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Full text of "Bulletin - Krannert Art Museum"



Bulletin 



Krannert Art Museum 



ilHEUSRARVOFTNt 

OCT 31983 

UNIVERSITY OF fLUNOli 
AT URBANA-CHAMPAK3W 



University of Illinois 
Urbana-Champaign 
Volume VIII, Number 1, 1982 




A Message To Members from the New Director 



Stephen S Prokopolt. Director. Krannert Art Museum 




As I |Oin the staff of the Krannert Art Museum I see 
the task of building on the base of the fine collections 
and staff professionalism that have been developed 
by my able predecessors over the past years as a 
source of challenge and creative satisfaction A mu- 
seum such as the Krannert Art Museum offers spe- 
cial opportunities tor imaginative programming, in- 
novation, and scholarship because it serves a diverse 
public whose interests range from the specialized 
concerns of university faculty and students engaged 
professionally in the arts to the more general needs 
of the residents of mid-lllinois 

While It IS too early to describe future programming 
in detail, it is nevertheless useful to suggest some in- 
tentions I would like future exhibitions to range widely 
over the history of art. presenting both new discov- 
eries and cogent reappraisals of more familiar artists 
and ideas; to investigate the arcane and difficult as 
well as the popular and immediate: to explore tradi- 
tional forms and media as well as newer areas of mu- 
seum interest -photography, crafts, design, and 
architecture 

While continuing to present important exhibitions 
originated by other museums, the Krannert Art Mu- 



seum will begin to organize its own scholarly exhibi- 
tions that will travel to other museums. These, along 
with their accompanying publications, will be an im- 
portant part of the museum s creative contnbution 
to the study of art 

Understanding of the museum's exhibitions will be 
enhanced by a broad spectrum of educational activi- 
ties and by the presentation of related programs m 
other media -lectures and symposia, film, theatre, 
dance, music, poetry It is my hope that the mu- 
seum s engagement in such collaborations with other 
disciplines will stimulate a more profound under- 
standing of visual arts 

Significant additions to the museum's existing col- 
lections will be actively sought, enriching breadth and 
depth and providing an enlarged fund of renewable 
experience with line original works of art 

Above all. I would like the aggregate of the mu- 
seum s programs and activities to form a continuous 
stream of experience that will be of growing impor- 
tance to the museum s public It is my hope that all 
the members of its varied public will find much that 
will engage, inform and, finally, please in the activities 
of the museum 



Tentative 

Exhibition 

Schedule 

1982-1983 

Academic 

Year 



L 



Collages: Selections from the 
Hirshhorn Museum 

August 22- September 26 



Faculty Exhibition 
October 3- November 7 



In China: Photographs by Eve Arnold 
November 14- December 12 



Invisible Light 
November 14- January 9 



Lorado Taft 

January 16- February 20 



The Lloyd E Rigler Collection 
January 16- February 20 



Graduate Student Exhibition 
February 27- March 27 



Collages from the period of eariy'Arnenua.t .^ 

through the mid-1970's and a variety of styles and tech- 
niques are represented in works by twenty-three internation- 
ally recognized artists including Joseph Cornell, Louise 
Nevelson, Larry Rivers, and Frank Stella, Introduced by 
the Cubist painters about 1912, collage soon developed 
into an independent medium as artists began incorporating 
"non-art" materials into their works Succeeding generations, 
continued to find collage a vital and versatile technique This 
exhibition is circulated by the Smithsonian Institution Trav- 
eling Exhibition Service, 



This popular annual exhibition presents the work of faculty 
members in the School of Art and Design at the University 
of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Included are contemporary 
examples of crafts, graphic design, industrial design, mixed 
media, painting, sculpture, photography and printmaking 



Eve Arnold, whose assignments as a photo lournalist have 
ranged from protest marches in the American South to 
Hollywood movie queens, harems in Abu Dhabi to migrant 
farm workers, has focused her camera on the China not 
normally visited by foreigners In 1 979 she made two trips 
to China, traveling nearly 40,000 miles The results of these 
tnps can be seen in this exhibition of 104 color photographs 
reflecting the life. work, and people ot modern China The 
exhibition was organized by The Brooklyn Museum and is 
now on a two year nationwide tour made possible by Exxon. 



Infrared photography in which images are produced by 
heat rather than light, has been used for a variety ot pur- 
poses in the twentieth century The exhibition Invisible Light 
explores the artistic capabilities of this medium Because 
infrared film is sensitive to heat sources not visible to the 
eye, the photographed images, in turn, record qualities not 
seen through conventional techniques The exhibition in- 
cludes over sixty photographs. It is circulated by the 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, 



Lorado Taft spent his youth in Champaign and received a 
bachelors and master s degree from the University of Illinois 
before moving to Chicago where he spent most of his life 
After the artist s death in 1 936 the University acquired a 
large group of works from Taft s private collection that now 
belongs to the Krannert Art Museum A number of these 
works, which illustrate the unique talent of this Illinois sculp- 
tor were chosen for the exhibition Included are a dozen 
plaster portraits from the period of 1 885- 1 905 and models 
for the Fountain of Time and the Fountain of Creation 



This exhibition represents recent gifts to the Krannert Art 
Museum from Mr Lloyd E Rigler of Burbank, California 
[Class of 1 939] The prints are the work of a variety of 
contemporary artists associated with the Tamarind 
Lithography Workshop, an institute created in 1960 with 
the goal of revitalizing lithography in the United States, 



Variety originality and experimentation are the characteris- 
tics of this annual group of theses exhibitions by candidates 
for the MFA degree in the School of Art and Design 



Of Time and Place: American Figurative 
Art from the Corcoran Gallery 

April 3-May 22 



Seventy paintings, sculptures, drawings, prints, and photo- 
graphs from the collection of the Corcoran Gallery of Art. 
which represent the human figure in American art, are fea- 
tured in this exhibition The works illustrate both stylistic and 
sociological changes in approach to the representation of 
the human figure, and date from the early nineteenth cen- 
tury to the present This exhibition is circulated by the 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 



Fall Exhibitions 



Collage is one of the most interesting and versatile 
art forms developed m thie twentietli century The term 
derives from the French verb coller. meaning to 
paste, referring to one of the key techniques of the 
medium Since its introduction by the Cubist painters 
about 1912, collage has developed into a maior 
modern medium incorporating ail kinds of materials 
and obiects. often m combination with painting or 
drawing In addition to a vanety of materials, collage 
includes, in its seventy year history, a large variety of 
styles and techniques. 




This exhibition attempts to survey the development 
of collage from the early twentieth century through 
the 1970 s Works by the following artists are 
included Romare Bearden, Anthony Berlant, Cesar, 
Joseph Cornell. Jose Luis Cuevas. William Dole, 
Rosalyn Drexler Lee Gatch. Nancy Grossman Lois 
Jones, Nicholas Krushenick, John H Levee, Edward 
Moses, Louise Nevelson, Robert Reed, Larry Rivers, 
Anne Ryan, Saul Steinberg, Frank Stella, Joseph 
Stella, Ernest Van Leyden, Tom Wesselmann, James 
Wines The works were selected from the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC 
A fully illustrated catalogue of the exhibition will be 
available for purchase at the Museum Sales Desk 

The annual exhibition of works by artists on the 
Faculty of the School of Art and Design is consistently 
one of the most well attended offerings of the Mu- 
seum Perhaps its popularity is due to the fact that 
the artists are from the community, many may be 
neighbors or friends; or perhaps visitors en)oy the 
avant-garde nature of the exhibition, or meeting the 
artists at the Preview Certainly the students must 
en)oy seeing and critiquing their own professor s 
work Whatever the reasons, the annual Faculty 
exhibition is not to be missed 

For fifteen years photoiournalist Eve Arnold had 
sought an opportunity to travel and photograph in 
China Finally in 1979, with the opening of Chinas 
doors to the rest of the world, permission was 
granted Over a period of five months Arnold made 
two extended trips to China, traveling some 40,000 
miles and taking thousands of pictures She worked 
in the cities, in the countryside, and in remote areas 
seldom seen by foreigners 

Arnold s intention was to make a statement about 
the lives of the people, to try to penetrate to their 
humanity, to try to get a sense of the sustaining char- 
acter beneath the surface I wanted to get tseyond 
the endless blue suits and bicycles we ve been seeing 
pictures of for so many years and to cover as many 
of the particulars of China as I could; and I wanted 
to tell my story in color' 



Eve Arnold 

Retired Worker-Guilin 




Eve Arnold accomplished her goal as Is evident 
in the 1 04 brilliant color prints selected for this exhi- 
bition Her pictures capture the spint, the color, and 
the involvement of the people of China^ The exhibi- 
tion was organized by The Brooklyn Museum and 
IS sponsored by the Exxon Corporation. 

Infrared photography utilizes a special film so that 
images are produced by heat rather than by light as 
in traditional methods While infrared photography 
has been used for a variety of purposes, the exhibi- 
tion Invisible Light and its accompanying catalogue 
explore the artistic use and techniques of this medi- 
um 

The exhibition includes a wide range of con- 
temporary photographs. Among them are work in 
both black and white, and in color, as well as a plati- 
num print from infrared film. Approximately sixty- 
three photographs by thirty-one artists will be 
displayed including a work by Luther Smith, associate 
professor in the University's School of Art and De- 
sign. 



Eve Arnold 

Bottler— Beer Factory 



Exhibition Previews 



The Preview of the annual Faculty Exhibition will be 
held Saturday evening, October 2, from eight until 
ten o'clock Like the exhibition itself, this preview 
should be exciting as it provides an opportunity to 
meet the artists and view their most recent creations. 

A second Preview will be held this fall for the exhi- 
bition, In China: Photographs by Eve Arnold. Eve 
Arnold's color photographs provide an incomparably 
beautiful portrait of China today: the people, the land- 
scape, the work, the spirit. This Preview will take place 
Saturday, November 1 3 from eight until ten o'clock. 

All Krannert Art Museum Associates will receive 
mailed invitations for both events. Circle both dates 
in your calendar and plan to attend. 



Museum Trip 



ElGreco 1541-1614 

Saint Manm and the Beggar c 1 597-99 

oil on canvas 76 %" h « 40 '/?" w 1 93 5 cm 

Washington. Naiona) Gallery o1 An 

Widner Collecnon 1942 



103 cm 




Krannert Art Museum Associates are mvited to loin 
a Museum-sponsored trip to visit The Cleveland Mu- 
seum of Art and The Toledo Museum of Art with a 
special tour of the El Greco of Toledo exhibition The 
trip will take place on October fifth and sixth 

Members will be guided through the comprehen- 
sive collections of western art at the Cleveland Mu- 
seum by Mark Johnson Margaret Sullivan will escort 
the group through the museum s superb Oriental 
collection 

The second day will be spent touring The Toledo 
Museum of Art In addition to its fine general collec- 
tion, the Toledo Museum is renowned for its glass 
collection which surveys the artistic use of this me- 
dium from ancient times up to the present 

Members will also be treated to a special viewing 
of El Greco of Toledo, the first maior exhibition de- 
voted to the paintings of this great Spanish master 
The sixty paintings in this exhibition include works 
of key importance from Europe and North America. 
some of which will be seen for the first time outside 
the locations where they have been housed for the 
past four hundred years 

During the summer Krannert Art Museum Asso- 
ciates received mailed reservation forms and detailed 
information about the tnp Mrs William Johnson is 
Museum Trip Chairman; Mrs Chester Keller and Mrs 
David McBride are Tnp Co-Deputy Chairmen 



Exhibition Trip 



On April twenty-first the Museum will sponsor a trip 
to The Art Institute of Chicago to view the maior 
exhibition, t^auntshuis Dulcti Painting of the Golden 
Age from Ttte Royal Picture Gallery. Tfie Hague 
Information on this exhibition and trip will be con- 
tained in the January issue of the Bulletin 



Decent Training Program 



Museum docent Garland Remsen with a fourtti grade 
class from ABL sctiool in Broadlands. Illinois 




Docents have been an integral part of the Museum's 
education program since 1962, Docents are volun- 
tary educational assistants called upon to guide pre- 
elementary, elementary, and secondary school 
classes, as well as adult groups, during their visits 
to the Museum. Docents acquaint the public with 
works of art while fostering an enjoyment of art and 
an understanding of aesthetic principles, 

Docents contact the school supervisors, principals, 
and teachers each fall, informing them of the special 
exhibitions that will be held during the coming sea- 
son and reminding them of the regular gallery visit 



topics, as well. Another valuable group of volunteers 
serve in the Art in the Schools" program, providing 
students with in-school programs on art and on the 
Museum collections, 

Docents-in-training attend an intensive sixteen week 
instruction program Ma|or penods of art history from 
ancient times to the present are reviewed as well as 
technical aspects of printmaking, ceramics and 
glassmaking, painting, and sculpture Slide lectures 
are accompanied by gallery sessions in which the 
Museum's own collections are discussed. Visits to 
artists' studios are an important part of the program, 
as is instruction In educational methods 

The training program begins with an introductory 
session on September ninth. The class will meet 
regularly on Thursday mornings. Those interested 
in registenng for the docent training program should 
contact Mark Johnson, Assistant Director, at 
333-1860 Current Museum docents also are invited 
to enroll in this course. 

Docent Training Schedule 



Regular 


Meetings: Thursdays, 930-1 1 30 am 


Sept 19 


Introduction to the Krannert Art Museum 


16 


Ancient Art 


23 


Greek Ceramics 


30 


Medieval Art 


Oct 7 


Early European Painting 


14 


Baroque Art 


21 


18th Century Painting 


28 


19th Century Painting 


Nov 4 


Modern Art 


1 1 


Prints and Drawings 


18 


Decorative Arts 


Dec 2 


Oriental Art 


9 


Pre-Columbian Art 


Jan 6 


Training 


13 


Training 


20 


Training 


In addition to the standard instruction, a number of 


special lectures, tours, exhibition briefings, and dem- 


onstrations will be scheduled for Wednesday or Fri- 


day mornings. 



Fall Lecture-Luncheon 



Stephen S Prokopotf. the new director of the Kran- 
nert Art Museum, will be the speaker at this fall s 
lecture-luncheon to be held on October fourteenth 
at the Champaign Country Club In a lecture entitled 
"Looking Ahead. I^r Prokopoff will discuss some 
of his ideas for future programming at the Krannert 
Art Museum 

Prior to his appointment at the University of Illinois. 
Mr Prokopoff served as director of the Institute 
of Contemporary Art. Boston. Museum of Con- 
temporary Art. Chicago; Institute of Contemporary 
Art. University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: and 
Hathorn Gallery. Skidmore College. Saratoga 
Spnngs. New York At these institutions he organized 
many contemporary art exhibitions and he authored 



essays in a large number of the accompanying exhi- 
bition catalogs Over the last twenty years Mr 
Prokopoff has also held the positions of adjunct or 
visiting professor of art at several educational institu- 
tions including Boston University the University of 
Chicago, and the University of Illinois at Chicago Cir- 
cle He IS the recipient of a bachelor and master 
of arts degree from the University of California at 
Berkeley and a doctorate from New York University 
Members will not want to miss this special event 
and the opportunity to meet the new director 
Krannert Art Museum Associates will receive mailed 
information regarding reservations for luncheon and 
the lecture. 




Enoch Wood & Sons, c 1757-1840 

Plate, England, c 18)8 

pollery. diam 10". 25 4 cm 

Gill ol Theresa E and Harlan E Moore. 1967 (67-24-75) 



Members Seminars 



American and European Decorative Arts from The 
Theresa E and Harlan E Moore Collection will be 
the topic of a three week seminar presented by 
Margaret Sullivan, research curator Krannert Art Mu- 
seum. Each session will consist of a slide lecture 
followed by a visit to the gallery for an examination 
of silver, glass, furniture and the ceramic arts The 
seminar will be held on three consecutive Wednes- 
days: October 20. 27. and November 3 from 9 30 
to 1 1 00 o'clock 

The topic of the spring seminar will be Dutch 
Painting of the Golden Age Mark Johnson, assistant 
director will survey the period and discuss the maior 
artists through slide lectures and study of original 
works in the Museum s collection The topic of this 
seminar is intended to prepare members for the tnp 
to The Art Institute of Chicago in April to view the 
maior exhibition. Mauntshuis: Dutch Painting of the 
Golden Age from the Royal Picture Gallery. The 
Hague The seminar will take place on three 
Wednesdays. March 2. 9. and 16 from 9:30 until 
11 00 clock 

Both seminars will be held in the conference room 
therefore, the attendance is limited and will be 
restricted to Museum members Members may reg 
ister by calling the Museum office (333-1 860). 



6 



Additions to the Collections 



Pierre Auguste Renoir French (1841-1919) 

LEnlant au Biscuit, ca 1 898-99 

lithograph, 12 ^/e" h x 10 Vio" w.;31 4 cm x 26 2 cm. 

Gift of George S, Trees. Jr. (81-41-1) 










'^•^"<>-.fc^^ 



^^*ii^"^^:^?$vi^; ■ ■■>, 




Pablo Picasso 

T6les. 1963 

linocut 25 '/<" h . 21 " w (image); 64 1 cm 

Gill o( Mr and Mrs Richard J Faletti (81 17-1 



Spanish (1881-1973) 



53 3 cm 



Gifts 

Significant additions have been made to the 
Museum's collection of pnnts In 1960 the Tamannd 
Lithography Workshop was opened in Los Angeles 
with the goal of revitalizing the art of lithography 
Three hundred and nineteen lithographs by twentieth 
century American artists including Elaine de Kooning, 
Richard Haas, Gerald Johnson, Martyl, Jacqueline 
Gourevitch, Fritz Scholder, and t\/lario Yrissary, which 
were printed while the artists worked at the Tamannd 
Institute located m Albuquerque, have been given by 
Mr Lloyd E Rigler A special exhibition of these litho- 
graphs IS scheduled tentatively at the Museum 
between January 1 6 and February 20, 1 983. 

Mr and Mrs George S Trees. Jr have given a lith- 
ograph entitled L'enfant au Biscuit (Child with a 
S;scu/fj by Pierre Auguste Renoir (1841-1919). It 
was not until the early 1 890 s that Renoir experi- 
mented with the lithographic process. In the artists 
proof pnnted in grey-black and dated circa 1898-99. 
Renoir reveals his fascination with his son Jeans nat- 
ural movements and demonstrates skillfulness m 
rendering solid yet delicate three-dimensional form 
in an all-embracing atmosphere of light and shadow 

A linocut by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) was the 
recent gift of Mr and Mrs Richard J Faletti Tetes 
f/-/eadsj dated January 17. 1963 is numbered 21 
in an edition of 50 prints. Linoleum, like the wood 
block, provides a surface for relief designs The sur- 
face area that is not cut away picks up rolled-on ink 
which then is transferred to paper when pressure is 
applied Although Picasso was a prolific pnnt maker 
after 1 897. it was not until 1 939 that he produced 
his first linocut, and it was much later in the 1950's. 
when he printed color Imocuts in series The advan- 
tage of using the linoleum block, demonstrated 
masterfully by Picasso, is the ease with which one 
can make fluid, curvilinear strokes and patterns in 
the pliable surface. Teles, in which crowned heads 
in frontal and profile view are discernible, is a skillful 
composition of lines creating a dynamic abstract de- 
sign. 

Dr and Mrs Allen S Weller have donated a litho- 
graph by twentieth century American artist Harold 
Altman. a distinguished veteran pnntmaker who stud- 
ied at the Art Students League in New York. 
Academie de la Grande Chaumierte in Pans, and at 
Black Mountain College in Greenville, North Carolina. 



Maitreya Chinese. Northern Ch'i (550-577) 
dated first year of Wu Ping (570 A D.) 
whife marbfe, 1 3 3/4 " h , 35 cm h 
Purchase. Class of 1908 Fund (82-4-1) 




Altman, twice the recipient of a Guggenheim Fellow- 
ship, has taught at the University of North Carolina 
and Pennsylvania State University, An impressionistic 
view of the Parisian Tuillerie Gardens is the subject 
of the artist's proof, entitled Chair, which is dated 
1 980, This phnt is an interesting complement to a 
much earlier lithograph of a spectre-like figure by the 
artist, already in the Museum's collection. 

