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Full text of "Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club"

Bulletin of the 






MEETINGS are normally held in the Sherfield Building of Imperial College, South Kensington, London 
SW7. The nearest Tube station is at South Kensington; a map of the area will be sent to members, on request. 
(Limited car parking facilities can be reserved [at a special reduced charge of £5.00], on prior application to 
the Hon. Secretary.) 

The cash bar is open from 6.15 pm, and a buffet supper, of two courses followed by coffee, is served at 
7 pm. (A vegetarian menu can be arranged if ordered at the time of booking.) Informal talks are given on 
completion, commencing at about 8 pm. 

Dinner charges are £22.50 per person (since 1 January 2007). 


See also BOC website: http://www.boc-online.org 

25 September — Lord Cranbrook — Swiftlets: retrospect and prospects 

The swiftlets form a distinctive group, extending across the Indo-Pacific but most diverse in South-east Asia. 
Some (but not all) species can echo-locate, and some (but not all) build nests in which the edible component 
is sufficiently copious to afford them high market value. Fifty years ago, the taxonomy of the group was in 
confusion. In succeeding decades, a variety of field and museum characters have proved valuable indicators 
of specific identity, and latterly molecular studies have provided additional evidence. Yet, a convincing phy- 
logeny remains elusive and there are key areas in which further work is needed. Over the same period, there 
has been enhanced research-based understanding of the birds' reproductive biology and a large increase in 
the numbers of swiftlets breeding in managed colonies, in many cases in specially constructed buildings. 
Future prospects of this new and unusual form of domestication will be discussed. As a key task in his first 
post-graduate job, in 1956 Lord Cranbrook's employer, the late Tom Harrisson, Curator of the Sarawak 
Museum, charged him with "sorting out the swiftlets". This spurred a lifetime's interest in the group, lead- 
ing to many and varied adventures with fellow ornithologists and with the disparate community of birds'- 
nest farmers and traders, whose unusual business is carried out in a fascinating variety of places and condi- 
tions. Lord Cranbrook has held a number of high positions in biological/ecological organisations in this 
country including that of Editor of Ibis (1973-80), and Chairman of English Nature (1990-98). 

Applications to Hon. Secretary (address below) by 11 September 

6 November — David Fisher — Birds of Australia 

David will talk about the birds of Australia with particular reference to the families that occur there and the 
evolution of the Australian avifauna. David Fisher is a director of Sunbird, one of the UK's leading bird tour 
operators. For 19 years he was Sunbird's Managing Director, but retired from that position in 2001. David 
has led more than 130 tours to 28 countries on six continents, as well as travelling widely on his own. He 
has spent a total of more than three years in the field in South America and more than two years each in 
Australia and Africa. David is a member of the East African Rarities Committee, Chairman of Seychelles 
Bird Records Committee, and is a council member of the Neotropical Bird Club. He also edits the highly 
regarded Birdwatchers' Guides series of birding site guides. David is also a committee member of BOC. 

Applications to Hon. Secretary (address below) by 23 October 

Overseas Members visiting Britain are especially welcome at these meetings, and the Hon. Secretary would 
be very pleased to hear from anyone who can offer to talk to the Club giving as much advance notice as 
possible — please contact: S. A. H. (Tony) Statham, Ashlyns Lodge, Chesham Road, Berkhamsted, Herts. 
HP4 2ST, UK. Tel. +44 (0) 1442 876995 (or e-mail: boc.sec@bou.org.uk). 

Club Announcements 169 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

Bulletin of the 


Vol. 1 27 No. 3 Published 1 2 September 2007 


Members' attention is drawn to the Chairman's update on The BOC — A vision for the future? which was 
announced at the AGM, in his annual report (see Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 127: 87). A full summary is presented 
below within the proceedings of the 944th meeting held on 24 April. 

The 942nd meeting of the Club was held on Tuesday 30 January 2007, in the Sherfield Building Annexe, 
Imperial College, London. Twenty-one members and eight guests were present. 

Members attending were: Cdr. M. B. CASEMENT, RN {Chairman), Miss H. BAKER, S. E. CHAP- 
HERON, Dr J. P. HUME {Speaker), R. R. LANGLEY, Dr C. F. MANN, D. J. MONTIER, Mrs M. N. 

Guests attending were: Mrs C. R. CASEMENT, A. S. CHEKE {Speaker), Dr J. A. COLES, Mrs M. 

After dinner, Dr Julian Hume and Anthony Cheke discussed The ecological history of the 
Mascarenes. The Mascarene Islands — Mauritius, Reunion and Rodrigues — are in the western Indian 
Ocean. Unlike many oceanic islands, they remained pristine until comparatively recently. Arab and 
Portuguese traders were probably aware of them from the 13th century, but it was not until the arrival of 
the Dutch on Mauritius in 1598, the French on Reunion in 1648 and on Rodrigues in the late 17th/early 
1 8th centuries that written records were kept. As a result, a precise chronology of exotic introductions, 
deforestation and extermination of the fauna can be ascertained. The palaeontological record commenced 
in the 1860s with simultaneous discoveries on Mauritius, in the marsh Mare aux Songes, and limestone 
caves on Rodrigues. By the 1890s, interest had faded and both sites were forgotten. Interest was rekin- 
dled with the discovery of a fossil horizon in the Mare aux Songes in 2005/6 and a pristine cave on 
Rodrigues, which have yielded vast numbers of fossils, including bones, eggshells, leaves, branches, 
seeds and even fungi. Analysis of this material is in progress. The ecological history of the Mascarenes 
is the subject of a new A. & C. Black publication, Lost land of the Dodo, by Anthony Cheke and Julian 
Hume, due September 2007. 

The 944th meeting of the Club was held on Tuesday 24 April 2007, in the Sherfield Building Annexe, 
Imperial College, London, following the AGM. Seventeen members and four guests were present. 

Members attending were: Cdr. M. B. CASEMENT, RN {Chairman), Miss H. BAKER, D. R. 

Guests attending were: Mrs C. R. CASEMENT, Mrs B. FISHER, Mrs M. H. GAUNTLETT and Mrs 

After dinner, several members gave short talks, preceded by the Chairman with an update on The 
BOC — A vision for the future? As announced at the AGM, Committee has spent much time in consulta- 
tion and discussion, preparing a long-term vision for the Club's future, especially the recommendations 
for future publishing options of the Bulletin Subcommittee (BSC). A brief explanation of this review 

Club Announcements 170 Bull. B.O.C. 2006 126(4) 

summarised the recommendations and decisions of a special meeting of the Committee, together with a 
number of experienced Members of the Club, held at Tring on 15 February. The chief topic was the range 
of options for the future publication of the Bulletin. Increase scope? It was agreed that the specialist role 
of the Bulletin concerning taxonomy and distribution be maintained. Online publication? High costs 
and complexity ruled out this option, for now. Change format? Ideas for increasing to the size of Ibis, 
but with only two issues per year, were unanimously rejected. Quarterly issues would continue, with the 
slightly larger 'journal size' (B5) format to be implemented in 2008. Commercial partner? Although 
attractive for gaining institutional subscribers, the Bulletin was currently unable to achieve commercial 
viability. The special meeting unanimously agreed not to pursue this. Publication as a sister journal to 
Ibis? Although joint distribution would reduce costs, this was not currently viable and will not be pur- 
sued. In summary, it was overwhelmingly agreed to maintain the Bulletin as an independent publication 
with minor changes. 

The following was also agreed. Dinner meetings. A survey was being conducted calling for sugges- 
tions prior to agreeing a programme for 2008. Bulletin scanning project. Steven Gregory had managed 
this project almost single-handedly for 8-10 years, scanning 24,000+ pages to date. Volumes 1-40 are 
now available, on CD, for purchase, but professional assistance was needed to complete the project, and 
this is now underway. It is hoped that the remaining volumes (50-1 17) may become available sometime 
in 2008. BOC website. The website requires a major revamp, to improve accessibility and better pro- 
mote the aims, activities and products of the Club. Ideas and suggestions and, more importantly, offers 
to help are welcome — to the Hon. Secretary, please. Bulletin Subcommittee (BSC). Following the res- 
ignation of Chris Feare, the meeting welcomed Nigel Collar's agreement to chair this forum, to advise 
on the future development of the Bulletin and the marketing of the product of the scanning project. 

Tony Statham further addressed the topic of dinner meetings and thanked all those who had com- 
pleted the questionnaire distributed with Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 127(1). He suggested that the majority view 
was concerned with the expense, with many members finding it both inconvenient and costly to attend 
at present. Recommendations would be put to Committee, to consider possible changes in 2008. 

The Hon. Secretary continued with a simple outline of the Preferred terrestrial locomotion of avi- 
fauna. He queried why some birds apparently preferred to 'walk' rather than hop and vice versa. Several 
scientific papers had examined the feeding and foraging efficiency of various species, to conserve and 
maximise energy, but these did not apparently identify the more naive question of why, for example, 
some relatively small species, e.g. Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs and Dunnock Prunella modularis 
favoured 'walking' compared to European Robin Erithacus rubecula. He compared these with slightly 
larger species; many Turdus tend to hop, or even run, whereas Sturnidae are familiar species tending to 
'walk'. Clearly, some genera or species possess anatomical factors preventing one form of locomotion or 
another. Most longer legged species, e.g. waders, storks, ibises and herons, tend to walk and would have 
some difficulty in hopping, perhaps implying that there may be some relationship between body mass 
and leg length that determines forward locomotion, and feeding and foraging requirements. Whilst larg- 
er species perhaps do not hop as a rule, it is curious to note that many vultures exhibit a type of hop and 
run when approaching a food source. The Hon. Secretary concluded that his query could be an avenue 
for further research and acknowledged that there were several other genera for which terrestrial locomo- 
tion was not a priority at all, e.g. those species that are largely arboreal or aerial. 

Julian Hume outlined The birds of Hawaii: conservation and status. Hawaii is a remote chain of 
volcanic islands, atolls and seamounts as famous for its geological history as for its ecology. Endemic 
biotas have witnessed spectacular radiations amongst birds, plants, insects and snails, but have also suf- 
fered severe human disturbance; sadly, extinctions now outnumber extant species by some margin. 
Julian's recent visit to Kauai, Oahu and Maui indicated that some birds are still in serious decline, despite 
conservation efforts, whilst others have dramatically recovered due to intense management. 
Complications due to inertia and misconstrued ethics are negatively impacting the Hawaiian conserva- 
tion movement. 

Robert Prys-Jones provided an intriguing overview of Gray's Grasshopper Warbler and 
Meinertzhagen: a case of long-distance fraud. Gray's Grasshopper Warbler Locustella fasciolata is an 
east Asian species supposedly recorded in Europe on three occasions, all as specimens killed at lighthous- 

Club Announcements 171 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

es: a first-winter female at lie d'Ouesssant, France, in September 1913, an adult male there in September 
1933, and a first-winter female at Lodbjerg, Denmark, in September 1955. The first two are held at the 
Natural History Museum (NHM), Tring, UK, and the last at the Zoological Museum, University of 
Copenhagen, Denmark. The male is a Meinertzhagen specimen and in reality is almost certainly a spec- 
imen collected by A. Owston, in June 1908, in Manchuria and, as such, the longest-distance 
Meinertzhagen fraud yet documented (Brit. Birds 99: 506-516, 2006). The facts leading to this conclu- 
sion were presented, illustrated by a cross-section of relevant specimens. Persons interested in placing 
Richard Meinertzhagen 's ornithological misdemeanours in the wider context of his life should read the 
recent book by Brian Garfield {The Meinertzhagen mystery: the life and legend of a colossal fraud. 2007, 
Potomac Books). 

Ben Fisher read a short extract from a letter dated 1946 by Dr Norman Joy, MRCS, FES, MBOU. 
Joy authored A practical handbook of British beetles (1934) and appears to have been rather sensitive 
following poor reviews of his book. He wrote T am doing bird migration down here. I wish the British 
Ornithologists' Union were more like the RES. We have no library or lecture room. Only a general meet- 
ing once a year. An ordinary member is not allowed to say anything at any time. Now the British 
Ornithological Trust is worse still. I have been discovering all sorts of new things about migration sim- 
ply by keeping my eyes open and using common sense, so I am being treated as Lister, Ross and Sir 
Herbert Barker and others were'. 


Garfield, B. 2007. The Meinertzhagen mystery: the life and legend of a colossal fraud. Potomac Books, 
Washington DC. 353 pages, 8 pages of black-and-white photographs. US$27.50. 

The unquestionably colourful life of the ornithologist Richard Meinertzhagen continues to attract 
unparalleled attention. This new biography, by the American writer Brian Garfield, is an extraordinary 
indictment of the flamboyant colonel's largely imaginary place in history. Since Mark Cocker's 
deservedly award-winning (1989) near-exoneration of the legend, 'RM' has come under considerable 
further scrutiny and, indeed, outright attack. Ornithologists, principally Robert Prys-Jones and Pamela 
Rasmussen, are engaged in a long-term study of the extent to which the Natural History Museum's 
Meinertzhagen material is tainted by the accusations of fraud, whilst historians have been spurred on by 
J. N. Lockman's Meinertzhagen s diary ruse (1995), which conclusively demonstrated the extent to 
which the colonel falsified entries concerning T. E. Lawrence. 

Garfield has arguably dug deeper than any previous commentator in his quest to prove or disprove 
any of the man's claims, contentious or previously uncontested alike, aided by a willing battery of 
researchers and assistants, and by access to many documents until recently unavailable to the public. The 
result is a near-complete debunking of 'RM's' right to a place in history. The famous 'haversack ruse' 
was appropriated by Meinertzhagen for his own; that he ever met Hitler, never mind with a loaded pis- 
tol on his person, is extremely doubtful; and so the list of flights of fancy in which Richard 
Meinertzhagen indulged proceeds almost never-endingly on. Once described as a 'soldier, scientist, spy', 
his right to any of these titles wilts under Garfield's scrutiny, backed up with extraordinary detail, usual- 
ly in footnotes. Despite the scholarly lengths to which the author has gone, as befits a writer of fiction, 
The Meinertzhagen mystery is a gripping and exciting read. 

Questions remain, some salacious (what was 'RM's' relationship with Theresa Clay?), or possibly 
criminal (did 'RM' murder his second wife, Anne Jackson, as seems possible?), and still others psycho- 
logical (just why did he do it and did he expect to be found out?). Garfield's book will surely encourage 
a new generation of 'RM' watchers, who will of necessity agree that the life of Richard Meinertzhagen 
could never be described as 'ordinary'. 

Guy M. Kirwan 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 


Bull.B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

Range extensions, taxonomic and ecological 

notes from Serrania de los Yariguies, 

Colombia's new national park 

by Thomas M. Donegan, Jorge E. Avendano-C, 
Elkin R. Briceno-L. & Blanca Huertas 

Received 7 June 2006 

In Colombia, the Andes split into three more or less parallel, north-south oriented 
mountain ranges, the West, Central and East Andes. At 6°-7°N, the East Andes 
reach their widest point and the Serrania de los Yariguies (or Serrania de los 
Cobardes) forms an isolated north-west spur rising from the rio Magdalena Valley 
to c.3,400 m (Fig. 1). Serrania de los Yariguies lies entirely within dpto. Santander. 
Details of its geography are presented in Donegan & Huertas (2005) and Huertas & 
Donegan (2006). 

Until recently, the relatively small Cachalu reserve (Charala and Virolin, dpto. 
Santander) was considered to harbour the only remaining humid temperate oak 

Figure 1. Location of study sites in Serrania de los Yariguies, as follows (low to high elevation, west to 
east): BS: Bajo Simacota (W: 130 m); MPE: Montana Pedro Elias (W: 500 m and 750 m); PA: Plan de 
Alvarez (W; 500-1,350 m); CP: Cerro de la Paz (W: 1,000 m and 1,300 m); AH: Alto Honduras (W: 
1,600 m); P: Primavera (W: 1,700 m); ET: El Talisman (W: 2,000 m); BC: Bajo Cantagallos (W: 
1,000-2,300 m); AC: Alto Cantagallos (W: 2,450 m); LP: Lepipuerto (W: 2,900-3,000 m); FP: Filo 
Pamplona (E: 3,200 m); LA: La Aurora (E: 2,700 in); LL: La Luchata (E: 2,000 m). Also Fundacion 
Natura (2003) site Zapatoca (1,600-2,800 m) and historic ICN collecting locality Chima (1,400 m). The 
rivers extending from Chima to the rio Chicamocha and isolating Yariguies from the main East Andean 
range are the rios Sogamoso and Suarez. 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 


Bull.B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 



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Thomas M. Donegan et al . 1 74 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 12 7(3) 

forest in the northern East Andes (e.g. Stattersfield et al. 1998). However, since 
2003, we have studied a significant forest wilderness in Serrania de los Yariguies on 
Colombian Evaluation of Biodiversity in the Andes (EBA) Project field work. This 
forest had gone unstudied due to historical political instability. The only published 
biological notes from the massif involved a brief lowland study of vertebrates 
during which a few tens of bird specimens were collected (Borrero & Hernandez 
1957), with various other specimens and ad hoc observations mentioned elsewhere 
(e.g. Romero 1983, Bates 1997, Renjifo et al. 2002, Fundacion Natura 2003). We 
returned in 2004-05 for further studies on EBA Project field work and in 2005-06 
on the BP Conservation Programme-sponsored Proyecto Yariguies Assessment and 
Research Expedition (YARE), to include the entire elevational range and both 
slopes of the range in our studies. 

Aerial surveys by TMD and BH and satellite maps (IGAC 1999) revealed 
Serrania de los Yariguies to constitute one of the largest premontane and montane 
forest wildernesses in the northern Andes (Donegan & Huertas 2005). Pristine 
primary forest covers most of the west slope and ridgeline, whilst the east slope is 
largely deforested. During our field work in 2003-06, we studied habitats on the 
west slope at 100-3,000 m, the highest elevation being accessed by helicopter, and 
on the east slope at 2,000-3,200 m. JEAC returned to several sites to undertake 
additional surveys in 2006-07. 

Details of all sites studied are presented in Table 1 . Access and characteristics of 
each are described in Donegan & Huertas (2005) and Huertas & Donegan (2006). 
Notably, the west slope appears more humid than the east, being characterised by 
day-round ground-level fog above 1,500 m and, especially at higher elevations, 
extraordinary levels of precipitation. 

Subsequent to our field work and that of others in the region (e.g. Fundacion 
Natura 2003), Serrania de los Yariguies has been declared a 78,000-ha National 
Natural Park (Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Desarrollo y Vivienda 2005), an 
Alliance for Zero Extinction site (Ricketts et al. 2005) and an Important Bird Area 
(AICA: Franco & Bravo 2005), and Fundacion ProAves has established a nature 
reserve there (see Donegan & Huertas 2005, Huertas & Donegan 2006). 

Study sites 

Study sites are set out in Table 1 . Each site was located within primary or mature 
forest as far as practicable from human populations and was studied for five days. 
Exceptions were: Bajo Simacota, a threatened lowland forest fragment of c.3 km x 
4 km where secondary forest was also surveyed; and Cerro de la Paz, La Luchata, 
Bajo Cantagallos and El Talisman which each included some forest-edge habitats. 
Our field work methods involved rapid assessment protocols used by previous EBA 
Project expeditions: (i) mist-netting (10-18 mist-nets per site operated for 12 hours 
each day); and (ii) observations by two observers and sound-recordings. All birds 
trapped were photographed and measured (wing, tail, tarsus, culmen and weight; 
data and photographs available from the authors or ProAves). Mist-netting 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 175 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

mortalities were inevitable in a study of this nature and a handful of specimens of 
potentially undescribed taxa were also taken. Almost all are housed at Instituto de 
Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional, Bogota (ICN), with a handful of 
duplicates at Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (UIS). Blood and 
tissue samples have been deposited at UIS, Instituto Alexander von Humboldt 
(IAVH) and Universidad de los Andes. TMD's sound-recordings are archived at the 
British Library National Sound Archive, London, and most at IAVH in Colombia. 
Some recordings mentioned herein will be posted on Xeno-Canto (www.xeno- 
canto.org). Various photographs were published in Donegan & Briceno (2005) and 
Donegan & Avendano (2006). 

This paper details the most significant new distributional records from our field 
work. Also mentioned are certain of the c.130 specimens at ICN collected mostly in 
secondary habitats around San Vicente de Chucuri by J. I. Hernandez, H. Vidales 
and J. I. Borrero in the 1950s and 1960s; by R. Ardila in the early 1980s principally 
at Cerro de la Paz but also at Primavera; and those collected by P. Bernal and P. Cala 
in the rio Suarez Valley at Chima in the 1960s and 1970s. We note certain of the 
records of Fundacion Natura (2003) during their brief surveys in the Zapatoca and 
Landazuri regions. Finally, we are aware of a biological survey funded by the energy 
company ISA in the early 2000s (referenced in Fundacion Natura 2003), but have 
been unable to locate a copy of the report. In any event, we understand that the 
surveys took place largely in the San Vicente de Chucuri / Zapatoca region, at 
premontane elevations, i.e. those habitats in which our observations and those of 
others have been concentrated. 

Although we are aware that many others have worked recently in the East Andes 
of Santander and Boyaca (notably at Cachalu and Iguaque), we report only new 
records from the Yariguies massif and refer to other records from the main East 
Andes only for species reported here and only to evidence a wider range than 
currently supposed in mainstream literature. Some data come from DATAves (2006) 
and other unpublished sources, the accuracy of which we cannot vouch. We exclude 
from Serrania de los Yariguies (and hence the direct scope of this paper): (i) sites 
east of the rio Suarez (e.g. collections from Velez and Suaita at ICN and sites studied 
recently in Parque Nacional Natural Chicamocha by J. Parra et al.); (ii) sites south 
of c.06°15'N (including the Fundacion Natura site near Landazuri in Cerro de las 
Armas); (iii) sites north of Berulia (07°00'N); (iv) the main Eastern Andes; and (v) 
sites west of Bajo Simacota, e.g. along the rio Magdalena and highway. 

The following other localities, listed alphabetically with approximate 
coordinates and (sometimes) elevations, are mentioned herein: Agua de la Virgen, 
Norte de Santander (08°13'N, 73°24'W; 1,600-1,750 m; East Andes); Albania, 
Santander (06°52'N, 73°40W; 100-800 m; Magdalena Valley); Aguachica, Cesar 
(08°19'N, 73°38'W; 200 m; East Andes); Anori, Antioquia (07°03'N, 75°07'W; 
1,500-1,800 m; Central Andes); Bucaramanga, Santander (07°08'N, 73°07'W; East 
Andes); Cachalu / Charala / Virolin, Santander (c.06°03'N, 73°09'W; 1,850-2,750 
m; East Andes); Cerro la Judia, Santander (07°05'N, 73°00'W; 1,000-2,400 m; East 
Andes); Chicamocha (Parque Nacional Natural), Santander (06°27'N, 72°54'W; 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 176 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

600-2,300 m; East Andes); Cimitarra, Santander (06°20'N, 73°55'W; 100 m; East 
Andes), laguna Pedro Palo, Cundinamarca (04°45'N, 74°24'W; East Andes); 
Landazuri, Santander (06°15'N, 73°50'W; East Andes); Chicaque (Parque 
Nacional), Cundinamarca (04°37'N, 74°18'W; 2,000-2,700 m; East Andes); 
Frontino, Antioquia (06°25'N, 76°05'W; 2,500-3,900 m; West Andes); Fusagasuga, 
Cundinamarca (04°20'N, 74°20'W; East Andes); Mambita, Boyaca (73°20'W, 
04°47'W; East Andes); Iguaque (Sanctuario de Fauna y Flora), Boyaca (05°40'N, 
73°27'W; East Andes); Landazuri (Cerro de las Armas / vereda Morro Negro Alto), 
Santander (05 o 00'N-06°18'N; 73 o 08'-73 o 50'W; 1,000-1,700 m; East Andes), 
Pamplona, Norte de Santander (07°25'N, 72°40'W; East Andes); los Picachos 
(Parque Nacional Natural), Meta and Caqueta (02°30'-03 o 10'N, 74 o 30'-75 o 00'W; 
East Andes); Pajarito, Boyaca (05°23'N, 72°42'W; East Andes); Portugal, Lebrija, 
Santander (07°09'N, 73°17'W, 1,100 m; East Andes); Puerto Olaya, Cimitarra, 
Santander (06°30'N, 74°22'W; 100 m; Magdalena Valley); Rogitama, Arcabuco, 
Boyaca (05°47'N, 73°3 1 'W; East Andes); Rondon (Santa Isabel), Boyaca (05°45'N, 
73°04'W; East Andes); Sabana de Torres, Santander (07°25'N, 73°30'N; 100 m; 
Magdalena Valley); Santa Maria, Boyaca (04°52'N, 73°45'W; East Andes); 
Serrania de las Quinchas, Boyaca (06°00'N, 74°00'W; 200-1,700 m; East Andes); 
Serrania de los Churumbelos, Cauca (01 o 10'-01 o 30'N, 76 o 15'-76 o 30'W; 
300-2,500 m; East Andes); Serrania de San Lucas, Bolivar and Antioquia 
(06°30-07°30'N, 74 o 00'-74 o 30'W; 150-1,400 m, Central Andes); Soata, Boyaca 
(05°07'N, 73°07'W; East Andes); Suaita, Santander (06°04'N, 73°28'W; East 
Andes); Surata, Santander (07°23'N, 73°00'W; East Andes); Tama (Parque 
Nacional Natural), Norte de Santander and Venezuela (07 o 00'-07 o 40'N, 
72 o 00'-72 o 30'W; East Andes); Tambito (Reserva Natural), Cauca (02°30'N, 
77°00W; 1,400-2,500 m; West Andes); Tona (finca El Brasil), Santander (07°08'N 
73°03'W; East Andes); Velez, Santander (c.06°05'N, 73°42'W; East Andes). 

Below, we present details of our observations, followed by a discussion of the 
species' previously known range in the region and the significance of our record/s. 
Some taxonomic and ecological notes made during the study are also noted. 
Numbers in brackets refer to the number of birds caught at a site, with a semi-colon 
splitting EBA/YARE records from later JEAC fieldwork and f indicating any 
specimens. Where no semi-colon or other note is made, data are from EBA/YARE 
studies. Taxonomy, order and nomenclature follow Remsen et al. (2007). 
Subspecies are noted only where identified to this level. 

Major range extensions 

The following records involve range extensions of more than 100 km, new 
biogeographical records or other important records, including taxa new to the 
Magdalena Valley, East Andes or west slope of the East Andes, southward 
extensions in range of species known from the Perija or Tama mountains, and 
northward extensions in range of species known from published records only to 
Cundinamarca or further south on the west slope. 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 177 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

SICKLE- WINGED GUAN Chamaepetes goudotii 

A typically noisy group was heard at El Talisman, though not observed or sound- 
recorded. Previously known in the East Andes only as far north as dpto. 
Cundinamarca, 250 km south of Yariguies (Hilty & Brown 1986). 

SCALED PIGEON Patagioenas speciosa 

Sound-recorded at Bajo Simacota. There is also a 1970s ICN skin from Velez, a UIS 
specimen from Sabana de Torres and records near the rio Magdalena in nearby 
Serrania de San Lucas (Salaman & Donegan 2001) and Puerto Olaya (DATAves 
2006: E. Constantino), but no published records from the west slope of the East 
Andes (Hilty & Brown 1986). 

AFRICAN COLLARED DOVE Streptopelia roseogrisea 

A free-flying bird photographed at Bajo Cantagallos (at c. 1,800 m). An escaped pair 

was recently observed in Norte de Santander (Donegan & Huertas 2002, Donegan 

et al. 2003). Apparently an isolated individual, but this common cagebird in 

Colombia is clearly prone to escape and has become established elsewhere in the 


BARRED PARAKEET Bolborhynchus lineola 

Observed frequently in small flocks of up to 16 over La Aurora, Filo Pamplona and 
Alto Cantagallos. Its high, fast-paced calls were sound-recorded. A captive 
individual, apparently from the adjacent east flank of the rio Sogamoso at 1,300 m 
(municipio Giron, vereda Altamira), was seen on 8 April 2004 (JEAC). B. lineola is 
known on the west slope of the East Andes only near Salazar in the southern Perija 
Mountains, in Norte de Santander, and Penon, Cundinamarca (Rodriguez & 
Hernandez 2001), as well as in the southernmost section in Caqueta (Hilty & Brown 
1986) and from the east slope in Cundinamarca and Cauca (Salaman et al. 2002b). 
Though still few, these records suggest the species may, at least formerly, have been 
continuously distributed in suitable habitat in the East Andes. Our records close a 
c.300 km gap between those in Cundinamarca and Norte de Santander. 

