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Full text of "Bulletin, Gulf Biologic Station"

A^2' /iit c^^^yk^L^.^' ^^ 



SECOND REPORT 



OF THE 



Gulf Biologic Station 



J 903. ^ 



BULLETIN No. 2. 

ISSUED MAY, J904. 



Issued by the Louisiana State Board of Agriculture 
AND Immigration, ' 

J. G. Lee, Commissioner. 



■^ 



;^ 



new orleans' 

American Printing Co., Ltd. 

I')a4. 



SECOND REPORT 



GULF BIOLOGIC STATION 



1903. 



BULLETIN No. 2, 

ISSUED MAY, 1904. 



Issued by the Louisiana State Board of Agriculture and 
^ Immigration, 

J. G. Lee, Commissioner, 



new orleans- 

American Printing Co., Ltd. 

1904. 



GULF BIOLOGIC STATION, 

Cameron, La., (Mouth of Calcasieu Pass). 



BOARD OF CONTROL. 

W. W. Heard, President ; Governor of Louisiana. 
B. C. Caldwell, Vice-President ; President of the State Nor- 
maL 

J. V. Calhoun, State Superintendent of Education. 
J. G. Lee, Commissioner of Agriculture and Immigration. 
T. D. Boyd, President L. S. U. and A. and M. College. 
J. B. Aswell, President Louisiana Industrial Institute. 
E. L. Stephens, President S. W. Industrial Institute. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

J. G. Lee, Commissioner of Agriculture and Immigration. 

J. V. Calhoun, State Superintendent of Education. 

T. D. Boyd, President Louisiana State University. 

J. B. Aswell, President Louisiana State Industrial Institute. 

H. A. Morgan, Director of Gulf Biologic Station. 



OFFICERS. 



H. A. Morgan, Director of Gulf Biologic Station and Secretary 
of Board of Control. 

Frank Roberts, Treasurer. 



Gulf Biologic Station, 

Cameron, La. Office of the Director, 

Baton Rouge, La., May 2, 1904. 

His Excellency, Gov. W. W. Heard, President of the Board of 
Control of Gulf Biologic Station, Baton Rouge, La. : 

Sir — I beg to submit the Second Report of the Gulf Biologic 
Station. This report embraces the results of investigations con- 
ducted at the Station Laboratory during the summer of 1903. 
Very respectfully yours, 

H. A. Morgan. Director. 



Gulf Biologic Station, 

Cameron, La. Office of the Director, 

Baton Rouge, La., May 2, 1904. 

Letter of Transmittal. 

Hon. J. G. Lee, Commissioner of Agriculture and Immigration, 
Baton Rouge, La.: 
Sir — I herewith present to you the Second Report of the Gulf 
Biologic Station, and request that you publish it as Bulletin No. 2. 

Very respectfully, 

H. A. Morgan, Director. 



PREFATORY REMARKS. ^^"'K*-.- r.%K<Q? 

The organization of the Gulf Biologic Station and the erection "^ 
of the Laboratory were, of necessity, delayed on account of the 
limited appropriation made in 1900 and the difficulty in getting 
labor and building material to complete the work rapidly. The 
appropriation of 1902 and 1903 permitted the completion of the 
building and its equipment, and gave an opportunity to pursue 
investigations for which the Station was created. 

In July, 1903, the Station was formally opened and the Labora- 
tory dedicated by Governor W. W. Heard. 

Throughout the summer months of 1903 the investigations em- 
braced in this Report were made, and it is hoped that the future 
will provide ample opportunity for the completion of many of the 
studies begun with so much promise, and that the Station will 
add greatly to the scientific and economic development of the 
oyster and other interests of the coast of Louisiana. 

The present Report is divided into two parts : 

Part L The Conditions for Oyster Culture at Calcasieu Pass, 
by O. C. Glaser, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Part H. Preliminary Lists of the Fauna and Flora of the 
Gulf, with Notes. 

(i) Marine Fauna of Cameron, by O. C. Glaser, Johns Hop- 
kins University, Baltimore, Md. 

(2) A Preliminary Contribution to the Protozoan Fauna of the 
Gulf Biologic Station, with Notes on Rare Species, by J. C. 
Smith, New Orleans, La. 

(3) Report of the Flora in .the Vicinity of the Gulf Biologic 
Station, by R. S. Cocks, New Orleans, La. 

(4) A Contribution to the Entomology of the Region of the 
Gulf Biologic Station, by James S. Hine, University of Ohio, 
Columbus, O. 

(5) Notes on the Free-Swimming Copepods of the Waters in 
the Vicinity of the Gulf Biologic Station, by E. Foster, New Or- 
leans, La. 

(6) Report on the Condition of Bird Life as Noted at the Gulf 
Biologic Station, by H. H. Kopman, New Orleans, La. 



(7) Insects Injurious to Stock in the Vicinity of the Gulf 
Biologic Station, by James S. Hine, University of Ohio, Colum- 
bus, O. 

(8) Some Economic Considerations with Reference to the 
Tabanidae, by James S. Hine, University of Ohio, Columbus, O. 

The results of the investigations on the mosquitoes of the 
coast have been withheld in order to include them in an illus- 
trated bulletin on "The Mosquitoes of Louisiana," to be pub- 
lished shortly by Dr. J. W. Dupree and myself. 

Articles 7 and 8, by Prof. James S. Hine, are reprints from the 
Proceedings of the Economic Association of American Entomolo- 
gists, issued by the Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Ento- 
mology, 1904. 

For the summer of 1904 arrangements have been made with 
Dr. James L. Kellogg to continue the oyster investigations — with 
Dr. R. P. Cowles to assist Dr. Kellogg, and to continue investiga- 
tions of the marine fauna and flora of the Gulf. 

The National Department of Agriculture, through the Bureau 
of Entomology, has already requested- Prof. Hine to continue tHe 
Tabanid (horsefly) investigations. 

A number of other investigators have arranged to spend the 
summer at the Station, and to continue their studies, or pursue 
other lines of investigation. 



PART 



THE CONDITIONS FOR OYSTER CULTURE AT CAL- 
CASIEU PASS. 

By O. C. Glaser. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The following report is based on observations and experiments 
made at the Gulf Biologic Station of Louisiana during the sum- 
mer of 1903. It is a pleasure to acknowledge my indebtedness to 
Director H. A. Morgan for his kind and enthusiastic co-operation, 
and to Mr. Frank Roberts, Treasurer of the Station, for the liberal 
manner in which he met the expenditures connected with the 
work. I am also glad to acknowledge my obligations to Dr. 
Caswell Grave, Director of the United States Fish Commission 
Laboratory at Beaufort, for suggestions, and a knowledge of the 
methods used in the investigation of the problems connected with 
oyster culture. 

Calcasieu Pass, in Southwestern Louisiana, has throughout its 
length of seven miles from Lake Calcasieu to the Gulf a great 
number of natural oyster beds composed of thin, highly elongated 
shells. These beds during the summer of 1903 were beginning to 
recover from the great freshet of the preceding spring, but the 
surviving adults were so scattered that many problems had to 
remain unsolved. To some extent the scarcity of full-grown 
oysters was overcome by the "jetty oysters" growing on one of the 
great stone jetties which project for a mile from the mouth of 
the river outward into the Gulf. The oysters growing there could 
be collected at very low tides in considerable numbers ; and, being 
out of the main current of the river, were in very fair condition 
at a time when most of the oysters growing elsewhere in the 
neighborhood had succumbed. The oysters growing on the scat- 
tered reefs are of poor flavor, thin-shelled and very elongated as 
a result of overcrowding. In this respect they compare unfavora- 
bly with the "jetty oysters," which are well shapen, thick of shell, 
and have a very much better flavor. That two classes of oysters 
diflfering so markedly in important economic characters should 



10 



grow within a few hundred yards of one another is a very in- 
structive fact and shows how, local some of the influences are 
which determine their market values. 



PHYSICAL CONDITIONS. 

CONDITIONS IN CALCASIEU PASS. 

One of the physical factors of great importance from the point 
of view of the oyster grower is the character of the bottom. The 
bed of the Calcasieu River is composed of softj.blackjiiud. Along 
the banks of the river at low tide this mud is a menaceHio horses 
and cattle, which not infrequently become helplessly bogged. 
During the period when my observations were made, the water in 
the river was never clear, and after heavy rains or heavy blows it 
was often dark brown with flocculent suspended matter. The 
mud is probably never washed about in sufficient quantities to 
suffocate many of the oysters which happen to be living in the 
pass, but its constant presence has a deleterious effect on their 
flavor. How serious a matter it is, may be gathered from the 
great deposits of silt and loam which are formed on both sides of 
the east jetty since this was built m 1897. In the intervening 
period of six years about a quarter of a mile of land, now cov- 
ered with grass and shrubbery, has formed to the west of this 
jetty, and almost half a mile, still barren where it is washed by the 
Gulf during high tides and winds, has grown southward on the 
east side. 

Though the character of the bottom is very good on the two 
sand bars near the mouth of the pass, and is capable of artificial 
hardening where it is at its worst, a similar control cannot be 
exercised in the case of the water over these places. During the 
summer the conditions of salinity are very favorable. With Cal- 
casieu Lake and the Gulf to furnish fresh and salty water from 
the head and mouth of the pass respectively, an almost ideal con- 
dition obtains. Unfortunately this condition is subject to unfa- 
vorable fluctuations which may be expected to have serious con- 
sequences every spring when ''high water" in the river is the rule. 

During such times of high water the salinity in the pass falls, 
and last April it was zero in the river as well as in the Gulf 
near by. Freshets occur every spring, and in spite of the fact 
that the oyster is a brackish-water animal, endowed with a won- 
derful amount of adaptability to adverse circumstances, it is not 



able to withstand prolonged floods. The freshet of 1903 endured 
so long that the majority of the oysters in the pass were killed. 
Some of the deeper heds, however, have survived even this year's 
catastrophe to such an extent that they still yield about half a 
barrel of edible adults as the result of a hard day's tonging. 

The damage done by the last high water is well illustrated by 
counts made at various places. In St. John's Bayou, near the 
head of the pass (see map) three living adults were found among 
two hundred hinged shells ; one among one hundred hinged shells 
on reef No. i ; three among two hundred hinged shells on reef 
No. 2, and one among one hundred shells on reef No. 3. These 
iigures will give an idea of the destruction caused by the freshet 
in certain places, but they should not be taken to indicate that 
the proportion of living oysters to dead ones is the same every- 
where. In the case of St. John's Bayou, the count was made on 
those reefs in its mouth which are exposed at low tide. The 
counts for reefs i, 2 and 3, however, were made at places which 
could be conveniently reached with a pair of 12-foot tongs and 
give an accurate estimate of conditions only at that depth. At 
greater depths the proportion of living to dead is in all likelihood 
greater. This is not only rendered probable by an experiment 
to be described later, but is shown by the fact that tongers found 
it profitable last summer to work beds in from 16 to 20 feet of 
water. The explanation why a greate r proportion o f oysters has 
survived at these depths than aflesser ones is found in the rela- 
tion between the salinity of the water and its depth. Within cer- 
tain limits salinity increases with depth. At Calcasieu Pass, dif- 
ferences of .0005 to .0007 were detected between the salinity at 
the sfirface and that at six feet below, when the two were taken 
simultaneously. The higher densities at greater depths might 
be taken advantage of by the culturist, but the areas available 
over which a degree of salinity permitting survival even during 
great floods obtains, are either inconveniently located or too 
small. Were it not for these fluctuations, nothing could be more 
admirable for oyster cultivation than the average salinity of the 
water as shown by the records taken in July, August and Sep- 
tember. These measurements were made almost daily and on 
many occasions, a number of times daily, so that the averages in 
the following table are based on a large number of observations.* 



*For a fuU record of densities taken at different places under various conditions 
■of tide and wind, see Appendix A. 



12 



TABLE I. 



Average Density 
in Calcasieu Pass. 
Number of 
Month. Observations. Average. 

July 31 1.0084 

August 32 1.0074 

September 17 I-0I43 

Average for Summer i.oioo 



CONDITIONS ON THE WEST JETTY. 

The physical conditions along the west jetty are different 
from those which have been just described for the pass, and the 
oysters which grow under these two sets of circumstances differ 
as much as these do themselves. Whereas, the oysters in the 
pass are long, narrow, thin-shelled, and of poor flavor, those grow- 
ing on the jetty are isolated, well rounded and have a very good 
tcnste. These differences are due partly to the fact that the west 
jetty is out of the main channel of the river, which flows closely 
to the east jetty ; that the water as a general rule is more salt,, 
and never less so. than that in the river ; and, finally, that these 
oysters instead of growing in densely crowded clusters are at- 
tached to the rocks singly, and have every opportunity for normal 
development. 

As I shall try to show later on, something in the local conditions^ 
causing a "banking up" of the free swimming fry may account for 
the fact tJiat the oysters in the pass are crowded together, and if 
the explanation which I shall offer tentatively is the true one, the 
ocurrence on the west jetty of better but fewer oysters than else- 
where, is due in part to the fact that a smaller number of spat set- 
tle there. But this is not the only reason. The water is always as 
good as the best in the pass, and usually better, both as regards 
salinity and food contents. This is certainly the reason why in 
spite of the great hardships which all the oysters in Calcasieu 
Pass were forced to undergo early in the season, the "jetty oys- 
ters" not only survived in greater proportion than the others, but 
actually were fat and of good flavor. 



13 

BIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS. 

ENEMIES. 

The two important biological conditions which were considered 
were the enemies and the food of the oysters in the pass. As re- 
gards enemies, the Calcasieu oysters are well off. Star fishes do 
not occur ; the sheeps-head, although browsing among the jetty oys- 
ters, is not a serious menace ; boring sponges are absent, and bor- 
ing mussels and conchs are rare. 

The only enemy which was found in abundance, especially in the 
jetty oysters, was the parasitic trematode, Bucephalus ciiculus. 
This parasite, which has the form of a little worm with two long 
horns at one end, is microscopic in size, although the tubes in 
which it is formed can readily be seen with the naked eye. Buce- 
phalus is apparently harmless to man, but Mr. D. H. Tennent 
who has been at work on its life history at Beaufort, N. C, finds 
that it is extremely destructive to oysters. He has also discovered 
the second host of the parasite, for Bucephalus like the liver fluke, 
passes different periods of its life in different animals. The 
smallness of the parasite, its habits, and distributon, make the 
suggestion of any remedial measures premature.* 



The food conditions were very difficult to study, and no satis- 
factory results are deducible from the figures which have been 
obtained. There are two reasons for this failure; in the first 
place the natural economy of the pass and the Gulf was totally 
upset by the freshet, and those marine plants which serve as food 
for oysters were often unable to live and thrive in the water in 
which the oysters themselves barely held on to life ; in the second 
place, the only locality where oysters could be gotten with com- 
parative ease was on the west jetty where they were procurable at 
exceptionally low tides. These were not frequent enough to per- 
mit a regular examination of the oysters, and if they had been the 
results would have been vitiated by the fact that the examination 
would have been made always at the same stage of the tide. 

In the stomach contents of the jetty oysters almost always four 
species of edible diatoms, Pleurosigma spenceri, Eupodiscus radia- 
tus, Navicula didyma, and Coscinodiscus perforatiis, were found. 



*I am indebted to Mr. Tennent for kindly allowing me to refer to his as yet un- 
published notes. 



14 

Of these the smallest, Cascinodisais perforatiis was by far the 
most abundant and on all the occasions but one when the water 
in the pass was examined, this species was found to be more nu- 
merous than the others. A notable exception to this was one after- 
noon in September when the surface of the Gulf was almost cov- 
ered with a pure colony of Eupodiscus radiatus. This form was 
never seen in such quantities before or after ; neither was one 
highly nutritious diatom, Melosira punctata, ever found in the 
stomachs of the oysters after a preliminary examination made in 
April. These facts show how fluctuating food conditions were.* 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE NEW GROWTH. 

NUMBER OF SPAT CAUGHT. 

In place of the adult oysters exterminated by the freshet a prom- 
ising new growth has appeared which under favorable conditions 
will completely restock the old reefs. On July 9th in an exami- 
nation of reef No. i (see map) near the head of the pass 22 
young oysters were found on 100 shells. This number is what 
might have been expected ft-om the location of the bed in the least 
salt water of the pass. On September 22nd when a second count 
was made on this reef a great increase in the number of spat was 
found. At this time there were 156 young oysters attached to 100 
shells, 109 being on the inner surfaces, and 47 on the outer. Thus 
almost 70 per cent, of all the spat caught was attached to the inner 
and cleaner surfaces of the shells. 

On reef No. 2 (see map) one of the first of the two so-called 
"Sister Reefs," there were on July 9th, 57 young oysters on 100 
shells and on September 22nd 109, of which yy were on the inner 
surfaces, and 32 on the outer. Here almost 71 per cent, or about 
the same proportion as on reef No. i had settled on the cleaner 
surfaces of the shells. The total number found on September 22nd 
on reef No. 2 was less than on reef No. i in spite of the fact that 
the former is further down the pass than the latter. The expla- 
nation of this may be that such counts as can be made give only an 
approximate idea of the general conditions of a reef, but the dis- 
crepancy nevertheless illustrates a point of great importance — the 
absolute necessity of taking local circumstances into consideration 
in ovster culture. 



*A table of figures obtained from the examination of water and stomach contents 
may be found in Appendix B. 



IS 

Westward, and separated from its sister reef by only a narrow 
channel, is reef No. 3 which had on July 9th 62 young oysters on 
100 shells and on September 22nd 128, of which 90 were on the 
inner surfaces of the shells and 38 on the outer. Here again 70 
per cent, of the young oysters had settled on the cleaner surfaces. 




MAP 

SHOWING LOCATION OF THE NATURAL REEFS EXAMINED, AND OF 
THE PLANTINGS MADE. 

Two counts of the spat on the oyster reefs exposed at low tide 
in the mouth of St. John's Bayou, were made, one in July and an- 
other in September. In the former instance there were found on 
TOO shells 126 young oysters, of which 81 were attached to the in- 



16 

ner, and 45 to the outer surfaces. Here only 64 per cent, were 
attached to the inner surfaces. This percentage was somewhat 
lower than in the case of the other reefs and may find its explana- 
tion in the fact that these shells were almost "mudded up," so that 
there was less than the normal difference between their inner and 
outer surfaces. The count made in September in the same locality 
showed on 100 shells only 120 living young oysters of which 61 
per cent, were on the inner surfaces. Thus the total number of 
spat counted was smaller than earlier in the season. Even had it 
been equal to the former number, the second count would have 
shown, as compared with results from reefs i, 2, and 3, which 
were clean com.pared with those in the mouth of St. John's Bayou, 
the deleterious effects of mud, the constant and overwhelming 
presence of which not only reduces the surface available for the 
attachment of new spat, but kills that which has been unfortunate 
enough to settle within range of its deadly influence. 

