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B U L L E T I N 






SESSION 1941-1942. 






The past Session, 1941-1942, has continued an abnormal 
one. At the Annual General Meeting, held on October 18, 
1941, a discussion took place as regards further meetings 
of the Club and the dates and times of such meetings, 
if the war conditions at present prevailing admitted. It 
was finally decided to hold the meetings on Saturday after- 
noons if possible, as was done in the Session 1940-1941, 
and to aim at having a similar number of meetings, namely, 
five in all. This arrangement again worked well, and the 
Club met in October (Annual General and ordinary Meeting), 
December, February, April and June (the latter in con- 
junction with the British Ornithologists' Union, in place of 
their usual Annual General Meeting in March). 

The number of attendances for the Session was better than 
in 1940-1941, viz., a total of 142 in place of 110, this being 
made up as follows : — 96 members of the Club, 9 members of 
the B.O.U., 1 guest of the Club and 36 other guests, a total 
of 142. 

There was no Chairman's Annual Address this year. 

Mr. James Fisher gave a very interesting paper on " The 
Birds of Rockall as shown by photographs and observations 
taken by the Royal Air Force," and by kind permission of the 
Coastal Command four of these photographs were allowed to 
be produced in the ' Bulletin '. Dr. Jul. Borucki talked to 
the Club on " The Preservation of Nature in Pre-war Poland ", 
and one must look forward to the time when Poland will come 
into its own again and carry on the excellent work described 
in the paper. Mr. David Lack discussed the longevity of 
Wild Robins, 



At the combined Meeting of the Union and the Club 
Mr. Lack showed and demonstrated the film of the Galapagos 
Islands taken when his expedition was there some time ago. 
It was enthusiastically received by the audience, many of 
whom had not seen it before. 

New forms were described by Mr. J. D. Macdonald, 
Mr. R. E. Moreau, Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Major C. W. 
Mackworth-Praed, Mr. V. G. L. van Someren, Mr. Hugh 
Whistler and Mr. P. A. Clancey. 

Mr. N. B. Kinnear communicated a note on the introduction 
of the Indian House Crow into Port Sudan and one on a 
common Bittern from Nigeria, and Mr. P. A. Clancey one on a 
very pale example of Cerihia familiar is, which, in his opinion, 
was referable to the Central European form Certhia familiaris 
macrodactyla, a race which has not previously been recorded 
in Britain. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Major C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
have continued their valuable notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Further war restrictions forbade Public Luncheons, so 
one of the Club meetings was held in the Board Room of the 
British Museum (Natural History), by kind permission of the 
Director, and the final meeting in June, with the B. O. U., 
took place on a Saturday afternoon at the Rembrandt Hotel, 
where the Club still continues to meet. 

The Club entertained as a distinguished guest Dr. Jul. 
Borucki, an ornithological colleague from Poland, who gave 
the interesting address mentioned above. 

. London, July 1942. Editor, 


(Founded October 5, 1892.) 


The objects of the Club, which shall be called the 
" British Ornithologists' Club," are the promotion of social 
intercourse between Members of the British Ornithologists' 
Union and to facilitate the publication of scientific infor- 
mation connected with ornithology. 


(As amended, October 12, 1938.) 


I. The affairs of the Club shall be managed by a Committee, 
to consist of a Chairman, who shall be elected for three years, 
at the end of which period he shall not be eligible for re-election 
for the next term ; two Vice-Chairmen, who shall serve for one 
year, and who shall not be eligible for the next year ; an Editor 
of the ' Bulletin,' who shall be elected for five years, at the end 
of which period he shall not be eligible for re-election for 
the next term ; a Secretary and a Treasurer, who shall each 
be elected for a term of one year, but who shall be eligible 
for re-election. There shall be in addition four other Members, 
the senior of whom shall retire each year, and another Member 
be -elected in his place ; every third year the two senior 
Members shall retire and two other Members be elected in 
their place. Officers and Members of the Committee shall 
be elected by the Members of the Club at a General Meeting, 
and the names of such Officers and Members of Committee 
nominated by the Committee for the ensuing year shall be 
circulated with the notice convening the General Meeting 
at least two weeks before the Meeting. Should any Member 
wish to propose another candidate, the nomination of such, 
signed by at least two Members, must reach the Secretary 
at least one clear week before the Annual General Meeting. 



II. Any Member desiring to make a complaint of the 
manner in which the affairs of the Club are conducted 
must communicate in writing with the Chairman, who will, 
if he deem fit, call a Committee Meeting to deal with the 

III. If the conduct of any Member shall be deemed by 
the Committee to be prejudicial to the interests of the Club, 
he may be requested by the Committee to withdraw from 
the Club. In the case of refusal, his name may be removed 
from the list of Members at a General Meeting, provided 
that, in the notice calling the Meeting, intimation of the 
proposed resolution to remove his name shall have been 
given, and that a majority of the Members voting at such 
Meeting record their votes for his removal. 


IV. Any Member of the British Ornithologists' Union 
may become a Member of the Club on payment to the 
Treasurer of an entrance-fee of one pound and a subscription 
of one guinea for the current Session. On Membership 
of the Union ceasing, Membership of the Club also ceases. 

Any Member who has not paid his subscription before 
the last Meeting of the Session shall cease, ipso facto, to be 
a Member of the Club, but may be reinstated on payment 
of arrears. 

Any Member who has resigned less than five years ago 
may be reinstated without payment of another Entrance Fee. 

Any Member who resigns his Membership on going abroad 
may be readmitted without payment of a further Entrance 
Fee at the Committee's discretion. 

Temporary Associates. 

V. Members of the British Ornithologists' Union who are 
ordinarily resident outside the British Isles, and ornithologists 
from the British Empire overseas or from foreign countries, 
may be admitted at the discretion of the Committee as Tem- 
porary Associates of the Club for the duration of any visit to the 
British Isles not exceeding one Session. An entrance fee of 
five shillings shall be payable in respect of every such admission 

if the period exceeds three months. The privileges of 
Temporary Associates shall be limited to attendance at the 
ordinary meetings of the Club and the introduction of guests. 


VI. The Club will meet, as a rule, on the second Wednesday 
in every month, from October to June inclusive, at such 
hour and place as may be arranged by the Committee, but 
should such Wednesday happen to be Ash Wednesday, the 
Meeting will take place on the Wednesday following. At 
these Meetings papers upon ornithological subjects will 
be read, specimens exhibited and described, and discussion 

VII. A General Meeting of the Club shall be held on the 
day of the October Meeting of each Session, and the 
Treasurer shall present thereat the Balance-sheet and Report ; 
and the election of Officers and Committee, in so far as their 
election is required, shall be held at such Meeting. 

VIII. A Special General Meeting may be called at the 
instance of the Committee for any purpose which they 
deem to be of sufficient importance, or at the instance of 
not fewer than fifteen Members. Notice of not less than 
two weeks shall be given of every General and Special General 

Introduction of Visitors. 

IX. Members may introduce visitors at any ordinary 
Meeting of the Club, but the same guest shall not be eligible 
to attend on more than three occasions during the Session. 
No former Member who has been removed for non-payment 
of subscription, or for any other cause, shall be allowed to 
attend as a guest. 

' Bulletin ' of the Club. 

X. An Abstract of the Proceedings of the Club shall be 
printed as soon as possible after each Meeting, under the 
title of the ' Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,' 
and shall be distributed gratis to every Member who has 
paid his subscription. 


Contributors are entitled to six free copies of the ' Bulletin,' 
but if they desire to exercise this privilege they must give 
notice to the Editor when their manuscript is handed in. 
Members purchasing extra copies of the ' Bulletin ' are 
entitled to a rebate of 25 per cent, on the published price, 
but not more than two copies can be sold to any Member 
unless ordered before printing. 

Descriptions of new species may be published in the 
' Bulletin,' although such were not communicated at the 
Meeting of the Club. This shall be done at the discretion 
of the Editor and so long as the publication of the ' Bulletin ' 
is not unduly delayed thereby. 

Any person speaking at a Meeting of the Club shall be 
allowed subsequently — subject to the discretion of the Editor — 
to amplify his remarks in the ' Bulletin,' but no fresh matter 
shall be incorporated with such remarks. 

XI. No communication, the whole or any important part 
of which has already been published elsewhere, shall be 
eligible for publication in the ' Bulletin,' except at the discretion 
of the Editor ; and no communication made to the Club 
may be subsequently published elsewhere without the written 
sanction of the Editor. 

Alteration and Repeal of Rules. 

XII. Any suggested alteration or repeal of a standing rule 
shall be submitted to Members to be voted upon at a General 
Meeting convened for that purpose. 

COMMITTEE, 1941-1942. 
Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, Chairman (elected 1938). 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant, Vice-Chairman (elected 1940). 
Mr. B. W. Tucker, Vice-Chairman (elected 1940). 
Dr. G. Carmichael Low, Editor (elected 1940). 
Mr. N. B. Kinnear, Ron. Secretary (elected 1940). 
Major A. G. Lambart Sladen, Hon. Treasurer (elected 1936). 
Mr. H. J. R. Pease (elected 1939). 
Miss Phyllis Barclay-Smith (elected 1940). 
Mr. B. G. Harrison (elected 1940). 
Miss E. P. Leach (elected 1941). 

Officers of the British Ornithologists' Club, 
Past and Present. 


P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 


Lord Rothschild, F.R.S. 


W. L. Sclater. 




Dr. P. R. Lowe. 


Major S. S. Flower. 


D. A. Bannerman. 


G. M. Mathews. 


Dr. A. Landsborough 




Lord Rothschild, F.R.S. 


W. L. Sclater. 




G. M. Mathews. 




H. Whistler. 


D. Seth-Smith. 


Col. R. Sparrow. 


Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 


Hon. Guy Charteris. 


W. L. Sclater. 


Dr. D. A. Bannerman. 


Capt. C. H. B. Grant. 


Mr. W. B. Tucker. 





W. R. Ogilvie- Grant. 


D. A. Bannerman. 


D. Seth-Smith. 


Dr. P. R. Lowe. 




Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 


Captain C. H. B. Grant. 


Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 


Honorary Secretaries and Treasurers. 

Howard Saunders. 






Dr. P. R. Lowe. 


C. G. Talbot-Ponsonby. 


D. A. Bannerman. 


Dr. Philip Gosse. 


J. L. Bonhote. 


C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 


Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 


C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 


Honorary Secretaries. 

Dr. A. Landsborough 



C. R. Stonor. 


N. B. Kinnear. 


Honorary Treasurers. 

C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1935-1936. 

Major A. G. L. Sladen. 1936- 

JUNE 1942. 

Acland, Miss C. M. ; Walwood, Banstead, Surrey. 
Alexander, H. G. ; 144 Oak Tree Lane, Selly Oak, Birming- 
Aylmer, Commdr. E. A., R.N. ; Wyke Oliver, Preston, 

Baker, E. C. Stuart, C.I.E., O.B.E., F.L.S., H.F.A.O.U. ; 

6 Harold Road, Upper Norwood, S.E. 19. 
5 Bannerman, David A., M.B.E., Sc.D., F.R.S.E. {Chairman, 

1932-1935) ; British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell 

Road, S.W. 7. 
Barclay- Smith, Miss Phyllis (Committee) ; 51 Warwick 

Avenue, W. 9. 
Barrington, Frederick J. F., M.S., F.R.C.S. ; 48 Wimpole 

Street, W. 1. 
Benson, Captain C. W. ; c/o Secretariat, Zomba, Nyasaland. 
Best, Miss M. G. S. ; 10 a Cresswell Place, S.W. 10. 
10 Boorman, S. ; Heath Farm, Send, Woking, Surrey. 

Boyd, A. W., M.C. ; Frandley House, near North wich, Cheshire, 
Brown, George ; Combe Manor, Hungerford, Berks. 
Buxton, Anthony ; Knighton, Buckhurst Hill, Essex. 
Campbell, Dr. James W. ; Layer Marney Hall, Kelvedon, 

15 Cave. Colonel F. O. ; Stoner Hill, Petersfield, Hants. 

Chapin, Dr. James P. ; Musee du Congo Beige, Tervueren, 

Belgium ; and American Museum of Natural History, 

Central Park, New York City, U.S.A. 
Chapman, F. M. ; American Museum of Natural History, 

Central Park, New York City, U.S.A. 
Charteris, Hon. G. L. ; 24 Oxford Square, W. 2. 
Chasen, Frederick N. ; Raffles Museum, Singapore. 
20 Chislett, Ralph ; Larkspur, 42 Broom Crescent, Rotherham, 



Clancey, P. A. ; 9 Craig Road, Cathcart, Glasgow, S. 4. 
Clarke, Brig.-General Goland van Holt, C.M.G., D.S.O. ; 

Maudlyn House, Steyning, Sussex. 
Clarke, John P. Stephenson ; Broadhurst Manor, Horsted 

Keynes, Sussex. 
Clarke, Col. Stephenson Robert, C.B. ; Borde Hill, Cuck- 

field, Sussex. 
25 Cleave, Henry P. O. ; Mansfield House, Kendrick Road, 

Conover, H. B. ; 6 Scott Street, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. 
Cunningham, Josias ; Drinagh, Kensington Road, Knock, 

Delacour, Jean ; New York Zoological Park, Bronx, N.Y. 

City, U.S.A. 
Dewhurst, Lieut. -Col. F. W., R.M. ; Wisdome Cot, Corn- 
wood, S. Devon. 
30 Dobie, William Henry, M.R.C.S. ; 32 St. Martin's Fields, 

Duncan, Arthur Bryce ; Gilchristlands, Closeburn, Dum- 
Ellis, H. W. ; Friary Hill, Wey bridge, Surrey. 
Ellis, Ralph, F.L.S. ; 2420 Ridge Road, Berkeley, California, 

Ezra, A., O.B.E. ; Foxwarren Park, Cobham, Surrey. 
35 Fisher, James ; Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, 

N.W. 8. 
Fisher, Kenneth ; School House, Oundle, Northamptonshire. 
Flower, Major S. S. (Chairman, 1930-1932) ; 27 Park Road, 

Tring, Herts. 
Foulkes-Roberts, Captain P. R., M.C. ; Westwood, Goring - 

on-Thames, Oxon ; and c/o The Administrator of the 

Colony, Lagos, Nigeria. 
Gilbert, Captain H. A. ; Bishopstone, near Hereford. 
40 Glegg, W. E. ; c/o Zool. Mus., Tring, Herts. 

Glenister, A. G. ; The Barn House, East Blatchington, 

Seaford, Sussex. 
Godman, Miss Eva ; South Lodge, Horsham, Sussex. 
Grant, Captain C. H. B. (Vice -Chairman) ; The Cottage, 

15a Emperor's Gate, S.W. 7, 


Gyldenstolpe, Count Nils ; Royal (Natural History) 

Museum, Stockholm, Sweden. 
45 Hachisuka, The Marquess ; Mita Shiba, Tokio, Japan. 

Hale, Rev. Jambs R., M.A. ; Yalding Vicarage, Maidstone, 

Harrison, Bernard Guy {Committee) ; 45 St. Martin's Lane, 

W.C. 2. 
Harrison, James M., D.S.C., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. ; Bowerwood 

House, St. Botolph's Road, Sevenoaks, Kent. 
Heath, R. E. ; 2 Pembroke Court, Edwardes Square, W. 8. 
50 Hett, Geoffrey Seccombe, M.B., F.R.C.S. ; 86 Brook 

Street, Grosvenor Square, W. 1. 
Hodgkjn, Mrs. T. Edward ; Old Ridley, Stocksfield, North- 
Hollom, P. A. D. ; Rolverden, Hook Heath, Woking, 

Hopkinson, Emilius, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.B. ; Wynstay, 

Balcombe, Sussex. 
Hutson, Lieut-Col. H. P. W., R.E. ; Chatham House, Rome 

Gardens, Abassia, Cairo, Egypt. 
55 Inglis, C. McFarlane ; Natural History Museum, Darjiling, 

Ingram, Capt. Collingwood ; The Grange, Benenden, 

Oanbrook, Kent. 
Jabouille, Pierre ; c/o Monsieur J. Delacour, New York 

Zoological Society, New York, U.S.A. 
James, Miss Celia K., Blake's Wood, Barnt Green, Worcester. 
Jeffrey, T. C. ; Thorpe Grange, Ashbourne, Derbyshire. 
60 Jordan, Dr. Karl ; Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 

Joy, Norman H., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. ; 65 Rock Avenue, 

Gillingham, Kent. 
Kinnear, Norman B. {Hon. Secretarij) ; British Museum 

(Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W. 7. 
Kuroda, The Marquis Nagamichi ; Fukuyoshicho, Akasaka, 

Tokio, Japan. 
Leach, Miss E. P. (Committee) ; 94, Kensington Court, W. 8. 
65 Lewis, John Spedan ; Leckford Abbess, Stockbridge, 



Longfield, Miss Cynthia ; 20 Pont Street, S.W. 1. 

Low, George Carmichael, M.A., M.D., CM., F.R.C.P. 

(Editor of the ' Bulletin ') ; 7 Kent House, Kensington 

Court, Kensington, W. 8. 
Lowe, P. R., O.B.E., M.B., B.C. {Chairman, 1927-1930) ; 

Parkland, Burley, Ringwood, Hants. 
Lynes, Rear-Admiral Hubert, R.N., C.B., C.M.G. ; 57 

Victoria Road, Kensington, W. 6. 
70 Mackenzie, John M. D., B.A., C.M.Z.S. ; Sidlaw Fur Farm, 

Tullach Ard, Be aggie, Perthshire. 
McKittrick, T. H. ; Bank for International Settlements, 

sle, Q ^'tzerland. 
Mack YORTH-1 . Jin5< Major C. W. ; Castletop, Burley, near 

Ringwood, Hants. «fc 

Macmillan, Captain W. E. F. ; 42 Onslow Square, S W. 7. 
McNeile, J. H. ; Nonsuch, Bromham, Chippenham, vVilts. 
75 Macpherson, D. W. K. ; P.O., Lilongwe, Nyasaland. 

Mansfield, The Right Hon. the Earl of; Scone Palace, 

Manson-Bahr, Sir Philip, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.D., F.R.C.P. ; 

149 Harley Street, W. 1. 
Mathews, G. M., C.B.E., F.R.S.E., H.F.A.O.U. (Chairman, 

1935-1938) ; Meadway, St. Cross, Winchester, Hants. 
Mavrogordato, J. G. ; Mariners, Westerham, Kent. 
80 May, W. Norman, M.D. ; The White House, Sonning, 

Mayaijd, Noel ; Le Lys, par le Puy-Notre-Dame, Maine-et- 

Loire, France. 
Meiklejohn, Col. R. F., D.S.O. ; Lodge Farm, Melton, 

Woodbridge, Suffolk. 
Meinertzhagen, Colonel R., D.S.O. ; 17 Kensington Park 

Gardens, W. 11. 
Momiyama, Toku Taro ; 1146 Sasazka, Yoyohata-mati, 

Tokio, Japan. 
85 Mtjnn, P. W. ; c/o British Consulate, Lisbon, Portugal. 
Murton, Mrs. C. D. ; Cranbrook Lodge, Cranbrook, Kent. 
Musselwhite, D. W. ; 59 Mayford Road, Wandsworth 

Common, S.W. 12. 


Naumburg, Mrs. W. W. ; 121 East 64th Street, New York 

City, U.S.A. 
Newman, T. H. ; Verulam, 46 Forty Avenue, Wembley Park, 

90 Nicholson, E. M. ; 13 Upper Cheyne Row, S.W. 3. 

North, Captain M. E. W. ; c/o Secretariat, Nairobi, Kenya. 
Osmaston, Bertram Beresford ; 116 Banbury Road, 

Pakenham, R. H. W. ; Kingsley, Hurtis Hill, Crowborough, 

Sussex ; and c/o Secretariat, ZanzibA Eastern Africa. 
Paulson, C. W. G. ; Woodside Cottage, Wheeler's Lane, 

Smallfield, Surrey. ,,_, & 

95 Peall, Mrs. Oscar ; Oare, Marlborough, Wilts. 

Pease, H. J. R. (Cc nmittee) ; The Savile Club, 69 Brook 

Street, W. 1 
Phillips, A. S. ; Frewin's Close, South Stoke, Reading, Berks. 
Pitman, Capt. C. R. S., D.S.O., M.C. ; c/o Grindlay & Co., 

54 Parliament Street, S.W. 1. 
Popham, Hugh Leyborne, M.A. ; Hunstrete House, Pensford, 

100 Priestley, Mrs. J. B. ; Broxwood Court Hostel, Leominster, 

Rhodes, Miss G. M. ; Hildersham Hall, Cambridge. 
Rickett, C. B. ; 27 Kendrick Road, Reading, Berks. 
Riviere, B. B., F.R.C.S. ; The Old Hall, Woodbastwick, 

Rooke, K. B. ; 18 Wharncliffe Road, Boscombe, Bourne- 
mouth, Hants. 
105 Sandeman, R. G.^C. C. ; Dan-y-parc, Crickhowell, Brecon. 
Schauensee, R. M. de ; Devon, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 
Schouteden, Dr. H. ; Musee du Congo Beige, Tervueren, 

Sclater, William Lutley, M.A. (Chairman, 1918-1924) ; 

10 Sloane Court, S.W. 3. 
Seth-Smith, David ; " Brabourne," Poyle Road, Guildford. 
no Sherriff, Albert ; 8 Ranulf Road, Hampstead, N.W. 2. 