SCALY-NAPED PARROT Amazona mercenaria 

Small flocks observed frequently and sound-recorded at Lepipuerto, Alto Honduras, 
Alto Cantagallos, La Aurora and Filo Pamplona, and common at La Judia at 2,400 
m (JEAC, ERB). Reported on the west slope of the East Andes only north to 
Cundinamarca (Hilty & Brown 1986, Rodriguez & Hernandez 2001), 250 km to the 
south, although hypothesised possibly to extend this far north (Rodriguez & 
Hernandez 2001) and recorded in Boyaca on the east slope (Salaman et al. 2002b). 
Also recorded in the northernmost East Andes, in Serrania de Perija (Hilty & Brown 
1986). The species occurs usually at low densities (Fjeldsa & Krabbe 1990), making 
its abundance in the large primary premontane and montane forests of Yariguies 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 178 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

CENTRAL AMERICAN PYGMY-OWL Glaucidium griseiceps 
One sang for over 30 minutes after dusk at Cerro de la Paz (1,000 m) and was 
sound-recorded. Also recently observed at the same site, at 1,350 m (JEAC), and 
collected at Montana Pedro Elias (0; 1|). The song comprised a repeated series of 
monotone hoots at 1.1-1.5 kHz, given every c.0.035 s and typically in series' of 
8-10 notes (Fig. 2). Our recordings are similar to those described by Howell & 
Robbins (1995) and recordings of G. griseiceps by P. M. Valenzuela in Cotacachi- 
Cayapas Ecological Reserve, Ecuador (Jahn et al. 2002), and by S. Woltmann at rio 
San Juan, refugio Bartola, Nicaragua (no. 6785 www.xeno-canto.org). G. griseiceps 
is known in South America from specimens taken in north-west Colombia and 
north-west Ecuador (Howell & Robbins 1995, Robbins & Howell 1995) and 
observations in Los Katios National Park in 1991 (F. G. Stiles & L. Rosselli in litt. 
2006). We suspect it was G griseiceps (and not G brasilianum) that was observed 
in humid habitats in Anori, Antioquia (A. M. Cuervo in litt. 2006) and in the western 
foothills of Serrania de San Lucas (Salaman et al. 2002a). Our record is the first East 
Andes and Magdalena Valley record of G griseiceps and a range extension of c.300 
km east from the Sinu (or c.150 km east from the Central Andes, if confirmed). The 
voices of G griseiceps and the ridgwayi group of G. brasilianum in northern South 
America are very similar, comprising similar numbers of hoots, delivered at a 
similar frequency and pace. That of G griseiceps differs from the G b. ridgwayi 
group from Venezuela (Boesman 1999), Central America (Xeno-canto nos. 582 and 
1322) and those of the nominate race east of the Andes (Xeno-canto nos. 275 and 
6305), in being delivered slightly slower (>0.03 s / note vs. <0.03 s / note in G 
brasilianum) and with a more plaintive quality involving a flatter (not intonated) 
note spectrographically (P. Coopmans in litt. 2006). In Central and South America, 
they further separate by habitat, with G. griseiceps in humid forest and G 
brasilianum in drier regions (S. Woltmann & P. Coopmans in litt. 2006). It is 
possible that G griseiceps ranges continuously in suitable habitat of the Choco and 
Nechi Endemic Bird Areas, and across the northern Central Andes to humid 
lowlands of the Magdalena Valley. 

#-■•■■#» • ^■■■m 

miii.miiiiii.ihii. i iiiiii.i.i inn. t miiwmiii 

2 4 2 2 8 3 3 2 3 4 3 3 8 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 8 5 5 2 5 4 5.6 5 8 6 

Figure 2. Sonogram of song of Central American Pygmy-owl Glaucidium griseiceps, Cerro de la Paz 
( 1 .000 m), Serrania de los Yariguies, January 2003. Recording by TMD. 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 1 79 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

GREAT POTOO Nyctibius grandis 

Sound recorded at Bajo Simacota and Montana Pedro Elias. Known previously from 

only one other locality in the Magdalena Valley (Hilty & Brown 1986). 

WHITE-TIPPED SWIFT Aeronautes montivagus 

Common throughout Serrania de los Yariguies with flocks of 5-40 daily at El 
Talisman, La Luchata (photos, video and sound-recordings), below Alto Honduras 
(sight), Montana Pedro Elias and down to the towns of Galan and San Vicente de 
Chucuri and environs. An overlooked specimen is from near San Vicente de 
Chucuri, taken in the 1970s (ICN 28040). Calls consisted of a screaming trill given 
at c.25 notes/s, varying considerably in frequency between individuals or within a 
call, but typically at c.5-7 kHz. Unpublished observations on the west slope exist in 
Cundinamarca and Boyaca (e.g. Chicaque: C. D. Cadena in litt. 2006) and in Soata 
and Chicamocha (F. G. Stiles in litt. 2006). Two females in body and wing moult 
were taken by JEAC north-east of Bucaramanga on 24 December 2004 (ICN 35330, 
35331) where it is also common. This was probably a pre-breeding moult, given that 
the species supposedly breeds in April- July (Hilty 2003, Strewe 2004). Though 
common in parts of Colombia, A. montivagus was previously considered 
hypothetical in the country, being known solely from sight records including from 
three scattered localities in the East Andes (Hilty & Brown 1986, Salaman et al. 
2002b, Strewe 2004, Ramirez & Ocampo 2006). 

TAWNY-BELLIED HERMIT Phaethornis syrmatophorus syrmatophorus 
Trapped and photographed (Fig. 4), at high-elevation sites on both slopes of 
Serrania de los Yariguies, at El Talisman (1), Alto Cantagallos (1; 7+1), Lepipuerto 
(1), La Aurora (If; 1) and La Luchata (If; 0). The pale-breasted columbianus race 
is reported from the East Andes north to Cundinamarca (Salaman et al. 2002b). The 
Yariguies population has little white in the belly, like specimens at ICN from the 
Central Andes in Quindio and Antioquia, labelled as being the nominate, which has 
not previously been recorded in the East Andes. In the foothills, it was replaced by 
Green Hermit P. guy (at Montana Pedro Elias, Cerro de la Paz and Alto Honduras). 
P. guy was also present at La Luchata (2,000 m) in April 2006, the breeding season 
for most species in the region, whilst P. syrmatophorus was not recorded then. P. 
syrmatophorus has not previously been reported anywhere on the west slope of the 
East Andes. It is apparently absent from Serrania de las Quinchas (F. G Stiles in litt. 
2006), perhaps due to the relatively high elevation at which P. guy occurs in the 
region. The records at 2,900 m in Lepipuerto are unusually high for P. 
syrmatophorus in Colombia, though it has been recorded at 3,100 m in Ecuador 
(Ridgely & Greenfield 2001). 

BLACK-MANDIBLED TOUCAN Ramphastos ambiguus 

Lowland R. a. abbreviatus was observed frequently and sound-recorded at Bajo 

Simacota, Montana Pedro Elias and Cerro de la Paz (where the head of a recently 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 1 80 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

hunted bird was photographed). In lower montane forest at Alto Honduras (1,600 m) 
and El Talisman (2,000 m), probably the same taxon (on a basis of call vs. R. a. 
ambiguus) was heard. Also collected at Albania (ICN skins) and reported below 
Landazuri (Fundacion Natura 2003). Highland R. ambiguus populations were also 
recently heard at Tona (JEAC) but not identified to either of the two possible taxa 
in the region. R. a. abbreviatus ranges to 1,800 m in Venezuela (Hilty 2003) but has 
been recorded only to 1,300-1,400 m in Colombia (Hilty & Brown 1986, Donegan 
& Salaman 1999, Salaman & Donegan 2001; F. G. Stiles in litt. 2006), with R. a. 
ambiguus in cloud forests on the east slope (e.g. Salaman et al. 1999). The higher 
elevations to which R. a. abbreviatus ranges in the Yariguies suggest that it and R. 
a. ambiguus replace one another on opposite slopes of the East Andes, rather than 
elevationally. There is unlikely to be any permanent zone of contact due to the high 
ridgeline of the East Andes in this region. Some recent publications lump R. a. 
ambiguus with R. a. swainsonii I abbreviatus (Short & Home 2001, 2002, Remsen 
et al. 2007), whilst others treat them specifically (Hilty & Brown 1986, Ridgely & 
Greenfield 2001, Hilty 2003, Weckstein 2005). Stiles et al. (1999) suggested that 
splitting ambiguus from swainsonii I abbreviatus would have some vocal and 
biometrical support. Individuals of R. a. swainsonii and R. a. ambiguus were 
recently found to be c. 1 .4% divergent in mtDNA but no R. a. abbreviatus were 
sequenced and it cannot be stated whether ambiguus and swainsonii I abbreviatus 
are mutually monophyletic (J. Weckstein in litt. 2006). 

RED-HEADED BARBET Eubucco bourcieri 

Pairs or small family groups observed by TMD on several occasions at Alto 
Honduras feeding on a fruiting Melastomataceae also frequented by White-mantled 
Barbet Capito hypoleucus, whilst a pair was photographed at Primavera (C. Turner 
& M. Sharp: Fig. 5) and a female observed at El Talisman (JEAC). E. bourcieri has 
been observed several times at Chicaque (T. Cowley et al. unpubl.; B. Porteous in 
litt. 2006, F. G Stiles in litt. 2006), laguna Pedro Palo, Pajarito and Santa Maria (F. 
G. Stiles & L. Rosselli in litt. 2006). Apparently fairly continuously distributed in 
lower montane forest borders on the east slope of the East Andes (Salaman et al. 
2002b) and Perija (Hilty 2003), but there are no published records on the west slope 
of the East Andes. 

A male observed well, between Galan and La Luchata, in a small patch of secondary 
woodland at c. 1 ,600 m (TMD & JEAC), was identified by its all-red cap, strong 
facial markings, relatively small size, barred breast and belly, and yellowish 
undertail. Though widespread in the Central and West Andes, the species was 
known previously only from one published record in the East Andes, at Fusagasuga, 
Cundinamarca (Hilty & Brown 1986), 300 km to the south, though it is also known 
from Venezuela's Merida range (Hilty 2003). 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 181 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

PYGMY ANTWREN Myrmotherula brachyura 

A male seen well on several occasions at Montana Pedro Elias (500 m), foraging 
from mid levels to the subcanopy in mixed-species flocks (JEAC). It was identified 
by its narrow black malar and black back with broad white streaks. The similar 
Pacific Antwren M. pacifica was observed in Parque Miraflores, near San Vicente 
de Chucuri town centre (TMD). M. brachyura is known from the Choco lowlands 
through the upper rio Sinu to upper Nechi (Hilty & Brown 1986). Ours is the first 
East Andes and Magdalena Valley record of M. brachyura and a range extension of 
200 km south-east. 

RUFOUS-RUMPED ANTWREN Terenura callinota 

Trapped and photographed at El Talisman (2: <f and ?; 0) and recently observed at 

Honduras Alto (JEAC). Our photographs are consistent with the nominate race. 

Previously unknown north of Bogota in the East Andes of Colombia, c.250 km 

south of El Talisman, with S. c. venezuelana in Serrania de Perija (Zimmer & Isler 


SCHWARTZ'S ANTTHRUSH Chamaeza turdina 

C. turdina was heard and sound-recorded at El Talisman (JEAC), Alto Cantagallos 
(JEAC), Lepipuerto (TMD), and La Aurora (0; 1 ?f with follicular ovary). Three to 
four were heard on our 500-m transect at La Aurora. C. turdina is known north to 
04°35'N on the east slope of the East Andes (Hilty & Brown 1986, Salaman et al. 
1999, 2002b), but not from the west slope. The Yariguies specimen differs subtly 
from one taken in Serrania de los Churumbelos by TMD et al. (ICN 33448) in 
having fewer dark throat spots, less obvious moustachial markings and darker 
brown upperparts. We are unable to assess whether this represents individual or 
geographic variation, though similar degrees of back colour variation are noted 
between some Grallaricula subspecies (TMD unpubl.). C. turdina has been 
recorded from various 'new' sites in Colombia in recent years (e.g. Alvarez 2000, 
Salaman et al. 2002b, Echeverry & Cordoba 2007), but few specimens or 
photographs exist. Our recordings recall those from elsewhere: a rapid series of 
loud, repetitive energetic hoots at 1.5-2.0 kHz, increasing in frequency over time. 
However, almost all our natural recordings are less than 30 s long, whilst longer 
calls are typical elsewhere, e.g. Cundinamarca (Alvarez 2000), Parque Nacional 
Natural los Picachos (M. Alvarez-R. in litt. 2006), Serrania de los Churumbelos (A. 
M. Cuervo in litt. 2006) and Venezuela (C. t. chionogaster. Boesman 1999), though 
shorter calls are given in response to playback (Krabbe & Schulenberg 2003a). 


Fairly common by voice at Alto Cantagallos (0; 1 f ) in November and Lepipuerto 
(2f , see Donegan & Huertas 2005) in January. Also present at La Aurora (1|), where 
not heard in July or April. Heard and two collected recently at Surata, Santander, at 
3,000 m (JEAC). The population in Serrania de los Yariguies and Surata apparently 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 1 82 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

represents an undescribed race, possibly together with birds of the northern Central 
Andes in Antioquia and Risaralda. They have a rather pale orange breast reminiscent 
of birds in Tama and Merida, Venezuela, but lack the white collar of those 
populations. Specimens of G. n. nana from the east slope of the East Andes have 
ferruginous not orange-red underparts. Sound-recordings broadly recall those from 
the Central Andes (Alvarez & Cordoba 2002), but differ from Merida, Tama and 
east-slope recordings (Boesman 1999, Alvarez 2000, Krabbe & Schulenberg 
2003b). Ours is the first record of G. nana for the west slope of the East Andes and 
the first of birds allied to the Central Andes population in the East Andes. 

OCHRE-BREASTED ANTPITTA Grallaricula flavirostris 
Present at La Luchata (0; If), Alto Honduras (0; 1) and El Talisman (0; If). Also 
collected recently by F. G. Stiles at Suaita (ICN). Though fairly widespread on the 
southern east slope of the East Andes (Hilty & Brown 1986, Salaman et al. 2002b), 
it has not previously been reported on the west slope of the East Andes or north of 
02°50'N, 500 km south of Yariguies. Considerable variation (probably age-related) 
is evident in Yariguies, Central Andes and Suaita skins, particularly in the black 
breast markings. Like C. turdina, more research is required to assess whether 
variation is individual or geographical. An implausibly large number of races of G 
flavirostris are described from Ecuador but relatively few are considered present in 
Colombia (Krabbe & Schulenberg 2003a). 

WHITE-CROWNED TAPACULO Scytalopus atratus 

Observed and sound-recorded at Alto Honduras (If) where fairly common. 
Sonograms are similar to those from Peru and dpto. Cundinamarca (Krabbe & 
Schulenberg 1997). Those observed and the specimen showed considerable white 
belly streaking. One from the east slope of the East Andes, in dpto. Meta, labelled 
S. a. atratus (ICN 32621) shows less streaking. Another, labelled S. a. confusus, 
from Anori in the Central Andes of Antioquia, taken by A. M. Cuervo (ICN 34387), 
is intermediate in this feature. Other than the extent of belly streaking, all three 
specimens are similar. Krabbe & Schulenberg (1997), noting the vocal similarities 
between birds on the west slope of the East Andes and in Peru, restricted S. a. 
confusus to the Colombian Central and West Andes. It is unknown whether plumage 
differences between nominate S. atratus and 'S. a. confusus' reflect geographical or 
individual variation. 

TAPACULO Scytalopus sp. 

A Scytalopus was common by voice at El Talisman (0; 2f ), but rare at La Luchata 
(0; If). The call comprised a 5-6 s ap ap ap ap ap... refrain at c.l notes/s, pitched 
at c. 1 .5 kHz, and is superficially similar to Narino Tapaculo S. vicinior (Moore et al. 
1999, Krabbe et al. 2001), the recently described Upper Magdalena Tapaculo S. 
rodriguezi (Krabbe et al. 2005) and some recordings provisionally assigned to S. 
meridanus from premontane Venezuela (e.g. sonogram 67 in Krabbe & Schulenberg 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 183 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 12 7(3) 

1997, from Los Frailes Hotel, Merida, by P. Coopmans). As will be discussed 
further elsewhere (Donegan & Avendano-C. ms), the Venezuelan recording noted 
above may not relate to S. meridanus but could be of an undescribed taxon related 
to the Yariguies population. 

Certain lower montane specimens assigned to S. meridanus from the east slope 
of the East Andes (e.g. from near Pamplona, Norte de Santander, at Museo La Salle, 
Bogota (MLS 3990-93), a 'Bogota' skin (BMNH (see 
Acknowledgements for acronyms) probably concern the same species as the 
Yariguies population. They have broadly similar plumage to many other Scytalopus 
in Colombia previously assigned to S. femoralis (e.g. Hilty & Brown 1986) and 
differ from S. vicinior and S. rodriguezi in biometrics and plumage tone (Donegan 
& Avendano ms). The Luchata bird has an obvious wingbar on the greater coverts, 
apparently an immature feature. Recordings of the Yariguies and Merida 
populations differ from those of S. vicinior in that the individual notes are upstrokes 
(increasing in frequency) but downstrokes (decreasing in frequency) in S. vicinior, 
and from S. rodriguezi in being faster and less variable in intra-note frequency. 

S. vicinior is considered present only on the west slope of the West Andes 
(Krabbe & Schulenberg 1997), north to dpto. Risaralda, 350 km south-west of 
Yariguies (Cuervo et al. 2003), with S. rodriguezi known only from the headwaters 
of the Magdalena Valley (Krabbe et al. 2005). Two recent studies in the Central 
Andes did not find S. vicinior (Cuervo et al. 2005, Krabbe et al. 2005), nor have our 
studies of Scytalopus in most major Colombian and some European collections from 
the East Andes. Doubt was correctly cast on the identity of historic specimens, 
supposedly of this species, from the Central and East Andes (Krabbe & Schulenberg 
1997), which appear likely to refer to Long-tailed Tapaculo S. micropterus, Stiles's 
Tapaculo S. stilesi, Spillmann's Tapaculo S. spillmanni, the undescribed taxon 
discussed here, or other morphologically similar species. 

SPILLMANN'S TAPACULO Scytalopus spillmanni 

Sound-recorded and trapped at La Aurora (2|; Fig. 5). S. spillmanni has also 
recently been reported at Rogitama (J. Zuluaga in litt. 2006). It is previously known 
in Colombia only from the Central and West Andes (Krabbe & Schulenberg 2003b). 
These records are the first for the East Andes. Our sound-recordings are 
indistinguishable from those made in the Central Andes (Alvarez & Cordoba 2002), 
but specimens from Yariguies are darker than those from the Central Andes and 
Ecuador (including the holotype). Geographical variation in Colombia is complex 
(e.g. Cuervo et al. 2003, Krabbe et al. 2006) and requires further investigation. This 
new East Andes population appears to involve an undescribed subspecies. 

HANDSOME FLYCATCHER Myiophobus pulcher bellus 
M. p. bellus was present at Alto Cantagallos (1; 0) and recently observed and sound- 
recorded at La Aurora by JEAC. M. p. bellus (East and Central Andes of Colombia 
and eastern Ecuador) is identified by the contrasting breast and underparts, browner 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 1 84 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 12 7(3) 

back, more cinnamon wingbars, darker red crown and longer tail compared to 
nominate M. p. pulcher (West Andes and western Ecuador). With two exceptions 
(BMNH, ICN 29164), specimens of M. p. bellus typically have five 
primaries with paler remiges (from the second outermost inwards) whilst M. p. 
pulcher (and M. p. oblitus of Peru) typically have only 3^1 primaries so marked 
(from the third outermost). At Alto Cantagallos in January, only lone individuals 
were observed by TMD, whilst at La Aurora in April a (family?) group of four was 
seen by JEAC perched on horizontal twigs of midstorey small trees and tree ferns. 
They sallied 3-4 m, occasionally ascending to 6 m and frequently moved their 
vertical stratification with continuous position interchanges. Such 'fidgety' 
behaviour is similar to that of M. p. pulcher at Tambito, West Andes (TMD). The 
principal foraging aerial manoeuvre was the sally-hover (Remsen & Robinson 
1990), to capture small arthropods below the leaves, with a few sally-glides. One 
vocal bird at La Aurora was observed on three occasions clinging woodpecker-like 
from moss-carpeted tree bark to pull at moss then shake it free from a perch, 
presumably searching for invertebrates. M. p. bellus was previously known from 
just two sites in the East Andes: on the west slope in Cundinamarca, c.250 km to the 
south, and on the east slope in northern Santander (Hilty & Brown 1986, Fjeldsa & 
Krabbe 1990, Ridgely & Tudor 1994). 

JEAC sound-recorded M. p. bellus making a rapid trill, identical to certain calls 
given by M. p. bellus in eastern Ecuador (Moore & Lysinger 1997). Examples of 
some such calls do not occur in published recordings of M. p. pulcher from Ecuador 
(Moore et al. 1999), but this may reflect lack of sampling. Some calls, such as 
sequences of falling notes and energetic 'chips', are given by both taxa. 

M. p. pulcher and M. p. bellus were described by Sclater (1 860, 1 862) who noted 
that M. p. bellus is 'easily distinguishable [from M. pulcher] by its larger size and 
larger wings', but were lumped by Berlepsch (1905) with little published 
justification. The two indeed differ somewhat in biometrics (Sclater 1862, Bond 
1943). Mensural data from specimens and live birds at Tambito and Yariguies are as 
follows (mean ± standard deviation in mm or g, with number of specimens in 
parentheses): bellus wing 58.5 mm ±3.9 (13), tail 48.6 mm ± 3.1(13), mass 11.3g± 
1 .6 (4); pulcher wing 52.8 mm ± 2.9 (23); tail 41.1 mm ± 2.9 (20); mass 9.1g ± 0.6 
(12). Tail-length {pulcher <43 mm <bellus) reliably identifies c.90% of our sample. 
Whilst differences between bellus and pulcher are frequently noted with little 
comment (Hilty & Brown 1986, Fjeldsa & Krabbe 1990, Ridgely & Greenfield 
2001), their plumage and biometric differences are not insubstantial within the 
context of a family in which inter-specific morphological variation is often slight 
(e.g. Myiobius, Myiarchus, Empidonax). Vocalisations are considered innate in 
Tyrannidae (Kroodsma 1984) and are worthy of further study in these birds. M. p. 
oblitus of Peru is almost indistinguishable from M. p. pulcher in plumage and 
biometrics, despite its disjunct range (Bond 1943). 

Specimens examined.— M p. pulcher. BMNH (type),, 
1931.11.23.15, 1938.12.20.38-39, University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 1 85 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 12 7(3) 

University, UK (UMZC) 27/Tyr/59/e/l; ICN 29041, 29044, 29164, 29170; M. p. 
bellus: BMNH, (types),; ICN 27360; 
Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad del Cauca, Popayan, Colombia (MHNUC) 
A01860, A01892; Instituto Alexander von Humboldt (IAVH) 2541, 2548, 2551; 
Museo La Salle, Bogota (MLS) 5060, 7930. M. p. oblitus: BMNH 

CLIFF FLYCATCHER Hirundinea ferruginea sclateri 

Eight observed, video- and sound-recorded below La Luchata and adjacent El 
Cerro, and two at Bajo Cantagallos (1,200m: JEAC), were all identified as race 
sclateri due to their white crown mottling. At 2,000 m, La Luchata is an unusually 
high elevation in Colombia (Hilty & Brown 1986), though the species ranges higher 
elsewhere (Fjeldsa & Krabbe 1990). One was also observed on the other side of the 
rio Sogamoso Valley at 1,300 m on 8 April 2004 (JEAC). The most frequently heard 
call was a high-frequency, rather weak Pi-weet or shorter weet, whilst other 
recorded calls involved a Weeet wi-wi-wi sometimes extended to weeet wi-wi-wi-wi- 
wi. Not previously reported from the west slope of the East Andes but known from 
several localities on the east slope (Hilty & Brown 1986, Fjeldsa & Krabbe 1990, 
Salaman et al. 2002b). 

LEMON-BROWED FLYCATCHER Conopias cinchoneti 
Common at Montana Pedro Elias and recently mist-netted at c. 1,700 m at Bajo 
Cantagallos (J. C. Luna, C. Turner & M. Sharp, photograph). Although this 
secondary habitat and forest-edge species must be widespread in the region, it is 
virtually unknown from the East Andes in Colombia, beyond historic Bogota 
records (Hilty & Brown 1986). 

WHITE-CAPPED TANAGER Sericossypha albocristata 

Common at La Aurora, where several were observed daily and sound-recorded, and 
rare at Alto Cantagallos (JEAC). The frequently heard call is a repeated pio as in 
Ecuador (Krabbe et al. 2001) and on the east slope (TMD). The species has also 
recently been reported from Cachalu (Corredor de Conservation 2006) and Surata 
(JEAC). Though known from various sites on the east slope of the East Andes (Hilty 
& Brown 1986, Isler & Isler 1999, Salaman et al. 2002b), there were no published 
records from the west slope. 

LACRIMOSE MOUNTAIN-TANAGER^wsogrc^/zws lacrymosus 
Present at Alto Cantagallos (0; If), Lepipuerto (2) and Filo Pamplona (11+3: 
Fig. 6). Though Hilty & Brown (1986) considered the species to be widespread in 
the northern East Andes, more recently its range in this region has been considered 
restricted to the Venezuelan border and Perija (Fjeldsa & Krabbe 1990, Isler & Isler 
1999). The Yariguies population is closest in plumage to the more richly plumaged 
Central Andean A. I. olivaceiceps than greyer headed A. I. tamae (northern East 
Andes and south to Surata [JEAC]) or A. I. pallididorsalis (Perija). However, 
Yariguies birds have a darker, bluer head than A. I. olivaceiceps and represent an 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 186 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

undescribed taxon. In addition, species limits should be investigated further as 
plumage differences between the various northern races are substantial. 

WHITE-WINGED TANAGER Piranga leucoptera 

Several were observed in mixed-species flocks at Alto Honduras (TMD, JEAC), 
with recent observations at El Talisman (J. C. Luna in lift. 2006), Cachalu (Corredor 
de Conservation 2006) and Tona (JEAC). P. leucoptera is known on the west slope 
of the East Andes from Norte de Santander north and from Cundinamarca south 
(Hilty & Brown 1986). Our observations close this c.350 km gap. 

SOOTY GRASSQUIT Tiaris fuliginosus 

Trapped and photographed in Cerro de la Paz (1,300 m, 1?) and a female in body 
moult trapped at La Luchata (0; 1). Recently reported in Santa Marta (Strewe & 
Navarro 2004), 400 km to the north, but specimens identified as T. fuliginosus from 
near Cerro de la Paz (Borrero & Hernandez 1961), the upper Patia Valley (Haffer 
1986) and elsewhere in Colombia (Hilty & Brown 1986) are T. obscura (Bates 
1997). The only valid Colombian specimen was taken by Carriker in the 1960s at 
'Portugal, Santander', considered an unknown locality (Bates 1997). There is a 
Portugal in Santander (see introduction) where several T. fuliginosus were recently 
collected (Avendafio 2005). Whilst not a range extension, confirmation of its 
presence in the Magdalena Valley in Colombia is notable and our record at 2,000 m 
(La Luchata) is unusually high. Whilst Strewe & Navarro (2004) recently purported 
to identify the Santa Marta population to the race T. f zuliae, Bates (1997) 
contended that the species is best considered monotypic for now. 

STRIPE-HEADED BRUSH-FINCH Buarremon torquatus assimilis 
A pair, clearly showing the head-stripes of this race, was observed well in heavily 
degraded habitat at Bajo Cantagallos (c. 1,800 m; TMD, ERB). B. t. assimilis was 
previously known only north to Cundinamarca in the East Andes, 200 km to the 
south (Hilty & Brown 1986), with specimens from Boyaca. Black-headed Brush- 
finch B. t. atricapillus was recently observed at Cerro de la Paz (JEAC) and is 
known from historical Bucaramanga records (Hilty & Brown 1986). B. t. 
atricapillus was also recently observed at Portugal at 1,100 m (specimen and sound- 
recordings: Avendafio 2005). B. t. atricapillus ranges from Bucaramanga south to 
Serrania de las Quinchas (Laverde et al. 2005a) and occurs in adjacent lowlands of 
the Serrania de San Lucas in the Central Andes (Salaman et al. 2002a). The two taxa 
are sympatric on the west slope of the East Andes in Boyaca and Santander, with B. 
t. atricapillus at lower elevations. The proposition that these morphologically 
distinct taxa are members of the same biological species appears unsupportable, but 
the status of apparently related Central American taxa creates difficulties. A detailed 
study of the taxonomy of this complex is underway (Cadena 2006). 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 187 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

Northwards range extensions from Serrania de las 
Quinchas or Boyaca 

The following species have all been recorded on the west slope of the East Andes in 
Boyaca (Hilty & Brown (1986) or were recently reported from Serrania de las 
Quinchas, a site subject to relatively intense study in recent years (e.g. Stiles et al. 
1999, Stiles & Bohorquez 2000, Laverde et al. 2005a,b, Quevedo et al. 2006a). All 
represent northward range extensions of 100-150 km on the west slope of the East 
Andes and many are first departmental records for Santander or second or third 
localities for the East Andes. Such details are not listed in the texts below, but 
taxonomic and distributional notes are made for certain species, and some 
unpublished records from other sites in Santander and elsewhere are mentioned. 

VARIABLE/COLOMBIAN CHACHALACA Ortalis guttata columbiana 
Common in lower-elevation second growth and forest-edge throughout. The loud, 
repeated, hoarse guacharaca call was sound-recorded at dawn at Cerro de la Paz 
(both sites) and La Luchata. One captured locally was photographed near Cerro de 
la Paz (Donegan & Huertas 2005). O. g. columbiana is also present in the main 
cordillera in Santander (Rodriguez et al. 2005). Chestnut-winged Chachalaca O. 
garrula occurs in similar habitat in nearby dptos. Cesar and Bolivar (Salaman & 
Donegan 2001, Donegan et al. 2003) and at Puerto Olaya (DATAves 2006). 

BLUE-BILLED CURASSOW Crax alberti Historically present, according to 
locals, in San Vicente de Chucuri, El Carmen, San Juan Bosco and Yarima, but has 
apparently become locally extinct in many parts of Yariguies, with no reports more 
recent than a decade old at most localities. A Crax was reported as recently as 2005 
at Montana Pedro Elias (500 m) but was killed for its meat. Pristine lowland forest 
bordering the south-west Yariguies Mountains, between Cimitarra and San Juan 
Bosco, observed on a flight in July 2004 (TMD, BH), may still harbour a small 
population, but is subject to hunting. The East Andes population once probably 
extended at least as far north as southern Cesar, where it was also reported as 
formerly present by older hunters (Donegan et al. 2003), and probably through the 
entire Serrania de Perija to Santa Marta (Renjifo et al. 2002, Quevedo et al. 2006b). 

COCOI HERON Ardea cocoi Lone birds twice observed over Bajo Simacota. Also 
observed in small numbers along the rio Magdalena near Puerto Wilches (Salaman 
et al. 2002a), in southern Cesar (Donegan et al. 2003) and at Puerto Olaya 
(DATAves 2006). 

DOUBLE-TOOTHED HAWK Harpagus bidentatus At Montana Pedro Elias (500 
m: 0), where observed feeding a nestling in February 2007, and reported by the ISA 
study (unspecified locality), per Fundacion Natura (2003). 