Two observations on the number of spat caught on reef No. 4, 
the "Light-house reef," (see map) were made in August and 
September. In the former count 398 young oysters were found 
on 100 shells of which 300 or 75 per cent, were on the inner sur- 
faces and 98 on the outer. The count in September showed only 
349 young oysters on icx) shells, 249 of which were on the inner 
surfaces. This discrepancy between the two counts is due partly 
to the fact that a number of young oysters died during tne inter- 
vening period, and partly also to the fact that one end of reef No. 
4 runs almost up to high water mark whereas the other end extends 
outward into the deepest part of the river. Thus it is probable 
that the physical conditions between these two extremes may ac- 
count for the fact that more oysters were found at the first count 
than at the second as the former was taken farther from shore 
than the latter. 

RATE OF GROWTH. 

The rate of growth of the young oysters was determined by 
comparing the lengths of a chosen number at two different times. 
For this purpose 20 young oysters still attached to shells were 
selected, carefully measured, and marked to facilitate recognition. 
The distance from the tip of the umbo of the upper valve to the 
middle of the anterior edge of that valve was taken arbitrarily as 
the length. On August 27th the oysters selected had the lengths 
given in Table II and on September 27th one month later the pro- 
portions given in Table III. 



17 



Aug. 27. Sept. 27. Aug. 27. Sept. 27. 

Length cm. Length cm. Length cm. Length cm. 

1 1.7 2.3 II 2.4 3.2- 

2 2.1 3.3 12 2.4 3.2 

3 3-5 3-5 13 1-6 2.0 

4 3-3 4-1 14 4-5 47 

5 9 1-8 15 2.2 Z.2 

6 4.0 4.6 16 2.4 3.4 

7 31 3-6 17 1-8 3-0- 

8 3.6 4.1 18 2.5 3.4 

9 37 4-5 19 3-1 3-S 

10 1.7 2.6 20 4.4 0.1 

According to these observations the average increase in length 
in 30 days was .76 cm. If oysters grew at this rate in older stages 
they would reach a marketable size of 3.7 inches in a year, but as 
growth takes place more slowly with advancing age one year 
would be too short, though two years, with a favorable supply of 
food might well be long enough.* If this prove true Louisiana 
oysters under favorable conditions grow faster than those in 
northern waters, a fact which might be expected from the differ- 
ences in the rate of growth exhibited by northern reefs. Thus 
Moore (Manual of Fish Culture, P. 275) states that "in South 
Carolma oysters not more than 6 ox "j months old were found to 
have reached a length of 2^ inches, and in the warm sounds of 
North Carolina they reach a length of i^ inches in from 2 to 3 
months. In the coves and creeks of Chesapeake Bay they attain 
about the .^ame size by the end of the first season's active growth, 
and by the time they are two years old they measure from 2^ to 
2,}% inches long and from 2 to 3 inches wide. On the south side of 
Long Island the growth of the planted oysters is much more rapid 
than in Connecticut, it being stated that "two-year plants" set out 
in spring are ready for use in the following fall, while upon the 
Connecticut shore it would require 2 or 3 years to make the same 
growth. On the south side of Long Island, oysters i^ inches long 
in May have iticreased to 3 inches by November of the same year." 

These cbseivations on the new stock of the natural reefs give 
good groiir.c's for the hope that in two years from the date of th'* 

♦These observations were sugeested by the fact that a certain enthuslastif mem- 
ber of the State Oyster Commission had oo exhibition a five inch oyster said to be 
one year old. While my measurements do not show that such phenomenal growth 
may not take place under exceptional conditions, they do show that 5 inches of 
growth during the first year is not general. 



i8 

last freshet, provided another destructive one does not occur in 
the meantime, the leefs will be restocked sufficiently to make 
tonging as profitable as it ever was. 



CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH A "SET" MAY BE 
SECURED. 

In the language of oystermen a "set" is a collection of yomig 
oysters, or spat, attached in such quantities to the ""cultch," or 
material used to catch them, (shells, gravel, fagots, et?.) ar. jus- 
tihes the hope for a profitable yield even if the majoritv shouM die 
before rcachmg matui ity. The value of a set varies with the local 
conditions whicli determine the chances of survival. Tims two 
young oysters on a shell would be a set if they were certain to 
survive, whereas too on a shell if they were doomed to an early 
death, would not constitute a set worth having. Under favorable 
conditions f re m 15 to 20 }0ung oysters on a single shell is con- 
sidered a set. 

The conditions which determine whether a set shall be secured 
are not perfectly understood. It frequently happens that of two 
plantings of cultch made under what appears to be similar condi- 
tions, the one secures a set, and the other, even though it be only 
a short distance removed, may remain barren. Such occurrences 
are so frequent that intelligei>t oystermen usually withhold their 
opinions regarding the fitness of the locality until the desired set 
has been secured. Experience teaches that even then there is only 
a likelihood, not a certainty, that the same good fortune will repeat 
itself. 

In spite of the many uncertainties connected with the problem 
of securing a set a few conditions are a sine qua non, and where 
these obtain are certain to favor the culturist. Among these con- 
ditions are the presence of spawning oysters somewhere near 
clean cultch, and the existence of currents to transport the free 
swimming young to it. After this has been done, and the young 
oysters have metamorphosed and settled down for life, while no 
longer dependent on the currents for transportation, these never- 
theless still enter vitally into their lives. Being fastened to one 
spot, the oysters cannot prey upon their food, but this must be 
brought to them. The microscopic plants upon which they feed 
are washed about by the currents and are entrapped by the thous- 
ands of vibratile filaments on the gills of the oysters. Not only 



19 

are the oysters thus dependent on the currents for their food but 
also for air, and for the removal of waste products. 

The existence of currents fitted to perform all these functions is 
not within human control, but the presence of spawning oysters 
and suitable cultch, are controllable and such control is an imper- 
ative necessity wherever oyster beds are undergoing depletion at 
the hands of dredgers and tong men. 

Only in localities where the oyster beds have been almost ex- 
terminated, or where such beds have never existed, is it necessary 
to introduce adult spawners. In every locality, however, where 
the number of oysters fished annually exceeds the number that 
find room for attachment, there is an urgent need for cultch.' The 
most important attribute which such cultch should have is clean- 
ness. The importance of this is shown by the fact that 70 per cent, 
of the new growth in Calcasieu Pass is attached to the inner sur- 
faces of the old shells. A still clearer demonstration of the value 
of clean shells as spat collectors is given in the results of the 
following experiment : 

EXPERIMENT I. 

TO DETERMINE WHETHER A SET CAN BE SECURED IN CALCASIEU PASS 

On July 28th, two plantings each of 15 bushels of clean shells 
were made in the lower end of Calcasieu Pass south of the Light- 
house Reef (see map). Planting A was made in a ridge perpen- 
dicular to the current ; planting B. in a ridge parallel with the cur- 
rent. On Septernber ist, 100 shells were taken at random from 
each of these ridges and the living as well as the dead young oys- 
ters on both sides of the shells were counted. These counts are 
ofiven in Tables III and IV. 



20 



Spat Found on lOO Shells from Planting A. 

Living Spat Dead Spat 

Number of on Inner Outer on inner Outer 

Shell. Surfaces. Surfaces. Surfaces. Surfaces. 

1 43 5 27 14 

2 30 2 8 30 

3 4 2 153 19 

4 35 38 95 45 

5 10 23 121 149 

6---- 38 15 242 185 

7 17 27 33 5 

8 8 5 17 84 

9 22 I II 6 

10 8 

II 12 16 61 

12 

13 5934 

14 6 8 29 16 

15 106 50 36 16 

16 3 .. I 

17 10 . . 8 

18 15 7 19 4 

19 

20 5 

21 9 

22 2 

23 40 

24 28 

25 38 

26 2 

27 2 

28 

29 40 

30 6 

31 6 

32 14 

33 3 

34 

35 4 

36 8 

37 

38 10 

39 10 

40 



15 


24 
3 


II 


10 


3 


5 


21 


29 


5- 


2 


19 




18 


22 


35 


I 




I 


7 ■ 


4 


I 


16 




10 


2 


7 


II 


13 


12 
3 


6 


3 


55 


II 


14 




29 


5 


14 


42 


16 


4 


17 


3 


II 


8 


18 


26 


46 



21 



Living Spat 

Number of on Inner O 

Shell. Surfaces. Sur: 

41 28 

42 

43 5 

44 7 

45 3 

46 15 

47 4 

48 6 

49 2 

50 2 

51 17 

52 II 

53 I 

54 31 

55 H 

56 34 

57 14 

58 8 

59 

60 

61. 

62 

63 6 

64 17 

65 15 

66 63 

67 10 

68 55 

69 

70 

71 5 

72 

73 ^ 

74 15 

75 14 

76 9 

77 5 

78 II 

79 4 

80 3 

81 13 

S2 7 





Dead 


5pat 




uter 


on inner 


Outer 


iaces. 


Surfaces. 


Surfac 


:es. 




12 






24 


50 




15 


5 


3 




3 


6 


4 




3 


19 


41 

63 
I 




18 


9 


3 






5 


54 




3 


3 


10 




1 


5 


13 




7 


16 


202 




49 


2 


76- 




8 


17 


91 




13 




I 




2 



5 


10 


21 


20 


30 


II 


7 


49 


12 


2 


94 
14 


• • 


6 


44 

I 


9 


15 


4 


6 


20 


10 


4 




9 


4 


8 


32 


28 


9 


45 


3 


5 


21 


20 


6 


2 


3 


I 


3 


27 


23 


II 


27 


6 


4 


7 


14 


51 


32 



Living- Spat Dead Spat 

Number of on Inner Outer on inner Outer 

Shell. Surfaces. Surfaces. Surfaces. Surfaces. 

83 

84 12 II 25 45 

85 8 .. 12 

86 4 7 10 3 

^7 3 5 •• 4 

88 12 30 38 52 

89 5 19 • I 7 

90 20 12 105 91 

91 42 20 127 12 

92 II .. 14 

93 4 2 55 

94 9 II 112 6 

95- ■ • • ■ 19 17 122 20 

96 9 10 123 5 

97 29 . . 22 

98 12 7 38 40 

99 14 4 272 240 

100 



Total 1,256 792 4,929 1,740 



Spat Found on 100 Shells from Planting B. 

Living Spat Dead Spat 

Number of on Liner Outer on inner Outer 

Shell. Surfaces. Surfaces. Surfaces. Surfaces.. 

1 52 5 31 4 

- 60 4 5 .. 

3 2>2 3 6 3 

4 39 4 35 54 

5 28 25 . 43 2: 



33 9 9 I 



/ 26 12 10 3, 



30 43 



9 10 I II 20 

10 9 13 13 4 

II 9 6 7 ir 

12 27 4 

13 17 I 59 10 

14 18 24 45 16 

15 25 4 38 3 

i^ • 3 6- 



23 



Living Spat 
Number of on Inner Outer 

Shell. Surfaces. Surfaces. 

17 21 2 

18 II 8 

19 8 23 

20 7 29 

21 29 

22 6 

23 I 

2A--... 

25 

26 I I 

27 43 

28 1 2 

29 II 

30 

31 6 

32 16 I 

33 21 

34 29 29 

ZS 17 92 

36 9 5 

37 31 40 

38 

39 3 

40 3 

41 10 24 

42 6 

43 9 9 

44 14 19 

45 3 I 

46 I 7 

47 7 41 

48 31 . 20 

49 43 5 

50 4 7 

51 

52 5 6 

53 II 16 

5^ 32 I 

55----' 

56 

57 2 

58 6 

59 r 2 

60 38 38 



Dead Spat 

on inner Outer 

Surfaces. Surfaces. 



23 
II 
36 
18 

3 



72> 

2 

3 
10 



Z7 

5 

52 

2 



47 
3 

24 
4 

15 

4 

12 



104 



14 

4 
28 
14 



8 
\ 
I 

12 
2 

"(> 
6 
2 

10 



28 
10 

5 

5 

19 

4 
2 

2- 

21 



24 



JMumber of 
Shell. 

61 

62 

63 

64 

65 

66 

67 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

82 

83 

84 

85 

86 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

lOO 

Total. 



Living Spat 

on Inner Outer 
Surfaces. Surfaces. 



3 
24 

43 

54 
9 
9 

5 
8 

1 

25 
10 

21 

I 
55 



13 
42 

25 



12 

25 

5 

24 

14 
35 
21 

2 

38 
67 

25 

52 
41 
60 

45 
3 



29 

66 

2 

5 

71 

7 

8 

20 



43 



15 
15 
6 
2 
38 
4 
5 

14 

2 
3 



45 
60 
58 
12 



Dead Spat 

on inner 

Surfaces. 

7 
28 

78 
5 
2 

50 



3 

II 

36 

I 
8 



5 
23 
29 
18 

15 
22 

56 

3 
13 
^Z 

7 
64 

2 
33 



Outer 
Surfaces. 



31 
3 

43 
3 
I 



14 

3 

12 

36 
8 

7 



5 
33 

9 
6 



1,660 



1,227 



1,424 



652 



. 25 

Thus 6977 young oysters were caught on 100 shells of the 
ridge perpendicular to the current, and 4963 on 100 shells of the 
ridge parallel to the current. 

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS. 

The number of spat caught in this experiment is certainly very 
remarkable as it is usually considered that from 10 to 20 young 
oysters on a single shell is a set. In the present instance there was 
an average of 49 young oysters encrusted on each of 100 shells 
from the ridge parallel with the current, and 69 on each of 100 
shells on the ridge- perpendicular to the current. The result is all 
the more remarkable when it is considered that in the year during 
which it was secured the majority of the oysters in the Pass were 
killed by a freshet. As a matter of fact more spat were caught 
than could live, as the high death rate shows. 

It is somewhat difficult to account for the size of the two sets, 
but there are a number of considerations which together make a 
plausible explanation. In the first place not all the oysters in the 
pass were killed by the freshet and those which survived though 
scattered singly here and there and especially in the deeper portions 
of the river, must in the aggregate have made up a considerable 
number. In the second place the nature of the currents in the 
river is most peculiar and may have had a very important influence 
on the result. 

The work of currents, already emphasized in connection with 
the transportation of spawn and food, is very important in the 
process of spawning itself, as it insures the thorough mixing of 
the sexual elements discharged freely into the water by the adult 
oysters. In Calcasieu Pass as in the mouth of every river that 
opens into a tidal basin, complex currents due to wind, river, and 
tide, occur and it may appear almost commonplace to lay much 
emphasis on these three factors. However, in this locality, the 
wind, when sufficiently strong, controls the direction of flow even 
when opposed by the tidal and river currents. This circumstance, 
traceable to the physical geography of the region, gives rise to 
most anomalous irregularities, and as these seem to me to be im- 
portant, not only as they affect fertilization and the transportation 
of spawn and food, but in another connection, as yet not empha- 
sized by oyster culturists. I shall tabulate the various conditions 
which were observed. 



26 

FLOOD TIDE. 

(A.) Flood Tide with no Wind. — In this case the tide has 
merely to overcome the descending river current. During the 
early part of the flood tide the tidal current on the bottom of the 
river goes up and the river current on the surface goes down. As 
the strength of the tidal current increases the river current grows 
weaker and weaker and is finally overcome and obliterated. 

{B.) Flood Tide zvith Southerly Wind. — This combination 
results in a very high "tide." The salt water coming in from the 
Gulf creeps along the bottom of the pass while the downward cur- 
rent of the river is retarded, or even reversed by the wind. If the 
wind is sufficiently strong and continues long enough the "tide" 
may rise for a much longer time than is theoretically normal. 

(C.) Flood Tide zvith Northerly Wind. — When this condition 
obtains the upper river current is very strong depending on the 
strength of the wind, and the actual rise of the tide is lessened. 
Indeed if the wind is very strong the tidal current may be unable 
to overcome the combined efforts of river and wind currents and 
the tide mav fail to rise, or mav even fall. 



EBB TIDE. 

{A.) Ebb Tide zvithout PVind. — Under these circumstances a 
strong current, compounded of a receding tidal current and the 
river current, flows down the pass into the gulf. 

[B.) Ebb Tide zvith Northerly Wind.—li at the time of ebb 
tide a strong northerly wind is blowing an irresistible current flows 
into the Gulf. Not only is it impossible to row against it, but on 
many occasions the headway of the water driven by tide, river, 
and wind, is so great, that the "tide" may fail to rise for several 
days. 

(C.) Ebb Tide zvith Southerly Wind.—li the ebb tide meets 
with a head wind the current due to the receding tide and river 
currents strives for mastery over one driven in the opposite di- 
rection by the wind. Ordinarily the 'tide falls slightly but if the 
wind current is sufficiently strong this may overcome both the 
tidal and river currents, and the tide may rise when theoreticallv 
it ought to fall. Under the influence of strong southerly winds 
the tide may rise for a day. 

What is known as the "tide" in Calcasieu Pass is therefore 
very complicated, and of the three factors which determine it, the 



v/ind often is the most important. This preeminence in deter- 
mining the direction of the flow in the mouth of the Calcasieu river, 
is due partly to the strength of the winds there prevailing, and 
partly to the physical geography of the region. Calcasieu Pass 
connects two l^rge bodies of shallow water, Calcasieu Lake and 
the Gulf of Mexico. . In Lake Calcasieu the average depth is 12 
feet. The Gulf near the pass is also very shallow for about half 
a mile from shore and it is necessary to go out three miles to draw 
27 feet. The hold of the wind on such shallow water is very great 
and the currents which it produces gain such momentum as they 
are forced through the narrow pass from one end to the other that 
they are able frequently to obliterate the combined effects of the 
river and tidal currents. 

