produced on the north side near Glendale. Owing to the 
comparatively limited demand for this type of melon, it does not seem 
likely that there will be any material increase in the 1918 acreage. 
The following table gives the shipments of cantaloupes by stations in 
1916 and 1917: 

Table A' Shii'.mexts of Caxt.\loupes, 1916-1917 



Stations 


1 Shipments 


hj carloads 


1916 


1917 


Glendale . 


1 362 


536 


Mesa 

Phoenix 

Chandler 

Fair Grounds 


1 388 

1 103 

1 12 


433 

68 
18 

258 






Total 


1 865 


1314 









Specific jNIakketinc. Proulkms 41 

rickiiiij starts durini:^ the last week in June and extends throii<T;h 
July and into the first week of August. Melons from this district 
reach practically every large market in the United States from Boston 
to Denver and so compete with late offerings from Imperial Valley, 
early shipments from the Turlock district and cantaloupes from 
Georgia and other eastern producing districts. A cold backward 
vSpring in 191 7 was doubtless responsible for the poor flavor and 
carrying quality of the crop. Most of the cantaloupes were distin- 
guished by relatively large seed cavities and a low sugar content. 
( )wing to the unusual moisture content and the large seed cavity, 
many of the melons arrived at market in a greatly deteriorated con- 
dition and in spite of an active demand, the prices which were received 
reflected something of the true value of the melons. Ordinarily, how- 
ever, cantaloupes from the Salt River Valley are of good quality and 
are well and favorably known on practically every large market in the 
country. Prices in 191 7 were satisfactory. The delivered value of 
the melon's ranged from $2.25 to $3.25 per standard crate. Customary 
yields of from 150 to 160 standard crates to the acre were materially 
reduced in 1917. The average delivered value of the 1917 crop was 
about $2.40 to $2.50 per standard crate, which was equivalent to from 
$1.25 to $1.40 f. o. b. \'alley points. Returns to growers ranged from 
$0.75 to $2.00 per standard crate and averaged about $1.10 per standard 
crate. 

The marketing problem for the cantaloupe producer is ordinarily 
not an acute one. although the speculative nature of the crop some- 
times causes some fairly heavy losses for the growers in a bad season. 
About 10 car lot shippers or distributors operated in the Valley in 
1917. More than three-fourths of the crop, however, was moved by 
five or six of these shippers. On the whole, this system of marketing 
has been satisfactory, and it is doubtful whether a farmers' co-operative 
marketing association could secure a more widespread distribution of 
melons than was effected by the combined efforts of the distributing 
concerns who handled the crop in 19 17. The season, however, was 
marred by the operations of one or two irresponsible concerns who 
took advantage of the small grower's inability to care for his business 
interests and failed to make complete returns on all shipments. The 
Market News Service, conducted by the Bureau of Markets of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, supplied necessary infor- 
mation to the growers concerning prices and market conditions. There 
is need, however, for some agencv to act as advisor to the small grower 



42 Bulletin 85 — Honey 

who intends to enter into a contract with a distributor. Most of the 
concerns operating in the Salt River Valley are reliable, but experience 
in 191 7 indicated the need for looking into the credentials and past 
history of some operators who have been guilty of rather sharp 
practices. 

Honey Honey usually is produced in the Salt River Valley as 
a side line on the farm. The total annual production of this com- 
modity, however, makes it a fairly important one. The report of the 
State Apiary Inspector in 191 5 indicated that in Maricopa County 
there were 52 beekeepers owning about 24,440 colonies of bees. Recent 
estimates indicate that in 19 17 the total number of colonies had been 
reduced by from 5 per cent to 10 per cent. More than 95 per cent of 
the honey is extracted and placed in 5-gallon cans. Two of these cans 
constitute a case, which is the unit for marketing. The average annual 
yield per colony ranges from 50 to 70 pounds, the average in 191 7 
being about 65 pounds. The small portion of the crop which is sold 
as comb honey is disposed of locally. The commercial output of 
extracted honey is divided into four grades, known as water white, 
light amber, amber and dark amber. The various amber honeys are 
produced from alfalfa bloom and constitute more than 90 per cent of 
the commercial output. A small quantity of mesquite honey is classed 
as water white and sold accordingly. A native desert plant known 
locally as Cat's Claw furnishes nectar for a white honey which could 
almost be classed as water white. A mixture of Cat's Claw and alfalfa 
honey makes an excellent type of light amber honey. 

Of the total quantity of honey produced in the Valley, about one- 
third is used locally and two-thirds finds its way to outside markets. 
Records indicate that in 1916 about 26 carloads of honey were for- 
warded from various points in the Valley. There is an association of 
honey producers in the Valley known as the Arizona Honey Exchange, 
which handles more than one-half of the product which goes to market. 
The balance is handled by a local independent buyer who represents 
several larger honey bviyers. 

The plan of selling honey through the Exchange is simplicity 
itself. The extracted honey is delivered to the Association Secretary, 
who negotiates with wholesale buyers in various parts of the country 
and places the honey with the concerns offering the highest bid. For 
his services the Secretary receives a small commission. There are no 
closely drawn contracts connected with the association business. It 



Specific Marketing Problems — Fruit 43 

largerly rests on a general understanding between the various members 
and the association. \'cry httle honey is sold by the producer to large 
outside buyers. Most of the extracted honey shipped from the Salt 
River Valley ultimately passes into the hands of wholesale biscuit 
manufacturers, wholesale drug manufacturers, tobacco manufacturers 
and confectioners. 

Prices for amber honey have ranged from $4.50 per case in 1916 
to $12.40 per case in 191 7. Prices for amber honey during the latter 
part of 1916 ranged from $5.40 to $6.00 per case of 120 pounds, while 
prices early in 1917 averaged about $8.40 per case. This price rapidly 
lose as the 1917 season progressed to 11 cents, then to 12.2 cents and 
closed at about 12.4 cents. Small quantities of mesquite honey in 1917 
brought $13.00 per case. These prices were fairly well in line with 
prevailing market quotations. There is at present no general dissatis- 
faction with the local honey markets. It is likely that better market- 
ing arrangements could be made if all the honey producers of the 
Valley were organized into one association to care for the selling in- 
terests in a businesslike way. As long as prices received, however, are 
lairly well in line with wholesale market quotations, it does not seem 
likely that the beekeepers of the Valley will organize more extensively. 
On the whole, there is no serious problem in connection with the mar- 
ket for Salt River \'alley honey and there seems to be no need to 
recommend any changes at this time. 

Fruit The production of fresh fruit for market is not one of 
the leading industries in the Valley. This phase of agriculture, how- 
ever, is not limited to any considerable extent by clim.atic or soil con- 
ditions and could easily be made one of the most important agricul- 
tural activities in this section of the Southwest. There are in general 
two types of fruit produced. The output of deciduous fruits consists 
very largely of peaches and apricots, while oranges and grapefruit 
constitute the chief offerings of citrus fruit. A few plums and figs 
produced in a very small w^ay complete the list of tree fruits produced 
in the Salt River \^alley. 

The output of deciduous fruits is rather evenly divided, about 
one-half being peaches and one-half apricots. The apricots are largely 
Newcastles, Royals, Blenheims and Moorparks. Almost every variety 
of peach which can be grown in this climate is produced and the 
variety list ranges from Elbertas to Salways. Most of the peaches are 
Elbertas however. The wide range of varieties noted above has re- 



44 



Bulletin 85 




Specific Marketing Problems 45 

suited in a fairly long producing season and to this extent has prevented 
local market gluts to a considerable extent. About 2,100 acres in the 
Salt River X'alley are now devoted to the production of deciduous 
fruits. The individual acreages, however, are small and a comparatively 
large number of growers are interested. Individual acreages range 
from 3 acres to 160 acres. Most of the plantings, however, range from 
5 to 10 acres. Few of the orchards are handled by experienced fruit 
growers and this has tended to demoralize partially the commercial 
production of this class of fruit. 

The season of 191 7 was fairly typical of conditions as they now 
exist and may be reviewed profitably. The crop was fairly large, 
although a few individual orchards had a small yield. Most of the 
trees, especially the apricot trees, bore too large a crop of fruit. Be- 
cause of poor market prospects, few of the growers considered it 
necessary to thin their fruit properly early in the season and, as a 
result, a large part of the crop was of excellent quality, but was small 
and unattractive for market purposes. With but few exceptions no 
arrangements were made for marketing the crop prior to harvest. 
The first fruit ripening in the trees found the growers with no ideas 
as to its disposition. The local market was soon glutted and low prices 
offered locally caused several of the growers to make no attempt to 
harvest their fruit. As a result there was a considerable loss of fruit 
which, while not first class marketable stock, could nevertheless have 
been handled at a profit if more favorable circumstances had prevailed. 
Prices for local sales averaged to the grower about i cent per pound 
for apricots on the trees and from 2 to 3 cents per pound picked into 
lug boxes. Larger quantities than usual were dried and canned, but 
in spite of this effort at conservation, there was a relatively heavy loss 
of good fruit. Despite the local situation, there was a reasonably 
active demand for peaches and apricots in the mining towns of Arizona 
and New Mexico, while the larger cities in Kansas, Texas and Okla- 
homa were offering about $2.50 per 25-pound box. A few shippers in 
the Valley eased the local market by moving fruit to outside points. 
Early in the season, before the California apricot crop began to 
mature, 3 or 4 cars of Newcastles went forward to Los Angeles. This 
fruit met with a satisfactory sale, but shipment in this direction was 
soon curtailed because local shipments from California drove the 
Arizona product from coast markets. One growers' association at 
Glendale as a side line shipped considerable quantities of peaches and 
apricots in small express lots to mining towns in Arizona. Returns 



46 BULLETIX 85 

on these shipments were also satisfactory. One large shipper, who pur- 
chased the entire output of several orchards on the trees, placed a 
number of express shipments of apricots on the Texas markets and 
realized from $1.35 to $1.75 per 25-pound box f. o. b. Phoenix. In 
general, sales outside of the Valley were very satisfactory, returning 
from 3 cents to 7 cents per pound to Valley growers, as against the 
local market of i cent to 2 cents. However, practically all of the fruit 
shipped from the Valley was selected and graded stock and hence 
possessed a greater intrinsic value than the large quantity of mediocre 
fruit which was sold locally for prices which hardly paid expenses. 

Total shipments of peaches and apricots by freight and express in 
1917 were equivalent to approximately 12 carloads. While only a 
relatively small part of the fruit crop of 191 7 was good marketable 
stock, nevertheless at least twice as much could have been sold outside 
of the Valley had the growers been in a position to consolidate their 
output and assure prospective customers of a reasonably dependable 
supply. With but few exceptions the growers do not know how to 
grade and pack their fruit for market. This indictment is not intended 
to be a sweeping one, as there are several growers who have in the 
past shipped some excellent fruit. These exceptions, however, merely 
indicate the possibilities open to the fruit growers of this section and 
emphasize the lack of knowledge w^hich prevails among the growers 
in general. At the present time there are no grades and standards 
which apply to deciduous fruits in the Valley. 

Peaches and apricots are merely shipped as such and the buyer 
has not even a tentative grading system to safeguard him on his pur- 
chases. In general, two types of package are used for shipment out- 
side of the Valley. The ordinary lug box common to all fruit districts 
in the West is used extensively for shipment to mining towns and even 
as far as El Paso. Careful hand packing is unnecessary when these 
boxes are used if reasonable care is used in the selection of the fruit 
which goes into them. They constitute a cheap and satisfactory pack- 
age for shipments which do not have to go more than 500 or 600 miles. 
Large southwestern cities, such as Dallas. New Orleans, San Antonio 
and Houston, prefer the western fruit box with the fruit packed in 
splint baskets and arranged in tiers. It is more expensive to put up a 
pack of this nature, but if the fruit is of good carrying quality and 
reasonably free from defects, it will find a ready and profitable sale. 
Los Angeles and other Pacific coast cities are reasonably good mar- 
kets for early offerings of apricots. It is necessary to utilize these 



Specific Marketing Problems 47 

markets with discretion, however, and to cease shipping when the 
CaHfornia crop begins to mature. The mining towns of Arizona and 
New Mexico always will utilize large quantities of fruit in lug boxes 
and are not quite so particular as the larger cities with respect to 
grading and packing. These mining town markets have never been 
thoroughly utilized by Valley fruit growers because they have not 
been able to guarantee the buyers in these towns a dependable supply 
of saleable fruit. As a result buyers have learned to look to other 
districts for their fruit supply. It probably will be better for the 
peach growers to confine their shipments rather largely to the mining 
districts. The large peach crop from the southern states moves to 
market at about the same time as does that from the Salt River Valley 
and growers in the latter district will hardly be able to compete with 
Texas, Oklahoma and Arkansas. 

Briefly stated, the commercial problem of the deciduous fruit 
rjrower in the Salt River Valley will be first and foremost to secure 
a better understanding as to what constitutes good marketable fruit, 
jt goes without saying that fruit growers will find it necessary to in- 
form themselves more thoroughly with respect to early thinning of 
their fruit and proper methods of grading and packing. There should 
unquestionably be some method of consolidating the output of de- 
ciduous fruit for carload shipping and to insure a dependable supply 
10 customers. Provision also must be made for adequate inspection 
of all fruit. This inspection cannot rest with the individual grower, 
who has small knowledge of market values. The entire problem is 
one of co-operative effort and a fruit shippers' association is needed 
to insure a dependable supply of well graded, well packed and care- 
fully inspected fruit. The fruit acreage in the Valley is hardly large 
enough to warrant the creation of a complete co-operative marketing 
association designed to care for all the commercial interests of the 
growers. An association, however, for the purpose of co-operative 
shipping and designed to promote better inspection and better grading 
methods is entirely feasible and will in a large measure answer the 
present question of the grower who is blindly looking for a market. 

There are at present about 2,300 acres planted to citrus fruits in 
the Valley. Individual groves range in size from 5 acres to 75 acres, 
but, as with the deciduous fruit industry, the individual acreage is 
relatively small. Oranges are the principal citrus offering, but the 
success of earlier grapefruit plantings has stimulated later plantings. 
Most of the oranges are Navels, Jaffas and Valencias. There are. 



48 Bulletin 85 

however, small plantings of Mediterranean Sweets, Blood Oranges, 
and various seedlings. Because of climatic conditions, the oranges of 
the Salt River Valley have established an enviable reputation at mar- 
ket. The fruit is highly colored, sweet and juicy, with a thin, tender 
skin. The citrus industry is in a much more satisfactory condition 
than is the deciduous fruit business. 

The greater part of the citrus output of the Valley is shipped 
through the Arizona Orange Association, an incorporated stock com- 
pany composed of growers who have organized for marketing. Hold- 
ings of stock in this association vary with individual acreages and 
every share of stock carries with it one vote. The association main- 
tains a packing house in Phoenix, where the fruit is assorted, graded 
and packed for market. Methods of selling the crop through the 
association have varied considerably in past years. In 1914 and 191 5 
the oranges were sold through a general selling agency, which operated 
branch offices in most of the principal markets of the country. In 
1916 it was decided that the association should undertake to sell direct 
to the wholesale trade, and a sales manager, who was also a member 
of the association, was charged with the duty of handling the deal. 
Shortly after the season opened, it was necessary for the sales manager 
to resign from his position and another member was chosen to carry 
on the work. This unexpected change in plans at the last moment 
handicapped the association and, while the returns were fairly satis- 
factory, it was not possible for the association to handle the crop as 
efficiently as had been planned. The 19 17 crop is being handled again 
by the association, which has entered into agreements with members 
of the trade in many of the principal markets. It remains to be seen 
whether this procedure will prove satisfactory. 

In 1916, 71 cars of oranges were shipped. Most of the citrus out- 
put finds a market in the large cities of the East. The Arizona orange 
lipens in time to meet the heavy demand during the holiday season. 
This district is one of the very few orange producing districts in the 
country which can place fruit on the market in time for the Thanks- 
giving trade, while the Christmas holidays find a considerable portion 
of the crop at market or in transit. It will be seen that marketing 
conditions are especially favorable for citrus fruit from this district, 
which enjoys a near-monopoly during a season of the year when the 
demand for citrus fruit is at its height. This earliness of maturity, 
coupled with excellent quality, causes the orange from the Salt River 
Valley to command a decided premium over such other citrus offer- 



Specific Marketing Problems — Livestock 49 

ings as are marketed at the same time with the Arizona product. This 
premium averages from 50 cents to $1.00 per box. 

The citrus marketing problem at present is not to find a market 
for the fruit, but to insure the growers a price which will reflect 
accurately the true commercial value of the citrus crop in this district. 
It would appear desirable for the Arizona Orange Association to estab- 
lish a permanent marketing policy instead of changing general plans 
season by season. Affiliation with the California citrus growers for 
marketing the entire citrus crop of the Southwest is a matter which 
should be given serious and earnest attention by the orange and grape- 
fruit growers in the Salt River Valley. It is possible that a satisfactory 
plan of co-operation could be worked out between California and Ari- 
zona growers which would be mutually beneficial. It might also be 
well for the Arizona Orange Association to consider whether or not 
the organization would be strengthened by giving each member of 
the association one vote, instead of voting according to stock holdings. 
As matters stand at present, two or three growers can control the 
policy of the association completely and even the possibilities of such 
action on their part will always have a tendency to make smaller stock- 
holders suspicious of the larger growers. 

The principal limitation to the citrus industry in this Valley is a 
climatic one. The area which is sufficiently free from frost to offer 
chances of success is very limited and even groves most advantageously 
situated are sometimes visited by frost. In the past this has acted to 
influence greatly citrus shipments from year to year. Most of the 
growers are converted to the principle of orchard heating, but even 
with this safeguard, there is a certain risk attached to the industry. 
The relatively high prices received for fruit, however, and the ready 
market which is always available, has caused the citrus industry to 
assume a healthy growth which would easily become an outright boom 
if frost limitations did not interfere. 

Livestock Fattening livestock for market is an important indus- 
try in the Valley. Because of the large quantities of alfalfa and grain 
which have been produced, the livestock industry always hai been a 
very important one in this section of the country. Each year finds a 
large number of cattle and sheep from the outlying range districts 
brought into the Valley for fattening. In 1916 about 920 carloads of 
livestock were shipped from Valley points to outside markets. Ship- 
ments in 191 7 approximated 1,000 cars. Most of this stock moved to 



50 Bulletin 85 

Los Angeles, although Kansas City ranked a fairly close second. A 
noticeable feature of the livestock industry in 1916-1917 was the great 
decline in the number of hogs held on farms in the Valley. This 
decline was very largely due to the prevailing high prices for feed, 
which made the hog business unprofitable for the time being. 

Small producers who annually turn out from 3 to 8 head of stock 
find it necessary to dispose of their animals to local buyers. This stock 
is either killed locally or consolidated by these buyers into carlots for 
shipment to terminal markets. Large livestock shippers sell at prevail- 
ing wholesale prices, while prices received by small producers are not 
so well established. The small farmer is entirely dependent upon the 
local buyer and prices paid by these buyers have varied greatly in the 
past. Where producers are fairly well informed as to market con- 
ditions, the local buyer often has been forced to pay a price which 
vv^ould approximate true values. In other cases, the buyer has taken 
advantage of the small producer and prices have ranged from 4 cents to 
8 cents below prevailing market prices. As matters now stand the 
small producer has no alternative. He has not sufficient quantity of 
stock to ship to market and so finds it necessary to accept the best bid 
he can secure from the local speculators. 

It will be seen that the real livestock problem in the Salt River 
Valley is that of the small producer who cannot ship to market direct. 
There is an evident remedy for this condition of affairs. The farmers' 
co-operative livestock shipping association is the most elementary form 
of co-operative agricultural effort. There are a sufficient number of 
small livestock producers in certain restricted areas in the Salt River 
Valley to make it feasible to organize community livestock shipping 
associations in a few districts where there is a sufficient quantity of 
stock to warrant the formation of such organizations. It is suggested 
that community associations might be organized at Scottsdale, Glen- 
dale, Fowler, and at some point centrally located on the South side, 
possibly Gilbert or Chandler, These associations require no elaborate 
financial arrangements and can readily be conducted by producers who 
wish to secure true market values. There is nothing in the livestock 
industry of the Valley which would make it necessary for these ship- 
pers to modify materially the general plan of operation under which 
such livestock shipping associations have been organized in the Middle 
West.^ These associations have been very successful in the latter ter- 

1. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Farmers' Bulletin 718, Co-operative 
Livestock Shipping Associations, by S. W. Doty and L. D. Hall, 1916. 



Specific Marketing Problems — Potatoes 51 

rjtory and should be equally successful in the Salt River Valley, where 
marketing conditions are not essentially different. 

Potatoes The production of potatoes for market is not an im- 
portant activity in this district. Most of the crop is produced in the 
sandy loam soils near the Agua Fria River, west of Glendale. The 
crop is marketed during the month of June as a rule. In 1917 the 
commercial movement started during the first week in June and ended 
about the middle of July. Most of the crop moved during the last 
two weeks in June. Yields vary with seasonal conditions and in the 
past have ranged from 30 to 100 bushels per acre. In 191 7 the yield 
v/as reasonably good and averaged from 80 to 100 bushels per acre. 
The usual field is about 25 acres in extent, although fields in 191 7 
ranged from 10 acres to 160 acres each. About 90 per cent of the 
crop is grown by a dozen growers in the territory mentioned above. 
The potatoes are loaded in sacks holding from 95 to no pounds each 
and shipped to market in decked cars. Practically all shipments from 
this section are decked, except local shipments to mining towns within 
the State, where the average time in transit is from 24 to 48 hours. 
Refrigerator cars are used for shipping purposes. In 1916 38 cars of 
potatoes were shipped from Valley points, while in 1917 the commer- 
cial movement was 115 cars. 

Marketing conditions in 191 7 were fairly characteristic of average 
conditions and may well be discussed at some length. The writer 
secured a complete financial statement covering the commercial hand- 
ling of 83 cars out of the total of 115 cars shipped in 1917. The first 
car rolled on June 9. while the last car went forward on July 12. No 
preliminary arrangements were made by the growers for disposition 
of their crop and at the last moment the producers, in lieu of a better 
arrangement, collectively entered into a joint contract with two local 
commission houses, who agreed to handle the growers' potatoes on 
joint account. The contract was a very loosely-worded agreement 
which laid no specific obligations on either party. It was, in fact, a 
rather indefinite Memorandum of Agreement rather than a bona fide 
contract. According to its provisions the potatoes were to be handled 
by the two local firms on a commission basis. It was understood that 
these firms were to attempt to secure prices for Valley potatoes which 
would be equivalent to those secured by California growers who were 
shipping at the same time. The selling agencies were not obligated to 
secure such returns, however, but merely agreed to use their best 



52 Bulletin 85 

business judgment in disposing of the crop. Their remuneration was 
to be 7 per cent of gross sales. 

Notices and quotations were sent by mail or .telegraph to pros- 
pective buyers in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, Oklahoma 
and Kansas. A large number of replies were received and the pre- 
liminary outlook was very favorable. The first cars were sold on 
order f. o. b. Glendale, subject to inspection by the purchaser on arrival. 
These first cars were billed out at from $3.50 to $3.75 per 100 pounds 
f. o. b. Glendale. It soon became necessary to revise this selling plan 
and so arrangements were made between the two local firms and 
brokers in Denver and El Paso. At this point, it may be stated, that 
Jiside from 12 to 15 cars sold to buyers in mining towns in Arizona, all 
of the potatoes from the Salt River Valley were sold in El Paso or 
Denver, the shipments being rather evenly divided between these two 
points. 

Shortly after the first cars were received complaints began to 
arrive, accompanied by claims for allowances. No inspection what- 
ever was made at loading stations or in the field and so there was 
doubtless room for complaint by the buyers in many cases. There 
seems to have been no reason, however, for some of the excessive 
claims which were made later in the season other than that market 
conditions were weaker and buyers found losses staring them in the 
face. Practically all claims were allowed by the local firms who rep- 
resented the growers. It was very difficult for these firms, operating 
fiS they were, to verify reports given by buyers, and in order to main- 
tain an even demand all of these claims were allowed. Allowances 
made for various causes ranged from $20.57 P^^ ^^- ^^ $613.75 per 
car. The total allowances made by selling agencies to all buyers for 
all purposes amounted to $14,046.12 on the 83 cars. 

Final records showed that the 83 cars nominally billed out at 
$71,249.47 f. o. b. Valley points, after commissions, brokers' fees and 
decking costs had been deducted, actually returned $51,534.00 to 
growers, equivalent to about $2.15 per 100 pounds. This heavy loss 
was chiefly due to lack of inspection when the cars were loaded. A 
second important factor was the inadequate protection afforded the 
growers against unjust claims for damages. Some loss was also caused 
the growers because rates on potatoes from the Salt River Valley to 
El Paso were higher than rates from Southern California to the same 
point. The freight differential in favor of Southern California ship- 
ments amounted to 123/2C per 100 pounds and in order to compete 



Specific Marketinx Problems — Lettuce 53 

actively in El Paso with Southern California offerings, it was neces- 
sary for the Salt River Valley growers to allow I2^c per loo pounds 
on sales made in that city to cover freight differences. It estimated 
that had there been adequate inspection before shipment, and had the 
growers been afforded proper protection against unjust claims for 
damages, fully $12,000 could have been saved to the shippers on these 
83 cars alone. 

Experiences in 191 7 and during previous years have indicated 
that individual action by the growers is usually disastrous. Since 
practically all of the potatoes are produced by about n dozen growers 
in a very limited district it would seem feasible to organize a small 
potato shipping association, organized for the purpose of consolidating 
the output and handling the crop as a unit. It does not appear expedi- 
ent to recommend that the growers attempt their own selling. A potato 
shipping association, however, would have a sufficient quantity of 
marketable potatoes to enable it to contract for the marketing of the 
entire crop with some reliable potato-selling agency, who could and 
should enter into individual contracts with the members of the asso- 
ciation to handle all potatoes on a commission basis This contract 
should obligate the sales agency to furnish complete inspection services 
at loading platforms and this agency should also undertake a certain 
amount of educational work among producers during the digging 
.season in order to insure the harvesting of good commercial stock. 
By the terms of this contract, the potato growers should be obligated 
to dispose of all their potatoes for the season through the agency with 
whom the contract is executed and should also be required to accept 
the judgment of the agency's inspector at the loading platform. Be- 
cause hot weather usually prevails at harvest time it is very desirable 
that Salt River Valley potatoes be dug as early as possible, be care- 
fully sacked, and rolled to market as rapidly as possible. If these 
conditions are fulfilled, and an adequate inspection service is offered, 
there is no reason why the potato crop from this section should not 
be permanently profitable. 

Lettuce The lettuce crop ranks next in value to cantaloupes as 
a speculative crop. The acreage has varied greatly from year to year 
in response to the stimulus of changing prices. Practically all of the 
crop is produced in the vicinity of Glendale and shipped from that 
l)oint. In 1917 about 225 acres were grown. Most of this acreage 
-•vas seeded to the New York Head variety, although some of the 
Boston Head variety was grown in a relatively small way. Individual 



54 Bulletin 85 

jicreages varied from 2 acres to 20 acres. In 191 7 abcut 100 carloads 
were shipped. Less than 10 per cent of the total crop is marketed 
within the boundaries of the State of Arizona. The ^reat bulk of the 
movement is to the large markets East of Denver, notably Kansas City, 
Chicago, Cleveland, Pittsburgh and New York. 

The lettuce growers afford the best example of co-operative effort 
in the Salt River Valley. Until late years the lettuce industry has 
been on a very unsatisfactory basis and attempts to market the crop 
independently have been almost uniformly unsuccessful. The crop in 
191 7 was handled in a way which was distinctly creditable to the 
growers who had organized for marketing. The United Produce 
Growers' Association of Arizona handled all of the lettuce from the 
Valley, with the exception of 5 or 6 cars assembled by local commis- 
sion houses. 

This association is a regularly equipped stock corporation with 
an authorized capitalization of $50,000, divided into 5,000 shares of 
])ref erred stock and 5,000 shares of common stock, all of which has a 
par value of $5 per share. The purpose of the common stock was to 
raise a fund of $25,000 from outside sources, mainly from busines.s 
men and others interested in the development of the trucking industry. 
I'his stock is a non-voting stock and also a non-dividend-earning stock. 
After the association was fairly started and a number o^ shares of com- 
mon stock had been sold, it was decided to withdraw this class of stock 
from the market, as it was felt unnecessary to have such a large capital 
available. The preferred stock is offered to growers only and consti- 
tutes the voting stock of the corporation. Sales are limited to one 
share to each grower and in turn each grower who intends to utilize 
the services of the association for marketing must be a shareholder. 
The funds resulting from the sale of this stock constitute the capital 
which at present is required to transact business. 

It was the intention of the organizers to divide this association 
into distinct sections, each administering its own functions and duties 
and nominally connected with the central association known as the 
United Produce Growers' Association of Arizona. The lettuce section, 
however, is at present the really active section, although about 80 or 
90 cars of cantaloupes were handled by the association in 191 7. Some 
deciduous fruit was also shipped by this association in 1917, although 
the cantaloupe and deciduous fruit sections were not organized on 
exactly the same basis as was the lettuce section. As a matter of fact, 
the association operated as one association in 1917 for the conduct of 



Specific Marketinx Problems 55 

all its business, and, strictly speaking, the plan of dividing the associa- 
tion into sections was not in effect in 1917. 

The business operations of the association are conducted through 
a Secretary-Treasurer, an executive committee of five members, an 
acreage committee, a crate committee and a seed committee. In the 
past the Secretary-Treasurer has been the chief business officer of the 
association. The acreage committee inspects land which it is proposed 
to plant and is expected to act in an advisory capacity toward the 
growers. The crate committee is charged with the duty of arranging 
for containers for shipment of the crop. The seed committee confines 
its attention to arranging for a suitable supply of seed and the execu- 
tive committee, of which the Secretary-Treasurer is 1 member, main- 
tains a general oversight of the business and during the shipping sea- 
son allots consignments to the various produce houses with whom 
connections have been established. The Secretary-Treasurer is the 
only salaried member connected with the association. In 1917 an in- 
spector was employed by the association to supervise harvesting, pack- 
ing and loading. 

The small quantity of lettuce sold in Arizona and New Mexico is 
shipped in express lots and sold f. o. b. Glendale. Practically all of 
the lettuce shipped locally is sold on standing order and statements are 
made on a weekly or monthly basis, according to preliminary arrange- 
ments. The great bulk of the crop moves to the Eastern markets in 
carloads and is handled entirely on a consignment basis. Reliable com- 
mission firms are selected in several of the principal markets. The 
regular commission of 10 per cent is paid to these representatives. In 
1917 the association was represented by firms in Kansas City, Cleve- 
land, Indianapolis, Chicago, Pittsburgh and New York. The associa- 
tion has definitely decided that it will not sell on an f. o. b. basis sub- 
ject to inspection on arrival at destination. Careful inspection, both 
in field and at the loading platforms, was in practice in 1917, and no 
lettuce was shipped which was not of superior quality, and well graded 
and packed. 

A two-tier ventilated crate peculiar to this district has been used 
with considerable success. This crate is paper-lined and contains from 
24 to 40 heads. Early shipments in 191 7 were pre-cooled in a small pre- 
cooling plant and were then loaded into iced cars and rolled to market 
at once. With the advent of warm weather during the middle and 
latter part of the season, however, it was found desirable to pack the 
lettuce with cracked ice between the two layers in each crate. In addi- 



56 Bulletin 85 — Miscellaneous 

lion the refrigerator cars were iced well in advance of loading and the 
thoroughly chilled lettuce was shipped at once. The results of this 
careful attention were accurately reflected in the returns which the 
growers in this district secured in competition with lettuce growers in 
other districts. 

Up to and including April 17, 1917. 61 carloads had been shipped 
to eastern markets and 3,233 crates equivalent to about 8 carloads had 
been sold locally in Arizona and New Mexico. The first 61 cars were 
distributed to Kansas City, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, New 
York, Chicago and Denver, more than one-half of this number going 
to Kansas City, Chicago and Pittsburgh. From April 17 to the close 
of the season about 39 additional cars were shipped, in addition to 
moderate express shipments to the mining towns of Arizona. Market- 
ing conditions during the early part of the season were very favorable 
and because of their excellent pack and grade the growers secured 
some attractive returns. The first 21 cars which rolled to market re- 
turned to the growers a total of $14,732.99, or an average f. o. b. return 
per crate of $1.57. Returns for the next 40 cars were not so high, 
ranging around $1.00 per crate, but still netting a fair margin of 
profit. Near the close of the season, however, there was a decided 
slump in market prices, caused by heavy offerings from other sections. 
The unexpected drop in market prices found the association with more 
than 20 cars in transit and some unfortunate losses were sustained, 
Vv'hich partially offset the large profits made earlier in the season. 

In addition to offering a sales service the association furnished to 
growers during the season more than $8,000 worth of supplies. These 
supplies were secured in large lots and re-sold to growers at prices be- 
low those which they would have had to pay on independent purchases. 
Considering the volume of their business and the speculative nature 
of their product, it is doubtful whether it will be possible for the lettuce 
growers greatly to improve their system of marketing. It is impossible 
to remove entirely the hazards connected with the marketing of a 
perishable crop like lettuce. On the whole, however, these growers 
have worked out for themselves an excellent and efficient system of 
marketing when it is considered that their output is limited and their 
association a small one. The success of this association has been an 
encouragement to those who believe that co-operative effort will solve 
the marketing problems of the Salt River Valley. 

Miscellaneous About 56 cars of watermelons were shipped in 
19 1 6 and 78 cars in 191 7. This crop is produced in the vicinity of 



Specific Marketing Problems 



57 



Phoenix and is handled through the Union Melon Growers' Associa- 
tion. This organization has headquarters at Phoenix and while not 
in the strictest sense of the word a farmers' co-operative marketing 
association, is nevertheless an organization for the purpose of con- 
solidating watermelon shipments. The marketing of this crop is purely 
a local problem and, as the following table will show, practically all 
of these melons were sold in Arizona and New Mexico : 



Table VI Destinations of Watermelon Shipments in 1917 



Destination 


J^umher of 
Cars 


Destination 


Number of 
Cars 


Gallup, N. M 


22 
7 
5 
5 

4 


Globe, Ariz 4 


Albuquerque, N. M 


Bisbee, Ariz 4 


Douglas Ariz. 


Other Arizona Points | 22 


Prescott, Ariz 


Other N. M. points 1 5 


Flagstaff, Ariz 




1 



Except for supplying Arizona and New Mexico, it is doubtful 
whether watermelons ever will be produced in surplus quantities in 
the Salt River Valley. This crop differs materially from the canta- 
loupe crop in this respect, since the latter is a fairly in^portant factor 
on the large markets of the United States. 

Less than lOO acres of grapes are grown in the Salt River Valley. 
Most of these are of the Thompson Seedless variety and are ready for 
market in advance of the offerings of California table grapes. The 
commercial acreage is in the vicinity of Mesa, from which point about 
9 cars were shipped in 191 7. Some of these grapes are sold locally 
in the Valley, but many of them move to large Eastern markets, not- 
ably Chicago. The marketing is largely on a consignment basis. 

Dates are perhaps the most interesting of the special crops in the 
Valley. The principal orchard is near Tempe and is controlled by the 
University of Arizona. In addition, there are small quantities of edible 
dates produced incidentally on many of the farms in the Valley. It is 
difficult to ascertain the total acreage in dates outside of the Tempe 
orchard, which is the only important commercial orchard in the Valley. 
The latter contains about 10 acres of bearing palms and produces a 
wide range of desirable varieties. The Hayani and Rhar are among 
the more important of the so-called soft varieties, while the Deglet 
Noor is an interesting example of the harder date, which matures later 
in the season. 

Dates from palms owned by farmers over the Valley are all sold 
locally in the towns in the Valley. Most of the output of the Tempe 



58 



Bulletin 85 




Fig. 6 — Bearing date palms in the Tempe 
orchard. 



Marketing Problem as a Whole — Present and Future Outlet 59 

orchard is also sold in the Valley, although considerable quantities were 
shipped in small express lots of from 2 to 15 pounds to eastern mar- 
kets in 1917. Many of those shipped out of the State, however, were 
sold on orders placed in the Valley. The 191 7 crop was packed in ordi- 
nary berry cups holding one pound each. After being hand picked, the 
fruit was pasteurized for a short period and then packed in layers into 
square berry cups which were lined with paper, topped with an at- 
tractive, colored lithograph and tied with colored fiber ribbon. These 
small baskets were then placed in crates holding from 2 to 15 pounds 
and were ready for shipment. Practically all of the crop in 191 7 was 
sold at a uniform price of 20 cents per pound packed at the orchard. 
The dates retailed on the local markets in Phoenix, Tempe and Mesa 
at from 30c to 35c per pound. No attempt was made by the manage- 
ment of the orchard to secure higher prices, since this orchard is main- 
tained for experimental purposes. The demand far exceeded the sup- 
ply in 191 7 and the same condition has prevailed in previous years. 
The date crop in the Valley is normally an excellent one. while the 
market is always active. The only real limitation to the expansion of 
this industry is the difficulty of securing a suitable number of off- 
shoots of desirable varieties. It requires some care and experience to 
get a young grove started, but having once become thoroughly estab- 
lished the date palm is easy to care for. Should it be possible in the 
future to import any real quantities of desirable offshoots from the 
Orient, it is probable that there will be a decided expansion of date 
growing in the Valley. 

In 191 7 about 475 acres were devoted to olives, while a number 
of young groves have been set since the beginning of the season. The 
olive does well in the Salt River Valley, but the production of this 
commodity is relatively small. Practically all of the crop is sold locally 
to pickling factories, which normally put up considerable quantities of 
this product. Most of the crop is pickled in a ripe or semi-ripe con- 
dition. 

THE MARKETINa PROBLEM AS A WHOLE 

Present and Future Outlets Agriculture in the Salt River 
Valley has not been built around a national market and producers have 
not learned to consider the distant market as a logical outlet for any 
great quantity of their produce. In this respect this district is more or 
less unique among the important irrigated districts in the far West. 



6o Bulletin 85 

While it is not entirely accurate to state that the local or State market is 
the principal one for products from this area, it is true nevertheless that 
the local market plays a much more important part than in many other 
irrigated districts. 

Of late years, however, there have been certain exceptions to 
these generalizations. During the past two years approximately 20 per 
cent of the commercial hay crop of the Valley, which was marketed in 
carlots, moved to points in Texas and over the international border 
into Mexico. The growth of the cotton industry has caused a corre- 
sponding decrease in the production of crops which normally are mar- 
keted in Arizona and New Mexico. The cantaloupe crop also fur- 
nishes relatively large quantities of a product more than 85 per cent 
of which is marketed at points from 1,500 to 3,000 miles from origin. 
Probably 75 per cent of the lettuce and potato crops annually find a 
market beyond State borders. In the future there doubtless will be a 
reasonable expansion of trade with markets more distant than those to 
which Valley farmers have become accustomed. The increase in the 
cotton industry, exemplified by the large acreage planted in 1917, will 
doubtless be responsible for an important increase in the value of 
products which move to distant markets. 

The local and State markets for products from the Salt River 
Valley never have been fully appreciated by producers. These mar- 
kets are at present among the most important outlets for Valley 
products and in future years will continue to be profitable consuming 
centers of an increasing quantity of farm products from the irrigated 
districts of the State. These markets at present use all of the grain 
products produced in the Salt River Valley and in addition import 
large quantities of feed and mill products from points outside the 
State. Most of the hay crop in the Valley which is baled for market 
is sold in mining towns throughout the State. Similar towns in New 
Mexico offer the next best outlet for hay. More than 90 per cent of 
the dairy products in the Valley are consumed within the States of 
Arizona and New Mexico, the mining towns of Arizona taking the 
greater portion of the surplus from the Valley. While the deciduous 
fruit output is very limited most of the commercial crop which is not 
used within the Valley itself is shipped in express lots to the mining 
towns of the State, where in the past it has been disposed of at prices 
satisfactory to the growers. Large quantities of meat products are 
also consumed by these towns. In contrast to the cantaloupe crop, 
practically all of the watermelons produced in the Valley are sold 



Marketing Problem as a Whole 6i 

tfither in Arizona or New Mexico. Large quantities of miscellaneous 
farm products are produced in a small way in the Valley which have 
a considerable aggregate value and which are sold within the State. 
The very fact that these products are produced in small individual lots 
makes it imperative that the local market be utilized as extensively as 
possible. 

The advantages of the local markets of the State should be obvi- 
ous to the small producer in particular. As a rule, these markets 
(lesire good commercial packs and grades, but arc not so insistent on 
fancy packs and careful grading as are the larger markets further 
East. The comparatively short haul necessary to place products in 
these markets, coupled with the correspondingly small express rates, 
have made these markets seem attractive to the small shipper. As a 
matter of fact, the mining towns, while consuming large quantities 
iinnually, prefer to have their products in relatively small quantities at 
regular intervals. Except for a few of the staple products they are 
important as 1. c. 1. markets and are so used by producers. 

It is doubtful if many of the shippers who use these markets 
realize the total quantities which they ordinarily consume. In 1916 
10 small mining towns, selected at random along one railroad north 
of the Valley, used a total of 251 cars of flour and feed. During the 
same year four of these same towns used a total of 60 cars of fruits 
and vegetables, in addition to the large quantities of these products 
received in less than carload lots. x\gain referring to 1916 figures, it 
is found that 10 of these towns used 445 cars of hay, while during the 
same year 18 towns along this line used a total of 161 cars of grain. 
All of these towns have relatively small populations and are not among 
the important mining centers in the State, which use still larger quan- 
tities of all classes of farm products. The volume of business handled 
in some of the larger towns may be inferred from the statement that 
in 1916 about 222 carloads of fruits and vegetables were unloaded in 
Bisbee alone, exclusive of the large quantity which came to this city 
in small lots. Records show that the mining district around Ray 
received 30 cars of fruits and vegetables from Phoenix during the first 
nine months of 1917. The above figures have been selected more or 
less at random in order to emphasize the fact that the importance of 
the mining towns in Arizona as markets should not be underestimated 
by the producers in any part of the State. As a matter of fact, these 
towns secure only a small fraction of their products from the Salt 
River Valley. Most of the fruit and vegetable supply of these towns 



62 Bulletin 85 — General Problems, Etc. 

comes from California and other surrounding states, while consider- 
able quantities of flour, feed and other staples also come from points 
outside the State. This condition has been brought about because buy- 
ers in these towns have learned that they cannot rely upon the Salt 
River Valley for a dependable supply from season to season. Negotia- 
tions in the past with Arizona producers and shippers have been rather 
unsatisfactory and buyers have learned to look elsewhere for their sup- 
plies. 

Enough has been said to indicate the possibilities which are open 
to the producers of the Salt River Valley through the expansion of 
what might be termed the local market. It is probable that double the 
present quantity of Valley fruits and vegetables would be used in the 
mining towns of the State if the producer were able to guarantee a 
reasonably dependable supply and could offer a product which would 
compare favorably with the output from California and other western 
districts. At the present time there is a very active market in these 
mining towns for grain, hay, flour and other staple products of the 
Valley and it hardly seems probable that this phase of the business is 
susceptible of as great expansion as is the traffic in more perishable 
commodities. 

General Problems and Difficulties Strictly speaking, the Salt 
River Valley is unorganized for agricultural marketing purposes. De- 
velopment along these lines has been natural and gradual and not the 
result of any clear, well formulated plans. As a result, the present 
agricultural marketing plan of the Valley, if we may so dignify un- 
organized effort, is simply the result of individual enterprise working 
along strictly individual lines. 

One of the most striking features of agricultural enterprise in 
the A'alley is the wide range of production. Natural causes have con- 
cributed toward diversification. The results are exactly what might be 
expected. There has been little or no community of mterest between 
producers from the very fact that crop and marketing plans have 
almost invariably been individual plans and resulting problems have 
been individual problems. This, of course, has militated against com- 
munity effort and has caused postponement of co-operative action. 
The producers in this section are just beginning to realize clearly that 
there must be community action of some sort if commercial success 
is to be obtained. For example, while the total acreage in truck crops 
and deciduous fruits is fairly large, the crop scheme /s so arranged 



Marketing Problem as a Whole 63 

that growers are not reaping the benefit of large-scale production. 
The total acreage in these crops is composed of a large number of 
small units, and is not as well centralized geographically as would be 
desirable for concerted action. There are, of course, certain well 
defined areas devoted to these crops, but in general we find small 
individual acreages scattered over almost the entire \'allcy. The indi- 
vidual grower finds that he does not produce enough to warrant car- 
lot shipping and does not feel that returns from outside markets offer 
him a sufficient margin of safety. As a result the local Valley mar- 
kets are usually oversupplied for short periods, while excellent outside 
markets are untouched because the individual cannot obtain the carlot 
rate on his small output. 

Another factor which has greatly hindered efficient marketing is 
the seasonal change in the acreage of each crop. It is nearly impossible 
for growers to organize for marketing when the man who grows 20 
acres of wheat this year will produce no wheat next year and his 
neighbor, who may have grown no grain for 2 or 3 years, suddenly 
enters the field for one year as a producer of, let us say, 40 acres. 
Thus, it happens that one man is actively interested in a certain crop 
this year and his interest next year in the same crop may be passive 
because he has reduced or entirely eliminated his own acreage. This 
condition of affairs may not at first appear to be productive of serious 
results, but, as a matter of fact, it exemplifies one of the most difficult 
problems in the Valley. 

If individual production were fairly stable or well standardized 
it would be possible to assemble the producers of certain communities 
for definite, concerted action. As conditions are at present, however, 
the membership of any association organized for the purpose of car- 
mg for specific crops, of necessity would change its membership to a 
considerable degree each season. The acreage in certain crops, notably 
alfalfa and fruit is a fairly constant quantity from year to year. The 
individual acreage in almost all other crops, however, is dictated largely 
by individual fancy or preference and up to the present time this indi- 
vidual preference has borne no relation to prospective community action 
for the purpose of marketing. In other words, it does not occur to 
the farmer who contemplates planting 10 acres of potatoes next year 
or who may contemplate reducing his potato acreage to that figure, that 
this decision has any relation to beneficial co-operative effort on the 
part of his neighbors. The following table compiled by the United 
States Reclamation Service and applying to the Salt River Project, 



64 



Bulletin 85 



which in turn comprises about three-fourths of the irrigated territory 
of the Salt River Valley, shows the seasonal changes in total acreages 
for different crops, but does not show the decided changes in individual 
acreages for the same crops. 

Table VII Acreages of Principal Crops on Salt River Project 



Alfalfa 

Barley 

Beans 

Cotton 

Corn 

Cantaloupe 

Fruit, citrus 

Fruit, deciduous 
Milo maize, e*'C... 

Oats 

Olives 

Potatoes 

Wheat 

Watermelons .... 



laiit 



1915 



191G 



1917 



86,930 


86,733 1 


24,946 


17,066 1 


1,623 


567 1 


4,545 


11,501 1 


1,889 


2,315 1 


981 


1,846 


707 


707 


1,436 


1,246 


22,572 


12,651 


2,399 


1,930 


133 


133 1 


478 


232 1 


1 9,493 


9,744 1 


1 350 


826 1 



83,006 

16,459 

1,111 

2,160 

1,193 

1,604 

1,054 

1,944 

26,260 

3,374 

135 

267 

11,230 

462 



84.355 

13,295 

710 

6,033 

984 

1,584 

1,259 

1,248 

28,589 

1,433 

487 

381 

10,081 

262 



67,964 

9,309 

1,425 

23,444 

1,851 

2,096 

967 

1,250 

25,471 

900 

500 

373 

3,794 

426 



It will be noted that there has been a fairly pronounced variation 
so far as total acreages are concerned. This is important as indicating 
the variable quantities of farm products which must find a market each 
year. The totals indicate, to a certain degree, the problem which out- 
side buyers must face when entering the Valley as commercial factors. 
One of the most important considerations to the prospective buyer is 
the possibility of securing a uniform quantity season by season. Where 
both individual and total acreages vary to as pronounced an extent as 
they do in the Salt River Valley, the outside buyer finds it difficult, 
if not impossible, to adjust his business to care for fluctuating supply. 
He prefers to turn elsewhere to districts which will furnish a depend- 
able annual supply. This one fact alone probably has operated to a 
considerable extent to keep Salt River Valley products from the local 
mining town markets of the State. 

The size of the average farm in the Salt River Valley bears a 
certain relation to the commercial problem. This territory has never 
been one of bonanza farming. There has been in the past a number 
of large holdings, aggregating several thousand acres each. The indi- 
vidual holdings, as a rule, have been comparable to those throughout 
the more intensively farmed sections of the Middle West. According 
to the provisions of the Reclamation Act, which apply to all lands 
within the boundaries of the Salt River Project, the individual hold- 
ings must be reduced to a maximum of 160 acres for each owner. This 



Marketing Problem as a Whole 65 

tact has served in itself to break up the larger farming units into farms 
which could be handled by resident owners. Some large individual 
acreages have been developed in the outlying districts, where water 
rights are independent of the restrictions laid down by the Reclamation 
Act. Records of the Salt River Valley Water Users' Association show 
that on an ownership basis the average individual holding on the Salt 
River Project approximates 58 acres. ]\Iany tracts are subdivided 
among several tenants, who in turn operate these subdivisions as sepa- 
rate units. Data compiled by the United States Reclamation Service 
in 191 7 indicate that 4.342 farmers (both owners and tenants) oper- 
ated 196,586 acres on the Project, or an average of 45 acres to the 
individual. 

Thus it will be noted that individual holdings, while not extremely 
large, are sufficient to permit general farming. Until the average hold- 
ings fall below 40 acres, it will not be necessary to resort to specialized 
forms of agriculture in order to provide an adequate labor return. 

Tenant farming also had a decided influence on commercial pros- 
pects. Referring to records compiled by the United States Reclamation 
Service, we find that, according to the 191 7 report, 41 per cent of the 
farmers on the Salt River Project are tenants. The form of tenantry 
varies. Some of the tenants operate on a share basis, while a large 
number operate on a cash rental basis. The latter form was particu- 
larly prevalent in 19 17 among the newer cotton growers and, because 
of the prospects of large financial returns, good cotton land rented m 
1017 at from $15 to $25 per acre, the average rental being $20. Tenant 
farming has made it difficult to organize for commercial purposes on 
a permanent basis. The tenant farmer who has no sure tenure natur- 
ally does not manifest the requisite interest in building up a permanent 
producers' organization when his membership in such an organization 
may be short lived. Proper financing of such an organization is more 
difficult with the tenant farmer than with the permanent land owner. 

The human factor presents one of the most difficult problems in 
connection with the betterment of market conditions in the Salt River 
Valley. This problem is a more or less intangible one and is not sub- 
ject to a careful statistical analysis. At the present time individualism 
is still the key note of communal conditions in the Valley. Many of 
the present producers have come from other districts into the midst of 
conditions that are more or less strange to them. As might be expected, 
this fact has reacted adversely on any tendency toward co-operative 
action. The primary weakness of widespread individual action in a 



66 Bulletin 85 — General Remedla.l Measures 

district where conditions demand community action is strikingly in 
evidence. It appeared from observation in 1917 that the individual 
idea is being replaced gradually and it is altogether possible that co- 
operative action in the near future will be as important a feature of 
commercial agriculture in the Salt River Valley as it has been in most 
other western irrigated districts. 

The distance of the Salt River Valley from m.etropolitan dis- 
tributing centers in some cases has given pause to prospective investors. 
The following table shows the approximate distance from Phoenix to 
the principal outside markets : 

Table VIII Distance from Phoenix to Certain Markets 



Citv Dtitanct 

By Rail 



City 



Distance 
By Ra,1 



Los Angeles | 499 miles New Orleans |1,624 miles 

El Paso I 433 miles Kansas City |1,487 miles 

San Antonio 1 1,052 milesl Chicago |1,938 miles 

It will be noted that the average distance from market is rather 
great and, at first glance, this problem would appear to be a most 
serious one. Its importance, however, is minimized when it is remem- 
bered that relatively small quantities of farm products are shipped to 
distant markets. The local and State markets have in the past con- 
tributed largely to the support of agriculture in the Salt River Valley, 
and as time goes on it is more than likely that these markets will in- 
crease in importance to the farmers in this territory and offer an outlet 
for still greater quantities of surplus products. 

General Remedial Measures Previous discussions have indi- 
cated that the producers of the Salt River Valley are not facing a single 
problem, but are confronted with a series of problem? which can be 
co-ordinated only with difficulty. It hardly seems desirable or feasible 
to advocate the formation of a series of farmers' co-operative associa- 
tions for the purpose of marketing the many diverse crops in the Valley 
and having no general affiliations with each other or with a stronger 
central agency. In the first place, it would appear that these associa- 
tions would lack the financial strength which is so desirable in an 
organization of this character. The overhead and operating expenses 
of the small association are also relatively heavy and probably a large 
number of producers would not be inclined to view with favor the pros- 
pect of sharing the expenses of such an organization. It also would 
seem that there does not exist the requisite commercial leadership for 



Marketing Problem as a Whole 67 

each set of producers unless general costs of operation are increased 
by the employment of skilled marketing assistance. 

While the arguments against the formation of a large number of 
small organizations are difficult to overcome, it is at the same time 
desirable that some action be taken looking toward the consolidation 
of the output of certain commodities so that producers may benefit by 
marketing in relatively larger quantities than they do at present. For 
example, if the deciduous fruit growers in the Valley are to establish a 
reasonably satisfactory market for themselves, it will be necessary for 
their product to be assembled for market in larger quantities and that 
it be carefully inspected prior to shipment. The small livestock pro- 
ducer in order to benefit by prevailing market conditions must arrange 
for co-operative shipping with his neighbors. Marketing conditions 
among the potato growers in the past have been relatively unsatisfac- 
tory, but no permanent remedial measures can be adopted by these 
producers until their output is handled as a unit, so that systematic 
marketing plans can be adopted. But even the elementary co-operative 
action just indicated would need some stronger agency to advise and 
direct a movement of producers. 

The rather sweeping statement already has been made that there 
is at present in the Salt River \' alley no large and influential farmers' 
co-operative organization. This statement had reference to organiza- 
tions for marketing purposes. Co-operative action along another line, 
iiowever, has met with considerable measure of success. The Salt 
River Valley Water Users' Association is one of the most substantial 
farmers' organizations in the United States. This association was 
organized for the purpose of co-operating with the Government in 
securing a permanent w^ater supply for the land in the Salt River Val- 
ley through the provisions of the Reclamation Act. The association 
has a present membership of about 3,500 and represents a total of 
205,000 irrigated acres. It is a stock corporation regularly incorpor- 
ated under the laws of the State of Arizona, with a capital stock of 
$18,000,000. divided into 300,000 shares of the par value and denom- 
ination of $60 each. The ownership of stock is confined to land own- 
ers and the division of stock is proportionate to the acreage owned. 
The association is permanent in nature, owns an office building in the 
City of Phoenix, and is amply financed, the charter providing for the 
maintenance of a treasury fund not exceeding $100,000, with which to 
care for emergencies. The membership of this organization includes 



68 Bulletin 85 

the majority of farm operators in Maricopa County and so the associa- 
tion constitutes a very substantial nucleus from which to operate. 

Investigation indicates that the participation of the Salt River 
^ alley Water Users' Association in the marketing problem is eminently 
desirable from the point of view of the producer. The organization as 
already in existence, is capably managed and directed, and is financed 
more completely and thoroughly than any farmers' co-operative mar- 
keting association could hope to be. It would be possible for the asso- 
ciation to provide a division designed to offer to the farmers of the 
Valley competent marketing advice. A marketing specialist might be 
retained and his duties outlined substantially as follows: 

1. To advise with growers and growers' associations as to 
markets. 

2. To negotiate for the sale of farm products on request of 
growers. 

3. To investigate on request of growers any malpractices or dis- 
honesty on the part of outside sales agencies with whom the grower? 
may deal. 

4. To advise with growers as to the provisions of any contracts 
which they may enter into with commission houses or other sales 
agencies. 

5. To handle claims of growers against railroads for damage to 
goods or loss in transit. 

6. To represent actively the combined growers of the Valley in 
securing fair and equitable freight rates on Valley products. 

7. To assist actively in developing and establishing grades and 
standards for Salt River Valley products. 

8. To publish a market review for distribution to producers, 
summarizing all market information of value to local producers. 

It will be noted that the activities of such a division would cover 
a very wide range, while at the same time no obligations would be 
assumed by the growers except such as might be entered into tem- 
porarily for the purpose of arranging sales through the general divi- 
sion. The cost of such activities would be inconsiderable when benefits 
are considered, and the financing of this work could be handled in the 
same manner as is the financing of other special lines of work in con- 
nection with the irrigation system. The simplicity of such a plan is 
its strongest point and the fact that such an arrangement could be con- 



Marketing Problem as a Whole — Conclusions 69 

summated through the association with no reorganization whatever 
should make the idea appeal to those who believe that marketing condi- 
tions in the Salt River Valley should receive the scrutiny and attention 
of someone competent to care for such matters. 

Conclusions The commercial problem is one of the most import- 
ant and is economically of such nature that it can be solved by the 
producers themselves. Briefly summarized, the principal problems 
are ( i ) the present inability of growers to supply dependable quantities 
to buyers who desire to negotiate for such products year after year; 
(2) the lack of grading and standardization which now prevails 
throughout the entire district and applies to practically all farm 
products; (3) the serious lack of consolidation of the annual output 
to enable growers to place surplus products in outside markets. The 
solution of the first problem will come with the stabilizing of cropping 
plans. It is an illuminating fact that the agriculture of the Valley is 
now actively in process of being standardized and within a compara- 
tively short time it is altogether probable that a more or less permanent 
cropping system will be in effect throughout the Valley, because gen- 
eral conditions are making it necessary for producers to unify their 
plans. The question of better grades and standards, and plans for the 
consolidation of products for large lot shipping, will result from more 
complete co-operative action on the part of the farmers in the Valley, 
who will not be long in realizing that the individual can stand alone no 
more advantageously in the Salt River Valley than in any other district 
as distant from large markets. 



The University of Arizona 
College of Agriculture 



Agricultural Kxperiment Station 



Bulletin No. 86 




Irrigation pipe with tongue and groove JoiJit. 

Machine-Made Cement Pipe for Irrigation Systems 
and Other Purposes 



By G. E. P. Smith 



Tucson, Arizona, October 30, 1918 



The University of Arizona 
College of Agriculture 



Agricultural Experiment Station 



Bulletin No. 86 



*%4Jp 



Irrigation pipe with tongue and groove Joint. 

Machine-Made Cement Pipe for Irrigation Systems 
and Other Purposes 



By G. E. P. Smith 



Tucson, Arizona, October 30, 1918 



REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY 

Ex-Officio 

His Excellency, The Governor of Arizona 

The State Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Appointed by the Governor of the State 

John T. Hughes Chancellor 

William J. Bryan, Jr., A.B Treasurer 

William Scarlett, A.B., B.D Regent 

Mrs. Madge Roberts " Regent 

Mrs. Bettie White • . Regent 

H. S. McCluskey Regent 

Mrs. Louise Foucar Marshall Secretary 

J. W. Chapman Regent 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

RuFus B. von KlEinSmid, A.M., Sc.D President of the University ; Director 

EsTEs P. Taylor, B.S.A Assistant Dean, College of Agriculture 

Robert H. Forbes, Ph.D Research Specialist 

John J. Thornber, A.M Botanist 

Albert E. Vinson, Ph.D Biochemist 

George E. P. Smith, C.E Irrigation Engineer 

Richard H. Williams, Ph.D Animal Husbandman 

W^alter S. Cunningham, B.S Dairy Husbandman 

Charles T. Vorhies, Ph.D Entomologist 

G. E. Thompson, B.S.A Agronomist 

F. J. CridER, M.S Horticulturist 

Clifford N. Catlin, A.M Assistant Chemist 

♦Arthur L. EngEr, B.S., C.E Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

Walker E. Bryan, M.S Assistant Plant Breeder 

C. O. Bond, B.S.A Assistant Plant Breeder 

W. E. Code, B.S.' Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

A. E. KiNNisoN, B.S.A Assistant Horticulturist 

R. S. Hav^kins, B.S.A Assistant Agronomist 

Austin W. Morrill, Ph.D Consulting Entomologist 

D. C. George • . . Consulting Plant Pathologist 

The Experiment Station offices and labrratories are an integral part of the 
University at Tucson. The Salt River Valley Experiment Station Farm is 
situated one mile west of Mesa, Arizona. The date palm orchards are three 
miles south of Tempe (co-operative U. S. D. A.) and one mile southwest of 
Yuma, Arizona, respectively. The experimental dry-farms are near Cochise and 
Prescott, Arizona. 

Visitors are cordially invited, and correspondence receives careful attention. 
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE 

EsTEs p. Taylor, B.S.A Director Agricultural Extension Service 

Leland S. Parke, B.S State Leader Boys' and Girls' Clubs 

Mary Pritner Lockwood, B.S State Leader Home Demonstration Agents 

W. M. Cook, A.B State Leader County Agricultural Agents 

A. B. Ballantyne, B.S County Agent, Graham-Greenlee Counties 

C. R. FiLLERUP County Agent, Navajo- Apache Counties 

De Lore Nichols, B.S County Agent, Coconino County 

J. R. SandigE, B.S County Agent, Gila County 

C. R. Adamson, B.S.A County Agent, Cochise County 

H. C. Heard, B.S County Agent, Maricopa County 

J. W. LongstrEth County Agent, Yuma County 

Leo L. Laythe, B.S County Agent, Pima-Pinal Counties 

Agnes A. Hunt Assistant State Leader Boys' and Girls' Clubs 

Edward B. OxlEy, B.S County Club Leader, Maricopa County 

HazEl Zimmerman Home Demonstration Agent, Pima-Pinal Counties 

Florence D. Sandige. B.S Home Demonstration Agent, Gila County 

Amy L. DinsmorE, B.S Home Demonstration Agent, Maricopa County 

Flossie D. Wills, B.S Home Dem. Agent, Graham-Greenlee Counties 

Grace I. Tufts Home Demonstration Agent, Yuma-Yavapai Counties 

Louise SporlEdEr Home Demonstration Agent, Cochise County 

Nora LamorEaux Home Demonstration Agent, Apache County 

*On leave. 



CONTENTS 

PVGE 

IntrtKluction 1^ 

Manufacture of cement pipe ^7 

McCracken pipe machine ^' 

Other pipe niacliines 81 

Sherman ^i. 

Schenk J; 

National •" °" 

Monarch ^] 

Thomas- Hammond °; 



Allen 

Sanders (Pomona) ... 

Kellar-Thomason 

Pneumatic air tampers 

Duryee-Cole 

Hand-made cement pipe. 



86 
86 
88 
9() 
90 
90 

Wet-poured concrete pipe ^ 

Pipe making ^ 

The mortar ^ 

Curing 00 

Waterproohng J"^ 

Pipe laying and pipe-line failure s JO^ 

Pipe laying |0^' 



The trench. 



103 



Methods of laving J04 

Risers 08 

Effect of high temperatures jVg 

Effect of wetting dry pipe JY^ 

Tests ; ]Y 

Internal pressure and percolation tests 11^ 

External pressure tests |^'^ 

Loads on pipe in ditches and design of pipe lines 131 

Absorption tests j;^; 

Internal friction tests |^^ 

Capacity tables J^^ 

Durability J^" 

Pipe line structures J^"^ 

Gates J2j 

Risers \]^ 

Pipe line systems J^^ 

Special structures j4^ 

Other uses of cement pipe j^3 

Sewers |^^ 

Bridges and culverts |^^ 

Drain tile ]^\ 

Gates 62 

Underflow collecting flumes and inverted siphons loZ 

Domestic supply pipe lines J63 



164 

Summary 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Stack of McCracken machine-made pipe, showing tongue and groove 

joint Cover cut 

Fig. 1. Stackyard at Continental, Arizona, and "ramada" forcuring the pipe 

under cover Frontispiece 

Fig. 2. Stack of 15-inch cement pipe made by the irrigation department, 

University of Arizona, in 1907 T^ 

Fig. 3. Small irrigation ditch near Tucson, showing loss of entire flow by 

seepage 74 

Fig. 4. The McCracken No. 2 pipe machine at Continental, Arizona 76 

Fig. 5. View of 20-inch packer-head used at Continental, Arizona 76 

Fig. 6. The McCracken No. 3 pipe machine with equipment for bell-end 

sewer pipe 78 

Fig. 7. McCracken sewer pipe with bell and spigot joint 79 

Fig. 8. Schenck packer-head, the trowel and 4 wings 82 

Fig. 9. The National pipe machine 83 

Fig. 10. The Thomas-Hammond pipe machine 85 

Fig. 11. The Sanders (Pomona) pipe machine 87 

Fig. 12. The Kellar-Thomason pipe macliine 88 

Fig. 13. Filling the ordinary hand molds with a pneumatic tamper 89 

Fig. 14. Pipe molds for hand-tamped pipe 92 

Fig. 15. Johnson reinforced pipe joint 94 

Fig. 16. Cage of Triangle Mesh reinforcement witli wires properly spliced... 95 

Fig. 17. Yaqui Indians tamping 15-inch cement pipe 100 

Fig. 18. Laying the concrete pipe for water supply main for City of Tucson. .105 

Fig. 19. Laying 20-inch cement pipe in shallow ditch at Continental 105 

Fig. 20. A cracked gate pit at Continental, caused by expansion of pipe line. .110 

Fig. 21. Longitudinal crack in 20-inch pipe line Ill 

Fig. 22. Increase in weight and expansion of cement pipe 112 

Fig. 23. Effect of saturation on pipe that had been broken in testing machine. . 114 
Fig. 24. Testing 16-inch machine-made pipe for resistance to internal press- 
ure, at the Tucson city pumping plant, 1917 118 

Fig. 25. Test specimens broken in internal pressure testing machine 119 

Fig. 26. Apparatus for making external pressure tests 124 

Fig. 27. Cement pipe, completely disintegrated while curing 141 

Fig. 28. Design for square gate pit 143 

Fig. 29. Riser and circular valve for taking out water for orchards or row 

crops 144 

Fig. 30 Method of irrigation from pipe line at Continental, used on the bot- 
tomland 145 

Fig. 31. Method of irrigation from pipe line at Continental, used on the side 

slopes 146 

Fig. 32. Method of construction of orchard pipe lines in the citrus district 

around Riverside. California 148 

Fig. 33. Map of a 540-acre field at Continental, showing 10-ft. contours and 

layout of main supply line and laterals 148 

Fig. 34. A division and measuring pit where main supply of water is divided 

into two equal heads 151 

Fig. 35. Sneci;d gate pit for forcing water up a lateral on a steep grade 152 

Fig. 36. Carryin"" capacities of cement pipe and corrugated iron culverts of 

equal diameters 159 

Fig. Zl . Common type of gate in ditch bank 161 



MACHINE-MADE CEMENT PIPE 

FOR 

IRRIGATION SYSTEMS AND OTHER PURPOSES 



By G. E. P. Smith 



INTRODUCTION 

Eleven years ago this Station published a bulletin on hand- 
tanii>ed cement i)ipe.* At that time cement pipe was unknown in 
Arizona, while in southern California it was in disrepute owing to 
the many failures of pipe lines which had been laid about a decade 
before. The failures were due in some cases to unsound cement, 
and in Other cases to insufficient cement or poor methods of mixing, 
tamping, or curing. Several machines which made and laid the pipe 
continuously in the trench had been tried unsuccessfully, and finally 
abandoned. However, a few i)ipe lines which had been well con- 
structed of hand-tamped pipe, especially those built by Mr. Arthur 
S. Bent of Los Angeles, demonstrated the great possibilities of 
cement i)ipe for irrigation distributing systems. In preparation for 
the bulletin above referred to, the writer made considerable 15-inch 
pipe, using various mixtures, and studied the water-tightness and 
other characteristics, and as a result the bulletin strongly recom- 
mended the use of cement pipe for irrigation lines, sewers, culverts, 
ditch gates, drain tile, and underflow collecting systems. 

Since 1907 a great deal of hand-tamped cement pipe has been 
laid in Arizona. At the present time several companies in the State 
are devoted to this work exclusively, and many farmers have pur- 
chased forms and made their own pipe. Arizona cities, however, 
continue to use clay sewer tile, although it is more expensive and is 
in some other respects inferior to cement pipe. In California the 
use of hand-tamped cement pipe has increased greatly, and it is 
estimated that over 5000 miles of such pipe have been constructed, 
effecting an enormous saving of water from evaporation and seep- 
age losses in open ditches. 

Meanwhile, there have been developed in the Middle West, not- 
ablv in Iowa, some excellent machines for manufacturing cement 



►Bull. 55, Arizona Agricu'tuial Experiment Station, 1907. 



72 



Bulletin 86 



tile and jointed pipe with great rapidity and at a low cost. These 
machines have been used chiefly for drainage tile, for which there is 
a great demand in Iowa and neighboring states, but at the present 
time they are coming into use for sewer pipe also. In the South- 




Pig. 2. — Stack of 15-inch cement pipe made by the irrigation department, University 
of Arizona, in 1907. (From Bulletin 55.) 



west the need is for irrigation pipe and to a much less extent for 
drainage tile, sewer pipe and culverts. It now appears strange 
that this section has been so slow to adopt this valuable type of 
machinery. 

In August, 1916, the owners of the Continental Ranch near 
Tucson decided to use cement pipe lines throughout the ranch for 
the distribution of irrigating water. The required sizes varied from 
8 inches to 20 inches in diameter, and about 10 miles of pipe line 
were needed the first year. After a careful investigation of pipe 
machines by the writer and with the assurance of securing highly- 
trained expert operators, the machine-made pipe was adopted and 
a contract was let to a representative of the Sioux City Engine and 
Machinery Co., the manufacturers of the McCracken cement pipe 
machines. This gentleman had operated the McCracken machines 
for many years, and brought with him from Iowa two other ex- 
perienced men ; and, inasmuch as both cement and sand of excellent 
quality were available and were to be furnished at the machine by 



Introduction 73 

the owners of the ranch, it was beHeved that no risk was being 
taken. 

Difficulty arose, however, in obtaining the necessary equipment, 
owing to pressure of business in the foundries of the Middle West, 
and work was not commenced until December 14, 1916. In the 
meantime, since it was necessary to have three miles of pipe line 
laid by February 1, 1917, a portion of the contract was taken away 
and re-let to a company making hand-tamped pipe. This company 
began work about November 28, and finished pipe-making January 9. 

The conditions, therefore, were ideal for obtaining a comparison 
between machine-made and hand-tamped pipe. Both parties were 
experienced, both were using the same sand and cement, and both 
were curing their pipe under absolutely the same climatic condi- 
tions. The two methods could be compared as to speed and cost, 
and the pipe made could be compared as to strength, perviousness, 
and frictional resistance to flowing water. The tests were planned 
and partly carried out, but, unfortunately, an insufficient number of 
the hand-made pipe were held out at the time of laying. Some tests, 
therefore, were made only on the machine-made pipe. All tests 
made are reported later on in this bulletin. 

In the fall of 1917 the town of Glendale, Arizona, voted bonds 
for a main sewer line and outfall sewer to New River. Bids were 
received under the specifications for both clay and cement pipe 
sewers. Although the specifications were more severe for the ce- 
ment pipe, the bids on it were low-er than for the clay pipe. The 
contract w^as awarded to the lowest bidder, who proposed to furnish 
pipe made on a Thomas-Hammond pipe machine. The machine was 
brought to Glendale from Los Angeles in October and was engaged 
in pipe-making for about four months. The laying was completed 
in May, 1918. Altogether the following list of pipe w^as delivered 
laid in the trench : 

4,050 ft. of 14-inch pipe 
25,425 " " 15- " 
3,450 " " 18- " 

The great advantage of the use of cement pipe for irrigation con- 
duits lies in the fact that the seepage and evaporation losses from 
open ditches are prevented. These losses are appalling. Dr. Samuel 
Fortier, Chief of Irrigation Investigations, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, states that "a large percentage of the water, estimated 
at 40 percent of the amount taken in at the heads of the main canals, 
is lost by absorption and percolation along the routes."* These 



•Bull. 126, U. S. Dept. Agr., 1914. p. 1. 



74 



Bulletin 86 



losses in the Salt River Valley were reported in 1915 by the Recla- 
mation Service as 45 percent, and in 1917 as 32 percent. For small 
canals these losses are often over 5 percent per mile in adobe soil 
and 15 to 20 percent per mile in porous soil. An extreme case is 
shown in Fig. 3. Here the entire flow is lost. The ditch has a 
valuable water supply at its head and the vain effort is made to 
hurry the water over the sand on a steep grade. When the photo- 
graph was taken, the last drop of water was sinking away near the 
willow tree shown by the arrow, while three miles away alfalfa and 
other crops dependent on this stream were drying up and dying. 
In southern California there are extensive distribution systems 




Fig. 3. — Small irrigation ditch near Tucson, showins- less of entire How by seepage. 

(From Bulletin 55.) 



that are piped throughout so that the loss of water in distrilnition is 
practically nothing. As a result of this and other economies the 
duty of the water is nearly nine acres per (Arizona) miner's inch of 
flow. The average duty of water in southern Arizona can be in- 
creased greatly by the use of cement pipe for small ditches and con- 
crete linings for larger ditches and canals. 

There are additional reasons for the use of cement pipe for 
irrigation ditches. The maintenance of open ditches is difficult. 
Under the subtropical skies of Arizona, weeds and algae grow 
rankly and occupy the whole cross-section of the ditch. Bermuda 
and Johnson grass thrive along the banks. Unless this vegetation is 



IXTRODLCTIO.X 75 

icniuNC'd at frequent intervals, it ul)structs and diminishes the tlow. 
Ditch cleaning is very expensive. The small Flowing Wells ditch 
near Tucson, before it was lined, cost $80 per mile annually for 
cleaning alone. In the Yuma X'alley the cost of cleaning lateral 
canals by hand is about $550 per mile. Furthermore, gophers per- 
forate open ditch banks and cause the waste of rivulets tor days or 
even weeks before the holes are repaired. Sometimes the holes 
enlarge, and the ditch bank breaks, with consecpient loss of the 
entire stream. .\ break on the TurUjck canal of Calift)rnia. in 1910, 
thought to ha\e been due to a go])her hole, caused 1000 feet of the 
canal an a steep hillsi<le to be washed out, and the canal was out of 
service for six weeks of the period of maximum need for water; the 
actual cost of repairs was $20,000, but the damage to crops was 
estimated at $1,000,000. The maintenance of cement i)ii)e lines is 
so small as to be negligible. 

Another reason for using cement pipe is that the distribution 
lines can be run through low ])laces and over ridges; it is not neces- 
sary to follow grade lines, for tlie water can be carried under 
pressure through the low ]H)rti<)ns ^^i the line. This makes it pos- 
sible to square uj) the lields much better and to reduce the cost of 
grading. ].,ess labor is rccpiired. also, to irrigate from pipe lines 
than from o])en ditches. 

Again, there is a great saxing of land. ()])en ditches occupy 
a]:)out one ])ercent o.' the land, but the necessity for turning teams 
on each side makes the loss three or four percent. An open ditch is 
a trreat obstruction and interferes with farm operations. With 
cement pipe the loss of land is ])ractically nothing. 

Si)ecial effort has been made to investigate and report on the 
various causes of failures of pipe lines. As these causes become 
fully understood, designers and pipe men will so adjust their prac- 
tices that the danger of failures will quite disappear. 

.Acknowledgment is hereby made to Messrs. A. L. Enger. F. C. 
Kelton. H. C. Schwalen, and F. W. Sharman for assistance in con- 
ducting the various tests of cement pipe, and to Mr. W. E. Code and 
Miss Hester Hunter for their services in proof-reading. 



76 



Bui.le;tin 86 




Pig 4 —Cement pipe plant at Continental, Arizona, showing the Mc Crack en No. 2 
pipe machine and accessories, the mixer, the iack shaft, and the cement house. 
The rameda is located at the right. 




Fig 5— McCracken packer-head for 2l!-inch cement pipe. The five vanes are fol- 
lowed by the cylindrical trowel. 



MANUFACTURE OF CEMENT PIPE 

THE Mccracken pipe machine 

The pipe machine at the Continental Ranch is known as the 
McCracken machine, after the designer. It is made at Sioux City, 
Iowa. A view of the machine and ecpiipment is given in Fig. 4. A 
cut showing all features of the McCracken mechanism is shown in 
Fig. 6. The main frame is bnilt of angle iron and is strongly braced. 
The frame of the No. 2 machine at Continental is 7 feet 6 inches long 
by 3 feet 8 inches wide by 10 feet high. The pulley shown at the 
extreme right is the main pulley, driven by belt, at a speed of about 
225 R.P.M. The heavy vertical shaft at the front of the machine is 
called the packer shaft. It rotates at 330 R.P.M., meanwhile rising 
and descending through the pulley at the top. The vertical motion 
is given to the packer shaft by a powerful lever, hinged at the back 
and operated by a slow-moving crank on the large gear wheel. The 
outside form, or jacket, rests on a table, which is revolving for all 
sizes up to 14 inches, and is stationary for larger sizes. The cement 
mortar, after being transferred from a concrete mixer, is fed into 
the hopper seen at the extreme left. The mortar is carried up by 
the link bucket elevator and discharged through a chute into the 
pipe mold. The size and number of buckets is determined by the 
size of the pipe. The operation of the machine is controlled by a 
clutch on the main pulley. 

On the lower end of the packer shaft is the packer-head, shown 
separately in Fig. 5. It consists of a cylinder made of the hardest 
grade of white iron surmounted by backward-curved vanes, either 
two, four, or five, depending on the size of pipe being made. The 
vanes (often called wings) catch the mortar as it falls into the form 
and plaster it rigidly against the form. The rotating cylinder, 
called the trow^el, follows, and increases the density, and, at the 
same time, gives the interior of the tile or pipe a smooth uniform 
glazed surface. The packer rod makes 50 revolutions during each 
ascent. At least two sets of forms are used, so that while one is 
being used at the machine, the other can be taken to the curing 
shed, where it is "stripped" ofif from the tile and returned to the 
machine. Two-wheeled carriers with long handles are used for 
moving the tile, since even a 12-inch tile and mold are heavy, weigh- 
ing about 150 pounds, and a 16-inch green tile and mold weigh about 
240 pounds. 

The operation, then, is to set a form, or jacket, on the table, ro- 
tate the table so that the jacket comes beneath the packer-head, and 



78 



BuLLIvTlN 86 




Fig. 6.~McCracken No. 3 pipe niiicliine with equipment for bell-end sewer pipe. 



Mani'Facti'rk (»!• Ckmknt Pll'I': 



79 



start the machine, whereupon the packer descends to the table and 
then begins to rise again. Mortar is discharged automatically into 
the jacket, and the packer-head, beginning at the bottom, revolving 
and gradually rising, forms the mortaf^nto a tile. In case a perfect 
tile is not formed, as happens occasionally, then it is "stripped" im- 
mediately and the mortar is shovelled back into the hopper again. 
Experience in handling the machine is of much importance ; the 
selection and screening of the sand and the degree of wetness of 
the mortar are of even greater importance. 

Fig. 6 shows the largest size sewer pipe machine, in which the 
table is turned, and a special bell packer at the bottom is operated 
automatically. The bell and spigot joint is shown in Fig. 7. In 
California and the Southwest, however, the bell and spigot joint is 
not much used, the tongue and groove joint being preferred. This 

joint is illustrated in the cover cut. 

The groove is made at the bottom by 

means of a small iron ring or pallet 

placed in the form, and the tongue 

at the top by an equivalent ring on the 

under side of the guide hopper. A great 

advantage of the tongue and groove 

joint is that the pipe can be laid in the 

trench much faster than bell-ended 

pipe. Also, there is less breakage in 

handling the tongue and groove pipe 

There is no valid reason why this joint 

should not be used for sewer pipe as 

well as for irrigation pipe ; indeed, it 

should be preferred in the interest of 

economy. 

Since the forms are corrugated, the outer surface of the pipe is 

corrugated. This probably adds to the strength somewhat, but the 

more immediate purpose of the corrugations is to prevent the tile 

from slipping from the mold while being carried to the curing floor. 

Corrugations on the inside, however, would be very objectionable, 

since they w^ould reduce the capacity of a pipe line greatly. 

The bottom pallets must be left under the pipe until the mortar 

is set sufficiently to permit turning the pipe over. If the pipe are 

cured in the open air, this requires from 24 to 48 hours, depending 

upon the season of the year. The pallets are released by a gentle 

tap of the hammer. Many pipe manufacturers in the Middle West 




Fig. 7. — McCracken sewer pipe 
with bell and spigot joint. 



80 



Bulletin 86 



cure the pipe in steam chambers, which accelerates the hardening 
process. 

The thickness of the pipe recommended is given in Table I. The 
thickness of the drain tile is about one-twelfth of the diameter of 
the pipe, of the sewer pipe one-tenth of the diameter, and the thick- 
ness of the irrigation pipe is intermediate between the other two. 
If the irrigation pipe is to be subjected to considerable heads, it 
should be "one-tenth pipe.'' 

TABLE I. THICKNESS AND WEIGHT PER FOOT OE MACHINE-MADE PIPE 



Tnside 




Irrigation pipe 






diameier 


Drainaee tile* 


(for low heads) i 


Sewer pipe 


Inches 
4 


Inches 


Pounds 


Inches 


Pounds 


Inches 


Pounds 


6 

8 


"Va 




"n 




"Vi 




10 


Vs 




1 




1 




12 


1 


42 


w?, 


47 


m 


52 


14 


1^/^ 


55 


Wa 


61 


w% 


67 


16 


m 


75 


1/2 


82 


w?, 


89 


18 


1^ 


92 


15/8 


100 


Wa 


108 


20 


m 


112 


\y% 


120 ! 


2 


128 


22 


2 


141 


2 


141 


2V^ 


159 


24 


2 


153 


2% 


163 


23/8 


185 



The capacity of the McCracken machine per hour for irrigation 
pipe is about 300 feet of 6-inch pipe, 200 feet of 12-inch pipe, 120 
feet of 16-inch pipe, and 80 feet of 24-inch pipe. Straight tile are 
turned out somewhat faster. The older machines make pipe of 24 
inches length, but the most recent models make the tile or pipe 30 
inches in length. The range of sizes for the No. 2 machine is from 
4 inches to 24 inches in diameter. 

A complete outfit consists of the machine, an engine or motor of 
25 horsepower, a concrete mixer, and two-wheeled carriers ; jackets, 
pallets, and packer-heads for each size of pipe which it is desired 
to make ; and two sizes of elevator buckets. 

The proportions for the mortar should be 1 cement to 3 sand, 
except for city sewer pipe and irrigation pipe under high head, for 
which the proportions may be 1 to 2^ or 1 to 2^. In many cases 
pipe have been made of leaner mixtures,l:4 or 1:5, but failures 
have resulted sometimes, and the leaner mixtures require better 
conditions of curing. 

The force of men required to make pipe, as exemplified at Con- 
tinental, is as follows : At first there were three skilled laborers, — 
the foreman, the machine operator, and the stripper ; and five un- 



•For very deep trenches, heavier pipe should be used. 



Manufacture of Cement Pipe 81 

skilled laborers, — the mortar maker, the mortar feeder, two carriers, 
and one man to sprinkle the pipe in the curing and stack yard. After 
all the laborers had become accustomed to their work, the foreman 
was disjiensed witii. \\'hile making 18 and 20-inch pipe two extra 
laborers were required. 

To protect the freshly-made pipe from sun and rain, a shelter 
was built just to one side of the pipe machine. It was constructed 
of poles, branches, and river brush and is called, locally, a raniada. 
It is 65 feet by 75 feet in size. The frontispiece is a view of the 
pipe yard in August, 1917. It shows the ramada in the background. 

OTHER PIPE MACHINES 

The date of the first manufacture of cement pipe by machine is 
uncertain. Cement pipe was being used largely for sewers in Maine 
about 1870. An advertisement in an old directory of Maine of 1868 
contains the commendation of a prominent architect who states that 
he had known of the use of cement pipe in Boston for 30 years. The 
pipe made by the advertiser, in the city of Portland, was of various 
sizes up to 18 inches in diameter, both circular and egg-shaped in 
section. It is claimed that this man had a machine for making pipe 
and that the principle of packing was similar to that of the Sanders 
machine described on page 86. At that time natural cement was 
used exclusively for the pipe, Portland cement being too costly, and 
probably the pipe was of very inferior quality. 

THE SHERMAN 

About 1885 the Sherman patent sewer pipe machine was de- 
signed and built at Omaha, Neb. It was moved from there to 
Brooklyn, where for twenty years it supplied that city with cement 
sewer pipe in great quantities. The machine employed the tamping 
principle, and was the prototype of the Thomas-Hammond machine 
described on page 84. The Sherman machine had eight metal 
tampers and an inside core which was pulled upward when the 
forms were filled. The outside form rotated with the table on 
which it stood. The smaller sizes of pipe, of 6, 9, and 12-inch 
diameters, were circular in section, and the larger sizes, 15, 18, and 
24-inches in diameter, were of egg-shaped section, which is the ideal 
section for important sewers. All sizes had fiat bases. The wall 
thicknesses were 1 inch for the 9-inch pipe, 1^ inches for the 15-inch 
pipe, and 1^ inches for the 24-inch pipe. They were made of cement, 
sand, and broken trap rock in proportions 1 : 1^ : 23^. Much of the 



82 



Bui^le;tin 86 



pipe was "carbonized" in kilns with coke gas and steam and it is 
said that three days in the kiln were equal to two weeks of curing in 
air. Prior to the advent of the Sherman machine, all the sewer pipe 
used in Brooklyn was made by hand tamping, using natural, or 
"Rosendale," cement. 

the; schenk 

A pipe machine which has been used extensively in Iowa and 
neighboring states is the Schenk, made at Waterloo, Iowa. This 
was the pioneer tile machine, the first one having been built in 1906. 
It was the first centrifugal packer, and, as might be expected, was 
troublesome to operate at first, but many improvements have been 
introduced and the Schenk has become entirely reliable. 

The principles of the Schenk ma- 
chine are very similar to those of the 
McCracken, the differences being in 
the mechanical details. The packer 
shaft is rotated by gearing and is ele- 
vated by a lever the rear end of which 
is controlled by a heart-shaped cam 
wheel, which in turn is operated by 
worm drive from the main shaft. The 
original Schenk packer-head was 
shaped like an ordinary earthen jug, 
but the one now in use has vanes 
and a cylindrical trowel exactly like the McCracken. 

The range of sizes possible with the regular No. 2 Schenk ma- 
chine is from 4 inches to 18 inches, with lengths of either 12 or 18 
inches. There is also a Schenk sewer pipe machine with range of 
sizes from 4 to 30 inches, and in length either 24 or 30 inches. The 
Schenk is said to be a very fast machine for the smaller sizes of tile. 
The manufacturers guarantee that it will make 3000 feet of 6-inch 
straight tile per day with six men. It is not known that they have 
yet furnished pallets for tongue and groove pipe, but doubtless 
would do so if the demand warranted it. 




Fig. 8. — The Schenck packer- 
head, showing trowel and wings. 



THE NATIONAL 



A pipe machine, called the National, made at Boone, Iowa, dif- 
fers from the two preceding in that both outside and inside forms 
are used and the mortar is tamped in place. It is adapted to making 
large pipe, particularly from 20-inch to 45-inch, though the range 



Manufacture of Cement Pipe 



83 



of sizes in the regular equipment is from 14 inches to 36 inches 
diameter. The lengths used are 24, 30, and 36 inches. 

A view of the National pipe machine is sht)\vn in Fig. 9. The 
heavy steel frame is seen to carry a short main shaft (8) driven by 
pulley, and a long countershaft (6) at the top driven by chain. The 
countershaft operates two vertical tampers (4), which play up and 
down like trip hammers, alternately striking tamping blows, 350 per 




Fig. 9. — The National pipe machine. 

minute each, with a force of 75 pounds. The tampers begin at the 
bottom and work up with the concrete. The table (2) on which the 
forms are set is rotated, bringing all parts of the tile under the 
tampers. The mortar or concrete is elevated (1) and dropped into 
the mold as in the other machines. Five horsepower is said to be 
required on the belt and a 10-horsepower gasoline engine is ad- 
visable. 



84 Bulletin 86 

The rate of output claimed for the National machine is 700 feet 
of 14-inch tile per day, 600 feet of 18-inch, 550 feet of 24-inch, and 
350 feet of 30-inch. Eight men are needed for sizes up to the 20- 
inch and eleven men for larger sizes. The wall thicknesses of the 
pipe are the same or a little greater than those given in Table I. 
The mortar is mixed drier than for the McCracken, as otherwise the 
tampers work through it instead of on it. 

One form of made-up reinforcement that has been used with the 
National machine consists of two rings of heavy wire, one close to 
the inside of the pipe and the other near the outside, the two rings 
being connected at intervals by wire spacers, all electrically welded. 
It is called double hoop reinforcement. 

THE MONARCH 

The manufacturers of the National also make the Monarch, 
which ia similar in principle to the McCracken and Schenk machines. 
It has a solid heavy cast frame, surmounted at the top by a sort of 
walking beam which raises and lowers the packer shaft. The beam 
is attached to the shaft through a ball thrust bearing. The Monarch 
is designed for making drain tile from 5 to 20 inches in diameter. 
The table on which the smaller sizes are made has six stands for 
the jackets, so that the operation of the machine is very rapid. Two 
lengths of tile can be made, 12 and 18 inches. 

THE THOMAS-HAMMOND 

All of the preceding machines except the Sherman are made in 
Iowa. Another machine, the Thomas-Hammond, originated in Ta- 
coma, Washington, in 1908. The product of the Thomas-Hammond 
machines is called "glazed cement pipe," and is accepted by leading 
cities on the Pacific coast for sanitary sewers. 

Several changes have been made in the original design of the 
machine so that it is now much more compact, accessible, and port- 
able. The newest model is now called the Hammond, and about a 
score of them are now in service. This machine uses the tamping 
principle, but, while the outside form and tile revolve under the 
tamper, the inside form stands still and serves to give the tile a 
smooth or glazed interior surface. The concrete is fed into the 
mold in a uniform stream and in layers about 1^ inches deep. The 
tamper strikes 400 blows per minute, each blow being from 300 to 
500 pounds, depending on size of pipe. The revolving table is so 
timed that the blows overlap. The tamper is of oak or hickory and 
rises automatically, due to the compacting of the concrete. When 



M.\Ni-i'ACTrKi-: oi" Cr-MKxT riiM-: 



85 



the forms arc filled, the inner form is withdrawn and the outside 
form with the tile is taken away on a wheeled carrier. On the older 
machines the inner form was withdrawn downward, but in the latest 
models it is pulled upward. The older models have two tampers ; 
the later models, one. The range of pipe sizes is from 4 inches to 
30 inches in diameter on the largest of the three sizes of machines. 

The pipe machine used at Glendale recently is a Hammond. Its 
construction is shown in Fig. 10. A vertical shaft is concealed in the 
heavy cast iron standard. 
This shaft operates the 
tamper which is carried 
on a swinging arm. At 
the bottom is a horizontal 
shaft which drives the 
vertical shaft and rotates 
the table on which the 
pipe is made. This shaft 
carries a winding drum, 
also, by means of which 
the inside form is with- 
drawn upward. The hori- 
zontal shaft is driven by 
a quarter-turn belt from a 
jack shaft above, and the 
jackshaft is driven from 
the main shaft which also 
drives the tw^o-sack batch 
mixer and the endless 
belt elevator. A 20-horse- 
power electric motor fur- 
nished the power at Glen- 
dale. 

The outside forms are of heavy steel, in halves, held with screw 
clamps. The inside form is a long cylinder with surface well pol- 
ished by the rubbing to which it is subjected when a tile is being 
made. The Thomas-Hammond machine has been used mostly for 
bell-ended pipe and the Glendale specifications required bell and 
spigot joints. When the body of the pipe has been tamped full, a 
special form to make the bell is put in place, and the tamping is then 
continued. The pipe rests on a cast iron ring with three blunt feet. 
When a fresh pipe is wheeled to the curing space the bell form is 




Fig. 10. — The Thomas-Hammoncl pipe machine. 



86 Bulletin 86 

first removed, then the outside forms, and a light galvanized ring is 
slipped onto the top edge of the bell, as otherwise its weight might 
cause the bell to slump off. The pipe is then left standing on its 
bottom ring for at least a day. 

The pipe making crew at Glendale was composed of eight men. 
Only one man, the foreman, came with the machine, and great diffi- 
culty was had in breaking in green men, especially since the force 
kept changing. The best day's record of pipe making was 722 feet 
of 15-inch pipe, and the average day's run was from 575 to 600 feet. 
The pipe was cured in an open yard and was kept wet for seven 
days. It was hauled over rough roads to the line of trench but 
there was practically no breakage. Tests were made on about 100 
specimens in a frame quite similar to that shown in Fig. 24. With 
the full pressure from the city main, about 30 pounds, none of the 
pipe broke and none of them showed any seepage, save a few small 
spots that became moist. The pipe were inspected carefully. A 
few, perhaps one percent, were rejected on account of burnt in- 
terior surfaces, short bells, or cracks, most of the cracks being at the 
spigot end. 

THE ALLEN 

The Allen machine has a revolving table and a tamper. Both in- 
side and outside forms rotate with the table. The machine is de- 
signed for sizes from 3 inches to 24 inches in diameter. About six 
of these machines have been built, two of which have been in use at 
Phoenix for se\'eral years. It is understood that no more of these 
machines are being built. 

THE SANDERS 

More recently two more pipe machines have been put on the 
market in southern California. One is the Sanders, built by the 
Pomona Manufacturing Company and the other is built by Kellar- 
Thomason Company of Los Angeles. 

The Sanders pipe machine has a steel frame work, the base of 
which is only 4 feet by 8 feet. This frame is mounted on four small 
wheels, so that the machine can be shifted around in the pipe yard 
or can be moved readily from one job to another. A 6 horsepower 
distillate engine is mounted on the back end of the frame and is 
belted to the main shaft located at the top of the frame, directly 
above the front end. The vertical packer rod is driven from the 
main shaft by beveled gears. The weight of the machine is ap- 
proximately 1800 pounds and a 6-horsepower engine weighs about 
1000 pounds additional. 



MaXL'FACTI'RIv of CKMIvNT Pll^g 



87 



The ordinary forms, consisting of core, jacket, and tongue and 
groove rings, such as are used for hand-tamped pipe, are used with 
the Sanders machine. Thus, a contractor who has an equipment of 
forms for hand-made pipe need not buy a new equipment. The 
packer is a long revolving cylinder which is lowered into the space 
between the core and jacket. On the bottom of the packing cylin- 
der and held by rivets, there are three or more chilled iron flat- 
bottomed "shoes" which are tilted at a small angle. When the 




Fig. 11. — The Sanders (Pomona) pipe machine. 



cylinder reaches the bottom, shovelers begin to throw mortar into 
the forms. The mortar accumulating and passing beneath the re- 
volving shoes raises the cylinder and the mortar is packed into the 
form densely, the pressure being downward rather than outward as 
in the McCracken system. When the cylinder reaches the top it is 
held by a band brake while the table is rotated so as to bring another 
(empty) jacket under the packer, and the cylinder is then lowered 
again by partially releasing the brake. Meanwhile the top, or 
tongue, joint is made on the cement pipe by workmen, and the core 
is removed. The form containing the pipe is wheeled away to the 
curing floor, where the jacket is stripped ofY. The packing cylinder 
makes about 40 revolutions per pipe, the number depending upon 
how fast the mortar is fed, and about 30 seconds of time is required 
in this operation. 

The table on which the forms rest has three grates for forms, 
so that while one pipe is being made, another is being removed and 



88 



Buivi^ETiN 86 



the forms for a third pipe are being made ready. The table has a 
socket bearing at the center, about 1^ inches diameter, resting on a 
spindle so that it turns easily when the operator raises the spindle 
by stepping on the end of a foot lever. About ten of these machines 
are now in use. The range of sizes is from 6 to 14 inches in 
diameter. 

THE KElvIvAR-THOMASON 

The Kellar-Thomason machine is larger and requires a 20-horse- 
power engine or motor. The machine is quite similar to the Mc- 





■ 


^^^ i 11 


'i'^vBR^I 


Hi 





Fig. 12. — The Kellar-Thomason pipe machine. 



Cracken and uses the trowelling process, but is more compact and 
of sturdy construction, as seen in Fig. 12. 

The ordinary split jacket for hand-tamped pipe is used, but no 
core, and the mortar is packed securely against the jacket by the 
winged trowel. The usual crew is five men for small pipe and 
seven men for large pipe. The range of pipe sizes is from 4 to 20 



Manufacture of Cfment Pipe 



89 



inches and the capacity of the machine is from 1000 to 2000 feet per 
nine hours, according to the size. 

The manufacturers state that they have made internal pressure 
tests on their machine-made pipe, and found 8-inch pipe to with- 




Fig. 13. — Filling the ordinary hand molds with a pneumatic tamper. There are six 
plants in California where these tampers are used successfully. 

Stand from 65 to 85 pounds per square inch, 10-inch pipe a maximum 
of 77 pounds, 16-inch pipe 65 pounds, the pipe being made of 1 : 3^ 
mixture. They state also that tests on 1 : 5^4 pipe showed strength 
about 60 percent of the above figures. 

The first of these machines w^as installed at Van Nuys, Cali- 



90 Bulletin 86 

fornia, in March, 1916, and has been in successful operation since 
that time. Another machine is in service in Yuba City, California. 

PNEUMATIC AIR TAMPERS 

Several pipe contractors, who still use the ordinary hand molds, 
have installed air compressors in their yards, and use pneumatic 
tampers, v^hich are similar to pneumatic hammers and drills. The 
Ingersoll tamper, which is preferred, weighs about 20 pounds and is 
suspended from a tripod with pulley and counterweight. It has a 
5-inch stroke, and strikes 750 blows per minute. The head of the 
tamper is three-fourths of an inch thick and 6 inches long, in circular 
form to conform to the curve of the mold. The air pressure is 90 
pounds per square inch. The compressed air is piped about the 
yards and several pipe crews can use it at once. A 7-inch by 6-inch 
compressor, displacing 75 cubic feet per minute, will supply two 
crews. About 10 percent more pipe can be made than by hand 
tamping, and the pipe is tamped more uniformly and more densely. 

THE DURYEE-COLE 

A continuous pipe machine, the Duryee-Cole, is in process of 
manufacture and will doubtless be tried out soon. 

HAND-MADE CEMENT PIPE 

Cement pipe made and tamped by hand has become very com- 
mon throughout southern California and Arizona. The usual style 
of outfit is that shown in Fig. 14. It consists of outside and inside 
collapsible forms, a rimmer for forming the tongue on the top end 
of the pipe, enough bottom pallets for one or two days' run, hopper, 
tampers, scoop, and shovels. Bell-ended pipe is made by hand in 
the Middle West. An example of such pipe is shown in Fig. 2. 

After the forms are placed in position and a batch of mortar is 
made ready, one man feeds the mortar into the forms while another 
tamps vigorously. Care must be taken not to feed the mortar faster 
on one side of the ring than on the other, nor faster than it can be 
thoroughly tamped. The mortar is made of a rather dry consist- 
ency ; most pipe makers make it unnecessarily dry. When the forms 
are filled and the top joint (tongue) has been made, the forms are 
carried by hand to the curing floor, where the inside form, or core, 
is first removed from the tile and then the outside form, or jacket, 
is removed. 



Manufacture of Cement Pipe 



91 



There are six cement pipe plants in California where pipe is 
made of very wet consistency, so wet that the jacket cannot be re- 
moved in the ordinary way lest the mortar slump to the ground. 
Instead of opening the jacket to remove it, the jacket is shaken ofif 
by quick jerking movements upward. When the jacket comes free, 
the tile settles over an inch in its length. The tile thus made be- 
comes strong and is exceedingly impervious. More skill is required 
than in making dry or semi-wet pipe. 

The hand-made pipe is thicker than machine-made pipe, except 
in the larger sizes. The usual thickness and weight for the common 
sizes is given in Table II. The large sizes should be made with 
thicker walls. It is seen from the table that the 12-inch pipe has 
wall thickness one-eighth of the pipe diameter, while the 36-inch 
pipe has w^all only one-twelfth of the diameter. Most of the serious 
pipe failures have occurred on large pipe lines. This matter is 
discussed further on page 133. 



TARLE IT. THICKNESS AND WEIGHT PER FOOT OF HAND-MADE PIPE 



Diameter 


Thickness 


Weight per foot 


Inches 


Inches 


Pounds 


4 


1 




6 


1/8 


'26 


8 


VA 


31 


10 


m 


44 


12 


1/2 


57 


14 


m 


68 


16 


m 


87 


18 


m 


100 


20 


m 


114 


22 


-? 


141 


24 


2% 


163 


30 


234 




36 


3 





Extra strong pipe can be made by using an oversize outside form. 
One contractor in this way makes 8-inch pipe of two strengths, one 
having the wall thickness one-eighth inch greater than the other. 
Sometimes a 14-inch jacket is used with a 12-inch core and the pipe 
is, therefore, 2^ inches thick. A contractor who makes very wet 
pipe in this manner states that he guarantees it under 100 feet 
pressure. 

The working force at Continental for hand-tamped pipe con- 
sisted of two skilled men and four unskilled laborers, though the lat- 
ter were not all employed to advantage. The tamper was unusually 
strong and active, and had had long experience in pipe making and 
laying. He was able to make from 270 to 300 feet of 16-inch pipe 



92 



BuLivr;TiN 86 



in a nine-hour day, which is an exceptional record. In May, 1916, 
near Tucson, two experienced pipe makers, working on a contract, 
made 200 to 220 feet of 12-inch pipe or 110 feet of 16-inch pipe per 
eight-hour day. Later, at the same place, one man with two in- 
experienced helpers made 12-inch pipe at the rate of 180 feet per 
day. About the same time and only a few miles away, another pipe 
crew brought from Los Angeles was making 1000 feet of 18-inch 
pipe. The making required ten days, partly on account of the ex- 




Fig. 14. — Pipe molds for hand-tamped cement pipe. 

treme heat, though the foreman stated that, ordinarily, a crew 
should make 220 feet per day. On the University campus consider- 
able 8-inch pipe is used from time to time. It is made by two 
workmen who turn out 100 to 120 feet per eight hours. 

It is apparent, therefore, that no uniformity in the rate of pipe 
making by hand exists, and standards cannot be safely set. One 
pipe maker may accomplish twice as much as another. In case a 
farmer purchases forms and makes his own pipe, as sometimes oc- 



Manufacture; of Cement Pipe 93 

curs, he should not try for a record output until he first learns how 
to make pipe of high quality. 

The proportions used with hand molds are 1 of cement to 3 or 4 
of sand and gravel or broken stone, the richer mixture being used 
for pipe to be placed under some pressure or where sand alone is 
used for the aggregate. In one instance recently, near Tucson, a 
contractor made pipe with a 1 : Ayz mixture instead of 1:3 as had 
been directed. The pipe was weak and very porous. With hand 
molds much coarser aggregates are allowable than with the Mc- 
Cracken pipe machine, gravel even up to on"e-half the thickness of 
the pipe being permissible. Such particles do not interfere with 
hand tamping, but they do prevent the formation of the desirable 
"polished" surface with the revolving packer-head. The advantage 
of including small gravel is that the same strength can be obtained 
with a smaller proportion of cement. 

The greatest advantage of the hand-made pipe is that it can 
always be made at or near the place where it is to be used. Usually 
sand of suitable quality can be found within a moderate distance and 
the wagon haul for sand and cement is not expensive. On the 
other hand, machine-made pipe presupposes a factory at some cen- 
tral location for supplying the demand for pipe in an irrigated or 
drainage district. Only on large contracts would it be profitable to 
move a large machine to the work. A portable Pomona machine 
obviates this difficulty to some extent. A freight charge on the pipe 
plus the cost of a long wagon haul might increase the cost of the 
pipe to a point where the superior qualities of the machine-made 
pipe would be more than offset by its greater cost. Therefore, there 
will always be a field, small jobs and in isolated locations, where the 
hand-made pipe will be employed. 