Simonds, Major Maurice H, ; Fines Baylewick, Binfield, 



Sladen, Major A. G. Lambart, M.C. (Hon. Treasurer) ; 

Horsenden Manor, Princes Risborough, Bucks ; and 

39 St. James's Street, S.W. 1. 
Sparrow, Col. R., C.M.G., D.S.O. ; The Lodge, Colne Engaine, 

Earls Colne, Essex. 
Steuart, Mrs. Ronald ; The Old Rectory, North Fambridge, 

Chelmsford, Essex. 
115 Stevens, Herbert ; Clovelly, Beaconsfield Road, Tring, 

Stevens, Noel ; Walcot Hall, Lydbury North, Salop. 
Stonor, Lieut. C. R. ; British Museum (Natural History), 

Cromwell Road, S.W. 7. 
Taka-Tsukasa, Prince Nobusuke ; 1732 Sanchome, Kami- 

meguro, Meguro-Ku, Tokio, Japan. 
Thomson, A. Landsborough, C.B., O.B.E., D.Sc., F.R.S.E. 

(Chairman) ; 16 Tregunter Road, S.W. 10. 
120 Ticehurst, N. F., O.B.E., M.B., F.R.C.S. ; 24 Pevensey 

Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex. 
Tucker, B. W., M.A. (V ice-Chairman) ; 9 Marston Ferry 

Road, Oxford. 
Turtle, Lancelot J. ; 17-21 Castle Place, Belfast. 
Urquhart, Capt. Alastair, D.S.O. ; Latimer Cottage, 

Latimer, Chesham, Bucks. 
van Someren, Dr. V. G. L. ; P.O. Box 1682, Nairobi, Kenya 

125 Vincent, J. ; " Firle," Mooi River, Natal, South Africa. 

Wade, Major G. A., M.C. ; St. Quintin, Sandy Lane, Newcastle- 

under-Lyme, Staffs. 
Wait, W. E., C.M.G., C.F.A.O.U. ; Applegarth, Aldbury, 

near Tring, Herts. 
Waite, Herbert William, CLE. ; c/o Messrs. Grindlay & 

Co., Ltd., Bombay, India. 
Ware, R. ; Leafwood, Frant, Tunbridge Wells, Kent. 
130 Watt, Mrs. H. Winifred Boyd, F.Z.S. ; at Holmbury, 12 

Campbell Road, Boscombe, Bournemouth, Hants. 
Whistler, Hugh, J.P., F.Z.S., F.L.S. ; Caldbec House, 

Battle, Sussex, 


White, Charles M. N. ; Park-View, Garstang Road, 

Broughton, near Preston, Lanes. 
Wish art, E. E. ; Marsh Farm, Bins ted, Arundel, Sussex. 
Witherby, Harry F., M.B.E. (Chairman, 1924-1927); 

Gracious Pond Farm, Chobham, near Woking, Surrey. 
135 Workman, William Hughes ; Lismore, Windsor Avenue, 

Worms, Charles de ; Milton Park, Egham, Surrey. 
137 Yamashina, The Marquis ; 49 Minami Hiradei, Shikuya-ku, 

Tokio, Japan. 

Total number of Members 137 


[Members are specially requested to keep the Hon. Secretary 
informed of any changes in their addresses, and those 
residing abroad should give early notification of coming home 
on leave.] 

vol. Lxn. 



Accounts, Statement of 3 

Annual General Meeting 1 

Borucki, Dr. Jul. 

The Preservation of Nature in Poland 19-27 

Clancey, P.A. 

The Iceland Redwing in Essex 18 

An interesting specimen of Certhia familiaris collected in 

Suffolk 53-54 

On the Races of the Rock-Pipit in Western Europe 57-58 

A new race of Wren {Troglodytes troglodytes meinertzhageni) 

from France 08-69 

Committee for 1941-1942 4 

Fisher, J. 

The Birds of Rockall, as shown by photographs and 
observations taken by the Royal Air Force. Text-figs. 1-4. 5-12 

Glegg, W. E. 

White Wagtail off Rockall 38-39 

Grant, Capt. C. H. B., and Major C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 
Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

1. On the type-locality of Balearica pavonina pavonina . . 13 

2. On the type-locality of Charadrius marginatus 13 

3. On the type-locality of PoicepJmlus robustus 13-14 

4. On the distribution of Eremomela canescens in E. Africa 14 

5. On the races and plumages of Heliolais erythroptera 

and the status of Heliolais castanopsis 15-17 


A new Genus of Red-capped Warbler (Scepomycter) from 

Tanganyika Territory . . - 30 

A new Race of Bracken Warbler (Sathrocercus cinnmnomea 
ufipae) from Tanganyika Territory, and a new race of 
Moustache Warbler (Melocichla mentalis granvik'i) from 
Abyssinia 30-31 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the status of Ortygops macmillani 32 

2. The distribution of Apalis murina murina and A. m. 

youngi 32-33 

3. On the races of Melocichla mentalis 33-35 

A new race of Blue Swallow (Hirundo atrocserulea lynesi) 

from Tanganyika Territory 43-45 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 

1. On the type-locality of Pogonias minor 46 

2. On the distribution of Eremomela scotops 46-47 

3. On the exact type-locality of Cisticola chiniana ukamba 47 

4. On the relationship of Hirundo rustica rustica, Hirundo 

lucida and Hirundo angolensis 47 

5. On the races of Hirundo senegalensis 48-49 

6. On the relationship of Ptyonoprognefuligula, P. rujlgula, 

and P. obsoleta 49-50 

7. On the status of Ptyonoprogne rufigula fusciventris .... 50-51 
A new race of the Smaller Striped Swallow (Hirundo 

abyssinica bannemiani) from the Sudan 54-55 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

1. On the conspecific status of Budytes flava, B. luteus, 

and B. feldegg 58-59 

2. On Apalis alticola 59 

3. On the races of Calamonastes simplex, and the status 

of C. simplex neglectus 59-60 

4. On Riparia riparia fuscocollaris 60 

5. On the specific status of Dicrurus adsimilis and 

D. modestus 61 

6. On the exact type -locality of Dicrurus adsimilis 61 

7. On the Eastern African races of Dicrurus ludwigii. . . . 61-62 

8. On the type-locality of Prionops poliocephala 62 

Notes on Eastern African Birds : — 
On the occurrence of Riparia cincta cincta in Eastern 
Africa 67-68 


The introduction of the Indian House-Crow into Port 

Sudan 55-56 

Common Bittern from Nigeria 56 


Lack, D. 

Length of life in Robins 41 

A film of the Galapagos Islands 66 

Leach, Miss E. P. 

White Wagtail off Rockall 17 

Macdonald, J. D. 

Three new races of Long-Tails from Africa. (Prinia 
superciliosa desertse, P. s. bechuanse, and P. s. ovampensis) . . 27-29 

Mackworth-Praed, Major C. W. (See under Grant, Capt. 
C. H. B.) 

Meeting, Annual General 1 

Moreau, R. E. 

A new race of Yellow-streaked Bulbul (Phyllastrephus 
flavostriatus kungwensis), and a new race of Yellow- 
moustached Bulbul (Stelgidocichla latirostris australis) from 
Tanganyika Territory 29-30 

New races of Slaty Flycatcher (Dioptromis fischeri ufipse), 
Bracken- Warbler (Bradypterus alfredi kungwensis), and a 
Grey-headed Negro -Finch (Nigrita canicapilla Candida), from 
Tanganyika Territory 41-43 

A new race of Brown-chested Alethe (Alethe poliocephtda 
ufipse) from Tanganyika Territory 54 


Two new races Smithornis capensis shimba and S. c. 
chyulu from Kenya Colony 35-37 

Whistler, H. 

Races of Black-headed Babbler in Ceylon, with a new race 

Rhopocichla atriceps siccatus 37-38 

A new race Pomatorhinus horsfieldii holdsworthi with 
races occurring in Ceylon 51-52 

^U" 1 , 






Chairman : Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson. 

This was held at the Rembrandt Hotel at 2.30 p.m. on 
Saturday, October 18, 1941, preceded by a luncheon at 
1.30 p.m. ; 25 Members present. 

1. The minutes of the last General Meeting, held at the 
Rembrandt Hotel at 2.30 p.m. on Saturday, October 12, 1940, 
were read, confirmed and signed. 

2. Mr. N. B. Kinnear, the Honorary Secretary, read his 
report for the past Session 1940-1941 : — 

He said that the number of members showed a further 
decrease (153 to 144). The following members had died : — 
H. B. Booth, G-. H. Caton-Haigh, P. W. Reynolds and 
Dr. C. B. Ticehurst. 

Six members, W. B. Alexander, Mrs. E. C. Barnes, H. D. 
Cunynghame, Miss J. Ferrier, Mrs. D. Micholls and H. 
Whitley, had resigned, and again no new members had joined 
the Club. 

It had not been possible to hold the usual meetings of the 
Club on Wednesday evenings owing to the black-out and 
general conditions prevailing. Instead of this, five meetings had 
been held on Saturday afternoons, viz., in October, December, 
February, April and June, and this new arrangement had 
proved satisfactory, the attendances being as follows : — 

[November 20, 1941.] « vol. lxii. 

Vol. Ixii.] 2 [1941. 

72 members, 11 members of the B. 0. U., 2 guests of the Club 
and 25 other guests, a total of 1 10. 

A luncheon was substituted for the usual dinner, and this 
gave the members a chance of seeing and speaking to each 
other before the meeting. The life of the Club, though in a 
diminished form, was thus maintained. 

The Report was approved. 

3. Major A. G-. Lambart Sladen, the Honorary Treasurer, 
sent his Annual Report for the Session 1940-1941. He said : — 

In submitting the Financial Statement of the British 
Ornithologists' Club for the twelve months ended August 31, 
1941, I think members may congratulate themselves on the 
sound financial position, having regard to the very difficult 
times through which we are now passing. 

It will be seen from it that although subscriptions from 
members are slightly reduced owing to resignations, deaths, 
etc., the balance of cash in hand and in invested funds amounts 
to £847 175. M. as against £776 6s. 3d. for the last year. The 
improved balance is due largely to the reduction in cost of 
printing and distribution of publications and the ' Bulletin ', 
which have been considerably curtailed owing to present 

The difficulty of collecting subscription? from foreign 
members is naturally considerable, though our American 
friends have been in continual communication with us through- 
out the war. 

It should also be noted that the National Savings Certificates 
and 3j per cent. War Loan held on behalf of the Club, are 
shown in the Balance Sheet at cost, though their present-day 
value is substantially greater. 

The Balance Sheet will, as usual, be printed in and issued 
with the coming number of the ' Bulletin '. 

The Report was approved. 

4. Election of Officers. 

In view of the present restriction of the Club's activities 
and the small number of members able to take part in them, 
the Committee consider that office-bearers who continue to be 


[Vol. lxii. 


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available should be retained. The following Resolution was 
accordingly moved : — " That the provisions of Rule 1 as 
regards non-eligibility for immediate re-election to office be 
suspended during the war." 

Subject to the above, the Committee recommend that the 
Chairman (Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson) and Vice-Chairmen 
(Captain C. H. B. Grant and Mr. B. W. Tucker) be re-elected 
for a further year. 

The Committee also recommend that the Hon. Secretary 
(Mr. N. B. Kinnear) and the Hon. Treasurer (Major A. G. 
Lambart Sladen) be re-elected for next year, and that Miss 
E. P. Leach be elected to the Committee in place of Mr. P. A. D. 

The Meeting unanimously adopted these suggestions. 

The Chairman proposed a vote of thanks to the Hon. 
Treasurer, the Hon. Secretary and Editor for the trouble they 
had taken in keeping the affairs of the Club going in the 
difficult times we were passing through. This was carried 
with acclamation. 

5. Arrangements for Session. 

The Meeting was strongly in favour of holding meetings, 
where possible, throughout the winter and spring. It was 
resolved to hold them bi-monthly, as in the last Session, the 
dates to be decided by the Officers of the Club. 

Due notice of such decisions would be forwarded to the 
members of the Club from time to time. 

This concluded the business. 

Committee 1941-42. 

Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, Chairman (elected 1938). 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant, Vice-Chairman (elected 1940). 

Mr. B. W. Tucker, V ice-Chairman (elected 1940). 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low, Editor (elected 1940). 

Mr. N. B. Kinnear, Hon. Secretary (elected 1940). 

Major A. G. Lambart Sladen, lion. Treasurer (elected 1936). 

Mr. H. J. R. Pease (elected 1939). 

Miss Phyllis Barclay- Smith (elected 1940). 

Mr. B. G. Harrison (elected 1940). 

Miss E. P. Leach (elected 1941). 

1941.] 5 [Vol. lxii. 


The four-hundred-and-thirty-fourth Meeting of the Club 
was held at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, 
at 3 p.m., on Saturday, October 18, 1941, immediately after 
the Annual General Meeting. 

Chairman : Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson. 

Members present : — Miss P. Barclay- Smith ; Miss M. G. 
Best ; A. Ezra ; J. Fisher ; Miss E. M. Godman ; Capt. 
C. H. B. Grant (Vice-Chairman) ; Dr. J. M. Harrison ; 
Dr. E. Hopkinson ; N. H. Joy ; N. B. Kinnear {Hon. Sec.) ; 
Miss E. P. Leach ; Miss C. Longfield ; Dr. G. Carmichael 
Low (Editor) ; Dr. P. R. Lowe ; Sir P. Manson-Bahr ; 
H. J. R. Pease ; Mrs. J. B. Priestley ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; 
W. L. Sclater ; D. Seth-Smith ; Col. R. Sparrow ; B. W. 
Tcjcker (Vice-Chairman); Mrs. H. M. Boyd Watt; H. P. 

Guests : — Miss C. L. Crompton ; C. T. Dalgety ; Miss L. P. 
Grant ; G. E. Lodge ; Miss C. Popham ; B. B. Roberts ; 
Mrs. Sparrow ; M. Stewart ; Miss M. van Oostveen ; 
H. G. Vevers ; J. S. Watson ; Mrs. H. F. Witherby. 

Members, 25 ; Guests, 12. Total, 37. 

Mr. James Fisher, M.A., M.B.O.U. (by permission of the 
Coastal Command), made a communication on the birds of 
Rockall, and other inaccessible sea-bird stations, as shown by 
aerial photographs taken by the Royal Air Force. 

The Birds of Rockall as shown by photographs and 
observations taken by the Royal Air Force. 

The history of Rockall*, that remote and romantic stack 
in the North Atlantic, over 150 miles west of St. Kilda, has 
been obscure and conflicting. At all events this was so as 
regards its birds. Several species have, at one time or another, 
been reported on the rock itself by observers of complete 
reliability such as Harvie-Brown and Barrington (2) and by 
others less accurate or truthful. It was with the 
intention of finding out the present status of the birds of 

* Previously, Rockall was held to lie at 57° 40' N., 13° 80' W., but 
I understand new observations have lately " shifted " it some miles. 

Vol. lxii.] 6 [1941. 

Rockall that in April, 1941, I approached the Commander-in- 
Chief, Coastal Command, Royal Air Force, and enquired 
whether aircraft of his Command were likely to be in the 
neighbourhood of the rock, and whether (if so) they would be 
able to make observations and take photographs. The happy 
results of this request for information, which was granted in 
a most prompt and friendly manner, are set out in this com- 

It is necessary, first of all, to set out what has already been 
recorded about Rockall's birds. 

1810. On July 8 of this year Hall (io), who landed from 
H.M.S. Endymion, described the top of the rock as 
white with the droppings of sea-birds, and specifically 
mentions Gannets as among the " throng " of birds 
present. He did not state whether birds were on 
the rock at the time of his visit, or flying round it. 
(For the true date of this visit, sometimes erroneously 
recorded as 1811, Purdy (12) is the authority.) 

1819. On May 24 Fisher (7) saw numbers of birds in the 
neighbourhood, but did not aj3proach close enough to 
see what birds (if any) were on the rock, though he 
noted the whiteness of the droppings on the top. 

c. 1831. Capt. Vidal's chart, made in about this year (3), 
mentions that "the summit is made white by birds ''. 

c. 1855. On November 1, 1894, an account was taken down 
from a sailor who was on a private yacht from which 
a party landed " about 39 years ago " (1). This 
party was stated to have shot a quantity of Cor- 
morants, Kitti wakes and Sea- Gulls on Rockall. 

1869. T. Blanche of Shetland told of a visit in this year (3) 
on which " no bird is seen near it ... . unless the 
Mollymak .... they are of a greyish-white colour." 

1887. A year of much activity, real and imaginary. In 
early July (2) D. Davidson of the Dolphin, or Delpkine, 
landed, and his crew, according to Andresen, an eye- 
witness, brought off a boat-load of eggs (1), but 
according to P. Jakobsen (13) saw no eggs, only 

1941.] 1 [Vol. lxil. 

young. It seems clear that this record of " no eggs, 
only young " applies more truthfully to the situation 
at the time of the landing of J. M. Peterson from 
the Gauntlet, three weeks later, but in the same 
month, particularly since a Guillemot's egg, stated 
to be via the Delphine, was collected. 

Some way off the rock Andresen saw " dark grey 

Capt. E. Freshwater of the Undine (2) told J. 
Cordeaux that he also landed in this year. He 
recorded that birds were very numerous, and that the 
most numerous on Rockall were " Rockall Lyres " 
(lyre is the Faeroe word for Shearwater (13)), 
" Willocks " (Guillemots), Puffins, Gannets, Kitti- 
wakes, other Gulls, and probably Fulmars. 

Further, also in this year, Capt. J. Hansen was 
alleged by H. C. Miiller (1) to have landed and seen 
and taken Briinnich's Guillemot, Razorbill, Fulmar 
and Great Shearwater (the latter was stated to have 
eggs deep in holes in the rock). It is clear, however 
(2), that he never landed. 
1888. On May 7 or 8 D. Davidson of the Dolphin, this time 
with his brother Ole, climbed Rockall (2). P. 
Jakobsen was also among the six men who made the 
landing (13). 400 eggs* were stated to have been 
collected, all of Guillemots ; large numbers of Great 
Shearwaters and Fulmars were seen flying at sea, 
close by. 

In about this year Capt. Leo of the Great Surprise 
is alleged (3) to have landed. He stated that he took 
about 10 dozen eggs, and that another smack 
(? Dolphin) had done the same. An egg supposed to 
have been taken in this lot was passed to Buckley ; 
it was a Guillemot's egg. 
1891. In this year an anonymous writer in 'Chambers' 
Journal ' | claims to have landed on Rockall and seen 
Kittiwakes, Herring and Lesser Black-backed Gulls, 

* This does not fit very well with what is known of the Guillemot's 
breeding season, 
t For March, 1892. 

Vol. lxii.] 8 [1941. 

Puffins, Razorbills, Guillemots (an occasional Little 
Auk amongst them), Petrels, Terns, a Skua and a 
Fulmar. On being tackled by the editors of the 
' Annals of Scottish Natural History ' (4) the gentle- 
man concerned was forced to admit that " I never 
was at Rockall ". 
c. 1894. A Grimsby fisherman told John Cordeaux (1) that 
in about this year Rockall was " covered by birds' 
dung ". Grey seals frequented the rocks [all other 
eye-witnesses either do not mention seals, or specifically 
comment on their absence]. " Gulls, Cormorants, 
Gannets and many other sorts of birds nest there, also 
Kittiwakes ". 
1896. In this year the only expedition to Rockall that has 
included scientific ornithologists among its personnel 
set sail. The ship, with Harvie-Brown and Bra- 
rington (2) and Green (9) on board, was in sight of 
Rockall on June 6, 7 and 15. It was not possible to 
land. The birds seen on the rock were : — 

200-250 Guillemots on the only ledge on which 

they could breed (see 1941). 
c. 30 Puffins sitting in weathered holes (not suitable 

for breeding in). 
50 Kittiwakes, all immature ; one carried ? nest- 

10 Gannets, 8 of them in immature plumage. 
1 or 2 Razorbills, possibly (not clear whether on 
lock, or among Auks seen at sea close to the 
Fulmars and Great Shearwaters were seen at sea 
close to Rockall, but were not seen on it. 

1921. In this year Dr. Charcot's Pourquoi-Pas ? (5, 8) paid 
a visit to Rockall. On June 29 an ex- circus clown 
named Moussard was on the lock for half an hour. 
On July 1 a second landing was made by Pierre 
Le Conte and a member of the crew, Bonnichon. 
Charcot writes that Le Conte, helped by " indications " 
furnished by their naturalist, M. Hamel, brought off a 

1941.] 9 [Vol. lxii. 

series of details and observations on the " emplace- 
ments " occupied by the different species of birds. 

The statement was that birds lived by " milliers " 
on the rock, and belonged to five different species, 
viz. : — 

la mouette tridactyle (Kittiwake). 

le puffin majeur ou a face blanche (Great Shear- 
water) . 

le macareux moine (Puffin). 

le fou de Bassan (Gannet). 

le guillemot a capuchin (Guillemot). 
Gladstone (8), who had correspondence with Charcot, 
was told by him that there were " quelques sula 
bassana sur le sommet ", and that Guillemots, Puffins 
and Kittiwakes were also present. In this correspon- 
dence Charcot did not mention the Great Shearwater 
as on the rock ; and for its appearance in M. Le Conte's 
" details " we must, I think, blame the previous 
" indications " of M. Hamel. Of course the Great 
Shearwater did not occupy any " emplacement " on 
Rockall, and never has done so, to the best of any 
reliable person's knowledge. 
1941. During the summer of 1941 aircraft of the Coastal 
Command, Royal Air Force, flew over Rockall 
several times. On five of these occasions photographs 
were taken of the rock from different angles, and in 
some cases observations were made. The great, 
broad ledge, on the S.W. side, visible in these photo- 
graphs must be " the only ledge on which Guillemots 
could breed " of Harvie-Brown and Barrington (2) 
in 1896. On these photographs only Gannet s, 
Kittiwakes and Guillemots can be surely detected 
sitting on, or flying on to, near or off the rock, though 
a bird, flying near Rockall, in one of the photographs 
taken on July 3, may be a Fulmar. The details of 
the counts of identifiable birds on these photographs 
are as follows : — 
(1) June 19. 1 Gannet on top rock ; 48-53 Guillemots on 
S.W. ledge. 