But the direction of the wind is unsteady, and though it prevails 
in different directions at different times of the year, during the 
present summer there were several shifts often on the same day. 
These changes of direction do not appear on the records of the 
Weather Bureau because the wind is recorded but once daily at 
six o'clock. But this makes no difference to the wind ; its effects 
are not lessened, and may in determining the size of a set be very 
great. The frequent shifts and their ability to change the direc- 
tion of the flow in the pass so that the "tide" rises when it is ex- 
pected to fall, or falls when it is expected to rise, or rises for a 
brief time and then falls again, or vice versa, prevent the free 
swimming young oysters from escaping periodically into the Gulf. 
Indeed conditions often conspire to hold the free swimming larvae 
in the pass and at such times suitable cultch is certain to secure 
a set.* 

Two other results of this experiment deserve mention. The 
value of clean shells as spat collectors is proven beyond doubt.' 
This fact is by no means new but its importance is not always 
recognized in localities wher;e oyster culture is not practiced. A 
comparison of the new growth of the natural reefs and the spat 
on the shells of the experimental ridges brings out in striking con- 
trast the difference between old shells and clean cultch. The shells 
on the reefs caught per hundred on an average 183 spat, whereas 
those on the ridge parallel with the current caught per hundred 
over 4000 and those on the ridge perpendicular to the current over 
6000. That cleanness is largely responsible for this set is further 

*The possible importance of such bankings of the contents of the pass waspot. 
recognized until the results of this expoi-iment wpre secured. In ronsoqiience no 
careful records were kept. Such "banking up," however, did occur a number. 9fi 
times between July 28th and September 1st. 



28 

emphasized by the distribution of the spat on the shells. Of the 
4963 in the one case 3084 were on the inner surfaces, and of the 
6977 in the other case 4445 were on the inner surfaces which be- 
cause of their smoothness remained clean for a longer time than 
the rough outer surfaces. 

Besides the cleanness of the cultch another factor contributed 
to the result — the shells were planted in ridges. The advantage 
of ridges is four fold ; as the shells are strewn thicker most of 
them are higher off the bottom than they would have been if they 
had been planted broadcast and the young spat is less likely to be 
"mudded up ;" in case large tracts are planted the open areas in- 
tervening between the ridges give an opportunity for the develop- 
ment of the food supply which is chiefly made up of plants living 
on the bottom ; the ridges interrupt the currents and produce 
more irregularities and disturbances than an evenly strewn bottom 
would make ; and they ofifer a better resistance to the currents 
which bring the young free swimming oysters, and thus are en- 
abled to catch more spat. This last fact is well illustrated by a 
comparison of the results gotten from the ridge planted parallel 
with the current and the one planted perpendicular to it. 



■ EXPERIMENT II. 

TO DETERMINE WHETHER A SET CAN BE SECURED IN THE GULF. 

Various rumors concerning the supposed existence of natural 
oyster reefs in the Gulf together with the certainty that at some 
historic time, the oysters now in Calcasieu Pass must have come 
from .elsewhere, led to an experiment to determine whether at 
present any spat may be caught in the Gulf. In order to answer 
this question it was necessary to plant cultch at points likely to be 
outside of the range of the river which as observation had shown 
was full of free swimming fry. The number of shells available 
for experimental purposes was very small and only two plantings 
could be made. 

One of these was made in 12 feet of water about 2 miles west 
of the west jetty and the other in 12 feet of water about one mile 
and a half east of the east jetty (see map). In choosing the local- 
ities particular care was taken that they might be well out of the 
range of the river currents produced by the southwest and south- 
east winds. During the summer these two winds prevail more 
than any others. The east planting Station A., was made east of 



LIBRARY 



29 \^^ -...,. - 

a line running southwest and northeast past the mouth of the 
river. This line was assumed to be the outermost limit of the cur- 
rent produced by the effect of the southwest wind on the mouth 
of the river. As a matter of fact when a southwest wind was 
blowing a tide rift indicated the limits of the river current midway 
between Station A. and the east jetty. 

The west planting, Station B., was made with reference to the 
same factors as Station A. Station B. was placed outside of the 
probable course of river water when driven by the southeast wind, 
and as in the case of Station A. a tide rift was usually seen slightly 
west of the west jetty when a southeast wind was blowing. 

On August 29th 15 bushels of shells were planted broadcast at 
Station A. and a similar number at Station B. On September 23rd 
some of these shells were taken up and carefully examined. No 
trace of spat was found at either station. 



DISCUSSION OF RESULTS. 

The completely negative result obtained in experiment No. II 
is not without meaning and may in the future lead to more impor- 
tant results. At present it shows definitely only that Stations A. 
and B. were beyond the range of the currents of the river due to 
the southwest and southeast winds, and that there is little like- 
lihood of obtaining a set outside of these ranges. In other words, 
there is no fry in the Gulf near the Calcasieu River except what 
comes from the river itself. 

The chief bearing which the results at Stations A. and B. have 
are on a point which was not primarily considered when the 
plantings were made. Up to the present no experiments have been 
published which show how far from its point of origin the oyster 
fry travels before settling down. The question- is obviously of 
great importance to planters who do not care to stock their beds 
with seed. Two views are held on the subject ; one that the young 
oyster does not travel very far and that it is of great advantage 
in consequence to plant sexually mature oysters with the shells 
intended to catch spat ; the other, that the young oyster in its free 
swimming state travels so far that the chance of its settling down 
near the place where its parents are is one in infinity. 

The question is not an easy one to decide because the number 
of factors which govern the distance travelled by a young oyster 
larva is very great. The independent motion of the larva is one, 
but the currents and eddies into which it may come are many. It 



30 

etems probable, that ^these currents are of far greater importance 
tba^n the independent motion of the larva. The question, there- 
fore,, how far from its parents an oyster .larva travels before 
settling' down finds its answer in the strength and direction of the 
■Guri^nts which may carry it. Stations A*, and B. were, the one a 
mile and a half, the other, two miles, from a great source of young 
.free, swimming oysters; however, no currents were present to 
.transport the larvae and neither of the stations showed any signs 
of spat.* .Thus it is probable that of its own exertions an oyster 
Jarva; cannot travel the distance between the mouth of the jetties 
and the experimental stations in the Gulf. In planting, therefore, 
the question whether the prevailing currents are likely to bring 
free swimming fry to the planted area must be carefully consid- 
ered. • If there is no such source of free swimming young oysters 
artificial seeding must be resorted to although the introduction of 
spawners may be quite as effective if the currents are regular, 
and sweep alternately with equal force in opposite directions. 



SUGGESTIONS. 

The suggestions which my study of the conditions for oyster 
culture at Calcasieu Pass enable me to make may be divided into 
two* classes — those offering immediate results, and those offering 
results which need not only a larger experimental basis but also 
capital and improved market facilities. 

I. 

The Condition and Yield of the Beds in the Pass May Be Im- 
proved by Dredging. 
In an earlier part of this report I have emphasized the great 
dift'erences between the ordinary elongated oysters in the pass 
and the well rounded oysters on the jetty. Part of the inferiority 
of the former is due to over-crowding which if relieved would give 
these oysters as good an opportunity for normal development as 
their more fortunate relatives have on the west jetty. It is a well 
known fact among dredgers, that natural reefs which are system- 
atically dredged not only increase in size but also in the quality of 
their yield. The increase in the size of the beds is due to the fact 
that whenever the dredge runs over the margain of a reef a number 



*This was not due to opposed currents making impossible the headway of the 
larvae, for had this been the case one or the other of the .stations would have been 
reach id by the fry. 



31 

of shells are dragged over and a few perhaps spilled out of the net. 
In this way the reef spreads and in the course of a few seasons 
may be very much larger than its original size. If dredging were 
carried on in Calcasieu Pass the reefs would become wider and 
longer than they are, and there is no reason why a continuous 
bed of oysters from the head to the mouth of the pass might not 
be brought about. If this were done the' bed of the river would in 
a few years be solid and firm from one end to the other and the 
danger from mud would be considerably lessened. 

As important as the increase in size is the increase in the value of 
the catch. Oysters taken from beds which are dredged every seas- 
on, rarely suffer from overcrowding, as the dredges in their passage 
over the beds break up many of the clusters which they strike and 
liberate large numbers of oysters from the oppressive conditions 
under which they have theretofore grown. Experiments have 
shown conclusively that such oysters are able to regain a normal 
well rounded shape. 

But the dredge is useful in yet another way. In Calcasieu Pass 
the question is not so much to increase the total number of oysters, 
as to increase the value of those which are there. Besides break- 
ing up clusters of overcrowded shells the dredge kills a great many 
young oysters, and this is most desirable in a locality where spat 
may settle on clean cultch in such excessive quantities as happened 
in my experiments. By killing a large number of young oysters 
either by crushing them or by turning them under so that they are 
suffocated by the mud, the chances of the survivors to grow nor- 
mally and to secure an abundance of food, are greatly increased. 

If dredging accompanied by yearly additions of clean shells to 
the beds, w^ere practiced, the value of the Calcasieu natural reefs 
would be greatly increased in a short time without great expense. 
The danger of freshets, of course, cannot be avoided, but the 
yield from the artificially improved beds would be so much better 
in good years than it is now, ^nd no worse in poor ones, that the 
comparatively small investment would yield a large interest to the 
community.* 

II. 

The Possibility of an Oyster Industry. 
The other suggestions which I have to make are not for the 
improvement of the natural beds already in existence but for the 



*The great objection to this plan is the existence of a law against the use of a 
dredgp. As the purpose of dredging in the present case is not to capture oysters 
but to cultivate t&em. A steam rake or a harrow would serve equally well. 



32 

establishment of true artificial ones for the rearing of seed and 
adults. I have placed these suggestions together in a second 
division because they cannot be carried out without further observ- 
ations and experiments, nor unless markets are developed and 
capital invested. 

While the observations made on the oysters in the Calcasieu 
River, and on the conditions of life to which they are subjected 
by uncontrollable factors, show that oyster culture in its widest 
sense would be a verv uncertain and risky undertaking, they also 
show that Calcasieu Pass is most admirably suited for the capture 
of seed oysters. The fact that oysters grow in a given locality 
does not prove that this locality is a fit place in which to cultivate 
them, but since they do grow in Calcasieu Pass in spite of the 
many untoward conditions to which they are subject, there is no 
reason why they should not be taken advantage of to the utmost. 
This utmost advantage I conceive to be the collection and trans- 
portation to more favorable localities of the abundant offspring 
which are yearly produced by these oysters and yearly allowed to 
waste. As has been shown by the plantings made in the river dur- 
ing the past summer a most unusual amount of spat can be caught 
there ; and has been shown in the preceding pages, there may be 
something in the natural conditions of the region which peculiarly 
fits it for the seed industry. 

The chief problem at present is that of securing a market for 
the seed. If the artificial cultivation of oysters east of Calcasieu 
Pass is increasingly practiced year by year, such a market will be 
a natural development. Its development may perhaps be stimula- 
ted by immediate experimental proof thaf the purchase of Calca- 
sieu seed and its transportation to suitable planting grounds Is 
profitable. 

However, it may be possible to create a market for Calcasieu 
seed near at hand by the establishment of deep water beds in the 
Gulf near the mouth of the river. Excepting the possibility of 
a shifting bottom, yet to be investigated, there is nothing in the 
Gulf so far as it has been studied, to make deep water beds im- 
possible, and a number of things give good reasons for expecting 
success. 

Deep water planting has been carried on with great success in 
the New England states and elsewhere, where the enterprise of 
private individuals has proven that natural oyster rocks may be 
established by artificial means at depths at which oysters do not 
normally occur in nature. These rocks are truly natural rocks^ 



33 

because after they are once started by the preparation of the bot- 
tom and the introduction of seed and aduh oysters, they are left 
alone except for the removal of the crop and the addition of clean 
shells to catch spat. 

The Gulf near the mouth of the Calcasieu River presents a 
greafvariety in its bottom. At places this is extremely soft and 
muddy, in others it is composed of sticky clay and in still others 
of a mixture of hard sand and mud. Some places are only covered 
by a few inches of mud under which is a hard substratum. Many 
such pieces of bottom in 40 or more feet of water are of this com- 
position which together with other places not so composed might 
be utilized for the establishment of deep water beds. 

Besides the presence of suitable bottom two other conditions of 
prime importance are fulfilled. The water in the Gulf near the 
mouth of the river is not sea water but "oyster water." In the 
pass during the summer months the maximum salinity is ex- 
cellent for the growth of oysters. Unfortunately it fluctuates with 
every rain and in the spring at the time of high water the pass may 
become entirely fresh at all but its greatest depth. The Gulf on 
the other hand at the proper distance from shore and at the proper 
depth would always be of the proper salinity and there would be 
no need to fear a total loss of investment by freshets. 

The other condition which is well fulfilled is the presence of 
abundant food. Means for studying the food conditions at 30 to 
40 feet depth were not available, but if the condition of the water 
at other depths, and on the surface be a criterion, there is present 
an abundant supply of food. Among the diatoms which have been 
shown to have the greatest food value in other localities is Eu- 
podisais radiatiis, and this form which is only one of a number 
of food form.s occurring in the Gulf, is present in such abundance 
that at times almost pure colonies containing nothing else may be 
collected by means of the tow-net. 

Another fact to be taken into consideration is the absence of 
star fish and the scarcity of conchs. These two enemies which 
in the localities where they occur often cause a great loss of 
wealth need not be reckoned with in the establishment of deep 
water beds near the mouth of the Calcasieu River. 

Certain accessory conditions fulfilled in Calcasieu Pass and in 
St. John's Bayou, would be of the greatest service to deep water 
oyster growers. The pass in addition to being an excellent source 
of seed would together with certain places in St. John's Bayou 
be an excellent fattening ground on which the oysters could be 



34 

allowed to remain for a brief period before being taken to the 
market. It has been found by the most successful culturists in 
Virginia, Maryland and elsewhere that it pays to handle the oys- 
ters a number of times before taking them to market, and that 
they may be treated and improved like any other crop. Thus it 
has been found profitable to prepare pieces of bottom for the re- 
ception of seed ; to collect seed ; to plant it, and to allow it to reach 
a saleable size. After this size has been attained, the oysters are 
ready for the market, but their volumes can be so increased by the 
bloating process which takes place in fresher water, that when 
shucked, the yield is almost or quite double. The experience of a 
well known firm at Hampton, Virginia, is a yield of 4 or 5 pints 
per bushel from oysters when taken directly from the rocks where 
they were planted as seed. The same oysters, however, when first 
carried to a fattening ground yield 8 pints to the bushel. By this 
means the yearly income of the house is increased from $20,000 to 
$30,000 more than it would be if the oysters were not transported, 
from the beds on which they grew to maturity, to the fattening 
grounds. 

Though the natural conditions of Calcasieu Pass make it a good 
place in which to collect seed, and though the Gulf near the mouth 
of the river may turn out to be a good place for the establishment 
of deep water fisheries it must not be thought that the success 
achievable can be won without hard work and foresight. A great 
many facts and circumstances must be taken into account and only 
men who can afford to learn by experience should undertake any- 
thing on a large scale. It is possible to make 25 per cent, on in- 
vested capital by the rational cultivation of oysters, but to realize 
such gain, oyster farmers must work on business principles and 
get the utmost good out of every phase of their enterprise. This 
they can do best by remembering that the crop of an oyster farm 
is like a crop raised on land, for its value is in direct proportion to 
the care and intelligence with which the farm is chosen and 
operated. 

Gulf Biologica Station, 
March 29th, 1904. 



•o >%'o -o t^ >-, >. >^ >:^ >^ >^I2 12 12 



>% >% t^ 

u u, tH uh u V- t- .S .S .S 

fi^ Ph fe fe PiH t^ fe P^ (^ P^ 



H 



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39 

APPENDIX B. 

TABLE A. 
EXAMINATIONS OF STOMACH CONTENTS. 

— No. Diatoms Found per Oyster. — 

a ^ 

Date. .-^ ^ « .c -^ -n .^ ^ 3d -§ « 

OO^Xii?:! 3-^ rt.3 Sfe 

July 21 Jetty' 2 93.75 375-00 93-75 30750-00 

Aug. 4 Jetty 3 93-75 562.50 93-75 2531.25 

Aug. 22 Jetty 3000 8495.83 

Wharf 4 93-75 187.50 375.00 4218.75 

TABLE B. 
EXAMINATIONS OF WATER IN CALCASIEU PASS. 

— Edible Diatoms per Liter. — 









TO 




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431250.00 


July 9. . 


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18750.00 


393750.00 


Aug. 12. . 


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4 


1000 CC 







37500.00 



PART II 



AN INCOMPLETE LIST OF THE MARINE FAUNA OF 
CAMERON, LA. 



BY O. C. GLASER. 



The following is an incomplete list of the marine fauna found 
at Cameron, La. 



Among the Polyzoa species of the following genera are abund- 
ant: Bugula; Membranipora; Plumatella; Vesicularia. 

COELENTERATA. 

Hydroida: — Hydractinia echinata; PlumulaHa spj 

Hydromedusae : — A number of as yet undetermined Hydrome- 
dusae occur. 

Siphonophora : — Physalia arethusa. 

Scyphomediisae : — Among the Scyphomedusae, Stomolophns 
meleagris occurs in surprising abundance in all stages of devel- 
opment. At times the gulf and the river are so filled with this 
form that it is impossible to put one's hand in the water without 
touching half a dozen. Other forms which are less abundant are 
a species of Chrysaora, and the Cubomedusa, Chiropsalmus quad- 
rumanus, which at times is very abundant in the gulf. 

Actiniaria: — Among the actiiiians found were Aiptasia pallida, 
Heliactis bellis, and another species of Heliactis on the gulf weed. 

Alcyonaria: — Alcyonarians are rare. Among the forms which 
were found were specimens of Renilla renniforniis,*- and of Lep- 
iogorgia virgulata. 

Ctenophora: — Apparently two species of Mnemiopsis occur. 

ANNEIJDA. 

The only annelid which was found was Nereis pelagica. The 
tubes of another as yet undetermined form are very abundant. 

MOLLUSCA. 

Lamellibranchs : — In addition to the oyster several small species 
of clam-like forms are found. Among the better known genera 
and species are: Area transversa; niodiola plicatula; and a small 

*Thls form was found between Cameron and Galveston. 



42 

Pholas. The large Pholas costata is very abundant on some of the 
'hard mud flats of the gulf shore. It is styled a "clam" 'by the in- 
habitants of Cameron who use it as food. 

Gastropods: — Several species of prosobranchs are common, 
among them Urosalpinx cinerca, and Neverita duplicata. Purpura 
haemastoma is extremely abundant on the west jetty where its cap- 
sules may be found by the thousands. 