Jackstones [known also as knucklebones, jacks, 
or dibs] IS a game of great antiquity played initially 
with the wrist or ankle bones of goats, sheep or other 
animals. Dr. Richard H. Edmondson has given a terra 
cotta knucklebone whose origin may have been ei- 
ther ancient Rome or Greece. This knucklebone 
probably was made after an actual bone used in play 
The object of this ancient game, which remains the 
same, was to garner bones [stones, seeds, jacks) 
left on the ground while others were tossed upward. 
Five ancient Persian bronze objects including 
axeheads, a garment pin, and pendants have been 
presented by the Jerome Levy Foundation. 

Added to the collection of Chinese ceramics is 
a granary urn datable to the Han Dynasty 
[206 B C.-200 A.D.), the gift of Mr and Mrs. Ralph 
W. Barber This unglazed slate-gray earthenware, 
which has parallel horizontal ribbed bands on its body 
and a constncted circular mouth, was a mortuary ob- 
ject made for bunal. During the Han period, it was 
customary for the deceased to be buried with grave 
furnishings including wine and storage jars, cooking 
vessels, and replicas of horses, animals, and 
servants The Museum is grateful for all these gifts 
which will enhance the collection, mms 

Purchases 

A cast and laminated glass sculpture entitled Com- 
pression Series by William Carlson was purchased 
by the Museum with art acquisition funds. William 
Carlson is a glass maker on the faculty of the Univer- 
sity's School of Art and Design. The Sculpture is 
being circulated with the exhibition 'Americans in 
Glass." 

Long an objective of members of the Class of 
1908, particularly of Mr. H. Clifford Brown and of Mr 
William B. Greene, was the acquisition of a Chinese 
and a Japanese sculpture. A marble sculpture of 
Maitreya, created during the Northern Ch'i dynasty 




Fudo Myo Jaoanese. Laie Heen 

(897-1 185)/Earty 

Kamakura ( 1 1 85- 1 333) 

attributed to En-School at Sanyo. Kyoto 

cypress wood 26 •^4" h 65 4 cm h 

Purchase. Class ot 1908 Fund (82-5-1) 



(550-577 A. DO and dated by an inscnption on the 
base 570 A.D., has been purchased recently The 
bodhisattva is shown in nneditation. seated on a high 
cylindrical throne The rectangular plinth below is 
decorated with the engraved design of an incense 
burner between two small lions, on the front, and with 
a votive inscription, on the back The typical formal- 
ism of Chinese Buddhist sculpture is evident in the 
pose and in the stylization ot the drapery, but some 
indication of a softening influence from Indian Gupta 
sculpture is apparent in the sensitivity of the facial 
expression and in the naturalism [restrained) of the 
torso _ 

A Japanese sculpture of Fudo Myo, the central 
deity of the Five Great Kings of Light, also has been 
acquired The sculpture is attributed to a carver of 
the En-School at San)0. Kyoto, and is dated from the 
late Heian (897-1 185) or early Kamakura (1 185- 
1 333) period Fudo customarily is shown with a 
sword in one hand and a rope in the other and with 
a wrathful countenance The image of Fudo was in- 
troduced into Japan in the ninth century In tenth cen- 
tury examples he was represented in a standing 
position and sometimes with one eye closed By the 
Kamakura penod Fudo was presented in an 
animated pose, one foot forward and twisting at the 
waist 

The piece is carved from cypress and is made of 
joined wood blocks; the eyes are glass beads; traces 
of gesso and paint remain The purchase of the first 
examples of Chinese and Japanese sculpture in the 
Museum's collection was made possible through a 
fund established by members of the Class of 1908 

A fourteenth century French ivory diptych, with the 
Coronation ot the Virgin depicted on the left panel 
and the Crucifixion with the Virgin and St John on 
the right, both framed by gothic tracery above, has 
been purchased for the medieval collection In 
iconographic and stylistic features it provides an im- 
portant addition to the group of medieval obiects in 
the Museum It was purchased with income from the 
Theresa E and Harlan E Moore Fund mbc 



10 



William B, Greene 1886-1982 



A proud member and a leading spirit of tine Class 
of 1 908, Mr Greene was dedicated to the University 
of Illinois and to the Krannert Art Museum. On the 
occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the Class, Mr 
Greene and his classmates chose to contribute to 
the initial building fund for the Krannert Art Museum, 
and they retained an active interest in the develop- 
ment of the Museum 

In 1 964, the Museum had on loan a group of 
fourteenth to eighteenth century Chinese porcelains. 
On a visit to the Museum, Mr, Greene and his class- 
mates Mr Charles S Pillsbury Mr William J, Wardell. 
Mr Chester R. Dewey Mr, George E Pfisterer, and 
Mr H. Clifford Brown decided to acquire the porce- 
lains as the beginning of an oriental collection for 
the Gallery of the Class of 1 908, 

Over the years that followed, Mr Greene was 
instrumental in fund raising for additions to the orien- 
tal collection which eventually included thirteen 
Chinese porcelains, four Chinese paintings, four 
Tang Dynasty tomb figurines, an eighth century 
Mons-Dvaravati, [Thai] stele, a Tibetan bronze figur- 
ine and tanka of the seventeenth century and more 
recently a pair of seventeenth century Japanese 
screens, a late twelfth/early thirteenth century 
Japanese wood sculpture, and a Chinese sixth cen- 
tury marble sculpture. 

Mr Greene was born on the family farm near Lisle, 
Illinois, This had been the family home through four 
generations. In 1 908, he graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Illinois with a degree in Mechanical 
Engineenng, In 1916, Mr Greene, who was ad- 
vertising manager, and Harry H. Barber, who was an 
engineer, for Stephens-Adamson Manufacturing 
Company in Aurora saw a future in standardized ma- 
terial handling machines and decided to form 
Barber-Greene Company Mr Greene continued in 
active management of the company until 1 966 when 
he retired as chairman of the board. 

He enioyed the distinction of receiving University 
of Illinois Achievement Awards in 1 963 and 1 967, 
one of the First Distinguished Graduate Citations from 
the University of Illinois Department of Mechanical 
and Industrial Engineering Alumni Association in 
1968, a University of Illinois College of Engineering 
Metal Award for "his role in introducing mechaniza- 
tion to the problem of material handling and 




processing," in 1 969. He served as president of the 
Construction Industry Manufacturers Association and 
as director of the American Road Builders Associa- 
tion and of the International Road Federation. These 
were but a few of Mr Greene's state, national, and 
international honors and awards. 

His effort for the Krannert Art Museum was but 
one of his many philanthropic activities. He kept in 
touch with other members of the Class, sending 
them news of their collection and encouraging them 
to remember the Museum in their future planning. 
He recently was involved in studies for the addition 
to the Krannert Art Museum building, particularly for 
the extension of the space to house the oriental col- 
lection. Mr. Greene has been one of the Museum's 
most valued advisors His presence will be missed, 
but his influence and ideas are well represented in 
the Gallery of the Class of 1 908. mbc 



1a School of Iwasa Matabei 

Ulsusemi Tale of Gen/i} 650-70 
color and gold on paper, wood panels 




lb ScnoQi ol iwasa MalaDei 

Suma. Tale ol Genii 1650-70 
color and gold on paper wood panels 
63" h X 143^4" w 160cm h x 365 1 cm w 
Gill ol Ihe Class ol 1 908 (80 16 1) 



12 



Japanese Screen-paintings based on the Tale of Genji 



by Margaret M Sullivan 



Genjimonogatari (Tale of Genji] 

Prince Gen|i. the most celebrated courtier in Jap- 
anese classic literature, is the subject of a pair of 
screen-paintings (cover, Figs. T a.b] recently given 
to the IVluseunn by the Class of 1 908. 

The Tale of Genji was w/ntten in the early part of 
the eleventh century by Murasaki Shikibu (ca.978- 
ca. 1 026] who was invited to the imperial court as a 
lady-in-waiting by Michinaga, the most powerful of 
the Regents in the Fujiwara family, because of her 
recognized talent in composing monogatari [tales]. 
It was during this time at court that the 7a/e of Genji 
was composed Murasaki indeed produced a 
masterpiece of fiction that is, at once, romantic and 
sentimental: nonetheless, the Tale of Genji profiles 
the Fujiwara clan, an ancient aristocracy reigning 
during the Heian period [897-11 85] Although the 
story is of Murasaki's predecessors, its credibility is 
sustained by the author's own expenences as part 
of a court's retinue. With over 400 characters in the 
54 chapters of the novel, most of whom are related, 
the central theme embraces the consequences of 
amorous intrigues. "The affairs of the heart are car- 
ried on in a courtly atmosphere where matters of 
rank, prestige and appearances are vital. The char- 
acters are obsessed with the approval of those of 
higher status, with weanng correct clothing, with 
demonstrating their good taste and gentility and 
sense of decorum"' 

The mannerisms of men and women alike are 
imbued with effeminacy; a plump white face with a 
small mouth, narrow eyes and tuft of beard on the 
tip of the chin was considered the Heian ideal of male 
beauty Apart from the beard, feminine physiognomy 
was indistinguishable from masculine physiognomy 
Heian women, as depicted in literature and numerous 
paintings, are ensconced in kimonos and have im- 
measurably long and glossy ebony hair^ [cover, Figs. 
3, 4, 15, 23]. Refinement, beauty and ceremony in 
all their subtleties pervade Murasaki's story: however, 
all is enshrouded by a prevalent Buddhist intuition 
of the impermanence of life 

The Heian period was marked by peace and pros- 
perity among members of the aristocracy and 
imperial household who established paradigms of 
behavior, dress, decorum, literature, calligraphy, 
architecture, theatre, and painting Music, calligraphy, 
religious and secular painting, as well as architecture 



were known to have flourished: unfortunately, little 
survives. The Fujiwaras achieved power through their 
matnmonial ties with the imperial throne, through as- 
sets, and through influence exerted in the provinces 
where their estates were manifold. 3 Appointments 
to the vahous ministries controlled by the Fujiwaras 
were dictated by ancestry, not by ment or capability. 
Such a metropolitan culture centered in present-day 
Kyoto which was steeped in gentility and luxury could 
not be supported indefinitely by this oligarchy and, 
therefore, was destined for demise. Murasaki's novel 
parallels a life at court that is seemingly content: later 
chapters are characterized by disillusionment and 
pessimism portending the eclipse of Fujiwara power. 
A courtier's life was cultivated with training at the 
Daigaku where he received an education rooted in 
Chinese classics Reconciled to the Confucian con- 
cept of the virtuous man. the Heian courtier was 
vowed to scholarship and elevation of the spirit 
through poetry music, calligraphy and philosophy 
Of noble birth, great wealth, and exceptional beauty 
Pnnce Genii, the protaganist, is the archetypal mid- 
Heian courtier whose political career is contingent 
on conspiracy and personal ambition. His wealth and 
promotion at court, like that of fellow patncians, have 
been accrued by way of family alliances and tax- 
exempt land holdings. An existence inextricably tied 
to innumerable paramours. Genji is the mercurial 
and irresistible Don Juan. Extremely sensitive to color 
harmony in a kimono, music, perfume scent, 
blossoming flowers, and skill both in calligraphy and 
in composing poetic communiques, Genji himself 
was a noteworthy poet, talented amateur painter, 
calligrapher, musician, and savant of Chinese clas- 
sics. As the story unfolds, Genji evolves from an irre- 
sponsible scandalous youth into a wiser, sensible 
man who accepts his destiny and his culpability for 
past entanglements. 

Each of the Museum's screen-paintings adheres 
to scenes from the "Utsusemi " and "Suma" chapters 
of the Tale of Genii. Utsusemi, meaning cicada, was 
the wife of the provincial governor of lyo and was 
pursued unflaggingly by Genp Although Utsusemi 
resisted Genii's attentions, Gen|i was so resolved in 
his determination that he sought help from 
Utsusemi's brother In the Museum's screen-painting 
[cover, Fig.1 a] Gen|i, disguised in informal garb 



13 



2 detail Senzui Byobu ca 11 th- 1 2lh centuries 
color on silk 
Toil. Kyoto 
Ohotograph courtesy ol Tokyo Kokuritsu Bunkazai 

KenkyuiO 




unbefitting hiis rank, tiides on the veranda of the east- 
ern wing in Utsusemis house Utsusemi s brother 
crouches between the double wooden doors under 
a bamboo screen and informs Gen|i that Utsusemi 
IS playing go with her sister-in-law and, therefore, a 
visit with his beloved cannot be accomplished Z* At- 
tendants and the unadorned ox-drawn cart belonging 
to Utsusemis brother wait outside the gate. Faithful 
to its literary precursor the painting includes details 
in costumes and interior decoration, e.g. screen- 
paintings, lamp, curtains, and lattice windows.^ 



The companion screen-painting addresses Genjis 
impending exile at Suma. a Japanese coastal town 
on the Inland Sea in Hyogo prefecture, induced by 
an unfavorable change in political power and Genjis 
remorse over the tragic, scandalous consequences 
of his amorous exploits Before going to Suma. Genp 
wanted to visit his father s tomb in Kitayama. north 
of Kyoto Waiting for the moon to appear for this long 
lourney he visited Fujitsubo. a one-time consort of 
Gen|i s father and later Genii's paramour who now 
lives in seclusion as a nun In the Museum s screen- 
painting (Fig 1 b] Genii, having visited Fujitsubo. is 
on horseback and is followed on foot by a few loyal 
attendants some of whom carry an umbrella or a 
prod Riding along the shore of either the Takano or 
Izumi River Gen|i is on route to Shimogamo shrine 
in Kamo prefecture, passing a thatched-roof house 
in the countryside before progressing to his father s 
tomb^ Genii's lowly position is indicated by his igno- 
ble attire and mode of transport; a horse has dis- 
placed his lavish ox-drawn carnage 

Development and function of byobu (folding screens) 

Utsusemis living quarters (cover) can be considered 

charactenstic of a Heian architectural dwelling called 
shinden. whose exterior consisted of a sloping bark- 
shingled roof with deep eaves and a wooden platform 
elevating the entire building in an attempt to minimize 
humidity inside 7 Interior decoration was sparse, 
governed by tranquility and restraint. Among the ac- 
cepted accouterments were floor mats, cushions, go 
boards, folding screens, and kicho which consisted 
of a wooden frame supporting an opaque silk curlain 
to assure privacy ^ Shutters separating open 
verandas from private quarters could be removed 
and bamboo blinds rolled up making the interior 
alight and the extenor garden a spatial continuum 
Private precincts, nevertheless, were generally dark 
obscuring the presence and movements of women 
Illicit rendezvous always were conducted in semi- 
darkness which lead to complications when the iden- 
tity of a lover could not be verified, as witnessed often 
by Prince Genii' 

Screen-painting is of Chinese origin, but as an art 
form it never was prominent there, for screens were 
not especially serviceable in Chinese architectural de- 
sign that allowed large walled areas on which to paint. 
Although screen-painting burgeoned early in China, 
dunng the Chou dynasty (fourth to the third centuries 
B C ). It was in the Sung dynasty (960-1 279) when 
It increasingly was regarded as accessory and not 
serious art ^ Conversely, Japanese houses lacked 
fixed walls 

Thus, screens proved invaluable as room parti- 
tions, as protection from inclement breezes and the 
unwelcome glances of intruders, for seasonal dis- 
plays, and. lastly, as sumptuous decoration. 



3 Azymaya I' Table of Genii handscroll, 1 2th century 

color on paper, 8 4" h x 15 4" w,; 21 5 cm h x 39 
cm w 
The Tokugawa Reimeikai Foundation. Tokyo 



Folding screens which are commonly paired 
remain the most versatile; they become stable when 
hinged panels are in zig-zag position, and thus are 
readily portable when contracted. Used first in China, 
byobu. (a Japanese word meaning protection from 
wind") were exploited masterfully in Japan for their 
potentially decorative surface. One of the oldest ex- 
tant six-fold byobu in Japan, the "Senzui-Byobu" [Fig. 
2). dating between the eleventh and twelfth centunes 




The Museum s screen-painting [cover] illustrates 
the importance of this art form in the household of 
the Heian aristocrat. 'O In the Japanese household, 
the folding-screen was functional and. yet. admired 
as a fine painting There are three formats of screen- 
paintings: the single-panel tsuitate made of paper 
pasted on wood which was placed upright at 
entrances; sliding-screens [fusuma] which were set 
in tracks and installed in corridors separating rooms 
or sections of a house; and the folding-screen 
{byobu). composed of two, six. and rarely eight 
panels. Both fusuma and byobu were made of layers 
of paper over a wood lattice framework, and exam- 
ples can be seen within Utsusemi's living quarters 
[cover). 



after a lost ninth century original, demonstrates an 
antiquated manner of hinging panels which was not 
only cumbersome but disruptive of the painting sur- 
face. Individuals panels were linked at top and bottom 
using thongs of leather or cloth and were framed with 
wood or brocaided silk. By the fourteenth century 
an innovative type of hinging was adopted in Japan 
which facilitated an uninterrupted, unified, painted 
surface. Strips of paper were wrapped horizontally, 
from the front of one panel to the back of the next, 
forming hinges; space between the panels thus was 
minimized. Painting was completed generally on 
separate sheets of paper which later were affixed to 
the screen surface. In many cases, small squares of 
gold foil were fastened to the paper surface, as in the 



15 



Museums pair of screen-paintings, providing a lavish 
setting for a literary classic ' ' 

Evolution of Yamato-e 

The tvluseum s screen-paintings, which date 
approximately from the mid-seventeenth century 
embody a fostering and revitalization of Yamato-e. 
the ancient tradition of painting in Japan An outline 
of this enduring painting tradition v/hich continued 
to venerate subjects such as the Tale of Genii will 
place the fvluseum s screen-paintings in proper per- 
spective The term Yamato-e (Japanese painting) 
initially underscored distinctions in subiect matter be- 
tween Japanese and Chinese-inspired paintings, the 
latter produced in Japan around the eighth century '^ 
Yamato-e paintings incorporated subject matter 
indigenously Japanese such as folklore, heroes, 
historical events, classical literature, and seasonal 
changes in landscape Its meaning was broadened 
to express the Japanese intuitive, sensuous, and 
emotional reaction to nature, in contrast with an in- 
tellectural and philosophic response espoused by 
the Chinese Nature, its mountains, streams, and 
blossoming trees is related to mans daily activities 
With respect to subject matter the Museums screen- 
paintings adhere to a charactenstic Yamato-e theme; 
moreover, the figures, costumes, architecture, and 
landscape are inherently Japanese. '^ 



Takekawa 11 Tale of Genii handscroil. 1 2th century 
color on paper. 8 6" ti x 18 9" w 22 cm h x 48 1 
cnn w 
TheTokugawa Reimeikai Foundation Tokyo 



From the late ninth through eleventh centuries, 
there are few paintings which document the flowenng 
of yafT7afo-e ''' The Senzui-Byobu (Fig 2) 
exemplifies the transition in painting wherein Chinese 
secular themes and Yamato-e are integrated 
Although the subject, a poet-scholar of the Tang dy- 
nasty and costumes are Chinese, the blossoming 
trees and soft rolling hills are distinctly Japanese, as 
compared with the precipitous mountains of China. 
Classical literature such as the Tale of Gen/i and Tales 
of Ise whose descriptive prose is visually adaptive to 
painting, henceforth, laid the foundation for true 
Japanese painting Yamato-e subscribed not only to 
native subject matter but to techniques of painting 
which discarded Chinese realism in preference for 
formal and decorative abstraction 

Extant segments of the oldest handscroil based on 
chapters of the Tale of Geriji (Figs 3,4], which date 
from the twelfth century disclose characteristics of 
mature Yamato-e that also are discernible in the Mu- 
seums screen-paintings The format of the hand- 
scroll with restricted height and great honzontal ex- 
panse, and which is examined from above, led to the 
creation of the following pictonal devices in 
representing interior domestic scenes steep 
diagonals for depicting roofs, verandas, or lintels in 
order to render spatial depth: blown-off roofs to 
reveal interiors: inverted perspective, making the 
background loom larger: and, lastly indiscnminate 
interception of architectural structures, furniture {go 
boards, screens), and landscape elements in prefer- 
ence for abstraction, Screen-paintings such as the 




16 




Tosa Mitsunon (1563-1638) 

■ Suma,' Tale of Genii 

color on paper, 38-8" h x 35.8" w; 15 3 cm h. x 14.1 

cm w. 

