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Tentative Exhibition Schedule 
1976-1977 Academic Year 

Krannert Art Museum 
University of Illinois 

August 22-October 3 De Kooning Lithographs 

September 9-October 3 Ancient Ecuador: Culture. Clay, and Creativity 

October 10-October 31 Third World Exhibition of Photography 

November 14-January 2 The New Environment 

January 23-February 20 Contemporary Reflections 

Twenty-eight lithographs by the American abstract 
expressionist painter, Willem de Kooning, The prints were 
pulled at Hollander's Workshop in New York. Organized and 
circulated by E.D.O., Inc , Comprehensive Exhibition Services. 

Over 600 objects, photomurals. explanatory charts and maps. 
The objects date from the formative stage of the oldest known 
South American Culture. The exhibition catalogue was written 
by Professor Donald W. Lathrap. University of Illinois, Urbana- 
Champaign Organized and circulated by the Field Museum 
of Natural History. Chicago 

An optical essay containing about 400 photographs by 170 
photographers in 86 countries. The theme of the exhibition is 
The Path to Paradise.' Organized and circulated by Gruner 
+ Jahr AG & Co.. Druck- und Verlagshaus. Hamburg, Germany. 

The 14th exhibition of well-designed and recently produced 
objects for interiors The exhibition contains furniture, textiles, 
lighting fixtures, and accessories, assembled by a committee 
of Faculty in the Department of Architecture and Krannert Art 
Museum staff. 

Work by 23 painters, chosen from the first three annual 
"Contemporary Reflections' exhibitions organized by The 
Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art, Ridgefield, 
Connecticut Selected and circulated by The American 
Federation of Arts 

February 27-March 27 Work by Faculty in the Department of Art and Design 

In celebration of the 100th birthday of the Department, an 
exhibition of mixed media, painting, photography, 
printmaking. and sculpture by past and present Faculty in 
the University of Illinois, Department of Art and Design, 

April 3-May 8 

April 3-May 8 

April 10-May 8 

Mostra del Palladio 

Models, photomurals, drawings, and plans of buildings 
designed by the influential Italian high renaissance architect, 
Andrea Palladio. Made available by the Italian Government as 
a contribution to the American Bicentennial celebration. (May 
be displayed in Architecture Building gallery ) 

Work by Graduate Students 

Paintings, prints, drawings, photography, assemblages, 
and sculpture by students completing Graduate Programs 
in Art and Design at the University of Illinois, Urbana- 

Delacroix and the French Romantic Print 

Prints from the Edwin Binney. Ill Collection produced 

during the romantic period in 19th century French Art 

Other artists represented are Gericault, Gros. Daumier, Barye, 

and Rousseau Circulated by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Presented in con|unction with the Sixth Triennial Meeting 

of the American Comparative Literature Association. 


Interior Illustrations 1. 17. 21, 

Francois Clouet, French, c. 1515-1572, 

Madame de Pienne (?). 1562-1565, 

oil on panel, 14" x 9-Vj" (35.6 x 24.1 cm.), 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Merle J. Trees. 41-1-1 

Copyright ©1976 by The Board of Trustees of 
the University of Illinois. 
All rights reserved. 

Ancient Ecuador 

Three years ago the Krannert Art Museum was 
approached by Dr, Donald Collier, Curator of Middle 
and South American Archaeology and Ethnology at 
the Field Museum of Natural History, and by Dr. 
Donald Lathrap, Professor of Anthropology at the 
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, regarding 
the Krannert Art Museums displaying and helping 
to finance a projected exhibition of Ancient 
Ecuadorian art. 

The Museum agreed to cooperate to the extent 
that it could, and the exhibition opens the academic 
season at the Krannert Art Museum. It previously 
has been shown at the Field Museum in Chicago, at 
the Center for Inter-American Relations in New York, 
at the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery and Atkins 
Museum of Fine Arts in Kansas City, and most 
recently at the Smithsonian Institution in 
Washington, DC. 

The exhibition contains about 600 objects from 
private collections in Ecuador as well as from phvate 
collections and museums in the United States. The 
objects date from 3000-300 B.C. They are displayed 
and interpreted in support of the theory that 
agriculture, villages, and pottery making in the 
Western Hemisphere began in the tropical forest 
east of the Andes and spread westward to Ecuador 
and thence northward and southward into Mexico 
and Peru. 

The exhibition is presented in cooperation with 
the Department of Anthropology in the College of 
Liberal Arts and Sciences. The catalogue essay has 
been written by Professor Donald Lathrap, and the 
labels and catalogue are bilingual. The exhibition will 
be of great interest to the University students in 
agriculture, anthropology, art history, crafts, 
geography, history, Latin-American studies, and 
Spanish as well as to pupils in regional schools and 
to the general public. 

Hollow Pottery Figure, 

Chorrera, c 800 B.C . 

H 16-V4"(41,5cm). 

Collection : Sergio Perez Valdez, Guayaquil 


Lady's Robe (detail), Chinese, Early XVIII 


embroidered satin, 45" x 60" (114.3 x 

152.4 cm.). 

Collection of the William Rockhill Nelson 

Gallery of Art and Atkins Museum of 

Fine Arts, Kansas City, 

Gift of the Nelson Fund, 35-279/104 

Dr. H, J. Crosby Forbes, Founder-Curator, 
Museum of the American China Trade 

Fall-Spring Lecture-Luncheons 

^:^^ >*,jfe:^*>^' ''^ ^^^' ._^^f. 


The Council will sponsor two Lecture-Luncheons, 
one on Wednesday, September 29, and one on Friday, 
April 29, for members of the Krannert Art Museum 
Associates. The fall Lecture will be given by Mrs. 
Lindsay Hughes Cooper, Special Assistant to the 
Director of the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery in 
Kansas City. 

Mrs. Cooper is well-known as an expert in Chinese 
art. She will speak on "Chinese Imperial Textiles." 
Her talk will be illustrated with color slides of the 
magnificent robes and hangings made for the 
Chinese Court. She will discuss the weaving and 
embroidery techniques used in their fabrication 
and ornamentation, as well as the symbolic 
meanings of their designs and colors. 

The spring Lecture will be presented by Dr. H. J. 
Crosby Forbes, Founder-Curator and Trustee of the 
Museum of the American China Trade. He has 
selected as his subject, "Chinese Export Porcelain 
for the American Market: a Collector's Tour." Mr. 
Forbes holds three degrees from Harvard University 
and he has served on the faculties of Harvard and 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is the 
author of many books, articles, and catalogues. 

The Lectures are scheduled for one-thirty o'clock. 
Krannert Art Museum Associates will receive mailed 
invitations and reservation forms for the Luncheons 
and Lectures. 

The New Environment 

Preview Receptions 

An exhibition concerned with well-designed, recently 
produced objects tor interiors will open at the 
Krannert Art Museum in November. This is the 
fourteenth such exhibition that has been held at the 
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, over a 
period of twenty-eight years. 

Formerly known by the title "For Your Home," the 
sehes began in 1948, and the last exhibition in the 
series was presented in 1973. In any past season, 
the exhibition always has drawn the largest Museum 
attendance, and it is anticipated eagerly by 
participating lenders as well as by Museum visitors. 
The exhibitions are a cooperative project of the 
Department of Architecture and the Krannert Art 
Museum. Advance preparation for the 1 976 exhibition 
began in late Spring. Professors Jack Baker, Robert 
Wright, and Harold Young have been active in the 
selection process for the exhibition. 

The trends toward modular design and furnishing 
systems, that were evident in the 1970 exhibition, 
were more noticeable in the 1973 exhibition. Now 
it will be seen that modular systems dominate 
contemporary designs. 

The exhibition will remain on display at the 
Krannert Art Museum through December and it will 
include in addition to furniture, textiles (drapery 
and upholstery materials, wall hangings, and rugs), 
appliances, kitchen wares and table wares, lighting 
fixtures, toys, and accessories. 

Warren Plainer, architect and furniture designer, 
will lecture on design for interiors at the Museum on 
the evening of November 18. 

An evening Preview Reception will be held on 
Saturday, November 13, before the opening of the 
exhibition, "The New Environment." 

A second Preview Reception, now tentatively 
planned for Saturday evening, February 26, will be 
held before the annual Art Department Faculty 

Members of The Council, the Museum's valuable 
volunteer organization, again will provide 
refreshments. The Council's generous hospitality 
upon such occasions contributes greatly to these 
annual events. The Previews will be held from eight 
until ten in the evening. All Krannert Art Museum 
Associates are invited to attend the Previews. 

Fall - Spring Exhibition Trips 

Additions to the Collections 

The first Council-sponsored one-day bus trip is 
scheduled for Thursday, October 21. Its 
destination is The Saint Louis Art Museunn where 
Associates will see the special exhibition, 
"Masterpieces of American Painting from the 
Brooklyn Museum." The second one-day bus trip 
tentatively is scheduled for Wednesday, April 20, to 
attend the exhibition, "Treasures from the Tomb of 
King Tutankhamun," at the Field Museum of Natural 
History in Chicago. This exhibition is being lent to the 
United States by the Egyptian Government. Krannert 
Art Museum Associates will receive mailed 
announcements and reservation forms for each trip, 
when costs definitely are known. 

On Sunday afternoons during late March and in 
April slide-tape programs, "The Heritage of Ancient 
Egypt" and "Tutankhamun — The Story of the 
Tomb," will be shown in the Krannert Art Museum 
auditorium. The Krannert Art Museum is scheduling 
these informational programs for students and area 
residents who are planning to see the exhibition at the 
Field Museum in Chicago. 

Medieval Arts: Special Loans 

The Krannert Art Museum has opened a new gallery 
devoted to the art of the Middle Ages. The objects 
have been lent by the Medieval Department of The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, and provide 
an excellent survey of various techniques in Gothic 
art from the earliest phase to the end of the period 
(c.11 50-1 500). 

The earliest of the objects in the collection is the 
stone capital around which is carved the popular 
legend of St. George and the Dragon. In an age when 
few could read, the churches themselves served as 
books, recounting Biblical stories and religious 
tradition. The capitals atop columns commonly were 
decorated with series of figures which visitors could 
"read" together into the well-known stories. The 
size of this capital indicates that it would have been 
placed on a short column and could be deciphered at 
close range. 