Cephalopods: — One species of squid as yet undetermined was 
found in considerable numbers. It is used as food by the fisher- 
men. 

CRUSTACEA. 

Decapods: — Among the common decapods are: Panopeus 
herbstii; the southern edible crab; Ocypoda arenaria; Gelasimus 
pugnax; Eupagurus longicarpus ; E. pollicaris. 

Other Groups: — Among the other groups of Crustacea are: 
Peneaus setifurus; Squilla empusa; Palaemon sp.?; and Alpheus 
heterochelis. The cirripeds are represented by Balanus eburneus; 
Lepas anatifera; Dichylaspis millleri. The isopods are represented 
by Caligulus rapax; Cymothoidae sp. ?; Ceratothoa linearis; and 
some other parasitic forms. 

\'£RTEBRATA. 

Selachians: — The selachians are numerous in individuals but 
the number of species represented is not very large. Several spe- 
cies of ray including the southern sting-ray are very numerous. 
Among the other selachians are : Dasyatis say, the bonnet-nosed 
shark; the sharp-nosed shark — Scoliodon terrae-novae ; the butter- 
fly ray — Pteroplatea maclura; and the saw-fish — Pristis pectinatus. 

Teleosts : — The more common teleosts are the following : The 
alligator gar, Lcpisasteus trisoechus; the tarpon or Grande Ecaille, 
Megalops atlanticus; the swell toad, Chilomyctenis schoepfi; the 
sea robin, Prionotus tribuhis; the angel fish, Chaetodipterus faber; 
the sole, Achiurus fasciatus; Gobiesox virgatiilus; and a species 
of menhaden. Among the edible forms are the rock fish; the 
channel cat,Trachysurus felis; the southern flounder, Paralichthys 
Icthostigma; the croaker, Micropogon undulatus; the sheeps-head, 
Archosargus probatocephalus; the sea trout; the mullet, Catos- 
tomus teres; the common sucker ; and the red fish,Sciaena ocellata. 

Other Vertebrates :-^Other vertebrates, living in or near the 
water, are: The porpoise which is extremely abundant; the al- 
ligator. Alligator mississipiens ; and the diamond-back terrapin. 



43 



A PRELIMINARY CONTRIBUTION TO THE PROTO- 
ZOAN FAUNA OF THE GULF BIOLOGIC STATION 
WITH NOTES ON SOME RARE SPECIES. 



J. C. SMITH. 



(Read before the Louisiana Society of Naturalists, December 12, 19u3). 

The faunal lists of this paper were made in the laboratory of the 
Gulf Biologic Station during a week's stay in September, 1903, 
and from material gathered in the vicinity of the Station. The 
time at my disposal was so short that no effort was made to do any 
systematic collecting and, in consequence, there are no data to 
warrant any valuable or interesting conclusions ; therefore, these 
lists may be considered merely as a contribution to the fauna of 
this region and a small addition to the already scant literature on 
marine forms of the Protozoa of this country. 

Faunal lists are usually uninteresting to all save special students, 
but the want of such lists as relate to the Protozoa of this country 
was made very evident at the time when Schewiakofif ('93) com- 
piled his work on the geographical distribution of the Protozoa 

(1893). 

I find the more lists we have, that are carefully made, the more 
cosmopolitan the Protozoa are shown to be. 

In these lists I have several forms recorded for the first time in 
this country and one recorded for the first time since its discovery. 
I have also incorporated a few notes in which are embodied some 
additions to, and corrections of the original descriptions of some 
apparently rare species. 

Collections were made from three distinct points : From St. 
John's Bayou, the littoral zone of the Gulf, and surface plankton 
from the Gulf. 

Strictly speaking, the Gulf in the neighborhood of the Station 
has no true littoral zone, as the sloping sand beach, which is 
washed continually by the waves, afifords no foothold for any veg- 
etal growth. The material collected here consisted of stray pieces 
of marine algae, comminuted vegetable tissues and membraneous 
tubes of worms (?) with the water in which they were found. 



44 

The plankton from several surface hauls, six or seven miles out 
in the Gulf, was secured with a modified Birge net made of No. 
20 millers' silk. Besides the protozoa listed, a very large number 
of typically marine diatoms were taken in this plankton and are 
recorded in an appendix to this contribution. 

St. John's Bayou is a fairly large body of brackish water which 
empties into Calcasieu Pass, a few miles from the Gulf. It has a 
natural oyster reef, the yield of which is very uncertain on ac- 
count of the rapid changes in the salinity of its waters. This bayou 
was examined with special reference to the diatoms, which were 
found in fairly large numbers ; the genera agreeing with those re- 
corded from the plankton of the Gulf with the exception that 
Bacillaria paradoxa was present and in great abundance. 

All material collected was examined alive on the same or 
next day. While this method is not as convenient as that of kil- 
ling and examining at one's leisure, one is more certain of a 
positive identification. 

Forms from the Beach (Littoral zone) : 

Amoeba proteus Leidy. 

Gringa Uliformis Frenzel. 

Pamphagiis hyalinus Ehr. 

Actinophrys sol Ehr. 

Actinosphaerium eichornii Ehr. 

Oikomonas termo Ehr. 

Bodo caudatns Stein. 

Bodo glohosa Stein. 

Phylloniitiis aniylophagus Klebs. 

Rhynchomonas nasiita Stokes, sp. 

Tetramitus descissus Perty 

Euglena acus Ehr. 

Trachelomonas lagenella Stein. 

Petalomonas abscissa Duj. 

Cryptomonas ovata Ehr. 

Feridinium cinctiim Ehr. 

Lacrymaria lagemda C. & L. 

Prordon teres Ehr. 

Prorodon edentaUis C. & L. 

Mesodinium acarus Stein. 

Lionatus fasciola Ehr. 

Loxophylhim setigernm Ouenn.' 



45 

Loxodes rostrum O. F. M. 

Chilodon cucullulus Ehr. 

Uronema marinum Duj. 

Loxocephalus gramdosus Kent. 

Paraiiioecium caudatum Ehr. 

Cyclidium glaucoma O. F. M. 

Lenibus velifer Cohn. 

Tillina megastoma Smith. 

BlcpJiarostoma pigeri'ima Cohn sp. { = Colpoda pigerrima Cohn 
andCryptocliilinin fusiforme Gourret & Roesser.) 

Metopus sigmoides C. & L. 

Condylostoma patens O. F. M. 

Strombidium caudatum From. 

Urostyla grandis Ehr. 

Gonostomum pediculiforme Cohn sp. 

Oxytricha pellionella O. F.' M. 

Stylonychia pustidata O. F. M. 

Stylonychia mytilus O. F. M. 

Euplotes harpa Stein. 

Euplotes charon Ehr. 

Aspidisca lynceus Ehr. 

Aspidisca turrita C. & L. 

Aspidisca costata Duj. 

Ur onychia transfuga O. F. M. 

Diophrys appendiadatus Stein, 

This Hst represents 46 species and 40 genera, and includes of 
the Rhizopoda 3, Hehozoa 2, Mastigophora 11 and Infusoria 30 
species. 

Forms from the Surface Plankton of the Gulf : 

Discorbina sp. 

Acanthochiasma sp. 

Perdinium diver gens Ehr. 

Ceratium tripos Ehr. 

Ceratium fusus Ehr. 

Ceratium furca Ehr. 

Tintinnopsis beroidea Stein. 

Blepharostoma pigerrima Cohn sp. 

Diophrys appendiculatus Stein. 

This represents 9 species and 7 genera, consisting of Rhizo- 
poda 2, Mastigophora 4 and Infusoria 3. Of the latter, the two 
last quoted are evidently littoral forms transported. 



46 

Forms from St. John's Bayou : 

Amoeba proteus Leidy. 

Dactylosphaerium radiosum Ehr. 

Biomyxia vagans Leidy. 

Nuclearia simplex Cienk. 

Rhynchonionas nasuta Stokes sp. 

Euglena acus Ehr. 

Euglena viridis Ehr. 

Euglena pisciformis Klebs. 

Phacus triquetra Ehr. 

P'eranema tricophorum Ehr. 

Scytomonas pusilla Stein. 

Tracheloccrca phoenicoptenis Cohn 

Mesodinhim acarus Stein. 

Loxophyllum setigerum Quenn. 

Urocentrum turbo Ehr. 

Parmoecium caudatum Ehr. 

Cyclidium glaucoma O. F. M. 

Lembus velifer Cohn. 

Pleuronema chrysalis Ehr. 

Metopus sigmoides C. & L.. 

Strombidium caudatum From. 

Vorticella alba From. 

Urostyla grandis Ehr. 

Gonostoninm pcdicuHformc Cohn sp. 

Holosticha flava Cohn. 

Oxytricha pellionella O. F. M. 

Oxytricha parallela Eng. 

Stylonychia pustulata Ehr. 

Euplotes harpa Stein. 

Euplofes char on Ehr. 

Aspidisca lynceus Ehr. 

Ur onychia iransfuga O. F. M. 

This Hst represents 32 species and 28 genera, and inchides of 
the Rhizopoda 4, Mastigophora 7 and Infusoria 21 species. 

A summary of the Beach and Bayou forms shows a total of 60 
species, 28 of which were found on the beach only, while 14 were 
confined to the bayou. I have not the least doubt but that a care- 
ful and prolonged search will treble this number. 

There was no quantitative analysis made of the forms found 
in the surface plankton of the Gulf, but a rough estimate places 
the two rhizopods as occasional, the flagellates very abundant 
and Tintinnopsis beroidea abundant, while the two last recorded 
ciliates were very scarce and probably foreign to the normal 
plankton. 



47 

So far as I have been able to consult the literature, the follow- 
ing forms appear to be recorded for the first time in this country : 
Gringa Uliformis, (also the first time since its discovery in Argen- 
tina) Englena pisciformis, Phyllomitiis amylophagus, Blepharos- 
ioma pigerrima and Gonostomuni pediculiforme. Tillina megas- 
toma I have found abundant in the brackish waters of Lakes Pont- 
chartrain and Borgne. 



NOTES ON SOME FORMS RARE AND OTHERWISE. 
GRINGA FiLiFORMis Frenzel ('97). 

This is a rhizopod whose shape resembles that of a filiform 
pseudopod of a Euglypha, leading an independent existence. It 
is many times longer than wide and usually attenuated at one or 
both extremities. Its mode of progression is peculiar, and, I be- 
lieve, limited to itself. This takes place backwards or forwards in 
a straight line, very slowly and without the emission of pseudo- 
podia or any other disturbance of its shape, excepting an occa- 
sional spirillum-like twist of its whole body. While moving in 
this manner it bends its front extremity from side to side as if 
seeking food. When it changes its course, it does so by emitting 
from its apical extremity a pseudopod, which originates from a 
cleft in this extremity and then resembles the beginning of long 
fission. One segment of this cleft becomes a pseudopod, which 
inclines to one side and indicates its direction of movement, while 
the other segment remains intact and gradually slips down, so 
to say, until it reaches the posterior extremity, where it disap- 
pears. This whole process may also take place from the pos- 
terior extremity. I have never seen the animal take food. Its 
endoplasm is slightly granular throughout and contains three 
sub-central and quite distinct contractile vacuoles as well as a 
small round nucleus with a central nucleolus. This nucleus is 
placed in the anterior fourth of the body and with the contractile 
vacuoles show the same relative position as is usual with the 
lobosa. This form was taken in abundance from the beach and 
lived quite awhile in the moist chamber. The size varied from 30 
to 50 microns in length and from 2 to 4 microns in width. 

This description agrees very closely with that of Frenzel ('97), 
excepting in size and the presence of a nucleus, which he admits 
he was unable to find, notwithstanding the employment of the 
usual technic. I found no difficulty in supplying this deficiency, 
as the nucleus was made exceedingly distinct (>^-in. obj.) after 



48 

killing under the cover glass with i per cent, osmic acid and 
staining for two hours with picro-carmine. I have repeatedly 
found this rhizopod in widely separated localities of the littoral 
region of Lake Pontchartrain, the water of which is brackish. 
I have never taken it in fresh water, the habitat given it by 
Frenzel ('97). 

BiOMYxiA VAGANS Leidy. 

This rhizopod, the existence of which as a good species is 
doubted by many students, has come under my observation a 
number of times, and I have had good opportunity to give it 
critical study, which has resulted in convincing me that it is 
entitled to its place as a true species. 

It has been reported a number of times from different parts of 
the world and is therefore cosmopolitan. 1 have often taken it. in 
fresh water and also in the brackish waters of Lakes Pontchar- 
train and Borgne. Recently, I have found it in the Gulf. The 
description of it given originally by Leidy ('97) can only be 
amended so as to include the presence of very many small round 
and unconnected nuclei, which were first demonstrated by Gruber 
('84) and has been repeatedly corroborated by me. 

PHYLLOMITUS AMYLOPHAGUS Klebs. 

According to the records, this asymmetrical flagellate seems to 
be quite uncommon and its habitat heretofore confined to fresh 
water as originally given by Klebs ('92). I have taken it repeat- 
edly from Lake Pontchartrain (brackish water) and now record 
it from the Gulf. 

Klebs' ('92) description is correct in every respect, and I have 
only to add that in virtue of this form lending itself readily to 
cultivation, I have been enabled to observe its mode of increase, 
which is by long fission, as is the rule among the flagellates 
( Oxyrrhis marina and some of the Craspemonadina being the only 
exceptions). This fission may originate at the anterior extremity, 
as it usually does, at the posterior extremity or simultaneously 
at both extremities. This is a unique departure from the cus- 
tomary mode of fission, and I believe has no other representative, 
excepting Scytomonas pusilla, in which the fission may originate 
at either extremity. 

It is a voracious feeder. I have repeatedly seen a form with a 
fungal filament, which it had incepted, protruding from both ex- 
tremities so as to make it appear as if it had been impaled on a 
spit. 



49 

LOXODES ROSTRUM O. F. M. ■ 

My interest in this form was first awakened some years ago by 
the diverse descriptions of its nuclear elements. This diversity 
ranges from a single macro-nucleus, with its attached micro- 
nucleus, to a multiplicity of the same. 

Wrzesniowski ('6i) and Kent ('82) describe and figure it as a 
string of macro-nuclei with the micro-nuclei attached either to the 
macro-nuclei or to the funiculi. 

Calkins ('01) figures this same string of nuclei as one of the 
types of the Ciliata. 

Stein C7S), Claparede and Lachman ('60), Delage and 
Herourd ('96) and Roux ('01) describe many disturbed macro- 
nuclei, each with its attached micro-nucleus. 

Biitschli ('87) says there are from one to many unconnected 
nuclei, according to the size of the animal. 

Stokes ('88) (L. vorax) and Engelmann ('62) (Drepanosoma 
striatum) figure and describe Loxodes rostrum as having two 
nuclei, subcentrally placed. Schewiakoff ('93) found it in the 
Sandwich Islands with but a single oval nucleus, centrally placed. 

Since 1900, I have had hundreds of these forms from widely 
separated localities in Louisiana, with fresh and brackisli water 
habitat, and recently from the Gulf; all varying in size, from the 
small colorless to the very large (625 microns) brown or golden- 
colored ones. I have killed and stained hundreds of them with 
the invariable result of demonstrating but two macro-nuclei, each 
with an attached micro-nucleus. They were unconnected (shown 
by isolation) and sub-central, one in each half of the animal. 
The structure of the nuclei corresponded with the descriptions and 
figures given by difterent authors — that is, they were round and 
contained what resembled a nucleolus, thus imitating the typical 
nucleus of a rhizopod. 

It is worthy of remark that, while it is usually difficult to 
diflt'erentiate the micro-nuclei with picro-carmine, in these cases 
they stained almost as brilliantly as the macro-nuclei. 

The conclusion then to be drawn from these facts is, that 
Loxodes rostrum may have one, two or many unconnected nuclei, 
or a series connected by funiculi, thus giving us four distinct types 
of nuclei for a ciliate whose bodv form is constant. 



50 

LEMBUS VELIFER Cohn, 

In 1898 I described Lemhiis ornatus ('98) as a new species. 
Since then I have had this form quite frequently under observa- 
tion, taken from the original locality (Lake Pontchartrain) and 
recently from the Gulf. 

As a result of these further observations I have this to add to 
my original description : It has two vibratile membranes — one on 
each side of the oral furrow, the left one being striated and the 
larger. When food is abundant, as in decaying infusions, the ani- 
mal reaches its greatest size and the annulations tend to disap- 
pear ; in many cases becoming entirely obliterated. 

Not infrequently, forms are met with containing two central 
nuclei, presumably the beginning of fission. When well fed a 
number of clear vacuoles often appear in the posterior half and 
usually obscure the contractile vacuole. 

A careful examination of the descriptions and figures of the 
five following forms has led me to conclude that they are one and 
the same species seen under more or less varying conditions, and, 
therefore, that the last four should be classed as synonymous with 
Lemhtis velifcr Cohn. 

Lembus velifer Cohn %6. 

Lembus striatus Fabre-Domergue '85. 

Lembus intermedius Gourret & Roeser '86. 

Lembus ornatus Smith '98. 

Lembus infusiomim Calkins '02. 

Lembus elongatus C. & L. ('60) is, I think, too imperfectly 
described for any consideration with the above group, although 
Biitschli ('87) has placed L. velifer as synonymous with it. 

A review of the following features will explain my reasons for 
the above conclusion. 

The variation in size is much less than holds for many other 
ciliates and is, therefore, of no value ; the same may be said with 
respect to the position of the oral aperture. 

All the authors agree in making special mention of the trans- 
verse striae on the vibratile membrane, excepting Gourret & 
Roeser ('86 L. intermedius) but who figure these striae very dis- 
tinctly (PI. XXX, fig. 2, q. v.). 

The annulations are described and figured for L. velifer, inter- 
medius and ornatus, figured, but not described for L. striatus and 
absent in L. infusionum. The absence of the annulations in L. 
infusionum may be explained, I think, by. one of my notes men- 
tioned above. 



51 

In all species but one, the contractile vacuole is single and pos- 
terior, while Calkins ('02) describes and figures several in the 
posterior extremity of L. infusionum. I have noted above, a condi- 
tion which tends to produce an accumulation of clear vacuoles in 
the posterior extremity, and the figures of L. velifer, striatus and 
intermcdius contain several such vacuoles in that extremity, in 
addition to the contractile one. Cohn (L. velifer) did not see the 
nucleus, Gourret & Roeser (L. intermedius) describe and figure 
two central nuclei, while the other three authors describe and fig- 
ure a single central nucleus. The two nuclei of L. intermedius may 
be the initial stage of division, or if not, it should not weigh against 
the identity of species (Loxodes rostrum, vide supra). 

