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Full text of "Bulletin of the Department of Labor"

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DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND I^\BOR 



BULLETIN 



OF THI 



BUREAU OF LABOR 



VOLX'ME XVI-1908 




WASHINCiTON 
oovKityvEyT rnisriso okkick 

19 OS 



CONTEXTS OF VOLr^^E XVI 



N^. W.-JAMARY, II 



I^^ liahtlily at eanployvn kr iajisrii 
Mtkl Sauiw, hf Uadlcy D. Omrfc, A M. 

Warkmra'p Cijgip«— tiuo Act o( IWS 

ItMliieitrul Dispa&e* Act of 1907. . 

TnuU DvputM Act td W*.....' . 

Ml c4 rvTftii iv|mct*fl£ SUte butvmmoi blrar ftouitim 
lo«« , - - 



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o( mwrtA aAectiiie Ubor. 

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Xp. 75 -MARCH. WOP. 



ffhnliwtir prfpw. laW to 1907 

bdutriil hjPCMmc. by G«aqp« U. Kobcr. M. D.. 
tN^art frf rvc«tit irporu at 9UU tnireuM ol Ittfaar 

Xr» I ■ ir fc . - 

|HitU8tytv&nia - .*» .• 

VinpnU 

Digmt itf rrr-cot fofvifo itaciMicd pabUratlMv. . . 

ul oouftff affMtiac iBhor 

ol ywnmm States rrtrtiBg to faibor. snactvd i 

Nw-TC— MAV. IN 



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itr 



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t!w iJlAiittliui InidDttrUl I>up«t» f arat^eBtiati Act ol 1907. by Mctor S. 

OKk. rh. D 

Wte to docw* f<ir ibe oAemtikiyrd in Eunnioii cmtatfim, b)r W. D. P. Kiim . 
Divert •tf PKvnl ivpurtf* of 8u<« b«ra*y> ol bKor itatutao: 




N'liffth CaniliM «. 

thgm f4r«c«cii frtrn^^ HUUAioil publn-aikiw 

DtHAowotf rcmnii Afleriin^ labor _ 

t .» ,. -.^r^.v.^ K.^ate!» rvUUR^ to labnr, aoactH idot^iaaaar^l, t9#4 

iTIabur UvB uul deHaioot nlatiii^ ibenta. 

lutirt K) vuiuiw i' - 



frt*! 



REAU OF LABOE 



WASHIXCfTON. 



Jaxtabt. 19»>*- 



iL LIABILITY OF EMFIOTESS FOE TSmiSS TO THKIX 
EXFLOTEES, Dl THE imTED STATES. 

BY LINDL£T D. < X-\KK. A. M« IX. M. 

h the Engli-li c«jmnion law lies at the fixmdatioii of oar 
f employers' liabilin'. ihi^ doctrine L< oontinaallT and*?rgoing 
th by the rulings of Slate and Xati«^nal i»urts and by the 
of numerous statutes pa->ed with a view to a more exact 
of the right-r of the employee or to some amelioratioQ of 
on in other re^j^ects. Tlie principles of the conmiofi law are 
tly interpreted in the various juri.sdietioas that State name? 
:o certain applications of them, indicative of a locally rec- 
ew which is not in accord with the generally accepteil con- 
f the law : while the statutes range in form and effect from 
tatement of the rf^ninion law to an abrogation of it in some 
5S inclusive degree and the enactment of rules varying con- 
)Oth from it an<l fnmi one another. 




2 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR, 

the result that we now have in the United States a IkkIv of law and 
practice that is in effect hirgely of the nature of a con»i)roniise. It 
is the purjiose of the present undertaking to set forth with some com- 
pleteness the nioi-e important prmciples of the conunon hiw as gen- 
erally applied to this subject in this country, together with such Iwal 
variations as may appear; also to reproduce the statutory provisions 
of those States wliich have passed enactments on the subject, pres<»nt- 
ing the construction i>ut thereon where they have l>een nMieweil 
by the sujwrior State courts or the Federal courts. 

COMMOX LAW LIAHTTJTY. 

The doctrine of the employer's liability under the common law 
is presented under the heads of the duties and the defenses of the 
employer. 

THB DUTIES OF EMFLQYEBS. 

As already stated, the two principal factoids of the problem arc the 
duty of the employer to protect his en»ployee in the discharge of the 
iluties of his employment and the assumption by the employee of the 
risks involved in the undertaking in which his contract of employ- 
ment engages him. The duty of the employer is first consideied, 
but it will be found imi^ossible to discuss it without constantly 
bearing in mind the modifications that residt from the existence of 
the complementary obligations resting on the employee. 

The briefest statenuMit of the rule governing the emj)lover is that 
he is required to use due care for the safety of his employees while 
they are engaged in the performance of their work. This is taken 
to include all reasonable n»eans and precautions, the facts in each par- 
ticular case being taken into consideration. If su<'h provisions have 
l>een made as a reasonably ])rudent nuui would supply if he himself 
were exposed to the dangers of the servant's position, no negligence 
would api>ear. In the cast* of corporations the Supreme Court fixes 
the duty at the use of such cauti(m and foresight as a corporation 
controlled by careful, prudent, officers ought to e.\in-cise.{<') 

Though the courts of review have condemned any instructions that 
would tend to charge the employer with a higher degree of care than 
that which nuiy be defined as ordinary, the measure is not an ab^^o- 
lute one, but is proportioned to the dangers to which the empl<»yee 
is exposed. The ordinary incidents of railroading, mining, and cer- 
tain classes of manufacturing are in themselves, in comparison with 
general employments, unusually dangerous; and so of a large rail- 
road yard as compared with a smaller one, an expivss train as com- 
pared with a freight train, or a gaseous mine with one in which no 

' Waimsb li, Co. v, ATcDaufels (1882), 107 V. 8, 4o4, % Sui?, Ct. 952, 



EMPLOYEBS' LIABIUTY IN THE UNITED STATES. 3 

such dangers exist. In such cases as these, or when temporarily 
abnormal conditions prevail, ordinary care is advanced far beyond 
the requirements of the less dangerous conditions. On the other 
hand, care may lawfully be relaxed if the risk is unusually slight or 
if a device is for a specific and transitory use. The general rule as 
to care is qualified by the youthfulness or inexperience of an em- 
ployee, a greater degree of care being commonly requii-ed for the 
protection of such persons; nor is the master relieved by the fact that 
a servant of tender years misrepresented his age in order to secure 
the employment. (*) 

PLACE AXI) IXSTRU3IEXTALITIES. 

Tools and appliances. 

In accordance with the rule as to due care, the obligation rests on 
the master to supply tools and appliances that are reasonably safe for 
the intended use and reasonably well adapted to i>erform the work 
in contemplation. These must be provided at the place of use or at 
a place of such ease of access as to l>e reasonably procurable. 

Place and materials. 

Closely related is the dutv to provide a safe place to work and 
proper material for use, the measure still being not absolute but 
reasonable or adequate safety. The distinction l>etween place and 
appliance is not an easy one to draw, though the couKts are stricter 
in their requirements as to the former than to the latter. Thus, if 
a scaffold furnished bj*^ an employer be regarded as u place to work, 
he is responsible not only for the materials supplied, but also for the 
construction and maintenance; while if it be viewed only as an appli- 
ance, he must make reasonable provision therefor, but its insuffi- 
ciency, if sucli there be, may l>o laid to the account of the fellow- 
workmen of an injured employee, or perhaps to his own negligence 
in erection. (^) 

Netv devices, 

"WTiat may be required in the way of improvement and alteratitm 
or in the adoption of new devices to accomplish the ends of safety is 
governed largely by the usual and ordinary course of procedure of 
those in the same business. The employer can not he made an in- 
surer, nor is he bound to introduce the newest and safest appliances. 
On the other hand, he can not Iw allowed to disregard all inventions 
for securing the safety and comfort of his workmen. But as new 

''Am. Car & Foundry Co. v, Arnieutraut (1005), 214 in, 509, T3 N, E. 766, 
6 Butler V, Townsend (1891), 126 X. Y. 105, 26 N. E. 1017; Hoveland v. 
National Blower Works (1908), ll-i N. W. 795. (Wis.) 



4 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR. 

devices become more generally used, the standard of the custom of 
prudent men will become correspondingly altered, and the law of 
general usage may compel the adoption of devices the omission of 
which had not previously l)een considered as negligi»nce.(*') This rule 
operates more effectively in the case of installing new equipments or 
of beginning a new undertaking than where the question is one of the 
continuance or modification of established conditions. 

The doctrine that the employer is bound to safeguard his employees 
from exposure to needless and unreasonable risks is subject to the gen- 
eral qualification that one has the right to carry on a business which 
is dangerous, either in itself or because of the manner in which it is 
conducted, provided it does not interfere with the rights of others, 
without incurring liability t« a servant who is capable of contract- 
ing and who knows the dangei*s attendant on employment in the cir- 
cumstances. (^) A brief statement of the rule is that the employer has 
a right to exercise a reasonable judgment and discretion in the con- 
duct of his affairs, and it is said that it would be a very extraordinary 
case indeed in which this right woidd Iw interfered with.(*) This 
does not, however, permit the usi» of unreasonably dangerous appli- 
ances nor those which are in themselves defective or so obsolete and 
inferior that their adoption or retention wouhl of itst>lf indicate 
.negligencc,(^) though the (juestion is held to be one not of conipara- 
tive safety but of reasonable safety. Xo fixed mile of liability is pos- 
sible, therefore, in this respect, each case being of necessity decided 
on its own merits. 

Where a convenience is of great advantage, its adoption may be 
classed as obligatory, at least where the changi* involves l)ut small 
cost. It is iu>t clear how far expense may be ofi'ered as a d(»fense, no 
case being at hand in which that alone was hehl to relieve the 
employer from the duty of correcting abnormally dangerous condi- 
tions. In Alabama, however, the <'ost and the effect on public inter- 
ests were considered as so affecting the re<|uirenuMit tliat the employer 
was not hehl negligent as matter of law in a case where a low bridge 
over a railroad could be changed only at large exi>ense and the 
marked inconvenience of scvei'al UK'nibtM-s of the public. ('') 

The same care is required of the master in nuiintaining as iji fur- 
nishing safe and suitable appliances. ('') Inasmuch, however, as the 
progress of work and the use of tools produce constantly changing 

«MnflOu x\ Itlclimond & I). U. Co. (lSi)2), 111 N. C. 482. in S. E. (JUS. 
^Tuttle r. Detroit, etc., Ily. (1SS7), 122 T'. S. ISi), 7 Sup. VX. Wm. 
<'(*hoctnw, O. & (J. tt. Co. r. MfDade (IIHKJ), 101 V. S. iM. 24 Snp. Ct. 24. 
<< rA>iii8vlUe & N. R. K. Co. r. Hall (1800), irt Ala. 112, H So. 371. 
''Moore p, Wabash, 8t U & l\ H. Co. (1885), 85 Mo. 588. 



^P EMPLOi'EBS LUBIUTT IK TQE 172CITEO STATES. 5 

M»Dilitions, the doctriuc Umt reasouably saf^ places am! appliances 

[must Iw provided is frequently motlified hy the statement that the 
iliity has lieen <li*i4'hrtr<r»^l wlien ortlinftn* or reasonable i-sire ha^ boon 
exercised in the effort to make such provision. (■ ) The continued em- 
ployment of tool^ chat are so worn as to iucrease the dnnger of their 
ti*^ will in general rntai! liability on the employer. If. however, 
the danger is an obvious one, the employee. <rontinning to work with 

^m knowledgie of the danger and without complaint, will lie considered 
to hft%'e assumed the risk, and in case of injury Ims no nKMjvery: nor 
vill liability attach until ihe employer has or rea^^uably could have 

tiufonnation of the defect requiring repair. 

Here. Hgnin. qualification'^ aUjund. the usage of the li*ade, the cus- 
tmn of the shop, ami the natuiv of the instrumentality each being a 
Tactor. Simple rei^iirs may custonuirily be made by the asers of the 

^tools- in which ca.*e the employer \< without liability. If n machinist 
is employed to make repairs, a workman injured wliile nttempting to 

^rr|Hiir his own machine is witliout right of action. Perishable appli- 
ances, ^ich as ropes. l>eltH, etc.. which wear out constantly from u:*e, 
(Jkouid be reJiewed »t pro|>er intervals if the master is to stand clear 

|of the charge of negligenct\ 

Liability attaches only where the injury is the result of the use of 
an appliance for the work nnd in tJie maiuuT for whicli it was fur- 
ni^ied. Thus the common practice of workmen riding on elevaloi-s 
intendeil only for freight is at the risk of the workman; (*) so, als«>,of 
the use of one ladder for splicing to another when it was intended 
kolely for use alone. C**) Continued indidgence in a practice with the 
^inaster^s acquiescence, however, or the adaptation of an appliance to 
uses by the master himself or by a n*preH4'ulative, qualiRes this 
d^, so that if sucli use involvcr^ increased danger and a servant is in- 
[jured thereby the master can not defend by i>ointing out the deviation 
from the original use or showing that the instrumentality was suitable 
ior.(') 

CusU>marf/ method. 

In close connection with the above is the rule that the employer is 
(lo«t liable to an employee for an injury incurreil by n departure from 
tomar}* method of performing work or by leaving the place of 
|pIoyn»ent lo work in some other department unless on instruc- 

•AmlerMon i. .Mk-hlwiu C\ K. i\>. (IWC). lt>7 MIob. r»01, or> N, W. SSr»: Keod 
L«, Btockmycr i intHM. ?ci r, f. ^v. 3M. 74 Ve*\. iSfi. 

*KrTJi r. De Hitrtn* A IX Su^nr Hef. Co. (ISIHiU 125 N. Y. .V». 25 N. E. lOTl. 

' McKar V. UHud (1M)T). lOH Maw, 27o, 47 N. K, 1*M. 

* l^ntrr r. Vnrkmyrtb <JS(n}, If* iM. App. 535, 4S M. E. MH. .^ 



dii^Hitoi^d 



6 BULLETIN OF TIIK iU'HEAV OF LABOR. 

lions from a pro|)orly authorized represontative.('') So if a more dan- 
gerous luetliod or place of work is t^liosen when one less dangerous 
was available, the resultant injury, if any. does not charge the em- 
ployer witli liability. C*) 

Iiicamph'ti\ eU.^ appUanccs. 

A lower standard of the employer's liability prevails where the 
emi>loyeo is engaged in the work of repair, or of bringing an unfinished 
appliance to completion, or of the demolition of a structure. A 
greater degree of danger is obviously j)resent under such conditions 
than if the Avork was proceeding with complete and stable instru- 
mentalities, and the employi^' is held to Ik* correspondingly obli- 
gated to be on his guard, though it is by no means intended to relieve 
the employer by a general rule. The actual knowledge of the em- 
ployee may be taken as the ultimate guide in determining liability, 
and unnecessary ami abnormal dangers are not a part of the risk 
assunied.(') 

IhspvifutH. 

The *luty of making repairs necessarily involves the diity of dis- 
covering the need for them as it may arise, which entails the duty 
of iusj)eclion. The duty of maintaining tools iind machinery in a 
reasonably safe and suitable condition is in general on a level with 
the duty to pi'ovide such api>liances in the first instance. The in- 
sp<H'tion re(|uired for such mainlenan<*e ililTers somewhat from that 
necessary oi* presnuied at the time a new ])lant or new tools are first 
brought into use. As to the latt*»r it \\\\\y tirst be stated that an 
employer who makes aiul sup|>lies an Instruuientalily is cliargeable 
with such a knowledge of its defects as (inlinary care diu'ing the course 
(^f su<'h manufacture wo»d<l have disclos(»d. Subse(|uent inspections 
will not relieve him of this liability so long as the defects continue, 
and notic<' of such original defects is not necessary in order to fix 
the responsibility of the euiplovei-. In case of purchase, the duty of 
inspection may ordinarily be assume*! to have Ihm'm ^lischarged by 
the nninufa<'turer. though a showing that the jiuiehaM' was carelessly 
made (as, for instance, Avithout indicating to the manufacturer the 
intendi'd n.^e, so that he might nuike tests ai)pr<tpriate to such use) 
has been held to im})Iy negligence. If an article is of an a])proved 
pattein an<i the dealer is a reputable one. the presumptitni is in favor 
of the employer's noidiability. Tmleed. it is gi'iierally considered 

« StuKK '•. Kdwiii-a \V<?Hterii T«» & Spice Co. <l!Ht»). \m Mo. 4W. (K) S. \V. 3J>1. 
* WoniieU r. MaUie i\ I^ ('<►. <1S«7). 71> Me. \VM, 10 Atl. 4U. 
'•(N)l<»raao Midland U. tU r. Xnylou (IWrj), 17 Colo. WU, :tO Tac. 240; but 
geeJirlck t\ Hocheeter, S, 1\ & V. K. Co. (1HS5), 1« X. Y. 211. 



EMPLOYEES LIABILITY IX THE UNITED STATES. 7 

that such facts are conchisive in his favor in the absence of particu- 
lar facts or circumstances calculated to put a prudent i>erson on his 
guard. (°) This doctrine does not appear to control in Michigan, how- 
ever, where it has been held to be the duty of the employer to cause 
thorough inspection of newly purchased articles before putting 
them into use.(^) The duty of a reasonable inspection of purchased 
appliances is also inferable from a comparatively recent opinion of 
the Supreme Court of the United States. ('^) In favor of this view is 
the fact that it accords with the doctrine of nondelegable duties, dis- 
cussed below, and that it alone affords protection to the employee 
where there has been actual negligence on the part of the manufac- 
turer, with whom he has no contractual relations. 

The necessity for inspection of instrumentalities in use obviously 
varies with the nature of the appliance and the circumstances of em-, 
ployment. Small and simple to6ls may l>e used without inspection, 
the employer being entitled to assume that the Avorkmen will make 
timelj' discovery of defects and be suitable judges of the fitness of 
such tools for use. Complex or dangerous machinery or instrumen- 
talities that are liable to rapid wear or deterioration must, on the 
other hand, bo the subjects of inspections of a nature and frequency 
adapted to the conditions indicated. Inasmuch, however, as inspec- 
tion is only a means to an end, the fact that due provision has been 
made therefor will not absolve a master from liability where he has 
actual knowledge of defective conditions through some other means 
than by inspection. Nor will the proved inadequacy of an inspecting 
force charge him with liability if it in sliown that in any particular 
instance the appliance involved in the case was in fact properly 
inspected. 

The duty does not extend beyond a reasonably careful inspection, 
thougli no defect will be considered latent which may be discovered 
by the exercise of due cart*. The taking apart of machinery, or such 
other inspection as would interfere with the profitable conduct of 
business, is not, in general, required. (*) External appearances, how- 
ever, may be such as to demand a more thorough inspection; (*') so. 
also, of appliances showing defects in operation or those to Avhich 
some accident has occurred of a nature likely to cause obscure in- 
juries, etc.(0 

As to frequency of inspections there is little that can be stated 
definitely. The nature of the appliance and its liabilitA' to change 



« UeynoWs r. Merchants' Woolen Co. (18U7). KiS Mass. r»01, 47 N. E. 40(1. But 
Pee Erickson r. Am. Steel & W. Co. (UK)G), li»3 Mass. 119, 7K X. E. 7(J1. 
6 Morton v. Detroit, etc., R. Co. (ISOO), 81 Mich. 423, 40 X. W. 111. 
<• Richmond & D. R. Co. r. Elliott (1803), 149 U. S. 266, 13 Sup. Ct. 837. 
«* Philadelphia & R. R. Co. i\ Hughes <1S8S), 110 I'a. 301, 13 Atl. 280. 
** HaU r. Emerson-Stevens Mfg. Co. (1900), 94 Me. 445, 47 Atl. 024, 
/ Mooney %\ Connecticut River Lumber Co. (1801), 154 Mass. 407, 28 X. E. 3fi* 



8 BVLLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR, 

iiiKlcf the conditions of iisi» aiv clomenls to lx» rockone<l with. A^)- 
pliances which are nnieh worn or which are not nmintaincd at a good 
standard of condition according to connnon usage require more fre- 
quent insi>ection than is obligatory with newer and moiH; efficient 
equipment and methods. 

The modification of the doctrine of safe places in case of unfinished 
sfnictures and of repairs following accidents applies to the duty of 
insiwction, the probability of defective conditions being a matter of 
common knowledge, so that the servant making the inspection will 
be supposed to have assumed the risk. 

OwncrHhip of appliances. 

The duty of inspection above considered assumes the ownership of 
both ai)pliances and premises to be-in the employer. AVhere owner- 
ship is divided various tlistinctions exist, based on the ivlations of 
the employer and the owner of the premises or instrumentality. 
The most important of this class of cases are perhaps those in which 
is involved tlie handling by railroad companies of curs In^longing to 
other companies. Such cars, known in railroading as ** foreign "' 
curs, although receiv(»d only temporarily for purpos<»s of transpor- 
tation, are as completely identified with the employer's plant as if 
the transfer was made by purchase, so that the nature of the obliga- 
tions arising therefrom differs from that existing in cases when^ the 
emplo^'cr's luck of control over the appliance is usually held to ex- 
empt him from liability. (") 

In the first place, it may lx» said that no railway company is 
obliged to receive and turn over to Ih^ handled by its emidoyees any 
defectiA'e or dangerous ear. Every eompany is under a legal duty 
not to expose its employees to dangers arising from stich <lefefts of 
foreign cars as may be discovered by reasonable inspection b<'foro 
such cars are ivceivcd into its train. This inspection is such a one 
as the company's own cars woidd iH»ceive while in use, and not a shop 
iusijection. The shortness of the time during which the foreign car 
is in the hands of a company is not an excuse for neglecting tlie 
duty.(*) 

Where danger from the use of foreign cars arises, not from defec- 
tive equipments, but from differences of construction, it has been 
generally held that the servant assumes the obvious risks thus aris- 
ing, but if ignorance of the risk is predicated on his part his right 
of action would follow. It may be noted, however, that the statu- 
tory requirement of automatic couplers is not met unless the various 

•Baltimore & l\ K. (\>. r. Mackey (IWW), 157 V. H. 72, 15 Sup. Ct. 491. 
^AtchiBon, T. AS. F. R. Co. r. Peufold (1800). 57 KauB, 148, 45 Tac. 574. 



employers' liability in the united states. 9 

kinds brought together will actually couple by impact, the mere fact 
that they will so couple when used with others of the same make 
not being a sufficient compliance with the Federal statute. (■) 

Anifnah. 

Where animals are used as a part of an employer's industrial ap- 
pliances, or are.kept on his premises, and an employee is injured by 
reason of their vicious or otherwise dangerous qualities, the em- 
ployer is liable for the injury if he is or ought to be aware of such 
dangerous qualities. The same general rules as to the employer's 
duty to give warning and the employee's assumption of risk in 
accordance with his own knowledge of conditions are applicable in 
this connection as in the case of inanimate appliances or adjuncts. 

WORKING FORCE. 

Hirinff coservants. 

Besides the duty to use care in regard to inanimate or irresponsi- 
ble instrumentalities, the employer nmst also be reasonably and prop- 
erly careful and diligent to see that each employee hired by him has 
such qualifications as will enable him to perform his duties without 
gi'eater risk to himself and his coemployees than the business neces- 
sarily involves. The same principles apply here as in connection 
with the duty as to appliances. Where the degree of danger to be 
guarded against is greater or the skill needed for safety is of a higher 
order, the degree of care demanded is correspondingly increased. 
Obviously the question of experience or ability would be of little 
moment in mere manual labor unrelated or not immediately related 
to other stages of work, while for certain classes of railroad employ- 
ment, for instance, definite inquiries as to qualifications are iieces- 
sary to relieve the employer of the charge of negligence. 

The disqualifications of persons of suitable age may be mental, 
moral, or physical, the most common being those that arise from 
the intemperate use of intoxicants, though habitual carelessness or 
reckleasne&s, such as may reasonably come to the knowledge of the 
employerj likewise charge him with liability. The element of knowl- 
edge, either actual or constructive, is an essential one. A plaintiff 
grounding his claim on the negligence of the employer in hiring 
an incompetent coservant must prove, not only the incompetence, 
but also that the employer failed of proper care and diligence in the 
original hiring or in subsequent inquiry as to incompetency of which 
notice was given during the term of service. C) It must further 

« Johnson r. S. P. R. Co. <1904). 196 U. S. 1. 25 Sup. Ct. X5S. 

" Indiana. B. & W. R. Co. v, Datley (1887), 110 Ind. 75, 10 N. K. 631. 



10 BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAV OF LABOR. 

appear that tlie injuries coinplained of woro the con-^t^quonce f>f the 
incomi>ctcuce charged. (") 

Altliough the employer's duty in re^rd to rare is a continuing 
one, the presumption of ^ood character and suitable qualilfioations 
can safely be relied on by an employer who lias ust^d due care in the 
original hiring until notice of a change. A single act of negligemv 
or incompetence is not enough to ^x the employer's liability for con- 
tinuing to employ the servant guilty of the same, though noti<*e 
thei-eof may be presumed to put him on his guard. It has been held 
in some cases, however, that the quality of a single act was so notori- 
ously objectionable that it indicated a degree of incompetence suf- 
ficient to charge the master with liability for the emploj'uient of the 
person committing it-C*) Evidence of the commission of several acts 
of negligence is, in most jurisdictions, held to Ih» competent to i)rove 
the unfitness of a servant. In Pennsylvania (') and Massachusetts, ('') 
however, general reputati<m is uuide the test, and the submissitui of 
individual acts is objected to as tending to raise collateral imiuiries, 
and thus indefinitely to protract the case; but the rule that proof of 
frequent specific acts of actual negligent qualit}' of which tlie em- 
ployer had, or by the use of due care could have had, knowledge is 
the one generally approved; and obviou?ily reputation is the general 
result of the impressi(ms made by individual (»ccui*rences. 

Corollary to the obligation to employ competent coservants is the 
requirement that a sufficient numlH»r shall be provided for the reason- 
ably safe performance of the employer's work. This duty includes 
that of seeing, at least in a general way. that the employees eugag4'd 
are properly distributed to the various parts of the establishment and 
that due provision for physical fitness is nmde by allowing oppor- 
tunity for i-est and time for meals. 

Another !>ranch of the employer's duty is that of providing appro- 
priate rules and securing the carrying out of a suitable system for the 
<'onduct of his work. This applies only to businesses sufficiently com- 
plex to make such arrangements reasonable, and no such assumption 

fl (JiilvePton Hoik* & Twine Co. r. Riirkoll (ISfi.'J). '2 'JVx. Civ. App. liOS. lil 
S. W. (KiS. 

^ Unuh'v r. Now York & H. J{. (*<►. (1S7»). .".O X. V. :i.-U. 17 Am. Ucp. ^I-"- 

Trnzler r. rwinsylvnnln 11. Co. (IMil), ;is Pa. 1(»|. SO Am. Dei-. -HiT. This 
vn»e was Hharply riitldKctl hi IMttMbiirg. Ft. W. & C. U. Co. r. Hiihy {\s.7\ », ::s 
Ind. 2tH, 10 Aui. Ilep. Ill, lu which It waH HaUl that " tho ciifie Htnuds nhme, iin- 
PiiHtnhied and imsiipimrttHl, ho far an we have bi^eii aUIe to dl(K*uvei'. by any 
elementary work or deolHiou." 

*'Hatt V. Nny <1887), 14:1 Mu»8. ISO, 10 N. E. 807. 



employers' liability IX THE I'XITED STATES. 11 

is made as that rules can be so framed as to guard against every con- 
tingency. The duty is held to extend to the nndclng of reasonable 
iniles and their reasonable and practicable enforcement, ordinary care 
being used to anticipate and guard against such accidents as can Iw 
reasonably foreseen. A defective system and inadequate rules will 
not satisfy the law, but the presumption is in favor of the sufficiencj' 
of those provided, and it has l)oen held that only manifestly un- 
reasonable or clearly insufficient rules would leave the employer open 
to the charge of negligence. (<>) In this, as in oth<»r cases, conmion usage 
is in general accepted as conclusive. The absence of rules may be 
condoned if it api>ears that a customary method of carr3nng on 
work is actually sanctioned and approved by the. employer and is 
imderstood by the employees as l)eing binding upon them. A mere 
custom of employees, however, apart from the employer's approval 
or enforcement will not suffice. (^) 

Such rules and practices as are prescril>ed must be brought to the 
knowledge of the employee Iwfore he is considered to be bound by 
them, but it may \ye inferred from circumstances that this has been 
done. Express contracts with reference to the conditions of em- 
ployment as affected by specified rules are conclusive as against an 
emploj'ee profes.sing ignorance of such rules ;(<•) but a mere agreement, 
though in writing, to study the rules and keep posted on thoin is 
applicable onh' to such rules as have been duly promulgated or which 
the employer has definitely undertaken to bring to the employee's 
Jcnowledge.O Continuance in service for a considerable length of 
time or the fact that printed copies of rules are furnished with direc- 
tions that they l>e i*ead are circumstances that will be construed 
against the employee in cases of claims !)a>»ed on alleged ignorance 
of rules. 

Enforcement of rules is no less a duty than the promulgation of 
rules in so far as a reasonably careful supervision will accompli-ih it. 
Repeated and notorious violations will charge the employer with a 
knowledge of the insufficiency* of the provisions made and the neces- 
sity of new regidations or of additional superintendence. In the ab- 
.«ience of steps. to secure the enforcement of rules thus violated it has 
l>een frequently held that the master has sanctioned their al)rogii- 
tion and that thej' are no longer binding. Their violation would not 
then be regarded as negligence, nor coidd the employer offer such 
rules as a defense. (<*) 

« Little Rock & M. R. Co. r. Barry (1808), 2S C. C. A. 044, fi4 Fed. 044. 
*Abol r, I>elaware & H. Canal Co. (ISSO). 103 X. Y. 5S1. X. E. 32r.. 
*-S«lgwlck r. Illinois C. R. Co. {1SS7). 73 Iowa 158. 34 X. W. 790. 
'Carroll r. East Tennessee. V. & G. K. Co. (1880), 82 Ga. 4.^2. 10 S. E. 103. 
«8t LonU, A. & T. R. Co. v, Trlplett (1801), 54 Ark. 280, lu S. \V. 831 ; 16 
8. W.26d. 



12 BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR, 

InHtruvtiorm and irarnhi(/t*. 

Besides the gencnil rules by which the conduct of business is de- 
tenninedj instructions may be necessary either in case of abnormal 
conditions or of the employment of inexijerienced persons. The prin- 
ciple lying at the foundation of this duty is the same ns in the case 
of providing appliances, viz, liability does not attach on account of 
the dangers of the situation, but for placing the employee in a situ- 
ation of the iiazards of which he is excusably ignorant. There is 
no legal necessity for the giving of instructions or warnings, there- 
fore, where the employee's knowledge as to conditions and moans 
of safety is equal to that of the employer, nor where, all the circum- 
stances l>eing considered, adequate knowledge can be attributed (o 
him. On principles already adverted to, I'epair men, or those whose 
duty it is to make dangen)us places safe, are not entitled to instruc- 
tion so far as the dangers involved relate only to the appliances or 
places which engage their attention. A modification of this rule 
is to he found, how^ever, in the fact that it is not a mere knowledge 
of conditions, but a comprehension of the dangers attendant thereon 
that must l)e shown in order to al>solve the master from responsi- 
bility. (°) Misrepresentations on the part of the employee as (<» ajre 
and experience have been held by some courts to relieve the master 
of the duty to instru(;t,('0 while others deny such effect. ('') Ke^anl- 
ing the duty as one of '^ proper care," it would seem that the employer 
can not Ih' absolved from the duty of disclosing dangers which iire 
not obvious, by any statements whatever of those whom he nuiy em- 
l>loy, though the circumstance of the employe(»'s representations may 
l>e considered. 

Inasmuch as persons of tender years mv particularly unlikely to 
understand the risks attendant upon the use of dangerous nuu^hinery, 
the duty of instruction will be held to apply in cases of their euiploy- 
ment when it would not be considered if the conditions related to 
adult employees. Experience and capacity are to 1x* iTckoned with in 
deciding us to the duty of instructing minors as well as adults, but 
wliere a person is too young to realize the dangers or to profit by the 
instructions given the employer is not freed from liability even by 
the giving of such instructions as would under ordinary conditions 
be sullicient.(*') 

X<»t every contingency is to be anticipated in the giving of instruc- 
tions, but such only as ai'e probable in the conduct of the business 

oCooiubR r. New lU»dft»r(l Corilajre {'a. UstH)), 102 Mass. Zu-2, 3 Am. Rep. 500. 
f StetMi r. «t. raul & D. It. Co. <ms7). a? Minn. 310. 34 N, W. 133. 
ci^uUviUe & X. II. Co. r. Miller (1!KM)), 43 C. C. A. 430. IW Fed. 124. 
^Jifckoy r. Tante (1SH7), VK* N. Y. 20, 12 N. E. 280; Pittsburg, C. & St. L. 
A Co, «; Adeiua (inm), 100 lud. 151. N'. B, 1«. 



employers' liability in the united states. 18 

and while the servant keeps within the scope of his eniJ)loyment. 
Increased hazards of which the employer has or should have knowl- 
edge should be brought to the attention of even experienced workmen 
who are not in a situation to acquire timely knowledge for them- 
selves. The instructions must be sufficiently definite and explicit to 
call attention to the specific dangei-s, and must be timely and ade- 
quately imparted to the person for whose benefit they are intended. 
What will amount to a sufficiency can not be determined by any set 
rule, but will vary with conditions. It has been held in a number of 
instances that a mere notice to be on one's guard is not sufficient, but 
that the particular danger and a probably safe way of avoiding it 
should be pointed out.('*) It is obvious, however, that conditions may 
make the enforcement of this nile unnecessary or even impracticable, 
for the danger may be discoverable or avoidable by proper circum- 
spection, or it may be of such nature that only the pers<ms actually 
present can determine at the time how it may best be avoided. 

A railroad employee riglitfully on the track may expect warning of 
the approach of a train ;('') also the crew of a freight train is entitled 
to warning if likely to meet unusal obstructions in a yard at night.('^) 
Under the doctrine of the " last clear clmnce '' this duty to warn is 
held to be such that, notwithstanding the previous negligence of the 
injure<l person, if, at the time the injury occurre<l, it might have 
been avoided by the exercise of reasonable care on the part of the 
defendant, he will be liable for the failure to exercise such care;(<') 
while in a recent case in Missouri (*^) it wa.s held that under the theory 
of the " humanitarian doctrine ■' of the employer's liability an em- 
ployee, even if negligent, can recover where it was practicable for 
persons in charge of a train to avoid inflicting the injury on account 
of which the acti(tn is brought. 

RESTRICTIONS OF K^IPLOVKES' RIOIIT TO RECOVKR. 

Efforts on the part of the employer to make his workmen insurers 
of their own safety by the adoption of rules or the requirement of 
contracts releasing the emploj'er from liability will in general be dis- 
countenanced by the courts. Thus it has been held that a rule which 
required an employee not to attempt to use appliances unless he knew 
that they were in a proper condition imposed upon the servant one of 
the duties of the master, i. e., that of seeing that the implements fur- 
nished are in a reasonably safe state of repair, and such rule was de- 

«Fox t\ PeninKiiIar Wlilto I»ad & Color 'Works (1S01), 84 Midi. G7tJ. 4S 
N. W. 203. 

*Iinnols C. R. Co. V. Mahan (1S9C), 54 S. W. 10. (Ky.) 

<• MeGraw v. Texas & P. K. Co. (189S), 50 I>fl. Ann. 46G, 23 So. 401. 

'Styles V. Receivers of Richmond & Danville R. Co. (lSi)6), 118 N. C. 1084, 
24 >S. E. 740. 

•Johnson v, St. Joeeph Terminal Co, (lliOT), 101 S. W. 041. 
a0d4»— BaU. 74—08 2 



14 BULLETIN OK THE BUREAl' OF LABOR. 

(•Inivd voi<l.('») A sti]>uintioii «'X<*inptin^ n railroiul coiupnny fruin 
liul>ility for iiijnrios crusimI eni|>]()yiH»H hv its iic^li^ciwv is voitl us 
n^unsi publio polu^v.CO A oontract cxccmUmI sulK(M[iu'itt to iIh» 
oiiiphmr's ontninn' on serviit*, rdirvin^ i\w ('ni])I(iy«'r of linliilily, is 
voi<l for wnii* of consi(loi*ntion.(') In anotlior rase a 1<»\v(m' cotiit of 
iho siimo Siate liohl a contraH of lik<v<'fft'<'t^ though 1)H<4m1 on siifliticiit 
<H)nsi(lorati()iK to 1k' void ns against pii1>Ii<' ))4fli<'y.('0 

Tt has Ihhm) livid that an cniployt»r could not I'flifVf liinisolf hy con- 
tract of a liability in)p(»sod l>y statute. ahlioujNrh the stahitt* itself 
made no rcfcriMJce to such contra<'ts. (' ) An implied waiver of ihe 
l»cnetits of a statute which ro<juires fro;rs, et*.. on railroads to he 
blocked or nmchinery to Ik» puu'de<l by continuance in si^-vice with 
knowledge that the law was uui complied with. ha< In^cu h<-ld not 
to Ih» valid as a defense in an action for injuries I'esnlting from ilie 
company's failure to so comply.(M There is, howev<'r. a strong li:-t 
of cases on the other side.(") In (Jeorgia (*) an*! Peniisylviinia { ') 
express contracts limiting or denying the enipl<»yee's right t»f acti«)n 
have been u|>hohl. In the former State, a later statute di'daic- -iich 
contracts void so far n< they affect any liability iixed by law. Sinnhir 
or more general statutes exist in a number of States. 

Where the feature of relief beneiits exists a new factor is intro- 
duced, and the ridings niv (juite uniform in favor of the contract. 
'i'he terms of the contru<'t are. in general, that the acceptance (»f In-ije- 
(its by the injured employee sludl operate as n waiver oi' his right of 
action at law against the employer, and that if action is brought anti 
is coinpi'fMuised or <-:irried to judgment no claim siiall lie again -I 
the fund. Sucli funds are usually maintained jointly by employer^ 
ami employees, though tlie expense is riot ncrcs-nrily ei|UMl!y sliMn'd, 

"Missouri. K. & T. M. Co. r. \V<mh1 (1sik;i, :\T, S. W. s7:t. n't'x.i 

^I,iik<' SlioFf & .M. S. Uy. <ii. r. SpMiiLfhT (issiii. It nliin St. 171. *- N. K. 
•nJ7: I.ntle I{=trl< & rt. S. ny. Co. r. Knhiiuk> ( lss7(, |s Ark. Ui*K '•'< S. W. S()s ; 
nicliiiHHHl & li. It.v. Cm. r. .loin'S ( IslU I. ir2 Aln. -Ms. H So. l!7fi: StMti.'s A-litir. -. 
I'nitHi r. It. Co. ( Mi07». S!i Vnv, 717* (1 l:ili) ; .rohiiMon ?•, c|inrl**stt»n *: S. IJ. Cu. 
( |s!«M. r.."i S. C. l."ii\ ;;l' S. K. J: INicsiht r. llcnuiiini ( issi ». s I-'imI. 7^-. 

'■ I'nrd.v r. Itoinc. etc. K.v. Co. ( l*':ltl ». li'.' .\. V. :ii'!t. 'jr, \. i-;. I'.v.. 

'Mtiiiil r. HtTiiiii: ( istcji. I;» \. V. St. I'Jii. Jl N. ^ . Sium'. -I I. 

' Kiiiisiis r. li. Ct'. r. Ti'iivry (l.ss:;i. j!i K;i!is. )\VX (I Am. l;"|t. <;;<». 'I'.ir- 
iM'ii r. KtiM.-iiul li. Co. ( m:oi ,. -,:; Vt. :jj7. M Ail. ti. 

' .\:irr;MiJtirc r, Ch'\<'!;iiMl. C,. C. ^; St. I.. My. Co. i Isicii '.*>. l-i-.i. 'J. in; |t:i\;< 
i'oiil Cit. r. I'dlliMHl <l!»""ii. I'lS III.!. *yt7. <:-• V. i:. !;»::: W.-stfi-it I'lirM, /t \]U'.. 
Co. r. rJooiii U:-07), !>M I'mc. vjl. (Km ;:.i 

fM>('iivi'r »V 11. «;. li. <'o. r. (J.-iiiiiiMi (li"i7i. f«i t'.u-. s.V: tCitjH.i: si. i.-.m;- 
Cordri':)' Cf». c. MilliT (I:MI.",i. Ijij I'l'tl. I'.C: (>*.M:i!i'y r. So-itit ttosMii (i;is I.iu'ht 

Co. (isit:i). \:*s Aijiss. i:i.-i. :i-j n. i:. iint. 

'' Wrstorii & A. It. Co. r. lUsliop (lS7:;i. ."tO tU\. MiT,. 
'MHihoII r. I'll. n. (!,sr>:St. 1. Am. Law \U%. 717. 



employers' liability in the united states. 15 

The Pennsylvaina siipromc court (<') held that an agreement to accept 
benefits, the acceptance to oi>crate as a waiver of the right of action, 
was not contrary to public ix>licy, inasmuch as it was not the signing 
of the contract prior to the injury (which would not in itself l>e effec- 
tive) but the acceptance of benefits subsequent thereto that barred the 
iiction. Such a contract merely requires the employee to make his 
election whether to apply to the relief department or to sue.('') But 
if there is lack of mutualit3\ or the defendant company fails to show 
that it assumes a fair portion of the burden of paying the benefits, 
even the acceptance of such benefits Mill not bar a suit for damages.(/) 
Nor will a partial payment of the agreed benefits avail as a bar to the 
action*^ though a full compliance with the terms of the contract would 
sto operate. (**) 

A contract that purports to bind the nieml>ers of the relief depart- 
ment by the decision of an " advisoi'y committee," making such de- 
cision final and conclusive, is void, as it undertakes to defeat the con- 
stitutional right of appeal to the courts for the redress of wrong. (*^) 

The agreement that claims on the benefit fund are forfeited by suit 
in which judgment is procured or a compromise is made was held 
valid in an Iowa case.(0 I^ut the supreme trourt of New Jerst^y ruhnl 
that ''the judgment intended is one by which the claimant recovers 
some compensation for the loss allegc<l," and granted a new trial in 
a suit for the benefit where damages at law had not been secured, (y) 

A further MTriation in conditions is found in the case of persons 
not employees of the company causing the injury by its negligence 
or that of its employees, but who are l>eing carried as a part of the 
contract of their employment. Such cases arise in the employnicnt 
of express mes-^cngers, who, while not employees of the railroad com- 
pany, are also not in the status of passengers. A contract IjctAveen 
the express company and the railroad company over whose Hncv the 
former wishes to do business may contain a clause by which the ex- 
press company agrees to hold the i-ailroad com[)any harmless from all 
liability for injuries to tlie employees of the former company while 
being trai»sported, whether such injuries are caused by the negligence 
of the employees of the railroad company or not. Then l)y contract 
with its employee^ the express company nuiy procure an agreement, 
as a condition of employment, that the applicant will assume all 
risks and nmke no claims for injuries however occasioned. A case 
involving such ccmditions was bt'fore the Suj)reuie Court of the 

"Johnson r. PhiladPlphIn U. Oo. (isol), lfJ3 Pa. St. KU. 20 Ail. Syl. 
^ Owens r. HaUIniore & (). II. C*\ (ISSS), :-;."» Fetl. 715; Lons r. I*«nnsylv«nia 
Co. (l-SiM). 30 Inrl. Ai»i>. 47, 37 X. K. 423. 

*• Chicago, H. & Q. K. Co. r. MUler (ISJHi). 7« Fe<l. 4.31) (C. C. A.). 
'Prtin8>-lvanin Co. v, Chupnian (lf»05). 220 111. 42S. 77 N. E. 248. 
'BftltlmoTC. etv\, It. Co. r. Stanfcara (1S07), oC Ohio St. 22-1, 40 N. K. 57T. 
f Donald r. Chicago. B. & Q. R. Co. (1895). 03 Iowa 284, G1 N. W. 071. 
f O'ReiUy v, Petmsylvanla li. Go. (1903), GO N. J. L. 110. 54 Atl. 233. 



16 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR, 

United States,(«) where it was hold that the position of an express 
messenger more nearly resembles that of an employee of the trans- 
porting railroad company than that of a passenger, and that his con- 
tract was a valid release of his employer and the railroad company 
from liability for injuries. Wiere the messenger is not aware of the 
contract between the companies he is not a party thereto and is not 
bound by its terms. (^) 

DUTIES NONDELEGAISLK. 

Considering the employer's duties as matter of personal obligation, 
it would be ai)parent that directions to a servant, or the employment 
of persons to perform these functions in the employer's stead, will 
not in itself relieve him of the responsibility; but if there be a defect- 
ive discharge of such duty by the j>erson employed for its jjerform- 
ance, the employer is still liable and will not l)e allowed to screen 
himself behind his agent. In determining the question of the em- 
ployer's liability, the relations of f<'llow-servants arc involved, or 
rather the tloctrine of vice-principals, and tlie decision will be found 
to turn largely on the point of whether the negligent employee was, 
with reference to the act occasioning the injury, a coemployee or 
whether ho was the representative of the employer in that particular 
act 

The courts have, in general, hold <iuito *'onsistently to the view of 
the nondelegable (|uality of th(» ilutios onmnoratod ab(^e, their ruling 
being that as to them tlie omplovor can relieve himself only by per- 
formance. In some cases, h<)w<>ver. it has been hold that the appoint- 
ment of an employee to the duty was a sufficient dischal'ge of tho 
obligation. Thus in a nuniljor of MassachuAHts cases the rule seemed 
to bii that the master is liable only in case of failure to supervise; such 
servants as he has appointed to dischar<re \\hat are in other jurisdic- 
tions classed as nondcle^'able duties. C) In ii IVinisylvania case, 
also.C) it was held that the empldyment of competent inspectors and 
affording them i-easonable opj)or(iniities f*»r work was u sufficient dis- 
charge of tlie duty to inspect, unless n'asonable dili<:( nee would have 
disclosed the defective numner in which tlie work was being done. In 
a recent case, however, it was held by tlie supreme <'ourt of Massachu- 
setts(') that a showing that an employer had engaged competent engi- 

" Haltiiiioro & (K S. W. n. Co. r. Vol^t ( 11MH)>, 17i', V. S. lits. 20 Sup. Ot. 38. 

6 Brewer r. New York, etc., K. Co. (ISUI). VM N. Y. 5!t. 2G N. E. 32-4; Cham- 
iMTlain r. IMersdii (lsiis». 87 Fed. 420. :5t <*. r. A. 1.". 

'^Ro;;ors r. Liulhtw Mfjt. Co. (iss?). HI Muss. I'lS. n \. K. 77; Lawless v, 
CoHiuMtic'iit Klvrr It. Co. (IsSTi). VMi J[ass. 1. 

dUuilroaa r. IIuKhes (18.S.S), llt» I'a. :J01, 13 Atl. 28C. 

<*KrkkKon v. American Steel ami Wire Co. (IIMKJ), 1J« Mobs. 310, 78 N. EL 
ro% rWiiff Moxtiihiiii r. IIIIIh Cu. (ISSS), HO MasH. 58*(, 10 X. 15. 574; Hooe Dk 
Jioston and yorthern St Ry, Co. (1004), 187 Maes. <SI, 72 "S. ¥L ^\, 



employees' liability in the united states. 17 

neers to design, install, and inspect appliances did not relieve him 
from his original responsibility of using due care to provide safe 
appliances, • 

From the first and more generally accepted principle it follows that 
the employer's ignorance of the incompetency of his vice-principal is 
not a defense; nor is it sufficient that a competent superintendent 
actually gave the proper orders. Reasonable cai'e must also be 
exercised to follow up the orders and enforce conformity thereto. It 
is hardly necessary to add that the failure to appoint any superin- 
tendent is no less negligence than the appointment of one who is 
incompetent. 

Supplies, 

An exception to the rule that the master is liable for injuries arising 
from furnishing uasafe appliances was noted above (p. 6), the ex- 
ception being in the case of purchases obtained from reputable dealers 
or manufacturers. (") It would be carrying this principle of pur- 
chase biit a step furtlier for the employer to make provision for the 
supply of all instrumentalities by procuring them from independent 
contractors, and so evading responsibility for their imperfections; 
but only a few courts have sanctioned the doctrine of the nonliability 
of the employer to this extent. 

In a Federal circuit court of appeals {}) and in Califomia,(<') 
Georgia, {<*) Illinois,(*^) Missoiiri,(^) New Hampshire.(^) Rhode Is- 
land, (*) and Texas, (*) the employer's liability has been maintained 
in cases of injury arising from the neglect of independent contractors 
in the furnishing of appliances or the maintenance of a safe place, 
while in New York,(^) Virginia, (*^)r and New Jersey (') the opposite 
position has been taken. In Pennsylvania, in a somewhat recent 
case,("*) the employer was held liable for the contractor's negligence, 
Avhile an earlier decision (") released an employer who had contracted 
for appliances which proved inadequate. 

« Fuller f. New York, etc., R. Co. (11)00), 175 ilass. 424, 5G N. E. 574, 
ft Toledo Brewing and Malting Co. v. Bosch (1000), 41 C. C. A. 482, 101 Fed. 
530. 

'^Shea r. Pacific Power Co. (1I»05), 145 Cal. 680, 70 Pnc. 373. 
''Central R. & Bkg. Co. r. Passniore (1802), OO On. 203, 15 S. E. 760. 
*^ Pullman Palace Car Co. r. Laack (1802), 143 111. 242, 32 N. K 285. 
^Herdler r. Buck Stove & Range Co. (1890), 130 Mo. 3, 37 S. W. 115. 
9>tOTy v. Concord & M. R. Co. (1000), 70 X. it. 364, 48 Atl. 2S8. 
*Moran y. Corliss Steam Knjrine Co. (1800), 21 R. I. 380, 43 Atl. 874. 

* Gulf, C. & S. F. R. Co. r. Delaney (1000), 22 Tex. Civ. App. 427, 55 S, W. 
538. 

i Devlin i\ Smith (1881), 25 Hun. 2(»6, afHrmed (1882). 80 X. Y. 470. 

* Norfolk & W. R. Co. t\ Stevens (1809), 07 Va. 631, 34 S. K. 525. 
« Ccnway r. Furst (1805), 57 X. J. L. 045, 32 Atl. 3S0. 
"Philadelphia & B. R. Co. t\ Trainor (1890), 137 Pa. 148, 20 Atl. 632. 
■ArdeBco Oil Co. v, Gllson (1870), 63 Pa. 146, Note ala) the attitude of 

the Uassaehusetts courts indicated by the caees cited in notes c and e on the 
preceding page. 



18 Btn-LETIN or THE BUBRAU OF LABOR, 

Inxperttitu iiufi mahift'nanre, 

Tho duly of tho itminUMuincc of appliaiK-os ami of in^pocting their 
condition 1ms Uvou niontionod, un exception hoin^ nmdc Jn the case of 
simple totals and appliances the condition of which was easily ap- 
parent to the user. In general the duty of inspection and mainto- 
nanco is held to ho vondclegahle.(") The States in which the con- 
trary view has been held are Alabama, ('') Tx)nisiana,('') Maryland, (*) 
Massachnsetts,(') Mississippi, (^) New Jersey, (") Ohio,(*) and Penn- 
sylvania. (*) In New York the position of the higher cotirta has iK)t 
he^Mi altogether consistent, (■') hut seems ^Mierally to charge the em- 
ployer with these duties. 

A distinction that is Ht)metimes made <-harges the employer with 
liability if the work of repair is done by a person specially delegated 
therefor and not engaged in using the apparatus, (See p. r>0 below.) 
Another test that is sometimes us«»d is found in the nature of the ro- 
pairs themselves. If the repairs are to l)c of a permanent character, 
the duty of making them may be regarded as nondelegable; but if they 
are to be of a temporary character they may l>e intrusted to coem- 
ployees. The application of this rule depends on the fact.s and cir- 
cumstances of each case, and can not here be gone into in detail. 

I'hc duty to frame and promulgate rules and regulations is absolute, 
according to <hc courts of this country, the only exception noted lK>ing 
in the State of West Virginia, (*) where it was held that the choice of 
competent servants to receive and transmit necessary orders relieved 
the UKister, and that it was not recpiired <»f him personally to see that 
notice actually came to the knowledge of all afTected thereby. In 

"lloii^rh V. Ti»x«s & V. U. Co. (IsT'.n. li>0 r. S. 111:1, 2." I.. VA. Olli. quoling 
Fenl r. Fit<-lihur*r It. Co. (1S72), 110 Mass. 240, 14 Am. \W\k .V.is. 

«' WiMMlwartl Inni Co. r. (VmjU (11KK»), 124 Ala. .'MO, 27 So. 4.".. 

'■ linliiili r. Nt-w OrlciiiiH & C. It. Co. (1S5I). {\ U\. Ann. lIC. 7A Ant. I>eo. r>G5. 

<*Shjim-U r. Nortliem C. U. Co. (I.SliC). 2.". Md. »(>2. 

•• K\\\\K r. Hosion & W. II. Corp. ils.'! ), \) CiihIi. 112; hut Mro Moyniluin r. IUUh 
Co. (isss), 1 \t\ Mass. .".Sli, 1*; N. K. ."(. and Konl r. ritchbnrj,' It. Co.. note a. 

/ Now Oi-IfHns. .). & (J. X. It. Co. r. Hiij^'Iics nK7:j), 4tt Miss. 2r.s. 

fMInrriwMi r. (Vntnil It. Co. (ls(i,-,). \\\ .\. j. L. 21*.*!: niodUUMl in Nord 
I)tMits<'I»T Llii.vtl S, S. Co. r. lnj;W>n%'Ktt'n (IMC). :^•; X. J. T,. 102. .'il All. CIO. 

*MHlo MInni! It. (^^. r. ritzi-atrlck (1S'^4K 42 Ohio SI. .".IS. 

* licniisch r. KoImtIs (isOl). 14:; \\\. 1. 21 Atl. !K»S. 

^ Cf. MuhHH' r. Ilnthawny {1S7(>). tW N. Y. T>, 21 Am. Krp. ,":'., and I^^uilng v. 
New York V, It. Co. (1S72). 4J> N. Y. r.21, 10 Am. Itep. 417. 

^(Hlver r. Ohio lUvor H. Co. (ISlKi). 12 W. Va. 703, 20 S. la 444. 



emplotkbb' uabujty wt the united states. 19 

• 

Maryland ('') and Missisfnppi (^) it has been hekl that train di.s- 
patchers in giving orders were but fellow-servants with the train 
men, for whose negligence the enipk>yer was not rej^ponsible : but 
the general view corresponds with the rule given above. 

Statutory dnttes, 

t 
As to duties prescribed by statute, it appears to l)e the rule that, 
apart from an express legislative declaration, they will be classed as 
delegable or nondelegable according to the common-law classification 
of such duties. 

THE DEFENSES OF E9EPLOYSBS. 

For a breach of duty to an employee resulting in injury an action 
will lie for the recovery of damages. Employers arc not insurers, 
liowcver, and are liable for the consequences, not of danger, but of 
negligence. Some duties are b}-^ statute made obligatory upon the em- 
ployer to such an extent as practically to fix his liability in case of in- 
juries entailed by their omission. Apart from such enactments, how- 
ever, fhe employer mav, in case of an action for damages, offer a de- 
fense based on the principle expressed in tlie maxim, " Volenti non 
fit injuria;" or he may undertake to prove the plaintiff's assumption 
of the risk, or his contributory negligence: or he may rely on the doc- 
trine of common employment to relieve him from lial)ility. 

The principle of the maxim, '' Volenti non fit injuria," is of general 
application, the meaning of the phrase as freely rendered being " That 
to which a person assents is not esteemed in law an injury." A clearer 
statement is that by an English judge, " One who has invited or as- 
sented to an act being done toward him can not, when he suffers from 
it. complain of it as a wrong" In a Massachusetts case the doc- 
trine was thus expressed : '* One who knows of a danger from the neg- 
ligence of another, and understands and appreciates the risk there- 
from and voluntarily exposes himself to it, is precluded from recover- 
ing for an injury which results from the exposure." In brief, the 
injured person has assumed the risk; and, apart from the contractual 
relation of employer and employee, there is a considerable class of 
cases in which this defense to an action for damages may l)e 
interpofsed. The invitation or assent is not necessarily or even com- 
monly formal, but is inferable from conduct and conditions, often 
sub-sequent to the entrance upon the sittuition that gives rise to the 
circumstances to which the doctrine is applied. 

« Wonder v. Baltimore & O. R. Co. (1870). a2 Md. 411, 3 Am. Rei). 143. 
ftMUlsaps r. Ix)UlBvnie, X. O. & T. K. Co. (1801), m Miss, 423, 13 So. 696. 



20 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB, 

English courts have more definitely fixed the application of the 
principle than is the case in this country, where it has bi^en fully 
discussed in comparatively few jurisdictions, but neither in Eng- 
land nor in America are the authorities agreed on its application to 
concrete cases nor on its relation to the doctrines of contractual as- 
sumption of risk and of contributory negligence. Many authorities 
hold that the nile of the maxim covers the ground of the usual defense 
of assumed risks under the employee's contract, besides its own field of 
noncontractual relations, while others regard the two defenses as dis- 
tinct. The question of its relations to the doctrine of contributory 
negligence is briefly discussed below. It may be said here, however, 
that the distinction is not always maintained, and it is held by some 
coTU'ts that the i>erson described as volens may l>e better doscril^cd as 
negligent, or, rather, that the person making the volmitary choice 
may be none the less guilty of contiibutory negligence. In so far 
as the liability of employei'S is c(»ncerned it appears that the moi-o 
general application of the rule in this country follows the same lines 
as are observed in connection with the doctrines of assumed risks 
under the contract of emi)loyment, and imtil the subject is more defi- 
nitely adjudicated its separate consideration in an undertaking of 
this scope docs not seem advisable. 

ASSIJMPTIOX OK RISKS. 

When a contract of employment is entered upon, the law imports 
into the agreement an assnuii)tion by the employee of the ordinary 
risks incid<iiit to tlie emi)loyment, and of such other risks as may be 
known to and appreeiated by him. Tins is siiid to be a term of the 
contract, express or Implied from tlu* circumstances of the employ- 
ment. C') One seeking employment impliedly represents that he is 
capable therefor, aiul that he comprehends the ordinary risks.('') 
Another view of the defense is that it does not aris<» from the oon- 
tratrt of employment, but from the status of the employer and em- 
I)loyee as fix(»d by common law, aiul is over and above the contract, 
being imi)osed by law upon the parties thereto, regardless of their 
*lesircs. (*■) 

h'mnrliih/c. 

The qiiestion of the employee's knowledge is in general contr()lling, 
but the knowledge may be either actual or imputed. A worknuui of 
nuitiire j-ears and ordinary intelligencCj ofl'eriiig himself for employ- 
ment, is presumed to know and appreciate the conditions and to 



^NarrniiKire r. Clovelaiia. C. C. & St. L. K. Co. (1S1K)), |HJ Fttl. :i!)S, ;J7 C. C. 
A. 490. 
* Wagner v. Chemknl Co. (18ir2). H7 Pa. 47.^ Xi Atl. 772. 
'^ leaver & K. G. K. Co. r. Norgate (11K)5), 141 Fed. 247; Martin r. Chicago, 
-tt I. & r, R. Co, (J002), 118 lowB. 148. l»l N. W. 1034. 



employers' liabilitt in the united states, 21 

assume the risks ordinarily incident to the service and to have notice 
of all risks which, to one of his experience and capacity, are, or ought 
to be, open and obvious. He does not assume risks arising from 
conditions of which he was actually and excusably ignorant; nor is 
he required to use more than ordinary care to discover existing con- 
ditions. («) 

There is, however, one class of cases in which the question of knowl- 
edge is not raised, and that is where the conditions complained of are 
the result of the employee's own choice or selection of a course of 
action. In such cases the risk is assumed irrespective of any implied 
term in his contract of service, the employee being held to be respon- 
sible for the proximate results of his own conduct. (*) 

Ordinary risks. 

The determination of what are ordinary risks evidently becomes 
important in view of the fact that with regard to them the employer 
is relieved of all responsibility, even if the employee did use ordinary 
care, unless by reason of inexperience or minority he was not charge- 
able with having assumed such risks. ('') 

The courts have sometimes defined ordinary risks as those that 
pertain to the employment after the employer has discharged his 
duty as to safe place, appliances, etc., and which ordinary care on his 
part can not guard against. Under another conception the word 
*' ordinary ■' is held to be construed in its usual sense. This may be 
taken to mean either that the risk is so obviously a normal incident 
of the employment that an intelligent observer would recognize it 
as such, and the dangers arising therefrom as constantly possible; or 
it may imply that the employment unavoidably and of necessity 
involves the risks, which is much the same as holding that the mas- 
ters care can not obviate them. 

These risks are such as arise from the negligence of fellow-servants, 
unless the employer was negligent in employing incompetent work- 
men; or from the nature of the instrumentalities used; or from the 
conditions^ wliether permanent or teniporary, of the conduct and 
nature of the business. The master can not undertake, for instance, 
to make railroad labor or the manufacture of explosives as safe as 
many other employments, and the hazards of such industries are held 
to be assumed according to the standard for the industries themselves. 
In like manner works of construction and repair, in regard to which 
the master's liability was found to be modified, cast upon the em- 

« Allen L\ Boston & M. R. Co. (1898), GO X. H. 271, 39 Atl. 978; Comben v, 
BellevUle Stone C<t. <1897), 5J) X. J. L. 226, 36 Atl. 473. 

^Mellor r. Merchants' Mfg. Co. (1800), 150 Mass. 362, 23 X. E. 100. 

« Jones V, Mfg. & Invest. Co. (1809), 92 Me. 565» 43 Atl. 512; Qoodes t\ Bos- 
ton ft A. R. Ca (X804). 162 Mass. 288, 38 N. £. 500. 



22 DULLETIN OF THE BUBEAf OF LABOR. 

ployoo n correspondingly larger tirgroo of risk, which, hx this 
principle, he is held to nssnme. This rule applies only to om])loyees 
actnally en|»aj2;ed uj>on the work, nnd the risks nsstnned iur those 
thnt arise only from llie work in hand and not fmin defects in por- 
tions of the work ahvady completed. (") 

Kisks which may l>e obviated by the exercise of reasonnl)le care on 
the pail, of the eniployer are classed as extraordinary* and thcM* the 
employe is held not to have assnnie<l without a knowledjre and com- 
prehension of th<» dangers arising from the employer's negligence. 
If the danger's are patent or are brought to the knowledgi* of an em- 
j)loyee, his entering upon or remaining in service is presumed to have 
waived his <'laim against the employer for resulting damages. ('') 
In the first cast* he will l)e held to have made his contract in the light 
of exisling conditions: and as to risks arising during employment it 
has been said that if a servant coi\tinues to use an appliance M'hich 
he knows to Ik* dnngi'rotis he does so at his own risk and nf>* at tlmt 
(»f his employcr.i' ) Tt must api)ear. however, that the ri'^k was 
actually appreciated. While a failure to notify the emi»]oyer of dis- 
coveiwl or known risks is c<mstrued as indicating the eniployee's 
w'illingness to continue to work while they exist, the risk is noi thrown 
upon the employer by n n»ere notitication nol re])lied t(» by his prouiise 
to repair.('') If th(» alternative of continuing to woi'k with the de- 
fective appliance or of leaving the employment is <»ffered. and tlie 
employee co?itinues Ij) work, he will i»e held t(» liave as^niued the 
risk.C) A promise to rt»pair mu bo relied upon only for a iva>onable 
time, after which the risk will be upon the employee. 

Fiirtjrffuhuss rdUsi tl htf pi'' ^x'U'i- "f fhlftf.<. 

Temporary iuadverten<*e or forg(»tfuliie>> of 4langerou- conditions, 
even if occasiontMl by the urgency of the situation, i- generally held 
nol to ri'liev** the emi>loyee fi'om tlu' burden of the :i->iinied risk, 
though as to this element the <'onrt< aie not agreed. In n minibei" <»f 
Xew ^'ork cas(*^ allowanci* has Ix'cn made U\y the forgi't rnlne-- of an 
employee whose attention wjis diverted from ininiincnt daugei" by the 
pressure of his duties,(M while the Tnited St:)tes circuit court <tf 

" iOvnasville ik It. it. To. r. .M:m1(1iix I IsiCM. VM IimI. .Ml. 'X\ N. K. :H.".. 
''Tnttle r. Drlrult. (J. ![. i*c M. liy. (issTi. ll'i; V . S. ls;i. 7 Slip. \'\. imt'i. 
'' WnHliln;:toii tS;: (;. II. Cn ,-. Mrl>jt(l(' (Isjhm. i:ir. V. S. .Vil. 10 Sup. ("1. loll. 

'' Must 'nMinevHc*'. \". & <;. u. <'u. r. immeid ( issrii. vj \a»a );:j. 17 Aim. it*".», :ti:». 

*■ U'jiry r. Itfi.ston i^ A. II. To. fissrn. i:tl» Muss, .'so, 2 .n. r i ir.. 
/Wnn»('<» r. Central Vermont K. To. (ls<»:n, !;W N. Y. :«ni. 'X\ N. K. loOi*; 
yitx/ft^niM ?\ Ae»r York C. & H. II. K. Co, (IMHI), 37 Ajip. IMv. 327. "►.'• .\. Y. 
^upp. UL% etc. 



EMPIiOTEKs' LIABILITY IN THE UNITED STATES. 23 

appeals(«) and the supreme coiirti^ of Towa('') and Rhode Island (**) 
have given the idea recognition, though in no jurisdiction can the 
lyractice be said to be uniform. The prevalent rule seems to l^e that 
the employee is not allowed to deny his assumption of the risk on 
account of the rapidity of thought or action necessarj' to meet the 
exigencies of any occasion, if it is established that he had acquired 
before the accident a fuU comprehension of existing risks. 

COXTRIBITORY XKOMiiKNCE. 

TM>en a risk involves such a degree of danger that a prudent man 
would not assume it, the defense to an action by an injured employee 
is not that tlie plaintiff by his contract assumed the risk, but that 
he was, by his conduct, guilty of contributory negligence. The 
line is not clearly drawn between the two defenses, nor is it always 
easy *o do so, inasmuch as the facts in a given case nuiy support 
either defense. The principles are distinct, however, as assumption 
of risk is an implied or actual agreement, entered into before the 
happening of the accident, to waive compensation from the employer 
for injuries resulting therefrom: or, it is an incident of the contract, 
read into it by the fixed rules of law. If, however, there has been con- 
trilKitory negligence, there is no reference to either contract or status 
to determine rights, but only to the coiidtict of the employee. If un- 
der all the attendant circumstance^ he fell siiort of reasonable and 
ordinary care, the defense of contributory negligence will lie against 
him. 

The rule is announced hy Coole}' as follows: ''If the plainliff or 
party injured, hy the exercise of ordinary care under the circiuu- 
fitances, might have avoided the conseqiiences of the defendant's 
negligence, but did not, the case is tme of mutual fault, and t!ie hnv 
will neither cast all the consequences upon tlie defendant, nor will 
it attempt any -apportionment thereof."('') The contributing negli- 
gence must be that of the party injured, that of a fellow-servant 
cooi>erating with the negligence of the master l)eing no defense to 
tl>€ latter for injuries resulting fro!n the combined negligence. 

^ 'oiiiparafirc iir<jHtn,H(. 

In Illinois for a number of years a doctrine of comparative negli- 
gence prevailecl, according to which the courts attempted to ap|)or- 
tion the fault, and, if the preponderance of negligence seemed to be 
chargeable to the employer, to award damages in a corresponding 

" West r. Soiitheni P. <'o. (is*i»8). in> C. ('. A. 219, «i F«l. ;il»2. 

* Strong r. Iowa C. B Co. 3KfK>), 94 Iowa asO. a2 N. W. 709. 

^Dlsauo r. New England Steam Brick Co. (lSf»S). 20 R. 1. -tTri, 40 Atl. 7. 

<i Torts, p. 074. 



24 



BXJLLEXIN OF TUB bUItfiAU OF UlBOn. 



amount. The rule seems (o have been firsi applied in nn einployer^fi 
liability case in Cbicajjfu and Nortbwtfstoni Ilnilway Company v, 

Sneeney ( ISOO) (^t2 U\,^2Ti), This nih» was CdiUimioiisly folhiwed 
at Iciist until 1S8C, («) but is at present denied in that State, {*') and a 
nr';;Ii^nt employee is now barred from recovery imle^s it appenrs 
that bis eniploytM* was (i^uilly of willful negligence in connection 
with tlie orcasion of the injury. (") 

Kansfis bus In^n cbi!^.sed by some writer.s as one of the juri.s<iic- 
tion.s in wbirlj lliis dt>rtrine is favored, the supreme court of that 
State having held that wbeie the negligence of the defendant is j^rcat 
and that of the plaintiif but slight, the latter may recover. (**) This 
eouii bus, however, repeati'dly deriieil that it cotinlcnanee.s the doc- 
trine of ronijmrative neglij^ence, and it iruiy be fairly doubted if more 
could bo said than that the rule there followed is simply the common- 
law doctrine nf font ributoiy negli|;en4'e somewlint peruliJirly stated. 
The same may l>e ^jiid <d' Tennessee, where, if the nc'rligenre of the de- 
fendant was the efficient cause, of the injury, the fact that the in- 
jured party was somewhat in default will not bar bis recovery if it 
d<ies not amount to a luck of ordimiry cure, <'vcn though be might 
have escaped by the use of extraordinary care.(*') The negligence of 
thr phiiruifr win be taken into considcndiou* however. In initigntion 
of the damaj^es to be nwiirded, and where the fault is e^jual, no dam- 
ages will be allowed. The defendant, to bo clear of negligence, must 
^Iu^w c<»nipliaiici' with all rcc|ulrcnieuts of the law.(0 

It nuiy here lie noted that tbt* doctrine of comparative nogligenco 
WAS incorporated iti^o the Federal employers* liability law of 1906, 
recciilly de<*lHred iincnnstitutioiuil. though not on this ground, and 
i^ found in a inimU'r of other rcci^nt statutes; but iu general the rule 
is as stated in the quotation from Cooley above. 

Came of injury. 

The negligence of an employee will not be a bar l^ his action unless 
it is the actual and proximate cause of his injury. Conduct merely 
furnisJiing the occasion or conrlition of the injury dfH»a not amount 
to negligence. (") Even if the employe(» was guilty of negligence 
which may have ctMitributed to the acvidcnt. yet if the employer by the 
exercise of ordinary care and diligence cotdil have avoided its occur- 
rence, the antecedent negligence of the employee bus Iwen held not to 
destroy bis right of action. Still less will I he negligence of the 

• riitrflEo & A. II. Co. t\ Johnson, 110 III. 206. 4 N. E. 381, 
^Clty oS Marou r. Hftlc-nnih (llMia). 205 HI. C*43, VR) N. K. TO. 

■ MMiJcHjro & A. n. Co. r. Myers rilKn). 05 111. Api*. 5TS. 

■ * Wli Ulln & W. H. Co. r. Uavli* ( tKS7), 37 Kunst. 743, 70 DaC, T8, 
W ' KtiHlivUlc & V. n. Trt. t\ rarron (1S71 ). UtO^k. n-»7. 
I //>>i;/flri/;/f A X K. r,K r, tUirke llMlK), i\ r.thU. ir>. 



EMPLOrEBS LIABILITY IN THE VKITED STATES. 



25 



f^oi'vant operate as a defense where it is followed l)v willful or wnn(on 
negli|,a»iioe on the part of the niaster. Where injuries; rusidt In death, 
the right of the |)er8onttl ivprest'ntative to sue, wtiich does not exist 
timler tlie eonttnon hiw, but is now given by statute in most States, 
IH Hubjert tu the Kaine limitations as woidd have la^en the right of 
the injured persou if he had survived. ' 

What ntgligenec bars rccot^er-y. \ 

What does an<l what docs not eonstitute siich negligence ns to be 
a bar to an rMuj^loyee's eJaiin for damages have not l>een eonsistently 
ruled upon by the courts, Tlie tej^t varies according to eireura- 
stances, the nile being that the st'rvant must amduct himself as a 
prudent pei-son wonhl in a liki* position. 

A servant engaging in work for which he is not qualified by pre- 
vious experience. an<l incurring injury, is held to have be<»n negligeut- 
In some jurisdietions the master ha^ not lx»en made responsiViIe even 
(hough he kneAV when lio lured tl»e euiployee that liis ine.\p*MiiMir.e 
made (lie labor abnoruuiUy hazardous, but such views are not gen- 
erally accepted. 

80 also if the precautions appropriate to dangeroiiJ? situations are 
omitted, or if an unnecessarily dangeroiLS method of doing work is 
chosen whei-e the employee har* the power of clioicc, or if he assumes 
or remains in a position of unnecessary danger, he will be held to 
Vme guilty of (vmlributing to his own injury Tnntteutiou to sur- 
roundings, .and goiuf; in the line of duty into a phire of unusual 
danger without notifying those from whose reasomibly anticipated 
arts harm might befall him, hiivo the same effect. The fact that the 
pi*ewnce of an employee in the phtee wheiv tim injtuy was i-eceivwl 
was not required for the performance of his duties will prevent 
i-ecoveiy. T'sing an appliance for a purpose other than that for 
which it was intended, if suggestive of daugt^* to a person of reascm- 
able intelHgence in the situation of the workman, will usually be a 
bur to surte.ssfid iKrtion. The use of defeetiw or otliei'wise unsuit- 
able iustnimentalities nuiy be negligent, though if a showing of due 
etre in the ciivumstances is made, and the danger was not great and 
obviouSf an action for damages may he maintained. 

Violation of ordci*s or of spccilic valid rules of wliich the employee 
b«» notice, and the neglect of warnings witji refei-ence to any of the 
acts named alx)ve will usually be lu'ld to imply negligence as a mat- 
ter of law.('') In Texas ('') ami New York,(' ) however, the violation 

oOoopB V. Lake Shore ft M. K R. Oo. (1887>. 66 MIoh. 488. 3» N. W- 041; 
Ix.uKnlUe & N. IS. Co. r. Wooda <1«>5). lOr^ AIii. TiCI, 17 »o. Jl. 

*l't* Worth i I>. %\ n. iVt. f. Tlifmii.w.n (ls:t;U. 'J Tpx. I'lv. App. 170. 21 
8. W, 137. 

''4JroiM» r l'-Mi.^v?wuilu. r. & II. K. '■•- ns'ii . 4'J N. V. s. \{_ siis m \. Y. 
6up(i* GIG. 



^ BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF lABOE. 



i:._ . ^'\* *'«topi>oa from hr;«.,;„„ ;« *u. ,i„. 



justify au otherwise 
master whose rules or 

p.. ....M- ur^r<H' (.sto f "''" ''^ performing work is 

I •«'K*»K*'ii»'o where ^^ " ^^"iging in the defense of contributory 

-^i'*'!* iiih. or cu«t "" ^'"P^^y^<? lias l)een injured while conforming to 
(i«'*«'riiiim»il, if''^*^^"'. ?^"^'^ t^ ^*^iat extent has not l)een accurately 
$>( <'<»inli(i<>iis loi V "^^'*™ employee incurred his injury on account 
^i'*»'i Mils fm»i ^.,11 ^ "^*^i'eto which were outside of his power to con- 

'f his roliuiu-o o !r*^^ *^ negative the charge of negligence; so also 
^*«'d «'<,n<li(i4„j *** ^^ P''^^"»M>tion that tfx)ls and appliances are in 
/*'"*!>' doiu». m"^ .• ^*: ***^ ^^'^^^ **^ *^«^''^ department will bo pni- 
f ^'Kligcnc,.^ <'ilho"^T**^ ^"^ ^^^'^^^ fre<iuently a defense to the charge of 
,i<Mi(al Hiu\ i)hv/ *^J^«oHite or partial, varying with the age and the 
>«'*' *»f the ah(jv^* *^*!P*^^'ity of the individual. In connection with 

»*'i*t =^h()iii(i J //^"*"|'^^'ations the remark made in a previous state- 
|iii>K*Mous conic^^^^ "^ "nnd. that where the eniergoncy or other 

ii»!*^**.Vee, the . **" .'^ ^ result of prior negligence of the injured 
' ^iti>»i5t u v\v.T ""**g»^ting or rebutting elements are of no avail 
th ^i^e of contributory negligence. 

Loral rules. 



In a, few s*„i. 

riH'e the ^^^^ 'o<*al do<>triMes have modified to i 
*'*'^, of risks^ ^^"^"*^' ^"^*^ ®^ *^ contributory negligei 
4 »'V ..*,.,.„ . ''■,. '^'^''^ Jn Alabama,(&) the fact of an 



a greater or less 
?nce and assunip- 

• ' 'I ntorv » 1- " *^iatjaiua,{^) tlic fact of an employee's con- 

* *' 'iiiurv ^ *^^**^**** has Ixh'u held not to l)e a bar to recovery where 
*^**' ■' lit or^^T ^"'*'''^**^ ^^y **»^ Avantonor reckless conduct of a fellow- 
t<«*''^ .11 //**^ **mplovcc for whose conduct the employer was re- 
H|***' , .-" *^**''fria ('') makes contributory negligence a ground for 
II r**'*"**^^^V^ <^f the amount of damages to which the plaintiff would 
1,0 otherwise entitled rather than a bar to con)plete recovery. To what 
^^xlcut t ms IS the result of legislation will receive consideration be- 
low. 1'**' I'ule followed in Illinois has already been mentioned 
(pj). ■-^'>) -'*)• rile language of tlie courts of this State in a number of 
i-Hses IS such that it can not be determined to what extent the doctrine 
of the assuinptiou of risks is recognized, or rather, perhaps, wdiat 
di>tin('tion is made In'tween assuni])tion of risks and contributory 
nrgligeiue. Ill ifissouri the defense of assumption of risks has been 
ill l;u'fr<» measure <lisallowed. In a very ret'ent case ('') the State doc- 
trine on this subject was designated by a court of that State as unique, 
in Ihat "the servant assunu^s only such risks as are ordinarily inci- 

" MiKW)url Fnrnnce Co. r. Abend (ia«<t). 107 III. 44, 47 Am. Kop. 425. 
* l^mlsville & X. It. Co, v. York (1001), 128 Ala. 305, 30 So. 67C. 
•* Merco r. Atlanta Cotton Mills (1887). 70 On. 782, 4 S. E. 381. 
'Oberuieyer i'- Chair Co. (1000), 120 Mo. App. 50, 90 S, W. 073. 



^^H EMPLO\"ats' LlABILm !.\ iHE VSITED SIAlliIS. 29 

dent to iii-"=i omplrtVu»<'iii- afWi \U** umMt^v \\n> perfnnaed his wliole 
duly lo proviilo liim a rpa^onnlily <nfv pincc to work and reasonably 
sftfe nppHuiices with which to do (liih work; '' while if the inaslor is 
nogli^put in thv>o ivsp('(t> nml tlu^ ^-rvant knows, or by the exorcise 
of ordinary an\' couhl havf known, of the iinhaft' phur or appliancoK, 
and ye( ctintiniies in th*.* s<»rvic'e, he dtK?s not theix4>y assume the ri.'^k 
ocoasionod hy tlie nv'gligence u( (Ijo nni'-ter. Contributory nt^gligrnce 
cjin be rharged, however, if tire danger was mi great and obvious 
that a prudent man wcmld not work under the circunistnnee.s, or 
if the work could not be done with reftsonnble safety by the use of 
r«ulion-(") 

The nde in Tennessee apix'ars to l>e MmJUr to that followed in 
Georgia, that if tlio employer's negligence occasioned injury to an 
employei> who WH^ himself negligent in the premises, the employee's 
negligence gtM*s in mitigation of tlie <lamages, but doe^ not excuse 
the employer.* *■) The wording and interpretation of ^^latutes give 
ris4» to other ilitTi'i-eutjos, which will be con?-i<lercd mider the head of 
blatulory liability. 

THK " >->:uxiw-servant" n^ i,r. 

The remaijiing defense to an employee's action for dnmoges is what 
is known a« the "•fellow-servant" rule, or the doctrine of common 
employment. Ac<'ording to this, where the employer has discharged 
liis d\itics ns to u safe place, ^afe aud suitable appliances, competent 
fellow-.^^ervrtnt*, etc., he is not liable to an emph)ye<» for the act« or 
negligence of any mere fellow-servant or coemploype. provided such 
ooeinployee docs not rejnehent the employer. Or. as it has been oth- 
<"rwise stated. "'A master is not Ixiuml to indemnify one servant for 
injuries cauhed by the negligence of* aiiijther servant in the ^amtr 
contmou enii)Ioyment as hin^s^lf, unless the negligent servant was 
the ntastel*"s representative." If. however, the negligence of a co- 
servant concurs with the negligence of an employer in causing the 
injury, the injured employee not contributing thereto, the employer 
will be liable in ilamages. 

Tlu* v.ell-kiiown diversity, not to ^ay confusion and c<mtradictori- 
ueiss of the rulings of the coui'tK as to the application of this rule 
anM> from the lack of precise Kn<l generally acceptetl definitions 
of the idea of counuon emph^yment and of representation of the mas- 
ter. The ndations of this <Ioctrinc to the other elements which de- 
tenidne employer's liability are such that practically all that ha^ Ijeen 



alfirt Haiuilloii r. HUh U\U Coal M!n. Vo, llH!i2>. 108 -Mo. 3tM, IS 8. W. 
U77. 

•XaHLvMIe & C. 11. Cn. r. riirmll nsTl i. i\ llijlNk. ,147. 



28 



BCLl-ETIN OF TUK BURKAV OF LABOR, 



NecE88iTv, ETC. — Apparent nooossity nmy justify au otiiorwiflo 
negligent ni'lion, unless obviously TOBh.C) A luaHtor whoso niles or 
cu-stonmry pciirli*'*' prcM'iibp ti riTlnin nmilc of performing work is 
in some tiegre** estopped from Iniiiging in (Im* <Iefi*Mse of {•ontril>ntory 
neglig(Mice where an employee has been injured while conforming" to 
such vnh (^r ousfom, lliongli Ui wluU cxienl hii^ not been JU'cimitcly 
determined. If llii' injiiret] employee iiirurred his injury on niM'-oiuit 
of fon<litions leading lliereto which were outside of his power to con- 
trol, this flirt, will t(Mid to negalive the chnrgt' of n«*gligi'nee; s*i also 
of his i*eliinn'(' mi the presumption that 1(m4s mimI appliiiiices are in 
good condition and that the work in each department will b» pni- 
dently done. Minority is als«> friMjuenlly « defi'iise to the cliarge of 
negligence, either aI»soIiite or partial, varying with tlu- age and tho 
nientul and physical cjipacity of the individual. In connection witli 
ein.'h of the above <piiilificntious tla* remnrk unide in a prcxious state- 
ment sln»nld Ih» kept in mind, that where the emergejicy or other 
dangerous c*ondiliun is tbo result of prior negligence of the injured 
employee, these mitigating or rebutting elements are of no avail 
agiiin^t a flinrgc of contribiittiry ncgligt'in.e. 



In a few States local doctrines have mo^lilied to a givater or leas 
degree lh»' rustiiuuiry rule as to contributory ncgligent'c and assump- 
tion of risks. Thns in Alabama. (*■) the fact of an emph>yee'H oon- 
tributory negligiMiii* luis Ih^mi h<'hl no! to lu* a bar (o nvovrry where 
tlie injury was cauMnl by the wanton or reckless »'ontlu<'t of A fellow- 
eervant or other employee for whose conduct the employer was re- 
{^ponsible. (ieorgia C) makes coniribiitory uc^digence n grotrml for 
n reduction of the amount of <bniiages to which the plaintit!* would 
be otherwirtc «ntitleil rather than ii bar to complete recovery. To what 
extent this is tin* re:*nlt of legislation will recvive ronsi<leralion bii- 
low\ The ruh' followed in Illinois has nirendy Vieen mentioned 
(pp. 23, '24). The iangnape of the courts of this State in a number of 
cases is *^Mch tliat it *'an not be determined to what extent the doctrine 
of the assnmplion of risks is recognized, or rather. iiprhai)s, what 
cljstinotion is ntade U^tween assumption of riskn and contributory 
negligence. In Mis-<airi the defense of assumption of risks has Imvu 
in large measure diN;dlfiwe<l. In a vary ivcent cast! ('0 the State doc- 
trine on this subject was designuttnl by a cwnrt of thai State as ani<|uc, 
in that "the «$ervant as«nnie»» only such ri»ks< nn n\ 



"MIkwiuvI rurimiv IN». t: Alwutl ( IHs;j). 107 \\l 44. 41 Ami. lu*\> 
*I/iiH«^'iU«? & N. it. Co. r. YMfk OWM. VJH Ma, TMC*. IM* Sit. t;-^;. 
'* iMeri'p r, Allanlu i'tttUni Min* f 1H87I, Til (Ui. 7s:. -I M. K. :s» 
^Oiferwtfsrr c, (Imtr *\y, (UX«>» I2<» Mo. Ahu M* ""^ ^^ *^ '^7;;. 



4 ■.::». 



EMPLOYEBS' LIABILITY !X THE UNITED STATES. 81 

p<dicy, as tending to make the employees inon* watchful over their 
own conduct and that of their fellows, thus benefiting employers, 
eniployeosj and the public alike by the greater care with which they 
perform their duties. (") In close connection herewith is the claim 
that any marked enlargement of liability to capital would lead to the 
withdrawal of capital from industrial enterprise, thus reducing the 
opportunities of employment and inflicting damage upon the whole 
community, (^) 

Each of these reasons has been the subject of adverse criticism, and 
no one of them seems to give a satisfactory gixjund for excepting 
employees from the benefits of the doctrine of respondeat superior, 
or for compelling the employee to liear the burden of " pure acci- 
dents " which occur in the prosecution of undertakings the advan- 
tages of which are to he reajxHl by the employer. The last two rea- 
sons mentionetl above have perhaps been most frequent!}' relied on 
as supporting the cuslomary rule, though no such results as are 
therein indicated ha^^e followed the adoption of statutes greatly 
enlarging the rights of employees to recover for injuries following 
upon industrial accidents. 

The chief points recjuiring determination in any action involving 
the principles under considenition are those of common employment 
and of repivsvntative capacity. If it appears that the injuries com- 
plained of are the result of the negligence of a coemploj^ee, the only 
hope of the plaintiff lies in showing that the negligent person was 
a vice-principal, rcpiMjsenting the master at the time, and so devolving 
upon him a liability for the acts or omisi^ions charged. 

i 'o/it in OH em ploynt en t. 

The first question, then, to Ik? considered is what constitutes common 
employment. It was said in a leading case tliat, *" prima facie, all 
who enter into the employ of a single master are engaged in a com- 
mon service, and arc fellow -servants," ('') but this broad statement 
will not answer as a conclusi\e test. Not only emi)h)ymenL by a com- 
mon master, but also engagement in the performance of duties that 
may reasonably l>e said to tend to the accomplishment of tlie same end 
is necessary to meet general acceptance by the courts; nor is it a suffi- 
cient answer to say that all si^rve the profit <»r convenience of a com- 
mon employer, ^^^lerc another servant than the plaintiff, employed 
for a purpose entirely different fi'om his duties, has negligently caused 
the injury complained of, it may well be said that they are not fellow- 
servants. But even with this qualification the statement is not def- 

« Chicago. M. & St. P. R. Vo. v. ItoKs, siiiira. 

*Xew Pittsburg Coal & C. Co. r. Petersou (1S03), 13G Ind. SiKS, 35 N. E. 7, 

^ Baltimore & O. H. t\ Baugh, aupra. 



32 BULLETIN OP THE BrREAU OP LABOn. ' 

iiiitc enough lo I* of mncU iim- in <leloni»iniiif!; pnrtirtilar cases, and 
the oxpi*c.s.sion.s used by jiidgos in {Missing on ihi* qinvstion of eonimon 
emph\vnu'nt throw littli* lipht on tho sulijpct. '"^ Kngiigori in the 
sanio gvncral business," " i\w sjinu* firi»iiviiil iinclrrtakinp," or " in pro- 
moting one common object " are frofpient nuules of i'\j)rfssion, thoii^ 
in other cases th« pomowhat moiv restricUHl plirascs, "services hav- 
ing an immediate connnoii object," or " working in llie siuno place to 
sulwerve the same intei*estH/' are nsed. The <]iiestion involves l)oth 
law and facts, but where the bitli-r are inidisptitcd, tlje detMsinn bo- 
comes simply a matter of law, and the trial jury will not jiUHS tipon it. 
CoNrKMr»i.ATFJ> KiSKs. — A ihiHiry (hat hu.s bc*Mi adopted in many 
cases is that tlie service is connuon if the negligentx^ of tin* delimpient 
servant was, in a fair and reasonable stcnse, one of the risks contem- 
plated by the injnn-tl enijiloyiMi in undertaking or continuing in his 
employment. ('') Tliis ih a reference of the case to the doctrine of a»- 
fiumed risks previously discussed, and involves the principles of 
knowledge, actual or presutnplive. ]\y this Ih^^ory the ivlation of the 
duties of the injtn'eil and the negligent employecH becomes tlie crite- 
rion, together with the <picslion of the probability of the negligence 
of the one attVcting the safety of the (»ther. An injured employee's 
action will not l>e bariXHl as matter of law by the single fact of serv- 
ice of a connnon nninter where the pmbubililiew of injurious conse- 
quences from the ilcliiupient s<'r\untV negligt*uce weie loo remote to 
be reasonably fon^si^en ; ( ** ) but mere acci4lental occurrences which no 
one cotdd reasonably anticipate or provide apiinst an' outside the 
rule of liability on geuend grounds. TImt a knowledge of the condi- 
tions under which eix^niployees are mutually eTnplo>'ed is influential 
here fuiiher appears frtun the frequent emphasis f)laced on the fact 
of pr«)xinii(y one in another in Ilie phircTt of their emphiyinent. In 
fact it was said in a Texas caM('') that " the rulu should be confined 
to those servants whose duties bring them into such juxtaposition 
that one would l>e enabled to ob^'rvc the iiegllgcnci* of his fellows." 
But this was only as pntposing a roasomible limitation on the fellow- 
servant dix-trine, which, however, the court did not feel able to adopt 
in view of the great weight of authority to the contrary, declaring 
that tlio remedy lay alone with the legislature. Yet ina.smuch as the 
question is not one of locality, but of likelihocHl of connected consc^ 
quences, mere remoteness is not sufticieut to negative tlie idea of co- 
Hsnnce where the other elements are present. So also the fact that 
iIutieA are diverse^ or are porfonncd in different departments, or under 



" njlnurtt. M. & St. V. H. Oo. r. rioi!M«i. supra. 

•NnrihiTn l\ K. Co. I'. H)uiil>ly (ISiUi. mt V. K »4», 14 8np. Ct. WWt 

p 8t, 1-oalfi, A. St T. B. Co. v, Wrich (l>iS8), 72 Tex. 2itf< JO «. W. fS2». 



EMPl-OVERS LIABIUTV IN THE U^'iXED STATES, 



33 



Tlwi(1iro*'li<»n i»f ililTerent fitreiueii is not conclusive. Proi>abi]i*y of 
cunlurt or of resultant danger fion^ the negligence of an cniplojt'«e 
is a necessary element in tlio application of this theory^ though 
nt what i>oint the line shall V)e drawn is often difficult to detemiine. 
A nninufaclmer's iloniehtic servant is not in fellow -service with an 
employee in his factory, nor is the driver of a butcher's wagon a 
foeniployee with worltFiien i-nj^a^^'d in building an addition to the 
employer's premises. The distinction i^ not .so easy, however, where 
tJie nature of tlie employmeuts is iu>t ^o divei*sc, and the tluctuations 
in the position of the i-ourts above referred to are apparent in cases 
wlirre this principle is involved. Tliiis in Indiana!") a bridge car* 
peuter l)eing conveyed to his place of work was held not to bo a 
coservant with the nn^ijuHM' of tlie train on which he was riding, a 
fiecision whici» was fullowed by the Iowa courts in 18Co;('') though 
apparently the rule had already been abrogated in Indiana,('^) and 
sub^^efpu'nt rulings indicate tlmt the plaintiff coidd not now recover 
in the latter State under the circumstances aUive wt forth. 

DErAKTMENTAL DofTBisE. — A sccond thcory, based on a different 
test from that of contemplated risk, is naturally suggested by the 
cnnhideralions indicated alM»vi*. In ihe appliaition of this theory 
the clas-sificatiou turns on the relation of employees in different de- 
partments of tlie employer's establishment or bu-iiness, more or less 
Kegregjileil. In the <'ourts in which it is adopted the general test is 
one of the identity or divei*sity of the departments in which the 
plaintiff and tlie delin(|ncnt employee were at work. Since, how- 
ever, no hatisfuclory iletinition of Ihe term "department** has yet 
been furnished, the test may be more accurately said to be one of 
oi^nMHMHtion of duties, i. e., such a relatioti of tlie duties of tlie in- 
jured euipluyee antl those of the delin<iuent cueinployee as that 
(he former had a i*easonable opportunity for protecting himself from 
injury by bis own elTorts. All courts would unite in ruling out the 
dffi'ns<* of coemployment in certain classes of i-ases, ond there is 
a hopeless contrariety of views as to where this tfefense shall be 
allowed and wheie denied. Even in those Stales whei-e tlie defense 
IK luoht fretjuently based on what hah l»een called the departmental 
doctrine, this test is not the only and Rnal one, as it is foimd that 
Mhili* dfpartntents may l)e distinct, those employed therein may be 
thrown into siu-h contact that fellow-service can not Ix* denied, and 
vice ven^a. While, therefore, the two theories presented lead to real 
and wide rlifTcrcnces of view, there is a class of cases where they ap- 
proach, an*) tlie conclusions i*eacbed therein may be referred indiffer- 
ently to the one reason or the other. 



r. Miidlson & I. R. Ca <1S54), 5 Ind. 33i». t*l Am. Dec. lOU 
. XII»e. & M. R. Co.. 18 Iowa 2MJ. Hi -\ui. Dec. ;«)1. 



UlUenwuter 
r>c)uuli3«ou V 



84 BULLETIN OF XHE BUREAU OF L.VBOB. 

The jnrifidiclions in whit-h f()ns(»cia(i<»ii uf dntios has been more *»r 
less iniifonnly luiido the test of coservice are (TtM)r^ia,(") Tllinois,('') 
KentiK'ky,('') LotiisiaiKijC") Missouri, C) Nebraska,* TTtalu^") 
Virginia, (*) Washin^on,(^) AVosl Virjrinia.i^) the Territory of 
Arizona, (*■) and such Federal C\>urts as haw ailopted tlio rule to 
conform to loeal j>ractice. It is also followed in Tennessee,( ') hut 
is ap])1ied to railway si^rvice only. It will appi'un howev<.»r, from a 
review of the eases that, in son»e of th«* States named, tlie courts have 
at times numifestod a i)refereiu'e for the theory of contemplated 
risks, whicli, as already s(vn. shows slij^fht re<rard for departmental 
boundaries. 

Elemkn'ts or Test. — As stated above, the mere fact of difference 
of departments is not conclusive, though a<'c»»rdiug to the thwiry 
under consideration it is matter of eviden<'e. As the result of an 
analysis of a hir^e number of ca>»es in which this dcx-trine contnds, 
the following elements are presented by a leading text writer(") as 
deterndmitive of the rights of the injtired employee: 

a. Whether or not he hud an o]>port unity of ((bserving the oxteiit 
to which the negligent serviint was competent for the j>erfi>rmance 
of Iiis duties and the nuiniier in wiiich he habitually <-<uidncted him- 
self. 

A. Whetiier or not he w-as able. t(» take api)ropriate measures to 
ward off a danger occasioned by an act already committed or about 
to be committed while the work was actually in |u*ogres-;. 

r. AVhether he coidd or could not lessen the risk of injury by exer- 
cising ujKUi the lU'giigent servant an influence calculated t<> promote 
caution au<l diligence on the part of the laltei*. 

f?. AVhether or not he was ai)Ie to protect him>eli' l>y repcu'ling de- 
]in<|uencies. thus securing tiie more careful siii>ervision, or, if need- 
ful, the discharge of negligent em])loyecs. 

<'(*(Mf|>(>i' r. MulUiis (I'SUO). oU 4iii. ]U'k 71; Am. \h*y\ u:>S: iii<in;;h the iliKlritu^ 
wciiis to 1h' rt'pndialiKl in this Stale (sre Itru>li K, K. & \\ <'o. r. WWIs (1'mn»), 

im ihi. u»2. ;tn s. k. ;i(ir»). 

'M'hh-api & N. \V. U. ('(•. r. Munoula (ISTI'K It:; 11). ::inJ. '.\\ Am. Uop. lus. 

'• Kontwcky <'. U. (Vi. r. Arkloy ( isssj. s" Ky. l'7s. S S. \V. iVM. 

*' lh.|>s<ni r. New Orh'iins & W. K. Cd. nt«H>K TC I.m. An. 1127. 27 Sm. fi7o. 

' SnIIivnii r. MlHsoiirl 1*. li. i'o. (Iss'l). !»7 Mo. IKt. lit S. \V. S5*J. 

/ Oumha ^V K. V. ll. i'n. r. Kni.vcMlnihl ( IMHf). is Nolir. .V^!. U7 N. \V. 1 17. 

■''Ariiislnui;: r. (U-tV'iM Short Mac & T. N. K. (.'o. (Jsii:t». s itah 4-3». :t2 
Vav. (Ii).'i. 

''Ti.rhins r. Ulchmond & A. U. r... (Iss7). M Va. 11(2. 1 S. K. .'V!t». 

' l'n*n r. (^thlcn Tunnel Mhi. <'n. (I!mH>. 'JI Wash. '»nI1. «U Par. 17-1. 

> MaUch-n r. Cht'saiM-aUr & <). It. Co. (ISSUi. L*S \V. Va. V,UK .%" An». Ht'p. <U»5. 

'Ihihson r. N. Mex. & A. It. t'n. (issii). 11 I'ar. r.4.'. 

'NashvlUe & ('. K. Co. r. Oin-oll (is71i. U llelsk. :i47: r<»iil (Twk Mhi. 
Co. /-. J>/iv}if asm), VO Tciiii. 7M. IN S. W. :'.S7, 
'^iMlmtt, *' Maatvr and servant," p. l^H). 



EMFLOYEBS' LIABILITY TN THE UNITED STATES. 



55 



yot all tlicsc qticstions an- likely to be raiaed in any single cnse, 
but the answer to tlie «m» or tiiorr pr<»siV!i( in h ^ivcn ins-tance may 
1h* found to be decisive of (lu* rights nf uu iiijuivd s^MViint, t'vcii to 
Ihe extent of entirely ijnioring so-calleil departmental classifications. 



HrpvcH'titafion i>f fhe rmphnjcr, 

Ko conn goes so fur ils to a.s.seil wiliioul (jimUtiriilion tlinl all 
eniployeeit of a coninion n^aster. or even in the snuie depart nietit 
are <.y.>cniployees in such .^on^ a.s (*» relieve the master of responmbil- 
ity for the negligent acts of thos** who are t.Iu* niRsitrr's ryprtwt^nln- 
tives. either pemianently^ or as to the matter in liand. But here 
npiin lheri» ar*^ ns JrnToncihible rliirertTKv.s jus any that have been 
noted, and it will be possible only to present the different views taken 
by tht* various coirtts without uttemptln^ to sumuiarize them or to 
bring theuj into harmony. 

There are in general two jrrounds on which adjudications aiv based : 
One. the mere superiority in rank of the negligent employee, and 
tile other, the nature of tiie injurious act. i. e., whether or not it was 
one which was connected with the discharge of the .so-c«lled non- 
delegal>le duties of the employer. Like other distinctions made in 
the applications of the fellow-servant rule, there are cases in which 
the decision might l>e reached by the use of either test, but in otlier 
cases the adoption of the one iide will l)e found to be decisive along 
Utic«i not capable of being reached by the other unless by giving a 
speviiil meaning then*to. 

Test of Rank. — The representative of the employer is most fre- 
qtiently termed by the courts a vice-principal, though the actual 
f unctionH of his employment and not the desigiuition by which he is 
knovrn w-hilc at work will l>e determinative in any case. This rule 
has l>een made to extend ho far as to relieve the emplo\*er even when 
the injuixnl eniployee in goixl faith regarded the negligi?nt employee 
a? his sufx'rior, not knowing of the latters discharge: from that po«i- 
lifin-t'') C)n the other hand, a cowrvaut intrusted temporarily with 
tbt! duties of a vice- principal must U* answered for by the empl<»yer 
no less than if ho were pennaueiilly holding the |K>.sition. Kepre- 
scnttttion, however, nuist be actual. In a majority of the juri^sdic- 
tions of the Ihiion the mere fact of superiority of rank is Jiot sufficient 
to charge tlie employer with linhilily for the negligeiu-e of the «n- 
perior servant, thinigh the negligiMice complained of may have lx»en 
tonnceled with the giviug of nrders.C) Nor do these courts consider 
that the ndding on of the power to hire and dis(.*harge is huflicienl 

win nwW). «5 'TenO' 385, 21 S. W. 700. 

^ Kii«iH.'» . , \v».|.i.r \ \ -!>7 K ira N. Y. 417, 45 N. 10. m\ ; McU-uu i . Hlue IVlut 



• 



I 



86 



BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR, 



to convert a foreman of siibordinato ip-ado to the rank of vice-prin- 
cipal, an mere fear of dtschiirge >vi]l not justify the as>iUtnptiou of 
undue risks.{'») And this \> true even wh^n thero is power of con- 
trol. (') Thus it was suid in u reeeiil cii^e tltal *' a sorvuiit who sus- 
tains an injury from the negligence of a tsuperior agent, engaged in 
(iu! siiitH' general hnsiness^ ran not niuintain an actuin against their 
common employer, although he was subject lo the control of such hu- 
perior agent, and could not guard against hi.s negligence or its ooune- 
riuenccs/'C) This rule is based on the theory that the contracting 
employee assumes the risk of liis superior's negligence as one of the 
ordinary risks of hi.s employment. This does not cover cases where 
the onler directs a departure fnnn the original scoj>e of tl>e servant'^ 
employment^ aucIi onler being attributed, by an apparent sut3pensif>u 
of the rule, to the nuister himself, sti tliat he is held liable for any 
negligi'uce connected therewith. i^) The mh^ is also siiliject lo re- 
strictions resuhing from the appiication of the doctrine of nonassign* 
able duties, tiie duty of giving dire4.'tions a.s to details of the conduct 
of work not being one f(»r which the employer is regarded ns person- 
ally rcspoubible. Tliis principle d<x's noL. except in a few States, ex- 
tend to actual superintendents or managei's of an employer's busi- 
ness: nor is it \ita] that such n^presentutive shiiU not Ik* employed in 
part at actual labor, or tlial he shall re<'eive a higher salary than his 
subordinates. X(> tixed rule is discoverable, but to i"enth'r the mailer 
liable tlie en)j)h>yoe " must Ik* nxire than a mere foretnan to overs*»e a 
baldi of hands and dinn-t llieir work uncU^r tlie supervision of the 
niaster."('') Or, as stated in another case, "ho must liave general 
power an<l contnd over the business, and not mere authority over a 
certain ilass of work or a certain gang of men.'^(') 

8urKKioR Skkvant Doctrine. — While such is the rule in the greater 
number of American jurisdictions, what is known as tlie " su|)ei'ior 
servant doctrine " has Ixsii adopted in a numU'r of States, Tlie form 
of this rule \arie-s in ditferent Slates, or even in the .same court; anil 
Ihei-e is inconsisteney in its application to ditTcirut cases, iVhuUlng 
fi»om an unwilliugnes.^ oti the pait of si>me rourtsS to cany It out to 
it.s logical conclusions, and from an indefiniteness an to the point 
where it shall cease to control. In the supi^eme court of Illinois^) ii 

"AlaHkn Trenilwen <;oJ(1 Allu. Vo. r. Wlirlaii <1S»7). ItR l\ », 80, 18 Suki. 
CU 40. 

*Vltlo e. Kwgiiu (isiii), 15 App. DIv. .*l2n. 44 N. Y. Supp. 1; Lchlfth VaUey 
'<?00t Co. r. JoiWB (1878), 8C Pa. 432; Vllter Mfg. Co. t\ Otto {190TK 167 IVnI, 
230 (O. a A.). 

*- Kopnnn r. New Yrtrk. L. K. & W\ U. Co. ilS'Kii. 14.% N. Y. UK). 80. X. K. 711. 

'(hi*!!*:*! & N. W. II. Co. r. Hnyliehl (IKTT), 'M MUb. 'JOTi. 

« IhjMitu f. ntrhnioiHl & n. U. rtK ( 1S7UI. SI N. T. 4in. .Tl Aui, Ui'i*. 512. 

/Ar«- JV/rA, y« K. A }V, H. Co. i\ Hell y^^^\^, \\i Vxk. KK¥\, \ ,\XI. TAV 

Outuiol Coni CkK P, MViHbacijei' (ItW), 134 lU. W, aV S- ^ «r». 



EMPLOyEB.S LIABILITY IN THE I'^JITED STATES. 



37 



i(K *•' WiPiv tlie lu^gligeiit aot of out* MTvaiit rausos injury lo 
itiolher rts the n*Mi]t of the exercise of the authority conferred upon 
him by the iiwrtter over the servant injured, the master is liable." In 
a Missouri ra.'-ec*) tlie following liniguag^e was u.sed : •" ^Y^le^e the 
master appoints an agent Avith a su|x*rintcnding control over the 
work, ftnd with power to employ and discharge hands and direct and 
control their tiiovenuMit^ in and alK)ut the work, the agent * • • 
stiindH in the place of the uia^t<'r." Variou^^ grounds are olFered for 
this view, tJie most sati^^factory one being that advanced in an early 
Ohio ra.-e,( *•) in whieli the iluty of ^supervision and control was treated 
as nondelegable; oi\ a> slated in a Mi^isonri ca:$e,(') "the master, by 
Rppoiutiiig a foremau or other pci-son to superintend the wcu'k, with 
power to direct the men under him how to do it, thereby devolves 
upon auch person the jjerformanee of thosi» duties personal to the 
master.*' The power to hire and discharge, while of evidential value, 
is not, under this doctriiu*. eojiclusivt* either for or nguinst the. injured 
employe*.', excej)!, perhaps, in the Stales of Xoilh Carolina!'*) and 
Texas,(*) where this test seems to l)e one of decisive in»port»ncc. In 
addition to the Stales alrciidy named, the courts t>f Kan*;as,(0 Ken- 
tucky,!") 1^>uisiana,(^) Missouri.!') Nebraska. (') Tennessee. C") and 
Utah(') seem lo be committed to this doctrine, either formally or in 
effect. 

Status ur Manaijer. — It has ahvady \H*vn iiulicated that there are 
some States in which what may be called the " extreme view " of 
fellow-ser\'ice is held. i. c, that even a general manager is a fellow- 
servant. Thirt may be called the English as opposed to the American 
view, as it prevails where the rulings of the House of Ix>rds are the 
pivcedenl ; wliile in by far the greater number of the Slates of this 
country there is a recognition of an actual superintendent or genei-al 
manager as the master's representative, for whose acts the master is 
accountable. \Miile the cases invnlving the question of vice-principal- 
hlup in thU form naturally disclose for the nio^t part conditions of 



■Stephoiw r. llnunlbnl & «t. J. R. Co. (1RS5). 86 Mo. 221. 
*nevelHnU. O. & (\ H. C*o. f. Kenry <1»?54). » <»bin St. LNil. 
Mlaoit IL 0>. r. StPViMis (1S5H. 20 Ohio -lir*.) 

^^ .Miller f. MIsHourl 1\ It. Co. (ISOU), K«» Mo. SfiO, 11* S. \\\ TiS, 
^Hr>nu r. Southern It. I'o. Ol»01), V2H N. i\ .'i-K", 3* S. K. 914. 

• rterliiK Mft;. O). t\ Keinelnt HIMM). TT> S. W. StJI), 
' U'HlkiT r. iJillett (3St>S). .'jlt Karis. 214, ."iU Pao. 442. 
PSunthem It. Co. r. Harr (UHW), 21 Ky. L. Hep. 1»J1.\ .'." .S. \V 

Ctnclnnntt, N. O. & T. T. R. Co. r. HlllV Admr. (1005). «) S. \V. :.J3. 
*Fari*n c. Selluiii <1SS7). 39 I-a. Auc. 1011, 3 So. 303. 
» Ilimf r. \>o%\oge 0*>nsoI. U'nU Co. (IWM), 70 K. W. 710, 
' Vnimi V. n. Co, r. Do>le n»»7K W Nebr. oCr.. 70 N, \V. 4.".. 

* l.nnl«viUp St X. K. Co, r. Ijibr tlSK^), 8<l Tenii. 3.T5. « S. W. V^U, 
'Trlbay f. Bruoklyo Lead Mlu. Co, tl88C). 4 VtaU 408, 11 Pnc. 012. 



t.See also Utile 




88 



BULLETiy or THE BCREAXT OF LABOR, 



wliiil »nuy Im' (MiiiNitU'n'il |>4M*iiiitTiotkt iM'lntinnMup. llio f^amo ruU* Las 
l>ei'ii !ipUi to apply lo pur^oiiH occupying tin* position only tt^iuporurily; 
ns» for iustana\ in the porforinanw of s]H.'fii!c nmliTtiikingi*, nfliT 
tin* completion nf \vhit*h tho re|>reM^ntatiro woiiM a>Mirne hU f ii-* 
tomiiry rank a.^ coornployco witli la^ li.'in|)<jniry -^ubordinHtcs. Uoth 
the* Hcopo and xUv wason of the ruli* mv in port inJicated in th^ opin- 
ion givon in n Xew York c«st»,('^) in wljicli it was \\r\t] tluit wLeiv tho 
*Mnnstcr withdraws from tho niunngenitnt (»f the l>usine'-^, or the 
business is of such a nature that it is neoe^sarily coniniitled to a^Mitt^ 
as in the vAst* of corporntions. thf nmstcr !.-• liahlf for ihf neglects and 
omissions of (hity of the oup rhargnl ^\ith the sidi-rtion of the oHier 
ftorvant-s in eujploying and sfelectiiig such servants and in the general 
roruhict of tho hti-in'-^s comniilted lo his care." Hie Slate** in which 
a .snperinteudi'nl hmmu** to ho considered a?* u ruH'fvant witli other 
employees are Alabama, (^) MassjichuscttsiC) MisHis»ippi,(') and 
New Jersey, (') whih- in Cnlifoniin, Indiana, Maine. Mnryland, Mis- 
souri, Now York, and \'ennont are to Ih» fcunid cases indicative nf a 
similar view; but fnm\ a general view of the decisions in the»e States 
it appeal's that tlus ruling run not 1x» cmi'^iilered law. In Alahain 
Mnyvachtiscti-», an*l Mis.'4i>sippi thr fdnininu-law ntfc hu^ Uh-ii uukII- 
fied by h'gi.^hitive enactment. 

FlKADh OF Dkiwrtxiknts. — ()u pnuciplt'. a njMil that ivcogni/.o \hv< 
niatuiger of an entire i>nsiness as tla* nia>ter\ ivpn."*entativi' can not 
well refuse similar i^cognition to |>ersons in charge of single branches 
of nn nndertnking. a^ in large imhistnal nndiTlaking-^ the head of 
Huch H hninch is completely in control of the men muler him, and the 
management of itii affairs U aa fully in his hands a<t if it xvew an in- 
(ic|M'ndent business. Thus it has Iw-cn held by the I'niled States 
iSupienie Court (') that thei'ei-*a"clear di-itinrtion lo f>e made tut Iteir 
relation to their common principal, between servant- of a corporation 
exercising no supervision nvrr others rngngi*d niili them in the snnic 
employment, and agi'Uls of the corporation clothed Aviih the control 
un<l nmnagiMuent of a ilistiuct department in which their duty ib en- 
tirely thai of direction and stiperintendeuce." The limits of the 
application of ihir^ principle aiv not clearly marked. The courts 
making most fi-equent use of il are the Federal iMJurts, and their posi- 
tion may be con<idcrt*d a^^ fairly pre>ent*"d in tl ■ '■nt that it i? 
only imlividuals who are iu charge of -.■imiut. .1..I .l.-nnr-i 



1 



•MnJone r, tfathownj (tS^TBI, <M N. \. , _. .u.. 
^MiibKi* Jc M. R. Co. r, Smltli llSTTl. RU Ala, 315. 

**nMWd r. Mli»5lHsl|i|)l ('. R. Co. (lK74i. 50 Ml> 

-Mfii, (c N. .!, 1,. 7r.H, 4'j All. t; 1. 
. I'. It. Co. r. Kutta (IW^). iU U. 



». :rn'. c Km^ n. tM. 



EMPLOYERS^ UABILIXY IN THE UNITED STATES. 39 

ments of service, and havo entire and absolute control therein that 
are properly to be considered, Avith i'e.sj>ec't to employees under them, 
«s vice-principals. In the Supremo Court case just quoted from it 
\ras lM*ld that the conductor of a freight train was such a vice-[>riuci- 
pal, while in 18^ the sanTe ooui*t ruled that the engineer of an engine 
running alone was not. although by tlie rules of the company he was 
in charge with the same authority as a conductor of a train. (*') Later 
still this court excluded the conductor of a freight train from the 
operation of this principle,(^) thus revoi-sing the position taken 
fifteen years Ijefore on the facts involved, though not abrogating the 
rule as to vice-principalship. Such variations of iK>sition liave added 
to the perplexities of the situation, not only as to the Federal courts, 
hut as to State courts as well, and to attempt to determine or illustrate 
the present extent of the application of the doctrine of vice-principal- 
ship as tested by rank would 1>e out of place in an undertaking of the 
present scope. 

Character of Act as Tkst. — In case.-i in which vice-principalship 
is conceded there is j'et a i>ossible distinction as to the kind of acts for 
which the employer will he held responsible. In the first place it 
must obviously be a negligent act ; and, secondly, it must be within 
the scope of the agent's authority and be connected with the proper 
business of his employment. Besides these points, as to which it is 
only necessary to establish the facts in order to determine their status, 
the question of the official or nonofficial quality of the acts considered 
may be raised. 

In accordance with this view, a doctrine of dual capacity has been 
developed, according to which some acts of the employer's represen- 
tative may be taken as those of a mere servant and not of such a na- 
ture as to make the employer responsible for negligence therein. In 
the courts adopting this doctrine, the negligent performance of the 
so-called " nondelegable '' duties by one who is, by virtue of his rank, 
conceded to be a vice-principal casts a burden on the employer, 
while the same person may, as a coservant, perform an act of 
manual labor negligently, and to the injury of a fellow-workman, 
without devolving any liability therefor ui>on the en\ployer. This 
doctrine of dual capacity seems to have been fii*st ai)plied in 
Rhode Island, ('•) though the leading case is one that was decided 
in New York in 1880. ('') Other States adopting this theory 
(though not alw^ays without qualification) are Arkansas,('') Col- 

« Baltimore & O. R. Co. r. Baugli, 149 U. S. aos, 13 Suit. Ct. 014. 

*Xew Euglttud li. Co. r. Couroy (ISfUi), 175 V. S. iS^a. 2(» Sup. Ct. .'^. 

<^Mann v. Oriental Trlut Works (1875). 11 It. I. 152. 

* Crisplu f. Babbitt, 81 N. Y. 51G, 37 Am. Rei». 521. 

» St Ix)ulat A. « T. R. Co. t;. Torrey (1803), 58 Ark, 217 S. W. 244. 



40 



BULLETIN OF THE BCHEAU OF LABOR, 



orado.(*) Iilalio,^) Illinois.^) Imliana,^') Iowa,(') Mnssftdiu* 
setts,(0 Mifhigun(i') (though in a somewhat earlier ca8e(*) it was 
said that a superiiik'udonl " stands in the plae(> of Iho ina^trr in what- 
ever lio does ill fiirtlu*raiHv of the l«I^iIl^ss and oiicnitions he has in 
charge "), Minne*^ota,(*) Pennsylvania,!^) Tennessec,(') Virginia, (') 
Wnshinfrton,('") and AVi-srun^in-i") Tt has iK-en ref'ognized in tlic 
Federal oourts also.(") 

On (he oilier hand aiv lo be ranired those courts whiiii do not con- 
sider that the ehnraelcr of a viee-prin*Mpiil shifts with tlie nature of 
his aets, holding ns the V>etter rule ihal the master is liable for tho 
iiegligence of his repre.sentalive whelhei* the negligent act was dono 
by liis own hand or by tinother umler his orders.(^) Tliis is appar- 
ent Ij' the position of the courts of Kansas, (») Kentucky,(») 
Xebraska,('^) North Carolina, (") and Ohio.(') Federal ca*#s mip- 
|>oillng this view may als<» Ire fi»iind.(*') In Miivsouri it was re- 
cently declared by the supreme court that the doctrhie of dual 
capa«-'ity was fully estal)Iished in that Stale. (') and a niuiil>er of 
cases were cited in support of that view, beginning with Harper v, 
Indiiinapolis and Saint Louis Railway Company (1871) (47 ilo. 
r»<»7, 4 Am, Kep. .Vis), Hut in the case of Hutsou *', Missouri Pacific 
Railway Company tlbUJ) (."iO Mo, App. yw), it was held (hat tho 
negligent performance by a section foreman of ordinary labor such 
us a cf)sorvant would engnge in. resulting in injury to a worknujn in 
his gang, was the ncgligiMice of the cniploycr: " The re is no just or 
logical distinction between the act of the vice-principal In ne^- 

"iK**.!. Mlu. & Dnihnnt.- 4\>. c. rilajn'tiild (IMJtri), 21 Colo. KKJ. ^3 Pac. ::10, 

»Urwi» r. Lo lH»ax (UKJT.). U Idaho 4». 81 Vnc »U)n. 

Thlcftgo & A. R. Co. L\ Mny (IA«3), 108 111. 2S8. 

•f Si\loui Hloiiu & Lime (V t\ l*baMtnlii (18tMK lad. Mn*. 45:^, 'M\ N. E. OtOl 

TnMtnj^wotKl r. ItlliinN & L KhpI Oo. (IWM). 125 low« ^7. lol N. W. 283. 

f MrPliis* r. \i*w KiiKlnnd StrmMiirnl To. (IIKK'.), ]SS Mukh. 111. 14 N. K, 303. 

tf Vattv r. hiitllp (V.'ck Vuvv I'.mmI <V. (UtOT.), 142 MIeh. 17, li<S N, W, T2, 

* Sliumwny r. Walwurlli & N. Mfw. To. ilsiMK tKS Mloli. 411. :i7 N. W. 2.'»1. 

* Sontar r. Mlnueuiiolls Iiitcnintloiuil KIcitrIc Tu. ns!i7». <iS Minn. IS. 70 
N. W. TftiJ. 

^ Kicks r. riynn ( K>UO), IM I'n. LMW, 40 Atl, ;;no. 
*Nntloiml FertilixiT Co. r. Travh (IStni). 1<J2 Teim. 10. 4H ». W. 832. 
' Koiillioni IL TNi. r. Slnnxy (li»00). IW Vn. ae, .17 S. K. 2KV 
"• .Siiywiird r. i*Hrlw)u llSOOi, 1 W'usli. 2)). 2:i rue. S30. 
« KltK-hinskl r. Shonii Luniher Co. (IMMJ), Itt WIk, 41T, 1)7 N. W. \<H. 
^ IUh*i\ r. Ml(K'laii»'y«T nsiHi). 74 FwL ISU (C. V, A.). 
P MUiiolH r. 1«. i\K r. Juwy's Adiiix, ( 1IK>1 ). 22 Ky. L. H^iu l7J>a. 01 S. W. 703. 
vCouwtl. KnuMUH t'lty SmcllltiK & Uef, Co. r, Pcteriwn (l^**** ^ *•»"" ^M»^ 
310. SO I*ac. 073. 

' Crydtnl Icu Co. e. aiu-rlfH-k (IW:!), S7 Nebr. 10, S5 y, W. 251. 

* Purcelt t\ Southern H. ri*. (IWKl), 11» N. C. 72.S. 2« 8. ^:, UIL 
' Brrnfi Stone f«. r. KrafI i iH77 1, .'II Ohio SI. 2S7. 27 .Viii. H*'!*. .nit>. 
•A« r. New Turk. L. K. & W. It 0>. (issil). 20 F«J. T2; llflrdy r. >lliitinipo* 

•/VyflrO- '•. .% LoiiiH Tniiw/er Oi. ilOOO. IM> Mo. 4W, ';\> ^ V«I. <¥W. 



EMPLOYERS LIABILITV IN XHE ViJITED STATES. 



41 



gemly onlpving n senan* lo (]o an impi\i<lent iliinp: and in doing tho 
thiti^ himH'lf/'(") In Texas also docisioiis in apparent conflict may bo 
fonniL M>ine(^) denying tlu' dual onpaeily theory, wliile* u ojise of 
tho >anic datc('") supports it. Exiuiiple.s ctf hu'Ic nf harmony couhl be 
adduced from other States al.so. and. us appear^ from the ritations 
^ven, the rulinjrs of the Federal courts are not uniform. 

A Federal judge in a recent cns4»('') declared tliat the test of rajik 
nswl in the Hoss ca>G has been largely superseded in the Federal 
courts by the test of the character of the act, as followed in the 
Buitgh ca8C.('*) " The *iue.stion is alwaj'S," says the ]udjre, " whether 
the negligence charged is the neglect of a primary ami abs(»lutc (hity 
i>f the master lo the servant. If such be its character, no delegation 
of (he performance of that duty to another, im matter how inferior 
hi-^ nink may \ye \n the masters service, can relieve the liability of 
the master for its neglect," Some discussion was had in an earlier 
part of this chapter of these nondelegable duties, from which the 
employer can l>e relieved only by their performance. Courts differ 
in (heir clnssiliciiti»»n of these duties; but where the character of tho 
act and not the rank of the agent is the test of liability, a person 
chnrg«*<1 ^ith the i>erformunci' of what is considered a nondelegable 
duly will Iw? elasseil in respect of such act as the employer's represen- 
tative. The attitntle itf the courts of ^ventl States and a somewhat 
general discussion of the duties of this class are to be fomul on 
pages I»» to 11* above, to which refen'uce is suggesteil in lieu of a rejKJ- 
tition of the s^tatenients there made. It nniy lx» added here, however, 
thMt where the negligent act as fellow-servant coojx-rates with one'd 
negligence m:s vice-principal iji i>roducing an injury, the effect is to 
charge the employer with liability. (^) 

The rule lliat an en»ployer who piirchases appliances from a rep- 
utable maniifactnrer or dealer is not obligated to test or inspect the 
same is in etfeet an avoidance of the duty to see that applianics are 
reat^onubly safe; this is practically an exce]>tion to the general doc- 
trine that such duty is nondelegable, and, as was noted above 
(page 7), it is not admitted in at least one Slate, and is modified in 
the Supreme Court. 

The ridings of the courts as to the liability of the employer for 
the acts of an indej>endcnt contractor are too contradictory to be .sum- 
marized. The de<*isions of a few .->u[>eri(jr courts are indicated on 

"Se*^ farther iHtytmrflb c. Hannlbnl & St. J. R. Co. (1801), IDS Mo. 570. 15 
8. W. rcht. niitl liiiNH r, Wabanh W. K. Co. (1W)2K :iO 8. W. 172. 

"^.Sweeuy r. Kulf, r. & S. r. a. Co. U«»2), S4 Tfx. 433, lU .S. \V. K)0; Ttxas 
& I', n. To. r. Hwtl UM>.'»). .T> S. W. HS. i 

"Onlf, C. k M. V, K. Oo. r. SfUwnl.hr nMCJi. I'l S. >V. 70fi. 1 

oiVtwat t. Ucorxe (1007 », 134 Kwl. iKW. 

' S*H* pagi^ '\H anil MM. flbovp. 

J CoiJy r. Kimgjt'Uf UW?J, U4 X. W. 755. t.^*""*) J 



44 



buij.&ti:n or the bureau of labob. 



caso. A complninl by nn employee is in effet^t n tlet'lrtrnlion (hat Iio 
will no longer rnntiwue in service under the conditionH of danger, 
while the proniis** of ll^e eriiph>yor, so loii^ as i(s Milidity tH»ntimies, Ib 
said to have c^stiihlisiied ii new relation, the employer iinpiiwily agree- 
ing Ihut ihe employee «hull iio( Ix' held to have a^^surned (he nsk.(*) 

\i follows fi*om the giving of the promise that the question of 

ne^Iigoni'e, whirh, apart from the promise, wouM have been diN'idvd 
adversely tt> the phiintitT u.s a matter of law, will he stibmitteil to the 
jury, and that some reuKon other than mere eontiniianee of work in 
(he posiiion where the injury was iveeiveil must l)e preseiit*Ml in order 
to impute coiiti ihulory lU'gligenee. C*) If, however, the place was one 
of such ojHii and imminent danger that a prudent man would not 
risk life or liiuli liy eont lulling to work therein, the promiM* l<i repair 
is not suftiriont to ivlieve of the charge of negligence ii "^Mvaiil ><i 
rontinuing to work.i**) 

Load rnhM, 

In a few jiirl^dirtions a t«'ndcn»'y to restrict the application of the 
alnive principles ha^ been iipparei»t, as in \lassurhn.setts,('') where a 
repair hand was excluded from the benetith of a promise, though a 
mere a(t<Midnnt at a machine would not be; and in Wisconsin, (•") 
where the doctrine was held to apply to t(H»]s and nnu'.hinery but not 
to place of work; while in New Vork(^) it ha^* been held that the 
promise makes no change in the status of the employee in cases where 
the inhtrinnontality is a simple one and its construction am! defects 
are as well known to him as to his employer. The supreme court of 
Maine(«') seems to inive taken practically the same view as that held 
by fhe courts of New York in a comparativel}' recent cabo. 

mKUT OKDEItS. 

'file fact that an employee was acting under dirort orders at tho 
time his injury was received is also influential in determining hxH 
right to recover where **uch order had been given. The order mii^t be 
given by the employer or his repre^'Utative acting with due autluu'jty, 
though it may reach tho employee thn»ugh an intenncNiiary of e<pml 
rank, who is then siniply the channel by which it reuclu's the employee 
affected. The order unist be the caubc of tho action whirh r- -"i'...t ;•, 



« Kwlft & Co. i\ O'NeUI i U)00). 187 111. 837. M N. B. 410. 
" IlougU V. Texan & P. R. Co. UBTD), 100 U. S. LM3, 25 L. lOd, G12. 
*" TexjtM A N. O, U. r*\ V. niii;:lr (IMIT.), SI Ti^x. I'lv. Aiip, :V1'2, LM> ^<. \N . Oi-I, 
*SUyIu i\ Wuuii»)OHmt' MUlH { UHH)*. 177 Maw. UM, .%S N. K. MKJ. 
'SliowoUev r. nilrl.iiitk« (isun. ks \VU. nvu. <io N. \V. 257. 
/A/Htfth t\ rhii'kr^riuf: ( J.vsot. lut N. V. air., Ti N. K. Wi. 
^Ctmtt^y r. Am, Kx/i. CU { ISOrj), 87 Me. 352, 82 AU. WS. 



mtm 




EMPLOYERS LI.VBIUTV IM THB UNITED STATES. 



45 



:ijo ii*jnrs% ami it must l»o of Unelf negligent iiinlor cxisring cirniin- 
>Uin<:frs. AVlu-ii ihe^ (.•onditions are inet, a presumption is raisc<i iu 
tbo enipIovepV favor^ eitlK^r that he was exnisaUly ignorant of the 
rtsk,s to wliich hir* oUhIjimioo oxpostxl him or th:U hi-^ artion Wii.s in 
MHiie ilegref ixMTotHl, hi that (lit* eniph»y*M*V iMi-^loniarv <lefenscs of as- 
«uuic<l risk and of contributory negligence are proportionately, though 
not ulfMiIntely, negativiMl. If tht* onlm' thtes not direct ex|x>sure to 
dhcr than the onliimry, H->unu'(l risk-, no uogligi*nrr oin Ir» charged 
to thr master in connection theivwilh. Xcitlier do the courts hold him 
nt >vh»*re he wa> ignorant, nctually and without fnult. of the 
^ 1 - to which a Mn*vaiit would be exjH»x*d by obeilience. But 
where the employer knew of the danger and failed to warn the serv- 
ant, and ^tilI more where the r^-rvant \vn>- ImjIIi ignoruiit and incapa- 
ble, physically and mentally, of safely pcrfonniug the work ilireuted, 
the order will Im hehl negligent and the employee will be entitled to 
recover f<ir resulting injuries. 

In r<inn*M'tion with a direct order, or in resixuise to some complaint 
or inquiry of the employee, an employer may give as^rances of the 
iiiM * * >afety. Tliis may Ite in the form of a siHtement that the 
Woi not inv»d\e <langer ar that the wcu'kmiin will be protected 

in its performance. AA'here such nn assurance is given by an author- 
iw-* i. and it is negligently given, -o that the emphiyce is there- 

b\ ; ■ i to do work or to enter a place other thnn would probably 

h»%'e been the case apiirt from the assunince, the eiuployee will not be, 
i> I !• of law. ilmrgeable with either au ii.sMimptiou of the ri^k 

or ' utribtitory negligence if injury results. This rule is ?.ub- 

jrct to the same quolifications, on gi'ounds of the actual knowledge 
i*f tlie em]>loycc and his going into plj»r*cs of obvious danger, as have 
bre-n *?rt forth in otlicr conne<*tioius. Yet, ina>nu)ch as the law re- 
garcU the employer'.** knowledge of the conditions of the employment 
ms sn|KTior to that of the employee, it considers his asisiirancc of 
safety, eNp4'ci»lly when accompanied by an order to pro**eed, to be 
Mifiicit^nt warrant for the employee to lay aside his scruples and per- 
Uap« t<» proi-*<>e*l with less vigilance than he would have otherwise 
excrrisn^l. 

In Missouri (*) it has been held that an authoritative assurance 
ct>upU'd with an order amounts ti> a guaranty of Mifety, tliough this 
isi not in accord with the general primiple> controlling in employers' 
Imbility cases. 

.{Mflll/n/ttiott of iiM^'H. 

A^ between the ordinary defenses of the employer, that of assump- 
tion of liKks ia le«4 affected by the giving of direct orders* the gi.»neral 
rule Ix'ing thai one who knows and appreciates the dangiT of a periU 

*#w/-r«- /; JarvO fjoht Packlnjg Co. (J WW), M Mo. Avi^ X^», 



46 BULLl:TI^' of tjie buheau of labor. 

oils iin(lortakin<r, ovon tlu>u*rli lie on^a^os in it unwillingly ami in 
<»lH'<li(»ii('(' to tho or«k»i*s (»f n siiiH'rior. un\>i lK»ar tlie risU.C) If, 
however, the soivict* involves a departure from the oustoinary lino of 
duty and involves tiangers not obvious to a person of ordinary 
prudence and intelligence, the employee will not be held to have 
assumed the risk. 

( 'ouinhtttory hef/JIf/fuc**, 

The fact of an order is almost conclusive a^; against the defense 
of contrihutory negligence unless the danger was so manifest, glaring, 
or imminent that a prudent person would refu>e to ventui'e upon it. 
Tn general the cinijloyer will not !>e heard to dedan* that the doing 
of thos*» acts the performance of \vhi<'h he commanded was negli- 
gence on the part of the M»rvant who olM»y*'d him therein. C*) Even 
where the circumstances rentlered an alternative disolnMlience justi- 
fiable, th*' act of t»bedience may not have Invn negligent, esjwcially 
where an cmergi^ncv prevente<l deliberation or an ajjparent duty 
demanded the performance of the act. As U> the point that such 
an a<'t was coerced ratliei' than voluntary, the courts have not fur- 
nished many decisions. If the fact exists, it will 1h' considered, 
though a])art from cases involving minoiv the compulsion would luu'o 
to U* of an unusual kind to be of decisive weight. In no case will 
the fact of an order justify a negligent performance of the i>re>cril)ed 
inidertaking. 

scoi'i: AM) ( ni i:m; m- lmpi.-iv mi;n r. 

The |»rincipl«'s conlrolling the liubiruy of the employer have l>een 
considered only in their iii>|dication to va<v^ where the injury was 
received by a servant engaged in the dinic- for whicli lie was sjxviti- 
cally or impliedly hired. Then' is. how(»ver. a <-la'" of caM»?^ in which 
an injured i'mpiovee'-^ claim \< bused on injnrit'^ rereived while he 
Avas at a place or in an employment n<»t contemplat<'d in lii> contract 
(»f hiring. 

If tbe eiijplityee leaves his cn-tomary work vf>luntarily and goes 
whei'e he has no right to be tir undertakes to u-e niachiiiery whi<'li it is 
IKJt his business to use. be is no better than :i tre-^passc?" to whom his 
master owes no duly.(') Ac<iiiie>c<'nce by thecmphiyer in thectuiduct 
of the employee may be construed, liowe\er, a- extending the MH^pe 
(if empIoyiiM'nt to the new line of duties, carrying the roriivsponding 
mutual obbgatioiis. Where the act \^ for the eni[»l(>yer"s benelit it 

•' Ferreii r. <Uil Colony It. i'o. (issT). H.'i Muks. I:i7, ".» N. K, *Jos. 
* Iliiwlej- r. Nitrthern <*. IS. To. (isso). sj N. V. Wlw. 

'"Slajrj; r. IMwnrd Western T*>a & Spice «'o. (1!M>2>, V\\\ ^\y^. .|si>, m H, W, 
astl: Utetm V, lirainerd & X. M. It. Co, (UM>2>, ^S ^, \\\ V"A, y^* VWww. 'i\*. 



employees' LIABILITV IX THE I'NTTED STATES. 47 

may be decided as a matter of fact that it was reasonal>ly a part oi 
the employee s duty, though in the absence of l)oth command and 
acquiescence recovery would be, to say the least, doubtful. 

Act ordei^d hy employer. 

The case is different where there is a specific direction from the 
employer or other competent jxjrson ordering a tem[X)rary departure 
from the contractual lines of dutj*. The risks incident to the now 
employment are in a sense extraordinary, as they are outside of the 
regidar line of duty and were not assumed under the contract relative 
thereto. 

The elements necessary to a reco\'erv in c^ise of injury resulting 
from the undertaking of sudi work are that the departure from 
the regular employment should be substantial, that it should be in 
obedience to the orders of a competent person, and that the order 
given be negligent. ('') Tlie mere fact that the work Avas not that 
for which tlie emi>loyee contracted is not enough, since a command of 
the employer and ol^edience without objection by a person of mature 
years and ordinary' capacity present in themselves no conditions of 
culpability. If, however, the master Inicw of some unfitness on the 
part of the servant or of some increased danger in the new situation 
of which the employee was uninformed, the giving of the order may 
be considered as negligent. In the absence of grounds on which to 
support the charge of negligence, workmen will generally l>e con- 
sidered as assiiming the risk of the new undertaking, in so far as they 
are known or are of that open and patent character that charges a 
person of ordinary intelligence with a knowledge of thenLC") Some 
courtss(^) have differed from this view, however, and have in effect 
made the master giving sucji an order a gmirantor of the safety of 
the conditions of the new work. The reason given is that the new 
order carries the employee l>eyond the contract of hiring, and so also 
away from his implied undertaking as to assumed risks. In tlie 
Adams and the Fort cases, the rule appears to be specially applioal>]e 
on account of the youth or inexperience of the injured employee 
wliereby he was not readily able to compr<»hend the risks. This con- 
dition does not appear in the Mann and the Lalor ca<cs, however. 

Contributory negligence is not ordinarily allowed as a defense to an 
employer giving orders for a departure from the usual Hue of s<'rv- 

« Galveston Oil C«. t*. Thompson (1800), 70 Tex. 23;'. 13 S. W. 00. 

»FeIton r. Glrardy (1900). 43 C. C. A. 430, 104 IhhI. 1J7. 

Pittsburgh, C. & St L. K. Co. r. Adams (18.S0), lOT. Iiul. 151, 5 N. E. 1S7, 
citing Mann v. Orifflital rrintWorks (1^75). 11 tt. I. ir.2; I'ulou P. M. Co. v. 
Fort (1878), 17 Wall. 554; Laior r. Chicago, B. & Q. R. Co. (ISGD), 52 111. 401, 
cite. 



48 



BULLETJN OF XUE BUREAU Or JLM50B. 



ins (Ik* iVHHon tliori-for l»ein^ pracMioilly thnt giviMi iihovi* vrbcrc tlio 
qlle^tio!] of nlH^lioiuv t<i ilirert orders wus disctisseiK i. t\. tlmt a person 
will not Iht liciinl to s«y tlmt it is iicgligeiu-o to rHiry out his own 
onlc'i*s. One can not. howovcr. enter upon a work involving obvious 
and ts\lreine ri^kh and claim tin* t'lnployerV prok-cdnn in hi doinf?, 
nor can he enter on work for which he knows hiniM:*!f to l>e essen- 
tittUy unnitcd hut as to which he ninkes no prote*-t or objeotion. Still 
the prpNuniptiiin lliiit the employer is hiMtor tnf<»rnie<| as to the con- 
ditions of the work and the necehsary qualitit*nli<it»s for doing it prop- 
erly, and the rule i»f tlie customary duty of obedience to n superior, 
will hcrVG to i-elieve the employee even in -iich casics. 

(^ourac uf emploijmvht. I 

It may occur tliat an injured person received bin injury under cir- 
cnmstan*vs that ralM* llie t|ue>ru>n whellicr or not the accident oc- 
curred as the renult nf his employment within its true Iwunds. Sucli 
a ipiestion arises, for instance, when an employw is l>eing transported 
on a vehicle ownejor operated by his employer. If ilie injury was 
received while he was lx»in^ transported for the purpose of forward- 
ing the iMidcrtaking for wliich In- was rngrtge<b it will Im* regard***! as 
an incident of his employment, and tlie rules as to usHumi>tion of 
rii<krt will control. (") The postsible negligence of tho employeen 
engaged in oi)eraling a train on which a bridge gang is. ne(»or<ling 
to custom, bring <'onveyed to tlie place of its ariiial work is such a 
rmk an would ordinarily be contemplated in accepling such em- 
ployment. The same rtde will apjdy tn (he urgligence *>f other 
classes of eniployeos, as track hands^ if iheir uegligmce wouh! not 
have furnishe<l gnumd of action if tJie injured employee had been 
actually at work at tlie time of his injury. 

If, however, the employee was traveling euiirely for hi.s ow^n pur- 
poses, nnrl was not at the time subject to tlie ordei*s of hi» employer, 
the relations of master and servant will Ix* held to Ik* suspended, and 
the injured person will have the rights of a stranger. In n Pcnn- 
siylvania case(*) it was held that an employee who re<»eived transpor- 
tation to and from (he place of his employment as a part of his com- 
pensation was entitled to n'dress «s a p«sseng<*r in iho event of «n 
flceident inflicting injury. The same view beemb to have becu takeu 
by the hUj>reme court of W»shingt(»n,(') while in Xew YorkO this 
riding was condemned, antl tlie fact of traiisportatioti U^ing considered 
aa part pa3inent for \\\^ iierviccii wam held not to take the case out 

«81inuuua e. I'nlon n. LU (1006), 27 IC. I. 47^. CI All. 4N^ 
eo'IHiimoU r. AUfpb^'ii.v Vnlley R. r<>. <1S(WK W pJi. tSi'.t, ms mu. |>ec. ;i:u;, 
'IVlcrwrn »'. Si'allltf Tl*«*ilini To. (IlH)li. 23 Wurth. iS+n. UTi Pao. .M3. 
*VUk r, A>ir York C. ^ U< A. a Co. a8&4). 1)0 », V, awr\. « Ma. \Vn>. m* 



rEKS' LlAB] 



IN THE r SITED 8TAT6B. 



of the ruU' stiitiul in the pBi'agrnph aliovo. Tho courts of Ken- 
ti»rky.(*) MassachiisiHlji.i*) Penn?^ylvjinin,{ -) mid TeimirssecC) Imvo 
allowed rerovery for injuries received by employee*; riding on trains 
Mr street ears at tlie elose of the day's work or for meals withont jmy- 
ment (»f fare, ihe view being Ttdcen that sneli transportation was not 
eonnetrted with tlie performance of tlieir (hities, wliicli were at an end 
for the litne, and (hut tliey had no coimection with the operation of 
thr vehicle on which they r(Mh\ 

The variety of fads involved in cases presenting the qucBtion of 
courst^ of employment is so gieat that it wonUl prartically require 
■n ennii)erati(»n of the decisions to present the uttitnde of the courts 
thereon. Tlie pMieral rule has l>een mentioned, i. e., that the em- 
ployer iti not liable for injuries incurred by empU»yees going beyond 
the vct>i)e of their employment. C) They approximate the condition 
of vohinteers, with wlioin tliey are smnetimes chi.s-sed. By the term 
'" vohinteers "' js meant |K*rsun.s not in the .-service of ihe employer 
prior to their engaging, without authorization, in tlic omployment at 
which they reieived the injury romphiined of, and their situation is 
in general no l>etler thnn that of trespassers. They «re held to have 
as>:nmed Ihe limitations of servants without ac*iuiring the right to 
ilaini the perforniain.v of^ ma.ster*.s duties toward the!n.(0 They 
will l>e protected fn)m wanton injuries at the hands of the regular 
eniploy<*es. however.! c) and the circumstiinces may he such that they 
will l»e held to warrant a service rendered at the invitiition of pers<ms 
not ordinarily authorized to hire employees so as to give to injured 
volunteers a right to recover.!*) Or it might l>e said ihat the situa- 
tion of the persons so employed is modified :*o that they arc no* 
longer regarded as volunteers, at leiist not as tresj)assers. 

The reason for the rule as to voIunteciN is that no one can l>e sub- 
jected to the obligations of an employer, which ai'e the result of 
contract, Avitliout his consent thereto, either express or implied. 
This l)eing the ease, the situation of a person undertaking to render 
i^rvice, either on his own motion or at tht» invitation of an unau- 
thori/eil p«»rMUi. gains nothing from the fart that the danger was not 
appreciated. This pi-eveuts exceptions in l>ehalf of minors, though , 

" IjjuIfPvme & N. n. Co. p. Scott (IIKX)). 22 Ky. U Hep. 30. 56 8. W. 674. I 

* lUckinKt.n r, W.'st I-lnd St. R. r*K i 1l»01 ), 177 -Mnsa. 3ii5. 5» N. R 00. 1 

•'McNiiity r. rwinsylviuiin K. i'o. nS071. 1S2 Prt. 479. 3S Atl. r.24. 

''nintoinootta UrtpM Transit Co, r. Vcnalile flftOO). lOTj Tenu. 4m. 5S 8. W. 
Stfl. I 

*■ I'npe 4*5, unprn. 

f Unenn r. Tyler {If^D. 114 FpO. 716 (V. C. A.>. 

'Kenlucky f\ U. Co. r. tljiKtUtniu 0?<K^»). ^ Ky. IIU; Evnrts r. Kt. rnul, M. 
ft M. n. Co. <1SOO, rjfl MIna. 141, 57 N. W. 45!>. 

*Bta<ll^y f. New York i\ R. <*n. (1875). i?* \. V. r«»: IlnrMtrnv r. OM I'olony 
It r^ji. nwj7|. 143 Ma»*. 535, ly >% B, 20D, ^^^ 



nVhLEXlS or Tli£ dCBEAU OF UlBOB, 

in some jnrisdiotions thoy nrp not rojrftrded sih trespasaors wiipn thi 
arc too youii^ to Ih» charged wilh discretion, ond thus i\ givater 
degree of cMulJou must Ix-! cxcrciiied in Ihcir Ijchulf. 



ItlSTAII^ OP W(illK. 

A general Liniitation of ihe obligntianB of the employer is to bo 
found in Ihi? rnli^ thiil hi* is not Iwund io suiwrviati Ihe purely openi- 
tivo details of hi.n employees' undertakings. He will not he rvupoa- 
bible, therefore, for merely tnuusitory dimmers, "exiting only on tJiO 
Bingle occasion when the injury ycfks sustnined, and due to no fHult 
of plim or eoiiHtructioiK or luck of repair. hiuI to no pcrniflUent defe<rt 
or want of sttf<»(y in the deferuhmt s worUs, or iti the nmuner in >\!iicli 
tliey had been ordinarily used.*'(*) So, also, if I lie danger arises in 
the jtrcigress of the work and i« one of Ihe nndeiNtood conditions of 
Huch i>rogres.s. no linbility attaches to the employer. Acts which are 
involviil u\ the preparation ur car» of instrumentalities C4ia*t no 
it'sponsihility nijon the eiuphiyer where such acts are a part of the 
work of the employees affected. If, hi»wever, the |>er>«:in caring fur 
or pK'paring the agencies is not the one who uw« them, tli© latter 
prrson wilK according to h Iiirge number of casi"*. have mi action for 
injuries ivsulling from the nrgligenrt* of fhe first-named enjployee,(*) 
though niervf differenex* of einployment does not imply such riglit. 
Other decisions many of theui snhse<|nently overruled, make repair 
hands fellow-^crvants with the users of Ihe instnunentalities. 

The impn^i^cr ii.'jc of suitablci instrumentalities, or failun* to usa 
those furnislied. erroneous choice of methods of work, or impropor 
oitliTs nod us-iigutn»'nt'< of subordinates Ki duty aiv acts of a superior 
for which the emph)yer will not iti g(*neral be held i^espoDiiible.('') In 
the same category* are found the giving of signals the transmijtsion 
of orders, and the manipulation of instrumentalities (e. g., cars on 
railway tracks) durmg the progress of woi*k.('') The adjustment of 
tem|j(tnuy structures and iippliuncei^ us«m1 in tlie co\irse of the work 
are within the rule of nonliaUilily. 

The reverK* has fxHsn held whore the apjiliance izausing tho injorr 
WHS furnished by the ernpl(»yf'r himself, where there was aii imjili'sl 
nn<tertaking that the appliance furnished ^honld lx» in a eomplett>d 
ronditlon, where Ihe emjdoyer failed to furnisli suitable mnterial fi>r 
the pre|>« ration of an itiMtriunentAlity, vrhew (ht* • 



«M(M-lmn r. Splrrtc Mfp. To. tV*«>'.U, 172 MflSfl. Kltj. na X. K, M"^. 

ft K»>ra V. Kitchhunc K. r«i. (1S72). lit) Mniw. 240, U Jim. I»ep. .V»s ; m ... 
TcXttM & I*. U. Co. (ISTS)). mo r. S, 213; tlunter i\ araHUvvUItt Ud^ < 
IS «. C> 202. a XuL nei>. %Vl 

M^mil^a r, NortMO (1W»I), 1:>1 S, V. ]. :» N. K. JNIV 

^Mtirm n Atcmnjti, T. * «;, r. n. t>>. (iW), w\ v. w. *wk n i^uvi. cv 



EMPtX>rESs' LLiBlUTY IN THB UNITED STATES. 



51 



nwi 



iMMlt. 



Trot' clioire in (he selt'ctinn uf iimterialii^ u\u\ wUere Hit- danger 
ihi'tl (rvtu oun4]ili(ii)> wliifli iin^ht properly lx» clus>it'd as perm;»- 



In oonchiili 



this 



f till 



iiiJin^ tins roviow or tlir iH»iuinon-law phases of the em- 
plover's liiiluiity it Is hardly aecessan- to i*ecur to tL<? pn-liiitiiiury 
stwUvitMitv tnadv us to tlw vurinnt and rontnidictory intorpretaition-s 
pnMnnl^itwl hy tho sanio t'ourts iit ilitTtavnt tinier aiul to the dLs- 
bimilarity of views held by the courts of different States, since tlio 
inipcHtanre of definite^ nuifying legislation must l)e ohvioub. In 
coiiHdering the stymies enacted on the subject* n consideruble inflti- 
tt\w lowartl hnrmonizing (he law will Ix* found in tiie fact that,a 
lc^[Uilatur« enacting" a statute copied from another State is assumed 
to lake over also iIm* ronstnirtion mid interpn^aition put upon the 
Matute by the courts of the earlier enacting State prior to its adoption 
by the le^.-flature of the later otie. Apart from this fact, however, 
the diver^itie- of interpretation of the crinuiion hiw reappear to affect 
the construction put upon statutes of independent enactment in the 
various Suit«5c 

It was generally heiieved that a long step toward th*' hannnniza- 
tionof tliolaw i*elatiup to the liability of common carriers for injuries 
lo their employees was taken in lOOC in the enactment of a F*ederal 
statute applying to interstate commerce generally. This lielief was 
based on the fart that such a .statirte wtnild supersede all ln«'al statutes 
and niUngs where it applied, and also l>ecause its construction by tlie 
Supreme Court of the United States, in any cjisc (hat sliould come 
before it, would become the authoritative nding in e^ery jurisdiction 
on tlie point involved. By thi' nding of the Supreme Court (") this 
law i^-Tij- declan*d not constitutional. ^Iiat State legislation has ac- 
eompUshed will Hi>iKMir in the main in the following portioius of this 
article. 



LI^VBILITY I^'DER STATUTE LAW. 

EKPLOTEBS* UABILITY I^AWa 

' tl in the United States for the purpot^e of deter- 

tu y of the employer for injtirie-^ to his employees ar*1 

of two principal classes, one relating in a nu»rc or less gi<nera] and 

iiu ' ' ' ' 1 of employment, the other confining itself 

o - of empUivmenr. The laws of both classes 

c^roduci'd m the following compilation, following which is a 

«?f duni^ftiion of their application and judicial constniction. 

• ■ • •.\n m- 

iM# />t«w i^ir*mirtc%%L t*itt iia» uut at tiiia Uutr Vtuuv Ul* fur c«ai&iOvvrtuW<iSi* 



I 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR. 

SAFETY APPLIANCE AXTD INSPECTION LAWS. 

A l>04ly of Frnvs thnt are related to those here ronsiilorefl prrs'-rilrti 
the use of sjifety appliHiu'es on niihvays and in fnctorics nml regu- 
lates the openitiou of mines with a view to the aifety of crnployees. 
These hiwn frequently eontftin ii proviHion thut violation of the 
statute shall rnlail a spo<'inl 1ial>ili(y ui>oii (he eniploViT for injunes 
occasioned by sneh violntion, or shall affect his defenHes in actionH 
for injnrieH. Tlie viohition of hnvH of this class Is coiistmed by tho 
eoints of «ionie SIhI*s only "s evitlence of neg!i|fenee,(") hy others 
as negligence i>er 8e.(^) In the latter view, tlie defense of as^iunied 
risks iK bariH?d,('") and llie party injure<l is not hcHind to show that fie 
was in (lie e.xon'isr of doe cart* to avoi<l an injury caused hy a will- 
ful viohition. (*) None of these laws can properly bo reproduced in 
(ho prcs^Mit eoinieftion; l>ut their more inijxirtant pnivisionsj from the 
.standpoint of their effect on the liai>ility of tlie employer, will bo 
notiMh 

RIGHT OF ACTION FOR INJURI£S CAUSING DEATH. 