The Tokugawa Reimeikai Foundation, Tokyo 



attrib to Tosa Mitsuyoshi (1539-1613) 

(one screen) A Meeting at ttie Frontier' 

color and gold leaf on paper 62 '/2" h x 124"w,1587 

cm h X 314 9 cm w 

Ttie Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fletcher Fund. 1955 



Museum's adopted these conventions, initially well- 
suited for ttie handscroll format, whicfi enlrance ttie 
decorative and abstract visual effects. Alttiougti ttie 
higti angle perspective is of Ctiinese origin, Japanese 
artists innovatively coupled ttiis with the removal of 
walls, doors and other obstacles, as the intenor of a 
deep eaved shinden house could not be seen from 
this high vantage point. The viewer thus sees each 
scene as if from the roof of a stage. ^^ 

In the scene "Azumaya" [Fig. 3], a noble woman 
has had her hair washed and a maid now combs it. 
Facing them are two noblewomen, one of whom ex- 
amines a book of paintings while the other reads 
from the accompanying text. Beautiful landscapes 
in the decorative tradition of Yamato-e can be seen 
on the sliding doors and center curtain. In the other 
scene, "Takegawa " (Fig. 4], two noblewomen are 
playing go near a veranda surrounded by ladies-in- 
waiting. A beautiful blossoming cherry tree springs 
from the courtyard. The mood of the scroll is quiet 
and passive, its movement arrested. Physical detail 
is conventionalized; aristocrats have slit eyes and a 
hooked nose, representing the ideal gentry ^^ ggch 
is distinct from the other in terms of postures or 
movements. As in the Museum's screens, each 




17 




7 School of Iwasa Malabei 

detail, Ulsusemi Tale ot Genii. 1650-70 




scene in the scroll has figures around whonn the ac- 
tion revolves and subordinate figures, eg ladies-m- 
waiting or servants Enhancing the decorative 
qualities of the handscroll is the technique of painting 
called tsukuri-e. whereby the connposition initially is 
executed m fine black lines, and the entire picture 
space then is covered with layers of opaque colors 
After patterns in fabrics are added, the outlines then 
are redrawn 

There must have been on the average two 
paintings per chapter in the original twelfth century 
scroll; the scenes probably were designated by the 
commissioning anstocrats Among the scroll frag- 
ments, there are no extant scenes based on the 
Utsusemi' and Suma' chapters Whereas the fvlu- 
seum s Utsusemi" scene was popular the Suma" 
scene is without known extant parallel '^ Scenes 
based on the Suma chapter, however, are not 
lacking, for example, Tosa fvlitsunons (1563-1638) 
small detailed and decorative painting (Fig 5) The 
presumed aberrant nature of the Museums Suma" 
scene and the discrepencies in certain descnptive 
details depicted m the Utsusemi scene, as com- 
pared with the text, could be explained by the artists 
inventiveness or by decrees of the studio in which 
he worked '^ 

Later continuation of Yamato-e: 
Tosa and Kano Schools: Sotatsu 

The Tale of Gen/i was so rich in visual descriptions 
it comes as little surpnse that it inspired painters who 
continued the Yamato-e tradition for centuries. Dating 
from the Kamakura period [1 185-1333), when the 
novel was read widely the second oldest extant 
handscroll survives in the Tenri Library in Nara By 
the Muromachi penod (1392-1573), Tale of Genii 
paintings were executed in diverse formats hand- 
scroll, album leaf, stiikistii (small square paper), 
covers of sasshi (booklets), and fans which were 
attached to screens '^ Techniques of paintings varied 
from hakubyo (black and white) to very detailed and 
decorative works anticipating the Tosa School 

The Tosa School of court painters claimed to have 
unbroken ties with the Yamato-e masters of the Heian 
period 20 From the early fifteenth century the Tosa 
family controlled the painting studio of the imperial 
court and continued the tradition of secular painting 
which arose in the Heian and Kamakura periods The 
early Tosa painters decorative style and espousal of 
native traditions precipitated a revival of Yamato-e by 



Kano Sunraku ( 1 56 1 - 1 635) 

delail. Fight ol the Carnage Attendants Aoi' chapter 

Tale ol Genii. 4 told byobu 

color and gold leal on paper 69" h x 145 6" w 1 75 5 

cm h X 370 cm w 

Tokyo National Museum 



18 







i^i^;•4^W^**f^'*Jr».»ir^«^4^J~lfr^'Hr»*t^Kr■■■*;>^'^^ 



attributed to Kano Tanyu (1602-74) 

Scenes from the 54 ctiapters of the fate of Genii. 

detail, one of pair of 6-fold byobu 

color and gold leaf on paper 54 1 " h x 1 45 6" w , 1 67 5 

cm h, X 370 cm w 

Imperial Household Collection, Tokyo 




1 Tawaraya Solatsu (d 1 643) 

Sekiya, ■ Tale ol Genii, one of pair of 6-fold byobu 
color and gold on paper, 59,8" h, x 135 7" w, 152 cm 
h, X 355 cm, w 
Seikado Bunko, Tokyo 



the fTiature Tosa school, active principally from the 
sixteenth through first half of the seventeenth centu- 
nes 2' Associated with this school was elegant draw- 
ing, rich color and meticulous detail, all contributing 
to a highly decorative art, Tosa artists customarily 
worked with a small format such as an album leaf 
or scroll: they later embraced the prevailing larger 
screen-painting appropriate to the grandeur of the 
period architecture 

Tosa Mitsuyoshi [1539-1613) was adopted into the 
official circle of painters who specialized in rendenng 
classical themes in carefully detailed miniature for- 
mats 22 A Meeting at the Frontier" [Fig 6), which 
belongs to Mitsuyoshi's pair of screen-paintings 
based on the Sekiya," "Miyuki," and "Ukifune" chap- 
ters of the 7a/e of Genji. exemplifies a skillful, combi- 
nation of traditional Tosa technique in magnified scale 
with a profusion of gold, the latter particularly conso- 
nant with the age of castle architecture. Delicate, 
careful, line drawing, thick coloring, and descriptive 
detail are characteristic of Mitsuyoshi's painting in 
small format Figures, costumes, and postures are 
drawn minutely and meticulously The juxtaposition 
of blue mountains and golden clouds makes the 
scene all the more preciously decorative. 23 
Mitsuyoshi's seeming preoccupation with a literal ren- 
dering of the scene as described in the Tale sacnfices 
the underlying poetic spirit of Yamato-e. 

Tosa Mitsunori [1563-1638], son of Mitsuyoshi, 
also produced paintings in album format based on 
the Tale of Genii. 2'i Suma' (Fig, 5), in keeping with 



19 



Iwasa Maiabei ( 1 578-_1 650) 
Lao Tzu. Kanaya Byobu.ca 1626 
ink on paper. 52 2" h x 21 6" w )32 8 cm h x 55 
cm w 

Tokyo National Museum 

Pholograph courtesy of Shueisha Publishing Co Lid 
Tokyo 

Nobuo Tsu|i. Iwasa Malatiei hlihon Biiutsu Kaiga 
Zenshu. vol 13. 1980 



12 Iwasa Matabei( 1578- 1650) 

Ladies Viewing Chrysanthemums Kanaya Byobu. ca 
1626 

ink and color on paper, 51 9" h x 21 6" w 132 cm 
h X 55 cm w 
Yamatane Museum ol An. Tokyo 




-''^V, 
^ 



1 




traditional Tosa painting, is vivid, detailed, highly 
decorative, and abstract The latter is especially ev- 
ident in the landscape elements intersected by cloud 
forms 

The Kano school vi/hich was active from the 
fifteenth until the nineteenth centuries was heir to the 



ink monochrome tradition established in the Sung 
(960-1 279] and Yuan ( 1 279- 1 368] dynasties in 
China The painting on the fusuma (sliding door], 
which serves as a room divider in Utsusemi's private 
quarters (Fig 7), is characteristic of the clear- 
expression, well-defined brushwork. and landscape 



20 




13 Iwasa Matabei (1578-1650) 

Nonomiya, Kanaya Byobu. ca, 1626 
ink and color on paper. 51 5" h x 216" w.; 131 cm 
h X 55 cm w 
Idemitsu Museum of Arts, Tokyo 



15 



14 Iwasa Matabei (1578-1650) 

detail. Utsusemi, Tale of Genji 
Gift of thie Class of 1908(80-16-1) 




associated with this Chinese-inspired painting tradi- 
tion. 25 The Kano school during the first half of the 
Momoyama period (1573-1615), with masters such 
as Eitoku (1 543-90], transformed Chinese subject 
matter including birds and flowers, Chinese sages, 
or landscapes, and the ink monochrome technique 
into a national style. Firm and powerful brushwork, 
polychrome, gold leaf, and strong two-dimensional 
design distinguish the splendorous paintings of the 
Kano school which illuminated the dark castle inte- 
riors of the Momoyama penod. 

The second halt of the Momoyana period and early 
Edo period were dominated by individualists such 
as Kano Sanraku [1 561 -1 635), Kano Tanyu 
(1602-74), Tawaraya Sotatsu (d. 1643), and Iwasa 
Matabei (1 578-1 650) to whose work the Museum's 
screen-paintings are related. Although each fused 



Iwasa Matabei (1578-1650) 

"Onono Komachl." Thirty-six Poets Byobu. ca 1 640 

color on board. 1 8.5" ti. x 1 1 .8" w.: 47 cm h x 30 

cm, w (eacji panel) 

Kawagoe Toshogu Sfinne 



/ 





21 




''\^--/1 



16 iwasaMaiabei [1578-1650) 
detail. Utsusemi, TaieolGen;/ 
Gitt of the Class ol 1 908 C80- 1 6-2) 

1 7 Iwasa Matabei (1578-1 650) 

Tales o( Ise, Ikeda Byobu. ca 1 635-40 

color on paper, 23" h x 14 8" w, 58 5 cm h x 37 7 

cm w 

Idemitsu d^useum ot Arts, Tokyo 








b 



f 

f •^j 




1 



Chinese and Japanese elennents in their paintings, 
they remained much closer to Yamato-e m terms ot 
subject matter technique, and spirit Dunng the 
Momoyama period ( 1 573- 1615) there evolved a 
retrospective interest m Yamato-e of the Heian period 
(897-1 185]. as Japan increasingly withdrevi^ from 
foreign interaction 26 as the Japanese tsecame more 
conscious of their indigenous cultural advancement 
and of their economic prosperity, they became more 
aware of their unique artistic heritage 

With regard to painting, artists like Sanraku. Tanyu 
Sotatsu and Ivlatabei reverted to an era vi^hen their 
country was self-sufficient, the late Heian period 
Some artists were more faithful to Yamato-e in spirit; 
others chose to fuse Chinese and Yamato-e elements 
in their paintings 2'' And thus, during this period Kano 
artists who worked traditionally in ink monochrome 
gravitated, with respect to compositional design, 
subject matter, and minute coloring technique, to- 
wards the Tosa School At times it becomes very 
difficult to differentiate paintings by Tosa artists from 
those Yamato-e paintings produced by the Kano 
School Kano Sanraku s Fight of the Carnage Atten- 
dants (Fig 8) and screen-pamtings attnbuted to 
Kano Tanyu (Fig 9), both based on the 7a/e ol Genii. 
affirm these artists competence in restating Yamato-e 
subjects and traditional painting techniques Fine 
draughtsmanship in rendering precise descriptions, 
compositional design, and color scheme facilitated 
their impressive transition from Kano to Yamato-e 
styles. 

Yamato-e of the Heian (897-1 1 85) and Kamakura 
periods ( 1 1 85- 1 333) as well as secular painting of 
the tvluromachi period (1392-1573) were sources 
for the exceptional paintings by Sotatsu Extant works 
by and attributable to Sotatsu illustrating the Biogra- 
phy of Priest Saigyo. Tales of Ise and the Tale of Genji 
indicate that he had an imposing repertory and un- 
derstanding of Yamato-e painting techniques and 
themes A screen-painting based on the Sekiya" 
chapter of the Tale of Genji (Fig 1 0) reveals Sotatsu s 
innovative reinterpretation of a Yamato-e theme. 
Sotatsu's strength lies in his ability to create abstract 
and dynamic compositions which distill the original 
spint and lyricism from classical Yamato-e Less fas- 
cinated with physical details of the story Sotatsu ex- 
ploits the potential for decorative abstract design 
which transmits a poetic feeling for the story Using 
color and line, as in the Sekiya' scene, elements 
are situated in dynamic opposition intimating the 
emotional conflict between the protagonists, Genji 
and Utsusemi, hidden in their respective carriages 
And thus, tension is couched in the juxtaposition of 
silhouetted masses, color, and dynamic linear move- 
ments •''*' 

Iwasa Matabei and his school 

Iwasa Matabei (1578-1650), whose life spanned the 



22 




Iwasa Mdlabei (.1578-1 650) 

Nobleman on Seashore, " Koji Jimbutsu Zukan. ca 
1640 

color on paper 1 4 1 " h , 36 cm h 
location unknown 

Photograph courtesy of Shueisha Publishing Co Ltd 
Tokyo 

Nobuo Tsu)i. Iwasa Matabei, Nihon Bijutsu Kaiga 
Zenshu. vol 13, 1980 

late Momoyama-early Edo periods, is a problematical 
figure whio like the aforenamed artists of tfiis period 
assimilated Ctninese and Yamato-e subiect matter and 
painting techniques in his works. At the source of 
the controversy are numerous paintings without a 
seal or signature which have been attributed to 
Matabei s hand lacking substantive proof For quite 
some time the identity of Matabei was uncertain, and 
definition of his school of followers is yet amor- 
phous, 29 In light of this, a discussion of paintings 
accepted to be by Matabei and those convincingly 
attnbutable to his school will show that the Museum s 
screen-paintings based on the Tale of Genji are 
attnbutable to Matabeis school and date approxi- 
mately 1650-70, 

Known also as Iwasa Shoi or Iwasa Katsumochi, 
Matabei was the son of Murashige Araki, the latter 
having served the shogun Oda Nobunaga 
(1 534-82) Murashige and Matabei were the only 
members of their family who survived Nobunaga's 
vengence when Murashige was charged with trea- 
son, Matabei was raised subsequently in Kyoto and 
assumed his mother's name Iwasa, 

The period in which Matabei acquired his un- 
structured training as a painter can be fixed reason- 
ably between 1596-1615 During this time, it is very 
probable that Matabei became familiar with the ink 
monochrome paintings of the Kano school, of 
Unkoku Togan [1 547-1 61 8) and of Hasegawa 
Tohaku (1539-1610) and collaborated with Tawaraya 



Sotatsu, Although it is not clear from whom Matabei 
learned Yamato-e. it is likely that Tosa artists cultivated 
his appreciation of this native painting tradition, 30 
Sotatsu and Matabei both achieved a revival of 
Yamato-e, each consonant with his respective individ- 
uality Where Sotatsu sought to retain the spint of 
Yamato-e in his paintings, such that decorative ele- 
ments transcended literal interpretation of the story, 
Matabei continued to study Chinese style painting 
and assimilated both traditions in his art,^^ Matabei, 
unlike Sotatsu, deftly portrayed realistic emotions, and 
yet, was intrigued with sarcastic, humorous, and vul- 
gar aberrations of life, Matabei. as many of his 
contemporaries, liberally assimilated diverse styles 
and subjects in his work; however he stands apart 
in his facility of extracting and inventively transform- 
ing potential elements from these sources 

In 1616 Matabei moved to Fukui where he spent 
nine years in Koshu|i temple afterwhich he was 
commissioned to paint by Lord Tadamasa 
Matsudaira, Matabei had at this time two sons 
Katsushige and Totetsu, the latter adopted by 
Hasegawa Tohaku, 32 And finally, Matabei moved to 
Edo [present-day Tokyo) in 1 637 where he eventually 
died According to the Yuisho-gaki dated 1731, which 
outlined the Iwasa family genealogy Katsushige had 
a son named IjU [also called Youn) and grandson 
named Youn. 33 The relationship of Matabeis 
offspnng and his school of followers will be addressed 
presently 

From the paintings generally accorded to be by 
Matabei. one deduces that he was familiar equally 
with classic Japanese and Chinese subjects, fused 
Yamato-e and Chinese painting techniques and 
styles, and expressed classical themes in a vernacu- 
lar While Matabeis individual style was evolving in 
Fukui circa 1626, he produced his masterpiece, 
Kanaya Byobu." Each panel of this pair of originally 
six-fold byobu was devoted to a classical Chinese or 
Japanese subject such as Lao-tzu" [Fig, 1 1 ), Court 
Ladies Viewing Crysanthemums " [Fig. 1 2), and 
"Nonomiya" [Fig, 13). 

Lao-tzu, the Chinese philosopher who founded 
Taoism, is painted in ink monochrome with strong, 
angular brush work reminescent of Hasegawa 
Tohaku and his school. Lao-tzu's droll expression 
indicates Matabei's penchant for transforming serious 
and contemplative subject matter "Court Ladies 
Viewing Crysanthemums" is predominately hakubyo 
[black and white) painting with pale coloring close 
in style to the Tosa school. 31 A long jaw, full cheeks, 
and high forehead constitutes what has been termed 
the "Matabei facial type," that can be seen in most 
of Matabeis accepted works as well as those 
indirectly related to him such as the Museums 
screen-paintings [Fig. 14] This particular composite 
of facial attributes was not invented by Matabei, as it 
was considered to be a standard of beauty in con- 



23 




19 IwasaMatabei (1578-1650) 

detail. Yamanaka Tokiwa. ca 1615-35 
handscroll. color on paper. 13 4" h . 34 2 cm h 
The M O A Museum. Alami 



20 School ol Iwasa Malabei 

detail. Thirty-six poets Byobu l637-50_ 

color and gold on paper pair ot 6-loid byobu 

60 5" h X 144" w 153 8 cm h x 365 9 cm w [each 

panel] 

Idemitsu Museum of Arts. Tokyo 








temporary genre paintings 35 The court ladies' casual 
glances at the flowers outside their carnage approach 
sensuality inappropnate to the classic subiect matter 
• Nonomiya. based on the 7a/e of Genii, also is exe- 
cuted in hakubyo and once again reveals Matabei's 
eccentric treatment of classical themes with respect 
to the halt-moon shape of Genp s torso and the 
painting s interesting compositional design 

Although one can be reasonably certain that 
l\/1atabei learned Yamato-e painting from Tosa school 
painters while in Kyoto, almost all his works com- 
pleted later in Fukui and Edo evince little adherence 
to the Tosa school The Thirty-six Poets Byobu 
belonging to the Kawagoe Toshogu Shnne which 
was produced in Edo circa 1640 is an unequivocal 
exception Onono Komachi (Fig 15) was painted 
in the Tosa tradition ot careful drawing, bright 
coloring, and minute detail, eg costume patterns 
The portrait is sedate and formal in keeping with this 
ancient Yamato-e classic subiect. 3^ In comparison, 
Utsusemi CFig. 163 in the Museum s painting is more 
sensual, eg the tilting of the head and soft curves 
in hair; however similarities exist in facial features and 
costume design to suggest a relationship 

Ikeda Byobu. painted circa 1635-40, while 
Matabei was still in Fukui or after his arnval in Edo, 
parallels Kanaya Byobu in so far as both incorpo- 
rate Chinese and Japanese subject matterS'' How- 
ever, the consistent technique in painting, firm 
brushwork. and refinement of forms substantiate a 
later date for Ikeda Byobu ' In a scene based on 
the Tales of Ise. (Fig 1 7) Matabei combined Yamato-e 
and Chinese painting techniques within a single com- 
position irrespective of subject matter, unlike Kanaya 
Byobu' wherein subject matter dictated the mode 
of painting This integration of elements approaches 
a refreshing interpretation of Yamato-e ^^ And thus, 
figures are contoured with fluid abbreviated and 
rhythmic brush strokes, while the mood of the com- 
position and delicate colonng retain the lyricism of 
Yamato-e Matabei continues to distinguish himself 
in his sensitivity to the rhythmic flow of line whether 
in drapery or landscape This scene is nonetheless 
reminescent of Court Ladies Viewing Crysanthe- 
mums not only with respect to facial types, but also 
in Its attempt to intimate the sensual departure of 
lovers 

"Koji Jimbutsu Zukan " ('Scroll of Ancient Legends 
and Human Figures ), whose whereabouts is 
unknown at present, probably was produced while 
Matabei was m Edo circa 1640, and continues to 
demonstrate the artist's maturity in harmonizing dif- 
ferent styles The subject matter is diversified to in- 
clude Yamato-e themes such as the Tale of Genii and 
the Tales of Heiie and Heike as well as Chinese folk- 
lore Nobleman on Seashore (Fig 1 8) displays the 
same sensitivity to rhythmic line in draperies, waves, 
and trees found in Ikeda Byobu' 39 The serpentine 



24 




21 School of Iwasa Matabei 

detail, Aritoshi-zu Byobu, 1650-70 

color on paper, pair of 6-told byobu 

67 8" fi, X 98 4" w. 157 cm h x 250 4 cm. w (each 

panel) 

Idemitsu Museum of Arts. Tokyo 



tree branches, agitated line drawing in the taller atten- 
dant's costume, and rhythmic sea beyond the coast 
also have counterparts in the Museum's screen- 
paintings (Figs 1 a,b). Differences between these two 
works are explained in terms of master and his stu- 
dio. 