BICOLOURED HAWK Accipiter bicolor An immature, apparently rf- (195 g), of 
this uncommon hawk was mist-netted in the understorey at Montana Pedro Elias 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 188 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 12 7(3) 

(705 m). It had the eighth primary of each wing in moult, but little body or tail 
moult. Also present at Surata (JEAC). 

BARRED HAWK Leucopternis princeps A pair observed daily at c.09.00-10.00 h 
at El Talisman, Honduras Alto and both sites in Cerro de la Paz. One soared over La 
Luchata just after dawn. More widespread than currently perceived (Hilty & Brown 
1986), e.g. being common at La Judia at 2,000-2,300 m (ERB, JEAC). 

BARRED FOREST-FALCON Micrastur rufwollis interstes A pale-phase 
immature trapped at Cerro de la Paz (1; 0), and heard calling at El Talisman, La 
Aurora and Montana Pedro Elias (500-750 m). At Montana Pedro Elias, it was seen 
following a mixed-species understorey flock including Sooty Ant-tanager Habia 
gutturalis and White-breasted Wood- wren Henicorhina leucosticta. The mist-net 
mortality prey of this species included Phaethornis guy, Mionectes oleagineus, 
Premnoplex brunnescens, Leptopogon superciliaris and Eucometis penicillata. 

PLUMBEOUS PIGEON Patagioenas plumbea bogotensis A hoo, hu-hooo song 
(rarely hoo-hoo, hu-hooo) was heard regularly at Montana Pedro Elias, Cerro de la 
Paz, Alto Honduras and El Talisman. An overlooked ICN skin is from Cachalu. The 
typical call was at c.0.7 kHz, the first and second notes separated by 0.25 s, the last 
two by 0. 1 s and the second note slurring slightly lower. It involved fewer notes than 
the rhythmical Who cooks for you? on the Pacific slope of the Andes in Cauca (race 
chapmani; TMD) and had the final note longer than birds east of the Andes (race 
delicata). Ruddy Pigeon P. subvinacea, giving its typical What do you know? call, 
was sound-recorded at La Luchata, Alto Honduras, El Talisman and La Aurora, at 
some sites sympatric with P. plumbea. Further studies of P. plumbea would be 
welcome, as bogotensis and other vocally distinctive taxa may warrant species rank. 

LINED QUAIL-DOVE Geotrygon linearis Records at Cerro de la Paz (1; 0, at 

1,000 m and 1,300 m), Alto Honduras, El Talisman (1) and La Luchata (0; 2). The 
call was a repeated low hoot given from the forest floor. G linearis was sympatric 
with Ruddy Quail-dove G montana at 1,000-1, 350m m in Cerro de la Paz (3; 1), an 
unusually low elevation for G linearis. There are also specimens from Charala and 
Suaita (ICN). 

SPECKLE-FACED PARROT Pionus tumultuosus Flocks observed and 
photographed at Alto Cantagallos and Primavera. 

BRONZE-WINGED PARROT Pionus chalcopterus Flocks sound-recorded and 
observed daily at Montana Pedro Elias, Plan de Alvarez and Honduras Alto. Locally 
captured birds were photographed in captivity at El Diviso, between El Carmen de 
Chucuri and Honduras Alto, at Plan de Alvarez and San Juan Bosco. 

CRESTED OWL Lophostrix cristata Heard at Montana Pedro Elias (500 m; 
JEAC) but not higher. Also recorded historically in the Lebrija Valley, 80 km to the 
north (Hilty & Brown 1986). 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 189 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

LYRE-TAILED NIGHTJAR Uropsalis lyra Females observed in forest-edge at El 
Talisman and La Luchata (TMD). Also recently mist-netted at El Talisman (J. C. 
Luna; M. Sharp & C. Turner photograph). 

CRIMSON-BELLIED WOODPECKER Campephilus haematogaster One 
trapped at Montana Pedro Elias (750 m), and observed close to a tree trunk, 
inspecting a hole 3 m high. 

WHITE-TIPPED SICKLEBILL Eutoxeres aquila Trapped at Montana Pedro 
Elias (500 m: 1; 0), Cerro de la Paz (6; 4 at 1,000 m; 11+1; 16+7 at 1,300 m), Alto 
Honduras (3), Primavera, El Talisman (1; 0) and La Luchata (1). ICN specimens are 
from Charala and Suaita. 

GREEN-FRONTED LANCEBILL Doryfera ludoviciae Observed or trapped at 
Bajo Cantagallos, El Talisman (2), Filo Pamplona (1), La Luchata (10+1; 4+3), 
Montana Pedro Elias (750 m), Plan de Alvarez, and Zapatoca (Fundacion Natura 
2003) and Cachalu (Corredor de Conservacion 2006). 

BROWN VIOLETEAR Colibri delphinae Fairly common, Cerro de la Paz at 
1,300 m (3; 0) and El Talisman (JEAC) with ICN specimens from Charala and 

RUFOUS-CRESTED COQUETTE Lophornis delattrei Recently at forest border 
in Cerro de la Paz (1,350 m: 0; 1^). 

VIOLET-HEADED HUMMINGBIRD Klais guimeti Mist-netted at Montana 
Pedro Elias (500 m and 750 m: 1; It) and Cerro de la Paz (1,300 m: 3; 0). Also 
reported at Cachalu (Corredor de Conservacion 2006). 

ANDEAN EMERALD Amazilia franciae Present at Cerro de la Paz (1,000 and 
1,300 m: 9+2; 3), Bajo Cantagallos, El Talisman and La Luchata (3+1 and sound- 

GREEN-FRONTED BRILLIANT Heliodoxa jacula Common at Cerro de la Paz 
(1,000 m: 11+5; 1,300 m: 19+5, 1|), fairly common at Alto Honduras (4+1; 3+2), 
rare at Montana Pedro Elias (750 m: 0; 1), and an adult male seen in an isolated 
flowering tree below El Talisman (1,500 m). Known until recently from only a 
handful of localities in Colombia, but mist-netting at premontane forest sites has led 
to the discovery of many new sites in all three Andean ranges (Stiles et al. 1 999, 
Donegan & Davalos 1999, Salaman et al. 2002a,b, Cuervo et al. 2003), suggesting 
this hummingbird was under-recorded in the past. 

WHITE-MANTLED BARBET Capito hypoleucus This Endangered species was 
observed and trapped at Alto Honduras (TMD, JEAC: 0; 1), below El Talisman (J. 
C. Luna in litt. 2006), Cerro de la Paz (JEAC at 1,350 m; J. C. Luna in litt. 2006) 
and Bajo Cantagallos (JEAC). Also reported in lowlands below Landazuri 
(Fundacion Natura 2003). At Alto Honduras, first a pair and secondly a group of 
four were observed feeding on Melastomataceae fruit at mid-levels in forest. These 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 190 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

are the first records within Colombia's national parks network and for Santander 
(Renjifo et al. 2002), although it was thought possibly present in Yariguies (Laverde 
et al. 2005b). The voice of C. hypoleucus is undescribed. The call recorded at Alto 
Honduras is a low (0.9-1.6 kHz) quiet frog-like ah, sometimes repeated 2-3 times 
at c.l-s intervals. Each ah lasts c.0.05 s and consists of perhaps three rapidly 
delivered elements (Fig 7). 

CRIMSON-RUMPED TOUCANET Aulacorhynchus haematopygus Fairly 
common at Cerro de la Paz (1,300 m: 2; 1), Plan de Alvarez (1,300 m), Alto 
Honduras (observations and sound-recordings) and El Talisman (1; 0), at some sites 
syntopic with Emerald Toucanet A. prasinus. 

STRIPED WOODHAUNTER Hyloctistes subulatus cordobae Recently trapped at 
Alto Honduras (0; 3, It). 

RUDDY FOLIAGE-GLEANER Automolus rubiginosus At Cerro de la Paz (1,000 
m:0; l<rf) 

PARKER'S ANTBIRD Cercomacra parkeri Pair observed at El Talisman (TMD) 
and common at Alto Honduras (6+1; 1| and sound-recordings: photograph in 
Balchin 2006). At lower elevations, e.g. Plan de Alvarez (500 m: 1), Montana Pedro 
Elias and Cerro de la Paz, C. tyrannina was present. A colorimeter was used to 
separate females from Dusky Antbird C. tyrannina in describing the species (Graves 
1 997) but, with experience, field identification is feasible if a good view is obtained 
of the female's upperparts. At 2,000 m, El Talisman is slightly higher than previous 
records. Our recordings are similar to those made in the Central Cordillera (Isler & 
Whitney 2002, Zimmer & Isler 2003), i.e. melodic piping calls rising then falling in 
frequency, with 3-5 loud, equal-paced notes then a handful delivered more quickly 
in finale. Notes are pitched at 2.5-3.5 kHz and the first notes given at cA/s. C. 
parkeri is also known from the west slope of the East Andes based on specimens 
taken near Bucaramanga, Santander (Graves 1997) and more recently at Suaita, 
Santander (ICN specimen, by F. G Stiles). 

SLATY ANTWREN Myrmotherula schisticolor Common in premontane forest on 
the west slope, at Alto Honduras (6+3, 1|) and El Talisman (3; 1). ICN specimens 
hail from Suaita. 

WHITE-BELLIED ANTPITTA Grallaria hypoleuca Common: sound-recordings 
were made at Alto Honduras, El Talisman, Alto Cantagallos, La Aurora and La 
Luchata; also reported at Landazuri (Fundacion Natura 2003). A dead bird found at 
La Luchata (1|) had apparently been killed by an internal parasite (large Diptera 
larva). The call is essentially identical to that in the southernmost East Andes, in 
Serrania de los Churumbelos, Anori (TMD pers. obs.) and Ecuador (Moore & 
Lysinger 1997), a series of three slow whistles, the first lower (c. 1.8-2.1 kHz) than 
the others (c. 1.9-2.2 kHz), with a slightly longer interval between the first and 
second notes than the second and third. 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 191 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

CHESTNUT-CROWNED GNATEATER Conopophaga castaneiceps Sound- 
recorded at Alto Honduras (confirmed by A. M. Cuervo & N. Krabbe), giving short 
trills similar to those given in the Central Andes, and recently captured there (0; 2f ). 
Also, recently sound-recorded in mountains to the north-east above Bucaramanga 
(1,700 m: Avendafio 2005). 

SOOTY-HEADED TYRANNULET Phyllomyias griseiceps Photographed in 
forest-edge below Alto Honduras and observed at Bajo Simacota (JEAC). 

LESSER ELAENIA Elaenia chiriquensis Common in second growth on the east 
slope around Galan, at 1,100-1,500 m at least, with ICN specimens from Chima and 

SCALE-CRESTED PYGMY-TYRANT Lophotriccus pileatus Fairly widespread 
elevational range in forest, at Cerro de la Paz (1,300 m, 3; 3+2), Alto Honduras (4, 
If; 1), El Talisman (sound-recordings), Bajo Cantagallos, Alto Cantagallos (heard), 
Lepipuerto (heard) and La Luchata (1); also Charala (ICN specimens). 

WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL Platyrinchus mystaceus Fairly common at 
Cerro de la Paz (1,350 m: 0; 3), Alto Honduras (3+1, If; 1), El Talisman (0; 1) and 
Alto Cantagallos (3+1; 1), with ICN specimens from Charala. 

BLACK-TAILED FLYCATCHER Myiobius atricaudus Cerro de la Paz (0; 1 at 
1,000 m; 1; at 1,300 m), Montana Pedro Elias (750 m: 0; If) and Velez (ICN 

TROPICAL PEWEE Contopus cinereus Observed in scrub over a stream at Cerro 
de la Paz (1,000 m: TMD). Also mist-netted recently at Aguachica (Donegan et al. 

CATTLE TYRANT Machetornis rixosa Common in secondary habitats on both 
slopes of Yariguies and throughout surrounding Santander, following apparent 
recent expansions in range reported by Stiles et al. (1999), ABO (2000) and 
Salaman et al. (2002a). 

RUFOUS-NAPED GREENLET Hylophilus semibrunneus Fairly frequent at both 
sites in Cerro de la Paz (0; 1 at 1,350 m), Alto Honduras and El Talisman. 

SCRUB GREENLET Hylophilus flavipes Observed at Bajo Simacota and 
common at San Juan Bosco and Plan de Alvarez (all JEAC). Not previously 
recorded in the humid region between south Cesar and Boyaca. 

STRIPE-THROATED WREN Thryothorus leucopogon Observed at Cerro de la 
Paz (1,000 m) and Bajo Cantagallos (1,300 m) (TMD), these also being unusually 
high elevations. 

PALE-VENTED THRUSH Turdus obsoletus Trapped at 1,300 m in Cerro de la 
Paz (3, If; 0) and Montana Pedro Elias (500 m: 0; 1). The subspecies involved 
requires elucidation (Stiles et al. 1999, Salaman et al. 2002a). 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 1 92 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

GRASS-GREEN TANAGER Chlorornis riefferii Common at high-elevation sites, 
Alto Cantagallos (1; 1), Lepipuerto, Filo Pamplona and La Aurora, and sound- 
recorded at some of these. Also at Charala (ICN specimen). 

BAY-HEADED TANAGER Tangara gyrola deleticia Common in Cerro de la Paz 
at both sites (1,300 m: 10; 3), Alto Honduras (in mixed canopy flocks in primary 
forest), El Talisman, Plan de Alvarez (900 m) and Montana Pedro Elias (500 and 
750 m). Also, collected at Albania (Borrero & Hernandez 1961) and reported at 
Landazuri (Fundacion Natura 2003). 

SCRUB TANAGER Tangara vitriolina Fairly common at El Talisman, La Luchata, 
Plan de Alvarez (900 m), collected at Chima (ICN specimens), reported from 
Zapatoca (Fundacion Natura 2003) and observed elsewhere in forest-edge. 

ASHY-THROATED BUSH-TANAGER Chlorospingus canigularis At Alto 
Honduras (1) and El Talisman. Also reported at Rogitama (J. Beckers unpubl.) and 
Iguaque (Velez 2006) but such higher elevation localities are more likely to support 
Common Bush-tanager C. ophthalmicus (F. G. Stiles in litt. 2006). C. ophthalmicus, 
probably of the race flavopectus (Cadena et al. submitted), was present at higher 
elevations of Yariguies: El Talisman (6, If; 0), Alto Cantagallos (7+1; 10), 
Lepipuerto (1), Filo Pamplona (4, If) and La Aurora (0; 2), and has a rather grey 
head and dark eye, possibly causing confusion. 

WHITE-EARED CONEBILL Conirostrum leucogenys Observed at Bajo 
Simacota (JEAC), with unpublished reports from Puerto Olaya, Cimitarra 
(DATAves 2006). 

YELLOW-THROATED BRUSH-FINCH Atlapetes atrinucha Trapped at El 
Talisman (2), where sympatric with A. albofrenatus albofrenatus and A. latinuchus 
yariguierum. Remsen & Graves (1995) proposed elevational replacements to be 
more frequent in the genus, but this pattern appears less strong in forest-edge. 
Records of A. atrinucha also exist from Tona (2,000 m) (Peraza 2002). 

BLACK-WINGED SALTATOR Saltator atripennis caniceps Present at La 
Luchata (If), El Talisman, second growth below Alto Honduras and Bajo 
Cantagallos. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) considered caniceps to be a synonym of 
nominate atripennis. We agree that caniceps does not reach Ecuador, but reject the 
proposed synonymy. S. a. caniceps is restricted to Colombia's East Andes (Meyer 
de Schauensee 1964). This population is easily distinguished from the nominate of 
the Central and West Andes south to Ecuador, being on average larger, with a less 
olive (stronger green) back, paler buff undertail-coverts and considerably more grey 
(less black) on the head (Fig. 9). Some caniceps (including our specimen) have a 
white crown-stripe, a feature absent on birds in the Central and West Andes. ICN 
specimen mensural data (average ± standard deviation in mm, with number of 
specimens in parentheses): caniceps wing-chord 106.5 mm ± 1.5 (5), tail 91.8 mm 
± 1.8 (5); atripennis: wing-chord 98.7 mm ± 3.8 (14), tail 88.5 mm ± 4.6 (13). 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 1 93 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 12 7(3) 

GREY-THROATED WARBLER Basileuterus c. cinereicollis Fairly common at 
Alto Honduras (5+2; 1), but not found elsewhere, suggesting a narrow elevational 
range. Found mostly in treefall gaps and primary forest understorey. Most had fresh 
plumage, and some were completing body moult in January 2005. Also recorded 
above Bucaramanga (Avendano 2005) with race pallidus at Agua de la Virgen 
(Donegan et al. 2003). Birds in Yariguies showed little variation in crown colour, 
unlike pallidus (Donegan et al. 2003) and have stronger black crown markings. 

BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA Chlorophonia cyanea Present at Cerro de la 
Paz (1,350 m: JEAC), El Talisman (JEAC) and Bajo Cantagallos (1,700 m: C. 
Turner & M. Sharp in litt. 2006). Also at Agua de la Virgen (Donegan et al. 2003) 
which represents a further range extension. 

Range extensions to Yariguies from the main East Andes 

The following are known from the main East Andes (Hilty & Brown 1986, Fjeldsa 
& Krabbe 1990, Ridgely & Tudor 1989, 1994) with records in Boyaca or 
Cundinamarca, or in the main cordillera in Santander (e.g. Charala, Iguaque, 
Rogitama), but were not previously known from the west slope of the Magdalena 
Valley or Serrania de las Quinchas. Most records involve species of high-elevation 
forest (>2,000 m). Also included are species considered to be of fragmented or 
poorly known, but possibly continuous, range in the East Andes, and species we 
suspect have been recorded elsewhere (but unpublished) due to their common 
presence elsewhere in the Colombian Andes or habitat use. Records involve range 
extensions of 80-150 km and some represent new departmental records. 

BAND-TAILED GUAN Penelope argyrotis Three nestlings captured by a local 
farmer, at 2,000 m, below La Aurora in April 2006, exhibited the whitish-buff 
terminal tail-band typical of the nominate race. 

ANDEAN GUAN Penelope montagnii Present at Alto Cantagallos (sound- 
recordings and photograph) and Filo Pamplona (sound-recorded). The call was a 
repeated low-pitched wak wak wak wak wak wak... at 1.3—1.7 kHz, given at 4-5 
notes/s, recalling the transcription in ABO (2000). 

GORGETED WOOD-QUAIL Odontophorus strophium The population of this 
Critically Endangered species in Yariguies is estimated at c. 1,800-3,300 individuals 
and is the largest extant (Turner & Donegan 2006). First found at El Talisman 
(Donegan et al. 2005) and also present at Bajo Cantagallos (to 2,300 m), La 
Luchata, La Aurora, Filo Pamplona (to 3,100 m), Alto Honduras, Primavera and 
other unspecified localities (Fundacion Natura 2003). Formerly considered 
restricted to 1,500-2,050 m (Hilty & Brown 1986). 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 194 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

RUSTY-FACED PARROT Hapalopsittaca amazonina Flocks observed and 
sound-recorded at Honduras Alto, Alto Cantagallos, Lepipuerto, Filo Pamplona, 
Bajo Cantagallos, Primavera and La Aurora (photograph). 

WHITE-THROATED SCREECH-OWL Megascops albogularis Heard at El 
Talisman, common at Alto Cantagallos (sound-recorded and photographed) and 
sound-recorded at La Aurora. 

STYGIAN OWL Asio stygius Sound-recorded making low, muffled, single short 
hoots at intervals (as in Krabbe et al. 2001), at La Aurora and El Talisman. 

STRIPED OWL Pseudoscops clamator The typical wheyoo call reported by Hilty 
(2003) was recorded at Montana Pedro Elias (750 m) after 19.00 h. 

COLLARED TROGON Trogon collaris Fairly common in Cerro de la Paz (1,000 
m, 1; and 1,350 m), El Talisman (sound-recorded) and Alto Honduras (male seen). 
A San Vicente de Chucuri specimen (ICN) was taken by R. Ardila in 1983. T. 
collaris is known from the East Andes only north to Cundinamarca on the west 
slope (Hilty & Brown 1986), 300 km to the south, but specimens exist from Soata 
and Charala (ICN). Masked Trogon T. personatus was observed and sound-recorded 
at Cerro de la Paz (1,300 m), El Talisman, Alto Cantagallos, Filo Pamplona, La 
Aurora (2) and La Luchata, and was sometimes sympatric with T. collaris. 

BAND-WINGED NIGHTJAR Caprimulgus longirostris Trapped at Filo 
Pamplona (If) and heard at Alto Cantagallos (JEAC). 

LAZULINE SABREWING Campylopterus falcatus Trapped at La Luchata (3; 1), 
La Aurora (0; 1) and El Talisman (0; 3), showing intriguing presence/absence 
patterns perhaps indicative of seasonal altitudinal movements. 

CHESTNUT-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD Amazilia castaneiventris Trapped in 
second growth below El Talisman in 2005 (J. C. Luna in litt. 2006). Considered 
Critically Endangered (BirdLife International 2004) and known from only a handful 
of sites, all in Boyaca and Santander (Renjifo et al. 2002, Chavez & Cortes 2006), 
making this new site of conservation import. 

MOUNTAIN VELVETBREAST Lafresnaya lafresnayi At La Aurora (0; 2) near 
forest-edge and treefall gaps. 

BLACK INCA Coeligena prunellei One of the commonest species in lower 
montane forest on both slopes, at Alto Honduras (3), El Talisman (16+1; 10+1), La 
Luchata (8+4, 2f), Bajo Cantagallos (observed at 1,700 m) and Zapatoca 
(Fundacion Natura 2003). This threatened species was replaced by the more 
widespread Collared Inca C. torquata in forest above 2,400 m at Alto Cantagallos 
(9, 2t), Lepipuerto (2) and La Aurora (10+1, 1|). C. prunellei is endemic to the west 
slope of Colombia's East Andes, being known from only a handful of sites (e.g. 
Renjifo et al. 2002, BirdLife International 2004, Daza & Villamarin 2006), the 
closest at Cachalu (Renjifo et al. 2002), where it is also locally common (C. D. 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 1 95 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

Cadena in lift. 2006). Only one of C. prunellei or C. torquata was recorded at any 
of our primary forest sites, but their elevational replacement is less clear-cut in 
secondary habitats and forest-edge. We observed C. torquata at 2,100 m in forest- 
edge at El Cerro, just above La Luchata (c.300 m distant), and C. prunellei was 
present below La Aurora, at c.2,550 m, feeding on the same Cavendishia 
(Ericaceae) flowers as it was observed feeding on at El Talisman on the west slope. 
Moult in C. prunellei appears to occur in the late and early year. At Honduras Alto 
and El Talisman, almost all were in moult in January and November. At La Luchata, 
we found individuals completing a moult sequence in April, whilst in June at the 
same site none that was trapped was in moult. 

GOLDEN-BELLIED STARFRONTLET Coeligena bonapartei bonapartei 
Fairly common at Filo Pamplona (4). Hilty & Brown (1986) reported this taxon only 
from Cundinamarca and Boyaca, the closest site being 150 km to the south. 
However, it is more widespread, being present at Iguaque (L. Rosselli & F. G. Stiles 
in litt. 2006) and Rogitama (R. Chavarro in litt. 2006). Birds in Yariguies are closer 
to the nominate race than C. b. consita of Perija. 

AMETHYST-THROATED SUNANGEL Heliangelus amethysticollis clarisse 
Common at higher elevations, at Alto Cantagallos (7; 4), Lepipuerto (20+1, If), Filo 
Pamplona (3) and La Aurora (0; 5+2). Also photographed at Rogitama (R. Chavarro 
in litt. 2006). 

PURPLE-BACKED THORNBILL Ramphomicron microrhynchum Trapped at 
Filo Pamplona (1). 

LONG-TAILED SYLPH Aglaiocercus kingi kingi Males observed fairly 
frequently at El Talisman (0; 1), and La Aurora (0; 3tf), Alto Cantagallos (1?; la*) 
and Alto Honduras (lc). 

WEDGE-BILLED HUMMINGBIRD Schistes geoffroyi geoffroyi Trapped or 
observed at Alto Honduras (2+2; 2), Bajo Cantagallos, Primavera, El Talisman (0; 
1) and La Aurora (0; 2, 1|). 

WHITE-BELLIED WOODSTAR Chaetocercus mulsant Observed at El Talisman 
(TMD), where a female was trapped and photographed in 2006 (J. C. Luna, M. 
Sharp & C. Turner in litt. 2006) and Alto Cantagallos (JEAC). Also, unpublished 
photographs from Rogitama (J. Becker; R. Chavarra & J. Zuluaga in litt. 2006). 

BLACK-BILLED MOUNTAIN-TOUCAN Andigena nigrirostris Common at La 
Aurora around several fruiting trees and heard once distantly above Alto 
Cantagallos (JEAC). A Near-Threatened species, confirmation of its presence in the 
new national park is welcome. 

GOLDEN-OLIVE WOODPECKER Piculus rubiginosus Heard recently at Alto 
Honduras, El Talisman and Alto Cantagallos (JEAC). 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 1 96 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

WHITE-CHINNED THISTLETAIL Schizoeaca fuliginosa Common at Filo 
Pamplona (4+1; Fig. 7). The subspecies involved is yet to be determined. 

RUFOUS SPINETAIL Synallaxis unirufa Common in the highest elevations of 
Yariguies, at Alto Cantagallos (3; 3), Lepipuerto (1) and Filo Pamplona (3). An 
undescribed subspecies is involved, more rufous than other East Andean 

WHITE-BROWED SPINETAIL Hellmayrea gularis gularis Captured at 
Lepipuerto (2, 1|). The Yariguies population is of the nominate form, with brownish 
underparts, the specimen being a juvenile indistinguishable from juvenile H. g. 
gularis at ICN from elsewhere in the Colombian Andes as far south as Narino. 

RUSTY-WINGED BARBTAIL Premnornis guttuligera Fairly common in 
montane forest at El Talisman (2), Alto Cantagallos (1; 3) and La Aurora (1; 3). The 
call was sound-recorded, a sharp, high-pitched 0. 1 s tsip falling rapidly in frequency, 
from c.9.5 to c.4.5 kHz, as in Ecuador (Moore et al. 1999). 

SPOTTED BARBTAIL Premnoplex brunnescens Fairly common at Alto 
Honduras (2; 2), El Talisman (1), Alto Cantagallos (seen and sound-recorded; 2), 
Filo Pamplona, La Aurora (5+1, If; 4+3) and La Luchata (5+1; 1+3). Calls we 
recorded are similar to those in Ecuador (Moore et al. 1999). 

PEARLED TREERUNNER Margarornis squamiger Trapped at Alto Cantagallos 
(3; 1), Filo Pamplona (1) and La Aurora (1; 1), and observed at El Talisman (JEAC). 

STRIPED TREEHUNTER Thripadectes holostictus Trapped at Alto Honduras (1, 
at 1,500 m an unusually low elevation for Colombia). Replaced at higher elevations 
by T. flammulatus. 

STREAK-CAPPED TREEHUNTER Thripadectes virgaticeps Recently captured 
at Alto Honduras (0; 1 cf |). Also at Suiata (F. G. Stiles in litt. 2007). 

FLAMMULATED TREEHUNTER Thripadectes flammulatus Trapped at Alto 
Cantagallos (1). 

STREAKED XENOPS Xenops rutilans Sound-recorded at La Aurora. 

TYRANNINE WOODCREEPER Dendrocincla tyrannina Seen at La Aurora, 
tape-recorded below Filo Pamplona (JEAC) and heard at Alto Honduras. 

BROWN-BILLED SCYTHEBILL Campy lorhamphus pusillus Trapped on both 
slopes, at Alto Honduras (1), El Talisman (1; 0), Alto Cantagallos (0; 1) and La 
Aurora (1), and sound-recorded making similar vocalisations to those in Moore et 
al. (1999) from Ecuador. Published records from the west slope of the East Andes 
come only from Perija, adjacent to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, 400 km to the 
north. Also known from various sites on the east slope of the East Andes (Hilty & 
Brown 1 986, Salaman et al. 2002b). Other sites on the west slope include mountains 
north-east of Bucaramanga (07°14'N, 73°05'W; 1,700 m: Avendano 2005), Suaita 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 1 97 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

(F. G Stiles in lift. 2006) and Charala (ICN), and various sites in Cundinamarca 
including laguna de Pedro Palo (ABO 2000; ICN specimens). C. trochilirostris 
replaces this species in Yariguies, at lower elevations (e.g. Montana Pedro Elias: 0; 
If) and in bamboo-dominated secondary habitats at similar elevations. 

UNIFORM ANTSHRIKE Thamnophilus unicolor Present on both slopes, at Alto 
Honduras (1; 1), El Talisman and La Luchata (5+6, If; It)- Published records exist 
from the west slope of the East Andes only north to Cundinamarca (Hilty & Brown 
1986), 250 km to the south, but there are specimens from Charala (ICN) and records 
at Rogitama (R. Chavarro & J. Zuluaga in litt. 2006). Found in scarred primary 
forest and forest-edge in premontane and lower montane cloud forest. T. unicolor 
appears rather similar in its male and female plumages, bill structure, bill- and wing- 
lengths, mass and habitat requirements to montane north-Andean Dysithamnus 
occidentalis and D. leucostictus. We do not doubt that these latter taxa are more 
closely related to D. mentalis than Thamnomanes, as noted by Whitney (1992), but 
further investigation is warranted. 

MATORRAL TAPACULO Scytalopus griseicollis Common in ridgetop, treeline 
and paramo habitat at Alto Cantagallos (0; It), Lepipuerto and Filo Pamplona (2f ), 
being sound-recorded many times. The Yariguies population appears to differ from 
nominate S. griseicollis of the main East Andes by its darker breast, belly, mantle 
and tail, on average longer tail and small vocal differences. An undescribed 
subspecies is involved (Donegan & Avendano ms). 

ASHY-HEADED TYRANNULET Phyllomyias cinereiceps The same individual 
trapped twice, almost two years apart at Alto Cantagallos (1; 1), moulting its tail and 
primaries in November 2006. Known from just two sites in the East Andes (Hilty & 
Brown 1986), near Bucaramanga and Bogota. 

WHITE-TAILED TYRANNULET Mecocerculus poecilocercus Observed in 
mixed-species flocks below Filo Pamplona (c.3,100 m: TMD) and at Alto 
Cantagallos (JEAC). 