In almost every jurisdiction in this country laws have l>con enacted 
which, while not einployei's' liability laws in form, luive yet gone far 
to iimelionile the condition of the employee suifering tinder the hard- 
.sliip of the conimon-lttw rule (hat pioliibitH recovery of damages in 
cnseM wliere an injnivd person dies immcdialidy as a consef|uenco 
of his injury. 'I'hough this statute in itself do(»s not alTe^'t the usual 
defenses of the eniployer in cases of accidental injury, it does give a 
new right to the heirs or personal rc|)resi'ntntivcs of a deci»ased em- 
ployee^ conferring upon tlu'ui the same right of action tJiat the in- 
juivil i)ei'son would have had had he survived. These laws are gen- 
erally lield to iiniro to the benefit of nonresident alien benefiei- 
nriert.('') The laws of the various Slates iliffer in s(ime minor f>oints^ 
though they are alike UKMleled after an Knglish act of 1S10. known 
QH " Lord CampbelTs act/' Tlie States are not uniform in tlieir rul- 
ings on the question as to whether or not punitive or exemplary dam- 
ages arc j'ecoverable under their acts, but only such rights ran be 
enforced os the statute provides. The amount recoveralde ' 

a IMichtT e. Nf'w York C. & II. I(. II. Co. (iwn ). VJl N. V. lyrti, SS ?^, K. I3ii; 
Jupiter Coul Alln. Co. r. Mercer (IMIO). 8-1 lU. A|f|i. \f>\. 

tColJlott p. Auierlenu Mfg. C<>. (1807), Tl Mo. Api*. lOfJ; t»re i\ Aui. Mffc 
Co. nwi). K30 Mo. IKH, rtl S. W. »)78, 

oNnrrnmore r. Cleveland, Ho., B. Co. <18l>0), 06 FeCL 206; rnUed 8t&lc« 
Cement Cu. r. Co<M'er (1l>(>7). -VJ N. K. 081. (Ind.) (8ee und(»r Rpi^lrletlan* oT 
empl»>y'*<'«' rl^jht to rt^'over, |mik«« H, «ttn>v.) 

' rnwn.H' Coal Co. r. fioyee (llMK)), 1H4 HI. 4(C, 50 N. R h*ni, 

• Miimmi r. KnMmi (HmW), 17*1 Mnw. 2iX^ ,'.7 N. K SSC; Luw Mour ln>0 ViK 
K U Waaeu'n Aiimt, fmm), 00 8. C WCJ, tCMJ Va. KL 



I 



EMPLOYEES LIABILITY rN THE TTSTTED STATES. 



hj the statu(«8 of some States, while othei's declare in the constitu- 
tion of tlie State tliat the amount shall not be i*fe,strietecl. Pei-sons 
projw-Tly I'lassifiahle ns henefioiaries nuisl be found to brinjr tlie 
action, the persons no named by the English act Ix^ing the wife, hus- 
band, parent, an<] child of the deceased person. In n number of 
State*?* iho use of the words "personal repi-escutatives " implies a 
less restricted classification of beneficiaries. Of the same effect is 
the ruling? in a ca.se under the statute of Coum^cticut on tliis snl>jei'l, 
that tlie ground of damages is not the loss to the relatives, hut the 
|>erHonal injury to the deceased. (") 

Laws governing the liability of pmploy»n> I'ither contain independ- 
rn! j>rovisioii'^ t'onferrinfr ihc right of action in cases of <Ieulh from 
accidental injmy or refer to the State statute pi-onding for such 
action. 

Owing to tlu' fact that these laws are not to lx> regarded as em- 
ployers' liability laws, and, further, that they are very similar in their 
principal features, no n^production of them will be nmde beyt>nd a 
presentation of the law of tlic District of Columbia (Cmle of 1901 ), 
which will serve as an exanipk^ of this class of statutes: ] 

SEi-rroN 1301. Wlumever by an injury done or hnpi>ening within 
the limits of the District of Columbia the <leath of u i)ersun shall be 
caused b}^ the wrongful act, neglect, or default of any pei'son or 
iHJrporation, and the act. ne^jlect. or default is such as wouUf. if <leath 
had not ensued, have entitled the party injured, or if the pers<jn in- 
jnrcil l>e a marrie*! wonnni, have entitled her husband, either sepa- 
rately or bv joiuiuj? willi the wife, to maintain an a<'tion aiul recover 
dauuiges, tUo pci-sriu wlio or corijoralion which would liave l)cen lial)le 
if dcatli had not ensued slnill be liable to nn action for dauui^es for 
wich <lealh, notwilhslamling the deatli of the person injured, even 
though the death shall have lM»en caused unde;* circumstances which 
eoUKtitute. ;i fehmy ; and such ilonuiges shall be assessed with reference 
U> the injury resulting from such act, neffleet, or default causing such 
(h'ulh, to thi* \vid*)W and next <*f kin or snch {leeeased person: Pro- 
vidtd. That in no case shall the recovery under this act exceed the sum 
of Xi^w thousand dollars: .1//// prorftled fttrt/iri\ Tluit no action shall 
\jQ nmintained under this chapter in any case when (he ])arty injured 
by such wrongful act, neglect^ or default has recovered damages there- 
for during the life of Mich party. 

Sec. 1;U>J. Every such action shall be bronght by and in the nanio 
of the personal representative of such deceased person, and within 
iMM- year after the death <if (lie party injurtnl. 

Sk"-. i;^03. Tlie <lanuiges reeoveriMl in sttch aetion shall not l>e ap- 
propriated to the payinent of the debts or liabilities of siich deceased 
jierson, hut shall imne to the benelit of his or her family and be dis- 
iribnCcd accoriliujr to the provisions of the statute of distribution in 
force in tliu said District of t'ohnnbia. 



• McKUli!"M .- n>tt..r.j|.i> ilstiii til i'..nh ir.7. 



54 



JIUULKTIN or TIIK BflU.M ^'i j-\lJ*"h 



Following is a onm|>ilntiou of xUr various law:s in tliv FniTi 
8ioti>-s regiilnlin;^ llic liabilit}'' of riiipioyers f<»r iujiirics to einpl'ty**^* 
wrnuigt**! ulplmMirHlly according to States^ «iid Tcnitorkv; 



rODK OF 1SI»7. 



LUibiUty uf *mpiu)trrK fnr iitfitH'ii lo rw/i^oyv- 



by- 



kry cniuod 



I»»C«'Ol* ; 



NcctlKenopnf 
«uti«rlutun<|- 
oof: 



Or uuc In nu- 

thorlly ; 



Ob4^IMii(V In 

rulrc or i n- 
■frncllon» ; 



]i p r • ii u In 
eburi;t» of fftll- 
riiinlHttfiinl.clr. 



Cxc^lillona. 



SrxTjON ITJit, >Vhpn ;\ («*rKnnnl Injury itt r- 
nr riiiiilnyiT in tin- w-rvlt.-c or hu»«iiifw* nf ifir 

till' imtsti't" or rii)|il'iyrr in Untiio In nti-i^-iT ii< ....i....^. -.»> U 

Hprvjtitt or rniploytH*. jis If lie wtTi* ii MitiiMStT, t\tu\ imi tMiir^tfiM In 
nuvU Borviei' or viii|>l<>>tuvitt, In tin* discs fotlowlnt:: 

1. Whvn thp tojnry Ih eniiw**! hy r(*fifloH of nuy iWc^i In th«' 
foinlltltiu of tbi" wayh. wnrkH. uimUlm'ry. nr plnnt i*iinno*-t«?0 wlUi. 
or tiwMl in thi' buslnrss of tin- niu>tlrr <tr frnjiloytT, 

2. \Th«ii lh<* injury 1« cnii>*t'Hl by iVMitnn nf itn* nincllirpiiiv of 
liny |«»n*<»n In tin* M*rvi»'«« or rniiiloynion! nf tho ttKiitt»^ »»r mi- 
Itloycr, wln.t LiJiM nny fniiHTlnli'mk-iirt* InlniBUnl to Uhu. wliilsi hi 
Miv oxon'lsi' tif mirli su|xTlntr4iiic"niH.'. 

.'i V\*lnMi «noh Injury Ik ciiusrtl by rtvisoii of tlit* iMirlljcviior vt 
any ih-Tmoh In tlii' M-rvkv or I'uiploytuent of tin* nia**?' "^ •■' -m- 
j»li»yer. lo whn«» ordrrx <»r (Urwlbms tbf* wr^nnt or t*. a 

thi* tiuio of tilt* iiOury% wiis bnunil tu cnnforui. nnU •! > in. 

If Kuril InJnrJpH n*stilro(l frnni b!s Iwvlnjr M conformed* 

4. WIji'H snch Injury it* «-!in^*»»«l by roaxon "f lbc» net or ombu 
sbm nf nay i>*>r*nK4 in tUv - ■ ^'OiMloynntit of Uw uwihIit «r 

i'UJ|tIoyi»r, cliin«4or mnilv ii ■* b» Ihr ni!»'8 nuil rc^nbitlnnit' 

tr by Inws of tin* nlil^^or I'l « tipni-.M-r, or bi oixnlieno*^ U* \mrUc- 
nl«r Instrncllons cl^f»n by nny ptrHon d<'b'ir;itKi with Ihr imtliorlty 
itf Ibr nKifti»r or oinployor In t'» ■ ' - ■ 'f, 

.%. Wlirn Mirh Injnry Is CJin son of tin* neKlltfMM* mf 

any iK-rt-ou in tiJt* wrvlrt' ur - ■. ■. ■nf of fii:* ini/H'i4'r ..■ t-m- 
plityrr, wlni has thi* Hiiir«c' or control of nri> •- 

uioii\o, cnebii*. Kwltcb. mr, or tmin ii|»ou :i . .y 

I'lirt of tUr trni'i; nf ii railway. 

Hnt tho uuiHtpr or om|ilnyor Iw not llithlo mnirr *UI" •*orl|nn 
ihH wrvjint or 4Mii|iloyc^' kn<'w of Uu* dofn t (»r nr- 
tho lujnry. ant! falliil In n ri*iiKonnblr tluio \*t u- 

tlH»l'»>'^f to lb*> !nn«t4»r or oui)»Ioyor. '•■ 

blni*«t'lf cuuMiri'O In th<* KiTvi»'e or 
pmploypr, uiiif^nN ho wan nwar>- tli 
BUt'h HuporJor ulrwnly kucw oi 
tiM* Mntsl«T or «'niployi*r llabli.* i 
ftf'l llnM-Hn noMillontHl affH*!* from, 
rrtJicMltoil owlTtK l4t tl«» ni'Klltrinin' < ' 
of noun* iK>r*4oM In tin* sonlco of tb' 
truHlisl by blni with ilif duly of 
run ■'■' ' ■•■ ■....,., 



If 



rxtmnsn ex- 
on I lit. 

XuJitrjr i*aii«- 
Itlftflmtti. 



of 



etUiJioyiH;, bif:« pt'tPHMJai I 

artlon fb«»rofor. nrnl Ihr 

II,.. 



tnt or **tfti't*»ypf. of 
I- • in tJie iMiytnMit 

' flu* M'n:Mif tip 



iknt lo tit 
. «r« Of*l 
buL fc4iali be dUctrUtutui uu.urd' 



DM. 



EMPLOYERS UABILITY IN THE UNITED STATES, 



57 



COIiORADO. 
CONSTITUTION. 

IArticus 15, — Oontmcts of emptoyvvfi ttoivtng right to dam<iift4t, 

Sbctiok 15. It riinl! I>e imlnwfnl for ftijy person, rompnny or cop- Cohirnc i ■ 
poratlon to reiiDliM? of Itn Korvnutg or emijlnjeca, as a eoiKlltlon f>^ T'dlm*^ •eJ'^'** 
their emuloyitieiit or otliorwlsp, niiy oontrntt <ir agreeiiH'ii! wlifieby ^ "** ' 
«ikIi iktwui. ooiiiiMiny nr CoriiontlftHi shnll Im» ivkMiscd nr dis- 
cliarKiHl from liiibillly or rPHponslblllty on ncooont of personal In- 
jurli'fl PX'i'Ivt'd by surli 8<.*rv»iifs nr employ*?*'** wUile in tUt' wrvkM! 
nf BiM'li person, cniufiuny or lorporntion by rc«»m nf (he iu*gIlK»*uce 
of KUt'h jierxttn. c<iinp«ny or cori>oniTi(m, or tlif* HtrfmlH or piiipIoye«»8 
thereof, uail micU iMiutna-ts kIuiII ho tib»<»it]tely utill aud void. 

milXS' ANNOTATKD STATVTES OV IS*! AND SUITLICAIKNT 

OF 1W>1. 



LUtbiiitU f'f »inithi(ft tH foi' iitfurirs fo rmployrr^. 

Skction 1511(1. Wlipre, after the initi^aKe of this net, perwouul 
Injury (« ranssod to nn employ«t*, whn is biujwjif in the exercise of 
tlue run* iiiid di)i;;en<-<* iit tJit> ttuu". 

(1) Hy n^nsou of any def»x't In the condition of the w«y». worUs 
'or tuuchluery cuiinctled witli or nswl In Um bnsliiuHM of the eui- 

I'loyer, which nrose from or liml not l»eoii dljutiver^nl or remedied 
owinc tti the iieKliKetice of the employer, or of nuy iforson h» the 
Hprvlco of the employer, and intnisied by hlia with the duty of w.*e- 
lliiK Ihut file wnyn. wniKs iMul luachiucry were in rir<>[>er cnnditliiti ; 
Dr 

(2) Hy reason of thi- n»*»rliiienre of nny person In the servlee of 
|ll«? employer, !ntrns(nl with or exenlslnj; nnperlntendence who*? 

sole or primiiial duty In that of superinteiidence; 

(M) Hy reason nf tlie net,'llKence of any piTHon in the service of 
the employer who Iiuk the cliarui* or control of auy Mvltrh, Hliniul. 
)octmnttive engine or train uimmi n railroad, the emphiyee. or tn 
ftase tlie Injury ifKuUs In death the i>nrtlea entltloil by law to sue 
ond rwover for HUi.h duniatfcn Khali have the Riime rlijht of cnm- 
liensatiou and rentcily aunlnnt the employer, as if tht* employee had 
not Itf^'ii an employee of or In the servlet' of the emitioyer or en- 
iKfl{;eiJ In IiIm or its work. 

8kc. irilllh The amount of com|K_MisrttIon recoverable undei* this 
Jnct, in r«j*e of a per:*«rtml Injury reHulting stjlely from the uegU- 
Ipjuee of It c*:»empIoy(.f, **hall not exc^-ed the sum of live thousand 
IdoJlflrs. No arthai for the re^^overy of comi»en«itlou for Injury or 
ileath undi'r thlu act shall be maintained unlens written notice of 
ilbc time, place and cause of the Injury is given to the employer 
vMthln Hlxty days, and the action is commenced within two years 
from thf occurreiH'c of the accident caut^lm; the Injury or death. 
Itnt i»o notii-e Riven under the provisions of this sectlMU kIhiII l»e 
dt*emed Invalid or InsnlHrimt soh-ly I>y reawai of any Inaccuracy 
In Ktfllin;? the time, place or cause of Injnrj- : Provulnl, It Is 
frhown (hat there wa8 ito Intention to uilsh*ad. and that the i)arty 
[I'utrtle*! to notice was not in fact mlsle<l thereby. 

Sec. lollc. Whenever an emidoyi* enters lnt*» a oonirnot» either 
[tvrllteu or verbal. wUh an uide|M'ndent ccnitractor. to do pjji't of 
jiincb emftloyer's work, or whenever such ci^nti'nctor euterH Into 
n contract with a «ui»contraclor to do all or a part of the work 
Feomprhusl In snrli iimirarl or ronrracts with the employer, Buch 
i-unlract or HulM.-onlraet shall not bar the liability of the employer 
ifor Injurlen to tin- emiiloyec!) of wudi couiractni- i»r subcontractor, 
Ilty reaHon of any deflect In the condliloa of the ways?, work:*, 
in.i'IdrH TV i.r ninnt, If they arc the prttperty of the employer or 
and If Huch defeit aroKt? lu* laid not lieen dia- 
led throngli lla* m^i;Ut:<*nce of the employer or 
t»»f i*wme i***rMt»n hilrunled by Iilm with the duty of seeing that they 
mere In proivr rondltlon. 



Injury oauMcd 
bj— 



tH^fccts 



NVErllK^no^of 
Jinpcr i n t'^tid- 

Of person In 
rharice of rail- 
roiidaiKtiiiti^tc. 



Dimases. 

Notlr*. 
IJmltutlou. 



Con(r«cl<irV 
pinpli»y«»^. 



BULLKXIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOK. 
CALIFOBNIA. 
l>KKKIN<rS <'<)I)Krt AM> STATrTKS, IMJSu, 
Civn. Cook, 



Ordinary XtcrioN U»7i» («f» iuihmuIwI l.y rlmpler 07. Aoin of llHiT). An 
pinpliiyfi' IH not binind in liulnnnlfy h\9 tHupUtyt^o for lutist'M mif- 
fritil by iIh' liitUM* 111 mtitu-NiiH'iH't' nf Hit* mdliiHry rinks of tlie 
ltnsiiii>*<s 111 wlili'h lir Ik riii|i]oy(*il, nor lit onnsm^jiicitor (*f tl]<> ix'kII- 
j!»MK-e of aiiolhor poi'hou eniiiiny.nl by tho niuiie employer hi the 
5UtiiH* tftMu-rul ImikIiii^s. iiiiIchs ttii* iif>£ll^4Mit'e cniiKluk' tlu* Injury 
xvH« fi>iiiinU(til ill tlio iK'rfoniiuiH-'e of n duty (bo emplnyor owes 
by biw lo the fiupluytt', ni* iiiili'tw lUr euiployi'r bus iH*i:lt'<-UHt 
tn !!*«► onliimry nire In llio HoU'i-ltnii eif tho ciilpnblo (Mnplnyiv: 
or f*riirul*il, m'lrrthil'Hi*, Tlint IIh* tMiiiiloycr hIimII be liable for Kinb 
Injury wbori the Kinin' tcmiMh fnMu Ibe wmntrfiil jtrt, iiruUi't nr 
ilrfiiuit (if niiy »»:eitt or oltleor uf hucU employer. Mii|M'rltir to (he 
I'liipliiyts' luJiireU, or of ii iKT^ion enipluyiil by f<nrU employer buv- 
\i\ii Iho rlj^bt to eontrol or Ulreit Ibe servb-*-?* of >*iirb empbtyw 
Injiii****!. mimI itlHii \vb4*ii Hitch Injury it'ttnitH from the ivroiifrfnl urt, 

Othrrdepnrt- iietrlcct or <lcfjiiilf of n roeniployee euicflneil In nnotber ilejittrtinent 
Um, cic, (,f bibor from that of |Ik« employe*' lujun^l, or eniploy<Hl himui a 
mnebbir^, rnltroiiil train, switch sl;fn«l ftolnt, locomotive oiiRlnp, 
or olber appliance tbiui (bat ii;«m wlil'b tlie employee |\vbo| Is 
hijiiretl Is employe*!, or who l« cbartrefl wllb illHpalcblne trulms 
or tniMsinlttinu leir^M-iipbb* or ti'lepbonlc order*) n|Miu any rail- 
road, nr In (be npvriiilon of any inbie. factory, machine iibop, or 
oilier Indmitrliil «>«*taliliHbment. 

KDowle4li;e. Knowledjto by an einployiv Injured of the ilefrctlve or nnmfc 
t-lniracter or coiiilltbin of iiiiy macblnory, wayiii, appllnnci*ii or 
FlruclureH of Hitch empbiyer nball imt be a bar t«t itnMvery for any 
Injury or death <finHe(l tb'M'eby, unlei^H It »<ball aim np|Kiir tbiit 
Hitcli eniployi'i* fully inideri^tfHHl, couiprebendiHl and ap|>riM*lnt**d 
Ibe danKern Incident lo the use of nnrb defeetlve uiachlnery, 
ways. appllanceN nr HtrU'turcN, iind iberi'after eonsenUnl In im»« 
the Hniue. or c<»ntiniieil In the uw then-of. 

Injur I r t) Wlicn death, wln-lber lnstantane<nifi or olberwise, resnIlH from 
rnuKliigUeiiili. „„ pij,n.y (,, „,, i.inploy*«e r4veU»'d as aforoMitlil, the |*'rHomil rei»- 
Ifftentntlve of stirb einptoya'c Hhall bav«* a rl^lit <>f ncilon therefor 
iil^aliiHt Huch nnployer, and may recover dania>r*'H In re«|ioct 
IbertMif. for and on behalf, and for the beuellt of Ihr wbhuv. etilld- 
ren, dcjiendent paieiitH. and ili*|MMidenl bvotberw nnt] i*JHtrix In 
order of precedence an heii'ln Mtati*«l. but no more than one nirtlon 
Hhall be bronubt for ^ncli nt'overy. 

Any eontnu'l or ai:rivineiit, exiu*<»s« or Implied, made by nny 
HUeh omploy4*e to uatie the beiii'tli** of iIiIk Hociioii, or any i>art 
Uicreof. hIuiII be null and void, iind thin si^'ibui Hhall not t>e i<on- 
IrtrufMl lo deprive any hucU employne or b1»* i»erwonal n'pri*ji«*nt(i- 
tlve, of any right or ii'metly lo wblcb he Itt now eniltlwl under Ihv 
laws of thlH Slate. 

roniriiiutnrjr '|«|,y |-nb'H and principles of Inw nn to e«m(rlbu(oi'y noKllgenev 
tif*i(iiirrnrt*, ,vblch apiily to oilier canen shall aiiply to oaneH arlHliu; under thin 
Hi<4>ibm, exc4'pt In so fur ns the siime ore herein luiMlllbsl or 
cban^Lil. 

Skc. 1071. An employer namt In oil euH*"* Indcnmlfy hU em- 
ploye^fl for loHspK ca(is<'<l by the fonuer'8 want ol ordinary wire. 
IVurbuiH acts reKulalbi^ the working of mlneM provide tlint \1ii- 
liitlou thereof or willful fiitlnn* to ctmifdy tlien'wltb rriidcr!* i«*^r 
fuma f)o olTendlne liable to all ihimaseH rrfmltlnif b< 
vJolnlUm or failure. A<Ik of March i:s. lS7:i; ttvt 
J^74: lief* !>/ 1W3, diuptor 74.1 



Waivers. 



59 



DEI^WABE. 

iO nrt rcqnirihf; Air )»i-iila*> to It iiw>il oit iinHfl*^hK(*r trnin^ 
im tiieir violation. A<-ti^ of ]!Nt:t, (^'Impt^r :m4.) 
VLOBIBA. 
ORKRRAL HTATUTRS OF 11100. 
ZAahilltp of rnitrtrtid tftmponi** /or lnJuH**» to einpfojffiett. 



:t i^. A railroad t'omiwiny sUnll he Uable for any tluiu- l» o m » u »• 



■UP, stiK^k ''i- otluT pro|»erly. by Ibi? rnnnlnj; *''iiion'*o7 rarh 



Necllecnee. 



rutoiutraUvo 



lit. 

thi .<r Cflr*. or otbt-r nmcblnery of hucIi t**)in]iiiny, or^r, 

for tUiuiJi,'!.' i\>ino by nuy |M-rB<>n bi Ibt* employ nml sitvU'o of such 
comimny, imU»f"*H Ibi* n»in|miiy nlinll mnk** it ainM'nr (lint tbolr 
lt» ' ^ nil onlihMi'y uTnl ri'ai<*Mutl)le rnri* and dlll- 

ice. '. ! Ill nil onf:(*s ItcUiu iikhIiisT tbc ''Hinpiiny. 

'1*Er, ....,, -■ ]..,-. .!» sbiiH riinvHr (iainiiprt"^ from n nillrnnd 
company f(»r Injury to hlms<*lf or his projifrty. wbrn* the i*ame \» 
(|on»' t»v Lis ronwnt, or !« rnii.s.il by bis uwii iM*s;it)roTi<*o, If tho _ 

vot ;iitd the iipt'utK of lb** romtniiiy nrv Inttb «t fiinlt, lbi» orKliffpncc 

fori rwoviT. bnt (bo dfiimiK*^ (■linll Ik? dlmiulsbiil or In- 

rrf«M«l U> ihp Jnry In jiroiwrtlon to tbe ninount of clofaiitt at- 
trlbutnblt* to Itlui. 

Si;r. .*il.V». If nny imt^oh is iiOnrrfl by n rntlrond <^»mpany by N<t"ii((t'nce 
tbe riiimlni; of Him !.►. <.(iio(1v*'r or i^arn, or otluT ni:\rblnery of "^.'^'' "'"*"'*""* 
BHCb couipiiny. h*» bflni; »t rhp tluu' of siidi Injury nn tiniiloyi'O of 
tbt> co»i|Biny, and (!»•' doituiK'' wii* raiisi»i1 by iietjllnouef of an- 
oUifr omploytH*. and wltb(»ut fiitilt nr m-KlUviii-e on tbc part of tho 
perwii Uijiu'pd. bis cinpioymcnt i»y the comiwiiy slinM !»*• no bar to 
■ rwtfvvry. N-j totitnici which rHstrlcls such UnblUty shall ba 
or btoUlug. 



Contracts. 



OEOBOIA. 



COOK OK 1805. 



IJiihiUiij of mihodd rompanle* for injuriei to cmitJoitt'cit, 



RccTio^ 2297. Uallroad companies are common carriers, nnd 
IIaMp as such. Ah such oomitnulea nere««arlly have uinny om- 
jiloji'OH who cnn not iHwsildy luntrol tl»i»8e who should I'Xfrt.lw* 
care and dilljrpnce In the rimiiluir of Inilus, such r-ompnnle» shfill 
Ih» liable to siu'h einployprH ns to imsiatMiftprs for bijurteH nrlslnt! 
Xr» ■' ■ ' 1 ' 1 dlM^tMK-e. 

> y phiill bo liable for any dnniafro 

d'- *- . i pi-o]M^riy, by tho ninnini; of the 

U" -M" eiir."t, «-r (itlior nuwliiiifry of »n» h company, or for 

dii by jiny itorsnn in the eHij>lo\ni]cnt iitid Hfrvice of nnch 

conipiiny. unU's*: lhi» iT»mpany hIkiII ninke It npprnr tba! their 
jigiMi*»» bnvi- fv=T'-Ivt"| all ordlii.Try and reanonable ntri' and dill- 
■ hi all mfM*5 iM'In;; fipibifef the coinpnny, 
. jibjiM rei'over daiiintro fi'oin n nilln^n*! Com- 
'jM^rly, where the stnno Is done 
• >\\n ne;;11in':u')'. If the coui- 
1111 Ml. n^.iii .'i W1-- . .■jiijtiiiiy nrr both nt fnntt, tbr for- 
ri^i'over, Imf thr djiinncefi phiill be dlriilnlf-li»'d by the 
"portion 111 tin* nniounf of defnnU :ittrib>it;ihl.< *■» him. 
If the irtTwni Injur.- 1 l<s blniwlf nn « "f the 

1 fb. dini/ .•>' WHS < iitiso«t by nnother i-. and 

on tbp i»art of the jvrhort iiijiMcd, hlu 
■■'■- ■fbnll h(» no b:ir to bis rwovcrj*. 

" *\:\. Aet« of ISfMt). 
njX oUier like oiUoers 



Rrt- 



pu 




iv 




plil illii : 1 


mer 


may 


Jnrt 


h. t 


>..■ 




C*-:' 




Wl' 




eii'i 





Mrnsiurc of 
llnblUty. 



t>nniBff<pB Jirln- 
ItiK irvtu upcr- 
alliin nf euTK, 
no. 



XcellKPHM. 



Compnraip 
negUpvnoo, 



N •• tf 1 i n *' II c 

n( frllnw-lSMrT- 



lInb[lM> 
Ct'irefa. 



«0 



BUI.LKTIN OF THK BUHEAIJ OV LABOR. 



oi»or4itlnR i*iilIton»!« In this Slntc. or j-miilnll.v In this Stato, for 
fnJiirU's iind (hiniii^efi to (HTHotis hi tliclr employ. cniiwM by the 
riocIlK***'^'*^ "f ctn'inployiM'K, m* tity InJurlfH nr i!niniip>i<i |o ikt^imirI 
proinTty. hIuiH he the winu^ n» tlir Hiihlllly int\v ll\<tl I»y Iiiw kov-j 
crninic the oiHirntion nf nillri>tu1 cnrpornlltnin In this Stnic for llk( 
ItiJurli'H ami (lnina;:(>H. ntul n IUmi Ik luTclty crontHl on iho ^roMi hi*j 
conn.' of nny snoh rnlM'oml uUlle In (lao lininls of any wiioh rei'dver, 
trufltw, or u«»!»:nfo, or olhft |)t'r«oii« In fuvur of »nch InJur.Hl eni- 
ploy<t« or plnltitin', Kiipcrlor to flU other Utms ugiituHt tlofifiuhtut 
uiioier tho lawH of this Stnte. 



J.lnhUitu o/ rmfihiU*'i'B for infurirfi fo rmp?o|/rM. 



of fuUow-KTT- 

•nti. 

I>uty of fin- 



A*«nmptlou 
of rlMk. 



ronfrftetR 
walvtns lUlfll- 

My. 



N«'(flli:rll<?0 

of follow wrv- 

RUtN. 



Doitrcr nf 



Skctio.n 2«na Kxtrpt In t-ano of ralh-ofiil (•(►nii«ni!u». thp mnfliepj 
1h not liable to one wrvant for Injurbnt nrlnluc from t he n<»i:Mirriice' 
or lulHconihu't of other wr\nnt« about Uio wnio biiHlnwH, 

Srr. 'Jtin. The maKter Is tKinnd to oxcn-lae orclhiary c»ire In Ihr 
fipWilon of N^rvantH. aiifl not to retain them after knowIrMljre of In- 
ctmipetenry; he inunt iihu like care In funilphln^ uiaubluery djiial 
In khul to thnt in ^^'noral nse, noil nitsonnbly Hiife for all |K*r-. 
Hons who opcriite If with ortlinai'y cnrv and illlivrenre. If tbl-i 
are latent defeet^* In maehlnery. or dnn^'prn hieldent to nn emploj 
miMit niikienvn to the jwrvarit, of wlilcli the innMti'r knovvm 
on»rht to know, hn iiinKt ylve the HorvnnI wiinilnc in ref»r»eet thereto/ 

Rfo. 2012. A forvnnt aaHunief* the ordinary \-\n\in of his employ- 
nieiit, and In hound to exerflwe hit* own sUlll and dllliieure to pn>- 
io*^{ hiniwolf. In snIlH for Injuries arUInt; froni (he tiet;li«en<>L' of 
th(^ nuiHler In falUnc to roniply \vlth the dntloH ImiNtHod h}* the 
pre^'edlnK aet'tloti. It niUHt apiM'ar lluit the innHter knew or ouKtat 
to have known of the hu'oni potency of Ihi- olhrr wrrvant, or of tl 
defe«'t8 or dnnpTT In the machinery mipplled; ntul II must nli»o n] 
|)ear thnt the servant InJnrtHl dUI not kno\Y ntid had not erjunl 
means of knowliik' such fiut. and by the exeniw of ordinary care' 
could not have known then^if, 

Sko. 2»viri, All eontrartu l¥'lww»n mfl«lpr and n^nant, matte lu 
couKlderallon of eniployuKMit, wlu'reby the nuiHtor Is exemplnl 
from Ilabllhy (o the wnant arlsluE from the neellir**uot* of Ihe 
naiKter or hlH HemndN. an Kn<-h lliildllty In now flxcd by low. shall 
be null and void, ai* inrnluHt pnhlle polley. 

Sice. 3030. TIiu prhu-lpal Ih not liable to one niriMit for Injurli-fl; 
nrlMln;; from tln^ nf>flltfen<*i» or nd*'oiidnet of oth*r oKHntN ahon( 
Ihe Mjitne huMlnt'HH: the exoepUon lu caw* of ruHroadM has beett 
pjwb»UH!y Htatetl. 

SKr. rjK.'iO. If Ihe plalntlfT by ordinary eare eould havo nvol.bHl 
the eonnequeneeH to hlmftelf eaiiMMl by the rtefeinhinf*« n 
he Ih not ontltled to re<*«>ver. Rut In other I'flWH the d<i' s 

not rrlleviMl, olthouf^h the pliilutlff nuiy In some way have ^'ou- 
Irlbuteil to the Injury «ii»talnod. 



ILLINOIS. 



I An not requlrlnsc thrrshlnje mnrblnoK. comfihellers. or any 
olher maehlne driven by borwi'<'wor, to have tbr tnmbllnir mdM or 
idkafttTif; boxe<1, ninkefi th<' owner who falls tn eom[>ly with tbn 
terms of ihe net llahli* in dainap'H for lt»Jurle» (K'niahaied by Kocb 
noneomidlntire. Annota1e<1 StaluteH nf IMMl, chapter 7n, mwtlon (. 

So filNo of the net I't'cnlatinj: the workluK of ci»nl mines. Aftn of 
IStm. ait. piik'f :Mwt. mvllon :u. 

The railroad safety applhim-e law of 1^n*~ f,.i^..u .m-i*- ri... .t,.. 
fi'UM'H of nKptnnxtl ri^KK and of (.tjutrlbm i 

empioyi**' U Injnritl iM-r-iniRe of tbceompiii , h 

the taw. rhiMich the cniployev knew ot It Act« of lM)u, ttcl« ihk^ 
300, MLvtlun a I 



iTEBB' UABTOTY IN THE UJTTTBD WTATEe. 



INDIANA. 



ANNifVrATKD STATUTKW UK 1SI>1— ItKVISION OK 11»01. 

LlabUitu of rmphiynn /of injuries to rmphiuvfit — Contrihutrftu 

mttfiOiHcr to be mnttvr of <l*fi'nsr outy. \ 

HrmoN Sriihi. Jk»rt'3fti>r In fill actions for dnniiip'H brt>ui!ht on ActmnM fnr 
Qccomit of tlie allf^'eil iifjrUpoiice of any itersou, copnrtnersbii* or^nJ^'ru-rt. etc. 
coriK>nitloii for rauwinj,' perniutiil lnJnrU*f<. or tli<* (l<*iith of any iH^r- \ 

son, it shall nor Iw» np«***«Knr,v for the plnlntlir In surb flctlou to 
al]i*p<* *ir provu lUe want of rontribntury n<'j:ll«i'nft» on Ibe |Mut uf 
Ibe itlaintiff, nt* on tbe piirt »»f tbc jM^rsoa for wbose injnry or dosilU 
Itie uelbm niny b«' !)r(iUi;br. ronirlbuloi'j' nt'tilipfiiof*, on tlii» pjirr tonrrfumorr 
of |be philnfifT. <>r sm^h otli(?r [»ers<»n. shall be u ninlter <tf (Ipfrnw*, "''JibK'-m..-. 
and sucb dofeii»*»? uiny bo proved uu<b»r tb»^ answer of gpneriil 
denlol: • • • | 

Contractu of rmployrrn tcntrhw riyht to dumttgrx. 

Section 7oS2n. All t^»ntrnols liefwcori cniplnycr iiml (employe** c tun ra<?tB 
rolcjiHins the omployor fr<>ui liability fnr fbiin)i»;es ^lrtHin^; mit df void. 
tbe ncjfligrnro of tbi* employer by which tbe employee Is Injured, 
or bj euEJo of tbe employee's deiitb ttj bis representullveis, are against ; 

public* poliey, iuu1 hereby doehired null aind \i»ld. ' 

Sec. 7osi*b. All e«»ntnutK lieiween employer and empliyoe releas- Third iwr- 
in^ third pcrnuns, eopurtnershlps or cor|H>rnllons from Ilnblllty foreona. 
di»nnij;»'f arising out of the necUpenee of sui;h llilrd persons, co- 
pnrtnensbips or eorporatlons hy whirh tbe employ^-e of such em- 
ployer Ik injnre<l, or in ease of tbe dealb of such omiiloyee, to his 
reiireMi'iitatives, are ajsainHt public rfoUey and ar« hereby declared \ 

null and void. 

Set. 70S2.\ Ail oonti*notH between an employee and a tlUrtI per- Coairacisro. 
Bt»n. coiHirtnerwblp or oi>n>"t'aUou in wbieb it is aKreed that f^*-' IV^JJU*^ tnm 
eiupioyer of such employ<»e shnllbe reloase-l from Ilahiilty for dnm- *"***""*■ 
npf^ of »n<'li employee arlHliii* out (»f tbe iieplit;en(V of the employer. ' 

or i; ' (be death of snob employee, to his repre»Jentntlve-S an* 

ay;- '• poll.-y and are Iiereliy deeijired null and vohl ; Pr*)' 

vidiu. lull notlitni; In tliLs tot slnill apply to vohmtary relief de- tiiMiniiico. 
imrtments, or jiJ^wtelaHonn or^ranlziMl for the pnnH»tic of hi8urlnK 
ciiiplo.veeH. Notblnjr In this ii.t Hball be oonhtrned to revert back 
to conlrnetB made prior to tJie pnssn^je of tlds act. Nor shall this j 

nrl afTiH't |»endlnu Iltluntinn: Piitridrtl, That nothing lu any sec- 
lion of tblM aet shall Ih? ko wMiBtrued as to affi^'t ur apply to any 
cuntrnci or uirroement tliat nwiy lie ninde between tlie employer and Coatrart* 
employee, or in citMe of deaUi. his next of tiin or bin representa- P^^** **'*"" ***" 
live after an Injury to tbe employee has o«Tnrred, but tbe pro- 
vlffbinfl of this net Hliail nptily wilely to contracts mtide prior to any 
Injury. 

Liability uf rnilrund (.umfMnirg, t'fc., /or Injuries to cmplo^rcn, 

Skctio.n 70S3. Every rnlln^d or other eori»oratb>n. except niu- injurycnufi^ 
nleliMil. o|ieratli)t; in tbi.'* Stato, shnll t>o Uable for damages for^^y — 
l»ernonnI Injury ftufTereil liy any emiiloyee while lu its servb-e, tbe 
emidoyee mi inJiinHl iretm: In the ejterelBe of due cure and dill- I 

gence, hi the followinc ea«e8: 

tirat. When sueli Injnry 1h siirferrd by reason ©f any defeet In r)t-f»^4(«: 
the condition of way«, worlts. plant, ttKilH and Djaolilnery fon- 
nectiNl with or lu !i!<e In tbe business of i*neh cor|*oration, wlien 
**»ch defn t vvuB ihe result of neiL'Ilfi:cn<*e on tlie pJirt of tbe ror- 
lioratloo, iir »»oau' pi-rson lntrusl<*d by It with the duty of Iteeplns 
BUcU vvuy. worlis. plant, tooiB or maebhiery In iirojHT conditl4tn, 

iitrf*ml. \Vhi'r«» sncb Injury leMilteii from the ufjiliueiu'e of any XpbI 
Iterwm In the Kcrvlee of such <iiriKiratIun, to ulntue order or direr- "t ""<* Jn 
lion tho InJuiiMi employee at tlif time of tbe injury wan bound to . **'* ^' 
omifonti, and did couforui. 






BULLETIN OF THE BVBRAU OF 



CibodU»no*» Third, \Vln?iv wirh IiO»ry n-*"''' ■■' •■' 



(o fMliMi. ^^^^y ptTi^iu <l()iif or lIUIllc 111 nl 

hy'lnw of sin*b c<ir]Mimtl<kn, nr 
Hlrttt. (ioiih plvLMi li.v any tH>rA>n tU'lrgniini witii Ihv nuttiurity uf liie 
roritoriitlon In tJiiit hobitlf. 
N«'nU(rrnrc I'tuntU, Wbero miicli Itijurj y<^^ cnnm*d by H- 

of iHDtnii In [„»fj|(,n In x\\f service nf stk-h ctiriHirntton \vl>.. 

rnatl •itcoal.atc. ^'^'I'lil* Mi^crniih unku*. NWiU-u ynrnl, ' 
riitfltic ur triilu t))Miu u rHi[wu.r. or w 

l)> Ihtf iiui;llKoiit'o of rtuy |H»r»«>a, rmMi. »-- 

#iaj:iMl In tUo ht\u\v ouniun)U i«»rvl<'r !n any of Kio 
uieiits of Ibi^' Ht'ix kv of any micIi i>>r|«.>r)illtMi. tb*? 
rtui>Ii>>'«*t* or ffllo^r-wrviint, ni tlir llmi* iKtlnic In ' 
{torfunnlUK O^' tltity uf tbr coriHtniili^n In titut t< 
IMTmm f*u injuri*il. oU\vUik or ronfortuliifc to iLif* ikril«*r ««£ 
IK>rlor at tin* tlmv of miirli Injury. U^nhii; auili'Uit) lo dli 
jiothlim luTi'ln Hhiil! lit* conMrneU to ahrlOjct- llie llublllty 
(-oriiornlloii umlcr t»xlstln;; Ijiws, 
«f Skt. T'K^o, TIk* ilnninju.'^ rwovi'mhie nr v ■ •' ■ - ' » '■ 
couuiiiMiMirnlr witli tbi^ Injury »iUKiiilni'«i i 
Rnch Injury, whon. In sn»"li eato, tin? ncti. 
l^}Vornwl lu nil n-KiKHtw hy tbi* Inw uo\v In I 
tlonn; Pnnhfrij, That whoro any J<utii ihtpou i 
npiiIriHt ft railroad or t»tb4'r (.orintniilocu ami hv- 
an apponl, ami. pondlii)? surh up[K<al, thr Injni i 

tbv Judgim'Ul rtMulcred lu tin* ccturt bolow bo liitiinfu r it*^. 
tlio rlplit of notion of wufh jn-rson «lmU sunivp to Uls lipil r 
Hontatlvt*. 
'iitr«c(» sr:t:, 7i>S7. .\U fontrni'tM nmilr by rnllronjs nr othtr rv»ri»rirfllloU)» 

hliitf rigii'*-\ymi ti,(,ii. euiploywi*. or ruUi« or ro-"'-"-" -.i.....,.i i ,..,. 

lM>nitl(iii ri'IiHiMtnt; or r**lirvln>; It ft- 

hftvlUK Q rljfht of action niitltT tlio pi' 

doclorcil null and void. Tlip provUlons uC IM 

not apply io nuy Injuries RuMalitcd bi<f<>ro it In 

It a(ro<"t tu any niannor any milt or lei:ul prtKVi't.llugti i»viMUi*y 

Ihf tluu- tt takcH I'lTcot. 



It p n » u r 1' 




4N)Ul| 



(A provision of tin* act roiinlrbi^ NU*iini rnllr*ind* ■ 
Willi nvrltch llKhtx ninkcs n coniixtny Tlobuint; or ' 
ply with lht> law Mabli* lo nil |H'rN(»nN and I'nipbMff^ lujui 
rtMiNtMi of non<^iin|illan4'(>, nnd tiilu>s away tin* duft-uM* of ui 
lion uf rink. Section r»l".'U.', 

A itlndlar provlMlou npiioar.i tu n titattito dlrcrtUiR tUi« 
ni^.ni ,,t' I iiiiN.M.) itKtiuiotivuv with vuiclno braki'M, tiw lUte vt n 
ton au4l tUr placlliff of gmb Irottit uu Cttm iUtt 

UH.. 

>io tti»i» oi' ibr Kafoty appllniu'c law of IWiT. AcU of 
Cluiplor US; mid the not n>RulatlnK boura uf liilMsr *U ratll 
ruiploywH. Arid of l'.K.t7. obapter I'll. 

Th** wlatntp n*)jiiU'lu>; fire rwaricx to Im* plnr<Hl on fnctorli 
maUtw ownrrs who fall to ivniply with !t« ' ~- " ' ' ' ' 
for tbf piMs.itiiil Injury or (l**ath i»f jn 
fin* In a hnlldln;; uol pmvhKnt with |U> - ■..,- . ... 
rbapti>r rJi*. 

Tho HiMtul.' rr..Mil:itIii:^ ItiM M'orktns of Oon! tti'no:^ L'tSff^ n rli 
of nr||i ' lor of a niliif foi* 

liy Any ^ i. or willful falliir* 

provlfiiuiui. AtfU of Uka*. (.■hupttr Wi.I 

IOWA. 

iX>OK UK mi7 ANl» Ktl'fUatBNT OF MKG. 

i.ltiUttU^ <if foOi-oaii vouipaitifg fifr itijuri^ i9 (^Niploi^^ 

I H J H r I B « Skltion 20T1. Kn»ry cnriwmtlon 

eNHKvil hjllnltii fr.r Tit dnmn:rn^( «:tiiHntn(*rt '■ 
atveJiitvntt'. y^,. 

HgVh 



svcas LI. 



IK THK nnTRD BTaTBS. 



iC flD<l hi conjHMiiionoo of it 



I 
t- 

|[i 

tv. 

|.:- 

J» 

ft 

t: 

tht, , 
ftp. 1^ 

r- 

Im 

!'■ ' 

r- 

the ». 
of luj 






trfttiiR 



Mr otlier 
M with 



lit. or lTwi<ni»nltv Ooarnnis of 

. Thf injurs-, »»«- >««"»-"n'*^'- -*^'- 

I (ir nnv oilier 

ill the 

itUy by 

. oi U-(4aI re|>te»ftiluth*'6 aftPT 

rinv^rnt, or H«M..r'i!ti (on. p/^rmtl- 

" ^ r ho 

III'' II ij^ •-'•I I M"n:>iii [I ir ii.-iiM ici*s 
to InJnrU** ro<_*ffvcd. 

'■ ' ' 'I fmd QUtoitintlc 

'■*<• of asi=itiijeC 

- . .Lil by failure to 






.uir«»ni(*nts of tbe law regnlnttng 
IN (iiKhittHl ui Itt* culpable negligence lu cu»ea 
lierefrom. Swtloii 241^2.] 



ACTH OF 1WI7. 
OnArrKR 181* — Lhhititu o/ nnplotfi'ra /or injurhii to tmp}oprrB — 

FF.mnN 1. Tn all roRcs wlicrc fUe property-, wnrUs, maclilnerj- Nolle© by 
f'T < >i iif nil eiiii'iMver iirt' Llt.'ftHitl^e or oui uf reimlr ami tlu? '^'"f*''*J'*^ 

e:. , ' 13 know!6tli;e thereof, ami bus glvon written uotloe to 

llii- .iniduyfT, or to HUy iktsou nnihorlia<Hl to twelve and Hwept 
Biicli iMilUo. or to any iw»ri*<ni In the stTvlce of tlie etnployor Jind 
lniriiste<1 by bhii wiih the diiiy <»f i!kK»iu,:,' that ilio proju-riy. %vnrks, 
litar1ih>t*ry or Hii|))hitu'<>s arc in pr<t|M'r ctiiMlUloii, of thf jturthMiIar 
dt^fiii^t or want ^f ropalr ttv whon the ♦■iiipltiycr or such otht-r per- 
Boii Unit lu'vn ii'irdn-.i In wrilinK (ff f^iah defret cr want *tf ri-'palr 
by any p»>r»oTi wtu^e duty H Is mid'r Ihi* rulw* of ih.. «.ini.i.iyer or 
Uie InwH of Ihe Stato to InsptTl such works, m -ir ap- 

pllanrv*!!. or miy jwrwcm who is t-nbjt-rt to tbf? i I'MjI to 

WK-h tb'f^t or want of rc|>Alr;ii<) tniiployof uftor trnch iurik*v, **bull^^jj}^ ""' "•' 
by ri*:it<oii (if rt'inaiiiin^ lu tho fniplojiuput with such knowlc»(lp% 
Ik* (ItH'timl to liMVo ansutuod tbo rl^k tiic*idcut to the daugpr aris- 
ing froin Hiicb defect or want «>f r^imir, 

KANSAS, 



onNEHAL RTATTTKS OF 1f*ftl. 

i^Mffy fit rtriUoad rtiMpnuuji fur iMJutir-tt tv anptoyt^rtf, 

immdrtl by (^hnptor 1!M. Arts of ltK)7). 1. NVKiip-nrc of 

y 'tiv orrj.Tif/'**! <.r iVd"ir bitshicsw lu tbe State "f^'^J^y""^ ''^' 
it[ 'p to any mnployo* of 

r. ■• of Its ujitMitH, or l»y 

t 'I ll^ (■ii':ui<'<'r'; <ir "Hut fUipIuytH^s, to any 

f" U liiiiiiji^'i'; I'niiitlnf, That imtire In wrltin;? 

II • ^""'Miriitl, Mtathij: tlii* liiiic jind plji^e 

ti -y Mr »in tmluilf of iiu' jmthi.h hijorwl 

(■■ 'u iML'ii! Ill •((!!'< ; r:<'r Iht* <HTiirr*^iK'e 

ll>' ■^i}\y.. *! ^liriM not 

h* . 1 u>»tl«.'i*: Atul ,n <t 



BULLETIN OF THE BrBEALT OK LABOB. 

of llip nillrojnl coini>nny niiisliiu tlio liiJiiO' <'** '* |>rovpiU<*«l by tbe 
t^ffiX'tH uf NiUl Ifijtiry, tUv MiUl ei;;)it iiioiidiK kIiiiH itut bo^'u tu run 
until siii'h injuroil j)orK(iii ts iliHchnrK'^l from luild btispUnl or 
care of flnld riillrond cuntimny ov until hik'Ji (llwbtlliy bo re- 
moved: Pmviii'd furthrr, Tbnt In cihh? Miiid luJuriHl ponion hIwiU 
die, a» n rnKult of salil Injuries, wtthln siild olRht iiionthfl, H shall 
not ln' iio***'KMry tu j;Uo Mild iiolkt>: Ptuvitlvd furthrr, Tluit hlIiI 
notli-c* iummI nid jitnto \vb«»t!K'r or n(»l suit Ih intontb^l li> he l>r<tucbt, 
itlMu*^*^* "' "■ ''^'*^' **"*'*'*■*' iiM't'tloiKKl lu fi4H-tioii 1 brifttf ni;i.v bo »*»'rvi«d by a 
\vr!tt**M t'opy tlR'n't)f. by tin? im-inou hijiiit'd or iiny unc «iii his U?- 
hiilf, upon uny prrwMi dcslKiHitod |»y fJir riillr<»Jid In nny t'DUnTy In 
uhK'b tb(* in-ilou uilfrlil bt» broiiubt, as I'lovhU'd In hoitloii 4400 
of thi' Uoneriil StJituteH of Kiiuhus uf llXIl, or If no ^nch imtkoii Ima 
bwn UeKiKuiitfU or ttpl"''"t«l. n»* l'» *w\*\ hwtUni provUbHl, Ihwi 
nr>on nuy UmuI nu|M>rbilcndi'nt of jiflTiilr)*. frrlifbt up'ut, ukciiL to 
»i?ll tk'kcls or Htutb.m k(x»(>or of nin'h roinpnny or ror|>oriitlon In 
sui'h fouMty. or Hiu*b siTvlfo miiy bo umdo by lonvtuj; a oopy 
tIu'r«.'of at nny tb'iiot or Ktntloii of such c-mnpnuy or coriwriitiou 
In surli conitty, with tbe porsuu hi rlinr^:*' tln-ietif or In tbe rniploy 
of tttirb 4'ouipniiy or corpornllon, nnd Hucb Kt'rvb'r Kbtill hr bob! 
ntul dconiwl t'liniplcto tind rffivtim). I'riH'f of MUch wrvkv slmli 
bo niiido by tbe amdiult of tbo ]«rly luitklng tbo iiiaoie, or otber 
porHonK knowing tbe fuots. 

ITbo stntnto nninirlti*; thr InKtallntlon of Itro pflonpos on fao- 
torit*H, and of nafoty dovUvH In nninnfncturliig or4iabll»ibuionta^ 
untbnrix^'s an ai'tlori for lnjnr)i*H or diiUb roKulltng from dlvrc- 
Knrd by Tin* I'uipIoytT of tlie provUbais of fbc art. Acts uf UMI3, 
Chuptor .HTMt.] 

. KENTUCKY. 

lAn flct r<^Kulntlnjr tbo conBtrnctlon of mllrnnd brblfr^B ntid tnn- 
ncia. and dlrcM-tbiK tbe UHe of nir braku?* nn railroad IraluH and 
tbo lilueklnu of froKH at HwlicboH, nnikoa tbe ounipauy Uablo for 
inJnrb'M ri'sulttnt; from a fallniv or nt'^'kvt to riinipiy wllli Ui« 
provisions of tbo law. 8tatiitos uf llKKl, Hoctiou 7li3.] 

LOUISIANA. 

HKVIHKI) CIVIL COIM-:— i:i>rn<t\ Hi-' J>t87, 



N^Mllg«fhi-f^. 



At-tM nf 0U) 



LbtliUlly 
ri»|iloy«*r*. 



HobUittf of 4-witioi/rni for htjMrif* tu nii i^luyt^'ju 

AuTii r.F 2310. Kvory i>fr«on U ioK|HninlbIo fur tb** dnuiao* be 
iKvaHb>ns nut nu-roly by bl« not, but by bis uri^UywK-r, bt« Im- 
prndonco, «»r bla want of nklll. 

Art. 2;il7. We nr*; ro-^pooRlblr, not only for (be (biinugt? occa- 
slontM by our own Mot» but fur tbat wbloh Is cuumM by th*.- act 
uf porHt>nt4 for wboni wo nvt* ans\vi*rubU% or of tbe tbiii^!; which 
wo have hi our custody. • ■ • 
' AitT. liiiW. ilartirris and en)pU»yen* are AfiMwerablc fur tho dnm- 
ago u'oaslonrd by tbclr Korvnnt!* and ovcrssfr^ tu tbe exercise 
of tlii> fuiu'tlons in wbU'b tlioy are empbiyetL 

Tt'ju'borM and artlwniw -•«if int^xv.-i-Mc I'-.r (li.* iLiin.-iLn- .-iuifled 
bythoir 3w.'b(»Iarw or nppii "^o. 

In tlio alMivo crtSHH, Yi- iia»- 

torn or oiuiiloyiTti. tenrluuH and uniniiuh. niik:bL Itave pre\eut«4l 
tbo act wlik'U cauHeU tlie dnnnitcoid and tinvc not done It. 



2CABYLAND. 



ri BI.IC LOCAL I>AW8— CODE OF 18S«L 
AftTici.E L — LinbiUtif of oprrator^, rtr,, uf mittrs for tfiJwHm H 

t«w ttjiplint HriTnon lOfta (ndctnl by cliardtY IIX Act* of I'rflS). Any 60^ 



EMPLOTERis LTABILITV IN THE UNITrn STATES. 



65 



»m7»ln Alloimny im* (^iirrott coimHos, whotlu-r siitU «)\viii'r or ,^*\" u\ay 
owners, opeintor or ni>ernior« Im» nwMciil* *tt tl»> State vt Mary-'' ™ **'*^''*' 
JauJ or iiol. tMU|iluj-liiii in'v»Miii>t In tlio uiK^rMlifn if mhiliiR co«i or 
rlny, shull be liiihU* hi Inw tr» iniy pinplny**** riit;iij't';i i» snoh iwn- 
IwlkiQ or to IjIh U*Kii\ lviir»'W'iitu liven. In <:iiw of d*»htli, fop tbv „ 
O^imnire nrlslnjc anil !iow!n>c from nuy injury rwlved hy saM *^ »:*»<*«. 
emi^loy^ tbrotiKh tlie tir»t.'lit:<?nf*> of fi-iirt ownf»i' oi' o|tt'Vator oi* 
fr<?iD Ihi* n4-^n»:<'in;e of Hny atrwit or itKeni^. ptuftloyt'e or um- 
jiloyiK'rt, Hntl ]t till? iK'jrllj:f iiof cnn.ihiff wiicb injnry l**? fonn<1 In np!ri|™'{|^J.I.''*'*' 
c*aiifilHt af tlio joint or c-olk»<*tIvo nojiIlKuiU't* nf both tbe euiployur, 
his ♦tjrtfmt or iipcnts. I'mpbfye*? or I'mploypes, on the one baud, aucl 
of 1" :<n»:*? nf tbo In.iuriMl eini't'i>C" "H the nther biinvi. tbiti 

U -- lo lint)'' of Ibe Jury, ar of tbo t-onrt Rltilntr at* a J'lry, 

tti "1 1- * 1 (isirrtiiln ns ne:ir ns may I'p rbo proportlo!i of 

wntb It- r wliich uai b ban bi'en ^uiliy. iiial buviin; nwrr- 

luhXHl , iibitvl ([M(Ji pro|)tjnioii.s of iiftriljseiu'o rnnslii^f tbo 

Injnry, It whail b*> tbe dnty of tbe jury, or of the court MJtrbiK »n a 
Jnry. fo upiN^rtirtu tbe dMnnii^ps iirlKint^ from nmIiI injnry In like 
proportion or dtvr*'*' nnd jiuitrd to the plnlntlff or rtlnlntlltH tbe 
|trop«irOnii nf dniiin«t's Mun'4Mi-.i wbU^b !t sliitll bavp bL»en deter- 
mined wn.M the proportion of tbe (lefpndnnt or defendants' negll- 
gcucf c»»ntrlbutiny to tbe bijury ooiupluIntHl of. 

ITbe vlatnto rtTnIatlng tbo operators of mint's In Alleprany and 
<inrn'tt iinriitlcH nuikon fiwinTn or operatoiH who fail to roinply 
lbere«'Ub liable In dHiu«ne*i for Injury or ilenth ocoasloned by sucli 
fnllure. Article 1 (revision of liKrj), .mt'llon 20!>n.J 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



IlKVISKU I^\WS UK 1002, 



Cbajtsk H>i. — CotUruriH './ emiiloyccii tcairinff right to dt\tHQv^9. 

Sectiox 1G. No porsuni sbnll, Ity a siM>oInI conlrn*-* \\\\h bl« em- ConiroeH 
rIoyo»^8, exeuijtt blmsrlf from llatiUlty wbli-b he nmy be inider to 'o******* J*^"- 
tbem for liiJnrleH tainYered by tbein in tbelr employment and re- 
snltin^ from the neKHgeuce of the euipioycr or of a i>ersou iu his 

CUiploj', 

Cbxptcr 100. — LlabiHty of cmpfoyn^s for injurtrs to anptoi/^ei, 

I^TJOX 71. If personal Injury in ranse<l to nn omployee, who, InJurycauMd 
■the time of tbe Injury, is in Ibe exer*:iHe of due aiiv. by ivjiiittn *>y — 



First, A defect In tbe eondllion of the waya, works or manliliH»ry 
cr»nn«»cled vrlth or ns«l In tbe butflnewB of tbe emiJloytn*. wbleli 
orow* from, or bad not bt>en diwoveretl or rcmeJleil In oonHo<iurn<« 
of, fb(» iuvUjrpn<'4> of tlie employer or <»f a perKnn In bla service 
who liad Itef-n Iiitru^^ttxl tiy blni with tb** duty of seeint; tbat tbe 
w»y», works or ninc-bincry were In proper rftiulltlon ; or. 

Second. The iH'CllL'^'nre of n pcrstMi Iw tin- stM*\ ice of the em- 
|ilo3'er who wiih liilrtjHt«^l wHb iin<l wmh exeroiHln< HUi>erUitc»tid- 
*iO*e nn»l whose m*)f* or prinfii*:il duty was tbat i>f HniM^rlntendi-ncis 
or, in ibo Hb»tvK'e of KUib Mnperinrwidont, of a pcrwon artttn^ as 
Ba|)erlntrndeni with tlic authority or consent of Muoh employer; or, 

Tbiril. Tli»' inx'll^'enct' of u f'^wn In the wrvb.-e of Ibe euiployer 
who wiiK In rbnrp' or control of n sipial. switch, locomotive enidue 
or irnln upon n mllroad; 

T' ''ye^'. or bN U^irnl reprej»ontallves. sball. KUbjeet to tbo 

fU' •' ilic rlirlit foUowIn;: soi-tliiOM. Iia\o tbo s»un? rli:iit» 

Ki '•>" tiud uf aoilon at'iibist tbo employer nn If be bud 

til' <>yet% nor iu tbo 8crvk-«« nor onieaged iu the work, 

Ol I 

A cur wiiicb ih In use by. or wblrb 1h In i-owoflnlon of, a rallrond 
n»rr»nnitl<m «hnll bn (v»n;ddpn»il nn n pnrt of ibp wnys, workn or 
niAcblu^ry <»' on wblch nm** or has It In iMishCWHloii, 

Wlthlu tbe > uMi* one of tblH wctlon. whoibor it Is 

«wucd by Mjfii r...(iM.i;aou or by some olber company or i>crsoD, 



Defect 8 



St-gUgcneo ot 
auto* r Id lend- 
eut ; 



r *» r R n n In 
cbiirirr of rail- 
road (■Ifcnal. etc. 

Btn(u« tif em- 
ployee. 



I^ellnltloiii. 



BUIiLKTI}; or THE BUBEAU OF LABOft. 



1 10 lit* n 



itiv 



Onv fir BMiri> ntrs vcU\r-h nrr hi mntlon, whi-thf *•-'** 

flno itf hot. t^liiill <-iiiiH(iriitH n triUi) wlihUi lln- 
thrcij of tiiin HfvtUm, itiui wliofvcr, as u [mrt < 
tlni»* U*'\UK- |iliy«iriilly c<»ntroIs or dlrwt*i tUe u- 
nnl, tfwircU. liK'oitxiTivi' cii^'lrio ur trnlit filmll 1 < 
pf»rwin In rlmrne nr cHUitrol of ii HiLniiil. sTritcU, 
or train wllliln tho iitmiiliig of hiK) rUiiiHo. 
forln- Krt*. 72 lilt* iiiinMidtHl i»,v flmlUtT ."" ' " ' ^' 

«uud«nt»i. injiiiy (|«»«M iiM»(i In the pr»'<*iHUiw; tu^- 

ll,(. ,...,,.,,.,.,. .....) mi,, J, |]t«jttli in in>l li—.. 

by lui;. mul II' !Urr«» is iiny : 
Inr') , . ^'Itii; nn itIIoh nn.lrr il 
lo^^iuK w.-^.-lioii. tbr ]i.*mil m 
tJi(> iicrinii lirinif;lii iitidor lit 
rt*cov(n* dunmKr*K fur tlit* iKmili lit itUtlUioti lo i^ 
nud In thv Nairn* tiitloii uiHlttr u m'puriitc roii' 
iiijiy rooinfr (I«m4i;(c« for cnnwlnn* i^uB'rrlnj; ti- niuni: 'r-.-ji xin 
NiiMi- Injury. 
Action for kkc. Tit. Jf. ns t!n' rr--' • ' 'irL-Iljrinu'c -' '--^ 

the provItslonH (if Ktfli ■:. ;iy-«ije, un 

kllltHi, or illt's wiitfout c«m9«i:iotwt sufTprhi^, his KUKf%v 
]euvo)« uo widow. hl8 uvxt of kilt, who, ul the IIuh* (»f 
wrro d<'[M>m]iMiT nfMin his Willi's f(»r HUi>[iort. sliull luivt' u rU&Ut 
of uciitiu for Ujiuiauo upihiHi th** Hiiiitloyor. 
"' Skc. TI. It unUiT lhi» provlwhins of cither «»f i\u 1 

III)? socllona, d»iiiiii?c« «r«' nw.irdfxl for tin* i|i»iith, 
iissesmnl wllh rffi'iuiKv lo the dtsrrtH- of ciiliutbllit.. ui m-- vm- 
jtloyer or of the* |»<»r»<on for w)ii>f«r »io(rlI;:i'iico the ctnployrr In 
lUihlo. 

Tbf* nmount of diimneps whirli inny li** nwnrdf-d In an nnl <h 
undvr the provlBiouM of hcctlon w.'V(Mity-otU' tor a pergonal Ijijurr 
to nn roiip^oy*^ *» whirh no dntnntics f<rr h\n Htmth nn* iiwiird»*0 , 
ttnde'r lli** [»ro\ IMomh of w-otlon wvwUy-two, Khttll uo( cxcc<'<£ 
fonr thoiiKUMd dollars. 

TlH* nntonnt nf diunn^cn wbtrli mny t>« nwardnd tu tiiclt nctlon. 
If diinin^*»B for Ids doftTli hw flwnrdtsl iindor Itif • ■ ' ' ns of 
ffwtlon mnrnty-two. kIiiiII not oxcitil Hvc IhoiiHui for 

ImiiU tliu Injury ntid iIm» d** '■ ■ i' '■'■ ^ i ' '»"• 

Jury hetwc-t^ii tho l«vnil rri' 

X>prsv)nH who would luivc I- . t 

lH«etlon M*VL*nty-thr4*e, to ImIiik :iii uctiou Im* hl« «ifca»lb U H liuti 
|»e«»n In«tnn1iineouR or without coii*!ons wdfTiTlfM'. 

Th(* iinioimt of dnmnp*H which m < i 

liruueht iiiid«*r tlic provl^UHiH of fn* i I 

bo t.- "■'■:•: : 
Sotlcv. s IV <»r 

doiiu. .o.-. . »... , i •- 

LlmltHtlotL rmir. tnchi-slvo, A^inll : 

jdino nud cuuHt« of thi- y 

dn3'8. nnd thn nrtUm i> foinmrufml wttiiln ouc j- tho 

aet'ldrnt whlrh cnuhetl Itie Injury or il(»flifh. Sit<h r ' Ik» 

In wrltlnir, siniotj hy th** t«'t>' -^ 

bt*hiilf : Imt If from jdivxlcnl or 

fnr ;; . I 

tu H 

nothc Ji 
IdA litjit: 
iKtmtar 

but he i" ■! **i iii»ulULUJul iKdL-l3 b^ 1' 

rnt'v iTi lit tlini". idrtr*** or fiiii*** of i -^ 



fKHlf'tirM con- 

idertHl. 



Umltofdam 



tht 



vv 



SMPlXhTERS LTABILrrY TK THE imfTE© fiTATES. 

Skc. 7fl. If an <'Tuployor rntrrn Into n c«inrrac*t, wrllleu »•)• verlutl. ot 

with an imJciii'iiiii'iit '?»iu|j:K'lor lu ilo iKirt of sucii euii»i*iy<^»'>' '^ , ^tWtn 

»'*frU, or if siicli I onlr»t'tnr enters Into n n.urrjn'l wllli a silh- "^ " ' 

►utrnrtor in lUi nlJ itr :»ny [lart nf ibe wurk t*t»niprfM«?<l iu 8urh 

'►ijtnH'l wiUt tilt' fniiiloyfr. wirU ci»ntrjict or sut>- 

aot lijir tlh- liitUMlly i>f tlu» fiiiiiloyur fi.ir liijuriwt 

. 4'H of Miifh rontniclor or siilxtiiiirnctor. riiiis<il liy 

tin* (.'(mUlttuu of lh«' wnys, works. rniiohiniTy or 

11" iIm- !T":'vru of i!)i> cnijilnyer or uri' funilMiwl 

iH»t luH'n tj i *,Mn'<*nil ov 

i.|»h*r<'i' or uf sinin* |n.*r- 

«i>ti Liitru»ieU by liiui willi tUe Uiil^' itf Heeiiiit tbttt lUi\v wi-n* iii 
]rro|H>r coiiitltlori. 

KEi. 77. .Vii I'liipl- -I !■<> I'-mplojrw 

i«iititiPd luiiLT th,- n IIW"'''''' 

►empliiytT If hu' li n (l<*f»vt t.i urli 

[c-t'i*o»l Iho iujiu>, : i'i»«H»»nal'l' . ,. ', or 

C-UUK* l<» Im* (rhrii. i tu iUv ••Uii»kiyi'i-, <fr to Honir 

.^tDrsHMi nuiHifior Vn ij -(• of tlio iniipiuyM- wbo whs 

lUlrifbtlMl with Kt'UVtHi 4!tli|»iH'ill('.>tMU*flOt^ 

Sk'-. "h^. Am (Mni'lovfc wth» »ihnll Iimvp «^o>ntrlt)nt4nl ti» nn Inimr- Ki«plo>n«r con- 

rtps ii>r whirh (■ointHm- 

:-■!- tin* |.r<'tisi<'K , •■ 'floiin »i'M»nty- 

t ' . or to any r-- . fdrtiitHl nn- 

|U> I' *:* srviiitiH'u, i-ii:', .i| iilrif'lop'n of 

kv out» Ii «l twenty-five, may pr»ivt» In mitlmiilon of 

lUiuisi'H I !<• (ty nil rnipliiyn* ntiiirr th«» provision!? of 

iM •ierllofin, nu*ii pi'n|*..rtion uf tlu* i^mintAPy born-tit whhh Iwh 

•Ij fecelvwi by whli cmpkiyw fl'<uu any wicli fiit»d or 3tK*U»Iy oil 

[jiiroiiiit of Miieh r<niti'Uiiition nf ittiUl <»tiipIoyi>r. us tlw rinitrUnUlou 

if fiiU'b t'lDpIoyor to Kuih fund or f*o<.ioty ln'jirs to tho wboh* ooii- 

IrlLutloii tluTiHo. 

Jsrf, 70. TIio pnivlKkins of Xhr* oI»?ht prPt^»illn»r 80<tion8 *'baU not Ex(»mptlon6. 
npply lo hijurli* rnnPiMl to doraeKtto Hervanl** or fiinn Inburor* by 
frllow-finployoofl. 

iri,., 1.,. ,, ..■i,..i..r, ti ».tji.Mi, t;.,«. -.*• iMitMiupt to Im? nj*t*d as 

It* fS*ii|M's iitiil Hrt" px- 

^ ^ - s, or <>»i'ii|».ints llftbh' 

jwr»i>ii iiijuntl for nil 4tniiuiKi*s cituMci} by violation of ll.s 

U>n9. Cb'iptcr KM, miction .Vi. 

TIm* act illrtY-tiii^ (ho ItiHlnlUitloii iiiiil iifft* of mfi'ly upplinnt^H 

oil rnllniriilM Inki-K iiwny from tbo lu-utluent otmiiKiity tbo dt'fimw 

• ' -I**! of liijnry roHtiltin;; fruin vlointltius of 

■ lnJore<i eiuploycf kauw vt Ibr vloluttun. 

MINNESOTA. 

JtKVISEJ* lAWS— UMAV 

i-Uit>iHt^ t»/ mitnuiii mmpnnirtt /or injufirs /<* rmptutt* t m. 



It:, ft?t a o*tni- Actn of feP 
for fill ilnin- '^>«'-w«»«u'». 



,.,».- i..\ MM.. M^.-ni Mi -.i\:iiit fborpi»r 
■wn* oil bl.- i<iirt. by ronson i>f tbv 

til i»KT...f :iti.i on I !fn'"t. iior nn> 

;iir rtr Mnilt fnv\\ 
II riini n^ lo r<nMl<»r 

by ntiy wiob 

ti I ft nrvr n»n»i. 

liti) jjuri lUvrt'of, uiU i'irt,-u to public irttiL-1 ot um*. 



68 



BUU-KTIN OK TilK Bi;itK.\i; OF UUIOR. 



MISSISSIPPI. 



rnXSTlTI'THlN. 



Artu'lic 7, 



lAiihiUty of ttiUrtMitl vrtmiHintrn for tnjurlvt to 
vmptnyrrn. 






MivaDt*. 



have tbo wiiiu* right nini n*ii»rillcpi for ftiiy InJ' • '■•«| h\ 

hliii frciin till* act: or ohiUhIoii of milil i-(ir|Hirnii<>t) or )t» i<m- 
(ihiyf'OH. It!* tu'M iitlowisl by law !<< ntlnT |H'r»*tjiiH iiot i»uii»I<tyi^**i, 
wliiTi' tla» Injury n'NiiltH from llw iM'KnK«'iK<* uf ii Htiiwrlor amnit 
or olliriT, nr nf a |H»rwm liavln}f tlu' rlRht ro iMttitrol ttr tllroi'l iho 
KtTviros of thi« parly Injiirrnl, and al**** ^^ lit* ii tbo Injury rrMUIti* 

Of fpJIow-from the nru'lltfriuT of ii frllow-wrviint cii^i;;*-!! In aiiulhor il«^ 
jwriuient of lahor from timt »tf the loirtyMiOtiriHl. or of a ri»llow- 
HiM'viint OH atioth'r triilii of rant, or otic prtKaiftsl aUou^a ilin'mnit 
phs'o of work. Kiii>\vh»i|«M hy iiny rmph»y>*«> liijiir»'(l, of tho ilcfwt- 
ivo or nnwifi* olianu'lMr <ir riMuUlioii of any innohliu-ry, \viiyi«, i»r 
niiplhiiHfH. n\n\\\ !>*• no <i(foiiH<» to an artlon for Injury rnusi^l 
thiMolty, ox<'**pt Ml* t't rninliM-tiirH or I'litftiii'orn In rlmr;,'^ of i!nu- 
i:t<r<MiK i.r tittHiifc riirn. i<r on):ini*»t voluntarily oporai^tl hy tbtui. 
WhiTo ilrath rnKUi-s froni nny Injury to rmplt'.Tci's, \\\f lojrnl or 
|HT:4onal repr».'HontatIv»»M of i\\v \n-r^^\\ Injiinnl hIwHI hivw the niuW 
rl);ht mihI ronnilU's ur* aro nllowitl hy hiw to Huch rcpro^votitiitlvrM 

t'.iii trnt'tiof oilior |M'r«tua. Any I'onirnor or fl>rro*'ntfnt, oxfiro**H or Inipllt'^, 
wajvhiK "'»»<^-u,„d». by „r»y fMiploy(H> lo walvr fbr brnt-fU of tliU WN^tton ttbnU 
he hull nnil void ; and tlilK ai^'IIou ivjuilt nut 1*^ < > fo iW^ 

|Uiv<» any fDipIuy<'<* uf a for|Mtr«tli»n or IiIh b'jnil <■ i n*iire- 

Neiitntlv(\ of any rU'til or rt'nioily that \w now bim i>\ )i>>* Uwv uf 
thn lond. Tho lo«iwlainrt* in:\y uxtrral lbt» rfmf?OU*M horrlu irn>- 
vUUhI for lo liny uUkt cIiisk of euiploytvH. 



ivntli. 



Kvld«ae«. 



A«ti of 
jrlorii : 



CODK OF lUOll. • 

HabilUjf uf mUrond vt*ntimniv8 for (nfurit'n to cmptoift'r*. 

HnrrroT V.tKt. In nil a<*t1on9 nitnlnfft rnllrnfid runUMiuU-w fur 
dHunicrH duno tu prrwHiM or prujM^rly, prtwtf uf liijnrj' lutlUird bjr 
tliH ri)iudn>! of tbo ItHHunotlvtm or earn of nurb runipatty fliAH 1h* 
prilua fatio i'\ IdiMitt' of Ibt' want nf maH'Hinblo mUIII and can* nu 
tliL* part uf IIh' HrrvantH of thr ciunpany th ri'frrt'nci* Ut mnb la* 
Jury. TUlH sorilun sluill alno apjily to jmHWrinrrH and ctupluyi.Hi« 
uf nillrond conit*»MU*H. 

Hjir. UKAi, Kvi'ry omployw* of n riillroad ror|»orrtflo» MinM liavt* 
the wint» rli(b(w acul ronnHlb?>t for an Injury HufTMrt'd by hitu froui 
Uiti acl or ouiImkIou of tin* <'ur|Kinitlou or lt»« rmpliiyi»i*!i iim ttrv 
nllowwl by law tu ..i' us nut untpIoy»>»'>s \vb«'r*» lUo Injury 

rixuHs fruuj tbi* nr ' a wniM-rlor aL'fui tir urtbtT. ur itf a 

IrtTMtn bnvtnc tin* iiKm !■> *i.ulrol ur dlroct tb«* »ii'rv1oc« of th<» 
party Injuntl, and alHu ninii tin* litjury rcHttliH frutn the ni'^ll- 
- Kcnrr of a fi'llow-»wrvanl iMiKa^iMl In another di-purtruput of labor 
from that 4(f tin* party Injured, or uf u f'-IlMW-M-rvaiir on auidher 
Irdln uf nirs. or i-nc (*n}Ciitreil ab<iui u dlfTcnMd picvf nf work. 
Knuwlcdiri' by an ruipl"j*<*<' Injurod ot tho di*fr<*tlvr or ntisjifi* 
rbarartor or rondttlun of miy macblnpry. wiiy**. up iip|»lbtnrfM. or 
of tin* hnpropiT loadiUK ttf <-ar'4, Kltnll not boa dcfcnuf ^ "t 

fur Irijiiry canw*! tlntn^tiy, pxn-pt nw to t'lmdiHturrt or • m 

flinrp* uf dauiitM'ini^ ur unwifc nirw or ouuUii'h vidu'i y 

ntod by Iburu, Wln-n dt*nlb onKrn'M fruni iiit Wi.lnry lu .«• 

iiM ai-t'luii tnay b*» bruui:b! In H' ■ f "■•■ » .-i...* m- 

ployi'^' for ibo itoatb uf tbo b m.* 

dfnth **{ biM wlfi', or >'\ jfi'i 1 i .. 

of !hr .'hlld for tbo ' m^ 

nuiy Im wurrpfi'*! by 1 1 li»' 

tSiiUiiH[L*ii to ^L• for tiiu u»o o( »U4.U vik^Vwv., XtutlM^d, uv «JUVV1. •'X- 



EMPLOYERS LlABlUTi' IN THE TNITED STATES. 



69 



ft (luit In fUHe (bt* willow Hlinukl Iinvt' tOiildreii. Ilie iliiiiiat;i'»4 
11 be (lib>trJl)iitc*d «« pt^'^oiuil |ii'«*ii*'rty of the luishanU. Tlit* 
\e^il or |R*r)iioiiiil iviircsonrativp of tho pvrsiin itijure^l Mtmll liiiv<* 
ibe wiiiH* rlKlitH iiinl iviihmUi^b u>; iut uI1o\vi.hI l»y law to vik.Ii rt'ttr*'- 
jiciitnllv''*; "< . Hi,..- 1... ....I,";. In evrrj- Mirh jK'tir^ii tlie Jiir.v tuny 

jrlvo HI|. lie foil' Kiut JllJtl, with Pf^ftMVIU.'O li» Ul" 

injury !■ II ilfiith lo lljt* in^rsou Htihitf:. Any *'<»n 

tmi^ ov 9it:r(i*intriil. (•xt<iL>»«^l (If Implied, nunlc l>y iiii i*ui|il(»ye(> 1<» 
wflivo tiK* t>^nt.'tit t*f Ui\^ stH'Cloii Htiiill Lh' mill ihkI void: iimt IULh 
it4<r(toii fbiill iiot tU'prlve hii eiu|tl>>yi-t.* of a ih-Thou. iiultirnl or nrtlti- 
cUil. or tlip t^*pil or [iciifWMial rt'i'rew^iilutives of such person, of nny 
rljsbf or rt:?uii'(Jy llify iiow h:t\o by Inw. 

|A Ktatiite tbat reiiulri's ti'lKMli** or warning sirluiTH to be plnctMl 
ovpr laUrtinrt tnirk** nt iipproarh**?* tn nvpibeail l>ii<le*?H or othur 
uv4*rliiiri;rlii^ uliji't-ts iiiak«*i4 iu*v'Ii;;fiit rMinpaiiit"* linlile for the 
Injury or ijentb of a pcrsfai raiiM^l by !:>trlkln(; i!^uHi biiilbTO. etc, 
even IboHKli t\io i«er.s«jii ko UUIimI or Injured was guilty of coutrlbii- 
lory negllgoix'e. Sortbiu 4o.".l.J 



WalviT. 



MISSOURI. 

RKVISED STATVTKS OP 1800. 



Sectiuk 2S73. Kvery rallrtjud rorporrtdoM ownlne or operalh\H 
n ntllrunrl in Ibln Stiito Hball b« llahle for all flama(;p9 f^iotTnlucd 
by any ngc-ni nr wrvaiit iliiM-iHir while oii^aKOil hi the wui k of o|jer- 
atine «iu'h nillroad by rnistMi of ilie ui'Kllceii"'** **f nny oilier iij^ciit 
or wrvant Ibrro^f: I'turidni, That it may be shown in defirn*ii' 
tiiflt the |>erj=>oii itijun-d was guilty tif ne;:ligenc#? coutribuliiijLf n» a 
proxiniatp i-anj»i» io prmUire iho Injury. 

Stc, ltK74. All iHTWMis en^nKef] lu tho w*rvit.'i' of nny sncli rail- 
road corporation iloln;; bii.siness in thiH Stnte, who are IntrnBtwl 
by (iurb '■orponilloii with the anthnrlty of KMperbitenden«*e. o<iiitr*tI, 
or roinnuind f»f orbor p»>rs4Hi>* In the eiiiphty nr sorvlre of snoli cor- 
IKtnili'tii, or wllU the antborlly lo dinrt any oihcr Korvant hi llie 
|H'rf<tnnancr of any dnty of sni*Ii scrvatit, or with the duty *\t iii- 
HftcH^tbin or otlicr doty owiit^* by tlie master to flic wrvant, an* 
vkM*-prlnolpalR of huoU eorporntlon, and are not l'eIlow-t*ervantK 
with such eui|>iuyee»i, 

Rkc. 'JSTS. All perw^ns wiio are enirasett fn the eonnnon service 
of Bueli rallrniid roritf>ratlon. and who while ho onwaced. are wnrk- 
biK toKi.'lber at tin- fiiinie time and place, to a iiinninm pnrpow of 
same grade. n»'tther *>f wi'Mi pcrs»>iirt l»ehic Intrusted by ?>ueh r'op 
jHiratInu with any siiiierlntendence or control orer their fellow- 
emj»h»yees are felbjw-M*rvanls with eaeh '►tbc>r; f'ntr'nlrtt. That 
l>otbinj^ berelii eotilithitHj minili be i-o iuiodined i\9 to niake any 
mrrut or servant of BUeb rcriKiratlon in tin* servlee of nneh c(»rtHv- 
fflllnn n fellow-Hervant with any itther airetit or si-rviint of nueh 
coriwinillou ent'a^ntl In any other dei'artuient or service of Hiioh 
4*1 trpo ration. 

Sre. 2S7G. No ponimet niiidw lH,'tw«*n any rflUnrnd corporatlou 
and any of Its atrenlH or Jiervanl*!, baju'd upon the ctin! latency *»f 
Ibe Injury or dwiili of any agent or servant, liniitln^ the liability 
tkf Hueh railroad eortKiratlon for nny danin^ee nu4ler the provl^loutf 
of tlilH act. Rhall be valid or binding, hut nil sneb vonlraels or 
M^riiiii.rits mIiiiIJ he null and vohl. 

s , (adde<I hy act, tiajre VAS, Acts of Iinri). Whenever 

llif rnllnmd cftuuwmh'H" or '* rnUri»ftt1 corporalion" Hhalt 

he f*noid la un> Keetlon of thi$[ diiipter It shall \n^ talcen and vnn- 
»<tru<*cl to bulnde nil coaiimidi^K, corporaliohs. [>erson or r»erwin8 
oppratbip any rallruad In this State, and wben-ver the word " raU- 
n>ad '* occisrsf In any sm-tlon In Ibin dnipier It sliall be talien and 
construed to Include nil rallniadi> oi»ernt»*d In this State by what- 
ever motive or power pnutelleii, and Hhall Incimb' all j*]illroa<ls or 



NVgllgf^nc^of 

fpl l<> W-(JO PV- 



V If f' princi- 
pals detloed. 



Fellow - serv- 
ants defloal. 



Cnn tmcti 
Mmlilati nubil- 
ity. 



Lteflnltloni. 




70 



UiT-LKTIN OV THIi BTJRKAl' OF UkBim. 



mi; 

oi- 



• I iiti.v wlifT"* ill Htc St»U\ <i.! 

iiHhtT llii'.v In* wholly or in {va . 

AIhu ull rtitlr<>:i(tH wliliiii tbp nitmir.v " 
hy wliAt Irt vt»luiiii>iil;r Lm>^u ti» cnbl** t»r motor ]h>\\ 



-\rrs OF 1007. 

S.ttiltlfti/ of mint tiprrafor* for Injur)/ In rmjti'tifrrM, 



Art* of r<i1- 



|Mlc 



rcA'prlacI' 



Follow -»frv' 
III, 



srcnopr 1. 



Krwy pcrwD, cotnpAny nr corpfimtlcra Dprratlns a 
^ In UiIh Stnt««, vrotV- ' - 'V ' ' - •• r 

I- 1*. «hnM hf- llnlilo i 

nr uiliD's. |iy rt*iim>n nf tlio 

Ihproi^f: I'rciviflt il, T\\u\ ii I 

Mm Injiirod wmh miitty nf mitiiicfuti- inutnbuiUiie 110 11 lu-oxlmute 

cauKM ti) pni'.liKv III*' *n)nrT. 

Skc. :;. All |tfr>«i"iiH ^•lt^^l^^*ll (It \hv wrvkv of uuy win li it»*rwia, 
ctiuaiHinr M" r<»riKiral1i>ii doliiK hiiKlmiw lu IhlH Smtr. wlut un' 

riy 4>r coriKiratlon with r ■ r. 

i*r ("tuitmaTuI uf ntluT 1 n 

.. , . ; ,. .i iKTMUi. ronifuini •" 

iHrcin any oilu-r »«Tvnnt In r 

smjiul. or wltb tlir duly i i r 

Uuiy insliic *ty tJH* mrt«tt'r to th<* wrvAni. jirv vi f 

fiurh prrwm. ciwiiw^'iy (»r roritorntI'Mi, nml nn* run :* 

wllll Mit'U fuipldytN'X. 



Uy of 
llir iMM 

with II > 
nny «!»i 



8«c- 

ami vi- 

]lllKV I' 
|«>I'M>IIX lH»lr 

Willi nny h« 



3. All (icrsMtnik who iin* fm^np'^ In thci pAtnuMm avtr^'ler of 

• iilii^ 

I* and 



!i 



Cod trocts 
llmlilnt; liabil- 
ity. 



or iitw 



n|«{i)5'tii|[ to 
"f coacmi- 



1-.I Its KlI : i| 

it"lir«' or ' ■ 
nn* fplldw »*<»rviinis with nrn-li otlirr. 

Snr. i, .\'t» roiitrurift uuhXv lifi(vtH*n any prrann, (VtmrmTiT nr rnr, 
|K»nillnu F<o oiH'niliuK nurh nilnc hr mint'* nnd 
unrvaiit*. Iwn^l njpon thn coiiHticfiiin' of tlin hiji 
JlUy Wli'h a»fiMi| or nrr 

/or nny (Inmntro^^ mm I 

or blliiiJlii^, Nut »til sh< ...• ^ii.n\.m^ >-,.., I i„\ 

void. 
Appllcotloa Sir. 1;.. N'uililiiu' In tlii^ :h'I slmll I- -.. .-..ust ni.ij 
III 
Irni. 

irtn' \n\\ iifw provh' 

i»f iuIUiii hi. .-ij i>r U» 1 1 

[K>n(l«*iitK of |H'r>t)ti> Ullliti t»\.ui>.r of u fiillnro <if iiir 4>\^i 
«)|»oratvr to cnnipiv willi lt» pivnlRton**. l(n\iHf«l StJitMt<»«*, 
K.S20. 

Ijiwm rv^iilrlns rnllro^d rnninnnlwi to lilftru »wUvl»<»»>. f 

rnanl v-'- -■ •■■ ■-•'■*•■ '■• '-• - ■ 

(NmiT ' 
fr«iiu . 
of 
pi.. 

lu Iljt' UtUtT Ui\ 

nmiiiiiiNl tbo rtsi. 

1JM>". art, pMKC JMi u>.U pniif. JSiJ.J 



E»n*LOTKRS' LTABTUTY IN THE V^VrB^ STATES. 



78 



NEVADA. 



AOTR or 1005. 

ChaFtcb 142. — Riifht of urthtn for prt'Aonat infurtrg, 

tEcrro;* 1. Whnnpvpr iinv iM*rs()n »hn\\ Hnffer i»or«»nnl Injury by NctfUcen t 
wniriicrul (let. nejrlt'i't or a«fnillt of nriotlior. the iktmhi .■.niKlriKP*'**""'* "»**'*'• 
Uw Injury Kintll In:* Uiihif tn tho porwm hiJiirtHl for (lnmnuv*«-. nnti 
wLnrf flip jtorsfni mtislmr sucb Injury in t»nipl<'ye<t l»y nnniher iK-r- 
wjh fir con^t^'nitiuu ri'S|ii>n*«lble for Ills tjondiirl, Hiioh |it»r»f>ii or r.mijlo) ci-^. 
mriMnntlon so rcf*r*onslbli* wtioH be lluhle to the i»*rson Injttrtxl for 

UniiiitV'*^. 

Srr, '2. ftnrli Ilnhlllty. Imwever. when* not »nrtc'hn rj:o(l l>y njfrw?- Dcirrminii- 
mout hihI wttU'UK'nt slinll t»x(»t unly !n sn fur ii« tho sjiiiio Mlmll jj"" "^ lUbll- 
lt*» nfi^'orrnliufl nixl jitlJndtftHl by a Strtto ur Kwlcrtil court of Of»m- 
I*elinit JurNilii'tJon in this statp I-.i un nt-tlou brought for that pvir- 
1H>m> by tb(* iiersun injurL*iJ. 

AfT.S <iV 1!)4)7. 

CHAim* 214. — Liobilfty nf vrnploycn^ for Injurfrn tff cmptoffrra, 

Wbttton 1, Every oonimon carrier enimsrtt tn trnde or commerce Aetn of pm- 
lii Hit* 5*tHtf of N'L'vnibt, and fvery mine and rutll owner «n*l o|feni- pi«yM«. 
tor nrtnitlly eti;nt|;tMl In nihiln;:. cir In nilllin;: or rednotltm of nres, 
In the Sinteof Novmln, shall ho lljible 1<» nny of Its en»|tl<iyoe«. »»r, 
In oflS(? of lb*» (lontJi nf yiifh cini»loytH», to his i»ors<>nii! roprp>*<'nta- 
Itve for tbi* bvnptlt of hi» uld'-w iwhI rhihltpn. If nny. iind If uont*. 
thru for hi* next of Ufn, fur nil ilnmiiges wlildi iitny rrsnlt frnm 
the noyllgenro of the oilb'ors, npcnts, or euiployecs of snUl cnmnion 
pnrrler ur mine or mill operator, or by reason of any dofccl or Vvtectt. 
In^iirtlrlency due to their nejrM;4eiiOo In Its oars, enjjlnos. uppIiancoM, 
iiwtrblnery, fracU. rnadbwl, ways or works, or to their negligent 
hnndllnir or sforlnjr nf oxpUtslvcM. 

Src. 2. Tn all at'doiiH lit'iolnnftfr brooKbt np'i!nj«t any oonuntm t'oiupurailTU 
fflrrler or mine or mill uwo^r and ojiorntor to reoovor daninKes'*''t'"K''"'''^ 
for jMTsonal Iiijnrb'S to nr dtMtli nf im i'nif>loy«HV the fart that 
thf f^ajploj-ot' may have bcon Koilty <<f mnlrlltutory nrKJlKonfo 
nhitll n<»t ttnr n recovery where hlfl ^•ontrlbnt'iry nejcll^reiK'e was 
Pllubt nnd the nc;rHj;ent,'e nf the employer, or lis olHcerH, nj^entfl, 
itp emiiloyees wa» «jif.si* U\ cimipariKoii. All (piestloiis vt netflfgcnoi 
nnd contrllxiti.ry n*ril;''*fice fthnU h^ fur Mie Jury. 

t<Er. 3. No roiiUact of employment, litsnranee. relief benefit, or Contracii 
bid»»mn|ty f-^r Injury or dcntU, i'ritrr''d Into Uy or on behalf of any °"' ** *"*•■• 
employei', tjur the a«x-ei'tant''c uf any lusmrance, relief beneUt or 
li>dcmnt|y by the perj*on rntfflfd thei-eto, shall coiiHtHute anj' bur 
or (Jefeuj'e lo any action brout-'bt to re<'ovpr dnmiipes fur [>crH*aial 
tnjurlMK to, or death of such employoo; Prurhhil, hfurrvrr. That 
n|KHi the trhil of such actlnn ibe defendmit may net off tliordn any 
HiMii It has eontrlbuted toward nny such Insurance, relief lHMi»»tit, 
or Imlemulty that may have been paid to the t)erRon entitled 
thereto. 

NEW MEXICO. 

coxirrLKn jaws of isot. 

TJahiJUu <if rallrtutd crtmpmtir/i frtr lnjitr(ra fo nnpfoi/rr/t. 

Slcnio?r .^21tV Rvery rnrporntlnn nperatlnp a railway In this T-o<'lt "f '•'»« 
^iTltory Hluill Im' liable In a sinn snrtit ieiil in con»r>enBate Nuoh !j| "VijJJ'"''*''*""' 
uplnytt' fur III! ibuna«*>fi Rustalneil by any entpl'\vee of r»nch mr- ^* 



TeiT 

emi . ^.^ ^... .^ ,...^ ....,,..,.. .. 

poni'I'in. the pcfKoii injured or dnaiaireil beln*; without fatilt ■•n 
hU nr h.T pnrt, fmrrln^ or Mifitalne*! In • nii»*>juoneo uf nny uils- 
niif nepleet. default or wnmcfnl act nf any 

j^pui'flUott wblLtt itt tJto ^Aj^fdae of 



BULLETIN (»r TUB BUKKAU Uii^ 1.X&UR. 
CUAPrcH 12X—iAaMlHu of entfilai/era for tnjuiiia to t-mpioj/ei 

Aru of nn- Si:<; TioN 1. Evfrrj* oompflnj-. con>ornMoti. m* liMlivtdual opiTutluie 

p4>Hnt«udeDt«. iniy niliio. Hineltci*. iti* mill fur Ibi* i'i>flulii^ of i}r*'ii ;«tmtt Im* Jl.thle 

•'<^' ri»r tiny ilnuuiKi'H HuntaliHMl Uy juiy t*ui|)loyw« tli(»n»<if wllliln tbla 

Stale, wUIkmiI fonirllnitlntC iH'iftlnciKMr on IiIk I 'art, wluii jJiirh 

ilniiinei* \i* ciXUi^Ci] hy thr npj/llKt'iu't* I'l* nuy ftu|K<)'Ui(i')it1eiiti f*>r©- 

mati, Hliifl lit>HK, b'tiHiliiK, or oiluT t'tiirliifcr, or oriiiic nirn. 

rnntrHciH not Kkc. I*. .Vn oiMitnit-l of Inniirniu'o, roKrf, iHMiftU. ur linliMiailiy In 

n Unr. rane nf Injury oi* dwitli. nor niiy otIuT oitntruct eiitcrwl Into be- 

lt»ri» tb(? Injury, bftwet'u ebe pcrsftu lujuro*! nuil any of dip pm- 

plnyprji minu-tl In tlit« net Hhnll con^dluti' luiy luir or ilcfiMiw to 

liny rnnNT or action hroutrlit under tlir provl*lnn of tbli act. 



Dctttll. 



Skc. .'t. In .CUSP of th*' t!*>atli of iiny niu-h i-niployivH 
i|noiU"»? of any Injury or dnniaci'S so Kusliilmil. the r!;ri)t 
HbnII survive and umy Im» i.rnsi-ruhfl iimi inMiutaintii i»y 
or persnnal rerre»enlative«. 

NEBHASKA. 

ACTS UF im»T. 



In cnnfle-^H 
urtloa^^l 



Ai.l« of cm 

pIoyivM. 



Defects. 



riiAiT».ii -18. — LinhlUty uf niflnnt^t mmpfinffn for inlnrirn tti rm^ 

• 

fiwrrioN 1. Kvory railway romimny opomthiK a railway rntrino, 
I'lir or train In tho State of Nebraska nbnll Im> Ilnblo to any of Iln 
i'iij|»Ioy<**'H, wbo at tlio time f»f Injury an* t'n^iMiiisl In i-ouKtrnciloii 
or rtMialr work, ^r In the iiw* nml it|H>ra(lnn nf any rnt;lnt'. car or 
train for wild roMM«iuy, or, in tho <:ww» of hU (h^nfli, to bl« iw?r- 
Koiial rrprf*^<ntaflvi';« for tin* la-niMll of IiIm wUhtw and i'hlldn*n. 
If any, If nour, tluni ti> hlH parriitN, If noui'. tlifii to hln i)f>xt of 
Ivln dt*|H*ndont u|M>n lilni. for itlj daniaKcn whbb naiy ri*HUtt from 
iU'^UfC<Mir»,' of any of IIh oftlriu's, a;:onTK, or (MUplftypf!*, or by fpa* 
wai of any d^fft^tMH or Pmiilllrlinicy <l<f(* <<> It^ not:llKtMu*c hi Itn 
cnrH, ruKhiPH. apidlHiKi'M. iiiuvhiui*ry, truck, roatlluHl, way>« ur 
wiu'kfl. 
riini|uiratlv« Kkc. 1*. In alt n<'tinuH Ix-rtfiftrr hroUKht autiPiNt any railway 
iiPEltlff'npt?, runipany to itn-uver (hinia^ct'H for pt'iMoiiiil InJnrleH t«) an oniplny*^, 

or wlion MUrh InJurlrM have rr»>nlti>d In his d«-aTh, tlio fact that tbe 
fnijiloyn' may liav»» bwii jruilty of cnntrltnUitry nrcMuvMire hIijiII 
not liar a i»t*ovory wbru l»l?« ctintrlbutory nriillK»Mn c wai* Hllf^it 
and (hat tif Iho 4>niployi*r wan ^ritt<}t In ron^pnrlHon, htil (biuiaief*^ 
Khali bt* dliidiilKliitl by llio Jury In iiroportlou to thi* auiouut of 
m'4?nj;c'ntt» attrUoitiil)lo to siwh I'lnidoyut*. all i|ur!ttlon» of U(*|{U> 
fioncv and rnutritititnry nr^ll^ffnco «hall bi> for tlw Jury. 
"CoBtrneti Skc. :i. No ronliat't nf oniiiloytucut. Ittf-uranc**. relli'f lionpflt, 
or Indoninlty fnr Injury c)r drafh lu-roaflrr rnton'il luin by or 
on lM»haff of any *»ui|iliiyt*«' n«tr tho nt-rvptnut**' <tf any Rurh tn- 
Htirnncc. ndU'f IhmuMII, mI' iiKUMniilly hy (ho pornon entitUil ihMO'l**, 
flhall liMistUuti* any bar or di'ft'UKi* to any at'tbai hmnirhl. to rt*- 
cover Oaututri'H f^<r personal Injnrlra to or (h-aih of wu-h <*m- 
Iiloyrr: Prorittrtl, hotrrtvr, That tipt'n tin* trial <»f MU'b action 
nualnst any railway con>imn.v ti' nt may »ef't-ofr any huiu 

it laiH rontrllmied toward any i auco, n-tlcf honrtW, or 

Imli'inulty that uiay bavr luM>n pinii i-- die htjurtil I'tuptoiyec Qt, 
111 uaw iif biH death, to bin por»onal reitri*Hi»utatU-t'8. 

(The Mintnte dirofttnsf the nne of jk 
brakes on railroad tralUK pruvldf^ ih. 

of vlf.lalli.M "' " ' ' " -"I lit • 

In rt^-ftvi-r (Ij! liT in Ihr r 

coinpiiny. < ' i'-M. I'tii 1 



I 



Dot A bar. 



EMPLOYERS LIABILITY IN THE CNITED STATES, 



73 



KEVADA. 



ACTS OF l!N)fi. 



ChaPTKB 1-12. — Ritfht vf artiim for prrsonnl itijurirg. 



1 w'h.Miovir nnv pHTsnu sb«ll siiffor jterscmnl injury Uy N«»BMB#nt 
..r (lefault of uiiotJu-r. llie rHTsoti ctuislng'*^"""" "'*^'*- 
iili» to th*^ iJt-rson lujurffl for ilnm:if;es; jiimI 
tlic |KT?<ini cjtuvine such Inj'iry Is employed by auniber per- 
l»r oori»«»rfttlon rcsiMinRlbU' for hW *i>tHliu-t. wiirli pors*">ii or nrnployen. 
itJoa fli> resjHinslbl*? shnll be liable to Ibe per^'ii Injnrwl for 



U ?!ab(ntr. bnw*evt>r, vrbm* not i!lwban:e«l by nin*<*f»- Dcirrmlna- 
Mniinnjt shiill *'\lsl only tn so fur ns tin* -siinio sbnll [J^" **^ llabil- 
I ..t..| .».iiii.;-r».i by a Sliiltf ur Kwloral court of t'om- 
^tatp bi nu nctlon bruuglit for that pur- 



ity. 



ACTS i>F 1W7. 

CnATTtM, 5H. — LtabiUtu *jf nniitoitrrt for Infurtrt to rw|i/o(/frft 

f^scnox 1. ETory oomn»rtn <?nrrior onjra^cO In trade or coumiereo Arts of em- 
In TV" *^'-» ' ■•' V.......I., iinti e\-ory uilue and mill owner and opera- pioyee*. 

ri»r mJnlnp, <ir In uilllln^ (»r reiUi<.*t!on of urw. 

la V . -^ I, sball be Kmblo to nriy of Its employee**, or, 

In «•* of the ijt'ntb of pufli employe^*, to hlfl personal repre«»ntn- 
titv fnr the lHMt»'t1t of bin \rlt1ow anil eblldreu. If any. and If none, 
for bis next of kUi. for all Oanm^es wbk'h nmy result fnini 
iJli;^.^!^ of tbe oifttvr*. aetMits, or employees of said coninion 
^^r tubie or mill operator, or by reason of any defert or ivfwts. 
iry due to ibeir neglli.'enee In its pai*s, onplnen. acpHanceH, 
Iraek, roaillMMl. ways or works, or to their negligent 
llnx or storhijc of cxpIoKivei*. 

2. Tn all Jictbins boreluaftor bronjrbf apilnst nny rnmnion CompBrmtir* 
T ur ujlne or mill owner and o|H'rubtr to recover daiunjfea'*^'*"^"'*"- 
lal Injuries to or denth of an employee, tbe fact tbnt 
may have t»een ^nllty of o^ntrlbtitory nepHgenee 
lirtr a rect»vei'y wbere bis eoutrlbufory neull.^ence was 
Ibe negllgenrt* of tbo rmploj^er, or its offloers, aKents, 
ii?s nvaB jrrotta In etmii-nrl^on. All nnestlons* of necHjrenoe 
■ ' ■■ ' frtp iijp Jury. 

'. liisnranrG. relief benetlt. or i.'oDir»ct« 

. . -d into by or on bebalf \*t any °'^* ■ '*"''■ 

r any lnsuran<'*\ relief benetit or 

■ 1 tUer*?to. sball conptlmte any bar 

:irti<fti brooKht to recover dnmajfea for jM-nwuial 

lib «*f purb employee: Provided, hotrmr. That 

-'tob artbtn tl»e tiefendant may wt off therein any 

tttited toward any sncb Insuranoe. relief Iw-netit, 

riiat may have lM>en paid to the person entitled 



i-r iiii'-utuiiy 
t^«rvto. 



NEW MEXTCO. 



l^OMriLED JJiWfi. OK ISl>7. 
LiithHttif <if roilrocd nnuitnnirn for in}trrir» fo m\p\oycc$, 
IPX ^CtC. Every p'^rr'^ratlon oi)eTulinp a ralhvny lu this 



mU be 11; 
nU <tnnt 



\Af\ of c«re 
-ini siiHiriont to .^.mi-onwite such j^^^^^'"*"''*"' 
■ie<I Ity nny tuiployee of wich c*-»r- 
i) being without fault ou 
'TinHetjnence of any lulB- 
•-■j<vC .i*T;Mi/f i»r wruiiirfu! net of any 
r*rt\pnxUoti nliiie in ihv cxerclK? of 



74 



BCLLET13C OF TUK BUREAV OV UkDCm, 



tlu'lr wvprnl thitlcft, wln-n sitrh '- ' ' 
Iwt. ili'frtttif *>r wrongful ikI of 
lipi'H nvohlrd l>y siicli corrMiriili' 
able cull' or ilillKoint* iu flit* wl<««.'ii 
OrprwnrklnK,i^|.i]fs, or bjr ttni ovftrwiwrkinif snUi 



(•raplofecM. 



iriw of defect 
Ire Mini, elc. 



I>iuBiijee«. 
rrortno. 



lowing Llioiii to uork an niiusuul or UkiiouK.tiiii<' 
And any otintiiirt mitrlt'ttnK KU«*ti llnMltty kI.. 
contriir> to tUo |nihll«' |ioii- 
81H:. li^lT. It Kluill 1m* Ull 

Ot^firH'iiv*'. or nijy UHT or Im'iniK^ht' ti|>.ui 

fittiit liuioufM ilu'n^tu 1mM<i1)$;1iij; urr In ui., 

bhopH or iJiiK.-lilnrry mid iitliicbuK-utH th) ri">l' \n h 
iimmMT di'fpt'dvo. whioli dnfivtii inlL'Iit li.n- ft-tii 1 
lalin^ by firdlniiry cart* »(h1 dii 

Jf tUoiuupbtyof of «u> wu'h < 
liy r«HHiiii of (iucli JvfiK.'t Iji nny t;u m !»' 
uttiit-liitit'iitA tbvroiii liL*loii|!tiii:. or Kbo|i» .. 
uivntH tlu*ri>of. o\viH*<l nnd ojKM'iilnl, or bi'ut^' ruij itiio • 
BUfb rori'oniUoii. tbroiu'b 110 fniili of u\*- ii\vr\. 8iit'Ii > ' 
Hbnl) U*^ linlili* for t^urli Injury, nml tiiw»n iir<»tf of ti-- 
aotUtU brou^bt by nuch oinpIoy4X' or his IfjiMl mi' 
ntiy f<Mirl »<i i)ro|n'r jtirWdiition, n^ahinl sin li rulh" ' 
tor Uiiui«a«'M (Hi «n'cnint i^t wiioh iujnry i»o r»t"tv«4, ••i! 
titb'il to roroV(*r u^iilnNt ttticb coriMiiiiUoii 11U3' kijui con . 
wiTb tbc Injurti's Kuntalni'd: I^miifittl, Tbut It hUhU b<- iL' 
of iiU tb«r oiui'bnees of rHHriHid crtrjiorftlluiis to r^omiiilv 
111! dfffrtii r«iniluf; to tbolr kuowbili:!* In iiiiy Muh «')ir ' 
live <ir sbo[w or rafH'lihiorv fi»d tilijjchnirnls ibt-rwif i<» : 

Dili'*'- ' ' ■■'• '■■■'■ ■■■■'■ -'•'■ -' -'■'"• -"■ '■ • 

trii 

>;..:_ ; ■ _ ■ 

iiDdtT rHvnuiKtniu'i'K iroiii wbloli n enuN* t*i lu'tniii w 
nccrutMl under tho |iru\tMbiu8 of thi- t«ii pn^-oillni; >" 
dnitb had not misiirvl, nn nclion tl»' - H br brou 

tuAuncr tirovbbtl by HiN'tfon tbriM' ; two bm 

fift*H*u. uud un3* 8Uni ro«'ovrr«1 thon'iu "Ij.iil bi? ^ ;' 
(lie tirovl»tU>us of iuiUX Mvtiou throi* tbou^iiud t>i 

flftfHfti. 

NEW TORK. 



ACTS or 100a. 



I In tb« • 
the mndltiou iif Ibe W«5^ «rorkil 



imwpd by— I, ,Tn,(^^ ,„ n„ „p„,i, 

riire nil-; 
tt«>rccttvc tnn- 1 n\ 

tinner>: or - ** ^ 

Id. 

«Ut..-K 1 ;.- r 

H^nkx' of tl)<? fr 
wtdn;! tbiit (Iu* w 
dlllun: 

K«»«ll«*Dp<* 2. Ity rrHKon of tbp n«iuHir«*m'(* **f nnr pf»r*tnTi In dm nfrrlffl 
?nt'"'* '**"^ of tbp cnipbtyor Inlrnstf'^l witb nnd v^' 
wbottc HuU* or pHniMiNil dn*v Im tbut ol 
tbr - • ■ ' : 

tb. 

fir 




«« the 
ry rtilaoCtte 
A«a ATtatec mtttr tUi act 

vfairh renaia aflier IW 
IvovUliic <«r tb» asMi- aC Iris 

nc nd lM-«ti -tM* duit«r «r 

UirrKir.iai, alHdl imr, bs a rajn^r ci law, 
br ■Dcli ««BHo3r«c to lb« rxMcsoe «r 
9i prranttAl Ifijanr tfci'n'frinK. tw am 

Ibi* ri.0: t.r Kuch iaJtifT'* <r 

140CV Ui tb» «■» ptece and cttona «( 

^)«e or iba riafc oT lojarr AaH ^ aaa 

' u«Bal poiTprs of tbr nmrr In a 

i.-t fMKlKtvi} nyntmry to tke 

aittdad oaAcr 



ur 



Ttju-nr^ l> 



•i:v r/jj;\'..i o- 



.aU Bfvt ba aittdad 
' or renntr a^aba 

'•j^'w Inxrw of tba 
-1 laiifd, arlUkia a wm«m v%a^vp 
lafbnBatJoa tb«fvof ta Iba P<»^ 
blBMvJf la tb^ aerrkv of 

!«>ai« tfrortttl iRttirrtaKfiA- 
ii^i (hat r^ih'U iWt-^-X <>r tirsU- 
or superior j-trreon, iirtoc to 



BULLBrriN or thh uubkau of laboh. 



rimlHbutton 
thmiiKli ln»ur- 
■ ncv fuoU. 



Svr. i. An otiiploycr who slinll linvo roturlbutc*! to nii InRtiramc 
fniiiJ ci'LMiltMl niM] iiiitintJiliinl fnr tbt> niiitiinl pnr|HiM» of Imleinnl- 
fylnc III! t»uiph»yw for |H'r»uniil liiJurU«, fnr wlilili c'unijH*nKiti<m 
may l»o r^x-overed niMl'*r thij* iift, 4>r to nny n-Hof sorioty or h^n^flt 
flinti iToatid uitilrr tlu* IinvH i»f IIiIh Slitfc, iij:iy tirt)VO in tiiUl|;»- 
tlon of tliiniiiKOH rocovrnitilo by nn cmpUtyco imilcr TIiIh avx such 
pru|Nirtl(>ii of tho [uvunliiry In^nolU which hnn \hh?u nxx-ivwl by 
Hiii'ii i-mpliiyci' from wirh fiiiul (»r WM-lety i>ii iK'i'oiint of hucU (vni- 
Iriliiilluii of t'liiidoyi'i'. ttH (he nmlilliullori iif «iii'h fUiiiltiyer to 
tiiM.b ftniJ i»r wM'loty bcurs to Iho wboh* i-ontribulUui tlioroto, 

Sk*. r>. Kvory ovislli.jr ri;;hl of iiiti«.ii for nojrllKciu o or to P0- 
I'ovi'i* diiiuupL'H for lnJni'i<'H ri'siiltln^ lu doiith \i? •■oiittiiui.'d niid 
iiolhliiK In ililK ni't nuitniiHHl fihnll bo r«)iiHtriietl as lliiillliii^ any 
Kiirb rlKbl of tU'tlori. itor Nhall Ibo ralliiiv to ^Ivc the iioiliv pro- 
vitli^l for In Roctlon two of tlittt ii<-t'be ii bnr to the nialtitcuauix 
of 11 Kuli iit>oti any mirli (>xl8tliiiiC rli;lit of nrtlon. 



CiiAFiKK iXM,—Liabitittf 



Acrra of hkhj. 

i/ f^iitritad i^tmtHtttirtf for (njurfcn to 

rtnpUtyvf'n. 

Skction I. rbopter liv<? bnnilrf.nl uad sixly-Hvo of tbo Iaw» of 
pIfcUtivii biiiiilntl iiihI nlnrty, • • • |n*lnllni; to tht* orcnnlzn' 
tioii, rtr.. of nillroixlH) \n berrhy nnirndi^l by aiblln); IhcTOto a 
new Hii'llon. ti» bo known «h sii-tion forty-two-n, hk f<i|low»: 

Swtlon A'J.-i\, In all actloim iij^nlnut a riillrimd <'or|M>rntIon, 
forolifii or (loiiifKtU-. tlohiK tfUKtnoKH in iblH Stnt«', or Hi^iihmt a tv- 
I'olvpr th<»rt>of, for porwnml Injury to, or tirnlli romilllnir from 
I>i'rKoiinl injnry «tf any piTMon, wbilo In tlio oinployuiciit of siioli 
fN>rt>orallon, or ^•^■«'Ivc'^, arlHliij; from the lu-tJIiKonoi: of *»nt'Ii o*ir- 
iHtriKloii or nnvivor or of miy of Ua or blw odlrcrH or tMnploy<H»«, 
every pnii)loy<'<». or hU U';ral ri'proKonlall\ oh, xlial) havo !lio wimn 
rlKbtH anil ronnMlIrs for an Injury, or for death, HufTorLnl by bini 
from tilt' art or onilMAJou t^f •iiiili corporallon or ri^colvcr nr of Hh 

AOitltlAnal or bin ollloors or tMiU)Utyoi*»*, an a ro now nllowo*! by law, anil, tu ntUll- 
llubllKx. tlon to tbc llaliillty now u.xlrttln^^ by law, It i^hall bo lioM In nucIi 

nctloUK that p<T«on» onir»»:<Nl In tho wrvUv of any rallmail iiir- 
(Miration. ftU'olKn or ilona'sllc, ibdni; biislnoFH In thiH Stato. or In 
Xh\* Hrrvlo<» *»f a rwoivor tboroof, \\\m aro Intru»«l<nl by *<nrlj t-iir- 
pKMiTto!! or ni'otvor, with tho anthorlty of Huifcrlntonilout'o. con- 
trol or louinnuKl of otbor iHTwiim In iln? oniployiia*nt of Hui'h eor- 
iMinitlon or rocohor. or wHb llio ntilhorlly to illm*! or mntrol nny 
otbor oi)iploy*H» tn tho |MTfonnain-o of tbo Only of siub emi>loyt»i\ 
or who havo, nn a jmrt of their ilnty, for thr Ilnu! brinj;. phyMlral 

control or dirn-llon of tho naoomont of « »il|^'nal, Bwltflj, bwoiuo- 

VlM-prlncI- tlvo en^lno, rur, Irnln or tolojri-nph otlko, an? vlce-jirlntlpHls of 
such (Hirporatlon iw rwolvor, and aro not follow-HU'rvantu of auoU 
InjurtNj or tl«.'Coa^<ot1 oiLipIoyw. If an pnipIo>iH'. oniraj:o»l In lb<? 
si-rvloo <if any sucli railroml roriKinitlon. or ctf a nN'rlv-'r tbortH>f, 

iWcctB, Hlinll r«*«i'lvo any Injury by roJiMiu of any dofr^'t In tho OfimHtlon 

of tho wayn, worlis, nmcblnory. plant, Ph.Ih or IniplomonlM, op of 
any oar, ll'nin, hK*onit>tlvo or attai-hnn-nt thoroto belonKluff, nwiioti 
or oporatiM!. or boln*; run anti oiM.*ratt>«! by «uob corr»>Vrttiou or 
nvolvor. whon snob dofort could ban* boiMi (ilwuvonHl by mul'U 
rorpondlon or ro*>'!vor. by r"a»»i>nablo ami propor care, WhXa op 
liiMpoi tlon. Huoli t*oriKtr»t|on or P*»«'olvor, Khali bo ib^onioil to have 
bad knowlo4lj;o of Mn<h iloftN'l bofupo ami at Iho timo such Injury 
la KUHinbutl; anil wbou tbo fact of hucU ib'fi-i-i »<hnll t>o provi*il 
upon (bo trial of any arthni In tbo conrlH *if \\\\h Stato, broinrht Irt* 
stub oiniiloyot." or hlH lo^ral ropn'jscntatlvi-R. acnluKt nny snob rflll* 
iiiail ooriwratlon or nn-olvor, <m imtoiuiI of **nrti inlnrlfM km ri^ 

on 



lIWbL 



Conirmc(«. 



I'olviil, tti-:* wuao wball ?••' prhnn farin ovMonco of 
the part of HUcb oorporallon or roodvor. TIMp vn; t 
iifTiHi aoiloiiK or <*nn»M»K of aotlon now oxi 
rpffifit, rnb' or r«'i.oilMtU»n, Ik'Iivinmi an »mi., 

I oxonipt oi" UuiU ' > 
tbo i^ruvUVrnw ul ^ 



w.l\. 



EMPLOyEKti UABILITV IN TUK TXITED STATES. 



79 



Hec firi(\-._"i ii -hnll Uv iiiiliiwfiil fur any aiiiMi rfirporallon In rB#«fdcfec(- 

1. 'ridy UHi* or oin.-nik* uiiy nir nr Im'tunoiive "*****'"*'*'• 
tt. any ciir or ItMLuuiolive xi|»on wlih'h tin* uin- 

(IiiiitTy i*r aitarhiufiitH llu-rctti livIoii^'UiK are in iiny uuttiner m 

*Iofe<'tive, If tin? luiiployeo of nny hu<'U Corporation sUiiII rect^lvc M 

any lujnry by reasttn of nny dt'fvnM in nny car or IiH-numlive, nr *■ 

the mnrhintry nr nttaclinipntN Ihnvto imloni^in^, owniMl nnil <»]M>r- S 

fltiMl, or t>ctnf; mil nud oitomrisl l>y hucIi roriHirntlnn. etu<'U roriH>- I 

rntlou ^ImU bf (KH-nittl to have liat! ku<»\vl<HlKe of such <K'f**ct I 

iK'fore and at tli«^ tlnn- sncli Injury is mi HUKtaiiu-tt. .iiid wUl-ii llii* ■ 
fftct of 8U0I1 defect HliAll bo made to iipiK.>nr in llio trial cif any 

liottoii in tli«' (-i)urL*< of lUis Stall*. bpMmht liy snch i'mployei», or Erlrlenco. 

Mr le^ftl rritre}«Mi1n fives npilnnt nny railroad (-or[H»ratiou for ■ 

dtiuiui:er>, on uiM*nnnt of ^tucli lnjnrlt*s (^<t retclvisl, tlu* mimr | 
tdiull \}Q )iriuin faolo fvldcncp nf UfitliUt^nce on the {Kirt of sncU 
coriM-tratinu. 

Hi:r. ^.T^Ti-'J^. In all nctioua airnluHt the railroad conii»any for Hupprlorwrv* 
IK-THitnal injiiry lo, or dcatli resnliin^' from inMsnnuI Injury, of""'*" 

nny |tors»Mi, wlilie In the wnpluy of nncli euniiHiny. iirittinie from ■ 

tl*c n»'ffll;;on'V ftt snrli <*on»itany or nny of its otTii*rrs or iMuplityi'OH, ■ 

U fttiall be b(*Id In addition to tbe Ilaliility now t'XiHtInu by law. ■ 

tlint every iit'rwni In Uic *»midoy of sueb coniimuy, actually liaving ■ 

power or authority tn direct or control any odier fuii>lctyoc of ■ 

Riicli I'Diupiiuy. \w uot tbc fellow Bcrvant. tiut kuiktUu* of snch ■ 

oth<T tnupbiye*'. alsn tluit overy person In tbo employ nf sneh ■ 

coui|mny buvin^' cliarj;o nr control of employees iu any separate H 

branch or de|iarimcnt. Khnll l)c held tn }»' tbc sn|>orinr and not ■ 

fWIow-KTvaiit *'f cmptnyct'H in auy utiier branch or department fl 

wbt» Imvc iin jKJwer to din'cl nr control iu Ibe branch or deimrt- H 

no'iii ill vs iiiiii iiu'\ Tir.* i-mpbtyod, ■ 

ALTS OP 1I»02. I 

K^^ Linhitiiirn of vmiiUt\tvra fur \n}ur\t)t to crttphytes, m 

SKiTlox 1. An emplnyer Hhnll l:>e resiKiUHible In damnses for Injuries riv 
fK>i-winal injury eaujMHl tn tin empinyif*, wim Is bIm.'Mdf in t'*^'fj"f[4"fv*«^ 'i«a^ 

t'Xerci»e nf due care and dill;;euce at llie time. Uy reason of any i-Linery. uic. 
drfpct In tile ^imdltlon of the niacliinrry or uppllancvH coimet'ti'd 

with or ii«ed In the business of the employer, which arose frooj, J 

or bad noi Ikm'U dlwoven^l or reutediiil owlnp to the nej;lii;i*Mce I 

ut llie cmp'oyer, or t)f nny ihts<»ii In the wnlce of the employer. H 

IntruKled by him wllb tlie liiity nf InsiMvtlon, tvriair, or of stidng ■ 

that tl»e machinery «tr appbincex were in iin)iK>r coiiditIi>n. ■ 

ACTS OF 1001. I 

B^^ Emiihtiicf9' linbilUy — iitttitmtttioft of risk. M 

>lriTio\ 1. In iinv action broutrht Iiv nu einplovoi*. or Ids lepil t'aHurr 10 
repr">M.*nt:illve, a^aiuMt blM emjilnyer. to rwt>\er for perj»>'nal In-eti-. 
Jurl4'*i, n-hcu It Khtill appear Ibiit tlie Injury was cau^cii iu wliole 
or In pari by the ncfiill^ent omisHitm of such employer to f^unrd or 

prtilwl bit) mucblriery or appiianceH. or tlie preuuPCH or |dact» J 

where wild einj»lr»yce was employed. In the maimer re<piircd by ■ 

nny iiciuii Htntnte nf tlic State uv rnltctl SlateH In tnrce nt Um m 

date of Ibe passu^'c ot tldn act, the fuel that Kucb emplnycti con- I 

tlT'T''-' '■■ -.tld fmplMVOM-ut witli knn\vle«ljce nf snth nuii>wtt>n, Khali ■ 

ti an a dcfi'us*-; and in Huch actinu, if Hi*' jury find fi»r M 

I r. Ii mjiy nw/ml surh dannices not exi-eedlnc, for in- fl 

j In di-alb. the hiiui of live thouHaitd dntltirH. and m 

f" ' s*> rcsuitlufr, the Nuni of three thou.siual dnllnra. W 

Alt ii amy llod proiHirtlonod lo the jrtvunbiry dnmatcvs reaiiltlng 1 



BULLETIN OF THK BUHEAU OF LABOR. 



or wUcro Hucb Injurips have rosultocl In hl« (loath, tijo fnrt that 
the emiiloyoo niny hnvo li<M>a Kullty of roritrlbotory noullct'iioe 
Hlmll n«»l bar a rw<»v<'ry, wiM'rt? liU foiilrII>iil<jry Ufullj^xnui' wna 
Hlluht 1111(1 timt (»f the en)[>loyi<r wiih groHit hi rotii[)iiriM>ii, bill Ihe 
ilaiii.'tj;eH slmtl \w tllniliilHlittl by tlii' Jury In protKirtlou to thr 
nnidiitit of lu'^llsentv uUriliiilnhIr f» f'luli cuiployiv. All qiioHllons 
of iM'j;UK<*Dce nnd eontribiitury iioicll^rfint' Bhall l*e ft»r lli<* Jury. 
Oaotractsnot Skc H. No ronirnct of einploymrut. liiKurunccv rclU'-f hcn^nt or 
'" '*'**■ Indemnity for Injury or di'uth entered Into by or on bebnlf of any 

LMhi'luyco, nnr tlic an^eptniice of any pucb Insiirauc*!*, n-lh^f liriM'tlt 
or InibMunlty by Iho jHTi^m fiitltlwl tlw^mlo shnll conRlltnto a bur 
or ik*f*MiHe to any notion brought to rwovrr rlriuui^t*s for [trrrumal 
lnjnrl<>»4 (o or di'Hili of fiicb fuipbiyee: I'r'QH*t^«f, Uuic*t'rr, 'i'hut 
iiprm thii trlj»I of twld ncthm aKatUHt any cotiunon currier, tU<» do- 
feiiduat uiay liSL't off therHu any tfum it ban i-tmrrlbntod tuwArd 
iiny Bucb luHwrunre, relief benefit or Indemiiliy (bat may luivu 
been nintlo to Ibc liijtirtnl ouiployoe, or In titHe of his (!(*ulh, to btv 
t»erKonal reprf«cntntlv(«. 
Ltmiutloo. 8i:c. 4. No nvtion nball be iunlttUilued under thU act unlnv 
commoucei withlu one yi*ur from tbo time the cnnne of actloo 
nccpued. 

OHIO. 

BATES'S ANNOTATRD STATtTTEH— Tllinn EDITION. 

Li<ihitit]f of nidrttad coinpantrn for injutim to cmpioyves, etc 

Contracts Ssx\ 3.*)05 20. H Bhnll be uolawfnl for any mUroAd or railway 
J!L*'.Tl"5-filL'"*" ^'^n^'f^Hlon or couipany ownlnc and oiH'rutlnn, or oiNM-iitUiK* 
• • • a railroad In whole or In j^irt In till* Statet to adopt or 
pnminlpite any rule or reculallou for the pjvernmcut of ItM Herv- 
nnlM or einploypfii, or nuike vr euliT Inlii juiy roijiract or n\ire^- 
went with any person enjra^iHl in or about to enoiice In Uh wrvk**. 
In which, op hy tln» terms of whbb, siicb emplnytv la any manner, 
directly or lndlre<'ily, |iroiulw;fi or agrrei'a to Intld ■!■ '• '■'*n>"rnllon 
or comiuitiy liariuh»s.s ou n(\^}unt of any Injury i vUe by 

rejtsun of an a"-vldunl to, breakage, dcfetrt or in i in th« 

carB or machinery and attncbnient^ thereto beloiiKiuK. u|Nin any 
cars &o owned and openiteil. or belna run and operated by Kueb 
eor|ioratlon, or couiiHioy belu^ Oeftretlve, am] any anch rule, retcn- 
latlon, contmot or a^jr^'ement Bhall lie of no t*rre<:-t. It bbnll be 
unlawful for arij' ef>r{H>ration to wmijiol or rtMiuIn- lUns-tly or Indl 
Join 



I 



for dnutti:ca. 



Compo 11 1 n K 

tellof rectly an fmplnyii' to J'»!n any mmpjiiiy rtRH<»<-l;iliou wlMttmK'Vrr, or 



*""'''*'^'' to wllliholtl uny part of an euiployis^'ti wages or U\n wiUiry for tlie 

imynient of dUffl or assiKsinents In niiy fVM'Iety or ort;anluttton 
whalwx*ver, or demand or ri'tiuire either uh u condllh»n precedent 
to seeurloK employmont or belnj; employed, and said railroad or 
railway ct)mi«!ny aliall not dlwhar^e any enti'loyee biH-nune he re- 
fuNPS or nef;i<*<'t8 io bcvtmio a memtirr of any Hoclcty or orpiulmi* 
tlou. And If any euiidnyco \h dlsebfirc^Hl be may, at uuy time 
wUhln tmi dayH after recclvlnj; a notico of bis dlnthur^e. demiind 
Itritflon for the rcnRnii of said dlwharpe, and wild railway or r:illr<>MiI vorn- 
llariinrtfc. jwny thereupon sbriU furnlsli wild rcawm t" said dii<M.*hni-i;t«<I 

emp'^y*"^* I" wrltlnj:. And no railroad company, Inxnnnuv siH'lety 

or aSSlK-iatloll, or nihor ImM'WMI Bhnll *l.rt.;ir..l i.,*.!.! r.^mir.*, or 

inter Into any eontrn<*t. aun^'ment. ' ^rn 

iilKiut to enter, or In the eniiduy of an.\ _ i i*t>y 

W i« I V I n KHUch (H'mon stIpiilateH or a^rceK to ttiirivudcr nr wiii^c aii> riKbt 
(Tlnimti forrtiim- lo damageH ofirainRt any ralirond company. Thon^aftpr nrl»Onc for 
'*'*'■ prrisoual bijiiry or death, or whereliy he ' 'Or 

waive In ease he Mfi«>rt)t (he wjnie, nny *•• er, 

and all hUcU atlpnlallouH and ai^'reementN hh;ti> 
rnriH)ratioii, nssofjallon or persnn vlnlatlnt; or 

In the v1mIv<^ ( h.i.. .....; .....i; r...- .-..!. 

(wiy 1o til 

the Num i! : i . . ' 

Jam/ ilrtUnm HWU) to bv rccovirred to & ci-^U n^vtem. 




KSrrLOTCSA LIABIUTT IV THE ttJUHD STATSS. 



9rt. XVV^-2\. It i4tfi1! br> oidRwfMl far wv 



^ or <ictcTate bbjt <sr «r loccvaotlw '** 






:U»B In 



wklch the »•• 

r iiiiji-L.s)VA;9i i_t»?>r9to lirtiifl— aiv In bbi* »' ■■■nr 

If the 9n$4oj«e of aojr smA iatpormtUm aten ncriw 

• • • feafloa of bbt ' ' - • s^ any car or locaa»Uf^ «r 

or attaduxx^' fcHiwuliiu 

nm ami or^i^; _ . ^*h c^tn'^ratUia. 

T!t^ time ftin Ii iujury !.•« -41 su?:tuia«4. aad 

r fthnll be nutle tn apfi«ar la Ibr trial of aaj* 
-^ '>r thu :<fato. brou«tu hy snfh ^mpliijfa, ar 
-s ncnintC anr rallraail mniafatfaa far 
f >rK-)i iiijiiii^v 6i> rec«<rcd. tkr aaoi^ 
kleftacv of Chr^ii^ecwv on Ifae part nf m»eh 



lu 



all actVMW asalast Cbe nllivad oanpaar ft** ' 
tnjary Uk or <]«ath wsolUiifr tram permmml tajorr* o^****" 
ppnarm. wt:I!p Iq tbe enptoj- of fth-Ji coapany. 
ii 'h oKni»: ■ ' s u fl k T ia or 

acltlitlou : / iMnr exMlae t^ lav. 

-' *u In tbe €«ip4ojr at i^uch i-oiapaox, a«tiiaUy fca r luft 
lit^irUjr to dlrert or control aor otbcr cniilaTce of 
o.iii!>^>uv, In Dot th^ fetlow-avrraot, but soivrlor o< aodi 
thrr fiiaplii^<>r, atao that evpiy |i«>9oti ia the cnplnj caf aoeta 
>ng cttarsc tir cciuiml of cnaplore«s tn aay opparmte 
MrtmcQl, ilull, tH> biHil lo t>e the Mtperivr aad aoc 
nf rtapioyciea' Id any irtbrr Ivaneti or drfiartiiimt 
in lini* ~ to dirvrl rur nwtnal la the Mvnirfc or ikf«rt- 

it In %• are miiiiifML 

ACTS OF i«e. 



SaiMrttri 



IMttHiUes 0/ cm|»fojrrr» /or imfBtia to rmptoprrt, 
ri^kc« 114.1 



lox 1. An einjiloy*^ 
Inlurv 4iiiffH4Nl t(i 



Tillable In daoagM for Injarts 

Tji- Time, by rvtti*« '»f fl njr chlan?. e(i 

■ r>- or ait(tlUu!' •-« ei'iin»i't«l 

' ' y<>r, nhioli aT<M» from, 

vine to the DfglfmfKv 

-r \ •. .■ ..f the emplojTr. 

- ar of seeing 

-lion. 



ACTS or WW. 

£Ap//>|^mi* IttittUitp — AJUHumpitrm of rUlr. 

iPiftJt* S47.I 

ojr 1. Ill any n^'tion I.rr»n!:bl hy an Miip»oyp«*. nr hi« '^'^^ nmT*dI' 
tatlv**. flenin<)t ttt« (^nivi-'ViT, to r<»«'f»VFT for prraotial hi-^e. 

■ .>*Mi| in whole 
: to punrd or 
ir_\ '»r ■ t.i in |ii i-iiiii*OJi or pln(*i^ 

-H" wjis I-: itj i\w luniuior n»iiuir«l by 

r ti... ^; tnl Stnt<^ in force at the 

lilt «uch oniploycH' eon- 
• if Hucli oiniKsinii, stlinll 
Htuli !ii lion» !f the jnry fiml for 
. (laniHi^oH Tn»t i'X»*«'*HiInji. for In- 
it ^Iiiitli, \Uv hum of rtvo thouHitnd (btllnrs. «"»! 

Injur n'r«»Itliiir. the num nf thr^-o thon^und dollars, 

it may f"^"' I rcftf^rtUmcti to tbr frectmitxry ilnmntw^ n.»suUVw^ 



BULLETIN OF THE BCREAU OF LABOR. 



frniu Knid Injuries; litit nutliln^r bemlii Hlmll uffoot the |>rovliiIoiifl 
of «'?ftinu (n;tr> of th«> Kovl»fd Stntntes. 

Nothiutf lii'rein roiiirtliiwl Hbnll I>o cnUHTriicHl ii« nfTt^tlut; tlio 
(U'fMiso of rontrUintory »o»:nj;t'nc*<', lior tl»c ntlnilHsilillHy of ovt- 
(li'tiw ronii*eteiit lo Mi|M«'ll HUtii (U'fwirt**. 

I'J'ho sfntulc n*»ruliitlnic tbr working nf tiilucH trlvc« n riifbt of 
nctiitii for iiijtirlcK m* tlnitli tK'niMlniiiH] by niiy vlolnllon r»f tho 
net or any willful fulliirt) to ooui|ily wUli 1(8 provUiotiB. All, 
Stilt., sivllon yin. 

A rullrond couiiHiiiy wliORo f«ii|»orlii(i>iit]i*iit or fitnll<m ngeni bas 
rc-^vlvril notice of n drfoi'tlvo ronplor or briiko Ih lUihIr for In- 
JurioM otraslouwl by Buch dofuct after tbe oxplrHtlon of twenty- 
four botirs Hfter tbe notlcts bna beeu received. An. Stnt, iuM?tluu 

ancTif. 

A Kliiluto tllrecliiijr tbe ns»» of s«'lf.cl«\ultiff nnb dump Iwiij* on 
rallroiul Im'ouinrivrMiIoiiicH tri(*ouiiuii)irH ni'Kli><ilriK (u comply wltli 
l!ic liiw tbe dcfciiKc of contrllmlory iicKltKcncc or <if aHHUinc"! rlKk« 
III iK'tlonH for iHTHciiiiil Injury U* or ilriilb tif niiy onyhn'cr or rtn?- 
Uiiio tM-fHsUiiRil by Hurb ncirllgmro. Acts of IIHH), pjifrr 10. 

A Htiitute dlrcstbiK (be iuKliillntloii of imwer or tnUn briikes 
and of autuuiatic ^'oupbTH on niMwdy trnbis* provlilo** tbat lu 
iirtlons for lujurlcH or dculU caURed by fiilUire to observe tbo 
biw tbe defeitsoH of nsauitH^l rlHkH and contributory uoKllgence 
will uot b«s ulluwod. Acts uf lt)(>0, act, imge 70. J 

OKLAHOMA. 

CONSTITtJTIOS OF HW- 
Asnvtx IX. — IJabifittf of rmithti/rnt fur Injnririt to ftn ployrrs. 



I 



juTv Skctton .*^i. Tbe common law doctrine of tbe fellow-Hervant, 
« •**'»» far ns It affi'cts tbe Ualtllity of the Mirt«tt'r for Injurlvn to blit 
H*«rvaiit, r*'«ultlnK fnmi tbe H<'tH itr omlswton.H nf uny oiber norvnnt 
ttr HcrvantB of ibo cuniuum umHter. Is nbropitrd as to every etu- 
plnyei' of every railroad company and every street rnllway com- 
pany ov interurlniM niltwiiy company, and ofevery petHon. tirm. or 
corporation ennn»c<'d In mininc In tbij* .State: and every »iueb em- 
ployee HbatI bave the Kiinie rlubt to nvover for every Injury mif- 
feriMl by bini for tbe aelw or onilKHlonn of any other enipbiyee or 
eniployeeH of tbe oanuion maMter tbat a w^rvnnt woiibi have If 
Ijj.nil, si:cb urtu itr omlsslonH were (liitsi* oT the niaKter blniHelf In t\w jier* 

fornaiii(*e of a nonaHKl^fmible duty ; and wb<>n deatb. wbetber In- 
Htantrineou}! or n<il. n^Hults 1o HUeb employw from any Injury for 
wblcli be could Imvo rei''*vpr<'d tnider tbe nbove provlnIonK, Imd 
not death oefiirred. then bin leiral or iM'rwiuiil representative. Hur- 
vlvlnu iMiuffort or rehilUeM, or any truntee, curator, etainnlttcM* or 
Kinirdlan of HUcb conmirt or rehitlveH, Hball have the nauie rItfbtM 
and reinedicH wltb resiNvt thereto, aH if death bad l)een cnutM'il by 
the ne;:Ilp*nce of tbe miiHter. And every railroad conJi«iny and 
every i*rre<*t railway eoniiwiny or Internrban railway c»m»pun3*. and 
every (terKon. ilrni. or <'or|ntralliiti en^apnl lu underKf'Uitnl mining 
In this Stale nball Im* liable under tbltt WM-tUm, for the nets of bin 
or Its reet-lverH. 

Nothlnu cnmlalJied lu thin seetlou shall ri'wtrlel tlje power of the 
legislature to extend to tbe employees of any |M.>rson. linn, or cor- 
iKirutliai, Ibe rltcbta and i*eme<11eH herein (irovbled for, 

Articms XXIIL — Coutrihiitory nfffligence and aM»iu»t>tton of n>lt. 



Qui*»iiMnM SuTiox d. The defenw of contributory uei;llK<^nci* or of a»> 
forjurj-. Mumptlon of rUk sluill. lu nil caM'ii wbalMH^ver, tie a iitiimtloti of 

Xuct, and sUuJl. ut all tiiuee* bu left to tbe Jury* 



dCFUlTZXS LUXnXTT US THX C^EZTZB 



U 



OBJBGOJr. 
ACTS OF lanOL 



tfMUw vf rmflrv*^ 



fm^ te>cr«er M 



=*» 



I 





1. ErtHry oorpocatAatt 
-ta corporailoQ h^ n«ttind 
ifT uihtrviap. sfaaU be llAble ta 

tjifn^ti bj any i*fDpi<ir<w 0f 

acc«t ^r oOccr of voe! 

JBivd. or of ■ Persia cBpkiy«d liy 

lislrt to comrul or aiitct tbe i i k 'M mf sodi 

the mrins 4if Uh* csK|iki7«e bf wbon be I 

wbco «Drh taUnty motts ttom Um 

foalt of a coenm^orve oisa^ed in 

ftnsn Uuit of tbe ^nplcryve IsOravd. «r of ■ 

trahi of ntrv. i»r of a cvieai44oyve vbo bos 

rii;aal r lorocBOCire i mloi or wbo la 

iBtcb'^: ur traBflaltllBg Uir^ t aii b ir or 

Ka<vwifni^<- Ml nil cmployvr la>iu«d of tbe deiBrtlv« 

arter or ciNiditiao of anj ■iarikisicff7. wajra; 

tores of ouch cnrpomtkai shall aoC «rir Itactf be a bar to 

for anx bijnnr or dmih caiwed fhcrctr- 

Btanfaixwooak or okh«*r«iop. nsalla Croo an tmjnrj h» any 

tif sorh corporBlloQ rvcdved aa afoRoaiC fl^ prraoaal 

atlre of Koth employiee AaU hare a lighc of 

against nai^i cotT>orstk)A. aad taAj 

UiereoC. Any coatract or asrecment. 

any anch eiaiiloTve to waire tbe b cm jl t of tUa 

thermt ahaU bo nnll aod voia. 

KtrtMd to <lef)i1re any soch oiaploree. 

tK^, of any riiAt or maedy to which fae la i 

tbi> tflwn of thin State. 

Sx-c. 2. The rules aad pcinciplea nf lav aa ta 
pKjrc vhlcli appty to other caam flball aprly to 
tbl» act. vxivt** la ao Aur aa tbe 
cbooi^ei}. 

tRm|»loyn^ whoAP fnlhire io coBiilr with tbe Ihctorj toffirrttia 
hiw rauaes iojurr tn ptspk^ree* are Uable ta aa 
Acts of IIM/T. cbai|-t«r 158^ secOoo &] 



aadeby 
inypait 
be COB- 



PEHVSTLVAKIA. 
ACTS OF 1W7, 



Act No. 329.— LioftaiVv of nsp/ofirra f»r imImHn Io gaiylo i wv f, 

S m i m \ 1. Tn nfl arttoos broaxht to r«mr«>r frnm an »«npk>srcr 

' ^ by his etop1nrr«e, tbe w^gwiiv of a fUknr- 

^ "Xee »)1411 iH>t l>« a d^enOF. wh<fTe tttf fadorr 

wa& -.humM ur L>uutrlbDt«d lo by any of the fnlloirln^ ranses; 
uamdy, 

Aoy dt»foct !n the w..rk*i. plant, or BM^blnety, of which the 
rmployrr muld hnvo ha«l kr.o«l»-<1ge by tbe exerrl«o of ordinary 

*^'«^ '► -i.^i ..f T.t.i I— r^i.i- ••n^ipeO a« imp*-^ n..f.,)..»)t^ oiao- 

on hi charpe ■ of the 

^' • L"lipp«oe (»f iittj ; . rhnrpp 

. tlif tiurlU-iiliir wnrk In whK"h the itujOoroc was 
Mm^ of ^ho Inlnry or /1*^^h; Tl»e noiclisn'uo^ of 

•■••imil t«« ronfonn, 
tiformpt) thereto, 

njurj (T (iivjll; r>-^iii:tt:; ttn- j',T '"I :\\}y Iri h ■^^ ->■<■.-. unt, iVuQe 




BULLETIN or THE UUKKAU OP LABOR. 

Ill obOillouee to tUo rulOA. InHiructlona, or ordern givoii by the 
fiiiphiyrr. oi;^ny itihor poreoii wbti Iiuh nutborliy lo tlirtx.'t thv doing 
uf sjiKI iirt. 
\"(w prim-i- Ski.. '2. Tho rimnngt»r, HtiinTlnlemlent, foremau. or nlhcr |H.'r«on 
P»Ii*. In chnrKD or «mir»il of Uit* workn* or iiiiy P"rt of tbr works. i(tmll« 

ututfr tiilH net. tn* lii'lil iih thr iiK<*iit of ttit* iMiiployrr, In till mtua 
for dumuKt;tf for di^itli or Injury imflri*r«il by etuployt^vs. 

PORTO RICO. 

LiahilUit of rmfttoi/rnt frtr ittjurtvn to rmpfn^tf*, 



by- 



Ilp^rtiTi'iu* 
clilDDry ; 



rMnattttS- 



ttUMLd SKCTrAN :i^. WIuto, ofior the irfiuMit;*^ »f tbl« act. iionwnjil 
Injury Ih cuuHtMl to mi riuitloyw who U hiuim«lf In th<» i^rrclm? 
of line i-nro nnd lUMfifnco nt tho nin<»; 

1. Ity reason of nity <Irf*H't In tbe condition of thr wiiyR, works, 
or iinirhitipry, i-onniM-iwl willi. or ns('<l in riio tMi]<i|nffl>; of ihe om- 
Iiioyer, wiiU-h nroi<e from or hinl nt»t l»wn (Hwtnt-nMl or n-iiKtHwl 
owing to till* itoKllK*^nrp of tin* oiii|»Ioyor or of nny inTson In tho 
M»rvU'e of the em|iIttyor ami Intrnttitil by bini wUh tbc* dnty of 
wplnM: that !lir ways, workK or Hin*'h1nory. wpiv In proper rondl- 
tlon; or 

Np«I iBi'nri' 'J, Ity reason nf flu- nt^glliriiK*** of nny iK»rwin In tho fiTvlif nf 
(«iiliorliJti>ml- (In, employer InlrnHttil witb tht' exrrclHlni: of 8iipfr!nl»'nd<'n<v 
*"" • whoKo poll* or prliu'lpnl tinty Ih tliat of HntHTlntciidrnw; or 

piTNoci In ^- ^y J**'!***"'! "f tl'*' riej^llironi^i* of any irtmoq In tliM »»i*rv!ctf of 

fhnrur- <tt Inoti- Ibo ('inplnyrr who linu t-hnriiCo of, or physically contrnln. nnjr i<il;;nal 

mnitvc, vU'~ Hwltch, ItM'oniotUo onpInt>, car or train In motion, whnhor jit- 

Wlio nia}' sac. tnrlnfl to an <'n»;hu' or not, ni>«»n a rallrrmd. tho i'iii|tIoy«'«\ «»r. lu 

rant* tilt* Injury rcsnlls In drath, lilR widow or clilliln-n. or |M>(h of 

tlioni, nnd if lln^n* bo no xnoh widow ami clindroN, then bU fuir- 

Ptits (ftrovidtMl that wild jwiri-nlH wito doiMMidonl niMtu mch itii- 

p|iiyi*f> for HiipiMtrt) may nuilnlidn an arH'*n for ilamaROR ii(uiinvl 

the oniployor, pur«n«ni to tho provlnimm of rhln art. 

8i:c. IVSl. Whtm an oniployco rwclvcH n personal Injnry iin<}47r 
any «if the oondillon^* onniiHTntoiI In wvtloii 1 hcrrMtf ^am^. :vj*2I, bo 
iiia.v lirlnis an aotinn npiinnt hU employer Iioforo tho pvint ip*i- 
trlt't ronrt, to nvovor danuip'H for BUfli Injury. Thr d;i • 

rocovensl hIiuII tad cmi'ihI tltc snni of two Ihon^ind d*' ' 

In a»!»<»s(*lm; tlie* amount nf pn^h dattKiccft tho court - 
Into roiiHhh'ratlon tla* dojrroo of rnlpabllify uf the oinpl'^ r 

.llio pors«ni for whoRo ni'elljrcnce tho eniployoc Is Ibiblo li 
tho KnniH i*\iH>m1ci1 by tho nnploym* for miMJlciil altoii< 
drnjrs. nu-^llrhu-K and Hlinilnr no*t'HHary oxikmhok. and r r 

wntfoft while recovcrhnr fn»ai tUv Injnry; the <-onrt Hliall nl«i» lak*» 
Into I'oni^ldenitlon the pliysbiil [tnln and HulTerUif; eaiiHitl b> tbe 
Injury. If tho Injury hi* of surh cbanirttT an to pormuroMiHy Im- 
pair the enrnliiK rapnelty of the einpUty^-e, tlie rourt Khnll lnelmli? 
In tin* (laniMKoH award***! an allowiini-o for ?*n<'b I'lw. In " ■' 

Injury rojiults iu a temporary ImpJilrmmt of Ids oamln^' 
tho court. In adilltloii to piilu and KuffiTtrnr aud 111" oxi.. ,,,.,, ., 
for niedhat Forvleos and ilruK!*. shall (aUr Into t'ouslMornthui tin 
nveraKe rote of wiij:v« wldi.h. iindfi- oiiUnary etaalltlodH* he luljchi 
bavr mrtiisl If net! hijansl. 
of Kko, 324. In caso of the death of the employee lieforc tbe 4or- 
niinatloii of the tietlon ho lirtMivbt imaiiiKt tlu* eniploynr. It may tK* 
rontliimil Ui tho nanio of hii* wlilnw or i'hllilr»'ii, nnd If thiiri* tu* no 
Knell wl'Iow of ehllilron, then In ihe " ' , ' ' . 

or rllbfr of ihom. wi-re ili-ponih'ut ' 

port at the lime .>f tlio Injnry. If It -;.. ■ .,',.]•'■■"■ -i • 

ronllnnfsl In tho uanu* of thi* widow, rlillilrim i i i 

deeOafH*'! lit illl'Jil ilinili.M-c tlm t l Ih> <lf:i rli \\:\^ rin 

UmllufdaiD '"Jury. •' 
«gm. exooofl II; 

datunirt'H kn ucn^rdamv with. 



8urvlPiil 
ncilon. 



I^M9 



►YKES LIABILITY IN TUB UNITED STATES. 



85 



t'ODK OF 1(W2. 
Civil Cook, 



Rights and mnrdic/t of nnittuy^^tt on strrrt rttUitayM. 



>Tt 2S4S. Evory nmi»lo.v»H> of nny strwt rftllwnj *loinji busi- ^h«t rrme- 
In IlilK State sbnil Imvc !h** sttnn* rlplitn iiiul wnHtlleK for nii "J'P*'* 
Injury Miinfrixl hy nny jH^rsnii from ilio nets or onilspivin of milt] ! 

Cor|Kiruii«jn. or Uh i'Uii>I"i.vt.'**«, ns iire provide*! by tJi« tonMtUndoii 
for (>iiipIoyM*n of mllrood corfK)rntlotiR. 



ACTS OP IJKKt. 

Act No. -IH. — Liabititt/ f*f rnUi-ntui vompnnica ffir inJuripM to 
vmpUtyrtH — Rrlii f drjttirlinmtn. 

KrrTiON 1. Krom nnd nftor tin* npprovnl of Ihln art. wlicn nny S»'Hi«'im'n! 
rnltnMHl rumicniv lia« what Ib UFiinlly caiUiI a rcllof iloimrtiiuMit *'")''''*''»"***"'*»i 
for H» • tli«* niomlwrs t,t wliirh «rv roqulrt'd or iK>niiittisl 

to pay ' ^. ftH>p. iiionoyH or cumju-uHution to in* ontirit'd tt> 

the bpueiiib tiitTt^jf, ujHin the dt>uth or injury of tbe eniployeo, a 
im*in!K*r of hmcU rvUct d<'pnrtnn*Mt. hucU railroad (.■oiupnny U hoi*e- 
hy rtH]nlr<'d lo p«y to the person oatltliti to sanu\ th** niaount It 
was ainvH**! the t*iii[iloyeo or bis heirs 4it hiw should receive from 
sijrh relief deparlmeut; the nrreiitance of which aiannnt shall not Brn«'flt nr( « 
oiK-rnte to estop or in any wny bar the r)it?ht of 8uch employee, or*'***" *" "■"•'u 
bh? personal reprewMitatlve. from nH'tiverltm dnnaices of Kueh rail- '*^ ""»»€<*■■ 
r«od company for Injury or dentb caused Uy the nepllKenep nf 
BUcb tx^mpflny. Its agents or t»er%'ant.s. as now provided by law; 
and any eontrai-t, or agrt^pmeut to the contrary, sbull be IneffectJvo 
for that i*i)riK)iic>. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

KEVISKD CODKS OF UJOfl. 

Civil Codk, 

LtnhlUtu nf rmphtyt'r9 for htjuririt to rmpjoyrra. 

RETTioTf 1449. An employer l« not Iiound to Indemnify hit* em- nrrtlnory 
ployw* for lo.Mtn^s suffernl by the latter In cdUHetpienoe of the risks, 
ordinary risks of the bnRtno!<is In wlifeh he is eniploytHl, nor In 
eiin»e*|tn'nee of the iieirllsentv of a not tier (K'ri*»»n *'niphtyeil hy the 
ttaiue enipluyer In the Mime general buylneys, unleKS he bua neg- 
ieetod to nsc ordinary care In the seleetlou of tbe culpalile 
employee, 

8Ee. HriO. An emjOoyer mast In nil cases Indeinidfy hla em- Waiitof iftr«. 
ploy4*e for loisses caused by the former's want uf ordinary care. 

ACTS OF iixrr. 



4!llAl-rKU 210. 



Uuhiiify uf niiiroad cotnimnUn for injuries ttt 

rWfltftJffTH, 



SkctiqN 1. Ev«*ry eouimon rnrrler euun^Ml in trade or eom- Aitu of rm- 
inen*e In tbe State of South Ihtkota shall be liable to any of its P'oy*^"*- 
eniployw?ti, or In rase of his dc^th, tit bis i>ersnunl reitreseiitallve 
for the benefit of hiH widow and children, If any. If nunc, tlieii 
for hl« [tarents. If none, then for his next of kin dei»eiulent ni>on 
tilni. for all damac(*s which may result from the nogllgonce of 
any of Il» odieers, auents or f'uiployei'H, *)r by reason of auy de- iKiferta. 
ttxt or Ini«uthrleney due to Its nepHgenee in Its cars, engines, 
ftpldiaixvfl, machinery, tra<'k, road-be<l. ways or works. 

8f.c. 2. In all actions hereafter bron^lit ak^ilnst any eomuion CumpArntlvc 
«irrlcr to re<^>vor dama^'S for ftersonal Injuries to an em|iloyee. neifllBem-o. 
or where «ueb inJurh'N have renulted lu his deaili, the fact tluxl 



A£^ 



BUU*ETIN OF THE BCREAL' OF LABOK. 



