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Krannert Art Museum 

University of Illinois 
Volume IV, Numberl, 1978 


OCT 3683 

Mailing Address 

Krannert Art Museum 
500 Peabody Drive 
Champaign. Illinois 61820 

Museum Gallery Hours: Monday through Saturday, 9:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m.; 
Sunday 2:00 ■ 5:00 p.m. Admission free. 
Closed on National Holidays. 

Reservations: Those desiring guided group visits may make reservations by 
writing or calling the Krannert Art Museum, 500 Peabody Drive, 
University of Illinois, Champaign 61820 
(telephone: area code 217/ 333-1860). 


Punch Bowl, details. 

French, Sevres. 1770. 

soft paste porcelain with bleu celeste glaze. 

13-3/8" diam. (33.97 cm.), 
Gift of Mr. Harlan E. Moore. 1976. 76-5-1. 

Tentative Exhibition Schedule 
1978-1979 Academic Year 

Krannert Art Museum 
University of Illinois 

August 27-October 1 Atelier 17; Retrospective 

A selection of over 100 prints by 68 artists commemorates 
the 50th anniversary of the famous workshop, Atelier 17, 
founded by Stanley William Hayter in Paris in 1927. The 
transfer of the workshop to New York in the 1940's and back 
to Paris in the 1950's is traced by the production which 
includes a number of prints by Hayter and by artists such as 
Alechinsky, Calder, Kandinsky, Lasansky, Masson, 
Nevelson, and Tanguy who worked at Atelier 17. The 
exhibition was assembled by the Elvehjem Art Center at the 
University of Wisconsin-IVIadison; the Guest Curator was 
Dr. Joann tvloser of the University of Iowa Museum of Art. 

August 27-October 1 Photographs of the American Wilderness by Dean Brown 

Seventy-five photographs, 60 in color and 15 black and 
white, record Dean Brown's love of the wilderness. He 
worked in remote parts of Arizona, Utah, Colorado, New 
Mexico, Alaska, Texas, New York, New Hampshire, and 
California. Using a 35mm camera and tripod he worked with 
an artist's eye and did not crop his pictures. He died while 
on an assignment for Time-Life Soo/ts. 

October S-November 5 American Sculpture for American Cities 

Models and preliminary drawings by twelve contemporary 
American artists represent projects for urban sculptural 
monuments. Mark di Suvero, Lyman Kipp, Alexander 
Lieberman, Tony Smith, Clement Meadmore, Kenneth 
Snelson, and others created sculptural designs to function 
as a symbol of a city or to complement an urban site. The 
exhibition originated at, and is circulated by, the Akron Art 

November 12- Work by Faculty in the Department of Art and Design 

December 17 

The annual display of works in crafts, graphic and 
industrial design, mixed media, painting, sculpture, 
photography, and printmaking by faculty members in the 
University of Illinois, Department of Art and Design at 
Urbana-Champaign will be on exhibition preceding the mid- 
winter holiday. 

January 14-February 18 World Print Competition 77 

One hundred prints by 97 artists from 24 countries 
compose the exhibition sponsored by the California 
College of Arts and Crafts and the San Francisco Museum 
of Modern Art. Over 4,000 prints were reviewed by three 
internationally known jurists: Tatyana Grosman, K. G. 
Pontus V. Hulten, and Prithwish Neogy. The exhibition of 
prints is being circulated by the Smithsonian Institution. 

March 4April 8 Sol LeWItt 

Modular and serial constructions, wall drawings, and 
books— about 140 objects — by Sol LeWitt illustrate the 
theories and procedures of one of the most influential 
artists of the last decade. A pioneer Minimalist in the early 
1960's, LeWitt's emphasis upon "idea" in his work and his 
writings had a profound effect upon contemporary 
Conceptual and Post-Conceptual artists. The exhibition 
was organized by The Museum of Modern Art and is being 
shown in New York, Montreal, Champaign, and La Jolla, 

April 22May 13 

Work by Graduate Students In the Department of 

Art and Design 

Paintings, sculpture, prints, photography, assemblages, 
and crafts by students completing Graduate Programs in 
the Department of Art and Design at the University of 
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign will be on exhibition. 

Special Exhibitions 

Pierre Alechinsky, Belgian, b 1907, 

Les Ombres, 1952, 

lift-ground etching, H. 20-4/5" x W. 26-1/5" 

(52,83x70.55 cm), 
Lefebre Gallery, New York, 

Among graphic artists and print collectors 
"Atelier 17" is synonymous withi the revival of 
the workshop tradition and of intaglio 
printmaking during the 1930's and 1940's. This 
activity v\/as generated largely by Stanley 
William Hayter. Born in England in 1901 and 
educated as a chemist, he gave up science in 
1926 and moved to Paris. He soon became 
acquainted w/ith artists of several nationalities 
who were living in Paris between the two 
World Wars. 

It was in the studio of the Polish artist, 
Joseph Hecht, that Hayter learned engraving. 
His enthusiasm for the method attracted 
others who wished to learn printmaking 
techniques. Hayter's workshop became 
known as Atelier 17 from the address of his 
studio at 17 Rue Champagne-Premier, to 
which he moved in 1933. There, artists shared 
ideas and experimented with new methods of 
color printing. 

When war was declared in Europe Hayter 
returned to England where he served for a 
while in a reserve unit. After this was 
disbanded, he moved to New York, 
establishing his studio there in 1940. An 
exhibition of prints held at The Museum of 
Modern Art in 1944 directed national attention 
to work produced at Atelier 17 and brought 
about a new interest in contemporary 
printmaking in America. Although Hayter 
moved back to Paris in 1950, and the New 
York studio officially closed in 1955, the 
influence of Hayter and Atelier 17 in the 
development of printmaking in the United 
States continued. 

The exhibition, which will be on display at 
the Krannert Art Museum from August 27 to 
October 1, contains examples of Hayter's 
work including prints made during the 1930's 
when he exhibited with the Surrealists in 
Paris; and it contains prints by many artists of 
international reputation who worked in his 
studio at one time or another. The exhibition 
was assembled by the Elvejhem Art Center at 
the University of Wisconsin-Madison, 

Dean Brown died while on assignment in 1973. 
He was photographing Table Mountain in 
New Hampshire. Torrential rains during a two- 
week period had formed a new waterfall over 
the face of a sheer, granite cliff. After climbing 
almost to the top in order to take the picture, 
he slipped on the wet rock and fell. 

Although he was a professional musician, 
scholar, and linguist, he also was a hiker and 
photographer with an intense love of the 
wilderness. He preferred to print small as he 
wanted the scenes experienced by the viewer 
in an intimate way— as he had first viewed 
them in nature. 

His wife, Carol Brown, who selected the 
prints for the exhibition, wrote "Dean Brown 
brought to landscape photography an artist's 
eye for color, value and form; a reporter's zeal 
for accuracy and documentation; and a 
craftsman's obsession for perfection." The 
exhibition was made possible by a grant from 
the National Endowment for the Arts and was 
assembled at the Akron Art Institute. It will be 
shown concurrently with the Atelier 17 prints. 

drawings for new urban monuments. The 
exhibition will contain work by sculptors who 
in recent years have created monumental 
works of sculpture for American cities. Such 
projects usually have involved a collaboration 
of patron and artist: sometimes municipalities 
have commissioned such work, sometimes 
corporations, and in some cases the 
commissions represent the gift of a private 
patron to his native city. 

The monumental designs decorate parks, 
architectural plazas, boulevards, and city 
centers. They have presented new problems to 
the sculptor, who must conceive in the studio 
works which in their greatly enlarged scale 
will be seen in relation to the sizes of 
surrounding spaces and buildings. Such 
projects also have involved new technology in 
the choice of materials and methods of 
construction suitable for the new designs 
and for outdoor display. 

The exhibition was suggested by Clement 
Meadmore and Patricia Hamilton. Mrs. 
Hamilton served as Guest Curator. The 
exhibition was assembled by the Akron Art 

The Museum will have on display from 
Octobers through November 5 an exhibition 
of sculptors' three-dimensional models and 

Fall Lecture-Luncheon 

The Fall Lecture-Luncheon will provide an 
exceptional opportunity for members to hear 
about the dally life, and the art which 
surrounded it, in the buried cities of 
Campania: Pompeii and Herculaneum. 

Janina Darling, who is Chairperson of Art 
History at Eastern Illinois University and who 
previously has taught at the University of 
California, the University of Illinois, and San 
Francisco State University, will be the 
speaker. She carried out extensive research 
on Pompeiian art while a graduate student at 
Berkeley and later in Pompeii, in 
Herculaneum, and at the National 
Archaeological Museum in Naples while on a 
Fulbright Fellowship at the American 
Academy in Rome. 

These studies were contributory to her 
doctor's dissertation on the subject of Roman 
landscape painting, which she discusses 
particularly in relation to the painting styles at 
Pompeii and Herculaneum. Professor Darling 
has published articles on classical art in 
scholarly journals such as the American 

Journal of Archaeology and California 
Publications in Classical Archaeology; she 
has lectured before academic and 
archaeological societies in various parts of 
the United States. 

Professor Darling states that her lecture 
will introduce listeners to some of the famous 
citizens of Pompeii and Herculaneum, in their 
own homes; it will discuss the fine points of 
living, the plan of the typical house, the 
kitchen, furniture, interior decoration and 
garden. She also will review some of the 
principal public buildings such as the forum, 
several temples, theater, and baths. The 
lecture will offeran excellent historical and 
artistic backdrop for the objects that will be on 
display at The Art Institute of Chicago in the 
exhibition Pompeii AD. 79. 

The luncheon will be held on Thursday, 
September 21, at the Champaign Country 
Club at twelve o'clock; the lecture will follow 
at one-thirty. Krannert Art Museum Associates 
will receive reservation information by mail. 

Fall Exhibition Trip 

A visit to the exhibition Pompeii A. D. 79 at The 
Art Institute of Chicago is planned for 
Tuesday, October 17. The exhibition has been 
seen in Copenhagen, London, and Boston. 
From Chicago it travels to Dallas and New 

It brings together objects of art and artifacts 
which w/ere preserved below the over-twelve 
feet of punnice and volcanic ash that buried 
Pompeii and Herculaneum after the eruption 
of Mt. Vesuvius on August 24, A.D. 79. The 
objects, lent by the Pompeii Antiquarium and 
the National Archaeological Museum of 
Naples, include jewelry, silverware, sculpture, 
mosaics, frescos, tools, pottery, glass, and 

Pompeii was located on a spur of lava just 
north of the mouth of the Sarnus (Sarno) 
river. In Roman times Pompeii was the 


A View of the Forum with Mt. Vesuvius in 
the Distance 

maritime, commercial, and agricultural capital 
of the lower Sarnus valley. In A.D. 62 or 63 a 
severe earthquake devastated much of 
Pompeii and nearby Herculaneum. The cities 
were still rebuilding in A.D. 79 when the 
volcanic eruption completely obliterated 

Although an eye-witness account by Pliny 
the Younger described the tragedy in letters 
to the historian, Tacitus, and although the 
mound which covered Pompeii was known 
for centuries thereafter as La Civita, the site 
remained buried for over fifteen hundred 
years. In the late sixteenth century the ruins of 
some buildings and paintings were unearthed 
during the digging of a channel from the 
Sarno. (The Italian architect, Dominico 
Fontana, often is credited with discovering 
the ruins of Pompeii sometime between 1586 
and 1600; and the Prince of Elboeuf often is 
credited with discovering Herculaneum in 

Charles of Bourbon, whose mother was a 
Farnese and Queen of Spain, was crowned 
King of the Two Sicilies in 1738. He was 
bequeathed the Farnese collections which 
were moved from Parma and Rome to 
Naples and housed, after 1738, in the Palazzo 
Reale di Capodimonte. He encouraged the 
excavations at Herculaneum, which were 
underway in 1738, and at Pompeii, which were 
undertaken on a systematic scale in the spring 
of 1748. 

The excavated treasures were stored first 
in the King's villa at Portici (the former port of 
Herculaneum), but when Vesuvius erupted 
again in 1779 the treasures were moved to the 
Palazzo degli Studi (now the Museo Nazionale) 
in Naples. With the attraction of both the 
Farnese treasures and the new discoveries 
which were being unearthed at the nearby 
excavations, Naples rivaled Rome as an 
important stop on the Grand Tour. Over three 
hundred years later Pompeii still remains a 
major tourist attraction. 

Krannert Art Museum Associates will 
receive mailed information regarding plans 
and reservations for the fall trip. 

Archaeological Institute Program 

The Archaeological Institute of America has a 
group of loyal members in Central Illinois who 
plan and support an annual program of 
lectures. All of the lectures are given by 
specialists: some lectures appeal primarily to 
other specialists; some appeal to a general 
audience: but each lecture presents organized 
information that is not otherwise accessible. 

Members of the Central Illinois Chapter 
represent various fields such as history, 
geography, architecture, anthropology, 
architectural history, muscology, comparative 
literature, philosophy, religion, and 
mathematics. The mixture of interests 
contributes to the rich exchange of ideas 
and knowledge. 

The Krannert Art Museum invites the 
Central Illinois Chapter of the Archaeological 
Institute of America to present its lecture 
series in the Krannert Art Museum auditorium. 
Most lectures are on Tuesday or Wednesday 
evenings at eight o'clock. All Krannert Art 
Museum members are invited to attend the 
lectures, and there is no admission charge. 
The dates, speakers, and topics will be: 

October 11: Greek Vases in the 
Krannert Art 

November 15: Ttie Porticello 

Ttie Origins of 

February 6: 

March 6: 

April 3: 

Explorations at 
Caesarea Marltima 

Professor Ann Perkins, 
Emerita. Department 
of Art and Design, 
University of Illinois 

Cyntfiia Jones 
Elseman. Lecturer. 
Yale University; Editor 
American Institute of 
Nautical Arcfiaeology 

Professor Jack R, 
Harlan. Plant and 
Agronomy Department, 
University of Illinois 

Professor Robert L. 
Hofilfelder, History 
Department, University 
of Colorado, Boulder 

Early Roman Coins Professor Ricfiard 
and ttie Coins of l^itctiell. History 
Soutti Italy Department, University 

of Illinois 

Reconstructing ttie Professor Steptien L. 

Countryside of Dyson, Classics and 

Roman Italy History Department, 

Wesleyan University 

Additions to the Collections 


Cream Pitcher, 

English, London, 1791, 

silver, H. 5-3/8" x W. 4 1/2" (13.65 x 1 1.46 cm.). 

Gift of Mrs. Franklin Wingard, 1978, 78-5-1. 

The Krannert Art Museum has received gifts 
from several donors during the past year. Mrs. 
Franklin F. Wingard (L.A.S., '29) presented a 
delicate English silvercream pitcher in 
memory of her husband (Law, '29). The vase- 
shaped pitcher is mounted on a square 
pedestal and decorated with stippled 
arabesques, bright-cut foliate swags, and 
punched beaded border. The scrolled initials 
"SB" are engraved in a medallion beneath the 

A series of five hallmarks is stamped on the 
face of the pedestal base below the handle. 
The first of these is the signature of the 
silversmith, the letter "G." This stamp has 
been pressed over another maker's mark, 
nearly obliterating it. The occurrence of 
such double markings is not unique. 

The second of the marks shows the profile 
of the reigning sovereign, George III. and 
indicates that the proper duty was paid on the 
silver. The mark was in use only between the 
years 1784 and 1890. Following the "duty 
mark" is the "lion passant," an ancient 
symbol drawn from English heraldry. It is the 
guarantee of the sterling quality of the silver 
itself. Next is the lowercase Roman letter "q" 
in a shield, the mark of the year 1790-1791. 
Such a letter was assigned for each year, 
beginning in the fifteenth century; the system 
continues to this day in orderly alphabetical 
cycles. The last of the marks on the pitcher is 
the "leopard's head crowned," actually the 
frontal head of a lion. It is the mark of the 
London Guild of Silversmiths, and has been in 
use since 1300. 

Professor Frank Gunter and Mrs. Gunter 
gave several objects, including a Meissen 
condiment pot. The "crossed swords and 
star" mark on its underside indicates that it 
was made during the Marcolini period (1774- 
1814), the last great era of Meissen 
production. The pot is in the shape of a barrel 
turned on its side, raised on tour goat's feet 
and set atop a shell-like base. The tiny lid of 
the pot is also in the form of a shell and 
decorated with delicately modeled grape 
foliage and fruit. The piece is unpainted 

biscuit, which was used only for such fine 
plastic wares after c. 1780. The porcelain, 
however, retains the flawless and brilliant 
hard-white tone characteristic of Meissen 
since c. 1720. 

The Gunters also donated three etching- 
engravings by the French printnnaker, 
Abraham Bosse (1602-1676). Two of the works 
are very small, as they were created for a 
prayer book, Le Petit Diurnal des Chartreux 
of 1655. The first of the prints was the original 
frontispiece for the prayer book, and shows 
the Virgin and Child appearing to two saints; 
the second depicts the Annunciation. 

The third of the prints is a larger etching- 
engraving which was part of a series relating 
the parable of Lazarus. The exuberant Baroque 
composition shows Lazarus being visited by 
an apparition of angels and cherubs in a blaze 
of heavenly light. 

A part of the Gunters' contribution is a 
graphite drawing by the English artist Samuel 
Prout (1783-1852). The drawing presents a 
charming riverfront view of Verona, Italy, and 
was executed during the artist's tour to Italy 
and Switzerland in 18^4. It was intended as a 
preparatory sketch for a later publication, and 
is signed on the reverse "S. Prout." The 
delicately rendered scene provides a wistful 
impression of the graciously aged buildings 
and the life they represented. 

Two graphic works by the prominent 
American sculptor, Chaim Gross, were 
donated by the artist's wife, Mrs. Renee 
Gross. Austrian-born, Chaim Gross studied art 
in the United States and executed several 
public commissions for the Federal 
Government in Washington, D.C., as well as 
others in New York and Jerusalem. Gross' 
work was included in the exhibition of 
American Painting and Sculpture shown in 
Moscow in 1959. His work is represented in 
the collections of The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, The Whitney Museum of American 
Art and The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 
He received numerous important grants and 
prizes. In addition, Gross devoted many years 

to teaching, and wrote several books, articles, 
and television productions. 