Polemics involving Matabei stemmed principally 
from numerous paintings attributed to him such as 
the genre work Hokoku-sai Byobu. " which depicts 
the festival of Hokoku shrine dedicated to the shogun 
Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and paintings based on iorun 
texts such as "Yamanaka Tokiwa, " 'Horie," "Joruri. ' 
and Ogun' monogatan (tales] ''O In response to this 
controversy the concept of Matabei's school evolved 
which attempted to solidify relationships between 
these works that lack Matabei's seal or signature and 
those accepted to be by him 

A sound case has been made in asserting that 
Matabei was not only responsible for "Kanaya 
Byobu. " "Ikeda Byobu." and Ko|i|imbutsu Zukan." 
all of which have Matabei's seals, but that he also pre- 
sided over a studio of artists in Fukui between 
1615-35 that produced brilliantly colored and dy- 
namic handscrolls based on classic /orun texts. "^ A 
scene from "Yamanaka Tokiwa " (Fig. 1 9] depicts 
Tokiwa, the mother of a member of the Minamoto 
clan, dying in the arms of her maid after being 
stabbed and robbed by bandits.''2 it has been argued 
consistently that works such as this deviate too radi- 



cally from Matabei's oeuvre to have been executed 
by the same artist. Nonetheless, similarities indeed 
link "Yamanaka Tokiwa' with works such as Ikeda 
Byobu" and "Kojijimbutsu Zukan:"'3 Correlations 
among the three with regard to figure style, charac- 
ter of sprawling serpentine pine trees, compositional 
design, and rhythmic drawing validate a near con- 
temporary date for all. The utter vulgarity of scenes 
in Yamanaka Tokiwa" is heightened by the 
caricaturish faces of the bandits and garish coloring 
employed in the draperies and interior decoration. 
Bright primary colors coupled with gold and silver 
cloud areas enhance the overall decorativeness of 
the scroll. 

Meticulous line-drawing, whether sedate or 
undulating in a nervous manner, is a strain through- 
out Matabei's work and many works attributable to 
his studio The Museum's screen-paintings, "Thirty-six 
Poets Byobu" (Fig. 20), and "Aritoshi-zu Byobu" 
("Paintings of Aritoshi Shrine, " Fig 21], all attnbutable 
to Matabei's school in Fukui or Edo, demonstrate the 
close affinities between works by Matabei and those 
attributable to his school, operating even after his 
death,"'' In all three works the rigid contours of the 
male aristocrat's costume (Figs, 20, 21 , 22] contrast 
with the fluid and rhythmic brushstrokes in the atten- 
dants' costumes. Likewise common to all three is a 
certain vulganty in the facial expressions of the atten- 
dants. The upper frieze of poets appea_ring in the 
Idemitsu Museum's 'Thirty-six Poets Byobu" (Fig 20] 
was probably painted by Matabei himself, as the fig- 
ure style closely resembles the aforementioned 
Thirty-six Poets Byobu" in the Kawagoe Toshogu 
Shrine (Fig 1 5] Below the frieze, fan-shaped 
paintings enframe Yamato-e subjects and Chinese 
landscapes, which were produced conceivably by 
Matabei's school under the master's supervision This 
work, which dates after Matabei's arnval in Edo in 
1 637 and before his death in 1 650, juxtaposes 
Yamato-e subjects and techniques (opaque pig- 
ments] with Chinese subject matter and mode of 
painting (ink monochrome], a mixture in keeping 
with Matabei's tradition and. by extension, that of his 
school. 

In 1 928. a pair of six-fold screen paintings, then 
attributed to Iwasa Matabei and whose present loca- 
tion tragically is unknown, were published. ''^ Each 
screen-painting depicts scenes from six chapters of 
the Tale of Genii (Figs. 23, 24] including Utsusemi " 
and "Suma," all of which were connected, as in the 
Idemitu's "Thirty-six Poets Byobu," by gold clouds. 
These Tale of Genii paintings like the Museum's do 
not show allegiance to any particular school (Kano, 
Tosa] in their reinterpretation of Yamato-e. Paintings 
based on the Tale of Genii by Matabei's school must 
have been quite popular and these artists seemingly 
relied more on the ancient traditions of painting in 
the Heian period Facial types, although loosely char- 



25 



acterislic of Matabel's. are different m the two sets of 
screen-paintings Differences like tfiese as well as tfie 
selection and number of scenes from tfie Tale of 
Genii represented can tae understood in liglit of a stu- 
dio of artists working withiin the painting tradition of 
the master Iwasa IVIalabei 

There are similarities between the two sets of 
paintings in the figure style of aristocrats and atten- 
dants, in costumes, architecture, and landscape ele- 
ments The aristocratic type derives partially from 
figures in Ikeda Byobu, ' Kanaya Byobu, and the 
Thirty-six Poets Byobu in Kawagoe Toshogu Shnne 
The use of thick opaque pigments and gold as well 
as the depiction of canctunsh lower class people sub- 
stantiate, on the other hand, the indirect relationship 
of these screen-paintings to jorun scrolls such as 
"Yamanaka Tokiwa' In general, pervasive thick 
coloring and gold decorative backdrops are inconsis- 
tent with fvlatabei s known repertory of classic sub- 
jects: It IS assumable that these resulted from the 
discretion of localized followers of Matabei. 

The identity of those artists m Matabeis school are 
for the most part unknown One scholar proposed, 
however that if a (vlatabei school existed, it would 
have consisted exclusively of Matabei and his son 
Katsushige "6 Although Katsushige worked at times 
in the manner of his father it Is inconceivable that 
Matabei and Katsushige solely were responsible for 
the production of the aforenamed works which 
clearly exhibit modifications in the master's hand 
Paintings accepted to be by Katsushige lack the vigor 
seen in many of the above works '*'' Matabeis fol- 
lowers must have been anonymous skilled profes- 




22 School ol Iwasa Matabei 
detail Suma. Tale of Genii 

Gilt ol the Class of 1 908 (80- 1 6- 1 ) 

23 School ol Iwasa Matabei 

detail. Utsusemr Ta/e o' Gen;/, ca 1650-70 
Mori Collection, unknown location 




26 




^ 






24 School of Iwasa Matabei 

detail, late o/ Gen;/, ca 1 650-70 

color and gold on paper 

Mori Collection, unknown location 

sional painters working in his tradition either under 
his supervision at Fukui and later Edo or in localized 
groups working after his death. Works such as 
Hokoku-sai Byobu, and Thirty-six Poets Byobu" 
in the Idemitsu Museum of Arts, in which drawing 
and figures appear less distorted and thus closer to 
Matabei s standard works, ostensibly were produced 
pnor to Matabeis death; contrarily^those such as the 
Museum s screen-paintings, Aritoshizu By_obu" and 
the lost la\e of Genii screens once in the Mori collec- 
tion, apparently were produced after Matabei s death 
circa 1 650-70 The line-drawing becomes artfully 
agitated, painting opaque, and the facial types [Genji, 
women, attendants) more deviational from the norm. 
In the Museum's screen-paintings, compositional 
unity IS aided by a subtle use of color; for example, 
in the Utsusemi" scene, the bright red in the 
women s garments can be found in Genii's collar the 
kicho [hanging curtain), and in the boy s garment 
In the "Suma" scene, this same color is seen on both 
the horse and one attendant. The manner of painting 
which does not strictly follow either Kano or Tosa 
schools, IS nonetheless in the ancient painting tradi- 
tion of Yamato-e Strong colors without modulation, 
firm contour lines, as well as the abstract represen- 



tation of architectural interiors have their antecedents 
in the twelfth century Tale of Genji handscroll. There 
has been considerable loss of gold leaf in the Mu- 
seum's screen-paintings, but gold paint has disguised 
these losses Although retouching of paint is per- 
ceptible in minimized areas, the painting technique 
and style are both cohesive and consistent, sup- 
porting the idea that one artist painted both screens. 
The artist also made ample use of gofun (white pig- 
ment] in the attendant's costumes, mountains, trees, 
and architecture consistent with Matabeis works, 
"Kanaya-Byobu" and 'Yamanaka Tokiwa: 

Critics arbitranly have isolated certain peculianties 
in Matabeis figures; however, prototypes can be 
found among classical handscrolls and, therefore, 
these figures should not be considered exclusive 
attributes of Matabeis work.^s jhe classical hand- 
scrolls of the late Heian and Kamakaura periods are 
forerunners of the costumes, architecture, and most 
human figures in the Museum s screen-paintings. 
Fluid rhythmic line and cancatunsh homogeneity of 
lower class people already could be seen in "Shigisan 
Engi " handscroll of the twelfth century However, 
following Matabeis tradition, the artist of the 
Museum s screen-paintings has transformed such 



27 



Footnotes 



classical elements while creating a remterpretation 
of Yamato-e Inclusion of the Chinese landscape 
paintings on the slidmg-screens in Utsusemi s com- 
partments (cover. Fig 7) is yet another indication of 
an artist working in Matabei s manner who could 
assimilate diverse painting traditions within a single 
composition 

The Museum s screen-paintings certainly are 
beautiful aesthetic art objects and are significant as 
documents of an ancient tradition of painting unique 
to Japan 



The author acknowledges Mrs Keiko Malsui Gibson who provided 
invaluable assistance in the translation ot numerous texts This re- 
search was supported in part by the University ol Illinois Research 
Board 



'John M RosenlekJ. Fumiko E Cranston. Edwin A Cranston. The 
Courtly Tradition in Japanese An and Literature (Cambridge. 1 973). 
p 220 

^Ichitaro Kondo. Feminine Beauty in Japanese Printing (Tokyo. 
1955). p 124 

^George B Sansom. .4 History ot Japan to (334 (London 1958). 
p 139 

■"Very popular among aristocrats was go. agameol considerable 
strategy introduced from China 

^Murasaki Shikibu 7a/e ot Genii, translated by Arthur Waley (New 
York. 1960). pp 47-53 Takuya Tamagami. Geniimonogatari. 
Hydsriaku.vo\ l (Tokyo. 1965). pp 309-11 
^Murasaki Shikibu. Suma in Tale otGenji pp 229-254. Tamagami. 
vol 3. pp 52-58 Tamagami s commentary on the original text pro- 
vides the geographic location ot this scene Waley s translation slates 
that Genp and his attendants all were on horseback. Tamagami 
maintains that Genji was the only one nding a horse It is possible 
that the scene in the Museum s screen-paintmg could lollow another 
section ol the Suma chapter While Gen|i was at Suma living in a 
thatched-rool cottage near the mountains and shore his long-time 
Iriend To no Chu|0 came to visit The scene could represent To no 
Chujo s return to Kyoto This seems unlikely as To no Chujo boarded 
a ship and no mention ol his attendants is recorded Tamagami. p 
73 

'Ivan Morris. The World ol the Shining Prince (New York. 1 964). 
p 28 

"Screens ol silk brocade were early space dividers, unlortunately 
none survive trom the Heian period Paintings dating trom the Heian 
period, however, confirm their existence and utility 
'With the advent ot the amateur scholar-painter in China emphasis 
shifted trom decorative painting to ink monochrome painting Deco- 
rative painting, nonetheless, was continued by some professional 
court painters Elise Grilli. The Art ot the Japanese Screen (New 
York. 1970). p 151 

'"Although no actual screen-paintings from the Heian penod are 
extant, contemporary literature documents the close relationship 
ol poetry and painting at that time An imperial anthology ol poetry 
datable to the lOth century. Kokin Waka Shu. includes many poems 
ostensitjiy inspired by screen-paintmgs Kokin Waka Shu The Tenth 
Century Anthology. [rans\a\e<i by H H Honda (Japan. 1970). pp 



93 105 107 Also Kenji Toda Japanese Screen paintings of the 
Ninth arx3 Tenth Centuries. Ars Orientaks vo> 3. 1959 pp 162-63 
' 'Initial use of gokj on painting, which onginaled m Chir\a ts datable 
to the Heian period m Japan By the 1 5th century it is known tfiat 
there was a great demand tor gold screen-paintings and during 
the Momoyama period (1573-1614) gold was employed on a full- 
scale as It was associated with the ix}wer and atttuence ol the great 
warlords Ei|i Akazawa Ju-go seiki m okeru km-byobu ni isuile 
Kokka no 849 December 1962 pp 567-79 
'^China had exerted great influence on Japan m areas of political 
organization literature education paintir^g and aesthete apprecia- 
tion m the 8th and early pan ot the 9th centuries During the 2nd 
half of the 9th century while the Chinese T ang regime crumbled 
the Japanese curtailed intercourse with China and developed an 
intuitive admiration tor their homeland catalyzing internal cultural 
development 

'■'The importance and popularity of VSmafo-e m tfieHeen period 
can tie understood from the chapter Eawase (Pcture-compeution) 
in Murasaki s Tale ot Gen/i Teams of competitive artists submitted 
paintings illustrating typical Yamato-e subject matter 
"Toda pp 153-161 Soper intensively discussed ttie evotvement 
of Yamalo-e Alexander C Soper The Rise ol Yamato-e The An 
Bulletin. vo\ XXIV December 1942 pp 356-79 also Terukazu 
Akiyama. Heian-jidai no Kara-e to Yamato-e (I) Biiutsu Kenkyu 
vol 120. 1941. pp 378-83: Akiyama Heian-pdai no Kara-e to 
Yamato-e. (II). Si/ufsu Kenkyu. vol 121 1942. pp 11-23 
'^High-angle perspective was used by Chinese landscai^e artists 
during the T ang Dynasty (618-907) and was employed by the 
Japanese in the 8th century, particularly in Buddhist paintings This 
device may have originated m early wood-block illustrations of sutras 
wherein the Buddha at a high vantage point, looks down on his 
followers The latter is a theory proposed by Chiang Yee quoted in 
Ivan Morris The Tale of Gen/i Scroll {Tokyo 1971) p 141 
'^Alexander Soper suggests, contranly that slit eyes and a txjoked 
nose symbolize the dreamy unreality associated with this society 
Alexander Soper and Robert Paine The An and Architecture ot 
Japarv (Auckland. 1975). p 134 
"Tosa Mitsuyoshi (1539-1613) arrxjng others painted trie 

Utsusemi scene in small format. Mitsuyoshi s painting is located 
in the Kyoto National Museum 

'^Another remote possibilly would point to an ekotoba (instructon 
book) which may have existed at the time the Museum s paintings 
were produced These ekoioba. one ot which dates trom the 
Muramachi period ( 1 392- 1 573) and is kept at Osaka Women s Col- 
lege, provided artists with a choice ot scenes trom original texts such 
as Tale ot Genii as well as descriptions ot seasons colors, manners, 
and costumes ot people that should be included m their paintings 
Professor Kaiagiri of Osaka Women s College was kind to furnish 
photocopies ol the original text pertaining to the Suma and 

Utsusemi chapters in the Ekototia These ekotoba endangered 
inventive reinterpretations ot classical stories, as artists might not 
consult the original text for inspiration Ekoioba remain highly prob- 
lematic as their existence and use can not t)e venlied 
"Ken Akiyama. Terukazu Akiyama. Naoshige Tsuchida editors. 
Gen;/mor)oga/an (Tokyo. 1 978) also Yuzo Yamane Monogatan-zu 
Byobu-no Gaikan. Nihon Byobu-e Shusei Jimbutsu-ga Yamato-e 
kei Jimbulsu vo\ 5 (Tokyo. 1979). pp 113-16 
■'"Artists belonging to the Tosa school claimed themselves heirs ol 
Tsunelaka ot the 1 2th century who had the title Tosa Gon no Kami 
(vice-lord ol Tosa) although there was no historical proof of this line 
age Soper. The An and Architecture ol Japan p 182 

^' The position of the Tosa school declined with the okJ aristocracy 
in the 16th century The school moved to Sakai. south of Osaka 
and managed to survive with Mitsuyoshi and others 
■■Albums ot paintings by Mitsuyoshi based on the Tale ol Genii can 
tDe found in the Kyoto National Museum Muneshige Narazaki 
Shinshutsu Tosa Mitsuyoshi hitsu Geniimonogatari echo ni tsuite. 
Kokka.no 736. July 1953. pp 191-203 



28 



^^For discussion of Mitsuyoshi in relation to Yamalo-e artists of 
Ivlomoyama period (1573-1614) see Yuzo Yamane, ' Tosa 
Ivlitsuyoshi to sono Sekiya, IVIiyuki, Ukitine zu Byobu, ' Kokka. no 
749. August 1954. pp 241-59 

^■"An album based on ttie Tale ol Gen;/ by Mitsunori demonstrating 
tiis skill in fragile line-drawing is located in tfie Freer Gallery Smitti- 
sonian Institution, Wastiington. D C 

^^Kan-ga (Chiinese style paintings) is used to describe Japanese 
paintings in the Cfiinese ink-monochrome style Kan-ga ink paintings 
which are quiet in tone coincide with the popularity of Zen Bud- 
dhism However, it was with Kano Motonobu {1476-1559) that 
Kan-ga paintings achieved a new sense ol decorative design which 
was to singularize the Kano school 

2^By the 1 3th century Japan absorbed another wave of Chinese 
culture with the influx ot Ch an Buddhism (Zen) which became ster- 
ile by the 16th century Korea, a transmitter of Chinese culture to 
Japan, became the latters adversary as a result of Hideyoshi's mili- 
tary campaign in the 2nd half of the 1 6th century 
^'A discussion of Wakan Yugo, the amalgamation of Japanese and 
Chinese styles, characteristic of many paintings at the end of the 
Momayama penod was undertaken by Shigeyasa Hasumi in 
Momoyama-|idai Kaigashi ni okeru Wakan-yugo no Mondai, ' 
Bukkyo Geijulsu, no 100, February 1975, pp 96-98 
^'For a more detailed study of Sotatsu's compositional design see 
Tanaka Kisaku (Toshisaku), Sotatsu hitsu Geniimonogatan-zu-byobu 
ni tsuite," Biiulsu Kenkyu. vol 10, 1932, pp 31-35 
^'Two early documents, Gaio-Yoryaku and Koctio Meiga Shui. re- 
ferred to tvlatabei by his sons name Katsushige, thus instigating the 
confusion between them Haruyama Takematsu, Matabei Kenkyu 
Shiryo.' Toyo e//ufsu, vol 9. tvlarch 1931 . pp 136-7 Both the 
Enpeki-Kenki wntten in 1 675 by Confucian scholar Kurokawa and 
the Yuisho-gaki wntten in 1 731 refer to tyiatabei as Ukiyo-Matabei 
Although both were published after Matabei's death, they catalyzed 
the long-standing controversy as to whether Matabei should be 
credited as the father of Ukiyo-e (genre) painting Nobuo Tsu|i, 
"Iwasa Matabei," Nihon Biiulsu Kaiga Zenshu, vol 1 3 (Tokyo, 1 980), 
pp 107-9 

^"Matabei's biographical details are summarized in the following 
Tsu|i, pp 101-4, Muneshige Narazaki, "Iwasa Matabei Shoi ni tsuite," 
Kaiga Ronshu (Tokyo. 1977), pp 245-48. Michio Yada, "Iwasa 
Matabei Sono San-byaku nen sai ni Chinasmite," Chawan. vol. 209, 
October 1949, pp 31-33, Narazaki, "Iwasa Matabei Katsumochi 
ni tsuite," Kokka. no 686, May 1 949, pp 1 1 9-22 On the verso of 
Matabei's paintings Hitomaro-Tsurayuki," there is an inscription 
wherein Iwasa Matabei identifies himself as a follower of Tosa 
Mitsunobu This is not to be taken literally as Matabei was not a true 
descendent of the Tosa school, however, Matabei, as they was work- 
ing in the Yamato-e painting tradition Narazaki made the reference 
to the Koga Biko. a compilation of classic paintings, which included 
the name Matabei Yamasaku (probably Iwasa Matabei) as Tosa 
Mitsunons follower See Narazaki, Kokka, no 686, May 1949, p 122 
■''One scholar distinguishes between Sotatsu s interest in the deco- 
rative development of Yamato-e and Matabei's preoccupation with 
the monogatari-e " (paintings of tales) aspect of Yamato-e. Yada,p.36. 
■'^A manuscript documenting Matabei's stay in Fukui is discussed 
by Tsuji. "Fukui-ken Houn-|i zo no Iwasa Matabei Kankei-bunsho. " 
Biiutsu Kenkyu. no. 225, November 1962, pp 31-36, 
^■'Narazaki. "Iwasa Matabei Katsumochi ni tsuite; Echizen-iidai to 
bannen no Matabei," Kokka. no 686, May 1949, pp 1 26 
^■"It has been speculated that Matabei learned this type ol hakubyo 
Yamato-e saiga (minute painting) from Tosa Mitsunon or some other 
Tosa artist working in Kyoto who revived this ancient technique dur- 
ing Keicho (1596-1 6 15)-Genna (1615-24) periods Tsu|i. Iwasa 
Matabei. Nihon Biiutsu Kaiga Zenstiu. p 1 27 
■'^Tsuii calls attention to another probable antecedent of this facial 
type wall-paintings of female and male gods in Yaegaki shrine dat- 
ing from the Muromachi penod (1336-92) Tsu|i. "Iwasa Matabei. " 
Nihon Biiutsu Kaiga Zenstiu. p. 107. ill no 16. 