WET-POURED CONCRETE PIPE 

Wet-poured pipe, also, can be considered as hand-made, though 
it differs materially from that described above. The fact that the 
concrete is poured wet makes it necessary to leave the pipe in the 
molds until the concrete is thoroughly set. This requires many sets 
of forms and the investment in forms is so great that wet-poured 
pipe is used only for large sizes. Usually, too, wet-poured pipe is 
for pipe lines under considerable hydraulic pressure, and the pipe 
usually is reinforced. 

Two large contracts for wet-poured pipe have been executed at 
Tucson, one for the water-supply main from the city's supply wells 
four miles south of Tucson to the main pumping plant on Osborne 



94 



Bulletin 86 



Avenue, built in 1914, and the other the outfall sewer, built in 1917. 
The same forms were used on both jobs. They are four feet 
long and the pipe is 30 inches inside diameter with a shell 3^ inches 
thick. The pipe for the water-supply line was made at a yard, in 
the center of which was a high derrick. The boom was long and 
reached over a wide area. Each pipe was moved from the pouring 
floor out into the yard just before removing the forms and the der- 
rick was used again later to load the pipe for hauling to place along 
the trench. The concrete mixture was 1 of cement, 2 of sand, and 
4 of broken stone or screened gravel. The reinforcement was of 
round iron wound spirally and was designed to withstand an inter- 
nal pressure, varying from zero at the upper end to 30 pounds per 
square inch at the lower end of the line, with 15,000 pounds per 
square inch allowable working stress in the steel. 

For the outfall sewer the pipe was made along the trench and 
the forms were moved along as the work progressed. This obviated 
the necessity of hauling the pipe long distances, but required much 
hauling while making and curing the pipe. The mixture was the 
same as for the water-supply line, but the reinforcement was uni- 
form the whole length of the line and consisted of 3^ inch round 
iron rings spaced 6 inches apart, and 4 rods of the same size running 

longitudinally through each 
joint from the end of the 
tongue to the end of the 
groove. The maximum dif- 
ference in elevation in the 
sewer line is 7?) feet. 

The only criticism of the 
pipe just described is that 
the longitudinal reinforce- 
ment does not extend con- 
tinuously across the joints. 
This continuity can be ob- 
tained in various ways, and 
some ingenious joints have 
been patented, notably the 
Johnson and the Meri- 
wether, the former of which is shown in Fig. 15. The Johnson pipe 
uses special bar reinforcement, and the Meriwether uses "Triangle 
Mesh." Ordinarily longitudinal reinforcement is not needed. It 
is needed, however, if the bed of the trench is of uneven bearing 
power and settlement is liable to occur. An inverted siphon laid 




Fig. 15. — The Johnson reinforced pipe joint. 
(From Bulletin 55.) 



Manufacture of Cement Pipe 



95 



beneath a river should have heavy reinforcement longitudinally. 
A long section of the city supply pipe was unjoined when a river 
flood broke into the unfilled trench and floated the pipe line upward. 
Usually the longitudinal reinforcement is introduced merely for the 
purpose of holding the horizontal rings in place. 

The circular reinforcement is designed usually to take all of the 
internal tension, allowing 16,000 pounds i:>er square inch for the 
unit stress. If the tension is 
due to internal water pressure, 
the steel is placed near the out- 
side of the pipe, but buried in 
the concrete about an inch to 
protect it from rust. If the re- 
inforcement is to resist the 
weight of backfill, then the 
steel rings are made elliptical, 
so that they are near the inside 
of the pipe at top and bottom 
and near the outside on the two 
sides. For pipe over 24 inches 
in diameter it is practical to al- 
low higher pressure heads, be- 
cause the pipe layers can work 
inside of large pipe and can 
make better joints; Many con- 
crete pipe lines with heads be- 
tween 100 and 200 feet are in 
successful use. 

The Massey Company make 

reinfnrrpd ronrretp rnlvert nine^'^- 16.— Cage of Triangle Mesh reinforcement 
remiorcea concrexe cun eri pipe ^j^j^ ^^'iTes properly spliced. 

for railways and highways. For 

small sized pipe they use steel mesh, with steel uprights and bell 
rings, while in the larger sizes they use a cage of ^-inch Havemeyer 
bar for vertical bars and all rings, all hand-tied with No. 14 annealed 
wire. The mix is 1:2:4. 

Reinforced concrete pipe, wet-poured, is also constructed in 
place in many instances, a local example being the cross-cut col- 
lecting head of the Tucson Farms Company near the southwest 
corner of the city. The power conduit at the Roosevelt Reservoir 
has two inverted siphons constructed in this manner, one of them 
crossing Cottonwood Canyon at a depth of 75 feet below the grade 
line of the canal. 




96 



Bulletin 86 



PIPE MAKING 

THE MORTAR 

The materials for making cement pipe must be of good quality. 
The cement must pass the standard specifications of the American 
Society for Testing Materials. A comparatively quick setting ce- 
ment is desirable. Riverside (California) cement was used at Con- 
tinental. Four carloads were sampled and tested for strength and 
fineness. The normal consistency was obtained with 25^^ percent 
water in 1917 and 24 percent in 1918. 

TABLE III. TENSILE STRENGTH OE RIVERSIDE CEMENT 



Car 


Date of 
sample 


, , ^ ^ 7-day test 
1-dav test 


28-day test 


Tested by 


No. 


Neat Neat 1:3 


Neat 


1:3 


1 
2 
3 
4 


Oct., 1916 
June, 1918 


Pn„«^c [ Pounds 

215 502 

216 598 
408 1 745 
396 ' 698 


Pounds Pounds 

218 ' 672 
239 649 
288 835 
257 745 


Pounds 

286 
239 
408 
372 


F. C. Kelton 

Smith, Emery & Co 
« « « (1 



TABLE IV. FINENESS OE RIVERSIDE CEMENT, OCTOBER 2, 1916 



Car No. 




Percent passing screen 


lOO-mesh 


200-mesh 


1 
2 
3 
4 


Percent 
97.8 

97.7 
99.1 

99.0 


Percent 
80.1 
81.5 
86.6 
86.3 



The percentage of magnesia (MgO) was 4.1, as determined in 
June, 1917, and again in June, 1918. 

Users of cement should take samples occasionally and have stan- 
dard tests made for soundness, strength, fineness, and percentage of 
magnesia. In every large city there are commercial testing engi- 
neers, and in Arizona the University offers to make these tests for 
a moderate charge to cover the cost. 

The sand for cement pipe must be clean, and should be composed 
of sharp quartz particles. If it comes from gravel beds and is for 
use on a McCracken or other trowel machine, it should be screened 
through a half-inch mesh screen, for larger pieces are apt to roll 
under the action of the packer-head. For tamped pipe, whether 
made by hand or on one of the tamping machines, a considerable 
percentage of coarse gravel or broken stone is desirable, for the 
strength of the pipe is enhanced thereby. All the better class of 
pipe contractors who tamp are coming to use coarse aggregate with 



]M.\N'L'FACTURK OF CemEXT PipE 



97 



the sand. The usual ratio is 5 of sand to 3 of broken stone. A 
larger proportion of stone might be stronger but there would be 
some cavities, and more danger of seep spots. Broken stone give.«i 
greater strength than gravel. If pipe is broken up for examination, 
the pieces of broken stone are more often broken through, while the 
breaks run around the gravel. Stone that passes through a ^-inch 
screen is suitable for 12-inch pipe, and stone from a 1-inch screen 
for 18-inch pipe. If it is possible to obtain broken stone that has 
passed through a ^^ j-inch screen, it could be used in a limited way in 
packer-head pipe. 

For tamped pipe, therefore, the most favorable proportions are 
1 of cement, 2^ of sand, and 1^^ of J4 irich to ^ inch broken stone. 
If no stone is available, the mix should be 1 of cement to 3 of sand. 
For sewer pipe the proportions used in many cases are 1 :25^, but so 
rich a mix is not necessary unless the sewer is laid very deep or is 
in soil containing a high percentage of white alkali, particularly 
sodium sulfate. 

Two samples of the sand being used at Continental were taken 
on April 3, 1917, and two samples on June 26, 1918. They were 
subjected to mechanical analysis. 

TABLE V. MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF SCREENED SAND AT CONTINENTAL, 

ARIZONA 









Percent pasriin^ screen 






Separa- 












Screen 


tion 


Sample 


Sample ' 


Sample 


Sample 


Classification 






No. 1 


No. 2 


No. 3 i 


No. 4 




Meshes 
per lin. in. 


Mm. 


% 


% 


% 


% 


Very fine sand 


200 


0.10 


0.4 


0.6 


.33 


.21 


Fine sand 


ISO 


0.135 


0.7 


1.1 


.64 


.44 


Fine sand 


100 


0.20 


1.7 


2.6 


1.25 


.89 


Fine sand 


70 


0.25 


4.8 


6.4 


2.55 


1.99 


Medium sand 


40 


0.44 


177 


21.2 


8.85 


8.49 


Coarse sand 


20 


1.00 


51.2 


57.0 


33.85 


43.99 


Fine gravel 


10 


2.07 


79.1 


82.3 


59.85 


75.29 




6 








74.95 


87.39 




4 






•■• 


84.35 


92.99 





A cement mixer of the batch type, such as the Blystone, should 
be used at all cement pipe plants. The cement and sand should be 
mixed dry for about a minute before the water is let in from a meas- 
uring tank attached to a frame just over the mixer. Mixing is then 



98 



Bulletin 86 



continued for at least one minute more before the mixer is dumped. 
The mortar on the floor must be used up quickly and no dry or set 
mortar should be retempered and used. 

At Continental 607 cubic inches, or 22 pounds, of water were 
used for a one sack batch. This is 23.4 percent of the weight of the 
cement. The mortar when dumped was just wet enough to retain 
its form when compressed in the hand. But when the outside jacket 
was stripped from the fresh tile, the tile quaked like stiff jelly, and 
small drops of water stood on the surface. When the mortar had 
set, the surface was covered with a fine water-web ; this web may be 
accepted as the test for correct consistency. The strength and im- 
perviousness of the pipe depend in large part upon the percentage 
of water used ; in every case it must be carefully watched, for the 
amount of water needed varies with the brand of cement and with 
the fineness of the sand. If the mortar is mixed too dry the pipe 
may be pervious, and if too wet the strength is reduced. 

The unit quantities of sand and cement per tile, or per 100 feet, 
is somewhat variable even on the same machine. The outside jack- 
ets, when old, become stretched, and the packer-heads become worn ; 
both of these causes tend to increase the thickness and weight of the 
tile. The rate of feeding the elevator buckets and the speed of the 
machine tend to vary the density of the tile walls. An approximate 
estimate of the quantities required can be had from the following 
data obtained at Continental. 

TABLE VL QUANTITIES OE MATERIAL FOR MCCRACKEN CEMENT PIPE 



Diameter of 


Thickness 


Pipe per cubic yard 


Pipe per sack 


pipe 


of sand 


of cement 


Inches 


Inches 


Lineal feet 


Lineal feet 


12 


Wa 


69.0 


7.0 


14 


m 


56.2 


5.5 


16 


m 


40.2 


3.9 


18 


m 


38.3 


3.5 


20 


m 


30.7 


3.1 



The handling of the machine is an art and cannot be learned 
from a bulletin. The normal method of learning to run a machine 
is to serve an apprenticeship. The purchaser of a machine to be 
used in Arizona should include in the contract that the manufac- 
turers send an experienced pipe maker to install the machine and 
to operate it for at least a month. 

The operator stands with the right hand on the clutch lever, 
holding a large trowel in the left hand. With the trowel he can 
hold back the mortar in the chute or can help it along. Too much 
mortar chokes the packer-head and puts a heavy load on the engine. 



Manufacture of Cement Pipe 99 

To change the machine from one size of tile to another requires 
about an hour's time. This is done sometimes during the noon hour 
or after working hours in the afternoon. 

The advantage derived from reinforcing machine-made pipe is 
not fully determined, but it seems probable that much reinforced 
pipe will be used in the future with the extension of the field for 
cement ])ipe. For machines of the National type, double hoop rein- 
forcement is the best. For packer-head pipe machines some form 
of cage in which the circular rings are supported is preferable. At 
Continental electro-welded hoops of No. 7 wire were tried first. The 
rings were of a size to fit into the corrugations of the jacket, where 
they were securely held. Three rings per 2-foot pipe were used, 
and they were found to be firmly imbedded in the concrete. But 
there was difficulty in getting the rings properly welded in local 
machine shops, and on account of the surface position of the rings 
they could not be expected to resist corrosion. Cages made of hog 
wire were next tried with success, and later similar cages made of 
"Triangle Mesh." The last proved to be the best adapted to the pur- 
pose ; it is rigid and stays in position in the jacket. The mesh comes 
in rolls of 150 feet, and in various widths, of which the 20-inch width 
was selected. The longitudinal wires in the mesh are 4 inches apart 
and are thoroughly braced by the cross wires which run diagonally. 
When the reinforced pipe were tested in the internal-pressure 
machine, the results were disappointing. There was no increase in 
strength, and there was some leakage along the lines of the wires. 
This same type of reinforcement was tried in a tamping machine in 
California, and it was found that the steel weakened the pipe 
greatly. A correspondent who uses double-hoop reinforcement 
writes that the reinforcement is not considered to prevent the tile 
from cracking, but it does prevent the tile from collapsing in case 
cracks occur. Despite these discouraging reports, it is believed 
that a technique can be found for making reinforcement effective in 
packer-head pipe. The action of the trowel compacts the mortar 
to so great an extent that it appears to have the consistency of 
jelly, and this should be enough to create a bond between the 
cement and steel. It may be that the curing process in the open 
air permits the cement to break from the steel through shrinking. 
The author was able to make but a few tests, and believes that 
full investigation will reveal a method of successfully reinforcing 
McCracken and other similar pipe. 



100 



Bullet IN 86 



CURING 

Curing the tile requires that it be kept wet until the mortar has 
not only set but has hardened. Seven to ten days is the usual time 
for curing but two weeks is preferable. A water supply under 
pressure is desirable, and several automatic sprinklers should be 
provided. It is awkward and difficult to keep the pipe wet with 
hand sprinklers or with water that has to be handled with a pail, as 




Pig. 17.— Yaqui Indians tr-mpingr 15-inch cement pipe at Flowing Wells ranch. 

(From Bulletin 55.) 



from a ditch. An occasional wetting is not enough ; the pipe must 
be kept wet. 

For at least twenty-four hours and preferably forty-eight, the 
pipe should be protected from the sun. Any cheap shed covering is 



■NlAXUrACTURK OF CKMIvXT PipE 101 

satisfactory ; overlapped palm leaves are good. The shed should be 
close to the pipe machine and on level ground. In moving the pipe 
from the shed to the stackyard, each length is turned on its side 
and rolled, care being taken to avoid striking any hard object. 

Nearly all hand-tamped pipe is made and cured in the open air. 
Here is opportunity for reform. In a humid climate it may be pos- 
sible to cure pipe in the open, but in Arizona a covering is needed 
during most of the year. 

In a few cases farmers have rolled their new-made pipe into the 
irrigation ditch or a creek when the pipe was about three days old. 
In each case unusually good pipe has resulted. 

Steam curing, as practiced in the Middle West, is exceedingly 
effective. The green tile are placed on the platforms of low cars 
and run on tracks into tunnels. When a tunnel is full, the doors 
are closed tight and saturated steam from a boiler is admitted. The 
boiler pressure is kept at about 5 pounds. The hot, dripping atmos- 
phere accelerates the setting and hardening, and makes the curing 
independent of unfavorable weather conditions, especially freezing 
temperatures. After 36 hours in a steam chamber the pipe can be 
loaded and shipped immediately. 

In southern Arizona less difficulty is experienced from freezing 
than from the extreme heat and dryness of the summer months. 
One efYect of the dry heat is to make some cements set before the 
mortar can be placed. During the construction of the Laguna dam, 
a shipment of California cement persisted in setting in one minute. 
It was necessary to dig the concrete out of the mixer with chisels 
and drills. Another California brand gave the same trouble in 
another locality. The author rejected two carloads of a Kansas 
cement in 1908, because the cement took its initial set in three min- 
utes. In this case the author's tests were confirmed by a commer- 
cial testing firm in Philadelphia. This phenomenon of abrupt set- 
ting is not well understood, but it is a safe conclusion that the stor- 
age of cement in hot, dry places for long periods may be dangerous, 
and furthermore the cement pile and sand pile should be kept as 
cool as possible in midsummer, possibly by sprinkling the sand pile 
with water. 

The importance of curing should be emphasized for it is the 
feature of pipe manufacture that is most apt to be neglected. Un- 
doubtedly much cement pipe, both hand-made and machine-made, 
never attains the strength of which it is capable, because it is al- 
lowed to become dry before the hardening process has progressed to 
a proper point. 



102 Bulletin 86 

waterproofing 

Machine-made cement pipe is impervious at ordinary pressures ; 
no waterproofing is necessary for it. 

Hand-made pipe usually leaks when first put into use, but the 
leakage decreases gradually and finally ceases. The original leak- 
age depends upon the proportions of the mortar, the consistency, 
and the thoroughness of mixing and tamping. It is customary to 
paint the inside of the pipe with a w^ash made of cement and water 
to reduce the seepage. 

Hydrated lime is effective in waterproofing concrete but is sel- 
dom used in pipe manufacture. The Cement Pipe Company of 
Phoenix have used it in both machine and hand-made pipe. They 
use 10 pounds per sack of cement. In case the pipe will be under 
considerable pressure this amount should not be exceeded, and per- 
haps 8 pounds is a safer limit. In the tests of 1907 the author made 
pipe with mixtures in which a heavy percentage of lime was de- 
pended upon in part for the strength of the pipe. At present prices 
there is no economy, however, in the substitution of lime for cement. 
There is another advantage in the use of hydrated lime in hot 
weather, in that the mortar holds water better and the pipe is more 
readily cured. Tar compounds have not been used for waterproof- 
ing cement pipe. 



PIPE LAYING AND PIPE LINE FAILURES 

PIPE LAYING 

The pipe should be laid in the trench in the same manner as 
sewer pipe is laid, with straig^ht alignment and uniform grade. Many- 
lines, where the pressure is light, are laid by the contractor without 
any preliminary surveying. It is better, however, in all cases to 
have the grades established and stakes set every 50 feet by a sur- 
veyor. A map and ])rofile showing alignment, elevations, and gates 
and valves is worth the cost. An undulating grade involves many 
air pockets, which tend to induce water hammer and to decrease the 
flow. 

THE TRENCH 

The width of the trench should be 10 inches greater than the 
external diameter of the pipe. This allows room for the pipe layer 
and for the bander who must straddle the pipe. 

The bed of the trench should be prepared with care. If the 
trench is cut too deep and refilled to grade, the refilling should be 
tamped. There is likely to be a very slight settlement of the entire 
pipe line, but if it is uniform throughout the length no injury will 
result. Unequal settlement, however, produces cracks. 

At the University Farm a pipe line was carried across a ravine 
on an earth fill. In the center was a 5-foot culvert, the top of which 
was close to the invert of the pipe line. The earth fill settled while 
the culvert was unyielding, with the result that the pipe line cracked 
just over the culvert several times until, finally, the settlement 
ceased. 

The manner of backfilling must depend upon the size of the 
pipe, the depth of earth to be supported by the pipe, and the nature 
of the soil. Many expensive failures of pipe lines, usually of large- 
sized pipe, have been due to insufficient backfilling beneath the in- 
vert. Soil which breaks up in chunks, such as clay, does not settle 
back beneath the pipe, while sandy soil or any soil that pulverizes is 
known to the pipe layer as "a good pipe soil." The best methods of 
filling the space beneath the pipe are by flooding a small depth of 
backfill and by tamping. In one district where clay soil predomi- 
nates, it is customary to backfill only to the top of the pipe and 
then run a small stream of water down the line. This settles the 
heavy soil under the pipe, and this supporting soil is allowed to dry 
out before the trench is filled. Sometimes the flooding is repeated 



104 Bulletin 86 

when two or three feet of earth have have been placed over the pipe. 
No extensive flooding should be done, however, without first filling 
the pipe line, as there is danger of floating an empty pipe line up- 
ward and breaking the joints. If the flooding is not feasible, the 
soil can be tamped in until the backfill is above the center of the 
pipe. One contractor has his backfiller straddle the pipe and as he 
pulls the soil in with a shovel he continually tramps upon it. In the 
drainage districts of the Middle West usually the bed of the trench 
is shaped semi-circular to fit the drain tile and it is considered poor 
practice to lay the tile on a flat bed. The soils are, of course, heavy 
and wet, and there are no convenient facilities for flooding as there 
are along an irrigation pipe line. A 2-inch layer of sand is some- 
times spread on a clay trench bottom to serve as a bed for the pipe. 
In case the pipe has lain in the pipe yard until it is thoroughly 
dry, it is a good precautionary measure to run water over a shallow 
backfill before or at the same time that the water is turned into the 
line, in order to guard against failures such as described on page 110. 

METHODS OF LAYING 

Cement pipe with tongue and groove joints are laid in the trench 
with great facility. The mortar used for this purpose should be 
rich. It is usually mixed with two parts of sand to one ot cement. 
Hydrated lime adds to the smooth working qualities of the mortar, 
making the mortar "fat," but it is not essential. It was used at Con- 
tinental for a time, then discontinued, and afterwards used again. 
Six or eight pounds per sack of cement is the proper amount to use. 

The pipe are distributed along the trench by team, and are 
handed down and stood on the groove ends in the trench. A gal- 
vanized iron form about 12 inches long, called the laying core, is 
inserted in the groove end, projecting about three inches. The space 
between the form and the groove is then filled with mortar, and ad- 
ditional mortar is placed under the tongue in the trench. The joint 
of pipe is tipped over and jointed quickly. While a helper raises it 
slightly with a pair of pipe tongs, or a leather strap, the pipe layer 
stooping down gives the pipe a quick thrust which closes the groove 
tightly over the tongue. Small sizes are handled by the layer with- 
out a helper. The laying core is then drawn out through the end 
of the pipe and placed in the groove end of the next pipe. The pipe 
layer reaches in with a long-handled brush and smooths the joint. 
A third man, following along in the trench, spreads a band of mor- 
tar about three inches wide over the joint. This is called banding. 
It is omitted sometimes on pipe lines of small pipe that are to be 



Pipe Laving and Pipk Line Failures 



105 




Fig. 18. — Laying the concrete pipe fo: 



i;..ii;, I'.'r 'J.ly .ji Ti 



under slight pressure head. A fourth man prepares the mortar and 
brings it in pails to the trench, and one or two laborers, following 




Fig. 19. — Laying 20-incli cement pipe in shallow ditch at Continental. 

close back of the bander, backfill the trench enough to cover at least 
two inches over the pipe. In hot weather it should be backfilled at 
least 8 inches over the pipe. A water tank mounted on wagon trucks 



106 Bulletin 86 

is moved forward with the mortar boxes several times a day. Large 
sizes of pipe are lowered by means of tripod or derrick with block 
and tackle. 

The custom in other places is to use a smaller laying crew — only 
three or four men. The layer handles pipe up to 16 inches in diame- 
ter alone. The addition of a few more unskilled men does not add 
materially to the cost per day and it permits of much faster progress. 

Sixty percent of the pipe layers, it is said, do not use a laying 
core. Over half of the pipe at Continental was laid without one. 
Pipe layers are much divided in opinion as to the usefulness of the 
core. Many layers make good water-tight joints, with smooth in- 
side surfaces, without it. However, a man with limited experience 
or who is inclined to shirk his work is much surer to place a proper 
amount of mortar, and to secure it throughout the full circle of the 
joint, if he uses a core, and for that reason it is recommended that 
specifications require its use. The inside joint should always be 
brushed even when a core is used. 

There is one pipe manufacturer in California who makes Mc- 
Cracken bell-end pipe for irrigation pipe lines. His method of lay- 
ing is as follows. The layer faces the bell-end of the last pipe laid, 
and the helper straddles it. The helper washes the bell-end with 
water and places mortar in the lower half of the bell while the layer 
builds a fillet of mortar around a core projecting from the spigot end 
of the upright pipe. The pipe is shoved into the bell-end, and the 
helper fills the top of the bell with mortar. A bander finishes the 
joint, and a mixer and a back filler complete the laying crew. No 
excavation is made for the bells. The experience of this contractor 
does not reveal any superiority of the bell and spigot pipe over the 
tongue and groove pipe. 

The specifications for laying the sewer line at Glendale were as 
follows. "Before a pipe is laid, the lower half of the hub of the pre- 
ceding pipe shall be plastered on the inside with a stiff mortar mixed 
1:1, and sufficient thickness to bring the inner bottoms of the abut- 
ting pipes flush and even. After the pipe is laid, the remainder of 
the hub shall be thoroughly filled with similar mortar and the joint 
wiped inside and finished to a smooth bevel outside." 

A new feature introduced recently on the Thomas-Hammond 
machine is the self-centering joint. The lower part of the bell is 
beveled so that the spigot, when it is forced into the bell, becomes 
accurately centered. This tends to give maximum flow capacity to 
the pipe line. However, it was found at Glendale that the mortar 
on the bottom interfered with the centering by raising the spigot 



Pipe Laying and Pipe Line Failures 107 

end and, therefore, much of the line was laid without first placing 
the mortar in the bottom of the bell. Without the bottom mortar it 
becomes difficult to fill the annular space beneath the pipe and this 
work is likely to be done carelessly. The annular space is only ^- 
inch, which is so narrow that no tool can work in it easily. Mr. F. 
N. Holmquist, the engineer, states that in his opinion there is con- 
siderable leakage through the joints at Glendale due to insufficient 
mortar in the joint. The leakage is probably greater in those por- 
tions of the line that were in caving ground, where trenching and 
placing could not be carried on ahead of the jointing. 

The rate of speed in pipe laying is quite variable. Ordinarily 
about 700 feet of 12 or 14-inch pipe, or 500 feet of 16-inch pipe per 
day is considered good. One foreman reports 900 feet of 12-inch 
pipe, without the laying core, on straight work with no connections 
or short turns. At Continental one pipe laying gang with three 
skilled men and two laborers laid as high as 1075 feet of pipe, part 
12-inch and part 14-inch, in eight hours. At a later date, a single 
skilled pipe layer, with six unskilled helpers, laid over 1000 feet of 
12-inch pipe in nine hours. The highest rate reported for 16-inch 
pipe is 800 feet. In this case two experienced men alternated at 
jointing the pipe and banding. Experience at Continental indicates 
the following average rates : 

TABLE VII. AVERAGE RATE OF SPEED IN PIPE LAYING 



Diameter of pipe 


No. of feet per 8-hour day 


Inches 


Feet 


12 


700 


14 


600 


16 


500 


18 


400 


20 


350 



These rates do not include the installation of risers and valves. 
This work is usually included in the contract price, but sometimes it 
is done on force account. 

There is great danger that a newly-laid pipe line may dry out 
before the joint mortar has properly set and hardened. Whenever 
laying ceases, as at noon, a plug of wood or sacks should be put in 
the end to prevent a draught of air from blowing through the line. 
As soon as possible after laying, a stream of water should be turned 
into the line to keep it thoroughly wet, certain valves, of course, 
being left open so that the line cannot be subjected to any pressure. 



108 BuLivETiN 86 



RISERS 



The risers are made by cutting a hole in the side of a joint of 
pipe, and inserting another joint, the end of which is cut in the shape 
of a saddle. The two pieces are then cemented together. For ma- 
chine-made pipe the cutting and shaping are done a few hours after 
the pipe is made, but hand-made pipe, being much less hard, can be 
cut in the field. Often the holes are cut after the pipe line is laid. 

The making of Y's and T's and other fittings such as bends is 
an undeveloped business. The present method of making the pieces 
and cementing them together is unsatisfactory. It is slow and ex- 
pensive and the joints when made look patchy. These specials 
should be cast in one piece in special molds, using rich mortar or 
thicker walls. The molds, especially in the large sizes, would be 
expensive, but contractors whose business is pipe making or laying 
can afford to have them. 

The riser valves are usually cemented onto the risers in the field, 
though it is preferable to do this work in the pipe yard, if the lengths 
of the risers can be known in advance. Cement work of this nature 
can be cured more easily and better in the yard than in the field. 
Risers should be of smaller diameter than the pipe line. If they are 
of the same diameter, the line is unduly weakened at the point where 
the hole is cut for the connection. 



EFFECT OF HIGH TEMPERATURES 

On account of the high temperatures in midsummer in southern 
Arizona, pipe laying at that time is attended by some danger. The 
expansion and contraction of mortar and concrete with changes in 
temperature are high, and a freshly-laid pipe line has little resist- 
ance to breaking if contraction occurs at once, usually the first night. 
This was illustrated at the University Farm in June, 1916, when a 
new pipe line a quarter mile long broke at almost every joint. It 
became necessary to uncover the line and make the joints over 
again, and in some cases a third time. The work had been guaran- 
teed and the loss fell on the pipe contractor. Another instance oc- 
curred the previous summer in the Antelope Valley, at the head of 
the hot Mojave desert, where every joint for two miles had to be 
made over. In case the pipe laying cannot be put off until fall, then 
the only precautions possible are to have the pipe well wetted before 
laying, to backfill the trench promptly and deeply, to run water 
through the pipe at once, and possibly to lay pipe only from daylight 



Pipe Laving and Pipe Line Failures 109 

to a few hours after sunrise and again after sunset. Customarily the 
pipe is covered only a couple of inches at first, the better to observe 
leaks when the pipe line is tested. 

These precautions are not necessary in climates that are cool 
with cloudy days. But in parts of Arizona and neighboring states 
the summer temperatures are so high and the humidity is so low 
that it is doubtful whether cement and concrete work of this char- 
acter should be attempted in midsummer. Certainly it is preferable 
to defer such work to the safer part of the year. The first and only 
recognition of this important limitation, so far as known, is in the 
contract of Yuma County for road culverts, dated December 15, 
1915. The clause reads as follows: "It is further agreed that the 
contractor shall not do any concrete work from June 1st, 1916, to 
October 1st, 1916, unless with the written permission of the Board 
of Supervisors." This clause should be used in contracts for many 
kinds of cement work, possibly with the initial date changed to May 
I. At Continental very little pipe was laid during the summer of 
1917; the pipe making was continued, but special care was given to 
curing the pipe and part of the pipe in the stackyard was covered 
with arrowweed and brush. 

On a pipe line in British Columbia, where contraction cracks 
were feared, slip joints were provided every 30 feet. They were 
made as follows : When the pipe molds were three-fourths filled, a 
galvanized iron thimble 5 inches wide was inserted and pressed 
down in the mortar. The thimble was coated with heavy oil and 
when half buried a layer of oil was poured on the mortar, after 
which more mortar was put in and the molds were filled. 

EFFECT OF WETTING DRY PIPE 

Another cause of expansion and contraction of cement pipe lines 
is variation in the degree of dryness. The drying out of mortar or 
concrete produces contraction, while the saturation of mortar causes 
it to expand. Running water through a line of pipe which has been 
thoroughly dried out before it is laid causes the line to expand 
with great force. This expansion may exert a tremendous pressure 
against structures such as gate pits, division boxes, and weir boxes. 
At Continental several of the gate pits as first constructed were de- 
stroyed in this way. Fig. 20 shows the cracks on four sides of a 
gate pit due to pressure from the south side. The pipe line at this 
point runs north with a lateral towards the east. The cracked gate 
pits were not removed, but the lower portions were enclosed in a 



no 



Bulletin 86 



4-inch concrete jacket containing substantial horizontal reinforce- 
ment. After this experience the design of gate pits was changed 
and they were all built with the lowest section heavily reinforced. 
None of the reinforced pits gave any trouble. 

In the early summer of 1918 a great deal of trouble was had with 
a 20-inch pipe line when the water was put in the line. The failures 
were bv long longitudinal cracks running along the top and the 





iVaST ^IDB ^OUTH 3lDB BAST ^IDB NOQ-TH ^IDB 

Fig. 20. — A cracked gate pit at Continental, caused by expansion of pipe line. 

bottom of the line. In the first break twenty-two lengths of pipe 
were cracked both top and bottom. In this case the break occurred 
at a bend in the line about midway between two gate pits, both of 
which had been reinforced. The bend was the point of greatest 
weakness, and a heavy longitudinal shear must have been developed 
in the pipe. The line was under only three pounds internal pressure 
and the fractured pipe was found to be dense and hard. Fig. 21 is 
a picture of the second break. Each time, as soon as a break was 
repaired and the water was turned into the line another similar 
break occurred. The breaks were confined wholly to the 20-inch 
pipe, though one pipe line telescoped where a 14-inch pipe joined a 
16-inch. The 20-inch pipe was made in the summer of 1917 and 
was stacked in the open air where it became bone-dry. The pipe 
was laid early in 1918, but no water was turned into it until April. 
When it seemed apparent that the 20-inch pipe were failing from 
longitudinal compression, the line was broken open at intervals and 
expansion joints were put in. In some cases where the line was 
not under pressure the expansion joint was made by leaving about 
an inch between two pipe and wrapping a band of tar roofing paper 
around the line, fastening it with wire. Where the line was under 
some pressure the expansion joint was made with asphalt. A thim- 
ble of galvanized iron six inches long was first placed on the inside 
of the joint. The edges of the thimble were sealed with wet adobe 



Pipe Laying and Pipe Line Failures 



111 



,«v:..- ■■ i.-j'- JBRara?^' 



a:j;;i..-, iV-.-o-.- 







■A. 



Fig 21 —Longitudinal crack in 20-inch pipe line. The open section has been broken 
^ out with hammer. Photo by W. C. Axe'.ton. 



112 



Bulletin 86 



mud. A piece of tar paper was then placed around the outside but 
was left open at the top. Heated asphalt was then poured into the 
joint and allowed to harden there. The cost of these expansion 
joints was about $1.70 for each joint. 

The cracks did not appear to come in the pipe for several hours 
or a few days after water was admitted, and in some cases one or 
two weeks elapsed before the cracks appeared. It was very desir- 
able to ascertain more directly the relationship between the satura- 
tion of the pipe line and the expansion, to determine what may be 



















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iSlOj 


f_or 


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Fig. 22. — Increase in weight and expansion of two 14-inch cement pipes. 



called a saturation-time curve showing the rate of absorption from 
the time of the immersion, and also an expansion-time curve show- 
ing the rate of expansion beginning at the time of immersion. This 
was studied by immersing two 14-inch pipe that were about one and 
a half years old and had been exposed to the sunlight and wind dur- 
ing all of this time, in consequence of which they were absolutely 
dry. The pipes were provided with metal discs inlaid on the sur- 
face 20 inches apart from each other, and the exact distance between 
points on these discs was determined to the nearest five-thousandth 
of an inch. After weighing, one of the pipes was immersed entirely 



PiPK Laving axu Pipe Line Failures 113 

and the other was laid on its side in shallow water so that the lower 
quarter of the pipe was immersed. The pipes were withdrawn fre- 
quently, well wiped with towels, and weighed and measured. The 
results are shown in the graphs of Fig. 22. The pipe which was im- 
mersed entirely gained about five percent of its weight by absorp- 
tion of water, and gained it very rapidly. The increase in weight 
was practically completed in one and one-half hours. The second 
pipe gained about one-quarter as much in the same period of time. 
This indicates that the water does not creep upward through the con- 
crete by capillarity except at a very slow rate. The expansion curves 
for the first pipe and for the lower side of the second pipe are almost 
identical. They exhibit a remarkable lag behind the saturation-time 
curve, suggesting that the expansion is due to recrystallization. 
The percentage of elongation is .0005. If this figure is multiplied 
by the modulus of elasticity for concrete it will give the internal 
stress which would result in a pipe line with immovable ends. The 
pipe being of a rich mixture and well aged, the modulus should be 
about three million, and, therefore, the internal stress equivalent 
should be at least 1500 pounds per square inch. 

The saturation-time curve for internal wetting would be con- 
siderably different from that shown in Fig. 22. On account of the 
dense, hard interior surface of the pipe the absorption of water 
would be very slow. On the other hand, an internal pressure head 
of several pounds would tend to increase the rapidity of absorption. 
The pipe that was immersed over one-fourth of its surface was 
observed to show a hair crack at the tongue end on the hiside top, 
extending inward about 5 inches. Another experiment was made, 
therefore, by taking a 16-inch pipe that had been broken by internal 
pressure (see Fig. 25) and immersing it over one-fourth of its sur- 
face. The pipe was laid in the water with the open crack on top. 
Another broken pipe was immersed over one-half of its surface. 
These pipes had been provided with inlaid metal measuring points 
spaced 8 inches apart symmetrically across the top, so that the open- 
ing or closing of the crack could be measured. The results of these 
tests are shown in Fig. 23. The saturation of the lower part of the 
pipes caused the cracks first to close and then to reopen in part. 
This proves that the absorption of water was largely from the out- 
side and, as the water penetrated toward the center, the pipe, like a 
compound spring, closed. When the penetration passed the center 
of the pipe wall, the spring began to open. 

In the case of a dry pipe line in which water is admitted, the 
absorption is from the inside, though slow ; and the expansion of the 



114 



Bulletin 86 



inner portion of the pipe tends to produce cracks in the outer por- 
tion. The inner portion, being of rich mortar and dense, has a 
relatively high percentage of expansion due to saturation. After 
a crack has started on the outside, internal pressure or other causes 
may complete the rupture. Test specimens while being tested for 
percolation and resistance to internal pressure sometimes fail as a 
result of the penetration of water into the inner wall. 

In case, however, that the first flow into a dry pipe line does not 
fill the pipe, then the saturation and expansion of the invert creates 





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Fig. 23. — Effect of saturation on pipe that had been broken in internal- 
pressure testing machine. 



a bending moment at the crown and tends to produce a crack which 
will begin to open from the inside, if the saturation is wholly from 
the inside, the first effect is tension throughout the section at the 
crown, and this is changed to a bending moment as the penetration 
of the water into the invert increases toward the outer surface of 
the pipe wall. The bending moment reaches its maximum when 
the saturation of the wall is complete. The expansion of the lower 
half of the pipe has the same effect as swelling a wooden wedge in 
the bottom. If the distortion is enough to cause failure, a crack 
will occur at the top and will show first on the inside at or near the 
crown. Rupture at the top may be followed by another crack at 
the bottom. The strain at the top of the pipe will be greatest when 
the pipe line is about half filled with water. In the case of freshly- 
laid dry pipe, therefore, it is preferable to run a full head of water 
the first time, or perhaps a very small stream at first to help cure 



PirE Laying and Pipe Line Failures 115 

the joint mortar, to be followed about three days later by a full 
head. The safest method is to leave the pipe line open at intervals 
so that a part of the water can rise and flow in the trench, and thus 
the walls will absorb water from the outside and from the inside 
simultaneously. 

In the light of these experiments it seems apparent that the 
longitudinal cracks at Continental were due to progressive satura- 
tion of the pipe wall from the inside and greater saturation of the 
under side of the pipe than of the upper side. Of course, other forces 
were working. The expansion of the invert, together with the ex- 
ternal load pressure, the internal hydraulic pressure, and longitudi- 
nal shear on curves, all produce tension at the top of the pipe, that is, 
these forces are all additive. A break may be the result of a combi- 
nation of several or all of them. 

It is known that concrete under high stress flows to a consider- 
able extent and thus tends to relieve itself of stress.* It would ap- 
pear, however, from the experience had at Continental and else- 
where that the mortar does not flow fast enough to prevent the de- 
velopment of very high stresses. 

It is known also that concrete and mortar when wetted, after 
being cured in dry air, temporarily lose a considerable part of their 
strength. Van Ornum reports for short concrete cylinders a loss of 
forty percent.t In the case of rich mortars the percentage of loss 
may be even greater. 

Failures of pipe lines have occurred in the San Joaquin Valley 
under similar conditions and for similar reasons. Scores of gate 
pits have been destroyed, curves have buckled out of line and pipe 
lines have opened at top and bottom. It appears that the true cause 
has never been assigned to these failures. In humid regions the 
pipe does not become dry enough to cause trouble. 

Several important lessons are to be learned from the experiences 
at Continental. In the first place, it is much safer to do cement- 
pipe making and laying in the cooler part of the year. In arid cli- 
mates extreme drying of the pipe in the stackyard should be pre- 
vented. If pipe is made in the summer time and must be stacked 
in the open it should be stacked high instead of being spread over 
a large area. The stacks should be covered with brush or should 
be under good roofs. The pipe should be wetted occasionally, espe- 
cially for a few weeks before the pipe is to be laid. If it is neces- 
sary to lay bone-dry pipe, larger than 14-inch diameter, the pipe 



•-Tour. Amer. Cone. Inst., Feb.. 1917. 

tTrans. Am. Soc. C. E., Vol. LXXVII, p. 438. 1014. 



116 Bulletin 86 

should be given a three hours' dip in in irrigation ditch or in a vat 
shortly before laying.; or water should be run down the trench on 
top of a shallow backfill at the same time that water is admitted into 
the line. This is easily accomplished by leaving the riser valves 
open. 

At Continental there has been no failure of pipe smaller than 20- 
inches in diameter, though several gate pits were crushed by the 
longitudinal expansion of dry 12 and 16-inch pipe lines. Expansion 
joints placed near gate pits relieve the pressure against these struc- 
tures and would be useful on curves. Accuracy in alignment is ad- 
visable. In hot weather the pipe making should be slowed down to 
the same rate as pipe laying, so that the pipe can be laid within a 
few days after its curing period. Cement pipe plants should not 
carry a large stock of pipe out of doors through the summer. 

Accidents and failures are likely to occur on all pipe lines, 
whether clay or cement, when they are new. The pipe layer should 
stay on the work while the pipe is being tested and proven. Almost 
never does an accident occur on an old line. 



TESTS 

INTERNAL PRESSURE AND PERCOLATION TESTS 

The resistance to internal pressure has long been a standard test 
for sewer pipe, but the test has not been applied to irrigation pipe 
or drain tile to any extent. Comparatively little irrigation pipe has 
been laid where it could be subjected to high pressure heads, and 
failures of drain tile are due invariably to external loads. 

The test is madf by sealing the ends of the pipe in some way and 
forcing the water into the pipe by means of a small pump, or admit- 
ting the water from a water pipe line. Usually a single joint of pipe 
is taken, but in some instances several joints of pipe have been 
cemented together and tested as a unit. An entire pipe line, or sec- 
tions of a line, can be tested after the laying and backfilling are 
completed, but, of course, no effort is made to test such lines to 
destruction. 

The equipment used for making the tests here reported is shown 
in Fig. 24. The equipment is at the Tucson city pumping plant. 
There is a heavy frame with a platform at the bottom and an in- 
verted jackscrew at the top. On the platform is a heavy circular 
iron plate, through the center of which is connected a -)4-inch pipe. 
Gaskets of rubber three-sixteenths of an inch thick were used at 
both top and bottom. On the upper gasket a •_>'4-inch circular cast 
iron plate and a circular wooden cover 3 inches thick were placed, 
and over the latter a short block of wood 4 inches by 4 inches. The 
upper cover carried a small pipe outlet, to permit the escape of air. 
The maximum water pressure obtainable was about 50 pounds per 
square inch. A pressure gauge was attached so that it measured 
the pressure at the midheight of the pipe. In order to control the 
pressure readily and to apply it slowly without shock, a bleeder 
valve was provided as shown in the lower right hand corner of 
Fig. 24. This equipment had been used previously to test clay 
sewer pipe. 

Usually, when the tests to be made are few in number, the pipe 
is laid on its side and two wooden or iron bulkheads are fastened 
on with one or several longitudinal rods running through the tile 
or just outside it. Nuts on the ends of these rods are tightened 
sufficiently to prevent leakage around the gaskets. The vertical 
frame and jackscrew have the advantage of convenience and speed. 

Internal pressure tests are attended by considerable difficulty. 



118 



Bulletin 86 



The ends of the tile are usually somewhat rough and may not lie in 
a plane, wherefore it is difficult to prevent leakage around the 
gaskets. Leakage is objectionable for two reasons; first, the over- 
flowing water from the top gasket wets the outside of the tile and 
prevents observations on the percolation of water through the tile 
walls ; second, the leakage is often so great as to reduce the pressure 
head that can be applied to the pipe. In order to make the gaskets 




Fig. 24. — Testing 16-inch machine-made pipe for resistance to 
internal pressure, at the Tucson city pumping plant, in 1917. 



tight, the jackscrew is likely to be turned down until an excessive 
pressure is put upon the test specimen. 

The criticism is made that a heavy longitudinal stress must 
seriously afifect the resistance to bursting. One specification has 
forbidden the tests to be made in such a way that the gaskets are 
held on the pipe ends by longitudinal pressure. Other engineers 
have asserted that the pipe would burst as the efifect of the heavy 
compressive stress. As a matter of fact the ends of the pipe must 



Tests 



119 



be strengthened somewhat by anchored bearings, but at the center 
of the pipe a shearing stress is developed which might induce failure 
under some extreme conditions. This shearing stress will be a 
mathematical average in value between the unit tension and the 
unit compression, both being considered as positive and will be a 
maximum on an angle of 45 degrees. In all the tests at the City- 
Water Works no pipe was observed to fail while the jackscrew was 
being turned in the effort to reduce the leakage past the gaskets. 




Fi^ 



Tl'SL specimens biukL-u in intni nul-in^ 



lilt- te.stiiig" machine. 



Nor were there any breaks which showed a failure in shear at the 
midheight of the specimen. On a similar testing frame recently 
three men attempted to break an 8-inch pipe by applying the utmost 
pressure, but were unable to injure the pipe. 

The record of tests, excluding some that were rejected, is given 
in Tables VIII and IX. The first of these two tables gives the pre- 
liminary measurements and age of the test pieces, and the second 
table gives the results of the tests. 

Examination of Table VIII proves that the wall thickness of 
machine-made pipe is very uniform, the variation being less than 
one-eighth inch. The thickness of hand-made pipe is uniform at the 



120 



Bulletin 86 





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Tests 121 

groove end, but is likely to vary a quarter inch or more at the tongue 
end. The reason for this eccentricity is that the pipe is made v^rjth 
the groove end on the ground, and that the forms become displaced 
somewhat by reason of unequal tamping as the forms are gradually 
filled. The machine-made pipe is accurate as to length and uniform 
in weight. 

Usually the breaks occurred suddenly and a single crack opened 
about one-sixteenth inch or less, extending vertically from bottom 
to top. In one case the crack opened slowly, beginning at the bot- 
tom, and in several cases the crack appeared to start definitely at 
the bottom. A few of the cracks extended upward spirally. Inas- 
much as longitudinal breaks in pipe lines produce cracks in both 
top and bottom, it might be expected that there would be two cracks 
in the broken test pieces. There was no indication, however, of a 
second crack in the pipe wall with two exceptions. The cracks in 
the machine-made pipe opened much wider than those in the hand- 
made pipe. 

In the author's tests there were six or eight cases in which the 
pipe broke at very low pressure. Three of the machine-made pipe 
broke at less than ten pounds per square inch. Several possible 
explanations of these tests should be considered. They are : 

1. Injury to the pipe in hauling or unloading. 

2. Water hammer or pulsations due to the proximity of the 
testing machine to the city pumps. 

3. Eccentric loading or combination of central load at top with 
two side supports at bottom. The location of the breaks might in- 
dicate this. 

4. Reduction of strength due to saturation. 

5. Expansion of the interior part of the pipe wall, perhaps one- 
third or one-fourth of the thickness, due to partial penetration of 
the water. The pipe were dry when tested. 

It is believed that the last named was the main cause of the early 
failures. Expansion of the inner shell would produce tensile stresses 
in the outer portion which would increase with the penetration of 
water. This tension, added to that due to internal pressure, might 
crack the outside portion, and the remaining wetted portion would 
be too thin to resist even the low internal pressure. 

More recently the author, while visiting another pipe yard, 
watched the testing of two specimens. Both withstood 80 pounds 
pressure. He then asked to make a test in the same manner as 
practiced at Tucson, and picked a pipe which had been lying in the 
sun for two months. It broke at 15 pounds. The first tests were 



122 



Bulletin 86 



made by running the pressure up quickly ; the last test and all the 
tests at Tucson were preceded by a 15-minute seepage test. 

These results demonstrate that consideration should be given to 
the condition of the pipe specimens and to the technique of testing. 
Specifications do not mention either of these matters, but merely 
fix a minimum pressure, usually 33 pounds, which the pipe must 
stand. 

Four of the 12-inch pipe, two of which could not be broken in 
the tests of 1917, were tested in June, 1918. The results are given 
in Tabic X. All of these pipes were machine-made. During this 

TABLE X. TESTS OF FOUR 12-INCH MCCRACKEN PIPE UNDER VARYING 
CONDITIONS OF SATURATION 







Percolation 


Max. 1 




No. 


Condition 




press- 


Remarks 






10 lbs. for 5 mins. 


ure 










Pounds 




1 


Dry; stood in open 


Small wet spot under 


38 


Full city pressure ; 




air for 15 months 


top corrugation 




did not break 


1 


(On following day) 


Two small spots 


38 


Stopped to remove 
obstruction i n 
supply pipe 


1 


A.fter holding water 
a total of 31 mins 




33 


Broke suddenly 


2 


(mmersed 51 hrs 
prior to testing 


No seepage 


35 


Full pressure ; did 
not break 


3 


[mmersed 1^/2 hrs. 
prior to testing 


NTo seepage 


35 


Full pressure; did 
not break 


4 


Dry ; in open air 15 
months 




10 


Failed at tongue 
end first ; then 
at groove end 



long period the four pipes had stood in the open air at the City 
Water Works. Two of the four pipes were tested dry ; the others 
were immersed in water, one for IjA hours, the other for 
51 hours. The two dry pipes failed ; the wet ones could not be 
broken. One and a half hours, in the case of No. 3, was long enough 
to expand the pipe and stabilize the even distribution of stresses in 
the pipe wall. In the case of No. 1, tested dry, the pipe was weak- 
ened by holding water 31 minutes. During 10 minutes of this time 
the pressure was kept at 10 pounds and twice the full city pressure 
of 38 pounds was turned on. Finally the pipe broke at 33 pounds, 
although in March, 1917, before the pipe had become dry, it had 
withstood 47 pounds for 19 minutes. Pipe No. 4, also tested dry, 
failed a quarter of a minute after the pressure reached 10 pounds, 
although it had withstood 50 pounds pressure in March, 1917. 
These tests tend to confirm the conclusions reached above. 



Tests 123 

The sweating through the walls of the hand-made pipe at 5 
pounds pressure was quite strong, and with 10 pounds pressure the 
percolation was rapid. Even at 2 pounds or less, the uneven char- 
acter of the pipe was apparent, the less carefully tamped portions 
becoming wet on the outer surface immediately. It has been noted 
often in the field that a new pipe line is quite porous; but it has 
been found that the pipe improves rapidly in this respect and soon 
becomes impervious except perhaps at occasional spots where tamp- 
ing was poorly done. Hand-made pipe is usually coated on the in- 
side with a wash of neat cement, partly to make it watertight and 
partly to increase its carrying capacity. 

The machine-made pipe was practically impervious at 15 pounds 
pressure. The slight sweating on the top corrugation is believed to 
have come through the joint under the gasket. The inner surface as 
made by the packer-head is very dense. Where the pipe is laid in a 
trench with rich mortar in the joints, even the slight sweating on the 
corrugation at the groove end is impossible. In no other way is the 
superiority of the machine-made pipe so pronounced as in the perco- 
lation test. 

Some advocates of clay pipe for sewers are asking that the per- 
colation test be discontinued. However, the American Society for 
Testing ]\Iaterials, in standard specifications just adopted, has in- 
cluded percolation tests at 5 and 15 pounds for both clay and cement 
sewer pipe. The test can be made in connection with the internal 
pressure test without additional apparatus, and undoubtedly it will 
be used increasingly in the future. The specifications of the A. S. 
T. M. should be amplified to cover the condition of the pipe. 

One advantage of the hydrostatic tests is that they test every 
part of the pipe in detail. For instance, if the tongue end is made 
with an insufficiency of mortar in the hopper, or if the wall on one 
side is thin, or in spots the mortar was not well tamped, the pipe 
will fail because the defective part fails. On the other hand, the 
external pressure test is much less likely to reveal a local weakness. 
Records of pipe tests have been noted in which the pipe stood 
considerably over 100 pounds pressure with no seepage. These 
tests have been made usually on 8-inch pipe, which has thicker walls 
comparatively than the larger sizes commonly used in irrigation 
pipe lines. 

The question of what pressure heads can be considered safe for 
machine-made cement pipe lines is an important one. A consider- 
able factor of safety must be used by designers to allow for occa- 
sional defective pipe that may get past the inspector and for the 



124 



Bulletin 86 



effect of water hammer. The evidence of tests indicates that pipe 
lines made of 1 : 3 mortar will be safe with 20 or 25 feet pressure 
head, or with 30 feet head if there is no possibility of water hammer 
and if the full pressure need not be applied until the pipe line is well 
cured in the trench. In case higher heads must be provided for, the 
mortar can be mixed in the proportions of 1 : 2>4, the walls can be 
made thicker, and, if necessary, wire reinforcement can be used. 

Hand-made pipe made of 1 : 3 mortar (or of 1 : 2>4 : 1>4 concrete) 
withstands pressures about one-half as great as machine-made pipe. 
Applying the same factors of safety, hand-made pipe can be con- 
sidered safe under 10 or 12 feet head, or under 15 feet head if there 
is no danger of water hammer. Several hand-made pipe lines are 
under heads exceeding 20 feet. The strength of 1 : 4 pipe is about 
two-thirds as great as that of 1 : 3 pipe. Where the line is under 
little or no pressure 1 : 4 pipe may prove successful, but the -added 
security, less breakage in handling, and slight difference in cost will 
justify the stronger pipe in almost every case. 



EXTERNAL PRESSURE TESTS 

In order to test the resistance of cement pipe to external press- 
ure, a testing equipment, as shown in Fig. 26, was prepared. The 
joint of pipe to be tested was bedded on a box of sand so that one- 
fourth of the perimeter of the center line of the shell was supported 
in the sand. A bottomless box or frame was then placed over the 
pipe and filled with sand so as to distribute the pressure similarly 




Fig. 26. — Apparatus for making external-pressure tests. 

over the upper fourth of the pipe. A short piece of plank rested on 
the sand and on that was a steel knife edge. No support was given 
to the sides of the pipe. This arrangement of bearing at top and 
bottom is called the sand bearing; it is known also as the Iowa bear- 
ing. It has been found by experiment that the breaking loads as 
found with sand bearings approximate very closely to the actual 



Tests 



125 



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126 Bulletin 86 

supporting strength of tile in ditches* ; the bedding of the tile in 
the sand is not difficult or onerous, and this method should be pre- 
ferred to the other methods in use, all of which depend upon doubt- 
ful conversion factors. 

Downward pressure was provided by means of a lever. The ful- 
crum was fastened to a tree stump, and the free end carried a 
suspended box into which pails of sand could be poured. The ratio 
of lever arms was one to five. Proper allowance was made for the 
weight of the apparatus resting on the pipe. The time required, in- 
cluding the measurements, was from 25 to 50 minutes per pipe. 

The internal diameters were measured vertically and horizon- 
tally, and the wall thickness was measured on top, bottom, and each 
side at the tongue end. Each pipe was weighed before testing. The 
data of the tests in 1917 are given in Table XL 

The 12-inch, 16-inch, and 20-inch machine-made pipe, tested dry, 
.were of almost identical strength. The breaking loads ranged from 
4400 to 6300 pounds. The 14-inch pipe were weaker, the average 
breaking load being 3440 pounds. This is due in part to the age 
of the pipe, but an additional reason for the low strength is evi- 
dent from an inspection of the wall thicknesses. To be consistent, 
the 12-inch pipe might be one-eighth inch thinner or the 14-inch pipe 
an eighth inch thicker. An accurate comparison can be had by com- 
puting, for each group of pipe tested, the modulus of rupture, that 
is, the maximum stress in pounds per square inch in the pipe shell 
at the moment of failure. This comparison is made in Table Xllf. 
Inspection of the last column shows the highest modulus of rupture 
for the 12-inch pipe and the least for the 14-inch pipe. Apparently 
there is considerable gain in strength after the first month. Exclud- 
ing the 14-inch pipe, which was only one month old when tested, 
the evidence is that the smaller the pipe the better and more densely 
it was packed. This is perhaps characteristic of packer-head pipe 
and indicates that the packer-head principle is better adapted to 
small sizes of pipe than to large sizes. All the moduli are high as 
compared with other tests on 1 :3 cement mortars. 



♦Report of Investigations on Drain Tile of Committee C-G of the American 
Society for Testing Materials, published as bulletin of Iowa State College of Agri- 
culture and Mechanic Arts. Vol. XII, No. 34. p. 102. 

tFor method of computation, see Ibid., page 87. 



Tests 



127 



TABLE XII. MODULUS OF RUPTURE OF MACHINE-MADE CEMENT PIPE, DRY 



Group 



Diam. 



Min. 
thickness 



Breaking 

load per 

lineal foot 



Radius 
of center 

line 



Maxi- 
mum 
bendingr 
moment 



Modulus 

of 

rupture 



Inches 
12.0 
14.0 
16.1 

20.2 



Inches 

1.28 
1.35 
1.62 

1.84 



Pounds 

2633 
1721 
2828 

2780 



Inches 

6.64 

7.68 

8.86 

11.02 



In.— Lb. 

29\ 
220 
417 
510 



Pounds 

1067 
725 
953 
904 



The strength of the machine-made pipe in each group is com- 
paratively uniform. This should be characteristic of pipe made by- 
machinery, all pipe being compressed exactly the same way and 
the same amount. Such uniformity is very improbable in the case 
of hand-made pipe. 

The 16-inch hand-made pipe broke at loads three-fifths as great 
as the machine-made pipe. This may be accepted as the approxi- 
mate ratio of strength of the two classes of pipe, inasmuch as the 
wall thicknesses and ages were approximately the same. 

The data obtained on pipe made of washed sand are somewhat 
equivocal. The tests on 12-inch pipe do not show any advantage 
from the washed sand, and the tests on 20-inch pipe are not con- 
clusive. , 

Owing to the difficulties previously had with the internal press- 
ure tests, it was thought that the strength might be reduced ser- 
iously by thoroughly wetting the pipe just before testing them. To 
investigate this possibility, pipes Nos. 8, 9, and 10 were immersed in 
a tank of water, then weighed and tested immediately. No. 8 was 
immersed 36 minutes, it gained 1.5 pounds, and broke at 4560 
pounds, a reduction of 18 per cent from the strength when tested 
dry. Nos. 9 and 10 were soaked 46 minutes, and lost 36 per cent in 
strength. 

These tests, while few in number, are sufficient to establish the 
point that cement pipe, cured and dry, is weakened by immersing in 
water. The weakening may be due, in part, to differential expan- 
sion, or it may be due wholly to the condition of saturation. Van 
Ornum found that the loss of strength of concrete cylinders is tem- 
porary, and the original strength is regained and perhaps exceeded 
in the course of a few weeks* ; but the maximum load on a pipe line, 
laid dry, may occur when it is at the lowest point of its strength. 
Usually it is possible to apply the load by degrees ; deep trenches 
can be backfilled in part only, until sometime after water has been 



•Trans. Amer. Soc. C. E.. Vol. LXXVII. p. 438. 



128 



Bulletin 86 



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Tests 



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130 Bulletin 86 

put in the line, and the first run of water should fill the pipe without 
subjecting it to much pressure head. 

The exact relation between the loss of strength and the absorp- 
tion of water can be obtained only by systematic testing on a com- 
prehensive plan. The hypothesis is offered, however, that the weak- 
ening can be reduced by extending the period of curing, and this 
should be done in most cases. Most pipe makers cure their pipe 
only from six to ten days, and the duration of time of curing ot 
large sized pipe or of pipe that is not to be laid immediately may 
well be extended to 15 or even 30 days. 

External pressure tests were made on another group of pipe on 
April 27, 1918. The data are given in Table XIII. Pipe No. 1 of 
this group was a 14-inch pipe, which had been in use in the ground 
for over a year but was removed during some change in the line. It 
was dried in the sun before testing. The pipe was under the usual 
weight because the tongue and groove were broken off. The next 
three pipe were five months old and were tested dry. 

The 20-inch pipe consisted of four specimens that were made of 
mortar mixed in the proportions of one of cement to three of sand, 
and four specimens of 1 :234 mortar. The two lots were approxi- 
mately the same age. The leaner mixture showed the greater 
strength. This is contradictory to common knowledge of the varia- 
tion of strength with richness of the mortar. Possibly it would be 
better not to publish the results. It may be, however, that these 
results are linked in some way to the pipe failures described on page 
110. If differential expansion causes weakening of the pipe, differ- 
ential contraction at some stage of the curing or just afterward may 
have caused minute shallow cracks, which would be more likely to 
come on the outer surface of the pipe, and would tend to weaken the 
pipe permanently. 

Another test series was made in June, 1918, to determine the ef- 
fect of variations in the curing of pipe. All of the test specimens 
were of 16-inch pipe and were taken at the pipe plant at one time, 
so that they were of the same proportions and consistency. The 
original program of testing was not carried out, however, be- 
cause the pipe maker failed to follow instructions for curing the 
test specimens. 

The results are given in Table XIV. Four pipe were tested at 
the end of seven days. After 28 days 12 pipe were tested. Of these 
12, four had been kept wet by sprinkling, four had been cured for 
10 days and then placed in the stackyard, and four had been cured 
and stacked but were soaked in water for 5 hours just before test- 



Ti;sTS 131 

ing. At the end of 52 days tests were made on four pipe, of which 
two had been cured by sprinkling for 30 days, and two had been 
stacked after 10 days. Through a mistake a top sand box 14 inches 
wide was used during all of the tests of this series. The average 
results are as follows : 

The first group of four pipe, age 7 days, broke at an average of 
2437 pounds. This is about half of the strength which the pipe 
should attain ultimately. The second group, after 28 days curing, 
broke at 3644 pounds, an increase of about 50 percent over the 
strength at 7 days. From a consideration of the 14-inch pipe in 
Table XUl a further increase in strength could be expected if the 
curing were continued. 

The third group, four pipe, were cured in the usual way. The 
average breaking load was 5248 pounds. 'iMie next group were cured 
in the usual way, but w^ere immersed in water for five hours just be- 
fore testing. The efifect of the soaking was to reduce the strength 
32 percent. 

The last four tests included two pipe that w-ere cured 10 days and 
two that were supposed to have been cured 30 days. The two 
former had a slightly higher average strength, but the number 
tested was so small that no conclusions can be drawn. 

The resistance of cement pipe to crushing depends to a large 
extent on the moisture content of the pipe. It is useless to standard- 
ize the details of testing and disregard the condition of the test 
specimens. The object of testing is not to obtain the maximum 
possible strength, but to ascertain the strength under actual work- 
ing conditions. Cement pipe is used to convey water, and after 
laying it is certain to become saturated. The strength of dry pipe, 
therefore, is artificial and abnormal, and does not measure the 
strength of the pipe when buried in a trench. At the present time 
specifications for pipe testing do not stipulate the condition of the 
pipe. The following clause should be added to cover this feature. 
All test specimens shall be tested when wet. Preferably 
they shall be kept thoroughly wet for at least a week prior to 
testing. If it is necessary to test dry pipe on short notice, they 
shall be immersed in water for at least four hours before testing. 
Pipe tests at the University of Arizona hereafter will be made 
with the pipe in a thoroughly wet condition. 

LOADS ON PIPE IN DITCHKS AND DESK'.N OF PIPE LINES 

The external loads which are borne by a pipe line are due to the 
backfilling in the trench and any superimposed loads, such as the 



132 



Bulletin 86 



weight of a wagon or tractor. Both theory and experiment have 
shown that the pressure due to the backfilling is a function of the 
width of the trench, and not a function of the width of the pipe. 

The downward pressure of backfilling can be approximated from 
the following formula developed by Professor Anson Marston at 
the Iowa State College*. 

L=C W B^ 
in which 
I L=the load on a pipe in a ditch, in pounds per lineal foot, 

from the weight of ditch filling. 
C=coefficient, taken from a table or diagram. 
W=weight of ditch filling material, in pounds per cubic 

foot. 
B=the breadth of the ditch, a little below the top of the 
pipe, in feet. 

The coefficient "C" depends upon the nature of the ditch filling 
material and upon the ratio of the height of fill above the pipe, H, 
to the breadth of ditch, B. Marston has provided a table of safe 
working values of C, and also a convenient diagram from which 
the values can be takenf . A much condensed table is given here in 
Table XV for the convenience of designers. 

TABLE XV. APPROXIMATE SAFE WORKING VALUES OE "c" 



Ratio 










H 


Minimum — 


Maximum 




Maximum — 




Damp soils 


for ordinary- 


black loam 


Completely 


B 


before setting 


sand 




saturated clay 


0.5 


.46 


.46 


.47 


.48 


1.0 


.83 


.85 


.86 


.90 


2.0 


1.40 


1.47 


1.51 


1.62 


3.0 


1.78 


1.90 


1.99 


! 2.19 


4.0 


2.04 


2.22 


2.35 


2.65 


6.0 


2.34 


2.61 


2.81 


I 3.32 


8.0 


2.48 


2.82 


3.06 


' 3 7\ 


10.0 


2 54 


2.92 


3.20 


4.01 



Trenches are dug about ten inches wider than the outside diame- 
ter of the pipe. For 12-inch pipe and 20-inch pipe, therefore, the 
trenches are 25 and 35 inches wide, respectively. 

The downward pressure for 12, 16, and 20-inch pipe under var- 
ious depths of filling, as computed by the Marston formula, is given 
in Table XVI. The filling is assumed to be sandy soil. 



♦Bulletin of Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. Vol XII, 
No. 34, p. 96. 

Tlbid., pp. 95-96. 



Tests 133 

tablk xvi. downward pressure on pipes in ditches in pounds 

PER IvINEAL FOOT 

Breadth Depth of ditch filling in feet 

i^Tilf "^ of ditch \ 

of pipe 3 2.5 5 10 15 

Inches Inches Pounds Pounds I Pounds Pounds 

1? ^S 480 840 I 1240 1 1450 

16 30 600 , 1130 1680 1990 

20 35 710 I 1350 2160 2660 

Comparing these loads with the strength of the pipe as shown 
in column 4 of Table XII, it is apparent that while the smaller sizes 
of pipe have ample strength, the 20-inch pipe, when buried over 10 
feet, has a very small margin of safety. It is recommended that 
designers should use a factor of safety of 1.25 to 1.5, depending on 
how much care is likely to be taken in laying the pipe. It is not 
practicable ordinarily to demand pipe of varying wall thicknesses 
because pipe makers cannot afford to carry more than one set of 
pallets for each size ; but the requisite strength can be secured in 
other w-ays, especially by the control of the curing of the pipe, and 
in important cases it may be necessary to require extra thick pipe 
walls. 

Although the external pressure tests exhibit approximately equal 
supporting strength for the various sizes of pipe, this is not a 
rational relation ; the larger pipe should have greater strength. The 
present-dav practice with respect to thickness of pipe is exhibited 
in Table II. The practice should be changed by using slightly thin- 
ner walls for small pipe and increasing the wall thickness of the 
larger sizes. A great deal of 36-inch pipe is made with 3-inch walls. 
It is said in defense that more gravel can be used in the concrete in 
large pipe and that it can be better tamped than can small pipe. 
But the percentage of failures of 36-inch pipe is greater than for any 
other size. Thirty-six-inch pipe should have walls 3^ inches in 
thickness. 

From the few tests made on hand-tamped pipe, it is seen that 
16-inch pipe of that character is in danger of crushing if buried 10 
feet in depth. 

Unlike drain tile and sewer pipe, both of w^hich are laid on even 
gradients, irrigation pipe can follow the surface undulations, and 
hence it is seldom laid over six feet in depth. Usually the internal 
pressure head is the limiting factor for which the strength of the 
pipe must be designed. Occasionally, however, a pipe line is placed 
under a deep fill, and in those cases the considerations relating to 
external pressure cannot be overlooked. 



134 BULLKTIX 86 

ABSORPTION TESTS 

The absorption is determined in the following manner: A piece 
of concrete, weighing from one to two pounds, is broken out of each 
pipe to be tested. These test pieces are dried in an oven at a tem- 
perature of 110^ F. for at least seven days, and are then weighed. 
They are then soaked in water for three days and weighed again. 
The gain in weight, expressed as a percentage of the dry weight, is 
called the absorption. 

The absorption is a measure of the watertightness of concrete. 
The test is especially important if the pipe is to be used under con- 
siderable water pressure or in alkali soil. With clay pipe, however, 
the test is not a positive indication of perviousness. If the pipe is 
thoroughly vitrified the absorption may be low and yet the pipe 
may be pervious. 

Absorption is a measure, also, of the density, and the density of 
concrete is an index of its strength. Given the ingredients and the 
proportions, the strength depends directly upon how densely the 
concrete is packed. It is possible to tamp pipe by hand so thor- 
oughly as to give it great density ; much depends on the man who 
does the tamping and on the rate at which the mortar is fed into the 
molds. It is likely, even, that pipe made in the morning will be 
denser than that made in the afternoon, and different parts of the 
same pipe must vary in density. On the other hand, the density 
of machine-made pipe is very uniform. 

The results of the tests for absorption are placed in Table XI 
in order to study the effect of the porosity upon the strength. The 
absorption for the machine-made pipe varies from 5.15 to 6 58 per- 
cent, average 5.7 per cent. The absorption for the hand-made pipe 
is shown to be considerably higher. 

Test pieces from pipe Nos. 4 to 7 of Table XI were boiled three 
hours and then were left in the water for three days before weigh- 
ing. The average absorption was 7.6 per cent. The figures are not 
placed in the table because they are not comparable with the others. 
The tentative specifications adopted recently by the American So- 
ciety for Testing Materials for sewer pipe require that, after thor- 
ough drying at a temperature not less than 110°, the specimens shall 
be kept in boiling water five hours. Doubtless this method of mak- 
ing the absorption test will come into general use. Boiling must 
result in expelling all the air from the test specimens, but the 
acceleration of the hydration of the cement is likely to make the 
porosity appear to be greater than it is. 



Tests 



135 



In November, 1916, some McCracken sewer pipe made of one 
part cement to two and a half parts of sand, and some vitrified clay 
sewer pipe were tested for absorption. The clay pipe was being 
used for street sewers in Tucson. The McCracken cement pipe had 
been offered in the bidding:, but was not accepted on account of 
undue prejudice against the use of cement pipe for sewers. The 
results of the tests are given in Table XVII. They show that clay 
pipe mav have a very low ])crcentage of absorption and yet be very 
pervious to water. 

TABLK XVII. .\r.SORPTlOX TESTS OX SEWER PIPK, TUCSON, 1916 



Sample 



Absorption 



Perviousness 



1 Clay tile, nearlj" vitrified 



" " thornughly vitrified 
" " nearly vitrified 
" " semi-vitrified 
Cement pipe, hodv 
" bell 



3.07 

2.43 
2.98 
5.59 
4.61 
2.89 



No seepage 15 pounds 5 
minutes 

Sweat uniformly all over. 
" on Yz of surface 
" all over in ^ min. 

Not tested for seepage 



INTERNAL FRICTION TESTS 

Tests to determine the friction loss in hand-made cement pipe 
were made at the University Farm in 1916. The object was to 
furnish a basis for the design of two additions to the distributing 
system. 

All of the old line Avas 12 inches in diameter and all except the 
first 360 feet was built with rectangular outlet boxes spaced every 
36 feet. These boxes are 22 inches long by 30 inches wide, and have 
two discharge notches at the top, one toward the right of the pipe 
line, one toward the left. The flow of water expands on entering 
a box and contracts on leaving, so that there is a considerable loss 
of head in each box. These boxes were designed by a former super- 
intendent of the farm. The design is not to be recommended. 

In making the tests, the discharge of water was measured over a 
weir just before entering the pipe line, and the water levels were 
noted in each box by measuring down from a point on the top. A 
line of levels had been run to determine the elevations of the points 
on the tops of the boxes. The cement pipe when new had received 
a coat of neat cement wash on the inside surface. 

After the additional pipe line had been laid in the summer of 
1916, pipe friction tests were made in that portion which had 12- 
inch outlet risers and valves of the California pattern ; that is, the 
riser is a joint of pipe cemented into an opening in the top of the 



136 



BuLIvETiN 86 



pipe line. In this case the loss of head must be moderate since the 
flow of water is expanded on the top side only, the filaments of 
water on the lower side moving in straight lines. The results of 
all the tests are given in Table XVIII. 

TABLE XVIII. FRICTION LOSSES IN HAND-MADE CEMENT PIPE AT THE 

UNIVERSITY FARM 







Loss of head 


Increase 1 


Loss per box 


Pipe line 


Discharg-e 


per 100 feet 


in loss 


or riser 




Second-feet 


Feet 


% 


Velocity. heads 


Straight, no boxes 


1.6 


.222 






Rectangular outlet 










boxes every 36 ft. 


1.6 


.368 


66 


0.87 


Circular outlet ris- 










ers every 36 ft. . . 


1.6 


.300 


35 


0.47 



The results in Table XIX will be of value to designers of pipe 
lines. While pipe friction tables are easily available, data on the 
effect of boxes and risers have not been published. The value ob- 
tained in the straight pipe without risers corresponds to a value of 
"n" in Kutter's formula of .013. This is the value most used for 
cement and concrete surfaces. 

Tests of pipe friction were made at Continental in 1917. The 
flow of water is northward from the pumping plant, through about a 
mile of machine-made pipe, thence eastward across the railway and 
through a quarter mile of 16-inch hand-made pipe. Readings were 
taken at the several gate pits built at intervals along the line. 
There are no outlet risers on the line of pipe as tested except in the 
16-inch line, where the risers are 280 feet apart. A summary of the 
tests is given in Table XIX. 



Tests 



137 



TABLE XIX. FRICTION TESTS ON CEMENT PIPE LINES AT CONTINENTAL' 



From 



To 



Dist. 



^jg_ I Loss 
Diam. charKel °^ 



Time Value 
after ad-j of 



April 26, 1917 

Lateral No. 2 

Lateral No. 3 
R. R. Crossing 



Ft. 

Uteral No. 3 897 

[ 2063 

R. R. Crossing I 

illOO 

Riser No. 4 ' 1120 



In. 

14 

14 

12 
16 



Sec.-ft. I Ft. 

2.44 I 2.85 

2.44 11.83 

2.15 . 0.99 



Sept. 27, 1917 
Lateral No. 2 

Lateral No. 3 

R. R. Crossing 



Lateral No. 3 897 14 

[ 2063 14 
R. R. Crossing i 

I illOO 12 

Riser No. 4 ^ ^^^° ^^ 



Oct. 8, 1917 
Lateral No. 2 

Lateral No. 3 



Lateral No. 3' 897 

f 2063 
R. R. Crossing' 

1100 



R. R. Crossing ' Riser No. 4^ 

Oct. 8, 1917 

Lateral No. 2 



1120 



14 

14 

12 



16 




8.22 
8.00 
0.82 



Lateral No. 3 
R. R. Crossing 



Lateral No. 3* 897 14 

[2063 14 
R. R. Crossing* 1 \ 

[noo 12 

Riser No. 4' . 1120 16 



2.49 
2.45 
2.38 



2.13 
8.26 
1.21 



1 02 0133 
1 24 0130 
1 02 i .0130 



3 20 0130 

3 20 I 0117 
3 20 ' .0135 



1—3:00 P. M. 2—2:35 P. M. 3—3.22 P. M. 4—5:20 P. M. 

Tests were made on three different dates. Considerable diffi- 
culty was experienced in getting consistent results in these tests. 
For example, in the first set of tests the friction losses between 
Lateral No. 2 and the railroad crossing appeared to be inexplicably 
large. In the tests as repeated on September 27, the loss between 
Lateral No. 2 and Lateral No. 3 is too great. 

It was thought at first that the reason might be that considerable 
portions of the pipe were not running full, even though all pipe ends 
in the gate pits were well covered. This hypothesis was disproved 
when it was found that the friction losses were less in the second 
set of tests, although the water levels in the gate pits were lower 
than in the first set. A better explanation is that in the long line 
running north from the pump to the railroad on a descending grade, 
a great deal of air is trapped. This air cannot work back upstream 
against the water friction, and so it is slowly rolled along down- 
stream until it escapes at the gate pits. At one gate pit, where the 
author had a chance to observe, great globules of air, from one to 



138 Bulletin 86 

three quarts at a time, were still coming out of the pipe line at inter- 
vals of about a minute, and this was an hour and forty minutes after 
the gates had been adjusted. On the east side of the railroad this 
effect was not encountered. On that side the line has an ascend- 
ing grade and the entering water doubtless carries all the air out 
promptly. 

The important bearing of these observations is that, as in many 
other lines of design, a factor of safety is necessary in designing 
pipe lines on descending grades, and, furthermore, there should be 
many air vents or open standpipes on descending grades. In com- 
puting capacities, pipe lines are assumed to be running full of water, 
but no recognition is made of possible unfavorable conditions. It 
is interesting to note from Table XIX that the friction loss between 
Lateral No. 3 and the railroad was 43 percent greater in one test 
made 18 minutes after adjusting the gates than in another test made 
3 hours and 20 minutes after adjusting the gates. Also, in the 
same line, on October 8, with a discharge of 2.08 second-feet, the 
loss of head decreased from 8.65 feet Z7 minutes after adjusting the 
gates for this test to 8.22 feet one hour after adjusting the gates, 
and 8.00 feet 1 hour and 24 minutes after adjusting the gates. 

From all the above tests it may be concluded that the friction 
factor, "n," for hand-tamped and washed pipe is .013 and for ma- 
chine-made pipe the factor is a little less than .013. This assumes 
that the joints are well made by careful workmen. If it is assumed 
that the joints will be left rough and projecting on the inside, then 
the designers should use a friction factor of .014 or .015. 

CAPACITY TABLES 

As a basis for determining the proper sizes of pipe required in the 
design of any particular project. Table XX has been prepared. This 
table is computed from Kutter's formula, using a friction factor of 
.013. This is a conservative basis for straight lines without risers, 
and well executed machine-made cement pipe lines may have some- 
what greater capacities than those given. 

In the case of lines with tee risers of the same size it will be 
about right to assume an increase of friction loss of 12^ per cent 
for each riser in 100 feet of pipe*. Thus, if the risers are spaced 50 
feet apart, increase the allowance for friction 25 per cent ; if they 
are spaced Z2i feet apart, increase the allowance about 38 per cent. 
Sometimes tee risers of smaller size than the pipe line are used. In 



*See page 136. 



Thsts 



13S» 



such cases the increase in friction loss will be less than 12^ per cent 
for each riser in 100 feet. 

The horizontal lines which occur in Table XX indicate the mini- 
mum grades allowable for each size of pipe in cases where the water 
carries much sediment. For example, a l2-inch pipe line must have 
a fall of at least 0.4 foot per hundred feet in order to prevent the 
deposition of sand in the pi])e. In case the water is clear or can 
be passed through a settling basin before entering the pipe, the 
flatter grades can be used, or perhaps the line can be flushed out 
occasionally through cleanouts. 

The capacities are stated in cubic feet per second, but the quan- 
tities can be reduced to Arizona miner's inches by multiplying by 
forty. 

T.\BLK XX. C.MWCITIKS OF V.VRIOUS SIZES OF CFMKNT PIPE RUNNING FULL 



Orade 
Per 
100 ft. 

Feet 
1.0 

.6 

.4 

2 

.1 



.05 







Inside diameter 








8 in. 


12 in. 


15 In. 


18 in. 


20 in. 


24 in. 


30 in. 


36 in. 


1 Sec.-ft. 


Sec.-ft. 


Sec.-ft. 


Sec.-ft. 


Sec.-ft. 


Sec.-ft. 


Sec.-ft. 


Sec.-ft. 


1.10 


3.40 


6.29 


10.38 


13.88 


23.3 


41.4 


67.6 


0.84 


2.64 


4.88 


8.04 


10.71 


17.6 


31.8 


52.2 


0.69 


2.15 


3.97 

2.79 


6.55 

4.60 


8.75 
6.20 
4.39 


14.3 
10.83 
7.12 
6.33 


25.9 
18.2 
12.9 
11.5 


42.5 


! 0.48 
0.34 
0.30 
0.25 


1.51 
1.06 
0.94 
73 


29.9 


1.96 
1.73 
1.35 


3.23 
2.88 
22\ 


21.1 


3.92 

3.10 


18.8 


4.97 


9.0 


14.8 



DURABILITY 

It is assumed frequently by those who are unfamiliar with its 
use that cement pipe is of doubtful permanence. Advocates of clay 
tile have disparaged cement pipe many times and have magnified 
the significance of such failures as have occurred. In most cases 
these failures have been traceable easily to preventable causes. 

On the contrary, cement pipe improves with age. Sewer pipe 
that has been in use for over thirty years has been examined and 
single joints removed to show that it is in perfect condition. The 
Cloaca Maxima, one of the sewers of Rome, built about 700 B. C, is 
still in use. It is an accepted fact that concrete is not injured by 
ordinary sewage. There are many hundreds of irrigation pipe lines 
which have been in the ground from ten to thirty years, and which 
are stronger now than when they were laid. 

In some parts of the United States concrete placed in strong 
alkali soils has been injured or destroyed. The exact action ana 
conditions of the injury have been the source of much inquiry and 
discussion. Cooperative investigations of the effect of alkali on 
tile are being made by the U. S. Bureau of Standards with several 
other organizations. Eight carloads of tile were shipped to eight 
of the best known concentrated alkali districts, one of them being 
Yuma, Arizona. The progress report* at the end of two years 
states that tile made of cement mixtures, not leaner than one part 
cement to three parts aggregate, made by the wet process, which 
requires that the molds be held in place for several hours after 
molding, are apparently unaffected structurally when exposed for 
two years in operative drains in concentrated alkali soils similar to 
those included in this investigation. There was no evidence of alkali 
in the walls of any of these tile. The great majority of the tile 
manufactured by the dry process, which is now the most commonly 
used commercial method of manufacturing cement tile, were also 
unaffected, but there were some exceptions, as indicated by strength 
tests and by the appearance of alkali salts in their fractured surfaces. 
The exceptions, however, occurred in other states than Arizona. 
The tile placed at Yuma, in Section 4, Township 16 South, Range 23 
East, S. B. M., in concentrated alkali soil were not injured. 

The third progress? report shows considerable effect from alkali, 
particularly in Colorado. Yuma stands at the foot of the list, show 



•Reclamation Record, Vol. 7, No. 8, August. 1916, p. 369. 

tBuieau of Standards. Technolosic Paper No. 9n, November. 1917. 



DlRAIillJTV 



141 



ing the least effect. The grand average crushing strength of the 16 
kinds of tile in the eight locations has not diminished in the three 
years, but many tile show alkali salts in the fracture. Some of the 
tile, notably the leaner and drier mixtures, are partly disintegrated. 
It is concluded tentatively that the injury to cement pipe is propor- 
tional to the sulfate and magnesia present in the soil water and to 
the degree of concentration of the salts. Hand-tamped tile are 
not so resistant as machine-made tile, and tile made of sand cement 




Fig. 27. — Cement pipe, completely disintegrated while curing, due to unsound ce- 
ment. This is not an argument against the use of cement pipe, but it demonstrates 
that good material and skill must be utilized in its manufacture. 



have less resistance than those made with Portland cement. It is 
recommended that tile should be made not leaner than 1 : 3, of quak- 
ing consistency, and as dense as possible. 

In the Salt River Valley concrete structures in great numbers 
have been built by the U. S. Reclamation Service and other parties, 



142 Bulletin 86 

but there is not a single instance of disintegration or weakening due 
to alkali. Only one case has been observed by the author of pos- 
sible deterioration from alkali. In that case the pipe was made by 
a novice and was poorly tamped. The seepage through the porous 
spots, which are usually narrow, perhaps one-half inch to an inch 
along the pipe line, has apparently carried away the cement in solu- 
tion. The intervening portions are still hard and ring when struck 
with a hammer. This pipe line is ten years old. 

It has long been known that certain pozzuolanic cements are ex- 
ceedingly resistant to the action of sea water and consequently to 
similar soil alkalies. Some efforts are now being made to produce 
a "marine cement" or "alkali-proof cement" by regrinding Portland 
cement with pozzuolanic materials, especially diatomaceous earth. 
Laboratory tests show such mixtures to be resistant to chemical 
action and to be actually stronger in sea water than in soft water. 

Good cement pipe cannot be made from unsound cement. Fig. 
27, reprinted from Bulletin 55, shows cement irrigation pipe which 
disintegrated while curing and for which the cement manufacturers 
paid damages. Cement should be purchased with the standard 
specifications of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Unsound 
cement is met with much less frequently than it was twenty years 
ago. 



PIPE LINE STRUCTURES 



GATF.S 



After the pipe line is laid in the trench, the auxiliary structures 
are built in place. Gate pits are located at frequent intervals, de- 
pending on the fall, or gradient, and the location of laterals. A 




^E.CT10rf 



^E-CTIOM 




Fig 28. — Desig-n for square pit, with 
bevelled-seat gate. Circular gate pits are 
more easily reinforced and can be made 
in sections in pipe molds. 



Pl.at^ 



144 



BuivLE^TlN 86 



design for a square gate pit is shown in Fig. 28. The walls are of 
1:2:4 concrete 4 inches thick. The base is extended to prevent 
undercutting in case the flow overtops the pit. The largest size 

of gate that can be set in so small 
a pit is 18 inches in diameter. If 
the pit is at the head of a lateral, 
two gates are set, one on each out- 
flow. No gate is put on the inflow 
pipe because the pit serves as an 
outlet for air. The most frequent 
type of gate pit is made of regular 
lengths of cement pipe. Usually 
small sizes are employed and it 
is not possible to descend into the 
pit to repair or replace the gate, 
as would be feasible in a pit 30 
inches in diameter. In general, 
gate pits, like tanks and reser- 
voirs, should be circular in sec- 
tion. 

Several good designs of gates 
are on the market. One has a 
beveled seat and is brought to 
place by means of a square- 
threaded nut engaging a long 
rack. There can be no water 
hammer caused by a gate of this 
type. Another design has a lock- 
nut and, when it is loosened, the 
gate can be lifted or dropped 
to another position and there 
clamped. The plain slide gates 
are not to be recommended; they depend upon the water pressure 
to make them tight, and they usually leak. 




Fig. 29. — Riser and circular valve for 
taking out water for orchards 
or row crops. 



RISERS 

The ordinary risers used in orchards are as shown in Fig. 29. A 
riser is placed at the head of each row of trees and the four small 
streams of water taken through the small openings are run down 
four furrows, two on each side of the trees. From 5 to 30 gallons 
a minute are run in each stream, depending on the character of the 
soil, the slope of the land, and the length of run 



Pipe Line Structures 



145 



In clay soil it is easy to keep the four streams separate, but in 
sandy soil the streams are apt to run together. Usually 12-inch 
pipe is used tor four side openings, and 16-inch pipe or pipe hoods 
for six openings. For easily eroded soil, the 16-inch hoods are 
advisable for four openings. 

Risers and hydrants of various designs are used for alfalfa, but 
it is believed that a simple riser and valve terminating 2 inches 







v;>jV}XwUMf^J^JU»MXfM' 



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CiQ^Kj 



^ 



m 




\r'-^ r\ r:\ 
i v.^ ^.j^ '^^ 



GaoUfiD PC^/i 




Fig 30.— Method of irrigation from pipe line at Continental, used on the bottom- 
land where the general slope is about 20 feet per mile. 

below the ground level is preferable to the more expensive systems. 
The long lines of 6-inch light galvanized iron pipe with taper joints, 
called "surface pipe," are a source of much labor, expense, and leak- 
age, and their use should be discouraged. Surface pipe of canvas is 
sometimes employed, but it is most unsatisfactory. 




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fr^i ^'^ rTo n^9 

vj W CJ V..J--' ^, 
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iri^ ^% ^v^ ,<^^b 

0©0C3 




For row crops there is no 
uniform practice. The sys- 
tems at Continental are 
shown in Figs. 30 and 31. 
For laterals on the flat bot- 
tomland, risers are provided 
in the pipe line at intervals 
depending on the slope, so 
that the fall from one riser 
to the next shall not exceed 
6 inches. An open ditch is 
maintained directly over the 
pipe line. 

This system requires only 
short risers and the ordinary 
circular valves placed at in- 
tervals along the pipe line. 
Where the heads are high 
and the escaping stream 
erodes the ditch banks, a 
short length of pipe is ce- 
mented on above the valve. 
The head of water, 1100 gal- 
lons a minute, is divided be- 
tween three risers, and the 
stream from each riser is 
divided between from 15 to 
25 furrows, the number de- 
pending on the soil, the 
slope, and the length of the 
furrows. The furrow inter- 
n^al in 1917 was three and a 
half feet, but in 1918 the in- 
terval was reduced to three 
feet. Where necessary, the 
field i s cross-leveled for 
about 50 feet near the head 
ditches, so that the water 
flows out into all the fur- 
rows equally well. 

Fig. 31 illustrates the 
system used on the sloping 
lands which border the bot- 



Pipe Line Structures 147 

tomland. These sloping lands have grades of from one to three 
feet per hundred feet, and the soil is gravelly loam or sandy loam. 
The furrows are run straight down the steepest slope or nearly so. 
Risers are placed on the main supply pipe line and on the laterals. 
Each riser hood has four 2-inch side openings, and each opening 
serves three furrows, not simultaneously but in rotation, beginning 
always with the highest. Cultivation is in many cases continuous 
across more than one plat. 

The quantity of water per furrow is regulated by means of the 
valve and is measured by the height of the water level above the 
center of the openings. The discharges per opening were meas- 
ured and are given in Table XXI. 

TABLE XXI. discharge FROM 2-INCn SIDE OPENINGS IN HOODS 



Head aboAje center of openings 


Discharge 


Inchci 


Gallons per minute 


1 


9.4 


2 


14.0 


3 


18.0 


4 


22.0 


5 


25.0 


6 


28,0 


7 


31.0 



In California small galvanized iron tubes with slip gates are 
much used in place of the open holes. A correspondent, in reply 
to a request for measuring the discharge from the galvanized tubes, 
states that the discharges are as given in Table XXII. 

TABLE XXII. DISCHARGE FROM GALVANIZED GATES 2>^ INCHES LONG 



Head over top of gate 
Diameter of gate 



Inches 



3% inches 7 inches 

Gallons per minute Gallons per minute 



1/2 17 24 

2 30 43 

3 62 88 



A system which is still found occasionally consists of risers with 
the top sealed by a cement plug while the galvanized gates are on 
the outside instead of inside. The gates leak and the system is 
unsatisfactory. Another system that should be discontinued is one 
in which the pipe line is only half buried in the ground and gal- 
vanized gates are placed directly on the pipe line at intervals equal 
to the furrow spacing. A light earth covering is placed on the pipe 
line between the galvanized gates, but the line is not protected ade- 



148 



Bulletin 86 



quately against changes of temperature and against being damaged 
\y farm machinery. 

The systems of outlets and gates used in California are of many 
designs. One of the ingenious schemes, Fig. 32, is that used by 
orange growers near Riverside, for small streams, where the slopes 
are from one to four feet per hundred. The gate pits are made of 




DB.TAtL. OF OVE.B.FLOW 




A > 



1 



Fig. 32. — Method of construction of orcliard pipe lines in the citrus district around 
Riverside, California. Each overflow stand holds back the water at a definite level 
and permits irrieating: from the risers between it and the next overflow stand. 

8-inch and 16-inch pipe. Their frequency on the line depends upon 
the fall. When the gate is closed, the water rises in one column 
and overflows into the line again. The water level is held at the 
desired height without the aid of valves. This system is modified 



^i!^ 




Fier. 33. — Map of a 540-acre field at Continental, showing- 



Pipe Line Structures 



149 



sometimes, where the slopes are steeper, by using valves in the 
upward-flow branches of the standpipes. 

Many citrus groves in California are on land which has a natural 
slope of 10 to 40 feet per 100 feet. It is impracticable to run the 
furrows down the slope; they are made to follow the contours ot 
the land with just a little fall. The cement-pipe head ditches for 
these orchards are run down the hillsides, often following a ridge, 
with overflows at such intervals that the fall from one to another 
is not over six or eight feet. A\'ater is taken from riser valves, 
through hoods, and is run along the contours to both right and left 
of the head ditches. This practice is well exemplified in the La 
Habra Hills, where the soil is of a clayey composition and resists 
erosion. 

Terracing and heavy grading have the disadvantage that the 
good soil is removed from certain parts of the ground and on 
such places the trees or other vegetation may be stunted and 
unproductive. 

The overflow system may be called the open system, while the 
svstems at Continental are closed, that is, each riser requires a 
valve. The closed system is better adapted to uneven land, and it 
permits of the use of slightly smaller pipe sizes. The open system 
requires more carefully executed surveys. 

Riser valves are of brass. In some makes sheet rubber gaskets 
are used, in others braided hemp boiled in tallow. The valves are 
set, sometimes on the groove ledge at the top of the riser, some- 
times in the riser so that the top of the valve handle is at the level 
of the top of the riser. Two to one mortar is used for setting the 
risers and valves. 




10-foot contours and layout of main supply line and laterals. 



150 Bulletin 86 

pipe line systems 

A key map of a 540-acre field at Continental is shown in Fig. 33. 
The arrows indicate the direction of irrigation. The 10-foot con- 
tours exhibit the steepness and the rolling character of the land. 
The field is composed of a succession of fans built by the intermit- 
tently flooded side washes. The pipe-line system is laid out so as 
to divide the land into fields of quite uniform slopes. The possi- 
bility of running the main supply line over fans and through the 
intermediate low districts is of great advantage over open gravity 
ditches. The supply line shown in Fig. 33 continues a total length 
of over six miles, the entire water supply, 7.6 second-feet, being 
derived from the two wells shown. 

On important pipe-line systems, where many men are permitted 
to adjust the gates and riser valves, a set of rules for the operation 
of the system will be useful. The three following rules may be 
placed at the head of the list. 

1. Always provide some place for the water to go. Begin the 
irrigation with too many valves open and regulate by closing one 
valve at a time until the desired head is flowing from each of the 
open valves. 

2. Open or close each gate or valve slowly. 

3. Do not shut oflf one gate or set of valves until another has 
been opened. 

SPECIAL STRUCTURES 

Special structures are often required. A division and measuring 
gate pit is shown in Fig. 34. In this case it is necessary to divide 
the flow from the 20-inch supply line into two equal parts. Two 
equal weirs are provided. The certainty of equal division is as- 
sured, for if it is assumed that the irrigators on Line A do not take 
their full half of the water and that the water in their line is backed 
up onto the weir, then the hydraulic gradient in the pit at the head 
of Line A will be higher than in Pit B and will also be flatter than 
the normal gradient, while the gradient in Line B will be steeper; 
hence the gate pit with closed gate on Line A will be the first to 
overflow. Therefore, the irrigators on Line A will be warned by 
the overflowing gate pit and will open more valves. The irrigators 
are instructed to watch their gate pit and keep water level at nor- 
mal elevation. 

Another special structure at Continental is a gate pit in the 
corner of the nursery. The nursery lateral is on a 1.66 percent 



Pi PIC Line Structures 



151 



ascending grade, and if the ordinary gate pit had been built its 
height would have been 21 feet. The covered compartment is 
reinforced with steel and corrugated iron. When the gate is closed 
or partly closed, water can be taken from any or all risers on the 
nursery line. At other times the gate is kept open. 



; I 2-11' 1 '■ '■ 



u* 



r-4- f-U- —^^-6^ 1- /-«■-!- 




' —4- ^4- ^• 



^ecT/orf 





sSltCT/O/f 



Fig. 34. — A divlsioh and 
measuring pit where main 
supply of water is divided 
into two equal heads. 



Many unusual cases arise and require special treatment, particu- 
larly on rolling and hilly topography. Many of our Southwestern 
valleys, however, are almost plane surfaces and only standard struc- 
tures are needed. 



152 



Bulletin 86 




■^EiCTIOn 




Fig 35. — Special eate pit for forcing water up a lateral on a steep grade. An alter- 
native is a gate stand with closed top, the gate stem passing through a stuffing box. 



OTHER USES OF CEMENT PIPE 

In addition to irrigation systems, there are many other forms of 
construction for which cement pipe is admirably adapted. Among 
them are sewers, culverts, drain tile, gates, underflow collecting 
flumes, and water pipe lines. 

SEWERS 

At the present time over eighty American cities are giving the 
preference to cement pipe for sewers. Bulletin 55, issued by this 
Station in 1907, advocated its use very strongly. Quoting from that 
bulletin, page 181, 

"For many years it has been an active competitor of clay tile in 
sewer construction despite the usuallv much lower cost of the latter. 
The city of Brooklyn, N. Y., has used cement sewer pipe almost ex- 
clusively for forty years, and now has over 400 miles of cement 
sewers in active use. No less an authority than Rudolph Hering 
advocates it in preference to clay tile*. Its advantages are many. 
It can be molded to any sectional form and will retain it, while 
vitrified pipe shrinks and warps while burning. It is tougher than 
vitrified pipe and withstands rough handling with less breakage. 
When washed inside with pure cement it is equally as smooth and 
frictionless as clean glazed tile, while both pipes soon become so 
coated with sewage that the character of the original surface is lost. 
In Arizona, conditions are especially suited to the use of cement 
sewer pipe. The long freight haul makes vitrified tile very costly. 
For the 8-inch size the cement pipe will cost 30 per cent less than 
the tile, and in the larger sizes the economy will be still greater. 
Throughout Arizona these conditions are practically the same, and 
it is to be recommended that each city use the cement pipe. It can 
be made by the city or contracted to an experienced cement worker, 
in either case under the supervision of the city engineer." 

Despite this publicity, Arizona cities have continued to use clay 
pipe for sewers. A large sewer contract was let in Tucson in 1916. 
The lowest bid for the inside city work (excluding the outfall sewer) 
was $66,305 for McCracken machine-made cement pipe. But, owing 
to a malicious campaigner against the use of cement pipe for 
sewers, the city accepted a bid of $73,612 for vitrified clay pipe. 
Inconsistently, however, at the same time the city accepted a bid of 
$41,750 for a 30-inch cement pipe outfall sewer. 

When the contract was about half completed controversy arose 
over the quality of the clay pipe that was being furnished for the 

•The Concrete Review. Vol. 1. No. 4. March. 1907. 



154 Bui^LETiN 86 , 

inside city sewers, and the contract was held up for several weeks. 
The pipe was from a Los Angeles factory and was mostly 8-inch 
pipe. Many tests that were made showed that the pipe did not 
measure up to the specifications. A committee of engineers was 
appointed by the mayor to report on the quality of the pipe, par- 
ticularly "as to whether the pipe is of good, first-class, and standard 
quality, such as will provide this city with good sewers when laid." 
The report of this committee follows: 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE 

Nov. 8th, 1916. 
To the Mayor and Common Council of the City of Tucson. 

Gentlemen : The undersigned, your committee appointed to in- 
vestigate and report relative to the quality of the sewer pipe now 
being laid in your city, under contract with T. J. Shea, begs to sub- 
mit the following report. 

In a letter from the Mayor dated Nov. 7, it is stated that you 
desire our views "as to whether this pipe is of good, first-class and 
standard quality, such as will provide this city with good sewers 
when laid.'' 

The committee has personally inspected considerable of the pipe 
stacked up alongside the streets in the north part of the city, and 
has selected and tested nine of those pipes. We tested also three 
pipes said to have been taken from the last carload and one addi- 
tional pipe. 

The first test stipulated in the city specifications is that of perco- 
lation. Our tests show that the pipes with few exceptions do not 
withstand 15 pounds per square inch hydrostatic pressure, and some 
of them do not stand a pressure of even 5 pounds. Tests were made 
also with a pressure of 2^ pounds per square inch lasting 20 min- 
utes. One specimen was sweating at the end of this time, but the 
others were dry on the outside. 

The importance of the percolation test is mainly with reference to 
its bearing upon the strength of the pipe, inasmuch as slow percola- 
tion is of little moment from a sanitary or engineering point of view, 
in all but rare cases, such as when the sewer line is laid below the 
groundwater level and drinking supplies are obtained in the vicinity. 
It is the common opinion of all engineers that the pores of both clay 
and cement tiles gradually close up after they are put in service. 
Certainly it is unnecessary to demand that new tiles should stand 
as high as 15 or even 5 pounds internal pressure, equivalent to 35, 
or 12 feet head of water. Our special test of 2]^ pounds pressure 
approximates the actual conditions of the pipe in the trench, and 
we feel safe in saying that the percolation under these conditions 
will be negligible. 

The important test in the case of sewer pipe is that of strength, 
particularly strength to resist external pressures, for practically all 



Other Usf.s of Cement Pipe 155 

failures of sewer pipe are due to crushing in by the overlying load. 
The specifications require that the pipe should withstand an internal 
pressure of 25 pounds per square inch, and also the equivalent of a 
20-foot backfill. Our tests show that with few exceptions the pipe 
will stand much higher internal pressures than 25 pounds. The im- 
plication, therefore, is that the sewer pipe is of exceptionally strong 
quality. 

However, inasmuch as the relationship between the hydrostatic 
pressures and the equivalent external pressures has never been de- 
termined, we recommend that the pipe shall be tested also to deter- 
mine its resistance to external loads, according to any one of several 
methods that are in use in other places. It is not essential that the 
pipe laying shall be held up while the apparatus for making these 
tests is being prepared. 

We find a small percentage of underburned, cracked, and warped 
tiles, but these are discovered and thrown out by the inspector, ac- 
cording to the system universally in use. 

In conclusion, we would say that in our judgment the pipe being 
laid is the equal of the average of such pipe; that from the stand- 
point of durability, sanitation and general fitness for the service to 
which it will be subjected it will be satisfactory. But we believe 
that in general the pipe is somewhat overburned and would advise 
that the pipe to be delivered for the balance of the contract shall be 
somewhat less vitrified, so as to have a breaking strength of from 
25 to 40 pounds and so as to make a better showing in the perco- 
lation test. 

Respectfully submitted, 

G. E. P. Smith, 

J. C. McClure, 
I. McAvoY. 

In general, it may be said that the sewer pipe is as good as can 
be obtained from California factories, presumably as good as can 
be made from California clays. It is unfortunate that the specifica- 
tions were drawn so rigidly as otherwise lower bids might have 
been received. 

In making the tests it was noticeable that there were two kinds 
of vitrification exhibited. In one case the surface was of a purple 
black color, excessively fused and glazed, and the interior was 
burned black. This pipe was found to be very strong, but also 
pervious. In the other type the surface color was a dark neutral 
tint, the glazing smooth and pimply, apparently less fused, and the 
color of the fracture was slightly yellow instead of solid black. This 
pipe was less strong than the other type, but much more imper- 
vious. It can be concluded that excessive burning in the kiln hard- 
ens the pipe, increasing the strength but making it porous. A small 



156 Bulletin 86 

percentage of the pipe were light on the exterior, yellow on the 
fracture, and were therefore much underburned. 

After these tests the author took steps to ascertain the practice 
in other cities. The first city to use a percolation test was Brook- 
lyn, and the reason there was that many of the sewer lines are be- 
low groundwater level and the sewage has to be pumped into the 
seas; therefore, if the pipe is pervious a considerable volume of 
groundwater will have to be handled by the pumps. Kansas City 
adopted the Brooklyn specification, although the reasons for using 
it at Brooklyn did not exist at Kansas City. Furthermore, it was 
found very early that any pipe which stands the internal pressure 
test of 33 pounds per square inch will stand the percolation test of 
10 pounds (no duration of time being stated), and hence the test 
fell into disuse, although it was still retained in the specifications. 
At the author's request, the city engineer of Kansas City on Decem- 
ber 11, 1916, kindly tested six clay pipe for percolation. The sizes 
ranged from 8-inch to 21-inch, and all six pipes withstood 15 pounds 
for 5 minutes with "no percolation." It is evident that the pipe 
clay of the Middle West is superior to that of California or that the 
art of burning the pipe is better developed in the Middle West. 