Vol. kii.] 10 [1941. 

(2) June 23*. c. 7 Kittiwakes on top, 58 at sea ; over 10 

Guillemots on S.W. ledge (fig. 2). 

(3) June 23. c. 15 Gannets and c. 81 Kittiwakes at sea. 

(4) July 3. 1? Gannet on top, 5-7 at sea ; 9-11 Kittiwakes 

at sea ; 26 Guillemots S.W. ledge. 

(5) July 3. 1 ? Gannet at sea ; over 17 Guillemots S.W. 


(6) July 3. 1 ? Gannet on top ; 13 Guillemots S.W. ledge 

(fig. 3). 

(7) July 18 f- 5-11 Guillemots S.W. ledge. 

(8) July 18. 10-13 Guillemots S.W. ledge. 

(9) Aug. 7. c. 150 Kittiwakes on top and sides and at sea { 

(%• 4). 


Gannet. Probably 1 on top, c. 15 off{, June 19 ; probably 
1 on top, c. 6 off, July 3 ; none July 18 or August 7. Certainly 
not breeding. 

Kittiwake. None June 19 ; c. 7 on top, c. 81 off, June 23 : 
c. 10 off July 3 ; ? 15 off July 18 ; c. 140 on top and sides 
and at sea August 7. Certainly not breeding. 

Guillemot. All sitting on S.W. ledge, a suitable breeding 
place; c. 50 June 19 ; over 10 June 23 ; up to 26 July 3 ; 
25-30 July 18 ; none August 7. Possibly breeding. 

* On this date an observer in the aircraft records '' impossible to 
give the different species as birds were so numerous that it was dangerous 
to go too close. Numerous birds were sitting on the water around 
the rock when we first approached. The top of the rock was well 
covered by birds, far too many to count or distinguish one from 
another .... the only one that was recognized at all was the Gannet, 
of which I saw several in flight ". 

f O n this day an observer noted fifteen birds flying round Rockall, 
of undetermined species (but not Gannets), and 25-30 birds sitting 
on the S.W. ledge — ■" Guillemots or Razorbills, but most probably 
former ". 

J " At sea " or " off " means flying near the rock, about to land, 
or taking off. 

BULL. B.O.C. 1941 

Fig. 1. — General view of Rockall, looking N.N.E. (i. e., view of S.S.W. 
side) ; taken July 3, 1941. R.A.F. Official photo. Crown Copyright 

Fig. 3.— Rockall, looking N.W. (i. e., view of S. 
and Guillemots on rock ; taken July 3, 
photo. Crown Copyright Reserved. 

& E. sides) : ? Gannet 
1941. R.A.F. Official 

BULL. B.O.C. 1941 

Fig. 4. — Rockall, looking E.N.E. (i. e., view 
Kittiwakes ; taken August 7, 1941. 
Crown Copyright Reserved. 

of W.S.W. side) : c. 140 
R.A.F. Official photo. 

Fig. 2.— Rockall, looking N.N.W. (*. e., view of S. & E. sides) : Kitti- 
wakes in air, Guillemots on ledge ; taken June 23, 1941. R.A.F. 
Official photo. Crown Copyright Reserved. 



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Vol ixii.] 12 [l94i. 

It is clear then, that G-annets and Kittiwakes use Rockall 
only as a resting place. Guillemots have probably bred on 
the large S.W. ledge, and may still do so. Razorbills have 
never been proved to have alighted on the rock ; though 
Puffins have done so in the past, they were not observed in 
1941. No other species of bird has ever been reliably reported 
to have landed on Rockall. 

A cknowledgements . 

For obvious reasons, I am not permitted to give details of 
the aircraft, or their pilots and crews, which have flown over 
Rockall. I can, therefore, only make a general acknowledge- 
ment to the Coastal Command ; and I am very grateful to it, 
indeed, for having taken an interest in this problem, for 
having contributed so handsomely to its solution, and for 
having granted permission to reproduce four of the photographs. 


(i) Brown, J. A. Harvie- (1895). Rockall. Proc. Roy. Phys. Sac, 
Edin. xiii. pp. 63-72. 

(2) Brown, J. A. Harvie-, & Barrington, R. M. (1897). On the 

Ornithology of Rockall. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. xxxi. pp. 66-75. 

(3) Brown, J. A. Harvie-, and Buckley, T. E. (1888). 'A Vertebrate 

Fauna of the Outer Hebrides.' Edinburgh. 

(4) Brown, J. A. Harvie-, Trail, J. W. H., & Clarke, W. E. (1892). 

Rockall and its Avifauna. Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist. i. p. 197. 

(5) Charcot, J. B. (1929). ' La Mer du Greenland. Croisieres du 

" Pourquoi Pas ? " ' Paris and Bruges. 

(6) Christy, Miller (1895). ' About Rockall.' Reprinted, with 

additions, from The Yachtsman, May 2. 

(7) Fisher, A. (1821). ' A Journal of a Voyage of Discovery to the 

Arctic Regions in Her Majesty's Ships " Heckla " and 
" Griper " in the Years 1819 and 1820.' London, 4th ed. 

(8) Gladstone, H. S. (1937). Dr. Charcot and the Birds of Rockall. 

Brit. Birds, xxx. pp. 251-53. 

(9) Green, W. S. (1897). Narrative of the Cruise [to Rockall]. 

Trans. Roy. Irish. Acad. xxxi. pp. 39-47. 
(10) Hall, B. (1842). ' Fragments of Voyages and Travels.' Edin- 
burgh, 3rd ed. 

1941.] 13 [Vol. lxii 

(ii) Jones, T. R. (1897). On Rockall and its Previous History. 
Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. xxxi. pp. 89-97. 

(12) Purdy, J. (1845). ' Memoirs, descriptive and explanatory, to 

accompany the Charts of the Northern Atlantic Ocean.' 9th ed., 
ed. A. G. Findlay. 

(13) Vevers, H. G. Personal communication. 

(14) Vidal, Capt. (1831). Admiralty Chart no. 2700. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Major C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following five notes : — 

(1) On the Type-locality of Balearica pavonina pavonina 


Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. 1758, p. 141, gives only Africa, but also 
gives references to Aldrovandi, Orn. vol. iii. 1599, lxx. chap. 6 ; 
Willoughby, Orn. 1676, p. 201, pi. 48; and two others. 
Aldrovandi gives no locality, but Willoughby states that 
this bird comes from Cape Verde. 

We can, therefore, fix the type-locality of Balearica pavonina 
'pavonina (Linn.) as Cape Verde, Senegal. 

(2) On the Type-locality of Charadrius marginatus Vieillot, 

N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxvii. 1818, p. 138. 

Vieillot gives no locality, nor does he give any reference to 
other authors. The next author to mention this bird is 
Wagler, Syst. Av. sp. 28, 1827, who gives locality as Cape of 
Good Hope. 

We can therefore accept this as the type-locality of Cha- 
radrius marginatus Vieillot, and propose to restrict it to the 
Cape Peninsula. 

(3) On the Type-locality of Poicephalus robustus (Gmelin). 

In the Syst, Av. ^Ethiop. i. 1924, p. 198, Sclater states 
that the type-locality is unknown, and we cannot find that 
any author has fixed one for this Parrot, 

Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. pt. 1, 1788, p. 344, gives no locality, 
but gives one reference to Lath. Syn. vol. I, i. no. 100, 1781, 
p. 296 : no locality. 

Vol. lxii.] 14 [1941. 

The next references in priority of date are :— 

Latham, Ind. Orn. i. 1790, p. 112, no. 94 : no locality. 

Lichtenstein, Cat. rer. rariss. Hamb. 1793, p. 6, who, under 
his Psittacus cafer, gives Cafferland. 

We can therefore fix the type-locality of Poicephalus robustus 
(Gmelin) as Eastern Cape Province. 

(4) On the Distribution of Eremomela canescens Antinori in 
Eastern Africa. 

Eremomela canescens canescens Antinori. 

Eremomela canescens Antinori, Cat. Coll. Ucc. March 1864, 
p. 38 : Djur River, Bahr-el-Ghazal, south-western Sudan ; of 
which Eremomela elegans elgonensis van Someren, Bull. B. O. C. 
xl. 1920, p. 92 : Kibingei, south Elgon, western Kenya Colony, 
is a sjaionym, as we can see no character by which this race 
can be distinguished. 

Above, head pale ashy grey ; rest of upper parts bright 
greenish-yellow ; a black streak from base of bill through eye 
to ear- coverts ; below, chin and upper chest white ; chest and 
under tail-coverts and under wing-coverts canary-yellow. 

Distribution. — Southern Sudan, Uganda and western Kenya 

Eremomela canescens elegans Heugl. 

Eremomela elegans Heugl in, J. f. O. July 1804, p. 259 : 
Abyssinia-Sennar boundary. 

Paler above than E. c. canescens and has a slight white 
stripe over eye. 

Distribution. — Cameroon to eastern Sudan at Sennar. 

Eremomela canescens abyssinica Bann. 

Eremomela elegans abyssinica Bannerman, Bull. B. O. C. xxix. 
1911, p. 38 : Omo River, south-western Abyssinia. 

Darker above than E. c. canescens and E. c. elegans, more 
olivaceous, less yellow ; no stripe over eye. 

Distribution.— Abyssinia and the Sobat Valley of the Sudan 
and south-west as far as Duk Ayod, south-eastern Upper 
Nile Province, 

1941.] 15 [Vol. lxii. 

(5) On the Races and Plumages of Heliolais erythroptera 
(Jard.) and the Status of Heliolais castanopsis Vincent. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. ii. 1930, p. 566, recognizes six 
races, but casts doubt on Heliolais erythroptera kavirondensis 
van Someren. Vincent, Bull. B. O. C. liii. 1933, p. 139, has 
shown that Heliolais erythroptera Jcirbyi Haagner must become 
a synonym of Heliolais erythroptera rhodoptera (Shelley). 

Although we have not been able to examine specimens 
from the Kavirondo area, and van Someren gives no measure- 
ments, we are of opinion that Heliolais erythroptera kaviron- 
densis will prove to be a synonym of Heliolais erythroptera 
rhodoptera ; the type is an August specimen in " greyish " 
breeding dress, and was compared with the type of Heliolais 
erythroptera major (Blundell & Lo vat), which is a March bird 
in non- breeding dress. 

Vincent, Bull. B. 0. C. liii. 1933, p. 140, described Heliolais 
castanopsis as a new species, comparing it to Heliolais erythro- 
ptera rhodoptera. The character given is the "entire absence 
of any greyish coloration". This character is that of the 
non- breeding dress of Heliolais erythroptera rhodoptera, and of 
which Heliolais castanopsis must become a synonym. Vincent 
gives " sexual organs to winter condition ". 

We are able to recognize four races as follows, all of which 
have a breeding and non-breeding dress : — 

Heliolais erythroptera erythroptera (Jard.). 

Drymoica erythroptera Jardine, Contr. Orn. 1849, p. 15, 
plate : Gold Coast. 

Breeding dress, May-September : Above grey, or vinous- 
grey, bill black. Non- breeding dress, Januarj'-May : Above 
vinous- tawny, bill horn. Wing 52 to 56 mm. Fifteen speci- 
mens examined. 

Two specimens, undated (Brit. Mus. Reg. nos. 1876.5.23.156 
and 1895.5.1.1152), are showing both the breeding and non- 
breeding dress, and one dated April, from Cameroon s (Brit. 
Mus. Reg. no. 1926.8.8.396), has already assumed the black 
bill, but has not started to assume the breeding dress. 

That this race has a breeding and non-breeding dress is well 
known (see Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr. v. 1939, p. 209). 

Vol. Ixii.] 16 [1941. 

The young bird is paler than the adult in non- breeding dress 
and is more vinous- brownish. 
Distribution. — Gold Coast to Nigeria. 

Heliolais erythroptera jodoptera (Heuglin). 

Drymceca jodoptera Heuglin, J. f. O. 1864, p. 258 ; Bongo, 
Bahr-el-Ghazal, south-western Sudan. 

Rather larger, and bill distinctly longer than in H. e. 
erythroptera, but bill not so long as in H. e. major. 

Breeding dress, June- July : Paler than H. e. erythroptera, 
more vinous, bill horn. Non-breeding dress, October-April : 
Darker than H. e. erythroptera, more vinous-chestnut, bill horn. 
Wing 56 to 60 mm. Nine specimens examined. Two speci- 
mens from Wau (Brit, Mus. Reg. nos. 1915.12.24.1067 and 
1922.12.5.2) are very worn but not yet showing signs of 
moulting into the breeding dress. The young bird is a paler 
and more fluffy example of the adult in non-breeding dress. 

Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr. v. 1939, p. 211, give? fize 
only as a character, but, as shown above, there are distinct 
colour differences in both breeding and non-breeding dress 
between this race and H. e. erythroptera, and moreover, it does 
not appear to assume a black bill in breeding dress. 

Distribution. — Cameroon to south-western Sudan. 

Heliolais erythroptera rhodoptera (Shelley). 

Cisticola rhodoptera (Shelley), Ibis, 1880, p. 333 : Usambara 
Hills, north-eastern Tanganyika Territory ; of which Heliolais 
erythroptera kavirondensis van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix. 
1922, p. 218 : Fort Ternan, Kavirondo, western Kenya 
Colony, and Heliolais castanopsis Vincent, Bull. B. O. C. liii. 
1933, p. 140 : Lurio River, northern Portuguese East Africa, 
are synonyms. 

Breeding dress, September-April : Head darker grey than 
in H. e. erythroptera, back more olivaceous-grey and tail more 
olivaceous -brown ; bill horn or black. Non -breeding dress, 
June- August : Above less vinous than either H. e. erythroptera 
and H. e. jodoptera, bill horn. Length of bill in this race as 
in H. e. erythroptera. Only two out of twenty specimens in 
^reeding dress (Brit. Reg. no. 1933.3.1.1383 and Benson Coll. 

1941.] 17 [Vol. lxii. 

no. 354) have blackish or black bills. Wing 47 to 57 mm. 
Thirty-two specimens examined, including the types of 
H. e. rhodoptera and H. castanopsis. In this race the bill in 
breeding dress is variable but appears to be usually horn. The 
young bird is a paler and more fluffy example of the adult in 
non- breeding dress ; the bills are variable, from horn to 
blackish. A young bird from Nyasaland (Benson Coll., 
no. 193, June) is moulting into adult non- breeding dress. 

Distribution. — Western Kenya Colony to Tanganyika Terri- 
tory, Nyasaland, and Portuguese East Africa. 

Heliolais erythroptera major (Blundell & Lovat). 

Orthotomus major Blundell & Lovat, Bull. B. O. C. x. 1899, 
p. 20 : Getemma, eastern Abyssinia. 

Larger and longer billed than the other races. Breeding dress, 
June : Above vinous-brown, bill horn. Non-breeding dress, 
March-April : Above paler vinous-brown, bill horn. Wing 59 
to 63 mm. Six specimens examined, including the type. 

In this race the bill does not appear to change in breeding 
and non-breeding dress. An April bird (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 
1927.11.5.324) is worn and is showing signs of moulting into 
breeding dress. It was in song and " breeding shortly." 

Distribution. — Abyss inia . 

Note. — The breeding and non-breeding months are recorded 
from the specimens examined, and do not necessarily represent 
the full period of the breeding and non-breeding season. 

White Wagtail off Rockail. 

Miss E. P. Leach said that : — 

A White Wagtail (Motacilla a. alba) ringed in Iceland on 
June 16, 1928, was reported by Mr. P. Skovgaard, organizer of 
the Ringing Scheme at Viborg, in Denmark, as having been 
recovered off Rockall on September 5 of the same year. This 
record appeared in ' Danske Fugle ', 1930, but unfortunately 
no details are available as to the capture, though it was 
probably on board a fishing boat. 


Vol. lxii.] 18 [1941. 

The Iceland Redwing in Essex. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note : — 
An example of the Iceland Redwing (Turdus musicus 
coburni Sharpe) was obtained near Halstead, Essex, on 
November 20, 1940. The bird, an adult female with a wing 
measurement of 119-5 mm., was in exceptionally fine plumage. 
This would appear to be the first record for Essex. 
Mr. Clancey hopes to exhibit the specimen at some future 
meeting of the Club. 

The next Meeting of the Club will be held at the Rembrandt 
Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Saturday, December 13, 
1941, at 2 o'clock. This will be preceded by a luncheon at 
1 o'clock. 


1. Dr. Jul. Borucki will give a lecture, illustrated by lantein- 

slides, on " Preservation of Nature in pre-war Poland ". 

2. Captain C. H. B. Grant will exhibit, on behalf of Mr. J. D. 

Macdonald, three new races of Longtails from Africa. 

3. Captain C. H. B. Grant will exhibit, on behalf of Mr. Pv. E. 

Moreau, two new races of Bulbuls from Tanganyika 

4. Captain C. H. B. Grant and Major Mackworth-Praed will 

exhibit a new genus of Warbler, a new race of Swamp- 
Warbler and a new race of Moustached Warbler. 


A&4&9+* • 






The four-hundred-and-thirty-fifth Meeting of the Club 
was held at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, 
on Saturday, December 13, 1941, at 2 p.m. 

Chairman : Captain C. H. B. Grant. 
Members present :— Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; Miss M. G. 
Best; A. Ezra; J. Fisher; Dr. E. Hopkinson ; N. B. 
Kinnear (Hon. Sec.) ; Miss E. P. Leach ; Dr. G. Carmichael 
Low (Editor) ; J. H. McNeile ; Col. R. Meinertzhagen 
T. H. Newman; Miss G. M. Rhodes; D. Seth.Smith 
Dr. A. Lansborough Thomson ; Mrs. H. M. Boyd Watt 


Guest of the Club.— Dr. Jul. Borucki. 
Members, 17 ; Guest of the Club, 1 ; Total, 18. 
No meeting of the Club took place in November. 

The Preservation of Nature in Pre-War Poland. 

Dr. Jul. Borucki, lately Reader in Biology in one of the 
Polish Universities, gave the following lecture, illustrated by 

The importance of the preservation of nature was fully 
recognized by enthusiasts, as soon as reborn Poland in 1918 
began to emerge as an independent state. The deep natural 
attachment of the Pole to his country's soil contributed towards 
helping on the work, and it was not long before the efforts 
of a handful of people were felt throughout the country. 
When, after the last war, Poland began to control her own 
land, she had to deal not only with the effects of the last five 
[December 31, 1941.] c VOL> 

Vol. Ixii.J 20 [1941. 

years of war, but also with the neglect of this long peroid 
of over 120 years of occupation, during which the powers 
in control had troubled little over the particular question 
of the preservation of nature. Fortunately, there had been 
a certain tradition of protection, dating from the days of the 
Old Kingdom of Poland, in connection with certain species 
of fauna and flora. As early as 1423 King Wladislaw Jagiello 
had passed laws protecting the Elk, the Wild Horse, and the 
great yew-forests. King Sigismund, in 1579, had prohibited 
the hunting of the Aurochs, though in spite of this decree 
the species had died out in 1625. The Beaver, and later on 
the Bison, were also protected, hunting-rights becoming an 
exclusively royal prerogative. 

The ideas, therefore, were in existence, rooted in the past, 
and the initiative of private individuals, men of science and 
social understanding, revived and encouraged them. They 
asked themselves what remained of all the splendid heritage 
of Nature which was once to be found in all parts of the 

While in the rest of Europe modern ideas about the preserva- 
tion of nature had developed through the nineteenth century, 
Poland had of necessity remained outside this development. 
However, immediately after the State's revival in 1919 a 
Committee for the Preservation of Nature was set up on the 
initiative of the first Minister of Education, and in 1925 the 
State Council for Nature Preservation was organized. A law 
passed by both parliamentary houses in 1934 enabled practical 
effect to be given to the decisions of this Council. The whole 
organization originated in the initiative of private individuals, 
and fortunately remained independent of the Civil Service. 
The State Council was closely connected with the University 
of Cracow, and with smaller bodies in each of the larger 
University towns, while hundreds of small groups were to be 
found throughout the country. It worked in collaboration, 
too, with some thirty big organizations representing scientific, 
economic, and tourist interests, and there were hundreds of 
local committees, so that even the remotest corners were in 
contact with the central organization. Before long a series 
of publications was begun, and this was extended every year. 

1941.] 21 [Vol. lxii. 

There are, for example, the eighteen large volumes of Ochrona 
Przyrody (' The Protection of Wild Nature '), the six annual 
volumes of the ' Quarterly Bulletin of Information,' a series 
of monographs and handbooks, and forty-seven separate 
papers and pamphlets, all beautifully produced with plentiful 
maps and illustrations. Representatives of the State Council 
and of local bodies were continually travelling, investigating 
tirelessly and struggling for the conservation and preservation 
of what was left of Nature's heritage, threatened by the 
greed of the speculator. One of their greatest tasks was to 
build up an inventory of beauty-spots, to schedule interesting 
forest districts, rock formations, river-banks and the like, 
and to list rare plants and animals. Maps were put in hand 
identifying the situation of places preserved. 