The carving of the capital is very simple and 
economical, though the figures are cut well away 
from the main block to mask the structural function 
of the capital. Although the wear of centuries is 
evident (probably indicating that the capital was 
placed outdoors), one can still sense the nervous 
movement of the curves animating the surface design 
and its overall shape. The contortion of the squat, 
tubular figure of the Princess shows a lack of concern 
for anatomical proportions, in favor of the effect of 
the overall surface decoration. Her oversize head, 
with bulging eyes and broad nose, and the attention 
paid to details of her robe are all typical of 
Romanesque art, which shortly would give way to the 
more sophisticated design instincts of the Gothic. 

The theme of the Virgin and Child Enthroned, also 
known as the Seat of Wisdom, was a common one 
throughout the Romanesque era, and continued 
into the thirteenth century Gothic. The stiff, frontal 
seated Virgin always is shown holding the Child 
whose right hand is raised in blessing, and whose left 
hand holds the orb. While it is common to find the 
Virgin and Child Enthroned located in tympana as 
architectural decoration around church portals, 
these are outnumbered by the wooden cult figures 
such as this. 

Many such statues have survived (few with as much 

Capital with Saint George and the Prin- 

French, Late Xll-Early XIII Century, 
stone, tO-Vz" x IO-V2" (26,7 x 26 7 cm ), 
Collection of The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art. 

Gift of the Fogg Art Museum, through Felix 
M. Warburg, 22,37.3 

Virgin and Child, North Spanish, XIII 


wood, polychromed and gilded, 

21-'/2" X 6-V2" (54 6 X 16 5 cm ), 

Collection of The Metropolitan Museum 

of Art, 

Gift of Robert Lehman, 43,145 1 

polychromy, however), which indicates how 
numerous and popular they were. Since most of the 
surviving examples are carved nearly or even fully 
in the round, it generally is accepted that such a 
statue would be carried in procession or used as a 
cult image in special services, where the lighter 
weight of wood would make it more manageable and 
portable than stone. This assumption is supported 
by the fact that many of the statues originally housed 
relics, which would be venerated in special 

The wood Virgin and Child statues seem to adhere 
almost universally to a strict canon in regard to 
postures, size (most are about three feet tall), and the 
attributes. The main variations would have the Child 
holding a book in place of the orb, or would show 
the Virgin uncrowned, as was most usual in France. 
The crowned Virgin appeared mainly in the Pyrenees 
region. Taking this into account, as well as the high 
degree of robust naturalism in the face of the Virgin, 
it seems quite likely that this statue is of north 
Spanish origin. 

The evolution of a naturalistic style occurred very 
early in Spanish Gothic art, and is very evident here. 
There is a relaxation in pose, with the Virgin's hand 
languidly holding a fold of her veil over her knee, and 
a relaxation of the carving style, marked in her face 
and in the soft billows of the robe over her body and 
around the hem. The stolid, hardy figures are 
characteristic of Spanish Gothic interpretations of 
this popular motive. 

It is well known that the production of enamel 
objects for religious use evolved into a bona fide 
industry in France, centered around the copper-rich 
city of Limoges, A piece such as the Chasse may be 
assumed with little uncertainty to be a product 
of Limoges workmanship. Because of this mass 
production, certain themes and styles of design, 
such as seen on the Chasse, became quite 
standardized and were repeated with few variations 
throughout the thirteenth century. 

The enamel technique used here is called 
"champleve," a method perfected and virtually 
monopolized by Limoges. The designs were incised 
into heavy sheets of copper, and the background 
areas gouged out, creating trenches to receive the 
characteristic blue-green enamel paste. The sheet 

Chasse French, Limoges, 1250-1300, 

copper with gilt and champleve, 

5-1/2" X 6-V2" X 2-Va" (14 X 16.5 X 5.4 cm.) 

Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of 


Gift of J, Pierpont Morgan, 17.190,515 

Triptych-tabernacles with Virgin and Child 

and with Scenes of the Life of Christ and 

Virgin, French, XIV Century, 

ivory, 9-'V' x 9" x 1 -s/s" (23.5 x 22,9 x 4.1 cm.). 

Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of 


Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 17.190,201 

Diptych with Scenes of the Passion of 

French, XIV Century, 

ivory, 5-^,6" x 8-%" (14.1 x 21.3 cm.). 

Collection of The Metropolitan Museum 

of Art. 

Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 17.190.200 

^^ ' ' J' '' " ■ 


was then fired to fuse the enamel, and polished to a 
smooth surface. Finally the copper relief heads were 
applied and all areas of copper left exposed were 
covered with gold leaf. The various plaques were 
then fastened with nails to a wooden core box to 
complete the Chasse. 

The Chasse was used most likely to hold relics 
and displays the most common shape seen in such 
reliquaries. This probably was derived from the gable 
structures of the churches, which could have been 
regarded as large-scale reliquaries themselves. Such 
a Chasse, with its relics, may have been part of a 
church treasury, or used in a private family chapel. 
Limoges enamel objects always were considered 
valuable and frequently were counted as treasures 
in the inventories left by medieval noblemen. 

In addition to the enamels of Limoges, ivory 
carvings also were regarded as valuables in the 
Middle Ages. This is an indication of ttie current taste 
for small objects made of precious materials and of 
intncate, delicate workmanship. The miniature 
carving of ivory in the fourteenth century was 
centered in Paris. Like the Limoges manufacture, the 
Paris ateliers also adopted characteristic subjects 
and styles, which endured through the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries. For instance, the 
Nativity scene in the Tabernacle of the Virgin and 
Child is shown in the same manner as it was in the 
early twelfth century. 

The Nativity and Passion cycles shown in the 
ivories are the two most basic subjects used in the 
Gothic ivory ateliers. Because an increasingly refined 
and elegant style was perhaps more important in 
ivory than serious iconographical concerns, the 
symbolic content often was rather sparse. This may 
be seen in the abbreviated version of the Crucifixion 
scene in the Passion Diptych, where the cursory 
inclusion of the sun and moon discs is all that remains 
from the wealth of iconography developed around 
this event over many centuries. Much more loving 
attention is lavished on foliate decoration and 
graceful draperies and postures. 

This approach may be due to the fact that such 
ivories were intended for private devotional use or 
as small portable altar decorations. It appears that 
many of the designs and decorative motives were 
drawn from manuscript illuminations. This becomes 

Virgin and Child, French, XIV Century, 

marble, partly painted, 34" x 12" (86 4 x 

30,5 cm ), 

Collection of The Metropolitan Museum 

of Art, 

Gift of George Blumenthal, 41 100236 

even more convincing when one "reads" the ivories, 
as a book, from left to right, top to bottom, and recalls 
that the scenes were all once painted and gilded. 
Some of this remains on the central figure in the 
Virgin and Child Tabernacle, 

In areas of France outside Paris, one finds less 
concern for the extreme delicacy and theatrical 
effects shown in the contemporary ivory plaques. 
This may be seen in the marble Virgin and Child, said 
to have come from the Church of Engreux, near 
Ghent, Belgium. The face of the Virgin suggests a 
Flemish type, and has lost the pert stylization of 
the lie de France, so that she conveys a placid, 
mature attitude, void of affectation. Her stance holds 
to the characteristic S-cun/e, seen in the plaques, 
but is less exaggerated. We have a fuller anatomical 
sense of the twist of her hip, supporting the Child 
and balanced by her outstretched right leg. 

The iconography of the statue is advanced, though 
not uncommon, in that the Virgin is shown solely 
as a Mother, without queenly attributes of crown 
and flowered sceptre in the right hand. The 
portrayal of the Child half-clothed is seen often in the 
fourteenth century, and he always is shown 
engaged in some little activity, such as playing 
with his Mother's veil or hair, or a bird, etc. He is 
shown here in the same position but fondling a 
brooch whose design goes as far back as the 
Migration era. 

The drapery of the Virgin is consistent with other 
fourteenth century examples, in its complicated 
arrangement of tubular folds and cascading falls, 
charactehstically displayed in virtuoso fashion below 
her left arm, A statue such as this would have been 
polychromed originally and located in the chapels or 
side altars of a church. Since earlier sculptural efforts 
were directed toward decorating the cathedrals 
themselves, it was only later in the Gothic era that 
free-standing sculpture in the round was developed. 
The Virgin and Child became the most popular 

The fifteenth century was a time of unrest in 
Western Europe, With the return of stability in the 
later part of the century, artistic production was 
resumed, and distinctions among the national styles 
of France, Germany, and The Netherlands became 
blurred. The art of this last phase of the Gothic showed 

Mourning Virgin, North German or French, 

late XIV Century, 

wood, 33-V2" X g-Vz" (85.1 X 24.1 cm.), 

Collection of The Metropolitan Museum 

of Art, 

Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 16.32 199 

Saint Jolin the Evangelist, North Nether- 
lands, c. 1500, 

oak. polychromed and gilded, 
23-%" X 8-V2" (60.3 X 21 .6 cm.). 
Collection of The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art. 
Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 16.32 230 

a new vitality and concern for realism, coupled with 
intense spirituality. New themes were explored on a 
monumental scale. The agonies of the suffering of the 
Crucifixion, the Pieta and the Emtombment were 
portrayed frequently. The wood Mourning Virgin 
was once part of a Crucifixion group of either French 
(School of the Loire) or North German workmanship. 
Wood became an increasingly popular medium, 
probably for its economy and ease in carving, 
allowing for ever finer details and projections. This 
may be observed in the deeply undercut draperies of 
the Virgin and in the hair of the contemporary wood 
figure of St. John the Evangelist, probably of North 
Netherlandish origin. While a concern for 
complicated draperies was traditionally dominant, it 
was only in the fifteenth century that idealized, lyrical 
design gave way to a more plastic and natural 
representation. The somber facial expressions of 
both the wood figures also illustrate this new attitude. 

The new vistas presented by the development of 
panel painting at this time may be responsible for 
both this new sobriety and for the new popularity of 
multi-figured sculptural groups. These served as 
tomb embellishments, altar pieces and as large scale 
devotional scenes (such as the Crucifixion group). In 
fact, the figure of St. John also was made to be one of 
a group which included Christ and the Apostles. The 
groups would have been displayed on high common 
platforms in the churches. This would accommodate 
the downcast gazes seen in both of the figures. 