The caudal seta, which is not always very distinct, is mentioned 
for all but L. velifer, and Cohn's reason for not noting it may be 
similar to mine for not seeing the double membrane when I first 
met L. ornatus (vide supra). 

Lemhiis striatus and L. intermedius seem to be well dififerent- 
iated from all the other species by what is described and figured 
as transverse striae on the body, but if one will scan the figures 
(L. striatus Fab.-Dom. '85, PI. XXIX, fig. 6; L. intermedius, G. 
& R. '86, PI. XXX, figs. 2 & 3) it will be seen that these striae are 
coincident with the annulations, and that it is highly probable that 
they represent these annulations strongly accentuated. 

BLEPHAROSTOMA PIGERRIMA Cohn Sp. 

In the brackish waters of Lakes Pontchartrain and Borgne, and 
recently in the Gulf, I have met with a ciliate, the features of which 
have led me to place it in the genus Blepharostoma as erected by 
Schewiakoff ('93). Its body is pliant, very transparent, somewhat 
fusiform and about twice as long as its greatest central width. It 
is very much compressed laterally, this compression giving its dor- 
sal and ventral surfaces a width of about one-third its depth. Its 
anterior extremity is diagonally. truncated towards the ventral sur- 
face and occupies about one-third of the body-length, constituting 
an oval oral fossa, at the lower extremity of which the oral aper- 
ture is situated. 

The body is sparsely covered with fairly long and slowly-moving 
cilia. The entire edge of the oral fossa, excepting a small part in 
the immediate vicinity of the oral aperture, is provided with a sin- 
gle row of cilia which are distinctly longer and heavier than those 
covering the rest of the body. These cilia are always bent towards 
the oral aperture and have a movement which directs the food to 
this aperture as well as assisting in the locomotion of the animal. 



52 

The longitudinal body-striae are hardly perceptible. The round 
nucleus is single and sub-central,- while the contractile vacuole, 
whicn is quite difficult to distinguish from the many vacuoles 
nearly always present, is near the posterior extremity. The length 
varies from 35 to 50 microns. 

This form differs from Blepharostoma glaucoma Schw. ('93) 
in size (.015 mm) and shape (cylindrical) as well as in the posi- 
tion of the oral fossa, which in B. glaucoma does not reach the 
apical extremity, while in B. pigerrima it divides that extremity 
and makes it sharply pointed. 

Cryptochilium fusiforme Gourret & Roeser ('88) agrees in 
very many details with my description and their figures (PI. XIII, 
figs. 2 and 3) would be good if the preoral cilia were less numer- 
ous (6 from a side view), heavier and inclined downwards. 

Colpoda pigerrima Cohn ('66), notwithstanding the striae de- 
scribed and figured, I am inclined to believe is the same form. 
Cohn failed to see the nucleus and describes as the true contractile 
vacuole, which is usually obscure, the food vacuole which is con- 
stantly being formed in close proximity to the oral aperture. 

This form has nothing in common with the genus Cryptochi- 
lium (now Uronema) nor with Colpoda, but naturally belongs to 
the genus Blepharostoma as erected by Schewiakofif, and where I 
have placed it. 

GONOSTOMUM PEDICULIFORME Cohn Sp. 

This hypotricbous ciliate one would suppose easy to identify on 
account of its unique shape. It is divided into two very distinct 
regions — an anterior neck-like portion and a posterior broader por- 
tion, together resembling, somewhat, a bass-viol. Cohn ('66) 
found it in a sea-water aquarium and gave a description of it 
(Stichochaeta pediculiformis) which Maupas ('83) has amended 
and found reason for placing it in the genus Gonostomum. 

I had a fairly large number of these forms under my observa- 
tion, and, in order to study them critically, I isolated several in 
a watch glass with a few drops of water, killed with i per cent os- 
mic acid, then treated them as recommended by Schewiakofif ('98) 
and brought out the appendages very distinctly. The shape of 
the body agreed exactly with Cohn's figures and description. The 
size varied somewhat — the largest measuring 140 microns and the 
smallest 100 microns. 

The greatest width was one-fifth of the length, and while the 
neck-like portion varied within small limits, its average size was 
about one-third the body length. The oral aperture, peristome, the 



53 

very fine and closely-set peristomal cilia, heavy apical styles (6) 
and single linear row of frontal setae (8 to lo) were as described 
by Cohn. 

Immediately under the oral aperture, down the entire length of, 
and parallel with the ventral surface, were two rows of setae, 
closely set and occupying the central third of that surface. Just 
below the termination of these rows were five anal setae, most of 
which projected over the caudal border. Hispid setae, as long or 
longer than half the greatest body-width, were very distinct on 
the margins and dorsal surface of the whole animal. There were 
no caudal setae. The color of the body was very like that of Lox- 
ocephalus granulosus, and the inclusions which gave it this color 
appeared to be of the same nature as those found in L. granulosus. 
In the live animal, no contractile vacuole could be positively deter- 
mined. At tirnes, what appeared as a single bright, irregularly- 
shaped space could be seen, while at other times the two clear 
spaces, which Cohn supposed to be the contractile vacuoles, were 
in evidence. 

Staining with picro-carmine brought out scores of small, round 
nuclei distributed throughout both sections of the body. A suc- 
cessful effort to isolate these nuclei demonstrated that they were 
not connected. The tuft of cilia (Wimperbi^ischel), which Cohn 
mentions as protruding from the oral aperture, was determined 
in the live animal to be an extensile, trap-like membrane, similar 
to, but smaller than that of Cyclidiuni glaucoma. 

It will be noted that my description differs from that of Cohn 
in that there are no caudal setae. The error in interpreting the 
membrane as a tuft of cilia was not an uncommon one at the time 
he wrote his description (i866). In all other respects we agree 
so closely that I am strongly inclined to believe that I had his spe- 
cies under observation. 

The dorsal hispid setae were so very obvious along the margins 
that I think it quite probable "" that Cohn mistook them for the 
caudal series. 

Maupas ('83) has done some work on this form and I regret 
that I have not his paper to consult. 

Stichochaeta (Gonostomuinf) Corsica Gourret & Roeser ('88) 
resembles this species very much but the following differences are 
sufficient to separate them: The frontal series is double, ventral 
series diagonal, anal series absent, marginal series at the caudal 
border very numerous, the nucleus single and the oral membrane 
absent. 



54 
LITERATURE CITED.- 

'87 — Biitschli, O. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier- 
reichs I. Protozoa. 1883-1887. 

'01 — Calkins, Gary N., The Protozoa. New York, 1901. 

'02 — Calkins, Gary N. Marine Protozoa from Woods Hole. Bul- 
letin of the U. S. Fish Commission. Washington, 1902 

'60 — Claparede et Lachmann. Etudes sur les Infusoires et les 
Rhizopodes. Mem. Inst, genevoise, V, VI, VII. 1858-1860. 

"66 — Cohn, Ferdinand. Neue Infusorien im Seeaquarium. 
Zeitsch. f. wiss. Zool. Vol. XVI. 1866. 

'96 — Delage et Herouard. La Cellule et les Protozoaires. Traite 
de Zool. concrete. Tome I. Paris, 1896. 

'62 — Engelmann, Th. W. Zur Naturgeschichte der Infusions- 
thiere. Zeitsch. f. wiss. Zool. Bd. XI, Hft. IV. 1862. 

'85 — Fabre-Domergue. Note sur les Infusoires cilies de la Bale de 
Concarneau. Jnl, de L'Anat. et Physiol. Paris, 1885. 

'97 — Frenzel, Johannes. Untersuchungen iiber die mikroskopische 
Fauna Argentiniens. I und II Abteilung. Stuttgart, 1897. 

'86 — Gourret et Roeser. Les Protozoaires du Vieux-Port de 
Marseille. Arch. Zool. exper., IV. 1886. 

'88 — Gourret et Roeser, Contribution a I'etude des Protozoaires 
de la Corse. Arch. d. biol., VIII. 1888. 

'84 — Gruber, August. Die Protozoen des Hafens von Genua. 
Halle, 1884. 

'82 — Kent, Saville. A Manual of the Infusoria. London, 1880- 
1882. 

'92 — Klebs, Georg. Flagellatenstudien. Zeitsch. f. wiss. Zool. 
LV. ic^92. 

'79 — Leidy, J. Fresh Water Rhizopods of North America. Wash- 
ington, 1879. 

'83 — Maupas, E. Etude des Infusoires Cilies. Archiv. Zool. ex- 
per. 1883. 

'01 — Roux, Jean. Faune Infusorienne des eaux stagnates des en- 
virons de Geneve. Geneve, 1901. 

'93 — Schewiakoff, W. Uber die geographische Verbreitung der 
Siisswasser Protozoen. St. Petersburg, 1893. 

'98 — SchewiakofT, W. A New Method of Staining Cilia, Flagella 
and other Locomotor Organs of Protozoa. Proceedings of 
the Fourth International Congress of Zoology, Cambriige, 
1898 

'98 — Smith, J. C. Notices of some Undescribed Infusoria from 
the Infusorial Fauna of Louisiana. Proceedings of the Amer. 
Micros. Soc, Vol. XX. 1898. 



55 

yS — Stein, Fr. Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere. Leipzig, 

1878. 
'88 — Stokes, A. C. Preliminary Contribution toward a History of 

the Fresli-vvater Infusoria of the United States. Jnl. of the 

Trenton Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. I. 1888. 
'61 — Wrzesniowski, A. O. Observations sur quelques Infusoires. 

Ann. des Sci. Nat., ser. IV, torn. XVI. 1861. 



APPENDIX. 

DIATOMS FOUND IN THE SURFACE PLANKTON OF THE GULF. 

These diatoms, recorded by genera, were taken in great num- 
bers. They are listed in the order of their relative abundance : 
Coscinodiscus, (several species). Terpsonia. 
Navicula, (several species). Gfammatophora. 

Melosira, (several species). Pleurosigma. 

Biddulphia. Surirella. 

Rhizosolenia. Triceratium. 

Nitzschia, (several species). Amphiphora. 

Chaetoceros. Actinoptychus. 

Synedra. Bacteriastrum. 



REPORT OF THE FLORA IN THE VICINITY OF THE 
GULF BIOLOGIC STATION. 



BY R. S. COCKS. 



(Read before the Louisiana Society of Naturalists, December, 1903.) 

This collection of plants is not an exhaustive catalogue of the 
Flora of the region of the Gulf Biologic Station. It is merely an 
attempt to supply a tolerably complete list of such plants as could 
be found in a week's collecting during the month of July, in 
about a two mile radius of the Station. 

As was to be expected from the character of the soil so near the 
sea, the number of plants is not very large, but it is worthy of note 
that of this small collection of under three hundred plants, more 
than one-third are here recorded for the first time from the State. 
It seems therefore certain that this is the first time that this part 
of the State has been visited by anyone interested in the Flora. 

Speaking generally, there are four types of plants found around 
the station. ( i ) . There are the plants of the drifting sands with- 
in the tide line. (2). There are the plants of the salt marshes 
growing in water, or in soil more or less water soaked. (3). 
There are the plants growing on the ridges of higher ground 
which traverse the marshes. (4). There are those plants, which 
have followed in the wake of cultivation, generally described as 
weeds. 

In addition to the plants listed, there are some forty others 
which have not been identified, as they were not in condition for 
satisfactory determination. 

Very little can be said of the Cryptogamous Flora. Two spe- 
cies of Algae were collected in the salt pools that form on the jet- 
ties, and seven species of mosses. Fresh water Algae were not 
represented at all, and the collection and identification of the Fungi 
was not attempted. 

It is greatly to be hoped that this list may serve as a starting 
point for further investigation, and that in the near future we may 
have a complete catalogue of the Flora of this most interesting 
region. 



57 

CATALOGUE OF PLANTS. 

Menispermaceae — 

Cocculus Carolinus D. C. 
Nymphaeaceae — 

Nuphar advena Ait. 
Cruciferae — 

Lepidium Virginicum L. 

Cakile maritima Scop. var. aequalis Chap. 
Portulacaceae — 

Portulaca oleracea L. 
Tamariscineae — 

Tamarix Gallica L. 
Caryophyllaceae — 

Spergularia salina Presl. 
Malvaceae — 

Sida spinosa L. 

acuta Burm. 

Modiola multifida Moench. 

Kosteletzkya Virginica Presl. 

Hibiscus moscheutos L. 
Meliaceae — 

Melia Azederach L. 
Oxalidaceae — 

Oxalis corniculata L. 
Rutaceae — ■ 

Xanthoxylon Clava-Herculis L. 
Anacardiaceae — 

Rhus radicans L. 
Vitaceae — 

Vitis cineerea Engelm. 

Cissus bipinnata Nutt. 

incisa Desmoul. 
Sapindaceae — 

Cariospermum HaHcacabum L. 
Legtiminoseae — 

Trifolium Carolinianum Michx. 
repens L. 

Daubentonia longifolia (Cav.) D. C. 

Astragalus Nuttallianus var trichocarpus T. & G. 

Vicia Ludoviciana Nutt. 

Lespedeza striata Hook and Arnott. 

Rhyncosia species. 



58 

Leguminoseae — Continued. 
Erythrina herbacea L. 
Centrosema Virginica Benth. 
Phaseolus diversifolius Pers. 
Galactia volubilis (L.) Britton. 

mollis Michx. 
Cassia occidentalis L. 
nictitans L. 
obtusifolia L. 
Gleiditschia triacanthos L. 
Mimosa strigillosa T. & G. 
Acacia Farnesiana Willd. 
Desmanthus liiteus Benth. 
Petalostemon emarginatus Torr. 
Rosaseae — 

Rubus trivialis Michx. 
Crategus (three species) 
Lythraceae — 

Ammania coccinea Roettb. 
latifolia L. 
Onagraceae — 

Jussiaea repens L. 
Ludwigia palustris L. 
laciniata Hill. 
Oenothera species. 
Gaura Michauxii Spach. 
PassiHoraceae — 

Passiflora incarnata L. 
lutea L. 
Cii curbiiaceae — 

Melothria pendula L. 
Cactaceae — 

Opuntia vulgaris Mill. 
Ficoideae — 

Sesuvium maritimum (Walt.) B. S. 

portulacastrum L. F. 
Mollugo verticillata L. 
Glinus lotoides Loefl. 
Umbelliferae — • 

Hydrocotyle interrupta Muhl. 

repanda Pers. 
Sanicula Marilandica L. 
Daucus pusilla Michx. 



59 

Umbelliferae — Continued. 

Apium leptophyllum (D. C.) F. Muell. 

Discopleura capillacea D. C. 
Caprifoliaceae — 

Sambucus Canadensis L. 
Rubiaceae — 

Gallium hispidulum Michx. 

Crusea allococca Gray. 

Diodia Virginica L. 
teres Walt. 
Loganeaceae — 

Polypremum procumbens L. 
Compositae — 

Sonchus asper L. 

oleaceus L. 

Coreopsis cardanimaefolia (D. C.) T. & G. 

Eclipta alba (L.) Haussk. 

Xantliium strumarium L. 

Ambrosia artemisiaefolia L. 
trifida L. 

Pluchea foetida (L.) B. S. P. 

Euptaorium album L. 

Erigeron repens A. Gray. 
Canadensis L. 
Philadelphicus L. 

Aster spinosus Benth. 

Borrichia frutescens (L.) D. C. 

Iva frutescens L. 

Helenium tenuifolium Nutt. 

Verbesina Virginica L. 

Pyrrhopappus Carolinianus D. C. 

Gnaphalium purpureum L. ^ 

Krigia Dandelion Nutt. 

Lepachys peduncularis T. & G. 

Chrysopsis species. 
Sapotaceae— 

Bumelia lanuginosa Pers. 
Primiilaceae — 

Samolus floribundus Kunth. 

Bignoniaceae — 

Tecoma radicans Juss. 



6o 

Scrophtdariaceae — 

Herpestis Monniera Kunth. 
nigrescens Benth. 
Solanaceae — 

Solanum nigrum L. 
Capsicum frutescens L. 
Physalis viscosa L. 

angulata L. 
Nicotiana longi flora Cav. 
Lycium Carolinanum Michx. 
Datura stramonium L. 
Co nvoluvulacea e — 

Ipomoea Pes-Caprae Sweet. 

acetosaefolia R. & S. 
purpurea Lam. 
sagittata Cav. 
Dichondra repens Forst. 
Cuscuta Gronovii Willd. 
compacta Juss. 
Gentianaceae — 

Sabbatia campestris Nutt. 
Eustoma exaltatum Grisel. 
Asclepiadaceae — 

Acerates viridiflora Ell. 
Seutera maritima Decaisne 
Borraginaceae — 

Helciotropium Curassavicum L. 
Indicum L. 
Verbenaceae — 

Verbena Xutha Lehm. 

Tampensis Nash. 
Verbena species. 
Lippia nodiflora Michx. 
Labiatae — 

Monarda punctata L. 
Scutellaria aspera Michx. 
Teucrium Canadense L. 
Plmitaginaccae — 

Plantago lanccolata L. 
pusilla Nutt. 
Phytolaccaceac — 

Phytolacca dccandra L. 



6i 



A niarantaceae — 

Amarantus albidus L. 
spinosus L. 
Euxolus lividus Moquin. 
Acnida cannabina L, 
Chenopodiaccae — 

Chenopodium album L. 

anthelminticum L. 
Atriplex hastata L. 
Obione arenaria Mouquin. 
Salicornia species. 
5alsola kali L. 
Polygonaceae — 

Rumex crispus L. 

yerticillatus L. 
Polygonum acre Kunth. 

hydropiperoides Michx. 
aviculare L. 
convolvulus L. 
Euphorhiaceae — 

Euphorbia polygonifolia L. 
prostrata Ait. 
maculata L. 
Arkansana 
Euphorbia species. 
Croton glandulosus L. 

capitatus Michx. 
maritimus Walt. 
Crotonposis linearis Michx. 
Urticaceae — 

Urtica dioica L. 

chamaedryoides Pursh. 
Parietaria debilis Forst. 
Batidaceae — 

Batis niaritima L. 
Ulniaseae — 

Cellis occidentalis L. 

pumila Pursh. 
Salicaceae — 

Salix longfolia L. 
Lemnaceae — 

Lemna minor L. 