Mrs. Gross' gifts include a signed pencil 
drawing, "I Love My Baby" (1963), showing a 
reclining motherand child. The massive 
movements and bulbous forms of the figures 
create a composition which is both strong and 
poignant. The same massive, bulbous 
qualities may be seen in the signed pencil and 
watercolor composition of 1974, also given by 
Mrs. Gross. In this case, the impression is one 
of buoyancy and lightness, however, as the 
loose washes and fleeting pencil lines 
describe the figure of a walking woman, 
caught in mid-stride. 

Dr. and Mrs. Allen S. Weller provided a 
signed, color etching and aquatint print by 
the contemporary American master sculptor 
and printmaker, Claes Oldenburg. The title, 
"Colossal Tea Bags in a City Square" (1976), 
belies the subtlety of the linear treatment of 
the tea bags and stick figures against the 
pavement grid, foiled by freely-applied 
aquatint tones of rust and gray. 

The Krannert Art Museum is grateful for the 
generosity of these donors to the collections. 


Under its Museum Purchase Plan the National 
Endowment for the Arts provides funds for the 
acquisition of works by living American 
artists. The objectives of the plan are "to 
encourage museums to add to their 
collections of contemporary American art, to 
create and expand public response to living 
artists through display of their works, to raise 
new funds specifically for this purpose, and to 
provide direct financial assistance for 

Through a grant from the National 
Endowment for the Arts the Krannert Art 
Museum has acquired two paintings and a 
print. One painting, "Conjunction 151," by 
Cleve Gray was among the most admired 

Robert Rauschenberg, American, b. 1925, 
Sky Garden, 1969, 

colored lithograph and silkscreen print, 
H. 89" X W. 37-5/8" (226.1 x 95.57 cm.). 
University of Illinois Purchase, 1978, 78-7-1. 

works by the artist in ttie spring exhibition at 
the Museum. The second painting, by Jules 
Olitski, was included in his recent New York 
exhibition and was painted during the summer 
of 1977. Although it is entitled "The Greek 
Princess 13" the true subject is the 
rectangular paint surface itself: its color, 
material, and form. 

The painting Is a rich and deep mesh of 
sprayed-on browns and black paint with 
textural shapes and lines partially emerging 
from the dark field. Across the center of the 
painting an irregular line of rolled-on paint 
visually creates a folded effect; the illusionary 
crease is further emphasized by a broken 
crimson and silver line. Along the side and 
bottom edges of the field of paint, narrow and 
irregular strips of the canvas are exposed on 
which Olitski — in no accidental way— has 
squeezed or stroked lines of yellow, blue, 
purple, or red paint, to reaffirm as it were the 
surface plane and the rectangular form of the 

Olitski's recent work brings together his 
own earlier explorations of relationships 
between picture frame, the picture plane, and 
the pictorial elements of shape, line, texture, 
color, light, and space. Somehow Olitski's 
progressive experiments have carried him 
beyond the dynamic push-pull effects of Hans 
Hofmann, the textural plasticity of the French 
mat iere painters, the color shapes and color 
fields of the stain painters and the 
reductivists. In the catalogue of the recent 
New York exhibition, Neil Marshall wrote, "I 
think it is Olitski's paintings more than any 
others' that typify our period style and the 
unique historical problems that the painting of 
this decade has faced." 

Robert Rauschenberg's "Sky Garden" is a 
color lithograph and silkscreen print on paper. 
Signed, dated, and numbered 19 in an edition 
of 35, the print was produced at the workshop 
of Gemini G.E.L. (Graphic Editions Limited) in 
Los Angeles. 

Rauschenberg studied in Paris and had 
worked in an abstract expressionist style, so it 

Spring Museum Trip 

may have been his association with Joseph 
Albers and John Cage at Black Mountain 
College that encouraged his interest in nnixed 
media. His "combines" of the mid-1950's 
recall earlier Dada work and Kurt Schwitters' 
/Werz collages. 
Rauschenberg is regarded as one of the 
artists most responsible for the development 
of Pop Art. In the early 1960's he began 
selecting photographs from the media(or 
sometimes taking pictures himself) which he 
enlarged and transferred to silkscreen. His 
combine-paintings of the mid-sixties 
combined silkscreened images on canvas 
with abstract passages of brush work in oil 

His subjects could be selected from 
anywhere, for example, the series of 
lithographs based on the Apollo II moon 
rocket which was launched from the Kennedy 
Space Center in 1969. It was at this time that 
Rauschenberg's "Sky Garden" was produced. 
Joseph E. Young, in discussing the Gemini 
G.E.L. workshop (Art International. December 
1971, pp. 71, 72), describes Rauschenberg's 
method in creating his Booster series: 
"Rauschenberg selected photographs which 
were transferred onto photosensitive printing 
plates. These were inked with lithographic 
inks and then printed onto numerous sheets 
of transfer paper. Then the artist further 
altered these numerous identical images with 
tusche, wash, crayon, and in at least one 
instance with silkscreen printing. From these 
transfer paper "studies" Rauschenberg 
selected an image which was transferred to a 
lithographic stone where he worked 
again— directly on the image." After the 
lithograph had been printed on oversized 
paper, it was overprinted with silkscreen ink in 
white, outlining the rocket and booster and 
identifying their sections with captions. 

Robert Rauschenberg is generally regarded 
as one of the most influential artists of the last 
three decades and the Museum is fortunate to 
obtain this important example of his work for 
its print collection. 

A gala three-day trip is planned for Krannert 
Art Museum Associates during early April. The 
itinerary will include a day at the Henry 
Francis duPont Winterthur Museum, a night at 
the Hotel duPont in Wilmington, and side trips 
to the Hagley Museum, Longwood Gardens, 
and the Brandywine River Museum. 

The next stop will be two days in 
Washington to visit the National Gallery's new 
East Building, The Phillips Collection, and 
Dumbarton Oaks— with optional visits to 
other Washington museums such as the 
Hirschhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 
The Freer Gallery of Art, Corcoran Gallery of 
Art, Museum of African Art, National 
Collection of Fine Arts, National Portrait 
Gallery, Renwick Gallery, The White House, 
and the Diplomatic Reception Rooms at the 
Department of State. 

Trip dates are Tuesday, April 3, through 
Friday, April 6. Chairman for the trip is Mrs. 
Lewis W. Barron, Deputy Chairman is Mrs. 
Richard R. Tryon. Krannert Art Museum 
Associates will receive information regarding 
costs and reservations in November. 

William and Mary furniture in the Flock Room 
of Tfie Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur 

1. Punch Bowl. 

French, SSvres. 1770. 

soft paste porcelain with bleu celeste glaze, 

13-3/8"diam (33,97 cm.), 
Gift of Mr Harlan E Moore, 1976,76-5-1. 

A Bowl for Toasting 
and A Toast to a Bowl 

by Carl C. Dauterman 

Through the continued generosity of Mr. 
Harlan E. Moore, a constant friend and 
benefactor of the Museum, several porcelains 
of distinction have recently been added to the 
Museum's collection. Most outstanding is an 
18th century punch bowl (Fig. 1), a creation of 
Sevres, the royal porcelain factory that was 
the pride of Louis XV. This jatte a punch is 
notable for its turquoise color, size, bird 
decoration, and the manner in which it is 
marked. Each of these features, which 
combine to give the vessel a regal appearance, 
will be discussed here in some detail. 

To begin: the bowl belongs to a category so 
scarce that a major Eastern museum exhibits 
an example in spite of its fragmentary 
condition, with pieces missing. Such objects 
usually were part of luxurious services of the 
kind owned by royalty; they were the dominant 
vessels among the equipment for dessert. 
That they were not numerous even in their day 
may be gathered from analyzing the catalogue 
of a special exhibition, Les Grands Services 
de Sevres, mounted by the Musee National de 
la Ceramique, at Sevres, in 1951. Of the dozen 
great services representing the 18th century, 
two were shown^ to have had originally a pair 
each of punch bowls, eight had one apiece, 
and the remaining two had none at all. All in 
the exhibition were made for exalted 
personages. Among their original owners 
were the Empress Maria Theresa, the Elector 
Palatine Charles Theodore, the Duchess of 
Bedford, Madame Du Barry, and Louis Quinze 

Only three of the 18th century services in 
the exhibition displayed the coveted turquoise 
blue ground, and of these only two were 
decorated with birds. The earliest was ordered 
by Louis as a cadeau diplomatique for the 
king-to-be, Gustav III of Sweden, on the 
occasion of his visit to Paris in 1771. 
Consisting of 586 pieces, it included "2 jattes 
a punch avec mortlers," according to the 
factory record.^ Its depictions of birds, 
perhaps 2,000 in the aggregate, represent the 
collaboration of six painters. It is the only one 

of the three that still remains intact. The 
second, a huge collection of 744 pieces, was 
ordered by Catherine the Great for her 
personal use. It was decorated in "cameo" 
fashion with scenes from ancient history and 
mythology, by painters whose names can be 
deciphered from their marks on the 
porcelains. After a fire at the Tsarkoie-Selo 
Palace, one portion of this service was 
removed to England, later to be reclaimed by 
Paul I; other pieces found their way into 
private hands. 

The third of the turquoise blue services was 
made as a gift from Louis XV near the end of 
his reign to Prince Louis de Rohan. It is of 
particular interest because it was meant to be 
part of his official equipage while 
Ambassadeur Extraordinaire at the court of 
Maria Theresa, and this was the first instance 
in which porcelain was substituted for the 
traditional ambassadorial silver. Thus Sevres 
porcelain was invested with a special cachet: 
it had been chosen as an instrument of royal 
propaganda, to proclaim the pride of 
the French monarch in the artistic dominance 
of his porcelain overall its European rivals. 

Rohan is perhaps best known in history for 
two inglorious episodes in his career. During 
his ambassadorship, which continued into the 
reign of Louis XVI, he gained the disfavor of 
Marie Antoinette by his unseemly behavior at 
the court of Vienna. After his return to Paris he 
became the Cardinal Prince who figured in the 
well-known story of the Queen's Necklace, as 
described by de Maupassant, winning for 
himself the nickname of Le Cardinal Collier. 
His ambassadorial porcelain became widely 
dispersed with time. Almost half of its 368 
pieces found their way to the United States 
during World War II. Several American 
museums have representative holdings 
(Krannert has a plate, also the gift of Mr. 
Moore); other examples are scattered among 
numerous private holders. Abroad, sizeable 
portions are to be found in the Louvre, the 
Sevres Museum, and Windsor Castle. 

The turquoise color that makes these 

services (and this bowl) so distinctive is 
recorded with some ambiguity in the archives 
of Sevres. A statement by Jean Hellot, the 
chemist credited as its inventor, refers to "le 
bleu de Roy, ou bleu turquoise" discovered by 
himself in 1753.^ As synonyms, these terms 
are confusing, because bleu de Roi has been 
applied by more recent writers to a dark 
purplish blue. In the delivery records of the 
factory there seems to be an equivalency 
among bleu turquoise, bleu Hellot, bleu 
celeste, and the abbreviation B.C. Part of the 
problem may be that the color evades 
description, being a peculiar blending of blue 
and green. Hellot himself defined it as 
resembling old turquoise by day and emerald 
or malachite by candlelight. Happily, English 
and American authorities agree with the 
French on the preponderance of blue over 
green. We call it turquoise blue, a term less 
ethereal than the French favorite, bleu celeste. 
There is no doubt that turquoise blue was 
one of the most expensive colors known to the 
manufactory. A very special technique was 
required to process it, involving two firings 
instead of the usual one for a ground-color. 
This factor alone not only increased the cost, 
but introduced the extra risk of accident while 
in the kiln— accident that could reduce a 
precious creation to a mere waster. 

In the perspective of ceramic history, the 
turquoise color existed long before Hellot 
achieved it. It had been well known to potters 
of the Islamic world at least since the 12th 
century. During the Mongol hegemony of 
China in the 13th and 14th centuries the blue 
pigment, cobalt, was introduced there from 
the Near East, possibly Persia. Although this 
was evidenced in the deep rich blue of Ming 
times (14th to 17th centuries), a brilliant 
turquoise came into its own in China among 
the series of monochrome glazes produced 
during the reign of K'ang Hsi (1662-1722). It 
was doubtless in emulation of this last 
source— for K'ang Hsi porcelains were 
popular in Europe — that the French strove 
to capture it for their own. 

The ambitious size of the bowl can best be 
appreciated in terms of certain technical 
considerations, beginning with the nature of 
the porcelain itself. Here it should be said that 
while Sevres produced an unsurpassed white 
porcelain, the material is known technically as 
a glassy-frit, soft-paste, or artificial porcelain. 
Therefore we should examine the factors that 
distinguish the old-fashioned type from the 
true or hard-paste porcelains. Our justification 
for calling it "old-fashioned" is that it had 
existed in France since late in the 17th 
century, as compared to the true porcelain of 
Meissen type, which was not made in Europe 
until 1709. By 1770, the date of our bowl, 
Sevres was also making true porcelain, at 
least experimentally. The basic distinction 
between the two was that the older type 
contained no kaolin or feldspar, the essential 
ingredients of true porcelain. The term soft 
paste is misleading to the layman, as there is 
no perceptible softness about the product, 
which is as firm as true porcelain. "Soft" and 
"hard" refer to the relative kiln temperatures 
required to consolidate the clay mixture and 
"fix" the shape during the first firing. In 
potters' jargon, a hard firing indicates a high 
temperature, on the order of 1400 degrees 
Centigrade, while a soft firing is one at a lower 
level, in the case of Sevres about 1300 

Unlike the vases and most of the large 
objects made at Sevres, the bowl was given its 
form on a potter's wheel. The process of 
"throwing," as it is called, is greatly 
concerned with the strength and plasticity of 
the clay. The early clay of Sevres was decidely 
"short," that is, lacking in plasticity. Therefore 
it was necessary to add soap and glue to the 
mixture to make it more manageable. In 
addition, the lower cohesiveness of the paste, 
especially in larger objects, required that the 
walls be made somewhat thicker than would 
be necessary for hard paste. Another limiting 
factor was the greater sensitivity to over-firing, 
causing warpage of the shape or alteration of 
the colors used in decorating. 

2. One of three medallions on the punch bowl of Fig. 1 . 
Animated poses and brilliant colors typify the bird 
vignettes of XVIII Century Sevres. Here, the perched 
parrot was apparently adapted from the Chinese Parrot 
in Volume V of George Edwards' Uncommon Birds. 

3. In this second medallion on the bowl, the parakeet may 
also derive from Edwards' Uncommon 6/rds (volume 1, 
plate 6, 1734). 

4. The third medallion, of particular Importance. Exotic 
birds disporting amid flowers and shrubs of the French 
landscape constituted a standard formula for the 
artists of Sfevres. 

In the light of such considerations the 
Krannert bowl emerges as an object of very 
special interest. For, although Sevres had very 
recently achieved the ability to manufacture 
hard paste, this bowl was made of the earlier 
and more difficult soft paste, as already 
mentioned. Indeed, the factory clung to the 
older formula, turning out more of this than 
the new type during the remainder of the 
century. The Krannert bowl, then, is an 
illustration of high aesthetic achievement in 
the face of pronounced technical limitations. 

There are still other hazards involved in 
bringing to completion such an ambitious 
project; the act of firing is fraught with them. 
A minimum of three of four firings can be 
assumed for the average piece of soft-paste 
Sevres: one for converting the clay into firm 
"biscuit" state, a second for the coating of 
glaze, and at least two more for the painted 
decoration and the gilding. Considering that 
the turquoise blue ground had to be applied in 
two stages, each requiring its own firing, it is 
quite probable that this bowl was in and out of 
the kiln five or six times before it was 
completed. And at virtually every firing there 
was the risk of undoing an earlier gain. 

The happy vogue for decorating porcelain 
with colorful birds had a precedent in Chinese 
porcelain of the late 17th and early 18th 
centuries. However, the artists of Sevres 
employed birds in a completely different 
manner. Instead of interspersing them in a 
purely decorative, overall pattern of foliage 
and flowers, they chose to depict them in 
landscape settings, disposing them in groups 
of two or three amid low shrubbery, against a 
background of broad meadows or rolling 
countryside occasionally punctuated with a 
distant building. The range of their palette was 
also much broader than that of the Chinese: it 
encompassed the full variety of avian 

The three pictorial ovals on the Krannert 
bowl give it a distinction beyond that of its 
brilliant ground color. Each vignette is 
executed within a reserve, or area of white 

porcelain purposely left uncoated by the 
turquoise ground color in order to take the 
fullest advantage of the natural whiteness of 
the porcelain as a foil for the pigments to be 
brushed upon it. Aside from their intense 
fascination as miniature paintings, these 
views of birds in landscapes are symbolic of a 
significant trend in the intellectual world of 
the 18th century. The very selection of birds as 
subjects is an expression of the burgeoning 
curiosity about nature which culminated in 
the highly schematic formulations of 
Linnaeus, who analyzed and classified 
thousands of species within the animal, 
vegetable and mineral kingdoms. Before his 
death in 1778 some thirty texts illustrating 
birds had been published by other Europeans. 
They served as basic sources for the 
scientifically minded, like Linneaus, and also 
for the artistic, like the painters of Sevres. 

England led in the production of 
ornithological texts, with France foremost on 
the continent. Among the most outstanding 
titles were Albert Seba's Locupletissimi 
Rerum Naturalium Thesauri' in four volumes, 
and Eleazar Albin's Natural History of Birds'' in 
three volumes. Together these illustrated 
more than two hundred common and exotic 
species, though in a dry, standardized way, 
the subjects usually posed in stiff profile, with 
little or no suggestion of their natural 
environment. Credit for depicting birds in a 
more spirited, lifelike manner must go to Mark 
Catesby who in 1731 displayed the first part of 
his Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the 
Bahama Islands to the Fellows of the Royal 
Society. Catesby also pioneered in 
conscientiously recording details of the 
environment in which each species made its 
home. This keen appreciation for ecological 
relationships was taken over by his fellow 
countryman, friend and pupil, George 
Edwards, who surpassed his master as a 
draftsman. '' 

The seven volumes published by Edwards 
between 1734 and 1764 did more to influence 
English and French ceramics than any other 

publication of the 18th century. His vigorous 
depictions of birds preening, flying, pouncing 
upon their prey or perched alertly in 
appropriate surroundings were repeatedly 
copied or adapted among the porcelains of 
Chelsea, Bow, and Sevres. It is therefore 
rather surprising that the birds on the Krannert 
bowl show no very close correspondence to 
those in Edwards' colored plates, although 
certain aspects of resemblance do exist. For 
instance, the perched parrot with blue head 
and pink breast in Fig. 2 is close to the Green 
and Red Parrot from China in volume V, plate 
23, although the pose has been reversed and 
the colors have been altered. Similarly, the 
bird perched on a bent branch in Fig. 3 
resembles in form and pose the "Smallest 
Green and Red Indian Parakeet" of volume I, 
plate 6, but again the colors do not match. As 
for the pheasant-like bird with outspread 
wings and his companion, the blue-faced 
yellow parrot of Fig. 4, there is no counterpart 
in the seven volumes of this most likely 

Among French texts, the illustrations in 
Brisson's Ornithologie' are largely lacking in 
animation, and only two of Button's nine 
volumes on birds had appeared by 1770. •* The 
plates in the latter dealt chiefly with birds of 
prey and flightless species, and they agreed 
only with the Sevres vignettes in strongly 
emphasizing the foreground details against 
generally pale, sketchy and distant 

From the foregoing remarks it seems 
reasonable to surmise that the factory's bird 
painters, of whom there were at least five or 
six at the time, were quite capable of 
modifying the sketches or engravings that 
formed part of the stock-in-trade of their 
atelier. In the three-dimensional sphere, the 
painters at Meissen had set a precedent in the 
1730s when they applied a variety of fanciful 
colors and plumage patterns to identical casts 
of a single species of parrot, for example.^ 
Therefore it does not seem improbable that 
the Sevres painters improvised by devising 

color schemes for their birds that departed 
from nature but produced a greater harmony 
of coloristic effects. They further altered the 
prevailing book illustrations by installing the 
most exotic birds, like the parrots on the 
Krannert bowl, among the familiar shrubs and 
wildflowers of the French terrain. 