'^The Thirty-six'" poets is a theme which dates to the Heian penod 
(794-1 185) Certain poets whose poems were included in well- 
known anthologies were selected lor tnbute in the form of portrait 
paintings 

^'Ikeda Byobu probably was in its original format an eightfold 
screen-painting. Tsu|i convinvingly argues Tsu|i, Iwasa Matabei no 
Sakuga Han-i, Biiutsu Kenkyu. no 230. September 1963. pp 5-6 
^^Of Matabeis contemporaries, it is proposed that such an integra- 
tion of diverse subiect matter and styles is paralleled in the works 
by anonymous town professional painters Tsuji, Iwasa Matabei." 
Nihion Biiutsu Kaiga Zenstiu . pp 105-7 However, this phenomenon 
seems to be characteristic of a much broader movement, whereby 
artists in opposition to the extant feudal system did not have alle- 
giance to one school, be it Kano or Tosa 
■'^These similarities argue for near contemporary dating ot both 
" Ikeda Byobu" and " Kojijimbutsu Zukan."" 
''°Jdrun are epic-like folklore; classical joruri refer to those texts com- 
posed during the Keicho (1596-1615). Gen"na, (1615-23) and 
Kan'ei (1624-44) periods "Yamanaka Tokiwa.'" ""Hone," ""Oguri," 
and Joruri " monogatari are all considered classical iorun I would 
like to restnct the discussion to "Yamanika Tokiwa. excluding other 
handscrolls based on iorun and such School of Matabei works as 
" Hokoku-sai Byobu" located in The Tokugawa Reimeikai Foundation. 
Tokyo The latter is important in that it demonstrates the versatility 
of Matabei s school in their choice of subject matter and their incor- 
poration of Matabei characteristics Interesting is the use ot thick 
pigments and finger-shaped golden clouds similar to those in the 
Museum s screen-paintings. Nobuo Tsuji, "Matabei hitsu 
Hokoku-sai-zu Byobu," Kokka. no. 924, March 1970 
■"Tsuii cites the fact that the handscrolls based on iorun texts were 
found in the Matsudaira collection in Fukui as proof that Matabeis 
studio of followers existed there Tsu|i, Biiutsu Kenkyu. no 230. Sep- 
tember 1963. pp 12-19. alsoTsuii. "Ukiyo-Ukiyo-lwasa Matabei," 
Kisd no Keifu (Tokyo, 1 970). pp 9-22 Hiroshi Iso affirms that 
Matabei himself was responsible for the production of a\\ iorun 
handscrolls Hiroshi Iso. "Matabei-fu sakuhin no kento, " Bigaku. vol 
1 9, no 2 September 1 968, p 37 Fuiikake Shizuya, contrarily has 
argued that Matabei did not paint these scrolls and that town pro- 
fessional painters imitating Matabei's style produced them Fuiikake 
IS quoted in Tsu|i, Kiso no Keifu. p 32 

""'Details from "Yamanaka Tokiwa" are based on Tsu|i. Kiso no Keilu. 
p 10. 

"^Tsuii suggests that Koiuimbutsu Zukan might be an important pro- 
totype for works such as Yamanaka Tokiwa as narrative scenes 
in both have great momentum Tsu|i. Biiutsu Kenkyu. no 230. Sep- 
tember 1963. pp 5-7 

■'■'Nobuo Tsu|i speculates that the Old Legends Byobu may belong 
to a localized Matabei style that evolved in Fukui prefecture Tsu|i. 
Iwasa Matabei," Nilion Biiulsu Kaiga Zenshu. p 144. 
"^This pair of byobu was once in the Mon collection. Seiichi Taki, 
"Matabei-ga no tokucho o ronjite mon-ke no Gen|i-e ni oyobu, '" 
Kokka. no 450, May 1928, p. 123 In 1949, they again were refer- 
enced in a publication by Narazaki, Kokka. no 686, May 1949, p 
145 

■"'Iso, pp 39. 43 Iso further discounts the idea of "Matabei style'" 
works which he thinks confuses any true assessment of the full 
scope of Matabers oeuvre 

"'A discussion of Katsushige's paintings is found in Haruyama, pp 
1 36-1 40 By extension these works mentioned in the text can not 
be attributable to Katsushige's son l|u (Youn) or grandson Youn 
Narazaki examined both artists in Iwasa-ha no Kenkyu III, Kokka. 
no 693, December 1949, pp 346-48 

■■^As discussed above, the full-cheek, long-|aw facial type was not 
invented by Matabei Tsu|i has pointed out Matabei s unique man- 
ner in rendering calves and feet in the attendants These, I contest, 
are derived from ancient sources See Tsu|i, Biiutsu Kenkyu. no 
230, September 1963, p 11 



29 



Art Trip Abroad 



Krannert Art Museum Associates will be invited to 
participate in Art and Architecture Tours abroad dur- 
ing 1 983 A trip to Switzerland is planned for late 
May and will follow a route to Basel, Rhiine Falls, 
Winterttiur Bern, Interlaken, the Jungfrau, Grindel- 
wald, Gstaad. Lausanne, Montreux, Geneva. Cha- 
monix, Mt Blanc. Aosta. Martigny. Sion. Visp. Zermatt 
the Matterhorn. Locarno. Lugano. St Montz. Davos. 
Klosters, Chur Vaduz (Liechtenstein). Lindau, St 
Gall. Burgenstock. Altdorl. Lucerne, and Zurich 

As distances within are not great, the travel time 
will not exceed fourteen days Emphasis will be placed 
upon scenery and on works of art in public and pri- 
vate collections 

Detailed information will be available to Krannert 
Art Museum Associates in November Participation 
will include a contnbution to the Krannert Art Museum. 
as determined by Museum policy. 



KAMA Trip; Spam. 1982 




Toledo, once a capital of Iberians. Visigoths, Moonsfi 
and Christian kings 




Sahagun. twellth century Ronoanesque pilgrimage church 



30 




Ronda environs, the marble mountain 







Italica, second century Roman amphitheater built under Hadrian 




Andalucia. sheep and goats choose different directions 
31 




Puerto de Pajares. looking northward at the Cantabrian mountains 




Granada, in the Court of Lions at the Alhambra 




in a little Spanish town, looking satisfied after lunch 



Contributors to the 
Collections and 
Endowments* 



University of Illinois 



Founden 

Class ol 1908 

Mr H Cliltord Brown 

Mr John Needles Chester 

Mr William B Greene 

Mr Frederick A Jorgensen 

Mr William S Kinkead 

Mr and Mrs Herman C Krannen 

Mrs Kalherine Trees Livezey 

Mr and Mrs Harlan E Moore 

Mr and Mrs Fred Olsen 

Mr and Mrs George S Trees 

Mr and Mrs Merle J Trees 

Donors 

Mr Max Abramovilz 

Mr Samuel M Adier 

Mr George P Bicktord 

Mrs Marie Ann Caro 

Mr and Mrs Herman E Cooper 

Mr Richard J Faletti 

The Ford Foundation 

Mr George L Goldstein 

Mr George M Irwin 

Mrs William E Kapoaul 

Mr I Austin Kelly. Ill 

Mr Joseph H King 

Mr Samuel M Kootz 

Mrs Dean McCumber 

Mr Louis Moss 

Mr and Mrs Morne A Moss 

Mrs Addison Parker 

Mr Charles S Pillsbury 

Mr and Mrs Allen S Weller 

Mr and Mrs William C Wenninger 

Supporters 

Mr John L Alden 

Mr Albert L Arenberg 

Mr Himan Brown 

Mrs Clyde Butler 

Mr Charles N Cadwell 

Miss Janet Eisner 

Mr and Mrs Spencer Ewing 

Federal Works Agency 

Works Progress Administration 

Mrs Paul Kent 

Mrs Gertrude McCue 

Mrs Stacy Rankin 

Mr and Mrs Marvin D Rosenljerg 

Mr Peter Rubel 

Mr George W Santord 

Mr Sherlock Swann 

Estate ol Lorado Tall 



Administration 

President ot the University ol Illinois 
Stanley O Ikenberry 

Chancellor ol the University ot linnois 

at UrbanaChampaign 
John E Cnbbel 

Vice Chancellor lor Academic Allairs 
Edwin L Goldwasser 

Dean ol the College ol Fine and 

Applied Arts 
Jack H McKenzie 



Krannen Art Museum 

Director 

Stephen S ProkopoH 

Assistant Director 
Mark M Johnson 

Research Curator 
Margaret M Sullivan 

Registrar 
Kathleen Jones 

Business Secretary 
Annette E Karsh 



Membership Secretary 
Pamela Cooper 

Graduate Assistant 
Marilyn Munski 

Exhibits Designer 
Gerald Guthrie 

Preparaior 
Steve McCarthy 

Keeper ol European Collections 
Mark M Johnson 

Keeper ot Ancient and Eastern 

Collections 

Margaret M Sullivan 

Consultant in Conservation 
Allred Jaksias 

Consultant in Ancient Art 
John D Cooney 

Consultant in Decorative Arts 
Carl C Oauterman 



Secunty 

Susan Caiza 

Kent Carrico 

Sylvia Herakovich 

Joan Hicks 

Sherman Hotlman 

Avon Killion 

Donald Maleiowsky 

Barbara OehlschlaegerGarvey 

Linus Ogene 

David Reisman 

Charles Schlatter 

John SecKman 

Darryl Silver 

University ol Illinois Police 

Assistance with Special Projects 
Faculty in the School ol Architecture 
and School ol Art and Design 

Building and Grounds Service 
Division ol Operation and 
Maintenance 



•Conlnbutors to the Art Acquisition 
Fund are listed annually in the 
Spnng issue ol the Bulletin 

Contributors to the Krannen Art 
Museum Associates Fund are listed 
annually and by category in the 
Spring issue ol the Bulletin 



32 



Docents 

Champaign-Urbana Junior League 

Garland Remsen, Coordinator 

Nancy Lohuis, Scheduler 

Helen B Cahn 

Jean Edwards 

Betty Faucett 

Alice Fox 

Clare Hausserman 

Gloria Helfrich 

Kenni James 

Ctiarlotte Jotinson 

Adion Jorgensen 

Paula Kalsinas 

Bonnie Kelley 

Jane Kelley 

Jean Murphy 

Rosann Noel 

Ginny Rettberg 

Lucy Sanlord 

Nell Shapland 

Shirley Traugott 

Ann Tryon 

Dianne Wagner 

Charlotte Wandell 

Betty Weber 

Judith Winters 

Suzanne Younger 



The Council Executive Committee 1981-83 

Mrs Sandra Casserly. Presideni 

Mrs August Meyer. Jr . Vice- President 

Mrs Kenneth Sensenbrenner Secretary 

Mrs Kyle Robeson, Treasurer 

Mrs Richard Jorgensen. Council Membership Chairman 

Mrs George Miller, Krannert Art Museum Associates 

Membership Chairman 
Mrs Charles Younger, III, Krannert Art Museum 

Associates Membership Deputy Chairman 
Mrs James Cullum, Public Information Chairman 
Mrs Wayne Weber Public Information Deputy Chairman 
Mrs Louis Liay, Reception Chairman 
Mrs William Kappaut, Reception Deputy Chairman 
Mrs William Johnson. Trip Chairman 
Mrs Chester Keller, Trip Co-Deputy Chairman 
Mrs David McBnde, Trip Co-Deputy Chairman 
Mrs Richard Helfrich, Program Chairman 
Mrs James Edwards, Past President 
Mr Mark M Johnson, Krannert Art Museum 

Representative 



cover School ot Iwasa Matabei 

detail, Utsusemi," Tale of Genii. 1650-70 
color and gold on paper wood panels 
63" h X 145" w,; 160 cm h x 368 3 cm w 
Gift of the Class of 1 908 [80-1 6-2) 



Krannert Art Museum 

University of Illinois 
Urbana-Champaign 

Mailing Address 

Krannert Art Museum 
500 E Peabody Dnve 
Champaign, Illinois 61820 

Museum Otiice Hours 

Monday through Friday 8 00 a m -5 00 p m. 
Museum closed on national holidays 

Gallery Hours 

Tuesday through Saturday 9 00 a m -5 00 p m 
Sunday 2 00-5:00 pm 
Admission free 

Reservations 

Those desiring guided visits 

may make reservations 

by writing or calling the 

Krannert Art Museum 

500 E Peabody Drive 

Champaign, Illinois 61820 

(telephone area code 217/333-18601 



Bulletin of the Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois, 
Urbana-Champaign 

Volume Vlll Number 1, 1982 

The Bulletin of the Krannert Art Museum is published twice a year 
by the Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois, Urbana- 
Champaign, 500 E Peabody Drive, Champaign 61820 Edited by 
Krannert Art Museum staff Pnnted in the United States of America 

Bulletin 

Layout and Production Raymond Perlman 
Paper Cover 10 point Kromekote 

Text, Basis 80 Warren s Patina Matte 
Type Helvetica 
Printing Superior Printing 
Champaign, Illinois 

Copyright " 1 982 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illi- 
nois, all rights reserved 

International Standard Serial Number 0195-3435 

Indexed in RILA, International Repertory of the Literature of Art 

Photographs 

Wilmer D Zehr 
Steven McCarthy, p 5 
Regina McCumber Spam 



llilltlll 

3 0112 084209003 







/ 



A Retrospective Exhibition: January 16 to February 20, 1983 





LIBRARY OF THE 

CT 31983 

RSITY OF ILLINOIS 
BANA-CHAMPAIG,N 



Bulletin Krannert Art Museum University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Volume VIII, Number 2, 1983 



Beaux-Arts Lecture Series 



In conjunction with the exhibition, Lorado Taft. 
the Kranneri Art Museum Associates are 
sponsoring a lecture series devoted to European 
and Annerican Beaux-Arts architecture, painting, 
and sculpture Guest lecturers include: David Van 
Zanten, Chairman, Department of Art History, 
Northwestern University: June Hargrove, 
Associate Professor of Art History, Cleveland 
State University: Allen S. Weller, Dean Emeritus, 
College of Fine and Applied Arts. University of 
Illinois and H Barbara Weinberg, Associate 
Professor of Art History, Queens College of the 
City University of New York 

The lectures which will take place from 2:30 to 
4:00 p.m. in the auditorium in the Krannert Art 
Museum are as follows: 

European and American Beaux-Arts architecture 
David Van Zanten, Wednesday. January 26 

European sculpture in the Beaux-Arts tradition 
June Hargrove, Thursday, January 27 
Education at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and American 
sculptors working in the Beaux-Arts tradition 
Allen S. Weller, Tuesday, February 1 

European and American painters 

working in the Beaux-Arts tradition 

H, Barbara Weinberg, Thursday, February 3 

The lecture series is open only to Museum 
members. 



Front cover 

Ideal Head, c 1910-15, No 25 

Back cover 

Great Lakes Medal. 1935, No 31 



Foreword 







' V V 1^ i , 



e- . , . 



After a long eclipse the Beaux Arts style has 
emerged in the past several years as a viable 
and, indeed, admirable historical development. It 
is particularly appropriate at this time to examine 
the art of Lorado Taft, who was one of the major 
contributors to the style in America. This 
exhibition, the first survey ever of Taft's art, 
reveals him both as the celebrated designer of 
complex, heroic public monuments and, almost 
unknown, the deft and extraordinarily sensitive 
portraitist. 

Taft's connections with the University of Illinois 
and the community of Champaign-Urbana are 
strong and still felt. The artist spent much of his 
youth on the University campus and maintained a 
close association with it throughout his life. His 
presence remains vivid through the large number 
of his works that grace the community and 
campus, the large collection of Taft material in 
the Krannert Art (vluseum, and the artist's papers 
in the University archives. 

This exhibition would not have been possible 
without the efforts of Dr. Allen S. Weller who 
brought the material together — some of it never 
seen before, wrote the catalogue essay, and with 
persistent enthusiasm carried the project 
forward. Additional thanks go to: Professor 
Robert Youngman of the School of Art and 
Design who assisted with restoration and to 
Gerald Guthrie, Steve McCarthy, and David Shutt 
who prepared and installed the exhibition. 
Professor Ray Perlman of the School of Art and 
Design planned this handsome publication, (vlark 
Johnson, Assistant Director of the Museum, 
managed many of the exhibition's organizational 
details. The lecture series surveying the Beaux 
Arts style presented concurrently with the 
exhibition was planned by the Museum's 
Research Curator, Margaret M. Sullivan. 

We are very grateful to the lenders to the 
exhibition who generously shared their holdings: 
Jeffrey F. Bordelon and Amy Dallas, Auburn, 
California; Tom Mapp, Director, Midway Studios, 
University of Chicago; Donald L. Reed, Oregon, 
Illinois; Mary Taft Smith and Bertram Taft Smith, 
Greensboro, North Carolina; from within the 
University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana: Hugh 
Atkinson, University Librarian; Barbara Bohen, 
Director, World Heritage Museum; James W. 
Carey, Dean, College of Communications, Daniel 
C. Drucker, Dean, College of Engineering. 

Finally, we wish to thank the Illinois Arts 
Council for making available its supplemental 
photographic exhibition of Taft's monuments and 
for a grant in partial support of the exhibition. 



Stephen Prokopoff, Director 



Lorado Taft 1860-1936 



When Lorado Taft died in 1936 the Illinois Alumni 
News referred to him as "the University's most 
famous son." For a period of forty years he was 
undoubtedly the most distinguished figure in the 
world of art in Chicago and throughout the middle 
west, and he had a distinct impact on the 
national scene. He has important commissions all 
across the country, he was m great demand as a 
teacher and lecturer, he published an important 
book In his field, which is still used and has been 
reprinted in recent years. 