It has been suggested* that the percolation test be replaced by 
the test for absorption, that is, to ascertain not under v.'hat pressure 
the pipe begins to sweat, but what proportion of the pipe is voids. 
However, in the tests of sewer pipe at Tucson the pipe which 
showed the least porosity was one which sweat freely and uni- 
formly all over when tested for perviousness. Also no definite re- 
lation between porosity and strength of clay pipe has been deter- 
mined. The absorption test is easier to make than internal press- 
ure and percolation tests, but since it fails of having a definite 
significance, it would seem that in those cases where percolation 
is of importance the percolation test should be retained. The speci- 
fication requirements for percolation should be modified to fit the 
actual conditions in each case. 

Sewer pipe is not subjected, ordinarily, to more than one or two 
pounds pressure, and it is the common belief of engineers that 
sewer pipe, either clay or cement, soon becomes sealed up and 
covered with a slime. A slight percolation when the pipe is new 
might result in a damp soil surrounding the pipe, but oxidation 
would prevent any objectionable result, excepting in those cases 
where the pipe is laid below or near the water table and in the 
vicinity of domestic water supplies. 



•EnKln. News. Vol. 77. No. 8. Feb. 22. 1917. p. 329. 



Other Uses of Cement Pipe 157 

The town of Glendale is the first in Arizona to use machine-made 
cement pipe for sewer lines. (See page 7Z.) The town has voted 
additional bonds and will enlarge its sewer system, using the same 
kind of pipe. The city of Globe, also, is to adopt machine-made 
cement pipe for an extensive sewer system. Other cities in Arizona 
may well follow the example of Glendale and thereby save the 
difiference in cost between cement and clay pipe. 

BRIDGES AND CULVERTS 

Pipe culverts are much used for stormwater conduits on public 
highways, though in Pima and some other counties the substitu- 
tions of dips (depressions in the grade) is increasing. Where the 
watershed to be drained is local and the maximum flow can be 
estimated with some certainty the culverts are advisable, on ac- 
count of the even grade of the road, the low cost to install, and 
practically no upkeep. But there are thousands of drainage cross- 
ings where a usually insignificant channel overflows into a river tor- 
rent occasionally, usually for an hour or less at a time, and for such 
places the dip is advisable. Dips should be floored with concrete ; 
"gravel dips" are a failure, but in a few localities, where the best 
caliche binder is available, "lime-bound" gravel dips may be justi- 
fiable. Dips should have thick, heavy, and sloping cutofif walls on 
the downstream side and thin but deeper walls on the upstream 
side. The dip is not a suitable type of construction for rivers, since 
it is impossible to design them to resist undermining at reasonable 
cost. 

For road culverts a range of sizes from 18 to 30 inches is feasible. 
Smaller culverts become clogged with floating debris ; larger than 
30 inches are expensive and with much less capacity than dips or 
slab bridges. 

The culverts should be sunken so that the thickness of earth 
covering over the crown is equal to the diameter of the pipe. The 
backfilling should be done very thoroughly, so that the bottom and 
sides of the pipes are well supported. End walls of concrete or 
rubble are necessary to prevent cutting out by the swirl of the water 
or by the flow creeping along the outside of the pipe. 

Pipe culverts ofifer an ideal substitute for the wooden bridges 
over irrigating ditches both in the fields and in highways. It often 
happens that a single ranch owner has from six to twenty such 
bridges to build and maintain. The pipe culverts are actually less 



158 Bulletin 86 

costly at the outset and cost nothing at all for maintenance. Cul- 
verts of 15 to 24 inches capacity have been installed for ditch 
crossings with only a few inches of earth over them. Usually they 
support the loaded farm wagons that pass over them, but not 
always. It is safer to give them a good cover, even though the 
road grade has to be raised. 

During the past few years most of the culverts built in Arizona 
have been of corrugated iron, usually the so-called ingot-iron cul- 
verts. Ingot-iron is said to be nearly pure iron and to resist cor- 
rosion as well as wrought iron. A comparison of the merits of 
ingot-iron and cement pipe is presented in the hope that it may be 
of value, especially to state and county officials. 

1. Portability: Here the ingot-iron culverts have some advantage 
in case the cement pipe must be hauled a long distance. If the ce- 
ment pipe can be made in the vicinity it may be easier to transport 
it on a short haul than to haul the iron culverts from a distant rail- 
way station. 

2. Strength: The crushing strength of eleven 12-inch corrugated 
iron pipes were tested at the University of Maine*. The actual in- 
side diameters varied from 10 to 12}^ inches. The crushing loads 
per lineal foot for five lap rivetted pipes averaged 4470 pounds. 
This is somewhat more than the average for 12-inch cement pipe 
as given on page 125. Instances have been observed on Arizona 
state highways where ingot-iron culverts, placed too near the grade 
line, have been flattened, crushed, and broken through by freight 
wagons. Cement pipe culverts have failed when placed too near 
the surface. Both classes of pipe are safe if buried their own depth. 

Yuma County has employed McCracken cement pipe culverts 
for the extensive bond-built highways of that county. The specifi- 
cations called for 12, 18, and 24-inch diameters, and mortar propor- 
tions of 1 to 3>1 An interesting test was made of this pipe by the 
county engineer. He statesf : 

"Before we used the pipe, a test was made at the factory, on 12- 
inch pipe covered with one foot of dirt. A wagon was loaded at 
about approximately three tons on the rear wheels. A 6 by 6 was 
laid across the driveway just before the wagon was driven over the 
pipe, thus throwing the load six inches higher and dropped from 
this height onto the ground just above the pipe. The load was run 
across and dropped onto the pipe repeatedly. Upon taking up the 
pipe, no defects whatever could be found. This machine-made pipe 

•T^niv. Me. Technol. Exp. Sta., Bui. II, 1, (191fi). » ^ 

tFrom a private communication from C. M. Hindman, County Engmeer, August 
10, 1916. 



Other Uses of Cement Pipe 



159 



has been much more satisfactory for our use than the hand-tamped. 
Have purchased and used both and very much prefer the machine- 
made." 

In answer to an inquiry some months later as to how the cement 

pipe culverts were withstanding the traffic, the county engineer 
states* : 

"These culverts are in good condition and show no signs of 
weakness. After being laid, heavy rollers and motor trucks have 
run over them. Since road has been completed heavy motor trucks 




Fig. 36. — Carrying- capacities of cement pipe and corrugated iron culverts 
of equal diameters. 

weighing, when loaded twenty-two thousand pounds, including load 
and weight of vehicle, have been operated over road and have not 
injured the concrete pipe culverts in the least." 

For culverts for special service, where great strength is required, 
reinforced concrete pipe can be used. (See page 93.) 

3. Capacity: The smooth interior of cement pipe has a great ad- 
vantage over the corrugated interior of metal culverts. Every cor- 
rugation causes eddies with consequent loss of head. The carrying 
capacities of long pipe lines of corrugated iron have been found to 



•From a private communication from C. M. Hindman, May 11, 1917. 



160 Bulletin 86 

be only one-half as great as for cement pipe lines of equal diameter. 
For short pipes, such as culverts, the differences are not so great. 
Fig. 36 is presented to show the relative capacities of 25-foot cul- 
verts of the two kinds and of three sizes. The capacities as given 
in Fig. 36 are computed according to the principles of hydraulics. 
Actual experiment might vary them to a slight degree. Many 
scores of small corrugated iron culverts in Arizona have become 
clogged and filled with earth. 

The uncovering and washing out of corrugated metal culverts 
has been very frequent in the past. Doubtless these misfortimes 
have been due, in part, to the fact that the county officials who pur- 
chased the culverts have not appreciated the low carrying capacity 
of the corrugated culverts, and have purchased culverts too small 
for the locations where they have been installed. 

4. Permanence: Both classes of pipe may be expected to have 
long life. Good cement construction grows harder with age, and 
the ingot-iron, also, has been proven to resist oxidation much more 
than ordinary steel. 

Metal culverts may be subjected to two destructive influences: 
the erosive action of water carrying sharp sand, and chemical ac- 
tion. Galvanized metal flumes have been used extensively in the 
U. S. Reclamation Service projects during the past ten years, and 
experience indicates that unprotected galvanized flumes will have a 
life of 10 or 12 years, except under the most trying conditions, i. e., 
high velocity of water carrying sand and fine gravel, where the life 
in one particular instance was only four seasons use*. Tests were 
made on a flume of the Uncompahgre project using various pro- 
tective coatings such as paints, elastic graphite, and tar compounds. 
The conclusion reached after the coatings had been on one season 
was that coal tar is the best and cheapest mixture available. The 
erosive action of sand or grit, carried at velocities over 3 feet per 
second, is quite pronounced, but road culverts in Arizona, as a rule, 
do not carry water save for a few hours each year. In other states 
both kinds of culverts have been destroyed by alkali, but no cases 
of injury of this sort in Arizona are known. 

5. Cost: In Arizona the cost of ingot-iron culverts up to 30 inches 
in size is just about double the cost of cement pipe culverts of the 
same nominal diameter. On the basis of carrying capacities, the 
ratio is about two and a half to one. The cement pipe culverts are 
admittedly much more economical. 



•Reclamation Service Record, Vol. 7, No. 11, 1916, p. 519. 



Otiii:r Usi;s of Cemicnt Pipe 



161 



6. .1 home industry: Another argument of considerable impor- 
lance is that nearly all of the cost of metal culverts is sent away 
from the county purchasing the culverts, while in the case of cement 
pipe only the cost of the cement is sent away, while the balance of 
the cost is paid locally for labor, sand, and gravel, and a home in- 
dustry is encouraged. 

DRAK\ TILE 

Drainage is coming to be known as concomitant to irrigation. 
Due to the downward percolation of water from irrigation conduits 
and from irrigated fields, the water table rises over large areas, and 
valuable cultivated lands become water-logged, and in some cases 



IT 



* .■ ■ * • 

. ■ # • . 



t / i 



l_^IO 0a/. Iron Jit/m.j 
J*.T i-o Concrt,y'€. 



PLAN 



Detail for. Slid a. Notch 

Q 

^/a tSa/. Iron S/iJt <Stfii 




t 



Ot*-- 



iiviiiiiia' 



SE.CTlOn 



Fe.OIiT E.LE.V'ATIOli 

Fig. 37. — Common type of ffate in canal bank at head of lateral. 



alkalied. Two drainage districts, one near Tempe and one near 
Thatcher, organized under state laws are now engaged in reclaim- 
ing areas which had become alkalied, and in preventing the exten- 
sion of the injury to adjacent lands. The Reclamation Service is 
carrying out a drainage scheme for the whole Yuma Valley. Other 
sections of the Salt River Valley are facing the same problem. 



162 Bulletin 86 

Drain tile is made with square ends, without bell or socket, and 
is laid end to end with open joints to admit water. Cement pipe 
cannot be recommended for drain tile except with some qualifica- 
tion. A chemical analysis of the groundwater to be drained should 
first be made. As noted on page 141, the action of alkali on con- 
crete depends on the character of the alkali, the degree of concen- 
tration, and the density of the concrete. The evidence at hand in- 
dictates that wet-poured or machine-made cement pipe, made of 
carefully selected materials so as to have great density, would prove 
satisfactory in Arizona. More evidence as to the life of cement 
pipe in drainage ditches is very desirable. When the Tempe drain- 
age canal was first opened the water at the outlet contained 1665 
parts per 100,000 of soluble solids, but after one year the soluble 
solids had decreased to 351 parts per 100,000. 

The Thatcher drainage district is using clay tile. The cost is 
about 50 percent greater than for machine-made cement pipe. 

GATES 

The cheapest material for directing water in and out of laterals 
and open head ditches and for taking the water from the head 
ditches onto the lands is the earth always close at hand, but the 
time consumed in building and removing the earth taps makes its 
use very arduous and costly. Lumber gates are, therefore, em- 
ployed sometimes, but the alternate wetting and drying soon de- 
strovs them. Cement pipe in 2-foot lengths with sheet-iron curtains 
are to be recommended for this purpose. A good type of cement 
pipe gate is shown in Fig. 37. If the ditch banks are high and 
wide, an additional 2-foot length of pipe should be used so as to 
reach entirely through the bank. 

UNDERFLOW COLLECTING FLUMES AND INVERTED 

SIPHONS 

Many of the dry water courses of the Southwest carry a strong 
underflow, and after the flood seasons are past much water is ob- 
tained by opening ditches or burying wooden flumes as deeply as 
possible in the river beds. But the recurrent floods fill the ditches 
and oftentimes float away the buried boxes so that the expense 
of maintenance and the loss of water at critical times is very dis- 
couraging. 



Othkk L'sks of Ckment PlI-K 163 

Frequently, too, canals and ditches have to be carried acr(»ss 
and beneath rivers. The Woodruff (Arizona) canal intersects the 
Little Colorado River three times. The Flowinjj^ Wells ditch is 
carried under the Santa Cruz River in an inverted siphon 3200 feet 
long. 

It is evident that conduits for these purposes should have weight 
or be anchored down w^th piling, and they should have great bend- 
ing strength, as portions of them may be undermined during floods. 
Some form of reinforced concrete pipe should be used. The amount 
of steel reinforcement can be varied to meet the requirements and 
although the pipe line should be buried beyond the probable reach 
of floods, yet if a portion is undermined by the scour or is subjected 
to lateral pressure, the longitudinal reinforcement will be very ef- 
fective in maintaining the stability of the line. 

For that portion of the line safely outside of the river bed plain 
cement pipe will be adequate. 

DOMESTIC SUPPLY PIPK LINES 

The excellent characteristics of machine-made pipe suggest an- 
other use for it. In view of the almost prohibitive price of cast- 
iron and wTought-iron pipe at the present time, it may be prac- 
ticable to substitute cement pipe, in some cases reinforced, in cases 
where the internal pressure is less than 20 pounds per square inch. 
Twelve-inch cement pipe of an extra rich mixture, extra thick, and 
containing some steel reinforcement can be made in Tucson for 
about one-sixth the cost of standard W^ I. pipe of the same diameter 
and capacity. Under favorable conditions the cement pipe will not 
deteriorate, while iron pipe does. The only disadvantage on the 
side of the cement pipe, probably, is the great danger from water 
hammer, but this could be obviated by careful designing. In small 
villages, mining camps, cantonments, and for farm homes much 
cement pipe could be employed economically. 



COSTS 

The cost of cement pipe or of cement pipe lines cannot be stated 
readily because of the variable local conditions. For example, the 
cost of good, clean sand in the Casa Grande Valley is two or three 
times the cost at a point situated close to a good supply. The loca- 
tion with respect to the railway, living accommodations, the char- 
acter of labor, and the size of the job all have a bearing on the cost. 

In Iowa and neighboring states the custom is to establish large 
factories at central points and to ship the pipe by rail to the points 
where it is needed. The pipe is used mainly by drainage districts, 
and in large quantities. The manufacturers furnish pipe to the con- 
tractors, or they take the full contract themselves. 

In the Pacific Coast states contracts are taken for the pipe line 
laid complete, and the contractors make their own pipe. This has 
been the custom in Arizona also. It has the advantage that there 
is no divided responsibility. If the pipe line fails, the layer cannot 
claim that the pipe was defective while the manufacturer claims that 
the pipe was injured in handling, or the trench bed was not brought 
to grade, or the joint mortar was not properly cured. 

The cost of making can be estimated in advance for a particular 
case where conditions and prices are known. Some assumptions 
must be made, such as for rate of work per day. Depreciation and 
maintenance of the plant, taxes, and interest on the investment 
should be computed. Maintenance of equipment is costly on ac- 
count of the wear on packer-heads, rings, and other parts. A liberal 
percentage should be added for contingencies, for the work may be 
stopped, due to non-arrival of cement, severe storms or freezing 
weather may cause delay or damage, and there are many other un- 
foreseen difBculties that may arise. 

The following estimate of the cost of McCracken machine pipe 
is presented as illustrative of the method to be used. It is based 
on Tucson prices in 1918. The figures should not be quoted as 
general or average costs. 

Table XXIII. ANNUAL FIXED CHARGES ON INVESTMENT OE $6,000 
Item Percent I Amount 



Maintenance and depreciation. 

Interest 

Taxes 



Total 



25 
8 
1 

34 



$1500 

480 

60 

$2040 



COFTS 



165 



If we assume that the plant is in operation 250 days per year, 
the fixed charge is $8.00 per day. Continuous operation requires 
that a good business has been established, that ample capital is 
available to carry a large amount of pipe in the stackyard during 
the winter seasons, and that it is not necessary to move the machin- 
ery from place to place. 

The total cost given in Table XXIV does not include any ofifice 
expenses, or the cost of a traveling salesman or the cost of collec- 
tions. When expenses of this nature and a good working profit are 
added, the pipe should sell at about 22 to 25 cents per foot for the 
12-inch size, and 45 to 55 cents for the 20-inch size. No allowance 
has been made for the cost of water supply for the plant. This item 
is usually negligible. The allowance for contingencies is ten per- 
cent. 



TABLE XXIV. 


COST 


PER FOOT 


OF MCCK.VCKEN M.XCIIINE PIPE 


Diam. 


No. of 




Cement 


Sand 


Labor Con- 




of 


feet 


Fixed 


\@ $3.4r) 


<fi> 


Power $20 per tin- 


Total 


pipe 


per day 


charges 


1 per bbl. 


$1.50 


1 day gencies 




Inches 


Feet I 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents Ce7its , Cents 


Cents 


12 


1600 


0.5 


12.3 


2.2 


0.3 1.2 1.6 


18.1 


14 


1400 : 


0.6 


i 15.7 


2.7 


0.4 1.4 2.0 


22.8 


16 


1200 


0.7 


22.1 


3.7 


O.S 1.7 2.8 


31.5 


18 


1000 


0.8 


24.6 


3.9 


0.6 2.0 3.2 


35.1 


20 


800 


1.0 


27.8 


4.9 


0.7 2.5 3.7 


40.6 



The cost of hand-tamped pipe is necessarily higher than that 
of McCracken pipe, since the rate of making is only about one- 
seventh as fast. If we assume an investment of $1500 in equip- 
ment, the fixed charges will be only $2 per day, but the fixed charges 
per foot of pipe will be twice as great as for the machine pipe. The 
labor cost will be three times as great. Sand and cement are likely 
to cost more for the hand-tamped pipe. 

There is an advantage in a permanently-installed, centrally- 
located plant, especially for the engine-driven machine plants. The 
plant should be situated close to an abundant supply of good sand 
and on a railroad spur. Unless the cost of transportation from the 
plant to the point of use exceeds 25 percent of the cost at the plant, 
it will be more economical usually to buy the machine pipe than to 
make the pipe on the ground by hand tamping. 

The contracts made at Continental in 1916 were of an unusual 
character. The company preferred to furnish both sand and ce- 
ment, so as to have control of the quality of each and of the propor- 
tions of the mortar. The contractors furnished the equipment. All 
hauling was done by the company. Sixteen-inch pipe will be taken 



166 BuivivETiN 86 

as a basis for comparison. The first contract was for two miles of 
the McCracken pipe. The price for making and curing the 16-inch 
pipe was 8 cents per foot, and the price for laying was 5 cents per 
foot. The second contract was for 6500 feet of hand-tamped pipe 
and included opening the trench and backfilling, the earth cover 
above the pipe to be at least 12 inches. The price for the 16-inch 
size was 22^/4 cents per foot. The price bid for the making and 
curing alone was 12 cents. In the other sizes there was a little more 
economy in the machine-made pipe in the smaller sizes, a little less 
economy in the larger sizes. Both contracts proved to be profitable 
for the contractors. 

Another bid received was for hand-made pipe for the whole sys- 
tem, and was from a very reliable pipe maker. His bid for 16-inch 
pipe, for making and laying but no trenching, was 20 cents per foot. 

List prices of hand-tamped pipe in southern Arizona vary from 
25 to 40 cents per foot for 12-inch pipe and from 40 to 50 cents for 
16-inch pipe, these prices being at the pipe yard. List prices are 
usually intended to apply for small quantities ; discounts can be 
given on large contracts. 

The unit prices for the pipe at Glendale could not be learned. 
The unit prices for the pipe laid in the trench were as follows : 
14-inch pipe, $0.90 per lineal foot of trench 
15- " " 1.14 " " " " 
18- " " 1.40 " " " " 

The contractor's bid included prices also for 8 and 10-inch pipe, 
55 and 62 cents per foot, respectively, but no pipe of those sizes was 
laid. 

The item of cement in Table XXIV constitutes about two-thirds 
of the cost of the pipe. The price per barrel as stated, $3.45, is 50 
percent higher than the price one year ago. Since no cement is 
made in xA.rizona, the price is relatively high. There are many lo- 
calities where cement pipe can be produced much more cheaply, on 
account of the lower cost of cement. 

The cost of pipe laying consists of the labor and the cement, sand, 
and water distributed along the ditch. According to the data on 
page 107, the labor cost varies from 2 cents a foot for 12-inch pipe to 
4 cents a foot for 20-inch pipe. The cost of the mortar materials 
will be about an equal amount, and a contractor must charge an ad- 
ditional sum for taking the responsibility for obtaining a strong and 
durable pipe line. 

The cost of trenching depends upon the depth of the trench and 
the nature of the material. For deep trenches and for hardpan, a 



Costs 167 

steam-driven trenching machine is advisable, provided one can be 
secured at favorable terms. But for shallow trenches in soil that 
requires little or no pick work, excavation with a shovel is cheaper 
than by machine. The cost of shovel trenching where the depth 
does not exceed 4 feet is from 15 to 30 cents per cubic yard, equal to 
from 4 to 8 cents per lineal foot for a trench 30 inches wide and 3 
feet deep. Deep trenches should not be opened much in advance 
of the pipe laying, because the caving of the side walls increases 
rapidly after the earth is exposed to the weather. 

Hauling is a matter of some importance. Each length of pipe 
should be laid on its side lengthwise of the wagon bed. It is cus- 
tomary to haul about fifty feet of 12-inch pipe or twenty feet of 20- 
inch pipe on a two-horse load. The pipe are packed in cars simi- 
larly, on side and longitudinally with the car. 

The cost of pij^e distribution systems varies from $15 to $30 per 
acre of land. Assuming 12-inch lateral lines 1000 feet apart, the 
cost is about $13 per acre for these laterals and the main supply lines 
may cost as much more. 

■ In the sewer contract referred to on page 153, the vitrified 
clay tile cost 22' 1> cents per foot f. o.b. Tucson, while the pro- 
posal was made to furnish 8-inch McCracken cement pipe at 15 cents 
per foot. The clay drain pipe used at Thatcher in 1916 cost 20, 
29>4, and 39 cents per foot, respectively, for the 8, 10, and 12-inch 
sizes. The pipe was of the weight known as double-strength, the 
12-inch pipe weighing 46.2 pounds per foot. 

Prices of pipe culverts, in place, in Pima County in 19 17 were 
as shown in Table XXV. 

TABLE XXV. PRICES BID ON CULVERTS EOR PIMA COUNTY, 1917 



Quantity Size i Corrugated iron 



Feet Inches \ 

308 I 12 $ 432 

1232 ! 18 I 2340 

1280 24 3200 



McCracken pipe 



$ 200 
1232 
1935 



For large streams of water wdiich would require pipe greater 
than 36 inches in diameter, cement-lined ditches are advisable*, 
provided the line can be laid out with a suitable gradient. 

*See U. S. Department of Agriculture bulletin, No. 126, "Concrete Lining as 
Applied to Irrigation Canals." 



SUMMARY 



This bulletin is a general treatise on cement pipe, its manufac- 
ture, its characteristics and its applications. The bulletin describes 
the various machines used in pipe making, the details of making 
and of laying, the dangers inherent in cement pipe making and in 
pipe lines, the testing of pipe and the results obtained, the design 
of pipe lines and structures, and the utility of cement pipe for 
various purposes. 

PIPE MACHINES 

1. Pipe-making machines of many designs have proven success- 
ful, not only for plain tile, but for jointed pipe also. 

2. The two general classes of pipe machines are : first, those 
employing the tamping principle, and, second, centrifugal or packer- 
head machines. The latter type have greater speed and capacity 
per day and are especially adapted to small sizes of pipe. 

3. Pipe making by machinery requires skill and experience and 
will always depend upon specially trained operators. The purchase 
of a machine and equipment requires an investment of from $4000 
to $10,000. 

4. Good pipe requires good materials — cement, sand, and small 
broken rock ; thorough mixing ; expert handling of the machine ; and 
careful, thorough curing, preferably under protection from sun and 
drying winds. 

5. Machine-made pipe has admirable qualities ; it is true in 
dimensions and shape, smooth inside, dense, strong, impervious, 
and of relatively low cost. 

6. Some problems relating to machine-made pipe are still to be 
solved, notably the problem of how to make steel reinforcement 
effective in such pipe. 

HAND-MADE PIPE 

7. Making pipe by hand in molds has been done successfully 
for many years. Such pipe has been widely used. Its use is now 
being supplanted by that of machine-made pipe. However, there 
will always be a field for hand-made pipe, particularly for small jobs 
and in localities far removed from railroads. 

8. Hand-made pipe, as produced in different pipe yards, is 
extremely variable in quality, ranging from weak, porous, mis- 
shapen pipe, mostly sand, cured in the open air. to sound, well- 



Summary 169 

tamped pipe, made of rich well-proportioned mortar, under a roof, 
and thoroughly cured. 

9. Tamping alone does not produce a smooth interior, and the 
pipe should be washed inside with neat cement. 

10. Greater strength can be secured by increasing the thickness 
of the pipe wall and by using a wet consistency of the mortar. 

WET-POURED PIPE 

11. Wet-cast pipe is usually of large diameter, and is rein- 
forced. When properly made, it attains great strength, and is 
adapted for use under high heads, as in water-supply mains and in 
important siphons. On account of the great number of forms re- 
quired, its cost is relatively high. 

PIPE L.WING 

12. The bell and spigot joint is used largely in the East and 
the tongue and groove joint in the West. While the former is the 
logical joint for cast-iron pipe, the latter has important advantages 
for cement pipe and can be recommended for sewer pipe as well as 
for irrigation pipe. 

13. Pipe should not be laid in hot weather, except in the early 
part of the day before the pipe becomes heated, as otherwise con- 
traction cracks may occur. All concrete work of similar nature 
should be done in cool weather if possible. 

14. Pipe should be laid with straight alignment and even 
grades. The cover of earth should be at least 12 inches. Mortar 
of one to two proportions with 8 percent hydrated lime is best for 
the joints. 

FAILURES OF CEMENT PIPE 

15. The ordinary causes of failure are excessive internal press- 
ure (in irrigation pipe), great depth of backfill (in sewer pipe and 
drain tile), contraction while curing, unequal settlement, and water 
hammer in pipe lines in which air is trapped. 

16. In hot, dry climates there are special dangers in the use of 
pipe that is allowed to become dry after it is cured. When such 
pipe absorbs water again, it may destroy pipe-line structures, may 
buckle on curves, and may fail by distortion of the pipe section or 
by differential expansion of the pipe wall. The best remedy is pre- 
vention ; dry pipe should not be laid. 

17. The nature of the soil and the character of the bedding are 



170 Bulletin 86 

important factors of the resistance of cement pipe to external 
pressure. 

18. I'rom the records of tests that have been published, de- 
signers can draw plans and prepare specifications. Specifications 
foT important contracts should provide for ample tests of the pipe 
before it is laid, and for trial tests of the line when completed. 

19. Injury from alkali in water or in soil depends upon the 
quality and concentration of the alkali and the density of the pipe. 
Little difificulty from this cause is to be anticipated in Arizona, but 
very alkaline soils should be analyzed before pipe lines are built in 
them. 

STRKNCTH AND WATKRTIGHTNESS 

20. Cement pipe gains in strength for at least one month, and 
probably for three months, after its manufacture. 

21. Tests of cement pipe should be made with the pipe in a 
wet condition. The strength of dry pipe is abnormally high. 

22. When dry pipe is wetted by immersion, the internal stresses 
become entirely equalized within a few hours. If the pipe is laid 
and is wetted from the inside only, it may be many days before the 
penetration of water causes the maximum internal stresses in the 
pipe wall. 

23. Machine-made pipe, as ordinarily made, is safe when sub- 
jected to hydrostatic heads up to 25 feet. The strength of hand- 
made pipe of good quality is about one-half as great. Wet-cast 
pipe can be designed to carry water under heads of somewhat over 
100 feet. 

24. Machine-made cement pipe up to 20 inches in diameter is 
safe in trenches under ten feet of backfill and the smaller sizes are 
safe for much greater depth. Hand-made pipe 16 inches in diame- 
ter, well made and cured, can be used under ten feet of earth. Tests 
should be made, however, in all important cases, to determine the 
strength of the pipe. 

25. Machine-made pipe is practically impervious. Good hand- 
made pi])e washed inside with neat cement, is nearly impervious and 
becomes entirely so in time. 

PIPIC l-RICTION AND CARRVINc) CAPACITV 

26. I'Viction factors are well known and permit close designing. 
The value of "n" in Kutter's formula should be taken as .013. 
Proper allowance should be made for the eft'ect of frequent risers on 
the line, and on descending grades an allowance should be made for 
the effect of entrapped air. 



Summary 171 



USES OF CKMKNT PU'lv 



27. Cement pipe is eminently adapted for irrigation pipe lines. 
It effects a great saving of water and land and labor; the pipe lines 
can be run through low places and over ridges, making it possible 
to square up the fields and reducing the cost of grading; ditch clean- 
ing is obviated, and burrowing animals are defeated. Cement pipe 
is the logical conduit to replace small earth ditches as soon as the 
land owners are financially able to make the change. 

28. Pipe lint' structures for the division and application of the 
water have been ingeniously developed in various places, to suit 
the local conditions and purposes. \'arious designs are cited in the 
bulletin. 

29. Cement pipe of good quality is in all respects the equal of 
vitrified clay pipe for use in sewer lines. In Arizona, where the 
cost of cement pipe is much less than that of clay pipe, the cement 
pipe should be employed. 

30. Cement pipe, likewise, should have the preference for farm 
and road culverts. When properly made and placed, it is more 
durable, has a greater carrying capacity, and is much cheaper than 
corrugated iron pipe. 

31. Cement pipe, if used for drain tile in alkaline areas, should 
be of great density and impervious. Before it is adopted on im- 
portant drainage projects, advice should be sought and chemical 
analyses should be made of the soils and soil waters. 

32. There are sundry other applications for cement pipe, such 
as for ditch gates, and around farm buildings. It is likely to replace 
iron pipe to some extent as a conduit for domestic water supplies 
that are under low head. 

COSTS 

33. The cost of cement pipe depends on prices, which at present 
are on a relatively high level, and on local conditions, such as the 
distance from a good gravel supply and from the railroad. 

34. If the volume of business is ample, packer-head machine- 
made pipe can be produced more cheaply than hand-made pipe. 



The University of Arizona 
College of Agriculture 



Agricultural Experiment Station 



Bulletin No. 87 













1 

1 


1 ^:^r 




(W^ 















At the left the cotton boll weevil. At the right a native non-Injurious 
weevil which is frequently mistaken for the boll weevil by Arizona cotton 
growers. Both insects en!argefl 3^4 times. 



Insect Pests 
of Interest to Arizona Cotton Growers 



By A. W. Morrill 



Tucson, Arizona. December, 1918 



The University of Arizona 
College of Agriculture 



Agricultural Experiment Station 



Bulletin No. 87 




At the left the cotton boll weevil. At the right a native non-injunous 
weevil which is frequently mistaken for the boll weevil by Arizona cotton 
growers. Both insects enlarged Z% times. 



Insect Pests 
of Interest to Arizona Cotton Growers 



By A. W. Morrill 



Tucson, Arizona. December, 1918 



REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY 

Ex-Officio 

His Excellency, The Governor of Arizona 

The State Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Appointed by the Governor of the State 

John T. Hughes Chancellor 

William J. Bryan, Jr., A.B Treasurer 

William Scarlett, A.B., B.D Regent 

Mrs. Madge Roberts Regent 

Mrs. Bettie White • . Regent 

H. S. McCluskey Regent 

Mrs. Louise Foucar Marshall Secretary 

J. W. Chapman Regent 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

RuFus B. VON KlEinSmid, a.m., Sc.D President of the University; Director 

Estes p. Taylor, B.S.A Assistant Dean, College of Agriculture 

Robert H. Forbes, Ph.D Research Specialist 

John J. Thornber, A.M Botanist 

Albert E. Vinson, Ph.D Biochemist 

George E. P. Smith, C.E Irrigation Engineer 

Richard H. Williams, Ph.D Animal Husbandman 

Walter S. Cunningham, B.S Dairy Husbandman 

Charles T. Vorhies, Ph.D Entomologist 

G. E. Thompson, B.S.A Agronomist 

F. J. CridEr, M.S Horticulturist 

Clifford N. Catlin, A.M Assistant Chemist 

♦Arthur L. EngEr, B.S., C.E Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

Walker E. Bryan, M.S Assistant Plant Breeder 

C. O. Bond, B.S.A .' Assistant Plant Breeder 

W. E. Code, B.S Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

A. F. Kinnison, B.S.A Assistant Horticulturist 

R. S. Hawkins, B.S.A Assistant Agronomist 

Austin W. Morrill, Ph.D Consulting Entomologist 

D. C. George Consulting Plant Pathologist 

The Experiment Station offices and laboratories are an integral part of the 
University at Tucson. The Salt River Valley Experiment Station Farm is 
situated one mile west of Mesa, Arizona. The date palm orchards are three 
miles south of Tempe (co-operative U. S. D. A.) and one mile southwest of 
Yuma, Arizona, respectively. The experimental dry-farms are near Cochise and 
Prescott, Arizona. 

Visitors are cordially invited, and correspondence receives careful attention. 

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE 

Estes P. Taylor, B.S.A Director Agricultural Extension Service 

Leland S. Parke, B.S State Leader Boys' and Girls' Clubs 

Mary PritnEr Lockwood, B.S State Leader Home Demonstration Agents 

W. M. Cook, A.B State Leader County Agricultural Agents 

A. B. BallantynE, B.S County Agent, Graham-Greenlee Counties 

C. R. Fillerup County Agent, Navajo- Apache Counties 

De Lore Nichols, B.S County Agent, Coconino County 

J. R. SandigE, B.S County Agent, Gila County 

C. R. Adamson, B.S.A County Agent. Cochise County 

H. C. Heard, B.S County Agent, Maricopa County 

J. W. LoNGSTRETH County Agent, Yuma County 

Leo L. LaythE, B.S County Agent. Pima-Pinal Counties 

Agnes A. Hunt Assistant State Leader Boys' and Girls' Clubs 

Edward B. OxlEy, B.S County Club Leader, Maricopa County 

Hazel Zimmerman Home Demonstration Agent, Pima-Pinal Counties 

Florence D. Sandige. B.S Home Demonstration Agent. Gila County 

Amy L. DinsmorE, B.S Home Demonstration Agent, Maricopa County 

Flossie D. Wills, B.S Home Dem. Agent, Graham-Greenlee Counties 

Grace I. Tufts Home Demonstration Agent, Yuma-Yavapai Counties 

Louise SporlEdEr Home Demonstration Agent, Cochise County 

Nora LamorEaux Home Demonstration Agent, Apache County 

*On leave. 



CONTENTS 

IWCV. 

The Mexican cotton boll weevil 173 

The cotton bollworm 175 

The pink bollworm 178 

The cotton leaf worm 181 

The salt marsh caterpillar 183 

The cotton leaf perforator 184 

The cotton square daubers 186 

The Southwestern cotton stainer 190 

The brown cotton bug 192 

Grasshoppers 194 

The cotton aphis 196 

The cotton thrips 200 

The rod spider 201 

Otiier cotton pests 202 

Cotton seed and seed cotton quarantine 203 

References 205 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 
Frontispiece. Power sprayer and spray boom arranged for spraying cotton 
for aphis. 
Sprayer in use in cotton field. 

Fig. 1. The cotton boll weevil ^^'^ 

Fig. 2. Cotton square with bracts spread to show boll weevil puncture 175 

Fig. 3. Arizona wild cotton plant (Thurheria) growing in mountain canyon 

of southern Arizona 1'° 

Fig. 4. The cotton bollworm moth 177 

Fig. 5. The cotton bollworm caterpillar feeding on a cotton boll 177 

fig. 6. The pink bollworm 178 

Fig. 7. Cotton bolls showing difference between injury of common boll- 
worm and pink bollworm 179 

Fig. 8. Cotton seeds infested by pink bollworm 179 

Fig. 9. The cotton leaf worm 182 

Fig. 10. The salt marsh caterpillar 183 

Fig. 11. The cotton leaf perforator 184 

Fig. 12. Work of cotton leaf perforator on Egyptian cotton leaf 185 

Fig. 13. Egyptian cotton plant showing work of cotton leaf perforator 186 

Fig. 14. Nymph of tarnished plant bug 187 

Fig. 15. Adult tarnished plant bug 187 

Fig. 16. Adult cotton square dauber 187 

Fig. 17. Southwestern cotton stainers 191 

Fig. 18. Work of cotton stainer 191 

Fig. 19. Effects of plant bug attack on cotton bolls 193 

Fig. 20. The brown cotton bug 194 

Fig. 21. The differential grasshopper 194 

Fig. 22. The large cotton grasshopper 195 

Fig. 23. Cotton plants stripped of leaves by differential grasshoppers 196 

Fig. 24. The cotton aphis 197 

Fig. 25. The convergent lady bird, an enemy of the cotton aphis 198 

Fig. 26. Hymenopterous parasite attacking aphis 199 

Fig. 27. Parasitized specimens of aphis 199 

Fig. 28. Work of cotton thrips on seedling cotton plant 200 

Fig. 29. The two spotted red spider 202 




Power sprayer and spray boom arranged for spraying cotton for aphis (Lauderdale) 




Sprayer in use in cotton field (Lauderdale) 



Insect Pests 
of Interest to Arizona Cotton Growers 



B\ A. IV. Morrill 



Cotton growers in Arizona should know something about the 
general appearance and methods of attack of the more important 
insect enemies of cotton, inchiding those which already occur in 
the State as well as those which the State Commission of Agricul- 
ture and Horticulture and its agents are trying to keep out. This 
bulletin has been prepared to give in concise form general informa- 
tion concerning the principal cotton pests which are of interest to 
Arizona cotton growers. For those who need or desire more 
detailed information references are given at the end to a few reports 
of the Arizona Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture and to 
bulletins of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

THE MEXICAN COTTON BOLL WEEVIL 

Every cotton grower has heard of the Mexican cotton boll weevil 
(Anthonomiis grandis Boh,) and many farmers now located in Arizona 
have had experience with it in Texas, Oklahoma, and other states 
of the so-called cotton belt. This pest has never as yet been found 
in the cotton fields in Arizona, altho a variety (Anthonomus grandis 
thurheriae Pierce,) is known to exist in certain mountain ranges in 
southern Arizona where it infests a wild cotton plant (Fig. 3) 
known botanically as Thiirberia thespesiodes. 

There are many different kinds of weevils and several of these 
are confused by cotton growers with the boll weevil. This is not 
strange, for in some cases weevils of entirely different habits re- 
semble one another so closely that only an entomologist can dis- 
tinguish the difference between them. While it is important for 
cotton growers and others to w^atch carefully for the appearance of 
strange cotton pests, it is desirable that specimens of such pests 
be submitted to an entomologist for identification. 



Acknowledgments: The illustrations used in this bulletin are from bulletins- 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and annual reports of the Arizona Com- 
mission of Agriculture and Horticulture, except figures 7 and 8 which are used 
through the courtesy of Florida Plant Commissioner Wilmon Newell, figures 1& 
and 16 which are reproduced from Bulletin 346 of Cornell Agricultural Experiment 
Station, and the frontispiece cuts which are from original photographs by Mr. J. Li. 
E. Lauderdale. 



174 



BuivLKTIN 87 



The adult boll weevil is usually about one-fourth inch in length, 
some specimens being as small as an eighth inch and others as large 
as one-third inch. This measurement includes the snout which is 
about one-half the length of the body. The color of the adult is 
almost uniformly grayish or brownish. The adult weevil may hiber- 
nate in cotton seed, weeds, trash, haystacks, etc. It flies to the 
cotton fields in the spring and breeding soon begins. The eggs are 




Fig. 1 — The cotton boll weevil, a and b, adults, c, larva, d, pupa, e, adult 
feeding- on cotton boll, section removed to show larva within (natural size), f, 
;arva in square. 



laid in cavities eaten by the female weevils in cotton squares and 
bolls. The grub lives entirely inside the square or boll and in from 
seven to ten days changes to the pupa. In this stage it does not 
feed, but in about five days transforms into the adult or winged 
stage. The boll weevil adult is not known to feed on any other 



Insect Pests of Interest to Cotton Grower? 



175 



plant than cotton and never lays eggs except in the cotton square 
or boll. The cell in which the pupal stage is passed in the boll, 
after going thru a gin, resembles a seed in form and size. The weevil 
is rarely found inside the seed hull, but nevertheless is frequently 
found with cotton seed, since squares, small bolls and pupal cells 
containing the adult insects usually go thru the gin without being 




Fig. 2— Cotton square with bracts spread to show boll weevil puncture. 

crushed. Cotton seed and seed cotton from boll weevil infested 
sections are therefore very likely to carry the boll weevil even tho 
the seed itself is not, strictly speaking, infested. 

THE cotton BOLLWORM 

The cotton bollworm (Chloridea ohsoleta Hubn.) is an entirely dif- 
ferent insect from the boll weevil, but the two are frequently con- 
fused. The adult of the bollworm is a large moth which lays its 
eggs in large numbers on various parts of the cotton plant. The 



176 



Bulletin 87 



eggs are laid singly and not in clusters like the eggs of certain other 
moths. The larva or worm hatches in the course of a few days, 
and after feeding for a short time on the leaves it bores into squares 
and bolls. When first hatched the bollworm is so small that in 
feeding on a cotton square it makes only a very small hole. As it 
passes from square to square and finally to the bolls, it eats larger 
and larger holes and when full grown may make an opening a 
quarter inch in diameter. The bollworms are very variable in color 
and markings, including pale green, pinkish and dark brown as the 





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Pig. 3 — Arizona wild cotton (Thurberia) grow- 
ing in mountain canyon of Southern Arizona. 



ground color, with markings of green and brown. The cotton boll- 
worm is the same as the corn ear worm and is found everywhere in 
the country where either cotton or corn is grown. The female 
moths may lay as many as 3000 eggs. They prefer to lay these on 
the fresh silks of corn and consequently this crop may be used as 
a "trap crop" for the protection of cotton. The bollworm also 
breeds on alfalfa and attacks bean pods and green tomatoes, in the 
latter case sometimes being known as the green tomato worm. 

The cotton bollworm passes the winter in a cell in the ground, 
and fall and winter plowing of cotton and corn fields breaks up 
many of these cells and exposes the pupae to destruction by birds 
and rodents. Injury to cotton by the bollworm in Arizona has not 



Insect PtsTs of Intkrkst to Cotton Growers 



177 



proved of much consequence except in a few sections of the Salt 
River Valley in 1917 where as high as 20 percent of the bolls were 
destroyed by the pest. In cases of serious attack on cotton the 
plants should be poisoned with i)owdorcd arsenate of lead or with 
calcium arsenate. 




Fig. 4 — The cotton boll worm moth 
(enlarged). 




Pig. 5 The cotton boll worm caterpillar feeding on a cotton boll. 



The eggs of the bollworm are attacked by parasites which help 
greatly to keep the pest in control. It has many other insect 
enemies but in a sense it may be said to be its own greatest enemy. 



178 



Bulletin 87 



The worms are quarrelsome and cannibalistic; whenever two of 
them meet a deadly combat follows, and as a result both worms 
sometimes die. The concentration of a large number of eggs on 
the silks of an ear of corn saves the egg parasites much trouble in 
hunting out scattering eggs and insures a heavy mortality from 
cannibalism. Altho the average number of bollworm eggs on the 
silks of each ear is high, sometimes in excess of 100, it is rare that 
more than one or two worms succeed in penetrating into the tip 
of the corn ear and developing to maturity. 

THE PINK BOLLWORM 

During the past year occasional references have been made in 
newspapers and farm journals to the Egyptian pink bollworm 




Fig. 6 — The pink bollworm. 1. Fullgrown larva. 2 and 3. Pupae. 4, Adult. 5 and 
6, Injured cotton seeds. (Hunter) 

(Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders). This insect is reported to be 
even more serious than the cotton boll weevil. It is supposed to 
have originated in India and to have been shipped in cotton seed 
from India to Egypt several years ago. From Egypt the pest has 
been distributed in cotton seed to various parts of the world includ- 
ing Brazil and Mexico. 



Insect Pests of Interest to Cotton Growers 179 




Fig. 7 — Cotton bolls showing difference between injury by common bollworm 
and pinic bollworm. At left injury by common bollworm (Chloridca obsoleta) — note 
the large orifice and raised edges; at right injury by pink bollworm— note the com- 
paratively small clean cut orifices in carpel^ (Hunter, from Quar. Bull. State Plant 
Bd. of Fla.) 




Pig 8 —Cotton seeds infested by pink bollworm. Above "double" or "twm" 
seeds characteristic of the work of larva of this insect in its last stage. (Hunter, 
from Quar. Bull. State Plant Bd. of Pla.) 



180 BULI.ETIN 87 

In 1914 a shipment of cotton seed from Egypt was received by 
the president of a cotton ginning company in the Salt River Valley 
of Arizona. Upon examination at the office of the State Ento- 
mologist this seed was found to be grossly infested with the 
Egyptian pink bollworm and was consequently destroyed by burn- 
ing. It is safe to say that if the condition of this seed had not 
been discovered the pink bollworm would have become established 
in Arizona and have made Egyptian cotton growing unprofitable. 
Unfortunatel}^ there were no agencies in Mexico to prevent the 
importation and planting of infested Egyptian seed in that country. 
As a consequence the insect was established in the Laguna district 
of Northern Mexico. From there it has been scattered to other 
cotton growing districts, including two or three points in Texas. 
The Texas state government has passed a very drastic law and the 
Federal government has appropriated a large sum of money for 
the eradication of the pink bollworm. No effort will be spared to 
make this undertaking a success. 

The pink bollworm moth is a small gray colored insect less 
than half an inch long. The eggs are deposited on the cotton bolls 
as a rule. These hatch in the course of a few days and the habits 
of the larva or worm are similar to those of the bollworm. The 
grown worm is a little less than half an inch long. Very young 
worms are white in color but become pink when full grown. The 
worm bores into the interior of the boll and feeds upon the cotton 
seed. Frequently two or more seeds are fastened together by the 
worm in such a way as to allow of its passage from one to another. 
The "double" seeds are regarded as a sure indication of the presence 
of the pink bollworm altho the live worms may also be found in 
single seeds. There is no other cotton pest so well adapted for 
transportation in cotton seed as this one. In addition to cotton, 
this insect attacks hollyhocks and species of hibiscus, the two 
species so far recorded as subject to infestation being known as 
Indian hemp and okra. No doubt other species of hibiscus will 
also be found to be subject to attack by this insect. The fact that 
the pink bollworm is not confined to cotton as is the cotton boll 
weevil adds somewhat to the difficulties in controlling or eradicat- 
ing it. 

The misfortune of the introduction of the pink bollworm into 
Egypt will add to the expense of producing long staple cotton in 
that country, and consequently the freedom of the cotton fields of 
the arid Southwest from this pest represents a distinct economic 
advantage for the Egyptian cotton growing industry in this section. 



Insect Pests of Interkst to Cotton Growers 181 

THE cotton leaf worm 

The cotton leaf worm, (Alabama argillacca llubu) is one of the 
best known cotton insects of North America. It is not known to 
have any other food plant than cotton, including the Arizona wild 
cotton. This insect is believed not to winter over as rule in the 
United States but to come in each season by flight of the adults from 
Central and South America. The moth is of an olive gray color, 
with a wing expanse of one and one-third inches. Eggs are laid 
singly on the under surfaces of the leaves near the top of the plant. 
Each female lays about 500 eggs. These hatch in three or four 
days and the larvae at first are of a pale yellow color but soon 
become greenish. The full grown worms are nearly half an inch 
long, slender, bluish green in color with black spots and frequently 
with black stripes along the back. They walk by looping and 
when disturbed drop from the plant. \Vhen full grown the worms 
spin light silken cocoons on the cotton plant, usually within a fold 
of the leaf, and transform to brown pupae. The moth develops 
from the pupa in the course of a week in warm weather. Several 
generations occur during a season, and the insects multiply at an 
almost unbelievable rate. It has been estimated that if it were 
not for the destruction of many of the insects by natural enemies 
the progeny of one female moth in four generations would amount 
to more than 300,000,000,000 individuals. The third generation, if 
placed end to end, it is said, would encircle the earth more than 
four times at the equator. 

Fortunately there are a great many natural enemies of the cot- 
ton leaf worm which help to prevent excessive multiplication. In 
past years before the boll weevil entered this country, the cotton 
worm was regarded as a pest and poisoning of the cotton plants for 
its destruction was commonly practiced. Since the boll weevil 
made its appearance, however, the work of the cotton worm has 
not been regarded as serious as a rule, and in a great many cases 
it has been recognized as a distinct advantage, owing to the fact 
that the partial defoliation has tended to hasten maturity of the 
bolls, and the stripping of the plants has deprived the late emerging 
boll weevils of a much needed food supply. 

In Arizona the cotton leaf worm has been found attacking cot- 
ton in the Salt River Valley, the Gila Valley, and near Tucson. It 
has also been found attacking the wild cotton plant, which has 
already been mentioned as a food plant of a variety of the cotton 
boll weevil. The cotton leaf worm does not appear every year in 



182 



BuivivETiN 87 




Fig. 9— The cotton leaf worm: Larvae, pupae and adults. 



Insect Pi-sts of Interest to Cotton Growers 



183 



southern Arizona and from observations so far made it does not 
seem likely that it will ever prove to be a serious cotton pest in the 
arid Southwest. The tendency seems to be for Egyptian cotton 
plants to grow too rank, and in most cases the partial defoliation 
which results from an attack of the cotton leaf worm late in the 
season will prove a decided benefit in maturing the cotton crop. If, 
however, the insect should make its appearance earlier than usual 
in the season, and consequently multiply to injurious numbers and 
threaten serious injury to the crop, it may be poisoned by dusting 
the plants with Paris green, arsenate of lead, or calcium arsenate as 
is still done occasionally in parts of the eastern cotton belt. 

THE S.\LT MAKSII CATERPILLAR 

The salt marsh caterpillar (Estigmcnc acraca Dru) appears every 
year in greater or less numbers in the cotton fields in southern 




Fig. 10 — Salt marsh caterpiMar. a. Female moth; b. half^own 
larva; c. mature larva, lateral view; d. egg mass. 



Arizona. It has many food plants in addition to cotton and may be 
found multiplying on trees, field crops or weeds. In the Salt River 
Valley it sometimes does considerable damage to the bean crop. 
Among the weeds probably its favorite food plant is one known 
as the yellow flowered ground cherry (Physalis angulata variety 
linkiana). In the only instance when the salt marsh caterpillars were 



184 



Bulletin 87 



found in excessive abundance in Arizona cotton fields, the insects 
had first attacked the ground cherry and turned their attention to 
the cotton plants only after they had completely stripped the weeds. 
The salt marsh caterpillar is one of those commonly known as 
"woolly bears." The hairs are black and red. The general appear- 
ance of the caterpillar and moths is well shown in the illustration. 

THE COTTON LEAF PERFORATOR 

A very conspicuous type of insect injury to cotton plants is pro- 
duced by the larvae of a tiny moth which has a wing expanse of 



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^^^^^^^^^^^SuibihTAy^SSe^ti 


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m 



Fig. 11 — The cotton leaf perforator: 1, adult. 2, pupa skin attached to cocoon. 
3, cocoon of leaf perforator. 4, cocoon of salt marsh caterpillar. 

only about a third of an inch. The larvae during the first stages 
are so small tliat they live inside the leaf tissue where they pro- 
duce a serpentine mine. W'hen nearly full grown they eat their 
way to the surface of the leaf and during the last stage feed on the 
surface of the leaves in which they make small perforations. On 
account of this injury, which suggests the eft'ect of small shot from 
a shotgun, the common name "cotton leaf perforator" (Buccnlatrix 
thnrherieUa Busck) has been suggested. During the period when 
the larva is living on the surface of the leaf it molts once. This 



Insect Pests of Interest to Cotton Growers 



185 



process takes place inside of a thin, white silken cocoon which is 
formed on the surface of the leaf and in which the caterpillar, bent 
in the form of the letter "U,"' can be faintly seen. Finally, when 
the worm is full grown, it spins a white, ribbed cocoon about five- 
sixteenths of an inch long. This is attached to the cotton stalk or 
to other parts of the plant. In this cocoon it transforms first to a 
pupa, from which the delicate, grayish white moth eventually 




Fig. 12 — Work of cotton leaf perforator on Egyptian cotton leaf (greatly en- 
larged). 1, mine containing larva. 2. mine which ha.s been vacated by larva. 
3, work of caterpillar after leaving leaf mine. 



emerges. These insects are subject to attack by minute wasp-like 
parasites which some seasons keep them so reduced in numbers 
that they are not conspicuous. So far no distinct damage to cotton 
plants has been noted in Arizona, although it is not impossible that, 
with a start unusually early in the season and with conditions un- 
favorable for the activity of the parasites, some damage might be 
done. As observed so far, however, the perforation of the leaves 
has usually been a benefit rather than otherwise, for the same 
reason as has been noted in the case of the partial defoliation of 
cotton plants by the cotton leaf worm. 



186 



Bulletin 87 




Pig. 13 — Egyptian cotton plant, showing work of leaf perforator. 



THE COTTON SQUARE DAUBERS 

The most destructive pests in Arizona up to this time are certain 
sucking plant bugs of the tarnished plant bug group which, on 
account of the characteristic effects upon the cotton plant, may be 
called the "cotton square daubers"^ (Lygus clisns hespcnts Knight 
and L. pratensis var. oblineatus Say). There are several closely re- 
lated species and varieties of the tarnished plant bug genus and 
while representatives are common in the eastern cotton growing 
states, they have not so far proved destructive to cotton except in 
the arid southwest. 

The cotton square daubers were first noted as cotton pests in 
Arizona in 1914 when they became noticeably destructive in one 
locality in the Salt River Valley a few miles southwest of Phoenix. 
The next season they did sufficient damage in a large cotton field 
near Glendale to make the crop unprofitable- Since then they have 
been destructive in one locality or another each season-. In 1918 



^Seventh Annual Report, Ariz. Comm. Agr. & Hort., pp. 44-45. 
'Eighth Annual Report. Ariz. Comm. Agr. & Hort., p. 49. Ninth Annual Re- 
port, Ariz. Comm. Agr. & Hort., pp. 58-59. 



Insect Pests oe Interest to Cotton Growers 



187 



the average loss from these insects in Arizona is estimated to have 
been between 3 and 5 percent. Accordingly the total loss would be 
placed between $420,000 and $700,000. 

The cotton square daubers are usually destructive to cotton only 
during the month of August. The immature stages have never 





Fig. 15. — Adult tarnished 
plant bug (natural size 
and enlarged). 




Fig. 14. — Nymph of tarnished plant 
bug (enlarged nine times). 



Fig. 16. — Adult cotton 
square dauber (en- 
larged about twice). 



been found in abundance on cotton plants. Evidently they do not 
find the cotton field a suitable breeding place. Alfalfa fields appear 
to be the principal source of the adults which invade the cotton 
fields. In one instance it was estimated that there was an average 
of one adult square dauber to each square foot of area in an alfalfa 
field. If all of these insects in a single acre of this alfalfa were dis- 
tributed in cotton fields so that there would be an average of one 
per plant there would be more than suf^cient to prevent all setting 
of bolls in from 6 to 8 acres of cotton. The insects were observed 
in one instance exceeding 20 per plant on a few rows on one side 
of a cotton field. An average of one of the bugs per plant is be- 
lieved by the w^riter to be sufficient to cause maximum damage, and 
all in excess of this may, therefore, be considered harmless. This 



188 Bulletin 87 

matter will be considered later in connection with the discussion 
of remedies. 

The adult cotton square daubers are about a fifth to one-fourth 
of an inch in length. They are very variable in color. One form, 
Lygus elius var. hesperus Knight/ is pale brownish green or green- 
ish brown, the males conspicuously marked with red on the wing 
•covers and with more or less black on the front third of body, the 
females being paler and more uniformly colored than the males. 
The darker form, found on cotton less commonly than the first 
mentioned, is the true tarnished plant bug, Lygus pratensis var. 
■oblineatus Say.^ The general color is yellowish or bronzy brown, 
with black and grayish or yellowish markings. 

The adults feed inside the bracts of the cotton square, sucking 
the rich plant juices from the developing parts of the flower bud. 
The sucking organs are more slender than the finest needle and 
leave no trace where they penetrate, but the interior of the injured 
bud quickly decays, the bracts flare and the whole square becomes 
yellowish in color and drops from the plant within a few days. 
Shedding of the squares frequently follows irrigation or heavy 
rainfall. Shedding caused by the square daubers can be distin- 
guished by the daubs of yellow excrement which the insect leaves 
•on the inside of the bracts and on the flower bud. This excrement 
is a liquid which has a varnish like appearance when dry. Squares 
v^hich show this characteristic daubing, with no other external 
evidence of injury, are invariably in process of decay. Very small 
bolls are also subject to attack but the principal damage is 
to the squares. Cotton growers should learn to recognize the 
appearance of the squares and bolls destroyed by the daubers in 
•order to distinguish between the shedding of the forms from natural 
causes and from the insect attack. 

The cotton square daubers have been found in injurious abund- 
ance in a cotton field two miles from the nearest alfalfa, but, as a 
rule, excessive infestations are traceable to surrounding or adjoining 
alfalfa fields. The adults can not be destroyed by any spray as far 
as known and their habits of feeding inside the bracts would make 
the use of any spray impracticable even if an effective one were 
"known. The problem of controlling the insects in cotton, therefore, 
centers in preventing their undue spread from neighboring alfalfa 
fields and in taking advantage of their activity, when disturbed, to 
drive them out of a cotton field or to concentrate them in such a 
way as to reduce the damage. 

>Specimens determined by Mr. H. H. Knight of Cornell University. 



Insect Pests of Interest to Cotton Growers 189 

The greatest damage to cotton arises from cotton square daubers 
being driven in from an adjoining alfalfa field when the crop is 
cut. If the cutting begins on the side farthest from the cotton and 
continues toward the cotton the square daubers and grasshoppers 
are gradually concentrated on the side of the field and finally when 
the last land is cut large numbers of the pests are virtually driven 
into the cotton fields. In one such case an average of one of the 
daubers to each cotton square was noted on a few rows. 

On account of both the square daubers and grasshoppers alfalfa 
cutting and raking should be started on the sides of a field and 
continued toward the central land which should be left temporarily 
as a trap. When concentrated on a limited area in this way large 
numbers of the insects can be captured with a hopper dozer such as 
is used for grasshoppers. In one instance where the daubers aver- 
aged one to a square foot, or about 43,000 per acre, more than 7000 
of the insects were captured on a little less than an acre in the course 
of fifteen minutes. In addition to the square daubers about 3500 
specimens of the alfalfa hopper (Stictocephala festina Say) and about 
1000 specimens of the differential grasshopper {Mclanoplus differen- 
tialis) were captured at the same time. This was accomplished 
after dark with two lanterns suspended over the pans of oil and 
water.^ Further experience is necessary in order to perfect this 
method, but the results so far justify the use of the hopper dozer 
against the square daubers in alfalfa fields in cases of excessive 
infestation, and especially after the insects have been concentrated 
as advised above. Even if no attempt is made to destroy the insects 
after concentrating them near the center of the field the method 
will be of great advantage. The strip or patch of uncut alfalfa 
should be left undisturbed until the rest of the field has made con- 
siderable new growth. In the meantime, the grasshoppers should 
be poisoned with poisoned baits, or both the grasshoppers and 
square daubers collected with a hopper dozer, used at night to avoid 
unnecessary scattering of the insect pests by driving away from 
the trap patch many of those not captured. After the insects are 
concentrated near the center of the field, prompt action against the 
grasshoppers must be taken when necessary in order to prevent 
their cleaning up the alfalfa leaving nothing but the bare stems. 
In this condition the trap patch would not be effective in holding 
the active square daubers. 



^To Mr. J. Li. Moore, a cotton and alfalfa grower located west of Phoenix, 
credit is due for the idea of using- the hopper dozer at night. 



190 Bulletin 87 

The plan suggested can be modified to suit the conditions and 
individual ideas of the alfalfa grower. For instance, instead of a 
single land or strip across the middle of a field a square patch ex- 
tending across two or three lands may be left in the center of the 
field. This method is specially desirable when there is cotton on. 
more than two sides of the alfalfa. 

Alfalfa growers who have no cotton of their own to protect will 
frequently secure full returns in benefits to the alfalfa crop itself 
from the adoption of the foregoing suggestions. Owners of neigh- 
boring cotton fields should be given an opportunity to assume the 
expense of these measures, rather than be obliged to sufifer with- 
out recourse severe losses from insects driven in from alfalfa fields. 
Cotton growers should keep in touch with their neighbors and ar- 
range with the owners of adjoining alfalfa fields for cooperation in 
the control of pests. 

Reference has been made to the matter of driving the cotton 
square daubers out of a cotton field or of concentrating them within 
the field. Attention has also been called to the fact that an excess 
of the insects above the number capable of causing maximum dam- 
age may be considered as harmless, for the time being at least. 
The unusual activity of the adult cotton square daubers can, the 
writer believes, be taken advantage of in driving the insects by 
means of a device which he has designed. A second device is de- 
signed to capture the insects after they have been concentrated on 
a few rows. One of each of these devices has been constructed and 
the work of perfecting them will be continued as the opportunity 
for further field tests is presented. 

THE SOUTHWESTERN COTTON STAINER 

The Southwestern cotton stainer (Dysdercus albidivcntris Stal.) 
has been found on cotton in various parts of the Salt River Valley 
and at Sacaton. This insect is related to the Florida cotton stainer, 
which is a well known cotton pest in the Sea Island cotton growing 
district of Northern Florida. Other species occur in the West 
Indies, Central, and South America. The adult cotton stainer is 
from six to seven-sixteenths of an inch in length, the males being 
considerably smaller than the females. The adults are strikingly 
colored with a combination of black, straw yellow, orange brown, 
and orange red. The insects breed upon the cotton plants. In 
the immature or nymphal stages the bright orange red is the pre- 
dominating color. The cotton stainer does its damage by feeding 



Insect Pksts of Intkrest to Cotton Growers 



191 



on the immature bolls. By means of delicate, threadlike parts of 
the mouth organ known as setae the bug- punctures the carpel of 
the boll and the seed coat, and sucks the juices from the inside of 

the seed. This results in an abnormal 
growth or proliferation being produced 
on the inside of the carpel at the point 
of entrance of the setae and in the 
decay of the attacked seed and sur- 
rounding lint. There is no mark on 
the outside of the boll to indicate this 
internal injury. In the West Indies in- 
vestigations have shown that a similar 
decay is caused by a fungus which is 
supposed to be introduced into the interior of the bolls by sucking 
bugs, principally cotton stainers. It is probable that the internal 




Fig. 17 — Southwestern cotton 
stainer. Female at left, male at 
right. (About natural size). 




Fig. 18— Work of cotton stainer. -One lock shrivelled and decayed. 

decay of cotton bolls which occurs in the United States is also due 
to a fungus introduced by sucking bugs. 

The Southwestern cotton stainers are not generally injurious 
throughout the Salt River Valley, but in one locality during the 



192 Bulletin 87 

year 1916 they were destructive on several farms, destroying" from 
50 to 75 percent of the immature bolls. In one section of a cotton 
field comprising four or five acres it was estimated that the insects 
had destroyed fully 90 percent of the bolls. 

In addition to the complete destruction of young bolls cotton 
stainers do much damage by attack on bolls which are mature or 
nearly so. When such bolls are attacked the injury appears in the 
form of stained lint. In one instance observed by the writer the 
Florida cotton stainer damaged a crop of about 1000 bales of Sea 
Island cotton to the extent that 200 bales were classed as stained. . 

The Southwestern cotton stainers were not present in injurious 
numbers in any part of the Salt River Valley during 1917 and 1918. 
They may be expected to vary greatly in numbers from year to 
year. They should be recognized by all cotton growers as being 
capable of causing considerable damage. Whenever any are found 
they should be watched carefully and whatever steps may be neces- 
sary should be taken to prevent breeding on weeds or other plants 
in the neighborhood of cotton fields, while in the cotton fields the 
stainers should be collected and destroyed whenever they appear 
in threatening numbers. The bugs have a habit of congregating 
in large numbers on the bolls, and their conspicuous color makes it 
easy to destroy them by knocking them by hand into a bucket or 
other convenient vessel containing water with a small amount of 
coal oil on the surface. 

THE BROWN COTTON BUG 

A third species of plant bug which has caused noticeable dam- 
age to cotton in Arizona is known as the brown cotton bug (Buschis- 
tus impictiventris Stal.) This is very closely related to the brown 
cotton bug which is known as a cotton pest in Texas and other 
states of the cotton belt. This insect belongs to the group com- 
monly known as "stink bugs". The adult is broad and flattened, a 
little over half an inch in length, has rather sharp shoulders and is 
yellowish below and marked with dark brown or black punctures 
above. The brown cotton bug injures the crop by sucking the 
juices from the bolls. The thread-like mouth organs are used to 
. penetrate through to the interior of the developing seed. The effect 
is similar to that produced by the cotton stainer. The brown cotton 
bug is found in nearly all cotton fields in Arizona, sometimes in 
considerable numbers. No excessive damage, however, has thus 
far been observed. The importance of this pest consists in its gen- 



Insect Pests or Interest to Cotton Growers 



195 



eral occurrence in nearly all cotton fields rather than occasional 
serious outbreaks, such as observed in the case of the cotton stainer. 
The brown cotton bug- here referred to does not seem to breed to 




f 1 






/ 





Fig. 19— Effects of plant bug attack on cotton bolls. 1, Boll with shrivelled 
lock. 2. 3. 4 and 5. Small bolls, stunted and decayed as a result of plant bus at- 
tack 6, Immature cotton boll broken open to show decayed condition of locks as 
result of plant bug attack. 7, Same with lint and seeds removed to show prolifera- 
tion or abnormal wartlike growth on insides of carpels produced by plant bug- 
punctures. 



any extent upon the cotton plants. It is quite likely that it multi- 
plies principally on wild food plants and migrates to the cotton 
plants when these wild food plants become overstocked with the 
insects or, in the case of annuals, reach maturity and die. The 
brown cotton bug is rarely found in sufficient numbers to require 
treatment except m small areas. Judging from observations made 
on related species each adult of the brown cotton bug is capable of 
destroying a large number of bolls. An average of one of these 
bugs to a plant should be considered as threatening very noticeable 



194 



BuLivETiN 87 



damage. The only remedies which can be suggested consist in 
making observations to determine where the insects are breeding 
and in destroying them by spraying with coal oil or by burning 
whenever they are found concentrated in considerable numbers. 
If they have appeared in the cotton fields the only remedy available 

consists in hand picking. Each adult 
of this species is capable of destroying 
from two to five cents worth of cotton 
lint and it is unquestionably very 
profitable to collect them by hand 
when this work can be done at a slight 
cost, as for instance 10 or 15 cents a 
hundred. 





Fig. 20. — The brown cotton bug. 



Fig. 21 — The difEerential grasshopper, 
natural size.) 



(About 



GRASSHOPPERS 

Three species of grasshoppers have been observed doing dam- 
age to cotton in Arizona. The attacks of these insects in large num- 
bers may result in the complete destruction of the crop. In several 
instances noted the plants have not only been completely stripped 
of all leaves but the green bark has been gnawed from the main 
stem and branches., Grasshoppers in cotton growing sections 
breed principally in alfalfa fields and are very apt to migrate from 
the alfalfa to cotton immediately after a heavily infested crop of 
alfalfa is cut for hay and removed from the field, particularly when 
the cutting and raking is started on the side away from the cotton 
and these and other cotton pests are virtually driven out. The prin- 
cipal grasshopper damage to cotton in Arizona is by a species 
known as the dififerential grasshopper (Mclanophis differ entialis 
Thos.) This insect is light brownish in color with black markings. 
The adult females are over an inch and a half in length. The vo- 
racity of these insects is indicated by a calculation made by the 
writer showing that when the adults average about 16 to a square 



Insect Pests of Interest to Cotton Growers 



195 



yard they may consume the equivalent of a ton of hay a day in a 
forty acre alfalfa field. The number mentioned represents only a 
moderate infestation. 

The other two species of grasshoppers destructive to cotton in 
Arizona are closely related (Schistocerca shoshone and S. vega.J 
They are nearly twice as large as 
the differential grasshopper. One is 
brown in color and the other is green. 
So far they have been excessively 
numerous in only one instance, where 
they completely defoliated a small 
field of cotton. 

Grasshoppers may be destroyed in 
cotton fields with comparatively slight 
expense. The method consists in 
spreading broadcast a poisoned bait. 
The standard grasshopper bait con- 
sists of bran, molasses, Paris green, 
finely chopped lemons or oranges and 
water. Experiments by the writer 
during 1917 and 1918 have shown 
that a half and half mixture of bran 
and sawdust is as effective as the 
bran alone. Ground canteloupe (culls) 
have been found as effective as lemons 
or oranges. The evidence so far favors 
the conclusion that the addition of 
molasses to the bait does not increase 
its attractiveness to the grasshoppers. The proportions of the ma- 
terials in a bait successfully used in Arizona are as follows: 

Bran, 12^-15 pounds. 

Sawdust, 12^/2 pounds. 

Paris green, 1 pound. 

Canteloupe, 1 pound. (Use 5 lemons or oranges if canteloupes 
are not available.) 

Water, enough to make a crumbly mixture. 

The Paris green should be mixed with the dry sawdust and bran. 
This may be done by placing the bran, sawdust and Paris green in 
a barrel, tub or special mixing vat, and using a hoe. A wet sponge 
or a gauze mask should be used to protect the operator against 
breathing the Paris green dust. The finely ground canteloupe^ 
lemons or oranges should be mixed with about a gallon of water 



/ 


X 


\ 

7 




V 

/ 

i 



Fig. 22 — The large cotton grass- 
hopper, Shistocerca shoshone (nat- 
ural size). 



196 ' Bulletin 87 

and this mixture then thoroly stirred into the bran-sawdust-Paris 
green combination. More water is added as needed to make a 
moist crumbly mixture. This mixture should be sown broadcast 
in the infested cotton fields. Observations on the habits of the dif- 




Pig. 23. — Cotton plants in foreground stripped of leaves by differential 
grasshoppers wtiich migrated from adjoining alfalfa field. 

-ferential grasshopper have shown that late afternoon is not a favor- 
able time for spreading the bait in cotton growing sections of 
Arizona. 

The advantages of concentrating grasshoppers and cotton square 
<iaubers in the center of alfalfa fields rather than driving them out 
with mowers and rakes, as is sometimes done with disastrous re- 
sults to adjoining cotton, has been discussed under the subject of 
the control of the cotton square daubers. Heavy applications of 
poisoned baits in proportion to the abundance of the insects in the 
xmcut area, or the use of the hopper dozer, are the best available 
methods of disposing of the grasshoppers after they have been 
concentrated. 

THE COTTON APHIS 

During the first two or three weeks in the spring after the young 
cotton plants come through the ground cotton growers are fre- 
quently alarmed by the attack of small greenish or greenish black 
insects known as the cotton aphis (Aphis gossypii Glov.) The same 
species attacks and sometimes destroys melon vines and is perhaps 
iDetter known as the melon aphis. It occurs everywhere in the 
XJnited States where cotton is grown, but is not ordinarily of much 



Insect Pests of Interest to Cotton Growers 



197 



importance as a cotton pest on account of the effectiveness of its 
natural enemies, particularly a black wasp-like parasite. 

There are two forms of the adult, winged and wingless females. 
Males are not known. The body of one of the full grown insects 
is about a fifteenth of an inch long. The folded wings in the case 
of the winged form extend approximately another fifteenth inch 



(DUt. 




^.. -Ob. 

Pig. 24 — The cotton aphis. 

beyond the end of the body. The migrating or winged adults 
spread into the cotton fields from mallow and other weeds which 
have remained infested throughout the wanter. Eggs are laid on 
the young cotton plants soon after they come through the ground. 
These soon hatch and the nymphs in the course of a few days de- 
velop into wingless adults^ These are each capable of giving birth 
to six to ten young per day. As these in turn become full grown 
in less than a week and are ready to reproduce it is apparent that 
no crop could long survive if such an increase were unchecked. 

Fortunately, wasp-like or hymenopterous parasites, principally 
Aphidius tcstaceipes Cress, lady birds, principally Hippodamia conver- 
gens Guerin., lace wing flies or chrysopas and predaceous flies 
known as syrphus flies, are very effective as a rule in preventing 
undue multiplication. Before the death of the parasitized aphis 
occurs the body of the insect turns light brown in color and becomes 



198 BuLi^ETiN 87 

almost globular in form. The insect before dying attaches itself 
rigidly to the leaf on which it was feeding. These parasitized in- 
sects and the empty shells which remain after the adult parasite 
emerges are very conspicuous and a farmer should learn to recog- 
nize them. Each adult female of the parasites is capable of destroy- 
ing around two hundred aphis individuals. That is, each adult 
parasite will parasitize or deposit an egg in the body of each of two- 
hundred or more specimens as long as the supply of aphis holds out. 
The effectiveness of parasites, lady birds and other natural ene- 




'•^'ig. 25 — The convergent lady bird, an enemy of the cotton aphis, a, 
Adult, b, Pupa, c, Full grown larva. (All greatly enlarged.) 

mies of aphis, is dependent on the weather. Cold weather during 
the crop growing season is unfavorable for the natural enemies and 
therefore favorable for the aphis. During warm or hot weather 
the parasites are capable of multiplying so much faster than the 
aphis that the latter are relatively unimportant among cotton pests. 
The natural enemies of this species of aphis for some reason are 
much more reliable in the control of the pest on cotton than on 
melons and other crops. Owing to this indirect relation of the 
weather to the effectiveness of the parasites it is a common belief 
among farmers and gardeners that the hot weather destroys the 
aphis. As a matter_of fact the aphis will thrive in our hottest mid- 
summer weather and do much damage if for any reason the para- 
sites and other natural enemies are not active. 

In 1914 and again in 1918 the cotton aphis was notably destruc- 
tive in the Yuma Valley. In July, 1918- the attack was especially 
severe and for a time threatened the complete destruction of the 
crop. Soon after the first of August, however, hymenopterous para- 
sites increased sufficiently to control the pest. Lady birds, which 
are more conspicuous and therefore better known as enemies of this 



Insect Pests of Interest to Cotton Growers 



199 



aphis, were of no practical importance during the 1918 midsummer 
outbreak according to the observations of Mr. J. L. E. Lauderdale. 
Similar observations in regard to lady birds were made by the 
writer in 1914. The following account^ of the ineffectiveness of 




Fig. 26 — Hymenopterous parasite attacking an aphis. 




Fig. 27 — Parasitized specimens of aphis. 



the lady birds at the time of the first serious outbreak is quoted 
to emphasize the impracticability of relying upon these natural 
enemies for the control of the cotton aphis in midsummer : 

"On August 19-20, 1914, a visit by the State Entomologist to 
numerous cotton fields on both the California and Arizona side of 
the Colorado River near Yuma disclosed the fact that all kinds of 
natural enemies were scarce, particularly the lady-bird noted above. 
In some fields there had been a decrease in the number of aphis due 
to internal parasites. In several infested fields large numbers of 
convergent lady-birds had been liberated some weeks previously. 
Wherever this had been followed by a decrease in the amount of 
aphis the introduction of the natural enemies was generally cred- 
ited with the supposed benefits. A close examination, however, 
showed that these introductions could have had no beneficial effects 
whatever since the lady-birds in any stage were as scarce in these 
fields, which had been stocked with the beneficial insects, as in 
fields which had not been so supplied. Furthermore, an examina- 
tion of the plants failed to disclose any evidence of the lady-birds 
having bred in the fields. Such evidence would have been easily 
found in the presence of large numbers of pupae or empty pupal 



^Sixth Annual Report Ariz. Comni. Agr. & Hort., pp. 37-38, 1914. 



200 



Bulletin 87 



skins attached to the cotton stalks if they had been breeding in num- 
bers capable of accomplishing results." 

The feasibility of spraying for the control of the cotton aphis on 
plants from 3 to 3>4 feet high was demonstrated at Yuma by Mr. 
Lauderdale with an improvised power sprayer and spray boom ar- 
ranged for spraying 5 rows of cotton at a time. He found that 
about thirty acres of cotton could be sprayed in a day by two men 
at a cost of about $1.25 per acre for materials. The total cost per 
acre should be less than $1.90. The insecticide used was nicotine 
sulfate (Black Leaf 40) and soap. The sprayer used by Mr. Lau- 
derdale is shown in the frontispiece. 

THE COTTON THRIPS 

The cotton thrips (Thrips arizonensis n. sp. Morgan) is a slender 
yellowish insect which when full grown is scarcely over a fifth of 
an inch in length. It attacks young seedling cotton plants and is 
capable of doing much damage. Characteristic effects upon the 




Fig. 2S — Work of cotton thrips on seedling cotton plant. 



Insect Pksts of Interkst to Cotton Growers 201 

plants are shown in Fig. 28. The insects work on the under sur- 
faces of the primary leaves and on young leaves of later growth 
which are soon crinkled by their attacks. It is probable that this 
insect infests certain weeds and other vegetation in and near cotton 
fields and that clean culture will act as a preventive of injurious 
attacks. When the young plants are seriously infested spraying is 
the only available remedy. For this purpose nicotine sulfate — soap 
solution is probably the best insecticide. This should be used at 
the rate of six ounces of nicotine sulfate (Black leaf 40) and two 
and one-quarter pounds of whale oil or fish oil soap in fifty gallons 
of water. The spray should be applied with as strong pressure as 
can be used without injury to the plants. A right angle nozzle or 
a combination of angle nozzle and elbow joint giving a ninety 
degree spray is needed in order to reach the under surfaces of the 
leaves and to drive the spray into the crinkled leaves from all sides. 
Fortunately the cotton thrips, so far as observed, is destructive 
only when the plants are small, and the early injury is usually out- 
grown by otherwise thrifty plants. 

THE RED SPIDER 

During the past few years the two-spotted red spider (Tetrany- 
chiis himaculatiis Harvey) has become quite prominent among the 
cotton pests of the Southeastern United States. This same species 
is of common occurrence in the Salt River Valley where it attacks 
violets, climbing roses (Dorothy Perkins), strawberries, blackber- 
ries, and beans. So far, how-ever, it has not been observed on cot- 
ton plants in Arizona. It seems very likely that sooner or later 
this insect will be found doing damage to cotton in the fields, al- 
tho, apparently, conditions for the infestation of cotton are not 
as favorable here in Arizona as they are in the Southeastern states. 

The red spider is a true mite rather than an insect, having eight 
legs instead of six in the adult stage, lacking antennae and other- 
wise differing from true insects. The adult female is only one- 
fiftieth of an inch in length and the adult male is only about half as 
large as the female. Infested cotton leaves turn deep red on the 
upper surface, producing a condition sometimes called "rust". An 
examination of the under surfaces of the leaves, however, reveals 
the presence of the minute red mites. Badly infested leaves become 
distorted and finally drop. The pest develops very rapidly, produc- 
ing in a single season as many as seventeen generations. It is of 
special interest in the arid Southwest on account of belonging to a 



202 



Bulletin 87 



group notoriously favored by hot, dry weather. In the Southeast- 
ern states the influence of weather on breeding activity was found 
to be very noticeable. Hot, dry conditions favored rapid develop- 
ment while cool, wet weather retarded it, the rate of egg laying 

varying from none to twenty per day 
according to temperature. 

In view of the possibility of this 
spider appearing in Arizona cotton 
fields sooner or later, preventive meas- 
ures should be closely observed. Vio- 
let and strawberry plants and the 
Dorothy Perkins rose are food plants 
which are very likely to be a means of 
spreading and maintaining the pest. 
Not all beds or specimens of these food 
plants in the Salt River Valley are in- 
fested with the red spider. It is also 
probably true that there are many 
other kinds of plants which are sub- 
ject to infestation and more or less 
dangerous. It is advisable, however, 
for cotton growers either not to per- 
mit the plants named to grow near 
cotton fields, or to examine them care- 
fully from time to time to detect the 
first infestation should the red spider 
appear. Weeds or other plants supposed to be infested with the 
red spider should be submitted to the Office of the State Ento- 
mologist, Phoenix, or the Department of Entomology, College of 
Agriculture, Tucson, for examination. When preventive measures 
have not been given proper attention or have failed to protect the 
cotton field, spraying with potassium sulphide, lime sulfur solution, 
kerosene emulsion, or flour paste solution is recommended. Flow- 
ers of sulfur and "Atomic Sulfur", which are efifective against most 
species of red spider, have not proved effective against this one. 




Fig. 29 — The two spotted red 
spider (greatly enlarged). 



OTHER COTTON PESTS 

Of the pests discussed in the foregoing pages all except the Mex- 
ican cotton boll weevil and the pink bollworm occur in Arizona. A 
very close relative of the Mexican boll weevil, however, is found 
in certain mountain ranges of the Southern part of the State. In 
addition there are over twenty other species of insects known to 



Insect Pests of Interest to Cotton Growers 203 

feed upon the cotton plant in Arizona. Their numbers have been 
insignificant so far as observed, or injurious attacks have been con- 
fined to very small tracts. Such pests include certain cutworms and 
other moth caterpillars, a white ant or termite, several sucking plant 
bugs related to those herein mentioned, and two beetles, Myochroiis 
longulus Lee. and Blapstiniis pimalis Casey, which attack cotton 
seedlings sometimes necessitating- replanting. The cotton fields 
should be closely watched by the grower from the time the seed 
sprouts, and specimens of any unrecognized pests should be sent at 
once to an entomologist for examination. 

COTTON SEED AND SEED COTTON QUARANTINE 

For the protection of the Arizona cotton growing industry 
against pests likely to be transported with cotton seed and seed 
cotton the Arizona Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture 
has placed in eflfect the following Quarantine Order and Inspection 
and Quarantine Regulation : 

QUARANTINE ORDER NO. 15 

Seed Cotton and Cotton Seed 

In order to prevent the introduction and dissemination of the 
cotton boll weevil {Anthonomus grandis) and the pink bollworm 
(Pectinophora gossypiella) into and within the State of Arizona, it 
is hereby ordered : 

(a) That the introduction of cotton seed and seed cotton into 
the State of Arizona from any other state or territory of the United 
States or from any foreign country, except as herein provided, is 
hereafter prohibited. 

(b) That the transportation of cotton seed and seed cotton from 
any county in the State of Arizona into any other county in the 
State of Arizona is hereafter prohibited except under special au- 
thorization from the State Entomologist. 

(c) That paragraph (a) of this quarantine order shall not apply 
to seed cotton or cotton seed grown in that part of the State of Cali- 
fornia adjoining the Colorado River and included in the Yuma 
Reclamation Project, and paragraphs (a) and (b) shall not apply 
to cotton seed for experimental purposes shipped by the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture or the Arizona Agricultural Experiment 
Station under special authorization from the State Entomologist 

(d) That all persons, firms or corporations in the State of Ari- 
zona are prohibited from having possession of, transporting, selling 
or giving away any seed cotton or cotton seed introduced into the 
state or transported within the state in violation of this order. 

(e) That Quarantine Orders Nos. 5 and 9 are hereby rescinded. 
Adopted November 16, 1917, 



204 BuLiviCTiN 87 

I 

REGULATION NO. 3 

Car-lot Shipments Emigrants' Goods From Cotton Growing States 
and Counties and Alfalfa Weevil Infested States and Counties 
In order to make more effective the provisions of Quarantine 
No. 1 against the alfalfa weevil and of Quarantine No. 15 against 
cotton pests, it is hereby ordered : 

(a) That upon arrival at any common carrier station in the 
State of Arizona of any carlot shipment of emigrants' goods from 
the states of Utah, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, Virginia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, 
Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas, Missouri, the 
counties of Graves and Fulton in the State of Kentucky, of Mont- 
gomery in the State of Kansas, and of Imperial and Riverside in the 
State of California, such shipment shall be held intact and not 
delivered to consignee until notice has been given to and certificates 
of release received from the State Entomologist, Assistant Ento- 
mologist or a Crop Pest Inspector. 

(b) That the unloading or unnecessary moving, by any person 
or persons, of carlot shipments of emigrants' goods from any of the 
states mentioned in the foregoing paragraph before a proper cer- 
tificate of release has been received is prohibited. 

(c) That where there is no local inspector designated to attend 
to inspections for the Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture 
notice of the arrival of the shipment may be sent to the State Ento- 
mologist in Phoenix by wire, the expense to be borne by the State, 
and a telegraphic message from the State Entomologist, or officer 
acting in charge, authorizing the release of the shipment may be 
accepted and filed by the common carrier agent in lieu of the cus- 
tomary certificate of release. 



Insect Pksts of Ixti-rkst to Cotton Growers 205 

REFERENCES 

For Free Distribution by U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

Farmers Bulletin 831 — The Red Spider on Cotton and How to 
Control It (E. A. McGregor). 

Farmers Bulletin 848— The Boll Weevil Problem (W. D. 
Hunter). 

Farmers Bulletin 872 — The Bollworm or Corn Ear Worm (F. C. 
Bishopp). 

Farmers Bulletin 890 — How Insects AflFcct the Cotton Plant and 
Methods of Combatting Them (W. D. Pierce). 

For Sale by Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D. C. 

Bulletin 86, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture. Plant Bugs Injurious to Cotton Bolls (A. W. Morrill). 
Price 20 cents. 

Bulletin 723, U. S. Department of Agriculture. The Pink Boll- 
worm with Special Reference to Steps Taken by the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture to Prevent Its Establishment in the United 
States (W. D. Hunter). Price 5 cents. 

For Free Distribution by Arizona Commission of Agriculture and 

Horticulture. 

Fifth Annual Report, Including Discussion of Cotton Pests, pp. 
38-48 (A. W. Morrill). 

Sixth Annual Report, pp. 37-46. 
Seventh Annual Report, pp. 41-45. 
Eighth Annual Report, pp. 45-49. 
Ninth Annual Report, pp. 53-59. 



The University of Arizona 
College of Agriculture 

Agricultural Experiment Station 



Bulletin No. 88 




An irrigation canal near Tempe. 



USE AND WASTE OF IRRIGATION WATER 



By G. E. P. Smith 



Tucson, Arizona, May 15, 1919 



REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY 

Ex-Officio 

His Excellency, The Governor of Arizona 

The State Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Appointed by the Governor of the State 

EpEs Randolph Chancellor 

William J. Bryan, Jr., A.B Treasurer 

James G. Compton Ser.ret,-iiy 

William Scarlett, A.B., B.D Regent 

John H. Campbell, LL. M Regent 

Timothy A. Riordan Regent 

Edmund W. Wells Regent 

Louis D. Ricketts, Sc.D., LL.D Regent 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

RuEus B. von KlEinSmid, A.M., ScD President of the University 

Daniel W. Working, B.Sc, A.M Director 

♦Robert H. Forbes, Ph.D Research Specialist 

ToHN J. Thornber, A.M Botanist 

Albert E. Vinson, Ph.D Chemist 

George E. P. Smith, B.S.. C.E Irrigation Engineer 

Richard H. Williams, Ph.D Animal Husbandman 

Walter S. Cunningham, B.S Dairy Husbandman 

Charles T. Vorhies, Ph.D Entomologist 

G. E. Thompson, B.S.A Agronomist 

F. J. Crider, M.S Horticulturist 

Clifford N. Catlin, AM Research Specialist in Agric. Chemistry 

Francis R. KennEy, B.S.A Poultry Husbandman 

♦.Arthur L. Enger, B.S., C.E Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

Walker E. Bryan, M.S Assistant Plant Breeder 

W. E. Code, B.S Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

A. F. KiNNisoN, B.S.A Assistant Horticulturist 

R. S. Hawkins, B.S.A Assistant Agronomist 

A usTiN W. Morrill, Ph.D Consulting Entomologist 

D. C. George Consulting Plant Pathologist 



C. J. Wood, Foreman Salt River Valley Experiment Farm. Mesa 

G. J. Darling, Foreman University Farm, Tucson 

D. C. .A.EPLI, Foreman Date Palm Orchard. Yuma 

T. L. StaplEy, Foreman Date Palm Orchard. Tempe 

T. F. Wtllcox. Foreman Prescott Dry-Farm. Prescott 

F. H. Simmons, Foreman Sulphur Spring Valley Dry-Farm. Cochise 

The Experiment Station offices and laboratories are an integral part of the 
College of Agriculture of the University at Tucson. The Salt River Valley Ex- 
periment Farm is situated one mile west of Mesa, Arizona. The date palm 
orchards are three miles south of Tempe (co-operative U. S. Department of Ag- 
riculture) and one mile southwest of Yuma. Arizona, respectively. The experi- 
mental dry-farms are near Cochise and Prescott. Arizona. 

Visitors are cordially invited and correspondence receives careful attention. 
•On leave. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Introduction •. 207 

Transpiration 207 

Water Losses 210 

Losses from canals and field laterals 211 

Evaporation from irrigated fields 212 

Seepage loss from irrigated fields 215 

Wilful or careless waste 220 

Efficiency of irrigation 221 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

An irrigation canal near Tempe Cover cut 

Fig. 1. Border irrigation from a ccmcnt-lincd ditch Frontispiece 

Fig. 2. Cleaning a canal with a giant "Vee" 209 

Fig. 3. Lining an irrigation ditch with concrete 212 

Fig. 4. Class A evaporation station 213 

Fig. 5. An orchard ruined by a rising water table 217 

Fig. 6. Cotton field with poor stand due to shallow water table 217 

Fig. 7. An alfalfa field, irrigated in corrugations 219 

Fig. 8. Diagram showing distribution of irrigation water into useful portion 

and various losses 221 

Fig. 9. Layout of an irrigated field for efficient irrigation 223 



USE AND WASTE OF IRRIGATION WATER 



By G. E. P. Smith 



What becomes of the irrigation water? The irrigator knows 
that in a general way the water is beneficial, in fact, is necessary ; 
he does not know just where the water goes after it sinks into the 
ground, nor does he know just how much of the water applied to 
the land actually does useful service and how much of it is wasted. 
In the early days of irrigation in any country, the chief interest 
and energy are exerted in developing the water. But when the 
water supplies are so fully developed as they are in Arizona at the 
present time, then farmers and others interested in agriculture must 
study the efficiency of irrigation in order that Avaste of water may be 
reduced and the water supplies may be made to serve as large an 
acreage as possible. It must be confessed that in some communi- 
ties the various losses of irrigation water aggregate as high as 80 
percent of the total quantity of water diverted from the stream. If 
the losses in such a community can be cut down to 60 percent, the 
remaining useful portion is increased from 20 percent to 40 percent, 
that is, it is increased two-fold. There are, indeed, inviting possi- 
bilities of doubling the irrigated area in certain Arizona valleys 
where already the entire water resources are thought to be fully 
developed. 

A survey of the water supplies of the State at the present time 
indicates a shortage in the supply for this year on many streams, 
and the Roosevelt Reservoir contains less than one-half of its full 
capacity. Reservoir supplies must be conserved as far as possible, 
in the fear that the present dry year may be followed by another 
equally dry. It is very pertinent, therefore, that this year the 
farmers should make a special study of their methods of irrigation 
in the effort to conserve the water supplies to the utmost. 

TRANSPIRATION 

Plants, like animals, breathe. The surfaces of leaves, and to a 
less extent of stems, are covered with innumerable minute breath- 
ing pores. Thru these small openings carbonic acid gas is taken 
in from the atmosphere and moisture is given out. It is a vital 
function of all plants to gather moisture thru their roots and to 
expire the moisture thru the minute stomatal pores into the air. 



208 Bulletin 88 

Plant growth is dependent in large measure upon the presence of 
an abundant supply of soil moisture. Surely the irrigating water 
which actually passes thru the plant in this way does a most useful 
service ; all that portion of the irrigating water which does not pass 
thru the plant is wasted, so far as crop production is concerned. 

The transpiration rate, even for the same plants, varies greatly 
according to climatic conditions, being least in humid countries and 
increasing greatly with aridity. The rate must be high in Arizona. 
Like the evaporation rate, it depends upon the temperature, the 
wind movement, and the relative humidity. The characteristic of 
high transpiration rate in this State must be acknowledged. 

Many investigators have measured the quantity of water trans- 
pired by various plants. The U. S. Department of Agriculture* 
conducted extensive tests of this kind in northeastern Colorado. 
Some of their results are given in the following list, in which the 
transpiration is stated as the number of pounds of water required to 
produce a pound of dry matter, sometimes called the transpiration 
ratio. The soil used was "rich, dark loam." 

WATER ABSORBED BY PLANT ROOTS DURING GROWTH 

(Based on total dry matter produced) 



Crop 



Alfalfa 

Barley, average of 4 varieties... 
Wheat, average of 5 varieties . . . 

Potato 

Corn, average of 3 varieties 

Sorghum, average of 5 varieties. 



Pound.s of water per 
pound of dry matter 



1068 
539 
507 
448 
369 
306 



When the production of grain alone was considered, the water 
requirement of wheat was found to be 1357 pounds of water per 
pound of dry matter, and of sorghum 790 pounds of water. The 
sorghum family of plants is specially adapted to arid climates and 
in particular to those localities where the limitations of w^ater 
supply are felt seriously. It is evident, too, that alfalfa is the 
water gourmand, suggesting therefore that farmers, especially those 
under pumping plants wdth high lifts, should restrict their alfalfa 
to the amount needed for feeding their own necessary stock. 

Most investigators believe that the texture and tilth of the soil, 
and the fertility, have a pronounced effect on the transpiration ratio. 
Thus, on clayey soils and very sandy soils plants transpire more 
water per unit of crop produced than on good loam ; and compara- 



*U. S. Dept. Agri., Bureau of Plant Industry, Bull. No. 284, 1913. 



Use and Waste of Water 



209 




o 5 

41 ho 



or 

■M O 

cs: 



K. m 

r o 

- a 
-J *> 

O — 

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M)^ 






210 Bulletin 88 

tive tests have shown the water requirement on sand and clay to 
be reduced more than fifty percent by the addition of fertilizers. On 
rich loams, however, the addition of fertilizer appears to have little 
effect upon the ratio of water transpired to crop produced. 

It is not likely that the actual transpiration ratio in broad fields 
is so high as given in the table. Nevertheless, the table indicates 
the relative rates of different crops and the possibility of tremen- 
dous demands for water by plants under adverse soil and climatic 
conditions. 

The water requirements of crops in Arizona have not been de- 
termined in an adequate manner. Observations and meager records 
indicate that, for the Salt River Valley, alfalfa that is grown con- 
tinuously through the summer should have about eight 6-inch 
irrigations per year on medium loam soil, and about twelve 4-inch 
or 5-inch irrigations on sandy soils. Cotton requires from two acre- 
feet per acre on fertile loam soil to three acre-feet on light sandy 
soil and new desert soil, and milo maize about one and a half or 
two. The yield of alfalfa increases almost in proportion to the 
amount of water applied, at the rate of one ton of hay per acre- 
foot of water, even up to seven or eight acre-feet per acre ; but with 
grain and other crops the yield is reduced by applying more than 
the optimum amount. The duty of water is higher in some cases 
due to subirrigation. 

There is one school of irrigators in the Valley who do not irri- 
gate alfalfa during part of July and through August. Allowing 
the alfalfa to rest during this period tends to keep out water grasses 
and tends to avoid damage by insects. Under this system the 
water requirements are less than the amount stated above, and the 
total yield also is reduced. 

WATER LOSSES 

The water transpired by plants constitutes, ordinarily, but a 
small part of the total water diverted for irrigation. Beginnino- at 
the point of diversion, the supply stream suffers continuous losses. 
The sequence of these losses is as follows : seepage (and evapora- 
tion) from canals; seepage from the field laterals; evaporatir.n 
upward from the irrigated fields ; seepage downward from the 
fields ; and wilful or careless waste. These losses will be discussed 
separately and suggestions will be offered as to how they can be 
reduced. 



Use and W-ASTt: oi* \\'ati:r 211 

LOSSES FROM CANALS AND FIELD LATERALS 

Earth canals arc more or less porous; new canals in sandy soils 
are sometimes little better than sieves. Fortunately, most of the 
irrigating supplies taken from streams in Arizona carry consider- 
able line silt ; and this silt, settling in the canals, forms a blanket 
and reduces to some extent the excessive losses which occur in new 
canals. Since the construction of the Roosevelt Reservoir the pro- 
portion of clear water carried in the canals of Maricopa County 
has increased greatly and the loss by seepage from the canals has 
increased correspondingly. 

Measurements of seepage losses on scores of ditches and canals 
in the Western states have been compiled and published.* The 
results are startling. Losses of over 10 percent per mile are not 
infrequent, and it is concluded that "a large percentage of the water, 
estimated at 40 percent of the amount taken in at the heads of the 
main canals, is lost by absorption and percolation along the routes." 
The records of the U. S. Reclamation Service in the Salt River 
Valleyf state that during the past six years the canal losses between 
the Granite Reef and Joint Head diversion dams and the points 
where water is delivered to the water users have been from 40 to 
45 percent of the total amount diverted. While the losses as given 
in the records may be overstated somewhat, it is certain that at least 
one-third of the water diverted is lost in the canals. The loss from 
the Avondale Canal is 40 percent in the first four miles. 

Practically all of the loss in canals is by seepage, for the loss 
by evaporation is small. The evaporation from a free water sur- 
face during the summer months at Tucson averages 10 inches per 
month in depth. On that basis a canal with a water surface 10 
feet wide and carrying 25 second-feet of water would lose just one 
acre-foot per month per mile by evaporation w^hile the total dis- 
charge in the same time would be 1500 acre-feet. 

An excessive seepage loss can be reduced somewhat by puddling 
the canal with clay. This method, however, is not recommended 
for general practice, for it is a temporary half-way measure, and 
the puddling must be repeatedly injured by ditch cleaning. Oil 
lining has been tried to some extent in California and is said to 
reduce the seepage about 50 percent, but it does not prevent the 
growth of weeds and ditch cleaning becomes more difficult. The 
best method is to line the canal with concrete, or, in the case of 



*U. S. Dept. Agri.. Bull. No. 126. 1914. This bulletin, designed for irrigation 
engineers and superintendents, contains descriptions of many concrete linings. 
tReclamation Record, 9, 11, Nov., 1918, p. 532. 



212 



Bulletin 



small ditches, as from pumping plants, to convey the water in 
cement pipe lines. Concrete linings are coming into use widely, 
and they will be employed more extensively as projects become 
thickly settled and the value of the water increases. The Tucson 
Farms Company has lined 2>^ miles of its canals with 3-inch re- 
inforced concrete. The cost of this lining was about $18,000, while 
the value of the water saved is at least $40,000. An excellent 
example of concrete lining for field laterals is to be found on the 
ranch of B. A. Fowler near Phoenix, as shown in the frontispiece. 
The Agricultural Products Corporation has used cement pipe lines 




j.-jg 3 — Lining earth canals with a 2-inch lining of concrete at Litchli3l<l, 
Arizona. The total cost of this work in 1918 averaged 11 cents per square foot. 



thruout for its distribution system, twenty-six miles in all. The 
Southwest Cotton Company uses both canal linings and cement 
pipe lines and ultimately will carry all irrigation water in concrete. 
Concrete linings and pipe lines have additional advantages: ditch 
cleaning is nearly or quite eliminated; breaks, especially those 
caused by the gopher holes, cannot occur; and the labor cost of 
irrigating is reduced. 

EVAPOR.^TION FROM IRRIGATED FIELDS 

The direct evaporation of water from the ground surface may 
account for from 10 to 40 percent of the water applied. This loss 



Use and Waste of Water 



213 




214 Bulletin 88 

is much larger on heavy loams and adobe soil than on sandy soil. 
It is greatest, of course, during and just after each irrigation and 
decreases gradually until the next irrigation. In the case of alfalfa 
it is comparatively high after each cutting and decreases as the 
plants grow again and shade the ground. It is greater on an open 
wind-swept area than on one protected by w^indbreaks. 

Many methods for reducing the evaporation loss are available 
to the farmer. They are : 

1. Deep plowing. A shallow seed bed underlain by packed 
soil tends to cause a high evaporation loss. From seven to nine 
inches of soil should be turned over by the plow. 

2. Cultivation. In the case of crops planted in rows, such as 
corn, the ground between the rows should be cultivated as soon as 
possible after each irrigation. In the case of orchards, the ground 
should be furrowed just before irrigating and cultivated just after- 
ward. If the furrows are 6 inches in depth, one may expect to save 
60 percent or more of the loss which would occur without the 
mulch. Even alfalfa needs cultivation at least twice a year, and 
particularly after the soil has been packed by winter pasturing. 

3. Increase in soil fertility. It is difficult to make a mulch 
when humus is lacking. A fertile soil takes water readily and, if 
cultivated, retains it with comparatively little loss by evaporation. 
Straw should be spread on the ground and plowed in. Weeds, 
"trash, and perhaps a green manure crop can be utilized to improve 
the fertility. All stable manure should be spread and plowed into 
the soil. 

4. More thoro and less frequent irrigation. This practice, be- 
sides saving water, tends to establish deep root feeding, while 
frequent light irrigations encourage shallow roots. For alfalfa one 
irrigation per cutting is ample except for sandy soils, where two 
lighter irrigations are preferable. 

5. Irrigation at the right time. Irrigate heavily before plant- 
ing, and withhold water after the planting for a considerable time. 
In the case of alfalfa, irrigate about a week before cutting. This 
will supply the water when it is most demanded for plant growth, 
and after cutting, the ground being still moist, the new crop will 
spring up quickly and shade the ground. Wheat should be planted 
in thoroly irrigated ground, and, with the aid of good winter rains,, 
no irrigation is needed until the boot or flower stage. Cotton 
should be irrigated sparingly in the early stages of growth. 

6. Irrigation at night. Evaporation is much restricted in the 



Use and Wastk of \Vati:r 215 

night compared with the day time. It is a great mistake to shut 
down pumping plants each evening. 

7. I'^limination of weeds. The waste of water to raise weeds 
should be inchided with evaporation losses. Weed farming is 
unprofitable. 

8. Windbreaks. They should be planted along the ditch banks 
and the road sides. Every farmer should raise his own fence posts 
and fire wood. W^ind movement in the Salt River Valley is greatly 
reduced by the long rows of magnificent cottonwoods with which 
the landscape is checkered. The nearby fringes of fields require 
additional fertilization, but the net result of the windbreaks is 
beneficial. 

SEEPAGE LOSS FROM IRRIGATED FIELDS 

As a rule, this loss is even greater than the preceding one. It 
is particularly severe on light soils. It could be avoided to a large 
extent if no moie water were ai)plied at each irrigation than the 
amount that can be held by the soil within reach of the plant roots. 