62 



Typhaccae — 

Typha latifolia L. 
Alismaceae — 

Echinodorus radicans Egelm. 
Sagittaria lancifolia L. 

graminea Michx. 
Iridaceae — 

Iris versicolor L. 
Smilaceae — • 

Smilax tamnoides L. 

rotundi folia L. 
Juncaceae — 

Juncus tenuis Willd. 

acLiminatus Michx. 
Juncus species. 
Juncus species. 
Pontederiaceae — 

Pontederia cordata L. 
Piaropus crassipes (Mart.) Britton. 
Commelynaceae — 

Conimelyna Virginica L. 

Nashii Small. 
Cyperaceae — 

Cyperus virens Michx. 

esculentus L. 

articulatus L. 

cylindricus (Ell.) Chap. 

strigosus L. 

erythrorhizus Muhl. 

echinatus Britton. 

rotundus L. 
Kyllingia pumila Michx. 
Eleocharis albida Torr. 

tuberculosa R. Br. 

acicularis R. Br. 
Eleocharis species. 
Scirpus lacustris L. 

pungens Vahl. 

martimus L. 

lineatus Michx. 
Dichromena leucocephala Michx. 
Carex tribuloides Wahl. 
Carex species. 



63 

Gramineae — 

Aristida stricta Michx. 
Cenchrus tribuloides L. 
Chaetochloa imberbis (Poer) Scrib. 

glauca (L.) Scrib. 
Chloris petraea Sw. 

Dactyloctenium Aegyptum (L.) Willd. 
Diplachne fascicularis (Lam.) Beauv. 
Distichlis spicata (L.) Guene. 
Eatonia obtusata (Michx.) A. Gray. 

Pennsylvania, D. C. 
Eleusine Indica (L.) Gaert. 
Elymus Virginicus L. 
Eragrostis Purshii Schrad. 

hypnoides (L.) B. S. P. 

secundiflora Presl. 
Eriochloa longifolia Vasey. 
Hordeum pusillum Nutt. 
Panicum proliferum Lam. 

paspaloides Pers. 
Capriolon dactylon L. 
Paspalaum ciliatifolium Michx. 

dilatatum Poir. 

plicatulum Michx. 

lividum Trin. 

compressum (Sw.) Nees. 

longpipedunciilatum LeConte. 
Phalaris angusta Nees. 
Phragmites Phragmites (L.) Karst. 
Poa annua L. 
Spartina junciformis Engelm. & Gray. 

polystachya (Michx.) Ell. 

patens (Ait.) Muhl. 
Sporobolus Indicus (L.) R. Br. 
Steenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze. 
Syntherisma canguinalis (L.) Dulac. 

linearis (Kwk.) Nash. 
Zizania aquatica L. 
Zizaniopsis miliacea (Michx.) D. & A. 



64 

Algae — 

Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Grev. 

Ectocarpus Mitchellae Harvey. 
These two species are found constantly, associated together in 
the shallow pools on the jetties. 
Mosses — 

Cryphaea glomerata B. S. 

Cylindrothecium seductrix Sull. 

Funaria hygrometica Sibth. 

Thudium gracile B. S. 

Raphidostegium microcarpum C. Muel. 

Weisia viridula Brid. 






65 ^-^Xx-.-^.^wV; 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ENTOMOLOGY OF THE Rfe-"^ )^ 
GION OF THE GULF BIOLOGIC STATION 



JAMES S. HINE. 



This short paper is the resuU of some secondary work at collect- 
ing insects during a stay of two v/eeks at the Gulf Biologic Station 
in August 1903. Although many of the species mentioned are 
common the list given below will serve to give some idea of the 
insect fauna of the region at that season. All species mentioned 
are represented by one or more specimens actually collected and a 
number not yet determined are excluded from the list. 

To the Division of Entomology at Washington under whose di- 
rection I took the trip, and to those in charge of the Gulf Biologic 
Station who granted me many privileges I wish to express my 
appreciation. I am also indebted to Professor Herbert Osborn of 
the Ohio State University for determining all the Hemiptera, and 
to Messrs Ashmead and Coquillett of the U. S. National Museum, 
and Mr. Charles Dury of Cincinnati for determining the Hymen- 
optera, Diptera and Coleoptera preceeded by an asterisk (*). 

Since the primary object of my trip was the study of stock pests, 
the forms most attractive to me were mosquitoes, horseflies of the 
family Tabanidae, dragonflies, and a few. species of predaceous 
Hymenoptera and Diptera. 

Mosquitoes are abundant and consequently annoying to both 
man and beast. The salt-marsh species especially is furnished 
with ideal breeding grounds, and as its bites are very severe it is 
a pest of paramount importance. The question of its control fur- 
nishes an important insect problem which the director of the sta- 
tion has taken up with enthusiasm and if he reaches a successful 
solution the people of the locality will be greatly indebted to him. 

The large dragonfly, Anax juiiius, is exceedingly abundant and 
swarms of the species appear in the evening and busy themselves 
at feeding on small insects. Although there is no way of knowing 
just how much good these predaceous insects do, it is certain that 
they should be considered in connection with the mosquito prob- 
lem of the locality. 

Not many species of horseflies were observed, but three species 
were abundant. The country furnishes abundant breeding grounds 
for these three species and for that reason the problem of their 
control is an immense one. Although the successful control of 
these flies has always been accompanied with dififi.culties I am of 



66 

the opinion that a thorough study of their Hfe histories and habits 
will yield good results. In Louisiana as well as in other states a 
number of predaceous insects contribute towards checking the 
ravages of these Diptera. 

Among Hymenoptera the large horse guard, Monedula Carolina, 
has striking predaceous habits. It is not uncommon to see from 
one to half a dozen of these flying around an animal catching 
horseflies which they carry away to their nests. I was much in- 
terested in the species and one who observes it for a time cannot 
help but admire its industry and skill. The regret is that it is not 
ten times more abundant at the season when horseflies are so 
plentiful. 

Another species of the same family as the last, Bembex belfra- 
gei, was commonly observed catching Tabanids from grasses and 
sedges in marshy places. This species was common but on account 
of its habits was not so often observed as the preceding. 

Another predaceous Hymenopteron, Crabro lo-maculatus, was 
of a great deal of interest but its habits when catching its prey 
were different from either of the others. This species was always 
observed flying around the building watching for flies resting on 
the siding; when one was located it hovered for a time three or 
four feet from its prey, then making a dash so rapidly that the 
eye could scarcely follow it, secured and flew away with its prize. 

As Tabanids were so common everywhere I suspect many preda- 
ceous insects that usually fed on other species, fed upon them 
largely during the time my observations were made. Some of the 
robberflies were rather common about the fields where the cattle 
were pasturing and were busy capturing horseflies which had filled 
themselves with blood and had left the animal and alighted on a 
weed or blade of grass. 

Most of the general collecting I did was done close to the sta- 
tion building, and many of the species were taken by sweeping, 
but some were taken from windows and some were found resting 
on the siding of the building. 

Beetles of the family Cicindelidae were numerous in individuals 
but not many species were noted. T. Carolina was observed in a 
few cases at dusk running on the ground and in one or two cases 
I came across it by turning over boards or rubbish. C. togata is a 
very pretty and active species. It appears to be rather common 
but only a few specimens were taken. C. repanda and dorsalis 
were extremely common. 

The species of Eristalis taken were common among the flowers 
of composite plants that grew in abundance on the higher ground. 



^7 

E. vinetorum was plentiful and the sound of the vibrations of their 
wings could be heard on every hand when one entered a patch of 
flowers. 

The Tachina flies were quite plentiful in individuals but the 
number of species was rather limited. Beskia aelops was the most 
interesting to me of all these flies taken, as I had never seen it be- 
fore and it is rather attractive when on the wing. All the other 
Tachinids given below were procured in numbers and the widely 
distributed Archytas analis could be seen on every hand. 

The earwig I have identified as Labidura riparia was abundant 
at one spot but I saw it no where else. Under a board that lay 
near where I often passed I observed a large number of specimens 
in various stages of development. They had burrows into the 
ground beneath the board but seemed to leave these at times and 
crawl some distance away. 

One of the most interesting Hemipterons to me is the one called 
Tinobregmus vittatus. It is a large species of the family Jassidae 
and appears to have selected as its food-plant the common woody 
composite that seems to agree with the description of Iva frutes- 
cens. Professor Osborn has treated this insect in the November 
number of the current volume of The Ohio Naturalist. 

Odonata — Ischnura ramburii Selys. Anomalagrion hastatum 
Say. Anax Junius Drury. Pantala flavescens Fabr. Tramea 
Carolina Linn. Micrathyria berenice Drury. 

Euplexoptera — Labidura riparia Pall. 

Orthoptera — Schistocerca obscura Fabr. 

Hemiptera — Cicada tibicen Linn. Stictocephala festina Say. 
Acutalis calva Say. Bothriocera bicornis Fabr. Scolops dessi- 
catus Uhler. Phylloscelis atra Germ. Stobaera sp. Pissonotus 
sp. Clastoptera xanthocephala Germ. Macropsis robustus Uhler. 
Agallia cinerea O. and B. Agallia constricta V. D. Xerophloea 
grisea Burm. Tettigonia hartii Ball. Draeculicephala reticulata 
Sign. Tinobregm.us vittatus V. D. Athysanus texanus O. and B. 
Athysanus exitiosa Uhler. Platymetopius frontalis V. D. Chlor- 
otettix viridia V. D. Phlepsius sp. Ceroplastes cirripediformis 
Coms. Oebalus pugnax Fabr. Mozena lunata Burm. Ischno- 
demus sp. Pamera longula Dall. Pamera bilobata Say. Poe- 
cyloscytus basalis Reut. Phymata erosa var. fasciata Gray. 

Neuroptera — Brachynemurus abdominalis Say. Myrmeleon 
tectus Walker. Ululodes hyalinus Latr. 

Lepidoptera — Hylephila phylaeus Drury. Prodena eridania 
Cramer. Paectes abrostoloides Guen. 

Diptera — Odomtomyia cincta Oliv. Nemotelus trinotatus 



68 

Meland. Chrys ops flavidus VVied. Tabanus lineola Fabr. Ta- 
banus costalis Wied. Tabanus atratus Fabr. Tabanus quinque- 
vittatus Wied. '^'^Deromyia ( ?) ternata Lw. Atomosia puella 
Wied. Erax maculatus Macq. Exoprosopa dodrans O. S. An- 
thrax lucifer Fabr. Heterostylum robustum O. S. Synechus sim- 
plex Walker. Microdon coarctatus Lw. Pipiza pulchella Will. 
A'lesograpta politum Say. Mesograpta marginatum Say. Volu- 
cella fasciata Macq. Eristalis albiceps Macq. Eristalis latifrons 
Lw. Eristalis vinetorum Fabr. Myiolepta aenea Wied. Hypos- 
tena floridensis Towns. Beskia aelops Walker. Pachyophthal- 
mus signatus Meig. Senotainia trilineata v. d. W. *Brachycoma 
intermedia Towns. Trichophora ruficauda v. d. W. Archytas 
analis Fabr. *Johnsonia elegans Coq. Chrysomyia macellaria 
Fabr. Pseudopyrellia cornicina Fabr. Musca domestica Linn. 
*Haematobia serrata Desv. Stomoxys calcitrans Linn. Limno- 
phora cyrtoneurina Stein. Tetanocera pictipes Lw. Chaetopsis 
aenea Wied. Eumetopia rufipes Macq. Eumetopia varipes Lw. 
Sapromyza quadrilineata Lw. Dichaeta furcata Coq. ^''Psilopa 
flavida Coq. Psilopa fulvipennis Hine. *Notiphila ( ?) erythro- 
cera Lw. Caenia spinosa Lw. *Hippelates pusic Lw. *Oscinis 
dorsata Lw. Agromyza aeneiventris Fall. 

Coleoptcra — Tetracha Carolina Linn. Cicindela repanda Dej. 
Cicindela dorsalis Say. Cicindela togata Laf. Anisosticta seriata 
Melsh. *Scymnus caudalis Lee. *Lacon rectangularis Say. 
Photinus umbratus Lee. Collops tricolor Say. Collops balteatus 
Lee. Canthon laevis Drury. Malledon melanopus Linn. Lepto- 
stylus acnliferus Say. *Exema conspersa Mann. *Pachybrachys 
luridus Fabr. *Systena blanda Melsh. Opatrinus notus Say. 
*Paratenetus punctatus Sol. *Mordellistena pustulata Melsh. 
Eudiagogus pulcher Fah. *Copturus quercus Say. *Centrinus 
( ?) rectrirostris Lee. *Sphenophorus pertinax Oliv. *Spheno- 
phorus ( ?) sayi Gyll. Calandra oryzae Linn. 

Hymenoptera — Myzine sexcincta Fabr. Pelopoeus cementarius 
Drury. Chlorion caerulium Drury. Sphex lauta Cr. *Bembex 
belfragei Cr. *Monedula Carolina Fabr. *Crabro lo-maculatus 
Say. Xylocopa micans St. Farg. 



69 

NOTES ON THE FREE-SWIMMING COPEPODS OF THE 

WATERS IN THE VICINITY OF THE GULF 

BIOLOGIC STATION, LOUISIANA. 



E. FOSTER. 



(Bead before the Louisiana aociety of Naturalists, December 12, 1903 ) 

The members of the order Copepoda form an important section 
of that great class of animals known as the Crustacea ; important, 
not only from the immensity of their number in individuals, but 
as regards the variety of species represented. They are, for the 
most part, very minute in size, and are free-swimming or parasitic 
on fishes or other marine animals. With many of the parasitic 
species, the nauplius or larval stage is free-swimming ; the species 
becoming fixed to their respective hosts only during their later or 
mature ^tate. Other forms may be termed semi-parasitic ; in other 
words, in their mature state they may be able to swim from one 
host to another, and thus, in some cases at least, may come under 
the category of commensals rather than parasites. 

The order is not only found represented in the sea by an im- 
mense number of individuals and a variety of species, but many 
of its members have an exclusively fresh-water habitat, while 
others, again, are to be found chiefly in the brackish-waters of the 
marshes bordering on the sea, in the bays or in the estuaries of 
tidal rivers. 

For the most part they are cosmopolitan as regards their geo- 
graphical distribution, although it may be noted, that of at least 
one fresh-water genus — Diaptomus — no species has, as yet, been 
found common to the waters of this country and the Old World. 
Wider investigations may prove, howvever, that even in the case 
of this genus, members may be found which are cosmopolitan in 
their range. 

Minute as these animals are in size, their immense numbers and 
extraordinary fecundity mark them as perhaps the most important 
of the whole of the Invertebrates from an economic point of view. 
To the fish-culturist they are especially important, forming, as 
they do, the primary food of the majority, if not of the whole 
of our food-fishes ; and, if for no other reason than this, it is a 
curious commentary on scientific research applied to practical ends 
that so little has been done on the order by the zoologists of this 
country. It is true that considerable systematic work has been 
done as regards the fresh-water forms of the United States, espe- 



cially by Western investigators, but outside of some minor inves- 
tigations carried out in Mobile Bay by the late Prof. C. L. Her- 
rick ('84, '87, '95) in the eighties, by Prof. W. H. Wheeler ('00) 
at Woods Hole in 1899, and some recent work in California 
waters, the marine Copepod fauna of America is practically un- 
known, and that of the Gulf perhaps more particularly so. While, 
as regards the parasitic forms, it is only within the last couple of 
years (Wilson '02) that the first serious work on one small 
family — the Argulidae — has been issued under the auspices of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Apart from their economic value, the Copepoda offer to the 
biologist a most fascinating study in their complex develop- 
mental histories. In this direction, he will meet with the inter- 
esting phases of parthenogenesis, heterogenesis and dimorphism, 
than which there are no more curious phenomena in the whole 
book of Nature. 

The time miay come under the rapid increase of population 
when the fisheries of our Southern waters will have become so 
far depleted as to compel artificial cultural operations such as 
have been so successfully carried out in our Eastern waters under 
the auspices of the U. S. Fish Commission in the case of the shad, 
cod, mackerel and lobster fisheries, in the Great Lakes with the 
white fish and on the Pacific Coast with the salmon. This time 
may be distant — and it is to be hoped that it be — but no system 
of artificial fish-culture can be undertaken with any chance of 
success without a knowledge of the full life-histories and habits 
of the species being first ascertained, and that without this knowl- 
edge, it is safe to say that all attempts will prove failures. It is 
only quite recently that the question of the artificial propagation 
of the oyster has been brought prominently before the people of 
Louisiana, and, as with the oyster, it may be that in the near 
future sonic line will have to be taken in regard to some of the 
most delicate of food-fishes now so abundant in our markets. 

Such lines of primary investigation must, of necessity, cover 
a Igng period of patient and continued research. The mere 
patching together of a fact or two, gathered here and there, will 
not be suffcient, and experience gained elsewhere may be of com- 
paratively little value owing to local conditions. It is therefore 
not without significance, that should the above contingency arise, 
the mere fact that the Copepoda form the basis of the food of 
fish fry, and in many cases of mature fishes, will make any pre- 
vious knowledge as to the geographical distribution of the Gulf 
species, of their bathymetrical distribution under varying tern- 



71 

peratures and seasons and the relative abundance of any special 
members of the order of prime importance, and, more especially, 
any facts gleaned as to whetner any special species forms the 
principal food of any particular fish will be of value. Herrmg 
fishers know that their quarry will be found where these little 
animals are in abundance, while every New Bedford or Dundee 
whaler has spun yarns of the well-known "whales' pasture," which 
is nothing more nor less than a reddish patch in the ocean— it may 
be square miles in extent — composed of countless millions of these 
little creatures. 

In carrying out the investigations of the copepod fauna of the 
waters in the immediate vicinity of the Gulf Biologic Station, the 
principal aim was rather to get a line on the different species found 
therein than with any desire to attempt to settle any knotty points 
as to their life-histories. For any serious work along the latter 
line, a long period of sustained investigation is necessary, and 
the short time which the writer was able to devote was, perforce, 
in the way of preliminary systematic work. 