Knowlwis'^of Sec. 32l>. No pniployee, or Ills wklow or children, nr eUhor of 
6e{vii a ti«r. tbom. or bis ]iarenlH, If thi're be no «nch wld<iw nr ohlUlren, »lmll 
he ontUIrd iimlcr lliltt net t<» nuy ritfhl nf »H>in|HMiRii1lna or rcniMly 
nwiInMl til*' I'Uiployer lit any raw wbert* Kiitli iMiuiloyin' knew nf 
the df'fert nr iu'v'Mkimu'*' whlt'h fnii!*oiI tho Injury, nml fiiUo<1 wtthln 
a nMiMJiuiblo tliue tu n^\v, oi* cutt^o lo hv Kivrn, lnf<<niinlloii thortNjf 
tn tbo rniiiloyrr, or to iwimr [ktsou Hn|»erlnr to lilinsrlf In tho fw-rv- 
Ue of ibf riuployi'r wlm biij lntru8toi] to bliu Hoim* ttriKTuI HU|ter- 
1nlonilc»nrt». 
roDtrlbution 8f,(*. a.'iO. Any omployer who shall hnvo onntrlhnted to an In- 
to inButnnrf j4|j|^m,.(m fuiiil criMit^il and mnlnliilniMl fur ihe luutnni imn«>«-* "' 



fund. 



KlM^IOIlfl. 



li'doinnlfyiiiK «n oniployf<« for iK»r!«innI lnjur1i'« for whlrh tiiin- 
iMMigHtloii niny be nn-ovrri'd under tbl.t net, or ulio htiH lumirt^l tb<» 
wild finplityiN* in any InHnraiioe nomimny nciilnst the neeldonts of 
Inlmr. Hbiill Im- rnlltlcd to have dtMlnrtisl fntm (be nmn which he 
fclitill Inn e to ])iiy ii« f'nnii'*<'nHj»tlim nndi-r tbe provNlonfi of thin 
net. (In* niiHinnt tJwit »b)ili bnM* b«'fn penlvetl by ibe (terMMii In- 
JuriMl, or by his widow, or clilldn'n. nr Iw^th of tliem, or by tuo 
pjii-entH. If there bt* no mich widow and fblldren, fi'oui the afor*- 
wiitl fund or from the luBurance eompnny. by ronson of the mitrM 
aoeldeut. 

Skc. .*trtl. Tills art !«bnll not apply to bijnrlen <mnm*<1 to douientlc 
servants, or farm lalMirors, i>y friiow *»miiioyeeii. 



RHODE ISLAND. 

|71ie filntnto UlrecllnK the epiitpnient of rertnin bulldlnKK. In- 
cluding fartorlen, wltb lire ewitin**. and the irnardlni? of elevator 
sbafti^. t'ti'., nutketf owners and U*Nxi'rs llablr In damaices for in- 
jurleH iir ileatb ransi^l liy a failnrt* u* itnnply uUb lis provlsbiiia, 
CJeueruI Laws of ISJNJ, rbapli-r UK, KH'tlons S and lO.I 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

rONSl'lTlTION. • 

Annvix 0. — lAaWUy nf niHmtui camintntrit for injnrtr» fo 



•npi'nor ; 



Of fellow- 
iMrvnotN la Nn 
othnr drparl- 
BKnt. 



Kaon-|i<tlif'' ttf 
JdfftTtlTi' mn- 
Jrhlnrry. 



Injury «iuii- 



('i> n t r a r t 
IVrslvlav rIffbtB. 



Sk< TioN l.'i. Kvery o»iitl»ytH> of any railroad 'oriMtratlon sbnll 
bave the aamo rl>:blw and ri*nie*net4 fr>p any Injury HuffereU by 
liini from the arts or ondtwbiUH nf Kabl ror|K>ratlonH or Its em* 
|tIoyix»» QH are alloweil by biw lo otbrr per^ms not eiuployceni, when 
the Injury resuIiH fntm the neylieeme of u superior ntfenl or ofB- 
enr. (ir of a iK'twai bavln^rn rlybt to rttnlml or dlrii*t the Bi'rvlcnii 
of ft iwrty Injnriil, and al*» when tbe Injurj- re8u!ts from tbi* Ul1^ 
Mpenrn of n fellow-wrvant enpip'd In anolUer ih>partment of Intwir 
fr<»m that uf tlie party Injured, or of a fn||nw->'*'r\aut on anolber 
train of ears, *n* one rnuHU*-!! about a dlfTorfnt piece of work. 
Knowlwlp.' by any employeo Injnre<l i>f Ibe defective or nnwfe 
character or condition of any umcbluery. wayt* or appllauei»H nball 
be no defeuHO t(t an action for Injury iTiuwtl tbereliy, except «« to 
condnctorB or eiiKlnwrs In cbar^e of daiitt-rous or nn^afe earn or 
en;;lne» volnntiirlly o|M'ratt*<t by Ibeni. Wlieu il- n--*) from 

any Injury to empI<jy*'eH. the lepul or pernonul i tivcH of 

tbe |t<*rs4m Injured sinill liave the same rljibt aoii i.iiu-uk's iik ttr»* 
ailnw«'d by law to such repreHentiUlvf« of ntber i)er*u>n». Any 
eiaitrui't or aKr*'<'ment, cxpr'---' "• i.i,,.ii,..i nuide hy any em- 
ploypt^ to wajvf tbe limx'tlt i ''*• tnitl and vn|d ; 

and IblH Hc<-!ltiri nball not b< . i i\i' any rnr(doy<»e 

of u corporation, or bW lepil or iH<rHiawil rcprcMMdutUe, of nny 
renie^Iy or rlubt that be now ha« tiy tbe law of tbe land. Thi 
pMHTul nsHeiiibly may extend the rimiedles hen>ln provided for tO 
any other elnM of employees. 



i 



EMPU>rtaB LIXBIXJTT tS TBE C2nTlI> SZA 



•>ji»K or 

rUTL 

SEcnox 2MS. Shviy < un il» jcc of mj 
to thi9 5«*><'>» ^>^ll IH^ tte 
Injarr mflTi-. r i 

rorpnr«i>on, • : iplograva. as are 

far c9i|ilo9r«r6 vf rmilruad 




[A" I" ■^•*- ■*"*■ 



ACTS or 11 



wf lr> fw §mfmr%r9 M 



SecTTOx 1. Kroa and aflcr Ov ap igr ma l «r tMs act, 
nltmad cotntNiti/ Ihs wlial Is oiailtj cmtlrd a rHicf 
for In enployvcSk tte lafwhi i ■ of vldi^ aiv fvqatnd «r 
to |«r w>fn^ 4n^9, f4>«a, awaxy a er rimpfnwTiiw to be 
■£«B tbe dead! or lalair «r tt» 

defwrtBKOt. aoch ffmamd caaivnr I* 
n^jnir*-*! lo i«y in the perxMi catitSfd |» wt. tihe aaoaaC It 
vraa agreed the efaplojrc^ or kla telnat Itv 
•sell reU&t dcparUBcnt : tbr afm^Dre of 
ii|Wf«le to eatop or In aiir war bar the ri«ftt «C 
hia peracMMl rg p r w» DtatiTe, fmoi moniiaB Auaacea af aaaft raB-' 
rood ciMiisiaiiT for Injury or dcatb ca— d by tie \n j nji la ■ of 
flucb ccmpanr. Its aeenis or aervmata, as aoar pr a ti fej hy law; 
and MXkS cootracf. or axreeneot to tht eimmry. Aa!l li« tacff«ctlTc 
for tbat pariNiae. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 








OK I-HOl An » m| il uy« ia oot hemad to tiVroitiy hia cb- Or^laarr 
for loaatt «ttff«red ftr tta lattar la rnaaeminari af tfeeriAk. 
ry risks af tbr tiaili m In vWrk ba la enplar«d> Bor to 
n»4«<qopff»re gf cbe negJAgmc^ of aoolbrr pctaoo itdajirt by Uto 
toime eiuH<iyer to tW Miae ffaMtml towinw, atlm be baa neg- 
lertad tn uae ordinary tan fa tbe a eJ e tt k iu of the rslpable 
voipkigrve. 

Sor. 14SU. An «a|ilox«-r nuM to an eaaea todcamlfy Us ^m- w^mL^rtm. 
phrjve fur loasee caueeU bj tbe fomcr'tt want af vntlaarr cmir. 



t^mirs for imimrirt tn 



Acrft OF i«r. 

CUATTCa 210. — Li4Mity of railr/tni co> 



SSfixiiAX 1. Kvery '^otnoioa carrfer eno^ed In trade *^ com- Acta w vm- 

[n t^i- ^ '^ Suulli Daku4a eball be liable to any of fta »'*'•* 

• •r his death, to htf persotuil r«^ireaeatatiTe 
bet)*-tji «i>n irklfvw and rtatldien. If anj, if none, thai 
for bis ftarentaw if none, tliea t<iT hU next of bin depeodcBt npoa 
blm. for all damnir(>« nh^-h may resolt ftocn tbe oe^ttsence of 
any wf Its t4V%T- iplojeea, or t^ r«fl80ci of any de- i»wf«ru. 

fert TT Inpnfflf-lt ,- n^lpence In Its cars^ en^lnea, 

ai'T "I. way» or works. 

.V :'roai^ht a^fnst any oommflQ Comf«.r«ilTe 

earr;* r *.» r/fHHr tiAtt^^*^ r**r peivooal l^/arles Io an eiuvW^*- Mti^tew-*. 
[«r nftrtfir Mtth la/uritm bmre />*mUlCd la bJa death, tbe fai:t that 



88 



BULLETIN OP TUB BUREAU OF LABOR, 



VIRGINIA. 



(X>XSTITL'TIOX. 

Aktk'MC 12. — LtabUitif of fitilnfotf vfitupanUt for ininHtt to 

enitttoyt'i'n. 



Actfi of M- 
uw-Korvanffl, 



•lupcr Intend- 
«ni. 



rfwtDKi 



III an 
drpnrl 
tavat. «tv. 



I titer 



SECTION iCi Tlie doctrlae of feIlow-i»ervant. fuj far qb It afriM:U 
the Iliiliilliy of tlie uiiiBtrr for liiJurlL's ti> Ills servant rpsnlflng 
from thf iiotH or unilHHloiifl of any otlii^r srrvnnt or Hcr^anlrt of 
the L'ouiuioii luuHtor. 1h. to ttio exttuit horciiuifter t^tittLM. uhollKliiMl 
aH to fvery <*iupl(»y*'i' of n rnilnuul ruinjniny, engiip:^] In tlK* |*(i>>*- 
i<*al nmstnit'iliMi, rvpnlr or iiiiiliittMuincc of Uh roiulwny, truck «>r 
nny of the structures oonmrtiHl thcrLnvilb, or hi nriy work lii or 
upon n car or viiglne fttuiiUIn^ ui>ou u triiok, or In tin? pUyslcal 
o|H*rntIon of ii triiln, I'lir, niifino, or im'ltcli, or in any cktvIcp rc- 
qnlrlntr Ills prtt^once upon a train, ear. or <»ngino: nntl ovi-ry Ruoli 
fUipIoyiM' simll liave tliL* tiiiui' rlKlit to n-LLfVcr for I'vrrj' Injury 
Fiin'orotl tty '''"> frtiin tin? in tn nr omissions of nny otlmr enipli*y(*o 
or cmploywH of the couiuion lunHtcr, that a wiTvant won'-t in.x.. 
(at lilt' time wlieii tliltj t.*on8tltutloii k'H's Into cflToct), If > 
or ouilMHloiiM wew l\i*nn^ of tin* lunsior tilniM>lf la tlic iH!>t i- 
X*'icl.l«*ncpof of a uonaHsitfiniblt' duty: J'rovifltd, Tliat the injury, so p-uilrn-U 
hy Huch ntllnmil rnipIoytH*. n^nnlt from tlio n«*j:Mj!fnf.N? of an oOl- 
ctM% or »K»''»t. of tjjc t-iuupnny of n hl^bfr icmdt? of wrvi(.*<« llnin 
hlniM'lf, or fnmi (hat of a tH'rmin, cmployni l»y ilu' ctnnpnny. hav- 
ing tin* liKht, or i-harciil with the duty, to n»ntn»l or illrt^'t llie 
jifUiTuI servlot'K or the IninMillaU' wDrk of th(? party Injure*!, or 
thf p-noral wTviri*** ur the Ininicillato wrtrU of th** toemployow 
Ihrouirh, or by. whoHu act ur miilHrtlou ho Ik Injnrocl; or that It 
result from liic nejrtlKenei« nf a iiM»mployi«r i>nffaf;e«| In iniolher «Io 
piirtmont of labor, or enRn(j:tNl n|K»u, or In obarfre of. any car \i\u%n 
which, or U|)on the train of which It Ih a jiart. thi» Injnrctl mi- 
ployec is not at Ibc lime of nvoi>In« the Injury, or who 1» iu 
churKo of any Kwltrh, sl^niul point, or loeomotivi* eittzlnr, or Im 
i-harirnl with dlfpatchlni; trains or transniliiii npblc or 

telephonic orders therefor: and whether hocIi n ih- iu the 

iHTfttrnianee uf iin asslniuilile or nonnsultrnablt .;..-.,. i he phyx- 
ical ronHtrurilt>n, n*palr or nialntenanee nf the roadway, tnok <ir 
nny of the Ktnietnn'H coinn'cttNl therewith, and the phj*slciil con- 
Btnicti«m, rcpiilr, ntnintoniinei>, el«anluic or ^p^•ratlon of trnluA, 
cars or entrfacs, fiball U' n^arditl jih different dt»partnienl8 <iX 
labor within the meunlntr of this cn-lon. Knowlcdirc, by any snich 
railroad employoe Injured, of the deft'cllvc or tinaafi? dnirncttfr or 
rnnditlnti (»f lUiy machinery, ways. applinnccH or strnctni*^. jthall 
I'c t\u defeniic* to jiii action for Injury caused lhcret>y. When 
I a J a r 1 f" "death, whether iuHtantHne«Hi)» or not, re*nlt8 lo such au cmpIoytH* 

cautlDgdeato. fi^,j„ imy injury fnr whiih he could Imve re<'overeti. under Iho 
abovp iM'ovlMlonH, had death not occnrrrtl, then his legal or per- 
wmal reprewutatlve. FturvhiuK eonnort. and relatlvcM tand any 
trutitee, curator, committee or j;uardian of Huch contort or rela- 
tive?*) Hhall, respiHMively, liave the name rifrlita and remeilleH with 
feKpecl theret<r aft If IiIh th'ath hud been I'liuseil liy the ne(;lteciice 
of a t'ltentployoe whllo In the performaiK'e, an \lct-prlnclpnl, of a 
^"■"1*1".*.'.!-.* ""^'*^^'fc'""*'''' tl'ity of the master. Every coulrati or ajrnvmcnt, 
c:ipreKH or Implied, nuide by an euiployei', to wahc the enetit of 
thin KH'ttnn. hhnll Ih* null atui void. Thin xi*Libin nhall not be con- 
Firued to deprive any euipioyfe, or his hiral or i>cr«tnal repre«?nt- 
iitlve. snrvlviim couwu't or rehitlvea (or any truHter. curator, 
f'ommittee i»r K'Ji^rdiun of «ncli cuuftort or niatlveK), «if any rlfshtn 
nr remeilles tlmt he or they may have by the law of the land, at the 
TVovUIoofi (liuo this ivnstitlitlon koch Into effect. Notlilnir coTitfMruyl In IhN 

oof r#-trlrf)ve. ^.,.tj„„ ^j^jh n'strlcl Hn.' jM.wer of the c..i 
Iher enlarge, for the at>ovfnano<d iia«H '■' 

and renuNlicB hcrclnlieforo jiv^ivUU'il for, or i . .si.tio mhu liirn''^ 
and remcilieH to, or otherwiw enlarjre the pn-ni-nt rlKht* ami 
rfjjjf.*tJirM of, tiuy other cln»» *>f em\i\oywn ot vvvMivjuda or of eoi- 
/tJox^s of any /ktmoq, Arm or qorpuvuXV^u, 



WftlvlKK riKlita. 



UMPbOTEKS UABIUTY IX XHI TSXICD STATIS- 



OODE OF noi. 



lM^U4t0 »/ rsflnMtf CffU MW iiiri /or ■■/«nr* f* na, 




rtai«»«- 



to tie 




Rmmo3t 12Mk. Bresr 
Stat*?, vrhetber such corpora tkifi be craated 
Statr or otbenri««. ttomU be liable !■ 
Injaries snscaiiicd bj anr aaiplax«e of 
WlwR nach izUnry m«!ta ftvoi the wroosfW act. 
tmtitt of an affoit or oAoer of audi 
mikSo^ee liiJttraS, or «if a peraon CBplof«d bgr an 
barlms ibe risbt to rtmtxvi cr dind (be a» i kca «f 
lojnred. or tbe ■errfce a of tba tnphay^e hj w^am be la 
and nlfu nrhm aaeb faOuTf 
or fa coenptoyoe 

Ul»' uat of Ibe Miijiafiif taOonsd. ar af a 

anmiii-r txuLa of fjars; or of a eoeai^aycr wbo baa datve af a^j- 
FVllcU, eiKBal |»olBt, or lotaxmoHwe wm^^Mt^ or vfao n cbarced vich 
traloa or traa^aittlns wygnp j ht «i 
Knovled^ of amj taiil^pc^ lajsrei «C Oe 
tnHMifl» rbararter or coadttfcin of s^y MMt 
or atrortur^^ of sncii cerpocatkm aball aot «f Itaetf be a bar to 
l e tmeii for utjv injury or deatb caosed tberdbr- WkcB dratk. iaj«rJ«a 
trZftrtbei ;i«ous or otb eiai ae^ rgwoHi ttvm any iajary to* 

aoy t^: ' aDcb forpotattap re e e iw a J aa af i n n^ tU, Ae 

peraonai rvt^rt^i'statlw n( vacb oaplayee Aall barr a rfdu of 
•cthio tbercfi>r n^liist each corponttioai, aad bmj ne co w a' dc»- 
aecs In rea|«rt tbereoL Aay eoatzact or aAiiiMHwl, iiripwii ar c*B(ract*| 
taiplM. Bade by aar aodi tiutifci j K Mj (a walfv tbe liiait af ttia nM^c 
•actJob or any part tbrreof itell be imll and raid, and tUa 
sdnUl not be conainwd to dtprlre any aacb inmhgMi, or kla 
nonal l e tn ua mU tire, of any t\^bt or niii\y to wb&cb be la 
entlUrd ittid^ tite taws of tbla SUte^ Tbe riilea and 
of Iftw as Xn cooUibalory nccUfaice, vfaicb apfUy to 
ibalt apt^ly to caaes arfateie aader thia act« eSLcepc in ao fitr aa tbe 
■unr are berdn modlHed or dhaneed. 

tAn art dlrertlns the erection of teOtaiea 
at tbr aiif»njacli«« to bridges over raUwadt, l■illw^^ etc* 
fliUtuY to proride floch deviixs groand fier a ricbt of nctioa 
injvry or death reantta from aneb fblhme. 
Mctiuo 30.) 

WASHTKGTOV. 



tAn act reqnlrtas tnt», valtcbML and snaid nUia In be b i nched 
and euan9*)(l nabef oompaalta tilling to do a» liable la 
to panlea Injarieil beraine of and) fiillore. Acts of 198. 
3Si, aectloQ 2. 

ESbpJoycr^ wbooe fbltare ti> eomihly arttb ibe fiietoffy 
liiir aiusTfl Injury to onpluyvea are tIaWe to and 
Acta of 1905. chapter tM, aoctioa 8.1 




WISCOKSm. 
AXXOTATEt* .STATITES OF UBS. 



Stxmov ItflC las amoidMd by chapter 2&i. Acts of 1007k Erery tai « r t « 
coni|«iiy shall U? liable for damaipea for all Injttrte*****' "'"" 
rtanlting in dearli or ant, wwtitned by any of ita en- 
«d»iect to the proriaUiaa hereinafter contJUned repudlng 
nccUsoea on tlie part of tbe InJuvd onployee : 
1. Whan aoch Ibjtiry la canied by a deflect In any looonwtiTe, [irfcrt*; 
isglAe. cmr« nil. txark, rtiaditcil macMnery or appUanoe need 
by lis vtajtU^rw la moJ sthjat (tv btiaiatmt at thetr employncvt. 



BITLLETIN OF TIXK BCRBAU OF LABOR. 






rompurnllve 
noiEllgrnco. 



Recovery, 
when. 



Qimtloaa tor 
Jury. 

C n n I r n ** I II . 
cU'.. Dot H tmr. 



IicauUloni. 



1* I i> n <l I II A 



Kxftmptloiis. 



2. Wbeu BUfli Injury pIwiII Imiv<» h<H^\ MiHtnlnod liy miy offltvr, 
n;;mit, Horvaiit or 4>u)|iIu>'ch> uT hiioIi i.-oiu|miiy, uliUo (•n^i;«<<l In tbi» 

JliiL' Mf tiU tliit.v :\n such iiiul wUK'U HtiiU injury ^hiill Imve lNH*it. 
i'iuihimI hi wliuU? <ir In jrrtNiUT pnrt by llic n»'gIlitiMun i»f nuy I'tlirp 
nfUcor. ngt'nt, wrvnnt or *Mit|iluyi»c i>r smrh comimny. hi ihv iIIh- 
i-liiirEr of. or hy ri'rtwiu of fnllurt> to i3lt*».*luirirc hU i!iUlf» ns sinii. 
.T In pviTy union to riH'ov(»r for «mU Injury tUt* four! mIiuU 
submit to the Jury the folliiwlny qucHtloim: Klr«t, wbt*lli*«r tlio' 
i*<'uiiiniiy, or iiny otHcer, iiKritt, wr^unt or emptoyw olber lluiu 
(lie ftumou lujurod iva» puHty of neirll^rfm^- dlroHly cnntrlhu- 
tlnj* to liu» bijury; »e«nicl. If Ihul tiucHllim Is unswotVil In the 
nfliruintlve, whethor tlie i>or»on Injured «»« unHty of «»v nm- 
liKencn which dlrmily r-'iitrlbuUNi lo the Injury; tlitn' ' ' f 
ijni-N(l(»n l« jiuHWeri'^l In the iitttrnuitlvr, whether tbo ! 
of th«' piirly «c» hijured wan nllKbterM>r Kre»tr'r uj* ii nuiii.. - 
must* t4> the Injury tlmn thiil of the ronipjiny, ur nny ortlcef.i 
rtjrenr, w^rvnnt op oniphtyee other Ihiin the fK'rs*on sn Injnrod; niiit 
Bucb other qufnthinn ns niny Ik* necesisury. 

4. In nil cii«e« ivhere the jury Hhull hnd XhM the ueKll«t*n<'v 
of the wtMiininy, or «ny olllivr. iitfenl or employee of »neli com 
pnny wns unniler thnn the iie;:llp*n<*e of the eitiployr^t bo lnjiin*il. 
iind (ontrlbutiii;; In h ^renter lUvrw* (<• inry, Ibeu the 
plntiillfT hIimII he <*ntl(lnl Ut rt»eovcr, nrul M 'ii-, ir :iny, f»f 
the oniployoe ttt Injnretl Hhnll be no bur lt» r.u- u u- <>koin>. 

n. In nil enM*N uiuler iIiIh net the qiieHtioa nf ni*ffM|C(*Sir4> nuil 
eontrlhntor>' ne;:Ii«en<'<' fhnll Ik* for tl)t' Jury. 

tl. No eoutriirt or rweipt betwt'en any pnip]<i,\-re nml n mllroflj 
eotupnuy, no nile or reculnihMi pronuiloMoil or adopted by mreh 
toiuiKiuy, and n<i coutruei, rule or r«*uulatlon In rejniixl to nuy 
notlop to be given by sneh employee sbnll exempt such coriKuiitlou 
from the full Muhlllty hn]H:)WHl by this uct. 

7, The phram' *' riillrond eonipany." n« u«xl tn this act. ahall be 
lalceii lo euibrnet' any ctnnrMiny, uswH'billon. eori>onithm or THT»m 
rniinaK'nt?, nialnlalnliif:. operatluj:, nr in pii).>.'»winn of u raHrnnd lii 
whole or In part within this Stale wh<*(her an owner, e^miruotor, 
leKjkM?, u)ortKHK**»', truBtiKs a»»I;;n*»e ur n^•*'|ver, 

5. In any autlun |jruu;;ht In the eourt8 In this Stute by n resb 
dent lhere<tf, or the reprewniatlvo of n do«i^'*<'d rewlibnit. fo re- 
eoviT dMMUi|!eK In mrordnnee with UdF net. where the employee of 
ntiy railroad eonti^tny owning or oiR'nilbij; a rullrond exteiidlnif 
Into or through this State and Intif or thi*ouj:h any oih«*r State *n- 
Slatett Hhall have reer'lved IiIh Injuries In any ntluT State when* 
snrli rallroiid \m uwneil nr oiH'rated, and iJle eontntel <»f employ- 
ment simll have Ikhmi made In this Stale, It shnl) imt be enmiK'tent 
for Huel) riiiiroad comimny to plead or prove tlo' dei^li-hHiM i>r Mai 
utes of the State where Kueh i)en«iu Khali have bi*i*a lujurtnl a** a 
defenm* to the nrtlon hroujjhf In thU State. 

1). The pro^lHhmH of thiH aei nhiill uoi apply to cuiplojreeH work- 
ing; In shops or ottlees. 

[A Hlntiite dlreetlnc; mlli*on<l con)i»onU*« to block or enanl all 
trnK^ In their iniekH mnken fallnrr to ivunply with the Ian- ;7i'<>nni 
for netltai In danaiKeN \n cawH where Injury reHult« from wiel 
faUtue, e\eu thouj-h the failure or violation rK-curi* ihroutib tJie 
nejrilgi'nee of Home fdher nj^ent or empk»y<v. 8t-«*tli»n lH0>b. 

The law re*julrliiir diinueroUH uiaehlnery to lie - ' - ' 'm 
nwny the defenw *tf asi«nmed rl»kn hi eaw* when* 

Injured an n t..v,.i( ..r it n.r.i.iyer'it failure lo oti «■ 

law. Snpp. '■ 

A stulnle ; erwtlod of telltnleti ut lUe ttp- 

proache* tn briil«e», etc.. over rnllronrtF, takew away from an 
imnlttt ne^rI»♦etln^r or refUHlnie to mmply u-itb llw !««• tb*' ilefnuf 
of nKMuniptinn of rl^k In cam^n where employ*"**!* . >\ 

account of the luck of kucU telltaley. Kupp. llMl, I 



^^H EMFLOYEBd UABrUTY IN THE UNITED STATES. 91 

^^^K WYOMING. 

^^HP CONSTITI'TIOX. 1 

JamciJi to. — himHatUm und trnlvet' of Hpht to tlttmoffrit, I 

StCTlON -i. Sti liiw sliiil! ite cnucttMl HuiltlitK the auiotml of, rmmnKM for 
dnmiiirrft to be rrrovenil for r.niisfh;; rht* hijnrj* or diiilh of nny '"^"""• 

lH-r*«ttj. Any contrwH cr nt'r(**Min'iit wltli nny omploytv wjilvinir 1 

liny riglil to rpfviver tLuimtT''?* f'lr rnnslm: tin* iIi-jUli ur iujiiry of 1 

any employoe vliall be \'ol(l. 1 

Aaticc is*. — ConO'«C/« of vmitluyttv tcuiiinu lipltt ft* ftttuiafirji, 

Rectiom 1. It Hbalt Ik* nnlnnfiil for nn}' itorsoii, rtimimii.r (»r or»r- Conirarta 
ln^niMou, to r»*i^iiiru uf its HMr\:jiitf* or euipJoyt'^'H hk n ciiiMlltlon of **l*'"*^ *"'*•''*' 

thf^r ' f. or othrrwls*', ritiy ci.iUnut «»r nBrtt'iiti'iil. * '****"• 

wli' -on (.1 coiniwiiy or r*tr[»i>rntioii slinll hr rel^^Ht'.l 

or , I'lii )iul»ility *>r n*KiMm.Hil»iIUy, mi ur(^>uiit of |»t'r- J 

fKiU&l luJurlfH rereiv»xl by enoU siTviints i»r euijilnyofs, vvUilt* in ] 

th<' wrvic-f? of wjob pt^rsiii. coinimny or cortHtrrttlon, liy roawtti nf | 

tJR' ueellKe/R'O of such p<»rrtoii. <."ouii>auy or c*or)K>rutloii, or tht» 
niftMitw or rinplo.vi»t»s ItitTeof. luiil sueb contnicl» fhall bv 
ab»r>i(ito)y Dtill mid void. 

fin iiu artlclo on ilu* operation of oitnea the conHtftntion ron- j 

talriH a jtrovitilon Krn»it!ii*r :i rlybt of action for tnJnrlt'H or ib'nth j 

oirnslone*! brcniise of vlolntlon;* by tlie emi»loyi»r of th^^ prnvtHioiiH 1 

of tlip rfin«tItiiilon or of Inws pnsswl In pnrHnance thereof, Ar- i 

Ucltr 0. set-tlou 4.] | 

ITNITEr STATES. 

\T\\o po-ralle*! fafety-ai»pliiiiu-L' liiw. wliit-h prowrlbos (ho iiso »if I 

notomntlr cDuplcrs. |M>wer bruken, Mr., on rnllr««ul ti-nin?! pn^ntrcil I 

ill IritcPMtntt' comiiKTce, provides lliat oniployws Injured by the j 

iiBP of nriT loc'omittlve. car. or train hi violalioii of the lu't Khali I 

not " cd to have :j»^*tnmed the ri»k, even tbixi^b b*' knew of 

th' ii«<\ ri.uii'ik-d Statutes of 11*01. [Mipe ;ilT(, section S. 

*.'. iMi- M.ihiliry law of UKMi. wbleh wait divhirwl naeinistltn- 
tlonul b^ llie ^uprrme Court, eee pages 21(» and iil7, beh^w.l 

CONSTRUCTION OF STATUTE T-AWS. j 

In the followinpf siimmnn' of opinions iiso has b^n made almost 
uxcl nsi vt'I V of tho. opinions of Fedonil rmirts and of the State courts 
of final resort. As np|>onrs from un oxniuinatinn of the stutntt^* re- 
produced alx)ve, some of them, as Arizona and Connecticut, are noth- 
iniL' more tinm a reHtalen»ent of the common law and require no con- 
sideration here, Tlie general statntes nf North I>akutii (irections 
53tia, 5544, 5545) and South Dakota (sections 144l», 1450) are also 
exnmpK'a of this chiss of hiws,('') though in each of the.so States is 
lo lie found h»gishilion aifi'cting tlic linhility of railrond companies. 

Prior to 11*07 the Californm law (sections 1070, lt)71) hud U^ji 
hiniihir to (liut of tho Dakotas, all three havin;^ he»Mi taken from tlie 
druft of law prtparefl by the New York code commission, of which 
Darid Dudley Fiehl was tlie Icadin^f meml>er. The amended form 
of !?ectioM 1070 introduces the liuperior *iervant and departmental 

" ClUat «. i^lilr»go. M. & St. I'. U, Co. (18S1I). 5 Dnk. 523, 41 X. W, 758. 



92 



HULLKTIN OK THE BUREAU OF LAUOB. 



<U>clrinos, stating llit* liittor in suoli fonu a*i iipparemly lu uiotlify to 
n coiisiderublo ik'jrrco the defciiM? of coouiploynient. It also oxccpU 
from tlje cinss of follow-^orvnnts rnrtain designated groups or grades 
of «'niployei*JS. Tlio-e amondnicnf^ Wring the jjoction in tho purtiruluru 
Kpocificd within the class of hiws which follow the Knglish linbility 
law. and woidd doubtless bv von^tnifd i\> are >imih»r provisions of 
^tl(•h laws in other States. No case under tlie anRMuleil sootion has 
y vt boen reported from the Culifornlii courts. 

The law of Georgia also (sections i*(W0-2r,in, ;W)ftO) is in pffoi-t a 
ivstatenient of the conunon law, lliougli section -Td^ declare.s ecu- 
tracts waiving the ;*orvnnt*s rightn ns fixed by law^ to lie null and void, 
in so far abropitiiig the conimon-linv doctrine of this StAtt*. Kail- 
nnuls are e.\enipte4i from the scope of these sections. 

As htnted in the first part of this discussion, the principles of the 
common law as construed in the various States will apply in the **on- 
^<truclion and u]>plicution of statutes. Within the Ix^unds of tho 
stiitute it, of coui^se, controls, hut the conunoti-law doi'trines and defi- 
nitions in \m^ in the State nr<? intlnential, .-^iiltject U* the ride that the 
inloption liy ii St«te of the statute r)f nnotlier State glvi-s to (he ron- 
Htruction put uih)u the law by the ccnirts of the State of earlier enact- 
ment an important inf1uon<e as indicating the true intent of the legis- 
lulnre in adopting such law. These conslructi<>Ms njid rulings are not 
conclusive^ but arc entitled to givat weight.(*) 

Whether or not the provisions c»f a statute can be wnived by a con- 
trart entered into prior to the happening of the accident causing tho 
injuries for which damages are elaimefl has l>een generally decided 
in the negativt».(*) The laws jiroliibiting such contructtj have re- 
ceived countenance in a number of cases.{") In the Indiuna and 
Iowa citations it was necessary to decide on the constitutionality of 
this parti)»ular provisitin of the statute. In tlic Muniford case the 
clause prohibiting contracts limiting liability was held applicable to 
a provision in a contract of employment limiting the time within 
wliich actions ((» recover damages f^.ir injuries might be brought, the 
provision being condenmed as contrary to law. In tlie Quinn cui«e 

« nirmtaffliaiu It. & Klectrtc CV>. v, Allen (isai), fiO Ala. ttSO. ia 8u. 8: Colo- 
milo MMIIiiK & KUnntor Co. t?. MlrdioU (IftOO). 20 Cola 384, &S I'rc 28. 

* Sw pose H, abov(\ 

" Qiiinn r. New York. N, II. & II. It, 0>. (IWIO), 175 -Maas. J54>. WJ N. K. SiH ; 
l»lei'ce c. A'aii Dtiwcti (1S!>7), 7S Fi«*l. *J1«: MliiiifitjHttli. & St. U. It. Co. r. Her- 
rlck ttS88), 127 r. 8. 210, S Snp. Ct. Iliii; Tlttshnrp. i\ (\ & St, U R. d. p. 
.M«mt;:ouiiT.v (IMW). l.VJ Ind. 1, 4U N. K. o^i; ; iVwHI r. SUl^fwchjiI <lfKH), 
HI'J Mo. «MC.. <hl S. W. '1S5; .Mniufrfn] r. rblcnpo. U. I. X l\ U. i\\ lHH»r»^ IS8 
Iowa iiS5. 101 N. W. lU.*): Kariwis V, K. O. r. Pfiovey (ISJ^i). 2J> Kan. ICl), U 
Am. Hep. *130, n]>i»rovrxI In Woertfrn Furu. 6i MfR. i;«. r. BUK>m tllHJT), OU l*ac. 
iidl. WCuna.) iVr eoutrti, tive Sliuvfr r. PeuiitfylvuxUa Co, llf^NS), Tl FimI. tl81. 



EMTLOYEBS LIABILITY IX THE CKITED STATES. 



93 



Ic was held that the statute wasi not contra vened by an agroemout in 
the contract of employment by Avhich the employee undertook to 
make a careful examination of the x»l«ce of work so that he might 
understand its dangei-s. 

\x\ agreemeut %vith the employer that the acceptance of benefits 
from a relief fund will act to prevent recovery in suits at law is not 
a violation of a provision forbidding contracts waiving a right to 
nH:over.('') "^ It is iiotliiiig more or lo^ than a contract for a choiro 
between sources of compensation where but a single one existed; and 
it is the final choice — the acivptance of one against the otlier — that 
gives validity to the trnnsaction."('') 

Double i*ecovery will not be allowed, the provision of such con- 
tracts that prosecution of a suit to judgment or a eonipromifee l>ar?^ all 
claims to the beneftt fund, fixing Ihe ^tatus vi any claimant there- 
under. Thus a widow who sued as administnitrix and recovered 
damages for the death of her husband for the Wnefit of their chil- 
dren was held barred under the contract, as the court ruled that the 
judguient accrued to her benefit as well^*') But her receipt of bene- 
fits from the fund as widow doe^ not bar subsequent action as ad- 
ministratrix for the Ijenefit of a child or children. (*») A statute of 
G«)rgia, however, requires railroad companies to pay the agreed 
benefit on the death of an employee from accident, with the ]>rovi- 
inon that the acceptance of such benefit shall not l>e a bar to action. 

While express messengers may at conmion law waive their right of 
action against both their employer and the transporting company,. 
such a contract was declared void as against the railroad luuler the 
Iowa statute forbidding contracts of employees waiving their rights 
to sue for damages. (•') 

LAWS FOLLOWING THE BRITISH STATUTE. 

ITje connnon law w»s constrtied nuich more unfavorably to the 
employee in Englaiul than in this country, a fact which led to such 
an amount of agitation for a statutory change that a liability law 
was enacted in 1K80, taking elFect January 1,.1881. This law, while 
of comparatively small present importnnce in Great Britain on ac- 
count of the later " Compensation Acts," has had a considerable in- 
fluence in this country, bot!i its foiTU and its judicial construction 
having l>een adopted mow or lets fully in a number of jurisdictions 

•PIttsbtirff. C C. Sc St. L. R. On. r. Cox (ISOC^, 55 Ohio St. 4li7, 4ri X. R. 
Ml ; Johnson r. Charleston & S. R. Co. (1899), 55 8. C. 152. 32 S. E. 2, 

*PIltrfiurB, C«. C. & .St. L. K. Co. r. Mo*>rf (1S«)). 152 Ina, 345, 53 N. V.. 2HX 
* BaUUiiore 6 O. R. Co. r. Ray (19*15), ST. Iml. App. 4.10. 73 N. K. 1*42. 
<0*Brlrii r. Cbt.-uiro N. W. R. Co. (1002). 130 Fed. 002. 

_ ruMU'i— null Ti— lis 7 1 



iH 



BtnXETIX OK THE BUKEAC OF L.\BOR. 



uf the United States. Tlie*^ arc. iu tlio order o( tunc, AlabaflH 
(18a^-85), Massachusetts (1887), Colorado (1893), Indiana (IdM 
ftpplioahle only t<> railroads nnd otlu*r i-oriKirations, oxrept miinicfl 
piilK New York (11K>'J), mid IV)Ho Kwv (Um). The IVnii-sylvanB 
lialiility law of 1007 also emhodie«^ in a less formal manner the prifl 
L-ipal provisions^ of the act in so far as they relate to tlie defense |l 
feilow-serviw, ■ 

The form of tlio Massachusetts law as it appears in the fr>refpi]fl 
C(inii)ihitiou is (he result of ii numl>er of amendments, while the origfl 
nal Colorado statute (sections l.)lia-l^lle) is in ^ome measufl 
nffected by the nbsolute abrogation of the fellow -servant doctrine by 
iin Mit of tlic legislature of U>01 (sections ir»Uf. l.')!!^). 

These laws (except those r>f I*oiin>ylvania and Porto Kico, und< 
which no action has been reported iis yet) have all stomi the t«4 
constitutionality, except that of Indiana, ns to which it has h 
ruled that the inclusion of other ciM'iHirations than those en^iged 
railway service, while partnerships and indixidual employers 
cxeiMpt, is lunviirrnutahle nrul nnconstitutiorMil.('') Under this 
htnirtion, therefoi'e, the Inw applies to railroads exclusively. 

OKNHILVL raiNCIPLES OF COXSTHIU'TIOX. 

The rule that statutes in derogation of the common law will 
strictly constnu*d has generally lK*en nioilitiedf in res|H'cl of the ai 
in hand, in favor of a UIhtuI construction, iu order that the purpt 
of the acts umy Im' nccc»mplished.('') In the Ahibauia case cited tl 
court said: '" Heing iu tlerogation of the common law, the infere.m 
is that the terms of the act clearly import tlie changes intended, aj 
their operation will not Iw enliirgi'd hy eonstniction further thi 
may be necessarj' to etTcctuate the niiinifest ends. Notwithstanding, 
a luirrow nnd restrictive view of the act should not be taken. In il 
construction the court should consiiler its objects, liave regard to 
intentions of the legislature, and take a broad view of its provisioi 
conuuensurnle with the ]>roposed purposes.'* 

In general it may l>e snid that the effect of the act is not to croi 
new cause's of action nor to abrogate t]»e genera! principles of coi 
mon Ihw. The determination of the relationship of the parties 
employer and employw is unchanged. (*■) Voluideers and servai 
goiiig out of their scojm? of employment are therefoi'e not aided 
lliL* laws;('') nor, unle-ss sj>ecifically included (as i^ done in Uio Co 

" no<lford Quarrlos Co. v. BoutfU (1W)7), 80 X. E, S20. 
^UyuUm V. .MtvliniiU h* MUIfl <lS.Sft), IW* .Maw*. 1!M», 'J2 N, K. 7<W; ll»tti 
rniiner (1(K>n. 2i\ Iml. Am>. -tU TiO N. K TiO; Maldlc A n. B. Co. e. tL^^\ 
Usss), Hi Ma. i;a, ■! So. Kll, 
*".\lnbnuirt 15. S. U. Co. c. <'4irt*«^l '■.. 

<IVo;ij»t r. noi.rwia I', II. i\u f I i ! Hit. 7f « : MHIi«r r. 

oAaan^' Mfg. fa UiS»}), WO Maw, 30'J, 2» N, ^ WW. 



EMPLOYEES LIABILITY IN THE UNITED STATES, 



95 



rldo uikI Massji'jlnist»tts Ntatutf>). do tlu* aot>. i'IiiIji'iuv suiiroiitruiUors 
or their eriiployw>s.(») EiiipIoy<*es of iv*viviTs were hold to be within 
the protection of the IndiAnn law-C*) 

The nets do not fttteinpt to co<lify the whole hiw on the subject, and 
they leave open some rodinioii-liiu defeiis4»s mid sonic roninKin-luw 
liabilities, (••) A pUintitf seeking relief for injuries may find it un- 
der the eoninion law rather thrtn under the stntnte. as in some States 
the latter makes certain requirements a-t to notice, etc.. and limits the 
amotint rcK-overable, and one suing: midcr the act must show that his 
case falls within its provisions. (') The acts are frequently referred 
to as *' fellow-s^Tvant laws." the principal featiire being the abroga- 
tion as to the classes of employees enumerated, and under the condi- 
tions specifieii. of the defense of ronunon employment, (•*) so that the 
qu^'stion of tlie importance or weight of this defense may decide 
whether an action should be brought under the statute or the com- 
mon law. The defenses of a^^sunied risks and of contributory negli- 
gence arc at tltc most only mo<lified, and are not taken away fi'om the 
employer by these act-s. Tlie supreme court of Alabama allowed 
rw'ov'er}' tinder the liability law for the death of an emidoyec result- 
ing from the wanton licgligciifc w willful wrong of an engineer, 
holding that even though tlie injun^d party may have been negligent, 
his negligence woidd In* n defense oidy in connection with n piirely 
negligent act of the employee inflicting the injury; l>ut where the 
wrong was intentionaU negligence on the part of the injured employee 
would not defeat recovery.C) In the same case the thi*ory that dnm- 
agcn under this act aiv pniiitrvc wms ilcnjfd, (!io nuirf rnlinir thjd tiny 
are compensatory only. 

In no State arc the conniioiidu\N rights of an injiiri-d employee 
abrogated, and the re<|uiremenl as to notice of action need not be 
given nidesH the suit is for damages recoverable only under the act, 
Tliuft in a Xcw York ca.'^elO it ^vas held that the act only regulates 
pro<'ednr<' relative to the new or extendi-d liability granted thereby; 
hut the requirement as to timely giving of notice must be strictly 
oliserved-C) Tlu- contents thereof need not U* formally complete, 
Iwiwcver, if they aiv sulficient in fact to furnish sul>stantial notit:e.(*) 
AVliere the statute contains u |irovision limiting the time within which 

• 8cart)orotii;rh r. Atatuiiua M. ». Co. <1S»1). 04 Ala. 4»7« 10 Ho. 316. 

* Hmil r. Conm^r, sMprii. , 
f Uyalls r. Mwlianitrs' MillB. snpm. | 
"Cuffw r, N. Y. etc. R. <'o. (1«H>. irCr Mieis. LM, 2H X, K 112^«. 

^^^» lAiiiifivUle A N. n. Co. r. York ( V,m V, 12S Ala. WkV :Vt\ N«». (ITfi, 
^^^■Giuaohfc r. Roneiihorf; (lii'M), lis N. Y. 1-IT* 70 N. [<:. 421. 
^^^»VHj!rmu v, Mtnw (1«VJ>. lO"! M«ks. UX SC N. K. iTi}. 
■ * Krkk r. Bo»wurth {Om). 102 Muss. .334. :u> N. R ."tG. 



96 



BULLETIN OP THE BURKAIJ OK I-ABOB, 



nclion thereunder may be brought, it must be strictly olworveJ, ftfl,! 
like notice, it is a condition iinpoiioil on the cnforccinont of ii imvf [ 
remedy, J 

HI'KCI KU" FKOVISIOKS OF TUE \CTH, I 

^^^^ Defects in condition of wayi*, works, etc, I 

The principal purpose (if this dnuse seems to luive been to lay a 
foinidation for the abrogation of the Englifih fellow-service doctrine, 
and it doOvS ni)t gruatly affect the rights t»f the employee at eounuoii 
law as it is comstrued in the United States. (•) The duty of provid- 
ing and maintaining safe and suitable appliances here devtdves on the 
employer, and is nondelegable. The conditiitn <if the place is the 
matter to be considered, and not the question of the employer's |H»r- 
sonal negligence as distinguished from Ihat of an employee to whom 
he may have committed the duty of attending thereto. In ttther 
words, the employer is liable for defects, and it is not newssary, under 
this section, to aver that he was negligent. (*) As at ci>mmon law, 
however, the defect must be the proximate causi^ of the injury, (*") and 
meiv accident affords no grotmd of actimi. 

The ground of action is, in all the States in the list under cnnNiflcra- 
tion with one exception, an injury caused by a defect in the coiidil ion 
of the instrmnentality, following the phraseology of the English Ihw. 
The exce|>ti<m is Pennsylvania, where the word '* condition '' is 
omitted, and the defect is to be in the works plant, or machinery. 
The signiticunce of this omission has not lx»cn determined by the 
Pennsylvania courts, but has bei>n discussed ina MassachuM^tlsca^ie,^) 
where it was held that a defect in the condition of nniclnnery meant, 
not u defect that interfered with the working capacity, but one Ihut 
affei^led the safety of employees. An English judge stated that the 
use of the word *' condition " gavi> a broader moaning to the phrase 
than it would otherwise have, ^ but I do not think it is very much 
wider."('') Xot every accidental or temporary condition is included, 
but tlie defect must affect the pernunient or (]uasi-p<*rnninent condi- 
tion of the employer's establishment. (') 

The phrase *" c<»nnec(ed witli or used in tlie business of the em- 
ployer" is broad enough to inchnle instrumentalities which the 
enii)loyer dtavs not own, but which are, as a matter of fact, being used 

" IliallH r. llctiinulch' MUlft. fltU'^u. 
» t.ynch r, AUen iM^)1^), 100 Mass. 218. ijn X, K. ri5<l. 
- Sotithoru a. Co. V. Uuyton OWW). 122 AIu. SIU, 2.'i Si». .*«. 
""WlUey I'. noRton IC. L. On, (1M»7». le^ Mnw. M\ M\ N. K. 3115, 
"Mctilffln r. ralimT'B S. & I. To. <1SS2>. 10 Q. Ik DIv. Ti. 
^trtV.nnop r. NVnl USDM. ir.n Mhjih. trsn. 20 N. KL 807; KnuMB City, 
R. Co. t\ Kurttiu tlMC), U7 AIn. 240. 12 So. KS. 



w 



EMPLOYEBS' UABU^ITY IN TUB r KITED STATES. 97 

by hull ill tlko eoudtk^ of his buKines.'^ ( " ) But do liability attarhes 
where the eiiiplo^'cr has not the control of the agency causing the 
injur)', ns wlieir he was a mere licensee nsing occasionally the track 
of a connecting railroad.* '') ** The defect must he one which the 
employer has a right to n'lne^iy if he discovers it. "'(*•) 

IMiat i*onst itutcs a defett is not defined by the acts themselves, and 
recourse i^ had to the principles of common law in making the deter- 
miiMtion. As alreaily infiniatetK it depends on the question of suit- 
ableRe?K for the intended use rather than on any iinrelnted quality of 
completeness. An unsuitableness of ways, works, or machinery for 
work intended to be done by means of them is a defet*t, although they 
are j^rfe<^ of their kind, in gooil i*epair, and suitable for some work 
done in ihe employer'^ business other than the work in doing which 
iheir nnsuitableness caused the injuiy complained <if.(*) That the 
employer is not liound to iinx'tire the latest or l)est obtainable devices 
follows from the rides of couniion law. as does the fact that he is not 
liable where the employee fails to observe such pi^ecautions as a pru- 
dent man woidd observe in like circunistnnces of danger, or where by 
his own choice he diverts the instrnrneniality from Its intended use to 
«no4her use. 

The exprcNsion as to knowledge of the defect practically brings the 
employer within the doctrine of the common law, which does not im- 
pnte liability unless there is actual or constructive knowledge of the 
C0nditi<3ns occa.'-ioning the injury. (*") 

The provision of the acts relating to the reporting of defects by 
the employee is not fotmd in the Indiana and Pennsylvania laws. In 
the former t^tate, however, the injure<l e?nployee must \^e " in the 
exercise of due cjii*e and diligi^uce,'* which is practically a statonient 
of ihc conditi4»ns requii'cd for an action at common law, and would 
presumably be required in a suit under the Pennsylvania statute. 

Failure to report known defects, unless the employer was known 
to hftvr knowledge tIiei*eof otherwise, is a bar to action for resultant 
injmies;(0 ■^*' ^^ other words*, the statute does not exclude the appli- 
mtion of tjie maxim, " Volenti non fit injuria.-' f'') This is therefore 
in art^jrdance x^ith the common-law rule that an employee accepts 
the risks of known ami appreciated dangers. f\.i connnon law, fail- 
\m to rt'j>ort is held not the breach of a duty but an addwl reason 

*C*oflrc«* »*. N»*w York, etc.. K. 0»., »nj'm. 

*Tim yfc r. Old foloiiy It. Co. 11802). WM MfXfm. 208, 31 X. K. rt. 

c. Now York, olo.. It, Co. (lyVil, ICiO MnuR, '2*y0, 35 N. R MT. 
mk r. Jitcitm Puuip Co. (lSf>6>. 36.% Mawi, 1202, 43 N. K, S5. 
'rnabville &. X. R. Co, v, Cninpl«*U O^e), 1*7 Ala. 1-47. 12 So. B74 ; Coffee t, 
xv^ Ynrk, vtc^ R. Ca, frnprn. 

Ik* & B. n. Co. r. llolltoni. suprn. 
***\inj.'r r. Sttora intfitou 'snsif^ut t\\ r imw). i.vt Maw*, i:\rs S2 "S. V.. UVi, 



98 



BUIJLETIK or XIJK BUREAU OF lABOB. 



I Tuliy an employee may not, under such circumstances^ recover. Th« 

I status of 1111 employee who has given the required notice is not wrfl 

r settled. An Eii^lisli rus»^(*) fiivonMl tlie position (hat an employee 

I having given sudi notice was secure in his riglitn to rec^^v'er, tlion^i 

I later case«; have left room for a consideration of the dttctrine of 

I volenti non fit injuria. (^1 . 

I Xt'f/ltf/cncd of ftnployeeH exrr(*iitinf/ gujfertnfriidtttre, 

I EiK'h of the hiwh of the group nndor rcnisideration ha* n clause set- 

I ting fortli the liaMlity of the euiployer for injury caused hy the neg- 

I ligencc* of a person in authority over the injured employee, by reason 

of which the injure* was inflicted. The scofx* of these provisions 

varies, and the lest 4»f ranlt is not unifonnly held to, the Alal>ama law, 

i for instance, allowing specifically for a dual capacity, while the Col«- 

[ rado law on its far*^ only n'qtiires that the negligent act 1k» that of ft 

' person whorio sole or prin<'ipnl duty is that of suiKM'intendence. Tho 

Pennsylvania law ej)uuierates an within the class of persons for whose 

acts the employer is liable, foremen and other imt^-ou*^ in charge of 

works, jdant, or machinery, and jiersons in charge of the particular 

woric in which the employee was engaged at the time of his injury. 

In (lie construction given by tho courts it stvms to be pretty tmi- 
forndy established that the act eomi>luiu('iI of naisl its<df Ih^ one of 
I superintendence, and that the mere fact that it was the act of a per- 
son usually engaged in superintendence is not conclusive.('') 

An action nuiy Ik* brought, however, even where the injury 
I residtinl from the negligence of a superintendent wliiU' he was cu- 
I gaged in manual lalx)r, assisting the plaintiff in his work,('') and tho 
[ fact that he lalnirs occasionally or even a considerable portion of tho 
I time does not necessarily take away the employers' respmLsibility for 
him as u i)UperiMteudent;('') but the negligiMice mufit l»e in the matter 
of his duty as jiuperiutcndent, au<l not iis a laWirer, io make the 
I employer liable under this provision. 

Wlio are superintendents is variously indicateil, sd bir as ilic ai-is gii, 
I Persons whow sole or [irincipnl duly is supt^'infendence; or, further^ 

I •Thomaa r. Qimrteramino (1W7), 1ft Q, B, Olv. nw, no U J. Q. J*. N. 8, 'MO, 

f » ynrniLiutlj r. rnuKT (ISST). Itl Q. H. IHv. OS". 57 L. J. Q. B. N. & 7; Smith 
I 1'. Bnker (1**!»1 ), A. C. 325. 00 r.. J. Q. l\. N. S. 0S3. 

I « WhUluki^r r'. IU.nit (lh07). Ut7 Muhu. TiS^. 4iS N. R 121 : ImniiUcr t. t>e Bar- 
I UeMirn C, &. I. I'o. (ISH3>. 101 Ain. nOO. U So. 10; Loul8rllle. N. A, A (*, It. Co. 
I r. Soutitwlck (isuu), lu Ilia. ApiK -1^ -t-ft N. H. 20!); Uatlagtter i\ .Xewnian 
I (ISH)S), lUO \. \\ '\4U Xi N. R ISO. Nf now mi ihXs \nyU\t fn)ii4 ^'ohirndo Ic nl 
I luinil, liiit 111 vk*w of tbe KlmllHrKy rtf ttie t)n>vU1(iriH nf Itit* hin-M. thi^ rnurtM of 
tl»!'^ 'iiUI |tntb:iMy ji^rri^ with \i\f < 

it^, M. & n. It. Cv. V. Muiluii , 

k V, George C. Whltnoi- Co. (UXfOi. 177 Mnw», li(i. ;»n .N. I- tiitt^ 
r ^J^/oa r. Bocleport CmuUe Co, USO^). I"l ^"^ ^'t*. 50 X. E. 5'jr#: Cnmlry 
« Cottlus il^HHJ), JGS Mttja. -l^tO, 43 ^^ £1 107. 



ijis^ 



KXFliOTBS UABajTT IS THS CirmD STJkXW^ 



p»wogi» aclis^ as $«cii with aaUMirhj m their «fa9enor: or. «5 ui Al»- 



Imauu a per^dn wbo lifts " anj 



intfiKtcd toLitt, 



are 



drrigntlad. TW 



osvd is 



L^fhsaia hv art noi«4 abo^-^: 



ikfr ttidMDa law oaohs Ihr clau- 

The diflktihT (if det^nahiiiig tfap point of s«iperintT9d«>c<e of rtMtr^ 



onl 



V w 



famtbp 



yiTolvrs 



» a 



^B iothi 



VIow the ruik of a 
^nl ^LiprnutcfKktit or maiu^rr, .luku of a ^xnal! ^an^ 

frvijziit lumdlers^^*) and dk» fofcman of a ««etkti g»i^ oa « rail- 
raafl(*i havi< favpii htM tji lir within thr Maaaadboaitts art. In ;svn-, 
1 it i> a nutter for the jury and mn^ he dtCcrauneii by the fa<-ts^ 
io the part)<"ular cafe. Tl»r fart that he i:^' not expeHed or rN{nirrd to 
t)ii&(') or that he reoetves hi^wr wage Ihaa 
n.i liMoe. bat is not coodaavr. Mef>» t a yUtkm 

lbreiiuui« however, or the fact that he occaskaialh' girrs ai%lrfs» will 
not be auAcieitt to diai^ tl>e r«ii|ilon-r.<'^ 

lliat the emplojerVi liabilitT U enUrg^ by this datise was t«CQ|p^' 
niznl in a New York ca^,('| in which it was^ m\\\ Uiat *^il «» dear 
thai it [the act of 190^] has tnvpc an additkoal catise of actioa 
where it prc^ribcs that t)u* lu-iNur ^lall br liable for the ne^ffmcw 
of the superintendent or any i^rs^in acting as sorh. At oommoo law. 
while the master was liable fiu i' ' 't of his alter egti t«.i whoisi he 
intrtistcd the whole mantt^niei:: work, with the |>ower t»i em- 

ploy and discharge ser%'anis. he was not liable for the neg1is>en<v of 
foremen tuerely i« such.** 

As to the phraidng of the Alabama hiw its mpreme court has said 
that it was the apparent intent of tlie legislature to make the common 
eri ' I'm the injunr compUined of b* caused bv one who, 

ha ^ tdencse Intnisted to him. whether or imt lie i« en*| 

gaged in manaaJ Ijibar.(') The negligent act must, liowertf. be onaj 
of tendence.e) 

. - nt^igent su|>erinteudent need not be the superintendent 
tif the injured empio>-ec is held in an AUbama ca5)e.(') The negli- 
gence of a mi/' ninning Km train ii ' ' ' tv to orders^! 
thereby causiiii: ith of a Breman on t«i! . wais hvhU ia^ 
a ca^ imder the New York law,<') to be the act of a |)erBon not in sii- 



•MabODer r. New T 
*TNiri« r, Nt'tr V..rl: 

r. Wllcui; ■, » 




rk & N. U R, C«x <1*^), lO) Massl .-iT^. 3G N. K TtSS. 
V. II. A IL n. Cut 0»*3*. ia> Mniw. :EC M N. K. VVTii. 

it It. Mr^ cu. iisoni. ii» Mn8& 151. as X. tw tnTw 

Ji3 Maw*. 221,30 N. E. lOia 

{l<i/<), i;i Mutts. 36, uO N. K, 45S, 
..- , (iSiM). Wl Mas*. t7M. 3rt N. K. W2; Kuljtlit r. O^vnuiin 
1 MiUtf. l.Vs W \. H «»ii. 

mu*ra. fW^ al»i.> Harris r. Italtlnioro M. & & IVurka. 

■ini. 
■ ij'ra. 



100 



BULLETIN OF TUE BVREAl? 01' tABOR. 



perintpndcuce, that duly devolving on the train dispatcher, whfW6 
proper ordci-s had been disobeyed. No damages were allowed therefore 
under the net of 100*2, though it seems probable thftt under the act of 
1000 (chap. Oo7), recovery could be had. 

Xegltgencc of employevH giving ordcrtt* 

The Ihws of Alabaniii, Indiana, and Pennsylvania follow Iho l^ng- 
lish act in eontiuuin^a clause mentioning injuries eausinl by ihe negli- 
jljenoe of an employee giving orders to which the injured employee was 
bound to conform, ami did conform, nnd making tin* employer liable if 
hijuries reHnlte<l from the fact of Ilis having ho conformed. Thij^ clause 
is H recognition of the *' superior servant" ihK'trine discussed in the 
iirst part of this article, and h independent of and in addition to the 
provisions relating to the uegligi'nce of superinlcn<lents.(") It ** dis- 
tinguishes employees of a superior rank — employees clothed with 
authority and responsibility of the employer/' (*) The question of 
engaging in manual lulK)r is of little or no importance here, the test 
being one of actual aiithority, of orders within the Hcoi>e of that 
authority, the obligniion to ol»ey, and the connection U-lween obedi- 
ence and the injurv complained of. The first two of thes4» three 
points practically fall within the scope of the ])rinciple of law that 
the act^ of an em|doyee. oul.side tlic scope of his employment entail no 
obligation on the employer. This applies to the giving of orders as 
well as the carrying of them out. An Indiana case(') apparently 
hohls that in the abs»nice of specific authority to do so, a su|>erintend- 
ent or foreman can not appoint a temporary sul>stitute to act in his 
absence and to have >mc1i authority as to bind the employer for tlio 
negligence of such substitute. The question at once arises as to 
whether the injured emp!oy(»e whs bound to nhry Ihe temporary foi'c- 
man's orders, or would disobedience Ijc excused by the eomn^on em- 
ployer on the grouuil of the hu'k of pro[>er authority. If employers 
generally "would not so cxeusp disobedience, as seems most probable, 
then to deny to the injured erupli>yee the right of action would seem 
unjust. Apart from this statute, however, llie Indiana court-s Iiuve 
held that foremen or bosses were, in general, fellow-servanls of ihe 
workmen who weiv oldiged to conforn» to their orders. (*) An employee 
who complies with the request of a person in charge of work, but not 
in conti'ol of him personally^ has no redress against the employer in 

" KanAAfi CU}\ M. & T1. H. Co. c. Burton, mu»rn. 

ft I,uuNv lUr. N. A. 9i i\ K. Co. V, WoKuer (1S«9>, ITttt IimI. 4'JO, M N. R 027. 

' H.Hlfies i\ HXaiiilnnX AVbeel C<t» (1806), 362 Ind. «8fi, Ki N. K. 801 : lame i%m 
MS!»fH, M N. K.as.x 

■' nriijill. &.■„ Coal Co. r. Calu (1S»4). 08 lud. 1«JS; Indiana Cnr Co. c. I»nrV*r 
/ l.'v'^r.). art Tmi. ifii. 



£MPUDY£BS' LIABILITV IN THE UNITED STATES, 



101 



1 



of rcsulliu*;: iuiurv.(°) But wliore there i^ authority, the em- 
*r is liable even thougii the order is to do an act prohibited by 
is rules, on (he ground that the employee is not supposed to decide 
to tlie right or wrong of the act when obeying his actual supe- 
ior:(*) but not if Iko knows the act is outside the -icope of the su- 
periors ttulliorily.i*^) 

Tlie requirement that there must be a causal connection between 
he negligent order and the injury complained of is in accord with 
the ]>rincip!es of liubility already sufficiently discussed. The order 
liwlf may Ih? g-iven explicitly, or it may be infei'able from circuni- 
ano^;(') but the latter ground will not extend to acts done in the 
discharge of general service, and growing out of the usual course of 
ihe plaintiff's employment. (•') 

I ActM hi oh^Jienrr to ruUgj etc. 

31ie fame States as named above, Alabama, Indiana, and Penn- 
•U'ania. have enacted a provision similar to that of the Engli*^h act 
»vering the acts and omissions (though the latter word is not found 
Ihe Pennsj-lvania statute) of any employee of the common em- 
'ployer. ilone or made in accord with rules and regidations of the 
employer, or with special instructions given by an authorized person. 
The proviso of the English act that restricts recovery to cases where 
there is an impropriety or defect in the rules, etc., is not found hi the 
Ampricnn enactments. Tt is probaldy not to l)e assmned. however, 
that th© omission is significant of any ditferent effect on the employer's 
liilbilily than if they had been inserted, as to do so would entail 
liabihty without fault, and would tend to make the employer an 
iiumrer of the employee's safety, so long as he conformed to rides or 
ia'!tnictions.(^) The law of Pennsylvania speaks of the act of a 
felloxT-servant instead of "any person in the employ,*' etc., which is 
bdl Ihe adoption of the coustnictiou of the Indiana law, where it 
vag 5aid that the language of tlie law was broad enough to include 
ufls or i»n>issions of the injured employee himself, but that it would 
U* nujui?t to so road the law. as this would practically make tlio 
rmpioyer liable for pure acciilent.(*) The act was therefore construed 
as lipplying only tt» acts or omissions of fellow-servants. The omis- 
sion of enjoined duties or disobedience to rtdes is not within the scope 
of this clause.(') The dause seems to add little or nothing to the 

'^' I M f . ileortrla P. U. Co. HSSS), S3 Ala. MS, 3 So. 704. 
> r. Ostii.ru tism), 10 Times L. U. 3SS. 
t c I'. Midland R, Co. (1883), 47 U T. N. f?. I7rt, 
ae & O. K. Co. t\ (Jwrp? (181H). 04 Alft, lIMt. 10 So. 14r». 
lUott r. W. V. Tel. Co. (1805), OS Fed. 03(t (Iiidlinm st;itutf). 
EUtiglinm r. Rrewer fifiW). 113 Ala. uOiK Jl S<». 415; Ualllmore k O. ft. ■^\ 
* /4» R Jjn/e (2S07), 149 lad. 107, 48 S, E. Sti2. 



I 




102 



BCLLETTX OF THE BCREAX; OF LABOXC. 



employers' duly, uiulcr the coinmon law, to innintniu a proper systenP 
an<i to make and oviforce. sultal>le ruU».s. Tlio same doctrines as to 
knowledge of ndcs, condoning systematic or continnous violation, 
and of action in emergencies, as are set forth in connection witli the 
<Iiscussion of th«t pliase of the connnon law, ai\' appIicuMe here. 

Acts of certain cmployeee on railroad* ^ 

All the lawB of this group except tliose of Ponns^'lvania and New 
York enutnerate certain chisses of employees on niilroads for whoM 
negligence the employer is held liable in a diffeiTnt degree from that 
fixed by common law. In New York there is a separate section of 
later enactment whieh provider for practically the same classes of 
em])loyee.s as are named in the English statute, which is in the main 
followed by the other States, flKuigh there Is some variety in the lan- 
guage- used. 

The provisions of this olaiiN-- are additional to thus** contained in 
the clause fixing lia]>ility for the negligent acts of superion>, uud taken 
in connection theiTwith prcKent a practical abrogation of the dtxirine 
of fellow-servi<e ns a defense* in castas of injury (Mcurring by the negli- 
gence of those engaged in the o(ieration of railroads. 

It was said in an Alabama case (") that the act in no wine relieves 
an en»ployer from the common-law duly of using reasonable care in 
selecting employees; it increases his liability, nilher, anil makes him 
responsible for injuries sustained by an employee in consequence of 
the negligent a<t of eniployeo.s of the designated dus-se-s. and that 
.without reference to the care and diligence used in iheir selection. 

Persons in charge or control include those who have the actual phys- 
ical c<intnil of the instrumentalilii's named as well us those wUo aro 
intrusteil with woik of a directive nature. Since, liowever, su^wrin- 
tendence is ineliideil in the otlicr clauses, it is understood that this 
provision relates rather to employees not included in them.(*) Tlie 
control may be only temporary, ('') an*l the neglig<'nt nuunuil o|>era- 
lion juay Ix' performed un<ler the directiou of others,(^) Vtlvo is in 
charge of an engine, train, or other inslrtunentality al any particular 
lime is u question of fact, to Im* deleruiincd by the circunistiinces of 
the particular case.(') Nor need the duty be considered to rest en- 
tirely upon one [»ei*son, since diiTerenl duties may 1h« assigned lo dif- 
frrenl persons uud each 1h> charged with the conduct of llie truin.(') 

•Culver V. Alal>ama M. H. Co. (1805). 108 Ala. ana la So. K2T. 
'•Htrmlnghnw It. & E. Co. r. Unylor (IsiW). 101 Ala. 4SS, 13 So. 703* 
' Welch I', ^•l■w York, etc., U. Co. (lOOO), 170 MnHB. .TlW. r>7 N. Iw tWft. 
<> UiiilMinc & N. II. C^, t\ nUhardma (18IKt). 100 Ala. -J3:X 11 So. SOO; HUoa r« 
New York. N, H. & H. R. Co. (WKi). ITS Ma**. 177. 5:1 N. EL SOtk 
*}lny»]vr r. i;rL«t We«teni U. Co, (ISSl). 72 l^w T. 12t>; (^nroo r. Itoirtoa 
^A. it. Cq, (JiUKi). HU Mom, C23, 42 N. E. \U. 




EMFLOYEBS^ UABOJTT 13? THE UNITED STATES, 



lo; 



But a sapmor wlio is adiinUy present cun not devoh-e (he disclmrgj 
of his duties upoa an infiTior so as to make the employer rcspoubtblJ 
for ihi* loiters negligence. (*) I 

.The words " sii^nals *" and "sigrnal points" have been variousljl 
ilefinietfL The t<»rni '^sigiiaU" inchides mechanical devices (^) and 
lori>«t|e.ps,(') as well as signals tr.uisniitted by flags, lantenjs. etc.(')l 
The Wisconsin cmirts have decido<i that un interlocking sj-Ktem wsea* 
to |H*event collisionft is not « signal.(*) As to the Alabama law, 
court nilp<l that the comma l>etween the words ''signal" and 
** points" was not prt>pfr!y there, and construed the wonls us m 
phrase referring to apparatus and not to loeality.C') The English usm 
of the word "points" instead of the term ''switch" used in thcJ 
Ubited Stjites lias not been followed. Of the laws mentioned undofl 
this general head only those of ALiliamn and California contain thd 
won! -' point," In that of the latter State the phra?* "switch signafl 
point " occure, while the Porto Kican law speaks of a '• signal switch.^ 
IIow these terms would be defined by the court'^ does not appear nm 
vet. Switches are mentioned in a number of the laus, but in the 
Indiaua law the only inference thereto is in the phrase ^switch 
y«rtl.** The court refuse*! to accept the suggestion that the legisla- 
tive intent was to separate the words by a comma and so give thei 
linct me«nings,(') The same coiirt held tliat u switch target, 
ring autODiaticaliy with the opening and closing of the switch, 
a signal within the meaning of the act. but tliat it meant only 
signals complete within themselves and not subsidiarj- parts of other 
devices*(') 

Tlie laws generally n'f**r to locomotives or locomotive engines, that 
of Alalwma separating the woixi •' locomotive " from the word 
'^cnginr " by a cofnma. The question therefore arose whether a sla- 
titmafy engine emplove^l to move cars by means of a rope or cubh 
oune within the meaning of the a<l, but it was held that such ai 
mginc was not un engine on the track of a railway, and so was noli' 
induded.t') A pile driver used un the tracks of a railroad and 
geared to move by the application of its omu power to the axle of the, 
wheels on which it retsts is not a loci»motive under this «ct(*).J 
Attemptd to make this clause cover the operation of railways oa 

- it N. R. C^ r. GoKK tl^MTJ), IIJT Ala. :;i!li, ft* S... 1007. 

l>mlffTllle& N. k. Cn. <I!<I7>. 44 R*». (SSTL (Ala.) 

^Vwima c. Hay tlOul). 106 FWL S3X 47 C- C, A. 3.'..:, 
ijt&clioMMMl & in R. Co. r, Jwats (l«tl), KJ Ala. 2IS. So. 27«k 
^Ctilcaso. St. P.. M. Jt O. R. Ou. r, Cliloatro, M. & St P. R. C'l*. (MiOC). 

Wt, K» X. W. 190. 
/ Pnfttn^AT* A O. H. W. R, 0>. r. Un\** tlWT), 14U rod. 107. 48 X. R 862- 

S4». 12U 
^J»rttt r. iiltcB fSlKa,K JCl toO. I'lT. 07 X. E. ItKiT. 



104 



BULLETIN OF TUE BUBKAU OF LABOB. 



■\vhicli fleet ric'ity is useil as ii motive power Iiuve not received the saiic- 
liou of the courts, («) 

Some, of the statutes speak of charge or control of n train, others 
of a cur or train, upon « railway. The hitter pliran? would sei*m lo 
l>c explicit, though the AInbnnui courts hold tluit the word "car*' is 
jipplirahle also to hand cars,(^) ^AHiei^c the word "train" only is 
used, the question arises as to what constitutes a train. In a Mnssa- 
chnsetts case it was held that a number of cars detached from the 
loi'oiuotive, luul moving under the impetus given hy the lo<'(Mnotivo 
l>efore being detached, formed a train within tlie meaning of the 
act.t'') 'riie prescjil law of tliat State is explicit on this {>oint. 

A dummy railroad has lx*en held to Ik» within the act,(*) as is also 
a temporary track used by a city for hauling gravel, (') A locomo- 
tive in n ronndhous*' is not " oi\ the track of a raihvay.*^(0 

In the fourth subdivision of section 7083 of the Indiana hiw, re*.x)v- 
rry is allowed for injuries on condition that the injured jwrson was 
*' ol»oying or conforming to the order of some sti|x»rior at the time of 
such injury, having aiithority to direct," The attempt has been 
made to defeat by means of this clause the claims of employees who 
were Injured while in tho exercise of their routine duties, on t!»e 
ground that they were not at tlic time working luider orders; but 
this contention htis not l>ecn allowed, the ground Inking taken that 
tiri'men, engineers, and workmen of like employments, were of ueces- 
Mty subordinates, and timt action in the lino of duty cotdd only bo 
action under the orders of superiors.(tf) 

All the laws of this group provide directly or by i^cference for tho 
re<*oveiy of damages where ileath ft»llows tho injuries received. A 
number of them proviile also for tho assessment of damages pro|>or- 
tioned to tlic degive of the negligence of the employer or of the em- 
ployer for wliose acts he is liable. This is not to be confttsod with tho 
dta'lrine of eomparative negligence embodied in a nuinln*r nf recent 
liLWb relatijig to railway employment. 

THE COLORADO LAW OF 1001, 



This law (section:) 1511f, l<>ng) la the tirnt enactment of a Irgisla- 
tum^ in a jurisdiction wheiv tho common law prevails to entiivlj 

" I'nllmi r. West Kiul ,St. H. Co. (IMKS). 171 Mhmk. 241». n(» N. K. .VTC; Indlnn- 
bjhjUk & a n. T. Co. v. Andis (ItKM), aT Ind. App. OUT*. VZ N. B, 145. 

^KuiiMiH City. M. & B. R. Co. l*. Crock*? (1802), ns Alu. 412, 11 Ru. 202. 

•* Cnr»m v. Ho*7toii & A, U. Co.. supra. 

•^ niniitiieliMni It. & R Cm. e. Haylor (1903). ItM Abi. "IRS 13 Bo. 7D3. 

'^C*iujiliUn r. i-JintbrldKo (180G). IW Mass. :.HS. 41 N. C 218. 

/ IVrry r. Old Colony «. Co. (l«fCH, HU Mns,<, -»!•<). 41 N. IZ, iSti. 

vciitriniinii. II. & i>. n. riK '-. 'niii'imiid <]!i<iu>, in Fo<i. '.us <c. c\ .\,>.ciuiiir 

nutilmris. c/l'.. R ViK r. Meniir"iiirt'y (IMis). K,:; tml. 1, Jt» N. K. r*S2, 



^^^ employers' UABIUTV IK THE UNITED STATES. 105 

AlK)TisIi the ilefoise of eosorvice. Tt.*^ >oop<> iind effect -nere sot forlli in 
u recent case (") in which the ^niprciue court of the State niaintiniied 
(he constjtntiounlity of the law. In the course of Its opinion the court 
stated that the act in qne-Ktion reuders the employer liable for damages 
resulting from injurie*- to or death of an employee, caused by the 
negligence of a coemployce in the same manner, and to the same 
extent, as If the negligence causing the injury or death was that of 
the employer. AVliolIior or not the employer i« liable under this act 
must bo determined by each particular case based on its provisioas. 
It does not deprive him of any defense to the liability thei'eby imposed 
which, under the establislied rules of law, could be ivgarded as 
sufficient except his own lack of negligence. ^* For the purjKise of pro- 
ri<ling for the safety and protection of employees in the service of 
u common employer* the law-making power has the undoubted au- 
thority to abrogjite the exception to the general rule of respondeat 
suijorior in favor of the employer, and make him liable to one of his 
employees for damages cau^d by the negligence of another employe© 
while acting within the scope of his employment, regardless of the fact 
that sncli employees are fellow-servants.'' 

Thus, far-ivuching as this law is in its particular field, the defenses 
of assimied ridf;? and contributory negligence remain unaffected, nor 
is the employee in any way protected from the consequences of pure 
accident. 

STATUTES AFFECTING EMPLOYMENT ON RAILROADS. 

A very con^idei*able number of States have laws applying specific- 
ally to the business of railroading, some of tliem applying to all em- 
ployees, and some only to those engaged in the operation of the road. 
Tliese laws range in effect from the slightest possible deviation from 
the principles of the coniraon law to a complete abrogation of the de- 
fense of fellow -service, and important changes in those of contribu- 
tory* negligence and of assumed risfe. 

The most conspicuous instance of a statute that leaves the employee 
in practically the same status as is fixed by the conuuoii law is that of 
Xew Mexico, which, apart from tlie doubtful exception as to tlie ap- 
plication of the doctrine of contributoi'y negligence after the em- 
ployee has given notice of defects, would seem to l>etter in no way the 
condition of an iiiJMvc<l employee seeking damages for accidental 
injuries. 

The constitutionality of laws relating to railroa*ls only has been 
repeatedly decided in their favor in the face of contentions that they 
are discriminatory, not affording railroads equal protection with other 

•VluOlcutor CotxBoh Gold Mtn. Co. r. Flrstbrook (IdrjC), 30 Colo.. 409, 86 



>ii»-;- u»iji>latioii does not infriii^ upon tho clause of tho fourteenth 

i:i.en«l!rient rei^uiring i>qnal protection of Ihc laws. l>ecaust* it is 

-^P»h;i.i[ in its chanicier. When leprislation applies to pai-ticnlar Ixnlies 

^ jr assixnations. imposing upon tlieni additional liabililies. it is not 

^ •pt^T? to the objection that it denies to theui the equal protection of 

^ /le lawv:, if all persons brought under its influence are treated alike 

^ ji'kT the sanie i-onditions. The hazardous character of the business 

^ o|^H?raiinL*r a railway would seem to call for special legislation with 

^p-peet to railn^ad oorjx>rat ions, havinir for its object the protection 

^ their etuplovivs as well as (he safety of the public. The business 

^ other i\ir[H>n«ions is not subject to similar dangers to their em- 

^^ivivs* and no objwtions. therefore, can l)e made to the legislation 

' the grouml of its making an unjust discrin»ination. It meets a 

'^ ^-ttculav nevvs>ity. and all railrond corjiorations are. without dis- 

■"^ ,*.iiou, made subject to the same liabilities." 

^WS ATFECTING THE LIABILITY OF OPEKATORS OF MINES. 

^i^-?ides the States whose laws eud)race the working of mines in 
^-ciiwius of wider inclusion, two. Maryland and Missouri, have 
■^**\trte# that n»Knlo only to mining. 

^\be l*w of Maryland applies only in case of death. It abrogates 
^Wfr»=* ^*^ av^n^viiv, and pn>vides for a proi>orti(matc compensa- 
^ «heiv the negligence of the decedent cooixn^ated with that of 
*^ ^»i«t\vr or his agiMits or employe«»s. 

**t^ Mi^«uri law diviaivs a liability for all danuiges Fustained by 
j^ w avwuut of ihe negligiMice of any other agiMit or employee, 
i.— itatf nfftvt the ilcfcnsi' t»f contributory negligence. Vice- 



EMPLOTEHS' UABIUXY IN THE UNITED STATES. 107^ 

STATES WHOSE ULWS AB&OOATE THE DEFENSE OF COHMON 

EMPLOYMENT. 

Some grouping of the States is possible on the basis of the scope 
and effect of their laws. In the first group may be placed those 
whose laws abrogate the defense of fellow -service, either as relates 
to all employees in the industries included within their purview, most 
frequently railroad service only; or to designated classes of employees, 
as those engaged in the use and operation of railroads. 

ARKANSAS. 

Arkansas falls in this class by virtue of the act of 1907, which ap- 
plies to coal mining as well as to the operation of railroads, and 
entirely abrogates the defense of fellow-service. The law repeals 
conflicting acts, without specifying any. It seems probable that this 
expression would work the repeal of sections 6658-6660, which em- 
body the superior servant and departmental doctrines, thus restrict- 
ing but not abrogating the application of the rule of coservice. These 
sections are retained in this compilation, however, until a judicial 
decision determines the point. 

FLORmA. 

The doctrine of comparative negligence, set forth in section 3149, 
is held('') not to apply to employees, who, by the next section, must 
be " without fault or negligence."' If, however, the injury resulted 
from the performance of an act in which the injured employee had 
no part, the presumption is that he is free from fault, and that he 
may recover the same as if he were notan employee. (") 

GEORGIA. 

The legislature of Georgia was one of the first if not the firet in 
the Union to enact a law of the class under consideration. Section 
2297 of the Code of 1895 was enacted in 1855, and is applicable to 
cases of injury not connected with the running of trains as well as to 
those which are.(*) Section 2321 is a statement of common-law 
"principles ;(*■) but taken with sections 2297 and 2323, an employee 
who is injuretl by the negligence of coemployees may, if himself with- 
out fault, recover damages, since the risks he assumes are not those 
occasioned by the incomi>etence or negligence of other employees. ('') 
In order to clear itself, however, the company need only show that its 

« Florida C. & P. R. Co. r. Mooney (1898), 40 Fla. 17. 24 So. 148; Duval v. 
Hunt (1894), U Fla. 85, 15 So. 876. 

ft Thompson v. Central H. & Bkg. Ca (1875), 54 Ga. 509. 

« Campbell r. Atlanta & B. Air Line R. Co. (1873), 53 Oa. 488. 

'Soatbern B. Co. v. Johnson (1901), 114 Ga. 829, 40 S. B. 235. 



108 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP L.\BOB. 



t'liiployecs used ordinary and ronsonuMc cure, and it is not rcquiivtl to 
neooMnt for the accident.('*) The provisions of the law are held to 
apply to oriployec»s on street railway^.C') 

The doctrine of comparative negligence expressed in section 2322 
is construed as indicated for Florida, nbove, that State having fol- 
lowed Georgia in the enactment of its law. By section 3830, how- 
ever, the iegisIatuiH? of Cieorgia has established a rule that iwrmits 
recover}', even where the injured j>erson has contributed by his negli- 
gence to llie occasion of the aceitleiit that caused the injury. This 
section has l>een construed as applying to employees, (**) 

As ab*eady stated, the general liability hiw is n statement of the 
principles of the common law and is, in etfect. but a declaration that, 
except as to railroad employees, the rules of that law control. 



IOWA. 



The Towa statute has been hehl to cover the operations of a ccm- 
st ruction company running gravel trains while building a rail- 
road. (') though the eni|)loy^es of inde[>endent contractors can not 
recover from a railroad company for injuries caus«'d by the negli- 
gent acts of its employees. (") Without extending refeivn(*es» tlie 
following sentences fi'om a nv^ent ca9e(0 "i«.V '»<-* quoted as showing 
the construction adopted by the supreme court of the State: 

" It has been construed us embracing within its protection all that 
class of employes whose emjdoyment * exposes them to the peculiar 
dangers and perils attend:uit upon the use nnd nperation of rail- 
roads.' Am<»ng others foinid to be entitled to recover have Ix'en the 
section hand, the section foreman, the shop hand, the clinker man, 
(he detective, the gravel sh(»veler, and the snow shovi'ler. none of 
whom had an}' connection with the train servicre ijro|>er. The kind of 
lal)or in which the employee is engaged is not the test of \\\s right of 
r**covery so mnch as the fact whether, in ihe |»erf<»nnanre of that 
lalx>r, he is, for the time being, exposed to the pecidinr hazards 
which arisi> from or are connected with the use and ojwration of Iho 
road." Exposure to the risk of the nperation of trains witliotit neces- 
sarily Ix'ing employed in the actual nu»vi>in<iit brings the emjdnyp** 
witldn th<» protection of the law.(^) 

•Georiria K. ft Bku. Co. v, Hlcka (1S(K>). SKi Ca. im, 2Z 8. K 013. 
*Sjivnniiali. T. & I. of H. U. r. Wim»im» {Um), 117 (Ju. 4\i, 4:\ S. R 751, 
"Allantii Cotton Knctory Co. r, 8i>e4*r (188.3), Oft fJo. 137: HIII r. Cannlian 

^.MrKtilclit t\ \nwn A M. It, Coant. Co. ilH7(l). 4.'1 Inwn -im. 
• Ney v. InilMKiiif & S. C. n. Co. (ISTHI). Ltt Iowa 347. 
/ Jrawu e. Otiintiu Sl St. U II. Co. ( 1rt>-ii. llTi lown 40J. 8S N\ W. UI52, 
'/>»€' r. cnU'Uffi*. K. & Q. n. Co. <18H0>. 5^ lowu 223. X. W. 281; 8uillli r, 
Itumi^OD & S. H, Co. a>m), 7S Iowa r»iS3. 4n N. NV. T>^T>. 



d 



EPLOyKRS UABTUTV IN THE UNITED STATES. 



109 



PVne Uiniting words. *' such wrongs/' are held to ix'fer to the " nvp- 
Jert " »nd '* tiiistiiauageuient *^ luentioned, «s well as to the " willfu) 
[^ronpi ** nnniod siibsoquentlv.i") Nor iU»os tlio fact that the iiegli- 
Igeiit employee is subject to tin* ronlrol of the ijlaitititl bar the Jatter*s 
right lo recoVtn'.(*) 

I KANSAS. 

I Tlie J^tatute of Kansas, v!owii to the Hrvt provi>o. is a practical v0\vy- 
mi the earhrsfc law of Iowh. which was stmiewhtit hi-ondcr in tenn«- 
fthan the Iowa law now in forw. The added matter relates only to 
'proetMltire and does not afftn't the liubility of llie employer otherwise, 
[The same general line of construction as adopted by the courts of that 
fStale is followed, though the liencfits of ilie statute exteml furlher 
tlhaii do those of the Iowa law, which the Kansas .supreme court de- 
frlarwl to apply only uhere (he plaintiff or the negligent employee, or 
both of them, are engaged in the use and ojKM'ation of a railroad at the 
kime of the acrident cunning the injui'y. i*^) This restriction was held 
[not to exist under the construction of the law of Kansas, and, in the 
case in hand, a section hand on whom a fellow-workman let a rail fall 
Was allowed* to ircover damages. (*') 

The Htatnte applies to *^ every railroatl company" in the State, 
*wbich term is ci>nstrued as including only <Nirpornti<tns (which is the 
word used iii the Iowa statute), and partnerships or individuals en- 
gaged in railroading are held not to fall within its scope. ('') The 
[query at once arises, in view of the ruling of the Indiana and Missis- 
l»ppi i^ourts that a law applying to corporations but n(»t to firms and 
li(i<iiri«lunls engag»Ml in the same lines of busine^ is unconstitutional, 
[how such a position Is tenable. 

I Xo decision is at haml cijustruing the jn'ovisions as to notice, added 
[hy amendments of liM>;}, 1905, and IV»07, hut according to the general 
I rule previously set forth, they would demnnd strict observance as to 
I time in order to bring a plaintitf within their terms, while a material 
[ rather than formal c*.impliance as to contents of the notice wouhl be 
I rwiuired.C) 
I MiNXKJ*irrA. 

I Tho law of this State, like that of Kansas, is held to apply, not to 
I all ' ' . .'S of railroad co!npanit»s. nor alone to those engaged in 
I lliv lit of train-;, but to all who are exposed to and subject to 

I lajtirieB by the dangers peculiar to the use and o[}eration of rail- 

I •SfalOM r. Barimgton, C. R. & X. R. Co. (1884), OS lowii 417. 21 N. W. "W. 
" »!! ^^^ r. Cblongc.. K. I. ft P. R. Co. (1S82). m lovrn 230, 14 X. W. 778. 

•n P. R. Co, r. llnrrifi riSSTO. Xi Knn. 41G. fl Puc. 571. 
^tf^lVf 'Ubark (ISOO). 41 Kau. dm, 25 Pnc. 48. 







110 BVLUCTIN OF THB BUIIKAC OF LABOB, ^H 

roatls.('*) Emplo3"«s«rs of receivers aiv within Ms |»ratection,(^) 
as are thoBu of u privuto corporation ofM^ratiiig u logging rail- 
iv>ad.(' ) or a narrow -giuigo road hsimI in stripping rarth in mining 
ojjeralions.^'') Work ilone in llu« ronstruction of a yard for une iu 
connection witli a line in uso \>y tlic public i« not wi()»in the proviso 
that r\n»pts new ivmds from the oiH»ru(ioii of the law.C) Strwt 
railways are not within its pnr\ it'w,{^ ) th<Mi<rh the* itpcnition of hand 
cars on ^teani ronds l8.(') J 

M18.SOt iti. 1 

While sections 287.> and 287<i aiv dovoteil to ilofinitionH of vice- 
prhicipals and fellow-servants, in mnch the sjune language as is ustnl 
in statutes of tlie next ehiss eonsidered, .si^rtion 'JHTA elearly reniovea* 
the defense of fellow-service in actions for injuries without ix'ference 
to the relative grndes of the pliiintif!' and the neglip'nt eniployiv, if 
the injury is ivceived winle the plainlilf is engaged in the work 
of operating a railroad. This provision includes all work that is 
dirwtly n<vesT<ary for running intins over a track, eird>racing that of 
section hnnds.l*) In the ciise cited a mendxT of ii section gang was 
injured hy the negligence of other members of the gang in throwing 
timl)ers upon him wliilc he was acting as watchman at a bridge over 
a street. The constitutionality <»f the law and its a]>pru*ution to em- 
^lovei^ of a receiver of a niilitiad company were upheld in n recent 

The term " railroad corjMJratinn'' used in this statute is taken to 
mean nil companies, and individuals as welL owning or o[i<M*ating 
railroads,(^) The net does not include street railway's within its 
sco|>e.(*^) The art 4»f U»OT relating to mining has Imimij in the ab><Mice 
of decisions, sufficiently noticed.(') 



MOXTANA. 



Chapter 1 of the acts of 1005 of this State presents a brief but 
compivhensive enactment abrogating the doctrine of fcllow-aervico 

Ia IVarwm r. Clikim'o, >I. & SI. I*. It. Co. (ISHli, 17 Minn. 0. -10 N. W. 302. 
^MlkkoItMMi r. Tniowliilr fiwri). (W Minn. V\7, (V) \. W. IHTHi. 
" S<tm« r, roweri*-Slinp»'n <'o. (IfMC). SR Minn. AM, HO N. W. ftft. 
<'Mlmir«ot« Iron f". r, KIlue (HtO.n*. HCi V, H. 5m, 2« 8ut». l«t>- 
'• Moran w tUuil«?ni U, t'l*. itstn:), -18 Mlim. -10, M* .V. W. 1*30. 
t Funk r. St. riiul <'lty K. Co. (l«ir>>. til Mluu, 435. (R ,\. W. 1000. 
*» SlofTonson r, Chlcagi.. >l. & St. P. U. Co. (JW1)» -ir. Miuu. 3Ks 47 S. W. 
HXW. 
»CBllaUna r. Hallway Co. (iOOU). 17*1 Mo. 47». 71 S. W. 308, 
< r»\vt*n r. ShcnviH»<l ( lUOl). UK! Mi*. fll»ri. (Kl H. \V. -ISS. 
' tb.: citlni! ML-etloD 2(Ria. IL 8. 
AH;iiuh I. St. t.oulii & M. tt. C4J. (11X13), ITl Ma. ^% TA H. W. USA. 



EJdPtOTKBS UABIUXT 127 X£LE Uf7IX£D STATES. 



Ill 



cases of injuries neglipently iiiflieletl in connection willi Iho use 
and operation of niilruuds. No cnse la at hand under this act, but 
its constioiction wonhl doubtleta be similar to that of the Iowa statute, 
the langua^re of which it resemble.^. 

Sections 200)0 to yfitW make no addition to the provisions of the 
conimon law. 

The act of 1907 is a ri'sfricted law, np|iiicabk* oid3' to emploveos 
who, at tlie time of injui'y, are enpa*^ed in construction or repair 
■work, or in the uise and o|>erntion of utt en*rine, car, or triun. 
Within these lluuts the defense of coser\*ice i.< abolished. The pro- 
vision as to defects is practically a slatenienl of the conunon-Iaw 
Habilitj, closely resembling the coiTesponding provisional in the 
English act and those folUiwing it» to the tliscussion of which refer- 
ence may be uiade.('») The provision as to comparative negligence 
look.s toward the alleviation of the hardships of those cases in which 
heretofore any contributing negligence has been a bar to recovery. 

NEVADA. 

The law of 1007 is much broader in its scope than that of Nebraska, 
not4?d above, in the inclusion of other industries than railroading, as 
well as of bU employees in the included employrn4'r»ts without ivstric- 
iioo. In otlier res]>ect8 the two laws are similar. 



NOBTII CAROLINA. 

The law of this State is embodied in the Code of 1905, since, 
though printed as a private law. it is, by its contents and efTecl. a 
public statute, and is constitutional. (*) It abolishes entirely the 
defense of cosenice, so that questions of control or rank are imma- 
terial.C^) Wliere an injury' is the rcsidt of ii tlefectivc engine or 
appliance, the defense of assun»ed risks is taken away from IJie em- 
pIoyer,(*) In a case involving th«» application of the law to a private 
road owne<1 and u^<l by a lnnil>er company, the act \\i\> hchl to 
npply,(') the court rmiarking that it woultl ajjply to a street railway 
as well. 

NOKTH DAKOTA. 

The law of lf>07 abrogates the defenso of fellow-service in actions 
for injuries to employees of common carrier^ and requires actions 

*> See [wigra WMW. aliove. 

*» Hftin.iK-k V. Norfolk k \V. ft. Co. (I»05*), 124 N. C 222. ffJ 8. E. C7E». 
* Klizuuj- r. North <^ntUun U. 0». (Jsas). VJ2 S. il IWl. au S. K m::. 
'CViiry r. N.irrU CVirnllim U. Co. (lliOI l. 12S N. C. 5;M. :J0 S. K. I.T. 
•IlemiiUUl f. Duck Creek l.mubei- Co. (llHWj, Ul N. C, 4i>7, ft I H. K. 4LU 



112 



BULLETIN OF TUB BUB£AU OF LABOK, 



thereunder to bo bnnight within one year from the time the cause of 
action ucitmhI. In other respects it resembles the Xebruskn statute 



OKl^AllOUA. 



The conMitution of this State abrogates completely the defense of 

fellow-service wliere injuries <KVur to any einployeo of steam or elec- 

Ark i:a.ib'*)ad companies, of inine.o])ei'alors. or of the recoivers of such 

;!Wiipl«''i'vrs, It also giv«!^l<itlie jury.wU'fituistions ^h to assumed risks 

•and contributory neglijcrence. 



souTii ii,\i\i>rA. 

Chapter 'ill). Acts of Il>07, is identical in its nuiin provisions with 
the act of Norlli iJaUota of the same year. 

TEXAS. 

The law in its pi*esent form is a moditication of an earlier statute, 
the changes Ijcing for tl»e purpos»» of nuH^ting judicial NUgge&lions or 
iidings that the old law did not apply to receiverships ni>r to tho 
operalion of stre<»t railway^^. Tho present law' names both as within 
its purview. The act resembles tho law of Missouri in that while its 
first section entirely removes ilie defeuM' of f«*ll*iw-servi4"e in action.*j 
by certain classes of employees, succeeding sections are devoted to 
definitions of vice-principals and fellow-servants iilong tlie lines of 
the superior service and departmental tloctrines. Untler this law co- 
service was not nUowed iis a tlrfeiise whrre a switclinuin was injured 
by the negligence of his forenuui,ihe making up of a train being a jairt 
of the openition <tf a railroad. (") TlieojM'ration of a haiul car is held 
to Ik? within the scope of thelaw.(*') In another case involving the u>*o 
of hand cars, however, the supreme »rourt held the company liabh; for 
injuries to a member of a section gang who was carrying tools to the 
lot»I house, while other mend>ers were taking tools in on u hand car 
an<l run against the plaintitT, causing ihe injuries <M)ui])laiuiHl of, not 
on the grouuil that the men were ojwrating a car, but on the ground 
that they were engaged on a different piece of work.C) On the same 
ground a bridge gang of live rucn, divided into (wo pnigs for tho pur- 
iH)sc of moving bales <»f cotton to allow ihe repair of the company's 
cotton jdatform at a station, were held not to l>e employed on tlio 
sauH' pievT of work, where each gang moved it.s own bale indei>endent 
of the other.('') It will Ix* observed that sections *2 and '6 relate to 
employees generally in the service of a railroad company, and aiv not 
restricted in their application, as is the first section. 

« MIftwiurl. K. & T. K, l%i, r. linker <n»00). r»S ». W. WVI. 

Torca r. Sini Ant(»nlo k A. 1'. U. To. tUKrj), »;7 S. \\\ 137: Texnn h V, R.^ 

Co. r. suiitii niHCK lu r*Hh 7*js II'. r. A.) 

'■/au/jc i\ fhU-iiK*\ H, t. & T. It. Co. ( UMXM, M TeiL. M, »M 8. W. MKi, 
^litlvrauUoDuI S O, .\. it Co, v. Still aiH>5), SJi H. Vf. 'iKl, 



EHPLOTEBS' LIABILITY IN THE UKITED STATES. 



113 



The contention that a section foreman is a vice-priucipul under 
ion 2 and that no recovery could be had on account of injuries re- 
ceive<1 by him becnusre of the neplifienro of the men under his rf»n(rol 
was not allowed as being again.st the provisions of section 1 that lia- 
bility attaches for injuries received in connection with (he operation of 
cat's, tlio injury in the case in liand being caused by the uefjlifrent 
operation of a hand rjir,(*) The private road of a hunber c<>inpany 
is within the^*ope of tlte Iaw.(*)j A laborer unloading tele^jhonti 
poles fi-oni a rnr niovin<![ on the track so as to distribute tlie poles at 
proper intervals was hcUl to l)e employed in operating the cai-s.(') 
A railroad company irf liable for the negligent acts of the foreman 
of a g^n^ of men working in a yard, where the men under him fol- 
lowed his instructions wltich he assiste<l in carrying out, though lus 
negligence consisted in the improper performance of an act of man- 
ual labor, he l»eing despite this fact a vice-principal. («*) The same 
ruling as to liability was made where a forcnuui of a section gang 
had failed of his duty to keep the track clear, leaving an obstacle 
which was hurled by a passing train Hguinst a member of his gang.(') 

Accepting the ca.scs given as illustrative of the scope of actions 2 
and 3, it is evident that, taking them with section 1 of the act, the 
defense of common service is restricted to very narrow limits. The 
statute expressly dcidares that it does not modify the defense of con- 
tributor^' negligence. There in a later law (chapter ItKJ, acts of 1005) 
which relates to the third principal defense in actions for injuries — 
tluit uf assumed risks. As this applies only to suits by employees of 
the same classes as are embraced in the act of 1897, it will be noticed 
here. 

A case(') arose under this act in which it was held that continuing 
in service while an instrumentality was retained that was being 
sin ! by tlie employer bj' a safer device was a case within the 

ftuiii . .: .;;e act, and that the employee did not assume the risk. The 
question as to the constitutionaliiy of the act was answered in the 
itive. 

WISCONSIN, 

The Wisconsin statute, in its amended form, presents essentially 
the same conditions as are found in the laws of North and South 
Dakota, and is one of the gmup of five States which last year em- 
bo<lied a provision as to comparative negligence in laws ivlating to 
employers" liability. The additions found in the Wisconsin statute 

•Trxiin & I'. R. Oo. c SmUli, supra. 
L^t^vK'k Lumber Co. r. Tnylor ilJVXi), S7 S. W, 35S. 
:3loaii«:r r. r>Mlw!tk I.uuilK-r Co. UIHKJ). ai 8. W, 240. 
mrl, K. & T. n, Co. r. Demi tnK>r>>, Sl> 8. W. TO". 
l«i & r. IL To. r, CarMn (lOtGl. 180 V. 8. 3:^. 'St Snp. Ct 5S5. 

frs ruMo A #: n: n* c\k r Fott (ivo7), ico 8. w. I7i. 



E BULUCTIK OF THE BUBKAU OF l>AJJOn, 

i*eJuU' cUietly to pleading ami an explicit .statement of tlie cUsfies 
of employoos ulfwlcd. Employees in shops ami offices are excluded 
from (ho opemtLon of the law. and tlir* lirnlttition of one yeiir fmiiirl 
iu the Dakota statutes is omittcil. Section iHiG. prior to uaiendntent, 
WHS hi^ld not to apply to logging rHttrouds(''). iind the sunie ccui- 
stnietion would probably be put on the present law. 

"'OTAtES WHOSE LAWS MOl)TFTr THE DEFENSE' OF COMMON 
♦•• • EMPLOYMENT. 

Another group of States is made up of those whose laws, without 
aibro^ting the dcfensr of coservice generally* modify It by incor- 
porating into their sdituten provision^ as to the re.sponhibllity of th<» 
employer for the acts of superior servants or of those in different 
departments from the injured employee; or, in other words, statedly 
adopting the ""superior serv«nt " and '"• depurt-meutal " <hx'triues 
which were set forth as being followed in certain jurisdictions under 
the conunoii liiw. 

i*.\i.nY)nNiA. 

The amended form of section 1!»70 of the civil code c»f California 
n'mi>\vs this State from tlic chiss of th<H<^ whose stntntes wciv ii more 
y*tatement of the common hiw to the group under present consider- 
ation. TlieiH? in, of course, no lino of State derisions avaihibk' for a 
fleternunation of the classes of su|>eriors or of departmental bound- 
aries, OS the nmendment was enacted only last year, Tlie construc- 
tion of similar statutes in other States, ht»wever, and the lines indi- 
cated by the common-law decisions will In* found sugg»*stive. Tlw 
])iY)viHions of the section extend by its terms to industries gi»nerally. 
The dnuses tm the subjects of ordinary risks and knowledgi* are but 
a statement of common-law principles. 

uituuHairn. 

The pnivisions of .s^'ction 405C of the Co<le of IliOft and of section 
lDi4 of the State constitution are the same, except that the last sen- 
teiKV of the conhlitutitfual piovlsion is not rei>roduced in the statute. 
In tronnection with Ihi:- sentcn^v it may lie n<»ted that the h'gisluhire 
anderlook to enact a law (chapter 87, iVcts of 1890; chapter G6, Acta 
of 18l)H) in nt'cordnnce therewitli, evtending the Hpplientiou of the 
law to corporatit)nfl generally. This was decljired a violation of tlw 
fourteenth amendment of the Constitution of the United Htaies oil 
the gioiind that there was no proper classification of industri* ' • 

biisis of their dangers or other\siM*. and that it di^H^rimiiiated 



•MeKHVTffUi f. Alexamlw ft K. MimluT LV>. ilUOu), VSh Wis. wi, iVJ. N, W. 



UAMUTT I3C THB V 



115 



Iplo^Qg mrii^dr»i io<t-^ 4n<1 UHliru1tmT> C t l gag r d 



HI Sinn 



Ur li 



In 



uwk 



r I 



liut br the wordss 



- of tU^ oonstitutum < ' ^ it wa> s^auI 
.j: ait or oficrr,'^ vvfv iDf«nt pcr:«ci:> '^of 



other 



the 



tpanjV 



^>rl well known as such, and luij ocoer person in me oxn] 
servir*?, br whatever nunv. t^Uo may U- i!Unt>teHl viixh the rigrfil lo 
roottul and direct tl*^ -*ta*i>-- nf ..tKcr^ according lo his dk4:rQLioii 
and judgment — onr «1 the direction or mntnii of 

qJhffH^ for the accv»ui^U>iaiiA.i.i ui' r<>;^.o vml depvndeikt on ]u< indr 
pendcfit orders, bom of tbe occa^ioiK ^pning from him as dirrdor, and 
Doi coosiMing of tbe merr rxecution of routine duties in [nirsaance of 
fixed rules bj various employees, each charged with certain parts in 
the goxMial pcrfannance.** In this ca^e it wa^ held that a locomotive 
CBpineer was not the superior officer of a brakeman on the (niin, Xor 
was the foreman of a switch crew held to be the superior oAkvr of 
the men mider him within the meaning of the law wiK-rv the work i.< 
the mere discbarge of rciatine duties.(*) In thi& case« the court said 
that under other cii- ■ *:ts the foreman lui^bt Ik* the coiupany*9 

agent, so that Ibe ^\ -<^em5- to need adjiiiiication for each par- 

ticular case — a marked defect in this doctrine^ as ha^ already a]>- 
peared* Departmental Iwiinds an* little if any ca&iex of delenulna- 
tioo. Thus a locomotive firetnau i> clearly in a ditferi'Ut dep:irtnteia 
hotn a telegraph operator;(') bat an action bv a section Ixaud, in- 
juTfd on aL"coiinl of the uejrligence of a draw lender nt a !>ridg»» failed 
on the groumi that the latter wu^ not the plaiutilTV su|>erior. the 
ion of difference of departments being apparently overlooke<L(') 
»e • ' iTistniction oiHupany using cars in it.^ work is 

wii * u of the law.iO 



qne^i* 



OHIO. 



Section Z'M'^*-^0 is hanlly classifiable as an employers* liability 
law in the ?ense in which such laws liiive lieen discussed here, since 
it relates chiefly lo contracts limiting that liability as it exists at 
eocnmon law. The next section goes somewhat further, tliotigh it 
operates by changing the rule^ of evidence rather than by enlarg- 
ing the dtity of the employer.(') It does not affect the defenses »»f 

cfiT '-• * "*-:Tence or as^^umcrd risks.(») The presumption of 

^ chargeable to the eonij>any by this K^etion can 



iBallartl r. MlJH'wlppI Cotton Oil Co, (1003), 81 Mtse. 507. 34 So. 533. 
. X. o. & T. II. Co. (is!»;n. TM Miss. ri27, vj so. .\si. 
^ c. K. Ci». tiiK>o>, u»o Fi-ii. ::-tT. -n) k\ c. a. .'mjo. 

flMlnnlx C. U, Co. r. Uuiiter <ls«a). 7l» MSsk. til. V2 So. 4Si. 
in,...iu !■ I? Co, r, Hl»h<iiK (ISlWi), 7G MIh**. 7r»8» i'» 8o. SU7. 

* h,-^- r. f o.i;iubtJs, S. d li. n. tV). / JSl»S», 5S Ublu St. l«T. o^» N. V.. Vii^X 



■mL, 




lib BUI^LETIN OF T>ir. BrREAU OF LABOR. ^^M 

be overcome only by actual proof und not by proof of facts tliat 
merely raise an opposite presumption. (") 'ITms it was held that iho 
en»])Ioyiiient of a competent insi>ector was not evidence oi the dis- 
charge of tli«^ duty of inspection pufficiont to rebut Mie pre-^umptitiu of 
negligence arising from the fact of an injury occasioned by a de- 
fect. («•) 
cmI Tlielibbence of a custoinftry appliiJ>ed comes j\nder the statute tlio 
ysmn^tBa would a defective- ttppUa«ce.('') | 

Section 3:^05-2:2 embodies the i^uperior servant doctrine, which 
prevailed in Ohio under the construction put upon the common 
law by the courts of that State,(*') and also presents, in a modi- 
fiinl and rather iieculiur form, the de])artmenta] doctrine. Tho 
constitutionality of this section and it- application to employirs 
of receivers were maintained in a case that was before the United 
States circuit court of appeals. (') The law makes sui)enor servants 
in any departuu*ut tlu» superior of an employee in a different de- 
partment who has no power to direct or control in his own depart- 
ment. Thus a chief insj)ector of cars, liavlng othei-s muler him. is 
the su|>erior of a hrakeman on a train ;(') l>ut a soh" inspector, with- 
out subordinates, is the fidlow-servant of a hrakeman. (") An 
engineer on a locomotive, hnving control of liis fireman, is not tlto 
fellow-servant of a brakeiuun on another train, who has control of 
no one.(') A train dispatcher is the superior of a locomotivo 
engineer, but a telegraph operator, whose duty it is merely to trans- 
mit messages^ is th<' follow -servnnt of such engineer.(*) 

The difficulty of construing and applying a law making provision 
for the superior servant doctrine and the uncertaijities involved in the 
application of the principles of negligence and contributory negli- 
gence have l)een adverted to heretofore. They find a striking illus- 
tration in a l<»ng-contested case which arose under the provisions 
of this section, aiul which involves ImUIi the.se poinls.(^) This was a 
case in which a locomotive fireman was killed by the negligence, as 
alleged, of the engineer on anotlicr train. The case was heard in the 
United States circuit court, and a judgment in favor of tlu' iihiiiiiiir 
was rendered. The niilrond company appealed to the court of ap- 
pejils, which reversed the jmigment on the ground that, <in the far© 
of the record, Kane had i>een guilty of contributory negligence, A 



•Columbus. H. V, ft T. R. Co. v, Rrick <18»4). M Ohio St. H(J» 37 N. E. 128. 
*Felton r. RiUlnrd (IWH)), 01 Ked. 7S1. 

<"<;riimley t\ Clncliuiat!. H. & IX R. Co, (INiMU, 1'2 Ohio C. r\ 104. 
*Soe iMij^cH Ufj aiul 37. iiliovf. 

'I'iurop 1-. Vnu lUiwu (LSI)"). 78 Fiul. tK'M. Jl c c \. 'jsi\ 
' CoImnl>U8, etc.. U. Co. r. arlck, jtupni. 
Pl'VUou f. nullunl. fliiprn. 

*CJm'immn, H. Jl 1>. It. Co. e. MarKrat (1H04). f.l Obi<» St ^3(^ ^ X EL 11. 
^ ttfiittmon' A O. /;. Co. v. Cnnip OsSCo. r».% K.mV \K\i, \a C. C. K. ^iSS^ 
>A-tf«t' /'. Kriv It. Co. (1000), rV2 Twl. 0!^U. VC. e. X,^ 



EMPLOVEBS LUBlLrrV IN THE UNITEU STAGES. 



117 



md triwl in the circuit court wa> Uiul, when the section under con- 
Milemtion was tlei'lare<! to ite uncxmstitutionnl us contravening the 
prt>visionb; of isection !2 of nrticle 1 of the constitution of the State, 
'ivbich declares that gcverninent is institutetl for the equal protection 
and l>eno!it of the people The court held that the provisions of the 
s^ection benefited only s^uch employees in each depurtiuent at- had no 
<u!>oniiiuies, find timt by pliK-ing,^ enoh train a boy who should bo 
tinder the charge and control of every other employee, the OMnpftny 
<t)iilil avoid liability for injtmes to nil other employees. 

From this ruling Kane's administratrix appealed, bringing the case 
a s^Hroml time to tijc court of apix?ah, which denied the premises of 
the circuit court, held the law constittitional, and remanded the case. 
On the third trial in the circuit court the right of recovery was denied 
ou two grounds, one that though the negligent engineer was in charge 
of hhi fireman, he was himself subordinate to the conductor of his 
tmin^ nnd was not therefoi-e n superior servant within the meaning of 
th<? statute; the second ground was that Kane had lx^en guilty of con- 
tributory negligence. 

Coming to its third hearing in the court of appeals the case was 
reversed on lx)th points. Superior servants were held to be not only 
thorse who had entire control of a branch or department, but the term 
include:^ those who may l>e in control of but a single employee. Three 
factors vere held to be involvetl in a case like the pi*esent — a separate 
branch or department, a sjiperior thennn* and a subordinate in an- 
other branch or department. Separateness of de2)artnieuts is essen- 
tial in thb case, as an engineer, though the su|)erior of his fireman, is 
dlow-serjrant of a brakeman in the same train, though the brake- 
is the sui>erior of no one.('') 
Kane had been found guilty of contributory negligence in the fiist 
trial by the court of appeals iH-cause of his violation of a rule that 
was put in evidence by the company. Kvidence was submitted at tho 
tliird trial befoi-e the circuit court that the rule in question had been 
in fact abrogated, and it was on the weight of this evidence that tim 
court of appeals reversed the court Ixdow on this point. The case 
ins again remanded to the circuit court for proceedings not incon- 
sL*»tent with the opinion given by the court of appeals, but the results 
of such ])ro<'<vdings, if any. are n(»t at hand. 

(.IREGOX. 

The act of this State embodies the doctrines of superior service, of 
difereut departuienls, and of liability for the acts of designated 
claiiKes of employees. The defenses of assumed risks and contribu- 



•Rallway Co. r, Sbanower (1S»04K 7t> Ohl« St. HJtt. 71 X. E. 270. (An eii- 
Ipwr tM fWt' tmiti ami tin* brakeman on nnotiier are not feWow-WTM^wX.*, ^« 
JMTgrat etise, above,) 



118 



UULIiETlK OF THE BUREAU OF lABOK, 



torv iK>g]igeiicG are affected by the claii.se as to kuowledge of defects 
not being of itself a bar (<> actions f(»r itijurios, 

SorrJI CAROLINA. 

Tlic I'oDstiliilituini provision as to liability presents pnictio^iUy tlio 
sanu' fcatnivs as are found In the law of Oregon. Engincerb and 
<H>ndiU'tor* Voluntarily oixtnLting i*jirs or cnginen known to lie unsafe 
are, l>y the statutes, oulbidu of the protecti<ni of the clause as to 
Itnowledge. While an eiigineiu* on a loiMiniotivt" is a' vice-principal 
of hifl fireman, he is a fellow-servant of n brakeraan on the same 
train. (") Section 'JS48 of the Civil Code gives to eniployet»s of street 
railway companies tlie same rights as are secured by the constitution 
of the Slate to railroad employees, ^ 

UTAH. 

nds Slate has onaeled a law applying to every class of employ- 
ment, end>odying the superior servarU and drpartiuental doctrinoii. 
The act is constitutional.C') Whether miners in different tunnels 
are or are not felIow-s**rvants is a question of fact for the jury.(*) 
The statute charges the emj»loyer with lialiility for the negligent 
acts of vice-principals whether such acts were acts of sin>orintendence 
or otherwise, and, if performed in the discharge of their duties us 
euijdoyeos, ^vhether connnitted while in the exercise of their authority 
or not.('') 

\IU<;INIA. 

Tiie section of the conslilution relating to the liability of emplovei's 
and the hiw on the same sul>ject present features quite similar to 
(he law of Oregon. It relates only to railroad employments^ and 
enacts the sui>erior servant and departmental d<K*trines, and fixes 
liability for the negligent acts of certain classes of employees. The 
rule of law that knowledge of defects woidd charge the employee 
with the tihsumptiou of risks Is abrogated. The defense of contribu- 
tory negligence is expressly retairicd, except in ;^> fur as modifi**d by 
the |)roviHions of the act. 

The clause as to knowledge not being a bar to at!t um was copied 
from the Mississippi coustitulion^l'') arui was held, in accordance 
with the construction placed thereon by the Mi&istssippi Courts(') 
not to destroy the defense of contributory negligenc<». Knovvlctlge of 
defects was held to be still a fuctor iti determining whether the em- 
ployee noted with a projier degree of caution uinler the circumstances, 
Hccklessnesfl and carclessncses are not licensed by this provih*ion.(') 

«I'/iffnn r, Hntithoni U, C*\ intOT). rrf» «, R Xt 

"UryUuTii t. Murcur UoM Mlii. & Mill (\>. (1«»S). is nn!i «a TjC Pac 8(57. 
♦"Soijtlioni I'nrlHr t'ti. r. Sclinrr IllMyj), Ul JVd ' A.). 

^Si»rfi»tk Jt W, U, Co, i\ ri«aatwot"r» Ailm'x. U' K. WU 



SMPU>T£B8 LIABIUTY IN THE XTSnTBD STATES. 



119 



I 



£1CPXX>Y£&S' LIABILITY TTNDEfi TH£ CIVIL LAW. 

The artirles of tlie Civil CVl** of Louisiana reprotluccJ in the above 
oompilaiion closely follow the Code Xapole<»n. A# thi> law is ap- 
plied in ihti jiirisilidions unaffected by the En«rHsh coinuion law, it 
presents some difforonccs tliercfroni, chiefly in favor of the einployee. 
In darigeroits einployim*nts the master iw ubiignted to take '* every pre- 
caation which can b^ taken ''t** preveufc neridents — ^ to protect hm 
employees by iJie l>est |>oj*^ibIe lueaus, aud even, to some extent, 
Bgnin-st their own imprudence/' The dofonso of fellow-service 'i>y not 
pied in such jurisdictions, and that of contributory negligence Ls 
ified so as l*» allow recovery in a proportionate aniuunt unless the 
injured eiuployees negligence was the sole cause of his injury. Risks 
arr held to l>e assumed as umler the common law. 

It can not be said, however, that those principles prevail in Louisi- 
ana^ as its jurisprudence Ls affected by the general law of the country 
and especially by the decisions of the Supreme Court of the United 
States. The situation may be illu^tj'ated by a cjise(") in which dam- 
ages were allowed for an injur}' to an employee. Tlie court cited these 
articles of the Civil Code, holding that under them the plaintiff was 
entitWd to rec»>very, ^ and likewise imder the coustructiou of the gen- 
<Tiil Iiiw applicable to master and servant." 

LAWS AFFECTING THE DEFENSES OF ASSUMPTION OF RISKS AND 
CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE. 

The notes' fnllowing the repriMlucetl laws of a nundwr of the States, 
and certain laws which, in other mses, stand as the only statutory 
modification of the roumion-law liability of the employer, arc gen- 
erally to the effeet Ihnt where enactments relating to specified indus- 
tries or employments are not complied with, a ilifferent degree of 
lUbalily attaches, or one or both the defentics above named are with- 
drawn. 

(irnenil laws affecting the defense of assumption of risks under 
designated ctmditions have In'en enacted by the legislatures of Iowa 
/Arts of lOOT. chapter 181), and of Ohio (Acts of li»OK act. page 547). 
In the absence of judicial decisions on these statutes, it will !)c suffi- 
cient to point out their similarity to the Texas statute which was held 
constitutional in llio Foth cas(;.('*) The numerous proWsions as to 
restrictive cfjntracts are ^-ufficiently discussed in the early paragraphs 
of this section, ('') 

Ti ' " ,jr tiiij^ iliscussion it miiy not Ik^ inappropriate lo revert 

toi matle in connection with the act of Colorado of 1001, 

ihit even the entire abrogation of the doctrine of fellow-service leaves 

•Jntueit r. Rnpldes Lumber Co. (1SI«), 23 So, 4©. 



120 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB. 

the employee to bear all the consequences of inevitable accident, or 
the •' trade risk,'- as it is frequently called ;(*') also that laws effecting 
a modification of the doctrine are of small avail as affording certainty 
of relief since so much is dependent on the details of circimistance sur- 
rounding each case. Of this the case of Kane f\ Erie R. Co., noted 
aboycj is an instance; while of the law of Tex»is, which abrogates en- 
tirely for certain classe^^o^J emj^loyecs ^ndfestriptti. closely for others 
.tl)is.yH?ne defense, it may,l^,saii4jthat,i.t its the JbasLs qf an amount of 
litigation that is probably not surpassed by any law of its kind. 

Statistics of 4(»,000 industrial accidents collated by the German im- 
])erial insurance office for 18!)7 show that 29.80 })er <*ent of the acci- 
dents were due to fault or negligence of the injured employee, Kl.Sl 
per cent to that of the employer, 4.G6 per cent to the joint negligence of 
theemployerand theinjured employee, r).!>8 per cent to that of awm- 
ployees and outside parties, 1.31 per cent to the "Act of God," etc., 
and 42.05 per cent to inevitable accidents connected with the employ- 
ment. The impossibility of securing to the workman the neede<l pro- 
tection by a mei'o grant of right of action for injuries for which the 
employer can rightly be charged is evident from a consideration of 
these statistics, as well as from the discussion of the principles of law 
set forth al)Ove. The employer, who is the agent of the public in the 
matter of production and transportation, should l)e charged with the 
duty of so administering industrial undertakings that the burden of 
the trade risk shall fall on the industry at large, and not be concen- 
trated on tlie weakest i)<>int — on tlie individual workman, disabled for 
service through the mere fact of his employment at the time and i)la(^o 
of the occurrence of an inevitable accident, or on the widow and chil- 
dren of such worknnui, if the accident results fatally. 

**Aii limtnictlon to a jnry Is corr*M*t whi<ii states that If a iilaintlff's Iti- 
JurlcH w<»ro the dinnt rosults of an accldont hu'ltlent to tho hiishioss hi whlfh 
lie was (>iipi^(Kl. he can not riMjover. MoblU* & <>. It. t'o. r. (Jeoi'fjo (IbiH), !)4 
Ala. 309, 10 So. 145. 



SUMMARY OF FOREIGN WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION ACTS. 



By the term '" workmen's eomiiensalion laws" nre meant enact- 
ments whii'Ii HmlK)dy the principle that the workman is eatitUnl to 
coiiipen-iUion for injuries roci*ivo<l in the conrse of his employment. 
Sudi laws have been enacte<l in tw>fnty-4wo foreign Statc:^. " 

Usnnlly the^njnrie^ mn«ft cftiise'dt^alilement for a specified ^iinmber 
of Jays or wi-eks before eninpensalioii fieeomes due. The employer 
may usually Ix* relieved from the j^ayment of compensation if he ran 
prove that the injury was caused intentionally or b}' willful luiseou- 
duct, nr in Hime coiuitries by the ^oss negligence of the injured per- 
E-on or during the performance of an illegal act. 

The indu-strios ii»ually covered by the acts are manufaciuring, min- 
ing and quarrying, transportation, building and engineering woi'k, 
lunl other employments involving more or lesb hazard. In Belgium, 
Franc<% and (ireat Britain the laws apply to practically all employ- 
ments. In Austria, Belgium, Denunirk, Finland, <iermany, Italy, 
Luxemburg, Xetherlands, Norway, Russia, Spain, and Sweden only 
workjueu I'ugageil in aeltuil inanual work, and in souie cases those 
exposed lo the siune risks, such as overseers and technical exjjert.s, 
come within the operations of the law. On the other hand, in France, 
nreat Britain, the British colonies, and Hungary the laws apply to 
salaried employees and workmen pqually. (Jvei*seers and technical 
experts earning more than a prescril>ed amount are excluded in Bel- 
gium, Denmark, Germany, Cireat Britain. Italy, Luxemlnirg. and 
Rui^dfl. Employees of the state. pr<»vincial, wnd local administra- 
tions usually come within the provisions of tlie acts. 

The entire burden rests upon the employer in nil but four coun- 
tries, Austrin, Germany, ILmgary. an<l Luxemburg, where the 
empIoye*»s bear }>iirt t»f the expeuse. The laws in every case iix the 
eom}M*nsation to Ik? piiid. Except in Sweden the compensation is 
basi'd upon the wages of the uijured pers^m. It consists of njcdical 
an<l surgical treatment ami perioilical nlIoAvanc(»s for temporary dis- 
ability, and annual pensions or lump-sum payments for 2>*^rinanent 
disability or dcatli. 

In most eounliies employers nuiy contract with state or j^rivate 
insurance, institutions for meeting the poyments. In a nunilx»r of 
countries such trun^fcr is iibligaiory. Provision is usually nunle for 
the protection of lieneHciaries in ran? of insolvency of employers. 

The acts of nearly all of the countries ai*c framed with the view 
of obviating the necessity for instituting legal procee<lings. If dis- 
putes aris*^ tlic acts specify the necessary pro*.*edttre for si'ttlptnout by 
special arbitration tribunals or by ordinary law eourt.N. 

Tlie following suiiiniary gives the most im]>ortani features of the 
workmen's compensation actis of all countries: 



BVLLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB, 



ATJSTKIA. 



tnffi of ennrtmrnt, r>co<*niber 2S, 1SS7. lii offivt November 1, lSSf>. Anienil- 
nturv iirtk .M;iri-h 'MK ^'*SS, April 4 and .liily li\ ISSJ). January 17, l^ilKI, iK^xMn- 
ber ;W, l>*!rt, SeirtembtT 17, iSVni, July !iU. ISJU. uud July VJ, V.'Utl. 

Injurif'M vttmpi'tmntt^d. AM InJurlt^H ciiiiHht}; ihiith ur rllsahUtty for more thnn 
tbnf days ri^elvcHl in the eourne of wnployuient. imU*8e cauiwd laleutloiuilly, 

Jntlujttricjt voirvvft. MUiUip, Quorryliic. stoiiet*iiflin*r. f»8nufnrturlnK. bnlldliig 
Irndes, rnllways, irnnsimrmtUiu on IuUiik) wiUers. Hfornp*. tbrntcpH, rldintiey 
Rwe*^|tliij<, Htreet L-le»ii[iit;. Wulldlnt? 4.-Jejii)iit|!. heuor «-tKiniiix, drt>di;tiiK, «pU 
iVij:if(iW. Htrijrtunil iron worUhit;, etc.; a?rieuUiiral uuU foivKUy eHUtliUslJiueuia 
n«Uig nitK-liluery. 

I'ctnoHtt ctimfimitatril. All workmen niid lecbnlenl oHlrlails r«'»ndarly employed, 
but tn uKrk'idtun* aitil forestry only em|»toye«>s vxtioJ!)ed to mueUiuery. 

Ouvt rnmrttt tmiihtyrttt. Ai-t uppUeH to e;overiuneut Piiinloyivs uutesB uii eqnal 
or moro fiivoralde itmipeusatlon Is iirovidetl by otiier laws. 

Jtiiril'it of ii'itftnrnl. .Medical and siirglral trontmimt for twenty weeks and 
enmiHMiKation for fonr weeUs of disability puld by slek funds, to wUlcU eiu(»loycrs 
contribute nnM-lhlrd ami emploj'eeH tW4>-lhirds. Comi*<'i)^Ltb>it *'*'r disability 
nfler fuurtl! wef»k, and for death, imld by territorial iiiRnrauce asf^ocIationSt to 
wbieh enj|iloyei'3 r<Hilribute JO |>er c^nt nuti (employers IK* ikt rt»ut. 
Crtmi»rnnnti'm fnr th-nth: 

(ri) Funeral expeUKen iMtt to exce^l 25 tlorlns ($ltj.t5). 
{b) ronslons to membora of fnuifly, not to pxcee<l 50 (>er CPiit of earnings of 
drewis^'d- to — 
\Vid«)\v. 'JUi iH-r cent nidll deatb ur reniarrb*Ke; In (he hUler caJH? n himp 
Runi <M]oal to tbn^e annual paynicnlK; tn (leiK'tnh*nt widower, i?* (»er eeut 
durinj; diRabllity. 
I'^u'h lef^itiutate ehlld. 15 yean< of awe or un<ler. 15 i»er cent when ono 
paivnt «urviv«»s and 2i) \k't rent when neither t*nrvive*»; to et\cli Ulcgili- 
mnte child, 15 years nf ajji' or ninler. 10 per ci*nt : itensbtris of wUtoiv <or 
widower) and children rwluced proportionately If they uggre^te over 
W pi^r cent. 
(r) When peiisIonB to almve heirs do not reach 50 per cent. dei>enUent bcfrs 
in nij<cendlufr line receive iKiwious. not to eneeed 1*0 |ht i-rnt of carnlQgi 
of dc«eaM»tl. purents taking preeedence over m'jind|mrent& 
ill) In eompnthi^r iK?usion8. the eveesw of the atuiual earulnj^s over 1,200 
florins (?1.S7.!!0) Ib not eousidereil. 
ComtH'ntafion fur iiinabiliiy: 

\a) Medical and surgical ullendiiuco for 1!0 wn*k8, |ifild l>y aWk benefit 

fund. 
{h) For it>tal leniiKti-ary or fiormatjent illKnMllty. Ot) per cent of avemirt» 
ilally wap'S of In^nrett workmen in tbr IwjilUy. imid by Hick tH-uefit 
funds, from tirst to tweary-«'l^h(?i day; and m |»er eent of areruge 
annual eandngs of injured iH'n5<«i. after twen(y^»lghth ilny, |tabl by 
territorial acvldent Ini^nraiice InMitutlons. 
(r) Tor partial temiHiniry or i»enuanenl dlrtahility, Itcnienis consist of a 
IKtrtiou ..f above allownnc**. but may not excised fiO iier i**»nt of uvernjK* 
aniiuiit eiirniiit;^. 
(cf) In couiputlni; |Hiynient«, the excels of annual Mruini:^ over 1,200 
florinn (JplS'.liOt Is not couMd'-riiL 
RrvMftn of romp< it»iition. neroni*ldei*ntlon )»f tile i*n»e iniiy be uudertukOD bj 
thi* InMumnce atesorlatirin of Itn own will, or u|fou iivtltion. 

Jn^urarnr, ra^ua-nlK are met tiy mntual tmtnmnee nmoetntlorm of eai>loyors 
in which all cniployccH are reipilriil lu be liiHured. The luunlry 1» lUxldiil Uitit 
district*, with a Hefwirale nKHi>clatl*>n for each district. 

firruritu of ^mumrnt*. Operatlonn of the hifliiniuce aH«i»clatiouH are rtindtirttst 



littler tUv sniKTviiKlnu 
Miwnients. 

firUh'MVnt of tUnfiuti 
of A Juild'ial ciHli.'1'r ai 
hy the ntlid«t«'r <>f tin 
and tiir empluye(*tt. 



if the uiiulifler oT Inlerior, who niny Inrreiiiw Ttir nx- 



T MnlMiIi'm 



.rrl. 



I.lr 



SUIOCAILY OF FOEEIGN WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION ACTS. 



By the term '* workiiieiri^ coiupensntioii Inw.s "' are meant enact- 
ments ^'hich euilMxly the principle ihat the workman is entitled to 
c*niijX'ii>alion for injuries n^ceived in the vonrse of his employment. 
Such law?, have l>eeii oniuiod in t\ietif3'-tub foreign States. " ' 

Usually iljc*]njnrks hiiist caii^* flwahlement for a specified'Httmbet 
of d«yr» or wwks I>*'foTe coini)cnsatioix becomes due. The employer 
may usually be ixOleved from the payment of compen^iation if ho can 
prove that the injnrj' wa> caused intentionally or by willful n»iscou- 
duct, or in ^nie c<.»untries by the gross negligence of the injtin'd per- 
>ou or during the {>erfonnnnce of an illegal act. 

The industries usually covered by the nets ai*e nianufiicturing. min- 
ing and (juarrying, transportation, building and engineering work, 
and other employments involving more or less hazard. In Belgium, 
France, and <ireHt Britain tin* la\v*s apply to j)ractically all eniploy- 
nient.*:. In Aut.tritt» Helgiunu Dennuirk, Finlantl, Uennany, It^bs 
Luxemburg, Netherlands^ Norway, Russ»iaT Spain, and Sweden only 
trorknien engaged in nctiud manual work, and in some cases tho:3Q 
exposed to the same risks, such as overseers ami technical expertii, 
come within the operations of the law. On the other han<l, in France, 
lireat Britain, the British colonies, atid Hungary the laws apply to 
^alaried employees and workmen etiually. Overseers and technical 
i'X|>rrts enrniiig moiv than a prescrilx'tl amount are excluded in liel- 
gium, Denmark, Germany. Great Britain, Italy, Luxemburg, and 
Ru^^a. Employees of the state, provincial, and local administra- 
tioias usunlly come within the provisions of the acts. 

The entire burden rests upon the employer in nil but four coun- 
tries, Ati^ria. tierman\', Hungary, and Luxemburg, where the 
eii'j " ^I'ar [)iirt of the expeuM*. The laws in every ease lix the 

cm , "U to Im» jiaid. Kxcept in S^veden the compensation is 

based upon the wages of the injured person. It consists of n)e<lical 
•urgicnl treatment and periodical allowances for temporary dis- 
lity, an<l annual pensions or lump-r^um laiyments for permanent 
disability or death. 

Ill most countries employers may cvmtra<*t with state or private 
iiksuranee institutions for nie^^ting the payments. In a numl>er of 
tttantries -iurli trauhfer is obligatory. Provisiiui is usually nnide for 
lh« proteiHion of lienoficiarit^s in case of insolvency of en»ployers. 

ITie acts of nearly alt of the countries are framed with the view 
of uhviating the ne<M->ity for Instituting legal pnx-cedings. If dis- 
pntcs arise the acts specify the necessary proctnlure for settlement by 
fecial arbitration tribunals or by ordinary law conrts. 

' " iiimaiy gives the most important feature.-? of the 

ition nets of nil countries: 



124 



BULLETIN OF XHK BUBl!:AU OF LABOK. 



BBITISH COLUMBIA, 



Ihitt' uf tiitirtmrni. Juno 21. IWX!. In i^fTttt JIny 1. l!N.>a. 

lufitri*!* rowpf iiHfttrd. Injuvlos by nccUlont nrlslnR ont of nml In tho ivinrne 
of till' *Mii|il<iyiiH-nT wlilrb ninhi* dtiuh ni* iHhiiIiIi* a worknuin for at UmisI two 
wodke from ^mrnliii: Tiill wiucetf at the work iit nhlch Ul* was tMii|iloyott, unions 
the liijtirjr i« " Jitliihntnhli' sfik-ly to tlw m»rliius ami « lllful mistcoutlnct or 
«erloti« neirlwt " of tlio Injured wnnkuinn. 

iotln0h-k^ ti/vrrr<t, HnllwrtyK. fiunorlt^K, luluofi. fluan-icft. mgineerlnK work, 
find iMilMinffH wlil<*li t'^rrri! -Ill f*H>t in hnlj^hl irnrt nrr holnp ronstniote*! or 
ropiilKMl 1»> ninins of u HcttlTolilinf; <ii- bdn^' ilt'inoiiHluil or on which uiiirhlitery 
(IrlvL'ii l»y mfchiinli-al power Is uhwI for constnu'tlon, ri'pnir, or drniolliltin. 
Vct'HOHH rttin/nnMOtfil, .MI iM»r«onH fHtrat;»Hl in niannal Itilmr **r otlu*nvlHe. 
(iuixnimnit nuployrrn. Art nppllcH to rlvlllnn rniphty(M's In tho S4*nloo of 
the Crown, to whom It would apply If th*» oiuployt-r wen.* ft prtvnte iK?rson, 
nufttcn of intj/nii lit. Kntiri' roHK of ifMniieuHiitlon nntts n(ioii enipluy^. 
CtttHprtiHOtion fnr tttuth : 

(a) A sum iipinl to ihroo yi>nrs* ooniiuKf^, hut not Ions than :^1.<Kt(i uor 
nioro tt)an $l,r»(K), to ttioM* wholly dP|N*iid(>nr on riirnln(;!4 of d<v><'aii;rHJ. 
{b) A sum k'SH than abovo amount If wurknian leaveH pt*rHon8 partially 
deiKMHhHit on his fiirnlu;;}*. tho amount tu Ir- uhTucd uihiu hy thi* pnrtlefl 
i»r to ho fixed I>y arbUratJon. 
(r) n<'a}4om)bh> oxptMist'H of mt*dh*at ntteudnmv und burlnl not exeei«dlng 
9HX). If d4M>oaH4>d h'avvH no do|K»mUMit«, 
CompniMiilioii fur iUnuhHUy: 

(«) A weekly pjiymont dnrlnj; dlwihlllty nftor «w»ond wook, nor px(*p«llnfr 
.•M* iR-r fi'tit i'f eniplnyw's nvorajit* wt-^'kly oanilnuH durlriu tho proviouH 
twolvo niontliH, 8uth wookly pnymonts not lo excood iflO, and total 
llfthlllly nol to oxrooil $T.ri(H>. 
(&) A wookly imynunit dnrin;; partial diKnblllty after Bon>nd wook to ho 
tlxod with i*<»»;ard to tho dItToronoo botwooti oniplnyi'o'H avornco wookly 
oarniuKH boforo Iho aooldont iind avorap^o wi'^'kly amount which hr \h 
(>nrnlnK <»r ahio to oani nftor tho Injury, 
(r) A lump tiuni may ho MnbMtltuto<1 for tlie wOt*kly imymeutM. after hIx 
months, on tho nppllcatfou nf tlio omiiloyor, Tho ninoimt tu ho sottl»»d. 
In dofunll of atjroomout. by urbltnitlon nndor tho art. 
JtcrinUtn uf vttmtuuifnitUm, Wtvkly pHymontK may bo rovl»^>d at rnjncKt uf 
4*lthor ])afty. 

InHtinirtrr, Kniployors may oonlrnot with thoir onn>I'^yw»s tor (ho t*nhstttutlou 
(if a B*^'hoini' of coniponHjitlnn. honoMt, or In^nranoo In phuv of tho provltilona 
of Iho act If tho atloruoy-jTonoral oortldoH that tho whoino l8 on tho wholo 
not loKK favorablo to tho vonoral iMHly <>f omployi'OK iiiid tlieir dL'|«Midonts than 
tho priivUlouH lit the art. In such ciij'o tim oniploynr \a Ilablo only In a<Xf»rdanoo 
with IhiK Hohomo, 

Smirftu nf tuttftttnitf. Whon an oniployor booomoH Itablo undor tho art to 
pay oou»|>*Mis4ttIon and Ih ontltlod to any wudj from Instm'rH oti nwount of the 
amount dtto to a workman tnulor Hiich llahllliy, tUon In the ovont of tim 
oniployor lti*oonitn;; Imnkrnpr, nm-h workman has a Itr^t ohilm tipon tbo amount 
8o duo, and a Jia1;!o of (bu KUpronio oourt may dlro«'t Iho luMurtrrM t«» |my 8tiolt 
ffuni Into any itmrtvrml hank of Cuundn to bo lnvi*fit(Ml or npiHlod to paymont of 
i'oini»ouHatlou. 

,^ttth$nrHt of itiMfititr^. UUpntofl nrlBlni; mnlor tbo not aro softlml hy nrbl* 
tratlon «if oxUltn^ n>nnnltUHi4 r«'proj*oiitallvo of i>ni|)loyor>« and ompIoyeoH, or 
If I'lthor jnirty ohjii'ti*. by n .hIukIo nrhltnUor nfroi-d upon by Iho p"* -■« -r, 
hi tho ah«ou»"«' of aciiinnont. by an arl)ltrator aifpolnlod by a .ln>l .» 

Huprotno oonrt. An arbitrator appolntoti by a jndjro of tho nnpr. rt 

hnn all tho imwor nf a judco of thi* Knpr«'nio oonrt. iiuo«iittn« i*t law may be 
submittoi] hy the arldtrutor for tbo d^-Ulou of t\ Jud^' of (be &upiX'iUtt cuurL 



70RKIGX workmen's COMPENSATION ACM. 



125 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 



Oai** of t^tmetmciii, June »'., IWiT*, it) v-ffeii s«»it!oinl>f*r 1, IIhis. 

Injurirn vomprmtattd. AH Injuries to ruu>K»yo«*» iirtHiuK uut of and in llie- 
ntitrNi*. ,,f iii.< <'tMMii>\ ntent oaiisliiK Umth or ne».i'»situting jihseuce from work for 
in< uid not beinp rutiseil hy or IhrtHiKb Ihe jn^tflH ('nrele8SU<^s» 

InduiftrirH nncrcKt. Any lr:t*le, buftlntwi, or imblir iiiulortakln^, uii Jaml or 
lU or wUhin th«> tfrrltorlnl wnter« ot the colony, except ilomostlc, messenger^ 

and scrvk-e or pniployiiu-nt hi ni?rl'''i 'tiuv. 
'rrntonn (tjm/iOMrtfcii. KuipIoycH-*;. wlK-lhfr i'n«ii«w! In uiaiinttl woi"k or other- 
wise 
I Oocfyytmritt rtnpioifren. Act npplloH to civilian iienwus employed by or iinder 

■ tbe 0(n»-u to wboui It would apply If eniidoyer were n privHte fjerson. 
ftunirH nf paytiunt. ICuiployor nnd every priiuiiwil nre jointly iind ftevernlly 
liable for (be eomiH>nftat!ons required under fUc net. 

Ctimfun^ntion fnr tUnth. WUen disitb results from on Injury for wblcb a lump- 
SOlu hun not iilrendy beeu \*a\*\ mi nccount of i>eruninent dlsnblllty — 

(a) A lump Buui not excce*linff thre<» years* wnt^es of deceased, nor more* 

than £400 I$1.{M6.1K)). to those wholly dependent u|>on the workman's- 

earnings. 

ib\ A lump sum not excee<lins f2f»n l$973..'WH to thoAe iwirtliilly dei>endont 

uiwn the workmnnV wirniiiffs; In tlie nhsence at iiersons totally dpj>end- 

Ient, the sum not to ex»?eeil the value of the supjMjrt which they were- 
reot'ivlnp from ihe tUveastHi, ciiloulatcd fur two years. 
(cj Temporary payments previously made not to be deducted from atmve- 
sums uiiloKK they have cuntinue<i longer than three months. 
(4) Keasitniihle e?i|>enses of mediciil atti'n(huH>«> and burial not exceeding 
£40 ($l!»4.(iti) In ciis«? deceased leaves no dependents. 
ComprntiQiitiH for ttiniihiUtjf: 
|«) A sum not exceetlluK three years' waKe«, less any payments nveived" 
uuder a prnvislonal onler of court, but not exc^^e*!!!!^ £(j<H» (;$1!.!II'.i.*.m>^ 
In case of i>erninnent total dlsjiblllty. and a snutller sum In proiM>rtioi» 
to loss of earning jMiwer and not exiiMMliii^ CWH) i$l,4'»tM>r>) in case of 
r>eriiiaiieitt imrtia) dis:tbl1ity. 
lb) A paynitMH made, by order of the lix-al magistrate, at the same Intervals 
as (he customary waj:e'paymenis, not exctHHlhij: HO per cent of watces 
receivpti at time of tlie Itijury. nor £2 ($D."r?) iK.*r Aveek K the Injury 
I causes ieni(H:irary disiibllity lasting more than three days. 

Wri-i*i*in of ittmfn'HKfiti'tfi. The (irovisloual order may be st*t aside or allered 
fthe mairistrate. urxm ri^jnest of either party. If justified hy a further *'xiunl- 
N«tbm of the injui'e<I im^i-som or by production of additional evidence. 

i/«*«niMci'. Kniployt'rs may insure In n company or aswiciatiou acalnsl iter- 
Honnl injury to the workmen employed liy them or In Ibeir t>ehalf. If the 
employer enntrlbntcs towni-d a beneftt society of which the Injured or deceased 
fteraon Is u member, allowance is made for such contrittution by the court hi 
Its order or Jud^uMit Hxinir amount of couiiH'usation (o be paid. 
St'curtty of pfUfuuntt, When an employer or i*rlnclpal Is adjudged or admits 
liability under the act and is cnttlled to any snm fnuu any Instirers on account 
uf »ocU liabllitj. (ben, in (be event the employer l»woines Insolvent, the worker 
<ir hia dependents have n first claim uimn such sum. 



/'/ of tUnputcs. Tom [K.M I sat Ion in <^iKi'rt of disability Is fixed provision- 

nmrc than six mouths by the loi-al naipislrate after receiving a 

"•"'nt-nfi* nf disal)lli(y and hnldlnsT an Inquiry. No aiii'eai can be 

!'rcli[ninnry onler i'xce!>t aKaliir^t a tlndinjr on the <iuestiou of 

-'* and then only upon leave jcrantwl by the sninrbir court. In 

iiry n'htiKs In dcsiili or iNMMuauent dlf*iibllity, the claimaniH have a 

rit iio» In the local umKlstrate's *'ourt for the amounts due under the 

law. in lUInp the amount, the court Is n^ulred In every case to liave reicard 

to Ihe workman's or the dependent's ne»*eKsIl!eH. 

aofuti—isuii. 74— a» — 9 



5^ • 

aii 

phj. ^. 
taken 




■HiiHb--ab 



J 



BULLETIX or THE BUREAU OF IJ^BOR. 



DBNBIARK. 



hatf »/ rnuf tuit lit. Jaiiiiiii'jr 7. ISis, hi i-fft'cl Jiiiiuiiry ITi. ISlKi; tiiiu*iuUil 
May li\ UMiX, 

InJHrhs ifimu^nnfttrtt* All IhJ«i*U'« by no<-Wmt oocnH|ijn*Hl liy ^l^ trniH* nr Us 
roiulUliiMM, Hiid ciiiifiinfc oUlirr ()(Mith nr illioililllty Insttii^ iivor thirtprn wof^kii, 
iinlcHH IinniKlit (Ui Inlontlniially or (hnm^-h yroKs iu-;:nf:fnre «»f tin* vltilni. 

IndunhUH vftrvrrtU rrnctlrnlly nil cshibilKhnimiH in niliilns. qnnrrylnK. innn* 
tifiKiim^ biillilliif^ iiiid iMiglih*4'rfiiK u>>rU. ti-iin*<iHti-(M(l*>n. itfl*'|rh«>iir aiid (He*' 
f;rnt>li »<'Iv1c»'h, dtvln^ mid siilvnfCf ; cutnbHHhitirnli* nsln;; uuH'hfiiilc'iil fkowi^r 
wliK>h nmko» tliviii stibJiTt (u ftirtory lnHit«vtU>u: otbiT Itidtmtrlul fHtnbllHli- 
iiu'iitK tU'HlKiuilifl by tbo tniiiifiter (if liitfrlnr. 

V*'mitttH v*tmfn'H4tit*tU All wi>rkmt*n hi iii«('hiiui(*al uml tecbDloiil U^imt'tinentH, 
liu'lmllri^ lUi>s(^ hi MU(N*rvlHury i*H|iai*Uy wbitw Biiuuul oiirulupi ilu uot ex- 
cwd 2.4<M» c-iowiis <$(M3.:i<t). 

tttnrniuirnt f mftlnihr». AW itpplii'?* lo nil eiii|i1oye<*s of ntale and the com- 
iniiiijil ^'oYcrnuii'iitH In hidti»ttt'l««H iiImim* UidU'nli'il. 

Ituntin ttf lioymrnt, KiM\n* btmkMi of iMiyiiaiMit rf*HtN U(*oa t*mi>1uy«*r. 
rom/irn«a/iofi fur dt'nth: 

<ai KiwR'itil bvii(.«Ut uf TiO crownB ($i:i.-*0), 

(A) A lniii|i siiin tHjti.il to fuor tliiit'H iiiiiaial turnings of itoniiMnl, tiiil uot 
ovff :Vil)t* rt-owris ($s57.(UM nor Irss tb#tn l.'JtM) rrowiiM (la'iT.lXik, to - 
Widow wbolo iitiiouiit. If k1u» KiirvlvrB. 
i'hlhi wholo niuoiint. If It \te Xhv only heir. 
ChlldrtMi, a<tordlOK l<^ dwUiou of bisurnnre citiincll, wlien Ibefi* Ik no 

widow. 
If in'tlher widow nnr cbllOrt-'u, hutiiniaor c*<»imcll devldcH whether nnd 
bow fiir other h«*in* rwolve (-itniit«*itK«tbrt». 
('''iHfH'iiftntiftu for dlMtihiiiti/: 

(rt> Kii»in iMid of Iiilr!i*i'ii11i wnok nfter Hooldont until nrnl of trvnttm>nt. or 
uutti diNibllity Ih devlaritl |H*riiiiiiiiMit, ii dully cMHtt|irtiHnllnii of (U) ii^r 
cent of eiirnlnirH, but nut Ichh thnii 1 rrown (21 iH»iits» nor over 2 ctowtib 
<r>*l cfut*!) for loiul diMid>lllty, mid ii |»ro|»ortloiiHli« n»ui|tfii«iitUiii for 
|)iirtlAl dlAiiblHty. 
ih) In n\Hv of |M<riniiiitni (liHiiblllry nn liuU'iiiiilty of rU lliiit*N nnnuiil 
I'tiruhiKH, bill uot less thnu l.si*i» crow dm (♦4S;1-10) nor over ■I.^'h> 
croiv'iiH |$1,*jsu.40) for totnl iH>rn)iiii<-nt disability, niid iiroiNirtbuuito 
tmyuientft for purtlnl iiertnniietil dlKublllly. 
(r) ir employee rtufferliiL; front i>eriiiiiiiem diMibUlty Ls n iuat« iH^weou 
;M» uml .V> years of ujie, be luiiy deniuud i-iirebaiw of an nuimlly*. For 
men of other ntiv», ot of unsmiud mluil, or women und cblldroti, Ikr 
luHurunt.'e coiuietl niiiy HuliHtllutL' lui uniiulty. 
J{rt'i^ittn of vothiivnutition, hctcruilualbni of det;ree of itormaneut dlHttbUttjr 
uiUAt be niude us akui us [msMiltle after one yeiir from dat<t of In.tnry. If tbb|, 
Iw uut |HN<iHitde^ a teuitntniry detenniinitiou nmy be made, bitt a re^lettTmluntloi 
may be ilvmnmbil within two yenrs foltowlu?. 

hutiimntr. Kmidoyer^ may IrauHfei* obllt^nllon lnii>oNod tty tlu* law. Ity liifftir- 
lug tbi'lr eu)[doy(*ef< bi antborlxo*! Invunimv omitwnlev ur muttutl enipluytN^ 
iasurnhee aK»oclatinuH. 

Frcuf-ilu of pnumcittJt. WluTt? UnbUlty- under thp law hnH not Ikmmi IrniiBfei 
tiy liiMiinttK'**, liideninliA for ditoibillt.v Iv a (irefernM eUlm ntnin MMMita 
eniiiloyer. 

Hrftlrmrnl of ttUfJutr*. l>ls|iulrs enn«*ernlux tHioilwnsutluu. luilewi Hettli*d hy 
mutual Cooawit. miWt li* r«'f"r>*>-i *■• li>»irir:tn*^o .'nninit. V|it.*>^U m-'ic !»*» bud 
tu the mlnlatpr at Ititviior. 



:k;X WURKME^ S COMPENiiATlOX ACTS. 



127 



FIVLAVD. 



«) 



hair of cnavtmrnt, lN.vfiijlK»r Tu ls!>ri, !ii effi^.l Jiiiiimry 1. 1^^. 

im^mritt <N>M/>rHJ»ri/rcr. All InjurlMt ti^ a^vldeut (hirhi); n-ork. cansSiif! t1<>aUi or 

»r*- "•■• ■ ^i\: ilny^, esrept vbfn brourtil <»n iDtenlioTiiilIy or 

viitlui. iiittMJtioiiuHy by niiy otiirr ittrwrn thnn tlw 

__ Ml (if ih*^ work, or mufiiHl tiy i»<rtiie otluT <N:».iirrptK>» 

oMerly Inil*'j»«*nilent <if rii»r nuturi' or ctniditUmH **t work. 

imdmatrica rtn-ryih ^Ilnrs, Qiinrrlcs, melRlhirul^'Hl *^tHlillt(hiiieiitfi. factorleit. 
nwiallte. tii'i slitiifuts UKluff uu<cbftiik'a) ]M»w<«r, <h>iih1 ruction of 

dmsrllM Hiid *r line Htory bUli: conRtnirtloii and c^Hmitlon nf 

vmtrr, ^aa, e^&avic i^rwer ptautn, and ui*oratloii uf railMndn. 

f'.t.. n-; vminnnatfil. M\ jH^rpoiis nctTuilly t'iuplt»y«l ;»t work, but iiol tlifise 
MM' 'uly, 

(, t rmftlo^crn. Act applU^H to euiitlfrrment on tbe state Rud Of^Diinuual 

nmfttruc'Liiiu vorki* attd Mate milwnyK 
/iMrJm of pQyiHfHU Kiitirp bnnlen of pnyiiif^iit n^Mf) npon fmployer. 
romprnKfl f ion /or Untth. In nddlttiHt \»* niiy inl'»r luiyuiwil** on :i(T<iiint of 
illMlillItj, ittmsiun* to di-i*^ti(l^ut heirs, tr*\m dny of dt>»th. not f-xofwIUiK 40 
l»er wot Lif nniiiuil t'nrulug« <>f dtK'^iiMe«1. to — 

fa) Widow. 2«» ivr cent, imtll dt'uth or rt.Miwrriag>e; lii lullrr t-nfie a flual 

will) (^jnal to t\v«i iiiiiKuil |*»ymi^ilH. 
(5) Vmc\i rlilld until liif «j;e of ir» TwirK V> pw cent. If onr itarent survives, 
and 2<t p**r mit If iieltb^T p:irf»nt snrvlvf*^. 