An ideal irrigation consists in ap])lying the right amount of 
water, evenly distributed over the field. Thruout the central and 
southern portion of Arizona the practice for field crops is to lay out 
the field in long strips or "lands." In many observed cases the 
water, turned in at one end, requires from one to three hours to 
traverse a land to its lower end. As soon as the water reaches the 
lower end the ditch water is turned to another land. For one or 
two hours, then, the head end of a land gets water, part of which 
soaks downward beyond the reach of, and beyond the needs of, the 
plant roots, while at the far end the land receives water for fifteen 
to forty minutes. Surely, this is not an ideal irrigation. In 1913 
the author made several tests of the evenness of distribution of the 
water. In one case, on heavy loam, it w^as found that the per- 
centage of soil moisture at the head of a land, for six feet depth, 
was increased from 24.1 to 26.3 percent by a 4-inch average irriga- 
tion, w^hile at the tail end the soil moisture w^as increased from 15.4 
to 18.2 percent. In another case on sandy loam the soil moisture 
at the head end was increased from 14.3 to 21.1 percent and at the 
tail end from 8.3 to 12.2 percent. In both cases, therefore, the head 
end had more soil moisture before irrigating than the tail end had 
after irrigating — a preposterous condition. Inasmuch as the alfalfa 
near the foot of each land was making excellent growth it follows 
that the head ends of the land were getting unnecessarily large, 
wasteful amounts of water. On one of the fields thus tested the 



216 PuLivETiN 88 

average depth of water applied in 1914 was 108.2 inches. Unques- 
tionably, 50 percent of the water thus applied sank to the water 
table and was wasted. Many similar cases have been observed in 
alfalfa irrigation and in furrow orchard irrigation, where the quan- 
tity of water absorbed at the head ends of the furrows was found 
to be excessive and wasteful. When these conditions exist, the 
remedy is less water more rapidly applied, by means of a larger 
head, or shorter runs, or steeper slopes. 

As a result of the downward percolation of irrigation water from 
canals and from fields, nearly all irrigation projects are encount^ir- 
ing difficulties due to waterlogged or seeped lands or to the conse- 
quent rise of the alkali. The rising water table is disastrous to 
crops, causing the death of orchards and alfalfa. On several 
projects of the U. S. Reclamation Service the necessity for drainage 
works became urgent before the irrigation systems were fully 
completed. On one of the projects the water table over nearly 
30,000 acres rose from 90 feet average depth to less than five feet 
depth in six years, and about 6000 acres of the land became a marsh. 
Over 15 percent of the total area in the arid region irrigated by 
individuals and corporations in the past has been abandoned on 
account of waterlogging. Already there are four important sec- 
tions of the Salt River Valley which need drainage, and an extensive 
project for lowering the groundwater table over a large area has 
been financed by a bond issue and has been begun. An important 
area in the Upper Gila Valley is being reclaimed by a system of 
clay tile drains. At a school house near Pima the water table has 
risen to the surface of the ground and the alkali has crept upward 
in the brick work to the top of the door. Extensive drainage works 
are being constructed in the Yuma Valley. 

Although in general the head ends of the fields are given too 
much water, yet there are exceptions to this rule. Thus, on clay 
loam and heavy adobe soils, if the lands have considerable fall, the 
irrigating water runs quickly to the lower ends of the lands without 
soaking into the ground more than a few inches. A similar effect 
is produced by very silty water, such as that of the Gila and 
Colorado rivers ; a silt-blanket is formed at the upper end of the 
lands and becomes almost impervious. In such cases the remedy 
is either to divide the head of water over more lands, or to use a 
flatter gradient, and silt-blankets must be broken up and mulched. 

The frequently discussed problems of what slope to give the 
lands and what head of water is best are interrelated, and involve 
also a discussion of the length and width of lands, and the character 



Use and Waste of Water 



217 




Fiu r, ^-A pcuih urcluud in Salt Kivt-r \alKy killed 1 y the rise of the water 
table. Alfalfa likewise is subject to root rot, due to a rising, or ttuctuatui.^' 
shallow, water table. 




A ^ .dBI «▼. -._«&* hKa. . t-i_ ^^ ... -i A* " •« , ■< 




# . 't' 1- 



- ».. v''- , ■„ 




Fig. 6.— A large area in a cotton field, where the seed did not germinate, 
due to the shallow water table. 



218 Bulletin 88 

of the soil. Any one of these live factors can be taken as a function 
of the other four factors. The problem is complex and should be 
solved separately for each crop and for each locality. In some 
communities the lands are graded level or on a very slight gradient 
at an additional expense of $20 to $40 per acre. This outlay is of 
doubtful utility. The lands should be graded down the natural 
slope or aj^proximately so. Surely any lands w^ith slope from 3 to 
40 feet per mile can be laid out and irrigated without material 
change in the general direction of the slope. The other factors, 
then, can be determined so as to give the most uniform distribution 
of water. Thus, on light soil with a grade of 20 feet per mile, 
where a large head of water is available, perhaps the lands can be 
laid out 50 feet w^ide and 880 feet long. If the head of water is 
small, as from a No. 5 centrifugal pump, then the lands should be 
not over 30 feet wide and 440 feet long. If, however, the grade is 
only 10 feet per mile, the lands, perhaps, should be 660 feet long 
for the large head and 330 feet long for the small head. These 
values are intended to be suggestive ; on shallow soils underlain 
by caliche the lands can be longer; in some cases lands 1300 feet 
long are irrigated successfully. For heavy loams the lands can be 
considerably longer than for sandy soil, and in general the flatter 
the grade, the shorter should be the runs and the larger should be 
the head of water. 

The final adjustment to obtain an even distribution should be 
made by varying the head of water in each land or in each furrow. 
This adjustment should be made last because it is the easiest to 
make. Recently an irrigator near Mesa complained that the stand 
of alfalfa was better in the lower part of his field than in the upper 
part. He wished to regrade the field so as to reduce the fall. But 
the remedy was much simpler than that. His head of water de- 
livered by the Reclamation Service was 300 miner's inches. By 
changing his order and obtaining 275 miner's inches he would get a 
uniform irrigation and uniform crop. Many irrigators have difB- 
culty in getting the water across their land. They require a larger 
unit head. They should order more water, or concentrate it in 
fewer lands or furrows, or if this cannot be done without increasing 
the unit head to a point where it will erode the soil, then the length 
of run should be reduced. 

In cases where the distances between head ditches, especially 
cement pipe lines, prove to be too great, special methods of irrigat- 
ing can be used. One method is to open an intermediate head 
ditch midway between the permanent ditches. The intermediate 



Use and Waste of Water 



219 



ditch can be used for the preHniinary irrigation and possibly for the 
first irrigation after planting, after which the gronnd will become 
settled and packed and the ditch can be leveled off and planted 
also. In the case of fnrrow irrigation, double heads can be run in 
alternate furrows and subdivided about two-thirds of the way down 
the field. Later, the intervening furrows can be treated the same 
way, and thus the proportion of water received by the lower end 
is increased. Another ])ractice is to turn a large head down each 
furrow at first, and. when the water reaches the lower end, to re- 




Fig. 7. — An alfalfa field in Navajo County, irrigated by the corrugation 
method. The corrugations are about three inches deep, are spaced at intervals 
of about tliirty inches, and run down the steepest slope. This method is advan- 
tageous particularly where the soil is heavy and tends to bake on the surface 
if flooded. 



duce the head to such an amount as will continue just to reach 
the lower end. 

Good control over the division of the stream of water into fur- 
row streams or into separate heads for the lands is essential. Some- 
times it is well to divide the stream into two, three, or more parts 
by means of a division box. Then each part can be more readily 
divided into furrow-heads. Spiles, made of laths or of narrow 
boards, are effective in the final distribution. The spiles are set in 
the ditch bank at the natural ground surface. Sometimes the w^ater 
is let into forebavs and then distributed thru spiles. Wooden 



220 Bulletin 88 

spiles are much used in the Northwest ; in Arizona, however, spiles 
should be of some other material than wood, which cannot long; 
withstand the alternate wetting and drying in this climate. Gal- 
vanized iron, or clay, or cement tile would be preferable. The 
division of water from cement pipe lines can be made with ease 
and accuracy, an important argument for their use. 

Frequency of irrigation is a related subject. The smaller the 
application at each irrigation, the more often the field must be irri- 
gated. Investigations along this line have not been conclusive 
except for the peculiar set of conditions under which the tests were 
made. Many a test has been terminated by the untimely death of 
the young plants when the irrigations were too infrequent. Sandy 
soils or other soils that are shallow and underdrained by gravel 
need frequent applications, while a deep, rich loam, with its large 
capillary storage capacity, will require much fewer applications. 
Heavy clay soils, in some places, require frequent irrigations 
because it is impossible to make them take much water at an 
application, either because of their physical condition or because 
they are shallow and are underlain by hardpan that is nearly 
impervious. 

There is much diversity in Arizona in methods of laying out 
fields and irrigating. Farmers in the Yuma Valley prefer to grade 
the lands level from end to end. Elsewhere in southern Arizona, 
the general cvistom is to run water down the slope parallel to the 
steeper side of the field, the lands varying from 30 to 100 feet in 
' width, and the lengths of runs depending on the slope, soil, crop 
and the available head of water. In northeastern Arizona the cor- 
rugation method is used without borders and the water is run 
down the steepest slopes. In Yavapai County the Colorado system 
of flooding from field laterals is used for alfalfa and grain. 

Most Arizona soils take water readily. Uniformity of distribu- 
tion is possible, but requires thought and skill on the part of the 
irrigator. The use of the proper unit head in each land or in 
each furrow will prevent waste of water in the upper or lower end 
of the field and will give an even appearance to the field of grain 
or other crop. 

WILFUL OR CARELESS WASTE 

This loss includes allowing excess water from the lower end of 
a field to run onto unused land or, as sometimes happens, into the 
highways. It is due sometimes to the absence of a good tail border, 
sometimes to gopher holes, sometimes to a sleepy or forgetful 



Use and Waste of Water 



221 



irrigator. On some irrigation projects the loss has been proved to 
exceed 10 percent of the water applied. In Arizona, however, and 
especially in the Salt River Valley, there is a strong public senti- 
ment against wilful or careless waste, and the total loss of this 
character is comparatively small. The method of measuring the 
water to each user and charging him for just what he uses has 
made the water user more diligent in distributing the water over his 
own fields and somewhat loath to turn it back into the system or 
to let it run to waste. Would that he might take an equal interest 
in preventing the water from escaping downward beyond his con- 
trol, or upward by evaporation from a crusted soil. 

In the grading of a field the lower 40 or 50 feet should be graded 



This area represents 
l"he p#rccntoj« of woter 
lost in conols 



TViis isthe loss 
b^ «voporQtion 
jrom the (leld 



This is the loss bvj 

seepaa* down word 

below The r*acV< o\ 

plant rooti 



T>ii5-th« use- 
•ful port-istreni- 
pir«d b^ th«. 
plant's 



Fig. 8. — What becomes of the Irrigating water supplies diverted from the 
streams is shown by the diagram. The area of each rectangle is proportional ap- 
proximately to the percentage of the total water supply lost or utilized as indi- 
cated. 

level in the direction of the irrigation. The lands should terminate 
in one common land running at right angles across the field, or the 
furrows should be connected so that the furrow streams will be 
equalized at their lower ends. Very few irrigators are able to 
gauge the irrigation and shut off the water from each land at just 
the right time ; invariably some lands receive too much and fre- 
quently the water overflows the levee at the lower end of the land. 
A common crosswise land prevents this loss and usually will have 
the heaviest alfalfa. 



EFFICIENCY OF IRRIGATION 

Every progressive farmer can easily investigate the general effi- 
ciency of his irrigation system. In the first place, he should set a 
weir or other measuring device and keep a record of the amount 
of water applied to each field. His records will serve as a basis for 
comparisons. There are several simple means by which he can 
ascertain the nature and extent of his water losses. Some of the 
most useful are the following. 



222 BuIv1vE:tin 88 

1. He can note with a watch the number of minutes during 
which the head end and the center and the tail end of the lands or 
furrows get water. 

2. Pits dug to a depth of six feet with a pesthole digger at 
different points in a field will show whether or not the irrigation 
is uniform, and whether the soil is wet amply or too much. The 
pits should be dug about 12 hours after the irrigation. In lieu of 
the pits, a sharp stick can be thrust into the ground at various 
points and much can be learned thereby of the penetration of the 
water. The Southwest Cotton Company uses a pointed metal rod 
with a groove one foot long in the side near the point. By driving 
the rod to any depth, rotating it there, and then withdrawing it, a 
sample of the soil at that depth is obtained. A soil augur is a con- 
venient and useful tool ; every farmer can well afford to own one. 

3. Observation of the water level in nearby wells may indicate 
whether the groundwater plane is rising due to over-irrigation. 

4. Does the soil surface bake? If so, there must be a heavy 
loss of water by evaporation. A farmer can easily demonstrate to 
his own satisfaction how far evaporation losses can be reduced by 
cultivation. 

Ditch losses are best measured by setting weir boards and meas- 
uring the quantity of water at two points. 

The efficiency of irrigation can be defined as the ratio of that 
portion of the water actually utilized by the crop to the total quan- 
tity applied to the land. It is the farmer's province to endeavor to 
make this ratio as high as possible, and thus to decrease the amount 
of water needed for his ranch. 

The courts of Arizona have excellent opportunities in their 
decisions in cases establishing water rights to limit the diversion 
and applications of irrigating water to the real needs of crops, plus 
a reasonable allowance for water losses which it is impractical to 
prevent. Usually the courts have established the duty of water 
much lower than it should be. The Kent decree in Maricopa 
County and the Lockwood decree in Pinal County fix the limit of 
application at 5.5 acre-feet per acre annually, the water to be 
measured at the land. The records of the Salt River Valley Water 
Users Association show that the average amount of water bought 
and paid for by farmers during the past six years has varied from 
2.36 acre-feet per acre to 3.67 acre-feet. The decree of 1905, adjudi- 
cating water rights of Graham County, fixes the duty of water at 
"one-half miner's inches continuous flow to the acre." This is 
equivalent to 9 acre-feet per acre annually. Under the license of 



Use and Waste of Water 



223 




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224 Bulletin 88 

the decree, many farmers have over-irrigated their lands and some 
localities have become water-logged and alkalied. A temporary 
decree in Apache County in 1917 established the duty of water at 
St. Johns at one cubic foot per second for 75 acres, at Eagar at one 
second-foot for 100 acres, and at Greer at one second-foot for 150 
acres. The distinction between the conditions at different altitudes 
is logical and is an important step forward. In 1918 the decree was 
changed so as to allow one second-foot per 90 acres at St. Johns, 
110 acres at Eager and 180 acres at Greer. Inasmuch as rotation 
of water is practiced thruout Arizona, the duty of water should 
be stated in acre-feet per acre per year or a monthly schedule can 
be decreed for the limiting use of water. 

Irrigation districts and cooperative companies can influence the 
use and waste of water under their canals by their method of 
charging for water. The old flat rate, a fixed amount per ucre per 
year, was a constant challenge to each irrigator to use as much 
water as he could obtain. It was as unreasonable as a proposition 
to buy the family flour supply at a fixed sum per annum. The 
water should be measured to each water user and each user should 
pay on the basis of the amount which he uses. In the Salt River 
Valley the change from the old flat rate to the new basis in 1912 
resulted immediately in a decreased use of water : what remains to 
be done is the installation of weirs or other measuring devices so 
that the measurements can be made more accurately than they are 
at present. 

With the exception of some projects which will require Federal 
aid, surface water supplies in Arizona are quite thoroly appro- 
priated, and the limit of development of groundwater supplies will 
be reached in a few years. But the water supplies must be made 
to serve more land and this must be brought about thru a reduction 
of the water losses. No longer is it considered justifiable for ap- 
propriators to divert and use excessive amounts of water even tho 
they may have been doing so for many years. The modern view- 
point of courts in the other arid states is that no man has a right to 
take more water than he can put to beneficial use together with a 
reasonable allowance for conveyance and other losses. But each 
appropriator is expected to make such expenditures on his ditches 
and in the preparation of his land and in his care of the land that 
his losses will be small and the general water supply thereby con- 
served. As Judge J. H. Kibbey said in his decree covering water 
rights in the Salt River Valley, "No man has a right to waste a 
drop of water." 



The University of Arizona 
College of Agriculture 

Agricultural Experiment Station 



Bulletin No. 89 




The Gate\\ay tu the Vuma Mesa 



THE YUMA MESA 



By A. E. Vinson, F. J. Crider and 
G. E. Thompson 



Tucson, Arizona, August 15, 1919 



REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY 

Ex -Officio 

His Excellency, The Governor of Arizona 

The State Superintendent ok Public Instruction 

Appointed by the Governor of the State 

1 :pEs Randolph Chancellor 

William J. Bryan, Jr., A.B Treasurer 

James G Compton Secretary 

William Scarlett, A.B., B.D Regent 

ToHN YL Campbell. LL.M Regent 

Timothy A. Riordan Regent 

Edmund W. Wells Regent 

Louis D. Ricketts, Sc.D., LL.D Regent 

Agricultural Experiment Station 

RuFus B. von KlEinSmid, A.M., Sc.D., J.D President of the University 

Daniel W. Working, B.Sc, A.M Director 

■^'Robert H. Forbes, Ph.D Research Specialist 

John J. Thornber, A.M Botanist 

Albert E. Vinson, Ph.D Chemist 

George E. P. Smith, C.E Irrigation Engineer 

Richard H. Williams, Ph.D Animal Husbandman 

Walter S. Cunningham, B.S Dairy Husbandman 

Charles T. VorhiEs, Ph.D Entomologist 

George E. Thompson, B.S.A Agronomist 

Franklin J. Crider, M.S Horticulturist 

Walker E. Bryan, M.S Plant Breeder 

Clifford N. Catlin, A.M Research Specialist in Agricultural Chemistry 

Francis R. KennEy, B.S.A Poultry Husbandman 

Norton L. Harris Extension Poultry Husbandman 

Charles U. PickrEll. B.S.A Extension Animal Husbandman 

W. E. Code, B.S- Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

A. F. KiNNisoN. B.S.A Assistant Horticulturist 

R. S. Hawkins, B.S.A Assistant Agronomist 

E. H. PrEsslEv. B.S.A Assistant Plant Breeder 

Howard W. Estill. M.S Assistant Chemist 

H. C. ScHWALEN. B.S Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

Agricultural Extension Service 

PASTES P. Taylor, B.S.A Director 

Leland S. Parke, B.S State Leader Boys' and Girls' Clubs 

Mary Pritner Lockwood. B.S State Leader Home Demonstration Agents 

W. M. Cook, A.B State Leader County Agricultural Agents 

Ballantyne. B.S County Agent, Graham-Greenlee Counties 

Fillerup County Agent, Navajo- Apache Counties 

Heard, B.S County Agent, Maricopa County 

Adamson, B.S.A County Agent, Cochise County 

LongstrETh County Agent, Yuma County 

(JEORGE W. ScheErEr. B.S.A County Agent, Yavapai County 

W. W. PiCKRELL, B.S.A County Agent. Pima-Santa Cruz Counties 

C. K. WildErmuth, B.S County Agent, Pinal County 

F. A. Chisholm, B.S County Agent, Coconino County 

Agnes A. Hunt Assistant State Leader Boys'and Girls' Clubs 

?TazEL Zimmerman Home Demonstration Agent, Southern Counties 

P'l.ossiE D. Wills, B.S Home Demonstration Agent, Maricopa County 

Grace I. Tufts Home Demonstration Agent, Northern Counties 

Louise SporlEdEr TTome Demonstrntion Agent, Cochise County 

Cooperative Specialists 

D. A. Gilchrist Rodent Control Specialist, Bur. Biol. Survey, U.S.D.A. 

Paul G. Redington U. S. Forest Service, U.S.D.A. 

J. P. Jacks.. Veterinarian, Bureau of Animal Industry, U.S.D.A. 

*On leave. 



A. 


B. 


C. 


R. 


H. 


C. 


C. 


R. 


T. 


W. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 



Three-year-old Washington Xavel orange on the N'uma Mesa Frontispiece 

Cieneral view on the Yuma Mesa 226 

Windbreak of evergreen tamarisk on the Yuma ]\Iesa, 18 months 

from planting 228 

Windbreak of Eucalyptus on the Blaisdell citrus orchard, 26 vears 

old " .... 232 

Castor beans used as a temporary windbreak in a young citrus 

orchard on the Yuma Mesa 232 

Alfalfa used as a cover crop in the Blaisdell citrus orchard 240 

Cover crop of cowpeas planted in rows in Hill's citrus orchard on 

the Yuma Mesa 240 

View in ten-acre block of Valencia oranges in the Blaisdell orchard 

on tlic Yuma Mesa •. . .246 

Individual lemon tree on the Yuma Mesa 248 

Individual Marsh grapefruit tree on the Yuma Mesa 248 

Citrus orchard of George M. Hill on the Yuma Mesa, 8 months from 

planting 249 

The same orchard as shown in Fig. 11, one year later 250 

The same orchard as shown in Fig. 11, two years later 250 

Washington Navel orange produced on the Yuma Mesa 252 

Valencia orange produced on the Yuma Mesa 252 

Grapefruit produced on the Yuma Mesa 256 

Lisbon lemon produced on the Yuma Mesa 256 

Two-year-old grape vine on the Yuma Mesa 258 

Three-acre fig orchard on the Yuma Mesa 259 

Cotton on the Yuma Mesa on land under second vear's cultivation. . .262 



Fig. 


2 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


F'ig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

General information 225 

Topography of the Yuma Mesa 226 

Climate of the Yuma Mesa 227 

Soil of the Yuma Mesa 234 

Chemical composition of the Yuma sand 235 

Fertilitv of the Yuma sand 239 

Alkali 241 

Physical characters of the Yuma Mesa sand 242 

Fruit crops on the Yuma Mesa 246 

First citrus plantings 246 

Recent citrus plantings 247 

Insect and plant disease problems on the Mesa 249 

Characteristics of fruit grown on Yuma Mesa 249 

General adaptation of varieties of citrus to the Yuma Mesa 254 

Oranges 254 

Grapefruit 255 

Lemons 255 

Other fruits adapted to the Mesa 257 

Dates 257 

Olives 258 

Grapes 258 

Figs 259 

Truck crops 260 

Field crops on the Yuma Mesa 261 

Summary 263 







Three-year-old Washington Navel orange at Mulford Winsor's residence on the 

Yuma Mesa 



THE YUMA MESA 

B\ A. E. J'inson, J'. J. Crider, and G. E. Thompson 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

For many vears the irrigation of the Vuma Mesa with the 
water of the Colorado River has been discussed. Variovis attempts 
by individuals and companies to accomplish this end have been 
undertaken with more or less success ; and investigations made by 
engineers of the U. S. Reclamation Service have shown the recla- 
mation of large tracts on the Mesa to be possible at reasonable 
cost. It has been realized, however, that the determining factor in 
the establishment«of a permanent project of this nature has been 
whether or not the agricultural possibilities are such as to warrant 
the necessary investment. As early as 1891 Mr. C. B. Colling- 
wood, at the request of Mr. H. W. Blaisdell, investigated the char- 
acter of the soil of this Me.sa and made a special study of the 
amount and composition of the silt carried by the Colorado River. 
These results were published as Bulletin No. 6 of the Arizona 
Agricultural Experiment Station. Aside from the general soil sur- 
vey of the Yuma district by J. Garnet Holmes, of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Bureau of vSoils, in 1903, and minor observa- 
tions made in reports of the Reclamation Service engineers, noth- 
mg further bearing on this phase of the project has been attempted. 
At the request of the Reclamation Service, this commission was 
appointed by Dr. R. B. von KleinSmid, President of the University 
of Arizona, to make such investigation and report upon the agri- 
cultural possibilities of the Yuma Mesa with special reference to 
the production of citrus and other commercial fruit crops. This 
commission was composed of the agricultural chemist, the horti- 
culturist, and the agronomist of the University of Arizona, College 
of Agriculture, who were already more or less conversant with con- 
ditions on the Mesa, having made previous observations there in 
connection with their regular work. 

After thoro consideration of all available information the com- 
mission visited the tract again early in November, 1918, to make 
further investigations. In this work they were generously as- 
sisted by Mr. W. W. Schlecht, Project Manager of the Yuma Re- 
clamation Project; Mr. J. W. Longstreth, Agricultural Agent of 
Yuma County ; Mr Geo. M. Hill, a citrus grower, and other persons 



226 JJfLLHTix 89 

having knoAvledge of conditions on the Mesa. Careful studies were 
made of the citrus plantings and of other crops and vegetation now 
growing there, and inquiries were made concerning the past his- 
tory of these crops, particularly the old citrus grove known as the 
Blaisdell Orchard. Units A and B of the project, as surveyed by 
the Reclamation Service, were inspected by several automobile and 
foot trif)s. Soil samples representative of the different soil phases 
were taken for chemical and mechanical analysis, and for physical 
tests and pot cultures. Fruit samples were obtained for physical 
and chemical analysis, and for comparison with similar fruits from 
Florida and California. 

TOPOGRAPHY OF THE YUMA MESA 

The Yuma Mesa rises abruptly about 100 feet a'bove the valley 
of the Colorado River and stretches to the mountains on the east, 
sloping gently southward into Mexico. Depressions, commonly 
spoken of as pot holes, are found at a few places. The entire region, 
probably, was once the floor of the upper end of the Gulf of Cali- 




Fig. 2. — General view on the Yunia Mesa 

fornia, which accounts for the prevalence of sands. Frequent 
draws lead from the mesa to the valley below making the margin 
quite rough. The great body of the Mesa, however, is level and 
may be brought under cultivation with little expense for grading 
creosote bushes. A few dunes, too large for leveling, occur, but 
other than the leveling of small sand dunes, collected about the 



The Yuma Mesa 227 

these are not extensive and, judging from the old shrubbery on 
their tops, show little evidence of shifting. While much of the 
tract is not easily accessible on account of sands, good road build- 
ing material is easily available. The northern point of the Mesa 
extends well into the city of Yuma and is the site of many well- 
kept suburban homes, which have afforded additional evidence of 
the capacity of the soil to support a good growth when water is 
applied. 

The city of Yuma, situated at the northern end of the project, 
is on the main line of the Southern Pacific Railroad, insuring prompt 
shipment, quick delivery, and lessened expense in marketing crops 
produced. When it is considered that many commercial fruit dis- 
tricts are located on branch roads, this advantage becomes ap- 
parent. 

CLIMATE OK THE YUMA MESA 

Climate more than anything else has been the determining 
factor in the location and development of the citrus districts of 
the world. The physical nature of the soil may be modified, plant 
food supplied, and water problems solved, but unless a region has 
the natural and fundatnental requisites of climate, it cannot be- 
come a commercial citrus producing center. In this particular 
the Yuma Mesa qualifies preeminently. Its climate is unique 
among the citrus districts of the country in that no other area in 
North America has occuring together the smallest rainfall, lowest 
relative humidity, and greatest percentage of sunshine — a com- 
bination which makes possible the production of fruit of the finest 
quality, the highest color, and with the earliest ripening period. 
A product with this distinctive excellence wins favor, extra high 
prices, and a permanent place in the market. Furthermore, the 
fruit can be allowed to remain on the trees until it attains maturity 
without fear of competition. The history of plantings on the Mesa 
shows that the Navel crop can be placed on the market in November 
and December, and at this time is of such perfect quality as to 
command a price far in excess of oranges from any other district. 
Grapefruit at this time also has extremely superior quality over 
that found on the market from other citrus districts, which insures 
the highest selling price. 

Another climatic feature of paramount importance found on 
the Yuma Mesa is immunity from injurious frost. The tract is 
composed for the most part of a broad table land with a gentle 
slope towards the edge of the Mesa, which breaks up into numerous 



228 



RULLETIN 89 



wide draws, affording excellent air drainage to the valley below. 
Coupled with this ideal topography there is an almost constant 
circulation of air. Observations on the Mesa covering a period of 
twenty-six years (the age of the oldest citrus planting in this dis- 
trict) with accurate weather records covering the greater portion 
t)f this time, show no serious injury from cold. In the disastrous 
treeze of 1913 when the temperature in the Southwest v^as lower 
than had been known for a period of sixty years, lemon trees on 
the Mesa were only slightly affected, the thermometer registering 
from three to eight degrees higher than in the citrus districts of 
California. It can. therefore, be stated most positively that the 
frost hazard, a matter which should receive first consideration in 
the selection o/ a location for citrus growing, is a negligible factor 




Fit 



.",. — Wiiidlireak of evergreen tamarisk on tlie Yuma Mesa, 18 months 
from planting 



in this district, and should give the prospective citrus grower no 
concern. In view of the great expense involved in the use of 
smudge pots, as practiced in some of our older citrus regions, im- 
munitv from frost injury is an item of extreme economic import- 
ance. 

Weather records kept at the Blaisdell Orchard from October, 
1893, to June. 1987, are given in Bulletin 58 of the Arizona Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station and are reproduced here in Table I. 



The Yuma Mesa 



229 



TABLE I — WEEKLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES TAKEN 
AT THE BLAISDELL ORCHARD 



1893 Max. 

Oct. 30 80 

Nov. 6 91 

Nov. 13 85 

Nov. 20 79 

Nov. 27 12> 

Dec. 4 79 

Dec. 11 83 

Dec. 18 81 

Dec 25 76 

1894 

Jan. 1 74 

Jan. 8 69 

Jan. 15 65 

Jan. 22 71 

Jan. 29 11 

Feb. 5 74 

Feb. 12 71 

Feb. 19 72 

Feb. 26 76 

Mar. 5 82 

Mar. 12 78 

Mar. 19 95 

Mar. 26 :... 84 

Apr. 2 96 

Apr. 9 95 

Apr. 16 95 

Apr. 23 96 

.\pr. 30 101 

Mav 7 95 

May 14 105 

May 21 100 

May 28 100 

" June 4 100 

June 11 96 

June 17 101 

June 25 102 

Julv 2 105 

July 9 115 

July 16 112 

July 23 107 

Julv 30 115 

Aue. 6 Ill 

Au£i. 13 101 

AuEj. 20 107 

.\ug. 27 lOQ 

Sept. 3 1(^6 

Sept. 10 o« 

Sept. 17 103 

Sept. 24 108 

Oct. 1 110 

Oct. 8 101 

Oct. 15 99 

Oct. 22 QQ 

Oct. 28 91 

Nov. 5 91 

Nov. 12 91 



Min. 

50 
48 
45 
40 
34 
41 
44 
44 
42 



38 
32 
30 
33 
30 
2,7 
32 
29 
31 
33 
36 
46 
34 
49 
50 
54 
45 
55 
45 
57 
52 
57 
59 
53 
60 
61 
61 
67 
7^ 
71 
76 

n 

70 
6S 
75 
60 
64 
60 
68 
68 
58 
62 
58 
50 
53 
46 



1894 Max. 

Nov. 19 84 

Nov. 27 85 

Dec. 3 82 

Dec. 10 11 

Dec. 17 65 

Dec. 24 71 

Dec. 31 66 

1895 

Jan. 6 11 

Jan. 13 81 

Jan. 21 IZ 

Jan. 28 65 

Feb. 4 71 

Feb. 11 11 

Feb. 18 76 

Feb. 25 81 

Mar. 4 86 

Mar. 11 85 

Mar. 18 79 

Mar. 25 90 

Apr. 1 97 

Apr. 8 90 

Apr. 15 101 

Apr. 21 96 

Apr. 29 94 

Mav 6 100 

Mav 13 108 

Ma'v 20 102 

Ma'v 21 98 

June 3 95 

Tune 10 104 

June 17 105 

June 24 109 

July 1 110 

lulv 8 107 

July 15 107 

Tulv 22 Ill 

July 29 108 

An?. 5 113 

Aug. 12 112 

Aug. 19 110 

Aug. 26 106 

Sept. 2 103 

Sept. 9 105 

Sept. 16 1C6 

Sept. 23 104 

Sept. 30 104 

Oct. 7 96 

Oct. 14 97 

Oct. 21 93 

Oct. 28 86 

Nov. 4 93 

Nov. 11 79 

Nov. 18 87 

Nov. 23 87 

Dec. 2 11 



Min. 

42 
47 
36 
37 

Zl 
41 
46 



31 

1% 

41 

Zl 

35 

39 

36 

44 

44 

45 

38 

41 

42 

41 

17 

5(J 

51 

50 

62 

58 

55 

49 

60 

60 

60 

65 

65 

(^1 

67 

70 

6S 

71 

12> 

73 

60 

59 

64 

54 

58 

54 

56 

52 

49 

48 

40 

40 

32 

37 



230 



Bulletin 89 



TABLE I — WEEKLY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES TAKEN 

AT THE BLAISDELL ORCHARD — Continued 



1895 Max. Min. 

Dec. 9 76 39 

Dec. 16 82 43 

Dec. 23 65 33 

Dec. 30 65 26 

1896 

Feb. lO;.'..."..'.'..". .'. 68 38 

Feb. 17 72 37 

Feb. 24 85 42 

Mar. 2 83 44 

Mar. 9 92 45 

Mar. 16 80 35 

Mar. 23 88 48 

Mar. 30 93 50 

Apr. 6 101 47 

Apr. 13 87 47 

Apr. 20 90 40 

Apr. 27 87 42 

May 4 87 47 

May 11 91 4b 

May 18 92 50 

May 25 97 58 

June 8 105 57 

June 14 100 61 

June 22 115 67 

June 29 116 63 

July 6 105 64 

July 13 104 53 

July 20 108 80 

July 27 103 73 

Au'g. 4 102 69 

Aug. 11 102 67 

Aug. 17 105 69 

Aug. 24 Ill 72 

Aug. 31 101 71 

Sept. 7 107 69 

Sept. 14 104 70 

Sept. 21 99 68 

Sept. 28 105 58 



1896 Max. 

Oct. 5 100 

Oct. 12 98 

Oct. 19 99 

Oct. 26 90 

Nov. 2 88 

Nov. 9 80 

Nov. 16 76 

Nov. 23 82 

Nov. 30 84 

Dec. 7 70 

Dec. 14 77 

Dec. 21 75 

Dec. 28 71 

1897 

Jan. 4 74 

Jan. 11 61 

Jan. 18 70 

Jan. 25 60 

Feb. 1 72 

Feb. 8 70 

Feb. 15 72 

Feb. 22 69 

May 1 ' 73 

May 8 80 

Mav 13 72 

May 20 72 

Mav 27 82 

Apr. 3 97 

Apr. 10 94 

Apr. 17 82 

Apr. 24 92 

May 1 97 

May 8 97 

May 15 94 

May 22 101 

May 29 99 

June 5 109 

June 11 106 

June 18 105 



Min. 

52 
54 
59 
57 
54 
45 
38 
52 
45 
36 
38 
40 
40 



41 
38 
40 
38 
40 
42 
42 
37 
36 
35 
35 
37 
43 
47 
56 
44 
47 
50 
49 
54 
58 
53 
62 
60 
56 



From May, 1916, to the present time detailed weather recoids 
have been kept on the Mesa by Mrs. Geo. M. Hill. A summary of 
these records is given in Table II. 

The effects of summer heat and strong winds are items that 
should receive consideration in establishing a citrus planting; but 
they are not matters that would prove detrimental to citrus grow- 
ing in this particular locality. While the heat is quite intense 
during portions of the summer, proper methods of pruning obviate 
any serious difficulty from this quarter. Injury from winds has 
been observed to occur only on the outer edges of the orchards on 



The Yuma Mi^sa 



231 



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232 



Bl'LLETIN 89 




FiK. 4. — Windbreak of IOucal,\ ijtus on the Blaisdell tHius urcliard, :itj years 

from planting 



-2%%. 



'■d^ 










•^^^ 







Fig-. 5. — Castor beans used as a temporary windbreak in a young citrus orchard 

on the Yuma Mesa 



Thk Yuma Mi-sa 233 

the north and west sides, and is easily remedied by planting wind- 
breaks. Two plants that have been found particularly well adapted 
to this section for the purpose of windbreaks are eucalyptus (Euca- 
lyptus riidis) and the evergreen species of tamarisk (Tamarisk articu- 
lataj. The latter is very ornamental and if generally used would form 
a most attractive landscape feature of the district. Furthermore, 
it is easily propagated from cuttings, and on the Yuma Mesa has 
made a growth of 25 feet in 18 months, becoming sufficiently large 
to serve as a windbreak in less than two years from the time of 
planting. See Figure 3. 



SOIL OF THE YUMA MESA 

The soil of the Yuma Mesa has been classified by the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture Bureau of Soils as Yuma Sand. It is 
probably of marine origin and consequently is quite uniform over 
a large area. In common with marine soils it does not contain a 
large total amount of plant food elements. The abrupt edges of 
the Mesa left by the erosion of the river valley show some stratifica- 
tion. Bands of shale-like clay of varying thickness may be seen 
where vertical sections are exposed. It is not definitely estab- 
lished to what extent these clay bands reach out under the Mesa. 
At several points clay strata reach the surface, but dip ofif rapidly 
again beyond the reach of an ordinary spade. Drilled wells have 
encountered clay in several locations. The clay strata are often 
strongly alkiline. With the exception of these bands, the sands 
are deep and well drained. 

The most striking character of the Yuma Sand is its highly 
calcareous nature ; even the drifting sands and dune sands effer- 
vesce strongly with acid. The lime does not exist as grains of 
calcium carbonate, excepting to a small extent in the silt and clay 
separates, but as a more or less uniform incrustation on all the soil 
particles. This incrustation remains on the particles thru the 
process of separation in mechanical analysis, and all separates 
from the finest to the coarsest effervesce with acids. The incrusted 
particles give the soil a characteristic appearance, which at once 
suggests the name "tarnished sand." The lime content varies in 
the vertical section, and usually a band of cemented soil a foot or 
more in thickness is found at or near the surface. The surface 
appearance of the Yuma Mesa is that of gravelly and sandy streaks 
and patches alternating. By following the gravelly areas a light 
automobile can be driven over the Mesa. Investigation shows that 
the gravelly areas in a general way mark the places where the 
lime cemented strata come near the surface. A vertical section 
thru one of these lime cemented strata shows a mottled or marble- 
like appearance, due to the cutting of limy concretions varying in 
size from a wheat grain to a walnut. In places the lime becomes 
so dominant as to form semi-chalky layers. These are hard when 
dry, but soft as clay when wet. An explanation of the surprising 
fertility of these seemingly barren sands may be found in the dis- 
tribution of the calcareous incrustation over the surface of the soil 
grains. This probably averages 8 or 10 percent of the total weight 



The Yuma Mesa 



235 



of the soil. Associated with the calcareous incrustation occurs a 
considerable part of the phosphorus and potassium found in the 
soil, which would account for the ready availability of the mineral 
plant foods present. 



CHEMICAL COMPOvSITIOX OF THE YUMA SAND 

In Bulletin No. 6 of the Arizona Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion, Collingwood reports the analysis of a sample of this soil 
taken from Blaisdell Heights and compares it with an analysis of 
a sample from the Fruitdale Tract, Fresno, California, made by 
Dr. Hilgard. The analyses are comparable, having been made 
from the same portion of the soil by the same methods of analysis. 
In each case the "fine earth" passing 0.5 m. m. sieve w^as used, 
and solution was effected by the same strength (1.115-sp. gr.) 
hydrochloric acid. Analyses are given in Table III. 

TABLE HI — ANALYSIS OF FRESNO AND YUMA HEIGHTS SOIL 



Fruitvale 

Tract 

Fresno, Cal. 



Blaisdell 

Heights 

Yuma, Ariz. 



Insoluble matter 

Potash 

Soda 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Oxide of iron 

Alumina 

Pliosphoric acid 

Sulpluiric acid 

Carbonic acid 

Water and organic matter 



'; 


% 


78.91 


84.30 


0.82 


0.64 


0.29 


0.32 


1.14 


4.57 


1.58 


0.51 


7.51 


1.07 


6.30 


3.28 


0.07 


0.07 


0.01 


0.01 




3.73 


3.28 


1.50 



The Fruitdale soil showed more acid soluble constituents, one, 
however, to large amounts of iron and alumina ; whereas the Yuma 
Mesa soil showed very much more calcium carbonate. In the 
Yuma soil the sum of the lime and carbonic acid corresponds almost 
exactly to the theoretical amount of calcium carbonate correspond- 
ing to the carbonic acid. This indicates that practically all the 
lime found in the acid soluble portion of the soil existed as calcium 
carbonate. The acid soluble phosphoric acid content of the two 
soils was identical, and the potash content corresponded quite 
closely. The inference would be that the Yuma soil was the equal 
if not the superior of the Fresno soil due to the association of its 
plant food elements wath well distributed calcium carbonate rather 
than with iron and alumina. 



236 BuLivETiN 89 

For the investigation which forms the basis of this report 
two series of samples were taken : one set of ten for chemical 
analysis and another of eight large samples for pot cultures and 
physical tests. A few other samples for special determinations 
were also taken. The chemical analysis was restricted to thr: 
determination of acid insoluble material, of total potassium and 
phosphorus, and 1.115 sp. gr. hydrochloric acid and 2 percent 
citric acid soluble potassium and phosphorus. The results are re- 
ported in Table IV. 
6915. Small area of shale-like clay soil adjoining Hill's nursery; 

possibly the same as the clay strata seen on the edge of the 

mesa. 

6917. Surface foot of sandy soil from center of Sec. 9; this layer 
did not show lime concretions. 

6917a. Second foot in same hole containing abundant lime concre- 
tions. 

6918. Average of first three feet avoiding surface six inches of 
wind blown sand ; soil homogeneous to bottom of hole ; south 
side of N. W. corner of Sec. 15 near the edge of a pot hole; 
Project A. 

6919. Tarnished sand from south of center of east of S. W. ^ of 
Sec. 4 at depth of three feet. Surface was calcareous cemented 
sand ; typical of the tarnished sands that make up the greater 
part of the Mesa soil. 

6920. Surface cemented sand from same hole as 6919. Fifty feet 
away this same cemented sand occurred at depth of two feet ; 
sometimes spoken of as hardpan, but disintegrates immed- 
iately when moistened. 

6922. First foot from a little N. W. of the S. E. corner of the 
proposed experiment station tract. A small amount of lime 
was seen near bottom of the hole at about three feet depth. 

6923. Third foot from south of middle of Sec. 7, Project B. The 
sand at this depth appeared slightly less tarnished than the 
first foot, which was the typical tarnished sand of the Mesa. 

6924. Second foot from same hole, containing some lime concre- 
tions. 

6925. First foot same hole ; typical of a large tract wdiich shows 
less variation than the north end of the Mesa in Project A. 
The material represented in 6915 is not important, since it was 

niiled at dv near the surface in very small areas. It is a highly 
calcareous alkaline clay which accounts for the low content of 
msoluble matter. It is probably the most abundantly supplied 
with mineral plant food of any soil on the Mesa, and when sufficient 
water is available can be leached free from injurious amounts ot 
alkali. It is omitted in averaging the composition of the Mesa 
soils. 



The Yuma Mesa 



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238 



Bulletin 89 



The remaining samples, which are all tarnished sands varying 
chiefly in their content of calcium carbonate, compare favorably 
with the medium and less fertile soils of the United States with 
regard to phosphorus, but are very deficient in potash — a matter 
that need give little concern since the Colorado water, as will be 
shown, carries large amounts of water soluble potash. The aver- 
age acid soluble phosphorus in 2,000,000 pounds of the Mesa tar- 
nished sand as shown by nine analyses is 681 pounds, as compared 
with 875 pounds shown by 262 samples of surface soils of California 
according to Hilgard (Hopkins' Soil Fertility, p. 102). The aver- 
age of the Yuma Mesa set is lowered much by a single sample 
(6917) which contains only 419 pounds. The richest sand from the 
Mesa contained 908 pounds. While the acid soluble phosphorus 
content is not high, the citric acid soluble phosphorus shows a 
large part of it readily available. An average of nearly one-third 
of the strong hydrochloric acid soluble phosphorus is also soluble 
in 2 percent citric acid, whereas it has been estimated roughly that 
in humid regions usually only one percent annually of the total 
phosphorus could be rendered available by practical cultural means. 
In a few cases only about one-half of the total phosphorus dissolved 
m 1.115 sp. gr. hydrochloric acid. The high apparent availability 
of the phosphorus agrees with the rapid growth made by vege- 
tation when sufficient water is supplied. This condition would be 
expected in an almost rainless region where slow weathering has 
gone on for ages with no leaching. 

For comparison the average composition of the very sandy 
orange soils of Florida is given in Table V. 



TABLE V. AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FLORIDA SANDY ORANGE SOILS 



Percent 



Percent of 
the element 



Elements in 
2,000,000 lb. soil 



Silica 

Phosphoric acid . 

Potash 

Soda 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Iron and Ahiniina. 

Nitrogen 

Humus , 

Loss on ignition. 



93.82 
.085 
.039 
.107 
.295 
.129 
.760 
.054 
.64 
3.11 



.037 
.032 



Pounds 

740 
640 



While the Yuma Mesa sand is quite similar to the Florida 
sand with regard to phosphorus, it probably has a decided ad- 
vantage with regard to easy availability of the phosphorus, since 



The YrMA Mksa 



239 



the P'Jorida soil occurs in a region of abundant rainfall, and the 
easily available jihosphorus would be leached out. The potash 
content of the Yuma sand is several times that of the Florida sand. 



FERTILITY OF THE YUxMA SAND 

The average plant food content of citrus fruits is nitrogen .118 
percent, phosphoric acid .054 percent, and potash .293 percent. If 
we take 400 boxes of about 70 pounds each as a large yield per acre, 
there will be required for the annual crop 33 pounds of nitrogen, 
6.7 pounds of phosphorus and 68.1 pounds of potassium. A report 
by G. Harold Powell, Secretary of the Citrus Protective League 
of California, based on the practice of 271 ranches containing 8095.9 
acres, showed the expenditure of $44.20 per acre annually for 
chemical fertilizers and barnyard manure. Florida growers also 
find heavy fertilization profitable. The waters of the Colorado will 
in large part furnish the fertilizers which prove so expensive in 
other citrus districts. 

Table VI, showing the plant food carried in the waters of the 
Colorado during 1900, has been compiled from Bulletin 44 of the 
Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, The River-Irrigating 
Water of Arizona, by R. H. Forbes. 

TABLE VI — COMPOSITION OF THE WATER OE THE COLORADO RIVEJR 

Parts per Pounds per 

100,000 acre-foot 



Nitrogen in silt and water Average .274 

Nitrogen as nitrates Average .079 

Potassium soluble Average 1.51 

Phosphorus in sediment 



7.45 

2.15 

41.07 

5.56 



Since not less than Zy^ acre-feet of water would be applied 
annually, the minimum amount of plant food added from this 
source would be : Total nitrogen 18.6 pounds, of which 5.4 pounds 
would be nitrate nitrogen ; potassium 102.7 pounds, phosphorus 
12.9 pounds. A comparison of the crop composition with the plant 
food content of the irrigating water shows the potassium require- 
ment to be supplied in excess. The nitrogen requirement is about 
one-half covered, but it should be mentioned in this connection that 
much nitrogen would be supplied by leguminous cover crops which 
should be grown to raise the humus content of the soil and im- 
prove its physical condition. The phosphorus requirement ap- 
|)ears to be more than covered by that carried in the silt but this 
figure is somewhat uncertain for these reasons. The analysis 



240 



BULLF.TIX 89 




Fig. 6. — Alfalfa used as a cover crop in the Blaisdell citrus orchard 



', .^ 




Fig. 7. — <.'o\i'r criip of cnw i)eas planted in rows in Hill's citrus orchard on Yuma 
Mesa. The land between the trees had received no water or cultivation up to the 
time the trees were planted 



Thk Ylm.\ Mesa 



241 



shows the silt in the river water itself and not the residue deliv- 
ered to the land ; this amount is extremely variable thru the year 
and the average found might vary widely from that actually de- 
livered. The phosphorus content of the sediment would probably 
be very slowly available. Based on these considerations, fertilizer 
needs on the Mesa would probably be found covered best by light 
applications of acid phosphate, stable manure and leguminous cover 
crops — a relatively inexpensive practice when compared with that 
in use in other citrus districts. See Figure 6 and 7 for cover crop. 



ALKALI 

Small areas of alkali occur in the Yuma Mesa, but are neither 
so extensive nor will they be so difificult to handle as in the valley. 
These areas are not readily detected due to the shifting surface 
sands, but it is said they may be traced immediately after a rain. 
Where alkali does occur it is probably related to the heavier soil 
phases, such as the clay bands. Collingwood found the following 
amounts of alkali in the clay seams exposed in the railroad cut at 
Yuma : 

TABLE VII — ALKALI IX CLAY SEAMS UNDER YUMA MESA 



Sample 


Soluble 
solids 


Sodium 
chloride 


Sodium ' 
sulphate 


Sodium 
carbonate 


4 ft. beneath surface 

8 ft. beneath surface 


0.25 

(1.75 


% 
0.15 
0.60 


% 1 
0.10 ' 
0.15 


% 
trace 
trace 



The analyses given in Table VIII show the nature and amount 
of alkali in a few spots that show surface indications of alkali. 

TABLE VIII — ALKALI IN ALKALI SPOTS ON YUMA MESA 



Sample 

No. 1 

No. 2 

No. 3 

6915 

6926 

6927 



Waaler 




Calcium 




soluble 


Sodium 


sulphate or 


Sodium 


solids 


chloride 


equivalent 


carbonate 


% 


% 


% 


% 


0.232 


.004 




.119 


0.952 


.032 


.370 




2.452 


.400 


.631 




1.412 


.840 


.087 




1.784 


.572 


.762 




5.600 


4.200 


22.241 





Sample 6915 was the alkaline calcareous clay described else- 
where ; 6926 and 6927 were taken from strong alkali spots that had 
developed after irrigation on the same tract from which Nos. 1, 2 
and 3 were taken before irrigation. Further analysis showed 6927 
to contain much calcium chloride. 



242 Bi-LLF;ri.\ 89 



Altho alkali spots do occur, the tarnished sands which make 
up the greater portion of the Mesa soil are free from injurious 
amounts of water soluble salts as shown by the analyses in 
Table IX. 

table: IX ALKALI IN TARNISHED SANDS ON YUMA MESA 



Water 




Calcium 




soluble 


Sodium 


sulphate or 


Sodium 


solids 


chloride 


equivalent 


carbonate 


% 


% 


% 




0.120 


0.020 


0.054 




0.200 


0.052 


0.087 




0.092 


0.008 


0.004 




0.664 


0.276 


0.087 




0.196 


0.052 


0.044 




0.124 


0.016 


0.044 




0.148 


0.020 


0.065 




0.140 


0.016 


0.087 




0.128 


0.016 


0.065 





6917 

6917a 

6918 . 

6919 

6920 

6922 

6923 

6924 

6925 



The results indicate the absence of injurious amounts of sol- 
uble salts and the entire absence of sodium carbonate or black 
alkali in the sands. Some apprehension has been expressed that 
black alkali would develop from the action of irrigating water on 
the calcium carbonate which occurs so abundantly on all parts of 
the Mesa. The fact that almost without exception the soils tested 
had the capacity to neutralize considerable black alkali, and that 
the Colorado River water has a high permanent hardness thruout 
the year, should remove any danger from this source. Sodium 
chloride is also much in excess of sodium sulphate in the river 
water and this has been shown to inhibit largely the reverse re- 
action between sodium sulphate and calcium carbonate which gives 
rise to black alkali. Some white alkali may rise from frequent 
shallow irrigation, but can be leached back easily into the deeper 
subsoil. Analyses show the alkali found in the valley to carry 1 
part of potassium to 4.3 parts of sodium and the year's average of 
the river flow to be 1 part of potassium to 9 parts of sodium, with 
a much higher ratio of potassium during flood periods. White 
alkali then becomes an important source of readily available potash 
in these soils. 

PHYSICAL CHARACTERS OF THE YUMA MESA SAND 

The soil of the Yuma Mesa when dry is for the most part 
loose easily shifted sand, but when wet it resembles a sandy loam. 
The dry appearance and the mechanical analysis are both some- 
what misleading, due to the calcareous incrustations on the soil 



TiiK Vr.M.\ .Mi".s.\ 



243 



grains. 'I'his incrustation and the tine silt and clay particles which 
are often cemented are not broken down entirely by shaking with 
ammonia. Under the microscope the sand grains have a rough- 
ened appearance and as mentioned elsewhere, even the coarsest 
separates effervesce strongly with acid. The roughened surface of 
the sand grains probably accounts for the relatively high w^ater 
holding capacity of this sand. The mechanical analysis of a few 
typical samples of the tarnished sand are given in Table X. 

table; X — MECH.XNICAL ANALYSIS OF YUMA MEISA SOIL 





Gravel 






Fine 


soil 










2.0 m. m. 


Fine 


Coarse 


Medium 


Fine 


Very fine 






Sample 


In diam. 


gravel 


sand 


sand 


sand 


sand 


Silt 


Clay 




% 


% 


% 


1 % -i 


% 


% 


% 


% 


6942... 


3.8 


2.3 


3.5 


7.7 


13.7 


30.3 


29.5 


12.9 


6943... 


13.3 


8.3 


15.7 


24.7 ■ 


25.3 


11.2 


8.4 


5.1 


6944... 


4.4 


7.1 


19.6 


33.0 


29.2 


6.9 


3.3 


0.2 


6945... 


none 


2.2 


3.8 


4.5 


26.2 


42.5 


13.9 


6.7 


6947... 


12.9 


2.3 


4.7 


10.0 


34.9 


31.4 


9.7 


6.4 


6949. . . 


none 


1.6 


5.5 


24.5 


47.7 


17.2 


1.9 


1.4 


6922... 




2,.7 


14.6 


20.8 


36.3 


19.3 


3.1 


1.9 


6923... 




1.6 


13.7 


22.3 


50.7 


7.9 


2.5 


0.9 


6924. . . 




1.6 


9.1 


18.8 1 


45.8 


17.6 


5.8 


1,3 


6925... 




2.8 


12.1 


16.0 


41.5 


21.4 


4.0 


1.8 



Nos. 6922, 6923, 6924 and 6925 are the same soils described 
under chemical coraposition. 

No. 6942. Top foot of silt from the Colorado River water 
mixed with sand as it occurs on the old Blaisdell Orchard. Cover 
crops had been plowed under, but no recent manure had been ap- 
plied. Orange roots were abundant in this layer half way between 
the tree rows. 

No. 6943. So-called hardpan of gravelly sand with some lime 
concretions; about one foot thick, occuring as sub-soil beneath 
6942. 

No. 6944. Clean tarnished sand beneath 6943 ; containing few 
orange roots probably due to insufficient irrigation to penetrate 
the third foot. 

No. 6945. Virgin tarnished sand betw^een the old Blaisdell 
Orchard and Hill's Orchard. A little lime was noticeable. 

No. 6946. Indurated sand with much lime from just outside 
S. W. corner of Hill's Orchard. 

No. 6947. Surface from gravelly area between the Hill and 
Hibbard places; immediately overlying the excessively limy sam- 
ple 6948. 



244 



Bulletin 89 



No. 6948. Very limy material beneath 6947. 

No. 6949. Blown sand from beneath creosote bushes ; found on 
the surface on all parts of the Mesa and appears less tarnished than 
the bedded sands. 

The moisture equivalent and wilting percentage as determined 
by C. A. Jensen of the Bureau of Plant Industry and given in the 
engineer's report on the Yuma Mesa Project are repeated in Table 
XL The following quotation is from Mr. Jensen's report to the 
project manager: 

"The moisture equivalent represents approximately the amount 
of moisture the soil will hold 24 hours after irrigation, and is prob- 
ably about the optimum. Some of these soils have the lowest 
wilting percentage of any that I have ever seen. The difiference 
between the moisture equivalent and wilting percentage repre- 
sents approximately the amount of available moisture, that is, 
about the percentage that a plant can get after an irrigation less 
the amount lost by evaporation." 

TABLE XI — MOISTURE EQUIVALENT AND WILTING POINT YUMA MESA 
SOILS — BY C. A. JENSEN 



Sample 


Depth below surface 


Moisture equivalent 


Wilting percentage 






% 


% 


1 


4 in. 


23.9- 


13.0 


2 


18 in. 


7.0 


3.8 


3 


3 ft. 


8.3 


4.5 


4 


4 ft. 


8.4 


4.6 


11 


Surface 


9.8 


5.3 


12 


12 in. 


4.2 


2.3 


13 


2 ft. 


2.5 


1.35 


14 


3 ft. 


1.54 


0.85 


15 


4 ft. 


1.75 


0.95 



No. 1. 2, 5, 4 are from the old Blaisdell Orchard in N. E. >4» 
N. W. M S. 33, T. 8 S., R. 2Z W. 

No. 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 are from 300 feet S. W. of N. E. cor- 
ner N. W. Ya N. E. Va S. 4, T. 9 S.. R. 23 W. Of 6 samples taken 
at different points of the Mesa, this sample was found to be, by 
mechanical analysis, the coarsest ; i. e. it contained the lowest 
amount of fine material. 

Table XII gives the moisture holding capacity of the same 
series of soil as was used for the mechanical analysis reported in 
Table X. Only the soil passing a 2.0 m. m. sieve was used, and 
the determinations were made with the soil packed in brass tubes 
on the iron compactor in the usual way. From 2 or 3 to 24 hours 
were required for water to rise thru the soil when the tubes were 
placed under a water head equal to their height, about 10 inches. 



Tine Yi'MA Mksa 



245 



Very little water drained off the tubes under the force of gravity 
during the first 24 hours, and after that time almost none. If the 
depth of water equivalent to that retained after 24 hours be com- 
puted, it is seen that approximately 4 inches of water is retained 
per foot of soil. The silty surface soil in the old orchard shows a 
much higher water holding capacity. It would thus appear that 
under ordinary irrigation, especially with a scant supply, the soil 
would not be wet very deeply, even though it appears to be sandy. 
The relatively high water holding capacity of these sands must be 
attributed to the roughness of the soil particles, which in turn is 
caused by the calcareous incrustation. 

TABLK XII — PHYSICAL rROPERTlRS OF YUMA MESA SOILS 





j Apparent 


j 


W^ater 


Water 


Water 


1 Depth of water 




1 sp. g-r. 




when 


retained , 


retained 


retained in 




i of fine 


Wt. per 


satur- . 


after 


per acre 


one acre ft. 


Sample 


soil 


acre ft. 


ated 


1 24 hours i 


ft.soil 


soil 






Pounds 1 


9f 


i '/r 1 


Pounds 


Inches 


6942... 


1.380 


3.758,050 


28.2 


37.5 t 


1,033,363 


4.6 


6943... 


1.497 


4,075,582 


23.1 


22.7 ! 


924,157 


1 4.1 


6944... 


1.540 


4,192,650 


22.7 


22.3 


934,960 


41 


6945... 1 


1.405 


1 3,825,112 


28.1 


27.1 


1,036,505 


4.6 


6946... 


1.412 


3,844,170 


20.2 


19.9 


764,989 


3.4 


6947.:. 


1.398 


3,806,055 


25.1 


24.4 


928,677 ! 


41 


6948... 


1.351 


3,678,097 


26.7 


26.2 


963,661 


4.2 


6949... 


1.582 


1 4,306,995 1 


20.5 


20.3 


874,318 


3.9 



The belief has been expressed that great difficulty would be 
experienced in getting water to penetrate the silt that would be 
deposited on the surface from the Colorado water, and, when once 
through the surface blanket, water would sink very rapidly be- 
yond the reach of crops. In the light of data recorded in Table 
XII, and the incrusted nature of the said, these fears seem with- 
out foundation. The soil, which in its virgin state shows good 
water holding capacity, \\\\\ be improved by the Colorado silt. 
Silt will probably be deposited at the rate of about .034 inches a 
year, or 1 inch in 30 years. For many years this silt can be broken 
and incorporated with the sand by ordinary tillage implements, 
and for many additional years there will be the possibility of bring- 
ing sand to the surface with power subsoiling tools. 



FRUIT CROPS ON THE YUMA MESA 

FIRST CITRUS PLANTINGS 

Too much credit can not be given the pioneer citrus grower 
of the Yuma Mesa, Mr. H. W. Blaisdell, who had the foresight to 
realize something of the possibilities of this district for citrus pro- 
duction and established here in 1892 an orchard of twenty acre*, 
and eight years later another orchard of forty acres. Considered 
in the light of actual returns, it can not be said that the orchards 
have proven a financial success, but the plantings are of extreme 
value and importance in that they have furnished sufficient evidence 
to show that orchards operated under more favorable circum- 
stances would be profitable. 




Fig. 8. — View in ten-acre block of Valencia oranges in Blaisdell orchard on the 

Yuma Mesa 

A review of the methods employed in the handling of these 
oichards shows that crops requiring clean cultivation were grown 
between the rows while the trees were young. In later years the 
practice generally followed was to allow sour clover, together with 
a natural growth of weeds and grass, to cover the entire area 
during summer. This was turned under in the fall or winter. The 
present appearance of the orchard would indicate that Bermuda 
grass and sand burrs have been allowed to encroach severely upon 



Thiv Yuma .Mf.sa 247 

the trees, in some instances entirely choking them out. When the 
orchards were set about a pound of bone phosphate was applied in 
each tree hole. This was supplemented by liberal applications of 
stable manure to crops planted between the rows of trees. Furrow 
irrigation was practiced, but very frequently the trees suffered 
from a lack of water. During several summers they were injured 
to such an extent as to cause their leaves to drop. 

From a careful study of the orchards, and from information 
secured from past as well as present owners and managers, it 
appears that the failure of these plantings to yield profitable re- 
turns was largely due to the following causes : 

1. High cost of water, with consequent lack of sufficient irriga- 
tion. 

2. The absence of methods of culture tending to improve the soil, 

particularly the growing of leguminous cover crops between 
the rows of trees. 

3. Absentee control, with frequent changes of managers. 

4. Orchard trees being planted wider apart than necessary with 
numerous vacancies being allowed to exist. 

5. The use of too large a number of varieties rather than a few 

standards. 

6. General neglect, particularly during later years, in matters of 
cultivation, pruning, and irrigation. 

RECENT CITRUS PLANTINGS 

In addition to the old citrus grove of sixty acres there are at 
the present time on the Mesa eighty-eight acres of young orchards, 
set in the spring of 1916. As evidenced by Figures, 11, 12 and 13, 
the trees have made a very substantial growth. By actual meas- 
urement the growth per season has averaged from two to four 
ieet, which compares very favorably with the growth made by 
young trees in older citrus regions. The methods employed in 
the handling of these orchards are extremely simple and such as 
would make practical the development of large areas. The trees 
have been fertilized in some cases with stable manure, but no soil- 
building crops have been grown, owing to the added expense of 
supplying them with water. If water is furnished in abundance at 
reasonable cost such crops can be planted between the rows of 
trees, in which case a better growth of tree will result and the 
matter of handling the orchards will be still further stimulated. 

In order to determine the possibility of growing cover crops 
on the Yuma Mesa, Mr. George M. Hill planted a small area of his 



248 



I>l-lij-:ti\ 89 




Fij4. ;t. — ludi\ iduiil It-iiioii Uer on tlit- Yuma A1<:-^J; 




Fig. 10. — Individual Mar.sh grapefruit tree on tiie Yuma Mesa 



Thk Yuma Mesa 



249 



orchard to cowpeas, tepary beans, and peanuts, all of which made a 
very substantial q;ri)\vth, see Fig'ure 7. 

INSECT AND I'L.XXT DISKASP: PROBLEIMS ON THE MESA 

A feature of the Mesa as a citrus district not to be overlooked 
is its freedom from injurious insect and plant diseases. In the' 
large citrus regions of both (California and Florida, the cost to the 
growers in the control of these pests is a heavy expense — mater- 
ially cutting down profits — which serves to emphasize the very 
great economic advantage of a district where these control meas- 
ures are unnecessary. It cannot be hoped that the Yuma Mesa 
will always be entirely free from such infestation, but with the 
rigid quarantine against foreign importations that is now being 
maintained in the State of Arizona, it should be a long time before 
any serious difficulty of this sort arises. 

CHARACTI^R1S'1'ICS OV I'Rl'IT GROWN ON YUMA MESA 

While it is commonlv known that citrus fruits attain the very 
highest qualitN in an arid soil and climate, special efifort has been 
made to determine if this in reality applies to the fruit produced on 
the Yuma Alcsa, and if so in what way and to what extent. Repre- 




Fig. 11. — Citrus orchard of George M. Hill on the Yuma Mesa, S months 

from planting 



250 



BuijJvTix 89 




Fig-. 12. — The same orchard as shown in Pigoire 11, one year later 




Fig. 13. — The same orchard as shown in Fig-ure 11, two years later 



VVM A Ml'.SA 



251 



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252 



UrLLKTIN 89 




Fig-. 14. — Washington Navel orange produced on the Yuma Mesa. (Thickness 
of rind due to pulling before fully ripe.) 




Fig. 15. — Valencia orange produced on the Yuma :\Iesa 



TiiK Yuma Mi:s.\ 2S.^ 

sentative samples of the leadings varieties now growings in this dis- 
trict were closely studied and compared with similar varieties of 
other commercial citrus growing regions — particularly California 
and Florida. Table XIII is a summary of the physical analyses of 
Yuma fruits. 

For comparison with the fruit of the older citrus regions the 
physical analysis of the California Washington Navel, as given in 
the California Experiment Station report of 1902, is given in Table 
XIV. The figures represent the average of a number of samples 
collected from the leading citrus districts of California. They were 
taken during the latter part of November — one or two weeks later 
than the Yuma Mesa samples. 

It will be observed that in percentages of rind and juice con- 
tent, the Yuma Navels are superior at this season to the California 
Navels. 

Table XV gives the composition of the fruit on the Yuma 
Mesa as relates to sugar and acid content. This analysis represents 
the average of two determinations; samples taken November 15. 

FAULK X\" CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF YUMA MESA CITRUS FRUITS 

Total Apparent Citric Cane Invert Total 

Variety weight sugar acid sugar sugar sugars 



Decrees 

■ ■ : >:< '/, % 

Washington Navel 

orange 337.2 12.22 .57 5.99 4.16 10.15 

Valencia orange.... 187.1 11.88 1.12 4.22 4.38 8.60 

Mediterranean 

Sweet orange 143.6 12.02 1.88 3.75 3.66 7.41 

Marsh Seedless 

grapefruit 323.4 11.34 2.00 3.68 4.18 7.86 

Eureka lemon 147.3 10.17 7.04 

Lisbon lemon 143.8 10.19 7.05 

This analysis shows that the Washington Navel variety of 
orange has attained by the middle of November a degree of ripe- 
ness or of total sugar content of 10.15 percent, which, according 
to Wickson, is .16 percent in excess of a fully ripe Southern 
California Navel and exceeds by 2.70 percent the Navel as produced 
m Florida. The percentage of citric acid in fully ripe Southern 
California Navels, as given by Wickson, is 1.45 i)ercent and that 
of Florida Navels .95 percent, whereas, the samples from the Yuma 
Mesa orchard show only .57 percent. This low acid content, to- 
gether with the high sugar content, establishes a record for sweet- 
ness in the Navel variety of orange that is unsurpassed. The 
V alencia, Mediterranean Sweet, and Marsh Seedless are not ex- 



254 Bulletin 89 

pected to approach this variety in sweetness during fall ; however, 
they show a remarkably high percentage of sugar for the season. 
The acidity and juice content of the Eureka and Lisbon varieties 
of lemon are both high — as much so as could be desired in this 
fruit. 

In summing up the results of both the physical and chemical 
analyses of the fruits in question it can be said that the excellent 
flavor, abundant juice, fine texture of flesh, thinness of rind, high 
color, earliness of maturity and freedom from blemishes combine 
to give it a distinctive and unparalleled quality, presenting most 
clearly a unique and enviable advantage which the Yuma Mesa 
possesses as a commercial citrus district. 

GENERAL ADAPTATION OF VARIETIES OF CITRUS TO 
THE YUMA MESA 

A\'hile there is much room for experimentation in the mattei 
of varieties of citrus best suited to the Yuma Mesa, several of the 
standard varieties have been grown for a number of years and 
have already demonstrated their adaptability to the conditions 
found in this district. Outstanding facts regarding these varieties 
are as follows : 

ORANGES 

The Washington Navel, Valencia, and Mediterranean varieties 
have all produced satisfactory crops on the Mesa and could be 
relied upon under proper methods of culture and irrigation to give 
good returns ; but of the three the Washington Navel appears to 
offer the greatest promise to the commercial grower. Its early 
shipping season, beginning in the first part of November, allows 
this variety to be placed on the market in advance of fruit from 
other citrus districts. The bulk of the crop could be marketed just 
previous to the holiday season when citrus fruits are in greatest 
demand. These facts, together with the high quality and general 
popularity of the Navel, furnish the grower the very best ad- 
v^antages of market, and consec[uently insure for him the very 
highest prices. This variety has been known to produce an aver- 
age of from five to nine boxes per tree in the old orchard, and 
during the present season there are a number of individual trees 
that are giving equally good yields. Another advantage of the 
Navel is its early bearing habit, as much as 16 finely formed fruit 
having been produced on two-year-old trees on the Mesa. See 
Frontispiece. The \'alencia varict\- in the old orchard is carrying 



TiiK Yuma Mksa . 255 

a crop this year that will average from 6 to 8 boxes per tree for a 
ten-acre block. Although excellent in quality and a good yielder, 
this variety does not appear to lend itself quite so well to com- 
mercial planting from the fact that it comes in later in the season 
when the California croj) is being placed on the market in great 
quantity. The Mediterranean Sweet has given good results in the 
old orchard, and its season being only a little later than the Navel 
should make it a very satisfactory variety. 

GRAPEFRUIT 

The Marsh Seedless grapefruit, universally considered the 
leadmg commercial variety, has given a good account of itself on 
the Mesa, and promises to become a very profitable crop for this 
district. It is highly enough colored and sufficiently sweet to be 
placed on the market in November, but as there is no special ad- 
vantage in seeking out an early market for this fruit, it might be 
allowed to remain on the tree until in absolutely prime condition, 
(climate offering no obstacles), at which time it is of most superior 
quality and commands a fancy price. The latter fact is illustrated 
by the Los Angeles market report as printed in a February issue 
of the Los Angeles Times in 1912 as follows : 
Marsh Seedless grapefruit, local or Southern California, $1.75 to 

$2.25 per box. 
Marsh Seedless grapefruit. Northern California, $2.25 to $2.75 per 

box. 
Marsh Seedless grapefruit, Yuma Mesa, $5.00 to $5.50 per box. 

LEMONS 

Both the Eureka and Lisbon varieties of lemon have given 
splendid yields on the Mesa, and the fruit has all the requisites of 
a good commercial product, being particularly high in juice con- 
tent and having a very thin rind. An outstanding feature of this 
fruit as grown on the Mesa, is its freedom from discoloration, 
which makes washing unnecessary. It has been noted that the 
lemon as grown in this locality tends to produce the greater por- 
tion of its crop in the fall — a time when the market demand is 
rather low. However, there should be no difficulty in holding the 
crop in storage thru the winter, as is practiced in many of the 
older lemon districts, until early summer when it could be mar- 
keted to advantage. 



256 



Bulletin 8^) 




Fig. 16. — Grapefruit produced on tile Yuma Mesa 




F\t^. 17. — Lisbon lemon produced on the Yuma Mesa 



TiTK YiMA Mi:s.\ 257 

In general, the varieties in the old orchard have given a good 
account of themselves, when the adverse circumstances under 
which they have been handled are considered. They give genuine 
evidence of profitable yields that could be increased and made 
constant with proper methods of culture and irrigation. In speak- 
ing of this orchard the present manager, Mr. R. M. Moore, states: 
'"We own two orange groves in California and earnestly believe 
that the Yuma Mesa is the best location for an orange, lemon, or 
grapefruit grove of any place in the United States, as samples of 
fruit have shown us that there is none better grown." 

OTIIh:R FRUITS ADAI'Tl-.D TO THE .M KSA 

In addition to or in combination witli citrus fruits the Yuma 
Mesa offers most ideal conditions for the commercial production of 
a number of other fruits, among the most important of which are 
dates, olives, grapes, and iig.s. Also there are a number of truck 
crops that could be produced with profit. 

D.\Tii;s 

While the lower altitudes of the greater portion of southern 
Arizona arc well adapted to date culture, the Yuma Mesa presents 
special advantages in the growing of this fruit, particularly such 
varieties as the Deglet Noor that matures late in the season. With 
practical immunity from frost, together with relatively low humid- 
ity during harvest (under which conditions the date palm ripens 
its fruit to best advantage), afforded by this district, the Deglet 
Noor and kindred varieties could be allowed to remain on the trees 
until fully mature, becoming enriched to the highest degree in 
flavor and sugar content. The knowledge that this world-famous 
variety can be profitably produced only in specially favored regions 
lends interest to the fact that the Yuma Mesa appears to possess 
the proper requisites for its successful culture. While the Deglet 
Noor variety is emphasized, this does not preclude the fact that 
many other varieties would succeed admirably well here. As proof 
sufficient that the date would thrive on the Mesa there are at 
present a number of old, neglected seedling trees along the road- 
side on the Blaisdell Orchard that bear heavy crops. At the low 
estimate of ten cents per pound (fresh dates are now selling at from 
twenty-five cents to one dollar per pound) it is easily possible for 
the grower to make enormous net profits per acre. 



258 



BuLLiynx 'S9 



OUVKS 

The olive, like the date, is peculiarly adapted to arid conditions 
such as are found in the Southwest, and should receive favorable 
consideration as an adjunct planting on the Mesa. Its value for 
both pickles and oil has become so fully established that the de- 
mand for these products is permanently assured. With proper 
handling this fruit should yield very profitable returns. 

GRAPES 

It is believed that the grape would give quicker returns on the 
Yuma Mesa than any of the fruits, paying crops being produced 
the second year from planting. Furthermore, the grape can be 



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Fig. IS. — Two-year-old grape vines on the Yuma Mesa 



relied upon to bear every year. Both the soil and climate are con- 
ducive to the production of the highest quality European grapes, 
nnequaled in point of earliness by any other section of the United 
States. By planting early maturing varieties, such as the Thomp- 
son Seedless, table grapes could be grown and placed on the mar- 
ket in advance of the bulk of the grape crop from the older com- 
mercial grape growing centers, and as a consequence command 
the best prices. It is not only true that table grapes could be profit- 



'Pi lie ViMA Mi-:s.\ 



259 



ably j;ro\vn here to advantage, but very excellent raisins could also 
be produced, as the absence of rain during the harvest season 
affords excellent opportunity for curing the raisin crop. Grapes 
have already been grown in a small way in this district, sufficiently 
to demonstrate beyond question that the Mesa land will produce 
a vigorous growth of vine and heavy yields. See Figure 18. The 
grape could be interplanted between rows of citrus with good re- 
sults, but it is believed that it is of sufficient importance to warrant 
the making of special plantings. 

FIGS 

The Mesa is particulaily adapted to the production of the 
Smyrna or dried fig of commerce. To produce this fig of the 




Fig. ly. — Three-acie fig orcliard on the Yuma Me.sa 



finest quality, thinnest skin, and richest sugar content requires a 
warm, dry climate, such as is afforded by this region. Moreover, 
the climate is such that the little wasp (Blastophaga grossorum) 
necessary for the pollination of this type of fig could be colonized 
permanently. Like the grape, the fig can be depended upon abso- 
lutely to produce a crop every year, and the fact that our importa- 
tions of Smyrnas are constantly increasing, the annual amount 
averaging not far from 13,000 tons, is in itself sufficient indication 
of the possibilities of a great industry under the favorable con- 



260 Bulletin 89 

ditions presented by this section. To successfully produce the 
dried fig it is not only necessary that a warm, practically frost free 
climate be had, but there must be an absence of rain during harvest 
ni order that the crop may be dried successfully, which condition 
is found here. 

Evidence of the thrifty growth of figs on the Mesa is shown 
by the condition of the three-acre orchard of Adriatic figs now 
growing on the old Blaisdell ranch. Figure 19 shows a picture 
of this orchard as it now stands. 

TRUCK CROPS 

The mild climate of the Yuma Mesa aflfords an opportunity 
for the successful production of a number of the truck crops, par- 
ticularly cantaloupes, tomatoes, and sweet potatoes. These crops 
are well adapted to growing between the rows of citrus trees 
while the orchards are young, and the fact that they could be 
produced exceptionally early gives them a distinct market ad- 
vantage. It might be mentioned that in the early years of the old 
citrus orchard on the Mesa cantaloupes were grown between the 
rows of trees and were found quite profitable. 

While the crops mentioned above appear to have an out- 
standing value as regards profitable production on the Mesa, there 
are doubtless others that individual growers would find equally 
satisfactory. 



TiTK Yi-.MA Mksa 261 

FIELD CROPS ON THE YUMA MESA 

Field crops growing under virgin soil conditions were com- 
pared with crops growing on land that has been under cultivation 
for upwards of twenty years. All improved farms of the Mesa 
were visited, and their condition noted. The native vegetation of 
the Yuma Mesa also was observed and examined as an indication 
of the natural productiveness of the soil. Much information re- 
garding the results secured in the growing of field crops upon the 
Mesa was secured from old residents of the vicinity. 

The chemical and mechanical analysis of the Mesa soils are 
reported upon in another section of this report, and will not be 
discussed here. It is sufficient to say that the total amount of 
plant food is relatively low, but the available amount relatively 
high, consequently when water is supplied in sufificient quantities, 
crops adapted to the climate of the Yuma Mesa may be expected 
to grow and produce in a satisfactory manner. The soil is deficient 
in organic matter, and also in nitrogen. As stated elsewhere in 
this report, the irrigation water from the Colorado River carries 
considerable nitrogen and a very heavy deposit of silt. For this 
reason irrigation will build up these soils and the longer they are 
held under cultivation and irrigated with water from the Colorado 
River, the more productive they should become, provided green 
manure crops are sufficiently utilized and a well regulated crop- 
ping system followed. 

On the Mesa lands near the Blaisdell Orchard in 1918 there 
was a field of cotton of approximately 10 acres, on land said to be, 
and appearing to be, virgin soil. This field was not uniform in 
growth, but taken on the average it was a very creditable field and 
was estimated by competent parties to yield approximately one- 
half bale of short staple cotton per acre. Examination of the field 
showed that it had not been supplied with sufficient water, as the 
portions of the field along the irrigation ditches, and the portions 
toward the lower side of the field, showed a more rank growth ot 
cotton stalk and a greater quantity of lint. See Figure 20. 

In another field near this same orchard, milo was grown in 
1918 on soil that had previously grown one other crop. This field 
likewise suffered from lack of water, and the stand was very thick, 
but even with these handicaps, the milo made a creditable forage 
growth. The yield of grain was light. 

Reliable parties report that in previous times barley, oats, and 
wheat have been grown with more or less success, but, mainly due 
to the high irrigating costs, they were seldom profitable. It is 



262 J;uij,i;ti.\ 89 

reasonable to suppose from the character of the soil that a con- 
siderable number of truck crops could be profitably handled, and 
probably peanuts and certain of the vetches could be made to yield 
moderate crops. 

There is no question but that Sudan grass sufficiently irrigated 
would return large yields of hay, or would supply a considerable 
amount of pasture. Many of the common varieties of sorghum 
can also be grown to advantage. 

An engineer's report on this Mesa project, issued some months 
ago, indicates that it probably would cost in the neighborhood of 
ip/.OO per acre foot to deliver irrigating water to this land. Con- 
sidering the fact that this land is comparatively porous and open, 
and the climate dry and hot, it will doubtless require large amounts 
of irrigation to give relativelv satisfactorv results with common 









im 




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'i«-4: '*■■* 


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Fig. 20. — Cotton on Yuma Mesa on land under second year's cultivation. 

held crops. It is very questionable whether any of the field crops 
previously mentioned can be made profitable from the market 
standpoint. They can, however, be grown by the farmer who is 
living upon his land and developing a citrus orchard. Properly 
handled they will be sufficiently productive to enable him to live 
upon his own farm without being forced to buy expensive feeds 
through the local markets, and by the use of these crops and the 
use of alfalfa and various beans and pea crops, the farmer will be 
able gradually to improve the fertility and the texture of the Mesa 
soils. 

In proof of the above statement, examination of the older por- 
tion of the Blaisdell Orchard shows that the sandy Mesa soil has 
Ijeen so thoroly changed by irrigation, deposits of silt, and the 



The Yuma Mesa 263 

decay of crops grown that the surface 18 inches to 2 feet now 
appears to be, and is often called, a heavy adobe soil. Alfalfa 
planted as a cover crop in this old orchard has done very well in- 
deed, as is shown by one of the pictures accompanying this report. 
Likewise cow peas have made an excellent growth. Sesbania, a 
rank growing legume, has been used on the Mesa for green man- 
uring purposes and it promises to be very satisfactory. 

SUMMARY 

The climate of the Yuma Mesa combines the smallest rainfall, 
the lowest relative humidity, and the greatest percentage of sun- 
shine of any citrus region in North America. This combination 
and its freedom from injurious frost make the Mesa a most prom- 
ising region for citrus culture. 

The fruit grown on the Yuma Mesa is unexcelled in color, 
quality, early maturity and freedom from blemishes. 

The Mesa is now and probably can be kept free from injurious 
citrus pests. 

The Mesa is particularly well adapted to growing such other 
crops as dates, olives, grapes, figs and early truck. 

The Yuma Mesa, joining the main line of the Southern Pacific 
at Yuma, is insured efficient shipping facilities. 

While ordinary field crops probably cannot compete with simi- 
lar crops grown in the valley, they can be produced in quantities 
sufficient for home needs. 

The total plant food in the soil of the Mesa is relatively low, 
but its availability is high. Chemical analyses show it to compare 
favorably with soils from the citrus districts of California and 
Florida. 

The irrigating waters of the Colorado River will in large part 
supply the fertilizing elements which prove so expensive in many 
citrus sections. 

Cover crops which have been found desirable in the handling 
of all orchards can be grown successfully on the Mesa. 

In view of the findings set forth in this report this commission 
hereby recommends that the Yuma Mesa be brought under irriga- 
tion according to the plans proposed by the engineers of the Recla- 
mation Service, and developed by the growing of citrus and other 
sub-tropical fruits. 



The University of Arizona 
College of Agriculture 

Agricultural Experiment Station 



Bulletin No. 90 t,.'. 




Arizona grown long-staple cotton 



Growing Cotton in Arizona 



By G. E. Thompson and C. J. Wood 



Tucson, Arizona, December, 1919 



OFFICERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 

BOARD OF REGENTS 

Ex-Officio Members 

His Excellency, Thomas E. Campbell, Governor of Arizona Phoenix 

Hon. Charles O. Case, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. .Phoenix 

Appointed Members 

EpES Randolph, Chancellor Tucson 

William J. Bryan, Jr., A.B., Treasurer Tucson 

James G. Compton, Secretary Tucson 

William Scarlett, A.B., B.D Phoenix 

John H. Campbell, LL.M Tucson 

Timothy A. Riordan Flagstaff 

Edmund W. Wells ■ Prescott 

Louis D. RickEtts, ScD., LL.D Warren 

Agricultural Experiment Station 

RuEus B. VON KlEinSmid, a.m., Sc.D President of the University 

D. W. Working, B.Sc. A.M Dean College of Agriculture, Director 

-^Robert H. Forbes, Ph.D Research Specialist 

John J. Thornber, A.M Botanist 

Albert E. Vinson, Ph.D Chemist 

George E. P. Smith, C.E Irrigation Engineer 

Richard H. Williams, Ph.D Animal Husbandman 

Walter S. Cunningham, B.S Dairy Husbandman 

Charles T. VorhiEs, Ph.D Entomologist 

George E. Thompson, B.S.A Agronomist 

Franklin J. Crider, M.S Horticulturist 

Walker E. Bryan, M.S Plant Breeder 

Clifford N. Catlin, A.M Research Specialist in Agricultural Chemistry 

Francis R. Kenney, B.S-A Poultry Husbandman 

W. E. Code, B.S Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

A. F. KiNNisoN, B.S.A Assistant Horticulturist 

R. S. Hawkins, B.S.A Assistant Agronomist 

E. H. PresslEy, B.S- a Assistant Plant Breeder 

H. C. Schwalen, B.S Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

S. W. Griffin, A.B Assistant Chemist 

*On leave. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Fig. 1. Cotton should be cultivated as soon as the plants are through 

the ground well enough to make the row Frontispiece 

Fig. 2. Good plowing 267 

Fig. 3. Poor plowing 267 

Fig. 4. Volunteer cotton 271 

CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Types of cotton 265 

Seed 265 

Land adapted to growing cotton 266 

Preparation of land for planting 266 

Planting 268 

Thinning 269 

Cultivation 269 

Irrigation of cotton 270 

Picking 270 

Volunteering or ratooning 271 

Topping 272 

Fertilizing cotton 272 

Angular leaf spot 273 

Bichloride of mercury treatment for angular leaf spot 273 

Cotton anthracnose 274 

Root rot 274 

Insect pests 274 

Cotton in Arizona 274 

Short-staple cotton 274 

Summarv 275 











'%:■> 

mw 



>x 














GROWING COTTON IN ARIZONA 



By G. B. Tlwinpsoii and C. J. Wood 



TYPES OF COTTON 

At the present time two general types of cotton are grown in 
Arizona — the American Egyptian, represented by the Pima variety, 
and the short staple, represented by the variety called Mebane's Tri- 
umph or Mebane and others more or less similar. 

American Egyptian is so called because the original stock, from 
which our present strains were secured, came from Egypt. We are 
indebted wholly to the United States Department of Agriculture for 
the selection and development of the varieties now used in Arizona. 
Fiber of this cotton is longer and stronger than the fiber of the varie- 
ties commonly called short-staple cotton. The bolls are smaller, usually 
having three locks or parts instead of five, as is the case with short- 
staple cotton. In general the plants are larger and coarser, and the 
shape of the leaf is different, making it very easy to distinguish the 
two general classes under field conditions. The Salt River Valley and 
the Santa Cruz Valley are growing but one variety of cotton — the 
Pima variety of American Egyptian. The Yuma Valley and the Up- 
per Gila Valley are growing principally short-staple varieties — Me- 
bane's Triumph being the most important one at the present time. 

The discussions of this bulletin refer primarily to American Egyp- 
tian cotton. At the end of the bulletin those particulars in which 
short-staple cotton differs from long staple are given special mention. 

SEED 

Great pains to secure the best possible seed should be exercised 
by all who grow cotton. Seed of an inferior strain will result in a de- 
creased yield and a poor quality of fiber. It is advisable for farmers 
to buy seed for planting purposes from responsible cotton growers' 
associations. At least one of these associations at the present time (and 
others are preparing to do the same) make it a business through their 
cotton experts to produce and sell high-quality seed to members of the 
association. One of the associations now maintains, and the other as- 
sociations should maintain, a separate gin for handling this cotton. 
Cotton seed that goes through the regular commercial gins is certain 



Acknowledgment: The authors of this bulletin wish to express grateful ap- 
preciation to H. C. Heard, J. W. Longstreth, C. K. W^ildermuth, and others for 
reading the manuscript and offering many helpful suggestions. 



266 BuLLKTiN 90 

to be mixed more or less with inferior seed, and its use will in time 
result in decreased yields. 

Those who have the time and who are especially interested in cot- 
ton breeding may find it worth while to grow a separate small field 
of cotton from which seed is selected for the following year's planting. 
On this special field great care should be taken to rogue out and de- 
stroy all plants of undesirable or inferior type and all plants that fail 
to produce a reasonable number of matured bolls. In addition to this 
general precaution, the fiber itself should be examined ; and if any of 
the plants have produced fiber that is short and weak, they should be 
discarded. The seed that is to be used for planting purposes should be 
fully matured before the first freeze of consequence in the fall. Be- 
cause early setting and maturing of bolls is very desirable in American 
Egyptian cotton, it is advisable to select seed from plants that show 
this character. 

The average farmer in Arizona uses twenty-five to thirty-five 
pounds of seed per acre when planting cotton. Although one-half of 
this amount will give a sufficient stand if seed is good and soil and 
weather conditions are ideal, still it is advisable to use the amount in- 
dicated and later thin to the proper stand. 

LAND ADAPTED TO GROWING COTTON 

A rich sandy loam soil, well supplied with humus, is ideal for the 
growing of cotton. Very light sandy soils as a rule do not produce 
heavy crops of cotton. Heavy adobe soils are unsatisfactory because 
of the trouble experienced in securing a good stand, and because of 
the difficulty of irrigating properly. However, with good care, cotton 
can be produced upon practically any soil that is suitable for general 
farming. 

PREPARATION OF LAND FOR PLANTING 

Thorough preparation of the land for cotton pays, and pays well. 
Cotton is a cash crop. A good quality of clean, strong fiber brings a 
better price than fiber that is weak, dirty, or inferior for any other 
reason. Well-prepared land will produce more fiber, longer fiber, 
and stronger fiber than poorly prepared land. Cotton from a field that 
produces a heavy crop is easier to pick and keep clean and free from 
dirt and trash than cotton with small, poorly opened bolls. If land is 
to be properly prepared for cotton, the preparation should begin sev- 
eral months before the planting season. Coarse trash or other material 
on the ground must be chopped fine and plowed under or otherwise 



Cotton GRowixr. ix Arizona 



267 




Fig.2— Good plowing— the first step in preparing <a satisfactory seed-bed 




Fig 3— Poor plowing— with such plowing as this it is impossible to prepare 
a satisfactory seed-bed 



268 Bulletin 90 

put in such shape that it will not interfere with the cultivation of the 
cotton plants. The ground should be plowed rather deep (7 to 8 inches) 
as early as possible and allowed to weather till planting time. From 
five to ten days before planting, the ground should be thoroughly irri- 
gated. This time should be just sufficient to allow the ground to dry 
out properly and be worked to a good seed-bed. Many farmers make 
a mistake in the preparation of their cotton land by not having suffi- 
cient moisture in the ground before planting. Water should be held 
on the land long enough to insure its being wet to a depth of four to 
five feet. Land left rough after plowing takes water better than land 
that has been disked and harrowed to a smooth surface. Land that 
has been irrigated when rough, particularly if it is of a heavy adobe 
type, should be harrowed with a spike-tooth harrow as soon as dry 
enough to permit of this treatment. This harrowing will save con- 
siderable moisture, knock off the tops of large clods, and fill the small 
depressions. The disk, followed by the spike-tooth harrow when nec- 
essary, can be used to work up a satisfactory seed-bed. An ideal seed- 
bed consists of about two and one-half inches of finely mulched sur- 
face soil with a firm and moist soil beneath. It is not advisable to 
plant cotton and "irrigate it up" because of the difficulty often en- 
countered with the baking of the ground over the sprouting cotton 
seeds. 

PLANTING 

The time of planting cotton will vary somewhat with the kind of 
soil and with the locality of the State in which the planting is made. 
Recommendations differ greatly in this regard, but the consensus of 
opinion of the practical cotton growers is that the best time for plant- 
ing in an average season is during the last ten days of March and the 
first ten days of April. Farmers handling sandy types of soil can 
plant one to two weeks earlier than those handling heavy or adobe 
types of soil. It pays to plant as soon as the ground is sufficiently 
warm to insure good germination and thrifty plants. Early plantings 
when the ground is cold often result in a thin stand and weakened 
plants ; likewise early planting in cold ground, particularly if the days 
are warm and the nights cold, favors the development of the disease 
called "sore shin." Late plantings do not allow sufficient time for 
the plants to set and mature a large crop. The sooner the cotton can 
be planted after the ground is well warmed and danger of frost is past, 
the better the average results that will be secured. Cotton should be 
planted as shallow as possible and still get the seed deep enough into 
moist ground to insure good germination. 



Cotton Growing in Arizona 269 

THINNING 

The thinning of cotton is a question on which the best cotton grow- 
ers hold widely differing opinions. We believe that the distance to 
which cotton plants are to be thinned should be governed largely by 
the soil. Heavy, rich land will stand thick plantings of cotton. Thin, 
light land should have cotton spaced relatively far apart. This thin 
planting, however, should not be carried to such an extreme that the 
land will not be utilized to its full capacity to produce. With heavy 
rich ground some cotton growers prefer that the plants be from six 
to ten inches apart. A few growers will prefer even less space than 
this. The average cotton grower with typical cotton land of the Salt 
River Valley will space his cotton from 12 to 18 inches apart in the 
row, with rows 3^^ feet apart. On thin poor land it may be advisable 
to increase the spacing to 24 or 30 inches. The purpose of thinning 
cotton is so to space the plants that they may have light, air, moisture, 
and plant food in such proportions that they will produce the maxi- 
mum number of matured bolls per acre. Cotton given too much space 
is very likely to produce a large, coarse plant, from which the branches 
may be broken in the fall by heavy winds. Cotton given a reasonable 
spacing can stand more drying or more severe conditions and still re- 
cover than cotton closely spaced. American Egyptian long-staple cot- 
ton should be thinned on the sandy light soils when the plants are from 
four to eight inches high, and on the heavy rich soils when the plants 
are from eight to twelve inches high. On the extremely rich soils 
thinning can be delayed till the plants are fourteen to sixteen inches 
high. 

Time of thinning has a great deal to do with the control of vege- 
tative branches. The development of vegetative branches is undesir- 
able in American Egyptian cotton. Early thinning encourages their 
development while late thinning discourages their development. 

CULTIVATION 

The cultivation of cotton should begin as soon as the plants are 
through the ground well enough to mark the row, and be continued 
every 10 to 15 days till the plants are too large to permit the use of a 
regular cultivator. Sometimes the cultivation can be continued by the 
use of a one-horse cultivator, especially in the wider spaced rows and 
on heavy soils that tend to bake. Early cultivation checks evapora- 
tion, warms the soil, and will kill weeds and grass at the stage at which 
they are most easily destroyed. It will also eliminate much hand work 
or hoeing. For the most part the early cultivations may be compara- 



270 Bulletin 90 

tively deep and reasonably close to the plant. Late cultivations must 
be shallow in order to avoid cutting and breaking numerous cotton 
roots. 

IRRIGATION OF COTTON 

The proper irrigation of cotton is the most important single item 
in the profitable growing of the crop. Even though all other condi- 
tions are right, if the irrigation is wrong the yields will not be satis- 
factory. Over-irrigation stimulates plant growth, and to a certain ex- 
tent prevents the forming of cotton squares and the setting of bolls; 
while light irrigation encourages the setting of fruit and the dwarfing 
of the plant, which are highly desirable especially in the earlier stages 
of growth of American Egyptian cotton. However, this dwarfing of 
the plant is neither necessary nor desirable on light desert soils defi- 
cient in both nitrogen and humus. When a plentiful supply of water 
is suddenly applied, following a period when the plant has been suf- 
fering for water, it will cause a quick stimulation of growth and the 
plant will shed or drop much of the young fruit already set. It is 
best to withhold irrigation after planting as long as possible and still 
keep the plants in a growing condition. Cotton will not be injured by 
wilting slightly in the middle of the day, provided it fully recovers its 
fresh appearance by late afternoon or early evening, and provided there 
is enough moisture deep in the soil to encourage deep root penetration. 
As long as there is sufficient moisture in the ground to permit trans- 
piration to maintain the leaves in a cool condition during the heat of 
the day, the plant is not suffering, but when the leaf feels warm to the 
hand irrigation must be immediately supplied. After cotton begins to 
bloom the moisture supply should be kept as uniform as possible. 
Cotton should be kept growing steadily, but excessive growth should 
be prevented. If examination during the blooming stages shows that 
the vegetative growth has practically stopped and the cotton is bloom- 
ing to the top of the plant, water has been withheld too long. In other 
words, the terminal bud should be kept growing slightly in the lead of 
the flowers on the fruiting branches. 

Prior to fruiting the desirable method is to give as little water as 
possible, forcing roots to penetrate deeply for soil moisture stored prior 
to planting. The system changes after the fruiting begins, and the pur- 
pose then is to maintain a thrifty and uniform though not rank growth. 

PICKING 

In Arizona, cotton picking is usually begun during the last half of 
September. It does not pay to begin picking until sufficient cotton 



CoTTox Growing in Arizona 



271 



is open to allow the gathering of 500 to 700 pounds of seed cotton per 
acre at the first picking. In nearly all cases it will be advisable to 
pick the fields two or three times before the gathering of the crop is 
complete. Care should be taken in picking to see that no dirt, leaves, 
sticks, or other trash gets mixed with the fiber. It is extremely diffi- 
cult to separate the dirt from the fiber in a roller gin, and dirty cotton 
always brings a low price. With short-staple cotton, leaves and other 
trash can be separated to a considerable extent. Saw gins are used 
with short-staple cotton. 

\^OLUNTEERING OR RATOONING 

The volunteering or ratooning of cotton for two or three years in 
succession from the same planting was practiced in Egypt a good many 
years ago, but has been abandoned there. It has been tried in this 









IM^"^:^ 



f 



Fig. 4 — Volunteer cotton (the 1919 crop from 1917 planting). Volunteering 

cotton does not pay 

State with varying results. The practice is to be condemned for sev- 
eral reasons. In many seasons the volunteer stand of cotton is insuf- 
ficient to produce a maximum yield. Usually the fiber produced from 
volunteer cotton is shorter and weaker than the fiber produced from 
cotton planted each year. In addition to these difficulties, the practice 
of volunteering cotton favors the increase of injurious insect pests and 
the development of troublesome cotton diseases. The practice has 
much to condemn it and very little to favor it. It is only under the 
most extreme or unusual conditions that the volunteering of cotton will 
pay. 



272 Bulletin 90 

TOPPING 

The topping of cotton, or the pinching- or cutting off the terminal 
buds, has been advocated and practiced by many. as a means of pre- 
venting excessive plant growth and as a means of stimulating the for- 
mation of bolls. The results secured from this practice have been con- 
flicting. In some cases, particularly on heavy rich ground, reports 
state that the practice has been profitable. Up to the present time no 
reports have been received showing that the practice is profitable on 
medium or thin lands. Properly grown cotton plants should not re- 
quire topping. Uncontrollable conditions, such as a high water table 
or excessive rains, may make topping desirable. If topping is to be 
practiced at all, it is recommended that it be delayed until about the 
middle of August. Early topping, instead of checking plant growth, 
may stimulate the production of vegetative branches if growing con- 
ditions are favorable, while late topping ought to further the develop- 
ment of bolls already set. 

FERTILIZING COTTON 

Considerable interest has developed in the last two years in the 
fertilizing of cotton. For the most part the desert soils in Arizona 
are deficient in nitrogen, and it is possible that on such soils nitrogen 
fertilizers may prove beneficial. Experience indicates that desert land 
that has been plowed and irrigated a number of times and brought 
into a condition of good tilth will produce better cotton than similar 
land that has received but little cultivation. This is shown by the fact 
that the second crop of cotton on desert soil is often better than the 
first crop. On old lands that have grown legumes for a number of 
years, if any fertilizer proves profitable, it will be one containing phos- 
phorus. Nitrogen fertilizers probably will not pay on such lands. 
It is not advised that farmers buy phosphorus fertilizers or any other 
fertilizers on an extensive scale until they have first tried them on small 
plots in their own fields. Applications of 200 to 500 pounds of acid 
phosphate per acre at the time the cotton is planted promise to give 
beneficial results ; yet several farmers who have made small tests failed 
to note appreciable benefits, and tests on the Salt River Valley Experi- 
ment Station have so far failed to give increases in yield. 

During the last year many questions have been asked regarding 
the advisability of planting cowpeas in the growing cotton for the pur- 
pose of increasing the available nitrogen. This recommendation has 
usually been to the effect that the cowpeas should be planted about 
thirty days after the cotton is planted, and then destroyed about the 



Cotton Growing in Arizona 273 

time the cowpeas are coming into full bloom. A more practical 
method is to plant the cowpeas at the time the cotton is planted, as 
this avoids the necessity of special irrigation to bring up the cowpeas. 
It is claimed that the planting of cowpeas in this way has a beneficial 
effect upon the growing cotton. In handling the cowpeas in this man- 
ner, it has been customary to plant two rows of cotton and the third 
row of cowpeas. We do not have accurate or conclusive information 
regarding the benefit of planting cowpeas with cotton. There is con- 
siderable evidence to prove that a legume crop may have beneficial 
effects upon a companion crop, but whether it will pay in the case of 
cotton remains to be proven. If cotton is planted in this manner, it 
should be considered an experiment and an accurate comparison should 
be made with the common methods of planting. 

ANGULAR LEAF SPOT 

Fortunately there are not many cotton diseases of serious conse- 
quence in Arizona at the present time. Probably the disease that has 
caused heaviest losses is one that farmers have observed but little, 
even though it may be present to a considerable degree. This is a 
disease called Angular Leaf Spot or Black Arm Disease of cotton. 
This disease attacks the plant in all stages of its growth, appearing on 
the younger plants as small dark angular spots on the leaves. Later 
the disease attacks the stems and fruit, showing as darkened, shrunken 
spots. Control measures are still in the experimental stage, but there 
is evidence that control, at least in the seedling stage, can be effected 
by careful treatment of the seed before planting. If treatment of 
seed to control this disease is attempted, the following is recommended. 

bichloride oe mercury treatment for angular leaf spot 

Dissolve one ounce of bichloride of mercury in a small quan- 
tity of hot water, then mix into seven and one-half gallons of water. 
Dip the seed into this solution, stirring to make sure that it is thor- 
oughly wet and allow to soak for one hour. Spread the seed out and 
dry thoroughly before putting into sacks. 

Do not dip more than three lots of seed into the same solution, as 
each lot of seed weakens the solution. 

Bichloride of mercury is a poison, and the solution should be 
destroyed in order that people or animals may not drink it by mistake. 

Bichloride of mercury corrodes metal and solutions of it must not 
be placed in metal utensils. Wooden or earthenware vessels should be 
used. 



274 BuivivETix 90 

COTTON ANTHRACNOSE 
Cotton Anthracnose is a disease that has caused great loss in the 
south, but Httle if any in Arizona. Importation of cotton seed should 
be avoided, as this disease is carried on or within the seeds. No satis- 
factory methods of controlling this disease are known. 

ROOT ROT 

Root rot of cotton is a disease and lives over in the ground from 
year to year. The only practical known method of control on infected 
soil is to grow for at least two years in succession some crop not af- 
fected by root rot. Such crops are corn, the various varieties of 
sorghum, and the small grains, such as wheat, barley, etc. Alfalfa and 
certain other tap-rooted plants are subject to root rot and must not be 
grown when attempting to rid the ground of this disease. Since cer- 
tain weeds may be affected by root rot, deep plowing and clean culti- 
vation are recommended as control measures. 

INSECT PESTS 

Due largely to the strict quarantine that has been maintained, cot- 
ton boll weevil, pink boll worms, and many other troublesome insect 
pests of cotton have been kept out of Arizona. It is urged that every 
farmer within the State use his influence to help enforce this quaran- 
tine. If insect troubles of any kind are encountered, notify at once 
the Experiment Station at Tucson, or the State Entomologist's oface 
at Phoenix. A complete discussion of cotton insect pests will be found 
in Bulletin 87 of this Station, which may be had on application. 

COTTON IN ARIZONA AGRICULTURE 

At the present time (1919) cotton is the most important cash crop 
in Arizona. It is unlikely that the present high price of cotton will be 
maintained indefinitely and farmers should bear in mind that any system 
of agriculture that is to be permanently successful must be well bal- 
anced. Cotton should not be grown to such an extent that other crops 
or livestock are reduced below a safe amount or number. It should 
be the aim of every good farmer to maintain the soil at all times in 
a high state of fertility and to this end an intelligently planned crop 
rotation must be followed. 

SHORT-STAPLE COTTON 
Short-staple cotton will mature in a shorter growing season than 



Cotton Growing in Arizona 275 

American Egyptian cotton and therefore can be grown further north 
and at higher elevations. The soil requirements and the preparation 
of the seed-bed should be the same for the two classes of cotton. 

Because of its shorter growing season short-staple cotton can be 
planted one to three weeks later than American Egyptian. A smaller 
amount of seed is required per acre — fifteen to twenty-five pounds being 
sufficient. 

The thinning of short-staple cotton should be done when the plants 
are four to six inches high, and the plants are usually spaced from six- 
teen to twenty-four inches in the row, with rows three and one-half 
feet apart. With very rich soils, both the spacing between the plants 
in the rt)\v and the distance between rows is increased. 

The general principles applying to the irrigation and cultivation 
of American Egyptian cotton apply to short-staple cotton. 

SUMMARY 

In growing cotton, good seed is extremely important. 

A rich sandy loam soil, well supplied with humus, is ideal. 

Early, deep plowing and thorough preparation of the land are 
i 
necessary. 

The seed-bed should be wet to a deptli of four to five feet. 