The statues normally would have been 
polychromed, as the St. John was. However, we know 
that the famous contemporary German sculptor, 
Tilman Riemenschneider (1460-1531), often left his 
wood sculpture unpainted, so we may not assume 
with certainty that the Mourning Virgin was 
polychromed. The strong play of light and shadow on 
the massive draperies and clearly chiselled faces 
of both the figures has imbued them with an 
introspective life of their own, and illustrates the fresh 
emotion and pathos which inspired the art of this last 
great century of the Medieval era. It was not a decline, 
but an unnatural death which brought about the 
end of Gothic art under the pressures of the Italian 
Renaissance and finally the Reformation. 

The Krannert Art Museum is indebted to the 
Medieval Department of The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art for this selection of objects. It provides an 
important resource for the instructional program in 
art history. The collection is on display in the lower 
level of the Krannert Art Museum for an indefinite 

by Laurie McCarthy Irgens 

Chen Lien, Chinese, c. 1620. 
Handscroll, (detail). 
Ink and color on paper. 
8-V4"x 16-3/4" (21 X 156.8 cm). 
Gift of the Class of 1908. 76-14-1 

Terra-cotta Rhyton 

Urartian, IX Century BC. 

9" X 5" X 9-"2" (22 9 x 12 7 x 24 1 cm). 

Gift of Mr Harlan E Moore, 76-21-1 

Blown Three-mold Flint Glass Tumbler, 

American, XIX Century, 

H 3-V2" (8 9 cm). 

Gift of Miss Virginia Bartow. 76-6-1 

Gifts and Purchases 

Through a grant from the National Endowment for 
the Arts, the Krannert Art Museum has been able to 
acquire six objects for its collection of twentieth 
century art; a painted relief collage by Frank Stella, 
Kozangrodek III; a welded cor-ten steel sculpture, 
Hybrid Figure, by Richard Hunt; four objects from 
the National Invitational Crafts exhibition — a 
stoneware sculpture by Dick Hay. a glass sculpture 
by Marvin Lipofsky, a glass vase by Richard Ritter, 
and a sterling silver and acrylic brooch by David 
Keens. With art acquisition funds it acquired an 
aquatint entitled Pozzuoli. by the Italian artist Afro; 
and an untitled etching and aquatint by the American 
artist, Louise Nevelson. 

A purchase for the Oriental gallery was made 
possible by the Class of 1908. This is a Ming dynasty 
horizontal scroll painting by Chen Lien (Chen 
Ming-ch'ing) who was active about 1620. Of very 
delicate line and tone the painting is a needed 
addition to the Chinese collection. 

Three Important ceramics have been added 
through the continuing generosity of Mr. Harlan E. 
Moore; an Urartian rhyton in the form of a lion dating 
by thermoluminescent readings to the ninth century 
B.C. or earlier; and two Urartian molded grayware 
pots, one with the head of a horse, and one with the 
head of a bull. 

Two rare blown three-mold flint glass tumblers 
were presented to the decorative arts collection 
at the Krannert Art Museum by a longtime 
Museum friend. Miss Virginia Bartow. The objects are 
on display in related sections of the collections. 

With recent generous additions to the Trees Gallery 
Acquisitions Fund by Mrs. Katherine Trees Livezey 
and Mr. George S. Trees (whose parents, Mr. and Mrs. 
Merle J. Trees, were great benefactors of the 
university through the gift of their art collection) 
and with resources from the Mrs. Herman C. Krannert 
Fund, it has been possible to acquire a fifteenth 
century Flemish painting by the Master of the Saint 
Ursula Legend. The altarplece presents five figures 
in full length, and it is painted in the rich color and 
meticulous detail typical of the Bruges masters. 

It Is rarely that one finds available today a painting 

Master of the Saint Ursula Legend, 

Flemish, c 1485, 

Madonna and Child with Four Saints, 

oil on panel. 29-V2" x 37" (74 9 x 94 cm ), 
Gift of Mrs Katherine Trees Livezey and 
Mr George S. Trees, and the Mrs Herman 
C Krannerl Fund, 76-20-1 

of this date and school, still on its original panel and 
in very good condition. As the painting represents 
such an important period in the development of 
European painting, and one previously without 
representation in the Krannert Art Museum's 
collections, the acquisition is an especially 
significant one. 

The Master of the Saint Ursula Legend is 
considered the most important of several painters, 
who have not yet been identified by recorded name, 
but who were working in Bruges in the last quarter of 
the fifteenth century. Each is known by some work 
which serves as a key to his style The Master of the 
Saint Ursula Legend was so designated by Max J. 
Friedlander, on the basis of the wings from an 
alterpiece on the subject of the Saint Ursula 
Legend, belonging to the Convent of the Black 
sisters and now in the Groeninge Museum 
in Bruges. 

Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, who had 
married the daughter of the Count of Flanders, 
acquired hereditary control of the area upon the 
death of his father-in-law in 1384. The Duke then gave 
attention to the cultivation of the arts in Flanders. 
Bruges already was an important commerical city in 
Northern Europe and was carrying on sea trade with 
the cities of the Hanseatic League, England, and Italy. 
The Duke made Bruges the headquarters for his 
Court. Merchants and bankers in other cities of 
Europe kept representatives there. 

Commissions for paintings attracted artists to 
Bruges from French, German, and Dutch towns; and 
so it was, that the Flemish style dominated Northern 
European painting in the fifteenth century. It was a 
blend of realism in details and mysticism in spirit. 

The painting by the Saint Ursula Master is filled with 
a contemplative spirit, as are the works of his 
contemporaries. The figures are elongated in the 
manner of Rogier van der Weydens late style. They 
are arranged symmetrically, in fheze-like, isocephalic 
order. Their cnsp outlines set them in bold relief 
within the box-like space of the room which they 
occupy. The Madonna and Child are flanked left and 
right by saints Augustine, John the Baptist, and two 
saints in religious habits tentatively identified as Saint 
Monica (mother of Saint Augustine) and Saint 


In the background, at the right, a traceried, leaded 
Gothic window admits outdoor light which falls on a 
brocaded curtain. In the left background, an open 
window provides a view into the landscape with, 
presumably, the gables and towers of Bruges in the 

When Italian renaissance influence became strong 
and spread throughout Northern Europe in the 
sixteenth century, the Flemish style and the Italian 
coalesced in varying degrees and ways to form the 
basis for late renaissance and baroque painting in 
Northern Europe. The painting by a fifteenth century 
Bruges Master provides a stylistic link between the 
medieval art and the later renaissance paintings in 
the Krannert Art Museum collections. 






A French Court Portrait 

by Howard Risatti 

Among the paintings in the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. 
Merle J. Trees at the Krannert Art Museum is a portrait 
attributed to Frangois Clouet.' This painting, 
generally considered a portrait of Madame de Pienne, 
exhibits all the hallmarks of the court portrait style of 
sixteenth century France (Fig. 1. detail). 

The principal originators of this style, Frangois 
Clouet and his father Jean, were in the employ of the 
court of the Valois from 1516 to 1572 and probably 
were responsible for portraits of such illustrious 
figures as Francis I, Catherine de Medici, and Mary 
Stuart, Queen of Scotland. The Trees painting, which 
maintains the grace and dignity of the French royal 
portrait, probably was painted during the latter part 
of Frangois Clouet's career, around the years 

1. Frangois Clouet, 

Madame de Pienne (?), (detail), 

Krannert Art Museum 

Howard Risatti has completed Master of Arts degrees 
in Music Composition at Roosevelt University and in 
the History of Art at the University of Illinois, Urbana- 
Champaign. He is a candidate for the Ph.D. degree in 
the History of Art at the University of Illinois. The 
subject of his doctoral dissertation is "American 
Criticism of European Art during the Pehod 
1908-1917." He is the author of "New Music 
Vocabulary," published in 1975. The article that 
follows was prepared during independent research 
on French sixteenth century painting. M.B.C. 

Portrait Tradition 

The portrait, as a form of artistic expression, has a 
long tradition in the western world. Its origins can be 
seen in the relief carvings of the ancient Near East and 
in the funerary statuary of ancient Egypt. These 
eastern traditions formed the basis of Greek art and, 
indirectly, that of Rome. But while Greek and Roman 
figurative art share this common basis, there is one 
important difference. The art of Greece is 
characterized by a search for idealism while that of 
Rome centers upon an intense interest in realism. 

This realism, which was especially characteristic 
of the Republican period in Rome (509 to 27 B.C.), 
was associated with ancestoral veneration. Wax 
death masks were taken of the deceased and later 
transferred into the more permanent medium of 
stone. Special rooms were set aside in the Roman 
home to display these busts. It is thought that during 
funerals these portrait busts were carried in 
procession alongside the body of the deceased as a 
reminder of the social position of the family. Because 
the fame and prestige of families rested upon the 
recognition of their ancestoral heritage, realism was 
of primary importance in these ancestoral effigies 
(Fig. 2). 

The course of development of any art form is 
directly dependent upon the culture in which it exists, 
and to this ancient Rome was no exception. The 
degree of fidelity attained in the portraits of the 


2. Portrait of an Immolator, (detail). 
Roman. Republican Period, c. 50. B.C.. 

Vatican Museum. Rome 

3. Equestrian Statue of IMarcus Aurelius, 


Roman. 166-80 A.D . 

gilded bronze. 78" x 70" (200 x 180 cm). 

Piazza del Campidoglio. Rome 

4. Young Warrior Willi Golden Wreath 
and Shoulder Band, 

Roman Egypt. II Century AD., 
encaustic on panel. 
Staatliche Museum. East Berlin 

Republican period is often harsh and stern, qualities 
which the Republic itself fostered in its citizens. The 
sense of duty and moral obligation that was a feature 
of the Republic is but another manifestation of this 
sense of realism. 