RUFOUS-HEADED PYGMY-TYRANT Pseudotriccus ruficeps Fairly common 
at Alto Cantagallos (2; 2+1), Lepipuerto (1) and La Aurora (2). In the East Andes 
reported previously only from the east slope (Salaman et al. 2002b) and recently 
north of Bucaramanga (Avendano 2005). 

STREAK-NECKED FLYCATCHER Mionectes striaticollis columbianus Fairly 
common at El Talisman (4; 1), Alto Cantagallos (If) and La Aurora (2; 0). Replaced 
at lower elevations by M. olivaceus, at Cerro de la Paz (1,300 m: 12+2, If; 13+7), 
Alto Honduras (12) and La Luchata (20). In Cerro de la Paz, Ochre-bellied 
Flycatcher M. oleagineus (1,000 m: 24+6, If; 9 and 1,300 m: sound-recorded; 4) 
was also present. M. striaticollis was unknown on the west slope of the East Andes 
north of Cundinamarca, but has been confirmed along almost the entire east slope 
(Salaman et al. 2002b) and observed at Rogitama (J. Beckers; R. Chavarro in litt. 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 198 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

2006). The lack of records in Serrania de las Quinchas (Stiles et al. 1999, Stiles & 
Bohorquez 2000, Laverde et al. 2005a, Quevedo et al. 2006a) may be due to the 
relatively high elevation to which M. olivaceus extends there. 

RUFOUS-BREASTED FLYCATCHER Leptopogon rufipectus Fairly common at 
El Talisman (1), La Aurora (1+1; 2+1 f) and Alto Cantagallos (0; If). Though Hilty 
& Brown (1986) only noted a handful of East Andean localities, it is widespread at 
montane forest sites, e.g. at Chicaque (TMD, BH) and on the east slope at Pajarito 
and Serrania de los Churumbelos (ICN specimen). 

ORNATE FLYCATCHER Myiotriccus ornatus Common, at Cerro de la Paz 
(1,300 m: 4+1; 2+1), Alto Honduras (7+1), El Talisman (1; If) and Alto Cantagallos 

STREAK-THROATED BUSH-TYRANT Myiotheretes striaticollis One seen and 
video recorded at close quarters at La Luchata (TMD, JEAC). Also at Surata 
(Avendano 2005). Although very few localities are noted in the East Andes by Hilty 
& Brown (1986), the species is sometimes present in degraded habitats and is 
probably widespread. 

SMOKY BUSH-TYRANT Myiotheretes fumigatus Flock of c.8 seen at Lepipuerto 
and mist-netted at Filo Pamplona (1). Also present at Iguaque (C. D. Cadena in litt. 
2006) and Surata (Avendano 2005). It is probably more widespread in remaining 
high-elevation forests in the East Andes, though published records exist only from 
Bogota and Bucaramanga (Hilty & Brown 1986). 

YELLOW-BELLIED CHAT-TYRANT Ochthoeca diadema Common in 
montane forest at Alto Cantagallos (5; 2+1), Lepipuerto (1+1), Filo Pamplona (1 in 
bamboo forest at 3,100 m) and La Aurora (0; 1). 

GOLDEN-CROWNED FLYCATCHER Myiodynastes chrysocephalus Fairly 
common at Cerro de la Paz (1,300 m), Alto Honduras, El Talisman and La Luchata, 
filling an apparently large gap in its range, with published records only from Bogota 
and Bucaramanga (Hilty & Brown 1986). However, there is a specimen from 
Charala (ICN) and sight records at Santa Maria, Mambita (F. G. Stiles in litt. 2006) 
and laguna de Pedro Palo (J. Beckers in litt. 2006), making us suspect that it is 

DUSKY PIHA Lipaugus fuscocinereus Common and sound-recorded in montane 
forest on both slopes, at El Talisman, Alto Cantagallos, Filo Pamplona and La 

GOLDEN-WINGED MANAKIN Masius chrysopterus Common in lower 
montane forest in Yariguies including at Alto Honduras (8+3, If), Bajo Cantagallos 
and El Talisman (3: Fig. 8). The male specimen agrees broadly with those from 
Charala at ICN, which are closest to the M. c. pax group, but possibly represent an 
undescribed race (Salaman et al. 2002b). 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 199 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

BARRED BECARD Pachyramphus versicolor At Alto Cantagallos (TMD 
observation; 1) and a male in a mixed-species flock at La Aurora (TMD). 

BLACK-BILLED PEPPERSHRIKE Cyclarhis nigrirostris Fairly common at 
Alto Honduras (sound-recorded) and El Talisman. 

SHARPE'S WREN Cinnycerthia olivascens Common at Alto Cantagallos (5; 7|), 
Lepipuerto (4), Filo Pamplona and La Aurora (recordings; 2|). C. olivascens is 
known in the East Andes only north to Boyaca (Hilty & Brown 1986), 150 km to 
the south, though Fjeldsa & Krabbe (1990) suggested a more widespread 
distribution and there is an ICN specimen from Cachalu. The Yariguies population 
represents an undescribed subspecies, distinguishable from: (i) C. o. olivascens of 
the Central and West Andes, (ii) more rufous populations of the southern Central 
and East Andes (perhaps C. o. bogotensis: Brumfield & Remsen 1996) and (iii) less 
rufous Santander and Cundinamarca populations (which may alternatively be C. o. 
bogotensis: Brumfield & Remsen 1996), by their darker head and paler throat 
(Avendano & Donegan ms). 

PALE-EYED THRUSH Turdus leucops Four males and a female trapped at La 
Luchata (0; 6+1, 2f both with enlarged gonads), and recently photographed at 
Primavera (C. Turner, M. Sharp & J. C. Luna in litt. 2006). T. leucops has been 
sound-recorded at Cachalu (C. D. Cadena in litt. 2006) but is apparently absent 
elsewhere on the west slope of the East Andes (Hilty & Brown 1986). The lack of 
records in June-July 2005 at La Luchata suggests seasonal (altitudinal?) 
movements, as in some other Neotropical thrushes such as Black Solitaire 
Entomodestes coracinus (Donegan & Davalos 1999), or sensitivity to disturbance 
by a larger expedition team. 

BROWN-BELLIED SWALLOW Notiochelidon murina Common over paramo at 
Lepipuerto on the west slope. Interestingly (given this is typically a species of 
farmland and urban areas), it was found in pristine habitat tens of km from human 
settlements or modified habitat. Strangely, N. murina was not present at similar 
habitat and elevation at Filo Pamplona, where Blue-and-white Swallow 
Pygochelidon cyanoleuca was common (again, interestingly, in remote, pristine 
habitat). These species may originally have been paramo specialists before range 
expansions following human landscape modification. 

NICEFORO'S WREN Thryothorus nicefori Sound-recorded and observed at 
vereda El Alto, near Los Anacos (c. 1,300 m) and finca El Rubi, vereda San Ignacio 
(c. 1,540 m), above Galan, en route to La Luchata and La Aurora, respectively. Also 
observed by JEAC at the first locality on a previous visit and recently mist-netted 
(March 2007) in the Chucuri Valley near San Vicente (J. C. Luna; photograph). Not 
previously reported west of the rio Suarez, though known from San Gil, just 30 km 
away (Renjifo et al. 2002). Although a small range extension, it is important given 
the tiny range and the species' Critically Endangered status (BirdLife International 
2004). Vocalisations comprise combinations of melodic but flat weee and oo notes, 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 200 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

e.g. weeee oo oo oo wee, similar to Rufous-and- white Wren T rufalbus. The wee 
notes are typically of 0.3-0.6 s duration at c. 1.5-2.3 kHz; the oo's each at 0.8-1.2 
kHz and generally shorter (0.1-0.2 s). The species also makes various low-pitched 
and abrupt churrs. A detailed study of the voices and molecular biology of T nicefori 
and T rufalbus is in preparation (J. Parra in lift. 2006). 

BLACK-EARED HEMISPINGUS Hemispingus melanotis At Alto Cantagallos 
(2; 1) and La Aurora (1), contrasting with the greater abundance and wider 
elevational range of H. frontalis (at 2,000-3,000 m on both slopes). H. melanotis 
was known previously in the East Andes only above Bucaramanga and around 
Bogota (Hilty & Brown 1986, ABO 2000), but has also been seen at La Judia (ERB, 
JEAC) and Chicaque (C. D. Cadena in litt. 2006), and collected at Rondon (Santa 
Isabel) in Boyaca (ICN), making us suspect it is more widespread in suitable habitat. 

GOLDEN-CROWNED TANAGER Iridosornis rufivertex Common at Lepipuerto 
(1) and Filo Pamplona (5+3). Reportedly scarce in the East Andes (Hilty & Brown 
1986), but perhaps common in remaining high-elevation habitats elsewhere in 

SAFFRON-CROWNED TANAGER Tangara xanthocephala Observed at El 
Talisman and La Luchata (TMD), and also reported at Zapatoca (Fundacion Natura 
2003). Previously known from the west slope of the East Andes only in the Serrania 
de Perija and north to Cundinamarca, c.350 km apart (Hilty & Brown 1986). This 
relatively widespread forest-edge species is probably continuously distributed in the 
East Andes as it occurs at various sites in the main Andean range in Santander and 
Cundinamarca (JEAC, ERB). 

FLAME-FACED TANAGER Tangara parzudakii Observed at various sites, 
including Alto Honduras (1, immature), El Talisman (where nesting in November 
2006), Primavera (where an ICN specimen was taken by R. Ardila in 1984), Alto 
Cantagallos (0; 1), La Aurora and La Luchata, in secondary forest, scrub and 
primary forest treefall gaps. T. parzudakii was not previously known north of 
Cundinamarca in the East Andes (Hilty & Brown 1986), c.250 km to the south, 
although there is a population in Merida, Venezuela (Isler & Isler 1999). Identified 
as the distinctive nominate form, due to the paler forecrown, compared to lunigera 
of the West Andes. Records at La Aurora (2,700 m) are unusually high. 

GOLDEN-NAPED TANAGER Tangara ruficervix One observed recently in a 
mixed-species flock at El Talisman (JEAC). Few records on either slope of the East 
Andes north of Cundinamarca (Hilty & Brown 1986, Salaman et al. 2002b), but 
recently found at Pedro Palo (J. Beckers in litt. 2006) and there is a specimen from 
an unspecified locality in Santender (LSUMZ 61895). 

METALLIC-GREEN TANAGER Tangara labradorides Observed at forest-edge 
in mixed-species flocks and trapped at some sites: La Aurora (2,700 m), La Luchata 
(JEAC), Alto Honduras (JEAC), El Talisman (0; 1|) and Alto Cantagallos (0; 1). 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 20 1 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

The former represents an unusually high elevation in Colombia. Though only a few 
published records and specimens exist from the East Andes north of Cundinamarca 
(Hilty & Brown (1986), the species is more widespread. In Santander, it has been 
recorded at Reserva El Diviso, above Bucaramanga (Asociacion Santanderana de 
Ornitologia unpubl.), Cachalu (Corredor de Conservation 2006) and Suaita (F. G. 
Stiles in lift. 2006), for example. 

BLACK-CAPPED TANAGER Tangara heinei Fairly common at El Talisman, 
Bajo Cantagallos and La Luchata, generally in premontane second growth and 
forest-edge. Previously known in the East Andes only from Serrania de Perija and 
around Bogota, 250 km south of El Talisman, but it is also common at 1,700 m 
above Bucaramanga and in Parque Nacional Chicamocha, Aratoca, at similar 
elevations (JEAC), with numerous specimens (ICN) from Charala, Suaita 
(Santander), various sites in Cundinamarca, Boyaca and from Pamplona (Norte de 
Santander), and observations at sites including Rogitama (J. Zuluaga & R. Chavarro 
in litt. 2006) and laguna de Pedro Palo (J. Beckers in litt. 2006). These suggest the 
species is widespread in the East Andes. 

HEPATIC TANAGER Pirangaflava Observed in second growth near La Luchata 
in July (TMD, JEAC), and recently recorded in La Judia at 1,400-1,700 m (ERB, 
JEAC) and Parque Nacional Chicamocha, at 1,700 m (JEAC). Not reported in the 
East Andes south of Norte de Santander, 1 00 km north of La Luchata (Hilty & 
Brown 1986, Isler & Isler 1999). The race P. f. faceta, considered present in this 
region (Isler & Isler 1999, Salaman et al. 2001), is known from few sites and 
specimens in Colombia. 

PLUSHCAP Catamblyrhynchus diadema Trapped, bamboo forest below Filo 
Pamplona (1). 

DULL-COLOURED GRASSQUIT Tiaris obscura Fairly common in secondary 
habitats of the west slope. Borrero & Hernandez's (1961) records of T. fuliginosa 
from lowlands adjacent to Yariguies refer to this species (Bates 1997). 

SLATY FINCH Haplospiza rustica At La Luchata (0; 1 d-f) and Alto Cantagallos 
(0; 1 cf). Probably found sporadically in suitable habitat throughout the East Andes, 
with records in Norte de Santander (Rodriguez 1985), La Judia (JEAC), Otanche 
and Santa Maria, Boyaca (ICN specimens), and in Cundinamarca, on the east slope 
(Salaman et al. 2002b). Apparently a wanderer, being unpredictable in its 
occurrence (Salaman et al. 2002b). 

BLACK-AND-WHITE SEEDEATER Sporophila luctuosa Observed on the west 
slope around San Vicente and El Carmen, and reported at Zapatoca (Fundacion 
Natura 2003). 

CITRINE WARBLER Basileuterus luteoviridis luteoviridis Fairly common at 
Lepipuerto (1|, sound-recorded) and uncommon at La Aurora (1|). The most 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 202 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

frequently heard call was a c.l.3-s chattering series of chi notes at c.3-10 kHz, 
increasing in frequency and volume towards the end. 

BLACK-CRESTED WARBLER Basileuterus nigrocristatus Observed in bamboo 
forest below Filo Pamplona (JEAC). Few records, but the species is found at other 
sites including Rogitama (J. Beckers; J. Zuluaga & R. Chavarro in litt. 2006) and 
Surata (JEAC). 

RUSSET-CROWNED WARBLER Basileuterus coronatus Common in 
premontane and montane forest at El Talisman (3; 2), Alto Cantagallos (2; 2), La 
Aurora (4; 2+2, If) and La Luchata (3+4; 5+9). Though Hilty & Brown (1986) 
noted no records north of Boyaca, it has been recorded at various sites in the main 
cordillera in Santander (JEAC, ERB) including Surata (JEAC) and near the 
Boyaca/Santander border in Rogitama (J. Becker; R. Chavarro & J. Zuluaga in litt. 

RUSSET-BACKED OROPENDOLA Psarocolius angustifrons sincipitalis Flocks 
of up to 30 at El Talisman (down to c. 1,700 m), Primavera (M. Sharp photographs), 
Bajo Cantagallos, Plan de Alvarez (900-1,350 m) and below La Aurora (c.2,100 m), 
and sound-recorded at Alto Honduras. Also reported at Landazuri (Fundacion 
Natura 2003). All observed sufficiently well were of the race sincipitalis, due to 
their strong yellow eyebrow. This form is restricted to the East Andes and is 
considered poorly known (Jaramillo & Burke 1999). A broad repertoire of calls is 
given by P. a. sincipitalis, including loud sequences rising rapidly in frequency, and 
low unmusical grunts not dissimilar to those of the montane group elsewhere in 

SCARLET-RUMPED CACIQUE Cacicus uropygialis Up to 15 at El Talisman 
(TMD), Bajo Cantagallos (M. Sharp) and Alto Cantagallos (JEAC); also reported at 
Landazuri (Fundacion Natura 2003) and present in the main cordillera at La Judia 
(ERB, JEAC), but not previously reported north of Cundinamarca on the west slope 
of the East Andes (Hilty & Brown 1986, Renjifo et al. 2002). 

MOUNTAIN CACIQUE Cacicus chrysonotus Common at El Talisman, Alto 
Cantagallos and La Aurora (0; 1), where noisy groups were sound-recorded in 
mixed flocks with Green Jay Cyanocorax yncas and Mountain Grackle 
Macroagelaius subalaris. The most common call involved 0.1 5-s unmusical dup or 
chip notes given singly or in rapid series' of up to five. Each note includes multiple 
overtones or principal notes (e.g. at 2.5, 3.7, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.2 kHz), with those in 
mid-range (e.g. 5.0 kHz) sometimes lasting slightly longer and being stronger, or 
sometimes given in sequences of varying frequency. Replaced at lower elevations 
(e.g. Bajo Simacota) by Yellow-rumped Cacique C. cela. 

YELLOW-BILLED CACIQUE Amblycercus holosericeus australis One 
observed (TMD) and sound-recorded in tall reeds at Lepipuerto. One call recorded 
was chu chu weeeee chrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr (Fig. 3). Another call was a repeated 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 


Bull.B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 


2 8 3 

Figure 3. Sonogram of song of Yellow-billed Cacique Amblycercus holosericeus australis, Lepipuerto, 
Serrania de los Yariguies, January 2005. Recording by TMD. 

waak waak waak waak waak . . . comprising notes at 1 .3-2. 1 kHz, repeated at cA/s. 
The species has a wide repertoire (Jaramillo & Burke 1999), but the former calls are 
somewhat different from those reported for the nominate in Peru (Jaramillo & Burke 
1999, Fjeldsa & Krabbe 1990), though similar to those reported in the Sabana de 
Bogota (ABO 2000). A detailed vocal study is warranted. 

MOUNTAIN GRACKLE Macroagelaius subalaris Rare at Alto Cantagallos (BH), 
eight observed recently above El Talisman (JEAC) and very common at La Aurora. 
Also reported near Zapatoca (Fundacion Natura 2003), with two old specimens 
apparently from 2,750 m in San Vicente de Chucuri (Renjifo et al. 2002). Frequently 
flocked with Mountain Cacique Cacicus chrysonotus and Green Jay Cyanocorax 
yncas. At La Aurora, flocks of up to 30 observed daily and sound-recorded. The 
most common contact calls were short (<0.05 s) monotonous dup noises at 2.8-4.0 
kHz. M. subalaris, like Gorgeted Wood-quail O. strophium, was until recently 
considered amongst the most threatened birds in the world, being known only from 
a few montane forests in Colombia's East Andes, but it has been observed recently 
at several new sites (Cadena et al. 2002, Rodriguez et al. 2005, Velasquez et al. 
2005, Cortes et al. 2006). M. subalaris appears to have a smaller (higher) 
elevational range and thus a smaller geographical range than O. strophium and may 
be subject to higher threat levels. We conservatively estimate the M. subalaris 
population in Yariguies to be at least 1,400 individuals. However, a more detailed 
survey is needed. 

PARAMO SEEDEATER Catamenia homochroa At Filo Pamplona (3). In the East 
Andes reported only from high-elevation sites in Boyaca and Cundinamarca, 150 
km to the south, and from Perija (Hilty & Brown 1986). 

YELLOW-BELLIED SISKIN Carduelis xanthogastra At El Talisman (sound- 
recordings) and observed in forest and second growth below Alto Honduras. 
Supposedly little known in the East Andes, where reported from Norte de Santander 
with old records around Bogota (Hilty & Brown 1986), but also found at Rogitama 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 204 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

(J. Beckers; R. Chavarro in litt. 2006) and la Plazuela, Tona (2,200 m: JEAC; G. 
Moreno in litt. 2006). Common in premontane secondary habitats and is probably 
continuously distributed in the East Andes. 

ORANGE-BELLIED EUPHONIA Euphonia xanthogaster Fairly common at 
Cerro de la Paz at 1,300 m (3; 3|), Alto Honduras (3; 10+4), El Talisman and La 
Luchata (6+3), and also observed at Agua de la Virgen (Donegan et al. 2003). E. 
xanthogaster ranges in the Magdalena lowlands to Puerto Olaya (E. Constantino in 
litt. 2006). Calls recorded in Yariguies included zhurr, zhurr-dit and zhurr-dit-dit, as 
described by Isler & Isler (1999), the zhurr being 0.1 s long at c.3.3-3.7 kHz, and 
the dit comprising a falling then rising whistle at 4.0-6.0 kHz. 

Unusual elevational records 

Several additional unusual elevational records were noted on the basis of a non- 
exhaustive search of major references (Hilty & Brown 1986, Ridgely & Tudor 1989, 
1994, Fjeldsa & Krabbe 1990, Parker et al. 1996, Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, Hilty 
2003) and certain publications containing multiple new elevational records for 
Colombia (Donegan & Davalos 1999, Salaman et al. 1999, Stiles et al. 1999, ABO 
2000, Renjifo et al. 2002, Salaman et al. 2002a,b, Cuervo et al. 2003, Strewe & 
Navarro 2004, Krabbe et al. 2006). None of these records is claimed as 'new' due 
to the sporadic nature of publication of new elevational records and the many 
unpublished records. For each species, the lowest and highest elevational records 
are specified in [], together with the apparently extralimital or unusual elevation at 
which we recorded it. All records relate to trapped and photographed birds unless 
initials are noted, in which case a field observation is involved. Records for 
Colombia are from Hilty & Brown (1986); for Ecuador, Ridgely & Greenfield 
(2001); for Venezuela, Hilty (2003); and for elsewhere, Fjeldsa & Krabbe (1990), 
unless otherwise stated. Only elevational 'extensions' of 200 m+ are presented and 
only records at extralimital elevational sites detailed. We intend to fully detail 
elevational ranges of all species we have recorded on both slopes of Yariguies in a 
future publication. 

Rusty-faced Parrot Hapalopsittaca amazonina [2,000-3,000 m] 1,500 m (at 
Honduras Alto, Primavera and Bajo Cantagallos) and to the species' upper 
elevational limit at Lepipuerto (TMD). Rufous-breasted Hermit Glaucis hirsutus 
[To 1,100 m] 1,300 m (Cerro de la Paz). Band-tailed Barbthroat Threnetes ruckeri 
[To 1,050 m] 1,300 m (Cerro de la Paz). Green-fronted Lancebill Doryfera 
ludovicae [1,400-2,850 m; once to 3,150 m in West Andes: Krabbe et al. 2006]. To 
3,200 m (Filo Pamplona) and down to 500 m (Montana Pedro Elias and Plan de 
Alvarez: JEAC). Green Violetear Colibri thalassinus [600-3,000 m] 3,200 m (Filo 
Pamplona). Speckled Hummingbird Adelomyia melanogenys [1,000-2,500 m; 
3,400 m Ecuador] 2,900 m (Lepipuerto). Buff-tailed Coronet Boissonneaua 
flavescens [1,400-2,800 m; to 3,600 or 4,200 m in Venezuela and 3,150 m in West 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 205 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

Andes: Krabbe et al. 2006] 3,200 m (Filo Pamplona). White-necked Puffbird 
Notharchus hyperrynchus [To 500 m; to 1,200 m in Venezuela and 700 m in Central 
Andes of Colombia: Salaman et al. 2002a] 1,200 m (Cerro de la Paz: BH). 
Beautiful Woodpecker Melanerpes pulcher [To 500 m] To 1,350 m (Cerro de la 
Paz at 1,000 m: TMD, and Plan de Alvarez at 1,000-1,350 m: JEAC). Stripe- 
breasted Spinetail Synallaxis cinnamomea [900-2,100 m] 3,100 m 
(sound-recorded below Filo Pamplona: JEAC). Rusty-winged Barbtail 
Premnornis guttuligera [1,600-2,500 m; to 2,900 m in Venezuela] 2,700 m (La 
Aurora). Spotted Barbtail Premnoplex brunnescens [1,300-2,600 m; or 2,750 m: 
Fjeldsa & Krabbe 1990] 3,100 m (below Filo Pamplona: TMD & JEAC). Montane 
Foliage-gleaner Anabacerthia striaticollis [1,000-2,400 m; 2,600 m Venezuela] 
2,700 m (La Aurora: TMD & JEAC). Lineated Foliage-gleaner Syndactyla 
subalaris [950-2,400 m; 2,600 m Ecuador] 2,700 m (La Aurora). Slaty-winged 
Foliage-gleaner Philydor fuscipenne [To 1,400 m] 1,600 m (Alto Honduras). 
Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus [To 1,550 m; 1,700 m Ecuador; 
2,300 m in Venezuela and Bolivia; 1,800 m in Central Andes: Salaman et al. 2002a] 
2,000 m (El Talisman). Brown-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus pusillus [To 
2,200 m; 2,600 m West Andes: Cuervo et al. 2003, Krabbe et al. 2006] 2,700 m (La 
Aurora). Dot-winged Antwren Microrhopias quixensis [To 1,100 m] 1,300 m 
(Cerro de la Paz: TMD). White-bellied Antpitta Grallaria hypoleuca [1,500-2,500 
m] 2,700 m (sound-recorded La Aurora). Brown-capped Tyrannulet Ornithion 
brunneicapillus [To 900 m; 1,200 m Venezuela] 1,300 m (sound-recorded Cerro de 
la Paz: TMD). Southern Bentbill Oncostoma olivaceum [To 1,000 m] 1,300 m 
(Cerro de la Paz: TMD). Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant Lophotriccus pileatus 
[300-2,300 m] 2,900 m (heard Lepipuerto: TMD). Slate-headed Tody-flycatcher 
Poecilotriccus sylvia [To 1,100 m] 1,350 m (Cerro de la Paz: JEAC). White- 
throated Spadebill Platyrinchus mystaceus [To 2,000 m] 2,400 m (Alto 
Cantagallos). Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Terenotriccus erythrurus [To 900 m; 1,000 
m in Ecuador; 1,200 m: Parker et al. 1996] 1,350 m (Cerro de la Paz: JEAC). 
Green-and-black Fruiteater Pipreola riefferii [1,500-2,700 m; 3,050 m Venezuela 
and exceptionally 3,300 m Ecuador] 3,200 m (Filo Pamplona). Song Wren 
Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus [To 1,000 m] 1,300 m (heard Cerro de la Paz (TMD) 
and trapped below this). Half-collared Gnatwren Microbates cinereiventris [To 
900 m; 1,200 m elsewhere: Parker et al. 1996] 1,300 m (Cerro de la Paz: TMD, and 
trapped below this). Crimson-backed Tanager Ramphocelus dimidiatus [To 1,700 
m; to 2,600 m Bogota: ABO 2000] 2,000 m (El Talisman where recently mist- 
netted: J. C. Luna in litt. 2006). Common Bush-tanager Chlorospingus 
ophthalmicus [1,000-2,700 m; to 3,000 m Venezuela] 3,200 m (Filo Pamplona). 


To date, we have recorded over 450 bird species in Serrania de los Yariguies. A 
surprising number represent significant range or elevational extensions. Threatened 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 


Bull.B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 207 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 12 7(3) 

species have been discussed elsewhere and include four species rated Critically 
Endangered at the time of our study: Odontophorus strophium, Macroagelaius 
subalaris, Thryothorus nicefori and Amazilia castaneiventris . Two of these (0. 
strophium and M. subalaris) have been downgraded to Endangered (or are proposed 
for such) due to the discovery of healthy populations in Yariguies and elsewhere. 
Several new taxa including Atlapetes latinuchus yariguierum, at least three new 
Scytalopus taxa and new subspecies of Grallaricula nana, Cinnycerthia olivascens, 
Synallaxis unirufa and Anisognathus lacrymosus have been or will be described in 
the near future. 

The number of new distributional records presented herein demonstrates the 
essentially unexplored nature of Yariguies prior to our studies. It is surprising that 
so many undescribed taxa and new distributional records should be encountered 
c.100 km from the headquarters of the government's biological collection and 
research arm, Instituto Alexander von Humboldt (IAVH), or just four hours' travel 
from Bogota. Yariguies is relatively safe, particularly in the San Vicente and El 
Carmen regions, though negative misconceptions involving past guerrilla activity 
pervade the public consciousness in Colombia. 

The avifauna of lower elevations of Yariguies includes elements shared with the 
Choco / Nechi Endemic Bird Areas, the latter of Critical conservation priority 
(Stattersfield et al. 1998). Many species we found at such elevations are also present 
in lowland forests of northern Antioquia, south Bolivar (Salaman & Donegan 2001, 
Salaman et al. 2002), and Serrania de las Quinchas in Boyaca (Quevedo et al. 
2006a). The premontane fauna is likewise essentially similar to that of Serrania de 
las Quinchas (Stiles et al. 1999, Stiles & Bohorquez 2000, Laverde et al. 2005a). 

The montane and paramo fauna of Yariguies was the most interesting. As might 
be expected, the majority of species are shared with montane East Andes sites such 
as Cachalu / Charala, Surata, Rogitama and La Judia. At least four undescribed 
endemic subspecies appear to be restricted to Yariguies: of Scytalopus griseicollis, 
Synallaxis unirufa, Cinnycerthia olivascens and Anisognathus lacrymosus. A further 
undescribed Scytalopus (not discussed in detail herein) may also be a Yariguies 

Captions to plates on opposite page 

Figure 4. Tawny-bellied Hermit Phaethornis syrmatophorus syrmatophorus, El Talisman, Serrania de los 

Yariguies, January 2003 (Thomas M. Donegan/Proyecto EBA) 

Figure 5. Red-headed Barbet Eubucco bourcieri, Primavera, Serrania de los Yariguies, February 2006 

(M. Sharp/Proyecto YARE) 

Figure 6. Lacrimose Mountain-tanager Anisognathus lacrymosus subsp. nov., Filo Pamplona, Serrania de 

los Yariguies, July 2005 (Blanca Huertas/Proyecto YARE) 

Figure 7. White-chinned Thistletail Schizoeaca fuliginosa, Filo Pamplona, Serrania de los Yariguies, 

January 2006 (Blanca Huertas/Proyecto YARE) 

Figure 8. Golden-winged Manakin Masius chrysopterus, El Talisman, Serrania de los Yariguies, January 

2003 (Thomas M. Donegan/Proyecto EBA) 

Figure 9. Black-winged Saltator Saltator atripennis caniceps, La Luchata, Serrania de los Yariguies. June 

2005 (Blanca Huertas/Proyecto YARE) 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 208 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

endemic (Donegan & Avendano ms). Such endemisms, if confirmed, may be due to 
the geographical isolation of the Yariguies massif above 2,500 m. 