Plant early, but not until the ground is sufficiently warm to in- 
sure good germination and thrifty plants. 

The character of the land should govern the rate of thinning. 

Cultivation should begin as soon as the plants are through the 
ground well enough to mark the row. 

Proper irrigation is the most important single item in the growing 
of cotton. 

x\fter planting, withhold irrigation as long as possible. 

Prevent excessive growth. 

The terminal bud should be kept growing slightly in the lead of 
the flowers on the fruiting branches. 

In picking, keep the cotton clean. 

Volunteering cotton does not pay. 

Report trouble with disease or insect pests to the Agricultural 
Experiment Station, or the State Entomologist. 

Do not allow the soil to become depleted ; practice crop rotation ; 
maintain a balanced agriculture. 



University of Arizona College of Agriculture 
Agricultural Experiment Station 



Twenty-Ninth Annual 
Report 



For the Year Ending June 30, 1918 

(With subsequent items) 



Consisting of reports relating to 

Administration, 

Agronomy, Botany, Horticulture, 

Plant Breeding, Animal Husbandry, 

Entomology, Chemistry, 

Irrigation Investigations. 



Tucson, Arizona, December 31, 1918. 



University of Arizona College of Agriculture 
Agricultural Experiment Station 



LfBRART 
NEW YORK 

botaxjcal 



Twenty-Ninth A^nnual 
Report 



For the Year Ending June 30, 1918 

(With subsequent items) 



Consisting of reports relating to 

Administration, 

Agronomy, Botany, Horticulture, 

Plant Breeding, Animal Husbandry, 

Entomology, Chemistry, 

Irrigation Investigations. 



Tucson, Arizona, December 31, 1918 



GOVERNING BOARD 

(Regents of the University) 

llx-Officio 

His Excellency, The Goveknok of Arizona 

The State Superintendent of Puplic Instruction 

.Ipf^oiiitcd by the Goz'cnior of the State 

John T. Hughes. . . Chancellor 

William J. Bryan, Jr., A.B Treasurer 

William Scarlett, A.B., B.D Regent 

Mrs. Madge Roberts Regent 

Mrs. Bettie White Regent 

H. S. McCluskev Regent 

Mrs. Louise Foucar M.\rshall Secretary 

J. W. Chapman Regent 

Agricultural Staff 

RuFUS B. von IvlEinSmid, A.M., Sc.D President of the University ; Director 

Estes p. Taylor, B.S.A Assistant Dean, College of Agriculture 

RorERT H. FoREES, Ph.D Research Specialist 

John J. Thorneer, A.M Botanist 

Aleert E. Vinson, Ph.D. Biochemist 

George E. P. Smith, B.S., C.E Irrigation Engineer 

Rtchard H. Williams, Ph.D Animal Husbandman 

Walter S. Cunningham, B.S Dairy Husbandman 

Charles T. Vorhies, Ph.D Entomologist 

G. E. Thompson, B.S.A Agronomist 

F. J. CridEr, M.S Horticulturist 

Clifford N. Catlin, A.AI Assistant Chemist 

*Artliur L. Enger, B.S.. C.E Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

Walker E. Bryan, M.S Assistant Plant Breeder 

C. O. Bond, B.S.A Assistant Plant Breeder 

W. E. Code, B.S .\ssistant Irrigation Engineer 

A. F. KiNNisoN, B.S.A Assistant Horticulturist 

R. S. Hawkins, B.S..A Assistant Agronomist 

Austin W. Morrill, Ph.D Consulting Entomologist 

D. C. George Consulting Plant Pathologist 

Leland S. Parke, B.S State Leader Boys' and Girls' Clubs 

Mary Pritner Lockwood. B.S- State Leader Home Demonstration Agents 

W. M. Cook, A.B State Leader County Agricultural Agents 

A. B. BallantynE, B.S County Agent, Graham-Greenlee Counties 

C. R. FillErup County Agent, Navajo- Apache Counties 

De Lore Nichols. B.S County Agent, Coconino County 

J. R. SandigE, B.S County Agent, Gila County 

C. R. Adamson, B.S.A County Agent, Cochise County 

H. C. Heard, B.S County Agent. Maricopa County 

J. W. LoNGSTRETH County Agent, Yuma County 

Leo L. LaythE, B.S County Agent, Pima-Pinal Counties 

Agnes A. Hunt Assistant State Leader Boys' and Girls' Clubs 

Edward B. OxlEy, B.S County Club Leader, Maricopa County 

Hazel Zimmerman Home Demonstration Agent, Pima-Pinal Counties 

Florence D. SandigE, B.S Home Demonstration Agent. Gila County 

Amy L. DinsmorE, B.S Home Demonstration Agent. Alaricopa County 

Flossie D. Wills, B.S Home Dem. Agent, Graham-Greenlee Counties 

Grace I. Tufts Home Demonstration Agent, Yuma-Yavapai Counties 

Louise SporlEdEr Home Demonstration Agent. Cochise County 

Nora LamorEaux Home Demonstration Agent, Apache County 

The Experiment Station offices and laboratories are an integral part of the 
University at Tucson. The Salt River Valley Experiment Station Farm is 
situated one mile west of Mesa, Arizona. The date palm orchards are three 
miles south of Tempe (co-operative U. S. D. A.) and one mile southwest of 
Yuma. Arizona, respectively. The experimental dry-farms are near Cochise 
and Prescott, Arizona. 

Visitors are cordially invited, and correspondence receives careful attention. 

*On Ifave. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

To His Excellency, The Governor of Arizona, 

Executive Department, Phoenix. Arizona. 

Sir: I have the honor herewith to transmit t(j you the Twenty- 
ninth Annual Report of the Ariz:)na As^ricultural Experiment Station, 
of the College of Agriculture. L'niversity of Arizona, for the fiscal year 
ending Jtme 30, 1918. 

This report is made in accordance with the Act of Congress, ap- 
proved March 2, 1887, establishing Agricultural Experiment Stations, 
and the Act of Congress, approved March 16, 1906, known as the 

Adams Act. 

Faithfully yours, 

R. B. VON KlEinSmid, 

President. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Administration -'' 

Agricultural Experiment Station farms 278 

Tempe Cooperative Date Orchard 278 

Salt River Valley Farm 278 

Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Station 279 

Sulphur Spring Valley Dry- farm 279 

Personnel 280 

Publications 281 

Proj ccts 282 

Financial 285 

x\^ronomy 287 

Salt River Valley Farm 287 

Legumes 288 

Field peas 289 

Velvet beans 290 

Table beans 290 

Alfalfa 290 

Corn 290 

Sorghums 291 

Wheat " 291 

Oats 292 

Barlev 292 

Cotton 293 

Miscellaneous crops 293 

Prescott Drj^-farm 293 

Sulphur Spring Valley Drv-farni 294 

Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Station 295 

University Farm , 296 

Acknowledgment 296 

Botany 297 

Weather conditions and the grazing range 297 

Poison plant investigations 298 

Publications 299 

Notes on plant introduction 300 

Plant disease studies 301 

Scientific 302 

Horticulture 303 

Pomologv 303 

Dates 304 

A study in the culture and management of date orchards 308 

A study of cultural methods with citrus fruits 308 

Date propagation 309 

Olericulture . .T 309 

Irish potato studies 310 

Spinach as a market crop for southern Arizona 311 

Ornamental gardening 312 

Special investigations 312 

Miscellaneous 313 

Plant Breeding 314 

Wheat 314 

Beans 317 

Alfalfa 318 

Grain sorghums 320 

Animal Husbandry 322 

Feeding vucca to starving range cows 324 

Hogs . . ; ■; ; ;325 

Fattening hogs on garbage alone 325 

Two methods of raising registered Duroc-Jersey gilts 325 

Garbage vs. grain for growing and fattening hogs 326 

Feeding work horses on corn silage .... 328 



PACE 

Sheep ^29 

The wool dip -i^ 

Marketing wool in 1918 ^^ 

Cottonseed cake for dairy cows 330 

Instruction and executive work ■^^ 

Entomology ^^^ 

Zoology . ^^ 

Publications -^^ 

Chemistry • ^|^ 

Resistance of crops to alkali -^^ 

Miscellaneous Analyses ^5 

Tempe Drainage Ditch ^ 

Alkali studies ^46 

Date processing and marketing -> 34» 

Educational and Extension work 349 

Irrigation Investigations 351 

Status of irrigation water supplies 351 

An irrigation code 351 

Caisson wells 352 

Pump irrigation .••••: ,rf 

Cement pipe for irrigation pipe lines • 354 

Cement pipe failures 354 

Method of testing cement pipe 356 

Reinforcement for cement pipe 356 

Tractor power on farms 356 

ILI^USTRATIONS 



Fig. 1. Robert Humphrey Forbes Frontispiece 

Fig. 2. Cow peas— Salt River Valley Farm j^ 

Fig. 3. Club wheat and Early Baart wheat— Salt River Valley Farm 29^ 

Fig. 4. Papago sweet corn— Prescott Dry-farm 294 

Fig. 5. Crack in 20-inch pipe line 353 

Fig. 6. A cracked gate-pit -^^^ 




ROBERT HUMPHREY FORBES 
Chemist of Experiment Station, September 1, 1894 to May 6, 1899; Director May 6, 
1899 to February 15, 1918; Research Specialist, on leave, February 15, 1918,— 



Twenty-ninth Annual Report 

ADMINISTRATION 



I'he period co\ creel by this rej^ort is one of particvilar interest 
from an agricultural standpoint for it was during this time that our 
country was engaged in the war. 

Never before were farmers and stockmen of Arizona spurre^l 
on for increased production as during this time. The dire need 
of food and supplies for domestic consumption, for our troops 
abroad and for our Allies, made agricultural effort a pleasure from 
a patriotic standpoint. Prices of agricultural products have never 
been better. 

A rapid adaptation to the needs of the war period was effected 
by those engaged in agricultural production in Arizona. The very 
definite program of production outlined and advised as a result of 
the Agricultural Mobilization Conference called by the College of 
Agriculture of the University of Arizona, and held at Tucson on 
April 20 and 21, proved to be the guiding plan of the farmers, stock- 
men, and housewives during the year following. 

Arizona farmers first set about the production of crops to sup- 
port local mining industries which were producing war materials. 
Agricultural and livestock products were also adopted which were 
in greatest demand under the conditions of war and which were 
peculiarly adapted to the State. In this class came Arizona wool 
and cotton. Advantage was taken of the double cropping possi- 
bilities of southern Arizona districts and a greater utilization of the 
farming land was secured than ever before. 

Wheat, the great war crop, has been liberally grown as well 
as the grain sorghum crops so well adapted to the Southwest for 
silage and emergency human food. Potatoes, beans, fruits, and 
vegetables have entered largely into the year's agricultural output 
during the w^ar period. 

Livestock, including beef, mutton, dairy products, pork, and 
poultry products, have been produced in quantity in spite of a 
continuation of the drouth period which has made feed for livestock 
scarce and expensive. The loss of livestock upon the range due 
to shortage of forage has been serious with many and has greatly 
emphasized the need of better range livestock management and the 
growth of supplemental feeds and silage. 

This period of continued drouth has also affected the dry 



278 Annual Rkport Agricultural Experiment Station 

farmer who is dependent partially or wholly upon rainfall. It has 
also reduced the amount of storage water and stream flow for irri- 
gation and made greater economy of water necessary. 

During the period of this report, the most notable change by 
farmers and housewives in methods has been in the direction of 
economy and conservation. Remarkable agricultural achievements 
mark the period in spite of the handicap of serious labor shortage. 
Arizona agriculture, thus put to the test under the pressure of war, 
has achieved results which would have been impossible otherwise. 
The doing of things in new and better ways by farmers wall bring 
permanent good to our agriculture. 

THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FARMS 

A very complete description of the Experiment Station farms, 
accompanied by maps of the properties, was published in the 
Twenty-eighth Annual Report. Since that time various minor 
improvements have been effected but no large developments have 
taken place, due to the exigencies of war work and numerous 
changes in the personnel of the Agronomy Department. Cultural 
operations, as usual, have been pursued on the farms and are re- 
viewed in the report of the Agronomist. 

Several of the farms w^ere inspected and reported upon by com- 
mittees of the Board of Regents. A resume of the reports of these 
committees follow^s : 

TEMPE cooperative date orchard 

This property was visited by Member William Scarlett during 
the harvest season of 1918. Mr. Scarlett found that no particular 
improvement in the w^ay of buildings had been made ; that the crop 
of dates had been profitable ; and that the farm was becoming able 
more and more to take care of itself. Certain experiments looking 
largely toward the production of seed from which dates can be 
grown were progressing. 

The conditions wdiich some time ago threatened the existence 
of the farm and a large section of the farming community round 
about, in the rise of the w^ater level of the valley, w^ere being cor- 
rected by a drainage ditch and, apj^arently, that danger had largely 
passed. The date crop appeared not to have been aft'ected. 

SALT RIVER valley FARM 

The University Experiment Farm near Mesa also was visited 
by Mr. Scarlett. He reported that extensive experiments in the 
growing of peas and beans for fodder and as renewers of the soil 



UxiviiRSiTY OF Arizona 279 

had been carried on in the course of the year. Valuable experi- 
ments regarding- the spacing of cotton plants had led to conclusions 
that will be of great benefit to the future cotton industry of the 
Valley. The people of the Valley more and more had been making 
use of the farm. Every day numerous telephone calls had been 
received and visitors averaged three or four daily. The farm was 
found to be answering more and more the purpose for which it had 
been created — a demonstration-experiment farm for the Valley. In 
the course of the year there had been several improvements on the 
farm. A 120-ton capacity silo had been erected ; a new metal grain 
bin had been installed; new wagon scales purchased, and a small 
cottage erected. Much new machinery had been bought in the 
course of the vear and the mechanical side of the farm was first 
class. 

The needs of the farm were a central cottage for the foreman, 
a barn for machinery, and a shed for storing hay. Otherwise, the 
farm was in excellent condition and numerous experiments of 
various kinds were going on. It was suggested that all experi- 
ments bordering the highway be clearly marked so that people 
going by might understand exactly what was taking place. 

YUMA DATK ORCHARD AND HORTICULTURAL STATION 

This property was visited December 14, 1918, by Member 
Bettie White. Mrs. White reported a marked degree of efficiency 
in the management of this station. Not only the date orchard, but 
various other phases of work, such as the winter garden, rotation 
of crops, etc., showed ability, energy, and foresight. The station 
was admirably located, having fine Warrenite roads on two sides. 
The work was proving of great value to the surrounding country 
as numbers of persons seeking information call at the station almost 
daily. The improvements were in good condition with the excep- 
tion of a shed used as a barn. This was reported to be of little 
value as a means of protection to stock and detracted materially 
from the otherwise pleasing appearance of the grounds. 

The limited acreage seemed unfortunate to the committee, there 
being but 13 acres in the tract. The purchase of additional land 
was recommended. 

THE SULPHUR SPRING VALLEY DRY-EARM 

This farm was also visited by Member White December 21, 
1918. Seventy of the 160 acres were found in cultivation. All land 
provements were found to include a comfortable, seven-roomed 
was enclosed with barbed wire and rabbit-proof fences. The im- 



280 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

residence and other necessary farm buildings ; a well, equipped with 
a splendid pump and pump house ; two silos of 47 tons capacity- 
each, one built in 1916, the other in 1918. The farm was well 
equipped with stock and implements. Tests were being made in 
growing wheat, barley, oats, and sweet clover. About three acres 
were in orchard, 3 years old, containing apples, pears, peaches, apri- 
cots, nectarines, and six varieties of grapes. The culture of tepary 
beans was found to be, perhaps, the most successful test that has 
been made on the farm. This crop was planted July, 1916, har- 
vested October, 1916, and yielded a net profit of $37.89 per acre. 
Mr. Spaulding, who had been on the farm about three years, m- 
formed the committee that thus far no experiments in dry-farming, 
unaided by some irrigation, had proved sufficiently profitable to 
warrant advising prospective farmers to rely on dry-farming as a 
means of support ; however, he called attention to the fact that the 
well on the farm was only 100 feet deep and had been drilled to the 
third stratum of water. The supply of water was sufficient for 
domestic purposes and with the rainfall would irrigate ten acres. 

The number of visitors at this farm was limited. This was be- 
lieved to be due to two facts ; the thinly populated section in which 
the farm is located and the narrow limits within which experiments 
have been carried on. 

On both the Yuma Date Orchard and the Sulphur Spring Val- 
ley Dry-farm failures as well as successes had been met in experi- 
mental work. This was forcibly illustrated by an immense date 
pa^m in the Yuma Orchard. The tree was large and laden with 
fruit, but the quality rendered is of no value. In closing, the com- 
mittee reported : 

We believe that failures demonstrate facts of as much value as 
the successful work. The "danger signal" is as necessary as the 
"sign board" that points to the path of safety ; hence, we consider 
the work on the experimental farms, under efficient management, 
of inestimable value and believe the money thus spent by the State 
is a wise investment. 

PERSONNEL 

The Administration and Stafif of the Experiment Station has 
suffered numerous changes during the fiscal year. Director R. H. 
Forbes, after more than twenty years efficient and devoted service 
as Chemist, Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station, and 
Dean of the College of Agriculture, has been appointed Research 
Specialist on leave so that his wide experience and exact knowledge 



University of x\rizona 281 

of semi-arid, subtropical agriculture might be made available to 
one of our Allies. Director Forbes has taken charge of experi- 
mental work for the Societe Sultanienne D'Agriculture at Cairo, 

Egypt. Without doubt this cooperation between two countries 
with almost identical cultural conditions will result in great mutual 
benefit. 

Following the resignation of Director Forbes, the President of 
the University assumed the duties of Dean and Director of the 
College of Agriculture. 

The Department of Agronomy has lost Mr. H. C. Heard, As- 
sistant Agronomist, who has conducted the work of the department 
since the resignation of Dr. Macfarlane. Mr. Heard has been 
appointed County Agricultural Agent for Maricopa County. In 
May Professor G. E. Thompson was appointed Agronomist in 
charge of the department. The Department of Horticulture has 
lost Mr. S. B. Johnson, Assistant Horticulturist, who has entered 
commercial work. June 1 Professor F. J. Crider, Horticulturist, 
took charge of the department.. 

Minor changes have taken place in other departments and at 
several of the Experiment Station farms. Mr. H. E. Webber, assist- 
ant in Plant Breeding, resigned to enter military service, and Mr. 
C. O. Bond has been ai)pointed to the position. Mr. C. R. Adamson, 
assistant in Animal Husbandry, has resigned to become County 
Agricultural Agent for Cochise County. After the resignation of 
Mr. F. H. Simmons, foreman of the Tempe Date Orchard, Mr. W. 
O. Hodgson was placed in charge to market the crop. Mr. G. F. 
Williams succeeded Mr. Hodgson in this position when Mr. Hodg- 
son was appointed foreman of the University Farm at Tucson, left 
vacant by the resignation of Mr. J. B. McGuf^n. This position he 
later resigned to enter Y. M. C. A. war work. Mr. G. J. Darling 
succeeded as foreman of the University Farm. At the Prescott 
Dry-Farm, Mr. T. F. Wilcox was appointed foreman. Changes in 
the personnel of the Extension Service are noted in the report of 
the Director. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Publications by the Experiment Station Staff for the year, in- 
cluding Annual Reports, Bulletins, Timely Hints for Farmers, and 
Scientific and Technical Papers are as follows : 

Bulletin 81, November 15, 1917. How to Combat Rabbits, Gophers, Prairie 
Dogs, Coyotes, Ants, and Grasshoppers. 

—By Arthur L. Paschall 
Bulletin 82, December 1, 1917. Johnson Grass Control. —By H. C. Heard 



282 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

Bulletin 83, December 20, 1917. Poisonous Animals of the Desert. 

—By Charles T. Vorhies 
Twenty-eighth Annual Report, December 31, 1917. —By the Station Staff 

Bulletin 84, February 1, 1918. Dry-Farming in Arizona. 

—By A. M. McOmie and Others 

Bulletin 85, March 1, 1918. A Study of Marketing Conditions in the Salt River 

Valley. — By J. H. Collins 

Timely Hints for Farmers: 

No. 127. Julv 15, 1917. Raising Dairy Calves. —By W. S. Cunningham 

No 128. August 15, 1917. Head Lettuce Growing in Southern Arizona. 

— By S. B. Johnson 
No. 129. September 15, 1917. Curing Meat on the Farm. 

_By R. H. Williams 
No. 130. October 15, 1917. How Much Seed to Sow. —By S. B. Johnson 

No 131. November 15, 1917. Sanitary Water Supply for the Home. 

—By J. J. Thornber 
No. 132 December 15, 1917. Hairy Peruvian Alfalfa. —By W. E. Bryan 

No. 133. January 1, 1918. A Little Farm Well-Tilled. —By R. H. Forbes 

No. 134. January 15, 1918. Unproductive Soils, Their Cause and Management. 

—By A. E. Vinson 
No 135. February 1, 1918. Soapwecd or Palmilla (Yucca data) as Emer- 
gency Forage. —By J. J. Thornber 

Scientific and Technical Papers : 

Notes on the Fauna of Great Salt Lake. 

American Naturalist, August, 1917. —By Charles T. Vorhies 

Grading Land for Furrow Irrigation. Western Engineering, IX, 1 Jan. 1918. 

—By G. E. P. Smith 

PROJECTS 
The projects listed in the Twenty-eighth Annual Report for 
the- year 1917-1918 have been continued, or completed and several 
new projects have been approved. The list of projects approved 
for the year 1918-1919 follows. 

1. Groundwater supplies and pump irrigation in the Casa Grande Valley. 

State fund. G. E. P. Smith. 

2. A study of pumping machinery to determine fundamental facts relating 
to the action and efficiencv of various types of pumping machinery. 

Adams fund. G. E. P. Smith. 

3. The relation of evaporation rate to the duty of water; and the study 
of the factors controlling evaporation. 

Adams fund. G. E. P. Smith. 

4. A study of the culture and management of date orchards with special 
reference to the improvement of the yield and quality of the fruit and the 
rooting of offshoots. 

State fund. F. J. CridEr. 

5. A study of the cultural methods with citrus fruits. 

Hatch fund. F. J. CridER. 

6. A study of the effect of different methods of orchard management on 
the growth, yield, and size of the fruit of the olive. 

Hatch fund. F. J. Crider. 

7. A study of conditions affecting the production of fall Irish potatoes 
in southern Arizona. 

State Horticultural and Hatch funds. F. J. Crider. 

8. A study of spinach as a market garden crop for southern Arizona. 

State Horticultural fund. F. J. CridEr. 

9. A study of cultural and storage methods of the sweet potato. 

State and Hatch funds. F. J. Crider. 



F. 


J- 


Crider. 


F. 


J- 


Crider. 


F. 


J- 


Crioer. 



University of Arizona 283 

10. Miscellaneous liorticultural studies including stone fruits, citrus fruits, 
vine fruits, small fruits, pomes, nuts, nursery stock, ornamentals, vegetables, etc 

State and I'niversity of Arizona Maintenance funds. F. J. CridEr. 

11. Student practice garden and greenliouse laboratory. University Campus. 

State Maintenance fund. F. J. Crider. 

12. An intensive quarter acre garden plat at Yuma Experirtient Farm. 

State Horticultural fund. — - - 

13. The same as Project 9. At Cocliise Dry-Farm. 

Cochise Dry-Farm and General Farm fund. 

14. The same as Project 9. At Prescott Dry-Farm. 

Prescfitt Dry-Farm and General Dry-Farm fund. 
15. The production by plant breeding methods of a superior variety of 
alfalfa, free, if possible, from the liairiness and stemmy character of Peruvian 
alfalfa. Methods of determining the water requirements of different varieties 
of alfalfa; and tlie biological analysis of alfalfa into its hereditary units with 
manipulation of these units in constructive breeding, is within the scope of 
this study. 

Adams, State Plant Introduction and Breeding funds. W. E. Brv.an. 

16. The hybridization and selection for Arizona conditions of a superior 
grain sorghum combining, if possible, the following characters : large, upright 
head; uniform ripening; upright stalk; dwarf habit; earliness ; drought resist- 
ance ; and large individual grains. 

State Plant IntroducticMi and Breedin'? fund. W. E. Bryan. 

17. A physiological and biological study of southwestern varieties of Indian 
corn to determine heat and drought resistant characters; and biological analysis 
of these corns with a view to the use of hereditary characters in constructive 
plant breeding operations. 

Adams fund. W. E. Bry.^n. 

18. The biological analysis of the genus Phaseolus and the improvement of 
varieties of beans by selective breeding. This project includes the improvement 
of Tepary beans. 

Adams, and State Plant Introduction and Breeding funds. W. E. Bryan. 

19. A study and comparison of durum, poulard, and bread wheats with 
biological analysis and constructive breeding operations for the purpose of devel- 
oping a bread wheat which will retain its hardness under southwestern conditions. 

Adams, and State Plant Introduction and Breeding funds. W. E. Bryan. 

20. The production by crossing, selection, and inbreeding of Deglet Noor 
dates which will be of high quality and ripen naturally under Arizonan conditions. 

State Date Orcliard funds. W. E. Bryan. 

21. Study of rodent control on grazing ranges. 

Adams fund. C. T. Vorhies- 

22. Development of a collection of economic insects. 

Hatch fund. C. T. Vorhies. 

23. Economic studv of grasses and grass-like plants. 

Hatch fund. J. J. Thornber. 

24. Botanical and economical study of poison range plants. 

Hatch fund. _ J. J. Thorneer. 

25. A study of range grass improvement through fencing. 

Hatch fund.' J. J. ThornbEr. 

26. Tamarisks for growing in alkaline soils. 

Hatch, and State Plant Introduction funds. _ J. J. Thorneer. 
27. A study of certain mulberries with reference to fruit production, the 
quality of fruit and its possible use in the home or in the yard. 

Hatch, and Plant Introduction and Breeding funds. J. J. Thornber. 

28. To determine the practicability of growing pistach trees and nut trees in 
the Southwest. 

Hatch, and Plant Introduction and Breeding funds. J. J. Thornber. 

29. Native wild fruits and nuts as stock for grafting purposes. 

Hatch, and Plant Introduction and Breeding funds. J. J. Thornber. 

30. Experiments in the growing of jujube nuts under our conditions. 
Hatch, and Plant Introduction and Breeding funds. J. J. ThornbEr. 



284 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

31. A study of trees and shrubs suitable for ornamentation, wind-break, 
and shade at the following locations : 

(a) Prescott Dr\'-Farm, Prescott. 

(b) Cochise Dry-Farm, Cochise. 

(c) Tempe Date Palm Orchard, Tempe. 

(d) University Farm, Tucson. 

Hatch fund. J. J. Thorxeer. 

32. Identitkation and studies of the life histories of certain fungi causing 
rot in date fruits. 

Adams fund. J.G.Brown. 

33. Feeding dry farm silage to range cattle to study the effectiveness of 
this ration for carrying cattle over short range. 

Hatch fund. R. H. Wjlli.\ms 

W. S. Cunningham 
3\. Economic combinations of high and low-priced feeds for meat pro- 
duction. 

Hatcli fund. R. H. Williams 

W. S. Cunningham 

35. A study of livestock management on the range ; the present status of 
livestock production on the range. 

Hatch fund. R. H. Williams, 

W. S. Cunningham. 

36. Systems of livestock farming; the coordination of livestock farming 
into units best suited for results, including: (1) Sheep raising on irrigated farms 
in Arizona; (2) Hog raising on Arizona farms; (3) A combination of hogs, 
beef cattle, and poultry on irrigated land; (4) Special cattle and sheep feeding 
operations. 

Salt River A'alley Farm Maintenance fund. R. H. Williams, 

W. S. Cunningham. 

37. Lambing ewes on irrigated farms; to ascertain the ration best suited 
for feeding range ewes during the lambing period in irrigated valleys. 

Salt River Valley Farm Maintenance fund. R. H. Williams, 

W. S. Cunningham. 

38. Supplements to silage for wintering range cattle at the Cochise Dry- 
Farm. Cochise Dry-Farm fund. R. H. Williams, 

W. S. Cunningham. 
39. Cooperative crop experiments en farmers' lands, dry-farming fund. 

G. E. Thompson. 

40. A continuation of study at the Sulphur Spring Valley Dry-Farm. 
Sulphur Spring Valley Dry-Farm fund. G. E. Thompson. 

41. A continuation of study at the Prescott Dry-Farm. 

General Dry-Farm and Prescott Dry-Farm funds G. E- Thompson, 

42. A study of culture and varieties of legumes adapted to southwestern 
conditions. 

Salt River Valley Farm and Hatch funds. G. E. Thompson, 

43. A study of the varieties and methods of culture of Indian corn and 
the various sorghums. 

Salt River Valley Farm and Hatch funds. G. E. Thompson, 

44. The culture and field nvanagement of Egyptian cotton. 

Salt River Valley Farm, Yuma Date Orchard, and Hatch funds. 

G. E. Thompson. 

45. The culture and management of winter and spring grains, including 
wheat, oats, and barley. 

Salt River Valley Farm and Hatch funds. G. E. Thompson. 

46 Effect of dynamiting field soil on field crops. 

General Dry-Farm fund. G. E. Thompson. 

47. A varietal and cultural test of grain and forage crops and of grasses 
and miscellaneous crops. 

Salt River ^'alley Farm fund. G. E. Thompson. 

48. Grasshopper control. 

Hatch fund. A. W. Morrill. 



University of Arizona 



285 



49. Cotton square staincr or tarnislicd plant bug control. 

1 latcli fund. A. W. Morrill. 

50. Ozoniuni root disease of cotton and other crops. Occurrence, life 
history, and methcds of control of the disease. 

Adams fund. D. C. George. 

51- Gummosis of stone fruit trees. Occurrence, causes and methods of 
control of this disease. 

Hatch fund. D. C. George, 

52. Effect of weather conditions on processing and pasteurizing dates. 

State, Hatch, and Date Orchard Sales funds. A. E. Vinson, 

C. N. Catlin. 

53. Alkali soil studies. Concomitant soil conditions that affect the toxicity 
of black alkali and means for the amelioration of the effects of alkali on soil 
and plant. 

Adams fund. A. E. Vinson, C. N. Catlin. 

54. Miscellaneous routine chemical analyses. 

Adams fund. A. E. Vinson, C. N. Catlin. 

55. Reclamation of alkali land at the University Farm. 

University Farm Maintenance Fund A. E. Vinson, C. N. Catlin. 

56. Meteorological observations. 

llatcli funds. C. N. Catlin, 



FIX.\XCI.\L 

Increased costs incident to our entering the war have necessi- 
tated extreme economy and the curtaihnent of much work that had 
been planned. The resources of the Station for the fiscal year, 
1918-1919, remain the same as reported in the Twenty-eighth An- 
nual Report U)v the hiennium beginning July 1, 1917, as follows: 



Colleee cf Agrvicultvre ar.d Experiment Station 
Instruction 



Administration 

Improvements 

Greenhouse for agriculture 

Extension Service (not Smith-Lever) 

(with " " ) 

University of Arizona Farm — Maintenance. . . . 
" " ■ — Improvements... 
Dry-Farming Investigations — Maintenance. . . . 
■ — Improvements . . . 
Plant Introduction and Breeding Investigations 
Tempe Date Orchard — Maintenance 

" " " • — Improvements 

Underflow Investigations 

Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Station 

— Maintenance 

— Improvements 

Salt River Valley Farm Fund — Maintenance.. 
.Agricultural Printing 



1917-18 



; 3,650.00 i. 
7,500.00 i.r. 
5,450.00 i.r. 

1,000.00 e 

4,574.59 e 
11,850.001. 

2,300.00 i. 

10,140.00 r. 

500.00 r. 

3,000.00 r. 

2,330.00 r. 
600.00 r. 

2,400.00 r. 

2,600.00 r. 
675.00 r. 
10,000.00 r. 
4,000.00 i.r. 



Total I $72,569.59 



1918-19 

$ 3,650.00 i. 
7,500.00 i.r. 
5,450.00 i.r. 
2,500.00 i.r. 
1,000.00 e 
6,004.15 e 
11,850.001. 
2,300.00 i. 
10,140.00 r. 

3,000.00 r. 

1,770.00 r. 

600.00 r. 

2,400.00 r. 

2,600.00 r. 
400.00 r. 
10,000.00 r. 
4,000.00 i.r. 

$75.164.15 



Those items marked / are intended primarily for instructional 
purposes : those marked r are intended for the research work of the 
station ; while those marked c are for extension purposes. 



286 



Annual Report Agricultur.\l Experiment Statioi 



Available resources for the year ending- June 30, 1918, are as 

follows : 

Hatch Fund from U. S. Treasur}- $15,000.00 

Adams Fund from U. S. Treasury $15,000.00 

Sales funds 1917-1918 as fellows: 

Salt River Valley Farm -. 

Yuma Date Orchard 

Tempe Date Orchard 

Prescott Dry-Farm 

Sulphur Spring Valley Dry-Farm 

Northern Arizona Drv-Farm 

Hatch Sales Balance 1916-17 $2,609.01 

Collections 2,518.99 



$ 9,768.66 

1,153.79 

4,860.45 

294.50 

73.57 

25.50 



5,128.00 



Dry-Farming Fund ( Supervision) $ 3,000.00 

( Prescott) 3.690.00 

Date Palm Orchards 2.630.C0 

Yuma Plorticultural Station 3,275.00 

Salt River Valley Farm 10,000.00 

Underflow Water Investigation 2,400.00 

Sulphur Spring Valley Dry-Farm 3,700.00 

Maintenance " 11,150.00 

Plant Introduction and Breeding 3,000.00 

Printing 4,000.00 



46,845.00 



$98,149.47 
EXPENDITURES BY FUNDS AND SCHEDULES EOR THE YEAR ENDING 

JUNE 30, 1918 





State 










Abstract 


appro- 


Sales 


Hatch 


Adams 


Total 




priations 


fund 


fund 


fund 




Salaries 


$14,243.36 


$ 1,838.91 


$11,192.81 


$11,940.59 


$39,215.67 


Labor 


10,009.00 


9,749.54 


133.17 


749.39 


20.641.10 


Publications 


3,986.55 


173.89 


1,051.51 




5.211.95 


Postage and station- 












ery 


340.96 


956.83 


765.51 


79.80 


2.143.10 


Freight and express 


238.14 


337.45 


71.47 


333.85 


980.91 


Heat, light, water. 












and power 


301.40 


183.80 


1.073.17 




1,558.37 


Chemicals and labo- 












ratory supplies .... 


.76 


25.10 




125.62 


151.48 


Seeds, plants, and 












.sundrv supplies. . . 


1,035.11 


1,242.56 


96.41 


146.89 


2.520.97 


Fertilizers 


5S4.61 


75.3S 






659.99 


Feeding stuffs 


103.70 


220.39 




40.92 


•365.01 


Library 




10 95 


138.70 


10 23 


159 88 


Tools, machinery. 












and appliances .... 


3.333.20 


1,089.74 


12.25 


73.46 


4,508.65 


Furniture and fix- 












tures 


11.80 


65.75 


23.99 




101 54 


Scientific apparatus 




and specimens .... 


36.50 


17.50 




882.53 


936.53 


Livestock 




675.00 






675.00 


Traveling expenses . . 


2.598.99 


1.211.00 


441.01 


607.72 


4,858.72 


Contingent expenses 


242.33 


63.09 






305.42 


Buildings and land. . 


2,872.62 


2,297.98 




9.00 


5,179.60 




$39,939.03 


$20,234.86 


$15,000.00 


$15,000.00 


$90,173.89 



A. E. Vinson, 



AGRONOMY 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918, experimental work 
in Agronomy has been carried on the Salt River Valley Farm 
near Mesa, on the Prescott Dry-Farm near Prescott, on the Cochise 
Dry-Farm near Cochise, and on the grounds of the Yuma Date 
Orchard and Horticultural Station. Demonstration work along 
agronomic lines on plats used for teaching purposes has been 
carried on the University Farm near Tucson. 

SALT RIVER VALLEY FARM 

The experimental work with Johnson grass reported upon in the 
Twenty-eighth Annual Report has been completed and results sum- 
marized and published in Bulletin No. 84 by Professor H. C. Heard. 
During the year covered by this report the work of the Salt River 
Valley Farm has been more varied than in previous years. Corn, 
long staple cotton, wheat, oats, barley, kafir, milo, hegari, darso, 
sumac sorghum, feterita, Sudan grass, alfalfa, cowpeas, soy beans, 
velvet beans, field peas, and several varieties of table beans have 
been among the crops tested. In order to handle this large variety 
of crops it has been necessary to double crop a considerable portion 
of the land of the experiment farm. Practically all of the acreage 
given to wheat during the winter and spring was planted during 
the early summer to some one or more of the various legumes 
mentioned above. A small portion of the wheat and barley land 
was planted to kafir, milo, and other sorghum crops. We realize 
that such a system of double cropping means a severe drain upon 
the soil fertility, and provision has been made to maintain the soil 
in good tilth and in a fertile condition by plowing under green 
manure and by rotating the crops in a careful manner. Some long 
time experiments covering this feature are now being arranged, 
which in course of time will become valuable demonstrations for 
the Salt River Valley and the State at large. 

During the season covered by this report one difficulty of 
unusual severity has been encountered. This difficulty was the 
extremely destructive work of the lesser corn stalk borer. Practi- 
cally every variety of beans planted on the experiment farm during 
the season was destroyed by this insect. Most of the varieties of 
cowpeas were attacked to a lesser degree. All of the sorghums 
were injured and in some cases the stand materially lessened. Ap- 
parently due to the weakening of the stalks, a considerable portion 
of the milo fell down and lodged badly just previous to harvest 



288 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

time. Examination of the stalks that had fallen down showed that 
in nearly every case these stalks had been injured by the lesser corn 
stalk borer when the plants were small. 

Unless a practical method of controlling this insect can be 
worked out soon it promises to become a serious menace. 

LEGUMES 

With the exception of tests made with cowpeas previous trials 
with annual legumes have resulted largely in negative results. As 
a basis for further work 17 varieties of cow peas and the same 
number of soy beans were tested on plots of ground ranging in size 
from 1/20 acre to 1 acre. These varieties were as follows : 
cow peas soy beans 

Brabham Mammoth Yellow 

Groit Virginia 

White Crowder Arlington 

Brown Crowder Chiquita 

Wonderful Manchu 

Early Ramshorn Biloxi 

• Potomac Peking 

Arlington Early Brown 

Monetta Tarheel Black 

Early Buff - Lot 3 Manchuria 

Early Catjang Hollybrook Early 

Two Crop Clay Fancy Yellow 

Clay Ito San 

Blackeye Wilson Early 

Cream Wilson No. 5 

Red Ripper Tokio 

Tavlor ■ Blackeyebrow 

Careful observation throut the growing season and at harvest 
time indicates that the soy beans are decidedly inferior in value to 
the cow peas for the conditions of the Salt River Valley. Altho some 
varieties of the soy beans made a creditable growth practically 
every variety produced an inferior quality of beans. The beans 
shrivelled badly and for the most part are unmarketable. It is 
possible that this shrivelling is due to the very dry atmosphere, 
since the ground was kept in first class condition thruout the time 
that the soy beans were growing and maturing. The three varieties 
of soy beans giving most promise this year are the Biloxi which is 
a rather large late growing and upright variety, the Wilson No. 5 
which is a medium sized and medium early maturing variety but 
which has the disadvantage of shattering rather badly, and the 
Ito San. The latter is a small, early maturing variety but one of 
the few that produced a good quality of beans. 



University of Arizona 



289 



Of the cow pea varieties a number gave indications of being 
valuable and profitable under average fa;m conditions of the Salt 
River Valley. Groit and ljrabh..m cow peas planted after wheat 
both produced an excellent green manure crop. Groit produced 
the most seed but Brabham has a little achantage from the green 
manure standpoint. The Red Ripper variety, tried under a num- 
ber of conditions, was uniformly good. Two Crop Clay was very 
promising- and a considerable number of other varieties are worthy 
of further trial. The results secured this year with cow peas would 
indicate that this crop can be used successfully as a green n)n.?y.u-ing 



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Cow peas— Salt River Valley Farm. 



crop following wheat. It is quick enough in growth to allow fall 
planting and working of the ground to a good seed bed in time for 
reseeding to wheat or other small grains. 

Inoculation tests were made with both cow peas and soy beans. 
Further tests are necessary, however, before we are justified in 
publishing the results. 

FIELD PEAS 
A limited number of field peas were planted in the fall of 1917 
and harvested in the spring of 1918. The variety called Warsaur 



290 An'nual Report Agriculti-ral Experiment Statkjn 

proved best. It made a good vine growth and also prcKluced seed 
of marketable quality. 

VELX'ET beans 

The following varieties of velvet beans were planted on June 
14: Early Bird, Yokohama, One Hundred Day, Chinese White, and 
Osceola. A study of these varieties during the growing season 
indicated that the Earl}^ Bird and One Hundred Day were two 
names for the same variety. The Chinese White variety failed to 
make a satisfactory stand and was plowed up. The Yokohama 
made a poor stand but the few plants that did germinate grew well. 
The Osceola is a promising variety, and deserves further trial. The 
results indicate that velvet beans should be planted earlier in the 
season. 

TABLE BEANS 

The following varieties of table beans were planted on a field 
scale : Pinto, Bates, Tepary, and Pink. As mentioned earlier in 
this report ever}- one of them was severely injured by the lesser 
corn stalk borer. The only varieties that were not plowed up due 
to this injury were the Teparies and the Pintos. As was proven 
later, the Pintos were so badly damaged that they should have been 
plowed up and the yield of Teparies 'was probably reduced 60 per- 
cent. Of all the varieties of table beans tested this year, Teparies 
were the most promising and they were far from satisfactory. 

ALFALFA 

There are 26 acres in the Salt River Valley Farm now given 
over to the growing of alfalfa. Ten of these will be plowed up this 
winter. This alfalfa has been handled principally as a commercial 
crop. Its effect in smothering out Johnson grass is being noted, 
and it is our purpose a little later to grow pure Hairy Peruvian 
seed for distribution. 

corn 

During the season of 1918 all varieties of corn tested were 
planted after wheat or other small grain, plantings being made the 
latter part of July. The varieties tested were as follows : Mexican 
June, Sacaton June, Hammond's Select, Reid's Yellow Dent, Giant 
Red Cob, Giant White Two Ear, Hasting's Prolific, Frazee's Pro- 
lific, Mosby's Prolific, Improved Leaming, and a special unnamed 
variety the seed of which was secured from Mexico. 

Due to some unusual and, so far as we are concerned, un- 



University of Arizona 291 

explainable condition not one of these varieties was satisfactory 
this year. The complaint was general thruout the Salt River Val- 
ley that it was a poor corn season. The best of the varieties were 
those planted from carefully selected strains of Mexican June corn. 
None of the large late growing varieties, such as Giant Red Cob, 
Giant White Two Ear, etc., were worth while. The Frazee's Pro- 
lific, which was sent to us with very high recommendations, proved 
no better than the others and inferior to Mexican June. The year's 
results as well as previous results secured would indicate that 
various varieties of sorghums properly handled are more profitable 
than corn under the conditions of the Salt River Valley. 

SORGHUMS 

The variety tests of sorghums were incomplete yet very prom- 
ising. Of the grain sorghums the varieties tested were dwarf 
milo, hegari, feterita, kafir, and a variety developed by the Okla- 
homa Station called "darso." This latter variety has been recom- 
mended for a combined grain and forage crop, but this season's 
results indicate that it is inferior to milo, hegari, or kafir 
from the grain standpoint, and inferior to kafir, hegari, or sumac 
sorghum from the fodder standpoint. The only variety of forage 
sorghum tested was the sumac variety and as the seed was pur- 
chased locally the variety was badly mixed and, while promising, 
the results are not conclusive. Hegari yielded 65 bushels per acre, 
and kafir 40. The milo averaged 72 bushels per acre. The milo 
and hegari are quick to mature, and were fully ripened some little 
time before frost. The kafir was somewhat immature when 
frosted the last of October. The hegari stands up well. The grain 
is produced on a straight neck while the milo grain is produced on 
a crooked neck, and this gives a decided advantage to the hegari. 

WHEAT 

Wheats grown on the Salt River Valley Farm yielded well and 
were very profitable crops. The Early Baart variety averaged 45 
bushels per acre. The principal acreage was devoted to this variety. 
Various tests as to rate of seeding, date of seeding and quantity of 
water applied were conducted with this variety, but it seems inad- 
visable to publish the results until the figures for several years have 
accumulated. Club wheat made a good yield, but was badly mixed 
and considerably affected by smut, and of inferior baking quality to 
the Early Baart. Red Turkey yielded well, being a close second to 



292 



Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 



Karly Baart. Two varieties of macaroni gave verv excellent yields 
but under present conditions there is no estal)lished market for 
this variety in the Salt River Valley and it is not advisable to plant 
this variety generally at the present time. Sonora wheat proved 
reasonably good, but tlie qualit\ of grain was inferior to Early 
Baart and the ^■ield was also less. 





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OATS 



Two varieties of oats were grown on a commercial basis. The 
varieties were San Saba, and Red Texas. Red Texas proved the 
best, the yield ranging l)etween 90 and 95 bushels per acre. 



P.ARLICV 

Two varieties of barley were grown, namely. Common Six 
Row, and Wisconsin Pedigree No. 6. The latter variety produced 
a heavy yield of grain but the straw just below the head was very 
weak and many of the heads broke off and fell to the ground before 
harvest time. Consequently the yield secured was less than on the 
Common Six Row barley. This is a common fault of the Wiscon- 
sin No. 6 barley in this section of the country, and ap;>arently will 



Univkrsitv of Arizona 293 

eliminate it as a commercial crop. The yield of Common Six 
Row barley averaged 66 bushels per acre, thus making a very 
profitable and satisfactory small grain crop. 

COTTON 

No short staple cotton was grown. Nineteen acres were given 
over to the growing of Egyptian long staple of the Pima variety. 
One acre of this was volunteer, that is, it was allowed to grow from 
the stubs of the previous year's planting. This acre looked very 
promising during the growing season, producing the first blossoms 
and open bolls of any cotton on the farm. However, examination 
of the plants at picking time showed that a considerable number of 
bolls were moldy or rotten. The fiber is weak and short, and the 
percentage of lint to seed is small. This year's results would indi- 
cate that it is decidedly unprofitable to grow volunteer cotton. 
Rate of thinning experiments were conducted, also date of planting 
experiments. 

MISCELL.\NEOUS CROPS 

A number of miscellaneous crops were tried on a small scale 
during the year. These crops include fiax, buckwheat, castor beans, 
rye, rape, and kale. Two or three varieties of flax gave consider- 
able promise. The buckwheat would be considered a complete 
failure. The castor beans, altho planted late, made an extremely 
vigorous growth and produced considerable seed. Rye was less 
valuable than either oats or barley. 

PRESCOTT DRY-FARM 

The fall of 1917 was extremely dry and it was impracticable to 
plow the various fields of the Prescott Dry-Farm. Thus the spring 
planted crops of 1918 were started under a serious handicap. The 
growing season of 1918 proved less favorable than for a number of 
years preceding. However, creditable silage yields were secured 
from Club Top sorghum, darso, kafir, and milo, also from a number 
of varieties of corn. The grain yields of all were very light and 
most of the varieties were harvested for silage purposes. A total 
of 125 tons of silage was secured. Tests with potatoes this year 
proved a failure. Likewise Canada field peas were a failure and 
the results secured with beans were of mediocre value. 

A considerable number of sweet clover plantings made at inter- 
vals of two weeks failed to germinate uniformly, and no results 
worth while were secured from them. Sudan grass again proved 



294 Annual Report Agricultural Explrimext Statiox 

one of the most promising crops of the farm. Two cuttings of hay 
were secured and a reasonable seed crop, estimated at 450 pounds 
per acre was harvested. The season's results substantiate the results 
of previous years, in that a careful farmer, who is prepared to handle 
livestock, can grow profitably sufficient forage and silage crops to 
take care of a reasonable sized herd of livestock, and by this means 
he will be able to make a good living from a farm of ordinary size. 




Fig. 4. Papago sweet corn — Prescott i'ry Farm 



SULPHUR SPRING VALLEY DRY-FARM 

The season of 1918 in Sulphur Spring Valley was extremely 
dry and followed the dry season of 1917, consequently there was no 
reserve moisture in the soil. Practically every crop planted under 
strictly dry land conditions on the experiment farm proved a total 
failure. The same conditions prevail on the privately owned farms 
thruout the valleys. Various crops planted with supplemental irri- 
gation gave reasonable yields. Among them may be mentioned 
kafir, Freed's sorghum, Sudan grass, and cow peas. Soy beans 
were not satisfactory. Velvet beans made considerable growth, but 
it is doubtful if they will prove worth while. One plot of sweet 
clover planted in 1917 made a reasonable growth and a small 
amount of seed. Yields of wheat, oats, and barley were extremely- 
light. Mexican June corn planted in the early season without irri- 
gation had sufficient moisture to germinate and while it lived thru- 
out the season, at harvest time in the fall much of it was not above 
3 feet in height, and the silage yield from the best of it was only 



University of Arizona 295 

3300 pounds per acre. It did not pay for the time and labor ex- 
pended on it. 

It is planned to change the cropping system on this farm some- 
what, omitting the growing of much corn or small grains and de- 
pending mainly upon certain of the quickest maturing and most 
drought resistant sorghums for silage purposes, maintaining the 
fertility of the soil by the use of legumes plowed under as green 
manure. Some experiments will be carried to determine the le- 
gumes most satisfactory for this purpose, but unless others are 
found which prove good, tcpary beans and cow peas will be used. 

During the season the Giant Powder Company of Los Angeles 
furnished dynamite and a supervisor for the work, and one acre of 
ground was dynamited for the purpose of breaking up the hard 
strata of subsoil called caliche. This dynamiting was done on 15 
feet centers in holes from 23/2 to 3j^ feet deep, varying with the 
depth of the caliche, and using one-half stick of dynamite in each 
hole. It is planned to grow the same crop on this dynamited acre 
and on an undynamited adjoining acre for a period of three years, 
comparing the yields of the dynamited and undynamited area. 
Freed's sorghum was planted for this purpose this year, but due 
to the dry season neither area made a growth sufficient to be 
harvested. 

YUMA DATE ORCHARD AND HORTICULTURAL 

STATION 

A limited amount of experimental work was carried on the 
Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Station. The following 
varieties of sorghums were tested following wheat : Dwarf niilo, 
hegari, kafir, feterita, Sumac sorghum, Collier sorghum. Honey 
Drip, and White African. Every one of these varieties made a 
first class growth. The milo made an excellent grain yield and, 
as was the case in the Salt River Valley, the hegari was the most 
promising of any grain sorghum. Of the sweet sorghums Honey 
Drip made a very heavy growth of forage of good quality and was- 
perhaps the best. Sumac sorghum ranked second altho it fell 
down rather badly. 

Some plantings of flax gave considerable promise and will be 
carried further next year. Two varieties of buckwheat made a 
small growth but from the practical standpoint were without value. 
A most excellent green manure crop of tepary beans was grown. 
A considerable number of vetch varieties were planted in the fall of 



296 Annuai. Report Agricultural Expkrimlnt Station 

1918. Likewise a small area of five different varieties of root crops 
was tested during the winter oi 1918 and 1919, but the results from 
these crops were not satisfactory. 

UNIVERSITY FARM 

No regular experimental work was carried on the University 
Farm, but some demonstration work was conducted and all crops 
grown upon the farm were utilized for teaching purposes. Several 
varieties of cotton, several varieties of sorghum, and a few of corn 
were grown. Cow peas, soy beans, peanuts, hemp, and various 
other crops were grown on small areas of ground. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

The experiments with winter grains reported above were out- 
lined and planted under the direction of Dr. R. H. Forbes and 
Professor H. C. Heard. The summer crop plantings were outlined 
and planted under the direction of the present agronomist. Dr. 
Forbes having gone to Egypt, in the service of the British govern- 
ment, in February of the present year, and Professor Heard having 
left the University to take up County Agricultural work June 1, 
The" present agronomist began work with the Arizona Experiment 
Station on May 1, 1918. 

G. E. Thompson, 

Agronomist. 



BOTANY 

WEATHER COx\DlTiOXS AND THE GRAZING RANGE 

Due both to the shortage and untimely distribution of rainfall, 
the year ending with June 30, 1918, was a very serious one for the 
grazing industry. The rainfall for the period, July to September, 
1917, was generally above the average over the State. At Tucson 
it was 7.09 inches, or 66.6 percent of the total precipitation for the 
year. Following this, there was practically no rainfall thruout the 
State during the three months, October to December, inclusive. 
The excellent growth of grasses and other forage plants that began 
with the summer rains ended by the first of October. This reduced 
somewhat the forage growth. However, the long dry fall favored 
the natural curing of the grasses on the ranges. It was remarked 
during the winter season that, even with short feed, stock were 
looking well. With average winter and spring rains, grazing con- 
ditions would have been satisfactory. 

The winter rainy season began with the second week in Janu- 
ary and ended in the latter part of March. It was o; rather short 
duration and the precipitation was about one-half the average 
amount for this period. A few light showers of almost no conse- 
quence fell during the three months, April to June, 1918. In addi- 
tion to the above shortage of moisture, the summer rains over much 
of the State for July to September, 1918, inclusive, were only one- 
half the average precipitation for this season. Much of the rainfall 
during the past year came as light showers and hence did not wet 
the soil to any depth. 

On account of the above conditions, losses of stock on the 
ranges have been necessarily heavy, and, but for the fact that many 
animals have been shipped out to be sold or fed, the losses would 
liave been heavier. A trip over much of the grazing part of the 
State in July and August, 1918, showed that the grazing ranges, 
generally, were in very bad condition, and that large numbers of 
stock must continue to be shipped out before another season or 
else be fed. The only grazing districts observed to be in fair con- 
dition were those about Flagstafif, Williams, Linden, Lakeside, 
Showlow, Prescott, Pine, and Payson. The rains in September 
were light ; at best they came rather too late in the season, except 
at altitudes below 4.000 feet, to result in much additional growth. 
Some feeding with native forage and concentrates has been 
done. In a number of instances singed chollas and prickly pears 
have been fed in considerable quantity on southern Arizona ranges. 



298 Annual Ri^port Agriculturai. ExperimiSnt Station 

With an increasing number of stockmen, the feeding of soapweed 
or pah-nilla (Yucca elata) as an emergency forage has become estab- 
lished. This is prepared by chopping in small pieces the succulent 
stems of the yucca, or soapweed plant, as described in a recent 
Timely Hint published by this department of the Experiment Sta- 
tion. By means best suited to his local conditions, the successful 
stockman must plan to carry a reserve feed supply sufficient to 
tide his herd over an unfavorable period of six months or longer. 
Until he does this his business is destined to continue uncertain. 
This may be done by putting up hay or silage, growing forage under 
irrigation, feeding concentrates, maintaining winter irrigated or 
range pastures, or thru diversified grazing ranges. 

Unfavorable seasonal conditions like the present period, which 
have now extended over one full year, must make clear to stock- 
men the value of grazing ranges that have a diversified forage 
growth over those that have but one type of forage growth, as for 
example, the bunch grasses. Not only have losses of stock gen- 
erally been less on ranges with a diversified growth of shrubs, 
grasses, and miscellaneous plants than on ranges with one domi- 
nant type of plant growth, but stock have likewise come thru the 
year in better condition. Such ranges are practically year-round 
pn.stures, tho their maximum forage production during favorable 
seasons may not be as great as that of some of the better perennial 
grass ranges. During the present droughty period the desert ranges 
have been of least value, since, outside of the growth of cacti, which 
alone is not sufficient to sustain animals, they have produced little 
forage. High mountain ranges, naturally, supply feed for but six 
or seven months at best, and during the winter period the stock 
must be moved to the lower altitudes and grazed or fed. 

POISON PLANT INVESTICxATIONS 
The writer was a member of the squad of livestock specialists 
that visited the stock raising areas of north central and eastern 
Arizona during the past summer. Beginning with August 13, three 
weeks were devoted to this work which was planned by Director 
Taylor of the Agricultural Extension Service. The subject discussed 
by the writer was poison plants of our grazing ranges. Prepared 
specimens of our more important poisonous plants were shown and 
the commoner poisonous plants of the locality were collected and 
studied in the field. Eighteen meetings were held and generally a 
fine interest was shown by stockmen. Particular attention was 
given towards helping the stockman to know poison plants on the 



University of Arizona 299 

range, and also the most i)ractical means of preventing losses. The 
greatest interest was shown in the loco weeds which are wide- 
spread, growing both at low and high altitudes, and affecting all 
classes of stock ; larkspurs, of which there are several species, all 
poisonous to cattle but not poisonous to sheep ; pingue, or Colo- 
rado rubber plant, which grows at rather high altitudes and causes 
heavy losses among sheep in the spring and fall ; western sneeze- 
weed, which also is a high mountain plant and causes the spewing 
sickness in sheep ; and death camas and water hemlock or wild 
parsnip, which plants are very poisonous to all classes of stock. 
Water hemlock is spreading in moist canyons in eastern Arizona 
about Springerville, Eager, Lakeside, Showlow, and Snowflake. 

Information was secured concerning a number of plants that 
are believed by stockmen to be poisonous, but that heretofore have 
not been regarded as such. It is planned to continue this work on 
poison plants during the coming summer and publish the results as 
a bulletin. On this trip important collections of economic plants 
were made at various places and opportunity was afforded the 
writer to study additional types of grazing ranges over the State. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Timely Hint No. 31, "Sanitary Water Supply for the Home," 
was published in November. This includes a discussion of wells 
and surface contamination, contamination of water in wells thru 
seepage, and small storage tanks, and the pollution of water in 
them. A study of the commoner algae growing in open water tanks 
in southern Arizona was made. In some instances a layer of these 
plants six inches deep was found floating in the water. With par- 
tial decomposition of this material, such water becomes unsanitary, 
having a bad odor and a brackish taste. Open tanks require clean- 
ing every month or two in the warmer part of the year. It was 
found that by covering tanks with wooden tops this plant growth 
ceased immediately and did not reappear until the tops were re- 
moved. Copper sulphate treatment with one part copper sulphate 
to 1,000,000 parts of water was successful, but since this treatment 
should be repeated every sixty days, it is not recommended for 
small lots of v/ater that are are changed frequently thru pumping. 

Timely Hint No. 135, "Soapweed or Palmilla (Yucca elata) as 
Emergency Forage," was published in February. This discusses 
the distribution and abundance of yucca plants over the State with 
brief botanical notes, the preparation of yucca forage for stock, and 
chemical and microscopical analyses of chopped yucca forage. A 



300 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

study was made of feeding yucca to cattle as practiced at WiJlcox, 
Arizona. An improvised yucca feed chopper was described as 
made at small expense from a discarded pump-jack. With care a 
silage cutter may be used. There are at this time several yucca 
choppers, or yucca shredding machines, on the market, which are 
desirable for use where a considerable number of stock are to be fed. 

The chemical analysis of yucca forage as made by the Chem.- 
istry Department of the Experiment Station shows that the protem 
content is little higher than that of native cactus forage ; the fiber 
was somewhat more than double that in cactus forage, and the 
•carbohydrates or nitrogen-free extract averaged 21.94 percent as 
against 15 percent in cactus feed. Aside from the fact that yucca 
forage acts as a succulent when fed along with dry range feed, its 
value as a feed lies chiefly in the carbohydrates. A microscopic 
study showed that the carbohydrates present were largely in the 
form of glucose, which explains the sweet taste of the freshly chop- 
ped feed. 

Circular No. 22, "The Home War Garden," was published in 
August by the Extension Service. This is a revision of Timely 
Hint No. 106, "The Home Vegetable Garden," which publication it 
replaces. This circular attempts a popular presentation of present 
day gardening under southwestern conditions. The different vege- 
tables are considered in part from their botanical and physiological 
characters. The first half of the circular discusses the following 
topics : soil and location ; fertilization, irrigation and cultivation ; 
flat culture versus ridged culture, rotation of crops ; botanical group- 
ing of vegetables; crop pests; seeds and seed-testing; aids to earli- 
ness in the garden ; and, altitudes and seasons of planting. The 
second half discusses vegetables for the winter and spring garden 
and likewise those for the summer garden. 

NOTES ON PLANT INTRODUCTION 

Japanese Kudzu vine (Fucraria hirsuta). This herbaceous 
climber, noted in a recent Annual Report of this station, deserves 
further mention as an economic plant. It grows from starchy, 
tuberous roots, increasing in vigor as these become larger. The 
stems are hairy, and the leaves resemble those of the common bean, 
but are larger. The flowers are purple, produced in clusters, and 
pea-like. They are not showy. The pods are flat, hairy, two to 
- four inches long, and contain several small, mottled beans. The 
plant propagates readily from root cuttings and by layering. It 
can also be grown from seeds. Being semitropic, the Kudzu vine 



University of Arizona 301 

grows most rapidly during the summer season. In the introduc- 
tion garden vines have grown 50 feet in a season. This is the most 
rapid growing of our herbaceous climbers and with its dense foliage 
is excellent for shade for poultry yards and fences, sheds, and even 
for houses. It is much planted in parts of Japan as a covering for 
homes, and for the forage, which is relished by animals. It is best 
suited for growing in Arizona below altitudes of 2,500 feet, prefer- 
ably in rich, well irrigated soils. It blossoms about September 15, 
and with an early frost will hardly mature seed. The leaves and 
stems of the season's growth are killed with minimum temperatures 
of 29 degrees F., and the older woody stems, which ordinarily live 
over, are killed with temperatures of 6 degrees F. This plant should 
have value as forage for growing along irrigation ditches or in areas 
not readily accessible to cultivation. 

PLANT DISEASE STUDIES 

For the most part, the plant diseases that have been destructive 
during the recent growing season are the ones that were predomi- 
nant during the previous year. These include tomato wilt, which 
has been serious in many sections, cotton sore shin disease, cotton 
root-rot, alfalfa root-rot, fruit tree root-rot, melon wilt, and crown 
gall. Besides these, a serious disease of the common pepper has 
appeared at Tubac and in the Rillito Valley near Tucson. When 
nearly mature the plants cease growth, gradually turn yellow and 
begin to die from the roots with a full crop of peppers. In a num- 
ber of respects the disease resembles tomato wilt. Practically all 
the plants within an affected area are killed. A study is being made 
of this disease. A careful rotation of crops will help both in this 
disease and in tomato wilt. 

A serious canker disease of cottonwood and poplar trees caused 
by Cytospora chrysospenna* has been found in a number of localities 
in Arizona. These include Flagstaff, Williams, Prescott, Douglas, 
Nogales, Continental, and Tucson. This disease attacks both na- 
tive and introduced poplars, but is most destructive to introduced 
species, including the Carolina poplar and the Lombardy poplar. 
A considerable number of these trees have died in Flagstaff from 
this cause. The disease may be recognized by the presence of 
sunken, dead areas on the bark of the larger limbs of trees. The 
inner bark of these areas is blackish and has a pronounced odor. 
Later, small reddish, pustule-like fruiting bodies appear on the sur- 
face of dead areas of bark. On old bark these reddish bodies can 



*Lone:. W. H. Journal of Agric. Research, XIII, 6, 1918. 



302 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

often be seen in the fissures. Affected trees rarely live longer than 
two or three years and serve to spread the disease. It is recom- 
mended that persons who desire cottonwood or poplar trees plant 
the native cottonwoods, since these are more resistant to the canker 
disease than introduced species like the Carolina poplar. There 
are several species of native cottonwood in Arizona which thrive 
at our various altitudes. 

SCIENTIFIC 

The work on the herbarium, which claimed so large an amount 
of time last year, was completed early during the present year. 
The University plant collections now number 74,000 sheets. Our 
plant collections are complete enough now to enable one to work 
to advantage, both on the native and cultivated plants. During the 
year a collection of biological literature, numbering 2,500 pamphlets 
and separates, has been classified and arranged systematically for 
convenience in work in botany. Many of these books and pam- 
phlets were presented to the Botanical Department by the Depart- 
ment of Botanical Research of the Carnegie Institution, Tucson, 
Arizona. Others have been secured thru exchange of botanical 
material, including plant specimens. 

J. J. Thornber, 

Botanist. 



HORTICULTURE 

The Horticulturist having' entered upon his duties near the 
close of the present hscal year, the major portion of his time during 
the remainder of the period was given to the study of the general 
horticultural conditions of the State, and in formulating plans for 
the future development of the work of the department as pertains 
both to instruction and investigation. Nine distinct station pro- 
jects have been outlined and accepted, and work on some of them 
is now under way. The work of the Department of Horticulture 
falls naturally into three main divisions : Pomology, Olericulture, 
and Ornamental Gardening. Progress has been made during the 
past year in these respective branches as follows : 

POMOLOGY 

Plans have been developed for fruit plantings at the Salt River 
Valley Farm consisting of a variety orchard of eleven acres, to- 
gether with additional blocks of three acres each of the standard 
varieties of such fruits as the fig, olive, and apricot, that have 
proved themselves ])articularly adapted to commercial growing in 
southern Arizona. The plantings of standard varieties will be used 
as a basis of experimentation in pruning, spraying, and other phases 
of orchard culture and management. As other varieties demon- 
strate their worth, block plantings will afso be made of them. The 
first planting in the variety orchard was made with dates in July, 
1918, including seventy varieties. The remainder of the orchard will 
be set during the coming spring. 

A three-acre orchard is being developed on the University 
Farm at Tucson, comprising representative varieties of the leading 
species of cultivated fruits. This orchard is designed primarily 
for student instruction in Pomology, but is adaptable as well for 
purposes of experimentation. 

The unplanted portion of the horticultural block at the Yuma 
Date Orchard and Horticultural Station will be set this fall with 
citrus and other sub-tropical fruits. The planting of citrus fruits 
is made with a view to determining an effective method of pre- 
venting frost injury, and to testing the adaptability of the Man- 
darian group of orange to the Yuma Valley. 

The deciduous orchard at the Yuma Date Orchard and Horti- 
cultural Station is now in its second year. The trees have made a 
very satisfactory growth, and a few varieties have borne their first 
crop. The Smyrna and Rea Mammoth varieties of quince, and the 



304 Annual Rkport Agricultural Experiment Station 

Royal and Newcastle varieties of apricot each produced a small 
number of fruit this year. The Wonderful and Papershell varieties 
of pomegranate produced heavy yields for the age and size of the 
plants. 

dates 

The date orchards at the Tempe Date Orchard and the Yuma 
Date Orchard and Horticultural Station have continued in thrifty 
condition, and during the past season have produced very satisfac- 
tory crops, furnishing additional evidence of the value of the date 
as a commercial fruit crop for southern Arizona. The blossoming 
record of the palms was not high at either orchard, but the most 
excellent weather that prevailed thruout the harvest made it pos- 
sible to gather a maximum crop from every tree that bore. Even 
varieties that during ordinary seasons are almost worthless yielded 
relatively good returns. Another feature of this year's crop was 
the almost total absence of fungus spots, wdiich have been a source 
of serious loss of some varieties in the past, particularly during 
moist weather. These facts considered in the light of losses sus- 
tained in the past due to rainy weather point to climate as a most 
important factor in the harvesting of the date crop. 

Considered from the standpoint of yield, size, quality, and ap- 
pearance, the varieties that did best at the Tempe Orchard are : 
Hayany, Tadala, Rhars, and Deglet Noor ; and at the Yuma 
Orchard : Deglet Noor, Hellawee, and Kaiby. The following is a 
summary of the yields and returns at the Tempe and Yuma Date 
Orchards for the past season : 



University of Arizona 



305 



TAiiUli I. YIELD OF DATE VARIETIES AT THE TEMPE ORCHARD 



j 


1 






Av erase 




Average 




Variety i 


No. of 1 


Harvest season 


yield 


Total 


receipts 


Total 




trees ' 








per tree 


yield 


per tree 
Dollan 


receipts 




Pounds ^ 


Pounds 


Dollars 


Aman 


3 


Aug. 


12-Oct. 17 


91.16 


273V,. 


21.41 


64.24 




2 
1 


Sept. 
Oct. 


22-Oct. 5 
4-Nov. 17 


36 
2?? 


72 
222 


8.13 
55.06 


16.26 


A'oochet . 


55.06 


Arechti 


1 


Oct. 


3- Oct. 31 


20 


20 


4.98 


4.98 


Apdandon 


1 


Sept. 


5-Oct. 31 


/3 


75 


16.79 


16.79 


Aschcra.'^i 


2 


Oct. 


2-Oct. 12 


13 


26 , 


3.5 


6.10 


Amhat 


1 


Sept. 


28- Oct. 28 


12 


12 


2.01 


2.01 


Aniri 


2 


Oct. 


24-Dec. 1 1 


57 


115 


10.85 ; 


21.70 


Bent Kebala 


1 


Sept. 


30-Nov. 22 ' 


294 


294 


81.84 


81.84 


Boo Affar 


2 


Sept. 


28- Dec. 5 


15 


3134 


3.47 , 


6.94 


Burni 


2 
4 


Oct. 

Sept. 


9-Nov. 16 
50- Nov. 3 


79 
148 


159 
595 


19.13 
37.52 


38.27 


Berhi 


150.08 


Bagam Jnrghi. . 


1 


Sept. 


8-Oct. 15 


51 


51 


11.34 


11.34 


Besser Haloo. . 


1 


Nov. 


27- Dec. 1 


55 


50 


6.40 


6.40 


Bedraihe 


2 


Oct. 


l-Dec. 2 


• 214 


42S 


22.03 


44.06 




1 


Oct. 


26- Dec. 5 


62 


(^1 


6.10 


6.10 


Dishtari 


1 


Aug. 


31-Oct. 31 


96 


96 


22.29 


22.29 


Deglet Noor. . . 


28 


Oct. 


11-Dec. 1 


108 


3043 


36.25 


1015.10 


Deglet Barka. . . 


1 


Dec. 


5- 


70 


70 


7.00 


7.00 


Gasby 


1 


Aug. 


23-Oct. 5 


120 


120 


27.59 


27.59 


Gush 


1 


Sept. 


5-Oct. 12 


27 


27 


6.57 


6.57 


Goondee 


1 


Dec. 


1- 


40 


40 


4.00 


4.00 


Gaggar 


1 


Nov. 


21- Dec. 5 


163 


163 


16.30 


16.30 


Havany 


9 


.'^l.lg. 


23-\ov. 4 


213 


1921 


51.77 


465.98 


riamraia 


4 


Oct. 


5-Nov. 17 


63 


2S\ 


16.49 


65.96 


Hellawce 


1 


Sept. 


28-Oct. 24 


31 


31 


7.45 


7.45 


Halloua 


2 


Nov. 


15-Dec. 1 


64 


129/2 


6.47 


12.95 




3 


Nov. 


4-Dec. 1 


39 


119 


3.96 


11.90 


Hurshut 


1 


Sept. 


25-Oct. 19 


45 


^5 


9.84 


9.84 


Halawi 


3 


Sept. 


28-Oct. 2S 


85 


25" 


21.09 


63.26 


Itima 


1 
1 


Oct. 
Oct. 


16-Nov. 8 
12- Dec. 1 


37 
173 


37 
\73 


9.09 
51.21 


9.09 


Tteem Jolicr. . . . 


51.21 


Karoov 


1 


Sept. 


9-Oct. 5 


44 


44 


9.35 


9.35 




7 


Sept. 


10-Oct. 31 


62 


439 


14.93 


104.51 


Khadrawi 


2 


Sept. 


22-Oct. 15 


32 


6} 


6.97 


13.94 


Khedrwee 


3 


Sept. 


5-Oct. 24 


73 


220 


15.15 


45.45 


Khir 


1 


Sept. 


1-Oct. 16 


87 


87 


20.31 


20.31 


Kenta 


2 


Oct. 


19-Nov. 21 


18 


37/2 


1.87 


3.75 


Kalara 


1 
1 


Sept. 
Sept. 


9-Oct. 13 
9-Oct. 17 


80 
125 


80 
125 


17.12 
1 27.66 


17.12 


Koroch 


27.66 


Khedrwee 


1 


Aug. 


31-Oct. 26 


25 


25 


1 5 82 


5.82 


Kesba 


1 


Dec. 


1- 


5 


5 


\ .50 


.50 


Karba 


1 


Sept. 


10-Nov. 15 


34 


34 


7.08 


7.08 


Kaibv 


1 


Oct. 


15-Oct. 28 


34 


34 


8.24 


8.24 


M'Kentichi, 








, 








Degia 


2 


Dec. 


1- 


1 104 


208 


10.40 


20.80 



306 



Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 



TAIILE I. — YIELD OF DATE VARIETIES AT THE TEMPE ORCHARD — Continued 










Average 




Avera.s;e 




Variety 


No. of 


Harvest season 


yield 


Total 


receipts 


Total 




trees 






per tree 


yield 


per tree 


receipts 










Pounds 


Pounds 


Dollars 


Dollars 


Maktum 


2 • 


Oct. 


17-Dec. 1 


113 


227 


30.10 


60.20 


Menakher 


1 


Oct. 


17-Oct. 27 


40 


40 


10.71 


10.71 


Mozati ■ 


1 


Sept. 


9-Oct. 31 


51 


51 


11.29 


11.29 


Nakkelet 
















Feraocn 


I 


Oct. 


10-Oct. 31 


43 


43 


10.54 


10.54 


Nazel 


1 


Dec. 


1 


ICO 


ICO 


lO.CO 


10.00 


Naklet el Leef. 


1 


Oct. 


1-Oct. 30 


130 1 


130 


28.74 


28.74 


Lagoo 


1 


Sept. 


22-Oct. 30 


30 


30 


3.00 


3.00 


Nesheem 


1 


Oct. 


1-Nov. 1 


182 


182 


45.10 


45.10 


Lockzec 


1 


Oct. 


1-Oct. 20 


30 


30 


6.55 


6.55 


Purdv Seedlinj? 


3 


Sept. 


28-Nov. 2 


56 


169 


12.92 


38.76 


Rhazi 


2 

1 


Sept. 
Oct. 


5-Oct. 15 
6-Nov. 11 


64 
21 


128 
21/2 


17.29 
4.55 


34.58 


Ret'oet Regaia. . 


4.55 


Ret Bel Abdella 


1 


Oct. 


4-Nov. 2 


62 


62 


16.27 


16.27 


Rhars 


111 

1 • 


Aug. 

Nov. 


17-Oct. 21 
17-Dec, 1 


87 
98 ^ 


9685 
98/2 


21.03 
9.85 


2334.17 


Roghm Gazal. . . 


9.85 


Rogina 


1 


Sept. 


27- Nov. 25 


23 


23 


4.72 


4.72 


Seedling 
















(West) 


2 


Oct. 


6- Oct. 6 


25 


5 


.50 


1.00 


Seba Lcosif. . . . 


1 


Sept. 


23- Oct. 24 


94 


94 


21.27 


21.27 


S?ver 


3 

1 


Sept. 
Nov. 


11- Oct. 25 
10- Nov. 28 


101 
91 


303 

91/2 


19.01 

7.05 


57.03 


Seba Boo Dra. . 


7.05 


Safraia 


■? 


Sept. 


11- Dec. 1 


50 


100 


5.10 


10.20 


Sukeri 


2 
9 


Sept. 
Sept. 


22- Nov. 18 
28-Nov. 23 


143 
47 


287 
427 


14.45 
24.50 


28.90 


Savdeh 


220.48 


Timdjotiert 
















(Yellow).... 
Tadaia 


4 


Oct. 


4- Nov. 20 


54 


219 


13.92 


55.66 


2 


Sept. 


10-Oct. 31 


146 


293 


34.56 


69.11 


Tennessim 


4 


Sept. 


19- Nov. 20 


127 


511 


25.81 


103-25 


Taflzaonit 




Oct. 


15- Dec. 3 


266 


266 


72.23 


72.23 


Tentebiisht 




Oct. 


13- Nov. 2 


Q 


2734 


2.31 


6.94 


Taurarhet 




Nov. 


4- Dec. 5 


67 


67 


7.45 


7.45 


Takadet 




Oct. 


4- Nov. 18 


82 


165 


18.93 


37.85 


Totee 




Nov. 


2- Dec. 3 


130 


130 


34.13 


34.13 


■Tanizoohart. . . 




Sept. 


27- Nov. 17 


66 


66 


15.45 


15.45 


Tcorekhet 




Nov. 


4- Dec. 5 


67 


67 


7.45 


7.45 


Tozerzaid 
















Khala . . . 




Oct. 


15- Dec. 1 


120 


120 


31.16 


31.16 


Tazizaoat 




Oct. 


4- Dec. 1 


250 


250 


55.48 


55.48 


Thoree 




Oct. 


6- Dec. 


5\ 


270 


5.39 


26.95 


Toojat 




Oct. 
Oct. 


26- Nov. 3 
16- Nov. 6 


40 
124 


40 
124 


3.90 
31.09 


3.90 


Taremoont 


31.09 


Tefezo'nt 




Nov. 


28- Dec. 1 


85 


85 


8.50 


8.50 


Zerza 




Oct. 


5- Dor. 1 


128 


128 


12.60 


12.60 


Zehedi 




Dec. 


1 


U 


1? 


1.40 


1.40 


7rai 




Dec. 


1 


5 





.50 


.50 


Zoozia 




Dec. 
Dec. 


1 
1 


>^5 

iro 


85 
ICO 


8.50 
10.00 


8.50 


\a"-al 


10.00 


No Name 




Sent. 


9- Dec. 1 


3\ 


239 


10.59 


74.17 


Crlls 




Aug. 


12- Dec. 5 




4988 '/i 




1 631.40 



University of Arizona 



307 



TABLE II. YIELD OF DATE VARIETIES AT THE YUMA ORCHARD 



Variety 



Angoo 

Bent el Marad. . 
Black Seedlings 
Beed H amnion 
Boo Fa Goo. . . . 
Bread Dates. . . 
Deglct Xoor. . . 

Gasley 

Hayan\- 

liellawec 

Itima 

Kaiby 

Khedrwee 

Lagoo 

Rhars 

Rogina 

Saba BooDra.. 

Saydeh 

Tinidjouert 

(Yellow).... 
Tinidjouert 

(Red) 

No Name 

Ctd!s 



No. of 
trees 



1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
5 
32 
1 
1 
8 
2 
2 
2 
1 
2 

2 

2 
4 



Harvest season 



Nov. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Scot. 

Nov. 

Sept. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Aug. 

Nov. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Sept. 



.10 



19-Xov. 
31-Sept 

9- Sept 

20 NOV. 8 
24-Oct. 7 
13-Xov. 30 
21 -Nov. 30 
26- 

4-Sept 
26- Sept 

7- Oct. 

7- Nov 
24- Sept. 13 
23-Vov. 26 

3-Sept. 13- 

9 

5-\'ov. 2^ 
l6-\ov. 12 



30 
23 
22 



Sept. 3-Sept. 9 



Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 



13 

30\'ov. 12 
2- Nov. 30 



Average 

yield 
per tree 

Pounds 
91 

12 

12 

66.5 
139 

63 

50.5 

31 

10 

87.12 

2.S.5 
114.8 

43.5 

43 
3.5 
2 

54 
23.25 



98 



Total 
yield 



Pounds 

91 

12 

12 

133 

278 

319 

1616 

31 

10 

697 

57 

229.5 

87 

43 

7 

4 

lOS 

93 

11 

5 
98 
319.83 



Average 
receipts 
per tree 



Dollars 

11.37 

3.00 

2.80 
15.90 
35.34 

7.43 
15.14 

4.65 

2.57 
22.92 

6.94 
26.77 
11.93 

5.12 

.90 

.50 

12.48 

5.68 

.81 

1.25 
21.52 



Total 
receipts 

Dollars 

11.37 

3.00 

2.80 

31.80 

70.68 

37.16 

484.56 

4.65 

2.57 

183.35 

13.88 

53.54 

23.85 

5.12 

1.80 

1.00 

24.95 

22.71 

3.25 

1.25 
21.52 
37.16 



A large number of vacant places in both the Yuma and Tempe 
Orchards were set with palms during the summer. The off- shoots 
used in the Yuma Orchard were taken directly from the trees, being 
too large to place in the propagating house, whereas those used 
in the Tempe Orchard were rooted. Upon examination in Novem- 
ber, 52 of the 81 plants set in the Yuma Orchard were showing 
signs of growth. The Tempe planting is interesting from the fact 
that the soil in the orchard is at present extremely alkaline. While 
the older trees do not appear to be disturbed by the presence of 
alkali, it was feared that the young plants probably would not fare 
so well. As a precaution, therefore, about a cubic yard of sweet 
soil was placed in the holes prepared for the off-shoots and a heavy 
straw mulch applied to prevent the rise of the alkali. No ill effects 
from the alkali have yet been observed, as the majority of the plants 
give evidence of growing. 

A rather unusual feature of blossoming was observed at the 
Yuma Orchard, in that certain varieties failing to bloom during 
their normal blossoming period in the spring, flowered most pro- 
fusely towards the latter part of the summer. A number of the 
blossoms were pollinated in order to study the future behavior of 
the fruit, particularly as to its ability to stand thru winter. 



308 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

Progress has been made on definite projects in Pomology as 
follows. 

a study in the CULTl'RK AND MANAGEMENT OF DATE ORCHARDS 

This ])roject conducted at the Yuma Date Orchard and Horti- 
cultural Station was begun in the summer of 1918. The work in- 
volves a comprehensive study of a number of features of orchard 
culture and management, with particular reference to the compara- 
tive effect of clean tillage, cover crops, sod, and mulches, together 
with dift'erent methods of fertilizing, on the yield, quality, time of 
ripening, size of fruit and growth of tree. The orchard contains 
about four acres, and the trees have been set 10 years. It is divided 
into six plots with each plot containing two rows of trees. The plots 
are being handled as follows : 

No. (1) Planted to alfalfa, cuttings allowed to remain where 
they fall. 

No. (2) Planted to sour clover in the fall, followed by cow- 
peas in summer. 

No. {3) Planted to vegetables during both summer and win- 
ter. 

No. (4) Wide, shallow basin maintained about each tree with 
a heavy manure mulch. 

No. (5) Wide, shallow basin maintained about each tree with 
a thick straw mulch. 

No. (6) Clean culture thruout the year. 

The rows are divided crosswise to allow four different treat- 
ments with commercial fertilizer. 

A STUDY OF CULTURAL METHODS WITH CITRUS FRUITS 

These investigations, begun in the summer of 1918, are being 
conducted on the Yuma Mesa in cooperation with Mr. George W. 
Hill. The orchard in which the tests are being made contains about 
ten acres, and the trees composed of the Washington Navel variety 
of orange and the Marsh Seedless variety of pomelo, were set in 
the spring of 1916. The area is divided into ten plots, each of 
which is being given a distinct method of culture, particularly in 
the matter of cover crops. The plots are divided crosswise so as 
to allow four trees in each plot being given a different fertilizer 
treatment. Records of growth and general phenological notes are 
being made, and it is hoped that during the next few years data 
may be gathered on the cumulative effect of each cultural method 
and fertilizer treatment on the growth of tree and the size and 
quality of the fruit. 



University of Arizona 



309 



DATE PROPAGATION 

The results secured in the propagation of the date, have not 
been as satisfactory as was anticipated, and the matter has become 
the subject of further investigation. The off-shoots placed in the 
propagating house at the Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural 
Station in the summer of 1917 were a complete failure but this can, 
however, be attributed to soil conditions. The soil being heavy and 
not well drained it remained cool, whereas the temperature during 
summer was very high, making extremely adverse conditions for 
root development. In the summer of 1918 this house was removed 
to a location where the soil is sandy and well drained, and as a result 
the off-shoots arc rooting satisfactorily. A careful examination in 
the latter part of November showed that out of 237 oft'-shoots placed 
in the house only }>7 failed to show evidence of growth. Several indi- 
v^iduals were observed as having developed a good root system, 
whereas suckers on the outside of the house, although alive, showed 
no signs of root formation. In the case of suckers placed in an ordi- 
nary cutting bench in the green house, where there was a daily 
range of temperature from 90 to 114 degrees, roots two to four 
inches long were formed in six weeks. 

Following is a summary of the temperature of the atmosphere 
and soil inside the date propagating house at the Yuma Date 
Orchard and Horticultural Station as compared with the outside 
temperature during the months of August, September, October, and 
November — readings made daily at 12:30 P. M. 

TABLE III. AIR AND SOIL TEMPERATURE IN' DATE PROPAGATING 

HOUSE, YUMA 
Temp, inside propagating house 1 Temp, outside propagating houat 



Month 



Atmospliere 



Soil 



August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 



Degrees Fahr. 

115 
110 

97 

79 



Degrees Fahr. 

90 
86 
73 

59 



Atmosphere 
Degrees Fahr. 

103 
100 

90 

72 



Soil 



Degrees Fahr. 

84 
83 
74 
61 



It will be remembered that while a large number of off-shoots 
on the inside of the propagating house had rooted by November 
there was no sign of root development in the case of those planted 
in an open bed on the outside. 

OLERICULTURE 

Attention was given during the past year to the maintenance 
of an all-the-vear familv garden at the Yuma Date Orchard and 



310 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

Horticultural Station and on the University grounds at Tucson, 
with a view to stimulating a greater interest in home gardening as 
a means of increasing the food supply. With good cultivation and 
ample irrigation, tomato, eggplant, pepper, okra, carrot, and the 
edible cowpeas were made to produce during the hottest portion of 
the summer. Tomatoes did not yield a heavy crop during this 
period, but shaded parts of the plants continued to bear some fruit. 
Further tests will be made with summer vegetables with the hope 
of adding other varieties to the list that can be successfully grown 
during the hot weather of this season. 

Of special interest this year was the fall garden. Notes taken 
October 25 in the garden at Tucson showed the following vege- 
tables in edible condition : snap bean, chard, cucumber, cowpea, 
carrot, endive, kale, lettuce, mustard, onion, radish, salsify, spinach, 
tomato, and turnip. Other vegetables that were growing nicely at 
this time, and that will be available for use during winter and early 
spring are broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, collard, 
corn salad, kohlrabi, leek, parsley, parsnip, and rutabaga. All of 
these vegetables were planted during the month of August and in 
early September, except tomato, carrot, and salsify, which were 
started in the spring. 

IRISH POTATO STUDIES 

These investigations, directed towards the accumulation of 
facts regarding the production and storage of Irish potatoes in 
southern 7A.rizona, are being conducted at the Yuma Date Orchard 
and Horticultural Station. The varieties Irish Cobbler, Triumph, 
and White Rose were planted February 25 and harvested on July 5. 
The yields per acre were as follows : 

Irish Cobbler, 10,192 pounds; Triumph, 9,800 pounds; White 
Rose, 10,976 pounds. 

Immediately after harvesting a definite amount of each variety 
was placed under different methods of storage as follows : 

No. 1. Placed in ventilated bins under shade. 

No. 2. Coated with paraffin. 

No. 3. Spread out thinly on ground under shade. 

No. 4. Placed in twelve inches of soil undeV shade. 

No. 5. Placed in a veiitilated dugout made three feet deep in 
a well drained soil. 



University of Arizona 



311 



Following is a summary of the storage tests as revealed Sep- 
tember 15 when the potatoes were examined: 

TAIILIC IV. — STORAGE TESTS WITH POTATOES 



Storage method 


Variety 


Sound potato 


Xo. 1. V'cntil;itcd bins 


Irish Cobbler 
Triumph 
Wiiite Rose 


Percent 
90 
90 
95 


No. 2. Paraffined 


Irish Cobbler 
Triumph 
White Rose 


None 


.\o. 3. On ground 


Irisli Cobbler 
Triumpli 
White Rose 


75 
75 
50 


Xo. 4. Dry soil 


Irish Cobbler 
Triumph 
White Rose 


None 
95 


No. 5 D'lKOut 


Irish Cobbler 
Trirmph 
White Rose 


95 
80 




95 



In the case of the potatoes that were coated with paraffin the 
entire lot rotted by the end of four weeks, which indicates that the 
exclusion of air is absolutely detrimental to the keeping qualities 
of the potato, and emphasizes the importance of thoro ventilation 
during storage. As shown in the table, the method of storage in 
which the potatoes were spread out thinly in ventilated bins, as 
well as the dugout method of storage, gave a rather high percent- 
age of sound potatoes. While these results are not conclusive, they 
do indicate that it is easily possible for the home gardener to pre- 
serve the spring crop of potatoes thrti the summer for culinary use 
and as seed for a late summer crop. 

In tests made to determine the best depth and time of planting 
for the late summer crop, practically all the potatoes rotted in the 
ground. This was apparently due to the hot temperature of the 
soil at planting time, coupled with excessive moisture conditions. 

It is believed that modified methods of planting contemplated 
for trial next season will give more satisfactory results. Plantings 
are being continued thruout fall, winter, and spring at intervals of 
ten days in order to determine the best planting date for the spring 
crop. 

SPINACH AS A MARKET GARDEN CROP FOR SOUTHERN ARIZONA 

Ranking first in importance among the vegetables grown for 
"greens" in the United States, and being particularly well adapted 



312 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

to climatic conditions such as are found in southern Arizona, 
spinach promises to become a vahiable market crop for this section. 
In view of these facts, a series of investigations was begun in the 
fall of 1918 for the purpose of securing specific information as to 
the best cultural practices to be followed in the production of this 
crop— including methods and time of planting, variety tests, and 
fertilizer comparisons. The following methods of planting were 
used : 

No. 1. Level planting with flooding — rows ten inches apart. 

No. 2. Bedding four rows ten inches apart, made on low, flat 
beds with irrigation water run between the beds. 

No. 3. Row and furrow method — rows two feet apart, and ir- 
rigation water run between the rows. 

The varieties Savoy, Victoria, Prickly Winter, and Long Stand- 
ing, typifving as many different groups of spinach, were used in 
each plot. The first planting was to have been made September 1, 
with additional planting at intervals of two weeks until November 
15, but a delay in the arrival of seed necessitated its postponement 
until October 1. The plots are subdivided crosswise to permit of 
fertilizer tests with stable manure, cotton seed meal, nitrate of soda, 
and acid phosphate. The work has not reached the point where 
final conclusions can yet be drawn. 

ORNAMENTAL GARDENING 

The work in Ornamental Gardening has consisted largely in 
the developing of plans for the beautifying of the grounds at the 
different branch stations, particular attention having been given the 
Tempe Date Orchard and the Yuma Date Orchard and 1 lorticul- 
tural Station. The central grounds at the Yuma Station have been 
set to lawn grass, and, during the coming spring, shrubbery and 
other ornamentals will be added. In addition to plantings of tested 
varieties of trees and shrubbery, other sorts will be set with a view 
to determining their adaptability to specific localities. A special 
feature in this connection is the attempt to establish alkali resistant 
types at the Tempe Date Orchard, the soil of which is very alkaline. 

No work has been done in floriculture, but with the added green 
house and garden facilities, which are soon to be provided, some- 
thing in this field will be undertaken. 

SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS 

The Horticulturist served as a member of a commission ap- 
pointed by the President of the University of Arizona to investigate 



University of Arizona 313 

the agricultural possibilities of the Yuma Mesa with special refer- 
ence to citrus culture. In connection with these investigations con- 
siderable time has been spent in studying the climatology, to- 
pography, and general features of the soil and in making detailed 
descriptions of the fruit now being grown in the district and com- 
paring it with that produced in other citrus regions. The entire 
matter will be treated in greater detail and published as a joint 
report by the committee. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

A number of trips were made during the past year to different 
parts of the State in the interest of extension work in Horticulture. 
The activities in this field, however, were confined largely to demon- 
strations in fruit and vegetable conservation by drying, in which 
the sulphuring process was used. 

Considerable time was given to the general supervision of the 
work at the Tempe Date Orchard and at the Yuma Date Orchard 
and Horticultural Station. 

Very valuable service was rendered the department during the 
past year by the foremen of the different branch stations in their 
careful execution of the work as outlined for them. The horticul- 
tural work has been given further impetus in the recent appoint- 
ment of Mr. A. F. Kinnison as Assistant Horticulturist. 

F. J. Crider, 
Horticitlfnrist 



PLANT BREEDING 

Work in the department during the past year has been con- 
fined to wheat, beans, alfalfa, and grain sorghums. The wheat 
work during the year has received especial consideration owing 
to the increased interest shown in bread wheat varieties. 

WHEAT 

The breeding work with wheat during the past year has been 
along four distinct lines : (I) The testing of the promising hybrid 
macaroni-bread wheat races which have been increased from last 
vear's selections. (II)The growing and comparing of the second seed 
generation (first plant generation) of new hybrids secured by cross- 
ing Turkey and macaroni wheats on the native Sonora. (HI) A 
study of the inheritance of the various characters in the bread 
wheats, the Poulard wheats, and the macaroni wheats. (IV) The 
field testing of various pure lines of wheat. The milling and baking 
qualities, and also yield received especial consideration- 

I. The work with the macaroni-bread wheat crosses at Yuma 
included three series oi plots; the plant rows, the small pedigree 
increase plots, and the tenth- acre field plots. There were 540 plant 
rows grown from plants of good habit and producing grain of 
apparently good gluten content. Each row of this series was har- 
vested and threshed separately, and the grain worked over in the 
laboratory for type, texture, and total yield. The seed from about 
one-third of these rows will be used in planting increase plots next 
year, so that the excellent strains may be increased as rapidly as 
possible. 

There were 100 pedigree increase plots planted from promising 
plant rows of 1917. These have been carried thru a severe elimina- 
tion test from which about 30 will be selected for testing under field 
conditions in 1919 with the present best milling wheats of the State, 
such as Early Baart. 

There were twenty-five tenth-acre field plots of hybrid wheats 
which occupied the entire area of the Dyer block of the Yuma 
Station. Some promising yields were obtained from this series; 
one produced at the rate of 60 bushels per acre and two others be- 
tween 50 and 55 bushels per acre. This is about 20 bushels per 
acre more than was produced by the Early Baart. The quality of 
these high yielders was fairly good, but neither the grain nor the 
plants were of sufficient uniformity to be recommended for bread 
wheat planting, and will require one or two more season's selec- 



UXIVEKSITY OF ARIZONA 315 

tions before they will be ready for general planting. However, 
these wheats are regarded as very promising on account of their 
high yield and strong straw which stands up well when the wheat 
is grown on irrigated lands rich in organic matter. One of the 
worst troubles in growing the present standard milling wheats of 
the State is that, when they are planted immediately after alfalfa, 
or other lands rich in nitrogen, they lodge badly. 

II. The main object sought in the wheat breeding at this 
Station is to find, or produce by hybridization, a wheat of high 
gluten content of superior quality. In an effort to combine the 
high gluten contents of the hard wheats of Kansas, such as the 
Turkey Red, with the early, high yielding Sonora wheat, crosses 
of these wheats were made in the screen garden on the campus in 
the spring of 1917. Thirty-three hybrids from this cross were 
grown in the screen garden during the winter and s])ring of 1917 
and 1918. Notes were taken on the earliness of the plants, type of 
head and other plant characters, and quality of the grain. The first 
heads of these hybrids appeared between April 16 and April 23, 
while the first heads of the Turkey parent appeared between April 
29 and May 12. It thus appears that there is a possibility of get- 
ting an early Turkey wheat selection out of these hybrids when it 
breaks up into various types in succeeding generations. Earliness 
in wheat, especially in the irrigated valleys of Arizona, is regarded 
of prime importance in establishing a wheat wnth a high gluten con- 
tent of superior quality. When wheats continue growing in the 
warm days of late spring abundant irrigation is necessary which 
always reduces both the quantity and the quality of the gluten in 
the grain. 

III. Another series of wheat hybrids was made the past year 
for the sole purpose of studying the manner of inheritance of the 
various characters in wheat. Wheats were selected for these crosses 
in such a way that every visible character was paired with its oppo- 
site or its absence. In the succeeding generations a study will be 
made of the factors controlling gluten content, strength of straw, 
and the various factors which control yield. 

IV. Several selections from each of Early Baart, Turkey Red, 
Arizona 39, Sonora, Algerian Macaroni, and Alaskan wheats have 
been under test for several years. As result of these tests one or 
two high yielding strains have been developed from each of these 
varieties. In addition to yield, the milling and baking qualities, 
rust resistance, and strong, non-lodging straw under irrigation have 



316 



Annual Report Agricultuk-xl Experimkxt Station 



received attention. Table V gives the yields obtained from these 
wheats on the Salt River Vallev Farm for 1918. 



TABLE V. YIELDS FROM PURE R.VCES OF WPI 

SALT RIVER VALLEY FARM^ 


EAT IN FIEL 

1918 


D PLOTS ON 


Plot No. 


Name 


Area planted 

Acres 
0.2362 
0.4724 
0.2362 
0.4862 
0.2224 
(>.2362 
0.4864 
2224 
0.2362 
0.2362 
0.2224 
0.2224 
0.2362 


Yield 


per acre 


34 

35-12 


Early Baart 

Sonora 


Founds 
2180 
2032 
2193 
2557 
2549 
2032 
2742 
2414 
2616 
2650 
2338 
2315 
2349 


Bushels 
36.33 
33.86 


36-43 


Turkey 


36.55 


36-51 




42.62 


37- 1 

38- 1 


Poulard 


42.49 

33.87 


39A- 5 
39A- 9 
4CA- 8 
40A-57 


.\rizona 39 

Selected 


45.70 
40.24 
43.60 
44.17 


41 A- 1 


" 


38.96 


lE-13 
lE-88 


Macaroni 


38.59 
39.16 



The varieties represented in this table are those which have 
been selected for several years for either yield, or quality of grain, 
or both. It is seen from Table V that the highest yielder in the lot 
is Arizona 39, selection 5 (39A-5) producing at the rate of 45.7 
bushels per acre. This is approximately 10 bushels more per acre 
than was produced by a plot of Early Baart grown in the same 
field under similar conditions. Section No. 9 of Arizona 39 (39A-9) 
also produced nearly 5 bushels more per acre than the plot of Early 
Baart. Baking tests have also been made of Arizona 39, but it is 
inferior to Early Baart in flour strength, as will be seen from an in- 
spection of Table VI. Table VI. gives the results of the latest 
baking test with the varieties of wheat listed in Table V. 

TABLE VI. BAKING TEST OF ARIZONA WHEATS 









Maximum [ 


Volume 


Weight 


No. 


Name 


Absorption 


volume of 


of 


of 








dough 


loaf 


lo.if 








c. c. 


c. c. 


Grams 


34-16 


Early Baart 


63.7 


2050 


1940 


526 


35-12 


Sonora .... 




63.7 


2000 


1780 


528 


36-43 


Turkey .... 




70.3 


2050 


1675 


544 


36-51 


" 




69.3 


2200 


1630 


529 


37- 1 


Poulard . . . 


72.7 


1750 


1400 


560 


38- 1 


" 


70.0 


1750 


1405 


554 


39A- 5 


Arizona 39. 


63.7 


1900 


1710 


522 


39A- 9 


" " 




65 


2000 


1725 


527 


40A- 8 


Selected . . . 




62 


1600 


1310 


520 


40A-57 


" 




68.3 


2050 


1715 


535 


41 A- 1 


" 




68.8 


2150 


1630 


543 


lE-13 


Macaroni . . 




73.3 


1750 


1390 


560 


lE-88 


. . . " . 




78.3 


1900 


1640 


576 



University of Arizona 317 

From Table VI it is seen that Early Baart (34-16) surpasses 
every other variety represented in the table in volume of loaf. In 
all these tests the same quantity of flour was taken for baking the 
loaf. The column of figures representing loaf volume, therefore, is 
of primary importance in judging the strength of the flours. Ari- 
zona 39 (39A-9) and Sonora (35-12) came nearest to the Early 
Baart in baking strength, but the difiference is great enough to 
place Early Baart considerably ahead in this quality. 

Of all the varieties tested so far by this department. Early 
Baart outranks all others as a milling wheat. Its yield is about 
the average of bread wheats in the State, and there is, therefore, 
room for considerable improvement in this direction. Early Baart 
has the disadvantage of being awned (bearded). Some farmers 
object to the presence of awns, for, \l it becomes necessary to cut 
the grain for hay, the hay produced- is of an inferior quality. The 
beards also render the handling of the wheat previous to threshing 
somewhat uni)leasant. For this reason the department is bringing 
forward as rapidly as possible certain other bread wheat strains 
which, it is believed, will yield, with a few year's further breeding, 
as well as the Early Baart and which will at the same time be a 
good millling wheat free from awns. 

BEANS 

The work of the department with beans this year has been 
largely along investigational lines related to the various Mendelian 
genetic factors of the plant. It was anticipated that along with 
this scientific investigation an economic result might in the end be 
accomplished. The better the plant is known, genetically, the 
easier will it be to combine characters in the attempt to produce 
nearer the ideal. 

Particular study was given to the variation of the internodes 
as afifecting the variances in height of the plant and also as affecting 
the variation in the percentage of supernumerary leaves. In the 
anticipation of the latter it was assumed that internode length could 
vary to zero thereby causing a crowding together into within a 
practicallv immeasurable zone of the first two or three, or four 
nodes, each node carrying its leaf, and thus giving a set of super- 
numerary leaves. The plant having all internodes measurably shows 
two leaves at the first node and one at each node thereafter. Thus 
in the case of a zero length of the first internode we would find 
three primary leaves ; zero length of the first and second internodes, 
four primary leaves, etc. Data covering about three years' work 



318 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station . 

showed 92 percent of all plants having zero length of the first inter- 
node, 66 percent having zero length of the first and second, and 1 
percent having zero length of the first, second and third internodes. 
This leaves 8 percent having two primary leaves. Then 92 percent 
of 66 percent, or 61 percent, of all plants should have had four or 
more, thus leaving 92 less 61, or 31 percent, of all plants with three 
primaries. Also 1 percent of 61 percent, or 0.6 percent, of all plants 
should have had five primary leaves, leaving about 60 percent with 
four primaries. Table VII shows how nearly the actual count in 
one race approaches the theoretically expected. 

TABLE VII. — NUMBER PRIMARY LEAVES 





2 


3 


4 


5 


No. 202 Theoretically expected . . 
No. 202 Actual count 


8 
9 


25 
27 


68 
64 


2 








A number of pure races of teparies were planted in the screen 
garden on the campus during the last spring and summer wdth the 
plan in view to obtain a number of reciprocal crosses in order that a 
new set of hybrids might be produced. Considerable efforts were 
expended in developing a practical and effective method of open 
field cross pollination of beans. 

An interesting segregation appeared this year coming from 
the Fi seed of a cross between a taine and a wild tepary. A further 
investigation wnll be made with the various segregates. 

ALFALFA 

The work with alfalfa has been with three series of plots. One 
of these plots is located in the screen garden on the campus, and 
the other two are on the Salt River Valley Farm, 

The plot in the screen garden consists of 342 transplanted plants 
from various sources. Most of these plants were taken from the 
best plots of the Evergreen Nursery when the work at that place 
was discontinued in 1916. About twenty-five of these plants were 
taken from the Hairy Peruvian alfalfa which w-as growing on the 
north side of the Salt River Valley Farm in the fall of 1917. An 
individual plant study has been made of (1) heat resistance, as indi- 
cated by rapidity of growth and yield of consecutive cuttings as the 
heat of the summer comes on, and (2) quality, as indicated by size 
of stems and percentage of leaves. The work was confined mostly 
to the study of heat resistance. The entire plot was irrigated about 



University of Arizoxa 



319 



once a week so that the lack of water was probably not a limiting 
factor of growth. Kach plant was cut as soon as the first blooms 
appeared. Table \'I11 shows the dates of cuttings and yields per 
plant from fifteen selected plants selected from Plot 156, which 
came originally from the Evergreen Nursery. A similar study was 
made of each of the 342 plants. 

TABLE VIII. — WEIGHTS OF ALFALFA PRODUCED PER PLANT WITH DATES FOR 

EACH CUTTING, 1918 





1st cutting 


2nd cutting | 


3rd cutting 


4th cutting 


No. 


Date 


wt. 


Date 


wt. 


Date 


wt. 


Date 


wt. 