The problem of who painted the vignettes 
on the Museum's bowl presents another 
intriguing challenge. Occasionally an entire 
service will be found to carry, among the 
marks on the underside, painted symbols or 
initials from which the names of the 
decorators can be identified. Sometimes too, 
though more exceptionally, the names of the 
subjects also are inscribed. At times it is even 
possible to discern a correspondence 
between the handwriting of these captions 
and the alphabetical marks of the painters. 
The Krannert bowl, however, is lacking in 
these features. All it shows in the way of a 
mark is an extremely large, blue cipher, the 
crossed L's of King Louis, patron and 
proprietor of the factory, and at the center the 
date-letter R, for 1770 (Fig. 5). The absence of 
other marks may in itself be a clue, however, 
to the identity of the capable painter who was 
entrusted with the responsibility of decorating 
this bowl. 

The Metropolitan Museums owns a 
comparable turquoise blue punch bowl from 
the celebrated Rohan service (Fig. 6). It is 
decorated with three vignettes of tropical 
birds, and marked only with large crossed L's 
centering aT, thedatemark for 1772. The bold 
scale of the birds, their vivacious poses and 
general tonality, even the details of foliage 
and landscape, suggest that they were painted 
by the same hand as those on the Krannert 

Although the marking system employed at 
Sevres is only imperfectly understood, it is 
generally accepted that the marks of painters 
and gilders were normally required as a means 
of keeping a tally of the work performed by the 
respective members of the decorators' studio 
to whom they were assigned. The work was 

View of the underside of the bowl, with 

the factory mark in the form of crossed L's, and the 

date-letter R for 1770. painted in blue. 

6. Punch Bowl, 

French. SSvres. 1772. 

soft paste porcelain with bleu celeste glaze. 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Wrightsman. 1976. 
The bowl displays the gilt monogram of 
Prince Louis de Rohan. 

under constant review, and periodical reports 
were written by the chief on the aptitudes and 
progress of each nnan under his jurisdiction. 
In his catalogue of the porcelains in the 
collection of Sevres at Waddesdon Manor.'o 
Svend Eriksen makes the very plausible 
suggestion that unsigned pieces of special 
importance could have been painted by the 
chief of the studio, who would seem to have 
had no need to keep tally on himself. The 
proposal is reinforced by a regulation of the 
factory, dated May 10, 1747, to the effect that 
the head of the painters' studio should himself 
paint the most outstanding pieces. 

It happens that in 1770 the person who 
occupied that elevated position was Jean- 
Baptiste-Etienne Genest, whose record at the 
factory had been truly exceptional. The payroll 
records show that in 1753, the year after he 
entered, he was promoted to the post of Chef 
des Peintres for his ability as a painter of 
figures. His special talents were reflected in 
his salary, which in the space of a year shot 
from 30 to 125 livres per month. In December 
of 1770 he was earning 167 livres, as compared 
with his sixty-three subordinates, whose 
wages ranged from 12 to 1 12 livres. 

It is to be hoped that the foregoing 
discussion has shed some helpful light on the 
significance of the bowl, its decoration, and 
its marks. The question of Its original 
ownership, however, still remains to be 
explored. Two clues, both vague and sketchy, 
are offered in the account books of the 
manufactory. One, not identified as to the 
name of the purchaser, calls for "7 Jatte a 
punch Et Mortier" under the date of February 
10, 1770." As it sold for a mere 168 livres, it 
may be discounted. The other is a compilation 
of items delivered during the last six months 
of that year to the Paris merchant, Simon- 
Philippe Poirier, whose purchases at the 
factory approached those of the King in 
magnitude. In this instance the listings fill 
about four and a half pages, with about fifty 
entries to each page.'- The relevant one calls 
for "T jatte a punch," at 528 livres. Poirier, who 

ran the exclusive shop A la Couronned'Or, 
was the leading agent for purchasers of 
Sevres porcelain. His clients included 
important nobles, and royalty as well. It is 
vastly to be regretted that his own account 
books seem not to have survived, as they 
would illuminate so many of the bare-bones of 
the Sevres sales records. As things stand, we 
can only be certain that Poirier in 1770 took 
delivery of an undescribed punch bowl, 
perhaps as a single item, or possibly as a key 
piece for an important service. Forwhom did 
he purchase that bowl? On these points the 
records of the period are either mute or 

Modern photography, however, has crossed 
the bridge of time to provide a plausible 
provenance for the Krannert bowl. 
Reproduced in Conno/sseur for August, 1906" 
is the photograph of a bowl (Fig. 7) that 
features a bird medallion corresponding 
exactly to that of Fig. 3, just as the pattern of 
the gilding which frames and joins the 
medallions corresponds precisely to that of 
Fig. 1. These factors are significant, first 
because Sevres took pride in not repeating the 
composition of its bird vignettes, and second 
because this gilding, which should match 
other pieces in a service, does not correspond 
to that in any of the turquoise blue services 
mentioned above in the opening paragraphs. 
Therefore the Museum's bowl was either 
unique or part of another service. The 
Conno/sseurarticle provides the answer: it 
belonged to a distinguished Russian family, 
and was offered for sale in 1906 at a Bond 
Street gallery as part of a collection of 525 
pieces. Considering the variations in design 
among the examples illustrated, "collection" 
is a more appropriate term than "service." In 
any event, the ownership of the bowl is 
associated with a powerful figure who 
assembled a state service of Sevres in eight 
consignments between 1767 and 1791.'^ He 
was Count Nicolas Petrovich Cheremeteff, 
Grand Marshal at the Court of Catherine the 

7. Sevres punch bowl from the ChdrSmeteff 
family as reproduced in Connoisseur 
magazine, 1906 


' Serge Grandjean and Ivlarcelle Brunei, Les Grands 
Services de Sevres, Paris, 1951. This catalogue itemizes 
the services as listed in the account books of the archives 
of the Manufacture Nationals, at Sevres. 
^Sevres Archives, Vy 4, folio 158. 
^/6/d., Y8, folio44. 

* Seba, Albertus. Locupletissimi Rerum Naturalum 
Thesauri. Amsterdam, (J. Wetstenius), 1734-65. 

^ Albin, Eleazar. A Natural History of Birds. London, 1738. 
^ Edwards, George. A Natural History at Uncommon Birds. 
London, 1 743-64. The last three volumes appeared under 
the title Gleanings of Natural History. 
' Brisson, t^athurin Jacques. Ornithologie. ou Methode 
Contenant la Division des Oiseaux en Ordres, Sections. 
Genres. Especes et leur VarietSs. Paris (Bauch), 1760. 

* Buffon. (Compte) Georges-Louis-Leclerc. Histoire 
Naturelle. Generate et Particuliere. (The section on birds 
appeared in nine volumes.) Paris (Imprimerie Royale), 

^ Compare nos. 21 A, B, 22A,B, 23A,B and 24-28 in 

Dauterman, Carl C, The Wrightsman Collection, vot. IV, 
Porcefain. New York (The l^/letropolitan l\fluseum of Art), 

'" Eriksen, Svend. The James A. de Rothschild Collection 
at Waddesdon f^anor: Sevres Porcefain. Fribourg (Office 
du Livre), 1968. It should be stated here that Eriksen (ibid., 
p. 326) was unaware of any evidence for attributing a mark 
to Genest. The writer, however, has found in the Sevres 
archives a document captioned "d'apres un registre 
matricule ouvert a Vincennes en 1755...," being a list of 
painters, many of whom have marks indicated opposite 
their names. Heading the list is "Genesf. chef," with "G." 
shown as his mark. This mark is so infrequently seen that 
if indeed it were assigned to him before his promotion as 
chief, he apparently regarded it as unnecessary to use 
later, for the reason stated above. 

" S§vres Archives. Vy 1770, -10110 206. 

'2;b/d. Vy 1770, folio 225 verso. 

" "The Cheremeteff Sevres Porcelain," an unsigned 

article in Connoisseur, Vol. 15, 1906, p. 244. 

'" Khudozhestvennyya Sokrovischcha floss// (Art 

Treasures in Russia), Vol IV, 1904, p. 158. 

Winter Lecture Series 

The Krannert Art Museum Associates will 
benefit from the knowledge of two eminent 
scholars during a double series of lectures in 
January and February. Mr. Victor Smith will 
lecture at the Museum as part of a North 
American "progress" on behalf of The 
Buildings of England Group, of which he is 
founder and director. The Group is a unique 
amalgam of representatives of the various arts 
who have devoted their efforts to "Supporting 
the cause of international understanding and 
friendship and encouraging its development 
through the medium of the Arts." Patrons and 
advisors to The Group include Henry Moore, 
Sir Alec Guinness, and Yehudi Menuhin, each 
in his own respective field. 

Educated as an architect at The 
Architectural Association, London, Mr. Smith 
has joined his international professional 
practice with architectural journalism, 
criticism and education in architectural 
history and design. These interests naturally 

victor Smith, Founder and Director 
of The Buildings of England Group 

lead to an appreciation of the heritage of 
England and its place in world cultures. The 
Buildings of England Group endeavors to 
disseminate information about aspects of life 
and the arts in England. Mr. Smith will present 
a total of four lectures on the subject of "The 
English Interior; 1500-1900," on Tuesday 
afternoon, January 23, and Thursday 
afternoon, January 25, 1979. His first 
presentation will cover "The Continental 
Influence, 1500-1625," and "The Florescence 
of Design, 1625-1710." The second will cover 
"The Age of Splendor, 1710-1820," and "The 
Decay of Taste, 1820-1900." 

In a series of six lectures, Christa Thurman- 
Mayer, Curator of Textiles at The Art Institute 
of Chicago, will discuss and illustrate the 
history of woven fabrics, embroideries, laces, 
and printed fabrics. The lectures will be given 
on Tuesday and Thursday afternoons at 2:30 
and 3:45. On Tuesday, February 13, the two 
lectures will deal with the history of woven 
fabrics; on Thursday, February 15, the two 
lectures will discuss the history of 
embroidered fabrics; and on Tuesday, 
February 20, Mrs. Thurman-Mayer will review 
the history of printed fabrics and the history of 

Mrs. Thurman-Mayer is a widely recognized 
scholar in the field of textile arts. She has 
studied Textile Conservation in Switzerland 
and has a B.A. degree from Finch College and 
a M.A. degree from the Institute of Fine Arts at 
New York University. Before joining the staff 
at The Art Institute of Chicago, Mrs. Thurman- 
Mayer was Assistant Curator in the 
Department of Textiles at Cooper Union 
Museum in New York. She is the author of 
catalogues and of articles on textiles and 
laces in Grolier Encyclopedia International, 
The Antiques Magazine, The Art Bulletin, and 
Art and Archaeology. 

The lectures will be given in the Krannert 
Art Museum auditorium. Krannert Art Museum 
Associates will receive a reminder of the 
lectures in early January. Admission will be by 
membership card. 

Spring Exhibition Trip 

In early March a visit may be scheduled to the 
exhibition "Vanity Fair" at The Saint Louis Art 
Museum. This exhibition has been assembled 
by The Metropolitan Museum of Art where it 
recently has been on display. It possibly will 
be shown in Saint Louis and, when this is 
definite and the dates of the exhibition have 
been announced, Krannert Art Museum 
Associates will receive mailed information 
about the visit. 

Textile fragment, 

The Netherland, XVII Century. 

silk and linen, satin damask weave, H. 18-1/2" 

X W. 17-1/2 •(46,99x44.45cm.), 
The Art Institute of Chicago, 07,684. 

Spring Lecture-Luncheon 

Council Projects 

The Spring lecture-luncheon is scheduled for 
Friday, April 20. The distinguished speaker 
will be Phillips Talbot who is the director of 
The Asia Society in New York. 

Mr. Talbot holds a Bachelor of Arts degree 
and a Bachelor of Science in Journalism 
degree from the University of Illinois, a Ph.D. 
degree from the University of Chicago and an 
L.L.D. degree from Mills College. He taught at 
the Institute for Current World Affairs from 
1938 to 1950, and at Columbia University in 
1951 and 1952. He served as a reporter and 
foreign correspondent for the Chicago Daily 
News, as Executive Director of the American 
University Field Staff from 1959 to 1961, as 
Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern 
and South Asian Affairs from 1961 to 1965, as 
Ambassador to Greece from 1965 to 1969, and 
he has been director of The Asia Society since 
1970. He is co-author of India and America and 
editor of South Asia and the World Today. 

Mr. Talbot will speak on features of 
geography, life, and philosophy which 
underlie the cultures of Asia. His knowledge 
of the people in the small and large nations of 
Asia will contribute to ourapreciation and 
understanding of the Asian arts in the 
collections of the Krannert Art Museum. It will 
be an honor to welcome Mr. Talbot on April 20. 
Krannert Art Museum Associates will receive 
advance reservation information. 

The Council will undertake two new projects 
this year: advance planning fora Museum 
Store and the inauguration of Life-Long- 
Learning programs. 

Members of the Museum Store committee 
are Mrs. Ray Dickerson, Mrs. Robert Garrard, 
Mrs. William Johnson, Mrs. L. Scott Kelley, 
and Mrs. Richard Noel. 

The Museum Store committee will be 
engaged in marketing studies, inventory 
research, financial and management planning. 
Committee members also will visit some of 
the large museum stores including those at 
The Detroit Institute of Arts, the Museum of 
Fine Arts, Boston, The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, and The Museum of Modern Art. 

The project objective will be to provide 
museum visitors with material appropriate to 
the educational purposes of the Museum. Two 
years' planning time will precede the opening 
of the store. 

The Life-Long-Learning project will involve 
the inauguration of new adult participatory 
programs. Committee members are Mrs. 
William Johnson, Mrs. Stanley Robinson, and 
Mrs. Charles B. Younger III. These committee 
members have served in the Docent program 
for many years, they know the Museum's 
collections well, all have taught in educational 
institutions, and all have had experience in 
working with community groups. 

It is estimated that during the first five years 
of this decade the number of adults in 
educational activities increased by three 
times their growth in population. Of this large 
group of learners, only one-third were enrolled 
in formal educational institutions. Museums 
have an opportunity to respond to the growing 
desire of adults for continuing education. 

Interpretive, interdisciplinary, gallery 
workshops will be offered during the season 
ahead, the dates and hours to be announced. 
Experimental programs of this nature have 
been conducted at the University of Kansas 
and at The Philadelphia Museum of Art where 
they have met with favorable results in the 
form of many requests for continuation of 
such programs. 

Both Council projects represent services 
which would be impossible for the Museum 
alone to manage, due to limitations in the size 
of the Museum staff. We are grateful to the 
Council members for undertaking these 
valuable new endeavors. 

Print Exhibition 

A small but Important selection of prints by 
the eighteentti century master, Giovanni 
Battlsta Piranesi, will be on view in the 
Krannert Art Museum Conference Room 
through the early autumn. The prints are from 
his most inventive series of etchings, the 
Career! d'Invenzione, which show imaginery 
scenes of decaying prisons in various states 
of danl< ruin and menacing darkness. These 
prints demonstrate a most intriguing aspect of 
Piranesi's fascination with ruins and musings 
of what might have been. The Piranesi prints 
were the gift of Mr. Max Abramovitz. 

Piranesi, Giovanni Battista. Italian, 1720-1778, 
Prison Scene from the Careen Series, Plate III, 

second state, 
etching, H. 21-5/8" x W. 16-3/8" (54.93 x 

41.61 cm.). 
Gift of Mr. Max Abramovitz, 1973, 73-M.3C. 

Contributors to the Collections and 


Class of 1908 

Mr. Federick A. Jorgenson 

Mr. and Mrs. Herman C. Krannert 

Mrs. Katherlne Trees Livezey 

Mr. and Mrs. Harlan E. Moore 

Mr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen 

Mr. Georges. Trees 

Mr. and Mrs. Merle J. Trees 


Mr. Max Abramovitz 

Mr. Samuel M. Adier 

Mr. George P. Bickford 

Mr. H.Clifford Brown 

Mrs. Marie Ann Caro 

Mr. and Mrs. Herman E. Cooper 

Tfie Ford Foundation 

Mr. William B.Greene 

Mr. George L. Goldstein 

Mrs. William E. Kappauf 

Mr. I, Austin Kelly, Ml 

Mr. Josepf) H. King 

Mr. William S. Kinkead 

Mr. Samuel M. Kootz 

Mr. Louis Moss 

Mr. and Mrs. Morrie A. Moss 

Mr. Charles S. Pillsbury 

Mr. and Mrs. Allen S. Weller 

Mr. and Mrs. William C. Wenninger 


Mr. Jofin L. Alden 

Mr. Albert L. Arenberg 

Mr. Himan Brown 

Mr. Charles N. Cadwell 

Mr. and Mrs. Spencer Ewing 

Federal Works Agency: Work Progress Administration 

Mrs. Paul Kent 

Mrs. Gertrude McCue 

Mrs. Stacy Rankin 

Mr. and Mrs. Marvin D. Rosenberg 

Mr. Peter Rubel 

Mr. George W. Sanford 

Mr. Sherlock Swann 

Estate of LoradoTaft 

Membership: Krannert Art Museum 

A gift Membership in the Krannert Art 
Museum Associates maizes a splendid 
birthday, Christmas, anniversai^, or thanl<-you 
present. The donor's contribution also will 
help support the Museum's public sen/ice 
program, for it is through Membership 
contributions and volunteer assistance that 
the Museum is able to extend its usefulness 
to the broader community. 