The work was carried on during the first half of September, 
1903, and in its prosecution, collections were made by means of a 
fine-meshed surface net and modified Birge nets from the plank- 
ton, six to eight miles out in the Gulf, in Calcasieu Pass and in 
St. John's Bayou, connecting Lake Calcasieu with the Pass. 
These collections were made at the surface, at from three to four 
feet deep, and at all stations the dredges were sent to the bottom — 
the maximum depth dredged in the Gulf being about twenty feet. 
Owing to the continued drought during the whole of July and 
August, all ponds in the vicinity of the Station were dried up, 
and thus no work could be done on the fresh-water forms. Be- 
3^ond a number of species of CladocerSin-Simocephalus vetulus 
and of an Ostvacod-C ypris virens, found in one of the experi- 
ment jars in the station and in the draw-well near the building, 
nothing in the way of a fresh-water entomostracon was secured, 
thus narrowing down the list to marine members of the order 
Copepoda. 

The fact that the investigations in the Gulf were limited to a 
distance of about eight miles from shore, and that at that distance 
the efifect of the fresh water coming from Calcasieu Pass would 
not be entirely dissipated, would naturally lead to the conclusion 
that a great similarity would be found between the forms from 
the plankton and from the two other stations. This was. in a 
measure, borne out, but it may be mentioned that the Gulf dredg- 
ings were made when wind and other conditions had partly over- 



^2 

conic the wash from the Pass; in other words, when the water 
was of that deep blue color noticeable well out at sea. At no 
period during the writer's stay did the waters of the Pass or of 
St. John's Bayou present any other appearance than muddy. The 
result then was that out of a total of 18 species, twelve were from 
the plankton, of which 9 were not represented in the material from 
either of the other stations, while one was common to all three, 
one common to the plankton and to St. John's Bayou, and one to 
the plankton and to the Pass. Of the 6 forms identified from the 
Bayou only one was not found represented elsewhere, while of 
the 7 from Calcasieu Pass 2 were exclusive. 

The principal feature of the collections was the overwhelming 
predominance of a species of Acartia at all the stations and the 
marked absence of mature forms. The latter is all the more 
peculiar as at the corresponding period of September, 1902, the 
writer found at Pass Christian the majority of the species repre- 
sented in the following list, and the bulk were more or less ma- 
ture. The lateness of the seasons of 1903 may have been reflected 
in the development of these minute forms of marine life, and a 
certain proof of this may be gathered from the fact that the most 
active reproductive period of fresh-water forms in other sec- 
tions of the State was towards the end of October. Usually, in 
the case of these fresh-water forms, the greatest reproductive 
activity is in the early spring — April and May — and in September 
and the first half of October. 

The presence of an extra amount of fresh water in Calcasieu 
Pass and St. John's Bayou, due to protracted high water, might 
have had some effect on the forms, and in this direction the writer 
had a kind of demonstration. On September 12 dredgings were 
made in the Pass between 5 and 6 p. m. The density of the water 
on this day was 1.0164 (uncorrected for temperature). The 
forms were exceedingly abundant, although for the most part im- 
mature. On the following day, under precisely the same condi- 
tions as to temperature and time of day, but with a density of 
1.009 (uncorrected), scarcely anything could be got with the 
dredges, either at the surface, at three feet down or at the 
bottom. The only forms of Crustacea in any numbers were 
nauplii of a species of Cirripedia — probably the oyster-shell 
barnacle — and the zoaea stage of crabs and shrimps. The forms 
had apparently either sought the Gulf or had succumbed to the 
changed conditions. 



73 

NOTES ON SPECIES. 

1. Calanus minor (Claus). A few forms -agreeing well with 
this species were found in the plankton, the only difference noted 
being their somewhat smaller size. 

2. Eucalanus sp. Only a single specimen of this genus has 
been found in the material from the plankton and the lack of suf- 
ficient material has, of necessity, prevented any critical study 
beyond fixing the genus. 

3. Ceiilropagcs typicns Kroyer. 

4. Ceniropagcs furcatus (Dana). 

5. Centropagcs sp. 

The first two of these forms were present in the material from 
the plankton. C- furcatus was comparatively common, while 
only one or two specimens of C. typicus were noted. C. fur- 
catus was also present in material from Calcasieu Pass. A third 
species of the genus, agreeing in some respects with C. hamatus 
(Lillj.) was given cursory study at the Station, but the pre- 
served material has failed to furnish further specimens. The 
presence of hooks on the ist, 2d and 5th joints of the anterior 
antennae place it near to C. furcatus, but the genital segment is 
almost symmetrical. 

6. Eurytemora afUnis (Poppe). The presence of one or two 
individuals of this genus in the material from Calcasieu Pass is 
of interest, proving, as it does, that its range includes the whole 
of the Gulf httoral. 

Plerrick ('84, p. 182) was the first to record and describe the 
species in America from the "shallow bays and estuaries along 
the Gulf of Mexico" under the name of Temora affinis Poppe, 
noting its habitat as littoral and range from salt-water bays to the 
fresh waters of rivers. He later extended his description ('87, 
pp. 7-10; pi. I, figs. 3-6 and pi. II, figs. 9, 10) under the name 
of TcuioreUa affinis Poppe, and gave the salient characters separa- 
ting the genus Temora of Baird ('50) from Temorella of Claus 
('81). Giesbrecht ('81) erected the genus Eurytemora, the ques- 
tion of priority between him and Claus resting on the fact that 
whereas Giesbrecht's paper was published on May 16, 1881, Dr. 
Claus' memoir was only "read" on May 12, 1881, and its publi- 
cation would necessarily be after that of Giesbrecht's. Zoologists 
have adopted Giesbrecht's genus and Herrick ('95, pp. 49-53) 
subsequently noted the form under Eurytemora. 

De Guerne and Richard ('89, p. 88) note Herrick's record as 
a definite variety of the type, and for this opinion there may have 



74 

been justification as the 5th feet of both the female and male 
as figured by Herrick ('87, pi. 1, fig. 4; pi. n, fig. 9) show minor 
diflferences from the type, while the figure of the animal itself 
seems to have been drawn from a compressed alcoholic specimen 
and thus naturally distorted. 

The writer has had under observation, forms from Lake Pont- 
chartrain, the artificial ponds (brackish) in Lower City Park, 
New Orleans, and from the fresh-water ponds in Audubon Park, 
New Orleans, and a critical examination of the diagnostic points 
has led him to the conclusion that our form agrees with the type, 
with the exception that they are somewhat smaller (averaging 
.69mm for the female and .54mm for the male) and that the 
furca of both sexes are somewhat longer in proportion to width 
than in the European specimens. The latter average in length 
1.5mm for both sexes. In our form, the small spine (omitted by 
Herrick) between the two apical spines of the 5th feet of the 
female, as figured by De Guerne and Richard from European 
specimens, has been found in specimens from all localities. 

The species seems to have a wide range, being very common in 
North European waters and recorded from the Caspian Sea, but 
so far as the writer is acquainted with the literature it does not 
seem to have been recorded south of the Gulf. 

From an economic point it seems to be quite important, con- 
stituting at some seasons the almost exclusive food of the shad 
in the Rhine and of the herring in the Baltic. The record from 
the Audubon Park ponds tends to prove the conclusion arrived 
at by European investigators, that it is equally at home in abso- 
lutely fresh as in brackish waters. 

7. Labidoccra sp. A few female specimens of a fairly large 
size (2.60mm) were secured from the plankton which seem to 
break away from the described species of this genus. The 
species approaches L. nerii (Kroyer) in the abdomen being 2- 
segmented and the genital segment symmetrical. It also comes 
near to L. nerii in the presence of 3 spines to the apical joint of 
the outer ramus of the 5th foot, but is without the minute spines 
on the outer margin as in that species, while the inner ramus is 
prolonged into a symmetrical and rather robust acute tooth in- 
stead of into an asymmetrical short and knob-shaped process as in 
L. nerii. The genital opening is central, while in L. nerii it lies 
towards the left side. In the wing-shaped lateral prolongations 
to the last thoracic segment it is similar to L. nerii. 

The form also approaches near to L. aestiva Wheeler, in the 
symmetrical genital segment and position of the genital opening 



75 

and in the 2-segTnented abdomen and proportions of tlie furca, 
wliile it differs from that species in the presence of rather long 
hooks to the rostrum, in the shorter antennae and in the absence 
of the plumose setae to the outer margins of the basal segments 
of the 5th feet. It also differs from L. aestiva in the last thoracic 
segment being not so sharply pointed at the angles and in its 
greater size (2.60mm as against 1.75mm to 2mm for L. aestiva.) 

The absence of the male form makes it difficult to settle defi- 
nitely whether it is distinct from either of the two mentioned 
species or merely a variety of one of them, and although the 
above variations would almost warrant the erection of a new 
species, the writer would prefer to leave that question open until 
a closer examination of the preserved material is made. 

The minor points noticed were the densely hirsute margins 
of joints I to 13 of the anterior antennae, some of the aesthetasks 
and all the antennal setae being plumose, while on the proximal 
setae the plumes were exceptionally well defined. The genital 
segment has lateral hairs. The thorax of an average specimen 
measured 2.04mm; abdomen, .56mm. Genital segment as 14:8 
in proportion to the foUow-segment ; 2d segment to furca as 
107; length of furca to width as 7:3; length of furcal setae, 
.39mm. 

8. Acartia tonsa Dana. 

9. Acartia gracilis Herrick 

Herrick ('84, p. 181) noted with doubt a form from the Gulf 
under the name of Dias longiremis Lilljeborg. His material was 
insufficient to establish his diagnosis definitely, and while he sub- 
sequently ('87, p. 7; pi. I, figs I, la and 2) recorded and figured 
the same species under Acartia gracilis, and at the same time gave 
a short desription and comparison with other species of the genus, 
his diagnosis is so incomplete as to be relatively of very little 
value to the student of the Copepoda. Moreover, his figure of the 
female animal itself gives 20 joints to the anterior antennae, 
whereas only 17 are present in Acartia. For this error he may 
be excused through the paucity of material and the fact that the 
joints are extremely difficult to differentiate both in the live 
animal and in preserved specimens. 

Giesbrecht and Schmeil ('98, p. 156) record merely the name 
and place it among their uncertain species. 

The overwhelming predominence of this form at all stations, 
and the fact that it is quite the commonest species in the Gulf, 
off Pass Christian and in Lake Pontchartrain lead the writer tO: 
believe that the species has once more come under observation. 



76 

In general outline and in the rounded lateral corners to the 
last thoracic segment in both sexes, the form approaches near to 
that of A. tonsa Dana and to A. giesbrechii (Dahl), while in 
size (i.oimm to 1.12mm for the mature female; 92mm to i.oomm 
for the male) it approximates closely to measurements given for 
both the above forms. In the presence of rostral filaments (rather 
in the shape of attenuated hooks than filaments) it also approaches 
the two mentioned species. 

In A. tonsa, the anterior antennae of the female reach not quite 
to the posterior margin of the genital segment, while in mature 
forms of A. gracilis these organs reach well over the margin, 
but in immature specimens only to the end of the last thoracic seg- 
ment. 

As in A. tonsa, the abdomen is relatively short, being a little 
less than one-fourth the length of the thorax, while there are no 
thorns on the genital segment. The female of A. gracilis differs 
from that of A. tonsa in the absence of hairs to the abdominal 
segments; the only hairs present on the numerous specimens ex- 
amined from all localities mentioned being confined to the inner 
and outer margins of the furca, although the anal segment of the 
male is rather densely haired on the margins, while the fine spines 
present on the second abdominal segment of the male of A. tonsa 
are absent in A. gracilis 

In A. gracilis, the genital segment of the female is equal to 
the two following; the 2d and 3d about equal, and the furca 
equal to the 3d, with the proportion of length to width as 8:6. 
In the male, these characters approach very near to A. tonsa. 

The fifth feet of the female are practically the same as figured 
for A. tonsa, having the curious barbed-like projections to the 
middle of the attenuated apical claw, while the lateral setae are 
plumose as in the latter species. 

From 7 to 8 very minute points are present at the rounded 
corners of the last thoracic segment of the male. 

A. giesbrechii differs from A. tonsa mainly in having only 
the anal segment very sparsely haired and in the somewhat 
greater length of the anterior antennae. In these respects, A. gra- 
cilis approaches nearer A. giesbrechii than A. tonsa, and these 
diflferences are of so minor character as to lead to the belief that 
A. gracilis and A. giesbrechii are one and the same species, but 
without a comparison with Dahl's types the question could hardly 
be settled. If they be identical, Dahl's specific name will have to 
give way to that of Herrick, the latter having published A. gra- 
cilis seven years previous to the description of A. giesbrechii, 



from material gathered in the estuary of the Brazilian river 
Tocantins. 

A few typical forms of A. fonsa were found in the plankton 
along with A. gracilis. 

The predominance of A. gracilis over all other species would 
seem to give it special economic value, and it would be interesting 
to note whether any of our Gulf fishes make an exclusive diet 
off the animal, either at certain seasons of the year or at some 
certain stages of their life histories. 

10. Tortamis sp. A single specimen of this curious genus was 
noted at the Station in material from the plankton, but was not 
given critical study at the time, and the preserved material has 
failed to furnish other specimens. 

11. Oithona similis Claus. A few specimens of what fitted 
in very well with the descriptions of Claus' form were secured 
from Calcasieu Pass and St. John's Bayou. The form was the 
only species found with the egg-sacs attached during the whole 
period of the writer's stay at the Station. Some of the other 
species had spermataphores attached, and thus ensured maturity 
and a safe basis for diagnosis, but the general absence of eggs 
was a marked feature in all the gatherings. 

12. Miracia efferata Dana. This well differentiated Harpac- 
ticid was found in sparse numbers in collections from St. John's 
Bayou only. 

13. Ameira sp. One or two specimens fitting in with this 
genus were found in St. John's Bayou and Calcasieu Pass. The 
species has not yet been sufficiently studied so as to place it 
definitely. 

14. Laophonte mississippieiisis Herrick (?). A few speci- 
mens of what seemed to be Herrick's species were found in Cal- 
casieu Pass gatherings. More material will be required before 
the form can be placed definitely; 

15. Oncaea venusti Philippi. A few specimens of this rather 
handsome form were secured in the plankton and were given 
cursory examination at the Station from fresh material brought 
in, but which afterwards gave out before it could be gone over 
thoroughly. 

16. Corycaeus elongatus Claus. 

17. Corycaeus cariuatns Giesbrecht. 

18. Corycaeus sp. 

The first named species of Corycaeus was rather common in 
the plankton collections, and was also noticed in material from 
St. John's Bayou. A few specimens agreeing well with the 



78 

description of C. carinatus were found with the former in St. 
John's Bayou, although in less numbers. A third species from 
the plankton, with extremely attenuated abdomen, differs mate- 
rially from any descriptions of species with which the writer is 
acquainted. The genus is rather well provided with species, and 
until all descriptions are available, so that full comparisons can 
be made, the form has been retained for further study. 



SUMMARY OF THE FOREGOING SPECIES. 

St. John's Calcasieu 
Plankton Bayou Pass 

Calanus minor ^ 

Eucalanus sp X 

Centropages typicus X 

Centropages furcatus X X 

Centropages sp X 

Eurytemora affinis X 

Labidocera sp X 

Acartia gracilis X X X 

Acartia tonsa X 

Tortanus sp X 

Githona similis X X 

Miracia efferata X 

Ameira sp X X 

Laophonte mississippiensis (?) X 

Oncaea venusta X 

Corycaeus elongatus X X 

Corycaeus carinatus X X 

Corycaeus sp X 

Species 12 6 7 

The writer begs to offer his best thanks to Prof. H. A. Morgan 
for many courtesies extended him during his stay at the Station. 



79 
WORKS CITED. 

'50 — Baird, W. The Natural History of the British Entomos- 
traca, London, printed for the Ray Society, 1850. 

'81 — Claus, C. Ueber die Gattungen Temora und Temorella, 
Sitzd. k. k. A4<ad. Wiss. Wien. Lxxxviii, 1881. 

'81 — Giesbrecht, W. Vorlaufige, Mittheiking aus einer Arbeit 
uber die freilebenden Copopoden des Kieler Hafens. Zool. 
• Anz. IV., No. 83, 16 May, 1881. 

'98 — Giesbrecht & Schmeil. Copepoda-Gymnoplea. Das Tier- 
reich, 6 Lieferung. BerHn, 1898. 

'89 — De Guerne, Jules, and Jules Richard. Revision des Calanides 
d'Eau Douce. Mem. de la Soc. Zool. de France, II., pp. 53- 
181. Paris, 1889. 

'84 — Herrick, C. L. A Final Report on the Crustacea of Min- 
nesota included in the Orders Cladocera and Copepoda, to- 
gether with a Synopsis of the Described Species in North 
America, and Keys to the Known Species of the more im- 
portant Genera. 12th Annl. Rept. Geol. & Nat. Hist. Survey 
of Minnesota. Minneapolis, 1884. 

'87 — Herrick, C. L. Contribution to the Fauna of the Gulf of 
Mexico and the South. Memoirs of the Denison Scientific 
Assoc. Granville, Ohio, October, 1887. 

'95 — Herrick, C. L., and C. H. Turner. Synopsis of the Entomos- 
traca of Minnesota with Descriptions of Related Species, com- 
prising all known forms from the United tSates included in 
the Orders Copepoda, Cladocera, Ostracoda. Second Rept. 
State Zoologist, St. Paul, Minn., November, 1895. 

'00 — Wheeler, William Morton. The Free-Swimming Copepods 
• of the Woods Hole Region. U. S. Fish Com. Bull, 1899, pp. 
157-192. Washington, 1900. 

'02 — Wilson, Charles Branch. North American Parasitic Cope- 
pods of the Family Argulidae with a Bibliography of the 
Group and a Systematic Review of All Known Species. 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XXV, pp. 635-742, pi. VIII-XXVII. 
Washington, 1902. 



8o 

REPORT ON THE CONDITIONS OF BIRD-LIFE AS 
NOTED AT THE GULF BIOLOGIC STATION. 