In itimptiiiii^' iH'tiKl.iii. winiiuss cif ivtirkniiiii to bo fiiisidertHl not over 
731 marks <9i:t^:MU nor under 3(I4» imirkK <^HiiO) : bnt un adidt eui- 
pIoyiH' to riN-eivi* « ptMisiori grcntiT Ibiiii his arluul i^mtujcfi. 
xtmiUm fur tlitubility: 

A |»«ai»brti oqajtl to tK* |»^r f^nt of ^iu[>loyee'R earulup^ for totnl dU- 
atdtSty. or n i»eusioii proportionate to tho dtirrtw nf imnjUK-lty f««r 
imrllal diKi)Ulllty. to 1m< |mid fruui day of recmery from lllae<*8 dne to 
Itijnry, f»r iifier lit* dtiyi* Iwive tdiiiisfd siuce injury. 
lV'h»<ion niiiy by mntinil (t>n?kMit !«• rrpbutHl by sinjele payment. If it 
dfioK not exrci^l 'Jil nmrkH i£;i..si>) unnimlly: 

111 I'ouiputlii;: iN-hslim. i^rtdnfT^ i»f worknmn U* In* ronnld**r«l not over 
rJU uinrlcK' i^Kts.iMji nor under 31M» ninrkH ($57.00) : but no adult eni- 
pliiy«<«> to reioMc « prhsimi prrnler tluin hts .vtniil cniruiiifis. 
In fa^es of ipmiwrary dlwibitlty (Inrludinp nil cnw's of dlwdtilhy for 
1 'o ,]-,\< nf(i*r injury^ d:illy comi»enK;iriou of va} \t*r tvnt of ^^rulngi*. 
4 witb BTvtrnth dny after ncvideiit, for complete teuifmrnry 
i: j. and n |»ro|»ortionnto c-^>ni|H-nHfliion for fwrtial diKublllty: 

but iwi UKire iban '2X^i markn (48 cc*nti«| i»er diem. 
TntU n-covcrj-, injure*! employee niny be givcu treatment In a lu»fliplta1 
in Hen fff other e«imi»eu«ition: during anch tn*atm<?nt bis wife and cbll- 
dren set u coniikeiiHtitlon equnl t«" pensUm in case of deiilh. 
^rrl«<on of r'»nip»*«.«fln'oii, I>«*mandj< for revision of com|>ttiaat1on tuny i»e 

by either imrty bt'f<tre proper oourt. 
/■ EaiplojerH an? re<iuiri*d to transfi'r tin* burden of payuteut of 

ntti I lo a irov<Tumei»tal Inanranoe otfiee. ]>rivate lufturamv t\tnii«niy. 

iinii'i;ii •niployerp' iiisunince aRSooljitlon. or npproveil forcijrn inmiranee eoni- 
t«ny. uDlem unidde to (pbtain sui*li Insiimtitv or relenwil from tbi** obltmitlon 
MU |»rewutatioa of hatl»fa<iory puaniuteew. 

Brrmritf/ uf ptiitmrtitn. M"lipn exemptiM fiMui the duty of insuring: his oni- 
or nnniiie I" otdiilu iiiKtirnnoi*. the employer must sniarautee imymeiit of 
lo the Injured workman or hlH family by arrancewent vlth a private 
teanraikre compmty. 

HrtHrmrut ttf lU^ptihit. In ciise (if abKent-e of Insurume or diHHutisfiiciion uilh 
drrtelnn of infnimu<n^ pom|ttiny. Injnreil eniployep or liis dejieudent muy carry 
tlir caae into The Inferior court of the lot^illty. 



(*) 



(e> 



mmli 



128 



BUU-ETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOB, 



FRANCE. 



Date nf rnaeitnrni, April 0, IStlH, In offwt July 1, ISIK): nmomlntorr hucI 
wipplemoiitttry ttcti* MnrrU '2:2, 1(W.\ Mnrcb 31. IWW, April V2. XVXn\, and July 
17, 11I07. 

InJuHtH comitrnsntci!. AH InjnriOH by ac-oldoiit lt» \voi*kiiJi*ii ur Milurtrtl rti^ 
ployrcK iliiriui; or on nonuint t>f labor niiiHiiii: ih-ittli ur illiuibilUy fur llvr ol 
luor*.' ilnyK, unlow* ppxhinMl liiti^iitbinaMy by tbf \l(Mlin, If diK* In ([wxiMiRjibM 
fuult (»f viftlin or of cmphiyor, c(mip<*iisiitloii iimy by n ifiiirt order ho tbTnititqfl 
or Inrrriisrd, but not r.\i'LMHlin« lutiial ninilimH tif vk-tlui. I 

IittltistrivH iitfct'Cit. linlliliii;; trntU'A, riH-iot'lcx. workKbopH, RblpynnjH. transiMiA 
tnltoii by Initft niMl wtitor. [>iibllc witn'tuHiATK, nilnlnf? nrwl qimrrylriK. timnfl 
fiirliuv or baiMllhiu of t*xploHivt'K, nifrinilturiil iiml otbi>r work iiHltit; nKH'liiiiiblH 
]Mnv<'r, liiid iiioroaiittb' oNtabllsiliuu'UtH; otbrr ImluHtrk's on nnjiirKt of b4kd 
pnrlJoH. ^ 

VtrnuiiM ffitnpf nKittnl. All workuuMi ami salarlwl eiiiplf»3'iH*B. I 

tiormuni lit I mitloyrt M. l,aw upplloHi to Kbito, iTpparlniciitnl. And coniinuiid 

imlubllHbiuL'iilH wliLMJ I'liKa^ced Ui bulUKtrUti iniiun'raUtl uImwi*. ■ 

Ituntrn of iiat/inrnt, Kniln* cont of c«mi|HMittntlnu fnlln U|«in employer. ■ 

ComiirHHiilinii for tlittth: V 

111) Kiiitornl «'\|H*iis(*K not o\o<^*4llni: 1iM» frnnt'H ($lP,i'X)). I 

^_^ ih) IViikIi.hih to dt*p^*iitKMi( lirirH not I'XciM'OiuK *>*^ |i**r ^^tMil nf nuiinal wuKe# 

^H of il<vi^iK<Mt. iliHtribnip)! to — 

^V willow or wlilnwt'r. '.ft |M-r cimiI until ilcatli or tvnmrrlnt,'e. In whloli Intter 
^1 cam' a tiuul mnu iMpinl to (brtn^ arininil payniontK. m 

^B rhildrm nmlor MX y4^art< of a»4r If ouo pai-«*nt Nnrvives — 15 i»or ocnt fl 

^H lliori' JH but out* rbild: 'Jo per ivnt if tlii'n* ar*' two rhlldri^i: 35 |iM 

^H «mt If th('n» jin* thrt'o rblldn-n ; -10 |H»r <x'nt If tbero arr four or nmn 

^M ■ 

^H Knell ('bllil uiidfr 1i» yoiirff of nfs^* If neltlifr (mrout AiirvlvoH. l!t> |H*r 4'«*itfl 

^K Knell nseinidant niiil each ilrKeendaut under Itt yenim of ntiio di*pend(« 

^H upon dtN-rtimil, if no widow or eblldnni tnirvlve, 10 iN-r i.t*4it, the* nifinv 

(r) If anntuil waices exei<e<l 2.4IKI francH if^O^l), unly om*-fuurtb (■ 

tlie e.\<.rHN Ik eonKidennl In eninpiuhiit poiirtbMiPt. ^ 

VoMiiriiHaiitifi for diittihiUtff: I 

(o) KxtHMisfN of uKMlleal or Piiriclonl trenlment. ^ 

(6) If pernmntnitly dlMablwl, n |N*imlon of (Mlji |H»r r«vnt of nnnnal \vnK<*»i for 

total dltiablllly and of one-balf Ioka of inirnlnf: raimelty for t»irtlnl 

diMlblllty ; or, If demanded, one-fourth tlii> eapltul vnlur of |>pnitloti In 

eanb, tbo inmisIom to be n*tln<'<^I neeordln;;ly. 

(c) If tiMuikftrartly dlwibbvl, nn allowniu-e of T<a) \H*r cent «tf dully wa«e«, 

I beuhinbm wllh (Iflh day. and IneliidbiL' SundnyK jiitd holidays, nitli-sri 

dlwiblllty lasts nior** than ten days when jiayiueuts Itwomu due frnni 

the HrHl day. 

itt) If annnal wurtr expfVHl 2,4ftl fmm*a ($4*V^.20), only ont^fonrth f»f tlie_ 

eXecHK Ih coiiKlderetl (u tonipiithi); iH-iislonH, 
(i ) rnynieiilK of prm^loiid of not over KRI fninoK ($10.^)) (ter nnnnui [Uflj 
^B by mntnnl ronHont whou bouetlelnry Ih of n^, bo n'plflii^l by a ctii 

^P iHiymcnt. 

firriition of riimtn ttMitfioH. IU'\'Ia)(Mi i»f ttimiH'nwitbui beonuHo of ntftcmvntb 
or dlnilnntlon of dlniddUty of vlotlm may Ih* nnide within threi> yi*itrB. 

hufuntiirr, Kmployer)* may Iranwfer burden of (layinoid of ion 

up|trovtsI multial aid. aetldenl biKuranee. or tcimrmdy an^oelai' " «i 

of |M*nHlnnH, to iiatloiuil neetdent Inviiranee or national old-a^e i" ijti"h lOudB. 
StvurUu ttf fiujftnviitM. The Statt» irnartintiH'w ajniliiHl Up*** of ikmimIou payiUKi 
on iirediint of ln!«olvenry nf fiaphiyerH nr biNuranee ort::inl%iillnnK. and 1H re 
hursi'd by a HiHVhil tax on i*n)ployi'rH within Hropo of iln- m-t. Kor teiu|Hirul 
dlMiibllity pnyrnent)*. nn*iIlelneN and iuinUuiI nr unnrkal alteudami', and fuue 
ex|H*tiKeN tiin vlrtlin. bl>* cM^dltorw, f»r r«*ptv»»ent«flr»^ hnvp a prpfcrrwl rlnlni ot» 
profterty of emplnyer. 

SrHJimiHl of tttitpuftit. I>Upiite:N nn (n iH-iiRlunH «r Invithttn; more ibn 
fititu-ft ($rtT,t*0) may ^*• nirrl<Hl IiiIm Ulftber eUll eonrtH. JntiKroont i\K 
Jnt»ttiyL* of the jHHU-e in ftimt in oilier rawii. 



FOREIGN WORKMEN S COMPENSATION ACTS. 



129 



QEBMANY. 




DiU of cm^Hntrnt. July 0. 1SS4, in effect October 1. ISfcO. Supplemeuury 
acts Miiy 2S. 1SS5, Moy \ lS8<i. July 11 and 18, 1887. A cwllflcuiloii enacted 
Jno^ :P). IIMX). 

/ii>«*iVj» cotHpcn^tttCit. IiiJurifH by neeiJciit in the fourfto ftf the oiur>loymeut, 
cnudlnK dcalli or UiNittlHty for iiiOr*' than three »hiy», unless t-iiuaed inteu- 
ttounlly. (;nnii»eiisafM)ij uiay be refused or retluced If Injury was received while 
mmtulttln;; aii illfpil art. 

r " v rttvnrtt. Mlnlnp. salt works, (|utuTyiMK «nd allied lutlnsiries, Hhli>- 

ji -rlefi. SMiPltln;; works, Iniiklhij: tnulcs, cliliuney F>veeplng, window 

I'h-jiiiiiii:. otiioherlDe. trunBiturtatlon mid bAndlIng, agriculture, forestry, and 

frrnfinx rttrnprnnatril. All workmen, and thofip teohnloni offlrlals whoso nnniial 
tsruUitn* lire If**** th«u 't.OMt murks »$7HK With tlie npproval uf the Inipfrial 
|i»Hiiriin<i- Offl^>» the law may he extended to other cla»se». 

' if rmphtu'^t'M, Act ci>vers povernment eui|tloye«*s In piistul, telejrra|»li. 

an! y i*ervlr**s nud in iadustrfai enterpriws of anuy uud navy, unions 

fitberwiw pn>vidi*d for. 
BnriS* n t^f puym* nt. Medical and surgical trealiucnt for ninety-one diiyH and 
ofii ttnynients from third to nlnety-tlrst dnys are provided by Rick-bent'flt 
ds to which employers ctmiribute <H»e-thinl and eniployet^s iwo-thlrd^; from 
tvetily-4'iKhrh to ninety-first d«y payments iire lucrojimNl by one-ihird at expens*! 
€tf employer in whose estublisbmeiit jKfldont oifurrtM ; tifter nlnety-flr»fit «hiy, 
and in nisi* of dniih from tnjnrie**, ex{ionKe is Iconic hy employers* asfloclatloiis 
mptiorted by contribiitloiis of eu(i»I'»yers. 
Vumsu'ttAtilitin fur ttmlfi: 

Ca> Kuneral benefits of one-llfleenth of anuunl eamlntrs of dceeaaed, but 

not lesa than .V) nuirks (|!n.*>0». 
lb) IVnslohH to deiMMidont heir;* not exi'cedinp TiO i>er cent of nnnunl earn- 
injre of the dwcnse^l, as follown: Widow. 2<> per cent of nunual ottm- 
\ugyf until di'Oih or remnrriiiKe; In latter msea linal sum eipial to three 
annual rwymcnta : deiiendent widower, IM i>er cent of nnuual earn- 
ings : each rhlld 15 ywirs of ape or under, tHi iwr oetit : imymcnts to f«iu- 
sorl and to Lhlldren to be reducwl proiK>rtiomitely if the tt»tal would 
exi>*e<l tM» |»er ct'ot; deiH'udeiit heirs In asct^udtng Ih»e, 2*> |>er cent ttr 
less. If there Is a residue after providing for above heirs; orphan priind- 
rhlldi'ou, 2*t per cent or loss. If there Is a residue after providing for 
nbo>e heirs. 
ir) If anuunl earnings excee<l l,5m> marks t$.'ir»Ti. only .nu^rhird of i>\ceff8 
1h ctnisidered In com|>utlng [tensions. 
fowiK'fUti/irtH for tiiMfihilify: 
{m) Free nuNllcil nud snrplcal treatment pnid first thirteen weeks by sick 

benetit funds, and afterwarils by emidoyers' nssoclatious. 
\b) For temiN»rary or jiermaueut total disability, oO iM>r cent of dally wapess 
of j>ers4)us similarly omployed, but not exceeding :i marks (71 cents), 
pQld hy sick benefit fmids from third day U\ end *if fourth week; fmui 
fifth to end of thirteenth week, above allowance by sick benefit fund, 
phis Itiji Iter c<4it tontrlbuled by employer dinvt ; after thlrtt*en 
weeks. WH per cent of nverage annual earulutca of Injtired iH?r»ou paid 
by employers' associations. 
\''\ For com]tlote helidessness necessitallnjr jUtoiidnnce, imyments may be 

lucreastM to ltK> iK>r cent of nnuinil earnlnps. 
<rf> For partial disability, a correspondinp reduction In payments. 
(r) If annual enrnlnps exceed l.rrfHI marks i^So?), only one-third of excess 
Is cimsldcrcd lu computing i»ensb»ns. 
ttcrMftn r,f finpnirntH. Whenever a chnnpe In condition of Injured i»erson 
MPnra, a revlsbui of Itenefits may be made. 

Jmatiranfs'. raynients art* met by nnitnal Insurance associations of employers, 
tn whkh all eluployees are require<l to be Insured at the exi>ense of employers. 
KeiMimte ttSBoclatlons have lnvn orpanlzetl for each Industry. 

Kr*'sWr|/ tjf paymrnU. Solvency of iinployers' as»t»clatlonR is piiarantefHl hy 
tW State. 
^' '" ' ' ' - '■' ,t,^ nro setrletl by "arbltnU\ou louvvft t«^Y \\ft\\i- 

"f one ifovernment ofIk\a\, two vevTv*ew\av\\«^ 




180 




BULLETIN OF THfi BCfi£AU OF lABOfi. 



GREAT B&ITAIK. 

ftoti- t»f rti4i4tmtnt. MwoiuIht L'I. I'.HHi, In rfftvt July 1, llK^lT, rrpliclng «ct» 
of AiifCiiHl (i. ]K!i7. iiud July l^K llKJOL 

/f?ii(n*r« rf>«i/M-itiio/rtf. Injtiri*** hy »r»'ldCTi< nrUlnif ont of nnd Id tliP cmirup 
<»f lilt* <ir»[»lf»yin<i»t n-h!c!i cnnne i1i»nrt» or iHwihlo a worUinnn f«»r at k*at*t ooo 
Wfck fmiii fiiriiliij: full wiiircs ul tin* work nt wlilch Iw wui« rttivIoyt^L iNimprti- 
tudou U ii(»< iwld MdMM Injury Iff doi* t«> mtIouh ami willful iuIhcoimIucL nuleos 
It I'csnItN 111 ilmth nr flprlmis nud pfmiHnrut (ilwihlfiiiiiil. 

fiitluHlHrft rnrrrrfj, "Any eniploj'tinMit." 

l*rr.Hiins rtnnfutmiitt'd. Any inn-wm rrjriilurly eui|»lo3*<»d for tin* [Mir|ii>M*fi of the 
*»uil>li»yiT'H tnwlf or tuislnowi wliow* oomin'iinntimi In Irss tfmti £2^1 ($1,21lUW) 
IK*r aiuiuin: ttiit iH^rmmn rnpi^tcHl hi umninil labor only an* not Bubjitt t<i (hlH 
lliultatlun. 

normtntrtU nnfitnyrcB. \v\ i\\riA\e» to rlvllluii |>t*n«»iiH »'Hi|>loytMl mul^r lb« 
rrnwn to wliotii il would npply If the miployer w«'re n iirtvnte pprHtnu 

Hunirn uf ptiymml. ICiitlrr eoBt of oouuhmiihiUou rt'Sln njn.ri (.'iiiployor. 

iUtmin hHtitioH fur thrill : 

ill) A iBuiii «h|um1 to Ibroc ytasfii* cnnitiiiCK. but not l^^tw thiiu £iriQ ($72£UI9) 
Ui*r Qior^i tliflit €HM <yi,4riUi<i>. to tbcmr mtlrfly d«>iN!Udtmt on «iuru< 

1Uf£H of d«H'OUW*d. 

ib) A Kum l<*fw tluiii iibovf* ntnoiiiit If dcncaimil ItNivt-^ [ntw>iik imiitiilly 
dfiKMiilciU <<ti 1i1h oarntii;;H, iiiiHMint to In* ji>;re(tl ti\Mt\ by tUi* imrtlpN or 
rtxtsl by MrbJtntHon. 

(r) fteJiHifiiiihlp rxTM-iincH of innlU-nl Hltciidfinn- iind burial, luit uut to (*x- 
ctiHl £10 ($4H.(;7) If diHt<nH«'d kwvoiR no dt4>oJ)d«*ut«. 
<'ftmfn'utntttrtn for itimittilUff: 

(a) A w(»«*ly imyiuwit durlue Inraiflclty of not twnr tlwn SO per ccTJt of 
eni|*loy(«H'N miTiiK^' wfN'kly I'nnilnttH dnrliitf iiriMloim twelve uionlbH, Init 
mrt fifi-r^lhi^: XI (IH.yT) ikt week : If liu-npiiclty lawt* le«i!i tli.in tw" 
w^eks no imynietit Ik riHinlrrtt for Ibo first win'Jc. 
<6) A w«*ly iwyiiH'nt dnrliiK jwrtlnl diMiblMly. not rxcrcdliig th<' Oiffrronco 
lirtwwn oniiiloy«i''K nvHraB** wtn-kly iitrulni:'* Iwron* Injury und jivontge 
nnioiint whliMi ht* in Himlii? or Is nbU* to f»n\ nftor Injiirj*- 
(r) Minor |wrwmH tiiiiy )h* nlb>wt*d full i*n minus diiriiic lucapttcUy. but 

nwjkly imyiiionlj* iiuiy not »»xt'ot*d 10 slilllin^s <$2.4.M). 
(<f ) A ffnm fiu(nH«>ii( to iMiivbiiw* n llfo iiumiity tbrou>:b llu* I*uAl-OrHiv Snv- 
liics Itniik of Tri prr icnt of nnnujil vnino of wei-hly imyuH'iitH iiuiy Im* 
HiibntHiiT*'<.|, on iippllt'Jitiitn '*f ""• i'ti f.i.,\..r. for wct'kly puyuM*ultt nfler 
nix tnontbo; but ollirr iirniii- l.-niptlon of wifJcly |mynunila 

niny Ik* made by «Ki^iv»mfiit I" ■ fr nml rm|*l<ij*w. 

Rniiririn nf hnt'/itit, W(-i*1ily imyiittMitn niiiy ho rf'vlHml nt n^iieKt of rltber 
pnrly, miib'r ntnilntlmiti IkkihhI tiy Ibr w-iTi'tnry of «tnlt». 

JiiMUtvtui', KuiploytTH inuy niuKc L-oitiriu'lH with ruiploynrn for Hubxtltutlon 
of u Hi-brUH* of roiiiiHMiHutioii. iN'ocHt. or lii8urinu-i* lit (iliiri.* of tbi* provlMoiifl of 
iht act. if Ibr nycl*tr«r of frlrndJy WKlftlrn rtTllflvw tbiil tbo i«chrmc li* ii"t b»w 
fiivonibb* tit tlir worUmm and Ibrir drpmHlcutw Ibnn tlw provisions of Ibo fioti 
and Unit ii iiiuJorKy of Ibr workuiou tiro ftivtirablt* to lln* rmliMltntr. 'l^lic riit- 
ployrr Im Hum llabU* only lu atHtirdumi* \vUb tbo |>rovlHlon« of the Ht'betuo. 

tirriitUp uf pa\ttttrtttK, \\\ caw* of employer^ bnnkruplo-. tli*' uuiotuit of com* 
fimHtttlou due' uuder tbt* nrl, \\\i to iHAt (^.iKiI.tiTti in Miiy IndUldual ntMr, U 
(•]nK>:oil ai" a prrfi-nMHl »'lnlin; or wber*» an t'liii' ■ iMilfivd lul«t ii ronlnn'l 

tt'JtJi InHurerti iu r*'t4CH'L of any lUibilJty itmlr to nny workiiuiu, Kuclt 

rljibts of the t'in|»loy<»r. In cnw In* liei'uuieH U.i.R.ni.*. an- lrutit«fc*rrt«d to auj 
vi*»(o<] In tbi' wurkuMiU. 

Hrtltrwrtit uf it"- ■■*•■- riiir*llon!i •I'l-v ^.' ■■•• ' ,r.. ui'ttlod ''" 

a I'fMnniHtiv ri'i'n >»f tlu* v\- i, i._( an / 

wUvtixI by Ibr t\\ . . or. If tin- . . : _; , hy tbc li" 

CHkunty court, who uniy aiipotnt iiu «rbltni(«r to act lu hU place. 



I 



IX VOBKJiEK ^ C<>MPKX&iHOK ACTS* 



131 



OBSEC& 



D^ir 



iM|<»jBiiint «»d mu 
lmiiig.^1 OB lotcoUcHt-i 



daring or l»«nin8(* of t 
than four dajv. anl 



.-T„r>' *jl (Manrti «|. 190L lu «fff«ct (retruactlvolT) 
J. IWli. 

.lijnric^ by acddMUfl 
or (ItanMlity lining 
. M- lujured pcrsoiL 
it*4m»iHtti r^rtrffL Mtncik quarrt^t^ nod nteiullnrxinil twiatillfdiiuiHils. 
J'rrwvmM evmprmMiUd. AU w«irk(UieiUMi «u<l mbonlluntr mlar^cd pcreniis. 
Oo t e mm Knl rmptapre*. No oMKntton of pivpmnienl ein[»loTi*OB is intide la Um* 




ilfl#4ffB •/ l»a|Miii»/. f^ptnror rsirricM full hunlen uf («^iu«tU cif lu(li«ninitit% 

dnrini; flrp? •' -^^ *'*-• ■'• - •»>-'-• 'nonfb.^v half th«^ jKij-tiieiits of |iru!«ions 

fer»«NMrtl>> .v4i i5 maluly sup[iorto«1 by h tnx on Mu* 

mIboi «ad 1- . ^ -. t*ut |<artly by itfUlribuCiuuB frutu ihc 

'0 niutiul aid aucioties in tlM?«M* ostabllsliiuents and suint^ minor 



f*oMi»riMO<ioii /^'/r tUalh: 

(IS) If dentb oorurs ininx'duitcly or witlUu thrtv months: <1) Fuiii^rul 

expeasui Biui>«ii(iJiF to tA» drachiuaH 1$11J38); <2) peoflkms to hWm 

aKRTPiintinK (i^nisfoa pniil for lulnl tllsiibllily. 
Xh} If dmiii <irt.*urs X\^Tv*' inotitlis lifter injtiry <tr later, potisious to livirs 

a i egP CKa ting 75 |ht r-<Hit of {K'uslon i«Ul durius life of llit* iujureil. 
%c\ AM ■ - to hoirs arv dUtrlbutiil u^ foUo«>i; Bijtml atlmrp to widow 

an 1 I. or, iu abcieuc« of widon' uiid chlldnii. «H|(ml shnro to 

ftlli I. UMJtlllT. 

s4\ Penaian to widow (Vfix*s4 ou Ut-r n-uiu rriain:* ; to uinU' vblldmi :tt Ifl 
years of aipr; to fontale chlltltvii on ttu^r luarrlajre. with ituyuu'tit of 
ntic y€*«r'8 j>eiision as a tlowry. 
If) If oiily ui)«> beir survives be Is eatitled to only oue-balf of vrlirliiul 
peaslflti. 
tXmpen»aU0H for dimikHitij: 

4«) Frt'o uh*«1)(*aI Qud surjik'nl treafmeui. 

fft) An ntlowuncr of r>(> {H^r c-ont of (*«niliigEB of lujiired euiployue durliix 

Brrt till. -?i^. 

ir\ If jHTh iisnhloiK II i»e«sli>u of W i»er rent of enruiu^ iu nuv 

of total u.— ;.. .> 1 (nrliHliiiK loss of n baud or foot) ; la cane of furttn) 
disability, n ixiti^ioii of Xii^ \K*r cviit of t*tiriitDie^ |teii9lon |inyuieiit*< to 
bei^ti after mid *if third luuiith. 
f) Pension may not exw'wl KW dnu'biiuis (^ll^^'itt^ |wr luouth pltis 2." |H*r 
c«ut of tiie exc«H«i of mniputnl |ieasi«>u ov^r Hmi dnw'tiniiis (fllt^M. 
1^) In c*on»[>uliu^ iieuHion of apttreuticvs and children, no wngpe l!^ b* bt* 
rmutid^'ed )e«8 than iLCii* drsirhnuks (4s ce^nts) i>er day. 

of <^tm$Mnt»tiuH. Injured etnploye** uiny itres^eiil a new iietllion. or 
t of (be miners" fund may order n new examiiiiitimi. whenever tliere 

Is rea^OD to Ixdieve tbnt chan^ofl bnve* iKXMirTVd in the dinrree of diHahillty. 

faj w rn a ce. No i»rr>\lflb»ii Is made by tlie law for the transfer of Ihe burden of 
(oyvidit of roni|>en9iUlon by hisnrnme, 

Atvmritv of fMiymifir*. The miners* fund KoarantrcN imymeiit of penalons and 
• '■ s nmJ hns pref»»rt»*(t rialni uimmi einployer's* nw*etn in ettne*» of 

'! reed ftaif of establisliuKMit. and also lu (vines* of voluntury (rans- 

f' I in- iM_'*v prt>i»rielor asMUDie»> (be i»l»Upitlon^ under Ibe law. 

■ 'i of tliiputvit. Atuoutit of iiennton is ±*eltled by the eonncll of Ihe 
niiii*i> iiiiid, and upftenls against it^ (JecisiMns lutiv lie tiu-rleU into ttie urdluary 
coiiria. 



BrLLETIN OF TllK BUREAU OK LAB03, 



HUNGAKY. 



Date of enactment. .\]tv\\ i*, VM', In effwl Jul> 1. 1007. 

Infurfru vutnthumUvi!. Iii,|nrli'» hy nr<*|(!(>nt tn the oourso of tbo euu>loynieut 
pnuffln»; Month or diMibilliy for more lUtui three (Inyn. lujvirtes ifiii§eil Inteu- 
tionully nrc not compeiiBute*! nnlcws fatal, 

IntluHtiirx rovctvtl. All fftotorlt'H siihjj»ot tn lhni»eotlon, uiltiost, QUiirrl(*fi. inetJil- 
InrpU-iil i'Sliitilit4bitii*ntt*. l)U)hllii^ trudPK. I(iiiihrrlii)£. (■inistnictloii work. k1i1|i- 
bullULnt;. Hluuik;h(L>rhijim<.'H. i>bnriiHK*ii*H, HHiiatorln, (liontt.'rts iiiHtltut<*s of art aud 
acleikce. 

iV'i'jtoDx fumpfniiatrtl. All riu|iloy(*«>ii in hidiutrtoti (^miniprnted. 
iitn-tiumrnt rmith>ifrt m. Aft comm'k i;t»veriiuitMit ontployiMfH lu Htate* iuitulei|iu1, 
anO oonutniiiJil huItiNtrEeM LMtiitneralod iibove. 

ItuttliH nf iiiiffhtfut. All bpiu'rtts nnil cost nf tn-atiMpnt for Mrnt l**n weckB 
providcHl by Kick fuutls tn wliU'b niU'l^'yei*'* Had finpluyeoH contribute oqtaiUy. 
Koi^lnnln)? with rlevmth week entire cost U defmyecl by cmployors fhroujfb 
the aeekU'UL fund. 

i'f>ininftMiilftin fur dtath: 

((I) Kuneral hnni'ilt of tvvL'iiry ilii»e»* ftvemgt* dally waK*>«. 
{b) Ten^haiH tu heirs uut excei'dlng 00 per ei^it nf annual c^nrnlnJ7B of de- 
renwi!. as folhnvH — 
U'Iduw, lio t»er cont of anitnal ein-iilnp< until detitb nr rtMiiMrrbiKe: lu 
liitior i'aMf a llnal sum i-ipail tn »l<i p4'r (■<'iil of annual earnln^TH; or to 
deiMMi(h*iit wlilowor '^i [mt cent diirli)}£ dlwiblllty. 
Kaoli rhlld Its yt'urH of hkv or niidrr. ITi per ceul if one pnrmt nun Ives, 
30 jMT crut If ni'ltber Kurvlvi's; imyna-ntH to ronmrt niul i-hlldrHi re- 
dni"»«<I i>rnpor1ioiintely if tlu-y UK^r(*Kalo mor** thiiii iM> por ecut. 
I»rpcnd<*nt parentH and crandpnrcnti* if tlu'i'p U a n*»*idni> after providing 

for alHive hoirn. lni p.-r tent or K*b8. 
I>epoudent nrptnin ;;nintlt'b)lilrpn 15 yparn of u\it' or under, If tbcrr le n 
reHldue after providing for above helrH. *ju |K.»r riMit or It'HH. 
(r) In e*inipnfln^ |>onHlniis tlic exn'ss of annmil (tirnincn nbnrp 2,^U0 
i'i**>wiiH ($4ST.-''0 Irt \uft eonsldored. 
t'owi/i* MATir/foM /#ir ithnhility: 

t*M Kr^M** nifdicat and sur^lrnt trentim^nt prorIde<1 firM ten wooUb by Blck 
fund, and afterwanl by arcldeiU fund. 

for tei)i|Htriiry nr permanent toiai diHabilKy. TA) jrer ('<>nl of avertiKe. 
daily wrtgfR but not exi-eiNiiniir 4 crnwiw (Sl centH) fnr Ilrsl ten we«^t(U 
[tri>vlded by t^lt k fund; bev'imiln^ wttb elev4'nlh week. *'At |H*r oent of] 
nveraui* nnnunl earnlaun, provltled tiy neelib'iil fnnd, 
For eoni|ilete lielpleMKiK'Sx net-fKHltatln^ attiMitJam'e payments may be 
IncivaMfl to PNI |NT eeJit of nnnnal eanilntSM. J 

For partial dlMddlity a nirnntiHtndhm )>ortlou of full |H*n8loii. 1 

In I'onipntini; p**nslnns the execKK of annual earulniTH above 'X-iOd crowiiS' 
)?-tS7,*-Mt (s ni»t 'nusldenHl. 
Hcrhirtn uf vnmiunHntvm. Whein'\ er a rhuftue tn t-ondition «if Injured person 
Oceurs the ncrlilent fnnd or tiie bijurcd p»'r»*'n niny ask for n revision of the 
benelilN. 

hivuninrr. I'liyuienlB are met liy a state luKuranee InKlitution. tn wbleli all 
en»ploy«»»* are re^pdreil to be InHunnI at the exi»en«e *tf empluy<?r«). 

rircuritu uf puf/mrnt. lauurauteed by the Stair. | 

Svttffvuni uf tthitut'M, Hijiputi-K aiH» *eltle<l Uy ;irliltrntlon <i»urt», imii?.imiuh 
of u prcNldluK Jnd*:e and an wiual number of rti>rfH4'ntatlve» I'f workmen and 
emplityers, i 



(h\ 



(e) 



FOREIGN WORKMEN S COMPENSATION AlTS. 



133 



I ITALY. 

Datr of tnactmcut, Mnroli 17, 1SJ»S, in effect Septoniber 17, 1808. Amended 
June i!!l, 1!Hif$. Promiilpite«l in cmlinetl form Janunry 31, 1!)04. 

'•■■ —'^ fttrnfH'riHittiul. .MI injuries sustained by workmen or salnrlefl em- 
lurinir or on aee<»iiiu of Iiilmp. If due to willful mlfirondupt, employer 
! . I'.iniburjsed through crfuiiiial actUm. 

I tnduxtrifA focrrcd, Mhiet*. qunrrii^, hulUlinjr irnd<*3: lijilit. heat, and iM»wer 
jtlanfs: arwnnln: ninrltime construction work; tmiititi)ortu(iou ; IndUHtrieK re- 
4]utrUi>r llie n** or ImtullJnjE of expUwIvcs; all industrial or n^'irnltiiral worlv 
in pn^xinittT Tr» power niachlnery ; where more than tive i>ers4inft nre employetl 
I 111 • ^r r«Mi8tnu'tion work: operatiouH fur pnitwlinn a;;ulnst landBiides. 

[ TluLt. tuitt; lo^^xfu;; and tlnilier raftUi^. and Hblphulldin;^. 

Vtfiii.t*9 i*,tnin'iHftitrt!. All workuie?i and apprentices and nver»e<'rs recelvi«>f 
[not more lljan 7 lii*n» ($1.35) |>er day and paid at lnter\nl8 <'f one niotith or 

I iiovrrhMCHi rmpfoiffrH, Aet nppMeH t«» employmeni: In Rtnte, provincial, and 
I eimimunnl indnstrlpR enumerated aliove unh>ss Rpeelally pnuldefl fur. and to 
wi*rk |>erformeiJ for a puernment iustlttillon under eontract or eonee»sIi»n. 
Bunttn uf fniyincut. Kniire cost of i-onipen^uitlon rests n|>on employer. 
I VumprnHtitviH fur tirittfi. If within two years after the accident, Ave times 
I nonmtl wn^rett of di>eeaseil workman, with a niaxioium of lO.iMM) llms 

I ($l.p;«U. distrihutrtl to— 

I on Survlvfui; eoiisort tw<)-fifthH of Indemnity If there are ehlldren : one- 

I half of Uidemnity tf there aro dt'i'ondent asceutlautg; threi'-tifthw of 

I fiid«'niiilly If <inly deix^ndeiit hrotlu'rs or sisters; entire indenuilty in 

I nh«*»uce of heirs enunieratwl. 

^^ I'hililren, amounti* suttlelent to pnrchiitte an annuity of equal nuiuunt 
^H for ench child under 12 years of age. and one-half of finch nnnnity for 

^^f each child from 12 to IS years of age. 

F Each deiM'udent parent or prand imrent, If there are no children, nnnnity 

I of equal amount for life. 

I r>i'i^^"dent brothers or sisters leKS than is years of ace or inea|Mit>le 

I of iterformlnjr lutnir l>y reiisou of n mental or )>hysical defe«'t. if there 

I art? no children or deiiendent nscendants. annnltleH dlstrlhuteil u|M>n 

I same principle as In cat*** of children. 

^^ I ft) In uhwMioe of heirs indemnity 1« tnme<l Into a Ri»eclal fund for Imnie- 
^H dhite aid to Injured, payment of Indemnities for Insolvent employors* 

^^f and pri'Ventiou of urcldents. 

f Comtirnaation for diHahilUy. 

I m) (*»»jit of first uhhIIcuI and surgical trt^nlnient. 

I (6> An indemnity in case of i>ermanent disability of six times annual eam- 

I injrs, but no! less than S.OTMI llras ($r»70l if totally dlsJibled. and six 

I times the Iosk <tf annual earnhm capacity if partially dlsjibled. ejirnln^ 

I in latter ruse to be consUbTeil as ni>t Icsn than .V»o Uras ($!><».r><>). 

^^m ic) A daily allowance In case of temiM^rary diKOhillty of one-half the wnpes 
^B of lnjnre<l workman. |>ayable for not more tlnin thnx* months. If 

VV totaII> dl«d»leil. and ♦hhuiI to one-half the reduction In wages (m'ch- 

W^ - sloiirti by the Injury, if partially disjibU'd. 

f HorMo*! 0/ rv»»ry»ciMrtrfr>rf. Rtiih workman and insurer may nsk for a revision 
I of C4>tli|»enKation within two years after accident. 

I In'uriin,, Kmployers must insure their employees In (n) the National At*el- 
I ik'ii e Fund, (b) nn nuthorlK(*<l Insurance comimny. (r) an assoi'latlon 

I of ■ ' - for mninal Insurance ajtalnst accidents, nv td i a private enii>lojeiV 

I ln«uraui'<* fund. 

I Hvt'Mritu of ftayminfit. Payments are t^uurnnteed by Stale. 
I t<rttlt'm(ut of dinputrn. In mses of dispute onicemluK temporary disability 
f Iflymc iits, the cttuncll of prufihontmes nr the iiretor of the hx-jilKy In which the 
f 'H^cnrml has authority to sit in final Judgment If auKumt Involved 
i **xeiMMl 2U<) llras t|i:is.flO>. nisputes Involvlnj^ larger amounts ar« 
L rt'Xcrnal tvr fiettlcwent to the JocMt maglBtraiea, 



dii^Mit 



134 



BULLETIN OF TUB BUREAU OF I>ABOB. 



LXrXEMBTTKG. 



Dntr uf ritartmrnt. April r». IIK^J. til i'lTuct April 15, lt(03. 8lck ln«urnii<v Inw 
ennctrO July ai. 11K»1. 

Jnjnru'i* ronipctiHatrti^ All liiJiirloH hy iioeUliMit diirini; or bccauHe of the em- 
jilo.vineiit, ro«uinhjr In ilcnth or (llHnliMlly for more tlmu Ihrre dnyR, iiitleHft 
ranaed InlPiilUniuIly liy Ibc vk'lliu or diirltiF; (he <*ommlffs[on of an IIU^hI iirt. 
Inftwh lift nut n ft. MUu*^, ijnnrrk'**, mnnufnrturlt's, im>tulliirKi<*fll i^iliibllwli 
UK'iits; KMH ami cl(H*irlc wurkK; tnu)K)iitrt;Uloti iind luindllnp: Inilldint; iind 
cn^lurorln^ couHtnu'tion : iiud i-<'rtn)n nrti.siiiis' shoim hitvliii; nt It'iiMt five <*in- 
|iloyw8 rei-iilarly »>"1 u^Uitt niivliunli-]!! inoMve jutwur. By ndtiiliilHtrntlve ord*»r 
otli4>r e.stJiblishmeMtH iiiiiy hivoiiio HiibJtH't to tlu< Inn* if n*t7urdt*il diuip«rou». 

Prrmuttt ctitnjifnstilt^tf. Workiiifii ntwl thow Hn|H*rvtHlnK niid tci'hiilnil ofHrlnliH 
wliow iiiiniinl I'liriilncH art' Ivwi lliiiii 'A.it^K* truuvH f^TiTU). Certulu other cIuwh-ji 
of iM-rsoiih riiuy lio vnlnninrliy liiNnml. 

fiovfrnmriit riniiltftfvrn. Art n|i|ilUf« lo KovorniiH^ut l('icj:rn(tli iind Meph^nr 
HorvJrrH. imhlii' woiii« loiidnclwl hy imhlli- nK<Mirlos, ami ifllipi' govcninieiitn) 
ludiiMtrliil «'>tttiltlUliiiit*nlM. uDli'HR iitlior provUlons an- umdt* for |»eti8li>uluK vin- 
ployci'B. , I*i'iiul liiHtltiitJonii iiio not IncIudwL 

Itutiitti of paffuiint, Uom'llt!< and <twl of trwilniont first thlrloon w«*okfl |»ii»- 
vId<M| by f»k'k beiiertt fnndd, tt) which omployoiH ooiilrlbiit*' <im*-thlrd nm! rm- 
ptoyt-OM twiHThlrdx, if injuriHl |HM*KtHi Ifi hiAurisI ii>::ittiKl Klikiu^Hit: If not, boifiuMp 
employed U'ss thnn oiio wwk. liy ini nccldiMit hisnrun<i* iissm'lntlnn. Bnpportinl by 
♦ontrllMitbHiH i.f 4*niployorH; If not In^nnd for othiT n'ftwms. I»y Ibo f'niiiloyor 
dlrtN't : nil iMMU'Mt-* tuul trontinciit jifter thll'lofii wei'kn p:ild by irvUU'uI liiniir- 
nnoe nsworliitbin. 

CufniHiiHatitni ffjy tU'oih: 

(</) Kiincnil «»x|K»nR*»H, one-(lfl(H'n(h of Ibe nnnnnl rnrnlnps. hot not Io^h 

thnn 1<> friini*K ($7.TU) nor nioif thnn N() frnnm (^fiL'i.U). 
(h) rniHJonH, not to rxniMl (M» por i*riil <if t'liruUiKH i»f i]tMt*n»Pd. to — 
Wblitw 20 iK-r i.vnt nnill dinith or r^'umrrlrtp*; In thi- hiltor vHne n hmip 
Finn <'(|iiitl to i)(> iHT ii*nt : winir pnynirnt to n ili'jKMidi'nt wUlowi^r. 
K I^iK'h rblld 'J^t pvr cf'nt until Ift yinuM of ae<N (*vt*ii If fiittiiT Hiirvl\'<^ [irn 

H vbliil ht* ;ibiiml(MK*tl thrni. or tin* luolbet' who wut> kllliHl wa» (jii'lr 

H ninln Hn|>i>nrt. 

H lH*|H*ndotit hc'lnt Iti iin am^pndhif? line. 20 itor ceut. 

r>(<p<M)driit tirplnin cnimkblldri'n 2t^ por tent nalll ITi yoarN of Uf!v. 
Widow und cliildit'ii h»iu' tin.' iirt'fori'ni*.* imT olhrr hoirn, 
ir) In I'onipnilnie |NMtstoHK only om'-tblid of <*X(i^h of iinnuiit rnndnirti ovor 
l.rttNi fniiK-H i$'JS!i.:i4>^ Im 4iMn<ldcr«l. 
Cumfit'itiilhtri for tlittthililjj: 

{a) KntliT cost (tf niidU*/)! itml ^-iir^lciil tmitiniMtt. 

ib) For tiM»i|"»rHry ur |H*rmitm-nt U>\nl dlsjiblHty. from tldrd dny lo fnd 

H of fouiib w***'!!:. 5*1 (ht rout, and fn»m flfth to rnd "f thlrtiiMitli wo^'k, 

V ^^ M'r f«'nt of wn»st*« of iii«rH<»nH HiniDitrly »»niitloyt*tl : iifttr thlrt*H»ii 

W(*t*kH, (Mij IHT t'l-nl of nnnnnl cnrnlnK?* of Injnml (htsimi. 

(c) For futrlliU dlKiiltUiIy n ]M>rlIoi] of abovo (doiKMidlnjc ujion dtJgrof of 

tHMal>llllyK whi<li nui.v be Incn-aHitl to full jiniotnit. us Umg nn Injunnt 

rmployoc Ik without onipIoynnMit. 

(t/l Lump Fnm pnymonl?* may In* KnbKtItntrd for iieuvlooH whrn dtnn'iH* of 

dtMabllMy Is nnt ;rrratcr than LM por cent. 
('•) In ooniiMitlit;; |N*nHlonM only om- third of <*.xr<*Kn itf annual carnlnir* *»n*p 
l.r.OO francH ($2>*I».ri(M Ih ctnisldori'd. 
HrriMioii uf romitrn/tatioit. IVmands for cliatiKi* t»r iimounl itf rutupcnftatlon 
may be nuidr within Ihni* yi*iir»«. 

tiif^urttnrf. I'aymontH an> uwX by ninliinl aroldeni lii»urAn<v a*«(HM<tnlion of 
fmploy*'rH In whbh nil rmployet'H miiKt \*v lUHurtHl ul uxprnw of rmployori*. 

mt-rtirUti "f imifmrntH, Inwinimv iiBHoctnibin r-oinluctiNl undt»r Btuli* fiUfM^r- 
ifRtnn. 

h'rtlUmriti ttf ititpHU'Jt. \\\\\inK\n tr*m\ Iho dJ-clnInttn of lht> . — -i.n -♦ 

^nrrh^l witUUi, fi»rt,\ iJ/jVft (^ a JiiHtlif of tbi' |Knif<', who 

^jMcifx. rurttn*r iit>i**uil9 tuojr bo tak€<u to IIm? Vk\\^vx couttx. 



FOBBIOX WOBKMEX S COMPENdATlOX ACTS. 



135 



NETHEBLANDS. 



t>mtr of enactmnti, Jauuar.v 2. vm. In eflfHt Juiit- 1. liiui. Other acta 
nmrr 3 and December S. llKri, aud Jul> 24. l!M.i:!. 

fmittrirx ifituprnftatrd, \]\ injurlet^ i-^uHcd by acctdwit In the courne of 
laiiikignoL^t auil c!uuslui; (l^'utli (»* dlf^tblllty Air over two tlaya, uulfMf ItrvMt^l 
«a laleuiidiiiilly. Jf duf fi* iutoxk-ntiou, i.>(>uii>eitsutiuu l» ii<duc«'0 i»:iivljuU. uj 
if death rufiuUtrf uu comiH-usitUou U paid. 

im4m*tri4'tt rovrrriS. VraciU-nUy nil mauufarturing, miiilii4C< QnarrytnK. bulli 
IkC «afflBC3erlu^ cx>iistructJii>u. iiud truusiMrtutiuu; IIkUIuk Ui Jiitonml wfttcj^aj 
vAabiltMinK'ntd nsiuf: iDocbiUiKnl uiotixu |N>wor, ur i'\iiU*9iJve i>r Uiflai 
ciutt-riBli^ dud tueri'anlilo t^tiibtisUiiKMittt btindltiig sunh umteriuls. 
/*ri'*Qim fo/M/K'Mxafo/. All n"i>rKiui»ii, hu'liidliig jipiir^ntuiij. 
C?o4*mi«irA/ emploift't:jt. All stnte. iiroviDrliiU and (*(tmcuuaal fiuflorNS arp 
lodtMlod ubeii cnpigotl lii miy of the- iudu.strU*:« ouuiueraUHl, 

•/ paymrnU The eutlre exjieuse rests U|h.iii tiM* eiuiik»>'iT. 
xtkm for thitth: 
(o> Fniipnil btiietU of tblHy tiui»*s nvenigo dally (nirnUiKs of dci'cns^ 
(6> IViiipious to beirs of uot over IH» iilt cent of eitnilu;ui of dcttuiv^ dli 
trfhutpd to— 
Widow. 30 j>er t-eut of earuliiKi^ uutll dcwtb ar reuuirrUi^*. In lattt>r cni 
two yeiirs* iiayinentji ns n i>(>ttl^tneiit : ur t<> df|HHid(>u( widou'iM'. a iH>n<' 
ftioa fgiial to ci>t<t of KUitiMirt, but imt over Tjli \^:v ivut of oarulu^H ol 

dfVMIBCd. 

Kii'h I'htid undor K1 yo:irs df use 1*> i^r cvtit If uup tiarent »urvlve», uud 

LK jM'r <fnt if botb are di*u«L 
I>c|>endctit paroikiA, aiid In tbi*ir ui»soncr to ^frand pnretitft. iiot ovpr 30 

(tfr et'tit. 
Oridiaii jirandrhildri'n, not o\er L*<' i»t'r cent. 
Detteudent parents-in-law, uot over StJ [ler ctmt. 

Widow aud rliildron to Ik* rrcfrmtl t»ver all other bHrs. and tinir ro- 
Kfit^-tivc Fharcs to be reduced ivn»i»i>rtion:itely when ajwregnlinK o\cr (M.» 
I>er c«it. 
(c) Id n^iupatJn? i»en8lons. wages lilgher than 4 florins ($1.01) l»er day 
are to l>e confdderevl as of that auionnt. 
[C^vflipmjtafM^M j<tr ttixattilitp: 

<•) 1-Yee ukhIUiiI and Kar^lcal tr«iitui<*iit. or Us oo»1. 

4#) From daj after Injury until forty-tldrd duy. an uDownnce of TO per 

c^ut uf daily enruluKs, excluding Sundays and liidUlays. 
(c) From forty-third itiiy a |»onsi<in of iibme amount diirinp lotjtl illAnbllity 
HDd II »nialli*r pcufilon In proinirtlon to In^s of earulny iiowiT if i«tr- 
tiali ■ .il. 

<tf) Tn * [»»-iii*ions. wa^w* bl^h^^r thnn 4 florins <$1.01 > i»er day 

are u< i"- - ■Mfidered as uf that amount. 
Rrvlftion of rr,mprnffOti'in, An examination of condition of victim may he 
mad? whenever tlie Uoyal luRnrance Hank s<i denlres. 

/iMamnrr, Employers may insure their euiploieet* In the Hoyal lusunuice 
li-,..t ... ....... !...:,..*•,.., jjj jj private coniiwiny or nsso**iatlon operatlns ntjder 

J^i amy tarry the hnnleii thems«»lves. If not InnnriHl in 

tli II siitHrient puarauree uiust Ue deiMiBlted with the 

hi" .-ar :i pro|Mjriioii:tit> nbiiri' ttf the expense of adiuinla- 

tT ;ioce Uank. wlietli*'!* tUcy hr^nre In It or not. 

■ ritu fjf iKturrunfti. (*otii[>enRallon piiyuuMilK are ^uurautinnl by the Slate. 
4„, nt ..f .ti^t.ut..^ \i.i..^tlK nu»y U* taken from divUious of the Itoyj 
In ^\\\in eoiiucllit. In whirli employers and employeei 

■n 1 lui ih€m to a ccutral arbltrattou couucU wi 

dec&aUaia aru iXxuxL 



136 



BVU.ETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB. 



NEW ZEALAND. 



Date of niaNmCHt. (iftobtT 
g«iv«»nior l>y order In «x>nm'll. 



It ilutu lUod by the 



I 



is. llMHt. to luUi* elTLM.-t at 
AiiUMidoil Octobfr :i, lllO-J. 
Novt'UibtT \ V.KH. (K'tobiT .'Jl. 7!K>ri. jiinl «)rtoh^i' 'JO, V.hh\, 

tnfuririt rrtmitenHnlrtt. All Itijurii^s to wmianeii rtrlHliijt nut of and In Iho 
ifMirMe of Tbo rmii]o)')iHMit rnusin^ ilnith or <1irinl>lltty for nt \n\fH tiiiL> wiM.'k. 
t'Xof^pt whiMt duo to stM'loii» ittid witirul mtHcitiidtht nt the workman Injured. 
htituHtrirs ttivrmt. IncluBlrlal. t'onunrnlal. iiunmfn<Murinj;. Imildlntf, n;crifiil- 
itiral. pHHtortil. mining, qiinrrj-h)};, on^lneeriuK. nnd bnznrdouH work carried oil 
by nr on bt^'bnlf of ibo employer as n pnrl of bin trnde or bnHlnesn. 
PvrsfjUH vumprnmtvd. All persons nrider <'ontrait with an ouiployor. 
Vntrt'ittunHt cm/j/'tf/rri. Act applies to work carrliHl on by or on t>€bn1f of Ibo 
Oovernineiir or aiay looal authority If It would, In cose of n prtvnte employer, be 
nn en)i>loynient to which (ho n*:i applltiH. 

Ituntiu ft/ jm^minf. ICntIre fost: of c<mipenKatlou rcHtn niton empUiyer; bnt If 
there are contractors, then on mich cuulrHCtorH and the prlucU»ul. Jointly und 
Hevenilly. 

CoittitfttAafi(ttt for (tenth: 

{a) A Hnm iMjuai to thro(« yearn' earnluic^. but not leKH than t'^H) ((l»73JIO> 
nor more than £4<M> ($t,!t4(UM)|, tn Wutttf wholly dependent upon eara- 
Ihks of dwenntHl. 
(f>) A }<ntn les.s than above anmunt If deftcndents wern portly dependent 
uiKMi di'cfaHeil. to be atfreo*! \\\hMi by the turtles f»r Oxed by n magis- 
trate or by tile artiitratloii court. 
(r) UetiHtimdile exp*^!!-*^*'!^ of meilli-al attomlnncc. nnd burial, not cxctH^llng 
£.*J0 (?I4IS.0IM. in case deo«MiKed leaves uo de|>eud<*utR. 
Votnt><»i<ititJit for ttimbilitif: 

(«) A wei'kly payment diirinjc disiililllty not oxeefHiin;: .'0 |»cr cent of em- 
I>h>yee'K avi^raixe \vo4'kty oarnln^H dnrlnfi; the provlons twelve niontliH, 
K Inil not tu exctH'd i'd (f!).7M» tior to fall 1k*Iow £1 V$<.H7) where vni- 

H plny<H.'*H ordinary rale f>f pay at time of iiocldcnt was not Iohh tlnin 30 

H HhlMhiKt* ($7.:^J» per week. Total liability of employer 1h lhnlte<l to 

■ £:)0(i UI.IMM^rt). No payment Is nnide for llrst week If dtisablllty 

doe» not tontlnih' for a lonjjer p^rlad than two wi*ek». 
ih) A lump sum may be Hobstltaled fi-r wet'kly pnymentH for iM?rmunent 
totnl or iHirlial tllsnUilMy, to be aKreiMl on by the jwrtlen or. In d«.i- 
fanlt of ai:re<'ni«*iit, Oetermlncd by the eonrt of arhltrailun. 
UrrtnUm of hviiffitM. \ViM»kly paymentu nniy l>e revlwwl at rwiuesi o/ either 
jrtirty. 

Inniirnm'f. Kmployers may rontrnet with their employee for snimtltutlon of 
u A*henie of cian)M>nKarlnu, benetlt, or hiHuranco In place of ibe provlHtonH of 
the act if the MiuMne 1h .shown to be not Ichh favorable to the ironeral bikly of 
emp''».veea and their dependents than the provislonH of the act. lu Biieb ease 
llii- employer is liul/Ie only in accordance with the whenie. 

tirrurifn ttf im\im'ntK, When nn employer beeouien liable under Ihlt* ucl lo 
pay ciMiipcnHailiai. and in initllled to any tmin ftoni insurers mi <ie(*tnmt of the 
nmonnt due to a workman under Rticb liability, then in the event of IdN tMvonihig 
hiHoUent !:ucb workman haB a Urnl elalm n)M>n thin huui. <'om|K*nHJtti(>n for 
injnrloK »custalniil In the cmirM* of oniployaimt In or about a ndne. fnetory, 
buUdiiiii. or vesnel Ih deemed a cbarj^u upon the employer'** IntereMt In hucU i)roi>- 
iTly und has priority over iitl chjirui^ otin^r than Ihowt lawfully exlAtlnf: at th» 
time of the conmienreinent of the act. 

ifirtUriurut uf ttiHjnttr/i. rilsput<*« arlslujt nnd*M- tb." art are Hottled Ity the 
ro\irt of arbitration nuih-r the indnHirlal urbltrallon act. Where claim fur 
eompcnKation do{*H not exceed £1.*'n) <]pl)T:t.:tfM pr<M>«Hi|ln[;H may la* luKtltuted 
liefore a mairistrale wbowe de«l«lon l« linn I. exci-i't that In nisen whcro 
nitioimt involvfil dncK not excml C.'K) (f2l'l.ri:t) eitluM- |uirty may. with the coo* 
iffDt of the nuitcl^lrnte. and In caw** where the ilalm exo4V<lfl £«i t$243.S8)t 
wJtlitMtn fiuvlt cvtJmnit, uiH^hI flMUi hlH decinlou on uuy point of InW, 



POREIGN WuBKMEN's COMPEKSATION ACTS. 



137 



NORWAY. 



Ditte vf <*ii4tr/iti<-H/. July 23, ISfM. Iti effect Jnly 1. 1S05. 

injmrirt ntmpt n*ntni. All litJnrieH hy liulii>ttrl)il noi-idE^nts, ransinf; tlontb, or 
4imbllify for iiicire ihaii four w»M>kR, or rrtpiirln^r trontnient after that |>erlo(l, 
iK*»* jnteiitiunnlly hroiijrlit about l»y llie liijiiretl persou. 

IrtfiunfrirM r^trrrtt. PrjKtlcuIly nil fnot*iH<»s niul workshops nsinj; other than 
'Iiiitm) f^^ver: miiu*8 and qnarrles: tlii< hniiilliii^ of ioe. explosives, or inflam- 
ItmihU* \v:ir*'»*; hiilMiiiK niul eiijeiiieerliig eoiiHtructioii, elertrlr work, transiwrtn- 
fllon, «alvai>e and diving, chimney pweepinjx, and Hre extlnciilfthing. Rtnpioyees 
in otl>er Induntrles may avail theniHelves of this Insnnince system. 
prtniiHH ctjmitrusiitiil. All wnikinjniieii and (»vers«»rs. 

tiorrrntncjtt rmptou*4". Ad eovers employees in government or eommnual 
■wrvleo, when encage^l In any of the Induairlen eiinmenited above, unless at 
Oettpl egtiul i-oniiMMisjitloii is pmvideil liy KiHH.'itil regulation. 

tturtlrn t,f itof/mcnt, Cost of i^iini|>en«Atlon ivirta upon employer, 
CoMpiMitotiun in vm*f of tUatli: 

(ff) >*uiienil iMMiellt of r»i> erowns i?i:{.40y. 

{(t) PeoNiOhH in heirs not exciHHling TA\ |ter oeut of eanilngs, to be dte* 
trihnted to — 
WUhm-, 'JO por cent of enrningB, until death or rotunrrtage: In the latter 
<^Re a lump sum e<]ual to three annual pnynientj*; or dependent wid- 
ower. 20 |ter e»Mit of annual eaniingH of defease*! while diKiihllity Ut.sts. 
Kaeh ihMd !."» [kt cent of anuuiil ea^llng^^ 1111 age of 1." years. If oue 
imrenl survive*, nr 2<> iK»r cent If neither survivt-w; ir» \nn- eeul for eaeh 
luirent to earh rhild. when tmtli parents h:ive dlctl uh result of hiJurlcH. 
Oependeiit reUitlvet* hi ascending line, if there \a a r«'«ldue after provhliiig 
for nhovt»-nientloned heirs a pension of 'JO per <*ent of ennitng8 untti 
death or eessatlou nf need, to he dlvldtMl e<pmlly: hut living parents 
exclude grand[iareiit8 froui partk'l|Mitiou. 
ie) In computing |tem<lons, the exrt>ss of aunual eanihigs over I.UOO 

cn»wn8 (Sn^l.r.*)* Is not cousUIered. 
{d> Penaion (layments are In addition to prior alUiwanees granted for 
dfi'ahtliry. 
Ci*mv*'nMiitif/n for fli^tthitHy: 
U) Fr<H.' medical and surgical troainient, or cost of same, after four fvM>eks. 
(fr) If employee Ih touilly dlwihliNl for more than four wei»k« an allow- 
ance of <«0 |»er cent of Ihe earnings, hut mtt less than ()i>0 crown 
03 cents) i>er diem or ITiti crowns t$403M i>er annum: and a pr<Ji>or- 
llonate allowau'-e in case of iwrtin! dtsnhlllty. 
<r> If injunnl employee is forcwl to stay In a hospital, de(»eudents re- 
allowances during that time ecpial to the pen»Iou.s granted In 

^ nf flt'iUh. 
(il) U injureil employee i3 not n memlter of a sick Insunince fund he Is 
cntltliHl (o receive frtira employer directly sick henertts and free med- 
ical treathi»»nt from first day of injury. 
iti In coniiMiting nllowanccs the excess of annual enndngs over 1,200 
crowns ($:i21.fW») is uid couslderefl. 
Sfr-inion of rofnpf'nMtition. ComiH'nsatlun Is suhject to revision ni»ou demand 
of rilher the henettciary or the Insurance nfflce. 

/(M«ra«cc. A state ceulnil iusuriiuce office Is estahlishtMl for the entire 
k'iM..,i..Mi tn which all employees suhjpi't to the law must he insured by em- 
iiilcss he is. for ei>eoIfll rcqks<:ms. relieved by royal order from the 
ill of Insurance. 
SfTurili/ uf paymvtttM. Insurance offlce is guaranteed by the State. 
Piilrmcnf of tlitputcH^ Apjumls from tieclslons of Insurance office may be 
within six \ve<*k8 with the spoclnl Insurance commission. 



I 



BUU^XI>' OF THE BUREAU OF LJiBOtt. 



QlTEENSLAlfD. 

Dtitr of rmuttiKnt, Dweiul»T 'JUK IJKKi. !n i-ffei't MarWj lit. l\t(k\, 
fitjurhn iitmpt'uMUd. All iiijurif^^ h>- lUvUWikt. iirlstiix itiit of nriil tn tlit^ 
*Niiirw of the ••njploj'uirijt, whlrli ruiiw (Unith *»r (iiiuihlf n ivorkmnn for iil li-nnt 
two wtH'kK Trom fiirniiiK full wii>re« wX tho w«»rk n( w hlrh lu- wnn ••iii|»lrt.v<^l, 
rxii*|tl whrti tlu* liijur> 1h dirt** ll.v at(ril>iit;it>le to liit* M*riitiitt iiiul wUtfttl luiHti'it 
iliirt lA' whpii It iK'ciii'H while protHM^IUi^' to or fnoo UIh pUcp of wt^'K. 

lutttmiritM t^rrftiU IiidioMrhil. rttinioiTrlul, mantifji«-tnrin?, ImiMitt^. neri<*(il- 
tiirul. luiRlitrul. tiiiuiii^ quaro'tiiK* «*ii)firirM*riti;r. or lijiiuir<1oiiK work rarrlml on 1f>* 
or oil hftuiir of tiM* fUJpUiyrr iik a pnr( nf liJH tni*!** or t)iiKii»i*iKK. 

/•f r*fon rv/«i/H »«»(/(*/. AH InTMiHi** Mti<l«*r (filtno-t wUli ini *'jii|tlojrer. 
(Jui'cruuirMt vMtitiu^'i'*. Att iipi'Ht^ tn iiny work currU-*! on l*y <»r «i lielmli' of 
the KovtTiiim'Jil or mm.v I<k'9i1 Hiiiliorii.r if it w<»til<1. lu i-at^ <if n iirlvnte eiut>loy«^, 
\ny nil rni|iloyiiici)t ttt whli li tb4> to-t nttpli<>*t. 

Huntrn uf iHiymcut. ]-4ntlr«' foiit i»f (HMiti^ni^iioii r*<iitt4 ii|Miti iMniiloytM*. 
CominuMttiiitn f'>r tfnuh: 

{a] A Miiiii iiiiiiil to ttiroo ypnrK' Hiniiiif^H, Iml not ifr» lliini £'J<K> ((Stut.'iOi 
U4tr UHin* tUnu iUH* lIl.'.MO.UO). to tliosi> wholly tU*piii«l**iit tiiKMt 4*iiru 
iiitf>f lit i|(M-<*ii?^'il : lull iix^tl Jiiul iiiMnu i'iiipliiyi*i>s iiiny axree In ailvauco 
to a«vei*t H redtt4-t«U diuounl. 
(tt) A twin IrHR thuu nUovi' If hrlfM :irt* only luttity (liMK>nili-nt. 
(r» U«>amiml>l«> fx|ienHf>H of niedUtil uttHiKt:uH*M :hii1 luirliil. not mixH^llliu 
I'ii) <$1-)i!). if tleiviiiMxl leuvi's no ilr|inuU^it»i. 
Cumftt Hirtiikttu for liitmhiUt^: 

irMi A wwldy |>tiyuu-n( (InHnj; dlfiiiMHty tifli»r Kw-^nid wiM'li. n<i* rxr*HHl)iiL' 
5*1 |K?r rvnt of *?ni|iloyi*''s n*<-ni*ro wt'Hily ctirniiiirw itiu'lnj: tlw provliois 
Iwplvo inontliM, Kin'h w«H'kiy iiflynh»nt« tiot to rxo^t^l t\ ($4*S7y, hih) 
tnml Hiitailty not to ox^tHNl il<K» (f 1.m4l.(iil( ; oX(M«i>t tlitit akM uihI In 
firm Hhiployot'N niiiy "Ktvc In niliniir*- to ar<'>v>|it n rt«Oui**»(l ainoiint. 
{h) A \rppkiy puyuieut durlni; iinrlliil dlKflblllty nfler MK'ond woi*k. not px- 
ifiKlitiA.' oio'lmlf of illfTi'i-MiK-i' JM'twiMMi fhr oi»iiIi»yi'«''H rtVM^ge wockly 
cnmliuc^ lH*ff)rp tb<' iK*<*liU*iit ntwl tbo nromic^ infMMtly nianuiit wlifoh 
hi* N fiirnlii}: or nltli- to c.irn jifti-r injur.\. 
ir\ MliKvrs imiy ho nllowi'd frill nirnln^s diirlntr la(*Hpni'lty. Bi»t «»xoeKdhi;: 

10 idiilliiito" (12.4:)) wct'kly. 
<*/) A Uimp »uni tuHv Ik» Kiilwiltiil^^l for wt'i'kly i«yiu«'ntii afltT ihrw 
luonlUM. on .'ippih-iil 14)11 (*r f*in|tloycr, the niuotuit io tx' iif;r«H^1 \\\hm\ nr. 
In (lofuuU 4if jigrtH'uiml. (o Ik- UKeriwInwl Ijy n |»uUrL' uuiirlKtntfo. 
lit I itiitu iif t'linitfvtation. WwHtly |ictynit*n1ff nmy In* rfvlmut hy ti jkHW 
innciKtt^tr at ro*|nMit of oltlui- imrty. 

fnMitt-Hnrt. KmployiTH inny wiitrttfl with IhHr rniployiH*** for Fnhstltullon of n 
Hchonn' of loniponsiitloii, hfiirflt, or liiMiirnnro In plucr of »hr* provlnhnis of tho 
nrt If IIk- K-hetn** (b offh-lnlly r»»rtlf>rf1 tn Im* not Wnh finonihlc to (hi* I'inph'yooH 
ntic! thoir tl«»p*'oi!fnt^ thnn thn pr^ivJKiont* of tho mt. lu Rm*h rjiw» tlir oiuployiT 
Is llnhio onii ill «i*i*oriliin"*o with tho Hrtu'tue. 

Hrtttrttft of jutftmrntM. Whm nn cuiphtyrr l«»ooiu(*ii lUibli* iiufirr tht nvt t» |Miy 
t-onipcuNiillon, iiml Ih ojiIIiUhI Io iiny Hinn from liiHnri'rn tin Hrcinint of (ht* 
MUM/uitt line to n workc*r nn(l«T Mnrli Mnbnity. th**n In tlie t'vviit of UU Invomluig 
IntutlviMil. stioli workmuu bus it flrnt clnltn npnn lhl» Mtni for thr nnmnnt At> 
dua*. 

S4'tttrmrHt nf tttMjiufra. Dlftptttof* aiiwUijr uuiSiT ITm* ncl nr** hmn! and dHi»r' 
nilru*d hy n |miIu'<» inncLstrnlo, whow dorijitoii Is fliial. i*xi^*p( tlwU **ltht'r liarlj' 
niiiy (ipiKiii froiiJ thlt* di-tiMon oii iiny [>olnI I'f )ii>v wIlU thf lattrr'n h*avf tf thr 
ilahii doiv aot ox<'ei«d £SO i^'^VUVH}. or wltlicwt h\m lffir«» If It exciw<l« tbut 
itluounL 



FOBEJGX WORKMEN S COMPENSATION ACTS. 



139 



P^lw 



BUSSXA. 

Oair of cnnrtmcnt. Jutie 2 (lu), llnO. lu effect January 1 (U), IW*. 
tn/nrira f/miM'ntntffl. ATI hijnrli's hy ncclUeiil im^oihIoiiwI by itr on n<T<nint of 
wi>Hc flftil mmjlni: dwith or fliwibllity for more than tbree days. unle»i« 
•vrtHnchl oil Inteiitbiually by fho vU'tliii or due 1o cT<»tw iinpnideiice. 

r;,7ii.f. r, >, tf.rrrrtt. MeliillurKlrn! and mlrilnif (vtabUfihiiieiit»i and factories 

iig tither Ihnit bund tK»wer. Init exclusive of sbo[)v of prlvat*? 

iiHb1|> i't>in|Mitilcf) Mild certaitt rural ltid(|tftrial oxtablUhmeiitii. 

/*rrjH>n.« rompruMtttrt!. Workiut^ii and tbrme technical officfols wbose nnnilRl 

mhir*; dn lud eicottl l.r<U«.i ndtli-s (?77'J.r»0), 

r7' rmftlottrrit. Act Qii|tUes to nilidntc. tuefiiHurizlcal and nuinufnctur- 

t • - !innit« of nomi>ip«l und xenistvo xovemmonts, but not to imttcrtiat 

"VrfiiuH-iit ci«i'''»y*^'^**. f*'t* wbom iq«e<;lfll rei;tibition»< exist. 
Kmr^h n of paymvtit, Kutlre burden of imyment rents upon employer. 
Comp*ntfttUtn /«*■ tlmth: 

{u} Funeral expenito^ not exceeding 30 rubles ($15.-ir)) for an adult niul 

15 niblea <$7,73) f»»r a child nndor l.i yenrs of aice. 
<>) Pensions to deinfident bt*lr» tutl evi-e^-dln^r W3 l»er cent of annual e*»rn- 
Inp* of virtlMi, 4li«lrlbnltNl t»»^ 
mridow .^.'t^ [H*r rent uutll death or remarriai;e: In tht* latter case u 

lauift »ui\\ e<itinl U* tlirti* iinniuti imyuientH. 
Enrh clilld niilll ajr*' uf ir. years lt;s per cent if one jiarent Hnnive« and 

25 |jer cent if neither iwrent survive**. 
HeiMHidiuir heirs in nwendluK Hne. V*i (»er eeiit. 
Enub de|H>ndL'nt orpliaa hro(b(*r and Nl;«tt-r uutll 1I> yeatrff of afce. 161 per 

r«nt. 
Widow and cbltdi^n tJike precetU»iice over c»tber deiiendent belrs. who 
share the reninindor hi ec|iuil imrttt. 
(C) iVutiitiu may. l»y mutual i-ouai'nt of employer and beneficiary, be re- 
pbiretl I'v siimlc pu.\uienl of ten tiuiep anionnt of nnutia! i»en»<|on and. 
in crtHo nf obiidnti. ihMision niultlplteil by the numlwr of year? reuuiin- 
lui; fur pension pa.vuieiits, but not exce<Hilng ten. 
ComprnMUtion fur tiiitfihUitv: 

(a| Kriv rue*IUnI ami »inrj;!c«l treatment or relmbnri»enjent of eipeuse of 

name. 
{h) If permanently dlntbleil. a pension of 00{ pereent of anuunl t*anUngs 
of victim In case nf total dlmhtllty. and a ihminUmi prnfiortbintiti* to 
devn't'e t»f ImaiMU'ity in wi.s*» of p:irlliil disiibilUy. In be jiald from time 
when degree of permanent disability waa d4?tcriulned : If amount of 
Iteusbiu cxottHlH tbnt of previous nlhiwauot* for tt^nipnrary dlsitblUty, 
difTereine between the two during the |»erloti of disability Is j^iid to 
Heinnineully Injunnl eu)|>Io.vee. 
iv) Pent^inn may. by niutunl omseJit of employer and bcnt'ficiary, be re- 

pbu-od by a 8iti;:le payment of ten tiuK"^ amnuut of annual ]K>UHl(tn. 
{d\ It teniiMjrartly dlsiibli*<l. an allowance of T*t f»er cent of actual waK"s 
B cf vlrtim frnni day of necldent until complete reei»very from di»tbUlty 
V wf Ibe determining; of degr;*e of i>enuaufut disability. 
Sniakin of ruhiittHJtaiif>n. iJpumnds f»tr revltsion of imyments or to siH.'ure 
inttuikai prei iuu^ly lefunctl nuiy be made by ettlier party within three y«irs. 
fiflMJtorr. KmitloyLM'M may trunaftT burden nf itnymenl of (NmiiteuMntloii by 
imtht'lr Hmplnytvif In anrborlxotl Innuranre rompanI(*8 or HocJetles. 
St^nrity uf juii/mffit't. On retiring fntui bn(*liies.s employer must fcuarniitee 
lymentfl by liiMurame or by de(>os!t with n Mate Iwink. in e.ise of iuiwivency. 
lynwntii ccmatltuie a |irefcrre<l claluj. 

Settlrmnttn of itlHpnlrn, Dl*ipnte»i may l>e earrled into courts as other flvll 
kpL Hach raBi^«i are exemiH from court fet>«, the doctinients are free from 
^Ea tax. uad ntioruey'» fees aiv fixed t>y law. 



140 



BULLETIN OF THK BL'REAU OF LABOB. 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



/)«^■ of rn'ti tttinit. I>i't(MiiltL'r 5. IIH)(». hi effwl not enrllop thnii Jnno 1, IfCH. 
InJurit'H rrnitprtt/titivd. All liiJuHcH to worUmon nrlnlhg oiil of «ud In Ihi* 
Coiirs4> of the Piiiiildyint'iil rniisliiK tli'nlh or (JlKiihlllty for nt l*»nKt otic \v<H*k. 
excopt wIumi d«o !u serious aiitl willful uiiwvmOiirt uf tho woiUmun liijtirwl 

/mtiifitrirfi t^nrrril. IIulIwayR. wntorvviirUs. tniiiiwii.vs, HectrU--ll;.'!iiinK W(»rkK, 
fui'toi'lt'H. iiiiiirH. qunriMos, tMijcliKHTliic mill luilhllit^r wtirk. I'liiiildyiucnffl lUi InriHl 
hy a prtK-liiniiitlou «tf tin- Kt>\»Tiiur tipoii uiMi-oksi's frinu both ln»uw»8 of iwrlln- 
liK'tit tit bi' (luiiKci-oiiM (n- lujiirbms to hoiiltli or tbin;;oroiis tu lift.' or limb, and 
aiirU'ulttinil purntillH wlirre unx'hnnlrnl nioilvi« powt-r Ih iisttl- 

/Vr«ofw cyw/itiiwu/f'i/. All iwrsoMs inisnKfxl In iniinnal Inbor or otbcsrwise. 
(Utvrmmi'Ht rnifttnttitH. Art npptlos to ilvIHan iii'r.'ton** <?niploy»^(! unJor llie 
Crown ti> wlinin It wonlil apply If thr <'niplt)ycr woiv a private person. 
Burden t*t fMi/m* nt. Kntlrl? cohI of fOinivuHutlon n*viiH \iim>ii t>uipluyer. 
VtinviiriiHtitiun fnr iltnth: 

in) A Hxun i-^inal in thrcr j-i^nrs' onrnUiEff. but not Iopb tlinn £ir><) ($72I».I»S) 

nor nmn* than £'i(Mt (il,4r>1U»ri), to tbow wbully dt*p**iHlent uihhi eani- 

hiK« of d(*ri*iiK(^l. 

(b) A snui lr>f*H than abovt* antionit If dcpt'ndenlH wort' partly di*iHMid- 

put npoti doceumxl. Iti Ir* afrrt'tNl npou b}' the partlos or tlxeil by nrbl* 

tratloit. 

if) Ib'aHonablo ex|i(*nw8 of niedlrnl atli*ndatict> and bnrlal not oxcetNllnts 

£r.O (:|IJ43..TJ», If dw4»«Hod lonvw no dopendont;*. 

VotniniiKOtiOn fur tliyohiliti/: 

(a) A wwUIy paynicnt dnrlnp dlwiblllty after flr«t wook, not ox(Nh**1Iiik TiO 
pvr (MMtt of t»raployiN»'H avornifo wit'kly carniuKH dnrliij; tbo t)r«»vbm8 
Iwi'lvr nionfhs. Ktu-h weekly paynioiils not to I'Xi'eed £1 (?4.**7^ imr. In 
raso (tf toial huaimelty, to he k'>4s ilian Ik tlii. ii|!|,s:{t jw»r week, and 
total liability not (n exeeed £:;4Ni lAKirtlUtr')!. 

A wi'ekly payment tbirinn partial dl>*jd)Ulty after llrnt wei'k to he l\\**tl 
with repird to dlfTerenee hetweeii einployiM''8 avonine weeklj* eiimlnK** 
liefore the aecbleiit aiul avern^* wi^kly ainonnt wlilrb he In cnnibn; or 
able to ejirn after Injury. 

A Intnp Hiini not excee^lbiK £;ttM) i$1,-iri1Mtrit may be !*nbf*tlln(ed for 
weekly imymentH, after hIx months, on applkittion of either party, the 
atnuiint to be aettleil hy uridtnitloii under the aet In defitnlt of a^rce- 
meiil. 
Iff riititut of tH-ntfit/i. Wwkly itnynientn niny \h* i-evlfted nl rwjoefrt of ellber 
imrty. 

ttitufftitrt*. Kmployer** tnay i-ontrart with their employees Ptr Mnlistltntlon of 
a n-hiiui* of ennipetiMutlon, lu'netlt, or iMHiiranee hi plaee of the proviHluitH of 
the ni'l, If tlie pnldle a<ttmry i^ertltten thai the whenie Ih on the wholi* not less 
favorabli* tu general l»<My of (•niplo>ti«K aud their depemleiilM than Un' pri>- 
vIhIoiih of the net. In Hueh ens4< I'mptoyer is liable only hi arcordanee with the 
Pcheuie. 

HrvttrUu of iHifinttiifii, When an empbiyor bN.-onifM Hubk* ntider llie net to 
)iay eompenj^atlon, and In entitled to any sum from Itiiiiiu'erH on nccotint of thi* 
uinonnt due to a worknuiii under HUi'b llabtltty. then in the event of bin becoming 
In54dvent mull wnrknuin hitH a llrxt einim upon this sunt, atid any J*|'*'*'hil maK- 
IftlraU' may direet U« pnyment Into the RnxUiKH hank lo be ntiplbM to payment 
of roDi(M*nsntbai.K dut\ 

Sritlrtn* lit Iff tiiMpuivH, ItlKpiltes nrWInc nnder the art are nettb>d by 



ih 



ir) 



tho 



arhltniiion tTf exintltiL' (uniniUt' 
or, If either |»arty objerp*, liy a 
nbtti'nee of aKn'eiueitt, by a H|m*. i^m 
luuglHtrute has uU the puwern of u 



Mi|tlo.verH and • 
t ttn bv the pan 



Lii .iti'Uralor iipi>uUiU-<k i>j lue 



JDREIGR WOBKMBN's COMPENSATION ACTS, 



SPAIN. 



Dair of rucitinrnt. January 30» llHHi. In efTect July 28, 1900. 
tnjHrirff ntmpfnmiUH. \\\ Injuries by aec'UU*ntB to employees In the course* 
of ai»d Ity n'nsim of tbe enipUtyuieuf causing doatb or dtMihlllty. Compensation 
laay be rt-dm-fMl If Injured iwi-wtn was engaged In an llleK«l act, 

tniim*tri*s covered, Munufurturiug, inlnee, quarrlea, metallnr^cal oetabllBta- 
nkeuts. itinstmctlon work. induRtrie« injurlons to bealtb, trannportatlou, gai 
aiid Hf^'trl** works, street ehmnlnp. theaters, and agricultural and forejitry 
r^tabtUhueutfi Ufiing i>ower machluery. 

P*T*t»«* tfjoifti'tufotr*!. Workmen i^erformln^ manuul latwr. IncludluK hel|trr» 
and approutletw. 

iiuri^mmfnt tmpJuyrrs, Act applies to employees of 8tate factories and other 
icorrmment etitabllRhmeutK, to labor ari'identH In war and naval deimrlnientK, 
BOd to enitabliKlimcuts of provincial and commnual governments. 

Burdm of pnymtnt. Entire cost of comi>en»i1iun restt? uiton employer. 

t'omprnfiatUni for diath. In addition to any prior henetltft luild for disability — 

(a) FuoenU exiK^uHes not exceeding 10(^ iwaetau ($1V*.30). 

(b> A lump Bum etpiul to two years* earnings. If widow, and ehlldreu or 

dependent orphan grnndcbildren under 16 years survive: eighteen 

mouths' earnings If only children or orphan grandchildren laurvtve; 

one year's earnings If nnly widow survives: t*ni months' eaniingK to 

dep^'f^dent i>arent8 or gnind juirents over 60 years of age. In absence of 

widow or children, if two or more survive; seven months' earnings If 

only one parent t»r grand imrent sunives, 

{c) For these lump snm payments, by mutual consent, the following jten- 

aiouH may be substitnted : 40 i»er cent of annual earnings when widow 

and children or grandchildren sunive; 20 per cent of annual earnings 

when only widow survives; 10 per cent to each dei>endeut |iarent or 

grand fiaront «>ver tW) years of age, when no widow or children survive, 

but not over 30 per cent In the aggregate; compensation to widow 

ceases on her remarriage, and to children on their attaining the age of 

16 years. 

(4) In theoe cases, the daily earulngs to be considered as not less than 

1.50 |>esetas (^) centsK 
(r) AH of these comt>eusiitlons are Increased by 50 y)er cent If the establish- 
ment Is lacking In the re(iuire<l safety provisions. 
ipenitation for disabiliti/: 
(a) Free me<lical and surgical treatment during disability, 
(A) Fifty per cent of dally earnings, Inchidlng Sundays and holidays, from 
day of Injury to day of recovery from ^Usability, but not over one year, 
Hft»*r which case is treated as one of i>crmanvit disability. 
(n In i>:i8e of ttcrmiineni disability, in addition to the furt^^olng. u sum 
equal to two yeai*s' earnings for total disability. 
eighteen mouths' etimlngs. If total disability extends only to former 

trade. 
One y^r's earnings in cases of partial |)ermaneut disability for nsual 
employment, unletts the employer agrees to employ Injurnl workmen 
at some other work at old rate of wages. 
id) In these cases, the dally eai-nlugs to be considered as not less than 

IJjO-iK'setas t2D ceutsL 
<e) Comiieiisatlona are increased by 50 per cent If the establishment Is 

lacking In the required safety provisions. 
'•' ' './ rorfipvnsfttionr No special jtrovlslon Is made in the law. 

. Kniployers may contract with anthorlzefl InsuraiHv companies to 
iiiM- ••i'ligations laiitos<*d by law. 
'M/i'ly of tHtiiift*.nt9, No siieclal provision Is made In tbe law. 

rrn. IHspulcs coucernlnp ^^imii^osaitlon under the law may 
h* /fTiijaweDt Jalwr tribunals conalstlng of representatives of 

Um' .->..ji». tviy/i^'i r j.'. riflJ e/jj/»yoyees. 




142 



BULLBTTV OF THB BURBAU OF LABOR. 



SWEDEN. 



Date of enactment. Approved July 5, 11)01, In Rffert January 1. 1003: nmendcd 

Juop 3, 1004. 

tnfuricM vumpctDtatctt. Injurlot* by luviilputs 1o worktiion roHuItltiK from tb9 
vniployuient, nnd canstiig dontb or dltutbilliy for more than Rlxty dnyx. unless 
due to ih& willful act or e^ohh nogllpence of the vtrtlui or to the willful act< 
of a third i>er8ou wbo has neither the huihtvIsIou nor the direction of the work.. 
Irtduntrics i*ovarrd. Practl«jMy nil eatiibllNhmpnts cngngMl In forestry work. 
mining, quurrylnt:. turf iiud tee cuttlUK and hnndliUK. luanufucturlnK. ehiruney 
Hweoplng. raftlnK, nillwny and trnuiwjiy service, hiiitdllni; nowlw, huildliiK trades, 
conduit, rofid and other constnit'lkm work, i\nd eU'ctrlrlty, p\H, ami wnter dis- 
tribution. EmployerH in other tudUHtrloB may hi.sure their empIoyoe8 In the 
State Intfuranee Institute and thert4>y he placi.-d under provislouD of the net. 
KmployeeH In other IndUHtrleM may WMMire the protection of the net by Insuring 
themseives In the Ktate luRuranct* Institute. 
Peraonti vompcnMafrtI, Workmen tind foremen. 
ffnvrmmmt t'mp}n\irrH, Act nppIU*s to emplciyecR In thr slate and eomiuunal 
services when en^Cll^fed in any of the Industries iMiunn^rated above, 
Buuirn of payment. Kntire cost of ('oui|N*nMitt(in ivhIs n|>ou employer. 
Compensation for death. When death resulta from the injury wlthlu two 
year©— 

<a) Funeral benefit of (JO crowiw ($lt5.08). 

(6) Annual peuHlonH not cxtMHHliUB lu the nKKre^ate 'M)0 (.towuh ($80.40), 

to t>e distributed to widow, until remnrrliige llfO crowus ($32.10) ; eACb 

child under 15 years of age (V) crowns ($16.08). 

OvmpertHQtion for di*iability. 

(a) If permanently disabled, annual pension of 300 crowns ($80.40> In case 
of total (lisabltlty, and a smaller sum corresiMmdIng to loss of earnlnj; 
power In case of partial disability, pension to he^lu with slxty-tlrst day 
of disability, or later If i»ermaneut character of the disability wds not 
then establlshiHl. 
(6) If temiHirarlly dlsableil for more than sixty days, 1 crowu (27 cents) 
[>er day tH'Kluntng with slxty-Qrst day. 
HcvUion of comprnxatiott. Suit may he brought in a court of first Instance 
by Injureil employee for a revision of cuuiiKMisatluu wltbln two yenra from the 
date of the tixlng of the same. 

IrtMurnnce. If an Injuretl person receives nn nllownnce or jK^nslon from nn 
orgiinlJUition which Is HU|j|K>rtetl entirely or In prcater pnrt liy the eniitloyer. or 
if the victim Is Insurvd In a private orKanlxatlon by his employer, th«* amounts 
received from such a source may l>e dfHjuctwl fmni imynicnis ro(julre«l of em- 
ployer under the act. Employers may transfer burden of paymeut of coml>ensa- 
tlun by InsurluK lu the State Insurance Institute, created for this purpose |ty 
the act, or in Indlvldiiiil r-itHos purchase nnnuKIfH for t>«*nsionerH from this Insll- 
tutlon. Other nrrnupMrn-nta may be made between employers and cmplojrws 
If thr Stall* luHiirunco Institute finds upon exnmlnntlon that they tire not un- 
fnvornble to the employ et^s. 

Si'curitu of jttiumcntH. Au employer may be required to ^1^Dl8h adequati' 
security for tbr pnyment fif the jKnisloM to cover the contInK»'t»ey of his neglect- 
ing to |iny the miUH*. of blM retiring from htinlrn'«s or Icnvlnj; the r<Hnitry, nrl 
of his itiH-onilni; Ini^olvi-nt. If he fulls to furnish security hu moy hv r«'(pilred 
to |Miy a lump xuni cipial to tlie i*apltal value of the pensltm pluiv tin* imymeniflj 
aud Interest due. which amount. In the cast^ of an Injured emiiloyee. must b«^ 
Investitl In the purchase of au annuity from the Uoyal Insuranci? Institute. 

Srttlrtnmt of itinputffi. Disputes may be aettlwl oithcr by nr'^Uration or by 

brlni!init suit in u court of first Instauci*. The dci! ' i* 

made or the suit liroufibt within two yenrs after tii A 

flivIdeiitH within two years after the ileitlh of the vJtilm. if the aclii-'U iS 

tartiUixf thx* H(HU' Insuniuvt' Justifut**, one fi-ar more Is uUowimL 



FOREIGN WORKMEN S COMPENSATION ACTS. 



148 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 



Pitit of martmcnt. Febrimry IB, 1002. In effect on a date fixed by tbe gor- 
emor bj order Iq council. 

Injuries CDrnptTitfOfed. AM Injuries caused to n workniiin arlslnjc out of and 
In tlte course of the employment caaslng death or disability for at least two 
weelui. except when dne to serious and willful misconduct of the worlcman 
tnjnrcd. 

Industries covercfJ. Hallways, waterworks, tramways, electrlc-Hght plants, 
fttctoriee. mince, quarries, engineering and building work, and emplojrments de- 
clared hy a proolnmalUm of the governor. Issued pursuant to addresses from 
both bonnes of {jiirllument, to be dangerous or injurious to health or dangerous 
to life or Unib. 
P<T»©iw compcnanted. All persons engaged under eoatract in any employment 
Oovrmment rmptoj/ees. Act applies to all r>er»on» employed under the Crown 
to whom It would apply If employer were a private person. 

Byrdcn of poyment. Entire cost of compensation rests upon employer. 
Compmjtation for death: 

(o) A sum equal to three years' earnings, but not less than £200 
(1973.30) nor more than £400 (|l.:mUiO), to those wholly dei>eudent 
npon eamiugs of deceased, 
(ft) A sum less than above amount If dependents were partly dep^ideat 
»I»on deceiiHed, to be agreed upon by tbe parties or fixed by local court, 
(c) Keusunable expenses of medicul attendtiuce aud burial not to exceed 
not) l$-l»G.UOi. if deceased leaves no deiKJudeiits. 
CompenMation for dimbUity: 

(•) A weekly payment during disability after second week, not exceeding 
50 per cent of injured person's average weekly earnings during the 
previous twelve months, sucli weekly imymeut not to exceed £2 ($9.73) 
and total liability not to exceed CMH) ($1.451U)5). 
(ft) In case of partial disability, regard Is to be had to the difference 
betwee^i average w<»ekly eurnlngs before and after the accident, and 
to any payment other than wages made by employer on account of the 
Injnry. 
(c> A lump sum may be substltnt^M for weekly payments after six months, 
on tbe application of the employer, the amount to t>e determined by 
the court In default of agreement 
Rm*i9Um of benv/lta. Weekly payments may be revised by the court at request 
of either party. 

tnnumnrc. Employers may contract with their employees for substitution of 
n aclieme of ct»mi»»M(Sjitlon. benefit, or insurance lu place of the provlslous of the 
net. If the registrar of friendly societies certifies that the scheme Is on the 
whole not lees favorable to the general lx)dy of employees and their dependents 
than the provisions of the act. lu such case employer Is liable only lu accord- 
BQoe with this si-beme. 

SeourUy of pai/mcnta. When an employer becomes liable under the act to pay 
COvnpeDsatlon, and is entitled to any sum from insurers on account of tbe 
AiDoimt due to a workman under sucb liability, then in the event of his t>ecom- 
log tnpolrent such workman has a first charge upon this sum for the umonnt so 
du& Compensation for iujuries sustnlm-*! lu the course of employment In or 
about a mine, factory, building, or ves8«-l Is deemed a charge on the employer's 
latereftt In such i»ror>erty. 

Srtttement of diiputca. Disputes arising under the act are settled by the load 
ciMirt of the district In which the Injury is received. 



BRITISH WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION ACT OF 1906. 



In the following pagvs is given in full the text of the British Work- 
men's Compensation \oi of 1006, enacted Deeeiiiber 21, li)06, to tuko 
effect July 1, HK)7. It is given here to show the present provisicms 
of the British law in regard to the comix*nsation of workmen for in- 
juries i-eceived in their eniployniejit ; 

An Act to r<m«<in<ltil«« uiid uiiieml tho buv with rf»iKMt to fnin|K;n«iilon to work- 
men for InJuriL'H 8iilTorod In the <*€tnrne of (lieir t-niploynnMit |2tHt I)e**eml»er, 
1906]. 

Be it cnartrd hy • • • pafliamtnt m>Mrnibtf'd, <nnl hp thf authority of 
the namr. an fuUown: 

1. — (1) If in nny employment persouiil Injnry by itfvlfleiit arislnR out of and 
In the cotirw- of the fmitloyrnvnt U oaused to n workmnii, hit) employer Himll, 
mibject nK hereinafter uientlone<1. Ite liable to pay t'oniiHMiKutlon In ae^'ordanee 
with the flrHi Hohwinle to thlH ai-t. 

(2) rrovUled that— 

(n) The employer Hhnll not be liable under this act In reHi>ert of any Injnry 
whlrh does not dlHuble the workman for a period of at least one week fntm 
earnUiii; full wagets at the work at which he wuh ewployeil : 

(ft) When the Injury was eunswl by the iH^rsonal uenllK^Miee or wlllfn! ai-t of 
the employer or of Home person for whose act or default the employer la 
reHitonslble. DothluK In tlila uet shall atfiH-t any elvll liability of the employer, 
but In Ihnt fuse the workman may, a1 his option, either claim compensation 
under this act or tnke prmeeinnps Independently of this act: but the employer 
Bball imt tw lliible !■> |wy eoiu|>en>4atioii for Injury to a workman by ai-vldent 
nrlslnj; out of jind In the conrw* of the employment both lndt'[HMidentty of and 
alwi utider tlHs art. and mIuiII not be llnble to uiiy pi'«H>ee<lin^H tiidepcndetitly of 
this aet. except In ease of such personal nej:llKenee or willful aet as aforeaald : 

tr) If it U provfHl thiit the Injury to a workninn Ih atdlbutiible to the serious 
and willful mlwoudm*t of (hat workman, atiy eompensatlnu rlahmHl In reH|»e«*t of 
that Injury shall, uMless the injury results In doatli nr mtIoub and permnucut 
disablement, be disallowetl. 

(3) If nny ipiestlon nrlsi>s In any proe<*edln(;s under this not its to the IliibUlty 
to pay f'onipensaflon under this aet (Ineludlng any question as tn whether tho 
perwai Injured 1h a worUnatn to whuui this net aiiplles). or as tit ihe amount or 
duration of ronipeowitlon under this net, the question. If not H<'ttle<l by iiirn***- 
Mient. Hliall. wubjtsi (tt the provlRiona of the tlrht w-luMnle to thU act, be setthHl 
by arbltnitlon. In atn'ordiinre with the wvtmd seUedule tt) this net. 

t4) If, wlthia the time hereinafter In this act llmltevi for tiiklnp proet'wllnjSM, 
nn aetlon 1m brought to rt»cover danuiK**^ Indeiiendently of this art for Injury 
rauHOtl by any aceldent, and tt Is determined In ench action that the Injury la 
I one for whh'h the employer Is not liable la siicli uctlon. bui that he would hJive 
ibei*n liable to pay riini[HnisalUm under tlio provlwlons of this net. the mtlon 
nhall lie diHrnlshed ; but the court In whiih Ihe flr(lo!i 1h ( ' * " II. If the 
plalnllO' so choow, prc»oi*eil to asm^w sueh eompenstitlon. but m-t from 

mich comi»ensattrtn nil nr p«rt of the > n»itfl wMih, In W- '■ ' *• T-cni 

eauseU by tlie plalntKr brluk'Inir tin- artlou Instciid of pn K't. 

|]nnny pr<s*ee<llnp imhIct- tlii- -nhKiMiimi <,\ii(iri tlic .'"Dci '!«u- 

fjivj It HJmll frhf :i 1 tiC- 

ft»tjf it fjfjfi ttht*ti ,1 .4^* 

[r forre hr<$ t^ffeci ol uu awut'd uinivr iiiU bcU 



SUTISH W0BKȣN'8 COMPBHeATTOK ACT OF 



II Notbin^ in tUltf uft Hhatl ufft^^t iiuy pnH-iH*4l1nt; for u Htii* iiikUm* tht* t>niit-t- 
relotlng to mines, fnrtorles, or work^ho|»^ or tbe appHcBtiou of any Huch 

2. — 0> Pror«*e<1ln^ for the reeovery nuder this BCt of rom|>ensatlon for an 
tmpuy fit " : I'H roAlntalnable imloss notlre of the aocUleut has been given as 
mim m» !e aft^r the hu|>(K.*utiii; tLifr«^«f and lit*fi>re ih** wtirkuiaii baa 

f*telitafii.\ •i.ii liit* emiiloytueiit in which h*^ was lnjiire«l, and unle$)»t thp i^laini 
oonpcnaaifon wiTh respp^t to ftxwh nrrident haslnvii uiado within six inoniha 
the (Kvurrence of the uoeideut (■nuaiug tbe lujury. or, iu cube of deutb« 
vltbiik *ix DioDths from tbe time of deAth: 

Provided always that — 

im) the want of or any defect or inaccuracy In auoh uotloe shall not be a bar 
lo the malntetii^Dce of such proceedluga if it iiii foimd In the proceedliiBs f*tr 
Ktlling the claim that the employer \a not. or would not, tf a notice or no 
aneided uortiv were then (dveu and the henrliif; iM>Ptitono4l. be jtreJudloe<l In his 
defhnae V ' -;;!it, defect, or Inaccuracy, or thai Piich want, defe<'l, or inat-cu- 
l»cy w>' "^ by mistatce. absence from the L'iilte<l Kingdom, or other 

iMB W tta l .. ■ . and 

(li> the faliure to mnl^e a claim witbio the |>erlod above 94|»ecitJed shall not be 
• iMir to the mjkintenance of Huch priH*ee<lin£:K if It Ih found tliat the failure was 
•toialaued by mistake* ubeence from tbe I'nlted KlnKdom, or other reas<»nHble 

<2» Notice in respect of an injury under tbla a»'t shall give the name and 

MldnefiS of the pen<ou lujuretl, and sluil) state In ordinary language the i^^uae 

4if Cte Injury and the date at which the accident happened, and shall t>e served 

^llifn^ employer, or, if there Is more than one emi>Ioyer. ui>ou one of such 

<3) The notice may be servetl by delivering the same at, or seudiug It by |K>»t 
Ib ■ registered letter addressed to. tbe residence or place of bnalneiw of tbo 
iwrsoo <iD whom it is to be aerveil. 

14) Where tbe employer la a body of iieraona, coritorate or unlncortionite, tbe 
MrtSc« nuiy also be served by delivering tbe aame at, or by seudlng It by po»t 
fci a iwglsiered letter addressed to, the employer at the office, or. If there be 
■ore tbaia one ofhce, any one of tho offices of such body. 

So. — il> If the registrar of friendly societies, after taking Fteps to ascertain 
tbe views of tbe employer and workman, certifies that any scheme of c*>ni|»en- 
Mitoiit benetlt. or insurance for the workmcu of an emiiloyer hi any employment, 
irbrtbrr or not such scheme includes.other employers and their workmen, pro- 
vMefli scales of ctimitensaition not less favorable to the workmen and their 
dependents than tbe i*orresitoDdiug scales contained In this act, and that, where 
tbr scheme provides for contributions by the workmen, tbe scheme confers bene* 
Oln at l«nfit equivalent to those (^Hintrlbutlons. tn addition to the benetits to 
irh ■ ■ ' •■rknien would have Imm-u entitle*! under this act. and that a majority 
taine<l by ballot) of the \vi>rkmen to whom tbe scheme is applicable 
., of such stjhrme, the employer may, whilst the certitUate Is in force, 
Umct with any of his workmen that the provisions of the scheme shall be 
;TirLT«si for the i>rovlslons of this act. and thereurKtn the employer shall be 
iui I awordance with the scheme, but, save as aforesaid, this act shall 

»\.^ lUstandlng any contract to the amtrary made after the commence- 

metii of tlii>^ act. 

i2* The registrar may give a oertlttcate to expire at the end of a Umlled 
I«>rtod of nut loss than five years, and may from time to time renew with or 
without mtKliilcaTions such a certlrtcate to expire at the i-nd of the period for 
which it is renewetl. 

|3> No scheme shall be so certitleil which c<mtains an •ihligatlou uikhi the 
VTirLitHMi tn lolfi the scheme as a coudttlou of their hiring, or which does uot 
1^ enabling a workman to withdraw from the scheme. 
iiit Is made to the registnir of friendly societies by or on behalf 
lueu of any cmployrT that the benefits conferred by any scheme no 
' in Tn the v'onditlouH slated in subsection tl) of this section, or that 
' such scheme are ji.ing violated, or ttiat the s*:heme is not lielng 
.-il. (»r Thai siitisf;irit»ry reasons exist for revoking the certlil-j 
'ill e.Minilnc iiiln the complaint, and. If satislied that goo<l* 
■mplnint. shall, unless the ciiuse of complaint is removed«J 

'tea a mn/rittirt* It* rvvolnil or cijfires, any inoueyft or S4?v'uvUWi^\\e\<\\.vit 
of the .'Hiif*ajv othtiJf, utter drie provision has t»evu made to i\\¥<' 





146 



BULLBTIN OF THU BUREATT OF IiABOR. 



tl»*» lirthllitlf^t* ftlronily ftccnhil. Im* (Hrttrlbulwl um nm.v bo arraiige^l bctwoeu llie 
employer nnd wurkiuen, vr uh nia^' be (letenuiucU by the reiclMtrur of friendly 
societies In the cveut of a dlffereuce of opinion. 

(fi) Whenever a 8cboine hna been certified ah Qforesnld, It ahall be tbe duly 
of tbe employer to answer all Bucb InqulrleH and to furiilsb all aucb aeeouuta In 
roKiird to tbe acbeuio aa may be made or required by tbe reglatrar of friendly 
sooletfes. 

(7) The chief rotslsirar of friendly sooletlofl sbnil Include hi his annual report 
tbe rwirtk'ulurK uf tbe proeitHlltiKft of the rei^lstmr uuder tbU act. 

(S) The chief re^ilatriir of friendly socletlea may make reiuriilatlona for the 
pur(M>He of carryhiK Ibis Bectloii lnti» effwt. 

4. — (1) Where any person <iii this section refern*d to na tbe prlncliMil). la 
the course of or for the purftosK-s of hia trnde or ImBlncHH, cr»ntrnc1» with any 
other i>er8on (In thlH Kecllon referred to as the coiitraftor) for the pxeciition 
by or under the oontrni'tor of the whole or any part of any work undertaken 
by the principal, the principal Khali bi* liable tt> i>ay t** any workman empl<*yt'<l I" 
tbe exoeution of the work any conipenHatioti under this act which be would 
buve been Iltihlc to pay If that workman had hwn Unme<]latety employitl h.v 
him; and where couii>enHation is clttlmcHl from or proceedhiKn are taken nuulnNt 
tbe i»rlocl|i«l, then, In the application of thlM net, referenrcH lo the prlnelpal 
shall be substituted for refi^reucea to tbe employer, except that tbe amount of 
comiKniautlou aball be calculated with referenct* to the cnrulnKS of tbe work* 
nntn under the emplojer by whom he Is ImrnwHately einplnytM): 

I'rovideii that, where the contract relnttw to threehlnic, plowing, or other 
BKricultural work, and the contractor provides and usvw machinery driven hy 
uioehunlcal i)ower for tbe purpoKi! of such work, he and lie alnue sluill be liable 
under this act to pay comiKMiHiitlon to any workman empluye<l by blui on such 
work. 

i'2) Where the prlnciiml Is lial^le to |>ay comi>enftatlon under this section, he 
Himll be entltl«?»i to be Indemnified by any penum who would buve lieen Uablr to 
jiay comiH'iimition to tbi* workman lndei»endeiitly of tbia aectlun, and all QUev 
tlons as to the rlgbt to and amount of any such indemnity ahell In default of 
agreement be aeltletl by arbitration under tbU act. 

Hi) NotbiniK In thlH Hci-tion ahnll he construtH) ns preventing a workman 
rec»»verlnK compensation nn<ler this act from the contractor Instead of tlie 
principal. 

(4) This SLvtlon shall not apply In any i-ase where tbe accident (Ki-urred 
elsewhere than on. or in. or about premises ou which tbe principal baa under- 
taken to execute tbe work or which are otherwiae under bis contrtd or 
nioimgejnent. 

D. — (1) Where any cmitloyer has cuturwl Into a contract with any Inmireni 
in respect of any liability under this act to nny workman, then. In the event of 
the employer ImvouiIuk liankrujit, or maltlnf; a coniposltioti or nrrannenicut with 
his creditors, or if tbe employer is a company in the event of the com|iany 
bavin;: cia»menc«'d to be wmind up. IIk* rl^bts of tlie employer auMlmit tli" 
Insurers as respects that lliitiility shall. notwltltstandiiiK anylblntc In tin' •na- t 
Dienfs rplallnij: to bankruptcy iin»l tbe winding iij) ttf companies, bo iriinHfrrro] 
tu and v<wt in the workman, and ui>i)U any such triumfer the Insurers shall have 
the same rights ond remedies and be 8ubje<.*t to tbe same UairlllMcs as If they 
were tbe employer, so however timt the IrisnriTS slwUl not lie under any greater 
ihiblllty to the workman tlian they would have 1mh>u uuder to tbe rmffloyer. 

{2) If tbe liability of the Insurers to the workman la less than the liability 
of tlic employer to tbe worliman. tbe wi>rknniu uiuy prove for the balance In 
the bankruptcy or llqnldallon. 

(.X) Tbcrp slwUI t"^ Inehuled among the ddds wbleb under aecllou one of ibi« 
|'ri'f»'rentlul I'ay meats In Itankruplcy Act^ iSSH, and wctJtin four of Hi. r^n i.r 
entlal rayments In Unnkruptcy (Irelnml) A(?t, IHMD, arc In the dlsl' r 

Uie property* of a bankrupt and lu llie dislributloii of the iism^ta nf i 
iK'Ing wound up to be paid In priority to all other debts, the nmount, unt e- 
Ihk Iti any Individual caae one hundred ttounds {91St{.t^»|, due in r>*^p<«^r •-! 
eoinpiMisjitluii tilt' llnbtlit> wluMvfor intTMiNl bt'foro ibe date »»' 
ordtT IT the date of tlu* coniuienccuieul of the wlodini: up. aU4l I 

tbe IV.' ■' ' ' , It-; In UtW .- 

ffffM't < (he coiMi I 

«/"'' ^a : ...JJ, for Hi,; ,,.;.. ,.. .,. , , ....V-. 




BBITISU workmen's COMPENSATION ^^^^1906^ 147 

the axnount of the luaip sum fur which tlu' wtH?kIy imymfnt could. If redeem- 
able, be redeemed If the employer made an upplicntiou for that purpo^ under 
tbe Orat Achedtile to this act. 

(4) lu the case of the winding up of a comfNiny wltlitu the meaning of the 
Staaoaries Act. 3HX7, snob an omoant as nforesflld. if the ot>nu«u8atton Is 
|Mijab]« to a miner or the der*eudi>nt8 of u miner, nhall have the like priority 
flfl 19 conferred on waires of miners by Beetiou nine of that act. and that sectloa 
■ball have efftt-l awordlniily. 

(ftt Tlie provisions of this section with respect to preferences and prtorltlM' 
shall not apply where the bankrupt or the ctimpany being wound up has entered 
lalo such a contract with Insurers a» nfuresuiid. 

(G> This sectJoM shall not apply where a oom|)any Is wound up voluntarlly 
ly for the purposes of reconstruction or of amalgamatiou with another 
ifiompsny. 

G. Where the lujury for wbich compensation Is payable under this net was 
ratified under circumstances crentlnjr a legal liability In some person other tlmn 
the employer to l«iy dainiig4«« lu r«BiMM."t thereof — 

(1) Tbe workuinu may take prrtceedlngs both against that person to recover 
dauiages and against any |>ers4tn liable to pay eomponaation under this act for 
such compensation, but shall not be entitled to recover both damages and com- 
petiiMtlon; and 

^2) If the workman has recovered eompenaation under this act. the persoi 
bj whom the compeusatlon was paid, and auy i>erson who has beeu called on 
to pay an Indenmity under the section of this act relating to subcontracting, 
flhall be entitled to be Indemnified by the person so liable to pay dainaueH us 
aforesaid, nnd nil questions as to the right to and amount of any Huch ludemnity 
shall. In default of agreement, be settled by action, or, by consent of the 
IMirtles, by arbitration under this act. 

7. — U) ThLs act shall apply to masters, seamen, and apprentices to the 
service and apprentices In the sea-flshing service, provided that such persons 
are workmen within the meaning of this not, and are members of Uie crew of 
any ship registered lu the United Kln;cdom. or of any other British ship or, 
TCMBel of which the owner, or (if there Is more than one owner) the manai 
owner, or manager resides or has his principal place of business In the Uiilted 
Kingdom, subjw-t to the following mmlirtcntlons: 

<a) The notice of accident and the claim for comiwnsutiou may. except where 
the iierson Injured Is the master, be served on the master of the ship as If he 
were the employer, but where the accident hapjiened and tbe Incapacity com- 
menced on iMwrd the ship It siiall not be necessary to give any notice of the 
accident ; ^ 

<b) In tbe case of the death of the master, senman, or apprentice, the claim 
tnr ci.mi(ieu8atlon shall be made within six months after news of the death 
been received by the claimant: 

c) WTiere an injured inii.stcr, seaman, or apprentice la discharged or left 
lud lu a British pttssesslou or in a foreign country, depositions resiwctlng 
circumstances and naturi* of the Injury may be taken by any judge or 
magistrate In the British i>ossession, and by any British consular officer in the 
foreign country, and if so taken shall be transmitted by the person by whom 
Ihey are taken to the Board, of Trade, and such de|>ositlon or certified copies 
thereof aim II In any prt>ceeiUnga for enforcing the claim b<» admissible In 
evidence as provided by sections six hundnni and ninety-one and six hundred 
and ulnety-tive of the Merchant S^hlpplng Act, 1804, and those sections shall 
apply acconlingly : 

I <i t In th(> case of the death of n master, seaman, or apprentice, leaving no 
d» no comi»enaation shall be payable. If the owner of the ship is under 

It. :!it Shipping Act, 18IVI. liable to {tay the ex|»enses of burial : 

\r> The weekly i)ayment shall ooi be payable In respect of the period dur- 
ing which the owuer of the ship is. under the Merchant Shipping Act. ISIM, as 
amended by any siibs»Hinent ennctnient. or otherwise, liable to defray the 
cxiienses of mnlntennncc r-f the Injurwl muster, seaman, or apprentice; 

' ' *' Slim i^iyable by way of i*ompensi»tic»n by the owner of a ship under 
II 11 be |)flld In full notwithstanding anythinjr In section live hundred 

at,,, .. • ti>" \*.Ti-hant Shipping Act, ISIH (which relates to the liniilatlon 

of a s illly in c^Tliiln cases of loss of life. Injury, or daainKe), 

but tit* ' the owner's lliibillty Imposed by that section shall npplf 

<9 cAc mmotutt rvoorerabte hy way of indemnity under the eeclVotv ol >ia\» ft'iV 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR. 



rrlatinc lo remcHlioK horU aKAii^st eiuployi^t' atid sti*aii};er n8 If the iDdemnI 
wn» «1nrnng«* fur low* of life or p4*rnonnI Injury: 

if/t .SubHtH.tk'DK (2) and i3) of siftlou oue hundri*d and scveuty-four of tbe 
Werduiut 8hlppinE Act. IStM (which relntefl to the recovery of wages of seaujeu 
loHt with their ship), ahalt apjdy as resiterts proreodingB for the rei^wverj- of 
oom(MMiRatiori by dopoiideuts of masters, Beaineu, and apprentices lost with their 
ship a» they apply with res^iet't to proceetllugs for the recovery of wages due 
to seamen and apprentices: and proceedings for the recovery of comfiensatlon 
Ktmll In such a case he nmiiuaiiiahle if the claim I» made within elghttvn mourha 
of the date at which the ship Is deemed to have been loHt with all handa: 

(2) This act shall not apply to such members of the crew of a fishing vessel 
as ore remunerated by shares In the profits or the gross earnings of tbe working 
of such vessel, 

(3) This section shall extend to plloti^ to whom Part X. of the Merchant 
Shipping Act. 1S94, applies, an If a pilot when employed ou any such ship hs 
aforesaid were a seaman and a member of the crew. 

8.— (1) Where— 

{{) the certifying surgeon apr>olnted under the Factorj* and Workahop Act, 
IW)!, for the district In which a workman la empIoye<l certifies that the work- 
man 1h Hufferlng from a disease mentioned In the third schedule to this act and 
Is thereby disabled from earulug full wages at the work at which he was 
employed ; or 

ni) a workman Is, In pursuance i)f any special rules or regulations made 
under the Factory and Workshop Act. IHOI, suspendetl from his usual employ- 
ment ou account of having contracted any such dlsenRe: or 

(III) the death of a workman Is caiisetl by any nuch disease: 
and the dt»<ease is due to the nature of any employment iu which the workman 
was em|tloyed at any time within the twelve months previous to the date of the 
dlHalilement or susitension, whether under one or more emi»Ioyers, he or biB 
de(H>udenis shall be entltletl to compensation under this act as if the disease or 
such suHittMisiou as aforesaid were a pernnnal Injury by accident ii rising out of 
and iu the course of that employment, subject to the following niodinrutlona: — 

iu) The disablement ur susin^'usioii shall be treated as the hap)H*ning of the 
Bireldent ; 

ibi If It is proved that the workman 1ms at tlie time of entering the employ- 
ment willfully and falsely repreeenteil himself in writing as not having previ- 
ously suffered from the disease, compensation shall not be payabk>; 

(c) The com|>euHj»tion shall be recoverable from the employer who last 
employed the workman during the said twelve months In the cmiployment to the 
nature of whlrh the diseaM* was due: , 

Provided that— 

(!) the workman or his dependents If so requlreil shall furnish that 
emitloyer with such Inforniatluu as to the names and addresses uf all other 
employf-rs who emplojeil him in the employment during the «ild twelve months 
ns be or they may possess, and, if such Informalliui Is not furnlshtil. or Is not 
sufllclent to enable that empl(»yer to lake protxH-'diugs under the ni'xt follow lug 
proviso, that employer uikju proving tliat the disease was not foutrurtwl whilst 
the workman was in his <»mployment shall not be liablo to pay com|>ensailMu; 
and 

(il) If tbat employer alleges that tlie disease was In fact contractc*! whilst 
the workman was in the i'm|»loyment of some other employer, and not whilst In 
his employment, he may join such other employer as a imrty to tbe arbltrullou, 
and if the allegation is proved that other employer shall he the employer from 
whom tbo oomi)ensatlon Is to be recovpmble; and 

(III) if the disease Is of such a nature as to he coulrucle*! i)y a gradual pi*i>c- 
ese, any other ru]|)Inyf»rH who during the said twelv*' months cniployi-d thw 
workman In tlu* emiiloyment to the nature of wliich the disease was duo shall 
be liable to uiuke the employer from whom comitcnsatlon Is rectivrntble such 
contributions as. In default of agreement, may be detern)iiK*d in tbe arbitration 
nnder this net for settling tbe nniount of the i'onii»enNUIon : 

i*l) Tb»' amount of the comr»en8ation ahnll Ih^ calculated with reference to 
the tiimlngs of the workman tmder the employer from whom the ctJtnpwisatlon 
Is re».'ov<'nible; 

(r) The employer to whom notlt^ of the dnath, diwiblpment, or susi»enslon Is 
to be given shall be thi* rmployer who last tMii|>Ioywl the workman during the 
|Mild twelve uumths In tlie employment to tbe nature of wtilch »h«» dlHcnse wns 
and Ihc * ' ' uiv he given notwithstanding that the workman has vol- 
r'!r ' * uieiit. 



BRITISH WORK] 



►ENSATION ACT OP U 



(/) If au fiiu>loyer or ii workuum Ib it^grieviHl by the iiclioii of n t-prtifylng or 
othec »urg«H>ii In giving or refusing to give u (■ertlfloate of disableiuent or in biib- 
I>«n<Ung or refusing tcp HUB[>entl a worJinuiu for the pnrjiows of this seotlon, the 
XuHtter ?-lialI In aifordance with regulaliouH uiude by the fctetTotiiry of state be 
referred to a uietlical referet*, whoi*e deelsion shall be final. 

(2) If Ibfr- workman m or iuinuMiiaifly before the date of the dlftablement or 
pu6>i*ension was fniployed In any i)rweKs mentioned In the second column of the 
third »t'bediile of this act, and the disease coutracteii in the di8ease In the Unst 
column of tliat 8clip<inle set 0|)i>oslto tlie destTlptlon of the process, the disease, 
except wlicre the ccrtifylug surgeon certilies that in his o[)lnlou the disease wna 
not due to the nature of the employuient, shall be deemed to have been due to 
the itature of that employment, uniesM the employer proves the contrary. 

(3) The secretary of state may make rnlos regulating the duties and fees of 
certifying and <ither surgwjus (Including dentists) under this section. 

(4) For the pnr]x>ses of this se<'tlon the date of dlsiiblemcnt nball be such 
date as the certifying surgwm certlties as the date on which the disablement 
commenced, or, if he is unable to certify such a date, the date on which tho 
cvrttlicate Is given : 

I* Provided that— 

f (o) Where the nietlloal refertM? allows an appeal against a refusal by a certi- 
fying siirge<m to give a certiticnte of dl^iblenient. the date of disablement Bball 
be Btich ilflte as the medical referee* tnay determine: 

grifr^ Where a workman Jles without having obtained a certlflcate of dlsable- 
■Klt, or Is at the time of death not In re<.'eipt of a weekly payment on ao-ount 
■W disablement. It aliall Ik* the dale of death. 

(5) lu such cases, and subjwt to such cnndltiona as the set^-retary of state 
may din-ct. a medical practitioner appointed bj* the secretary of state for the 
puri>"w? shall have the |>ower8 and duties of a certifying surgeon under this 
aectlou, and this section shall be construed accordingly. 

<6) The secretary of state may make orders for extending the prttvislons of 
thin swtlon to otiier diseases and other pnx*es»es. and to injuries due to the 
nature of any employment 8pe<*itied In tlie order not Iteing InJurleB by accident, 
either without modilicattoti or subject to such m»>dUicatIon8 as may be (.-ouralueil 
in the order. 

(7) Where, after Inquiry held on tlie aj)pllration of any employers or work- 
men engaged lu any Industry to which this section applies, it ap|K»arB that a 
mutual trade insurance comiumy or society for Insuring against the risks under 
this section has been established for the industry, and that a majority of tho 
employers engapcM Id tliat IndiiKtrj* are Insunnl against such risiis In the e«tm- 
jmny or society and that the company or society consents, the secretary of state 
may, by )»rovisloual order. re<|ulre all employers in that Industry to Insure In 
the comjMiny or sfjclety ni>on such terms and under such cvmditions and sui)Jpct 
to such excepti<»ns as may be set forth in the order. Where such a coni|«iny or 
fsociety bus been established, hut Is contiued to employers lu any particular 
locailiiy or of any particular class, the secretary of slate may for the purposes 
of this provision treat the Industry, as carrM on by employers In that locality 
or of that class, as a separate industry. 

(8) A provisional order made under this se«n(on shall be of no fnrc<" wliat- 
erer unless and until it Is i^mlirmiHl by Parliament, and if, while the bill con- 
flmtlng any such order is [leudlug In either House of Parliament, a petition is 
presentetl ngfilnst the order, the bill may be referred to a seltK»r commlttoe. and 
the petitioner shaU be allowed to appear unci opitose as In the case of private 
bills, and any act coutlrming any provlsbainl order under this section nr.^y b** 
rettealed. altered, or amended by a provisionai order made and ctmfirmcd in like 
manner. 

(0) Any GXi>enses Incurred by the secretary of state lu respect of any sucli 
order, provisional order, or conOrmlng bill shall be defrayed out of moneys prf»- 
vldeil by Parliament. 

(1*M Noililiig in this swtion shall affect the rights of a workman to recover 
, ComtM'nsatlon In rf'Site^-f of a dlscai^e to which this sectbtn does not apply, if the 
diiteast* is a jK'rwinal hijury by accident within the meaning of this act, 

1», — (1) ThlH act Hhall not apply to i»er»on« in the naval or military service of 

llu» Cr<.iwn, but otboi*wlse shall apply to workmen empioyeil by or under the 

' Crown itt whom this act w<'uld apply If the entplitycr were it private |>ersoii : 

I Provided timt In the caw of a iM'iwm empIoytMl in tlie jirlvate service of the 

Oowu, the head of that ile|iai-lnicnt of tbe royal housrhuld In which he was 

I ^mployed nt the time of the accident shall be deemed to be hlH v^\iivVjis*?t, 



150 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR. 



(2) Tlie treflsury luuy. by wftrrnut laid befuiv Parllaiuent, modify for the 
ptiriK)8«fa of this net tholr narr/itit niado undor Hwrtlon om> of the Sup*^rnnnim- 
llou Act. 1S87, and notwltbatandlog aiiytliiuK in that act, or any nueU wtirruat, 
may fruni*? i*cht')iH*8 wllb a view to their being certified hy the replatrar of 
frlendlj societies under this art. 

10. — (I) The secretary of state may ui>i>uiut such legally qualiHod medical 
practitioners to be medical referees for the purv»oste8 of this act as he may, 
with Uie sanction of the treasury, determine, ajid tbe remuneration of, and other 
oxiieuBes Incurred by, nitMllcai reforoes uuder this act Bfaall, subject to ro^ila- 
tlons made by the treasury, be paid out of mtmeys provided by Furliameut, 

Where a m«^ical referee has been employed as a medical practitioner in 
connection with any case by or on bebalf of an erapitiyer or workman or by 
any Insurers intereHteil. be sbnlt not act as medical referee In that case. 

(2) The remunenition of an arbitrator apiwiuted by a judge of county courts 
under the s^H-ond m'hetlule to tins act shall be juiid out of moneys provided by 
Parliament lu accordance with regulations made by the treasury. 

11. — 1.1) If It is alleged that the owners of any ship are liable as such 
owners to pay comiMinsation under this act, and at any time that ship Is found 
lu any port or river of England or Ireland, or within three miles of tbe ci»ast 
there*if. a Judge of any court of record in Rngland or Ireland may, uiM»n lis 
being shown to him l)y any perwm iipplying in accordance with tbe rules of the 
court tbat the owners are probiibly liable as such to i»i».v such compenwition, 
and that none of the owners reside In the I'nited Khi^'dom, Issue an order 
directed to any ofllcer of cuMtums or other othcer named by the judge requlrbig 
him to detain the ship until such time as tbe owners, a^eiit, masLer, or con- 
signee thereof have paid such compensation, or have given security, to he np- 
prov^.'d by the Judge, to abide the event of any proceeiliugM that may be lusU- 
ttited to recover stich compensation and to pay such compensation and costs as 
may l>e nwarde<l tbereon : and any officer of customs i^r otber officer to wbom 
the order Is directed shall detain the ship accordingly. 

(2) In any legal prix-ce^ling to rec«>ver such couurtmsjitiou, the person giving 
security sball be made defendant, and the production of the order of the Judge, 
made In relation to the security, sball he conclusive evidence of the liability of 
the defendant to the proceiHllng. 

(3) Section six hundred and ninety-two of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1S04, 
shall apply to the detention of a ship under this act as it applies to the deten- 
tion of a ship under that net. and, if the owner of a ship is a <'or|N)rution, It 
shall for the piirpos«»8 of this scn-tion be dwuKsl tn rpHide In tlie Tnlted Kingdom 
if It has an otfice In the United Kingdom at which service of writs can be 
effected. 

12. — U) Every employer In any Industry to which the secretary of state 
may direct that this section «hnil apply shall, on or before such day lu every 
year ns the secretary of state may direct, send to the secretary of state a cor- 
rect return fijiefifylnp the number of Injuries in respect of wliich cump^Misatlon 
has been paid l>y blm under this act during the previous year, nnd tbe amount 
of such comiK-nsation. together with such otber imrtlcuUirs as to tbe compensa- 
tion as the secretary uf Klatc may din»ct, and lu default of cnnix>iyiny with this 
section shall be liable on conviction under tbe .Summary Jurisdlctlou Acts to a 
thie not ejteixHlhig five iMiunda I$"JI^'l'Jl- 

{'2) Any rcguliitlona made by the secretary of slate containing such direc- 
tions us aforesaid sball be laid before both Houses of PnrliameDt as soon fie 
may be after they are made. 

13. In this set. unless Ibo context r>tbrnrls<! requires, — 

"Employer" lnclud»*s any lM»dy of ifersons corix>rate or milncorporale and 
tbo le^al [wrsoniil repre**fiifallve of a dw-cnswl employer, and, where the serv- 
ices of a workman /in- i«Mnptinirl!y lent or let on hire lo nnotbi-r person by the 
perH(»u with whom tbe workman ban entered Into a contract of s»*rvlre f*T ap* 
prenlbN'shtp, tbi* biiter shall, for tbe puriMtses i>f Ibis n<'t, be tbi-nHil lo con- 
tinue to be the employer of the workman whilst be is working for that other 
person ; 

•• Workman *' does not Include any person employed otherwiw? tban by way of 
nininml labor whose remuiierullon exceeds two hundred and flfty J)oundft 
|S1 JUVOMI fl x'esr or a iterwiu wboso employment Is of n i'iihuiiI nature and 
w' I hiTwiw than for the purposes of thi' "r 

b T of H ptiUce fonv, or an outworker. 

etiiin-'^tr^ i.iniiiv tiwelUng lu hlfl bonne, but. save as »i....^i.iM, .1,.^....- ....y 
person wbo has entered Into or works mjder a itiutracl of sorvlce or appreullee- 



BRITISH WORKMEN B COMPENSATION ACT OF 1906. 



151 



Bhip with an employer, whether hy way of manual lahor, clerical work, or other- 
wise, and whether the contract Ih eapresswl or lujpHetU [h oral or in writing; 

Any reference to a workman who has been Injurt^^ nhnll. where the workman 
IH dead, Include a reference to hiH legal jiersonal repriHueutatlvc or to hlR de- 
pendents or other peruoD to whom or for whose benefit compensation is pay- 
able; 

*• r>e|»endent8 " means such of the members of the workman'a family as were 
wholly or la purl dependent upon the earnings of the workman at the time of 
lus detith, or would but for the lucaimclly due to the accident have been ao 
dependent, and where the workman, lH»lns the jmrent or piand jmrent of an 
Ulenritiniutc child. leuA'es such a child bo dependent up<^tn his camlnga. or. being 
an ItlefTltimate child, leaves a |)arent or ^crand parent fio dependent u()ou hla 
earningH shall Include such an ille^tlmate child and parent or fO'and i>arent 
resitectlvely; 

" Member of a family " means wife or hustmnd, father, mother, grandfather, 
KDtndmother, 9te[»-father, steiJ-mother, son, daiif^hter. f^randson, grayddaufi^hter, 
Bepsou, step-duuuhter. bmther, sister, hulf-brother, half-HlBter; 
^ "Ship," " veswfl," " »*.'nmau," and "port" have the same mennin^H as In the 
Mefrbftut .ShlppiuB Act, ISiH; 

" MnnaRcr," in relation to a ship, means the chip's huslmnd or other person 

to whom the oninagement of the ship la intrusted by or on behalf of the owner; 

" I'olk-e force" means* a police force to which the Tolice Act, 1890, or the 

Police (Scotland) Act. 18iH), applies, the City of London Police Force, the Royal 

Irish ConBtabulary. and tlie Dublin Metropolitan Police Force; 

"Outworker" mcanH n person to whom articles or mnterlnls are Riven out to 
be made U|», olwiiuii. wrtsluHl, alterwl, ornameutetl. tlnlahed. or repaired, or 
^djipted for wile, In his own home or on other premises not under the control or 
■Uiniir;ement of the i>er»in who gave out the materials or articles; 
» The exercise and i)erformance of the jMiwers and duties of a Imuil or other 
public authority shall, for the purposes of this act, be treated as the trade or 
business of the aullmrity; 

" County court," " judRc of the county court," " registrar of the county court," 
" plaintiff," and ** rules of fx»urt," as respects Scotland, mean respectively 
^lerlff court. sherlfT. sheriff clerk, pursuer, and net of H<Hlerunt. 
P^34, In Scotlaud, where a workman raises an action against his employer Inde- 
"pendently of this act In re8i>eet of any injury cauaeil by accident arising out 
of and In the course of the employment, the action, if raised In the sherllT 
court and concluding for damages under the Kmployera* IJablllty Act, 1880, 
or iillcrnntively nt common law or under the Kmployprs' IJabitity Act, 1S-S<I. shall, 
notwHIiRtandlng anything coutnlritMl In that n**t, not be removed under that act 
or oUierwlse to the court of session, nor shall it he ap|)ealed to that court other- 
wise than by appeal on a question of law; and for the pur(K>s<'8 of such appeal 
the provisions of the 8e<!ond siMieilnle to this act In regard to an appeal from 
the decision of tlio sheriff on any question of law deterudued by him us arbi- 
trator under this act shall aitply. 

15. — O) Any contract (i>t)i<T than a contract substituting the i)rovlsion8 of a 
scheme certlflwl under the Workmen's ComiKMiwition Act, 181)7, for the pro- 
visions of tluit act) existing at the conimeneement of this net, whereby a work- 
man rellntpilshi'S any right to comi»enrtation from the employer for personal 
Injury arising out of and In the course of his employment, shall not, for the 
pyfposes of this act. be deemed to continue after the time nt which the work- 
man's contract of service would determine If notice of the detcmilnatton tliereof 
were given at the commencement of this act 

(2) Kvery sclieme under the Workmen's Com i>ensui lion Act, 1897, in force at 
the commencement of this act shall, if reeertilied t)y the registrar of friendly 
^tecletle-s, have effe<'t as If If were a scheme under this act- 

■ t.'il The registrar sluill rtvertlfy uuy Huch R-hcme If It Is proved to his 
fctlsfaction that the scbeme c^mforms, or baa been so modified as to conform, 
with the provisions of this act as to schemes. 

(41 If any such scheme has not be<^u so reeertlfled before the expiration of 
^x months from the eommenecment of this act, the certincate thereof shall be 
revakwi. 

IH. — I I) Tliiw art tihall come Into oiMTtttlon on the first day of July, nineteen 
hundr*Ml and seven, but. except so far as It relates lo references to medical 
rer#T«H*s. and prcK-eeillnjrs crait^'cpientinl thereon, shall not apply In any case 
whore the awlileni h«[»penwl bcftire the commencement ot tids act. 



148 



HULLVnir OF THB BUEBAU OF LABOR. 



i*i>liirint( to r^-fDMikMi both ajilMf mmploser and stniuieer as If the tmleiutilty 
wen- (Inninao for kMi c€ tUb or patwoal Injury : 

^ff w..i....^i,^Bfl (2) aitd (8) or aertloa <me hundred and •erentr-f'^ur of the 
%|4'r :'pln|f Art. 1HM (which rrlatfla to tb<> recovery of irage« of iseiiiiipii 

Umi r «lil( t. dial! apfrlj m» res|iects |iri»cw?ding» for the recovery of 

<'#>m|MfiMiii>ifi ' !•«!• of BHat«r«, acamen. and apprenticca loat with thetr 

■lilp a» tlj^y '• i* mitcrt to proc«edlKisa for xht* recovery of m'agi'a due 

to aaami ami ttppriOiUas; awl procccdlnrv for the nocovery of oompeuButlou 
ahall la such a caae he oialntaliialile If Uie rUlm is made wlthfo elKhtctni uoutha 
of the date at which the ablp la dMsncd to have beeo loat with all lutods: 

(2) Thia act aball not apply to oodi mca^ b ija of the crew uf a flublug veMel 
aa are retnan^rated by share* la the proOta or tlie groaa earulnKs of the working 
of Nuch vpnael. 

(rt) 'I'hlii HM'tiou ahall extind to plkAa to whom Part X. of the Merolmiil 
Slilppin^r Act. IfVH. apjillett. as If a pilot when employed on any Huch ^Ip us 
Afor<»Mild wpre a s««oiaa and a member of the crew. 

8.— (1) Where— 

<l) the rertlfylni; aunceoti apt^olnted und«^ the Kaetory ami Workshop Act, 
11*01, for the dli*trU*t In whWh a > ' . i w*i oMtifles that the work- 

riiuti In HurrrriiiK frt*m a dlHentie i nl nhediile ta thl9 net and 

U then»by disabled from eiimiutf iwn miK*-:^ ni ihe work at wbieh he was 
employwl ; or 

(II) n workman Ih. In punnunuee of any apec-lnl nilea or regiilatlonti made 
under the Knrtory and Workshop Act. 31MI1. susfWDded from bin naual employ- 
ment uu uceouut of liAvluK contracted any auch diseuiKN or 

UU) the death of a workman 1*« canstHl by nuy imch disease: 
and the disease Ih due to the nafuiv of any entployment In whioh the workmun 
wnrt emiiloyetl at any time witliln the twelve mouthfc pn-rtou5 to the ditte of the 
dlMihleriient or iinapennlon, whether under one or n»or»' einployerM, he or his 
defM'niletilK Hhnll be eiitllliNl to coiuiH^nwitlon under thlH net bh (f the tllsense or 
KiK-h i^itHiK'nHlon JIB uforeHiiUI were n iterHdiinl Injury by ntvldent iivlsln^ out of 
and In the cuurite of that employiueut. subje^-t to the fullowing uioilliU'iilIuuM: — 

itt) The dlsehlcment or atn^ienslon shall Im* tre«te<I ns the hnp[»enlne of tho 
seeldent : 

1f>) If It In proveil that the worknmn bar* nl the ttuie of fmlerluf; the eniptoy- 
ment wMlfnlly and fnl»ely reprem»nte<l himwif In writing ah not having prevl- 
oualy HiifTeriHl from the dlntMiae, (Y*m|HMi!*atlon Mini) uv\ be iwyiible; 

(r) The I'lmipeuMatlon Bhull Ite re<.*'vorubIe from tin* t^niployer who Inst 
employed the wurknifin during the smld twelve months In the employment to the 
nnttire of which the dlmyi*M' whh due: 

l'ro\id«'d thnt-- 

(1) the worknmn or h)t< de)tendeiitfl If so re<)uii*etl filmll furnish that 
empioyi'i* with niirh lufornn)ti<iu mh to the nnmea and nddreflHe.s of nil other 
employers who emiilnyi**! Him In the employment durlnie the Mild twelve luoiitha 
IIP be or they nmy |M>8Hess. iind. If such luforumtlon Im not furnished, or Is not 
Huintient to unable that employer to take proi'eetUnfrH under the next following 
provlNii. tbjit eniplitycr niton proving thnt the dlseam* whh not contrnetM wbtltii 
the workman wrh In his employment shall not lie liable to pny iHimponsatlcn; 
and 

(II) If Tbnt employer iilleceK that the dlwiise whs Iu fnet t'<mtmeted whilst 
the worUmiiu wjih In the rniploymeut «»r sa^mie other euipb»yer, mid not wbliKi In 
bl^ employment, he mny Join Hucb otht-r omidoyer an o party to the arbitration, 
ami If tlie nllegiillon Ix proved tbrtt ttther em|itoyer shall be the emrtoycr fron 
whom rhe comtHmtiiitlon It* to be ri*<.^»veruble; and 

(III) If the disenw? \» of anch n nature as to Im» eoutnicted by a jcradual pr»>e- 
[vss, any oiher employei-s who dnring tlu* «nid twelve inonthn ontploywl the 
'workman In the employment t«t the nature of wblth 'be dls4'aM' n Imll 
iltM' liable to nnike the employer from whom eoniponsatlon Is re**-- i-h 

contributions! as. hi drfniilr itt aCT'<vment, may be deterniliuHl In Ih. w xmi-tloik 
under Ihirt art fnr Hettlluc tlit- anionni of the i-ompenwitlon ; 

id) The nmount r»f the (.'omiieuHittlon shall be caleulnteil with refereucv to 
he fiinilnKH of the workman nndpr the employer from whoro the comiNmaalltin 
In ro<'itviTnMc»; 

/r) Thn *'jn;doyer In whom liotb-e of the deiH ' Is 

/m* ffivt»fi Mfml) /if* tUf erwpf"yHr who last eni\ uo 

/n /he \'\' it to tin* nuuxir ^^\ Aa 

may b#» . wltb8trt\u\U\\: ^U^^' "^^"^ 



BRITISH WORKMEN S COMPESa\TION ACT OF 1906. 



149 



ilhis 



If Hu euipU»yer or a workwau is asKCifv^l by tbo Hction of u certifying or 

surg<vn In giving or refuwing to give a rertitioate of dlnableuent or iu sus- 

or refusLug to nuts[Kiud a workman for the purjwses of tliie section, tho 

fetter shall in nooordftuce with regulatious uinde hy the secretary of 8late be 

CefTCd fo a DKHliodI rt^>feree. wbo^t- decision 8ba)I l>e tlniiK 

(2) If the workman ut or iuiHjf<liately before the date of the disablement or 
MMipensloo was employed iu any pnK'ess mentioned in the second coluuui of the 
lUilrd schedule of this act, and the diseas*' (•ontrarted is the dlaense in the Brat 
Icoiiuun of that (schedule »et op|M(site the dcsiTlptloii of the jirocess, the disease, 
cxc«pt where the certifying t^urgeou certifier that iu his opiniou the disease was 

iBoC doe to the nature of the employment, 8ball be deemed to Imve been due tn 
[the nutnre of that employment, unless The employer proves the contrary. 

(3) The secretary of st«t« may make rules regulating the duties and fees tif 
l^'Crrtifjlng and other surgeons (hicludlng dentists) under this section. 

(-1 ► For the purjKpseK of this se<"tion the date of disablement shall l»e such 
tl.'ir.. :i>; tbe certifying surgeon certifies us the date ou which the dlsublement 
• >^1. or. If he is unable to certify such a date, the date on which the 

« "is given : 

i'ro^ided that — 

(a } Where tbe medical referee allows an appeal against a refusal by a certl- 
tfiog: surgeon to give a certificate of dis:»blenient, the date of disablement shall 
be such date as the mi>dicnl refert*e may d(*termlne: 

(6) Where a workman dies without having obtained a certificate of disnble- 
meckt. or is at the time of death not In rweipt of a weekly (tayment on account 
of disablement, it shall be the date of death. 

(5) Iu snch cases, and SHbJe<.t to such oi^nditions as the secr<*tary of state 
may direct, a medical pnictltioner appointed by the secretary- of state for the 
porpose shall have the i>owers and duties of a certifying surgeon under this 
aecUcm, and this section shall be construe<l aeooi-diugly. 

(6> The secretary of state may make orders for extending the provisions of 

Brctlon to other diseases and other prooesaea, and to Injuri€»fl due to the 

of any employment 8i)ecit^ed in tlie order not being injtiries by accident, 

sr without mciliacation or subject to such modifications as may be contained 

ftp order. 

<7) Where, after Inquiry held on the application of any employers or work- 
men eugaged in any Industry to which Ibis section applies, it iip|>ears that a 
mutual trade insurance comimny or society for insuring against the risks under 
section has beeu t»«tnbliHh«Hl for the Industrj*, and that a majority of the 
»yerH engaged In tluit Industry are insured against such risks In the ctmi- 
or society and that the comi»auy or society consents, the secretary of state 
by provisional order, rei|uire all employers in that industry to Insure Iu 
tbe conjiwny or society uiKm such terms and under such t'fiudltlanH and subject 
to soch exceptions as may be set forth iu tlie order- Where such a comiMiny or 
•ociety has been estal>lish*Hl, but la confined to employers In any partiriiiar 
locmUty or of atiy purticular class, the secretary of state may for the purixMica 
ol this provision treat the industry, as nirrled on by employers In that locality 
or of that chiss, as a separate industry. 

iH) A provisional order made under this section shall t>e of no force what- 
mtless and until It Is conMrme<I by rarliament, and if, while the Itlll cou- 
ig any such onler Is [MMiding in either Hous«> of rarliament. a iH>titb>n is 
it«l against the order, tho hill may Im* r<»ferred to a selei't committee, and 
?Utiouer sliall be alIow*»d to api>ear and opi»ose as In the case of private 
and any act c<mtiruiing any provisional urdcr under this section may be 
lied, altered, or amended by a provisloiml order made and confirmed in like 
innor. 

[&f Any expenses incurred by the secretary of state In respect of any such 
r, |ymvlsioual order, or confirming bill shall be defrayed out of moneys j>ro- 
hy Parliament. 
1" "p In this section shall affect tho rights nf a workman to recover 

in resi»<s:t of a dise»is<» to which this sei-tion does not apply, If the 
iw :i [MTsonal Injury by accident within the meanlne of this act. 
1> This a-t ■vliall not apply to iH_'i*sons in the naval or military serviiv of 
ii,.i.M iMit ,.)h.i-u!«.. «iinll apply to worknieti emiiloyed by or under the 
M upi'ly If the employer were a private person : 
.'f ji |iersi>fi einpIoye<i in tlie prWa\e *erv\w ol Vte 
'^ hrtid .*/ tJuif titjinrTtttt*ut of the roval house\v<»^(\ \u n\V\o>\ \ie ■^tv^ 
^f fAe tlwe of thr uccuient sh/iH be Oe'emwl to be Ws emvV>y*i'f' 



BXJLLETIN OF THB BTTHBATT OP LABOB. 

(i;) The Workmen's CompouBntlon Acls, 18ft7 nnd lOtK), iire lierchy rcpi'niitl. 
but Rlmll (i)iitiniie to npply to oases where the uccident hji[»[)eDO(l before the 
roiniuenceiueut of tht8 act, except to the extent to which this act appltes to tUoFe 
canes. 

17. This act may be cited a« the Workmen's Compensation Act, 1900. 

First HriiKOVLi:, 

SCALE AXD CONDITIONS Of COM FENS ATI ON. 



(1) The amount of compensation tinder this act shall be — 

(a) where death reHuIts from the Injury — 

(I) If the workman kiives any de|iendcuts wholly deiiendent Ufjon bis eam- 
InffN, :i NiHu i'<|tiiil lo hlH earuin^K In the omploymeiit of the Hame employer 
during tho three yeurw next precetllUR the lujury, or the mtni of ouv hundrwl and 
llfty |iotnid« llfTlSUkS). whichev(»r of those buiuh Is tho Inrp:»r, bn! not exonodlnR 
in liny ciiKf three hundrtMl ponndR ($l,4f>l».VK>], provldwl Ihnt the lunount of iiiiy 
wei'kly jwymentM uiado nndiT this act, and any lump sum iwld iu redemptiun 
thereof, Hball be dtnliioted fmm sucb Hum, nod, If the period of the workman'n 
employment by the wild employer has he<?n h»»B than the said thret* years, ihea 
the amount of his earnluKS during the said three yeiirs shall be deemwl to be 
one binidred and flfty-slx tImeH hl» average weekly eurnlnin* durlni; the t»erliKl 
of hlB actual euiploynient under Ihe said employer; 

(II) If the workmau does not leave any Huch dei>endentB, but leaves auy 
deiHMidents In pari defrendent utK^n hla earulnK'*. such sum, not exeeedtnff In nny 
vnn*! the amount jxiyHble under the foro»rolnjc prnvlslonH, hh may be agreed ii|Nin, 
or, In default of apre*Mnent, may be determined, on nrbltnillon under this act, 
to be i*i*aKonable and proi>or1i(inate to the Injurj' to the said dependents; nnd 

(III) If he leaves no dependenls, the rennouable exi»enH«<« of his medical 
ttttondance and burlnl. not exeeedhiK ten ]H)undK 1|4S.<17| ; 

(b) where total or |>artial inoaiwclty for work results from the Injury, a 
weekly imyment durlnj? the lucnpaclty not exeeedluK fifty per cent, of bis aver- 
age weekly onrnlngs durhiK the (irevlous twelve months. If he has Imnmi so long 
eniptoynl, but If not then for any less tn^rlod durluf; which he has been In the 
I'Uiph'ynient of the same employer, such weekly payment not to exceed one 
p<iund 1$-I..S7| ; 

l»rnvkled that— 

(a) If the incapacity lasts loss than two weeks no comircnsatlon .ihiill be pay- 
able In respect of the first week; and 

{U) iiR re8i)ecrH the ww^kly iMiymenta during total Incaimclty of a workman 
who Is under twenty-one year» of age at the dote of the Injur}', nnd whose 
average wwkly earnings are lenn than twenty fthilllnKs |?4.871, one hundri.*d (ler 
<*eni shall be substituted for fifty \ier cimt of hlH avera»re weekly enmtnKS, but 
the w<>okIy iiayment nhall In no rase exeeed ten NhllHufSH |$2.4I{). 

i'2) For the pur|Mjm;» of the prt>vIslou8 of this scheilnle relatluR lo "eara- 
\UKH " nnd "avernse weekly eanilugs " of a workman, the following rules shsll 
be oliserved : — 

(0) avernKe weekly earnings shall be rompute*! In snrh manner as Is b)>»t 
r«I<*ulated to give the rate per week at whi<-h the workman was being reniuner* 
nteil. Provided that where hy rei»K<tn nt the shortnesH of the time during which 
Ibe workman has been In the employment of bis employer, or the casuul nntvire 
of the employment, or the leriuH of the employment, It Is Impraclleuhle at the 
dulc of the accident to compute the rnte of remuneration, regard may be bad to 
Ihe average vriH'kly amount which, during the twelve monthH prevloUB lo the 
aeeident, w»m being earntMl by a inmsou In the wime grade employixl at Ihe samo 
w<»rk by tlie Hiiine employer, nr, If there In no x»erson fwt omjiloyed, by a ijerson 
In the same gnide employed In tbe same class of rmploymcttt nnd In the sam« 
distrlft; 

ih} where the workman bad entered Into ijoneurreut contracts of s^tvIco 
with lw(t or more employers under which he worked at one rime for one such 
employiT and al another lime for auother such euu>l*>yer. his average w<»tikly 
••arniiigB shtill be compuletl as If his earnings under nil uncb eontrncts were 
#'aniJng<i In the employment of the employer for whom he wat* wurklug at IhtJ 
r/Mf* tjf till' »oi'Ut*}ut : 

€'istfjhiynn*nt hy tUr wjunu ernployt»r shall be \aUei\ Iw m^»t\ wavVs^uawnt. 
JMwo ewpJajvr tu thtf ;rm<ie In wUlcb the workman vra» wiuvVo^iA w^ v\»« 



I 



BRITISH workmen's C0MPEN6AT10K ACT OF 1906. 158 

e acoideut. uuiuiemipleil by ubseuc'C from work due t*» Illuesw or any 
b'olduble oauHo; 

<rf> where tbe employer hns been accustomed to \*tiy to the workmau a sum 

corer any »]>eclal exj>ensei« MitalNMl ou him by the oature of his emiiloyment, 
tlw BUm so paid shall uot be reckoned as part of tbe eumlogs. 

<3> In flxiug tbe auiouut of tbe weekly paymeul. regard shall be bad to auy 
jAymeut. allowance, or benedt which the wcrknuin may tceelve fn^m the em- 
pkijer doritip thr r»*^riod of his incapacity, and In the cas*? of partial lneai«clTy 
tte VMkly payment shall In no ca^e exceed the diCTerence betwH^eu the amount 
of the Bveni^e weekly earnings of tbe wurkmau before the accident and The 
average weekly ainoimt whiob he Is earning or Is able to earn In some ftnitahle 
employiueiit or business after tbe aeeidentt but !*bjill bear such relation to tiie 
•iDPOimt of that difference as* under the circumstances nf the case may api»ear 
irci|>«r. 

(4) Where a workman has given notice of an necldent. be shall, if so re- 
quired by the employer, submit htmseJf for examination by a duly qualified 
nwdlcal i>mrTitii>uer provided and |)uid by tbe employer, and, If he refuses 
to suhnilt himself to tcuch cxamluiitiou. or lu iiuy way obHtructs the aame, his 
risbt to compeotfutlou. and to take or pn>8e<*iite any proceeding under this act 
tti relation to comt*eut<tatioo, shall be suMi>ended imtll .such examination has 
taken place. 

<ri| The payment In the case of death sbull, unless otherwise ordered as 
hpervlnufter provided, be paid Into the county court, and any sum ko i>ald Into 
<xiurt shall, snbjivt to rules of court and the jirovlsions of this w^hedule, be 
lave«ted. applied, or otherwise dealt with by the court tu such manner as the 
txmrt in Its dlswreiion thinks tit for the benedt uf the iK'rsous entitled thert-to 
cuder this act. and t)ie recei]>t of the registrar uf the court shall be n sufficient 
discharge In respect of the amount paid In : 

Provided that, if so agreed, the iwyment hi case of death shall. If the work- 
mao leaves no dei^ndents. be made tu his legal jiersnnal represi^ntativp, or. If 
he hftfl no such representative, to the person to whom tbe ex(»eu»fes of medical 
atteudauoe and burial are due. 

(tf> Kules of court may provide for the transfer of money paid Into court 
under this net from one court To another, whether or not the court from which 
tt is to be tmnsferrwl is In tbe same part of the Tnlted Kingdom as tbe ixmrt 
to which it is to be transferred. 

(7) Where a weekly jiaymeiit Is payable under this act to a jterson under 
any legal disability, a county court may, ou application being made Lu accord- 
aDce with rules of court, order that the weekly iiaymeut be iMild during the 
disnbiliCy into court, and the provisions of this s<*bi*tiule with rpMpect to sums 
required by this schedule to be jmid Into court shall apply to sums paid into 
court In pursuance of any such order. 

|8) Any Question as to who is a de[>endent shall. !n default of agreement, be 
ft'ltled by arbitration imiler this net. or. if not so settled l>efor«* payment Into 
ccwrt under this schedule, shall be si<ttled by the county i*ourt, and the amount 
pajable to each dei>endent shall be settled by arbitration under this act, or, if 
•Of tmt i«>ttle*I before payment into court under this s<'h»«dule, by the county 
covrt. Where there are LH>th total aud iiartial de|»endeiitH nothing In this 
•ClMdQle shall be construed as preventing the C4jmi»eusatlou being alJotted imrtly 
Id tiM* total and luirtly to the [tartlal de|>endeuts. 

fd) Where, on application being made In accordance with rules of court, it 

a|if)Mn to u county' court that, on aci;ouut of neglect of children on the luitrt 

«f a widow, or on account of the variation of the circumstances of the various 

"r for any other sutllcieut cansr. nii order of the court or an award 

!>ortioument among>:t the several dei>endeut8 of any sum paid us 

i .... a, or as to the umnncr In whb'h any sum iiayable to any stich 

dtfflt is to be invested, applied, or otberwis** dealt with, ought to be varied, 

court may make such onler for the \ariatlou of the former order or tbe 

XWanl, as in the circumstances of the case the court may think just. 

C10> Any sum which uuder this achftlule is onlered to be Invpsletl nmy he 
lB««««ted in whole or in i)art iu the Post Office Savings Bank by the registrar of 
tfaf* omntv c«mrt In his name as registrar. 

(in ' (TO be fto invtwt»>l nmy l»e Invpsted in the purchase of an annuity 

from t!. I debt comniiHsioncrs tlinniiifh the Tost '►ffice Savings Hank, 

rr im uu.^, /jj the pfis/musifer-geherai as u deitctslt \\\ the t\uuw nt \\x« 

nteMrar Mtf eocA and Ute provlttioua ot auy statute ur regu\ixUuu% Tcfc\w:V\sv% 




I 



15) A Judge of county courts nmy. If he ihlukiK fit. suiiiiuon n medlcn) referw* 
to Bit with him as au nswHwn-, 

(0) Rules of court iniiy nmke provision for tho npppflnmco lu auy arbltrfttJon 
under this net of any party hy boiuc other pereoii. 