Poland took an active part in international collaboration, 
and was represented in sixteen great international institutions 
concerned with the preservation of Nature. Recently one 
of the most distinguished in the long line of enthusiasts for 
our idea was Prof. Michal Siedlecki, the talented Cracow 
zoologist, who, at the age of 70, died with other prominent 
Polish scientists in the German concentration camp at 

There were international meetings, and many guests from 
abroad came to see the methods applied in Poland. The 
closest relations were maintained with Czechoslovakia. 

The results of all this difficult and self-sacrificing activity 
were outstanding, and gave Poland one of the foremost places 
in this field. In 1937 national parks covering an area of 
24.000 acres were already established. Shortly before 
the war the organization of a seventh park in the Tatra 
mountains was almost finished, while two others in the Polesian 
marshes and the Eastern Carpathians were laid out. A great 
number of small reservations were also created. These 
reservations are small areas protected on account of out- 
standing beauty or the occurrence of interesting plants 
and animals. At the end of 1936 there were 180 such reserva- 
tions created, and 68 others laid out, comprising forests, 
rocks, steppe formations, bogs, and lakes. 


Vol. lxii.] 22 [1941 

Excursions made by officers of the Council and by en- 
thusiasts co-operating with them covered the whole country 
in search of objects, such as beautiful avenues of trees, parks, 
single trees of great age, single rocks, springs, and waterfalls. 
Of such monuments there were registered as many as over 4000, 
and of these some hundreds were under protection of the law. 
As I mentioned before, the definite law regulations came 
rather late in 1934. 

One of the first items on the Council's programme was the 
formation of National Parks. In 1938 six of these parks 
had been laid out in Poland, in the Bialowieza Forest, the 
Mountains of the Holy Cross, the Lake District of Ludwikow 
in Poznania, the Pieniny Range, the Babia Gora, and in the 
eastern corner of the Carpathian Mountains. A seventh 
park, in the well-known tourist district of the Tatras, was in 

Poland extends in the south as far as the rocky and forested 
sides of the Carpathians, and descends from their heights 
in lowering foothills to the great plain, and through the lake 
region to the sea. 

The plain actually gives a prevalent note to the landscape, 
and we must consider that almost 65-70 per cent, of the popula- 
tion lives on agriculture. Therefore it is understandable 
that almost every inch of the soil in the western and central 
part is exploited, and especially intensively in the western part. 

Here we see Nature kept under restraint by man ; the 
beauty of the landscape consists of some forests and many 
lakes. In such parts of the country even smaller things are 
worth preserving — e. g., a river bank with old trees. In the 
neighbourhood of Poznan, a university city of 250,000 inhabi- 
tants, a National Park of some lakes surrounded by forests 
was created mainly for purposes of recreation. But still 
there are interesting spots of nature in these areas, and they 
were most intensively investigated and mapped out in the 
West of Poland : as an example, Pomerania — craftily called 
by the Germans " The Corridor." This is a poor province, 
but is rich in natural beauty, with great pine forests and lakes 
and bogs, the habitat of interesting plants. 

1941.] 23 [Vol. lxii. 

In the East, in more primitive conditions, the hand of 
man is not so much to be seen. In some parts big forests 
have been preserved, and amongst them shimmer great lakes, 
attracting an increasing number of tourists who long to 
breathe in the freshness of nature. 

The National Park in the Bialowieza Forest was registered 
in 1932 by order of the Minister of Agriculture. It was 
situated in the middle of one of the largest forests in Europe, 
covering an area of 350,000 square acres. Here there had 
been a famous royal hunting ground in the days of the Old 
Kingdom of Poland, well known all over Europe. Bialowieza 
was famous on account of its Bison, which were here preserved 
for centuries until the Great War. At the time of the 1914 
European war they numbered some 700, but six years of 
incessant warfare, and the German occupation, completed 
the destruction of the herd. In 1939, however, some pure- 
bred Bialowieza Bison were reintroduced from various game 
parks in Europe where they had been preserved, and their 
number increased to twenty. Another example of interest 
was the ancient Horse, the Equus gmelini sylvatica, which 
had inhabited this forest until the middle of the eighteenth 
century in its natural state. From this species originates 
the Konik, the little peasant horse still bred in certain districts. 
Following the suggestion of scientists, pure specimens of this 
horse were reintroduced into the Bialowieza Forest, where 
they now live in a state of complete freedom. Other inter- 
esting animals are to be found in the gloomy depths of the 
forest : the Lynx, the Wild Cat, Deer, and Stag in great 
numbers. A research centre has been created here, and a 
number of scientific papers have been published in connection 
with the primeval forest community and its dynamics. 

A second National Park was established in the centre of 
Poland, among the Mountains of the Holy Cross, a range of 
low altitude. The Park covers some 3000 square acres, 
and is chiefly distinguished as an example of a primeval fir 
forest. It is well known and loved, and described by many 
poets and prose writers on account of its special beauty. 
It has particular value, as it affords an opportunity for the 

Vol. IxiiJ 24 [1941, 

study of the natural association of fir and beech close to the 
northern limit of the latter in Europe. 

Further to the south we come to the foothills of the Tatra 
Mountains where, in the small but impressive canon of the 
Dunajec river the luxuiiant forest attracts many visitors. 
This territory covers almost 2000 acres kept under preserva- 
tion, and is administered by a committee set up jointly by 
the Czech and Polish Governments, since the district is a 
frontier one. 

Another borderland park has been created in the south-west 
corner of Poland, in the Babia Gora, comprising magnificent 
beech and fir forests. This range is famous for the views 
obtainable from its peaks. This park, too, is a well-known 
national playground and health resort, particualiiy for the 
huge industrial population of Silesia. Thousands of visitors 
came to it every Sunday to enjoy the magnificent beauty 
of its open spaces. 

If you look from the highest point here southwards you 
see far away the great granite wall of the Tatra mountains, 
shimmering through the clouds, and reaching its highest 
point in the Garluch Peak at 8521 feet. The National Park 
in the Tatras, although it was not yet officially opened, may 
perhaps be regarded as the most important of all parks. 

Here the existence of a mountain climate at altitudes up 
to 8500 feet above sea-level, and a great variety of 
geological structures contribute to the creation of a widely 
differing condition for the development of the Flora and 
Fauna in various parts of the range. 

A stream of tourists searching for the stillness and grandeur 
of mountains was flowing steadily. Tourist hotels, well 
harmonized in structure with the environment, gave centres 
of rest before lonely wandering in the mountains. Beautiful 
valleys guide us along rock walls covered with forest into the 
heart of the mountains. At the edge of the forest there 
begins the shrub region of the mountain pine, and still higher 
there are wide pastures where you hear the tinkle of sheep- 
bells. Higher up the silence of rocks and peaks, with many 
lakes of crystalline and icy water. From the passes mag- 
nificent views of quiet valleys and shimmering lakes are seen. 

194I.J 25 [Vol. lxii. 

Passing into the eastern Carpathians we are confronted 
with Nature in a very different mood. 

In the most remote eastern corner, on the Polish Rumanian 
frontier, the Czarnohora range is covered with forests, in some 
districts untouched by human hand. 

Wild and beautiful rivers like the Czeremosz and Prut 
are thundering down through valleys, and carrying rafts of 
valuable timber, masterly guided by the mountaineers. 
Here is a real sanctuary of wild life ; Wolves, Lynx, and 
Wild Cats still live here ; the Bear is estimated at nearly 
100 specimens, which live on Deer and Stag. 

The tributary of the Prypec river forms the famous Polesie 
marshes, one of the most exotic corners of Europe. An almost 
level plain is here the watershed of the tributaries of the 
Baltic and the Black Sea, forming a gate of many animal 
movements and invasions. The fall of water is minimal, 
and the deeper layers of soil impenetrable, therefore the 
marshes and the curious picture, that flowing waters almost 
stagnate. Rivers divide in hundreds of branches, meander, 
and join again, often flowing in the opposite direction as 
before. Vast territories of many hundred thousands of 
acres consist of marshy meadows, and some villages and small 
farms are, in summer time, accessible only by boat or staamer. 
This forms a paradise for waterbirds and waterlilies against 
a background of a phantastic development of shore vegetation. 
In the east much interest was turned towards the protection 
of rare game. Several years passed before the tireless work 
of the forest administration was able to disarm all the poachers, 
who had hundreds of guns left here by the demoralized 
German and Russian armies. In twenty years of peace the 
game record rose from its decline during and shortly after 
the war time. 

The Elk, famous in the old royal hunting parties, is to be 
found now only in few parts. The map of its appearance 
comprises two groups : one in the northern district of Wilno 
and Grodno, and the other in the south along both banks 
of the Prypec river. After long endeavours the Elk population 
has again reached the number of 700, whereas before the 
first European war there were 4000 ! 

Vol. lxii.] 26 L1&41. 

Besides the Elk, Wolves are numerous, and even the Bear 
appears sometimes. The Beaver, whose disappearance in 
the western and middle part of Poland occurred in the nine- 
teenth century, still finds a refuge here. Though strongly 
protected, it has not reached a very high number yet ; an 
estimation by the Ministry of Agriculture in 1930 giving its 
number at 235. 

Many wild animals decrease in numbers when they come 
into contact with the activity of man, but a few others in- 
crease. Human settlements especially become the centre of 
attraction, e. g., for some birds. 

Such a species is the Stork, a bird interesting to the biologist, 
and beloved by the country people. It becomes more 
numerous as we go eastwards, but careful investigation in 
recent years showed an increase also in the western part. 
Ornithologists were mapping out the distribution of Stork 
populations, and here we see such a map, where dots represent 
the density of the Stork population in the county of Lwow. 

Much attention was given in Poland to the protection 
of birds. In the last ten years schools have become more 
and more a great factor, encouraging the youth to love Nature. 
Let us follow some achievements in this field. In all schools 
the youths make little bird- boxes and hang them on the trees 
in the city parks. Certain weeks were dedicated for the 
propagation of different claims as to the preservation of forests 
or the respect for animals. Teaching of biology was general, 
and on the whole of rather good standard. Here is a picture 
where pupils of an elementary school are observing animals 
in vivariums. The beauty of Nature was taught ; you see 
drawings of elementary school girls, representing the usage 
of wild flowers as a decorative. One of the guiding principles 
in the State school programme was : " The awakening of 
love for Nature and of respect for its creation." In apprecia- 
tion of these claims, Riggenbach, a well known Swiss educa- 
tionist, wrote : " When one considers the attitude of the 
school towards the protection of wild Nature Poland is at the 
head of all civilized countries." 

Amongst the older members of the population propa- 
gandists activity was carried on by means of lectures and 

1941.] 27 [Vol. lxii. 

exhibitions. Efforts were also made to interest the country- 
people living around some of the reservations, and here is 
a picture showing the opening of a rock reservation with a 
crowd of country people watching. 

This is an outline of the work which has been done in 
Poland for the preservation of Nature. In my opinion the 
preservation of Nature means much more than a narrow 
and purely scientific work. It represents an endeavour to 
create a balance between the increasing activity of Man, 
sometimes destructive, and the laws of Nature. It is an 
acknowledgement of that biological equilibrium, the im- 
portance of which is to be seen on all sides, from simple 
biological facts up to the most complicated phenomena 
of the social life of Man. The preservation of Nature means, 
too, a social programme, the return to the soil, a programme 
for the adequate conservation of resources which centuries 
have built up, and last, but not least, certain ethical values 
— a cautious relinking between the heritage of tradition 
with the demands of progress, the appreciation of the past 
which existed before the terrible advance of modernisation, 
with its mass movements, and its tendencies towards the 
eradication of the weaker and the less well protected. And 
this brings us to our own day, illustrating my meaning beyond 
the need of further explanation. 

This was the state of affairs until September 1939, and the 
title of my lecture is actually an epitaph. But the principles 
remain. These were sound, and as long as principles exist 
there will always be men to follow them and to keep them alive. 
I think after this war we shall again go to work to preserve 
what is left of our country's most precious heritage, the beauty 
and the splendour with which Nature endowed her. 

Three new Races of Long-Tails from Africa. 

Mr. J. D. Macdonald sent the following three new races 
for exhibition : — 

Prinia superciliosa desertse, subsp. nov. 
Description. — In breeding dress above more ash-grey, less 
brown than Prinia superciliosa superciliosa Swainson, in non- 


Vol. lxii.] 2$ [1941. 

breeding dress above brighter and more tawny than Prinia 
s. superciliosa : upper tail- coverts especially brighter tawny. 

Distribution. — French Sudan to east-central Anglo -Egyptian 
Sudan between 9° N. lat. and 16° N. lat. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult in breeding 
dress. Kulme, Darfur, Western Sudan, June 9, 1921, col- 
lected by Rear- Admiral H. Lynes. Collector's no. 1620. 
British Museum Keg. no. 1922.12.8.1221. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 54, culmen from base 15, 
tail 55, tarsus 23 mm. 

Remarks. — The distribution of this new race is to the north 
of that of Prinia superciliosa superciliosa, but does not appear 
to extend west of about Mopti on the Niger, whereas P. s. 
superciliosa extends to Dakar. 

Prinia superciliosa bechuanse, subsp. nov. 

Description. — In non- breeding dress upper back and head 
greyer than Prinia superciliosa affinis Smith ; also in non- 
breeding dress. 

Distribution. — North-western Bechuanaland. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult in non -breeding 
dress. Ma babe Flats, North-western Bechuanaland, August 8, 
1909, collected by R. B. Woosnam. Collector's no. 79. 
British Museum Reg. no. 1911.12.16.102. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 49, culmen from base 16, 
tail 66, tarsus 20 mm. 

Remarks. — -The series often examined are all in non-breeding 
dress. No specimens in breeding dress are available. 

* Prinia superciliosa ovampensis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — In non-breeding dress similar to Prinia 
superciliosa affinis Smith; also in non-breeding dress, but 
rather paler brown above, and head paler brown and less 

Distribution. — Damaraland, South-west Africa. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult in non-breeding 
dress. Ovaquenyama, Damaraland. May 23, 1867, collected 
by C. J. Anderson. Collector's no. 1454. British Museum 
Reg. no. 1876.5.23.231. 

1941.] 29 [Vol. Ixii. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 50, culmen from base 15, 
tail 68, tarsus 22 mm. 

Remarks. — The series of six examined are all in non-breeding 
dress. No specimens in breeding dress are available. 

A new Eace of Yellow-streaked Bulbul and a new Race 
of Yellow- mo ustached Bulbul from Tanganyika 

Mr. R. E. Moreau sent for exhibition the following new 
races : — 

Phyllastrephus fiavostriatus kungwensis, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Similar to Phyllastrephus fiavostriatus tenui- 
rostris (Fischer & Reichenow), but differs in being whiter, 
less grey on chest, and under wing- coverts and inner edging 
to flight -feathers brighter and clearer lemon-yellow, without 
any buffy wash ; bill at tip straighter, less curved downwards. 

Distribution. — Mountain forests of Kungwe Mt. at 6800 feet, 
on the east side of Lake Tanganyika. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult, forest above 
Ujamba, Kungwe Mt. at 6800 feet, western Tanganyika 
Territory, November 17, 1940, collected by Salimu Asmani 
for R. E. Moreau. Collector's no. 5382. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 105, culmen from base 25, 
tail 105, tarsus 26 mm. 

Remarks. — Three other males have wings 97-104 mm., and 
one female has wing 88 mm. 

No specimen of this species has so far been obtained between 
South Pare Mts., Kilosa, and Kungwe, and it was not obtained 
by Lynes in the Iringa area. 

Stelgidoeichla latirostris australis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar to Stelgidoeichla latirostris eugenius 
Reichenow, but distinctly paler olive -green above, more green 
in tone. 

Distribution. — The highland forest on the edge of the Ufipa 
Plateau, Tanganyika Territory, overlooking the Lake Rukwa 
depression from the south. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male, not breeding. 
Mbisi Forest (about 8000 feet) near Sumbawanga, Ufipa 

Vol. lxii.] 30 [1941. 

Disrtict, Tanganyika Territory, June 2, 1941, collected by 
Salimu Asmani for R. E. Moreau. Collectors' no. 5465. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 95, culmen from base 17^ 
tarsus 23, tail 92 mm. 

Remarks. — Two other males agree with the type. S. I. 
eugenius has been obtained on Kungwe Mt., south of Kigoma.. 

I am indebted to Dr. V. G. L. Van Someren for very kindly 
making comparisons for me. 

A new Genus of Red-capped Warbler from Tanganyika 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Major C. W. M ack worth- Praed 
exhibited the type -species of the following proposed new 
genus : — 

Scepomycter, gen. nov. 

Description. — General characters very similar to the genus 
Artisornis Friedmann, but differs in the shape of the nostrils. 
The nostril is practically round, with a small cowl or hood 
over the upper side formed by an extra horny substance 
within the nostril depression. 

Type of Genus. — Artisornis winifredas Moreau, Bull. B. O. C. 
lviii. 1938, p. 139. 

Remarks. — At the time Mr. Moreau described this species 
its position in the genus Artisornis was doubtful, and although 
the length of tarsus and tail as compared with the wing was 
remarked on, the character of the nostrils was not mentioned. 
There is no doubt that this species is very closely related to 
Artisornis ; but the very distinct difference in the nostrils, 
together with the length of tarsus and tail compared with 
the wing, compels us to create a new genus for it. 

A new Race of Bracken Warbler from Tanganyika 
Territory and a new Race of Moustache Warbler from 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Major C. W. Mackworth-Praed 

exhibited and described the following two new races : — 

Sathrocercus cinnamomea ufipse, subsp. nov. 
Description. — Similar to Sathrocercus cinnamomea nyassse 
(Shelley), but differs from that race in having the upper side 

1941.] 31 [Vol. lxii. 

including the wings and tail duller, but darker, less dark 
brown, more dark bronzy-brown, and feathers of head and 
mantle having indistinctly darker edges ; throat not white, 
but suffused with olivaceous -brown. 

Distribution. — Ufipa Plateau, south-western Tanganyika 

Type. — In the British Museum. Female adult. Mbisi, 
Sumbawanga, Ufipa Plateau, south-western Tanganyika 
Territory, 8000 feet, June 2, 1941, collected for R. E. 
Moreau. Collector's no. 5533. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 65, culmen from base 16, 
tarsus 24, tail 70 mm. 

Remarks. — Mr. Moreau states that he has other specimens 
which agree with the two specimens sent. The other, also 
an adult female, was collected at the same locality and on 
the same date ; the wing measures 66, and tail 69 mm. 

Melocichla mentalis granviki, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar to Melocichla mentalis amauroura 
(Pelzeln), but much darker above, more uniform blackish 

Distribution. — Western Abyssinia from Wallega to the Orno 
River Valley. 

Type. — In the British Mumseu. Male adult. Wardji, 
Jimma, south-western Abyssinia. May 3, 1905, collected 
by P. C. Zaphiro (W. N. Macmillan collection). Collector's 
no. 101. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1912.10.15.954. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 82, culmen from base 22, tail 
97, tarsus 32 mm. 

Remarks. — Named in honour of Dr. Hugo Granvik, who on 
p. 110 of Rev. Zool. et Bot. Afr. xxv. 1934, mentioned the 
characters of this race and designated a type. He did not, 
however, propose a name, and we cannot find that he sub- 
sequently published one. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Major C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following three notes : — 

Vol. brii.] 32 L1941. 

(1) On the Status of Ortygops macmillani Bannerman, Bull. 
B. 0. C. xxix. 1911, p. 38 : Charade, south-western 
Abyssinia : — 

In ' The Ibis,' 1877, p. 352, Gurney described Coturnicops 
ayresi from two females, the type dated November 24 having 
been retained in his own collection. Enquiries made by us 
have failed to trace this type, and it is not to be found either 
at the Norwich Museum, nor at the home of the Gurney s. 
Enquiries have also shown that no South African Museum 
possesses any specimens. 

In 1911 Dr. Bannerman described his new species from 
Abyssinia, comparing it with C. ayresi. The type is in the 
British Museum, and a close comparison of this male specimen 
with the Plate VII. in ' The Ibis ' of 1877, and the two female 
specimens in the British Museum collection, shows that they 
agree in colour-pattern, size, length of wing, tarsus, and toes, 
in fact in every except in the richer and more 
uniform coloration of the head, neck, and chest of O. mac- 
millani. The bill has been crushed and therefore looks 
differently shaped, but a close study shows that it would 
normally have agreed with the bill of C. ayresi. This difference 
in coloration can be taken as sexual, and we feel convinced 
that Coturniceps ayresi and Ortygops macmillani are the same 
bird. As for the widely separated localities, we would point 
to some of the Sarothrura crakes which show equally as wide 
a distribution, and there would, therefore, be nothing sur- 
prising in G. ayresi having a distribution from Abyssinia to 
the eastern Cape Province. 

(2) The Distribution of Apalis murina murina Reichenow 
and Apalis murina youngi Kinnear : — 

Mr. R. E. Moreau has sent to the British Museum two adult 
male specimens from Sumbawanga, Ufipa Plateau, south- 
western Tanganyika Territory, collected on June 3-4, 1941, 
and writes that he has other specimens from Sumbawanga 
which agree with these two. 