Lorado lived in Champaign for only nine years, 
1871 to 1880. graduating from the University in 
1879 at the age of nineteen But these were the 
decisive years which determined the entire 
course of his professional career How did it 
happen that a fourteen-year old boy. who lived in 
small middle western villages over a hundred 
years ago and who had never seen an important 
original work of art, decided at that early age to 
become a sculptor? A combination of native 
ability, hard work, the cooperation and 
encouragement of a very interesting family, and 
the education he received in a pioneering 
educational institution, made it possible for him to 
achieve his youthful ambitions. 

He was the son of Don Carlos Taft, professor 
of geology (and half a dozen other sciences) at 
the newly founded Illinois Industrial University, 
Lorado and his parents, his brother and younger 
sisters, lived in a spacious Victorian house, just 
across the street from old University Hall, which 
housed the major parts of the entire University 
program. Lorado entered the University at the 
age of fifteen and graduated with high honors 
four years later, by that time fully commiied to a 
career in art which was in considerable part 
inspired by the opening of the first University art 
gallery on the last day of the year in 1874. This 
was a remarkable collection of casts of Greek 
and Roman sculpture which had been purchased 
by the first President (then called Regent) of the 
University l\^any of these arrived in Champaign 
from Pans broken in pieces, and Lorado and his 
father laboriously fitted them together. The first 
catalogue of the gallery, which occupied a large 
room in University Hall, lists over nine hundred 



objects, all copies of celebrated works in 
European museums It was truly a remarkable 
and unexpected element in the little western 
town, and must have made an astonishing effect 
on its inhabitants 

At twenty Lorado set off for Pans and the great 
government supported school, the Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts. His father had agreed to support him 
to the extent of a dollar a day for this important 
European professional training Pans in the 1880s 
was in many ways the world center of art. and 
the Ecole was the stronghold of official academic 
education, founded on the reverent admiration of 
Greek and Roman art and the unremitting study 
of the nude model Lorado had been well taught 
in German and French at the University, and he 
had no language problem in Paris, though it took 
him some time to overcome the German accent 
he had acquired. He made close friends with 
other Americans at the Ecole, but there were 
also a number of friendships with several French 
students. Lorado attended the highly competitive 
school for three years, where he made 
remarkable progress and received a number of 
prizes and honors. He then returned to 
Champaign in 1883 for a single year, then went 
back to Pans for a final year of independent 
work. Three of his works in two different years 
were accepted for the Pans Salon, where they 
were seen along with hundreds of other 
examples of academic style By 1886 his student 
days were over, and he established himself in 
Chicago It was there that his career was to 
flourish for the remaining fifty years of his life. 

In the late nineteenth century the two principal 
fields which were open to American sculptors 
were Civil War monuments and grave memorials. 
One of the first major commissions Taft received 
after he settled in Chicago was for a monument 
for the battlefield at Gettysburg, and during the 
next fifteen years he produced ten or a dozen 
such monuments in towns in Illinois. Indiana, 
[ylichigan. and New York, as well as at 
Gettysburg, Vicksburg, and Chickamauga The 
early ones followed the then standard form of a 
column surmounted by a standing figure, usually 
a standard bearer, with lour figures at the base. 



each representing one of the branches of the 
military service, and sometimes a battle scene in 
relief around the base of the column. The final, 
and finest, of these works is The Defense of ttie 
Flag (1903) in Jackson, Michigan, in which Taft 
does away with the conventional format and 
creates a highly complex and remarkably 
dramatic group, largely free of the rather 
tiresome realistic detail which was one of the 
characteristics of official Beaux-Arts style. 

Grave monuments were fewer, but he was 
already beginning to make a reputation as a 
portraitist. This activity had already started in 
Pans (two of the works accepted by the Salon 
were portraits), and among the earliest works in 
this country were portrait busts of several of his 
close friends. A considerable number of these is 
included in the present exhibition, and will come 
as a surprise to those who know Taft only as the 
creator of large scale public monuments. They 
are modeled with sensitivity and remarkable 
freedom, a number of them deeply thoughtful in 
characterization. They record the appearance 
and personalities of some of the leaders in the 
intellectual and artistic life of Chicago in the 
1890s. Many of them were evidently made simply 
because the sculptor was interested in the 
individuals concerned, and these exist only in 
unique plaster models. Others were of course 
commissioned works, in which case the plaster 
model was cast in bronze or carved in marble. 

Meanwhile, Taft was busy at the Art Institute of 
Chicago, with which he was associated for 
twenty-five years as a teacher and for longer still 
as a lecturer. He wrote voluminous newspaper 
art criticism. There was also, in the early years, a 
quantity of commercial work, in the form of 
bronze relief sculpture, generally literary in 
narrative subject matter and mass produced for 
decorative purposes. 

To Taft, as to almost all the major American 
sculptors of his generation, the 1893 World's 
Columbian Exposition was a challenge and an 
opportunity. At the age of thirty-three, he was 
quite obviously the outstanding artist in his field 
in Chicago, and he was given major 
responsibilities. It is true that the two largest and 
most spectacular sculptural projects at the fair 
were entrusted to Daniel Chester French and 
Frederick MacMonnies, but Taffs major work, 
the elaborate decoration of the Horticultural 
Building, was not far behind. On either side of the 
entrance were his groups of The Sleep of the 
Flowers and The Awakening of the Flowers, rich 
in movement and detail, with graceful intertwining 
delicate figures. It was in a sense the final large 
scale work in which he worked entirely within the 



stylistic limitations which his years in Paris had 
contributed. 

A distinct change in the young artist's stylistic 
development took place in the early years of the 
twentieth century. The sometimes overworked 
realistic detail of the early monuments and 
commercial narrative panels is largely abandonee 
and the larger and more basic sculptural masses 
are allowed to speak far more directly than had 
previously been the case. While Taft continued to 
follow the academic practice of confing the work 
of his own hands to the making of full-scale clay 
models to be translated into permanent form by 
professional bronze casters or stone carvers, he 
developed a far greater sense of the inherent 
qualities of these materials, and designed works 
which were stylistically more appropriate for the 
medium of their fabrication. Compositions for 
marble or limestone began to let the stone retain 
some of its inherent quality, as figures begin to 
emerge from the material in a fashion which 
suggests the influence of Rodin, whose works, 
curiously enough, had been unknown to Taft as a 
student during his years in Paris, It would be a 
mistake to say that he became in any sense an 
absract artist, for the human figure, basically 
realistic in proportion and design, remained the 
single great theme of his work, but he was 
increasingly conscious of abstract compositional 
and material considerations. And he retained 
always the sense of the actual and tangible fact 
of such a quality as beauty, which had been a 
major goal in the academic world of his youthful 
training, and which became an increasingly 
embarrassing and almost unknown element to 
many of his successors. It was during these 
same years that a number of the big ideas and 
the big projects which were to engross his 
attention for the rest of his life began to emerge. 
Taft was unusual among the sculptors of his 
generation in the number of major works which 
were created and finally achieved as tie result o 
his own initiative and desire rather than because 
of specific commissions. At the same time he 
was writing his History of American Sculpture, 
published in 1903, the pioneering work in its field 
a book which has had a long and useful life, and 
one which led one critic to refer to Taft as "the 
American Vasari." 

The first decade of the new century saw the 
genesis of four major works which were to 
engage Taft's attention for many years. All of 
these are based on ideas which are often 
dismissed as "literary" — sometimes on specific 
texts by identifiable authors, in other instances oi 
more generalized or symbolic themes but always 
capable of being explained or expounded in 



words He was increasingly interested in the 
interaction of figures, and the highly complex 
compositions of these large works are developed 
with skill and inventiveness Taft thought of 
sculpture m terms of large public monuments, 
demanding spacious settings and generous 
proportions. These crucial works are the 
expression of ideas which are typical of the 
generation of artists and thinkers who were 
formed m the year before World War I: earnest, 
Idealistic, didactic, with a certain type of 
generalization which seemed bland and 
somewhat impersonal and over-optimistic to a 
later more anxious and ambiguous generation, 
but which is again today beginning to be 
appreciated as a basic and significant stage in 
American culture 

Each of these works has a specific and well 
defined message. The Solitude of the Soul. 
started in 1901 but not finished until 1914, 
presents four figures emerging from the chaos of 
rough stone, who touch each other but remain 
remote and fundamentally alone The Blind 
(1907-1908). unfortunately never put into 
permanent material, is based on a symbolic play 
by fvlaurice tvlaeterllnck. and shows a group of 
sightless people, of different ages and types, 
holding aloft a child, who alone can see. The 
Fountain of Time, conceived in 1909. finally 
completed m 1922. was suggested by a vagrant 
couplet by the poet Austin Dobson, expressing 
the wave-like surge and movement of life itself 
passing in review before a rock-like, mysteriously 
hooded figure. The Fountain of Creation, started 
in 1910. unfinished at the time of the artist's 
death, deals with the creation of humanity from 
the formless void, based on the classical myth of 
the sons and daughters of Deucalion and Pyrrha. 

Individual figures, heroic in conception and 
frequently In scale, were more frequently the 
result of specific commissions. Such was the 
case with Eternal Silence (1909). an imposing 
figure on a tomb in a Chicago cemetery, austere 
and heavily draped, the face mysteriously 
shrouded by drapery held aloft by an unseen 
hand, and the monumental Washington (1909) 
which Taft made for a striking site looking out 
over the city of Seattle. Greatest of the single 
figures is the Blackhawk (191 1) which Taft placed 
high on the cliffs above the Rock River at 
Oregon, Illinois, where the sculptor, his family, his 
assistants, and an Interesting group of artists, 
writers, and architects had made their summer 
camp and workshop since the 1890s This 
colossal figure, fifty feet high, of cast concrete. 
Immortalizes the Indians, driven from their 
hunting grounds, who look out over the beautiful 
river valley towards the west. Taffs brother-in- 



law, the novelist Hamlin Garland, tells how he 
demonstrated to the antst the monumental and 
imposing postures and gestures of the Indian 
chiefs as they gathered their blankets about 
them 

Two great fountains, composed of many 
figures, date from 1912 and 1913 The Columbus 
fountain, in front of the Union Station in 
Washington. D.C.. was commissioned as the 
result of a nation-wide competition It is a 
characteristically Beaux-Arts design, mingling 
sculpture and architecture, the heroic standing 
figure of the explorer mounted on the prow of a 
ship, a globe high above him on a pylon, seated 
symmetrical figures and haughty lions to either 
side. The ample forms are treated with truly 
sculptural breadth and economy The Fountain of 
the Great Lakes in Chicago personifies the five 
great bodies of water as splendid classical 
female figures, each holding a conch shell, 
skillfully posed in such a way that the running 
streams of water flow from one shell to another. 
the clinging rhythmic drapery seeming to echo 
the lively action of the water itself A third 
fountain, the Thatcher Memorial in Denver (1918). 
places a monumental and very classical 
personification of Colorado on a central pedistal. 
with the groups of paired figures below 
symbolizing Loyalty, Learning, and Love. 

tyleanwhile. there was for years a steady 
production of smaller commissions, fvlany of 
these were bronze low-relief tablets, which 
contained the portrait of the person 
commemorated, surrounded by the necessary 
name, inscription, and dates in the beautiful 
lettering which Taft employed. These are 
technically very ingenious works, in which the 
sculptor convincingly expressed in delicate low 
relief strongly three dimensional forms. Two of 
these reliefs are at the University of Illinois, to 
Katherine Lucinda Sharp (1921) in the Library, 
and to Henry Harkness Stoek (1925). included in 
the present exhibition. A charming and 
unexpected piece is the bronze figure of Orpheus 
(1922). commissioned by a group of admirers of 
the inventor Thomas A. Edison — the Greek god of 
music who abandons his lyre and holds up an 
Edison record. 

In 1906 the University of Chicago leased to 
Taft a large building on the south side of the 
Midway, This had originally been a stables, and 
here the sculptor established the l\^idway Studios, 
where he worked for the rest of his life. A big 
house next door accomodated him and his 
family: he had married in the 1890s and was now 
the father of three beautiful daughters. During 
the years of his greatest productivity, when he 
was working on large scale projects he needed 



many helping hands: at times he had as many as 
thirty young assistants, a number of whom lived 
in dormatory-type rooms in the Studios, which 
expanded over the years. Though he no longer 
taught formal courses at the Art Institute, the 
involvement with actual creative work by a major 
artist was an invaluable experience for scores of 
ambitious young artists. It was perhaps closer to 
the Renaissance bottega than anything else in 
our times. 

Taft continued to lecture, often at the 
University, but more and more frequently on 
ambitious tours which took him all across the 
country. In 1918 he went to France under the 
auspices of the Y.M C.A. to lecture to soldiers on 
the beauties of the French cathedrals. For many 



Taft was in great demand as a lecturer, and is shown here 
(about 1910) surrounded by the material he used in his famous 
"clay talk," in which he modelled before his audience the head 
of a woman who changed from glamorous youth and beauty to 
haggard and shrunken old age 



summers he was in Europe with the Bureau of 
University Travel, leading groups of eager tourists 
through some of the buildings and museums 
which he had explored during his student years. 
He remained particularly loyal to his alma mater, 
which in 1919 named him as a non-resident 
Professor of Art, and established a lecture fund 
(which still exists) to bring him to the campus 
every spring for a series of lectures. He is 
probably the only person who attracted standing- 
room-only audiences to lectures on art in the 
University Auditorium. 

Another major preoccupation in his later years 
was the accumulation of a comprehensive 
collection of casts of great works of sculpture 
from all ages and countries. He dreamed of a 
great museum of comparative sculpture, 
obviously inspired by the Trocadero in Paris, and 
talked and wrote about it for years. The dream 
was never realized and unfortunately many of the 
excellent casts he acquired were eventually 
destroyed. Today there is once again a greater 
appreciation of the educational importance of 
such collections than was the case in the 1920s 
and 1930s. 

A comparable educational project was the 
design and execution of the so-called "peep 




snows Tnese are smaii dioramas which 
represent the studios of celebrated sculptors, 
each suggesting sonne dramatic event or period, 
and filled not only with small-scale figures of 
historical personages, but with reduced models 
of appropriate works of art There are eight of 
these, running all the way from Phidias and 
Praxiteles to Michelangelo and Claus Sluter 
Many of the little figures (ten to twelve inches 
high) were executed by Taft's assistants, but we 
can be sure that he was in complete control of 
the total project Art historians will no doubt note 
many anacronisms — mediaeval and Renaissance 
sculptors did not retain complete collections of 
casts of their principal works in their 
studios — but the "peep shows" have continued 
to fascinate spectators, young and old. for years. 
A complete set of them is in the University of 
Illinois World Heritage Museum. 

It Is Interesting that three of his final works, 
heroic in scale, were inspired by thoughts which 
took him back to his earliest youth. One is at the 
University of Illinois: the Alma Mater (1929), in 
effect his own gift to the institution which had 
provided him with his early education and whose 
pioneering art gallery had been his inspiration. Its 
actual fabrication was provided by a series of 
class gifts, but all of his work on the monumental 
piece was his own contribution In it he 
personifies the figures of Labor and Learning 
which appear on the seal of the University, this 
time In very different form from his earliest 
attempt at the same theme, which dates back to 
his visit home from Pans in 1883. Taft was 
awarded an honorary doctors degree when the 
group was dedicated on the fiftieth anniversary of 
his graduation His Lincoln (1927) is in Carle 
Park. Urbana; he represents the vigorous young 
lawyer who tried cases in the Champaign County 
Court House. The Pioneers (1928), m Elmwood. 
was his gift to the small town In which he was 
born: the young parents, holding a child and 
accompanied by a dog, look out across the 
prairies. It Is placed In the city square, the 
sculptor's generous contribution to the 
adornment of the community, an act which was 
of primary Importance to him. The Crusader 
(1931) Is the most interesting of the late works. It 
is the figure of an armed mediaeval knight. In 
polished black granite, which stands on the tomb 
of a great newspaper man. Victor Lawson. in a 
Chicago cemetary The broad surfaces and direct 
simple execution are far removed from the work 
of his youth. 

Major commissions were few and far between 
after the onslaught of the great depression of 
1929. and Taft was in his seventies. Large groups 
of The Patriots and The Pioneers were designed 



for the state capitol at Baton Rouge, Louisiana 
(1933). but the models were finished under great 
pressure, and unfortunately these were badly 
executed and Taft was bitterly dissappomted with 
the final result There was a figure of Justice for 
the Federal Building at the Chicago Worlds Fair 
of 1933. but It was scarcely more than an 
architectural adjunct 

In the last year of his life Taft returned to a 
remarkable portrait which he had made of his 
father in 1893, reworked it with all of the skill and 
knowledge of a lifetime, cast it m bronze, and 
presented it to his home town. Elmwood, where it 
can be seen in the public library He was still at 
work on the great unfinished Fountain of 
Creation The last work which he completed was 
the Lincoln and Douglas memorial tablet m 
Quincy. Illinois, and his last public appearance, a 
few weeks before his death, was at its dedication 
In 1936 He had produced a small model for a 
monument to George Washington. Haym 
Solomon, and Robert Morns for Chicago, which 
was enlarged and brought to completion by three 
of his long-time associates, and was dedicated in 
1941. 

Lorado Taft Is still very much a presence at 
the University of Illinois. The Taft lectureship still 
exists, and provides an annual series of 
discussions on various aspects of the fine arts. 
One of the campus streets is named Taft Drive. 
One of the residence halls bears his name His 
portrait may be seen in the office of the College 
of Fine and Applied Arts. The Taft house, one of 
the few remaining tangible links with the early 
University, has fortunately been preserved, 
though it Is no longer in its original location. 
Installed on the campus or in University buildings 
are at least fifteen works by Taft. quite aside 
from the portrait busts and sketches in the 
collection of the Krannert Art Museum The 
University Archives contain his papers and 
photographs, acquired after his death. 

Edmund Janes James, who was President of 
the University from 1904 to 1920, once said, 
when speaking before a committee of the state 
legislature urging the passage of the University's 
appropriation bill, "If the University of Illinois had 
never done anything more than to produce 
Lorado Taft, it would have justified all of the 
millions that the State has expended in its 
upbuilding and maintenance " 

Allen S. Weller 



PORTRAIT BUSTS 




Unless otherwise noted all wortts in the eihioton 
are in tr>e collection ol the Kranneri Art Museum 




Edward Snyder (1935-1903) 

Marble bust. 24" high. 1884. reworked 1915, 

signed: "Lorado Taft sc." 

Snyder was one of the great figures in the early 
University He was born in Austrian Poland, served in 
ttie Austrian army during ttie period ol ttie Crimean war. 
emigrated to this country where he served as a 
lieutenant of infantry throughout the Civil War. and 
came to the new Illinois Industrial University in 1866 as 
a bookkeeper (at which time his name was Schneider) 
He was soon appointed Professor ol German, and also 
taught French. Spanish, and Italian For many years he 
was the business manager of the University, the 
secretary ol the Board of Trustees, the commandant ol 
the military detachment, and the lirst Dean of the 
College of Literature and Science Alter his retirement 
in 1899 he gave the University $12.CKX) to found a 
student loan fund He was Taft's favorite professor. A 
plaster bust was commissioned in 1884 for the 
Alethenai, one of the four student literary societies At 
his own expense Taft had this early work carved in 
marble in 1915 and presented it to the University. The 
alert expression and sidelong glance give the portrait 
great vitality. 



Head of a Girl 

Marble head. 14' high, 1884-1885, unsigned. 

Like most academically trained sculptors. Taft was 
essentially a modeller ol clay, leaving the labrication ol 
his works to professional bronze casters or marble 
carvers. This little head is probably the only marble that 
Taft ever carved with his own hands In the fall ol 1884 
he modelled a head in clay, bought chisels, a mallet, a 
pointing machine, and a block of marble, and set to 
work to master the technique of marble carving. His 
friend and fellow student Robert Bringhurst had been 
active as a stone cutter in St Louis and gave him 
technical advice There are frequent references to the 
head in Taft's letters. The style avoids details which 
would have required a good deal of undercutting and 
consequently gives an appearance of simplicity when 
compared with the plaster models. The clever 
illusionislic treatment of the eye-balls is a 
characteristic academic feature. Apparently the head 
was never exhibited, but Taft always kept it in his 
studio, where it appears in old photographs. 