(7) The vttMH of uud lucitU'iital to the arbitration and prtM-eodluffi* c<mnt^'t<M 
therewith Khali he in tlie diw:retlf»n of thi* coninilltiH', iirhltraior, nr Judjrc of 
the county court, subjHt as res|iects such Judire and an arbitrator aii|H)lnt<Ml 
by hlna to rulex of court. The rnntK, whether lH''fore a committee nr an arbi- 
trator or In tlie county ix^urt, nhnll not exre^sl tlie limit prewTlbetl Ity rule!* of 
court, and shall he tuxc<l In manner prewrlbed hy thoae rules and such taxatkm 
may t»e reviewed by the Judfre of the <rounty court. 

(8) In the ca»e uf the deiUh, or refuwil or innhlllty to aft, of tin iirbitrntnr, 
the JudKe of the county court may, on the application of nay i»ariy. appoint a 
new arhiti-ator. 

(B) Where the amount of compenMitlon under thin act ha^ bopn aticertnlniHl, 
or any wt^'kly payment varied, or any other matter d<»clde*l under this act, 
either by a conniilttee nr by nn arbitrator nr by ai;reenicnt, a memornndnm 
thereof shall l)e sent, lu manner prewribed by rules of court, by the committee 
or arbitrator, or by any juuty lnteu'ste<I, to the rei:l»triir of the county court 
who Bhall. sdhject to nuch rulcH, on Indnir satlHiled as to Its genuineness* reifird 
Buch memorandum In a i*|HX'lal rejtlHter without ftv, and thereupon the meum- 
ratidum shall for all purposes he enforc<*able as a county <.*ourt Judgment. 

rrovldoil that— 

(a) no such meuornndum shall he recorde<l before seven days nfter the 
desr»alch by tlie reRlatrar of notice to the jmrtles interested: and 

ib) where n wf>rknuin s<>eks to rtvord n nii-nioranduiii of apretMuent hetwe*M» 
hlH employer and himself for the payment of compensation under this act and 
the employer. In accordance with rules of court. provcH that the worknuin hnf* lu 
fact returned to work and is earning the same wukcn ub he illd befnre the 
oecldent. and obJ«»ctH to the reef>rd!ng of such memorandum, the memomnduzn 
shall only be recorded, if at all. on such terms an the jiulKe of the county court, 
under the circumstances, may think Just; and 

{c) the Judge of the county court may at any time rectify' the register ; and 

id) where it appears to the registrar of the c<iuniy wmrt. on any Inforuia- 
tlou which he conelderw HUlllclenr, that nn agrwMnent as to the nnlcmittion of 
a we<?kly pnyiiient by a lump num. or an agri^ment a» t<i the amount of <.-«>m- 
jienHiitlon [uiyitble ti» a i»erson under any legal disability, <*v to deiM?nd<»nt«, 
ought not to l)e reglKt<'red by reason of the inadefpincy of the sum or amount, 
or by reason of the agreement having beini obtained by fraud or undue influence. 
or other Improper mean», he may refuse to nvord the menioniniluni of the 
agr<»ement sent to him for reglHlratloii, and refer the matter to thi- Judge who 
ehnll. in acconlance with rules of court, nmke such order tlnchnling an order 
as to any sum already paid imder the agreement) as under the clrcuiustancea 
be may think Just; and 

(r) The juiige may, wlihlu six months after n momoranduni of an agreement 
as to the redemption of u wifkly payment by u lump sum, or of nn agr^'emeut 
as to the auiount of inniiM'nKation payable to a i>eri!Uin under any legal disability, 
or to dependents, h:iH been recorded In the register, order IhiH the record be 
removetl from the register on proof to hlti satisfaction that the agreement whh 
tihtulned by fratid or undue Influence or other Improjvr uH'auK, and may uuiko 
such order ilnclinllng an order as to any sum already paid under the agree- 
ment) as under the circumstances be nuiy thlidi Just. 

(10) An agreement ns to the redemption of a wwkly imymrul by n lump 
sum if not reglstoreil In accordance with tbl*» act slmll not, nor shall the pay- 
ment of the sum payable under the agriM-ruMit, e\cmpt the person by whom the 
weekly payujent Is payable from liability to coutiane to tnake thai wiH'kly pny- 
iiKMit. nnil an at^remient its In the umiumt of comiivuHatlon to be (niUl to a 
I>erson under a legal dlnablllty or to dniu-^ndents. If not so reglii;t*Tf**l. >li;i'l not. 
nor shall the [uiyment of the Hum jmyable under the UKreemenl. • k' 

iH'rson by whom the crmufcnsjithm Is p»yjibb« from llalilllty to |ui> . t- 

tltm. unlesH. in either casi>, he proves that the failure r*i reglAer vnn» not tlut» 
lo any negbvt or default on bis [lart. 

t\\\ Wher*' nny matter under IIiIh net !w to Uv /I ■ v, 

fo. or tfetore the jtuigi' or registrar of a ''otiniy « - ,y 

Utteution fififpt>4»r. iti** t*iutif Kimlj. tMtbJtH't to rules «>i vmmvi n» .^»>l^»■ >\. , -" ■,;. . i»>, 
' itefa/v thii Jmlxc or vegtHtmr of, the comity court ot \U« d\tivt\v.\ \u xi\i\»;V aW 



BRITISH WOBKMEN 8 COlffPEWSATIOK ACT OF 1906. 



157 



I 



pArtif^s conoem«l r«sldu, or If thoy reside tn different dUirlcta thf dlslrlct 
prescribed by rules of court, witboiit prejudice to any transfer In miinner 
provtdiHl by rules vt courU 

(12) The duty of a judge of county courts under this act, or In England of 
an arbitrator Appointed l>y him, shall, subject to rules of court, be part of the 
duties (if the tHJUUty o*»urt, aud the offleers of the court shall act accordlnply, 
rules of court nuty bo made both for any puriKise for which this net author- 
rules of court to lie made, and ul9*> generally for eurryliig Into eff^'t this 
»o far as It affects the county court, or an arbitrator apjwlnted by the judge 
of the couuty court, uud pri.>ceedlrig8 In the county court or before any such 
•rtiltraror. and such rules may. In England, be made by the five jud^^es of 
cuanty eonrts ap|*otnted for the muting of rules under Rcctton one hundreil and 
»4xty-four of the Couuty Courts Act, ISSS, and when allowed by the lord chan- 
cellor, as provided by that section, shall hare full effect without any further 
conaeur. 

(131 No court f**, except such ns muy be prescribed under paragraph il5) 
of tlie flret i»«-he\ltile to thi:* act. shall he payable by any i»arty in rc?*i'<*»:t of any 
IKToceeallngs hy or against a workman under this art in the court prior to the 
■wvrtl. 

<]4) Any sum awanled as conii>eusatlon shall, unless |»ald Into court under 
tlil» act. b«' itnid on the receipt of the i»erson to whom It is payable under any 
agreement or award, and the solicitor or agent of a person claiming comi>ensa- 
tlou under this act shall nut be entitled to recover from him any costs in 
re^)ect of any proceedings lu an arbitration under this act, or to claim a lieu 
in res|»ect of such costs on. or deduct such costs from, the sum awardfMl or 
agreed as compeuKation, except such sum as may be awanled by the committee, 
the arbitrator, or the judge of the county court, on an application mtide either 
by the jver^utn claiming comi>eii»titiun, or by his solicitor or agent, to determine 
the amount of costs ti» be paid to the-sollcitor or agent, such sum to be awarded 
wibje«^t to taxation aud to the scale of costs prescribed by rules of court. 

n&) Any citmmittee. arbitrator, or judge may., subject to regulations made 
by the secretary of state and the treasury, submit to a medical referee for 
rvj»ort any matter which seemH material to any question arising In tlie 
arbitration. 

iltt> The secretarj* of aiaie may, by order, either nncondltloually or subject 
to such conditlous or modifications as he imiy think lit. confer on any com- 
uilltee repn'sontative of nu employer and his worltmen, as resjief-ts any matter 
In which the committee act as arbltratorc*, or which Is settled by agreement 
snbmltted to and approved by the committee, all or any of the powers conferred 
by this act exclusively on county courts or judges of county courts, and may 
by the order provide how and to whom the cumpeusatlon money Is to be paid 
Id cases where, but for the order, the money would be required to be paid 
tutu court, and the onler nui3* exclude from the operation of provisos id) and 
(c) of ^>arngniph (9) of this sch«?dule agreements submitted to and npprovetl 
by the comniitlce, and n»»y contain such Incidental, consequential, or supple- 
meiitJiI provisliint; as may api»ear to the secretary of state to he necessary or 
pro|»er for the purposes nf th<' order. 

ill) In the application of this schedule l<» Scotland — 

(aj "County court judgment" as used in paragraph ifj) of this schedule 
means a recorded decree arbitral: 

{bi Any appMcation (o the sheriff as arbitrator shall be heard, tried, and 
determined summarily In the manner provided by section flfty-two of the 
Sheriff Courts tSctitlund) Act. 187(1. save ouly that parties may l>e represtMit»Hl 
by any |«?rsoii anthorizetl In writing to appear for them aud subject to the 
de»"lnration tluit it sluill l>e comikcient t<» either parly within the lime and in 
accordance with tlie rondltl*HiH prest-Tibetl by act of sederunt to re<iuire the sheriff 
to «<tute a case on any iiiiesllou of law determined hy him, aud his de<.'isioa 
ther<*on In such cam* may be .submitted to either division of the court of session, 
who nmy hear ami determine the same and remit to the sheriff with Instruction 
an t<> the Judgment to Ite prououriced, and an ai)[H>al shall lie from either of 
such divisions to the House of U^rde. 

(c\ Pnragraphis i^\, (4). and (s) shall not apfdy. 

0»**l In the applicatitm of^thls ^M•hl•dule (o Indaud the expression 
of the ootinty court " shall include the ret-^^irder of any city or towu, 
jtHfjfj/ f/e ft\}m the trtiirf of upiteal to the House of Ixirds. 
-Bull. T-i—as ij 



. 




168 



BULLETIN OF THE BTTREAU OF LABOB. 

Thibd Schedule. 



Deaorlptlon of dl 



Deacrlptlon oi proceM. 



Anthnx 

Lead poUonlnf or Itfl »equelB 

Mercury poltoning or Its sequeln . . . . 

Fhoiphonu polsontng or ita wquelce . 

Aneolc poltoDlng or its aequels 

AnkylottomLula 



Handling of wool, h&Ir, brlatlea, hideo, and lUiuk 

Any procen InTOlrlng the use of lead or its prepuatlona or 
compoonda. 

Any proceei InTolrlng the lue of mercury or Iti preparation! 
or compounds. 

Any procen involTlng the use of phoaphoraa or Its prepara- 
tions or componnds. 

Any process involrlng the use of arsenic or Its preparations or 
compounds. 

Mining. 



Where regulations or Bpecial rules made under any act of Parliament for 
the protection of persons employed in any industry against the risic of con- 
tracting lead poisoning require some or all of the persons employed in certain 
processes specified in the regulations or special rules to be periodically exam- 
ined by a certifying or other surgeon, then, in the application of this schedule 
to that industry, the expression " process " shall, unless the secretary of state 
otherwise directis, include only the processes so specified. 



CAHADIA5 IKDUSTBIAL DISPUTES IKVESTIGATIOK ACT OF 1907. 



I 



Following is given in full the text of the CHnadian Industrial Dis- 
putes Investigation Act, enacted in March, 1907, to provide macliin- 
ery for the settlement of Inbor disputes and to prevent strikes and 
lockouts in mine^ and public-utility industries. Although the act has 
bt»en in effect but a short time, it has already been employed success- 
fully in the adjustment of a considerable number of disjMites affecting 
large umubers of workmen employed in mining and transportation. 

Ajf Act to alii In tbe prevention aatl settlement of strikes and lockouts In mineH 
and lndu8lrle« connected with public iitUUies. (Assented to 22d Marcb, 
1907.) 

Hi* Majesty* by and tcith the advice and c<i^^*CHt of fA«> Senate and Houve of 
fOfMMonj of Canada, enaetti an follows: 

t. This act may be cited as tlie IndiiHtrlal Disputes luvestlicatlon Act, 1907. 



PRELIAIINAKY. 

littcrpretatioH, 

S. In this act unless the context otherwise requires — 
(o) "MinlHt'^r" means the minister of Inbnr; 
it) •• Dciwrtment " means the dcpurtment of labor: 

<c) "Employer" meaiiB any i>er8on. coinpuny or eoriMjratlon empIoyInK ten 
ur morv persons and owning or oiteratin^? uiiy miuiUK proiterty. aKcnoy of trans- 
portation or communication, or piihlk'-s*'rvti'p nflllly. Including, except an 
hereinafter provliJe<l. rnilwuys. wlicther o[terated by steam, electricity or titber 
motive power, stejiuisfiips, telegraph and telephone Hues, gas, electrlc-lleht, 
watpr and i»ower worlis; 

(d) "Employw*" means any person employed by an employer to do any 
«klllod or nnskiUed manual or clerical work for hire or reward in any ludustry 
10 which tills act appUes; 

<r> "Dispute" or "Industrial dispute" means any dispute or difference 
betw«>cn an employer and one or more of his emplnvee«, as to matters or 
affei^tin*: or relating,' to work done or to be d«>n»* by btm or them, or 
tbe [trlvllecos, rlithts nnd ilutlew of employers or employees (not involrIn« 
such vlolatir>n thereof as constitutes an indictable offense) : and, without 
ig the general nature of the at>ove doQuitlon, includes all matters rp- 
to— 
f1) The wages allowance or other remuneratlou of employees, or the price 
IMld or to be paid In respect of employment; 

<2> The hours of employment, sex, a(?e, qualiflcatlon or status of employees, 
and tlie mofje, terniH and c«>nt1itIous uf employuieut; 

{''. ■■* jipioymeut of children or any pe»rsou or jwrsous or class of jtorsons, 
or • -sal of or refusal to employ any [wirtlcnlar p<*rson or |>ersons or 

dc- lis; 

^ on tbe part of an employer or any euipIoy**e ns to whether and, 
-hut circumstances, itrefercnce of eniploynieiit should or should not 
IvtMi tu one class over another of t»er>win« beinj; or uot being members of 
AT olbcr orgauixatioaa, Brltiah subjects or alleus; 



I 



160 



BUI-LETIN UF THE BUREAU OF LABOR. 



I 



» 



(5) Materials Hnpi)Iloil iiml aUeKt*il to he hiul. iiutlt nr uitHiittahle, or (tnltlJtK•^ 
ulkrpHj to have Ik'^'ii iloiiv In work; 

(0) Auy e«tabMshtHl custutu or Mxago, eltbor Kf'it^rally or lu the imrtliMilar 
dlfltrlct nflWtwl : 

(7) Thi.> Interprututloii ot nu utsivcmeiii or a c'lause ttii'riH>f. 

(/) "Lockout" (nitliout llwltliiK tbe itattire of ita unniulnK) tueans o clos- 
Vug of a placo of ^mitUtyiiu'iii. or n suspcuslon of work, or a rofnHal by an 
employer to continue to cinpltiy any uunilwr of LIh oiuployoes In c*oiitkH]urtioc 
of a (Ilsputt*. done with u vlfw to coiu|jelIinK tils cuiployi-es, or to alil anothrr 
employer In conii>elMng his employees, to jn-ccpt terms of employment. 

(fj) " Strlki' *' or " to po on Htrlke '* ( without Ilinltin^ the utitiire of Ur nwnin- 
Ingt lueiinH the ceswilltpn tff work by a iKuly of i'Uii)loytM?« actlu»r in eomhltmtlon, 
or 11 concert c*il rornsal or a refusitl uuiler a common miilerHtumHii^ of any num- 
ber of employees to coiitlniU' to work for nn employer. In conaeqnence of a ills- 
pnte. done as a means of eoiniK}lUng tholr employer, or to aid other employetw 
in comi)einnB their employer, to accept terms of employment; 

(A) "Hoard" meiins n t>onrd of eon4:lllattou and Investigation ecrtabllslied 
under tlie provlalonn of thin net; 

(0 "Application " meatiH iin application for the apiwlnroent of a board under 
the provlaionrt of this act: 

(/) " Ue»:lsrnir '* means the reKletriir of Itoiirda of conciliation and lurcnnlKii- 
tloD inuler thU act; 

ik) " Prewrlbed " nieanH prewrlbed by this act, or by any rulcH or rejctila- 
tlon» made thereunder ; 

in " TrAde union " or " tmlon " meauM nny organliution 4if employes fortued 
for tbe purpose of regrulHiin); relatlontt between emptoyerfl and employees. 

Atlminitittatinn, 

:i. The mInlKter nf lubor Khnlt have Ihf f;n'Ut*rnl lulmlnlHtrutlon of this act. 

4. The KovMHH'r In nnuK-U shut! up|M»lnt a re^Utrar of bonrds of concllhi* 
tlon and Investljcatlon, who nhall have the |K>wer« and i*erfom) the duties 
preHiTlbe<l. 

li. The office of rei?t8trar may be held either aeimrately or In conjunction 
with any other ottlce In the i»ubllc aervlce, nnd In the Inttrr «*«se tbe rcKlntrar 
may. If tht* governor In council (hinks lit, l»f niipoliit(*d. not by mime, but by 
reference to f*nch other ofll<t«. wla*r«nipon the i»ermin who for the tlmr being 
IkOldH HUch offlce, or iMTforma Its <luile«, shall by virtue thereof be the ceglalrar. 

BOAUD8 OF CONCILIATION AND 1NVK8TULVTION, 

("ontttitution rtf haardM, 

5. XN'herever any dlnpute exlatu l)etwt*eu an employer and nny of hla em- 
jdoyiH'H, nnd the purtlcK thereto are unable to adjust It. fllhrr of the piirtlcH to 
the* dlitputf nmy nmke application to the minister for llif upiH>lntment of a 
board of concillatUai and ItiveHtlgatlon, to which boanl the dii«piit4* may b«> re* 
ferrwl inider the pnivlHlouH of this net: i'lovidni, huirrrrr, That, In the cane 
of a dlrnpnte Ih'Iwwu u railway company and Its emplnyecH, Huch dispute miiy ho 
referroil. for the puriNiHc nf t*oncUlatlon and InvoHilKutlon, UM<lor the provlslonti 
concerning; railway dls|»nte» In tbe t'oncllhitlon and Labor Art. 

6. \Vhen<<ver. under thl8 act, nu Application Ik made In dne form for tbn 
ap|ioIntnH*nt of n lioiml of coirclllatlon and iiiv«*>«tl*riition. and Huch appllcatiou 
docH not ri'lalc tn a dlhpiitc which If? the mibjcft of n rrffrcnce uudrr th<» pro- 
vIhIous cfinc-ernlng rnllwn.v dlHputCH In the ronclllntlon and Labor Art, the 
UdnlHter, wht>Mc dcH-ltdon for Nuch puri»Ofli> flhnll he final, Khnll. within llfteeu 
dayu from the dati* at which the application U rii-eived, t*HtahliHh HOdi board 
nnder hln hand and wal of office. If mtlstlo^l that tbo pn^vUlomi of thin act 
npply- 

7. Kvory board »hall ivnuUt of thro«» nienibeni. wb<» nhnll be ap|M>lntoil by 
the minlHlcr. 

'J. Of the thrw inembern of ihe board . ' " ' 'Mted on tti 

mondutlon of the oniployrr and oni* hii r nf thi* • 

(the iHirtlea tn tbe dispute), and the thUU • i. .i>* .< • ^-......^ ii.iuilon of u-- , - 

/ff'/s* A> rbinu*n. 
^. /V>r fJjr fjurfxtft'fi ot <ip|Joiuliuent of the memV)er« ut Vhv \Kmt^. U»« Cottuir' 
prvfimions shall ff/ip/jr ; 



I 




CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVEtiTlGATION ACT OF 1007. 161 



L £jBch imrty to the dlMputo may, at the tluti* of uuikhii; appUcHtUtn or within 
Ive daya after bclut; rt-tiue^tetl so to do by the iului»t4?r, rc'cuniweiid the uumo of 
\^w r*rfton who is wilUiig lud ready to act as a lueentw^r of the board, aad the 
IminisiiT sball upiwlm sut'b iH»rs4)n ii nuMiibi'r of the lM»nnl. 

If either of tbe mirliw fails or m'Kle<.'t8 to duly make any reconmicuOaclon 
tlie said peri'xl, or such exteuHlon theroi>f as the ndaUtor, on cause 
grants, the minister shiill, a« soon thereafter a« ix>salble, appoint a tit 
to be a lueiuber of the btKird ; iiud Hueh member shall be deemed to be 
lied ou the re^onimeudatioa of the said jiurty. 
The nienilH'rs chi»seu on the reixminiendatlou of the parties may, wUhlu 
tlny^f after their u|iiH>intment, re<.oiuuieud the uame of one i»erKoii who !« 
VilUui; and retidy to act at* a third member of the board, and the minister Khali 
»PIKtint such pers<m a member of the imanl. 

i. If the meml»ers ehoneu on the reeommendatlou of the pjutles fail or uefslcct 
tii duly make any reeommeudation within the said i>eri<Hl, or such extension 
thereof as the minlater, on ejuise shown, grants, the minister shall, as soon 
thereafter uh iK^)£U(ibU\ iip[>oint ti lit iieraon to be a third member of the board, 
land such memU'r shall be deemed to be apiwinted ou the recomtucDdatlon of 
[Ihe two other members of the board. 

^. The Uiird memltor shall l>e the chairman of the board. 

9. As soLMi as possible aftej* the full board has been apiNtllite^I by the minister. 
the registrar sliall uotlf}- the parties of the names of the members of the Ixmrd 
and the ohalrmau tbere«>f, and auch uotlfleution shall be final and conclusive 
for all purposes. 

10. Kvery uiemlxT of a board shall hold oHice from the time of his appoint- 
ment until the reix>rt of the boanl is slgutnl and transmitted to the minister. 

1 1. No (tersou shall act as a member of tike board who has any direct {tecuu- 
Ury interest in the issue of a dispute referred to such board. 

13S. Kvery vacancy In tbe membership of a tmitrd shall l»e supplied in tbe 
nme manner as lu the ca»e of tbe orlRlnal api»olutmeut of every persc>n ai>- 
poiDted. 

18. Before entering upon the exereiw* of the functions of their office the mem- 
tH'rs of a tstiinl, Ineludlui: Ihe chairman, slmll make oath or afhrmatlou before 
a Ju»tU-e of the iM:»iice that they will faithfully and Imimrtially perform tho 
duties of ihetr ottlce. and also that, except in the discharge of ihelr duties, they 
win not disclost* to any iwrsou any of the evidence or other matter brought 
[lirfiire the board. 

The deinirtment may provide the l>cuird with a secretary, steuographer, or 
other clerical assistance as tn the minister ap|K?firs ueceisaary for the 
it currying out of the provisions of this acL 

I*fmrtlure for rvftretice of disputct to hoards, 

tho pun>os4* of determining; the manner In which, and the persiins by 
in ap|>IU'atitin for the H[>|Hjintment of a board is U* be made, the fol> 
rfnp pro\IsUms shall apply; 

U The npjtiicatiou sliall be made in writing tn the preacribed form, and 
be In sultstauce a request to the minister to ajipolnt a iKwrtl to which 
:t«tlug (iispnte may be referreil under the provisions of this act. 
The a[i^Iicati(in shall be ai.com|»auled by — 
!«> A statement setting forth — 
<1> The parties to the dispute: 

(2) Tbe nature and cause of the dispute, inctudlufc any claims or demands 
laadr by either imrty uimui the other, to which exceiitluu is taken : 

i'A) Ad approximate estimate of tbe uiuuber of persons affected or likely 
lir nfTMttHl by the dispute; 

(4) The efforts made by the (tartles ihemselvea to adjust the dlsimte; 
awl — 

■' ' * «tntutory di-claratiou sotting forth that, falling an adjuslniont of tbe 

f a reference iherer>f by the minister to a bfwrd of conciilailon and 

,j_. ....lion uml'-r the act, to the best of the knowledse and belief of the 

imm. a liMkrmt or strike, as the case may be, will be declare<l, and that 

»8«ny pMtlKirlty to dwlare such lockout or strike has been ulitahuHl. 

•n may mention the name of a jierson who Is wlllinp and 
_ ii lo act jt» H wembvr of the board represeutlug the pu.n^ <)t 

^tttkiu^ xhe appllrHtlon. 





BTrLLBTOT OT THE BUREAU OP LABOH. 



tn foriH* with roHi^tN't to witiiesHOK in cIvH huIU hi tbe fiujit*rlor courts In tlie 
pruvlim* where Ibo Inqniry Ih ttoiiif: eouduotcd. 

3S. \Vher(? a refoiviite has boen niiiiU* to the ho«rd of n diHpule between a 
nilhviiy coriip*iii.v and Its eniplo,viH»s. niiy wHiiohh sumtiiMiipd by the l>oar<1 in 
roniieption with the dispute shall be entitled to free trttnH|»oi*tatlon ovrr niiy 
railway eu i-oiite when pnneeillUK to the place of meeting of the buurd iinil 
Iherimfter tetiimlnt; to tils home, und the tMiard nhall fnrnish to hmuU wltnet^ 
n jirojter eertitirnte ovldent'lnK hla rl^ht tn sni-li frtH' ti'aiiN|HjrlHti(»u. 

30. If any jierKon who haH been duly Bervi*d with such HuninionB and to whom 
at the s*ame time payment or tender has Ih'^mi iiinde of hiH reitwrnHble tmvellnK 
expenRi^H aecordhig tii the nforesnld ncule, fallti to duly attend or to duly pro- 
dui'i' any bi>ok. i>a|K»r or nther din-umtMit or thing ns rinjulred by hl8 Humnion**, 
he shall t>e K^illty of an oflTeuHe uud liable to a |ieunlty not exeee^llng une Unu- 
dreil doDiirM, unless be showA that tliere wus a K^^od nnd HutUcleot cnuao for 
Huch failure. 

37. If. ill any proeetnlhigs before the biinrd, any peifwu willfully InKultn any 
uieniber of tho bminl or willfully Interrupts the pr<>i-e<'ilings or without R(k»4 
rnuHe rrfuBes to krive evidenee. or Ir fndltj* in any other nianner of nny willful 
contempt In the fare of the boiird. any offlcvr of the lM»nrd or any (MiUHtnble may 
take the person offtMuliuK into cuHtody and remove him tii*iu the preclncti) uf the 
board, to he <1etHlne<1 In runt(Nly until the rlHlnj? of the hoard, nnd the perHon so 
offending tthall be liable to a penalty not exceeding one hundred dolhirt*. 

38, The hoard, or nny niendier thereof, and, on Iwing authorlztHl In writing 
by the board, any other pertton, may, without any warrant than thin lot, 
at any time, eutor any bulldlni:, mine, mine worklngH. nhlj), vejtw*!. factory, work- 
sh4ip, place or prmulMos of any kind, wlH-reln, or In rt'«jK«et of wbl'*h. any 
Industry Ik carried on or any work U being or ban beun done or c<.»iumtnu'wl, 
or any inntter or thing Is taking ])Iaef^ or hns taken pln<-o, which Iuih htH^ti 
mude the Bubji»ct <»f a reference to the l>oard, and hiHiMvl nnd vb*w any work, 
nmterhil, iiwiehlnery, appliance or article therein, ami Interrogate nny jtevwuH 
in or ti|Kin any nuch building, mine, mine workings, ship, vesHid. fnclory, work- 
shop, place or prenilHeH a.s aforesaid, In resiMt't nt or in relation to nny niaiter 
or thing hereinbefore inentloiiet], ami any iter»on who bluderH or obslructK the 
bour<l or any such iK!rM>n authorlKe^l m* aforeaald, In the exerci»e of liny fM»wer 
confern-d by thiH sei'tlon, Hhall be gullry of an offense nnd be liable to u jtenuliy 
not ejLecH.iting one buudriHl doMm-M. 

3«. Any party to a n-frMvUi-e may iw repre»t^te»J before the iHuird by lhrt*e or 
le8< than three fH/rwinn deelgitiitiM for the puriK>8e, or by c*ouam*l or ttoUcUor 
where hUow^mI an hen>mnfter providtnl. 

•10. Kvery |tariy api»e»irlng by a repreHentathe Hhall be bound I>y tbe netM of 
Miicb repretteutatlve. 

41. No counsel or solicitor shnll l»o ontttleil to ni»tHvir or Im> heard before the 
board, except with the consent of the inirtles to the dlHl'Ute, and notwithstanding 
mich couHent the bttard niiiy divMnc tri allow couii.siO or sollcltorn to apfienr. 

4'J. Persons other than Itritlnh subJectH shall nut be allowed to act wh mem- 
bers Iff a board. 

•13. If, without g(X)d cause whown. any party to proceo<llng9t before The board 
fullM to attend or to be ivpreHented. the board may proct><Hl as If be had duly 
attendtnl or had been reprewnletl. 

44, The NtltlnLTs of the board 8hAll be held at »uch time aud place an are 
from time to time UxihI by the ehalruian. after couHultatlou with the other metti- 
bern of the board, nnd the parties nhall be notlfiefl by the elmlnnan as to tho 
time and place at which Kltllngs are to l»e held: PntviiJtd, That fo far aa prac- 
ticable, the board Khali sit In the locality within which the !tntiJ«H't-nuittc^r of 
the pnK'ccillfig iM-fi-re It iirow. 

4!i. The prnceetllngN of the biinrd shnll be coudu*-*'"' '' 
at any Hudi iirtHi-tNlIngs before It, the boanl. on Itv 
f3itlon of any of the luirtleR. nuiy 01t*i*ct that tlie pt< 
in private and that all [MTnaiM other than the parilet*, tti«>lr 
ofllcerK of (he buurd aud the wllneMncM under evaniiiottirnt i 

40. The decl!<ion of a mojorlty of the member- ' 

buanl Hhall be the divlNitai of the tionrd. and the !> 



't.l! 



II, or <"n ■ 
shall hv 

reprt - 

bttll 



'pt.,.f 



of tile noijorlty of Itw i 



..r thi- iw..,i-.i. 

teaKt one olJier luvinber 
itg of \Utt buarA. 



CAJtADTAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES IXVESTIQATION ACT OF 1907. 165 




4H. In t*n«e of the nUseiicp of nny niio uietnb<*r from n nie<»ling of the boaril 
thtr ftthrr two m*'mbei-s Hball not proceed, huIpsh It Irt ahowu that the third luoni' 
bcr bas hwtt tiotlflKl uf the meotiu^: in aiuple time to luimlt of his attondunce. 
If :tu>' member of a honrd dies, or liecomefi Luoai)iKitatfH3. or ri'fnsos or 
18 to «t't. his sncrcswir shall bo apiM>lntcd In the mauDcr provided with 
t to the urlulnal member of the board. 
O. Tl»« iKNird may At any time dlsmisa any matter referred to tt which It 
thlnkf^ frlvolouB or trivial. 

ftO. The board may, with tlie oou^iit of the miulRter. employ cDmpotent 
experts or asaessora to exuuilne the IWMiks or olliibil rt'iHirts of either (larty. mid 
to adviw* It ui>ou nny teehnknl or other matter material to the Inveatijoitlon. but 
■ball not diKrluHe sueh re|H)rt8 or the results of »uch insiiectlon or examination 
onder ttUs bcctlou without theeoUHent of iKitb the itartles to the dispute. 

ffrtnunfralion ami vxiM'tuirii of btmnl, 

51. The members of n board while enjs^nged In the adjustment of a dlsiaif^ 
1 he remunerated for their services as follows: 

(0) To members other tJinn the ciialnnan — 

(1) Ad allowance of Hve dollnrs a day for a time not exceeding thn**' diiya 
daring which the members may be actually eneat;ed In selecting a third memlM-r 
of the board ; 

4U) An allowance of fifteen dollars for each whole day's sittings of tlie 
tMMrd; 

(lit) An flllowant?e of seven dollars for each half-day's sittings of the hoanl; 
(ft) The chairman shall be allowe<l twenty dollars a day for each whole day's 
g» of the board, and ten dollan* a day for each half-day's sittings; 

No allowance shall be made lo any member of the bt>ard ou account of 

sitting of the board which does not extend over a half day, unless it Is 

iikowu to the sarisfaction of the minister that sm-h mefthig of the iKHird was 

ry to the itcrformance of Its duties as 8i)eedy as iK>ysll>le. and that the 

wblcb prevented a half-day's sitting of the board were beyond its con- 



■ 




kgp: 

Vbfvof t 

" aaaoclat 



BS. No member of the board shall accept In addition to his salary as n mem- 
bfV of the board any peniuisite or gratuity of any klud, from any corpi»ratIon, 
aaaoclatlon, iiartuership or iudlvUlual in any way lntere.ste<l in any matter or 
tUog before <ir altout to be brought liefore the i>oard in accftrdance with the 
prnvtsloDs of this act. The accepting of such i>erqul8lte or gratuity by any 
member of the ttoard shall be an oQVnse and shall render such member liable to 
a fine not exceeding one thousan<l dollars. 

53. Each member of the board will be entitled to his actual necessary travel- 
Ing (»xpeuHes for each day that he Is engaged In traveling from or to his place 
of rv'sldence for the purpose of attending or after having altetuled a meeting of 
the board. 

54. AH exi»enses of the board. Including exi>enses for transfiortatlou incurred 
by the members thereof or by jiersons under Its order In ninking investigations 
' - 'Mis act, salarleK of emidoyees and agents, and fei's and niiUtige to wlt- 

j.ill be allowwl and paid u(iou the presentation «tf ileuiized voucbera 

.. approved" by the chairman of the board, which vouchers shall be for- 

wsnliHt by the cbalrmau lo the mlulster. The chalrmnn shall also forward to 

the minister a ctfrtiiled and detaibM stateuieut of the HiltlngH of the board, and 

iof XhK members present at such sittings. 



DUTIKS OF THE RKGISTRAK, 

SS. It shall be the dnty of the registrar: 

la) To receive jiud register, and. sul>ject to the provisions of thlw act, to deal 
with oil appilcatJt>uB by employers or employees for a reference of any dis])uto 
TO a board, and to at once bring to tbe mlnlstec's atteutlon every such appUcu- 
Uuo: 

(*> To conduct such corresitondence with the parties and members of boarils 

may be !i**«'»*HH:»ry to constitute any board as siMHHlUy as jHissibie In aceord- 
uie^ with th< us of this act; 

(c) Tv rv ' iie all re(»orts and recommendations of boards, and cou- 

H«imr/ 0Ofi/ r'c/r/e-.-/«'//i/f/i«Y* iiOfi flo Fticti fiifngs SB huiy usslst In reuderVwv, vtl«^- 

"^ 'vcommeziiJjttloug vt the boards, hi ae<^»rdftuce witb tbe VTi*N\'i\oA\^ *>t 



■-- -^- -'- 



166 BVLLRTtV OF THE BITREAU OP li&BOR. V 

(f/) To Uoop n re^lfiter In wbleli Btmll he <mi<!Ti\\ ilie tmrtlculars of all flppll- 
ciitlunR. referenros. r»'|Mrt« and reooniinendnlloiis reliitlii;; to the upiHilnliuout of 
II board, and IIh pn«*ewlings: and to wifely kocp all appllratlonH, ntatcnient^, re- 
portK, rL'Comim*ndutloiiK niid otlicr di^x'tiujeiitH relating to proceedings bofuru lUe 
hoard, and, wlion h<i re<]uiretl, tratittudt nil or any of »nch to the minister; 

(r) To BUpply to any jmrtles, on reipieflt, Infornnitton as to this net, or any 
refrnlatloHH or pnx'eedlntfK thereunder, and alno to furnlHh pnrtleH 1o n dlHpule 
and nH'Udu'rs of the hoard with n4_*ee»»«arj' Munk forms, forms of Runimimis or 
other pupt'rK or doounienlN re^pdriNl In conneellon with the effittlve carryUiK 
out of the provlslouH of thiH net; 

(/) <ienernlly, to do all Huch thlngK and take nit fiuch ])roeeeiUng« uh may 
t>e rwpilred In tho performonce of his duties preflcrlltod under tills net or any 
reKUlallous thereunder. 

STRIKES AND 1/>CKOt:T8 PRIOR TO AND PENDINO A RKFEUENCIQ 
TO A BOARD ILLKGAU 

rso. Tt flhnll he unlawful for any employer to declare or cause a loi-kout. or 
for any employee to gu on Ktrlku, on a«vniiut of any dlnpuie prior to ur during 
n ri'forence of wnrh dispute to a hunrd of raneUhttiMn and Invetttlicatlou under 
the i>rovl.sIon[* of thiH act, or prior to or during a reference under the provlalonn 
('oneernhiK railway dlnputes lu the roneilhitlon and Ijibor Act: ProviUctl, That 
uothhiK In thlK act hIuiII prohltdt the suKpcnnlon or discontinuance of any Indus- 
try or of the working of any jiersona therein for any caune not constltullng 
n lockout or Htriko: /*ror/t/c<£ aho, That, except where the partlen have en- 
tennl Uilo an at;rtH.*ment unilor section *\2 of thiH ai-t, nt'thlUK In this art Hlmll 
|te held to restrahi any employer from dcclarlnj; a lockout, or any employee 
from ifoln;; ou strike in respect of any dispute which han he<*n duly referred to 
n hoard and which han licen dtmit with under iHM-tlon 2-i or 2o of thiH net, or lu 
re«|>ect of any dispute which has l>een the subjix't of a rcfereiuv luitler the 
provlslonB eoneerniuK railway dlspulesi in the (\mclllntion and fjihor Act, 

ri7. KuiployerH and employet^H Hhall i:lve at least thirty dayN" notice of nu 
lnteu<l<Hl change ufTectln); cundttlons of employimmt with reniiect to wnK*^"** or 
Iioui'h; ntid In every caw» where a dispute has hcen referrcil tn a hoard, until 
the dispute ha« Infu llually dealt with by the hoard, neither of the parllcH nor 
the empl«»y«'ert nfl'et'ted fshall alter the condltloUH of employnuM»t wltli re>.pe<*t 
to wn^reH or hours, or on account of the dlHpulH do or l*e coucernwl In dotuK* 
dlriH'dy or ludlrwtly, auythhuf In the nature of a IcH-ktuit or strike, or a mus- 
|ien»lon or dUcftnlinuaniv of employment or work, hul the relationship of em- 
ployer and emp]i»yet! Nlmll C4>nlliiue tinlnterruptisl by the dlRvuite, or uuythlnj; 
nrlsluK out of the dispute: hut If. In the opinion of the hoard, either party 
uses tlilK or any other provision of tids net for the puriNines of unjustly nialn- 
tainluK a Klvtni (dudltUai of affairs through delay, and the Imard so re|)onH to 
the ndnlHter. kucIi party shall l>e gidlty of an otTense. ami liable to the same 
IK-Mujltles as are Imposed for a violation of The next preceding section. 

1%H, Any employer divlarlng or causing a hM_'Uout contrary to the jtrovlslons 
of this t\\'i shall ho liable to a tine of not li*ss tluin one buiidroil dollars, nor 
mor(* than oue tiiousaud dollars for eadi day or part uf a day that such look- 
out exists. 

59. Any employee who goes on strike contrary to the provlshms of this acl 
nhalt ho llahle to a fine uf not less than ten dollars nor more Ihun llfty dollars, 
fur each day or |«irt tif n d.-iy timt such . . !s nu strike. 

60. Any person who Inciies. eucouriu In any manner any (Mnployer 

lo dechire or Cfmtlune a luckfiut, or nn> .-utri'^ '•»■ to go i}r — :*!■■■•. ...i,. 

contrary to the pivivislous of this act, shall l»e gtdlly of an 

n fine of not I**hh ihnn tlfty dtilhirs nr»r more tliun one ihi - . 

4(1. The procedure for ehf«U'clu>; iK'nallles Impownl or .- ' To lie Un 

iwiwt^ by this act Bhull be that presc-rlliiHl hy l*:>rt XV. of mlnal Code, 
relating to sunminry convictions. 

SriOClAI. i'itU\ ISIU.NS. 



f«ot iu a rcfvtt'Ucv f 



iMite whlrli 

't iwy liM 
.'. f.. 1... 






CAXADGLX IKDUSTKIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF 1907. 167 

■meut so to bo boimcf made Uy one pnrty shnll Im* f<trwnrde<l to the 

rnr who shall tttminunUiite U to the ottier i»art5\ and if the other jiarty 

?» In like maimiT to lie hoiind l».v the recituiuifudatiou of the board, thcii 

p rfxi>nimpnil:iTion shjill he mude n nile of the snid eimrt on tlie a[i|illGatfon 

ellber i«riy and shall he eiifori'wilile In like niauner. 

t«f. In the event of a disidite arising in any industry or trade other thikn 
as may be IneKnJed iMulrr the provlsionH nf thiK act, and such dispute 
thrmtenR to result lu a kH-k^mt or strike, or has aetnally resnltod In a lockout 
or Ktrlke, either of the (lanie^ niuy ogr<^ In writ- Iwrltiog) to allow such dlH- 
pnie to be referred to a botinl of conciliation and tnreetl^tlou, tu be coustl- 
tated under the pn>vlKlnnH of thlit act. 

U, Ererv n>rreenicnt to nlUnv snch reference shall be forw^arded to the rest»i- 

mr. who sliHJl couiniiinlcitte 11 to the other (lai^. and If Nurh utlier party 

-r—"- !ti like umnn^r to allow the dispute to he referred to a board, the dls- 

V be HI ri'forrtMl jis If the indu.«ttry or trade and the parties were In- 

-v ithln thp provishius i>f this act, 

a. t"T<tQ\ the time that the imrtles hare l>cen notified hi wrltins: by the 

rvi^Utmr that Id ctvnseriUHm'e of their mutual ajfreenient U* refer the dl^ipnte 

to A Inmrd under tl»^ provisions of this act, the minister has decided to refer 

fineb diKpute, the lockout or strike, if in existence, shall forthwith cease, and 

the provlsloutf of this act shall bind the purtlen. 

MISrELLAXEOrs. 



or ( 

H ubli 

■I 



» 



64. No c*iurt of the Unmlnlun of Canada, or of nuy I*r<tvince or territory 
thrrwif. shall have jMiwer or Jiirl.**dictlon to nvoj^lxe or enfom*, ur to receive In 
ovitlonoe any re|)ort of a board, or any te»ttluiotiy or prtx'etHllnpi before a hoard, 
aa agaluMt auy jx-rson or for any purpose, except In the case of the prosecution 
of such pt-rson for (»erjury. 

65. No pru<-ee<liii)? under Ihls act shall Ih* deemed Invalid by reason of any 
defect of form or any ti.'chnical irregularity. 

66. The minister shall determine the allowance or amonnta to he pnid to all 
permaaB other than the meuilHTt* of a board, emidoyed by the Ooveriiment or 
MBj bofird, including the re>;i!?trar, secretaries, clerks, experts, dtenofcraphera 

other inrsons i»erfornnng any 8«»rvices under the [provisions of this act 

67. In case of proHecutluus inider thin act, whether a couvlctlou 1b or la not 
ublalned. it shall be the duty of the clerk of the court before which any such 
lirwM^-Mrion takes place to brietly report the particniars of such prosecution 

f! r:ir within thirty days after It luis lnH»n determlneil, and such clerk 

!»«d to a prewribwl h'e In payment of hl« servk^es. 
■©*». 1 u'" governor in council may m;ike regulations as to the time wtthLn 
which nnythluf? hereby authorizcHi shall be done, and alsit as to any other 
niTiM.-f .,r thinjt which ap|>ears tu him uetessary or advisable to the effet.'luul 
: of the several provisions of this act. All socli rejjulations shall go 
; e on the day of the publication tliereof lu The <'anada Gazette, and 
tbi-y shall be laid before Parliament within fifteen days after such puhllcutlon, 
or. If rnrUanieiir is uot then la session, within fifteen days after the opening 
iif the )(' o theref»f. 

61>. -^ - and expenses Ineurreil l)y the Government iu connection with 

ti>e .irhnin.M: ilium of this act shall be defrayed out of such nppropriatlcms as 
are made by Parllantent for that purpo»>. 

Ti» \n "tniual reiM.>rt with ivsjtwt to the matters transacted by hliu under 
l»e made by the miul?*ter to the S'lvernor-^jeneral, and shnil be laid 
iuieac within tlie tirst fifteen days of each sesf^on thereof. 



BBITISH TRADE DISPUTES ACT OF 1906. 

Tho text of the Brilisli Trade Disputes Act of 1!M)(\ is given in full 
iu the following pag^ in response to numerous iuquirie.s in regntd to 
the fiuhjent. The decision in (h(» Taif Viile ruse, whic-h was tlie iniinc- 
dinte cause of the onnotinent of (his law, and the legal position of 
labor unions as the result of the decision, were discussed in Bidlptin 
\»K 70 of tliif! Bureau and more at length in Bulletin Na '>0, and need 
n(»l Im* iTprodnred heir. 

A?( Act to provhk* fur tU*i r«^KUlft11un of tniUon tiulonti aiitl tniilt* diBputt^ri |2lAt 

tir ft riiard'tl hi/ • • • l*iirUttmrnt itrntrmMt'*!, (intt by thf authuriti/ o/ 
Iftf MUtin-, tin fiiHt/trx: 

I. Tbn fotlowlim |mi'n^i'iii>h hIiiiM Ih» mUlml nn a iit'w piiriittriipli after thu 
fli'»t jiMniKnipli uf M«v(li>ii thiw of iliti <'*niHpli'nry ami rroitvtltui of Tropcrly 
Aft, 1875 («» : 

"An net (Inno In pnrsunnoe of an ain*e4mipnt ar ennitilnatlnn by two or mom 
iH'rwiiK* kIhiII, If doiH' In oontoiuplatlon »»r furUieranct* uf a tratV* <ll«|»uto, not bo 
itrlintiiihir iinlt'wt tlw lu-t. If diUK* wltlmut jiny siu-li ii^nviii«Mit nr fonibhwitlon, 
would he aotloniible." 

2.- -(1 ) It'Hliiill III' litwfiil fur on*' or muri* |k*ijm)ii«, iirtlac on tUvW own licUalf 
or nil bt*li!ilf of II tritdo nnli>n or of nn tiidlvldtuil cinpliiy^T or rlrni In contom- 
platloii or furllif-ntnrf of n trade dispute, lo a(tiMid at or noar a houme or plaoc 
wb<Ti-' a pi'i-^»n ro(*idu8 »pr workB or nirrli-n on bn^lni^P or htipiMMin to h<', If lliry 
tm aftciul HK^rtdy for the ptirpom* of |M*ncrfnlly f>lttnlnlnK or rnntmunlrutinj^ In* 
foruiailuu, or of pouccfully |M'n^undtii>; uny iMTHon to work or jilmliiln from work- 
Inte. 

(1!) ScH'tion wni>n of thpl'ousplracy and rrotfctlon uf I'riiiH'rty Art, IHTfi (*), 
|k h*'r<»by rcix*"!'"^* fntai "nttrudtnt; nt or iicnr" to llio i'lid (if tbe H»H:lioa. 

:i. An art doiu' by It piMwai In idnt<*iupla(lon or furtbtTinuv of a triidc dl»- 
pnrr Hhnll not Ix' nrtlomiblt> on thi' Kroun<l only thai It lndur»>M Konii* otber fwr- 
H*>n to break a rinitntrl of i*nipli>yin<'nt op that It Ih an Inlorferrutv wltli tlu» 
trade, husUirsH, ur empitjyniiMit of sHinu* othor pornon, or n ttb tin* rlKbt of stonm 
(•thcr porwon to <ilHpo(«p of IiU mpUHl or Utn liibor as be will**. 

4> — (1) Au ai»tlon a»fi»lnHt a trade union, wbftber of workmen or uuiAttTH. or 
n;;MlfiiK( mty meadtorH or oitUlalK thereof on bebnif of theniwdven ami hII ottier 
ItienitjerH tif tin* tnide \inloit hi lVHl>t»<^l of ]>ny toiiious ml «llep»d to luive b»*^n 
i'«injmllti.*d by or uu belialf uf the trade union, aball not b» «tntertulu4Hj by any 
i?ourt. 



•* Tbr ilrftt puntKiapb of nwllon U uf Uie (.'onsplniry and ProUfllou of 
Property Aot. lS7r». here referi^***! to. read« wh followK : 

An aiiri^ment ta* eoinldnarinn by two or ntore peraonH to tlo or priHMire to be 
Uoue any act In eouleniplallon or furthenince of a trade dUpnte biMween eui- 
|i|i;»yer»i nnd workmen Mlinlt not he indictable nn a eoofplrary If »nch act 
coninilttiHl by one perwai would not bi' piinlHbatde tin a crime. 

*'rhe purl of rtMMlnn 7 of the (*iii ' " '" I*ri>|>erty Ai*t, 

1875. which Is ropeiile*! by ib*- ;iIm(\. 

Atti-ndlny ut or urur the lioiiw' or \ ■■ "■ ■! - •■- 

i?arrlen on buHlncMM. or happcnn to i.e, or the 

to f>n]or inei'ely to oMnIti ..r > ouiuiunli.'ate Ini , 

n-Mtc/jhi/^' or h*Mftii thif mvmnttXK ot tiiia Hvcttou. I*' Wfltctilns ' 

f*f " btKm'fting " art* ). .i ) 



JOS 



BRITISH TRADE DISPUTES ACT OF IWW. 



I 



f!> NMblug: In t\\\9 9(H.<tIoii sbiill »(T(N't thr Unbllily nf tbp rniKtees of a trade 
nnion to he sued Ui the eveutu pntvlded for by Ibe TriuU»s Viiloii Act. 1871. stv- 
tloo iun<? (*), except in respect of any tortious act conuuitted by or on l»eUalf 
of Ui** union in i.'OU(euijilHtion or in fiirTlicnniff' of n trado disjinte. 

S.— (1) TlilB act may be cited as the Tnide Disputes Act, iy*)C, and the 
Trade Tnion Acti», 1S71 and 187*i, and this act may be cited together as the 
Tndie Union Acts. 3S71 to V.M)^. 

|2) Id this act the expresHion "trade union" has the same nieaului; as in 
tbe Trade l^iUm Actji, 3S71 and 1876 (^>, and shall Include any combination as 
tb^ri-'lu di'tlued, uotwlthstandlus that such combimitlou uuiy be the branch of a 
trade union. 

(3) In this net nml In Ibe Conspiracy and rrottvtioii of rro|)erty Act, 1.S75, 
tbr elprcwtiuh "trade diKpnie" means any tliBi>u1e between employers and 
w v r km en. or l>etwe»'n workmen and workmen, which Is oiuiiected with the em- 
ployiBent or nonemployment or the terms of the employment, or with the con- 
» c^f lalntr, of any |>erson, imd the exprenwion " workmen *' nit'uns all jkt- 
s emplityed lu trade or Industry, whether or not In the employment of the 

ployer with whom n trade dispute arises; and. In section three of the last- 
mentloned act, the words " between employers and worluueu ** shall be repenled. 




■ Section 9 of the Trade Union Act 1H71, here referred to, reads as follows: 

The trustees of any trade union r*^i»ten?d under this act. or any other «tllici 
^ jnch trade union who may be authorized so to' do by the rules thereof, are 
l^flWlF euipoweriHl to brlLitr or defend, or cause to be bntu^ht or d*-feuded, 
say action, suit, prosecution or complaint in any court of law ov efiuily 
touchlnur or couc<»miUK the property, rijrbt. or claim to property of the trade 
unkiu; and shall and may, hi all cai^es concerulnf; the real or i:»ersoiml proi>erty 
of snch trade union, sue and be sued^ i>Iead and be Imiileuded, In any court of 
faiw or equity. In their pr*»per names, without other description than the title 
of their office; and no such action, suit, p^o^#ecutlou, or complaint shall be 
dii!<ciM>tiuued or sliajl abate by the death or removal from olKce of micb persima 
or any of them, but the same shall and may l»e pn^ceeded in by their successt>r 
or Hutve^^on? as if such death, resi^utlon. or removal had not taken iihuv: 

n: ' ' siK-cessMtn; shall pay or revvlve the like costs as if the action, suit, 

I I, or comphilut had been commenced In their names for tht* tH-iutit 

4 lY'lmbiirsed from the fniids of such trade union, and the summons 

l- " such trustee or other officer may be served by Icovlni; the same 

ti- red office of the trade uni<in. 

^ Xhtr eJi])rei«lon ** trflde union ** is defined by the Trade I'nlon Acts, ISTl aud 
3S76. as follows: 

Tbe term " trade union " means any combination, whether tem|Hirary or 
penaanent, for regulating the relations between workmen and masters, or 
between workmen and workmen, or between masters and masters, or tm inip<-'s- 
lOK re«trlctl\e conditions on the conduct of any trade or business, whether 
HK'b i*omhlnati(»n would or would not. if the principal act had not been passed, 
have been deemed to have been an unlawful combination by reason of some one 
or more of its purposes being in resirnlnt of trade: 

Pr&rfilcd, That this act shall not ittTect — 

1. Any agreement between partners us to their own buslneBs; 

2, Any agreement between an emidoyer and thost* pmpltfyed by him as to sit 
employment; 

^ Any agrevmeut in consideration of the sale of the g<H>d w*lll of a bufilne 
ur of lJitn.Hluctiou lu auy professiunr trade, or handicraft. 



ttdl 



ue 

I 



iTE BITREAUS OP LABOH IOWA. 



171 



average of $l,fUt5.(t7, lumc of ihe honies Ijeiiig uiiiiu'iiinUMt'd, while 80 
reported an equity of $1W,143 in property valued at $191,0i)0. 

Kaiueoao EMi'H')ncK8. — This is nn investigation of (he <'rinditions 
ffurrouiidiiig the employment of railroad men in the tran^iportation 
hntnch of the service und ii reconi of the accidents to railroad em- 
ployees within the State during the year 1905, and of accidents to em- 
ploye«*s, passengers, and nthcrs during the period 1878 to 1905» Re- 
turns from the railroad employees show that tlie average run per 
montii WHS 3,430 miles for 22 conductors on 5 different systems, 2,951 
miles for 42 engineers on 9 different systems, 8,0.38 miles for 23 fii^e- 
men on C different systems, and 2,772 mlle^s for 22 trainmen on tt 
different systems. For conductors the rate of pay was $3.45 per 100 
miles, the reported average yearly earnings being $1,304.65; for en- 
gineers the rate of pay rariged fi-om $3.80 to $1.^0 per 100 miles, the 
reporteil average yearly earnings being $1,410; for firemen the rate 
of pay ranged from $2.30 to $3 j>er 100 miles, the reporte<l average 
yearly earnings being $882.47, and for trainmen the rate of pay was 
$2.29 per 100 miles, the reported average yearly earnings being $757, 

E.MPLOitits' Statistical Report. — These returns, presented in two 
tables, cover the year 1905, and were furaished by employers in 882 
industrial establishments, in 06 counties of the State, in which 35,551 
persons were employed, 29,488 being wage-workers and 6,063 salaried 
employees. 

The first table, arranged by counties, gives in detail character of in- 
dustry, number of establishments reporting, number of employees 
(men, womeji, and children), hours worked i)er day, days in operation 
during the year, increases and decreases in wages, and amount paid 
in wages during the year to each class of wage-workers (men, women, 
and children). In addition there is given the amount paid in salaries 
during the year to men and women, together with the number em- 
ployed of each sex. 

The sec<jnd cable siuninarizes, by counties, the data presented in the 
first table. It shows that the 29,488 persons employed as wage- 
workers in the 8M2 establishment^ earnetl during 1905 the sum of 
$14,576,187. Of the total, 24,000 men earned $13,245,837 ; 4,tH5 women 
earned $1,202,047, and 783 children under IC years of age earned 
$I2S,30;5. Tin: average annual earnings of the men were $550.53: of 
tlie women, $258.78, and of the children under IC years of age, $163,80. 
To the ti,0C3 salaried employees the sum of $4,655,432 was paid, 
$4,0-15,.53S to 4,638 men and $609,81)4 to 1,425 women. The average 
annual salary received by the men was $872.26 and by the women 
$'127.99. The average^ numl)er of per.sons employed in eiich of the 
882 estobli^sjinients was 40, the average houi*s worked per day 9.95, 
and tlie average uunil>er of days per year 29S. During the year 4,677 
petrsons received an increase of pay averaging 8.64 per cent. 




172 



BULLBTTN OF THE BUREAU OF U^BOR. 



The Cannini; Indistkv. — The inforninlion tvlnting to this in- 
dustry is presented, by counties, in two tHblo«. In the first table is 
t^hown for 11)05 the niimlier of plants reporting, time in operation, 
ninnlx'r of nion. women, nnd children employed, hours worked per day, 
and amount pai<I in wages during the year to each clusw of wage- 
workci-s; also the number nf men and women employed on salary, to- 
gether with the total amount paid each class during the yvnv. Tlie 
seeonil table is a list of graded hourly nites sliowing that paid in each 
of the different occupution-s of the industry, hours worked per day 
and |>er week, and ehangeH in the rates paid during 11K)5, 



MAINE, 



I 



Twentieth Annual Report of the Bureau of IndtmtrUd and Labor 
Statt9ticii for the State vf Maine, ltK)C, Samuel W, Matthews, 
Conmiissioner. 'i'il pp. 

In this ivpoit the subjects foMowiiig ai*e presented : Factories, null:^, 
and nhop^ built during lJ»0(i. 5 pages; lalxir unions, 71 pages; St(K'k- 
U>n Ha rlx>r, Maine's new !>enport, 17 pages; manufacturing industries, 
IH pugch; the Hii^^kcll silk mill. 4 pages; the paper-box industry, 3 
pages; the pulp iind paper industry, iiO pagt*s; railroads, 5 pages; 
ivport of the inspector of factories, worksliops, mines, and quarries, 
l.'i pages. 

Kactohies, MiLUs, AND Suops Built. — Returns show that in 1006 
in 105 towns 132 buildings were erected or enlarged, remodeled, etc., 
at a l<tlfll ••iist of $2,037,500. These improvements proviiled for 3,7*24 
additional employees. 

A summary of iinprovemeuts of this character is presented for the 
ten years 1807 to lOOtJ: 

FAOTOaiBS. MILLS. AND 8H0F8 aiMLT OR ENL.VRGED. ETC.. OURtXO THK YKAB^ 

16B7 TO lOOO. 



■ rw. 


Nuiubtr 

oflo«rtu. 


Xumbor 
of build- 


Afsrcffiiu 

cone. 




IWff 


74 
U 

IM 
114 
M 
Dl 
W 
Dt 
Ddi 

1(KV 


rt 

i« 

107 
121 
l£U 
131 
11:1 
lt4 


ara.ioo 
2.174. «a 

i.4;it.«oo 
?.»a.4lO 

S.037.f«O 


■?. ctij 


lyui.... .. 









I.AWiH Unions. — tTnder this title is given a list of all fwlerations 
mid anions rejMrtitig, together with the addrosacis of the wcretaries. 
"^'-^rr n^ere i? Sint4.i nnd 11 central feduTttUonis ikT\i\ ^\X\ \oc«\ \vtv\<^VA 



BKPORTB OF STATE BUBEACS OF LABOR — MAINE. 



178 



M iMties, lown^, and pliinlniions. Of llie local uaitms known to 
exist in lOOtl, 5 faiied to ifjMirt nienibersliip and 14 sent no re|K>rt, 
The Imports from the unions give, by cities and towns, the date of or- 
srauization, the membei'sliip, tlie qnalifiratinns foi- membership, tho 
iiiitiation fees, dues, benefit^^ allowed, the hours of labor, rates <>f 
wkges, etc. The 11K5 local unions reporting comprise<l n membership 
of U,77i>. 

To the f|uestion. " What have you accomplished for labor by organ- 
ization f*' a wide range of replies w^as returned by the unious: but a 
iimjority i»f them asserted thnt higher wages and a shorter workday 
had l»een gained. To the question, " Do nonunion men enjov tlio 
same i*on<liti<>ti.s as to labor, wages, and steady employment as union 
men ?" 190 unions made reply. ^^ indicating that notninion men enjoy 
<K|Urtl comlitions with union men and 101 that they do not. 

Tiider this chapter is also given a discus>don of the a|)prentice8hip 
system, and the rules of the various unions governing apprentices, 
together with a history of the labor demands and di&putes occurring 
diiHng the year. 

Mamf.uti hiNo iNDrsTBiES. — The data presented in this chapter 
%vt compiled frtmi the United States I'ensus of manufactures of 
Maine fi>r 190r». Comparisons are also made with the TTnited States 
census i»f manufactures for 1000. 

TuK Papek-b<»x Indistry. — A general description of the more 
important paper-lmx factories in the State is given under this title, 
t<igether with statistics of the industiy for the entii-e State, for the 
Unite<l States, and for six States in which the induslrj' is mos-t 
prominent. In Maine, in 1905, there were 9 paper-box factories, 
with a capital of $144,900, which gave employment to '2*22. hands, to 
whom was paid in wages $70,416. The sum of $100,lf>l was paid 
for materials and the product was value<l at $:2.3t>,149. 

TiiK Pti.i- AMI? Pai'er Tndistry.-- At the present time the nuiking 
of pulp and paper is the leading manufacturing industry of Maine. 
The investigation eonsideretl in this report is confined principally 
to the year IDOti. However, as a matter of genera! interest, and for 
puq>tiseM of compurisiMi with other States, a list is presented of the 
States where the manufacture of pulp and paper in liH)4 was u promi- 
nent industry', sliowiug the vidiie of the product in each State. Also, 
there is given n s^-uopsis of the industry in the United States for the 
jretr 1904 compared with 1800, followed by a similar synopsis of 
tbie industry in the State of Maine. 

The returns for llKMl give, hy towns, a general de.s*:riptioa of each 
establishment, stAting kind and degree of power used, kind of ma- 
ihinery, kinil and ainoimt of maleriiils used, kiml and nmount of 
products nutnbvr of t'mp}n\x^^ etc. During the year \\w m^ww^ttc.- 
mu40—BatL 



174 



BUULKTIN OF THK BURKAU OF LABOR. 



ttire of pti!l» and j>a|)er was oarrictJ on in 'M pulp luills ami *28 paper 
milLn ccHnpriseil in 38 dilTeront establLshments, employing 8,006 work 
people (8^50 men and ^56 women). To th<w4; Hnployc«s a total of 
$4,820^308 was paid in wa^s, and tlioy turned out a product valued 
at $34,617,606. There wen? under construction during tho year 8 
{>n]p mills and 4 paper mills, 5 of (he pulp iriilU an<I 3 of tlic pa[Kn* 
mills constituting^ C) new establishments. 

The chapter concludes with three contributed papers, as follows, 
relating to the industry: "History of paper making in Maine, and 
tlie future of tlic industry f^ " Chemiciil woo<l pulp nnd paiXM* — how 
made," and " Maine forest*, their preservation, taxation, and value.'* 

Hailkoads.— For the year ending June 30. UH)6, there were 8,84<*) 
persons, incluiling general officers, in the service of the 20 steam rail- 
roads operating in the State. Tlie nggrcgate amount of wages, in- 
cluding Kularies, pnid during the year was $5,084,191.82. Tho num- 
ber of eu^ployoes, exclnding gpjieral oftieers, was 8.781, an increase of 
71 over llK)r>. The total numbei* of days worked by employees, other 
than general officers, was 2.549,007, and the total amount paid llib 
class of employees in wages was $4^,909.1)00.08. The average daily 
wages of the same class was $1.93, an increase from $1.88 for the year 
1905. Statements are presented showing for the years 1IK>5 nnd liKMJ 
the total mileage, gross earnings, passengers carried, freight hauled, 
passenger and fivight train mileage, etc. 

The mmilxr of men employed, mcluding general officers, upon 
tlie street railways of Mairu^ for the year ending June 30, 1906, 
was 1,330. To these were paid wages and salaries aggi^gating 
$834,404.35. 

Accident*^ on st<*a(n railroatls for the year ending June 80, 1900, 
resulted in 38 j>ersons being killed and 2*22 injured by the move- 
ment of trains. Of those killed, 17 wore eniployeos. it were passen- 
gers, and 10 were other person5i: of those injured, 13G were em- 
ployees, r>4 were pa.s.sengei% and 3*2 wei'e other persons. On tlin 
street railways accidents resulted in 7 persons being killed and i8 
persons injured. Of those kil1e<l, 3 were passi^ngers and 4 were other 
persons; of those injured. were employees, 87 were passengers, and 
5 weiv other pei-sons. 

Ciin,r> liAnoR. — In the report (m factory inspection liil»les are pro- 
Hentcd in which it is shown tluit the number of children working 
under certificates in certain manufacturing csiablishtnc4its of this 
StJite was 813 in llX»r» nnd 877 In 1900. The fact(»ry inspector khv 
omiuertrts additiomtl legislation rcgulatiiig child labor in thu State. 






m BBPORTS OP STATE BUBEAUS OF UABOU — MARYIAND. 17^|i 

^^L MARYLAND. ^ 

Fifternth Annual Report of the Bureau of StatistiriH //rul ItiforTnatio^U 
of Maryland^ 1906, Charles J. Fox. Chief, 214 pp. V 

In this re|>ort the subjects Mlowing nro presented : Tlic cliiUI^^^ 
labor law. 35 pages; inspection of clothing and other manufactures, 
23 pi&ges: strikes and lockouts, 65 pages; free einplovnient agency, ^H 
pages; cost of living, 19 pages; in labor circles, 11 pages; agricultural^ 
statistics, 1906,3 pages; new incorporations, 1906, ^Ih pages; immigra- 
tion, 5 pages; State reports, d pages; conferences and conventioufl|fl| 
2 pages; Bnancial statement of the bureau, 1 page. 

The Child- Labor Law. — The State legislature of 1906 placed ui>on. 
the labor bureau the work of enforcing what is generally known a^l 
the child-labor law. In this chapter is given the result.s of the work 
of six months under this law — from July 1 to December 31, 190G, 
To children between 12 and 16 years of age 10.289 labor pennits were 
issued, 5,896 to boys and 4,393 to girls. Of the total pennits issued 
9,294 were for Baltimore City, 5,2.'>1 to boys and 4,043 to girls. 
Applicants for permits to the number of 1,046 were refused. 

A summary of the work of the various district inspectois shows 
that in 90 manufacturing establishments, with sale^srooms, visited 
there were 248 boys and 129 girls under 16 years of age employed, 
■vho«p weekly earnings averaged $2.64^; that in 356 stores, mercantile 
KtAblisliments, and offices visited there were 565 Imys and 1T7 girls 
under 16 years of age employed, whose weekly earnings averaged 
f3.48» and that in 949 manufacturing establishments visited there 
were 1,175 boys and 1,688 girls under 16 years of age employed, whose 
weekly earnings averaged $3.64^. Also, there is given the degree of 
intelligence of the children, hours of labor per day and time allowed 
for lunch, sanitary condition of surrt)undings, etc. 

The chapter, further, contains a report on the applications for 
relief investigated by the Charity Organization Society and the Asso- 
ciation for the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor, the need 
df relief being based upon the alleged loss of wages of children to 
whom IalH)r jHTmits had l>een refused. Cases in the tx)unties oiitside 
v\i Hakimore were investigutetl by the secretary of the Man*land 
Child-Labor Comnuttee, whose report closes the chapter. 

Inspectiox ok Ci/»THiNo ANO Otheh MANrFACTURES. — Dunug the 
year 190*1 the work of insj)ectiiig e-stablishnients where clothing and 
other articles are made which come under the act commonly known 
as the " sweat simp law '■ wa.'r vigorously pursued and with satisfacto 
re*ult3. It is staled that the old-time sweat shop has in large me^sii 
been eliminated from the manufacture of clothing in the city 
lialdmore. The opinion of iho State cotirt of appe&Vs Aftc\ftx\Tv\^ >3Sf 



1 



176 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU 0¥ LABOR, 



of 
rk- 



fHi'iory jiinl workshop iii^peociuii law ciiii'^nitUitHiHl Ims pnicticHlly 
ivvolutioui/ed conditions in the garm(.'nt-nmking trader. 

After inspection and report thereon, during the year li>06 there 
were 1,441 pennit.s issued to contractors and individuals to work and 
employ 25,822 people in the manufacture, chiefly, of various articleaj 
pertainiJig to the clothing trade. Of the total permits, 929 w< 
issued to proj)rietors of fa(;tories and worlo^hops and 512 to pro- 
prietors who worked in tenements and dwellings. Tlie number of 
I>eople who were authoriiced to bo employed in the factories and work- 
hihops u^^'eguted 24,619, and in the tenements and dwellings 1,30* 
Of children under It) years of age there were employed 173 males rtn< 
683 femaleu; of those under 14 years of age there were employed 
males and 104 females. Tables, by inspe<*tion distri<'ts, give in detail 
number of employees by age and bex, houi*s of labor per day, kind of^j 
articles made, and c*onditions, sanitary, social, etc., existing in eonneo^H 
tion with each tenement, dwelling, and factory insjx»ctcd. ^^ 

S'ntiKEH AND Lockouts. — There are given for the year IfW siatis-, 
tics of 24 strikes, which thraw out of employment 2,051 persons (1,74S 
males and 309 females), with an estimated wage loss of $103,762. Oj 
the 24 strikes reported, 15 wei-e ordere<l by organizations and 9 wer 
not; 9 were for increase of wages, 5 were against the entployment oi 
nonunion men, 4 wej*c for i^eduction of hours of IhIku*, ami *> were for 
ocher causes; 7 strikes were successful, 4 weix' partly successful, and 
13 were unsuccessful. A brief description is given of each strike^ 
together with an account of several minor labor troubles which could 
not be characterized as strikes. No lockouts were re|>orted for the, 
year. 

Krkk EMri^»VMKNT AuKNfv.— r)uring 190r», the year covered b^ 
this report, there weit* t>44 applications for positions — (517 by mulci 
and 27 by fenuiles. Of the applicants, 231 were laborers, 63 wei 
clerks^ 4*J were watchmen, 30 were cttri)e!itrrs, 27 were timekeejx'rs, 
24 were drivers, and the remainder were distributed an)ong variom 
occupations. Applications for help numbered 521 — for male helj 
459; for fenuile help, 02. There were 141 |M>sitions filled — 129 bj 
males and 12 by females. An to character of positions filled, 113 wer 
lal^DRM-s, 12 were farm hands, 7 were general houseworkers, etc. 

<\)ST OK LiviNo. — Under this tith* roiupiiralive prices of vanoui 
articles of food and fuel in the Baltimore nmrkets are presented foi 
the years 1H92, 189;">, UK)5, and ltH)0. A table is also given showing th< 
iiverugc monthly retail prices of the principal articles of fotnl fui 
190tJ compiled from prices quoted in the daily paj^rs of Baltimore.^ 
In conjuncti<m with the prices of foo<l muuuf»<ntie!). etc., tliere are 
j>reaented tht? yearly earning^ of 10 reprcseiitulivo families wiT 

'£S ej/ 4-\t>r/nlitnr,.^; ^Jst, for ^37 (HTfttUl* .-..-'-...t \u 'M vU»..i...) 

mjj^iP /loiji-y worked and fsai'ui - ^t^j , «\*^» ^Qt> 



REPOKIS OF STATE BrBEAlS UK I-ABOK— MAHYLAND. 



177 



ItlM 

k 

■ frt)i 



duxwg tHe Tpar. rtiul avto'age yearly earnings. For [)eiNons ♦^nga^oil 
nil part of tb^ rxrnpatious the avei'age yearly eaniiugs for li»0»j ui-e 
placed in comparison with those for 1905 and 1901. 

In Labor Circles. — Under this caption is presented the returns 
rpTvived from 02 labor orgiinizations, having a re|>orted nienibersliip 
of 10,073. A list of the unions reporting is given, with name of each 
organization^ name and address of secretary, meuibersliip, hours of 
Itbor per day, and daily rate of wages. Of the total unionij, 14 re- 
ptKled the hours of la)x)r as 8 per day, 8 as 9 per day, aiid 3 as 10 per 

T, the reuuiining unions not reporting as to houi^s. Less than $;} 
day per meuiWr were the earning?^ rejwrted by 40 unions and 
from ^ to $4 per day per member the earnings rep<«ied by 20 uiiioas, 
TLer^ h given for 22 unions the number of members reported idle for 
Mch month during ll'OO. 

J:uMu:[L\TioN. — For the year ending December 31, 1906, i>6:2M 
illeiis, (*xclusive of transits, were admitted at the port of Baltimoi*e. 
Of ihis number only i*.7l2 wei*e destined to Manland. 



MICHIGAN 



nteniy' fourth Annual Rtpovt of the linrtau of Labor and Industf'u 
Sintistirg^ iurhiding the Fourttt nth Annual Ntport of Statt I n- 
Mpcction of Favton€9. 1907. Malcolm J. McLeod, Commissioner. 
XV, &35 pp. 

This reiHH't contains 20 chapters, of which Chapters I to X, 336 
pages* are devoted to inspection of factories, stores, hotels, tene- 
ment shops, etc. Labor and industrial statistics are pivsented in 
<^hapters XI to XX under the following titles: Organized labor, 
and labor disturbances in 11*06, 48 pages; free employment bureaus, 
13 pages: statistics of industry, lal)or, nnd wnges* 18 pages; prison 
«nd reforiuutory statistics. 17 pages: manufacture of beet sugar, 32 
pages; Porthuid cement aiul brick industries. 20 pages; tunning in- 
dustry* and manufacture of wire fence. pages: power used in manu- 
facturing in Michipui, 9 p»ges; statistics of important industries, 17 
pages; coal industry, 18 pages, 

Oaganized I^bor asd Labor Distitrbances in 1900. — This can- 
vaK*i made of organized lal)or in Michigan ciivers the period from 
July 1, 1905, to July 1, HH)0. A suimuary of the returns shows f)39 
local organizations canvassed^ which are believed to embrace fully 
1*5 p*.*v cent of the lin-al labor uniotjs in the State. These 539 lo<'als 
ninvasve<] repre^»nt !M distinct rM\-np«tions in 63 trades. The nuin- i 
bar of members on July 1, HK)5. was 35,369, and on July 1, 1^0, the fli 
number w;iv .^9J87. Meml>ers worked an average of 0.2 hours jwr t 
day and an nvcra^n* vf lOS* ii/o))th> per year. In 1905 average <laily 
ws£^ ofmeniLers werv $2.5i^ mid m 1906 they vrere %1.^7>. 




178 



BULLETIN OF TUK BUKBJLU OF LABOB. 



wore I4rt unions which roportx»d that organizntion had shortened the 
work duy, 470 unions which reported that differences had l>eon st^t- 
tled by arhitratiun, and 323 unions which ri^portwl thai tliey hud nn 
agreement with employers. During the year covered 48 unions were 
involved in striki^, 1^4 of which were successful. Strike benefiUs were- 
paid to the amount of $48,817.85. There were 188 unions which paid 
an average wei»kly sick Ix'uefit of $5.21, the aggregate paid by all 
IociiIk in silk Ijenefits during the year l>eing $2*2,.100. There were 875 
unicHiH which paid an average death benefit of $227.39, the aggre^te 
pHid i>y all locals in death )>enefils during the year Ix'ing $8d,526. 

Tlie Hecond part of this chapter, devoted to labor disturbances for 
the year ending r>e<-eud>er 31. ](K)A, consists of the report of thi) work 
of the State <rouit of mediation and conciliation. A brief account ih 
gi\en of the V^ labor disputes investigated by tlie court. The work 
of the court wan entirely that of mediation or conciliation, no case 
of arbitration or public investigation of disputes leaving oo<'.urred. 

Frkk Kmi'ix>vment TU:rkai'8. — ITnder tliis title is presented a de- 
tailed report of the work done in the two bureaus of the State — one 
opened at Detroit on June 12, 1005, and the other at Grand Rapids 
on July 1, llH)r». The table following summarizes the work done at 
the Detroit bureau from the date of opening to November 30, 1906, 
and the work done at the Grand Rapids bureau from the date of 
opening to December 31, 1000: 

OPEBATION OF FRHE PUBLIC R11PIX)TMBNT 07PICB8. 



Ottf, 


SltuiUona wmnUA. 


HatpwuitMl. 


PoilUoQs MriirMt . 


Ualai. Pumalai. 


HaIm. 


FcmalM. 


IfAlM. 


'-•H 


T*i>*wl» , ,.w.„ 




I.OB 


s.aw 


11, on 


I.TIO 


Orttid RiiirhJii.....,,., ,,,,., 


::: 


l.MO 




T'^fti 


It.fiCA 


t,<U 


U.M 


4.601 


u.no 


«.flno 





Statistics of Industry, Laboii, and Waoks. — Tliis prei^^entation 

shows for 7,170 rnimufncturing establi4unents cttuvHs-stsJ in UK)5 and 
for 7.770 canvassed in IIKW the ruiuiber, wages, and hours of labor of 
all wage and salaried employees, together witli the avi-rage num- 
ber of days worked per month and months workei! per year. The 
ftggregftt^ amount of wages paid all ernphtycos in HH)5 was $122,053,- 
324, ill lOOr. it was $138,303,^7; the average hours worked per day 
wert» 0.0 in 1005 and 0.7 in l\H}(\: the average days worked per nior^tlt 
weiv 26.-1 in 1005 and 25.(1 in 190*1; the avcrrtir.* nw.ndi^ ui.il;i.<i i..»r 
year were U.l in 1005 and 11.8 in 1906. 

The fncN collected have been ci>mpiled niul piv.-»enU'<J In dtMaiU'^I 
form, showing tlie various items by counties. From a aiimjuan' of 
the investigation the following table is given* wliioh shows the num- 
in^r of emphywii of each «*Iiiss and the averap;e davV^ 'wiitt.va v^v^ v^ 
/,Orr, .',rnl /fhh: /,j ^^,j, esfablishnient- .Mnv^isiHod'. 



BEP0BT6 OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR MICHIGAN. 



179 



[PLOTKK8 OF EllCU CLASS AND AVEKAGE DAILV WAGES IN MANUFACTUR- 
IN(i KSTABMSHMENTS. 1905 AND IDDO. 

[Figures are tor T.ITO cfltftbllshinents In 190S and for 7.7TO Id 1906.] 





ISItf. 


IMS. 


V Clnf» of "iiiploypp*. 


Kmuber 
of era- 
ploreaa. 


ATcnre 
dftOy 


Roraber 
ol«n- 

plOfVM. 


ATCTACe 
dally 
wates. 


SopvintiDdmU. 

O0»<krk>: 


s.m 

S.QOS 
1,414 

i.ni 


S.02 
1.71 

i.a 

i.in 

I.Ot 

.77 
.M 


7,0W 

7,ns 
s.ms 

I.TW 

IflB.Sll 

M.pr4 

t,M« 

1.877 




ftmfilf* , _^ 


1.4$ 


QneTKl fftctorr workon: 

M«lM 

rtai»i« -^ 

Cbflflrflo betwcea 14 ud l« rears ot Me: 

"•»«■ ...... .... 

Fnm^ltfi 


I.M 
l.Ot 

.87 

.07 






TWil.. - --. „ 


ttX.SOS 


1.82 


t67,W0 


I.M 



Further, the chapter gives statistics of 1905, showing the extent 
of the man u fact u ring industry in the United States by presenting 
for each State the number of establishments, capital invested, wages 
paid annually^ expenses^ cost of materials, and value of manufactured 
products. 

Prison and Reformatcjrt Statistics. — Under this title appear 
the re|)ort8 of the wardens and superintendents of these institutions. 
Tables are given showing the iuiinl>er «»f otiicials and salary of euch, 
number of inniates, cost of clothing and footling of inmates, number 
of inmates employed at c^nitract labor, rate per day of contract lal>or 
and hours of labor, and munber of inmates employed in systems of 
labor other than contract. 

MANLKAcrrKE OF Beet SroAR. — In the beet sugar industries 16 
factories were in ojx^ration during the year llK)r», the same mmiber as 
iu 1905. These 10 failories i-cpresented a total cost of $10,f)00,000. 
The acivage devoted to l>ect raising in lUOC was 9-l,0G0, an incrt^ase 
over 1905 of 20,687 acres. The tons of l>eets gi-own in 11*0G were esti- 
mated at 7;'S3.058 and the pounds of sugar made at 178,000,000. There 
were 55."^ skillet! laborers and 3,401 other laborers employed in the 
factories, with un average daily wage of :^^.09 for the former and of 
$1.95 for the latter. 

PoKTiMNn Ckmknt a.nu RBit'K Inuustuieh. — In tlie cement industry 
16 of the 17 plants in the State were in operation at the time of the 
investigation. The Aggregate cost of the plants in ojn^ration was 
$fi,3(K),000, and their aggregate daily capacity 19^200 barrels. The 
estimated output for UiOG was 4,032,418 barrels. There were on the 
pay rolls 440 skilled laborers, at an average daily wage of $2.8'i, and 
1,641 other laborers, at an average daily wage of $'2.41. The average 
daily wages of nil rm;)loye4»s were $"J.49. The annual \)a\ 
juuorwied to $l^&7,e00. 



2 



180 



BXnXETTN OF THE BUPEAIT OP LAfiOB. 



I 



^ 
W 
^ 



TJiiTi* were SO brickyards rHiivassed, Jocuted in 'M» (xiunties, repre- 
senting an invested capital of $1,742/^31. The ninnber of bricks nmdo 
in 1000 WHS estinuUed at '21V2.3J>0,000, with an average value per KOUO 
at the yards of $5.17, En»plt>ynient was given to 07 superintendents 
at an average daily wage of iiCl.05, to 46 foremen at an average daily 
wage of $2.75, to 102 skilled laboi^rs at an average daily wage of 
$2.57, to 1.80ft <N)ninion lahoi-ei's at an avenige daily wage of $1.80^ 
and to 37 children (under 10 years of age) at an average daily wage 
of 84 cents. 

TaNNINU iNDUSrKlf AND SlANUFACri'LiRB OK WlHK FeNCK. lu the 

tanning industry 20 plants weiv rAuvassed, kwated in 17 <x»nnties^ 
representing an invested capital of $0,557^7. The approximate 
value of tanned prodiict for the 20 tanneries in lt)05 was $14,511,014. 
The tanneries furnished employment to 27 superintendent:^ at an 
average daih' wage of $5.80, to 54 foremen at an average daily wage 
of $2.84, to 0()2 skilled laliorers at an average daily wage of $2.07, to 
1,211 common laborers at an average daily wage of $1.00, and to 100 
female lalM)rers at an avenige daily wage of $1.07. The wages jjaid 
during Ihe year aggregatc{l $1,180,848. 

In liKX'i there were plants in the State engaged in the manufac- 
ture of wire femre. whose invcHted capital aggregated $1,805,000. 
The output of the plants for the year was 77.100 tons of fen<re, 
valued at $4,370,778, the pnMlucti«ut of which gave employment to 
9 su{>erintendent8 at an average daily wage of $4.38, to 29 foremen at 
nn average daily wage of $2.82, lo 231 skilled lal>orers at an average 
daily wage of $2.1K to 2t)0 other lal>orei> at an average daily wage 
of $1.77, an<l to 2 children (under 10 years of age) at an average 
daily wage of 62 ceaits. The amount of the annual pay roll aggre- 
gated $0.S5,273. 

PowEK Used in MANrKAtnriUNo in Muiiioan. — Of the 7,770 man- 
ufacturing esUiblishments einbniced in this presentation 3,227 used 
steam power, 1.000 used electric ]x»wer, 040 !ised gas or gasoline power, 
219 used water power, 412 used rented power (kind not reported), 
and 1,804 establishments nn^uired no power to operate. TTie total 
power generated in the r>.H70 power-using establishments was 831,736 
horHcpower. Also, statistics are given of steam Iwilers aud their 
(H|uipment and kind of alarms in use and their condition. The data 
in detail are prc-scnted by counties. 

STA*n«Tic8 or iMroRTANT Indistkibi. — Under this hwid varioiw 
industrial firms nn» nicntioned, with descriptions of the establish- 
nienls, number of persons employe<i. cajiilul and product, aggix*gate 
pay roll, etc. In noticing some of the establishments consideralde 
Affention has Inxni given lu recently inaugurated industrial better- 

UC/t/.S. 



REPOR' 



LUS OF LABOR — MICHTGAJf. 



181 



lAL Imh STRV. — In this industry then? wrre *^S cow! mines in op- 
ilion (luring the vonr UKXt. us tonipiiivil with 33 niine:^ during the 
y<ar 11*05, A <*ontli'nsed sninuiaiy of the opi'rations of the ntines 
fw the two years is presented in the table following: 

C04L MINE STATISriCA. IM& AND IBCM, 




T«ftr. 



ItriiH. 



Of «ni(>lor«eft 

rorkci i*t 4iftr 

rlEf*<l pvr nonih.. 

iMTMtdASy vrM«« 

TOMolMial mlnnl _ 

' coat of mtnlar per ten — 



» 



1M3. 


IMS. 


s> 


■9 


3.rM 


i.no 


7.7 


7.8 


IS.O 


sz.s 


«-W 


«t.«o 


i.jai.3W 


1,372.854 


«i^ 


IB^ 



In Ifi mines 33 accidents were reported. Of tliese 6 were fatal. 8 
srnous, 11 ^j^evere, and 8 slight. 

OHIO. 

ThiHUih AuHtfiil Report of fhv Hurtatt of Ltihor StottHtivH of the. 
Staff of OhicK for the year I9(>€. M. D. Ratchford. Commissioner, 
67] pp. 

This report consists of six parts in which are pi^esented the follow- 
ing subject*: Laws governing the bni*ean. recent labor laws, and wnirt 
decisions, if'2 pages: ni nnu fact u res, 350 pages; coal mining. 'HI pages; 
prison lalxir, 4 pages; sweat sh<>j>s, '21 pages; free pnhlic employment 
offices^ 18 pages; clironology of labor bureaus. 3 pages. 

MANirAiTi RJ-s. — Tables are given for 1005. showing, by industries 
^ for each of the five principal cities, the remaining cities and villages, 
Band totals for the State, the numljer of establishments reported, oap- 
" ital invested, value of g<Ws manufactured, iimotmt paid for rent, 
^ taxf^ and insurance, total amount paid in wages^ number nnd 
Biuotlthly pay of salHrii^l employees, number <>f male and of female 
B^^iT**'***"'"*^^'^- i"nnlM»r employed by occupations, and nverage nuuib«'r 
Bof days worked, average daily wages, average yearly earnings, and 
Baveragie honis of daily laltor. Other tables show., by industries the 
Bmmiber in each <K:cupation affected by a change of wages during the 
Bjrnr. 

B The 8,514 e.stablishment6 fi*om Avhich returns weiv received for 
BllK^S rriKirted mii invested cai)ital of i?4-lt*.T0'J.188, an<i gfatds pro- 
Bdnce<i or manufactured to the value of $ST0,Wt.H,493.t*.0, Wages paid 
BaWJ.lM males and :»7.«H;i fenuiles, or a total of 303,838 wage-eaniers, 
^^B^gMted $18'.\i>77;ilM».23, and salaries aggregating $:^H..>08,'t4t'..10 
^PHr» pM/d to :iX4ti7 t^tnployetl jis oflia* help, etc. l>\vT*m^ v\ve vvvii: 
^^StM; f^rsom receiveii an nvemge increase in Wftgya 1)1 t.o Y^jT cw^ 



4 



182 



BULLETIN OF THE BtJHEAU OF L.\BOR. 



jind 'J,600 (>et*s(>iis suffered Hti average reduction in wages of 7^ i>er 
cent. 

The number of esUblishnients rejxirting in 1905 was 733 more than 
in 11)04. the vnliie of nmnufiu'tured pn)ducts was $15l?,0fir».850.85 moro 
than that of 11X)4, and the amount jmid in wages during the year was 
im-reased by $25,060,464.33. The aggregate invested capital exceeded 
that rcporteil for \\>0\ by $43,8(W ,.■>(> I, and the saJHries jiaid super- 
intendents, office help, etc., slu)wed an increase of $:^.:V2y,04j.i>G. 

Coal. Mining. — Tables are given, by counties, showing number of 
nii(n>s rei>iu'ting, average numl»er of entployeas, ('apital invested, 
value of pr<»duction, wages and salaries paid, average daily wages, 
average yearly earnings, average days worked, average hours of 
tiaily Ialx>r, etc. The following comparative table presents a sum- 
mary of mining statistics for the years IfMU and ISH)."): 

STATISTICS OF COAL HININW. IfMM AND 1006. 



IflM. 



IncrtMe 



«1fainb«r of inlnw rcportlnr 

Avvraicn niirabt>r of omttlnyrt* (iiinnthlyi 

Avrrnsn tiuintxr of naluriuij vtnployws (moDtfaly>.... 

InvmtA^l ••ftpltnl „ _ 

VnliH' of pri'tlucUoii 

Amount i>nt(l for rent, taxM. aoil liuurmiM 

Amount pnid In wnem —....,_...— 

Ammint piihl In unlnrlwn -_„„.._„„. 

Av^rnir*' <tnvj* ^vorlrwl T>''r f mplnyoa ........^.».._ 

Avtrti' . ■ yre -,_ 

Awrni." I'layee--**.. ,«-,—„ 

Avrrnn -...— .„.— . 

NllllllX-r rl !U , : I \ :i) -■* ,„„ „..., 

XtlltltUT ntTis I '■■■■\ :i v:.-'!* ..,—...... 

AvvrnKO P«*r < < «i uul'.. «.—,...-_ 

Avernrc per wnt n'liudiuii lu wages .».^_ 



fids 

97,004 

I. OH 



ttB,7IH,-^i1l.(.1 

It 

A4 

S9.310 

9.4 

6.0 



070 

8B.flao,tU.O0 
i.sn.m.BO 

i0IO.6QS.94 

•l«.S7S.flD|.7t 

9073,888.40 

IT* 

IB.4S 

•4tO.M 

8 

104 

I 

S.0 

ts.s 



-0 

+080 

-44 

-0D.WB.OO 

} 167.010.18 

-010.83S.10 

^80 6i 
+«l.40 

' *i66 

-20.S4I 

-B 



Pkison Labor. — This is a brief inquiry relating to the manufacture 
of shovels, spades, anti seoops by oonviet lulM)r in the Oliio Peniten- 
tiary and to the manufurture of t]»e .same urticle.s by six et<tab!ish- 
ments employing frei* hdnir, arising from the complaint that, in the 
industry named, prisoners beyond the number allowed by law were 
being employed. 

SwKAT Snops.— Thi.s inquiry, confined to the cities of Cleveland 
and rincinnnti. rmbruces the tenement-shop manufacture of clothing 
and ihnt iif cigars, slogies, and cigaret(<*s. 

In the city of Cleveland, in the clothing industry, 01 shops were 
canvassed, employing 1,07(^ wagt'-oarnerh, :U4 males and 7tJ2 female^. 
The hours of labor per week averageii .'iO, and the average earn- 
ings i>er week were $12.4^ for wdult mnlcs and $ti.9:i for tulnU females, 
Tn the manufacture of cignrs. * . and cigareltes R3 sVi re 

canvassed, employing 17] wn^ i>, 134 males and -1< 

7'he hours nf lalntr per week averaged 40.8 for nuiles and 1H.H far 
ff^mnhs. Tlw ' earnings per week w*rc %\^T\\ lot vidxAx uvWtfs^ 

mi $5.93 for . Mjale.s- 



REPOBTS OP STATE BITREAUS OF LABOB OUIO. 



188 



city of Cincinimti. in the clothing industry. 112 shops wtn*e 
ivassed, employing 1,1 lU wage-earners, ;V2G males and b*i!? females. 
The hours of labor per week averaged 54.6 for males and 54.5 for 
females. The average earnings per week wei*e $11.73 for adult males 
and $5.99 for adult femule8. In the nianufaetui'e of cigaiv, stogies, 
and cigarettes 74 shops were canvassed, employing S*27 wage*eaniers, 
208 males and 119 females. The hours of labor per \v*H»k averaged 
50,7 for males and 58.7 for females. The avei*age weekly earnings 
wen* $10^ for adult males and $6.70 for adult females. 

Friue Px.^lic EMHiyOYMENT Ofkices. — In addition to an itemized 
statement of the expenses of each office for the year ending October 
31, 1906» and text reports from each of the five offices, tables are given 
diowing by ye^rs the results of ll»e operations of each office from date 
of organization, and for each week of the year ending October 25, 
1906. 

The following table shows the (»penitions of llie five free public 
employment offices of the Stale for the year ending October 25, 1906: 



: 



OPSaATIONS OP 



PtTBLIC CUPLOYMEXT OPPIOES. TEAB ENDINO OCnX>BEB 



City. 


BItaatlaos wuitad. 


Help wanted. 


PufUoof lenind. 


MalM. |F«niate. 


MalM. jPMDaltt. 


Males. FecDNles. 


CltTf*«rnl _ 


S,S30 ft. Ml 


7.«W 
i.SSS 
1.006 


S.660 
S.Btt 

5.047 
I.89B 


2.08; 


1,470 

s.tis 

{.OK 


Cotumbtia 


t,6tf 

4.9W 

l,g70 
1.7M 


2.161 
1,(B» 


D*r«oo. 

Toleito 


S.OO0 

m 


TtoUL 


w,xtt 


10,803 


21. MS 


w.a» 


14 .r4 


».«n 



Since the organization in 1890 of the five free ptiblic employment 
officcjs there bus l»een a total of 432,773 applicatioii-s for situations 
wanted, 390,954 applications for help wanted, and 263,753 positions 
seicured. Of applications for situations 60.9 per cent were filled, and 
of applicaticais for help 67.5 were tilled. 

Tlie expenses of the five offices for the year ending October 31, 
1906 (excluding salaries), were $2,236.81, of wliich the ex|)en9e3 of 
the Cleveland office were $408/^6, the ColunibuH office $446.17. the 

incinnali office $470.65, the Dayton office $462.73, and the Toledo 
t».95. 



: 



RECENT FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS. 



AUSTRIA. 

tt'. Vf'rhUltniHHt in drr KU'UU'r- uml W attchekou fi'kilon, ThTflirsge- 
^pIk^m vom K^ K. A^tH*itt^t^tatistis(?hen Auitc? iru Hmult^lMuini^tu- 
rinni. lOrm. lOJ pp, 

Tliis report is based upon the refills of an investigation made by 
the Austrian bureau of laixir statisticH in 1899 in regari] to condi- 
tions of production and labor in the clothing and garment industiy, 
this N-ing the tii-Nt of a series of investigations nnide witli s|>eoiaI 
n^fei-ence to home work. The work of investigation was in the hands 
of a special <*onmiittee composwl of reprcMMitrttives of the biufau 
of lal)or statistics, tlie ministry of connneri*e, tlie uiinistry of the in* 
terior, the ministry of jiisti<.'«, the superior sanitary commission, tlw 
lal>or in-sj>ection bureau, the manufartnreiN, the master workmen, 
and the wage-workers. 

One hundred persons representing the several branches of the in- 
dustry and the various inrlustrial centers were examined by the 
special conunitte**, llie intenx)gntories being baspti npun >}»e*:ial do- 
tailed schedules. The principal questions related to conditions of 
production and sale and to the econo?nic and mhmaI conditioui of 
llie diiTerenl rlastses of manufacturers. Miiddlemen. and work people 
invoIve<l. The inquiries laid much stress on the subject of home 
work, with a view to its regulation or abolition. The reiwrt is 
<livided into three parts, discussing respectively tlio manufacture of 
ineu's clothing and uniforms, of women's clothing, and of white 
goods and cravats. 

The inquiry into tlje first branch of the subject distdosed a localiza- 
tion of certain kinds of manufacturing, as well as the specitication in 
the cases of individiinl workmen. The mamifactm'crs in some in- 
stances cut (he clotlif siHuctim(*s by the aid of marking and cutting 
ma<*hiues driven by steiim; otlters give out the cloth in the piece, 
cutting l>eing attcndetl to by the contractor. The coutniclors were in 
part skilled workmen while other-* were nu'i'e l)u^inexs managers, 
taking no part in (lie acltud work of manufactuix*. 

One of the larger manufacturing firms, making all s*irti» of meji*s 
and children s garments, employed frou) 10 to UO cuttoi'^^ and used 
two cutting machines <lnven by nieaut. It bail IftO contractors or 
////ddJe/jjpo in the immediate ilif^lrict, and no fewer than ;WXJ in sur- 
'^Huitiing vinagi^St boiidea JW w<»rk*rs nn eolton y^tMids 1k\l)w«^ %wV 'iWi 

JS4 



I 



FOREIGN STATIBTICAI. PUBLICATIONS AUSTRIA. 186 

employwl ou chililrenV rlothing. It is estimated that the t-ntire 
workiug force employed through these vnrious contractors, etc., in- 
creiLs^ the total number uf employees by approximately 850 perscma, 
iwing an average of fewer titan *2 employees per contractor. Other 
IS reported contractors as having '2 or 3 workers, a few as many 
fts 7 or 8, so that the propoKion of woman and child labor would 
appear not to l:»e large. Indeed a considerable avei-sion to the home 
work hystem Mas expressed by some contractors and workmen, while 
oil the other hand, the manufacturers generally expressed their pref- 
erence for the continuance of the pret^-nt system and against its abol- 
ishment or restriction by legal enactment. 

Employment appeal's to be more stable in I'ecent years than for- 
merly, work never being suspendetl entirely, even during the so-called 
dull fceason which usually occurs in April or May, the number of 
riuployees laid off during this period being comparatively small. 

The data relating to wages show a considerable diversity of rates, 
generally ilcpending upon locality, character of work, and skill of 
the workman. Cases are cited of a shop worker in Vienna whose 
maximun) weekly earnings amounted to 13 crowns ($2.64) with board 
and lodging; aiid of a home worker in the same city, working on uni- 
fomts, occasionally assisteil by his wife, whose average earnings were 
IK crowns ($3,05) per week working 14 hours a day, which, during 
busy seasons wei'e sometimes extended to 18 bout's with an increase 
in tftamings to a maximum of 24 crowns ($4.87) per week. The earn- 
ings of a home worker in another locality, assisted by his wife and 
frMjuently working from 17 to 18 hours a day, bcldom exceeded 11 
crowns ($2j23) a week. Other instances are given of 8 crowns 
<$l.tj2) as the niaximuju of the weekly earnings of pieceworkers, 
and 6 crowns ($1.22) and Umrd and ]<Mlging of time workers. The 
best wages, as a nde, are said to be paid to those who are employed 
on articles intended for export. 

The hours of lalwr vary. 12 being an average number I'eported for 
fil»op workers, working from (5 a, m. to 8 p. nu with three intervals 
for m«ils aggregating two houi^s. Other cases report commencing 
'work at ^ '»- •"- j*i"1 "^.'i a. m.. continuing until broken off by night- 
i*\L 

TIic sanitary couilitions .surrotmding the shop workers and home- 
workers are described as generally very uasatisfaclory. In a ma- 
jciritj of cases the rooms wei'e small, overcrowded, and poorly ven- 
tilated. Fre<|ucjitly the working rooms were also used as living 
rooms, bedrooms, or kitchens, or for all these purposes combined. 

Attempts at organization among working people in this industry 
imve « far produced ratln*r indifferent results. Aside from a few 
fii'k-heat^Bt asa^tfjution.'^, mention is made of a tailor's union iiv Yvo'r^- 
^U nriib a oiembership of 150 persons whose object \s SloXftd Vo \>fc 





188 BUtXETlK OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB. ^^ 

FRANCE. 

nupporta ftur rAppUcation dett Lois Heglemetitatit h Tra>Hiil en lOO-"). 
Dii'ection dn Travail, Miuist^re du Travail *.'t <ie la Pi'ovoyance 
Socinle. 1906. cxcii, 47fi pp. 

In this volume are fouud the suiuniary reports of the iiienibers of 
the superior coininission of labor and of the minister of labor and 
social providence, and the more detailed reports of the <livision in- 
spectors of labor on the subject of tlie enforcement of certain laws of 
France affecting industrial conditions These laws are three in num- 
ber: The law of September 0, 1M8, relate.s to the hours of labor of 
male adults only; that of June 12, 181»3, amended by a law of July 11, 
IDOft, is a general factory-inspection law, applying to all Kstablisli- 
nient.s considei^ed in this i'ejx»rt, and contains proviwions fur lighting, 
ventilation, and safety of employees in publicly owned workshops, as 
well au in those under private control; the act of March 30, 1900, 
which is in reality an amendment or revision of the law of NoveinlxT 
52, 181)2, has for its subject-matter the regulation of the employment of 
women and children in industrial establishment.s. This last law also 
controls the hours of labor of adult males at work in estiiblishmeuts 
where women and ohildnMi are employed. 

Mines and quarries are not considered in this report, l>eing under 
the mine insf)ection service, while factories connected with the pi'wluc- 
tion of army and navy supplies are imder special regulations. The 
number of establishment's coming within the purview of the present 
report is 511,78;j, a net increase of i*,934 as compared with the year 
1004, Of these 255,4«'>7 employed females or a mixed working forc<*, 
and 256,326 employed adult males only, 

A tendency noted in previous ye^rs, nan»ely, a diminution of (ho 
nutnl>er of establishments employing a mixed working forc<», and 
a corresiKinding increase of the nundKn* employing adult males only, 
is observable in this report. This is explained by the fact that the 
elimination of women arul (*liildreu fnun the working force take,v an 
establishment out from under the limitations of the laws of Novem- 
ber iJ, IS92. and March 30, 1900, which make 10 hours th<» limit of a 
day's work where women or children are employed, and allows the 
full 12-hour day of the law of 1848. Thus in the six-yejir periial, 
lIHMi to 190fi, the nuDi)x>r of establishments coming within the pro- 
visions of these laws decreased from lt>4,786 in the* •nurlirr year to 
15S.43S in the later, a decrease of rv^48. On I lie other hand, the same 
periotl shows an increase of t\94I— fn^m 20,fi22 to 3«,ftWi~in the cIh) 
of establishinents coming under the law of 1H4S. The report vonrui 
f/if prvfhci'ion that unices something occurs to cljjingr the preMMit 
rrt>iiti, then' wiU fie a pnicticiil segregation of t>ve wotWvuv!. \-' ^ * t 
Uftih luaJes uud those in which wttuu'U ttn»\ r\A\\At«u «ktv \^ 



I 



FORKIOK flTATISTlCAL PCBLICATIONS — FRA.NCE. 189 

pt where labor is intimately interdependent. Two dangers are 
fifpn in this tomlency — one thi* deprivation of industry of its sources 
of recruiting its labor supply; the other, the injiirj' to the children in 
he\ng thrown out of employment. The thi*eat of employers to dis- 
charge children under 18 if the law limiting hours of labor is enforced 
is fre<picntly madt* to inspe<'tors. 

Of the total number of establishments considered, 416,3^3, or 81.1 
per cent, had from 1 to 5 employees; 70.-427, or 13.8 per cent, had 
from C to 20; 21,331, or 4.2 per cent, had from 21 to 100; 4,235, or 
0.8 per eent^ had from 101 to 500; and 467, or 0.1 per cent, had more 
than 500 employees. 

Tlie total number of employees was 3,72t5,578, of whom 300,988 
were males under 18 yean^ of age, and 2(>4,650 were females under 18; 
797,483 were adult females, and 2,363,457, or 63.4 per cent of the 
tnthe nmnber, were adult males. The percentage of females of all 
ages was 2S.5. 

Opinions are divided on the subject of the increase or decrease of 
the nnmlier of home workj^hops. If these employ only members of 
the family, under the control of a parent or guardian, and use only 
hand or foot power, lliey are not subject to inspection unless the 
uianiifacture is of a class designated as dangerous by the law. Actual 
statistics are impossible with tlie present inspection force, and the 
inspectors make divergent reports as to their movement. The de- 
sire to escape supervision and to procure very cheap labor leads 
some manufacturers to favor the giving out of work. Opposed to tliis 
tendency is a desii-c f<tr uniformity of pro<hict and the regularity 
in output and the cheapness of machine production. Though unable 
to de**ide which of these tendencies actually prevailed at the time of 
like report, the labor conimission reuewetl its recommendation of 
such changes in the inspection law as wouhl provide for more ex- 
U*nded protection of woman and child labor by means of an inspec- 
tion of home indu-stries similar to that exercised over industrial estab- 
lishments. 

The industrial employment of children under 13 years of age is 
prohibited, except that children who have attained the age of 12 
years and have a proper niedical certificate may be eraployeth on 
.showing that they have completed a prescribed course of primary 
studies. 

As already indicated, the houi*s of labor of adult males are fixed 
at a maximum of 12 per day by the law of 1848, while by the law 
of 1900 they may not exceed 10 hours for women or for persons under 
18 jears of age. The limitation to 10 houi-s also applies to males 
iworkJng in ebtablishmcnts with females and minors under 18. The 
3xjuuht*r ol est4ib}isltti}ent> affected by each law is given above. Spe\:\*V 
ic4»~BaJi, T4-~m 13 



lyo 



BULLETIN OF THE BUHEAU OF IJ^BOR. 



and temporary exceptions are alIowe<l on proper request and showing 
of cause to the authorities. The report consiihirs the qiieHlion of the 
effect of the reduction of hours from 11 to 10 per day by the oi>era- 
lion of the law of UK)0. It was t!ie f)rovHhnit opinion of the insjw'c- 
tors that the production had not Ixien affected, either because a volun- 
tary ten-hour day had been adopted prior to the tirao when the law 
came into operation, or l>ecans<* by a better or^nization of tlie estab- 
lishment the}' wen* able to produce as nuich in 10 hours as had previ- 
ously been produced in 11. In some of the smaller establisliments, 
however, and particularly where the output is actrurately measured 
by the speed of operation of a limited number of machines, a decrease 
was reported. 

Reports of industrial accidents are required by law to be made in 
the first instance to the mayors of the communes, who in turn rej>ort 
to the inspectors. Accidents are of three classes — those causing death, 
those causing i>ermanent disability, and those causing temporary dis- 
ability. Accidents causing disability of not more than four day^ are 
not reported. 

The following table shows the number and rule ikm* ihousjtnd of 
accidents occurring in each industrial group, according to their 
gravity. Mines and quarries are not included, since undor the Frencli 
law a different insjwction force has charge ther«»of. 

NUMbliK OP ACOmENTS OCCUBJUNO AND RATK PES TUOCSAND EMPLOVCEfl, BX 
OBOUPS or INL»UBTRl£8. AOOOBDING TO EEfiULTB. UMG. 



XuStutrjr. 



0«»w 
of la> 
Jurr 

1.000 
•m* 
ttloy- 



pnr: ■ - -^ ':..- .-.»_— 

C 

C'i . »mJ puUpboanl 

PriniinK ouii iMiuiiHUinC.. _.__.. — 

Textiles « 

Olothluc — 

Slrou-, foather, aodhalrcoodi 

niilf> «mJ leather — , — _ 

W()i>(!\v(»rkins...„„„ .._ | 

MetallurKV 

Metal working:, baw..,. — . , 
||i>fn) worVlnp |>r«Hom!,..,«... 

r:i . 



iiiinit 




<7.$ 

ltt.4 
W.7 
S».& 
%5.9 

n.« 

3L4 

M.« 

U7.4 

tu.& 

».l 
16.G 
Al.« 
IS3.7 
M.8 
U.l 

(•) 



DaftUu. 



Hum «»!• 
■*"• l.OOO* 



DliabOltlos. 



PermBomt. 



I 'J 






« 

MS 



1 



> 

MS 

1 

6 



iNuin- 
ber. 



o.s 

.1 

.1 
.1 

<•) 

™.. 

.8 

1.0 

.2 



sss 

ISO 
107 
W 

4ta 

V I 
3 

01 
708 
lAI 

mo 



Rate 

i,on>. 



.a 

1.1 

.t 


IS 

141 
Utt 


(») 





<•) 


in 




KM 



0.7 
],t 
1.1 

.8 



.9 

,7 

f.& 

1.8 

1.0 

.6 

2.1 
.0 
,« 



Temporary 
(•xMMlDr 

four days) . 



Muni' 
bar. 



11,<4IU 

lif.tlTll 

t.m 

16.WI 

172 

:i..-.t8 

W 

l.OM 

n.«4 

O.flU 

U.QS1 

U7 



Rfttf 
per 
1.000. 



4.'i.D 
I18.B 

R7.* 
ZH.5 
21.0 
A.S 

10.7 

27.8 

111.4 
17.7 
li.W 

N] .r. 

Uii.3 
M.7 
17.1 



Baaatu ud> 
known. 



>• Bat4> 

oar. . jjjj^ 



las 

as 

17 

2\& 

U 

o 

ss 
aou 

Wl 

&1D 

H 

"»■ 
fiflO 
100 



o.i 

l.T 

.9 

.t 
.:i 
.1 
.1 
.1 

.9 

.« 

1.1 

,t 

Ti 

1.0 
.T 
.« 




liMo die oiw ftuni IrMltlii at ocm jm thotuiftnd. 



k VqI nom^fiA. 



;iGN STATISTICAL PITBUCATTOKS — FBANCE. 



191 



Tlie fullowirifj tahle shows the nuniher of arc'ulents and the rat^ i>^r 
thousand reported in some of the industries, grouped by age and sex; 

NmtBKR or ACCIDENTS OOCURRINO ANT> RATE PER THOPSAND EMPLOTCES, IN 
OEOITPS OF rNDLTBTHIES. UT AOE AND SEX, IMS. 







XmployflN noder la year* of ace. 




iBdnBtrr. 


MalM. 


Ettnaln. 




Omamot 


Em- 
ploreef. 


R«(«per 
1.000. 


Gam of 

Injury. 


Era- 
ploy«ai. 


"f.!S»- 


j^ 


78» 
819 

l.fM 
115 

ai 

3S0 
1.Z70 
8,400 

7,»» 

AT 

3 

31 

l.OiM 

1.607 

?75 


81, IM 
S.lSl 
6.S11 
13, M8 
4S,(nO 
7.64S 

u» 

12.118 

ao.MO 

8.808 
S0.008 

t.sts 
is.au 
n.eas 

SS,161 


9& 
07 
» 
tt 
45 
17 
88 
83 
41 
816 
18D 
tt 
U 
88 
06 
08 
18 


170 
IV 
142 

06 

1.188 

107 

10 

88 

101 

S 

846 

18 

T 

188" 

67 


11.240 

S.4SI 

8.0S4 

5,008 

80.864 

107,881 

8.IS1 

0.680 

4,74ft 

TT 

7.111 

l.S7« 

174 

8a 

i« 
6.«ie 

18.888 


15 


Priaanx »ad pabUihlD« „_ 

TtxKOtt 

Cteftiklnc 

BtTftW. featlwr. ud bftlr cooOi . 

aid« and lestber 

VTrKvlTvprklar ..... 


48 

IS 

v» 

15 

8 
T 
U 

n 


MrtaUuTffT- - - .. . 

Metal worktar. prccioiu — — ^„— ., 
l.apMiUT work. , _..._ 


0$ 

9 
4ft 


Btooe euttloE aud polliiriinc , 

Earth work moA meioDrj , 

Bartiten aad atoae vara . 

CnaimfffTf and binklnr .< - -— -- 


J: 

a 











Emploj 


ecs 18 yeara of mgt or over. 








MakM. 






FemalM. 




















Oaaeaof 


Em- 


Bate per 


OaMi of 


Em- 


BaUper 




tajnry. 


ployeM. 


14100. 


tojory. 


ploy eM. 


1.O0O. 


Vood prodoeta 


U.4<M 


9M,aB8 


S7 


aao 


56.027 


15 


Cbcmeal InduitriM 


U.BBW 


00.170 


148 


740 


».^ 


88 


CaoateboDc. pap«r, and pavtdboard — 


S.488 


87.513 


OS 


tot 


84.M8 


n 


Prlntlixc and publlablog ..»_ 


1.601 


48,813 


88 


180 


lO.CSB 


8 


TcvtflM-. - , ™ 


10.498 


365,718 


41 


8.886 


8S7.4S8 


11 


riDtblnc 


1.404 


61.138 


tl 


601 


SU.MB 


8 


8(T»w . feaUier, and bair goods 


M 


&,8tt 


IB 


60 


T.SS7 


8 


Hi<te9 and teatber 


8,0(8 


80.474 


86 


801 


83.001 


U 


Wr>r>du'urk.1nH 


lO.BOO 


2S0.87& 


71 


SOO 


17.650 


IT 


Mrtfcllurjff 


l>.504 


77.7G1 


tso 


as 


ofia 


40 


34MA) worklnr. ba«e 


40.S8O 


887.008 


ISO 


8U 


U.&8I 


a» 


XMal wrirklor. precloiu — ^ 


S7& 


11.887 


Si 


88 


4.476 


5 




16 


l.OM 


i» 


4 


608 


8 


Mom enttJnc and poUsWuf , — 


i.o:&i 


17.7J5 


50 


t 


l.ODO 


S 


EarUi work and muonry 


88,713 


£50,647 


138 


U 


SB 


u 


KttrtiMn BTul ctoM warr . . 


T.OM 


110.134 


n 


SIO 


10.044 


IS 


CoamuflVf and banktos 


lO.OBl 


800.888 


6S 


466 


88.800 


6 



The next table shows the total nuiiilKT of employees by sex and age 
groups, and the distribution of accidents among these groups accord- 
ing to resulti{. for the year 1905 : 

TOTAL NUMBER OF EMPLOVKBS IN 1NDU8TKIBS REPORTING AND RESULTS 
OP ACCIDENTS, BY 8BX AND AGE GROITS, 1905. 




Vtatbm at employeM 

ytirooat (•)— 

Number t*t dsath*. 
P««nt (*i 



Number of permancac dltabtUllcft 

Pvrent i«i. 

Jtvaahtr of tamporary dliabnitles (above 4 days) 

Pit cast (•). 

tttm^u tukaowB ,», 

Arent i*K. 



I 



!192 BULLETIN OP TUB BUBEAr OF LABOR. ^^^H 

A --"triking extvss in the proportion of accidents to eniployew m 
the case of adult males over those occurring to other classes of em- 
ployees is apparent from the above table. 

F^i'oni the. mine inspectors* reports it appears that theiv were ;iii0.7!)*i 
persons employed in mines and <iuarries in 1905. The number of 
accidents was 33,742, of which 348 were fatal, 42*2 rcsulte*! in perma- 
nent disability, 32,331 in temporary disability (exceeding 4 days), 
while in t»41 cases the results were unkiiown. 

Lf's AssoriaiioHH i'rofeHHionuMeH Ottrnh^ea. Office du Travail, Min- 
istere du Commerce, de ITndustrie, des Postes et des T«'Iegraphes. 
Tome II, 1901, 895 pp. Tome HI, 1003, C70 pp. Tome IV, 1004, 
821 pp. 

These v<dunies ni'e a continuation of ii series of reports on trade 
un<l agrictihural associations by the French bureau of labor. The 
first volume was Issued in 1899, a dig&st of which appeared in Bul- 
letin Xo. 31 (pages 1272-1274). As there indicated, the ivpoH con- 
sists of three parts, the first of which is devoted to a review of legis- 
lation on the subject considere<l, while the last (not yet issued) will 
j>resent a historical account of the various local and national federa- 
tions of uni<ms of different trades and of labor exchanges, Thfl 
three volumes named above, and the latter part of the first volume, 
are taken up with the second division of the subject, which o<mfiists of 
an ac<*ount of the development of the various trade organizations in 
the principal cities of France which have become, under the law of 
1884, the regularly incorjwirate*! local or national trade bcnlies. 

In the fii*st volume five gnnips of industries are discussed: (1) 
Agriculttire, forestry, and fisheries; (2) the extractive industries, 
mining and qiuirrying; (3) food products; (4) chemical industries, 
including the manufacture of tobaivo; (5) printing trades. In vol- 
ume two are dia'ussed: (tt) Hides and leather; (7) textiles and 
clothing; (8) furniture and woodworking. In volume three are pre- 
seiitetl: (9) Metal working; (10) stoneworking, and earthen and 
glass ware. The fourth volume discusses: (11) The building trades; 
(1-J) tranwpoHution; (13) various industries. 

The discussion oi the organizations found in these various indus* 
trial groups is quite detailed, and includes statistical data, an account 
of the origin of the different classes (»f unions or societies, the pro- 
visions of ihcir 4M>nslitulioi)s and by-laws, accounts of strikes, 
methods of relief, benefit funds, trade congresi^Cd, etc, 

A brief concluding chapter Is devoted to tl)* ■\ of women 

in trade orgnni/jitioiis, aiid a list Is given of I iMHlies com- 

exdusively of women, the total membership being 13,87d. In 

^''' '^Htions. of i>l,(>OR memWrji. lft,f,0^ ^t^ !«»\w*\5rA.^ n^VW 

^^ '' hit VI.' siaiiUci* ni'otiortionv, o! ItiuiuV; \vw\ofe«rcK 




FOREIOK STATISTICAL PUBUCAT10^'S — GERMANY, 



198 



(lERMAXY. 



'iiherhhit' tier (rtu^crhr-Aufitirhtyhtatiittn mtd Bmjhehdi'di u fiit\ 
da'* Jahr J.OOo. lOOG. Band I. xliii. OCT pp.; Band II, xvii, 1235 
pp.; Band III, xi\, 1004 pp.; Band lY. 1002 pp. 

Tliese volumes pre^nt a report of the factory and mine inspectoi-s of 
tht? German Empire for the year 1905. Each principal and subordi- 
nate division of the Empire is treated separately in the first three 
B volumes, the fourth volume presenting summary tables for the whole 
" conntry and an extensive analytical index. Tlie subject-matter re- 
lating to eftch province or district is uniform throughout, and is 
H treated under the following heads: (1) A brief general view of local 
^ conditions, showing the relations of the inspection office to employers 

(and employees, the number of visits of ins}>ection made, etc.; (S) 
statistics of the working force, under the heads of young jx^rsons 
(under 16 years of age), females, and all employees; (3) the protec- 
tion of laborers, under the heads, injuries from accidents and sanitary 
provisions; and (4) economic and moral nnidition of the working 
people, provisions for betterment, and miscellaneous observations. 
The subject's considered include the enforcement of the laws govern- 
ing the employment (jf chihlren Imth as to age limit and hours of 
work, the hours of labor and rest for women, overtime, .Sunday and 
holiday work, reports of accidents, safety devices, sanitation of fac- 

Itories and homes, wages and hours of labor, etc. 
The following table shows for eaich group of industrit^s the total 
number of establishments reported for the Empire, the number em- 
ploying women an<l young persfjns. and the number of employees, 
^ by sex and age groups, for the year 11K)5: 

B ESTABLISHUETNTS AXD NUMBER OP EMPLOIKES. BT SEX AKD AOE OBOUP8. 1906. 



b 



IndufttTiei. 



TotaJ Youox 
number. I p«T*onff 
(under 
IS 

r«ftra>. 



MtDinc. mdatmnlnl. »ic, ptc.._ 

Quan'rlnc prcxuKU of ttooa, day. 

Clacs. rtr 

uurkinc 

J, butnimf'Qti, apparatus, ele. 

_ product' 

•o«P. CM. etc 




ir. balr. and nibbor eoo<l^ ... 

potWw. pair^ii •'tc — 

Fooili and drlntt *\v ' ■ u) — 

W«<arlaK ■PP«r«'. rl«ii 

BuOdloc tradM 

TtlBlltic. bookbtnfllnc. trp«(ouiMUiis. 



Eb tn btUhmcati . 



Number amploy- 



4.1td I l.flM 



25,106 

?.M0 
8.515 
14,338 

?.«n 

2,720 

i'..ffn 

82,049 



Feraala 

jtmn or 
over). 



7J8 



Em ploy f 



ObOdren (ander 1« 
ytan). 



Total 

number. 




7,sn 
•.aw 

7,7«» 

ri5 

T.B3S 
3.01.1 
S)t> , 

a, 104 

10.2.i4 , 
1A.M4 
S,orf» 



1« 



fi,79D ' 

1,400 : 

•00 
711 1 
11.019 
t,^76 I 

775 

9.8BB 

W.775 
143 



79,735 



s.j 



140 



014,008 

OCSfXTS 
497,101 

TBU.A73 
I37.3*J 
06.271 
SS7.000 

«7.474 
Mt,W! 
.'•51. M 4 
3SO.O60 
m.M7 

Ui&.SUk 



MalM. 



70 



8}t 
71* 

4:t 

1.10» 

SOS 

60 

270 
71 

&« 
\0 



P#- 

malef.i 



873 

MO 

n 

4* 

SO 

l.8t4 

1«R 

.T' 
11' 

1 



Total. 



7t 
IMX* 

lao 

TV 



7M 

010 

l.tM 

7« 






^\ 







194 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR. 



KflTAfiLISHMKNTS AKO KXHCBER OF EMPLOYEKS ETC. -OoodtMlwl. 





BmptoreM. 




Touag panoni (14 


ur under 


Total 






H ta<1tutiiM, 




l»7«ars). 




children 


PenialM 
no yean 


MatiM (10 


^H 








■on 




w 


UAlea. 


FimalM. 


Total. 


youiiff 
peraoiu. 


•ir over). 


orer>. 


acInlDE. inMnriiirflcat. salt, etc 


90.481 


1,081 


IKAOS 


U.Oil 


if»,Brj 


987.174 


QunrrylnK, i>rnai)cU ol «U>ne, cUy, 














ClaKif, I'lc 


sp.m 


T.aaa 


M.7ia 


M.OUO 


01,070 


fi27.i)W 


Untnl working- ^„.,..,_ 


88, T« 


o.oes 


47. 7W 


48,807 


u.on 


lOH.l»t 


Machinvrr. instniindnto, ftp|fftr«Liu, «i4t- 


AS.D74 


2.071 


40.frt6 


47.481 


SS,4fi9 


7D8.0BI 


CtKtiiilral prmltirta 


a.m 


S.OGt 


A. 44ft 


G.MO 


18,404 


tos.tn 


on. fnl, soap. VM, «t«.. ._.«^-,«. 


1.074 


078 


2,0&f 


J, 131 


"•!« 


57,000 


TexUlos 


2ft, 111 


45.134 


78,i4& 


76.168 


SM.W 


8»i.a3& 


Piii»or.. 


e.m 


7.0M 


U,X» 


ii.Txa 


51.081 


00,707 


Lt-nKuT, IiBlr. iiekI rubber gotnia..^^ 


8,016 


1.0^4 


6. SOU 


S.Wl 


»,407 


00.006 


W'K>il\vi>rklti(-. ciirrpil [nati^rlnN, etc 


17.860 


S.1S& 


S1.01& 


SI. TOO 


S4.»8 


t06.oa 


Po(h1» nriil ilrlrikN <lrH-Iii(llnK tobacco) 


1-.7S8 


to.otn 


M.WO 


so.m 


im.flso 


87O.1H0 


WpurliiR npiiarvl. cl<<anliyi, etc 


fl.ssi 


«S,644 


se.sM 


41.00» 


liff.SlS 


87.7tt 


IJiiiulliiir trmlrt* 


6.005 


11 


0.700 


0,778 


BM 


lia.osa 


Frluthiir. boohblTKllnv. triwfuuadlnr, 














ftc .„. 


U.lTt 


i.lU 


10,2M 


10,400 


S3.814 


101. 7V« 


Billw<olliin»o(i« „_ ,...j. . 


fiOT 


S74 


071 


fiBO 


t,OW 


e.ou 


Total 


U6,m 


lu.on 


an.sM 


m.soo 


1.041,000 


4.179.09 



No industry group is reported that tloes not give employineat to 
employees of every clasw, thoujtrli (he number of children under U 
years of age is very small in the building trades. Compaixul with 
the total niiniber of employees, however, there is a much smaller per- 
centage *»f fliihlivn in (lie mining, etc., industries ihnri in iiny other. 
The textile and clothing industries together employ approximately 
30 per cent of all children and young pei-sons, while in these two 
groups are found considerably more than one-half of all feniaies 16 
y4Mirs of nge or over. 

ITALY. 

Statistica Indus friak, Ria«ffunto delie Nothie iuUe Condhioni In- 
dvatriali del Regno, Ministero di Agricoltura, Industrin e Com- 
mercio, Direxione Genernlc di'Ila Stutistica. Port 1, 243 pp. 11 
Part TL 40r) pp. ISMK'i. Part 111, VAX pp. lOOfi. 

These three volumes issued by the Italian bureau of statistics of 
the deportment of agriculture, industry, and commerce present a 
statistical and descriptive account of conditions of Italian manu- 
facturing, mining, and related industries. The data presented havorj 
been collected by the statistical bnreau during the years from 181 - 
to 1903 and pul)rishetl in the Annali di Slatistica and Jn monugraplLs 
relating to tJie separate Provinces or to sj>ecific industries. The mfttrj 
ter tlius pre.'*ente<i has l)een revised and correcteil. by the astdMai 
of l<Kyil and other Cfovernment officials and of chambei> of comnici 
.*f> thnl the report is as8umc<l to represent with Mifficicnt exaolnestf' 
\the conJiiions of privwW industries in lftO:V For *rther indii-<4rieESr 
^eluding mining, public works*, and iudustnea «a\j\wA. \ft Qrt>\«enx- 



. FOBEIO: 



rSTICAL PUBLICATIONS — ITALY. 



196 



ment inspection, the data pi-cscnted are for a later [jeriod, in some 
cases for the year 1904. in others for the year 1905. The report does 
not include transportation. 

The first volume contains statistics of production, imports and 
exports, mechanical equipment, labor, etc.. for different industries 
in detail, and for different series of years. Maps are appended 
sliowing respectively the distribution of industrial labor, exclusive 
of home workers, and of mechanical motors used in industry. 

The second volume contains tables only, showing for each Prov- 
ince by specific industries and by groups the number of establish- 
ments, of steam boilers, of motors by power used, total power de- 
veloped, and number of employees by sex and age groups. Totals 
for the Kingdom are also shown. 

In the third volume the same facts are presented* the industry 
being made the basis of tabulation^ instead of the Province. 

Industries are grouped under four principal heads: Mines and 
minerals, metal working, machinery, and chemical products; food 
products (including liquors, but not tobacco) ; textiles: and various 
industries. 

The following table pi'esents by groups of industries the number 
of establishments, the number of motors and total horsepower, and 
the number of employees by sex and age groups. For the period 
represented and for the classification of industries reference should 
be made to the foregoing text. 



BTABUSHllSNTS, MOTIVE POWCK. AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYKR8, BY GROUPS OP 

niDUSTBIES. 



Orooia of lodmtriea. 



Idn«t And mlnenlii. meu3- 
woiklns BuichlDery, • u (I 
elk«mteftIpn>4urL« 

tooA pradacta (IncludlDc liq> 
uon. bat uot tobacco) 

Textiles 

Vftriutis iDdustrle*. 



Toiai 117,407 «S,509 



Num- 
ber of 

lUh- 
meaU. 



8S.1M 

62. IM 
7.2W 
14.830 



Meub&nlaU 



Num- 
ber. 



Hone- 
power. 



8. 821 

46,366 
4.«M 
4.087 



880.888 

218. 973 
187,808 
6B.&ai 



Number of emplofeci. 



Mele«. 



Fciiiale&, 



Oybt 

16 
reu«. 



19Z,2U 
8S.0B3 
135,841 



16 Toum Orcr 

or I 15 
under, yean. 



38,067 

11.161 
12.890 

22,497 



774,000 704. 7M 1 79.41A 487,701 



38,401 

14,764 
380.200 
114,280 



lAyeen Total. 

or 
under. 



X,2&9 
«0,88B 

45.220 



118, 191 



418, 9V5 

220,411 

4sa,iat 

807.M«i 



1. 400, IS? 



In the group representing the manufacture of food products is 
found the greatest nuntber of mechanical nioiorh, l»th absolutely, 
and in comparison with the total number of establishments. The 
ftvermge horsepower per motor is small, however, lx»ing but 4.G us 
agunst 44.4 per motor in the gi'oup of mines, minerals, etc., and 2H.0 
in the gi'oup of textiles. 

77w ^miips are not suihviently well defined to adiuk oi (ieV^AviSi' 
^risiiiis of data tts to pnipjr>ye<^s. The largfe excess ^^^ ^<?^\av 




11)6 



BULLETIN OF THIi BUREAU OF LABOR. 



I 



over luHle eiiiployoes in the group rif textiles may Lw noted, however, 
nml e!»pc<*ial]y of fenniles of 1T> yeHva of uge or under, an coinparc<l 
witli lualeij of the same age group. 

Caw tSane, Evt/tiomiche e Popolari. Coniune di Venezia. t23 pp.. 10 

appendixes. lOOC. 

This report issued by a commission of the city of Venice on sanitai"y 
housiiig at moderate rentals consists of a general report of 23 pages 
and W) appendixes of varying sizes, presenting text, statistical tables, 
plates, etc. The city is making a moderate growth, the population 
having increase<l from 158,305 in 1895 to lfi7,0(»r> in li)05. Attention 
was called in 188(J to the nect»ssity of providing the working clasHea 
with moderately priced home*i, suitably supplied with light an<l air 
and protected against the dangei*s of excessive dampness so easily 
prevalent in a city built as Venice is. Numerous proposals were sub- 
mitted, from a consideration of whicli it was concluded that three 
general methods were open to the connnune for assisting in the move- 
ment iov sanitary housing: (1) By encouraging private enterprise, 
granting premiums to offset financial losses occasioned by investmontH 
producing smaller returns than usual; (2) by undertaking directly 
the work of construction and management of tlie houses; (3) by 
favoring the formation of s|MM'ial companies for the prosecution of 
the work under private initiative. 

The granting of pn'uiiums was agreed upon in 1891, and was to 
continue for a detinitc period, and tuuler requirements as to size and 
tyi>e of the structures aiul a guarantee as to the maintenance of the 
buildings for the uses and awarding to the tyfjes agrciMl upon. A 
preniiuMi was otfert'd of 0.20 lira (4 cents) per cubic meter (1.3 cubic 
yards) of structures in open areas, and of 0.15 lira (3 cents) |>er cubic 
meter (1.3 culuc yanls) of slructureH built on ground already tn^cu- 
pied, such premiums to he paid annually for 10 years, the buildings to 
be ivndy for occupancy by December 31, 1894, In 1905 the premium 
for structures on areas previously unoccupied was nii.^jed to O.'io lira 
t5 cents) per cubic meter (1.3 cubic yards), and the payment of all 
pn*miums was to be continued until the close of the year 190*k A 
(•rerniuui of 0.15 lira (3 cents) |x'r cubic meter (1.3 cubic wards) was 
also granted to encourage the niaintenance or restoration of hygienic 
conditions in houses not included under the condition*; of the com- 
munal regidations of lft91. Under thesis various grants payments 
were made of 883.31 lire ($170.48) in 1893, 2^34.:25 lire ($450.61) in 
1894, 3,139.60 lire ($f;(>8.84) in 1895, the payments incira.sing t<» 
17.610.0(1 lire i$:j,438.C7) in 1905, the total for 13 years being 
i9A09M lin* ($19J86A0). In the S-year \ier'u)d, 1901 to 1905, build- 
ir- "V'/Tf* cnsted uijder the premium syaVtm \\8in'\\\^ a VoVvA ^imV*twV 
^j^S4Ml cubic ttietcrs (285,811.9 cubk yiiTAsV 



: 



SKATSSnCAXs PCBUCATIONS — tTALY. 




w 



e conolusiou was reached in the year 1893 that privut*^ iuitUlivo 
1(1 noC 'supply in 5*ti*factory numbers the class of ilwellings tl«s 
sirrd, and SO per c*ni of the net returns from the Savings Bank of 
Venice {Casjtn di Rifpni-^nio di Vt^\r5ui'\ were set apart for a period 
of 35 year*, from 1S?3 to 1&27, for the construction by the couuniino 
uf sanitary and e<.*onoiuical dwelliugs. This has afforded annua] suina 
of varying amounts, the lowest in 12 years being :ifj,tK>2.12 Hro 
<$^UK»9.n) in 18P6, and the highe*?t, M,7d7.57 lire ($10,575.1>3) in 
liKH. The aggregate for the period 1S93 to 1904 was 508,734.79 lire 
^$&SJ85^1). In order to provide a fund for the immediate com- 
mencement of the work the sum of 500,000 lire ($%,500) was appro* 
priated at tlie ^uie time. This sum became available in the years 
1897 to 1809. In UK)3 a like sum was added by the conunune, which 
paid over in 1901 and 1905. The total receipts available for the 
ion of dwellings, frcMu 1897 to 190o. including earlier payments 
from the Savings Bank, were L41J),574.55 lire i$278,977.89)* The 
work of construction and administration is in the hands of a com- 
mistdon of 6 persons, 3 nominated by the communal council, and 3 by 
the Savings Bank. A report made in March, UHHl, shows that at that 
dale 37 houses had l)een coniplete<l or were in course of t*onstruction, 
furnishing from 6 to 15 apartments each, the total numWr of apart- 
ments being 396, Estimates for 36 dwellings with 390 apartments 
place the number of tenants to be accommodated at 2.150. Kentals 
range from 10 lire ($1.93) to ♦SO lire ($11.58) per month. There ai^ 
but 12 apartments, however, which command a rate in excess of 
30 lire ($5.79) per month, while 47 apartments rent at 14 lire 
(^70) and a like number tit 21 lire ($4.05). The next highest num- 
bers are 34 at 23 lire (*4.44) and 29 at 13 lire ($2.51). The total 
annual income from rentals, at the scale fixetl, wotild lie 91.842 lire 
($17,725.51). 

In admitting tenants, a preference is given to employees, pension- 
ers, and manual laborers, and to persons whose family income does 
not exL^eed 1,4CK) lire ($270.20) per annum, or 2S0 lire ($54.04) jwr 
capita where the family consists of more than 5 i>ersons. Natives and 
residents of Venice are preferiTil, and those who huve childivn rather 
than thase who have not. 

A list of the occupations of the tenants of 94 a|>ai'tnients showed 
13 workmen at the royal arsenal, 10 on the State railway, and 22 in 
various other industries; 8 were classed as private employees and 8 
were employees in public serNice; 15 were salaried persons in the 
same service, were public [wnsioners, 6 were luiderofficials in the 
royal marine, and were wutijluuen. 




OPINIONS OF THE ATTORNEY-OENEKAL ON ftTTESTIONS AFFECT. 

INQ LABOR. 

[It IH one of the duties of tbe Attorney-General of tbo United Btatefl to 
furnlBb opinions advising the PrpHUUmt and the heads of the Hxecutlve De- 
purttnentft lu relation U} their official duties when such advice la ret|ne»tpd. 
OpInlouH on tiuestlous afTecilng labor will be noted from ttiue to time under the 
above head.] 

EiaUT-HOHB l-AW — ExTKAOKl>I>AHY EmKUOKNCIBS — •TeTTT WoRK — 

Admncr Mhecta 2G Op.^ ptii/f S7M. — The Secrctflry of War submit tod 
an inquiry as to the construction of the eiglit-hour luw «nd its uppH- 
cation to the jetty work at the mouth of the Cohunhiu River, which 
is being conducted directly by the Government. The facts on which 
the opinion is based are reproducecl herewith: 

The jetty, when completed, will consist of a pile trestle fti miles 
in lenf^h, with an enrocknient of nibblestone suiHTluipused. AIkjuI 
5 miles of the jetty have Iwen constructed, and the work is now cen- 
tered upon tlie outer ii miles of this portion, which *' is rx|X)se<I to the 
full force of the breakers which have madu the bur of the Columbia 
River a terror to all navigators. The seus are never smooth and often 
rough, even during the simimer season, rendering the operation of 
constructing the pTlo trestle and conveyinir n>ck over it u matter of, 
considerable risk to life and property/' The work seems to be stead- 
ily progi*essing, but it is liable to frequent interruptions. Softii'limes 
there is no interruption for two or three days, and again all w(»rk, 
except small jobs on shoiv. must be suspended for periods varying 
from a few hours to several days. The delays are occanioned partly 
l)y fogs, which prevent the barg<^ bearing the stone from n*aching 
their destination as soon as refjuired, and partly lx»caus4> of vibra- 
tions imparted to the m>stle by the action of the waves, which stop, 
for varying periods, the work of the pile driver and the carriage of 
the stone. f)n account of these natural causes, hindering the sjjeedy 
completion of the jetty, it seems that lalM>rers and mechanics are 
worked over eight hours a day when conditions are fnvonible. Ilie 
question of preventing this overtime work has I" l by the 

ofli(vr in cluirg)* of the eotistrnction, but he l>eli« i»mploy- 

nient of an extra gang of men is not practicable. Tiie impracticabil- 
ity of employing an extra shift, however, does not arista from any 
diflicultv inherent in the project. It is based almost entirely on 
economical cnn«iderations of speetly and cheap nu>thods. He says: 

^'The question of providing an extra gang of men has had careful 
i'f//. ■ .' '^1/;. but it is l>clieved to l»e wholly imprncticiible. If an 
Mr were eiiiployed, the two y^fx-W^^ wiiuVV W\ni \iy'.^>-o.\>V5 \\<at 

U*8 



0PIK10N6 OF ATTOBNEV-GEXERAL ON LvVBOR QUESTIONS. 1! 



I 

,'11 
ver I 



re honi*s per day, on an average, a month during the w 
se-asoD, nnd many days at a time at least one gang wonid be in idle- 
ues^s * * *. Even if the emplovinent of two gangs were feasible 
from other i"eaons, it wonId still be very objectionable from the 
delays that would result in changing from one gang to another, such 
changes being likely to come at a tune when the interruption would 
mean the loss of a valuable opportunity. It is estimated that the 
labor item alone would be increased from CO to 80 per cent if ii 
should become necessary to employ two gangs of laborers," 

Following tills statement of facts the Attorney-General said 

Ui>on conj^iderntiou of all the facts, it fairly appears, in ray opin5 
ion, that the difliculties of construction are such as were known 
and fully appreciated at the time of the preliminary survey. They 
are not so ffrave as to compel the conviction that Congress never 
could have intended the statute to apply to such work. In the ca 
of the Eastern Dredging Company v. The United States and Ba 
State Dredging Company r. The Unitetl Stales (206 F. 8., *24fi [Bul- 

:in No. 71, p. 361] ). the Supreme Court, in holding that dredging 
artificial channel is not one of the '* public works ■' intended l>y 
:ongress, assigned as one of its reasons the very gi-eat difficulty, if 
not impossibility, of dredging in the ocean, if sucn a law is to govern 

• • *." Hen*, however, it appears to me that the difficulty results 
ino6t merely in an inconvenience, and, as was pointed out in the 
dissenting opinion in those cases, that '* is a consideration fit to be 
adtlres-st'd to Congress" rather than to the courts or administrative 
officers. The work belongs to the United States and is a complete 
whole, having structural unity and a permanent existence, and ia-i 
within the rule laid down in those cases. 

Nor does it seem to me that the facts show a case of extraordinary^ 
emergency within the exception to tlie law contained in its first sec- 
tion, " in case of extraordinary emergency." That exception was not 
intended to have a wide but a narrow operation, ana was mainly 

iigued to excuse overtime work which must be rendered to avert 

ime sudden, unusual exigency ouickly and unexpectedly arising and 
calling for prompt action. In Lllis v. The United States (200 U. S., 
246, 257), it was said: ^J 

^ It needs no argument to show that the disappointment of a coidB 
tractor with regard to obtaining S4)me of his materials, a matt«r *1 
which he knew involved some difficulty of which he took the risk, 
does not create such an emergency as is contemplated in the excep- 
tion to the law/' 

In tlie lower couil the judge had instructed the jury: 

***** an extraordimiry cmergencv * * * is the sudden, unex- ,j 
pected happening of something not o/ the usual, customary, or i*eg- I 
ular kind, demanding prompt action to avert imminent danger to " 
life, limb, health, or property. The possibility of danger is not 
enough." 

This ruling, indirectly approved by the Supreme Court, was 
adopCed in the case of The United States t\ The Shei-idan Kirk Con- 
tract Company (140 Fed. Rep.. ftOl). 813); by Attoriu^y-Onerul 
Moody, now Mr. Justice Moody, in a circular letter dated October 
31. Jobe. and brrour Department hi two circulars- 








200 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR. 



Ill Circulftr No. 3;j, under date of July 30, UK)t). it whs snid: 

*' Attention is railed to the fact that the eujergency proviyioii in 
the law is oonsiden'i] t<» rover any oxtraordinarv einergeuries whirli 
ran not be foreseen, such as might l>e neeessiirv for siiving life or 
property of the Ignited Slates, antl not tttMrtt irhit h dcpettd for their 
t tntrgtney aolthj vpon economical methodti of irork or importance 
of rapid conHtrttrtion.'* 

Agftin, in Circular No. fia, under date of December Siti, llK)t>, it was 
said : 

"An 'extraordinary emergency* under the act is one not to be 
foreseen in time to avoid the necessity (»f exceeding the limit of the 
fixed daily hours of lalK>r by the employment of more men or mi»rc 
shifts of men. ^f<'re economical conttidcnttionti do not affect th^ 
qitestion at all. It in to he nsMnmed that in mahtng the rcqvirrmcnt 
Comjrcss knew that under want/ conditions the law icottid impose 
great cu'pense upon the Oovernment.^^ 

Althou<:h there ran he no doubt thnt in the prosecution of this 
work in this dangerous locality extraordinary emergencies within the 
exception to the law have arisen and will arise, still, »i|>on the fiict.s 
stated. I am of opinion that no case of continuing extraordinary 
emergency exists, \i\\(L, therefore, upon the (piestions sugg<'ste<I by 
y<iur communication 3*ou are advLsecI that the eight-hour law applies 
to this work, and that I fidly concur with the view of your Depart* 
nient, as expressed in the circulars quoted aU)ve, that those who 
fairly come within the oniinary meaning of the words ''lalK)rers and 
mechanics'* shoidd be restricted to no more than eight hours of 
effectivo labor upon each calendar day. irrespective of enforced idle- 
ness on other days, except when a suJden emergency nuist be met by 
prompt acliojL 



ImMIOHATION CONTKACT LaUOK SKILLED LaBORKIW — InSUKFI- 

riENT Supply — Advance Sheets^ SO Op.^ patjc '2^^, — An inquiry wiis 
submitted to the Attorney-General by the Secretary of Commerce and 
Labor on the subject of the admission of two lithographic artists com- 
ing from (rermany. These men were detained as violators of (he con- 
tract lrtl>or law, having come to the United States under contract of 
employment, and appealed. An agent of the American liithographio 
Company, of New York, nutde tlie contract abroad and prepaid the 
passage of the persons in question. Other facts, and the statutes in- 
volved, are set forth in the opinion of the Attorney-General, which ia 
in the main as follows: 

Unless saved by an excei^ting clause or a proviso, this contract is 

squarely within the pn)hibitiou of the statutes referred to. Whilw 

this is not (h*ni*'<l by the upin-llants, it is insisted in their l>ehalf that, 

under the first proviso «)f s<'ction 5 of the act of Kubniary 'JO, 1885 

(23 St4U. 3;VJ), and tlie secotKl and third provi.-os of section )1 of the 

act of March :^, U»o:5 (;V2 Stat. 1:.M3), they should \k admitted. 

The ;j)iiterial part of section o of the act of 18S5 reads as follow- : 

'V^/r^/vJ/'v/, Thfit .y/ri7/tHi hd>or for thai purpo** cau i\«V W ollwr- 

»'/*e obtawvil; nor tJiall the provisions of Ibis aa app\v ^^ "PTol 



«^- 



OPINIONS OF ATTORNEY-GENERAL ON LABOR QUESTIONS. 201 



^lonnl actors* artists, leoiurei's, or i^ingers, nor to persons employed 
strictly as personal or domestic servantis:" 

Section '2 of tlie act of I90;i specifies certain olassej^ of |)er6ons who 
shall be excJudetl; among others, ''those who have been, within one 
year from the date of application for admission to the United Slates, 
deported as being nnder otfei's, solicitations, promises, or agreements 
to |>crform labor or ser^-ice of tiome kind tiierein.'"' This section also 
contains the following provisos: 

*• * * * An^i vrnvided further^ That skilled labor mav be im- 
ported if labor of like kind nnemployed can not be found in this wum- 
try: And provided further^ That the provisions of this law applicable 
to i-onti-acl lalwr shnll not be held to exchide professional actoi"s, 
artists, lecturers, singers, ministers of any religious denomination, 
professors for colleges or seminaries, persons belonging to any recog- 
nized learned profession, or j)ersons employed strictly as personal or 
<lomestic ^rvants/' 

TTnless. then, it can l»e shown that tha^^^ aliens are artists within the 
meaning of the statutes, or that skilled labor of like kind, nnempl<»yed, 
c:an not be found in this coimtry, the appeal must be dismissed. A de- 
rision upon either ix>int in favor of the aliens would entitle them to 
admission. 

As the ap{>eal should clearly be sustained on the second ground 
upon the evidence submitted, I deem it unnecessary to determine 
wnether the appellants are artists. 

On the former point the evidence is so free h'om continidiction that 
weir the case being tried by a judge and jury the court would be 
obli^d to direct a verdict for the aliens. Their counsel, at the hear- 
ing oefore the board of inquiry, called officers of ^xe different litho- 
graphic companies to testify to the scarcity of lithographic artists 
in this country. Henry W. Kupfer, superintendent of the art draw- 
ing department of the American Lithographic Company, testifie<l 
that he had been for four yeare in charge of that department, and 
tliat during all that time part t>f his duty had been to hire Jitho- 
graphic artists; that while his compjiny couhl use t<» advantage 
twenty «ir twenty-two artists it had only ten. He further testified 
that for three or four yeai-s there had been the same difficulty in se- 
4'rirint: i"^*" **» *1" this work. It also appears from his testimony 
that tne company, in the belief that to meet this situation it was neces- 
sary lo bring men in from abroad, applied early in 1007 to your De- 
partment to know how this might be done. The Commissioner-Gon- 
••ral of Immigration suggested that Iwfore any steps were taken 
looking to the importation of lalx)r it was advisable to demonstrate 
to the satisfaction of the authorities that no labor of like kind, un- 
employed, was available in this country. In accoidance with his 
suggestions advertisements were inserted three times a week for four 
wwK-s in twelve newspapeiN of genei*al circulation in the eight cities 
uliei*e it seemed most likely that litbogi*aphic artists could be se<Mired. 
There wei'e thirty-two answei*s t<i uiese advertisements. No |)er- 
sonal applications were made, and the company did not seinire a single 
lithographic artist as a H'sult of its efforts. The reasons why none 
of the thirty-two who communicated with the company were selei-ted 
ans clearly and satisfact<)rily explained in the record you have sub- 
mitud for my a/nhlderuuon, The company ihcreupou w\^«^^ \wVo 



^202 



BITLLETIK OF THE BUBKAU OK LABOR. 



contract, ahove referred to, with Kui^zflorfi^r ami llaering, informing 
ihv. ('oiiiinissioiior-Cionoral of [niniiicrution of the fuel anil of the dale 
upon wliirh the alienH would rcncli New York in order that a test case 
HMKht thus h<^ inado. 

All of these witnesses swore that tlie demand for high-grade 
lithographic nrtisti* wa-s constantlv increasing in tliis country- The 
work, however, hiLS been going iiliroud, l>etuiutie the lark of skilled 
lithographic artists, according to the stntemcnts of these witnesses. 
prevents it-s heing done in this country. 

Counsel for ap]>eltHnts has also put in evidence a rejxjrt of the 
Bureau of Statistics, showing that the value of lithographic importa- 
tions has increased from under $l*')0,000 for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1898, to approxijnately $2,7lX)JXK) for (he last' tiscal yenr. 
This development has been gratlual and steady, every year showing 
nn increase over the year before, and the figures for the fin*! nine 
months of the current fiscal year show a still further incn»ase. 

This testimony as to the scarcity of labor in practically nnoon- 
travlictcd. Counsel for the Lithographic Artists, Engravers, an*! 
Designers' Ijeague attemj)ted to show that the difficulty in securing 
men was du<^ to a strike which had Ihmmi dcchired in August, WH). 
This idea is negatived by the statements of tiie witnesses above 
referred to to the effect that the short^igi* existed for several years 
prior to the time the strike was declared. Nowhere in the record is 
there a scintilla of evidence even tending to contradict this, 

Richard Kitchctt, president of that National lithographic Artists, 
Engravers, and Designers' Tx^ngue, (e.stificd that there were about 
two hundred an<l forty meml>ers of his organization unemployed 
in the Ignited States, and that this was a sufficient number to fill all 
vac-ancies and to meet the demands of the Jithognijthic business. 
Counsel for the aliens then put in evidence a circular issued, with 
the knowledge of Mr. Kitchett, by the national advisory board o£ 
tJie Lithogi-aphic Artists, Engravers, and Designers' League, of 
which he ndnutted he was the head, which inn in part as Allows: 
** The employers' own figures show that the ntimlnT of men they lack 
in the art d<'partment is actually greater than the whole number now 
out, so tliat were the strike to be settled to-morrow there would not 
lw» enough men tti fill all vacancies.^' 

In new of this statement, issued with his authority bv a board 
of which he wa.s the head, his testimony to the contrary is entitled 
to but little weight. 

I therefore advise you that the reix^rd you have submitted shows 
lK»vond any reasonable doubt that there are not in the country at 
this time a suffi<*ient numi>er of lithographic artiste, employed and 
unemijloyt^d, to meet the demamls of the business. The deinsion of 

I the board of si>eeial inquiry should, therefore, be reversed, and tlwi 
aliens adniittea. 
Immiouation — Promise or EMin>oYMENT — Patmknt or pAftfiAOE — 
State Ixtekvention — AdDo^we Shtieta^ iHG Ojk, page 4^/.— The Swi- 
rrfarv of Commerce and Lal>or submitted an intjuiry to the Attorney- 
CffnctHl ou the r/Hp.stion of the admisaiou of a Cubixu laborer, brought 



I 

I 



OPrNtONS OF ATTORN EY-OENEBAL ON lABOB QUESTIONS. 201 

to New OrleaiLs by the Louisiana State board of agi'iculture uiid 
immigration. Tbc facts as subiuiited by the Secretary are as foU^ 
lows : 

Geronimo Garoia arrived at the port of New Orleans from Cub 
I August 5, lt*07. His passage was paid bv ^Ir. Re^nald Dykei-s, 
who at the time was the i*egularly authorized agent of the Louisiana 
Slate board of agriculture and immigration, out of funds appropri- 
ated in regular mamier by the State legislatui*e. Mr. Dykers and a 
Mr. L. H. Allen, the latter also being a representative of the said 
board, approached the alien in Ilabana and solicited him to immi 
grate to the State of Louisiana, assuring him that employment as t 
farm laboix»r would be ^ciiivd for him on his arrival in said State 
In exchange for the passage money the alien gave to the said officials 
a receipt, in which he promised to return to the Louisiana State 
boai-d of agricultui-e and immigration within a year the sum so ad 
vanced. It is the expectation of the State agent that in such case5, 
upon the alien securing employment, his employer will loan him 
the amount necessary to reimburse the State and deduct the same 
fiom his wages: but no method has been provided whereby an em- 
ployer can be compelled to make such loan, it being the intention 
of the State board to rely upon the moral obligation of the alien's 
promise to reimburse the State, and not upon any legal measures 
against him or his employer. The alien is left fi-ee to select such 
employer as he pleases, although the expectation of the agent is that 
aliens selected by liim under this plan will he of such a reliable class 
that they will usually seek emplovment from parties who can be de- 
pended upon to advance to the alien the amount of the passage and 
enable liim to therewith reinibui*se the State fund. It also appears 
that, while the alien Garcia had seen advertisements published abroad 
by the I^ouisiana State board of agriculture and inanimation, reciting 
the inducements the State of Louisiana offers for inuuigration thereto, 
he was not induced to come to the United States solely by reason of 
sncli inducements; nor was the sole inducement the fact that his 
passage was paid by another, nor the fact, brought out in the testi- 
tiiony, that his father hiui previously come to this country. These 
facts operated to some extent, however, to lead him to endeavor to 
avail himself of the assurances given by the alwve-named agents that 
employment as a farm laborer would be secured for him on his land- 
ing in Louisiana. 