Grams 






Grams 






Grams 




Grnms 


1 


April 


11 


840 


May 


18 


636 


June 


14 


400 


July 10 


242 


1 


April 


23 


120 


May 


30 


130 


June 


22 


80 


July 26 


25 


3 


April 


11 


841 


May 


18 


655 


June 


22 


501 


Julv 26 


170 


4 


April 


23 


368 


May 


23 


247 


June 


22 


216 


Tuly 26 


130 


5 


April 


11 


842 


May 


18 


584 


June 


22 


429 


July 26 


128 


6 


May 


3 


800 


June 


5 


422 


Tuly 


2 


200 


Julv 26 


48 


7 


April 


11 


962 


May 


18 


671 


June 


22 


540 


July 26 


140 


9 


April 


20 


923 


May 


22 


514 


June 


22 


307 


July 26 


205 


10 


April 


15 


984 


Mav 


18 


578 


June 


22 


322 


July 26 


140 


11 


April 


23 


323 


May 


30 


420 


July 


2 


211 






12 


April 


13 


308 


May 


22 


214 


July 


2 


165 






13 


April 


15 


1840 


May 


22 


980 


June 


22 


689 


July 26 


274 


14 


April 


11 


1784 


May 


18 


1025 


June 


22 


845 


July 26 


272 


18 


April 


24 


547 


May 


22 


416 


June 


22 


200 


July 10 


63 


20 


April 


3 


810 


May 


7 


544 


June 


5 


310 


July 2 


187 



It is seen from an inspection of Table VIII that all plants are 
considerably reduced in yield as the summer advances. In no case, 
except in that of plant No. 1, was the yield of the fourth cutting 
more than one-fourth of that or the first cutting. The yields of 
plant No. 6 dropped from 800 grams at the first cutting on May 3, 
to 48 grams at the fourth cutting on July 26. In these studies it is 
not the absolute yield per plant which is considered important, since 
it has not been shown that yield per plant is indicative of mass yield. 
Selections for increase will be made from those plants whose sum- 
mer cuttings are high percentages of their respective first cuttings. 

The 61 pedigree races sown in rows, and the 18 large field 
plots on the Salt River Valley Farm were continued in 1918 for 
further study of yield and quality of hay for the different strains. 
Owing to the shortage of water due to a break in the irrigation 
main in mid-summer only three cuttings which furnished com- 
parable data were made from the field plots. The last cutting was 
made July 1. In searching for high summer yielders a comparison 
was made between the yields of the first cuttings, April 16, and 
those made July 1. Table IX shows these comparisons. 



320 



Annual Rei'Ort Agricultural Experiment Station 



TABLE IX.— YIELDS OF ALFALEAS SALT RIVER VALLEY FARM, 1918 



Mo. 


Variety 


No. 

plots 


Yield per acre 
cutting April 16 


Y'^ield per acre 
cutting- July 1 


Percent July 1 

cutting of 

April 16 

cutting 


11 
22 


Variegated 
Arabian 


3 
3 


Pounds 

3779 
3098 


Pounds 
3378 

2663 


89 
86 


24 


Algerian 


2 


4110 


3018 


73 


27 


Turkestan 


1 


3682 


2994 


77 


35 


Siberian 


1 


4477 


3500 


78 


39 


Peruvian 


6 


4024 


2625 


65 


41 


French 


2 


5180 


3918 


76 



No. 41, a French variety, was the highest yielder of all the alfal- 
fas tested in field plots. As will be seen from the table its yield, 
both in April and in July, surpassed the Hairy Peruvian (39) by 
more than a thousand pounds per acre for each of these cuttings. 
Another significant fact in connection with No. 41 is that the cut- 
ting of July 1 is 76 percent of the cutting of April 16, while the 
percentage of the cutting of July 1 of the Hairy Peruvian (39) was 
only 65 percent of the cutting of April 16. The French variety will 
probably not grow as well through the cool winters of southern 
Arizona as Hairy Peruvian, but it seems to be a much more vigor- 
ous summer grower. It has been planned to take seed crops from 
these alfalfas next year and if these high yielders prove to be good 
seed producers, seed crops will be taken as rapidly as possible for 
general distribution. 



GRAIN SORGHUMS 

The work during the past year with sorghums was confined to 
breeding for type of plant in milo. In the fall of 1916 about 60 
•dwarf milo plants were selected from the Yuma plots. Nothing 
was done on the grain sorghum project in 1917 owing to insufficient 
help in the department. Each of these plants had a single upright 
head producing neither suckers nor branches. The purpose in mak- 
ing these selections was to make a study of the eft'ect of selection on 
tillering and branching. It is believed that a plant prcMlucing a 
single upright head, provided size of head and size of grain can be 
maintained, would have many points of advantage over the ordinary 
branching plants with pendant heads. Thirty-four of the best heads 
from the 60 selections of 1916 mentioned above were planted in 
head rows on the Mesa Farm in July, 1918. When the plants were 
in full head a study was made of the branching habits of the plants, 
type of head, size of grain, and height of plant. Of the 5,270 plants 
grown on the 34 rows, about 80 plants were found which came true 



University of Arizona 321 

to the single head type, and about half of the heads of these plants 
were upright. 

It appears from these studies that some of the plants were pure 
for the type selected, while others, due to some unusual position in 
the field, such as crowding or lack of moisture, failed to develop 
normally. Selections were made for carrying the work further next 
season. 

W. E. Br VAN, 

Acting Plant Breeder. 
C. O. Bond, 
Assistant Plant Breeder. 



ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 

A combination of scarcity of forage in most range districts, 
high prices of roughages and concentrates, expensive and inef^cient 
labor, scarcity of money, and relatively low prices of animals have 
made stock-raising difhcnlt in Arizona during the past year. A 
second year of drought has prevailed in all parts of the State, except 
for scattered districts and ranges in Coconino, Yavapai, and Mohave 
-jounties. Rains have been unusually local in distribution, there 
being small areas in the dry belt that have supplied good forage. 
Losses have been great among sheep and cattle, and the lamb and 
calf crop were below normal. Fortunately, a mild winter in the 
northern part of the State was most favorable for range c_ttle and 
sheep, but lack of feed and water made it necessary to purchase 
cottonseed cake, hay, and silage for the animals. 

For the most part, stock production has been profitable on irri- 
gated farms, but the high price of feeds made cattle and sheep feed- 
ing operations less remunerative than formerly. Where actual cost 
of production was considered, dairying has been profitable, although 
not as large returns were secured as would have been possible by 
selling the feed at market value. A distinct tendency to reduce the 
number of horses, cattle, and hogs on irrigated farms has prevailed. 
Many stockmen not owning their farms, or operating on a long 
term lease, have been forced out of the business by high price of' 
feed, expensive leases, and scarcity of labor. The light rainfall 
made it difficult to raise crops on dry-farm areas during the past 
year. In too many cases, a reserve of feed was not retained, and 
when the drought came dry-farmers found it difhcult to maintain 
their animals. 

The winter of 1917 and 1918 was one of the most trying for 
sheepmen since 1904. Owing to the drought, scarcity of water, and 
the cool weather, feed did not grow on the desert. Many ewes 
died, and the lamb crop was much below normal. In some flocks, 
the lamb crop will not be sufficient to replace the loss among the 
ewes. Many of the ewes were moved to irrigated districts, where 
feed for them cost as much as $3.00 to $4.00 a head. Pastures in 
the SaU River Valley cost from $25.00 to $40.00 per acre for a 
period of six weeks with hay at $35.00 per ton. Fortunately, the 
prices of lambs and wool were unusually good, and sheepmen will 
make a normal profit in spite of mortality and increased cost of 
production. 

The cattle industrv has had a serious set-back in Arizoni 



University of Arizona 323 

during- the past year. Drought prevailed in southern and north- 
eastern counties, and many animals were forced to market. The 
prices of heavy cattle, two and three-year-old steers and up, in- 
creased appreciably, but there was a tendency for yearlings and 
cows to decrease during the year. The demand for stockers in the 
fall of 1917 was below normal, and many that would normally be 
marketed had to be wintered. The shortage of range feed and the 
overstocked condition of the ranges caused many thousands of cattle 
to starve in the drought stricken areas. Some cattle were fed, and 
those strong enough to stand shipping to market were sent to 
packers, without regard to age or sex. The number of cattle in the 
State has been materially reduced during the past year, and there 
will not be the normal number to go to market next year unless 
forced liquidation continues on account of the drought and scarcity 
of money. 

A distinct tendency to place the production of range animals 
on a more secure and substantial basis has been observed during 
the past year. Over 5,000,000 acres of range land have been pur- 
chased and an equal area leased during the past two years. The 
control of the land in this way makes it possible for the stockmen 
to protect their range by fencing, developing water, and avoiding 
overgrazing. B}- the application of improved methods stockmen 
claim that they can double the carrying capacity of the range, and 
reserve feed to carry the animals over drought. Tanks and deep 
wells have been installed, allowing a more even distribution of the 
animals on the range, besides making available large areas of little 
value for stock production without water. More registered sires 
have been used than at any previous time, and they are certain to 
effect a distinct improvement in the quality of the offspring. The 
large number of cowboys and sheep herders who enlisted in the war 
made it necessary to perfect measures for conducting operations 
with a smaller labor force. Not a few of the large cattle and sheep 
outfits have purchased irrigated farms which are operated in con- 
junction with the range business. Forage crops are being pro- 
duced wherever possible, and conserved in stacks and silos to be 
L'sed in drought emergencies. As a result of these improvements 
stockmen are able to give the animals closer attention and with less 
labor, so that losses will be reduced in the future, and with normal 
rainfall there will be greater production and larger returns from 
Arizona ranges in spite of the apparent increase in all the items 
figured in cost of production. 



324 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

FEEDING YUCCA TO STARVING RANGE COWS 

During the past year thousands of cattle were kept from starva- 
tion by feeding them chopped yucca. Where this plant grows 
abundantly it makes a good emergency feed for starving cattle and 
sheep. The plant is found over most of Arizona at altitudes of 
3,000 to 5,000 feet. It is prepared for stock by chopping with a 
special machine which was placed on the market early in the year. 
The machine works on the same principle as a root chopper and is 
driven by a 6 to 10-horsepower gasoline engine. One of these small 
machines will chop one to two tons of yucca per hour, or sufficient 
to keep 500 cattle alive. Only the thinnest and weakest stock are 
fed, but calves can be satisfactorily weaned on 10 to 20 pounds of 
soapweed and one pound of cottonseed cake a day. Cows are given 
twice as much of the pulp and will gain in strength on it, but the 
addition of one-half to one pound of cake daily will give better re- 
sults. Cows can be fed on the pulped stems and leaves at $1.00 to 
$1.50 per month where it is not necessary to haul the yucca over 
four miles. Animals that have become so weak that they cannot 
get up alone will gain strength and do well on this feed, but it is 
best to begin feeding before they become so weak. The animals 
should be placed in separate lots so they can be classified according 
to strength and food requirements. They soon learn to eat the 
yucca and grow fond of it. Feeding is done by scattering the pulp 
on the ground or placing it in feed bunks. It is best to allow the 
stronger animals the freedom of a large pasture where they can 
gather dry grass and browse. 

Pulped yucca has been demonstrated to have sufficient food 
quality to keep both cows and sheep alive. Undoubtedly 75 percent 
or more of the cows that have been fed on yucca would have died if 
some kind of feed had not been supplied them. While yucca will 
certainly keep starving cows alive, it is considered best to supple- 
ment the range by growing crops wherever possible by dry-farming, 
floodwater, or irrigation methods. The labor of preparing the yucca 
is considerable and the work is not pleasant. As this plant grows 
slowly, the supply will become exhausted so that yucca does not 
offer a permanent means of relief during dry periods which retard 
the growth of range forage. 

Early in the spring of 1918 the problem of using yucca for tiding 
cattle over short range was studied. The results of these observa- 
tions are given in Extension Circular No. 21. 



University of Arizona 



325 



HOGS 

During the year a careful record was maintained of the hogs 
at the University Farm and valuable information secured regarding 
the effect of feeding certain foods to growing and fattening hogs. 

fattening iior.s on garbage alone 

Eight pigs in ordinary field condition, weighing a total of 605 
pounds, were fed over a period of 25 days on garbage alone. At 
the outset the pigs seemed to relish the feed, and ate it greedily. 
All animals did well, making rapid and uniform gains. At the end 
of 25 days the pigs weighed 981 pounds, making a total gain of 376 
pounds. This gain at 16 cents a pound, which was the local price 
at that time, would amount to $60.16 for the gain in live weight. 
The following statement gives the results of this test : 

Average weight at beginning, 75.6 pounds. 

Average weight at end of 25 days. 122.6 pounds. 

Average gain per pig, 47.0 pounds. 

Average gain per pig per day, 1.88 pounds. 

TWO METHODS OF RAISING REGISTERED DUROC-JERSEY GILTS 

Five gilts, born January 10. 1918. have been under observation 
lor a period of 284 days. They were weaned when about eight 
weeks old, and weighed approximately 35 pounds each. All five 
animals were from the same litter and uniform in size, vigor, and 
quality. Two of them were sold April 6. 1918. and raised in the 
ordinarv manner used in the district. The other three received 
good care and attention, being fed on rolled barley and corn bran 
until July 15 w^hen they were given rolled barley; after this date 
they were fed on garbage. The weights of these animals on Octo- 
ber 21, 1918. when the pigs were 284 days old. are given in Table X. 

TABLE X. — WEIGHTS OF PIGS RAISED ACCORDING TO TWO METHODS 



Pig No. 


Farmer 


Method of feeding 


Weight Oct. 21 








Pouvds 


1 


A 


Ordinarv 


105 


9 


A 


" 


145 


3 


B 


Good 


295 


4 


B 


" 


315 


5 


B 


" 


303 



It is interesting to note that the two gilts on Farm A weighed 
a total of 250 pounds, which is 40 pounds less than the lightest gilt 
raised on Farm B. The average weight of a giU raised on Farm 
A was 125 pounds, while the average weight of gilts raised on 



326 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 



Farm B was 304.33 pounds. The pigs were not alike in any respect 
except color and it would require an expert judge to distinguish 
much merit in pigs No. 1 and 2. Undoubtedly these pigs would 
have been just as good if fed the same way. It will be most inter- 
esting to continue this study to see if they will become as large, 
attractive, and useful animals as those raised on Farm B. Table 
XI gives data regarding the weight and gains of the five pigs. 

TABLE XI. — RATE OE GAINS IN PIGS RAISED ACCORDING TO TWO DIEEERENT 

METHODS 



. 


Weight at 


Weight at 
284 days 


Gains 

since 

weaning 


A.verage daily gains since 


1 56 days 


Birth 


Weaning 


1 

9 

3 
4 
5 


Pounds 

35 
35 
35 
35 
35 


Pounds 

105 
145 
295 
315 
303 


Pounds 

70 
110 
260 
280 
268 


Pounds 

.37 

.51 
1.04 
1.07 
1.07 


Pounds 

.31 

.48 
1.14 
1.23 
1.18 



A thrifty breeding gilt should gain fully a pound a day from 
the time of birth, and slightly more from the time of weaning. 
Gains are made more rapidly as the animal becomes larger. The 
pigs maintained on Farm A gained only one-third to one-half as 
much as those on the other farm. 

Undoubtedly it is unprofitable to withhold feed from young 
pigs, and registered breeding stock must have a liberal allowance 
oi food. These animals have been developed to yield maximum re- 
turns from liberal feeding. Scrubs would probably do better under 
neglect. Razor-back hogs of the South, or wild Havalina or Pecary 
pigs in the Southwest, will probably thrive better than the pure 
breds where they must rustle for feed on the range. 

GARBAGE VERSUS GRAINS EOR GROWING AND FATTENING HOGS 

An experiment was conducted the i)a.st year to ascertain the 
value of garbage as a food for growing and fattening hogs. The 
garbage used in this test was of average quality, collected daily 
from the University dining hall, and fed as 'nearly as possible on 
the day collected. 

Three registered Duroc-Jersey gilts, farrowed January 10, 1918, 
and weaned March 7, 1918, were fed grains and garbage over dif- 
ferent periods. From March 7 to July 15 they were fed on dry 
grain, and also from September 16 to 30. Their feed consisted 
wholly of garbage from July 15 to September 15 and from Septem- 
ber 30 to November 11. While they were being fed garbage, this 
food and water constituted their onlv ration. 



University of Arizona 



327 



The pigs were weighed at weekly intervals beginning May 20 
and continuing to November 11. Table XII gives the date, kind of 
feed and average daily gain of each pig while on test. 

TABLE XII. COMPARISON OF GAINS OF PIGS FED ON GARBAGE AND GRAINS 



Jan. 10 to May 20 
May 20 to July 15 
July 15 to Sept. 16 
Sept. 16 to Sept. 30 
Sept. 30 to Nov. 11 



Feed 


Average daily gain 


Pigl 


Pig 2 


Pig 3 


Mother's milk and grains 
Grains 


Pounds 

0.68 
1.32 
1.17 
1.07 
1.82 


Pounds 

0.62 
1.30 
1.51 
1.43 
1.83 


Pounds 

0.71 
1.20 


Garbage 


1.37 


Grains 


1.21 


Garbage 


1.19 



Table XII indicates that with two exceptions each time the 
pigs were changed from a grain ration to garbage, the average daily 
gain increased appreciably. On the other hand when changed from 
garbage to grain, which took place September 16 to September 30, 
each animal slumped decidedly in daily gain. Two of the animals 
showed a decided increase in daily gain when changed from a rolled 
liarley ration to one of garbage during the last period of the 
experiment. 

Table XIII gives the average daily gain in pounds for each 
of the three pigs while fed on garbage as compared to grain. 

TABLE XIII. — AVERAGE DAILY GAIN OF PIGS FED ON GARBAGE AND GRAIN 



Date 



Mav 20 to July 15 and 
Sept. 16 to 30 

July 15 to Sep. 16 and 
Sept. 30 to Nov. 11... 



Feed 


Average daily 


gain 


Pig 1 Pig 2 


Pig 3 




Pounds 1 Pounds 


Pounds 


Grains 


1.19 1 1.36 


1.20 


Garbage 


1.49 I 1.67 


1.28 



Average 
of all 

Pounds 

1.265 
1.455 



The three gilts which weighed 81, 89, and 92 pounds, respec- 
tively, on May 20, weighed 328, 346, and 320 pounds, respectively, 
at the end of 175 days. The gain during this period was 724 pounds. 
They were fed garbage 105 days, during which time they gained 
464.2 pounds and they were fed grain 65 days, gaining 259.8 pounds. 
At this rate the average daily gain for the entire group amounted 
to 1.455 pounds for the garbage fed hogs and 1.265 pounds for the 
period they were fed on grains. This indicates that greater gains 
were produced on garbage than grains as each of the pigs made 
greater gain while being fed garbage. 

The garbage fed to the three gilts cost approximately $5.00 a 
month or a total of $17.50 for the 105 days. Considering the fact 



328 x\nnuaIv Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

that hogs were worth $16.00 per 100 pounds this is a very good 
profit from feeding garbage. If the pigs had been fed on grains 
during this time i.t would require fully 5 pounds of grain to produce 
a pound of gain in live weight.. This grain costs locally 3 cents per 
pound and, at this rate, it would have cost 15 cents to produce a 
pound of gain or $69.60 for the 464.2 pounds gain. Thus garbage 
effected a saving of $52.10 compared with a grain ration. This 
saving amounted to $12.50 per hundred pounds of gain in live 
weight. 

The feeding tests with garbage prove emphatically that it is 
a splendid food for growing and fattening hogs. Thruout the feed- 
ing period the animals were in slaughter condition. Garbage is a 
cheaper source of food for hogs than grain, at present market prices, 
and wherever it can be secured it should be used. Anyone situated 
within a reasonable distance of a supply such as that secured from 
hotels, restaurants, or mining camps would do well to use garbage 
for the production of high-priced pork at low cost. Where reason- 
able intelligence is used in keeping the garbage fresh and placing 
nothing except clean, wholesome food in the garbage can, there is 
no danger of disease or losses from feeding it. 

FEEDING WORK HORSES ON CORN SILAGE 

Silage is sometimes fed to work horses, but frequently with 
injurious results. During the winter of 1918 a man at Tucson lost 
five horses from feeding moldy silage. Other reports in the State 
also indicate that silage may be highly toxic for horses, but no 
instances have been found of it injuring cattle or sheep when 
properly fed. 

On the Prescott Dry-Farm four horses have been fed a con- 
siderable portion of silage the past three years. During this time 
they were usually given all the alfalfa hay they would eat, but from 
time to time silage constituted the only roughage. When worked 
they were given an addition of about 8 pounds of rolled barley per 
head daily. This amount of grain was greatly reduced when the 
horses were idle and at times they received nothing but silage. 
From April 1, 1918, until late in the summer, the horses were given 
all the silage they would eat at all times. Daily feed records were 
maintained from June 15 to August 12, and the amount of silage 
consumed ranged from 130 to 490 pounds per day and averaged 
during this period 299 pounds per day for four work horses. The 
average amount per head was 74.75 pounds daily during the period, 
and varied from 32.5 to 122.5 pounds per head daily. If the silage 



Univkrsity of Arizona 329 

contained 30 percent dry matter each horse averaged approximately 
22 ponnds of dry matter in the silage daily. 

No injurious results were observed from feeding the silage. 
The animals were in good vigorous condition at all times, and 
worked well. vSome observations, however, have been made to 
the effect that the muscles seem to be a little soft and the animals 
lack somewhat in ambition. One would seem justified in conclud- 
ing that silage may be safely fed to horses at all times if given m 
reasonable amounts, and after it has been ascertained that it con- 
tains no poisonous substances. It is important, however, that the 
animals should be gradually accustomed to the feed and that not 
more than half of the dry matter is made up of silage. Where grain 
is abundant in the material used for silage, one should reduce the 
quantity of grain given to the animals. The greatest danger from 
feeding silage is allowing horses to consume molded material, which 
often proves fatal. 

SHEEP 

THK WOOL CLIP 

Twelve sheep, including five mature and six yearling cross-bred 
ewes, and one Hampshire ram, yielded a total of 80.75 pounds of 
wool. The yearlings averaged 5.83 pounds per head, and the ma- 
ture sheep 7.63 pounds. The registered flock consisted of 37 ani- 
mals and these gave a total weight of 236 pounds of wool or an 
average of 6.38 pounds per head. Table XIV gives the wool clip 
for 1918. 

T.NBLE XIV. — YIKLD OF WOOL, 1918 



I Fleeces Weight of Average weight Average net value of 

Flock No. wool per animal wool per animal 



I Pounds Pounds Dollars 

Mesa... 12 80.75 6.73 3.56 

U. of A. 37 236.00 6.38 I 3.18 



It is most interesting to note that these sheep gave an average 
net return of $3.37 per head, for the annual clip of wool. The re- 
turns suggest that every farmer would do well to maintain a small 
flock of sheep. They are especially valuable in gleaning fields and 
keeping weeds in check in pasture fields and out-of-way places. 

MARKETING WOOL IN 1918 

The wool produced by the sheep during the past year was 
sent to two commission firms in Chicago with the request that it 



330 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 



be graded and sold according to quality. The report from these 
firms is given in Table XV. 

TAIiLE XV. COMMISSION FIRm's REPORT OF ARIZONA WOOL 



Commis- 
sion firm 


Weight 
of wool 


Grade 


Price per 
pound 


Expense of 
marlieting 


Total 


Per lb. 




Pounds 




Dollars 


Dollars 


Dollars 


A 


78 


Western and low medium 


.60 


4.99 


.064 


B 


54 


J4 Semi 


.58 


10.16 


.043 


B 


182 


Vs Semi 


.53 J 







The cross-bred sheep yielded wool that was graded '\vestern 
and low medium," while wool from registered Hampshire and 
Shropshire sheep was classified "^ Semi and }i Semi." The price 
secured for the cross-bred wool was distinctly higher than that 
from the other sheep, but this is thought due primarily to the mar- 
keting ability of the two commission firms. Another probable rea- 
son for the difference may be the fact that over half the registered 
sheep gave fleeces that were only 10 months old, and on this account 
the wool w'as short in staple. Naturally the cross-bred wool has 
more length of staple than that secured from the registered Hamp- 
shire and Shropshire sheep, and there was a special demand for 
that kind of wool during the past year. 

COTTONSEED CAKE FOR DAIRY COWS 

With the development of the cotton industry in Arizona, quan- 
tities of cottonseed by-products have become available as stock 
foods. It is well known that these feeds are high in food value and 
they are used extensively for live stock feeding in the older cotton 
districts. Their use in Arizona has become quite extensive since 
under government supervision they have been placed on the market 
at very reasonable prices. 

This experiment was planned to test the value of cold pressed 
cottonseed cake as a su])i)lement to alfalfa hay and corn silage. To 
test the relative value of various combinations three rations were 
taken, each containing as nearly as possible the same energy value. 
The rations used were as follows: 

Ration 1 — 15 lbs. alfalfa hay 

40 " silage 
Ration 2 — 22 lbs. alfalfa hay 

4 " cottonseed cake 



University of Arizona 



331 



Ration 3 — 11 lbs. alfalfa hay 
40 " silage 
3 " cottonseed cake 

Eleven cows were available for the test. These were divided 
into three groups : four in each of two groups and three in the other. 
Since it was impossible to balance the groups evenly the test was 
divided into three periods of twenty-eight days each, and the rations 
were alternated so that each ration was fed to each group of cows 
for the same length of time. In this way it was possible to over- 
come the effects of difference of breed, period of lactation, and indi- 
viduality of the cows. One week interval was allowed between 
each period to allow the cows to become used to the change in 
rations. 

No attempt was made to draw any conclusions from the data 
secured during any one period because of so many factors entering 
in to influence the results, but the combined results of each ration 
for the three periods were studied. Table No. XVI shows the 
total number days each ration was fed, total feed consumed, total 
milk produced, and total fat yield. 

T.4BLE XVI. SUMMARY OF FEEDS FED AND MILK AND FAT PRODUCE.) 











Number 


Rations 


Total feed 


Total milk 


Total fat 


days in 




con.su med 


yield 


yield 

Pounds 


test 




Pounds 


Pounds 




Ration 1 










* Alfalfa hay 15 lbs... 


4.956 












7810.5 


262.3 


84 


Silage 40 " . . 


12,320 








Ration 2 










*Alfalfa hav 22 lbs. . . 


7,028 












8270.2 


289.1 


84 


Cottonseed cake 4 " . . 


1,232 








Ration 3 










*Alfalfa hav lllbs... 


3.72\ 








Silage 40 " . . 


12.320 


7679.4 


268.9 


84 


Cottonseed cake 3 " . . 


924 









*3 lbs. alfalfa hay per cow per day was added during last period. 

The cows gave 459.7 pounds of milk and 26.79 pounds of fat 
more when receiving alfalfa hay and cottonseed cake than from 
alfalfa and silage, and 590.8 pounds of milk and 20.2 pounds of 
butter fat more than from the alfalfa, silage, and cottonseed meal 
ration. This would indicate that the cottonseed cake was a better 
supplement for alfalfa hay than silage, yet Ration 3, which contains 
three pounds of the cake in combination with silage and alfalfa, 
failed to produce as much milk as the alfalfa and silage ration. The 
amount of milk varies almost directly with the amount of alfalfa fed. 



332 Annual Report Agricultur.\l Experiment Station 



Table XVII shows the cost of the feed fed, the cost of the feed 
per gallon of milk and per pound of butter fat, the value of the milk 
produced from each ration during the test if figured at 30 cents per 
gallon, and the profit over cost of feed. 

TABLE XVII. — COST OF PRODUCTION AND PROFIT OVER COST OF FEED 



Rations 


Cost of 
feed 


Cost per 

gallon of 

millc 


Cost per 

pound 

fat 


Value of 
milk at 
30 cts. 

per gallon 


Profit 

ever cost 

Of feed 


Ration 1 
Alfalfa hay 

Silage 


15 lbs.. 
40 lbs.. 


Dollars 

117.39 


Cents 

12.9 


Cents 

45.1 


Dollars 

272.43 


Dollars 
155.04 


Ration 2 
Alfalfa hay 

Cottonseed cake 


22 lbs.. 
4 lbs.. 


115.57 


12.2 


38.9 


288.48 


173.91 


Ration 3 
Alfalfa hay 
Silage 
Cottonseed cake 


nibs.. ' 

40 lbs.. 1 

3 lbs.. 1 


122.76 


13.6 


45.6 


267.87 


146.11 



To compute the costs of production the prices of the feeds were 
fixed as follows : alfalfa hay, $25.00 per ton ; silage, $9.00 per ton, 
and cold pressed cottonseed cake, $60.00 per ton. These are be- 
lieved to be about an average of the prevailing market prices during 
the past year. The cows were fed most cheaply on Ration 2 while 
Ration 3 was most expensive. The cost of milk per gallon was 12.9 
cents on Ration 1, 12.2 cents on Ration 2, and 13.6 cents on Ration 3. 
The cost per pound of butter fat was less on Ration 2 than on 
either of the other rations. When milk was figured at 30 cents per 
gallon, the profit over cost of feed was $18.87 more for Ration 2 
than for Ration 1, and $27.80 more than for Ration 3. The profit 
over cost of feed per day per cow was as follows. Ration 1 — 50.3 
cents. Ration 2 — 56 cents. Ration 3 — 47 cents. 

The results of this experiment are unusual, since the best bal- 
anced ration gave the poorest returns while the most unbalanced 
ration made the largest and most profitable production. Consider- 
ing the fact that Ration 2, containing 22 pounds of alfalfa hay and 
4 pounds of cottonseed cake gave a much better result than Ration 
3, consisting of 11 pounds of alfalfa hay, 40 pounds of silage, and 
3 pounds of cottonseed cake, it would seem that the larger propor- 
tion of hay was more responsible for the increased and more 
economical production than was the cottonseed cake. This experi- 



University of Arizona 



333 



ment is being repeated with some minor modifications, and no defi- 
nite conclusions will be drawn until it is seen whether the similar 
results are secured from it. 

INSTRUCTION AND EXECUTIVE WORK 

With the declaration of war by the United States, new responsi- 
bilities were forced upon the nation. The members of the depart- 
ment attempted to do something of immediate importance to in- 
crease the surplus live stock from the State. Many short and 
timely articles have been prepared for i)ublication during the past 
year. The stockmen were encouraged to initiate certain improve- 
ments and apply methods which were best suited to local conditions. 
It must be said that the stockmen in the State rallied almost to a 
man, and patriotically did everything they C(juld to produce more 
meat for the nation. In many cases they spent more money at- 
tempting to keep animals alive by giving them high priced feeds 
than they could secure from them. 

During the year the registered Jersey cow, Gipsy Draconis, 
owned by the University, has completed a semi-official test for a 
year. This cow gave 10,162.7 pounds milk, 498.77 pounds butter 
fat, equivalent to 586.78 pounds of 85 percent butter, in 365 days. 
She has the distinction of leading every cow in the State in the 
amount of butter yield for the year. Other cows were tested for 
breeders of Holstein and Jersey cattle during the year. Table 
XVIII gives the yield of cows in the University herd during the 
past year. 

TABLE XVIII. — YIELDS OF DAIRY COWS AT THE UNIVERSITY FARM, 

1917-1918 



Name of cow 



Princess of Chewanbeek 

Childberte 

Gipsv Draconis 

Belle Liscomb De Kol 2d . . 

Josephine Ariz. Maid 

Theresa Belle Monona 

Josephine Ariz. Maid 2d... 
*Margaret De Kol Johanna . . 

Madison Martha 2d 

*Miss Pell Pietertje 

Thersa Belle Moncna . 
Average for herd 



Breed 



Jersey 
Holstein 



Days 
in milk 



Y'ield 



Milk 





Pounds 


307 


S777A 


328 


6,281.3 


406 


10,693.1 


260 


8.125.1 


324 


13,216.2 


326 


9,765.9 


276 


8,960.0 


233 


3.396.1 


291 


8,077.1 


332 


5,639.1 


467 


7,934.0 


318 


7^7.7 



Butter 
fat 



Averag^e 
butter fat 



Pounds 


% 


299.30 


474 


360.83 


5.74 


575.54 


5.40 


269.80 


3.32 


382.90 


2.89 


325.52 


3.42 


251.21 


2.80 


106.30 


3.19 


243.89 


3.09 


219.63 


3.95 


251.92 


3.17 


298.79 


3.74 



♦Part of the lactation period. 



334 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

The number of registered Hereford cattle, Duroc-Jersey hogs, 
Hampshire and Shropshire sheep have been increased by maintain- 
ing some of the females produced by these animals. During the 
year a small flock of Rambouillet sheep has been added to the 
equipment, and these will be highly desirable for demonstration and 
class room purposes. 

The department plans to continue the following lines of study 
during the coming year : 

1. Systems of live stock management 

2. Lambing ewes on irrigated farms 

3. Tiding range cows over drought 

4. Finishing cattle for market 

5. Pig feeding experiments 

6. Poultry managements 

The Animal Husbandry Department has been short handed in 
the past, and a reorganization which will allow more specialization 
is recommended. With this end in view, a Dairy Department has 
been established with Professor W. S. Cunningham in charge. This 
department plans to carry out the following projects during the 
coming year 

1 Study of systems of dairy management 

2. Economical rations for dairy cattle 

3. Raising calves on milk substitutes 

4. Cheese making 

5. Milk sanitation 

The poultry interest in the State demands a specialist who will 
be able to devote his entire time to this branch. A specialist in 
veterinary science is also urgently needed to study local diseases 
that are peculiar to the district. In order to permit any specializa- 
tion within the department it will be necessary to have a general 
assistant who will devote most of his time to teaching. The general 
live stock interests in range districts warrant the selection of a 
specialist in Animal Plusbandry for agricultural extension work. 

R. H. Williams, 

Animal Husbandman. 
W. S. Cunningham, 

Dairy Husbandman. 



ENTOMOLOGY 

In continuation of the experiments with grasshopper baits be- 
gun in 1917, forty combinations were tested in 1918, beginning in 
the month of May. Definite records were made concerning appli- 
cations of these combinations to 269 acres of alfalfa and cotton 
lands. In this work assistance was rendered in various ways by 
Messrs. O. C. Bartlett, D. C. George, J. L. E. Lauderdale, George 
Acuff, M. E. Kimscy, and R. H. Armstrong. The work was directed 
against the same species as in 1917, the differential grasshopper, 
Melanoplns diffcrcntialis. The tests were all made in the Salt River 
Valley with the excc])ti()n of one application made by the writer 
in a len-acre alfalfa field in the Verde \'alley near Camp Verde. 

The movement or drifting of the grasshoppers in the fields 
both toward and away from poisoned areas tends to confuse the 
results of experiments with poisoned baits and makes it necessary 
to repeat the tests many times under various conditions before 
drawing final conclusions. Tentative conclusions from the work 
done in 1917 are as follows: 

1. A combination of half and half wheat bran and pine saw- 
dust is fully equal to wheat bran alone for the bulk of the substance 
of the bait and is easier to distribute than when all wheat bran is 
used. 

2. All sawdust is decidedly inferior to all bran or to a half and 
half bran- sawdust mixture. 

3. For the fruit, oranges are in no degree inferior to lemons 
and are perhaps slightly better. 

4. Canteloupes are in no degree inferior to lemons but on the 
contrary are apparently slightly superior as well as cheaper. 

5. Molasses is not only an unnecessary ingredient of poisoned 
baits but wdien used w^ith citrus fruits the effectiveness of the bait is 
reduced rather than increased. 

From the experiments conducted in the summer of 1918 the 
following tentative conclusions are drawn concerning poisoned baits 
for the differential grasshopper : 

1. Half and half and 60-40 percent wheat bran and sawdust 
mixtures are fully as good as all bran. 

2. Barley middlings is not entirely satisfactory as a substitute 
for wheat bran although it usually gives fairly good results when 
used in half and half mixtures with sawdust. 

3. Dry horse manure is not a satisfactory substitute for wheat 
bran altho it is not without merit for use in emergencies. 



336 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

4. A mixture composed of wheat and corn bran (not over 50 
percent of the latter) is as good as straight wheat bran. 

5. Canteloupes are fully equal to lemons as ingredients of 
poisoned baits. 

6. Molasses does not add to the value of the bait. 

7. London purple as the poisonous ingredient in baits is in- 
ferior to Paris green. 

Owing to the shortage of wheat bran, barley middlings was 
extensively used in Arizona in 1918 as a substitute in grasshopper 
baits. It was necessary to use sawdust with the barley middlings 
to prevent lumping, the proportion used and advised being from 
two-fifths to one-half sawdust. In the experiments here considered 
in which combinations of barley middlings were used approximately 
120 acres of infested lands were treated. The results were not as 
satisfactory as observed in many other cases where barley middlings 
and sawdust mixtures were used on large areas in demonstrations 
and in subsequent work by alfalfa and cotton growers. Fortunately 
it is probable that hereafter there will rarely if ever be any occasion 
for the use of barley middlings as a substitute for wdieat bran. 

Horse manure has been recommended by the writer and suc- 
cessfully used in Arizona in grasshopper baits, mixed according to 
the formula known as "Criddle mixture," but this has not been 
tested particularly against the differential grasshopper as far as 
known. Outbreaks of the differential grasshopper occurred in 1918 
in localities where neither wheat, bran, barley middlings or sawdust 
were available. In one instance it was reported that a farmer used 
dry horse manure in the place of bran with good results. Tests 
made in the Salt River Valley in 1918 with dry horse manure in 
various combinations did not give very satisfactory results but 
more work with this material is very desirable and is planned for 
next season. 

Corn bran alone appeared inferior to barley middlings and saw- 
dust but the conditions were such in the tests of this that even 
tentative conclusions could not be drawn. A wheat and corn bran 
mixture was used with almost perfect results. This mixture was 
purchased as wheat bran but was apparently nearly one-half corn 

bran. 

Of the nine series of experiments in 1918. six gave results re- 
lating to the use of molasses. In four series in which molasses was 
omitted in one or more tests this did not appear to reduce the effec- 
tiveness of the baits. In one experiment in which the molasses was 
increased two-thirds over the usually recommended amount no 



University of Arizona 337 

effect could be detected. In one series in which a medium Hght 
grade of molasses was used instead of the usually recommended 
darker grade the results were almost perfect, tending to show, inde- 
pendent of all other experiments, that a darker grade, particularly 
"Black Strap," is not necessary. 

Baits for use against the differential grasshopper which can be 
tentatively recommended as a result of two seasons' work reduce 
the cost of the materials from approximately 50 cents to less than 
35 cents. When cull canteloupes are available the cost runs as 
low as 30 cents per acre. This is on the basis of one pound of 
Paris green to 5 acres of land. 

Poisoned baits are the principal means of combatting cutworms. 
The regular grasshopper baits are generally recommended thruout 
the United States at present, altho a few years ago the simple 
combination of bran and Paris green with or without water was 
considered satisfactory. As far as know^n to the writer there are 
no published results of cutworm experiments showing the value of 
either lemons or molasses in combination wath the bran and Paris 
green. An excellent opportunity for testing the bran, Paris green, 
and water combination against a common alfalfa pest (Feltia annexa 
'JV.) was afforded in the fall of 1918 with apparently perfect results. 
No live worms could be found in the treated field three weeks after 
the application altho they remained in destructive numbers in a 
nearby field which had not been poisoned. Cutworm poison con- 
sisting of half a sack of bran (32^ pounds) and one pound of Paris 
green costs at the present time at the rate of 36 cents per acre as 
compared with 50 cents or more per acre for the usual grasshopper 
bait containing molasses and lemons. It seems reasonable to as- 
sume until actual tests prove the contrary that molasses and lemons 
are unnecessary and of no value in baits for cutworms. 

In connection with investigations of grasshoppers and cotton 
square daubers (Lygiis clisiis var. hesperus Knight and L. pratensis 
ohlincatus Say) it was discovered that many cotton fields suffer from 
these pests as a result of the insects being driven out of adjoining 
alfalfa fields when the alfalfa crop is cut. As a result of observa- 
tions made on this point an article was prepared and published in 
leading publications in cotton growing districts of the State recom- 
mending a system which helps to protect cotton from injury from 
this source. Alfalfa cutting and raking in fields adjoining cotton 
fields should be started on the sides and continued toward the cen- 
tral land or a land near to it on which alfalfa should be left 
standing temporarily. The grasshoppers and cotton square dau- 
bers aie thus concentrated near the center of the field. The grass- 



338 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

hoppers can then be destroyed by means of a comparatively heavy 
application of poisoned bait or by means of a hopperdozer. The 
hopperdozer proved successful in capturing large numbers of other 
destructive insects, particularly cotton square daubers and the three- 
cornered alfalfa hopper. In one test the daubers were captured at 
a rate of more than 7000 of the insects per acre. It is estimated 
that this number of the square daubers liberated in or driven into 
an Egyptian cotton field would be capable of doing damage amount- 
ing to between $5.00 and $15.00 per day. The cost of using the 
hopperdozer would not exceed 25 cents per acre. Even if the in- 
sects are not destroyed by this or other means it is very important 
in cutting alfalfa that they be driven into the middle of the field 
or away from the cotton rather than toward it. 

The cotton square daubers are active fliers and if disturbed 
when feeding quickly emerge from the feeding place inside the 
bracts of the square and dart away, usually alighting on another 
plant a few feet distant. Two contrivances have been designed by 
the writer for the protection of cotton fields against these insects. 
The first is for the purpose of driving the bugs to the outside rows 
of the field where, when concentrated, they may be captured by 
means of the second device. Even if the insects are left concen- 
trated on the outside rows there is a decided advantage in this 
system, since two or three of the insects per plant are sufficient to 
destroy all the squares as fast as they are developed, and concentrat- 
ing the insects on outside rows so that there will be several times 
as many of them per plant can not, therefore, result in any additional 
injury. When concentrated in excessive numbers, however, there 
would probably be a tendency for the insects to spread out again 
over the field unless some other means was used against them. An 
important feature of the work planned for the coming season con- 
sists in the development of the devices mentioned to a point where 
they can be recommended to cotton growers. 

Publications by the Consulting Entomologist during the fiscal 
year included the Annual Report of the State Entomologist in the 
Ninth Annual Report of the Arizona Commission of Agriculture 
and Horticulture, pages 15 to 61, December 30, 1917, and a paper 
entitled "Experiments with Grasshopper Baits, with Incidental Ob- 
servations on the Habits and Destructiveness of the Differential 
Grasshopper (Melanoplus diffcrcntialis)" in Journal of Economic Ento- 
mology, Vol. II. No. 2. pp. 175-186, April 1918. 

A. W. Morrill, 

Consulting Entomologist. 



ZOOLOGY 

Early in the college year 1917-18, the writer was transferred 
from the College of Arts and Sciences to the College of Agriculture 
and the Experiment Station, as Zoologist, this line of work having 
been previously represented in the Station only by Entomology 
under the Consulting Entomologist. 

The first work taken up was an investigation of cutworms in 
Arizona, and the preparation of a bulletin to be referred to later. 
Shortly after taking up the cutworm work, attention was directed 
to the range problems of the State, particularly with reference to 
the injurious efifects of rodents on the native grass lands. This 
problem soon loomed so large as to make it desirable to drop the 
cutworm work, and take up an. intensive study of certain range 
rodents, which was done. Cooperation with the Forest Service, 
the Biological Survey, and the Carnegie Institution has led to the 
development of important range studies which are being conducted 
on the Santa Rita Range Reserve, 40 miles south of Tucson. The 
I'orest Service, under the direct recommendation of the Biological 
Survey, has furnished funds (about $800) for the construction of 
special fences for experimental plots, the first fences of their kind 
ever built. The Forest Service has also cooperated in furnishing 
the conveniences of a headquarters camp on the edge of the Reserve, 
thru the courtesy of Mr. Hensel, Forest Examiner in charge. The 
writer has been occupied to a considerable extent with supervision 
of construction of these fences, as well as actual labor on same, and 
with rodent studies, especially on kangaroo rats, carried on month 
by month with the fencing work. It was expected to have these 
experimental areas fenced by June 30, 1918, but difficulties in secur- 
ing materials and labor forced an extension of time, and they were 
not entirely completed until late fall. However, the drought was 
so severe on the Reserve, and especially on those portions of it 
where the experiments are located, that the inauguration of certain 
features of the v^^ork will have to await the next summer's rainy 
season 

Severe injury to corn in the Rillito Valley near Tucson, by a 
stalk borer, was reported to the writer in October, 1917. This borer, 
according to Dr. Morrill, State Entomologist, was first reported in 
this State in 1915 from Cochise County. (See Eighth Ann. Rep. 
Ariz. Com. Agri. and Hort.) Some life-history observations were 
undertaken in cooperation with the Commission of Agriculture and 
Horticulture in order to secure adult moths and determine whether 



340 Annual Ri^port Agricultural Experiment Station 

this pest is identical with the larger corn stalk borer of the East. 
Moths have been secured which appear to be identical, but this 
latter point is not yet fully settled. Further reports have been re- 
ceived the past season indicating the presence of this borer at 
Sahuarita, in the Santa Cruz Valley. As a preventive measure 
where this borer occurs, the corn stubble should be plowed under 
during the fall or winter, and such stubble as is left on top of the 
ground should then be raked up and burned. 

A beginning has been made on the task of building up a repre- 
sentative collection of the insects of the State, emphasizing espe- 
cially the economic forms, for demonstration, and for general study 
purposes in the courses in Entomology in the College of Agricul- 
ture. This task will necessarily be continuous for a number of 
years. 

The growing importance of honey during the sugar shortage and 
the extremely high market value of the product led to a decision 
to start, in a small way, an apiary for demonstration purposes and 
for study. Four standard 10-frame hives have been secured, and 
three of these now contain thriving colonies of bees, transferred 
from old boxes on a neighboring ranch. At the University Farm 
four hives, left there by some former foreman, have been cleaned 
up and house as many strong colonies. Thus seven colonies are 
ready for active operation in the next honey season. From the 
Farm hives some surplus chunk honey was secured the past season, 
which is being held against possible need in bringing all colonies 
thru the winter in good condition. There was also taken from 
these hives 24 pounds of comb honey, which was sold for thirty 
cents a pound, wholesale. 

PUBLICATIONS 

The preparation of Bulletin No. 83, on Poisonous Animals of 
the Desert, occupied a considerable amount of time in the earlier 
part of the year. This bulletin is perhaps a bit out of the ordinary 
in the usual run of Experiment Station bulletins. It deals with not 
only the poisonous animals of this region, but gives reliable informa- 
tion concerning many popularly feared, but actually harmless forms. 
The demand for this bulletin has justified its preparation. 

Chas. T. Vorhies, 

Zooho;ist. 



CHEMISTRY 

The activities of the Chemists, as heretofore, have fallen undcr 
three divisions: research, routine analytical work, and instruction. 
The facilities for research in soil alkalinity have been improved much 
by the construction of a screened garden so that now laboratory 
investigations may be accompanied by pot cultures and even small 
plot experiments. Such facilities are indispensable for protection 
against birds, insects, and rabbits, which because of the scarcity of 
green food in a semi-arid country preclude experiments on a small 
quantitative scale in the open. The general laboratory equipment 
has been improved by completing the equipment of a dark and 
nearly constant temperature room. The room is located near the 
center of the agricultural chemistry laboratories in the new Agri- 
culture Building. Besides desks for calorimeter and polariscope 
the equipment includes a special table for ether extractions. A 
large refrigerator occupies the space beneath the table usually given 
to cupboards and is provided with water coils, which supply ice 
water for condensing purposes. For several months in the year 
tap water cannot be used for condensing ether, a fact that hereto- 
fore has worked great inconvenience, requiring special cooling de- 
vices or the postponement of fat determinations until the winter 
months. 

Routine analytical work has covered a considerable range of 
material. Many irrigating waters and soils for alkali have been 
examined for farmers in the State, and much analytical work was 
required in connection with expert advice furnished other branches 
of the State and Federal Governments. The Chemist, accompanied 
bv the Agronomist of the Station, examined and reported on a num- 
ber of parcels of land offered the State for a state prison farm. In 
the case of all properties olTered soil and water tests were made at 
the laboratory. 

During November and December the Chemist was again called 
upon to serve on a commission, together with the Agronomist and 
Horticulturist, whose duty it was to investigate the suitability of 
the mesa at Yuma for citrus and other subtropical fruit culture, 
when irrigated with the silty waters of the Colorado as proposed 
by the U. S. Reclamation Service. The analytical and soil experi- 
mental work required in. investigating this problem has occupied 
the personnel and facilities of the laboratories for several weeks. 
Total, acid soluble, and citric acid soluble potassium and phosphorus 
are being determined on a number of typical soil samples from the 



342 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

Mesa. Mechanical analyses and tests of water holding capacities 
are being made, and parallel pot cultures using inoculated legumes 
are also included in the investigation. In cooperation with the 
Horticulturist a series of samples of citrus fruit from the old Blais- 
dell orchard on the Yuma Mesa have been analyzed with a view to 
showing their early maturing and other qualities. The details of 
these several lines of investigation will be found in the report of 
the commission to the Project Manager of the U. S. Reclamation 
Service at Yuma. This report, which is a joint report from the 
three departments concerned will be published as a bulletin by the 
Experiment Station and is here referred to as forming a part of 
the Chemist's annual report. 

RESISTANCE OF CROPS TO ALKALI 

A series of soil analyses illustrating the resistance of cotton 
and other crops to alkali under field conditions have accumulated 
in the laboratory and are given in Table XIX. 

An inspection of Table XIX reveals the extreme difficulty of 
attempting to establish limits of tolerance for alkali under field con- 
ditions. Possible reasons may be oft'ered for some of the dis- 
crepancies. First should be mentioned the difficulty of getting 
soil samples that really represent the conditions under which the 
plants are growing. The surface crust is always very alkaline and 
should not enter into the sample in greater relative proportion than 
it occurs. The roots of the plants may be drawing on other zones 
than the one sampled, alkali being known to vary abruptly with 
depth. In cultivated fields the variation in concentration also varies 
greatly within a few feet. The mechanical composition of the soil 
undoubtedly has much to do with alkali tolerance. In the case of 
black alkali dissolved organic matter possibly may be poisonous. 
One salt also influences the effect of another. Water soluble salts 
due to calcium sulphate are harmless, but calcium chloride or 
soluble magnesium salts are harmful forms of white alkali. 

The soil 6819 carries excessive amounts of soluble salts, mostly 
Swdium chloride, but it was said good crops were produced the 
previous year, and the land had again been prepared for planting. 
The sample analyzed was moist subsurface when collected. Dry 
surface clods with capillary contact ran much higher in soluble salt. 
The high tolerance in this case may be explained by the subirriga- 
tion which kept the soil constantly wet. 

Barlev soils 682v3 and 6824 show the best growth in the case of 



University of Arizona 



34:^ 



TABLE XIX. RESISTANCE OF CROPS TO ALKALI UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS 



Crop 



Cotton 
6819 

Milo 

6821 

Cotton 

6822 

Barley 

6823 

Barley 

6824 

Barley 

6825 

Barley 

6826 

Cotton 

6827 

Cotton 

5828 

Cotton 

6752 

Cotton 

6753 

Cotton 

6754 

Teparies 

5887 

Teparies 

5888 

Teparies 

5889 

Teparies 

5890 

Teparies 

5898 

Asparagus 

6161 

Barley 

6004 

Barlev 

6005 

Barley 

6006 

Barley 

6007 _ 

Feterita 

6203 

Feterita 

6204 _ 
Feterita 

6205 _ 
Feterita 
6206 



Description 



Good crop previous year ; sub- 
irrigated by seepage from 
canal 

Adjoining above ; yielded some 
milo previous year 

V/i bales to acre ; near above. . 

Just failure at tliis point 

Same field; just profitable 

Growing but failure ; hard soil ; 
poor water relations 

Same field ; commencing to 
head at 12 to 15 inches; thin 

Failure previous year; old 
stalks 1 foot high ; land prob- 
ably bakes 

Part same field ; cotton good ; 
soil very hard 

X'o cotton 

Same ticld ; some growth 

Tall cotton 

Edge of bare spots 

Same ; l)arc spots 

Same ; edge of bare spots 

Same ; 50 percent injury 

Same healtliy 

Plants just alive 

3" to 5" high ; same field 

Sy/' high ; same field 

V to 7" high ; same field 

i" high ; same field 

Barely existing 

Same ; scattering light growth 

Same; 35 percent stand 

Same ; 50 percent stand 



Soluble 
salts 



Sodium . I Sodium • Calcium 
chloride carbonate 1 sulphate 
equivalen) equivalent' squivalen) 



1.06 

.66 
.44 

.80 

.71 

.30 
.26 

.35 

.24 
2.29 

0.47 
.37 
.63 

1.30 
.55 
.42 
.30 

1^0 

1.32 
.43 
.88 
.41 
.50 
.49 
.23 
.24 



% 

.636 

.360 
.016 

.306 

.\48 

.040 
.004 

.068 

.02 
1.408 

.168 

.152 

.124 

.516 

.112 

.076 

.008 

.50 

.50 

.008 

.26 

.008 

.012 

.012 

.008 

.008 



% 



% 



.22 

.02 

.034 

.017 

.12 

.15 

.12 

.06 

.04 



.48 

.07 
.02 



15 




20 


• ■•• 


09 




10 




02 




07 


.609 




.109 




.065 




.152 




.416 




.174 




.109 




.022 



»544 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 



TABLE XIX. — Continued 







1 


Sodium 


Sodium 


Calcium 


Crop 


Description 


Soluble 1 


chloride 


carbonate 


sulphate 






salts \ 


equivalent 


equivalent 


equivalent 






% 


% 


% 


% 


Feterita 


Same ; good crop 


.22 


.008 


.02 




6207 












Feterita 


Adpacent land ; 25 percent stan( 


.32 


.008 


.22 




6212 












Feterita 


Same ; good crop 


.30 


.008 


.06 




6213 












Feterita 


Same ; almost killed 


.2Z 


.008 


.12 




6214 












Feterita 


Same ; verv good crop 


.32 


.008 


.03 




6215 












Milo 
6210 
Milo 
6211 
Alfalfa 


Adjacent land ; barely existing 


.59 


.036 


.13 




Same ; very good crop 


.32 


.008 


.05 




At head of land; no alfalfa... 


.57 


.152 


.19 




5979 












Alfalfa 


Same ; good alfalfa 


.38 


.048 


.10 




5980 












Alfalfa 


FCilled 


.82 


.024 


.ZZ 




6197 












Alfalfa 


Same ; just existing. 


.42 


.012 


.12 




6198 












Alfalfa 


Same ; affected 


.27 


.012 


.05 




6199 












Alfalfa 


Same ; good growth 


.29 


.012 


.04 




6200 













the latter which contained one-third more black alkali ; but it is to 
be noted that the first contains twice as much sodium chloride. The 
failure in 6825 and 6826 as compared with 6824 was due probably 
to a hard condition of the soil intensified by the deflocculating effect 
of the black alkali so that water did not penetrate well when the soil 
was irrigated — so-called slick land. 

In the case of cotton soils 6752, 6753, and 6754 white alkali is 
the limiting salt but there is no apparent explanation for the marked 
difference in growth between 6753 and 6754. Teparies are appar- 
ently quite sensitive to soluble chlorides. Asparagus, which is 
ordinarily a salt-loving plant, was affected by black alkali in the 
presence of the rather excessive amount of white alkali. The series 
of barley soils 6004, 6005, 6006, and 6007 seem to yield no conclusive 
evidence. The injury thruout was ])robably due to a tight soil in- 
tensified by the varying amounts of black alkali present which 
prevented it from taking sufficient water. The feterita and milo 
series were taken from sandy ^oils at the University Farm, which 
are discussed in the section of this report dealing with alkali studies. 
This soil is particularly favorable for study of black alkali tolerance, 
since the sodium chloride is uniformly low, the white alkali being 



University of Arizoxa 



.345 



due to sodium sulphate. Here again, however,- results are not en- 
tirely consistent, probably due to water conditions. In general .10 
seems to be the limiting percent of black alkali for these crops, 
altho in one case a considerable stand was found where .22 percent 
was present and considerable injury was noted where .06 percent 
was present in samples believed to represent the soil under field 
conditions. The alfalfa soils illustrate to a certain extent the in- 
fluence of texture. Sample 5980 was a rather heavy soil occurring 
near Wellton, Arizona, while 6197, 6198, 6199, and 6200 were from 
the sandy soil of the University Farm. 

MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES 

One interesting set of samples came from a mining com])any 
that had failed in an attempt to raise a war garden and sought a 
remedy. The soil was impregnated with copper, and the mine 
water which was used for irrigating carried so much copper that 
possibly it might have been recovered with profit. Such conditions 
would inhibit practically all plant growth. 

Various materials of agricultural interest other than soils and 
irrigating waters have been examined by the Chemists. These in- 
clude foods and feeding stuffs such as barley flour, barley bran, 
cottonseed meal, and fish meal. Only moisture, ash, and ether 
extract were determined in the barley flour. Barley flour, being a 
wartime product, probably will be of transient interest, but since 
the product is rather uncommon and produced in Arizona the re- 
sults are recorded in Table XX. 

TABLE XX. — composition OF ARIZONA BARLE^Y FLOUR 



Date of Mill Run 


Moisture 


Ash 


Ether Extract 


August 12. 1918 

13, " 

14, " 

15, " 


7.63 
7.72, 
6.57 
6.45 


% 

1.13 
1.12 
1.19 
1.25 


% 

2.18 
2.19 
2.08 
2.21 



Fertilizing materials or materials supposed to carry fertilizer 
values, especially bat guanos, have been sent in from tiiue to time. 
On one occasion the Chemists visited a bat cave deposit with a 
prospector and advised against the shipment as unprofitable. 

At the time when food stuffs in general were suspected of 
having been tampered with, a number of samples of corn meal and 
cocoa were sent in to be examined for powdered glass. Several 



346 



Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 



grams of the material were dissolved in boiling sulphuric acid till 
almost colorless, the acid diluted and decanted from any residue 
remaining undissolved. All the corn meals left small residues of 
easily identified minerals, such as quartz and garnet, but no glass. 
One sack of meal contained several large fragments of glass which 
could not have been eaten and evidently were intended to create 
prejudice rather than to do injury. No fine glass was found in 
any of the samples, but the millers in all cases were cautioned to 
clean their corn so that no adhering soil would be carried into the 
meal, causing grit that might be mistaken for glass. One sample 
of cocoa was found to contain a few very minute fragments of 
glass-like material which may have been chipped off the porcelain 
lining of some machinery used in its preparation. One sample of 
bran that was reported to have killed a calf was found to contain 
cyanide. 

THE TEMPE DRAINAGE DITCH 

In continuation of the work reported in the Twenty-seventh 
and Twenty-eighth Annual Reports occasional analyses of the dis- 
charge of the Tempe drainage ditch have been made. The results 
for the year 1918 are detailed in Table XXI which should be studied 
in connection with previous results given in the Twenty-eighth An- 
nual Report on page 475. 

TABLE XXI. monthly VARIATION IN COMPOSITION OF WATER FROM THE 

TEMPE DRAINAGE DITCH, PARTS PER 100,000 BY C. N, CATLIN 



Date 



1918 
Jan. 10 
Feb. 10 
Mar. 10 
Apr. 10 
May 11 
June 5 
July 8 
Aug. 1 
Sept. 
Oct. 10 
Nov. 3 
Dec. 12 





Chlo- 


Total 


rides 




as ! 


Solids 


NaCl. 


212.6 


133.0 


322.0 


219.0 


303.0 


211.0 


226.4 


154.0 


351.2 


248.0 i 


296.6 


207.0 1 


301 


206.0 ! 


249.8 


181.0 


205.8 


137.0 


245.0 


170.0 


216.6 


138.0 



Hardness 
(perma- 
nent) 
CaSOi 



1.1 
11.5 

78.5 

11.9 
6.5 
1.1 



Hardness 
(temporary) 
Ca(HC03)2 



2.2 



127.5 
130.0 
127.2 
112.6 
128.4 
118.3 
113.8 

69.5 
No Sample 

93.5 

87.4 
127.5 



Alka- 
linity 
NaoCOa 



1.7 



2.5 

5.9 
5.9 



Qualitative 



S04 


CaO 


MgO 


Str. 


Mod. 


SI. 


Str. 


Mod-S 


Mod. 


Str. 


Mod-S 


Mod. 


M.S. 


M. 


M.S. 


M.S. 


M. 


M. 


M.S. 


M. 


M. 


S. 


M. 


M. 


M.S. 


M. 


M. 


M.S. 


M. 


M. 


M.S. 


M. 


M. 


M.S. 


M. 


M. 



ALKALI STUDIES 

The research w^ork of the department conducted under the 
Adams Fund has been limited to alkali problems. During the past 
year the Chemists have studied the influence of various chemicals in 
different amounts on the rate of percolation and on the composition 



Univicrsitv of Arizona 347 

of the percolate. This involves much analytical work. Attempts 
were made to parallel the laboratory studies by pot cultures which 
at first proved unsatisfactory due to the difficulty of preventing 
leaching when the j)Ots were irrigated and the consequent change 
of concentration of alkali in the soils. Successful pot culture 
studies in this climate require that the pots be sunk in soil to pre- 
vent too high temperature and excessive drying. Benches have 
now been constructed in the screened garden in which the pots 
Tire sunk in sand at the level of the surrounding soil and any perco- 
lating water due to heavy irrigating is caught in receptacles and 
returned to the pots. The pots are paraffined to prevent losses by 
transfusion. 

The percolation experiments with gypsum have been espe- 
cially interesting. When a percolation test is made comparing 
untreated University Farm soil with samples to which the theoreti- 
cal amount and half that amount of gypsum have been added, it is 
found that the second half of the gypsum applied has two or three 
times the elTect of the first half in promoting percolation. Large 
plot experiments are now being conducted which are planned to 
test this result in a practical way. Several lands at the University 
Farm have been divided into numerous small plots each of which 
has been analyzed to a depth of three feet and the necessary 
amount of gypsum calculated separately for each plot of 1500 to 
2000 square feet. These lands had been treated previously by 
applying gypsum uniformly over the surface, but without reclaim- 
ing them successfully. After the proper amount of gypsum has 
been applied, the lands will be leached by confining the water 
on the more alkaline areas. Without gypsum, percolation is very 
slow, altho the soil is a very fine sand. In the laboratory water 
applied an inch deep to the wet soil in 10-inch flower pots and 
covered to prevent evaporation has stood for two or three weeks 
without entirely disappearing. It appears from the investigations 
in the laboratory that light or insufficient applications of gypsum 
would be unprofitable. On some areas it is necessary to apply 30 
or even 40 tons of gypsum to the acre. Under some conditions 
this would be prohibited, and never could be considered for large 
areas. Gypsum beds, however, are available near the University 
Farm and hauling is done by the farm teams when other work is 
light. Small areas of black alkali in otherwise good lands, as is 
the condition at the University Farm, would often warrant the 
expenditure of several hundred dollars for reclamation. How per- 
manent the effect will be remains to be shown. The groundw^aters 



348 Annual, Report Agriculturai, Experiment Station 

are slightly black alkaline and occasionally rise to within seven or 
eight feet of the surface. The effect of gypsum on the rate of 
percolation with this soil in 10-inch pots is given in Table XXII. 

table XXII. — percolation thru university farm soil aeter 

GYPSUM treatment 



Amount used 



None 

Half enough to neutralize Na2CQ3. . 
Just enough to neutralize Na-COs.. 
Twice amount to neutralize Na2C03 



Percolate In 24 


Percolate in 24 


hours' after 


hours^ after 


standing 5 days 


standing 7 days 


C.C 


C,C. 


400 


288 


880 


696 


2560 


2112 


3680= 


4320 



1. Calculated from a 6-hour test by adding lOOOC.C. of water to each pot. 
2. Insufficient head to keep up percolation for 5 hours. 3. Calculated from a 5- 
hour test by adding 1000 C.C. of water to each pot. Note: The 10-inch pots used 
in these tests each contained 10 kilos of soil. The soil used gave the following 
analysis: Total water soluble salts dried at 110° C. .70 percent, chlorides as sodium 
chloride .012 percent, black alkali as sodium carbonate .254 percent. 

An analysis of the percolates showed a saving in humus and 
all plant foods with the exception of potassium. The saving in 
nitrogen values at customary fertilizer prices would go far toward 
paying for the gypsum treatment, even if it were possible to reach 
the black alkali from the soil without the previous application of 
gypsum. 

DATE PROCESSING AND MARKETING 

During the summer the appliances for ripening and processing 
dates at the Tempe Date Orchard were inspected and put in order 
for handling the fall crop. Several visits were made to the orchard 
during the harvest to supervise the packing house operations and 
give instructions in handling the different varieties under vary- 
ing weather conditions. A suitable packing house for the Yuma 
Orchard has been designed but not yet constructed. Before the 
arrival of the Horticulturist the Chemist temporarily supervised 
cultural operations at the date orchards. 

In the opinion of the writer after thirteen years of close study, 
the date industry in Arizona, properly managed, can be recom- 
mended to the investing public. Fresh dates of the soft varieties 
which can be grown of such excellent quality in Arizona and mar- 
keted as safely as any other crop are becoming known thruout the 
country, and orders and inquiries from every part of the United 
States are coming in quantities — a marked contrast to the condi- 
tion ten years ago when the foreman of the orchard with diffi- 
culty disposed of a few hundreds pounds at a nominal price by 



University of Arizona 349 

house to house 2)cddhnij in nearby towns. During the past year 
over $6000 without soHciting have been received for the product 
of pahiis that could have been placed on about four acres. After 
paying liberal wages and other operating expenses, exclusive of the 
foreman's salary, a net profit of 'lO or 50 per cent on the gross sales 
will be realized. Had the usual business policy of selling for 
all the market would bear been followed, the gross sales 
probably would have reached $10,000. The policy followed, how- 
ever, has been to maintain a uniform, fair price, estimated safely 
to cover expenses, and limit sales to the individual. A part of 
the crop has been marketed in the east to introduce the product and 
create a market for future growers. The immediate vicinity would 
have consumed the crop many times over at even higher prices, 
had limitations not been placed on sales to the individual. The 
Experiment Station has proven at least some of the varieties that 
are successful in Arizona ; climatic difficulties have been overcome 
to the extent that losses due to this cause are almost negligible ; 
and a market has been made that will take the output of a large 
acreage at profitable prices. Fresh soft dates, such as Hayany, 
Rhars, Tadala, and similar varieties, promise to become a staple 
food as soon as they can be supplied in quantity, and may be carried 
for months in dry cold storage without serious deterioration in 
quality. Culls and stock that have been damaged for the fresh date 
trade by weather conditions can be processed quickly for ordinary 
commercial dried dates. The close of the war should mark the im- 
portation of large numbers of Hayany offshoots from Egypt, and 
the establishment of the date industry in Arizona on a firm basis. 

EDUCATIONAL AND EXTENSION WORK 

Altho the department is not identified with the Extension 
Service, a large amount of correspondence regarding soils and irri- 
gating waters is necessarily carried on with the farmers of the 
State. These demands, as previously mentioned, often require 
much analytical work. In February and March a four weeks' short 
course for farmers was given, during which the Chemist conducted 
a class in soils for two periods each week. A correspondence course 
in soil physics is being given. In the College of Agriculture the 
Chemist has conducted classes in soil physics and soil fertility. A 
laboratory course in agricultural chemical analysis is also offered, 
but due to temporary disarrangements has not been given. Two 
new courses in household chemistry for young women in Home 



350 Annual Rkport Agricultural Expijrimknt Station 

Economics are being given. The first semester's course, after a 
brief introduction to organic chemistry, largely nomenclature, deals 
with the chemistry of foods. The laboratory exercises are designed 
to familiarize the student with the compounds occurring in foods 
rather than as a drill in analytical methods. The second semester 
deals with textiles and laundering, including the removal of stains. 
The department is well equipped for work with advanced or 
graduate students. Some of the problems under investigation in 
the Experiment Station may be entered into by the students or 
independent investigations may be made. Work in this line should 
be encouraged by offering suitable fellowships which would be to 
the mutual benefit of the student, the department, and the Experi- 
ment Station. 

A. E. Vinson, 

Chemist. 

C. N. Catlin, 

Assistant Chemist^ 



IRRIGATION INVESTIGATIONS 

Owin^ to the absence of the assistant engineer, Capt. A. L 
Enger, and the difficulty in obtaining technical assistance, the work 
of this department has been much restricted during the past year. 
Certain features of Experiment Station work inseparable from the 
office were performed as in previous years, while other features, 
and especially research, suffered disproportionately. 

STATUwS OF IRRIGATION WATER SUPPLIES 

The year has been one of light rainfall and the necessity for 
irrigation has increased. The stream flows have been meagre and 
many areas have suffered for water. The advantage of water stor- 
age has been exemplified in the Salt River Valley where plentiful 
water has been available for an increased acreage, because of the 
supply in Lake Roosevelt, stored during the flood years of 1915 and 
1916. The lack of similar storage on the Gila River has been felt 
keenly. The hundreds of thousands of acre-feet of water that were 
wasted to the sea in 1915 and 1916 could have been used with great 
advantage in 1917 and 1918 if a storage reservoir had been available. 
Surely no other project in Arizona oflfers such inducement for gov- 
ernmental action as the building of the San Carlos dam and irriga- 
tion project. On the Colorado River, too, the time has arrived 
when storage is necessary, for the natural flow during the period of 
low discharge is entirely appropriated, and it will be necessary soon 
for Arizona to join with other states in storage projects on the 
Colorado, else even the right to flood waters of the river will be 
lost. The Parker Valley, especially, should be provided with a 
water supply at the earliest possible time. The need for action in 
the development of storage projects has become more urgent by the 
call for new lands on which returning soldiers can make homes. 
Arizona is one of the states in which there is abundant opportunity 
to prepare new lands under projects that are known to be economi- 
cally feasible. 

AN IRRIGATION CODE 

Arizona, the most arid state, the one most in need of the modern 
system of establishing and administering rights to water, is the only 
irrigated state which has not adopted the system. The chaotic 
condition of water rights in the Gila River watershed is retarding 
the development of agriculture in southern Arizona and the lack of 



352 Annual Report Agricultural Expp:kimlnt Station 

a state water commission is jeopardizing the interests of this State 
in the waters of the Colorado River. In Yuma County the water 
rights have never been adjudicated and in the other counties, with 
the exception of Maricopa, the adjudications have been only partial, 
are admittedly ineffective, and in many instances are counter to well- 
established irrigation law. Moreover, there are scores of small 
sources of supply, where a few farmers struggle for the water and 
not infrequently a murder is the inevitable result. 

Water rights should be as well protected by the State as are 
land rights, and the irrigation supplies which belong, and always 
will belong to the State, should be administered by the State. This 
department has exerted its efforts to stimulate a demand on the 
part of the agriculturists for the modern code. It is hoped that the 
coming legislature will attack this problem and enact a code based 
on the principles of the Wyoming and Oregon codes but with such 
modifications as are needed to meet the needs of this State. 

In the absence of any workable method of adjudication of the 
water rights of the Gila watershed, the conflicting interests of Pinal 
County have endeavored to settle their priorities b}' mutual agree- 
ment, but so far without success. This department is assisting in 
the negotiations. 

CAISSON WELLS 

The type of well, originated b}' this Station in 1907, has 
proved to be well adapted to the groundwater conditions of such val- 
leys as the Santa Cruz, and these wells are being adopted increas- 
ingly. The station is called upon frequently to plan and start the con- 
struction of wells, — sometimes in emergencies where the ground- 
water must be developed quickly in order to save a crop. The high 
cost of steel casing during the past year has increased the preference 
for concrete caisson wells. 

PUMP IRRIGATION 

The acreage of land irrigated from wells has been increased 
greatly during the past two years. The location of the best ground- 
water supplies is being ascertained and the high prices of agricul- 
tural products have warranted even a high cost for irrigation. Prob- 
lems of pumping machinery are being given more attention. No 
new types of machinery have demonstrated any advantages over 
older types, but more care is being observed in designing pumping 
plants to fit the conditions of lift and discharge. 



UnivivRSitv of Arizona 



353 




Fig. 5. — Longitudinal crack in 20-incli pipe line. The open .section has been broken 
out with hammer. Photo hy TV. C. Axelton. 



354 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

A few years ago pump irrigators had available an engine fuel 
oil of suitable quality, but of low cost. This oil has been called by 
various names, including tops and gas oil. Gas oils with a flash 
point of about 100° F. and with a gravity of about 44° B. were to 
be bought at five to six cents a gallon. Recently, while the price 
has been going up the quality has been going down. The tops now 
being furnished by many refineries is of about 37° gravity and is 
very troublesome in engines of the ordinary type and size. Mean- 
while engine distillate has depreciated in quality until it is no better 
for irrigation pumping than was the gas oil of five years ago, altho 
the price is three times as great. The increase in cost is due in part 
to the fact that the engine distillate is classified as a finished product 
and therefore takes the same freight rate as gasoline. The Fuel 
Administration offers no relief. A few of the smaller oil companies 
continue to furnish a satisfactory tops at a reasonable price. Pump 
irrigators should demand an unrefined distillate of 40° to 44° gravity 
and with flash point under 120° F. This oil takes a low freight 
rate, and moreover the cost of refining will be saved. Unless some 
relief is obtained in this matter, pump irrigation will be more re- 
stricted and less profitable than has been thought hitherto. 

CEMENT PIPE FOR IRRIGATION PIPE LINES 

CEMENT pipe; failures 

Several important studies of cement irrigation pipe have been 
made during the past year. 

The study of failures of cement pipe was necessitated by failure 




z-a'- 

SEiTlvetrf FORMS TfOT 



CB.ACK£D 





fV£.3T ^IDB 30UTH ^JDB BAST ^IDB NOB.TH ^IDB 

Fig. 6 — A cracked gate pit at Continental, caused l.y exiiansion of i>ii)e line. 

of a long line of 20-inch pipe at Continental, Arizona. Sections of 
this line, from 20 to 1000 feet at a time, failed by longitudinal cracks. 
An example of a break is shown in Fig. 5. The photograph was 



University of Arizona 355 

taken after a cross-section of the pipe had been broken out by the 
pipe layer. Patching of these breaks was not possible and the long 
sections were renio\ ed from the trench and replaced. 

The cause of the breaks was not apparent and inquiry among 
cement pipe men did not throw any light upon the problem. 

Additional trouble was being had with the gate pits which occur 
at intervals of about a thousand feet along the line, and this trouble 
was not confined to the. line of 20-inch pipe. In Fig. 6 is shown 
a broken gate pit. Examination showed that the gate pits were 
being destroyed by the thrust of the pipe lines caused by longi- 
tudinal expansion. Most of the pipe had been allowed to become 
very dry in the stack yard, as is recommended by pipe men. This 
caused a considerable shrinkage. When water was admitted to the 
completed pipe line, the pipe walls absorbed it slowly and ex- 
panded, crushing the gate pits. In experimenting with expansion 
joints, it was found that these joints must be placed closer than 
200 feet in order to absorb expansion. 

Some laboratory tests were made to determine the nature and 
rate of expansion, and its relation to the absorption of water. It 
was found that the absorption of water under no head was rapid on 
the outside of the pipe specimens but extremely slow on the inside, 
the difference being due to the glaze left on the inside in the 
process of manufacture. Under considerable head the absorption 
on the inside would be more rapid. The expansion lagged some- 
what behind the absorption. 

The first longitudinal break occurred on a curve and it was 
thought therefore that the cause might be longitudinal shear. 
Mathematical analysis of the problem demonstrated that while this 
might be true for pipe lines laid on sharp curves, the deviations 
from a straight line made by a careless pipe layer could not account 
for the cracks. 

Two 16-inch pipe which had been broken in the internal press- 
ure testing machine and had subsequently become dry, were further 
tested in the laboratory by being placed horizontally and immersed 
to cover the lower one-fourth and lower one-half, respectively. The 
pipes were placed so that the open cracks were at the top. Absorp- 
tion from the outside caused the cracks first to close and then to re- 
open in part. In a similar test on a 14-inch unbroken pipe, the 
lower side was found to expand almost normally while no expan- 
sion occurred on the top, and a slight crack opened on the inside 
at the top at one end. 

While making percolation and internal pressure tests of pipe, 



356 Annual Report Agricultural Experiment Station 

it was found that certain specimens failed at very low pressures. 
The pipe walls when broken showed that the water had penetrated 
from one-fourth to one-third of the thickness. Apparently the ex- 
pansion of the inner portion of the wall produced tension in the un- 
wetted portion and caused the pipe to burst. This action, which 
may be called differential expansion, doubtless is the main cause 
of the failures of pipe lines by longitudinal cracks. 

The intensity of differential expansion must vary with many 
factors, including the thickness of the pipe walls, the richness of 
mixtures, the mortar consistency, and the climate. It is believed also 
that the magnesia content in the cement affects the amount of 
expansion. 

Several methods of overcoming the danger have been proposed, 
but it is believed that the only thoroly safe method is to prevent 
the drying of the pipe between the curing and laying. The curing 
should be continued up to the time of laying. 

METHODS OF TESTING CEMEjNT PIPE 

The technique of cement pipe testing has not been well stand- 
ardized and different methods are in use by those engaged in pipe 
testing. It is quite impossible, therefore, to make comparisons be- 
tween pipes made and tested in different places. Factors of safety 
in design must depend on the methods employed in testing. A 
paper on this subject, discussing certain alternative methods and 
pointing out the importance of standardizing the condition of the 
test specimens as well as the methods of testing, has been con- 
tributed to the technical press.* 

REINFORCEMENT FOR CEMENT PIPE 

Several trials of reinforcing cement pipe were made during 
the year, but in all cases the reinforced pipe was found to be weaker 
than plain pipe. Electro-welded wire rings, hog wire, and Triangle 
Mesh were tried. Reports from other sources show similar disap- 
pointing results. This matter needs further extensive investiga- 
tion. If a means of making the reinforcement effective can be 
found, the field of usefulness of cement pipe will be widened greatly. 

The publication of the bulletin on cement pipe noted in the 
last annual report has been delayed, but the bulletin is now in 
press and will be issued shortly as No. 86 of the Station series. 

TRACTOR POWER ON FARMS 

This department has watched the development of traction en- 



♦Concrete, VoL 13, No. 5, p. 156. 



University of Arizona ^^7 

gines with a view to their usefuhicss on Arizona farms. Tractors 
have been bought quite freely in Arizona and every type on the 
market has been represented among those in use. During the past 
year, particularly, many new tractors have been brought into the 
State, partly on account of the widespread change from alfalfa 
farming to cotton, which requires much more plo\ving. 

Many of the tractors first used in Arizona did not prove suc- 
cessful. Some were too heavy and too expensive for the purposes 
to which they were put, some suffered from operators who could 
neither care for nor repair them, and some were ill-suited to the 
soil conditions. In many cases the usual number of mules or horses 
were retained on the farm, and repair bills have been very heavy. 

The writer has tended to favor the round-wheel type of trac- 
tor ; four wdieels ; slow speed engines ; number of cylinders propor- 
tional to the power, one or two cylinders for small tractors ; long 
stroke ; and a transverse main shaft. As a rule, the more closely 
a tractor engine resembles automobile engines, the less useful it 
will prove to be. High speed eng'ines cannot burn low grade dis- 
tillates. The rating of many tractors is not very liberal, and usually 
they should be loaded with one less plow than they are advertised 
to pull. The rating by manufacturers is very variable; of two trac- 
tors much used* in Arizona, one rated at 20 horsepow^er and one at 
25, the 20-horsepower tractor has the more power. Wide tires with 
cleats are required for farm work. The utmost protection is needed 
against the dust and fine sand which usually flies during the plowing 
seasons. Gears should be housed and run in oil wherever possible. 
Forced feed lubrication for cylinders and bearings is very desirable. 
The standard speed adopted by tractor engineers is two and one- 
third miles per hour ; higher speeds are not to be recommended. 
The creeping tread tractor is justifiable on California unirrigated 
grain lands where the spring planting is done while the ground is 
still soft from the winter rains, and on difficult tasks such as drag- 
ging the giant V's that clean the Yuma lateral canals. 

The criteria for estimating the relative success of a tractor on 
any farm are : The type of farming, and number of days per year 
when the tractor is used ; the mechanical ability of the OAvner or 
operator ; and the fitness of the type and size of tractor to the soil 
and nature of the work to be done. There are many farms where 
tractors can be employed profitably ; there are many others where a 
tractor would be a proverbial white elephant. 

The employment of tractors in custom work should be in- 
creased. This implies that each tractor is operated by an expert 



358 Annual Rkport Ac.rici'ltural Expkrimpcnt Station 

tractioneer and in most cases that he is the owner of the machine. 
Faihires that have occurred in this line have been due usually to 
ihe fact that the owners underestimated certain items of costs, such 
as repairs and depreciation and fixed their prices too low. Tractor 
garages should be established in agricultural centers, w^here tractors 
can be engaged for farm Avork. 

G. E. P. Smith, 

Irrigation Engineer. 



The University of Arizona 
College of Agriculture 

Agricultural Experiment Station 



Bulletin No. 91 







Steers in Lot VI, February 12, 1920 



Fattening Native Steers for Market: 1920 



By R. H. Williams 



Tucson, Arizona, September 1, 1920 



ORGANIZATION 

Board of Regents 

Ex-Officio Members 

His Excellency, Thomas E. Campbell, Governor of Arizona Phoenix 

Hon. Charles O Case, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Phoenix 

Appointed Members 

Epes Randolph, Chancellor Tucson 

William J. Bryan, Jr., A.B., Treasurer Tucson 

James G. Compton, Secretary '. Tucson 

William Scarlett, A.B., B.D Phoenix 

John H. Campbell, LL.M Tucson 

Timothy A. Riordan Flagstaff 

Edmund W. Wells Prescott 

Louis D. Ricketts, Sc.D., LL.D Warren 



RUFUS B. von KleinSmid, A.m., D.Sc, J.D President of the University 



Agricultural Experiment Station 

D. W. Working, B.Sc, A.M Dean College of Agriculture, Director 

*ROBERT H. Forbes, Ph.D Research Specialist 

John J. Thornber, A.M Botanist 

Albert E. Vinson, Ph.D Agricultural Chemist 

George E. P. Smith, B.S., C.E Irrigation Engineer 

*RICHARD H. Williams, Ph.D Animal Husbandman 

Walter S. Cunningham, B.S Dairy Husbandman 

Charles T. Vorhies, Ph.D Entomologist 

George E. Thompson, B.S. A Agronomist 

Franklin J. Crider, M.S Horticulturist 

Walker E. Bryan, M.S Plant Breeder 

James G. Brown, M.S Plant Pathologist 

Clifford N. Catlin, A.M Associate Agricultural Chemist 

R. B. Thompson, B.S Poultry Husbandman 

W. E. Code, B.S.C.E Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

A. F. KiNNISON, B.S.A Assistant Horticulturist 

R. S. Hawkins, B.S.A Assistant Agronomist 

E. H. Pressly, B.S Assistant Plant Breeder 

H. C. Schwalen, B.S Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

D. W. Albert, B.S Assistant in Horticulture 

E. B. Stanley, B.S Assistant Animal Husbandman 

S. P. Clark, B.S Assistant in Agronomy 

R. N. Davis, B.S Assistant in Dairy Husbandry 

Agricultural Extension Service 
W. M. Cook, A.B Director 

County Home Demonslraiion Agents 

fALlCE V. Joyce State Leader 

Hazel Zimmerman (South Counties) Tucson 

Flossie D. Wills, B.S. (Maricopa) Phoenix 

Nydia M. Acker, B.S. (North counties) Prescott 

Grace Ryan (Southeast counties) Douglas 

County Agricultural Agents 

W. M. Cook, A.B State Leader 

C. R. Adamson, B.S. (Cochise) Willcox 

F. A. Chisholm, B.S. (Coconino) Flagstaff 

A. B. Ballantyne, B.S. (Graham and Greenlee) Thatcher 

H. C. Heard, B.S. (Maricopa) Phoenix 

C. R. Fillerup (Navajo and Apache) Snowflake 

C. B. Brown, B.S. (Pima and Santa Cruz) Tucson 

E. S. TURVILLE (Pinal) Casa Grande 

ttM. M. WiNSLOW, M.S.A. (Yuma) Yuma 

•On leave. 

tAppointment effective October 1, 1920. 
ttAppointment effective September 16, 1920. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 
Introduction ^^^ 

Plan of the experiment ^"^ 

Animals used ^^^ 

Feed lots and equipment ^^^ 

Weighing the animals ^62 

Feeds used ^^^ 

Rations 364 

Placing cattle on feed ^^^ 

Changes in feed ^"^ 

Refused feed 366 

Duration 367 

Results of the experiment 369 

Alfalfa hay compared with alfalfa hay and silage 369 

Silage and Alfalfa hay compared with silage and cottonseed meal; also will) 

silage, alfalfa hay, and cottonseed meal 372 

Alfalfa hay compared with ground milo maize as a supplement to silage 

and cottonseed meal 3/4 

Alfalfa hay added to a ration of silage, cottonseed meal, and ground milo 

maize 376 

Financial statements ■"° 

General discussion 3/9 

Cost of 100 pounds gain with varying feed prices 379 

Amount of feed cattle will consume 380 

Rate of gain made by steers 382 

Feed required per pound gain 382 

Dry matter, total digestible nutrients, and therms consumed per 100 

pounds gain 383 

Cost of gains in live weight 383 

Margin in cattle feeding 384 

Length of time required to finish cattle 384 

Dressed percentage ot cattle 385 

Kind of cattle to feed 386 

Shrinkage in fat cattle 388 

Supplemental test — feeding 9 steers for 40 days . . . .' 391 

Summary 394 

Main test — 36 steers for 77 days 394 

Supplemental test— 9 steers for 40 days 396 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig. 1.— Experiment steers in feed lots January 23, 1920 Frontispiece 

Fig. 2. — Experiments steers as they came from field, January 8, 1920 .... 361 

Fig. 3.— Steers in feed lots, March 29, 1920 368 

Fig. 4.— Steers in Lot I, February 12, 1920 371 

Fig. 5.— Steers in Lot II, May 5, 1920 392 




■im 









Fattening Native Steers for Market: 1920 



By R. IT. Williams 



INTRODUCTION 

Cattle feeding has been an important industry for many years 
in the irrigated valleys in Arizona. Annually upwards of 30,000 cattle 
are finished for market in the Salt River Valley alone. Conditions 
have been especially favorable there for cattle feeding. A diversified 
system of crop production and rotation is necessary in the irrigated 
districts. Certain high-priced crops must have other crops rotating 
with them to maintain fertility and occupy the ground. Cattle offer 
a special means for marketing home-grown feeds; in this way bulky 
feeds may be concentrated into gains in weight and the finished ani- 
mals shipped to market On almost all farms can be found certain 
by-products, such as cotton stalks, Bermuda grass, Johnson grass, 
corn stalks, or even silage and winter pasturage, which cannot find 
a profitable market except through livestock. Barley and other 
green feeds may be secured at small expense and animals finished for 
market on these feeds alone. 

Arizona is favorably situated for cattle feeding. The light rain 
fall and absence of cold stormy weather, combined with bright sunny 
winters with even temperatures, are favorable for cattle feeding from 
December to April. Range cattle are grown close to the irrigated 
farms and may be taken into the valleys after the fall round-ups and 
fed during the winter months when there is little other work to do. 

Not only the Salt River Valley but the other irrigated districts 
in Arizona, as well as dry farms, are suited to cattle feeding. The 
area of irrigated lands will be greatly increased and a large acreage 
suitable for dry-farming by means of floodwater will be developed. 
Large quantities of feed will be produced. These home-grown feeds 
are of a bulky nature so that it is difficult to secure a market for them. 
There is always a good local demand for home grown beef, and Ari- 
zona farmers should be able to supply this market rather than have 
meat shipped in from other states'. 

The cattle-feeding industry is in its infancy in Arizona. There 
are many new problems to be solved in this phase of the business. 
A careful investigation is necessary in order to supply feeders with 
practical information regarding the cattle-feeding industry. 



PLAN OF THE EXPERIMENT 

The Agricultural Experiment Station conducted a cattle-feeding 
test during the winter of 1920 at the Salt River Valley Farm. Little 
has been done, heretofore, to study the various phases associated with 
this industry. 

The object of the steer-feeding trials was to obtain information 
relating to the problems of feeding these animals. The effect of the 
various rations was one of the aims. These rations were so planned 
that common feeds in the district could be studied. Since a large 
number of steers are fed on alfalfa hay alone, one of the lots was given 
this feed for a ration. Two of the lots were not given any alfalfa 
hay, five lots were given silage, and four cottonseed meal. The 
detailed objects of the experiment from the standpoint of the rations 
alone were: (I) To compare alfalfa hay with a ration of alfalfa hay 
and silage; (II) To compare silage and alfalfa hay with silage and 
cottonseed meal, and also to compare these two rations together 
forming one of silage, alfalfa hay, and cottonseed meal; (III) to com- 
pare the addition of alfalfa hay to a basal ration of silage and cotton- 
seed meal with the addition of ground milo maize; and (IV) to deter- 
mine the effect of adding alfalfa hay to a basal ration of silage, cotton- 
seed meal, and ground milo maize. Other secondary considerations 
included: (1) the amount of feed cattle will consume; (2) rate of 
gains made by steers; (3) feed required per pound gain; (4) dry matter, 
total digestible nutrients, and therms consumed per hundred pounds 
gain; (5) cost of gains in live weight; (6) the margin in cattle feeding; 
(7) length of time required to finish cattle for market; (8) the dressed 
percentage of cattle as affected by the different rations; (9) kind of 
cattle to feed; (10) shrinkage in shipping fat cattle, and other matters 
of general interest. 

ANIMALS USED 

Thirty-six steers were selected for the experiment. Twenty- 
seven of these were polled, being out of native cows, mostly Holsteins, 
and sired by a Polled Shorthorn bull. The remaining nine were 
high-grade Holsteins. All the animals were raised in the Salt River 
Valley and were in good pasture condition averaging 889 pounds, 
and about 30 months old. The steers had been maintained on alfalfa 
pasture, but some of them were accustomed to eating hay. These 
cattle were divided into six lots of six steers each. Each lot was 
made as nearly alike as possible in size, condition, age, previous treat- 



Plan of the Experiment 



361 




Fig. 2. — Experiment steers as tliey came from the field, January 8, 1920 

ment, conformation, weight, and other characteristics, with the one 
exception that the animals in Lot I were high-grade Holsteins, and 
Lots IV, V, and VI each contained one of the high-grade Holstein 
steers. There was very little difference in the condition of the differ- 
ent animals, but the Holstein steers were probably a little thinner 
than those sired by the Polled Shorthorn bull. The animals cost 
10 cents a pound, the weights being taken after they were driven 
about six miles without feed or water. Each of the animals was 



TABLE I— ANIM.ALS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE EXPERIMENT, 
JANUARY 9 1920 





Average 
weight 

of steer 
in lot 


No. 

of steers 

in lot 


Weight distribution of the steers in the lots 


Lot 


1000 lb. 


900 to 
1000 lb. 


800 to 
900 lb. 


700 to 
800 lb. 


600 to 
700 lb. 


I 


Pounds 


6 





2 


4 








II 


889 


6 




3 


1 





1 


III 


890 


6 




1 


3 


1 





IV 


889 


6 




2 


2 


1 





V 


889 


6 




2 


2 


1 





VI 


888 


6 




2 


2 


1 






362 Bulletin 91 

given a number to identify him and records were taken throughout 
the test according to the number of the animals. Table I gives a 
statement of the steers in each lot at the beginning of the experiment. 

Lot I averaged 891 pounds or a little heavier than any of the other 
lots. The average weight of the steers in Lots II, IV, and V was 
889 pounds. Lot III weighed an average of 890 pounds, and Lot VI 
was the lightest, averaging 888 pounds. 

Although there was considerable difference among the steers in 
each lot, yet the animals in the various lots were similar. The animals 
in Lot I were slightly thinner than those in the other lots, but they 
were the most uniform in weight. Two of them weighed between 
900 and 1000 pounds, and the other four between 800 and 900 pounds. 
Lot III contained three animals whose weight ranged between 800 
and 900 pounds, one animal over 1000 pounds, one between 900 and 
1000 pounds, and the other between 700 and 800 pounds. Lot II 
had one animal that weighed over 1000 pounds; three weighed between 
this and 900 pounds; one in the 800 to 900 pounds group; and one 
weighed a little less than 700 pounds. The animals in Lots IV, V, 
and VI fell into the same general distribution. 

FEED LOTS AND EQUIPMENT 
Six feed lots 48 by 60 feet were used for the experiment. In each 
lot was a feed manger 3 feet wide and 36 feet long, which was ample 
for containing the feed. An automatic drinking fountain placed in 
each lot kept fresh water before the animals at all times. No cover- 
ing or shed was needed, and the earth floor of the lots was dry and 
firm throughout the test except after a few light rains. The highest 
temperature while the experiment was in progress was 82 degrees 
F. and the lowest was 31 degrees F. No snow fell during the time 
the steers were in the feed lots. The days were bright and clear 
there being a total of only 3.13 inches rainfall during the feeding period. 
The cattle were in a public place where many visitors inspected them, 
so that they were more restless than they would be on an average 
farm. 

WEIGHING THE ANIMALS 

At the beginning of the test each animal was weighed. The 
cattle at this time had suffered a reasonable shrinkage in weight from 
the time they left the pasture field. Every Friday morning through- 
out the test the animals were weighed individually. On Thursday 
night they were given a regular feed but no water till after weighing. 



Plan of the Experiment 



363 



Frequently a small amount of feed was left in the mangers from the 
night before, but the cattle were weighed with a small shrinkage esti- 
mated to be about 2 percent, or half the amount usually allowed in 
marketing such animals. The cattle were weighed as soon after 8 
o'clock as possible and according to a regular system, so that the 
weights would be uniform each week. 

FEEDS USED 
The feeds selected were those most available and commonly used 
by cattle feeders in the Salt River Valley. Loose alfalfa hay, sorghum 
silage, cottonseed meal, thrashed ground milo maize, and thrashed 
ground hegari were used in this experiment. The prices of these 
feeds at the time the experiment began were as follows: 

Loose alfalfa hay, $25 per ton. 

Sorghum silage, $8 per ton. 

Thrashed ground milo maize, $54 per ton. 

Thrashed ground hegari, $54 per ton. 

Cottonseed meal, $80 per ton. 
The above prices have been used in calculating the cost of the 
rations and the cost of producing gains. The quality of the feeds was 
about average. The hay was fairly free from weeds but somewhat 
coarse in texture. The sorghum silage varied somewhat from time 
to time, but it had been cut when fairly green and was of about average 
quality. While the cottonseed meal was purchased and labelled to 
contain 47 percent protein, the direct analysis showed that it had only 
38.46 percent of protein. The chemical composition of the various 
feeds used was determined by direct analysis by the Department of 
Agricultural Chemistry as given in Table IL 



TABLE II— 


CHEMICAL 

(Expressed 


COMPOSITION OF FEEDS USED 
in percent of fresh substance) 






Dry 

Substance 


Protein 


Carbohydrates 


Ash 




Feed 


Fiber 


Nitrogen 
free extract 


Fat 


Alfalfa hay 


% 
96.30 


% 
15.73 


% 
29.75 


% 
40.59 


% 
8.02 


% 
1.67 


Sorghum silage 


24.83 


1.13 


6.41 


13.93 


2.88 


0.48 


Corn silage 


25.57 


1.89 


7.30 


14.13 


1.84 


0.42 


Cottonseed meal 


94.45 


38.46 


12.23 


31.38 


6.44 


5.94 


Ground milo maize 


91.41 


12.13 


1.81 


74.67 


1.60 


1.20 


Ground hegari 


89.76 


9.41 


1.88 


75.27 


1.44 


1.76 



364 Bulletin 91 

RATIONS 
The experiment was planned after consulting many local feeders 
who have made a careful study of the business. It was finally decided 
to use rations bulky in character, similar to those most frequently 
used in the district. Cattle are not made prime in Arizona. The 
local market pays as much for half-finished cattle as for those that are 
fat. Since the last hundred pounds of gain usually requires a longer 
time and more feed, as well as a ratiorj of more concentrated nature, 
local feeders prefer to give only' small amounts of grains. The lots 
receiving cottonseed meal were limited to a maximum of three pounds 
per steer daily, and at no time was more than six pounds of ground 
milo maize fed to a steer. The animals receiving silage or hay were 
given all of either or both of these feeds they would consume. The 
various lots received a bulky ration not suitable for making large or 
rapid gains. The rations supplied the animals are given in Table III. 

TABLE IIJ.— RATIONS FED THE DIFFERENT LOTS 



Lot 


RATION 


I 


Loose alfalfa hay ad lib. 


il 


Alfalfa hay ad lib, sorghum silage ad lib. 


III 


Silage ad lib. cotton'ieed meal 2 60 lb. 


IV 


Silage ad lib, cottonseed meal 2.66 lb., alfalfa hay ad lib. 


V 


Silage ad lib, cottonseed meal 2.66 lb., ground milo maize 5.70 lb. 


VI 


Silage ad lib. cottonseed meal 2.66 lb., ground milo maize 5.77 lb., alfalfa hay ad lib. 



The steers in Lot I received all the loose alfalfa hay they would 
eat; no other feed was given them. Lot II was fed a combination of 
alfalfa hay and sorghum silage. The aim was to supply each lot 
with as much of these rations as they would consume and not have 
any left over. Lot III received a ration of all the silage they would 
eat together with 2.66 pounds of cottonseed meal per head daily. 
The steers in Lot IV were given all the silage and alfalfa hay they 
would eat and in addition an average of 2.66 pounds of cottonseed 
meal per head daily. This lot was a combination of Lots II and III 
from the standpoint of feed. Lot V. was allowed all the silage they 
would eat and 2.66 pounds of cottonseed meal per head daily and 
5.70 pounds of ground milo maize. This lot was fed the same as 
Lot III but given the addition of a light feed of grain. The cattle 
in Lot VI were given all four of the feeds, being allowed all the silage 



Plan of the Experiment 365 

and hay they would eat, but limited to 2.66 pounds of cottonseed meal 
and 5.77 pounds of ground milo maize. 

PLACING CATTLE ON FEED 

The cattle were in dry lots throughout the test, and they could 
not receive anything that they were not given. The daily allowance 
of feed was given the steers in two feeds, one in the morning after 
8 A. M. and the evening feed from 4 to 6 P. M. From the outset, 
the animals receiving hay and silage were given all of these feeds they 
would consume. The first week all the cattle receiving cottonseed 
meal were given one pound per head daily; the second week this 
amount was increased to two pounds; and after the third week they 
were given three pounds per head daily. The steers in Lots V and 
VI were given four pounds of thrashed ground milo maize per head 
daily the fii-st week, five pounds the second, and six pounds through- 
out the rest of the experiment. 

CHANGES IN FEEDS 

From January 9 to February 14the sorghum was the Goose Neck 
and Honey Drip varieties. This sorghum was cut somewhat green 
and produced silage that was sour and not so good in quality as the 
silage used after February 14. After this time the silage was from 
Orange Cane sorghum. This was riper, sweeter, and had more grain 
than the sorghum previously fed. The steers preferred this silage to 
the varieties fed up to this date. 

Beginning March 15 the cattle were given corn silage made from 
Mexican June corn and a small amount of cowpeas. The steers did 
not eat this silage with as much relish as the sorghum silage previously 
used. They seemed restless, nosed over the silage, ate a few bites, 
and then moved around the corral. A few days were required for 
them to change to the corn silage, which they eventually ate with 
relish. 

Thrashed ground milo maize was fed from January 9 to February 
29 covering a period of 51 days. Beginning March 1 hegari that had 
been thrashed and then ground was supplied the animals until the 
end of the test. In discussing the results "milo maize" is used, but 
it should be remembered that hegari replaced the milo maize after 
March 1. No difference was observed in the palatability or feeding 
quality of these two grains. 



366 



Bulletin 91 



REFUSED FEED 

A small quantity of the feed given the cattle in each lot was 
wasted. Good mangers were used and an effort was made to supply 
the cattle with only the amount of feed they would consume without 
waste. Small quantities of feed dropped from the mouths of the 
cattle to the ground and some waste resulted in this manner. All 
feed the animals did not eat and left in the manger was weighed and 
a careful record kept of it. The alfalfa hay was easily separated 
from the other feed and a close record of the amount of hay actually 
consumed by the animals was secured. The silage lost moisture so 
that the record of the refused silage has little significance. The 
cracked grain and cottonseed meal became so mixed with the silage 
that it was difficult to ascertain how much of each of these feeds was 
refused by the different lots. It was noticed, however, that the cattle 
made an effort to eat the grain and cottonseed meal, and no doubt 
onl> small quantities of these concentrates were left behind as refuse. 
The amount of feed refused in the various lots is given in Table IV. 

TABLE IV.— HAY AND.SILAGE REFUSED BY THE CATTLE IN THE DIFFERENT LOTS 





Feed refused by the steers 


Lot 


Alfalfa hay 


Silage 


I 


Pounds 
316 


% 
2 


Pounds 


% 


II 


181 


4 


65 


0.3 


III 






297 


1.0 


IV 


164 


8 


70 


0.2 


V 






618 


3.0 


VI 


138 


8 


60 


0.3 



As was to be expected, Lot I left more alfalfa hay than any of the 
other lots, but the refused hay in this lot was only 2 percent, although 
a total of 316 pounds of hay was weighed back. Lots II, IV, and VI 
refused from 138 to 181 pounds of alfalfa hay, this amount being from 
four to eight percent of the total given these lots. Lots III and V 
received no alfalfa hay. It is believed that if they had been allowed 
the refused alfalfa hay from the other four lots they would have eaten 
it and probably made better gains. 

Lot V refused 618 pounds of silage. This was more than twice 
as much as the silage refused by Lot III. Most of the silage refused 



Plan of the Experiment 367 

by l.ot V was during the lime that two steers in this lot were off feed. 
These were the only two steers in the experiment that were not al- 
ways read>- to eat their feed. The proportion of loss of silage is much 
less than that of refused alfalfa hay. Lot V had 3 percent of the 
silage weighed back; Lot Till percent; and Lots IT, IV, and VI each 
less than 1 percent. Here again it is believed that if the refused silage 
in the five lots had been given the steers in Lot I that received no 
silage, they would have made good use of it. Since these amounts 
of feed are ordinarily wasted in practical feeding, and the steers selec- 
ted the best of the feed, leaving the inferior portions, the steers were 
charged with all the refused feeds in calculating the costs. 

DURATION 

The steers w^ere placed in the feed lot on January 9, 1920, and the 
test was completed after the cattle had been on feed 77 days ending 
March 25. At this time, an offer of 11 cents per pound live weight, 
deducting 4 percent shrinkage from the filled weight was accepted. 
This was an extremely satisfactory price, considering the market at 
that time. During Januarv and February the outlook for higher 
prices was especially favorable. February 20 a local buyer offered 
12 cents a pound for the animals for delivery April 1. This was a 
good price and would have allowed a profit on the feeding operations. 
Other feeders in the district had been offered 13 cents a pound for 
similar steers to be delivered April 1. Shortly after this time Kansas 
City packers began shipping dressed beef to the Salt River Valley. 
This intimidated the local butchers, as the Kansas City beef was 
placed on the market at a lower price than the cost of beef from home 
fed cattle. Towards the first of April the Federal Government sold 
large quantities of frozen beef that had been in storage two years. 
Los Angeles, one of the most promising markets for cattle fed in the 
Southwest, purchased large quantities of this frozen beef at very low 
prices. Another contributing factor to the drop in prices of finished 
cattle resulted from the desert range being unusually good, and the. 
cattle maintained on these ranges were sufficiently fat for butchers 
as early as the middle of April. With all -these contributing factors, 
as well as a depressed market in Denver and Kansas City, we felt 
extremely fortunate in being able to secure 11 cents a pound for the 
steers. They were purchased by Cowden and Babbitt, and shipped 
to Flagstaff for local consumption. 

A careful estimate was made of the value of the steers in the differ- 



368 



Bulletin 91 




Fig. 3. — Steers in the feed lots, March 29, 1920 

ent lots at the close of the test. Table V gives the value of the ani- 
mals at the end of the first 77 days on feed. 