Membership contributions are tax- 
deductible and should be made out to the 
Krannert Art Museum Associates; University 
of Illinois Foundation, and sent to the 
Museum. A gift notice and Membership card 
will then be mailed to the gift recipient. 

General Contribution $ 15.00 

Participating Contribution 25.00 

Supporting Contribution 100.00 

Sustaining Contribution 500.00 

Life Member Contribution 1000.00 

Patron Contribution 2000.00 

Benefactor Contribution 5000.00 

Corporate Contribution 150.00 

*Contributions to the UIF: Art Acquisition Fund are listed 
annually in the Spring issue of the Bulletin 

Contributions to the UIF: Krannert Art Museum 
Associates Fund are listed annually and by category in the 
Spring issue of the Bulletin. 

University of Illinois 

John E. Corbally 

President of the University of Illinois 

William P. Gerberding 

Chancellor of the University of Illinois at 


Morton W. Weir 

Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs 

Jack H. IVIcKenzie 

Dean of the College of Fine and Applied Arts 

Krannert Art Museum 

(vluriel B. Christison 

Frederick J. Fisher 

Assistant to the Director and Designer 

Brenda J. Huff 

Mary B. DeLong 

Business and Membership Secretary 

Laurie McCarthy 
Research Curator 

James Ducey 

Preparator and Head of Shop 

Gerald Guthrie 

Alfred Jakstas 
Consultant in Conservation 

Carl Dauterman 

Consultant in Decorative Arts 


Jacques Evans 

Sherman Hoffman 

Anna Maria Koosed 

Edith Lee 

Irene Modisett 

Curt Pockington 

Roy Strassburger 

Edward Tabler 

Richard Wursten 

University of Illinois Police 

Assistance w/ith Special Projects, 

Faculty in Department of Architecture and 
Art and Design 

Building and Grounds Service, 

Division of Operation and Maintenance 

The Council Executive Committee 

Mrs. William Johnson, President 

Mrs. Robert Shapland, Vice President 

Mrs. Fred Bryant, Secretary 

Mrs. H. R. Bresee, Treasurer 

Mrs. Carl Dohme, Council Membership 

Mrs. Richard B. Helfrich, Krannert Art 

Museum Associates Membership Chairman 
Mrs. Richard Scanlan, Krannert Art Museum 

Associates Membership Deputy Chairman 
Mrs. Thomas Berger, Public Information 

Mrs. Charles B. Younger III, Public Information 

Deputy Chairman 
Mrs. James Costello, Reception Chairman 
Mrs. Guy Main, Reception Deputy Chairman 
Mrs. Ray Dickerson, Exhibition Trip Chairman 
Mrs. William Froom, Exhibition Trip Deputy 

Mrs. Lewis W, Barron, Museum Trip Chairman 
Mrs. Richard R. Tryon, Museum Trip Deputy 

Mrs. Richard Brown, Program Chairman 
Mrs. William M. Youngerman, Past President 
Mrs. Muriel B. Christison, Krannert Art 

Museum Representative 


Champaign-Urbana Junior League 

Suzanne Younger, Chairman 

Sally Anderson 

Leiand Andrews 

Marcia Carlson 

Alice Fox 

Clare Haussermann 


Kennie James 

Charlotte Johnson 

Adion Jorgensen 

Ines Keller 

Bonnie Kelley 

Jane Kelley 

Rosann Noel 

Janet Pope 


Joanne Shapland 

Nell Shapland 

Judi Thompson 


Anne Tryon 

Dorothy Weber 

Bulletin of the Krannert Art Museum 
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 
Volume IV. Number 1. 1978 
Ttie Bulletin of the Krannert Art Museum is 
published twice a year by the Krannert Art 
Museum, University of Illinois, Urbana- 
Champaign, 500 Peabody Drive, Champaign. 
61820, Edited by Muriel B Christison and 
Laurie A, McCarthy Printed in the United 
States of America. 


Layout and Production: Raymond Perlman 
Paper; Cover. 10 point Kromekote 

Text. Basis 80 Warrens Patina Matte 
Type: Helvetica 
Printing: Sunshine Graphics 

Copyright '■ 1978 by The Board of Trustees 
of the University of Illinois. 
All rights reserved. 




I a 6. ( 


OCT 3 

urnvtRSt^ OF r 

M luiEtSWtA-CHAi 

Krannert Art Museum 

University of Illinois 
Volume IV, Number 2, 1979 

Contributors to the Collections and 

Contributors to Art Acquisition 
Funds, 1978 


Class of 1 908 

Mr. Frederick A Jorgensen 

Mr and Mrs Herman C Krannert 

Mrs Katherine Trees Livezey 

Mr and Mrs Harlan E- Moore 

Mr, and Mrs, Fred Olsen 

Mr George S Trees 

Mr and Mrs, Merle J, Trees 


Mr Max Abtamovitz 

Mr Samuel M Adier 

Mr George P Bickford 

Mr H Clilford Brown 

Mrs Mane Ann Caro 

Mr and Mrs Herman E Cooper 

The Ford Foundation 

Mr William B Greene 

Mr George L Goldstein 

Mrs William E Kappauf 

Mr I Austin Kelly, III 

Mr Josepti H King 

Mr William S, Kinkead 

Mr Samuel M Kootz 

Mr Louis Moss 

Mr and Mrs Morrie A Moss 

Mr Ctiarles S Pillsbury 

Mr and Mrs Allen S Weller 

Mr and Mrs, William C, Wenninger 


Mr, John L, Alden 

Mr Albert L Arenberg 

Mr Himan Brown 

Mr Charles N. Cadwell 

Mr and Mrs Spencer Ewing 

Federal Works Agency: Works Progress Administration 

Mrs, Paul Kent 

Mrs, Gertrude McCue 

Mrs Stacy Rankin 

Mr and Mrs, Marvin D Rosenberg 

Mr Peter Rubel 

Mr George W Stanford 

Mr Sherlock Swann 

Estate of Lorado Tatt 

Mr, Lawrence B Barker 

Mr George J Bouyoucos 

Mr H Clifford Brown 

Mr Evans E Canlrall 

Mr. and Mrs, Bruce M DeLong 

Mr Howard C Dutzi and Associates. Inc 

Mr Richard L Eastline 

Mrs Virginia M Flanagan 

Mr Robert D Franks 

Mr William B Greene 

Mr R Harder 

The Krannert Art Museum Council 

Mrs Mildred Porterfield Kerch 

Mrs, Kathenne Trees Livezey 

Mrs Guy E Munger. Sr 

Mrs Rosanne Noel 

Mr and Mrs Donald Moyer, Jr 

Mrs Addison Parker 

Mr Jose Gorgoni Sanvictores 

Miss Gertrude Sawyer 

Mr and Mrs, Carl Joseph Sinder 

Mr Rufus W Smith 

Mr Jerold Soling 

Mr, B F Tucker 

Mr Kenneth H Watson 

Mailing Address 

Krannert Art Museum 
500 Peabody Drive 
Champaign. Illinois 61820 

Museum Gallery Hours 

Monday through Saturday. 9 00 am- 400 p m ; 
Sunday 2 00 - 5 00 p m Admission free 
Closed on National Holidays 


Chang Chao. Chinese, 1691-1745 

"Eulogy to the Sixteen Lohans" {Yu chih shih liu to han Isan). 

circa 1 740, detail 

ink and color on paper, 7'/V'h « 67'/,"w (19 x 1 70 2 cm ) 

Krannert Art Museum Purchase. 1969. 69-8-1 

Spring Exhibitions 

The first exhibition of the new year will be the 
selection of two hundred and fifty prints chosen by 
jurors Tatyana Grosman, K. G. Pontus v. Hulten 
and Prithwish Neogy from 4,085 entries to the 
World Print Competition, This is the second such 
exhibition sponsored by the San Francisco 
Museum of Modern Art and the California College 
of Arts and Crafts in Oakland, the first exhibition 
having been assembled in 1973, 

Interest in the exhibition is heightened by the 
distinction of the jurors, K, G, Pontus v, Hulten 
attracted international attention as director of the 
Moderna Museet in Stocl<holm, and he now serves 
as head of the Centre Beaubourg which includes 
the Georges Pompidou Centre d'Art et Culture in 
Paris, Neogy is chairman of the art department of 
the University of Hawaii, a historian of Indian art. 
and a modern art enthusiast with a bacl<ground in 
calligraphy painting, and sculpture, Tatyana 
Grosman founded a now-famous press in New 
York in 1957, producing prints by artists Larry 
Rivers, Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, 
Helen Frankenthaler, Robert Motherwell and 
others. The exhibition is being circulated by the 
Smithsonian Institution and will be on view from 
January 14 through February 18, 

One of the ma|or events of the academic year 
will be the presentation of the Sol LeWitt 
exhibition. The exhibition was assembled by and 
shown at The Museum of Modern Art in New 
York, It was directed by Alicia Legg, Associate 
Curator, Department of Painting and Sculpture. 

In the exhibition brochure and checklist Miss 
Legg writes, "A pioneer in the Minimal and 
Conceptual Movements that emerged in the mid- 
sixties, Sol LeWitt has influenced the community of 
artists and intellectuals in both this country and 
abroad with his work and thinking . . LeWitt wrote 
that 'the idea becomes the machine that makes 
the art,' and that 'Conceptual art is made to 
engage the mind of the viewer rather than his eye 
or emotions.' " Thus, he has been a leader in 
establishing an art of ideas in contrast to an art of 
predominately sensuous appeal. 

After attending art school (now known as The 
School of Visual Arts) in New York, LeWiU worked 

in magazine production, commercial design, and 
both graphic and three-dimensional design for 
architect I. M. Pei. In 1962 LeWitt began to 
translate his own Constructivist-style paintings into 
reliefs. He then began to work with boxes, in the 
form of cubes. 

Sometimes LeWitt uses closed cubes, some- 
times open cubes, stacked to resemble 
architectural masses or arranged on grids 
composed of squares, in modular or serial 
designs. Restricting himself to the basic geometric 
units of the cube or square, to black and white 
plus the three primary colors, to horizontal, 
vertical, diagonal, or arced lines, he has produced 
designs of amazing variety He increases the 
variety-potential by overlapping colors, or by 
lighting open and closed forms to create linear 
and geometric shadows, 

LeWitt's structures are usually of wood or 
metal; his wall drawings, which he began in 1968, 
are in graphite line on black, white, or colored 
surfaces. He starts with the dimensions of an 
existing wall, accepts its physical features such as 
light switches and door frames, and projects his 
drawings according to a logical progression that 
develops the design to fit the space, 

LeWitt has created over three hundred 
drawings, and he has produced over thirty books. 
Examples of modular and serial structures, wall 
reliefs, books, and wall drawings (some executed 
in situ) will be included in the exhibition which will 
be on display from March 4 through April 8. 

The LeWitt exhibition will be followed by the last 
exhibition of the academic year, the annual review 
of work by Graduate Students in Art and Design, 


Krannert Art Museum Associates will enjoy the 
exhibition Preview and opportunity to meet the 
artist, Sol LeWitt, on the evening of March 4. The 
Museum's volunteer group, the Krannert Art 
Museum Council, will sponsor the Member's 
reception. The reception and Preview will take 
place from eight until ten. It is expected that Sol 
LeWitt will discuss his work, informally in the 
special exhibition gallery 

Wall Drawing by Sol LeWitt 

Conceptual Music 

Winter Lecture Series 

A slide and record program entitled "Music by 
Marcel Duchamp" will be presented at the 
Museunn by Petr Kotik, founder of the SEM 
Ensemble, on the evening of March 13, 

Duchamp's three musical compositions, written 
primarily in 1913 and the period immediately 
following, were recorded by the SEM Ensemble for 
Multhipla Records in 1976, following presentations 
at the Centre National d'Art et de Culture Georges 
Pompidou, Paris; Wallrof-Rickartz Museums, und 
Museum Ludwig, Cologne; and at other centers of 
modern art in Oslo, Naples, and Milan. 

Mr. Kotik's lecture is illustrated by 60 slides and 
accompanied by recordings of Duchamp's 
compositions; "Erratum Musical," "The Bride 
Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even. Erratum 
Musical," and "Musical Sculpture." The latter Mr. 
Kotik terms "conceptual music." 

Describing the program Mr. Kotik writes, "The 
lecture, one to one and a half hours long, deals 
with Duchamp's compositional system (Duchamp 
introduced chance in the composition long before 
Cage and Christian Wolff), problems of realization, 
and interpretation. The lecture also deals with 
phenomena of composition by non-musicians, 
especially of the period around 1913, such as 
music by Morgan Russell and the 'Futurists'." 

Mr. Kotik, an American composer and flutist, 
was born in Czechoslovakia in 1942. He studied in 
Prague and Vienna and founded two groups for 
the performance of contemporary experimental 
music. In 1970 he settled in the United States and 
formed the SEM Ensemble. He has performed in 
Vienna, Prague, and Warsaw with the Merce 
Cunningham Dance Company; and since 1972, he 
has toured Europe eight times performing in major 
art and music centers in France, Germany, Italy, 
Holland, Switzerland, Austria, and Norway He also 
has presented lectures and concerts in this 
country at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, 
the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, The Whitney 
Museum of American Art in New York, and at The 
Cleveland Museum of Art. 

The program will take place in the Krannert Art 
Museum auditorium and will begin at 7;30 p.m. 
Krannert Art Museum Associates are invited to 

During the months of January and February, Victor 
Smith, Founder and Director of The Buildings of 
England Group, and Christa Charlotte Mayer 
Thurman, Curator, Department of Textiles, The Art 
Institute of Chicago, will each give a series of 
lectures to Krannert Art Museum Associates. Mr. 
Smith, an architect and an historian, has titled his 
series "The English Interior; 1500-1900." Mrs. 
Thurman will present a "History of Woven Fabrics, 
Embroidenes, Printed Fabrics, and Laces." 

Mr. Smith was born and lives in Great Britain. 
He was trained as an architect at the Architectural 
Association, London and later served as Examiner 
in Design at the Royal Institute of British 
Architects. After practicing as an architect for ten 
years, Mr. Smith founded the Buildings of England 
Group. Mrs. Thurman is the author of three books 
on textiles published by The Art Institute of 
Chicago. She has made numerous contributions to 
other publications on this subject and has been 
the organizer of many textile exhibitions. 

Admission to the lectures will be by membership 
card only Two lectures will be presented each 
Tuesday and Thursday at 2:30 and 3;45 p.m. in 
the Krannert Art Museum auditonum on the 
following dates; 

The English Interior: 1500-1900 

Tuesday, January 23: 

Thursday, January 25 

Pari I— The Continental Influence. 


Part II— The Florescence of Design. 


Part III— The Age of Splendor, 1 71 0-1 820 

Part IV-The Decay of Taste. 1820-1900 
A History of Woven Fabrics, Embroideries, Printed Fabrics, 
and Laces 
Tuesday, February 13 Parts I and II— The History of Woven 

Fabrics throughout Western Cultures from 

the 1st Century AD to the Present 
Thursday, February 15: Parts III and IV— The History of 

Embroidered Fabncs throughout Western 

Cultures from the 1st Century AD. to the 

Tuesday, February 20: Parts V and Vl-The History of Printed 

Fabrics and a Brief Introduction to the 

History of Lace. 

Katherine Trees Livezey, 1912-1978 

Katherine Trees Livezey 

A founder of the Krannert Art Museum, Mrs. 
Katherine Trees Livezey was the daughter of Emily 
N. '05 and Merle J. '07 Trees, Mr, and Mrs. Trees 
donated their collection of paintings to the 
University of Illinois over a period of twenty years, 
beginning in 1937. 

Mrs. Trees had hoped to add a landscape by 
John Constable to the collection. Desiring to carry 
out their mother's intention, Mrs. Livezey and her 
brother, George Spencer Trees, presented the 
beautiful painting by Constable, "A View on the 
Stour Estuary" in 1972. The following year, 1973, 
Mrs. Livezey gave the Museum the charming 
"Lady in the Park " by Childe Hassam; and in 1976 
Mrs. Livezey, Mr. George Trees and the Herman 
C. Krannert Fund made possible the acquisition of 
a Flemish panel painting by a fifteenth century 
artist identified as the Master of the Saint Ursula 

Mrs, Livezey had collected Chinese jades and 
export porcelain. The jades were given in 1966 
and two fine export porcelain plates were 
bequeathed to the Museum in 1978. Mrs. Livezey 
also left funds for the maintenance of the Trees 
Collection— a farsighted provision which Mrs. 
Livezey and Mr. George Trees established some 
years ago. 

A graduate of the University of Chicago, Mrs. 
Livezey was active in Chicago civic affairs. She 
was a life member of The Art Institute of Chicago 
and of the Orchestral Association. For many years 
she was chairman of the board of managers and 
then president of the board of directors of the 
Home for Destitute Crippled Children which 
operates the Wyler Children's Hospital at the 
University of Chicago. Mrs. Livezey attended the 
University of Illinois during 1933 and later became 
a member of the University of Illinois Foundation 
and the President's Club. Her kind interest will be 
greatly missed by many who depended upon her 
wise counsel. Her patronage of the arts was 
expressed in gifts that will continue to be enjoyed 
by Krannert Art Museum visitors. 

Gifts to the Collections 

Two eighteenth century Chinese export porcelain 
plates, bequeathed to the Museum by Mrs. 
Katherine Trees Livezey were produced near 
Canton, China for the European Market and are 
virtually identical; they differ only in subtle 
variations in coloring. Each is a superb example of 
a rare, well-known group of famille-rose genre 
scenes from the Ch'ien Lung period, dating 
approximately 1760. Other examples can be found 
in the Rati Y. Mottahedeh Collection in New York 
and the Horace and Elinor Gordon Collection in 

A silver ground provides a luxurious setting for 
an interior scene showing delicate Chinese figures 
embellished with jewel-like polychrome enamels, 
predominantly rouge de fer and turquoise-blue. A 
slender lady (mei-jen) sits on a stool fixing her 

Export Plate 

China, circa 1 760 

porcelain. 8%" in dia, (22.2 cm. in die.) 