In ' The Ibis,' 1938, pp. 528-533, we reviewed this group, 
giving the distribution of A. m. murina to Ukinga Mts., 

1941.] 33 [Vol. lxii. 

Rungwe Mts., Poroto Mts., and north-eastern Northern 
Rhodesia at the Mafinga Mts., 20 miles south of Fort Hill, 
and A. m. youngi as the Vipya and Nyika Plateaux. These 
two specimens now received agree with the series of Apalis 
m. youngi, and extends the distribution of that race 
into Tanganyika Territory. The north-eastern Northern 
Rhodesian record is a single bird collected by Benson on the 
Mafinga Mts., and is unquestionably a specimen of A. m. 
murina. The distribution of A. m. youngi is now the Ufipa, 
Nyika, and Vipya Plateaux, with A. m. murina forming a 
salient from the Ukinga, Rung we, and Poroto Mts., to the 
Mafinga Mts. 

It would appear that the distribution of A. m. youngi in 
north-eastern Northern Rhodesia is west of that of A. m. 
murina, probably via the north end of the Muchinga Mts., 
and the mountains at the south end of Lake Nyasa. 

(3) On the Races of Melocichla mentalis (Fraser) : — 

Sclater, Syst. A v. iEthiop. ii. 1930, p. 567, recognizes five 
races. Van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, p. 206, states 
that Melocichla mentalis orientalis Sharpe is darker and richer 
in colour than the Uganda bird, brings this race into Kenya 
Colony ; and places Melocichla atricauda Reichenow as 
a synonym of Melocichla mentalis amauroura (Pelzeln). 
Granvik, Rev. Zool. et Bot. Afr. xxv. 1934, p. 110, pointed 
out the difference in the Abyssinian bird, designated a type, 
but did not propose a name. Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr. 
v. 1939, p. 212, has placed Melocichla mentalis adamause 
Reichenow as a synonym of Melocichla mentalis mentalis 
(Fraser). There is some individual variation, and there is 
considerable fading between fresh and worn specimens, 
but an examination of the series in the British Museum 
collection shows that six races can be recognized on good 
general characters, and that both the Ruwenzori and Abys- 
sinian birds are distinct races : — 

Melocichla mentalis mentalis (Fraser). 
Drymoica mentalis Fraser, P. Z. S. 1843, p. 16 : Accra, 
Gold Coast, of which Melocichla mentalis adamause Reichenow, 

Vol. lxii.] 34 [1941. 

O. M. 1910, p. 175 : Adamawa, northern Cameroon, is a 

Above ashy brown ; below warm brown, throat and centre 
of belly white or whitish. Wing 71 to 80 mm. Twenty-four 
specimens examined. 

Distribution. — -Portuguese Guinea to French Equatorial 
Africa and the Belgian Congo. 

Melocichla mentalis grandis (Boc). 

Drymoica (Cisticola) grandis Bocage, Jorn. Lisboa, vii. 
1880, p. 56 : Caconda, Angola. 

Above warm brown. Wing 75-83 mm. Nine specimens 
examined. We have not examined specimens from Angola, 
but Lynes states in Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. xxxi. 1938, p. 95, 
that his south-eastern Congo specimens are not separable 
from the Angolan bird. 

Distribution. — Angola to Nyasaland. 

Melocichla mentalis amauroura (Pelz.). 

Argya amauroura Pelzeln, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wein, 
xxxii. March 1883, p. 503 : Fadibek, northern Uganda. 

Above similar to M. m. mentalis, but forehead and rump not 
quite so bright ; below paler, with more white on throat and 
breast to belly. Wing 70 to 81 mm. Fifty- seven specimens 
examined. We are quite unable to see any character by 
which Uganda and Kenya Colony specimens can be separated 
and therefore are unable to agree with van Someren that 
Kenya Colony specimens are darker than Uganda birds. 
In any case M. m. orientalis is paler than either Uganda 
or Kenya Colony birds. 

Distribution. — Southern Sudan and north-eastern Belgian 
Congo to Uganda (except Ruwenzori area), Ruanda, Urundi, 
Kenya Colony, and western Tanganyika Territory as far 
south as Kigoma. 

Melocichla mentalis orientalis (Sharpe). 

Cisticola orientalis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. B. M. vii. July 1883, 
p. 245 : Pangani River, Usambara, eastern Tanganyika 

1941.] 35 [Vol. lxii. 

Above paler, more russet-brown. Wing 73 to 77 mm. 
Five specimens examined including the type. 

Distribution. — Tanganyika Territory from the Pangani River 
to Pugu Hills, Kilosa and Njombe. 

Melocichla mentalis atricauda Reichw. 

Melocichla atricauda Reichenow, 0. M. 1893, p. 61 : Nkondjo, 
Ndussuma, Semliki Valley, eastern Belgian Congo. 

Above darker, more blackish brown. Wing 74 to 81 mm. 
Twelve specimens examined. 

Distribution. — Semliki Valley, eastern Belgian Congo and 
Ruwenzori area, western Uganda. 

Melocichla mentalis granviki Grant & Praed. 

Melocichla mentalis granviki C. Grant & Ma ckworth- Praed, 
Bull. B. 0. C. lxii. 1941, p. 31 : Wardji, Jimma, south- 
western Abyssinia. 

Much darker above than any other race, more uniform 
blackish brown. Wing 76 to 82 mm. Nine specimens 
examined including the type. 

Distribution. — Western Abyssinia from Wallega to the Omo 
River Valley. 

Two new Races of Smithornis capensis 
(Eurylaimidae) from Kenya Colony. 
Mr. V. G. L. van Someren sent the following descriptions 
of two new Eastern African races : — 

(1) Smithornis capensis shimba, subsp. no v. 
Description. — Nearest geographically to S. c. suahelicus 
Grote, S. c. chyulu (described hereafter), and S. c. medianus 
Hartert and van Someren. Differs from S. c. suahelicus and the 
other two races mentioned by its colder, greyer, olive-brown 
mantle, rump, upper tail- coverts, edges to rectrices, secondaries 
and lesser coverts ; its less ochreous wash to the sides of the 
neck, chest, and flanks ; its light grey, almost white -streaked 
ear- coverts ; its whiter under tail- coverts. Comparison of 
males shows that the crown is of a deeper black ; the ear- 
coverts strongly white-streaked ; the mantle has larger and 
very pronounced black areas, whilst the white sub -areas are 
much more extended and often exposed as detailed later. 
From medianus it is at once distinguished by its colder greyish- 

Vol. lxii.] 36 [1941. 

olive, less brownish-olive mantle ; by its larger, more con- 
spicuous black mantle spots and greater extent of the white 
sub-areas ; by its whiter ear-coverts ; less ochreous wash 
on sides of neck, chest, and flanks ; by its more sparse, narrower 
dark streaks on the underside. It is considerably smaller 

Female. — Crown greyer ; lores paler ; ear-coverts whiter; 
the other areas differing as indicated in the male. 

Distribution. — Known only from the Shimba Hills. 

Type. — Breeding male, Shimba Hills, Makadara Forest, 
19. hi. 1941. Paratypes : five males, three females, all 
breeding birds. 

Measurements of type. — Wings 66, variation in series 64- 
67 mm. 

Remarks. — This Broadbill was common in the Makadara 
Forest and other forest patches on the Shimba hills at 1100 feet. 
They were associated with the mid-growth for the most part, 
and were frequently noted performing their short circular 
aerial flight accompanied by their characteristic rattling noise. 
This noise appears to be both mechanical and vocal. The 
display took place most frequently just at dawn and for an 
hour or so after, and again in the evening as the sun was 
setting. Occasionally the note was heard before noon, but 
seldom between then and evening. 

A conspicuous feature of the display was the complete 
exposure of the white dorsal sub-area, the feathers being 
parted, exposing a wide white patch outlined in black. This 
white area was exposed in flight apart from display, and on 
many occasions remained exposed while the bird sat motionless. 

All the birds showed signs of breeding ; the males had 
swollen gonads and the females enlarged ovaries ; one had 
a fully formed egg in the oviduct. This last bird was shot at 
the nest which held one pure white egg. The nest (several 
were found) is an untidy structure constructed of long strips 
of bark, strips of dead Cycad leaves, intermixed with horse- 
hair-like fungi flung over a horizontal branch or twig of a 
sapling hardly more than four feet from the ground. Within 
this hanging mass the nest is made of bark, leaves, forest 
debris, and lined with finer fibre. The entrance is toward 
the top and to the side, within the loop of overslung material. 

1941.] 37 [Vol. Ixii. 

It resembles somewhat, a large, very untidy Sunbird's nest. 
The egg is smooth, shiny, and measures 19 Xl5 mm. 

It is of interest to recall the fact that birds from the Amani 
Range collected by Moreau were originally assigned to the race 
S. c. medianus, but were subsequently identified as S. c. suahelicus 
Grote. There is, indeed, a similarity between suahelicus and 
medianus, but they are distinct ; however, the differences 
between them are not so great as between either of them and 
the race now described. The type and paratypes are in my 

(2) Smithornis capensis chyulu, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Nearest to S. c. suahelicus in point of size and 
general coloration, but differing from that race in having the 
basal half of the ear-coverts dirty white, and forming a patch ; 
in having the dorsal black marks more conspicuous, thus 
larger, whilst the white sub-area is more extended. 

Distribution. — The Chyulu Range. 

Type.— Male Chyulu Range, 5000 feet, 23. iv. 1938, in the 
Coryndon Museum. 

Remarks. — Four birds were noted in a patch of Catha edulis. 
The breeding season was over and gonads were soft. 

Races of Black-headed Babbler in Ceylon. 

Mr. Hugh Whistler forwarded the following note on the 
races of the Black-headed Babbler in Ceylon : — 

Legge (' Birds of Ceylon,' p. 507), treating of the bird which 
he called the Ceylon Wren-Babbler (Alcippe nigrifrons), and 
listed as peculiar to Ceylon, pointed out that there was a 
marked difference in the tint of the upper surface according 
to the locality which it inhabits. Birds from the south of the 
island and from the Western Province (that is the low country 
wet zone) are rusty- brown in colour above, whilst birds from 
the hill zone and the low country dry zone are decidedly 
olivaceous on the corresponding parts. The two types of 
coloration are figured by Legge in a coloured plate. The 
occurrence of two races in the dry and wet zones respectively 
in Ceylon is a feature of many species in the island, and an 
exact parallel as regards colours is found, as Legge remarked, 
in the Scimitar- Babbler (Pomato? hinus horsfieldi). The differ- 
ence pointed out by Legge has been confirmed by 29 specimens 

Vol. lxii.] 38 [1941. 

collected in different parts of the island in the Ornithological 
Survey carried out before the war by the British Museum 
and Colombo Museum in collaboration, and I am of opinion 
that it should be recognized by the division of Ceylon birds 
into two races, which will stand as zaces of the Black-headad 
Babbler (Rhopocichla atriceps) from the Western Ghats of 

There is nothing to show which form Blyth had before 
him when he described his Alcippe nigrifrons, J. A. S. B. 
vol. xviii. 1849, p. 815. — Ceylon. His specimen came from 
Layard, who collected in both the dry and wet zones. 

I propose, therefore, to restrict this type-locality to Uragaha, 
near the boundary of the Western and Southern Provinces, 
and use the name for the richly coloured bird of the low 
country wet zone. For the dry country and hill form I pro- 
pose the name : — 

Rhopocichla atriceps siccatus, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar to B. a. nigrifrons, but the fulvous- 
brown of the upper parts, wings, and tail is olivaceous-fulvous 
instead of a more saturated rusty fulvous, and the brown 
of the lower flanks, vent, and under tail-coverts is olivaceous- 
brown as compared with earth-brown. 

Distribution. — Ceylon : Hill zone and low country dry zones. 
Common and generally distributed. 

Type. — Female. Deposited in the British Museum, no. 1064, 
Ceylon Avifaunal Survey,' Kalaweva, North Central Province, 

Measurements of type. — Bill 15, wing 59, tail 45 mm. 

White Wagtail off Rockall. 

Mr. W. E. Glbgg sent the following note : — 
At a meeting of the Club, held on October 18, 1941, Miss E. P. 
Leach stated that a White Wagtail {Motacilla a. alba), ringed 
in Iceland on June 16, 1928, was reported by Mr. P. Sko^gaard 
as having been found off Rockall on September 5 of the same 
year, but that no details of the capture are available. 

The story of this interesting recovery is as follows. I 
received from my brother, who lives in Aberdeen, a letter 
dated September 5, 1928, enclosing a ring, which had been 

1941.] 39 [Vol. lxii. 

given to him by a man on an Aberdeen Line boat. The ring 
had been taken from a small bird, which had flown exhausted 
on to the boat when it was fishing at Rockall, 240 miles west 
by north of the Butt of Lewis. From the description of the 
bird given by the man my brother assumed that the bird was 
a wagtail. The particulars of this recovery were sent by 
me to Mr. P. Skovgaard. It is certain that the ring must 
have been recovered earlier than September 5, 1928, as that 
is the date of my brother's letter, but no further information 
is available (cf. ' The Scottish Naturalist,' 1931, p. 84). 


The next meeting of the Club will be held at the Rembrandt 
Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Saturday, February 21, 1942, 
at 2 o'clock. This will be preceded by a luncheon at 1 o'clock. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant will exhibit on behalf of Mr. R. E. 
Moreait a new race of Slaty Flycatcher, and a new race of 



-V* A9 * 2 BULLETIN 

P^flM* 11 ^ OV THE 



The four- hundred- and- thirty -sixth Meeting of the Club 
was held at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W 7, 
on Saturday, February 21, 1942, at 2 p.m. 

Chairman : Mr. B. W. Tucker. 

Members present : — Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; F. J. F. 
Barrington ; A. Ezra ; Miss E. M. Godman ; Capt. C. H. B. 
Grant (Vice-Chairman) ; Dr. E. Hopkinson ; N. B. Kinnear 
(Hon. Sec.) ; Miss E. P. Leach ; Dr. G. Carmichael Low 
(Editor) ; T. H. Newman ; W. L. Sclater ; Dr. A. Lands- 
borough Thomson ; Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt ; H. Whistler. 

Guests of the Club. — Miss L. P. Grant ; D. Lack. 

Members, 15 ; Guests 2 ; Total, 17. 

No Meeting of the Club took place in January. 

Length of Life in Robins. 

Mr. David Lack gave an interesting talk upon the longevity 
of wild Robins ; this was followed by a discussion, in which 
several members took part. 

New Races of Slaty Flycatcher, Bracken-Warbler, and 
Grey-headed Negro-Finch from Tanganyika Territory. 
Mr. R. E. Moreau sent the following three new races for 
exhibition : — 

Dioptrornis fischeri ufipse, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Similar to Dioptrornis fischeri fischeri Reich- 
enow in having a complete white ring round the eye, but 
[March 11, 1942.] a tol. lxh. 


Vol. lxii.] 42 [1942. 

slate colour above is paler, very close to Dioptroniis fischeri 
nyikensis Shelley, but has the chin, throat and belly much 
whiter than either D. f. fischeri or D. f. nyikensis. 

Distribution. — Ufipa Plateau, south-western Tanganyika 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Mbisi Forest 
Sumbawanga, Ufipa Plateau 8000 feet, south-western 
Tanganyika Territory, June 16, 1941 ; collected for R. E. 
Moreau. Collector's no. 5464. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 93, culmen from base 19, 
tail 79, tarsus 27 mm. 

Remarks. — An adult female collected at the same place on 
June 5, 1941 (collector's no. 5460), has a wing of 90 mm. 

In the Benson collection is a male from Vipya Plateau 
(collector's no. 1140) which still retains young markings. 
This specimen agrees in the whiteness of the chin to belly 
with this new race, but this is the only specimen from Nyasa- 
land showing this character. 

Bradypterus alfredi kungwensis, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Similar to Bradypterus alfredi albicrissalis 
Neumann, but upper side dark olivaceous brown, not the 
warm russet colour of B. a. albicrissalis ; flanks darker and 
under tail -coverts with less white edging. 

Distribution. — Bamboo areas of Kungwe Mt., 7600 feet, 
western Tanganyika Territory. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Bamboos 
above Ujamba, Kungwe Mt., at 7600 feet, western Tanganyika 
Territory. August 18, 1941; collected for R. E. Moreau. 
Collector's no. 5655. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 58, culmen from base 17, 
tail 53, tarsus 24 mm. 

Remarks. — A perfect female and two other rather badly 
shot specimens agree with this male. I have been unable to 
examine specimens of B. a. alfredi Hartlaub, of which, 
apparently, only the type is known ; but judging by the descrip- 
tion of B. a. albicrissalis, the type of which is in the British 
Museum , the upper parts do not differ, 

1942.J 43 [Vol. lxii. 

This new race is from a locality some 430 miles due south 
of the locality of B. a. albicrissalis, and B. a. alfredi is found 
some 100 to 200 miles due north of B. a. albicrissalis. 
Nigrita canicapilla Candida, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Differs from all other races of the species 
in that the entire hind crown, nape and upper edge of the 
mantle are nearly white, as pale as the rump, and well defined 
from the grey of the back. 

Distribution. — Forest at Ujamba, 6700 feet, Kungwe Mt., 
Kigoma District, Tanganyika Territory. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Ujamba 
Kungwe Mt., August 16, 1941 ; collected by Salemin Asumani 
for R. E. Moreau. Collector's no. 5657. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 70, culmen 12, tail 50, tarsus 
20 mm. 

A new Race of Blue Swallow from 
Tanganyika Territory, 
Captain C. H. B. Grant and Major C. W. Maokworth- 
Praed Exhibited and described the following new race : — 
On Hirundo atrocserulea Sundevall : with the description 
of a new race. 
Lynes, in J. f. O. 1934, p. 99, invites attention to the 
possibility of there being two races of this Swallow, one 
breeding in South Africa and migrating northwards in the 
non-breeding season, and the other a resident race in Tangan- 
yika Territory and Nyasaland. 

In the light of these remarks we have carefully examined 
the thirty-two specimens in the British Museum collection, 
including the type of Hirundo christyi*, Bull. B. O. C. xvi 

* This type is in the British Museum (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1906.1.21.17), 
and the collector's label bears "No. 54, male, 11. ix. 1905, Kungu Hill, 
Mabira Forest, Chagwe," whereas in the Bull. B. O. C. xvi. 1906, p. 86, 
the date is given as 7. viii. 1905. This is a serious discrepancy for the 
designation of a type. At the back of the collector's label, in Dr. Bowdler 
Sharpe's handwriting, is " Hirundo christyi Sharpe Type ", which 
proves that this specimen is the one described by Sharpe, and that 
therefore the day and month given in the original description are in- 
accurate. This specimen is an adult in fresh dress, and is the steely- 
blue H. atrocserulea atrocserulea. 

Vol. lxii.] 44 [1942. 

1906, p. 86 : Mabira Forest, and this series does support 
Lynes' findings. 

Most authors, except Roberts, Bds. S. Afr. 1940, state 
that this Swallow is in South Africa from October-March, 
and breeding records are within these months. 

Priest, Bds. S. Rhodesia, iii. 1935, p. 296, states that it is 
a migrant in Southern Rhodesia, having obtained it in October, 
and a specimen in the British Museum collection (Brit. Mus. 
Reg. no. 1910.7.1.322) from S. Rhodesia is dated August. 
Sclater, Bds. S. Afr. iii. 1901, p. 294, gives Ayres as authority 
for the occurrence of this bird in South Africa in August, 
November, December, March, and April. Ayres' months of 
August and April are not, so far as we know, supported by 
specimens. Belcher, Bds. Nyasaland, 1930, p. 250, records 
it as breeding in 'October ; Lynes records it as breeding in 
southern Tanganyika Territory in November and December ; 
Bangs & Loveridge (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. lxxv. 3, 1933, 
p. 201) record it as breeding at Dabaga, Kigogo, and Bulongwa 
in January and February, and van Someren, Ibis, 1916, p. 375, 
records it as breeding in Uganda in May. 

Van Someren's, Lynes', and Roberts' descriptions of the 
nest and eggs do not agree, the former stating that the nest 
is like that of Hirundo puella ( =H. abyssinica unitatis Scl. & 
M.-Praed), i. e., funnel-shaped, and attached to the underside 
of a rock, etc., and the eggs as white ; Lynes states that the 
nest and eggs are similar to that of Hirundo rustica rustica 
Linn., i. e., cup-shaped, and Roberts, Bds. S. Afr. 1940, p. 207, 
gives the nest as similar to that of Hirundo smithii smithii 
Leach, i. e., an open cup nest, and the eggs as delicately 
marked with yellowish brown, brown, and slate- blue. 

Sclater, Jackson's Bds. Kenya Colony and Uganda, iii. 1938, 
p. 1144, casts considerable doubt on van Someren's record, 
and quotes both Colonel Sparrow and Millar as stating that 
the nest is cup-shaped. 

This evidence is, we consider, conclusive, and van Someren's 
record must be deleted. 

There is sufficient evidence to show that Hirundo atro- 
cserulea breeds in south-eastern Africa and migrates north- 

1942.] 45 [Vol. lxii. 

wards as far as Uganda in the non- breeding season, and this 
is further supported by the four Uganda specimens we have 
been able to examine, a fully-grown young bird in April 
and three adults in moult in June and July. The August 
adult male from S. Rhodesia is worn and faded, but not yet 
moulting, and a November adult male (Benson, no. 867) from 
the Nyika Plateau is in fresh dress with " testes life-size, 5 ' 
and is possibly a late migrant moving south. It is certainly 
a steel-blue colour, with no violet w^sh.' A specimen from 
Natal (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1874.5.1.278) is more violet than 
steel-blue, but is worn and is not quite the bright violet 
of the Tanganyika Territory race, and it should be noted that 
worn and faded birds are inclined to go bronzy, especially 
on the mantle. 