A handful of the Yariguies montane avifauna present counter-intuitive and 
unexplained biogeographical affinities. In particular, Phaethornis s. syrmatophorus, 
Grallaricula nana subsp. and a Three-striped Warbler Basileuterus tristriatus subsp. 
(Salaman et al 2002a) each range across the Central Andes and Yariguies, but are 
replaced by different subspecies on the east slope of the East Andes. The presence 
of multiple 'subspecies' in Santander and Norte de Santander that replace one 
another on different slopes, but which have wide ranges elsewhere is a situation also 
postulated for Grey-breasted Wood- wren Henicorhina leucophrys (Brewer 2001) 
and Slaty Brush-finch Atlapetes schistaceus (Paynter 1972), whilst up to three 
Common Bush-tanager Chlorospingus ophthalmicus races are considered present in 
Santander and Norte de Santander (Isler & Isler 1999). The similarities between 
disjunct Central and East Andes populations are borne out by specimens and, in 
some cases, vocalisations. Yariguies populations allied to Central Andes populations 
could be relicts, the result of relatively recent colonisations between Andean ranges, 
or might indicate that the species concerned have or formerly possessed wider and 
continuous ranges to the south in the Central and East Andes. Such taxa and patterns 
require further investigation. 

Following recent studies (Stiles et al. 1999, Stiles & Bohorquez 2000, ABO 
2000, Salaman et al. 2002b, Laverde et al. 2005a, Quevedo et al. 2006a) and this 
paper, the avifauna of the East Andes is much better known than it was 20 years ago, 
on the west slope from Cundinamarca north to Santander and most of the east slope 
to Norte de Santander, from sea level to over 3,000 m. Attention must now focus on 
the Perija range, the northernmost extension of the East Andes, which has barely 
been subject to detailed study and which almost certainly harbours undescribed 
taxa, subspecies that are strong candidates for species rank, and new distributional 
records in its dwindling and threatened forests. 


We thank the rest of the EBA Project and YARE Project teams, John Arias, Martin Donegan, Cristobal 
Rios, Laura Rosado and Diana Villanueva, and local guides Jose Pinto, Alonso Macias, Hernando 
Figueroa, Abelardo Pimiento, Rafael Torres, Father James Mitchell, Father Mesias and Hernan & Juan 
Fajardo. Juan Carlos Luna, Clare Turner and Mike Sharp kindly provided photographs and additional 
records. Jiirgen Beckers, C. Daniel Cadena, Roberto Chavarro, Emilio Constantino, Mateo Hernandez, 
Gregorio Moreno, Bill Porteous, Loreta Rosselli, F. Gary Stiles and Johana Zuluaga kindly permitted 
mention of unpublished records or submitted such to DATAves (2006). C. Daniel Cadena, Guy Kirwan 
and F. Gary Stiles commented on and improved the manuscript. The late Paul Coopmans, Andres Cuervo, 
Niels Krabbe, Mark Robbins and Stefan Woltmann helped identify some voices. John Bates assisted our 
discussion of Tiaris fuliginosus and Jason Weckstein Ramphastos. Sjoerd Mayer. Daniel Mennill, Robin 
Carter, Weber Girao, Stefan Woltmann and Ciro Albano kindly permitted reference to sound-recordings. 
CAS (resolution no. 832 of 2004, with thanks to Alvaro Prada, Armando Rodriguez and Hector Lamo), 
Corporacion Autonoma Regional para la Defensa de la Meseta de Bucaramanga-CDMB (Hernando 
Guevara), and the mayors of San Vicente de Chucuri, Galan and El Carmen and sub-mayoralty of Yarima 
provided permissions for field work, the former including a collecting permit. Robert Prys-Jones, Mark 
Adams & Douglas Russell (Natural History Museum, Tring), Enrique Castillo & Fernando Forero 

Thomas M. Donegan et al. 209 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

(Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Colombia), Jose Gregorio Moreno Patino (Universidad Industrial de 
Santander), Roque Casallas & Arturo Rodriguez (Universidad de la Salle), Ray Symonds (University 
Museum of Zoology, Cambridge University, UK), Miguel Lentino (Coleccion Ornitologica Phelps, 
Caracas), F. Gary Stiles (Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional), German Gomez 
(Universidad del Cauca, Popayan) and J. F. & C. Voisin (Musee National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris) 
provided access to specimens. The EBA and YARE expeditions were supported by: the Royal 
Geographical Society, BP Conservation Programme (BirdLife International, Conservation International, 
Flora & Fauna International, Wildlife Conservation Society), Fondo para Accion Ambiental, Fundacion 
Omacha, Conservation International Colombia (Becas Iniciativa de Especies Amenazadas — Jorge 
Ignacio 'El Mono' Hernandez-Camacho), Rio Tinto pic, Duke of Edinburgh, the Percy Sladen Memorial 
Fund (Linnean Society), Fundacion ProAves, Game Conservancy Trust, World Pheasant Association, 
Tropical Andean Butterflies Diversity Project, Carter Ecological, Universidad Industrial de Santander, 
Universidad de Caldas, Universidad de Tolima and Gobernacion de Santander. IdeaWild and The 
Explorers Club provided equipment for JEAC. TMD's work with Myiophobus pulcher in Tambito in 
1997-98 was assisted by Dan Davison, Liliana Davalos et al. and supported by Christ's College of 
Cambridge University, a J. W. Bennett Award, a G R. N. Minchin Award and a Donald Robertson Award. 


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© British Ornithologists' Club 2007 

New distributional and other bird records from 
Tatama Massif, West Andes, Colombia 

by Maria Angela Echeverry-Galvis & 
Sergio Cordoba-Cordoba 

Received 14 June 2006 

The West Andes of Colombia have received comparatively little ornithological 
attention (Proyecto Biomap & Instituto Humboldt 2004). Avian inventories are 
available for a number of localities in dptos. Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Cauca and 
Narino (e.g. Echeverri 1986, Negret 1994, Salaman 1994, Hilty 1997, Donegan & 
Davalos 1999, Cuervo et al. 2003, Krabbe et al. 2004). In recent years, several 

M. A. Echeverry-Galvis & S. Cordoba-Cordoba 214 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

previously undescribed bird species have been discovered in this cordillera (e.g. 
Salaman & Stiles 1996, Robbins & Stiles 1999) and many range extensions have 
been noted (e.g. Salaman 1994, Donegan & Davalos 1999, Cuervo et al. 2003, 
Downing & Hickman 2004, Krabbe et al. 2006). The efforts of others, e.g. G. Kattan 
(Kattan et al. 1994) and H. Alvarez (Stiles & Alvarez-Lopez 1995), have also 
brought a better understanding of some species' ranges. Ornithological surveys in 
the vicinity of Tatama National Natural Park have been few, though dating from 
1909 (Hellmayr 1911), more recently to the north at Alto de Pisones, on the west 
slope in dpto. Risaralda (Salaman & Stiles 1996, Stiles 1998), and fmca 
Providencia, municipality of Pueblo Rico, dpto. Risaralda, below the park limits 
(SC-C unpubl.). However, no ornithological surveys have been conducted within 
the park (Franco & Bravo 2005). 

Seventeen Important Bird Areas (IBAs) have been delimited on both slopes of 
the West Andes (Boyla & Estrada 2005), including five national natural parks, but 
protected areas are patchily distributed and do not cover a complete altitudinal 
gradient. Many are subject to deforestation and illegal colonisation, making 
conservation action even more urgent. Mid elevations on the west slope of the West 
Andes (mainly 500-1,800 m) urgently require effective conservation, as many 
Pacific-slope endemics (at least 67) favour this altitudinal range (Cordoba 2001). 
Forest habitats are declining at an alarming rate on the west slope of the Andes and 
in adjacent lowlands. Infrastructural developments such as the proposed highway to 
the Pacific port of Nuqui-Tribuga (in the Choco lowlands) threaten to increase such 
deforestation. Bird populations are being fragmented, especially on montane slopes, 
whilst our knowledge of the distributions, biology and ecology of endemics and 
threatened species in the region is poor, making appropriate conservation measures 
impossible to design with confidence. 

The 'Grupo de Exploration y Monitoreo Ambiental' (GEM A) of the Instituto de 
Investigation de Recursos Biologicos Alexander von Humboldt (IAvH), as part of 
the 'Conservation y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad de los Andes Colombianos' 
project, conducted biological inventories on 21-29 August 2004 in Tatama National 
Natural Park, dpto. Risaralda. A total 45.8 man-hours of observations and 
recordings, and 1,184 mist-net/hours were conducted during bird surveys 
exclusively in forest. Of the 116 species of 31 families identified, tanagers, followed 
by flycatchers and hummingbirds, were the commonest groups. All sound- 
recordings have been deposited in the Banco de Sonidos Animales (BSA-IAvH), 
skins and spirits in the 'Coleccion de Vertebrados Jorge Hernandez-Camacho' 
(IAvH), Villa de Leyva, Boyaca, and tissue samples at the 'Banco de Tejidos' 
(IAvH), Palmira Facility, Valle del Cauca. 

We present new geographical or altitudinal records, confirmation of presence for 
some species, and comments on taxa endemic to the West Andes or threatened 
species. A complete list of all species recorded will be published elsewhere and is 
available on request from the authors. Taxonomy and nomenclature follow Remsen 
et al. (2006). 

M. A. Echeverry-Galvis & S. Cordoba-Cordoba 2 1 5 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 12 7(3) 

Study sites 

Two localities were surveyed in Tatama National Natural Park, dpto. Risaralda, 
municipality of Pueblo Rico, vereda La Cumbre. High- Andean montane forest 
covers the area, with evidence of some selective logging and hunting. The first site 
was accessed by a 20-minute drive from the refuge at Planes de San Rafael Nature 
Reserve (municipality of Santuario), north to quebrada Risaralda, followed by a 
one-hour walk upslope. The second site was two hours walk from the first, along the 
mountain ridge to 2,650 m. 

Site 1 (05°09'N, 76°01'W) is on the west slope of the West Andes, at 
2,200-2,400 m, near the ridge and c.20 km from Santuario municipality. Continuous 
forest covers the steep terrain (20-30° slopes), the understorey is not dense, reaching 
9-12 m high, with a 15-18 m-high canopy, and emergents up to 30 m. Some of the 
commonest families are Meliaceae, Lecythidacea, Cunnoniaceae, Sabiaceae, 
Clusiacea and Hippocastanaceae (A. Prieto in lift. 2006). 

Site 2 (05°08'N, 76°02'W) lies on the ridge at 2,600-2,800 m and c.25 km from 
Santuario municipality. Continuous forest covers the rather gentler slopes at this 
site. Floristic composition and vegetation structure were very similar in general to 
Tatama site 1, but with a denser understorey and taller canopy of up to 20-24 m (A. 
Prieto in litt. 2006). 

Major range extensions 

WHITE-THROATED SCREECH-OWL Megascops albogularis 
Heard at both sites and occasionally near Planes de San Rafael refuge, at 2,000 m, 
during the late afternoon. Previously reported in the West Andes in dpto. Cauca 
(Hilty & Brown 1986) and at Paramo de Frontino, dpto Antioquia (Krabbe et al. 
2006), respectively c.250 km south and c.150 north of our study site. 

RUFOUS-BANDED OWL Ciccaba albitarsis 

Two observed and sound-recorded pre-dawn at site 1 . Previously known in the West 
Andes at Cerro Munchique and Tambito, dpto. Cauca (Hilty & Brown 1986, 
Donegan & Davalos 1999), and at Paramo de Frontino (Krabbe et al. 2006), c.290 
and c.150 km from Tatama. Our record closes the gap between these localities, 
suggesting a more continuous distribution in the West Andes. 

FAWN-BREASTED BRILLIANT Heliodoxa rubinoides 

A male and juvenile collected at site 1 . Very few localities in the West Andes, one 
just above Cali (Hilty & Brown 1986), and common in Tambito Nature Reserve and 
on the adjacent east slope in Cauca (Donegan & Davalos 1999). Recently recorded 
in south-west Antioquia, in the municipality of Caicedo (Cuervo et al. 2003). Our 
record closes the c.450-km gap between the Valle and Antioquia records, suggesting 
the species' range is continuous in the West Andes. 

M. A. Echeverry-Galvis & S. Cordoba-Cordoba 2 1 6 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 12 7(3) 

TOURMALINE SUNANGEL Heliangelus exortis 

Several trapped and tape-recorded at site 2. Two males, a female and two unsexed 
individuals were collected. Like the previous species, previously known in this 
cordillera from sites in Valle del Cauca (Hilty & Brown 1986), Cauca (Donegan & 
Davalos 1999) and Antioquia (Cuervo et al. 2003, Krabbe et al. 2006). Again, our 
record fills a c.450-km gap and suggests a continuous range in the West Andes. 

TYRIAN METALTAIL Metallura tyrianthina 

Observed at site 1, and sound-recorded and trapped at site 2, with a male and 
juvenile collected. Previously known from sites c.150 km to the north in Antioquia 
(Hilty & Brown 1986, Krabbe et al. 2006) and c.290 km south in Cauca (Hilty & 
Brown 1986, Donegan & Davalos 1999). 

LONG-TAILED SYLPH Aglaiocercus kingi 

A. kingi was common at 2,650 m, with several mist-netted, of which a male with a 
brood patch and female were collected. At site 1, A. coelestis was common (and a 
female collected), but A. kingi was not recorded there, suggesting that they replace 
each other between the two sites. Nearby, mainly below 2,000 m, A. coelestis was 
also common at fmca Providencia, Pueblo Rico (05°10'N, 76°04'W) (SC-C 
unpubl.). Although the species' presence has long been suspected throughout the 
West Andes, published records exist only from dptos. Narino north to Valle del 
Cauca, and in Antioquia (Hilty & Brown 1986, Donegan & Davalos 1999, Cuervo 
et al. 2003). 

WHITE-FACED NUNBIRD Hapaloptila castanea 

This rare puffbird was recorded at both sites; most observations involved singles 
perched inconspicuously. More frequent at site 1, where a group of three was 
observed in the subcanopy, giving short hoot-like calls and flying short distances 
(5-10 m). More conspicuous at dawn by voice, but may sing all day. H. castanea 
has been reported at 750-2,400 m on the west slope of the cordillera, with records 
at low passes on the east slope (Hilty & Brown 1986), and is also local and 
uncommon in Ecuador (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001). Hilty & Brown (1986) depict 
a continuous distribution in the West Andes, but all published localities are in dptos. 
Antioquia, Cauca and Narino (Miller 1963), with the only recent record in 
Munchique, where it was considered rare (Negret 1994). Our discovery represents 
an upslope range extension of c.200 m. 

PEARLED TREERUNNER Margarornis squamiger 

A female with a furcular full of fat deposit and an unsexed individual collected at 
site 2. Previously reported for this cordillera from Paramo de Frontino, north-west 
Antioquia (Krabbe et al. 2006), the municipality of Jardin, on the east slope in the 
same department (Cuervo et al. 2003), and Tambito Natural Reserve, dpto. Cauca 
(Donegan & Davalos 1999). Ours is the first record for dpto. Risaralda. 

M. A. Echeverry-Galvis & S. Cordoba-Cordoba 2 1 7 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 12 7(3) 

BICOLOURED ANTVIREO Dysithamnus occidentalis 

Four tape-recorded and observed at site 1 , whilst four others were trapped and two 
more escaped from the mist-net. At site 2, three males, two females and a juvenile 
were collected (the juvenile, a female and male were trapped together). All showed 
evidence of body- and wing-feather moult. Poorly known in Colombia, the species 
has been reported in the south-west, from dpto. Valle del Cauca south to Narino and 
Ecuador (Renjifo et al. 2002). In Ecuador, subspecies punctipectus is present at 
1,000-1,600 m on the west slope of the Cordillera del Condor (Agreda et al. 2005). 
Taxonomy and relationships unclear; the species was previously placed in 
Thamnomanes, or as a subspecies of Thamnophilus aethiops (Remsen et al. 2006), 
whilst its biological and ecological requirements are also largely unknown. Parker 
et al. (1996) considered it of conservation concern, and BirdLife International 
(2004) and Renjifo et al. (2002) as Vulnerable at global and national levels, despite 
the paucity of data. Our records represent a northward range extension of c.200 km 
in Colombia and an altitudinal range extension of c.400 m. 

SCHWARTZ'S ANTTHRUSH Chamaeza turdina 

At least two tape-recorded and seen in dense understory on all days at site 1, 
responding to playback. The species is easily identified and more regularly 
encountered by voice. Natural vocalisations were most frequently heard early 
morning. It was also heard at dawn near the refuge at Planes de San Rafael, on the 
east slope of this cordillera. Ours are the first records for the West Andes and 
confirm its presence on both slopes of the cordillera. 

RUFOUS ANTPITTA Grallaria rufula 

A female collected at site 1 resembles nominate rufula in plumage and thus 
individuals from the East Andes (Hilty & Brown 1986). However, subspecies (and 
species) limits in G. rufula are under discussion. Previously known in the West 
Andes only from northern Antioquia (Hilty & Brown 1986, Krabbe et al. 2006), 
c.200 km to the north, and c.200 km to the south at Farallones de Cali, Valle del 
Cauca (Hilty & Brown 1986). 

BARRED FRUITEATER Pipreola arcuata 

One seen in the subcanopy, and a male and female collected together at site 2. Both 
had enlarged and active gonads, with a visible brood patch. The female had no 
atrisic follicles and much greater furcular and flank fat deposits. Nearest records are 
from Munchique, dpto. Cauca, c.290 km to the south (Hilty & Brown 1986), and 
Las Orquideas National Natural Park, c.130 km to the north (Echeverri 1986). 

Three sound-recorded and observed at site 1, which becomes the third known 
locality in the West Andes and represents a range extension of c. 1 70 km to the south 
from Las Orquideas National Natural Park (Echeverri 1986) and c.150 km from 
Paramo de Frontino (Krabbe et al. 2006). 

M. A. Echeverry-Galvis & S. Cordoba-Cordoba 2 1 8 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

RUFOUS-HEADED PYGMY-TYRANT Pseudotriccus ruficeps 
Mist-netted at both sites and two were collected. Tape-recorded giving short trills 
and bill-snaps, presumably in group contact or territorially. Found in forest 
understorey, mainly in vegetation less than 1 m high with ground cover almost 
100% ferns. Records for the West Andes are from Cauca (Donegan & Davalos 
1999), Valle del Cauca (Hilty & Brown 1986) and Antioquia (Cuervo et al. 2003, 
Krabbe et al. 2006). Our records represent a midpoint in the species' range in the 
cordillera, where it is probably continuously distributed. 

SMOKY BUSH-TYRANT Myiotheretes fumigatus 

Singles observed and tape-recorded at both sites, on exposed branches near the 
canopy in a small forest clearing on the ridge, or on a taller emergent on a steep 
slope. Our records represent a northerly range extension of c.300 km from Cauca 
(Hilty & Brown, 1986) and c.150 km from Paramo de Frontino, Antioquia (Krabbe 
et al. 2006). 

CITRINE WARBLER Basileuterus luteoviridis 

One collected at site 2 and another four escaped from the mist-net. Previously 
known from the West Andes at Paramo de Frontino, Antioquia, and Munchique, 
Cauca (Hilty & Brown, 1986). Tatama is c.150 km south of Frontino and c.290 km 
north of Munchique, suggesting the species is more continuously distributed 
through the cordillera, albeit restricted to high-elevation remnant forests above 
2,000 m. Probably very local, as at several sites in the Central and East Andes it is 
abundant at some sites but almost absent from others nearby (MAE-G & SC-C pers. 


Five were seen in a mixed-species flock along with other tanagers at site 1. 
Previously known to 1,800 m (Hilty & Brown, 1986), our record increases its 
altitudinal range by c.400 m. 

RED-HOODED TANAGER Piranga rubriceps 

One observed in a mixed-species flock in treetops at site 1. Previous records are 
from Cauca (Donegan et al. 2002), Valle del Cauca (Hilty & Brown 1986) and 
Antioquia (Cuervo et al. 2003, Krabbe et al. 2006). 

RUFOUS-CRESTED TANAGER Creurgops verticalis 

One was observed foraging mainly in treetops at site 1. Scattered records are 

available from the Central and West Andes (Hilty & Brown 1986), in Narino, Valle 

del Cauca and north-west Antioquia in the latter cordillera. Echeverri (1986) 

collected a male in the southern part of Frontino, in Las Orquideas National Natural 

Park, but neither Cuervo et al. (2003) or Krabbe et al. (2006) recorded the species 


M. A. Echeverry-Galvis & S. Cordoba-Cordoba 2 1 9 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

YELLOW-THROATED BUSH-TAN AGER Chlorospingus flavigularis 
One seen at close range, foraging for insects on small branches, leaves and an 
inflorescence, at site 1 . Previously recorded in the northernmost West Andes on the 
upper rio Sinu (c.250 km to the north) (Hilty & Brown 1986) and Las Orquideas 
National Natural Park (c.160 km) (Echeverri 1986); and c.125 km to the south in 
Valle del Cauca, and south to Narino (Hilty & Brown 1986). Recorded to 1,650 m 
(Las Orquideas), thus our observation closes the gap between these records and is 
an altitudinal extension of c.600 m in the West Andes. The race concerned was 
probably C. / marginatus, due to the extent of yellow on the throat-sides, but 
confirmation is lacking. 

PLUSH-CAPPED FINCH Catamblyrhynchus diadema 

Mist-netted in dense bamboo at both sites, a range extension of c.200 km from Valle 
del Cauca to the south (Hilty & Brown 1986) and c.150 km from Paramo de 
Frontino to the north (Krabbe et al. 2006). 

TANAGER-FINCH Oreothraupis arremonops 

Four were observed, tape-recorded and mist-netted at site 2, and a male and juvenile 
were collected. According to Renjifo et al. (2002), this species is known in 
Colombia from Antioquia, c. 1 60 km north of our study site, and in Valle del Cauca, 
Cauca and Narino, the first c.200 km to the south. In Colombia, Tanager-fmch is 
mainly observed in national natural parks or protected areas of mature forest, 
suggesting it is sensitive to disturbance. It is endemic to the western slope of the 
West Andes and the main Andean range, south to Pichincha and Imbabura, Ecuador 
(BirdLife International 2004). Due to habitat loss, the species is considered 
Vulnerable globally and nationally (Renjifo et al. 2002, BirdLife International 

SLATY FINCH Haplospiza rustica 

Six mist-netted at site 1 (two males, one subadult and three females); a female 
collected had an egg in formation in the upper oviduct. According to Sanchez 
(2005), the species is strongly tied to seeding bamboo Chusquea, which seems to 
regulate its breeding period, but the bamboo in Tatama was not clearly in seed. The 
species' range in Colombia is poorly known, perhaps due to its unpredictable 
occurrences (Salaman et al. 2002), but it occurs in all three Cordilleras. For the West 
Andes, it has been recorded in Valle del Cauca and Cauca, c.200 km south of 
Tatama, with observations at Cerro Munchique and Tambito (Hilty & Brown 1986, 
Donegan & Davalos 1999). 

Minor range extensions 

White-throated Quail-dove Geotrygon frenata. — Tape-recorded and seen at both 
sites, G frenata was common at site 1. The Tatama Massif appears to be its 
northernmost limit in this cordillera, where it mainly occurs below 2,500 m (in the 

M. A. Echeverry-Gahis & S. Cordoba-Cordoba 220 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

Central Andes, there is a record at 3,300 m from Parque Regional Natural Ucumari). 
The species' altitudinal and geographic range is surely more continuous. Andean 
Pygmy-owl Glaucidium jardinii. — A male in heavy body- and flight-feather moult 
and with fully ossified skull was collected at site 1. Measurements and general 
coloration corresponded to G jardinii rather than the recently described G. nubicola 
(Robbins & Stiles 1999). In the West Andes known from Cerro Torra (50 km to the 
south) (Hilty & Brown 1986), and in Cauca and Antioquia (Donegan & Davalos 
1999, Krabbe et al. 2006). Mottled Owl Ciccaba virgata. — Seen and sound- 
recorded pre-dawn at site 1 . Typically found in the Central Andes below 2,000 m 
(Hilty & Brown, 1986), making our record a small altitudinal extension, to 2,200 m. 
A more continuous distribution to the north seems likely. Speckle-faced Parrot 
Pionus tumultuosus . — Pairs observed in flight twice at site 1 and once at site 2, the 
second locality in the West Andes, after that in Antioquia (Cuervo et al. 2003). 
Chestnut-collared Swift Streptoprocne rutila. — Flocks over site 1 and the steep 
valley of quebrada Risaralda. Few localities in the West Andes, though perhaps 
more common than appears in the literature, and is probably continuously 
distributed through the entire range. Green Violet-ear Colibri thalassinus. — Two 
tape-recorded near the treeline at site 1. As noted by Cuervo et al. (2003), probably 
largely restricted to the east slope in this cordillera, only occasionally penetrating to 
the west via low passes, e.g. just north of Tatama and at Tambito, Cauca (Donegan 
& Davalos 1999). Masked Trogon Trogon personatus. — Several seen and tape- 
recorded at both sites, but more abundant at 2,650 m. In the West Andes mainly to 
2,500 m (Echeverri 1986, Hilty & Brown 1986), once to 3,300 m (Krabbe et al. 
2006). Striped Treehunter Thripadectes holostictus. — Several tape-recorded and 
one seen at close range at site 1 . In the West Andes, until recently considered to 
reach north only to dpto. Cauca (Hilty & Brown 1986), but since found near Jerico, 
c.80 km from Tatama (Cuervo et al. 2003), and Paramo de Frontino (Krabbe et al. 
2006). Streak-capped Treehunter T. virgaticeps was also recorded at both sites, 
being commoner than T. holostictus at site 1 . Uniform Antshrike Thamnophilus 
unicolor. — Frequently sound-recorded at site 1 . Observed alone or in flocks of up 
to five. Probably more widespread in the West Andes than known. Chestnut-naped 
Antpitta Grallaria nuchalis. — Several responded vigorously to playback and were 
observed and tape-recorded at site 2. Third locality in the West Andes, after those in 
Antioquia (Cuervo et al. 2003, Krabbe et al. 2006). Appears rather less common at 
Tatama than in the Central Andes at 2,200-3,000 m. Slate-crowned Antpitta 
Grallaricula nana. — Several tape-recorded, observed and mist-netted at site 2. 
Three collected were all in heavy moult of flight- and body-feathers, and some 
juveniles still had vinaceous-rufous down feathers. Known from Valle del Cauca 
(Hilty & Brown 1986) and Antioquia (Cuervo et al. 2003, Krabbe et al. 2006), our 
record suggests a more continuous distribution in the West Andes. Ocellated 
Tapaculo Acropternis orthonyx. — Two tape-recorded and one observed at site 2, the 
third locality for the West Andes after those in Antioquia (Cuervo et al. 2003, 
Krabbe et al. 2006). Black-capped Tyrannulet Phyllomyias nigrocapillus . — 

M. A. Echeverry-Galvis & S. Cordoba-Cordoba 221 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

Several tape-recorded and two collected, of which a male was in heavy moult in the 
flight- feathers, at site 2. Tatama represents a midpoint in its range, with records to 
the north from three localities in Antioquia (Cuervo et al. 2003, Krabbe et al. 2006), 
and to the south in Valle del Cauca. Flavescent Flycatcher Myiophobus 
flavicans. — Individuals and pairs observed at site 1, regularly joining mixed-species 
flocks on the ridge. Reported by Cuervo et al. (2003) at nearby Alto de Pisones and 
further north in Antioquia, and to the south known from northern Valle del Cauca 
and Cauca. Yellow-bellied Chat-tyrant Ochthoeca diadema. — Mist-netted and 
tape-recorded at both sites, and two collected. Reported for Narino and Valle del 
Cauca, c.200 km to the south, and to the north in Antioquia (Echeverri 1986, Cuervo 
et al. 2003, Krabbe et al. 2006). Pale-edged Flycatcher Myiarchus cephalotes. — 
Two observed and tape-recorded at forest borders between quebrada Risaralda and 
upslope towards site 1 . More common than previously noted in the West Andes, it 
probably favours forest edges and streams on slopes (Cuervo et al. 2003). Sharpe's 
Wren Cinnycerthia olivascens. — Groups seen and tape-recorded foraging in the 
understorey, sometimes in small stands of Chusquea, at both sites, and common in 
mixed-species flocks. Scattered reports in the West Andes (Echeverri 1986, Hilty & 
Brown 1986, Cuervo et al. 2003, Krabbe et al. 2006). Chestnut-breasted Wren 
Cyphorhinus thoracicus. — Family groups of 3+ tape-recorded at site 1, and two 
collected at site 2. Previous records in the West Andes are for dptos. Valle del Cauca 
and Cauca to the south, Alto de Pisones, Risaralda (Cuervo et al. 2003) and Las 
Orquideas, Antioquia (Echeverri 1986). White-capped Tanager Sericossypha 
albocristata. — Tape-recorded and observed at both sites in groups of 4-12. Hilty & 
Brown (1986) noted its presence only in the Central and East Andes, but since found 
at two localities in Antioquia (Cuervo et al. 2003, Krabbe et al. 2006). Suitable 
habitat exists both north and south of Tatama and the species may occur throughout 
much of the cordillera in montane forest. Grey-hooded Bush-tanager 
Cnemoscopus rubrirostris. — Observed, mostly in mixed-species flocks, in the 
treetops and subcanopy at site 2; rarely in lower strata. A male with an active brood 
patch collected. Sparsely distributed in all three ranges with, in the West Andes, 
records from Cauca (Hilty & Brown 1986) and Antioquia (Echeverri 1986, Cuervo 
et al. 2003, Krabbe et al. 2006). Black-capped Hemispingus Hemispingus 
atropileus. — A group observed at site 1 and, at site 2, four were captured, of which 
a female and subadult were collected. Previously reported in the West Andes in 
Cauca, at Munchique c.290 km south, and Antioquia c.65 km to the north (Donegan 
& Davalos 1999, Echeverri 1986, Cuervo et al. 2003, Krabbe et al. 2006). 
Mountain Cacique Cacicus chrysonotus . — Observed and tape-recorded at site 2, 
foraging in small mixed-species flocks. Previously reported in the south of the 
cordillera, in Valle del Cauca, and further north, in Antioquia (Echeverri 1986, Hilty 
& Brown 1986, Cuervo et al. 2003, Krabbe et al. 2006), suggesting a continuous 
distribution in the West Andes. 