When the attitudes of Rome were altered by the 
Emperor and the sense of Empire, so too were the 
visual images made by her artists. The portraits from 
the period of the Empire reveal the stylistic changes 
from the imitation of the severe countenance of 
Trajan, the consummate military leader of the late 
first century A.D., to the upraised eyes of the 
philosopher-emperor (Fig. 3). Marcus Aurelius, in the 
late second century.^ 

It is during this period that the painted portrait 
makes its first real appearance as an art form (Fig. 4). 
These painted portraits, like their earlier counterparts 
in stone from the Republic, usually were associated 
with the cult of the dead. They originate, for the most 
part, in an area of Roman Egypt known as the Fayum 
and were painted in encaustic on small panels.^ 

These panels carefully were laid over the face of 
the mummified body of the deceased before the body 
was interred. Though these portrait busts may not 
represent a continuous tradition, they are among the 
oldest painted portraits that have been preserved in 
any quantity from antiquity. 

Throughout the middle ages portraiture continued, 
though without ever flourishing as it had in the 
ancient world. It became symbolic and hieratic; but, 
however altered, it indicated that the desire and 
perhaps the need of man to portray and preserve his 
image never completely was lost. While the strong 
religious overtones of the middle ages tended to 
reduce the temptation of man to dwell upon himself 
— for was it not written the meek shall inherit the 
earth, the coming of the renaissance again hailed the 

Rebirth of Humanism 

Humanism became the new banner of the poets, 
writers, and philosophers. Men such as Petrarch, 
Boccaccio, Pico della Mirandola, and Ficino now 
turned their attention to the individual. The sciences 
began to flourish, trade expanded, and building again 
strove to emulate the grandeur that was Rome. In all, 
the world seemed reborn Man again saw the 
universe in terms of himself and the artist again was 
called upon to record the image of nobility, of 
learning, and of faith. 

Among the greatest artists of the day were to be 
found the painters of portraits; Botticelli, Titian, 
Tintoretto, Raphael, and above all Leonardo da Vinci 
(Fig. 5); of the greatest artists of the renaissance in 
Italy, only Michelangelo was to ignore the painted 
portrait as a form of artistic expression. 

The rise of humanism, which marked the return of 

the portrait tradition to its former glory, ttegan in Italy 
as early as the late fourteenth century. By the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, it had found its 
way to France where, under the reign of Francis I, 
Italian ideas and manners were adopted as custom at 
the French court. 

Before this time, France was a "nation" of powerful 
noblefamilieswho retained their feudal positions and 
vied with the King in both wealth and power. Under 
Charles VIII (1483-1498) and Louis XII (1498-1515), 
the French monarchy began to consolidate its 
authority; but it was Francis 1(1515-1 547) who created 
the foundations for an absolute monarchy. Due 
to the length of his reign and the control accruing to 
him through the Concordat of 1515," he was able to 
mal<e the Crown the center of power; with his sister. 
Marguerite of Navarre, he made it the center of culture 
and taste in France. 

By mid-century, the French court had served as a 
setting for such illustrious figures as Catherine de 
Medici, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland,^ Henry II, 
Diane de Poitiers, and the future wife of Philip II of 
Spain, Elizabeth of Valois. There were humanists, 
including Frangois Rabelais whose famed Gargantua 
already had appeared in 1534, and the poet, Ronsard, 
who published his Odes in 1550, as well as a host of 
artists among whom were the portrait painters, Jean 
Clouet and his son Frangois Clouet. 

5. Leonardo da Vinci. Italian, 1452-1519, 

Mona Lisa, 1503-1505. 

oil on panel, 30" x 21" (approximately) 

(77 X 53 cm.). 

Louvre Museum, Paris 

Italian Influence in France 

France was still in the last phases of the Gothic at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, but Francis I 
began to acquire a taste for Italian manners during 
the French invasions of Italy. Even his defeat at the 
battle of Pavia in 1525 did not reduce his admiration 
for Italian humanism. In 1516, Francis I brought 
Leonardo da Vinci to France where he remained until 
his death in 1 51 9.*^ In 1 51 8 Andrea del Sarto also came 
to France, and though he left during the year of 
Leonardo's death, other artists were to follow.' 

Benvenuto Cellini, II Rosso Fiorentino (1530), and 
Primaticcio (1532),8 all left Italy for France, to work 
in the service of the court. II Rosso and Primaticcio 
worl<ed extensively at Fontainebleau, where they 
developed the school of painting l<nown by that 
name. They both died in France, II Rosso in 1540 and 
Primaticcio in 1570. 

Among the great artists of Italy, Michelangelo was 
one in whom Francis I took special interest. It should 
be noted that in 1498 Cardinal Jean de Villers de La 
Broslaye commissioned the now famous Pieta from 
Michelangelo for the chapel of the French kings 
in St. Peter's; and ten years later Michelangelo's 
bronze David was presented to the Frenchman, 
Florimond Robertet.^ In 1529, Giambattista della 
Palla bought Michelangelo's Hercules for Francis I, 
and in 1546 Roberto Strozzi gave him the Slaves 

6. Francesco Primatlccio, Italian. 1504- 


Ulysses and Penelope, 

oil on canvas, 44-3i" x 48-3'4" (113 7 x 124,3 


Collection of Ttie Toledo Museum of Art, 

Gift of Edward Drummond Libbey, 64 60 

from the unfinished tomb of Pope Julius, it is no 
wonder that in 1529 Francis I almost succeeded in 
bringing the master himself to France from Venice, 
where he had fled to escape the siege of Florence. 
But Michelangelo, at the urging of his friends 
and to avoid being accused of treason, reluctantly 
chose to remain in Italy.'" 

Other works by other artists also were represented 
in France at the time. In 1540, Primaticcio brought to 
France casts of antique works such as the Laocoon, 
the Apollo Belvedere, the Marcus Aurelius (Fig. 3), 
and the reliefs from Trajan's Column. As for 
paintings, aside from Michelangelo's Leda. there 
were Raphael's Belle Jardiniere, the Sf. Michael, the 
Holy Family of Francis I. and Titian's portrait of 
Francis I. as well as Leonardo's Virgin of the Rocks, 
Virgin and Child with Saint Anne, and of course 
the Mona Lisa.''^ 

Although the arts in France flourished under Italian 
influence, the style of painting was not that of the 
Italian high renaissance. This had bypassed France 
when the mannerist artists, II Rosso Fiorentino and 
Primaticcio, came to work at Fontainebleau. The style 
they developed — overly refined and elegant — became 
the standard for large scale decoration in France; and 
consequently French artists hardly seemed aware 
of high renaissance idealism (Fig. 6). Only in 
portraiture were there signs of a true understanding 
of the classic style of the early sixteenth century in 

The Clouets 

In the work of Jean and Frangois Clouet, perhaps the 
most famous French portraitists of their day, the 
influence of the Italian sense of form and substance 
is clearly evident. The formal style which they 
developed was based in part on Italian models. It 
became accepted so widely as the official portrait 
style of France, that most surviving French portraits 
executed between c. 1516 and 1620 came to be 
attributed to them. The poet Ronsard called Clouet 
"the honor of our France "'^ and Clement Marot 
called him the equal of Michelangelo.'^ Marc Antoine 
Bullet celebrated him as the "Dieu Janet, " and said 
that 'nor Raphael, nor Michelangelo would have 
known how to draw so divine a face."'" 

In view of such fame it is the more surprising that 
the Clouets, both father and son, virtually remained 
"lost" for almost three hundred years. The Comte de 
Laborde "rediscovered " the Clouets in 1850,'^ and 
published his findings in La Renaissance des Arts a 
la Cour de France. Due to the fact that the nickname 
Janet was passed on to Frangois Clouet after his 
father's death, both artists were amalgamated under 
this single appellation. The few writers who did speak 
of the Clouets referred to both artists as Janet, '^ 
which explains in part the large attribution of portraits 
to the name Janet Clouet. 

7. Jean Clouet, French. 1485-90— c, 1540 
Guillaume Bude, c 1535. 

oil on panel. 15-%" x 13-V2" (39.7 x 

34.2 cm.). 

Collection of The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, Purchase, 
Maria deWitt Jesup Fund, 1946 

8. Frangois Clouet. French, c. 1515-1572, 
Lady at Her Bath (Diane de Poitiers). 

c. 1571. 

oil on panel. 36-W' x 32" (92 1 x 

81.3 cm,). 

Collection of the National Gallery of Art, 


Samuel H Kress Collection, 1961 

Laborde, in preparing liis book, searched for 
documentary proof to substantiate the traditional 
history of French portraiture, including the role 
played by the Clouets, Unfortunately, this did not lead 
him to conclude that there were two Clouets 
nicknamed Janet, but that there were four Clouets — 
Jean Clouet, Frangois Clouet, Jean Clouet the Elder, 
and Clouet of Navarre." Jean Clouet the Elder. 
Laborde reasoned, came from Brussels to Tours in 
1485. He had a son, Jean, who was born in Tours and 
another son who worked for the Queen of Navarre. 
Jean later had a son named Frangois.'^ Laborde's 
work led other authors to speculate about the ohgins 
of the Clouets. Moreau-Nelaton, a later writer, felt that 
Jean Clouet was Jehannet de Milan and suggested 
the Clouets were Italians. ^^ Frangois Clouet was even 
linked to the dynasty of Clovio thus establishing his 
origin as Italian.^" 

In retrospect, the work of Laborde was not totally 
accurate, but it helped to awaken interest in French 
art of the sixteenth century and, as a consequence, a 
clearer understanding of the origins of French 
portraiture has emerged. In all probability, Jean 
Clouet came from the Low Countries and may have 
been the son of Jan Cloet of Brussels. He probably 
was born around 1485-90 and he died in 1540.2' His 
son Frangois Clouet probably was born in Tours 
around 1515-20 where his father was living at the 
time.22 Jean Clouet began working for Francis I in 
1515 or 1516^3 and remained in the service of the 
King until his death in 1540, at which time Frangois 
assumed his father's nickname and position,^'' Janet, 
Peintre et varlet de Chambre.^^ 

It is known from his death certificate that Jean was 
not a French citizen and consequently his property 
reverted to the crown upon his death. In November 
1541 Francis I, in a Deed of Gift, restored Jean 
Clouets property to his son in hopes that he, 
Frangois, would continue his faithful "imitation" of 
his father. 2^ From this it would be reasonable to 
assume that already, by 1541, Frangois Clouet had 
achieved a great deal of renown as a painter in the 
court of Francis I. 