We therefore have two races of this Swallow, one breeding 
in Southern Africa and moving northwards to Uganda after 
the breeding season, and the other a resident in southern 
Tanganyika Territory and Nyasaland. This latter requires 
a name, and we propose for it 

Hirundo atrocserulea lynesi, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar to Hirundo atrocserulea atrocserulea 
Sundevall, but with a violet wash. 

Distribution. — South Tanganyika Territory (Dabaga, Kigogo, 
Bulongwa, and Njombe) to Nyasaland (Vipya Plateau and 
Mlanji Plateau). 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Njombe, 
southern Tanganyika Territory, November 24, 1931 ; collected 
by Rear-Admiral H. Lynes. Collector's no. 2084. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 112, culmen from base 10, 
tail 126, tarsus 13 mm. 

Remarks. — Seven adult males, six adult females, and one 
fully-fledged young bird examined. Named in honour of 
Rear- Admiral Hubert Lynes. As the two races occur in 
Nyasaland, and Benson obtained both, i. e., his November 7 
bird (Nyika Plateau) being H. a. atrocserulea, and the Feb- 
ruary 27 bird (Vipya Plateau) being this new race, his earliest 
and latest dates need further investigation. 


Vol. lxii.] 46 [1942. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Major C. W. Mackworth- 
Praed- sent the following seven notes : — 

(1) On the Type-locality of Pogonias minor Cuvier, Reg. An. i. 

1817, p. 428. 

Cuvier gives no locality, but this name is founded on 
Levaillant, Ois. Paradis, ii. 1806, pi. A, p. 85, who gives 
coasts of South Africa, and states that this bird was " brought 
recently from the coasts of South Africa by a traveller whose 
collection passed into my cabinet." • 

Pogonias minor Cuvier is now used for Lybius levaillantii 
levaillantii (Bucco levaillantii) Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. 
iii. 1816, p. 243 : Africa, which is preoccupied by Bucco 
levaillanti Gmelin, Gem. Nat. 1806, p. 177, pi. xvi. fig. 35 : 
East Indies. 

The distribution of Lybius minor minor is Landana, the 
valley of the Lower Congo and Northern Angola. 

Levaillant gives no clue as to whom this traveller was, or 
in what direction he travelled on the coasts of South Africa, 
and we must therefore presume that he obtained this 
bird at one of the Angolan ports of call, probably Luanda. 
Although Angola is hardly within the " coasts of South Africa," 
we are compelled to fix the type-locality of Lybius minor minor 
(Cuvier) as Northern Angola, this being its most southern 
known range. 

(2) On the Distribution of Eremomela scotops Sundevall in 

Eastern Africa. 

In the Bull. B. O. C. lxi. 1941, p. 65, we gave a short com- 
parative description of each race, and now find that through 
some extraordinary oversight inaccurate descriptions appeared 
in print. 

Under Eremomela scotops scotops Sund. the description 
should read: — "Chin white, rest of underparts yellow " l 
not " Chin to chest yellow, breast and belly white," 

1942.] 47 [Vol. lxii r 

Under Eremomela scotops citriniceps (Reichw.) the descrip- 
tion should read : — ■" Chin to chest yellow, breast to belly 
white, green of head brighter and extending to nape " : not 
" Grey of mantle extending on to occiput." 

Mr. Moreau has recently sent to the British Museum a 
specimen of E. s. citriniceps from the Ufipa Plateau (collector's 
no. 5569), which extends the distribution from the Iringa 
District westwards to Lake Tanganyika, and in the Pakenham 
collection is one from Kigoma, western Tanganyika Territory 
(collector's no. T.T. 44). 

(3) On the exact Type-locality of Cisticola chiniana ukamba 

Lynes, Ibis, Suppl. 1930, p. 267. 

Lynes gave this name as a nom. nov. for Cisticola semi- 
fasciata van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, p. 210, not 
Cisticola semifasciata Reichenow, Vog. Afr. hi. 1905, p. 544: 
Mlanje Plateau, southern Nyasaland ; and gives type-locality 
as Ukamba Province, Kenya Colony. 

As the Ukamba Province is a rather large area, we are of 
opinion that a more exact locality should be designated, and 
we find that the first place mentioned by van Someren within 
this province is Simba (p. 211). We therefore propose to 
fix the exact type-locality of Cisticola chiniana. ukamba Lynes 
as Simba, southern Ukamba Province, south-eastern Kenya 

(4) On the Relationship of Hirundo rustica rustica Linnaeus* 

Hirundo lucida Verreaux, and Hirund,o angolensis 

Meinertzhagen, Nicoll's Bds. of Egypt, i. 1930, p. 306, 
suggests that these Swallows are conspecific. We agree that 
H . lucida should be placed as a race of H. rustica, as they are 
so similar as to be difficult to separate in the field, and the nest- 
ing habits of H. lucida are also similar, placing its nest on a beam. 

H. angolensis, on the other hand, builds a nest similar to 
that of the European House-Martin, and, therefore, is not a 
close relation of H. lucida, and we do not consider it is a race 
of this species. 

Yol. lxii.] 48 []942. 

(5) On the Races of Hirundo senegalensis Linnaeus. 

Selater, Syst. Av. ^Sthiop. ii. 1930, p. 579, recognizes four 
races, and the same author in Jackson's Bds. Kenya Colony and 
Uganda, 1938, p. 1147, recognizes Hirundo senegalensis 
aschani Granvik, and on p. 1149 throws considerable doubt 
on the validity of Hirundo senegalensis hybrida van Someren. 

Van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, p. 91, gives his H. s. 
hybrida a distribution over Kenya Colony and Tanganyika 
Territory, and brings H. s. senegalensis to Abyssinia, Uganda 
and western Kenya Colony. Bannerman, Bull. B. O. C. xliii. 
1923, p. 86, recognizes four races, but gives no definite distribu- 
tion, and remarks that Uganda, Kenya Colony and South 
Abyssinia specimens are more difficult to name. 

We have examined the good series in the British Museum 
collection, and find that the type of H. s. saturatior is a not 
fully adult female, still retaining the light edges to the inner 
secondaries, and though it has a particularly dark throat, 
another adult female from Kpong has a much lighter throat, 
and agrees with some specimens from Cameroon, French 
Equatorial Africa, Uganda, Southern Sudan and Abyssinia. 
Most females are darker on the throat than most males, but 
this is not a constant character. The darker coloration in 
H. s. saturatior of the breast to under tail-coverts as compared 
with H. s. senegalensis agrees perfectly with the series as far 
east as Abyssinia, and in Uganda and Kenya Colony except 
the southern areas. We are therefore of opinion that H. s. 
aschani must be placed as a synonym of H . s. saturatior. 

We agree with Selater that H. s. hybrida cannot be recognized, 
as it is based on intermediates between H. s. monteiri and 
H. s. saturatior. Moreover, it is only found where the above 
two races meet. We find intermediates occurring between 
H. s. senegalensis and H. s. saturatior at Nahud, Jebei Melbis 
and El Obeid in the Kordofan area of the Sudan. We are 
able to recognize three races as follows : — 

Hirundo senegalensis senegalensis Linnaeus. 
Hirundo senegalensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 12th ed. i. 1766, 
p. 345 : Senegal. 

1942.] 49 [Vol. lxli. 

No white in tail. Breast to under tail- coverts deep tawny. 
Wing 142 to 158 mm. Twenty- six specimens examined. 

Distribution. — Senegal to the Kordofan area of the Sudan, 
where some specimens show the darker coloration of breast 
to under tail-coverts of H. s. saturiator. 


Hirundo senegalensis saturatior Banner man, Bull. B. 0. C. 
xliii. 1923, p. 85 : Accra, Gold Coast ; of which Hirundo 
senegalensis aschani Granvik, Rev. Zool. et Bot. Afr. xxv. 
1934, p. 113 : Mt. Elgon, is a synonym. 

Differs from H. s. senegalensis in being much darker below, 
more chestnut, from breast to under tail- coverts. Wing 137 
to 154 mm. Fifty- eight specimens examined, including the 
type of H. s. saturatior. 

Distribution. — Gold Coast to Cameroon, French Equatorial 
Africa as far north as Miltu a few miles north of Fort Archam- 
bault lower Shari River, southern and eastern Sudan, 
Abyssinia, Uganda and Kenya Colony except southern 

Hirundo senegalensis monteiri Hartl. 

Hirundo monteiri Hartlaub, Ibis, 1862, p. 340, pi. xi. : 
Angola ; of which Hirundo senegalensis hybrida van Someren, 
Bull. B. O. C. xli. 3921, p. 104: Tsavo, Kenya Colony, is a 

White in tail, decreasing in southern Kenya Colony, especially 
at Ithanga. Wing 137 to 152 mm. Forty-eight specimens 
examined, including the type of Hirundo monteiri. 

Distribution. — Angola as far north as Landana, southern 
Belgian Congo to southern Maniema District, Tanganyika 
Territory, and southern Kenya Colony from Narossura, 
Ithanga and Takaungu to Damaraland, Northern Rhodesia 
and Portuguese East Africa as far south as Inhambane. 

(6) On the Relationship of Ptyonoprogne fuligula (Lichten- 
stein), Ptyonoprogne rufigula (Fischer & Reichenow), and 
Ptyonoprogne obsoleta (Cabanis). 
Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop. ii. 1930, pp. 584-586, has kept 

Vol.lxii.] 50 [1942. 

these three as separate species. Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1921, 
p. 112, suggests that P. fuligula and P. obsoleta can be placed 
together, and Sclater & Mackworth-Praed, Ibis, 1918, p. 716, 
place^ P. fuligula and P. rufigula together. Meinertzhagen, 
Nicoll's Bds. Egypt, i. 1930, p. 310, suggests that all three 
may be placed under Ptyonoprogne rupestris (Scopoli). 

Our examination of this question shows that Ptyonoprogne 
rupestris and Ptyonoprogne obsoleta cannot be joined together 
as Tristram, Fauna & Flora Palest. 1884, p. 62, states that 
they were both breeding in the same cave at the Jebel Quara- 
tania, not races interbreeding, as inferred by Meinertzhagen 
(p. 311). 

Ptyonoprogne obsoleta occurs from south-eastern Egypt to 
British Somaliland, and therefore probably occurs in Eritrea, 
where Ptyonoprogne rufigula is also found, and until the exact 
breeding distribution oj* these two are known they should be 
treated as different species. 

We agree with Sclater and Mackworth-Praed that Ptyono- 
progne fuligula: and Ptyonoprogne rufigula can be treated as 
conspecific, as there appears to be no overlap in distribution, 
and although P. fuligula is a larger bird than P. rufigula, they 
have the same general characteristics. 

(7) On the Status of Ptyonoprogne rufigula fusciventris Vincent, 
Bull. B. O. C. liii. 1933, p. 143 : Namuli Mts., northern 
Portuguese East Africa. 
We have carefully compared the type and the other adult 
male specimen with the series of twenty- five males in the 
British Museum collection from Northern Nigeria, French 
Equatorial Africa, Northern Belgian Congo, Southern Sudan, 
Abyssinia, Uganda, Kenya Colony, Tanganyika Territory and 
Nyasaland. We find a certain amount of individual variation 
in coloration, and the characters given by Vincent are to be 
found in specimens much farther north. Wing measurements 
of males also show considerable variation, and those of P. r. 
fusciventris, 111-112 mm. (two males), are not different to 
those from farther north, *'. e., Uganda, 112 mm. (one male), 
French Equatorial Africa, 109-115 mm. (two males), and 

1942.] 51 [Vol. lxii. 

Southern Sudan, 111-117 mm. (four males). Two Kenya 
Colony males are 115-121 mm., Abyssinia 117 mm. (one male), 
and Northern Nigeria 112-116 mm. (four males) ; and at 
first sight it would appear that Kenya Colony males might 
be larger than those from northern Portuguese East Africa, 
Nyasaland and southern Tanganyika Territory, but Nyasa- 
land males (two) measure 111-117 mm., and southern 
Tanganyika Territory males (four) measure 113-117 mm., 
and thus show a complete overlap of wing measurements in 
all areas. We are therefore of opinion that Ptyonoprogne 
rufigula fusciventris Vincent, should become a synonym of 
Ptyonoprogne fuligula rufigula (Fischer & Reichenow). 

On the Ilaces of Pomatorhinus horsfieldii 
Sykes in Ceylon. 

Mr. Hugh Whistler sent the following note on the races 
of Horsfield's Scimitar- Babbler in Ceylon :• — 

Blyth (J. A. S. B. vol. xvi. 1847, p. 451) separated the 
Scimitar-Babbler of Ceylon from the Indian bird, Pomatorhinus 
horsfieldii Sykes (Western Ghats) under the name of Pomatorhinus 
melanurus, but it was reserved for Holdsworth (P. Z. S. 1872, 
p. 448) to point out that two birds of very different colouring 
— one ferruginous and the other olive — were included under 
the latter name. This fact was again commented on byWardlaw- 
Ramsay (Ibis, 1878, p. 132), by Legge (' Birds of Ceylon,' 
p. 502), and Harington (J. B. N. H. S. vol. xxiii. p. 334). 
Legge considered the two types sufficiently different to be 
worth figuring in his great book, and he also pointed out that 
the bright ferruginous bird belonged to the Low Country 
Wet Zone of South-west Ceylon, whilst the olive bird inhabited 
the Low Country Dry Zone and the Hill Zone. These facts 
have recently been confirmed by the fine collection of birds 
made in the Survey carried out under the auspices of the 
British and the Colombo Museums. The case is,*of course, 
parallel to those of Rhopocichla atriceps and Pellorneum fusco- 
illum, which have similarly distributed races. 

Vol. lxii.] 52 [1942. 

In naming Pomatorhinus melanurus Blyth gave no other 
locality than Ceylon, but his specimens came from Dr. Temple- 
ton, who received them from Layard. This fact, combined 
with the original description, which evidently refers to the 
ferruginous bird, leads me to restrict the type-locality to 
Urugaha (south of Kalutara), and therefore, the name to the 
ferruginous bird. For the olivaceous bird I propose the 

Pomatorhinus horsfleldii holdsworthi, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar to P. h. melanurus, but the upper parts, 
flanks and wings (that is, those parts which are ferruginous 
in melanurus) olivaceous brown, faintly tinged with rusty 
on the sides of the hind neck and on the rump. 

Type. — Survey no. 317, male, December 1, 1936. Ohiya, 
5800 feet, Central Hill Zone, Ceylon. Bill 27-5, wing 90-5, 
tail 87, tarsus 32 mm. 


The next meeting of the Club will be held at the Rembrandt 
Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Friday (not Saturday, as usual), 
April 24, 1942, at 2 o'clock, after a luncheon at 1 o'clock. 

It is proposed to hold the combined meeting of the Club with 
the British Ornithologists' Union, which took place in April 
last year, on Saturday, June 6, 1942. Further details of this 
will be announced later. 

21 H2 




rtl^V*^ OF THE 



The four-hundred-and-thirty-seventh Meeting of the Club 
was held in the Board Room of the British Museum (Natural 
History) on Friday, April 24, 1942, at 2 p.m. 

Chairman : Captain C. H. B. Grant. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Miss M. G. S. 
Best ; J. Fisher ; Dr. E. Hopkinson ; Dr. N. H. Joy ; 
N. B. Ktnnear (Hon. Sec.) ; Miss E. P. Leach ; Dr. Car- 
michael Low (Editor) ; T. H. Newman ; W. L. Sclater ; 
D. Seth- Smith. 

Members, 12 ; Guests, ; Total, 12. 

Owing to Government restrictions it was not possible to 
hold the usual luncheon preceding the Meeting. 

No Meeting of the Club took place in March. 

An interesting Specimen of Certhia familiaris 
collected in East Suffolk. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note : — ■ 

On March 18, 1941, a very pale example of Certhia familiaris 
was shot at Martlesham, Woodbridge, Suffolk. This bird 
has been compared with an extremely long series from Sweden, 
Norway, Russia, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France, 
England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland, and, in my opinion, 
is referable to the central European form, Certhia familiaris 
macrodactyla . This race of Certhia familiaris has not previously 
been recorded in Britain. 

[May 14, 1942.] a TOL. mj, 

Vol. lxii.] 54 [1942. 

The bird was obtained during a rush of migrants in mixed 
deciduous woodland, and was noticeably pale in the field. 
Birds obtained about the same time are of the dark British 
race, Certhia familiaris brittanica. 

Dr. Carmichael Low exhibited the specimen for Mr. Clancey, 
and also that of the Iceland Redwing, Turdus musicus coburni 
Sharpe, described in the ' Bulletin ' last October (lxii. 1941, 
p. 18). 

A new Race of Brown-chested Alethe from Tanganyika 


Mr. R. E. Moreau sent the following new race for exhibi- 
tion : — 

Alethe poliocephala ufipse, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Resembling A. p. kungwensis Moreau (Bull. 
B. O. C. lxi. 1941, p. 46) in its dusky olive head and its large 
size ; but with the red-brown of the upper parts paler, agreeing 
with Alethe poliocephala carruthersi O.- Grant in this respect. 

Distribution. — Mbisi Forest, east of Sumbawanga, and on 
the scarp, ca. 8000 ft., overlooking Lake Rukwa from the 

Type. — In the British Museum. Female adult. Mbisi 
Forest, June 16, 1941, ca. 8000 ft. Collected by Salimu 
^smani for R. E. Moreau. Collector's no. 5487. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 97, culmen from base 20, 
tail 65, tarsus 30 mm. 

Remarks. — -An immature male (wing 100, tail 62 mm.) shows 
the same characters . when compared with A. p. kungwensis 
in the same stage of immaturity. This further extension of the 
range of the species south and east brings it to within about 
150 miles of the locality of Alethe fulleborni fulleborni Reichenow. 

A new Race of the Smaller Striped Swallow from 

the Sudan. 
Captain C. H. B. Grant and Major C. W. Mackworth- 
Praed exhibited and described the following new race : — 

Hirundo abyssinica bannermani, subsp. nov. 
Description. — Above similar to Hirundo abyssinica abyssinica 
Guerin, but below striping much finer and narrower than 

1942.] 55 [Vol. lxii. 

in the typical race or in Hirundo abyssinica puella Temminck & 
Schlegel, thus giving the underside a paler appearance. 

Distribution. — Darfur area, western Sudan. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Aribo Valley, 
Darfur, western Sudan, May 21, 1921 ; collected by Rear- 
Admiral Lynes. Collector's no. 1514. Brit. Mus. Reg. 
no. 1922.12.8.721. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 99, culmen from base 9, 
tail 78, tarsus 13 mm. 

Remarks. — In ' The Ibis ', 1925, p. 128, Rear- Admiral Lynes 
refers his specimens to Hirundo puella puella ; but Dr. D. A. 
Bannerman, when compiling his vol. v. (1939) of the Bds. 
of Trop. W. Africa, left a note in with these specimens 
drawing our attention to the possibility of their representing 
a new race. Named in honour of Dr. D. A. Bannerman. 
Six specimens examined. 

The Introduction of the Indian House-Crow 

into Port Sudan. 

Mr. N. B. Kinnear communicated the following note : — 

In November last, Major R. E. Cheesman sent an example 
of a Crow from Port Sudan which he thought resembled the 
Indian House-Crow, with certain differences. The specimen, 
however, turns out to be the typical race of the Indian 
House-Crow, Corvus splendens splendens, but rather a dark 
specimen, though by no means as dark as the Ceylon race, 
C. s. protegatus. 

The interest in this bird lies in the fact that a short time 
before sending the specimen home, Major Cheesman heard 
from Mr. E. O. Springfield, O.B.E., M.C., the Commissioner 
at Port Sudan, that there was a flourishing colony of these 
Crows breeding in a big iron bridge near the harbour, and 
accordingly asked Mr. Springfield for specimens. Although 
Major Cheesman has often visited Port Sudan, he has never 
noticed the birds. How long this colony has been established 
it is not possible to say, but it is important that its existence 
be put on record. 

We have examples of the typical form of the Indian House- 
Crow from Muscat, but whether the birds still continue to 


Vol. lxii.] 56 [1942. 

breed there or not I do not know. It was introduced into 
Aden many years ago, but did not long survive ; it was also 
introduced into Zanzibar in the early nineties, and is well 

When Hume visited the Laccadives in 1875 he found the 
House- Crow was well established on certain of the islands. 
He remarks that " the pale collar is ill-marked, and one or 
two specimens recall insolens of Burmah." We have three 
of Hume's skins, two adults and a juvenile, which are typical 
G. s. splendens. The juvenile in no way differs from a Bombay 
skin, but in that plumage it is always darker than the adult. 

From the Maldives we also have three skins which were 
collected by Captain Southern, R.N., in 1933, and these birds 
have, I think, been introduced from Ceylon, where the indi- 
genous race lacks the pale collar and is darker below, and 
goes by the name of C. s. protegatus. 

Specimens of the different races were shown. 

Common Bittern from Nigeria. 
Mr. N. B. Kinnear communicated the following note : — 

A short time ago Mr. L. H. Brown, of the Agricultural 
Department, Ilorin, Nigeria, sent a skin of a Bittern to the 
Museum, with the suggestion that it was the typical species. 
After the skin had been made up, Captain C. H. B. Grant and I 
compared it, arid without doubt it has proved to be the typical 
form, Botaurus stellaris stellaris, which has not been recorded 
before from West Africa. Chapin mentions a specimen 
shot by a native hunter at Naipu, some 160 miles N.E. of 
Stanleyville, in the Congo, and this appears to be the most 
southerly record. Further east the Bittern has not been 
seen south of Kordofan or Abyssinia. 