M. A. Echeverry-Galvis & S. Cordoba-Cordoba 222 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

Endemics and threatened species 

Chestnut Wood-quail Odontophorus hyperthyrus. — At least two groups tape- 
recorded at site 1 and one at site 2. This endemic occurs on both slopes of the 
Central and West Andes, at 1,400-2,700 m (Hilty & Brown 1986, Salaman et al. 
1999), and is Near Threatened nationally (Renjifo et al. 2002) and globally 
(BirdLife International 2004), due to habitat loss and hunting. Black-billed 
Mountain-toucan Andigena nigrirostris . — Lone individuals observed vocalising 
from the canopy and twice following mixed-species flocks. Sympatric with Emerald 
Toucanet Aulacorhynchus prasinus at both sites, but never observed in the same 
flocks. Emerald Toucanet was commoner at site 1 whilst A. nigrirostris was equally 
abundant at both. A. nigrirostris is Near Threatened in Colombia due to extensive 
habitat loss with, at least in some areas, decreasing populations (Renjifo et al. 2002). 
Purplish-mantled Tanager Iridosornis porphyrocephala. — c.10 of this nationally 
and globally Near-Threatened species (Renjifo et al. 2002, BirdLife International 
2004) were seen and two collected; apparently commoner at site 2. Dusky Bush- 
tanager Chlorospingus semifuscus. — This endemic was tape-recorded, mist-netted 
and collected at both sites, but more frequently at site 2. Sang mainly on the ridge 
at 2,600 m and above. Previously reported to 2,500 m (Isler & Isler 1999), but where 
ridgetop forests are suitable for 'lekking' (Bohorquez & Stiles 2002) likely to occur 
considerably higher. Red-bellied Grackle Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster. — This 
endemic is categorised as Endangered both nationally (Renjifo et al. 2002) and 
globally (BirdLife International 2004. Commonly seen in small groups of 6-8, 
some birds calling from the 20-22 m canopy whilst others probed for insects under 
branches and leaves down to mid level. One group was seen regularly near quebrada 
Risaralda at c.2,000 m. 

Concluding remarks 

Many species in the West Andes have broader ranges than indicated in the 
mainstream literature, as noted here and by other studies (e.g. Echeverri 1986, 
Donegan & Davalos 1999, Cuervo et al. 2003), particularly north of dpto. Valle del 
Cauca. However, some species' ranges remain unclear in several parts of this 
cordillera. Some birds at the elevations we surveyed may be widespread at higher 
elevations, but had not been recorded earlier due to lack of appropriate field work, 
or may be present on both slopes. Further surveys around the lower passes, e.g. that 
just north of Tatama, between Risaralda and Antioquia, would be welcome. We 
found 21 species whose ranges are extended north or south, five at higher elevations 
than previously known, and one not previously reported in the West Andes. 
Amongst our range extensions are two species endemic to the West Andes, two 
globally threatened (Oreothraupis arremonops and Dysithamnus occidentalis) and 
three Near-Threatened species. Many of the national natural parks in the West Andes 
are sited at higher elevations, including Tatama, making an evaluation of the 
efficiency of the protected areas network in conserving existing biodiversity much 

M. A. Echeverry-Galvis & S. Cordoba-Cordoba 223 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

needed. Future surveys and conservation plans should also focus on the lower 
montane and premontane slopes which remain little-protected. 


The Institute) de Investigacion de Recursos Biologicos Alexander von Humboldt provided logistic and 
financial support. Collecting permits were granted under governmental decrees 302 and 309 of 2003. The 
survey was funded by the Global Environmental Facility, Netherlands Embassy and World Bank. We 
thank Luis Ovidio Ledesma, Chairman of the Local Community Council at Planes de San Rafael, the 
forest guard at Planes de San Rafael, the ecological guides in Santuario, UEASPNN-PNN Tatama, Hugo 
Ballesteros (the park director), Socorro Sierra and Jose Agustin Lopez for assistance in the field, and all 
members of the 'Grupo de Exploration y Monitoreo Ambiental'. Thomas Donegan and Daniel Cadena 
furnished comments that greatly improved the manuscript. 


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F. (eds.) Libro de resumenes VCongreso Internacional de Manejo de Fauna Silvestre en la Amazonia 

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Tambito Nature Reserve and Munchique National Park, south-west Colombia. Cotinga 17: 77. 
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Addresses: Grupo de Exploration y Monitoreo Ambiental (GEMA), Instituto Humboldt, Claustro de San 
Agustin, Parque Ricaurte, Villa de Leyva, Boyaca, Colombia. Current address: Calle 52A #9-72 
apto. 201, Bogota, Colombia, e-mail: mayayito@yahoo.com 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2007 

Storrs L. Olson 225 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

Alca antiqua (Marsh, 1870), an invalid 
combination for a fossil auk (Alcidae) 

by Storrs L. Olson 

Received 15 June 2006 

The most abundant fossil bird in the early Pliocene deposits of the Yorktown 
Formation in North Carolina is an auk originally described by Marsh (1870) as 
Catarractes antiquus. Catarractes is a variant spelling of a generic name that was 
synonymised with JJria Brisson (1760), which is now used for the living murres. 
Olson & Rasmussen (2001: 273) recognised that the affinities of the fossil auk lay 
with those of the genus Alca Linnaeus (1758), so they created the new combination 
Alca antiqua (Marsh, 1870). This, however, is a secondary homonym preoccupied 
by Alca antiqua Gmelin (1789), the basionym for the extant Ancient Murrelet 
Synthliboramphus antiquus, and therefore is unavailable for the fossil species. The 
next available name is Australca grandis Brodkorb (1955). Olson & Rasmussen 
(2001) synonymised Australca Brodkorb (1955) with Alca Linnaeus (1758). 
Therefore, the fossil species should now be known as: 

Alca grandis (Brodkorb, 1955), new combination 


I thank Neil Adam Smith for calling this problem to my attention. The manuscript was reviewed by 
Richard C. Banks, Walter Bock, Steven Gregory, Pamela Rasmussen and David W. Steadman. 


Brisson, M.- J. 1760. Ornithologie. C. J. B. Bauche, Paris. 

Brodkorb, P. 1955. The avifauna of the Bone Valley Formation. Florida Geological Survey Report of 

Investigations 14: 1-57. 
Gmelin, J. F. 1789. Systema Naturae. Thirteenth edn. J. B. Delamolliere, Lyon. 
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae. Tenth edn. Salvius, Stockholm. 
Marsh, O. C. 1870. Notice of some fossil birds, from the Cretaceous and Tertiary formations of the 

United States. Amer. J. Sci. (2)49: 205-217. 
Olson, S. L. & Rasmussen, P. C. 2001. Miocene and Pliocene birds from the Lee Creek Mine, North 

Carolina. Pp. 233-365 in Ray, C. E. & Bohaska, D. J. (eds.) Geology and paleontology of the Lee 

Creek mine, North Carolina, III. Smithsonian Contrib. Paleobiology 90. 

Address: Department of Vertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, P.O. Box 37012, Washington DC 20013-7012, USA, e-mail: olsons@si.edu 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2007 

Michael Walters et al. 


Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

The eggs of the Canarian (or Meade-Waldo's) 
Black Oystercatcher Haematopus meadeivaldoi 

by Michael Walters, Douglas G. D. Russell, 
Frank D. Steinheimer & Christiane Quaisser 

Received 3 July 2006 

Hockey (1996) stated that the eggs of the probably Extinct Haematopus 
meadewaldoi Bannerman, 1913, are undescribed and, by implication, unknown. 
Even in the most comprehensive work on avian eggs, the Handbuch der Oologie 
(Schonwetter & Meise 1962: 373, Meise 1988: 258-259), no such egg is mentioned. 
In fact there is an egg, probably the only one, in the collection of Dr Wolfgang 
Makatsch (Fig. 1). It does not, of course, look any different from any other 
oystercatcher Haematopus egg. Oystercatcher eggs are oval to elliptical, pale 
yellowish stone to clay buff in colour, blotched, spotted and streaked brown and 
black. They are distinctive and unlike those of other waders, but the eggs of the 
different Haematopus are similar, except those of Magellanic Oystercatcher H. 
leucopodus, which appear consistently slightly darker in ground colour. 

Figure 1. Egg of Haematopus meadewaldoi, 
(Christiane Quaisser) 

in the Staatliches Museum fur Tierkunde, Dresden 

Michael Walters et al. 227 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

The Natural History Museum (NHM, Tring) has a file on the Makatsch 
collection that contains seven images of this egg. According to correspondence 
between Dr Makatsch and the then curator of eggs, MW (following Makatsch's visit 
to Tring), dated 16 December 1982, Makatsch acquired the egg on 4 January 1950 
with the egg collection of Dr Ludwig Huhn (d. 1 949) at Bautzen. The egg, in good 
condition and signed by the collector (probably Ramon Gomez), was offered for 
exchange to the NHM. Subsequent correspondence with Christopher Swann (who 
sponsored Makatsch's visit to Tring) indicates that, following Makatsch's death, the 
collection was bequeathed to his grandson Christoph Schnabel. Walters wrote to 
Schnabel on 10 September 1984 suggesting the exchange as per the arrangement 
with his grandfather, or that the egg be deposited in a German museum. Makatsch 
(1906-83), was a famous ornithologist in the former East Germany, known not only 
for his egg collection but for field guides and other works on birds and eggs. His 
was one of the largest private egg collections in Europe (c. 32,000 eggs in 16,000 
clutches of 1,200 species). In the 1990s the collection (including the egg in 
question) was purchased (through the late Siegfried Eck) by the Staatliches Museum 
fur Tierkunde, Dresden, Germany, where it remains. Data relating to the egg of H. 
meadewaldoi is on two record cards in Makatsch's acquisitions catalogue: Makatsch 
collection no. 7770: one clutch of one egg; Fuerteventura, Canaries; 1898 acquired 
on 4 January 1950 with the egg collection of Huhn (signed no. 1094). 
Measurements: 54.5 x 38.8 mm; 3.67 g (i.e. smaller than typical eggs of//, moquini, 
as was predicted would be the case by Bannerman 1963). The taxon was named for 
Edmund Gustavus Bloomfield Meade-Waldo (1855-1934) who collected the 


Bannerman, D. A. 1913. [Exhibition and description of a new subspecies of Oyster-catcher {Haematopus 

niger meade-waldoi) from the Canary Islands.] Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 31: 33-34. 
Bannerman, D. A. 1965. The birds of the Atlantic Islands, vol. 2. Oliver & Boyd, London & Edinburgh. 
Hockey, P. A. R. 1996. Family Haematopodidae (oystercatchers). Pp. 308-325 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. 

& Sargatal, J. (eds.) Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. 3. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 
Meise, W. 1988. Nachtrage zu Band I. Pp. 193-384 in Schonwetter, M. & Meise, W. (eds.) Handbuch 

der Oologie, Lieferung 44. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin. 
Schonwetter, M. & Meise, W. (eds.) 1962. Handbuch der Oologie, Bd. I, Lieferung 6. Akademie-Verlag, 


Addresses: Michael Walters, 62 Mark Street, Portrush, Co. Antrim BT56 8BU, Northern Ireland, e- 
mail: mpwalters62@btinternet.com. Douglas G. D. Russell, Curator, Bird Group, The Natural 
History Museum, Akeman Street, Tring, Herts. HP23 6AP, UK, e-mail: d.russell@nhm.ac.uk. 
Frank D. Steinheimer, Sylter Strasse 18, D-90425 Niirnberg, Germany, e-mail: 
franksteinheimer@yahoo.co.uk. Christiane Quaisser, StraBe des Friedens 12, D-01738 Klingenberg, 
Germany, e-mail: c.quaisser@planet-interkom.de 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2007 

Charles A. Vogt 228 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

Range extensions and noteworthy records for 
mainland Ecuador 

by Charles A. Vogt 

Received 5 July 2006 

Until the publication of Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) knowledge of avian 
distribution in Ecuador was incomplete and reliant on relevant but geographically 
adjacent and outdated sources such as Hilty & Brown (1986), as well as general 
checklists (Ridgely et al. 1998). Now, however, ornithologists and birdwatchers 
alike possess a ready resource to assess the import of their sightings. Nonetheless, 
distributions are a first approximation, especially for rare or poorly known species, 
and will be refined as new data are reported (e.g. Freile 2004). Here, I present 
noteworthy records which enhance our knowledge of bird distributions in mainland 

Species accounts 

CURVE-BILLED TINAMOU Nothoprocta curvirostris 

One observed closely on a grassy road and adjacent pasture, on a ridge at 3,000 m, 
2 km north-east of Hacienda Zuleta (12 km east of San Pablo, Imbabura), on 25 June 
2006. Uncommon and somewhat local in shrubby paramo and pastures, usually near 
patches of woodland, from south-east Carchi (Guandera Biological Reserve), 
southern Imbabura (Laguna Cuicocha) and Pichincha, south to eastern Azuay 
(Sigsig and Ona) and Zamora-Chinchipe (Cerro Toledo) (Ridgely & Greenfield 
2001). Generally scarce and infrequently encountered in Ecuador, mine is the third 
published locality on the eastern slope of Ecuador, all of them on the inter- Andean 

TIGER HERON Tigrisoma sp. 

An immature on 16 September 2000 at La Perla reserve, 1 km south of La 
Concordia, Pichincha, at 200 m. Given the brief view and the difficulty in 
identifying immature tiger herons, I was unable to distinguish the species. Rufescent 
Tiger Heron T. lineatum is very rare in lowlands of western Ecuador, with several 
old records from the rio Peripa (Manabi/Los Rios), Vinces (Guayas) and a sight 
record of an immature from the rio Palenque on 23 October 1997 (Ridgely & 
Greenfield 2001). Given the low elevation, slow-flowing stream and distance from 
the foothills, it appears probable that my observation was of a Rufescent Tiger 
Heron. However, there appears to be a resident population of Fasciated Tiger Heron 
T.fasciatum near Playa de Oro, in northern Esmeraldas, at 100 m, and it is suspected 
that most specimen records away from the rio Peripa and Vinces area refer to T. 
fasciatum (O. Jahn et al. in Ridgely & Greenfield 2001). 

Charles A. Vogt 229 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

SNOWY EGRET Egretta thula 

One seen by the author and M. & D. Weller on 21 January 2005 by a roadside pond 
at 2,100 m, c.5 km from hacienda San Isidro, 4 km south-west of Cosanga, Napo. 
Uncommon to locally very common in the lowlands of east and west Ecuador, with 
small numbers occasionally reported from lakes in the central valley (Ridgely & 
Greenfield 200 1 , 2006), but mine is the first published record from the eastern slope 
of Ecuador. 

BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT HERON Nycticorax nycticorax 
An adult observed, and its vocalisations recorded, at La Perla reserve, 1 km south 
of La Concordia, Pichincha (200 m), on 13-14 August 2004. Rare to locally fairly 
common in mangrove, tidal flats, freshwater marshes and forested margins of 
waterbodies in the lowlands of west and north-east Ecuador and in the northern 
highlands, but more numerous in south-west Ecuador, from Manabi south. 
Presumably once resident around lakes Yaguarcocha and San Pablo, Imbabura, as 
well as in the Parque Carolina marshes, in Quito, Pichincha (Ridgely & Greenfield 

2001, 2006). My record represents the first recent confirmed record from Pichincha. 

DARK-BILLED CUCKOO Coccyzus melacoryphus 

One observed at close range for several minutes on 1 8 and 25 April 1999, at hacienda 
San Francisco, 15 km north-west of Ibarra, Imbabura, at 2,300 m. Identification was 
initially uncertain, as the bird appeared to have a whiter throat like a Mangrove 
Cuckoo C. minor. Hilty (2003) remarked on the striking similarity between the two, 
though C. minor is smaller with a black bill and plain brown upperparts. However, 
C. minor is unknown in Ecuador, with the nearest recent record being from extreme 
north-east Colombia (Strewe & Navarro 2004), and is very rarely recorded away 
from coastal mangrove. Otherwise, the combination of grey cap, distinct black mask 
and rich buff underparts does not recall any other species in Ecuador. On 25 April, 
with R. Jonsson, playback of both species was performed. That of Dark-billed 
Cuckoo elicited a dramatic response, confirming the identification. 

The status of the species in Ecuador is complex and poorly understood. In eastern 
Ecuador it is an uncommon to locally fairly common austral migrant, but in the west 
is known only from a few specimens and several sight reports that are believed to 
pertain to austral migrants, but there is apparently a resident population in the 
extreme south-west. Recorded mostly below 1 ,000 m, occasionally to at least 1 ,900 
m and sometimes even higher (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, 2006); away from the 
south-west there are very few records, the nearest from Quito. This high-elevation 
sighting represents a new provincial record and an 80 km northerly range extension. 

BLACK-THROATED BRILLIANT Heliodoxa schreibersii 

A female was observed by myself and five other observers at midday, feeding on 

flowers in a large patch of Wercklea sp. (Malvaceae), 5 km south of Baeza, on 8 July 

2002, at 1,900 m. The combination of curved bill, dark underparts, with an obvious 

Charles A. Vogt 230 Bull. B.O.C 2007 127(3) 

buff malar is unique on the east slope. This hummingbird is rare to uncommon, and 
seemingly local, in lower growth of humid forest in the eastern lowlands, and in 
foothill forest at the base of the Andes. Recorded mostly below 1,250 m, locally in 
the south-east to 1,450 m in the Cordillera del Condor near Chinapintza (Ridgely & 
Greenfield 2001, 2006), this sighting represents a significant altitude extension and 
a new foodplant species (Heynen 1999a). 

AMETHYST-THROATED SUNANGEL Heliangelus amethysticollis 
During a bird survey of volcan Sumaco, an adult male was seen well on 18 
November 2003 at two separate sites near the crater lake 1 km south-east of the 
summit, at 2,450 m. No other hummingbird on the east slope at this altitude 
possesses the unmistakable combination of a pink gorget and white pectoral band. 
Uncommon to locally fairly common at the borders of montane forest and in 
adjacent clearings, in the subtropical and lower temperate zones, on the east slope 
of the Andes in southern Ecuador, the species was previously recorded only from 
Morona-Santiago (Gualaceo-Limon road and Cordillera de Cutucu) and Zamora- 
Chinchipe, at 1,900-2,700 m (Fjeldsa & Krabbe 1990, Heynen 1999b, Ridgely & 
Greenfield 2001, 2006). My record constitutes a 210 km northerly range extension 
and a new record for Napo province. 

HOARY PUFFLEG Haplophaedia lugens 

One observed by myself, P. Herrera V., G. George and J. Brooks on 27 April 2005, 
at a previously known territory at 1,800 m in a steep, forested, stream valley at 
Mindo Loma, 7 km north-east of Mindo, Pichincha. It was feeding on flowers of 
Axinaea (Melastomataceae), Palicourea (Rubiaceae) and Besleria (Gesneriaceae). 
Uncommon in the lower and middle growth of montane subtropical forest on the 
west slope of the Andes in western Pichincha and in south-west Colombia (Ridgely 
& Greenfield 2001), this Choco endemic is considered Near Threatened due to 
severe deforestation within its small range (BirdLife International 2005). Whilst 
known to feed on Palicourea and Besleria (Collar et al. 1992, Heynen 1999c, 
Matheus 2002), Axinaea is a new foodplant. 

UNDULATED ANTPITTA Grallaria squamigera 

On 27 June 2002 an adult was observed at 2,200 m on the Guacamayos trail, 6 km 
south-east of Cosanga, Napo, for c.5 minutes at c. 15 m distance, foraging leisurely 
in the middle of the trail. Good light conditions, as well as the bird's proximity, 
afforded an unmistakable view of the grey cap concolorous with the grey back, and 
large whitish loral area and dark submalar. Not previously recorded from the 
Guacamayos ridge or San Isidro area (M. Lysinger pers. comm.). A G squamigera 
was tape-recorded on 13 April 2004 at 2,770 m, 2.5 km south-east of the summit of 
volcan Sumaco, near Pavayacu on the north side of the saddle at the headwaters of 
rio Suno. The shorter-duration song (5-6 seconds), which was repeated six times per 
minute, is diagnostic of G. squamigera rather than Giant Antpitta G g. gigantea, 

Charles A. Vogt 231 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 12 7(3) 

which has a significantly longer song (eight seconds) (Krabbe & Schulenberg 2003) 
and, on the east Andean slope of Ecuador, occurs only at 2,000-2,400 m. Records 
from the eastern cordillera are apparently more frequent than from inner or west- 
facing slopes. The only previous record from the vicinity is from upper Sumaco 
(Chapman 1926). These represent the easternmost records in Ecuador and the first 
for Orellana province. 

EASTERN KINGBIRD Tyrannus tyrannus 

Six seen well along the Cuenca-Molleturo highway, 1 5 km south-east of Puerto 
Inca, Guayas province, at 800 m, on 8 October 2006. There are a few records of 
transients in north-western Ecuador, the furthest south from Tinalandia (P. 
Coopmans in Ridgely & Greenfield 2001). My record is 270 km further south. 
Elsewhere on the Pacific slope of central and southern South America there are 
relatively few records, but small numbers occur in the coastal lowlands of western 
Peru, south to Mollendo in Arequipa (Ridgely & Tudor 1989, Clements & Shany 
2001), and there are sight reports of vagrants in Region I and II in northern Chile 
with one from central Chile (Jaramillo 2003). 

MOSS-BACKED TANAGER Bangsia edwardsi 

One at 1,650 m on 15 December 2001, 8 km north-northeast of Mindo, beyond 
Reserva Pachijal and hosteria Nanca Jatunmi. This highland Choco endemic is 
locally uncommon to common in montane forest, forest borders and second-growth 
woodland in foothills on the west slope of the Andes in north-west Ecuador (Ridgely 
& Greenfield 2001). This is a significant altitudinal record, as the species was 
previously only known to 1,100 m in this area. There is one older record from 1,700 
m in Carchi (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001). My record is near the upper rio Pachijal 
Valley, an important relict forest corridor for several lowland Choco endemics, 
which may be moving upslope in response to recent deforestation in the lowlands. 

LARGE-BILLED SEED FINCH Oryzoborus crassirostris 
Three males and a female near sea level, on 10 January 2005, at hacienda La 
Cienega, 15 km north of Pedernales on the Cojimies Peninsula, northern Manabi, 
were observed through a telescope at c.50 m range for c.5 minutes. They were 
perched in a leafless tree in a dry, grassy, open area. According to the owner of the 
hacienda, the area is inundated during particularly wet years. O. crassirostris is rare 
to uncommon and very local in the lowlands of eastern and western Ecuador. In the 
west, it is known from only five localities: El Placer (Esmeraldas), Lita (Imbabura), 
Babahoyo (Los Rios), Santa Rosa (El Oro) and Cerro Blanco (Guayas) (Ridgely & 
Greenfield 2001, 2006, Krabbe & Nilsson 2003). The nearest records are from El 
Placer, Esmeraldas (in 1987), 170 km west-northwest, with a 19th-century record 
from Babahoyo, 235 km south-west of Cojimies (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001). My 
record is a significant range extension and a new provincial record. Currently 
considered Least Concern as its numbers appear to be increasing in Colombia 

Charles A. Vogt 232 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

following deforestation (BirdLife International 2005), but it was previously listed as 
Near Threatened due to frequent capture for the cagebird trade (Collar et al. 1992, 
1994). Its congeners, particularly O. angolensis and O. maximiliani are highly 
valued songsters and a culture of trainers and singing competitions has developed in 
Brazil (Sick 1993). In Ecuador, because of its evident rarity, the species is still 
considered Near Threatened (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, Ribadeneira 2002). 

BAND-TAILED SIERRA FINCH Phrygilus alaudinus 

A male was photographed at 3,800 m on a roadside fencepost near the upper rio 
Chimborazo, on the south side of volcan Chimborazo, on 29 January 2005. Band- 
tailed Sierra Finch is uncommon and somewhat local in open, arid highlands and 
was previously recorded only to 3,000 m in Ecuador (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, 
2006), but in Peru there are records to 3,500 m (Clements & Shany 2001), and to 
4,100 m in southern Peru and Bolivia (Fjeldsa & Krabbe 1990). 

RED-BREASTED BLACKBIRD Sturnella militaris 

An adult male was observed well for c.10 minutes adjacent to the Lago Agrio 

highway, 5 km north-east of Baeza on 22 January 2007, at 1,855 m. Known in 

eastern Ecuador to 400 m (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, 2006), in Venezuela to 950 

m (Hilty 2003) and in Colombia to 1,600 m (Hilty & Brown 1986). The species is 

increasing and spreading, often colonising newly deforested areas (Ridgely & Tudor 



I express my gratitude to the tour participants of Andean Birding as well as to Carmen & Irene 
Bustamante of Bird Ecuador for providing the opportunity to make these observations. Proyecto Gran 
Sumaco, KfW Development Bank and Fundacion para la Educacion y Desarrollo Integral 
(FUNEDESIN) provided funding and logistical support for the Sumaco survey. Nathan Rice proffered 
details concerning specimen records. Jonas Nilsson offered critical remarks on the manuscript and 
support. Juan Freile refereed the manuscript, whilst Sherry Vogt provided enduring understanding, 
support, field companionship and fine cooking. 


BirdLife International. 2005. Species factsheet: Haplophaedia lugens. www.birdlife.org (accessed 26 

February 2006). 
Chapman, F. M. 1926. The distribution of bird life in Ecuador. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 55: 1-784. 
Clements, J. F. & Shany, N. 2001. A field guide to the birds of Peru. Ibis Publishing, Temecula, CA. 
Collar, N. J., Crosby, M. J. & Stattersfield, A. J. 1994. Birds to watch 2: the world list of threatened birds. 

BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. 
Collar, N. J., Gonzaga, L. P., Krabbe, N., Madrono-Nieto, A., Naranjo, L. G, Parker, T. A. & Wege, D. 

C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas : the ICBP/ IUCN Red Data book. International Council 

for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, UK. 
Fjeldsa, J. & Krabbe, N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. Zool. Mus., Univ. of Copenhagen & Apollo 

Books, Svendborg. 
Freile, J. F. 2004. Range extensions and other noteworthy and new bird records from mainland Ecuador. 

Bull Brit. Orn. CI. 124: 188-201. 
Hcynen, I. 1999a. Black-throated Brilliant Heliodoxa schreibersii. P. 616 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & 

Sargatal, J. (eds.) Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. 5. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 

Charles A. Vogt 233 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

Heynen, I. 1999b. Amethyst-throated Sunangel Heliangelus amethysticollis. P. 636 in del Hoyo, J., 

Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. (eds.) Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. 5. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 
Heynen, I. 1999c. Hoary Puffleg Haplophaedia lugens. P. 643 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. 

(eds.) Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. 5. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 
Hilty, S. L. 2003. Birds of Venezuela. Princeton Univ. Press. 

Hilty, S. L. & Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton Univ. Press. 
Jaramillo, A. 2003. The birds of Chile. Princeton Univ. Press. 
Krabbe, N. K. & Nilsson, J. 2003. Birds of Ecuador. DVD-ROM. Bird Songs International, 

Krabbe, N. K. & Schulenberg, T. S. 2003. Giant Antpitta Grallaria gigantea and Undulated Antpitta G. 

squamigera. P. 713 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D. A. (eds.) Handbook of the birds of the 

world, vol. 8. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 
Matheus, J. C. 2002. Haplophaedia lugens. P. 370 in Granizo, T., Pacheco, C, Ribadeneira, M. B., 

Guerrero, M. & Suarez, L. (eds.) 2002. Libro rojo de las aves del Ecuador. SIMBIOE, Conservation 

International, EcoCiencia, Ministerio del Ambiente & UICN, Quito. 
Ribadeneira, M. B. 2002. Oryzoborus crassirostris. P. 414 in Granizo, T., Pacheco, C, Ribadeneira, M. 

B., Guerrero, M. & Suarez, L. (eds.) 2002. Libro rojo de las aves del Ecuador. SIMBIOE, 

Conservation International, EcoCiencia, Ministerio del Ambiente & UICN, Quito. 
Ridgely, R. S. & Greenfield, P. J. 2006. Aves del Ecuador. Guia de campo. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 

& Fundacion de Conservation Jocotoco, Quito. 
Ridgely, R. S. & Greenfield, P. J. 2001. The birds of Ecuador: status, distribution, and taxonomy. Cornell 

Univ. Press. Ithaca, NY. 
Ridgely, R. S., Greenfield, P. J. & Guerrero, M. 1998. An annotated list of the birds of mainland Ecuador. 

Fundacion Ornitologica del Ecuador, CECIA, Quito. 
Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 1989. The birds of South America, vol. 1. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin. 
Sick, H. 1993. Birds in Brazil: a natural history. Princeton Univ. Press. 
Strewe, R. & Navarro, C. 2004. New and noteworthy records of birds from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta 

region, north-eastern Colombia. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 124: 38-51. 

Address: Andean Birding, Salazar Gomez E-1482 y Eloy Alfaro, Quito, Ecuador, e-mail: 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2007 

First record of Tyrannine Woodcreeper 
Dendrocincla tyrannina for Bolivia 

by Christopher J, Vogel & Oswaldo Maillard Z. 

Received 12 July 2006 

Two specimens of Tyrannine Woodcreeper Dendrocincla tyrannina were collected, 
on 22 November 2001, in Area Natural de Manejo Integrado Nacional Apolobamba, 
Bolivia, dpto. La Paz, pro v. Franz Tamayo, near the rio Palcabamba (14°49'S, 
68°56'W), at c. 2,500 m. The specimens were mist-netted in tall, humid second- 
growth woodland bordering a cleared pasture, adjacent to primary montane forest, 
and were prepared as study skins (American Museum of Natural History [ AMNH] 
834016, 834017). 