Although tlie desire of the State agent is that Garcia, if landwl, 
shall enter the employ of an individual planter who would be will- 
ing to loan him the cost of his passage and gradually deduct it 
from his wages, thus enabling said alien to immediately reimburse 
the State fund, he is, as above stated* left free to accept other em- 
ployment if he so desires: and there is no evidence that shows posi- 
tively that the said Garcia (or anv other alien imported in accordance 
with* the plan) might not, after landing, be employed by a corpora- 
Uon, association, or society at^ freelv and in the same manner as by 
an individual; suggesting a |x>sslbility tliat. under tiie indirei't 
method of attempting to eventually secure reimbursement to the 
State fund of the amount of the alien's passage, a condition could 
Aixew which mighty perhaps, be regurded ad being, reuioXft\^ WX '^^v 




i?()4 



BULLETIN OK THE BUREAU OF LABOR. 



in effect, a payment of snch passage by a corporation, society, or 
association. 

Upon these facts tlie Attorney -Genera I ruled that Garcia was not 
entitled lo admission, as appears from his opinion, which constniee 
the iinmigi'ation act of Febnmi^ liO, 1907, and is as follows; 

1. It appears that from this statement reprcHentaiiveft of the 
Louisiana Slate board approached (Jarcia in ITabana anil solic- 
ited him to emigrate lo Louisiana, assuring him that employment as 
a fann lal>orer would be secured for him on his arrival, and that 
>tu:h assurances operated as a material, if not the principal, induce- 
ment to his inunigration, sinc<^ neither the advertisements publislied 
by the State, nor the payment of his passage, nor his father's 
previous coming, was the sole inducement to his coming, but these 
mattei*s operated to some extent to leail him to endeavor to avail 
himself or the assurances of employment given him by the repre- 
sentatives of the State board. 

Among the classes of aliens excludes! bv section 2 of the act of 
1907 (M Stat. 808) are: " Persons liereinnfter railed contract lalM)r- 
ei*s. wlio have been induced or solicited to niigiate to this tmmtry by 
offers or promises of employment or in consecpience of agi-eementa, 
oral, written or printed, express or implie<l, to perform IalM)r in this 
rountiy of any kind, skilleu or unskilled." This provision, as stated 
in my opinion renderetl the President on March 20, 1907, excludes 
** aliens solicited or induced to inniiigrate by reason of offei*s or ])rom- 
ises, even when theixj is uo contract of employment.'* (26 Op. 11)9, 
207.) 

The assurances given to Garcia by the State agents constitute, in 
my opinion, ui-omises of employment within the inhibition of the 
statute. While it is provided that aliens coming to this country in 
consequence of advertisements by a State of its inducements to immi- 
gration shall not be tre«te<l as i-oniing under a pi*omise of employ- 
ment (sec. 0), there is no exception in favor of a State iu refe^'ncCj 
to specific promises of employment to individual immigrants such^ 
as were helu out to Garcia hy the reprcMMitatives of (lie State board. 
NeitiuM- is there any requirement in the act that the promises of em- 
ployment in order to work exclusion must be the sole inducement to 
the'innnigrati<)n. 

Thei-efoi-e, since, as stated in niv opinion i-endeivd the President 
uu Marcb t», 11)07. the unquestionable richt of Congress to regulate 
the admission of aliens into the United States rlearly controls the 
acti(»ri of any State agent in this i-espccl (l'O Op. ISO, 103), it fr)llows 
that on account of the assurances of employment that wei'e given to 
(iart'ia as an inducement to his inunigration, he should be excluded 
from admiKsion. 
I ti. Furthermore, a?* his passage was paid out of Stale funtls, unless 
I it was also clearly shown that he did not Indong to any of the classes, 
I such as paupei>, etc., H[>e<>ifi(uillv excJuded by the act, he r>omes within 
the provision of section L* of (fie act CM Stat., 808) exolu<iiii v 

person whose ticket or pas^agt* is paid for with the inoT»ey of 
/T who ts rts.viste*! by others to come, urdevs it is ufliinmtively m 
ifar/ori/y shown (hat such person d<x*"s uoV \j«*Ao\\v; U> ou<; of (- 
t^i^i^ excluded cluiiiMbi and that suid ticktl uv \J4ifc5>.^c"«>i^'wA. v*^^ V*ix 



OPINIONS OP ATTOHNEY-GENERAL ON LABOR QUESTIONS, 205 

by any corporation, association^ society, municipality, or foreign gov- 
ernment, either directly or indirectly." Under this provision, while 
the payment of an immigrant's pasvsagc out of State funds does not of 
itself require his exclusion, yet such payment by a State, just aa.by an 
individual, operates to throw upon the immigrant the burden of 
clearly showing that he does not come within any of the otherwise 
excluded classes, and in case of his failure to so show he is not en- 
titled to admission. 

3. In reference to your suggestion that, under the indirect method 
of attempting to eventually secure reimbursement to the State fund 
of the amount of the alien's passc^e, a condition might arise which 
could perhaps be regarded as in effect a payment of his passage by. & 
corporation, society, or association, as the statement of facts does not 
show that any such condition actually existSj or that his passage 
money is in fact to be so repaid, I am of the opinion, Avithout passing 
upon the question as to what would be the eifect of such a condition if 
it did arise, that the mere hypothetical possibility of such a condition 
would not be a ground of exclusion. 

30049— Bull. 74—08 14 



DECISIONS OF COUBTS AFFECTING LABOB. 

[Except iu cases of si>ecinl lutei^st, the tlecisious here presented are restricted 
to those rendered by the Federal courts and the higher courts of the States and 
Territories. Only material portions of such decisions are reproduced, intro- 
ductory and explanatory matter being given in the words of the editor. De- 
cisions under statute law ai'e indexed under the proiicr headings in the cumu- 
iative index, i>age 283 et seq.] 

DECISIONS UNDER STATUTE LAW. 

Ahbitkatiox of Labok Disputes — Constructiox of Agreements — 
Scope — Judgment — Construction of Statute — In re Sonthem 
Pacific Company et al.^ United States Circuit Court, Northern Dis- 
trict of California, 155 Federal Reporter^ page 1001, — This case was 
before the court to review the findings of a board of arbitration ap- 
pointed under the provisions of the act of June 1, 1898, 30 Stat, 424, 
commonly known as the " Erdnian Act.'' The questions submitted to 
the board were four in number, and are as follows: 

^ {a) AVhether members of the Order of Railroad Telegraphers in 
the employ of the employer shall legislate for train dispatchers re- 
specting rates of pay and hours of service, or otherwise, {h) The 
question of reduction of hours of service on Sundays for employees. 
(c) The question of percentage and general increase in salaries of 
emi)loyees. {d) The question of eliminating from the operation of 
the schedule certain important agencies where the duties of soliciting 
traffic are ])aramount. 

These <|uestions were answered by the board after hearing the 
evidence, which was very voluminous, covering 1,500 pages of type- 
writing, besides a volume of exiiibits, and in due course the following 
answei's were rendered : 

"" {a) That the n»embers of the Order of Railroad Telegraphers in 
the employ of the employer shall not legislate for train dispatchers 
regarding rates of pay and hours of service or otherwise. 

{b) That the regular hours of service on Sundays shall be one- 
half the regidar hours of labor on other days: Provided, That 
at any station, where it is impracticable or inconvenient tor the 
employer to arrange the service so as to reduce Sunday labor to one- 
half time, he may arrange to give the employees leave of absence and 
full pay for 2G days per annum, at such time or times as will cause 
the employer and the public the least inconvenience, 

{c) Tliat the percentage of general increase in salaries of employees 
shall be seven and one-half (7J) per cent, and that the apportion- 
ment of this general increase among divisions and subdivisions of 
the employer's lines shall be such as may l>e mutually agreed upon by 
the employer and the Order of Railroad Telegraphers. 

200 



DECISIONS or COUBT« AFFECTING LABOR. 



20T 



{d) Tlmt Die appointment of stalinii agents wlia'^ re^ulnr tliilios 
flo nnt iuolutk telegraphic work, und whorie annual earning in tlie 
form of sniiiries iukI c*>nmiissions e<inal <>r exceed $l,;iUO, shall not Im» 
controlled by the hchetlnle or agnvment between the employer and 
the Order or KHJInrnd Tidegrnpherw. 

The aet under wliirh the submih.^lon was mode provides: 

That the iiwnrd und the papers and proceedinpi, inchiding the 
testimony relating iheroto, certified under the hand-^ of the nroitru- 
tors, anJ which shall have the f<irce and etFect of a bill of exceptions, 
shall be filed in the clerk's olfice of the circuit court of the I'nited 
States for the district wherein the conlrovervy aris(»s or the arfiilrn- 
lion is entered into, and simll Iw final and conchisive upon both 
parties, unless set aside f«»r error of law apparent on the record. 

Also that: 

The award being filed in the clerk's ofTice of a circuit court of the 
I'niled States, as hereinbefore provided, shall go into practical opera- 
tion and juiigment shall be entered thereon accordingly at tiie expira- 
tion of ten days from such tiling unless withiji such ten days either 
party shall tile exceptions thereto for nnitter of law api)arent upon 
the record, in which case said award shall go into practical operation 
and judgment be entered accordinirly when such exceptions shall 
have been linally dispose<.l of, either by said court or on appeal there- 
from. 

In accordance with the^-e provi^ioiw the telegrapher-; (designated 
as employees in the opinion) filed exceptions to the awards de^ig- 
naled ns (w) and (J), claiming that each was contrary to tlie law und 
not supiK>rted by the evidence, tliat the board erred in admitting cer- 
tain evidence, and that finding {</) was not i-esponsive to the question 
submitted under the agreement. Tliey also asked for the enforce- 
ment of awards (//» and (r) hy entry of judgment in due legal form. 

Judge; Van Vleet, Iwfore whom the matter came for hearing, dis- 
allowed the exception as to («), sustained the exceptions to (J), and 
ruled tJiat imder the terms of the law he was unable to enter judg- 
ment ou a pari of tlir findings while others were ir» al»eyance. The 
case is of interest as being the first in which the law in quastion has 
l»een in court on the points involved. The fact;; ijivolved and the 
principles on which the various conclusions were readied are bet 
l''*rth in the following portions of Judge Van Vleet's opinion: 

1. The record discloses that the controversy involved in the arbi- 
tration grew out of antecedent negotiations hud between the partieHj 
the employees nq>respntfd by their ***tieneral Committee" and tho 
-employer oy certain of its officers, in an effort to bring about certain 
pnoilitfcations in the schedule or agreement designated "Kules and 
pRegidations of Pav of Telegraphers,'' then in fortv U-tween the par- 
■ties, commonly re/erivd to as tlie " Schethdc of VM)'2,'' the date of its 
nddptictn. These negotiations, which hail l>een in i>rogres-i for ^QV- 
eral weeks without tlu* ability to come to a complete adjustment of 
Rlitrerciices^ finally culminateil in the agi*eenu»nt <»f arbitration which 
"form.'i the basis of the proceeding, On the hearing U'fore the l)oard 



Efifci 



b 



8 BULJ.ETTN OF TUB BUfiKAU OF l^BOR. 

of arbitration, the employees look the initiative, nnA in submitting 
their case ns to issue A, above stated, they iiitrodinvfl oviflenoo show- 
ing that the train dispatchers in the service of (In* omnlover on the 
system invoIve<l, a majority of wliom wt'vv ineriilKMN of the eini>h)y<H's' 
order, had, by a vote of about two-thirds, authorized the general com- 
mittee of the employees to represent nnd "legislate" for them in 
negotiations "in si»eiiring a new conlrnet with the Sontheni Pneifie 
Company.*' These authorizations were in writing in the form of 
letters und telegram^, and, wliile viirying slightly in phraseologvi 
were all of the same general import. They uls<» introduced evideuie 
lending to slu>w the njitui'e of the duties of (rain dispuiehers, tlieir 
status as emph\vees. and tlie general mode of |M'rforaung tlieir serv- 
ice; and also showe<l that, under tin* existing sehetlule, the employees 
had, for a period of some eight vears, been representing ana legis- 
lating for the dispatchers in all negotiations of the kind. Tlio 
employer did not attempt to rebut the evidence as to the fact that 
the ilispnttli<'i*s ha<l given tlu( em|)loyees authority to act for them, 
but was perrniUe<l on its part, 0V4'r tlte obji-i-iion of en»ployv*i*s, to iti- 
Iroduee evideiic«% hii'gely exi»ert or opinion in character, tending to 
show that a tmin dispat<l»'r is an entirely ditferent functionary Irom 
n telegi'aplier or " oi)eralor " so-called : (hat. while the dispatcher may 
be an operator, lie is not necessarily such, his duties being very dis- 
wmilar in cliaructer, largely admn\istrative, and of much greater 
importaiice, not oidy to his employer in curryijig on the service, Imt 
(o the snfctv and convenience of tlie public: that he stands in a ilif- 
ferent. relation to his fuiijloyer. as well in fact as in law, rcprc-senting 
him in the dis/'harge of his duties as an alter ep> or vice-princi|)al 
in his rcla<i(»ns with other employeivH; and, finallv, that the fcattiri> 
of the schedide in force permitting the employees i)rdcr to legi^hltc 
lor the dispatchers as to rules of emj)lovment and rates of wages hail 
Ix'en found to wurlc very unsatisfactorily and injuriously lo the 
service, and was a rule which did not obtain on the liftes of any other 
general system. 

The objection urged by the omploy»*os to the action of the board 
under this issue, and the only point ma»!p uiuler theii* exceptions 
thereto, is that all the eviden«M^ thus atlmitled in behalf of the em- 
ployer, so far as it affected that particular issue, was wholly irrele- 
vant and incompeieiit, and outside th<» issue; that the sole <iMcstion 
involved in that issue, when properl}* construed, was whether the em- 
i>loyees luul Imh'u duly authorized by the train dispatchers to " legis- 
late " for them res|>ecting rates of i>ay, etc, and to represent them in 
the arbitration proceedings; that the moment surh nuthorizafion was 
made to aiipear by the evidence the inqinry under this issue was 
closed, auil tlu* boanl was without autluirity to go further, but wan 
bound to find the issue in the anirmalive. Ibit nuinifiv^tlv the lan- 
guage of that issue will not support this construction. It may be 
conccde<I that the contention is correct as to the merely incidental 
right of the employees to repiv-4>nt the dispatclicrs before the bounl 
of arbitratitkti. That was purely a i]uestion of agency, and the dis- 
patchers had a right perbfti»sj'to delegate it to any one they saw fit, 
regardless of the wishes of the employer. In fact, wldle ^ome oldec- 
tion api>ears to ha\e been nuide by the employer before the board of 
ttrhifnithin^ \t was tjvcrnilcil, and is not now being insisted upon, 
liut ihv qufi.ftios} wlivihcv the order *^ HhaW kgisWVi l^ii: U^^vix ^v 



0ECISIOK8 OF COUBTS AFFECTING IJIBOR, 



209 



patellars respecting'' rates of pay. hours of service, or otherwise ^ in- 
volves, more than a mere quej^iion nf :i»renoy, whero the will nn*l de- 
sire of tiic party oonferrinff the power is alone to be considered. The 
lan^impe of the qtiestion is in the futui-e tense, nnd very idearly in- 
volves a question of principle or policy affecting the reliitions of the 
|»nr1i<\s and tiio methods of conducting the denlin«rs <»f tiie employer 
with its disprtlchei's: whether, in other wordr;. it shall for the future 
lie iiermilled to deal with them directly, or shall Ih» suhiwt to tlie con- 
trol of a third party, in est^dilishing' the rules, reirulations. and rates 
of pay that shall obtain in their service. This was a quej^tion in 
which Ixith parties to the controversv wen* at least equally interested, 
and liuo u[Min which it was very evitWtlv the purpose of the frainers 
that l>oth parties should be heard. Mat} it Ixh'U the purpose to sub- 
mit the simple inquiry whether the omi)loyeos had l^en empowered by 
i\w dispntciiers, the issue, if put at all, W4»uld doubtless have l>een 
fmrned verv differently; but, moreover, it would be convirtin** both 
parties to tlir controvei'sy of a ))ie<'e of idle folly to hold that they 
intendcil to submit to arbitration a mere question of fact so easily 
aseei-tainable. It is not contended that the character of the evidence 
was impnjper, if it was adniissihle at all. nor that it was not suflicient 
4c sustain the finding, if the boanl's interpretation of the issue was 
the proper one. I am satisfied that the construction adopted by the 
IxKird as to the nature of the question was correct, and tnat the ex- 
ception can not l>e allf>wcd. 

2- The oidy ground of exception to finding D which I deem it nec- 
essary to notice is whether the facts foinid thereby are within the l^,- 
sues s"iibmitte<l l>y the agreement. A difference arose U'tween counsel 
of the respective parties in the hearing Wfore the arbitrators, as to 
the meaning of question 1) as stated in the agreement, and as to (he 
scope of the inquiry thereimder. The employees were confining their 
investigation purely to the literal terms of the ipiestion by inquiring 
as to the numU-r and location of stations or agencies where the para- 
mount duty of the agent was that of soliciting traffic. Tlie employer 
objected that this was luiduly restricting the inquiry un<ler that issue; 
that its real meaning, and the uuotion intentled to be thereby suh- 
lMilte<l, was ns to tht* elimination from the operation of the schedule and 
the nde of seniorit}' therein provided of stations or agencies, termed 
"starred stations," where the business of the company was such that 
the other duties of the agent were more important than telegraphing, 
where it was necessary to employ as agents men a]>t in business 
methods, familiar with traflic conditions, able successfully to solicit 
d gJiin business, superintend the men imder their charge, look after 
e operation of fr-eight and warehouses, handle and sell tickets of 
I kinds, and transact other couanercial biisinci^s — stations, in other 
words, where such qualitic^ in the agi*nt were of moi-e essential i*on- 
Mderation than his ability as an operator. And it was urged that, 
if the iiNSue had )»eeu misunderstood, it should be amende<l or cleared 
op; and the board was rwjuested to make a nding for the guidance 
of the parties as to its interpretation of the question. Tlie employees 
took the ground that (here could be no misapprehension of the mejin- 
ing of the (juestion, that it was to l>e inlerjneted by its terms and 
the inquiry restricted, as therein specified, to agencies where the 
chief or puramoimt duty of the agent wa-i .^olieitiug triiffic', «iud Uw^ 



nn 



BULLETIN OF THE BUnEAV OF UVBOB. 



I 



objected to nny nmeniliuent or any siidi construction llunvof, iif^ suff- 
^•sli'tl by i]w otujiloyer, ns In-in^ (H|nnlly without tlic jKiwer of tni' 
Umnl. AfU»r some fousi<lprnUli» ar^iunonl the iHuinl ro<|iivsttMl tin* 
]>nrtii'>s t'Hch to Hit* iu writing iii-^ iiitrrpn'tnlloii of thi* (]Ui*stioii for 
their iufoniiatioti. ami tlial it wotilil then deteniiiae its moulting. 
This re<|ue.vt was f'omplieii with hy the otnplover, but the employees 
tloclinod, upon the protmd that tliey rcpnnled tlie lan^iui^* of tlic 
isjiue ns free fn»m nnibipiiity, and pn-ftMieil to ^taiul in>on its terniii. 

Tlu»reu|>on tlie nrbitiiUurs by u majurity vote, ruled, in elTeet, tlmt. 
while they e«»nld iiul amend ihe hiu^jmi^e of the fniestion, it sh*mM 
Im* eon^t^lled sul>htanlially as ooverinp tbe p'onrul eontended for by 
the employ*»r: and they permitteil liie evidence lo take tJiat st*o|>e. 
At the nnlM't it may Iv ivmarked, in re>^ponse t<i eortuin Mi^grestions 
made at the ar<>:nment« tlnii tho proeeedint^ bus its iiu'e|)tirMi in nnd 
re»ts solely upon tin? a^retnuent of arliilration entered into iK^tween 
tbe parties; tliut it i>; l)y the terms of that instrument, when properly 
construed, thai not oidy the ri^lits of the parties thereto, but the 
oxti'iit of the powers of ihe arbitrators thereunder, un' to Ik* lindti^d 
and determined. The act jmls the arl»itrulion pnxivdin^s therein 
provided f«tr iu no dilTerent caiejfory in this res|HN't than the onlinnryi 
eommon-law lubitrntitui. Moreover, ^^ldle the pr(K'(«edin*r is judicial 
in character, the relation of the jiarties is purely a contractual one, 
nnd in no ivspeet. other perliapK than in the application <tf the rules of 
evidiMiee, does the proceeding partake of the nature of n civil action, 
Therefc»re the ndes of coastruction ami interpretation applicable to 
contnicts rather than tliose applicable to |>leadin^^ obtain. Nor is 
there anything in the a^'t iiuricaltng. as sn^'jre>le<l by our of the 
parties, that ds provisitMis, either as to the rtHjuireutcnts of thr 
aprecment fiu* arbitration or the itrocreiliiiifs (beretmder. are to In* 
tested by auv diirerent or mtJiv idjeral rules of coivstrucliun than 
tlios4» appli»';ibh' to other (Contracts or procciMlin|r^ of a similar nature. 

We are lliercfore t<i have resort, m delcrmininfi: the pur|>ose of 
the particH under this a^rrcement, to those usinil and weJl-v^tab- 
liiihed canons of construction aiiplicable to contracts generally; antl^ 
applying those ]>rinciples, 1 am satisfied that, taking the hrnpiu^j 
of the contract alone, the jiiullng nuule in response to tple^tion l) 
not responsive to the is.s»ie thereby submitted. One of the cardinal 
rules for the interpretation of an inslrunuut inter partes im that 
primarily it nmst l>e inter|)reted by its lanjrna|^'. Iuk4*n in its ordinary 
nnd accepted meaning;, and. if that language is plain ami nniim- 

Ibigitouii in ilM'lf, there is no room for construction, but il will U' hehl 
to mean precisidy what its terms imply. Very obviouHly (his ride 
was violateii in the n»nstruction plncevl by the arbitrators upon thiM 
fcttlure of the apieemcnl. The question related solely (o aircncie 
\ """■ 



could well 1h» plainer than this languap'. It is in no sense ambig- 
uous, and there is nolhinfj in it^df nor clHfwhere in the contract to 
indicate that il was emnloyed in any teehnlcal sensi% or othcrwiw 
than according io its ordinary iin|>ort. It refen'eil. neithrr directly 
nor by inqdication, to the character of npeucies deh<'rilH*d in ('"• lu'd- 
inif. and (he fimling says notblng about (he character of -< 

uTeiTed lo in (he ouestion. C'oui»seI for the employer urge »);»' toe 
^ruJ/tip' /wed not follow the precipe terms a*: to descriptive xvord^- em-, 
^/qsedw t/tc quvaiivtu ihni i( is suifii'lunl \\ l\\e &u»\\T\ft uwiAv'?. w 



di*»p<fseii i»f. 

Tlic >ianic AH ; 
•^Al the o\ 
Mirt upon * 
lall be eiitfi 




j tme, but ii ^ 

may br art 

til*' |>arti*'> !^2!l.lViai IBW 
V ' PMICP til CW 

> .^rsiood far cW fnin «ft tW 

Kitii. fur this tMr|Msr. ^ 
elaiin^^ of the panics 
rvipirxl is thai if tbr hiD^n^ mi m 



li)at language c»a do* t>r 
of the summDdtt^ 
i^rti*-. AVliat tht 
Jiu\r niPiiul i»r in 
liave it>«4. It i^ Qolj tIw 
c»n<r (-i»n^tni«-ii<>.'. that tike i 

I a J^t thr 

It ^' -' and that 

u^Kin pithiT paitT. 

3. ' ' 'jtioa flor 

len-t . oimIm' thii 

I ' i when a part k set 

li- , . .. : .itl^- of ihr art, 
to prcKv^ings of th» cbatBctn^ tfae 
intt*r(i4«pendent and iaggparafaiy a 
must all -taiiJ or fall ta|^4lHrr.' Bat. if I 
t'> 'i^^ inr.niii: i^ imaialiin , iimI 

I' A> nt^ I. are <ee« dbotr. tfe 

>rf tiltnl (*- Ti>» airard, k 



fl 

,rij \t* -^id ai 
anre trkk 
•*i(hcr i^uxtv iii^ll appeal t lwi t fjw to tlie 
♦ • • th^- fl^oniUBatiM af 

ill lj«- fiaaL mmd 
rmrt, ji 



clerk t!n*n'nf ti> 
fhrn'UjHiii \ttr en!- 

the act, (^ 

eluill lie cjui-rt'i t 
«fl4*r the iliMnsi^.i 

i ' ' ■ 



runt. II wiihizi the ten iLt\i^ however, U 



212 



bciJjEtin of the bureau of labor. 



entry of juilgmont must await the (letcrmination of Kiich appeal, when 
filial jiulginenl niny hr vulvrvi] pui-^imiit thereto. Very ovulrntly the 
act doo.s not warrant a piccenioal jiidgnifnt siid» as contmiplaUnl by 
tlip motion; luU our final jii«Ignicnt, wlucli shall lie determinative of 
t1u» wliolo nnitlcr. 

Having in view the very commoudnbic object aimed at by the act, 
I r<*gn't much tho nooessity of reaching a con(*Iiij^ion tlie result of 
whirli, if siistiiined, will be jiartinlly, if not entirely, to set at hirgo 
tlie (lilFereniM's betwiH»n the parties out of which the roiitrov«»rsy 
aris<»s. 'J'hc evident purpose of the law was to afford a ready, suni- 
tnary, and speedy method of iiniicalily ndjustinj^ lid>or disputes aris- 
ing l>etween the class of employers and employees to which U applies; 
aufl, the eas«> being a r)ioneer thereunder, a more satisfactory result 
of its operation wouhl have been <l(»siral»le. There are certain fea- 
tures of the act, however, which, idthongli di>ul>tless intended to a*ld 
to the simplicity of the pnnvdure pmvided therein, are calculated to 
result, as in this case, in malving cuujheiNonie and burd»'iis<ime its 
operation, aiul to largely negative and defeat tlie object of a s|x?edy 
deteniiinaiioii (tf a <'untroversy. As noteil MU»ve, the entiiv record — 
jjapers, testimony, and exhibits — consisting in this case of something 
over M.OOO pages, is treateil as a bill of exceptions for the purpose of 
review in this court. This would not Ix^ so ol>jectionalile in itself if 
thi^ro wns any i*ei!inr<'ment at Ihe hands of the excepting partv of 
presenting a specihcation of the erntrs irlied upon in soin<* such ^)nn 
as would definitely j^oint cmt the objections inv<»]ved in the excep- 
tions. In this instance, the exceptions fdcd were in Uie most general 
terms, with no attempt then*in or in iho brief of couiis^^*! to point out 
the particular page, or even the vohnne in which any obnoxious evi- 
dence or ruling was t(» l>e foiuid. As a residt, the e\idence upon all 
tlie issues l>eing intermingled, the cNinrt has been put to the necessity 
of searching through the entire record at the pxpeusi* of much valu- 
able time, and the greiit and unnecessary ilelay of its concluKJon. 
This result could l>e nvoided, either by providing, as in other in- 
stance's, for a bill <tf exceptions presentinp only the s]H>cifi<' errors 
ivlied upon, or by a jjrovision reipiiring llie parly exct»pting to the 
awiird to lile such a sp^'cification of err(»rs as would serve to point 
more particularly the rulings complnine<l of. 

For the reasons above slated, the exceptions to fiutling A will \w 
overruled, the exceptifin to finding D will 1h» suhiiiined, and the mo- 
tion for ju<lgiJK'nt will Ix* <lenied. Ix't an order l»o entered to lliat 
effect. 



CONTUACrS OK E.MrUlVMENT WITII TSTENT TO DKFKArD — -Vn- 
VANrKH — PrXISHMEKT FOR FaILURK TO KkPAY — CoNftTITTTIOXAMTY 
OK Stati'tk — Vanff i\ Sfafr^ Suprrmr t^oiirt of ('fcorgla^ 67 Soi/th- 
vantfiru Iifpftrft'i\ parjr s^iO. — A case was l)ofoi*c the couil of a|ipeal« 
involving the ctmKtitutionality of tho act relating to the fraudulent 
pro*MU'ing of advancH^s, No. M^^ Acts of 1003, which reaiis as follow*: 

iSECTioN 1. From and after the passag<» of this act if ariy person 
^itnll f'xmtinct nith /mother to perform ft^r him services of any kind 
n-f'th hitojjt to procure uioney, ur oilier iVvui^ ul vv\\vv«t \.VvttiA>^'.j «xv\ 



PECISIONS OP COURTS AFFECTIKO LABOB. 



Sid 



not to pprftiriu the service roiitractpd for, to the lo^s nnd dnina^o 
of tho hirer; or ufler havinp; so contracted, fi\m\\ procure from the 
hirer money or other Ihin/r of vnhie. with intent not to ]>erfoi'm such 
.S4»rviiM», til the loss imd (himitgc of tlie hirer, lie slmll i)e <h*enu'tl ii 
ronunon clieat and swindler, nnd npon conviction sihall be punisherl 
as prescrihi'd in ^-eclion WM) of the Code. 

SKf. 2. Sati.sfactorv jjroof of tlie contract, the procurinp" thereon of 
money or olher Ihin*; tif vnUie, the fnihire lo perf<»rni the wrviees o 
contracted for. or fiiilnre to return the money so advanced with in- 
tei'est iheroon ut the time said hil»or was to Ih» performed, without. 
gjocKl and suHicient cause nnd [withj loss or damage to the hirer, 
hhall he deemed j^resumptive evidence of llie intent referred to in 
the preceding section. 

A series of qnet^tions on the various points involved was i^uhmit- 
ted by the cou»1 of apjieaLs to the supi'eme court of the Stat<', which 
upheld the constitutionality of the act. From the o{)inion of the 
court, OS given by Judge Lumpkin, the following* is quoted : 

]. Is the art of IiKKJ unconstitutional as being repugnant to and in 
eontravention of clause 1, sec. 14. url. 8, of the Coustitulion of the 
I'nited States (continued in Civ. Code 18i^5. sec. 00:iO), as to the 
})rovision therein contained that no State shall deny to anv pei*sou 
within it.s juri.sdicdon the eoual protection of the laws^ llie con- 
tention is tlnit, in the class oi contracts dealt with ami contemplated 
by the act, the person or persons cQiitracting lo perform services are 
denied, as against (h** person or |_M'rsons for whom sueh services are 
to be rendered, ihe equal protection of the laws, in that it subjects 
the former, uiuler certain c(uitingencies, to pro^-cntion and puni^h- 
meiil, and at (he same time affords the latter absolute immunity fnun 
prosecution or punishment by rerts<m of any infraction of said con- 
tractual obligations. If the act of l!)()H sought to nutke it penal to 
A-iolflte a contract or fail to pay a debt, it would be 2>atenlly iincon-li- 
(utioiiah But this court has held that *' such act d(»es not violate the 
constitutional inhibition against im]irisonment for debt : the legisla- 
tive pur]>ose being, not to punish for a failure to coini)Iy with the ob- 
ligation, but for the frau(hilent Intention with which the money (^r 
other thing of value is procured.*' (Lamar f\ Stale, liil) Ga. -UJ, 47 
S. K. OaJS; Hanks c. State, V2\ (ia. ir» (I), b*2 S. K. 74. ii L. K. A. 
(N. S.) 10{»7: Townsend /•. State, 124 (la. 09, 52 S. K. 293.) This 
being true, it is anpareiit (hat the objection is without nu-rit. In the 
nature of tilings the niaster <loes not ordinarily procure advances from 
his servant, i»r the employer fnuji his empKtvee. Legit itnate dassilica- 
tion is not unjust discrimination. There aiv a \ery large number of 
laws upon the statute boyks im|n)siug penalties upon rertnin persons, 
without also providing for pemihies as lo others, though having s<mjo 
relation with them. The abanclonment of a diild by its father is a 
misdemiumor. (Pen. Code lsi>5, s^'c. 111.) Btit it is n<»t declared 
criminal for a cliild to abandon its fa(hcr. It is evident that the same 
duty does not rest upon l>)th, and the two are not in the same situa- 
tion. Enticing awav apprentices is unlawfid. (Pen. Code 1895, sec. 
110.) But nothing is said as (o putting any penalty i»n the emph^yer. 
• • * It is criminal f<u' bank olfirers to purehase any bill, eheck, 
or other evidence of debt issued by the bank f»u' Ie^9s than its faco 



yi4 



Bf LLETIX OF THK BCKEAt* OK l^mH(, 



valui-: Init the siOlcr is not imnisliotl. ( IVn. Code 181)5, ftec. 20W.) 
TIk'^so aiv only a fow of tlic ninny instanci's wliirh n»)|;rl»l Ih' <iti'*l: but 
thi'V will suttHM' (n show ilml, \vlieri« I wo |a'i"s<ms ileal wi(h each otlier 
and ihe <'on*hii*t of one re<|aires safeguarding, criminal laws have 
been .shniR»<l fi)r ihni |)iir)Hise, and they have never lieeji euuHJUenHl 
unamstitutional. 

ti. It is furthiM' lU'i^ed ihiil ll»r (»qiial |)ro(ection of the law is de- 
iiie«l, Ijeeanse the perhtui rontracleil v ilh, and for whom MTVices are 
to be rendered, is jicrmitlcd to testify to a state of facts tlochuvd to l«> 
suflieient to carry the iircj-uniption of frauduh*nt intent. wlii«n*«s (he 
accuMMl is not perniilli'd to testify, and Inis no oppoi-tunity or nieans 
oqiiiil to thos4» alfordei] to tlie perM>n contracted with of proviiifr, that 
no fniiidulcnt intent existed, nufl the act lay.^ down no nieasiirt^ of 
proof by '»vhic!i such presumption may Ix* overcome. Here, again, the 
error is made of treating the act as punishing a breach t»f contract, 
instead of a fraudulci»t transaction. To say that the e<]iial protec- 
tion of the law is denied, beranse a pronvntor <'an testify anti the j>er- 
son accused of crime can not, wotdd npH't the practice in criminal 
])roceilnnr for renturies imst. Tlie privilep* to the accused to testify 
ajs a witness is conferred by statute in s<mie Slates, It is not a com- 
niondaw right. In this State it does not cxisft ^nerally, but only in 
certain cases. 

3. The c<intention tliat no measin'c of proof is laid down by the act 
of the lejrislaturi' by whi<*h such pivsmujition may Im' overcome is 
without nu'rit. The treneral law in re^ird to crinnnal prtHMuIure is 
to Ih» considered in conncctir)n witli this act. The |u*csumption of 
sanity, of a contimumce of a stale of fn<'ts p(»rmanent in its nature 
Mlien once sliown to have existed, and other disputable presum|>tionii, 
are declaimed by law. U]>on the whole (!ns*\ in a criminal prosecution, 
the State nntst show tin* piilt of the accus<'d iH'yond a reasonahlo 
doubt. Hut the act is not unconstitutional l)ecause on its face it doea 
not declare the exact nnioimt of piviof which >vill overcome a dt^pu- 
tabh' presumption raised bv law from a given state of facts. 

4. It is further contended that the act is violative *>f paragraph 1. 
sec. 4, art. 1, of tlie State constitution (Civ. Code iSlK'i. sec. 57»t*2), 
atid es]x»cinl!y that portion thereof winch ileclan^ that *"']nws of a 
general nature sliall have urdform oiM'ralion througliout the State." 
It is argued that the act «»f l!H);5 does not have uidform operation, in 
that it singh's out and deals with a given character of contracts, and 
pivs<*ril>es with reference thereto "diiTert»nt rules, dilferent condi- 
tions, an<l diifeivnt i>enalties froni all other contracts of whatever 
nature,*" and bectui'-e it imposes heavier burdens iipon the f^eiNcm or 
jH'rsons who I'ontract to jMM'form M^r\ices, whih* albirding to the per- 
son or iK'rsons for whotn such services aiv to Ix- |x*rforuUMl inununity 
fnan pros*'ciitioM and puut-<bment, and also because it gronjis a clasa 
of citizens who contract with n*ference to the perfornuuiee of serviecv, 
and imp<»s»*s on some nf theru r-erlain conditions^ prosecutions^ and 
ptmishments not inHicted upon others. Here, again, the error nf 
treating the act as punishing fiir a violation of a contract Hpi>earv, 
The law is general and mdform, aj»j>lying uniforndy througlmut tlie 
Slate to all ijersons falling within Us terms. It is well M-ttled th«t 
reasonable chissifieatinn nuiy bo made, and if the law ap[jlies nni- 

fnrmlv to itU Within /he class it is not unconstitutional. If this wens-i 



PECISIOSS OF COUBTH AFFECTING U\BOB. 



215 



so, all tbo laws jriviii^ lit-n-s to laboivis, niitti'riul iiu»ii, ooulraclors, 
aiul »tl»ri*s agaliibt tin* |M.'i>t>u with wlu»iii tlu'V contract, <ir for lln^ 
impnjveiiu'nt of wliosc properly they furnish labor or niatcrialH, 
without provitlinj; a r<miit*'r lien of some sort in fav<H" of tlu* <»th»»r 
party to the contract, wouhl he iinconslitniional. AVc ilccni it un- 
necessary to cite authorities iuMip(>ort i>f tliib wcll-settlod prr*position. 

'». Again, it is tir^ed tliat HHtmn :i of the act i^ repii^rnaiit to para- 
graph 5 4>f section 1 of article 1 of the constitution of iho State (Civ. 
Cofle ISO."), sec. i»7thi), Mini piirticMlnriy to Ihat portion <if the {tnny- 
isrraph which provides tluit the accused sliiil! have a public and s|M*edy 
trial by an impartiul jury, in that gaid act arbitnirily fixes the measniv 
uf evidentx* by which the jury may presiune fcuilt, wheivaw the consti- 
tational provision couteniplates that the jury alone shall determine 
that questioti. This point is in effect contndled by the decision in 
Banks r. State, 124 Oa, 15 (ill. 52 S, E. 74, 2 L. R/ A. (\. S.) li.K)7, 
where it was held that " a |>rovisii)M of the act of iVO^i to the effect that 
pruof of the cf>ntract of hiring, the procuring thereon of money or 
other tiling of value, the faihire to peiforui the ^i'rvice mj citutracled 
for or to return the money or other thing of value, the faihire to per- 
form the H>rAice j-o contracted for or to return the money so advancetl. 
with interest thereon to the time the Iflbor was to be ix?rforme<I, with- 
out gtHH\ and sutheient cause, nnd loss or damagi* to the hirer, shall Im» 
presumptive evidence of a fraudideut intent in the procurement of the 
advances, is not an assiunptiun of judicial functions by tlie legisla- 
ture,** If the act luade the presiunption of intent ari?^iug from [irottf 
of certain fu<ts concluMve. rather than disputable, or if the infereiux* 
was arbitrary and without rea-^onnble connection Avith the premises on 
vriiich it was predicated, a more serious question would arise. Rut 
such i>t not the ctise. • • • Xhe act is not unconslitiitiomil on thi*^ 
ground. 

C. It is still furtlier contended that the act, particularly the becond 
station thereof, is repugunnt to the provisions of paragraph 17, sec- 
tion 7, art. 3, of the ct>nstitution of the State (Civ. Code 181>ri, sec. 
ri770), whei-ein it is provided that " no law or section of the Code shall 
be umen<led or repealed by mere refen*n(v to it-^ title, or to the luimber 
of the section of tne Code, but the amending or iT|M*aliug act shall dis- 
tinctly describe the law to l>e amended or re|)enlcd, as well as tlie alter- 
ation to l>e nuide." It is said that the provisions of the act of 190;'* 
are in direct conflict M-ith section 10^:t of the Penal Code <if 180.1, 
which iirovides (hat *'on (he trial of all criminal ea^-o the jury shall 
\m the judge:* of the law and lh»* facts, and shall give a general verdict 
of ^ guilty ^ or * not guilty f that the act neo'vsarily worIc< a repeal 
of this section as to the class of pif>secutiou^« within it'-i)urview: and 
that no refeivnce Ls made to lliat section of the C"de. The particular 
point of eoiiflict lH»tween the s<»ctit>u anil the act urgi'd is that the lat- 
ter provides wliat evidence will raise a pre^tmiption of guilt, whereav 
tinoor the nrovisions of the section of the Cotje (he jury are the sole 
jntfges* of tne facts and of their probative value. What has lK»en said 
]ii the preceding divii^ion of this opinion substantiallv decides this 
ol ' The act of l!»0;t is not in conflict with and do<K. not rein-al 

lit li of the Cfnle quoted a!M>ve. I'pon the whole cast* that sec- 

tion IS still the law, construed as it has litM'etoftuv Ix'en by thi^ court. 
The two Tuw-, lire to bc construed ui liaiuMiuy. The e^tablikS-VwttiKwV ^>^ 




216 



BITLLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF UVBOIL 



1(*;;is]ii(ioii of ii rule of presumptive intent from acts doiu» in carrying 
oiil lluit hitiMil does not violate tho const itutionarprovi^^ions lust nion- 
tioiiL'il uIkjvc 



KMPI-OVKRft' LlABlUTV — RaILROAD CoMPAMKS — PoWERS OV FeDCRAL 

(tOVERN'MKNT — iMT-RS-rATK CoMMKRCR — CoSSTITlTIONALITY OF STAT- 

VTK — llou-arti /'. IVluoii* Ccntnd Itnilroad Company; Brookn i\ 
Sonthern Parifiv Cofixpnny^ Supreme Court of the f'nittd Sttitrs^Xrw, 
;ilO^ a^^, Ovtobcr Tcrruy W07,—Th^^ casi's were befoio the Supremo 
Court on appeal from the Ignited iStalcs rirouil ronrt for the western 
ilistiiet of Tennessee (st>e Bulletin No. ilS, p, 192] and for the western 
distriet of Kenlneky (i^w Hulletin No. fi8, p. Iftrt], resi^ectively, tho 
Federal eiii|>!oyers' liidnlily law (if ll>n(> having hiwn in ImjIIi instances 
derhuvd iincttn^-titiiliorial. The employees in both instances were 
firemen employed on locomotiveH en^iged in moving interstate eoni- 
niiTn* train-, and on judgment again'^t the plaintiffs apfwals were 
lakt-n. the eases being argueil not tmly by (he attorneys of tln^ parlies 
in interest, but also by the Attorney-(ieneral of the United States, 
(he two cases l>eing rombine4| and heard as one. The faets hiv 
innnaterial, as the decision turned entirely on the question of the 
eonstitutionality of the law, which was deeidcd in tho negative, by 
a divided court. On aecoimt of the importance of the cases, both 
the opinion of the cotir( and the prin<i|>al part of the dissendny: 
opinion aiv repro<lneed, as well as the text of the law itself. 

.Fudge \\'hile, who announced llie opinion of the court, after a 
statement of the history of the cases, sai»l: 

IJefori' coming to consider the contentions concerning tho constitu- 
tionaltv of the aft,(") we n*»tiri» (vrtaiti sugjjestions which nroc»H*d 
upon (lie a*^sumption that they may concern the issue for ilecision. It 

'(.'UArTKB ;t07:^ An net rrlutlan; to UiibMIty of eonuuon enrrlcM*:* Ui ttip District 
Iff <*tiliiiiil)lii mill T<M*rltiirl('H nuil roininoii rnri'U'i'H i'liKiivctl In miniiicirc )w 
twwii (be Slaten auU beHvi.'L'n tliu Statw mni ffirclKU iiiitloii« to xhv\v I'lii- 
ploypcs, 

Jir it vHuctid hu the Senate OwJ fioute of /?c/;rc«cnl<ifiiT« of thr Cnitcd 
HtfUrs uf Amn'lvti in Cunffn** ai*gi$tt?iUuI, Tlmt vwty roiiinmn nin*li*r tnitmcitl 
hi \viu\v. *<r rimuiu'rii' In llie IHstrU-l of ('ithinihin, or tn i\uy Torrltory of iho 
t'nltoi! Slnti»K, or iM'twrrn tho si'vonil Stiitcx. or tH'twcrii any Ti-rrlt^rj' tind iin- 
otbt'i', itr bt'hvwii any TorrU'Ty nr IVrrlliirlcH nml iin> Mtul*^ nr Htato*. nr tlif 
tHwli'lct nf rnhiiiibin. or witli forclu'ii iiiiUoim. or hflwriMi liii* FHHri'U'l **f Tn- 
liiiiililii mill niiy Stiitr or Stnfos or forolpi nailoi)^, ttliiill l>o ttnliln to nny of Ut 
i*ui|>loyo4'M, or, ill (1)1* CHKO of IjIk iloiith, tn U\** ikthoiuiI ri'|>r4'><i*M(j(llvu for llic 
iM'Dotlt uf iilM w-hlovv luu] < ttlhUvu. If tiwy : If iio)o\ 1h4Mi for lilii jitiri'iits; If notice 
tlirn for litH iH'Xl uf kiu iU!|H.>ti(U>iit tiiK>ii biui, for nil ilutiinuoH which luay re^ilt 
fmni tlio iicKUe*Mirt» of nny of tl« utflrcrH, ni:«'ii(». or i'ni|'lt»ycN'H, or by n^Kr>ii 4»f 
any ilcfiit or liiHiiflltlfiicy due to lt« lu-ylltfeoco In JtH rnrn, nuKUie*. niiiilltWHT'*', 
iiiiii hlitrry, Irnrk, roadlutl. wnys or \vovk». 

Si I. :;. That In iiM av'tl«'iiH licnMiftor bruiiKht «i;ittn»»t any niiuiaoii rwrrU'rn 

(ii n't'uvcr ■' i-riMniuI injiirlt-H tn an L»tin>lttyty\ or whcT" -■■■■i' t. .(...!»»« 

/>Mif' /V'^i;]'> :>. lilt* tjicl (lull tlir I'lofitnyoi* utiiy hm < f 

iyintrilmt**! j.i.'I nol bar a n \\\\\ svli»!i'»! Ills oniM 1- 



is said that thp ^tsrntr h^nr-'^hinTfV rrffm^c -rtir- T»»5w<<r r*f Ci»i 



I 






to <:iiuse < 
a commoi 

t*r n mat I 

ri 
n 

SUItJf'i'l If 

niU^ of I 
he nnknov. 

h< 
U 

o— ' t 
ha 



iriadictimi atMi i 

. MP dveilsng- vitluji 

.^ ., all vfao cbMse to m^.^. .<. .. 

►n carrier, «anop tbow irW> ?so flo inll 

Mdi Oir 



tW^i^XMlW 



". ^-'ii 1 1 



in n fii 



V, smor 
AK serv.i 
I in ■ ntsp V 

4X1QUIIUU carpPTs in a • 

cl ' ' T it is iosi^ira lii 

|ii .*■* it impnqpfi tV- 

up i 

tllr -. 

on the part of ihr sprvant by allowing^ rpcorpTT, altboocrii be mar hane 
b*n-ri ni-glipi'nt. 

But, without even for the sake of ai^grnroent wmcrdlng the 
ness of the^ ^ugge^io^s. ve at otkoe dismiss tbeni fnmi coosidenUii 
as conr«*niiiie' nierely tho expediency of tbe act and not the 
C' !iaoi it. We sar this *dnce. in le>tinir ihr f 

al t. we mnat ronfine ourselves to the power t 

iiuiv iKil ixiiisi*ier ■ !'*h it is stippoaad will ariae frum ii*e exe- 

cution of the law. : they be real or imaginary. 

fr^<^' ^vAjt ^tlrhf uTmI thi]f i-f ihe emptojrr van rroas in romparicwiu 1*ut tin* daxn- 
flL r> Jaty In tvofwrtion to tlie amooxst of nf«Usipti^'e 

til All ijoeatfflBS of D«eiiseDce aad cmitribuioo' 

SfiT. :i. T iirfict of em[>1oTi]wnt. tnsnranre. ivllef. benrflt. or ln< 

nlf ' ■ • i ' ' ' . or ott befaalf of any efiu' 

{«• f. lieneilt, or indemnitT n 

f-ii' '" .I'.f"..— to any a< ' ■» 

r» ;ich cmpl- r, 

A V conuuon *- 

ft y set off T her* in tiny sum i( ha« i ! Ittvrnnl nny such insiir- 

O'l benofiT, or iiuloiimlty ttwit may h , \n\U\ to tho Injureil mu 

fUoyii*. of in I'm** i»f his dnilh to hi« ikt^'iijiI rci»n.'*>*'utiitivo, 

8Rr. 4. Thnt no nctinn kIuiII Iii> niiilntniiifHl nmlpr thl:* nrt nn1i>«cs cii[uni«ni< 
yf]'- ' , ■ . r ■ .hmI 

nil tho tliity of common 
«-.■ - ••« .'.. .1 . ..ii'inyivM tiiul*>r tho fcifoiy- 

01 liiinilrttl Mini niiit'l y-tlmt*. ns nuiriuUHl 





111- I 



A I 



si\. r.iHl M.ir.h f^s uml, ii1u(*t«vq 



. Jtuw 11. lOOtl. 



BULLKTIN OF THE UVHEAV OF UiDUU. 



All the uiiestioiih which urine concerii the nature and extent of the 
IR»W4*r of Coup:reKs to r<'|fiiIiito foniiiKUTe. Thnt suhjinrt haa l)ecn so 
oftt»ii hero ronsidpFotl !inrl hits hoi»n so fully elahornletl in ivrerit <k»- 
cLsioits, two of which uro hoUmI in the iimr;^'iii.('') thut we content onr- 
8elvos*, for the [turposeia of ihiN <*«se, Aviih ivpnuin;; Iho hrouti defini- 
tion of the commerce pt»wcr as rxpoiin<lc(l hy Mr. Chief Justice Mar- 
shiill in (lil^hons r. Opdcn, I> Wlient. I, I0r», \vh»Tr he siiid : 

"We are now nrrived nl the in(juiry. What is this power? It is 
the power to re^uhite; that is, to prcs^TilM* the rule hy which com- 
merce is to 1)0 p)verned. This power, like all olhers vested in Con- 
gn*ss, is con^ph'te iit itself, may Ih- exi'reis**d to its utmost extent, niul 
ncknowled^^es no liniitalioiiH other than are pix*scril»ed in the Con^^ti- 
tution. * * * If, «s has alwiiys lx*en uiiderstowl, tlic sovorei^nty 
of Congress, though limited to Rpecilie<l ohjerts. is plenary as to those 
objects, iho power over conunerce with foreign nations, and nnjonr* 
the S4»\end .States, i.s vested in Congr-ess as ahsohitely as it wouhl be 
in a single governnH*n(« having in II.n e<Mi.s(ltution thi* haine restrictions 
on tlie exerciw^ of the ix>wer an atv foinid in the C*aastitutiou of the 
ITnited States," 

Acee|)tiug. as we now do an<l us has always Invn done, this (•i»mpi'e- 
hen&ive statement of the j>ower of C'onfrre?^N, we i\\^) adopt and reil 
erntu tJie |>erspicuouH statement niatle ui tlie same cbhc ( P* 1J)^)» uf 
thos<^> matters <if State control which are not embntceit in the gruDt of 
nnthority to Congress to regulate ifjinmerce; 

*' It is not inteniled to sav timl these word*- t^omprehend lliat 
niercc, which is completely internal, wliidi is carried ot» bi'lween 
and man in a Slate, or l»et\>een ilitferenl parts of the sjime State, 
which does not extend t(» or nll'ect other Stales. Such a power would 
Im inconvenient and is certainly unneeessary. Comprehensive as the 
word * uinung ' is, it may very pn*perly Ik* ivMtricted to tliat conuuercc 
which cnnc<»rns more States than one. ♦ • » '|'in, genius and 
char«<icr of the whol<» (i(»vernment wem to lx\ that its ncti'm in to lie 
applied to all the external conc^Tns of the Nation, and to those inter- 
nal concerns wliicli atTin*! Che Staler giMiendly : but not to lhosi« which 
are complctelv within a pailiculnr State, which ilo not affect other 
States, and with wjiicli it is n<it necessary to interfere, for the pui'po-se 
of executing some of the general p<»wers t>f the (fovermnent.*' 

We tliink the onlei'iy discussion of the qiiestittri imiy Iwst Im* uwi by 
disposing of the alfirniative [)ropositionv- relied on to eslablisli tliat the 
Htatule conJlicts with the Constitution. 

In the lirst place, it is asserted that theiv is a total want of poxrer in 
Congress in any conceivuble aspect to i-egidate the subject with which 
the act deals. In the sec<»nd place it is iiisisted the act is void, eve 
altliough it be conceded, f(»r the sjdie of argument, that some pha 
of the ' ^Nith whicli it is couccrnetl nuiy be within the i 

(\«igi' Hsi» the act is conHned not to such phases, hu -; 

contrt»l o\er many things not in any event within the power to ix^jn- 
bite comment. 

While it may be, if we Indulgi^d, for the sake of argument^ in the 
hypothesis of limited power ujxin which the second i>ri»positioM rost? 
it woidd result that a considei'nt ion of the fir>t proposition vonid 



),uf 

Dtof J 

, and 




DECIBtON'6 or COrRTS ArFECTlXG lABOB. 



> 




^ 



iinTjort*<^nrT Iv-fHus^* the act woitJJ be foiTDcI to !*e repugnant to II 
!'■ IK* emhrariii^ p^oviMon^> liev as^unuHl and 

i\ - iv we do not think we a^ at li • at'oiil dwi 

ing vrhethrr, in nny pos^ihle a^^pect, llwr swUjw^ to which the act 
hiiets hs within the |xj\ver of Congnptis. W'k say thLs for if il tir that 
from the naturo of the stibjeot no priwer wliaiever over the same can, 
nnder any conceivable ci^c^!nl>tt^n(x»^. lie possessed by Congre;^ wo 
oiigbt to so d<M:l«rc, an<I not by an attempt to c^mceire the iucoijceiv- 
ii^' -e the exi?ttniee of ^mie authority, thits ii may be* nusk'ar" 

iii: ;i'^s and ^ivin^ rise to ftiluiv rotaeution. 

i. The pntpo^ition that iIktc [^ an nlx^hite want of power iu Coi 
toeimct the statute is Imstnl oti tlie assuiiipiion that as the 
la holeiy addressed to the regulation of the relations of the em]^ 
to thosiC whom ho employs anil the relation of tho.-* employed bjr 
ain4>u£ tliem>«»lves, it deals with fcubjects whit4i Can not nnder any 
cii ^ wime within llie i«>wer conferred ui>on Congress lo 

J.i; HTce. 

A^ it U patejit tli«t the net doe^ tvpdatr i' ' ion of rnasti-r an 

servant in the ca^es to which it applies, it i- .w, that the act 

Ifcvorii] the anihority of (\ni*.'r\-- if the proj>oMtion just state*! Ut 
well fontided. Hut we ninv not lest the pow^r of Coi^^rres?^ to n'*j~(- 
late commerce solely by al»stractly considering tlie pariicnlar sn' 
lo which a regulation relate^, irrespective of whether the regidamni 
ill tfjiicslion is orjc of interstate commerce. (>n the contrary, the le^ 
of p«>wer i.H not uierely the matter ivirulated, but whether the rr>j i- 
lalion is directly one of inletstaie couiuuTce, nr is embruood uiiM!»i 
ll*e grant **t>nf*Tn*d on Congress to n^-e all lawful means ■ 
and appropriate to the execution of the power to ivgidnte *- 
We think the uns<:)undtie>o» of tlu' contention, that bei'auso ihe aet 
regulates the relation of master and servant, it is unconstitutional, 
bf^u^c under no ciixnimslances and to no extent can the regulation 
of such subject l»e within the grant of authority to regulate com- 
merce, is dcmoiivtrabie. We say this lMi*ause we fail to jH^rceive any 
jir*l n-H;^n for holiling that Congress is without power to regulatt* 
the ivlation of master and ^^rvant, to the extent that re^dations 
adopte<l by Congrr.-s on dial subject arx* solely coniined to interstate 
commerce, and therefore are within the grant to ivgidate that com- 
meree or within the authority given to use all means appropriate 
to the exercise of tlie powers conrerretl. To illuslnite: Take the case 
of an interstate railway train, that is, a train moving in interstate 
ct> . and the regulation of whieh lhert»fore is, in the nature 

III n ivjritlution of >uch ronuueiw. It can not be sai<l that 

I- '<**l by Congress as to such train when so 

ei u icne deals with the relation of the master 

to the servaiits operating such train or the relations of the servants 
engageil in such operation bi»lwtvn thenisehx% that it is not a regu- 
Lition of interstate commerce. Tliis must be, since to admit the 
fliilhority to refrulate such train, and yet to say that all i-egidatioiui 
which deal with the relation of nmster and servaiUs engaged in itd 
<»] ' *tre invalid for want of power woidtl be but to concede the 

\" : then to denv it. tir at all events to reit»gnixe the i>ower antl 

y. <I*T it iiM- ■ ■. 

■ of the ; just stnte<l we might well pass fvoiu t 

coauderatJon of flit" subjtrt We add, however. XUaV v;^i VVvVCvVl 



'^ ■^■■■■'■=f^- 




220 



BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAr OF LABOR. 



error of the proposition is shown by previous dwisions of this court. 
Thus thr wiml iif itowcr in a Stiiti' lo intorforp witli itii intersditc 
conimorce train, if tlu'roby it direct biirdiMi is imposed upon inter>itiitc 
conmuTce, is settled Im'voikI question. (Mississijiju K. K. Co. r. Illi- 
nois Cent. R. R., 20:5 f\ K 335, 343, and causes cited; Atlantic Coast 
Line R, R. i\ \Mun-ton et al.. Railroad Coninjissioncrs, 207 U. S. 
— ['28 Snp. Ct, 121 1.) And decisions cite<l in the margin. (") holding 
that State statutes \vlii(;h regidated tlie ixdatiou of uui>ler and -servant 
were npplirnhle to thosi* actually eii^ap^l in an (UH-ralion of inler.-latc 
ec»mnien*e, I>e(uuse the Stul<' power existed until Congress acted, liy 
nect'ssaiy iniplieation, refute the contention Ihut a regulation of tim 
suhjwt, confined to interstate commerce, when adopted by Congress 
woulil be necessarily void iK'cauHe the I'egulation of the rehitiim of 
master and servant was, however intimately connected with inter- 
slate eonnnerce, beyond the power of Congress, Ami a like conclu- 
sion also persuasively results from previous rulings of tlus court con- 
cerning tne act of Congress, known as the Safety Appliance Act. 
(Jolin::on r. Southern racific Co., U»0 IL S. 1 | Bulletin No. ."id, p. 
:U»:5] : Schlennuer *•. HulTalo. Hm^Iiester, etc., Ry./2(»5 lb., 1 IBulletm 
No. 71, p. 38.)].) 

"2. But it is nrgned, even though it be conceded thai tlie nower of 
Congress may lx» exercised ns to the relation of master ana servant 
in mattei's of inteiNtute commerce, that pt)wer can not be lawfully ex- 
teiuled so as to include the regulnli(»n of the rehition of master and 
servant, or of servunb^ among thenisidves, as to tbiuj^s which are not 
interstate commerce. From tbis it is insisted the repugnancy of tljc 
net to tlie Coruitution is clearly shown, as the fiire of the net makes 
it certain tlial the power which it asserts exteiuls not only lo the rela- 
tion <*f ni;istcr antl servant and servants among tlu-nisflves as to 
things which are wholly interstate commerce, Intt eml>races those 
relations ns to nuitters and things domestic in their character and 
which do not <'ome witliin the authority of Congress. To test this 
proposition iv<)uires us to consider tlie text of the act. 

r^rom tlie first section it iscerlaii) that the ae( extends to every indi- 
vidind or corporation who nuiy engage in inteiNtato rommercr ns n 
common carrier. Its all-emlu'acin" words leave no rooni for luiy 
other <*<nie]usion. It tnay incluile, lor example, steam raili-oads, tele- 
prapb lines, telepbone lines, the express business, ve^istds of every 
kind, whether steam or sail, ferries, bridges, wagon lines, carriages, 
trolley lines, etc. Now, the rule wbich the statute establishes for the 
pnr]>f»s<' iif dctciinining Avhcther all the subjects to whicli it relates 
are to be conlrtilled b}' its provisions is that any one who conducts 
such business Im' a " iMiumiou carrier engaged in trade or commerce in 
tlie District of <\ilunibia. <»r in any Territory of the United St^Uivs, 
or between the several States,'* etc. 'I'biit is, tlie siil>jects stated all 
come within the statute when the individual or corporation is a com- 
mon carrier who engag(»s in trade or commerce U'twecn the Slates, 
vie. From this it follows that the statute deals with all the cnncenis 
of the individuals or cor|>oratioim to which it relativ*i if they engagii 
ns common carriern in trade or counuerce between the States, etc.» and 



V(tr»: -MlijnejifH.IiH, flc. U>. <'o. e. H 



h,i 



1 .'T. I-.*: IK 



PKCISIOXS OF COURTS AFFECTtNG LABOR, 



221 



><!o^niot confint» it^lf to the inteivtato comnunve Ixisiiit-ss which may 
be done by such persons. Stnted in anothor form, the statute is acf- 
tlrpsM'd to the individnnls or eorporrtlion;^ who arc engrngod in inter- 
state ctunnuToe and is not confined solely to i*e^ulntin^ tlie intoistatc 
commerce biisineT^s wliieh sneh persons may do — thiit is, it rej^idatcs 
the persons b(»cHnse (hey engay;*' in interstate commerce and does not 
alone regidate the business of interstate commerce. 

And the cnnchision thus stated, wliich flows from the text of the act 
conceminpr the individuals or corporations to which it is made lo 
apply, is further demonstrated by a consideration of the text of the 
S'-tatule delininc^ the st*rvants to wiiuni it ndntas. 

Thus tlie liability of a comnion currier is declared to be in favor of 
** any of its employees/* As the word *' any " is unqualified, it fol- 
lows that lial>ility to the servant is coextensive with the business done 
by the employers whom the statute embraces; that is, it is in favor of 
any of the employees of all carriers who engage in interstate com- 
merce. This also is the rule as to the one who olher\YisG would be 
a fellow -servant, by wliose negligence the injury or death may have 
lieen occasioned, since it is provided that the right to recover on the 
part of any sc»rvaut will exist, although the injury for which the car- 
rier is to be held resulted from "the negligence of any of its officers, 
Blunts or employees." 

The act then Inung addressed to all common carriers engaged in in- 
terstate commerce, aiul imposing a liability ujH)n them m favor of 
any of their employees, without qualification or restriction as to the 
business in whicn the carriers or their employees may be engagetl at 
the time of the injury, of necessity includes subjects wholly outside 
of the ]H>wer of Congress to I'egulate commerce. Without stopping 
to consiiler the numerous instances where although a common carrier 
ip engaged in interstate commerce such carrier amy in the nature of 
things al.--o tmnsact business not interstate conunerce, although such 
localbusiness may indiiTctly be related to interstate commerce, a few 
illustrations showing the operation of the statute as to matters wholly 
indepcn<lent of interstate cf)nnncrce will serve to miike clear the ex- 
iifiA of the power which is exerted by the statute. Take a railroad 
engagtHl in interstate commerce, having a purely local branch oper- 
ated wholly within a State. Take again the same road liaving shops 
for repairs, and it may be for const ruction work, as well as a large ac- 
counting and clerical h^nv, and having, it may be, storage elevators and 
varehour<vs, not to suggt^sl besides the possibility of its being engagetl 
in otijer independent enterprises. Take a telegraph company en- 
gaged in the transmission oi interstate and local mes-sages. Take an 
«*xpress owipany eng:iged in local as well as in interstate business. 
TaKc a trolly line moving wholly within a State as to a large part of 
its business and 3'et as lo the remainder crossing the State line. 

As the act thus includes many subjects wholly beyond the power 
to regulate conunerce and depends for its sanction upon that author- 
ity, it results that the act is repugnant to the Constitution, and can 
not be enfoived iml€?ss there be merit in the propositions advance<l 
lo filiow that the statute may be saved. 

On the one hand, winle concetlinp that tlie net deals with all com- 
mon rnrriers who arc engaged in mterstate conunerce Ix'cause Ihey 
jD ' oi'l mdeoil, whih moreover conceding V\\at V\\Vi ^cV -^^a 

-^_^ fSiHL 74~4X< J5 



BtnJLXTIK OF THE BUITEAr OF UlBOB. 



oin^InAlTy drnwii for the pui-p*.*.*** of rt^Hcliino; n]\ llir employees of 
railniHils oii«;apfi'(l in iiil^^rslate fonmu^riM' lt» \\ hit-h it is >-aiii tin* ncl in 
iti^ ortginHi fonii nloin* tvlatod, it is yt't insisto*^ (ItNt tlu* net is -w-itliin 
thr |M>n**r of i'mx^ivss. Ik'ouwc* one uho on^njc^s iit iiiterMrtlv ooiii- 
nu*n*e tlion-by (x>nii»s uimIit tlip pimrr of CoiipiTss as t<» till his busi- 
ness iiTitl miiy not (v>inplutti of iitiy reirulntion which Congrt*ss may 
chouse to ndont. Those contentions nre thus pnramed np in the brief 
fiknl t«i behalf of the Government: 

' " It is the ctrrrtrr and not its emplovco& that Iho act seekn to ref- 
late, and the carrier is snlijeii 1<» suc)i re^hdifMis beraiiM^ it »« co- 
gufzi^l in iiUotstate c*»mnu'rct\ 

" By t^»p^ri^g• in interstate commence the carrier chooses to mihject 
itself and its Intsiness to the contnil of Ouijjress, and can not b«i 
Ijeard to complain of snch iv^rulation^. 

" * * * It \h suhmiucd ihat Concrc'^^' can make h common 
carrier ciiga^^^l in intei'stnte commerce liaole to ant/ one for its nejrli- 
gence who is affected by it; and if it cni» do llinl, necessarily it can 
make such cjirrier liable to all of its employee^." 

On the other Imnd^ the sume brief insists llint tJwsc ]U*opositions 
aiv irrelevant, liecnnse the statute mny be inteqireted so as to confine 
its operation Avholly to iiitcrstnte fcinuncrce or to mcnns nppropriato 
to the re*jnlntion of ihnt subjwt, and hence i*elieve.s fmin the necessity 
of <lecidin^ whotlier, if the statute roiild not l)e so conslrue<l, it would 
Ik* constitutional. In Ihe oi'id disctission at b«r tliLs latter vi^w was 
earnestly insisted upcai by the Attorney-Creneral. Assumi i» 

do, that tlie pro])ositions are intended to be alti'mative, >vc -. - ^- d 
iho order in whu'h they are pi'essed in argument, and thei-i'fon* pasi 
for a monient the consideration of the proposition (hot the tstatuto 
is constitutional, thoiirjh it includes all the Kiibject« which we have 
found it to ern)>race, in <irder to weijrh the contention that it i* wis* 
eeptible on its face of a different menningr fr<ini that which we hove 
j;i\eu it, or that such result ciin be accNunplished by the applieatinn 
of llje niles of inler])retation which are relie«l upon. 

So far as tbr fat'c of the statute' is conn-rnrd, the urpnnont is ihis, 
that because the statute wavs carriers enpifct'd in commerce between 
the Stales, etc, therefore (Tie a<i should Iw interpret<v] as lh>in^ ex- 
clusivelv applicable to tlie interstate conunerce husine-sH and lume 
other of such currici^, and that the words '* any employee'*' as found 
in the statute should be held to mean any employee when snob em- 
ployee is en^a;ct*ii only in inlerstiite counuerct\ Hut lbi« would 
re<|uire us to write into the statute M'ords of limitatitin i; >u 

not found in it. Hut if we could bring^ ourselve-; to m< > .• 

ute by \\ritinj^ in the wol-ds sugye^ted tin* ii'sult Avould 
tlie o])eration of the act as to tlu* District rtf Pi.Tnt«.l.i i 
torics. We fsay this lx*<.*auso imm<'diately i 
thf act eonceminfj (xirriers en :^ ' ' •■ 
and Territories is a clause rualii 

r'wv * in lln' 1 ' 

any 1 . , " If f ■ 

JtJoft III svnli Ternl^irics, i 

stfifv c ,1% nrv iiv the act ul . 

playpen^ as ihvrcln deluied, Tlie \cgis\aii\« \H>W(jt ol ^:v«itg^i^ at«. 



i 



\h' io restrict 

Till till' Ti'm- 



DBCISiON8 OF COI 



•TINO LABOR. 



298 



Hkc ^' t of CoIimibiH and the Territorifs Ix-iim plenary :irnl not 

dei . uj>oii the iiitri'stato conuiu'.rce clause, it iT^uIt;^ tlint the 

provi?vi<iu as to tho District of Cohirnhia and the* Territories, if stsmd- 
lug aloiir, could not W quoiionod. Thus it would come to pas.s if 
wt ooukl hrinjf ourselves to modify the statute hy writing in the 
wonls suggested; that is, hy causing the net to read ** any employw? 
wh«n Mtgigwl in interstate conunerce,'' we would n?strict the net ts 
to the District of Columbia and the Territories, and thus dcMroy it 
in lui iniptiriaut partiridnr. To write into the act the qualifying^ 
■tenls therefore, would l>e imt adding to its provisions in order to 
IBre it in one aspect, and thereby lo des(r<ty it in nnolher; tlin( is, lo 
derdtroy in order to save and to save in ortler to destro3\ 

The principles of construction invoked are undoubt*yl, but niv in- 
■ ppJicahle. Of c^^urse, if it can be lawfully done, our duty is to eon- 
«(nie Che (statute so as to render it constitutionnl. But this doe? not 
imply, if the text of an act is unambiguous, that it may \yo rewritten 
to ncM'omplisli (hut purpose. EipuiUy clear is it, jronendly spfalangr, 
tiiat wliere a statute contaias provisions which are constitutional and 
NHb^rs which an* not, effect may be i^iven to the le^al provisions by 
i^baratinfr them from the ille/jral. Uut this applies only to a case 
wbere the provisions are separable and not dependent one upon the 
other, and does not Fuupoil the contention that that which is indivis- 
ible may be divided. Moi'eover, even in a c^ne where legal provisions 
may Ins serened from those which are illepsd, in order to save the rule 
«pplic<i only wheix* it is plain that C'oiigros would have enacted the 
it^ ' with the unconstitutional jjrovisions eliminato<l. All thoi^e 

?r; lilt- so clearly st»ltled a< not to be open to controversy. 

1: r n full review of the authorities, ivstated and re- 

ap^ L case. (lllinoLs Central Kaihxmd r. McKcndrtM% 

SOa L. J^. M4, ami authorities? there cited.) 

As the act Iw^fore us l>y its terms rehiles to every common carrier 
cufngeil in interstate commerce and to any of the employees of every 
sorti carrier, thereby regulating ovei*y relation of a carrier engaged in 
iniei'state commerce with its s<»i*vants and of such servants among 
themselves, we are unable to say that the statute would have Ijeen 
ena4>te<t had itn prt»vi^ions been restricted to the limited relations of 
that cJiarncler wliicli it was within the powrr of Congress to regulate. 
On this subject the opinion in the Trade-mark cjises, 100 U. S. S2^ 
where an tt<:t of Congivs^ concerniu^ trade-marks was held to l»e uu- 
conA'titutional, becau.se too broad in its scope, is pertinent and instruc- 
tire. The *H:uu't said (p. 00) : 

*^ If wo sliould, in the case lw>foi*e us, nndertako to mnke by judicial 
con-struc(ion a law which Congress did not make, it is quite probable 
wi- * * ' '!(» what^ if the matter were now In-fore that l»c>dv, it would 
be ;ig to do, namclv. make a trade-nuirk law which is oidv 

|Kiruai ilk it.s oiMTHtion, and which would omiplicate tlie rights whidi 
parties wt»uld hold, in S4ime instances untler tue act of Congress aud 
lu others under State law. Cooley Con«t. Lim. 178, 179; Couunon- 
wr;i)tlj ■ . Tliti-ldugH, Ti Cray (Mass.) 4S2." 

^ only to con.sider the contention which we have pre- 

. i-.u-. > 'ju i. that the act is constitutional, although it embraces sub- 

jectfi not within the power of Congress to regulate cominerct*. U'cau^c 
ai.< ' ' ■ ' >ov(H* tlierobv s\a\,\ 



224 



BULLKTIN OF XUK BUREAU OF LABUB. 



osition is to rcfiito it. It asflumps thnt bocanso one rngngps in inter- 
stHte roniiiKMte hi' thoroby endows Ctmjpi'ss with powrr not dolegjited 
to it \ty the Constitution, in other words, with the right to legislate 
concrniin;; ninttrrs of imiitIv Stnle roneeni. It rests upon tlie eon- 
coi>tioM tlmt the ConhtUiition destroyed tliat fretMlom of conuueroou 
which it was its purpose to preserve, sinct* it treats the right to engagel 
ill iuterstuto eonnnerce as u privilege wliieh run not Ih« uvuihMl of ex- 
cept upon such condilious as Concre.ss may preHerihe, even although 
the ct»nditi<»ns woultl Ik* titJierwise Ijeyond the power of (^tnti^ress. It 
is apjiareiit tlmt if the contention were well founded it would extend 
the powrr of (Vin^ress to every eonivivabh' suhjrct, h<tNv<'ver inher- 
ently hieul, would obliterate all the limitations of power in»pos»'d by 
the C<»ustitution, anil wouhl destroy the aulhorily of the iSt.Hti*s as to 
all eoiiceivahle matters whieh from the heginning have been, and must 
continue to Iws under their eonlrol so Uaig as theCoiistitnti<»n enilures. 

4. Reference was nuule to the report of a committee submitted to 
the House i»f Kepl•e.sentati^■es on the coming in of the bill which 
fmidly became the act in »|uestion. We content ourselves on this 
subj^H't witli saying that that ivport, we think, instead of a<lding 
force to the argument (hat the plain terms of the act shouUl he dis- 
regar*le<l, tends to the contrary. And the same observation is appro- 
priate to the reference made to the text of the Safely Appliance Act 
of March 2, lsi»:^, which, it is insisted, furnishes a guide which, if 
followed, would enable ns to disregard the text of tlie net. We say 
this because the face of that act clearlv refutes the argument V>a80a 
npon it. It is tnie that the net, like the one we are considering, is 
uddi'esscii to every comm<»n carrier engaged in interstate conuiiercc, 
bnl this direction is followetl liy provisions expressly limitiiig th« 
scope and effect of the act to interstate comuieive, which are wholly 
FuperihioMs if tlie argument hero nmde concerning the statute l>efore 
us be Humd. 

AVe deem it unnecessary to pa^s upon the merits; of die contentions 
concerning the allegi»d repugnancy of the statute* if regarded aa 
otherwise valid, to the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment 
U) the ('onstitnti<tn, becaus4' the net idassifies togrMher all common 
carriers. Although we deem it tinjiecessary to consider that subject, 
it nuist n*»t be implied that we quest itm the correctness of prcviouH 
decisions noted in the margin, (") wherein Stale statutes were ludd not 
to jje repugnant to the Fourteenth Auiendnicnt, although they classi- 
fied steam railroads in one claj«H for the piirpost* of applying a nilfl 
of master and i^ervant. We further deem it (nine<vssarv to express 
nn opinion concerning the allege*! rej>ugnancy of the statute to the 
Seventh Amendment, because *»f the provision of the act ns to the 
|V)wer of the iury. In saying this, however, we nmst not be con- 
sidered as intinuiling that we tliink the |>rovision in question is 
hus4-eptihle of the construction placed on it in argument, or that if 
it could be so construed it wouhl be conslilu(if»nah 

Concluding, as we do, thnt the statute, wiiilsl it embrace^* subjects 
( within the authority of (\>njffi*ess to repdate commerce, al.-o include 

subjects not within its const itutiomil pt»wer, and thnt the two nre «o 
I interblended in the stntiite that tliey are incapable of H!pttratiim, we 

\t^ Hrrrlck, i:>7 lb. -JIO; ailcago, etc., R, U. r. Von\\\v«^ ATm \\^. "^^Ai. 



DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LADUR, 



225 



»^w!r the opinion that, tho roiirts Inflow riglitly held the slaUiU' lo 
l*e xvpiignant to the Constitution anU nonenforcible; and the judg- 
in<»nts below are, therefore, affirmed. 
Mr. Justice Da^' concurs in this opinion. 



Mr. Justice Pccklmni concurring. 

I concur in the result of the foregoing opinion* but I am not pre- 
pared to agree M'ith all that is stated as to the power of Congress 
lo legislate upon the subject of the. relations between master and 
f=ervant, 

I concur in the proposition, that as to traffic or other matters within 
tlie State, the act i.s unconstitutiuiuil, and it can not be :>cparated from 
that part which is rlnimod to Iw valid as relalin^; to interstate com- 
merce. As that is all that is necessary to decide in this case, I place 
my concurrence upon that part of the opinion which decide^ if. 

I am authorized to state that the Chief Justice and Mr. Justice 
Brewer agree in this vie^v. 



!Mr. Justice Moody dis.senting. 

I nm unable to agree in the judgment of the Court, Under ordi- 
nary circumstances, where the juilgmcnl rests exclusively, as it doeiS 
here, upon a mere interpretation of the words of a law, which may 
bo readily changed by the lawmaking branches of the GovernmeDt, 
if they be so minded, a dilTerencc of opinion may well bt» left without 
e3q>ression. But where the judgment is a judicial condemnation of 
an act of a coordinate branch of our Government it is so grave a 
step that no meml>er of the Court can esca]>e his own responsibility, 
or r>e justified in stippressing his own views, if unhappilv they have 
not found expression in those of his associates. Moved by (his con- 
sideration, and solicitous to maintain what ^eems to mo the lawful 
powers of the nation, I have no doubt of my duty to disclose fully 
the opinions which, to my regret, differ in some respects fi'om those 
of some of my brethren. 

The oidy question which these cases presents is the constitutionality 
of the Employers* Liability Act, which, briefly stated, provides a 
remedy for the injury or death of the employees of teiTitorial, inter- 
state and foreign common carriers, caused by the ncjirligence of the 
carrier. The defendants were both interstate earners, and these 
actions were brought to recover for the deaths of their employees 
who, at the time, were engaged in interstate transportation. The 
jtidgment of (he Court does not *Ienv that it is within the power of 
ihe Congress to provide a remedy for the injun.' or death of employees 
engnged in the conduct of territorial, uiterstate and foreijrn commerce- 
It rests upon the ground that this statute is unconstitutional, be- 
cauf^**^ it seeks to do more tlian that, and regulates the liability of 
ei' while engaged in inter-tate commerce or in manufacture. 

A^ . fshold T may t^w that I atsn^e that the Congress has not 

the power directly to regulate the purely intoriud commerre of the 
States, and ihnt f mji/I* r-/jwjd that t<> Vh' (he opiiuou ot t\^:T^ \ustsv- 
hcr of the Court. 







■ -■'--'''::;'''''^;\;,':,\h.-.om.ori«i:r,i.-:^ 






,», ... X."'!.: :v ;::ior|H"»-«*''l !.- I...: :..:: .:: j -.7, :be 

■ Ji ft.;MM(o himI foiv:p. c •i:.:..v: v l.. i:.---:r 

^ . .,.\^^ ■-''•'•'' ''' ""' *''*' '''•-'•*•'*•'•-- "^ ••=:..:.- ro^, uhd. 

'^i,i,;,^ i»u\ jHiwiT "Hif'Ti*/*! l»y III*.- C-iiT^it'Jtion 

'/r-':M Kviiii^'. I'vi-ii if til*' a< t i- .;■ .i.-.enurl T.::h a 

v*^ » .. ^:H»:« 1^'** |i*»w<r '»f C''j];;L^r-T-. vot the >ix'cidc 

, »., i .i 1^** roiiiiiioii l;»\v ru!(> ^ov.-rinii^ ih- !\-lationi: 

'„.»' ,. »i^'**>**'' rM-^'i'd lli*r Jf;.'i-ljuiw power or violate 

'?. ...m1 ivivO»iUiin»h-. wlii'ii i*-(ri':i ili;ti j.ow^r. 

■';.,■ .■ (!• »» 1^*'' '"' ' • ""' "I"'" ^** "'^3' "f 1'*^* coiuiiuiiloiial 

^.^ ..,»;i» I iK HH'I :li:ill i-Ofi-i<li'l' all of l]i<rr o'.iieftluHs 
. ' V «;i!J» t l»"^'* '!'''■'* ilj'-/ll. 

' . i,.i'M»i**»* "' ''"* ■'''*!"' "f *^"* ^liilui" f'»r the pVirpo>o of 

' „V.-ilnM H ■••*"li ■ t*» <'oiiii-()l (hut pari of «*0!umerco wliich 

S. " v^^*'* "** * '•**'/-'''* " '""^ -iiKjrrt only to tiie governnuMit 

! ' }i I »t» I"' "I' ri»i"i| |li:ii i)i>' (fpriiiiiff ^va^ll- of Congress 

' / imm^ »'I *'"' I'ltiiiiilioii of iu Mittlioriiy and of the con- 

'^'^^,. ^j^, ii,in Ih'Iim-.m Miiiiiiif'i**'!' aiiionir the Si;iti.s ami with 

'" ' oi* *'"■ "'"' '''"'^ ''""^ niiiiMH-'ire v.iiiiiii the State?? on 

' "' ' 1 i'lii' » itiiiiiriinl . <i!" Mm* I;iw aiv :i ■.!'.: :.^-'^il o:;ly to "coiii- 

!,^,jrt.»'"' "• ''-■•''■ ""■' <"iiiii;-:v'.' " W. i'h- ti-irit-'rio>, with 

' ,'. . rt'ii'l .o.i'.ii?'- ill-- S(:i»i-. ;i:.i vi:ii :v-;-.-:t : » .-.irriorrs 



'-* ^.^'i' i|(ii miili '.I '.I '''.iif'M- I-. «*<|Mivah'i;1 : 1 fw .x.'-.M 
*" '\*l\ii.i I iiiiKi' »•''"'<' '■' l''n it'»ri;il. iri1«'r-*ta[i'. :\:\:\ foivi: 



,o»»'i"' ' ''''III tlic Shit-'- till* l;;w i- ]\,\yn — "vv'.y ■iiloiit. 
iOmI ' oMiii' i.iii'Ki iif lijf jcii'!^ of riMrirrc:'*'," , ■ 'h aro 

ion 
in 
lio 

P- 

< ^' j»,i '••'""' *'''■''' '■' ''■" ''''I'li'l. iril«'r-ta[i'. :\:\:\ fo;vi<^i 

\ '""^ k j|,,i nil. I i'»(i <.l III'- iiif'-riijil ciiniiiu'n.v of tho Stato, is 

'^^^ ^'\\^^ ll'' """'"''■' '*' lii'Ii ' <'X'"Iii-iv('ly internal to tlie 

s -^N' ]^ itni .Jfi'i .11. V '-iliir *liai-ac(«'r nf roinnuTio. was 

•^, ^ ,■ w^^ ,uil--'''' *'" I""""- "f Hie hiw^ DcH's not a ]»ropor 

.">\ ^.v^rttl.t *tf <'"'.;'(' :iri'l llic -lroii*r ])ro>iinipli(»ii tliat it 

^ *^ hI M" I "' '"•'l'"*"'iy 'I''''laiO'I l»y this Court, rc- 

'^ -^ ^'^''^V.UiH'' **'•'' *'' *' ''"' l^'"*''* "'^ ("omiin'rce within its 

i ^v. . -. ^'^m»l III' '■''' '""'' • 'oiiii'TJiic'il all tilt' v.onls of the law, 

*'^'^'^^^iki *»>•' **' ''■ ''''•■"■' *')'lv to that t*oi!imi'r<'o and no 

Mil k^V w|'" '•'''"' 'v •* 'I'''ti' line of di>i^ion. so that one 

i| 4»*»lo. 11 ' ly io ihi*T-t;ito and foroi^GTii commerce, 

I Yfntv I iif/iijL""l «'\flii.-iv('ly in commcrco within tho 

|, nf iiioi:f, iiiv-iii- to jiny niind that this act had 

Slulc curriers. But there is no such 



DECI(510X8 r>P COUBTS AFFF.CTlN<i LABOR, 



S^O' 



X ■,■" ,.,,] fn.st line of divi.sion. Cnrrici-s ofton, and \s-hcrc llicy aro 
J. . usually uie, fl.s a niallcr of faet, riifja^ed WAh in interstate 

ADii foreifjii coinim'ivo over which CVtu<ri'yiHS luLs the nHitrtjl, and 
Snirastatt' coimiih rcf f>v**r \vhirh the StaUvs Iiuvr {\w conlrol. Apjily- 
iDg th^ law imclor consideration to the condition^ Q.t> they acttmlly 
*-xKst, it i?» said that its words aiv so g<'n**rul an4j sv.vuniu^ as to oom- 
prt'heiiJ within iLs beiiofits not only thi* employees or the interstate 
1 ■_'«'d in th*» husiti(*ss of inter-^tate < , hut also the 

( : tlie saine carrior cntjafjed in lite hii intrastate car- 

rijij^e ^s hich it may and iisuallv (hi:-^ <*.iindiirt. (VMuif^el illiistrati'il their 
ar;j:iiiiient by BU^^e,^lin<? that if a carrier doing an inler.-.tate Inisiness 
on tiie I'acirtc shipe aLst» eonductod u lo<;td trolley line wholly alon^ 
the Atlantic sealx>ard within a single State, an eniph»veo on the lood 
Irolley line would, by the terms of this arl» l>c entitled to its benefits. 
If such be the necessary interpi-ctatiiai of the statute jdainly it ex- 
wc(Ls the iK>wer of C'onpe^s, for Con^re<'< certainly has no ri^hl to 
reu-nlate lh».' purely internal comnu'ret* of a State. Nor can the ;it:itnte 
be ^^aved by rejecting that j>art of it which is uncon^^itutionttl lie- 
ipan^ its provisioiL-* are single and inciqKibh' of separation. The 
f%icious part, if such exist, is ho interininij;leil with that which is ^ood 
that it can not be ijlinnnated without ile-st roving the whole structure. 
Whiclt interpretation, then, should be tulopied? That which re- 
^nln tJie law as pivscribin^ the liability uf the caiTier only to thoiM» 
employee's who are en^njjcd in the work of inlerstate and forelg^n 
coinrniTcc. tir that which extends the l>enelits of tlu' law also to tho^» 
< ! 1 in work which lias no relation whntevor to sneh 

(. . -wcring tins question it nuist n(»t U* for^iftitten that. 

if the latter interpretation be adopted, in the opinion or the whole 
Court the act is beyond tlie constilulionaJ power of Con^re.ss, That 
is a consideration of vast imiwi-tance, l»eciuise the Court ha.s never 
exercised the mighty power of ilcclanj\^ the acty of u ccKndinute 
branch of ihti Goveniment voitl except where there is no possible 
and sensible construction of the twi which is consistent with trie fun- 
damental orguiiic law. The presum]ition that other branches of the 
Goverruuent will restrain themselves witliin the s<'ope of their author- 
ity, and the rcBpect whicli is due to th^'in and their a<'ts, admits of 
no i>ther aMilmle from this Court. This is more than a canon o( 
inlerpn-talion, it is a rule of conduct rcKtins u|)iin consideration.s of 
puldic p(tlii y, and, in the exercise of the delicjile finu'liou of con- 
rUeninin^ the acts of coordinate and equal hranchet? of the Govern- 
Bnenty under the £»an)e obligation to respect the ConMitution as our- 
selves, has been ob-^ervcN.! from the beginning. 

Judge Moody cited h Tuindx^r of cas*»s in support of the rule, and 
continuing, said : 

There is no doul>t that the rule exists, there i;< ro doubt that it is 
wise, and promotes the nuitual ivspecl between the dilTerent branches 
of tlwD Government w hich is so essential to the welfare i>f all, and that 
it pe<|uirc* us, if it is within our power, to pve to the words of the 
statute before ua a meaning which will cfjnhne its provisionH to sub- 
meets within the <xmtrol of Congiess, If two interj)retations are pos- 
Si]d4^ our plain duly in to adopt that which sastaiits the statute as a 
lawful exercise of authority and. not that which coudciunb it its a 
UHurimtioa. 



228 



BUlOJiTlN OF THE BUREAU OF l*ABOn. 



TIk' ar^rmneiit whirh ^-UJ>|>OI•(s a coiihlniPtion of tlip >-latutv wliir.h 
woiiUI iiicliitle witiiiti its provisions intnistnte roniiner«'<t Is readily 
stntt^i. It is sniti that '* ovory romrnon ciirrior *' onpngi?!! in territorini, 
fon.'ig^u, or ijilcrj'tMli' (nulo is nuidt' "liable ti» any of i(s einpIoytTS 
* * * for all damages which may residt from the negli^iuv of 
any of its officers, agents, or eiuployees, or l>y re)ison of any defect^ 
in its iiistrumentalitie.s, and that, an there in no qnalification of or ex- 
ception to the generality of ihe langinige <h*s<Tiptive of llie employees 
or inhtriimentalitie.H, it mnst l)e deemed to inrlude those engaged and 
\\sei\ solely iti jntra^late coiumeree, and «*ven in mannfarlnro, as well 
as those engagetl r.nd used in other roinMierto. Hot I venture to think 
that lliis argiinienl res(s upon too narrow gmnud. It contemplates 
merely tlio words nf the statitte; it shnts ont the light which the Con- 
stitution slieds upon them; it overlooks Ihe significance of Ihe eninii- 
erntion of the kinds of commerce cU'arly witinn the national control 
Miul tho omission of iho commerce beyond that control — nn enumeni- 
tion and omission which characterizes, colors, and restrains every 
word of the statute — tind it neglccls llic pivsumplions iji favor of tho 
validity of the law and of the olx-dience of Congress to ihe commandri 
of the Consiituliou, which can not with propriety Im^ (lisrcgarded by 
tliis Court. Taking into account these missing aids to const rnctiiin, 
it ix'comes (piiie easy, quite rea^jnable. and, in my opinion, <piito 
nocGKHary, to construe the act as conferring its lK?nefits only upon 
employees engaged in some fashion in the cf»mmerce which is enumer- 
ated in it and is inuloubtedly under the control of Congress. Even 
without these guides for discovering the intent of Congress, which (he 
nMif*»rm |>raclice of the Court compels us to use, it is natural to sup- 
pose that, when territorial, interstate, and foreign carriers only aiv 
mentioned and every such carrii-r is declared to ni? liable ^^ to any of 
its employees," only its employees in such connnerce are intended. 
With those guides the conclusiim appeai-s to me iiTPsistible, for they 
ylM)w that if the words, " any of its employees,-' in the context where 
they are used, are capable of moaning nil of tl^o employees upon any 
kind of work, yet tlieir generality should 1m* restramed ko as to in- 
clude only those who are subject to the power of the lawmukinp IkxIv. 
The case of McCulIougli c. Virginia, \7'2 U. S. lO-J, is pr<'ciscly in 
point here. An jicf nf tlie general assembly of Ihe Slate of Virginia 
provided for refunding the State debt by the issue of coupon bonds 
for two-thirds of the total amount of that debt. It was enacted that 
the conpojis should " be receivable at and after maturity for nil taxes, 
debts, dues, and demanils (luo the State." There was at Ihe time of 
llie passage of the refunding act n provision of the constitution of 
Virginia requiring all mIiooI taxes to be paid in cash, and it had been 
held by this Court that the constitutional provision disal)led thft 



N'irgitua legislature from 



iling thai Ihe coupons should 1m» re- 



ceivable for such tuxes. Mc(iahey r. Virginia, 13.1 V. S. 002. The 



I iirovuiing 
^ic(iahey * 
argument amis then miulc IhnI as tn<* slalnte provicling for the r(*cetv- 
ability of the coupons for " all taxes, debts, dues, and demands on thft 
State " wtis in part bcyontl the constitutional power of the legislattire, 
the contract eviden<'e<l by that statute was entirely void. The Court, 
>!pcaking by Mr. Justice Brewer, answeied this argument by saying, 
p. //i': ''' It i^iHtrvs Ihe ditFcrence bet ween tlie statute and (he conlniol, 
Mad cotifutnts the two entirely distinct maUer^ oi couaVvviOJwju w.A 



DKCTSIOXS OF COURTS AFFECTING I_\BOR. 



829 



TolidHy. Tlic .statiilc j)roi*ciles tlie contruct. Its K'opt' and nieaning 
list be deteriniiioil U'foro any iiuo.-lion will arise as to the validity 
of tin* <x»ntriict which it aiitljoi'j/cs. It is t'lcnicntary hiw that every 
etatiito is to bo n*nd \n the light of the Constitution. However broad 
and general its Ian*rnage, it can not be interpreted as extending be- 
yond tliose matters winch it was within tlie constitutional power of 
ih? legislature to reach. It is tlie same rule whicli obtains in the in- 
torjiretution of any private contract between individuals. That, 
whatever may be its words, is always to be construed in the li<<ht of 
the statute: *»f the law then in force; of the circumstances and con- 
ditions of parties. So. although gcnejal language was introduced 
into the statute of li^Tl, it is not to bo read as reacliing to uiattci-s in 
respect to which the le«^Ls!aturc had no constitutional power, but only 
as to those mattei*s witTiin its control. And if there wei-e, as it seems 
there were, certain special taxes and dues which under the existing 
provisions of tlie Slate constitution couhl not be atrected by legisla- 
livu action, the statute is to be read a-i lliough it in terms excluded 
lliom from its operation/' The JauOTuige quoted was not obiter. Tho 
case turned ujHjn the construction of the statute and ix*vei-sed the con- 
struction by the liighest court of the State of its own statute, as well as 
its judgment, that the statute thus eonstrued was incimsistent with tho 
State coiistitution, because "all taxes'' included taxes beyond the 
power of the legislature. I am unable to reconcile the judgment in 
that CHS<> with the conclusion which is reached by the Court in this. 
The reasoning which, in that case, led the Court to construe a statute 
providing that the coupons should l>e receivable for "all taxes" to 
ineaa oJiTy fitr such laxi^ as the legislature had the constitutional 
power to declare payable in such a manner, is equally ix>tent to lead 
the C«)urt, in the case at bar, to construe a statute providing for the lia- 
bility of the interstate and foreign carrier to *"" any of its employees *' 
Co nu*an only to any of its employee:^ for whom Congress has the 
c«iii>.titutiona1 power to make such a }>rovision. In that case there 
were taxes within tlie le^'islative control, and taxes without the legis- 
lative control of the Virginia assembly; in this case there are em- 
Idoyoes within the legislative control and employees without tho 
egislative control of Congress; in that case the statute provided for 
*'h11 tiixes;'' in this case the statute provides for " any employees;'' in 
that ca5ie, examiiung the statute *^ in the light of the Constitution," 
this Court drclared that " however broatl and general its language, 
it can not bcr iiderprefed as extending beyond those matters which it 
is within the constitutional power of the legislature to reach,'* and if 
it ; ihat tlierc were taxes l>eyond the control of the legislature, 

ih. .itute should be ivail '* as though it in terms excluded them 

from its operation ;'' I am unable to imagine any reason why. examin- 
ing tlie statute in this cas** with the aid of the same light, the Court 
should not make the same declaration of its meaning. Moreover, it 
should bo remembered that a circumstance leading in tlie same direc- 
tion is j)resent in the case at Imr which was absent in that case, for, 
to repeat what has already l>een sai*!, heiT tlie general words are used 
in a I'onlext which sugg*»sts, if it d<M'H not recpiire. the less extemled 
III' 

i lb*? obsr^rveil that the McCullough case was simply a e^aft 

>/ cvustructlon. The Court tiuule no judicial »mctw\T\\eu\- ol >Xtf\ 



,^ 



iittii^ 




280 



BULLETIN OV THK BCBEAC OF LABOR. 



titatni<? or exception /roin it* provipions of any sulij<v( ^vluch mine 
wilhiij tliein nocurdin^ to tlieir proper meaning, iiscortained with the 
aid <»f tlu* li^lit of tlie constitiitionnl lirniLs of the Jo^i.slativo j^Hiwcr. 
JVlr. Justice lirower pointed out the distinction l)etwceii tho construc- 
tion of thi' ^dilute and its validity, .saying: ""The statute T)n*t!i*dcs 
the (xtntract. Its scojx* and meaning must oe determined beiore nny 
({Ui'^titin will .'iriso us to the viilidity of the rontnirt ^vhich it Hnthi»r~ 
izos." Thui^ tlie cnse is dLstinirni.shed from some olliors. much relieii 
iijxjn in the iii'fromcnt, v.-hirh estahli>-h the pro|)osition, that n siofjle 
Btulutorv n is \«id if it is ex[»r»'.ssiMj in ^emTii! wof! il 

OA to niJiii viirly the intention l<i inchtde witliin the Is 

Mubjecls Iwyoiid the constituliouul power of the hnvmalunfr hody. 
The courts hnvo no power to read into such n provision un ext*epti<»a 
for the purJ>o^ie of savin;G: thitt which is left from condeumntion. A 
law which can not endure llie lest of the Constitution without judi- 
cial amendment must perish. [Cases cited.) Hut the rule dcriveil 
fivm ihi'se ciiwH is I>y no menus dtM-tsive of ihe in<|uiry whether ihi.t 
htatiite mnst be c(mftrued as ^eekln^r to acc«>!nplish <»hjects beyond the 
power of Coi»;^ress. It cnii l)e matle decisive (»idv hy ht'_- '^u* 

very *|ucstion to l>e determined, und, in the words of ili t» 

Hrrwer, (onfusini; "the two entirely ilistinct matters of constriiction 
aJid validity." 

The natiirMl menuiug of the wonls *>f the stattite considered 
..»^e(hcr. ench Wijrd reeeivin*; si^i^nificnnce from llmse witti wliich it 
is nllied. lire irspi'ct wliich is due to (\mprreRM, the belief which 1 hold 
that it would not inlontionallv overstep t)ie clearly defined limit'* of 
its nnthorily, and the i»rinciples of c^mstniction heretofore ncleiJ 
upon by Ihis Court. lend my mind to the settled conviction that the 
8t.atuto can be interpreted, and ougjht to he interpreted, as irffording 
the ivmedy therein prt-srrihed only to the f; ' ''''.■'■.'■ ^ r- 

stnte, nnfl territorial cnrriers, who nre Hk le 

capncity in such cn^mmeiYe in some of its uja.aluM ii.pctts. It ihi.s 
menninf^ be anril>uted to the wordsi tif the Inw, it is iipi>:ircnl Ihnt bi 
th(^ opinion of a majority of tlie Court the law* in its main featuren 
at [oust, would be const ittitionnt. 

Knter(ainin«r tlu^se views of the meatdnp of the Rtatule, I am com- 
ixdled I to I ffi) furtlier and consider the other objections to it. I n^^^*^^ 
entirely witli nil that was said in the opinion of Mr. .Tustire \VTii||^H 
in support, of the power of the (Vm^rress to enact n law <»f this p;en^ 
eral character, but, as i think that the jiid;jiiienN \i\ these ca^»s oii^ht 
to \ye reversed, 1 can not escape denlin;; >\ith specific objeetums to Ihe 
statute whi<h he has not tleemed it iiicossnrv to discuss. T think it 
lielter. therpfore, to deal with all the questions that are neeessarily 
rnistHl in tlie??(.» cases. 

1 come now to the question whether (he stntiite, thuH cotL*** nieil, is 
i'l *'"■ '■' efMition of any power conferred b^' (he Constitution upon the 
( It is apparent tliat there is no Huch power unless it bo 

ioiiiii! m (h.'it ! »>f the C-onMitution wliirh ant' f -^ 

"to reindate i* with forvitfu uationn and : d 

Stnb ■ ' ■;-•'»•• 

7'//i >' deBorihpil have the i*onmion qiinli- 

//W thai ihcY aiv /nore easieiiHivc Ihtiu l\ift junsAvcAAwi ^>l tv -*\t\^ 



DBC16I0K6 OF COXTBTS AFFECTING LABOR. 



281 



■ 



It© ftnd Iioblc to injury from conflictinjoj State laws, and tlicreby 
all alike distin^tisluHl from the ]>iiiT*Iy inltriml comniercr of the 
States. Tbere is nothing in the vords of the grant that permits the 
belief that the power is not o>ext<'iisivc ovrr foreign, inlorsiiUe, and 
Imlian trnde. or is anylhinfj less than the whole power whirh any 
jpovfrnniwil niay properly exercise over either, though it nmy well l>c 
that the restric(ive parts of the Constitution, its prohibitions and 
re3*ervations, may 0|>^rate differfutly on ditferent kinds of commerce, 
or even on ditfei-ent a.spects of the same kind of commerce. 

It is siiid that < '> lias never la-fort' enacted lepislntion of (his 

naMnv* for tht> m>« • of intrr^tnte commerce on land, thoufj^h it 

li yea upon the water and for the 

^^ l on the contrary the i-elalions 

aifrcicd have ije^^n c<>mrolle<l hy the undoubted ]>ower of the .States 
to £C*>vern ineji and thin^ within their respective dominions; and 
that this omission of Congress is of controlling signiticance. The 
fundamentnl fallacy of this argument is that it misundcrj-'tands the 
nature of the Constitution^ undervalues its u^efulnesK, and for^*ts 
that i ' «g provisions nre adaptHble to the infinite variety 

of th' ludilions of our national life. Surely there is no 

statute of liuiilutions which bars Congress from the exercise of any 
of its jfranted powers, nor any authority, nave that of the people 
whom it represents, which may with propriety challenge the wisdom 
of it-s cboive of the tin»e wlien remedies sfiull tirst be applied to what 
it deems wrong. It can not Ite doubtt^d that the exercise of a power 
for the first time may be called upon to justify itself. The fact that 
it is for the tiist tin\e is a circumstance to \>e ctmsidered. but in this 
case it is a ciivumstance whose significance disap])ears in the light of 
history. * * * 

It wiis not • My to bt* expected that a phenomenon so con- 

trary to the » ^ e of mankitid. s^o viust, so rapidly developing 

an<l changing, us the growth of land commerce among the States, 
vrould BpeediTy be apprecintetl in nil its aspecta, or wonld at once call 
forth the exei*cise or all the unused power vested in Congi^ess by the 
Oi ' clause of the Constitution. Such a phenomenon demands 
^' I ex|x^riencc. The habit of our people, accentuated bv our 

&y>iem oi ri^prosrntative gi»vernment, is not so much in legislation to 
•aitticip.-ite pn^bk-ms as it is to deal with them after experience has 
bhown tiiem to exist. So Congivss has exercised its power sparingly, 
Rtep by Mep, and has acted oiilv when exptnience seemed to it to 
re<|uire action, A de^ription of its action in this resj)«ct was given 
In r« Debs, i:i8 U. 8. r.04 [ lSi>r>J * • * 

Since thi>* decision other laws moi'e fully regulating interstate com- 
mii*rc<* on land have been enacted, which need not here be stated. 
TUr.y show a constnutly iunvasing tendency to exen*ise moi'e fully 
■y the |>ower conferred by the commerce clause. It is 
. however, that Congri'ss has assumed tlie duty of pro- 
I' le safety of public travel by enacting the safety-appliance 

1.1 ict to re<juire reports of casualties to employees or passengers 

(31 Stat. 1440) ; a resolution directing the Interstate Commerce Coin- 
lnls.sion to investigate and report on the neci'ssity for blo^^k signals 
(M Stat. 8;iH) ; an act limiting the hours of service of employoc^, and 
the net under causjdvrutiou, Xlicw acts, aU rd^liu^ V» V^i 



232 



BUIXETIX OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB. 



transpoilation, demonstrate tho Itolicf of Confess tlint the safety of 
iiitpi>tnte travel is ii inattor of nntioiijil concern, nnd its delilxMntc 
purpose to i]K*irn>^e ihni safety l>y laws whicli it deems coTidiicivo to 
ihnt end. 1 llunk, tlierefore, that we may consider whether this act 
tinds authority in the coninu-rce clause of the Constitution without 
eudinrnissuieut frnm any inferences which may be drawn from the 
inaction of Con-j^res**. 

It is settled Beyond the net^ssity of citing cases that the tran;^ 
porttttion of persons and property is commerce, in other words that 
the business of carriers is commerce. Where, therefore, the business 
is foreipn or interstate. Congress, it has freipiputly \»*vu decidefj, 
has the jMu;imonnt, if not tho sole, power to legishite for its direct, 
control. An obstruction of such commerce by umawfid violence niavi 
be made puuislialde under the laws of the United Stiites, suppressed^ 
by tho armies of the Uinted States, or. at the instance of the Cnited 
States, enjoined in its courts. (In re. Debs, nbi sup.) It is <litDcult 
to conceive how legislation may effectively control the business if 
it can not regulate tbe conduct of those engagetl in the busine^, while 
engaged in the business, in every act which is performed in the con- 
duct of tlie business. The business of tninsportati<m is not an ab- 
straction. It is the hibor of men employed with the aid of instru- 
mentalities, animal and mechanical, in ciirryin<»: men and things from 
place to place. In every form of transportation, from the simplest 
to the most complex, whether tlie nuin curries the Imrden on his 
back, or drives an animal which carries it, or a locomotive which 
draws a cnr which carries it, the one and only constant factor is 
the labor of nninkind. I am quite unable to understand the (*on- 
lenlion mode at tb<^ bar that the power of (Naigross is to regulate 
connnenH* among the States and not to regulate persons engaged in 
comtm-ne nmong the States, for in the cnse of transportation at leastj 
the labor of those engaged in it is commerce itself. How poor and' 
meager tho i>ower woidd l>e if, whenever it was exercised, (he legis- 
lator must pause to consider whether the. action proposed regulated 
commerce or merely re;^ulated the conduct of ncrsons engagt*d iu 
conmiH\*e. The c<mtention derives, some plausii>iiitv from its* vagtie- 
nesfl. Of course the power to regulate commerce docs not authorixo 
Congress to contnd tne general conduct of i>i'rsons engagi'd tlierein, 
but, unless it is an idle and useless fxjwer, it auihorizts Congress to 
control the, conduct of persons engag«Ml in commenH^ iu respect to 
:::ver3'thing which directly concerns cimnnerce, for that is commerci^ 
itself. It wouhl seem, tliereftire, tbut when persons are omplovecL 
in interstate or foreign connnerce, as the employment is an esseutiur 
part of that commerce, its terms and condituius, and the rights and 
duties which grow out of it, are under the control of Congress sub- 
ject only to the limits on the exercise of tluU control prescribed iu 
the Constitution. This has been tbe view always e.\presse<l or im- 
idied t)y this Court. In his concurrinp opinion in Gibbons i\ Ogden, 
l> Wheat. 1, Mr. Justice Joimson said, p. ii20, "Comu>erce, in its 
simplest signitication, nu*ans an exchiinge of goods, hut in the ad- 
vancement of society, labor, transportation, intelligence, catx* and 
various mediums of exchange become wjunuodities and enter into 
tyfininertv; thf vwb/ecl, the v<»hicle, the agent and thi'ir various u]>em- 
n'ony become the objcctfi of conuiieicial rtii;v\\*Uuu5u" * *^ * 



PEC16I0NS OF COrRTH AFKECTING LABOR. 



283 



'riio case of Piorro r. V'un Duscn, 78 Fed. OlKi, was «loci.lev] Uy ihc 
Court of Appeals of the Sixth Circuit hy Mr. Ju.sticf Ilnrlau iiiid 
JiKlgi's Taft ami Ltirton, Tlie opinion was delivered by Mr. Justico 
Harlan. After suj^taining a Slate statute, which modilied tlie com- 
fnon luw rules with respert to the liability for injuries of a currier to 
its employees, he said of it; " The Ohio statute is not applicable alone 
to niilnrnd rorporatinns of Ohio, fUijngcd in the domestio romiueree 
of this State. It iti vqnully applicable to railroad corporations doing 
business in Ohio, and eu<,'n«red in commerce ttnion*( the States, 
RUhongh the slatutp. in its opnrution, may affect in some dcrjrw a sub- 
ject over whicli Conjrress can exert full po\ver. The States may do 
piany things aifectin*!; commerce with foreig'n nations and among the 
eeverul States until Con^'ess covers tlie subject l)y national Icj^isla- 
tioTL • ♦ ♦ Undoubtedly the wliole subject of the liability of 
interstate niilroad compnnies for the nejrli^Hice of those in tl»eir serv- 
ice may bo covered by national legislation enacted by Congi-ess nnder 
its power to rcjLjulale commerce among the States,'' 

We may not trust implicitly to tlie accuracy of statements path- 
eivd from opinions where the precise question was not for decision. 
Bui where, as in thc^ q!u»(ations. the statements wen* an essential 
part uf the course of reasoning deemed appropriate for the disposi- 
tion of the cases, where the same thought clothed in different words 
has been expressed at intervals from early times to the present daj", 
and where no decision or judicial utterance has been found in opi>osi- 
tion to them, they are entitled to profound respect, and furnish 
cogent evidence of what the law has always l>een supjwsed to l>e by 
the memljers of this Court, They can not l>e regarded lightly, and if 
we follow them they lead us to the conclusion that the national power 
to regidate commerce is broad enough to rei»tdate the employment, 
duties, obligations, liabilities, and conduct of all pers<ms engaged in 
commerce with respect to all which is comprehended in that com- 
meixc- U|)on what principle except this could this Court have twice 
enforced the safety-appliance act, undisturbed bv a doubt of its consti- 
tntionalitv'^ (Johnson r. Kailroad, IOC U. S. 1 [Bulletin No. 5*;, p. 
3(«|, Schlemmer n. Railroad, liOo U. S. 1 [Bulletin Xo. 7U p. 385].) 
That act (27 St. 531) compelled interstate railroads to equip all their 
Irain.-t with power brakes operated from the engine, and nil their cars 
with automatic couplei*s. grub irons, and hand holds, by enacting that 
the use of engines and cars not thus equipped should be unlawful. 
There was no expreas provision that an employee injured by the fail- 
ure of a railroad to comply with the law snould be entitleil to dam- 
ages, but without doubt the liahility of the railroad is implied. The 
common law rule iroveruiug the liability w'as materially changed by 
section 8, which abolished in part the doctrine of the assumption of 
risk, by provi<ling that' the employee should *■*■ not be deemed to have 
assumed the risk " of the unlawfid conditions, though he know of them 
and continued in his emidoyment. This section was enforced in most 
emphatic matter [manner] in the Schlemmer case, where Mr. Justice 
llomieH said, "An cnrh% it not the earliest, application of the phrase 
*a«smnption of risk' was the establishment of the exception to tlm 
liabilitv of a master for the negligi»nce of the servant when the person 
injnri*cl was n frllow-servant of t!ie injured man." If the statute now 
before us in beyond the eonbtitutioual power of Congress, surely the 



BULLETIN 



lEAC 



snfety-applinnce not is nbo voiil, for there can be no distinction in 
principle ^^ct^Yocn tl»eni. If C'oiigr'css cnn criyite n liability to sn in* 
juivd *MnpInyiv for the existence of ronditions in certain mochanisnw , 
which lie uses, by dechiriiip: thtv>o coiHlilinns unlnwftil, it tuny cre*l«< 
the Knnie liability for no^lijjence of the npents and ' tions in 

the instrnnirnts usevl in the cnn'ier's weirk; if il niny - '\ir o«tni- 

inon Inw rule of tiie HssiMni>tion of tlie risk of imperfect «|»plmnees, it 
may clian^* the rule of the nKsimiplion of the risk of a 4*:uvless fallow- 
Hcr\*i»nt. I can oonoeivo of no principle of conMtitution»l law Mchich 
enables ns lo s«y that the rtinunerce elunsi* nuthi»ri7.e.s Conj^ess to fix 
upon the carrier a liability for nn insnflicicnt bruke but not for n 
defe<'tive rail, for the ali-ienec of autoniatie couplers, but not for 
the ne^lii^ent order which biin'r?^ trains into cf.llision, for an iuwcnro 
p^ab iron, but not for a het»dles8 switchman. If Con^-ess has the 
rijrht to c<»ntrol the tinlnlUy in any way it may coiUrol it in every 
way, subject, as nil power> are Mibject, to tlie expreH-'^ proliibitiuns of 
the Constitnlion. I nless the ca.ses on the siifely-apjdiance nets are 
deemed to hove l>een inadvertently decided, they neem to lie roncln- 
.sive of this branch of the c'nin\ This nccnis to have U^en feared by 
counsel f(»r one of the defendiint.H. who in Iiis brief said '* tliat tha 
pvin^j of a rijrht of ivcovery to an injured euiployee is a ]>ro[HT, 
and nece«^ary methmi for making etfcctivc the safi»ty-appliance' 
4»ct, * * * Ave »lo not admit." 

I Hut if we put aside the authority of precodonts, and examine the 
luiture and i*\tent of ihe pranl (o (Vuisrn*«< of power {»ver c»ininier«T 
in the light of the settled principles of interpretation tit to 1k> applic»d 
to the exposition of a roustitution. we ahall arrive at the same result. 
One main ]>urpoH<' and effect of the Constitution was to devise % 
scheme of eflicicnt povernment. In order to accomplish this all the 
powers Usually exercised by fjo\-ernnient s wej*o *listril)Uted l»etw<*t'n 
the States nml the Nation, exerpt tliove dwnied mdil or unsafe lo l»e 
intrusted lo either »}u\ withheld fiMnn hoTJi. In tlu* alh»tiiicut of 
powers to llie nati(»ti they were enuuvriitt'd rather thnn delincd. In 
the enumeration word^> oJT the larjCfesi import were employed, eompre* 
bending within their meaning; jyrand divisitm-s of the powers of ^v- 
ernment. The nature of the Constitution, said ('hier Justice Mar- 
Khali, (McCuIlo<h e. MnrvhiTKl, i) \\*heHt., p. 407,) '' nnjuiros that only 
its irreat outlines sliould be mai'ked, its im[>ortant objects desitrnatwi, 
antlthe minor inpredientN whiil* compost* ihoso ob^ecU l>e deduced. 
fr<»m the nature of the objects themselves." The wide extent of tlio' 
powers grant eii lo (Vui^rc^- is expre>MM| in a few simply wonlcd Mn> 
visions, all of whici» nii^ht be printed on a sin^jle pa^> of it'i biHik of 
Aliaual laws. Coujisi'l have arj»:neil thai the [wwrr to repdate com* 
tnerce does not include the power to ivjrulate the conduct of pemooft. 
engaged in that eominenx* in resjx*rt of that eonunrrce. This w whail 
Mr. Justice Miller (110 V. S., p. ti.%8) described as " tV ^ ■ , i t' 

often heani. often repeat<xb and in thi'* Courl n«ver 
when a question of the power of C" 
power must, l>e nblc to phc<' hi'- I 

^rant it." Sup|x»si^ that ii 1 reason • 

the |xiwcr ** to esiibli-li i and p 

C-on^resA govtms i »f the c«. 

JO ei^vrr tl^aii hh jt i- ^^m.^.-j u'--, uy any ou\» i u^w^-u. v^ 
/w/f/ to Coji^tvss, you CHU not cuiTy llm maW, ^ow can uuV \s- ^ 



COTmre AFFEtnxtj uibor. 



S35 



. \i^ '■ * det^rmin^ whai sljall be oxchule^l from (lif uij* 

yott cull 11 ill' Uie wiikIuoI of th*.»s<* wJio ai'e employcil in t! 

iBttil servn lu noiexetupt them from militiu duty, voii can n 

pttnisii tlh 1 or embesuenteiii. yon ran not ]>unt:>li him w] 

bn*«ks auii eniiTs the p<)p»t-ofIiin» or muil car — all ihcsp jwwers mrv 
reserved to the 8taK's. Vou *;aii 4>nlT cstHldish post-offiofs and p<??t- 
roads, ami when that is done your poM-er in exiiausled. Yet CVw^'esa 
lias done all <li<?^ thinp; and nu one now doubts it,s jx)w<»r to do theto,- 
bpcaiise the grant of j>ower is of the whole governmental power over; 
(he subjpcl^ ivv t<H», the power to n-friihiie inlerNlale nml fon'i 
coiiHn«ryv« i< tho whole j>owor wbieh any povmunent c;in exorci?^ ov 
III vi»sl<'<l ill Con^nvs,^ ns alr^ohUely ;is it woidd ix* in 

a lit having in '\i> <r»jislitvilion tlie vamo restrictions 

Or ■ of ihe power as are found in the Constitution of the 

I 1...... I.,' ManJiall. C. J., in (.iibhons i\ O^den, uK sup., n. 

197; The Lottery case, 188 U. 8. «^l. AVe are brought then dirv^rlly 
to the inqHiry wln^lher a power so exlensi^^ is a snifieicnt warrant 
for tht? enactnient of tJie statute liefore us. 

By whiti ■ ' 11 r»ne«l tlie auxiliary power Confess rany * 
mil law« w ' II lie nece'->sary and i»roi>er for carryinjr intf> ex 

(ton " ' ;■ Ai-rs. It is settled that this luxivi.Aitm M' ' 

the eh:i M wv-- which, in the exercise or a wide <li- 

C<in4ri''?=<s deenjs a<Upted to »ecuiv a leiritimate end anil caicuijite 
to effect any of the «:>lije(is intrusted to it, and the exercise of tha£ 
^iMcrvtion, uide^ it vioJates some prohibition of tl>e Constitution or 
is used as a pn*trxt to accomplish son>o object not intnistoil to the 
KHlitmal Goverilnieni, can not U* rcriewivl by the judieinl bninch of 
tJi- it without i\ u up(»n a domain which is |>ecu- 

li.. ti-^ivi^Iy (ho 1 i>f the legislative bniuch. If the 

stalUiO Uiidei • ;tion Ix' lu'ought to the test of the% principles 

lh«»re cjiu Ix* In- 'f its validity. 

It can not be <Jenied that in that pail of cfunmem* which eonsi 
iu tniosportation, the safety of those who are concerned in it an 
mssengvtrs or employees is of the Hrsl iinportanoe. As was said bv 
Ifr. Justice Gray, in Chicajro, etc., Uailway Co. t\ Solan, 1(50 U. 
155, ^ Uie fundamental princijde on which the law of ctwnnu 
carriers \^ ' ' ' ] was? the socurinjj of the uliut»st care ;• 

r!>^e in ' Mce of Uieir public duties." Thf Cl(.\ t 

'i the National (tovennnent ha.-^ lo luU-i - 

sti ^ d by the Court in the Debs ca«e to l»e 

*^ dinsc of dineci supervision, conti"ol, and management," whic 
iMfflecta to do what it is iitting for a government to do to insure tl 
JMifotv of puldic traveU fails in the performance of its high*»>t 

dut>-; • ^ • , 

It follows that if Congress, in the exei'cis* of its plenary power 
o^*e^ interv4ate an<] fnniirii trm 
that traii-iM"*! trtt'oii vv,HiI-i l>" 



V 

u 

Tiki..- ,., 
lrt>id. 
TJ)r- 



I not, wiihotit 
.:.ciat from tlic 



■ nut the safety of 

LT thnt tho*-e rui- 

iVr iiiji ! V 

i-y tiie l:r , 

\f[ ll>e l»oundary which sepa- 

fudd, declare the enactment 



1 ^^ 






i^^riiiftairilitaMi 



mmk 



2dG 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR. 



I 



clause, might not have l>ooii di.-^piitpd l>iu for tlio fact thnt up to this 
time the siibjoct lias bwn loft to Ik? ilwilt wiUi hv tho Stiitos. If a 
donht ever existed that the States rotild hiwfiilly (h»nl witii llic snh- 
jpct uikUt the ^trnorul If^lshdivo iiuthority to pivrru (hi'ir loiTitory, 
which was undistiirl>0(] Ijy tho ConMimtioji, that douht wns di^poIJca 
by the decision in Slierlock '*. Ailing, nb. suj)., ami it is now agreed 
that the State nniy, in the absence of action by Congre.^H, fix and 
determine Ihe liability of all carrii^s while ojuTating wilhin the 
State, to those whom they employ for the injuries which are .snffcre<I 
in the coursie of the eniplovnicnt, lint >U(h authority in the State 
is not inconsistent with i\ like authority in the Nation. AVhere, as in 
the case of our dual governmeiU, th** snme tt-rritorirs and llir same 
individuals are subject to two governments, each supreme within itB 
sphere, botli governments l>v virtue of distinct powers may legislate 
for the same ends. ♦ ♦ ^ 

'^ If a State,** said Chief Justi(*e Marshall (in (ribbons /•. Ogden, 
ubi sup., '204 ), "in passing laws on subjects acknowletlped to be 
within its control, and, with a view to those subjects, shall adopt s 
measure of tlie same charact*'r with one wliich (^ongiHSs may adopt, 
It does not <lerive its authority from the particidar power which has 
been granted, but from some otluT, which n^mains with the State 
an<l may Ik> executed by the same mcan*^. All cxperieni*e shows that 
tlic sjimc. measure or measures, scun-cly indislinguishublc from cMch 
other, nuiy ilow from tlistiiut powers; but this does not prove that 
the i)«wei*s themselves mv identical.'* That the States may by their 
laws fix the relative rights, duties, obligations, and rmbili'ties of all 
persons or corpoialions within their territorial jurisdictions, and 
thus control in that respect thos<» wlu> are engage*! in inteistate and 
ffU'cign commerce; thnt such laws do )U)t proeced froui any power tt) 
regulate su<h conuncrce, though incidentally and indirectly tl\ey do 
regidate it, but ai'e to be i'ef<*rreil to their general power over f)er* 
sons and things within their territoric-, and that nil such laws, so far 
lis they nti'ect such connnerce, unist yield to the suiwrior authority of 
the laws of CongrvKs, is. I ihitik, omdnsively shown by the follow- 
ing cases: Sherlock i\ ^Vlling, UU U. S. Oil; Smith v. Alabama, 124 
U. 8.405; [etc.]. 

There remains to be considered the obje<*lion that the s|>*vific provi- 
sions of \\w act exceed the legislative power over the subject, » ♦ ♦ 
The oidy limit up<in the authority of CVaigress relevant to the dis- 
<'ussii)u of ihi*^ braiieli of t]ie cjise is (lutt whirh forbids C<>nfrress from 
depriving any |)ersoii of his life. Iil>erty. or pro|>erty without duo 
j»i'<H'ess of law. Am<*ndment 0. It is conten<led that, nlthoiigh the 
liiw deals with a subject under the control of Congress, it dcuirt with 
it in such a manner as to violnte that proliibiti<m. and is tliereforc 
void. Before considering the contention it is desirable to state clearly 
(he substnntinl pro\isic»iis of the net. The remedy afforded by it is 
more generous to the employe** than that given by tlie eoruiiuin law in 
several resp*'cts. The eommon law recognized no recovery of <hin)agefl 
for death resulting from negli'^ence; by tin* statute dnnniges are re(M>v- 
crable for death ns well as for injury. The comn»on law allowed 
no recovery against the employer for the negUvt of u fellow-sorvant 
pnira^ged in a common en»plovment: b}* tlie statute the employer ifl 
firK/ rpfpffnsihle for the negligence of any ol \\^ «>^vm*v^. w^<^^\\*<, <sr 
\^^fpJojWi>f even though the guilty pcviiouw w k\\v>vi-3ri:\ya\\. v)V\\\\v\ 



PECISIOXS OF COtTBTS AFFECTING LABOR. 



237 



who is injnreil or killed. Tho comuHin law denied to one who by 
his negUf^^ncc Iiiid oontributod to his own injury the ri^ht to r rem- 
edy for Ujo neglect of another which had been a roncurrinjr cause; 
by the statnte the nejjli^nt snifcrer nmy recover if his negligence 
be slifjht, jind that of the employer jeji'oss in conipHrison. tliou^n tlie 
contributing negligence must be taken into account in reduction of 
the damages. The common luw, as adjudged by this Court, per- 
mitted the eniployec to enter into a contract renouncing his right to 
damages in case he incurred injuries in the course of his employment ; 
the statute forbids such a contract. Thus four doctrines of the 
04:minion law restrictive of the employees' rights are supplanted by 
others more fuvoraide to him. 

Tliere can tx* no doubt of the right of a legislative body, having 
jurisdiction over the .sul)ject, to modify the tirst iliree of these itiles 
of the coniniou law in the manner in which this act of Congress does 
it- They are simply rules of law, unprotected by the Constitution 
from change, and like all other sncli rules must yield to the superior 
authority of a statute. They have so generally been niodllied by 
statute that it may well be doubted if they exist in tlieir inlegi'ity 
in any juris<liction. ♦ ♦ ♦ AVhenever the le«rislative power to 
chaTi|je any of these rules of the common law has been arnwn in 
question in this Court it has been sustained. • * * 

But it is earnestly urged upon us that the statute under considera- 
tion, applying to all interstate conunon carriers aiul all their em- 
ployees m that business, without distinguishing I>etween that part of 
the business and employment which is dangerous and hazardous and 
that part whicli is not, and confined solely to the business of common 
carriage aiul its en»pl<»yers, is a deprivation of the emplover's prop- 
erty without due pr(»cess of law, in violation of the firth auiend- 
nient of the Constilulion. The manner in which due proce-ss of law 
is said to be denied is bv the denial of the equal protection of the 
laws by imposing unusual burdens jii>on a class of pei'sons arbitrarily 
and capricmusly selected. In support of this [Mjsition cases from 
State courts interpreting State constitutions and cases from this Court 
interpreting the restriction u])f>n State action impost*d by the four- 
leentli amendment, are indiscriminately cited. The3' f\irnish little 

It is not necessary in this case to determine how far, if at all, the 
requirement from the States of the equal protection of the laws made 
by the fourteenth amendment is included iii the requirement from 
\he Nation of due process of law made by the fifth amendment to 
the Constitution. It is enough to say that this statute complies with 
berth. It is rather startling to hear that in enacting laws applicable to 
conunon carriers alone Congress has made a capricious and arljitrary 
cJnssilication. From time inuneniorial the common law has set apart 
those eugngtHl in that bunines.-. as a pecidiar class, to \>e guverne*! in 
many respects l>y laws jH^nliar to theni'-elves. In separating carriers 
from those engaged in otiier interstate and foreign commerce. Con- 
gress lias but f(»llowed the ancient classification of the common law, 
based upon reasons so obvious that they need no statement. Whether 
the law should l»e nuule to apply to alf carriers or to carriei-s by rail- 
road alone, or whether the employees should be classified according tn 
On* fh'^n'v of iltin^r which sujTounds their empluyuwuV, \& ^ wv^kW^t 




BriXETXy OF THE BUREAU OF LABOK. 

of l^filativo dlscrotioii with whioli wo Imvc no liglit u* nuHkni*. (Seo 
Union FHi'iho Railway Co, r. Mwrkcv* ub. sup.) 

I have continctl mr «>l>«erv«lioiis up to this point to the fiif^t thn*e 
chan^r-^ in iho conMnon law nnule hy thr statnto. The fnni'th change, 
that forbi<klin^ the uniphiyeo to make a <.'i>nl!*ttt'( r<^!o-»iMng his em- 
ployer from tht' consequences of his negligence, is open to a possible 
r>bjectiun not common to the others. It sa asserted tliat this part of 
the net violates tlie right of free contract which ui some cases this 
Court has pr-otected against the exercise of the Jegislntive porrer. 
"VVilhoiit inliniatinc^ any opinion on that subject, it is enough to sny 
that that j)art of tlie statute is separable from and inde|)endenl of the 
ivmuinder, junl may stand or fall by itstdf. an*! tliat no quesii<m 
concerning it is raised in (he^fe cases, I see nothing in the provision 
that "all qiK'stions of negligence or contributory negligence shall 
be for the jury " which affects the ri^rht of jui-y trial giuiranteed hy 
th« seventh amendment. Such questions nlwavs have been fv>r the 
jury, and I can not see that this enactment mafeeH any change what- 
ever. 

I am of opinion, therefore, that the act should Iv snstaine<^l as a 
legitimate exercise of llie authority of ("ongres.^. and that orders in 
these cftscs should be made accordingly. 



Mr, Justice Harlut*, (with whom concnrreil Mr. Justice McKennak) 

dissenting. 
Mr. Justice McKennn and myself are of opinion that it was vrithin 
the power of Congi'ess to prescribe, as !»etween an interstate commerce 
carrier and its employees, the nde of liability established by the act 
of June 11. 100*5. tint we do not conciu* in the interpretation of 
that act as ffiveu in the opinion delivered by Mr. Justice White, but 
thiidc that trie act, reasonably and pro|jerly interjireted. applies, and 
flliould be interpreted as intended by Congress to applv, onlv to case^ 
of interstate conuneive and in emidovecs who, at the time oi the par- 
ticular wrong or injury complamerl of, are engaged in vuch com- 
merce, an*! not (o «!oinf-s(u(:' conmiiTci' or coinnieroi* complefelv inter- 
nal lo the State in which tlie wrong or injury occurred. We coucnr 
in the views expivssed l»y Mr. Jiistice Mo»)dy as to the s<'Ope and 
interpretation of |h»» act. We think the act is coiislitutiotiHl. and, 
therefore, that the judgment should be reversed. 



Mr. Jn?tico Holmes di>--cn(trig. 
T rnu'^^ adm'tt thnt I think llieri* are strong ren>ons in favor of the 
ini ■• adopte<l by a majority of the Court. 

Ilii i the Words m such a wav as to ^■ave the 

coil ■ of the a'^t, T lliiid; ihey should l^e (n1*cn in that nar* 

n*^^-. .. .. , i lie phnjse •' every common carrier ■'■■'■' ^•') ''^' *'"lf^or 
commerce '* mav be construed to mean " while • or 

comnien**; ^ vrilhout violence to t' ' ' ts of Engii -n -jn r. ii. :iii<i to 
govern nil that follows. The M ii will ii*i^rdale all cohinii>ffc 

camera while ho eiiga^d in the Di-^tiu t of Columbia or in any Torn- 



tONS np COUftTS AFFECTli^G UVBOB, 

' (o thorn: niui It will re|?ulnte 
Cjii mcHT lf*'(wepn llic States, etc., 

thus limiiing li*^ ?-(*opt,' where it i> ne't'ssarv to limit it. So ctuisliui'd 
1 think- tb*' act viiJid ia its main' feat tires iiink'r the Constitution of 
the irnit«4 States. In riew of the circiuii&taaces I do not discuss 
detuiLs. 



EMruiT 54KMT OP CuiuiUKN — A«K Li MJT — Daxgkhois EMPU»r- 
MEXTft— CoKSTrrrtTioNALiTV or STATirTK — Effect on Empt-oi 
LiAniLTTT — Lmrrhnn v. Piltt*ion Coal Minimj Company^ Svprrm* 
Ooiurt of PennitylranMy €7 Atlantic Reporter^ po.f}e GiZ. — Marj^nrft 
Lctuilinik sui'd in the amrt of couimon pleas of Lu/crne County to re- 
foviT danmgfs for iujui'ictf receive*! by a lad. Miiuley. uginl 14 yeai-s 
and I n»on(hs, tMiiiJloyed, \\b allfged. as an oiler in a niliit*, in violation 
of law. The (.'asf v.iis thrown oiit on a nonsnit, and on refusal to 
removp the same an appeal was taken to the suprciue court of the 
State, which directed timt the cra.se Ik* heanl. TIu> action was based 
oa the statute which forbids the employment of children under 15 
years of age as oilers in miru's, and the ruling of the court turned on 
the validity and effect of this statute, 

From the opinion of the court, which wa^ delivcu'd by Jn<lge 
EIkin» and which upheld the statute, the following i*^ quoted: 

\Mien this rase again comejj up for trial in the court Ixdow, much 
will de|M*nd upon tlio exact duties which the b<»y, Munley, was rc<]uired 
to i>ert<irm by t lie appellee company. If it was u i)arl i>fhia duties to 
oil the "serapcr line/' as is tlu^ ct)uiention of appellant, the negligence 
of the uppuilee would be establi.shed. ]f« on the other hand, as is 
a»*orled by appellee, it was no part of his duty to oil the **■ scraper 
line,'^ the rule relied on by the coiut below would control the case. 

At the trial the learned court l)elow din*<-ted a compulsory nonsuit 
trt he entL'rod. which, on motion made, he refused to take otf on the 
pround that the boy wn-< guilty of ronuilnitory ne^li^ence in attempt- 
ing to oil dangerous piirts of the machinery while in motion, which 
«*n* in violation of the statute, aud therefore negligent. This would 
be the correct rule if the injured boy had the right imder the law to 
eug>»ge iti the employment which iK.'<*asioned the uijury. The learned 
trial judge look the View that the boy, being over 11 years of age, was 
pw*ninn*d iind«'r \\\v connnondaw rule to have snflieient capacity to Im 
M»ri>iible of danger and to have the power to avoid it, and that sueh 
pi ..n had not Ikh'u ovenome by the evi<leuce produce<l at the 

ti !■ exact question raided by this appeal is whether thi^^ com- 

niouduw rule wa.s modilifd or changed hy tlie litatutory regnluiion. 
Tlie injured btty was umler 1.% 3'car.s of a*re, and, if the appellee com- 
pany emfdoved him for the purpose of oding machinery, it did so in 
violation of the statute. Is it, therefore, in position to set up in Uiis 
ea.se the rule which presunitv-i a lH»y over 14 to be capulde of appre- 
ti; ! ' <' apply the i ' ' lutributorv negligence to 

hi -lutiire in e\i -wv^ provicfed that an em- 

ployer bhuii liui engage a person undtu- the age of 15 yeara to perform 



240 



BULLETIN OF TUE BUKEAC OF L.VBOR. 



this ilrtii^rous worlc^ Aflnr full consiilirntion wc nrp unanimously 
of tilt" ojiinion thai the logisluturp, iiiukM' its police power, could fix 
an a(2:e liniil Mow which l)<)ys ^^lioiihl not bo employed, anrl, when 
the ago limit wns so fixed, an employer who violates tlio act by en- 
gii|Lring a boy nndor the statnlory age <1ih»s m> at liis own risk, and if 
U)e boy is injnivd while engaged in the pcrfonnanco of the prohibito-l 
duties for whieli lie was emploved. bis emplover will Imi liable in 
dnnuige& for injuries thus suKtauied. This rnle is founded on tlie 
principle that when the legislature definitely estal>lished an age limit 
under wliicli eliildren should not be employed, as it had the power to 
do, the intention was to declare that a child so employed did not have 
the nnitm*e judgment, exiwrienee, and discretion nwessarv to engage 
in that dangerous kind or work. A boy emplove<l in violation of tuti 
statute is not chnrgeable with contributory negligence or with having 
assumed the risks of employment in such uccupntiou. 



prem^^M 



In.m NcruiN — Mode or MonincATioN — Vu>lation — Conte: 
Ai'i'KAL — Viltrr Matntfavturinij CotnjHtuy i\ llumphrcy^ Supn 
Court of Wi/iromiiHy JIB North western Reporter^ pf^</^ 1096. — The 
manufacturing company named had secured an injunction agsiinst an 
in)n moNh'rs' union and certaiii in<livi<luals to ])revi'nt interference 
with the business of the company. It was charged tliat the union and 
other defendants had conspired to compel the company to grant de- 
mands as to piecework, tlu* employment of ntuninion men and appren- 
tices, weekly payment of wages, etc. A strike had been instituted, 
and it WHS stated that picketing, persmision. threats, and other mejins 
were u*-ed to con»pel the »!ompany to assent. The injmurtion re- 
strained the defendants, among other things, " from interfering in 
any way with the |)laintiff'.-% business or property, from comi>ellij 
or attempting to compel, by tlueats or intimidation, fraud, persuasion,^ 
or violence, any of the plaintiffs employees fron) leaving its employ, 
or any other person from entering its emj)loy. from eongivgatii 
aUiUt the plaintiiFs shop or picketing or gmirding the streets for sucW 
purpose, from assaulting employees, or going to their homes to intimi- 
date or coerce them, from jRM'snnding or inducing any jM»rson to join 
said conspiracy, and from doing any act tc^nding or intended to com- 
pel the plaintiff against its will or the will of its ofHcers to operate ita 
factory or employ or discharge any workmen in atiy mnnm-r or Ufwl 
any terms j>rescriU'd by any association or union, or to refrain agaii 
its will or tlie will of its officers froui ii]>eruting its said factory in 

ly lawful nuiiiner." 

The ilefendant, Humphrey, knew of the injunction, but engaged in 

such conduct as led to a charge of violation, ami aflldavits were mado 

on which was based an order to ^how eaus4^ ^'hy he shouM not Ik> 

puw'-hrt} For cf//iten)pt. llie-e atTida\ its M't forth acts of abuse and 

rJ&Jei2ct\ ph'kviing and iotimidatiou in luriUcnviwyi ol W ttWigje^wo^- 



DECtfilONS OF COrRTS AFFECTING LABOR. 



241 



sipiracy. ami in violation of iho injunction. On he;ii-in^. however, tlie 
cimiiit court of Mihvunkec Connly denied lh<» motion to punish, 
bidding that, on the evidence, no act of violation liad been conmiitted. 
Fn>rn this the cnnipuny MpixMiled, and the i»nler was i*evi'i>ed and the 
defendant was fined nod as^ie^sed the costs of the protvedings. 

The i^unds uf this iwei*sal and ii discussion of certain collateral 

[Mosiions are set forth in the appended opinion of Judge Winslow, 

'ho spokr for tlio Mipronic courl : 

Tt is very plain, by the terms of the order to show cau!^, that this 
n proftH^linj; st.vkinp lo puni^h a party to an action, nn<ier subdi- 
ision ;i, sec. .^^477, St. ISOK. for ili-owdienco of a Irtwfid onler of the 
roiiit. Such II pHHTi'ding' is brought for the prinmrv purpoH* of pro- 
tcvting the ri^'his of the o|j|>o>ite pnity. and is a civil prtx^ecfing. 
Where it is desired to punish an act as a <'riininal conicuipt, the pro- 
ceeding should Ix! brought in the name of the State, under section 
2a05 ct sccj,, St. 18i>y. This was dearly |K)inte<l out in Emerson r. 
IIuss. 127 U is, 215. lOG X. AA\ ."JlS. The latter prix^eeding is pri- 
nmrily for the punxisc of vindicating the dignity of the court and 
pnfori'ing respect for its authority. There are doubtless some acts 
which are civil as well as criminal contempts. The willful disobe- 
dience of an order of the court by a party to the action wotdd seem 
lo be such an act if the rijrhts or remedies of the opposing party arc 
injured or prejudi<*cd thei-cby. (See subdivision 3, section 25C5, and 
sulxlivision 3, section ^177, St. 1808.) In such case the form in which 
the prociH'diny is brought will necessurily determine its character. 
If the procectfing is brought and pros^'cutcd in the name of the State, 
it should Ih? hfid to be a criminal pr()ce<»ding, inulcr section 2565, 
ipra. If. however, as in the nresent case, it l>e cutitlc<l in the civil 
iction in which the alleged violated onler was nmde and charges in- 
jury to the rights or reme«lii's of the npposiiig party by reason of the 
violation, it is plainly a civil proceeding, luider section 3477, supra, 
brought primarily in the interes-t, of the aggrieved party. The pro- 
ilir^g l>efore us was therefore a civil proceeding, and hence an ap- 
►al lies from the finul oi'dcr. 

The apjK'al, liowever, brings lx»forc us vu\y the quolion of fact, 
namely, whether it wa?^ proven that the respondent violated the in- 
jur»ctional order. We aiv not concerned with the nuich-vlelmted ques- 
tion whether there may lawfully 1k> piNiceful picketing to carry out 
the purposes of a strike. The injmictional order in (jucstiou was very 
broad and sweeping in its teruis, an^l not only prohibited all picket^ 
ing which should intimidate or ob?^truct plaintitfV employees, but 
il-o proliihited the doing of an\' act teiuling i»r intended to compel 
the plaintilT to operate its factory or emjihiy or dis<'i»argi» workmen 
in the manner or upon the terms demanded by the union. The order 
in ipiestion may have been too bi-oad, hut it was within the jurisdic- 
tion of the ci^mmissionrr. and, if ernnieou!'. the remedy was by motion 
to modify it* terms, not by disregartling them. The orders of a court 
ing jurisdiction must be oli«»yed. If they can with impunity be 
ar<le<l, they Vliould never l>o made. A t*ourt which makes such 
<*an give no go*Ml n'ason for its existence. It shoiild be abol- 
It is not a ixfurt in any true sense of iho levTO, 



BULLETIX OF THE BUREAi: OP LABOR. 

Tho qiicsliiin wlu'ther tht; ro.spondent di'^uWyoLl tlii** swcqjuiiuf m- 
juiictiouu! oriltu' is not opou to doubt imkIit the ros{>oiul*»iirs own 
cvidtMKM'. It in true tJiat he ilenifs that lu* at any tinio ii»torfercd 
with plnintifT*s omployrcj;, or ciillctl iIhmii naint*^, or cndouvintMi to 
dissiiatle llioin frt»ni workinfr for the jilainlilf or (o c(n»roo tlu'in; 
bill lit' admits t!iut he rontinnonsly piclirlcd \\u- plniiilitrs promi^r-S 
witli <»tli<'r striU't-Ts frotu llic litti*' of th»» makinjof of the injunttitmal 
ordor until the L-oninicnctMiicnt of tlie contempt pro(xt»diugs, and that 
this was dono in piirsiiaiu*' <»f Iho strike, in furtherance of Ha pur- 
poses, and under the direction of Uip strike leaders II<* further testi- 
fieil ns folhiws: **A strike is cnrritil on liy nie nnd those assoriated 
with moi to eonip<»l the employers to take us and those associated 
with MS lutek t)u the tenuis prop<»s*»d hy our I'ominit^ee, ami thai ia 
what I have hi-en working for njr)»t alonp, anil every act T hav<' dono 
has been for thai purp(»se. I understand everv net dono hy the other 
members of the uniiai and the strikers is aone for (hat purp<»se. 
Q. And you undei-staml, ch) you i»ot, that, if you and tliose assornitwl 
with you can prevent handy men and your union fnun t^oing to work 
in the fotuidry. you win the strike, don't you? A. Ve_s, sir; that is 
what ail of us were trvint? to do. All of uj^; were enga^nl in that, and 
whatever any of us did, as far as I know, was doxw toward the ac- 
eoniplishnient (»f that eud." Here is a distinct and unmistakable ad- 
mission tliat the picketing whicli lit* did was intended to eouipel tlio 
pluintitr to ueeede to the deuiauils of the onion ajid conduct its busi- 
JM^H in tlic manner whi<'h the union jire^rrilx'd. This was pri*oisK»Iy 
what the. injunetional order nnnrnnndt**! him not to do in practically 
so many words. Whether the order was not too sweenini^ ui it« tenus 
"we do not tleeide. The qutstion is not U'fore us. uhde it stoi>d it 
wns n»spoiidrnt's duty to obey it. Tf lie tlnui^jht it too !>road )ip shoidd 
have njoved to modify it. 

The fael of the respondent's violation of the injunetional order 
bein^ nndi.•^pute^lly Nho\An bv his own ovidi-neo, it is evident thftt 
tho courlV findin^^ that he \\nd not violated the order is errone- 
ous- We construe this finding to mean that the court Iwlievt**! the 
respondent's Icstimony to the effect that he had committed no act of 
Anoleuco or al>use, but had siuiply done j>eaceful nickeling. We nra 
unable to say that this ccuiclu.sion is ajfainst tlie clear prepouderaneo 
of the evidenre, and h(^n<v we accept it as a fact. Xo actual money 
loRs was sliown as tlie result of tlic resj>ondent\ acts. Hfuce no 
indemjulicati<»n should have l>een adjudired, but siiuply a fine under 
section ;M90, Ht. 181*8. In view of the coneluyion of Ihe trial court 
fiR to overt act.s of vitdenco or abuse, we thitdc the tine should not bo 
Iarj;c, but should tw fixed at what may be called practicallv a nom- 
inal Htm!» i. e., $10, together with the cost.s and expenses of the pro- 
ceed! ngu. 

Order reversed. nn<l pnH'eedinjLT renianded. with directi 
an order adjud^Lrin^ tlie defendant ;a:iiillv <»f conteni|)t aii . 
n Hii<> in accordance with the Hdatute aiuf a*^ in thi^ opinion mdJcateiL 



^r.ij 

vj^rme Court of If 



or 



iiaCtSIONt 



''"»r«TS AFFEC'TIXO UVEOR. 



243 



Wfore tlw ■^uj^i»,-iiu* cH>iirt of tndinita ou nppejU fr»>in tUp 
■uit court uf Clinton ('omit v. in wliicli C'linrles Lon;* luul s<*iMiro<l 
jadpneiit for wn^rfs, pc-nallii^s, nnd attorney's fees agnin^t the rail- 
road rompany. The action was busted on sections 7056 ntul 7051. 
B»irn>' Ail, Stat. 1001, wliidi pruvitU? thwt oonipaniivs. (*nr]Hfr:iLioa.H, 
aiid nssooiiit ions doing hu«<uie«t!i iu (he Stato umai puy the \ra^QS duo 
Uu'ir *'iupU»yws *Mi ' ii» nmnitiil *»!• ni4K*hai]i(<ul hih(»r at loast once 

n iiK»nth. Tht* v>\ _ ^ - conii'iiti^ui tlinf these st'ctnin> nrp violative 
of thij Federal Cnni^tituliau w^as upheld hy llie .supreme court, nnd the 
jnd^uiiMit nf (lie lower eou»i revers4Ml. The reasons therefor appear 
ill th'^ following extract fifun the opinion of the court. Avliich was 
delixered hy »!»dgo Monks: 

It will ho observed that .said hcclion-s. bo far as they jilTeot em- 
phjyers. only apidy to ** every rcnii])!iny, corjxmition or associnlion/' 
and, so far as tlieir einfiloveew are concerned, only apply to thos** 
'"engaged in manual or nierhaniciil lalior for everv company, cor- 
poration or association," but denv the right to such or their eniployoes 
S!> are not "engaged In inannul or mechanii-al labor." Ilinployees 
of an individual, although engagt?d in manual or luediiuiical labor 
for such individTial. are excluded from the benefit of said sections 
of the statute. They give the right to recover penalties and atlomey^s 
fees to a <'erlain chis-; nf eiiipU»yees tif companies, ctu'jiorations, and 
ai<sociations. but deny such right to tiie same clasfi or employees of 
an individual engjiged in the same businesti under the same coudi- 
titujs. They impo.se new burdens on ** every comjjany. corporation 
«nd nsdoeiation doing business in the State, while an individtial 
«*ngae»'d in like busineRs under like cireunistane<»s and conditions is 
left witliout any such bur*len. This brings said sections within the 
ride iieilared in TUnlford Qnan*ies Co. /'. Bough (108 Tnd. — , SO 
K, K. r.2D), anil the ciisi\s there cite<L and ufHrn llie authority of 
said cu^ vre hold that ther are unconstitutional. 



Stndav L.vB<^n — Bakuers— VoLVNT.vKy Skkvice — McCahi r. StaU^ 

Cotff'f of .l/iprah of frr'ftyut^ J«*? SoHthntntu }f Iitf*oi-ft /\ ff(i*je o50. — 
Slaughter Mct^iin was con^ictcd of violating the Sunday' law of 
Georgia and appealed. McCain was a barlan", working in a shop 
during tin* VM'ck. but on Smulays he *K*eu]Med a riK>m at a clubhoust*, 
where he ?.ha\od such inemlwrs as rwinestiHl his s^r\ic<vs, no coin- 
puLsory charge Iwing made, though the members paid twonty-five 
cent^ a shave. The court lu'ld that the law (Pen. Code l.Sl>5j sec. 
432), making the pursuit of buwiness or engagement iu one's ordi- 
nar>- calling, " on tlie Lord^s D«3S works of necessity or charity only 

"iinor. had been violatwl. 

' law are presented in the follr»wing svllabus. 

nrhidi was prepannl by the court : 

I. \ barbi-r who pursues the work of liis ordirtary calling >»it the 
iird\s Dav bv -shaviriif the members of a chd» at a vouwv *v\v N\\^ ^\\^j 



BLIXEIIN OF THE DUKEAU UF LABOR. 



I 

I 



honso. iiiul rot-eives coinpensntiott therefor, violales IVu. Code 1895, 
Bw, 4:1-2. 

'I, Tlie iTiiiiiiml t'lmrni'ler of .such act is luit uITwUhI Ia* the fact 
tlial the eoinpensatinn f(»r saitl work is not conipulsory, Init vol- 
iinlarv: nor by the fact thnt the work is confined to members of the 
ehib. ' 

3. The 4'oiir(s will jiidioiaUy rero^ni/.o that ^having bv a bnrlwr 
ifl not n work of ne^'essitv jH'rniiUctl by the :iiutut« lo be ilunc on tiio 
Sal»bnlli Day. 

4. The venlirt having been (leninndod hy Ihe undispnteil i«vi<lcnre, 
tho erixji's of law oomplainefl of were ininmlerinl antl harmless. 

DECISIONS UNDER COMMON LAW. 

Bdvcxjtt — CoNSPiKArr — Injinction — Shine et al. r. Four Iirother% 
ManufaHurlng Company^ Uniird States CirrnU Court of AppeaU^ 
Kfijhth Ctrvnits loC Federal Rtporter, pft*/e 1'T, — This I'ase waf 1h»- 
fore I he circuit court of apjM^uls on n|)iH'al from the circuit court for 
the eastern district of Missouri, in which an injunction had hctdti 
^ranlcd rcstraininji; one Shine and others. iiH'mlM*rs of a hiUir or*raui- 
zation. from iiit<*rferin^ with tlie business t»f the company. Tlie rep- 
rpKontBllvos of tlie union appealed, with the result that tlie order 
(if the cireiiit court was aflirnied. 