Frangois Clouet seems to have remained in favor 
with the French court throughout his life. Though few 
details of his career actually remain, it is known that 
he worked for four successive monarchs; Francis I. 
Henry II, Francis II, and Charles IX. Upon the death of 
Francis I and Henry II, he was asked to execute the 
banners and funeral effigies for the official 
ceremonies, and in 1570 he was called to the Royal 
Mint to inspect a new coin bearing the King's effigy. ^^ 
He died on September 22, 1572, hisproperty going to 
his sister, rather than to his two natural daughters.^^ 

There are very few works that bear the signatures 
of the Clouets. Among the works attributed to the 
elder Clouet is a portrait of the famous French 

9. Frangois Clouet, French, c 1515-1572, 

Pierre Quthe. 1562. 

oil on panel, 35-%" x ll-Vi' (90.8 x 

69.9 cm.). 

Louvre Museum. Paris 

10. Frangols Clouet. French, c. 1515-1572. 
Charles IX. 1570, 
oil on canvas, 88" x 45" (223.5 x 
114.3 cm.). 
Kunsthistorisches Museum. Vienna 

11. Jean Fouquet. French. 1420-1477-81. 
Charles VII, King of France. 1444-1447. 
oil on panel. 33-%" x 28-y4" (85.7 x 
71.8 cm,) 
Louvre Museum. Paris 

12. Jean Perreal. French, c 1455-1530. 
Louis XII, c 1514, 

oil on panel, 12" x 9" (30.5 x 22.9 cm). 
Royal Collections, Windsor Castle 

humanist, Guillaume Bude (Fig. 7), who wrote on a 
page of his /Acfv'ersar/a; "Pictor iconocus qui me 
penxit, Me Genet Clouet vocatur" (the portrait painter 
who painted me is called Master Genet Clouet).^^ 

No other works bearing such a direct reference to 
Jean Clouet have come down to us, but there are two 
works that actually are signed by Frangois: The Lady 
in Her Bath (Fig. 8), now in the National Gallery in 
Washington, D.C., and the portrait of Pierre Quthe 
(Fig. 9) in the Louvre, Paris. A third work, the portrait 
of Charles IX (Fig. 10) in the Kunsthistorisches 
Museum, Vienna, bears an ancient signature that 
many scholars also believe to be that of Frangois 
Clouet.^" It is from these few works that one is left 
the task of reconstructing the style and development 
of the portraiture of the Clouets. 

The fame achieved by Frangois Clouet and his 
father was due to several factors. Their great talent 
as artists was certainly the most important; but the 
increased prestige of portraiture under Francis I and 
later Catherine de Medici also must be considered a 
factor that contributed to their fame. 

Other Portraitists 

The Clouets were not the only portrait painters in 
France nor were they the first. In the fifteenth century 
there was Jean Fouquet, an artist born around 1415, 
who probably met the famous Limbourg brothers 
while working at the court of Jean Due de Berri.^i In 
1445, after traveling to Rome to paint the portrait of 
Pope Eugene IV, Jean Fouquet was appointed painter 
and illuminator to Charles VII and Louis XI. Though 
Jean Fouquet was not strictly a portrait painter, he was 
a typical French painter-illuminator.^^ His 1445 
portrait of Charles VII (Fig. 1 1) in the Louvre is one of 
the first major French royal portraits and was 
probably a direct influence upon Jean Clouet, father 
of Frangois.^ 

Aside from Jean Fouquet, there were Jean 
Bourdichon^ and Jean Perreal, both of whom 
worked for Francis I at the same time as Jean Clouet. 
Bourdichon, who was essentially a painter in the 
Gothic tradition, though perhaps with a greater sense 
of realism,^ exhibited the influence of the Italian 
artists Bramante and Perugino.^^ His name appeared 
on the royal accounts as early as 1 51 6 in a position 
above that of Jean Clouet but behind that of the more 
famous Jean Perreal. ^^ 

Perreal, who retained the premier position on the 
royal expense accounts until his death in 1530,^ 
also showed the influence of Italian art in his 
paintings. Having traveled to England and Italy,^^ his 
style was tempered by Italian art in general and 
Milanese art in particular.''*' It is safe to assume that 
Bourdichon and he had an influence upon the style 
of the elder Clouet, an influence that Jean passed on 
to his son. 

13. Frangois Clouet. French. C-1515-1572. 
Elizabeth of Valois. c 1558. 

oil on panel. I4-V4" x 9-'/e" (36.2 x 

25.1 cm.) 

Collection of Ttie Toledo Museum of Art, 

Gift of Edward Drummond Libbey, 


14. frangois Clouet. French, c. 1515-1572. 
Elizabeth of Austria. 1571. 

oil on wood, 14" xlO-V/ (35.6 x 

26.7 cm,). 

Louvre Museum, Pans 

Unfortunately, few works by the hand of Jean 
Perreal survive. The portrait of Lou/s X// (Fig. 12), now 
at Windsor Castle, generally is attributed to Perreal; "' 
evidently in 1514 this portrait was sent to Henry VIII by 
Louis XII during the negotiations for Louis' marriage 
to Mary, Henry's sister.''^ 

This work by Perreal was perhaps the first of many 
portraits that would be painted for marriages of state. 
In itself, this duty added to the prestige of the artist, 
as the supplying of official portraits for such 
important negotiations became one of the primary 
functions of the court painter. The Clouets also 
painted portraits for such purposes. We know that 
Catherine de Medici ordered two drawings from the 
Clouet studio of Due d'Alenpon, the future Henry III. 
to be sent to Elizabeth of England during 
negotiations for Henry's marriage."^ Also, the famous 
portrait of Elizabeth of Valois (Fig. 13), now in the 
Toledo Museum, was painted around 1558-59 as a 
wedding present for her new husband, Philip II of 

Aside from their use as marriage pictures, portraits 
frequently were exchanged between courts in the 
form of gifts. The portrait of Elizabeth of Austria 
(Fig. 14), painted by Frangois Clouet in 1572, the 
last year of his life, was such a picture; it was given to 
Queen Anne of Spain, fourth wife of Philip II. Portraits 
in this way became part of official court protocol and 
helped in negotiations for marriages and alliances of 

Court Portrait Style 

Though the remaining works from the hands of the 
Clouets are far from numerous, it still is possible to 
get some idea of the development of their style. Louis 
Reau has suggested that only in portraiture did the 
French artists show true originality."^ The impact of 
Italian art upon France was greater in the realm of 
decoration than portraiture, for most of the artists that 
Francis I had been able to entice to France from Italy 
were large scale decorators and panel painters. 
Consequently, the work of II Rosso and Primaticcio 
at Fontainebleau set the style and pattern for French 
decorative art, but not for portraiture. 

As the demand for portraits increased, artists were 
called upon to develop a style of portraiture befitting 
the nobilityandgrandeurofthe court. Since this need 
was not filled by Italian artists, it was filled by artists 
from the Low Countries — artists such as the Clouets 
and Corneille de Lyon. The style that Jean Clouet 
brought to the court of France was based upon 
northern realism, with its attention to line, detail, 
and pattern. Once at the court, Jean must have 
"softened " his style to suggest form and volume, 
more toward the Italian manner through contact with 
Jean Bourdichon and Jean Perreal. 

Between 1525 and 1530. Jean Clouet painted the 

well known portrait of Frances I (Fig. 15). In this work 
can be seen the basic elements of the Clouet style and 
of the portrait style of the French court, a style that 
was to persist throughout the sixteenth century. The 
figure is placed in three-quarters profile close to the 
picture plane. The background appears to be a rich 
brocade fabric displaying a floral pattern intertwined 
with the crown of France, a symbol of Francis Is 
position as ruler of the realm. 

The face is rendered very meticulously in an 
unidealized fashion The lighting, especially on the 
face, is very even with few shadows, while the torso is 
deeply shaded. The almond shaped eyes with their 
flattened lower lids, and the mouth with its thin upper 
lip are characteristic of the Clouet style. The intense 
realism as seen in the large nose is a holdover from 
the older Flemish tradition that became part of the 
French style. Attention to texture and detail is very 
evident in the costume, the richness of which also 
indicates the splendor of the sitter. The King wears 
the Order of Saint Michael, a military order founded 
by Louis in 1469, which probably explains the 
inclusion of the sword in the portrait. 

Upon careful observation of the portrait, one 
begins to sense a difference in style between the face 
and body. It was the practice of the portrait artist to 
render the face of the sitter from life and to 
"work-up" the finished portrait in the studio. The soft 
areas of flesh in this portrait contrast with the 
"harder" areasof fabric; the treatment of the drapery 
folds, especially in the sleeves, recalls the sculptors' 
technique. The interior of the folds, in particular, 
appears to be executed with the "running drill" rather 
than with the brush. The figure appears flatter than 
the face and more inclined toward linear patterning. 
Note especially the fringe of the collar; it appears 
to move across the canvas rather than around the 
neck of the figure. 

The inclusion of the hands is a common feature 
of Jean Clouet's style. They can be seen in other of his 
works*** and may be related stylistically to Leonardos 
manner (Fig. 5)."'' The two works, the portraits of 
Francis I and that of the humanist, Guillaume 
Bude (Fig. 7), represent the basic style of Jean 
Clouet and form the basis for the style and 
manner of his son Frangois who worked in his 

FrariQois Clouet 

Of the two signed paintings that have come down to 
us from the hand of Frangois Clouet, the Pierre Quthe 
(Fig. 9) is dated 1562, and theLady/n Her eafh (Fig. 8) 
is dated c. 1570. These two works, plus the Charles 
IX (Fig. 10) in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, bear 
little resemblance to the general format and style of 
Jean Clouet s works. Included in the portrait of Pierre 
Quthe. which is a seated figure cropped at the knees, 

are a table, a book, and a piece of drapery that enters 
the picture from an oblique angle on the left side of 
the composition. 