Christopher J. Vogel & Oswaldo Maillard Z. 234 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

The humid broadleaf evergreen forest in this area has been cleared and has 
regenerated at various periods in the past, creating a patchwork of mossy, 
bromeliad-laden forest at various stages of succession, interspersed with clearings, 
likewise of varied age. The largest trees are c.1.5 m dbh, with crowns approaching 
30 m. A dense undergrowth of bamboo (Chusquea spp.), ferns and terrestrial 
bromeliads is rampant in more recently disturbed areas and in areas of slightly more 
mature second growth; old landslides also contribute to the mosaic. Tall forest ends 
rather abruptly at a variable and artificial treeline, usually at c.2, 800-3,000 m. The 
Puya spp. and tall-grass-dominated puna (Poaceae) above the treeline is maintained 
by local residents through periodic burning. 

The two Tyrannine Woodcreepers were caught in different mist-nets almost 
simultaneously. The nets were separated by 50 m; one was in tall second-growth 
forest, the other a few metres out in a clearing. Both specimens had skulls 
completely ossified. The male (AMNH 834016) was moulting p6, in addition to 
being in the process of renewing the central rectrices, with light body moult (on the 
upper breast); it also had some subcutaneous fat, and its largest testis measured 10 
x 5 mm. The female (AMNH 834017) likewise had a completely ossified skull, a 
granular ovary that measured 7 x 5 mm, but had no fat or moult. The skull 
ossification, as well as bill colour (dark brown with a dull reddish-chestnut or brick- 
red cast, paler at the base, rather than blackish), indicate that both were adults 
(Willis & Oniki 1995). The stomach contents of both individuals consisted 
exclusively of arthropods. 

On 28 November, another, lone Tyrannine Woodcreeper was seen quietly 
foraging on an exposed bare tree trunk in an old treefall. This was the only other 
record of Tyrannine Woodcreeper at our study site, which was worked for 14 days. 

The specimens were identified using previously published data (Fjeldsa & 
Krabbe 1 990, Ridgely & Tudor 1 994) and museum specimens, and C JV has prior 
field experience with the species. These birds differ significantly from the named 
subspecies in D. tyrannina (Marantz et al. 2003), but whether this represents 
individual, clinal, specific or subspecific variation is presently under review 
(Maillard & Vogel in prep.). 

Of interest not only due to the timing but proximity to the present record is that, 
on 1 December 2001, A. Bennett Hennessey sound-recorded a Tyrannine 
Woodcreeper in dpto. La Paz. Four minutes of audio tape were obtained at an 
elevation of 2,450 m, near Tokoaque, in Madidi (A. B. Hennessey in lift. 2006). This 
sound-recording compliments the present record rather well, as we were unable to 
obtain recordings during our stay near the rio Palcabamba. Hennessey's recording is 
soon to be published in a DVD of birds of the region. 

Although Fjeldsa & Krabbe (1990) speculated that Tyrannine Woodcreeper 
might occur in Bolivia, the species has previously been recorded only as far as 
southern Peru, with the southernmost records being from dpto. Cuzco (Fjeldsa & 
Krabbe 1990, Marantz et al. 2003). Thus, the current specimens represent a 
southward extension of c. 500 km, in addition to being the first record from Bolivia. 

Christopher J. Vogel & Oswaldo Maillard Z. 235 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

The Cordillera Apolobamba, however, also has biogeographic affinities with the 
Cordilleras of southern Peru (Vilcanota, Carabaya), more so than the Bolivian 
Cordilleras (Cordillera La Paz, Cordillera Cochabamba) to the south (CJV unpubl.). 
Recent surveys have found several species and subspecies thought to be more 
characteristic of points further north than Bolivia, such as Taczanowski's Tinamou 
Nothoprocta taczanowskii (Vogel et al. 2001), Puna Thistletail Schizoeaca helleri 
(of the undescribed form originally discovered in dpto. Puno, Peru; Remsen 2003), 
Streak-backed Canastero Asthenes wyatti and the south Peruvian (non-collared) 
subspecies of Hooded Mountain-tanager Buthraupis montana saturata, all of which 
reach or almost reach their southern range limit in the Apolobamba. Tyrannine 
Woodcreeper, considered uncommon throughout its range (Stotz et al. 1996) and 
rare and local in Ecuador (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001), may represent another 
species with this distribution pattern, or may well occur (as it does everywhere in its 
range, and as suggested by the present spate of records) at low density (Willis & 
Oniki 1995) more extensively in the Yungas of La Paz, where appropriate elevations 
have not been sampled thoroughly. It should also be looked for in similar humid, 
mid-elevation forests of the Bolivian Andes in dptos. Cochabamba and Santa Cruz. 


We thank Susan E. Davis for organising the expedition, which was funded by the Center for Biodiversity 
and Conservation, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and the Center for Environmental 
Research and Conservation, Columbia University, New York, and led by Dr James Aparicio E., of the 
Coleccion Boliviana de Fauna, La Paz, Bolivia. We thank Nick Acheson for his assistance in the field 
and Melina Laverty for her editorial acumen. Thanks also to Paul R. Sweet, AMNH Dept. of Ornithology, 
and J. V. Remsen, Louisiana State University Museum of Natural Sciences, for their usual helpfulness. 
We also acknowledge the cooperation of the Servicio Nacional de Areas Protegidas and the invaluable 
help of the guards and officials of Parque y Area Natural de Manejo Integrado Nacional Apolobamba, as 
well as the Direction General de Biodiversidad y al Servicio Nacional de Areas Protegidas de Bolivia 
who graciously provided the necessary permission to collect specimens. 


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Books, Svendborg. 
Marantz, C. A., Aleixo, A., Bevier, L. R. & Patten, M. A. 2003. Family Dendrocolaptidae (woodcreep- 

ers). Pp. 358^147 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D. A. (eds.) Handbook of the birds of the 

world, vol. 8. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 
Remsen, J. V. 2003. Family Furnariidae (ovenbirds). Pp. 162-357 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Christie, 

D. A. (eds.) Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. 8. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 
Remsen, J. V. & Traylor, M. A. 1989. An annotated list of the birds of Bolivia. Buteo Books, Vermilion, 

Ridgely, R. S. & Greenfield, P. J. 2001. The birds of Ecuador, vol. 1. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY. 
Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America, vol. 2. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin. 
Stotz, D. F., Fitzpatrick, J. W., Parker, T. A. & Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and 

conservation. Univ. of Chicago Press. 
Vogel, C. J., Herrera, M. & Olivera A., M. A. 2001. First record of Taczanowski's Tinamou (Nothoprocta 

taczanowskii) for Bolivia. Orn. Neotrop. 12: 181-182. 
Willis, E. O. & Oniki, Y 1995. On Dendrocincla tyrannina: morphology, behavior and conservation of 

a shy lek-type insectivore. Caldasia 18: 131-140. 

Christopher J. Vogel & Oswaldo Maillard Z. 236 Bull. B, O. C. 2007 12 7(3) 

Addresses: Christopher J. Vogel, P.O. Box 319, Cape May Point, NJ 08212, USA, e-mail: 
glaucidium@yahoo.com. Oswaldo Maillard Z., Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kempff Mercado, 
Universidad Autonoma Gabriel Rene Moreno, Av. Irala 565, C.P. 2489, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2007 

Breeding records from the north-east Andean 
foothills of Ecuador 

by Harold E Greeney & Rudolphe A. Gelis 

Received 13 July 2006 

Recent years have witnessed an increase in Ecuadorian ornithological publications 
(Freile 2005). From the early work of Marchant (1959, 1960) in the south-west, to 
more recent studies there and elsewhere in Ecuador (e.g. Marin & Carrion 1994, 
Best et al. 1996, Greeney et al. 2004, Greeney & Nunnery 2006), we are slowly 
expanding our knowledge of the breeding patterns of Ecuador's mainland avifauna. 
One area which seems particularly understudied ornithologically, especially with 
respect to natural histories, is the foothills of the east Andean slope. A few recent 
contributions have added to our knowledge for certain species (Gelis et al. 2006a,b, 
Greeney et al. 2006, Vaca et al. 2006), but we still lack sufficient data for proper 
analysis of seasonality. Here we begin to rectify this with observations on 35 species 
from the Andean foothills of prov. Napo, north-east Ecuador. 

We made all observations opportunistically, during the course of other field 
work in 2002-06, and thus on their own they are not useful to assess seasonality. We 
hope, however, that these data will form the framework with which future workers 
may begin to compile breeding information for this area. We made observations at 
elevations around 1,150 m in the community-owned reserve of Mushullacta, 
adjacent to the Galeras sector of Sumaco-Napo Galeras National Park (NG), along 
the Tena-Loreto road at elevations of 1,000-1,400 m (LR), on and around the slopes 
of Volcan Sumaco at elevations of 1,650-1,750 m (SU), in the vicinity of Tena at 
300-450 m (TE), at Hakuna Matata Lodge (800 m) near Archidona (HK), and in 
areas immediately surrounding Archidona (AR) at 600-750 m. Taxonomy follows 
Ridgely & Greenfield (2001). 

Species accounts 

BLACKISH NIGHTJAR Caprimulgus nigrescens 

On 29 March 2005, at 1,350 m on LR, we flushed an adult male off a single egg at 
12.00 h. The egg was pale brown, heavily marked with dark brown and lavender 
blotches and black squiggles. It measured 25.9 by 20.1 mm and weighed 5.654 g. 

Harold F. Greeney & Rudolphe A. Gelis 237 Bull B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

Eight days later, at 17.15 h, the egg weighed 5.375 g. On 10 April there was no sign 
of the adult or egg. On 5 March 2006 we discovered two adults roosting at the same 
location at 16.30 h. Breeding accounts from several parts of the species' range have 
been published (Beebe et al. 1917, Haverschmidt 1968, Cleere & Ingels 2002). 

GREY-BREASTED SABREWING Campylopterus largipennis 
On 29 November 2001, on the LR at c. 1,1 00 m, we found a nest with two partially 
incubated eggs, from which we flushed an adult female. Both eggs were immaculate 
white and they measured 15.8 by 10.7 and 15.6 by 10.4 mm. The nest was a neat 
cup attached at the side to the thin horizontal branch of a small Melastomataceae 
sapling. The nest was 1.3 m above a small stream and appeared to have been 
constructed on an older nest. It consisted mostly of moss and soft pale brown 'seed' 
down (especially in the inner parts), with an outer decoration of lichens, bound 
together and attached to the branch and old nest with copious spider webs. It 
measured 7 cm wide by 5 cm tall outside, with an inner cup 4 cm in diameter and 
3.5 cm deep. Previously described from Brazil (Ruschi 1973 in Hilty & Brown 
1986), the nesting of this Amazonian hummingbird is still poorly known. 

SPOTTED BARBTAIL Premnoplex brunnescens 

On 3 December 2002, at 1,700 m at SU, we discovered a nest with two partially 
developed eggs. It was attached by the back side to a mossy rock wall, 80 cm from 
a small waterfall and 1 .4 m above a small stream. Two days later we found a second 
nest, also with two partially developed eggs, suspended by several thin vines only 
80 cm above a small stream. 

On 30 March 2005, at NG, we discovered a third nest with two well-feathered 
nestlings, seemingly ready to fledge. The next day the nest was empty and 
undisturbed, and we presume both had fledged. This nest was 1.1m up, only 30 cm 
from a small stream. It was attached at the top to a rock ledge. A great deal of faecal 
matter had accummulated on the rock just below the nest. On 3 1 March we found a 
fourth nest with two eggs. This nest was 1 m above a small stream, attached by the 
back side to a rock face. On 1 April, at the same location we found a fifth nest with 
a single nestling, whose primary pin feathers had broken their sheaths c.2 days 
earlier. This nest was built into a large clump of epiphytes 1.7 m above a small 
stream. Its form was completely obscured and only the entrance was visible. 
Immediately adjacent to it, sharing a wall, was a second, empty but intact nest. 
Directly below was a large boulder emerging from the water on which had 
accumulated a large number of faecal sacs. While we handled the nestling it 
produced a faecal sac containing remnants of a snail shell. A sixth nest, with two 
partially developed eggs, was found on 1 1 April, also at NG. This was suspended by 
the top from three thin (c.5 mm) vines over a small stream, 1.5 m above ground 
beside a small waterfall. We found another nest on 22 March 2006 at SU, at the 
same location as the previous two. This contained at least one nestling and we 
observed two adults approach with arthropods in their bills, one of which fed the 

Harold F. Greeney & Rudolphe A. Gelis 238 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

nestlings a 1-2 cm adult lepidopteran. The nest was constructed in the root mass of 
an overturned tree, 3 m above a small stream. Its form was obscured by the 
surrounding moss and roots so that only the entrance was visible. This nest was only 
1.5 m from the site of the first nest described above, which was no longer present. 
All eight eggs were immaculate white. Mean (± SD) measurements were 22.0 ± 
0.9 by 16.9 ± 0.3 mm. Despite the variety of situations, all nests were thick, tough 
mossy balls, with a downward-facing tubular entrance, and lined with pale fibres. 
Of the eight nests (including the inactive structure adjacent to the fifth), six were 
attached firmly such that the orientation of the entrance could not be moved, whilst 
the other two hung freely. Overall they were similar in appearance and showed 
similar variation in placement to previously described nests (Skutch 1967, Marin & 
Carrion 1994, Greeney & Nunnery 2006). 

LINED ANTSHRIKE Thamnophilus tenuepenctatus 

On 29 March 2005, at c. 1,250 m at LR, we flushed a male antshrike beside the road 
incubating two well-developed eggs, both of which were pipped. The eggs were 
white with dark red blotching and narrow red and lavender flecking concentrated at 
the larger end. They measured 22.2 by 16.3 and 22.9 by 16.2 mm. The nest was a 
tightly woven cup of pale rootlets, leaf petioles and a few black fungal rhizomorphs. 
It was decorated on the outside with sparse moss and slung between the arms of the 
horizontal fork, 2.2 m above ground in a small Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) shrub. 
The cup was slightly oblong, measuring 5 by 6 cm internally and 7.5 by 10 cm 
externally. It was 5 cm deep inside and 5.5 cm tall outside, with an additional 7 cm 
of hanging moss. When we returned on 6 April, the nest was torn down. This 
appears to be the first description of the nest of Lined Antshrike. 


We found two nests at NG, between 31 March and 5 April 2005. Both were mossy, 
teardrop-shaped structures attached to thin vines which were themselves attached both 
above and below the nest. They were 0.4 and 1 m above the ground and both were 
thickly lined with pale white and buff-coloured seed down. One measured c. 14 cm tall 
by 12 cm wide and 12 cm front to back. In addition, it had a 28-cm extension of moss 
above and a 14 cm tail-like curtain of moss below. The side entrance had a 3.5-cm 
overhang of moss and measured 4 cm wide by 3 cm tall. Inside, the chamber measured 
9.5 cm tall by 5.5 cm wide, with a 3 cm-deep cup. The thin vine to which it was 
attached measured just 2.5 mm in diameter. We do not know the fate of one nest and 
at the second all three eggs hatched but the nestlings disappeared shortly after. 

Both nests contained three all-white eggs which measured (± SD) 19.9 ± 0.2 by 
15.4 ± 0.1 mm. The eggs were weighed to the nearest 0.001 g upon discovery and 
subsequently, four days later at one nest, and six days later at the second. Five eggs 
lost mass at a rate of 0.94 ± 0.16% of their original mass per day. Three eggs were 
weighed twice after pipping had occurred, with roughly 24 h between weighings. 
These lost mass at a rate of 3.0 ± 1 .0% per day. One egg was pipped for at least two 

Harold F. Greeney & Rudolphe A. Gelis 239 Bull B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

days before it hatched. Using a mean 19 days of incubation for the genus 
(Fitzpatrick 2004), with pipping 1-2 days prior to hatch, we estimate 20-22% mass- 
loss for eggs during incubation. 

Two nestlings weighed 2.3 and 2.2 g on the day of hatching. Newborn nestlings 
had pink skin with sparse silvery grey down. Their feet were dusky grey-pink and 
their cloacas were undifferentiated from the surrounding skin. Bills were dull yellow 
with bright white gapes and mouth linings similar in colour to their skin. 

BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA Attila spadiceus 

On 30 June 2004, outside TE, we found a nest with two addled eggs and a single 
newly hatched nestling. It was a bulky cup of green moss saddled on a broad beam 
against the side of a building, 4 m above ground. It did not appear to have a 
differentiated lining. The eggs were buffy orange heavily spotted and flecked, 
mostly at the larger end, in various shades of brown and orange. They measured 
22.5 by 17.9 and 23.1 by 18.3 mm. The nestling's right tarsus measured 8.7 mm. Its 
skin was dark pinkish, with yellow legs and cloaca, and a bright yellow mouth lining 
and gape. Dorsally it was covered with fairly dense grey-brown down, which arose 
in clumps that were paler near their bases, giving the nestling a distinctly sun- 
dappled appearance as recently described for Ochraceous Attila A. torridus 
(Greeney 2006). Skutch (1971) described the species' natural history in Costa Rica, 
but this appears to be the first breeding record for Ecuador. 

GOLDEN-WINGED MANAKIN Masius chrysopterus 

Between 31 March and 11 April 2005, at NG, we found four active nests. Two 
contained two partially incubated eggs each, and the others single, undeveloped 
eggs. All were pale to dark olive-tan, with heavy brown blotching, usually forming 
a ring around the larger end. Mean (± SD) measurments of five eggs were 20.8 ± 0.8 
by 14.5 ± 0.4 mm. 

All nests were shallow, sparse rootlet cups, bound together and to the substrate 
with spider webs, and lightly decorated on the exterior and rim with pale green 
moss. This generally dangled below the cups forming a 'tail' which helped obscure 
the nest's outline. We measured three nests to the nearest 0.5 cm. The inner diameter 
of the cup was 5 cm in one and 4.5 cm in the others. Otherwise, cup measurements 
were identical, each being 2.5 cm deep inside and 6.5 cm wide by 3.5 cm tall 
outside. The 'tails' of moss were 9, 4, and 5 cm long, with some stray pieces 
dangling as far as 30, 27 and 48 cm. Mean diameter of the supporting forked 
branches was 8 ± 1 mm, and the six 'arms' of the forks measured 4.8 ±1.2 mm. Two 
nests were in Rubiaceae saplings, one in a Solanaceae, and the final in an 
unidentified sapling. Mean nest height was 2.2 ± 1.9 m, and mean overall sapling 
height was 3.4 ± 1.8 m. Three nests were located immediately adjacent to streams, 
and the fourth was over 40 m from the nearest stream but was situated in a 10 m- 
diameter depression, roughly 3 m deep. The nests were similar to the only other 
described nest from Colombia (Hilty & Brown 1986), but this appears to be the first 
detailed description of the nest and eggs of this species. 

Harold F. Greeney & Rudolphe A. Gelis 240 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

Additional records 

The following records of breeding are presented in abbreviated format as: common 
name, scientific name, date and location (evidence, details). B = building; I = 
incubating; N = nestling; F = fledgling; CM = carrying material, but nest not seen; 
AN = active nest of unknown stage. 

Speckled Chachalaca Ortalis guttata, 2 July 2004 TE (F); Cobalt-winged 
Parakeet Brotogeris cyanoptera, 17 September 2004 TE (F); Buff-tailed Sicklebill 
Eutoxeres condamini, 10 January 2002 TE (B, 1 m up); Spectacled Prickletail 
Siptornis striaticollis, 11 December 2002 SU (B); Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper 
Lochmias nematura, 3 December 2002 SU (F, adult fed fledgling 7-cm earthworm); 
Scale-backed Antbird Hylophylax poecilinota, 30 March 2005 NG (N, one 
nestling); Scale-crested Pygmy-tyrant Lophotriccus pileatus, 29 March 2005 NG 
(I, one egg); Short-tailed Antthrush Chamaeza campanisoma, 3 April 2005 NG 
(N, two nestlings); Common Tody-flycatcher Todirostrum cinereum, 23 February 
2004, LR (N, both adults feeding); Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus, 23 
November 2003 LR (B, just beginning); Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis, 3 
October 2003 AR (N), 12 November 2003 HM (F), 17 September 2004 TE (AN), 
18 September 2004 (B), 19 February 2005 LR (B); Golden-crowned Flycatcher 
Myiodynastes chrysocephalus, above AR at 1,750 m (N, four nestlings, one dead, 
1.9 m up on cliff); Grey-tailed Piha Lathria subalaris, 13 April 2005 NG (CM); 
Spotted Nightingale-thrush Catharus dry as, 31 March 2005 NG (N, two 
nestlings); Pale-eyed Thrush Platycichla leucops, 2 April 2005 NG (N, two 
nestlings); Black-billed Thrush Turdus ignobilis, 23 November 2003 LR (B, 3 m 
up), 19 February 2005 SU (I, two eggs, 2.1 m up); Blue-and-white Swallow 
Notiochelidon cyanoleuca, 3 October 2003 LR (N); Grey-breasted Wood-wren 
Henicorhina leucophrys, 3 December 2002 SU (I, two eggs); Bananaquit Coereba 
flaveola, 12 November 2003 TE (B and F); White-lored Euphonia Euphonia 
chrysopasta, 12 November 2003 TE (B); Blue-necked Tanager Tangara 
cyanicollis, 12 November 2003 TE (F), 23 February 2004 LR (two pairs with F); 
Yellow-bellied Tanager T. xanthogastra, 12 November 2003 HM (F); Swallow 
Tanager Tersina viridis, 19 February 2005 LR (B); Blue-grey Tanager Thraupis 
episcopus, 30 March 2005 NG (B); Silver-beaked Tanager Ramphocelus carbo, 5 
September 2005 AR (two B); Lesser Seed-finch Oryzoborus angolensis, LR (B, 
only female, 0.5 m up); Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela, 10 January 2004 TE 
(colony at B and I stage); Russet-backed Oropendola Psarocolius angustifrons, 12 
November 2003 HM (N, adult feeding unidentified nestling bird to young), 19 
February 2005 SU (colony with nests B and others N). 


Juan Carlos Calvachi, Mitch Lysinger, Caroline Dingle and Niels Krabbe generously provided 
unpublished observations included here. We are grateful to Juan Freile for his review of the manuscript. 
The owners of Hakuna Matata Lodge, Cabanas San Isidro, the community of Mushullacta, and the park 
guards of Sumaco National Park provided logistical support. John V. & the late Ruth Ann Moore, as well 
as Matt Kaplan, have generously supported HFG through grants to the Population Biology Foundation. 

Harold F. Greeney & Rudolphe A . Gelis 24 1 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 12 7(3) 

Field work by HFG was supported in part by a Rufford Small Grant, a Pamela & Alexander F. Skutch 
Award, and the Hertzberg Family Foundation. This study was further facilitated by Tim Metz, Jay Peltz 
and Lynx Edicions, Spain. We are ever grateful for the continued support of the PBNHS of our natural 
history interests. This is publication no. 109 of the Yanayacu Natural History Research Group. 


Beebe, W., Hartley, G I. & Howes, P. G 1917. Tropical wild life in British Guiana. N. Y. Zool. Soc, New 

Best, B. J., Checker, M., Thewlis, R. M., Broom, A. L. & Duckworth, W. 1996. New bird breeding data 

from southwestern Ecuador. Orn. Neotrop. 7: 69-73. 
Cleere, N. & Ingels, J. 2002. Notes on the breeding biology of the Blackish Nightjar Caprimulgus 

nigrescens in French Guiana. Alauda 70: 253-259. 
Fitzpatrick, J. W. 2004. Family Tyrannidae (tyrant flycatchers). Pp. 170^163 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. 

& Christie, D. A. (eds.) Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. 9. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 
Freile, J. F. 2005. Gustavo Orces, Fernando Ortiz y el desarrollo de la ornitologia hecha en Ecuador. Orn. 

Neotrop. 16: 321-336. 
Gelis, R. A., Dingle, C. & Greeney, H. F. 2006a. Cooperative breeding at a nest of Golden Tanager 

Tangara arthus. Cotinga 26: 79-81. 
Gelis, R. A., Greeney, H. F, Cooper, M. & Dingle, C. 2006b. The nest, eggs, nestlings, and fledglings of 

Fiery-throated Fruiteater Pipreola chlorolepidota in north-east Ecuador. Cotinga 26: 10-12. 
Greeney, H. F. 2006. The nest and eggs of the Ocraceous Attila Attila torridus with observations on 

parental care. Cotinga 25: 56-58. 
Greeney, H. F, Gelis, R. A., Dingle, C, Vaca B., F. J., Krabbe, N. & Tidwell, M. 2006. The nest and eggs 

of the Plain-backed Antpitta (Grallaria haplonota) in eastern Ecuador. Orn. Neotrop. 17: in press. 
Greeney, H. F, Gelis, R. A. & White, R. 2004. Notes on breeding birds from an Ecuadorian Amazonian 

forest. Bull. Br. Orn. CI. 124: 28-37. 
Greeney, H. F. & Nunnery, T. 2006. Notes on the breeding of north-west Ecuadorian birds. Bull. Br. Orn. 

CI. 126: 38^5. 
Haverschmidt, F. 1968. Birds of Suriname. Oliver & Boyd, London. 

Hilty, S. L. & Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton Univ. Press. 
Marchant, S. 1959. The breeding season in S. W. Ecuador. Ibis 101: 137-187. 

Marchant, S. 1960. The breeding of some southwestern Ecuadorian birds. Ibis 102: 349-382, 584-599. 
Marin, M. & Carrion B., J. M. 1994. Additional notes on the nest and eggs of some Ecuadorian birds. 

Orn. Neotrop. 5: 121-124. 
Ridgely, R. S. & Greenfield, P. J. 2001. The birds of Ecuador. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY. 
Ruschi, A. 1973. Beija-flores. Museu de Biologia "Prof. Mello Leitao", Santa Teresa. 
Skutch, A. F. 1967. Life histories of Central American highland birds. Publ. Nuttall Orn. CI. 7. Nuttall 

Orn. CI., Cambridge, MA. 
Skutch, A. F. 1971. Life history of the Bright-rumped Attila {Attila spadiceus). Ibis 113: 316-322. 
Vaca B., F. J., Greeney, H. F, Gelis, R. A., Dingle, C, Krabbe, N. & Tidwell, M. 2006. First description 

of the nest and eggs of the Red-winged Wood-rail Aramides calopterus from the foothills of eastern 

Ecuador. Cotinga 26: 13-14. 
Zimmer, K. J. & Isler, M. L. 2003. Family Thamnophilidae (typical antbirds). Pp. 448-681 in del Hoyo, 

J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D. A. (eds.) Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. 8. Lynx Edicions, 


Address: Yanayacu Biological Station & Center for Creative Studies, Cosanga, Napo, Ecuador; c/o 721 
Foch y Amazonas, Quito, Ecuador, e-mail: revmmoss@yahoo.com 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2007 

Alexandre Aleixo et al. 242 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

Fixation of the type species and revalidation of 

the genus Dendroplex Swainson, 1827 


by Alexandre Aleixo, Steven M. S. Gregory & 
John Penhallurick 

Received 17 July 2006 

Since 1951, various authors (Peters 1951, Clements 2000, Marantz et al. 2003, 
Dickinson 2003) have placed the taxa based on Oriolus picus J. F. Gmelin, 1788 
(Straight-billed Woodcreeper), and Dendrornis kienerii Des Murs, 1856 (Zimmer's 
Woodcreeper), in the genus Xiphorhynchus Swainson, 1827 (Dendrocolaptidae). 
Earlier authorities (Sclater 1890, Hellmayr 1925, Zimmer 1934, Todd 1948) used 
Dendroplex Swainson, 1827, for these taxa. Swainson's original characterisation of 
Dendroplex (1827: 354) provided only a brief diagnosis of the new taxon ('Rostrum 
rectissimum. Alae mediocres, rotundatae; remigibus 3 tld , 4 td , et 5 ik longissimis'), and 
no reference to a type species, as he explicitly acknowledged being unsure whether 
the specimen upon which he based the new genus, had already been described as a 
species or not. He further stressed the diagnostic bill shape of the new genus and its 
close affinity with other Dendrocolaptid genera, stating: 'The living bird has all the 
manners of a Picus. Except in its perfectly straight bill, it differs not from 
Dendrocolaptes ' . 

Ten years later, Swainson (1837: 313-314) provided essentially the same 
diagnosis of the original description: 'Bill moderate, very straight, perfectly conic 
in profile; the sides much compressed.' This time the diagnosis was accompanied by 
a depiction of the straight culmen and lateral compression (Fig. 1). But, at the end 
of the characterisation, Swainson added: 'The scansorial type D. guttatus Spix i, 91, 
f. 1 ', which refers to fig. 1 on pi. 91 in Spix (1824). The term scansorial here relates 
to Swainson's quinarian concept of re-occurring types within the animal kingdom; 
nevertheless, the fact remains that he included a single nominal species, thereby 
satisfying the requirements of Art. 69.3 for designation by subsequent monotypy 
(ICZN 1999). In his review of the Dendrocolaptidae, Hellmayr (1925: 288) pointed 
out that Swainson's diagnoses of 1827 and 1837, and bill outline (Fig. 1), 
correspond to the characters of Oriolus picus, though the only species mentioned 
(D. guttatus Spix i, 91, f. 1) 'belongs to the genus Xiphorhynchus Swainson'. 
Hellmayr continued that Swainson obviously followed Lesson (1830: 313) in 
misidentifying Spix's plate with Oriolus picus which, he believed, had to be 
regarded as the genotype of Dendroplex, being the only species then known with 
these generic characters. Hellmayr (1925) referred readers also to Gray (1840: 17), 
and Lafresnaye, Rev Mag. Zool. (2)2, 1850, p. 959, where they merely grouped O. 
picus J. F. Gmelin, 1788, in Dendroplex without providing valid genus type 

Alexandre Aleixo et al. 243 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 127(3) 

Following Hellmayr (1925), Peters (1951: 36) recognised that 'Z). guttatus Spix 
i, 91, f. 1' depicts a bird now known as Xiphorhynchus ocellatus (Spix 1824), and 
stressed that under Opinion 65 (Schenk & McMasters 1948: 54) the case of 
misidentification had to be formally presented to the ICZN for ruling, and that until 
a decision was reached, Xiphorhynchus ocellatus ocellatus = Dendrocolaptes 
ocellatus Spix 1 824 must continue as the type of Dendroplex. 