Robert Whittaker McAII 

Plaster bust, 24 " high, 1885, unsigned. 

McAII was a British clergyman who was in Paris in 
1871 where he founded a Protestant mission for French 
working people. Up until the first World War the ly^cAII 
Nflission was a vigorous organization with scores of 
salles des conlerences throughout the city Taft was 
involved with the (Mission from his first arrival in Paris 
in 1880. and was soon leaching English classes, and, 
later, conducted Sunday school classes, originally for 
boys, later for adults The McAII bust was accepted by 
the Paris Salon in 1885 and was one of two works by 
Taft in that enormous exhibition It was never 
reproduced in permanent form He brought it to this 
country, where it was one of the six works which Taft 
exhibited in the inaugural exhibition at the Art Institute 
of Chicago in 1887 II is a deeply thoughtful work, using 
characteristic academic detail but handled with 
considerable breadth. 




Simeon B. Williams 

Plaster bust, 22" high, probably 1886, unsigned. 
Williams was Tail's earliest Chicago patron, and ttiis 
may be trie first work ttie young sculptor made alter he 
settled in Chicago in 1S86 Williams was a real estate 
dealer who had met Taft in Pans, probably in 1884. He 
took a great deal ol interest in Tatt: wrote letters of 
introduction for him to possible clients; advised him to 
publish his art lectures; and lent him S100 with which 
to purchase proper clothes for public social 
appearances The Taft papers contain at least ten 
letters from him. dated 1885 to 1891; and he attended 
Taffs marriage in 1896 The busts early date is based 
on a studio tradition. The head is turned slightly to one 
side; the sensitive and specific modelling of the 
features contrasts effectively with the relative 
informality of the treatment of the beard and clothing. 
Apparently this work was never put into permanent 
material, nor was it included in any of the early 
exhibitions of Taft's pieces in Chicago. 



William Porfer (1820-1917) 

Plaster bust. 22V2" high. 1893. unsigned. 

Porter, born in (Massachusetts, graduated from 
Williams College, planned to be a missionary, but came 
to Beloit College in Wisconsin in 1852 and remained 
there for the rest of his life. After teaching 
mathematics for four years he was appointed Professor 
of Latin. His portrait was commissioned by the College. 
and a marble version of the present plaster bust was 
dedicated m the chapel with expressions of "reverent 
enthusiasm. " The serious old face is expressive of the 
same thoughtfulness which is characteristic of many of 
Taffs early portraits. 



Don Carlos Tail (1827-1907) 

Plaster bust, 32" high, 1893, reworked 1936; 

signed: "Lorado Taft Sc. 1893." 

Lorados father, born in New Hampshire, graduated 
from Amherst, taught in several Illinois high schools 
before coming in 1871 to the new University ol Illinois 
as Professor of Geology. After he left the University in 
1882, Don Carlos established a bank in Hanover, 
Kansas, and lived there until he moved to Chicago in 
1900 He was a man of wide interests, and an 
enthusiastic supporter of his son's artistic proclivities. 
providing the small funds necessary lor Taft's study in 
Paris The original plaster bust was exhibited in 
Chicago in 1894, but Taft returned to this and reworked 
it in the last year of his life. The final version, cast in 
bronze, was presented by the artist to the public library 
in Elmwood, Illinois, where Don Carlos had been 
principal of the academy and where Lorado was born. 
Its dedication marked one of Lorados last public 
appearances The patriarchal aspect of the massive 
head makes it one of the most imposing of the early 
portraits 



10 




Hamlin Garland {^860■^9A0) 

Plaster bust. 23'/? ■ high, probably 1894. 

unsigned. 

Garland was a prolific novelist, best known for his 
early short stories which express in realistic terms the 
dreary, lonely lives of hard-working pioneer farmers in 
the Dakota prairies, and for a series of autobiographical 
volumes. A Son ol the Middle Border (1917) and others. 
dealing with the history of his immediate family 
through three generations Garland married Taft's sister 
Zulime in 1899. and remained a close friend of the 
sculptor's, first in Chicago, later in New York and 
California Garland was the first president of the Cliff 
Dwellers Club in Chicago, and one of the original 
members of the Eagles Nest Association in Oregon, 
Illinois The plaster bust, a vivid presentation with an 
almost baroque sense of movement, was exhibited in 
Chicago in 1895 and in St Louis in 1896 A bronze cast 
was made in 1921 for the American Institute and 
Academy of Arts and Letters in New York, in which 
organization Garland was very active A second plaster 
version was acquired by the Dayton Art Institute. 



8 John Henry Barrows (1847-1902) 

Plaster bust, 26" high, probably 1895. unsigned. 

After his education at Olivet College and the Yale 
Divinity School. Barrows became a prominent 
clergyman in both Congregational and Presbyterian 
churches in Kansas and Illinois. From 1881 to 1896 he 
was pastor ol the First Presbyterian Church in Chicago, 
at which time Taft completed his portrait In 1893 
Barrows organized and presided at the Parliament of 
Religions, held at the Worlds Columbian Exposition, a 
remarkable ecumenical movement whose sessions 
were attended by some 150.000 people. After leaving 
Chicago he lectured in India and Japan, and m 1896 
became president ol Oberlin College. The Taft bust was 
included in an exhibition of work by Chicago artists at 
the Art Institute in 1896 Documents indicate that a 
marble version was made, but its present location is 
unknown. 



Ella Pomeroy Belden 

Plaster bust, 24" high, probably 1895, unsigned. 
Information about the two ladies whose portraits are 
among the early works is scanty. They were evidently 
members ol the intellectual and artistic group which 
gathered around Taft in Chicago, and probably at the 
summer camp at Oregon, Illinois, The lady is identified 
as fvlrs. Charles Belden in an early photograph among 
the Taft papers. The bust is one of the most subtle of 
Taft's productions, particularly fine in its delicate 
detail While it brings to mind certain characteristics ol 
the Italian Renaissance, it remains at the same lime 
distinctly American in quality It was exhibited at the 
Art Institute in 1896. 



12 




13 




10 Horace Spencer Fiske (1859-1940) 

Plaster bust. 21" high, probably 1895, unsigned. 
Lent by the Midway Studios, 
University of Chicago. 

Born in Michigan. Fiske was a student at Beloit 
College, Dut}lin. Oxford and Cambridge After teaching 
political science and economics, he turned to the field 
of English literature, and in 1894 t>egan a long 
association with the University of Chicago, first as an 
extension lecturer, then as University recorder, editor of 
the University Record, director of the University Press, 
and in the office of public relations IHe was one of the 
original members of the Eagles Nest Association, and a 
prolific author, publishing a number of volumes of 
literary criticism and verse, several of wfiich are 
glorifications of Chicago and the University. He 
established a poetry prize at the University, and wrote 
sonnets on several of Taffs works The extraordinary 
visual illusion of the modelling of the eye glasses is an 
example of academic virtuosity Financial records in 
the Taft papers indicate that the Fiske bust was carved 
in marble by the Piccirilli Brothers in 1896. but the 
present location of this version is not known. 



1 1 Elihu Bartlit Pond 

Plaster bust. 19" high, probably 1895. unsigned. 

Pond was born in New York, but became a 
newspaper editor and publisher in Ann Arbor. Michigan, 
and was a member of the Michigan state legislature in 
1859 He was the father of Allen B Pond and irvin K. 
Pond, whose architectural firm was for many years 
active in Chicago. The Pond brothers were original 
members of the Eagles Nest Association, and it was no 
doubt there that Taft came in contact with their father, 
whose wise old face suggests the "high thinking and 
straight living" which were associated with his 
character The bust was exhibited in St. Louis in 1896 
and in Chicago in 1899 under the title of Old Settler or 
Old Pioneer. 



14 




15 




12 Henry Blake Fuller {^e57■^^29) 

Plaster bust, 25 Va" high, probably 1897, 
unsigned. 

For many years Fuller was an important figure in the 
literary world of Chicago, the author of novels which 
were significant elements in the realistic depiction of 
business as well as of the American experience in 
Europe. He translated plays by Goldoni. was on the 
advisory committee of Poetry magazine, and was a 
prolific author of literary reviews He published eight 
books between 1890 and 1901. but did little creative 
writing for the remainder of his life until |ust before his 
death. Although a semirecluse. he was one of Taffs 
closest friends, one of the original members of the 
Eagles Nest Association, and a frequent visitor at the 
Midway Studios Taft delivered a heartwarming tribute 
to his friend at a memorial service held after Fuller's 
death. The bust, which is apparently unique in the 
plaster version, was shown at the Art Institute in 1898. 



13 Joacju/Vj M///e/- (1841-1913) 

Plaster bust. 21" high. 1898, unsigned. 

Miller, born in Indiana, was taken by his parents to 
the far west as a child and grew up in Oregon and 
California He ran away as a teen-agers, worked in 
mining camps, lived with Indians, joined a band led by 
a Mexican bandit, and started publishing sketches of 
local life and poetry in newspapers and magazine. He 
was a picturesque figure whose romantic tales at>out 
himself are often not credible He made a spectacular 
entrance into London society, wearing a broad hat. 
jack-boots, and long hair, advocating his theory of free 
love, while continuing to pour out poems, plays, and 
novels. His literary work is largely forgotten today. 
Miller was in Chicago in 1898. when Taft made the 
portrait which was first exhibited in 1899. and again in 
1919. In 1933 Taft proposed to Millers daughter that 
the bust be cast in bronze, but apparently this was 
never done. 




14 Eldora Lynde Nixon 

Plaster bust, 28" high, 1898, unsigned. 

She was the wife of Charles Elston Nixon, a 
journalist on the staff of the Chicago Inter-Ocean, of 
which newspaper fie was the music editor and critic. 
Mrs. Nixon's name appears among those of Taft's 
friends, both in Chicago and at the Eagles Nest camp. 
In 1902 she published a sonnet on Taft's Solitude ol 
the Soul in a Los Angeles musical periodical. The 
Philharmonic Review- There is no record of a public 
exhibition of the bust in Chicago or elsewhere. As with 
the Belden portrait, the contrast between the sensitive 
surfaces of the flesh areas and the elegant but 
controlled detail of the hair and costume decoration 
form a striking effect. 



15 /srae/Zangw/// (1864-1926) 

Plaster bust, 21 1/2" high, 1898, unsigned. 

Zangwill was a prolific British novelist and 
playwright, but is best remembered for his passionate 
advocacy of the forming of a Jewish homeland. His 
reputation was made with a remarkable study of Jewish 
life. The Children ol the Ghetto (1892). He was an early 
member of the Zionist movement, but later abandoned 
the idea of a Jewish state in Palestine, and founded the 
Jewish Territorial Organization which attempted for 
years to find some other location for such a homeland. 
He was in Chicago in 1898, where Garland introduced 
him to Taft. His striking appearance led Taft to model 
one of his most powerful portraits. Early references 
describe it as "sketch," and it is probable that had it 
led to a formal commission much of the urgency and 
freedom of its initial appearance would have been 
smoothed away. The work was exhibited at the Art 
Institute in 1899. 



17 



16 Ralph Clarkson (186M942) 

Plaster bust, 22" high, probably 1905. unsigned. 

Clarkson was for many years the most prominent 
portrait painter in Ctiicago Born in Boston, he studied 
at Itie Boston Museum School and in Pans, exhibited in 
the Pans Salon m 1887, and settled in Chicago in 1896. 
There he was active in many civic movements, a 
governing member of the An Institute, one of the 
founders ol the Friends of American Art. and a member 
of the luries at the expositions in Pans (1900). St. Louis 
(1904). and San Francisco (1915) Clarkson was one of 
the original members ot the Eagles Nest Association 
and spent many summers in his studio there. Taft's 
bust is the model for the bronze version which is at the 
American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters in 
New York. The plaster version was exhibited in Chicago 
in 1906. the bronze in 1910. A second plaster version, 
somewhat different in detail, and lacking the delicately 
modelled palette on the base, is in the gallery at 
Oregon. Illinois. Clarkson painted an excellent portrait 
of Taft which cannot now be located. 



17 Henry Wadsworth Long^eZ/ow (1807-1882) 

Marble bust, 28'/?" high, 1907. signed: ■Lorado 
Taft." Lent by the University o( Illinois Library. 

Taft exhibited a piaster ponrait bust of Longfellow in 
the so-called First Champaign Salon of 1884. which he 
organized on his return from Pans after three years at 
the Ecole des Beaux-Ans The marble bust was 
commissioned by the class of 1907 as a gift to the 
University, and was presented with appropriate 
ceremonies upon its graduation It is not known 
whether this is a reworking of the ponrait made twenty- 
four years earlier, but the broad style and simple 
surfaces make this seem unlikely The marble was 
carved by the Piccirilli Brothers, who executed many of 
Taft's works in this material. Taft never saw the 
American poet and obviously worked from photographs, 
but the turn of the head, the largeness ot treatment, 
and the vividness of the expression give it a vital 
quality. It was exhibited at the An Institute in 1908. 




18 



18 Henry Wilson Clendenin (1837-1927) 

Bronze bust, 27" high, 1930, signed: "Lorado 
Taft sc. 1930." Lent by the College of 
Communications, University of Illinois. 

In 1927 the Illinois Press Association established 
"The Editors Hall of Fame," to immortalize 
distinguished journalists, and chose the University of 
Illinois for the location of a collection of bronze portrait 
busts. The first commissions were made in 1929, and it 
was originally planned to accumulate as many as a 
hundred such portraits. The depression brought this 
ambitious scheme to an end, and the nine busts in 
Gregory Hall comprise the entire Hall of Fame. The 
portraits are larger than life. Taft was one of six 
sculptors who made them; he contributed two, neither 
of which can have been modelled from life. Clendenin 
was born in Pennsylvania, served throughout the Civil 
War, started his career as a newspaper man in Iowa and 
moved to Springfield, Illinois, in 1881, where he 
acquired the Illinois State Register and became a 
powerful figure in the Democratic party, at both the 
state and national level. The two late Taft busts are 
routine productions, competent but rather impersonal 
in comparison with many of the earlier portraits. 



19 Victor Fremont Lawson (1850-1925) 

Bronze bust, 27" high, 1930, signed; "Lorado 
Taft sc. 1930." Lent by the College of 
Communications, University of Illinois. 

Lawson was the most important figure in Chicago 
journalism for many years. He founded the Daily News 
in 1876, and was the long-time President of the 
Associated Press. He introduced many innovations into 
American journalism, and was one of the first editors to 
station correspondents in leading European and 
Oriental capitols. He was a generous and imaginative 
philanthropist, a supporter of social and cultural 
activities, involved In civic reform and race relations. In 
1932 Taft made the monumental granite figure of The 
Crusader for Lawson's grave in Graceland Cemetery, 
Chicago. It is significant that this work, the most 
important of the sculptor's late works, is a symbolic 
rather than a portrait figure. 




19 



OTHER WORKS 




20 Molly Pitcher 

Bronze, 33" x 11" x 13y2". 1885 (bronze c 1890). 
signed: "L. Taft Sc." Lent by Jeffrey F. Bordelon 
and Amy Dallas. Auburn. California. 

Molly Pitcher was the wile of a gunner in the army 
during the Revolutionary War She carried pitchers of 
water to soldiers on the battlefield at Monmouth. New 
Jersey, in 1778. and thus gained her name When her 
husband fell, she tooK his place as a gunner, and is 
here represented proudly holding the cannon's ramrod. 
The soldiers made her an honorary sergeant, and the 
Pennsylvania legislature later awarded her a pension in 
honor of her bravery. Taffs figure was the principal 
work of his last year In Paris, and his letters of 1884 
and 1885 are full of references to her. He planned to 
submit a lull-scale version to the Pans Salon of 1885, 
but technical difficulties with the armature prevented 
this, and he was represented in the Salon with a statue 
ol Sainte Genevieve and the portrait bust of Dr. McAII. 
The plaster model was sent back to this country and 
was one ol the six works which Taft showed in the 
Inaugural exhibition at the Art Institute ol Chicago in 
1887. It was later cast in bronze by the Gorham 
Company. Chicago (probably in the 1890s). and for 
many years was at the Midway Studios. The illustration 
reproduces a photograph taken in Pans in 1885 of the 
original plaster model. 



20 












21 Learning. Love, Labor 

Bronze relief. 11" x 32", c.1890, signed: "Taft sc. 
after Boulanger." Lent by Mary Taft Smith, 
Greensboro, North Carolina. 

This IS an example of the early commercial 
decorative reliefs which Taft designed during his first 
years in Chicago. This was produced in multiple copies 
by Winslow Brothers, bronze founders. Chicago, one of 
several such companies for which Taft worked. The 
signature indicates that the composition is not original. 
It was no doubt based on a reproduction of a painting, 
probably by Hippolyte Ammanuel Boulenger 
(1837-1874). at that time a well known Belgian genre 
painter. The three narrative scenes, separated by 
lattices and plant forms, are contained within a 
classically designed frame. The style is detailed, the 
compositions crowded. Perhaps Taft was attracted to 
the subject matter because of the presence of Labor 
and Learning on the official seal of the University of 
Illinois. 



1'^ 

m 
m 

IN 
if'-' 



21 



21 



22 The Solitude ol the Soul 

Plaster model. 29" x 12" x 17". probably 1901. 
unsigned. Lent by Donald L. Reed. Oregon. 
Illinois. 

The first minute study lor ttiis group, only about two 
inches high. (No 44) was probably nnade in 1899. and 
was soon developed into the present model. This was 
further enlarged to life-size scale: the final monumental 
plaster version was widely exhibited, receiving a gold 
medal at the St Louis Exposition in 1904 It is the first 
major composition in Taft's mature style, the forms 
broadly simplified and making expressive use of the 
inherent character of the material. In 1913 the Friends 
of American Art at the Art Institute of Chicago 
purchased the model and provided funds to have il 
carved in marble, which was done by Taft's long time 
marble cutter. Zimmerman. The original full scale 
plaster model was acquired by the Dayton Art Institute 
in 1930. 



23 The Blind 

Plaster, 9' x lOV?' x 6', 1907-1908, unsigned. 

The group was inspired by a play by Maurice 
Maeterlinck. Les Aveugles. which deals with a group ol 
blind people lost in a forest: the only sighted person is 
an infant, held alolt by its mother. A minute lirst sketch 
exists (No 49) A small model was exhibited in Chicago 
in 1906. The lull scale model was never put into 
permanent material It was included in an exhibition in 
Chicago in 1908. and later in the same year in an 
exhibition ol the National Sculpture Society in 
Baltimore It was brought to Urbana with the Talt 
collection alter his death, was lor years installed, first 
in the Architecture Building, later in the Auditorium, but 
was linally placed in storage due to its deterioration. It 
is now impossible to reassemble all ol the separate 
sections, but we are exhibiting eight large fragments 
which give a good idea of its broad treatment and 
monumentality. The reduced scale model was 
presented by the sculptor to the collection in the 
Oregon. Illinois. Township Library. 



24 The Fountain ot Time 

Plaster model, 24" x 94" x 26". 1910, unsigned. 

The conception of the lounlain dates from 1909. 
when Talt was impressed by a couplet by the British 
poet Austin Dobson: 

Time goes, you say? Ah no! 

Alas. Time stays, we go. 
A minute preparatory sketch in clay may be seen 
among the studies, as well as a second larger plaster 
version (Nos. 53 and 56). which led in 1910 to the linal 
model seen here. The ligure of Time, who surveys the 
moving panorama of life before him. has not been 
preserved The Ferguson Foundation in Chicago gave 
him the commission to enlarge and complete the 
fountain in 1913. A full scale plaster model was 
installed on the Midway in 1920: it was later cast in 
concrete and dedicated in 1922, The final work is 
approximately a hundred and ten feel long. 