The fucth appear in the opinion, which was delivere*! by .Itulgo 
Hook, and which in in the main as follow?: 

The ftetioii of tin* trial court was in view fif the following fart;*: 
The complainant, the nnnnifaoturing company, is engaged in the 
n)iuiul*a('ture uf sash, d(K)i*s, l)linds, and (»t)icr arti<'les um*<1 in the 
construction of buildings. Its factorv is located in St. I^ouis, Mo,, 
and is what is known as an *' open shop;" timt is lo say, the com- 
plainant did not <liseriminate between union and noiumion labor, 
nut left that matter to the voluntary choice i>f its employees. So 
far as cMnnidainant wai- eoncerncrl. workmen <»f Uuh cIh'^m's <*ould 
obtain empl(»yiu(*iit tlirre. In fuet, Iuiwi-mm*. its employees, nuiiibering 
from .>0 to 7."), were nonunion. 'J'he rules of the union Iab«)r organi- 
zations did not permit tlu-ir n»embers to work in an o]>en shop except 
in .special cases aiul for spe<'ific purposes. Thei'c were 2^J opcti-shon 
factories in St. I>ouis like complainantV, and their product, whicti 
was commonly called "trim/* was al>ont SO jx*r cent of (he total 
nmount ummI annmilly in ihc building operations in that rhy. The 
employes in thes** factori4\H, aUmt l.(M"H» in nutulMT, were nonunion, 
excepting jK'rlmp?^ <'J or 4. I^v far the greater ]jro|)orlion, probably 
nnward oi IK) i>ei' cent, of the earpenlcrs engaged in the erection 
of buihlings in St. Louis behinged to the union labor organizations, 
Iti this ^talc of atfairs, a repr<'s<'ntutive of the national organization 
known as (h« *•• United Hrotherhrtod of Car|icntors ami Joiners of 
America *' can»e from New York to St. Ijouis for the jiurpostf of 
organi/.ing the opeji-sho[> factories tn St. Louis into cIosimI or union 
B-hopvi. lb* to(»k rhargt^ of and <lircctod the i^onrse of ' " mt^ 

J/€* ifc^fonipl'i.^ii tliiti end. Allliougli action was taken .. of 

flto otfwr opcB'shop factories, it is quite cVcai tto\u vW tNi<^\«& 



DB0KMIS8 or 



dM 



fliat ritiupliiittu 

to \v U» it-; .1-1 



.4lMl«d 



m to join 





«^ 



rnticuvonnj lo tiiskr it 

Im&ifiesfi iinle^^ it wuul*! 

union ii4:ti\t! ni>d rr«)iiln^ :(- (M|ilui|veB lo 

c€rvioe. Tlio df foTuIdxit:^ did aol «Bcic tke 

•ii« nonnnion *<nipl(kyrie<u fltcir < # < its 

prii' ^ : did the 

nJ vn cxMnplaiiiflDC and its 

isfaoiury. Tiiere was no **nlw, aad no 

honrs« or i>thrr <T>ndii k»i5s of ^^rvKir, TVe 

cHHikpli^li their parnnev in thi5 war: Upoa the smrml od' 

i»cn a coinmuier knovn «? the " trim 

by the central gorcnaog bodj of the 

organizer was <-x-<>fick> a m ta lw r of this d^nuttec To 

iximniitt4*d the artire dntr of tm^^nitiag tfe ape 

caused to l»e printed dirvlan ^^c^ng Hflls <rf tkt 

were nin as clo^evi sliopa. and diurvrftd ^btm to 

nnd anJiiterts of Sl Lottts, vbo voold fcor» lo do vitk ifae 

tion of plans and spedficatioiis aad the cn/ii^Tot^tm of 

Tbey also ^ve them lo own#^Ts of promri mr ahool to improPO 

the same. They watcfird ibo recoro* x,i r Tjetraita to leani 

as ^'ftrly as possible of projectrd litiiMing ■ -*-Sw The list of 

rlosiMl shops in:' ' ' ~V it all thoBt not Bained m me list wtre, to uaa 

the expression • , "^ onfair.^ The circulare conCataed a vaztt- 

ing that iniioii a. , ^ ould not be pmnitted to work upon aav 

liuildiu^ materials i _ ixdtict of a ooHed shop. They k^ii tiocx 

of the output of cotuplaioant's factory and nbere it mas deliTered 

for u^ in buildino:. i^HMne contractors who had been ct]5toDieT¥ of 

complainant for many yvar^ were required to 9gn a oontract whidi 

put an end to thL<> pn'r- !i— Buildins^ oppratioits in which the 

product was uned wer*^ - 1 by strikes of union workmen vhidi 

n<i ■ .' ' . <a:its. In ^vtae instances the union car- 

rN : 1^ work, but they wete required to do ao 

ly liuiaU I'f hands of the organizations, wliidi 

m«'ftut Ht ('- :iTii -on. In ont* iitftance. union workmen, 

upon :i -j in which oiniplniiiant'ti prodnct was used, were fined 



by tht-i, ..^- 
of individtinl 
though not a 



- for refuiin^ to cease work at the direction 

its, and I hi: contraclcM' who t^mptoyed thenif 

f any nuion, was nisi* fineil and required to 



pay a sum of iin»iiov as a condition to his beinjCT allowed to continue 

' '-"r. In most iastanors where obliga- 
:«rs r*^innn«r thctn to use the product 
>. iIk'V I'M i to continue with union 

"II tl»at A ■ ^» executed, wherein the 

I in the future he would not u>e such material, 
..^ ...i/„t;.,Ti. lUi^ l^nd what Is known as a **we don't 
, I to a brewing ^sj^x-iatton which 

nuiii'iK mm U' ne u'ied in the oon^lniclion of one 
WMwn llir bn Min^ *'*iinpany Ininuii ihat ius ni-oduct 
va> UMi£ Oojxx/ttedf h caJiceJed ita coutraet for the \tsft ol Uvft wwiv- 



24U 



BULLICTtN or TUB BUBCXU 0» 



union product, and tho or^niser >pnt forth n ^totement thnt thtij 
cotuMM'ti uas ito longer uiifuir to union tiilxtr. It (1im'>k not ii{)[)«*}ir^ 
howovrr, that tliis inolhoil was pinpl' iiist the > 

AVi' un* of tho i>|)inifm ihiit thr rot . it and fi m uf 

tlio ilffeiidantH an*! tJu» ihjinu't<M* of tbt- activt* ijp L 

the (Xiiiiphiiiihiit. its )vrodvt(-t uiid its custoiiMTS, ii _ d, 

si^iin^ of oontraotH bj such cuMomor^ putting an und to futai 
busiui'K^ relntioDs with tin* coiupUinauU nnd tho noting and wamiu^ 
to tlu»si» whf» tni;;ht hiHiMiic ru.-<(iii»ii'rs in tin* futupp, uiaJ<e tlw? caa 
indistinguishable frtiiu that of Hopkins v, Oxlev Stuve Co., 6«5 F 
IHL', *JK C. V. A. im. 

The oixier i^f the rireuit trourt \t^ iiifirnunL 



HoYC^lTT — C'oXHIMHACr — ^" UKFAttt LWTii " — INJUNCTION — /ttH^k 

Sfovt and finnfjv C<*ftipanij t\ Atn*ru'tt/t Ffilrrafion of Lahnr^ rf ahy 
Stiprt'Tf4t' Ci/ntt of tht' Pisffitt of CoiunMa^ Jo ]\'a^hhif/tt>n Law He- 
porttr, pa</r 707. — The Ruck Stove & Uaii^^ Conipuay, a corpt>mtiou 
or^niy.pd under the laws of Missouri and havinp iu prinripal phice 
of business tit St. Loui£« made a coaiplaiut a;;ainst tho AnicrioHJi 
Foderiition of I^il>or, its t»fflcers, and the rtunainin)>: meml>ers of its 
founciU and ii^ainst Kk*i*tc<'*ypi* Mohlers' and Fiiiisheris* UniiKi Xo, 
17, havinir heudquiirtiM> in Wu^shiii^^on. and <-ortaiu individual com- 
prising its oflirers and executive honnl. The lull of complaint states 
thnt the ('i>uipanv' luis been t?npige<l in the uiannfurture of sto>-«s and 
rani^'s binoe 1S4*». doin;; an annual husink^-^ of about one and n qiiar- 
Ivr ujillion dotlai'N extenciinju; to neurly nil States and Territories ol 
the rnion: Uiat it eniph\Y>4 i>n nti av«ra|^> st^ven hundixHl and fifty 
workmen, of wluun ten \wv eeiit are iu the uiekel ilifpai-tmeot, tJie 
labor of whom is eKsential to tbr conduct of tlw hnsitK*^';; thiit it 
ninintain^ an '' npeu shop,'' union men \u iho nu!ni>or of ?(i>vernl Inm- 
dre<i K^in^ satisfactorily employed: that the eoutpany is a meinbor 
of the Stove Founders* Natiomil IWenrse AH»fx*iatioiiT und as sach 
in porty to an a|rrivn»ent with ilie Iron MohJeiV I'nion < i 

'America, whitth in turn has iin utriveiiient with the Metal 1'^.- ■■ . , 
Mc, Tnternationul Union of Xortli Aniericn, jimviiling for the ad- 
justnieiit of p'ii'vances. and tlmt for many y<*ars tlu? ivuipaiiy Iw8 
faithfully kept and oI^M^rveil its ajfiventont. 

The bill then iveiteK that the American Kederutiuu of Labor bfta a 
nu^nibcrsbip of moiv than two million ]>erHt.ins, coin 
di-eil and twenty nnttoual or international and x\s< 
Hand local unions, bctjides Statu fedenitituis, ciiy rei 
al] of >vhi(*li hn\c 4)triciaU who act ^1 with uiul iti <>' t* 

to the diivxrtionH of the American 1 •. i.au of LnN>»* *^*- 'i 

offirers and w*:%»nls, and who an* renehtnl by Ihi* riivii 
^fiaas of tin* FtiWnu'um, notably tlio tuonXVAy \m^nv^\ k\v>*xi «» vWr 



ajtti 



lOXft ftF cornTs 



m; 



Fe<Ierntionidt. Tli» cufltom of tbe F«d«r»tioQ to 
1 . . ..huaI coiiYi*iuiiNi a ootmBtttee oo boycotts is s&k foteih^ 
Ih^ j^tement that in t«e]^iB jmcs. foar hundred and e4|^t boT< 
vo bMtt iipprovcJ of and dadand. Qaotatiptts fevin tbc 
dttHons <>if the bojcoct nimnwit^Mw, adof»tad br the conventioi 
of 1905 and 190fV. mzr made a part of tb» biU. In Che eartirr x^r 
M'.is said ; 

.. ^..w.^,jj5,, t),^ fm^ llinl. ji b^reott nM«ns trtr ^^^-^ '^ «u< 
' ft var w« mmt adc^ tbc tactir« tb. has 

-->f\d in war. Tw* j^rmtr^ nun^f-r oi tiir said 
ie of a bajbari&n. and that th^ u w ii gt of m x tx e s 
;iii yonr iortxA ommi ma point of tbe anagy, the 
.^ Tn rictr of these facts, the ooaumttee VBeom- 
TK nnd central bodii» lay aside minor 
ir efforts and Mi eft ^i c B «poo the lenat 
jnrinctkR. One wauU 
<i.^^^ .; ;fa»oonnHnd of the State 
concentrated nnoo one socbf and 
I -iii',>--;-!-i). liv nf\t on the Int wotud be sore caai^ 

1 I riktc and within a rMNSidila tine aona oppeitjd to fur 

* •^ors b«t wo^ bn bvovshi to sot ccror of their 
ways . ho intvkaUa, CMar 9ie pnnot ffratun, oitr 

efforts are largeAy waited aod our ananmilioo scatlecod. *Let vs re- 
dncn the boyeotts to the lowe^ pngnhl^ munber and coocentnta oar 
eftorta npoa these, and we feel certain better rednlts will be obtained* 



"IV .i 

thill ** vrnr Wi.- 
WtIS t' 

■ff eakt 

memis th»t tt, 
grievances ai)-! 
ntinilN^r of nnfai 




IP 



Thr.t some tntasure must be adopted to find out if the 

national^ naL and local unions who ire reitpoiLsibU* fur the 

l>fv,,.if< / iJ..-'r .Tury to bring aliout the dp*irt*d rcsulls. 

1 ' the organizatioos that have firms on 

l^ * 'he Amorioan Federation of I-a'^or, 

I" o^ViTv tlirt** iiKuiibs to th* K\-.- 

V.' ' T • ^vhat elT 

D' to rcp<.; \' 

n "j_vctjlt> i!j- arv iit»t rv- 

'riw methods of deciding to boycott are detailed, both fvr thb 
HI ' PolLsliers. etc.. T ' L"nion. which ha5 i 

m .p.: lU'nniws its owii - ^l " wliioh is pttbli^l 

therein. A strike by the luembcrs of thi& unicm in viuhition of their 
ftpveineui 
worldiig i. 

Qieuib ran Uiu hours, and though the poli^en^ buffers^ and pla 
il V -r Thc^ history of the di^pAite iti set fi>;^' 

^ ■'• action of both unions named in p 

rompany on liie " unfair" or '* we don't patniniw " li-^t. an*i in d 
(j^i...!;. .. „r..i ....-liiijf cirviihtrs contair-'" ■' ''•• »*.■- i- ** Do not pi 
r' * Ttjo ntHhodfs of !l asci^uent 1 

€p: hmuHHii of cuutructa at' 





248 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF l-ABOB. 



Affiilavit? were filed by ihe dofeniliints, difinln*? the terhnical iiso 
of (lie word ''unfair;^ setting foi-th conditions in the iron niohling 
and metal polinhing trades, and alle|^ing the diwehar^ of erriphiyces 
ou the ground of (heir membership in tlie Ial>or orpani/ationj*. 

The ciiso WHS heard Ix-fore Jud^e (jouhl, who prunted (he injunc- 
tion, Retting forth his reoHons ns shown in the following quotations 
from his opinion : 

Thrre ain)ear two general questions uj^on this record; First, luiri 
the phiiiitin shown the exihten<*e of an unlawful couihination and con- 
spiracy to de-stroy his business; and, x^cond, d(M\s the testimony so 
connect the defendants, or any of tliem, with such combination and 
tonspirocy as to make them amenable to the injunctive power of \h\n 
court. 

I'pon the Hrst proposition there is little room fur argument or dis- 
cussion. One of the counsel f*>r defendant stated in argument: " Tho 
American I'Vdrraliou (»f Labor has refuse*i intcrcoui*se with tlie 
phiinlill', business intercourse, such as comes from tiie purchase of 
htoves. It has persuaded its friends Ut refuse that inter('oursi\ It 
sayt: ' Have nothing to do witli this nuui or anything he niakeB us 
long as this condition of atfairs exists/" (Hecord, p, 2*35.) There 
is no attempt to deny that plaintiff's customers, even tliose under con- 
tnK't, have refused to continue business dealings willi it under thn*ut 
of being lx)ycottod by the local organizations afliliated with the Fod- 
eration. It thies not beconn^ neci'ssjirv in tins case to discuss whcllier 
placing plaintitr's name on the '' I'nfair '' list, or on the '' We Don't 
I*atronizo'' list in tho Federationist, amounts to what is technically 
called u l>oycott, for the reason tliat the afiiilavils as to what ims U-en 
actually done with reference to plaintiff's customers leaves no doubt 
as to what luis lu'cn in fact accon»plished. A boycott is defined in 
volume 8 of the Cyclopedia of Pleading an»l IVactiee. p. OHil. as fol- " 
lows; *^ Til is terui generally means the confederation, generally se- 
cret, by many persons whose intent is to injure another by prevent- 
ing all jnT-^ons from <h)ing business with liim through fear of incur- 
ring the dis)>Ieasure. persecution, and vengeance of the cfJiispirators." 
A better deliuition. to my mind, is that given bv Tafl, circuit judge, 
in Toledo, etc., Ry. c. IVnn. Co., 54 Fed. 7:K), 'l5» L. U. A. 357: "A 
boycott is a combination of nuinv to catise a loss to one person by 
coercing others, against their will, to withdraw from him their lx*ne- 
ticial business intercourse, through threats that, unh-ss tlmse others 
<lo so, the UMiny will cause seriotis loss to tiu^m." Thi^ ileliniti«tn waa 
given in March. 1S!»8, and it was of such combunitioiis ihut the siimo 
judge said, in July, lHi»4. in deciding the case of Thomas e. Cincin- 
nati, etc., Ky. Co.*, iV2 Fe<l., at p. 819: '* Hoywitts, tlumgh unaccorn- 
tmnied by vuilence or intin)idatu)n, have l>een pronounced unlawfid 
in evciT State of the Ujuted States where the qucKtioii has arisen, 
unless in Minnesota: and thev are held to lx( unlawful in Kiigland." 
Since this statement was nuuie. boycotts have lK>en hold unlawful in 
Mifincsotu. Ei'tz c. Pn>duce Kxclniiige, 7i) Minn. l-K). 

It in not surprising that there is so little difference of opinion 

among the ciMLrt:^ \ipon the question involvetl. The c i 

ivarJie/J In lia^ed tipim an a])precitttLon of the fundamental :,_.: 't 



DEClSiO^*S OF COURTS AFFECTIKil IJVBOK, 



249 



Sir W. Erie says; " Every |>or.sou has a ri«;]il nink'i* tl»e luw as be- 
twiHMi huiir^lf and his fellow-subjects to full frt»ethiin in disi>osing of 
hii) own hilwr or his owu cnpitai nrff»nlin'^ (o his will. It follows 
that ovrry other ix^rson is subject to the correlative duty arising 
therefrom and is ])r<»liibito<I from any destruction of the fullest exer- 
cise of tlie ri^ht which can Ik? nimle compatible with the exercise of 
similar rights by others.'' Defendiints have the right, either indi- 
vidually or collcctivelv. to sell their labiir lo wh(mi they jdcase, on 
such terms as they pfease, and to decline to buy plaintiff's stoves; 
they have als<» the right to decline to traflic with dealei*s who han- 
dle plaintitF's stoves. Ikit Suilor Bros., for in^.tance, have an 
equal right to buy plaintitrs stoves and plaintiff has an equal right 
to sell said sl*»ves to Sailor Bros., and when defendants and those 
associated with them ^v»mliine to interfere with or obstruct, without 
justifiable cause, the freedom of buying and selling which should 
exist between i>iaintiff and .Sailor Ihos. tuey infringe upon the rights 
of both and <io an nulawfid act. The same principle which is the 
basis of their trade friH?dom is also the basis or the freetlom of plain- 
tiff and Sailor Bnis. to deal with each other untrauuuelled by the 
interference of «lefen<lant.s. Such interference is an unlawful inva- 
ijon upon the rights of plaintiff. Just wluit constitiites " justiliable 
rausc ' for interference, as renuirked by Chief Justice FiehK in 
Vegidahn c. (iuntner, ItiT Mass. 92. remains in stune resi>ects unde- 
termined. Defendants claim the motive of wishing to f>etter their 
condition affords such legal justification; but this motive is too 
remote*, as compared with tlieir immediate motive, which is to show 
what punishment and dis;l^ter necessarily follows a dtfiancu of their 
denuutds. As (pioti»d with approval by the SupiTMne Court of Penn- 
sj'lvania. in Purvis c. Brotherhood, 214 Pa. 34B: "True, the defend- 
ants contend and testify that their purpose was to Ivenefit their own 
mend>ei's. This, doubtle.-*^, in a ^ellse, is true, but the Ixnetits sought 
weiv the remote purpt>se. which was to be secured through the more 
immediate purpose of coercing the plaintiffs into complying with 
their demands, or otherwise injuring them in their business, and the 
!»nrt can nut, in this proceeding, look U^vond the immediate injury 
to the remote results. Such is the <l(M:trine laid down in Eddy on 
Combinations and quoted with approval in the case of Erdman v, 
Mitchell. .'»tj Atl. 3:27, as follows; ' The IxMieftt of the memlK^rs of the 
coiubinalion is so remote, as compared to the direct and immediate 
injury indicted upon ihe noiniuion workmen (in this case non- 
utiiou mill owners) that the law d<K's not ItKjk l>eyond the immediate 
loss and damage to the imioccnt parties to the remote benefits that 
might result to the union/" 

In the case of Plant r. Wootls. 176 Mass, 492. the court says: " The 
necessity that Ihe plaintitfs (members of one union) should join this 
association (defendants' union) i^ not so great nor is its relation to 
the rights of Ihe dcfeiulants as compai-ed with the riglils of the plain- 
tiff to l»e free from uudestatiou. such ns to bring the acts of the de- 
fendants under the shelter of the principles of trad«* couipetition. 
Such acts are without juKtiticjition an<l therefore are malicious and 
unlawful, and the con^jiinu'y thus to force the plaintiffs was unlaw- 
fnl. Such comluct ib intolerable and is iuconbistcnt iviih the spirit 
vt our Iu\\." 



BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF L\BOa* 



In tho ras* of Curron v. (ialen, ir»f> N. Y. 35, v -- I. **Tlie Booial 
priiKMpU^ wliidi justilirs such orpiiiixjUioo is- • froui when 

th«^y aro so oxteiuied in their operntion a-u either to intend or to ao- 
iNiniplisli injury to ntht'rs/' 

It i-K ottrnestly contfndetl In* doft'ndnnis' coniiKeK hou-> t as 

eaoh one of tli<' <liifendiint> Ims tlie rif^lit to refii.se to p, , the 

customers of plaintitf unless sncli awtomers xrill di^ountinue htm- 
dlin^ phiintiff s stov<*s, thnt, therefor^', they n\nj t-ornhine in thrir r»^- 
fu-sul: in otiier words, that tliere can not l>e an unhiwfid «'onibmiiiion 
where ett<h niemlter thereof niijrht <lo. indivtdinillv, th*^ '' '•' ■ oti- 
teinplnted, without resp(»iisil»ilitv to the hiw thereior. 1 len- 

tion has niiM'h of plausihility. U is undoubtedly diffl'-uU- to loinui-. 
late tlie le^al basis of the propt>t;ition tliat what is lawful for onn to] 
do Iwroiiies nuhiwful when tlone in eonibiniition. ll Neenis i 
accurate unnlysis. This feature is brought out in tlie di 4 

opinion of Mr. Jnstice Hohnes in Ve^elolin t\ (Jnntner, snprii, mI- 
tJiouph he adds: " It would l>e rash to s»y that some as yet nnfonnn- 
IuIihI tnith may not !»• Iiidden under tlds propoMlion/* and ad- 
mil.s: '" That whatever may be the law in the fUM.* of n Hinple ' ' ■ 
ant, tjuit when a plaintili' pi-oves that seNeral perMtns hrt\e ( T 

ami conspired to injure his business, and Imve done nets protlii.iugj 
Uiat etfei't, he bhows teniporhl thiinape and a cause of a((i<«i, unle*^' 
the fnclK diselose or the defendants prove sonie srround of excuse or 
ju.stiJiration, and 1 take it to be settled, and ri*rhtlv settle*!, that doing 
that diiinape by con»bined persuasion is actionable, ns well as doinj^ 
it by falsehood and force/' Hut, however unsatisfaetory may In* the' 
Htatenieiit of the ''as yot unformulated truth*' hidden un<ler the 
propo>iti(tn, tlie proposition itself is Wm (irndy in-^^rafleij iij^M-m UMh., 
the civil and criininiil l.iw to l>e i^^noi-ed, Mr. Ju li<'** Tfnrhni. in tlw 
m^ of Arthur c Oakes, 'i5 U H. A., at pap' V2\K tl- t 

18 one thing for a sinn>le individual or for si,»veral i i 

actiufr upon his own responsibility and not in cooperation wittij 
others, to fonn the fuirpose of intlictin^ actunl injur}' n[)on tlie prop-^ 
erty or rights of others. It w quite a different thinjL^ in the eye of 
Um? law for numy iHM'.s<»n« to cf»nibtne or conspitv lo^^ctlter with the 
intent not simply of ansertin^; their rights or of nceonipliahinji I»vr- 
ftil ends by jAsieealde metliods, but of eniployioi: their ' 

gi€«. to injure others or the public. An intent on flu* pir 
prr.Min (o injure the ri*;his of «>! df (he )> 1' 

a wronir 4if which the hnv will ( lizanoe, 1 

act hi' done in execution of the unlawful intent. Unt h con* > 

of two or muve perjiions with such an intent an*i untler eiivui. a, 

that irive them when so eornbined n power to do an injuiy tho^ 
woulJ not possess ns indivi<huils actinjr jointly, ha* alwnyi htcn' 
recoifni/^d a.s in itself wronufid an<l i!le;r]il. 

T I'l'Xt ciintcnded on behalf of deferxdants that t** 

fpti 1 of [jlaintitTV name on tin* "Unfair'' or i 

*;i "" list wouhl be an ' nicnt on th' ' 

rij' i an assjinlt upon tl> <wai of tlie Jh i 

filanjiitl hail any r ' sm-h pnbiicalion it was l»y action fi>r itiflj 

ibel, uutl that e»pii.. ..;,i not join the t.ni.lM...t;..,. !.f n ri».i \t^ 
this wouhl have merits if the art of det 
//ctition sffHiil a/onc. unconnected wWv o\i,* 
tnU foJ/onjng n, hut it is not an UoIuVicOl 1 



DB01BI02;d OF COrBTS AfFKCTlXQ LABOft. 



351 



CO* 



Had Um " affidavits it is an act in a 

I>Iajiu .an act whirli h?ts « dt^tiuiU 

'i U> liMi>4- ii^TAHiatod with iU't aud an 

I "f tiuulutt im the part of di-: - a>iM.ivi- 



I 



aK's uhic-b kiuUTrt'iilly uU«<rfere*i with [>Inii»till"s riglil of freedom to 
txiidt* with whom he pltMses. The ar^uiuoiit uf counsel is fully 
■Ufwei'ed bv tlM language of Mr. Justit'e Hohue^s in tlic case of 
Aikens /*. u is^-iimvia, 105 L'. S. IW : " No i-oiKliR't has such an a\*so- 
lulc privilege as lo jnlftify all posevihle schfiues of which it may be 
a paru The nvist iiuiooeni anil Lvuisiiiuiionally proteoit^d of acts or 
ouAk'^iouh Biav be uiade a 6to^ in a criminal |dot, and if it is a stop 
in a ph>t, neither its innocenix' nor the constitution is sufficient to 
preveikl the pruiisliment of the plot by law." 

It Ls asM*rti><l in th«^ aihswer ox dofeudants, and urged in the argu- 
ineut, that the defendant, the American Federation of LalxM*, is a 
federalion of or^amzatious and has no individual membership. It 
wot;' ' ^ ' '' ' ' : tnd how the ditferent urganizatiuus. made 

up ind existing only by reaM»n of such intii- 

. cuulU \m} feilei^attxl into a ci>ntral urgauizaLion 
dual members becumin«j: ai-o niend>ers of sttch 
o'l it ion; i'sjHH'iHlly wouhl this Ik* dillicuU in a court of 

i-ji ^ 'M>k^ ilirough the forms to i-each the siubstance. liut 

it IhU couid be aocomplisluHl as a legal or equitable fact, the testi- 
mony shows conclusively that the defeikdant Inis not done sc». On 
page 177, of Uio printed atfidavits, is given a facsimile from the report 
of the i>ro(, ' .if the convention of tlio Federation, 11>01, show- 

in^' that i( lo be ti»en coini>osed of mure thjiu l.*j.M»,UOO, iu- 

And <>n puge *j;»o, in the report of the defendant, 
i'Ut of said Feileration. he refei*s to (he activity 
ol ^ aii «jur organizei^s our orguni^iutions rtnd our membei's." 

It is further insist^Hl by counsel for defendants that phiintiff s 
biiaiH-:s8 is not proix-rty or a pr«»pertj' right: Uiat it is a mere 
abt<truc(ion, incat>abfe of judicial prole<.tlon. 

in the cH^^ of My Maryhmd l^txlge r. Adt. 100 Md. 238, a boycott 
pa-- ■■ ' T V ry^ [ii delivering tLe unanimous opinion 

•»f iuge: " It is too late to doubt iho juris- 

t cotiri "i 4*<iuity to grant ivlief in such cases as tlii>* if the 
of the bill are sustained bv llie evidence. The adjudgi*d 
caaes are all one way." (Citing nine cases from the State and 
Feiieral ctauts.) "This list of cases mi^ht be swelled a humlred- 
fuld^ but ^e do Dot deem it necess^ir^* to cite any otliers. Thoiie that 
w#» have referroil to aiv <|uitP analogous to the one before us," 

In the viis*} of Purvis c. rnitid Urotherhmnl. •>!+ Pa, ^48, the 
court M- <ri': "The business of ll" tfs Ls prop- 

•rt_v w. lur of the law. The deh sought, by 

■■\'-i ..'1 ;i, lo injure them in their business; in other worils, 

'ii ^ • ii> order to coerce them into submission to the de- 

ma I 

1*4 U..4; .. j^.uMimg Trades Cwmcil, 91 Minn. 171, the court uses 

ilkhi hiB^ruagtr: "In restraining boycotts the authorities proceed oa 

'' -'ory tiiat thry are tmhiwful interferences with property 

* • * A pei^on's <Hvnpntioii or calling, by meatus of 

wJiiii* he emijw a livtUhovd and caUeavorls] lo bctWi \li^ coui\vn;v>v^ 



2^2 



BULLETIN OFjTUE BUREAU OK LADOtt. 



i\iu\ lo pii)\itIo f<tr iiiul siip|>()i'( tiiiiiM^If im*l iIioho Wopcndent n\)un 
him» is proixn'ty within the inoaiiin;^ "f tl'** I«w. wnd etUitlcMJ to pro- 
twlioii ns sUch; nml ns condintoii hy the inorrhant, by the uipitalist^ 
by the coiitnictur or hiborer, in, iisitlo from tho ^ikkLh, rhutteU, 
inoiicy, nr ('iT»^<'ts (Mnj)l*»y«Ml niui used in r(iiine<:tion therewith, prop- 
erty in every nense at the \vonL" 

As atntea by Jiidgi^ M^Shorry. the list of oases nssertin^jr this 
proposition nii»rht Im* extemled indofinitoly. 

8e<v)n<]. Thf stMNnnl point to bt» oonsitiore*! is, Does the te^timonj 
Ml conntM't the ch'fi'iiihints. or uny of thorn, with siirh conihinnlion and 
eonsj/iriH-y as to niakc thiMn Hiiienul)h* lo the injnnctivo ]M)W<*r of this 
court ? 

Thi* riroi'd in this case leaves no doubl that plnintitT has boen iind 
still is the object of n " Hoycott." nsin;; t!iat in the most obnoxious 
st'ii-ie, viz, uu unlawful ajiispinicy to ilcsiroy its businrss; such n c*on- 
f*])inicy ns has received the condemnation of every Fedenil and State 
court in tht- country before M'liich it has Iw^en bnut^lit for criminal 
action, Icpil n'drcss, or (M|uitiiblc ii»junclion. This <*onspiracy origi- 
nnte<l. as I have stated, in the action, by Metal Poli>hers' I^)cal No. 
L3. in St. I^uis, in the fall of litCMi, a bo*Iy fcdiMnted \Nith the de- 
fendant American Federation of LalMu* thniujrh the Tutfunalional 
Metal Polishers, etc., Union. It was rtdvanc<'d in acconlance with the 
procedure of tlie wiid Federation until in March, 1007. it received 
the active indorsement of the exei'utivc council, the controlling body 
of said Federati<»n. It is true that when this IkvIv acted it cli<I not 
use the word '' lioycott " but the more euphemistic terms of •* Un- 
fair" and " AVe Don't Patronize.'* 

Hut an examination of the record conviiu*es me that whatever the 
term used, ihe oih*oi intended was what naturally hnpT)enedf via, 
a boycott. In fact, that the terms nu»an the same thin*; in the pro- 
c(»dure of the Fctlemtion dtK^s not seem do!d>tful. Its constitution 
provides for a committee on boycotts to lx» appointed by the presi- 
dent at t!»e amuinl convention; it was to such a conimiitee on boy- 
cotts that (he resolution of Hechtold was referred, and by (hat com- 
mittee it was referred to the executive council. Over Hflten pngew of 
the printed affidavits arc tilk'd with reports of the '* itr^anizerH "' of 
thi' Federation from all parts of the country, piddlshcd in (ho 
Federatiouist. 

These almost invariably contain the statement that •'all Ameritnin 
l'ViU>ration of Labor bovct»lts are In-iufr pushed as thortni^hly as 
jHi^-^ble.'' In the convention of the Feileration held in November, 
iiUM). a motion (f) concur in the repf)rt of n certain (rommitteo was 
carried: this report is as follows: 

^'A( (he twrnly-fifth annual <H>nvention of the American Fcdera- 
tiou of Labor, held in Pitt^lmrp, attention wan called (<» the Inrpo 
t^unduM* of tirins on ihe unfair list and ihe necessity of red- .^^ 

^ame -^o that we coidd make our declara(ions of unfairness 

*■ This eommittee fituls that not numy cluitipi*s ha\*e occurreii 
inp the pixryt year and lielievc that wme action nujst \m* tidccn in o..,* * 
to seeuiv the coo|H'ratian of the labor pi'ess. We cauH expect the 
Iwlu^r press to ^ive the fipace it would renuire to publish the nankCH 
af it)] flicNc linns, and without pnblirity (ne intent of llie boycott is 
(iefvMted* 



DECISIONS OF COUBTS AFFECTI^^O L.\BOR, 258 

- VTe believe that some nien^ure must be adopted tn find out if the 
tiatioikul. ihteriuitiuiial oi* IochI iittions wlm niv reh|M)nsihle ft»r the 
Xtoyvtiii are doingc their duty to bring alx>ut the desired results. 
Therefore we rivouuneiiil thiit ilit* urgaiiizutioiLS t!mt have linus on 
the ' We Don't Patronize' list of the American Federation of Labor, 
J>e|nnning^ Janiuiry 1, 1007, report every lliive months to llie execu- 
tive council of the American Federation of Labor what efforts they 
are making to render tlie boycott effective. Failure to repoit for six 
months shall be .sufticient cause to remove such boycotts as are not 
reported on from (he ' Wr Don't Patronize' liat of the American 
Federation of Labor." 

It will be notji'ed that here the terms " Unfair," "' >Ve Don't Pat- 
ronize " and boycott are used interchangeably. Tn the aHidavit of 
one of ihe defendants it* this case, he speaks (if the resolution intro- 
duced at the Minneaj)oli» convention i:elative to a dispute "between 
one of the orpmizations affiliated with tlie American Federation of 
I>atK>r *' and plaintiff as follows: " This resolution souifht the indorse- 
ment of the American Federation of l^lnjr in the dechuation of a 
l»oycott bv that organization, the International Brotherhood of Foun- 
tlrx Emplovees/*' 

It is well settled law that all who a<'ccde to a conspiracy after its 
formation and wiiile it is in execution, and all whd with a knowledge 
of the facts concur in the plans originally formed and aid in exe- 
cuting them are feIlow-c<»n.spirat(u-s. 

They conunit an offense when they become parties to the trans- 
action or further the original plan. (Oclis i\ People. V2-^ 111. 399.) 

As stat*.*tl by JiMlge Dillon, in F. 8. c lialx^ock, 24 Feil. 9ir>: *'Any 
one. who after a eonspiraey is f(»rtne<L iind who knows of its exisl- 
eiice, joins therein. l»ecomes as nnirh a party thereto from that time 
as if he hutl originally conspired. " In the recent case of U. S. y. 
Standard Oil Co., l'»2 VM, :^9L the court uses this language: 

•*Again, the alleged conspiracy is one. Its scheme is single. 
It lias but one object. IVrnaps none of the alleged conspirators 
|>articipates in every ))art of the conception and of the work of the 
combination, but every one of them takes his part in the ])lan, or in 
il-S execution, a part |)roniotivc of its purpose, the restraint and mo- 
iio]H>li7.ation of commerce in the produet of j>etroleum among the 
States. To the Watei's-l^ierce Company, the resident dcfendnnl, 
has been allotted no inconsiderable portion of the execution of this 
plan. • • • One who knows of a conspiracy after it is fonned, 
and then joins it, or knowingly aids in the execiition of its scheme, 
and sliares in its }H^>tits, becomes from that time as much a cocon- 
spirator as if he was one of ihase who originally desigiUMi it and put 
it in operation. * * * * If a series of acts are to be performed 
with a view to produce a particular result, he who aitls in the |>er- 
f*.' yif these acts in order to bring about the result nnist have 

ail 'u to effectuate the end proj»osed. and if he cooperate with 

odiei^s knowing them to have the *^^me design, there is m fact an 
agreement between him and them.'" 

Upon the record as presented, and for the ivasons stated, I am 
of T riion thai the plaintiff is entitled to Ite pn»t<N'ied by an 

hij until (he final hearing <»f the i-ase, and I wdl sien an order 

It' 'fit sHi/staiitially a^ prayed in vU^VvY^. 

^77 



mmBSk 



HTLumx or THE vcmxAr or 






iBJancliiin ia in paii mb lolknrs: 
m unl e f w l that 



i Um imadnni^, TIk* Anjrn*Mn FMcrat»f^n of 
L^fior [and prrxms iiamrd |. their and esrii 

f..,Ur*i.-,., ann «ny and all p*;^ .. ^ ..^.^ .i^ j,.. ,.. ..r 
.♦-m or any of th^ni l^e. and they b**rt»hy are, 
* ' "' '^ * ' ^' -:* in »-aid caiisp fr 

ru*r lo ris^rtiin. : 




>r [ai 
mtUtav 
ia etn: 

plain . ■ 

or anr of thrm. and fr<»ni 

of ihf pHKlnrt of llif ^*im\[ 

matK. or !it any other per?ff>o. linn or rorporati»»n, and froni declar- 

inf or rliTrateiiinj? »ny Iiot«>U o^in.-d the romr''"'*""*^ 

bfrone!^ or the prochict of tits factoiT, or a^inst 

crt^rorpor:. ' ^ -"'■ ' ''• * 

frnrn nU-t • 

r^ 

or any 'rthtT pnnti*<i or wriifn n^ 
er or iitlier ilocnnK'nl or itistruinrnl 
tain fir in any toanm^r refer to the name of the • 
nesH or its nrodncl tn the " We r><»n't Patnmi/v. ••. me < 
lift of the n**fendants. or any of them, their iiffents. nvnant 
ni ' 'I ■ . HI" otlier [KM ' (* 1 " ii 

r*' ^M'ni or wUu 

piniiiniil, ; -^^ i»r prrwfiu-t iit tin 

fair" or ^ - Wr I>on't Patroi: 

|jhrB*<', woni or wonls of >iinilnr imjiort, and from i 
iiCherwifie cimjlnting. whether in writing or orallv. any 
no4tre, of anv kind or rlmnirter whatsoever, caUin^ ntr 
oomidainnnt « ni»tomet^, or of dealers or tn ' . t»r it 

any Ukynnt :i|?ain.-»t the (.t^mplainiint, it^^ l> r its 

tV • Of wrrr, or have l»een fJt.i.Iaro»I to U 



ntior- 



lerio " Uii« 
nrr nthei 

/ *tr 

. •»r 

: ihe 

f j ll'MU', to 

piiidiu't. or 
" I nfair,*^ 



■tot \h' piirchuse*! or iit>:t!r 
or (tther prr>.<m 



or 

deailer. Ir,. or •»iner prr>.<m w 

or any r^i urn or slutenienf of i 

ptiqxise of, or tending lo, any injury to or i 
cotupIninftntV hn^>ine-^s, or with the fm» and n- 
profliirt, or of coen'ing or indumn^r ony dealer, 
fwrntion. or the ptihiic, not to' » 

<ir hnve in rKtK.;4wsiftn stoves, 

ir^fx-^tT fri>m Imi\ 
t«|r(, I'il 
' conuniti 
I innm'c of any ki 



ill or Imndli'd hr nni 



or hv ihr jjtih!i< 

>r iiiiiiorL Tor flu 




>/i//f flcr* »r thmf^ iifnrnaid* 



PBGI8IDKB OP COVRTS JLFFECTIXG LABQB. 



255 



I E>injurEB8' LiABiLiTT — Vj<'K-PuixciPAiJi — Chah-utjui of Act as 
[Tl»T — Pffem t\ Gtf*rt/<-^ I'nii^d Si,tien I ire** if C'otirf of Appt^uls^ //j^ 
■|^/vf^ RejH>rt^rs patje fii^.— Elias TkMirge, « Symn, had lieen 
K^rilcd danirtgi-s in %hv cironit court of the Tnitt^d Stntcs for Ihc 
IrnMoni district uf Pviia.-»v!vunia, for injuries roooivotl whilo al work 
[in a qttarr}', ami the <iuarry owm'w appouliMl. ( Jrorgo was a grncral 
flaborer. not expeririiosJ in the niatlor of ilrilling or l»lu^tittg. un«i htnl 
bem din*rtcd hy um* Blo^r to ilrill out ini irnrxpliHh'd chMrg^'. BIosc 
l&cted a<5 «>rt of a ht^d quarrynmn or gang boh«, under flie gcnt^ml 
fdirection of the superintondcnt. Cioorgt- ^VH^ not warned as t*i tho 
Iduu^t^us t'liiinKter of the work, and only the most olfnifiitjirv dircT- 
nionsas to how to procrod v^w given. 

r Thp jud/Erin<*iit of the lower court wus affiruieil, puiuipuily on 
ipouad> which app^^ar ia the fulh>win^ ipiolntiou fruni ihi' opiuiuu 
tpf (be circuit court of ti]>]x*jds« as delivered Uy Judge (Iray : 

IV ■'•rtliup MOW with what must In* eoucetled to W* a prinmry 

aiui r duly of the niii>t*.r to the servant, the liabilitv for the 

rii«n*lH-rloruiaiu»* of wliirh tlte uuister <iin not relieve himself hy dele- 
tfTfltin^ it to any otlier jterson. whether of tlie highest or hiw^si nmk 
bn the serxnee. Mmh nrfrumentatioii has been devote<l by counsel on 
[Loth aides to (he mjeslion whether Oavid BhiJ^e was to Ik» eonsiderofl 
[as a vkre-principnl of tlie defcndauls. or merelv a fellow-tnTvant of 
1' ' ::itiff, tin? eoiLs<*f]uen(v on the one hand f)eing thut defondsnts 
.■ re->i^iit.^iljU' foi' injurieh occMsione*! hy his negliffeuee. while 
km the irfher, it wonM he nier*»ly the n<'irlij?:»*nce of !i frlh»w-si*rvant, 
■nd one of t!ie risks a.-<^llme^l hy pinintitt in ('nterin<» defendants' eni- 
B>Ioynieii(. While nt one time the -^i-eiiHwl ilK'(»ri' of vitv- principal 
Bras much resorlcti to, in working out tlw* liability of a ma-^ter for 
Knjuries tu an employee incurred in Ids serviee, it lm.«, sub<e«p)eutly 
io the d<»cision of the I{oe^ Casi\ 112 U. 8. ;^T7. 5 Sup. Ct, 1j>4> 28 l!,. 
fed. 787, l»oeu hlr^!:ely dis^'unhd, at least in (he Fetferal courL-s. and 
she disiinrtion between n-irligence that is to 1k» imputed to the niax- 
ger , and that whieli is U* Nc ron-ith*red as nierely and solely the ne«rH- 
JHter of a fellow -servant. ha.s Wvn placvd uposi a tuore bUtihfuiWuy 
PB rilior-il lwi*iis. In the opinion of Mr. Jtisti»v P»re«er, d<livering 
Ihe t of tlie Supreme (Viurt in H. & (). R. U. Co. r. Hiiufrh, 

040 : . . - >. i:i Sup. (V.yi 1.37 L. Ed. 772, the whole Mibject has Um'u 
bistruotively dtw-ussed. and it hns been elearlv ami loirically setllMl 
■MM whiil grounds a master may U^ held liable for injurie^^ incuri'ed 
^^^ MTvnnf in rh«* ruurse of hi"^ employntent. The tpiestion is 
^Hri '" 'h^ rliarped is the ne^le^'t of a primary 

^B ■ ^'*'' ^" *ii*' servant. If -urh l)e Us eluir- 

P^er. no <i<' "f the iH'rfi»rnuince of that duty to anoduT. no 

matlrr how n . his raidv may be in the iiiust«»r's servict*. <;ati. as 

^^nivc a]rt*ndy said, relieve the 1itd»ili(y of the mastrr for its nei;- 

BHF !>> • ■'* * ' -^ 'Tisun' the safety of the siTVunt. hut he 

paes nrtii in which he works, and the iippUaue?« 

■Ml !!!»• rtiUtlilion- under wit '. * 'r '-.dl 

^Bi d, A derelietion of tli" 'i* 

^^fc^ iuM^er'^ »^iiii.vy iu whom ftiiy part of «uc\i liuiy Wu Vyc«.\v vV^W 



: 



256 



BCt-LETIX OF THE BUREAU OF UVBOB, 



gotoil, is tlio dorrli(>tion of tho lurtstcr. Xoiliiiij; -Aiort of artiial 
notice of the iImm^tit to tlu» workimm who xh to cni'tnnitpr it, wiili 
siich oaiiUoriiuy p\|i]Hiuiti(»n us in»y cniiVilc liitn to avoid it, wlIJ 
sntinfy tlip rof|iiiroiii(»iit of tho Inw, and tlio ilofiuilt of tin* int<»rnie- 
diai y. uIipiIht he In* tiic lii^lit»>>t nfliccr ii] ootitrol, «ir uifivly a frlluw- 
^rorktn»n of the i»nc oxposod to the dang*n% is the dcfiuilt of ihc nuis- 
tor. In such n cnsi*, all ijnestion as to whetlier the immediate caasae 
of tho injury was the negligence of a felluw-servnnt. is olitninntcd, 
and ii»qniry as to tlie extent of the control and authority conimittea 
by the master to (he cnlpahh' a^*!i(, U^-lde the i^sue. ivhicli is solely 
as lo the character of the act or onii^^aion. uud not the rank, of tba 
ntTcndbig i>crvant. 



TNvU^Nr'ni>Ns — Priu.u ArntNs iNcrnx; ViouvTifTNfi — XathmtU i tle^ 
photii' Cofupitnt/ ttf ]\'fjif Vinjinht r. h'fitt^ I'liitt'ff Sf^if^ti CircuU 
Courtf Xorthcrn Dhtnft of Went Virginia^ I'fC Federal T^rporter^ 
pttf/t' 173, — Tlie teh'phoiie cotnpuuy )d)ove named had scrurcil a pi 
linunary injunction rotralninjr Kent and 'Ulier defendants, ele^-trici 
workers and nieiuliers of a lahor union, from interfering with the 
Cijnduct of its hnsiness. Snl»0(picn(ly an amended hill was filetl, con- 
taining (he comphiints of injury ami violence »ei f<»rtii in the original 
biiU and incorporating nen* matter n.dative to the action of one Hil- 
ton, editor and proprietor of a newspaper in the city of Wheeling, 
and the acts of (r<.»rtnin pcixtn-. nienilKT-^ of the Ohio Valley Trades 
aiul Labor Assembly, Bn<l alleging that these parties had joined the 
c<»n>piracy presented in the original hill, and asking !in injunctioa 
against them also. A ])reliminary Injunction wa^ ircanted on this 
bill, to which the defen<lnnts nanu^d demurred. 

On hearing l^cfore Judge Dayton, the doananr ":i- overruled. 
From his opinion the following '\^ rpioted as setting forth the grounds 
on which the injunction was continued; 

It i.s alleged in the amended bill tluit tlie^o new defi-udants, Hilton^ 
Ileckcr, C'lircoran, ami \\\'Sm>I, the three last menlioni'd actiivg in 
their capacity a^^ olfierrs td' the < >hi(» \'ullcv Trader an<l Labor As:-;em- 
bly, did hni>se(piently to ihe «'ranlin^ of the pndiniinary injunction, 
granted u|xjn the prayer of the original bill, join the ctuispiracy al- 
leged in the original bill, and that they diil, in pursuance of the aai*" 
conspiracy, print and distribute a ImjvcoK circular, which appeal 
among the exhibits to tln' aniendeil bill, anti that the defendant Hil- 
ton luiblished in his |>aner certain mall<'r.s intended to explain (he 
careiully worde*! circular and to uud<e the l)oycott inaugurated 
effective. 

<'oml^el for the defendant^, in the very able argmuenth ]* ', 

June very aptly Naiil ihut ihi^ i> an a^e of condiinatiouN. \\ ' :,•) 

of eond)inations — combinations of capital and cl^nlbiuali(ln^ tii iabo 
Tlieso cond»iu«tions ^o long as they are k»'pl wiihin the boundii of 
law, aiH> certainly lawful, are in many instance*. l»eneticiul to the 
son*i interested, and may bo, in some ca:-os, of benefit to tlo' ~ ■ 
public; but when a coniLinatioii of capiVaY iis uvudi: lot viwVa 



DECISIONS (IF COUKTS AFFECTING LABOR. 



267 



•- heinp niiitle for lui avowinl lawful purpose, iseoks to accom- 

isli its pur|Hl^<» Uy unluwfttl iii:*llintls, it liccnmrs Mie (Inly of the 

imrts to restrnin the unlawful pnu'tici's nntl to puni>h the unlawful 

is. Likewise, wijon n oomhiniitio!i of labor h niiitle for unlawful 

iur|)osi^, or, being made for an avowed lawful purpose, seeks to ac- 

'oniplitJi its purpo^ by unlawful niethtKit, it becomes the duty of 

ciitu't.sto restrain the unlawfid practices and to punish the uniaw- 

fid acts. The law knows no distinction l*elween the rich and the 

poor, recognizees no distinction Ix^tween unlawful arts of combinations 

of capital and unlawful acts of combinations of labor. The same 



Criiicipb's applying to one must np[>ly to the (jlher, and when a com- 
ination of lalnirers is orpmized for unlawful puriwses. or, being 
iwgnnixed fitr lawful purpose, employs unlawful methods, it "will 



be 



.supprc'^^'ed by the courts, its unlawful acts restraineti, and its 
rimes punished as promptly and as effectively an like combinations 
f capital are suppressed, restrained, and j)unished. 
There is further involved here, after considering the rights of the 
romplainant company and the rights of the defendants, tlie rights of 
thos** citizens who desire to exei-cise their God-given right to earn 
their bread by the sweat of their bi'ow in the cniployment of this 
'■ ' lie company. It is charged that the defendants tlircalened, 

, pursued, and even assaulted these men. who were doing no 
wp»»tig, but were merely exercising their right to work upon terms 
Mtisfactory to them: yet thev were made to suffer the persecution of 
Ihese defendants, and their rights, as it is charged, weiv denied them. 
There is to l>e considered also the rights of the general public. It ap- 
pears from the bill that this company and another company are en- 
eikged in the interstate conunerce of carrying messufife^ Ijetween th€ 
Htates, and that the t^iispiracy and coml»iiiati(in complained of sought 
to interfere with and tie up this interstate commerce. This l>eing a 
public business by a "* quasi '' pul>lic corporation, the rights of the 
public aj-e involved and are not to be interfered with by any unlawful 
methods. 

It is urgetl by counsel for the defendants that the injunction in- 
terferes with the rights of the pi'ess. The injunction granted doe-* 
not tloprive the newspaper in question of any lawful right to publish 
the truth or express its opinions in a lawfid mainier, but no news- 
aper has the riglit to publish anj' matter intended to aid wrong- 
tiers in acfouiplisliing a wronirful purpose or doing uidawful things, 
or to aid unlawful combinations in making effective an unlawful 
,r«)nspiracy. Some newspapers, certainly the one involved in (his case, 
" u\e misconstrued the freedom of tlie press until they seem to inter- 
ret the right to l>e a li<'ense to publish what may please them, even 
longh the publication shcuild be an express violation of the law. 
here is no miention on the part of the court to interfere witli the 
fn*e<Ioru of the press, but this court is not ready t<» accept the theory 
hat the freedom of the press means a right to advocate crime or to 
ncouraye tlie violation of the law. 

The laljorers in the organization, appearing as defendants in this 
•ii!^, have the right to org.ini/e for huvful purposes and to proceed 
o accomplish their purjxxscs by lawful methiHls; but when they re- 
to force, violence, arul destruction of pi-oijerty. coercion of peace- 
riihctrs, ly^ttihinutiotis., iiml conspiracies to in^nv' " — '- ?.t\;\ 
vr/i/j husitu'^ by tijrcais. jjieiiaces, and VioVv: 



rui 



4K*\\ 



258 



BULI.K'nN UF TUE BirBBAU 09 LABOH. 



rlwirpMl in (his ra,^', thoy l<>w* the iiionil support of lii«» puWiit- urn 
hrin^ upon tlu'iiisolvoH (lie coiuk*numlic»n nrul ivsiraininir »' ^'•ll 
ihf pimisiiin^ jM»\vf*r t»f (ho court. ThfV npprt»vp the ii; n o\ 

tli»*.se priiitMpIes to <onjbinations of oiipihil, nnd they can ard- 

in coinphuii of the Hpplicniion of the siuiip prifU'iph"<; U* tlieir owti 
comhinatimis, wht'ii tlicy step beyond the hounds of the Inw. 

Apj>lyinp; these principles to this c«se, and considering the bill aji 
beinjr tinroiitrn<li('U*d, I hiive no hesitation \\h:iti'Vi'p in jiromplly 
o^-errulinir the demunxT, and an order to that effect m*y be now 
entered. 



L.MKtR OmiAxtzATioxs — AppucATiov FOR MFJkiiiKHAnir — Qrj^urr* 
CATUiNfl — PmrriccTiox bv Union — Levin v. Ct/n^rovr ct aL, Sttpnme 
Court of \rtr .A»iwfy, tlT AthmttK^ /?tjM}rUr^ /^'f/"^ /'W. — LoiiU I>.'\in 
Npplied for ineiutiership iu a labor union nf painters, decomloi's. and 
paperhnngfers, stating that acconipunyin^ hij* applimtton «ti« the re- 
(jiiirrd fei> of Iwcnty-five dollar^. Tlii** fee \Ma»^ in fact paid in iji^t;ill- 
meats, and ou bis rejection on grwinds of incoiiijiftcncy, he sutnl for 
tlw: return of this fin?. Tlie dintriet cnmrt uf KliziiU*tii pive jnJjXiDctit 
agninst Levin, who appealed, secnrinp a reversal of the ridinL' of tlidj 
court b<dow, and orders for a in-w trial. I'hr follo^^in^ srlLdiii.'i bj 
the conrt «ets forth with sufficient f tdlness both the facts invo!\'ed iind 
the conclusions of law in the <■a^se: 

I. The conKtiiutJon of the l$n>!J»erho<Hl of PuinteriH, prondin^ tliat 
the initiation fer [inid by an applir-nnt for menilM»rslnp must accom- 
nany llie application and !)e retmiH'd in ruM' tJif 
jected, with a proviso that, if the fee It paid in ii e 

the upnlirant is "• workijijf at the trade nnd rM'ei\iht5 liu* p i 

of the i)rotlirrhood," su<li payments shall he foi fiMli'il to ihi- 
liO(td if the apjdieant bus made any fal>e slatcnienl>« or 18 uitniiW* to 
qualify as a meitiU'r, and there LK.'in|r evidence tending to sliow a 
ciisiom of the brotherhot>d not to peiiiut iUt m^uAn'^rs to work with 
men who were not menilwrs, 

Ilf'hf. that <'vidt«nee that an applicant, perwliii^ hih AppHmtimi, 



worked at (he traiJe (o;iri'lh»*r with nieinlxT 
not riliow that jdainfitT uxs "reetnvini? the \ 
hood," within (lie i - of the < .n,. 

ii. Plaiiititf's ri;^r, k ami ^i _ loyuient iti hi- Ium fii 

ctiputi«>ri was a ri^rlat secured to him by the oon^iitulion of it 
The fact of the t)rothrrh«»<Hi, hiivinir no right to iulerfer- 
did not interfen% can not be euiistnied b.s "' protectifin '* 
the brtUherhoo*! to luin: • -xk it in n lopd "- * 

-4. An appiii^nt for hip in a trade ii 

Clication tluit he was aUJc to ((yic 
H^alitv. F/t'fff. Tn»f to flTTrount to s 



in order i- 
fahitr of 



DECnBlOXa OF COURTS AFFECTING LABl/R. 



259 



Okc A NIDATIONS — TnAnr Ai;rkkmknts — Enfiirckmknt — 
SmtiLES — Ixjcxcnoxs — .1. 7?. Bitnus d' Com^Hini/ v. Berri/^ Untted 
Siate$ Circuit Courts Southern DhlriH of Ohioy WtMem Division^ 
Ft'dentl Rt^porter^ page 72> — A. H, nani(*s & Co. and others, rep- 
enting an employers' u&>ociHtk>a known as the United TypotheUe 
America, sued for an iujnuction against Berry and his coilef^ad- 
aiit*, oflic^rs of the Intomational Printing Pre.ssmcn nnd AssisUnls' 
rnion of America, to prevent tlie viohition by tlic latttT of a contract 
enterwl into by the two associations named in January, 1907. It 
njipi^annl that agrt-enicuts hnJ been niadf for a ninnher of years postj^^H 
but that at tike convention of the pressmen and ansistanl^ in 1907,^^^ 
ooiislderable dissatisfaction was expressed with the failure to secure 
the recognition of the olo^•ed sliop and the immediate adoption of 
the eight-hour day. Tlies** muttei':^ had been dit»cu.ssod by the com- 
mittees of the respective bt>die.s, but tlie only agreement nuiehed was 
in tlio nature of a eonipHMuis* which hniked to the a<loption of iho 
eiglit-hour day in Janujiry, 11»01>, otlierwise continuing the winlrnct 
of prerious years. Berry and his associates, elected to office subse- 
quent to the making of this agreement, were alleged in the bill 
to have demanded an inmiediate niodificalinn in ^e^lxx■t of the mat- 
ter of the closed shop and the time of adopting the eight-hour day, 
in order to enforce the demand, to have inciter! strikes again?^ 

inibers of the Typothetie who would not accetle to the modiHca- 
tiona, and to have threatened to i>ursue the same policy in the future, 

V -tatod these facts. Judge Thompson, speaking for the court, 

pri as fallows; 

ITw "'clopo^l shop" is contrary to public policy, and the demand 
for the immediate adoption of the '* eight-hour day ^ is violative of 
th<' rnnfract. Now. this is the situation as- 1 see it. This conti'act 
w:: Tlie old officers were s?ucc»^ded by new ones, who were 

di- i with it. They insisted upon a mtxlification of it which 

wmild recognise the " closi'd shop " and adopt at once the ''* eiglft- 
b<»ur day." The Typothetic sto<wl upon its contract rights and re- 
tised tci make this ctmn^ssion, refu.s4»ii to chai»gc and modify the con- 
'£ made, and it is alleged in the bill that in consequence thereof 
ikes have l«»en declared against certain ineml^eirs of (he TA^iv>thette 



•i the <*inMitry, and that strikes are threatened as 
^ 'if the Typitheta* who may refuse to accede or 
lion of the rt»ntract as demanded. Practically 
: _ i'on a new coutrnct. 

f the emplr>yees, members of the union, is neither s|ie- 

ary. nor unique, in the sense that it could not olhi'T- 

1. and that its loss woidd cause irreparable injurv. and 

restrain theni fr^mi qnittiitg the M*rvict5 o/ tJieir 

that their oflirt'r^. njrt'nis. and rrprfSi»ntativpH ha 



HI 

ooibtt!ni III tiif 
the union I- ii 
TIk 

wi 
it 

eii: 

ne 

Wicysy" aud to makv k vdcctivv at ouce. 



It ifi not & (\uttS3V\Q\\^ vWx^ 



2fi0 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAtf uF LABOR. 



I 



fore, of wlielhcr tlu» men who work "hall Ix' rnjoiiK**! from striking, 
but it is n question whether the ofticers* n^ents, timl representa- 
tives of these men, who repre^^ent the orgaiilzntion and ctmlrol it, 
shall be permitted to incite (he n»en to strike, to induce them to 
.strike, and thereby n»pndiiite the oonlmot which wuh made hv them 
through their agent*^ at the Jiinuarv convention of 1007. The bill 
<*harges that the executive ofliccrs and directors have conspire*! to 
force the nuiking of a new contract which will embody these two 
demands, and, in the event of the refusal of ilic 'l\|Mtihetie to agree 
thereto, then to enforce thes<» denuinds by strikes, ami tluit they aro 
using their |)osition, power, an<l authority to c<introl nnd iudtice iho 
men to strike. That, in substance, is the nllcgntion of the bill. 

The court is not asked to make an order enjoining the men from 
striking, and, if it were asked, would refuse to grant it, IxM-ause. n9 
already stated, no case is made, ni»r can Ik? made, in which the court 
would eompt'l the men to IaT>or. They can m^t U* made slaves. Tli^y 
can not l»e compelIe<l to work, and it is not stajght by this bill to comi>ol 
them to work; but it is s<jughl to prevent the (iniwi*s of the organiza- 
tion fi'otn usinc: ilieir power and influence to induce the men to strike 
in vi(»hition or their contract. 

It is plain tluit tlK>e t»fticers have great influence and i>ower with 
the Ixxly of men ctnuposing tl»i.s ussociulion, and if they exercise it 
unlaw fully — exercise it for the pui^jose of !X'j>udiating the contract — 
they may l>o re>t rained from exercising such jviwcr arul infltience, 
nllhougli the men themselves can mil be restrained from striking, or 
from walking out, at auv time, an<l refu^ing to w<»rk. In a word, 
the proposition dealt with is this: May the oHicers of this organixA- 
lion, in violation of this c(jntract, induce, iidlnence. incite or ccten-o 
the men into resorliu'i to a strike to compel a moditication of the 
contract 1? Sljall they be permitted to do that^ 

I am compelletl to divposo of this case upon what appears in the 
bill and tin* accompanying aflitlavits. There is no answer, and no 
affidavits on behalf of the <lefendants. except the ones I have read, 
I arn now disposing of the aiipli<'alion practically upon what in 
shown I»v tiiis bill. It is shown by the bill that, being a<lviscd of this 
eoiiti*act, they a<lvis4'(l the men to repudiate it, to deman<! tliul th«; 
"pight-hour day" la^ matle o|>erative at nnce. and also the "dosed 
sh(>p," and to enforce the deman<l they threatened Mrikes, and it in 
»llege<l that strikes have l)een entei'ed upon in Chicago, and other 
places throughout the country, and that u strike will be instituted 
ngainnt every member of the Typothette unless it consents to this 
juodiFieation of the contract. 

Now, so far as the men aiv concerned, if they trtke it into their own* 
hands, they may walk out, but this couii is asked to stay the hands 
of the ollicern who manage and control this organization, who have 
power to influence, to incite, to put on foot tliese strikes, who have all 
the machinery in their hands, and who mmOc to ust^ it tu induce and 
incite these men to violate a contract that was fairly made. 

I am of the opinion, tluM-efi^re, (hat a case is made requirii»g that, 
the>^<» oflicers. named, be enjoined, in the respects prave*l in the biil^) 
fvi- i^iiig thfir j*ow»r, tJieir control, and their mUuenw lo in* 

r//;. ^ for that piirjiir-e. 




LAWS OF VABIOUS STATES RELATING TO LABOR, ENACTED SINCE 

JANUAKY 1. 1904. 

- onlfllQS III! liiw*: i>t the various Statt>H nnd 

T* (M liiUtr. In fone Jrtiiunry I, IJMU. Liiter 

n. 11. ■» of thr Itultctin, lifglnninif with BuDptln 

Nu :>T. iht l>o.tiv ul Ai^ttli, ;iutr,. a t-nuinluUvt' Index of ttkL'Su later tractmenU Id tu be 
found oo pace i:H3 et teq. oC tbls Issue.] 

HAWAII. 

ACTS OF 1W7. 

Act No, 11, — ffotir^ of tahor of rmplo^r^ on puhUr irork^, 

IfiEfTto!"? 1. Swtfnn 122 of the Rpvlfwnl I^wr of Hnwnii id Iiore^y nniomiiM .•«) 
JH rwul lis f"Mt»ws: 

* S4»ction 121*. Ki^bt liourt* of nctUHl servlcv on miy wnrkinpHiny, except on 
Ralurtltiy. on wbk-h day only five bours «»f nctiiHl i^rvire shiill miislitiite a day's 
lalM>r for nil UMvhitnlrw, iMtMirerp, dorks and t>ther oiuplnyeos tMiipIoyod ii|>on any 
public* work or in any puldir offlcp of this IVrritorj-, nr any |iolitl«.-al »ub<llvla!on 
tliert-of. whether the W'*rk \^ doue hy eontr.'u-t or olherMi(*e." 
Approved over governor's veto. 

Act No, D*J. — Km plntt intent o^c*. 

RrcTio:^ 1. *'hjii'?<'r lo2 nt the Heviseil T.iiwk of llnwull !« berel»y amended' 
hy uddiuK ten seetioim th**n*tti to be knmvu at* scs-tloti • • « HIS*.', • * • 
and to revd uh ruM>iw*t: 

• ■*•**• 

" S<»etlon 1418*'. Every i»erson. rtrni ur oorporntlon •'ondn<*thi>; an einploy- 
ixM'Ut or ititelllicence offi.** or ndvertiKhiir an an eni[»ltiyn»eut ur Intelllgenoe agent 
sbull |uiy nn onnani llot>n.<^> fee of Iwenty-Hvo dollars'. 

• «••••• 
Am>rove<l tbls 23<1 day of April. A. D. 1907. 

Act No. 1*S. — Ratra of waoct of cmployccit on fiuhllr irorX-x. 

Be»Tio?f 1. From nnd nfler the pnpsnge of this not the dnily imy (>tr eoeh 

w'trkhiK-dny nf earh laborer enKai»*d in i'"nf*trn<'thiir nr repairinir raads. hrfdKPH 
or t*rnx*ts witterworkn or other works either bj- «xtntract or iitherwlt*t\ for the 
Territory tif Uawnll. or for any |M>Htl(-a) subdivision thereof, sbail ntit Ik* less 
than one dollar and twentyflve i-ents. 
Appn>ved nver povernor's veto, 

AiT Na 113. — Actions for pcrso/in/ lujurirft — Umittttinns, 

SECTION 1. Actions for the recovery of comiKMtsation for damage or Injnry 
to iN-rjf'Us or properly nniRt lw^ instliuled within one year next after the caup6 
of artlon aix-rinsl, and not after: Frt>viil*it, That aHions. on sneh eiin**es. which 
fti^rne<l prior to the approval of lbl« act. if otherwise barred hereby, may be 
brought within one year after such appr«^^»val and nt>t later, 

AwToved this 30th d»y of April. A. D. 1007. 

Act No. 110. — EMitioffmrttt of minorn in Molontm—Salr uf fiquor to rmploprea. 



S»eTioN 30. XJovuMs »hnll be snibje«*t lu the foiinwinj: 
vislonfi: 



'ondltlonH and pro* 



(41 nxut no holder of n IK'i-nse for a waloon !iiislnes*K Miall employ any minor 



2*32 



BULLETIN OF TllK KrRKAr OF T^BOB. 



(Tt) Tim) iin Inloxk-rttlirif Ihinur «h«ll hv ftolil i>r fiiniUheil in • • • nnj 
p<«r«m \vlnti4t' • ♦ ♦ i-niploycr shall linvi' irlviMi unilri* uh liervlunftiT pro* 

• •••«•« 

AppvuvtHl Ihia ^{Utli duv of A|»ril. A. It. UtuT. 

ILLINOIS. 



k 
i 



Af.TH (IK IIM>T. 

ArHf/r/i/n (o »:w/j/</;/rr.t — Rrportn, 

{fmw arts. J 

Sn<mo?f 1. It slmll bo tlio duty of ox-i*ry ihthoii, firm or oorpftnitlnn rmyloylng 
hilMircrf. urtiwuiH. lUts-linidos iniiHTH, iIci'kH or iiiiy olhcr wrvmitH nr *«iu- 
plo.voes of nny chnniotcr, to mnkr n rpjuirt to thr 8t/itr Imrrnn of InWor !*liiti&- 
llft* of L'vt'O' Hfiions Injury eiitjillli)»j a lnM« nf ttdrly ^r mori- days' time, InJ'iry 
or iJ«*nrh of ovrry oinploy<>e iiukh'41 by iKn-lilont wbllt la tl»e i»frformnnre of nny 
dtity or wrvbv for Kiich i»iii|»lity('r wllhln tlilr»y (.'^») diiyx froiri llu» dalo of Mtwh 
Injury or donth. Surh reiMirt xhull pive tbi* iiiiiiir of Ibc pniiiloy<'r. rhjinn'tor 
cif hiiNliit*HH iif Mdrh ulnployiT. wbt-pe Io*ti(<Hl. diitr of Iujur> i>r dititU. niiiur of 
firrNim kllUtt or lnjtirtil, rhnntrtrr of iMnploymrnt tif •ii'rvU'o. n\u\ t-jiusr i)f such 
Injury or drath, and wbfn bijiiry nloiie. Www Ibf cbdrnirt^r and HXifMil nf Rocb 
Injury. ntNUhMici.'. uuUvlty aud atco uf xha (ivrMin iujurtil ur killed, wtM*tluT 
niarrlrd or sln^lo. nnd, If known, bow innny pt*ri><m« nr« dept^ndeiit upon Midi 
ein(il(>y<'«\ 

Spj(\ 2. It Hbfill ha \\\v duty of the Stuir iMinvni uf bd>or stattstk'fl to raoaft 
BiK'U ru|HH*ts* to bf uiadt' and to Hiforri- tbt' iiriniHbms of tbin act iind Rluill 
fjiiifto nil of fliu-h act'bb'uLs or dc-iiThM by at*tf'bU»utH to U* (rUMHirtrd lulo trftdM' 
cif kinds uf t*Di|)loyrnvii(, and hball aiUHi' 11k* Htnui* to be publlsbLNl nt lunsf ones 
onch yoar on or brfort» Jiiiiunry Iwt. 

Sr.<\ o. Atiy portion, firm or I'uriHtrutUtM fiilUuR or refimJut; to mnko tbo 
roiK>ri« «y i»rovid*Hi in sivtion 1 of this net shiill (m- dootiuM jjnllty of n tulihl^ 
iurunor aitd Hliall. upon (.-iMnkMlDti. bi' Outil In » Htini not K*hs ibnu twoiity- 
tlvo do|liii':« (fUTfJXi) nor more thau two liiiM(Ir(.Hl doILir-M i $'J<Ht.<M)). 

Approved M«y 2-1. 1!K»7. 

ln$pC(;thn uf fnvtot-icn — Huttrrirtr itntt trr rrntm farfoHcg, 

<Pltff« 3O0. r 

<S<'r riulU'thi So. 7:5. ri|». slU, KiTt.) 

D^parimeiff uf fttrforft initttrrtinn. 

(PftK^ 310.1 

(JUh' Bulb^tln No. 73. pp. KK, 830.) 
Ptttftrfion uf twphtjtrfB on buihihipn. 

5»nrTTOT 1. ^" '•■ '■ holirrsi. r- ■ - • •' - -1- 

furvbnnlcnl < ■ I'l'tiil or 

ration In (bl "• '" " 

pnlntln;: of 

t-riftcd und 

PTivlixl nnd fMnMriirlfd, iibir^il nuii 

prolivtlon In till* !lfi» nnd Ilnth nf n I 

rhf^nvm. OP iviwlnir ondw .h u» prtf-vujit 

tbc ftillliiL' of ii!iv Miri(t*rlMi n, 



/A. 



'fir {Sit !ui 



//ii* lltMir or uiHlii iMtiM 



LABOB LAW 



ILLINOIS — ACTS OF l^*" 



U 



|ir*>(ivf-lv all r«>iaiii^ •• -<■ >.i furit^'u*^ 

8n'. 2. If Lu : <^ ii**u or com- 

fliructiuu l« Ihir ;j. iis n ctlvalti 

^24> fret. !fi tbr* clfur. tLi-rr tUiuIl be* bulJU k^pt uml luuiiiLnluiMi. |ii< i 

- fjir tlii' jiiIMn, wbirli NiipiMfrtK sluillb*.' t.>l(lii»r lirick walLi t.tr ir 
tjuiJuH. trufwob [trust^fAj ur giriitTN uuU tlie tliMu-s lu jiJi mm 
inrcs, lu i»nK*eHi» of ereillori ' "til 

. In HiK-li inatini*r i\s to lif > u ai 

11.,. ., ...hi iif (lit' (luor coji.-w i.. ;....., ,M..,., *....,■, aii4 
i tliJit may bt* *t't u[hiH Un» wiitif. :i livi 
- iiiiiro foul of Nirfatt? iu fiudi Uoui-h, ai 
-r, irKKi:^', bulMpr or **<*ntnK*tor or huI 
.ih.*(un\ itr tlie ftiiiterlutfixiivnt or na 
• >iiti <>{ thlA »Lvtliin nrc i*<mj|>ti4Nl willi. 
owit^r of ov*»r5- bouHt'. UiiHiUut; or Ktrnrture 
' ly as u jirlvuU- r« - " 
leil. lo HtWa and <)i 
■■-'tuctlou. It i '■ t 

. ^ ■ :-■() ; or if I . __ ;i! 

> t)o«*r varie;^ tiieu tliei-e hImU b«^ »uc2i i>Ucanls for vucii rur>'Ui« 

! :!«i"r 11 shjill be unlawful to Uwul any !*iich tU»«»rK or any |iurt 

t'Xtt^nt tUaM tluf loiiil ludK-atLiI mi wieb irliK-Hniii, nuil ull 

(• wriiiL'U nijil upitrovi'd by tbe Slat** fjutory liiHiKH-tor. H 

"r l»y Ibc Ifxal fuiniul?4Bl<mcr or lii»i«i*tor of huildlnies 

, ill till' (*Uy. U>wn or village chargiM with tlir nn- 



or 
paruuieat 

ImiI of Qf. 

e> 
©-' 

Ct.l. 



It slml! come to the notice of llii? Staii* fnclury Insiuvtor 
or '.. In iin.v city. Town or vHlnpe In this Stntc, chnrKO(l wUU 

Ibi* iJuiy of eiiforcinc the biiiMluK Iuwk Uuit the KcutToUliiuc or the i^Uuki^ 

luinrr-rs. M(»i!c«. t'^'"' T*^ «tjiys. braces, UiliJers. Iron* or rojws of mir Ktt{n;.'ins 

hilforiii or <4b*'r sliull.-ir Ofvlc"' u-wmI In Df 

rcmoviu;;. i'lcualuu or [mintiti;; of bulUIit<, -s 

■ MV unsjifi'. <ir n«I»Je to prove ibiiucen.i s b. ilu? 

Slate factory IiifcjHHtor. or wifh bM^nl auiborily 

'■ ..—-■- •■- i'-- ■'...- '-> 1- 'h^ -.f -■-■1, Mca/- 

SIICU 

'tin to 

• I RQ- 

i>r uinln- 

aj^':ihiKt the nse. iLuiint«'iuiMei* or t»(i<M'utl<<4i 

•if. auil i-eipilie tlif tviiuo lu be iiltorixl and 

diriiiivr. Sncli notice timy l*e scrvtMl fter- 

■' '~ ■■■■.-•■".■■ -■•- .....1'" "--■, -■•■ i.y \-uu- 

i the 

■ ' -hI ur 

lh<*rv/ur sIjuU ceasp uhIjii; and tiuiiiedlnifly rv~ 

Hi or othei* device or pare thorefif and alter tir 

iiir iXB to reader It wtfe. 

ctnr or nny of bis dc<imHe9s or aucb local aiiUuirlly, 



rorut or iic\ ]> <• ur nny of mt'h jmrtK la f^ound to '.■ 
• of aiky per*>n, the State factory Iiwitector oi 

Ihoiil/ ttliuii ill ont-e notify the iierH<in rr'Hi>nnMlble ftir it* cn-tihiu 

t^taiw? of HucU fact, and U'lru bin 




r thi*» rti't. tfi examine or test r 
r pari Iherettf. required In 



•^ <shiill tj 
•"•tl tf> ht' ' 



vV«li:n ill llM', uiul i.ucb 
be s»(> o\'«'rloudt)1 or < 



Idlng. 
I and 



'• fMi njh- 

!-iicndent 

* form 



111 or coriMinillou In tbiii Stale Idrluc. empl tylnp or 
Jill Ittinrr of any kind In lUe eiv^'Wutt, rv-va^'" ' -*■'"•' 
rat^r ^"f^ i'^I"?. »tau^i4ve, tnnk, siuokeslacV., c\v\vi 



264 



BUULETIN 1)1' THE BITKEAU OF LABOR. 



Htcoiilo, |H)lo, Mnflf. tlmiio (»r riiimlM. wIumi !hc uw? uf lui.v scafToIiJ, ntaKhi)?, ftwInS, 
luitiiitiix'k, siipiMirt, it'nti»f»rin'y phitforni or nthr»r Himllnr ctnilrlviiiu*i» nro riv 
(intiiMl or usi'tl in ibi* iKTforiiiiitK'i* uf him.-1i IdImip. hIuiII kf'i*p iind iniitiitnlD at all 
(liiH-H, wbllr !>urh lnlM<r U lu'liij; iHTforiiiitl. nnd su^'li iiKihanlrul ilrvlrr \n In 
u(*^* or tn-.oniil'Mi, n wtfi* ami proKT «*'«lTi.i(l, :*tny. siiMmrt or utl»M* sultnhlo de- 
vWf}, mtt less elinn «lxtfon ( I»i > f<vt or iii(»rt'. holow such worklnc M'tifTold* 
Ktuxlni;, HwIriK. hJiiiKiMM'k. sup|»<'rt or tiMniHiriiry plntfonii, wliou Hiirh w*'rk It 
tipliiK i>erforiii<Hl. at n hrl^li^ of tli1rly-t\v<» (:i2> fcot. for tin* purfnim? of prevont- 
Ing tlH> pf'i'HiiM or |H>rsoiis pcrfttrinhi^; such Inhnr from fnlllnc In cnRo of uny 
u(vlitt*Mi tu sudi wnrklne HcafTr'Id. HtuKlnir, Bwlim. hniiiuiock. i!iuptK>rt or ttm' 
jtctrnry platform. 

Stf. (1. AM iN^ntrartni-K niid ownovs, whrti ronslnvtlntr bulldlnfrf* !n rltlri^ 
whf-rf' tho plauH iiiwl »iHv!ilcaiU»ii« rt«mihv tho fluorH Ut Ih' arrluM hetwi'iMi the 
Tieiuns tlioipitf. i'V wh'T*' Mk' II<M»rs <if |orl HIliuK hi lu'twofu the Iloors nn* Hre- 
proof iiinlcrial or hrlrkwork, slirtJI ooiiipleto tln> ihKirlnjr or illllnj; In as tb© 
hnlltllng proKrt»f*R's. to not Ionh than within lUrw llcrw or boams bolow that on 
wliirli tin* lr*^in\vork Is NliiK pri?i't"(I. If tlii* plans aiul srMN*lHcntlon« of sncfa 
bnllthnjTH do not rftiuUv IllUn^r In b«.'lww>n tbf boanis tir ibMirs wllli brlek or 
flrcprtMif nnitcrlal, all oontrarlurB for rnrpiiMiT >vork in tho i-'tnrsc of ronstrtio- 
lioti sball lay lb*? uiitlor tloorluK (boivof or a wifi* temporary flixir on wirh «itiV 
UH tbo bnlliUiiK projin-ssfH lo ti"t \v*h (ban Avllbln 1wr> wtnrirs or lloctr* bHfiw Ih^ 
oho to wlili'b r»in'li Imtlillnc lias Ihvh ('rf<'(<*il. Wlicrr tlonbU? tbiors am nor 
bi» hwmI, hikIi uwrifr or rnntraolor shall Uwii planKwl oier tbo floor lwt» Htorl 
or tloors l»i»N»w tbc ntory where the work Is Iwlnn iMTforniecl. If the tbtor Iwnmi 
nro of Iron or slocl, tho contrnrtors for tho Iron or Htool work of hnlUllngn 
tbo LHinnte of c(HislrurtIon. or tbe owners of Hiu'b bnlltlbm^, BbuU th<»rouKb1j 
plank over tlio r-iuirr tier of iron or «f<H»l boiitoH on wbteb tho strnrtnnil Iron or 
Fto*'l work iM boiiiir ortvtoil, except sneh spneoij rk may bt* reasonably nviiiired 
for the pr<»p*'r eoiistruetlon of nneh Iron or hUh'I work and for the rat<ilntf nnd 
lowering of maferlals to lie iif*et1 In tbe i*onKtruction of micb biilMlnKH, or snch 
HpneeH tin may be deHlgmiteil by tlio pinna anil Hpti'llleatloiiH fiir HtalrwiivH ami 
elevntor KbaftH, 

Skc. 7. If eleviitlii*; machine** or bolMbit; ap|>flrotii« are vxod within n build- 
tntc lt> *bc* eonpHc* t>f eunttlrneilon for the pnrpo^ of lifllnf^ naitertalH U* be nscd 
III 8nch t'OTtstrnetlon, the eijiiirnetor« or owners tthall eaiiKo tbe HliuflH or uiicd- 
inKH III each floor to be Inelo^il or fcneeil In on nil »hles by a Hubhtantlal l)nrrlrr 
or ralllni: at least elcbt feet In bel^rht. Any Iiolstlni: matlilne or enplnr n»«d 
(n such bnlhllnjr etinwtrnetlon Khali, wlo-re praerlealile, be m»t itp or plaoed on the 
cronml. ami wheiv !t Ih neeesf-ary In the conKtrnotlon of Hin h biilldlnj: (»> plaC9 
ftm-b hdUtin;; maehlne or eia'lne on some tloor nhove the ground floor, nnch 
nmebine or engine nni«t be pro|H>rly and wvurely MUppord**! with a fonnilntlon 
eatwible of Knfely HtiKtulnlnj; (wlee the weight of toicb nutehlne or eiii^tne. If 
n bnlhllng In et>nrH4' of eonstrnetlon Ih Mvi* siorb'fl or nutro In height, no material 
ueetUnl for Ktivh eoiiHtnn'tlon Hliall be bol(*ted or llftnl over pnblle nrrwti or 
alleys nnle^ts sneh street or alley idnill be barrleailotl fmni owe by tlif public 
Tbe eblef otIlei«r In any elty, town or vlllnce eluirKeil with tlie enforeemenl of 
loejil bulldln^^ lawn, and the Slate fnetoiT ln!i>iK*etor. are hereby eliar^'i*rl with 
enforcing Ihi' pro\ IsbaiH of this iirt : Vnni'l'tt, That hi nil «*|fle»t In the Stilte. 
where a bx-al tmlldlnj: oonunlsslnner Ih provldwl for by law. sneh olIbn*r slm 
be oharpHl wth the dnty nf enforehiK the provlsIoiiK of thin art. and In enw» of 
bi8 fallnr«^»» tie^jleet or refusal w» to do. the State factory iiisfx-dor Bliflll, pnf- 
»naut to tlie teruoi i»f Ihlx act, enforce the provlshmft Ihert»ftf. 

Sr.c. Ta. If elevntlni; niaehlueR or holHttni; apitnrntiis. oi)ernteil or controlled 
by other than hand power, are nwoil Iti the coiintrnrtlnn, alteration ttr removal 
of any biilldUiK or otluT ftnioture, n rouipU'te mid adiMpniie syHteni of com* 
niunlctitlon by niean^ of sitnials »bnll bo provided and maintained bv iho ownev^ 
eontmctor or Hub<ontnictor. ditrlnic the use and operalh'n of 
machines or boUthn; jipi>aratnMt In onler that (O'onipt iumI ffrt«<-ii 
tlon ntity be liad at all titneK beiwt*en the o|>erator of en>^)ne or uimt.. ^"^^^,■c 
of Kiicb olevatln;: nnichlr>e and bolsthiK npi«initiis. and the einploye<»a or pprw>nii 
entniKetl Ibereoii, or In nsInK lU' oiK'nitliiK' the wune. 

Hkc, 8. It Hball be tlie duly of nil ttn'blltvtH or draftwmii i-ncapxl In pnTiB 
Ing plaDB. HiKH'IflratlonH op drnwlnifn to he nrrpil in tho erecilon. rcitnlrlni:. nlt«r^' 
Ing or reniovInK of nny bnlhllni; tir wlrtj- mh the t* i ioin 

of r/ifi* net, to ftrocble In ^ueb plfto*. ^ > <* fool *\\ tlwi 

f^t^W/ttwnr ittrrrtiK'tit . Y 

'//f/rt* tm the fiiirt .»f 



or 

h«^^H 

m 



LABOR LAWS — ILUXOXS — ACTS OF IWH, 



865 



■hall stil>jf-<t fnyrh Mvehlttci 
i,^y\ doHars nor more Chan 



Sr- 



fe 



I 
I 



cli 



or Jraf!$3iiiti to n flnr of not I^-ss dun twvnty-flv* 
two biini1ri*i1 <•-**>(*> dollars for ttiob t*(f«jm». 

■'■■■• ■="' -t..- f..r.»..,.» ..r ...j...r person barl 



> :il or paint! 
of :i >v!kIo»« of 

act, sbaU roujpi.v with all the terms tber«if. and hdj- swi-h owner, coutmctor, 
subc<kntractor, foreman or other per^in violAtlnp any of the pmrislonH of 
act shall, npon courletloa therc<jf. bo fined not less than twontx-five (25) do|i>< 
hirs nor more than live htindreO (5*ii») doltars or luiprlfKiuetl for not U 
timn thr^^ (.3) month.«< nnr more than two (2) years, or l»oth fined and imprl»- 
ooed. In the diwrotinn of the nr.nrt. 

And in ciise of any sut^h faihire to Cfmiply with any of the prtirinion^ of this 
•CC any state factory iu!*iio»tor may. thmujrh the .StJitea attorney or any other 
■ttomey. In case of his fatlnre to aet pi^iupily, lake the neceisar}' J^al steijs 
to enfort'e compliance tlierewith. 

If it t>€conieg necefaiary. through the refusal or failure of the State's attorney 
to act, for any other atlortit^y to appear for the Ktate In any snit Involving tbo 
enforeeuient of any prttvlalim of this art, n>H».>uable fees for the services of such 
atturiiey shall be allowed t>y the board of snperrlsors or oimnty coiuiulsslonera 
Id Slid for the et>unty in which such pn.H'^'OdiDgs are Instltntetl. 

For any injury to pernin, or pmiterty occarfotied by any willful violations of 
this act, or willful failun? to coiuply with any of its provisioiiR. a ripht of ac- 
tion shall accrue to the party hijunnl for any direct dnma^'ts sustalnod thereby; 
and la case of Io«s of life by reason of euch willful vii*latiou or willful failure 
as flfopestald. a rl;«rht of action shall accrue to the widow of tlte permm 8o 
knu*i1. his Hneal heirs or adopted ohtldron, or to any othor |>erson or per9QnS| 
who were, before such lot^ of Hfc dependent for support on tlie pen*on or per-i 
•DUB so killed, for A like recovery of dniuages for the Injuries sustained bj 
rensoa of such loss of life or Hvea. 

Approved June 3. 1007. 

MiiW ri^guintinna — Shot flrcm, 

llMgo 401.) 

Secttox 1. An act entitled "An Act providing thflt operators of mines shall 
fnml^ih shot flrerp in mines where shootinp and bhistinK is doue." upiiroved May 
IS, 1005. in force July 1. 11»<>r», is anieuded to read as follows: 

Sec. 2. In all mines in this State where coal !s blaatfHl, and wlicre more thaa 
two |Hiuu(ls of powder is useil for any one blast; and also In all mines In thlfl-J 
State whore jnts U trenenited Ui dangerous quantliles. a sufllclout number of 
practical, experienced men to be desl^ated as shot flrers, sliall be employed by 
the comi>any and at its exi)ensf?, wiiose duty it shall be to InsjttH't aud do all the 
tiring of all blasts, pretiared In a practical, workmanlike manner in suid mine 
or mines. 

See. 3. The shot firers shall. Immediately after the roniplotlon of Ihrir work, 
lK>6t a notice In a coUHpIcuous place at the mine, In which t^hall be Indle-atcd 
the numlter of shots firetl; al*) the number ot shots they did not lire, if any, 
Htieclfylng the nnmhcr of the room and designation of the entry, and giving 
reasons for not firing the same. In addition they shall also keep a dally perma- 
nent reconl In which shall be entere<l the numl>er of shots or blasts tlr»^, the 
ntunber of shots or blasts falling to expbxle, and the number of shots or blasts 
that in their jndcmient were not pro|»erly prepared and which they refuse to 
giving reasons for the same, the record to be in the custody of the mine 
rtger and lo br available for inspection at all ttnit'S by juirtles Interostetl- 
•o. 4. The snii._Tl!itendeut or mine manager shall not |H'rnilt the shot tlrera 
do any hlasilnir, exjtloiilng of shots, or do any firing whatever until <3sich and 
every miner and employee Is out of the mine except the shot llrers. mine super- 
tendent, min- i.i ;.i >_-,-r and man or men ne*'^sPi!rily cncnjJod In charge of the 
puiup*^ and f't^viilcd fioirrvrr. That nothing In this section sliall be 

conBtnio<l t'! ; the employment In snch mine of a reasonably !ie»vsK4ipy 

Qumlx^r of men duiitig such time for the purpoee of securing the workings In^ 
case of Arc therein. 

St«c. 0. No miner or other person shnll niter or chnngi* any drill hole, by In- 
rrmxlng Its depth, diameter or ulhei-wlse, after the mum* shall Imve bi?en 
»)>, ' ■ " slmt firvr. 

ffri-r. %viwrher vo/untnrlty. or by aiuvm&nA ot tw\\u*^v «>\ tt-Ki 
■■■"-■ itnUtvrfui bhof, dp any shot vUlch \ft hV* V'""'" ' -'^'^ 



BULLETIN OF THB BVUZAV Of J-ABOX, 

ctinnl ns iifon'Kiitd. trom bis liis|»erlloii itim-rif. iiini1«> ae afnrpsiilil. hIuII not 
Im» « \viirkntniiMki% jirop.T atiil (•riKtlr.'tl »«li»it, 

fiw. 7. No iH'fWJii nr tH^nutiiN slmll «inl*'r. (•.>nMMiM.i .»r indart* ('^- •in-^'H'* mt* 
olhci'uifu', any simt lin»r to fire any iiiilHufi; any she 

JtMljCTUt'lit, uftt'f due IU!(lit<>cfU*ii, simll uur lii* a o < Ur. iirnprr . i 

8ll0l. 

8vi'. 8. Auy willful nineloet refusal ur Callarr to do tlii* UilnvH reqalrr-r! ti^ hn 
done l>.v tiny Mor'tioa, elatine or iiruvlsUai of ttilf* urt on the iMirt of \Uf i *' 

ItcfHoHH herein rioiiilrcil to do (Ueiu. or nny tlolntloii of tiny ut the i • 

or r«|ulrt'nu'iitH hi'rcN>f. or nny nttrmpt to ol»Htru(-t or Intrrffrr w r * 

111 tlu' (llxtlinru** "'f lilt' (liitU'H luTt'lii linitowd n|Mm thi"iD» or any r- 
l»]y with thr provlHloiit^ of llils Qct. !<lml] ho di'^'UiiMl a iiti«<U'Uh'iu>' 
by a line not leflw Ihau one btmdred doIUrn nud uot to t*\ti*t»d tw 
liirs, or l>.v lnu>rls(MinH'nt tn tlj<» coiJDiy Jnll for n iktIoiI not t'\ _ ' 

uionths, or Iwttb, nt llio di»**TetIon of the court : Proriitvil. Tluit wb«t»*ver »nuU 
diHfover timt nny HecttMi of thitc Jict, or pnrt t!«'r<»of. \» iM^ios; iie»rU«'tixt or r!n- 
IntPiI Khnll rfiM»rt 1hi» s.nnu' to (be sn|M«rluteud»iH ol*lhe nilne« mid n ' 
dlate coiii|iIIi!tuv therowllli; aud \n atw nt rontluued fulhiro to coin, 
throufcli thi\StHte's attornoy. »>r nny • 'riiey. lii raw of his fnlliiix' lo «'-*t. 

promptly, tnkc tlie nisi-Mwiry Iinral nl- tci- «'ojjipll«iu*«» hrrcwiili. ttirotsdkl 

nnd by rxK^ns of the poiuiltle*< litu'ein I'l--^- > iiml. 

ApproviHl May :io, ISXJT. 

fOllirr arts nmcndlnj; tli^ nilnin;; Imv wrro prtASHl. tUi* lu'lnii;':!! cliaiitfi 
beini; u» folluwH: ^tiiklu;; an oiMTator fnllhiu to fiirulKli u uinp uf Ids uiliift! 
Kiiilty of a laisdiMuruuor ; kIvUik thv pimiT of npjMdattni: tUo Slnd* ' ■ '■ - ' "T 
to llio ^uveriior IiiHtojid of to tln' ctiuuniptttSoiiers of latior: [H" 
ImilMtiorH aud lusiM'dluu dlslrlflB IiihIimuI tif 7 ua laTt*l<«fiir.'; 
exiiiiilnnllon fee for mine inanaKeri*, tiolNtIng ensiuoerv and uili 
ri'ciulrint; tia* udno examiner to nw an hiHlinmmit to trst air « 
dally tour of Insitoftlnn prior to iho foainienccniont of work : «*hrtn>;li»« Hie max- 
Initim aiaonnl rtvovoralile fur loss of llfo catiBtNl liy vlolutkTti of the Klainlc frtwu 
$.VMN't Id $1(M)00, and llniltlnc: the perliMt In wTdch mdt munt U> brouslit to oue 
year tifter tln' death of the Injured iterwiu.) 

Emvlopment *tf i.'hU4r\n — itvhovl O/frndflac*'. 

(See Dullellu No. TU. pii. 084. G85.) 

IKDIAITA. 

Acra OF i»or. 

I'liAiTim 11. — UaiirvUflit — Trttfnn n*>t fo hv rvn tritlmut itufflfirnl rrnr, 

Sm-TioN 1. Tt Khrtll In» uulflwfnl for ;ui\ r-nllpoad e»^nM"i"v dnin ' l.ntiiifiM In 
the Kinte of Indiana, thiit openiti-fci four 1 h <#tt 

Iweiity-four hourw, to <»|M»rjito i.\.'r .r nnr p^ r «ir 

Itennil to Im> run over lU r- 

Klntln*? '»f tiv>n» Uinn fifty 
ear 

ef»i. 



Uii'Vixi^ L-rvw* 



frit icM titMu a tali f wjiNflniriT 



.T, outfc V'. 



LIBOK LAWS — INDIANA — ACTS OF 1007. 



267 






I 



'i^'— ]-•--■ '" M- ■' 'i^f -1,,;.,, , ^-.i.i I.,- .1 ..,,-,,. .,f. tln^nufin shall uot 

^s lufewnmtrs). 

■ ^ ' ' :«• of ludiitun, who 

.1(1. or caiiSL* lit Ue Kent out on Us ntoii, any tram wtiich Ih. 

f* wfrb HCi'tlMiis 1 am] 2 of tbU nel. stuill }jc guilty uf a 

' vlctlun bliull l)e fin^^ nut it^HSK tbiiii one huudreij tlol- 

tjve buudrc'«l dollars ($r>(N>) for each offeiiM*. imd 

I r><- ii:tiilo for uiiy duiuugoe niusoil bjr tbe \iolaUou of Auy 

-f this not. 

.-,. Uii iLv duly uf Lli<L* l>Mtird of raliruuil ix>iimiifKliuierH to havu 



of t 

S*^ . .. .. ."i 

tklB Ihw eufort?o<l 

Antrum aI Ftttruury VU 10)17. 



CajkrTKB 2iL — RuilroaH rttlicf tuiitaciation^ — Contracts. 

Scmox 1. Nn rnllrnnil com|»any h«'»w pjclsting, or Uerenfter trwiU-O, oudCT* 
■d by r*r*"" ■'■ •!'" iiwfl nf tJitrt Hfnto nr nny oth«»r fWflfp or cotnitry, aod hnv- 
1^ and '» of rnllw.'iy Lu this .<rntp, m:iy esfnhllsh or mfllTitnhi, 

r KasU 1^ '»r rniiintHitiin? any rrlhof .T^tHK-iation or society, tiio 

iImi or 'f whli'ti simll re^inire of any [lorsou or enipUtyo* botoiulng a 

I '" enter Into a coutrart, aprtviiKiit or KtlimJutlon. dirvctly or 

•ll^, w bf it'by Riirh pt-rttoii or eiiiiloyee shalf sllpalate, or ogree to sor- 
nr w«lvi» »nr rlf^ht of drtiimcP apilnst any railroad foinpany for pCT- 
: r i!i. or whereby snrh p**!-soii or emplo>t?e agivca to snr- 

'*• \\v ixt'i^Tis Hiwh cbiliu for dauiawH. any rifcbt whnt- 
, nnu niiv r-i:: i, Kttre^uBent or t-untract, #o signed by sucb i»ersou sball be 
and void. 
Amiroved Fetruarj' 21, 1907. 



C\i 



64. — SHnrfnif laht^r — Barhrr jrAopx. 



ItKcnoK 1- U shall be a&bwful for aiiy jicrsoii or iiorsons to carry on or en- 
IQK*' In tbe art or railing of Imlr cutting, shtivin;;. Ii:iir ilrcssin;; and Hhnmpoo- 
\9tg» or la any work pertabibuz to thi* trade or buslnews of a l';irb<?r, on tbe 



flrift day of i^ 
stinll bo «upi' 



-.^•L 



ca.ll«tl Sunday, except aucb pei>i>n or fwrsoos 

!i art or cnllinL; In rolotliin to a dceraf^t-d |>^rf)on. 

.'>r any Rueb persoa or iMrsoiu^ aBBorlaiiofi, flnu, 

ciub lu kMrp vit^fti tlielr shops or plncra of bustm>ss aforivald, oa 

of the wei'k. i-ommunly called Hunday. for any of the parposes 

too ooe of tbis act: ProrW^rf. howi rrr. That notbinf: in this 

p<rnHiti:>: who constclMitlously b<*H<»ve the seventh day of the 

•<1 as tbo Sabbath and who aotunlly rufrulu from secular 



4 



Mtlom- 

act ftbai' 
wfvlc alMittJii I 
bubieM «a > 

Rac. 3. Kvfi.. ,,>-..., -...■'■■..- --r •)'- 

nMivirthtn itinn-or. Im- 

Ibiin ru-iTi(v live d*'|i:u - 

la I Jail not more tlinu tltirty tiayi^ 

A ' "i.fnary 2tk 1007. 



Kiona of Ibift art fdutll, ufion 
^ than ten dollare nor riiori' 
liiiiy be addoti hui»rlsonm 



_'HAPTKa UK — ItaitmoiU — Smftijf upplUinfta. 

SeiTiow 1. It Rball bt? nnbiwful for any rt>uin»ou carrlor eutcfl^nl io uiovj 

n».id Tctwcon iK.iui« wUblii Ibis 8tati* to use ou its lirik» any 

«nch tniino not (7iiult>|)e<l wIlU jtower drlvliis wheel 

" for oi*er»fin;; tho train brake Rystpiii. or to run any 

; u: that has unt ."H-'vi^nly-fivc pt-r ivutum of tbo cars lu «nch 

;h |M)wiT or train brakes;, and Uavln;; the biitkcH Ui^eU and 

' '. Ii Inila, and all iK>wer 

iiid hnw tboir braki'S 

i,rf[iu..(. in.iL iiiir^ r^tiix.i -ii.tii ii.it uppty TO the hd odUiig 

111 yard Mc-rvlce* or to a 1<jcuJ train while emaii;i*d iu perforiu- 



nl for ni' 



, rarritM- to bftul. or p«'rmU 

■ (rnrlm- or elniilar v<-h{rU> 

'in^ auiot 

-Its ^^^ ^''■■ 



<tt for any Mtich coimuou carrU-^ t^^ bi^uV^ or v«.<y^ 
'-. Jioe any loatmotivet car, tciwl«.'T 



BULLKTIN UF THE BU»K\U OF LABOR. 



* 



HK«1 iti moving of Stiito rrnttU' nnt prnvUtetl with wvurr priil) Ironiv or Ut\nd 
hiililK III tin' hkk»M tn* i'IhIh llH'l'fHif, 

Hr.i . 1. It Hliiitl Im' unlawful fnr any kih-Ii comnuM) carrhT to uhp nny h-n-o* 
n^^^!lvl^ itMiiU'r, nir, or Aliitllar vdilrU* ns^'d In tlio niovotnrnl nf Stitfo trnlHc/ 
thiit Is Mill pr'tvl(l(*<l with (IniW'htit'H of KiniMlnrtl hflkrlit: in wit. htaiuhirtl frniiMl 
ifirn iWi hu'lii'*; iinrrow-miiiuo cnrB LN» tnrhcH: ineasunM |tor|MMi(lh-ulurly froift] 
Ihr It'vrl cif the tui* of tht? rails lo llio ti'ntofH i*t Uiv drnvvbarn: tlit? uiasilinuut' 
vnrtntlon from Hiirli Htumlurd btMclits botwecMi druwbura of empty auil.louiloil 
L'nrH Hliiill Uv U Im-lx'H. 

Ski". 5. Tlio |»rovlH!o!j« of 8et'lion|H| 1, 2, nnd -I of iJiU ncl Hliall alno iipl'^y, 
to loofinmtlvca, onrw niHl trnlaw us*'<l In paM*t'ni:or tniinc lM*tW(v*n point)* wlthla' 
tlilK State. Ill *MJ far hh tin* wiinc art* apc'Iculik' to (lit- xHilrlt'H ii^od In imK^tHi-] 
K*T train traHU*: l*n*ri€lnl, Tlial imiu' of tlm provisions* <if wM-thais 1, 1*. ;t, mill 4J 
of tlilB act Mlimi apply to any r«troot rntlroad. tnienirt)aa or Riibwrbait street 
rullrond. 

Rkc, U. It shall l»o unlawful for any common cnrrlor In tbln State ot*^rattDS 
nil Itilenirimn railway t»y fUx-lrlc ii^nvor to oinM-ate or ritii niw)n any nilln>iidi 
In tlil« Sljitr nny motor t-ar nso<l in rottnlar Inicrurhnn jMisi^imgrr Irntflc wljU-h- 
\h not tMpilpiKHl with an npproviil iK>w-or air brnko. In Ko«t(i euiitltttou, anil 
Miiliji'i't to xXiv control and o|H*ni(lon of tho niotonium In chnrco of snoti rar^ 
nnd of Rufllclont rapacity to rontrol thp spocd nf tbo oar. 

Si:r. 7. Tin* railroad voinnilHxIon of IndiiMia may. fnun tlnie tn tluH\ nftiT 
full lioarliif? ami for pttxl rauK<» shown. Iiii'ri^i»«o thr minimum pon*ontnge o£ 
rars In any train rn|UlnHl to In* opcralwl by |K>wor or train ltrakr>*. and m.<\ 
fallnro to ctmiply wllli nny Hn**!! nipilriMiirnt of Hild comnilRslon Khnll bo Kub- 
Jei,*l to a like iK'Hrtlty as a failure to comply with nny requirement of tUlB pet. 
The Willi railroad I'onnnlKKton of Indlann 1h hereby aiithiirlxeil to K<*""t to uny 
eomnion enrrlor, sMh.l»vt to thl» net, npon full lienrliiff nnd for poo*] ennaa. 
Hhown. a reaKonable extrnftbm of liuie In wiileh to eonj|>ly with the provl^tontf^ 
of (hU art: /'roriUnl, That In no cap*' shall Kitch pxienslon, or nxti'n«1on«, In 
the iiKirreKate, evcecnl tlio iierlod i»f el|ilitei»n months from and after the apj*r<tvol 
of ihi» act. 

Six', S. Any KUcU eommon carrU-r nuiy refute* to reoelvr from Its iVMiiiwIlnif 
line*, or from nny shlpiw^r, nny cur not etinlpiKtl !n nrenrdnnri« with the pro- 
vIbIoiih of tills net. 

Site. t>. It ts hrret)y made the duty of the mllmnd conunlfwlon of Indlnnn to 
mforc'i? tlie provlMlons uf this net. nnd It t« hereby anthorlKiHl. with thi* oonsmt 
nnd approval of the covenior. to ap)K>lnt and jtny an !iisi>o«*tor, or Inspenom, 
tu nHMlnt In »o dolm; nnd In et>lbi'tlnK thi< ittvesfuiry Inforinatlon riMinlriil for 
Itint puri>oKt\ nnd snob eommUslon may adopt and promnlpib'- all niNtlfnl rnlofi 
nnd refcnlnrlonM, not tnronsjjitfnt with this net, to eontml tb** ritiiduft of Its 
Insiicetor.'t and such earrlers In refereui'e to this act and nneb lnsp<»rt1on. All 
I'arrlers snbbrt ln'!i*to shall proxhle free IninHiHirtatbai, },''X>U In thU Stntv, 
fur Ibo lns|)4v1orit employed l>y mild coinmlMloa to b« nH*d only whllv trnvvllng 
on the bnalmwH of the (Ymimlsslon. 

Sre, to. Kvery nueh eommon i-arrler, or the i\*c*»lver thereof, uwlnir, or jwt^ 
uilCIIni; lo be us»mI or luuiliil on Its Hue, any Iwonwithe, tender, enr, <ir nlinlUir 
vohleh- or tmin, In violation of any of the provisions of thin ntM, Bbnll be lia- 
ble to a penalty of om* himdnNl ilolhirn for eneh vhtlnllon, t<» lie roeovenNl In 
n milt or sidtH to Im- brought by nnd In the name of the railroad Cfi 
of Indlann for the nso of tho Stati' of liidlutui In any rintllt or mijimt 
of tlilK Sfafo havinc JnrlRMftl.m over any .snrh offendlnc mrrb*r; / 
That nothhiK In this art contHliMM sbnll mu'ly to JoroniolIvcH^ It-in! 
or trains, exclusively nsul In lhi» nuivomont of Inps. nnd when the i 
the drawi>ars on am-h bietinattlveH. irndrrx and ears docs not i'X<N»*'d : 
or to bK'omotlves, tendor-e. cnrs. slmllnr veblrles or trnlns whll«» nny 
are 111 actnal nne In in 

Skc 11. It xball tx stenni mllrvjud mrrtoF In tbU StatA 

wl,: • , ' • ■ • ■ , p 

ncr 
th< 
the 




LABOH LAWS INDtANA ACTS OF 1907. 



269 



•*- — "-■ iQ nny «tich (rrnk. witbrmt oMrtluInp: the jiormlsslon of tho nilln^nd 

• tti of Indltiiiii wi to d(t: I'ntriilrd, hoirrrrr, Tlmt this Bt^*tion shall 

J. ..,,... to hritlp'R, viHdu*M« <ir other strnrTiires wirbhi the Iluiltfi of any city 

or liii*»iriM»i-:»tt'd town lu this Stutf, nor shall this act oi»eratf» to roi>cul or 

Izuuillfy the laws of this Stat** c'>n«vrniii»r the loojitWm aud orcvtion of wiroa 

laorosH rnUrotuls. fttreot mllrouda, liiterurhau or suburbuu iiillroiuls. 

I pFf\ 12. It shall hiTt/aftfT be unlawful fur any 8t<3iui niilnmil earrler in this 

•-:nifwl in openiilnj; a line vf standtinl franire rallrmul In this 8tato. to 

.} slrnrtnre of any kind, or any PxlHtinp niiUvay hrhipe, or to r«»bnlld 

an •ii>iinir Ktmttnre of any iilail. or any existing ruilwny bridge, alon? the Hue 

of any ftiirh railroad in tills State, in which that part of any Mieh 8trii''tnre 

or br"'_- irest Hie Iraclt sliall be lefts than eliiUteen (1"^' Inehea from the' 

D«n^' of eontnet with tlm eab of the widest locomotive tlmt Is now or 

nmy r be UPetl. or less lliun einliteen <1S) iachiB from the uearehi inOnt 

oof contHrt wiih the widest i»art of any car that is now or hereafter niny be used, 
[oo anjr Hurh rtiilroad. without ilrnt obtaining th? i>ermi3siou of tlie railroad 
commission of Indiana so to do. 

Six*. ]^ Fvery vm-h eouuuou i-arrler, fwirty. person, association or uod1cI|hiI- 
'or |trlvjile c<»riMiration wiiich ^lall vlolute any of the provisions of S(<<.'tlons 11- 
or 12 *»f thiH art. after rceelvinK sixty days' nrttice from the railroad coinmia- 
IsItKi of IndUuiu that bouie provision of Hnch oections in beiiiR violated, shall be 
bvubjcct to u penalty of live hundred dollars for earli violation, to be ret-overed 
itn an artion to lie bmn^xht by and In the name of the railroad commission of 
' Indhina for and <in behalf of the State of Indiana in any clrvult or superior 
Lcoiirt In tlds State having jurisdiction of the uftendinj; party, 
f Ski\ M. Any enutloyet* of any auoh»common carrier who may be Icllled or 
[injured by any locomotive, tender, cur, slmilnr vehifle, or train In use coutrnry 
[to llle provisions of thin act, or who shall be kllUxl or lujured oa arcouut of 
[ony of the structures forbidden in sections 11 and 12 of this act, shall not be- 
' rt.^m»«d thereby to have a.'isnniod the risk thereby t>ccasioned. altlmnjrh con- 
, tluulug: In the employnicnt of .such carrier after the unlawful use of such loco- 
[ motive, tender, car. siiiiilar vetiide, or train, or the maintenance of such uulaw- 
i f al slnictures nnuied In sections 11 and 12 of this act. had been bi-ouirlit tu hls- 
[ kiiowlodce, nru* shall any such employee be held as Imvlni^ eoittrlbuted to hlS' 
llujtiry iu any caw where the carrier shall have vlidateil any of the provisions- 
[of 1hi» act when such violation contributed to tiie dinith or Injury of any suck* 
I employee. 
I Approved March 8v ll>07. 

I Chaptm 120. — /P(ii7ro«d« — Briliry of employcts* 

[ SoTio."« 1. Any i>*irson. beins an otHci-r, a^'iMit or employe** of any common* 

I rnrrler doinjr business in tliit^State. who shall, directly or Indirectly, solicit, 

nix>*pt or receive frrmi any perwm, lirm or coriwrntiou any money, projierly or' 

tlilnn; i»f viiine. In considci-albin for which sntli oHlrer. at'cnt or employee does, 

or atfre<*s to do, or perform, any act for and on b*'haif of «ncb carrier, and in^ 

I the behalf of sucli person, lirm or ci»rpontlion. shall l>e Kuiiry" *»f bribery, and' 

I U(t«m convlcllon thereof shall he fined not less than tweuty-hve dollars nor more' 

[than one bundre*! dollars. 

I Skc, 2. Any person or corporation, or any aeent. employee or officer of any" 
I Arm or coriwimtlon, who shall, directly or Indlreitly. offer, imy or deliver to 
I tiny officer, agent or employee of any conmnm carrier duinp business In thlsJ 
I State, any moury, pro|H'rty or thin;; of value^ lu consideruthai for which such 
[officer. a;;ent or t-niployee does, or agrees to do. or pLTforui, any act for and ou' 
Ibehnlf of sucli carrier, and in the l)ehnlf nf such person, finn or cori>oratIon, 
ktthall be Eullty of bribery, and uikui oaivi'-tion thereof Blmli be fined not Ickh 
[tbati twenty-lUe (*■•''•■- v^t more than one hundred dollars: /Vorf«/c(/, That 
I the pOyniiMit arul e of the establishcil and repilnr chnrires imiM>se<l 

I by nny sn^h ivniim .-r for services performed by It shall not constitute* 

Irtther of I he crimes delineil by this act, 
I Ai'proved Marr-h S, IfiOT. 

I Cmaptkb 121, — Mine rcgnUitiunn — Wanhhousfs. 

I »;k»tion 1. Kor the proinrtlon of the health of tbr emiiloy^'cs liTTciruifter nien- 
|tk»ml U Miall bi- Ihe dutj of the owner, oin'ralor, h*^K^•e, sn\f«TUiVvv\vW\\V ^it, <»t 



I 



BVLLKTIN OP THE BUREAU OF IJVBOR. 



I 



labnrtTfl <*n)T>l*''y^ oro inirrounilcMl by or iilTfVtcd hy itluiilur mtidltincis as 
t)liiTi'«<H In KHKi\ u\Uu*R, nl tb«» n^iu*rit \\\ wrlthis: of twrniy (*J»>) or morr 
|tt«>>\tffl of Fucb diIdo ur t»tn<,f*. or )u rviMil llu-iv iiro U'^m tliuii tweul^' <^) 
ciiil'Io.vwt tbrii upon Iht- wilttpu nxinmst "f ont»-lh!r(J ih) of tho iiiinilM*r of ifn- 
pMyri^s employecl, to pn>vltlc a stiHiible \vtiM)i rinmi nr »*iifthluHi»i» f«ir tho n>M» 
of IwrwiriH cDiployrit. »<t tUiil llu-y mny chnnso tliflr < l ' '■'■■: 

work, nnd nn.^lt tli<*iiis4'lv(.>B. aiul rUuiiuv thvW clotblni; n I 

balUllii;:? or r>*'>iii bball Ix" u sv^i^irnU* hultttin;; or r<Miiii [•■-mi r 

room, iiikI Hhiill bo iiiiiinliiiinsl in p>4>l nnbT. be pr*ii'*'''Iy '■ 

uml bp AtippMoil with . i. Ill .-..111 nrtd wiimi water, nnd «lmL .^ ^ 

nil ii«*i*<'wi)iry f;i to wiisb. miU ftlw prnvidt**! wUh wn ; 

Incki'i'S for the - i ihbi;;; l^ruvitinl, htnervtr. Tlifll IIh» «M^ 

o|wii»f<tr, b*KHw. Kuifriiiiriiib'tii ul' or «»lh*'C rH»r««Mi hi rbnru*' of mich wIho «r 
pbirp na nti^rwiiU] f^UaW not bi* ri*«iiilri*il lo fiirnlKh lutiip ur tuwrin. 

Skc. 2. If iiiiy ik»rm>n, p*?rKiiiiti or fN»r|H>rntlitn itlmll Tii^jjiivt or fnll to comply 
wltb thr pn»vl.sbm» of thU iift. or Bball maliciously liijurt? or UcBlroy or causo 
to Im' liijiinti *'V »l*'s)rH,\('«| sntd ttiiltitliii; \<r pmuh. nr :i»y pnri thi'n*»»f or nuy of 
llif nppUiiiu'i's or tiUiii^H M**ii\ for Ptipplyiiitf IlKlit, biiit or watiT tbcroSn. or 
Shflll do any art tt'tnliriR lo tlif lMjiir>' or (l»i«tru«II<<ii tlwroof. \\o or lh«*v -u .11 »„. 
jTUllty of n>lK4b'in4*titior. mul upon iimvlfllon sUall hv Iltiwl in luxy h - 

*»V<ntl livo luiiuln<<l (JS.MiO) UollnrH, ^^^ wUlrb Hue iiuiy lw» ntbltMl Imp: ;t 

lu ibt* comity j.iLl not to i*xo«ih] sixty <tiO) dflyfl. 

ApproviMl Miircb S, UXf:. 

('ilAl*Tr.s ttl\. — liaihytttth — Uuurtt of tabor of rmp/ojtfrr«, 

BEt-no*\ 1. It nbull Im- unlawftil fur*iniy »u|MMbiteu»li'nt. train ilUi'Otf^bcT, 

inl mnHtrr, forctium or otlirr railway odlrlnl. to ix'rmlt. I'Xiict. Ucnirinil ur 
rtHjulTL* any onKlnwr. nreiuuii. <'*induclor bt'ak«*mau. t*\vltrbmuu. telc'Knipb 
o|N*rntor or otluT i'Uip)oyi*t* en^jiKnl lu tb** m(»M*iut-ut of puK^«Miui*t or fru'cbl 
trftbiA, or tn Hwltchbin sorvb-e, lu yarOs or rnllwny Mtallons, to roumlu on duty 
luort* tbnu KlxtiH'U coustfutivi' liuurs. cx<'L»pt wbeu by cuttniiliy ocfurrlujc iifU»r 
Buch cmployLH! bus Htarttn.! on blK lrl|», or by unknown caKualty i>''iirrlrijr befor* 
br MturtfMl ou bla trip, hr Is provrntiMj from rca^hbi;; lil» trruUinil. or to re- 
<iuitv or itornilt any hikMi t'mploy<H* wlio buK lM>»n on duty nlxtwii r, •--■••"> o 
bonrs, to p) on iluty wllboul luivbitf bad at Irant citfbl liours off ti • 

riijulro or imtihU any Hiirii nnpl'iyoy who b:iH \hh»u 011 dul> ^l\ti^'ll b ■ ij 

npj;rej;utt' In any twonly-fonr-bour |H«riod, to I'tmllnuf on duty or go on duty 
without having nnd at louHt t'l^'bt lionrH oft' duty wMbIn Micb tWL'uty-funr'boiu* 
|H.>rlod. 

Srr. 2. For iiny vinlntlon of or fallurv to comply wltb any of tb** provision* of 
till 'ly Hbnll 1h? Ibiblr to nil p*>r!ioni4 and f^roployeen Injurod by 

r< " t'tnployrf kIuiII In any cajjt' b»" bfld to have awtinn*^! tin* 

r!>i. MMiiiM'i M> i'-;.>-in of mu*b vinlntion or failure. 

Skii . :t. Any hU|HrihttMub*tit. train 4tis|tuiL*bt*r. tr.iin niiiKli^r. fonmuin or-orU«M- 
otn<*lal of any railway. In tbr Statr of Indiana. vi.iiMtn,.- m.r ..f th.. nr.n' i.th 
of thlK nrt, U Iwr^by tUi'ijtrotI to Im* irullty of :i 
Tirtlou thrrwif whall In» )»nnlHtii'd l>y n flnr of not '■ 

nor jnon* than t\\o hniMlml ilolhirs, and It sliall Ih* Hit* tbily "I \U** rai'todd 
Of>ntndsHlnn to fully Invitjtti^ntu all ntsti-i of tUu vhdatb>u of Iblu net nnd to 
bjilu** wlib tbo ntti>rney'i:rui.*nU Inforuintbai of siicb violation nn may voaw tu 
ItBi kno\vU><1f?«t. 

SKr. 4. The* provUlonfi of tbtft net nhnll not apply to rolb«f or wnvb li 
wblb* clv^artntr obHtrm'tionx to tlK' niuln Hm* of auy mllr'Mid. 

ApproviHl March s. 1•.^r7. 

riiATTCE 3!»T. — 3iinr rfffttlnliuim — W'iilih «/ rHtrir*. 

KkjCTIOn I. It nbxiU ho unlawful for an^- owner* Iw«w«p. aioput or opontlor 

of ntiv fonl mim* wltbla tlio Stale of Indiana, to i ' : ** 

to In' ntatU'. dutr, or rtuislructcd ntiy i-iitry or tr;i' 1 

nf tblv art, lu any ittti) Lnliit> In lln* Hintr tif Ifi 1 

lo cirlv*' with mino »'ur or mr« unb'iw thon* 

nr T"<lh :.{>]''r ••ojm1(| i-Iv of any icii' !. "r 

m two (*J> 

fAv .'I y.-j thr-if 

mtr^i ,iiiU (imK it/ ('»i*ii/ < 
iir/V// fnr ttiiy i'ni/'/o.\ (V, , 



ZABOB I-AW8 — mOIANA — ACTS OF IWT, 



271 



lb 

lb< - 

wliu n line 

■IxtjT duys. 

ApfiroTrd 



til;..!- :\t\v nii^irii. iftrti wltlilii «£tld i!t|iaco utt IjorWu pFovliled : Provided, 
r CTXiI DumbfrH tlireo nod four L'oinruouly ktuiwii n» 
- lu tile McM-k coul fleUls itf Iui]hiu4i sUull bt; lat'QijiC 
pruvirijifUK oC tiiisi nrt. 

Any ftnrh owmT. le»««<», opemtor. person or penmns, vtoUttloie ftiif 

^ l« net *hnll b^ tftiUty of lulsdeiijefinor and ni»on coiirlcticm 

1 In any sum not lo rxtvod two liiinilriM dollars nnd to 

luny V*' uiMimI Uupriii4>uu]LMU in the couaty juU. not to eJtcecd 



March !». 1007. 
CUAms 2IM.— J/»i*c 



rtv**f**ti0H9—fifastinv, e/c. — In»pecior$* 



8BfTH>|( 1. 



It flhflU be iinliiwfnl for nny i)cr80D to take or Uavc Id his po cocB \ 

itrol wlllilu ttuy coal ujtue in the Stiite of InJlnna. any 
rv* nr other hl^h eipli/Hive without ttrst ohtahihig lu wrlt- 

' uihie forouiaii or other iM'fHou Ui char^^ of thu oiH'raiion 

. tiMtthij; forth tho wae for which uuy such cap or explottlve may he 
pari - iiilomltNl. 

:$KC. *J. it Hhall 1)0 unliiwful for any |>orson for the purt^^^ of hlastUt;; c^uil 
iLiy lutijy In IhiH Slate, to piviiarc any "shot" lu 8iu'h a way that the (lis- 
fruui the drill holo to the "loo«e end," "chance" or end of cutting Khalt 
more than lUv fwt measured at rljcht auglcB to the dlre<;tion of the hole: 
to ]»hice any charj:e of ih»wder or other expluslve In any drill hole prepared 
i>r ttiiy " fihot " in whU-h the hreast of coal to Ue UlBlmlyi'd 18 of greater width 
thn- " 'ah ijf iJic drill hole; or to use lu preparing any "shot" mure than 
iU\ r" iM.»wd»>r; or to place any jwiwder in any drill hute fur the purpose 

|:.-,-.. , uuy shot without meuxiirint; the amount H4) plxiceil ihereiu with a 

itniidnl uieas\ire »> nuide uh to Indicate the weight of bla8tin>r jHjwder 
iimrcU Uierein : or to open a Uen, can or other ]>ackaKe contninln;: [wwder, 
uienns of a pick or In any other manner excer)t In pnrHuance of the manner 
prurldiil in iht* manufai'ture of 8U<'h kt»s. can or iwicUatfe: or to rcII or offer 
for Mile any k^i;. can or luK-kuce i-oiit;iinlnK [Miwder unleHt; such can. ke^ or 
pBokcu;e he firoviilcnl with a t»iitIWlent device for ot>enlu}; the i^ame and itc-rnilt' 
->' llierefrouj of all the innvder llieroiu i-onlaintHl; or lo mlore 
!er. dynamite or other hlKh explosive In any coal mine; or to 
i> '. lilt more than two and one-half iucheii lu dluuieter to be used 
•s for tlie ptiriKi^e i>f preparhi^ any Bliot ; or to use any dynamite 
iif ■ „h pxpluHlve In rirtijini«'fltai with black piwder. 

}<4:c-. 3. It tthall be unlawful for any person for the pnrtK>He (*f blastlufr coal 

•iiy mine In this Slate, except lu any ndue prodnclnn bli>ck coal, to drill any 

paai the end of hia cnltiuK. "I<M>m^ end* or "ehanee." 

4. If uiM>n Inspoetiou of any working place In any coal mine there ahnll 

foiuid the renuinnt« of drill holew drilled im-nt the cuttini^c. loutw end or 

inre, or the remnants of uiiy shot mi^osurlnt: more than the maximum width, 

if ' ' ' ' ! To have in his pnsst>ftKl<iii Iti lli^; wnrklnj: [ilace 

nut; ptiwder and whieh has I»4*en openiHl In any 

, - U by law. tile satue or either Uivrt.'^'f respeitlvyly 

4t) • prima fade evidenre that tin* worUmnn In whose work- 

tat: i ^' la found la guUty of a vhilation of MH'tlona ;: or 3 or lof] 

tliU nvl, vit « pht t »iirre<*f. i\n the c»»t*e may be» 

Kr«-. 5. !f phtiU he unlawful In any coiil mine for auy i»eriK>n to explotlc or 

4 in auy w<»rking pin'.'e HlnmUaniHtusIy with llii* exphwk»n or \\fi\\{- 

'i-»l by the s.nue or any other i»erw>u In auy dther working: itlace on 

WW niinic entry, cxreitt in witrkln^ phirr.s where the eoul I» undereiit my (by| 

flBftcldiifiry. 

f»^-- '• ** •■" '-•■■I '"'""-. wliere nny e»'ap<! way or mnjiway In hereafter cou- 
Str ' pnoUled with a pM^.! nial smthcient stairway, nc- 

<ior' . :ts for mine stnlnvayp now ]'rovldetl by law, and of 

fni(Uible defflgn :iiid MD'nicih to a'i*omplI»h the pnriMtjte fop which it lit Intended. 
Mrt-. 7. It !»hHM !»<» Mtil:ivvfnl for any iwrwju desiriug carri»jK« uikmi auy cage to 
Mix (>i) feet to aiky "cage hindluf;" when su<'h ca^e is 
llnir: or tn erctwd on lo said ra»r»« In a rude »»r Iwtisterona 

nij. ■-.•-■ ,■-.■•,.,.. 




nn I -/I/ 



-i^e or the luachiuvry xaovJug vt ufTivtlui; VUw buiuc. AnOi. \»ro». ,'\* (\ 



4 



JMl 




BULLETIN OF THR BUREAU OF LABOB. 



further, Thnt ns mnny pprsiiaH may ntivr (1im ifonKUKC of llila act ciitvr a 

for carrlflRp ns the wime will accomniodntc, glrlng ouch pi»rwin three •qniire 

feet of floor «|»ii*'e. 

SKr. H. It Hhiill he tlio iliity of Hio ofirmtor or owiior of nny oonl iiiltu* wherpUt^ 
Are rluy or otht*r iHMilntliiiiini.'iltk* iiiHleriiil 8uUal>le ftir Uf^e In tamplnu In i»i 
pnrlitK HtiotK can not 1h* rvii<]lL>' ohtiiiiKiU to provldr mid <li'|iotiit within siild^ 
mint* KtH-ti niiiicrhil, iind iit iiolntH within ftvi> litinilriHl ftH't from tin* fHi-o oCj 
#>nrh rntry In Kiirh niliio. In case nny rlisjtuto nniy urlw us to the (•onutructloilJ 
prttptrr to l><.' plari'M upon ILo dI'Ovo prnvlslon, or nH t" Ihi? tliify nf any fniclli 
oi»pnitiir or ownor thcrcnndor, nncli dlRpnto nhull In* Hitall}' detortiilnt*tl by the! 
liiRptH>lor tif inlneH.- 

Skc. 0. At liny (hiuI mliio In the State wh«ro thi* mhiem working therein BO 
elect, iH»r«on9 inny be employed to net ns sliot flrorn, nnrt tholr wnirw* sliull bo 
p«ld by tbo tnliKTH worklnj: llK»n»In : l*vuritt*tl, Tbul nothing hrr<'ln coutntiKNl 
flhnll (ifTtN't nny f-xlKtlntr tontrurt iih to Hhnt llrerH. 

Six. 10. Till' rt-stilt of nil «n:ii mine hoiportlnnK inndo by the Inspootor of 
nilno« or nny of liK nNslslants, Hbnwinjr all bin intiflnslons hb Ut the cotidltlun 
tif wiffty iif tin* minos nod nrdorn kIvcii tn the Inspection of nny coni mine 8hAlI 
be iKwteil in writing nt the enlnuii'c to Kurli ndlie Itnmedliirely ni>un tbe con- 
clusion of enoh ln.'«portlon. The tns|M>ctnr of ndnes or his iisBUtuntH nhnll mukA 
perHonal Innpei'tlon of all conl inlnen In tbe .siiite at linint thnv tinieH earh year 
Instend of (wire v\w\\ ycnr, ns lnTrlofore i^mvldcd by law, nnd to onnbli* wild 
iuRiKvlor and bin a«Hl«tiintK tn dl»i'barice nil the dulleu creiiti-d by this act and 
other nflR Iho nnniber t»f bis asslslnntHi Is heroby hn-renm-d fnun two to four, 
8)U'h additional nHHlMnrits Khali pt»sKi'HH tbe winio qnnlillratlonn and porfoi 
the >'nme dntlr.M rc^pilritl by thin and any and all otht'r lawn, and Rbnll bo o] 
poliitotl. em|M>\vi>riHl, ninl In all thln;:H ;:'i\<'rnrt1 hi tlio name mnnnor and liy tl 
Ranie laws npplk-alde to aPHitlnnls tn kmcIi Inspef't'-r of nihii'H ln»relofore exjKtInf 
nndi'r fitrrner I««8. Such additional aeslstant.s sball earh ri'<'*»iTe for bla acnr- 
Ice9 till* mini nf one thmiNind two luin<lriMl dollnrM per nnnnni; and for ex- 
|>eiis*'S they shall nvelvc the snni n<ttially and niH-osKjirlly rxpendod for thnt 
pnritose In tbe dlM'liat'K«* <*f tlu'lr otib'inl dniles, all t«> bo imld i|(nirt<'r1y by the 
Slale treaMorev fn-m fnnds in tho Mtaie tnimnry O'd othmvUe appropriated*^ 
All exftenHo Hhali be hworii to nnd shall Abow lta> Items of c'X|H*nHi* In detnlLi 
Hneh Inspeetor and each of his asslFtants are herel>y obnrire*! with the duty 
of enforrinir tills n*t and nH ntluT laws r»^lafinj? to the hiiilth and safety of 
pers4ins and pn>i>erty eui|>IoycHl anil nscd hi and aUmt the «'onl mlnrN of th« 
Binte. 

Wr.r. 11. The Inspeetor of ndnt*** nnd each of his asulstJinlH are hereby em- 
IxnverMi to net ns iiolire olHeerH. with fnll powers to nrreM and detain any 
jM-rwai fonnd vlolntlnt? any provisions nf tills net or any itthor minlinr law, or 
enjrairi'd In any allonipl to vtidate any stuli law or itnrt thoreof, or apilnat 
whom tbi-ro Ij* found nny rvldtiiee of a prr-vbais violation of snr-h law: /*n>- 
rUltfi. httirtrri'. That no snrh |>eri4iai f'hall be drlnbif*! for nny i»erlo*| of tlmAI 
lonper than tw<'nty-four honrw wlthont warrant or thf llllnn of a charfMl 
nirnlnst him In a ronrt of •■itnipflenl .Inriwlli'llon. Stub liiHricclor ami ivirh of 
his assistants sbnll also have jiowiT to Imiiu'dlately stop the operation of nny 
eonl nilne. or part thereof, In whUb any danpTona or niibn\riii 'MiitiHion ia 
found: /'ror/ffr*/, Aoirrcrr. That whore i'<mdlttons exist Jn mi to do 

M>, he nuiy ^'lant a rens«»nnblp len^h of time for making > rri^lrs: 

>lroI, pntiiihd fiit'lhtr. That whi-re any stoji Is mfon'od, sih-h insin^tor and 
bla asslstantH Kbnll earh have power t'» snbwipiently allow siirh mine or part 
of nilno to bi' r(N»|t<'iicd wln-n (he dangerous or imluwfnl rondltbms hftv« btaca 
remwlbil or renuivod, s*i that they no lonjjer exist, 

f*ir. 12. Tbe lnsp<rtor of mint's shall havo power In his dlserotlon to order 
the sprlnklim: of any <*intl lulno or jiart itf mine by notlre In wrlllOK to tbvj 
operator thiToof. or i-i^"i' i" .Ilmi... ,,f ||i,. wmi,., mid nftor ntoU '"•' >.H'*h 
not lee tt shall be iinln i to nt*t In i bibitlon tliMmsif ei t 

auch sprlnklln^f. ('o|' jlven horeniKbT nIihII be im»M' i'* 

mine enlrant't' b> th<' hi«in-« lor t.f ntUur*. 

hkc. 1H, Afirr The itiif).<iaKe of this act no further eertlHeates of aervlM ahall 
be Issued by Ibe Insixtior of mines to any person to a<*t as mine hi)!<s, flr« 
or bolftdnft *"nKlm»f>r: I'mthtrtl^ hmrrvri; Thnt nolbing lu:rrL*lu eiMilaltied 
UfTiH't any et-rdll- ' " - ■ i,,*^!, 

Si:t\ I J. 'Any \ • - of this act or willfully refiiatni 

jiv»rh*rfin^ or hiiii,,i. .4.i..i. ..-i >.,... ut W iVme \iv n\\^ vvi\vt»ton hi 

' Mttcli /jottion, or obtftrucituK or alteiupl\uic U» obwU^cV »>t vuvcrtwc^j >aVW >^«i 



LABOR LAWS — INDIAXA — ACTS OF 1901. 



273 



of mlncfl or any of Ills iis8lstQiit> iu th(» iliicchArfco of uny dntj Im- 
posed by Ihw. or rofuslnp, fulUiiR or ut-v'lwtlns t» comply with the proper 
orJetH of tbo lu8|H?(.ti-»r uf nilneft or his assiRtnutM, rIuiII be giilUy of a mlth 
dcmvnnnr jiuiilshuhlo on eouvlftiou by t\ fine not oxi'iHMlinjr Hvo UnnrtrcNl dollan^ 
to whlrli nmy Ih* uddeil iui|>rim>nu)eiit in the «.*<>niily jiiU fur u (ktUm) not cx- 
ccedUiK six moDllij*. in the (lIstTt^tloii of tiie court or jury tryiii>c nuy such cause. 

Se*'. IFi. Whrnn^T, Itt'lnw: tin iitsjtrtnor of niinf*t< or mi nssistant lht'rf^)f. Hhul] 

fni'. ' ''" » or rcfuFc to perform any duty rwiuired of him by this or any other 

ln\ z to tlie hejilth and safety of jioraons employ^Hl in omi mLnes ildAI 

nil'' nei'lrtl tlierewtlli, fUnUi iiimhi conviction thprtn^f \w rtnin! not to ex- 

rw^l rive huntlrf^l dolhirs, nnrt U[K»n a second cfmvictlon for nu o(Ten«e bere- 
uiid*T Khali. utHiu cerliticutiott of jtid;aii*Mil thiTtnif to the pro|H'r otHcur holdloK 
the jHiwer of iipprrintinK lit>* siicco«»or. l>e iiumedlately removed from otHee by 
wich ol^vr wlthonl nny furihi'r j»i«tctH4iinjr«. 

Sw. t»;. On. or befon* January 1. UKU*. and blonnlally thore«ftert It slinll be 
the duty of thi> Stntt? gtMilojfiKt and chruii>it to the Slate l>«iard of heaJth to 
pre|iare a list of rpipstloua on tlie BnbJo<*ls of uiinc eii;:lno<»rinp. chemistry aA 
applied to cofil uiliiluiJ, and the practical oi)erntions of coal minini; n« com 
the <t>al lulnin;; industry In Indiana. These tpicstiouH ghnll lie t^.* prepared 
the auK^vers ko };raded tliat It Hlintl in* pos»tb1e for uu applicant to make tweoty- 
flvt? (25) |K»inta on the quePtionH relating to mine enplue«'riuK: twenty-Gve (25) 
ptdniR uu the fiucfdltHis relating to dioiuifiitry an nppltfM to c^til ndniufc; and 
fifty (5<»i pohitrt on the questions relating to the practical operations of coal 
nduln^. 

Kvc. 17. Within llfteen (1J5> days from the first day of January, 100!>, antl 
bir: ■ =■ "■ Therenfter, the chemist to the State board of himlth sliall hold an 
ri '. n»iu4: ti;e «iid liwl of jireparrt! n>n'»tit>nH, in tlie Slate rapitol, 

wh Liination Kball be oi>en to iiuy male citizen of the State of over 

Iweuiy-oue t'Jl) yenrs of as»\ r»f f;ood moral character, wlio has had at Icaat^ 
rtve years* ex(H»rlejice as a practlml coal miner, and shall irrade the mana- 
HCrlptM of all jiers^oiiK tuklne ^nch examlmitiou, and sUnil prepare and certify 
to the State j:eo|o;;lst an elfuihle list of all applicants who shall make a ^rade 
of S5 jier cetit or jtrtiiter. 

Skc. IH. The State inHilofilAt tmmedUitely theit^ifter ^lall np|>oint from said 
eligible Mut nn Iin*|»eetor of nibies to wrve for a period of two (2) j-cars; and 
the loKpi:^>tor of niloe^ 1hu$ ap|M>intei shall appoint from r^nid eligible Vist his 
deputteM, as imw or herenftcr niiiy be pi'ovideti l»y law. Said Inspixtor shall 
qualify us now provtdtsl by law, and shall have all tht> (KiwerH, duties and 
(teiiKition }\» now provid<il by law. aad sluill he iinbject to removal by said'' 
fCetiUnriNt for cauxe. as providiMl liy law. In case of death, resijmatlon or fe- 
uovnl of the liispertor of uiincH, the State i;e<dot;ist Khali apiwlnt blK successor 
fhnn Fald clliirtble ll^t. 

Si^r. I'.i. The aKsUiaiit Inspector of mines shall qualify as now provided by 
btw. and shall have the siinie powers, duties and oomi>ens}ition. with trnveling 
exiit.nises, as now providisj t»y law. Said awdslant inspwtors uf mines umy be^ 
reuiovi-*! by Ihe liiHi'e<'lor of mines, as now provided by law. in case of deatll« 
n^ttniatlou or removal of any of said assistant insiK>crors of mines, the lnsx>ector 
of uiliieH shall appoint his sni-ceswir from satd eligtlde list. 

Hk(\ 15>. In rtiso the said eligible list slnxtl be exiiaustMl l>efore the date of 
re;;nlar biennial examination, appointments sliall be nnide from the list of 
app)i<*iint>; who pa«se<l the last examination: Proridid, That the person bold- 
lu£ the hlKbest iinide shall Ite first chos«*n. 

Rr^. 21. The provisions of tliis art shnll be cum.ilative of other htws upon the 
mibjort of c<ml mining: I'mritUtl. hmn rrr. That all laws and parts of laws in 
Ouufllct herewith are heri*by reiieuJed. 

Approve!, March 0. unt7. 

fujunru ^Vi,—Iiailro*ids^iilock tty$tcm to he installed. 

SrcTioN 1. Aftf^r Ibe l.«-t day of July, IflOO. It shnlt lie unlawful for any person, 
flrm or ntrpomtlon, or tlie IfSMiv or rei*e!ver of any jht^'ou. tirui or corporation, 
which "ihrtll own or oiwrate any line of rnilrojiii in tills Stiife, to operate nny 
tral!i over sticli nilIrond by steam power unless such rnilnmd Is ffpii!Ut4»4l with 
and IiJis 111 of»era(lon an approvefl liloek system for tlie control of tniin move- 
fii> n ; /VorM''#/, Tlnit the jirtnlsinns «»f this st^*tlon Khali not apply to 

at. illroad as shall not liave a (rt^ss annual ln(*(Miie from 4qH'rntion of 

*pFj.j/> /ji f /ii/ni/nH! {S7,rf^Mtf ,},tiUtr» or more |nn' niiW of U\\<\ Vo W \VAk»T\\\\t\«A 
I>VHJ JtH Imrt j'nt'tfUuf^ aunuul tviKtti to the raltroad. i:v)mui\as\ox\ \il Vv\vi\»uTS.. 



274 



BVLLKTIN OF THE OUBKAt* OK LABOK. 



Hkc. 2. Power and anthnrlty nri* brrcby conhrmJ upon tbp railroad com- 
mtmlott of Iiifllaim to fxteiid ttip time hinh^'IHihI In Aoctlou ono >tt tlilii net wlicm 
It Ritull Ii4' miuU' to n)»iMMir to It llmt n ri-nfMmul»U^ n(NH»*wlty fuv %nrU rxtcnKian 

Kliull exiHt. provliliil tliMt llii' fXtt'iiHl'^h w) umtiltnl nh. ;. 

Full in»\v*'r (iihI iimhorIt.v nn* itlso .imforrtHl upon hm< .> 

any tmvU jmily fmni i-otn|il.vlii;; uUli tUis not «h Io jh'.x i-.h.. .. •>> 4 

wht'ii it mIuiII In' iniuir to npiwur tliut no rrnwmubh' n**<T»<t<il.v tlu'r 
Kiill iKiw^r jUiil iititlji>riiy ur»' iilsn li*'r<M\v i>«nf<M'riNt u|m>u smU vihi- it 

n»lt*'Vi* nny Huvh |mrty fnmi tlu' obtlpttlmtK lniiK»wil by Hcflirm one ■ I 

wIhmi tt Ktiiill bo iiiftile to iipiMMir thiit (lit* \MlnnM' t>( tnitllc ami triiln il: 

ovtT liny Fui-b rnllpMuJ nn* hih.U only lUut tlit* wiuit» ctxii bv (UMpatclu^tl wiUiuut 
mibKtniitinl b.iznrd ti» i\to imhI in'oporty nvor n lliio nut »o iimtiNlwl, 

RKt'. .'i. Any ijer«oa, flnu ur roriMirntlMM. nnvlvor or Ifusci- who or v : . t 

vlolnto FiiH'tlon onr nf thlH net nball forfolt nml puy tu ilu> SUitc nf I < 
sum of utip tlK'UHnnd diilliuN |M>r work for <nicli wwk tbnt trnlu?* mui - iw 
oiMTiitifl tivt*r nny Kurh riiilnuMl In liithitlon ft KUi*b H«H||«n, tlie wujk' t«» Ik* 
oftllri'tfKl by tho rnllrond comnilKsInn of Indlnnn by n unit In lis tuiwu for tbv 
u»e of the* SUKv uf Inillanti In uiiy ci'urt of coui|»«(u'it JurlHUIetton. 

Approvitl Xlnrch !t, 11«»7. 



BKfmoN 10. H<*ctlmi 23 of wiliI nrt fof Kobruiiry 2>^. 11)051 Hlmtl Ih* nmmnJMl 
»<> H8 |o r«nl iiH fniNnvH : Stn-Otiti 23 • • • U hIijiII bo Hie duly of nhUI onu- 
mlSMlon 1o ki*4'p liironni*4l a» to tin* t'oudttlou of rnllnuitlM um] rullwayn uuil ttui 
inunniT In wliUh tlH\v arr (»pi'nif<\l with rnfornnro to the wvurlty nnd iKn'ofn- 
nitKbilioii t>f tilt* puMlf. ami ns In tht* cimtpHnniv of tli* aevi*nil o<jr|>urntluuii 
\vUl» tb(»ir fhiirtiTs uinl tho InwH of the Slato, 

(a) KviTv r«ilrt»»'I omipany Hiibji'rt bvrt'to nlinU r(*p«.trt Ut tbt* (nillroadl 
pfininiission wUlilii Hvc (Ti) dayH aftrr it ItnK mvnrrntl, rvcry iiri-bbiit and thu 
gf?^ioi'al riiiiH*^ thi*n*«>f, bnolvhnc Uvm of Ufc, or «#'rloii« Injury to paMwn^it-r or 
4*niploy(*f\ aiiit wllbin t\vi*nty days af(i*r micli nivldttit the* {.'oniimny ahaJl nmko 
II full r**|>"'t't of tin* caiiM<.* IhoiiMif to the i-ominiMHluU, and \\w c**uiui\xHUni whal! 
hivontlirat*" In Muh nmnnrr and by wm-h iH^rfums hh It may dotnn hr-*!, tho cmuj«*>» 
of any arridonr on any rtillruad involving! \nM of llf<>, and ovory *■■■ n 

at nil tlnit'^i. sball fnrnlnU to tho ooniniNHlon. Iti* appoiiittM*^. or it^ ■; 

any lnf"irmatl«iii rolatlvo 1(> mi<b aorldoiitN. Snrh rofMirtH and liif»'nii il 

not li»' iifl^sl in tho trial of any HUlts for daaiap*^ arising otil of nab! \) 

ami tin* comnil^Nloa shall iu>t Kho pnblU'lly tu isni'h Information If 
ihont the puhllo lut*iro*itH do not ro<|"iiri» It. Aftor snob InviM^tlualUm, Iht- wiUl 
ooiitniMftfon Hhall niaki* a rC'iKirt to thi* nillmad coni|tuny of ItM ron(*lnshtn and 
rtM'onmiondutionH rocardinj; siuli acridonln and tin* cauHOM thoroof. and tho 
proitor «top« to bn tnkon by thn railroad ronipany to (irovpnt llk»« nrrldontw. iiad 
tniU'KH till* railroad cnaijiuny Khali In a nsoconablo tlmo i^niipiy witli and cnrry 
ont Kabl roconnnondationH, Hjild oonunlHKlon xliall niako tho winio pnbllo, If ft 
Bhnll d<H'ni bout ho to do, by puMIshlu^ tin* wmit? In any n**wBpai«»r or n«'W(t- 
pn|KTM In IhiH StMio, i»r In tho looiillty wbort* lUo noohlrnt t«»«k pla^. • » • 

Appru\ed Manh P. Ki07. 

CMArrr.ii 'l4*l.—Iitiilrtfn(l9~^Uutrn fur tn\p\t»yt^rn — ivrUUnt^ 

SEimoN J. Kvpry person, firm or uonK»r«tlon nppmtlnic trnlnsi by sti 
I mllrondB In Uii^a Htato, tdmll pnblUh prlnti^l rnloH fi>r tho rontrol 



riti 



n-ou at louMt oner m .m.. 
■uiitlnnod f'lr tttliitM-n m 



on rniinmup iii uii^ f^i.aio, niinii )iiioiipii |iriiiii^i niit'H inr luo <'oi 
tlou of jtnoh tffilns and kIuiII dollvor oojijo* thrroof to all iM>r«'tn« 
thi* oporntlon of Hn«'b Iralat* and (llo u oopy thorttif wllh i) 
»lon of Itallana, and nliall Inwlrnrt tinrtl cniployifn In th* 
rnU'f* add oxutuino Hurh oliip!- ' n-ou at lou-st ■— "- 

afit'f miployniont until th<* n 

Dtti.ii-illi' I hi.t'i"! n i.r- \i>\ !■. 

I" 

IIm 

Ition* than two huuilrr*! ttotiarK. 

8^'<-t?. Ilf P f'trtloT .-firf.^l titttt fbo rrtl'p'rtd f-•nltId^pIon nf Indlni 

Oil 



LABOB LAWS — TStilAJHA — ^ACTS OF IWl, 



275 



■mi 

nil' 
4.1,.,, .., 



ti> r:Mlr.i:iit :i.*. iil^'tiK tl.:ii hiMv tuk<.*ii |i!ii«^' Uui'Inc Hit* yoar, 1f>c:t^bei 

'icTt-oti iiM sucIj commission shall luiv** rnni 
v fnvfMi^to Mild rfporlH, tiiullii>:)t iintl 
-^ .;- ite 8ituii* wtUi n vk»w to takliitr Fncli st**p« l>y ibo c*«in)iiilt 

"■■■ ' . ..Mt|mn|».f; and hj- tlK*ir i»flkvr^ and fLui»Iu>w» ae uiay 

■nt RiiL'U iic'klwitP. 

!. rimt It i8 b«*reliy dvioIartHl to he unlawful f< 
"ii. -.lii'-T t»f iMiiiMii\i'.' 1.1* jiiiy |>erwm. tirm or ooriM>rntloii piientzoil U\ tl 
cjit^rntiun »»f rnllro-ui Iralns I-y slraiii |Mt«iT in this Stat*-, Ut Ik? or lii*«'om 
IntoxU'jili'tl »• i"U' ii !!it' |M'rf<inm!iu'o «»f hU dii(lt*» as suoh, and II J« als«i liurelt] 
de«:l:ii-<Hl lo f^ol f»>r iiuy kiuU i»ornou im o(K.n*fl!o tiny surh tnilii ur iriii 

nnlfis I'T -I ii-r the ipju'iiitlnn of any Hudi triiiii omtniry In Ihr priiiti 

IT' ouii>Hiiy, n*puljMln>: tbo o|MMatittii t.f nillnuid Iraiii** l>y i*H'fiui i^.w^l 

hi ;**, wUiL'li jiPi* re<juiriM| by hwIIou uut* of this uot, nad It 1b furtln 

dtv-luitxi lo Ih' imlawful for any sueU [ktsou Io oiM-rate uiiy awh tniiu or dirt 
tbo iifNTnliini iif any sn<'b train In violation of any law of this Slato, und nu] 
n\' I M» nfl'indUMr sliall Im> »niilty of a niiiii*h>nu<anikr and upou couvlcth 

tl I l)f Uutnl not lt*!ts than tweuty-Uvt* duUartf and not luon- tluiu t\vi 

Imi -Mitii tii'iljirt*. 

ticic.4. Ue it furthiT rujirti*<l that whoneirr the railroad cnnindK«li«n of Uidl- 
jl(i;. hi rh." lnv»>Htf£atinn of niiy lui'ldeyt involving; loss of life, Kbjtll come to 
111' i-i» tluit th)' a'< Idi'iic ci-.iirn-d ou aorouut i»f Ihe vhdalluu of the 

I>ii -s fiT the ujn-'raiiMU "'f tr;iinK, a* rwjulivd by t«*^'tJou one yf this 

acrt, hy uuy othivP or fUjplijyi'i.' of anv railroad couijiany ujteratt'd by Kteam 
powtT In tliitf Stalo, the coiuuilsi^iou may. if li dt-ems Uvt t^t to d(». and tlie 
luirltvt of duly or violation of Iho rules is daicraat or has ht-Hi bronjEht about 
hy the intoxication of any iK'riion while ou duty, niwrt bik-Ii i^tkou to the prowv 
f i.f the »N"unir wherein the aerident ofvurred fv>r iiritsiKvution 

uii -il laws (if [Ills Stale. 

.tl,,.,- ^.u-i. uh], thiit (.•opie« of this nr-t, withlu sixty »lays aftor 

tli> ■Tt. hIkiII ho. by llif rtiuipaules Htibji-rl hcriMo. ]irlntfd and 

Co: , ill the train caboo»eK, deiK>t«, and oHit-en of ti*uin di»<i)ut>'h- 

c>rfl and npon the bulleilu boards ut divtolou lumUquarters of auid (.■uiuxQiules. 

A|.r'n.vi-.l >rMn-h 1::. M*i\7. 

IOWA. 
ACTS or 1007. 



SrrTinx 1. It shall be unUiorful for any railway fonii»nny within th*» Rtflte nt 
lowUi or auy of iln oth^tTH or ajjents |o r)'<|iiire or }*erniit any eiujtloyw* etipipjtl 
In ur eounetrtod with the movcmeut uf any r>>Uin); **to<k, en;;iue or train, to re- 
luult) on duty rnoie than sutiH'U 1 10) ronxtN-utivp hotiTM, or to ri4|iiire or jxTiutt 
BTi' ' inployee who lini btvu on duty nlxttHMi (10) ct>nsi*cutlve houre to 

In- ftirlluT Mervi. f without Ijavin^ luid at least ten boiirff for rest, or 

Ik r.-*iMir'' IT i»er«ilt any nncli employee to be on doty at any time to exrtie<l 
stUteeu (U;> hours In an.v ^^onRetmive twenty-four i'2i) hourH: Pruridnt, h'nc- 
rtrr. That thi.i stM-tion shall not apply to work ivrfornuMl in the protwtiou of 
life or property ia lasfi* of acddeut, wreck, or other unavoithtble tasualty. or 
fir*' wit ?i;iln . ifWH from Ijiking a pnssi-njrer train, or freiirhr train liwult*d ex- 
f' . n slfjck ur perle^luihLe frel>;bl. to the tiext ueareHt dlvlBloa i»uhit 

i;, :id: Iro/ pt'uiidnl further. That It jshail not apply to that thue 

tit> ' - .1 s 11 -n to n*a«:'h a reKting plaee wlieu an acoldent, wreck, 

Wi<^' < ~ • ' othor umivoldablc otiiiHe has delayed tlu^ir train: And 

p'^ th>t\ i i!iU lUltJ Section fclmli nol apply to vuiph^ytfit of »leepinj<-car 

■ ;-■■'' }ciit, tniln master, train diw|«»teher, yard mafitor 
v\ 'ud In the state of Iowa. violathiK any of (he pi 

y. . . . lie de^-rned ^'ullty of a ndsilemeaiLor. und ur»»n eo| 

^rlrthiti Klmll I'f pimisiii*d by n Hue I'f not less ihnn one bnndretl dollars l$l*J 
nml not more lli;ii' flv.' Iiniitbr.l ilnliarM (^'i"'! f.tr eaeh ofTeTisf. It siml 
bo tlio duty of : ,.id e«>mni t-t reeelve wrlttt-n HlaK 

tltf^(" of \|i»)]|t ' wb**n %> I to hold fti.-j vrniio wit! 

!>"' ;irf itf !li< 

r\-^ I'll auti L\ 



27« 



BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR. 



In iimlEliif; Ruch liiv(?f((liciittoii sliall havu ttao powur to uOmlulster oalhB. 
ICiifc \vlti)oKH4>H, tiiko trxttnioiiy, uuil rtfjiilrc xUv priMliu'tlott of txKTkx inul I'mpiTfl; 
]iii(l niiiHt IHo II r(*|Mirl of micli luvi'stlpittuii In xvrltlni; with n full Htiii<*ii)rtit of 
Ittf niiilln;; to till* i;oVL*riior. lu all riir«<>H nf vlolntlon of this net, tho honrd of 
iiillroiHl 4't»!nmlH*<ItHH'i*H, through Iho nltontov-n*'iiornI, ntiiHt iil oiir<» Im'uIh the 
proHwulioii of ull piirlk'H nK"l»Ht whom evldriic*? i»f vlulatlcm In fouiicl ; hut 
thiH lu-t Khiill nor Ih< rtmsininl to itn'vent atiy other ^htkoh froiii iM'gliintng 
l>riiM«.vullou for vlulutlou lu'ieof. 
Api»rov(«d April 2, A. I>. 11)07. 



niAPTKR Myih-^Hcig/it of u'Jrcn ovrr taUroad truikn. 



tf*MHTnl 



iirijT 
this 



Sr.i-rioK 1. 'Hn' riillrtiiul rominitiFlotiprs of lhli>i Hind* shatl hnvo k* 
8ii|H»rvlRlon ovi»r any iim] nil wlren for trniiMiultllnK «?Ieotrlr nirrent or 
ftthrr win* wUntwu'vcr tToiwlug uutler or over nuy trftfk of » niMruad In 
Stall*. 