The Lady in Her Bath, which is intended to be a 
portrait of Marie Touchet, may be considered an 
allegorical work. The nude figure of Marie Touchet in 
her bathtub is flanked by a maidservant suckling a 
child while an older child symbolically reaches for 
fruit from a bowl in front of Marie."^ The last work, the 
portrait of Charles IX. is a full length protrait of the 
young king leaning on the back of a chair and peering 
out at the viewer. 

With these signed works are numerous portraits 
that are attributed to Frangois Clouet, among which 
are the wedding portrait of Elizabeth of Valois (Fig. 
13), c. 1558-59, now in the Toledo Museum, and the 
portrait of Elizabeth of Austria (Fig. 14), dated around 
1572, in the Louvre in Paris. These two works are 
very different from the signed portraits of Pierre 
Quthe and Marie Touchet (A Lady In Her Bath) and 
would seem to present some discrepancy in 

The keys to the attributions are the surviving 
portrait drawings, such as those in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale in Paris and in the British Museum in 
London. These drawings were made quickly in chalk 
with the sitter present and were used as models from 
which the painted portraits later were executed. As 
the sitter was not available after the sketch was 
completed, indications often were included on the 
drawing for color and costume detail."^ 

This practice of sketching the figure in "creons" 
(crayons) went back as far as Jean Fouquet in the 
fifteenth century,^ though the actual use of colored 
chalks probably was introduced to France by 
Leonardo da Vinci. To Leonardo also may be 
attributed the introduction to France of parallel 
diagonal shading, a technique of which both Jean 
and Frangois Clouet made extensive use in their 
sketches in colored chalk. By comparing these 
portrait sketches to the finished works, the 
attributions have been made. 

It should be noted that members of the court were 
not inclined to spend great periods of time "posing," 
consequently the portrait sketches were preserved 
and used much as a modern negative. Later portraits 
were often painted from earlier sketches with 
the costume updated to correspond to current 

Assuming the attributions are correct, how does 
one explain the difference in style between the 
attributed works and the signed works? The 
portrait of Pierre Quthe is very similar in style to 
the Italian mannerist works of Pontormo and 
Bronzino. The flattened composition, heightened by 
the swag of drapery that echoes the outline of the 
right side of the sitter, the pose with one arm resting 

15. Jean Clouet, French, 1485-90-c 1540, 
Francis I, 1520-25, 

tempera and oil on panel, 38" x 29" 
(95.5 X 73,7 cm,). 
Louvre Museum, Paris 

16. Agnolo Bronzino, Italian. 1503-1572, 
Allegory of Venus, Cupid, Time, and 
Folly, c 1550, 

oil on panel, 57" x 45" (144,8 x 

114 3 cm.). 

National Gallery, London 

on the table, the treatment of the face and drapery, 
and the inclusion of the book all reflect the style of 
the Italian mannerists.^' The same may be said of the 
Lady in Her Bath. It has many of the attributes of 
Primaticcio and of Bronzino (Fig. 16), especially 
Bronzino's /4//ego/y of Love. Venus. Cupid, Folly, and 
Time in the National Gallery, London. ^2 

The attributed works — the Elizabeth of Valois 
and the Elizabeth of Austria, among others — look 
very similar to the works of Jean Clouet. The reason 
for this apparent discrepancy in style probably is due 
to the sitters as well as to the French portrait tradition. 
The Lady in Her Bath, strictly speaking, is not simply 
a portrait, and while the Pierre Outhe is, it is a 
portrait of Frangois Clouet's neighbor who lived 
nearby i n the Rue Sainte Avoie. The book of herbs has 
been included as an identifying symbol of Pierre, a 
famous apothecary whose herb garden was well 
known in and around Paris. Not being a member of 
the royal court, his portrait was not subject to the 
same strict conventions that had evolved during the 
reign of Francis I 

These strict conventions, which Jean Clouet 
helped to develop, required both elegance and 
dignity in the royal portrait. The sitter almost always 
was shown in three-quarter's view, bust only, with 
the eyes seldom confronting the viewer. The plain 
background emphasized the figure and the costume. 
The latter, with its rich jewelry, emphasized the 
sitter's station in life. In short, the rigid convention 
adhered to by the artist in painting portraits of royalty 
or personages associated with the court did not 
extend to images of the "ordinary " citizen, 

A Lady of the Court 

The portrait in the Merle J. and Emily N. Trees 
Collection at the Krannert Art f^useum, traditionally 
known as "Madame de Pienne, " belongs to the 
category of court portraits (Fig. 17). Painted around 
1562, it adheres to the rigid fomal style set aside for 
members of the French court. The lady is shown in 
three-quarter's view, her body cropped at the waist 
and surrounded by a plain background. That style 
of intense realism that Jean Clouet brought to the 
portrait of Francis I also can be seen here. The large 
nose, the thin eyes with a slight indication of 
"ageing " beneath the lower lids and the weak double 
chin do little to enhance or idealize the sitter, but 
do lend a certain charm and warmth to the 

A drawing, frequently cited as the sketch for the 
Trees Collection portrait, exists in the Salting 
Collection of the British Museum in London (Fig. 18). 
This work, clearly labeled "Madame de Pienne de la 
gradeur de Mad. de Sauve" (to be painted in the 
manner of the portrait of Mad. de Sauve), is a 
portrait sketch of Anne, daughter of Admiral Chabot 

17. Frangois Clouet, 
Madame de Pienne (?). 

Krannerl Art Museum 

and wife of Charles Halluin." 

Anne's father was held in captivity with Francis I 
after the battle of Pavia in 1525, at which time he 
was made an Admiral. In 1559, the year Anne married 
Charles Halluin, Seigneur de Pienne,^ she was 
appointed lady-in-waiting to Mary Stuart, Queen of 
Scotland. In 1562 she was lady-in-waiting to 
Marguerite de France. 

Agnes Mongan considers the British Museum 
drawing to be a sketch for the Trees Collection 
painting. 55 A second drawing exists at The Art 
Institute of Chicago (Fig. 1 9). A gift of Robert Allerton, 
it is presumed to be another portrait sketch of Anne 
Chabot, known after her marriage as Madame de 

The two drawings are not exactly alike, and Marc 
Bascou feels it likely that The Art Institute drawing and 
the Trees Collection painting which, in his words, 
are identical are later portraits of the same person. 
(The Trees painting and The Art Institute drawing are 
very close, but not identical.) As the British Museum 
drawing is dated c. 1560, he suggests a date of 
1565-70 for both the Trees painting and The Art 
Institute drawing. 

If one carefully examines the painting and the 
British Museum drawing it becomes apparent that, 
while the British Museum drawing is indeed Madame 
de Pienne, it does not represent the same figure as the 
Trees painting or The Art Institute drawing. Both 
drawings are executed in parallel diagonal shading 
characteristic of the Clouets, and appear to be figures 
younger in age than the painting; but the costume 
and physical features shown in the British Museum 
drawing are very different from those in the Chicago 
drawing and the Trees painting. The lump in the nose 
is missing, the eyes are lighter in color and turned 
towards the viewer, and the lips are wider with the 
lower lip being rounder and much fleshier. There 
seems to be no reason for identifying the Trees 
painting or The Art Institute drawing as Madame de 

The Chicago drawing and the Trees painting 
present many similarities. Both figures have their 
hairdresses arranged in a "voile plisse," a style rather 
uncommon for the time. The shoulders of the dress 
in the Trees painting have been left unadorned, while 
the brooch in the center of the bodice is more 
elaborate and larger than that in the drawing. Even 
though the Chicago lady appears to be younger and 
fleshier than her counterpart at the Krannert Art 
Museum, there is no question but that they are the 
same figure. 

A third drawing is called into question by the Trees 
painting. This is a drawing of a "dameinconnue — an 
unknown lady in the Cabinet des Estampes, 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris (Fig. 20). Unfortunately, 
as her identity is unknown, this drawing does little to 

18. Frangols Clouet, French, c. 1515-1572, 
Madame Anne de Pienne. 

chalk on paper, 

Courtesy of the Trustees of The 

British Museum. 

Salting Collection, London 

19. Anonymous mid-16th Century French. 
(School of Clouef), A Court Lady, 

red and black chalks, 12" x 11" (31 x 
30.4 cm.). 

Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago. 
Gift of Robert Allerton. 1923.291 

20. Dame inconnue. French. XVI Century. 

chalk on paper. 

Cabinet des Estampes, Pans 

shed light upon the true identity of the lady in the 
Trees portrait. She is somewhat older than the figure 
in the Trees painting; and though her lower lip is also 
somewhat fleshier, she clearly has the lump in the 
nose, the weak double chin, and the same color eyes. 

One also should note that the "voile plisse" 
hairdress again is present. The jewels in her hair are 
exactly the same as in both the Krannert Art Museum 
painting and the Chicago drawing, and the folds of 
the white veil correspond down to the "loops" on the 
fringe. Even the modeling in the face, especially in the 
areas of the ear, lower lip, nose, and eye, and the 
shadows in the folds of the veil at the shoulders of 
the figure are identical. 

The exact relationship between the Chicago 
drawing, the Paris drawing, and the Trees painting is 
not quite clear. Could the Paris drawing be a later 
sketch of the figure in the Trees painting? The age 
of the figure in the Paris drawing would certainly 
suggest this. And what of the Chicago drawing? It 
may be the original sketch for the Trees painting, or 
it could be a copy of the "lost" sketch. 

Portrait Drawing Collections 

The possibility of there being a copy of a sketch is 
highly probable since it was the vogue in France, 
especially under Catherine de Medici, to collect 
portrait drawings. Several letters have been found 
from Catherine in which she requests drawings of 
"les Enfants des France."^ These drawings, or 
drawings similar to them, were either exhibited in 
small galleries or arranged in albums. The inspiration 
for the use of portrait galleries probably came from 
Italy following the example of Paolo Giovio, who. at 
least as early as 1521, began collecting portraits of 
famous people. 5' By the time of his death in 1552, his 
collection comprised at least two-hundred forty 
portraits consisting of such figures as the potentates 
of Europe and the King of Abyssinia.^^ 

It is known that the artist Corneille de Lyon kept 
a permanent display of portraits in his studio to meet 
the ever increasing demand for pictures of the 
illustrious figures of the day.^^ These pictures, 
requested from artists such as the Clouets, Corneille 
de Lyon, and others, eventually found their way into 
collectors' galleries or their portrait albums. The 
portrait album itself attained such wide popularity that 
several of them have survived to the present day. 
These albums often contain sketches several times 
removed from the original sketch — that is, sketches 
of sketches. 