22 




23 



25 Ideal Head (see front cover) 

Plaster. 20" high, date unknown, unsigned. 

This does not seem to be a study lor any otiier work. 
ar<d cannot be identified vvilti any of thie artist's works 
mentioned in the documents It is possible that it was 
made to be pan of the work which Tall used in his 
public lectures The type is similar to those employed 
in the Fountain ol Ihe Great Lakes, and the date may 
be close to that work, at>out I9t0 to 1915. The dramatic 
sweep of the drapery is notable. 



26 The Fountain of Creation: Central Group 
Plaster model, 27 ' x 31" x 10". about 1912, 
unsigned. 

The monumental fountain was designed lor Ihe east 
end of Ihe Midway in Chicago as a counterpart to the 
Fountain ol Time on the west end Talt conceived the 
idea attout 1910 and worked on it lor the rest ol his life. 
The theme was a Greek myth in which Deucalion and 
Pyrrha. Ihe only two people left alter the deluge, throw 
the bones of Mother Earth in the form of stones behind 
them; these came to life in the form of a new race ol 
mankind Only four of Ihe figures were executed in 
permanent form These are Ihe crouching limestone 
figures in front of the Library and the Auditorium on our 
campus. The central group, placed at Ihe apex of the 
composition, consists of ten figures, closely organized 
in a compact mass. This part of the preliminary model 
was included in an exhibition al the Whitney Museum 
in New York. "Two Hundred Years of American 
Sculpture." in 1976. No. 273. Ten small studies in fired 
clay of individual figures or groups are included in the 
present exhibition. 



26 




24 



27 Head of a Child 

Terra cofta, 10" high, probably 1917, unsigned. 

This is probably one of three works which Taft 
exhibited at the Art Institute of Chicago in 1918 at the 
first exhibition of works of former students and 
instructors there. Nothing is known of the 
circumstances of its production. 



29 



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s. 



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25 




IS 23 




■R-ilDLTOR-PPxl' 




28 Henry Harkness Stoek (1866-1923) 

Bronze memorial tablet. 50" x 36", 1925, signed: 
L. Taft 1925." Lent by the College of 
Engineering, University of Illinois. 

Stoek came lo the University of Illinois in 1909 as the 
first head of the Department of Mining Engineering, A 
graduate of Lehigh University, he had taught at his 
alma mater and at Pennsylvania State University: had 
had intensive practical experience in mining, 
metallurgy, and geology: was for many years the editor 
of the principal professional journal in his field: and 
was president of the Coal Mining Institute of America. 
He was greatly admired as a teacher, and after his 
untimely death his students and professional 
colleagues gathered the funds which led to this 
memorial tablet, dedicated in 1926 and for many years 
installed in the Engineering Library. It is an excellent 
example of the delicate low relief by which Taft was 
able to suggest strong three dimensional qualities. 



29 Alma Mater 

Tvifo drawings, pencil on tracing paper, circular, 
191/2" diameter, 1928, 

The official seal of the University contains the words 
"Learning and Labor." As early as 1916 Taft had 
conceived the idea of a monumental standing figure of 
Alma Mater, with personifications of Learning and 
Labor at either side This was finally realized as the 
result of a number of class gifts, and the work was 
dedicated in 1929. on the fiftieth anniversary of 
Lorado's graduation from the University. He was not an 
accomplished draftsman, always executing even the 
most preliminary sketches of his works in three 
dimensions, and it is by no means certain that the 
present drawings, only recently discovered in the files 
of the University architect's office, are the work of his 
own hand But they were certainly created in his studio, 
under his direct supervision. 



28 



26 




30 Ghiberti and Donatella 

Plaster model, painted, 12" x 6" x 4V2", 1927, 
unsigned. 

From 1927 to 1936 Taft designed and tiis associates 
fabricated a series of eigtit small dioramas wtiicti 
represented episodes in ttie lives of famous sculptors- 
Ttie figures of ttie sculptor Gtiiberti stiowing ttie bronze 
doors by Andrea Pisano in ttie Florentine Baptistry to 
the youttiful Donatello are from ttie first of ttie 
dioramas, entitled "IVIorning in Florence, 1400." Wtiile 
many of ttie details were made by Taft's associates, we 
can be sure that he modelled the most important 
figures, like these, himself. It was planned to produce 
multiple copies of the dioramas, but not many were 
actually fabricated. There are three complete sets, and 
a few additional individual examples. 



31 Great Lakes Medal {see back cover) 

Bronze, 2 7/8" in diameter, 1935, signed: "L.T." 
Lent by World Heritage Museum, University of 
Illinois. 

Beginning in 1930 the Society of l^edallists, with 
headquarters in New York, issued two medals annually 
for its subscribers. Many of the established and 
generally conservative artists of the period received 
commissions from the Society. Taft originally designed 
a powerful anti-war medal, which was not received with 
favor by the officers of the Society and he was asked to 
turn to a less controversial theme. This he found in his 
own Fountain ol Ifie Great Lakes. He prepared a model, 
twelve and a half inches in diameter, which was 
reduced in scale to the final size of the medal. The 
obverse represents the head of one of the fountain 
figures, inscribed "Ontario send greetings to the sea." 
The reverse depicts the entire composition of the 
fountain figures, with their names encircling them. 



32 



32 The Spirit of Art 

Bronze relief, 26y2" x 19", 1936-1937, signed: 
"Lorado Taft." Lent by ttie Midway Studios, 
University of Ctiicago. 

This relief was one of Taft's last designs, and was 
brought to completion after his death by two of his 
associates. Fred Torrey and Mary Webster. It was 
commissioned by the Arche Club, a Chicago 
organization which sponsored the fine arts. 



27 



PORTRAITS OF TAFT 



33 Nellie V. Walker (1874-1973) 

Lorado Tati. plaster statuette, painted, 25Vi" x 
8'/:" X 9", date unknown, signed: "N. V. 
Walker." 

Nellie Walker was Taft's student, associate, and 
collaborator, and lived for many years at the Midway 
Studios. She had an active independent professional 
career Taft is represented in his studio smock, a 
modelling tool in one hand, his eye glasses in the 
other. Walker, together with l^ary Webster and Leonard 
Crunelle, enlarged and completed the Washington 
monument for Chicago which Taft designed shortly 
before his death. She presented the portrait statuette to 
ttie University o( Illinois in 1943. 



34 Mary H. Webster (1882-1965) 

Lorado Taft. bronze bust, 28" high, 1936, 
unsigned. 

Mary Webster, another student and an associate, 
lived at the Midway Studios and for many years served 
as Taft's secretary Her portrait of him was made in the 
last year of his life. It was presented to the University 
in 1938 by the Illinois Art Extension Committee. A 
second copy of it is in the public library in Elmwood, 
Illinois. 



33 




28 



SKETCHES AND STUDIES 




37 
52 




The Taft collection at the Krannert Art Museum 
contains more than a hundred and thirty small 
sketches and studies. Taft seldom made 
drawings of projected compositions, but from the 
beginning conceived his ideas in three 
dimensional form on a surprisingly small scale. 
He worked in clay, sometimes firing it, 
sometimes giving it a coat of varnish or shellac, 
sometimes leaving it untouched. Some of the 
studies were cast in plaster. They vary in size 
from minute sketches not more than an inch or 
two high, to standing figures seven or eight 
inches tall. It is extraordinary that an artist whose 
major works are of monumental size should have 
given his first expression of these compositions in 
such small scale. Many of them can be identified 
as studies for specific monuments; others simply 
record poses and gestures which were of interest 
to the artist. The following list attempts a 
chronological order. When a date is included, it is 
arbitrarily made earlier than the completion date 
of the work in question. Many of Taft's ideas 
matured over periods of years. 



35 Study for The Awakening of the Flowers, 
Horticulture Building at the World's Columbian 
Exposition, C.1892. 

Terra cotta, 6V2" x AVt" x 3" 

36 Study for a Civil War monument, c.1895. 

terra cotta, 3 3/8" x 1" x 2" 

37 Study for a Civil War monument, c.1895. 

terra cotta, 3" x 2%" x 2%" 

38 Woman at wash basin. 

clay, 3" X 1%" x 1%" 

39 Head of a little girl. 

clay, 4V2" X 5" x 2" 

40 Man and woman embracing. 

clay, 23/4" X 1" X 1" 

41 River god with water spout 

terra cotta, 3" x 3" x 1%" 

42 Half length figure of a boy blowing a shell 

plaster, 5" x 2 1/8" x 21/2" 

43 Study for Despair, c.1897. 

clay. 3" X 1%" x 2V2" 

44 Study for The Solitude of the Soul, c.1899. 

clay, 2 5/8" x 1 3/8" x 1 1/4" 

45 Standing draped figure. 

clay, 33/4" X ^V^^• x IV4" 

46 Standing figure in frock coat. 

clay, 4 1/8" X 1 3/8" x 1 3/8" 

47 Study for St. Louis Exposition group (never 
executed), c.1903. 

terra cotta, 4%" x 6" x 4" 



29 



48 Study for Figures bearing a cotlin. c.1905. 

clay, 3" X 3" x 2" 

49 Study for The Blind, c.1906. 

terra cotta, 2y2" x 4" x 2" 

50 Standing black figure. 

clay, black varnish, 5Vi" x 2Vi" x IVi" 

51 Standing nude, right arm to shoulder. 

plaster, 8V2" x 3" x 3" 

52 Study for Eternal Silence. 

terra cotta, 8" x 2'/!" x 2'/;" 

53 Study for The Fountain of Time, five sections, 
C.1909. 

terra cotta, 2" x 6V2" x 1" 

54 Study for The Fountain of the Great Lakes, 
c.1910. 

terra cotta, GVz" x AVt" x 3" 

55 Study for Thatcher Memorial Fountain, c.1916. 

clay, black varnish. 4'/2" x 4y2" x 4V2" 

56 Study for The Fountain of Time, two sections, 
c.1917. 

plaster, 3" x 20" x 3" 

57 Half length figure reading a book. 

clay, 3" X 3" x 2V4" 

58 Studies for Omaha War Memorial {never 
executed), c.1925: The Mourners. 

plaster, green over-color, 9V4" x 8V4" x 12V4" 

59 Soldier and sailor, c.1925. 

plaster, green over-color, S'/a" x 2y2" x 2y4" 



60 Two soldiers at rest, c.1925. 

plaster, green over-color. 8y2" x 2'/^" x 2V4' 
each 

61 Two grrls carrying a wreath, c.1925. 

plaster, green over-color. 8" x 5V4" x 2V4" 

62 Studies for The Founiam of Creation (never 
executed), c.1930: Crouching Man. 

terra cotta, 4" x 3"/i" x 4" 

63 Crouching man. hand on knee, c.1930. 

terra cotta. 4'/2' x 2V2" x 3" 

64 Crouching man, hand to face, c.1930. 

terra cotta, 3'/i" x 2V4" x 3V4" 

65 Crouching man. arms to base, c.1930. 

terra cotta. 5" x 2y4" x 3V4" 

66 Crouching woman, c.1930. 

terra cotta. 4" x 2" x 2%" 

67 Woman leaning to left, c.1930. 

terra cotta. 4" x 2" x 2V4" 

68 Man leaning forward, c.1930. 

terra cotta. 7" x 2%" x 3" 

69 Man leaning forward, c.1930. 

terra cotta. eva" x 3" x 3" 

70 Two men struggling, c.1930. 

terra cotta. 7V4" x 6" x 2 3/8" 

71 Man and woman struggling, c.1930. 

terra cotta. 6%" x 3V2" x 2" 

72 Study for portrait of a standing man. 

plaster, 15" x 5 5/8" x 4 1/2' 



70 




30 



Krannert Art Museum Associates 



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Miss Janet Eisnc 

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31 



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Mrs Richard T Scanlan 

Ms Muriel Scheinman 

Mrs Kirsten C SchousBoe 

Mrs Helen B Schowengetdl 

Mrs Harold W Scoll 

Ms K Virginia Seidel 

Mrs Kenneth C Sensenbrenner 

Mrs William H Severns 



Mrs Heten R Shaptand 
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Ciena K Slater 

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Mrs W L Sprirtger 

Mrs S C Staley 

Ms Holly Slec 

Mr James R Stegeman 

Mrs Arnold Stem 

Miss Bertha A Steinbeck 

Mrs Sylvia Steiner 

Dr Stephen A Stenz 

Mrs Charles L Stewart 

Mrs H Sheldon Slillwell 

Mrs Virginia Stipes 

Mr David Stukel 

Mrs Giles Sullivan 

Mrs James A Sullivan 

Mrs Stephen N Tager 

Mrs Manie Tepper 

Mrs Vivian B Terrill 

Mrs Richard L Thies 

Mrs Loll Thomas 

Mr Robert E Thomas 

Mr William Thomas 

Mrs Edward C Thompson 

Ms Ruth P Thompson 

Mrs Robert L Thorslenson 

Mrs Sharon S Tiebout 

Mrs George T Timmons 

Mrs Peter T Tomaras 

Ms Shirley Traugott 

Mrs Robert H Tuchel 

Mrs Stewart L Tuckey 

Mrs Velma Tuxhorn 

Mr J Russell Vaky 

Mrs Janann D Vance 

Mrs Joseph s Vandemark 

Dr Anne E VanDyke 

Mrs Andrea Van Proyen 

Ms Cynthia J Voekl 

Mrs Morion Wagman 

Mrs Dianne Wagner 

Mrs James S Walker 

Mrs Charleen Walsh 

Mrs John H Walter 

Mrs James P Warfield 

Mrs Charles M Webber 

Belly Ruth Weber 

Mrs Wayne Weber 

Mrs Frances Welch 

Mrs Scoll Welier 

Mrs Glen W Wensch 

Mrs James H Wheat 

Mrs Howard White 

Mrs Lucien While 

Dr Emma May Brittin Whilelord 

Mrs G Weston Whitimgham 

Mrs B B Wiese 

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Leona Williams 

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Contributors to the 
Collections and 
Endowments 



Founders 

Class o( 1908 

Mr H Cliflord Brown 

Mr John Needles Chester 

Mr William B Greene 

Mr Frederick A Jorgensen 

Mr Williann S Kinkead 

Mr and Mrs Hernnan C Krannerl 

Mrs Kalhenne Trees Livezey 

Mr and Mrs Harlan E Mtxjre 

Mr and Mrs Fred Olsen 

Mr and Mrs George S Trees 

Mr and Mrs Merle J Trees 

Donors 

Mr Max ACramovilz 

Mr Samuel M Adier 

Mr George P Bickford 

Mrs Mane Ann Caro 

Mr and Mrs Herman E Cooper 

Mr Richard J Falelti 

The Ford Foundation 

Mr George L Goldstein 

Mr George M Irwm 

Mrs William E Kappaul 

Mr I Austin Kelly. Ill 

Mr Joseph H King 

Mr Samuel M Kootz 

Mrs Dean McCumber 

Mr Louis Moss 

Mr and Mrs Morne A Moss 

Mrs Addison Parker 

Mr Charles S Pillsbury 

Mr and Mrs. Allen S Welier 

Mr and Mrs William C Wenninger 

Supporters 

Mr John L Alden 

Mr Albert L Arenberg 

Mr Himan Brown 

Mrs Clyde Butler 

Mr Charles N Cadwell 

Miss Janet Eisner 

Mr and Mrs Spencer Ewing 

Federal Works Agency 

Works Progress Administration 
Mrs Paul Kent 
Mrs Gertrude McCue 
Mrs Stacy Rankin 
Mr and Mrs Marvin D Rosenberg 
Mr Peter Rubel 
Mr George W Sanlord 
Mr Sherlock Swann 
Estate of Lorado Tati 



32 



University of Illinois 



Administration 

President of the Universily of Illinois 
Stanley Ikenbecry 

Chancellor of tfie University of Illinois 
at Urbana-Champaign 
John E Cribbel 

Vice Cfiancellor for Acadennic Affairs 
Edwin L Goldwasser 

Dean of the College of Fine and Applied Arts 
Jack H McKenzie 

Krannert Art Museum 

Director 

Stephen S Prokopolf 

Assistant Director 
Maik M Johnson 

Research Curator 
iviargaret M Sullivan 

Registrar 
Kathleen Jones 

Business Secretary 
Annette E. Karsh 

Membership Secretary 
Pamela Cooper 

Graduate Assistant 
fvlarilyn (i^unski 

Preparators 
Steve fylcCarthy 
David Shutt 

Keeper of European Collections 
Mark M Johnson 

Keeper of Ancient and Eastern Collections 
Margaret M Sullivan 

Consultant In Conservation 
Alfred Jakstas 

Consultant in Ancient Art 
John D. Cooney 

Consultant in Decorative Arts 
Carl C. Dauterman 

Security 

Susan Calza 

Kent Carrico 

Sylvia Herakovich 

Joan Hicks 

Sherman Hoffman 

Donald Mateiowsky 

Linus Ogene 

James Player 

Charles Schlatter 

John Seckman 

David Stepanczuk 

University of Illinois Police 

Assistance w/ith Special Projects 
Faculty in the School of Architecture 
and School of Art and Design 

Building and Grounds Service 
Division of Operation and Maintenance 



Docents 

Garland Remsen, Coordinator 

Nancy Lohuis, Scheduler 

Helen B Cahn 

Jean Edw/ards 

Betty Faucett 

Alice Fox 

Clare Hausserman 

Kenni James 

Charlotte Johnson 

Adion Jorgensen 

Paula Katsinas 

Bonnie Kelley 

Jane Kelley 

Jean Murphy 

Rosann Noel 

Ginny Retlberg 

Lucy Sanford 

Nell Shapland 

Judi Thompson 

Shirley Traugott 

Ann Tryon 

Dianne Wagner 

Charlotte Wandell 

Betty Weber 

Judith Winters 

Suzanne Younger 



All photographs are by the University 
Photographic Services or from the 
University Archives 



Bulletin 

Layout and Production Raymond Perlman 
Paper Cover, 10 point Kromekote 

Text. Basis 80 Warren's Patina Matte 
Type Helvetica 
Printing Crouse Printing 

Champaign, Illinois 



The Council Executive Committee 1982-83 

Mrs Sandra Casserly. President 

Mrs. August Meyer, Jr , Vice-President 

Mrs. James E. Welch, Secretary 

Mrs. Kyle Robeson. Treasurer 

Mrs. Richard Jorgensen. Council Membership Chairman 

Mrs George Miller. Krannert Art Museum Associates 

Membership Chairman 
Mrs Charles Younger. III. Krannert Art Museum Associates 

Membership Deputy Chairman 
Mrs James Cullum. Public Information Chairman 
Mrs. Wayne Weber. Public Information Deputy Chairman 
Mrs Louis Liay. Reception Chairman 
Mrs William Kappauf. Reception Deputy Chairman 
Mrs. William Johnson. Trip Chairman 
Mrs Chester Keller. Trip Co-Deputy Chairman 
Mrs. David McBride, Trip Co-Deputy Chairman 
Mrs. Richard Helfrich. Program Chairman 
Mrs James Edwards. Past President 
Mr Mark M Johnson. Krannert Art Museum Representative 



Gallery Hours 

Tuesday through Saturday. 9 00 a m -5 00 p m 

Sunday 2:00-5 00 p m 

Beginning January 16, 1983: 

Tuesday, 10:00 a.m. -5 00 p m 

Wednesday. 10:00 am. -8:00 p m 

Thursday. Friday. Saturday. 10:00 a.m. -5:00 p m 

Sunday. 2:00-5 00 pm 

Admission free 

Reservations 

Those desiring guided visits may 

make reservations by calling 

217/333-1860 



Bulletin of the Krannert Art Museum 
University of Illinois. Urbana-Champaign 
Volume VIII. Number 2. 1983 
The Bulletin of the Krannert Art Museum 
IS published twice a year by the Krannert 
Art Museum, University of Illinois, Urbana- 
Champaign. 500 E Peabody Drive. Champaign. 
61820 Printed in the United States ol America. 

Copyright i?' 1983 by the Board of Trustees of 
the University of Illinois, all rights reserved- 
International Standard Serial Number 0195-3435 
Indexed in RILA, International Repertory of the 
Literature of Art 




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