TABLE v.— ESTIMATED VALUE OF ANIMALS AT THE END OF 77 DAYS 



Value per hundred 
live weight 



Lot I 



$10.25 



Lot II 
$10.75 



Lot HI 
$10.60 



Lot IV 
$11.20 



Lot V 
$11.35 



Lot VI 
$11.59 



Local butchers estimated that there was a range of $1.25 per 
hundred between the value of the steers in Lots I and VL Lot II 
was fatter than Lots I and III and estimated to be worth 15 cents 
per hundred more than Lot III. Lots IV, V, and VI were distinctly 
fatter than any of the other lots. 



RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENT 

Extreme care was exercised in planning and conducting the 
experiment to secure results which would be reliable and accurate for 
the different lots. The weighing of the feeds and the animals was as 
thorough and uniform as possible. The results of the experiment and 
the following discussion are based on these weights. 

ALFALFA HAY COMPARED WITH ALFALFA HAY AND 

SILAGE 

A few years ago, when alfalfa hay cost $5 to SlO per ton, it was 
often used as an exclusive ration for fattening cattle. Since 1918 the 
price of this feed has increased greatly, and now feeders are endeavor- 
ing to secure a more effective ration than alfalfa hay alone. Many 
silos have been constructed in the State, and feeders wish to know if 
silage when added to alfalfa hay will make larger and more economical 
gains. 

Two lots of steers containing six animals each were used for this 
test. Lot I was given all the alfalfa hay they would eat, and Lot II 
allowed all the alfalfa hay and silage they cared for. The steers were 
fed twice a day. In Table VI is given a summary of the results giv- 
ing a comparison of the weights, gains, average daily rations, feeds 
required per pound gain, nutrients required per 100 pounds gain, 
cost of 100 pounds gain, and the total cost of the animals, their value 
and profit at the end of the test in Table VI. 

At the beginning of the test, the six steers in Lot I averaged 2 
pounds heavier than those in Lot 11. During the 77 days the steers 
fed on alfalfa hay alone gained 107 pounds per head, while those fed 
on alfalfa hay and silage gained 184 pounds per head. The average 
daily gain was only 1.40 pounds per head in Lot I, and 2.39 pounds 
in Lot II. Not one of the steers in Lot I gained as much as the 
lightest steer gained in Lot II. This shows that the addition of silage 
to alfalfa hay made the animals gain more rapidly. Steers fed on 
alfalfa hay alone will gain an average of about 1.40 pounds per head 
daily during the first 11 weeks. On the other hand, if silage is added 
to a ration of alfalfa hay, they will gain almost a pound more daily. 
This increased gain in the lot where the steers were allowed all the 
silage they cared for in addition to alfalfa hay means the difference 
between rapid and slow gains. The steers in Lot I gained slowly and 
would have required a long feeding period to finish, while the steers 
in Lot II made what would be considered medium gains. 



370 Bulletin 91 

TABLE VI.— SUMMARY OF THE RESULTS FOR LOTS I AND II FED 77 DAYS 



Number of steers in lot 



Ration 



Average initial weight.. 
Average final weight.... 

Average gain 

Average daily gain 



Average daily ration: 

Alfalfa hay. 

Silage 



Feed required per pound gain: 

Alfalfa hay. 

Silage 



Nutrients required per 100 lbs. gain: 

Dry matter 

Total digestible nutrient 

Number of therms 



Cost of 100 pounds gain.. 



Lot I 



Alfalfa hay 



891 lb. 

998 lb. 

107 lb. 

1.40 1b. 



28.63 lb. 



20.51 lb. 



1869.29 lb. 
1055.00 lb. 
700.00 therms 



$25.63 



Alfalfa hay and 
silase 



889 lb. 

1073 lb. 

184 1 . 

2.39 lb. 



8.99 lb. 
47.14 1b. 



3.76 lb. 
19.71 lb. 



793.72 lb. 
456.49 lb. 
442.68 therms 



$12.58 



Initital cost per head at $10.00 cwt . 

Feed cost per head 

Interest on investment at 8% 

Estimated cost of marketing 



Total cost.. 



Value per cwt. March 26 

Returns per head without shrink.. 

Loss per head 

Profit per head 

Necessary .=;el!ing price per cwt... 



$89.10 

27.55 

1.50 

1 45 



$119.60 



S 10.25 

102.33 

17.27 



$88.90 

23.18 

l.SO 

1.45 



$115.03 



$ 10.75 
115.38 



.35 
10.72 



The average daily ration consumed by the steers in Lot I was 
28.63 pounds of alfalfa hay. The first four weeks they consumed an 
average of 25.87 pounds per day; the second four weeks, 30.30 pounds; 
and the last three weeks 30.08 pounds. Steers weighing 891 pounds 
and about 30 months old will consume slightly less than 30 pounds of 
alfalfa hay daily for the first 11 weeks they are in the feed lot. The 
first few days they will probably be nervous and not accustomed to 
the feed, but after the first month they should reach their maximum 
capacity. The steers in Lot II consumed an average of 47.14 pounds 
of silage and 8.99 pounds of alfalfa hay per head daily throughout the 
■ test. At the outset these cattle ate more hay and less silage, but as 
the period progressed they ate less alfalfa hay and more silage. In 
each of the lots, the animals seemed to be well contented with their 
feed and did as well as could be expected from the kind of feed given 
them. 

The steers in Lot II did not require as much dry matter, total 



Results oi- the Experiment 



371 




Fig. 4. — Steers in Lot I, February 12. 1020 



digestible nutrients, or therms to make 100 i)ounds of gain as the 
cattle in Lot I. This would indicate that the addition of silage to 
a basal ration of alfalfa hay balanced the feed constituents in some 
way so that the animals could utilize the nutrients more efficiently. 
Owing to the greater variety in the ration supplied to the steers in 
Lot II, they consumed more feed, or else the ration was more con- 
centrated so the cattle could make greater gains and at less cost. 
Gain in Lot I cost $25.63 per 100 pounds and in Lot II only $12.58, 
or a little less than half as much. The total cost of feed in Lot I 
was higher than in Lot II, so that the cattle fed on alfalfa hay alone 
required more money to buy the feed for them than where a combina- 
tion ration was fed. Gains, however, were not in proportion to the 
cost of the feed, and the increase in the value of the animals was also 
less with the steers fed on alfalfa hay. This means that alfalfa hay 
alone is not so good a ration as alfalfa hay and silage from the stand- 
point of rate of gains, cost of the daily feed ration, cost of gains, or 
increasing the value of the animals. The steers fed on alfalfa 
hay lost an average of $17.27, while the cattle fed on alfalfa hay and 
silage made an average profit of 35 cents per head. To break even, 
the selling price would have had to be $10.72 per hundred for Lot II 
and $11.98 for Lot I. In every particular it was found that the addi- 
tion of silage to a ration of alfalfa hay was beneficial. 



372 



Bulletin 91 



SILAGE AND ALFALFA HAY COMPARED WITH SILAGE AND 
COTTONSEED MEAL; ALSO WITH SILAGE. ALFALFA HAY, 
AND COTTONSEED MEAL 
Having proved that a ration of silage and alfalfa hay is better 
than alfalfa hay alone for fattening steers, it is next desired to com- 
pare this ration with silage and cottonseed meal and with a combina- 
tion of all three of the feeds. Three lots of steers were used to make 
this study. Lot II was fed on silage and alfalfa hay; Lot HI, silage 
and cottonseed meal; and Lot IV, silage, cottonseed meal, and alfalfa 
hay. Each lot receiving silage or alfalfa hay was given all of these 
feeds they would eat, and Lots III and IV were given an average of 
2.66 pounds cottonseed meal per head daily for the entire period. 
It will be noted that Lot IV was given a combination of the rations 
given Lots II and III. A detailed summary of the results of this 
test is given in Table VI I. 



TABLE VII.— SUMMARY OF THE RESULTS WITH LOTS II. Ill 


AND IV. 




Lot 11 


Lot III 


Lot IV 


Number of steers in lot 


6 


6 


6 


Ration 


Silage, 
alfalfa hay 


Silage, 
cottonseed meal 


Silage, alfalfa hay, 
cottonseed meal 




889 lb. 

1073 lb. 

184 lb. 

2.39 lb. 


890 lb. 

1041 lb. 

151 lb. 

1.96 lb. 


889 lb. 




1086 lb. 




197 lb. 




2.55 lb. 






Average daily ration: 


8.99 lb. 
47.14 1b. 




4.20 lb. 


Silage 


61.76 lb. 
2.66 lb. 


60.68 lb. 




2.66 lb. 








Feed required per pound gain: 
.'Alfalfa hay 


3.76 lb. 
19.71 lb. 




1.65 lb. 




31.49 lb. 
1.36 lb. 


23.78 lb. 




1.04 lb. 








Nutrients required per 100 pounds gain: 


793.72 lb. 
456.49 lb. 
442.68 therms 


843.37 lb. 
520.41 1 .. 
628.06 therms 


789.41 lb. 




479.61 lb. 




532.55 therms 








$12.58 


$18.03 


$15.73 








$ 88.90 

23.18 

1.50 

1.45 


$ 89.00 

27.22 

1.50 

1.45 


$ 88.90 




30.93 




1.50 




1. 5 






Total cost 


$115.03 


$119.17 


$122 78 








S 10.75 
115.38 


$ 10.60 

110.35 

8.82 


$ 11.20 


Returns per head without shrink 


121.59 
1.19 




.35 
10.72 




Xece?sary selling price per cwt 


11.45 


11.31 



Results of the Experiment 373 

Although the steers were as nearly alike as possible at the begin- 
ning of the test, yet the ration given them soon began to prove that 
the steers in Lot IV were making the most rapid gains and Lot III 
the slowest. At the end of 77 days the average gain in Lot IV was 
197 pounds; Lot II, 184 pounds; and Lot III only 151 pounds. The 
average daily gain was 2.55 pounds in Lot IV, 2.39 pounds, in Lot II 
and 1.96 pounds in Lot III. The average steer in Lot IV gained .16 
pound per day more than the average steer in Lot II and .59 pound 
more than those in Lot III. The steers given all three feeds made 
the most rapid gains, and those fed on alfalfa hay and silage gained 
more rapidly than steers given a limited quantity of cottonseed meal 
and all the silage they would eat. 

Each lot received all the silage they would eat. Lot II ate only 
47.14 pounds of silage along with 8.99 pounds of alfalfa hay. Lot III 
consumed most silage, averaging 61.76 pounds per day, along with 
2.66 pounds of cottonseed meal; and Lot IV ate about a pound less 
of silage per day than Lot III, the same quantity of cottonseed meal, 
and in addition 4.20 pounds of alfalfa hay. Owing to the small gains 
made by the steers in Lot III, and the large gains by the animals in 
Lot IV, relatively less feed and nutrients were required to produce 
an equal gain in weight in Lot IV than in Lot III. The steers in 
Lot II seemed to make better use of their feed than those in Lot IV, 
except in the total amount of dry matter required to produce 100 
pounds gain. The cost of 100 pounds gain was lowest in Lot II, 
averaging $12.58; highest in Lot III, being $18.03; and Lot IV ranked 
between the other two, costing an average of $15.73. The steers in 
Lot IV made the largest gain, but at the highest feed cost. These 
steers were much fatter than those in the other lots and were valued 
at a higher price at the end of the test. The difference in the condi- 
tion of the cattle in Lot IV and the greater gain in weight did not 
overcome the more efTective utilization and the lower feed cost of 
the steers in Lot II, so that the steers in this lot made a profit of 35 
cents per head, while those in Lot IV lost an average of $1.19 per head. 
The ration in Lot III was decidedly inferior to that in Lots II and IV, 
for the average steer in Lot III lost more money than the entire six 
steers in Lot IV. The necessary selling price per 100 pounds at the 
end of the 77 days, in order to break even without gain or loss, was 
$10.72 for Lot II, $11.31 for Lot IV, and $11.45 for Lot III. These 
selling prices are based on a cost price of $10 per hundred for the 
feeders, the cost of the feeds consumed, the interest on the money 



374 Bulletin 91 

invested for cattle, and cost of marketing, as well as the rate of gain 
made by the difTerent lots. A margin between the cost price of feeders 
and the selling price of the finished steers at the end of 77 days of 
72 cents per hundred for Lot II, $1.31 for Lot IV and $1 .45 for Lot III 
would have been necessary to cover the entire expenses in the different 
lots; 

ALFALFA HAY COMPARED WITH GROUND MILO MAIZE 

AS A SUPPLEMENT TO SILAGE AND 

COTTONSEED MEAL 

Lots IV and V were used for this test. The steers in Lot IV were 
given all the silage and alfalfa hay they would eat and 2.66 pounds of 
cottonseed meal per head daily. Each steer in Lot V received 2.66 
pounds of cottonseed meal, 5.70 pounds of ground milo maize, and 
all the silage they would eat. The daily consumption of silage in 
Lot IV was 60.68 pounds per steer, while those in Lot V ate 52.70 
pounds. Each steer in Lot IV ate 7.98 pounds more silage daily, 
the same amount of cottonseed meal, and 4.20 pounds of alfalfa hay 
in place of 5.70 pounds of ground grain consumed in Lot V. Table 
VIII gives the summary of the results with this test. 

The steers in the two lots weighed an average of 889 pounds at the 
beginning, but those in Lot IV gained 197 pounds and the steers in 
Lot V 189 pounds each. At the end of the test the steers in Lot IV 
had gained an average of 8 pounds more than those in the other lot. 
Less dry matter, total digestible nutrients, and therms were required 
to produce 100 pounds of gain in Lot IV than in Lot V. The animals 
fed more evenly in Lot IV throughout the test and seemed to be more 
vigorous and to relish their feed better than those in Lot V. Two 
steers were off feed for a week in Lot V, and three in this lot gained 
less than 140 pounds each, while the lightest gain in Lot IV was 
160 pounds. 

Owing to the greater gain made by the steers in L-ot IV and the 
apparently more effective use of the feed, which was of a bulky nature 
costing less than the concentrated feed given Lot V, the cost of gains 
was less in Lot IV than in Lot V. The cost of feed to produce 100 
pounds of gain in Lot IV was $15.73, and in Lot V it was $19.18. 
During the feeding period the average steer in Lot IV cost $30.93 
for feed, and in Lot V, $36.28. In spite of the larger gains made by 



Results of the Experiment 



375 



TABLE VIII.— SUMMARY OF THE RESULTS WITH LOTS IV AND V FED 77 DAYS 





Lot IV 


Lot V 


Number of steers in lot 


6 


6 


Ration 


Silage, cottonseed meal, 
alfalfa hay 


Silage, cottonseed meal, 
ground milo maize 




889 lb. 

1086 lb. 

197 lb. 

2.55 lb. 


889 lb. 




1078 lb. 




189 lb. 




2.46 lb. 






Averape daily ration: 


4 20 lb. 

60.68 lb. 

2.66 lb. 






52.70 lb. 




2.66 lb. 




5.70 1b. 






Feed required per pound gain: 


1.65 lb. 

23.78 lb. 

1.04 lb. 






21.45 lb 


Cottonseed meal 


1.08 lb. 




2.32 lb. 






Nutrients required per 100 pounds gain: 

Drv matter 


789.41 lb. 


795.12 Ih. 




479.61 lb. 5.S0.81 lb. 




532.55 therms 64S.37 therm.s 








Cost of 100 pounds gain 


$15.73 


$19.18 






Initial cost per head at $10.00 cwt 


$ 88.90 

30.9.S 

1.50 

1.45 


$ 88.90 


Feed cost per head 


36.28 




1.50 




1.45 






Total cost 


$122.78 


$128.13 






Value per cwt. March 26. 


$ 11.20 

121.59 

1.19 

'U.3\ 


$ 11.35 




122.39 




5.74 


Profit per head 




Necessary selling price per cwt 


11.88 



the steers fed on silage, cottonseed meal, and alfalfa hay, the steers 
given silage, cottonseed meal, and ground milo maize fattened more 
rapidly and Avere valued at 15 cents more per hundred at the close 
of the experiment than those in the other lot. The steers in Lot IV 
seemed to grow rather than to finish for market. The average steer 
in Lot IV lost $L19 and in Lot V the average lost $5.74. In order 
to break even on the two lots, it would have been necessary to sell 
the steers in Lot IV at $11.31 per 100 pounds and those in Lot V at 
$11.88 per 100 pounds. The margin required to feed the steers in 
Lot IV was $1.31 per 100 pounds, and in Lot V it would have been 
necessary to sell the animals at Si. 88 more than their purchase price. 



376 



Bulletin 91 



ALFALFA HAY ADDED TO A RATION OF SILAGE, COTTON- 
SEED MEAL, AND GROUND MILO MAIZE 

A ^•ariety of feeds is considered advisable in a ration for animals. 
Two lots of six steers each were fed in making this test. The steers 
in Lot V were given 2.66 pounds of cottonseed meal, 5.70 pounds of 
milo maize, and all the silage they would consume. In Lot VI the 
steers were given the same amount of cottonseed meal, almost the 
same quantity of ground milo maize, and allowed free choice of alfalfa 
hay and silage. A summary of results -with Lots V and VI is given 
in Table IX. 



T.^BLE IX.— SUMMARY OF RESULTS WITH LOTS V, AND VL FED 77 DAYS 





Lot V 


Lot VI 


Number of steers in lot 


6 


6 


Ration 


Silape. cottonseed meal, 
ground milo maize 


Silage, cottonseed meal, 

ground milo maize, 

alfalfa hay 


Average initial weight 


889 lb. 

1078 lb. 

189 lb. 

2.46 lb. 


888 lb 


Average final weight 


1080 lb. 


Average gain 


192 lb 


Average daily gain 


2 49 lb 






Average daily ration: 

Alfalfa hay. 


52''76 lb. 
2.66 lb. 


3 97 lb 


Silage 


48.38 lb. 


Cottonseed meal 


2.66 lb. 


Ground milo maize 


5.70 1b. 


5.77 lb. 


Feed required per pound gain: 
Alfalfa hay. 




1.60 lb. 


Silage 


21.45 lb. 
1.08 lb. 
2.32 lb. 


19.43 lb 


Cottonseed meal 


1.07 lb. 


Ground milo maize 


2.32 lb. 






Nutrients required per 100 pounds gain: 
Dry matter 


795.12 lb. 
.S50.81 lb. 
648.37 therms 


893.98 lb. 


Total digestible nutrients 


605.62 lb. 


Number of therms 


669.88 therms 






Cost of 100 pounds gain 


S19.18 


$20.30 






Initial cost per head at $10.00 cwt 


$ 88.90 

36.28 

l.SO 

1.45 


$ 88.80 


Feed cost per head 


38.91 


Interest on investment at 8% 


1.50 


Estimated cost of marketing 


1.45 






Total coat 


$128.13 


$130.66 






Value per cwt. March 26 


$ 11.35 

122.39 

5.74 


$ 11.50 


Returns per head without shrink 


124.20 


Loss per head 


6.46 


Profit per head 




Necessary selling price per cwt 


11.88 


12.10 







Results of the Experiment 377 

The rations in the two lots were the same except that the steers 
in Lot VI consumed an average of 3.97 pounds alfalfa hay per head 
daily, while those in Lot V were given no alfalfa hay and they ate 
4.32 pounds more silago per head daily than the steers in Lot VL 
The steers in Lot V gained a total of 189 pounds or an average of 
2.46 pounds per head daily, and those in Lot V gained 192 pounds 
during the feeding period, or an average of 2.49 pounds per head 
daily. The amount of feed required per pound gain was very similar 
in each lot, Lot VI using 2.02 pounds less silage, but 1.60 pounds 
more of alfalfa hay. 

From the standpoint of the efficiency of the rations as indicated 
by the nutrients required to make a hundred pounds of gain, the 
steers in Lot V seemed to have a distinct advantage in this respect. 
In dry matter, total digestible nutrients, and number of therms re- 
quired to produce 100 pounds of gain, the steers in Lot VI required 
about ten percent more than those in L-ot V. The feed in Lot V 
seemed to be more efficient than in Lot VI in making gain, or else 
the tables giving the digestibility of feeds are not reliable for Arizona 
conditions. Throughout it was observed that there was an apparently 
greater food value attached to alfalfa hay than actually obtained in 
this test, or the constituents in silage as given in text-books on the 
subject were underestimated. There is an apparently illogical con- 
dition in the tables giving the nutrients consumed or required to 
produce 100 pounds gain. 

The feed cost was $36.28 for an average steer in Lot V and $38.91 
in Lot VI. The gains in Lot VI were not sufficiently greater to 
counteract this increased cost of the food, for gain costs $19.18 per 
100 pounds in Lot V and $20.30 in Lot VI. Both of the lots lost 
money. Lot V losing $5.74 per head and Lot VI $6.46. In order to 
purchase the animals, to supply them with feed, pay interest on the 
cost price of the steers, and to market them, $11.88 per 100 pounds 
was necessary in Lot V and $12.10 in Lot VI. 

The chief differences between the two lots were: (1) greater 
uniformity of gains made by the steers in Lot VI; (2) the animals in 
Lot VI finished more rapidly for market; (3) better appetites of the 
animals in Lot VI ; and (4) the higher price received for them at the 
end of the test. There seemed to be some quality associated with 
the alfalfa hay which had a beneficial effect on the animals. The 
steers in Lot VI were all in good vigorous condition with ready ap- 
petites but two of the steers in Lot V went off feed during the test. 



378 



Bulletin 91 



These were the only steers in the entire experiment that showed a 
tendency to refuse feed at any time. Three of the animals in Lot V 
made very light gains, and two of them gained large amounts. In 
Lot VI all the steers made large gains, and at the end of the test the 
animals in this lot were much more uniform and fatter than those 
in Lot V. One may conclude that, from the standpoint of keeping 
animals in good condition, with good vigorous appetites, and in order 
to make them finish for market at an early date, without many culls, 
the addition of alfalfa hay to a ration of silage, cottonseed meal, and 
milo maize is beneficial. 

In each of the lots receiving alfalfa hay, with the exception of 
Lot I where the steers were fed exclusively on this feed, alfalfa hay 
seemed to have a beneficial effect. Animals do not care for more 
than three or four pounds of alfalfa hay per day, but they will do 
better if given this amount. They will gain more rapidly, feed more 
uniformly, and take on flesh faster than when no alfalfa hay is given 
them. Apparently the cost of producing gains may be slightly more 
when the alfalfa hay has been fed, but at least a small amount of 
alfalfa hay or some other good substitute for it should be used in 
cattle feeding. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 36 STEERS, 1920 



Cost of steers (32,020 lb.) at 10 cents.. 

Cost of feed 

Interest on investment at 8% 

Estimated cost of marketing 



Total cost. 



Returns from 23 steers Wt. (25,398 4% shrink) at 11 cents.. 
Returns from 13 steers Wt. (14,802 4% shrink) at 11 cents.. 



Total returns.. 

Loss 

Loss per steer 



$3202.00 

1360.29 

54.00 

52.20 



$4668.49 



S2682.03 
1572.60 



$4254.63 

413.86 
11.50 



FINANCIAl STATEMENT ASSUMING ALL STEERS WERE SOLD AT THE END OF 
77 DAYS AT 11 CENTS PER LB. AND 4% SHRINK 






S3202.00 




1104.45 




54.00 


Estimated cost of marketing 


52.20 






$4412.65 




S4027.58 






Loss 


S 385.07 


Loss per steer 




10.70 



GENERAL DISCUSSION 

COST OF 100 POUNDS GAIN WITH VARYING FEED PRICES 

The main object in feeding cattle is to make a profit. In order 
to make a profit the feeder must select feeds which will produce good 
gains at low cost. The use of home-grown feed will often bring a 
larger return if marketed through live stock than when shipped to 
somt^ distant market. Table X has been prepared to give the cost 
of 100 pounds of gain with varying prices of feed. 

TABLE X.— COST OF 100 POUNDS GAIN WITH VARYING FEED PRICES 



Alfalfa hay 


S12.00 


S18,0() 


S-'5.00 


Alfalfa hay 


Silage 


S 6.00 


S 8.0o[$10.00 


S 6.00 


S 8.00S10.00 


S 6.00 


S 8.00 


SIO.OO 


S12.60 


$18.00 


$25.00 


Lot I — Alfalfa hay... 




















12.30 


18.45 


25.63 


Lot II— Alfalfa hay 
and Silage 


8.17 


10.14 


12.12 


9.29 


11.26 


13.24 


10.61 


12.58 


14.56 








Lot III — Silage and 
cottonseed meal. 

Cottonseed S60 

meal S70 

$80 


13.52 
14.20 
14.88 


16.67 

17.35 
18.03 


19.82 
20.50 
21.18 




















Lot IV— Alfalfa hay, 
Silage and Cotton- 


11.25 
11.77 
12.29 


13.63 
14.15 
14.67 


16.01 
16.53 
17.05 


11.74 
12.26 
12.78 


14.12 
14.64 
15.16 


16.50 
17.02 
17.54 


12.32 
12.84 
13.36 


14.70 
15.22 
15.74 


17.08 
17.60 
18.12 








Cottonseed fS60 

meal -^$70 

tS80 




Lot V — Silage, milo 
and cottonseed 
meal 

Milo 


30.00 
13.17 
13.71 
14.25 


40.00 
16.47 
17.01 
17.55 


54.00 
20.25 
20.79 
21.33 




















Cottonseed ( S60 

meal S70 

lS80 




Lot VI— Alfalfa hay. 
silage, milo and 
cottonseed meal 

Milo 

Cottonseed ($60 

meal S70 

$80 


30.00 
13.47 
14.00 
14.54 


40.00 
16.57 
17.10 
17.64 


54.00 
20.14 
20.67 
21.21 


30.00 
13.95 
14.48 
15.02 


40.00 
17.05 
17.58 
18.12 


54.00 
20.62 
21.15 
21.69 


30.00 
14.50 
15.03 
15.57 


40.00 
17.60 
18.13 
18.67 


54.00 
21.17 
21.70 

22.24 









The different prices have been taken for the various feeds as 
follows: Alfalfa hay, sS12, $18, and $25 per ton; silage $6, $8, and 
$10 per ton; cottonseed meal $60, $70, and $80 per ton; and ground 
milo maize $30, $40, and $50 per ton. 

The method of using this table is as follows: Suppose the feeder 
is considering what the cost of 100 pounds of gain will be with alfalfa 
hay at $25 per ton, silage at $8, cottonseed meal at $80, and milo 
maize at $40 per ton. First look under the heading of alfalfa at $25 



380 BULLETIN 91 

per ton; follow down the column marked silage at $8 per ton until 
the milo column marked $40 a ton is reached; follow down from here 
to the figure opposite cottonseed meal at $80 per ton, and the sum of 
$18.67 is found. This amount is the cost of 100 pounds of gain if 
the above prices are used and gains are made the same as the steers 
in Lot VI. Other combinations of feeds and prices are found in the 
same manner. Thus alfalfa hay at $12 per ton, silage at $6 and cotton- 
seed meal at $60 a ton will cost $11.25 to make 100 pounds of gain 
at the rate made by the steers in Lot IIL Where alfalfa hay alone 
is fed, the cost of 100 pounds of gain is about the same as the cost 
per ton of the hay. 

Table X has been given to supply a ready reference to cattle 
feeders. It is believed that it will give a close approximation of the 
costs of making 100 pounds gain in steers with any of the six rations 
used in this test. Before beginning the feeding operations, it would 
be wise to compare the ruling prices of feeds with this table to ascertain 
whether to feed or not. It almost always costs more to make cattle 
gain in live weight than one can secure for the finished animals. 
With a two cent margin over a short feeding period one can expect 
the cost of gains to be two to four cents per pound greater than the 
fat cattle will bring. 

In order to give a brief summary of the test which will enable 
one to follow the data from the lots fed in the six different ways and 
make a comparison of them a complete summary is presented in 
Table XL Some secondary factors of interest to stockmen are found 
in this table. Among these may be mentioned: (1) amount of feed 
cattle will consume; (2) rate of gain made by steers; (3) feed required 
per pound gain; (4) dry matter, total digestible nutrients, and therms 
consumed per 100 pounds gain; (,S) cost of gains in live weight; (6) 
margin in cattle feeding; (7) length of time required to finish cattle 
for market; and (8) dressed percentage of cattle as affected by the 
different rations. 

AMOUNT OF FEED CATTLE WILL CONSUME 

According to the results obtained in this test, steers weighing 
891 pounds will consume an average of 28.63 pounds of alfalfa hay 
per day. For the same length of time a similar animal, when given 
free choice of alfalfa hay and silage, will consume 8.99 pounds of the 
former and 47.14 pounds of the latter. When steers are given a 
limited amount of concentrated feed along with roughage consisting 
of silage or alfalfa hay or both, the amount of roughage consumed will 



General Discussion 



381 



T.\BLE XI.— COMPLETE SUMMARY OF 


THE TEST FOR 77 


DAYS 






Lot I 


Lot 11 


Lot III 


Lot IV 


Lot V 


Lot VI 


Number of steers in lot 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


Ration 


Alfalfa hay 


Alfalfa hay. 
silage 


Silage, 

cottonseed 

meal 

Pounds 
890 
1041 
151 
1.96 


Alfalfa hay. 

silage. 

cottonseed 

meal 


Silage, 
cottonseed 

meal 
milo maize 


Alfalfa hay 

silage, 
cottonseed 

meal 
milo maize 


Average initial weight 


Pounds 

891 

99S 

107 

1.40 


Pounds 

889 
1073 

184 
2.39 


Pounds 

889 
1086 

197 
2.55 


Pounds 

889 
1078 

189 
2.46 


Pounds 

888 
1080 






Average daily gain 


2.49 


; 

Average daily ration 

Alfalfa hay 


Pounds 
28.63 


Pounds 

8.99 

47.14 


Pounds 

61.76 
2.66 


Pound': 

4.20 

60.68 

2.66 


Pounds 

.S2.7C 
2.66 
5.70 


Pounds 
3.97 


Silage 










Milo maize 






5.77 


Feed required per lb. gain: 


Pounds 
20.51 


Pounds 
3.76 
19.71 


■ Pounds 

31.49 
1.36 


Pounds 

1.65 

23.78 

1.04 


Pounds 


Pounds 
1.60 




21.45 
1 08 
2.32 


19.43 










Milo maize 









Nutrients required per 
100 lbs. gain: 


Pounds 

1869.29 

1055.00 

700.00 


Pounds 

793.72 
456.49 
442.68 


Pounds 

843.37 
520.41 
628.06 


Pounds 

789.41 
479.61 
532.55 


Pounds 

795.12 
550.81 
648.37 


Pounds 

893.98 
605.62 
669.88 


Total digest, nutrients®. 
Therms® 


Cost of 100 lbs. gain 


$25.63 


$12.58 


$18.03 


$15.73 


$19.18 


$20.30 






Initial cost at SIO.OO cwt.. 


$89.10 

27 55 

1.50 

1.45 


$ 88.90 

23.18 

1.50 

1.45 


S 89.00 

27.22 
1.50 
1.45 


$ 88.90 

30.93 

1.50 

1.45 


$ 88.90 

36.28 

1.50 

1.45 


S 88.80 

38.91 

1.50 

1.45 


Interest at 8% 


Estimated cost of marketing 




$119.60 


115.03 


$119.17 


$122.78 


$128.13 


130.66 






Value per cwt. March 26 .. 


$ 10.25 


$ 10.75 


S 10.60 


$ 11.20 


$ 11.35 


$ 11.50 


Returns per head 


$102.33 


$115.38 


$110.35 


$121.59 


$122.39 


$124.20 




$ 17.27 




$ 8.82 


$ 1.19 


$ 5.74 


$ 6.46 


Profit per steer 




$ .35 










Necessary selling price 


$ 11.98 


$ 10.72 


$ 11.45 


$ 11.31 


$ 11.88 


$ 12.10 


Necessary margin 


$ 1.98 


$ .72 


$ 1.45 


$ 1.31 


$ 1.88 


$ 2.10 


Time required to finish® 
steers for market 


139 days 


81 days 


99 days 


76 days 


79 days 


78 days 




54%® 


57%® 


57.2%® 


57.7%® 


58.5%® 


58.9%,® 








®"Feeds and Feeding" by Henry and Morrison. . , -, 

©Based on the length of time it would require the steers to gain 194.5 pounds at the rate ot Z.i>i 
pounds gain per day. 

!l^ Estimated dressing per cent at the end of 110 days. 

©Estimated dressing per cent from 77 days and 110 days. 

©Actual dressing per cent at the end of 77 days. j „f i in Havs 

©Estimated for only 1 steer at the end of 77 days, the others at the end of HO days. 



382 Bulletin 91 

depend upon the quantity of concentrated feed. If 2.66 pounds of 
cottonseed meal are fed to steers, they will consume an average of 
61.76 pounds of sorghum silage per day. Steers given 2.66 pounds 
of cottonseed meal will consume an average of 4.20 pounds of alfalfa 
hay and 60. 6S pounds of silage per day. When 2.66 pounds of cotton- 
seed meal and 5.70 pounds of rnilo maize are given, an average steer 
will take 52.70 pounds of silage. When all four of the feeds are com- 
bined, the steers being limited to 2.66 pounds of cottonseed meal and 
5.77 pounds of milo maize, an average of 3.97 pounds of alfalfa hay 
and 48.38 pounds of silage will be about the daily consumption. It 
is believed that the above amount of feeds will he a close approxima- 
tion to what it may be expected 2-year-old steers weighing 889 pounds 
will consume during the first 77 days in the feed lot. Steers that 
have been accustomed to silage before being placed in the feed lot 
will consume relatively larger quantities of silage and less alfalfa hay 
when these feeds are in the ration. It should be a simple matter for 
stockmen to estimate the amount of feed the animals will require 
daily when any of these rations are used. A slight modification may 
be made in the amount of feeds animals will consume if other rations 
are planned. 

RATE OP^ GAINS MADE BY STEERS 
The average daily gain made by the steers in the various lots 
ranged from 1.40 pounds to 2.55 pounds. The steers receiving alfalfa 
hay, silage, and cottonseed meal made the most rapid gains, averag- 
ing 2.55 pounds per head daily. The second largest gain was made 
by Lot VI on alfalfa hay, silage, cottonseed meal, and milo maize, 
these steers averaging 2.49 pounds per head daily. Lot V, receiving 
silage, cottonseed meal, and milo maize, ranked third with a daily 
gain of 2.46 pounds. The steers fed on alfalfa hay and silage made 
an average daily gain of 2.39 pounds. Lot III gained an average of 
1.96 pounds per head daily from a ration of silage and cotton-seed 
meal. The lowest daily gain was obtained in Lot I fed on alfalfa 
hay alone, and they averaged only 1.40 pounds per head daily. 

FEED REQUIRED PER POUND GAIN 
The amount of feed required to make a pound of gain was 20.51 
pounds of alfalfa hay in Lot I. Lot II consumed 3.76 pounds of 
alfalfa hay and 19.71 pounds of silage for every pound of gain. Lot 
III consumed 31.49 pounds of silage and 1.36 pounds of cottonseed 
meal per pound of gain. The feed required to make a pound of gain 



General Discussion 383 

in Lot IV was 1.65 pounds of alfalfa hay, 23.78 pounds of silage, and 
1.04 pounds of cottonseed meal. In Lot V 21.45 pounds of silage, 
1.08 pounds of cottonseed meal, and 2.32 pounds of ground milo maize 
were required to make a pound of gain. Lot VI required 1.60 pounds 
of alfalfa hay, 19.43 pounds of silage, 1.07 pounds of cottonseed meal 
and 2.32 pounds of ground milo maize to make a pound of gain. 

DRY MATTER, TOTAL DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENTS, AND 
THERMS CONSUMED PER 100 POUNDS GAIN 
Lot I consumed the largest amount of dry matter and total 
digestible nutrients as well as the greatest number of therms for 100 
pounds gain, the amount being 1869.29 pounds dry matter, 1055.00 
pounds total digestible nutrients, and 700.00 therms. This lot re- 
ceived distinctly more of the constituents required to make gains 
than any of the other lots. Lot VI ranked the next highest, averag- 
ing 893.98 pounds of dry matter, 605.62 pounds of digestible nutrients 
and 669.88 therms. In total dry matter Lot III was the third highest, 
but in the other constituents Lot V ranked decidedly ahead of Lot 
III. Lot 1 1. consumed slightly more dry matter than Lot IV, but in 
total digestible nutrients and therms required to produce 100 pounds 
of gain Lot II was the most efficient in the experiment. It is interest- 
ing to note that less than half as much dry matter or digestible nu- 
trients were required to make 100 pounds of gain in Lot II as in 
Lot I. There seems to be a close association between the rate of gains 
and the amount of nutrients required to produce them. The rule is 
that steers gaining most rapidly require relatively smaller amounts 
of nutrients to make gains than the animals that increase slowly in 
weight. A slight tendency was observed in lots receiving relatively 
larger proportions of concentrates to require more nutrients to make 
gains. 

COST OF GAINS IN LIVE WEIGHT 
The cost of making 100 pounds of gain in the steers varies from 
$12.58 in Lot II to $25.63 in Lot I. Thus gain was produced in Lot 
II at about half the cost of gain in Lot I. The other four lots varied 
from $15.73 in Lot IV to $20.30 in Lot VI. Lot III cost $18.03 to 
make 100 pounds of gain, and Lot V $19.18. Several factors seem 
to have a pronounced effect upon the cost of gain. The first un- 
doubtedly was the cost of the different feeds. Alfalfa hay was very 
expensive when fed in large amounts. Cottonseed meal and milo 
maize also seemed to be more expensive than silage. The rate of 



384 ' Bulletin 91 

gain made by the animals was one of the prominent factors affecting 
the cost of making 100 pounds increase in weight. Another factor 
was the combination of the feed. Thus alfalfa hay when fed alone 
was too bulky to be suitable for making rapid gains. On the other 
hand, when this feed was supplemented with silage the cheapest gains 
were secured. It is interesting to note that the lots making the 
cheapest gains were fed on alfalfa hay and silage, and alfalfa hay, 
silage, and cottonseed meal. 

MARGIN IN CATTLE FEEDING 
The margin, which is the difference between the cost price of 
feeders and the selling price of the finished animal, often determines 
whether or not a profit is made in feeding cattle. As a rule, the 
longer cattle are fed the wider must be the margin. These cattle were 
fed only 77 days, and it was necessary to have a margin of from 72 
cents to $2.10 in order to pay for the feed and other expenses in feed- 
ing the animals. The necessary margin for the different lots varied 
closely according to the cost of producing gains in live weight. Lots 
II, IV, and III were distinctly the lowest, while Lots I, V, and VI 
required $1.98, $1.88, and $2.10 respectively. Lot VI required the 
largest margin of all the lots due to the highest cost of feed and the 
greatest finish made by the animals. In a measure this wide margin 
was justified, for the animals were worth more than those of any 
other lot at the close of the test. In spite of the fact that the cost of 
feed amounted to less in Lot I than in Lots IV, V, and VI, it was 
necessary to secure a margin of $1.98, or more than tAvice as much as 
in Lot II, in order to avoid loss. When prices of feeds are as high as 
during this test, it is necessary to receive a margin of at least $2.00 
per 100 pounds to break even. 

LENGTH OF TIME REQUIRED TO FINISH CATTLE 

"The shorter the feeding period the lower the cost of making 
gains and the greater the profit," is the rule often followed by stock- 
men. All the steers in Lots IV and VI were considered finished for 
market at the end of 77 days. During this time Lot IV had made a 
gain of 197 pounds and Lot VI, 192 pounds per head. From these 
data it was calculated that steers gaining 2.53 pounds daily would 
be finished for market when they had gained 194.5 pounds. There 
will be variations from this weight due to individuality and a tendency 
for the cattle to grow rather than to fatten. Calculated according 
to this basis. Lot IV required 76 days. Lot VI 78 days, Lot V 79 days, 



General Discussion 



385 



Lot II 81 days, Lot III 99 days, and Lot I would have required 139 
days to finish. From these data it will be noticed that the steers 
receiving a ration of hay, silage, and cottonseed meal, or these feeds 
and the addition of ground grain, make an early finish. Steers fed 
on alfalfa hay alone require approximately twice as long to come to 
a finish as where alfalfa hay, silage, cottonseed meal, or these with 
the addition of ground milo maize are fed. 

DRESSED PERCENTAGE OF CATTLE 

The report from Babbitt Brothers, Flagstaff, Arizona, who 
dressed the animals and retailed the beef, was that the carcasses from 
the steers were satisfactory for that trade. 

All the steers in Lots IV and VI were sent to market after being 
in the feed lots 77 days. In each of Lots III and V one steer was thin. 
None of the steers in Lot I were sold at this time, and only one in 
Lot II. This made it necessary to estimate the dressed percentage 
of the steers in the various lots at the end of the 77 days. In Lots IV 
and VI the dressed yield was 57.7 and 58.9 percent respectively. 
Making allowance for the one steer in Lot V, it was estimated that 
this lot would average 58.5 percent, and similarly in Lot III, 57.2 
percent. It is doubtful if Lot I would have dressed as high as 54 
percent, while 57 percent was estimated for Lot II. The actual 
dressed percentage of the animals remaining 110 days was secured. 
From these figures it may be concluded that the steers with milo 
maize in their ration were fatter and dressed a higher percentage than 
those receiving no concentrates. The following table gives the weight 
of the cattle off cars at Flagstaff, dressed weight of the cooled beef, 
and the percentage yield in beef: 

TABLE XII.— DRESSED PERCENTAGE OF STEERS 



Number of steers 


23 steers 


13 steers 


Total for 
36 steers 


Average per 
steer 


Weight at Flagstaff off cars 


22290 lb. 
13029 lb. 

58.45% 


12810 1b. 
7272 lb. 
56.77% 


35100 1b. 
20301 lb. 

57.84% 


975 lb. 
564 lb. 




57.84% 







The 23 steers weighed a total of 22,290 pounds off the cars and 
yielded 13,029 pounds of beef, which was an average of 58.45 percent. 
The 13 steers gave a dressed percentage of 56.77 percent. The 
average dressed percentage of beef from the 36 steers was 57.84. 
The average weight of the 36 steers was 975 pounds weighed off the 
cars at Flagstaff, and they gave 564 pounds of beef, which was 57.84 
percent of the live weight. 



386 



Bulletin 91 



KIND OF CATTLE TO FEED 

A study was made of the steers in this experiment to determine 
the effect of size on the rate of gain and length of time required to 
finish them. The steers were classified into large, medium, and 
small sizes. The basis of this classification was the size of the frames 
and the conformation of the animals. The animals varied imper- 
ceptibly from large to medium and from medium to small ; and it was 
extremely difficult to secure a different standard for these different 
groups. As a rule the large steers weighed more than those in either 
of the other groups. There were twenty steers in the large sized 
group and eight in each of the other groups. 

At the end of the test the steers were classified according to their 
condition. The fullness of the cods, and the thickness and covering 
of flesh over the body and flanks were used as a basis in estimating 
the condition of the steers. The animals were grouped by this 
method into fat, medium, and thin classes. None of the steers, 
however, were prime, so that the term fat is of relative importance 
indicating that group was among the more fleshy ones in the experi- 
ment. Table XIII gives the number and percentage of the animals 
of different sizes, finishing fat, medium, and thin. 



TABLE XIII.— CONDITION OF THE ANIMALS AS AFFECTED BY SIZE 





Number and percentage finishing 


Size 


Fat 


Medium 


Thin 




No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


20 Large 


13 


65.0 


6 


30.0 


1 


5 






8 Medium 


7 


87. 5 


1 


12.5 





0.0 


8 Small 


4 


50.0 


3 


37.5 


1 


12 5 







There was a tendency for the large animals to become fat more 
rapidly than the small ones; but a greater percentage of the medium- 
sized steers was fat at the end of the test than of any of the other 
groups. None of the medium-sized steers were considered thin at 
the end of the experiment. 

The steers were grouped into three classes according to the amount 
of gain made. Group I was called "Good" and contained steers 
which gained from 170 to 343 pounds. Steers in the "Medium" 



General Discussion 



387 



group gained from 140 to 159 pounds; and the "Low" group gained 
less than 139 pounds. The data showing the effect of the size of the 
animals on the rate of gains made by them are given in Table XIV. 

TABLE XIV.— SIZE OF STEERS AS AFFECTING THE AMOUNT OF GAINS 





Good gains 


Medium gains 


Low gains 


Size 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 


No. 


% 




10 


50.0 


4 


20.0 


6 


30 






8 Medium 


4 


50.0 


2 


25.0 


2 


25.0 


8 Small 


2 


25.0 


3 


37.5 


3 


37.5 



Of the 16 steers that made good gains ten were large, four medium, 
and two small. There seemed to be a slight tendency for the medium- 
sized steers to make larger gains than either of the other lots. The 
small steers made distinctly less gains than the medium or the large- 
sized animals. 

In order to make a comparison of the size of the animals and the 
average gain made by them, the Table XV has been prepared. 

TABLE XV.— ACTUAL GAINS MADE BY THE STEERS CLASSIFIED AS LARGE. 
MEDIUM AND SMALL 



Size 


Initial weight 


Final weight 


Gains 


20 Large 


Pounds 
947 


Pounds 
1116 


Pounds 
169 








856 


1025 


169 






8 Small 


779 


952 


173 







There was little or no difference in the average gain made by 
steers from the large, medium or small groups. The three groups 
varied only from 169 to 173 pounds. 

A further study of the animals shows that there was a greater 
range among the individuals of the same groups than the average of 
the different groups. The study, however, goes to indicate that there 
may be a slight advantage in selecting medium-sized, blocky steers 
that are smooth in conformation, in preference to the large, coarse 
steers or the small, fine animals. It was unfortunate that the indi- 
vidual dressing percentage could not be secured for each of the ani- 
mals, for probably there is a closer relationship between the dressed 
percentage and the size than in any other respect. 



388 Bulletin 91 

From the standpoint of making gains and rapid finish, it is more 
important to select steers which are vigorous and gentle than to 
select according to size. Fleshy animals are better than thin ones; 
for they will be ready for market sooner, and not so wide a margin is 
necessary with such cattle. Other things being equal, the steers of 
medium size with short legs, wide, deep bodies, broad foreheads, short 
well-dished faces, large heart girths, strong loins, large barrels, and 
showing beef breeding will be best. 

SHRINKAGE IN FAT CATTLE 

A study of the shrinkage in the animals when ready for market 
was made with the steers in the feeding test. In Arizona the custom 
has been to stand cattle 12 hours in a dry lot without feed or water 
or deduct 4 percent from the feed lot weight. 

There is a distinct difference in the shrinkage of cattle, whether 
they are Aveighed out of the feed lot or after having been driven from 
One to ten miles through the dust in the warm weather. Cattle driven 
even a short distance will undoubtedly lose weight more rapidly than 
when standing or lying down contentedly in the feed lot. The more 
nervous and restless animals are, the more they will lose in weight. 
Cattle driven to market will perspire and lose more excrement than 
when maintained in the feed lots where they are quiet and contented. 

Twenty-three of the thirty-six steers were in the feed lot for 77 
days and the remaining 13 for 117 days. The method of handling 
these steers previous to weighing was slightly different. The 23 
steers were weighed between 4 and 5 p. m. after having received 
nothing since the morning's feed. The 13 steers received their regu- 
lar morning feed and about 3 p. m. an additional quantity of four 
pounds of alfalfa hay per steer. These steers ate most of their hay, 
and, as water was in the lots, probably drank freely of it. About 
4:30 p. m. each of the lots were weighed and returned to their respec- 
tive feed lots; they were again weighed about 8:30 o'clock the next 
morning. Some of the animals had a small amount of feed left from 
the morning's rations, and this was removed at 7 p. m. and the water 
fountains adjusted so the cattle could receive no more water. After 
weighing the animals the next morning, they were turned back to the 
feed lots for about an hour, then allowed to mix together in an open 
space where they frisked around for half an hour. After this the 
steers were driven to the Mesa stockyards, a distance of two miles, 
and weighed at 11:45 a. m. The steers were shipped to Phoenix the 
same evening, unloaded, given hay and water, and shipped to Flagstaff 



General Discussion 



389 



the next day, where they were weighed off cars. The weather was 
quite warm when the 13 steers were shipped to market, but cool and 
comfortable the day the 23 were shipped. The summary of the 
weights of the cattle, pounds lost, and the percentage of shrink 
at difTcrent times are given in Table XVI. 

The 23 steers after being off feed and water for 16 hours lost 1026 
pounds in weight, or 4.04 percent of the total weight; and the 13 steers 
under similar conditions, except that they were given about 4 pounds 
of alfalfa hay, lost a total of 698 pounds or a shrinkage of 4.69 percent. 
No doubt the large shrinkage in the group of 13 steers was due in 
part to the steers having taken large quantities of water after consum- 
ing the alfalfa hay; but the weather was also warmer and this may 
have been a contributing factor. It is interesting to note, however, 
that each lot lost fully 4 percent in vC-eight during the 16 hours which 
elapsed between the weighings. 

Between the time they were weighed at 8:30 a. m. and agam at 
11:45 a. m., the 23 animals lost a total of 342 pounds and the 13 lost 
519 pounds. The loss due to shrinkage was 1.40 percent with the 
large group and 3.66 percent with the 13 steers. It is noteworthy 
that in 3)4 hours these steers lost an average of 2.23 percent while 
standing in the feed lots, walking a distance of two miles, and remain- 
ing in the stock yards. 

TABLE XVI.— STATEMENT OF SHRINKAGE FOR 36 STEERS 



Number of steers 


23 steers 


13 steers 


Total for 
36 steers 


Average 
per steer 


FiUed weight n feed lot. t-5 P. M 


25398 lb. 


14892 lb. 


40290 lb. 


1119 1b. 


Shrunk weight in feed lot 8-9 A. M 


24372 lb. 


14194 lb. 


38566 lb. 


1071 lb. 


Shrinkage 


1026 lb. 


698 lb. 


1724 1b. 


47.89 lb. 


Percent of shrinkage 


4.04% 


4.69% 


4.28%, 


4.28% 


Weight at yards after driving two miles; 
11:45 A. M 


24030 lb. 


13675 lb. 


37705 lb. 


1047 lb. 


Shrinkage 


342 lb. 


519 lb. 


861 lb. 


23.92 lb. 


Percent of shrinkage 


1.40% 


3.66% 


2.23% 


2.23% 


Weight at Flagstaff off cars 


22290 lb. 


12810 1b. 


35100 lb. 


975 lb. 


Shrinkage 


1740 lb. 


865 lb. 


2605 lb. 


72.36 1b. 




7.24% 
3108 lb. 


6.33% 
2082 lb. 


6.91% 
5190 lb. 


6.91% 


Total shrinkage 


144.17 lb. 


Total percent of shrinkage 


12.68% 


14.68% 


13.42% 


13.42% 



390 BULLETIN 91 

The weights off cars at Flagstaff showed that the 23 steers had lost 
in transit 1740 pounds, or 7.24 percent from the time they were weighed 
in the Mesa stock yards. The total shrinkage of the 23 steers from 
the time they were weighed directly out of the feed lots until they 
were unloaded at Flagstaff was 3,108 pounds or 12.68 percent. The 
13 steers lost a total of 2082 pounds or 14.68 percent from the time 
they were weighed out of the feed lots until they were weighed off 
cars at Flagstaff. 

The average shrinkage of the two groups of steers was 13.42 per- 
cent. This is divided into an average loss of 4.28 percent for the first 
16 hours shrinkage in the feed lot, 2.23 percent lost between the 
shrunk weight out of the feed lot and the weight of the animals after 
S^ hours in the stock yards two miles distant, and 6.91 percent lost 
between the Mesa and Flagstaff stockyards. The percentage losses 
in the two groups were very similar in every respect, except that the 
13 steers had a greater total loss of 2 percent, which took place during 
the first 19 hours. These steers were v/eighed several times in the 
stockyards at Mesa. They lost 2.78 percent during the drive from 
the feed lot, .91 percent the first 45 minutes they were in the feed lot, 
1.76 percent between 11:45 a. m. and 3 p. m. During the four hours 
these steers were in the stock yards they lost an average of 7.02 pounds 
an hour, or .66 percent per hour. The weather was warm and the 
cattle restless; for during this time they were hair branded. 



SUPPLEMENTAL TEST— FEEDING 9 STEERS FOR 40 DAYS 

Nine of the 13 steers remaining from the first test were continued 
in two lots until May 4. Lot I had four steers and Lot II five. The 
animals remained in the same lots as previously and all were given 
2.56 pounds of cottonseed meal per head daily and all the alfalfa hay 
and silage they would eat. The steers in Lot I were high-grade 
Holsteins and those in Lot II were sired by a Polled Shorthorn bull. 
Those in Lot I were much thinner than the steers in Lot II and had 
been fed previously on alfalfa hay, while those in Lot II received 
alfalfa hay and silage. The first three days the steers in Lot I were 
fed alfalfa hay, and those in the other lot alfalfa hay and silage. 
After this a mixed ration was given.. The weight of each steer was 
taken weekly and a careful record kept of the amount of feed con- 
sumed. The objects of this test were to learn if the high-grade 
Holsteins would make as rapid gains as the other steers, to study the 
effect of previous rations on the rate of gains, and to learn the amount 
of roughages these animals would consume when given a small amount 
of cotton-seed meal. 

After being on feed for forty days the animals were sold. At 
the end of this time they were as fat as the steers sold March 25. 
Table XVII gives a brief summary of this second test. 

TABLE XVII.— SUMMARY OF TEST WITH 9 STEERS FOR 40 DAYS 



Lot I 



Lot II 



Number steers in lot 



Ration 



Alfalfa hay, 

silage 

cottonseed meal 



Alfalfa hay, 

silage 

cottonseed meal 



Average initial weight 

Average final weight 

Average gain 

Average daily gain 

Average daily ration: 

Alfalfa hay 

Silage 

Cottonseed meal 

Feed required per pound gain 

Alfalfa hay. 

Silage 

Cottonseed meal 

Cost of 100 pounds gain 



Pounds 

1030 

1181 

151 

3.78 



Pounds 
1070 
1185 

115 
2.88 



10.67 

48.58 

2.56 



4.93 

54.23 

2.56 



2.82 
12.85 
0.68 



$11.39 



1.71 
18.83 
0.89 



$13.23 



392 



BULLETLN 91 



The steers in Lot I averaged 40 pounds lighter than those in 
Lot II at the beginning of the test. At the end of 40 days the steers 
in Lot I had gained an average of 151 pounds or 3.78 pounds per head 
daily; those in Lot II made an average gain of 115 pounds or 21.88 
pounds per head daily. The steers in Lot I gained almost a pound 
a day more per head than those in Lot II. They were allowed the 
same ration. It is believed that steers which have been maintained 




Fig. 5. — Steers in Lot II, May 5, 1920 



a considerable length of time on alfalfa hay will make more rapid 
gains than animals that have been given a combination of feed. No 
doubt the higher condition of the animals in Lot II induced them to 
make slower gains than the thinner animals. Neither of the lots, 
however, were fat. This test also indicated that the grade steers with 
Holstein blood predominating made just as rapid gains as those with 
beef blood predominating. There was, however, an apparent differ- 
ence due to breeding. Lot I did not finish into as full, smooth animals 
or have as high proportion of high-priced cuts as the steers in Lot II. 
It was believed that a somewhat longer period would be required to 
feed the steers in Lot 11. 

The steers in Lot I consumed 10.67 pounds of alfalfa hay and 
.58 pounds of silage, while those in Lot II ate only 4.93 pounds of 
alfa hay and 54.23 pounds of silage. The steers in Lot I consumed 



Supplemental Test— Feeding .9 Steers for 40 Days 393 

twice as much hay but hardly as much silage as those in Lot II. It 
was apparent that steers accustomed to alfalfa hay, but not to silage, 
required some time to adjust their rations, and there was a tendency 
for them to reduce the amount of alfalfa hay and increase the con- 
sumption of silage. 

The cost of 100 pounds of gain was $11.39 in Lot I and $13.23 in 
Lot II. The steers in Lot I consumed more feed when given a variety, 
and made larger as well as cheaper gains. No doubt the ration of 
alfalfa hay alone was somewhat bulky, monotonous, and unbalanced ; 
and when a variety and concentrates were added to the alfalfa hay, the 
animals were induced to consume larger quantities of feed with good 
results. The test also proved that the Holstein steers made just as 
rapid and economical gains as the steers sired by a Polled Shorthorn 
bull when given the same ration. 



SUMMARY 

MAIN TEST 36 STEERS FOR 77 DAYS 

ALFALFA HAY ALONE COMPARED WITH ALFALFA HAY AND SILAGE 

1. Steers fed on alfalfa hay gained an average of 1.40 pounds 
per day ; on alfalfa hay and silage, 2.39 pounds. The addition of silage 
to the alfalfa hay increased the daily gain at the rate of .99 pounds 
per steer. 

2. The addition of silage to a ration of alfalfa hay will make 
steers gain more rapidly in weight, shorten the feeding period, reduce 
the cost of making gains, increase the market value of the animals, 
and increase the profits. 

3. Steers averaging 891 pounds and 30 months old will consume 
about 30 pounds of alfalfa hay daily the first 77 days in the feed lot. 

4. Steers fed on alfalfa hay and silage finished more rapidly than 
those given alfalfa hay and were worth 50 cents per hundred more 
at the end of the test. 

5. Each steer fed on alfalfa hay lost $17.27, and those given 
silage and alfalfa hay made a profit of 35 cents per steer. 

6. The cost of feed was $27.55 per steer for alfalfa hay in Lot I, 
and these steers gained an average of 107 pounds; while in the other 
lot the cost of feed was $23.18 per steer, and these steers gained an 
average of 184 pounds. 

7. All the steers given silage and alfalfa hay gained more than 
any of the steers fed exlusively on alfalfa hay. 

8. A margin of $1.98 per hundred pounds was necessary in the 
lot fed hay and only 72 cents per hundred pounds was necessary 
where the steers were fed silage along with hay. 

9. The cost of producing a hundred pounds gain was $25.63 
with alfalfa hay and $12.58 with silage and alfalfa hay, or less than 
half as much in the lot where silage was fed with alfalfa hay. 

10. The addition of 47.14 pounds of silage per head daily de- 
creased the consumption of alfalfa hay 19.64 pounds. 

11. The steers receiving alfalfa hay and silage consumed less 
dry matter, total digestible nutrients, and therms per hundred pounds 
gain. 

12. Alfalfa hay alone is not a balanced ration for fattening two- 
year-old steers, and the addition of silage to a ration of alfalfa hay 
was beneficial in every respect. 



Summary 395 

SILAGE AND ALFALFA HAY COMPARED WITH SII AGE AND COTTONSEED MEAL; 
ALSO WITH SILAGE ALFALFA HAY AND COTTONSEED MEAL 

1. The steers fed on all the silage and alfalfa hay they would 
eat and 2.66 pounds of cottonseed meal made the most rapid gains 
and were worth most at the end of the test. 

2. Steers fed silage and cottonseed meal made the lowest and 
most costly gains and were worth less than cither of the other lots at 
the end of 77 days. 

3. When cottonseed meal costs $80 per ton, it is doubtful if it 
is a profitable supplement to a ration of silage and alfalfa hay when 
steers are fed 77 days. 

4. When alfalfa hay was added to a ration of silage and cotton- 
seed meal, 7.71 pounds less silage and .32 pounds less cottonseed 
meal were required to make a pound of gain. 

5. The steers receiving alfalfa hay, silage, and cottonseed meal 
consumed less dry matter than the steers receiving silage and hay or 
silage and cottonseed meal. 

6. Although the steers receiving alfalfa hay and silage did not 
make as large gains as those in Lot IV, and the animals were not 
worth as much per hundred pounds at the end of the test, yet the 
steers brought a profit of 35 cents per head due to the cheapness of 
bulky feed and low cost of gain. 

7. The use of alfalfa hay as a supplement to silage proved more 
satisfactory than cottonseed meal, giving larger, more rapid, and 
cheaper gains, and the animals were worth 15 cents more per hundred 
at the end of the test. 

ALFALFA HAY COMPARED WITH GROUND MILO MAIZE TO SUPPLEMENT SILAGE 
AND COTTONSEFD MEAL FOR FATTENING STEERS. 

1. The Steers fed on silage, cottonseed meal, and alfalfa hay 
gained an average of .09 pounds more per head daily than those fed 
on silage, cottonseed meal, and a light feed of ground grain. 

2. The cost of feed for the cattle in Lot IV was $30.93 per steer 
and in Lot V $36.28. 

3. Ground milo maize in the ration fattened the steers more 
rapidly and increased their selling value 15 cents per hundred. 

4. The ration in which alfalfa hay was used as a supplement 
gave larger gains per steer, was less expensive, and produced gain 
at less cost. 

5. The steers receiving the alfalfa hay supplement consumed less 
dry matter and apparently made more efTective use of the feed than 
those which received milo maize. 



396 BULLETIN 91 

ALFALFA HAY ADDED TO A RATION OF SILAGE, COTTONSEED MEAL, AND GROUND 

MILO MAIZE 

1. The addition of alfalfa hay to a ration of silage, cottonseed 
meal, and ground milo maize increased the rate of gain .03 pounds 
daily per steer. 

2. The addition of 3.97 pounds of alfalfa hay per head daily 
decreased the amount of silage consumed by 4.32 pounds. 

3. Steers fed silage, cottonseed meal, and ground milo maize 
required an expenditure for feed of $19.18 per hundred pounds of 
gain; those fed silage, cottonseed meal, ground milo maize, and alfalfa 
hay required an expenditure of $20.30 per hundred pounds gain. 

4. The steers in Lot V were valued at $1 1 .35 per hundred pounds, 
and returned a loss of $5.74 per steer; the steers in Lot VI were valued 
at $11.50 per hundred pounds, and gave a loss of $6.46 per steer. 

5. The addition of alfalfa hay to the ration made the steers 
finish more rapidly for market. 

6. More uniform gains were made by the steers in Lot VL All 
the steers in this lot continued well on feed; two of the steers in the 
lot not receiving alfalfa hay went off feed about a week. 

7. The chief advantage of adding alfalfa hay to a ration of silage, 
cottonseed meal, and milo maize was in the more uniform gains made 
by the cattle, but at slightly greater cost. 

SUPPLEMENTAL TEST, 9 STEERS FOR 40 DAYS 

1. Holstein steers will make as rapid and as economical gains 
as steers from Polled Shorthorn bulls. 

2. Steers that have been maintained on a ration of alfalfa hay 
alone will gain more rapidly when placed on a variety of feed than 
similar animals that have been maintained on a mixed ration. 

3. A few days are required for steers to adjust their appetites 
to a changed ration. There was a tendency for these steers to reduce 
the amount of alfalfa hay and increase the silage as the test progressed. 






University of Arizona College of Agriculture 

Agricultural Experiment Station 



Thirtieth Annual Report 

For the Year Ended June 30, 1919 

(With subsequent Items) 



Consisting of reports relating to 

Administration 

Agricultural Chemistry, Agronomy, Animal Husbandry, 

Botany, Dairy Husbandry, Entomology, Horticulture, 

Irrigation Investigations, Plant Breeding, 

Poultry Husbandry 



Tucson, Arizona, December 31, 1919 



University of Arizona College of Agriculture 

Agricultural Experiment Station 






Thirtieth Annual Report 

For the Year Ended June 30, 1919 

(With subsequent items) 



Consisting of reports relating to 

Administration 

Agricultural Chemistry, Agronomy, Animal Husbandry, 

Botany, Dairy Husbandry, Entomology, Horticulture, 

Irrigation Investigations, Plant Breeding, 

Poultry Husbandry 



Tucson, Arizona, December 31, 1919 



REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY 

Ex-Officio 

His Excellency, the Governor of Arizona 

The State Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Appointed by the Governor of the State 

EpEs Randolph President of the Board and Chancellor 

William Scarlett, A.B., B.D Regent 

John H. Campbell, LL.M Regent 

Timothy A. Riordan Regent 

James G. Compton Secretary 

William Jennings Bryan, Jr., A.B. Treasurer 

Edmund W. Wells Regent 

Louis D. Ricketts, Sc.D., LL.D Regent 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION STAFF 

*RuFUs B. VON KleinSmid, a.m., Sc.D President of the University, Director 

**D. W. Working, B.Sc, A.M Dean College of Agriculture, Director 

fRoBERT H. Forbes, M.S., Ph.D Research Specialist 

John J. Thornber, A.M Botanist 

Albert. E. Vinson, Ph.D Chemist 

Clifford N. Catlin, A.M Associate Chemist 

fHoWARD W. Estill, M.S Assistant Chemist 

George E. P. Smith, B.S., C.E Irrigation Engineer 

W. E. Code, B.S Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

H. C. SchvvalEN, B.S- Assistant Irrigation Engineer 

JGeorge F. Freeman, Sc.D Plant Breeder 

tC OmEr Bond, B.S. A Assistant Plant Breeder 

Walker E. Bryan, M.S Assistant Plant Breeder 

Richard H. Williams, Ph.D Animal Husbandman 

Charles T. Vorhies, Ph.D Entomologist 

^Austin W. Morrill, Ph.D Consulting Entomologist 

JD. C. George Consulting Plant Pathologist 

Walter S. Cunningham, B.S Dairy Husbandman 

Franklin J. Crider, M.S Horticulturist 

A. F. Kinnison, B.S.A Assistant Horticulturist 

George E. Thompson, B.S.A Agronomist 

R. S. Hawkins, B.S.A Assistant Agronomist 

Francis R. KennEy, B.S.A Poultry Husbandman 

Ethel Stokes Secretary Agricultural Experiment Station 

•Until February 28, 1919. 
••After March 1, 1919. 
tOn leave. 
JResigned. 



LETTERS OF TRANSMITTAL 



To His Excellency, Thomas E. Campbell, 

Governor of Arizona, 

Phoenix, Arizona. 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit to you herewith the Thirtieth 
Annual Report of the Agricultural Experiment Station of the Univer- 
sity of Arizona College of Agriculture for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1919, with subsequent items. 

This report is made in accordance with Act of Congress, approved 
March 2, 1887, establishing agricultural experiment stations. Act of 
Congress, approved March 16, 1906, known as the Adams Act, and 
Article 4483, Title 42, Revised Statutes of Arizona, 1913. 

Respectfully yours, 

Epes Randolph, 
Chancellor and President of the Board of Rey_cnts. 



Honorable Epes Randolph, 

Chancellor and President of the Board of Regents. 
University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. 

Sir : I beg to submit herewith my report as President of the 
University of Arizona covering- the work of the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station of the College of Agriculture for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1919. 

Faithfully yours, 

R. B. VON KleinSmid, 

President. 



President R. B. von KleinSmid, 
University of Arizona, 

Tucson, Arizona. 
Dear Sir : Herewith I submit the Thirtieth Annual Report of 
the Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Arizona 
College of Agriculture for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1919. with 
subsequent item j. 

D. W. Working, 

Dean and Director. 



CONTENTS 



' PAGE 

Administration 397 

College organization 397 

The Experiment Station 397 

The Extension Service 398 

Personnel 398 

Publications 399 

Projects 399 

Finances 4<)1 

Agricultural Chemist}' 404 

Adams Fund work 404 

Sampling field soils 405 

Reclamation of alkali 406 

Cotton tolerance to alkali in field 408 

Tempe Drainage Ditch 409 

The Salton Sea 412 

Agronomy -. . . .415 

Studies at Prescott Dry-farm 415 

Studies at Sulphur Spring Valley Dry-farm 416 

Legumes and their culture 417 

Cultivation of Indian corn and the sorghums 418 

Cultivation and management of Egyptian cotton 418 

Cultivation of winter and spring grains 419 

Effect of dynamiting sub-soil on field crops 419 

Tests of grain and forage crop, grasses, and miscellaneous 419 

Field studies with legumes 420 

Cooperative crop experiments 420 

Animal Husbandry 421 

Ran^^e conditions during year 421 

Investigations 422 

Lambing ewes on feed 422 

Cattle feeding 423 

Two methods of raising gilts 424 

Fattening hogs" on garbage vs rolled barley 424 

Marketing hogs dressed vs. selling them alive 425 

Instruction and executive work 425 

Needs 426 

Botany 427 

Work on poison plants .- 428 

Notes on plant introduction work 430 

Studies of grasses and grass-like plants 431 

Dairy Husbandry , .433 

Dairv feeding experiment 433 

Raticms 434 

Cows .434 

Plan of feeding 434 

Duration of test 435 

Summary of milk and fat produced 435 

Cost of production and profit over feed cost 435 

Entomology Ayj 

Horticulture 439 

Pomolocry 439 

Dates ...Ay) 

Citrus 440 

New fruits 441 



CONTENTS 

PACK 

Olericulture ^^ 

Irish potato '^^ 

Sweet potato 443 

Spinach ^^ 

Tomato ^^ 

Ornamental gardening 445 

Miscellaneous 445 

Irrigation Investigations 447 

Casa Grande Valley 447 

San Simon Valley 451 

State water code 451 

Cement pipe 452 

Durability of cement pipe 452 

Use and waste of irrigation water 453 

Continental rubber plantation 453 

Water supply for Yuma Mesa Experiment Station -45^ 

Water tank and tower .455 

Plant Breeding 456 

Alfalfa 456 

Beans 457 

Wheat 438 

Poultry Husbandrv 463 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig. 1. Honey Drip sorghum— University Farm, Tucson Frontispiece 

Fig. 2. Green manuring with Canada field peas— Prescott Dry-farm 417 

Fig. 3. Wisconsin barley and Abruzzi rye— State Experiment Station, Mesa..4a) 
Fig. 4. Water table fluctuations in Casa Grande Valley over a period of 

live Years -449 



Thirtieth Annual Report 



ADMINISTRATION 

D. W. Working 



This report covers a period of shift and of adaptation to new 
conditions. At the beginning of the fiscal year the Great War was 
at its greatest intensity and every, man and woman connected with 
agriculture was working under a serious strain. The farmers of 
Arizona had undertaken to produce, more than in any previous 
year. They were working out a plan that had been adopted at a 
conference called by Dean R. H. Forbes and held at the University 
of Arizona on April 20 and 21, 1917. This conference resulted in a 
production program which led to increased output of farm and 
garden crops and had the added advantage of bringing the College 
of Agriculture and its workers into closer and more sympathetic 
and helpful relations with the people on the farms. The latter 
achievement is one that needs to be frankly recognized and more 
fully appreciated. 

COLLEGE ORGANIZATION 

The College of Agriculture of the University of Arizona is a 
teaching organization with its special group of teachers of technical 
agricultural subjects. In addition to its teachings on the Univer- 
sity campus, and an increasing amount of instruction by corre- 
spondence, the College has two special kinds of work of outstanding 
importance. As an investigating agency, it functions through its 
Agricultural Experiment Station ; as an extension agency it works 
through its Agricultural Extension Service. 

THE EXPERIMENT STATION 

The Agricultural Experiment Station exists to study the more 
fundamental scientific problems that underlie agricultural practice, 
as well as to make such experiments as will enable it to answer 
with sure confidence the questions arising in connection with the 
growing of the common crops of the vState and the breeding, feed- 
ing, and management of livestock. 



398 Thirtieth Annual Report 

In order to do its work as it should, the Station needs to have 
a strong and relatively permanent staff of trained investigators. 
The State cannot afford to adopt or to tolerate a policy that will 
result in the doing of slovenly work and the publication of bulletins 
and reports of less than the highest standard of scientific excellence. 
This implies that the State must make such provision for the ade- 
quate support of an organization that needs an increasing financial 
support if it is even to maintain its present standard of efficiency ; 
it is to be remembered that Arizona is making great advances as an 
agricultural state. During the past ten years the rural population 
has increased tenfold. The Experiment Station is thus brought 
face to face with new crop problems, and into direct contact with 
an enlarging number of farmers d!nd others, who call at the Station 
offices and laboratories in Tucson and at the several Station farms. 

THE EXTENSION SERVICE 
The Agricultural Extension Service, like the Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station, is an integral part of the College of Agriculture. 
It is the College working throughout the State for the purpose of 
teaching by means of demonstrations, lectures, extension schools, 
and popular publications, the facts, principles and practices which 
it presents on the University campus by class and laboratory 
methods. The Extension Service, in order to meet its obligations 
to the public, will continue to need increasing financial support. 
Its accomplishments for the year are set forth in detail in a separate 
report. But it covers a broader teaching field, for the reason that 
cooperative agricultural extension work includes the field of home 
economics. 

PERSONNEL 

After the resignation of Dr. R. H. Forbes, effective February 
15, 1918, President von KleinSmid became Dean of the College of 
Agriculture and Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station. 
March 1, 1919, the appointment of D. W. Working took effect. 

On August 30, 1918, Dr. G. F. Freeman left the Station to be- 
come Botanist to the Sultanic Agricultural Society, Cairo, Egypt. 
Mr. C. O. Bond resigned as Assistant Plant Breeder, April 30, 1919. 
The services of Dr. A. W. Morrill, Consulting Entomologist, and 
Mr. D. C. George, Consulting Plant Pathologist, terminated with the 
D. C. George, Consulting Plant Pathologist, terminated with the 
fiscal year June 30, 1919. The Department of Animal Husbandry 
was divided, Assistant Professor W. S. Cunningham being made 
head of a new Department of Dairy Husbandry under the title of 



Arizona Agricui/iukal Expkrimicnt Station 399 

associate professor. BVances R. Kenney was appointed Associate 
Professor of Poultry Husbandry, February 1, 1919. Two other 
appointments were made on January 1. Mr. R. S. Hawkins as 
Assistant Professor of Agronomy, and Mr. A. F. Kinnison as 
Assistant Professor of Horticulture. Each of these appointments 
carried the corresponding Station title. 

PUBLICATIONS 
Measured by the number of publications issued, the year has 
been comparatively lean. Following is a list of numbers, titles, 
and authors. The number of copies of each publication is given 
in parenthesis. 

Bulletin No. 86, "Machine-Made Cement Pipe for Irrijiation Systems and Other 
Purposes." by G. E. P. Smith. October 30, 1918. (6C00). 

Bulletin No. 87. "Insect Pests of Interest to Arizona Cotton Growers," by A. W. 
Morrill. December. 1918, (60C0). 

Bulletin No. 88, "Use and Waste of Irrigation Water," by G. E. P. Smith. 
May 15. 1919, (60C0). 

.Agricultural Experiment Station Index, \'ol. VII, (3000). 

Twenty-ninth Annual Report, December 31. 1918. By the Station Staff 

Circular No, 23, "The Citrus Thrips," by A. W. Morrill. August, 1918, (4000). 

Circular No. 24, "Wheat Planting and the Seed Supply," by E. P. Taylor. Sep- 
tember, 1918, (6C00). 

Circular No. 25, "The Hot Lunch for Rural Schools," by Mary Pritner Lock- 
wook, Agnes A. Hunt, and Hazel Zimmerman. November, 1918, (4000). 

Circular No. 26, "Water Storage and the Water Code," by G. E. P. Smith. 
December, 1918, (6CC0). 
There is an increasing demand for our bulletins and circulars, making 

necessary large editions to avoid the necessity of expensive reprinting. 

PROJECTS 
AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY 
A. E. Vinson, C. N. Catlin, H. W. Estill (From Jan. 1, 1919) 
Alkali Soil Studies : Concomitant soil conditions that affect the 
toxicity of black alkali and means for the amelioration of the 

effects of alkali on soil and plant Adams 

Chemical Analyses : Miscellaneous Hatch 

Meteorological observations Hatch 

Effect of weather conditions on processing and pasteurizing dates. .State Hatch 
Reclamation of alkali land at the University Farm State 

AGRONOMY 
G. E. Thompson, R. S. Hawkins (From Jan. 1, 1919) 

Cooperative Crop E.xperiments : Seeds of various crops have been 
furnished farmers in order to make comparative tests with each 
other and with the varieties already being grown State 

Corn and Sorghums : Variety tests and cultural methods State Hatch 

Cotton : Date of planting, irrigation tests, thinning methods, in- 
tercropping with legumes, and leaving every third row blank. .. State Hatch 

Crop Studies on Prescott Dry-Farm and Sulphur Spring Valley 
Dry-Farm : Variety tests, rate and date of seeding tests, meth- 
od planting tests, inoculation of legumes ; tests to determine 
whether drv-farming to raise feed for stock is feasible State 



400 



Thirtieth Annual Report 



Dynamiting : Effect of dynamiting subsoil on the succeeding field 
crops State 

Grains, Forage Crops, and Grasses and Miscellaneous Crops: 
Varietal and cultural tests State 

Legumes : Variety and cultural tests to determine the worth of 
the various legumes and varieties of legumes for Southwest 
conditions State Hatch 

Legumes (Inoculation) : A study to ascertain the necessity for 
inoculation and the possibility of increasing yields by inter- 
cropping with legumes • • - • .Adams State 

Winter and Spring Grains : Culture and management of winter 
and spring grains, including wheat, oats, barley, and rye State Hatch 

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 
R. H. Williams 
Cattle Feeding (at Prescott) : To determine minimum amount 

of silage required to keep thin cows alive Hatch State 

Hog feeding experiment at University Farm State Hatch 

Lambing rantje ewes in dry lot (at Mesa Farm) Hatch State 

Systems of livestock management Hatch State 

BOTANY 
J. J. Thorneer, J. G. Brown, D. C. George 
Funiii causing rot in date fruits: Identification and study of... Adams 

Grasses and Grass-like Plants : Economic study of Hatch 

Jujube Fruits : Adaptability to the Southwest Hatch State 

Mulberries: A study with reference to fruit production Hatch State 

Pistasch Trees : Practicability of growing pistasch trees in the 

Southwest " Hatch State 

Poison Range Plants : Economic study of ..Hatch 

Range Improvement Through Fencing : A study of Hatch 

Resistant Native Stocks for Grafting Hatch State 

Tamarisks : Their growth in alkaline soils Hatch State 

Trees and Shrubs for Ornamentation: An economic study of.. Hatch 
Ozonium Rrot Disease of Cotton and other crops : Occurrence, 

life history, and methods of control Adams 

Gummosis of Stone Fruits : Occurrence, causes, and methods of 

control Hatch 

DAIRY HUSBANDRY 
W. S. Cunningham 
Rations for Dairy Cows: A comparison of (1) alfalfa and silage, 
(2) alfalfa hay and cottonseed meal, and (3) alfalfa hay, silage, 
and cottonseed meal Hatch State 

ENTOMOLOGY 
C. T. VoRHiEs, A. W. Morrill 

Rodent Control : A study of grazing ranges Adams 

Insect Collection : Collecting and arrangement of economic in- 
sects Hatch State 

Grasshopper Control Hatch 

Cotton-square staincr or tarnislied plant bug control Hatch 

HORTICULTURE 
F. J. CrioKr, a. F. Kinnison (.From Jan. 1, 1919) 
Citrus : The effect of different methods of culture, fertilizer 
treatment, and pruning upon the growth of tree and the size 

and quality of fruit ._• .Hatch 

Date : Culture and management of date orchards with special 
reference to the improvement of the yield and quality of fruit 
and the rooting of offshoots State 



Arizona Agricultural Experimknt Station 401 

Olive: The effect of different methods of orcliard management 

and pruning upon the growth of tree and yield Hatch 

Potato: Study of conditions affecting the production of pota- 
toes in Arizona Hatch ' State 

Spinach : Study of spinach as a market garden crop for south- 
ern Arizona ' State 

Sweet Potato: Study of cultural and storage methods Hatch State 

Variety Studies: Type and varietal adaptation of fruits, vege- 
tables, and ornamentals '. State 

IRRIGATION 
G. E. P. Smith, \V. E. Code (From Nov. 4, 1918) 

A study of the relation of the evaporation rate to the duty of 
water and of the factors controlling evaporation .^ Adams 

Ground-water supplies and pump irrigation in the Casa Grande 

Valley and San Simon Valley Adams State 

Pumping Machinery: A study to determine fundamental facts 

relating to the action and efficiency of various types Adams 

PLANT BREEDING 
G. F. Freeman (Until Aug. 30, 1918) W. E. Bryan 

Alfalfa : Breeding for yield and quality Adams State 

Bean : Biological analysis of genus Plwscolus .Adams State 

Corn : Selective breeding for the improvement of corn varieties 

adapted to general farming in .\rizona State 

Date: To produce by crossing, selection, and inbreeding a va- 
riety of dates of high quality which will ripen nautrally under 

Arizona conditions State 

Wheat: (a) To produce a wheat which will be productive and 
at the same time maintain a high average of bread-making quali- 
ties under Arizona conditions; (b) to make a biological analysis 
of the unit characters of wheat varieties Adams State 

FINANCES 
Table A following gives a complete statement of receipts and 
disbursements for the College of Agriculture, including the Experi- 
ment Station and the Agricultural Extension Service. It does not 
include amounts spent by the Federal Department of Agriculture 
in partial support of cooperative agricultural extension workers. 
These items are shown in detail in the separate report of the Exten- 
sion Service. Table B shows receipts and expenditures for the 
Agricultural Experiment Station as reported to the Director of the 
Office of Experiment Stations of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. Table C gives in detail the several appropriations by 
the State Legislature for the two years following the year covered 
by this report. 



402 



Thirtieth Annual Report 



TABLE A. — SHOWING RECEIPTS FROM ALL SOURCES AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR 
ALL PURPOSES ON ACCOUNT OF THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE FOR YEAR ENDED 

JUNE 30, 1919 



Fund 


Balance 


Receipts 


Total 


Disburse- 
inents 


Balances 


College of Agriculture 




• 








Maintenance 


$ 


$ 13,535.86 


$ 13,535.86 


$ 13,535.86 


$ 


Morrill 




3,056.10 


3,056.10 


3,056.10 




Farm Maintenance 


18.77 


11, 85o.ro 


11,868.77 


11,868.77 




Farm Improvement 


303.90 


2,302.75 


2,606.65 


2.6C6.65 




Printing 




2,926 00 


2,926.00 


2 926 00 




Improvement .... 




2,256.85 


2.256.85 


2,256.85 




Plant Introduction 


.4i 


3,000.00 


3,000.41 


2,999.41 


1.00 


Tempe Date Palm 












Orchard Fund. . 


33.52 


2,650.00 


2,683.52 


2,665.62 


17.99 


Yuma Date Or- 












chard Horticul- 












tural Station.,. 




3,136.19 


3,136.19 


3,136.19 




Dry-farming Fund 


.62 


3,C00.C0 


3,000.62 


3,000.62 




Prcs.cott Dry-farm- 












ing Fund 


.20 


3.690.00 


3,690.20 


3,690.20 




Salt River Vallev 












Farm 


1.70 


10,000 CO 


10,001 70 


9,997 1 1 


4 59 


Sulphur Spring 












Valley Farm .... 


911.69 


3,700.00 


4,611.69 


4.594.95 


16.74 


Surface Water In- 












vestigation 


175.43 


3,000.00 


3,175.43 


3.155.74 


19.69 


Underflow Water 












Investigation . . . 


227.50 


2,400.00 


2,627.50 


2,627.50 




Experiment Farm 












Sales 


1,068.74 


22,548.07 


23,616 81 


23,375.37 


241.44 


University of Ari- 












zona Farm Sales 


1,517.82 


7,771.97 


9,289.79 


8,283.56 


1,006.23 


Hatch Sales 


.87 


2,625.49 


2,626.36 


2.036.07 


590.2f^ 


Adams 




15,000.00 


15.000.00 


15,000.00 




Hatch 




15,000.00 


15.0«0.(]0 


15,000.00 




Student Fees 




134.50 


134.50 


81.38 


53. i 2 


Smith-Lever 




16,004.15 


16,004.15 


16,004.15 




State Extension. . 




1,029.67 


1,029.67 


1,029.67 




County Extension 












Work \... 


573.89 


12,062.76 


12,636.65 


9,129.79 


3,506.86 


Cooperative A g r i. 




• 








Extension 




6,004.15 


6,004.15 


6,004.15 




Total 


$4,835.06 


$168,684.51 


$173,519.57 


$168,061.71 


$5,457.86 


Grand Total . . 


$173.51 


9.57 


$173,519.57 



Arizona Agricultural KxtkrimivNT Station 



403 



table r.. — KXrivNDITURIvS I?V FUNDS AND SCHEDULES EOR THE YEAR 
ENDED JUNE 30, 1919 



Abstract 



State 
fund 



Sales 
fund 



Hatch 
fund 



Adams 
fund 



Total 



Salaries 

Labor 

Publications . ., 

Postage and Station- 
ery 

Freight and Express 

Heat, light, water, 
and power 

Chemicals and labo- 
ratory supplies. . . . 

Seeds, plants, and 
sundry supplies. . . 

Fertilizers 

Feeding stuffs 

Library 

Tools, machinery, 
and appliances. . . . 

Furniture a n d fix- 
tures 

Scientific apparatus 
and specimens. . . . 

Livestock 

Traveling expenses. 

Contingent expenses 

Buildings and land.. 

Returned t o State 

Treasurer 

Balance 



$11,828.01 
9,064.10 
2,926.00 

200.32 
345.57 

256.84 

23.00 

1,290.01 

709.06 

1,038.98 

2,475.41 

64.33 

33.89 
600.C0 

2,449.55 
377.62 

1,954.91 

40.23 



10,855.15 

250.85 



$11,758.62 
75.46 



$11,737.76 
1.104.81 



$35,677.83 




$35,324.39 

21,024.06 

3,252.25 

1,376.57 
1,034.28 

1,572.74 

396.27 

3,624.69 

839.32 

1,922.77 

12.21 

5,864.65 

253.29 

402.99 
1,110.00 
6,228.57 

455.85 
6,354.14 

281.67 
590.29 



$91,921.00 



TABLE C. — STATE APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE TWO-YEAR PERIOD BEGINNING 

JULY 1, 1919 



Fund 



Maintenance • . • 

Irnprovements. . 

University Farm Maintenance 

University t^rm Improvement 

Dry-farming Supervision 

Printing: 

Citrus Investigation 

Plant Introduction and Breeding Investigations. 

Prescott Drv-farm Maintenance 

Prescott-Dry-farm Improvement 

Salt River Valley Experiment Farm 

Sulphur Sprins: Valley Dry- farm 

Tempe Date Orchard 

Underflow Water Investigations 

Surface Water Investigation 

Yuma Date Palm Orchard Maintenance 

Yimia Date Rqlm Orchard Imorovement 

College of Agriculture Extension 

Cooperative Agricultural Extension 



1919-20 



$16 
8 

12, 
6 
4 
4, 

10 
4 
6 
2 

16. 
4 
3 
2, 
3 
5 

12 

18 
7 



950.00 
150.00 
500.00 
050.00 
500.00 
500.00 
000.00 
260.00 
,090.00 
000.00 
,510.00 
,490.00 
.175.00 
,400.00 
.000.00 
,925.00 
500.00 
COO.OO 
433.71 



$148,433.71 



1920-21 

$16,950.00 

8.150.00 

12,500.00 

2,250.00 
4,500.00 
4,500.00 
5,000.00 
4,260.00 
5,690.00 
1,500.00 
12,510.00 
4,540.00 
2,575.00 
2,400.00 
3,000.00 
4,825.00 

' is.'oo'o.oo 

10,000.00 
$123,150.00 



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY 

A. E. VINSON, C. N. CATLIN, S. W. GRIFFIN 



The Department of Agricultural Chemistry has been strength- 
ened materially and the work promoted by the appointment of 
Mr. C. N. Catlin, formerly Assistant Chemist, as Research Spe- 
cialist and the addition of an assistant chemist for analytical work. 
Mr. Howard W. Estill was Assistant Chemist from January, 1919, 
until September; since that date Mr. S. W. Griffin has served in 
that capacity. 

The number of analyses of irrigation water and soil for alkali 
made by the department has been increasing continually with the 
increasing agricultural development of the State. While this is a 
public service akin to the extension service and county agent work, 
it occasionally presents problems of more general interest and im- 
portance. With the aid of the Assistant Chemist we have been 
able to meet these demands and make a number of feeding stuff 
analyses for other departments, although considerable work of 
this kind remains uncompleted. A very few miscellaneous exami- 
nations, mostly for poisons, have been made. 

ADAMS FUND WORK 

The research work of the department has been concentrated 
on the study of black alkali. In this connection progress has been 
made in working out the technique of a method of determining the 
colloidal swelling of dry soils when wetted. The further study of 
the influence of chemical treatment on the rate of percolation 
through black alkaline soil is being deferred until it can be accom- 
panied by and correlated with the colloidal swelling studies. 

Pot cultures are being conducted with a view of establishing 
the tolerance for black alkali in a type soil, which it is proposed 
to use later in the study of the influence of concomitant conditions 
on tolerance. For this purpose soils of uniform texture from close 
proximity in the same field, but showing different black alkali on 
analysis, are selected and mixed to give any desired series. The 
white alkali constituents are added to bring all pots to uniform 
concentration and all other influences are equalized as far as pos- 
sible. Excessive plant foods are given all pots, water supply is 
held constant in all cases, soil temperatures equalized, and pedigreed 
seed from a single mother plant used. After a definite point of 
tolerance has been established with the type soil and strain of 



Arizona Agricultural Experimknt Station 405 



« 



wheat, the black alkali content will be held constant and other 
factors varied until the influence of concomitant conditions has 
been analyzed. To facilitate and shorten the time of this work 
the present equipment for pot culture should be greatly increased. 
Considerable difficulty was experienced in getting large sam- 
ples of soil of desired alkali concentration to be used in these 
experiments. At first field samples were taken, analyzed, and a 
wagonload of soil from the selected spot brought to the laboratory. 
This was dried, mixed by repeated shoveling on a cement floor, the 
whole passed through a 2 m.m. sieve, again mixed, sampled and 
analyzed. It was soon discovered that the field samples bore prac- 
tically no relation to the large sample taken several days later 
from the same spot. It was, therefore, necessary to take the large 
samples without preliminary sampling and run the chance of their 
being usable. 

SAMPLING FIELD SOILS 

The difficulties of sampling field soils have long been recognized, 
and Lipman and his associates have shown that single field samples 
are usually of little value. This is perhaps more true of alkali than 
any other soil constituent. The movement of alkali in a field is 
best described as billowy ; always in motion, shifting up and down 
and laterally. During the year we were asked to inspect a farm 
two miles south of Tucson. Surface appearances and the native 
vegetation indicated the general presence of black alkali. Samples 
of 'the first and secoud foot taken with the soil auger showed no 
black alkali, but a fair amount of gypsum, or its equivalent in other 
black alkali neutralizing salts. The analyses are shown as Nos. 
7161 and 7162 in Table I. Since the analysis seemed contrary to 
field indication, several days later a square yard was marked off 
in the same field not far distant from the place where the auger 
samples had been taken. The soil in this yard was removed care- 
fully with trowels in two-inch layers to the depth of two feet, each 
layer being thrown on a canvas and carefully sampled. The results 
of the analyses are recorded in Table I, Nos. 7173 to 7184. The 
surface layer was weakly of the gypsum type, changing into black 
alkali in the third and fourth inch. The black alkali increased to a 
maximum at the eighth inch, then decreased and changed back into 
gypsum type at the sixteenth inch. In very large numbers of sam- 
ples taken on small areas at the University Farm in connection 
with field experiments in neutralizing black alkali with gypsum, 
the most erratic results were obtained from adjacent borings. 



406 



Thirtieth Annual Report 



TABLE I. COMPOSITION OF 2-INCH SUCCESSIVE LAYERS IN A YARD SQUARE 
HOLE ON ALKALINE LAND. SAMPLING TEST 





1 


Total 


Chlorides 


CaSOi 


Na^COa 


Laboratory No. 


Depth 


soluble 


as 


Equiva- 


Black 






solids 


NaCl 


lent 


alkali 






% 


% 


% 


% 


7173 


0"- 2" 


1.05 


.048 


.033 




7174 


2"- 4" 


0.888 


.052 




.059 


7175 


4". 6" 


0.780 


.050 




.064 


7176 


6"- 8" 


0.720 


.032 




.102 


7177 


8"- 10" 


0.632 


.016 




.093 


7178 


10"- 12" 


0.628 


.016 




.076 


7179 


12"-14" 


0.660 


.020 




.034 


7180 


14"-16" 


0.724 


.024 




.013 


7181 


16"-18" 


1.05 


.024 


.326 




7182 


18"-20" 


1.41 


.028 


.517 


■ • • 


7183 


20"-22" 


1.70 


.036 


.778 




7184 


22"-24" 


1.49 


.030 


.560 




Soil auger sample 












near bv 












7161' 


1st ft. 


1.86 


.056 


.511 




7162 


2nd ft. 


1.03 


.052 


.144 





RECLAMATION OF ALKALI 
An experiment in the reclamation of alkaline land on a tract 
adjoining the Tempe Drainage Ditch adjacent to the Date Orchard 
was cooperated in by the department. The experiment was planned 
by Messrs. Goodin and Eder and nearly completed before our co- 
operation was invited ; consequently, certain points were over- 
looked, the original experiment having had in view the growing of 
rice rather than the leaching of alkali. The soils were not sampled 
before leaching began and sampling was delayed several days after 
leaching closed, probably resulting in rapid rise of alkali from the 
ground water as seemed to be indicated in a later experiment. An 
estimate of the original condition of the tract can be based only 
on the alkali left in high spots which received little leaching and 
an adjacent unleached tract. Some years ago the land used for 
the experiment was among the best in the Salt River Valley, but, 
due to rising water table, had been abandoned to Bermuda grass, 
which was finally killed out and gave place to saltbush. The Drain- 
age Ditch has reduced the water table four to five and one-half feet 
below the surface which is not sufficient for effective leaching and 
permanent reclamation. The results, however, are highly inter- 
esting and show among other things the completeness with which 
white alkali may be leached and the tenacity with which black alkali 
resists leaching. The higher white alkali shown by Nos. 7359, 
7360, and 7361 as compared with Nos. 7383 and 7384 probably marks 
the rapid rise of alkali in the interval after the first flooding and 



Arizona Agricultural Expe;riment Station 



407 



sampling; the latter samples were taken immediately after the 
leaching had ceased. The analyses of these soils are given in 
Table II. 





TABLE 11. ALKALI IX SOILS RKCLAI MKU BY 


LICACIIINL 














Black 


I^ab. 




Depth 


Total 


Chlorides 


alkali 


No. 


Description , 


feet 


Soluble 


as 


as 








salts 


NaCl 


Na^jCOa 








% 


% 


% 


7359 


Irrigated 4 times, one week 


0- 4 


.408 


.044 


.216 




apart ; submerged periods 


4-12 


.404 


.080 


.229 




of 10 days each in July 


12-24 


.4as 


.174 


.167 




and August 










7360 


Flooded 6 times in June and 


0- 4 


.560 


.104 


.288 




earlv Julv, then submerged 


4-12 


.512 


.154 


.237 




30 days' 


12-24 


.320 


.126 


.161 


7361 


Same treatment as 7360 


0- 4 


.464 


.072 


.233 






4-12 


.540 


.15 


.220 






12-24 


.440 


.18 


.161 


7362 


Elevated land flooded 4 


0- 4 


3.856 


2.52 


.254 




times (hiring season 


4-12 


2.008 


1.26 


.110 






12-24 


.496 


.26 


.161 


7363 


High land ; flooded but never 


0- 4 


2.16 


1.60 


.038 




kept submerged ; repre- 


4-12 


.320 


.072 


.135 




sentative of original 


12-24 


.168 


.048 


.085 


7364 


Irrigated twice in season of 


0-4 


1.36 


.58 


.271 




1919 


4 12 


.752 


.32 


.186 






12-24 


.332 


.096 


.153 


7365 


Not irrigated for 2 years; 


0- 4 


1.52 


.8S 


.322 






4-12 


0.369 


.12 


.191 






12-24 


0.256 


.06 


.169 


7383 


Same as 7360 ; resubmerged' 


0-12 


.32 


.020 


.135 


7384 


Same as 7361 ; resubmerged' 


0-12 


.296 


.012 


.178 


7366 


Frankenburg ranch % mile 


0- 4 


.536 


.16-1 


.220 




distnnt: similar untreated 


4-12 


.736 


.288 


.178 




land* 


12-24 


.526 


.220 


.119 


7367 


Same' 


0- 4 


1.3 


.74 


.102 






4-12 


0.840 


.44 


.135 






12-24 


0.520 . 


.24 


.161 


7368 


S.E. ;4 "f same section* 


0- 4 


.36 


.060 


.051 






4-12 


.52 


.236 


.169 






12-24 


.512 


.204 


.186 



1 The lands represented by samples 7360 and 7361 were again submerged for 
21 days, using- between four and five acre feet of water. The seepage was much 
greater than when the treatment was started. 2. Land fallow for six or seven years 
with exceptions of one or two unsuccessful attempts to grow milo; flooded in winter, 
1918; planted to cotton April, 1919; no irrigation during season; fair stand of cotton. 
3. Badly run out Bermuda when Bermuda was killed by alkali; new Bermuda trans- 
planted in 1917 and irrigated every ten or twelve days, fair stand by fall; in 1918 
Bermuda broken up and planted to cotton, irrigated only after planting, yield one- 
half bale; heavily irrigated in fall and winter, 1918; planted to cotton in 1919. yield 
three-fourths bale or more per acre. 4. Cropped continuously in past years. In 191S 
yielded one bale cotton and has yielded well; irrigated after last picking and heavily 
during winter but never during crop season. 



408 Thirtieth Annual Report 

COTTON TOLERANCE TO ALKALI IN FIELD 
In the Twenty-ninth Annual Report of this Station are reported 
several analyses of alkaline soil showing different degrees of dam- 
age to crops in the field. Similar observations have recently been 
made by Mr. Catlin on cotton in Salt River Valley. Here again the 
difficulty of securing soil samples representing the actual conditions 
under which the crop is growing are almost insurmountable. The 
results of this investigation will be found in Table III. Other data 
for alkali resistance by cotton are given by Nos.7366, 7367, and 7368, 
Table II. None of the failures can be attributed definitely to black 
alkali but seem to be due to soluble salts and chlorides. These re- 
sults in a general way show good cotton produced on soil contain- 
ing .4 percent soluble salts with low chlorides ; stunted, unprofitable 
cotton on soils containing .4 to .6 percent soluble salts with .1 to .3 
percent chlorides; and total destruction of the crop on soils con- 
taining upwards of .6 percent soluble salts of which one-half or 
more was chlorides. The relatively high tolerance on No. 7627 
cannot be accounted for; it may have been due to rise of alkali late 
in the season. 



Arizona Ac.kicultural Exi'Krimknt Station 



409 



TABLK III. — fii;ld tolerance of cotton for alkali, 1919. 

C. N. CATLIN 











CaSOj 


Bhuk 


Lab. 1 




Total 


Chlorides 


or 


alkali 


Xo. 


Description 


soluble 


as 


Equiva- 


as 






solid:^ 


NaCl ; 


lent 


Na^CO.^ 






% 


% ; 


Vo 


'■''■ 


7627 


N.W. of Phoenix Indian 












School ; good cotton 


.704 


.512 i 




.051 


7628 


Same; cotton 3J/^ ft. high 


.424 


.092 




.017 


7629 


Same; cotton 2 ft high 


.412 


.08 


.044 




7630 


Same ; no cotton 


.792 


.44 , 


.087 




7631 


1 mile south of Tempe ; 












good cotton 


.340 


.048 


.087 




7632 


Same ; cotton 1 ft. high 


.52 


.192 


.022 




7633 


Same ; no cotton 


1.632 


.636 


.022 




7634 


Redden place, south Date 




1 








Orchard ; good cotton 


416 •. 


.056 


Neutral 




7635 


Same ; small stalk of cot- 












ton 


.608 


.228 


.022 




7636 


Same ; no cotton 


.676 


.336 


.065 




7637 


Frank Parker, W. Adams 












St. ; good cotton 


.388 


.048 


.044 




7638 


Same ; cotton 3 ft. high 


.504 


.220 


.017 




7639 


Same; cotton 1 ft. high 


.588 


.352 


.102 




76^0 


Same ; no cotton 


.872 


.544 


.135 




7641 


Bargthold place ; fair cot- 












ton 


JW 


.304 


.(144 




7642 


Same ; no cotton 


1.212 


.576 


.220 




7643 


Pickerell estate. 1 mile 
east of Date Orchard; 












fair cotton 


.400 


.144 


.017 




7644 


Same; cotton 1 ft. high 


.344 


.092 


.051 




7645 


Same ; no cotton 


1.336 


.832 




.109 


7646 


Hudson land, 1 mile 
south of Tempe ; good 












cotton 


.368 


.060 




.068 


7647 


Same ; cotton 1 ft. high 


.352 


.044 




.034 


7648 


Same ; no cotton 


1 1.308 


.676 




.186 



THE TEMPE DRAINAGE DITCH 
In 1916 when water began flowing in the Tempe Drainage 
Ditch, then still under construction, this department began the 
study of the changes that take place in the character of the drainage 
water. Monthly samples, with a few omissions, have been analyzed, 
giving an almost continuous record for more than three years. The 
analyses have been published in the Annual Reports of the Station. 
While the composition has varied considerably from month to 
month, the general tendency has been for the drainage water to be- 
come less saline. The first few months, while construction was 
under way, were marked by excessively salty waters, freshening 
rapidly as the ditch was extended. The average monthly compo- 



410 



riiiKTiKTH Annual Kepoki 



sition for the three years since the completion of the ditch was as 

follows : 

1917 1918 1919 

Total solids 308 266 262 

Chlorides as NaCl 209 182 173 

Several times during the interval the character of the water has 

changed from black alkaline to gypsum (permanent hardness) and 

back to black alkaline. The monthly analyses for 1919 are recorded 

in Table IV. 

TABIvH IV. MONTHLY VARIATIONS IN COMPOSITION OI" WATER FROM TH B 

TEMPE DRAINAGE DITCH, 1919. PARTS PER 100,000 




Str. 
Mod. Str. 
Mod. Str. 
Mod. Str. 

Str. 

Str. 



Mod. Str. 


Mod. Str. 


Mod. Str. 


Mod. Str. 


Mod. 


Mod. Str. 


Mod. Str. 


Mod. Str. 


Mod. 


Mod. Str. 


Mod. 


Mod. 


Mod. 


Mod. 


Mod. 


Mod. 


Mod. 


Mod. Str 


Str. 


Str. 



str. — Strong. Mod. Str. — Moderately strong. Mod. — Moderate. Neut. — NeutraL 

In the Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Annual Reports there 
were published analyses of Arizona feeding stuiTs, many of them 
being materials concerning which little information is available. 
Since data of this sort have considerable value to others and are not 
likely to be recorded elsewhere, the list is extended here by the 
addition of recent analyses in Table V. 



Arizona Agkicllti'kal Exi'Ki<iMh:NT Station 



411 



TA15LK V. — COMPOSITION OF ARIZONA FEEDING STUFFS 

















j 


Nitro- 












Crude 




Ether j 


gen • 






Con- 




Ash 


pro- 


Crude 


ex- 


free 


No. 


Feeding stuffs 


dition , 


Water 




tein 


flber 


tract 1 


ex- 












% 




1 


tract 








% : 


% 


% 


% 


% 


7199 


Sorghum silage^ 


fresii 


75.17 1 


2.88 


1.13 


6.41 


.48 


13.93 






dry 


6.65 


10.82 


4.27 


24.09 


1.79 


52.38 


7200 


Fcterita .milage' 


fresh 


54.29 , 


2.43 


3.92 


6.57 


1.13 


34.07 






dry 


6.03 


4.74 


7.65 


12.83 


2.20 


66.55 


7201 


Darso silage, some 


fresh 1 


57.66 


2.82 


3.18 


6.69 


1.04 


28.62 




fcterita' 


dry j 
frcsli 


6.75 
69.76 


6.22 
2.44 ! 


6.99 
1.68 


14.73 
6.83 


2.28 
.76 


63.03 


7202 


Sorghum and hcgari 


17.52 




silage, mixed' 


dry 


4.01 


7.75 1 


5.36 


21.69 


2.40 


58.8 


7203 


Alfalfa hav' 1918-19 




3.70 


8.02 ; 


15.73 


29.75 


1.67 


40.59 


7204 


Cowpea hav' 1917-18 




3.70 


8.07 ' 


9.51 


29.18 


2.16 


47.38 


7205 


Barley' 




6.70 

5.ri 


4.67 , 
6.35 


; 1.61 
59.87 


6.37 


1.85 
10.62 


68.73 


7206 


Cottonseed meal'.... 