Whatever the case with the Chicago drawing, the 
very existence of several drawings related to the 
figure in the Trees painting is enough to suggest 
the importance of this unknown lady. Whoever she 
was, she must have occupied a relatively high station 
at court. A further indication of her importance can 

21. Francois Clouet, 

Madame de Plenne (?), (detail). 

Krannert Art Museum 

be seen in the sumptuous jewelry she wears (Fig. 21); 
it hardly is conceivable that a personage of only slight 
importance would be portrayed with such an 
elaborate collection of precious gems. The gems are 
similar in many ways to those worn by the figure 
of Elizabeth of Austria. Though Elizabeth's jewels 
are more elaborate, both sets of jewels alternate light 
and dark stones in a raised gold setting interspaced 
with clumps of pearls. Even the brooches, with their 
pendant pearls in the form of a teardrop, are quite 


The quality of the Trees painting is unquestionably of 
the first rank. There is an attention to light and detail 
in the work that is rendered with such subtlety as to 
elude the casual observer. The jewels, which are 
darker across the bodice, become warmer in tone at 
the neck due to the reflection of the sitter's skin. 
Their color again changes, emphasizing the contour 
of the body, toward the back of the figure in areas 
of reduced light. The quality of light that falls upon 
the gold settings of inlaid red and blue-green 
enamel also is modulated from front to back to 
correspond to the tone of its surroundings. 

This attention to minute changes in light is not 
restricted to the treatment of the sitter's gems, but is a 
feature of the entire work. The hair, for instance, 
is arranged in snail-shell curls that are rendered in 
such a fashion as to create a harmony of warm 
shades of color that is echoed in the eyebrows, lips, 
and cheeks and in the gold chain that forms a gentle 
arc around the neck. (See cover.) Even the trim of 
the veil is painted carefully in hues that are intended to 
reflect the chromatic resonance of the whole, thus 
complimenting the soft atmosphere that surrounds 
the entire figure. 

These features, so characteristic of the sensitive 
style of Frangois Clouet, are all tributes to an 
artist who has managed to instill a sense of warmth 
and charm in his sitter that belies her courtly 
position. This unknown lady, arresting in her solitude, 
partakes of that subtle magic that marked the 
portraiture of the French court of the Valois. 

It hardly is surprising that the portrait style of the 
Clouets not only influenced Hans Holbein,^ but set 
the general pattern for royal portraiture at the court 
of the Valois in France and at the court of Queen 
Elizabeth in England.^' 


' MerleJ Trees and EmilyN Trees were graduates ofthe University 

of Illinois, Believing ttiat, wtiile at the University, students would 

benefit from access to a collection of European and Amencan art. 

ttiey started to acquire paintings with the intention of presenting 

the Collection to the University of Illinois They began donating 

the paintings to the University in 1937 When the Krannert Art 

Museum was opened in 1 961 , the Trees Collection was installed in 

a special gallery The Collection has been enlarged in recent 

years by additional gifts from the daughter and son of l^r and 

Ivirs, Trees. Mrs Katherine Trees Livezey and Mr. George 

S. Trees. The Clouet was given in 1941. 

2 The close stylistic relationship between the image of the Emperor 

and the portrayal of the citizens of Rome is one of the ways in 

which the portraits from this period can be dated 

' The Fayum is located on the western side of the Nile River in the 

area of Cairo Due to the and climate and the encaustic 

technique which involved painting in hot. colored wax. many 

portraits have been preserved from this area 

' The Concordat of 1515 allowed Francis I to give "rewards" 

in the form of Bishoprics and abbeys to his faithful These offices. 

being non-hereditary, formed an almost endless supply of 

important positions to be granted by the King for favors to the 


5 Mary Queen of Scotland came to France in 1548 to live with the 

family of her betrothed, the Dauphin of France (Francis II) 

She marned Francis in 1558. but returned to Scotland soon after 

his untimely death in December of 1560 (See Agnes Mongan. 

Harvard Library Bulletir). Cambridge. Massachusetts. I. 159) 

' Among the works Leonardo brought with him to France was the 

Mona Lisa After his death it remained in France and today 

hangs in the Louvre, Paris. 

' Anthony Blunt, Art and Architecture in France 1500-1700. 

Baltimore, Maryland. 1953, 19. 

'Ibid.. 34. 

^Ibid.. 19 

"•Ibid.. 19-20. 

" Ibid.. 44. 

'^ Louis Reau. French Painting in the Fourteenth. Fifteenth, and 

Sixteenth Centuries, trans., Mary Chamot, New York. 1939. 35 

" Blunt, 38 

" Museum News. Toledo Museum of Art. December, 1929. 

No. 55. 5, 

'^ L. de Laborde. La Renaissance des Arts a la Cour de France. 

Paris, 1850. 1 

'^ Peter Mellen, Jean Clouet. Complete edition of Drawings. 

Miniatures, and Paintings. New York. 1971, 3 

" L. de Laborde. La Renaissance des Arts a la Cour de France. 

Paris, 1855, ii. 

'« Ibid. 

" E Moreau-Nelaton, Le Portrait a la Cour des Valois. Crayons 

Franqois du XVI'' siecle conserves au Musee Conde a Chantilly, 

Pans. 1908, Vol 1. 33. 

2° Laborde. 1855. ii. 565, 

2' Mellen. 12, 

^^ Ibid.. 12 Reau gives the birthdate of Jean as 1475 (see page 34) 

and Mellen cites 1541 as the probable year of Jean's death (see 

Mellen, page 16) Frangois mother was Jehanne Boucault. 

the daughter of a leweler in Tours (see Mellen. page 13) Blunt 

places the birth of Franpois Clouet nearer to 1510. if not earlier He 

feels that the important position which passed to Frangois 

upon his father's death clearly shows that he was well established 

as a painter in 1540. thus his age must have been closer to 

thirty years rather than twenty-five (see Blunt, page 69) 

" Reau places Jean s first appearance at the Court of Francis I as 

1515. Mellen as 1516 (see Reau, page 34 and Mellen, page 12), 

'" Reau. 34. 

25 Mellen. 13. 

^^Ibid. 16.89. 

2" Albert Chatelet and Jacques Thuillier, French Painting from 

FouquettoPoussin. Cleveland. Ohio. 1963. 126 (See also Museum 

News. Toledo. 4). 

2«/b/d. 126, 

'oibid-. 123, 

'"Ibid.. 126 Louis Reau feels that, as Frangois Clouet signed his 

name Franciscus Janetius — a Middle French form of his surname, 

the Clouets were not Flemish at all but actually French (see Reau, 

page 34) Few scholars accept this as evidence, Corneille de Lyon, 

a contemporary of the Clouets was not French from Lyon, but 

was from The Hague in Holland His name is clearly an indication 

of where he worked, but has little to do with his actual place of 


^' Fouquet lived from ca 1415-1481 (see Reau. page 38 for 


'' Reau. 28. On his trip to Italy he may have met Fra Angelico. 

" Mellen, 19 

*• Bourdichon (1457-1521) lived in Touraine. He painted the 

Hours of Anne of Brittany in 1508 (see Blunt, page 18) 

35 Blunt. 18. 

^ Ibid-. 18. Bramante's S Maria presso San Satiro in Milan seems 

to be the source of Bourdichon s architecture 

3' Mellen, 12-13 and Reau, 31 In 1516, Perreal and Bourdichon 

were eighth and ninth on the list and Jean Clouet was fourteenth 

By 1522, Perreal had moved to first, Bourdichon to second, and 

Jean Clouet to fourth, 

"Mellen, 12-13 

» Blunt, 19 and Reau, 31 

"" Blunt. 19. 

•" Mellen, 18. 

« Blunt, 19. 

" Mongan, 158 

" Museum News. Toledo, 5. 

« Ibid. 

'^ The Man With a Volume of Petrarch, now in Windsor Castle, is 

another example. 

"' Chatelet and Thuillier. 124. They also relate the drapery to 

Leonardo's Virgin of the Rocl<s. They seem to be alone in their 

suggestions, as other scholars make no mention of such 


■" Traditionally, this work was considered a portrait of Diane de 

Poitiers but Irene Adier questioned that identity in 1929. Chatelet 

and Thuillier still are not convinced by AdIer since the face of 

the lady seems to be the same as the Diana the Huntress in the 

Louvre Museum which is a portrait of Diane de Poitiers. 

Chatelet and Thuillier. 129. 

"' Museum News. Toledo, 4. 

™ Reau, 34. 

*' Blunt feels FranQois Clouet may have visited Italy or had seen 

Titian's portrait of Aretino which Vasari says Francis I owned. 

Blunt. 69. 

^^ The Lady in Her Bath may derive from the nude versions of 

Leonardo's Mona Lisa known as Monna Vanna portraits. These 

portraits probably originated in the workshops of Leonardo. 

The Frangois Clouet painting may have been influenced by 

adaptations of the Monna Vanna portraits made by Joos van 

Cleve. Blunt. 69-70 and Reau. 33 

" Agnes Mongan, Art News. #45. 1946-7. 25. 

^ Mongan. Harvard Library Bulletin. 161-2. 

^ Ibid.. 162. "The portrait of Anne, painted from the drawing, is 

at the University of Illinois " 

^ Ibid., 157 and Mongan. Art News. 69 

^ Louis Dimier, French Painting in the 16th Century, New York, 

1904, 195-6. 

='/b/d., 196. 

=' Chatelet and Thuillier, 121. 

" Reau, 34 

*'' Roy C- Strong. Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I. Oxford, 1963, 



Fig. 3. Ranuccio Bianchi Bandinelli. Rome: The Center 
of Power, trans.. Peter Green. Editions Gallimard. Paris. 

Fig. 12. Grete Ring, A Century of French Painting 1400- 
1500, Oxford University Press, Glasgow. 