Bequest of Katherine Trees Livezey, 1 978 

coiffeur. Of her two attendants, one holds a fly 
whisk and the other holds a flower basket. A 
young boy holding a ju-i scepter crouches on a 
low wooden seat, similar to a k'ang. All gaze at 
two other boys scuffling on a mat, possibly over 
the scattered toys. In the background are a 
birdcage stand with a huge red bird perched on a 
swing and a tall bamboo table with precious 

The well-border is garnished with an openwork 
gilt design interspersed with four oval panels 
framing sprays of bamboo. The rim is alternately 
decorated with cloud-dragon motifs and floral 

Other additions to the collections include two 
paintings given recently by Mr. George Spencer 
Trees. One is an oil, "Pastoral Landscape," by 
Alexander Helwig Wyant (1836-1892), a master of 
American landscape painting, and the other is a 
watercolor, "Lane in Winter," by John Whorf 
(1903-1959). In addition, Mr. Trees has donated a 
pair of Chinese Phoenix Birds carved from fern 
green jade and mounted on carved rose quartz 
bases and teakwood stands, dating from 
approximately 1890. 

Mrs. Harriet K. Brooks has given a Roman glass 
bottle, of Syro-Palestinian origin, dating from the 
late second or third century A.D. Mrs. Brooks 
inherited the bottle from her mother, Mrs. David 
Kinley It was given to Mrs. Kinley by Mrs. Edward 
F. Nickolay wife of the then Acting President of 
the American University of Beirut, who previously 
had been on the staff at the University of Illinois. 

Mr. and Mrs. H. W. Huegy have given an 
American nineteenth century pressed glass 
covered compote in Victoria pattern for the 
decorative arts collection. The compote was 
previously in the collection of Adolf Bandolier, a 
native of Illinois and pioneer archaeologist of the 
American Southwest. Mr. Bandelier was married 
to Mr. Huegy's great aunt, Josephine Huegy 

Mr. William Sparling Kinkead has added another 
fine lithograph to the splendid group of posters 
and prints by Toulouse Lautrec which he 
previously had given the Museum. This print, 
Pauvre Pierreuse (Poor Street-Walker), represents a 
title page of a song from the repertory of Eugenie 
Buffet. It dates from 1893 and was printed in olive 
green with stencil coloring in red and yellow. 
Other welcome additions to the print collections 
include eleven signed prints by twentieth century 
American artists Thomas Hart Benton, Gordon 
Grant, Joseph Hirsch, Nahum Tschacbasov, and 
Grant Wood given by Professor Emeritus Seichi 

The Krannert Art Museum is grateful for the 
generosity of these donors whose gifts will 
enhance the collections, ms 

Spring Museum Trip 

Spring Exhibition Trip 

Krannert Art Museum Associates will set forth on 
Tuesday, April 3. for a four-day visit to museums 
in the vicinity of Wilmington, Delaware and in 
Washington, D.C. Reservations are filling rapidly 
Any who wish to make the trip and have not sent 
in reservations should mail their reservation form 
and deposit to Mrs, Lewis Barron. Reservations 
close on March 15, or sooner if filled. 

Krannert Art Museum Associates are invited to 
visit the exhibition "Vanity Fair" at The Saint Louis 
Art Museum on March 6, 1978. The exhibition was 
conceived by Diana Vreeland and is composed of 
selections from among the 30,000 articles of 
apparel in The Metropolitan Museum of Art's 
Costume Institute. It is an exciting and popular 
exhibition inspired by a description of Vanity Fair 
appearing in Paul Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress: "a 
fair set up by Beelzebub, Apollyon and Legion, in 
the town Vanity, through which pilgrims pass on 
their way to the Eternal City The town was so 
called because it was lighter than vanity and in 
the fair were sold all kinds of vanity, houses, 
honours, kingdoms, and all sorts of delights." 

Most of the objects on view never before have 
been shown to the public. They were chosen to 
reflect the follies and fripperies of men's and 
women's vanities of many times and many places. 
The broad selection of garments includes laces, 
shawls, parasols, feather dresses, magnificent 
vests for men embroidered in the 18th century a 
marvelous pair of 17th Century Venetian shoes or 
chopines, and wonderful national and period 
dresses. There will also be a fascinating group of 
clothes that belonged to historic and celebrated 
personalities such as the Duke of Windsor, Queen 
Alexandra and Mrs. Wellington Koo. 

Krannert Art Museum Associates will receive 
mailed information regarding plans and 
reservations for the spring trip. 

Selection from "Vanity Fair". Left, negligee of cream 
white China silk trimmed with machine-made 
Valencienne type lace insertion and edging, 
American, 1908-1912. right, two piece lingene dress 
of white dotted swiss over pink silk, Amencan, 

Spring Lecture Luncheon 

Phillips Talbot 

Phillips Talbot will speak before the Krannert Art 
Museum Associates on Friday, April 20 at the 
annual Spring Lecture-Luncheon. Few could be as 
qualified to discuss the subject of Asian culture as 
Mr. Talbot, President of The Asia Society in New 
York since 1970. 

Mr. Talbot received a Bachelor of Arts Degree 
and a Bachelor of Science Degree in Journalism 
from the University of Illinois in 1936. He then 
attended the University of London School of 
Oriental and African Studies and the Aligarh 
Muslim University in Aligarh, India. In 1954 he 
received a Ph.D. in International Relations from 
the University of Chicago, after serving as a 
reporter for the Chicago Daily News and as a 
correspondent in India, Pakistan and Southeast 

Mr. Talbot was a Fellow at the Institute of 
Current World Affairs in India and, later, served as 
Assistant to the Director in New York. From 1951 
until 1961, he was the Executive Director of the 
American Universities Field Staff, before he was 
named Assistant Secretary of State for Near 
Eastern and South Asian Affairs, a post which he 
held until he was appointed United States 
Ambassador to Greece, in 1965. He held this 
appointment for four years and then became 
President of The Asia Society 

In addition to writing professional articles, Mr. 
Talbot has co-authored India and America and 
edited Soutli Asia in the World Today. He is editor 
of the magazine ASIA. The opportunity to hear Mr. 
Talbot and to learn more of the cultural tradition 
which produced the objects in the Museum's 
Oriental collection is a rare one. Early in April 
members will receive a reminder for the lecture- 

A Eulogy to the Sixteen Lohans 

by Margaret Sullivari* 

1. Chang Chao, Chinese, 1691-1745 

"Euology to the Sixteen Lohans," circa 1740, detail 
ink on paper, 7'/;"h « 67'/;"w (19 >< 170 2 cm) 
Krannert Art Museum 
Purchased by the University of Illinois. 1969. 69-8-1 

The following article is composed of excerpts from a scholarly 
paper written by Miss Sullivan under the direction of Professor 
Kiyohiko Munakata, in partial fulfillment of requirements for a 
Masters degree in art history MBC 

The Oriental collection in the Krannert Art 
Museum includes a unique Chinese album (Figs. 1 
and 2) dating from approximately 1740 in the 
Ch'ing Dynasty The album consists of fifteen 
panels of dark blue paper mounted in horizontal 
progression. The first four panels contain gold and 
silver illustrations of the sixteen Buddhist lohans 
with Kuan-yin and her acolyte; the accompanying 
text, which identifies and eulogizes the sixteen 
lohans. occupies the remaining panels. Although 
the seal of the artist-calligrapher Chang-Chao 
(1691-1745) appears on the last panel, it is 
evident that he did not paint the illustrations. He 
did, however, pen the accompanying calligraphic 

Identity and Role of Lohans 

The traditions surrounding "lohans" are ancient, 
and permeate the religions of China, Tibet, and 
India. The Hinayana Buddhism of India empha- 
sized personal salvation for each individual who 
joined the monastic order. Such an individual 
strove for what was called "arhatship." The 
Sansi<rit word "arhat" was derived from: ari, 
meaning "enemy" and han, meaning "to kill". 
Figuratively the arhat strove to extinguish human 
passions, in order to attain Nirvana. The Chinese 
word a-lo-han ("lohan") has the same meaning as 
the Sanskrit word "arhat." The Hinayana arhat 
was the most perfect being, superceded only by 
the Buddha. In his pursuit of salvation, the arhat 
was opposed to sensual or bodily passions, 
worldly gain and honor, and desire for an afterlife. 
The arhat represented the highest achievement of 

The concept of the four Great Arhats developed 
during the early phases of Buddhism. Before 
Buddha's death, he ordered four Great Arhats, 
Mahakasyapa, Kudopdhaneya, Pindola and 
Rahula, to postpone their Nirvana and remain in 
the world to protect his Law until the coming of 
Maitreya, the future Buddha. 

Hinayana Buddhism gave way to Mahayana 
Buddhism around the second century A.D. The 
aloof and self-centered arhat, seeking only his 
own salvation, did not appeal to the Mahayana 

2. Chang Chao, Chinese. 1691-1745 

' Euology to the Sixteen Lohans, " circa 1740, detail 
ink on paper, 7'/2"h « 67'/2"w (19 « 170,2 cm.) 
Krannert Art Museum 
Purchased by the University of Illinois. 1969, 69-8-1 

school. The Mahayanists believed that the arhats 
were inferior beings, used by the Buddha to teach 
the ignorant. They were incorporated into the 
Mahayana pantheon as protective deities, only to 
be displaced by the sixteen lohans in the fourth 
century A.D.^ 

The names of the sixteen lohans were unl<nown 
until the translation of the Fa-chu-chi {Duration of 
the Law. Spoken by the Great Arhat Nandimitra), 
in the seventh century Nandimitra, an arhat about 
to enter Nirvana, addressed a group of monks 
who questioned him on the propagation of 
Buddhism. In order to reassure them, he told them 
that before his death, Buddha had entrusted his 
Law to sixteen lohans^ whose names were given 
in the following order: Pindola Bharadvaja, 
Kanakavatsa, Kanaka Bharadvaja, Subinda or 
Adheda, Nakula, Bhadra, Kalika, Vajraputra, 
Gopaka, Panthaka, Rahula, Nagasena, Angaja, 
Vanavasin, Ajita and Chotapanthaka. 

A prescribed list of attributes was never 
designated tor each of the sixteen lohans in the 
Fa-chu-chi. However, specific characteristics 
evolved for each of the lohans but never were 
adhered to rigidly Eventually, specific attributes 
were arbitrarily assigned, so that one could no 
longer identify the lohans from a prescribed list of 
attributes. "As time went on and the number of 
lohans multiplied, individual names and attributes 
meant less and less; even specific legends 
connected with certain lohans became common 
property shared by all lohans."" Works of art 
indicate that the number of lohans increased 
from the once popular sixteen to eighteen and to 
even five hundred' 

It is often asked why the original group of 
lohans numbered sixteen. One explanation 
suggests that Buddha's Law had to be protected 
in the four cardinal points of space. Hence, the 
sixteen lohans were divided into four groups 
designated for the four points in space.'^ 

Evolution of Lohan Image 

The sixteen lohans was a popular subject from 
the Five Dynasties period (906-960) through the 
end of the Sung Dynasty (1279). During this time, 
three styles of figure painting can be discerned; 
the Kuan-hsiu style (non-Chmese), the Li Kung-lin 
style (Chinese), and the so-called i-p'in or 
untrammeled style. Within these three groups, 
there are two well-defined traditions; one 
represents the lohans as hieratic icons; the other 
attempts to integrate them in a natural 
Kuan-hsiu Style (non-Chinese) 

The Imperial Collection in Japan houses 
paintings of the sixteen lohans which best 
preserve the early painting of Kuan-hsiu (832- 

912). The originals, unfortunately non-extant, were 
descnoed in a catalogue of the Imperial Collection 
in 1 120; " . . . the features of the lohans are ancient 
and wild; they are utterly different from what is 
normally seen. [They have] full cheeks and 
sunken foreheads, deep eye-sockets and huge 
noses, or giant jaws and bald heads; and they are 
dark and ashy like some barbarians and strange 

Kuan-hsiu's paintings of Nagasena and Pindola 
Bharadvaja (Figs. 3 and 4), illustrate these 
exaggerated proportions. While both lohans exhibit 
degrees of distortion by their high foreheads with 
deep set eyes, Nagasena's countenance is much 
more horrific. Each of Kuan-hsiu's lohans is 
distinguished by facial type" or specified attributes, 
such as a rosary a sistrum (a sounding alarm to 
warn of the lohan's presence), a sutra (scroll) or a 

Kuan-hsiu painted another set of lohans, to 
which was added a separate painting of Kuan-yin 
as a center piece.^ Thus, at least by the end of 
the Northern Sung period (circa, twelfth century), 
the association of Kuan-yin with the lohans was 
established. As the lohans, Kuan-yin postponed 
her Buddhahood and Nirvana until all mankind 
could be enlightened and released from the cycle 
of rebirths. 

LI Kung-lin Style (Chinese) 

Following Kuan-hsiu, the next very important 
figure painter associated with the lohans is Li 
Kung-lin (1 040-1 1 60), whose lohan paintings are 
distinguished by a realistic approach. None of his 
lohan paintings have survived, but his style can be 
discerned in a "Long Roll of Buddhist Images" 
dated 1 1 73-1 1 76 and attributed to the artist 
Chang Shen-wen. 

A painting of "Subinda" (Fig. 5) from the "Long 
Roll" shows exceptionally fine line drawing 
consistent with the Li Kung-lin tradition. One can 
sense a definite attempt to break down the old 
hieraticism of Kuan-hsiu's lohans and to integrate 
them in a natural landscape setting. The 
iconography however, does not agree with that of 
Kuan-hsiu, and it is quite possible that there was 
another concurrent iconographic model. 

Inscriptions identify each of the sixteen lohans 
in this set, but the order does not correspond with 
Nandimitra's original list. In fact, it is almost the 
reverse. This reorganization may be the result of 
remounting, as the original scroll was cut into 
sections to make an album, and then remounted 
as a scroll.- 

Also reflective of the Li Kung-lin tradition is a 
set of one hundred panels representing the "Five 
Hundred Lohans " (originally in the Daitokuji 
Temple in Japan; the Boston Museum of Fine Arts 

3. attributed to Kuan-hsiu, Chinese. 832-912 


ink and color on silk, 35'^6"h « 17%"w (91 « 45 cm.) 

Tokyo National Museum 

now owns ten panels and the Freer Gallery, 
Washiington, D.C. owns two). While the "Long Roll 
of Buddhist Images" showed a relaxation of the 
iconic image of the lohan, the Daitokuji paintings, 
also from the twelfth century, illustrate a total 
breakdown of the hieratic image. In each panel, 
the single figure of a lohan has been increased to 
five and then totally integrated into a landscape 
setting. Individual attributes have been forsaken 

The "Five Hundred Lohans" can be classified 
according to group activities, such as reading and 
expounding the sutras, meditating, subduing 
animals, and performing acts of mercy and 
miracles."- One cannot be certain of the exact 
historical relationship of the sixteen lohans and 
the five-hundred lohans, but the latter definitely 
represents a progressive development in lohan 
worship. Both the five hundred lohans and the 
sixteen lohans developed into narrative cycles. 

l-p'in (Untrammeled Style) 

The i-p'in tradition coexisted with the painting 
traditions of Kuan-hsiu and Li Kung-lin. In contrast 
to the realistic manner of Li Kung-lin, the i-p'in 
style eschewed the depiction of reality Instead, it 
employed techniques of abbreviated drawing and 
rough brushwork, A hanging scroll (Fig. 6) of the 
lohan Panthaka reading a sutra and dating from 
around the fourteenth century is believed to typify 
Kuan-hsiu's i-p'in style of lohan painting. While 
rough brushstrokes of varying widths are used to 
describe the drapery freely applied ink washes 
trace the lohan's face. 

The Eccentric Painters 

Lohan painting during the following period, the 
late Ming Dynasty (1570-1644), witnessed the 
rise of the "eccentric" painters, whose works were 
partially influenced by the contemporary 
philosophy of the "School of the Mind." This 
philosophy espoused the elimination of conflict 
between real and ideal structures. It gave rise to 
the belief that the order of Nature was not 
inherent in Nature itself, but rather proceeded from 
the mind. This philosophy nurtured the art of the 
"eccentric" painters of the late Ming period, such 
as Ch'en Hung-shou, Ting Yun-p'eng and Wu Pin. 

Ch'en Hung-shou (1599-1652) was particularly 
admired as a figure painter, and was considered a 
master of line drawing. Although it is clear that 
Ch'en Hung-shou studied classical masters, he 
chose to implement his own expressive style. 
"Taking the elegant and subtle structures, subjects, 
lines and costumes of a thousand years earlier, he 
imposes upon them certain ironical distortions and 
exaggerations."'- This concious effort to challenge 
tradition distinguishes the "eccentric" painter, 

Ch'en Hung-shou's scroll depicting the eighteen 

attributed to Kuan-hsiu. Chinese, 832-912 
"Pindola Btiaradvaia" 

ink and color on silk. 35'^B"ti x 17'/4"w (91 « 45 cm.) 
Tokyo National Museum 

lohans approaching Kuan-yin (Fig. 7) shows 
figures reminiscent of those of Kuan-hsiu, using 
varying degrees of distortion. Those lohans 
resembling Kuan-hsiu's are distinguished by their 
misshapen heads and exaggerated brows. Their 
faces are further distorted by the use of rhythmic 
contour lines. Most of the lohans carry attributes 
of a general nature, such as sistrums, fly-whisks, 
staffs, beads, and books. 

While this scroll does not follow Kuan-hsiu 
iconography, it does relate to the Krannert Art 
Museum album in that the lohans are involved in a 
common activity The grouping of lohans around 
central activities is probably an outgrowth of the 
narrative tradition of the "Five Hundred Lohans." 
In the Daitokuji paintings, each group of five 
lohans is concerned with one theme, while in the 
Ch'en Hung-shou paintings, only one theme, the 
veneration of Kuan-yin is suggested for all 
eighteen lohans. 

Ting Yun-p'eng, another "eccentric" painter, 
was active between 1584 and 1638 and was a 
renowned painter of Buddhist figures. A work 
attributed to Ting Yun-p'eng (Fig. 8) shows a 
group of four lohans. One seated lohan is reading 
an open sutra; another is holding a fly-whisk and 
speaks to his attendant; and yet another lohan, 
standing in the foreground, holds a string of beads 
and a sistrum. The fourth lohan is seated in 
meditation inside a cave or tree hollow. 