A number of specimens were exhibited to show the difference 
in the two forms, the Common Bittern and the Cape Bittern 
(B. s. capensis). It will at once be noticed that the latter 
is much darker on the back, and the black centres to the 
feathers are broader. The supposed difference is the barring 
of the primaries, which neither Captain Grant nor myself 
found to be a constant character. 

1942.] 57 [Vol.lxii. 

On the Races of the Rock-Pipit in Western Europe. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following communication, with 
specimens for exhibition : — 

An eminent British ornithologist once stated that he con- 
sidered Anthus spinoletta meinertzhageni E. G. Bird one of the 
best of the Hebridean races. It was, therefore, with some 
surprise that early in 1942 I found that I could not separate 
Anthus spinoletta meinertzhageni satisfactorily from Anthus 
spinoletta kleinschmidti Hartert, described from the Faroe 

Very extensive material in the British Museum, and in the 
private collections of Colonel R. Meinertzhagen and Dr. James 
M. Harrison has led me to recognize the western European 
races of the Rock-Pipit enumerated below. 

Anthus spinoletta kleinschmidti Hartert. 

Anthus spinoletta kleinschmidti Hartert, Die Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, Band 1, 1903-10, p. 284: Faroe Islands; of which 
Anthus spinoletta meinertzhageni E. G. Bird, Bull. B. O. C. 
lvi. 1936, p. 55 : South Uist, Outer Hebrides, Scotland, is 
a synonym. 

Range. — Faroe Islands ; Scotland : specimens examined from 
Shetlands, Orkneys, Ross, Argyll, Wigtown, Berwick, Ayr, 
Dumbarton, Midlothian, North and South Uist. 

Anthus spinoletta petrosus (Montagu). 

Alauda petrosa Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. iv. 1798, p. 41 : 

Range. — England, Wales, and Ireland (birds from western 
Ireland examined), Channel Islands, N.W. France (birds from 
Ushant, Finistere, France, are rather paler than most examples 
of Anthus s. petrosus). No comparable material from Norway 
available for examination, and I do not intend to place the 
Norwegian bird at the present moment. 

Anthus spinoletta littoralis Brehm. 

Anthus littoralis Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl. 
1831, p. 331 : Danish islands. 

Range. — Coasts of Denmark, Sweden, N. Finland, and 
N. Russia. 

Vol. lxii.] 58 [1942. 

Anthus spinoletta hesperianus, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from Anthus spinoletta Jcleinschmidti 
Hartert by being very much darker in colour on the upper 
surface. Striae of breast and flanks extremely dark. Wings 
and tail darker, and general tone very rich. 

Distribution. — Apparently confined to Arran, west Scotland. 
Birds from the Ayrshire mainland (Largs, 1935) and Argyllshire 
are referable to Anthus spinoletta kleinschmidti. 

Type. — Female adult. Blackwaterfoot, Arran, west Scot- 
land, August 14, 1940. In my collection. Thirteen specimens 

Remarks. — It is not generally known that the climate of 
western Arran is extremely mild and damp. Palms, eucalyp- 
tus trees and other exotic plants thrive there. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Major C. W. Mackworth- 
Praed sent the following eight notes : — 

(1) On the Conspecific Status of Budytes flava (Linnaeus), 
Budytes luteus (Gmelin) and Budytes feldegg (Michahelles) . 

Practically all authors place these three Wagtails in one 
group, together with all the recognized races. Grote, however, 
in 0. M. 1937, p. 163, clearly shows that there is a considerable 
overlap of breeding distribution between B. flava and B. luteus 
from the Volga to the Irtish, and between the grey-headed 
and black-headed birds in the Black, Caspian and Aral Seas 

In the former he gives the choice between B. flava and 
B. luteus being different species or mutants of the same species. 
We accept Grote's suggestion of there being two species, one 
grey-headed with its races, and one green-headed with one 
race, and that B. flava and B. feldegg must also be treated as 
different species. 

As regards the species occurring in Eastern Africa, we have 
adopted the following arrangement : — 

Budytes flava flava (Linnaeus). 
,, ,, thunbergi (Billberg). 

„ „ cinereocapilla (Savi). 

1942.] 59 [Vol. lxii. 

Budytes flava beema Sykes. 

„ dombrowskii Tschusi. 
luteus luteus (Gmelin). 

,, flavissima (Blyth). 
feldegg feldegg (Michahelles). 

„ kaleniczenkii (Kaleniczenko). 

(2) On Apalis alticola (Shelley). 

In the Bull. B. 0. C. lxi. 1941, p. 64, the distribution of 
Apalis alticola brunneiceps (Reichenow) should have included 
the Oldeani and Mbulu areas of north-eastern Tanganyika 

(3) On the Races of Calamonastes simplex (Cabanis) and the 

Status of Calamonastes simplex neglectus Benson. 
Mr. R. E. Moreau having recently sent to the British Museum 
two specimens from the Mbisi Forest, near Sumbawanga, 
Ufipa Plateau, south-western Tanganyika Territory, has 
raised the question of the distribution of the races of this 
species, and our examination of the series in the National 
Collection shows that two other species should be placed under 
this heading, making four races, as follows : — 

Calamonastes simplex simplex (Cab.). 

Thamnobia simplex Cabanis, J. f. O. 1878, pp. 205 and 221 : 
Ndi, Taita district, south-eastern Kenya Colony. 

Distribution. — Central Abyssinia and British Somaliland 
to Uganda, Kenya Colony, southern Italian Somaliland, 
southern Tanganyika Territory from south-east corner of 
Lake Natron to Pangani. 

Calamonastes simplex undosa (Reichw.). 

Drymoica undosa Reichenow, J. f. 0. 1882, p. 211 : Kakoma, 
Tabora district, west-central Tanganyika Territory. 

Distribution. — South-western Kenya Colony and Tan- 
ganyika Territory from southern end of Lake Victoria to 
Tabora, Iringa and the Ufipa Plateau. 

Calamonastes simplex ctnereus Reichw. 
Calamonastes cinereus Reichenow, J. f. O. 1887, p. 215 
Leopoldsville, Belgian Congo. 

Yoi. lxii.] 60 [1942. 

Distribution. — -The lower Congo Basin and Loango to 
Lunda district, north-eastern Angola, and Chikapa, Kasai 
district, south-western Belgian Congo. 

Calamonastes simplex katang^e Neave. 

Calamonastes katangse Neave, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) iv. 
1909, p. 130 : Lufupa River, western tributary of Lualaba, 
Belgian Congo-north-western Northern Rhodesia boundary. 

Distribution. — The Katanga area of the Belgian Congo and 
Northern Rhodesia. 

We have re-examined the type of Calamonastes simplex 
neglectus Benson, and agree with Benson, Ibis, 1940, p. 620, 
that this specimen is really Calamonastes fasciolatus stierlingi 
Reichenow, as a careful comparison shows that it only differs 
from that race in being more dusky on the lower neck and 

If we remember rightly, Benson was originally of the opinion 
that it was a C. fasciolatus, and not a C. simplex, and there 
appears little doubt that he was right. 

(4) On Riparia riparia fuscocollaris Tschusi, Orn. Jahrb. 
xxiii. 1912, p. 216 : Castelnuovo, Dalmatia. 

This race is given as darker, especially the chest-band. 
Two specimens are enumerated, and are said to be passage 
migrants (April), and the possible breeding area is given as 

Van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, p. 89, has brought 
this name into eastern Africa on finding some migrants darker 
than others, and infers that the breeding area is Turkestan, 
but the Turkestan bird was named Clivicola bilkewitschi by 
Sarudny, O. M. 1910, p. 147, which name is now placed as 
a synonym of R. r. diluta Sharpe & Wyatt, Mon. Hirund. i. 
1893, p. 63 : Badam River, near Tchemkent. 

An examination of specimens from England shows that they 
are not constant in tone, both dark and light adults being 
found ; and we agree with Meinertzhagen, Nicoll's Bds. 
Egypt, i. 1930, p. 312, that R. r. fuscocollaris is merely an 
individual variation of R. r. riparia Linnaeus. R. r. fusco- 
collaris Tschusi cannot therefore be admitted to the Eastern 

1942.] 61 [Vol. lxii. 

African list, and has been correctly placed as a synonym of 
R. r. riparia by Meinertzhagen. 

(5) On the Specific Status of Dicrurus adsimilis (Bechstein) 

and Dicrurus modestus Hartlaub. 

In the Bull. B. 0. C. liii. 1933, p. 177, Bates unites these 
two under Dicrurus adsimilis, and this is followed by Banner- 
man, Bds. Trop. W. Afr. v. 1939, p. 331. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. ii. 1930, p. 594, and Jackson's 
Bds. Kenya Colony & Uganda, iii. 1938, pp. 1170-1171, has 
treated them as separate species. This latter arrangement 
is the correct one, as both are found in Uganda and western 
Kenya Colony. It would appear that Bates did not study 
the distribution of Dicrurus modestus east of the Cameroons. 

(6) On the exact Type-locality of Dicrurus adsimilis (Bechstein), 

Latham, AUgem. Ueb. Vog. ii. 1794, p. 362. 
In the above work Bechstein gives only South Africa, and 
also in Kurze, Ueb. 1812, p. 117. Lichtenstein, Cat. Her. Nat. 
Hamb. 1793, p. 10, no. 99, under his Corvus afer, gives South 
Africa. This general type-locality is also given by Sclater, 
Syst. Av. ^thiop. ii. 1930, p. 594. LevaiUant, Ois d'Afr. 
pi. 167, 1805, under his " Le Drongeau ", states that he first 
saw this bird at Duywens-hock River. We can therefore 
fix the exact type-locality of Dicrurus adsimilis (Bechstein) as 
Duywens-hock River, southern Cape Province. 

(7) On the Eastern African Races of Dicrurus ludwigii 

Our examination of the series in the British Museum shows 
that three races can be recognized, as follows : — 

Dicrurus ludwigii ludwigii (Smith). 

Edolius ludwigii A. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ. ser. 2, 1834, 
p. 144 : Durban, Natal, South Africa. 

Tail square, smaller, more glossy blue-black than Dicrurus 
adsimilis adsimilis (Bechst.), and inner webs to flight- feathers 
blackish, not ashy. Female is duller, and below slaty, with 
only a faint gloss. Wing 97 to 107 mm. Thirty specimens 

Vol. brii] 62 [1942. 

Distribution. — South-eastern Belgian Congo, north-eastern 
Northern Rhodesia, and southern Nyasaland to eastern 
Southern Rhodesia, Portuguese East Africa, eastern Transvaal, 
Zululand and Natal. 


Dicrurus miinzneri Reichenow, 0. M. 1915, p. 91 : Sanyi, 
Mahenge district, south-eastern Tanganyika Territory. 

Brighter and more glossy than D.l. ludwigii. Female more 
glossy below, especially on chest, than D. I. ludwigii. Wing 
99 to 110 mm. Four specimens examined. 

Distribution. — Southern Italian Somahland to eastern Kenya 
Colony and eastern Tanganyika Territory from the Juba River 
to Mahenge. 

Note.— Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. ii. 1930, p. 594, has 
placed this race as a probable synonym of Dicrurus adsimilis. 

Dicrurus ludwigii elgonensis van Som. 

Dicrurus elgonensis van Someren, Bull. B. 0. C. xl. 1920, 
p. 95 : Lerundo (Nyarondo), near Yala River, western Kenya 

Generally duller, less glossy velvety black than D. I. ludwigii 
or D. I. miinzneri. Wing 104 to 109 mm. Three specimens 

Distribution. — Sudan and north-eastern Belgian Congo to 
Uganda and western Kenya Colony. 

Note. — One of these three specimens examined has been 
recorded in ' Sudan Notes and Records ! as Dicrurus sharpei 

(8) On the Type-locality of Prionops poliocephala (Stanley). 

In ' The Ibis,' 1936, p. 170, Cheesman and Sclater suggest 
the possibility of Salt having obtained his specimen in Abys- 
sinia, but we would point out that Salt did not cross to the 
western side of the Tacazze River, and his farthest south in 
Abyssinia was Zingilla (11° 25' N. lat.), near the headwaters 
of the Tacazze. 

Major Cheesman's specimen is from N.W. Abyssinia (Gandwa, 
on the Lake Tana — Gallabat road), and until specimens are 
found east of the Tacazze River it would be better to leave 

1942.] 63 [Vol. lxii. 

the type-locality as fixed by Neumann, i. e., Mozambique, 
northern Portuguese East Africa. 

Deposition of Cuckoo's Egg in Reed-Warbler's Nest. 

Dr. N. H. Joy gave an interesting talk on the manner in 
which the Cuckoo deposits her egg in the Reed- Warbler's 
nest. By close-up studies he watched a bird laying its egg 
in such a nest, and was able to see the exact position of its 
feet and body while doing so. He described the action in 
detail and showed illustrations of it taken from his hide 
6 feet away from the nest. It is certainly remarkable that 
a bird of the size of a Cuckoo should be able to deposit an egg 
in such a flimsy nest without damaging it or the eggs contained 
inside it. Dr. Joy's observations, however, clear up the matter, 
and show how it is actually done. 


The next Meeting of the Club, a combined one with the 
British Ornithologists' Union, will be held at the Rembrandt 
Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Saturday, June 6, 1942, 
immediately after the Annual General Meeting of the Union, 
which will take place at 2.30 p.m. Owing to Government 
restrictions, no public luncheons are now allowed. Members 
attending may have tea, however, after the Meeting. 

A film by Mr. Lack of the Galapagos Islands will be shown, 
and slides if available. 

Members intending to be present should notify the Secretary 
of the Union (not the Secretary of the Club) as soon as possible 
after receiving the usual post- card which is being sent out by 
the Union. 


1 3 JUL ^ 





The four-hundred-and-thirty-eighth Meeting of the Club 
was held at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on 
Saturday, June 6, 1942, following the Annual General Meeting 
of the British Ornithologists' Union, held in the same place, 
at 2.30 p.m. 

Dr. Percy R. Lowe, the President, took the chair at the 
Union Meeting, and Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson at the 
Club Meeting which followed. 

Members of the Union present : — Lt.-Col. F. M. Bailey ; 
Mrs. E. C. Barnes ; A. G. Bennett ; H. G. Calkin ; 
J. Chear ; E. Cohen ; Mrs. Rait Kerr ; Miss F. Pitt ; 
L. Sergent. 

Members of the Club present : — Dr. D. A. Bannerman ; 
Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; Miss M. G. Best ; Major A. W. 
Boyd ; H. P. O. Cleave ; J. Fisher ; Miss E. M. Godman ; 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant (V r ice-Chairman) ; Dr. E. Hopkinson ; 

C. Ingram ; Dr. N. H. Joy ; N. B. Kinnear (Hon. Sec.) ; 

D. Lack ; Miss E. P. Leach ; Miss C. Longfield ; Dr. 
Carmichael Low (Editor) ; Dr. P. R. Lowe ; Sir P. H. 
Manson-Bahr ; Col. R. Meinertzhagen ; T. H. Newman ; 
Mrs. J. B. Priestley ; D. Seth-Smith ; Dr. A. Lands- 
borough Thomson (Chairman) ; B. W. Tucker (Vice- 
Chairman) ; Mrs. W. Boyd Watt ; H. Whistler ; H. F. 

Quests : — Mrs. H. Calkin ; Capt. A. Card well ; R. Card- 
well ; Mrs. J. Chear ; Miss C, Crompton ; R. S. R. Fitter ; 

[July 8, 1942.] vol, lxii, 

Vol. lxii.] 66 [19^2. 

E. Flack ; Lt. Z. Godyn ; Miss A. A. Grant ; Miss L. P. 
Grant ; A. Grayson ; N. Grayson ; Mrs. S. Lloyd ; Miss 
M. Penrose ; Miss C. Popham ; Miss M. S. Priestley ; 
Miss B. N. Solly ; E. C. Taylor ; Mrs. A. Landsborough 
Thomson ; Mr. and Mrs. Whitaker ; Mrs. H. F. Witherb*. 

Members of the Union, 9 ; Members of the Club, 27 ; 
Guests, 22 ; Total, 58. 

No Meeting of the Club took place in May. 

A Film of the Galapagos Islands. 

Mr. David Lack showed the film taken in the Galapagos 
Island when he, with Mr. L. S. V. Venables and Mr. W. H. 
Thompson, was there in 1939. Mr. Lack gave a brief account 
of the expedition at a Meeting of the Club on Wednesday, 
January 10, 1940 (Bull. B. O. C. lx. 1940, pp. 46-50), and as 
space will not perjnit of reprinting this now, members of the 
Club should refresh their memories by consulting this paper 
again. Through a misunderstanding the film was not 
available for that Meeting. 

Though there was a description of each of the views on the 
screen Mr. Lack was able to supplement this by an interest- 
ing talk as the film proceeded. Not only were the birds 
shown, but also the giant tortoises, lizards, seals and other 
inhabitants of these unique islands. The different forms of 
the Geospizinas were shown in detail and how they had diverged 
from each other. As the author said in his paper in the 
' Bulletin ', " The Geospizinse present many puzzles for the 
taxonomist ". Perhaps the most interesting to all present 
was the picture of Cactospiza pallida, one of these Finches, 
holding a cactus spine lengthwise in its beak and inserting it 
into a crevice in a tree to drive out an insect. As Mr. Lack 
says, this seems one of the few recorded instances of the use 
of tools in the animal kingdom, outside man. 

The enthusiastic applause which greeted the termination of 
the film showed how much the audience had enjoyed it. It 
was certainly a great treat to be able to see living pictures of 
such a wonderful part of the globe as the Galapagos Islands. 

1942.J 67 [Vol. brii. 

Notes on Eastern African Birds. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant and Major C. W. Mackworth- 
Praed sent the following note : — 

On the Occurrence of Riparia cincta cincta (Boddaert) in 
Eastern Africa during the Non- breeding Season. 

We know that this race breeds in South Africa as far north 
as Southern Rhodesia between August and March (see Sclater, 
Fauna S. Afr., Aves, ii. 1901, p. 2#5, and Priest, Bds. S. 
Rhodesia, hi. 1935, p. 311). Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr. 
v. 1939, p. 278, states that he has examined specimens from 
South Africa between October and April and from West 
Africa between July and October. 

As regards the breeding colony of a Swallow recorded by 
Bannerman as having been seen by Dr. Hopkinson on the 
Gambia River, we should not at present take this into con- 
sideration, as this colony may prove to be a local resident race 
of a species other than R. c. cincta, and even if it does prove 
to be this species, it will not affect the possibility that the 
South African breeding bird spends the non-breeding season 
in West Africa. 

The small series available of this species from eastern Africa 
shows the following facts : — 

Riparia cincta suahelica van Someren breeds from March 
to June, j^oung birds are on the wing in June and July, and 
adults are found moulting in June and December (Brit. Mus. 
Reg. nos. 1906.12.23.1594, from south-eastern Ruwenzori, 
completing the moult, and 1923.8.7.4060, from south-western 
Ankole, starting the moult). 

This race is easily distinguished by its comparatively much 
darker coloration above. 

It is with the specimens of Riparia cincta erlangeri Reichenow 
that confusion with R. c. cincta may exist ; but it is known 
that R. c. erlangeri breeds from April 'to July and adults are 
in worn dress in July to September (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1915. 
12.24.1403 and 1404, from Mongalla), and are in moult in 
October (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1887.9.28.165, from Wadelai), 

Vol. lxii.] 68 [1942. 

birds in fresh or fresher plumage being found from February 
to May. 

It is therefore shown that R. c. cincta would be in worn 
plumage at the end of the breeding season, i. e. April, and 
are moulting in their non- breeding quarters in July (Brit. Mus. 
Reg. no. 1911.12.23.1278, from Shari River) ; whereas R. c. 
erlangeri is worn in July to September and is moulting in 
October. All the specimens we have been able to examine 
from Abyssinia and the Sudan agree with the above data and 
are, therefore, R. c. erlangeri, and we have not been able to 
find one specimen that falls in with the data of R. c. cincta. 

It would therefore appear that R. c. cincta does not visit 
eastern Africa in the non-breeding season, but that it spends 
this season in West and Central Africa from Principe Island 
to the Shari River, French Equatorial Africa. 

A new Race of Wren (Troglodytes) from the 
Western Palaearctic Region. 

Mr. P. A. Clancey sent the following note : — 

A critical examination of a very extensive material from 
the western Palaearctic Region has shown that the Wren 
from Ushant is new to science, and for it I propose the name : — 

Troglodytes troglodytes meinertzhageni, subsp. nov. 

Description. — When compared with Troglodytes troglodytes 
kabylorum Hartert, the underside is noticeably richer and the 
flanks are slightly more heavily barred. On the underside 
T. t. meinertzhageni approaches T. t. troglodytes, but the 
barring of the flanks is generally more pronounced. Upper 
surface near to T. t. kabylorum, but decidedly pale sandy red 
and not so olive in tone. Compared with T.t. troglodytes the 
pale red sand-colour as opposed to warm brown is diagnostic. 
(Five specimens examined.) 

Range. — Confined to Ushant, Finistere, France. 

Type.— Male adult. Sept. 26, 1933. Ushant, Finistere, 
France. In the Meinertzhagen collection. 