Members' Lecture Series 

Rotating Print and Photograph Exhibitions 

Famous European centers of art will be the subject of 
five lectures on Tuesday and Thursday afternoons 
during late January and February. The tentative 
schedule is listed below. A mailed notice will be sent 
to the Krannert Art Museum Associates early in 
January giving the definite dates and speakers. 

January 27 

Greece — the Home of Gods and Men 
Ann Perkins 

February 1 

Chartres, Paris, Amiens, and Reims 
Edwin Rae 

February 3 

Hill Towns of Italy 
Allen S. Waller 

February 8 

Chateaux of the Loire Valley 
Jack Parker 

February 10 


Barbara Wriston 

A series of small print and photograph exhibitions 
has been inaugurated, to make the Museum's 
graphic art collections more accessible to students. 
Each exhibition will place on display, for a period of 
two months, approximately twelve prints or 
photographs. The material selected for each 
exhibition may be by one artist, or in one technique, 
or of one period — that is, the material in any 
one exhibition will be related. The exhibitions will be 
selected by Frederick Fisher, and they will be hung in 
the Museum Conference Room on the lower level. 

The initial exhibition is composed of prints by the 
French artist, Jacques Callot (1592/3-1635). He was 
born in Nancy. As a young man he studied in Rome, 
and later he was affiliated with the Medici Court in 
Florence. In 1621 he returned to France and was one 
of the chief exponents of the Grotesque style in art 
during the reign of Louis XIII. 

Callot's etchings and engravings are noted for his 
skillful representation of minute detail, particularly 
in the highly animated figures. The majority of the 
prints to be shown are from Callot's last great series, 
the Grandes Miseres de la Guerre, a social comment 
on the 1633 invasion of Lorraine by Richelieu. 

Attic Red Figure Hydria, Greek. V Century 


Heracles in the Garden of the 

Hesperides (detail), 

15-%" X 14-5/8" X 12-5/e" (39.1 x 37.1 x 

32.1 cm.), 

Gift of Mr. Harlan E. IVIoore. 70-8-4 

Spring Museum Tour 

Contributors to the 
Collections and Endowments* 

The Museum trip next spring is planned for a three- 
day period, and the destination will be New York. 
Plane reservations will be "open-ended" for the 
convenience of those who wish to remain longer or 
continue on to other destinations. Specific 
Information including dates, itinerary, and costs will 
be mailed to all Krannert Art Museum Associates in 

A History of the American 
Avant-Garde Cinema 

Seven programs consisting altogether of thirty-seven 
films will be shown on seven consecutive Saturday 
mornings, beginning on January 22 and continuing 
through March 5. The screenings will take place in the 
Krannert Art Museum auditorium beginning at 
ten o'clock. 

The film exhibition was organized by The American 
Federation of Arts and was supported by a grant from 
the National Endowment for the Arts. It is presented 
at the Krannert Art Museum as a service to students of 
cinema, but admission will be open to Krannert Art 
Museum Associates, within the capacity of the 
auditorium. The films and dates of their screening will 
be published in January. 


Class of 1908 

Mr Frederick A. Jorgensen 

Mr and Mrs. Herman C. Krannert 

Mrs Katherine Trees Livezey 

Mr and Mrs Harlan E Moore 

Mr and Mrs Fred Olsen 

Mr, George S Trees 

Mr and Mrs Merle J. Trees 


Mr Max Abramovitz 

Mr Samuel M Adier 

Mr George P Bickford 

Mr Clifford Brown 

Mrs Mane Ann Caro 

Mr and Mrs Herman E. Cooper 

The Ford Foundation 

Mr William B Greene 

Mr. George L Goldstein 

Mr I Austin Kelly, III 

Mr, Joseph! H King 

Mr, William S Kinkead 

Mr Samuel M, Kootz 

Mr Louis Moss 

Mr and Mrs, Morrie A, Moss 

Mr Ctiarles S, Pillsbury 

Mr and Mrs William C, Wenninger 


Mr John L Alden 

Mr Albert L Arenberg 

Mr Himan Brown 

Mr, Charles N Cadwell 

Mr. and Mrs Spencer Ewing 

Federal Works Agency: 

Works Progress Administration 
Mrs Paul Kent 
Mrs Gertrude McCue 
Mrs Stacy Rankin 
Mr and Mrs Marvin D Rosenberg 
Mr Peter Rubel 
Mr George W Sanford 
Mr Sherlock Swann 
Estate of Lorado Taft 


Joseph Albers Foundation 
Mr Robert Allerton 
The Alpern Foundation 
The American Academy of 

Arts and Letters 
Mr and Mrs George E, Anner 
Mr John Bardeen 
Miss Virginia Barlow 
Mr, Walter Bareiss 

Mrs, Austin H. Bennett 

Mr. Philip Bruno 

Mr. Herbert Chase 

Mr. John N. Chester 

City of Chicago 

Mr, Erich Cohn 

The Collectors' Guild, Ltd. 

Mr. and Mrs, R F. Colwell 

Mrs. Louise Ewing Dexter 

Mr. and Mrs. Carl Dohme 

Mr. and Mrs. David Dolnick 

Mr. C. V. Donovan 

Mr. A. Eisner, Jr., Agent 

Mr. and Mrs. Clayton R. Gaylord 

Mrs. Esther Gentle 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Felgen 

Ben and Abby Gray Foundation 

Mr. Gabnel Guevreklan 

Mr and Mrs. Morris A. Hale 

Mr Gardner Heldnck 

Hott Memorial Center 

Mr. Jack S. Jacobs 

Miss Mary Cady Johnson 

Junior League of Champaign-Urbana 

Mr and Mrs William Kappauf 

Mrs Charles I Kiler 

Mr Louis J and Mrs Blanche H. Larson 

Latin American Studies Program 

Mr Albert A, List 

Mr Earle Ludgin 

Mr. William Marsteller 

May Company 

Dr. Karl A. Meyer 

Mr Lewis E. Myers 

Dr P A, Neibergall 

Mr Roy Neuberger 

Mr Dale Nichols 

Mr S Pllman 

Mr. Grant J Pick 

Mrs. Stacy Rankin 

Mr. Gordon Ray 

Miss Jeanne Reynal 

Mr. Karl Rohlen 

Mr and Mrs. Morton G Schamberg 

Mr Leonard Scheller 

Mr Soloman I. Sklar 

Mr Herman Spertus 

Mr Jannis Spyropoulos 

Mr Walter A Stem 

Mr Irwinn D. Sv^iann 

Mr Frederick Taubes 

Mr and Mrs. James G Thomas 

Mrs Harry C Triandis 
Mr Nahum Tschacbasov 
Allen Tucker Memohal 
Mr Benjamin Weiss 
Mr Arthur WIesenberger 

• Contributors to the UIF Krannert Art Museum Associates Fund 
will be listed annually and by category In the Spring issue of the 

• Contributors to the UIF: Art Acquisitions Fund will be listed 
annually In the Spring issue of the Bulletin. 

President of the University of Illinois 
John E. Corbally 

Chancellor of the University of Illinois at 


Jack W Peltason 

Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs 
Morton W. Weir 

Dean of the College of Fine and Applied Arts 
Jack H. McKenzie 

Krannert Art Museum 

Director, Muriel B. Chhstison 

Assistant to the Director and Designer 
Frederick J. Fisher 

Registrar and Editorial Assistant 
Brenda J. Huff 

Business and Membership Secretary 
Mary B. DeLong 

Educational Assistant. Mary Kujawski 

Curatorial Assistant, Janet Bertelsen 

Preparator and Head of Shop, James Ducey 

Preparator, Robert Hadfield 

Consultant in Conservation, Alfred Jakstas 

Consultant in Decorative Arts, 
Carl Dauterman 

Security, University of Illinois Police 

Building and Grounds Sen/ice, Division of 
Operation and Maintenance 

The Council, Executive Committee: 

Mrs. William Youngerman, President 

Mrs. Richard Burwash, Vice President 

Mrs. Walter Keith, Secretary 

Mrs. Gerhard Rettberg, Treasurer 

Mrs. Carl Dohme. Council Membership Chairman 

Mrs. William Johnson, Krannert Art Museum 

Associates Membership Chairman 
Mrs. M. A. Hale. Krannert Art Museum Associates 

Membership Deputy Chairman 
Mrs. Harlan Failor, Public Information Chairman 
Mrs. James Edwards, Public Information Deputy 

Miss Betsy Ross, Reception Chairman 
Miss Janet Eisner, Reception Deputy Chairman 
Mrs. Lloyd Engert, Bus Trip Chairman 
Mrs. Thomas Kelso, Bus Trip Deputy Chairman 
Mrs. B. B. Weise, Plane Trip Chairman 
Mrs. Robert Shapland, Plane Trip Deputy Chairman 
Mrs. H. R. Bresee, Program Chairman 
Mrs. Donald Moyer, Jr., Past President 
Mrs. Muriel B. Christison, Krannert Art Museum 



Champaign-Urbana Junior League 
Clare Hauserman. Chairman 
Suzanne Younger. Scheduler 

Leiand Andrews 
Donna Brinkmeyer 
Kip Dallenbach 
Mary Hays 
Charlotte Johnson 
Adion Jorgensen 
Ines Kellei' 
Jane Kelley 
Kay Morrow 
Olga Murphy 

Rosann Noel 
Nell Shapland 
Marilyn Thies 
SuAnn Thomas 
Judi Thompson 
JoAn Tomlin 
Anne Tryon 
Dorothy Weber 
Barb Wnght 

Bulletin of the Krannert Art Museum 
University of Illinois. Urbana-Champaign 
Volume II, Number 1, 1976 
Ttie Bulletin of tfie Krannert Art t^useum 
is publistied twice a year by the Krannert 
Art Museum, University of lllmois. Urbana- 
Champalgn, 500 Peabody Drive, Champaign. 
61820, Edited by Muriel B, Chnstison and 
Brenda J. Huff. Printed In the United States 
of America. 


Design: Carl Regehr 

Layout and Production: Frederick J. Fisher 

Paper: Cover, 10 point Kromekote 

Text, Basis 80 Warrens Patina Matte 
Type: Helvetica 

Printing: Office of Campus Publication, 
University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaIgn 


3 0112 084209086