As an extension of the Daitokuji paintings, 
several different activities are shown within this 
single scene. The lohans are portrayed as a 
group, as are those in the Krannert Art Museum 
album, and cannot be identified by their attributes. 
The fine brushwork employed in the lohans' faces 
and the surrounding foliage contrasts with the 
loose brushwork of the draperies. It is interesting 
to note that the treatment of the rocks is quite 
similar to that in the Krannert Art Museum 
illustration: they are sectioned geometrically using 
dark wash to highlight certain textures. 

The Krannert Art Museum possesses a hanging 
scroll of a Buddhist figure (Fig. 9) also painted by 
Ting Yun-p'eng. It is dated 1608, and its 
inconography is related to that of the above 
painting. This figure typifies a lohan in both facial 
type and setting. He meditates in a tree hollow, a 
setting which has been used previously in portraits 
of Subinda (Fig. 5) and in Kuan-hsiu's Vanavasin. 
Here, the figure is rendered with fluid, loose 
brushwork, such as in the drapery and thus 
contrasts with the detailed foliage above him. 

Ting Yun-p'eng collaborated with another late 
Ming painter called Sheng Mao-yeh on a scroll of 
the "Five Hundred Arhats," dated 1594. Two 
scenes from this scroll (Figs. 1 and 1 1 ) 
demonstrate its connection with both the Daitokuji 

5. attributed to Chang Stien-wen, Chinese 
"Subinda," 1173-1176 
color and Ink on paper 

Collection of National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan. 
Republic of China 

tradition of narrative lohan painting and the 
Krannert Art Museum album. Here, several 
themes or activities are combined in a single 

In both scenes from this scroll, the space is 
layered according to the figure groups: and each 
group is occupied with a different activity. Themes 
of arrival and departure of lohans are show/n in 
Figure 1 1 . These themes are treated as well in the 
Krannert Art Museum illustration. As in the 
Museum's album, a departing lohan is carrying 
sutras tied to a pole on his shoulder. Near him a 
lohan approaches from behind the rocks, while 
another disappears up the mountain. The themes 
of arrival and departure of lohans may well carry 
some symbolic overtones. 

Another significant figure painter of this period is 
Wu Pin, who was active between 1567 and 1617. 
Figs. 12 and 13 are part of a scroll of the eighteen 
lohans, dated 1583. The lohans are presented in 
active groups. For example, Figure 12 features 
four lohans, three of whom are mounted on exotic 
animals. One holds a string of beads; a mysterious 
mist containing the Chinese symbols of yin-yang 
emerges from his horse's mouth. Another lohan 
holds up a jewel on a string. Accompanying them 
is another who holds a sistrum. The latter's garb 
closely resembles that of a figure holding booi<s 
and sutras in the Museum's album (Fig 2). 

The lohans in this scene (Fig. 12) seem to be 
departing, while those in the next (Fig 13) seem to 
be arriving. This second scene from the Wu Pin 
scroll shows five lohans, three of whom trample 
exotic animals. One holds a sutra, another a lotus 
stem, another a staff. The remaining two lohans 
appear to be standing in a pond under peacock 
feathers. These extraordinary lohans are an 
excellent illustration of Wu Pin's "eccentric" 
expression. The figures have been simplified to 
fluid line drawings and inkwash. This rather 
spontaneous treatment calls to mind the Krannert 
Art Museum lohans: the bulging eyes, round 
heads, and inkwash hair are quite similar, although 
Wu Pin's facial types are more diverse. 

The second of Wu Pin's scrolls to be 
considered is the "Five Hundred Arhats" datable 
to the late sixteenth /early seventeenth centuries. 
The style and iconography of this scroll even 
more closely resemble the Krannert Art Museum 
album. It shows the same abbreviated figure 
painting seen in Wu Pin's scroll of the "Eighteen 

The figures and landscape of the "Five Hundred 
Arhats" reflect the singular style of Wu Pin within 
the late Ming painting tradition. The heads and 
facial features are distorted through simple yet 
descriptive treatment. The fine details of the 

artist unknown 

Panthaka" circa 14th century 
ink on silk, 44"h x 20V."w (1 1 1.8 x 51.5 cm,) 
Fu|ila Museum, Osaka 

diverse facial expressiotis are beyond those in the 
Museum's piece, however. Most of the facial 
features in the latter are rendered with a single 
stroke connecting the eyebrows and nose. 

With respect to subject matter, the scroll of the 
"Five Hundred Arhats" may be seen as a 
development of the Daitokuji "Five Hundred 
Lohans. " Wu Pin shows some of his figures 
relaxing, others meditating, but most are engaged 
in undetermined activities (Figure 14). Unlike the 
specified thematic approach of the Daitokuji 
series, Wu Pin's lohans are placed in a unified 
setting and arbitrarily divided into groups. The 
lohans hold fly-whisks, staffs, or sutras. The 
iconography clearly was not intended to identify 
individual lohans: rather, it is the concept of 
arhatship that is illustrated. The bizarre figure 
seated in a cave is comparable to one of Ting 
Yun-p'eng's "Lohans" (Figure 8) and "Subinda" in 
the Taipei scroll (Figure 5), both of whom are so 

Iconography of Kuan-yin 

A detail of the final scene from this scroll 
depicts a lohan paying tribute to Kuan-yin (Figure 
15), The female figure of Kuan-yin is clad in white 
and holds a string of beads. She is seated in a 
rocky hollow in a bamboo grove. Beside her on 
the rock is a willow branch in a vase. 

From the Ming Dynasty onward, Kuan-yin was 
represented most often as a female dressed in 
white,'-' This scene is quite similar to the last 
illustration in the Museum's album (Figure 1), 
although it is not certain that the latter Kuan-yin 
follows the same iconography The Museum's 
Kuan-yin is on a hill before bamboo stalks. She is 
clad in white and carries both a rosary and a fly- 
whisk instead of the traditional willow branch. 

In Wu Pin's scene of Kuan-yin, the small acolyte 
in front of her is in almost the same position as 
the humble lohan kneeling near Kuan-yin in the 
Museum's illustration. The procession of figures 
bearing offerings for Kuan-yin in the Wu Pin scroll 
is supplanted in the Krannert Art Museum scene 
by a group of eight lohans, three of whom are 

Emperor Ch'ien Lung and Painter Chang Chao 

The Krannert Art Museum album is an imperially 
compiled eulogy to the sixteen lohans made 
during the Ch'ien Lung era (1736-1796),''' Ch'ien 
Lung was both emperor and connoisseur of the 
arts, but he was also a respected and revered 

When he was twenty-four, he had his portrait 
painted not as a crowned prince, but as a Taoist 
priest with the traditional paraphernalia: a ling-chih 
in his right hand symbolizing magic powers, a 
wicker-work hat on his head , . , For fear of possible 

misunderstanding, Ch'ien Lung wrote a poem on 
his portrait asking the question: who knows the 
true self of this man?''^ 

Emperor Ch'ien Lung, as Chang Chao, who 
lettered the Krannert Art Museum album, was 
known as a painter-calligrapher. It is said that their 
writings were extremely close in skill and style. In 
fact, a legend connects the two, and attributes 
Ch'ien Lung's longevity to a mysterious wine 
made by Chang Chao."^ 

Chang Chao was a native of Lou-hsien, 
Kiangsu, A biographical note states that Chang 
Chao was sentenced to die in 1736 due to a 
military defeat. 

. . . Chang Chao was pardoned by Emperor Kao- 
tsung (Ch'ien Lung) owing, it is said, to their mutual 
interest in calligraphy ... His penmanship was so 
like that of Emperor Kao-tsung that he is reported 
to have written many of the documents and scripts 
attributed to that emperor in the early years of his 
reign ... As an artist, Chang Chao excelled in 
various fields, particularly in the painting of plum 
Although his seal appears on the last panel of 
the manuscript, it is unlikely that Chang Chao 
executed the figure scenes, even though he did 
pen the accompanying inscriptions. Chang Chao 
was known solely as a painter of plum blossoms. 
According to Ferguson's catalogue of Ll-Tai chu-lu 
hua mu (Titles of Paintings In Successive 
Dynasties), ten paintings are listed under his 
name, all of which depict plum blossoms. In his 
compilation of extant paintings known by Chang 
Chao, Osvald Siren lists only paintings of plum 
blossoms.'" Therefore, it is very difficult to attribute 
the painted panels of the Museum's album to 
Chang Chao without any documented evidence 
that he painted figures at all. 

The Inscriptions: Tibetan Models 

The order of the lohans given in the Krannert 
inscriptions was inspired by the Manchus, 
who founded the Ch'ing Dynasty by 1644. 
The Manchu emperors espoused the Tibetan 
religion of Lamaism, and finally brought Tibet 
under Chinese rule in 1723. Emperor Ch'ien 
Lung, while touring the southern half of the empire 
(1751-1757), came across a set of sixteen lohans 
attributed to Kuan-hsiu." Ch'ien Lung changed the 
existing Chinese-inspired order to the very popular 
Tibetan order of lohans. '" The new order read as 
follows: Angaja, Ajita, Vanavasin, Kalika, 
Vajraputra, Bhadra, Kanaka Bharadvaja, 
Kanakavatsa, Nakula, Rahula, Cudapanthaka, 
Piridola Bharadvaja, Panthaka, Nagasena, Gopaka, 
and Subinda. The name order of lohans given in 
the Krannert inscriptions is in accord with this 
Tibetan list. 

A set of Tibetan paintings^' of the eighteenth 
century shows most of the sixteen lohans to be 
identifiable by standardized attributes, closely 
linked to legends concerning the individual lohans. 
These attributes are related to those described in 
the Krannert inscriptions, which suggest that the 
latter were derived from Tibetan sources. The 
inscriptions^^ composed by Ch'ien Lung describe 
and identify the sixteen lohans by name, and each 
lohan is eulogized in a poem enriched with 
Buddhist imagery The following comparative table 
listing attributes given in the Krannert Art Museum 
inscriptions versus those following an eighteenth 
century model of Tibetan iconography demon- 
strates their close interrelationship: 

Krannert Art 
Tibetan t^useum 

iconography inscriptions 

Ahgaia holds incense and fly-whisk 

A|ita meditates: arms folded across chest 

Kalika holds golden shakes golden 

earrings bells 

Vajraputra points his fingers 

Kanakavatsa holds string attendants hold 

with gems colored thread 

Bakula strokes an animal 

Rahula holds Buddha's crown 

Pindola Bharadvaja holds sacred books 

and an iron bowl 
Subinda holds a stupa 

Panthaka holds a sutra 

Gopaka holds a siJtra 

Nagasena holds a flask 

Bhadra •» 

Kanaka Bharadvaja I no apparent 

Vanavasin j iconographic relationship 

Cudapanthaka ' 

Certain disparities in the above table might be 
explained as variations of Tibetan iconography 
which Ch'ien Lung adopted when composing this 

It appears that the iconography of the 
Museum's paintings is quite independent of the 
inscriptions. The facial types and attributes of the 
painted lohans do not correspond to those 
described in the inscriptions. Thus, while the 
album's inscriptions follow Tibetan models, they 
do not conform with the accompanying painted 

The scene showing Kuan-yin appears first in the 
manuscript as it is read from right to left. This is 
probably due to the remounting of the paintings in 
album form. The paintings read much more 
logically if Figure 2, the lohans, appears first, 
followed by Figure 1, since Kuan-yin is usually 
placed in the last scene when accompanied by 
the lohans. This was previously seen in Ch'en 
Hung-shou's scroll of the "Eighteen Lohans," and 

7. Ch'en Hung-shou, Chinese. 1599-1652 

"Eighteen Lohans, " detail 
ink and color on silk 
collection unknown 

8. attributed to Ting Yun-p'eng, Chinese, active 1584-1638 

ink on paper, 40' h x 25"w (101 6 » 63 5 cm ) 
Collection of the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic 
of China 

9. Ting Yun-p'eng 


ink and color on paper, 49"h x 17 i"w (124 46 » 43,82 cm,) 

Krannert Art Museum 

Gift of Mrs. Mane Ann Caro, 1974, 74-4-1 

10. Ting Yun-p'eng and Sheng Mao-yeh, active circa 1 625-1 640 
"Five Hundred Arhals," 1594, detail 
ink and color on paper 
Collection of Mr Bunzo Nakanishi, Kyoto 

Wu Pin's "Five Hundred Arhats." Additionally, in 
the correct position, botln scenes are bordered by 
either pine trees or bamboo, creating a unified 

Figure 2 appears to depict the departure of a 
group of lohans, while the accompanying scene 
(Fig 1 ) is concerned with the arrival of such a 
group to venerate Kuan-yin. If this is the case, 
these scenes would be related to those in Ting 
Yun-p'eng's and Sheng IVIao-yeh's "Five Hundred 
Arhats" and Wu Pin's "Eighteen Lohans," in which 
these themes also occur. Unfortunately, neither 
the inscriptions nor any literary evidence sheds 
light on the engimatic activities of these painted 

The Illustrations: Late I\/ling Tradition 

The Krannert Art Museum lohans follow the late 
Ming painting tradition. The abbreviated delinea- 
tion of the facial features has already been noted 
in paintings by Ting Yun-p'eng and Wu Pin. As an 
outgrowth of the "eccentric" painting tradition, it 
may be noted that numerous facial expressions 
are rendered with limited brushstrokes. The 
painter of the Museum's illustrations has grouped 
the lohans according to various facial expressions, 
suggesting the interaction of figures. By varying 
the expressions, the painter has distinguished 
each lohan from his neighbors. 

The sixteen lohans are divided into two groups 
of eight figures each, and situated in two different 
landscape settings. The two groups are further 
distinguished by their differing robes: the group 
with Kuan-yin (Fig 1 ) is clothed much more 
elaborately than the other. The group shown in 
Figure 2 stands on a rocky shore near three pine 
frees. The pine, a Chinese symbol of longevity is 
traditionally associated with gracefulness and 
hidden power. The figure on the extreme right 
wears a beaded necklace and is half hidden by 
two pines. The next four figures are grouped 
together: two hold fly-whisks and one carries a 
staff. Of the two figures in the left foreground, one 
is balancing books and sutras tied to a pole 
across his shoulders. Behind this figure is another 
who wears a straw hat and holds a sistrum. The 
eighth lohan departs up a hill, carrying a parcel on 
his back. 

The accompanying scene (Fig 1) depicting eight 
lohans and Kuan-yin with her acolyte, takes place 
on a hill. All the landscape elements appear in the 
left half of the painting. The foreground shows a 
gnarled rock formation, and in the upper left is a 
bamboo grove. Such a grove is among the 
standard settings for Kuan-yin, and bamboo itself 
is generally associated with the ideals of scholars, 
possessing both graceful and resilient qualities. 

The lohans in this scene are divided into two 

1 1 . Ting Yun-p'eng and Sheng Mao-yeh. active circa 1 625-1 640 
"Five Hundred Arhats," 1594, detail 
ink and color on paper 
Collection of Mr Bunzo Nakanishi, Kyoto 

groups. Three lohans are grouped at the right; the 
first has his back to us, holding a fly-whisk, while 
the next folds his arnns across his chest, and the 
last carries a basket of flowers on his back. The 
next group of figures pays homage to Kuan-yin. 
One kneels in profile with his hands clasped, and 
the next two stand in the same position. Of the 
remaining two lohans, one carries a sistrum, and 
the other a sutra. These attributes seem to be 
arbitrarily assigned, as in the Daitokuji paintings, 
and therefore, are not meant to identify individual 

The Krannert Art Museum album scenes thus 
may be viewed as part of the development of 
lohan painting in China, although it differs 
unquestionably from the traditions initiated by 
Kuan-hsiu and Li Kung-lin. Lohan painting evolved 
from the basic iconic image for individual worship, 
as painted by Kuan-hsiu, to a narrative concept of 
arhatship as typified by the Daitokuji lohans. As 
the Daitokuji lohans, the lohans in the Krannert Art 
Museum manuscript were conceived as a group 
involved in a narrative. 

The Krannert Art Museum manuscript remains 
problematical. The inscriptions composed by 
Ch'ien Lung and penned by Chang Chao do not 
correspond to the painted figures. The name order 
of the lohans follows an eighteenth century 
Tibetan model and the inscriptions for each lohan 
generally agree with Tibetan iconography Finally, 
one can say that Chang Chao in all probability did 
not paint the lohans. 

The figural style of the painted lohans was 
clearly modelled after that of the late Ming 
"eccentric" painters, and they demonstrate an 
iconographic rapport with the sixteenth and 
seventeenth century Chinese lohan paintings, 
specifically Wu Pin's "Five Hundred Arhats." 

Thus, the Krannert Art Museum album is a step 
in the evolution of philosophical and artistic 
traditions. It is not simply a work of art by an 
"eccentric" painter: it is rooted in the very 
inception of lohan worship and lohan painting in 

12. Wu Pin, Chinese, active 1567-1617 
"Eighteen Lohans," 1583, detail 

inl< on paper, handscroll. 1 1 \"h " 1 1 6"w (29 7 >■ 294 4 cm ) 
Collection of the National Palace Museum. Taipei, Taiwan. 
Republic of China 










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^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^Br * * 






^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^K ^ 





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13. Wu Pin, Chinese, active 1567-1617 
"Eighteen Lohans," 1583, detail 

ink on paper, handscroll. 11V4"h " 116"w (29.7 « 294.4 cm.) 
Collection of the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, 
Republic of China 

Footnotes "The author wishes to acknowledge Professor Klyohlko 

Munakata ol the University of Illinois for his guidance and 
support during the preparation of this paper 

14. Wu Pin, Chinese, active 1567-1617 
"Five Hundred Arhats." detail 

ink and color on paper, handscroll. 13 % "h « 816'?'i6"w 
The Cleveland N/luseum of Art. Purchase. 
John L Severance Fund 

'Edward Conze. Buddhism: lis Essence and DevelopmenI (New 
York, 1952) pp. 143-148, 

The evidence is contained in the Mahayana-vataraka-saslra. 
See M, W DeVisser. "The Sixteen and Eighteen A'hats" 
Ostasialische Zeilschnti vol IX 1920-1921 

'Sylvain Levi and Edouard Chavannes, "Les Seize Arhats 

Protecteurs de la Loi" Journal Asialique |uillet-aout 1916. Most ol 

the translation of the Fa-chu-chi is credited to Levi. Chavannes. 

and T. Walters. "The Eighteen Lohans of Chinese Buddhist 

Temples" Journal ol the Royal Asiatic Society vol. XXX 1 896. 

The following discussion uses both these sources 

'Wen Fong. Five Hundred Lohans at the Daitokuii (Princeton. 