The exceedingly limited nature of my observations made it 
impossible to do more than estimate the value of the vicinity of 
Cameron as a field for the ornithologist. The striking element of 
bird-life even at the season of my visit was the abundance of the 
Limicolae. As shown by the accompanying list, all but two of 
the Limicolae known to breed in Louisiana were found at Cam- 
eron during my brief stay. The species I failed to observe were 
the Oyster-catcher (Haematopus palliatus Temm.) and the Turn- 
stone (Arenaria interpres — Linn). In addition, the Sanderling 
(Calidris arenaria — Linn) was found, and I saw at least two other 
species that are merely transients in Louisiana, but I had not 
at hand the means of determining their identification. That the 
limicoline fauna of the neighborhood of Cameron must be 
exceedingly rich during the height of the migrations, therefore, 
seems certain. Other water-birds, as well, find the section in 
question very attractive. Except during the migrations, when 
many species of land birds would doubtless be found resting 
among the thickets on the prairie, the land birds are limited 
chiefly to species that love the open, the meadow-lark, kingbird, 
nighthawk, mourning dove, bob-white, painted bunting, etc., etc. 
A characteristic feature of the terrestrial bird-life of the place is 
the fondness shown by nearly all the small species for the thickets 
of the small tree Bumelia lanuginosa Pers. 

SPECIES OF BIRDS OBSERVED AT THE GULF BIOLOGIC STATION. 

1. Lams articilla (Linn). — Laughing Gull. 

2. Anhinga anhinga (Linn). — Water-turkey, or snake-bird." 

3. Tantalus locnlator (Linn).— Wood Ibis. One small flock 
seen. 

4. Arda hcrodias ALiitiiQ. — Great Blue Heron 

5. Florida coernlea (Linn). — Little Blue Heron. 

6. Butorides viresceiis (Linn).— Little Green Heron. Very 
common. 

7. Nyctinassa z'iolacca (Linn). — Yellow-crowned Night 
Heron. 

10. /-eaZ/H.^.s-/'— Clapper? Rail. 

11. Hiinantopns mcxicanus (Mull). — Black-necked Stilt. One 
seen July 2. 

12. Calidris arenaria (Linn). — Sanderling. About 5 were 
seen on the beach June 30. 



8i 

13. Symphemia semipalmata inoniata (Brewst). — Western 
Willet. The characteristic wader in the marsh prairies. 

14. Actitis macularia (Linn). — Spotted Sandpiper. 

15. Numenius longirostris (Wils). — Long-billed Curlew. Saw 
one July 2. 

16. Aegialitis vocifera ALimiQ. — Kildeer. 

17. Ochthodromus wilsonius (Ord). — Wilson's Plover. Com- 
mon on the beach. 

18. Coiinus virginianus (Linn). — Bob-white. 

19. Zenaidura macro lira {Umn). — Mourning Dove. Common. 

20. Cathartes aura (Linn). — Turkey Vulture. 

21. Catharista uniba (Vieill), — Black Vulture. 

22. Chordeiles virginianus (Gmel). — Nighthawk. Abundant, 
and to a large extent diurnal. 

23. Tyrannus tyrannus (Linn). — Kingbird. The multitude of 
bushes and thickets at Cameron proves very attractive to the 
Kingbird. 

24. Corvus ossifragus (Wils). — Fish Crow. 

25. Agelaius phoeniceus (Linn). — Red-winged Blackbird. 

26. Sturnella magna argutula (Bangs). — Southern Meadow- 
lark. Abundant on the prairie. 

27. Icterus spurius (Linn). — Orchard Oriole. Found about 
the few groves in the neighborhood. 

■ 28. Megaquiscalus major (Vieill). — Boat-tailed Crackle. 

29. Cardinalis cardinalis (Linn). — Rather common about the 
thickets. 

30. Cyanospisa ciris (Linn). — Painted Bunting. Common 
about the thickets. 

31. Spisa americana (Gmel). — Black-throated Bunting. Saw 
one female in weeds not far from beach. 

32. Telmatodytes palustris (Wils). — Long-billed Marsh Wren. 
Not noted in the immediate neighborhood of the Station, but a 
few miles up the Calcasieu River. 

33. Mimus polyglottos (Linn). — Mockingbird. 



82 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO STOCK IN THE VICINITY 
OF THE GULF BIOLOGIC STATION.* 



BY JAMES S. HINE. 



The Gulf Biologic Station is located at Cameron, La., near the 
mouth of the Calcasieu River, which empties into the Gulf of 
Mexico a few miles from the Texas boundary. The writer ar- 
rived there August 14, 1903, with directions from the United 
States Department of Agriculture to investigate the stock insects 
of the region. A report on a subject like the present one, ob- 
served for a short time, must necessarily be incomplete, and 
some suggestions are omitted which if developed might lead to 
important results. 

Mosquitoes are very abundant and are serious pests to both 
man and beast. The director of the station, Prof. H. A. Morgan, 
is actively engaged in studying them. 

Several of the Muscids, such as the stable fly, hornfiy, screw- 
worm fly, and Hippelates flies, are also plentiful. 

Although directed to investigate stock insects, the writer under- 
stood that horseflies of the family Tabanidee were to be his special 
subject, consequently most of his time during a two weeks' stay 
was devoted to these forms. 

The whole country is only a few feet above sea level and 'is 
favorable for the development of the Tabanidse on account of the 
large acreage of wet and marshy land. Running nearly parallel 
to the shore of the Gulf is a series of alternating ridges and de- 
pressions. The depressions form extensive fresh-water marshes, 
over a part of which the water stands the year round. Such spe- 
cies as oviposit over mud or stagnant water find ideal conditions 
in this region, and consequently some of them are abundant. 

SPECIES OF TABANIDAE OBSERVED. 

A large number of species have a range such as would safely 
include them within the fauna of Louisiana; and besides the 
writer has seen nearly a dozen species from that State, but during 
his stay there only five were collected or observed, but at least 
three of these are among the worst stock pests of the family, and 
taking into consideration their abundance in the region, they are 
certainly i serious drawback to stock raising. 

♦Reprinted from "Some Miscellaneous Results of the Work of the Division of 
Entomology, \ II. "-U. S. Dept. Agr. Division of Entomology. Bull. No. 44. Wash- 
ington, lit03, pp. .57-60. 



83 

Chrysops iiavidus Wied. was the only one of its genus observed, 
and owing to the lateness of the season only now and then a 
specimen was seen. It is said to have been an abundant and 
troublesome pest earlier. 

Tahanus atratus Fab. was occasionally seen. As in other locali- 
ties, it is present through nearly the entire summer, but usually 
not abunda? t enough to be considered a serious pest. Only a few 
specimens were observed molesting horses and cattle. 

Tahanus lineola Fab. is a widely distributed species and every- 
where is of especial economic importance. It was comimon at 
Camcn^n, and is one of the three species referred to above as 
heiug especially injurious. 

Tabanus costalis Wied., the common greenhead, was abundant 
and appeared to be more persistent in its attacks than any of the 
others. When sucking blood it is usually located on the under 
parts or on the fore legs, where an animal has most difficulty in 
reaching it, and once it alights it is pretty sure to satisfy its appe- 
tite before leaving. 

Tabanus qiiiiujuejiiaculatus Wied. has not been reported from 
the United States heretofore, but the commonest species observed 
at Cameron agrees very closely with Wiedemann's description. 
Besides, it is reported from Mexico by both Wiedemann and Bel- 
lardi, so it would not be strange to find it in Louisiana. This 
species appears much like costalis, but is larger, has two purple 
bands on the eye instead of one, and the costal cell is hyaline. 
It is also close to lineola in appearance, but the color of the vesti- 
ture of the body is decidedly more yellowish, and the upper purple 
band of the eye is noticeably narrower than in that species. 
Besides, it averages larger than either costalis or lineola, but 
undersized specimens are often met with. 

Since no systematic experiments were carried on at the Gulf 
Biologic Station, what the writer has to say regarding remedies 
may be considered as suggestions, derived partly from observa- 
tions on the conditions existing in that section, and partly from 
work and experience in Ohio. 

NATURAL ENEMIES. 

Xhe natural enemies of the Tabanidse is an interesting subject 
for investigation at the Gulf Biologic Station. The writer is un- 
der obligations to Messrs. Ashmead and Coquillett for the names 
of most of the species mentioned below. 

Monedula Carolina Fab., a large and attractive species of the 
familv Bembecidse, is common, and its habit of flying around horses 



84 

and cattle for the purpose of catching Tabanids and other stock 
pests is so noticeable that it has received the common name of 
horse-guard.* 

One commonly sees from one to three or four of these at work 
around a single animal. 

Bemhex belfragci Cr. belongs to the same family as the last and 
like it is an important enemy of horseflies. It has different habits, 
however, for instead of capturing prey around animals, it flies 
about the fields in the vicinity of marshes and captures males and 
females at their breeding grounds. It is a common occurrence 
to see a specimen carrying an adult Tabanid. 

Both the above species deposit their eggs in burrows which 
they make in the sand, and they store the burrows with insects 
for the young to feed upon when they hatch. It is not uncommon 
to find from half a dozen to a dozen specimens of Tabanus in a 
single burrow, besides other insects. Professor Morgan says that 
he has taken seventeen horseflies, one Syrphid, one Tachinid and 
one Stratiomyiid from a single burrow. 

Crabro lO-maculatus Say, another wasp, is an expert at catching 
Tabanids, and the writer often saw them capture the flies and 
carry them away. None of their nests were found, but it would 
appear that they have about the same habit in this regard as the 
Bembecids. 

Erax maculatus Macq. and species of Deromyia were rather 
common and were often observed feeding upon different species of 
Tabanidse. 

That chickens may become a factor in destroying stock pests 
was proved by the fact that they were often observed following 
cattle in the pasture, picking off such Tabanids as alighted on the 
lower extremities of the animals for the purpose of sucking blood. 

I wish to express my appreciation for many kindnesses shown 
me during my stay at the Gulf Biologic Station. Professor Mor- 
gan and his co-workers have a rare opportunity for investigating 
the economic and other biologic problems of interest to the people 
of that section of the country. 

METHODS OF CONTROL. 

In my "Tabanidse of Ohio" I suggested the use of kerosene on 
the surface of the water for killing larvae hatched from eggs de- 
posited over water. Of course this method could not be used in 

*A name which it shares with the great digger wasp (iiphecius [Stizus] speciosus 
Dru.) 



85 

cases where deposition took place over damp ground, as was ob- 
served at Cameron. One finds eggs of costalis and a number of 
other species in such places quite frequently. 

With so much standing water to be considered, it would be an 
immense undertaking to use kerosene for killing adult flies, as sug- 
gested by Porchinski in Russia, and commented on by Doctor 
Howard in Bulletin No. 20 (n. s.). Division of Entomology (p. 
24). It appears that both of the above suggestions, as well as 
others that might be mentioned, are of most value in special cases ; 
in fact there is seldom a single remedy in use in economic treat- 
ment of insects that is appropriate at all times with reference to a 
particular species or group of nearly related species. 

It is my belief that species of the genus Tabanus have a habit 
which if better understood might be utilized in trapping them in 
numbers sufficient to materially lessen their ravages. I refer to 
their habit of collecting in certain places, as' on buildings, fences, 
and the like. The habit has been observed at different times and 
in different places but I saw it more forcibly at the Gulf Biologic 
Station than at any other place I have observed. The sexes of 
the last three species of Tabanus mentioned above flew around the 
station building in numbers, often resting on the siding and win- 
dows or striking against the glass and screens ; then flew away so 
rapidly that the eye could not follow them. August 23, I obr 
tained permission to open the screens from one of the doors to see 
what the result would be. The screens from a doorway (7 by 5^^ 
feet) were left open from 10 in the morning to 3 in the afternoon, 
after which between a pint and a quart of flies of the size of the 
common costalis were procured from the windows upon the inside 
of the building. All but about a dozen of these were females, 
which, as was proved by dissection, had not yet laid their eggs. I 
believe that a trap might be manufactured that would attract, 
Tabanids in the same way that they are attracted to the building in 
question. 

It is worth mentioning that a few females of atratus were taken 
with the above, so it is probable that if this species had been as 
numerous as the others just as striking results could have been 
obtained with regard to it. 



86 

SOME ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS WITH REFER- 
ENCE TO THE TABANIDAE.* 



BY JAMES S. HINE. 



An interesting entomological study is that which has for its ob- 
ject the separation of beneficial and injurious species, but it is 
safe to say that one is almost sure to meet with perplexing ques- 
tions when he undertakes a study of the kind. Some statements 
bearing on the matter regarding the Tabanidas have appeared from 
time to time in the literature of economic entomology. If I un- 
derstand the situation, some hold that it is not advisable to attack 
these insects in the immature stages on account of the predaceous 
habits of the larvae. So far as the study of this latter stage has 
advanced, all that bears on feeding habits indicates that they are 
as apt to feed on beneficial as injurious forms; and since the reme- 
dies for horseflies in any stage are, to a degree, unsatisfactory, it 
seems best to pursue any mode of attack that offers results with- 
out reference to the stage in which the attack is made. 

By studying the egg-laying habits of different species, it is re- 
vealed that there is a certain uniformity in regard to the matter. 
Tab anus siygius Say, in the locality where I have studied it, 
places its masses of eggs on the leaves of Sagittaria almost alto- 
gether, and since these plants have a tendency to grow in patches, 
one often finds a small area where these eggs are very abundant, 
while but a short distance away where the plants may not be grow- 
ing scarcely any are to be found. A few counts of the number of 
eggs composing a mass are of interest. Twenty masses of Ta- 
banus triuiaculatus averaged over 500 eggs each, and several 
masses of T. stygins averaged almost as many. From a desire to 
know how many eggs could be collected in a given time, I have 
found that it is easily possible to find places where as many as 
60,000 may be taken in a single hour. Therefore it looks reason- 
able that some method of gathering the eggs might produce good 
results, especially when we consider the large size of the masses 
and the fact that these masses usually contrast very strongly in 
color with the objects to which they are attached. And again, the 
fact that a small area of marshy ground or stagnant water in some 
regions may be the only location in a large scope of country that 
offers favorable conditions for the oviposition of the Tabanidge. 
It is not to be supposed that an account of the habits and life 

♦Reprinted from "Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Asso- 
ciation of Economic Entomologists."— U. S. Dept, Agr., Division of Entomoloey 
Bull. No. 46, Washington, 1901, pp. 23-25. 



87 

history of one species will furnish facts which may be applied in 
all particulars to the other members of the family. A careful 
study of each species is almost sure to bring out striking differ- 
ences, and it is this fact that makes their study interesting and in- 
structive. Eggs may be placed in difTerent situations, for example^ 
over water or over mud, usually according to the species ; but at 
other times it seems according to circumstances. Some species are 
known to habitually attach their eggs to projecting stones in rip- 
ples, others to foliage or any projecting object over stagnant water. 
It appears that the commonest species and at the same time the 
worst stock pests oviposit over stagnant water or over wet ground. 
Larvae hatched from eggs placed over water must drop into the 
water, and therefore a measure of success may be had by using 
contact insecticides on its surface at hatching time. 

The method so long used of applying some oily or ill-smelling 
substance to stock for the purpose of repelling the flies has certain 
virtues that should not be lost sight of, but a single application is of 
such short duration and the objection to making such applica- 
tions to animals so common that if any other equally effective 
measures could be brought out the former would become unpop- 
ular. 

Since the injury caused by horseflies is produced only by the 
adults, a remedy for this stage is most desirable, and it is to be 
hoped that a careful study of the habits of this stage may reveal 
points where successful attacks may be made. Porchinski, of 
Russia, and Howard, of this country, have already made a notable 
contribution along this line; and besides, the habit which the 
adults of some species, at least, have of collecting in certain situa- 
tions seems to offer promise of good results. In the few experi- 
ments I have made in this connection it has been demonstrated to 
my satisfaction that it is possible to get good results by systemat- 
ically trapping the adults. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 

Treasurer's Office of the Gulf Biologic Station, 
Lake Charles, La., April i8, 1904. 

H. A. Morgan, Director Gulf Biologic Station, Baton Rouge, La. 

Sir — In accordance with your request, I beg leave to submit the 
following report of receipts and disbursements for account of 
Gulf Biologic Station from the beginning of its operations in 1900 
to the present date, April 18, 1904. 

Frank Roberts, Treasurer Gulf Biologic Station, in account with 
Gulf Biologic Station — 

RECEIPTS. 

Jan. 9, 1900 — Cameron Parish $ 500.00 

Jan. 9, 1900 — Calcasieu Parish 100.00 

June 10, 1901 — Perkins & Miller L. Co 50.00 

June 13, 1901 — State of Louisiana 5,000.00 

Aug. 21, 1901 — H. C. Drew 100.00 

Aug. 2:^,, 1901 — North American L. & T. Co 250.00 

July 18, 1902 — State of Louisiana 1,250.00 

Oct. 10, 1902 — State of Louisiana 1,250.00 

Jan. 7, 1903 — State of Louisiana 1,250.00 

April 4, 1903 — State of Louisiana 1,250.00 

July 7, 1903 — State of Louisiana 1,250.00 

July 22, 1903— Board of Heahh 225.00 

Sept. 4, 1903— Board of Health 75.00 

Sept. 9, 1903— Board of Health 75.00 

Oct. 3, 1903 — State of Louisiana 1,250.00 

Oct. 16, 1903 — Board of Health 75-oo 

Nov. 13, 1903— Board of Health 75.00 

Jan. 12, 1904 — State of Louisiana 1,250.00 

April 9, 1904 — State of Louisiana 1,250.00 

$16,525.00 



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lOI • 

SUMMARY. 

Receipts forward $16,525.00 

Disbursements — 

Preliminary Expense acct $1,014.54 

Construction acct 6,909.50 

Operating Expense acct 2,043.35 

Equipment acct 3,295.23 

Rent acct 92.00 13,354.62 

Cash balance $3,170.38 

FRANK ROBERTS, Treasurer. 



STATEMENT. 

The investigations of the Station on account of the nature of 
the work must of necessity be conducted during the spring and 
summer months. The funds now in the hands of the Treasurer 
have been appropriated, and contracts have been made, which will 
entirely consume, the balance on hand, and the future of the 
Station is dependent upon appropriations to be made by this Leg- 
islature. 

The following is the estimate of requirements for the next two 
years : 

Salary of Oyster Expert per year $1800.00 $3600.00 

Salary of Engineer and Boatman per year $900 1800.00 

For Boat fuel and repairs, $500.00 per year 1000.00 

Equipment and repairs of Laboratory, per year $1000. 2000.00 

Care taker, per year $300.00 600.00 

Rent of quarters, per year $96.00 192.00 

Conducting Oyster and other Experiments, per year 

$1000.00 % 2000.00 

Total $11,192.00 



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