Kkc. 2. WUhlii thirty CM)) »Ih>s fn»Di Iho (akhiK elTt^t of thU act wihl rail, 
road i-oniiiilAHionrrH shall luako rrtfiiliillotiM iiroKrrlhln^ Hn* inaiincr In which 
Hin'h whvH Hhnll i*iiihh Kin*h railroad trackn In tliln Stntp. 

Skc. .'t. It Khali hiMi'aftrr In* utilawfiil for any rorjMiratl'ni or person t*» |ihu*o 
or siring; any hxwU wlrt' for tran^iniltlikR f*U»ctrlr current or any win* whtttwjevcr 
arroHH any track of a railroad In thU Stale exiv|)l' In Huch luunner as Uifty be 
prcKcrllMHl l>y the railroad eonimlj^J^loiiors as provlde<I hy thlt* tut. 

Hva; 4. The hoanl of rallnrnd coutuiixHlontTH Kimll, an h<»oi» a*- iMikMllde afli 
the talclrttf en'c<'t of thla not, either hy perwmnl exnnilnathai or <»therwlrie, olitii 
tnfornuitioTi where the tracks or nillroadn iir»' croxhcd by wInrH NirunK over Hd 
Irarks. rontniry to or tiot In coni|ilinnt'*' with the nilri* firewTllHil hy thp ml 
road r<inintlKHl(»nerH an eontrniphiti^il t)>' lhl.4 act, and nliall onh'r Hiich rhaii; 
4ir chanKeH to he niiuh' hy tin* juTsonH or (^jriH^nilWam ownhiK nr oiHrnillni; hii 
wirert as It nniy drein ni*ri*KKii i ,v tn niak*' the sjune (-iiinply with said rill*?»» t 
tvirhin Hiirh reaAonahle time uh it naiy pr<'ArTlhe. 

Skc. r». In eaKe Hurli wlnm rnws over n«UI (rark. In no enw Hhnll Faht bcw 
rif |-nllri.»nd cornnilnnhMicrH |irt'M*rllH» n hte* helirht than twenty-two (22) fwit 
nhtive the top of the rnllH of any railroad traek for npy wIit, 

Skc. (1, The iHiard of nilli-cad iVMniulHHlonertt ar<* hert-hy anlhorir.i%l lo pi*ovld» 
for aad reu'iihite the eroKHluc of wlreH ov"*r and arnmn railroad rltrhtn of wny 
at hijfhways jtnd other placoH within the State. 

Skp. 7. Any |H>rKon or coriHiratlon who Hirhitr or naihitnin any wire ncroM 
any railroad track In this State al n dlfterent hnlifhl rir In n illfTereni rtt-v ■: ?• 
friMM tluil pre'stTllM'^l hy tho miM ln'tird of railroad »"oninil''t*lMiir'?H Mhall 
nnd l^ay to the State ft Iowa the siiin of taie hni)dr(i><l dollars I]|:1<mm ("■ 
xoparate jmtIihI of ten dnyH dnrlnjr which Hinh wire Is mo nailnlaliied. -;iiii 
furfeltiire to l»e recnvenil In a cUll action hnui^'-ht In any court of t iiniiM-ti-ni 
JiirlMllclfon In the nnine of the Stale of Iowa, hy tin* attorneyitr'rieral. or hv the 
county attorney of the mutity In which Hoch wire Ik «ltin»teil. at ihe ret|ne«ii nf 
the said hoard of railroad coaindHMlonerr*, and It Ih hi-reliy made the ilnty of tht* 
fjilil .Ttlorney-general at»d c(tnnty nltnniey to bring wncli action ftirlhwlth niioa 
IteiliK H4I rnpicHted. 

Approved April (J, A. D. 1!K»7. 

OlIAlTKB 110, — .lre/rfrn/;i* n» railvoatU, 

SniTioN 1. rpon the occurronco of any wrlouK accidrnt n|Mtn any 
within this State, whleh Hhall rcMnlt In iM'n*i>naI Uijnry, rtr low nf life, the 
IKiratlon ofteratlnu the roail ui«tn which Ihe accident fM-cnrred Miall Kirc 
diate ntdlce ttien^of to tht* tinard of rnllroMd eonindHslnnepK whoM* duty 1< 
be, If they deem It n^N-csyyiry, lo !i . thi» Hanu*. and proniMly re|Kirt 

the >:ovenior the exieaf nf the per wrles, or Iokh of life. ;nid Whi*t 

the santo \va» the reHnlf nf ndKnijni:'i;i mm-hi or neulect of Hie cor|N>mllon 
whoHC llnr ihr Injury or Iokm of llfo (H*iiirr*tl : frnvhttti. That Huch report »*l 
not lie evidence ur referral to In any cnw* In any <^'i(rr. 

Ariprovoil March 27. A. I>. 1tl07. 

Cmaitkii 12.S. -Ihiijilnffttuitl offlcrv, 
fUrT/o!%' f. ICvrry [wrstvi. nrni i>i 





LABOR I_\W6 — IOWA — ACTS OF 1907. 



27U 

f or 



vnfnt or sltnatlfvnft to any pprwm or persons, ami In parstmnoc of shoU a<li 
tittvuifut. uirn.H*nu'nt or promise, bIiuII nxvivn any money, jierwinnl [iroperty or 
other valmidli' tbiny whais^ievur, ami wbo ehnli fail to proi'ure f<ir siK'h pi 
son or iierstiiis aci-optahle situations or employment as nffree<l u()on, wUUln 
tim** •'tHtcf!. or ajrroo*! ui>on, or If no time be siiecillet] tben witbiu a reuftonal _ 
1' ' nixm demand return all sticb money, personal property or valanble 

* -'n of wbnti>ver chanicter, except an aioonat not to exceeil one ilollar 

to n*^ LUMFtred ns a flMnc fet\ 

Sec. -'. U sbaU l»e unlawful for any person, firm or ooritoratloa to re<?elr© 
any nppMuation ftir emidoyment from, or enter into any agreement wltlu any 
I»<'r8on to furnlsb or prtvouro for s;iid imtsoh any entploynient unless there Is de- 
Ihered to any such [H'rsoa making sucU applicatlou or contract at the lime of 
lh*» ntnliiDg thereof a true and full copy of such api»Iii*atiou or uirreeincnt, which 
aipplication or a^re<*nient shall specify the fee or consideration to t>e paid by the 
|)er»uQ seeking employment. 

Skc 'X It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or coriwratloa or any iwraon 
employttl or authorlxetl by such person, firm or coriwratlon to hire or discharge 
emp|oyet*H. to receive any i«irt of any fee or any iH»rc<'nini:e of waj;es or any 
eouii»eus;ition of any kind whatever, that Is atrreed uiK>n to be paid by any 
einph>ye* of said jierson. firm or cori«iralion to any employment bureau or 
agency for services renderrtl to any such emivl»tye<i In procuring for him em- 
ployment with K\id i»er8on, firm or corj^oratlon. 

Skc. 4. The conmiissittuer of the btirt»au of labor statistics, or his deputy, 
shall have authority to examine at any time xhe re<'ords, books and any pai>ers 
relating In any way to the conduct of any employment agency i»r bureau within 
the iitiiw, and must iuvesiigale any complaint made a]i;)ilust any such emplor- 
n»eiil ngi'ncy or buniiu. and if any violatiiuis of law are found he shall at oncft 

le or raufte to be filed an information against any im^'i-som, tlrm 4»r ct»ri»i.»ralioD 

illly uf such violation of law. 

Skc. r». Any jjerson, firm or txiriwratlon violating any of the provisli^ns uf Ihla 
act, or who nlmll refuse aivess tt) rtH^inls, b*iolis or other jKiiK^rs relative to the 
conduct of such agency or bureau, to any i>erson having authority to examine 
ENme, slmll be deeujcd guilty of ii misdemeanor and uism conviction thereof 
shall be punislu'il by a fine not exceeding one buudrcil dollars (flUO.OU), or 
imprisonment in the county Jail nut to exceed thirty days. 

A|ipruved Marcli 27. A. D. 11K»7. 

Chapteb 130. — Vine rrffulation9—Prjicdvr, 

ScCTio:* 1. No F»erson. firm or corporation, shall be i>ermltted to traj 
carry or I'onvey by any elwirical pr<K*ess whatever, any powder or other 
sive, into any coal mine where twenty or more iternons are emi>IoytHi therein 
until after tlie c<ml miners and other employees have ceased their work and 
hare deimrteil from the mines. 

Sec. 2. No oi>emlor or other i)erBon In charge of any coal mine, shall snffer 
nr i^ruilt nndrr any clrcunistnnces the storing of imwder. or other explosives. 
In liny etnil mine except as follows: lOaeb miner shall be permlttwl to have In 
It ire and Indivlilntil poHsession at one time not more than two keg9 

' Iwenly-five p*>unds of p<nvder each, and other explosives sudleleot 

fur I'll*- n;i.v's use. Such |>owder. or other exploiilves, sliiill be kei>t by the miner 
In n wofMleii or metallic box or boxes siM'urely l«Mke<l. and said intxes shall be 
kept at a r<*asou:il»le distance from the truck; nor shall black iK>wdor and high 
explosives be kept In the same box. 

8ec. 3. It slinll not be e<»nstriHHl ns storing ftowder. as defined In section two 
hrretif, to dejHif^lt the i)owder, or other explosives, at the end of the ebn-trlcal 
ur mtvliuulcal haulage nt the face of the mine for the following day's use: 
/'rorWrrf, That it is trnnsportefl, conveyed or dejiosited In conformity with the 
provisimis of section one hertN)f. 

Skc. 4. The trnns(»ortatl(m and delivery of all [towder and other explosives !n 
said c»»iil mini's shall be done by the oi>erator or liy men employisl by him for 
thnt p«riM>8e. 

Sr.r. 5. Any pt^r8<tn. firm or corporation violating any of the provisions of thla 
a<-( ^Ti.tll l>«* uiiilty of a mls<1emeanor nnd n|H>n conviction Hhall be fiuec 
»< iig one hundriNl dollars, or be Imprisoned In the county 

f\ . f^iys. 

Ajj'j'fvt^'d Aiurfi 13, .1. U. 1007, 





278 



DUia.KTIN or THE BUREAU OF l^DOR. 



Chaitui ISI. — Liabiiity 'jf cmtfi^^Uffn f**f iitjuri** ^ 

o/ lUk. 
(8o«p p. fCj, nbnvi*. 1 



tttfilnfJi't'M — \ H»utn nUt 



Cn\rrrM IKI, — Rribcrp of cmptftpecit. 

HrrTroN 1 (ns nni(>nOo<1 by rhniitrr IM. Art« of 11M>7U It ishnll l«» nnlnwl 
fur any uK'-'itt, ropri'seiitaUvp or ftitpIoyvH', ntlli-t-r ur niiy ntcoiU of n |»i'lvMtH cc 
])nrntlon, nr n iiiilillc oflU'or. nrtlni: In Iwtmlf nf n |ii-liir||iiil In tiny t>uidn«* 
trniiwirtloii, to rfcclve, f'>r hl« uwn upo. dlriHtly nr Imnvortly. nny Elfl, 
intHHJon. tllwoinit, l>onu» t»r jrrulully cniimM'O'fl with. r<*latlii>s t't nr :.'n«wli 
out "f NtH'h bitKlnoHS tranwnTluu : iuid II ulinll Uo liken 1m* iiiilawfnl <■>( nnj 
person, whctlicr u<'tlnt; In IiIh rtwii hcbiilf or In bchtitf of nny cot>:> [», 

nfW'K'liilion or <'<ir|M>mllcin, |o offur. promlMt or k'*** dlrcMMly or Indu 
sm'lk iiitU ciiinnitHMlnn. ills<*«iuui. hnnns <>r »!rn1ul(y. Any iH<r«on violnUn^ ll 
pr«vl«!on(i tif tlilrt net or nny of ihrm nlmll \w irnlKy of n mlwIctncMnor. n' 
npon (Hinvk'titui ilu'nHif nlnill l»i* imnlBlnsI l»y « fWii* of not Ii«kh tJinn ' 
dolliirs \$'2rt), nor inon* tlum IIm* hnmlrml dolliint ($tVjn), nr by )tii| 
In tlu' connly jnll for nut luoro tlnio ono yt*nr. or hy hi.th wm U fin*- mhi im- 
I>rlKonn»Mit : *' ProvifUO, Thli* not hIjhII not ripjily to tliow rnws In whl<*h \\w 
prlnrlitnlH, hoInR tho rnntrnHlnir partK'«, Imvc itiidivtrtljrM of nm! cousont to (J 
puynictit of u conuiils?*l*Mi to iin ii«<*ttt or ropri^wntHllvc.'* 

Hfc, 'J. No ])rr»in slinll Ik* PX«"iinfMl troni rittniMllos, li**'tifyln^ or pro*lncli 
tHK>k8, pitturitt. Ci>iitrncti», ]iKret*imMilH ami dm-iiuiwitK tieforr nny rourl or 
ob<*<l1on<'c to (he .smIiikmim of nny ciMirt hnvlni; Jnriiwlh'thm of I1k> fnl«hnnoitn( 
OTi the jn'onnil or for llio rrii«i*n thnt iho tentlnuiiiy or ovUlHtrt*. *Iorntni«iiinry. 
otbrrwlw, niinlrwl of him, niiiy twnl to luiTlmlnntr htm or to »iiihj«vt lilm 
n ponnlty or fnrfnUnro. Itut ni) ix-iison shnll f»o H;ibU« !*> nny crhohiitl pi 
tion. for or on iicrrMint' of nny iruufiictlon, luMttrr or thltiu coiHonilnjr w 
he niny t»*stlfy or pn»iln<*c I'vUlpnrc, iliM'oniontnry «»r oih'^rwlNo, liofrtrn mil 
court «tr In ohinlkMuv to ItH KiibpoMiii or In any wnch oiih». nr prfK-ctsHinr : 
rWri/, Thai no prrwm !»o to?»tlfyin;f or pr<Mhn'inK uuy wich bi»ok«, itniwrrK 
tiTii't!*. ntTwmtiiiH or iiornmoniN fihitti b«' cvfinpiiMl fr»tin pruHwrnlun ami p 
lubniPiiT for porjnry (Htnimlitoil tn w* t(f*tlfylng, 

Approvt^ A|»r!l 5. A. 1». VMM. 

KANSAS, 

ACT8 OF 1W>7, 

Cbaptss 2K^. — i/£«'' rtg Hint ions — KiilHr*. 

.-f'rTio;v 1. In nil otiH*? (vln^ro nny <'(t«l inhn* now \u o[»ornth»n In tUlfi 
with ILh prIiioltkHl or mutti HLnfl of u tloplh of onu tlioUKtinil fcol or luol 
luiH no air • ' ' ■ " r 'n nr prlii<*lpnl ; " " 

In which t" t. t\r< rcsiuln-ii i 

Ijiwft of K«i*r-.,-. ..■^'■■. ,' ■-■ ' • '. •- '" ' ' ■'.' ■ -'•■ d iWH yoiTH fi ■^ 

of Mjin-lx, A. I>. \Uii7 : I'tuiiiJuI, That wi»rk«'ii bhUI *'H(u|M*niiMit >■' il 

uiwiro witliln xlxty dayn of thf« takluic t-fffK't of thl* act, anil > ■ j 

Uirrlnj; vnuivohlnbtr u<*(-i(lt*nlN. iiutll ealil o»cui«t'iuiMit iihuft idutU U* rocupUttud. 

A|ipi"i»*'l r«'l»ruary 1!1, V.'OT. 




<'UArTi-K t:iU>.--.\/inr rrjiutattrtn* — Putriirr, 



HKcrtov 1. n 

fW»ll, offrr fi" 
KnhMuM, hl.> 
tW(*lvii nnri . 
IMiwiIrr to i 

IIIi>r.« fliiifi 

tan 

Hin: 2, Il t«li:iH In- 
*/?.r Mluo or wirifN tt> ■■ 
\thHn iwtwt/ltiM iliv wvii tUrii'*~*(. 



liHli hf inilnwful for nny Imllvliliml, Hmi. t t'nrj*nmn\*m 
ih'llviT for nw» at nuy tt\»\ mini* or in- 
1- In any unitiiuT oxcfpt lu orltrlnnl i 



iiti In ■! 



UiBOR LAWS — K.i>'6AS — ACTS OF 190/1, 



379 



I. It sUuIl 1)** unlawful for any utlnor. mine laborer or othor per«i>ii or 
fier^tnx ii» tnhr. rouTpy. or itiusp to be Uikcn or eouvey^l. Into any mine or 
iu tbe State of Knn»n», blnck ihiw^Ut in any otbtT iuuimmt e:(C4'pt na 
prvvlilful In ««tinn 1 uf xh\» act. It $iball bo unlawful for nay minor. Inburrr 
or oKb<>r f'LTHim to U8«* any pick or otlier metal Huhstanr^ or Injitrnuipnt In 
opealBC any ran rontalnliii? {Miwilrr In tht* mine: l^mruht!. That any can tilled 
Wltb powtier so retelvwl and opened by any luliier or Mtber jK^rtiou shall be 

TPt' — '' '' t(». when cuiplkMl, at tbe miuer'a working swltcb, to tbe ci»m- 

fkti the Bflwie, l»efore Bucb miner or otber i>or»on ahull receire 

Sec l>e d<'Iivert<d liy hiuilini: tbi* sinw hi any rnr bituled 

bj all « -^ tbf ear in wbiob the j^mdcr H luinlcil for deliv*»ry 

!■ iboroiii:hiv liiaiiittitti* 

Sj:''. r>. Any (•♦•rs'Mi or eoriwrnlion or oflicem or «ajiployeo« i»f any cor(ioratiou 
▼I* i'rovi»ii*in» of HtH-tionH 1 anil 4 of lliis act aball l»o de^'nM 

Kii Kir. and upon <.«>ti\ li-iUtn thore<»f In auj* court of eiuupotenl 

jnriwin itoii '^iijiii iM. lininl n<»t exeecdluK llfty d'»llur» fur »*iit-h offenBe, 

Sr,c. ij. Any mlinT, mine IjibonT or *ifher iM.T»<*n who i4|inll \i«i1ate tbe pro- 
vl«t..i-; -r '^w'tloiis 'J i«r 3 of this act shall be deeuietl ;;uHty of a uiltHleniennor, 
»ti iivlrtloii tlM-nt»f III any oMirt wf colu|K;1vut juiitilictlou shall be fined 

n<' ■ ■ UK tun dolljir;* for ejieb orTcnse. 

Awirored Moreb 5, JIX>7. 

Chaiiicm 251. — Mittr reffuinfionM^/nnftix'tion. 



SfciTto.N 1. Section J uf rbapter -r»7 of tbe SiHtslon LawH of UiTH 1h hereby 
am«>udi^l ton as to ntid as (nlUtwrs: Se<.'tlon 2. That tbe State mine his|>ertor uiny 
b*' ' ' ' ' : ■ ■ --r - ; lite dnrioM b'*re lni{*oBei:l U]'ou bhii. he Hhatl have ihe li^t 
at iiy (Mful mine to miiUe t-xamlimlion or obtain tnf<)rniatl4>n. 

If. -. .. .ti nnder^ronnd worUin;;*! of the ibaraoter mfutlon*»il in «v- 

Itoit 1 ( or in any iMirtioti itf mirb mine or workinjca, luH-auseof impro|»erJ 

or liiaiii . i!ill;Uion, the I'reseiite of sta^mint <ir mixlons or explosive »;at4©«» 

taadc«|naie or im[iroiier air waya or air irateK or tbe use or presenee, wltb the 
kuowleiljce. conusance or t**HiKeiit of fh»« o|HMator or pettmn In active eharpe of 
Rild mine, for llltnnlnaf Im; piir|»oN('H. of oil. other than lard, or otber eiinnlly 
Rife t1r«t.t>1niw oil. lack of adeiiuaie and ijiwfnl .^ttalrways. break tbn>u^ba, or 
lu.i ■ r fiir any otber r«'ason>i witbin Ihe imwer of the oi»erator. owner or 

li> 10 eierciKo uf ordinary care, to remove or ^uurd against, or causi> 

tM c'tl or ^'uardtHl apilnst, be or btN'ome InjurloiiH to tbe health or 

d.i 'I tbe lives or ]inili.s of pei-wmH workinc In «ueb mine or part of 

n.-.. . 'If'- luiii.. inj*iM:tor **ball notify the owuer«, lessees or apents. Inune- 

ilialeiy. of H ry ttf any violation of tbiH not. and of the pennMy impoKO'l 

theri^>y for ^ :ulori, and in raHO of »utb notlee iK'lng dlsrepirdeil for tbe 

0{Mi<V of tea dM.\H, be bluilt luNtllute proaeeittlon auabiHt tbe owner, owners, 
U«iMH>!ii or uceulH of tbe udno. under tbe provisionH of section 10« chapter 151*. 
r -;»7. In any t*n»e. however, where in the JudjomMit of sueU lns|»eetut. 
leopardlii^e life or llnili, he shall at once pn^ucd to the uilno wbertt] 
/ r rxij*is and pxiinilue Into the matter, and If afti-r full Invt-Htl- 
■ Hb»II be of tin- oinnlon that there Is Inimetlliite dauiser to lift 
11 ,,f iii.> 11,1- iftj. t_<<jndl11ou of wild ndne or s<tme part tl»eriwf» 
owiii'i*. lesjuto, ojiiTator, anient, manager, su[k>i 
[ tbL' mine tc» forthwith re|uiir and pot Iu roafion-' 
tiditton HOrh djiirKcrouN mine or part of ndue, or 8Uh!|>oud all work 
I Hiicb tiihie or pnrtH of mine found to be In fact dauKerotis t" life 
■ 1 In tin* (*v»nf that wnUI owner, les.'4e(\ openitor. HK'Hit, nitiiia^er. 
•Jit or prrw'Mi In charne of thw mine fails to uw» due diiljrenee In 
Caii-oi K tiie repalrn »o <ird»-rc*I to be made In the time sfie«*lrt<Hl by twild mine 
biBj»<v(or. Ihfii sail) ndne inspis-tor shall or<ler the tiwm-r. h'(*.-^oe, operator, aj:*'"!. 
D,tn, ..'!., • ,.i..>T i.ir..i .|».{|t ,,r iH'rwon in eharire of the mine to Immotltately sns- 
I" dinnt sij'Ii mhieor parlH of niiui< found to be in fad dun- 

S» ii;id If the owner. IeM*Hx\ openitor. nijont. mannicer, su)»or- 

Iii! Ill (hart'c i»f the ndne hhall refu?^' or ne^'le^I to rom- 

pl' sm*b mine or ckaar imrt thereof Is In fact dnnr^riMts 

I" i.iUlIeK workln(r therein, and forthwith rejtjilr > ■ I 

all -neb mine or [uirtH of mini* fut found to l>e in fa' 

Oio*. lie Hirtji !•" iTinii}- of it uilMJciutNtiiur, nnd upon couvlcUwv Ot/ef^' 




280 



BULLETIN OF TUE BUREAU OF LABOR. 



iliu**! tint exceodlni; four hun<1ri*t1 dollnrM. Work lii nnd nhout »nch mine or 
|wirts of inlno w-fonnr! to ho clnngeroim hIuiII not Im» rominietl nnttl fH*riiilfwlon 
of tUu iiiBi»et.ior Ih tlrwt obtiiiiuHl. nnh'AH It.v order of stttiir courl of oonipolent 
JnriMllitlon. In onso of the inKiK»<'tor innkiuj; m\*'U ortlor, thp owner, niwriitor, 
Hti|H.>rtMl<'niJi>)it or nllifP )H*t-m»n in rliar^t* of hucIi niino nniy bHn^ an itction \u 
tiny court of compotont JtirlHillothm to rnjnin th(» lnKp<»i't(>r from inti-rfi^rlng 
>vllh tlu' ijiH'nitloM of (Ik* mini*, bnt no InJnn«tlou Hhnll )>c- icmnUxl oi'imi hmcIi ni>- 
Irlit'iitlon wUlioiit (wcntyfonr Iinurw' notko to the Inspivt'T, iiml n hrartnu n|)on 
KtR'h iippHriitlon. Hiihl nodii^ uwy ht* pv'rKonnlly serv4tl tipiMi Hjiltl hiKiH^-tor or 
hlH deputy, If found hi tlie cfmntry [rttunty t. but If siild hiKp4-<:lor or bin duputy 
cnn not be found in the country |<*onntyl whoro snbl Hftlon is couinienriHl, them 
nultce or Hiininions may he Hervi*d {onj Raid InHfUH'tor hy tiliuMnK n eerllfied 
copy thereof, wx'urcJy w'tillnL'. stiimplnp. ndilrewslnn iind ninlMn^ Htinie to snld 
hiKpeetnr. lit the poHt-olIice n(*itret(t ttie mine Houtrht to tie eb>Ki*i| by Huhl la- 
KinMtor; and n return of the sherlfT Hhowhij: fjorvlee of nnttrn or Hnnmions enn 
not tu' srrveil on the hi^jh-^-tor or hlw di-puly hi fwld (-(unily shnll bi* nntlleletit 
Ki'oundH uiHMi ivhich tu ohiuin Hervlcu by nmilhii; khiuo us ubovu pruvldud. 
Ai»prc>vc«l rcbniary 27. IfMyr. 

c^iiAPTEB i^>. — UoHVK of tabor of cmfitoycrn tm raihtHntit, 

HKcrtoy 1. Sivtl.tn 1 of t-hnptcr 34'J of the Ses^hpu Ijiwj* of V.>0.'t rsUfllll 
bo iiniended to read an folhtws: Scvtion 1. It «h«ti be unhiwful for uny c<>r- 
IKirnthm or reeelver openitliit; ii Ihie of ralh'oads |ntlh'ond| hi whole or In pnrt 
ill the Stale of KaiiHaH. for any ollkvr. uyeni or ivprewntatlve of Hurh eor|M»ra- 
tlon f»r rot'river, to ri'ipiire <^r perndt any e<inthu'(or, eiiiChK'^'r, tlroman, hriike- 
man. train dlHimteher, ieU*;;rapIi «n»emti>r or imy tralniiiim who hatM workeil In 
hlH rcsiKM"tlve eapneUy for Hlxt<N'ii nHiwx'utlve hoiirt* tii enntlnue on duty or 
|K>rftirni any wi-rk for BUrh niilrr»itd until lie hn« had at ba.«l eiyht hourH" rent: 
l'rtirit!i U, Thiit thin art Nhal) uol apply In cnso of waRhnnt. n*re<-ks, or nuavold- 
nhlp bhx-kadeK, nor Rhall It 1m' eonstrneil to prevent llie crew of a Irnhi wlileh 
coutainH live Htock or perlHlinbh* fretj^ht hi enrlond totrt from rnnnlni; to the 
next dlvlHJon point after the exptnitlim of tlu* time liniH pruvldM for In tlilfl 
act: I'ltnifir-fl furtlfti; That thl« r*e**tlon Hhnll not apply to einftloyivs of 9lc<?l»- 
lnf;*'*ar comiMinb-H, lmt!pi»;enHMi, an<1 exprcHs nieHHenp>rfl. 

Rcr. 2. S^ftUtn 2 t»f chapter 312 of llie S)»«Hlon LnwB of IftOft \9hti\U he 
amended To read MR foIlnwH: Sec. 2. Any rorpi>ratbin or n-^vlver of^THtlng « 
line of railroad In whole or hi part In tlilH Stale wlio Nbali kuowliirly vlolat** any 
provlNtiHiH of this act nhnll ho Ilalde to the State of Kansas for a penalty of 
Dot h*H}* than one htitidred dollaiH imr more than l»<i liundntl dollar!* for each 
ofTeiiMi*, and mich (tenallieH Hhall Im' riH'ovi'red and huUh thereof !«liall i)e hront^ht 
In the name of the Slate of KanwiH In a i*ourt of compelent .Iurlmliell(»n In ouy 
county In the Stale luti» or throut;h which any Huch railroad may run, by Ihe 
flttornoy-jceiieral itr nnd*>r his direction, or by tlic pioKixnilliiir attorney of Iho 
pro)M*r county throui;li or Into or out of which tniiiiH may he it[H<rati'd by Faid 
eompauy; and uinmi complaint lieinu nuide to 1h<* cummlHHJoner of lidmr. be 18 
lioreby authorlxeil lo InveKtlpite nncli eumplaint, and Hhall Im» empowered lo 
examine the train «hectH, rri:lHterK, and dlspjitchrrs' rc]M>rtR. and to he.ir anrh 
other evidence aH may be (ifTered by olllcern or enipIi»yei'M of such rallnmd **o»u- 
pany to delermlm* wlietlicr nucIi coniplnint Ih well fiMn)d«*il; and If the cum' 
plaint HpiKMirK to ite well fonnde*!. It ahull be the duly of wild coinininKloiier of 
labor to rile a eom|i1alnt before the eonnty attorney of the pmiMT county 
tbrou;:li which said company inuy o|)erato. 

Approvtsl March J». IIK)7. 



OnArrtR 2>>i.— UahUittf uf rtiittnatJ e«Hip*i«/i« fur hiJurU'n Ut rmfttot/fCJt. 

(Fee pp, 03, 04, nb*ive.) 

CtiAmcK 2S3.— y?rtWroo<f» — Kht'ttrrit for tmrh'mrn, 

Mr.iTinv 1. It Hhnll be unlawful for any rnUroad compiuiy or (H^rporathm or 

otit ...w..nrt who own, coutn>I or "* ■ " ' ^..u..,,, -i i.. <»... *ii ,»., 

4*t If hulld or repair rulli 

'A'V (ti'tt w/(ii(Mi( provldiiin ; _- 

Utr/i rt'/viir »nrli. nui ilmt all men i- ^ »nv\\ tv\,»\t* w«i 

uu<ivr »livUvr ititt'tiis NluriiiH or mi 



LABOR LAWS — i£A>'S,iB — ACTS OF IW7. 



Sfc. 2, Kverr coriwTntJon* TierBon or pprsttnp. mnnnccr* Rii|>t*rlntein3(?iit or 
furt'mau of any rtnniiaiiy, rx>r|>onn1on, person or jK^rwona. who sbjill fall or refuse 
In ci»niiily wllh thv J^rovIsllitts of (his act nftor tbe iRt dny fif S»>pr<^mh*T, 1007, 
tthal] 1m* decHinl joiHty iif a nii«(lf*nK'umir, nml iipnn ctmvlftion shnll be piiiifshed 
|iy A nmy nf not J<'>s thnn twtnay-tivt* ilaJlars uor luort* tiian one Immlrwl doUar^ 

Appr<iv«l iluroli 7, lf»OL 



ritJkFTRK -R>i!,^I/iiH' itnprrlon'ik. 






S^ecTioN 1* The «f^r»*tflry of the State n^iu^ hulu^trj:, who iMU be State 
g^no Inst^H-vtctr, fliuH rtH-^^ivc a saliiry of fiftct^n huiiflrfnl ilollars p^r nnuniu, 
ilBd ju-fual iJiKvPsiiry pK|VJi»t's, not exttHilliig oik* tUousiDd tlollftrs, Tbe mid 
9t&1i* inhii* iiitt|K*(:(i*r (w hi*rr'bj aiitlioriaw?d to ai>|)oint oiie deputy mine Inspector 
for *^vl\ of llii> f<iUowln(sr oountieH: Crawfonl, (.1inMket\ t>sa^, LJ*avt*rjwortb, 
and iujo a*l4llTI*miil lU^mty^ iuIiim iuKiMvlnp fi^r the counJlcH of Cmwfont and 
rhpr*>ki'c. ¥^rh of tUe^ siiiil dt'[Hily mine IiiPpt'i'toi'S utiall he rwiulrecl to give 
liiH full time to ^ncb eau*l<riy]iifiit, uud shall rtveive ii^s ootnpeti&itioti tlie siim of 
elKlity tiotlnis p*?r monUi iiml ni^-t-ssjiry tnivi-lln;? e'^I**!^**** '''1'^ 8*il*^ State 
ntUL' [iisi»iVtor Is licroliy fintht>rta<.-d to fli*|Kiiut a flcrk for IjIb office, vrho slmll 
rooolvp an nitnujil ^ilarj- of dt^veu liutidRxl nud twenty dollars, Snid depnty 
Bjlne Saspector and clerk slmli be uud^r tbo s>j]terviHlon aod ctHUrol of tiip- State 
mlrio ttkiMvtor 8iid btild tbeir posUUiiis ni hlft pleasure. U^ shnU l«i> aittliorised 
U> trnnflfor the deputy insiK^tors to suel* iK>iuts witbin tho Klute where In hla 
JadcuK*f)t tlie dutlfg and ri.'<iirir*'UM*nt» of tlic iiisiHi*:tlon low iiuike it nt^eessnry 
for tU**Tii to work. Tho tf*rm of the State mine tH«peetnr and lil« dopiitlos and 
clerk Bbail l>e for ii pi^riod <if two yc^irs, lieglnidiig July 1, UMiT* nud their 
ralary mid exiteows AmU bt* iMiyubK? lUfnUUly opon voucb^^rs certltied to tli© 
$(tB(t* auditor by tlie ^tnle mine inspector. 

Aj»vr«ved February 21, lOOT. 




CXnrDXATITE INDEX OF LABOR LAWS AISTD DECISIONS RELATINa 

THEBETO. 



t |T1u« tnd»xlnt-)u(|*«iiUU.1iorlair«enft^««I limv.lrtnuarr 1, 1904. uid pubU*l»*4 In »uev««Ive Imc 
la* BulteUn, bo^miur with Pulf-tln Nn. 57, thf> i»ni«*..r \\>T>h lorv. I.iw- niM. t.-l jT^vL-n^lr 
III UiiT«Dtiia|>M«l Report iiUiisl'jttcr ol 

miif tfi ftn Irnir subjci-u V 

bytb(0l«tu(r"l> ■-i»(nlU>winf 

oa cb»rvui»fnitHion, etc, ul tabor Iftws «j« ttlmiLirly Luduxcd, ujul are iiiULcule*] hy thealil 
Uab " Up." Id p«mnth«ein.] 




" t.i!r-: 5tAC»a (D^ 



M-tliatiK JMlll 

1M(Mtet«AM (U) 

AKirtunFTit off 1 ,in:» to iiTiJfl *\- 




US-US 

ir»-i7r. 

710,711 

?8T.7u(* 
TnK-710 



ei^au t(i- (.f ^* tlatira of U- 



Uim,iac4 





i(M»-iafii 




wi 1 




1075 




230 




7t)3 




7K7,7M I 
10S7 I 




1 ,N 


7^770 1 




Mif 




TU 1 




aM 




BU 




[ 



BlackUsttnf: 

Ar)uiuik«.........»„.^^^.« 

Coiorado 

MliiiieM>ta(D) 

NevNtlti. - 

Boyrolting: 

Coloriiao 

(See o/to Ititvrinrvnc* irlth 
•mpJoTinrnt.) 

Conaeriicat , 

l»li4na 

lnw» _ _ 

U««.'iiU'hU;S»II* 

MIcMtirnn , 

g«w Vork 
hMo I^UihI 

8oiiibCaf«4io«.. ,-..<. 

VlfK»»ki« 

WAstUi^OO 

Wi>«'"i:*m ,,,. 

Brl»»r utlrMol labor 

N. 

Duivaii n( Iniwir: 

i'Aiilomu . . . 

IO»it - .. ti.. 



BulteUn 



N&; Pi^. 



SowJtsTmty 

ViBptm* 

I'lilUKl Slatos 

Uuraaa of mine*: 

HMt VligtBU 

CaiUM at dlwluig*. iS** Dl^ 

durfp. fltntem^nt o<cauM oLj 
CKild ' -nal conunitlM 

oil, ■. :i o(; 



CMKlmi miJ w«.mwn, «niplo77inint 
af. e*n«nl proviiiotu: 

LMUiilaa* 

UiaxMitt (U) 

Chlltlmn and «»m«n, mplovrnMit 

O/. In' " ■ 

A; 

N. 

\ eniiuiii _ 

Child rm uul womra, mapUfyiaeai 
ofcfaiinlntts: 






t'uiLuul Atjlpa 



71 



ployiramt 



an 

no 

Ml 

9Q&.MW 
fQV(90B 

am 

913 
9I4.91S 



ass 

711 
Z« 
101 S 101 n 
7M 
719 



«0 



7M 
lM»ia7 



I 



CnHULATIVZ IHDSZ OP LABOR LAWS AHB DECISIOKS EELATIV a 

THERETO. 



f [Tfati index inclndea all labor laws enacted sinoe January 1, 1904, and published In 8Uore!<AtTe Usoes of 
tM BultetlD, baginning with Bulletin No. 57, the issue of March.'lOOG. Laws enacted previously appear 
Id the Tenth Special Report of the Commissioner of Labor. The decisionis indexed under the various 
headings r^ata to the laws on the same subjects without regard to their date of emictment aiKl are 
Indicated by the letter " D'' in parenthesis foUowiufc the name of the St ate. Opinions of the Attorneys 
General on the construction, etc., of labor laws are BunllBrly indexed, and are indicated by the abbrevia- 
tion "Op." in parenthesis.] 



Aecident insurance. {See Insur- 
ance, accident.) 
Accidents in factories: 

New J eraer 

NewYoi*. 

Pennsylvania 

Accidents m mines : 

Ohio 

Accidents on railroads: 

Alabama 

Colorado 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Massachusetts 

Minnesota 

Montana 

Ohio 

South Carolina 

Vermont 

Accidents to employees: 

Illinois 

Advances made by employers. 

{See Employers' advances.) 
Allen contraet labor: 

United States, 

United States (Dj 

United States (Op.t 

Antltnist act: 

United States (Dt 

Arbitration of labor UlHputes: 

Colorado 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

United States (D) 

Aulgmnent of claims to avoid ex- 
j emption laws. {See Exemption 
< of wages, aasignments to avoid, i 
Assignment of wages: 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Illinois 

Iowa , 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 





Bulletin. 

1 


No. 


rage, i 


. 


1015 


w 


4(}1 


t» 


359 


w 


379 


73 


1043 


T3 


1049 


74 


274,275 


74 


27t'. 


TO 


771 


va 


581 


72 


647 


70 


779 


GT. 


3(>0 


71 


397 



Minnesota 

New York 

Ve rmcmt 

Wlsc-onsin 

Bakeries, hours of labor of oni- 
ployees In. {See Hours of la- 
bor.) 
Bakeries, Inspection of. (Ste In- 

spectioR, etc.) 
Barbers, examination, etc., of. 
(JBet ExanUnation. etc.) 



71 

I m 
m 



i 02 

i *^* 
lift 

I 70 
' 70 

,170 

.a 

57 
71 
W 



202 



397-."K)9 
1SJ-1S5 
173-176 

200-205 

710,711 

1040 
707.708 
708-710 
200-212 



1019-1051 I 
331 ' 
1075 j 
236 ' 
763 
767. 7t« i 

10S7 
700,770 I 
5S4 
712] 
396 



915 I 



Bulletin. 



No, rage. 



Blacklisting: I 

Arkansas ' <i5 i 

Colorado , 62 , 

Minnesota (D) ' 70 

Nevada | 63 I 

Boycotting: : 

Coloraao 62 

{See alto 1 nterference wit h \ 

employment.) 
Bril)er>', etc.. of employees: 

Connecticut 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Massachusetts* 

Michigan 

New York 

Rho<le IsUnd 

South Carolina 

Virginia 

Washington 

Wisconsin 

Brilierj'ol representatives of labor 
organizations: 

New York ". , 

Bureau of labor: 

California 



57 



Iowa 

Now Jersey ) 58 

Virginia i "0 

United States I 57 

Bumau of mines: I 

West Virginia 67 

Catisn of discharge. (See Dis- I 
charge, statement of cauw of.) , 
Child labor, natiomil c«>mmittee j 
on. incorporation of; 

United States ' 71 

Children and women, employment I i 
of, general provisions: | 

Loulsiuiia '. 70 

Missouri (D) I (iS 

Children and women, o:uployinent I 
of, in barrooms: | 

Arizona I 72 i 

New Hampshire , 63 j 

Vermont ' 60 1 

Children and women, employment i , 
of, in mines: 

Illinois I 61 I 

Indiana 63 

Missouri I 61 

New York 60 

Children and women, emplopncnt ' 
of. Investigation of: I 

United Stotea I 71 



S51 
330,331 
709,710 
588,5.S0 

330,331 



332 
269 

277,278 
710 
5H1 

905.906 

90K,909 
34.0 

781.782 
912 

014,915 



718 

328 
712 
235 

10IS1019 
78! 
719 

912,913 



399 400 



764 
186,187 



638 
589 

715 



1077 

576 

Km 

468 



397 



283 



fJ^'l HVV^vnX OV THK m'RKAr OF LABOR. 

\\-f .,*.'.;ti\ .-,.A . ,. .'/\.- *V** A-.,i .vjwV,..)*.* nJnting f/wrcfo— Continued. 





1 


'.MWi.". 






\,\ 


Vj^C*' 








t'onutx'th'nl 


rj» 


I'TI 


1 OUCl.**.*-* 


■>» 


.>« 


Xt;i'«Mt-|\tt<4>lt> 


,v* 


ni 


N.'« \,mW 


iV 


««.4^> 


Imm^vii. iMiMO\f:'< •*( v**" t' <it: 






ti\K'« <^! ntMt.Ms ^ 






hiMn'n. »"...pl,'\ ..hmH i-t ,.f.v '» tin 






M.tl-i"n 


;.; 


kO 


V»l.;U-.vi-. 


.-.* 


wV 




nO 


,w 


\ itlu>>im,t 


\ : 


\i\,i'Ai 


l'.\hl.>iiM.i vl>' 


\* 


p*» >»: 


lVI:tW,»l«' 


(J 


.V..AiN 


l-UMMk 


'.i 


(.;S 


t;v<M|;i't 


»»> 


.VI 


M.th.> 


r.' 


(iU.M4 


llllllt>t'> vP' 


>' 


.Vv' ,vi: 


U'XiA 


tKN 


,'.tv..w 


KUU".!"" 


»o 


:i7.,MS 


kviil.h'kv 


,\* 


:«> 


1 I'UlM.IU.t 


7v» 


7!.4 


Miiinv 


7,' 


(44>M> 


Mttivtuiul ' 


.0 


:kv :<u 


M (SVutUlM'tlH 




1 7;2 


Mh-tit|;.kii 


to 


' J-M 


Mu-tiii:iu vl^V ,. 


ll'-l 


NM.VO 


MlN-.MUl 




IMT 


Moiit.m-i 


7- 


I^i.I.kV) 


N»-\\ i.-i-.'\ . . 


(■■-' 


24;* 


Ni'itd rmolinu . I»^ . . . . 




1 St'^t.Mi4 > 

a7:i ;i7ti '1 


Orcijoii 


2.Vi2(i» i 






I 2ia. 


riim-.\Kaiii.i 


%^ 


i aw a* 


rrim>\l\:im:» il>l 


74 


2;l1t.240 1 


Ulu>il«' Island... 


t« 


2tii> 271 1 


Vomu'iil 


71 


3*^ 

io:.4,ni.vi \\ 


\\<i.-.Jiiiij:tt'M til) 


(i! 


Wi'-t \ir»:iiihi 


. ti' 


2S() ', 


hil<tlfU. i-lllplOVtUtilt tif, (^I'lltTHl 




I 


proM^iitiis: 




1- 




72 


tM7-f«9 ; 


An/oiiu 


tl38,ti39 


' 


VrkaiiMiM 


;;( 


titlO.tHil 


1 


r.ilifnrniit 


i(-2 


2(K)-202 


1 


172 


Ml, (42 






■ 


ronntviicnt 


(■2 


2(h; 


■ 


tMawiiro 


i>2 


2(t7,2l)K 


1 


UiaI rirt of Ciiliimbiii 


f*i 


2:«i.2;u 


1 


KK.nda 


7;i 


(i7.H,tl79 1 


iii-orgiii 


I'lS 


234. 2;j.-. , 


I.liiho 


72 


l'>43,(.44 


Ilhiu'is 


7:t 


(184, (iKJ 1 


Kivk a 


70 

72 

■ 70 


23,'».2.'i('. 1 


Kt'UtlH-kV 


7C,0,7(il 


M*im... ■ 


l>44,t'>4.~> 1 


Udi>Uml 


7aV7(l7 i 


M«i>!ttH-|UltH>tt!< 


170 


224--22ii ' 
7lK,772,77;i | 


Mfisourl 


..■> 


23(i.237 , 


U^>ltUUM 


T* 


(i47 ; 


\CW l|T«') 




243.244 ; 


S«w\ork 


f 24:. 24« 
\ 2.V).2.M 


Ohio 


ta 


( 2:^'). 1 




1 2.'»7.2.W 1 


^>^a(^>tt 


(-.2 


2.W 2(10 1 


lf«iUM.vU«nU 


tl2 


2WV-2*W 1 


EboifeliliHid 


' *a 


■2«»-271 


VoniHmt 


Ma 

M7I 


27tl.277 ' 


TfiliMMtf , 


. «3 

.; ta 


' 279 ; 


^SSS^SLm 


2S(» ' 


mSmSr^.^ 


2K4 1 



BoUrtic 



xo. r*^. 



■MB 
174 

.' 72 

. ti2 
.' 02 



\>iMTVfl. miployim^t of, In bar- 

i^»Mtnivt h'ut 

IMVIVW 

lUWhif 

WAh«» 

MdryUiul 

Nr» IUtti,("liir<' 

S,Ml ll >ft»...t« 

\vnik*iil 

^.JulilTmt. I'liiintiK^itiiiii t»f. in cer- 
l4i)ii t«(\Mi|tHtums, forliidUcn: 

OrilitorniM 

rali(orni« v P i 

ld;tho 

lowji , (18 

Mmih* ! (2 

I'hiMn'U.t'iDPlovniriit of. ill mines: 

UlimM!« ' «2 

lndK.n« I ta 

\tiMM>url 02 

Montana ! 62 

On-Ron j U3 

IVnn.t>lvHniit (^ 

IVnnHVlVHntH U>) ' ^ 

Wi'st Vnvinia 1 1*3 

I'hiUln'h, I'tiiploynicnt of. in .stn.H<t j 
irailt's: j 

Miish.t('hn>>i-tt.ti ' 70 

N*'w York I (>2 

t'hiUln*n. hirlnjf ""t, to Mippnri 
lurn'Mts in idleness: i 

Alabama 73 

( if'orfda ' ti2 

hoiii.siana ; (12 

Mississippi ■ ti2 

North Corolin.n 'jj-jj 

Children, hours o( labor €>t: I 

Alabama I 73 

Arkaiistts i 73 

California ]|^ 

Dfla WH re i 02 

t'lorldii i 73 

Ididio ■ 72 

Imliiina ' fi2 

Iowa ' 68 

Kentucky i 70 

Massachusetts ' fQ 

New Ilanips^hin' ' 02 

New Jorwy 

Orcg'iu 

On-gon (0) 

IN-rinsylvHniii 

ChiUlri-n. night work by: 

Aliibaina 

Arkan-s-is 

Californiii 



73 

Fh.ridH I 73 

(i'-oFBia I ti8 

Miiho I 72 

lOWM ! (» 

KentUfkv ! 70 



Maftsachusoti^ 

Michicaii 

N'fW ,hTwy.. . 

Nrw York 

OrcRon 

I'tMinfvlviiniii. 
UhcHU; Islunil. 



Vermont 

Children. (Src aho Cliildrrn and 

wom<*n. ) 
Chinette, pxeiusion. etc., cl: 

I'ni ted StutCH , 



.W 



210 

361 
643.644 

za 

241 
274 
2Ttt 



19&,200 

202,203 

t»43,644 

235 

222 

211 

21S 

230 

237-239 

2oS 

2ii3-266 

SS7-«SI> 

280 



,771 
251 



(A? 
20B 



2S5 

253 



G57 
060 
200 

&U,642 
207 
078 
043 
210 
235 
700 

223,220 
241 
244 
2.59 

203,204 

2()0,2i>7 

fi.>7 
0«0 
200 
641,642 
678 
234 
643 
235 
700 
226 
231 
905 
409 
2.19 

a>7 

2C8 

276,277 

395 



719,730 



CUMULATtVK IUDKX OK LABOR LAWS. S85 

CiimuiaUvt inckx of Ubor /aw and dtciMions relating thereto — Timtinuod. 



BuLtatln. 



No. r«Br. 



r 



[U 



on pOMlD works: 
MilM>rtllWtti 



KMrllAsioo. 



a 



coal.) 
Com** ' ^ I" Ax wa^fui: 



Co:n 



I Utior. iSetBa- 



Corr 
Cott 

CO!H 



r ogreemenUDOt: 

') 

itrttfrnocc; tntiinl- 

lOira. iSte AXkat 

r I 

:i'l». (S« I'rotflo- 

) 

ploymrat, rpKiil** 

t>) 

I'luyutODt with in- 



ul CAUflu of: 

HlMTiu; 

Dtrairr. vtc. siAtiffllcs of, to bo 

procuml: 



Be 



rricd women: 



708 

7S0 

918 



7M 



k*.^.>..v..*iu ..,. 

Uusoun 

UontMu.. 

JIodUuw (D) ,.... 

WeT»<ta 

'K«r»4lft (D) 

Hew Vork 

New York (.D) ,... 

Fftfto Ui<» 

V ■■> ..n <D) 

!M 



Tfiilr.] Sli.trs ll>» 



Ml 



aia-310 

714 



lOU 



281 

311 
4Sa-4U 

773 
1002,1003 

711-713 

»4,33A 
47D 

455-^7 

33R 

714-717 



rnJte(]SUt«!!iiOp I 

It Kgwiu: 
Ivcnci* 



i'> 

' • ., of. {8t< 

^ - * - t»loy*».) 

ViMUTvra' actvuirce, rajMbyinent 




(jSet^ liAbll- 



175-1» 
1B8-200 



378 
334 



1044,1045 I 
lOM 

»l 
1088,1004 

714 
I0CMO20 



Bnployvffa to biini»h nuaea 
csnploycM to oflklAU: 



Nftwtfexioo. 



Wyoming 

EroploTmenc, fonnwit, etc, 
capUng fee»tor funilflfaLng: 

MontAiui 

Em dormant ofHcM: 

Cftlifoniia 

CiJiforDlA (D) 

Colonwio 

Connecticut ..» 



District of rolamblB. 



nawiili fU 

74 
7S 
70 



loWB.. 

Maine 

MassHcbufett*. 

Hlchtgui 

MiniMMU 

Missouri 



Sow York. 



BttUstla. 



No,' Pago. 



73 



{? 



Now Ytirk (D). 
Oblo 



Viislnlii 

VlriluiH (1)1 

{S^r aho Kmlgrant ftflsnts: 
Lodging ho u«es.»allor»^.) 
EngtOMrs. examloation. etc., of. 

iStr ExKmlnstlon. etc) 
EntidnK employees; 

Arkviuas 

Loulai»ns 

Weat Vipgfnl*(D) 

Exunlnutipn, etc., of barbers: 

Conneftlcut 

KantfAM ., 

llsr>Und 

llaryUnd (D) 

New York 

On^n (D) 

Waahtngton (U> , 

Examlnutlnn, etc.. of borseiduiers: 

lUwiul , 

Washington (D).. 

Examina tlon, etc., of miners, mine 
iuiciDPii, etc.: 

IlUnoiB (IJ) , 

rencsylvonia (U) 

ExundiAtion. etc., of plumbers: 

ntlnolfl {0} 

Hsiite 

Mtane«<ita (D) 

Teiaji (15) 

Woahinglon 

Washington \V) 

Examination, etr., of statfonary 
flfvmen: 

MssaachiinottN 

Examination, etc., of tteezn engl- 



too 

04 
SB 



68 



Uassachosetts. 

Nevada. 



New HampAhlra 

New Jersey...,,.. 

Ohio „, 

I^nnjiytvania 

I'nltntl dtat«M 

Exemption of wages, asaignments 
lo avoid: 
Maryland 



10M.10W> 



10«,U 

ail- 



6B4.fi8B 
lOM) 

715-71$ 
4fl0, 



8B0JU 

71S 
788,739 



354 

7«4,7es 

33(^343 

382,333 

iom 

338-3«» 
401 



OSS' 004 



334 
0M,M6 



rJ0-T32 

loes 

323,333 

ao4.aofi 

B7ft-877 



JOtfT, lOMt 



.io*Mft-niiM 




S86 BUixrriK of thk »itiu;au of tABoR. 

OamuUtive imSer of tabtrr taum and HftitUm* rtlatiny fArr/fo— Cunlimie<l. 




OmtTLATtVE INDKX OF LABOR LAWS, 
{\tm%tinHm imdts^/iahor Invn ami dtdsioiu relating tArrrto— Ccmttniied. 



BoDmId. 

' Ko. r«f«. 



jBvpKtors, lactiirj—CoadadKl, 



\tl0L.. 



*•* »i»!lJiJ»», 




Kr<T!T«, 

Kratarky 

MJctugao 

Mi n ne s ota ..,,«. 

Montana.. 

yrmt WrfSui^.. 

lospM-tofs. railroAd: 

lUinois 






ItMurmjM-«, ooomrmtlvo: 

MAryUadfP) 

lalUBMimU vonployMi on pablle 

Vmnoot ..- 

11w|M r»M cniployeM. 

!n» ■--:"■ - 
Int' 'i vinployiiniit : 
Dt 



iSU 



I'l 



imimidAiJoii: 

CottnertleuK i£>». 



L'Uh. 



IntAxioiTinKtlquoT. rs«r Uqnor.) 
Iotoxlc»tlon Of ctDptoyeoa: 

IntliAiu 

VpnnoDt 

Wromlnr 



fib-lureif: 
N»w York- . 

I^bor AgVDtll 



(5n £iDplojTaant 

(SfC BUZVBU uf 




712 

lout. lolO 
ODS 

10«-)()48 
J(l7ti 

371,273 

V7»-3S1 

761-70S 

£78 



0MMS3 

1078 
107:i,107a 



7a»-:34 

7U-74 



364 



373 
30A 



4fil 



Liability ol nnployiTS for Injuria* 
Co «inploy«M--Coocludiid. 



BtiiirUc, 



No., F«CB. 



(U). 



K»niuek7(D) I M 

UasaulnuBtts j 7ft 



l4liUM*spU(Di ' M 

iits*iuipp( ii>f m 



appl 
MlMouii... 

MonUHA.. 
New York. 



Nevyork(D>. 



Xorth CArollfia (D). 

Ohio 



OhlofDi 

rttllippine IsUnda.. 
Soath raroUiiM (Dj, 

T«mu»SBa (D) 

TfM* 



Teius<|]). 



VliKfnU (P) 

Wuhington yp).. 
West VlrglttUCD). 

WISCOLUID vUj 

I'aUcUSUtes , 



Unltetl SUte« (D> *. 



LiahUlty of nUlroaiJ ooui^iiics Co 
worlciiiMi not wnployvM: 

I'ODnsylvanlft (1)1 

UeeiiM Liix. ezenipUoa of nuwhaiL- 
ics, etc, from: 

LouiaUn* 

Liquor, sale of, toeutployMa: 
IlAWOil 



New l]»inp«hii«..4.... 

Vermont 

Loo<HDotiv« boilers, UuneuUou of: 
V«w York 



70 



M 1 untclM, mttrUitf: 

VilMK'rillil 

SCurriafv, etc., statistics oE, to te 
procui^fl: 

CalifomU 

Married vomen, eafnings of: 

Now Mexico . 

U«ehitnle9. exemption of. bom 
manuiurturers' tax«s: 

Phillpptnn liUiintU 

lCiJi« rvvtiUtloos: 

ArLjkiii 
lUinotn 



TninolstO) 
IndUnn . . 




0.1 



Sfi.833 



471 

lOU.U 

HIG*-I1H1:4 

J(7l 

7U 

»« 



3n 

ax. 
4a},4&i 

loao. um 
ass,s» 

3«7-971 
9B*,flM 
442-444 



3S1.3tCt 



las-m 

717-735 



«Mt.SU 
310^238 



74»-746 

703 

XM.XUS 

flH».6M 
71S 

to? 



«» 



288 



BULLETIN OF THE BURKAC oF LABOR. 



Cumulative indtxt^lnhor tnw$ and titcitUtna relating (Vr^lo— Cimiiiinecl. 




Mine roculBtlotu— ('^melud«d. 

ndTani 



IndT«iiA(D). 
Iowa 

Kanui 



Kentucky ,...«.,•........ 

KiMvUicky (0)...h«. 

Mi4*blgan 4...^--.* 

MiiriOUli 

Moiitaiifl 

Nuvttttu -,. 

Now York 

Ohio 

Ohlo(I)) , 4... 

IVimiylvuultt (D) 

Teni lesMM! ( D> 

L'lah 

West VirKlrriM 

West VIrsinU (D> 

Wyoming 

W ydmlnff ( D) 

(^S(e also Aeoldontff In iiUn««: 

Mliien, etc., bours or Labor o( ein- 

ploywtsln. (Se^ Hours of labor.) 
MhieH. etc.. tiitu-xlcjitivii in ur 

tilioiit: 

W yoinl ne 

Nowiboy litw. (^«eClilldnn,«m- 

plnym»«nl of. In stivct tradci.) 
r»yrnprit of wo^^s dua ill>charg«d 

onipUiyMi: 

ArkMiifiiti(I>) 

Pfiynieiii or wiigvs In Mtflp: 

Arlcnniua 



«1 



173 

Indlanit I 03 

MlMnun (I>) 1 M 



Neviidii, 

New Ucxico 

New Vnrli », 

South CdroUnii 

Tuxiis 

WHAliliiftton 

]*uvm«nt ol wfttfoa, 
llmeB of: 

lurlUna (U) 

Muo'liitut 

MiuiaaotiUMttt..., 
New Jeriwy, ,,,,,, 
Vernjont. ...„..., 

rponiLfCu ; 

t'nltod8ut«l<D}. 

riL*k«titu{: 



»nd 



ri 



or. 



lion, tw,, 
< .Uv) 

rn M • i iSie Wmgot 

iiD |>n.'tirih-i villi iiiH.) 
J'riiillnir. pulitiu. (Sr/ I'llMIO 



I'r 



iiip]i>yM<f tti iticni' 
• rxanUaltMnM: 



New York a>) 

VnltodStiilM (D),.... 

rn»t«f(ion nf'-mpluyMistM rotwra; 

New .liT'wv 

rrnu«iion ot nniployMM ou biuid* 
InK*: 
(nnnwl Jtiu t 



n 



277 

37»-380 
701-703 
n)-887 

m-Mo 
ion 

N0-«S3 

6lf7 

«IB|47D 

STB 

77« 

M7 

318,310 

334~CU7 

1Q3U, 1031 

3M 

•U,1>1.1 

1005 
380-Xtl 



lOOA 



380, :ui 

461. 4<C 
714. 71 A 

911,913 



342.343 
7m, 7a'. 

iwn» UW7 

770 

loiu 

eo&,(vo 

330 



1>U <uV 

n6,777 

low, IQTiS 



rrotfcUon of omploycen on atre*! 
miwayt: 

DlvUlct of t'oliunblA 

Louidana 



UaMRObusetU., 

Moatona.. 

New York 

OhJn 

Boiith CikroUmi.. 
Proto- t "-pw: 

I 

FuMa i : 

Kmnnas 

PiiMIc' ifriritUig to be done witliln 
tho HUU-: 

A rknnwii 

f'lttUic works. Injuries •>! oini»loy- 
fe« on: 

rhillppiiii' IfllAnds 

Public w<>rk5. lutwr on: 



iiict'.emikloycMln: 



New York , 



Ptiblic workn. prolrnticeoldonMtt- 
tic niMUTliLlif (or: 

MlBWMirl (D> ., 

Now Mexico 

I'ubli'- v>..-fi-- ■.•■••f<'p'(!"" ..f rnri- 



N. 



I'ubllc wtirkn, nrli:4iilou of wagea 
of cniplovora on: 

CAlifurhln 

Tubllc work*, iiicclnation ol nin- 
plortwt on: 

V'lrrlnla 

nuUruatl brldg<<*, eito.: 

VtTitiaMl 

Krtllr.- t -t..- Mfiblllty of, 

1,1-1 ■■■.) 

llnUr..., , - ,.,i. ,..,.., .. ;.iit^ for; 

Indiana 

Itallroiid trains, aufllciciat crew ro- 
ytiinvl on: 

Arkaiiw* 

ludlttim 

KnIlroA<U. HCfidunli on. l8te Ae- 

•idf'nU ) 
KutlroA<l%ctaiitruPtlnn otcabooao 
t.*arti itn: 

Montana 

Knllroad'4, height of bndlfM. wlTM, 
cW.. over: 
Arknnaaa... . . 

Idaho 

loWB 

KiuiMis...... 

\.r.:..»nl 

Wvnilnf 

ItiitlroAdt. hour» of labor of f*in- 

ftloj-iva ou. iStt Houri ol la- 
tor, > 
Rallronds, Ulltcraln oniploj'oM on: 

Ohio 

TfriUrr'- '- [.■'■—!-' ■'•■ I'tnployiva 
> int>loytiitii 



Jirtili«ii.M ■. --■I- t > 

Arkannaa. . . . 
Colorado 1 1>) 
lUlnoU . 

Tiidijinii 



>«itC«aao^ 



71 



74 



7S 



M 



I 



{^ 



CUMt'LATIVE INDKX OF LABOR LAWS. 
tiir index of labor laws an// cleruuiiu relating thareio — Concluded. 



Wiflcoo^ 

SUteA it>i 

rtidicr* for workmra 



AiitaiiMM k... 

K*na*« , 

fltraetiUM a»*r tneka 




B«UHl]i. 



No. Pmb. 



< «l «mp4oyttM of 
^office: 



of employM* oo 



TUjebt o( acuun fur Injurtos, (tfcc 
turim.) 

: ijUii-nli on 
Jhin*-«. etc. ; In- 
rtorirt: Railronds, 
aiJoty ttppll«no«-'« m\.) 
SttlootiR. employiiuwt of chll'lrta 
uA womm in. {S€t CUildrra 
Uld W((uit>i]. pU*. ) 
Stnii i^^£ Tjiynwnl of wagi<s.) 

FhUJpplnc fvlaodt . 

VnilwJ 8ui« 




(0M 



I 



iiuelU 



M 



61 



^L. . ' uoaof: 

llitWdll 

hollors, loipM-tlon of 
lioo.) 

vnAinoT n.itlon, 

etc t of- \S€t r . .'tc » 

8loae worked m : i ^' of. 

on publk -v.-"''.- - \Srr I'tltltlC 

. woru, 1 r ) r n of doniMtio 

Street raUwny)!, Uoiirs of Ul>or of 
cnplorMi on. {Set Hours of 
labor, etc.) 

BlwH rftllw*ys. prot^cilon of «m- 
ployMv oo. (Sk rrulirUon (if 

BufUfor w«c^: 

OihtoniU 

Georgfa 

Hew York 

8ttMl*r Ubor: 

ComiHCticut 



57 



7a 
OoorgUiD).,,... (?J 

HftwaU........ W 

73 
74 
«IB 
57 



917,918 
2W-9Qtt 



3.S4 

an 



3S0.3SI 

1083 



afti 

006 



71 


31M,396 


|i7 


719 


M 


237>238 


|J1 


40O 


70 


761 


70 


764 


fi7 


707 


tifi 


aw 


06 


302 



703 



AM 

go« 

10Q3 

313,344 

333,334 

M2 

807 

321 

711 

Ml. Ma 

71©, 717 



SwoAtlng •yftem: 
UHrylaiu] (D)., 
Uasj«chu»Htts. 
New Jer»y.... 

Nw York 



Fcnn.iylvAnia 

Tetf^raph operators, etc, TaUrood, 
hours of Ubor of: 

I'nit^xl Stiiloji., , 

Tdf^Apb polej, akxe, bclgbt, etc.. 
of: 

Wyoming. ., 

Tmnnt lartnrirv. ( Set iospectiua 

of liiOiork'n.) 
Timo (or uit'Als to be ailuwod cm- 
ittciyt^>4; 

LoulnUtia , 

1 PtnniylvanU 

Tinw to VQto to be ailomd era- 
pi Dyera: 

ArkuHAS 

lUsacbiuetts 

Ohio 

Tred»-m«rks of trsde mUoiu: 

ArkiuuflB 

CaUfonilB 

Conncctleut 

Connecticut CD) 

Nebruka 

New Jeraey 

New Jerioy (D) 

New York 

Tennessee 

ViuvlnatlonofemployeeamipnhUo 
works: 

Virginia 

WuKcs its preferred claims: 

lowu, 

Sew Uflxico 

United Statoii 

Wfi^s, nsflljpimeut of. {Su A»- 

sigiiiufiit.) 
Wneos, comtklimtions to fix: 

LouUlana 

Wafpes. exemption of. (S<c Ex- 

emptlon. etc.) 
Wn^es of employees on public 
works, reecntion of: 

CnllforoU 

Wagej. pajmient of. (Sec r*y- 

meiit, etc.) 
VTagTO, rates of. (,Stt Ratefl of 

wagee.) 
Wages, refuslpg to pay: 

Hon tana 

Wegee, suits fat. {See Suits for 

We^InK cojU at mines: 

Arkansas 

Womsn and child labor, Inveattga- 
Uon of: 

United Stales 

Women and cblldren. {Set Clill- 

dren and woman.) 
Women, einployment of: 

Mtehigun.... 

Women, hours at labor of; 



Ongon <D) 



Women, nlghl work by: 



Now York. 
No*' York (D.I 



BuDBtm. 



No.| PlIfB. 



ftl 



57 



73 



lOlS, 1011 
7li-7] 



401, < 




mi 



330. 



3u: 



£Bl 



B77-€7tt 



sii-^nu 



BULLETIN 



or THE 



BUREAU OF LABOR] 



No. 75. 



WxVSHINGTON. 



March, 190S^i 



WHOLESALE PRICES. 1890 TO 1907. 

In 1901 the Bureau of Lal)or collectcMl data relating to the whole- 
sale prices of the principal staple c*)mnu«lities sold in (he United 
Slates for the |>erioil from 1890 to 1001, inclusive. The. actual price* 
U}T the 12 years and the relati%*e prices computed therefrom were 
puhlishetl in Bullcliii 30, issued in March, 1002. The purpose of tho 
invi'stigation was to furnish a continuous record of wholesale pricea 
and to show the changes in the general price level from year to year, 
Tho investigation thus begun has been continued each year and the 
rcsidts published in tho March issue of the Bulletin to show actual 
prices for the year iuuiiediately preceding and relative prices for the 
period since ISflO. The present Bulletin contains tu'.tual prices for 
1907 and relative prices for tho 18 years from ISOO to 1907. In 
these reports wholesale prices have been j)resented fiir a large number 
(if carefully selected representative staple articles se<:ured in repre- 
grntative markets of the United States. That it would be im[)ossible 
to secure prices for all articles in all markets is so apparent that the 
foct hardly need be stated. In the present report prices? are given 
for 258 representative articles. With a very few exceptions these 
articles are the same as have been covcre<l in the preceding reports on 
this subject. Retail prices of food, which indicate better than whole- 
sale prices of food the changes in cost of living, are published in the 
July Bulletin of each year. 

The present investigation shows that wholesale prices, considering 
the 258 comnioilities as a whole, reached a higher level in 1907 than 
ftt any tjther time during tho IS-yoar period covered, 'flie average for 
the year 1907 was 5.7 per cent higher than for 1906; 44.4 per cen 
higher than for 1897, tho year of lowest prices during the 18-yea 
period; and 29.5 per cent higher tlian the average for the 10 years 
from ISV^O to 1899. Prices reached their highest point during the 
18-ye»r period in October, 1907, tho average for that vuov\U\ W' 



I 

4 



284 



BULLETIN OF THE BfREAC Of U1B0R. 



1.2 per cent higher than the averap** for ihc yciir 1007 and 2.S 
cent higher than the average for December, 1906, the month 
highest prices in lOOfi. 

An examination of the prices i>f (he various articles covered by tli 
investigation shows that while there was a large average increase ft 
tlic year taken as a whole the iueroase in price did not extoml to al 
commoditieit. Of the 258 articles for which wholesale prices wei 
obtained 172 showed an increase in the averaige price for UH>7 
compared with 1000, 35 showed no change in the averagt^ prirc fci 
the year, and 51 showed a derrea*;o in price, The following tuh 
divides the articles for wliich prices were secured into nine grou] 
and shows for eatdi group tht^ number of articloji covcreil, the per con( 
of increase in the average price for 1007 as comparetl with that ft 
1906 for each group as a whole, and the number of articles thai 
creased or decrease*! in price: 

]>KU CENT OP INCRKASK IN AVRKAOE TRICES FOR 180T AS COMPARBD WITH AVE1 
AOK TRICES FOR lf06. AND NUMBER OF AKT1CLE8 THAT INCREASF-D OK PECRK.VSEI 
IN TUICK, BY OKOUPa OF OOaillODITlKa. 





Numlwr 
noOltm. 


IVrcwttt 

at 
tnenM* 
inprlML 


Numbiir nf onminMlKtai J 

•howfuy— ■ 


M arwos 


1 No 


"^ 


F*nn rr->lnrt!< 


le 
n 

75 
U 

a 

V 

9 


10.« 

S.tt 
1.4 
0.1 
4.1 
« 1 


„ 1 


1 


FlK'.l . 

Pn. 1 

M'M..' 1* 

Iam'i I iruUcrlftH 


M 11 
7 1 

n 1 b 

M 1 I 
* < -H 

!l ? 


1? 

10 

4 


Vnii: . iM .[ 


2 


Ilott"- hiitttihlii;; j;(Mi(]a . .. , 


U ft.O 




MlM«flliiitr*iil'i 


* 


AU oommodUUtt ,.,. 


26M ft.7 


ml tt 


" 



From the above t.able it ia seen that when Uie commodities are coi 
sidered by groups all of the nine groups showed an increase in pri< 
in lti07 as compared with 1000. In farm products, taken as a who) 
there was an increu.se iu price of 10.9 per cent in 1907 over the a\t 
price fur 1900, this increase being great-er than in any other uue 
Uie nine groups. 'riii«re was an incroas*; in pric« iu II of the 11 
articles for which prices were obtained. All of the staple grail 
cotton^ bay, aiu! hops showed u di*cided increast^ in price.. 
artick*«« that showed a decrease in the average price for the ji car w* 
sheep, hugs, and hides, wliich <leerea^e lu tlie average price for 
year resulted from (lie fall in pric« during the last two montba of 
year. 

Food aa a whole increased 4.6 per cciit In the average price for 11 
a'^ —1 %\i!h 11106. Ii ' ...=■-■ 

im change, and I ^ 




WHOL£SALJl P&ICBe, 1890 TO VHQ'i 



I 



ng an increAsse were beef, ilour. Kutler, milk, cheese, rice. inoal» 
eggs, \wn\, and su^ar. No change t4.K>k place in the price of hrea<l. 
The principal articles showing a ilecroase were colTee, pi^tatoes, muU 
ion, beans, prunes, and evaporated apples. Some of the varieties of 
pork and fbh showed a sU^^ht iucreaae in the average price for the 
year, while other varieties showed a slight decrease. 

Of the 75 articles included under cloths and clothing, 54 siiowed 
increaae in price, 11 showeil no change, and 10 showed a decrease* 
In the group as a whole there was an averaj^e increase, of 5.6 per cent 
in price, the principal increase l>eing in cotton goods an<i silk. 

In fuel and lightinp as a proup there was an increase in price of 2 
per cent. Petroleum and coke increased in price, as did also some 
kinds of coal. Other kinds of coal decreaseil shghtly in price. 

In the metals and implements group tiie increase in the av(*rago 
price for 1907 over 19()6 was 6.1 per cent. Of a total of 38 articlea 
in the group there was an increase in the price of 25 artich^, tudutling 
barb wire, copper, iron, steel billets, nails, tin plate, etc. Six articles, 
including steel rails, did not change in price and in 7 articles there 
was a decrease. 

Twenty-one of the 27 articles includetl under lumber and building 
materials increased in 1907 as compared with 1906. Nearly all kinds 
of timber products showed a marked increase. There was a decrease 
tn the prices of brick, wiuilow (^lass, turpentine, and spruce. In the 
group as a whole there was an increase in price of 4.9 per cent. ■ 

The increase in the average pric^ of drugs aod chemicals in 1907™ 
over 1906 was S.3 per cent, the articles showing the greatest increase 
being glycerin and opium. Wood alcohol showed a marked decrease 
in prife. ^ 

House furnishing goods as a whole increased 6.S per cent in price. fl 
The increase was in furniture, wooden ware, and cutlery. Earthcn- 
wmre and glassware did not change in price. No article included in_^ 
this ^oup showed a decrease as compared vrith 1906. ■ 

In the miscellaneous group there was a marked incrt^ase in tlie 
prices of news paper, cotton-seed oil, malt, and starch. There was ^ 
no change in the price of smoking tobacco, and there was a decreasofl 
in the prices <»f rubber and 3 other articles. Taken together, the 
group of miscellaueous articles increased in price 5 per cent. TTie^ 
per cent of increase or decrease in the average wholesale price forfl 
1907 for cacli of the 25S articlea as compared with the price for 1906 
is shown on pages 312 to 315. ^ 

In addition to the classification into the nine groups named above^H 
the 25S articles included in the investigation have been divided into 
two general groups, designated as raw commodities and manufactured 
commodities. Of course fixed definitions of these classes can not be 
Eamde, hut the conunodltles here designated as TftW ma^ \>^ ^^ V) 




28G 



BULLETIN or THE BtTBF.AtT OF LABOR. 



I 



^ 



such jw arc inarkete<l in their naturni state ami nnch ay havo been 
suhjoctoil to only A prclitniuary inivniifnrttirmtj proross, thrn* con- 
vprlinj; ihom into a nmrkt^tnhlo ronrlition, hut nni to a suitahlo form 
for fmal consumption, wliile tlio conutioditlcs bcro dc^i^naloil 
manufactured aro such as havo heon subjocted to nioro than a p 
liiiiinary fmtory inanipiilation nnd in wbit-h tlio manufacturing 
lahor cost constitutes an important element in tho price. In tho 
grotip (lesi^natof! as raw are inchidcd all farm products, heans,| 
coffee, ejij^s, milk, rice, nutmegs, pepper, tea. vei^etahles, raw silk 
wool, coal, crude potjoleum, copper ingots, pi^ load, pi^ iron, bar, 
ailvor, spelter, jiig tin, ))rijn8tone, jute, antl nibber — a total of 
articles. All the other articles are classed as manufactured com- 
modities. 

Afl thua grouped it appears that the average wholesale price of ra' 
conituoditles fi»r 19(^7 wai» .5..S per cent hi;:her tlian fi»r IIKM), and iha 
the avcrnj^G wholesale price of manufactured ronimndltii'M for 100 
was 5.8 per cent higher than for 1900. 

While the gcncrnl av<^rage of wholesale prices for tlic year \[H)7 u 
higher than the average for 11)00, the tendency upward did not con 
iinue ihroughotit the year, as there was a heavy decline in prices 
November and a still further decline in December. The following 
table shows the j>cr cent that the average price for each month of 
tho year HM)7 was above or below tho avt^rage price for tho year, and 
in tho last cohmin the per cent of <iecreiLse of Ihe average December 
price below the rtverago price for each preceding month: 

COICPARIflON OK XVERAOB PRICE FOR EACH UONTH OF |W7 WITH TUK AVERAOB 
IMMiK Foil TUE YKAK. AND OK AVKU\(iR TIIUK ro\\ tiKCKUDKR. IW, WITH THB 
AVEUAtlE I'KICE FtJlt VMM mUCEDISO MONTH OF TUK YEAR. 



Uomti. 



At.o -v liv. ■ Ttclow 



0.1 

.& 

.ft 

I.B 




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1880 TO 1907. 



2S7 






Tlio avonigo for wholesale prices for January, 1907, wa.s 1.2 per 

cent belovr the averajre for the year. In February and March there 

as an advance, followed by a tlecline in April. Tliere was a further 

'advance in May, .Time, and July, followe<l by a slight decline in Auj^ust. 

There was another advance in Septeailx»r, and in October the wholc- 

lo prices reached the highest point attained during the year, when 

they were 1,2 per cent above the average price for the year. In 

[Kovenibcr there was a decline in prices to a point 0.5 per cent below 

lio average for the year. In December prices reache<i their lowest 

►oint in the A'ear, beint* 2.4 per cent below the average for the year. 

From the figures given in the last column of the table it is seen that 

le average of wholesale prices in December, 1907, was 1.2 per cent 

►low the average in January and 3.5 per cent below the average in 

tober, the month of highest prices during the year. 

The change that took place in wholesale prices month by month 

I during 1907 in each of the nine groups already referred to will be 
been in the following table: 



MPARISOX OF AVERAGE PRICE FOR EACH MONTH OF igOT WITH AVERAOB 
PUICR POR TUB YEAR. AXP OF AVERAGE I'RICE FOR DECEMBER, 1007. WITH 
iVKRAOB PRICE FOR EACH PRECEniNU MONTH OF THE YEAR. BY GROUPS OF 
COMMODITIES. 





F«rm prodocta. 




Food. etc. 


Clotha and clotbini;. 


1 


Per c«aC ot priw 


Pcrcmt 


Per cent of prioo 


Perceat 


Pvr cent of priot 
for moata— 


Perceal 


w 


for nuwlli— 


of tn- 


fur mooth — 


of to- 


of In- 








orfttse 






crauo 






creaM 


^B 






(■♦-)or 






(+> or 
d«crf««0 






(+) or 
deertaM 


^■^ 






<1«erf««e 










r MoqUi. 


Above 


Below 


(-) to 
Decfim- 


Above 


Bdow 


If- ) In 
Dmx'JQ- 


Almve 


Bdow 


iWriiii- 


L 


anrage 


avpiiigQ ' ber as 


Av«ra«« 


»vonig» 


bflrw 


average 


■veragej brru 


1 


prir« 


price com- 


price 


prlTO 


com- 


price 


price 1 eotO' 


L 


far 


for t***^ 


lor 


for 


pared 


for 


for parrd 


b 


yew. 


ywr. wiih 
each pro* 


yeftf. 


year. 


with 

eachpre- 

redlng 

moalH. 


yiMT. 


year. 


wilh 

e^cbpn- 
moiitn. 


^P 




coii&w 














montn. 










Jm 






- as 

- 47 

- a.2 

- 0.0 

- a.a 

-u.o 

- ar 




0.7 


+13 
4-1.2 
+Xft 
+0.1 

+ 43 
+S.I 




18 
13 
LT 
LI 
.6 


+13 


Ly*bnxvy 




0.3 




+1« 


HMTh 




.B 
a.3 

114 
3.3 
3.S 





•f-lO 


GkBrtl 






+ 1.4 


BE— 


3.0 
S.6 






+ 1.0 


BSsL* " 






13 
LO 


A- .3 


WBS . 








- .7 


^^^^IGEa* 






- 9.0 

- .ft 




3.1 


+ 4.8 
+X» 
-13 
-1.5 


LS 
10 
1.7 
L3 
.3 




— ,p 


^^^^DUl" 








-1.0 


^HBBS^ 


• 


IS 
4.3 
1ft 




-1.3 


S(ftf«tnlt«r 


0.0 

0.4 




— .» 


iMctanbcr 


••«*•*■•» 



















BuiXBxur OF xa& bubeav of labor. 

COMPARISON OF AVERAGE PRICE 90H EACH HONTH OY IMT WITU AVtHAOK 
TRITE FOR TTfK TKAR. AND OF AVKRArZK PRirT FOR nECKMBEft. I«C. VTITII 
AVKFtJiGE FRICE FOR EACH PRKCLDING MOXTII OF TtIK YEAR. BY liBOCI-S OF 
C011MODlTl£S~CoacliMloil. 



^Sknth. 



FobruAry 



April 

M*r 

•Time 

July 

AugUftt 

■ October... 
^1 Novauhgt 

f 



FmI wi4 l^tlag. 



P«r (Mat of pftc* 
tor 



Abof* Mow 



for 
yvKr. I yf*r. 



1.1 

.4 



.1 



Lft 
1.8 

l.fl 
.7 



L» 



Pwontt 



(+) or 
(-> In 
b«- nit 



jmrMl 

pTWCHS 

mcnuh. 



-%9 

-L4 
-►tl 
+ .1 

+ !.« 
+ .» 

- .4 

- 12 

- ii 

-4.5 



BtfllaltOBd 



P«r ovnt nl price 
fbrnonth — 



Atjnre Datnw 

prioc 
fttr 



yow. 



LI 
40 

1.8 

L4 



aVFTtgP 

price 

Ibr 



jnwr. 



Mrvd 

vrflh 



IS 

7.0 
AS 



terUU. 



Pvrent i ' 
oCln- I 



(+' or 
<kcr«Me 

(-1 m 

caiu- 



Abonr Biiltirv 

livprM* ' B-MrBgi* 

prioa pn» 

WW Ibr 

•«4i y«»r. 1 yi»r. 



.mijiiUi 



-t£3 

-12,4 

-I2.H 
-W.4 
-II 

- «l« 

- T.» 

- 41 

- Xl 



ft* 
L5 

1» 
I • 
L i 
.2 



a? 



• r^mm 
(, > t or 



f-tin 



:::::;::i 



L4 
1.9 



-&« 
-a. I 
-ikii 

•a 4 

-S.0 
-7.1 

-La 

-18 



DnigB and ^Mmlcftla. 



Iter 



MbnOu 



Ahova 
avttf- 

prw 

for 
yuir. 



J«naury,,.| 
Fvlfninrr.- 

>UR<h . . . . . 

Arwii 

M»y 

fnjm 

Joly 

AUglUt 

B»piiutih«r. 

OclOfaMF . . . 

NovKinlicr , 

Dewmitwr,. 



LT 
8.7 
&5 
A7 
3.9 



For 
mnt 

Oltft- 



tor I %^ 



ywir. 



L4 
&.« 

&T 
4.3 
4.4 

47 

14 



MCh 



nooM famUblng 



Mlmlbktwimn. 



rwr ccftt of 
l>f4(«fbr 
mnnllk— 



J 



Abo 

pncv 

for 

ywr. 



BelwiH 

pni* 

yfMr. 



4-iai 




.. 


«► ••• 


.<•..<• 


9.0 


+ ft7 


...- — . 


LI 


-♦- X4 




.« 


+ 7.» 


,,,,,, 


.ft 


+ 7 T 


C«) 


{"] 


+ 49 


4ft 




— Lft 


1.7 




— &4 


t : 




— AT 


I 7 




- 2 


! 1 





Ptof 
ami 

of ID- 



IVrfT-fit of 
pricm {t*r 
mouth' 



(+ ' "f I 

dr- 

muM 



coni- 

pAIWl 



[irl» 

for 



+ 4.ft 
+i» 
<-2:4 

ft. 4 
'4- .S 
- .2 

- .2 

- .2 



pru« 

for 

y«4r. 



3fi 



P>r 

9*11$ 

arte- 

cffMia 

* + ) or ; 



hrr 



IVf phU of 

priw fwr 
uinn(b— 



Mrl.A 




1.1 
1.4 

.;i 
I.y 



pK.'^.: 






1' . ' ' 1 


tt-ltti 






vriiti 


own 


y«r. 


ywr. 


f M !l 


pf»- 






r-ff 


oMliitt 
iiiuolh. 






Uldlltll 


-41 


-• 


L2 


-L3 


-5 6 




.4 


-XO 






a 


-ta 








-XI 

-no 

-Xft 
-t4 

-1.5 



« Soiiio ju KVL-rnga prlcv for >(-«r. 

In January, IfKi", the whol*- 
WHS 5.9 ptT I'otit below the 
month until Juno there was 
Au(,'ust the price wu-s a little 1. 
ronvh(*t] (hiring tho year wai* 



an 



'•fioiiw (II nV'Tfcifi'priT tor l.'cor»irKT. 

' '• of farm products as r group 

price for the year. In cAch 

avlvanco in price. In July and 

' 111 in June. Thi- ■ ' 
'til»cr, when the 



per cent above the ftvpra^ for the yeftt. T\\etc v*» «b ^^v ^st^Joawb 






WUOLESAUC PBICES^ 1800 TO 1907. 



IB October ami a very heavy decline in November, in which luoDth 
the price was 6 per cent below the average price for the year. In 
L Dacember the price had fallen slightly lower, the price bein^ fi.4 pi^r 
I wnt l>elow tlie average pri<*e fi)r the year. The price in December 
was 0.5 per cent lower than in January and Il.S per cent lower than 
in September, the month of highest prices in iliis ^x»iip. The int^ve- 

Ijnent in prices during the year for each of the articles that enter into 
Uus and the other grou[)ti will be found in Table II, pages 396 to 414, 
ftr, if desired, the full details of the prices tliroughout the year may 
be found in Table I, pages 'M7 to 3iifo. 

Food commo<litie3 as a group were at their lowest price in May 
and at tbeir highest in Oi'tolH»r. when they were A.S per rent above 
ibe aTerage price for the year. The increase in Octfd>er as compared 
widi May was 8.5 per cent. Food commodities declined in price in 
November and made a still further dei*IiDe in De<>eni1>cr. Prices m 

toPecember were 3.2 per cent higher tluiii in January* uud 6.2 per cent 
higher than in ^lay. 

Tbe price of cloths and clotliing was below the average price for 
the year (luring the first five months of the year. Krtmi Januar>- to 
September there was an advance in price each month. In the laet 
lhre«! niontlis of tlie year there was a <lecline in price earh month. 
Tbe price in December was 3.2 per cent higher than in January, but 
■ 1.6 per cent lt»wer than in September. 

The lowest price reached in the group of fuel and lighting was in 
L June, wlien tlie price was 2.8 per cent IjcIow the average price for 
H the year. The highest price reached was in October and November. 
H in eat^h of which months the price was 3.6 per cent above the averi^ro 
W price for tlie year. In Decemlx^r there was a sharp decUne^ the price 
in that month being I per cent below the average price for the year. 
^ Tlie price in December was 1.6 per cent lower than in Janua^^^ 1.8 
^Kner ct-nt liighcr than in June, and 4.5 per cent lower than in October 
^B^i November. 

^r^lie price of metals and implemeuti? was above the averaj^e price 
^^for the year during the first seven months of the )'ear. Rt»<rinning 
Bwith June, ibere was a dechne eacli mouth untU December, when the 
H price was 0.5 per cent below tlie average price for the year, Tbe 
H price in December was 12.9 per cent lower than in February, the 
H mouth of highest prices in litis ^Toup <lurin(r the year. 
H Lumber and building materials were 0.7 per cent below the average 
H price for the veAT in the mouth of January. The pric* increajie*! each 
H month up to April, in which month the price was 2.5 per cent above 
H^Mk average price for the year. In each siic<*eeding month there 
^^Hp a decline in price from the mouth iumu^liately preceilina;, until 
HinDecember the price was 6.6 (>er ceat below the average price for 



4 

i 
i 



290 



BULLliTIN OF TUE BVBEAU OF LABOB. 



the year. In Det'tinlior tlie price wius ^i.S por cent lower than in 
April, the month of hij|;hest price in this group. 

Drills and chemicals were below the averaj^e price f(»r the yvar 
during tlie first seven monthw in the year and above the average price 
for the year durinj^ the remaining five months. The lowosi point in 
the year was in Jiuiuarv, when tlie price was 6.8 per cent below the 
avora^je price for the year, anil the highest in August and September, 
when the price was 8.7 per cent ftbove the average price for the 3'ear. 
In December the price was 10.1 per cent higher than in January and 
6.6 per cent lower than in August anil September. 

House fumi.shing goods were at their lowest price in January and 
February and at their highest price in August. Septeml>er, and Octiv 
ber. In these montlus the price was 1.7 per cent al>ovo the average 
price for the year. The price in November and December waa 
shghtly lower than in the three preceding; months. The price in 
December was 4.5 per cent higher than the price h\ .lanuary and 
F*cbruary. 

Miscellaneous articles in January were 0.0 per cent i>elow the aver- 
age price for the jear and -'.6 per cent below tlie average price for the 
year in February. The month of highest price in this group waa in 
July, when the average price was 2.5 per cent al)ove the average price 
for the year. A marked decline in price occurred, both in Novem- 
ber and in December, until in the latter month the average price 
was 5.1 per cent below the average price for Hie year. 

While the year 1007 was as a whole one of high prices, the heavy 
decline in the latter part of the year was quite general. Of the 258 
articles included in this report, 132 had in DecendxT declined from 
the highest point reached during the year and 40 showed a lower 
average price for December than for any other month of the year. A 
few of the articles for which the December prices were much lower 
tiian in preceding months are here noted. Heavy hogs declined from 
an average of 17.0.313 per hundred in February to $4.65 in December, 
being a decline of 3;i.9 per cent. Slieep declined 39.1 per cent from 
April to December; coerce declined 18.9 per cent from March to 
December; smoked hams diTlined 22.2 per cent from May to Decem- 
ber; dressed mutton declined 24.4 per cent from May to Deceniber; 
print clotlis declined 16.1 per cent from October to Decenil>er; raw 
Japan silk declined 24.2 per cent from May to December; coke 
declined 44.1 per cent from February to December; ingot cxipper 
declined 45.1 per cent from May to December; pig lead declined 33.4 
per cent from March to December; No. 1 foundry iron tieclined 31.1 
per cent from January to December; spelter declined 35.1 per cent 
from Kel>nmn»'' to December; reil cedar sliingles declined 35.5 per 
cent from August to Decemlier; brick declined 26.7 per cent from 



.=^ 



WHOUiSALE PBICES, 1800 TO 1907. 



I 
I 



I 



June Ui Di*ceraber; tar <l(»rlinpd 42.0 per cent from April to Deceui- 
l>or; quinine declined 27.3 per cx^nt from Kcbnmry to Decx»raber: raw . 
jute declined 45.9 per cent, from January to December; rubber^fli 
declined 34.2 per cent from March to December. The price of 72 ^^ 
articles remained the same throughout the j'ear 1907, and for only 
8 articles was the average price for December liighcr tlian f*>r any 
other month in the year. The avera^ce monthly prices for the several 
articles are given iu Talile II, pages 39<i to 414. 

The following table has been prepared, showing for both raw and 
manufacturcfl eommodilies, acconling to the elassification alrea<!y 
explained, the per cent that prices in each month in 1907 were above 
or bi'low the average prices of the year and the per cent of decrease 
in December below each preceding month of the year: 



i 



COmURlSOV OP AVEHAOK PUICKS op raw and manufactured COUHODlTIKff 
rOR EACH UONTH OF I'JOT. WITU TUI5 AVKIIAOE I'RICES FOH THE YEAR. AND OF 
JIVERAOE PRICES FOR DECEJtfnER, IWT, WITH THE AVERAGE PRICES FOR EACH 
PRECEDING MONTO OK THE YEAR. 



I 



^^^JUontb. 


Raw cuuunixSItlM. ItfuitiXwetured conunodlUe*. 


All oommodltlei. 


Pwoenl or Bi1c« 
lor montb— 


Poroent 

olde- 
orwaotn 

Decern- 

fMChpny 
cwUluf 
moDtb. 


Pere«ntorprlco 
for moata— 


Percent 

ofde- 

croMelta 

Decem- 
ber Ijelow 
CHchpre- 

Mdfiw 

monlb. 


PPTcenlof nrtce 
lor uiouta — 


Percent 

ordo- 

rrauebi 

Deorm- 
Jrt Mom 
vmchpn- 

cediM 

montE. 


Above 
ftverage 

prlee 
tor 


Bdow 

price 

for 

yf»r. 


AbOT« 

iiveras« 

lor 

ymx. 


Bdow 
average 

priCfl 

tot 
year. 


Abow 
Mwraffo 

price 
for 

ymr. 


Ddow 
jiTCirain> 

tor 
jf«r. 


Jmaansy 


1.0 
2.0 
XI 

.4 
1.9 
X6 

.« 





7.8 

a7 

B.8 

7.2 
5.7 
9.3 
7.4 
(Ll 
0.5 
7.5 
S.0 




l.S 
1.0 
.0 
.6 

.1 


"0.0 
.2 
.« 
.ft 

1.3 

i.g 

XI 

xs 




1.2 

.4 
,1 
.3 


1.9 


ripftrn*ry 

^ lUrrh 






z^^ 








2.S 









2.1 


"'■"as 

.4 

*4."0 
0.9 


ai 

5 

.0 

.s 

1.3 


2.5 




3.S 


O.0 

.1 

1.3 
.4 




S.0 







X9 




l.« 






u 




S.4 


1.8 






r^ 












' 



• InrreuM. 



From tliia table it is seen that there was a greater fluctuation in tlie^^ 
prices of raw commodities during the year than in the prices of manu-^| 
factured commodities. In June, the price of raw commodities was 
2.6 per cent above the average price for the year, while in December 
the price was 6.9 per cent beK»w the average price for the year. In 
manufactured commodities, the lowest prices were in January, when 
the average was l.S per cent below the average price for the year, 
while in September the average was 1.3 per cent higher than the aver- 
age price for the year. Thus, December marked the lowest prices in 
raw commodities ami January marked the lowest prices in manu- 
factured commodities, while June marked the highest prices in raw 
commodities an<l September the highest prieoH in nmoufuclured 
commodities. Prices of raw commodities in December avcraj^ed 



4 



^ 



293 



BULLETIN OF TH£ BUBBAV OF L4fiOB. 



» 



n 



per tvnt lower thau in Jttnuarv niid 9.;J ju^r cwit low«tr than in June. 
Tho December prices of nmnufcu'tureKj cotnmoditios averaged 0.6 |>ecj 
cant higher tlian tiiuse for January and 2.5 per cent lower than tin 
of Soptcinlier. 

Thus far attention has been directed to th« changes that loi»k place 
in wholesale pricr.H in the year 1*»()7 as rtunpiiri'd with 1906 and the 
movement of wholesale prices month by month during the year 1907. 
Attention is now directed to tlie course of wholesale prifves fruni year 
to yew sintx^ ISOO. Tlie following table shows, by relati^'e prices,, 
the chanj^p-s in the average wholesale pricpfi of ihv. articles for wliich 
prices were secured from 1890 to 1907, inclusive. The relative price 
use<l in thi.s tabic is simply a jiercenta^. The base on which thr rt'la- 
tive price is coinpute<i is not the price in any one year, but the aver- 
age price for the ten years from 1890 to 181)9, inclusive. The reason 
for a^lopdn^ thb base h fully explained on pa^ 3'26. Relative 
prices, such as are here shown, are also aometiroea npoken of as rela- 
tive numbers or as index numbers. In computing the relative 
price for all commodities for each year the relative jiriccs for the 
several commodities were adile^l and the sum dividoil hy the nuinlK'r 
of commodities. 

To lissist in comparing wholesale prices in 1907 with tlie prices each 
year back to is^O, another column is given in the table showing the 
per cent of the increase in prices for 1907 over the prices for each of 
the pre<'e<liu^' years. 

aSLATIVE PHICKSOrcOiatODITlKS. IMfO TO ll»7» A>in PERCENT OF iNCRSAiia 2N 

raicEB FOR wxt ov-:r i'rices for each pukckdixg ykar. 







rmmntot 






jfVVfMkflfll 




Bitetlv* 


UlffT?*i»lfl 




HMMh^ 




Y«u. 


prfctvfftU 


IW7 mtt 


year. 


i ■■ ■ ' '' 




comiatt4t- 


«Utl pT1»- 








llo».(«) 


OHitaff 






vf^r. 


ISOO 


111* 


H - 


1 


m ? 


27.1 


I»l i 


ni.7 


r 




1 in :, 


17. a 


1003 


100.1 


-. 




\\>\ ;. 


lat 


ISM 


!(«« 


2^.. 


, ^ 


1 1 : •;' 


11 T 


INM . . 


M.1 


34. S 
Sft.4 


r-> I 


Mill 
1 I ; II 


14.0 


IflOB .. 


14 ■ 


ISM 


W1.4 


433 


iW;^. . 




P ■ 


imr 


W.7 


44.4 


IWO... 


'■ 1 ■ , 


■. ; 


INM 


00.4 


w.; 


HKW. 







4 ATunoT^ prim lur Uttft I Kfl» IfllA 

ft'llu'u^ htriin^* HPn •'cirr>*-<L- lhi»^ K^lvnti fur IUth. itt llttllnLlri V« JU 



•llffhtlv In 



1 


i 


1 


■ 


■ 


■ 


■ 


n 


1 


^H 


■ 


■ 


■ 


■ 


■ 


■ 


■ 


■ 


■ 


I The relative irhole^ale prices during the years from 1890 to 1907, ™ 
P eel forth in tabular form in the preceding table, are sliowii also in the 
graphic table whicli fi^liows: ^M 

L RELATI\T- PRICES OF ALL ^:^^^TOPITIES. 1890 TO ItWT. ^^H 

■ [Arermg* priw tor IMOlo 1300- lOO.J ^^^^^ 


\ 
1 

1 


mcfs 


mo mi tma ts-fi tmisantsxtmnMmntsooisoi f9S f9fB m* /sos /9os rsa 


4 

\ 


fi2 
nc 

tu 

m 

ra 

>»< 

m 

9* 

« 


I 1 1 


1 I 
















' i 














































































































1 
































/ 




































/ 




































/ 




































/ 




































/ 


































/ 


































' 




! 




























J 




































/ 






















~1 














/ 




































/ 






















1 












/ 
































^ 














1 


















/ 




' 




























/ 






Sj 






















^ 




7^ 
























I 












> 




















/ 












I \ 


















k. 


/ 












• '\ 
















J 


\ 


1— 












1 .\ 
















/ 


X 














. \ 
















/ 




















\ 
















/ 




































/ 
































/ 


































y 






















i\ 












/ 






















; \ 
































































^ t \ 
































1 \ 


























1 










\ 




































\ 










/ 




























K 




































\ 








} 




























> 


k. 








—— 1 




























\ 




J 




1 




























A 




/ 
































^. 


/ 


































r 






















































































1 


The table shows that 
moditios for 1890 was 


the av 
112.9 Y 


erage of wholesale prices of all com 
ter cent of the avprairc of wholosal 


■ 

1 

a" 


1 


price 

I 


la 

1 


for 


the 

■ 


? Vf 

■ 


•ars 


fru 


m 1891 


3 U 

m 


■ 


iGD; 


in 


otl 


er 


wor 

■ 




tha 

ii 


t tii( 

i 


a 

i 



BULLETIN OF TUE BUBEAU OF LABOR. 



average of wlinle.snle prices in ISOO woh 12.1) |»'r rent liij^her than tli 
average for the lO-year poriotl iianiCN]. 

In ISO! rrhitivc whnlosalo pricos dorlinod to 111.7; that id, to 
point where tlie average wholesale price for the year was 1 1.7 per cent 
above the avernge price for the H) yejira from 1890 to 1S99. 

In 1S02 rohitive wholesale pricos tlropped to 100.1 and in 181*3 U 
1(»5.*5. In thi; next year, ISiM, whoUwjUe prices fell to OC.l, a poi 
3.9 below the average price for the 10-year base |>erio<l. In ench 
the tltree siueeeedin^ years wholesale prices (le<line<l until in 1S!)7 they 
reaehod S9.7; that is, 10.3 per cent below the averaju'e price for the 
lO-year period. In each of the 3 years next 6ucceedinj», wholesale 
prices advanced, in 1900 reaching 110.5. In 19(U wholesale pric< 
tlropped back to 108.5. The next year, however, nuifked an increas( 
prices in 1002 being on on average a restoration of the prices in I89( 
namely, 112.9. In 1903 prices advaneetl to 113.0. The next yei 
1904, sliowed a sitglit tlecline, nearly hiu'k to (lie prices of 1S90 an4 
1902. In 1905 prices ailvanced to 115.9; in 1906 prices advan< 
again, reaching 122.5; and finally in 1907 the general average 
wholesale j)rice8 reached 129.5; thai is, 29.5 per cent above th 
average price for the 10 yeara from 1890 to 1899 and a higher level 
than in any other year of the 18 years covered by the investigation. 

The last column of the table (page 292) shows that the price in 190] 
was 5.7 per cent above the price in 1906, 14.7 per cent above the pri( 
in 1800, and 4-1.4 per cent ab4)ve the price in 1897, tile 3'rar of lowi 
average prices within the hist IS years. 

Tlie relative prices appearing in this table are bofted on 251 articU 
in IS90 and 1891, on 253 articles in 1.S92, on 255 articles in IS93, o] 
256 artiele^s in 1.S94, on 25S artich^s in 1906 atid 19(»7, on 259 artich 
in 1896, 1904, and 1905, on 260 articles in 1896 and from 1899 to lOO: 

id on 261 articles in 1897 and 1898. 

Having eliown the movement in wholesale price** for the peril 
from 1890 to 1907 in all commoditi<*s taken as a whole, a table is no\ 
given showing the movement in each of the 9 groups previoush 
referred to. This table gives for each group the relative prices ani 
the per cent of increase or, in a few instances, decrease of prices ft 
1907, as compared with the prices for each prece<ling year. 



■ 


WHOLESALE PRICES, 1800 TO 1007. 295 1 


HnELATIVE PKICRS OF COMMODITIES. UfiO TO 19U7. AND PER CENT OF INCRRA8K 1 


H IN* TRICKS KOR 19(77 OVKR PKlCfCd FOR BACH PRECEDING YKAR. BY GKOtTS OF 1 


■ COIIUODITIES 




1 


Faim prodvoU. 


Fond, etc 


aotluand 

ololbing. 


Fwlud 

Ugbtins. 


UpUU aimI 1 
boptoiwiDU. 1 




PBrcmt 




PeroBnt 




Porcpfil 




Percent 


P«rerat 


^H 




of 




of 




it! 




ol i 


ol 


■ Y«M. 


R*U- 


inc»A» 


Rl-lA- 


LncmMc 


R^U- 


inenRAjV 


Rl^lA- 


Incre^w R«lft. 


InrreiuHs 




Uvfl 


UI1M7 


liVTJ 


lnlW7 


tlVti 


lDlW7 


Uvm 


U11907 


Utc 


mi907 


.^^fe 


prlcr. 


OVfT 


price. 


OWT 


phco. 


over 


prtoo. 


OTOf 


priro. 


ovet 


■ 


(«) 


OMOh 
pRVod- 

IttgycKr. 


(•) 


■prrcfA- 
ins yo«r. 


f) 


prwml- 
Uicy«Ar. 


(•) 


ooch 
pmo»d- 


(•) 


PACh 

prnoMl- 

loerwr. 


^^ 


mo 


M.ft 


ia4 


4.8 


1115 


11. n 


104.7 


319 ' 110.3 


SIS 


^H^M 


I3LS 


12. X 


115.7 


1.8 


111.3 


lis 


102.7 


81.5 111. 7 


18.4 


^^fBt. ...... 


111. 7 


33.7 


103I.6 


IS. 7 


109.0 


lAJ 


101.1 


315 1010 


US 


^^T^* 


107.0 


27.1 


iio.a 


0.0 


107.2 


112 


100.0 


aio 100.7 


40:4 


■N 


06^0 


4a.o 


00.8 


18.0 


OtV 1 


31.8 


92.4 


411 


90.7 




««.s 


4(i.9 


040 


215 


92.7 


317 


911 


37.6 


010 


01« 


mA 


78.S 


7S.1 


818 


40.0 


91.9 


W.8 


1013 


29.4 


017 


ffi.0 


MR 


85.3 


00.0 


07.7 


84.8 


ot. k 


ao.i 


914 


40.0 


816 


00.0 , 

010 1 


m$ 


WVl 


42.7 


04.4 


24.8 


914 


317 


•14 


41.5 


814 




vri n 


J7.1 


W.2 


19.8 


9117 


31 


1010 


3EL6 


1117 


310 


tm. 




25.2 


lOiS 


13.1 


ion. 8 


116 


120. 9 


11.7 


130.5 


110 


noi . 


■ ,, ■! 


17.3 


105.9 


11.2 


101.0 


314 


119.5 


U.0 


111.9 


3S.S 1 




, i> ;. 


h.\ 


in 3 


18 


102.0 


213 


1313 


.5 


117.2 


33.4 


MS 


, 1 - s 


1&4 


107.1 


10.0 


lOtVft 


119 


14B.3 


ft 9.6 


117.6 


ai.o ! 


VM.. 


1 1- .' 


8.0 


107.2 


9.0 


109. H 


114 


132.0 


1.8 


100.6 


30.S 


M& 


i.'4.2 


ia4 


10s. 7 


8.4 


112.0 


111 


121.8 


18 


122-6 


17.1 


JIW 


121ft 


10.0 


112. fl 


4.0 


13). 


5.6 


t m 


3.4 


1312 


11 


MO? 


137.1 




U7.8 




120.7 




13:^0 




143.4 














1 


Lomli^f And 
boUdtnx 


Drugiud 


^•.sTiSsr- M.-u»<,«^ 


Allflonimoditlr*. 




I'orwnt 




Per »nt 




Per cent ! 


Per cent 


' Pnrrent 


|~ 


R(4*- 
livo 
price. 


In 1907 
owrwich 


RrU- 

tlVf 

prit^. 


of 

iDcrrawi 
ill U<07 

• ivi-rrMcli 


RWjfc- 
livo 
prkHj. 


InrivAHf 

In 1007 

Ovrrr«u:h 


Rf>U- 

price. 


oJ 
incrrftBe 
til litf)7 




m 


prorcd- 


prvced- 


C) 


pnti'd- 


(*) 


prwcriJ- 


^"^ 1 prwd- 






ing yair. 




ingymr. 




ing yc«r. 




Ing yc«r 


1 Ing year. 


HBO 


iits 


Si. A 


110.3 


»a5 


Ul. 1 


17 


110.3 


113 112.0 


117 


HH 


108.4 


3£lS 


108. ti 


h.n 


110.2 


7.5 


100.4 


112 1 1U.7 


15.9 


tm 


103.0 


42.0 


102. 1» 


0.5 


Il».5 


11.3 


100.2 


19.7 1 106.1 


32.1 


MM 


101.0 


44 3 


100. A 


9.1 


104 9 


110 


1010 


a0.0 , 105 6 


32 6 


iSt:::::: 


90.0 


SZ.S 


a>.K 


22.0 


loa i 


114 


fift.8 


37. 4 { 00. 1 


318 


•11 


SO. I 


K7.U 


217 


W, 5 


22.8 


916 


316 1 03.6 


314 


VS....... 


tt.4 


57.3 


Wfl 


IB. 4 


910 


26.1 


91.4 


Mil 90.4 


413 


ur 


00,4 


fiZfl 


M.4 


l«.l 


m.H 


.12 


92.1 


31 89. 7 


414 


!■■ 


fl&.a 


S3. 3 


lUQ.G 


2.8 


92.0 


28. S 


92.4 


37.0 03.4 


317 


u» 


106.8 


M.H 


1U..I 


"l.fl 


'.&. 1 


210 


V7.7 


3a 1 ! 101. 7 


37.3 




U5.7 


27 


11.17 


M3 


)(». 1 


Jl.7 


100. 8 


118] IW.S 


17.3 


MOl 


116.7 


3&0 


115.2 


*10 


no g 


10 


1(>7 4 


lisl 1016 


».4 


IS:::::;: 


ll&S 


33 7 U4.2 


MO 


112.3 


16 


1111 


1L4 112.9 


117 


121.4 


21.0 H2.rt 


t>2.1 


1U.0 


19 


113.0 


11.9 113.6 


110 




m.7 


w.7i iiao 


b.i 


111.7 


11 


111 7 


lis in.0 


110 


^^m MK. . . 


127.7 


ISO 1 100 1 


.fi 


100.1 


10 


IIZS 


13,7 1119 


11.7 


^^^UBBft 


140.1 


4.D 101.2 


&3 


lao 


18 


I2L1 


5.0 <122.5 


17 


■»:::.:: 


1*11. » 




100.6 




1115 




127.1 




U0i5 














■ 


AvfTogr price for 1800- 18W- 100.0, 


^ft 


Drcini*o. 


m 


Ttaim- %un_'& ara correct; thoao glv«-n fur I'JOO iu BulluUii No. OO were sllghUy In urror. 


H 


B91— Xo. 7^—08 2 

1 



LLETIN OF TJIE BUBEAlf OF LABOR, 

■ HIS lAblo the avc»rage relative* prt(*w »>f rnrin pnMlucts are baeeet 

artirlos; of food, etc, on 53 artirlrs from 189U tn !80'J and 

lOOl to 1007, and 54 from I80ri to l<>o:t; of rloths and flothing, 

articles itk KHEIO ami 1S91, 72 iii 189:^, 7:* in lSl>;i uud ISIU, 75 

r>, 1896, U>06, and tlKfT, and 70 from 1897 to 1905; of fuel and 

:, on i:i artirlos; of tnetalti aiul irnplcnit'nts, *>n Itr'arliclcis from 

/ l*!l03, 38 in ISIi4 and 1895 and from IHO^I to 1907, nml 39 from 

y 1898; of hinib<^r and bitIMii\ff mnl-t^ials, on 2(J articl«*s from 

Ui lSfl4 RJid 27 from 1805 to 1907; of drugs and chpniiraLs, on 

Iic'lca; of house furnmhiii^ itj^'^ds, on 14 artklt's, and of uiihitI- 

us, on 13 articrlce. 

iUu]y (»f tho tablo shows llint tho ^onj) of farm jimdijct;* rcarhod 

>wost average in 1811(1 aiiil tho highest in 1907; that of foot!, 

lio lowest in ISOti and tFio htjjht-^t In 1907; that of clollis ftjid 

Jig, thr« lowest in IH97 and the Lijjhest La 1907; that of fuel and 

mgj the lowest in 1S94 and Uiehij^hestin HK)3; thatitf melaUand 

menta, the lowe&t m IH9S and the hi^hi»st in 1907; that of lunn 

md buildini; niittorialH, tfio lowest in 1S1)7 and th<3 fiij^du^«t in 19*17 j 

of dru>^ nnd ohemkab, thf lowe^i^t in ISttfj and thi.^ highcsit in 

? that of honsft fnmishin)^ ^'oods, tho lowest in 1897 and the 

it in 11)07. whilo in tho nik<*<>naiKH>iiii jjronp tlu> lowciit average 

. n:^Arlu*d in IH96 and tlii^ Jiijjjlit^st in 19i>7. Tfie avem^i> fi»r all 

cointnoditi*»a conihined, as bt^fore 8tat<^d, was lowest in 1897 and 

highest m 11107. Of tin* nino jjripnp?^, it is !^on that one r<*arln.^<l its 

lowest point in 1894, one in 1895, tlirec in 1896, three in 1897, and 

one in 1898. The highest point was reached by one group in 1900, 

by one in 1903, and bj- seven in 1907. 

In order to follow the movement in the two great classes — raw and 
manufactured commodities — the following table has been prepared. 
The articles included under each of the two groups are indicated on 
page 286. 



WaOLBSALE PKICE8, 1990 TO VJO: 



:i^l 



K PBICKS OF HAW AND OF MAKL'Fi.rTURRD COMUOUITIG^ l8M>TO 1907. AXD 
H CENT or 1NCRKA9E IN" PRICKS FOR IW7 OVER PRICE3 FOR EACH PRCCEDIXO 
AR. 





Bur e«aiinfMlltl«m. 




All QcnuttpdltlM. 


p '■'■ 


Brtattw 


PlTWIK 

attoenB«e 

in 19(1; 
ov«rattch 


1 PPTcenl 
B.i.»i«. *>' lncr(»« 
"*"''^ In IU07 

PTJ*- : owrettch 

1 Tww- 


RplAtlV« 

prtcp. 


Pr*roeBt 

otlflcmwo 

IniMff 
ovnmah 


b-=;EE 


»?-.; 

If4.4 

9ft.3 
•1.7 
94.0 
BET.O 
94.0 
109.9 

nt.ft 

111.4 

iaL4 
m.7 
m.T 
m.» 

M19.& 
1».4 


1S.0 
14.7 

23.9 
»7.» 
49.1 
46.5 

».S 

s.a 

41.9 
30.0 
111.2 
1»." 
9.0 
8.7 
11.4 
M.1 


113.9 
U0.9 

106.9 
106.9 
9A.B 
04.0 
91.9 

ni 

UK). 7 
lUi 3 
107.9 
110.9 

ni.fi 
in. 3 

114.9 
121.9 
138. 9 


14.5 

19.2 
21.8 
31.4 

ia.» 

39.K 

42.7 
37.9 
■i7.7 
19.7 
19.. -I 
19. S 

i&.;i 

19. & 

ir» 


m.9 

U1.7 
100.1 
109.9 
09.1 
99. 
V0.4 
90.T 
99.4 
101.7 

no. 4 
IOft.3 
112.9 
lU.tt 
lU.O 
115.9 
ftLS.fi 
I3».a 


1 1.7 
13.9 




23.0 


\9^\ 


B4.B 

99.4 


1 •" 


41.3 


l,.- 


44 4 


!*/> _ 


99.7 

27.1 


!»»» 


IT.J 


l^i 


19.4 


'■» -' ................. 


14.7 
14.0 


! ■ - ............ 


14.9 


1^ .i.4.. 


n.7 

5,7 


Lt: ..,,._...... 

















•TVa. 



A{« ooRvcl ; thoto glnai for 1900 tn DuUntln No. 09 won tllfihtb- ki error. 



In 1X90, when pric€»a in general wero Li^h, the relallve priceii i>f raw 

^nimiKlities were higher than those of manufacturcil commodities 

u! reniainoil so until lS93,whon pricps of raw conimotUties dechnvd 

i»I thos*» of Dianufa<'ture<l coramoilities were .slightly above the prices 

;92. From 1M*4 to I89li there was a market! decline in both 

the raw commo<Iiti©s being lower than the manufactured in 

tif these years. In 1897 raw commodilips advanced anil manu- 

•tared decHnod. From 1898 to 1900 there was a decided atlvance 

both ffrou|>s each year, raw commodities advancing to a liighcr 

t than manufactured. In UiOl there was a very slight decline 

raw and a more marked detliuo in nmuufaclured commotUties. 

In 1002 both raw and manufactured co>umi04litie8 made a ileeided 

a ' , raw commoditie^s much the prcatpr, and in 1005 both sli^litly 

1. In li>Oi both raw and manufacturcil commi>dilies de- 

linefi sHghtlr, bnt in 1905 both raw and manufactm^d commodities 

»' ' ' d, In 190G bi>th raw and manufactured conimtKlitics made 

.idvHnce» and another sharp advance, equally great, was made 

both groups in 1907. In 19(^7 both raw and manufa<-tured com- 

tedities reachcil the hij^hcst point during the IR years con.«4idere<I. 

For the 18 years included in this table^ with tho sin^cle exception 

if IS93, it will l>e seen that iluring the years of liigh prices raw com- 

were hit^'her than manufactured, and during the years of low 

ith the e.\(Optiou of IVJ.S, raw commt>dities were lower than 



H 298 BULLETIN OP THE BUBEAU OK UIBOU, ^H 

H manufactureil, Tliia is clearly shown in the ^Taphi*^ t:'l.|p \vhi< 
H folUtus: 

^^ RELATIVE PRICES OF RAW AND MANrFACTURED COMMODITIESJ 
^^K 1800 TO 1D07. j 






nuTfn 


/890 m i&^ fsn m4 IQ9S 'f8f)6 mr vsse m^ tooo fsot t902 1x3 /904 /905 t^os tsa 


^ 

1 


m 
nc 

I2B 

n< 
m 

(IB 
tf6 

VM 

n2 
no 

loa 
tot 

fOA 
102 

too 

98 






















































































































































i 




































, 




































/' 




































/ 






































/ 






































/ 






































/ 




































_ '■ 










































































/ 






































/ 


































I 




J 


































\ 




f 


































\ 


y 


i 




































r- — 


1 






































1 




i 


































7 


i 


































1 






y* 


1 




























f 

1 








\ 


























i 












\ 


























f 










i. 


\ 


























/ 










\ 


\ 
















J 


■"■••^ 




-•• 


1*-.^. 


f 






II 




'• 


I \ 
















L 




^" 








1 






\ \ 
















/K 












1 






\ 1 
















/; ^ 










• 








\ 


^ 














ft 




















-A 


\ 














it 




















"\ 


, 












zt 






















> 












1 


[t 


































/ 


JZ 


































J 


tz 
























11 










/ 


f 


































/ 




































1 1 


























Y\ 










If 






































If 




















^Bi -^ 












V 








u 






















94 

92 
90 

B€ 

94 


















// 




























|i s 






f 






























V 


































v 


\ 




"/ 


— 






























^N 




s. 
































y 


s 




































\ 






































\ 




































I 


i 




































\ 


/ 
































— 


- - 


\ 


/ 
































' 


fL 























_ 














Raw 




• — 


. _ . WKH4^ »kCT\iHtQ. ^^. 


1 



WHOLESALR PRICES, 1«K) TO 1907. 



299 



To give an opportunity to stiuly the niovcjnent in prices in each 
of the 9 o^trnps before nanietl, month hy nu)nth for a few years bm^k, 
a table is now given showin;:: the rclaiivo prices in each ^^roup and for 
all ctTinniodities for earh mouth from Januaiy, 1902, to DecemI 
1907, inclusive: 

BEX^TIVE PRICES OP COMMODITIES FOR BACTl UONTn, 1«U2 TO 1007, BV OROUPa. 

lAveragn prfoe for 1880- 1800-1000).] 



tight. In,plr>. ^^''„l. 
ing. menu •S^rtJU. 



m.4 

112.2 

n4. 1 
115. 1 
ns.i 

110.9 { 
U9.U 
UO.O 
130.4 
119 4 
118.7 I 

n7.3 I 



111.4 

112.8 

ua.'i 

lift. 3 
120.5 
1-.M.5 
12(1.1 
121. <l 

l:!i.u 

121.8 
U3.0 
123.7 



ti!l)l 

chein- 

icais. 



119.1 

117.2 
117.4 
117. 3 
114.9 
lU.S 
113.«i 
I1I.4 

110. :t 

112.3 
ii:i.& 

111.5 



lia.8 114.3 \ 



120.7 
123.8 
3 

120.9 
118.7 
120.0 
120.1 
119.5 
121.5 
21.3 
124.3 
123.1 



Ilouao 

id ailing 
gnnd*. 


Ul*- 

CWltft- 
OMIUS. 


in.s 


ns.7 


111.5 


112.3 


HI. A 


114.0 


111.5 


115,2 


112.5 


115.9 


112. 5 


iin.fl 


112.5 


no. 7 


112.5 


114.2 


113. 5 


ll3.*i 


113.5 


111.7 


113. & 


no. 9 


1U.& 


113.0 


\ 113.11 


114.1 



111.8 
111.4 
113.7 
111.4 
112 J5 
113.7 
113.1 
113. 9 
113.8 
113.0 
112.5 
III. 4 



112.2 

112.2 

113. 1 

113.1 

113. 

113. 1 

113.1 

113.1 

II2.T 

113.5 

113.5 

119.5 



na.3 

113.5 

114.9 
114.2 
115 1 
114.3 
114.3 
114.4 
114:4 
114.5 
IIU.4 

no.i 





1I0i3 
110.4 
110.9 
111.7 
113.3 
111.1 
113.0 
113.3 
112.3 
U5.fi 
114.6 
115.3 

Itl-t 



113.0 I 113.0 



111.0 


lin.2 


III. 5 


111.2 


111.5 


113. U 


111.5 


1 12. ti 


111.8 


112.7 


Ili.B 


lll.ri 


111. 8 


1 12. 9 


111.8 


III.O 


I11.H 


III. 2 


111.8 


111.0 


111.8 


109.7 


U1.8 


111.5 



115.9 
110.1 
115.9 
114.9 
113.3 
113.4 
113.0 
112. 3 
IIS. 3 
1 12. 3 
IIXI 
111.7 



113.« 



113.3 
114.4 
114.6 
114.0 
113.3 
I1Z9 
112.0 
113.0 
113.0 
III. 8 
113.7 
113.5 



IU.7 111.7 



113.0 



111.2 

113.8 
14.0 
113,9 
112 
112.0 i 
110.0 
lU.tt 
111.8 
13.5 
113. i 
115.1 



114.0 
1I.V3 
114.9 
114.0 
113.8 
114.1 
114.3 
110.0 
110.7 
117 6 

UK. 7 

110 s 





800 


BtTLLETTN OP THK nrRE.^U OF l^\BOB. ^^M 


F 


fe V 


- 


t --r: 




it^ 


• 


'' I 




._.L 






E 
S 

CO 

C 


.__._:! _.. 




s \_. 




? - 




5 






^v____ 




._ v^__._:: 


■1 'si 


0\S 


_____ J _ 


5" 

> 


r 




H 1 

S ^ 

-*» — 

r *^ 




__.___^._._i 


2^ 


„ n 




5^- 


Z 1 


^ 


^^ J 


h 


T'tr ■ 


Si 


% 


^^T 

» 


'A- 


? 

% 


^ 




\ 


Sii 


""2 


5^- 

* — 


\ 


^ - 


'^\ 


3 [ 


, , . — 


ll ^ 5 N «. 5 sj « 


5 5 3 SJ S 2 




•" 


J 



WH0LESA2.B PRICES, ISm TO 1907. 



Ml 



mKU^TIVC P&1C£8 OF COUCODmSa for each MOXTB. IMC TO IMT, BV OROrpfr- 




U 



fcto» (br UM-ias»-no.o.] 



r«ffM 



Luw- 



7oa4. nid 
«ie. I GkiA- 



HI'l U1.1 



t>n» 
Lau 



Lx 



eeU*- 



i'^Alft. 'good*. 



ll&s 


UX3 


rmr 


iLta 


■ 1 ■ I 


lit: 




TIT fl 


. 


UJH.tk 




lit. I 




1£LS 




TIX2 




UXi 




JUi.7 




lU.ft 


ITI 


IMS 



Il&« ;«1I4« 



n*. s 

II' 

11 
II ' 
II 
II. 

TI 
ll- 
I." 
l.'i 

it:.:- 



«rff.s 



Ult 



ij,i ;: 

ISLl 

I 



ta&« 

CB. 7 
I«l 4 
1M.8 

14i.O 
141.1 

1«.3 



ATi««e*. IMS. 



»li B l.V- 



140.1 



1 

IT. 

f«bnM>ry 



ftS? 



6«ptnnlMr 
Oetolxr 




l?j a 



1W.« 

1M.Z 
14K& 

1-41 t) 
UFO' 
lUi 
1&» 

13{t3 



117.0 
IM.7 

113 a 

U3.ft 
tl&.2 

114 U 

115 :i 

117 4 
121.3 
U!S.» 

120.8 



lii. -■ 

134 • 

125.3 
155.9 

1*1.0 

l_x i 
li» 'J 

127.1 



UL J 



l.».l> 



14&H 
I4B.1 



. . 1 
129. S 



. 1.-.. ft 

14;. 3 

14»1 

130.9 
lfiU4 

149. H 
14».:i 
140.0 
XC.1 
lUU 
14B.3 
137. a 



Av«n«*. 1IRI7J UT. 



U7. £ . laa 



];i&.0 14X4 j 14&0 



lots 

ML 2 

into 



inL' '» 



na s ita. D « tzt i 

lOifk ILll <il23.l 

loKA 117. A «i:na 

IM s iZl 3 • 131. 1 
^ n2L2 

ITT.n 
121.4 



IXII 

122.6 
tX); 3 a lA 5 
IJa. 4 • U& 7 
n&8 at^?* 



iol: 



nt.o ! mi «t2i5 



mi 

lux 5 
lot. 4 
IDS 
UMft 
l(»4 4 

\m t 

IIB.1 
119. 1 
llti.7 
115.8 

ia4 



ll&O 

11a. U 
117.3 

ur.fi 

tlT.S 
U.S. .% 

11(1 <i 

IS). -S 
1JU..S 

nil 3 

130 3 



tSi.fi 

i».» 
m.8 

13a :t 

127.1 

lJt.5 
174 3 



137.0 
L&U 
t»« 

139.1 
I»6 
tail 

lima 
la&ft 

Ul I) 



100,0 I 1U.5 »7.t 



U0.& 



• TfeaaAgniM wMmvl; tiMM flwi fcr isni in Hanftln No. «m 

In this tabli> the average re-lalivo prices of farm protlucts aro based 
on 16 nrtirles; of foo<l, ett., cu 54 arlitU's in ISHYI luul 1003 «U(I 4m 53 
'articles from 1004 U* 1907; of cloths and tdotliinp. on 70 artiolos from 
mtl lo 1905 and on 75 iirticl<« in ISOfi and 1907; of fii«-l nnd li*^hlin«?, 
on 13 articles; of metals and implt»ment.s, on 3S artiik's; of lumhtr 
and building materials, on 27 articles; of drugs and cheuiirfds, on 9 
articlps: of house furnishing goods, on 14 articles, and of mi^eidlane- 
oos^ on i;( artiflfd. The averai^e relative prier.s of all romnunlitirs 
arc baaed ou 260 articles in 1902 and 1003; on 259 articlcti in 1904 and 
1*K»5. and on 25S articles in l<M)(i and 1907. 

The taUc sIk>ws that tlu» group i»f farm products reache<l the lovMt 
arerage in November, 1903, and the hi|?li*'»t in Si'pteniWr, 1907; 
that of foo*!, etc., the lowest in Juiu?, IOOj, and the hiyh»^»it in Otober, 
1*07 ; that of cloths and clothing, tlie lowest in Jaauurv. FehmAT}-, 
April, May, and August, 1902, uii«l the hijrliest in September, I9t>7; 
of fuel and '■ -'*'-,'. the lowest in April, 1002, am! the lii^M»«t h\ 
luary aii>) I . 1003; that of metals and iiuplruienlK, llie 

rest In September, 1904, and the higliest in Fehrunry, 11)07 ; that 
of lumber and building tnatcrinls, the lowest in Januiiry, 1002, and iho 
higheet in April, 1907; that of drugs and chemicals, the lowent in 



802 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LASOn, 



May, 1906, and the highest in January', 1902, ami in Aiigust and Sejn 
tenibcr, 1907; that of houso furnishing gtHuls, tlie lowest, Januury to 
Juno, lOOfl, and the liii;hpst in AugUHt, Sf'ptombrr, and Octobor, 1007; 
.whilo in the miscellaneous group the lowest average was reached in 
Noveniber, 1904, and tl»c highe-st in July, l'J07. It is interesting to 
see that during the six yean* the relative price of not a single group 
WBii its low as the base — tliat is, the average i»rice for tlic 10-year 
period from 1890 to 1899. Farm products were from 9.9 per cent to 
45.5 per cent above base (average price for the 10-yenr pprifnl, ISOO to 
1899); food, etc., from 2.7 percent lo 23.5 per cent above base; clotlis 
and clothing, from 1.5 per c^nt to 29.2 per cent above base; fuel and 
lighting, from IS.l per cent to 78.6 per cent above ba.se; metals and im- 
plements, from 7.6 percent to 49.1 per cent above base ; lumber unil 
building materials, from 11.4 per «»nt to 50.5 per c-ent above base; 
drugs and chemicals, from 0.2 per cent to 19.1 per cent above base; 
house furnishing goods, from 8.8 per cent tf> 20.5 per cent above base; 
the miscellaneous group, from 9.7 percent to 30.3 percent above base; 
anil all conmioditios ctmibined, from 10.3 per rent to 31.0 per rent 
above base. All conimodities combined reached the lowest average 
for these years in January, 1902, and the liighest in October, 1907, 

Tlie course of |)rice3 during the months of 1902 to 1907 as repre- 
sented by all commodities is clearly shown in the graphic table on 
page 300. 

The following table shows the movement in the wholesale prices 
of raw commodities and of manufactured commodities mouth by 
month from January, 1902, to December, 1907. A description of th« 
two classes may l>e found on pages 285 and 286. 

RELATIVE rniCES OF RAW COUUODITIEB. MANUFACTURED rOlfMOniTtE8» AND 
ALL COMUODITIKS. FOR EACU MONTH. IJWfl TO IW7. 



Jktiiliiry.,. 
Fobmaty.. 

MAIfh 

Jul 
All^■ : ' 

Bi'pti'iu IN r 

Oi'lol)«.r... 
Deoejclwr. 



lAvtintfe prioo for l8W>-lS0»-lQOJt.1 



Dfttr. 



IMtt. 



coDunud- 
ilk*. 



117.0 
110.3 



I If I K 



Mjtntttofr- 

tUTWl 

eoniiuod 
lUm. 



Arcnge. 1908. 



IMlT 

jat.0 

100. A 

uas 

Ul 
Ul.2 

iiau 
iia« 
uao 
iu.7 
111. J 



All 
camuiod- 



110. S 

iiai 

III 7 

in 3 



^^^^V WHOLESALE PB1CE6, 1^00 TO IPO?. 30^^ 

^^KtATTVB PBICEB OF RAW COIUIODITIES, UANrPACTCTRKD COIIUOOITIES, AX|H 
^^H Ai.L COMMODITIES. FOR EACH MOKTH. IM TO IMrr-CoaduOKl. ^H 

^^" t A ran«« price (ot 1890-1S99- 100,0.] ^^ 


1 nut**. 


Raw 

MauaM- 

lllsa. 


UMiuteo- 

lorod 
conunod' 

ltte>. 


1 All 


I I90S. 

^ JuMiiy. ...... ..... 


]».e 

itto 

127.8 
Uft.8 

t2L5 
ULA 
lift 9 

118.0 

iai.7 

118.1 

117.2 
117.5 


112.0 
113. 1 

112.3 
111.3 
111.4 
110.9 

110.7 
Ml.b 
110.9 
110.9 

no. 4 


115.9 

1IA.1 
116.9 
114, ft^ 

lll^l 

113. ^1 
113.^H 
11X^1 

iu.^^H 

111.1^1 


FebnuuT.. ...... ..«.—*—.. ^»... 


iuich,.„. :::..::.::.:.::::::.:..:::::. .::.::::.:.:;:::;::;::::,:.::;::; 


r::::::::::::::::"::::::::;::-::":::::::::;:::;::-:::::::::::;::: 


i^ ,-,..».. 

Au^at , , 


Bryumbttr - , - 


ly October .........,,,.,, 


H SonucNr , 


■ Etanrater ? 






1 Avrngr.wa . .. , ,, 


U3L7 


11L5 


113.0 


1 ieo4« 


■ Jammrf .....,, , 


121.8 


111. 1 
113.2 
113.5 

112.3 
111.0 
111.5 
110.7 

iiai 

110.3 
110.5 

lias 

1U.5 


113.3 
U14 
1110 
1110 
11X3 
112.9 
112 
IIZU 
J12.0 


^B '^'^iraft'rT ,..,... 


123.6 
123.2 
121.1 
119.7 
118.6 

117. S 

118. T 
119.) 
117 3 
13Dl7 
122.1 


■ MMch .11 . ... 

■ Anrll..... ,..., I 


■ mS^ I.I I I.,.l 




^L d^v 


^^Hwnnrt 


^^Hc^ — — 


^^^^^^^^^^ 


^^BaB^B^C 


■ Avrrace. 1904 


119.7 


111.3 


"M^l 


W 1905. 

'(uunrr..... 


12X0 
1311 
122.0 
119.0 
LI8.3 
117.4 
118.4 
118 4 
119. G 
133.1 


111.9 
113.1 
113.1 

nil 

112.S 
IU.3 
lis. 3 
119.4 
110. 
110.0 
117.S 


1110 
115.3 
1119 
1110 
113.0 

nil 

1113 
116.0 
116.7 
1176 
118.7 
119.8 


Fttoniarr... „ 

lUnh... 


AnrU. 


mS^v::: :::::! "I ::: 


jcai......: I !..:.:i..i...:i,;i.;::: 


/air « 

Aq^t _ 


^ ^tfpVcmlivr , ., , . 




■ ISSSfev::::::::::::::::;:::::::;:::;;;:::::;:::::;::::;!;::;;^^^^ 




130.3 1 118.2 




12L2 


1116 


115^9 


H Jtawtry. . . . . 


• 125 5 

• 1314 

• 133.0 

• 1317 

• 123.6 

• 1319 

• 1219 


119.7 
120.3 
130.6 

laoii 

120.0 
130.9 
121. h 


• 130.8 

• 131. 1 

■ 121 1 

• 131.0 

• 131.2 

• 131 6 

• 122.1 

• 122.3 

• 122.0 

• 123.5 

• 125.7 

■ 127.0 






iS?*:v;::::-::i::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;:::- 




■ Juir 




• 135. 4 12L & 


^m Hrirlrrnhvr , 


• tao.3 
•i3a4 

• 133.4 

• 138. Q 


121.8 
122.4 
1211 
125.0 


■ (iptober *.„..> ....*....... 

^L ^iurmhAr, .....,, ..,.,... , 




1907. 

r^bruKfT........................... ....I*................... 




• IX. 5 121.0 


■ 122.5 


tM7 

iao.1 
iac.3 

133.9 

136.0 
ian.9 
1M.2 
132 3 

133. N 

iHa 
1381 
1313 

1?? 4 


13A.2 
137.3 
127.8 
138.0 
138.0 
128..'. 
139.4 
129.7 
13U.3 
130.3 
129 I 
127 


19»»0^^ 

llg 

130. IH 

130. R 

131. U 
12119^ 

laiL^H 


MMch. 


i^ ■"-: :::-::•::•::::•::-::::::::;::::::;::::: 


Jmvi . •,»... 


JQIT — " 

Auinrt . . « 

e^otMnber.. 








"fl 








tnt.^^^H 



S04 



BULLETIN OW TUB BrBEAlT OP LABOB. 



I 



I 



g 





t . r- * - tr 




§ _.„.^. V 




3^jj j^ v^ 




1 ^ ^ 




„4:4-^-5 




5 ::n \....... 








T > vT 








§5j- J- -^^ ^■"•. 


1 


T y \ 


2 


! <r'' ^ 


ft 


'^ i- Iv 


8 

a. 


,5 5 t 


1 


^1 T X''^^^*' J 


< 


^^ V 




^ It? ^_J 




1 I ^L S 




^i ^Lx^ ) 




'i^'i "tl 




^ "" rJ 1) T 




-? ~~"f? j) 




^! LS- \ 




,1 1 5 \ 







rwcEs, vm TO iMT. 



305 



The raw contmoditie* reacbrd Uw" lowest Averap.' fur theeo yoArs i n 

FcbnMnr, 1902, aad the Yu^teai in Jane, 1907; manufactured com^| 



tfatt kiweal in January, I9(>2, an<l the hiohest in 
September, 1907. The ar«rage fur raw c()innicwJitio.s ranged from 16.2 
pef rent to 36.9 per rent abore the Kase pnrc, while the avcrajre for 
Dkanufartured commodities rangeil from H.7 per cent to 30.3 per rrn 
tSMnc iho b&s« price 

The r^MUSG of prices of raw anil inauiJacturcil coxuniiHlitips fn 
IIM"? ^ w-.- : 1 ,,j^j^ |yj jjj^ prapliic tabic on pa^e 3U4. 

^ i»con iiukIo ill any way to iuvi^ti^ato tlie raus 

ol tiu* rise and tail of prices. The aim lias boeu Lo give the pm 
» ikey actually prevailcvt in the market. The rausca are Un> com- 
p)ax, the relative influence of each t(M> uncertain, in souio eorvorf in- 
Toiring too many eronooiic questions, to permit their ilinniminn in 
nWBectioa with the present article. It will be isufiiripnt to enumer* 
ale aoHke ol the influences Uuit cau^ chants in prices. Such in- 
fiuoioefi include variations in harvest, which not only restrict 
incneiTi tlie anpplj and ri>nse<juently tend to uicrensc or decrease tl 
IDoe of a commodity r Lut also restrict or increase, to a greater or Icns 
Httee^ iLe poichnatng power of such conununitie:^ a;:* arc (icp<?n«Jeiift 
^l^bole or in part upon such couimmiity; chintzes in demand cUie to 
changes in fashions, s<.*asons, etc. ; logisiution altering ijiterual-revenu 
taxes, import duties, or boimties; iu&pecUon aji« to purity or aihilteriw 
lion; u^ of other articles as substitutes — as, for instance, on ad 
ranee in the price of beef will cause an increabetl con.'suinptinn of poric 
bd mullon and, it ma}"* be added, a probable increa^ie in tlu' price o 
^.K •• -V: and mutton; improvements iu methods of productior 
»1. lend eitlier to give a better article for the same price or an 

equal article for a lower price; cheapenLD^* of transportation or hand* 
I&Dg; spccidative manipulation of the supply or of the ruw proiliict} 
commercial panic or ilepressiou; oveq>roduction; imuMUut tlcniand 
owing lo stcaily employment of consumers; short, supply (twirtt; t*^' 
Jisputea between labor and capital in industriea of liiuited proditcii 
eapacily, iw< in the anthracite coal industry in 1002; or]^iu\i>Mition o 
comliinalinn of mills or producers* thus enablin;;, on tl\c one hiuul, 
greater or less control of prices or, on the olluT liand, ccunouiien i 
production or in transportation charges tlirough the ability tu auppi 
the article froui the point of production or manufat ture neareat thn 
purcbaaer. So far as indi\'idual comnuHUtic^ are concerned, no ron- 
clttakm can safely he formed as to causes without an examination 
the possible influence of .several — in some cases, |>erha|M, all of i\u 
r«t8e& ¥or example, the various internal-revenue and taritl' ai 
Imve, iu a nu&rke<i de^rre,. no doubt afToctcHl the prices of proof Apirii 
of tobacco, and of su^ur. Rut, on the other hand, they have not be 



800 



BULLETIK OF THB BUBEAU OP UOIOU. 



alone in their influ(^nof*s, and it prohahly wotiM not in all axiics be 
a^'curate to give tho clinugo of tax or duty as representing tlie measuro 
of a certain and definite inflnenc-c on the pne<^ of those com rno<ii ties. 

I EXPIJINATION OF TABLES. 

The general statiHticnl tables of this report arc five in number, 
entitled as follows: 

I.— Wholesale prices of eommoditics in 1007. 

IT.— Monthly actual and roJalive prices of cominoditiei?* in 1007 and 
base prices (avern^c for ISUO-I899). 

III. — Monthly rcluuve prices of conimoditios in 1907. 

IV. — Average yearly actual and relative prices of commoditie«, 
1890 tt» 1007, and base prices (average for 1S90-IS90). 

v. — Yearly relative prices of commodities, 1800-1907. 

Tabh /. — WholfsaU prices of commodities in J 907, ^HHjes 3^7 to 3B5,— 
Tliis table shows in detail tho actual prices in 1907, a« obtained for the 
jioveral connnoilities onibrjic^Ml by this report. There \a not ?;pace 
within a bulletin article to republish in full iho actual prices for alt 
cominoilities from IH90 down to 1 000. Such prices may be found, 
h<>wcver, in the preceding March Bulletins of this Bureau, sm follows: 

Prices from IHOO to 1901 in Bulletin No. 39. 

Prices for 1002 in Bulletin No. 45. 

Prices for 1003 in Bidietin No. 51. 

Prices for 1004 in Bulletin No. 57. 

Prices for lOO:) in Bulletin No. 63. 

Pric^.s for I00(» in Bulletin No, 69. 

It is important that the greatest care be exercised in the choice of 
commodities in onler that a simple average of their relative prices 
Hliftll show ft general |»rice level. In tho present compilation 258 com- 
modities are shown, and it has been the aim of the Bureau to select 
i»idy important aud n»presentative articles in ea<'h group. The num- 
ber of articles included is larger than has heretofore be<'n used in simi- 
hir compilaliony, willi one exception. The use of a largo numlwr of 
articles, carefully selected, minimizes the elTect on the general price 
level of an unu.sual change in the price of any one article or of a few 
articles. It wilt be seen that nuirc than one series of pric<?s have been 
given in the cose of articles of great importance. This has been done 
for the puri)08e of giving due weight to tluvsc important commodities, 
no other mct!u>d of accomplishing this Iiaving been found satisfactory 
l»y the Bureau, '["he same means have been emiiloyed by Mr. Sauer- 
beck in his English prices, as explained in Bulletin No. 30, and tho 
approximate accuracy of the same, a,s an indi<-ation of the variation 
i»f prices, haa been proved by various tests based on the amov"' 
production, etc. 



I 



WHOLESALK JTHCES, 1890 TO 1007. 



'arioiis metliods of weu^htin^ have beeu attempted in coiinpotion 
vith compilations of relative prices. One inetho<l employed by Eure- 
ka statisticians is to measure the importance of each commoflity by 
fits annual consumption by the entire nation, the annual consumption 
[T>ein^ found by adding to the home protluction the amovmt imported 
band subtracting the amount exported. The method emphiyed by the 
Bureau of Labor in its publication of Retail Prices of Food in the 
Eighteenth Annual R(?port and in Bulletin Xos. 59, (35, and 71, con- 
dsted in giving to the various articles of food an importance based 
in their average consumption in normal families, ^n^ile it was 
rible to determine the relative importance as far as the consump- 
tion of food is concerned, there are, of course, many commodities 
k whose importance can not be measured by this method. The impos- 
sibility of securing even approximately accurate figures for annual con- 
Biuiiption in the United States of the commodities included in this 
compilation renders this method unavailable for the Bureau. 

It has been thought best in tlie present series of index numbers, 
lafter a careful consi<leration of all methods of weighting, simply to 
[use a large numl>er of representative staple articles, selecting them in 
tuch a manner as to make them, to a large extent, weight themselves. 
[Upon a casual examinuti<»n it may seem that by this method a com- 
paratively unimportant commodity — such, for instance, as tea — has 
been given the same weight or importance as one of the more impor- 
tant commodities, such as wheat. A closer examination, however, 
^discloses the fact that tea enters into no other commodity imder con- 
dderation, while wheat is not only quoted as the raw material, but 
enters into the two descriptions of wheat flour, the two descriptions 
►f crackers, and the tlu-eo descriptions of loaf bread. 
In securing those prices an effort has been made to include staple 
'commodities only. In a number of instances it was found |>ossibIe 
,lo continue prices for the same commotUties that were included in the 
lei>ort on Wliolesale Prices, Wages, and Transportation, submitted 
by Mr. Aldrich from the Senate Committee on Finance, March 3, 1S93. 
Many articles which were included in that report are no longer manu- 
i/actured, or, if still manufactured, have ceased to be important 
factors in the market. On the other hand, a number of articles not 
^shown in that re])ort have become of such importance as to render 
;necessary their inclusion in any study of the course of prices. 

Although in the case of commo<lities of great importance more than 
[one serio-s of quotations have been use<l, in no case has an article of a 
[^particular description been represented by more than one series of 
quotations. For this reason the terms "series of quotations" and 
'*commodities" have been used interchangeably in this report. 
In the record of prices for the eighteen years from 1890 to 1907, 
series of quotnijons have been secured for the eulit« \)et\*ad ^"qA. 



i 



I 

4 



^24S 



JSmSMglV OF THE BUBEAP OF UiBOB. 



I 



au mldilionul 13 fur sonio [}ortion of the period.- No quoiiUioas oro 
shown for importf^<i tiu ]>late sinr^ 1898, no quotatious for Anhtoa'a 
ijMiX since HM>3. anii no quottitions ore sluiwn for Beaver <*verr:ofttLii^ 
^mve iyO(), wldch leaves li.>8 serirs uf i|uotution8 for t.be year 1907. 

Material cUau^s in the <l«scripti<^n of 3 artirWa were mtule in \W2, 
of 2 articles iu HW3, u£ 1 artirk" in 190-t, uf 5 ariides in 1^05. uf 7 
articlt-y in lyut), an<l i>f 3 articli?s in 1907. For 6 of thaae nrticiee* the 
Lrad^ journals uu lonj^r supply satisfactory quotations, the iniuiu- 
farturo of th^ parti' - of S previously quotoil lias been iJ 

contiauevl by llie ' uta heretofore furnis^in^ qtiotatioi 

aini fur 7 articles the substitutetl tleecriptioaa more nearly represent 
the present ilemancis of the trade. 

Jn making these Hubstitutione, with two exreptionci in women' 
<lrrs.^ p.HHk, articles were supplied comspoading m d^aely as po^ible 
to thoHo which wore previoufily used. 

The j>ricos (^uotetl iu every instance are wholcHale prices. Whol*^ 
sale prices have inraxiably been used in compilationn which have beiMi 
made for the purpos** of >luiwin^ chaj»p':s in ;' ' i -* level 

all commodities. They are more sensitive tli aid moi 

quickly reflect changes in comlitions. Retail pricx^ usually follow 
.1^ wluiLesale. but nut generally in the same proportion. The mi 
Kntweeu them in the cai^ of some commodities is so ^i^reat that si 
fjBHilBM in the wholesale price do not affect the retail price. Chi 
fn th^ wholewale price, which last for a short, time oidy, ilo not nauall^ 
r(*i<>ijlt iu corresponding chants in the retaiJ price. 

The net cash prices are shown for textiles anrl all articles whoae list 
prices are suljject to larjje and varvin*; discounts. In the case of 
number *tf articles, such as white pine, nails, etc., h*)wever, wh< 
prices are subject to a small discount for cosh^ no deduction hns been 
made. 

The prices have been collected from the besi. available sources, sue! 
as standard trade journal.^, officials of i>oards of trade, chambers of 
commerce, and produce exchan^o^^ and leoilin^ mnnufftetitrcfs or 
their selling agents. 

The prices quoted are ustmlly the prices iu tlie New York market, 
except for such articles as have their primary* market in some other 
locahty. For graini*, live stix-k, etc.. (or example, Chicairo pri<*es are 
quoted; for fisli, except salmon. Boston priren; for tar, Wilmingioa, 
N. C, prices; for Kljjin creamery bt:" ■ !' rin. 111., prices, etc. Thoj 
prices for textiles are the price* la rul distributing markets 

Wich a« New York. Itost<tn. and Philadelphia; ami where no mark* 
is mentioned in the prefatory note to Table I it shoidil be undenstoofF 
that the prices art? for the pmeral market. 

Tlie fnlli.winir loblt? shows the ditTeient markets and the nimibcvr ol 
iirdrlsti quoUHi for each market: 



Mia 



WHOLESALB PRICES, 1890 TO 1907. 



309 



xnuKa or oohmoditiks oe series of quotations tx iso;. ctossiriED by 

IfABEETS FOR WHICH SKCURED. 



ll*<iM. 



!(^ Yovfc. 



Fann 



Vooil. 



Lum- 






"•T-nji^y 



t«v- ing. 



KDBnU. 



txa 



4 ^1 



FllUbttlX. . . 






BtfK.IU 

LftAyie. UL 

PnriiklU 

.v,c.. 






DDOuaJ 



n 



:q 



75 



13 



r f 



as 



I 



As nguds the (iescription of the commodilT, ii should be stated 
tfafti the ^reat^^st care lias \ioen taken to secure prices througliout the 
pmod from 1890 to 1907 for a comniodity of precisely the same 
description. Changes in quality are, of course, reflected in prices, 
and for this reason note has heen made of any important changes 
wliich have occurred. In the ca89 of certain coinm»Klilies, such as 
batter, c^gSj etc., prices for the best quality hare been taken in 
order to avoid frequent changes in grade. It should alsi) be stated 
in this connection that in the case of commodities for which prices 
were secured from the Oil, Paint, and Dru^ Reporter the lowest 
quotations w<^re taken wliere a range of prices was found. liecaTUH^ 
the fact that, in that publication, these represent the prices of 
lots, while the liigh quotations represent the prices of smaller 

Weekly quotations have been seetcred in tlie case of all articles 
which are sub)ecl to frequent fluctuations in price, such as butter, 
dieesef t^STZs, grain, live stt>ck, meats, etc. In the case of articles 
whose prices are more stable, monthly or annual quotations have 
hf«n taken. The following table shows the number of series of 
weekly, monthly, and annual price quotations; 

KH or COMMOPITIFS OR SFRIFS or QTOTATIONS, CLASSIFIED AS TO TUBIR 
KREQrKNCr OF QCOTATIOX IN lOOT. 




of (tootailnn. 



Karm 
prod- 



I ) 

CUiIhK: Ft«a 
Fr>^<^. »ni| j»n«i 

ttc. clotJi- LfibU 



.'ll5T^S'isf" 



itng raft- 



ft ( ^'^ 



810 



BULLETIN OF THE BCREAU OK LABOR, 



The character of each si*ms of quotatious as regards frequency ia 
fihown in all ca.ws in Tahle I in n prefatiirj' nole which states fully the 
(lutp (»f the quotations and, if weekly, wliether the quotations are for 
some jmrlicular *iay ut the week, t!ie average for the week, *)r the rnnj^e 
for the. week. The majority of the weekly (|Uotations ahow the price 
on Tuesday, and if for any reason Tuesday's ])rice was not ohtidnaMo 
the first price in the week has been taken. The quotations from trade 
and other journals, when credited to the first of each month, are not 
in all instances the price for the exact <lay stftted. as it is a common 
practice of the daily papera which make a specialty of market reportH 
to devote certain days to the review of the market of certain articles. 
For example, the Boston Herald (|Uotes dsh an Saturday only. Tlio 
prices are, however, the earliest, ]»rioes quoted in llie journal to wliich 
the article is credited. It shouUl also he stated that the monthly 
prices credited to weekly puhlications are the earhest quotations 
shown in such puhUcations for eacli month. 

The weight of a loaf of hread ia, in some localities, re^lat-ed by 
statute, while in many others the price per loaf is not affected hy 
changes in the price of Hour, yet the weight of the loaf is changeil 
from time to time. During 1904, with tlie advance in the price of 
flour, the weight of the loaf was decreased in some localities. For tliia 
rctis<»n tlic relative prices of bread are c<impute«l on the price per 
pound and not per loaf. Table I shows the price per loaf, the price 
per pound, and the weight each month durir»g 1907. 

The average jirice for the year was obtained by dividing the sum of 
the quotatitms for a given commodity by the number of quotations 
shown. For example, the sum of the Tuesday's prices of cotton for 
1907 (shown in Table I) was $6. 2960, and the number nf quotations 5;$. 
The former figiin? divided by the latter gives $0.11879 as the average 
price for the year. Where a range was shown the mean j)rice for each 
date WU5 found, and this was use^i in computing the yearly average 
as above described. The reader will un<lerstand that, in order to 
secure for any comintnlity a strictly srientiftc average price for the 
year, one must know the quantity marketed and the price for wliich 
each unit of quantity was sold. It is manifestly inq)08siblc to secure 
such detail, and even wore it possible the labor involved in the com- 
pilation would iunko this mcih<jd proliibiiive. It i.^ lielicve.d that the 
luethoil adopted here, wliich is also that used in the constmction of 
othpr index numbers, s^'cures re^idts whicli are qtiite as valuable for 
nil prartical purposes. 

(Jwing to the unusual inelhtKl of fixing the scale of prices of cut 

an<l wire nails and the diHiculties cnc(»untcred in securing satisfnctory 

quotations of prices, It was thought be^t to enter into a somewhat 

lengthy explanation in Bulietiu No. 39.. and the reader is referred to 

pMgea22e to 231 of that nnm))er. 



WHOLESALE PRICES, 1800 TO VJO'. 



311 



The base prices of nails are the prices quoted by the trade, and 

wliilc ihey could not he used, for reasons ex])lained in Bulletin No, 

19, in computing n^iative prices, they form the basis from wluch aro 

Iculated the actual prices for 8-penny nails, as jriven in Table I, and 

^reforo the base prices of both cut and wire nails during 1907 are 

iren in the following tables: 

NAILS: cvr. n \<K sr/Es. 
piv ]OD-|Kiand k>%, L o. \>, PitUbarK, on tbe Ur.it ^<t ■ ^cli tnonth; quotAtioiu from thj Iiun Ago.) 



W 



f MontlL 


1^1 


Month. 


Trie*. 


Month. 


Pries. 


Month. 


Price. 




CL06 
3.06 
3106 


iii 


13.06 

2.06 

2.06 


July 

August 

Bcptcmher. . 


S2.06 
ZIO 

ii5 


Octobw.... 
Sovmnbpr., 

DeoBiulwr.., 

Aw«g«.^ 


S2.10 

9