1956) p 8 

^See Levi and Chavanne.=: 

'The catalogue. Hsuan ho-hua-p'u. recorded the Chinese 
painting collection of the Emperor Hui-tsang. Fong. p. 62. 
'Both the Northern Sung Dynasty poet Su Shih and the Ming 
Dynasty poet Chih p'o have written poems, reprinted in Taichiro 
Kobayashi's Zengelsu laishi no shogai to Geijutsu (Tokyo. 1974). 
which describes these attributes and facial types as seen in very 
close copies of the originals. 

"This set of lohans was in the possession of Hui-wen. a close 
friend of the Northern Sung poet Su Shih When Hui-wen's 
daughter-in-law died, he gave the collection to a monastery, at 
which time Su Shih donated the painting of Kuan-yin See 
Kobayashi. pp. 371-373 

'See Helen Chapin. revised by A Soper. "A Long Roll of Buddhist 
Images" Artibus Asiae vol XXXII nos 2. 3 1970 

'"See Fong. pp. 165-166. 

"James Cahill. ed. The Restless Landscape: Chinese Painting ol 

the Late Ming Period (Berkeley. 1971). p. 29. 

'Vbid. p. 20 

'^The Iconography ol Kuan-yin in this scroll follows that of the 

"Saddharma Pundarika Kuan-yin. See Alice Getty. Gods ol 

Northern Buddhism (Rutland. 1962). p 87 

"The words Yu chih shih liu lo han isan (Imperially compiled 

Eulogy to the Sixteen Lohans) accompany the inscriptions. 

'-Nelson Wu. "Toleration of the Eccentrics" Art News vol. LVI 

May 1957. p. 53. 

"^Harold L. Kahn. Monarchy in the Emperor's Eyes (Cambridge. 
1971). p. 249, 

"Arthur Hummel, ed.. Eminent Chinese ol the Ch'ing Period 
(New York. 1964). p. 24 

"SeeOsvald Siren. Chinese Painting: Leading Masters and 

Principles Vol. VII (New York. 1958). p. 286. 

"See Fong. p 30 It appears that these Lohans were late copies, 

originally listed in the Sanskrit order established in the Fa-chu- 


^°The cult of the sixteen lohans had been introduced in Tibet in 
the mid-ninth century 

•"See plates 156-170 in Guiseppe Tucci. Tibetan Scroll Paintings 

(Roma. 1949). 

"These inscriptions have been translated by Professor Kiyohiko 

Munakata of the University of Illinois and are listed in the 


/^■Pi/ 1: 



15. Wu Pin. Chinese, active 1567-1617 
"Five Hundred Arhats." detail 

ink and color on paper, handscroll. 13'/< "h « 816'?'i6"w 
The Cleveland Museum of Art. Purchase. 
John L Severance Fund 


Inscriptions composed by Chien Lung, translations by Professor 
Kiyohiko Munakata. 

Ahgaja: He has long eyebrows, while hair, red legs and 
exposed elbows. Once you follow the teaching without words (i e 
Ch'an Buddhism), you have no problems to consider. With his 
(eft hand he holds incense and the fragrant vapor is limitless He 
fans it away with a fly-whisk This is the true way of offering " 

Ajita: "He holds his arms across his chest and has bare feet He 
sits calmly in meditation If you ask this great man, ne might 
answer you or he may keep silent When he keeps silent, he 
moves the foundation of things When he talks, he quiets the 
causes Both moving and quieting are done without conscious- 
ness. Then, who would attain the body of the Law'' 

Vanavasin: "When you live, it is better to live in the mountains 
When you need proof, there is no way to prove. If you ask the 
Law of Buddha, he would raise two fingers in response When 
his hair gets long, he changes his bamboo-skin hair band When 
his beard gets long, he does not remove it Removing and 
keeping, in between these two he places his illusional body" 

Kalika: "After listening I came to serve him His mind is broad, 
and his body is corpulent. In between the size of a small lump of 
earth and that of Mt Sumeru, what could be considered small or 
large and spacious'' In each of his hands at the linger tips he 
shakes golden bells. There is sound, at the same time there is 
silence. There is neither silence nor sound." 

Vajraputra: "His clothes cover his body He is resting as he sits 
Sameness and difference, existence and nothingness, to indicate 
these he uses one finger When he lived in Dilana C). he 
rejoiced, according to the Law he made offerings six times. The 
offerings and rejoicing are both forgotten, but are not discarded " 

Bhadra: "On one shoulder there are seven lines, and there are 
two rings on his earlobes This is Lilafan (?) This is the world of 
Wisdom Even if his face resembles that of the wolf, he is not to 
be feared- His heart is compassionate Compassion and 
wolfishness are all illusion One bows to this great master " 

Kanakavatsa; "His mind is like a withered tree, and his face is 
like a frozen pear. To his nght are the two ancient men of 
longevity P'eng-tsu and Tan They are shown in their childhood 
holding in their hands a colored thread How long could it be'' 
Are they lying it or untying it? It is up to each person to interpret 

Kanaka Bharadvaja: He is wearing Kalinga clothes and lays on 
a blanket on the ground His eyes are open and his eyebrows 
raised. Yet. he is not observing the nature of things When one 
returns to the root, he obtains the essence When one follows 
illumination, he loses its origin Obtaining what has been lost, or 
losing what has been obtained, these are matters of sameness 
occurring where things are not the same." 

Bakula: "Everything in the world is my savings Nothing can be 
more remote or familiar than the other. He caresses a mountain 
flying-squirrel with his hand He is pleased with its lame nature 
When tamed, it does not disturb anyone When pleased, one 
does not worry Together with all the fellow Buddhists he strolls 
about the land of Buddha " 

Rahula: "The Buddha turns the things and all the ordinary 
people make the turning into things. Who knows this truth? On 
the top of his head are huge eyes He holds the crown of seven 
lewels He is |ust going to offer it lo the Buddha Would the 
Buddha receive if Nobody would say that he already has it " 

Cudapanthaka: "He is sealed upright and holds his hands 
together with fingers crossed. How can he be divinely talented? 
He IS in both the existing and non-existing phases This is the 
true principle Behind his head there is a halo, and it looks like a 
moon which entered into his chest He finished all his duties on 
a pilgrimage, but how many pairs of sandals has he worn out?" 

Pindola Bharadvaja: "In his left hand he holds a Brahman book 

and in his nght an iron bowl Whether traveling or staying, silling 
or lying down, he is not attached to. but not separated from 
these two items When the Buddha renounced this world, he 
ordained this old man. His manner of preaching is heroic; it 
sounds like the roar of a lion " 

Panthaka: "He kneads the magic words of Buddha's incantation 
in his hand His face is tinted with misty rouge, as if he is drunk 
with wine With the principle of the Four Great Truths, he cut off 
the root of suspicion Panthaka is the one who heard what the 
Buddha said " 

Nagasena: "He swings his staff, while opening his eyes wide and 
being attentive for sounds Whether he is seeing or listening, 
he IS not distracted by anything in particular With his left hand, 
he holds a flask and stores a crystal symbolizing the Law Since 
the Law is for the temporary existence of beings, what can the 
crystal symbolize''" 

Gopaka: "I contemplate upon the four basic elements of the 
universe, and ponder on what is the true constant When the 
water flows, the pebbles are cooled When the wind blows, the 
flowers send their fragrance This master laid down a sutra 
and gazes at it with both eyes. Why doesn't he start to 
contemplate if He must have understood the Law perfectly 
without contemplating it" 

Abheda: "The phases of existence are a mirage, yet youth is 
better than old age Why shouldn't we have a choice, and protect 
the Three Great Treasures? In his both hands, he holds a slupa 
which IS made of gold It symbolizes the immeasurable life span 
of the flower of the Law; it is still a revelation today " 

Print Exhibition 

Grant Wood, American. 1892-1942, 
"March," Lithograph, 

ffV.s'h X 1 1 7b "w (22 70 X 30 1 6 cm ) image 
Gift ot Seichi Konzo, 1978-11-10 

Twelve lithographs by Thomas Hart Benton, Grant 
Wood, and John Stewart Curry— the major 
representatives of the American Regionalist 
school, will be on view at the Krannert Art 
Museum throughout the Winter Season, In the 
1930's these artists became popular for their 
representations of the agrarian Midwest, 
paralleling a greater understanding of the farmer's 
role in American society following the Depression. 
Their views of Iowa cornfields, the Ozark hillbilly, 
and the Kansas farmer were bred from their 
personal familiarity with these subjects for Benton, 
Wood, and Curry were born, respectively, in 
Missouri, Iowa, and Kansas. 

As Benton maintained, and as the prints 
underscore, despite their association as fellow 
Regionalists, Benton, Wood, and Curry never lost 
their stylistic distinctions. Wood's wit, evidenced in 
his famous paintings American Gothic and 
Daugtiters of the American Revolution, is equally 
evident in his lithographs Shrine Quartet and 
l-ionorary Degree. Benton, on the other hand, 
l<narls and twists his forms; a hill turns a valley 
and a valley a river— much as in his Missouri 
murals. In Sanctuary Curry exhibits all the 
ebullience of Rubens whom he admired. 

In its broadest sense Regionalism does not refer 
only to art created in the Midwest. Rather, 
Regionalism is that style of American 
representational painting (and even literature) of 
the 1930's which reflects the character of the area 
in which it was created. The great variety of the 
American cultural landscape is what gave 
Regionalism its meaning and interest. It 
represented more than a disassociation with 
European political and aesthetic trends following 
World War I. It did represent the discovery that 
American culture was of aesthetic import and that 
this culture extended beyond the Eastern 
seaboard. In this respect, Regionalism was not 
unlil<e France's discovery of contemporary subject 
matter at the midpoint of the nineteenth century 
While Regionalism had no Baudelaire to champion 
its cause, literary counterparts were found in 
Sinclair Lewis, John Dos Passes, and, more 
broadly, Mark Twain— all three of whose works 
were illustrated by the Regionalists, including 
Benton and Wood, 

All the prints in this exhibition were created by 
the artists for Associated American Artists, formed 
in 1934 for purposes of making art of high quality 
accessible to the general public. Some of the 
prints form a small portion of the large collection 
of prints being given to the Krannert Art Museum 
by Professor Emeritus Seichi Konzo. lna 

Krannert Art Museum Associates 

Benefactor Members 

Miss Janel Eisner 

Mr and Mrs L Scott Kelley 

Patron Members 

Mrs. Maryann Drost Bitzer 
ivlrs Irene Gullan Siottow 

Life Members 

Mr and Mrs Carl G, Dohme 
Mrs. Paul F Kent 

Contributing Members 

Mr and Mis Duane Branigan 

Mrs Harold Cromwell 

Mr and Mrs Robert Eisner, Jr 

Mr and Mrs Robert D Franks 

Mrs Thomas Harrington 

Mr and Mrs Donald Lindsay 

Mrs Charles F Loeb 

Dr and Mrs William L McLane 

Dr and Mrs Bruce W Miller 

Mr and Mrs Eugene Miller 

Mrs Marc C Norton 


Ms Janice Smith 

Mr and Mrs Jeff A Wandell 

Mr and Mrs Allen S Waller 

Participating Members 


Mr Walter C Allen 

Mr and Mrs William P Alston 

Mrs Wells A Anderson 

Mr and Mrs George E Anner 

Mr and Mrs Richard Arnould 

Ms Ann Atkin 

Mrs Ludwig F Audneth 

Mr and Mrs James L Bailey 

Mrs Stanley Balbach 

Mr and Mrs Paul R Ballard 

Ms Virginia Bartow 

Mrs. Elmer C Bash 

Mr and Mrs John W Beecher 

Mrs George G Bennett 

Mrs Ralph Berkson 

Mr and Mrs Charles Bowen 

Mr, and Mrs Vincent E. Bowen 

Mr and Mrs Royall Brandis 

Mr and Mrs H R Bresee 

Mrs. Norns L, Brookens 

Dr and Mrs Milton R Carlson 

Dr. and Mrs James B Corbett 

V Dale Cozad and Associates 

Mrs John Curtis 

Mr and Mrs William C Dallenbach 

Mr and Mrs Bruce DeLong 

Mr and Mrs Robert C Dickey 

Mrs Oscar H Dodson 

Mr and Mrs Lawrence Doyle 

Mr Les Elliott 

Mrs. J. E. Erickson 

Mrs, N, V Filbey 

Mr and Mrs George T Frampton 

Ms Gladys G Eraser 

Mrs William Gerberding 

Prof and Mrs Marcus F Goldman 

Mr and Mrs Frank Gunter 

Mrs Barbara Gutowsky 

Mr and Mrs Robert W Harbeson 

Mr and Mrs. Jack R Harlan 

Mr and Mrs Morris L Hecker. Jr 

Dr and Mrs Aldred A Heckman, Jr 

Mr and Mrs. William R Horsfall 

Mr and Mrs Harvey Huegy 

Mrs Merrill Huffman 

Dr and Mrs W F Hutchinson 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert W Johannsen 