Aleixo (2002) demonstrated, using molecular data, that the genus 
Xiphorhynchus (sensu Peters 1951) is paraphyletic, and that the sister taxaX. picus 
= Oriolus picus J. F. Gmelin, 1788, andX. kienerii = Dendrornis kienerii Des Murs, 
1856, are the only species which do not belong to a clade with the remaining 
Xiphorhynchus species. He suggested that they might be grouped in a different 
genus, in which case the name Dendroplex Swainson, 1827, would be available if 
problems with its type species designation could be resolved. 

The fourth edition of the International code of zoological nomenclature (ICZN 
1999) states: 

67.2.2. If a nominal genus or subgenus was established before 1931... 

without included nominal species..., the nominal species that were first 

subsequently and expressly included in it are deemed to be the only 
originally included nominal species. 

Taken in isolation, this Article would indicate that the type of Dendroplex 
Swainson, 1827, must be 'D. guttatus Spix, i, 91, f. 1' = Dendrocolaptes ocellatus 
Spix, 1824. But the latest edition of the Code now permits a misidentified type 
species to be set aside without the requirement of a ruling from the Commission. 
Art. 67.9 states: 'If a validly fixed type species is later found to have been 
misidentified, the provisions of Article 70.3 apply.' Art. 70.3 states: 

Misidentified type species. If an author discovers that a type species was 
misidentified... the author may select, and thereby fix as type species, the 
species that will, in his or her judgment, best serve stability and universality, 

70.3.1. the nominal species previously cited as type species [Arts. 68, 69], or 

70.3.1. the taxonomic species actually involved in the misidentification. If 
the latter choice is made, the author must refer to this article and cite together 
both the name previously cited as type species and the name of the species 

We advocate the conservation of Dendroplex Swainson, 1827, as a valid taxon. 
The following evidence supports Hellmayr 's (1925) interpretation that Swainson's 
(1837) identification of 'D. guttatus Spix, i, 91, f. 1' as the type was a case of 
misidentification, and that D. picus = Oriolus picus J. F. Gmelin, 1788, was the 
taxon upon which Swainson actually based Dendroplex. 

Alexandre Aleixo et al. 


Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

Figure 1. Bill outlines (Swainson 1837: 313, fig. 28 le) accompanying Swainson's diagnosis of 
Dendroplex and reference to 'D. guttatus Spix, i, [pi.] 91. f. 1.' as the genus type (Swainson 1837: 314). 
The illustration refers unambiguously to the only species in the entire family Dendrocolaptidae known to 
possess this particular bill shape: Xiphorhynchus picus = Oriolus picus J. F. Gmelin, 1788. 

Swainson (1827: 354) was unsure whether the taxon on which he based 
Dendroplex had been described. Ten years later, when he next cited Dendroplex 
(Swainson 1837: 313-314), the original diagnosis was maintained and even 
illustrated in detail (see Fig. 1), but 'Z). guttatus Spix, i, [pi.] 91. f. 1.' was mentioned 
as belonging to the genus apparently in accordance with Lesson (1830: 313), who a 
few years earlier explicitly equated 'D. guttatus Spix, pi. 91' with 'Oriolus picus 
Gm.' Lesson's entry reads: '5. Picucule talapiot; Dendrocolaptes guttatus Spix, 
pi. 91. Oriolus picus, Gm.; Gracula picoides, Shaw; Enl., 605.' 

'Enl., 605' refers to 'Le Talapiot' Daubenton, 1770-83, Planches enluminees 
d'histoire naturelle, in Buffon, Histoire naturelle des oiseaux, pi. 605 (Cayenne), in 
turn the basis of J. F. Gmelin's Oriolus picus. Gracula picoides Shaw, 1809, 
General zoology, or systematic natural history, 7, no. 2, p. 476, was merely a new 
name for Oriolus picus J. F. Gmelin, 1788. Lesson's description of the Picucule 
Talapiot, including as it does 'Bee presque droit, corne', i.e. bill nearly straight, 
horn-coloured, probably determined Swainson's acceptance of Lesson's treatment. 

There is a significant discrepancy between the levels of detail and resolution of 
the bill outline presented in fig. 28 le of Swainson (1837: 313) as diagnostic of 
Dendroplex (see Fig. 1) and that of D. guttatus in Spix's plate, chosen by Swainson 
(1837) as the type of Dendroplex. Whilst the latter is poor in resolution and depicts 
a bird which resembles several taxa currently classified in the genus Xiphorhynchus, 
fig. 28 le of Swainson (1837), in contrast, is very well resolved and refers 
unambiguously to the only species of Dendrocolaptidae known to this day to 
possess such a bill shape: X. picus = Oriolus picus J. F. Gmelin, 1788 (Marantz et 
al. 2003). 

Hence, following the latest, (fourth) edition of the International code of 
zoological nomenclature (1999), we propose to conserve Dendroplex under the 
following terms: 

Alexandre Aleixo et al. 245 Bull. B. O. C 2007 127(3) 

Genus Dendroplex Swainson, 1827 

Zool. J., 3, p. 354 (generic characters only). 

Type species here fixed (under Art. 70.3 of the Code) as Oriolus picus J. F. 
Gmelin, 1788, misidentified, by subsequent monotypy (Art. 69.3 of the 
Code) as 'D. guttatus Spix, 1824' = Dendrocolaptes guttatus Spix, 1824 (pi. 
91, fig. 1) = Xiphorhynchus ocellatus (Spix, 1824) by Swainson, 1837, 
Classification of birds, 2, p. 314. 

Thus, those taxa originally described or classified as Dendroplex according to 
Gray (1840), Sclater (1890), Hellmayr (1925), Zimmer (1934), and Todd (1948), but 
later transferred to Xiphorhynchus by Peters (1951), should be returned to 
Dendroplex, which currently contains just two distinct sister biological species: the 
polytypic Dendroplex picus (J. F. Gmelin, 1788) and the monotypic Dendroplex 
kienerii (Des Murs, 1856), as delineated by Marantz et al. (2003). 


A. Aleixo thanks the CNPq/SECTAM joint Regional Development Research Program for a research 
fellowship (grant no. 35.0415/2004-8). We are grateful to Alan Peterson for his comments relating to this 


Aleixo, A. 2002. Molecular systematics and the role of the "varzea"-"terra-firme" ecotone in the diver- 
sification of Xiphorhynchus woodcreepers (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae). Auk 119: 621-640. 

Clements, J. F. 2000. Birds of the world: a checklist. Fifth edn. Pica Press, Robertsbridge. 

Dickinson, E. C. (ed.) 2003. The Howard & Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. Third 
edn. Christopher Helm, London. 

Gray, G. R. 1840. A list of the genera of birds, with an indication of the typical species of each genus. 
Compiled from various sources. Trustees of the Brit. Mus., London. 

Hellmayr, C. E. 1925. Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands, part IV. Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist. Zool. Ser. 13(13). 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). 1999. International code of zoological 
nomenclature. Fourth edn. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, c/o The Natural 
History Museum, London. 

Lesson, R. P. 1830-31. Traite d'ornithologie ou tableau methodique des ordres, sous-ordres, families, 
tribus, genres, sous-genres et races d'oiseaux [...]. F. G. Levrault, Paris, Strasbourg & Bruxelles. 

Marantz, C. A., Aleixo, A., Bevier, L. R. & Patten, M. A. 2003. Family Dendrocolaptidae (woodcreep- 
ers). Pp. 358^147 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D. A. (eds.) Handbook of the birds of the 
world, Vol. 8. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 

Peters, J. L. 1951. Check-list of birds of the world, vol. 7. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA. 

Schenk, E. T & McMasters, J. H. 1948. Procedure in taxonomy. Revised edn. Stanford Univ. Press, CA. 

Sclater, P. L. 1890. Catalogue of the Passeriformes or perching birds, in the collection of the British 
Museum — Tracheophonae, or the families Dendrocolaptidae, Formicariidae, Conopophagidae, and 
Pteroptochidae. Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 15. Trustees of the Brit. Mus. 
(Nat. Hist.), London. 

Spix, J. B. 1824. Avium species novae, quas in itinere per Brasiliam annis 1817-20 collegit et descripti, 
vol. 1 . Hubschmann, Munich. 

Swainson, W. 1827. Several new groups in ornithology. Zool. J. 3: 158-363. 

Swainson, W. 1837. The natural history and classification of birds, vol. 2. Longman & Rees, London. 

Todd, W. E. C. 1948. Critical remarks on the wood-hewers. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 31(2): 5-18. 

Alexandre Aleixo et al. 246 Bull. B. O. C. 2007 12 7(3) 

Zimmer, J. T. 1934. Studies of Peruvian birds 14. Notes on the genera Dendrocolaptes, Hylexetastes, 
Xiphocolaptes, Dendroplex, and Lepidocolaptes . Amer. Mus. Novit. 753: 1-26. 

Addresses: Alexandre Aleixo (corresponding author), Coordenacao de Zoologia, Museu Paraense Emilio 
Goeldi, CP 399, Belem, Para, Brazil, e-mail: aleixo@museu-goeldi.br. Steven M. S. Gregory, 35 
Monarch Road, Northampton NN2 6EH, UK, e-mail: sgregory.avium@ntlworld.com. John 
Penhallurick, 86 Bingley Crescent, Fraser, ACT 2615, Australia, e-mail: jpenhall@bigpond.net.au 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2007 

Reidentification of Ecuadorian specimens of 
Pachyramphus rufus as P. castaneus 

by Ottavio Janni & Claudio Pulcher 

Received 9 October 2006 

Cinereous Becard Pachyramphus rufus occurs from western Panama through northern 
Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas and parts of Amazonian Brazil to north-east Peru 
(Mobley 2004). It has long been included in the avifauna of Ecuador (Chapman 1926, 
Ortiz-Crespo et al. 1990, Ridgely et al. 1998), based on two specimens — a female, the 
other unsexed — collected in south-east Ecuador at 'Valle del Rio Santiago', pro v. 
Morona- Santiago according to Paynter (1993), and 'Valle del Zamora', prov. Zamora- 
Chinchipe, in 1895, by Enrico Festa (Salvadori & Festa 1899) and held at the Museo 
Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Turin, Italy. Given the lack of subsequent records from 
Ecuador, several authors (Ridgely & Tudor 1994, Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, Mobley 
2004) have questioned the identification of these specimens, and some (Ridgely & 
Greenfield 2001, P. Coopmans in litt. 2006) have suggested that they refer to 
Chestnut-crowned Becard P. castaneus, based on biogeography and that identification 
of female Pachyramphus was then poorly understood, as evidenced by Zimmer 
(1936). However, none of these authors examined the specimens and the legitimacy 
of the Ecuadorian records remained in doubt. 

We recently independently examined the relevant specimens (catalogue nos. 
1357-58; Elter 1986) and concluded that they are P. castaneus saturatus. Specific 
identification is straightforward, as both show a broad grey stripe behind the eye — 
including part of the ear-coverts — encircling the nape and separating the rich 
chestnut crown from the paler rufous lower nape and neck. The grey band is 
unbroken, but is much narrower on the nape than behind the eye. This grey band is 
diagnostic of P. castaneus, as no other species of Pachyramphus, in any plumage, 
shows it. Further distinctions from P. rufus include the richer chestnut crown, 
distinctly darker and more saturated than the rest of the upperparts (in P. rufus the 
crown is near-concolorous with the remaining upperparts), and a distinct dusky loral 
stripe (this area is whitish or greyish white on P. rufus). Our re-examination of these 
specimens reveals that there are no valid records of P. rufus for Ecuador, and 

Ottavio Janni & Claudio Pulcher 247 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

underlines the importance of avian collections held in Italy (Violani & Barbagli 


We thank Giovanni Boano, Ermanno De Biagi, Elena Gavetti and Lisa Levi for providing access to the 
specimens, and the late Paul Coopmans and Robert Ridgely for encouraging us to examine the material 
and publish this note. 


Chapman, ¥. M. 1926. The distribution of bird life in Ecuador. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 55: 1-784. 

Elter O. 1986. La collezione ornitologica del Museo di Zoologia dell'Universitd di Torino. Museo 

Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Turin. 
Mobley, J. A. 2004. Cinereous Becard Pachyramphus rufus. R 455 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Christie, 

D. A. (eds.) Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. 9. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 
Ortiz-Crespo, F., Greenfield, R J. & Matheus, J. C. 1990. Aves del Ecuador, continente y archipelago de 

Galapagos. Fundacion Ecuatoriana de Promocion Turistica & Fundacion Ornitologica del Ecuador, 

Paynter, R. A. 1993. Ornithological gazeteer of Ecuador. Second edn. Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, 

Ridgely, R. S. & Greenfield, P. J. 2001. The birds of Ecuador, vol. 1. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY. 
Ridgely, R. S., Greenfield, P. J. & Guerrero G, M. 1998. Una lista anotada de las aves del Ecuador con- 
tinental. Fundacion Ornitologica del Ecuador, Quito. 
Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America, vol. 2. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin. 
Salvadori, T & Festa, E. 1899. Viaggio del Dr. Enrico Festa nell'Ecuador. Parte seconda — passeres clam- 

atores. Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 15(362). 
Violani, C. G. & Barbagli, F. 2003. The international importance of bird collections in Italian museums. 

Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 123: 143-152. 
Zimmer, J. T. 1936. Studies of Peruvian birds. No. 24. Notes on Pachyramphus, Platypsaris, Tityra, and 

Pyroderus. Amer. Mus. Novit. 894. 

Addresses: Ottavio Janni, Via Monte Muto 29, 81016 Piedimonte Matese (CE), Italy, e-mail: 
coeligena@hotmail.com. Claudio Pulcher, Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Via Giolitti 36, 
10023 Turin, Italy, e-mail: cpulcher@libero.it 

© British Ornithologists' Club 2007 

The correct name of the Guianan Toucanet: 
Selenidera culik (Wagler) not 5. piperivorus 


by Michael Walters 

Received 28 June 2007 

Pacheco & Whitney (2006) sought to change the names of three Neotropical birds. 
Two of these may be addressed at a later stage, but this note discusses the case of 
the bird currently known as Selenidera culik (Wagler, 1827), which Pacheco & 
Whitney sought to replace with Ramphastos piperivorus Linnaeus, a name rejected 

Michael Walters 248 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

by Peters (1930) for sufficient reasons. Pacheco & Whitney based their too-briefly 
worded case on Peters (1948), apparently overlooking the earlier reference. In 
seeking to claim that Linnaeus' use of piperivorus in 1766 was justified and 
confirmed the identity of his earlier use of the name in 1758, they assumed that, if 
Linnaeus used a name in different 'editions' of the Systema Naturae he must have 
intended the same taxon, and that these 'editions' represent versions of the same 
work. In fact, the different 'editions' of the Sy sterna Naturae have always, correctly, 
been treated as separate works for the purposes of nomenclature. 

Peters (1930) correctly noted that Ramphastos piperivorus Linnaeus, 1758, is 
unidentifiable: the description ' R[amphastos] rostro nigro: carina crassissima\ 
cannot be identified as any known toucan and whilst R. piperivorus Linnaeus, 1766, 
is identifiable with Selenidera culik, it is preoccupied by the unidentifiable name of 
1758. Unfortunately, Peters (1948) did not cite his earlier paper as a reference either 
for the toucan family or any of its constituent genera. It was even more misleading 
not to cite it when rejecting the name piperivorus . The paper is referenced only as a 
footnote on p. 83 (where, incidentally, it is misquoted as vol. 48), regarding another 
unidentifiable species, R. piscivorus. Peters' footnote on p. 79 is therefore 
unsatisfactory as it stands, and has clearly misled several authors into believing that 
he was wrong in considering Linnaeus' name unidentifiable. Nevertheless, Pacheco 
& Whitney have not produced convincing evidence to negate Peters' decision to 
reject Ramphastos piperivorus Linnaeus, in favour of the earliest available name, 
Pteroglossus Culik Wagler = Selenidera culik (Wagler). 


I am grateful to Edward Dickinson, Normand David, James Jobling and Frank Steinheimer, who read 
early drafts of this commentary and made valuable contributions. 


Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae, vol. 1. Tenth edn. Laurentius Salvius, Stockholm. 

Linnaeus, C. 1766. Systema Naturae, vol. 1. Twelfth edn. Laurentius Salvius, Stockholm. 

Pacheco, J. F. & Whitney, B. M. 2006. Mandatory changes to the scientific names of three Neotropical 

birds. Bull Brit. Orn. CI. 126: 242-244. 
Peters, J. L. 1930. The identity of the toucans described by Linnaeus in the 10th and 12th editions of the 

Systema Naturae. Auk 47: 405^108. 
Peters, J. L. 1948. Check-list of birds of the world, vol. 6. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA. 
Wagler, J. G. 1827. Systema Avium. Pars Prima. J. G. Cotta, Stuttgart & Tubingen. 

Address: 62 Mark Street, Portrush, Co. Antrim BT56 8BU, Northern Ireland, UK e-mail: 

M. P. D. Santos & M. F. de Vasconcelos 249 Bull. BO.C. 2007 127(3) 

Range extension for Kaempfer's Woodpecker 

Celeus obrieni in Brazil, with the 

first male specimen 

by Marcos Persio Dantas Santos & 
Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos 

Received 23 April 2007 

Kaempfer's Woodpecker Celeus obrieni was described by Short (1973) as a 
subspecies of Rufous-headed Woodpecker C. spectabilis based on a single female, 
collected by Emil Kaempfer on 16 August 1926, at 'Urussuhy' (07°14'S, 44°33'W; 
124 m), erroneously mentioned in the original description as 'Irucui' (see Naumburg 
1935, Paynter & Traylor 1991). This site is on the east bank of the rio Parnaiba, 
Piaui, north-east Brazil. The specimen (AMNH 242687) is housed at the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York (Short 1973). Remsen et al. (2007) 
considered C. obrieni as a valid species based on morphological features, and the 
distance between its type locality and the range of its postulated conspecific C. 
spectabilis (more than 3,000 km), a treatment intially advocated by Whittaker & 
Oren (1999). Recent surveys near the type locality of C. obrieni failed to locate it 
(Novaes 1992, Silveira et al. 2001, Tobias et al. 2006) and the paucity of data for C. 

Sao Pedro da Agua Branca/^ MARANHAO 



Figure 1. Map of localities where Kaempfer's Woodpecker Celeus obrieni has been recorded. 

M. P. D. Santos & M. F. de Vasconcelos 


Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

Figure 2. Dorsal view of male collected at Serra da Raposa, Maranhao, Brazil (MPEG 61549). 

Figure 3. Ventral view of male collected at Serra da Raposa, Maranhao, Brazil (MPEG 61549). 

obrieni led to it being treated as Not Evaluated and Data Deficient, respectively, on 
global and national lists of endangered birds (Machado et al. 2005, BirdLife 
International 2007). No additional records were known for C. obrieni until 21 
October 2006, when it was rediscovered by Advaldo Dias do Prado (Prado 2006), 
who mist-netted and photographed a male in Goiatins municipality, Tocantins 
(08°14'S, 47°41'W), c.400 km south-west of the type locality (Prado 2006). Here, 
we report on a previously unpublished record and the first male specimen of C. 
obrieni obtained, respectively, in 2004 and 2007, at different localities in Maranhao, 
north-east Brazil. These records extend significantly the known range of C. obrieni. 
On 26 September 2004, MFV tape-recorded and observed a C. obrieni in 
secondary riverine forest on the right bank of the rio Tocantins (05°09'S, 48°26'W; 
100 m), Sao Pedro da Agua Branca municipality, Maranhao (Fig. 1). Typical plant 
species in this area include: Cecropia obtusa, C. sciadipholia, Inga capitata, I. 
heterophylla, Triplaris sp., Guarea guidonea, Celtis sp., Coccoloba sp. and Genipa 

M. P. D. Santos & M. F. de Vasconcelos 251 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

americana. No bamboo was noted at the site. Bamboo is thought to be an important 
habitat component for C. spectabilis in parts of its range (Whittaker & Oren 1999, 
Clements & Shany 2001). The bird was perched on a C. obtusa near the forest edge, 
permitting all of the features typical of C. obrieni to be observed, including the 
yellow mantle barred blackish and the rufous head. The bird responded well to 
playback, approaching MFV and vocalising intensively for more than 20 minutes. 
Tape-recordings of these vocalisations were compared to others recently made by 
Jose Fernando Pacheco at Goiatins, thereby confirming the identification. Copies of 
the recordings have been deposited in the Arquivo Sonoro Prof. Elias Coelho 
(ASEC), Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio 
de Janeiro, Brazil. 

On 6 February 2007, MPDS tape-recorded and collected a male C. obrieni in a 
semi-deciduous forest with bamboo at Serra da Raposa (06°35'S, 43°37'W; 292 m), 
on the left bank of the rio Parnaiba, Sao Joao dos Patos municipality, Maranhao 
(Fig. 1). Vegetation at this site is characterised by the presence of tall trees reaching 
8-20 m, with a closed canopy and open understorey. Small patches of bamboos 
form stands 4 m tall. The bird was initially attracted using playback of C. 
spectabilis, to which it responded well while perched in a bamboo thicket. It was 
collected and prepared as a study skin (Figs. 2-3). The specimen, a subadult male 
(50% skull ossification; testes 4x2 mm; weight 95 g; total length 265 mm; wing 
140 mm; tail 86 mm; culmen 24.8 mm; tarsus 20.38 mm; irides white), was 
deposited in the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Brazil (MPEG 61549). This 
is the second known (and first male) specimen of C. obrieni. Comparison of MPEG 
61549 with photographs of the female type specimen presented by Short (1973) 
reveals that the male has broader black barring on the back and between the black 
chest and abdomen. Further studies of the taxonomy of the species are being 
conducted by MPDS and will be presented elsewhere. 

The new records presented here offer a new perspective on the distribution of C. 
obrieni. The site at Sao Pedro da Agua Branca is c.485 km north-west of the type 
locality and c.350 km north-west of Goiatins. Serra da Raposa is c. 160 km north- 
east of the type locality and c.480 km north-east of Goiatins. By linking the four 
known sites, we estimate that the species' range comprises c. 90,000 km 2 . Probably 
C. obrieni was overlooked for many years within this fairly wide range due to the 
small ornithological sampling effort devoted to this area (see Silva 1989, 1995). 

To date, it is unknown if C. obrieni is dependent on bamboo like its closely 
related western Amazonian counterpart C. spectabilis (Winkler & Christie 2002). 
The association of C. spectabilis to Guadua spp. bamboo is a phenomenon 
apparently limited to south-east Peru and Acre, western Brazil (Whittaker & Oren 
1999, Clements & Shany 2001). In eastern Ecuador, it is a vdrzea/rivQr island bird, 
inhabiting successional stands of Cecropia with Gynerium and Heliconia, in the 
absence of bamboo (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001). Bamboo tends to be patchily 
distributed in the known range of C. obrieni. Thus, if the species is heavily 
dependent on bamboo, its distribution will be similarly local. Nevertheless, the 

M. P. D. Santos & M. F. de Vasconcelos 252 Bull. B.O.C. 2007 127(3) 

absence of bamboo in the forest at Sao Pedro da Agua Branca suggests that C. 
obrieni is apparently not highly dependent on such vegetation. Further surveys 
should be conducted for C. obrieni, especially in the Tocantins-Parnaiba 
interfluvium, to locate new populations, study its biology and habitat requirements, 
and to assess its true conservation status. 


MPDS is grateful to CHESF/MRS Estudos Ambientais and CNPq/PELD/Site 10 for financial support 
during field work in the Boa Esperanca region. MFV thanks Sete Solucoes e Tecnologia Ambiental, 
CAPES, and the Brehm Foundation for financial support of his field work. J. F. Pacheco made available 
comparative tape-recordings from Tocantins. F. F. Vasconcelos helped estimate the range of C. obrieni 
and M. S. Werneck to identify plant species at Sao Pedro da Agua Branca. We also thank A. Aleixo, K. 
J. Zimmer, J. F. Pacheco, G. M. Kirwan, A. D. Prado and F. Olmos for revising the manuscript. 


BirdLife International. 2007. Species factsheet: Celeus obrieni. www.birdlife.org/datazone/ 

species/index.html (accessed 14 March 2007). 
Clements, J. F. & Shany, N. 2001. A field guide to the birds of Peru. Ibis Publishing, Temecula, CA. 
Machado, A. B. M., Martins, C. S. & Drummond, G. M. 2005. Lista da fauna brasileira ameacada de 

extincdo: incluindo as listas de especies quase ameacadas e deficientes em dados. Fundacao 

Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte. 
Naumburg, E. M. B. 1935. Gazetteer and maps showing collecting stations visited by Emil Kaempfer in 

eastern Brazil and Paraguay. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 68: 449^69. 
Novaes, F. C. 1992. Bird observations in the state of Piaui, Brazil. Goeldiana Zool. 17: 1-5. 
Paynter, R. A. & Traylor, M. A. 1991. Ornithological gazetteer of Brazil. Mus. Comp. Zool, Harvard 

Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA. 
Prado, A. D. 2006. Celeus obrieni: 80 anos depois. Atualidades Orn. 134: 4-5. 
Remsen, J. V., Cadena, C. D., Jaramillo, A., Nores, M., Pacheco, J. F, Robbins, M. B., Schulenberg, T. 

S., Stiles, F. G, Stotz, D. F. & Zimmer, K. J. 2007. A classification of the bird species of South 

America. www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html (accessed 22 February 2007). 
Ridgely, R. S. & Greenfield, P. J. 2001. The birds of Ecuador, vol. 1. Christopher Helm, London. 
Short, L. L. 1973. A new race of Celeus spectabilis from eastern Brazil. Wilson Bull. 85: 465-^67. 
Silva, J. M. C. 1989. Analise biogeografica da avifauna de florestas do interfluvio Araguaia-Sao 

Francisco. MSc. thesis. Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia. 
Silva, J. M. C. 1995. Avian inventory of the cerrado region, South America: implications for biological 

conservation. Bird Conserv. Intern. 5: 291-304. 
Silveira, L. R, Calonge-Mendez, A. & Brito, G R. R. 2001. Range extensions and new records for birds 

in Piaui state, Brazil. Intern. J. Orn. 4: 219-224. 
Tobias, J. A., Butchart, S. H. M. & Collar, N. J. 2006. Lost and found: a gap analysis for the Neotropical 

avifauna. Neotrop. Birding 1: 4-22. 
Whittaker, A. & Oren, D. C. 1999. Important ornithological records from the Rio Jurua, western 

Amazonia, including twelve additions to the Brazilian avifauna. Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 119: 235-260. 
Winkler, H. & Christie, D. A. 2002. Family Picidae (woodpeckers). Pp. 296-555 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, 

A. & Sargatal, J. (eds.) Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. 7. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 

Addresses: Marcos Persio Dantas Santos, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Piaui, Av. 
Universitaria 1310, 64049-550, Teresina, Piaui, Brazil, e-mail: marcospersio@uol.com.br. Marcelo 
Ferreira de Vasconcelos, Departamento de Zoologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 
CP 486, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, e-mail: mfvasconcelos@gmail.com 

' British Ornithologists' Club 2007 

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Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 

ISSN 0007-1595 
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Volume 127, Number 3, pages 169-252 


Club Announcements 169 

DONEGAN, T. M., AVENDANO, J. E., BRICENO, E. R. & HUERTAS, B. Range extensions, 

taxonomic and ecological notes from Serrania de los Yariguies, Colombia's new national park 172 

ECHEVERRY-GALVIS, M. A. & CORDOBA-CORDOBA, S. New distributional and other bird 

records from Tatama Massif, West Andes, Colombia 213 

OLSON, S. L. Alca antiqua (Marsh, 1870), an invalid combination for a fossil auk (Alcidae) .... 225 


Canarian (or Meade- Waldo's) Black Oystercatcher Haematopus meadewaldoi 226 

VOGT, C. A. Range extensions and noteworthy records for mainland Ecuador 228 

VOGEL, C. J. & MAILLARD, O. First record of Tyrannine Woodcreeper Dendrocincla tyrannina 

for Bolivia 233 

GREENEY, H. F. & GELIS, R. A. Breeding records from the north-east Andean foothills of 

Ecuador 236 

ALEIXO, A., GREGORY, S. M. S. & PENHALLURICK, J. P. Fixation of the type species and 

revalidation of the genus Dendroplex Swainson, 1 827 (Dendrocolaptidae) 242 

JANNI, O. & PULCHER, C. Reidentification of Ecuadorian specimens of Cinereous Becard 

Pachyramphus rufus as Chestnut-crowned Becard P. castaneus 246 

WALTERS, M. The correct name of the Guianan Toucanet: Selenidera culik (Wagler) not 

S. piperivorus (Linnaeus) 247 

SANTOS, M. P. D. & VASCONCELOS, M. F. Range extension for Kaempfer's Woodpecker 

Celeus obrieni in Brazil, with the first male specimen 249 


Murray Bruce, R. T. Chesser, Edward C. Dickinson, Francoise Dowsett-Lemaire, Steven M. S. Gregory, Jose 
Fernando Pacheco, Robert B. Payne, Pamela C. Rasmussen, Cees Roselaar, Thomas S. Schulenberg, Lars 

Authors are invited to submit papers on topics relating to the broad themes of taxonomy and distribution of 
birds. Descriptions of new species of birds are especially welcome and will be given priority to ensure rapid 
publication, subject to successful passage through the normal peer review procedure, and wherever possible 
should be accompanied by colour photographs or paintings. On submission, manuscripts, double-spaced and 
with wide margins, should be sent to the Editor, Guy Kirwan, preferably by e-mail, to GMKirwan@aol.com. 
Alternatively, two copies of manuscripts, typed on one side of the paper, may be submitted to the Editor, 74 
Waddington Street, Norwich NR2 4JS, UK. Where appropriate half-tone photographs may be included and, 
where essential to illustrate important points, the Editor will consider the inclusion of colour figures (if pos- 
sible, authors should obtain funding to support the inclusion of such colour illustrations). As far as possible, 
review, return of manuscripts for revision and subsequent stages of the publication process will be undertak- 
en electronically. For instructions on style, see the inside rear cover of Bulletin 127 (1) or the BOC website 

©British Ornithologists' Club 2007 

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Published by the British Ornithologists' Club 

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