7214 


Corn silage' 


fre-h 


74.43 


1.84 


1.89 


7.3" 


0.42 


l'4.i3 






dry 


5.24 


6.82 


6.99 


27.C6 


1.57 


52.32 


7215 


Poppies ; full flower' 


fresh 


.S6.99 


1.79 


2.92 


1.40 


0.44 


6.45 






dry 


5.70 


13.01 


21.16 


10.15 


3.23 


46.75 


7228 


Woolly foot (Bott- 


















tcloua criopodaf . . 


drx 


2.80 


7.66 


5.61 


30.31 


1.54 


52.08 


7229 


Cotton top (Panlcum 
lacnaiillium) new 


















growth^ 


drv 


2.81 


8.46 


4.62 


32.62 


1.36 


50.11 


7230 


Same old growth*... 


dry 


2.47 


8.67 


4.00 


34.33 


1.11 


50.58 


7231 


Spruce top g r a m a 
(Boutcloua b r - 


















moidcs)^ 


•Iry 


2.L'6 


6.31 


5.63 


31.49 


1.24 


53.24 


7232 


Tangle top (Hctcro- 






pogOH contort us)" 


drv 


1..35 


5.L'6 


3.39 


33.43 


1.07 


55.70 


7252 


Calycoscris IVrigh tii' 


drv 


5.97 


11. C5 


10.47 


22.37 


5.63 


44.51 


7253 


Poppies ; pods'* 


, In- 


4.^3 


6.63 


16.28 


32.17 


12.53 


27.96 


7254 


Indian wheat ; whole 


















plants" 


dry 


6.84 
7.83 


15.21 
5.85 


10.26 
12.89 


31.75 

38.75 


1.09 
0.50 


34.85 


7255 


Indian wheat ; seeds* 


34.18 


7271 


Spanish dagger" 


drv 






8.55 








7324 


Boutcloua Roth- 


fresh 


' 64.56 


2.99 


2.99 


l'3.6.3 


0.72 


l'6.56 




rockii'^^ 


dry 
fresh 


1 5.12 
1 75.97 


8.25 
2.69 


8.25 
1.83 


35.90 
9.73 


1.97 
0.37 


45.63 


7325 


Cliactochloa, sp.^'. . . . 


10.47 






dry 


\ 4.27 


10.74 


7.31 


38.76 


1.49 


41.71 


7326 


Boutcloua curtipen- 


fresh 


67.16 


3.48 


3.35 


13.22 


0.81 


13.59 




diila" 


dry 
fresh 


4.53 
82.82 


10.13 
2.14 


9.75 
1.56 


38.44 
6.52 


' 2.36 
0.28 


39.52 


7336 


Elephant grass 


6.68 






drv 


3.91 


12.47 


9.C6 


37.93 


1.64 


38.90 


7536 


Cottonseed mear\ . . 


dr)- 


5.55 


6.44 


38.46 


12.23 


5.94 


31.38 


7537 


Milo maize, threshed, 


















cracked'* 


dr.N- 


8.59 


1.60 


12.13 


LSI 


1.20 

1 


' 74.67 


7538 


H e g a r i ; threshed, 


! 




cracked''' 


drv 
dry 


10.24 


1.44 


9.41 
3.31 


1.8S 


i 1.76 

! 

j .... 


i 75.27 


7491 


Grama grass ; old 






heads and tops'^. . 












1 




7492 


Same ; old bottoms'^ 


dry 


.... 




3.50 






. .... 



412 Tthrtieth Annual Report 

1. Feeds used in sheep feeding experiments by Animal Husbandry Depart- 
ment. 2. Full bloom; many seed pods; relatively few buds. 3. Also called wire 
grama; Santa Rita pasture March 16, 1919; no cattle' grazed last year; % 1918 
growth, Vi older, would probably be eaten in this proportion; seeds fallen; stem 6 
to 8 inches high. 4. New growth starts on sides of old stems; V4, lower stems re- 
jected, sample 5 to 7 inches long. Old growth, 2 or 3 years old containing 14 stem 
towards roots; 2 to 4 inches long. 5. Fine clean stems; 5 to 10 inches long; all 
seeds fallen; perhaps one-tenth old stem. 6. Tall and co.arse; reddish; one-third 
16 inches long, few seeds; one-third 12 inches long, no seeds; one-third 8 Inches 
long, no seeds. 7. Entire plant with roots twisted off. S. Pods almost mature, 
containing much pvilp. 9. Plants pulled, ropts and lower stems cut off; some 
seeds had fa len; .'-■ample would represent average forage a'out March 16. 10. Pulp 
of the yucca leaf after the fiber had been removed for commercial purposes. 

11. Collected August 9, 1919; in head; knee high; just passing pollen stage. 

12. Collected August 9, 1919; waist high; past blooming. 13. Collected August 9, 
1919, nearly waist high; past pollen stage. 14. Feeds used in steer feeding ex- 
periments by Animal Huslandry Department. 15. Old grama grass from range 
south of Elgin: stock apparently starving; 7491 heads and tops of stems; 7492 bot 
lorn leaves from base of old plants. 

THE SALTON SEA 

In 1907 the Department undertook, in cooperation with the 
Desert Botanical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution, a study of 
the changes in the chemical composition of the Salton Sea as evapo- 
ration took place after the closing of the break in the Colorado 
River. Annual analyses for ten consecutive years were made, but 
owing to the pressure of war work and the belief that less frequent 
anayses from that time would suffice, the eleventh sample was not 
taken till June 17, 1919. The analysis of this sample has been 
made by the chemist as time would permit. Since these analyses 
have developed wide scientific interest and have not been published 
in collected form since the eighth analysis, they are given here in 
Table VI. 

Several phenomena have been observed and reports published 
by this Station and the Carnegie Institution. Three substances 
have been disappearing unmistakably from the water : Calcium car- 
bonate, potassium, and phosphorus. The calcium carbonate has 
been accounted for in the formation of tufa, notably on mesquite 
brush that had been submerged when the Salton Sink filled with 
water. No adequate explanation of the fate of potassium and phos- 
phorus has yet been made. At the suggestion of the writer, 
Mr. S. W. Griffin undertook a comparison of the potassium and 
phosphorus content and the potassium-sodium ratio in the tufa on 
the mesquite with the tufa from the ancient sea at Travertine Point. 
The ancient tufa contained potassium .20 percent, sodium .16 per- 
cent; the recent tufa, potassium .19 percent, sodium 1.27 per cent. 
It must be noted however, that the mesquite branches bearing the 
recent tufa were removed from the salty water and dried without 
rin«;ing, while the ancient tufa has been exposed to the weather 
perhaps for centuries. Nevertheless, the potassium-sodium ratio 
in the recent tufa is 1 : 6, while the water from which it was removed 



Arizona Agricultural Experimknt Station 



413 



c 2 



^ 



^jy O 4) «J «J O 

rtvooMoio 5 5 £ S 5 

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414 Thirtieth Annual Report 

showed a similar ratio of about 1 : 90. There was an unmistakable 
concentration of potassium in the recent tufa. 

With regard to phosphorus estimated as phosphate ion the 
ancient tufa contained .167 percent and the modern tufa .116 per- 
cent. The formation of the tufa was undoubtedly accompanied by 
the fixation of phosphorus. In the first few years after the filling of 
the sink a distinct and even weighable precipitate of ammonium 
phosphomolybdate could be formed from one or two liters of the 
water, but in 1916 no positive reaction for phosphorus could be 
gotten by working three liters of the water. 

If calcium had concentrated at the same rate as total solids 
there would have been about 71.34 parts per 100,000 of calcium in 
1919 instead of 43.5 parts. Thus, the equivalent of 27.84 parts per 
100,000 of calcium has been lost. In like manner the .009 parts of 
phosphate ion present in 1907 would now amount to .064 parts, 
whereas all has been lost. There should also be at present 16.49 
parts per 100,000 of potassium instead of 9.98 parts ; that is, there 
has been a loss of 6.51 parts of potassium. 

An analysis of the tufa being deposited from Salton Sea in 1912 
made in this laboratory by Mr. C. N. Catlin and published in "The 
Salton Sea" (Carnegie Institution of Washington, page 47) gave 
about 70 percent of calcium carbonate. Assuming that the tufa 
used by 'Griflin also contained 70 percent of calcium carbonate, we 
find the 27.84 parts of calcium lost from the water, would require 
the loss of .115 parts of phosphate ion and .19 parts of potassium. 
Thus the loss of the entire amount of phosphorus originally present 
can be attributed to the formation of the tufa, but only about 3 
percent of the potassium lost can be accounted for in this way. It 
appears, therefore, that nearly all the potassium that has disap- 
peared from the Salton water must have been adsorbed. (See 
Abstraction of Potassium during Sedimentation, J. W. Watson. 
Thesis, University of Virginia, 1913.) Deep deposits of mud have 
been thrown up on the flat shore lines along the eastern margin 
of the sea near Nilands. These muds may contain a large part of 
the lost potassium. 



AGRONOMY 

G. E. Thompson'. R. S. Hawkins 

During the period covered by tliis report G. Iv Thompson 
has been in charge of the Department of Agronomy. On January 
1, 1919, R. S. Hawkins joined the department as Assistant Agrono- 
mist, and on October 1, 1919, S. P. Clark joined the department 
with the title of Extension Agronomist, but with the understand- 
ing that one-half his time would be given to the regular work of 
the department. 

The strictly experimental work of the department is organized 
under projects. These projects cover the various ])hases of crop 
work under investigation and are placed in the different agricultural 
regions in the State but are located principally on the Experiment 
Farms of the Salt River Valley, the Yuma \'alley. the Sulphur 
Spring Valley, and on the Dry-Farm near Prescott, Arizona. The 
various projects with a brief history and report of progress are 
listed below. 

1. A CONTINUATION OF STUDIES AT PRESCOTT DRY-FARM. 

In the general work of the Prescott Dry-Farm we desire to 
determine the agricultural practices necessary by means of which 
the dry-farmer with limited land can make a reasonably good liv- 
ing. Consequently, the work of this farm includes not only the 
testing of the various crops adapted to the climatic conditions of 
the Prescott district and the methods of planting, cultivating, and 
handling these crops, but it also includes the putting up and feeding 
out of silage, and minor* investigations and observations of other 
farm practices. During the summer of 1919 the farm was divided 
into five principal fields, the arrangement of the fields permitting a 
rotation of crops from year to year and permitting the economical 
handling of farm help, machinery, etc. 

No grain yields of importance were secured except from dwarf 
milo maize. This crop planted in early summer and given good 
care, made a very satisfactory and profitable grain crop. 

From the silage standpoint, Papago sweet corn was the most 
satisfactory crop grown on the Experiment Farm. The field on 
which this crop was planted received some run-off water from 
higher ground above, thus giving it an extra opportunity to produce 
a larger yield. Weights taken at the time the crop was cut and 
placed in the silo showed a yield from the best part of the field 
slightly in excess of 25 tons of silage per acre. The corn matured 



416 Thiktiktii Annual Ricport 

satisfactorily and from those portions of the field left until maturity- 
seed of good quality was harvested for the plantings of 1920. 

A local variety of corn called Bloody Butcher produced some 
reasonably good corn and approximately 12 tons of silage per acre. 
Another variety of corn developed in Gila County, Arizona, and for 
years grown under dry-farming conditions, produced first-class ears 
and shows considerable promise for this locality. Seed has been 
saved and the variety will be tested further in 1920. 

A considerable number of varieties of sorghums were tested, 
but of them all dwarf milo maize proved most satisfactory. The 
varieties tested included red amber. South Dakota amber, Freed 
sorghum, Darso, feterita, hegari, and sumac. The fact that Pres- 
cott has an elevation of approximately 5,300 feet, resulting in cool 
nights during the summer months and cool weather in the spring 
and fall, makes this climate better adapted to corn than to sorghums. 

The sorghums that did not make a satisfactory grain yield 
were harvested and stored as silage, thus providing feed and facili- 
ties for the Animal Husbandry Department to carry on feeding 
experiments. 

Sudan grass planted in cultivated rows 42 inches apart pro- 
duced a first-class seed crop and that portion of the field harvested 
for hay produced two satisfactory cuttings. Sudan grass is well 
adapted to the region about Prescott and is a satisfactory field 
crop. 

II. A CONTINUATION OF STUDIES OF SULPHUR SPRING VALLEY DRY-FARM. 

The purpose and work of the Sulphur Spring Valley Dry-Farm 
is very similar to that outlined for the Prescott Dry-Farm. Al- 
though the conditions are dryer and consequently more severe, 
resulting in smaller yields, still the results throughovit are com- 
parable with the results secured on the Prescott Dry-Farm. How- 
ever, the growing season is a little longer and sorghum crops are 
more satisfactory, partly because of lower elevation. Perhaps the 
best crop grown on the farm under strictly dry-farm conditions was 
a field of red amber sorghum planted in late March. This field 
withstood the extremely dry weather of June, July, and August, 
and when a good rain of early September supplied needed moisture 
the crop developed rapidly and made considerable silage. Black- 
hulled kafir planted at the same time under the same conditions 
made more silage, but did not mature as well ; consequently its 
feeding value was not as good as that of the red amber. 

Sudan grass proved a failure in 1919. The small Sudan grass 
plants died of drouth before they had attained sufficient size to 



Arizona Agricultural Exi>i:rimknt Station 




Kig. 



-Green mamiriiif 



Willi Caiiciila lii-Ul |..-.i.-,— 1 'i t-.-^clL 1 )i > -I'ai iii 



establish a good root system. In an average year we believe Sudan 
grass should be a satisfactory crop. Under dry-farming soy beans, 
cowpea.'^. and velvet beans were failures. 

fii. lp:gumes and tiikir culture for southwest conditions. 
Under this project plantings were made on the five farms under 
control of the University. In all, 12 varieties of vetch were tested, 
10 varieties of cowpeas, 4 of soy beans, 3 of velvet beans, 4 of 
clover. A considerable number of miscellaneous crops were tried 
out on a small scale. In the Yuma Valley a number of the varieties 
of vetch were very promising, practically every one of them making 
a satisfactory growth and producing seed. In the Salt River Val- 
ley an unusually sharp frost occurred just after the vetches were 
up, and every variety, either from this or some unknown cause, 
died. 

Of all the varieties of cowpeas tested, Red Ripper seems the 
most desirable. Groit stands second. From the standpoint of 
foliage alone, Brabham is perhaps as desirable as either of the other 
two. However, the Brabham variety produces seed very sparingly, 
consequently its usefulness as a field crop is limited. The Taylor 
variety was good in the Salt River Valley, but Whippoorwill gave 
only medium success. 



418 Thirtieth Annual Report 

As has been the case in previous years, soy beans were not 
satisfactory ; although a good vine growth was secured with most 
of the varieties, practically every variety, if it produced seed at all, 
produced a shrivelled and unmarketable bean. This is probably 
due to the very hot and dry atmosphere, as shrivelled beans were 
produced regardless of the supply of moisture in the ground. Soy 
beans cut a little before maturity and allowed to cure in the shock 
produced a much better quality of beans than those allowed to cure 
on the vine. 

IV. A STUDY OF THE VARIETIES AND METHODS OF CULTIVATION OF 
INDIAN CORN AND THE VARIOUS SORGHUMS. 

In handling this project plantings were made on the five 'farms 
under the control of the Experiment Station and on farms of 
numerous individuals throughout the State. In the Salt River 
Valley, Mexican June corn or improved strains of it proved the 
best of all the varieties tested. The large, coarse, and late maturing 
corns of the eastern states were very unsatisfactory ; none of them 
were able to withstand the hot and dry atmosphere of our valleys. 

In the Salt River Valley, milo maize ranked first as a grain- 
sorghum crop with hegari as a close second. Either of these crops 
can be planted after a small-grain crop such as wheat or barley, and 
still have time for complete maturity. Yields in excess of 4,000 
pounds of threshed grain per acre were secured with both milo and 
hegari. 

From the silage standpoint, orange sorghum gives promise of 
being our best variety. Sumac sorghum promises to rank a close 
second. Honey-drip sorghum and goose-neck sorghum will make 
larger yields than the tw^o first named, but they are larger, coarser, 
and more difficult to handle and require a longer growing season. 

v. THE CULTIVATION AND FIELD MANAGEMENT OF EGYPTIAN COTTON. 

All of the experiments in connection with this project were 
handled on the Salt River Valley Experiment Farm. The work 
covered date of planting tests ranging from March 1st to May 15th. 
It covered a series of fertilizer tests in which acid phosphate, sodium 
nitrate, cottonseed meal, commercial fertilizer, and barnyard ma- 
nure were used at various rates and in various combinations. Nt> 
striking nor conclusive results were secured from the fertilizer 
tests. The various tests in the spacing of cotton were consider- 
ably injured by a severe storm in late August and the results were 
not conclusive. A few preliminary experiments were made with 
the topping of cotton. Excellent results were secured in the con- 



Arizona Agriclltural Exi'Krimicnt Station 419 

trol of black arm during the seedling stage. Tests were made to 
determine the effects of planting every third row to cowpeas in- 
stead of planting by the common methods. Various inoculating 
media were used in these tests for comi)arison with plantings of 
the same variety without inoculation and the wide spacing of cotton 
without cowpeas. The largest yield secured from any planting was 
that from the acre planted in the ordinary manner except that 
every third row was omitted. 

VI. CULTIVATION AND M.VNAGEMENT OF WINTER AND SPRING GRAINS 
INCLUDING WHEAT, OATS, AND BARLEY. 

Some of the work in this project was carried on on the Salt 
River Valley Experiment Farm. Plantings of wheat included rate 
of planting tests, and date of planting tests, as well as variety tests. 
Early Baart wheat for average conditions proved the best of the 
varieties tested. Good yields were secured from a locally developed 
strain of Red Turkey wheat. Kanred, the best hard winter wheat 
of central Kansas, did not prove the equal of the Early Baart or 
local Turkey wheat. Durham wheats made a good yield, but are 
difficult to market, consequently their usefulness is limited. 

A very striking and successful demonstration was given in the 
control of stinking smut or bunt. One plot of wheat planted from 
untreated seed showed 66 percent of smut infection, while the plot 
planted with treated seed showed less than one-half of 1 percent 
infection. 

Common six-row barley proved superior to the other varieties 
tested. 

Abruzzi rye made a very large growth of straw and produced a 
fair quality and yield of rye. Red rust-proof Texas oats were the 
best oats tested. 

VII. EFFECT OF DYNAMITING SUB-SOIL ON FIELD CROPS. 

This project was handled on the Sulphur Spring Valley Dry- 
Farm. During the season of 1919 no difference was found in the 
yield of sorghum produced on the dynamited or undynamited 
ground. 

VIII. A VARIETAL AND CULTURAL TEST OF GRAIN AND FORAGE CROP ANE 
OF GRASSES AND MISCELLANEOUS CROPS. 

Under this project tests were made with Smilo grass, Napier 
grass, Rhodes grass, Harding grass, rice, flax, and a number of 
other crops. All of these tests were of a preliminary nature and 
are incomplete. 



420 



'I'lIlKTir.I 11 Ax MAI. KKI'OK'I 




Pig. 3. — Wisconsin barley and Abriizzi rye — State Experiment Station, Mesa. 
IX. FIKLD STUDI]>;S WITH LP.GUMES. 

This is a very definite project outlined to answer the two 
questions : "Is inoculation of legumes necessary in Arizona ?" and 
"Does intercropping of field crops with a legume increase the 
yield?" Various inoculation materials are used and various crops 
are tested. This work has been conducted on the Sulphur Spring 
Dry-Farm, on the Prescott Dry-Farm, on the Mesa Farm, and on 
the University Farm at Tucson, and will be continued during the 
season 1920. 



X. COOPERATIVE CROP EXPERIMENTS. 

In handling this project, the Agronomy Department supplied 
seeds and planting instructions to various farmers in different sec- 
tions of the State. Corn, wheat, cowpeas, and the sorghums were 
the principal crops under investigation. This work will be con- 
siderably increased during the season of 1920. 

During the fiscal year covered by this report considerable farm 
machinery was added to the various Experiment Farms. Likewise 
much time and money were spent in levelling land and improving 
the irrigation facilities. The department is in much better shape 
now than at any previous time to handle detailed experimental 
work. 



ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 

R. H. Williams 



The work in the Department of Animal Husbandry deals with 
a study of economical methods of producing beef, pork, and mutton. 
The investigations of the department cover a wide field of search 
into the factors which have a direct bearing on the industry. 

RANGE CONDITIONS THE PAST YEAR 

The past fiscal year continued dry throughout the Southwest, 
and in the southern and eastern parts of the State forage was very 
inferior. In the northern part of the State the winter was un- 
usually cold and many animals perished. It is doubtful if as many 
animals died in a single year since the great drouth in 1892-93. A 
combination of lack of feed, thin animals, deep snow, and extremely 
cold weather in the northern part of the State, made the winter 
one of the most trying in the history of the business. The market 
for animals was inferior and cattlemen have had a setback. Many 
stockmen situated in the southern part of the State leased fenced 
pastures in Mexico and thousands of cattle were moved across the 
line where feed was abundant. 

The winter range on the desert was late in coming, but was 
good after the middle of February. The lamb crop was about nor- 
mal, losses being light and the price of wool and lambs high, so 
that the sheepmen have had a prosperous year. The sheep and 
goat industries in Arizona are on a sound, economic basis. 

Commencing the last day of June, 1919, the three years' drouth 
in southern Arizona was broken. Feed began to grow everywhere ; 
in places where old-timers believed there never would be any re- 
vegetation the old palatable species sprang up and showed the un- 
usual revegetative qualities of these grasses. 

At the close of 1919 there were undoubtedly fewer cattle in 
Arizona than at any time since 1890. During the drouth the ranges 
were overstocked, but with abundant rainfall and the small number 
of animals to be maintained the carrying capacity should increase. 
The number of sheep on Arizona ranges is about an average of 
that of the past five years. 

Farmers in irrigated districts have plowed up many acres of 
alfalfa to plant cotton. The supply of alfalfa is being reduced very 
materially. Farmers have reduced the number of all kinds of live- 
stock maintained, but there is a tendency for them to increase the 



422 THIRTIKTII AnNL-.\I, RlCl'ORT 

number of cattle and sheep finished for market. Farmers on irri- 
gated land are increasing the number of pure-bred Hereford cattle 
and registered sheep, as they find a good demand for breeding males 
from range stockmen. Dry-farmers have continued to use livestock 
as a means for marketing their crops. There is a tendency for dry- 
farmers to cooperate more with range cattlemen in feeding cattle 
for market and in carrying range cows over periods of drouth. 

INVESTIGATIONS 
Four different lines of investigation have been pursued in the 
Department of Animal Husbandry during the past year. They 
were: 

1. Lambing ewes on feed. 

2. Feeding range cows. 

3. Hog feeding tests. 

4. Range livestock production. 

LAMBING EWES ON FEED. 

Each winter close to a million sheep are brought from ranges 
in northern Arizona to winter on the desert ranges in the central 
part of the State. During seasons of abundant rainfall the sheep 
do well on the desert. At times, however, feed and water are not 
available on the desert and it is necessary to feed the sheep or else 
move them to irrigated valleys to be fed. During the winter of 
1917-18 approximately 400,000 ewes were fed on irrigated farms. 
Little was known regarding the best method of feeding sheep and 
losses were excessive. 

In order to secure some information regarding the best feeds 
for lambing ewes on irrigated farms, an experiment was conducted 
during the winter of 1918-19. Two hundred range-bred ewes were 
selected and placed in dry feed lots on the Mesa Experiment Farm. 
They were divided into ten different groups of twenty in a lot and 
fed as follows: 

Silage. 

Silage ad libitum, one-fourth pound cottonseed meal. 

Silage ad libitum, one-half pound cottonseed meal. 

Silage, six pounds ; one and one-half pounds alfalfa hay. 

Silage, four pounds ; two pounds alfalfa hay. 

Silage, four pounds; two pounds pea hay. 

Alfalfa hay, three pounds ; whole barley one-half pound. 

Alfalfa hay, one and three-fourths pounds ; pea hay, one 

and three-fourths pounds. 

Pea hay, three and one-half pounds. 

Alfalfa hay, three and one-half pounds. 



Lot 


I 


Lot 


11 


Lot 


III 


Lot 


IV 


Lot 


V 


Lot 


VI 


Lot 


VII 


Lot VIII 


Lot 


IX 


Lot 


X 



Arizona Aciricuutral Extkrimknt Station' 423 

The sheep were maintained in the feed lots for seven weeks. 
At the outset they were extremely thin and began to lamb a week 
after being placed in the feed lots. Complete records were taken 
regarding the amount of feed consumed, dates of lambing, weights 
of the lambs and ewes, mortality in the different lots, and the vigor 
and condition of the lambs. From the flock 170 ot the ewes lambed 
and there were 24 dry ewes. Ninety percent of a lamb crop was 
raised from the ewes that lambed, or 76.5 percent of a lamb crop 
raised from the entire flock. As a result of the test, it was clearly 
demonstrated that thin range ewes require an abundance of good 
feed to place them in proper condition for lambing. Silage alone 
made the ewes fat, but was extremely inferior for milk production. 
The addition of cottonseed meal to the ration increased the milk 
flow. Pea hay was too coarse for the ewes and not as satisfactory 
as alfalfa hay. There is no reason why sheep cannot be fed in dry 
lots in such a way as to maintain the animals in good, vigorous 
condition for lambing, to have strong lambs at time of birth and 
raise as good lambs there as on the desert. The ewes, however, if 
thin at the outset of the test, should be forced to a maximum of 
their capacity for at least three weeks before lambing. This means 
that the ewes will require much more feed than that recommended 
by the feeding standards. 

CWTTLE FEEDINC. 

On the Prescott Dry-farm 20 thin, old range cows were selected 
and divided into four different lots containing five each. The cows 
in Lot I were fed 30 pounds of silage per day ; Lot H, 40 pounds 
of silage per day; Lot III all the silage they would eat; and Lot IV 
all the silage they would eat and two pounds of cottonseed meal 
daily. 

This test indicated that 30 pounds of silage was not enough to 
maintain these cows and probably all would have died on this 
amount. Forty pounds of silage per cow^ daily was almost suffi- 
cient to maintain them, but they gradually became weaker and 
probably would not have lived on this allowance. It is believed, 
however, that if either Lot I or II had been given the freedom of a 
browse range or dry pasture where they could have secured a small 
amount of forage they would have done well on 30 pounds of silage 
per head daily. The cows given all the silage they would take did 
not make rapid or cheap gains. They became strong and vigorous, 
taking a good fill the first few weeks, which increased their weight, 
but after the third week little gain was made. These cows ate 



424 Thirtieth Annual Report 

about 60 pounds of silage per head daily. Silage alone is not a 
satisfactory ration to fatten thin range cows. 

The cows fed on a combination of silage and two pounds of 
cottonseed meal made good gains and finished for marketing in 
about 100 days. It is believed that this ration is a cheap and effi- 
cient one for finishing cows for market. 

TWO METHODS OF RAISING GILTS. 

The five Duroc-Jersey gilts from the same littler have been 
under inspection another year. These pigs were divided into two 
groups consisting of two gilts maintained on one farm and three 
on another. When they were 779 days old, or approximately 25^ 
months, the two gilts raised on an ordinary farm weighed 175 and 
222 pounds, respectively, while the three gilts maintained under 
good conditions weighed 575 pounds, 610 pounds, and 630 pounds, 
respectively. The number of pigs raised by the gilts from the two 
different farms did not vary much. It may be that the pigs from 
Farm B were too fat and those from Farm A were too thin for the 
best results. It is planned to exchange two of these gilts from 
one farm to the other and to study the development of the large 
ones under inferior conditions and the small ones under good con- 
ditions. 

FATTENING HOGS ON GARBAGE VS. ROLLED BARLEY. 

Eight hogs averaging 122.2 pounds live weight were divided 
into two lots. Lot I was fed on garbage secured from the Univer- 
sity Dining Hall and Lot II rolled barley from a self-feeder. The 
pigs were fed over a period of four weeks. The garbage cost $25.00, 
while the pigs fed on rolled barley were given $10.66 worth of feed. 
These pigs ate an average of 19.04 pounds of rolled barley per day 
and they weighed an average of 551.4 pounds during the feedmg 
period, so that they consumed an average of 34.52 pounds of rolled 
barley per thousand pounds live weight. 

The pigs in Lot I gained a total of 227 pounds during the four 
weeks, while those fed on rolled barley gained only 97 pounds. The 
average daily gain of the pigs fed on garbage was 2.03 pounds per 
head, while those fed on rolled barley gained only .87 pounds daily. 
Although the pigs fed on garbage were fed at considerably more 
expense, yet they made much more rapid gains and cost only $10.73 
per one hundred pounds increase in live weight, while those in Lot 
II, fed rolled barley, cost $10.99. Hogs were selling on the local 
market during the period while the test was being conducted at 16 
cents per pound live weight. The profit secured from feeding the 



Arizona Agricultural Exi'Eriment Station 425 

hogs amounted to $5.27 for the pigs in Lot I, and $5.01 per 100 
pounds gain in Lot II. The pigs in both lots were vigorous and 
ate their feed with apparent relish. 

M.VRKETING HOGS DRESSED VS. SELLING THEM ALIVE. 

Eight pigs weighing a total of 1358 pounds and ranging in 
weight from 128 to 217 pounds each were offered for sale to local 
butchers. The highest bid received was 16 cents per pound, or a 
total of $217.28 without any deduction made for shrinkage. These 
pigs were maintained twelve hours without feed or water before 
killing them. They were then weighed, dressed, and allowed to 
hang over night to cool. They dressed a total of 1050 pounds, 
which was sold at 26 cents a pound, yielding a total of $273.00. A 
careful record was secured of the actual expense of dressing the 
hogs, which amounted to $1,225 per pig. At this rate the gross '■e- 
turns received for dressing the pigs amounted to $55.72, or $6,965 
per head, or a net return of $5.74 per head. 

On March 21, 1919, four hogs ranging in weight from 148 1/2 to 
208 pounds were offered to local butchers for sale. The best bid 
secured was 16>^ cents per pound live weight. As the four pigs 
weighed 697 pounds, this would amount to $115.00. The pigs were 
dressed at a cost of $1 per pig and the offal. They were then sold 
at 25 cents a pound for the dressed carcasses, yielding a gross re- 
turn of $127.62, or an increase of 12.525 cents for dressing them. 
This is an average of $3,156 per pig, or a net profit of $2,156 per 
pig for dressing them. 

The results of these two tests indicate very emphatically that 
local farmers would do well to slaughter their hogs and sell the 
dressed carcasses. 

INSTRUCTION AND EXECUTIVE WORK 
The office work in the Department has been unusually heavy 
during the past year. This work has called for the supervision of 
the livestock, planning new equipment, purchasing new animals, 
judging livestock at fairs, addressing meetings, and personal con- 
ferences with stockmen. Quite a number of articles have been pub- 
lished in technical journals and local periodicals. An initial selec- 
tion has been made of a Rambouillet buck and four ewes. 



426 TiiiK'iiETii Annual Report 

NEEDS. 

The Animal Husbandry Department has been greatly handi- 
capped due to lack of animals suitable for investigation, lack of 
land and pasture and forage crops, fences and other equipment for 
experimental purposes. The Station should have an experimental 
range consisting of at least ten sections in area, properly fenced and 
equipped. This range should be located where it will be as repre- 
sentative as possible of range conditions in the State. \\'ith such 
an area properly equipped and stocked, it would be possible to study 
fundamental problems relating to the production of livestock under 
range conditions. The methods of determining the cost of produc- 
tion can only be developed through a series of investigations involv- 
ing herds and flocks maintained on ranges under typical conditions. 
The study of increasing the carrying capacity of our ranges and the 
practical management of animals so as to make the best use of the 
forage grown is of greatest importance to stockmen in the State. 
The Department is confronted with many questions upon which it 
has no information, and it is urged that provision be made for land 
and equipment where long-time experiments may be undertaken to 
develop cheaper methods of producing animals on Arizona ranges. 



BOTANY 

J. J. TlIORXHnR 

The year ended June 30, 1919, was far from being favorable for 
the grazing industry. The rainfall for this period was considerably 
below the average throughout the State. This was particularly 
true of the summer season, the precipitation of which was scant and 
came mostly in light showers separated by dry, hot spells of from 
one to three weeks' duration. The rainfall for this twelve-month 
period at Tucson was 9.58 inches, which was proportionally greater 
than in many other parts of the State. Of this amount 3.13 inches, 
or 32.7 percent, came during the summer period, July to October 
inclusive, and 5.31 inches, or 55.4 ]jercent, during the winter and 
spring months, November tu .\pril. inclusive. The remaining 1.14 
inches fell during May and June, 1919, and was not sufficient to 
increase materially forage growth on the desert ranges. However, 
on the prairies and in the foothills at altitudes of 3500 to 6000 feet 
the rains in May were generally good and helped very much the 
growth of the perennial grasses. 

The dry summer of 1918, unfortunately, was preceded by a 
very dry winter and spring, with the result that conditions on the 
stock ranges in the winter of 1918-19 were very bad and losses were 
necessarily heavy. On many of the ranges there was practically no 
feed during the winter season, and to prevent larger losses it was 
necessary to ship stock out or feed them. This was noted in pan 
in the Annual Report for the year ending June 30, 1918. 

With some exceptions, the winter and spring rainfall through- 
out the State was nearly up to the average. Though never heavy 
at any time, the winter rains, mostly in the form of showers, con- 
tinued more or less regularly from November to May. inclusive. 
January was the driest month, with but .26 of an inch rainfall : 
while for the months of November, December, and April the rain- 
fall averaged more than one inch. One-half the winter rainfall came 
prior to February 1, during which season the temperatures are too 
low for good winter annual growth, even at the lower altitudes 
where the climate is mildest. The forage growth on the grazing 
ranges during the spring months was slightly below the average, 
but it was very timely. This, together with the favorable rains in 
May, helped very much to carry stock on the ranges until July 1, 
1919, when the summer rainy season set in heavily. 



428 Thirtieth Annual Ricport 

WORK ON POISON PLANTS 

The work on poison range plants begun last year has been con- 
tinued. The commoner poison plants in the southern and central 
parts of the State have been studied carefully, both in the field and 
by means of numerous plant collections. Data have been collected 
relative to their poisonous properties, their seasons of growth, flow- 
ering, and fruiting, and conditions favoring or discouraging their 
growth. Some work has also been done on practical means of 
eradication. In the instance of loco plants, digging seems to be 
the simplest method. The plants are invariably killed when cut 
off at the roots two to four inches below the crown. Even wherfc 
the plants are moderately abundant on grazing ranges, a consider- 
able area can be cleared by one person in a week's time with a good 
sharp hoe, or better, a spud. The latter is a tool resembling a hoe, 
but with a short, straight neck and a stout blade about two-thirds 
as wide as a common hoe. 

On the majority of grazing ranges in southern Arizona the 
loco plants grow rather scatteringly and are rarely abundant. But 
even where they are abundant on the range it is recommended that 
they be dug out. It is only necessary to dig out the larger and 
more luxuriant growing plants, since these are the ones from which 
stock eat enough of the loco forage to produce the disease. The 
smaller and weaker plants will either die out during the year or 
else grow to be large enough the following year so as to be easily 
seen. As far as possible, no loco plants should be allowed to 
mature seed, and to prevent this the cutting or digging should begin 
either before or by the time that the plants first begin to flower. 

Occasional reports of stock poisoning, apparently caused by 
plants that are not known to be poisonous, have been received 
from different localities. In some instances stockmen suspect very 
strongly certain plants as causing the trouble. Some of the plants 
that are believed to cause stock poisoning, at least at certain seasons 
of the year, are rayless golden-rod or burro weed (Bigeloicia coronopi- 
folia and B. Hartwegi), B. hctcrophylla, B. H'rightii, Baccharis ptcro- 
Hoidcs, Lupinus Kingii, and a species of Ijnum. \\'(irk now is being 
done on some of these plants. 

In the vicinity of Dewey, Arizona, during February and March, 
1919, stock were poisoned on several different occasions from eating 
bledo or careless weed (Amaranthus Palmeri) hay. This case of 
poisoning was so apparent that it could not reasonably be doubted. 
The hay was fed in racks in stock corrals, and the animals were 
healthy and in good condition. Practically all the animals that ate 



Arizona Agricultural Expkriment Station 429 

any quantity of the hay were poisoned, and the ones worst affected 
died in the corrals 6 to 15 hours afterwards. The writer examined 
very carefully a sample of the hay weighing 25 pounds and found 
it to be almost pure bledo or careless weed. There were a few 
small specimens of other common plants that are not known to be 
poisonous. These represented altogether less than one percent of 
the total weight. The Experiment Station chemist made careful 
analyses to determine if any of the commoner poisonous substances 
might be found present, but in none of the tests was even a trace 
of any poisonous substance found. Without more study it is im- 
possible to suggest the cause of this poisoning. 

Careless weed is commonly regarded as one of our best sum- 
mer annual forage plants and is invariably relished by stock, either 
as dry coarse hay or as succulent green feed. Like alfalfa, occa- 
sionally it causes bloat with stock when eaten greedily by hungry 
animals, or following a rain or heavy dew. Considerable hay is 
made from careless weed for winter roughage along the Gila, Santa 
Cruz, and San Pedro rivers in southern Arizona, and, with the ex- 
ception of the case noted above and perhaps one other at Verde, 
Arizona, it has not been known to cause poisoning with stock. 
Careless weed greens are considered a delicacy for the table in 
summer and are regarded as equal to those of good spinach. In the 
past the writer has suggested that desirable strains of bledo be 
selected and grown as a garden vegetable. 

In November, 1918, the writer made investigations concerning 
losses of stock on certain foothill ranges in southern Arizona in the 
vicinity of Douglas.These losses occur late in the fall and winter 
seasons usually following cold weather and rains and curiously 
enough the fattest animals are the ones that are usually found dead. 
Commonly two or more animals die at a time within a small radius, 
mostly at places where stock collect to rest. None of the animals 
show any evidence of struggling or violence, but usually are in 
positions indicating rest or sleep. Along with stock from other 
parts of the range, these animals drink from a tank of good water 
located in a canyon some distance below. The location where 
nearly all these animals have been found dead is a limestone hill a 
half mile or so in extent and surrounded by foothills of native rock 
which is non-calcareous. Similar losses of stock are known to have 
occurred on this hill for the past eight or ten years. The range m 
this vicinity is one of the best in southern Arizona, the forage being 
about equally divided between perennial grasses and browse, and 



430 TiiiRTiF/rii Annual Rkport 

nowhere in the State were stock observed coming through the long 
droughty period in better condition than here. 

Due in part to the character of the soil, some species of plants 
were growing on this hill that were not observed elsewhere in the 
immediate vicinity, while still other species were growing in greatei 
abundance than on soils derived from other rock formations. How- 
ever, the species were not unusual for southern Arizona conditions 
and none could be suspected of being poisonous to stock. When 
the writer visited this range no animals had died for some weeks 
and the plant growth was rather closely grazed. Any poison plants 
that might have been growing here had been grazed down so as 
not to be easily recognizable. It was suggested that until such 
time as a careful study could be made of all the conditions affecting 
the grazing on this area, at least the lower part of the hill, where 
the animals die, should be fenced to keep stock off from November 
until March, inclusive. 

The following is a list of the commoner plants growing on this 
limestone hill, as identified by the writer. The symbols, a, b, c, 
and d after the plant names, indicate as follows : a signifies abun- 
dant; b signifies common; c signifies occasional; d signifies in- 
frequent. 

( 1 ) Opinitia spinosior b (12) J'igucra cordata b 

( 2 ) Ceanothus Greggii c (13) Nofholacna sinuafa b 

(3) Cercocarpus paucidcnfafus a (14) Bontcloua curtipcndula . . .a 

( 4 ) Agave Palmcri (not (15) Artistida purpurea b 

grazed, b (16) Muhlenbergia Vaseyana. .c 

( 5 ) Briekellia IVrightii c (17) Triodia sp d 

( 6 ) Opuntia Bngelmanni c (18) Bragrostis lugens b 

(7) Garrya IVrightii c (19) Bupatorium arizonicum. . .c 

(8) Dasylirion Wheeleri b (20) Andropogon saccharoides c 

( 9 ) Andropogon eirratus a (21) Mentzelia multiflora d 

(10) I'ouquiera spJcndens c (22) Quercus Toumeyi c 

(11) Rhus coriophylla b 

Dr. Lon Durham, a government veterinarian, very kindly ac- 
companied the writer on this trip and cooperated in this study. 
Dr. Durham failed to locate any definite symptoms of stock disease 
that might be responsible for losses of these cattle and gave it as 
his opinion that the trouble was due to some poison plant, possibly 
as yet unknown as such. 

NOTES ON PLANT INTRODUCTION WORK 
A considerable number of new plant introductions, including 
trees, shrubs, and hardy flowers were set in the plant introduc- 



Arizona Acricultikal E.\im;rimi:.\t Station 431 

tion gardens at the University Campus and the University I'artn. 
Among those are inchided the following: Cuprcssits Bcnthami; C. 
mxcrocarpa; C. glabra; C. goveniana : Libdocedrns dccurrens; Junip- 
eriis sabina; J. phocnicaca; Qncrcus sitbcr; Pistascia atlantica; P. 
vera; Ulmas pmnila; Elaegnus pnngcns; Carpcntcria calif ornica; Bcr- 
beris Thunbergii; B. trifoliolata; Ceanothus thrysiHorus ; Forsythia 
suspensa; Spartcum junccum; Sophora japonica; Syringa cliincnsis 
sougeana; Phyllostachys qniloi: Diervillca florida; Tamarix algcrica: 
T. parviflora purpurea; Bonvardia triphylla: Hibiscus syriacus; 
Mesembryanthcmum arboreum; Staticc arborca : . S. pscudanncria: 
Hunnemannia fumariaefolia; Iponwea mexicana : I. Lcarii ; Pcntstc- 
mon antirrhinoides ; P. centranthif alius; P. cordatus; P. hcterophyllus; 
P. hybridus; P. spectabilis; P. IVrightii, and P. Torreyi. 

A list of trees and other ornamental plants was selected and 
planted at the Experiment Station dry-farm, Cochise, Arizona, the 
altitude of which is about 4000 feet. Another list was made for 
planting at the Tempe Date Orchard, Tenipe, Arizona. The plants 
for the date palm orchard were selected with reference to alkali 
resistant qualities. 

STUDIES OF GRASSES AND GRASS LIKE PLANTS 
The writer gave most of the summer season of 1918 to field 
studies of our native grasses and other forage plants of the central 
and northern parts of the State, with a view to secure as much prac- 
tical information as possible relative to the abundance, distribution, 
life history, and grazing value of these plants. A part of the fall 
season was spent in a similar study of the forage plants on the bet- 
ter class of ranges in southern Arizona. This season was peculiarly 
interesting, since in many localities on account of the shortage of 
grass, stock were subsisting largely on browse. 

During the early months of the school year, one-half of the 
writer's time was taken ud with instruction work, including classes 
in botany in the University and in physiology and hygiene in the 
S. A. T. C. Following the abrupt close of the S. A. T. C. work with 
the signing of the armistice, the writer began a study of the plants 
of the Juncaceae or Bog-rush family and of the Cyperaceae or Sedge 
family, both families of which are fairly well represented in oui 
State. This latter was completed with the exception of the genus 
Carex, the plant collections of Arizona of which are too incomplete 
to make possible a satisfactory study. Although Bog-rushes and 
Sedges are not grasses, they resemble grasses and in their growth 
are usually associated with grasses, and besides they are of eco- 



432 Thirtieth Anntal Rki'Ort 

nomic value to the stockman chiefly because of their forage pro- 
duction. 

The remainder of the year, beginning with January, 1919, was 
divided between instruction in the University, which included two- 
fifths time, and investigation work in the Experiment Station, in- 
cluding the plant introduction and poison plant work already noted 
and the beginning of a comprehensive economic study of our 
grasses. 



DAIRY HUSBANDRY 

\V. S. Cunningham 



The Dairy Department was organized about November 1, 1918, 
the dairy work being separated from the Department of Animal 
Husbandry at that time. Much of the year was spent in adjusting 
conditions in the department, so that little experimental work was 
done. 

Records were kept of the milk and fat production for the year 
and the results are given in Table VII. 

TAI5LK VII. — YIELDS OP* DAIRY COWS AT UNIVERSITY EARM , 1918-19 



.Name of cow 



Days dry 

before 

calving 



Days 

milk 



yield ill pound - 



Milk 



Butter- 
fat 



Princess of Chewanbeek 

Childeberte 

*Gipsy Draconis 

Myrtle of Nogales 

Arizona s Butter Girl. . . 
Average 



Jersey 



29 
66 

n 

53 



360 
338 
365 
260 
260 
316 



Belle Liscomb de Kol 2d 
Josephine Arizona Maid 
Moensje Jesse Aspirante 

Theresa Belle. 3rd 

Josephine Ariz. Maid II 

Madison Martha, 2d 

Miss Pell Pietertje 

Johanna Madison 

Pauline 

Theresa Belle De Vrier 
tMolly Artis Pontiac 

Mercedes 

Theresa Belle Monona.. 

Average 



Holstein Friesian 



11 


365 


89 


365 


88 


365 


66 


264 





360 


65 


349 


131 


365 


113 


365 


58 


365 




363 





282 



8.294.1 
6,364.3 
9,452.8 
6,481.3 
4.676.4 
7,053.8 



399.5 
366.3 

418.3 
267.8 
275.3 
345.5 



10,344.3 
14,136.3 
13,423.2 
11,350.2 
7,458.4 
11,679.0 
10,750.8 

11,106.5 
11,066.9 

6,275.2 

3,820.1 

10,128,3 



330.2 
408.7 
416.5 
362.0 
241.0 
336.3 
392.4 

287.8 
357.2 

189.2 
130.1 
313.8 



m 'A 

> D 
<J-2 



4.74 
5.75 
4.42 
4.13 

5.88 
4.89 



3.19 
2.88 
3.10 
3.19 
3.23 
2.89 
3.65 

2.59 
3.22 

3.01 
3.40 
3.09 



♦Died December 29. 1919. 
tSold. 

DAIRY CATTLE FEEDING EXPERIMENT 

In the spring of 1918 an experiment was conducted to deter- 
mine the value of cottonseed cake as a supplement to alfalfa hay 
and silage, for milk production. The results of that experiment 
were not what was expected since the most unbalanced ration of 
alfalfa hay and cottonseed cake gave the best results, both in quan- 
tity of milk produced and in net profits. 



434 TlIlRTIKTII AXNI'AL REPORT 

Another experiment was planned and conducted along the same 
line so as to be a check on the first experiment. Some few changes 
were made in that cottonseed meal was substituted for cottonseed 
cake and the amounts of all feeds were increased. In addition to 
the regular ration of alfalfa hay, silage and cottonseed meal, rolled 
barley was given to those cows producing more milk than was 
provided for in the regular ration. 

RATIONS 

All of the rations were figured so that each lot received the 
same nutrients according to the amount of milk ])roduced. 

The rations used were as follows : 

Ration 1. Alfalfa hay, 22 lbs. Silage, 45 lbs. 

Ration 2. Alfalfa hay, 30 lbs. Cottonseed meal, 4 lbs. 

Ration 3. Alfalfa hay, 15 lbs. Cottonseed meal, 4 lbs., and 
silage, 45 lbs. 

In addition to the above rations, the Holstein cows were fed 
one pound of rolled barley for each three pounds of milk produced 
over 30 pounds daily, while the Jerseys were fed one pound of rolled 
barley to each three pounds of milk over 25 pounds. 

cows 
Nine cows were used in the test. All of these cows were giv- 
ing a fairly good flow of milk and none of them was about to go 
dry. They were divided into three lots of three cows each. The 
lots were balanced as well as possible in regard to breed, period of 
lactation, and quantity of milk given. To overcome any differences 
in the above points and in individuality, the lots were changed to 
different rations each month. In interpreting results, the rations 
and production have been calculated for three periods collectively 
and no attempt has been made to draw conclusions for any one 
period. 

The cows were divided into lots as follows : 

Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3 

.Mrir-arct I)c Kol Johanna Miss Pell Pieterje Madison Martlia TI 

Johanna Madison Pauline Pclle Liscomh De Kol II Arizona Maid 2nd 

Arizona Butter Girl Gipsy Draconis Princess 

PLAN OK FRODING 

The plan of feeding was as follows : 

1st period Lot I was fed Ratitm 1 

Lot II " " " 2 

Lot III " " " 3 



.Vkizo.na .\(;kicultur.\l Eximckimknt St.ktiox 



435 



2ncl period 


Lot 1 was fed Ration 2 




Lot II " " " 3 




Lot III " " " 1 


3rd period 


Lot I was fed Ration 3 




Lot II " " " 1 



Lot III 



DURATION 01' TEST 

The test was divided into three ])cri()ds of fovir weeks each. 
One week was allowed between each ])eriod for the changing of 
rations. 

The first period began November 18th, A. M. 

The first period ended December 15th, P. M. 

The second period began December 23rd, A. M. 

The second i)eriod ended January 20th, P. M. 

The third period began January 28th, A. M. 

The third period ended February 25th, P. M. 

The summary of milk and butterfat produced by cows while on 
each of the three rations is given in table : 

SUMM.\RY Ol' MILK AND FAT PRODUCED 



Rations 


Total milk 
Poiindi 


yioki 


Total fat yield 
Pounds 


Number days 
in test 


Ration 1 

Ration 2 

Ration 3 


6084.8 
6776.2 
6675.1 




238.05 
237.95 
250.07 


84 
84 
84 



During the 84 days of the test, the production for ration 1 was 
6084.8 pounds of milk and 238.05 pounds of fat ; for ration 2, 6776.2 
pounds of milk and 237.95 pounds of fat; and for ration 3, 6675.1 
pounds of milk and 250.07 pounds of fat. Ration 2 caused the larg- 
est production of milk while ration 3 produced the inost fat. 

The following table shows the feed cost of milk and fat pro- 
duced with feeds at the prices prevailing at the time the experiment 
was started, and the profit over feed-cost obtained from the inilk 
valued at 30 cents per gallon : 

COST OE PRODUCTION AND PROFIT OVER FEED COST 



Rations 



Ration 1 
Ration 2. 
Ration 3. 



C3st of 
feed 

Dinars 

115.44 
123.84 
126.21 



Feed cos^ 

per gallon 

of m,ilk 

Cents 



16.6 
16.1 
16.8 



Feed co jl 

per pound 

fat 

Ce>its 



4R.3 
54.4 
51.7 



Value o. 

milk @ 

30c gallon 

Dollars 

212 2? 

236.34 
232.83 



Front 
over feed 

Dollars 

Q'^7S 
112.50 

106.62 



436 Thirtieth Annual Report 

Feeds were priced as follows : Alfalfa hay, $25 per ton ; silage, 
$9 per ton ; cottonseed meal, $45 per ton ; barley, $60 per ton. 

Ration 2 consisting of alfalfa hay and cottonseed meal proved 
to be the most economical ration for milk production while ration 1 
consisting of alfalfa hay and silage proved to be the most economi- 
cal producer of fat. 

With milk valued at 30 cents per gallon ration 2 gave $15.72 
more profit over feed cost than ration 1 and $5.88 more than ration 3. 

The results of this test would indicate that for short periods 
of time a very narrow ration can be fed with satisfactory results. 
However, on account of the common opinion among stockmen that 
rations containing a great excess of proteins afifect the breeding 
qualities and general health of animals if fed to them for a long 
period of time, such narrow rations as alfalfa hay and cottonseed 
meal should be fed with caution. 



ENTOMOLOGY 

C. T. VORHIES 

The chief activity of this department during the summer and 
autumn months of the year 1918-1919 lay in continuing the investi- 
gations planned and begun the previous year on grazing range 
rodents, with special reference to the Large Kangaroo Rat, Dipoaomys 
spectahilis. The chief base of operations for this work is on the U. S. 
Range Reserve on the northwest slope of the Santa Rita Mountains. 
Difficulties in securing some of the fencing materials needed, and 
also in securing labor when wanted, owing to war conditions, de- 
layed the completion of the fences for the experimental areas until 
late autumn. It was expected, when plans were made", to have these 
fences finished by July, 1918, in time for the summer growing sea- 
son. However, the summer rains of that year were so scanty that 
practically no grass growth occurred on the selected areas, but the 
delay in fencing did not afYect the course of the experiments, which 
were in many phases postponed one year by the unfavorable season. 
Life-history and ecological studies of the Large Kangaroo Rat, and 
to some extent of the Merriam Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys merriami), 
and of the jack rabbits and occasionally of other rodents, were con- 
tinued throughout the year, resulting in the securing of considerable 
valuable data. 

The fencing was finally completed in November, 1918, with 
the assistance of two University professors while the University 
was closed on account of the influenza epidemic. Approximately 
eight hundred dollars were expended by the Forest Service in ma- 
terials and construction of these fences under the cooperative agree- 
ment whereby the U. S. Forest Service, the U. S. Biological Survey, 
the Carnegie Institution, and the University of Arizona Experiment 
Station are working on this grazing range project. 

As opportunity offered, the department also carried on the 
work of building up the collection of Arizona insects. Two steel 
cabinets containing four dozen Schmitt boxes were secured in which 
to house the collection. Some investigation of the distribution of 
the Arizona wild cotton (Thurberia thespcsioides) and of the native 
boll weevil which lives upon it was conducted during the year. 
This was undertaken with reference to the possible future bearing 
of the results upon the extension of the area of cultivated cotton up 
the Santa Cruz and Rillito valleys. 



438 Thirtieth Annual Report 

In April, 1919, specimens of a small beetle were received from 
Mr. C. J. Wood of the Mesa Experiment Farm with the report that 
they were destroying cotton by feeding just below the surface of 
the soil on the seedlings as they were emerging from the ground. 
So large a percentage of the cotton in one experimental half-acre 
was thus destroyed as to make replanting necessary. This particu- 
lar half-acre was being tested with cottonseed meal as a fertilizer, 
and the assumption was that the fertilizing material was attractive 
to the beetles. The pests were most numerous in this plot and a 
quantity was taken for feeding tests. These tests, while not con- 
clusive, indicated the probable correctness of the above assumption. 
The beetles fed readily on crushed cotton seeds and particularly on 
the lint remaining with the seeds before any seeds had germinated 
or where no young plants were present. When young plants ap- 
peared they seemed to attack them only in part and as a sort of 
change or variation of diet. Irrigation of the affected area of soil 
was effective in preventing damage to the replanting, and is there- 
fore suggested as the proper control measure. This pest is a small 
dark brown to black beetle, oblong, and between three-sixteenths 
and one-fourth of an inch long. It is provisionally classified as 
Blapstinns pimalis. 

The corn stalk borer mentioned in the Twenty-ninth Annual 
Report has been identified as Diatraea lineola, a species not hitherto 
recorded as an economic insect. It is, however, so closely allied to 
the larger corn stalk borer of the East (Diatraea zeacolella) , and its 
habits and life history appear to parallel that pest so closely, that for 
all practical purposes it may be regarded as the same. 

During the year the department moved into new quarters m 
the Agriculture Building, thus securing adequate space for its pres- 
ent activities, but with only the most meager equipment. Funds 
for this fiscal year did not permit the immediate remedying of this 
weakness, and while in the end the change will result in great 
benefit to our work, it placed a certain temporary handicap thereon, 
which it is expected will be largely removed in the next fiscal year. 



HORTICULTURE 

F. J. Crider, a. F. KixNisoN 



The activities of the Department of Horticulture in matters of 
the Experiment Station have consisted largely in foundational 
work on projects as outlined in last year's report and in broadening 
the general scope of work so as to better serve the horticultural 
interests of the State. It is believed that good progress has been 
made and that conditions are favorable for greater growth and 
service. The lines of work pursued fall naturally into three main 
divisions — Pomology, Olericulture, and Ornamental Gardening. 

POMOLOGY 
A ten-acre orchard composed of 400 varieties of the leading 
fruits was started at the Salt River Valley Experiment Station 
Farm during the past spring and a three-acre orchard at the Uni- 
versity Farm. Also additional plantings were made at the Yuma 
Date Orchard and Horticultural Station. These plantings are for 
the purpose of determining the relative value of varieties and to 
serve as a basis for experimentation in other phases of orchard 
culture. The trees have made a remai-kably good growth, and in 
the case of the fig and jujube have set a few fruits. The older plant- 
ings at the Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Station and at 
thePrescott and Cochise Stations have reached a stage of growth 
where they should in a short time give some results, particularly in 
the matter of variety comparison. It is planned to enlarge the 
orchards at these stations next year. 

DATES 

The behavior of varieties of dates during the past season was 
interesting as compared with the previous year in that the weather 
conditions were entirely different. The season of 1918 was almost 
ideal for date ripening, which made it possible for every bearing 
variety to mature a maximum crop, whereas the rainy weather of 
the past season developed the fact, as has been shown in previous 
years, that there is a great variation in the adaptability of varieties 
to moist conditions. At the Tempe Orchard the Rhars variety was 
almost a total failure due to souring, which was brought about by 
the wet weather. The Deglet Noor was very badly affected by 
fungus spots at the Tempe Orchard, but at the Yuma Orchard 
where the rain was less a reasonably good quality date was pro- 



440 



Thirtieth Annual Re;port 



duced. Even in the Yuma Valley, however, there is too much 
moisture present to- produce ideal dates of this variety. The 
Hayany maintained its established record for withstanding ad- 
verse weather conditions ; also Bentkabala, Nesheem, Nazi al Bacha, 
Tennessim, and Tadala suffered very little damage. 

In this connection it is believed that other districts of the State 
having less rainfall and lower humidity would prove better adapted 
to date production. For further experimentation along this line 
plantings will be made on the Yuma Mesa (w^here the relative 
humidity is probably lower than in any other part of the State) and 
in portions of the Salt River Valley next to the foothills. 

In view of the detailed statement in the Twenty-ninth Annual 
Report of yields at the Tempe and Yuma Orchards, it is thought 
that this feature might be eliminated and only the total number of 
trees, yields and returns given, as indicated in Table VIII. 

TABLE VIII. YIELDS AND RETURNS FROM THE TEMPE AND YUMA DATE 

ORCHARDS 



Orchard ^o. bear- 
ing trees 


Total yield ^,£]^ 
in pounds pounds 


Total 
returns 


Avg. returns 
per tree 


Tempc 

Yuma 


307 
120 


17,107 55 

8,938 62 


4531.16 
3C00.C0 


14.77 
20.77 



In the case of rooted palms used in filling vacancies at the 
Tempe Orchard last year, a rather large percentage have started 
into growth. This is interesting from the fact that the soil here 
is extremely alkaline and it was feared that the young offshoots 
could not survive such a condition. As a precaution against the 
action of salts, however, about a cubic yard of sweet soil was 
placed in the tree holes at the time of planting and a heavy straw 
mulch applied on the surface to prevent the rise of alkali. It is 
believed that the entire setting of offshoots would otherwise have 
been lost. 

The results in propagating the date have not been as satisfac- 
tory as was anticipated, but it is thought that the difficulty has been 
located and that future efforts will be atended with greater success. 
It is planned to propagate the present available offshoot crop from 
both the Tempe and Yuma Orchards on the Yuma Mesa, where the 
conditions of climate and soil are most favorable for such work. 

CITRUS 

Citrus investigations in methods of culture, including fertilizer 
and orchard cover crop tests, have been conducted as outlined in 



Akizona AcKicri/nR ai. Rxi'Kkimknt Station 441 

last year's report. While no detinite results have been secured, 
quite a difference in the behavior of summer orchard cover crops 
was noted on the Yuma Mesa. The lack of a sufficient water sup- 
ply prevented the planting of large areas, but small plots of cow- 
peas, garavanza, tepary beans, peanuts, and velvet beans were used. 
The cowpeas proved far superior, making a larger growth and 
withstanding drouth to a greater degree than any of the other 
crops. In the matter of ground-cover during summer the peanuts 
ranked next to the cowpeas. The velvet beans made very little 
growth during summer, but grew rapidly in early fall, climbing onto 
the trees to the extent of precluding their use as an orchard cover 
crop. A notable feature in connection with the experiment is the 
fact that the orchard cover crops grew on absolutely virgin soil, 
the land between the tree rows not having been cultivated or irri- 
gated previous to the planting of the crops. 

Variety plantings of citrus were made at the Salt River Valley 
Farm and the Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Station during 
the past spring; also plantings to determine the best methods of 
pruning the Washington Navel Orange and Marsh Seedless Grape- 
fruit. 

With the added land and equipment for citrus investigation 
that is now available it will be possible to broaden the citrus inves- 
tigational work very materially next year. 

NEW FRUITS 

With a view towards testing the value of fruits other than the 
standard sorts, a number of the newer kinds that show promise are 
being tested at the Salt River Valley Farm, the University Farm, 
and at the Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Station. Among 
these are white sapote, jujube, feijoa, avocado, guava, paw paw, and 
hovenia dulcis. The sapote, feijoa, and jujube made a most satis- 
factory growth during the past season, having withstood a winter 
temperature of twenty degrees at Tucson. The avocado trees were 
badly acected by the hot, dry weather of summer and another 
attempt will be made to grow them by supplying temporary shade 
during the season of severest heat. 

In this connection an introduction garden has been established 
at the Y^ima Date Orchard and Horticultural Station where new 
varieties of fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants from the De- 
partment of Agriculture and other sources will be tested. 



442 Tiiiki]i:Tii Annual Kkpokt 

OLERICULTURE 

Effort was made to maintain an all-the-year family garden at 
each of the; sub-stations except the Tempe Date Orchard, where soil 
conditions are not satisfactory for general gardening. 

Best results along this line were attained at the Yuma Date 
Orchard and Horticultural Station where it was found possible to 
produce vegetables throughout the entire winter as well as a few 
during the hottest portion of summer. Among the less frequently 
grown vegetables that are being tested are roselle, Chinese cabbage, 
Chinese mustard, and chayote. 

IRISH POTATO 

During the year plantings of one of the standard varieties .of 
potatoes, the Early White Rose, were made at intervals of everv 
two weeks at the Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Station 
to determine the best time of planting. The highest yield was from 
plantings made the middle of January and the second highest yield 
from plantings made the first of February. November and Decent 
ber plantmgs were very promising until the plants were killed by 
a cold spell of weather in January. 

Potatoes planted at Yuma during the latter part of the summer 
were a failure, the seed having rotted in the ground due to high soil 
temperature. However, the same variety, the Lookout Mountain, 
at Tucson gave promising yields for the season. Table IX shows 
the result of this test. 

TABLE IX. — LATE SUMMER PLANTINGS OF THE) LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN 
VARIETY OF POTATO 



Planting date 



Average yield per hill , Yield per acre 



June 1 

July 6 

Augrst 1 . . . . 
September 16 



.24 lb. I 3528 lbs. 

.33 lb. 3S57 lbs. 

.32 lb. 4704 lbs. 

.27 lb. 3969 lbs. 



A variety test with some of the leading varieties of Irish po- 
tato was made at the Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Station. 
The yields secured in this test are shown in Table X. All the varie- 
ties were planted on the same date, February 5th. 



Arizona Agkicultukal Exi'i:uimi:xt Station 443 

TABLE X. — VARirrV VIKLD 01" IRISH POTATO 
Variety Avera!?o yielil per hill Yield per acre 

Mammoth Pearl 1.00 lb. 14.508 lbs. 

Karlv Si.x Weeks 1.12 1b. 16.611 lbs. 

Rural New Yorker .79 lb. 11.539 lbs. 

Earliest of All .60 lb. 9,995 lbs. 

FlafrstafF Red .70 1b. 10.613 lbs. 

Producer ..>^ 1'-. 7><'<' l^s 

Karlv Rose .50 lb. 7.438 lbs. 

Bliss Triumph .60 lb. 9.759 lbs. 

White Rose .65 lb. 9.672 lbs. 

Downing .75 11). 11.157 lbs. 

Burbank .87 lb. 13.009 lbs. 

Pride of Multanomah .37 lb. 5.5% lbs. 

Snow .83 lb. 12.465 lbs. 

Hoosier .22 lb. 3,163 lbs. 

Storage tests as outlined in last year's report were continued 
in an effort to find a satisfactory method of carrying the spring 
crop of potatoes through the summer. Best results were secured 
from the method in which the potatoes were spread out thinly on 
the ground under an open shed, and next to this the method in 
which the potatoes were spread out in thin layers in slatted bins. 
The percentage of loss in the first-named method did not exceed 
5 percent; in the latter method the loss was about 10 percent. 
Sound potatoes from these tests will be used for planting next 
spring. The potato studies will be broadened next year tn include 
fertilizer and spraying tests in the potato districts of northern Ari- 
zona. Also seed potatoes produced in the northern ])art of the 
State will be tested for yield and quality in the other potato districts. 

SWEET POT.VTO 

Commercial storage tests with the sweet potato were conducted 
in which adobe houses were used as a means of storage. Two 
houses were utilized for the experiment, one constructed esi)ecially 
for storage purposes, and the other an old adobe converted into a 
storage house. Five thousand pounds of potatoes were placed in 
each house and an effort made to maintain a temperature of 85 to 90 
degrees during the first two weeks of storage and 55 to 60 degrees 
during the remainder of the storage period. On the whole, the re- 
sults were very satisfactory. In one house, where a uniform size 
potato was used and where the temperature was allowed to vary 
but little from the standard set, no spoilage whatever developed. 
In the other house, where the potatoes were not graded (extremely 
large and very small sizes being mixed together), a rather large 
percentage of spoilage resulted. While these tests will be con 
tinned, it is believed that, by the exercise of care in grading and 



444 



TiiiRTiKTii Annual RitPoKi 



handling and the regulation of temperature, the adobe house will 
prove a most satisfactory method of commercial sweet potato 
storage. 

SPINACH 

Cultural tests with spinach, as outlined in last year's report, 
were conducted at the Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Sta- 
tion which included variety tests, methods of planting and different 
planting dates. The results are shown in Tables XI and XX. 

TABLE XI. YIELD PER VARIETY WITH REGARD TO TIME OF PLANTING 



Planting date 



Varieties 



Victoria 



Savoy 



Lona; I Prickly Winter 

Standing 



Oct. IS.. 
Oct. 29.. 
Nov. 12. 
Nov. 26. 
Dec. 10.. 
Dec. 24.. 



139 lbs. 

89^ lbs. 

68 lbs. 

273/^ lbs. 

84^^ lbs. 

90 lbs. 



21214 lbs. 
12734 lbs. 
124 lbs. 
%y2 lbs. 
151 lbs. 
204!^ lbs. 



UOVj lbs. 
1141^ lbs. 
109 lbs. 
61 lbs. 
105 lbs. 
1171/ lbs. 



169 lbs. 

941/2 lbs. 

170^ lbs. 

UVA lbs. 

130 lbs. 

176'/ lbs. 



TABLE XII. — YIELD PER VARIETY WITH REG.XRD TO METHOD OF PLANTIN*; 



Method of planting 


Varieties 


Victoria 


Savoy 


Lonsr 
StardiPg 


IPrickly Winter 


Level row 

Furrow 


155 lbs. 
2C034 lbs. 
143 lbs. 


26U4 lbs. 
314^4 lbs. 
340i< lbs. 


175 lbs. 
266^^ lbs. 
2C6 lbs. 


322 lbs. 
236^ lbs. 
263 1^ lbs. 


Bed 



TOMATO 

Tests with twenty-six varieties of tomatoes were conducted 
at the Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Station with a view 
towards determining the bearing season and yield. The restilts arc 
shown in Table XHI. 



Arizona Agricultural Experimknt Station 



445 



TABLE XIII. VARIETY TEST WITH TOMATOES SHOWING BEARING SEASON 

AND YIELD 



Variety 



Bearing season 



June Pink 

Tex-Seed Black Land.... 

Burbank 

.'\cnie 

Redfield Beauty 

Clark s Triumph 

Stone 

Chalk's Early Jewel 

Livingston's Cureless 

Truckers' Favorite 

Tex-Seed Beauty 

Texseed McCk'c 

Spark's Earliajia 

Livingston's (ilobe 

Bonny Best. 

Trophy 

Golden Ponderosa 

Matchless 

Red Rock 

Ponderosa 

Earlibell . . . .' 

Livingston's Dwarf Stone. 

Dwarf Champion 

Phoenix Special 

Early Detroit 



June 

June 

June 

June 

June 

June 

June 

June 

July 

July 

June 

June 

June 

July 

June 

June 

Jily 

Jrly 

July 

July 

June 

June 

June 

July 
June 



12-Aug. 
16- Aug. 
24- Aug. 
30-Aug. 
24- Aug. 
24-Aug. 
30-Aug. 
24-Aug. 

5-Aug. 

5-Aug. 
30-Aug. 
16-Aug. 
16-Aug, 
16-Aug. 
24-Aug. 
24-Aug. 

5-Aug. 

5-Aug. 

5-Aug. 

9-Aug. 
24-Aug. 
30-Au^. 
24-Aug. 
14-Autr. 
30-July 



1 

7 

1 
16 

7 
16 

7 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 

7 

16 
16 

7 

16 
16 
16 

7 
16 

7 

26 
16 
25 



Season of great- [ 


Yield 


est ripening 




per acre 


luly 


5-July 


23 


37,338 


June 


30-July 


14 


34,873 


June 


30-July 


18 


26,480 


July 


5-July 


18 


24,767 


Julv 


14-July 


25 


24,592 


Julv 


9- July 


18 


24,342 


July 


5-July 


18 


22,487 


Tulv 


5-July 


14 


22,225 


Juh 


14-July 


28 


21,348 


Tulv 


9-July 


18 


21,336 


Julv 


9-July 


19 


21,336 


Tulv 


30-July 


14 


21,336 


Tulv 


5-July 


16 


20,446 


Tulv 


16-Aug. 


1 


19,402 


Tulv 


9-July 


16 


16,891 


1 Tulv 


9-July 


18 


16,002 


1 Tulv 


14-July 


28 


16,002 


Tulv 


18-July 


28 


15,897 


Tulv 


14-July 


28 


15,897 


Tulv 


14-July 


25 


15,365 


Tulv 


5-July 


9 


12,157 


Tulv 


9-July 


16 


12,157 


' Julv 


5-July 


14 


11,379 


1 Tulv 


16-Aug. 


1 


7,948 


Julv 


9-July 


14 


6,078 



ORNAMENTAL GARDENING 
Plans have been prepared for beautifying- the grounds at the 
different branch stations and execution of the designs begun at the 
Tempe Date Orchard, Cochise Dry-farm, Salt River Valley Farm, 
and Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Station. These plant- 
ings furnish opportunity for determining the adaptability of various 
species of shade trees, shrubbery and flowers to conditions in the 
different sections of the State. The new greenhouse and adjaceat 
grounds on the University Campus will furnish additional oppor- 
tunity for work in ornamental gardening. 

MISCELLANEOUS 
Considerable time was required of the Horticulturist in the 
general supervision of w^ork at the Tempe Date Orchard and the 
Yuma Date Orchard and Horticultural Station as well as in start- 
ing the citrus investigational work on the Yuma Mesa. It was also 
necessary for both the Horticulturist and Assistant Horticulturist 
to spend a rather large portion of their time in the interest of hor- 
ticultural extension. In addition to regular project work in exten- 
sion service, numbers of trips were made to different parts of the 
State to assist in special field problems. More than five hundred 



446 Thirtieth Annual RiCport 

letters were written in answer to inquiries concerning different 
phases of horticultural work. 

Very valuable service was rendered the department during 
the year by the foremen of the different branch stations in the 
careful execution of work as outlined. 



IRRIGATION INVESTIGATIONS 

G. E. P. Smith, \V. E. Code 

In November, 1918, this office was strengthened by the appoint- 
ment of W. E. Code as Assistant Engineer. The position had been 
vacant for eighteen months, owing to the Great War. In Jnnc. 
1919, H. C. Schwalen was added to the staff in order to assist in 
the extensive investigations in the San Simon \'alley and to carry 
on extension service work relating to pumping for irrigation. 

THE CAS A GRANDE VALLEY 

Conditions have been favorable for continued study o; the 
groundwater supply. Unusually heavy rainfall has aided in the 
investigations of recharge and the large acreage under i)ump irri- 
gation, 5200 acres, has made possible definite conclusions on the 
effect of pumping on the groundwater table. The rapid develop- 
ment of the valley agriculturally has added interest in the con- 
clusions to be drawn from these studies. 

Surface runoff measurements have been made with more preci- 
sion than in any previous year. The river discharges at Tucson 
for the year 1919 were 42,200 acre-feet for the Rillito and 28,700 
acre-feet for the Santa Cruz. The discharge at Sasco was 57,200 
acre-feet, 10,500 acre-feet of which was from the Robles Wash. 
The loss, therefore, by seepage between Tucson and Sasco was 
24,200 acre-feet plus the flow from Canada del Oro and a few small 
tributaries. Of this flow, 6,800 acre-feet reached the Southern 
Pacific Railroad at Eloy and 7,900 acre-feet at Lirim and Mari- 
copa, representing a loss of 42,500 acre-feet between Sasco and the 
railroad. 

A large percentage of the water that passed Eloy did not reach 
the Gila River. On two occasions when floods of considerable 
magnitude passed Eloy the water did not reach to the main high- 
way leading east from Casa Grande. 

The Santa Rosa Wash which drains a large area to the south, 
debouches upon the Casa Grande Valley at a point 14 miles south- 
west of Casa Grande. The waters of this wash spread over the 
valley and the flow crosses the Southern Pacific Railroad near 
Maricopa. The flows are intermittent and usually of short dura- 
tion, bat it is thought that they have some value in replenishing 
the ground w^aters on the western side of the valley. During dry 
vears the run-off is practically negligible. 



448 Thirtieth Annual Report 

The U. S. Indian Service, through the agency of an employee, 
has been keeping flood data at Cockleburr for several years. During 
1919 there were three summer floods and one winter flood. It is 
estimated from the records that not over 6,000 acre-feet entered the 
valley and from records taken at the railroad culverts it is thought 
that about one-sixth of this amount passed the railroad. 

Water table fluctuations have been greatest along the north 
margin of the valley, representing the extensive recharge due to 
floods in the Gila River. Considerable variations of water level 
have been found in the vicinity of areas irrgated by flood waters 
from the Gila, and some effects noted have been due to seepage 
froin the Florence Canal. Some erratic fluctuations of the water 
table west of Casa Grande can be explained by the character of 
the buried topography, which includes a long flat hill of volcanic 
rock. 

The depression of the water table due to pumping operations 
has been most marked between Casa Grande and the Casa Grande 
Ruins, the greatest being near the Tweedy and W. S. Prouty 
ranches. The average depression for the season was about one 
foot. The recovery during the fall and winter has been complete 
over about two-thirds of the area of depression. 

A group of water-table records is shown in Fig. 4. The Vas- 
quez well is situated about three miles south of Casa Grande, the 
Elliott well two miles west of Casa Grande, the Ward well just 
below the Florence reservoir, the Bigelow well near the center 
of the main pumping area, and the Munk well a mile south of the 
Gila River. 

Some determinations of the quality of the well waters have 
been made for comparison with former records. In some cases the 
alkalinity has changed slightly, but in general the composition of 
the soluble contents has remained practically constant. 

Progress has been made on the negotiations with the United 
States Department of the Interior with a view to storing and 
utilizing the floodwaters of the Gila River. It is hoped that the 
project of the United States Indian Service for building a diversion 
dam at Sacaton will be abandoned in favor of the pro])osed diver- 
sion dam fourteen miles upstream from Florence. The Sacaton 
dam would be very costly, would be difflcult to maintain, and 
would serve a comparatively small acreage. The Florence dam 
would be only one-fifth as long as the Sacaton dam, would be tied 
to bedrock except for about 200 feet in mid-channel, and would 
serve the lands of both Indian and American farmers equally well. 



Arizona Agricultural Expkrimknt Station 



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1 


1 ' 


V 


X 




/ 


V 


^, 




/ 












■* 


— 


-^ 












r 


■^ 


L 










1 




\ 


<y 






s 


/ 






















"^^ 






i 


f 




V JO 






1 1 : 












































J 


















[ 












































































1 




MUMK 






_j 























Fig. 4. — "Water table 
years. The dotted 



fluctuations in the Casa Grande Va'ley over a period of five 
curves are for periods when no records were obtained. 



450 



Thirtieth Annual Rki'ort 



The stream flow records to 1917 have been published in pre- 
vious reports. Table XIV completes the record to 1920. 

TABLE XIV. — RUN-OFF RECORDS FOR SANTA CRUZ AND RILLITO RIVERS, 

1917, 1918, AND 1919 



Month 



Santa 
Cruz at 
Tucson 



1917 

January . 
February 
March '. . 
April . . . 
May .... 
Tune .... 

July 

August . . 
September 
October . 
November 
December 



TOTAL 



1918 
January . 
February 
March ". . 
April ... 
May .... 
Tune .... 

July 

August . . 
September 
October . 
November 
December 



TOTAL 









n 



8,5^0 

10,5C0 

9,410 









Rillito 

near 

Tucson 



L720 

274 

8 




5.110 

2,840 

643 









Santa 

Cruz at 

Sasco 



28,500 



10,595 



262 



n 







19,8C0 

ii,2ro 

8,290 



u 



39.552 





32 
14 





73 

225 

4,620 


22 
~0 
79 



5,070 





7 

*7,820 



4,260 

488 

147 

7 



39 
6 
5 



118 






915 

5.610 

1.C50 





lf6 









182 
279 


(: 
4 



No record 
No record 
No record 
No record 
No record 
No record 
No record 
No record 
No record 
N'o record 
No record 
No record 



12,779 



7.799 



465 



Culverts 


Culverts 


Culvert 


near 


near 


at 


E!oy 


Lirim 


Maricopa 


























































362 


528 


455 




172 


454 



































909 


362 


700 



1919 














January . . . 





13 














February . . 





815 














i\Tarch .... 





332 














April 





65^ 














May 




















Tune 




















July 


15.5CO 


31, ceo 


37,5C0 


4,920 


1,510 


6,60C 


August .... 


9,920 


4,160 


12,3C0 


1,470 


1,360 


3,960 


September . 


2,1^0 


467 


2,210 


84 








October . . . 








312 











November . 


592 


2.010 


3,790 


292 


1,700 


t 


December . 


480 


2,770 


726 


46 


1,770 


i 


TOTAL . 


28.682 


42,235 


57,238 


6,812 


6,340 




*Estima 


ed. 













fNo recorrt. 



Akizdna Ac.uruutlkal Expicrimicnt Station 451 

THE SAN SIMON V ALLEY 

By special act of the Fourth Legislature, an appropriation was 
made for water supply investigations in Cochise County. The 
largest item in the appropriation is for an artesian test Avell in the 
San Simon Valley; and inasmuch as the artesian water supply is 
closely related to the other sources of supply, it seemed wise to 
concentrate the investigations in that valley until the principal 
problems were solved. 

The artesian wells of the valley have been visited, and the 
pressures and discharges have been measured for comparison with 
previous measurements. Attention has been given also to the 
shallow-well water supplies. The valley and surrounding moun- 
tains have been searched for reservoir sites, and the two best loca- 
tions so far found have been surveyed with a view to their use as 
storage reservoirs. 

In order to study the surface run-off, gaging stations have 
been established on San Simon Creek, and on six of the creeks 
issuing from the Chiricahua Mountains. 

The drilling of the artesian well has been deferred, partly in 
the hope that the well of the U. S. Oil & Refining Co. would prog- 
ress rapidly and would indicate the formations likely to be encoun- 
tered in the State test w^ell, and partly in the belief that the price 
of well casing would be reduced. Specifications for the test well 
have been prepared and bids for drilling the well will be asked 
at once. 

THE STATE WATER CODE 

As a sequel to Circular No. 11 of the College of Agriculture, 
Circular No. 26, entitled "Water Storage and the Water Code," was 
published in December, 1918. This circular pointed out the avail- 
able lines of irrigation water supply development in Arizona, and 
emphasized the dependence of future development on the adoption 
of a water code similar to the codes of the other irrigated states. 

A state water code bill prepared by this department was intro- 
duced in the Fourth Legislature, and its provisions and purposes 
were explained in detail to the members of the Legislature. The 
bill was passed on March 13, 1919, and is now in full effect. The 
most important feature of the law is the provision for the determi- 
nation of all existing water rights, taking an entire watershed at 
one time, and the fixing of titles of these water rights, so that every 
water user may know his exact status with respect to every other 
water user. The establishing of these water rights makes it pos- 



452 Thirtieth Annual Report 

sible to determine the extent of the unappropriated floodwaters and 
to design engineering works for storage. Proposals for private 
undertakings and for federal projects will no longer be confronted 
with the impossibility of determining the extent of the available 
water supply, and several large projects may be expected to go 
forward rapidly. 

The state water code, in addition, makes it necessary for ap- 
propriators to obtain a permit from the state water commissioner 
bciore diverting water from a stream. The effect of this provision 
is to protect those now using water in their rights. No water user 
with established rights need fear that some new settler or project 
will divert his water to other lands. The commissioner is given 
authority with police powers to distribute the waters of the State 
to those entitled to use them. Plans for dam and canal structures 
must be submitted to the commissioner for approval, and he is given 
authority to examine and inspect the construction, with a view 
to securing safety of life and property on the lands below such 
structures. 

A special appropriation is provided for the adjudication of 
water rights in the Gila River watershed. 

CEMENT PIPE 

The results of the investigations on cement pipe made during 
the past three years are now available in Bulletin 86. This treatise 
covers not only the manufacture and characteristics of cement pipe,^ 
but also reports of tests, analysis of pipe failures, discussion ot 
applicability of cement pipe to various uses, and the design of pi])e 
lines and pipe-line structures. 

DURABIUTY OF CEMENT PIPE 

Since the publication of the bulletin, the author has had the 
opportunity to participate in the testing by the U. S. Bureau of 
Standards of eight-inch cement tile of twenty different varieties 
that had been buried in a drain in alkaline soil near Yuma for six 
years. In most cases four tile of a series were tested. The tile 
were excavated and were tested to destruction immediately in an 
external pressure machine to determine the loads required to break 
the tile. The broken segments were then examined for evidence 
of injury by the alkali. Other specimens of the same series had 
been removed from the ground and tested in 1914, 1915, and 1916. 
The tests of 1919 showed practically the same or increased strength 
as compared with the earlier tests and in no case was there evidence 
of any disintegration. However, there was a marked difference in 



Arizona AcKKiLirRAL Expkkimknt Station- 453 

the appearance of the fractured surfaces, the more porous tile ap- 
pearing damp or wet and showing more or less alkali salt in the 
fracture, while the denser tile were dry and absolutely free from 
any signs of alkali. The densest and strongest tile were those that 
had been mixed with quaking or wet consistency, and the tests have 
established definitely that drain tile for strongly alkaline soil should 
be mixed wet. One series of tile had been dijiped or painted with 
cement grout ; the grout was intact in its original condition. Tar 
coating was less eftective than the gruut, and ferrous sulfate in 
the mixing water was shown to be of no value. Both hand-tamped 
and machine-made pipe were among those tested, and both classes 
showed definitely that dense concrete is not affected by alkali. 
This conclusion is substantiated by information received concerning 
tests on similar series of drain tile buried in alkali soil in other 
Western states and tested by the U. S. Bureau of Standards. 

It can be stated, then, that hand-made drain tile of wet con- 
sistency*, or high grade machine-made pipe is entirely safe for 
drainage projects in Arizona. The reason why such pipe should 
be used in preference to clay tile is because of the great saving in 
cost. 

USE AND WASTE OF IRRIGATION WATER 
Bulletin 88, under the above caption, was published in May, 
1919. It is the result of observation and study relative to methods 
of irrigation during the past fifteen years. It discusses the useful 
function of irrigation (transpiration), and classifies the various 
losses to which irrigation supplies are subject, offering many sug- 
gestions for reducing the losses to a minimum. 

The efficiency of irrigation is defined as the ratio of that portion 
of the water actually utilized by the crop to the total quantity ap- 
plied to the land. It is the farmer's province to make this ratio 
as high as possible. 

The bulletin was written particularly for those districts in Ari- 
zona like the Salt River Valley where the water table has risen to 
dangerously high levels, and for the pump irrigators, whose water 
supplies are so costly that the water must be conserved to the 
utmost limit. 

THE CONTINENTAL RUBBER PLANTATION 
The report, on the basis of which the rubber plantation was 
located at Continental, near Tucson, was made by the Irrigation 



*See Bulletin 86, Arizona Experiment Station, page 91. Much cement pipe of 
this class is being made in the Salt River Valley at the present time. 



454 TuiRTiL'Tii Annual Rkport 

Engineer in 1916. Since that time the Irrigation Engineer has de- 
signed the general layout for the 4000 acres of irrigable land, the 
water-supply development, the distribution system, the works for 
flood protection, and various minor agricultural engineering works. 
This connection has provided the opportunity for demonstrating 
many ideas advocated by the irrigation department, and has made 
possible the preparation of Bulletin 86, which is the first general 
treatise on cement pipe. 

WATER SUPPLY FOR YUMA MESA EXPERIMENT 

STATION 

A water-supply system for the irrigation of the Citrus Investi- 
gations Station on the Yuma Mesa has been designed, and all ma- 
terial required has been ordered. Much care has been given to 
making this an ideal system ; and, according to the custom in the 
past in connection with water-supply development on Experiment 
Station farms, a description of the system will be made a matter 
of record. 

The water supply is derived from the east main canal in the 
Yuma Valley and is elevated to the Mesa by pumping through a 
long pipe line. Power is available from the Somerton transmission 
line by means of a branch line one mile in length. An Allis-Chal- 
mers direct-connected pumping unit, consisting of a 5 inch, Type S, 
double-suction pump and a 40 horsepower, 440-volt, 3-phase, 60- 
cycle, 6-pole motor will be set in a dug pit 45 feet from the canal 
and slightly lower than the water level in the canal, so that the 
pump will always be primed. The switchboard and starting box 
will be on the ground floor above the pump. The suction pipe is 
of 8 inches diameter and there will be an 8-inch gate-valve on each 
side of the pump. The combined efficiency of pump and motor is 
guaranteed to be 63 percent. The over-size motor is required by 
the location in a pit and in a hot climate. 

The pipe line to the Mesa is 1050 feet long. Standard spiral 
steel pipe with flanged joints was first selected, but later the design 
was changed to use redwood machine-banded stave pipe. The steel 
pipe would have several advantages, ease of installation, freedom 
from troubles, and high salvage value, but the stave pipe is of lower 
first cost and will give direct opportunity to study the behavior 
and life of this type of construction. On account of the short 
supply and high cost of steel, it would be of great moment if the 
characteristics of wood pipe were such that it could be recom- 
mended for water lines, particvilarly those under high head or 



Arizona Acku iutural Exi'i;kimicnt Station 455 

subjected to water hammer, while for lines under low head, 
cement jiipe is by tar the most advisable to use. The pipe line is 
10 inches in diameter and the head due to friction will be less than 
eight feet. A check valve is to be placed in the line 135 feet from 
the pump. 

At the edge of the Mesa the water will be delivered through a 
circular standpii)e into a 14 inch cement pipe and will flow by 
gravitv to the citrus orchard. 

W ATER TANK AND TOWER 
The subject of an elevated water tank f.ir the Mesa Experiment 
Farm has been studied, and i)lans and sjiecifications iov a ta;-k 
have been prepared. 



PLANT BREEDING 

0. F. Frfckman. \A'. E. J'.rvax, E. H. Prksslf^v 



ALFALFA 

Alfalfa studies during the past year have been confined, first, to 
the field plots one-fourth acre in size ; second, to plot rows, each of 
which was planted from seed taken from a single mother plant ; 
and, third, to a study of variation from the recognized type in both 
Bairy Peruvian and the common types. 

Of the twenty field p!ots of variety tests at the Salt River Val- 
ley Experiment Farm, four were selected for future increase and 
testing by farmers in different parts of the State, in order to test 
their yields in the different alfalfa sections. By referring to last 
year's report (p. 157) it will be seen that the French variety (No. 
41) was the highest in yield of these ph^ts, and that the yields of 
its summer cuttings were relatively high. For these reasons No. 
41 (French) and a plot each u{ Hairy Peruvian. Algerian, and 
Turkestan alfalfas were saved last summer for seed. The other 
sixteen plots of this series were discontinued. A rather light seed 
crop was matured on these plots last season, but on the day (August 
24) they were cut for seed, a severe storm occurred and so scat- 
tered and mixed the varieties that none of the seeds could be used. 
For this reason another season at least will be necessary to obtain 
the final seeding for this series. 

Of the 61 pedigreed races grown in rows last season, 36 were 
selected for increase and testing in field plots. These selections 
were made on the basis of yield and quality of hay. The quality 
of the hay was based on a high percentage of leaves and relatively 
small size of stems. Sufficient data on these characters have been 
accumulated to permit a number of the best selections to be made 
and seed will be taken from these next season. 

In connection with alfalfa seed certification in this State, the 
question of type of plant has become important. For example, in 
a so-called Hairy Peruvian field, are the various forms usually found 
the result of normal variation within a pure line, or do these forms 
come about as a result of mixtures or of cross-pollination? In an 
attempt to secure data which will answer this question, the follow- 
ing line of work has been ])lanne(l and begun at the Salt River 
X'alley Experiment Farm. 



.\Kizr)N.\ AcRicri/rru \i. I'.xi'Kui mi:xt Station 457 

Beginning on the west side of Border E 68, ten rows of com- 
mon alfalfa extending the entire length of the border were planted; 
next, ten rows of Hairy Peruvian with seed coming from a field in 
the Yuma Valley certified as commercially pure ; next, one row 
each of No. 41 (French), Siberian (35), Turkestan (27), Algerian 
(24), Arabian (22), Common (17), Variegated (H). one selection 
from Hairy Peruvian (39), and one row of Baltic. The remaining 
four rows of the border were planted to Hairy Peruvian from the 
same source as the ten rows mentioned above. 

Work with these alfalfas has been planned as follows : ICach 
variety will be thinned to one typical plant in a place, with two feet 
of space between the plants in the row. Some of the plants of 
each variety will be covered with screen wire cages during the 
flowering stage in order to secure self-pollinated seed. Seeds wdl 
also be taken from plants of each variety which have grown in the 
open and been exposed to cross-fertilization by insects. The seed 
grown from self-pollinated plants under cages and seed from plants 
grown in the open from each of the above varieties will be planted 
in adjacent rows for the purpose of studying the variation of plants 
grown from self-pollinated seed and that of plants from seed grown 
in the open. This comparative study will be made through at least 
three seed generations. In addition to furnishing data for the 
determination of the extent of cross-pollination by insects in an 
open field of alfalfa, those pure races from self-pollinated plants 
will furnish good material for the study of variation within the 
same pure lines of alfalfa. It is believed that pure lines may be 
established by the time three successive seed generations have 
been taken from self-pollinated plants. 

BEANS 

Work \vith beans during the past year was confined to testing a 
number of varieties introduced by the Department of Agriculture. 
Eighty-nine varieties from foreign countries having climatic condi- 
tions more or less like those of Arizona were planted. Owing to the 
small space available for these plantings, only a single short row 
could be planted to each variety. Along with these foreign intro- 
ductions were planted the Pink, Bates, Bayou, Hansen, and Pinto 
beans. The entire lot was planted in the early spring and came 
into bearing about mid-summer. The yield from each of the native 
beans was very low, and in the case of the Bayou and Hansen no 
pods at all were set. On the other hand, some of the introductions 
set numerous pods which were well filled. 'Eleven varieties from 
these introductions were selected for further testing. 



458 Tlllkl II'.TII AXNTAL Kkpokt 

WHEAT 

Work with wheat during the past year has included a compara- 
tive field test of fifteen hybrid races and six pure races, including 
Early Baart, two selections from Arizona 39, 36-51, Kanred, and a 
Macaroni selection (1 E-88) ; and the selection and the growing of 
the second plant generation of the Turkey-Sonora cross which was 
made in the spring of 1917. 

The comparative field tests of hybrid and pure races were lo- 
cated at both the Yuma Horticultural Station and the Salt River 
Valley Experiment Station. Table XY gives the yield of hybrid 
and pure races. 

T.\BLE; XV. YIELD OF HYBRID AND PURE: RACES OF WHEAT 



Number 



Hybrid 615 .. 
Hybrid 650 ... 
Hybrid 625 .. 
Hybrid 713 .. 
Hybrid 1088 .., 
Hybrid 1C90 ... 
Early Baart . . 
Arizona 39 (5) 
Arizona 39 (9) 
36-51 



Size of plot 


Yield per acre 


Feet 


Pounds 


12.5x596 


2772 


12.5 X 596 


3515 


12.5x596 


2678 


12.5 X 596 


2731 


12.5 X 596 


2099 


12.5 X 596 


2807 


16 x576 


2921 


16 x576 


1883 


16 x576 


2545 


16 x576 


2993 



The yields of some of the hybrids exceeded that of the Early 
Baart. These hybrids have been produced from a cross between 
Sonora and Algerian Macaroni wheats made in the spring of 1913. 
This was the first year these hybrids have been grown on a field 
scale, and while the yield is rather high and the baking tests 
(see Table XVI) show a good quality of gluten, there appeared 
in each of these plots a number of different types of plants. For 
this reason these wheats at present would not be satisfactory for 
general field planting, and it will be necessary to repedigree each 
of these hybrids by head selections. 

Early Baart, as usual, gave a rather high yield. No. 36 51, a 
Turkey selection, also produced well. Mr. C. J. Wood, foreman of 
the Salt River Valley Experiment P*arm, placed a sample of this 
wheat (36-51) on display at the recent Kansas City Dry-Farming 
Exhibition, where it took second prize as a hard winter wheat in 
competition with all hard winter wheats displayed. The Arizona 
39 wheats were low in yield this year. This is partly due to a 
severe attack of smut which destroyed nearly half the heads. 

Milling and baking tests were made from these wheats and 
the results are given in the following tables: 



Arizona .\gricuuur.\l K-XPEuiMiiNT Sr-vrioN 



459 



TABLE XVI. — UAKING 'IKSTS^'S CROP OF 1919 













Patent 


St. 
grade 




Hybrid 


Hybrid 


Hybrid 


39A-5 


flour 


flour 


.Vrizona li.xp. Station No. 


615 


625 


713 




Kansas 
hard 


Kansas 
hard 


Loaf No 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


Absorption 


64.3 
194 


65.0 
192 


65.7 
209 


60.3 
215 


58.3 
241 


59.1 


Time of fermentation 


235 


Maximum volinnc of dough 


2050 


2075 


2050 


2000 


2175 


2125 


Oven rise 


5.25 
525 


4.05 
527 


4.50 
540 


3.05 
525 


5.15 
510 


4.60 


Weight of loaf 


517 


Volume of loaf 


1980 


1830 


1900 


1740 


1910 


1880 


Color of crumb 


92 


93 


93 


91 


91 


93 


Texture of crumb 


94 


92 


94 


87 


95 


95 


Bread quality factor 


95 


92.16 


94 


88.3 


94.16 


94 


Rank 


3 ; 


10-11 1 


5-6 


16-17 


4 


5-6 



*The baking test, analyses of wlieai and nour, and milling tests reported in the 
following tables were made by the Milling Department of the Kansas State Agri- 
cultural College. 

TABLE xvi. — Contimicd 



Arizona Exp. Station No. 


34-16 


36-51 


39A-5 


39A-0 


Wizard 


D. F. 
Sonora 


Loaf No 

Absorption 


1 

62.0 

212 

2100 

5.5 

2C05 

507 

94 

96 

96.75 

1 


2 

59.7 

194 

1875 

5.35 

1920 

524 

92 

93 

93.67 

7 


3 

59.7 

220 

2050 

4.55 

1875 

508 

92 

93 

92.90 

9 


4 

60.0 

206 

2225 

4.05 

1850 

513 

92 

92 

92.16 

10-11 


5 

57.7 

220 

1800 

2.45 

1680 

506 

89 

92 

88.30 

16-17 


6 

63.7 


Time of fermentation 

Maximum volume of dough 
Oven rise 


219 
1975 
3.85 


V^olume of loaf 


1760 


Weight of loaf 


526 
91 


Texture of crumb 

Bread quality factor 

Rank 


90 

89.67 

15 



TABLE xvL — Continued 



Arizona Exp. Station No. 

Loaf No 

-Absorption 

Time of fermentation 

Maximum volume of dough 

Oven rise 

Weight of loaf 

Volume of loaf 

Color of crumb 

Texture of crumb 

Bread qualitv factor 

Rank 



Irr'g"d 
Sonora 



Kanred lE-88 



7 

63.3 

210 

1925 

3.6 

514 

1825 

92 

92 

91.75 

13 



8 

61.3 
214 

2125 

4.25 
522 

1860 
91 
92 
92 
12 



9 

71.7 

200 

1975 

4.45 

556 

1810 

92 

92 

91.5 

14 



H-650 


H-IOSS 


H-1090 


10 


11 


12 


63.3 


70.0 


63.3 


196 


199 


188 


2000 


1925 


2075 


5.05 


1.35 


5.45 


520 


550 


522 


1920 


1545 


2015 


92 


87 


94 


92 


80 


95 


93.3 


81.4 


96.58 


8 


18 


2 



460 



'riiiKTiirni -Vnnlal KKroRT 



T.\BLE XVII. — ANALYSIS OF WHKAT, CROP OF 1919 



Arizona No. 


Moisture 


Ash 


Acidity 


Phos- 
phorus 


Protein 


34-16 ' 


9.47 
9.17 
9.92 
9.45 
9.24 


1.908 
1.674 
1.782 
1.304 
2.078 


.423 
.396 
.401 
.297 
.495 


.395 
.343 
.376 
.244 
.439 


1465 


36-51 


[ 17.54 


39A-5 


17.78 


39A-9 


13.68 


Wizard 


13.11 


D. F. Sonora ... 


8.24 


1.940 


.531 


.409 


16.36 


Irrigated Sonora ! 


8.58 


1.530 


.351 


.294 


13.38 


Kanred 


8.28 


1.706 


.459 


.370 


14.48 


IE-88 


8.24 
8.63 


1.728 
1.516 


.414 
.441 


.371 
.336 


18 84 


Hybrid 650 


15.29 


Hybrid 1088 


8.08 


1.886 


.522 


.434 


16.07 


Hybrid 1090 1 


8.68 


1.776 


.468 


.416 


15.39 


Hybrid 615 


8.69 


1.484 


.396 


.318 


16.27 


Hybrid 625 


8.67 


1.672 


.495 


.388 


15.36 


Hybrid 713 


8.68 


1.766 


.518 


.408 


15.45 


39A-5 Mesa 


9.50 


1.672 


.450 


.380 


10.86 



TABLE XVIII. — MILLING OF WHEAT, CROP OF 1919 



Arizona No. 

34-16 

36-51 

39A-5 

39A-9 

Wizard 

D. F. Sonora 

Irrigated Sonora. 

Kanred 

lE-88 

Hybrid 650 

Hybrid 1088 

Hybrid 1090 

Hybrid 615 

Hybrid 625 

Hybrid 713 

39A-5 Mesa 



Test 


Temper- 


weiglit 


ing 


62.3 


5.0 


60.0 


6.5 


52.4 


5.0 


; 57.2 


5.0 


j 58.7 


5.0 


60.6 


5.0 


63.8 


5.0 


61.0 


7.0 


59.6 


7.0 


61.1 


5.0 


63.3 


7.0 


62.1 


5.0 


62.3 


5.0 


61.3 


5.0 


63.0 


5.0 


60.0 


5.0 



Flour 
% 



65.88 
70.28 
65.84 
68.76 
66.16 
59.12 
68.72 
74.00 
69.32 
65.32 
75.28 
62.92 
65.68 
59.08 
62.52 
70.88 



Feed 

% 

33.92 
31.72 
34.24 
31.60 
34.04 
41.12 
32.04 
27.52 
32.36 
34.44 
26.28 
36.68 
35.12 
40.92 
38.56 
30.44 



Scouring 
loss 

% 



1.48 
1.84 
2.60 
2.08 
1.52 
1.56 
1.48 
1.92 
2.00 
2.00 
1.96 
2.28 
1.72 
2.20 
1.92 
1.04 



Milling 

loss 

% 



#1.28 
#3.84 
#2.68 
#2.24 
#1.72 
#1.08 
#2.24 
#3.44 
#3.68 
#1.76 
#3.52 
#1.88 
#2.52 
#2.20 
#3.C0 
#2.36 



ThIKTIIvTH A.\xu.\l Kki'ort 



461 



T.\r,LlC XIX. — .\X.\LVSIS OF FLOUR. CROP OF 1919 



Arizona No. 

34-16 

36-51 

39A-5 

39A-9 

Wizard .... 
D. F. Sonora 
Irrigated So- 
nora . . 
Kanred . . 



lE-88 

Hybrid 650 
Hybrid 1088 
Hybrid 1090 
Hybrid 615 
Hybrid 625 
Hybrid 713 
39A-5 Mesa 



Moist- 
ure 

12.35 
12.56 

12.85 
12.26 
12.16 

11.18 

11.40 
12.47 
12.55 
11.72 
12.52 
11.50 
11.92 
11.35 
11.61 
12.24 



Ash 



Acidity 



Plios- 
plioru.s 



Pioteiii 



Wet 
?luten 



Dry 
gluten 



.408 


i 
.176 


.092 


12.01 


.448 


.144 


.103 


15.62 


.430 


.176 


.098 


15.49 


.428 


.126 


.076 


11.60 


.448 


.131 


.084 


10.97 


.640 


.167 1 


.114 


14.39 


.496 


.144 


.099 


11.51 


.482 


.153 


.106 


12.67 


.706 


.212 


.154 


17.10 


.482 


.162 ' 


.094 


12.65 


.834 


.270 


.183 


14.08 


.402 


.171 


.103 


12.80 


.448 


.176 


. .105 


14.28 


.544 


.180 


.108 


12.63 


.472 


.162 


.109 


13.00 


.496 


.140 


.097 


9.46 



36.77 

53.17 
44.92 
37.12 
40.65 
50.79 

38.17 
42.45 
53.49 
38.39 
43.67 
42.57 
47.07 
44.15 
45.24 
27.84 



12.98 
15.57 
15.22 
11.78 
12.37 
16.15 

12.50 
13.15 
17.20 
13.10 
14.05 
14.94 
15.72 
14.69 
15.04 
9.73 



The second plant generation of the Turkey-Sonora cross gave 
some very interesting results last season. One of the main objects 
sought in this cross is to produce an early wheat having the gluten 
quality of the Turkey. In other words, an attempt is being made to 
place the Turkey wheat grain on the early Sonora plant. Of the 
4910 second generation plants which were grown, 66 were as early 
as the Sonora. Of these 66 plants, 12 had grains all as hard as 
the Turkey parent. These 12 hard-grained plants and other later 
hard-grained segregates will be used as the foundation stock for 
establishing an early hard wheat. In these hybrids there seems to 
be a marked positive correlation between fertility, as indicated by 
number of grains per spikelet, and earliness. These plants were 
all grown in rows one foot apart and four inches between plants in 
the row, so as to provide the same amount of space per plant. Table 
XX shows this correlation. 



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POULTRY HUSBANDMAN 

Francis R. Kl•:^■^"l•.^ 



The Poultry Department was created February 1, 1919, and 
has been in existence only during- the last five months of the present 
fiscal year. The P^oultry Husbandman has spent most of his time 
in getting the poultry plant on the campus stocked with desirable 
birds and in securing ecpiipmcnt and housing facilities for the 
proper functioning of the department. The poultry yards and 
buildings and all of the brooders, incubators, and other equipment 
and appliances have been prepared for use. 

A few good breeding birds have been purchased and several 
hunred chicks hatched out. There are now on the plant several 
good pens of Single Comb Rhode Island