Dr. and Mrs, William S Johnson 

Mrs Stanley L Kaufman 

Ms Betty Ann Knight 

Ms Peggy Lanham 

Mrs. T, E Larson 

Ms Ella C Leppert 

Mrs, Ezra Levin 

Mrs, Norman D. Levine 

Mr and Mrs. Jon C, Liebman 

Mr and Mrs Gerald S Lietz 

Mrs William Luckmann 

Miss Lyie M Mamer 

Mr and Mrs David McBnde 

Dr Mary McKeown 

Mr and Mrs William P McLure 

Mr, and Mrs W H McPherson 

Ms, Mar|Orie E Mead 

Mrs Robert L, Metcalf 

Mr, and Mrs August C Meyer, Jr 

Mrs George S Miller 

Dr and Mrs Isaac Morhaim 

Mrs David Morse 

Dr and Mrs, Robert Mussey 

Mrs, Erna Nachum 

Dr, and Mrs, Terry Noonan 

Mrs, William G Palmer 

Mrs, Nancy Parkhill 

Mrs Alwynne Paulson 

Mr and Mrs David Payne 

Mr and Mrs Thomas Pricketl 

Mr, and Mrs, A L Ringer 

Mr. and Mrs, Robert W Rogers 

Dr. and Mrs Donald G Rumer 

Mr and Mrs. Richard Runner 

Mrs Grover L Seitzinger 

Mr and Mrs James Shapland 

Mrs Ray I Shawl 

Ms Mary Lucille Shay 

Dr and Mrs C R Shepherdson 

Mrs James R Shipley 

Mr and Mrs Charles O Silverman 

Ms Dorothy B Slavich 

Mr Delberl Smith 

Mrs M G Snyder 

Mr and Mrs William G Sproat, Sr 

Mrs S C Staley 

Mr and Mrs R A Stipes, Jr 

Mrs Mary A Stoddart 

Mr and Mrs William Strauss 

Mrs Giles Sullivan 

Dr and Mrs William Thompson 

Mr and Mrs Arthur Traugott 

Mr and Mrs Richard R Tryon, Jr 

Mr and Mrs Jeff A Wandell 

Mr and Mrs, Robert A Walts 

Ms Evelyn J Weber 

Mrs Soma Weissman 

Mr and Mrs George W White 

Mr William B Whitlock 

Mrs Thomas R Wilson 

Mrs Clair M Worthy 

Ms Helen K Zwolanek 

General Members 

Mrs James Acheson 

Mr and Mrs W C, Ackerman 

Dr and Mrs Richard Adams 

Mrs Donald R Aldeen 

Ms Dorothy R Altman 

Mrs Chester Anderson 

Mr and Mrs John D Anderson 

Mrs Ruth Mane Anderson 

Mrs T, L, Andert 

Mrs J B, Andrews 

Mr and Mrs James B Andrews, Jr 

Ms Karlyne Anspach 

Dr Robert A Atkins 

Mrs Peter Axel 

Mrs Roy A Axford 

Mr and Mrs Gordon Bagby 

Mrs Harold Baker 

Mrs R W Barber 

Mrs John Bardeen 

Mrs, Carmel C Barger 

Mrs A, Townsend Barlow 

Mrs. John Barr 

Mrs. Lewis W Barron 

Mr and Mrs Ralph Barrymore 

Mr and Mrs John H Barlh 

Mrs Sandra Batzli 

Ms Grace Beckett 

Mrs Dolores Behrens 

Mrs. James D Bell 

Dr Natalia M Belting 

Mrs Sharon Benstock 

Mrs Orville G Bentley 

Mr Clarence A Berdahl 

Mrs Thomas Berger 

Mrs B|ornar Bergethon 

Mr and Mrs Richard J Betts 

Mrs Allen Beyler 

Mrs Charles J Birkeland 

Mrs Gertrude V Black 

Mr and Mrs Michael Blanzy 

Mrs Frances A Bloomfield 

Ms Eleanor Blum 

Mrs Robert Bohl 

Mrs Hardin M Boulware 

Miss Dorothy Bowen 

Mrs R D Bradle 

Mrs Frederick Brash 

Mrs Paul K Bresee 

Mrs Gil Brinkmeyer 

Mrs. Jack Briscoe 

Mr and Mrs Harry S Broudy 

Mrs. Richard Brown 

Mr and Mrs Thomas L Brown 

Mrs Robert W Brunner 

Mrs Fred Bryant 

Mrs Maurine Buchanan 

Mrs Kathryn Burns 

Mr and Mrs. Lewis P Burtis 

Mrs Richard Burwash 

Mr and Mrs Stewart S Cairns 

Ms Karen Callahan 

Mrs Ross M Camp 

Mr and Mrs J Michael Campbell 

Mrs J H Cannon 

Mrs Robert J Carr 

Mrs George F Carragher 

Mrs. Joseph B. Casserly 

Mrs Robert Castello 

Mr and Mrs J G Chambers 

Dr and Mrs David Chandler 

Mrs Alyce Taylor Cheska 

Mr and Mrs Charles Clabaugh 

Mrs Richard J Claydon 

Mrs Phyllis L Cline 

Mrs Robert M. Coates 

Mrs Ruben G Cohn 

Mrs R F Colwell 

Mrs Helen Bess Cone 

Mr Jack E Connor 

Mrs Margaret Cook 

Mrs Jack C Cooley 

Mrs Jessie Cooper 

Mrs John Corbally 

Mrs. James Costello 

Mrs William H Coughlin 

Mrs John Cribbet 

Mrs James Cullem 

Ms Mane Czach 

Mrs J W Daily 

Mr C F Danielson 

Mrs. Janet Ramey Danielson 

Mrs. Hugh Davison 

Mrs M T Davisson 

Mrs A O Dawson 

Mrs H S Dawson 

Mr and Mrs T O Dawson 

Mrs Milton Derber 

Mr and Mrs Georges Deschamps 

Mrs Nancy A Diamond 

Mrs David L Diana 

Mrs Ray Dickerson 

Ms Mary Ann Diller 

Mr and Mrs Newton H Dodds 

Mrs Tern Dodson 

Mrs Carl Dohme 

Mrs Thomas J Dolan 

Mrs John Douglas 

Mrs Robert Downs 

Ms Eunice M. Dowse 

Dr and Mrs. Charles H Drenckhahn 

Mrs Daniel C Drucker 

Ms Mary M Duitsman 

Dr and Mrs Richard E Dukes 

Dr Martha L Dunlap 

Mrs Bernard Dunn 

Mr and Mrs J A Easley. Jr 

Mrs Bernice Eastman 

Mrs H M Edwards 

Mrs James Edwards 

Mrs John Edwards 

Ms Martha Egan 

Mr and Mrs Lee P Eilbracht 

Dr and Mrs Harry H Eisenberg 

Mr Les Elliott 

Ms Rhoda R Engel 

Mrs Lloyd Engert 

Mrs Ruth E English 

Mrs Campbell Evans 

Mr and Mrs Robert W Evans 

Mrs Harlan Failor 

Mrs. Philip Faucett, Jr 

Dr. Don A. Fischer 

Ms Sarah J. Fisher 

Mrs John Flanagan 

Mr and Mrs Joseph S Flores 

Mrs Robert Floyd 

Mrs Charles E Flynn 

Mrs Clive Follmer 

Mrs Jeanetle Forrest 

Mrs G M Fosler 

Mr and Mrs Fred W Foster 

Mrs William Fox 

Mrs Marion P Freeman 

Dr and Mrs Wendell Freeman 

Mrs Theodore H Prison 

Mr and Mrs Kurt Froehlich 

Mr and Mrs William Froom 

Mrs George R Frost 

Ms Martha Gaan 

Dr and Mrs Henry Gans 

Mrs Carol Garner 

Mrs Robert Garrard 

Mr and Mrs Neil F Garvey 

Mrs Gaylord Gates 

Mrs Winfred D Gerber 

Mrs Royal A. Gettmann 

Dr and Mrs Cesare Gianturco 

Mrs Floyd A Giles 

Mrs Virginia Gilmore 

Dr and Mrs Milton R Glaser 

Miss Charlotte M Golden 

Mrs Stephen Goldsmith 

Mrs Scott Goldthwaite 

Mr and Mrs William I Goodman 

Ms Margaret Goodyear 

Mrs David Gottlieb 

Mr and Mrs Eugene Grandone 

Dr and Mrs Gerald W Grawey 

Mrs Frederick S Green 

Mrs Paul Green 

Mrs Carl Greenstein 

Mrs Warren E Greenwold 

Mrs. Gordon S. Gregory 

Mrs. Janann D Hagan 

Mr and Mrs Gilbert P Haight, Jr 

Mr. and Mrs Harold Halcrow 

Mrs M A Hale 

Mrs Mark Hale 

Professor Robert Halsband 

Mr and Mrs John D Haltiwanger 

Mrs Joseph Hamburg 

Mr and Mrs Paul Handler 

Miss Blanche I Hanna 

Mrs Paul Hannagan 

Mrs Dave Hansen 

Mr and Mrs James R Harlan 

Mrs William H Harris 

Mrs Marian Hathaway 

Mrs Alan Haussermann 

Mrs C F Haussermann 

Mrs Edward Hays 

Dr and Mrs. Richard Heltrich 

Mr and Mrs. John Heller 

Mr and Mrs, Donald M Henderson 

Mrs, David D Henry 

Mr Louis R. Henson 

Mrs Mary B Henson 

Mrs Rose L Hewitt 

Mrs Philip A Hickman 

Mrs Harold Highland 

Mr and Mrs Robert C Hiltibran 

Mr. and Mrs Harry H Hilton 

Mrs. Jerry Hirsch 

Mrs. Howard Hobbs 

Mrs Anita Hodge 

Ms. Zelma Holl 

Mrs Roland Holmes 

Mrs Nick Holonyak 

Ms Mary Ellen Honnold 

Mrs. W Peter Hood 

Mrs B Smith Hopkins 

Mr. and Mrs Harold Hornbeak 

Ms. Hazel I Horton 

Dr and Mrs John H Houseworth 

Mrs Jessie Howard 

Mrs W R Howe 

Ms Laura J Huelster 

Mr and Mrs. William R Hughes 

Mrs E Lindell Huisinga 

Mrs J McVicker Hunt 

Mrs, B. C Hurd 

Mrs Robert Ittner 

Mrs E Atlee Jackson 

Mrs. Eldon Johnson 

Ms Frances Johnson 

Mrs. Harry E Johnson 

Mrs. Helen S. Johnston 

Mrs. Geneva M Jones 

Mrs. Edward Jordan 

Mrs. Richard Jorgensen 

Mrs William H. Judy 

Mr and Mrs. William Julian 

Mrs Myron Kabel 

Mrs William Kappauf 

Ms. Ruth I Karlson 

Mrs Alexis J Katsinas 

Mrs John A Katsinas 

Mrs Robert D Katz 

Mrs. John T Kearns 

Mrs Frank D Keck 

Dr and Mrs Wayne Keiserman 

Mrs, Walter Keith 

Mrs. James Kell 

Mrs, Chester Keller 

Mrs. Lula G Keller 

Mrs L Scott Kelley 

Mr and Mrs Rolland Kelley 

Mrs Thomas Kelso 

Mr and Mrs Donald L Kemmerer 

Mrs S Charles Kendeigh 

Mrs Paul Kent 

Mrs T G Knappenberger 

Mrs Charles Knepler 

Mrs Charles A Knudson 

Mr and Mrs. Marcos Kogan 

Mrs Philip Kolb 

Professor and Mrs S. Konzo 

Mrs Myron Korry 

Dr and Mrs Curtis Krock 

Mr and Mrs Wayne LaFave 

Mrs Cyril R. Laffoon 

Mrs James Laidlaw 

Mrs A K. Laing 

Dr and Mrs. F K, Lamb 

Mrs Glenna H. Lamkin 

Ms Martha Landis 

Mrs Glenda L. Lane 

Mrs Donald Laz 

Mrs Arnold Leavitt 

Ms Sarah Britt Lee 

Mrs George A Legg 

Mr and Mrs, R M Leuthold 

Mrs Leonard P Leverich 

Mr and Mrs Allan Levy 

Mr and Mrs Arthur Lewis 

Mrs Louis Liay 

Mrs. John Liggett 

Mrs. David Linowes 

Mrs. D Philip Locklin 

Ms Ruth Lorbe 

Mrs Gene Lunsford 

Dr and Mrs John Lykins 

Mr and Mrs Dean E Madden 

Mrs S N Mamer 

Mrs Guy Mam 

Mr and Mrs Norman H Marlin, Jr 

Mr and Mrs Ross Marlin 

Mrs Victor G Marty Jr 

Mrs John Maxwell 

Mr and Mrs Jack D May 

Ms Diane Mayerle 

Mrs Robert W McCloy 

Ms M Eleanor McCoy 

Dr and Mrs Riley McCulley 

Mrs Dean McCumber 

Mrs James McGinty 

Mrs J C. McGregor 

Mrs Charles J Mclntyre 

Mrs. Jack H. McKenzie 

Mrs John Messinger 

Mr and Mrs George H Miley 

Mrs George Miller 

Mrs Wendell Miller 

Mrs Reid T Milner 

Ms Ann Lee Morgan 

Mrs Gordon Morrow 

Mrs Donald Moyer, Jr. 

Mrs A. D Mulliken 

Mrs David Mulliken 

Mrs Wallace Mulliken 

Mrs A I Nelson 

Mrs Willard Nelson 

Mrs Robert L Nicolette 

Mrs Richard Noel 

Mrs. Clarence Nordling 

Mrs. V. C Norman 

Mrs John O'Byrne 

Mr and Mrs William Ogren 

Mr and Mrs E Eugene Oliver 

Mr and Mrs Conrad A Olson 

Mrs Gerald T O'Neill 

Mr and Mrs Gary Orfield 

Mrs William W Owens 

Mrs Mildred Padberg 

Ms Susan Parke 

Mr and Mrs John M Parker 

Ms Barbara Bergen Parkhill 

Mrs Earl Parkhill 

Mrs J Bergen Parkhill 

Mrs, Richard Parkhill 

Mrs Thomas P Parkinson 

Ms Susan Parle 

Mrs Theodore C Pease 

Mrs Hobart Peer 

Mrs George B. Perlslein. Jr 

Mr Kenneth Perry 

Mr and Mrs Leo Perucca 

Mrs Norma R Peters 

Mrs Walter Peterson 

Mrs Joanne F Petry 

Mrs Richard Petry 

Mr and Mrs Stanley H Pierce 

Mrs Betty Plankenhorn 

Mrs, Dan Ponder 

Mr and Mrs Kip Pope 

Mrs Donald S Porter 

Mrs G L Porter 

Mrs Arthur L Price 

Mrs. Hazel Wintress Purnell 

Mrs Leonora Quill 

Mrs Edwin Rae 

Ms Mary Rams 

Ms Cordelia Reed 

Mrs Gerhard Rettberg 

Miss Katharine G Rice 

Mrs Nathan L Rice 

Mrs Arlene R Rieber 

Mr and Mrs E J Riehle 

Ms Nancy A Risser 

Mrs. Warren Ritlenhouse 

Mr and Mrs John W Ritler 

Mrs M Gay Roberts 

Mrs Wyndham J Roberts 

Mrs J M Robertson 

Mrs Kyle Robeson 

Mrs Stanley Robinson 

Mrs A G Roeske 

Mrs Evelyn B Rogers 

Mrs Lisle A. Rose 

Miss Betsy Ross 

Dr and Mrs Donald Ross 

Mrs Phyllis M Runyan 

Mrs Frank H Russ 

Mrs Joseph Russell 

Mrs Edwin M Ryan 

Mrs Glen Sanderson 

Mrs. George Sandwell 

Miss Sue Sandwell 

Mrs Richard Scanlan 

Mr and Mrs Milton Schmidt 

Ms Katie Schoeneweiss 

Mrs Helen B Schowengerdt 

Dr Barbara A Scott 

Mr and Mrs Harold W Scott 

Mrs Joan F Sensenbrenner 

Mrs William H Severns 

Mrs Robert Shapland 

Ms Virginia Sharp 

Mrs David C Shaul 

Mrs Verrollton C Shaul 

Mrs Jerome J Sholem 

Mrs. Myron Sholem 

s Frank H, Shuman 
Mr R Baird Shuman 
s Richard C Shurlz 
s Frances J Simons 
s George M Sinclair 

Morton Sissener 
s Kenneth W Smith 

and Mrs Richard G Smith 
Robert H Smith 
Mrs Robert R Smith 
Ms Patricia M Sneed 

and Mrs Harold Snyder 
s Charles H Spaulding 

and Mrs William Springer 
s William Slaerkel 
s E E Stafford 
s Andrew Stecyk 
ss Bertha Steinbeck 

and Mrs Jack Stilllnger 
s H Sheldon Stillwell 

and Mrs Victor Stone 
s Ruth Strauss 
s Francoise Stravinsky 
Ms Edna Sullivan 

and Mrs James A Sullivan 

Sherlock Swann 

and Mrs Daryl Sweeney 

and Mrs James D Taborn 

and Mrs Howard Tepper 
s Manie Tepper 
s J G Thomas 
Mrs Lott Thomas 
s William E, Thomas 
s George H, Thomazin 
s Michael Thompson 
Mrs Sharon S Tiebout 
Vernon Tock 

Elizabeth A Trainer 
s Kenneth J Trigger 

and Mrs Ralph Trimble 
s Robert Tuchel 

and Mrs Paul Tucker 
s Stewart L Tuckey 
s Velma Tuxhorn 
s A, Robert Twardock 

James Russell Vaky 
Mrs Greswold Van Dyke 

and Mrs William L Volk 

and Mrs Robert J Waaler 
s Morton Wagman 
s James S Walker 
s Violet W Walker 

Willet N Wandell 
s Charlotte Watson 

and Mrs Albert Watlenberg 

and Mrs Harold D Webb 
s Charles Webber 
s Wayne G. Weber 
s Fred F Weinard 

Saul S Weinberg 

Albert J Weitz 

s James E Welch 

Scott Weller 

and Mrs Francis Wells 
Paul Wells 

and Mrs Hubert Wetzel 
Mrs James H Wheat 

and Mrs Robert M Whitney 
s Donald L Whitsitt 
s Jack Widholm 
B B Wiese 

Mrs Virgil A Wiese 

Mrs Virgil C Wikoff 

Mrs Louis M Wildman 

Mrs Leona Williams 

Mr and Mrs Moyle S Williams 

Mrs John H Williamson 

Mrs Meredith C Williamson 

Mrs Agnes W Wilson 

Ms Elizabeth C Wirt 

Mrs Kenneth Wood 

Mrs Lloyd Worden 

Mrs Gilbert G Wright 

Mr and Mrs Roger L Yarbrough 

Mrs Charles B Younger 

Mr and Mrs Charles B Younger III 

Mrs, William Youngerman 

Mrs Marilyn Zimmerman 


Contributing Members 

Ms Betsy Ross 

Mr Amos Holston Watts 

Participating Members 

Mrs Scott Anderson 

Mr and Mrs Paul Baleman 

Mr and Mrs William Fox 

Mr Samuel Gove 

Ms Kenni James 

Ms Mary Lucille Shay 

Dr and Mrs Frederick Steigmann 

Mr and Mrs James G Thomas 

Mr and Mrs W B Trenchard 

General Members 

Ms Sandra Balzl 

Mrs B|ornar Bergethon 

Mrs Gil Brinkmeyer 

Mrs Ruth Burwash 

Mr and Mrs J G Chambers 

Mr David J Cook 

Dr and Mrs Victor E Feldman 

Mr and Mrs Gail R Fisher 

Mrs Warren E Greenwold 

Mr and Mrs W R Howe 

Mrs L Scott Kelley 

Mrs Louis Liay 

Mrs Betty M Lynch 

Mr and Mrs Vincent MacDonald 

Ms Velda A Millard 

Dr and Mrs Leo Perucca 

Mr and Mrs Scott Preece 

Mr and Mrs Walter C A Schrader 

Dr Barbara Atlebery Scott 

Mrs John Shapland 

Mr and Mrs Henri Stegemeier 

Mr and Mrs Ralph Trimble 

Mrs, Robert H Tuchel 

Mr and Mrs Albert Wallenberg 

University of lilinois 

President of the University of Illinois 
John E Corbally 

Chancellor of the University of Illinois at 


William P Gerberdmg 

Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs 
Morton W Weir 

Dean of the College of Fine and Applied Arts 
Jack H McKenzie 

Krannert Art Museum 


Muriel B Christison 

Assistant to the Director 
Leonard N Amico 

Research Curator 
Margaret M Sullivan 

Diane Waaler 

Business and Membership Secretary 
Annette E Karsh 

Preparator and Head of Shop 
James Ducey 

Gerald Guthrie 
Consultant in Conservation 
Alfred Jakstas 

Consultant in Decorative Arts 
Carl C Dauterman 


Sherman C, Hoffman 
Anna Maria Koosed 
Edith Cortland Lee 
Irene J Modisett 
Gregory Peters 
Curt J Pockington 
Edward J, Tabler 
University of Illinois Police 

Assistance with Special Proiects 
Faculty in Departments of Architecture and 
Art and Design 

Building and Grounds Service 
Division of Operation and Maintenance 


Champaign-Urbana Junior League 

Suzanne Younger. Chairman 

Janet Pope. Scheduler 

Sally Anderson 

Leiand Andrews 

Mary Beth 

Mary Ann Brown 

Kay Burwash 

Marcia Carlson 

Linda Coates 

Cindy Compratt 

Jean Edwards 

Alice Fox 

Clare Haussermann 

Nina Heckman 

Glona Helfnch 

Kenni James 

Charlotte Johnson 

Adion Jorgensen 

Paula Katsinas 

Ines Keller 

Bonnie Kellev 

Jane Kelley 

Helen Lindsay 

Rosann Noel 

Ginny Rettberg 

Ruth Ann Robinson 

Nell Shapland 

Judi Thompson 

Genie Towery 

Shirley Traugott 

Anne Tryon 

Charlotte Wandell 

Bulletin of the Krannert Art Museum 
University of Illinois. Urbana-Champaign 
Volume IV. Number 2. 1979 
The Bulletin ol the Krannert Art Museum is 
published twice a year by the Krannert Art 
Museum. University of Illinois, Urbana- 
Champaign. 500 Peabody Drive. Champaign. 
61820 Edited by Krannert Art Museum staff 
Printed in the United States of America. 


Layout and Production Raymond Perlman 

Paper: Cover. 10 point Kromekote 

Text. Basis 80 Warren's Patina Matte 
Type: Helvetica 
Printing: Superior Pnnting 
Champaign. Illinois 

Copyright © 1979 by the Board of Trustees 
of the University ol Illinois 
All rights reserved. 

The Council Executive Committee 

Mrs William Johnson, President 

Mrs Robert Shapland, Vice President 

Mrs Fred Bryant. Secretary 

Mrs H R Bresee. Treasurer 

Mrs Carl Dohme. Council Membership Chairman 

Mrs Richard B Helfnch. Krannert Art Museum 

Associates Membership Chairman 
Mrs Richard Scanlan. Krannert Art Museum 

Associates Membership Deputy Chairman 
Mrs Thomas Berger. Public Information Chairman 
Mrs Charles B Younger III. Public Information 

Deputy Chairman 
Mrs James Costello. Reception Chairman 
Mrs Guy Mam. Reception Deputy Chairman 
Mrs Ray Dickerson. Exhibition Tnp Chairman 
Mrs William Froom. Exhibition Trip Deputy 

Mrs Lewis W Barron. Museum Trip Chairman 
Mrs Richard R Tryon, Museum Trip Deputy 

Mrs Richard Brown, Program Chairman 
Mrs William M Youngerman. Past President 
Mrs Muriel B Chnstison. Krannert Art 

Museum Representative 


Cover, Wilmer D Zehr, "Vanity Fair. " Joshua 
Green. Chinese export porcelain plate and 
Grant Wood's "March," Luther A Smith. Petr 
Kotik by Roberto Masotti, 

UNivERsrrv of illinois-urbana 

3 0112 084209045