Material examined. — T. t. troglodytes, very large series from 
Sweden, France, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Italy, Switzer- 

1942.] 09 [Vol. lxii. 

land and south-eastern England. T. t. indigenus, large series. 
T. t. hebridensis, series. T. t. zetlandicus, series. T. t. hirtensis, 
two examined. T. t. bergensis, one examined. T. t. kaby- 
lorum, series. T. t. Cypriotes, one examined. T. t. weigoldi 
von Jordans, from Portugal, not examined, but this race is 
described as being darker and more heavily marked than the 
typical bird, whereas T. t. meinertzhageni is paler and quite 
sand- coloured above, and only slightly more heavily barred 
on the flanks. T. t. borealis, T. t. islandicus, T. t. koenigi and 
other races described from the western Palaearctic Region not 

Corrigendum to Volume LXII. 

P. 33, line 16. " South end of Lake Nyasa " should read " South end 
of Lake Tanganyika ". 


The next Meeting of the Club will be held in October, after 
the Annual General Meeting. Members will be notified of 
the date, place and time when the notices and agenda for this 
are sent out. 


[ Names of new species and subspecies are indicated by clarendon type 

under the generic entry only ; vernacular, or common, 

names are shown in ordinary type.] 

? aalge, Uria aalge, 1 1 . 
abyssinica bannermani, Hirundo, 


, Eremomela canescens, 14. 

, Hirundo abyssinica, 54. 

puella, Hirundo, 55. 

unitatis, Hirundo, 44. 

adamause, Melocichla mentalis, 33. 

adsimilis, Dicrurus, 61. 

afer, Corvus, 61. 

affinis, Prinia superciliosa, 28. 

Alauda petrosa, 57. 

alba, Motacilla alba, 17, 38. 

albicrissalis, Bradypterus alfredi, 

42, 43. 
Alca torda ? britannica, 11. 
Alcippe nigrifrons, 37, 38. 
Alethe, Brown -chested, 54. 
Alethe fulleborni fulleborni, 54. 

poliocephala carruthersi, 54. 

kungwensis, 54. 

ufipae, subsp. nov., 54. 

alfredi albicrissalis, Bradypterus, 

42, 43. 

, Bradypterus alfredi, 42, 43. 

kungwensis, Bradypterus, 42. 

alticola brunneiceps, Apalis, 59. 

amauroura, Argya, 34. 

■, Melocichla mentalis, 31, 32, 

angolensis, Hirundo, 47. 
Anthus spinoletta hesperianus, 

subsp. nov., 58. 
■ spinoletta kleinschmidii, 57, 

littoralis, 57. 

— meinertzhageni, 57. 
petrosus, 57. 

Apalis alticola brunneiceps, 59, 

Apalis murina murina, 32, 33. 

■ youngi, 32, 33. 

arctica ? grabae, Fratercula, 11. 
Argya amauroura, 34. 
Artisornis winifredse, 30. 
aschani, Hirundo senegalensis, 48, 

atricauda, Melocichla mentalis, 33, 

atriceps nigrifrons, Bhopocichla, 

atriceps, Bhopocichla, 38, 51. 

siccatus, Bhopocichla, 38. 

atrocserulea, Hirundo atrocserulea, 

43, 44, 45. 

lynesi, Hirundo, 45. 

Auk, Little, 8. 

australis, Stelgidocichla latiros- 

tris, 29. 
ayresi, Coturnicops, 32. 

Babbler, Black-headed, 37, 38. 

, Ceylon Wren-, 37. 

, Horsfield's Scimitar-, 51. 

, Scimitar-, 37. 

Balearica pavonina pavonina, 13. 
bannermani, Hirundo abyssinica, 

bassana, Sula, 11. 
bechuanse, Prinia superciliosa, 28. 
beema, Budytes flava, 59. 
bergensis, Troglodytes troglodytes, 

bilkewitschi, Clivicola, 60. 
Bittern, Common, 56. 
borealis, Troglodytes troglodytes, 

Botaurus stellaris capensis, 56. 

Vol. Ixii J 



Botaurus stellaris stellaris, 56. 
Bradypterus alfredi albicrissalis, 

42, 43. 

alfredi, 42, 43. 

kungwensis, subsp. 

nov., 42. 
? britannica, Alca torda, 1 1 . 
brittanica, Certhia familiaris, 54. 
brunneiceps, Apalis alticola, 59. 
Bucco levaillantii, 46. 
Budytesflava beema, 59. 

cinereocapilla, 58. 

-t dombrowskii, 59. 

-flava, 58. 

— j thunbergi, 58. 

feldegg feldegg, 58, 59. 

kaleniczenkii, 59. 

luteus flavissima, 59. 
luteus, 58, 59. 

Bulbul, 18. 

— — , Yellow-moustached, 29. 

, Yellow -streaked, 29. 

Cactospiza pallida, 66. 
cafer, Psittacus, 14. , 
Calamonastes fasciolatus stier- 

lingi, 60. 

simplex cinereus, 59. 

katangse, 60. 

neglectus, 59, 60. 

simplex, 59. 


Candida, Nigrita canicapilla, 43. 
canescens abyssinica, Eremomela, 


elegans, Eremomela, 14. 

,Eremomela canescens, 14. 

canicapilla Candida, Nigrita, 43. 
capensis, Botaurus stellaris, 56. 

chyulu, Smithornis, 35, 37. 

medianus, Smithornis, 35, 


shimba, Smithornis, 35. 

suahelicus, Smithornis, 35, 

carbo, Phalacrocorax carbo, 1 1 . 
carruthersi, Alethe poliocephala, 

castanopsis, Heliolais, 15, 16, 17. 
Certhia familiaris brittanica, 54. 

macrodactyla, 53. 

Gharadrius marginatus, 13. 
chiniana ukamba, Gisticola, 47. 
christy i, Hirundo, 43. 
chyulu, Smithornis capensis, 35, 

cincta erlangeri, Riparia, 67, 68. 
, Riparia cincta, 67, 68. 

cincta suahelica, Riparia, 67. 
cinereocapilla, Budytes flava, 58. 
cinereus, Calamonastes simplex, 

cinnamomea nyassse, Sathrocercus, 


ufipse, Sathrocercus, 30. 

Cisticola chiniana ukamba, 47. 

( ), Drymoica grandis, 34. 

orientalis, 34. 

rhodoptera, 16. 

semifasciata, 47. 

citriniceps, Eremomela scotops, 47. 
Clivicola bilkewitschi, 60. 
coburni, Turdus musicus, 18, 54. 
Cormorant, 6, 8, 11. 
Corvus afer, 61. 

splendens protegatus, 55, 56. 

■ splendens, 55, 56. 

Coturnicops ayresi, 32. 

Crow, Indian House-, 55. 

Cuckoo, 63. 

Cypriotes, Troglodytes troglodytes, 


desertse, Prinia superciliosa, 27. 

Dicrurus adsimilis, 61. 

— — ludwigii elgonensis, 62. 

— ludwigii, 61, 62. 

munzneri, 62. 

— modestus, 61. 

diluta, Riparia riparia, 60. 

Dioptrornis fischeri fischeri, 41, 42. 

nyikensis, 42. 

uflpae, subsp. nov., 41. 

dombrowskii, Budytesflava, 59. 
Drymozca jodoptera, 1 6 . 
Drymoica {Cisticola) grandis, 34. 

erythroptera, 15. 

mentalis, 33. 

undosa, 59. 

Edolius ludwigii, 61. 

elegans elgonensis, Eremomela, 14. 

, Eremomela canescens, 14. 

elgonensis, Dicrurus ludwigii, 62. 
— . — , Eremomela elegans, 14. 
Eremomela canescens abyssinica, 

canescens, 14. 

elegans, 14. 

elegans elgonensis, 14. 

scotops citriniceps, 47. 

scotops, 46. 

erlangeri, Riparia cincta, 67, 68. 



[Vol. lxii. 

erythroptera, Drymoica, 15. 
, Heliolais erythroptera, 15, 


jodoptera, Helolais, 16. 

kavirondensis, Heliolais, 15, 


kirbyi, Heliolais, 15. 

major, Heliolais, 15, 16, 17. 

■ rhodoptera, Heliolais, 15, 16, 

eugenius, Stelgidocichla latirostris, 


familiaris brittanica, Gerthia, 54. 
— ■ — macrodactyla, Gerthia, 53. 
fasciolatus stierlingi, Calamonastes, 

feldegg, Budytes feldegg, 58, 59. 

kaleniczenkii, Budytes, 59. 

Finch, Grey-headed Negro-, 41. 

, Negro-, 39. 

fischeri, Dioptromis fischeri, 41, 


■ nyikensis, Dioptromis, 42. 

■ ufipse, Dioptromis, 41. 

flava beema, Budytes, 59. 

, Budytes flava, 58. 

— ■ — cinereocapilla, Budytes, 58. 

dombrowskii, Budytes, 59. 

thunbergi, Budytes, 58. 

flavissima, Budytes luteus, 59. 
flavostriatus kungwensis, Phylla- 

strephus, 29. 
— • — tenuirostris, Phyllastrephus, 

Flycatcher, Slaty, 39, 41. 
Fratercula arctica ? grabse, 1 1 . 
fuligula, Ptyonoprogne, 49, 50, 51. 
fiillebomi, Aieihe fullebomi, 54. 
Fulmar, 7, 8, 11. 
Fulmarus glacialis glacialis, 1 1 . 

fuscocapillum, Pellomeum. 51. 
fuscocollaris, Riparia riparia, 60. 

Gannet, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 
glacialis, Fulmarus glacialis, 11. 
? grabae, Fratercula arctica, 1 1 . 
grandis, Drymoica (Cisticola), 34. 
— ■ — , Melocichla mentalis, 34. 
granviki, Melocichla mentalis, 31, 

gravis, Puffinus, 1 1 . 
Guillemot, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 
Gull, 6, 7, 11. 

hebridensis, Troglodytes troglodytes, 

Heliolais castanopsis, 15, 16, 17. 
erythroptera erythroptera, 15, 


jodoptera, 16. 

kavirondensis, 15, 16. 

kirbyi, 15. 

— ■ — — — major, 15, 16, 17. 

— rhodoptera, 15, 16, 17. 

hesperianus, Anthus spinoletta, 58. 
hirtensis, Troglodytes troglodytes, 

Hirundo abyssinica abyssinica, 54. 
bannermani, subsp. 

nov., 54. 

— • puella, 55. 

■ — ■ — unitatis, 44. 

— angolensis, 47. 

— atrocserulea atrocserulea, 
44, 45. 

lynesi, subsp. nov., 



christy i, 43. 

lucida, 47. 

puella p uella, 44, 55. 

■ rustica rustica, 44, 47. 

senegalensis aschani, 48, 49. 

— ■ hybrida, 48, 49. 

■ monteiri, 48, 49. 

saturalior, 48, 49. 

senegalensis, 48, 49. 

smithii smithii, 44. 

holdsworthi, Pomatorhinus hors- 

holdsworthi, Pomato- 
rhinus, 52. 

, Pomatorhinus, 37, 51. 

hybrida, Hirundo senegalensis, 48, 

indigenus, Troglodytes troglodytes, 

islandicus, Troglodytes troglodytes, 


jodoptera, Drymozca, 16. 

— : — , Heliolais erythroptera, 16. 

kabylorum, Troglodytes troglodytes, 
68, 69. 

kaleniczenkii, Budytes feldegg, 59. 

katangee, Calamonastes simplex, 

kavirondensis, Heliolais erythro- 
ptera, 15, 16. 

kirbyi, Heliolais erythroptera, 15. 

Vol. Ixii.] 



Kittiwake, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 

kleinschmidti, Anthus spinoletta, 

57, 58. 
koenigi, Troglodytes troglodytes, 69. 
kungwensis, Alethe poliocephala, 


, Bradypterus alfredi, 42. 

, Phyllastrephus flavostriatus, 


Larus, 11. 

latirostris australis, Stelgidocichla, 


eugenius, Stelgidocichla, 29. 

levaillantii, Bucco, 46. 

— ■ — •, Lybius levaillantii, 46. - 

littoralis, Anthus spinoletta, 57. 

lomvia, Uria lomvia, 11. 

Long-Tail, 18, 27. 

lucida, Hirundo, 47. 

ludwigii, Dicrurus ludwigii, 61, 


, Edolius, 61. 

— ■ — ■ elgonensis, Dicrurus, 62. 
— — munzneri, Dicrurus, 62. 
luteus, Budytes luteus, 58, 59. 
— ■ — ■ flavissima, Budytes, 59. 
Lybius levaillantii levaillantii, 46. 

minor minor, 46. 

lynesi, Hirundo atrocserulea, 45. 

macmillani, Ortygops, 32. 
macrodactyla, Certhia familiaris, 

major, Heliolais erythroptera, 15, 

16, 17. 

, Orthotomus, 17. 

marginatus, Charadrius, 13. 
medianus, Smithornis capensis, 

35, 37. 
meinertzhageni, Anthus spinoletta, 

, Troglodytes troglodytes, 68, 

melanurus, Pomatorhinus, 51, 52. 
Melocichla mentalis adamause, 33. 
mentalis amauroura, 31, 32, 


atricauda, 33, 35. 

grandis, 34. 

granviki, subsp. nov., 

31, 35. 

mentalis, 33, 34. 
orientalis, 33, 34. 

mentalis adamause, Melocichla, 33. 
— — amauroura, Melocichla, 31, 

32, 34. 
• atricauda, Melocichla, 33, 35. 

mentalis, Drymoica, 33. 

— — ■ grandis, Melocichla, 34. 

granviki, Melocichla, 31, 35. 

-, Melocichla mentalis, 33, 34. 

■ orientalis, Melocichla, 33, 34. 

minor, Lybius minor, 46. 

, Pogonias, 46. 

modestus, Dicrurus, 61. 
monteiri, Hirundo senegalensis, 

48, 49. 
Motacilla alba alba, 17, 38. 
munzneri, Dicrurus ludwigii, 62. 
murina, Apalis murina, 32, 33. 

youngi, Apalis, 32, 33. 

musicus coburni, Turdus, 18, 54. 

neglectus, Calamonastes simplex, 

59, 60. 
nigrifrons, Alcippe, 37, 38. 

, Rhopocichla atriceps, 38. 

Nigrita canicapilla Candida, subsp. 

nov., 43. 
nyassse, Sathrocercus cinnamomea, 

nyike'nsis, Dioptrornis fischeri, 42. 

obsoleta, Ptyonoprogne, 49, 50. 
orientalis, Gisticola, 34. 

, Melocichla mentalis, 33, 34. 

Orthotomus major, 17. 
Ortygops macmillani, 32. 
ovampensis, Prinia superciliosa, 

pallida, Gactospiza, 66. 

pavonina, Balearica pavonina, 13. 

Pellorneum fuscocap ilium, 51. 

Petrel, 8. 

petrosa, Alauda, 57. 

petrosus, Anthus spinoletta, 57. 

Phalacrocorax carbo carbo, 1 1 . 

Phyllastrephus flavostriatus kung- 
wensis, subsp. nov., 29. 

— tenuirostris, 29. 

Pipit, Rock-, 57. 

Pogonias minor, 46. 

Poicephalus robustus, 13, 14. 

poliocephala carruthersi, Alethe 

kungwensis, Alethe, 54. 

, Prionops, 62. 

ufipse, Alethe, 54. 

Pomatorhinus horsfieldii, 37, 51. 

— — holdsworthi, subsp. 

nov., 52. 

— » — melanurus, 51, 52, 



[Vol. Mi. 


nov., 28. 

Prinia super ciliosa affinis, 28. 

bechuanae, subsp. nov., 


— desertae, subsp. nov., 

ovampensis, subsp. 

superciliosa, 27, 28. 
Prionops poliocepJiala, 62. 
protegatus, Corvus splendens, 55, 

Psittacus cafer, 14. 
Ptyonoprogne fuligula, 49, 50, 51. 

obsoleta, 49, 50. 

— — rufigula, 49, 50, 51. 

. — fusciventris, 50. 

rupestris, 50. 

puella, Hirundo abyssinica, 55. 
— — , Hirundo puella, 44, 55. 
Puffin, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12. 
Pujfinus gravis, 1 1 . 

Razorbill, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12. 
Redwing, Iceland, 18, 54. 
rhodoptera, Cisticola, 16. 

, Heliolais erythroptera, 15, 

16, 17. 
Rhopocichla atriceps, 38, 51. 

nigrifrons, 38. 

siccatus, subsp. nov., 

Riparia cincta cincta, 67, 68. 

erlangeri, 67, 68. 

suaheliea 67. 

riparia diluta, 60. 

fuscocollaris, 60. 

riparia, 60, 61. 

riparia diluta, Riparia, 60. 

fuscocollaris, Riparia, 60. 

Rissa tridactyla trid,actyla, 1 1 . 
Robin, 41. 

robustus, Poicephalus, 13, 14. 
rufigula fusciventris, Ptyonoprogne , 

, Ptyonoprogne, 49, 50, 51. 

rupestris, Ptyonoprogne, 50. 
rustica, Hirundo rustica, 44, 47. 

Sarothrura, 32. 

Sathrocercus cinnamomea nyassse, 


uflpse, subsp. nov., 30. 

saturatior, Hirundo senegalensis, 

48, 49. 
Scepomycter, gen. nov., 30. 
scotops citrinieeps, Eremomela,41 . 
scotops, Eremomela scotops, 46. 


semifasciata, Cisticola, 47. 

senegalensis aschani, Hirundo, 48, 

■ , Hirundo senegalensis, 48, 49. 

hybrida, Hirundo, 48, 49. 

monteiri, Hirundo, 48, 49. 

saturatior, Hirundo, 48, 49. 

Shearwater, 7, 8, 9, 11. 

shimba, Smithornis capensis, 35. 

siccatus, Rhopocichla atriceps, 38. 

simplex, Calamonastes simplex, 59. 

cinereus, 'Calamonastes, 59. 

katangse, Calamonastes, 60. 

neglectus, Calamonastes, 59, 


, Thamnobia, 59. 

undosa, Calamonastes, 59. 

Skua, 8. 

smithii, Hirundo smithii, 44. 

Smithornis capensis chyulu, sub- 
sp. nov., 35, 37. 

medianus, 35, 37. 

shimba, subsp. nov., 


suahelicus, 35, 37. 

spinoletta hesperianus, Anthus, 58. 
kleinschmidti, Anthus, 57, 


littoralis, Anthus, 57. 

meinertzhageni, Anthus, 57. 

— — petrosus, Anthus, 57. 
splendens, Corvus splendens, 55, 


protegatus, Corvus, 55, 56. 

Stelgidocichla latirostris australls, 

subsp. nov., 29. 

eugenius, 29. 

stellaris, Botaurus stellaris, 56. 

capensis, Botaurus, 56. 

stierlingi, Calamonastes fascio- 

latus, 60. 
Stork, 26. 

suaheliea, Riparia cincta, 67. 
suahelicus, Smithornis capensis, 

35, 37. 
Sula bassana, 11. 
superciliosa affinis, Prinia, 28. 

bechuanae, Prinia, 28. 

desertse, Prinia, 27. 

ovamepnsis, Prinia, 28. 

, Prinia superciliosa, 27, 28. 

Swallow, Blue, 43. 

, Smaller Striped, 54. 

tenuirostris, Phyllastrephus fiavo- 

striatus, 29. 
Tern, 8. 
Thamnobia simplex, 59. 

Vol. lxii.] 



thunbergi, Budytes flava, 58. 
torda ? britannica, Alca, 11. 
Troglodytes troglodytes 


— ■ borealis, 69. 

■ ■ Cypriotes, 69. 

hebridensis, 69. 

hirtensis, 69. 

— — • indigenus, 69. 

■ islandicus, 69. 

■ kabylorum, 68, 69. 

koenigi, 69. 

meinertzhageni, subsp. 

nov., 68, 69. 

■ • troglodytes, 68. 

weigoldi, 69. 

zetlandicus, 69. 

troglodytes bergensis, Troglodytes, 


borealis, Troglodytes, 69. 

— ■ — ■ Cypriotes, Troglodytes, 69. 
— — • hebridensis, Troglodytes, 69. 

hirtensis, Troglodytes, 69. 

— ■ — ■ indigenus, Troglodytes, 69. 

islandicus, Troglodytes, 69. 

kabylorum, Troglodytes, 68, 

— ■ — koenigi, Troglodytes, 69. 
meinertzhageni, Troglodytes, 

68, 69. 

weigoldi, Troglodytes, 69. 

— ■ — i zetlandicus, Troglodytes, 69. 
Turdus musicus coburni, 18, 54. 

nfipae, Alethe poliocephala, 54. 

, Dioptrornis fischeri, 41. 

, Sathrocercus cinnamomea, 

ukamba, Cisticola chiniana, 47. 
undosa, Galamonastes simplex, 59. 

Drymoica, 59. 

unitatis, Hirundo abyssinica, 44. 
C7ria aalge ? aalge, 11. 
■ lomvia lomvia, 1 1 . 

Wagtail, White, 17, 38. 
Warbler, Bracken-, 30, 41. 

■, Moustached, 18, 30. 

, Red-capped, 30. 

■, Reed-, 63. 

, Swamp-, 18. 

weigoldi, Troglodytes, troglodytes, 

loinifredse, Artisornis, 30. 
Wren, 68. 
Babbler, Ceylon, 37. 

youngi, Apalis murina, 32, 33. 

zetlandicus, Troglodytes troglodytes, 



I™ •- 


I ■